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DAMS's, Hon. J. Q. inaugu- 
ral oraition »'. - 288 
— — — speech concemiogforeigh 

inimsters 266 

AA»ma% T. B. disquisition on the 

philosophy of the ancients 50$ 

Aikin, Dr. on the style of 174 

Ancient library of Alexandria 5, 58 
Art of reading S27 

Arts» p ro gr e ss of the 2S5 

Aram, Eugene, triid of 468 

American travellers, essay on 628 

Ba}ie» Saurin's account of 16 

Beauty and virtue 526 

Bentley, Dr. Richard, life of 238, 296, 
339, 409, 454, 521, 561, 623 
Beattie's,Dr. genius & writings 570,619 
Ben Jooson and Cowper 303 

Bishop of Aleria, account of 177 

Bbil^s, Dr. writings 236 

Bhie-Stocking club, account of 579 
BbmsandBloomfield^psrattelof 127 

Goif»per, writings of 631 

Correspondence 53 

Got^per and BvtttxB 67 

Cowper and Thompson 17 

dassick chib, accOniit <$f 578 

Cumberfauad 466 

Chymistry, modem 46f 

Ddbition of man 417 

Decision of character 582 

Devotional poetry 175 

Dedications 24 

Domestick pleasures 526 

Bsnhdiilb, Sir John, poetf^ of 631 

Edipse of the sun, 1806, account of 32/ 
Education, academick 18 

Enigmatical epitaph 402 

Falls of Niagara^ accounts of 13, 458 
'Falsie wit 528 

Fawcett, Joseph, account of 525 

Vol. m. A 

Female education 129 

Friendship of women 80 

First Basium of Secundus, ez^act 

from 359 

Franklin, Dr. on the literary char- 
acter of 661 
French prejudice S77 
Family physician, Ko. 5 9 
Ko, 6 171 

Grecian Daughlier 41/ 

OoldsmHli and Johnson, anecdotes 348 
Goldsmith's writings 63 

Grid's works 62 

Howard,* Rev. Dr. character of 115 
Hudibras, imitation of 129 

Human nature 358 

Inscription on the monument of 

Sir William Phipps 246 

Jortini Dr. character of Idt 

Liberal arts, es^ys on 300, 41 # 

Literature of North Carolina 355 

Love and ohividry 65 

Lavater, Dr. Hunter's account of 369 
Lucretius, criticism on ^ 358 

Literary and philosophical intelli- 
gence 55, 109, 164, 221, 377, 390, 
447, 502, 558, 613, 
Literature in Italy, present state 
of 177, 228 

Method, esSay on 120 

Marmontet, memoirs of 131 

Mansfield and Chatham 418 

Medici, farailv of 80" 

Misfortunes of an ill-directed pas- 
sion for literature 76 
Monitory poems and proverbs of 

Solomon 303 

Modem scholars 175 

Miscellaneous essay 529 

Monthly catalogue of new publi- ^ 

cations in U. S. 54, 106, 161,217,264, 

331, 387, 444, 499, 554, 610, 669 

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Kature in winter 


Original lettew from Europe, 1, 61, 113, 
169, 235, 281, 337 
Ori^nal letter from England 403 

Ossian and Homer 417 

Our country, characteristlcka of 579 

Publick lotteries 630 

Pamell and Voltaire 17, 416 

Petronius Arbiter, eccentricity of 236 
Pope and Gray 304 

Port Folio 176 

Pope, anecdotes of 15, 468, 527 

Plane tree , 63 

Protestant churches in Boston, di- 
gest of the rights of 632 

Remarker, No. V, 19— VI, 69— VII, 
124— VIII, 185— IX, 243— X, 285 
XI, 343— XII, 399— XIII, 473— 
XIV, 518— XV, 567— XVI, 617 

Racine's Britannicus, La Harpe's 
critidsm on 345, 395, 461, 513 

Rousseau, character of 190 

Ruins of Thebes or Luxor# 580 

Salt and sulphur springs, tcemmt of 399 

SUra, No. 11, 15—12, 62—13, 127— 

14, 175—15, 235—16, 302— 

17, 357—18, 416—19, 466— 

20, 525—21, 576—22, 627 

Swift, style of 64 

Southey, extract from 357 

Swans 527 

Schools of painting, and masters 44^ 

Shakespeare's mulberry tree 65 

Sans Souci 24, 79, 360 

Statement of diseases 56, 112, 168, 

224, 266, 392, 448, 504, 560, 616, 6^2 

Tacitus, thoughts on 
Translators, on 
Taste, on 

Vaniere's predam rusticum 
Voltaire, writings of 

172, 405 

627, 418 


Westminster school, account of 
Whether the world will ever re- 
lapse into barbarism 4 
Winter evening 580 
Warburton and Drayton 64 


Ad Julium, academiam pro Mer- 

catura linquentum 532 

African, the, by Bowles 306 

Baucis and Philemon, by Swil^ 363 

Cantata, by Prior 248 

Cave, the 249 

Death and Daphnt 193 

Deus 3p5 

Erin 643 

Experience, or folly as it flies 477 

Epistle to Theophilus Parsons 305 

■ to a young friend 137 

" > by Cowper 307 

— — to Dolly 534 

Epitaph, by Prior 250 

Epigram, by J. M. Bewail 136 

Eulogy on laughing 250 

Fowler, the 591 

/uneral Hymn 249 

Tleld Flower, lines on the 536 

^ave,tlie 647 

Helrellyn 644 

Hymp, by Bums 307 

Herb Rosemary, to the 42S 

J^ickdaw, the, by Cowper 365 

Know yourself, by Dr. Johnson 195 

Listening to a cricket, lines on |53S ' 

Lines, written after a storm at sea 535 • 

toW. Cjun. 587 

— on a melancholy event 419 

— on the death uf a young lady 248 
Lyre, lines on the 646 

Monody to the memory of General 

Knox 642 
Madoc, extracU from 26, 81, 136 

New-Year's Address 645 

Ocean, 589 

Pairing time anticipated 82 

Prosopopoeia Umbrae 135 

Paatpral 532 

Procellarius Pckgicus, to the 420 

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Poverty, lines to 

IPS, 365, 420 

Solomon's song", version of the 8th 
chapter of 194 

Smith's poem to the memory of 
Philips 361 

Spnngy verses on 193 

Sonsct, verses written tf 196 


Snow-drop, lines on th« 
Story of an apparition 
Shipwreck, the 

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AdAins*s undcrstandinpc reader 498 
Akenside's pleasures onm:ig"ination375 
American Annals, by Rev. Ahiel 
Holmes, vol 1 257, 371 

Bentley's sermon at the ordination 
of Rev. J. Richardson 656 

Jfiographical memoirs of lord Nel- 
son 652 

Bowen's tliscoursc on the death of 
General Gadaden 104 

Bowditch's chart of Salem harbour 490 

Caine's New- York term reports 367 
Carr's northern summer 262 ' 

Gary's address to the Merrimack 

Humane Society 551 

Cliamock's memoirs of Nelson 652 
Cheselden's anatomy of tiie human 
^ b«ly 376 

Christian Monitor, No. I. 215, 495 

— No. II. 406 

No. Ill, 657 

Chart of Salem and Marblehead 

harbour 4pQ 

Chandler's life of president Johnson 92 
CoIKections of Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, \t)l. VI. 21,^ 
Cock's inaugural dissertation l^is 
Comj^te justice of tJie peace 653 
CuDen's first lines of the practice 
of physick X58 

Davies' sketch of the geography 

of Nortii-Carolina 264 

Dearborn's oration 444 

Democracy unvieled 376 

DoVs famili?r Jotters 256 

Drayton's view of South-CaroKna 205 

Dunlap's dramalick works, vol. I. 550 

Edgrworth's LeonoR^ 436 

f IKcot's jourc;*! ^,^g 

Elements of general knowledge 160 
Eliot's sermon at tJie ordination of 

Rev. H. Edes iqq 

Emci-son's discourse before the fe- 
male asyhim loi 
Enchanted lake of the fiiiry Mor. 

grana 488 

Facts and observations relative to 

the pestilential fever 260 

Fessendcn's original poems 369 

First settlers of Virginia 98 

Fleetwood, or new man of feeling 159 
Foscari, or the Venetian exile 603 

Grammar of the French tongue 497 

Hardie's account of the fever in 

New- York 2 10 

Hopkins's life 152 * 

Holmes's American annals, vol. I. 257, 

XT ^^1 

Home, a poem 552 

Inqnir}' into the law merchant of 

the United States 308 

Inquiry into the present state of 

the Ui>jc)n 6.55 

Joumai of Andrew Ellicot 538 

Kctt's elements of general knowl- 

edp ^ 160 

KemUjrs artillery election sermon 377 

Lay of the last minstrel 

Latlirop's discourse at Springfield 
on opening the bridj- e 

— ; illustrations* und reflec- 
tions on Saul's consulllr.g the 
witch of Endor 

Leonora, by miss Edge worth 

Letters from Europe,dunng a tour 
through SwltaerUnd and Italy 




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L^ and campaigns of Gen.Moreau 314 
Life of Rev. Dp. Hopkins 152 

Life of president Johnson 92 

Lyman's sermon before the con- 
vention of ministers 496 

Map of the United SUtes 345 

Sf 6inoir8 of Richard Cumberland 597* 
Memoirs of American academy of 

arts and sciences, vol. I. 28, 83, 197 
Michauz's travels to the west of 

the Alleghany mountains 37S 

Modem Philosopher^ or terrible 

tractoration 497 

New- York term reports, by dunes 367 
Kofthem Summer, by Carr 269 

Original poems, by T.G. Fessenden 369 

Phocion on neutral rights 494 

Pliiladelphia medicid museum, 

vols. I. and II. 599 

Pleasures of imagination 375 

Porter's sermon at the ordiniition 

of Rev. e. LoweU 103 

Rees* new cyclopsdia, part I. 423, 485 
Report 6f the trial of judge Chase 31 

Savage's poetical works 215 

Satire of Jorenal, new tf aasUtitft 592 
Sabbath, a poem 323 

Scott's lay pf the last minstrel 54^ 
Shade of Plato 262, 

Shepard's election sermon ' 377 

Sherman on the trinity 9I9 

Snowden's history of North and 

South Caroliiia 157^ 

dtrangford's translation of the 

poems of Camoens 216 

Sullivan's lectures on the constitu- 
tion and laws of England 438 
Sullivan's map of the United States 325 
Supplement to Johnson's dictionary 105 
Swett's military address 442 

Translation of Camoens' poems 216 
Travels in Louisiana, translated by 

John Dtfris 649 

Trial of the journeymen boot and 

shoe makers of Philadel|ihia 609 

Understanding reader 498 

Underwood on the diseases of 

children 370 

Unguiology, brief sketch of 499 

War in disguise^ or fraud* of neu- 
tral flags 47 
Webster's 4th jQly oration 44t 
Williams's reports of cases in the 

supreme court of Massachusetts 13ff 
Wortman's political inquiry 544 

Wreath for th4 Rev. Daniel Dow 661 

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JANUARY, 1806. 


TIk •riffDa) Ictteil, ^rhkk we bave fre<iuefltly had tbe pleasure of comifiunkating to the ^ubHck, 
have been ia general written In dSffbrent •ituattons, and on desultory lobject*. The fUUNHng ia 
ttw begioaiDg of a ttgolar aeriet of letters by a geatleman» who has all the ituallties which taste* 
taiencs, fortnae, aad Hbcrallty da give, to make him a pleasant traveller. 


JVb. 1. 

befuirture from America, „9tonn9 in the ocean,.Junar rainbovf,.,8treig/iU qf 
Gibraltar. .Jsiand ^ Sicily. „U*tica„JJ/uiri isiande.,xoa9t qf St. Etiferrda 
^jarrivai at MtfdeM.,.quQrQntine. 

Port of Nmples, Feb. 180S. 

Yov wiOy my dear friendt partici-* 
pace the satisfiiction I feel in dating 
my letter from this place. The 
dangers and haitishil>s to which ships 
are exposed in a winter passage a-^ 
cross the ocean have been this sea^ 
son uncommonly numerous. From 
the period of our departure till our 
arrival here, we have been devoted 
to the fbry of successive terapestSt 
with only short intervals of good 
weather. We were told upon our 
mrnval that we were not alone in 
misfortune, that the winter had been 
Tery tempestuous} and that the 
shores of Europe wen covered with 

When IB die lathude of the Wes- 
tern Isteidsy a most violent storm 
assailed us, which continued during 
two days with unabated violence. 
It cleared away in the evening, and 
I was witness to an appearance I 
had never before seen. The fidl 
moon was comddend>ly elevated a« 
lore the horizon, mA her ra3rs oc-* 
cafuoned in the heavy cloud that was 

Vol. in. No. 1. A 

subsiding a nunbow, which contin- 
ued in the most perfect state for half 
an hour. The arc was entire, but 
the colours fainter than those pro-* 
duced by the sun. The agitation of 
the waves gradually dying away, the 
splendour of the moon, the dense 
clouds on which this bow appeared 
with majestick elegance, altogether 
formed a scene, the sublimity of 
which afforded me consolation for 
the storm which was past. 

The thirtieth day of our passage 
We saw the streights of Gibraltar, 
the pillars of Hercules, and the for- 
midable rock, which, since its fa- 
mous siege, must be deemed im^ 
pregnable. A favourable wind gave 
the Vessel a rapid passage tlirougk 
the stfeights. On one side of us 
were the shores of Europe, on tlie 
other those of Africa. Civilization 
and barbarity are here within sight 
of each other : Even the ap]>ear- 
ance of the shores was expressive 
of the different characters of the 
two regions ; the Spanish coast 
presented to view green delds, white 
buildings, and smiling cultivation ; 

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lettehs from eitroph:. 

that of Barbary looked dark and 
gloomy. , 

After f^ettin^j ttim' th^ stielghts 
wc saw two Swedish fri'^ates with a 
convoy of forty or fifty sail of their 
countrymen. *rhe tfind was a- 
gaiiist them, and from what we af- 
terwards experienced nuist have 
continued adverse to them for sev- 
eral days, during which they could 
not advance. The current, through 
the streights, runs constantly two 
or three miles an hour ; merchant 
vessels and hea.vy ships of war nev- 
er attempt to pass cmt of the strelghts 
with a conti'ary wind, though some- 
times they have been known to ex- 
j)orie!)ce a delay of tv.o months. 

The eveninf< of the duy we pas- 
sed the strcights the sky was cover- 
ed with flying clouds, the night was 
obscure, and we were sailing with 
a gentle breeze, while fhe Sea 
was remarkably brilliant ; every 
little wave that broke looked like a 
bank of snow reflecting the rays of 
the sun, while the passage of the 
vessel throngh the sea made the 
water all around her so luminous, 
that I could see to read as clearly 
as by day. This sparkling appear- 
ance of the waves is said to denote 
an approaching storm, though af- 
terwards we experienced ^c or sIm 
days of the only line weather we 
had during the voyage. During 
the night the vessel had gone fifty 
miles, and in the moiTiing, when I 
came upon deck, the coasts of Spain 
were four or five leagues distant, 
and those of Africa still more* The 
nwuntains of Grenada seemed to be 
on the edge of the coast, and the 
shining appearance of their distant 
summits recalled to mind the splen- 
did aerial palaces of romance. 

After three days we passed by 
Cape Tarolaro on the island of Sar- 
dinia, and twenty-four hours after- 
wards saw the island of Sicily and 

tlie singular fnntastick forms of k» 
capes and promontories. We tried 
in vain to get into "Palermo ; the 
wind was fair to go to Naples, and 
the captain bore away. Soon after 
We passed" the ishmd^tyf - IJutJcn^ 
which is in the route from Palermo 
to Naples, a vessel appeantd behind 
us of suspicious aspect. Like 
frightened children in the dark, to 
whom'ev^ry (Object is a sprite, ev- 
ery vessel we f;a\y was a Tripoli tan 
pirate, and the sight' of breakers 
was lesfk terridck thaa tliat of a sail. 
I'he ship ih question sailed better 
than oursches, and was gaining fast 
upon trs. Every one of the crew was 
anticipating the horrours of slavery, 
>v heii a violent sqirdfl came Upon u^ 
so suddenly,that for several minutes 
every one expected to we the masts 
carried away, even after the vessel 
was put before the wiad; After an 
hour, during which we had changed 
our couFse and were going with 
great rapidit)> the squall cleared 
away, and we saw no more of the 
.vessel which had alarmed us. This 
propitious squally tho«gh it threat* 
ened us with destruction^ was wel- 
comed with great cordiality. How 
barl)aroits is the state o£ hjunon na-- 
• ture ! The sight of a veaael, on the 
dreary e^tpanse of the sea, oi^lght to 
be an object of the most pleasing 
sensations, and in moments of dan^* 
ger, alleviating the solitude of hor- 
rour, shoidd inspire us with hope 
by knowing that others are partici- 
pating the same danger ; yet such 
a sight is deprecated more than the 
wildest fury of the elements^ and 
wc greet the howling tempest that 
separates us from each other. 

The next day we were in the 
mouth of the bay of Naples, but 
the weather was cloudy and the land 
could only be seen paiiially. The 
captain thought himself to the 
>iorthward.of the island of Ischia* 

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iHcyu^h he was to the southward of 
Oatpra ; and instead of running as 
he tHooght into the bay of Naples^ 
J:vc 'was runninj^ down the gulf of 
iialcTno. A storm came on towards 
ni^tit of the most funous kind, 
BQcli as tiic sailors call v^hite tquaUn^ 
The flashes of lightning were ex- 
tremely vivid, and the utmost. cxer- 
lions were uscil to clear the land; 
The next day the Lipaii islands 
i^ere in sight, and the vessel was 
tossed alx>ut on mountainous waves. 
1 have observed, that the seas arr 
much a/torUr, according to the sai- 
lors' expression, in the Mediterra- 
nean than in tlie ocean ; and the 
only advantage of a storm in . tlie 
former is, that tlie swell subsides 
sooner after, the storm is past, Ijut 
it is a treacherous sea to navigate, 
and fraught witn more perils to 
navig^ajion than th^ oc^an. \^iolent 
squalls often arise very suddenly, 
and I was convinced that the mode 
of rigging vessels in the fashion of 
poleacres is well calculated for this 
sea. The)' are enabled to drop their 
sails all at once, when a vessel with a 
mast in three pieces might be dis» 
masted before she could take in sail. 
At night, wh^n the vessel was 
not more tlian four leagues from 
Strombpli, I obsen-ed it burning, 
It threw out flames to the height 
apparently of twenty feet ; this 
Mould last a few mindtes, and thus 
\t continued tlie whole night at in- 
tenals. During the day it appear- 
ed smoking, but owing to the dis- 
tance and the light I could see no 
flames. Whilst beating off this iatr 
and, and trying to regain the bay of 
Naples, another storm droyc us up- 
on the coast of Calabria. I ^q not 
know any Juno that I Jiav^ offend-, 
^d, but i^olus did not torment the. 
Trojan hero more than myself, and 
very often I thought of Virgira an-, 
cient description of tlie stpi-m. , 
\f:u £iins<iae Notusqu ruunt crcbcrquc procellis. 

The vessel wsjs at one time v atcr- 
loggtd, tlie sails were torn to pieces, 
the foremast sprung, and with only a 
close •reefed foix: top sail, we tried to 
keep off the shore ; no one had any 
Jiopc tliat we should heal)leto do this 
long, and every preparatifjn was 
made to be i-eady to save ourselves 
when the vessel stiaick, which thro' 
the whole night was constantly ex- 
pected. When day light came the 
shore was still a league distant. 
The gale had moderated, and the 
swell began to lessen ; we were now 
near the bay of St.Eufernia. After 
five or six days beating about, we 
again foimd ourselves opposite the 
bay of Naples, in tlie same place 
wiicre we had been more tliaji a 
fortnight before. The weather was 
pleasant, but the wind determined 
to vex us to the last moment ; and 
though we were only two hours sail 
from the port, we did not arrive till 
the next day. My pleasure on arri- 
ving was much increased by con- 
templating the l>eauties of tliis bay, 
of which description has so often 
attempted in vain to give an idea. 

The second day of this month 
the vessel was anchored within the 
mole. Though we had made a 
A\ inter passage of sixty days, from 
a country perfectly healthy, the in- 
genuity of the health-ofhce thought 
proper to impose a quarantine of 
twenty days upon the vessel. Be- 
irxg now in a place of safety, after 
having escaped so many dangers, I 
consider this as tlie last vexation of 
t^ie voyage, and endeavour to sup- 
port it patiently, as it will soon ter- 
minate ; though I have so long 
enjoyed the society of the captain 
and mate that I begin to grow tired 
of it. The latter asked me the oth- 
er day, witli a silly hesitadng grin, 
io guess how much money he had 
spent since our arrival. I confess- 
ed my inability to fix any sum.. 
« Why we have been here only ten' 

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days, and I have spent almost a 
dollar/^ . 

The first day after oair arriral ttq 
were besieged with beggars of eve* 
ry sort. They come off in boats 
and surroiind the vessel. One mo? 
inent a capuchin would extend his 
cowl, and in a submissive attitude 
ask our charity ; hardly rid of him, 
before a l^and of musick would be 

under the stem, tiU something. w«| 
obtained ; the serenade finishedf 
a woman with three pr four nuseraT 
ble children would be screaming fom 
something. These scenes a^ sa 
new tq an American, that We ahraye 
gave them ; and in consequence 
were so surrounded wkh suppli-: 
cants, that we were oUiged at last 
to refuse our charity ahc^eth^r. 



MY own opinion always has been, 
f hat the pi*esent state of illumination 
and re^nement will be succeeded 
by second darkness and Cimmerian 
night, equally gloomy with the 
cloud ndsed by the crush of the 
iRoman empire. The reply of 
those to whom the idea was sug- 
gested uniformly has been, tm/roBsi' 
ble ; the art elf printing renders 
9uch fears groundless. I answer : 
the art of printing itself may be- 
come exclusively tie engine of wick- 
edness, of vice, of folly, of irreli- 
gion. li the mshion or madness of 
the times should produce a relish 
for corriiptcd food, we maybe filled 
with writings to satiety, yet swallo^f 
nothing but poison ; what infinite 
mischief has the press produced in 
our own days I In France, the ve- 
hicle of every crime, it has been the 
easy propagator of Slaspheipy, pi 
massacre, of aivarchy^ Whether it 
shall finally be a blessing or a (urs^, 
must depend on the taste pf ttian-^ 
kind ; and if that taste be vitiatedj 
and feeds uppn venom, the. more 
it consumes the sooner will we per- 
ish. The nress without morats 
wdll not preserve crnli^tion ; and 
ijninoriiUty^ will ijaake it the vehicle 
of barbarism..* 

What do ^Wi common people 
no^ read ?...T^ew«pa^era ; and what 

Df. Artlmr Ifofrmifli 1 

do newspapers contain ?...&lse news, 
false principles, false morals, en- 
deavoured to be impmssed on the 
publickby contending parties, with- 
out the least regard to truth, to vir- 
tue, or publick utility \ and who 
are the compilers of these vehicles 
of instruction (the only lessons 
learnt by the vulgar) ? pften the low- 
est, jdXiA vilest, and most ignorant of 
naankind. Socrates^ PhtOy and Arit 
stotle taught the Athenian people. 
The people of London are taught 
by the compilers of newspapers, 
the engines of the mob or' of the 

That the common pcpple otight 
not to be taught to read, as is said 
by some, is jXistly thought a mon- 
strous position, yet, it jnight be feii- 
dercd true? if ail they read tend t^ 
mislead and to darken t^erri. 

boes tKe pre^s improve their 
civiltEation ? that press which pours 
forth every day, for the improvc- 
incnt of. our yoiun^ men, the scenes 
pf a brothel, niustrated with draw- 
ings ; and for its maidens j the dc^ 
iusioT^ of a novels ^ the evidence 
of a trial ^bt; ^dultery T Qucr)\ 
whether ihe pt^bricat^rif ipf mpraU- 
ty aud religion, numerous as they 
ire, coun^rvsdl the advantage, 
which Satan derives bx^in ttie art 
of printing ? ...... 

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Supipoae a Tiadon stxyuld take h 
in their heads to condemn all old 
systems and all old hooks, because 
they cpoudii oM sfstefns ; su|>- 
poM: thcj should uichide the Bible 
in the nuB^bcr ; suppose they 
ahooid prevent the reprinting of 
aM pdreacDt IcamiDgr tad iosigt 
that iKithiD^ should be published 
except their own new-£ingkd doc- 
trimai> and that these doctrines 
fended to unhinge aU civilized so- 
fiety. Reader, are ray suspicions 
vild ? know then, if you know it 
oot akeady, they wore rcoliaed in 
our own day ; they were realized in 
France within these five years* ; 
they were realized by the tyrant 
Robespierre ; by Robespierre 
worse than Omar, for Omar act- 
^ not from enmity to learning, 
but from fricaKlship to Mahomc- 

U has employed the whole vig- 
fiir of the French nation to return 
f Tlcse ikeubet vac piibUrtteft to I79t« 

Iwwn their phrenzy to commoii 
sense ; but nations will not always 
recover from theii* phrcTisles, and 
in progress of time my fears may 
be realized. France in its \vild 
deliriums has astonished tlit 
World ; they may be outdpne by 
some more outrageous fcvei;, 
which may finally end in the ex- 
tmction of light apd Kfc. JIuman 
nattire, insolent and presuniing in 
its own strength, spurning the 
aids of divine revelation, and even 
of ancient learning, may relapse 
after convulsions into lethargy, 
and till the impos^bihty of such 
pvents be proved by some hotter 
argument than thq invention of 
printing,! shall evipr, from data 
afforded by the history of modern 
times, believe their probability. 
The age of pretendipd self suflli 
cient reaspp will become the age 
of absurdity ; irreHgion will sitbr 
vert all government, and anarchy 
lead to barbarism. 


THE immense archives of an- 
cient leftrmng in the famous libra- 
ry of Alexandria, sinc^ the publi- 
cation of the Latin versioij of the 
Dynasties of Abulpha? agius, have 
i;enera}ly been supposed to have 
been destroyed by the inconside- 
rate, infuriate zeal of the M^orpr 
etan Arabs, on their invasbp of 
Alexandria imdpr the command of 
Ofnar, and " every scholar, with 
pious indignadon, has deplored the 
irreparable shipwreck of the learn- 
ing, the arts, and the genius of 
antiqfiity/* If Hamlet, In the 
ravings of hb imagination, did 90 
(brcc hb tkoaghts tp his own con- 
ceit, as to reason hiniself into 
1 belief, that he could trace the nt^' 
akdwkof Alexmader, t^l he found 

h stopping a byngholc ; tb^ world* 
with (nsufferaljle credulity, anil 
without troubling themselves to 
reason at all, have traced the parch<i 
inents of the Alexapdi^n library 
tin they found them distributed by 
the comniand of a;i ignorant fana-^ 
tick to the four tbousand baths of 
the city, and, 8u<:h being their in-i 
credible number, that six month's 
were scarcely sufficient for the 
con$umption of this precious fuel. 
Many writers in different parts of 
Etirope have lately denied the au-. 
thcnticity of the factj which b in-. 
deed marvellous. I^ \7M M. K. 
Reinhard published a dbsertation 
in the German language, in which 
he tittetopts to prove, that the IL* 
brary was demolbhed long before 

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the year 640, the umc when Alcx^ 
^idria was taken by the Saracens. 
Jn the Spectateur du Nord, for 
September 1798, 1 find an article 
pn this celebrated library, written 
\iy som^ one who signs himself 
V***»*, whom I presume to be 
Volney, the celebrated traveller 
into Egypt, and who confessedly 
avails himself of the materials of 
M. K. Reinhard. Thinking that 
it might afford some amusement 
to tlie readers of the Anthology, I 
have made a translation from the 
French and ^pw send it to you for 

Whatever was the ulteriour des- 
tination of the Alexandrian libra- 
ry, we may ask, Have the learned 
world much reason to regret its 
destruction ? Gjbbon, in his his- 
tory of tlie decline and fall of the 
Roman eippire, [Amcr, edit. vol. 
6, page 368] seems to answer the 
question in the negative. « I sin-p 
cerely regret, says be, th^ mor^ 
valuable libraries which have been 
involved in the ruin of the Roman 
empire ; but when I seriously 
compute the lapse of ages, the 
waste of ignorance, and the calamr 
ilies of war, our treasures, rather 
than our losses, are the object of 
my surprise. Many curious apd 
interesting facts arc buried in ob- 
livion ; the three great historians 
of Rome have been transmitted 
to our hands in a mutilated stat^ 
and wc are deprived of rpany 
pleasing compositions of the ly rick|> 
iambick, and dramatick poetry ^f 
the Greeks. Yqt we should grii^tt: 
fully remember, that the n^iscjian- 
ces of time and accident have 
spared the classiqk wprks to 
which the suffrage of antiquity hacj 
adjudged the first place of genius 
•and glory : the teachers of ^{j- 
cV<^nt knowledge, whp arc still. c:Sf 
taAt, had perused and compare4 

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Aie^andria. It is very- probable, 
that the houses of the patriarchs 
and the churches were ?ery full of 
these writings J and if they afford- 
ed fuel to heat the baths> we are of 

opinion, with Mr^ Gibbon, that 
tlicy were ultimately devoted for 
the benefit of mankind. 


I* A SHORT History of tme tiBRARt of alf.xanbria, beforr 


Alexandria, almost at the 
commencement of its foundation 
by the conqueror of India, became 
^uent and powerful, and its pro- 
gress was still more rapid imder 
Kis royal successors. It was divi- 
ded into many quarters, which 
were like so many towns. One 
of these quarters, the Bnichion, 
situated on the banks of the sea 
Dear the grand harbour, included 
all the edifices attached to tlie 
ba^cum, or palace of the king, 
the great college, and many oth* 
ers. The first pf the Ptolemies, 
Lagiis, did not confine his efforts 
to render Alexandria one of the 
most beautiful and commercial 
dries, he wished that it might also 
become the focus of the sciences 
and philosophy. In conjunction 
with Demetrius of Phalaris, an 
Athenian emigrant, tlus prince 
established there a society of wise 
men, similar to the modem French 
academies and institutes. He 
built for their accommodation that 
celebrated museum, which was an 
additional ornament to the Bru- 
cluon ; there was placed that 
ponderous library, which Titus 
livy styles, degaiai^ rcgum curte^ 
ptt egregium ofiuM* 

Pbiladelphus, successor of La^* 
gus, seeing that the library of the 
Bnichion contained four hundred 
thousand volumes, either that the 
place could not contain a. greater 
number, or that he was ambitious 
for a similar monument to eternise 
lus own name, founded a second li- 

brary in the temple of Serapis, cal- 
led the Serapion, situated at some 
distance from theBruchion,in ano- 
ther quarter of the city. These 
two libraries were for a long time 
called the mother and daughter, 
Caesar, during his war in Egypt, 
burnt the royal fleet in the great 
bay of Alexandria, and the fire 
communicated to the Bruchion j 
the mother library was consumed, 
and if any of tiie manuscripts were 
rescued from the flames, they 
were probably deposited in that of 
the Serapion, which in future can 
be the only subject in dispute. 
Evergetes, and the other Ptole- 
mies, successively augmented the 
library. Cleopatra • there deposit- 
ed two hundred thousand manu- 
scripts of the Pergamean library, 
with which she was presented by 
Mark Antony. 

Let us now follow the traces of 
the existence of the library. Au-' 
lus Gellius and Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus seem to intimate, that the 
contents of the Alexandrian library 
were burnt by the fire in the time 
of Cxsar. The first declares in 
his Noctes Attica, " that the num- 
ber of the books, collected iniEgypt 
ty the Ptolemies, was immense,, 
amounting e\xn to seven hundred 
thousand volumes, but they were all 
burnt in the war which Julius Cx- 
sar waged with the inhabitants of 
Alexandria, not with premeditated 
design, but by the soldiers who 
were perhaps auxiliaries." [Lib. 
6. Cap. ir.] 

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AK<^Sl9t U&&AliT OV Xt^SXAKBKIAi^ 

AmMalitm MtfceUintid, in the 
39d book ahd lOtk kha^tt^ of hii 
history, says* *< The Serajj^ion con- 
taxMid atv inestimable library of 
seven hutidred thousand voluirieSy 
collected by the industry of the 
Ptoiemies and %Umt duHn^ tHe war 
of Alexandria, when thalf cxtf wds 
destroyed by the dictator Casar." 

But both of the historians hare 
erred on the same point. Athtni- 
anus, in the co\xrse of his rctittal, 
evidently ctJnfounds the Scrapion 
and the Bruchion. It Is clearly 
provedithatCMsat destroyed some 
Dulldfngsof the latter only, and 
aot the whole city. 

Suetonius, in his life of Oo- 
:fti!tian, relates that this einpcrour 
:Jent copyists to Alexandria to 
t^^r^cribe a great number of books, 
tirhleh he wanted for his libraty. 
*t1ie librarjr must then have exist- 
ed a long time after Cxsar. Be^ 
iddedv we know that the Set^pion 
waanot destroyed until the )'car 
ttf our Lord 3^1 by the orders of 

Without doubt the librai^ suf* 
Ifered considerably on the last oc- 
casion. But after this It still ex- 
ited, at least in part ; which we 
tinnot doubt on the testimony of 
Orosiusj who, twenty^four years 
afterwardS) travelled into Alex- 

andria, ai|d who ^cdai'es, thmt be 
saw th^r^i ht tnuK^ teinplen^ camm 
JUicd Vfiih boklcM^ the re&gnet of the 
ancient tiOrarirs. It is worthi^ <*^ 
Remark, that this authof^ as well as 
Seneca in his treatise DeTranqull-* 
itattt Animi, relate, that the mim^ 
ber of volumes burnt by Cxsar 
amounted to four hundred thou-* 
sand ; and as it apvpears that the 
tbtal mifnber of the books wa6 (mt 
seven hundred thousand, there i^^- 
iTiaiiit, wkh what tiie^ were abfe 
to save from tlie library m the Bru-i 
chion^ at most but three or ft>ttr 
himdred thousand to compose t)ut 
one in the Serapion. 

The veracious OrOshJs, in 4^1 Sf 
h the last witness we have, whtt 
testifies to the existence of the Ua 
brary at Ale^iandria. The nume- 
rous christian writers of the ihh 
and sixth centuries, wRo have 
transmitted to us thwiy useless 
facts, do not say one wo^d on 
this important subject. Wtf 
have then no mofe certain d9C^ 
ments, respecting the fate of the 
Kbrary,from 415 until 636, Or,aC' 
cording to some, not until 54«, 
when Alexandria ^a« taken by the 
Arabs....a period of ignorance, itf 
barbarism, of Wars, of conv^lsionsy 
and of fruitless disputes between a 
hundred different sects. 

2. or TtiE libraut bur*t bt th* sabacbks. 

About the year 6f our Saviour 
$40 the troops of the caliph Omar, 
under the command of Amrou, 
took Alexandria. F6r more than 
ten centui4es no person m fitmipe 
imercgted himself to know what 
became of this celebrated library. 
At kstt about the year I66O9 a 
teamed Oxonian, fedwardPococke^ 
who h^ collected in two jourriei 
to the East many Afabiim manu* 
scripts, made known for the fSrst 

dme to the learned World, in a 
latin translation, the oriental hlflto* 
fy of the physician Abu^haraghtsy 
from whom we make the following 
extract...^* Attfiat time lived among 
the Ntusselitnen John of Alexandtia, 
who was mailed fh& gnMmimarhn^ 
and who es]^used tiie caiiseof tha 
jacobite christians. He liquid «van 
at the time when Altarou^'Ebnol'Aft 
took Alekandria. He attached 
hiittself to the c6n<i\ler6r ; and 

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mt ikiitLj piftsieiAit. 

Atnrbu, Who knew the progress 
which John had made in the seien- 
tes, treated him with great re- 
spect, listening with mlich eager; 
ness to his philosophick discoiirs- 
es, which were altogether new to 
the Arabians. Amrou wa6 him- 
self a man of much judgment and 
penetration. Heretained this learn- 
ed man constantly near him . Johrl 
fcaid to him one day : Thou hast 
visited all the magazines of Alex- 
andria, and hast set thy seal upoil 
every thing which thou hast found 
there. Of all that can serve thee 
I request nothing ; but thou canst 
reasonably leave us, what will be 
useless to thee. What is it thou 
wishest ? interrupted Amrou. The 
philosophical books, replied John, 
f<rhich are foUnd in the royal pal- 
ace. I can dispose of nothing, said 
Amrou, without permission from 
the chief of the faithfhl, Omar- 
Ebno'I-Chattab. He then wrote 
to Omar what John had requested 
of him, to which Omar replied,... 
As to the books thou mentionest, 
if they accord with the book of 
God, there is without them in that 
book all that is sufficient ; but if 
there be any thing repugnant to 
that book, we have no need of 
them : order them therefore to 
be all destroyed. Amrou upon 
this gave orders, that they should 
be dispersed through the baths of 
Alexandria, arid burned in heating 
them. After this manner, in the 
j^ace of six months, they were all 
consumed. Hear what was done 

and wonder.** — When ihii recital 
was made known in Europe, its 
authenticity was admitted without 
contradiction. It there acquired 
full credit, and in the opinion of 
the vulgar it passed for certainty. 

After Pococke we had the 
l;nowledge of another Arabian his- 
torian, who was also a physician, 
and who gives nearly the same 
recital. His name is Abdollatif, 
who wrote about the year 1 200, 
and of consequence a little before 
Abulpharagius. We are indebted 
for the publication to professoi* 
Paulus, who made it after a man- 
uscript in the Bodleian libraiy. 
We here insert the passage irt 
question. " I have seen also the 
Portico which, after Aristotle and 
nis disciples, became the acadcm- 
ick college, and also the/college 
which Alexander the Great built 
at the satne time with the city, in 
which was contained the superb 
library which Amrou bin-El-A$ 
t-endered a prey to the flames by 
the orders of the great Omar, to 
whom God be merciful.? 

As this little narrative quadrates 
with the character for ferocity and 
barbarism, which the christian his- 
torians, particularly tliose in the 
times of the crusades, attributed to 
the Saracens, no person for a long 
time thought proper to call it in 
question. On tlus point we shaj^ 
undertake to justify the caliph 
Omar, and his lieutenant Amrou ; 
not from love of the Saracens, but 
from love of truth. 

CTo be continued.] 

For the Monthly jinthology. 


Ao. 5. 

I AM a sincere believer in the 
usefulness of doctors and physick. 
I believe that diseases may be 
mitigated, and diseases may be a- 


verted in many instances by prop^ 
er management ; and that the 
proper management will more pro- 
bably be discovered by men yf\\i 

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devote their whole attention to this 
business,than by the sick and their 

I am however aware, that ve- 
ry sensible men are heretkks 
on this subject. They say, the 
doctors theorize, instead of observ- 
ing nature modestly and careful- 
ly ; and that their physick often 
irritates and sometimes destroys 
the patients, who would otherwise 
throw off their diseases more easi- 
ly and more* certain 1 y . Now there 
is some truth in this charge, and 
I will join them in the opinion^ 
that my brethren are too prone to 
theorize. This is not peculiar to 
them ; it belongs to mankind gen-* 
erally, and arises from indolencfe' 
and an impatience to appear wise. 
All knowledge must be acquired 
slowly and with difficulty. The 
labour becomes too tedious^ and 
men are ready to guess at the truth, 
rather than wait its slow and |)ain- 
ful developcment. This happens 
every day in common affairs ; and 
as the injury ,which results from it, 
is not very great, it is disregarded. 
The error deservedly arrests at- 
tention, when the subjects are 
great principles, either in physicks- 
or morals. It is remarkable, that 
men form an attachment to the 
vagaries of their own minds, which 
is oftentimes stronger, and excites 
more zeal, than a simple con^^ction 
of real truth. This circumstance 
aggravates very much the evils 
arising from a ftilse theory* In 
oiir profession, men grow as warm 
in the support of their peculiar 
tenets, I had almost ssdd as the 
theologians; and as the sectarian 
in feligion hopes, that all will be 
damned, who do not worship with 
him, so the father of a medical 
hypothesis is %villing to rejoice if 
all die, who are treated according 
to principles differing from liis 
own. They both pei'suade them- 

selves, that charity and a love ^f 
truth govern their hearts. 

These things must be so, while 
human nature remains what it is. 
Toil and trouble will ever be shun- 
ned. Society indeed renders them 
more tolerable by the compensa- 
tion it gives for them ; and as this 
advances in real improvement, the 
compensation will increase, and 
of course the labour will mora 
readily be procured. To correct 
our errors, we must trace them to 
their source. This consideration 
has induced me, tp present the pre- 
ceding and the following obser-^ 
vations on the causes, which lead 
the faculty into the habit of the- 

I have lightened the censure^ 
"ivhich is thrown upon us by 
spreading a part of it on the broad 
shoulders of /loor human nature ^ 
I mean to charge the remainder 
to a fault of our patients and their 

The importance and essential 
duty of a physician, is t« advise the* 
sick what to do ; — to direct their 
whole conduct. As the sick 
should never call a physician, un- 
less they have more confidence in 
his knowledge and judgment 
than in their own ; so when they 
have received his advice, they 
should follow it implicitly. If in- 
deed it is so opposite to their own 
settled opinions, as to destroy that 
confidence, then the modve for 
following his advice must cease to- 
operate. But the patient and his^ 
friends are seldom sadsfied with 
the advice alone ; they want to 
know the*name of the disease, the 
nature of the case, and the reasons 
for the mode of treatment. In 
Shon, they Watit to be taught in 
half an hour, and that too while 
they are under the influence of 
strong feelings, what it may havo 
cost the physician months tsi 

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learn, and might employ him 
hours to detail ; at a moment per- 
haps, when the circumstances do 
not permit him, to make up his 
own opinion decidedly ;— and he 
m too apt to think his reputation 
requires, that he should attempt 
to gratify them. They ask only 
for simple reasons and simple ex- 
planations, not wishing to look in- 
to the arcana of our art. Now sim- 
ple reasons and simple explana- 
mons are precisely what it is most 
difficult to give them, and most 
difficult for them to comprehend. 
Accordingly, to save his credit, the 
«Ioctor dre6ses up for them an 
explanation in unmeaning words, 
from which they fancy they under- 
stand a kind of something ; and 
from the habit of talking nonsense 
to others, and finding them satis- 
fied with it, he gets to value it 
himself. Here ds the stumbling 
block on which he falls. 

I itnow very well how much 
these remarks may expose the 
faculty to the wits, who,when their 
•wn bones do not ache, are not 
apt to spare us. fiut it is certain- 
ly true, that a man may be learned, 
and well versed in the practice of 
physick, and yet may not be ready 
to answer, to the ignorant, the in- 
quiries above stated. For my own 
part, I should think well of any 
young man, who plainly refused to 
do it. 

There are several reasons for 
all this. One great one is, that 
while all the world talk of tlie im- 
portance and advantages of ex- 
perience, few people understand 
the nature and extent of experi- 
«nental knowledge. We are all 
acquainted with the phenomena, 
which depend j^n the pdnciple jof 
gravitation. But if these phe- 
nomena were iv>t so constantly 
ol)vious, as to render them fam- 
iliar j if they were known only to 

the learned, and one, discoursing 
on the subject, were to state that 
it is found by experiment when- 
ever any body, specifically heavier 
than the atmosphere, is thrown in- 
to the air it falls to the ground ; 
and that the acquaintance with this 
principle might enable us to con- 
struct many useful machines ;— ^ 
of one, so discoursing, many, not 
only of the vulgar, but of the bet- 
ter informed, would inquire why 
this thing was so ; and tliey would 
hardly value the philosopher's 
knowledge of this law of nature* 
nor be willing even to credit it, if 
he could-not talk nonsense to them 
about the causes of attraction, ^c. 
The truth is, that the knowledge 
of the law, or, as it is sometimes 
called, the general fact, is all that 
k wanted ; and this may be just 
as usefully applied, as if we could 
imderstand how such a property 
is impressed on matter. 

Let us take a similar case in a 
science, with which a physician 
should be particularly conversant. 
The doctor is asked, what is the 
principle of life, and the inquirer 
expects to hear of some essence 
or quintessence, or of something 
like an electrick fluid, of which 
the experimentalist may exhibit 
at least a fleeting sight. He an- 
swers, that he knows not what life 
is ; that he knows only the laws 
of life. He explains by stating, 
that living, vegetable, and animal 
bodies are endued with certaui 
properties and poivers, which are 
not found in dead matter ; that 
these are attributed to the princi- 
ple of life 5 and that if they are 
discovesi^d, although the other be 
unknown, the object of the medir 
col pliilosopher is, obtained. Now 
such an answer is not satisfactory, 
even to men of understanding, who 
are not conversant with natural 
philosophy ; {;nd they will be 

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much better pleased with a pre- 
tender, who gives them an hy- 
pothesis about some humour floatr 
ing in the blood, or throup;h the 
nerves, which is the essential spi- 
rit, or animating principle of living 
beings. The truth is, that men 
who are unacquainted with such 
subjects, are more taken with that 
philosophy, which represents the 
world as supported on the shoul- 
der of Atlas, who sits on an ele- 
phant, who rests on a tortoise, &c. 
Many learned seekers after knowl- 
edge commit similar errours. 

I have stated one reason, which 
renders it difficult for physicians, to 
answer the scientifick questions of 
their patients. Perhaps I. have 
enlarged too much in the illustra- 
tion of this reason ; but it is a fav- 
ourite subject. This reason is foun- 
ded on the presumption, that the 
physician is perfectly able to give a 
satisfactory answer to one, qualified 
to understand it. There is a diffi- 
culty of another kind, which like- 
wise may exist, while the physician 
is perfectly competent to the ne- 
cessary explanation ; and it is one 
which many persons feel, while 
they do not clearly recognize it. 

The practice of physick is an 
art ; and the precepts of this art, 
as of every other, are drawn 
from the principles, not of one sci- 
ence only, but of many. The 
point of art in any operation is, if 
I may so express myself, at the 
intersection of the rules or lines, 
which are afforded by tlie different 
principles, on which that opera- 
tion is founded. But as circum- 
stances vary, the point of inter- 
section shifts, and so the conduct 
of the artist. Many principles 
then require to J}c stated and ex- 
plained with precision, to account 

for one little operation. Th« 
blacksmith is continually perform^ 
ing mechanical and chemical 
operations, and these are various- 
ly combined. No one would un- 
dervalue his handicraft, because 
be could not make his employer 
understand in five minutes all 
those scientifick principles, on 
which his operations depend. He 
indeed is not required to under- 
stand the sciences on which hi« 
art is founded, while the physiciah 
is. But the difficulty is, not that 
the artist does not understand the 
subject, for I am now supposing 
that he does ; but that he cannot 
make another comprehend at once 
the combination of principles* 
with which principles individually 
the inquirer is unacquainted. It 
is like talking to a blind man, who 
knows not what colours are, of the 
effect of a mixture of colours. 

Now I have been writing a page 
to persuade men that tliey are 
blind, so far as respects subjects 
which they have not investigated ; 
and I may add, that, in many in- . 
stances, no common minds can 
suddenly flash light enough on 
such subjects, as to make them 
rightly impress their torpid organs 
of sight. If I have succeeded to 
persuade my readers, that their 
neighbours are thus blind, it is ag 
much as I have a right to expect. 
It is hard to persuade a man, that 
he himself does not see every 
thing, which is put before his eyes ; 
although this happens every day 
to every man, both in the physical 
and moral world. 

The limits of a periodical pub* 
lication require, that I should post# 
pone, for tlie present, the further 
consideration of this subject. 


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Tli£ following is a descriptiofi of the famota £aUt of Niagara, writtca by a genlkman of thit tfat^ 
wha vi»Ued them a fevr montlis lincc i and althoi^h it is not given as any thing new, yet K 
may acrve to remind some of your readers, that no man ever repented a visit to that mighty 
cataract, and may induce them to go and behold the greatest natural curiosity of which theif 
country can boost. T. 


Cbi/ifinvay^ Sefit. 4, 1805. 

After a hearty breakfast we set 
off (a party of four) provided with a 
guide and a bottle of wiue^ to fol- 
low tlie footsteps of Volney and 
Weld to the falls of Niagara, dis^ 
tant about two ipiies. The day 
was fine, with scarcely a breeze to 
interrupt the smooth expanse of 
the river before us. The distant 
noise of the cataract was much be- 
neath our expectations, and all we 
saw of the fails, for half a mile, was 
the cloud of spray, which rose a* 
bove them. This foretold some 
g^at cause. 

Proceeding onwards, we come 
to a view of the rapids, which for 
half a ndle above the main pitch 
throw the immense waters into 
great turbulence and foam. As 
we proceed, the banks of the river 
gradually become from five to fif- 
ty feet aixjve the level of the river. 
Coming to a house on the bank of 
the river opposite the falls, we leave 
the road, aiid descend by an ex- 
ceedingly steep path to a rich plain 
below ; now entering a thick wood 
and shrubbery, very wet and mud- 
dy, we pick our way to Table rock, 
the projecting point, where stran- 
gers are first carried. 

Here we gaze at the mighty 
sight of an immense river, precipe 
itatimg itself one hundred and fifty 
feet perpendicularly into an abyss, 
the bottom of which (owing to the 
•pray) cannot be seen. 

Our guide, leaving one of the 
party on Table rock, conducted us 
a imall distau(^e down> which gave 

us, as it were, a profile view of the 
rock, on which our companion 
stood. We were terrified and as- 
tonished ; we beheld a flat rock^ 
not more than two feet thick, and 
of itself projecting ten feet, and the 
rock rinder it hollowing into cav« 
ems to the water, as appeared to 
us fifty or sixty feet more ; we 
saw oiu* companion, standing al* 
most in air, over the dreadful 
crags below, ready, it would 
seem, with the rocks themselves 
to fsdl 1 Every one involuntarily 
cried out to him to retire, while 
the guide, smiling at our unneces* 
sary fears, conducts us back to the 
further bank we had descended^ 
where we stopped awhile to reno- 
vate our moral and physical 

Our next object is to descend 
Simcoe's ladder,before we arrive at 
the top of which, we have to pass 
down the steep bank, as before, and 
go over a plain nearly the same as 
in the path to Table rock. 

We followed the guide by the 
ladder, leading down a rude preci- 
pice, which is continued along for 
a quarter of a mile to the falls, and 
is now the real bank of the river. 
Arrived at the bottom of this long 
ladder, we got dovm as well as we 
could, a height of about fifty feet 
further, descending over mounds 
of earth, bushes, and pieces of rock, 
tumbled together from the preci- 
pice above. 

We are now nearly on a level 
with the river below the falls, 
which are a quarter of a mile dis<« 

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tant, and- the way to them exceed- 
ingly rough ; but, excepting one 
pass) not dangerous. This, I am 
oonidenty rery few would attempt 
in any other place than this ; but 
the scenes around are so grand, as 
to inspire every one with courage. 

When we had come within five 
hundred feet of the falls, we stop- 
ped to survey the objects around 
us, which are in the highest de- 
gree grand and terrifick. Above 
ws hung a precipice, an hundred 
and twenty' or thirty feet high, full 
of loose stones, which are daily 
falling, and the fioasibiHtyj that one 
may fall upon you in passing, in- 
spires the mind with no inconsid- 
erable degree of alarm. Turning 
our backs to the precipice, we see 
before us (on the opposite side* of 
the river, placed on a perpendicu- 
lar rock as high as the falls) Goat 
bland, dividing the falls into two 
great sheets, four or five hundred 
feet apart. The farthest are call- 
led Little falls, and the other 
Horse-shoe foils. The former is 
j:alled little, only in comparison 
with the Horse-shoe falls ; and not 
being so easy of access, and dis- 
charging less water, is seldom vis- 
ited by strangers. Then looking, 
as our way leads, we see the main 
fall, tumbling its prodigious waters 
into the bed of the lower river, and 
running ofF,wiWly foaming beneath 
a cloud of spray in one general roar 
and confusioDiiPagnificei^t beyond 

We now proceeded, the spray 
wetting us more and more as we 
advanced, and the rocks becomit>g 
piore slippery, but not dangerous. 
Jkfore we arrived at the caverns, 
about one hundred feet from the 
falling water, where we took our 
stand, we were completely drench^ 
^d by the violent beating of the 
^pray against us, which, driven on 
by the forjous rushing wind, tliat 

issues out of the horrid cavertiv 
under the falls, sometimes hid us 
from a sight of the falling waters 
and even from each other. 

Having halted, Mr. B— first 
cautiously proceeded to get under 
the pitch, and, returning after a 
few moments, thinks he went a- 
bout twenty feet under, but was 
hid nearly the whole time from us 
by the spray. 

I was the next to attempt, a- 
midst the mighty terrours around, 
a survey of these caverns, horrible 
as death, and where he alone 
seemed to hold empire. Facing* 
the whirlwind, and necessarily 
disregarding the pelting spray, I 
crept as fast as the slippery crags 
would admit, without once stop- 
ping to tlank of danger. I went, 
as well as I could judge, fifteen or 
twenty feet under, or beyond the 
outer edge of the sheet. I durst 
venture no farther, but, reclining 
in a posture between sitting and 
laying, I first seized a small stone 
to bring away with me, an eternal 
remembrance of the place I took 
it fi*om. This done, I paused for 
a few moments. 

.....To attempt to describe my 
feelings, or to particularise each 
howling horrour around me, were 
vain'. It is not the thousand rivt 
crs of water, that tumble from 
above... nor the piled-up precipice 
of slippery crags, on the top of 
which you lay. ..nor the furious 
whirhvind,drivinglike shot thespray 
against you, threatening at each 
gust to throw you into the merr 
oiless jaws of death below...nor the 
thundering roar of the cataract... not 
all these, that bring each its par- 
ticular terrour ; but the whole of 
them together, striking the mind 
at once, appal the senses, and the 
weakened judgment gives way to 
the idea, that the rock above, which 
of itjrif supports the mighty 

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tdiole, hjLS Ibosened from its foun- 
dations and actually started to 
crush the whole below ! 

— I escaped before it fell... 
uxm found my companions, and 

looking up, sa^, half Surprisedy 
the hoary rock still firm oi*. it* 
foundations, amidst this seeming 
crush of worlds. 


Sava s^rit fi^oodes.-OYID. 

Mh. 11 


^oti: was fond of imitating the 
indents, though what he borrow- 
ed he improved, and his own 
thoughts were not inferiour to 
theirs. Some very beautiful lines, 
in his Elegy to the memory of an 
unfortunate young lady, he seems 
to have imitated from Ovid ; and 
I am surprized that Dr. Warton, 
in his excellent edition of Pope's 
works, has not remarked the re- 
semblance. I shall quote both the 
English and Latin, that the read-> 
er may judge for himself. 

Wlul caa atone, oh ! ever- injured shad^, 
Thy Uix. unpkkd, and thy ritc« unpaid \ 
Bo fiiead'i com^aint, no lund domestkk tear 
neaed thy pale ghott, or graced thy moumfo^ 

By ibrdgn hands tby dying eyei were closed. 
By far^ hands thy decent limbs composed^ 
By ferdgn hands thy hamble grave adorned. 
By ttrugen hoaoared, and by strangen mourned^ 

Though these are exquisite 
lines, (for no man, says Hume, can 
write verses with equal spirit and 
elegance to Mr. Pope) yet the 
following passage of Ovid unques- 
tionably supplied the materials. 

^ eeo otc lachryiiiafl matris morltura videbtf, 

Bcc, nea qid digltb himina condat, crit. 
•fWtus infcBx peregrinas ibll in auras, 
Kcc posttot artus unget arnica manus, 
^npenubUDt vokiercsbihumata marinje. 

OTid*s Epistles. Ariadne to 
Theseus. lin. 119. 

It has been the fashioUi of late 
years, to depreciate the poetical 
*>em of Pope, and to exalt, in 

strains of lavish encomium, th^ 
mushroom poetasters of the day. 
A writer, who with tlie rapidity of 
a Blackmore, shall finish an epick 
in six weeks, attracts the admira-* 
tion of many, who consider celeri- 
ty in writing as a proof of extraor- 
dinary genius. The reverse of 
this however is true; and the 
greatest master-pieces of writings 
far from being dashed off at a hit, 
have consumed a very considerable 
portion of time in their composition^ 
Perfection is the ro^ard of great 
labour, united with great genius. 
The co-operation of both can alone 
ensure success. Without genius, 
labour would be dull and insipid i 
without labour, genius would be 
absurd and extravagant. Had the 
AlCander of Pope, an epick poem 
which he wrote at sixteen, beeit 
preserved, he would probably have 
bego deemed a great poet by those, 
who now dispute his claims to that 
character. These genUcmen re-« 
quire originality, at the expense of 
whatever absurdity. They prefer 
the wilderness to the garden, 
thofugh the latter may possess all 
the beauties of nature, without her 
deformities. But true taste ad-^ 
mires nature only in her charms, 
not in the gross. Neither poet 
nor painter would describe a 
quagmire, nor expose to view^ 
those parts of the person, which 
decency clothes. Yet nature ha» 
claims as equal to what is conceal- 
ed, as to what is exiubited. 





• True wit ti nattte to admitAge drett/ 

tkot^ ragged gypsy, nor a tawdry 
Btrumpet. High, raasteriy execu- 
tion is what constitutes a preemi« 
nent writer. He exhibits the best 
thoughts, exprest in the best man* 
ner. When he borrows, he im- 
proves ; what he imitates, he ex- 
cels. He commands a certain fe- 
licity of style, which, though sim- 
ple, is highly figurative, which 
convinces by its energy, and 
charms by its beauty. Of all the 
ancient poets Pope most resembles 
Virgil. He has the same correct- 
ness, the same majesty of num- 
bers, allowing for the inferiority 
of a modem language. There is 
•carcely a page of Virgil, his 
Georgics excepted, in which We 
cannot trace him imitating or 
translating whole passages from 
other writers, so that he has fewer 
pretensions to originality, than al- 
imost any poet ancient or modern. 
And yet what ancient author is so 
universally read, or affords so 
much pleasure, Horace perhaps 
excepted ? Pope has more origi- 
nality than Virgil, but less than 
Dry den. Yet who reads more of 
Dryden than a single satire and a 
single ode ? Pope is the poet of 
the human species, the favourite 
of all ages, the oracle of all pro- 
fessions. Originality I Fiddledy 


Batle was a great and original 
genius. I believe, that it is not 
generally known, that his charac- 
ter is admirably drawn by Saurin^ 
which I doubt not will be more 
acceptable to many readers of tlie 
Silva, than any original remarks of 
the present writer. * He was one 
of those extraordinary men (says 
that eloquent preacher) whom the 
greatest wit cannot recobcile with 
l|jimself^ and whose opposite quali- 

ties leave us toom to doubt, wheth- 
er we ought to look upon him as 
the best, or as the worst of met). 
Oh the one hand, he was a great 
philosopher, who knew how to 
distinguish truth from falsehood, 
who could at one view perceive all 
the consequences of a principle, 
and discover how they are linked 
together. On the other hand, he 
was a gtedt sophist, who under- 
took to confound truth witli false- 
hood, and knew how to draw false 
inferences from the piincipled he 
supported. On the one hand^ a 
man of learning and knowledge^ 
who had read all that can be rcadi 
and remembered all that can be 
remembered. On the other hand^ 
ignorant, or at least feigning to be 
so, with regard to the most com- 
mon things ; proposing such diffi* 
culties, as had been a thousand 
times answered, and urging objcc* 
tionsj which a schoolboy could not 
make without blushing. On the 
one hand, attacking the most emi- 
nent meh, opening a large field 
for their labours, leadinjg them 
through the most difficult roadsf 
and, if he did not vanquish them, 
giving them at least a great deal of 
trouble to vanquish him. On the 
other hand, a man who made useJ 
of the worst of authors, to whom 
he was lavish of his praises ; and 
who disgraced his writings by 
quoting such names as a learned 
mouth never pronounced. On the 
one hand, free, at least in appear- 
ance, from all the passions, which 
are inconsistent with tlie spirit of 
Christianity ; grave in his discour- 
ses, temperate in his diet, austere 
in his manner of li\ing. On the 
other hand, employing all the 
strength of his genius to overtlirow 
the foundations of moral virtue, at- 
taicking,as much as; lay in his pow- 
er, chastity, modesty, and all the 
christian Virtues. On the one side^ 

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appealing to the throne of the most 
severe orthodoxy 5 going to the 
purest springs, borrowing his ar*- 
guments from the least suspected 
\mters. On the other hand, fol- 
lowing the paths of hereticks, pro- 
posing again the objections of the 
andent heresiarchs, lending them 
new arms, and collecting together 
in our age all the errours of past 
ages. May that man, who had 
been endowed witl^ so many tal- 
ents,be acquitted before God of the 
in use he made of them I May that 
Jesus, whom he so often attacked, 
hare expiated his sins !* 


The story of the hermit, which 
Pamell tells in Verse, Voltaire re- 
lates in prose, precisely in the same 
order, ia his romance of Zadig. 
Qucre, which is the plagiary, or 
hare they both borrowed the story 
from another ? Voltaire continued 
an author for more than sixty 
years, but still I think that Pamell 
taust have been his senior. Few 
have written so well as Voltaire on 
such an infinite variety of subjects ; 
but in every department of litera- 
ture he has been excelled by some. 
His immortality would have been 
more secure, had he confined his 
genius to any one species of com- 
position, though his temporary 
popularity would have been less 


I AM astonished that any one 
can prefer Cowper to Thomson. 
The Task is indeed a poem of con- 
siderable merit, exhibiting an orig- 
inal cast of thought, and a strong 
imaghiation. But it does not pos- 
sess the same interest as the Sea- 
sons, nor do I recollect any passa- 
ges in it eminently beautiful. 
There is so little order and con- 
nexion in this poem, that you 

Vol. III. No. 1. C 

might transpose the paragr^h?^ as 
you read without injury. The 
style is indeed more pure and clas- 
sical than that of Thomson, which 
abounds with gorgeous epithets 
and ill-sounding compound adjec- 
tives. But the latter has infinitely 
the advantage in the superiour in- 
terest which he excites, in more 
vigour of conception, in greater 
tenderness and delicacy, and in ev- 
ery poetical embellishment. I 
give the Seasons an annual peru- 
sal, and they always afford me 
fresh pleasure. I have never been 
able to read the Task a second 
time. As to Cowper's produc- 
tions in rhyme, if any man can 
read them at all, I shall rather ap- 
plaud his patience, than imitate his 
example. He seems to have no 
ear for harmony, so that, were we 
not acquainted with his age, we 
should scarcely suspect him of be- 
ing a moderh. Though there 
may be harmony without poetrv, 
there can be no good poetry with- 
out harmony. The want of this 
indispensible requisite constitutes 
the principal charge of Horace a- 
gainst Lucilius, as the possesion 
of it in a pre-eminent degree gives 
to Virgil and Pope the exalted rank 
which they hold among the poets 
of their respective countries. The 
satires and epistles of Horace we 
probably know not the true ilieth- 
od of reading. We cannot at pre- 
sent ^scover in them that harmo- 
ny, the want of which he censures 
in Lucilius, and which, for tliis 
very reason, they must undoubted- 
ly possess. I once endeavoured 
to read Cowper's Homer, but I 
found it an herculean task, and I 
was no Hercules. It may possess 
every other merit, but certainly 
wants the power of keeping its 
readers awake. The first lines of 
the Seasons are ridiculous, as they 
contain absurd imager)'. Observe. 

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Come, gentle spring, tttherial mlldneit, come t 
And firom the bosom of yon dropping cloud, 
while muckrk wak^ around, vdled Hi a shower 
Of thadowiilg roses. Oh ouf pfarfn* descend. 

I quote from memory, but I be- 
lieve correctly. Now reduce this 
to painting, and what kind of pic- 
ture does it pVescnt ? ^ Sprteg, an 
allegorical personage, is described 
as desccndttig from the bosom df 
a drofifiing cloud (qtiere, what does 
the cloud drop ?) while muaick 
tvakes around. What musick, vo- 
cal, or ihstrtimental ? non liquet^ 
veiled in a ahbwer of shadowing 
ro9e8, ff Thomson hatf often 
written as ill as this, there would 
be no cohiparifeon between him and 
Cowper. But at presienti as a p6et, 
I think the lattex* decidedly hife- 
riour. Though he may possess 
lio passage so faulty as theorte judt 
quoted; yet he seldom rises above 
the level of mediocrity. Notwith- 
standing that the style of Cowper 
is unusually chaste, yet is there a 
sombre cast of thought, which 
Jteems to pvoceed fiom a mind not 
altogether soond and at ease. 


EnucATiojf has bectf grcatiy^ 
improved in this country^ of late 
years. But though much has beeii 
done, yet much remains to be done. 
Our litei^ary discipline is well cal- 
culated for common purposes, and 
our professional men are little in- 
ferioUr to those of other coimtries 
in the knowledge of their profes- 
sion. Bat here our claihis to praise 
tnust end. Our lawyers are mter6 
laW}'ers, our physicians are met^ 
physicians, our diVincS afe mere 
divines. Every thing sftiells of the 
shop ,and you will, in a few minutes 
conversation, infallibly detect a 
man's profession. We seldonfi 
meet here with an accomplished 
character, a young tnan offifte ge- 
nius and very general knowledge, 
the scholar and the gentleman, 
united. Such a character is not 

uncomn>on in Eu^opc^bu^is hcrC 
a vara avis intexria. Whence prq-' 
ceeds this diiference ? From the 
inferiority of education among uS- 
Our schoolmasters receive a merfe 
pittance, and are consequeritty men 
of inferioUr talents. Every maii, 
capable of instructing well, follows 
some pr6fe>ssibn*or business, able 
to support hi'm^ * A preceptor, 
without geniusj can never inspire 
a pupil with the Jove 6f learning.- 
Instead of reading Virgil and 
Horace with the enthusiasm of an 
amateur^ and of explaining them 
with the taste and acuteness of a 
Busby, he will barely require a 
verbatim translation, and a knowN' 
edge of the rules of gi^mmar. 
The spirit and beauties of the aur 
thol^ remain without notice ; and 
\frhat has never been taught will 
seldom be discovered. They go 
to college with 6ut a sihattering of 
leaming, ai)d often leave it with 
still less. For the same system of 
economy pervades our academick 
walls, and a college tutor receives 
rather less than a Boston labourer. 
Those, who are qualified for noth- ' 
ing else, consequently become tu- 
tors, arid bur guides to Parnassus 
are themselves ignorant of the road 
tliaf leads thither. 

The schoolmaster^ of Europe, 
particularly of Great-Britain, arc 
amply i-ewarded for their laboui's, 
and generally consist of the best 
scholars in the kingdom. The 
employment is honourable arid lu- 
crative, and is almost always re- 
warded with some distinguished 
Ccclesiasticaf preferment, the pre^ 
ceplors themselves being always 
clergyihen of the establbhed 
chrirch. I shall close this article 
with the character of Dr. Sumner, 
master of Harrow-school, drawn 
by his piipily Sir W. Jones, in the 
preface to his treatise on tersiaiJ 
poetry. The translatfon of course 
must be Very infciiour tQ Ui^ 

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elegance of the original Latin. 
* The reader, I hope, wilJ par- 
don me, if I cannot here resist the 
temptation of extolling the \4rtues, 
of this most Jearned man, who was 
my Intimate friend, ^d of express- 
ing just son'ow at his lamented' 
death. He was a man of distin- 
^xshcd genius and integrity, of 
admirable temper, polite manners, 
jsnd exqubite learning. He pos- 
sessed, beyond any in^ructer I 
ever knew, the fecully of .commn- 
mcating knowledge ; and si^ch was 
the pleasantry of hfe deportment, 
that it was ^ilficult to delennine, 
whether he was more agreeable to 
his friends, or scholars. In Grey 
dan and Roman literature he was 
profoundly skilled; and, though like ' 

another Socrates, he ivTotc little 
himself, no one could more ably 
detect the faults, or point out the 
beauties of authors of every des- 
cription. Had fortime destined 
him for the bar or senate, and not 
confined him to the employment 
of tuition, he would have yielded 
to np <Mie in eloquence, which is 
exclusively cultivated in Great 
Britain. For he possessed, if not 
in perfection, at least in a very high 
degree, all tlie accomplishments 
commendai>le in an orator, a mu- 
sical vdice, purity of language, a 
flowing style, uniting elegance and 
wit >vith a most tenacious memo- 
ry ; in a word, the eyes, the coun- 
tenance, the action, not of a player, 
but of another Demosthenes.* 



/)mrad •peram censoret,' ne fwd retpidli^ [literarum] Jefrimmti saferH^'^SaHLCsiL 

SO little have the writers of our mains of national animosity ; and 
country been aacus»tqmed to the, when a critick among ourselves 
rigour of a critical' ti^^unal, th.j^t, has sometimes ventured to speak 

to secure a comfortable seat in some 
of the out-houses belongjing to the 
temple of fame, nothing has btee)i 
hitherto necessary, but the resolu- 
tion to write, and the folly to pubr 
lish. While, hoivever, the same 
T\Yodels of excellence are accessible, 
the same laws of taste ai*e promul- 
gated, and tlie same language js 
vernacular on l|ptK jiides of the At- 
lantick, I know not why the sen- 
tences of criticism should not be 
executedin ail their pgour on these 
western shores; or why the majes- 
ty of the republick of letters should 
be insulted with impunity in the 
remotest pro vince5 ojf the empire, 
Every man of reading, yvhq h^s 
watched the jealous spirit of th^ 
times, mus^ have observed, that 
whenever an American work is 
ccns^ured in the journals of British 
criticism, their judgment is attrib- 
uted to some unextinguished re- 

ip a tone of authority, he has been 
set down for a conceited imitator 
of foreign impenj^nence. So rare 
have been the instances among us 
of* manly and unprejudiced critir 
cism, that, to point out the faults of 
a living author, instead of making 
him grateful, onjy makes him 
mad ; and he d^covers all the fu- 
ry, which is felt by an antiquated 
belle, when her little piece unluck- 
iiy espjes a gray hair among the 
sable honours of her head, and in- 
nocently presumes to pull out the 
* So imperfectly ha§ the right of 
criticism been attended to among 
us, that many a sober chizen, I 
doubt not, is unable to distinguish 
between the privilege of finding 
fault with an author, and the wick- 
edness of publishing a defamatory 
lil>el. But in truth this right of 
litcriiry ccukurc is bestowed upoa 

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the critick by the author him^jyf.. 
Every n^au who publishes» virtual-' 
ly offers a chaUeoge to the pub- 
lick, or at least courts their decis- 
ion. By claiming praise» he runs 
the hazard of censure ; and theyy 
in whose power it is to confer t^e 
one, have undoubtedly a right to 
adininister the other. * S'iis 
Teulent avoir en nous dea admira- 
teurs, il faut qu'ils nous permettent 
d'oser ctre leurs juges»' says the 
charming La Harpe, in the intro- 
duction to his Lycsum. But if 
*we have a right to judge, we xnu$t 
liave also a right tp laugh ; &r 
nothing can compel us to read with 
gravity in printf what would have 
convulsed us with merriment, if we 
had heard it in conversation. If 
indeed we laugh at what is not 
laughable, or applaud what is not 
commendable, or hiss at what is 
Tkot absurd, we run the common 
hazard of a^critick in the pit,, when 
he has clapped in the wrong place, 
and is suificiently disgraced by 
^ding himself alone. ' 

It is plainly no violation of the 
laws of literary courtesy to hold ' 
up dulness and absurdity to the de- 
rision of the publick ; for it has 
long since been tacitly agreed, that 
if an author has a right to be dull, 
the critick has a right to be severe. 
Common equity declares, that one 
aide ought not to claim a monop- 
oly of privileges. Nothing but the 
immunity of satirical criticism can 
impose the slightest restraint on 
the vanity of authorship. By rid- 
icule too, the taste of the publick 
is insensibly corrected and refined ; 
for many, who have no time to lis- 
ten to a reason, are always ready 
to join in a laugh ; and thousands^ , 
-who undi^rstand nothing of the 
principles of taste, caA see an ab- 
surdity when exposed by another. 
How far it b lawful to distress an 
mithor by ridicule or censure, with- 
P4t transgressing the laws of chris- 

tian benevolence, I am not casuist 
enough to determine. I will give 
you the opinion of the greatest 
master of moral science, as well o£ 
literary discussion, which the last 
age produced. ** As it very sel- 
dom happens, that the rage of ex- 
temporary criticism inflicts fatal or 
lasting wounds, I know not thai the 
laws of benevolence entitle this dis-» 
tress to much sympathy. The 
divenion of baiting an author has 
the sanction of all aees and na- 
tions, and is more lawnil than the 
sport of teizing other animals, be- 
cause, fbr the most part, he cornea 
voluntarily to the stake, furnished, 
as he imagines, by the patron pow- 
ers of literature, with resistless 
weapons and impenetrable armour, 
with the midl ot the boar pf Ery-' 
manth, and the paws of the lion of 
Nemea." [Johnson's Rambler, 
No. 176.] 

Authors boldly eneoimter the 
silent neglect of the publick, and 
at the same time complain of the 
opinion of an individual, and im- 
agine themselves outraged by the 
censure of a reviewer. While they 
see with much composure their 
favourite productions quietly de-r 
voured by the moths, those mer- 
ciless reviewers, who have no more 
respect for a polished than for a 
clumsy period, and make as hearty 
a meal upon a genius as upon a 
dumce ; tiiey will take instant of- 
fence at a critick, who presumes 
to separate in their works the dry 
from the nutritious, who acciden- 
tally makes a wry face at what is 
nauseous, or involuntarily rejects 
what is insipid. It is a common 
trick of incensed authors to rail 
against reviewers, as men who 
have impudently set themselves 
up as guardians of publick taste, 
or rather as a band of literary ex- 
ecutioners. Indeed there is some 
show of reason in the complaint, 
that anonymous reviews arc an un- 

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mZ KUCAJU»]l. 

just assuinptioii of authority, be- 
ciuse they in some measure in- 
clude the power of puruslilng, as 
well as of judging ; which powers, 
ID erery free state, should be kept 
perfectly distinct. To explain this 
anomaly I will attempt to give you 
some hints, which I have gathered 
from Bayle, who was long a dicta-. 
tor in the repubUck of letfers. 

The commonwealth of learning 
is the ooly permanent exaicnple of 
pure and original democracy* In 
this state, under the protection of 
truth and reason, whose authority 
akxne is acknowledged, wars may. 
be carried on with the utmcxst in- 
npcence, though not always with 
impunity ; for here every ^lan is 
soverdg man also un- 

der the j ' every other. 

The laws of €:ivil society have in 
BO degree abridged the indepen- 
dence of the state of nature, as to 
errour an4 ignorance*. No man 
cm be yy^JlM^y^ by the social com- 
pact from hb unalienable right to 
be a fool ; and^ on the other side, 
every man retains the right of the 
twoiti,aDd n^y exercise it without 
a commia^on. << If it is asked,*' 
ays Bayle, "why the civil author- 
ity should leave every one at lib- 
erty to expose the mistakes and 
IblUes of authors, it may be an- 
swered, that to criticise a book, 
tends only to show, that the au- 
thor does not possess a ce^ajn de- 
gitei o^kixyf mge or of talent. — 
Now, as an aotfi^ may enjoy all 
the rights n^. privileges of the 

community lives, not;, 

withstandin of knowU 

. edge and of a$ his re; 

patation, as lan and a 

good sub yealth,, 

does not i ieas)^, 

Uemish, *patIo|^ 

b made on ine majesty of the 
statoi by showing to the publici; 
, the &ults of a book/' [Ba^'a 
Diet. art. Catius. Is'ot^ D.l / \ 

If then the conelative rights of 
publishing and. of censuring non; 
sense remain alike unimpaired by 
the conventions, and established by; 
the immemorial customs of 8oci<« 
ety, it fpllows, that, if every writer 
of a book may publish anonymous* 
ly, the. writer of, a review cannot 
be con^)eiled to deciare himself;^ 
and,- as the object of criticism ia 
not persons, butAvorks, there is no 
cowardice in this conc^k^nent. 
There is nothing- dishonourable in 
firing at a senseless mark- out of 
an ambush, or from behind a tree, 
. It will perhaps, be esteemed a 
more difficult task ^^ ma^itafn th» 
expediency, than to esta^ish tba 
right of critical severity^ in the 
present state of American litera- 
ture. It will be said) that our 
country is yoiingj an^ tberefore 
her infantile productions in the 
field of lettersdeser\'e rather to be 
cherished by th^ gentle and per* 
fumed gales of flattery, than to be 
checked by the chills of neglect, or 
beaten dowp by the blasts of angrjr 
criticism. It will be said) that our 
mos|: sible minds will continue to 
shun the dangers of authorship, if 
every thing, which issijes from the 
press, must be subjected to the 
unrelenting severity of anonymous 
remark. But is he a friend to the 
literature of his country, who. 
>rishes to excuse it from examina- 
tion ? Does he think* that the ei^f' 
multiplication of feeble works will 
eventually establish . a solid basis 
for our future fame ? No : theever*^ 
lasting oaks of our forests were not 
raised in a hot-^honse. The indul- 
gent remarks of candid friends, 
the simpering smiles of kitchen- 
jcriticks, the pufHng advertisements' 
pf newspapers, and the lullaby 
Strain^ of poetasters, will never 
patroi)ize the growth of solid leam- 
mg, nor confer immortality on the 
authors of our country. We have 
yet tj^ Ipam, tliat to write correp^^ 

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}f ind^to think"$cftaBIy ought to 
^ made insepatt^le habits; if then, 
when a poet is a dunce, vre say 
that he is a gemus ; when tm oria* 
tor^alkft fttstian, ^c say that he is 
cjoqueift ; when a writer is sole- 
dstical, we say that he is a little 
inaccurate ; or when a book is 
composed in a Babylonish <Kalect, 
we excuse it because it is Amer- 
icanize arc only feeding children 
ivlth sweetmcats,or wrapping them 
Tsp warm against the cold, and thus 
iaytng the ^undt^on of perpetual 
Tanity, imbecility, tod idiotism. 

The earliest reviewst whkh ap- 
»e«red in Europe, were undoubt- 
•ediy the most gende in their ani- 
imadversiona. ft is true also, that 
they wefe recotATOendcd by some 
of the most celebrated names, 
which the annals of literature can 
lumish. Bayle, LeCIerc^asnage, 
iknd 8*Gravesande* did not disdain 
to be editors of literary journals. 
But the first has a\ways been cen- 
sured for the eiicvmiastick strain 
of hb remarks, and the others 
commonly rp«^"f*terf themselves, 
except where preju- 

dices were bare 

analyses of the works, wwch they 
announced. Since that time the 
state of the 3f letters 

has essentia Then the 

literature of is jiist a- 

waking from us long i-epose in 
the cloisters of monks, and the 

• Baylc hepfi the NeitvclUs A la J^em 
£tfB!ipte Je tcitrd^ in 1 684, but it was dis- 
contin\icd in 1^7, on account of hit ill 
health. Bamage de Beanval wrote a ae« 
quel of them uodec tl^e r^ie of VW^nre 
d^s ouvraegn da jl^avtfiu, which ccmuncDC- 
ed in 1^87, and was concluded in 24 volt. 
r2nio. in 1 709. Le Clerc conducted ih^ 
Sihlittihcque U/averuUe from 1086t6IC9S, 
95 roU. Ifimo. the SiUi^th^re Qfitk UotA 
170.S to 1718, S8 Tolft. 12mo. and^be 
BiU'Kt^ftu Amiaitu Uf Mtdermt fronk 
17)4 to 1727, 2d vols. ISnio. S'Grave^ 
•ande, the celebrated philosopher, edited 
Ze y«itntal Lhf rain frcm 1^13 to W2i^ 

legends of popish superstition. 
The liberty to think, and the dis- 
position to write, demanded every 
stimulus and every encourage r 
ment. Now the licentiousness of 
the press has become a greater 
evil, than its inactivity, and instan- 
ces of superfetation are more fre- 
quent than of sterility. Then the 
laws of fine wjiting were imper- 
fectly established, and rarely un- 
derstood ; now they are or ought 
to be familiar to school boys and 
abecedarians. Then the method 
of conducting literarj' journals wai 
to be ascertained by experiment, 
and an author was to be flattered 
into a quiet acknowledgment of 
their privileges ; now every can* 
didate for fame has it in his power 
to consult innumerable preced- 
ents, statutes, and declarations of 
criticism, by which the verdict of- 
the publick and the sentence ot 
the reviewer may be previously 
and probably conjectured. Theh 
authorship had not become a 
trade ; plagiarism ^as not practis- 
ed with unblushing effrontery ; 
nor were the scraps of every au- 
thor's scnitoire swept out upon 
the publick ; now every starvling 
pedant writes for bread, and all 
that is necessary to constitute an 
authgr is, the industry to borrow 
or to steal materials, till he is able 
to swell out a volume. In such a 
state of things, it is not cnougli 
that a review contains an analysis 
of a work, for some M'brks defy 
analysis ; neither is it enough cor- 
rectly to state the subjects of a 
book, for that might be done by 
transcribing the table of contents ; 
but the faithful reviewer is dailj^ 
called upon to detect literary thefts, 
to expose absurdities, ]to correct 
blunders, to check the contagion 
of hlit taste, to rescue the pub- 
lick from the impositions of dull- 
ness, and to assert the majesty of 
learning -and of tmth. 

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in stating these lofty pretensions 
<^ the criticky we had almost for- 
^jotten the claims of the author. 
If I am asked, what redress can 
aa author obtain, who has been 
ignorantly criticised, or unmerci- 
fully castigated ; I answer ; the re- 
dress of an author," who deserves 
anr, will always be found in the 
"AJdntatc decision of the publick. 
*« The satire of Poi)e,*' says JohA- 
•on, « which brought Theobald 
and Moore into contempt, drop- 
ped impotent from Bentley, like 
the javelin of Priam/* Besides, 
the name of an author will always 
command more intrinsick respect,"* 
thaa that of a critick. The fbr^^ 
incr natundly takes rank of the 
iatler in the cetemonial of litera* 
tune* It requires less ability to 
detect £aiilts, than to avoid them ; 
but even if it were not so, the au* 
thor should remember, that he 
forercT retains the right of primo* 
geaiture, and the advantage of 
pre-occupying the attention of the 
publick ; and while authors may 
exist without criticks, the latter 
cannot maintain themselves a mp^ 
Bteoat, if writers shouki withhold 
the customary prey. 

As to the herd of vain and dis- 
appointed authors I have long per- 
plexed myftclf to find a remedy for 
their chagrin. I can recommend 
no better mode of avenging them- 
selves on the criticks and on the 
publick, than by obstinately refus- 
iog to publish any more. It is 
true that there arc many incon- 
veniences, which would follow 
•o decisive a measure ; for the 
voHd would thus be deprived of 
much harmless diversion, and per- 
haps some of the brethren of the 
trpe woi^ be thrown out of em- 
ployment ; but whenever I begin 
to be adarmed by these solemn con- 
«qucnces, and tremble at the 
rawing tyranny of criticism, I 
iad myself relieved by the hu- 

mour of the following poaaage io 
Baillet, with which I wiU close the 
present number. 

..." L'in.convenfem de voh* Ic 
monde sans Ikres ne sera jamais 
a craindre, puisqu' il est a presuny 
er qu'U y aura toujours plus d'ecri- 
vains que dcgens sages. Ceux 
qui remarquerent que S. Augus- 
tin exhortoit fortement toute le 
ihonde % la continence, se crurenc 
obliges de lui rementrer, qu'il prit 
garde aux desordres qui ca poii- 
voient nsltre, Sc qui se chacun vou- 
loit garder sa virginity, le genre 
humain periroit en peu de tem& 
S. Augustin se moqua d'^eux, parc^ 
qull savoit Wen qu'il ne seroit ja- 
mais pris au mot, & qu'il y auroii 
toujours assez de perspnnes de Tun 
8c de I'autre sexe, qui ne quilteroi- 
ent pas leur part des plaisirs du 
mariage. Que Ton dbe tout ce 
qu'on voudra pour la continence, 
cela n'emp^chera point les enfan- 
temens f Ton peut aaaurer ausai 
que quelque chose que I'on disc, 
ou que Ton &sse coatre les auteursy 
rien ne sera capable d'empecher 
qu'ils n'eufantent Uvre sur livre. 
La superfetation eat incomparable* 
ment plus fr^uente parmi eux qne 
parmi les femnfes ; car combien 
de fob commencent41s un nou- 
veau dessein, avant que d 'avoir 
acheve le precedent. Ainsi Ton 
ne se doit pas allarmer de Icurs 
menaces ; il est vrai que quand ii^ 
voyent qu'on raahraite Icurs ccrits, 
ils formcnt le m^me dc&seiu qu' 
Apollon forma lors que son tils 
Phaeton fat tu^ d*un coup dc £wi- 
dre ; je vcux dire qu*ils songent k 
ne plus rcpandre la lumicrc dan^i 
Tunivers ; mais cela ne dure pas, 
ils reviennent de ccs premiers 
mouvcmens , 8c on les cmbarras 
seroit un pcu si on les dvficit dans 
les fonnes d'exccuter leur menace, 
lis aimeroient mieux qu*on segou- 
vemat h leur ^jjard, comme Ton fit 
envers Apollon, qui se vit tres- 

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humblemient sU}>lie de De lalsser 
pas le monde'dans les tenebresi 

N cTc Tdit tendm indoccre retnu^ 
flbpf Uce voce rogimt. 

lis seroient m^me ravis qu'on les 
en pri&t avec rautorite du com* 

mandement Sc de la menade, com- 
me on la pratiqua envers ApoUon, 

•— — Pfecibaiqiie miiiM ngma idtfir - 

[Baillet Jugemena des Sqmvo^m. 
Tom. 4.] 


Stealing and ghrtag.tweett^ SHAKEiT. 

JVb. I. 

The nieatine^^hd servility >of 
firyden's hyperbolical adulation, 
in his dedications, has been severe- 
ly and justly censWred by DrJohn*- 
eon ; but the encomiastic language 
which he always' used in these 
compositions was rather the vice 
of the times, thaii of the triaii. 
The dedication ' of almost every 
muthor of that age was equally 
loaded with flattery, and some- 
times far surpassed any of Dry^ 
den's in extravagance of praise; 
Of all Dryden's dedications, the 
one, from which we made the'fbl* 
lowing extracts, addressed to h6f 
royal highness the duchess Mary 
of Este, daughter of the duke of 
Modena, while ft gives abundant 
proofs of the variety and luxuri* 
ance of his fancy, exhibits the 
most perfect specimen of what is 
called the celestial style. The 
duchess was, at the time of hei' 
marriage, little more thsm fourteen? 
and, according to Macpherson, of 
exquisite beauty. 
«7b her Royal Hig/tnesa the Duchess, 


< Ambition is so fofrom bcteg 
a vice in poets, that it is almost 
impossible for them to succeed 
without it. Imagination must be 
raised by a desire of ftme, to a 
desire of pleasing ; and they,whom 
in all ages poets have endeavour- 
ed most to please, have been the 
beautiful and 'the great. Beauty;* 
is their deity to which thejr sacri- 
fice, and 'greatnesses their guardi- 
an angel which protects them. 

Both these are so emhientfjr join- 
ed in the person of your Royal 
Highness, that it were not easy lor 
any biit a poet to determine' which 
of diem outshines the other. But 
I confess. Madam, I am already 
biassed ih my choice. I cati easi<» 
ly resign to others the prtd^ of 
your illustrious family, and that 
glory which you derive from a 
long-continued race of princes^ 
famous for their actions both in 
peace andwar ; I can give up to 
the historians of your country the 
the names of so many gienerals 
and heroes which croud thdr an« 
nals ; and to our own, the hopes 
of those which you are to produce 
for the British chronicle. I can 
yield, ^thout envy, to the nodon 
of poets, the fiemiily of Ekte, to 
which ' Ariostb and Tassd have 
owed their patronage, and til which 
the world has owed their poets ; 
but I could not, without lAtreine 
reluctance, resign the thfone of 
your beauty to another hawd- But 
with whatsoever vanity this new 
hontiur of being your poet has 
iilled my mind, I cones' tnysclf 
too weak for the inspiration ; the 
priest was always unequal to the 
oracle ; the god within him was 
too mighty for his breast. He 
tabbured with the^ Sacred revela* 
tion, and there wns more' of tha 
mystery left behind, than divinity 
itself tould enable MmfO express. 
I tanljut discover a part of your 
excellendes to the world t; and 
thattooaccerding^l^the measure 

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sxit% totttl 


^ttif own weakness. ' tike those 
who have surveyed the moon by 
l^lasses, I can only tell of a new ai^ 
shining world above us, Sut not 
relate the riches and glories of the 
place.* . 4 4 rf • Fortune has, indeed, 
but rendered justice to so much 
ciedlenee, in setting it so high to 
]>ublick view ; or ratlicr Provi- 
dence has done justice to itself, in 
pladng the most perfect workman^ 
ship of heaven, where it may be 
admired by all beholders. Had 
the suh and Stal*s been seated low- 
er, their glory had not been com* 
municated to all at once ; and the 
Creator had wanted so much of his 
praise, as he had made your con- 
dition more obscure ; but he has 
placed you so near a crown, that 
you add a lustre to it by your 
beauty. You are joined to a prince 
who only could deserve you i 
whose conduct, courage, and suc- 
cess in war, whose fidelity to his 
loyal brother, whose love for his 
country, whose constancy to his 
friends, whose bounty to hb ser* 
▼ants, whose justice to merit, 
whose inviolable truth, and whose 
magnanimity in all nis actions, 
seem to have been rewarded by 
heavoi by the gift of you. You 
are never seen but you are blest ; 
and I am sure you bless all those 
who see you.'. • . ^< Thus, madam, 
in the midst of crowds, you reign 
IB solitude ; and are adored with 
the deepest veneration, that of si- 
lence. It is true, you are above 
idl mortal wishes ; no man desires ^ 
impossibilities, because they are 
beyond the reach of nature. To 
hope to be a god, is folly exalted 
into madness ; but by the laws of 
our creaticm, we are obliged to 
adore him, and are permitted to 
love him at human distance. It 
b the nature of perfection to be 
attractive, but the excellency of 
the object refines the nature of the 
Vol. m. No. 1. O 

love. It strikes an impression of 
awful reverence ; it is indeed that 
love which is more properly a 
zeal than passion. It is the rap* 
ture which anchorites find in pray- 
er, when a beam of the Divinity 
shines upon them ; that whicb 
makes them despise all worldlf 
objects ; Bsad yet it is all but con« 
templation. They are seldom 
visited from above ; but a single 
vision so transports them, that it 
makes up the happiness of their 
lives.' . . . .< But all my praises are 
but as a bull-rush cast upon a 
stream ; if they sink not, it is be^ 
cause they are borne up by the 
ciirrent, which supports their 
lightness ; but they are carried 
round again, and return on the 
eddy where they first began. F 
can proceed no farther than your 
beauty ,and even oh that too I have 
said so little, considering the 
greatiKss of the subject, that, like 
him who would lodge a bowl upon 
a precipice, either my praise falls 
back by the weakness of the deliv^ 
ery, or stays not on the top, but 
rolls over, and is lost on the other 

la a tea conve'rsadon, at thci 
house of Sir Joshua Reynolds^ 
speaking of Percy's reliques of an- 
cient English poetry. Dr. Johnson 
ridiculed that kind of writing, by 
addressing, extempore, the follow- 
ing stanzas^to the young lady that 
made the tea : 

I pray thee, gentle aennf, dear* 

That thoo wilt ^Tc to me. 
With cream and aagar tempered weUt 

Another dbh of tea. 

Mtf fear that I, my gentle maU, 

Shall long detain the cu^, 
When once «nto the bottom I 

iUjrc drank the Uqnor up. 

YeHiear at Uwt thli monmltsl toith« 

Nor hear k with a frown. 
Thon cantt not make the tea m ChS 

^ I «MI gilj^ It dtWB. 

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ihiV ly 




AS he fpake, I fatr 
lite clouds bang thick amd heavy o'e^ 

the deep ; 
And heavily, upon the long 'flow fwell, 
The ve0el lab^oured on the labouring fea. 
The reef-p<»Dtf sattkd on the ihivering 

At fits, the fnciden guO howled ominous, 
Anon, with unremitting fury raged % 
High rolled the mighty billows, and the 

Swept from their i&eetM fides the 

fliowery fbzm. 
Vain, now, were all the Teamen's home- 
ward hopes, 
Vain all their flcill ! . . we drove before 

the Aorm. 
Tis pleafant, by the cheafful hearth, to 

Of tempefts, and the dangers of the deep. 
And paufe at times, and feel that we 

are fafe ; 
Then Uften to the perilous tade again. 
Add, with an eager and fufpended foul, 
"U^oo Terror to delight us ; ..but to hear 
The roaring of the raging elements, 
To know all human SlIII, all human 

Avail not ; to look rounds and only fee 
The mountain wave incumbent, with its 

Qf buriUng waters,o'er the reeling bark,.. 
O God^ this is indeed a dreadful thing ! . t 
And he who hath endured the horrour, 

Of fuch an hour, doth never heaf the 

Ifowl round his^ home, but he remem- 
bers it. 
And thinks upon the fuffcring mariner ! 

And now the orient fky 
CioWed With the ruddy morning, wnen 

the Prince 
Came to the field. He lifted up his 

And Hiouted, Madoc ! Madoc! They 

who heard 
The cry, aftoniflied, turned ; and when 

they faw ^ 

llitf countenance his open helm diflbfed 
They echoed, Madoc ! Madoc! Through 

the hoft 
Spread the miraculous joy,^. • He lives ! 

he lives ! 

He coi^es hitfifelf in arms ! . . Lincoy^ 

As he had raifed his arm to (h-ike a fbew 
And ibyed the ftroke, and thnifl him ofl!^ 

and cried, 
Go, tell the tidings to thy countrymen^ 
Madoc is in the war ! Tell them his Gga 
Hath fet the White Xing free ! Aflon- 

Seixed on the Azteca ; on all who heard^ 
Amaaement. and difmay; and Madoc 

Stood in the foremoA battle, and hit 

fword, . . . 
His own good fword, . . flafhed, like the 

'fudden death 
Of lightning, in their eyes. 

The King of Aztlan 
Heard and beheld, and in his noble hearf 
Heroick hope arofe. Forward he moved. 
And, in the ibock of battle, front ta 

Encountered Madoc. A Arong Aatuiv 

ed man 
Coanocot2in Aood, one well Vrho kne^ 
The ways of war, and never yet, in fight, 
Aled found an equal foe. Adown hie 

Hung the long robe of feathered royalty^ 
Gold fenced his arms and legs ; upon hie 

A fcntptured fnalce protends the arrowy 

tongue ; 
Around, a coronet of plumes arofe. 
Brighter than beam the rainbow huet 

of light. 
Or than the evening glories, which the 

Slants oVr the moving many-colouredf 

Such thetr furpafling beauty ; bells oi 

gold •^ 

Smbofled his glittering helmet, and 

Their found was heard, there lay th< 

prefs of war, , 
And Death was bufieA there. 6ver th<f 

And o'er the golden breaftplate of the 

A feathery cuirafs, beautiful to ere, 
jLight as the robe of peace, yet Aron^ 

to fave ; 
For the fliarp falchion^s baffled edgtf 

would glide 
From its fmooth foftnefs. On his artK 

•he held 
A buckleri overlaid with beaten goMk 

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ikfid fo lie ftood, guarding his thighs The deadening force, commnnicated, p^ 

and legs Up bis fhinned arm ; anon, upon hi^ 
lik bread and flioulders alfio, with fha helm, 

length Crashing it came ;. . his eyes fhot £re, hU 
Of his broad fliield. brain 

Swam dizzy,., he recoils^ .he r^els^ .agai^ 

Ofipofed in mail complete. The club defcends; 
ISCDod Madoc in his ftrepgth. The flfexi- 

ble chains That danger to himfelf 

Gave play to his lull mofcles, and dif- Recalled the jLord of Ocean. On ht 

played fprung. 

How broad hit ihoulden, and his ample Within the falling weapon's curve of 

breaft. - death, 

Small was his ilueld, there broaded Bhunnrog JM fruftrate dim) and bread to 

where it fenced breaft 

The well of life, and gradual to a point He grappled with the king. The pliant 
I^eflenjng ; (leel-flrong, and wieidy in mail 

his grafp. Bent to his ftralning limbs, while platei 

p. bone thofe blazoned taglets, at whofe . of gold, 

%ht, The feathery robe, the buckler's ampli- 
Aloog the Marches, or where holy Dpe fude, 

Through Ceftrian paAures rojiu his Cumbered the Azteca, and fr«m hif 

tamer (beam, arm. 

So oft the yeoman had, in days of yore. Clenched in the Briton's mighty grafp, 
Curiuig his perilous tenure, wound th« at once 

bom, ^e dropt the impeding buckler, and 
And warden, from the cadle-tower, run^ Let fall 

out The ^unfaftened clubj which, when thf 
The loud a'»arnm*bell,heard far and widtf. Prince belield, 

Upon his hehn no fculptured dragon fate. He thruft him off, ;in4, drawing back, 
Sate no fantaftick terrors ; a white plume refumed 

l«foddadabove,far-feen, floating like foam The fword, which from his wrift fuf^ 
•On the war-tempeft. Man to man they pended hung, 

^ flood. And twice he fmote the king ; twice 
The King of Aztlan and the Ocean Chief. from the quilt 

Of plumes the iron glides ; and lo I the 

, , , , So well his foldiers Watched tbpir mouv 

hath watched arch's need 

'^^ ™'^^ IJghtnings of the fummer g^akc; in his hand'a fpear, 
-That, with their aweful blaze, irradiate But now a cry 

heaven, . , , ^ . , fiurft on the ear of MadOc, and he faw 

Then leave a bbcker night ? fo quick. Through opcHing ranks, where Uric^ 

lo fierce, \^ conveyed 

na(hed Madoc's fword, which, like the ^ t;^^ ,^ j^j, J^^^.^ Cricf, then,an4 

Faft, on the intervening buckler, fell 
The Aztcca's ftofle faulchion. Who 

ferpcnt's tongue, 
3eemed double, in its rapid whirl of light. 
jUnequal arms ! for on the Britifli (hield 
Availed not the gone faiilcbionV brittle 

And in the golden buckler, Madoc's 

fit deep. Coanocotzin faw, and dropt 
The unprofitable weapon, and received 
JCs ponderous clii6, . . that club, beneath 

whofe force, 
Driven by his father's arm, Tepollomi 
fhud fallen fubdued, . . and faft and fierce 

he drove 

And rage infpired him. With a mighty 

He cleft Coanocotzin'shelm ; expofed 
The monarch Aood ; . . again the tliun* 

Came on him, and he fell. . . The multir 

Forgetful of their country and ihemi* 

Crowd round their dying King. Madodi 

whofe eye 
Still followed llrieil, called upon his men^ 

in,- «. ^ • u. »ir J T- And, through the broken army of the foe* 


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MIlfMM or VBS 


For JANUARY) 1806. 

tnttm leg! tc qoam dO^enklniou potui umpUrU jQcob comttntanda, qua CThnenda, ar* 
■«r. Nam ego dicere veram anncTl. Neqoe luU paticnttat ceprebenduntura quam qaK 
laudail mereotur.^— Pttoy. r 

esdn^. To the Memoirs ia pre* 
fixed the act of incorporation ; and 
^so the statutes of the Academyt 
a list of memberSf and donors 
ivith their respective benefactions. 
Then follows ^ pHiLoaopHicAi. 
DISCOURSE, fiubHckly addressed to 
the Academy ^y ^*^ ^rst Pres^ 
dent, the fumottrable James Bow- 
DOiN, Esq. on /Us Jirst election tor 
that office. 

The learned and excellent prer 
sident, after some remarks on the 
social affections, and their opera* 
tibn in forming^ societies of varif 
OMs desiicriptions, observes, in the 
spirit of true pliilosophy, with re* 
spect to the American FMioso/ifdcal 
Society, which had been previously 
formed, and the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, « it Js hoped» 
that, as optic glasses, by collecting 
th^ solar rays, do assist and 
strengthen tKe corporeal sight, so 
the ^wo societies, by concentring 
in a proper focus the scattered 
rays of science, may aid and in- 
vigorate the intellectual: benefit: 
ing by their production?, not only 
Jhe communities, ipi which they 
are respectively instituted, but 
America and the world in genesal i 
both together resembling some co- 
pious river, whose branches, after 
^freshing the neighbouring re- 
gion, unite their waters for tke fer- 
tilizing a more extensive country.** 

He afterward takes a cursory 
view of the antiquities of America, 
and of natural history, two of the 
subjects, to which the inquiries of 
the Academy are particularly di- 
rected by the actof incorpora^tioiik'; 


Memw's of the American Academy 
qf Arts and Sciences. Fof. /, 
1785. 4to. fifi. 56%. 

It is honourable to Massachusetts, 
that in the yea* 1780, in the midst 
of the memorable war, which ter- 
minated in the establishment of 
the in4ependence of the United 
States, the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences was mcorpora- 
ted by her enlightened legislature. 
According to the act of incorpor- 
ation, " The end -said design of .the 
institution of the ' academy is, to 
promote and encourage the knowlr 
edge of the antiquities of Ameri- 
ca, and of the natural history of 
the country ^ and to determine th.e 
■uses to which the various natural 
productions of ]thp country may 
be applied; to promote and en- 
courage medical discoveries, ix^ath- 
cmatical disquisitions, philosoph- 
ical inquiries and experiments ; 
astrojnomical, meteorological and 
geographical observations ; and, 
improvemcius in agriculture, arts, 
manufectures and commerce ; and 
in fine, to cultivate ^very art and 
science, which msiy tend to ad- 
•'rance the interest, honour, dignity 
mnd happines of a free, independ; 
cnt and virtuous people." 

In prosecuting the object of 
their institution, the Society has 
presented to the publick in this vol- 
taSke, the first fruits of their leam- 
4Bdlaboura. The time, that has 
elapsed since the publication, will 
'»ot, we hope, render a review of 
|bc comets uacless nor uninter- 

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Aodces the benefits, which the pub- 
Ikk has deriyed from Harvard Col- 
lege ; pays a tribute of gratitude to 
the generous benefactors of that 
institutiony and addres^ses to their 
c&embodied spirits the effusions 
of a heart, strongly impressed with 
fi Tiew of the great and extensive 
good, ansing froi^i their donations. 
Looking forward to the end of a 
century fro^ the declaration of 
indepeiHience, he gives a character 
of the Academy, to which he 
hopes it will then be entitled in the 
mges of some eminent An\erican 

The liberal spirit, that animates 
the societ7,appears in the following 
extract. «iV? ^^ society is formed 
Km the most liberal principles,and jls 
of no sect or party in philosophy, 
it wide extends its ar/ns to en^brace 
fhc sons of science of every de- 
DomioatiQn,and wheresoever fouQd; 
and with the warmth of fraternal 
affection invites them to a philor 
sophical correspondence : apd they 
may be assured, their communicar 
lions will be esteemed a favour, ^ 
and duly acknowledged by the So- 

This discourse appears to How 
fixwn a mind, correct, reflecting, 
well informed ; and from a heart, 
warm with benevolence, patriotism, 
love of science, and engaged in 
promoting the best interests pf 
Part I. Astronomical anq 


/. ^ method of finding the aU 
tkude and lan^tude of the nona* 
gedmai degree of the ecUfitic ; with 
en aft/tcndiry containing calcujationa 
from eorreBfiondhig astronomical ob* 
iervalioTu^ for determining the diff 
ference of meridians between Har- 
vard'Hall^ in the Umversity of 
Cambridge^ in the commonwealth qf 
Massachusetts^ and the royal ob' 
tarvqtorics at C-'cenwitlh and Fftrii, 

By the Rev. Jose/ih ff^llardy fireS" 
ident of the Untversityy and corres* 
ponding secretary of the .American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, 

Previous knowledge of the alti- 
tude and longitude of the nonages- 
imal degree of the ecliptick is re- 
quisite in determining the diurnal 
parallaxes of the heavoily bodies, 
belonging to the solar system, in 
latitude and longitude. Such par^ 
allaxes are necessarily used in de* 
ducing the longitude of places from 
corresponding observations of so* 
lar eclipses, as well as in various 
other astronomical calculations. 
The late learned and excellent 
president of our university has, in 
this memoir, given a method of 
finding the altitude and longitude 
of the nonagesimal degree, which 
he thinks is not only different 
from, but to him easier, if not 
shorter than any other, with which 
he was acquainted. The method 
is explained with perspicuity, and 
illustrated by an example and suit- 
able figures ( and may be easiljr 
understood by those, who are ac« 
quainted with the stereographick 
projection of the sphere, and sphe- 
rick trigonometry. 

In the appendix, rules are given 
for calculating the difference of 
meridians from corresponding ob- 
servations of solar eclipses ; and 
they are exemplified in determin- 
ing the longitude of Cambridge 
from the celebrated royal obser- 
vatories of Greenwich and PariSf 
Of the calculations by solar and 
lunar tables, in which Mayer's 
were used, it was deemed sufficient 
to publish . merely the results, or 
particular elements, requisite in 
the subsequent parts of the pror 
jcess. The principles and rules, 
stated in the appendix, are well 
^exemplified. It was evidently the 
intention of the author 4o render 
this method of finding lor-^itud^ 

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easy to the apprehension of those, 
who, not having made m^^ch pro- 
gress in subjects of this nature, 
^re yet disposed and qualified to 
attend to them ; and it may with 
propriety be recommended to their 

The longitude of Cambridge is 
4educed, from observations of two 
polar eclipses and one transit of 
mercury over the sun's disc. The 
first of these eclipses happened 
Aug. 5, 1766; the other, June ^4, 
1778 ; and the transit of Mercury, 
Nov. 5, 1743. The observations 
used are those of tlie beginning 
find end* of the tw-o eclipses by 
Dr. Maskelyne, the British royal 
astronomer, at Greenwich ; the 
(Jieginuing and end of the former 
J>y Dr. Winthrop at Cambridge, 
and the end of tlie latter by the 
Rev. Phillips Payson at Chelsea, 
26*' in time eastward from Cam- 
bridge, according to a terrestrial 
measurement, made by President 
Willard and Mr. Payson ; and the 
•observations of the first and second 
ptemal and the second external 
contacts of Mercury, at the said 
transit, by some eminent French 
astronomers at Paris ; and the sc^ 
cond internal and external contacts 
by Dr. Winthrop at Cambridge. 
The mean of the results of these 
calculations, wliich appear to have 
been made with great accuracy, 
gives 4h. 44^ SI*' * for the lon^i- 

• On the 60th page the difTerence of 
pncridians between Pans and Greenwich 
It considered as 9< 16^ in time. This Is 
the difference according to the Tables of 
M. De La Lande, in thp second edition 
of his Astronomic, published in 1771. 
But later observations have ^own it to 
be 9' SO*'. The difference therefore be- 
ing called 9^20" instead of 9^ 16^ the a- 
bove mean refult becomes 4h. 44' 29*. 
The mean of the three results in the Me- 
pioir and that of observations on the so- 
lar eclipse of April S, 179tl,i8 4h. 44? 
28*, which is now con*idered u tii* Un' 

tude of Cambridge in time ^vres^ 
ward from Greenwich. 

//. jI memoir on the latitude^ of 
the University at Cambridge : l^ifh 
obeervationa of the variation and 
dip, of the magnetic/: needle. ^y 
Samuel WilUams, F.A. A. JFToOU 
firofessor of mathematicks and naf'^ 
ural philosophy in the untvertitt/. 

This memoir contains the ob^ 
serrations and calculations, bjr 
which the author determined the 
Jatitude of Cambridge. For this 
purpose meridian altitudes of th^ 
sun, six stars near the equator, and 
the pole-star, were observed in the 
philosophy chamber In Harvartl 
hall with an astronomical quadrant 
of a radius, equal to 2^ feet, made 
by Sisson. The meaft of the re*- 
sults from observations of the atari 
is 42*> 23' 28*' north, which, he 
concludes, is the true latitude t^ 
Harvard hall. 

No mention is made of the firm* 
Bess or stability of the floor, on 
which the instrument was placed. 
It is however of great importance, 
that the support of the quadrant 
should be entirely secure from 
motion, at the time of piaking ob- 
servations of this kind. 

A fe^v facts, relative to the va^ 
Hation and dip of the magnetick 
needle at Cambridge, are mention- 
ed at the close of the memoir. 

///. A table of the eguationa to 
e^ual altitudes^ for the latitude of 
the Umvcrsify of Cambridge^ 42* 
2o' 28" JV. with an qccount of its 
construction and use. By ttie Reru^ 
crend Joseph IVtUardj I^resident of 
tfie University. 

The importance of regulating a 
clock, that is to be used in making 
astronomical * obsei*vations, or de- 
termining the rate of its motion) 
is well known to astronomers. In 
this memoir is the method of ac» 
complishing this purpose by oU 

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iiiEsic&ir xcAJititt. 


lernng equal or coircsponcfing al- 
titudes of xhe sun, which is gen- 
erally used by astronomers, who 
have not an observatory. The 
reason of applying a correction to 
^ middle point between the times 
of the forenoon and afternoon ob- 
senradons, in order to obtain the 
GTie noon, is clearly shown by a 
stereographick projection. Also 
the manner of obtaining the equa- 
tion by the solution of two spherick 
^tangles is e^cplained. And then 
Wales' formula for determining 
this equadon is given and exem- 
plified. By this formula the table 
vas constructed. It contains the 
equations in seconds and thirds 
fcr the latitude of 42<' 23' 28" 
Borth, the arguments being the 
half interval between the times of 
Qibserration and the sun's longi-^ 
tade. Small equations are also 
sibjoined, by the addition or sub- 
traction of which the equations 
hi the table may be adapted to 
any northern lautude between 40* 
tS' 28** and 44«» 23^ 28^ 

IF, ABtronGtrdcal observational 
node in the state of Massachusetts, 
tSy Professor Williams, 

The observations and deductions 
tontained in this memoir, relate 
to nine lunar and four solar eclip-* 
ses, one transit of Venus, and two 
transits of Mercury. Two of the 
hmar eclipses, namely, those of 
November 12, 1761, and March 
17, 1764, were observed at Walth^ 
am. The rest, he remarks, were 
lil that could be observed in this 
part of America from Jan. 1, 1770, 
to Jan . 1 , 1 7 84. The obseiTadons 
of four lunar and two solar eclip-' 
les, which happened within this 
period before October 1 780, were 
nsdde at Bradford. To view the 
tolar ecfipse of October 27, 1780, 
Irhich arrested much attention, a 
Mtkm was taken on the east side 

of Long Island in Penobscot Bay, 
where it was liearly total. Sev-' 
eral gentlemen, belonging to the 
university, accompanied Professor 
Williams, whose observations he 
relates. When viewing the sub- 
sequent eclipses, namely three of 
the moon and two of the sun, he 
was at Cambridge, and some otliei* 
gentlemen, connected with the 
university, were associated with 
him on these interesting occasions^ 
and in addition to his own he has 
published their observations. 

The transit of Venus over the 
sun the 3d of June, 1769, was ob- 
served at Newburyport ; and that 
of Mercury the 9th of Nov. 1769, 
at Salem. When a transit of Mer- 
cury happened the 12th of Nov. 
1782, Professor Williams being at 
Cambridge, he and two other gen-« 
tlemen of the university in com- 
pany with him observed this curi*- 
ous phenomenon. Some deduc- 
tions from the observations, they 
made, conclude this memoir, which 
contains many important facts^ 
ascertained with care and ability* 
To be contiiiuedi 

ART4 2. 

RefiOrt of the tiial of the Hon: 
Samuel Chasey one of the asffo* 
ciate justices of the sufireme court 
of the United States^ before the 
high court of imfieachmentj com- 
fiosed qf the senate of the United 
States^ for charges exhibited c- 
gainst him by the house of reprc* 
sentativesy in the name of them' 
selves and of all the fieofile of the 
United Statesy for high crimes 
tnd misdcmeanorsj supposed to 
have been by Mm committed ; 
ivith the necessary documents and 
official fio/iersy from his impeach* 
ment to final acquittal. Taken in 
short hand by Charles Evans^ and 

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JU90E chase's triad. 

ifle argumentB qf toufuel revised 
by them from his mantiscrifit. 
Baltimore, 1805. S. Butler 
and J. Keating. 

Ik ancient times, thef offices of 
king and judge were unked in tho 
same person ; and it is certainly 
proper, that the father of a nation 
•hoald be the steward of its just- 
ice, to dispense it among the 
members of his family. But ex-^ 
perience proved, that the union of 
the original branches of govern-' 
ment, in the same person, tended 
to despotism, and that a magis-* 
trate, with such prerogatives, was 
too apt, in the plenitude of his 
power, to forget their legitimate 
object. The wisdom of most 
modern legislators has therefore 
separated the legislative, the ex- 
ecutive, and judicial departments, 
to the end that their systems may 
be <' governments of laws, and not 
of men." Of these departments, 
the most vulnerable is the judicia- 
ry, and therefore it ought to be 
«nost strongly fortified by publick 
favour. Any wanton attack on its 
ihdependence, any thing malicious- 
ly contrived to intimidate a judge 
In the exercise of his office, or to 
lessen the confidence of the people 
in his wisdom or integrity, is a 
crime against .the state. This of- 
fence assumes a more terrific form, 
"If hen it is committed by either of 
the co-ordinate branches of the 
^vemment, because of the great- 
ness of the oppressor and the ex- 
tensiveness of the mischief. A 
£rm and an independent judiciary 
is the greatest security against 
that spirit of accommodation, 
which varies according to times 
and political occasions. Tyranny 
inay exist under any form of gov- 
ernment. The voice of experi- 
ence has proclaimed this truth, and 
Aould warn the advocates for th0 

republican system, not to be 
confident of its superior excellence* 
For whatever may be its perfectioo 
in the visions of theory, we kno'vr 
that it is liable to be disturbed by 
the whirlwinds of party rage, and 
that, in such commotions, the ^reat 
and the good, who are always the 
most conspicuous objects of popu- 
lar envy, are the first victims of 
popular madness. 

No event of a domestick nature 
has, since the adoption of the fed^ 
eral constitution, ^xcited In the 
United States a more universal in-^ 
terest, than the impeachment of 
Judge Chase. It is not for us to 
arraign the motives of the tri-' 
umpbant majority in the house of 
representatives, who voted in fav-^ 
our of that measure. But whether 
the charges against that citizen 
were well founded, or Tthether po- 
lidcal intolerance, rather than a 
regard for the pure administration 
of equal laws, led to that prosecu* 
tion, will appear from an examine- 
tion of the volume before us. We 
would however confide in the wis- 
dom and integrity of the constitut- 
ed authorities of our country ; and 
we wish to believe, that their con- 
duct always results from patriotick 
principles, far exalted id>ove any 
views of private interest or party 

The book is well worthy the at- 
tention of the law student, as it 
contains an exhibition of judicial 
proceedings, and much learning on 
the law of impeachment, and as it 
will stand as a precedent for future 
times. The course of proceedings 
at this trial was similar to that in 
cases of impeachment in Great- 
Britain. Great formality was 
observed throughout the scene, 
suited to the dignity of the court, 
and to the solemnity of the occa- 
sion. After the reading of the 
articles of impeachment and the 

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■Wiswcr 6f the respondent, the tnan^ 
a^rs proceeded upon the whole 
of the charges, before the latter 
^as permitted to enter on his de- 
fence. When the evidence was 
gone through, and the arguments 
for and against the prosecution 
closed, the question was put to 
each member of the court on each 
article separately. We shall 
briefly analyze the articles of im- 
peachment and the respondent's 
answer. The importance of the 
subject will justify the attention 
which we shall pay to its exposi* 

I. The first article charges 
Judge Chase with arbitrary, op- 
pressive, and unjust conduct on 
the trial of John Fries for high 
treason, before the circuit court 
of the United States for the dis- 
trict of Pennsylvania, in 1 800 : I. 
In delivering an opinion in writing 
on the question of law, on the con- 
struction of which the prisoner's 
defence materially depended, be- 
fore counsel had been heard in his 
defence. 2. In restricting the 
counsel for Fries from recurring 
to such English authorities, and 
from citing certain statutes of the 
United States, which they thought 
fevourable to his defence. And 3. 
In debarring the prisoner's counsel 
from addressing the jury on the 
kw, as well as on the fact, which 
was to determine his innocence or 
guilt. In consequence of which 
conduct, Fries was deprived of the 
rijjht of a fair trial, and was con- 
demned to death) without having 
been heard by counsel. 

II. The second article alleges 
against the Judge, that at a circuit 
court, held at Richmond, in 1800, 
on the arraignment of one James 
Thompson Callender^ indicted for 
a Hbel on John Adams, then pres- 
ident of the United States, he over- 
tuled the objection of one of the 

Voi. IIL No. I. E 

jury, who wished to be excused 
from serving on the trial, becausd 
he had niade up his mmd as to the 

III. For not permitting the evi-* 
dence of John Taylor, a material 
witness for C?illender, to be ^ivcn 
in, because his testimony would 
not substantiate the truth of the 
whole of one of the charges in the 
indictment, although it embraced 
more than one fact. 

IV. For manifesting,during the 
whole of the said trial, injustice^ 
partiality ,and intemperance : I . In 
compelling the counsel for tlie 
prisoner to reduce to writing all 
questions, which they meant to 
propoimd to Mr. Taylor. 2. In re- 
fusing to postpone the trial, on aa 
affidavit of the absence of a materi- 
al witness in behalf of the accused. 
S. In using unusual, rude and con- 
temptuous expressions towards the 
prisoner's counsel. 4. In repeat- 
edly and vexatiously interrupting 
them, so that they wefe obliged ta 
abandon their cause and their cli- 
ent, who was thereupon convicted ^ 
and, 5. In manifesting an indecent 
solicitude for the convictioa of th& 

V. In awarding a capias, instead^ 
of a summons, against Callender, 
whereby his body was arrested^ 
contrary to the law of Virginia^ 
which, according to a law of the 
United States, should have regula- 
ted the process^ 

VL In ruling and adjudging Cal- 
lender to trial, during the term, at 
which he was presented and in- 
dicted, contrary to the law of Vir- 

VIL The seventh article al-s 
leges against Judge Xhase, .that 
at a circuit court of the United 
States, for the district of Dela- 
ware, in 1800, he refused to dis-» 
charge the grand jury at their re- 
quest, though they had fpund ua 

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Jtr»«> chase's TRXAl^l 

kills of^indictment ; thst he stooped 
to tlie level of an informer, by ob-^ 
serving to the said jury, that a se- 
ditious temper had been manifested 
&i the state of Delaware, which had 
been inflamed by the ptiblicatioi^ 
in a certain paper, called the « Mir- 
for of the Times and General Ad- 
vertiser,'* and that he at the same 
time recomittended to the district 
attorney to procure a file of the pa- 
pers, and select from^ them some- 
^iiBg for the ground of a prosecu- 

VIII. The^ eighth and last ar- 
licit charges, that at a circuit 
court of the United States, for 
the district of Maryland, in 1803, 
he delivered to the grand jury an 
intemperate, imflammator)', and 
political harangue, with intent to 
excite their fears against the state 
govemmentf and adso that he de- 
livered to them indecent and exti'a- 
judicial opinions. 

Judge Chase, havmg been sum-- 
vioned to answer to the foregoing 
articles of impeachment, appeared 
€>n the 2d Jtmuary, 1805, before 
the senate of the United States, 
^en constituting the high court 
ef inopeachment. The senate 
assembled in their usual place of 
2)Aeeting, which had beea prepar* 
cd, in an elegant style, for the se8«> 
skm of a court of justice. Being 
informed by Mr. Burr, the presi- 
dent, that the senate were ready 
to receive any answer, which he 
had to offer to the- articles of im- 
peachment, Judge Chase moved 
to be allowed un^ the first day of 
the next session of congress, to 
put in his answer, and to prepare 
himself for trial. This motion 
was prefaced by a speech of some 
length, in which he expressed a 
desire, to prepare an answer to 
the articles, which should contain 
a view of the whole merits of his 
defence. The charges embraced 
events, which happened in various 

parts of the union, and at distant 
periods of time. As the answer 
must disclose the whole defence, 
and as the defence must be confin- 
ed to the matters stated in the an* 
swer, much time was requisite for 
the necessary preparation. He 
was to defend his name and his 
honour, and in some sense tlie 
honour of the judiciary. The 
court did not grant the request in 
its full extent, but, in consequence 
of this application, the 4th P'eb- 
following' was assigned for receiv-^ 
ing ittc answei', and for pi-oceeding 
on the trial. 

On that day, Judge Chase pra-- 
duced the answer, on which ho- 
meant to rely for his justificatioil* 
It contains " a clear, concise, and 
authentick explanation of his con-- 
duct and of his motives, support-* 
ed by such a statement of his 
proofs) as may be extensively 
read, clearly understood, and easi^ 
ly remembered." The language is 
glowing and nervous, and the ar-* 
guments urged with the force of 
a strong and active intellect. If it 
possesses any one pre-eminent- 
tt'ait, it is the wonderful fulness, 
with which the respondent repliea 
to eveiy part of the charges^ 
which allege against himy either 
negl^ence of decorum, or turpi- 
tude of heart, in the exercise of 
liis ofScial duty. 

It will be impcBsible, ih an a* 
bfidgment, to do justice to this 
masterly specimen of judicial elo* 
quence. But as we have present- 
ed ottr readers with a view of 
the charge, we shall likewise at^ 
tempt to draw an outline of the 

. I. In reply to the first article 
of'impeachnienty the respondent 
admits, that the circuit court was 
holden before him and Richard 
Peters, Esq. the district judge, it* 
April, 1800, within and for the 
district of Per.nsylvania. At tliis 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

iXJDom class's teiai. 

ilo^ Fdes was indicted for 
treason, and the oppion, 
ll^'U the subject of the charge, 
>^^ to the counsel 

Jk* ait {Prisoner, after he was 
tlfj^lii into court, but before the 
*"^^ ^-^ was impannelled to try 
lis was the second tiial 
fii»^ the same pf&nce. At 
tIm njal, the fects were fully 
^1 ioid his counsel rested their , 
the question of law, 
[i^which tl\e respon(3ent 
I was on this question ; 
ymf^ li^iit^ resisting and prevents 
^ i'}ff fgficd toarce the execution 
ar law of the United 
' levying of war against 
Sta^s," according to 
t.j^eaUDg of the cons^tu- 
[Jyw) s^mn decisions, by 
^'^crso^?^ Peters, in the 
land* JWitchell, and 
jredeQ s^d Peters, ip 
'. F<ie*,L.tbe prisoner, in 
Dts at great lengthy 
idie^eration of the 
i pf^^ h^ been adjudge 
become a pro- 
I of equal or in- 
With the 
^<^d^ opinion, the res- 
f ^ consid^ralaon, 
Iu9 own words, 
^ 9f k he should 
[f^und, even had 
B j|K^ei^n as doubt* 

>r commu- 

th^ mc^n- 

t|i;Se mentioned, 

„ ; itfehhim- 

Mit^oraty of for- 

'ipd considered it 

^^'"^ ^uni^essa* 


fiie. pen- 



9X fomfffSL^ of the 

trial, be made known to the jurf, 
and the respondent was therefore 
further influenced to make tHs 
communication, froiji the hope of 
guarding them against any crro^ 
neous impression of the law, sinct 
it was their right in this, as in all 
criminal cases, to render a general 
verdict of acquittal, which could 
not be set aside, although it should 
be contrary to law. 

The respondent admits, that, 9t 
the trial, he expressed the opinions, 
that English decisions in cases of 
treason, at common law, against 
the person^ the king, ought not 
to be read to the jury, on trials for 
treason under the constitution and 
statutes of the Umted States ; thaik 
£ngUsh decisions on thissubject, 
prior to the revolution in 1688, 
ought to have very little influence 
in our courts ; that decisions since 
that period, shewing what acta 
have be^n considered as a construe* 
tive levying of war against the king 
;in his legal capacity, were admis^ 
sible, but not those against his per^ 
son. Those opinions however 
were not of binding authority in 
this country, but claimed respect 
from their intrinsick excellence, 
and from the exalted legal estims;* 
tion of their authors. 

The respondent insists, that it Is 
thp right and duty of the court, 
"to *decide and direct what en- 
dence, whether by j*ecord or by 
precedents of <lecisions in courts 
erf" justice, is pi'oper to be admitted 
for the establishment of any mat- 
ter of law or feet.** He insists al- 
so, that he can be called in ques- 
tion oiUy for the correctness of his 
motives, but he adouts, that cases 
may be supjposed, where a judge 
may have delivered ^< an opinion 
so palpably eiToneous, unjust, and 
oppressive, as to preclude the pos- 
silnlity of its having proceeded 
from ignorance or mistake.*' 

II. In reply to the charge 90W 

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JUDGE chase's trial « 

tsined in the second article, rela- 
tive to his having over-ruled the 
objection of one of the jury to 
serve on the trial, the respondent 
observes, that the juror wished to 
be excused, " because he had form- 
ed an opinion, that the publication, 
called " The Prospect before us," 
from which the words charged in 
the indictment as libellous, were 
said to have been extracted, but 
which publication he had never 
seen, was, according to the rep? 
resentation of it, which he had re- 
ceived, within the sedition law." 
The reason, for which a juror 
should not be permitted to serve 
ion a trial, is, " that he does not 
stand indifferent between the par- 
ties." The juror in the present 
instance had neither expressed nor 
formed an opinion as to the facts. 
As he did not know, whether the 
contents of the book were really 
such as had been represented to 
him ; whether they would on trial 
be proved to be true ; whether 
Callendcr was really the author of 
the book ; or whether he wrote it 
•with that evil intent, which was al- 
leged in the indictment, he stood 
indifferent as to the matter in issue 
in the legal and proper sense. 

III. The evidence of John 
Taylor was rejected on the follow- 
ing ground. The twelfth charge 
in the indictment contained these 
"Words. " He (meaning President 
Adams) was a professed aristocrat ; 
lie proved faithful and serviceable 
to the British interest." Taken 
separately, they charge Mr. Adams 
"with no offence, and consequently 
could not be indictable as libellous : 
but taken together, they intend, 
that Mr. Adams, being an enemy 
to the republican government of 
feis country, had subserved the 
British interest against the interest 
of his own country ; an offence 
jboth moral and legal. The testi- 

mony of Col. Taylor was rejected 
on the ground, that his evidence 
did not go to the whole matter 
contained in this article. Each 
count in the indictment contain e<l 
twenty independent charges, or 
sets of words. Though one sland* 
er more or less in such a publica- 
tion as " The Prospect before us,*' 
could be of no moment ; yet as, on 
legal principles, a plea of justifica- 
tion must always answer the whole 
charge, or it is bad on demurrer, 
and as the same rule is applicable 
to evidence, when the matter may 
be given in evidence, without a 
formal plea ; evidence, which went 
to prove only a part of an entire 
and indivisible charge, was inad« 
missible, and therefore the testi- 
mony of Col. Taylor was rejected. 

IV. Posterity will be astonish- 
ed, that it was made an article in 
an impeachment against a judge, 
that he required the counsel to re- 
duce their interrogatories to writ-* 
ing, in a case of some difficulty, 
and for a more accurate observatbn 
of them. No lawyer could ever 
doubt the right of a judge to make 
such an order, if he deemed it 
necessary. That it should excite 
niurn\urs, much more that it 
should be the ground of a serious 
charge against the respondent, for 
misconduct in his official character, 
betrays in the counsel a childish 
impatience of restraint, and must 
forever be recorded, as a monument 
of the condescension of the illus-. 
trious majority in the house of 
representatives, for the year 1804. 
If the court is the proper tribunal 
to decide all questions of evidenccy 
it is certainly the duty of the judg- 
es, to use great deliberation, when^ 
ever the i:orrect decision of these 
questions requires the application 
of exquisite legal principles, and 
great subtlety of reasonii^g. 

It is one of the specification« in 

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JtJDGE chase's trial. 


this ardcle against Judge Chase, 
that he refused to postpone the* 
trial of Callender. The continu- 
tfice of a cause does not depend on 
the arbitrary will of the court, but 
on fixed principles. Every ap- 
plication for a continuance must 
come >vithin those rules, or the 
trial must proceed. The true and 
only reason for granting a contin- 
uance is, that the party accused 
may have the best opportunity, 
which the law can afford him, of 
making his defence. Where the 
ground of a continuance is the ab- 
sence of witnesses, it is a settled 
rule, and made necessary to the 
expeditious and happy administra- 
tion of justice, that the application 
should be supported by an afBdav« 
it, that the testimony wanted is 
" competent and materiaj," and 
that there is <^ reasonable expecta- 
tion of procuring it within the time 
prescribed." The affidavit of Cal- 
lender did not state, that he ex- 
pected to procure, at the next term, 
such evidence as he wanted, or that 
he should obtain the attendance of 
the absent witnesses,who were scat- 
tered over the union. The affidav- 
it was clearly defective, and it be- 
came the duty of the pourt to rcr 
ject the application. 

After perusing the trial of Cal* 
lender, it is apparent from the con- 
duct of his counsel, that they were 
unwilling to be tied down to an ob- 
servance of the rules of law. It 
would have been vastly agreeable 
to them, and very much for the in- 
terest of their client, could the 
cause have been tried by a mob, 
instead of being heard before a tri- 
bunal, whose judges well knew the 
rules of law, and had the virtue to 
accomplish the duties of their of- 
ficial station. 

In concluding his defence ag^inft thofe 
cWjres, contained in the fourth article 
•f impcaduncpt, he dedttfs, that his 

whole condu<5l in that trial, was reflat- 
ed by a ftridt regard to the principles 6£ 
law, and by an honeft defire to do juIHce 
between the United States and the party 
accufed. He felt a fincere wifh.on the 
one hand, that the traverfer might eftab- 
li(h hit innocence, by thofe fair and. 
fufficient means which the law allovt ; 
and a determination on the other, that 
he ihoHid not, by fubterfuges and frivo- 
lous pretences, fport with the jufKce of 
the country, and evade that punifhment 
of which, if guilty, he was fo proper aa 
objedi. Thefe intentions, he is confident, 
were legal and laudable ; and if, in any 
part of his condudl, he fwervcd from 
this line, it was an error of his judgment 
and not of his heart. 

V. In replying to the fifth arti- 
cle of the impeachment,the respon- 
dent shews, that the managers, 
who febricated the article, were 
guilty of a matenal oversight in 
citing the law of Virginia, on which 
it is founded. The charge is, for 
awarding an erroneous process a- 
gainst Callender. But by the stat- 
ute, it is left in the discretion of the 
court to award the profier procesM^ 
provided it will bring the olFendcr 
to answer to the presentment. The 
Judge then proves incontroverti- 
bly, that in issuing a capias, his 
conduct was perfectly con-ect. 

VI. The sixth article charges 
the respondent with an intent to op# 
press Callender, in adjudging him 
to trial, during the term at which 
he was presented and indicted. But 
the respondent denies, that the law 
of Virginia, to which this article 
refers, wan-ants the inference 
drawn from it ; " because it speaks 
of presentments, and not of indict- 
ments, which are very different 
things ; and is, as he is informed, 
confirmed, by practice and con- 
struction in the state of Virginia, 
to cases of small offences, which 
are to be tried by tlie court itself 
upon the presentment, without an 
indictment, or the intervention of 
a jury." 

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9U1I#B €tfAS£^d TRSAl. 

In "^pMUQg a jodgm«nt on the 
character of the majority in the 
^ouse of representatives, who vot- 
td in favour of the impeachmenti 
posterity will inqiure^ wherefore 
Judge Chase was selected, as the 
aole object of this Impeachment. 
He was but ©ne of the judges, who 
constituted the courts, in which the 
facts took place. k& thp opimons 
expressed, and in the judgments 
rendered, the associates of Judge 
Chase concurred in sentiment. 
The tuVpitude, if any;, atjtached to 
both. Why were acticms regard- 
ed in one a$ venial, while they were 
made the subject of a criminal 
charge against the other ? Was it 
^cause Judge Chase would be a 
more splendid victim on th# Altar 
of political intolerance ? Or was it 
to sooth the wounded feelings of 
the principal prosecutor ? In the 
eye of irajKirtiai minds, remote 
from the scene of action, and free 
from those impediments, which 
obscure the clearness of its vision, 
tliis selection remains a record of 

VII. It is sufficient to shew the 
futility of the charges, contained 
in the seventh article, to observe, 
that they do in substance amount 
to this ; " that the respondent re- 
fused to di^harge a grand jury 
on their request, which is every 
day's practice, and which he was 
bound to do, if he believed that the 
due administration of justice re- 
quired their longer attendance ; 
that he directed th^e attention of 
the grand jury to an offence ar 
gainst a sts^te of the United States, 
which he had been informed was 
committed in the district ; and 
that he desired the district attor- 
ney to aid the grand jury, in their 
inquiries concerning the existence 
and nature of this offence. By 
these three acts, each of which it 
was Ilia duty to perform, he is al- 

leged, << to have degraded hb higli 
judicial functions, iand tended to 
impair the publick confidence in, 
and respect for, the' tribunals of 
justice so essential to the general 

VIll . In replying to the eighth 
article, the respondent avows the 
poliucal opinions, which he 14 
charg^ with uttering. He theu 
adds ; 

It has been the pradlice in this coun^ 
try, ever fince ibe beginning of the re- 
Yolutio^y which feparated ut from Great 
Britain, for the judget to ezprefs froin 
the bench, by way of charge to the 
grand jury, and to enforce to the utmoft 
of their ability, fuch political opinions^ 
«s thev thought corre<^ and urefixl. 
There have been inftances in which th« 
iegiflative bodies of thif country, hav^ 
recommeoded this practice of the judget ; 
and it was adopted ^y the judges of the 
fupreme court of Xhe United States, a» 
foon at the prtftnt judicial fyjlem wap 
.«ftabli(hed. If the l^Hatureof th« • 
•United States conddered ibis pracflice u 
.mifchievous, dangerous, or liable to abufe, 
they might hiva forbidden it by law ; 
to the penalties of which, fuch judges 
as might afterwards tranfgrefs it, would 
-be juftly iubje<5led. By not forbiding it, 
(he legiilature ha« given to it an implied 
fandlion; and for that IcgiAature topun- 
ifti it iiow by way of impeachment, 
would he to convert into a crime, br 
an ex pod fa<5lo proceeding, an aA which 
when k was done and at ail times before, 
they had themfelvcs virtually declared 
to be innocent. Such conducfl would 
be utterly fubverfive of the fundamen- 
tal principles on which free government 
refts ; and would form a precedent for 
the moft fanguinary ,aiul arbitrary per- 
iiecti^Qiu, under the forms of law. 

He then with brevity examines the 
political opinions, which were in- 
corporated in his address to the 
grand jury, and in a satisiiictory 
manner defends them. 

The close of the respondent's 
plea is inexpressibly solemn and 
dlgnitied. We insert it as a spe*^ 
cimeQ of genujne eloquence* 

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JVt^n QllA6fc'ft TftlAl. 


Thk rrl^^ent hm now laid b^re 
tnift honourable court, as well as the 
time allowed him would pernut, all the 
eircumfhuices of this cafe. With an 
humble trurt in Providence and a con- 
icioufnefs that he hath difcharged all hit 
otBcial duties with juIHct and smpartial- 
ky, Co th« heft of his knov<riedge and »- 
^ilitiea ; aad that inteotionalty be hath 
committed no crime or mifdemeanour, 
^r a^y Tiolstion of th^ confHHitiod or 
lawa of lri» conntry — CoofidiRg in th* 
hnpartia)ityrU3<iepcndeDre, and integrity 
«f ht«judgW, and that they wUl patient-' 
ly hear aud cunfcientioaHy determine 
ihii cafe, without being influenced by 
the fpint of party, by popular prejudice, 
^r pcHiical motives, he cheerfully fub- 
mrt* himfelf to thtir decifioti. 

If it fhall appear to this Ixmofirabf^ 
court from the evidence produced, that 
he hath adted in his jjJicht charadler 
with wilful injuflice or partiality, he 
doih not wifh any favour, but exp^dU 
that the whole ettent of the puniftnnent 
permitted in the conftitutiou will be in-^ 
fli(fled upon him. 

If any par: of his cffiehl comlu<5b (hall 
appear to this honourable cowrie JlriiH 
j^ruy to have been illegal, or to have pro- 
ceeded from igrteranes or error in judg- 
ificnt ; or if any part of his eondodk 
fhall appear, although illegal, to haT« 
been irregular or improper, but not to> 
have flowed from a depravity of beart, 
or any unworthy motives, he feeU coBi- 
fideot that thi§ court wIM make allow* 
ance for the imperfections and frailtic* 
incident to man. He it fatitfied that 
every njember of thit tribunal will ob- 
ferve the principles of humanity and 
jaftice,win prefume him innocent, untit 
hi» guilt (hall be cdablifhed by legal and 
credible witnefles ; and wiU be govem- 
•d in hit decifion, by the moral and 
chrifHan rule, of rendering that juftice 
to this refpondent, which ht would wi(b' 
to receive. 

Thit refpondent now (lands not mere- 
ly before an earthly tribunal, but alfo be- 
fore that awftil Being, whofe prefeocc 
filt all fpacey and whofe all feeing eye 
more efpecially iunty^ the temples of 

^'iflice and religion. In a little time, 
baccufers, his judges, and himfelf muft 
appear at the Bar of Omnipotence, 
where the fecrets of all hearts ihall be 
dirdofed, and every human being fhaH 
aofwer for bit deedt oune in the body, 
aod Hiall he compelled to give evidence 
tpih^ hirafelf ia the pr^fcAC? of aiTea^ 

bled untverfe. To hit Cmaifcient Xud)rer 
at that Awful hour, he now appeals for 
•he retflitude aod purity of his conduc% 
as to all the xaatttrt of which he i» thit- 
day accufed. 

He hath now only to adjut^ each 
member of this honoul'able court, by 
the living GOi>, and in his holy same, 
to /-coder impartial juAicc to him, acf^ 
carding to the conditution and laws 6f 
the United States- He makes this fol- 
cmn demand of each member, by all hii 
hopes of happinefs in the world to come^ 
which he will have volnntarily renounce* 
ed by the oath he has taken ; if he (halt 
wilfully do this refpondent injuftice, or 
difregard the conllitution or laws of the 
tJnited States, which he has folemtily 
fwom to make the rule and (landard c/t 
lut judgment and deciHoa. 

The object of the review of a 
book IS to communicate to the pub* 
lick information of its contents, 
and to pourtray its excellencies 
and defects. Milton obsen-es, 
" that it is of greatest concernment 
in tlie church and commonwealth, 
to have a \igilant eye how books 
demeane themselves, as well as 
men." From regard to publick 
considerations, we always look on 
a new publication with jealousy, 
well assured, that if it is written 
for immortality, no wound, which 
it can receive from the severity ot 
criticism, will be fatal to its exist- 
ence. But if books inculcate evil 
and peniicious principles, cither in 
taste or morals, " since they doc 
contain a potencie of life in tliem 
to be as active as that soule whostf 
progeny they arc," they must, a\ 
the tribunal of criticism, be du\y 
informed against, and prosecuted 
to conviction and punisiiment, as 
offenders ag-ainst the peace and di le- 
nity of the commonwealth. 

This trial, the course of the pro- 
ceedings, the examination of the 
witnesses, and the arguments for 
and against the prosecution, are 
woilhy the attention of all the cit- 
izens, but more particularly of the 

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JUDGE chase's trials 

law student. To him we recom- 
mend it, as an authoritative exhi- 
bition of correctness in judicial 
proceedings, dispkying the appli- 
cation of principles to practice. But 
the book is printed on poor paper, 
and in. a miserable style of execu- 
tion. Frequent and scandalous er- 
rours occur in the orthography. It 
has all the marks of hurry, which 
no necessity will palliate, and for 
which the editors, considering the 
dignity of the subject, and the ex- 
tensive patronage, which they had 
obtained, are inexcusable. We 
have seen the first volume of 
Smithes edition of the trial, which 
is executed, in point of typograph- 
ical neatness, with much greater 
care, and in a superiour style. In 
Evans's report, the arguments o^ 
the counsel for the respotident, and 
in Smith's edition, the arguments 
of the managers were revised and 
corrected by them prior to their 
publication. So far as we able to 
judge, by comparing the Speeches 
of the respective brators in the two 
editions, it is generally true, that 
in both they have been reported 
with fidelity. Where they have 
been revised and corrected by the 
orators, many of them are worthy 
of the occasion, and do honour to 
the taste and eloquence of our 
country. To those, who ate con- 
versant in courts of justice, It is 
well known, that to speak elo- 
quontly on important subjects, 
without deep premeditation, re- 
quires the highest efforts of the 
human intellect. The report of a 
speech is usually, though not ne- 
cessarily, an abridgment of it. The 
reporter is solicitous to catch the 
sentiment. He is seldom able to 
exhibit the beauties of style and 
manner. He can preserve the 
bones and sinews. The anatomy 
may be perfect, but the delicate 
shades of complexion^ and tlie 

graces of form and gesture flr# 

The managers on the part of thrf 
h6use of representatives, were^ 
Messrs. John Randolph, Rodney, 
Nicholson, Early, Boyle, and G* 
W. Campbell. The counsel for 
the respondent were, Messrs. Har-* 
per, Martin, Hopkinson, Key, and 
C. Lee. 

The replication to the answer of 
the respondent, filed by the man- 
agers, on behalf of the house of re- 
presentatives, was framed frona 
the form of the replication, which 
was filed in the celebrated case of 
Warren Hastings. 

Mr. Randolph opened the caustf 
on the part of the hduse of repre- 
sentatives in a speech, in whicl^ 
he took a genend survey of the 
charges. We naturally expected, 
that Mr. R. would, in this speech, 
have exerted all his talents, to give 
the most clear and favourable ap-' 
pearance to the cause, which he 
supported! We expected, that 
after a brief and clear exhibition of 
the charges, he would have follow- 
ed the respondent's plea, and dis- 
played, what is styled in the repli- 
cation^ ^ its evasive insinuations," 
and " its misrepresentation of 
fects :" and, since it was " utterly- 
false and untrue," that he would 
have stript it of " its gloss and col- 
ouring." Much time having elap- 
sed, since ^he subject had pressed 
on his attention, it would, we pre- 
sume, have been easy for him ; 
and, considering the novelty of 
the occasion, it would have been 
useful^ briefly to have exposed the 
law of impeachment* But his 
speech is extremely barren of mat-" 
ter, and defective in argument. 
Even in its revised form, it has 
none of those qualities, which con- 
stitute eloquence. It is not re- 
commended to us by the poor 
merit of splendid declamation, or of 

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ing^enious sophistry. In fact, the 
Sampson seems to rise up among 
the Philistines, shorn of his locks. 
The following passage will give 
an idea of his manner. It is ani- 
mated^ but the sentiment is ex- 
tremely incorrect and paradoxical. 
Its tendency is to extend impunity 
to criminals, by dissolving their 
counsel from the observance of 
the salutary maxims of the law in 
the cooducL of their trials. 

We are prepared to prove, what the 
respondent has in part admitted, that he 
•* restricted the counsel of Fries from 
citing such English authorities as they 
believed apposite, and cei-tain statutes of 
the United States, which they deemed 
material to their defence ;" that the pri- 
sooer was debarred by him from his con^ 
stitutioaal . privilege of addressing the 
jury, through his counsel, on the law, as 
well as the fact, involved in the verdict 
which they were required to give — and 
that he attempted to wrest from the ju- 
ry their undeniable right to hear argu- 
ment, and, consequently, to determine 
upon the question of law, which in a 
criminal case it was their sole and un- 
questionable province to decide. These 
last charges (except so far as relates to 
the laws of the United States) are im- 
pi^ediy admitted by the respondent. He 
confesses, that he would not permit the 
prisoner's counsel to cite certain cases, 
"because they could not inform but 
might deceive and mislead the jury." 
Mr. President, it is the noblest trait in 
thU inestimable trial, that in criminal 
prosectuions, where the verdict is gener- 
al, the jury are the sole judges, and, 
where they acquit the prisoner, the judg- 
es, without appeal, both of law and fact. 
And wliat is the declaration of the respon- 
dent bat an admission, that he wished to 
take from the jury their indisputable 
privilege to hear argument and deter** 
mine upon the law, and to usurp to 
himself that power, which belonged to 
them, and to them only ? It is one of 
the mo^t glorious attributes of jury tri- 
al, that in criminal cases (particular- 
ly such as are capital) the prisoner's 
counsel may (and they often do) attempt 
*• to deceive and mislead the jury." It 
is eiicntial to the fairness of the trial, 
that It should be conducted with perfect 

Vol. 111. No. I. 1^ 

freedom. It is congenial to the gener- 
ous spirit of our institutions to lean to 
the side of an unhappy fellow creature, 
put in jeopardy, of limb, or life, or lib- 
erty. The free principles of our gov- 
ernments, individual and federal, teach 
us to make every humane allowance in 
his favour, to grant him with a liber- 
ality, miknown to the narrow and ty- 
rannous maxims of most nations, every 
indulgence n»t inconsistent with the 
due administration of justice. Hence a 
greater latitude is allowed to the ac- 
cused, than is permitted to the prosecu- 
tor. The jury, upon whose verdict thtt 
event is staked, are presumed to be men 
capable of understanding what they are 
called upon to decide, and the attorney 
for the state, a gentleman learned in his 
profession, capable of detecting and ex- 
posing the attempts of the opposite coun- 
sel to mislead and deceive. There is 
moreover the court, to which, in cases 
of difficulty, recourse might be had. But 
what indeed is the difficulty arising from 
the law in criminal cases, for the most 
part f What is to hinder an honest jury 
from deciding, especially after the aid of 
an able discussion, whetlier such an act 
was a killing with malice prepense, or 
such other overt acts set forth in an in- 
dictment, constituted a levying war a- 
gainst the United States — and to what 
purpose has treason been defmed by the 
constitution itself, if overbearing^arbitra- 
ry judges are permitted to establish a- 
mong us the odious and dangerous doc- 
trine of constructive treason ? The acts 
of Congress which had been referred to 
on the former trial, but which the re- 
spondent said he would not suffer to be 
cited again, tended to shew that the of- 
fence committed by Fries did not amount 
to treason. That it was a misdemeanor, 
only, already provided for by law and 
punishable with fine and imprisonment. 
The respondent indeed denies this part 
of the charge, but he justifies it even (as 
he says) if it be proved upon him. And 
are the laws of our own country (at 
well as foreign authorities) not to be suf- 
fixed to be read in our courts, in justifi- 
cktion of a man whoss life is put in jeo- 
pardy ! 

The examination of the witness- 
es followed. In this interc*Ung 
part of the work, we observe great 
attention paid to those rules of evi- 
dcncc^ ami maxims of conduct, 

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which arc justified by the authori- 
ty of judicial tribunals. In the 
trial of Warren Hastings, the 
managers on the part of the Com- 
mons contended, with persevering 
obstinacy, that they ought not to be 
bound by the rules of legal pi'o- 
ceeding, which are observed in 
other cases, and before inferiour 
tribunals. The Commons, said 
Mr. Burke, disclaim all knowledge 
of pleading as a science. They 
are not clerks, but j)lain, simple 
laymen. If they speak the lan- 
guage of reason and plain sense, 
they are not bound to plead tech- 
nically, or to speak according to 
the terms of science. By the con- 
sUtution,theLords are not consider- 
ed as learned in the law, but merely 
as Barons, Swordsmen, and Cava- 
liers, with whom are mixed the 
Bishops, and it would be proper 
for them therefore to judge ac- 
cording to the principles of natu- 
ral justice, and not according to 
certain narrow rules laid down in 
other courts. But in the whole 
course of that trial, theirLordships 
acted on quite different principles, 
and demonstrated by their decis- 
ions, that there was not, in their 
opinion, one rule of evidence, 
which did not apply to the House 
of Lords, as much as to any infe- 
riour court in the kingdom. Mr. 
Burke denied, that there was any 
Euch thing as rules of evidence, 
and contended that all evidence 
must vary in its matter and in its 
manner, as the nature of each case 
varied. But his idea was ex- 
tremely incorrect : for tlie rules 
of evidence result from the nature 
of things, and, like the laws of na- 
ture, are immutable. By these 
rules, it is not intended, that the 
same evidence will prove all cases : 
they respect rather the quality 
and degree of proof necessary to 
liubstantiate a fact. That oral 

testimony, for instance, is inr^ 
admissible to prove the contents, 
of a deed, or written instrument, 
which are in existence ; that the 
copy of an instrument shall not be 
used,, where the original can be 
produced ; and that a witness shall 
not be permitted to testify, unless 
under the solemnities of an oath ; 
are rules of evidence, which cer- 
tainly are founded in nature, and 
can never vaiy with the varieties 
of legal occasions, or be dispensed 
with by any tribunal. 

Mr. Early's speech follows the 
examination of the witnesses. It 
commences with the following ob- 
servation, which we find, in its re- 
vised state, in Smitli's edition.-— 
" There is no attitude^ in which 
the government of this nation can 
be viewed, more completely de- 
monstrative of the efficacy of its 
principles, tlian that, in which it is 
now placed." Whether Mr. E- 
thought that, at that time, the gov- 
ernment was standing, or wallang, 
or sitting, or sleeping, we know 
not ; and how the attitude of a 
government should demonstrate its 
firinci/iles^ is a little mysterious. 
It appears to us as difficult to com- 
prehend, as it would be to ascer- 
tain, from a man's gait, whether he 
were a Roundhead or a Cavalier, 
Salliist remarks a peculiarity ia 
Cataline's gait f " citus modo, mo- 
do tardus incessus** : sometimes 
walking rapidly, then suddenly 
stopping and looking, as though 
he feared that he was pursued. 
This indicated a mind, haunted 
with the images of former crimes, 
and loaded uith tlie consciousness 
of guilt. But the use of this rhe- 
torical figure in the present in- 
stance is the first tirne that we have 
seen it applied to a body politick ; 
and we leave it with this one ob- 
servation, that its use lias not yet 
been established by standard au- 

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^XTDGX CHASK's Tllliltr 


t"hority. Mr. E.*s speech abounds 
-witli hyperbolical expresaon and 
superlative epithet, which, like 
profane and idle oaths and impre- 
cations in common discourse, in- 
dicate a poverty of invention as 
well as a corrupt taste. His view 
of the subject is very general. 
Something Kke an argument is atr 
tempted on the first article, but 
his manner throughout is loose 
and declamatory;. ' ; 

We are better pleased uith Mr. 
(Campbell's speech, as it appears 
revised in Smiith^s edition. His 
style is plain and impressive, with-* 
out an attempt' ait any great de- 
gree of elevation. He confines 
himself to an investigation of the 
conduct of the respondent at the 
trials of Fries and of Callender* 
His \iew is general, and executed 
with considerable ability. It is 
vastly superiour -to the vapid per^ 
Ibrmance of Mr. Early. Even the 
freedom, viith which he treats the 
respondent, and the resentment, 
which he expresses at liis coUp 
duct, are excusable, because tliey 
are the prerogative of animated 
. debate. 

This volume nent presents us 
with the speeches of Messi*s. Hopr' 
kinson. Key, Lcc, Martin, and 
Harper. They are models «f fo^ 
Fensick eloquence. We have de- 
voted so much attention to the an- 
swer of the respondent, that we 
must be content to give our opin- 
ion of the character of the argu- 
ments for and against the proser 
cution, without minutely analysing 
them, and without the insertion of 
copious extracts. 

The defence was commenced by 
J^lv, Hopkinson, the introduction 
to whose speech is truly eloquent 
and impressive. It is confined 
to a defence of tlie respondent on 
the fii-Sit article. The language is 

dignified, and the whole oration it 
not unworthy, for its excellent sub- 
stance and elegant form, to be 
compared with some of the cele- 
brated productions of the Roman 

Mr. Key's speech is confined to 
the second, ihird, and fourth arti- 
cles of impeachment, and is, to 
use the language of Mr. Lee, in 
the style and maimer of an « ele- 
gant advocate .f* 

Mr. Lee's speech displays 
much judicial skill, united to an 
ease aiKl simplicity of* manner, 
Which are highly pleasing. 

Mr. Martin confines his partic- 
HJar attention to the fifth and sixth, 
after a survey of the preceding ar- 
ticles of impeachment. He dis- 
cussefi with great ability the rela- 
tive duties of judges and counsel, 
and the respective rights of judges 
and jurors. He incontestibly 
proves, on the authority both of 
precedent and reason, that the 
right of the coiut to decide the 
Jaw, is the same in criminal as m 
civil cases. He demonstrates, that 
the process, issued by the respon- 
dent in tlie case of Callender, was 
correct. " Two highly respecta- 
ble legal .characters in Virginia, 
who successively held the office of 
attorney general (Col. James and 
Gen. Buooke) were applied to by 
one of their deputies, and declared 
themselves incapable to decide, 
what ought to be the practice ; or 
in other words, to decide in what 
cases a summons ought to be 
used, and in what cases a capias 
was the proper process." This 
point, which had puzzled the Vir- 
ginia lawyers, Mr. Martin, by his 
luminous investigation, has, we 
presume, settied ; for which serv- 
ice the bar of tiiat state ought to 
be very gi-ateful. The style and 
manner of Mr. Hopkinson is very 

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3^0GX Cdm^S TRIAt* 

dissimilar to those of Mr. Mar- 
tin. The farmer resembles a 
majestic stream, flowing with silent 
grandeur down its lofty banks. 
The latter is a tcMTeilt^ which bears 
down all before it. Mr. Martin's 
conclusion is abrupt, and unequal 
to the preceding parts of his ora-* 
tion. After a minute, and some- 
i¥hat dry discussion of at point of 
legal practice, extracted! from 
statute provision ^v the * ' orator 
ought gi^dually to hare descended 
from the height of legal ^bstrac- 
tion^ and relieved the mind of hb 
auditors by a conclusion of a mild^ 
er and more dignified form. . . 

Judge Chase's defence was coii-* 
eluded by Mr. Harper. His 
speech has less of a professional 
dress, than either of those, which 
were' delivered by his associates. 
It is calculated for an assembly, 
which, like the senate, was com- 
posed of eminent characters from 
the various professions in society. 
The distinguishing trait of this 
speech is the candour of the ora- 
tor. He boldly meets the facts in 
the case, as they had been related 
xxiost to the disadvantage^^ of his 
client, and satisfactorily shews,^ 
where the witnesses must have 
been tnistaken, and wherc the acts, 
charged as criminal in the res- 
pondent, were judicially correct. 
Candour is the legitimate offspring 
of a magnanimous and liberal 
spirit. So much does it gain on 
the hearts of men, that its form is 
often artfully assumed even for 
dishonest purposes. Orators at 
the bar are generally unwilling to 
yield any thing to their antagonists. 
But who, that has any experience, 
will not confess, that there is in 
almosi^very cause good and evil. 
It is a departure from moi*al puri- 
ty, to attempt to give to wrong ihe 
appearance of right. When an 
pratof has defended his client, 

where his conduct admits defence? ? ^ 
when he has with warmth of heart 
and eloquence of language, urged 
in his behalf, whatever is consistent 
with good logick and truth, he has 
honourably discharged his duty, 
and ought then to submit to the 
decisions of those, wlio are invest* 
ed with the authority to decide. 

In assigning to conti'adictory 
testimony the grades of credit, to 
which its se\'tral pajrts are entitled^ 
in elucidating dark passages, and 
in extracting from the informal 
mass the forms and proportion of 
truth, are among the most difficult 
tasks of forensick orators. There 
was, in this case, much occasion 
for legal discrimination, jmd of this 
talent Mr. Harper appears to be 
eminently possessed. His lan- 
guage is uniformly dignified, and 
sftrictly within the limits of decent 
and manly expostulation. He 
takes a general view of the whole 
subj ect of impeachment, but more 
• particularly confines his attention 
to the transactions at New Castle 
in Delaware, atid to the eighth 

Whoever reads this case must . 
be sensible, that the managers had 
to contend with complicated em- 
barrassments. The counsel for the 
respondent were from among the 
most eminent professional charac-* 
ters in the United States. The 
facts contained in the articles 
could not, with all the jiuthority of 
the accusing power, and with all 
the zeal and ability of the man- 
agers, be shewn to be subject of 
impeachment. Strip them of their 
technical language, reduce ^hen> 
tb the " simple elements of their 
own merit," and what will ren>ain 
against the respondent, which in- 
dicates a crime ? Feeble as >vas the 
accusation, it derived no strength 
from the testimony, after a most 
thorough investigation of which, 

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KTS&I^ c^AssV^Ticixir; 


die li^deies of xtnpesLdimeiit^iiecnfct 
cdtcrvsKShaway^ Skeayiaion jof 
dic]fig|t» &diBg from the memo^ 
ly^i^acaiaceljrleanDga trace of 
ksMbf nAd «iry existence. 

' i|i(^lGchoIsoii first replies on 
iSi/e ptt ttC lise prosecution. Mia 
«jptfl^«TOt>orted in tJtdt volume^ 
^oafftii^ttilliii^sQbtk or eloquecit* 
iLi^lmA Jie first attempts to 
pm^tfe^to sastaki an kttpeach- 
id^i^ift- not necessary, that the 
dUboi^^oiild be an indicteble 
«}e»t|»|ilfb:was fetremlofisly con^ 
taAllq^jik* counsel for the pes- 
pot^|^l^*-3>e rest of his speech 
k cy i j b ua U». an examination of 
tibe JjJMJfiiii speciications under 
lhey»ij<dele of inipeffchment. 

htiJ|%jpi>jiih|taiice awd' manner, to 

~ irpttft^the^prbi^uticM).. 

Ir^tiPOdtK^ tibeorators to 

Pof^ur iteaders^ and 

ft^d^^ring passage 

wyNi^ps€ch> a^a 

( sq^le laid manner.' 

t«t»Bialtf a £m remarks 
^Tfifi imprppricty ^j| 

* Ig^ia •hit «3if«ri 
iiiiii4 of evert; 

t hai<^e at»^ 

r ^tolme Jur^oi v^vs • '■ .It 

l*a«^ a> dejiver 

^ . measures 

t|^tl^&i) juiti-; 

F^<ifce BtmoBt loW 

il^. Officer 

'*-* Justice 


not becoBfideditt' t&em wkhconfidenoiL 
Will Dot the juries adopt goUtical preju- 
dices and carry them home with them, 
ktid decide more from political parties 
than justice ? Justice should be admin* 
istered betweett roan afld man -vnthout 
any distinction, and this conduct of the 
respondent goes to prcv^t it. Although 
books have been prochiced, and a nunv* 
ber of high authorities cited, to justify 
the. delrvery of {Sblitical charges, I must 
be allo\red'to enter my protest against 
them ; but no instance has been cited 
where a judge has, like the respondent, 
exclaimed against the acts of the govern- 
ment. When we look at the charge, 
which has been offered in evidence by 
hnn, We find him ensuring one of me 
most important acts of the governmeat* 
I^allude to the fepeaLof the judiciary sys- 
tem ; in this be .censured every branch 
of the government. I am not about to 
dispute the ri^Ht of Judge Chase in hii 
]i)dividual capadty to exercise his talents 
CO prevent fltty measure from being a* 
dopted. Butxthat right cannot apply to 
the case, before .the; court. He cannot 
t>e justified in d^eltvering from the bench 
denunciations against both fhe measures 
.oF the tinited States and the state in 
^hich he h^ the court. Nor did h^ 
itop th^e.' He went on to decl^ma- 
gainst citizeps of the f tate^ for being m 
fi^vour of measures which he deemed 
improper.' Every member of this court 
tAust know that state jealousies still exist, 
and it^ Oifgbt to be the anxious care of 
6very itiuiy tp say qr do ^lothing csIcm* 
liMied to excite. . jealousies between th0 
United $tates i^nd any individual state* 
Was it a part of the duty of the judge* 
to preach up against the acts of tho 
legislature of Maryland ? Assuredly not* 
He h^ no ri^ht to thunder anathenni 
against th^ measures of any aate. 

Eitlier the reporter has been very 
unjustyor Mr. Randolph is most la- 
menj^ly deficient in le^ science 
and talents for the folium. Judging 
from his appearance at this trid^^ii^ 
are of opiiiion, that he is well cab 
culated to a(idre«5 a mob^ or eV6tf 
tQ^dtire a majorky m a delibeij^ 
live astiomfafy, wboare devote UiT 
l^ will* Hto speech, wh^ch conr 
cludes^he arguments in behalf el 
the prosecution^ is a declamatory 

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JtTDGB CRASfi's iTRlAll 

harangue) in which the pre-emi- 
nent traits are, his lofty esteem of 
himself, and his unbounded hatred 
of the respondent. In his man- 
her Mr. extremely desultory. 
For this defect he apologizes, by 
observing, that he had unfortu- 
nately lost his notes. We confess 
our astonishment at his apparent 
ignorance of a prosecution, which 
had been << instituted at his instiga- 
tion,'* of articles, which "came 
solely from his pen," and " the 
meaning of every word of which," 
he confesses, "that he felt bound 
to explain." 

On tlie 1st day of March, 1805, 
after a full and patient investiga- 
tion. Judge Chase was, by the de- 
cision of the high court of im- 
peachment, acquitted on the arti- 
cles exhibited against lum by the 
house of representatives. Wheth- 
er it is ouj^ province to pass a sen- 
tence,, or even to hint an opinion, 
on the innocence or guilt of the 
accused, is problematical, lie was 
acquitted by his judges, and that 
most honourably. He appears to 
posse;ss a mind a^nt, lofty, and 
overbearing. But who may more 
rightfully assume ;»n imperial voice 
and gesture, than the judges and 
authoritative expounders of the 
law ? In the. administration of 
justice, a judge must he ^eaf to 
pity and friendship^ He may not 
listen to the claims of blood or af* 
fection, and therefore to superficial 
observers he may at iimes i)etray 
an unfeeling jtemper. In the 
C;oiu*se of his official duties, he 
must lay the bpavy hand of justice 
pn guilt, which sometimes excites 
pity even l^ its weakness^ B14 
^ver is the duty of a judge more 
dj^ult or ungrateful, than tjther 
when he is compelled to act against 
popular passion and prejudice, or 
i^ seasons of political fermentation, 
f reedppi from blaxpe at such tinges 

is more than usually falls to the 
lot of mortals : since he b liable to 
err even from an excessive desire 
to avoid mistake. While there- 
fore we humbly declare, that Judge 
Chase's conduct was, in every ma- 
terial act, free from crime ; in 
some respects it was not free from 
fault. We allude to the opinion 
which he gave at the trial of Fries, 
which was, in respect of the timq 
and manner of it, a novelty in 
judicial proceedings. Mr. Harper 
confesses that it was an errour. 
The honourable Judge was him* 
self, solicitous to expiate his mis- 
take with a generous penitence, 
but in a maimer worthy of his dig- 
nified station. Let not the vain 
and presumptuous man, who is in- 
conscious of his own limited pow^ 
ers, exult over this concession • 
I^et not the personal and political 
enemies of Judge Chase presume, 
from tliis concession, to rank us 
among his accusers. But let them 
unite with us, if tliey have the 
^race so to do, in deploring the im- 
perfecti^nsjwnich are incident even 
to great and illustrious minds ; and 
let them weep, if they have the- 
feeling to weep, over the frailties 
of the human character. 

It is impossible to read this trial 
without mingled emotions. A 
judge of the supreme judicature 
x>f the nation, venerable for his 
years, for his integrity, and for his 
publick services, arraigned before 
the . most august tribunal of his 
eountry,and charged with the com- ' 
mission of high crimes and mis- 
demeanors, is a sublime spectacle, 
on which illustrious villany may 
look with fearful anticipation. It 
is lionourable to the justice of a 
country, that it should contain a 
tribunal, for bringing to punishr 
ment criminal^ of tlie highest or- 
der'. But let it be recollected, that 
where great power is reposed, it i^ 

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in consequence. This, it is ti-uly 
said, is a different result from what 
ever happened in all .former wars. 
Only the partial stoppage of the 
French commerce by the superi- 
ority of the British fleets used to 
produce the last extremity of dis- 
tress to the people and govern- 
ment of France ; so that, strong as 
the French ever were on land, 
«* the house of Bourbon was van- 
^ quished by the masters of the sea." 

He accounts for this strange cir- 
cumstance by ascribing its cause 
to the use of the neutral, flags. If 
he 3upposes,that the great mass of 
the cargoes of the colonial pix)duce, 
freighted on board Ameiican ves- 
sels is not, bona fide^ the property 
of Americans, we believe he is 
grossly mistaken. American cap- 
ital is adequate to the purchase of 
these pix>ducts, and this is what 
Englishmen cannot easily be made 
to believe. Nevertheless the pur- 
chase of the crops of Martinique 
and Guadaloupe by American 
merchants obviously relieves the 
French planters from the pressure 
of the war. How is their pros- 
perity retarded or obstructed, if 
they can have a full price for their 
crops, the superiority of the Brit- 
ish navy notwithstanding ?' It is 
true, not a French merchant flag is 
Been on the ocean. But as the 
French planter owns no ships, and 
is interested directly only in the 
sale of his rum,coflee,cotton, sugar, 
&c. if the neutral will buy these 
articles and pay for them at a good 
price, it is plain the war does not 
feach the colony to cramp its 
growth, or to obstruct its supplies, 
•which arc abundantly furnished by 

This state of things, which is 
verified by the most ample expe- 
rience, produces no little disap- 
pointment and vexation to the bel- 
ligerent. Hence, as the British 

arms and our commercial gains 
mutually obstruct each otlicr, it is 
extremely natural, that angry in- 
vectives and recriminations shoulcl 
ensue between the American and 
British nations. The usual pro- 
gress of popular passions, when so 
excited, is to insult, retaliation, and 
war. This is a course, which it i« 
incredible the g^veniment of either 
of the two countries should wish to 

Supposing that there is not on 
either side a dispositioa to fight, 
there ought to be a mutual wil- 
lingness to argue. 

The pamphlet writer proceeds 
to examine, I st, the origin, natm^, 
and extent of whr.t he calls the e- 
vils and abuses of neutral flags. 
2d, the remedy and right of ap- 
plying it. 3d, the prudence of 
that resort. 

Under the first head, ". the ori- 
gin, nature, and extent of the e\il," 
he premises, " that a neutral has 
no right to deliver a belligerent 
from the pressure of his enemy's 
hostilities, by trading with his col- 
onies in time of war, in a way 
that was prohibited in time of 
peace." Here we find the mar- 
row of the great question, at pres- 
ent depending between the bellig- 
erent and neutral nations. 

To support the negative, i.e. 
that a neutral has no right in time 
of war to any other trade with an 
enemy's colonies, than what is per- 
mitted in time of peace, he quotes 
at length the opinion of Kir Wil- 
liam Scott, in the case of the E- 
manuel, Nov. 1799. This, he as- 
serts, was the doctrine of the war 
of 1756. One ofthe leading points 
decided against the Dutch in that 
war was, we believe, that French 
colonial property on board Dutch 
vessels was liable to condemnation ; 
in other words that free ships did 
not make free goods. That tliey 

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17A& IK D18CUI81. 


ioy IS indeed pretended by the 
French, and we believe only by 
the French, or those under their 
influence ; but there is demon- 
strably no ground for such a doc- 
trine, either as they pretend to de- 
rive it from the law of nations, or 
from a just regard to the com- 
mercial advantage of neutrals. By 
establishing such a doctrine the 
French, wMle inferior at sea, would 
gain much, but the neutral Amer- 
ican would certainly be a loser. 

If the principle, diat ^ free ships 
make free goods," had been estab- 
Ushed, as was vainly attempted, 
twenty-five years ago, neutrals 
would have been deprived of im- 
mense pecuniary advantages,which 
they have hitherto enjoyed, and 
would, in exchange, have derived 
&om the innovation no benefit, to 
which they are not fully entitled 
by the acknowledged law of na- 
tions. By the operation of the 
laws of maritime war, the com- 
merce of belligerents is subject to 
beavy losses and expenses^ from 
which neutrals are exempt. This 
gives to the latter an advantage 
over the former, equal, at the least, 
to the full amount of those losses 
and expenses ; or it drives the bel- 
ligerent merchant from the sea, 
and thus leaves to the neutral a 
Tirtual monopoly of the whole 
commerce, which both had carried 
on. It in effect, therefore, enables 
the neutral to trade with the bel- 
ligerent, without the possibility of 
the latter bemg an equal compet- 
itor ; of course // enadlea the neu" 
tral to tell unusually deavy and buy 
unuwaUy cheafi. He sells dear in 
the country of the belligerent, be- 
cause a part of the supply is cut 
off, and a part carried at an ex- 
tremely dear rate^ He buys the 
products of the belligerent cheap, 
because a part of the usual buyers 
withdraw from th§ mai:Tiet, and 

Vol. III. No. 1. Q 

and others cannot afford the ftccus^ 
tomed price. Thus the insecuritjt 
and increased expense of the bel* 
ligerent's own trade, augment the 
profits of the neutral, whose trade 
is safe. But if free ships made 
the goods free, all the commerce 
would be equally iafe^ and the neu« 
tral would have no new reward, 
but simple freight (always the low- 
est of mercantile wages) to com- 
pensate him for the various incon« 
veniences, to whiph the war expo- 
ses him ; that is, he would be con- 
fined to the earnings of a mere 
porter, instead of superadding the 
profits of a merchant, and the m« 
come of a capitalist. 

We have great doubts, however,' 
whether the decisions of 1756 af- 
ford any very clear authority, ei- 
ther for the present British princi- 
ples, or for the claims of neutral 
nations. The state of things now*, 
in existence is totally unlike any 
thing that ever was in 1756, or in 
any war before 1 793. Laws, to be 
of any use or authority, must be 
founded on their adaptation to ex- 
isting circumstances. The con- 
troversy is a new one, because 
there never was, till 1793, any 
room for agitating it. Never, till 
that time, were France and her al- 
lies stripped of all active com- 
merce, and literally banished front 
the ocean. Of course, never till 
then were they obliged to use th* 
aid of neutrals, or forego entirely, 
the benefit of their colonial com- 
merce. It is our duty to state the 
fact. It is the duty of others^ 
more adequate to the task, to draw 
from it the proper inferences. 

The author of the pamphlet 
proceeds through nearly one hun- 
dred pages, to enlarge upon the 
principle of the war of 1756, and 
to explain and vindicate the 6on- 
* duct of the British government, 
aud the decisiona of the adinirait;|r 

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^Ak ;fN DXSGinss. 

courts. We have not room to cx- 
iibit an abstract of the argument, 
^hich nevertheless we recommend 
to our American statesmen to pe- 
hise and confute. We have al-- 
Veady hinted at a reason for ouP 
IbAearing to do this. We believe 
the ultimate settlement of the con* 
tSx)versy will depend more on the 
actual situation of the parties at 
the present day, tfian upon the 
course of their former conduct and 
opinions, when their situation wa^ 
exceedingly dissimilar. 

The author supposed fbaud o!t 
the part of netitf^ls, in ciovering 
enemy's property, to a nhich great- 
er extent than American mer- 
chants wHl believe is the fact.* 
Yet he undertakes, p. 102, to say, 
that his conclusion does not de- 
pend on the fact assumed. For 

•^ If thfc hostile colonics are suppKetf 
^ch ^ necessary importSiand their pro- 
duce find» its way to market, th« enemy 
is effectually relieved from the chief pres- 
sure of the war, even though both 
branches of the trade should pats into 
foreign hands, in reality as well as in 
fbrm." He adds, that « the ptoduce 
ef the Wefl-Indies sells cheaper at pres- 
ent, clear of duti^, in the ports at our 
gnemies than in our own.'*— P. 105. 

If this be true, we cannot see 
why the French colonies should 
inot prosper beyond those of Eng- 
land. He tells us this is the fact ^ 
and repeats^ as well founded, the 
boast of Bonaparte, 

*• That Guadafoiipe and" Martinique 
«re flourishing so much beyond all for- 
mer experience, that smce 17t9 they barr 
doubled their po^ubuion.** 

• There it probabfy tome thftftpfMenMtSotr, 
Md «4feUinty some exancratioa of the conduct 
of nctitrals, tn ihh part of the pamphlet. There 
Ik also im evident want of correct infbrmatioa 
concernfne the consum^ion of ftigar and cotfec 
In the United States. Tlicae errors seem to bc 
less excnsable, because acoirate knowledge was 
easy to l>c procured, and it is admitted, by the 
%nter hiiQftclf,^bat uie Ibrce of. hi> main aratjr 
m^ai doci not dcpeo^ on thdr trutJu 

That colonies should thrive ^ 
produce and wealth, because the 
mother country is driven from the 
sea, and abandons them to shift as 
they can \vithout naval protection,^ 
and that the English colonies 
should droop and decline, in con-^ 
sequence of the empire of the 
British navy on every sea, is cer-- 
tamly a strange assertion. The 
author strenuously insists, that this 
is the fact. English vessels are 
exposed to the pei'il of capture, 
and to war freights and premiums, 
and of course English West India 
produce goes deader to market 
than the products of the enemy's' 
'colonies in neutral vessels. In 
tiih way, he says, the commerce 
of England, in West India pro-r- 
dncts, is every where obstructed, 
and is nearly Idst. But he insists^ 
that the tendency of this system^ 
lo augn^ent and man the marine 
of France, and to cramp and dis^^ 
courage that of G. Britain, is a still 
tnore disheartfenkig and urgent 

Having in detail treated of the 
origin, extent, and nature of the 
evil, he proceeds, page 1 37, to con-' 
sider " the remedy^ and the right qf 
a/ifilying it,'* 

« If," he continues, « neutrals, 
have no right, but through our 
concession, to carry on the colo^ 
nial trade of our enemies, we may, 
o/ia' a reasonable noticey withdraw 
that ruinous indulgence." One of 
the chief topicks of complahit in 
America has been the condemna- 
tion of our vessels, without anv 
such notice of their being liable td 
condemnation. Indeed, if Great- 
Britain could make out a right to 
seize them, it appears, that h hai 
been exercised with an unwari-an- 
table pi'ecipitan(!:y and unnecessary 
harshness. As booty ,the prizes go 
to the captors ; and even if the gov* 
emmeutof England participated i^ 

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Cic proceeds,^! cannot he supposed 
iobe of magnitude enough to oper- 
fkte as a motive for the captures. 

'• Nothing,** says the author, 
« can be more advantageous to En- 
gland, than the suppression .of the 
fraudulent commerce of neutrals. 
But if it requires a breach of ju3» 
ticc, let us inflexibly abstain.'* 
These are honourable sentiments, 
whether the author really feels 
them, or thinks fit, in order to give 
force to his reasQi^ng, to affect 

He professes to think, there is 
no doubt of the British right to 
stop this trade. 

-* Neutmi shipi (he ohfierves) when taken 
in a. Jireci voyage to or from the hostile 
cooQtries and their colonies, or in a trade 
i>etwcen the tatter and any other neutral 
cotmtry, but their own, have been al- 
vnyi condemned by our prize courts, 
Iwth in the last and the prese|it war. 
These restrictions can be warranted by 
no other princii>le, than the unlawfulneit 
pf trading with the colonies of a belligeR- 
eot in time of war, in a ^ray not permitr 
led in time of peace.** 

He asks, ** whether it is possible that 
neutral states, in peace and amity with 
Great-Britain, sirmid have a right to per- 
severe in conduct, which may, in its nat- 
ural coi»equences, make En^Und a ^svr 
iau of franu /" 

Supposing this to be the natural 
coDsequence,it would be difficult to 
prove^ that a neutral has any such 
right : for the right.of the belliger- 
tnt to exist, is to be preferred to the 
right of neutrals to make gain. 

« With what intentioi),'* he nsks, " did 
4be enemy open his colonial ports to 
neutrals ? The single, manifebt, and un- 
diisemblcd object was, to obtain protec- 
tion and advantage in the war, to pre- 
serve his colonisd interests without the 
Hskxjf defending riiem, and to sliieid 
himself, in this most Yulnerable part, from 
the naval hostilities of England." 

** I tee not " 6e continues, ;* how any 
niod can doubt, that « co-operation in 
fuch a;i ^xptcUent, by pow$;r8 in auutv 

Vith England, If i Violation of (he duttw 
«f neutrality." 

He adds, that ** this very motive icf 
4)pening the colonial ports if avowed la 
the publick instruments, by which ther 
were opened. With the first news of n 
4war the orders of the mother country to 
open t^ose ports are dispatched, as df 
course. Neutrals can shew no treaty, 06 
convention with the enemies of Great- 
Britain, as a title to these privileges, that 
:grow out of war, begin and end with it/ 

Page 183. He considers the 
probsSftlity of a quarrel with the 
neutral powers, in consequence qf 
Ae resort to the remedy he ha^ 
recommended, i.e. of withdrawing 
:the indulgence hitherto allowed to 
this trade ; and he endeavours, 
3dly, to vindicate the firudence of 
the remedy by shewing, that th^ 
neutral powers will not quarrei 
with England on that account. H9 
firmly believes they wilj not, be- 
cause he is sure they ought no^ 
On this head, the writer seet^l 
<^isposed to speak of the Unite^ 
States with some respect- H^ 
thinks the Amewcans are a saga*- 
cious people, who will Dot fail tp 
discern Uieir interest ; that they 
respect justice, and therefore wilj 
acquiesce in the exercise by Great^ 
Bi;itain of her ju^ rights, as a belr 
Hgerent ; and that, being lovers of 
liberty, they will not like to se^ 
France lord of the ;iayies, as weU 
Its of the armies of Europe. 

^ But (he goes op to si^y, page W^ 
kks would not recommend a total prohir 
bition of the colonial trade, though h^ 
maintains the rigbi of Great-Britain to 
interdict it without reserve. We might 
eitend to all tl^ French colonial ports 
the privileges, enjpyed by Americans at 
some of those ports in time of peace 
(wl^ch privileges he 8peci6e8) ; nay, we 
might allow such an intercourse with the 
colonics of Spain and Holland." " The 
farmers of America would in that cast 
find the same market for their produce, 
&nd of course they would be Jon the ^i^ 
/of conciliation and peace/* 

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But titn i waf ^th tbe neutral 
|K>wers, bad at he admits such a 
var to be,would be a less evil than 
the abuses of neutrality. 

^ Peace widi the neatral powers it more 
likely, after all, (he sap) to be preserved 
by a firm than a puiiUanimous conduct.'* 

" To conclude : a temperate assertion 
ef the true principles of the law of war, 
in rei^ard to neutral commerce* seems, a^ 
iar as human foresight can penetrate* 
gtioUial tc mr fuUUk m/et^ 

On the soundness of the doc* 
trine of this writer, it belongs to 
the ablest American jurists and 
statesmen to pronounce a decision. 
-As the pamphlet is written with 
considerable ability, and no little 
labour of research ; as it is thought 
by many to convey the sense of the 
£nglish government, and probably 
expresses the opinion of the nation 
too, it is obvious, that it will sig- 
nify nothing on our side^to attempt 
mxk answer either by sophistry or 
invective. Indeed the answer will 
no less disgrace than disappoint 
America, if it should prove defir 
dent either in candour or solidity. 
."What can be plainer, than that 
nations, when they disagree, must 
appeal to reason, if they will not 
resort to force ? If they do not 
choose to fight, they must nego- 
ciate ; and if they negociate, they 
must argue. Though our first 
anagistrate assures us, that reason 
is the umpire between just nations, 
yet with his unfortunate and very 
unphilosophical antipathy against 
the British nation and government, 
and afiter all the false and silly 
things his adherents have said a- 
gainst the British treaty, negocia- 
tion is understood to be the last 
expedient, to which our adminis- 
tration will think of resorting. It 
is palpably clear to common sense, 
that it should have been the first. 
For had an attempt been made to 
Begociate when the British treaty 

was near exiuiing ; when thi 
Britbh cabinet wished to make 
friends ; and was discouraged to 
see itself without any ; there is no 
doubt the dispute might have been 
prevented. At any rate, it would 
have been anticipated ; and if our 
merchants had anticipated it, they 
would have saved some milUons of 
dollars^ which have since been cap- 
tured and condemned. Thus it 
Is, that the people have to pay for 
the national partialitieii and aver- 
sions of their rulers. 

If our administration should at- 
tempt to frame a new treaty, thejr 
will not find in the federalists, we 
hope, the same want both of sens» 
and principle, that fostered and 
protracted the opposi^on to Mr. 
Jay's. The negociation, it must 
be confessed, will be attended with 
great, we hope not insurmount- 
able difficulties; and ^o man of 
sense will expect from it the re*' 
covery of every lucrative, neutral 
advantage, that w© have at some 
times enjoyed, Our commercial 
and political situation would be 
much mended, if it vere better as- 
certained ; if our merchants knew 
what was safe, instead of conjec- 
turing in the dark, what is right, 
what is permitted, or what will be 

Great Britain post certainly is 
Inverse tp a war with America. 
She is not only interested in our 
commerce and friendship, but dear^ 
ly concerned to conciliate the ex* 
erci^e of her naval supremacy, if 
it be possible, with the judgment 
and conviction gf the wise and able 
men among the neutral nations. 
Popular clamour, unsupported by 
that judgment, will soon expire ; 
but the serious and steady censure 
of the wise will, in the end, augr 
ment the hatred and resentment, 
naturally engendered by her pow- 
er, which will seek all opportuni- 

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6es to obstruct its energies, and 
will surely find some at last to sub- 
Tcrt its foundations. Nothing, we 
know from observation and expe- 
rience, proves so fatal to the dura- 
tion of any sort of dominion, as the 
■wantonness of its abuse. Great- 
Briuin^sitHji^^ by her navy, by her 
insular position, by her liberty, and, 
perhaps, not less so by her justice, 
vill desire, will endeavour, and 
(fughc really to make considerable 
saciiiict^, rather than not succeed 
to gain, in favour of her maiitime 
principles, the acquiescence, if not 
the applause of the w^cU informed 

and fair minded clasBCS of men in 
the neutral states. 

The American re-impression of 
this pamphlet is executed in a style 
of great typographical elegance* 
and prefaced with the following 
short notice. 

** It was intended to hare prefixed t« 
thif edition* an introduction of some 
length, exposing, in a succinct manner, 
some of the sophistries with which this 
singular work abounds, by way of put* 
ting the reader on his guard against 
them ; but as it is now proposed to fol- 
low it shortly with a formal answer, noth* 
ing more is thought necessary here, tham 
merely to appn^^e the reader of this 


WE readily inl«rt the ffl* lowing note, 
■ot becaufe we are flattered by its po- 
Iiceoef», hut becaufe we think it fairly 
dofcs the controverfy, in which we have 
been en^»ed. What the writers may 
gaia by Mifa Adams's (ilence we are not 
■nxious to inquire, fince we lofe nothing, 
while our ftatements remain uncontra* 
di^ed by the worthy woman, whole 
namewehaye relii(fUntly brought before 
tlie poblick. 

7* the Edihrs •/ the AntMogy, 

The Authors of the ** Compendious 
Hiftory of New England," replied to the 
xerietr of their work, merely to defend 
thcmfelves againft falfe charges and in- 
fcraatioQs, exhibited againd them, which. 
U they remained uncontradi(5led,nught 
liaTe left wron^ impre^on,^ on t^e minds 
of iomt of the readers of the Anthology. 
They had a rig^t to expedl different 
treatment from a body of men, who 
doobtlefs lay claim to the charadker of 
gentlemen and chrifHans. With the au^ 
thor of the remarks on their reply they 
rmainly can have no controverfy. 
They are happy that his pame is con- 
cealed from then» ^d the publick. 
They envy him not any fatisfacflioq, 
which he may now, or hereafter feel iii 
lefle^ng on this tronfafStion. 

The authors of the Compendious Hif- 
tory feel no relu<flance in refting their 
rq«tation with the publick, as to the 
nauer in controverfy between them and 
the Reviewers, on the fadls already pub- 
H(hfd. If Mifs Adams herfelf has any 
romplaint againfl them, and (hall think 
•rtiiper to m^ it known to them, they 

will afTuredly liften to it with friendly 
attention, and promptly do what in them 
Ues to remove it. 

With the Reviewers, and every other 
anonymous writer on this fubje<ll,thcy now 
take a final leave. ' 

Gentlemen, Jan. az, i8o5. 

YOU will pleafe give the incloCed a place in the 
Anthology for Taniury, and oblige 

Your humble fcrvti. GILBERT & DEAN. 

OUR C^elipgs having been severely 
wounded by the appearance of a para- 
graph in the Monthly Antboiogy for Decern' 
ier last, conceminjg the miscellaneous 
works of Col. David ^umphkeys, and 
which did not meet our eye until the 
latter end of last week, we beg leavc^ 
through the mediup of your Anthology, 
to express opr gratitude to that gen« 
tWman for the humanity which first 
prompted him to present us with the 
work ; himself having discharged every 
demand for paper, printing, &c. and the 
hberality with which he allows us the 
use of several hundred dollar^, which 
we have received from the subscribers to 
his work, and of which he has never 
drawn a single cent — conftantly evading 
It, whenever we have requested to be 
permitted to settle with him. 

Of the abilities of Col. Humphreys, at 
j^n author or /oc/, better judges than eitl^ 
er the Editors of the Antholo^y^ or our- 
felves, mud decide. As a fuldievy and a 
pairicty he hau deserved well of his coun* 
try — and as a man of Unevolenctt he will 
be gratefully remembered by many ; but 
by none with more respect and esteem, 
than his obliged humble serv.int9, 


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Of New Publications in the U. States, for January, 1806. 

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octavo. This edition, the publiflier af- 
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ted more correA and more beautiful, 
than the lated and be ft London editions^ 

American edition of HudihrJM. — ^The fuh- 
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edition of" Huoibras : in three parts- 
written in the time of the late wars--bjr 
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m neat type, and will comaiu about thret 

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hundred pages, duodecimo. To add sny 
thing to the itierit of a poem, which for 
•riginal wit and genuine fat ire the litera- 
ry world confiders unrivalled and inim- 
itable, would be as unnecefTary as it 
would be difficult. 

Wright, GoootNOw, & Stockwell. 
Troy, N. Y. Jan. 14,1806. 

Dr. Cowdery has it in contemplation 
to publiHi a pamphlet, or fmall volume, 
to be entitled, The American captives in 
Tripoli, containing the particulars of the 
capture of the Philadelphia frigate — a 
general defcription of Tripoli, with the 
adjacent country, its curiofuies, &c. and 
a iketch of the cufloms and manners of 
its inhabitants. To which will be added, 
the journal at length, kept during his 
captivity, and kn appendix containing 
the treaties and general relations between 
the United States and the Barbary pow- 
ers. Some accurate views and drawings 
will be attached to the work. 

Mr. Cuffiing, of Amherft, Newhamp* 
{hire, has iiTued propofals for continu- 
ing the publication of The Pifcataqua 
j^vangelical Magazine. This work, 
which was publiHied the laft year at 
Portfmouth, has for its object the pro- 
motion of religious knowledge and evan- 
gelical piety, particularly among the com- 
mon people, who, it is believed, ufually 
feel the greateft interefb in works of tlus 
nature. This magazine will contain ef- 
faysofamoral and religious tendency, 
biographical fkctches,occa(ional illuftra- 
tions of fcripture, accounts of remarka- 
ble providential occurrences, &c. &c. 
It will be publiHied in numbers every 
two months, each number conuining 
mot lefs than forty pages odlavo. 

Mr. Jofeph Scott, author of the mod- 
em geographical di<5Uonary, 4 vols. 8vo. 
didkienary of the United Sutes, &c. &c. 
has iiTued propofals for publiHiing, in a 
neat duodecimo volume, A geographical 
• defcription of the State of Pcnnlylvania, 
Including an account of the rivers,moun- 
taios, trees, animals, foil, climate, difeafes, 
mineral fprmgs, ores follils, produce, 
fruit, farms, manufa<5kures, publick im- 
provements, roads, canals, bridges, edu- 
cation, colleges, and academies. Alfo, a 
defcription of the counties ; the extent, 
lioundaries, and number of acres in each ; 
the rivert, creeks, &c. and number of 
Hm^toTi and repreleatativeii which aach 

is entitled to fend to the general afleitt^ 
bly. With an alphabetical lid of the 
townfliips ill each county, and their pa- 
pulation, according to the cenfus of 
] 800. Illufb^ed with a handfoma map 
of the date. 



THE weather, during the first part 
of this month was cold and clear* 
This was succeeded by milder wea« 
ther, with rain and frequent snows. 
Afterwards, extreme cold, continued 
and heavy snow, rain with violent 
winds followed by a perfect calnit 
which has continued through the lat- 
ter part of the months attended with 
a thaw, and a very moist and foggy 
atmosphere. The last circumstances 
will very probably influence the char- 
acter of disorders in the month of 

Inflammatory diseases have been 
most prevalent ; but even of these 
the number has been small. Among 
children under three years, there has 
appeared a sevefe catarrh ; in those 
above this period, peripneumony ; in 
adults, pleurisy and peripneumony. 
All these diseases have yielded readily 
to the power of medicine. Very few 
instances of fever have occurred, and 
scarcely any of severe rheumatism. 
Apoplexy has been unusuallf com- 

Editors* Xotea. 

AMONG the few bookfellen. who have tranP 
mitted to us for our notice or review the books 
which they have pobliOicd, wc mention with 
graticude mcnira. Riley & Co. of New-York. We 
nope they will not accufe m of neglect In not 
having yet noticed any of the numerous voiun<es 
which wc have Uicly received from their liber- 
ality, for in truth the pages destined to revieva. 
In leveral of our late numbers, have been en- 
tirely filled with materials, which we have bad t 
long time ou liand. 

We have been much furprlfed at hearing, that 
feveral of our readers believed, that the remarks 
upon Rev. Dr. Holmes and Mrs. Warren, in the 
review of the Hiliorlcal Collections in our Uft 
number, were farcaftick, IIHherai, and dlfrcfpeft- 
ftii. "^'e certainly never intended to convey fuch 
opinions, and we know that a critical analyfis of 
the fentences In the review would not Ju(Hff 
fuch a conrtruction. Perhaps however we were 
obfcure in the compofltion. and perhaps foine 
of our friends were carelcfs in the penifal. Wri- 
ters are not always perfpicuow, and rcaden are 
aot always intellectual. 

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FEBRUARY, 1806. 




3. w# critical examination of the recital of AbtUpharagiu9 and Abdollatif 

As a story is not absolutely incon- 
testibk) because it is related by one 
or two witnesses, some have doubt- 
ed this. Renaudot, in his history 
of the patriarchs of Alexandria, 
has shaken its authenticity by say- 
ing, " //«'# recital has something aus- 
/iiciousy as is very common among 
(he Arabians.*' At length Querci, 
the two Assemani, Villoisin, Gib- 
bon, and, in the last place, the au-* 
thor of the German dissertation, 
have all declared their disbelief of 
the fact. 

Gibbon remarks, that two an- 
nalists, both of Egypt, have not 
said one word of a circumstance 
so remarkable. The first is Euty- 
chius, a patriarch of Alexandria, 
who lived there three hundred 
years after the capture of the city 
by the Saracens, and wlio, in his 
annals, has given a very long his- 
tory of the siege and of the events 
which succeeded. The second is 
El-Macin, a very veracious writer, 
author of the history of the Sara- 
cens, and who particularly relates 
in minute detail the life of Omar 
and the taking of Alexandria. Is 
it to be conceived, is it credible, 
that these two historians were ij^- 
norant of a circumstance so impor- 
tant ; that two learned men, whom 
such a loss would have greatly in- 

>> E may reasonably suspect that, 
since Abdollatif was the first his- 
torian, Abulpharagius had seen 
t^iis passage, and has only commen* 
ted upcn and embellished it after 
his own manner. Abdollatif does 
not relate any of the circumstances 
which attended the destruction of 
the library ; but what confidence 
can be placed in a writer who re* 
lates, that he saw what we know 
no longer existed at that time ? 
" I have seen, says he, the portico 
and the college which Alexander 
the Great built, and in which was 
contained the superb library." Now 
these buildings were placed in the 
Bruchion, and since the reign of 
Aurelian, who had caused them to 
be destroy- ed, that is to say, at least 
nine hundred years before Abdol- 
ladf, the Bruchion was no better 
than a barren wilderness covered 
with ruins. 

Abulpharagius, on his part, pla- 
ces the library in the royal fialace. 
The anachronism is equally appa- 
rent. The royal buildings, being 
all in the Bruchion, could not have 
remained at that time. Besides, 
what signified the royal fialace in a 
country which, for a long time 
before, had had no king8,and which 
had submitted to the emperoura of 
Ibe east ? 
. Vol. III. No. 2. H 

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terested, should not have made 
any mention of it ; men, v>\\o 
lived, who wrote at Alcxandiia, 
and one of whom (Kutychius) at an 
epoch very near the event ; and 
that we should have tiic Rrst infor- 
mation from a foreip;ner, who wrote 
siK centuries afterwards gn the 
frontiers of Media ? 

Bcsides,Gibhon further observes, 
how could the caIiph()mar,who was 
himself by no moans an enemy of 
the sciences, have acted oh this oc- 
casion against his own particular 
character, while he hadonly^to ex- 
cuse himself from such an act of 
barbarism,the sentiment of the cas- 
uists of theMussulmanlaw? These 
declare (see the third volume of 
the Dissertations of Reland on the 
military law of the Mahontetans) 
« that it was unlawful to burn the 
religious books of the Jews or 
Chi-istians, on account of the name 
of God which they contained, and 
that the works of profane science, 
of historians or poets, physicians or 
philosophers, may be lawfully ap- 
pUed to the use of the faithful." 
This decision discovers no spirit 
of Vandalism. 

To these reasons Mr. K. Rein- 
hard adds his own. He remarks, 
that Eutychius in his annals (vol. 
ii. page 3 1 6) records the words of a 
letter, in which Amrou gives an 
account to the caliph Omar of the 
taking of Alexandria, after a long 
and obstinate siege. I have taken 
the city, says he, sword in hand, 
and without previous capitulation. 
/ cannot describe to you the treas' 
urea it contains. Let it suffice to 
inform youy that I have found four 
thousand /laiaces, four thousand 
baths^ forty thousand taxablt Jews^ 
four hundred theatres, twelve hun^ 
dred gardeners selling vegetables. 
Thy Alussulmen demand the pillage 
of the city and a division of the 
sfioiC^. Omar, in his answer, dis- 

approves of tills demand, and se* 
verely prohibits all pillage and di- 

We observe, that Amrou, in his 
olTicial relation of his conquest, 
seeks, as is the custom in our days, 
to exaggerate its value and impor- 
tance. He does not omit a bar- 
rack, nor a Jew, nor a gardener. 
How could he have forgotten the 
library ? He whom Abulpharagius 
^describes as a friend of the arts 
and philosophy ? Could he have 
thought, that tl»is celebrated and 
ancient monument was not of suffi* 
cient value for him to have taken tlie 
trouble to render some account of it ? 

El-Macin also records the letter 
of Amrou, nearly iia the same 
words ; he says not one word of 
the library. It may be ebjected, 
that this letter was perhaps never 
written by Amrou, and that the 
two histoiians have forged it : but 
this would be an additional reason, 
why the library should have been 
mentioned, had it remained at that 
time. Would they both have o- 
mitted an article, which must havo 
appeared of such vast importance 
in the eyes of learned men, inhab- 
itants of Alexandria ? Would they 
have prided themselves of appear- 
ing better informed on baths, and 
of kitchen gardens, than of the li- 
brary ? But if the letter be authen- 
tick, as its contents give us reason 
to believe, we must also pay some 
attention to the answer of the ca- 
lif, who orders them to spare ev- 
ery thing found in the city. 

We may then vnthout much 
hazard draw the conclusion, that 
the library of the Ptolemies no 
longer existed in 6\o, the time of 
the taking of Alexandria by the 

We will adduce still further 
proof, founded on two writers, 
nearly cotemporaries of Omar, 
One of theiDy John Philoponua 

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(whom Gibbon and others have 
confounded with John the gi*am- 
inarian, of whom Abulpharagiiis 
speaks), says, in Ids conimeiitar)^ 
on the Anuly licks of Aristotle, 
** that in the ancient librarLs there 
%cere found forty dilferent books of 
theAnalyticks.'* He does not ex- 
pressly iTicntion the libraries of 
Alexandria ; but he lived, he wrote 
in that city, where they doubtless 
called the libraries by distinction, 
and he could not here speak of a- 
ny others. We know beside,froni 
Athen-eus, Strabo, and Plutarch in 
his life of Sylla, that the writings 
of Aristotle had been very careful- 
ly collected for the library of tlie 

But if there still remains a 
doubt, let us consult the master of 
Philoponus, Ammonius Hermias, 
in his observations on tlie Catego- 
ries of Aristotle. He lived at A- 
!exandria,before the invasion of the 
Saracens. " Ptolemy Philadel* 
phus (says he) has the reputation 
of having made great exertions to 
collect the writings of Aristotle, 
an*d to have liberally recompensed 
those who collected his produc- 
tions^ in consequence of which 
many fictitious copies were brought 
to him, and in the great library 
there were found forty different 
books of the Analy ticks." It is 
very certain, that Ammonius and 
Philoponus both here refer to the 
Alexandrian library ; that, which 
the former calls the greats being 
the same, which Uie latter denom- 
inates the QTicient library. They 
both mention it as a thing which 
had been^ and which remained no 
longer* Wc may even believe, 
that tliey allude to the library of 
the Serapion ; for Philadelphus, 
who collected with so much care 
the writings of Aristotle, would 
doubtless have placed them among 
\ coUectioa whigh be originated^ 

and for which he had a great par- 

If we consult natural proba- 
bilities, we shall find them against 
the recital of Abulpharagius and 
the existence of a library in the 
lime of Omar and Amrou. The 
books of the ancients were written 
on parchment, or on leaves of the 
papyrus. Those of the library of 
Alexandria must have been par- 
ticularly of this last kind, as the 
papyrus was an ' Egyptian plant. 
Now the leaves of the papyrus were 
very subject to dissolution and to 
insects, particularly in the warm 
and humid climate of Alexandria, 
so that it was necessary frequently 
to renew the copies. Can we be- 
lieve, that all the necessary care 
could have been given to the prcs* 
ervation of such a library after the 
reign of the Ptolemies, in the 
midst of wars, of insurrections 
that prevailed, and during which 
the taste for sciences and letters, 
as we well know, declined I The 
manuscripts in parchment, which 
probably were not numerous,might 
have lasted a longer time ; but all 
the others must have become, after 
two or three centuries, food for 

Abulpharagius does not deter- 
mine the number of the books, 
which, according to him, were 
burnt ; but, says he, they served 
for six months to heat the baths 
of the city, and we know that these 
amounted to four thousand. "Hear 
and wonder 1" adds he. It is in- 
deed an object of admiration ; booksy 
which heat foijr thousand baths, 
durmg six months. A wit might 
observe, that Amrou, having taken 
the city precisely in the month of 
May, there could not have been a 
great necessity of hot water in tho 
baths of Alexandria. The vol^ 
umes or rolls of the ancients were? 
not comparable to ours in folioi, 

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and the number of those burnt, at 
the highest estimation, could not 
amount but to three or four hun- 
dred thousand ; the daily portion 
of each bath must have been very 
small. What strangle materials 
for heating these cauldrons— old 

parchments and rolls of papyrus 1 ! the recital of Abuipharagius. 
There must have proceeded a most 

exquisite perfume for the four 
thousand baths, and the whole cit3r. 
These two ingredients might have 
well given an insufferable smoke^ 
but could not serve to heat water. 
This last absurdity is one of the 
reasons, not the least strong, against 

4. Conjee turea on the ultimate fate qf the library. 

If it be then true, as it appears, 
that in 640, the time when Alex- 
andria was taken by Amrou, the 
celebrated library no longer re- 
mained ; in what manner was it 
dispersed and destroyed after 4 1 5, 
when Orosius assures us he had 
seen it ? We will first remark, 
that Orosius speaks only of some 
cascB which he saw in the temples, 
and not of the library pf the Ptol- 
emies, which was deposited in the 
Serapion. Recollecting also the 
troubles and the constant wars, of 
which Egypt was the theatre, from 
the time of the first Roman em- 
perors, we must be astonished, that 
there remained any traces of the 
library in posterior times. Under 
Commodus the temple of Serapis 
Buffered much by a fire, but with- 
out being totally destroyed, when 
the library m\ist of course have 
been much injured. We also 
know the devastations, which the 
malicious genius of Caracalla made 
in Alexandria. The Museum was 
demolished. Under Aurelian the 
whole of the Bruchion was des- 
troyed. This emperor took the 
city and delivei'edit to the plun- 
der of his soldiers. 

Th^odosius the Great, at last, 
stimulated by the exhortations of 
the bishop of Theophilus, reduced 
to ashes in the year 391 the Sera* 
pis. It is very certain, that all the 
buildings attached to the temple 
were at this time a prey to the 
Aanaes. The destruction of the li-- 

brary must then be imputed to the 
christians ; and we can hardly 
doubt, that the blind zeal of the 
early ages induced men, lit- 
tle enlightened, to destroy books 
and monuments which they thought 
might perpetuate or remind them 
of the worship of idols. If, after 
this, any portion of the library re- 
mained, it is probable that the sec- 
ond Theodosius, as fond of books 
as Ptolemy, might have appropri- 
ated them to his own use. If af- 
ter this any thing had remained at 
Alexandria, what must have be- 
come of it during the wars which 
took place in its walls between Cy- 
rillus and Orestes ; and during the 
commotions which agitated it un- 
der the emperour Marcian ? It ia 
very probable, that there were thea 
Very considerable drafts upon it. 
The monks transferred many vol- 
umes to their monasteries ; the 
cmperours of the east toConstanti- 
nople,and toother cities,where they 
established schools. There is then 
no doubt that, towards the com- 
mencement of the ninth century, 
a large quantity of ancient books 
was found dispersed throughout 
Egypt. Leo Afticanus relates^ 
that the caliph Mamou sent into 
Syria, Armenia, and Egypt many 
persons with a commission to col- 
lect and purchase ancient books, 
and that they returned loaded with 
Inestimable treasures. 

Further let us recollect, that 
under HeracUus the Persians took 

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and pillaged Alexandria, irhich 
thcjr abandoned a short lime after- 
wards ; then came the Arabs, who 
could not possibly discover there 

the library, unless it had been mi- 
raculously preserved, of which 
unhappily we have no record in 
the history of literature. 



M. 2. 

KapleM„jafifiearance of the strertSj housea, and fico/ile,.Mra(la Toledo,,,^ 
the villa. ..suburb qf Kiaja. 

Naples ranks as the third city 
in Europe in point of size ; its pop- 
ulation is said to amount to six 
hundred thousand, but more prob- 
ably it contains less than two 
thirds that number. It stands at 
the extremity of its beautiful bay, 
and one side extends nearly to the 
base of mount Vesuvius. It is 
built at the feet and on the sides of 
several hills, the highest of which 
rises about midway between each 
extremity, and is crowned by the 
castle of St. Elmo. As the area 
on which the city is constructed 
Is not very extensive, the houses 
rise to the height of seven and 
eight stories, and are many of them 
very large and magnificent. « 
The streets are remarkably 
clean, having a descent from the 
lulls mto the bay, into which the 
rain washes all the dirt. The 
pavement of them is the finest in 
the world. It is hewed from the 
bTa in square pieces of equal size, 
and is laid in mortar ; there is no 
sideways, but the whole street is 
eren as a fioor. This mode of pa- 
Ting is expensive at the moment^ 
but is very durable, aa there are 
▼cry few carts or heavy vehicles in 
the city. 

The Btrada Toledo may vie 
with any street in Europe. Jt 
kneariy a mile in length and ter^ 
minates at one end in the Largo 
del Palazzo, where the royal palace 
JB moated, and in the other in the 

place of the Spirito Santo, in which 
there is a colossal e(|uestrian 
statue. The street contains sev- 
eral superb palaces of the nobility. 
I reside with a friend who has a 
noble apartment in a palace on this 
street, from the balconies of which 
I take great pleasure in regard- 
ing the crowds with which it is 
thronged. The carriages ai^ very 
numerous and driven m :th a veloci- 
ty, which seemed to me dangerous 
and unfeeling to the crowd on foot ; 
though I amHold, and believe it to 
be true, that, as the people are 
aware of this, they take care to get 
out of the way, and, if they drove 
slower, the obstruction would be so 
great that they would never get a- 
long. The population of this city is 
a motley mixture,composed princi- 
pally of beggars, monks, and sol- 
diers. The dresses are of all forma 
and colours, and have many of 
them a whimsical look. This fine 
street is disgraced in some places 
l>y being made a market place, and 
the stalls obstruct the sides of the 

Some of the houses are built 
of lava entirely, others have only 
the foundations of l^va and the 
walls constructed with fragments 
of softer stone, and stuccoed ; they 
have, all of them, stone staircases. 
The floors of the rooms, even of 
the bedchambers, are laid with 
tiles or bricks. Each story is in- 
habited by a separate fitmily, and 

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^e staircase is as common as the 
street, but npt always so clean. 
The windows open down to the 
floor, and are furnished with 

The strada Kiaja is the shortest 
communication between the sub* 
urbs of that name and the city. 
This street was formerly obstruct* 
cd by a high hill, which one of 
their sovereigns cut through ; but, 
in order to preserve the connection 
between the two parts of the city 
buiH on the hiil, an arch was 
thrown across from one side to the 
other, over which the street passes 
forty feet above the pavement of 
the strada Kiaja, which terminates 
»t the villa. This is a publick 
walk upon the borders of the bayi 
It is decorated with some fountains 
(ind statues ; among others the eel* 
ebrated Farnese Bull. The group 
of figures which surround it are 
principally modern, though admi* 
rably executed. Below the villa 
is the suburb of Kiaja, principally 
inhabited by fishermen. The fash- 
ionable ride for carriages in the 
evening is called the Corsoy and 
extends from the villa down to 
Pausilino. It is more than a mile, 
and the road lays all along the edge 
pf the bay. Towards the evening 

it is much crowded with caniagesi 
that drive backwa^-ds and forward^ 
for an hour or two, and enjoy the 
freshness of the evening. Some 
of the equipages are brilliant, and 
the ladies are fond of shewing 
themselves and criticising each 
other's dress and appearance. 
Nothing can be more delicious 
than this ride on the borders of the 
bay. In our country we should 
not think of taking an excursion 
for pleasure in an evening in the 
month of March ; but here naukin 
clothes may be worn all winter, 
and the want of fire is seldom felt. 
The streets are not lighted ^ a 
few solitary lamps only are seen 
hanging before the picture of the 
virgin. The footmen behind thq 
carriages carry torches, and people 
m the street are generally preceded 
by a servant witli a torch . D uring 
the early part of the evening the 
number of these torches illumi- 
nates the streets sufficiently, and 
have a brilliant appearance, though 
the spot and smoke of them are 
very inconvenient. They are ob-^ 
liged to extinguish them before 
t^ey pass the palace, on account of 
the cannon which are kept loaded 
before it. 


Sfargh agreftes tthi SUvm /ronda^^HoKACZ, 

M. 12. 


GRAY has had his full share of 
reputation, as a poet. Mason says, 
that he was^one of the most learn- 
ed men in Europe, and was skilled 
in all arts and sciences ; . tliis 
Johnson hoped vas true, but seems 
to intimate his doubts. Johnson 
is supposed to have had great 
prejudices against Gray ; I know 
PQt, that %h^ supposition is well 

founded, for Johnson highly complin 
ments his Letters and his Elegy ; 
but, because he thought "the Bard" 
ridiculous, forsooth, he b preju- 
diced. Warburton,Walpole, Gib-i 
bon, and Smith have praised him, 
and perhaps justly ; but Gray*s 
admirers are not contented wkh 
the high applause, lavished on his 
name ; they demand for their Ut^ 
voftuite univcraal acdangtatio^i ai iC 

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lie had mote tenderness than Ovid, 
more martial pomp than Pindar. 
I hare good reason to think, that 
in his Elegf and his Bard he has 
been very much indebted to the 
Italian poets, particularly to Celio 
Magno and Petrarch. This sub- 
ject I mean not now to investigate, 
for I have not lebure ; and per- 
haps I might not flash conviction 
on the idolaters of this poet. 
Some of niy friends, whose taste 
in general I love, think differently 
from me ; but I candidly confess, 
I think the severities of Johnson 
on Gray more justifiable, than the 
encomiastick adulations of Wake- 


Th* filatarms of the Romans 
should be called " the old batche- 
lor,'* for it never united its branch- 
es with the tendrils of the vine. 
Horace calls it *' caledsy' and Mar- 
tial " vidtuiy** for the grape vines 
were never married to the plane 
tree, as to tlie elm and others. 
Old batchelors also love to drink 
much wine ; they grow fot from 
the juice of the grape, and delight 
in constant potations . So the plane 
tree was nounshed by wine, as we 
leam from Pliny, " compertum id 
maxime prodesse radicibus ; doc- 
uimosque etiam arbores vina pO' 
tare ;" « it was found to be very 
DutritiGus to the roots of the plane 
tree ; and thus We have taught 
even trees to drink wine." Ma- 
crotnus and Valerius Maximus at- 
test the same fact. An old batch' 
tk)r is a mere plane tree. 


Who shall be compared to 
Goldsmith ? His verse is softer to 
the ear, than the pearl of the sea 
to the nerve of vidon. When I 
tm tired with other reading, its in« 
iue&ce is gentlet like the silent 

approaches of rain in the drought 
of summer. It flows as the vil-' 
lage brook, which gives a pleasant 
sound, and makes the fields green 
and fruitful. I read him with 
more pleasure than Pope, for I 
believe he has more exquisite sen^ 
timent ; more of pure morals ; 
and more of that nature, which 
bursts out in Thomson, which 
finds a ready entrance to every 
heart, that is not corrupted by fol-' 
ly, or rendered callous hf a city 
Ufe. He has written little poetry, 
yet that Utile is like beads, strung 
in holy rosaries, or the continuo\is 
vibrations of Uie harp at midnights 
All is musical and material in 
Goldsmith's verses. If you take 
away any thing, you injure the 
whole, for the little palace in fairy 
land was made of precious stones, 
aind the dwarf jewel in the corner 
was as necessary ,as the queen dia-» 
mond, shining in the centre. Gold- 
smith's histories are not excellent* 
They were written for booksellers 
or bread, and therefore composed 
in a hurry, without reflection or 
labour of research. His « Vicar 
of Wakefield" is well known, and 
his "Chizen of the World" I read 
with more delight, than the « Per- 
sian letters" of Montesquieu. I 
am afraid that his volume of Es- 
says is little read ; but they con- 
tain a full harvest of sense in a 
style, simple and easy, without 
Swift's nudity of figure, and with- 
out HaMrkeswoith's ornamental 


How inexhaustible is nature, 
how creative pf pleasure ! That 
man is not ethereal, who can look 
abroad on the world without emo- 
tion, and then retires into the lit- 
tle chamber of his soul, indiflerent 
• and careless of what b without* 
In the winter I caimot loiter in puie 

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woods, or ciimb the nut-trees as in 
autumn, yet I love to look on the 
elm in a clear and cold mornings 
when the boughs and branches are 
hung with ice diamonds, which 
the sun makes moat curious and 
beautiful. Even the little snow- 
bird twitters a short note, which I 
like ; and the note is much louder, 
when he pecks the spider from 
under the eaves of the wood-house, 
where be was sleeping and dream- 
ing of the flies he had caught in 
the past summer. I am not ex- 
clusively attached to books or to 
natui'e ; for how melancholy should 
I have often been, if I could not 
philosophize with Tully on the 
vanity of life, or soar to heaven, in 
rapt imagination, with Milton. But 
' I should be a brute if I saw tho 
slanting sun in winter, and did not 
admire the steadiness of his conrse» 
though his warmth was feeble, 
and his dominion transitory. £- 
ven in this northerly month of Feb- 
ruary, I remarked that the currant 
bushes were a little green in the 
buds, Sc I picked a small flower,pur- 
ple and white, from a bed of straw- 
berry vines, where the earth was 
warm and full of coming fruitful- 
ness. All have their reveries. I 
shelter myself with Thomson 
and his robin, with Cowper and 
his minnows, and with Burns and 
the family bible. 


The great excellence of Swift 
is his manly thinking. His style 
has no ornament, but is close, cor- 
rect, and terse. He did not care 
for figures to decorate superficial 
thoughts ; he well knew that his 
deep sense in pure, easy terms 
would engage the head and heart 
of every thinking reader. He is a 
l^aia gentleman, who tells honest- 
ly what he believes, and his belief 
was adid and rational. From Bol- 

ingbrokc he acquired no splendour 
of declamation in prose, for he 
probably despised it ; from Pope 
he did not learn to love imagery 
and sentiment in poetry, because 
perhaps he thought he might not 
equal his friend, or because his 
Qimd delighted in reflection, more 
than in fancy. He resembled Ar- 
buthnot in wit and sense, yet Ar- 
buthnot's works do not please like 
the writings of Swift. Johnson 
has praised Arbuthnot, but it is 
now difficult to discover the rea- 
sons of the elogy. The rhymes 
of Swift have been often praised^ 
but never beyond their real merit. 
There is no laborious search for 
correspondent words ; no altera- 
tion of sense for the convenience 
of the term ; but all the rhymes 
are musical, and the sense of the 
whole poem is connected by the 
perfect regularity of the individual 
parts. If Pope and Goldsmith 
are studied for harmony of rhymcy 
Swift should be added^ and so 
create a triumvirate. 


Warburton Speaks of " one 
Michael Drayton." A g^t may* 
mendon a dwarf with contempt* 
and a lion may despise a contest 
with a kid ; but it (Ud not become 
even the hierophant of England to 
allude obscurely to the author of 
" Polyolbion" • and " the Barons' 
wars." Drayton has all the quunt« 
ness of Spenser. He had an eyet 
that looked carefully and curious- 
ly (HI nature, and a mind, that did 
not despise learning. His foicy 
was creative and peculiar, of which 
his description oif the bosom of a 
fidr lady is an emin^it example. 
Warburton himself had a towering 
imagination ; a haughtiness of 
character, looking high, and car- 
rying proclamation of importance. 
He marched in his episcopal robe% 

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Vkt • cotkwal in fht gArments of" 
tntimph ; and his demeanour gave 
evideoce of an uncontroied spirit^ 
Mginating in the consciousness of 
unlimitfid erudition, and of a high 
pboe in the august temple of 
English hierarchy. But Drayton, 
though not a leriathan in literature, 
was a charming poet in the natural 
age of English verse, when Chau< 
cer was read ; when Spenser was 
honoured ; when Shakespeare liv** 
ed ; and when Sidney played at 
toamament and told the tales 6f Ar- 
cadia. Burton has highly praised 
lum, and the learned Selden has 
written notes on the Polyoll^n. 
I am afraid, that we do not ponder 
enough on the poetick pages of 
English bards, who wrote curious- 
ly, but most pleasantly, when Eng- 
land was young in letters. We do 
not drink at the foimtain, where 
the water is purest ; we do not 
climb to the top of the tree, where 
the fruit is the fairest ; we do not 
ascend to the summit of the hill, 
where the prospect is widest and 
the air most sweet ; but our indo- 
lence makes us grovel below ; we 
gather a few miits, which are 
ihriveUed ; and we suck in tainted 
water, which had corrupted in its 
course) and gives no nourishment. 

shakespkarb's mulberry trkb. 

O Ji£ Gastrell cut down the mul- 
berry tree, which Shakespeare 
plimted in his own garden at Strat- 
ford. This was profanation in- 
deed. The legends of the Catho- 
lick church teU wonderful stories 
about bits of the coffin of Jo- 
seph of Arimathea, and the house 
of the Virgin Mary at Loret- 
ta. What miracles might not the 
chips of the mulberry tree have 
perfi^rmed on the devout minds of 
the worshippers of Shakespeare ! 
Such is the power of association, 
that, in very flexible fiMQciesy we 

Vol. UL No. 3. I 

may eauly beUeve, ^at the most 
beautiful thoughts would have been 
produced on so enthnsiastick a sub' 
ject. We might have had from 
bards of purity and poetry odea 
equal to " the dove*' o£ Anlbreon, 
and sonnets superiour to ^< the 
laurel" of Petrarch- Gastrell will 
hereafter receive no mercy from 
the lovers of Shakespeare, and he 
will and ought to be a mark for 
the archers, a fit subject for the 
keenest shafts of the satyrist. The 
classical traveller visits the Tus-* 
culan villa of Cicero, and no longer 
finds a record or tradition of the 
spreading plane tree, in the cool 
shade of which Crassus and An-* 
tonius discoursed *' de oratore." 
In like manner, when the pilgrim 
and poet, after a revolution of moro 
than eighteen hundred years, shall 
inquire for the garden of Shake-* 
speare, though he will find no ves- 
tige and hear no curious tale of 
the mulberry tree, yet his righ- 
teous indignation will rejoice at the 
reflection, that perpetual shame 
rests on the name of Gastrell, who 
unfeelingly destroyed in full luxu- 
riance the hallowed object of Shake- 
speare's cultivation < No peace 
shall rest on his tomb. No one 
shall boast a lineage from tlie Goth. 
Whenever, in coming years, the 
jubilee of Shakespeare shall be kept 
with pageantry and pomp, with 
revelry and song on the beoiks of 
the Avon, the names of those, who 
love the poet, shall be received 
with welcome and gi*eeting, but 
no blessing of pleasant remem- 
bi*ance shall descend on the memory 
of Gastrell, and his name shall not 
mar the feast-time and merry hoU 
iday of poetry and her worshippers. 


I XEVER believed in the exist- 
ence of a golden age, when shep- 
herds piped under trees^ and when 

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love was as pure a^ the water of 
the brook ; but I have sometimes 
imagined, in the reverie of ro- 
mance, that I should like to have 
lived iy the feudal ages, « when all 
the men w^re brave, and all the 
Women were chaste." The times 
df Arthur and the khights, of Char- 
lemagne and the peers, of the Vir- 
ginQueen,with her flower of chival- 
rv, have delighted my mind, and 
entranced my imagination. Love 
u\d courage then gave kisses of 
union, and e\^ry baron of virtue 
might then fight for a lady of Ioat. 
Escutcheons, blazoned with the 
heraldry of honour and purity, and 
on the same brass-glittering shield 
were seen, and ii\ curious courte- 
sy, doves, the emblems of love, and 
lions, the pictures of bravery. 
The virgins of the imperial court 
were noble in lineage, renowned 
for their beauty, and beyond the 
praise of poetry for their virtue. 
The gallant knights and proud no- 
bility were famous for their deeds 
of conquest in defence of honour 
and the ladies. In the time of 
chivalry, purity was the glory of 
the women, and beauty was the 
sister of purity. Then was the 
penod of real love, then there was 
a true language to tell the concep- 
tions of congenial souls ; but gen- 
tlemen and peers exist no longer, 
and where are the damsels of the 
castle, where are the fair ladies of 
the court ? In the room of chival- 
ry, there is interestedness, there 
is falsehood, baseness, infamy. 
When a man now talks love to a 
girl, he is thinking of her land and 
her gold ; he now Seeks to grasp 
her wealth, or gratify his lust. But 
the men are not solely to blame. 
The women are not pure ; they 
are not lovely ; they have affecta- 
tion of sentiment, and they have 
fklseness of heart. It is a misera- 
ble age, when contracts of mar- 
riage are deeds of bargain and 

sale ; whert FOfve is prostituted t*^ 
venality ; when the awful obliga- 
tions of the matrimonial rite, mu- 
tually given and i^cdvcd in the' 
presence of a christian minister 

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CProm tHe CcoMira Llterarte for Movenber. 1805.] 

Ths genius of Bums was morp 
sublime, than that of Cowper. 
Both- excelled in the familiar : but 
yet the latter was by nature as 

thing with a poet's eye, and cloth- 
ed it with a poet's tints. 

The hearts and tempers of 
these bards seem to have been 
cast in moulds equally distinct : 
while Cowper shrunk from diffi- 
culties and was palsied with dan- 
gers, we can conceive Bums at 
times riding with delight in tlie 
whirlwind, performing prodigies 
of heroism, and foremost in the 
career of a glorious death. We 
can almost suppose in his athletick 
form and daring countenance, had 
he lived in times of bai'barism, 
and been tempted by hard neces- 
sity to forego his principles, such 
an one ^s we behold at the head 
of a banditti in the savage scenery 
of Salvator Rosa, gilding the 
crimes of violence and depreda- 
tion, by acts of valour and gene- 
ro^ty ! Li Cowper, on the contra- 
ry, we view a man only fitted for 
the most refined state of society, 
s^d for the* bowers of peace and 

There is a relative claim to su> 
pcriority on the side of Bums, on 
which I cannot lay so much stress 
as many are inclined to do. I 
mean his want of education, while 
the other enjoyed all the discipline 
and all the advantages of a great 
publick school. If the addiction 
to the Muses, and the attainment 
of poetical excellence were noth- 
ing more than an accidental appU- 
.cation of general talents to a par- 
ticular species of intellectual oc- 
cupiition, how happens it that a- 
jmong the vast numbers educated 
. at Westminster, or Eton, or Win- 
chester, or HarrQWy among whom 
there must be very many of very 
high natural endowmpitsi and 

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where day after dayi vnd year 
fftfter year, they are habituated to 
poetical composition by e^ery 'ar* 
tifice of emulation, and every ad« 
vantage of precept and example, 
80 few should attain the rank of 
genuine poets, while Bums in a 
claybuilt hovel, amid the labours 
of the plough and the flail, under 
the anxiety of procuring his daily 
bread, with little instruction and 
few books, and surrounded only 
by the humblest society, felt an 
irresistible impulse to poetry, 
vhich surmounted every obstacle, 
and reached a felicity of expres- 
sion, a force of sentiment, and a 
richness of iipagery scarce ever 
rivalled by an union of ability, 
education, practice, and laborious 
effort ? Thinking therefore that 
poetical talent is a bent impressed 
by the hand of Nature, I canfiot 
give the greatest weight to subse- 
quent artificial circu^istances ; 
but yet I must admit that in the 
case of Bums they were so nnfa- 
vourable, that no common natural 
genius could have ov<ercome them. 
On the contrary, there were 
8ome points in the liistgry of 
Bums more propitious tp the bold- 
er features of poetry, than in that 
of Cowper. He wrote in the sea- 
son pf youth, when all the passions 
%vere at their height ; his life was 
less uniform, and his station was 
more likely to encourage energy 
and enthusiasm, than the more 
polished and more insipid ranks, 
to which the other belonged. In 
the circles pf feshion, fire and im- 
petuosity are deemed vulgar ; and 
vith the roughnesses of the hu- 
tnan character all its force is too 
often smoothed away. An early 
intercourse with the upper moM- 
ity is too apt to damp all the gen- 
^i-ous emotions, and make one 
ashamed of romantick hopes 
jmd sublime concentions. From 

blights of th)8 kind the eariy sit- 
uation of Bums protected him. 
The htatha and . mountains of 
Scotlandf among which he lived, 
braced his nerves with vigour, and 
cherished the bold and striking 
colours pf his mind. 

But it seems to me vain and idle 
to speculate upon education and 
outward circumstances, as the 
causes or promoters of poetical 
genius. It is the inspiring breath 
of Nature alone, which gives the 
powers of the genuine iMird, and 
creates a ruling prop^sityi and m 
peculiar cast of character, which 
will rise above every impediment, 
but can be substituted by neither 
art nor labour. To write melKf 
fluous verses in language, which 
may seem to the eye apd the ear 
adomed vrith both imagery and 
elegance, may be a &cttlty neither 
unattainable, nor even uncommon. 
But to give that soul, that predom^ 
inance of thought, that ilhuninaer 
ed tone of a living spirit, whkh 
spring in so inexplicable a man- 
ner from the chords of the real 
lyre^ is beyond the reach of mere 
human arrangement, without the 
innate and very rare gift of the 
Muse. That gift has regard 
neither to rank, station, nor richi 
cs. It shone over the cradles of 
Surry, and Buckhurst, amid the 
splendour <5f palaces, and the lus* 
tfe of coronets ; it shone over 
those of Milton, and Cowley, and 
Dryden, and Gray, and Collins, 
amid scenes of fmgal and unos- 
tentatious competence apd medi- 
ocrity ; it fhbne over that of 
Bums, in the thatched hovel, the 
chill abode of comfortless penury 
and humble labour. 

If there be any who doubt 
whether, in the exercise of th2» 
gift. Bums contributed to his owiv 
happiness, let them hear the testis 
mony of himself. <* P©csy,** saw 

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^HE mrMAUKcm. 


Ix to Dr. Moore, « was still a 
(kriin^ walk for my mind ; but it 
was only indulged in according to 
the humour of the honr. I had 
usually half a dozen, or more 
pieces on hand ; I took up one or 
other as it suited the momentary 
tone of the mind, and dismissed 
the work as it bordered on fatigue. 
My passions, when once lighted 
up, raged like so many devils, till 
they got vent in rhyme, and then 
the conning over my verses, like a^ 
^11, soothed all into quiet !'* In 
truth, without regard to happiness, 
or misery, the impulse of the true 
poet towards his occupation is 
generally irresistible, even to the 
neglect of all, to which prudence 
and self-interest imperiously dic- 
tate ids attention. Thus placed 
in the conflict of opposite attrac- 
^kns, he too often ^Is a victim to 
the compunctions of mental re- 
{ret, and the actual stripes of 
^rorkfly adversity. But the die 
It ciat ; even the misery, which 

is endured in such a cause, is dear 
to I'im ; and the hope that his 
memory will live, and the pictures 
of his mind be cherished when his 
bones are mouldering in the ^ust» 
is a counterpoise to more thaa 
ordinary sufferings ! 

I do not mean to encourage the 
idea, that the imprudences, and 
much less the immoralities, of 
Bums, were absolutely insepara- 
ble from the brilliance of his tal» 
ents, or the sensibilities of his 
heart. I am not justifying, I onljr 
attempt to plead for them, in miti- 
gation of the harsh and narrow 
censures of malignity and envy. 
I call on those of dull heads and 
sour tempers to judge with can- 
dour and mercy, to respect human 
frailties, more especially when re- 
deemed by accompanying virtues, 
and to enter not into the garden of 
Fancy with implements too coarse, 
lest in the attempt to destroy the 
weeds, they pluck up also all the 



Tsaiatne animh edlestihvs ir0 T Vmcil. 

Can heavenly minds such high resentment show ? 

ATo. «. 


ONE might imagine, that the 
Boavoidable calamities of Ufc would 
sulBcienl}y espercise pur philoso- 
phy, without unnecessarily adven- 
turing into experiments of ps^- 
tience ; that mankind would pre- 
fer the improvement of their plea- 
sures to the advancement of their 
pains ; that there \youId be more 
pupils of the garden of Epicurus, 
than disciples of the tub of Dio- 
fcDes. But hourly «;pcriencc 
confirms the uncertainty of calcu- 
lations in morals ; and though 
the politician may prophecy from 
incidents the motion of empires, 
»Ki the astronomer determine by 
pheaomena the visitations of com- 

ets, there are np diviners in eth« 
icks, that can prognosticate the 
inclinatiops of the soul. TepiperSf 
touched by the sain^ $park, ex* 
plode into ^ variety of directionst 
and you xpay as readily assign e 
pathway to the hurricane in the 
wil^iemess, as regulate the conae* 
quencea resulting frpm a principle. 
Since the apottacy of our par« 
ents, and the entailment of their 
punishment, it has been the busi« 
nesB of the theologian and moralist 
to alleviate the severities of oural^ 
lotment. Precepts have accord- 
ingly been poured forth on the 
conduct of life, till their sources 
txt dry^ and the ^ffoir^ of ^« qiodt 

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xuz luucAsinjiu 

cm essayist unavoidably restricted 
to a mere repetition of the senti- 
ments of the dead. By what pros- 
elytes the instructers of antiquity 
were followed, or how extensively 
their humbler representatives are 
regarded, it would deservedly oc- 
casion the community a blush to 
relate. That so much labour has 
been employed, and so little achiev- 
ed, will be a circumstance of hu- 
miliation to the vanity of under- 
talking ; and the calculating portion 
of mankind, after an intimacy with 
society, will rather accept a profes- 
sorship for the regulation of the 
winds, dian fatigue their constitu- 
^ons with lecturing the insane. , 

To those unread in the weak- 
nesses of human naturCf these sen- 
timents may appear the offspring 
of misanthropy ; too prematurely 
delivered to be correct, and too 
distorted to pretend, in any degree 
to a relationship with truth. That 
any ^should prefer uproar to rule^ 
quarrel to quiet, anxiety to* ease, 
supposes an eccentricity in choicCf 
too unnatural for belief. Admit- 
ting, as moralists have degrading- 
ly asserted, that selfishness is the 
principle of action ; few, among 
the provi4eBt, wo^ld sacrifice their 
comfort for the limited satisfaction 
"of disturbing their neighbours, or 
the whimsical diversion of appear- 
ing disagreeable. Were the feel- 
ings of an individual illustrative of 
^he whole, I could conscientiously 
pite myself on the occasion, as an 
authority (n point ; for, so wedded 
am 1 to convenicncy, that I never 
draw on my boots after dinner, «fr 
stoop down to buckle my shoe, but 
T. reflect, that I am abridging the 
Amount of my days. Qmetude is 
-the essence of being ; and he is 
Ipoor in the good ^lings of this 
world, who has never rested his 
legs against the jambs of the fire- 
place, or wiped his forehead in the 

shadei after the &ti(ptte8 of a prom- 
enade. The period of modern ex- 
istence is contracted to threescore 
and ten, and they, who imbitter the 
trifle, are equally cruel and niad. 
Yet, on this theme, the voice of 
fact is as melancholy as decisive* 
and it will be discovered, that the 
Remarker, far from a^ravating 
the disagreeable, has rather qual- 
ified the harsh. There are some 
spirits that appear to agree in 
nothing but to disagree, and the 
moment you fall within their influ- 
ence, you must be possessed of the 
equanimity of Democritus not to 
be disturbed in the economy oi 
your temper. They seem, as it 
were, bom beneath a tempestuous 
quarter of the moon, when the ma-. 
ligner aspects of the firmament 
were ascendant, and, like the dis- 
tempered period of their nativityi 
to be propitious to eommotion and 
portentous of ill. The more you 
sacrifice to their arrogance, the 
more their perverseness increaseSf 
and not to struggle with the stream 
is to be buried in the foulness of . 
its bottom* No sense of propri- 
ety, no feeling for delicacy, no ob- 
servance of custom ever character- 
izes their carnage* The polish of 
etiquette, the gentleness of modes- 
ty, the sweetness of affability, with 
all the tender courtesies of inter- 
course, are wasted on them, like the 
refinements of the Houybnhnms 
on the coarseness 6f the Yahoos. 

** Let Hwcolet hfatMcIf do what he nuy, 
The cat wiU mew, the dog wUl harehit dayJ>* 

They remind you of those quad- 
rupeds, that are too desperate to be 
domesticated, too wild for an in- 
terchange of reliance, that are 
turned forth to howl and to depre- 
date in the shadow of the wilder* 
ness. In truth, though the per- 
suasion may seem fancifol, they 
further appear peculiarly illustra- 
tive of the doctrine of transmigra- 

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6ob, and many, less credukms than 
lenjns, might be readily persuad- 
ed, that some, that norw travel to 
tiKi fro on two ifg^y seeking whom 
they may annoy, were, in aforetime, 
assisted on similar excursions, by 
fte accommodatiiig Dtimber and 
celerity of /bur, I remember not, 
whether Ae system of transforma- 
tion of beings supposes the passage 
of higher natures into lower, or 
lower into higher, or both ; but 
that the personages in question are 
n^dtf accomplishing themselves 
for that which is here conceived 
th^ primitive condition, none will 
deny, and none will regret. Vio- 
lent visitations become tolerable 
from the probability of their short- 
ness, and these antidotes to enjoy- 
ment arc only endured, for the pre- 
sent, thro' the soothing expectation 
of tlreir returning to their origin. 

Such are the wayward spirits 
that rejoice in disturtNince ; whose 
home, like the Sisterhood's of the 
Heath, is in the tempests they en- 
gemler. But every principal has 
is siA>cyrdinate, and, though we 
have exposed the leaders of the 
Ihischief, their accessaries remain 
to be noticed. That delicacy, 
#hich excuses petty offences, is 
•Dworthy the fidelity of Ae mor- 
liist; for great vices originate 
iriHn trivial mttdemeanours, and 
the cahn of llbd^ty may be rufiRed 
^ a whisper, tl^ntcted with the 
wracteraidM»4}6d,^ere are sec- 
, who, wanting 
tittack, grat- 
' sly innuendo 
They are 
tftCmeer, and 
eb satirize witii « «MtpKment. 

Ma never^iMili bttt they ^mile. 
The import of their Ihi^h is a 
tt»»sm, and tt0 expirok m of 

these beings tnore disconsolate 
ittn irintery aadas yoo approxz« 

mate the chilness of theif latitudes, 
you perceive your mercury sub- 
siding to the point of congelation. 
In their presence, the stream of 
conversation stiffens as it flows, and 
the reluctant observation is chilled 
in the delivery. Should circum- 
stances deny them an opportunity 
to annoy you, they sit folded in an 
angle, hatching the solitary egg of 
ill-nature ; perfecting mischief in 
embryo for the occasions of spleen. 
They listen to falsehood, ahd lay 
in wait to gather scandal ; they de- 
light in the narrative of disappoint- 
ments, and are chagrined at the 
report of success. Suspicious of 
the narrowness of their capacities, 
thc^ perfection of another cometh 
home like a censure ; and the 
more perfect the character exhib- 
ited, the more radical their hate. 
Were they endued with resolution 
to execute what their malignancy 
concerts, their station would be 
paramount on the file of vexations ; 
but to torture the malevolent with 
the mortifications of impotence is 
the agency of providence for the 
security of the virtuous. They 
accordingly contrive sn'ares, that 
they want courage to spread ; they 
construct engines for disturbance, 
that they fear to discharge, 

** And Ibe* like •• cowtrdi" ia their •* own es- 

Letting I dcre not, wait npon I would. 
Like tlie poor cat l*t|ie adage." 

These constitute the secondary 
denomination of malcontents ; be- 
ings, less destructive in their ten- 
dency than their principals, but e- 
qually distorted in disposition and 
grain. Ifi - by the moral code, the 
projection of an injury be alike 
culpable with the performance, 
they incur the consequences of a 
crime,withoutthe pleasure of com- 
mitting it. They sow seed, whose 
only produce is disappointment 
and shame. They fill their bos- 
oms with bitterness, and waste 
themselvec with cursing in pii* 

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vate. In the bustle, attending the 
tchievement of vicious designs, the 
accusations of conscience may, for 
a season, be suspended ; but to 
support a sedentary existence of 
low machination and impotent de- 
sire ; to wear away in^e cool lu- 
cubration of iniquity Md spite, is 
to experience the labour of Sisy- 
phus, and endure tho scourge of 
the Furies. By what motives such 
dispositions are actuated, it would 
puzzle the perspicacity of a Hin- 
doo to discover. It is said, that 
the pain of excessive pleasure is 
delicious, but the pleasure of ex- 
cessive pain is a paradox. 

The subject matter of Remark' 
tr Sixth was the product of acci- 
dent, rather than research. By 
this conf'ission it is not tlie inten- 
tion of the writer to apologize for 
its treatment, but to introduce the 
incident that awakened liis reflec- 
tions. That which is casually ac- 
quired may be leisurely revolved, 
and many examples, more pat tlian 
the present, might be exhibited of 
the felicities of chance. There are 
^ains of reflection extending 
through every intelligence, and 
when a spark is imparted they 
hurry to explosion. The incident 
alluded to may be understood from 
what follows. 

Several evenings ago I received 
a note from Mrs. Equinox, and 
my yesterday was devoted to meet- 
ing her wishes. Many months 
had elapsed, since I last darkened 
her doors, and many years, per- 
haps, may revolve ere I repeat my 
respects. As we had heretofore 
parted without a tear, we again 
even encountered without a smile. 
To me the coalition was as memo- 
rable as an eclipse, and the gloom 
that attended it not dissimilar to 
that of the phenomenon. There 
are people, who arrive and depart 
without exciting a reflection ; there 
are some, whom we gaze after 
iSrom the windowitill they fade into 

nothing ; there are others too, UuA 
we escort to the threshold with a 
sensation of relief. To whiph de-* 
scription of visitors Mrs. Equinox 
considered me as pertaining, I have 
not the curiosity to inquire ; the 
opinions of the disagreeable are 
generally less distressing,than their 
presence. But, such is my regard 
for the lady, if accident conducts 
her to my door, I shall feel little 
compunction in securing its bolts. 

It is thought, tliat no character 
is sufficiently corrupt to be devoid 
of a virtue ; that some truth majr 
reside even in the midst of deprav- 
ity. In support of the sentiment 
I can quote the lady in question, 
for, to do justice to impudence, she 
is above deception. No cover is 
employed to secrete her deformi- 
ties, no polisli attempted to soften 
her rudeness ; she is equally neg- 
ligent of appearances or arts, and 
commits outrages on society with- 
out apology or shame. If there is 
any pleasure in exciting alarm,she 
is rarely destitute, t9o, of amuse- 
ment ; for every one, who ven- 
tures within her influence, is gen- 
erally afflicted with an ague. Ter- 
ror is considered, I believe, as apart 
of the subiirnc^ and, as it is proper 
to feel what we mean to impress, 
I would recommend Mrs.£quinox 
to the cultivators of rhetorick. If, 
after a lecture or so from her la« 
dyship, any one should be deficient 
m representing the gratidy he may- 
be a much better member of soci- 
ety, but is unquestionably no poet. 
I have, myself, for some time had 
a tragedy upon the stocks, wluch, 
owing to the incompleteness of its 
infernal machinery, I liave hitherto 
delayed presenting the publick ^ 
but, since the vi^t afofenamed, 
I feel so adequate to every thing 
tremendous, 2^at I now calculate 
on a represcAt^on in the course 
oftheseaa^ ^bejict concluding 
vntb a cc^Cfr/^/unVf, which re* 
Uxisd at nrat the progress of my 

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tn ktUAntlLft: 


UttsCj will infallibly command the 
applause of the house ; for the 
principal infernal of the dramatis 
persons is immediately taken from 
mj ferocious entertainer. If the 
performers are not remiss in con** 
eeiving their author, my number 
^mght9 is as certain as day. One 
character, well defined, has sup-" 
t)orted a play, and I challenge all 
ttit fallen to parallel mine. 

The countenance is considered 
by some as a pre&ce to the char-* 
acter. Htfw far the doctrine qf 
ftaturcB Is fallacious or firm, the 
iDquisitive or idle may decide for 
themselves ; neither capacity, nor 
leisure, promote my remarks* 
However, as many of my readers 
are perhaps students of the txte^ 
rioury a rough sketch of the lady^g 
physiognomy may be somewhat 
appropriate, though ever so imper* 
feet. Attend, then, and tremble ! 
^^jiamquam antatii nKmlaiMc horret, tocenque 

Between two optick8,more fiery 
than intelligent, imagine a thin 
partition of nostri],more censorious 
than wise ; to a mouth, rather ex-^ 
travagantthan liberal, an expression 
more ferocious than brave ; to an 
elevated forehead, more wrinkles 
than iniagination ; to an acumina« 
ted chin, more severity than deci-* 
sion ; imagine features to frighten 
children from their playthings, or 
convert dairies to cut^e ; imagine 
that which you wish least to be-* 
hold, and her portraiture is yours. 
But the history of her deformities 
concludes not with her counter 
nance. Nature, in every passage 
of its performance, is incomparably 
uniform ; and her ladyship is as 
unique in uglfaiess, as the Graces 
in beauty. To extend then this 
^ead-Mze to %Jull4ength ; conceive 
of a figure, neariy five fbet eleven, 
ikinny, faded, aiki Coarsei angular 

VoUIII. No.8, K 

in its outline as a diagram in trigo<> 
nometry, and as uncomfortable to 
contact as the edges of a bureau ; 
conceive of soniething between a 
woman and a man, with the roughJ 
ness of the one and the sex of the 
other ; a being ^hom the women 
must disown and the men disavow ; 
and, should you still fail of hei' 
likeness, call up, to assist your 
conception, the weird sisters of 
Shakespeare ; for, like them, she 
is indebted to a petticoat for the 
testimony of her sex. In fine^ 
imagine a woman, every property 
of whose nature is at enmity with 
love, who, in ar scarcity of her kind^ 
would be the most puzzled for a 
panner, and, though you believe 
me romancing, you will posses^ 
Mrs. Equinox to the nicety of a 

Thus much for the disposition 
and appearance of this unconifort-* 
able lady, my Interview with whom 
remains to be decribed. To dis- 
cuss the enormities of society is 
the office of the essayist, in the 
performance of which, accommo-' 
dation is delinquency. To em-» 
ploy lenitives as a recipe foi abuse, 
or to solicit violence by entreaty, 
is like indu4ging a diseased man to 
facilitate his cure. Should the Re-« 
marker be considered therefore as 
too profuse of his caustick, let the 
tender-hearted be instructed, that 
more are injured by forbearanco 
than correction. This affecting « 
to do something, and executing 
nothing, i% relinquishing tlie rod 
to the children, and making a mock- 
cf y of discipline. But to the lady. 

On approaching the mansion of 
Mrs. Equinox, agreeably to her 
note and disagreeably to my wish" 
es, I experienced a foreboding, re- 
sembling that of a truant retui-ning 
to hi$ tutor, and involuntarily per«^ 
formed several evolutions ab4^ut 

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TDE HfiMARieCll. 

the premises, tvithout arriving at 
her door. But, finally recollecting 
that there was no avoiding the vis- 
it, and feeling that the apprehen- 
sion of diffkiilty was worse than 
the encounter, I sufficiently rallied 
my spirits to elevate the knocker. 
The noise of its fall was like the 
knell of my joys. The morning 
was cold and blue, and the winds 
sang mournfully in the key-hole. 
I felt as if attending, in the char- 
acter of chief mourner, the funeral 
©f the whole family of the Agree* 
ables. Luckily, at my entrance, 
no one was in the parlour, and, re- 
membering that genuine courage 
derived accessions from reason, I 
was beginning to argue myself in- 
to magnanimity, when Mrs. Equi- 
nox appeared. What before has 
been hinted of our meeting I will 
not enlarge upon ; suffice it that 
we encountered without a smilC) 
for wc had parted without a tear. 

To love or hate at first sight is 
accounted whimsical, yet much of 
a character may be gathered from 
a glance* Of the correctness of 
prepossession, I could produce 
Mrs. Equinox as an instance, for 
in a moment you are persuaded 
that sbh is possessed with a famil- 
iar. The composure of her first 
salutation resembles that tranquil- 
lity in the heavens, which is the 
precursor of a tempest, and yon 
may read, even in her countenance 
• at fest, the inclemency of her tem- 
perament. The day of my visit, 
imfortunately, was rather dirty im- 
der foot, and, forgetting in my ag- 
itation to nmke use of the scrapev, 
I unwittingly traced the carpet 
with mud, from the entry to the 
fire-place. From ladies less punc- 
tilious in their household than my 
hostess, such a clownish manceu* 
vrc might have produced a reproof, 
and to one of her susceptibility the 
iUfaccmetU of a kiddcfTnimtcr was 

ample matter for invecfivr. Ac^ 
cordingly, with features divided 
between simpers and frowns, and 
tones set at variance by raillery 
and spite, concealing and betray- 
ing a desire of revenge, she imme-* 
diately proceeded to open an attack. 
" You have been particularly un- 
fortunate in selecting your road, 
sir, or the ways are much fouler 
than I was led to suppose. Why, 
you are lumbered with mud like 
a wheel from the mire, and youf 
heels are as heavy as a plough- 
man's in spring. Here, Mary, 
Mary, for the love of neatness, 
come hither, or we shall be buried 
alive. The gentleman, I believe, 
imagines that we Were created 
merely to rub and to clean. Here 
have I been sleeving and driving to 
make thingi as they should bey 
and the first recompence of my in- 
dustry is dirt and disgrace." Un- 
luckily, the tongue of Mrs, Equi- 
nox being suspended in the mid- 
dle, her vocal abilities were just 
double her neighbours, and, on oc- 
casions as interesting to hussies as 
the present, her utterance remind- 
ed you of the running down of a 
jack. Sensible that apologies 
would only aggravate her elo- 
quence, I was silently about retir- 
ing to disencumber ray boots, when 
my ears were accosted by tihe full 
pathos of her pipe. « For geod- 
ness-sake, stand still, sir, or return 
in your track ; your shifting about 
only widens the grievance. Be- 
cause the room is a dirt-heap, must 
you make it a kennel ? I protest, 
such proceedings would put a saint 
out of patience. I will say, siAcs 
the commencement of my house- 
keeping, I never witnessed the 
like, and, if this be the conse- 
quence of receiving a visit, I de- 
sire, for the future, to meet com- 
pany abroad." Thankful that anf 
track was yet £iyourabI& for rt^ 

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treat, I gladly proceeded in quest 
of tbf door, and, while busied iu 
removing the cause of affront, very 
nearly concluded on effecting my 
•scape. But it was written in my 
horoscope that the day should be 
foul, and I disconsolately returned 
to the scene of my sufferings. 

The season, preceding the arri- 
val of dinner, was principally de- 
voted to peevishness and slander. 
The attendants either did what 
they should not, or did not what 
they should. One thing was bad- 
ly executed, and another omitted. 
This servant was stupid, and that 
servant perverse. Every incident 
was piwiuctive of errour, and ev- 
ery errour of regret. Characters 
were pecked to pieces, like the 
jack-daw in iEsop, and reputations 
dispersed as lightly as feathers. 
It was hinted, that such a lady was 
addicted to cordials, and that hoops 
-were in fashion with some folks 
for ^ore reasons than one ; that 
the complexion of the Miss May^ 
thorns were purchased at the 
colourman's, and that the teeth of 
the Ivories never grew in their 
heads. But her strictures concluded 
not here. The whole line of my 
ancestry next passed in review. 
My great gra^dsires and grandams 
found littlp grace in her sight, and 
jny uncles and aunts were disj^ra- 
gcd by p4rs. I was cautioned, 
from the &te of my parents, to 
learn wisdom in time, and instruc- 
ted that the downfal of our house 
bad proceeded from inattention and 
pride. Her method of determin- 
iqg the merits of characters was 
peremptory and expeditious ; for 
she listened to no counsel for the 
accused, and her decisions were re- 
li^Qved al^ve the reapl) of amend* 

ment. Dinner, generally conduc- 
ing to cheerfulness and content, I 
conceived that her ladyship might 
presently relapse, and that a little 
good-humour would yet lighten the 
scene. But the sequel of my visit 
brought nothing but gloom. The 
repast, instead of operating in the 
way of an emollient, only aggra- 
vated her disorder to a fiercer ex- 
cess. Every thing again, as be- 
fore, supplied a cause for com- 
pUdnt, and I found, that it was c- 
qually as impracticable to stop her 
mouih with a feast, as to affect her 
obstinacy with an argument. 

Thoroughly exhausted by this 
time with the entertainment I had 
witnessed, I anxiously awsdted an 
opportunity to retire, and immedi- 
ately upon the removal of the cloth 
and the circulation of th^ glass 
pretended an appointment and es- 
caped the concern. As the dwel- 
ling of my entertainer retreated be- 
hind me, the countenances of ob- 
jects rcgathered their smiles, and, 
comparing the scene I had left 
with the evening around me, I fer- 
vently reflected, that harmony was 
the worship of angels and discord 
the diversion of devils. 

Such are the tempers that un- 
naturally contribute to the disaster 
of society ; who tend at the sources 
of pleasure to make turbid their 
streams ; and, not satis^ed witli 
sipping the cup of bitterness alone, 
infuse the draught of their neigh- 
bours with disappointment and 
dregs. But far from these and 
their influence be the fortunes of 
my friends ; may their cups ever 
flow with the juice of Anacreon, 
and their brows ever beam with * 
wreath of his clusters. 

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To the Editors qf the Anthology, 


f preaent ttropg^ fou to the pqhllclc an duy, trafuteted firom the Decade PhQoiophlqiie. Th» 
•ufajcct b interesting ; the original is elegant in compotition, and the version i« worthy off tho 
original. These confideratioM should induce every one to devote an half hour to reading \K 
flowly, and examining seriously the truth of its reflections. But if soch reasons wiH not exdte at* 
fention, particularly from your fair friend* ; I may excite their curious dfligence by hinting, naiv*« 
fDcnt, that their sex is mere interested in the pleasure they wiU receive* than perhaps thef 
night otherwise imagine. As an honourable cavalier, however, secrecy It a knlght*s duty bi 
matters of tpist. Were I even authorized to tell all that I know, I would not, from m%^ 
tjves of policy, make use 0/ the extent of my powers ^ and should I be continu|dly impor<! 
toned to make a full declaration, 1 shall speak darl^y, as in 4 parable of the East, that whea 
the nymphs of Hhidostan were requested to adorn with the moit beautifca sfcnibt the public^ 
gardens in Delhi, one of the lovely yirgins of the city, having done her part of the doty in thf 
foft, early twilight, charged the bbxls of the morning not to carol the name^f b^, who had 
planted the wUd rose from the woods of Arabia in the flower walk of fUfi<, the mMt beant|r 
fttl quarter In the metropolis of India. 


AS I was Strolling last summer 
in the valley cm the north pf Montt 
martrci I sjaw, under a cluster of 
plms, planted on the declivity of 
p. hill, at the side of a fountain, a 
young man, whose melancholy and 
eerious aspect announced an aiRic- 
^ed or jealous lover, He had a 
book, which he opened) shut, openr 
cd and shut again, alternately. 
Passing near enough to perceive 
that he was heading poetry, and, 
fiecyph^ring at the head 'of the 
page, Mirciaaiuy I doubted not but 
this was the poem of the unfortu* 
|iate M alfilatre, and imagined, that 
the reader might well be a poet, 
Vho tool^ a lesson from the work of 
a man with whom he appeared to 
eympathise in misery. 

I left hjm and continued my 
ramble. An hour after, I passed 
by the same spot : the young man 
was no longer there ; but I per- 
ceived a paper in the plape where 
I had met him. Let us sec, said. 
1 to myself ; it is perhaps a love- 
Jetter from his mistress, or some 
eHusion of his muse, It was neir 
ther, but a letter from a friend. 

I read it ; it appeared to me less 
fr? FPrJ^ oi a man of wit, which 

now might be neither extraordina^ 
ry nor original, than of a man of 
sense, which is more rare and more 
useful. It contained wise couivi 
sels, applicable to many young 
men, who believe themselves capa« 
ble of every thing, because they 
hav^ their heads crammed with 
phrases ; and I believe I shall do 
the^i a service in publishing this 
letter, from which they may derive 
considerable advantage. 

< I answer, my young misan- 
thrope, to the epistolary deplama^i 
tion, which you have addressed to 
me against those who have not 
done justice to your love and your 
talents for the belles lettres. Yotj 
call those people barbarians : they 
have said nothing but what is rea- 
sonable. I think I see your brow 
contract at these woi^s \ but calm 
yourself and listen. 

* If you were guided by the im-» 
perious genius, which estranged 
Malfilatre and Gilbert from a use- 
ful an^ modes^ profession, and 
caused the first to d}e of hunger^ 
and the second in a hospital, \ 
should pity you for having beeq 
bom under a star so inauspicious, 
and ) shpuld not attempt to oppose 

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fB irresistible inclination, by coun* 
sels, of which I should feel the 
impotence ; but I think there is 
yet time to make you listen to 

*■ If any one kpows you well, 
it is myself, who have been with 
yott from early life. You have 
been occupied with useful studies, 
nature has endowed you with tal* 
entSf you writ45 poetry agreeably, 
your prose is easy, you have taste 
and learning, and your imagina* 
Ckm is brilliant ; you are, at five 
and twenty, an interesting young 
man, and of distinguished merit. 
But permit me to say, that I see 
not in you the real essence of ge* 
Pius ; it it genius, however, that 
you flatter yourself you possess, 
and you mistake for it ebullition 
and transports of fancy. 

* Bold ideas, which shed a brlK 
fiant light on a whole generation ; 
great conceptions, which command 
the admiration of contemporaries 
and of posterity ; creations, in 
9horlf of the beautifal and true, 
are not within your dominion ; 
you cultivate with success known 
plants, but you have never discov-r 
ered new ones. You write, I al- 

cieties ; but never will they give 
you a reputation, which is wafted 
beyond your cx>untry or the age 
in which you live. It is only for 
a reputation of this kind that one 
ought to devote himself exclusively 
to letters. Glory then takes the 
place of fortune. But to lose for* 
tune, without acquiring glory, is 
too complete a deprivation. You 
nm this risk, my dear friend, by 
your literary infatuation, which 
fnakes you regard simple and use* 
fill occupations with disdain antl 

< You are enraged against men 
in office,who have little confidence 
in the capacity of those who make 
a trade of authorship. You will 
not suffer the talents of a man pf 
letters to be regarded as excluding 
those of a man of business. In 
your fury against such a heresy, 
you had nearly gone back to the 
dduga to seek facts which might 
refute it. You cite Moses, who 
made laws and canticles ; David, 
who knew hpw to reign and 
compose odes ; Solomon, who 
was the wisest of kings and the 
most wanton of poets ; Xen- 
ophon, Demosthenes, Cicero, Sen* 
eca, Machiavel, Bocace, Bacon, 
and in France de Thou, who drew 
up decrees and composed history ; 
Richlieu, who overthrew tyranny, 
cannonaded Rochelle, and wix>te 
tragedies in secret ; Bemis, who 
was a niinister and a love-sick 
poet ; Turgot, who abandoned the 
dryness of calculation for pretty 
verses ; Necker, who formed an 
alliance between eloquence and 
arithmetick ; Calonne, who wrote 
like a literary man, and governed 
like a statesman ; Mirabeau, whq 
united in the highest degree the 
magick of oratory to the depth of 
political investigation. 

< Do not these men, you exclaim^ 
after this paultitude of q^Qtat;o;i9| 





do not the»c men directly confute 
those savages, who maintain the 
incompatibility between the culti- 
vation of Icttei's and the honourary 
professions in society ? Do you 
believe, that a man, who can com- 
pose a book, pannot also write an 
official dispatch ? 

< Yes, my friend ; Thomas, who 
was a writer of a certain rank, was 
unable, when he was secretary to 
M. de Praslin, to write a tolerable 
letter of business. There is some 
difference between an academy and 
a statesman's office. Academick 
speakers know not how to reason 
with simplicity ; they make fine 
phrases, as a dancing master dis- 
plays beautiful steps. Literature 
with men of busmess is an excel- 
lent accessory to the education, 
which is necessary for them ; but it 
ought not to be the principal part 
of it. We ought to be able to 
express ourselves with elegance 
and purity ; but wj ought not to 
W?ply this talent to things of a friv- 
olous or uninteresting nature. If, 
for example, you direct your abil- 
ities towards objects of positive 
and substantial uuiity ; if, instead 
of inventing romantick scenes, and 
of abandoning yourself to meta- 
physical delusions, you seize hold 
pf an abstruse questioui and un- 
folding its difficulties you shew it 
in a clear point of view, which fa- 
cilitates the decision of it, you will 
inoke a profitable use of your 
knowledge and your pen. Noisy 
acclamation will not strike your 
^r, but you will gain the approba- 
tion and esteem of men of sound 

* These are the men, whose suf- 
frage and support a young man 
pught to seek, I am not surprised 
^t your distress, and the despair 
»rhich results from it. To what 
^nd are your verses, your roman- 
iJ§§» your comedies, or your mprai 
§nd |)hilosophi9al essays i These 

are blossoms, which yield no fi^t. 
It is wheat, that is most necessary 
for you. Cultivate it then in your 

< Employ your talents only for 
solid acquisitions ; a field of com 
is more valuable than a parterre. 
Determine upon a profession ; it 
is by a profession that one takes 
his station in society. I would not 
wish you to make an absolute di- 
vorce from your Muse, but I ad^ 
vise you to treat her as a friend, 
whom one visits when he has 
nothing of more importance to do. 

< A woman, who is amiable and 
artless, afiectionate to her husband 
and children, is preferable to the 
nine nymphs of Parnassus. En- 
deavour to merit such a treasure ; 
but, I repeat it, you will not obt^ 
her imless you fix upon a profes- 
sion. An unsettled man is a su- 
pernumerary in the world. A man 
of letters, who, with subordinate 
talents, seeks for glory, is a false 
Jason,who attempts with a wretch* 
ed skiff the conquest of the gol- 
den fieece. He is a sleep-wajker, 
who wanders in the region of 
dreams; rouse yourself, my friendi 
depart from this airy region, and 
enter into that of realities, where 
the man, who rears and supports a 
family, is considered of impor- 
tance by his fellow creatures.' 

I embnice ycu, L. F. 
The lessons contained in this 
letter are not new, but it may not 
be amits to repeat them. If they 
were observed^ there would be few- 
er follies, and literature would 
number as her sons only those 
vho arc bom to honour her. It 
WQuld ngt be disgraced by tliosc 
libellers of party, who, not being 
able to obtain a reputation by their 
own merit, endeavour to obtain it 
by attacking that of others. These 
weak and brittle minds imagine 
they lessen the admiration of cou- 
temporaries for this enlightened 

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SANS 90U€I« 


ige. Re^on will always make 
their efforts prove abortive. Such 
attempts are hoar-frost, which 
fells on the roof of the pantheon 
and is dissipated by a single ray of 
the sun. 

It is only idleness, and the want 
•f a useful and laborious profes- 

sion which places the pen in the 
hands of so many individuals, who 
are so little qualified to guide it^ 
Hence they learn to be scribblers 
and fabricators of libels, as people 
without a trade and without a home 
become owners of false money and 
highway robbers. V.L* 


SteaHog and giving iwe^s. 

Augustus, who loved Virgil 
and Horace, used to place himself 
between the two poets at table. 
Virgil was asthmatick, and Horace 
had weak eyes. The emperour 
used to say, jestingly, ^ Ego sum 
inter suspiria et lacrymas ;" I am 
between sighs and tears. 

A blind man^a idea of Ught, 
M. Rohault wished to Commu* 
Bicate the idea of light to a blind 
pupil ; after a long and elaborate 
discourse, when he hoped he had 
in some measure succeeded, he 
was asked this question by the 
Uind man, ^ Is not Ught made of 
the same materials as sugar ?'' 

Hoftf to be bafifiy. 
How much it would conduce to 
our happiness to be select in our 
Iriends and books ; to choose them 
both for their good sense and. 
knowledge ; to be contented with 
a small but certain income ; to 
have no master and few servants ; 
to be without ambition, envy, ava- 
»ice, or a law-suit j to preserve 
<mr health by exercise, instead of 
medicine ; to love and hate only 
on just grounds i and to enjoy life 
without effort. 

Professed musicians are gener- 
^7 ignonoity unprudeot, aad fool- 


ish people away from their instru- 
ments ; a musician, after a con^ 
cert, should be treated like his in- 
strument, put into a case and cai'« 
ried home. 


« I hate," says Montaigne, 
<< those scholars who can do noth« 
ing without their books." In fact^ 
those men have no knowledge, but 
can tell you where some may be 
found. They serve as itidexea to 
good authors. They will tell you, 
that in such a chapter of Cicero or 
Quintilian there isa good thought* 
Science is a sceptre in the hands 
of some men, and a bauble in those 
of others. 

Philosophers and poets sport 
with the follies of mankind, trades* 
men make an advantage of them, 
and players both sport with them 
and profit by them. 

Of all the definitions of folly, 
that given by M. Bailli has not the 
least merit. " Folly is the tyran- 
ny that visible objects exercise 
upon our imaginations.^ 

The progress of it may be com- 
pared to a play < Act 1. State of 
mnocence. Act 2. The passions. 
Act 3. Love of study. Act 4. Am- 
bition. Act 5 . Peyotion and quiets 

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nkkt iotscu 

Friendshifi of nvomen. 
Women are more constant in 
friendship than men, for these rea-* 
sons : the temperament of women 
Is more cold, and therefore less 
likely to change or fly off from an 
object, to which they are once at- 
tached. The same coolness of 
constitution renders them more 
subject to timidity ; and so they ad- 
here to objects of affection, be- 
cause they are fearful of losing 
what they value. 


Scaliger used to say, that he 
could not comprehend the causes 
of three things ; the interval of 
an ague, the motion of the sea, 
and the nature of his own me- 


The family of the Medici, most 
probably, took their rise from 
some ancestor, who was an emi* 
Dent fihysictan^ as they still bear in 
their arms the device of five pills. 

Etymology of Decrefititude, 
The comparison of human life 
to the burning and going out t)f a 
lamp was familiar with Latin au- 
thors, as we know by the terms 
«< stnes decrefiiti,^* A lafnp, just 
about to expire, was said dccrefare^ 
to cease to crackle. Hence met- 
aphorically, persons on tlie verge 
of the grave were called decrepit 

It is an observation of Seneca, 
that we should mix company and 
retirement, in order to make them 
both pleasant by change. The 
'''^ish always to be alone shows the 
temper of a wild, ferocious ani- 
Jnal, carries with it the dismal 
darkness of the tomb. The effect 
^ such a disposition of mind is 

well described by ati ancient phi^idA 
<* Gor suum edens," eatkig his own 
heart. Absolute singleness is the 
character of the Deity only ; but 
man is too feeble and depsndent 

to subsist by himself. 


Swift was invited by a rich 
miser with a large party to dine ; 
being requested by the host to re- 
turn thanks at the removal of the 
cloth, uttered the following grace s 

Thanks for tbis mtecTe !-^his & no tetf. 
Than to cat manna fai the wOderncsa. 
Where raging hunger rdgnM wc*ve found cdtef. 
And seen that wondrotts thing a piece of beef. 
Here chimneys smoke» that never srookM before* 
And we*ve all atci where we shall cat nvaore. 

Aristippus was very fond of 
magnificent entertainments, and 
loved a court life. Dionysius 
asked him, in a sarcastick manner, 
the reason, why philosophers were 
seen often at the gates of princes^ 
but princes never at the doors of 
philosophers ? « For the same 
reason," replied the philosopher^ 
" that physicians are found at the 
doors of sick men, but sick men 
never at the doors of physicians.** 

Sonnet on a Sonnet^ by Lopez de 

CapricSoiu-4 sonnet needs must ha^ ; 
I ne'er was put to*t before-^ sonnet r 
Why fourteen versa* must be spent upon If^' 

Tb good howcrer t*have coaqucr'd the flaC 

Tet shall I ne^ find rhymes enotgh by hatf; 

Said I» and found myself r th* midst o* tJift 

If twke four venes were but fairly reckon^ 
I should turn back on th* hardest part,attd laagh« 

Thfts Us with good soccessi tMnk fve scribbled* 
Add of the twice seven lines clean got o*er ten % 
Counge ! another*ll finish the fmt triplet % 
Thanks to the Muse, my work begins to shorten* 
See thirteen lines got throogbt Aiibhlet by 
•Til done, count haw you wlUr I wan^t tkCTC% 

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-.THSRE WIS not, on that day, a speck to ttain 
The tsdre heaven ; the blated Son, aIooe» 
In Boapproachable divioitr. 
Careened, rtjoklng in his fields of Ught. 
Bow heaatiftal, beneath the bi^ht blue iky. 
The hOioaM heave ! one glowing gieen expanse* 
live where along the bending hne of shore 
tech hoe it thrown, as when the peacockH neck 
AwQBkes Ua prondest thit of amethyst, 
Emhathed hi emerald glory. All the flocks 
Of Ocean are abroad : Uke floathig foam, 
The sea-guUs rise and hXX upon the Waves; 
With long pfotnidcd neck the cormorants 
Wlag their far flight aloft, and round and round 
ThefloTcra wheal, and gire their note of joy. 
b was a day that sent into the heart 
L aunacr feeling : even the hisect swarms 
From their Cark nooks and coverts itsued forth. 
For one day of existence more, and joy \ 
The soitary primrose, on the bank, 
SccBMd now as though It had no cauM to mourn 
Itt bieak autumnal birth ; the Rocks, and Shores 
And everiagthig Mountafais, had put on 

The aBUe of that glad sunshfaie, .. they partook 
The BBivcmd hlcasJag. 


By Gay. 

iCIPnCKS (whose ttxeogth of argoac&t 
makes out. 
That wisdom's deep faiqiflrlei end hi doubt) 
Hold this assertion positive and dear. 
That sprites are pure dehisfons, raii*d by ftar. 
■ot tbst fsmM ghost, ¥rhich hi prsssgfaig sound 
CaOM Brutus to PhiUppi*s fatal ground, 
liar can Tl>erfajj Gracchus* goary shade 
These evusidabfing disputants persuade* 
iBaight they with smBes reply. Those tales of oUI 
By viekmary priesu were made and told. 
Ch, might some ghost at dead of night appear, 
lad nuke yon own convicUon by your fear I 
I know your sneers my easy faith accuse, 
WWch with such idle legends scares the Muse | 
kit think not that I tell those vulgar sprites, 
whfch frighted boys relate on whiter nights, 
■sw cleanly milk-maids meet the fairy trafai, 
fcw heedless hofscs drag the cUnkIng chain, 
J^-roamhig ghosts, by saucer eye^ulls known, 
«c common spectres of each country-town. 
**• I aich fables can Uke you despise, 
Jtd langh to hear these nune-taveotcd lies. 
^ has not off the fraudful guardian's fright 
CeapaUM hfan to rcstaes an orphan's rightf 

Vol. UI. No. 2. JL 

Andean we doubt that horrid ghosts ascend. 
Which on the conscious murderer's steps attend | 
Hear then, and let attested truth prevail } 
From faithful lips I learnt the dreadful tale. 

Where Arden*! forest spreads its Ifanits wide. 
Whose brancMng paths the doobtfhJ road divklfl» 
A traveller took his solitary way, 
When low beneath the hills was sunk the day. 
And now the skies with gathering darkness looTg 
The branches rustle with the threatened shower | 
With sudden blasts the forest murmurs loud. 
Indented lightnings cleave the sable cloud. 
Thunder on thunder breaks, the tempest roars* 
And heaven discharges aU its watery stores. 
The wandering traveller shelter sacks in vain. 
And shrinks and shivers with the beating rata t 
On his steed's neck the slackened brklle lay. 
Who chose with cauttous step th' unceruhi way % 
And now he checks the rein, and lialts to hear 
If any noise foretold a vfllagc near. 
At length from far a stream of light he sees 
Fxtend its level ray beneath the trees ; 
Thither he speeds, afld,*as he nearer came. 
Joyful he knew the lamp's domestick flame 
That trembled thro' the whidow j cross the way 
Darts forth the barkhig cur, and stands at bay. 

It was an ancient lonely house, that stooa 
Upon the borders of the spactous wood ; 
Here towers and antique battlemenu ariae. 
And there hi heaps the mouldered ruUi lies. 
Some lord this maaston held hi days of yore. 
To chace the wolf, and pierce the foamtog boar | 
How changed, alas, from what It once had been I 
Tb now degraded to a publkk tan. 

Straight he dismounts, repeau hb loud corn- 
Swift at the gate the ready landlord stands ; 
With frequent cringe he bows, and begs excuse^' 
His house was lull, and every bcdta use. 
What, not a garret, and n^ straw to spare I 
Why then the kitchen-fire and elbow -chah- 
Shall serve for once to nod away the night. 
The kitchen ever is the servants' righi. 
Replies tlic host i there, all the fire around. 
The Count's tir'd footmen snore upon the ground* 

The maid, who listen'd to this whole debate. 
With pity learnt the weary stranger's fate. 
Be brave, she cried, you stiU msy be our guest^ 
Our liaunted room was ever held the best s 
If then your valour can the fright sustata 
Of rattltag ciirtatas, and the dtaktag cbata | 
If your courageous tongue have power to talk. 
When round your bed the horrid i^ost shall walks 
If you dare ask it, why it leaves Its tomb j 
I'll see your sheets weU alr'd, and shew U»e room. 
Soon as the frighted maid her talc had told, 
The stranger enter'd, for his heart was bold. 

The ilamsel led hhn throogh a spacious hal^ 
Where ivy hung the halfiici&alkhcd waU : 

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the fircqufnt I«ok'd behind, and chan£*d herbov 
While fancy tipt the candle's flame with blue. 
And now tliey gain'd the winding sUirs* axccnt. 
And to ihe lonesome room of terrours went. 
When all wa« ready, swift rttir'd the maid. 
The watch -ligbU burn, tuck'd warm in bed wm 

Tlic hardy stranger, and attends the sprite 
Tdl lus accostom'd walk at dead of night. 

At first he hears the wind with hollow roar 
Shake the loose lock, and fwing the creakhig 

door i 
yearer and nearer draw* the dreadful sound 
Of rattling chains that dragg'd upon the grouad: 
\\'heii lo, the spedre came with horrid stride, 
Approadi'd the bed, and drew the curtains wide 1 
(ii human form the giuatful phantom stood, 
Expos'd his mangled bosom dy*d with blood. 
Then, sUcnt poioliag to his wounded breast. 
Thrice wav'd liis hand. Beneath the frkbted 

guest ' 

The bed-cord$ trembled, and wfch shuddering 

Sweat chUlM hU limbs, high rote hU bristled hair ; 
Then muttering hasty prayers, he manoM His 

And cried aloud : .<ay, whence and who thou art i 
The stalking ghost with boUow voice replies. 
Three years are counted since with mortal eyes 
i saw the sun, and vital sir rc»pir*d. 
Like thee benighted, and with travel tlr*d, 
'Within these walls I slept. O thint of gaki ! 
See, still the plaaks the bloody mark retain. 
Stretch'd on this very bed, from sleep I sUrt« 
And sec the slccl impending o'er my heart > 
Ihc barbarous hostc^s held the Hfted knile. 
The floor ran purple with my gutblng liiie. 
My treasure now they s&eae, the goklen spoil 
They bury deep beneath the grass-^owH soil. 
Far in the common field. Be bold, adse. 
My yteps shall lead thee to the secret prise ; 
Tliere d^ and find ; let that thy caie reward* 
Call loud 00 jiutice, bid her not retard 
To punish murder ; Uy my ghost at rest : 
S^ shall with peace secure thy nigiiu be blest i 
And, when beneath these boaids my bones are 

Decent iutcr them la soac sacred ground. 

Here ceas*d the ghost. The stranger springs 
from bed, 
And boldly follows where the phantosh led : 
The half-worn stony suirs they now descend. 
Where passages obscttre their arches bend. 
Silent they walk i and now through groves they 

Mow through wet meads their steps fanprint ^e 

At length amidst a spacious field tfiey cane : 
'Fberc stops the spectre, and asceads in flame, 
Aroas'd he stood, no bush or brier was foond. 
To teach his morning seaich to find the ground*. 
What could he do ^ the night was hideous dark. 
Fear shook his joints, and nature dropt the mark ; 
With thit he starting wak'd,and raised his head. 
But found the golden mark wiu left in bed. 

What Is the sUtrsman*s vait anbItiou9scl)iemCf 
But a short vision and a golden dream ? 
Fower, wealth, and title, elevate his hope $ 
lk.«rakc»i but, fov a garter, fiadf a ro^ 


A fable. By Cow/ier, 

I SHALL not ask Jean Jacquu Ronsseao,* 

If birds confabnlate or no i 

TIs clear that they were always able 

To hold discourse, at least in fable ; 

And cv*n the child, who knows ne better, 

1 ban to interpret by the letter, 

A story of a cock aiui bull. 

Must have a most uncommon skvU. 

It chanc'd then, ou a wUitcr's day. 
But warm and bright, and cahn as May, 
The blrdji, conceiving a design 
To forestal sweet St. Valentbie, 
In manv an orchard, copse, and grove, 
Aitscmhfcd on affairs of love, 
AnU with much twitter, and moch chatter^ 
Bc);an to agitate the matter. 
At leni;th a Bulfinch, who could boast 
More years and wisdom than the mo»t. 
Entreated, o^jcnin^ wide his beak, 
A moment's liberty to speak ; 
And, silence publickly cnjoin'd, 
Ddiver'd briefly thus his mind. 

My friends ! be cautious how ye treat 
The subject upon which we meet j. 
I ftar we shall have winter yet. 

A Finch, whose tongue luiew no control. 
With golden wing and satin pole, 
A last year's bird, who ne'er nad tried 
What marriage means, thus pert replied. 

Methioks the gentleman, quoth she. 
Opposite in the apple-tree. 
By bis good will would keep us single, 
1 ill yonder heav'n and earth shall nUngle, 
Or (which is likelier to befai) 
Till death exterminate im all, 
r marry without more ado. 
My dear IMck Redcap, what lav you ' 

tHck bqird and tweedlfaig, ogliag, bridKagy 
Turning short round, struttiog and fcidcHng^ 
Attested, glad, his approbation 
Of an immediate conjugation* 
Their sentiments so weU expressed* 
Influenced mi|:htUy the rest. 
All palr*d, and each pair built a nest. 

But though tlie birds w«re thcs in baste» 
The Idves came on not quite so last. 
And destiny, that sometimea bean 
Ail aspect stem on men's affaitt. 
Not altogether sa^l'd on thdrs. 
The wind, of late breath'd gently fortB» 
Now shifted east arid east bv north -, 
Bare trees and shrabs but ill, you know. 
Could shelter tkcm from rain or snow, 
Stepplnj' Into tlicir nests, they paddled, 
Themsc.vcs were chill'd, tlieii epgs were addledf 
Soon ev'ry father Msd and mothtr 
Gijew quarrelsome, and peck'd eacb otliCS» 
Parted without the least regret. 
Except that they had ever met. 
And leam'd, in future, to be wlser« 
Tnao to neglect a good adviser. 


MiMcs t the tale that I relate 

This lesMn seems to earr>'— 
Choose not atone a proper matCt 

Bot proper time to marry. 

• It war one of tSe vihtmslcal speculations tf 
this philosoplier, that all fables which ascrBw 
reason and speech to animals should be withheld' 
from children, as being only vehicles of decep- 
tion. But what chUd was ever deceived by 
them, or caa be, agadnst the cvidcatc «f bft 

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For Fkhruary, 1806. 

librrai tuuoi leg! & qaani diKgentLaime potul annotavi, quae comtnuttnda, qw« eximenda, v* 
kitnrer. Nam ego Okere vcrum aMucvi. Ncque ulli pacicntiiu rcpreiiaidunUir. ouam otJt 
■aximc l^iulari mcrcotttx.— Winy. » 'i h-» 


Afemoira of the utmerican Academy • 
of Art9 and Scieficrs, Vol. L 
1785. 4/0. /ifi. 568. 
F. Some select aatronomica! oh* 
Mervationa made at CheUea^ latitude 
42* 25', and 26" in time east of the 
utuvertdty at Cambridge, Jiy the 
Rev. PhUafi» Pay son J F, A. A, 

The astronomical observationst 
bcre selected, arc those of several 
emersions of Jupiter's first, sec- 
ond, and third satellites in 1779 ; 
three solar eclipses, namely, in 
June, 1778, October, 1780, and 
Aprii, 1782; two lunar eclipses, 
Dameiy, in May, ir79, and Novem- 
ber, 1780; and the transit of 
Mercury in November, 1782. 

VL Observation qf the transit 
^ Mercury aver the sun^ Mro, 12, 
1782, ai Ijiswich. My the JRev. 
Manasaeh Cutler^ F.A.A. 

The gobg of the clock was 
carefully examined, and the times 
of all the contacts, except the first 
external, were determined. 

VII, A memoir^ containing ob- 
kervations of a solar eclifise^ OctO" 
her, 27, 1780, made at Beverly : 
Also of a Imiar ecUflse^ March 29, 
1782 iofa solar eclifisey April 12, 
and of the transit of Mercury over 
the sun*s disc, November .12, the 
9ome year, made at the firesident*s 
house in Cambridge, By the Rev. 
Josefih IViUardf ftr^dent qf the «- 

Beside his own observadons the 
iUthor of this memoir fumishw 

us with those of some other gen* 
tleraen, who accompanied him in 
attending to these phenomena. 
And having corresponding obser- 
vations of the first of the said e- 
clipscs at Beverly, Chelsea, Pe- 
nobscott-Bay,and Pix>\idence in the 
state of Rhode-Island, he subjoins 
their differences of longitude,which 
he had deduced, and consequently 
their longitudes from Cambridge, 
that of Chelsea relatively to Cam- 
bridge being kno^vn. Hence it 
appears, that the longitude of Bev- 
erly eastward from Cambridge is 1' 
11" in time ; that of Penobscott- 
Bay 9' 15" ; and that of Provi- 
dence 1' 7" westward. 

From the times of the contacts 
of Mercury at the said transit, 
president Willard, using Mayer*s 
solar tables, and De La Landc's 
tables of Mercury, calculates the 
angle of Mercury'i apparent Way 
with the ectiptick, the time of the 
^cliptick conjuncdon, the errpur 
of the tables in the latitude of Mer- 
cury at that time, which appears 
to be 5"'.98 in defect. He also de- 
duces the place of Mercury!s as* 
cending node, and calculates it 
from the tables ; whence it ap- 
pears, that the latter differs from 
the former 1' 34" in excess. 

VIII, Obaervations qf a solar 
eclifisey October 27, 1780, made at 
Si, John's Island, by Messrs, Clarke 
and JVright, In a letter from Mr, 
Josefih Peters to Caleb Gannett^ 
A,M, Rec. Sec, Amer, Acad, 

These observations were made 
at a place called Cltarlotte-town^ 
which, according to Mr. Wrighft 

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determination, is situated in 46® 
13' of north latitude, and 62<> 50' 
of west longitude from Greenwich, 
In this account it is stated on the 
authority of a gentleman, belong- 
ing to Yarmouth-Jebouge-Har-r 
bour, on the western coast of No- 
va^Scotia, that this eclipse, which 
excited great attention in this part 
of the country, was total there for 
• moment* 

IX, 0b9crvation$ of a 9olar e^ 
C&><tf, October 27, 1780, made at 
the university in Cambridge, Com* 
mttnicated by Caleb Gannett^ A,M, 

The observer^ of this eclipse at 
Cambridge were the Rev. Profes- 
sor Wiggleswprth, Mr. Gannett, 
imd the Rev. John Mellen. They 
did not perceive the beginning of 
the eclipse, but noted very partic* 
lilarly the disappearance and reap* 
pearance pf various spots, which 
Vere then visible on the sun, and 
the end gf the eclipse. And these 
may be compared with other cor-r 
^responding observations ; some at- 
tention having been paid to th^ 
passage of ^e moon's limbs over 
^olar spots by ipost pf the ^strour 
Qmers, who observed the eclipse. 
The quantity of the ellipse Uiey 
^stin^at^ at \ 1^ digits, 

X, An olfaervation qf a solar 
fcH/taej, October 27, |786, at Prov^ 
idence, By Joaefih Brovme^ Esq. 

The beginning of the eclipse 
was not seen, bvit the times, when 
the moon's limb first touched cer» 
fain solar spots, were ascertained, 
imd that of the ei^d lyas noted bv 
^hree observers. By measure 
with a micrometer Mr. Bfown dc» 
^ermined the quantity of th^ ^j 
^lipse to }^ abput i 1 V,^ djgltfi. 

XL ObnervatimiM of $he solar 
fcSfise of the ^Tthtf October j 1780, 
piods as Mvfftortj Rhode^Isiand^by 
;M(^^ 4e Qranehtfin^ Trttn^f^ts^ 

from the Jf/reneh^ and eommtmkat^ 

ed by the Rev, President IVUlard. 

By these observations times are 
determined, when limbs of the 
sun and moon, and the sun's horns 
passed over the vertical and hoii- 
zontal wires of a telescope, and 
when the eclipse ended, at a sta- 
tion on Goat-Island in 41* SC 30* 
of northern latitude. 

M. de Granchain also observed 
the lunar eclipse of the 11th of 
November, 1780, at the same 
place. And the memoir contains 
his observed times of the begin^r 
ning, immersion, and emersion of 
certain spots, and the end. 

XIL Jn account qf the obser-* 
vations made in Providence^ in the 
state of Bhode^Islandy of the eclifise 
(f the sun J vjhich happened the 23rf 
day qf April^ 1 1% \, By Benjamin 
West J Esq, F,A.A, 

The quantity of the eclipse and 
the time of its end were determin-^ 
ed. And Mr. West calculated the 
moon's diameter from the magni* 
tude of the eclipse and the length 
of the chord, joining the cusps at 
the time of greatest obscuration. 

XIII. Account qf the transit ^ 
Mercury^ observed at Cambridge^ 
JSTovember 12, 1788, By James 
Winthropj Esq, F,A,A, 

Observations of this tranrit by^ 
Judge Winthrop are contained in. 
Professor Williams* account of 
t})ose, which w^ire made by him- 
self and others. But, in the me^ 
moir before us, the author gives ^ 
more particular relation, with some 
additional fects and remarks. 

XIV, Observations of an ecUpse 
^ the mosnj March 29, 1782, and 
^ an ectipse of the sun^ on the \2t^ 
qf Aprils following, at Ips^nch, lat, 
42<> 38*30*. By the Rev. Manas^ 
*eh Cutler^ P. A. A. 

Hclative to the Iwar «<Jipse, 

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tiie beginning, immersion, and e- 
mersion of several spots, and the 
end were observed, and the times 
of the phenomena respectively de- 

Of the solar eclipse the begin- 
ning and end were seen, and the 
times noted by Dr. Cutler, and 
two other gentlemen, who observ- 
ed in company with him. 

jr. On the extraction of roots. 
By Benjamin JVest,, Esq, F,A,A, 

The author's design in this per- 
formance we shall give in his own 
words. " What I chiefly aimed 
At was, to render the method of 
txuucting the roots of the odd 
powers easier, and less burthen- 
some to the memory ; and, I think, 
I have not failed in my attempt. 
The method, followed by Ward^ 
and others, is excellent, but is at- 
tended with too much difiRculty in 
getting the divisors \ especially 
{op learners, who are not acquaint- 
ed with the reason of the rules. 
That difficulty I have stiiven to 
remedy in the following work." 

Dr. West here gives the inves- 
tigation and exemplification of 
rules for extracting the third, fifth, 
and seventh roots ; and observes, 
that similar methods may be found 
for extracting the roots of the even 
powers, and that he has not met 
with an instance, where the ap* 
proximation is not as rapid by his 
rules, as by those of Ward. 

It may be seen by looking into 
Ward's Algebra, in his " Young 
Mathematician's Guide," that in 
the process of forming theorems 
for extracting the roots of simple 
pr pure powers, the equation im- 
inediately preceding each theorem 
is of the affected quadratick kind, 
f representing the part of the root 
to be found or the unknown quan- 
tity. But instead of solving this 
rq^ia^p \x\ th^ usual mmmer^ and 

thus obtaining a rule for finding 
the remainder of the root, the au- 
thor deduced his tlieorem by mak- 
ing the unknown quantity itself a 
part of the divisor. Hence arises 
the difficulty, which learners exj>e- 
rience in find'mg the divisors in 
tliis metliod. The excess of this 
difficulty above the degree of it> 
which belongs to the common 
method of extracting the square 
root. Dr. West, we think, has a- 
voided in his rules, which he ob- 
tained, as an algebraist will readily 
perceive, by a process differing 
from that of Ward in the solution 
of the aforesidd equations, which 
are treated as affected quadratick 

In a similar manner a general 
theorem for the extraction of roots 
may be investigated, from which 
these and other particuKir rules are 
easily deduced by only substituting 
particular for general and distin- 
guishing quantities. But the gen- 
eral rule of approximation for the 
extraction of roots, which we pre- 
fer to any that we have seen, was 
discovered by Dr. Hutton, and is 
in his arithmetick, and in the Math^ 
ematical Text^Bookj used in the 

XVI, A new and concise meth* 
od of cow fluting interest at six fier 
cent, tier annum. By Philomath, 

This memoir contains two con- 
cise rules for computing the inter- 
est of any principal, expressed in 
pounds and parts of a pound, for 
any time, expressed in months and 
parts of a month, at the rate of 6 
per centum. They are obtained by 
contracting the operation for find- 
ing the answer to a single exam- 
ple, stated in compound propor- 
tion. The conclusions however 
depend on general principles, and 
their truth is sufficiently apparent. 
These rules are not given as new 

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zjifrnnt t«OM Emofm. 

discoyerieft, but probably with a 
wiew to extend the knowledge of 
them, and to shew their truth. 
And to fiicilitate their application 
tables of decimal parts of a pound 
mnd of a month, with the manner 
of deducing the intei'est at anjr 
other rate from that at 6 per 
cent, are annexed. 

XFII, Several way* of deter' 
mhwtg what mm is to be insured 
on an adventure^ that the whole in' 
ttrett may be centered. By Mer* 

Three methods are here given. 
The first is said to be most com- 
mon. It is Uierefore probables that 
the last is less extensively known. 
For we think no person, acquaint- 
ed with this, would ever make use 
of that. To extend the knowl- 
edge of the last method, and to 
show its advantage relatively to the 
others by coqtiparison we suppose 
to have been the object of the com- 

7(1 be contintitd. 

ART. 4. 

Ijettiv from Eurofie^ during a 
tour through Switzerland and 
Italy y in the years 1801 and 
1802, by a Native qf Pemt&yl' 
^ania, Philadelphia, 1805, Bar^ 
tram. 3 1/0/9. bvo. Pricr £6,50. 

EvRRT traveller, when he 
breaks from the comforts of his 
own home, and is beginning to 
estrange himself from the blesv 
Ings and habits of his country, 
creates himself, at once, a kind of 
hero of adventure. His fancy is 
chivalrous in its wanderings, and 
is already blazoning in the ilts 
and tournaments of the sublime 
passions of men. He rushes, with 
all the impetuosity of vain enter- 
pi8e> into the romance of liici be* 

cause every thing is new, strange, 
and confused. All his foimer 
anxieties, duties, and habits he 
leaves at the sill of his own door, 
and, as he departs from it into dis- 
tance, he amuses the weariness of 
his many footsteps with the new 
motion of physical change, and 
enlivens the solitude of his mind 
with the strange operations of 
moral alteration. That our au- 
thor is eminently of this character 
and spirit, we shall have occasion 
to show hereafter. 

The book is two stout volumes, 
anonymous in the title page ; but 
we find that tanity gets the better 
of the author's prudence, and he 
grows so charmed with himself 
Uiat he cannot help hinting to the 
eager world, in the second volumet 
who he is. It is dedicated to a 
Mr.Hamilton," of the woodlands,** 
partly on account of his ** lib^ 
eral application to horticulture.'* 
No book was ever less wanted,than 
the Pennsylvanian's, and- none 
ever deser\'ed type and paper less. 
But hear his reason for publish- 
ing ; " he is the first Ameiican,wl.o 
ever wrote his travels." His colum' 
bianismg are sufficient credentials 
to prove to Us whence he came, 
and whither he is going. " Debe- 
mur nos nostraque morti." 

We will now perform a little of 
our itinerant duty with our litera- 
ry traveller. We should not be 
able to follow him in very close suc- 
cession, however, if the path had 
not been so well trodden before 
him, for his own track is so faint, 
that we are half the time out of 
Mght of our guide. 

The Pennsylvanian beg^s now 
to show himself the hero we de- 
scribed. He drives off full tilt 
along the gay " Boulevards de 
Paris," and in his erratick ardour 
he declares to us, that " he happilf 
missed running over any body h 

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the Rae St. Dennis, or on the 
Pont neuf ;" and he rattles the 
. reader to Basil, tho\igh distant 
from Paris some hundred miles, 
in the hurry of one short letter. 

From Basil he proceeds to Zu- 
rich, and from Zurich to Berne. 
Though Berne is the capital of all 
the Si^iss cantons, and has so 
much to intercst the traveller, our 
author has not said a word on the 
peculiar neatness and style of this 
city, nor even informed us, wheth- 
er th6 French, or German lan- 
guage is spoken here. He says 
nothing of the cathedral, which 
is the most imposing and solemn 
Gothick pile in Europe ; nor of the 
western part of the city, which 
hangs so strangely so many hun- 
dred feet over the rushing torrent 
of the Aar. The following para- 
graph contains every xrord, our 
author says of Berne. " The next 
morning we rose with the lark, 
before the easy cits had left their 
beds, breakfasted on the banks 
of the Aar on a loaf of bread 
smd bottle of wine, and brandish- 
kig our oaken staffs went on again 
with fresh spirits for Thun." 

We next find our guide at AI- 
tiMf, the capi^ of the canton of 
Uri, situated nearly on the Lake 
»fthe four cantons. The next ob- 

beneath. It wa^ in these soloma 
and silent recesses of nature, that 
the Swiss heroes held their secret 
revolutionary meetings for the 
freedom of their country. It was 
along these cliffs and glens, that 
the wild Tell leapt after the thin 
and fleeting form of liberty. 

The reader is now carried 
through the picturesque valley of 
Schoellenen, without knowing it ; 
and he is transported over the stu- 
pendous uTiountain of St. Gothard 
by the most turgid swell of con- 
ceited description. Those, who 
have not experienced the hard- 
ships and terroursof the Alpine 
regions, will tnow nothing of 
them in the heroicks of the Penn- 
sylvanian, though he may feel 
them in the lines of Pope. 

-AC lint tfie towering Alps we try« 

Moaat o*cr the rocks, and teem to tread the «kf « 
Tti' eternal ino%rt appear alreadf paft. 
And the ftrtt clouds and moontaizu leem tke last i 
But these attained, we tremble to surrey 
Tlie growing labours of the length'ned way 9 
ffli* Increasing prospect tires our laboring eyesv 
MBs peep e*a hils, and AJpa on Alps arise. 

We now leave these sublime 
altitudes, where we have over- 
looked the world, and descend 
from that cold elevation, where wc 
forcibly felt oar proximity to the 
other planets, to the smooth sur- 
face of the lake Maggiore, and 
the still plains of Lombardy, 
^ diis patriis Italoque cxlo.** 

The writer's first letter on Italy 
(Let. 6) begins with the differe&t 
modes of travelling in that cotm- 
try, by vohure, (better known 
there by the name of vctturino) 
brocache, and post. He does not 
appr9ve of traveiling by post, 
which is indeed the only mode^ by 
which a gentleman can travel 
with any convenience or advan- 
tage in this country, on account 
of ^ being obliged to travel ^th % 
lacquey," or in other words, with 
a couritr avant. Thisi however. 




ii:tT£its FROM tvnotZs 

is not the case ; for, if travellers do 
not speak Italian, they can gener- 
ally make themselves current, in 
any part of Italy, with a very mod- 
erate share of theFrench language. 
We have now to pass through 
the old states of Milan, Lodi, Par- 
Hta,Modena, and Bologna, then uni- 
ted under the -futile title of the Cisal- 
pineRepublick,and since denomina- 
ted the kingdom of Italy. But of the 
political changes and oppressions 
of these dukedoms he says noth- 
ing, and the reader is not even in- 
formed, that, by the articles sign- 
ed by Melas after the victory of 
Marengo, Buonaparte was ad- 
nutted to Milan with triumphal 
entry, and placed over the whole 
of subjugated Lombardy (except- 
ing the Venetian state) from the 
Alps to the Appenines, and from 
theAdriatick to theMediterranean. 
We now meet our guide at Flo- 
rence, and our cuiiosity is highly 
excited to have all the interesting 
objects of "Firenze la bella," point- 
ed out to us. We regret, that the 
limits of a review preclude our 
filling up the deficiencies of our 
author's letter on this city. How 
cold and stupid must he be, who 
has gazed on the figures of** Dai/ 
mnd Mghtf* and of " Morrdng and 
Evening Twilight ;** resting on the 
tombs of Julio and Lorenzo of 
Medici, not to mention more than 
their mere names and place ; who 
could view these, without behold- 
ing the splendour of Day break- 
ing from a body of marble, or 
without feeling his whole soul 
overshadowed with the thick and 
impenetrable darkness of JVighi ; 
or who would not perceive his 
sight was dimmed, and that light 
was* mysteriously stealing away 
from every surrounding object, in 
the effect of the figures of 7W- 
Ught ! These are the powers of a 
genius so bright, so mysterious^ 

and so dark, as that of MichaeL 
Angelo ! 

In his letter on Florence, our au- 
thor has said little of this intellec- 
tual prodigy ; little of the bright 
Gallileo ; nothing of the intricate 
MachiavelU; & nothing of the dark 
spirit of Dante, who declares to us, 
he will often make holy visltationa 
on the still banks of the Amo. 
We think also, as our author is an 
American, (and, " for that reason,*' 
troubles his countr>'men with his 
travels) he might have done more, 
than merely to mention the name 
of Araericus Vespucius, and tho' 
no sarcophagus, proudly fretted 
with tlie histoiy of his enterprises, 
contains his bones, still he ought 
to have entered the church of San- 
ta Bourgona, where, on a rough ^ 
tombstone, is this incription : 
8. Aniaigo Vctpudo lubque amkih XXXTH . 

Mr. S. here speaks of that 
strange order of men, who seem 
to have descended from the ancient 
Troubadours, and who call them- 
selves ImfirovtMaiori^ and quotet 
Dr. Moore upon them ; but as 
neither the Doctor, nor himself, 
has -given a specimen of their pow- 
ers of impromptu^ we will subjoin 
the following courteous address. 

Di Btrtolo, e dl Baldo, nimtre BgB«, 
Colmo dl sel, di probita, dl onore 
alia tna ^tria accretd an gran t^endofC 

Amplo dl meate, e multo pta di core* 
Hon ti pone in fgofnento alcon pen 11to» 
E di protpen torte egni favore 
acoevi ognor aensa inarcail CigBo. 

Of the Florentine Gallery, tho* ^ 
instituted by Cosmo, finished by 
Lorenzo, and protected by the suc- 
ceeding families of the Medici, our 
author gives no history. Of its 
splendid treasures he does not 
think xouch, though still among 
them are the beautiful antiques of 
the young Apollo ; the head of A- 
lexander, sighing liter other worlds 
to conquer ; and the Roman alave. 

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tfetTftlt^ F&Oll fiUROPH.' 


trtid Is $tiU listening. Among 
the pictures, ai*c the Holy Family 
©f Corrigeo, the yomig St. John 
of Raphael, a Maddalena of GuidO, 
and the Venus dF Titiani These 
are mentioned by Mr. S. merely 
ms articles in hb hotch-potch cat-* 
llogue. As the corridors of this 
gallery arc replete with chronologt' 
iati specimens of the fine arts, and 
aa its saloons contain still so many 
exquisite pieces of the classical 
painters, we woiild recommend the 
leader to consult « Saggio Istorla 
dcUa Galleria di Firenze,^' 8vo. 3 
Irois. and a more modem descrip-' 
ticm in French, printed at Florence, 

We leave Florence for Siena^ 
laid though the country to this city 
is so picturesque, We hear nothing 
of it. At Stiena, oUr traveller 
•* siaid, iMlc hU horses were feed*' 
if^Sy* and makes not an obsertation, 
except tills Very sensible one, « the 
Cathedral has a Unsey^^tvooisey afi^ 
feorance^ He now passes along 
Ibe stbl and retired legions of Bal- 
sena and MontipftscOne, without a 
fingle remark, though the poet 
kere recommended so strongly, 
t h is pl e asant and sweet retreat from 
the cookshopB, and noise, and dust 
of the city. 

* S UfrsCaKtiAts, et prfamm Mitifnn in hohu&i 
0eiectat, d le polf k, atrqrfhitqae roUmm, 
K faedit caupooa, remitioum* lie jubebo.** 

We are now in the ancient cap-" 
hal of the world, and seem forever 
to have lost jqmx guide among ru- 
ined temples and lallbg monu-* 
niems. We sometimes see him 
learfng against a tottering colunm, 
and sometimes catch him gliding 
through the broken archer of huge 
tqueducts ; and so do we the lean 
and cold-blooded priest, or the fat 
and sweltering capuchin. Here 

Vol III. No. 3. M 

again is the same fulsome inflatioil 
of the writer's style ; and because 
his subject is more sublime, he 
thinks he must become more tur-* 
gid. It will be too fatiguing to 
us, and too uninteresting to out* 
readers, to trace the heavy and 
Gotiiick feet of oiir author through 
the solemn and dark ruins Of im- 
perial Rome, Wev will not pro- 
fane its deep gloom and awful as* 
semblage of stupendous objects^ 
by here holding commtinicm with 

of St* Peter's he has said much^ 
and much incorrectly. In his his-* 
tory of it, he asserts, that it was 
three hundred years in building \ 
it was but one hundred and six. 
Instead of its being begun in 1450| 
in the time of pope Nicholas fifth, 
it was commenced under Julio 
second, in 1506^ by Bramante, on 
the spot where the first christiaii 
church Was built by Constantine. 
Bramante, in the sublimity of his 
genius, so projected 8t. Peter's^ 
that the most perfect of the an- 
cient temples, the pantheon, could 
be sustained by this solid super- 
structure of christian faith. That 
is, that the dimensions of this ca- 
thedral Should be proportionable 
to the dimensions of the pantheon 
for its dome. 

But the lines of Brattlante, be* 
ing reduced by the succeeding ar- 
tichects of St. Peter's, the dome 
iiras consequently reduced a few 
feet in diameter, and in 1588 Do- 
menico Fcmtana hung this bright 
hemisfihere over that world of ar- 
chitectural beauties. The colon- 
nade, which was afterwards added^ 
(and which our author calls a 
« sweeping forest of 300 columns**) 
is the splendid work of Pemini. 
We must now confess, that we 
have no sympathy in a single de- 
scription of Mr. S. at Rome, and 
we can remain with bim: there no 

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longer. He evidently has a soul, 
which can reflect no brightness in 
the full splendour of St. Peter's, 
and wiiich can feel no melancholy 
in the fading glory of the Colis- 

Tivoli, the ancient Tibur, was, 
p obably,a deserted city in the time 
of Augustus, as it was built some 
hundred years even before the 
time of RomuUis. Horace says, 

MIM non jam repa Rttma, 
Sed vacuum Tibur placet. 

Mr. S. speaks of Tivoli, as if its 
peculiarity consisted in its having 
once been a splendid city, and not 
in the classical remembrance of 
the sweet retirement of Hwace, 
where he spent such meny times 
with Maecenas ; nor in the splen- 
dour and magnificence of the vil- 
la's of Lucuiius and Adrian. Ho- 
race thus speaks of it. 

Tihur argoeo positum colono. 
Sit meoB sedes utiaam scncctae. 

On tae modern Frescatti and 
the ancient Tusculum our travel- 
ler is wholly silent, tliough, on its 
hills was the " Superni villa can- 
dens Tusculi, of Horace, and there 
Cicero enjoyed his " Dies Tuscu- 

We are now fast approaching 
the end of our journey, having to 
trace a distance only of one hun- 
dred and fifty miles to Naples. 
Here we have sometimes to move 
wit|i a slow and solemn step, 
through the gloomy ranges of se- 
pulchral monuments, overhung 
with the mists of the campagna^ 
and sometimes to saunter listless- 
ly along the mellow fields and 
through tlie ethereal expanse of 
the ager Felix. 

Naples, as a city, has every 
thing to interest and please the 
traveller, whether his sight he con- 
fused with the moving column of 
men, which struggles through the 
Toledo, or whether, as he wanders 

along the Chlaia, his eye ilepostes 
on the smooth and quiet surfaces 
of its bay, or is elevated by the 
dark and lofty promontory of Mi- 
senum, or brightened by the blaz- 
ing summit of Vesuvius. If he 
be a traveller of pleasure, at Na- 
ples his whole senses may enjoy 
the fullest repletion. His eye 
may forever move through now 
tracts of delighttul vision, in its 
environs ; his ear may be filled 
with the softest sounds of Neapol- 
itan musick J his odour will be in 
the fragrant breezes from the ag^ 
Felix \ and his touch will be in 
the sweetest state of delectation in 
the universal contact of the softest 
and purest atmosphere* 

If he be a scholar, in its neigh- 
bourhood he will find himself in 
the fairy land of classical poetry ; 
and the ideal regions of ancient 
romance will now have the visible 
locality of the Baian coast. He 
will now ascend th« moontaiOf 
wheit: ^neas piously placed the 
bones of his companion MisenuS} 
after his battle with Triton. 

** At phu JEneas ingentl mote lepnlclinim 
Imponiit, fuaqae anna Tiro, rennmque« to- 

bain que, 
Monte fubaereo, qui nunc Mlienum ab Hlo 
Dicitus, etoraumq^ tenet per tccuU noioca.* 

Having now seen performed the 
funeral rites of Misenus, he de- 
scends the promontory with-fineas, 
passes the temple of Apollo,* and, 
in order to consult the Cumoean 
sibyl,t enters with him her re- 
sounding cavern. 

*• At pltM .fintaa arcea, qoibiM altoa A|)ollo 
Prauidct, horrendaeque procul accreta dbyUs, 
Antnimimmane petit.** lb. 

Having consulted the prophetess, 
he commences with iEneas his de<* 

« Tbe walk oT this temple, which staiid neat 
the entrance of the cave, are attn entire. 

f The cave of the aibvl is to the eastward of 
the lake of Avernus. ft may be passed, with 
much ditl«ulcy^ to tbc cod ivbat it tnsl 

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scent to htVty and his visitation of 

** Hk locof est partes abi se via findit !n ambaa, 
Dextcra qine Ditia magnl sub nuenia tendit ; 
Hmc iter Byvcan Dobb. lb. 

Here he finds U ie^(f (TAvernoy 
formerly surrounded hy a deep 
forest, which Agrippa leteUed. 
The poets here made the entrance 
of hell, as appears by Virgil. 

■« Spdonci aha fuft, Tastoqiieiminanis.hiata* 
Scrapea tuta, lacu nigro nemorumque tencbris: 
— — ^— i^- dixerunt nomine Avenuim.** 


Having^ now passed through the 
bomours of the infernal regions, 
he sooQ enjoys the silence and 
beauty of the Elysian fields. 

•• Hb dennim cacactb, 
Dcrcoere locot loetoi, et amaena vlreta 
TOTtaoatortiin oenMrum, ae4e»que beataa. 
Larsbi' tuc campos Kther ct luodne vcstit 
Forpareo.'* lb. 

But our author is above classical 
aUusioHt and, of course, is silent 
on these subjects of pleasant in« 

We shall now conclude our 
travelling remarks with the Penn- 
sylvanian's description of the eter- 
nal functions of Vesuvius, and 
urith that of Pliny the younger. 

We approached the crater, a hill 
of ashes and pummice fttonei, near 
enough t9 bear tb« great pot boil^ produc- 
ing a tonad, that exactly resembled the 
May rf a eauUrm, P. 198. vol. ii. 

. " Jam pomices etiam nigrique et am- 
busti et fracti igoe lapides indderant. 
fanerini e Vesuvio monte pturibus lods 
latiisnmB flammae altaque incendia reluc&> 
bam, quoram fulgor et daritms tenebris 
Aoctis excitabatur. Jam. dies alibi, iliic 
JK>z omnibus ooctibus nigrior densior* 
que." C, Plin. Tacito. 

Having now marked out a few 
of the sins of ombsion, in our au- 
thor, we shall expose to view a few 
of his sins of commission. 

There b no kind of writing, 
whicii at first thought pleases morei 

or in project seems easier, than that 
of travels ; and, consequently, ev- 
ery man, who has travelled, thinks 
he has a rij^ht to become autlior. 
Most of the requisites of fine v ri- 
ting are, however, here necessary, 
from the simplest narration to the 
fiilness and splendour of figurative 
description. The mind must here 
observe closely, and without pre- 
judice, and we must relate with 
correctness and elegance. We 
must be coiTect concerning facts ; 
and we ought to be elegant on that, 
which is already elegant. The 
book, which is now before us, is 
not only destitute of every such 
principle and rule, but exhibits to 
us the most ludicrous and striking 
carricature of the grace and digni- 
ty of a well-formed work. When 
the turgid answers for the sublime ; 
modern sentimental conceit for na- 
tural and unaflfected passion ; and 
hard words for peculiar idestfl, the 
Pennsylvanian will be thought a 
good writer. We subjoin a few 
examples of our author's style and 
manner to prove the impartiality 
of our remarks. For the clear and 
perspicuous the following (so crow- 
ded v>\x\\ light). 

An illuminated cross is suspended m 
the air, beneath the dome of St. PeterV ; 
'wben the symboVick refulgence creates sub- 
h'me effects of light and shade, glittering 
upon the gilded ceiling, running into ob- 
scurity in the recesses of the chapels, dy 
ing away in the dome, and fading by de- 
grees on the sides of the nave in the 
xueaJhr and -weaker reflections of diagonal 
raJtatioH, P< 269. V. tL 


A briiliant orange, melting into a pea- 
green of the most vivid transparency, 
was richly irradiated from behind a ridge 
of mounuins upon the distant horizon, 
empurpled with the fairy tinge of aax 
Italian atmosphere. P. 279. vol. iu 

We cannot refrain from extrac- 
ting the following sinking, mock- 
hcroick sentiment. 

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I taw the fu^ go down oo the cmm* 

bling walls of the villa of AdriaQ-^«A^, 
fit 10 oclocA at might, as I sit in a lai'ge 
room, scantily bung with the' scrawls of 
wandering travellers, I hear the roar of 
the Anio, and my tvimdavft rattU with % 
lising blast.-—// reminds me^ that I am 
iiioiu — five thousand ^iles from my own 
iiresidc—rThe thought is serious — it 
•tQps my rtsmU'tngprn. ?. 948. vol ii* 

But our author does not stand 
charged merely with having viola- 
ted the laws of writing ; he is 
8tLl more criminal by his forgery 
of words. This is a crime so a-« 
trociouS| that we can receife no 
inotion for the arrest of judgment, 
and no petition for the extension 
of pardon. If the following are 
pot words of his own formation, 
they are tndianismsy with which we 
are nqt acquainted ; from their 
length we should tj^ke them for the 
names of Indian roots. « Swamp* 
^d ;" *« Insurrectionary ;" " im-» 
portunacy }" " romantically j" &c. 

The laughable application of the 
following terms brings strongly to 
our mind the manner of a quack's 
prescription. « Sinister ray ;** 
*« cubick cottages ;" " transfixed 
waves ;" « spii^ protuberances ;" 
« monotony of silence ;'* " hillocks 
of the Appenines ;** " rainbow 
of a nave j" " inimitable taste of 

From the advertisement of the 
book we should be led tp think, 
that Mr. S. was some great politi-^ 
cal and literary personage, and that 
he intends again to appear to the 
publick in letters on England and 
France. But we warmly advise 
the Pcnnslvanian to retire " to the 
Woodlands of Mr. Hamilton," his 
>I»cenas, where, " throvgh the 
loopholes of retreat," he may see 
the swollen and dropsical carci^of 
his work heaped on the fua^ral 
pile of corrupt literature. 

aitT. s. 
77ie life of Satmiel Johmon^ it. d, 
th^ Jirat firendent of King* 9 cofm 
UgCy /iewyork, Coniazning mam^ 
interesting anecdotes ; a gtnertd 
view qf the state qf religion and 
learning tnConnectic^t^ during the 
former fiart qf tfie last century j 
and an account qf the institution 
and rise of Yale collegey Cormec-^ 
ticut ; and of Xing^s (novf Co^ 
luTnhiaJ college^ J^'etvyork. By 
ThomafB, Chandler^ DJi^ormeV'* 
ly rector of St. John's churchy 
EUzabethtoitm^ ^, J, JTo fvMci 
is addedf an afifiendixj containing 
fn(iny original letters to Dr,Johnm 
son. New York. Swords, 1805, 
12mo. pp. 308. 

Cajllimacbus, the learned E« 
l>rarian of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
king of Egypt, considered by all 
antiquity as the prince of elegiack 
poets, judged of a book from its 
sis^e and the number of its pages ac« 
cording to the following rule,wUch 
he deemed infallible...that the lar^« 
er a book, the mpre nonsense it 
contained. The author of the 
work before us, penetrated no 
doubt with the most perfect con^ 
viction of the truth of the opinion 
of Callimachus, has taken a most 
commendable precaution, and bj 
making his volume of a Tery xoodn 
erate size, discovered great defers 
enpe for the opinion of the pubUck. 
We think that Dr. Chandler 
deserves no common praise for 
making the life of Dr. Johnson tm 
consist of only one hundred aini 
fifty-five pages, iipd the appendix^ 
containing letters to Dr. JohpsoQ 
fVom bishop Berkeley, archbishop 
Seeker, bishop Lowth, and others, 
of fifty-fthree pages, in these bad 
Umesy when the literary wor^ 
seems to he threatened with beinff 
overwhelmed by the number anq 
imd size pf th^ voluxxic;^ whi^( 

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tES8I«Kirt JORKSOir. 


CondnQally ifisue ttom the press, 
called lives, mcmoirsy the corres- 
pondence, &c. Sec. of men and 
women, boys and girls, philoso- 
phers and fools. 

The object of modem Uograph- 
ers seems to be only to make of 
tbehr heroes giants-; stretching 
them out, to 3ie very " crack ctf 
doom," over an insufferable num- 
ber of pages. Such, in fact, has 
been the daring and extensive man- 
ii£u:ture of books of this kind in 
England, and such the alarming 
Vid inordinate consumption of pa- 
per, that an ingenious mechanick, 
by the name of Neckingerf. has 
lately erected a mill at Camberweli 
fcr the refiroducdon of this valuable 

Dr. Samuel Johnson was bom 
of respectable parents at Guilford, 
in Connecticut, the 14th October, 
1696. His great-grand-father Ro- 
bert, came from Kingston upon 
Hull, in Yorkshire, and was one of 
the first settlers of New-Haven, 
f^ot the year 1637, and is said to 
have been of the same &mily with 
Johnson, the associate of Robert 
Brown, the father of the Brown- 
ists. Samuel Johnson, the subject 
of this memoir, early discovered 
•o unconquerable desire for the 
acquisition of knowledge, and in 
ins eleventh year wias sent to the 
school at Guilford, to prepare him* 
self for the college then at Say-« 
biook, which he entered at four- 
teen, and received a degree of ba- 
chelor of luts in 1714. In the 
succeeding ^ear, much discontent 
waa«xdtcd among the Scholars at 
the college at Saybrook, in conse- 
quence of the ignorance and total 
Incapacity of the govemoors to ^ 
6>rd them any useful instruction, 
9nd the scholars, in rapid succesr 
aon,abandonedthe college, Those, 
MoDging to the towns on Connec** 
tim river, fissooiatod imdcr the ^ 

rection of Messrs. Woodbridgt 
and Buckingham, ministers of 
Hartford, who were trustees of the 
college, and who, desirous of ob- 
taining a removal of the college 
from Saybrook to Weathersfieldt 
in their own neighbourhood, in- 
duced Messrs. Williams and Smith 
to establish a collegiate school at 
Weathersfield, to which the young 
gentlemen, above alluded to, im* 
mediately resorted. Those, who 
bdonged to the towns on the sea- 
shore, put themselves under the 
tuition of Mr. Johnson at Guilford. 
This academical schism called loud- 
ly for legislative interference, and 
accordingly, when the general court 
convened in October, 1716, an act 
was passed for establishing the coU 
lege in New -Haven, and Mr. John- 
son was unanimously chosen one 
of the tutors, where he resided but 
a short time. The disaffection of 
the scholars to their instmcters at 
Saybrook, their consequent disper- 
sion, the dissentions between the 
two parties at Weathersfield and 
New-Haven, which occasioned for 
some time much disturbance ia 
the colony, and the final com-* 
promise, which ended in the peace- 
ful establishment of the college at 
New»Haven, are minutely detailed 
by Dr. Chandler, and constitute an 
interesting part of the work before 

We have thus seen, at Saybrook, 
the evils (irising in consequence of 
placing boys under the direction of 
unskiU^l,ine£Kcient instructers, the 
rebellion there excited, and the 
<lis8olution of the college. Even in 
our days we experience the mourn- 
ful consequences of the insufficien- 
cy of the system of education a- 
dopted in the much boasted schools, 
colleges, and academies of N.Eng- 
land. Our school^masters, pre- 
ceptors, and tutors, are too fre- 
4}uently incompetent to discharge 

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chandler's life Of 

their important duties, fraught with 
higfc responsibility. They are of- 
ten men without manners, and 
without learning ; who need " put 
no enemy in their mouths to steal 
away their brains ;" who, with O- 
thello's drunken lieutenant, will 
say, thb is my right hand, and this 
is my left. Deeply impressed 
with the importance of some 
immediate and radical change in 
our system of education, particu- 
larly as it respects the instructers 
of the Latin and Greek languages, 
at our academies and colleges, we 
cannot, on this subject, here omit 
inserting the declarations of Gil- 
bert Wakefield, whose observations 
apply >vlth ten fold more forpe to 
this country, than to England ; 
most sincerely wishing, that the 
opinions of a man, so distinguish- 
ed for science and classical learn- 
ing, may have 9ome effect upon 
our men of wealth «nd influence, 
and persuade them to offer such 
aalaries to teachers of youth as 
shall induce men of understanding 
and learning, to undertake what at 
best must be an ungracious task. 

« I cannot but lament that inun^ 
dation of dreadful evils, which are 
let in Upon society by the tribe of 
unprincipled, or ineffective schools 
masters. The majority of young 
Tnen, who go to college after fin- 
ishing their education at school, 
scarcely know, with tolerable ac- 
curacy, even the first rudiments of 
the languages. 

^< Can imagination represent to 
herself a more melancholy case, 
than that of an ingenuous, enters- 
prising youth, wasting his time and 
blasting his hopes, in a seminary 
of one of those ignorant, heedless, 
insipid teachers, with which the 
kingdom is overrun ? * I have 
kept my son,' said the mayor of 
one of the first towns in this king- 
dpw, < six or seven years with thjs 

feilow K— , learning Latin and 
Greek all this time ; and, now he 
is come home, I find him unable 
to construe a prescription, or ex- 
plain the* inscriptions of the galli* 
pots.* In my humble opinion this 
enormous usurpation of stupidity 
and impudence ought to be made 
a national concern. 

« To suffer the rising generation 
to be thus abused beyond all recov- 
ery from any future process, what 
is it but to blot the afiring from the 
year ? For my own part, I look 
upon the generality of these pre- 
ceptors as robbera of hofie and o/r- 
/lortufttty, those blessings for which 
no compensation can be made. I 
cherish liberty, I think, with a 
warmth of attachment inferiour to 
no man ; but I should rejoice to 
see, I confess, '^some restiictions in 
the cfwe before us. Men of ac- 
knowledged qualifications should 
be appointed to examine, with a 
scrupulous and conscientious ac* 
curacy, the competency of all those 
who undertake the teaching of the 
learned languages; and none should 
be allowed to exercise this arduous 
office, but those who could endure 
thcjiery trial. Society would be 
benefited beyond measure, and no 
real injury be done to the individ«> 
ual . Men should leam^ov be taught^ 
the knowledge of themselves ; nor 
should he aspire to adorn the mind, 
who is fit only to trim a periwig ; 
or, in the vain attempt of acquir* 
ing science, leave uncultivated the 
capabilities of a commendable shoe* 
AU quit tlidr iphere, and rash (nto the tklei.* 
In March, 1720, Mr. Johnson 
was ordained as a congregational 
minister at West-Haven, in the 
twenty-fourth year of his age. 
From early life, even while at col- 
lege, he had been opposed to ex- 
tempore prayer. He had also an 
early dislike to the independent or 

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congregational form of church gov- 
ernment. In the prosecution of 
his studies, he very soon began to 
doubt the validity of presbyterian 
ordination, avowed his perfect con- 
Tersioa to episcopacy, and declar- 
ed that he could hnd no way of re- 
conciling his conscience, while he 
neglected the practices of the an- 
cient church. He accordingly 
took an affectionate farewcl of his 
people at West-Haven, and pro- 
ceeded to Boston, in company with 
Messrs. Cutler and Brown, the 
former president, and the latter 
tutor, of New-Haven college ; both 
of whom had also been converted to 
episcopacy , proposing to embark for 
l^Dgland to obtain holy orders in 
the church, where they arrived on 
the 15th of December, 1722 ; 
whence they immediately proceed- 
ed to Liondon, and were politely 
received by Dr. Robinson, the 
bishop of London, and the society 
for pix)pagating the gospel. Mr. 
CuUer was ordained to take charge 
of the new church in Boston, and 
Mr. Johnson to take care of the 
church at Stratford in Connecticut. 
The former also received from 
the colleges of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge the honours of a degree of 
Dr. in divinity, and Mr. Johnson 
of master of arts. Having taken 
leave of their friends, they em- 
barked for America in July, 1723, 
and Mr. Johnson arrived at Strat- 
ford to take charge of his little 
flock, consisting of about twenty 
families, by whom he was joyfully 

Mr. Johnson^'s conversion to the 
episcopal church ; the particular 
books which he read, which assist- 
ed to promote that conversion ; 
the commotion that in consequence 
was excited in the colony of Con- 
necticut ; the conference with the 
trustees of the college, and Gov- 
croour Sahonstall) Sec. Sec. are all 

amply detailed by Dr. Chandler^ 
and include many * traits, which 
must afford interest and amuse^* 
inent to the lovers of ecclesiastical 

In the month of February, 1729, 
Dr. Berkeley, then dean of Deny 
in Ireknd, arrived in America, and 
resided two years and an half in 
Rhode-Island. « As his coming 
to America, (says Dr. Chandler) 
had an important effect upon the 
religion and learning of the coun-' 
try ; and as Dr. Johnson always 
considered the period in which 
bishop Berkeley resided in this 
country as one of the most inter- 
esting periods of his life, it may 
not be amiss to give a nu>re par- 
ticular account of that extraordin- 
ary person, and of the business 
that brought him hither, than has 
probably been laid before the .^- 
mcrican reader in one view." 

On comparing the sketch of the 
life of Bishop Berkeley in the work 
before us, with the life in Dr. Ai- 
km's general biography, we find it 
to be generally correct, though the 
latter is more full and satisfactory ; 
but wherever we are made ac- 
quainted with the life of this cel- 
ebrated gentleman and scholar, we 
are most profoundly impressed 
with the highest admirati<Sn of the 
disinterestedness of his character, 
cif his learning, his christian char- 
ity,his discernment, and patriotism* 

At the period of Mr. Johnson's 
conversion to episcopacy, the 
church of England had scarcely 
any existence in Connecticut.There 
were thirty families at Stratford, 
chiefly from England, under the 
care of Mr. Pigot, the intimate 
friend of Dr. Johnson, and who no 
doubt was very instrumental in 
producing his conversion. Mr. 
Johnson, while minister at Strat- 
ford, frequently made excursions 
into the neighboring towns, and 

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eiCAirDLBR^^ lift tf 

jireached with peculiar success ; 
the episcopal church making very 
irisible progress in Connecticut ; 
and in the year 1736, upon inqui<> 
ry, there were found to be no less 
than seven hundred farnilies In the 
colony. Great acquisitions were 
afterwards made to the church by 
the wild enthusiasm intfodiitea by 
Mr. Whitfield, and propagated by 
his followers* Mr. Johnson pub" 
Kshed tracts, in defence of the 
church, which involved him in 
tnuch controversy ,particularly with 
Mr. Dickenson of Elizabethtown, 
in New-Jersey, and Mr. Foxcroft 
of Boston. These controversies 
reach down to 173(^ and are de- 
tailed at much length by Dr. 
Chandler. These publications 
Were much approved of in Eng- 
land, and obtained for Mr. John- 
son, in 1 743, from the university of 
Oxford a degree qf Doctor in di» 

Dr. Johnson had two sons, who 
Were educated at Yale college, for 
whom he composed a compendi- 
um of logick, including metaphys- 
icks, and another of ethieks, for 
their better instruction in these 
studies ; which Were piinled to-* 
gether, in an octavo volume by 
Dr. Franklin, for the use of the 
college in that city^ then about to 
be erected, and of which Mr^ 
Franklin was one of the most ac-* 
tive promoters. 

In 1734 the trustees of Ncw- 
Tork college unanimously elected 
t)r. Johnson president, who accept** 
ed, but with great reluctance. For 
the history of the establishment of 
the college, in the city of New- 
York, whose charter was granted 
fai October, 1754 ; the violent ex- 
position which arose among the 
trustees, respecting what denom- 
ination of christians ahould pre- 
dominate in the government and 
immediate direction Qf the college ; 
the violent clamour in consequence 

excited in the province and leg^!^ 
lature of New-York ; the vigorous 
exertions made by Mr. Johnsan to 

Eromote the interests of the sem** 
lary ; the benefactions it receiv- 
ed, &c. &c. we refer our readers to 
the work itself. 

In 1763 Dr. Johnson resigned 
the office of president, and Vent to 
his peacefbl retreat at Stratford, 
whcte he passed the remainder 
of his days > not however in in- 
glorious ease* He resumed the 
charge of his old mission, and was 
again kindly received by the peo-« 
pie of Stratford in character of 
their minister, in 1764, upwards 
of forty years after he had first en-* 
tered into this relation with them. 
He entered into the controversy 
between the Rev. Mr. Apthorp and 
Dr. MayheW, on the subject of m 
American episcopate, and wrote a 
short vindication of the society fot 
propagating the gospel. " On the 
morning of January 6, 1722, the 
most glorious epiphany he ever 
beheld, he conversed with his fam- 
ily on the subject of his own deathf 
with the greatest cheerfulness and 
serenity^ He expressed his wish- 
es that he might resemble, in the 
manner of his death, his good 
friend the bishop Berkeley, whon^ 
he had greatly loved^ and whoso 
exit he had ever esteemed happy^ 
Heaven granted his wish ; for sqpn 
after he had uttered tliese wordsy 
Uke the good bishop, he instant 
taneously expired in his chair^ith- 
out the least struggle or groan ; 
so tliat he tnay rather be said tct 
have been changed or translated^ 
than to have died.*^ Two days af- 
ter, his remains were interred in 
the chancel of Christ church, Strat- 
ford, where a handsome monu- 
ment has been erected to his mem- 

Thus lived, and thus died, a 
man, the narrative of whose lifb 
involves much interesting ancc*^ 

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dote ; who was respectable for Iiis 
understanding and his learning, 
and still more pre-eminent for su- 
avity of manners, and the benevo- 
lence of his heart. The great Ra- 
dne, the father of the French dra- 
roa, after having exalted the glory 
6f his genius to the utmost limits 
allotted to humanity, regretted, at 
the age of thirty-eight years, that 
he had done every thing for the 
World, and nothing for his God. 
Czsar, at the same age, lamented, 
on the tomb of Alexander, that he 
had yet done nothing to secure to 
bimself durable renown. This 
passion for human glory conduct- 
ed the conqueror of Pompey to ac- 
tions which should be disdained by 
a noble heart, and it was, on the 
contrary, at an advanced age, by 
^tempt of glory, that the author 
of Andromaque elevated Racine a- 
bove himself. Very different from 
these men was the character of 
Dr. Johnson. His whole life was 
active, vigilant, and efficient in the 
service of his Maker ; in magni- 
fying the holy office of a clergy- 
nun ; in reclaiming the vicious ; 
m quickening, to a sense of their 
ooty, the negligent and careless ; 
in influencing the ignorant ; in 
•trengthening and confirming the 
serious and religious ; in visiting 
the sick, feeding the hungry, and 
<^oathing the naked. Private vir- 
tues arc the more sublime, as they 
4) not aspire to the approbation of 
others, but only to the testimony 
of onc*s own conscience ; and the 
conscience of a good man is of 
aorc ralue to himself, tlian the 
praisci of the universe. 

As we have already protracted 
wr review to an immoderate 
taigth, we will only give the fol- 
lowing extract from our author as 
» favourable specimen of his style 
■od manner. 

Vol. HI. No. 3. N 

While the Dean refided tt Rhoif-IJUnd, 
he compofed his Aldplrony or Minute Pbi^ 
lifopber ; written by way of dialogue, in 
the manner of Plato. The defigo of 
it was t« vindicate the Chnftian religion, 
vti anfwer to the various objections and 
cavils of atheifts, libertines, enthufiafts, 
fcoroers, criticks, metaphyficians, fataliftj, 
9Xidfceptuh. In the advertifement prefixed 
to ihefe dialogues, the author aflSrms, that 
he was ** well aifured one of the moft no* 
ted writers againft Chriilianity had de« 
dared, he had found out a demonfiratkm 
againft the being of a God.** Mr. 
Johnson, in one of his vifits to the 
Dean, converting with him on the fubjedk 
of the work then in hand, was more par- 
ticularly informed by him— that he him- 
felf (the Dean) had heard this ftrange de- 
claration, while he was prefent in one of 
the deifi'ual dubs ^ in the pretended charac^ 
ter of a learner — that Collins was tha 
roan who made it — and that the JanorJlra» 
tiom was what he afterwards publifhed, in 
an attempt to prove that every adlion \% 
the effeQ of fate and necejjltyy in his book en- 
titled, A Fbilofopbical Inquiry concerning 
Human Liberty, And, indeed, could the 
* point be onceeftabliflied, that every thing 
is produced by fate and necenity,it would 
naturalljr follow, that there is no God, or 
that he is a very ufelefs and infignificanc 
being, which amounts to the fame thing. 
As this ftrange anecdote deferves to be 
inore generally known, a place is given 
it in this memoir. 

When the Dean was about leaving 
America^ Mr. JoMNsoN made him his 
final vilit. As he retained a ftrong affec- 
tion for Yale College^ the feminary \xk 
which he was educated, and N^rith which 
he had been otherwife conne^ed, he took 
the liberty, on this occafion, to recom- 
mend it to the Dean's notice ; hoping that 
he might think proper to fend it fome 
books, and not expe^ing, or aiming at 
any thing further. But within two yeare 
from that lime. Dr. Bbrkblkv, aOia-d 
by fcveral gentlemen who had fubfcribcd 
money for Ins intended college at Bermuda^ 
fent over a valuable colle^ftion of books, 
as a prefent to Yale College. It amounted, 
including what he had given before, to 
near one thoufand volumes, of which tvf 
hundred And fxty vrere in folio, and very 
large. The coft of this colle<ilion could 
have been little lefs ih^wfve hundred pounds 
ferlincr. At or about the fame time he 
tranfmitted to Mr. Johnson a deed, tn 
which b« coi»vcy«d to that m)kQg» 1^ 

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fnrtn in Rhode- T/hndjCon^ding of nitrety 
fix acre?. The annual intereft of it was 
to be divided betweea three bachelors of 
arts, who, upon examination bv the redl- 
or of the coirege, and a minifter of the 
Church of England, (hould appear to be 
the beft clujpiol fcbotars ; provided they 
would refide at college the three years 
betweea their bachelor's and mafler's de- 
grees, in the profeciuion of their ftudies; 
and ttie forfeitures, in cafe of non-refid- 
ence, were to be given in premiums of 
books, to thofe that performed the bcft 

ART. 6. 

The first settlers of Virginia^ an 
, historiccd norvcly exhibiting a view 
of the rise and ftrogress of the 
colony at James Tovm^ a picture 
of Indian mannersy the counte- 
nance of the country^ and its na- 
tural productions. The second 
edition^ considerably efilarged. 
New- York. Printed for I. Riley 
8c Co. 1806. /i/i. 28i. 

Novels, which are founded on 
historical incidents, are little a- 
dapted to interest the attention and 
affect the imap;ination, from the 
recollection, which will mtrude in- 
to the mind, of the real extent of 
the facts, and the consequent con- 
viction, which will be induced, that 
the rest is fiction. But any one, 
who is acquainted with the early 
historv of Virginia, will not only 
feel this embarrassment, while 
reading the novel before us, but 
will often be disappointed by the 
pecollection of having before read 
the same events, narrated in pre- 
cisely the same language* 

In a historical novel we look for 
historical facts, as the basis of the 
story ; btrt we know not by what 
right an author avails himself of 
the labours of others in this more 
than in any other kind of compo- 
Mtidh, wilh^ut acknowledging his 
•bligatsons. Near the ^lose of his 

book, Mr. Davis * refers his read- 
ers to Smith, Purchas, and others. 
How far he is indebted to themy 
not only for incidents, but for par- 
agraphs and pagesy we cannot as- 
sert ; but by the evidences of 
plagiarism, which we will adduce^ 
we cannot repress the suspicion, 
that it is greater than u can 
prove. We will present our rea- 
ders with a few. extracts from the 
life of Smith, in Belknap's « A- 
merican Biography," and direct 
them to the pa;^'es of " The first 
settlers of Virginia,** in which they 
are generally copied verbatim. 

- Proceeding np tbe fircr, another 
company of Indians appeared in^ arsit*^ 
Their chief, Apamatica, holding in on» 
hand his bow and arrow, and in the oth- 
tr a pipe of tobacco, demanded the caufc 
ef their coming ; they made figns of 
peace, and were hofpitably recoved.** 
Amir. Stog, p. 2a^.^£irjl StitUri. p. \^ 

The paragraph following this 
in the novel is a little varied fr«m 
the Biography. 

«« They proceeded down the river i9 
Kecoughtan, where the natives, know- 
ing the needy state of the colony, treat- 
ed them with contempt, offering an ear 
•f corn in exchange for a muiket, or a 
fword." Amer. Biog, p, 26i.^J^irfi 5<K 
Ifcrj,/. 21. 

The five paragraphs which sue- 
ced this in the novel, are a little 
varied from the Biography. 

Compare p. 265 of the Biogra- 
phy, " The Indians astonished,*' 
he. with pages 26, and 27 of the 

•« Powhatan the« fct fach- a price om 
his com, that not more than four bufli- 
els could be procured ; and the necefl»' 
ry fupi^ies could not have been had, if 
Smith's genius, ever ready at invention, 
had not hit on an artifice which proTed 
Cuccefsful. We had fccreted fome triflet, 
and among them a parcel of Um Umdt^ 

♦ Wc Icarii the name of the author from tht 
extracts from reviews, md ftoflitlle Idttat pr 

i&td te tlie iwvcU 

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which, feeraingly in a carelefs way, he 
glanced in the eyes of Powhatan. The 
bait canght him» and he earaeftly deHr- 
cd to purchafe them. Smith, in his turn, 
xaifed the value of them, extolling ihem 
as the moft precioui jewels, refembling 
the colour of the flcy, and proper only 
for the nobled fovereigns of the uni- 
▼erfe. Powhaun's imagination was all 
an fire ; he made large offers. Smith 
infided oa more, and at length fuffered 
kimfelf to be perfuaded to take between 
two and three hundred buflieU of com, 
for about two pounds of blue beads.** — 
Amer. Bicg. fp,n^5, Ftrfi SettUrt, pp, 

«« Having finiflied the neceffary buE- 
nefe of the feafon, and dif patched the 
iitop, another voyage of difcovery was 
undertaken by Capt. Smith and fourteen 
others. They went down the river in 
an open barge, in company with the 
Chip, and having parted with her at 
Cape Henry, they crofled the mouth of 
the bay, and fell in with a clufler of 
iflands without Cape Charles, to which 
they gave the name of Smith*s Ifles, 
which they ftill bear." Blog, p. 277. Firfl 
Stttiert, p, 63. 

« Smith having ftuck his fword into 
a ftingray, the fi(h raifed its tail, and with 
Its (harp indented thorn, wounded him 
in the arm. The wound was extremely 
painful, and he prefently fwelled to that 
degree, that they expe^ed him to die, 
and he himfelf gave them orders to bury 
him on a neighbouring ifland. But the 
fargeon fo allayed the anguifli and fwell- 
ing, that Smith was able to eat part of 
the fifli for his fupper. From this oc- 
currence, the place was di(Hnguiihed by 
fhe name of Stingray-Point, which it ftill 
bears.** Bieg.pp. 279-80. Flrjl SettUn^ 

•• AU things being prepared for the 
ceremony of coronation, the prefent was 
brought from the boats ; the bafon and 
ewer were depofited, the bed and chair 
were iet up, the fcarlet fuit and cloak 
were put on, though not till Namonuc 
had aifured him that thefe habiliments 
would do him no harm ; but they had 
great difficulty in perfuading him to re- 
ceive the crown, nor would he bend hit 
knee, or incline his head in the leaft de- 
gree. After many attempts, and with 
adhial preffing on ^s {boulders, they at 
laft made him ftoop a little, and put it 
on. Inftantly, a fignal being given, the 
men in the boats fired a volley, at which 
Ihe fflooarch (brted with horrour, ix»- 

aginmg that a defig^ was forming to de* 
ftroy him in the fummit of his glory j 
but being aHured that it was meant as a 
compliment, his fear fubdded, and in re- 
turn for ih^ baubles of royalty received 
from King James, he dedred Newport to 
prefent him his old fur mantle and deer 
flcin ihocs.*' Biog. pp. 286-7. Firfi Set- 
tiers, pp, 74-5. 

«* The Aipplies procured by trading 
being infufficient, and hunger very preff- 
ing. Smith ventured on the dangerous 
project of furprifing Powhatan, and car- 
rying off his whole ftock of provifions. 
This Indian prince had formed a iimilar 
deiign refpc^ng Smith ; and for the 
purpofe of betraying him, had invited 
him to his feat, promifing that if he 
would fend men to build him a houfe, 
after the Englifli mode, and give him 
fome gfuns and fwordt, copper and beads 
he would load his boat with com.** 
BHg> /. 292. Firfi Setilerstp. 77. 

But excepting" the sentiments 
excited by observing so many 
unaccountable instances of unac- 
knowledged transcription, we con- 
fess that we have perused this 
novel with pleasure. Many parts 
of it, for which we are exclusive- 
ly indebted to Mr. Davis, are high- 
ly ingenious ; and if he had add- 
ed a few prefatory remarks ex- 
pr«ssing his frequent obligations 
to others, not only for incidents, 
but for many of the paragraphs, 
in which they are narrated, we 
might, with the exception of a 
few passages, have given it our 
entire approbation. 

To the novel is affixed a pom- 
pous « memoir of the author," the 
pcinisal of which has probably fuiv 
nished to him far higher gratificar 
tion, than it will give to any of its 

We cannot quote any part of 
'the story, but in justice to Mr. 
Davis, and to give our readers a 
specimen of his style, we will sub- 
join a few extracts, which will lose 
nothing in being detached from 
• the work. 

The party encamped at evening, 
rottod a cyprefs, which invited them t» 

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sliot's ordination servon. 

repofe, after the fatigue of their march. 
The cyprcCi i» in the firft order of A- 
mericaa trees. Its majeflick (lature, the 
(Uteiinef» of its trunk, lifting its cum- 
brous branches towards the ikies, the deli- 
cacy of its colour, and the texture of its 
leaves, fill the mind with raiugled emo- 
tions of pleafure and of awe. From its 
mighty branches hang (^reamers of long 
mo5, which float in the wind ; and o^ 
its lofty top the eagle builds his neft,and 
the ftork finds a reeling place. /. 53. 

The roocking-btrd is the fweeteft 
i^orifter of the feathered race, without 
excepting even the nightingale. While 
it pofTe&s the power of imitating the 
notes of other bird*, it equals that charm- 
ing fongfter in the peculiar melody of 
its own drain. 

But the mocking bird mingles a^on 
with its fong, and its meafured move- 
menu accompany and expreft the fuc- 
ceifion of its emotions. Its prelude is 
to rife flowly, with expanded wings, and 
foon fink back to the lame fpot, iu head 
hanging downwards. Its adUon now 
correfponds with the varied nature of its 
mufick. If the notes are briik and lively^ 
it defcribes in the air a number of cir- 
cles, eroding each other ; or it afcends 
and defcendi continually iq a fpiral line. 
If they are loud and rapid, it with equal 
briiknefs flaps its wings. Is its fong un- 
equal ? It flutters, it bounds. Do its 
tones fpften by degrees, melt into tender 
drains, and die away in a paufe, more 
charming than the fweeted muQck ? It 
^ntly diminidies its acftion, glides 
fipoothly above its reding place, till the 
wavings of its wings begin to be imper- 
ceptible, at lad ceafe, and the bird re- 
inains fufpended and motionleis itt the 
•ir." /y. 54-5. 

ART. 7. 
p4 %ermon preached in Prcrvidencej 
at the ordination of Prv. Henry 
Edea^ J. M. July 17, A, D. 
1805. By John £i'io% I), D, /)«/»- 
tor qf the Mw jVorth Church, 

Vh\ autem saplenHa cum rellglone Inteparablll 
iicxa coheerct, utrumqae verutn ease sccaae 
cat ; quia et in coleiido aapcre debemua, Id 
car ftcirc, quid nobbi et auomode sit colendum« 
et in Mpiendo colere, id eat re et actu, quod 
kierlmua, inplere. 

Laet, de vera salient, tap, 3^ 

Prpvidencc, Carter, pfu 40. 

Ordination discourses seldoa^ 
fail to interest the hearers for 
whose particular benefit they are 
intended. The occasion naturally 
leads them to recur to past 
scenes, to recollect past instruc- 
tions, and to view with anxiety 
and hope their opening prospects. 
There is indeed a combination of 
circumstances favourable t^ both 
the eloquence of the speaker an4 
the feeUngs of the auditory. The 
sermon, however, which is the 
subjept of our present remarks, in- 
dependently of time, place, and 
incident, is an excellent perform- 
ance. It is judicious and appro- 
priate : rich in sentiment ; brii^* 
liant in remaik ; serious and evan- 
gelical. Yet it is not faultless. 
The learning of its author is 
sometimes unnecessarily display- 
ed. Its method is not, as it ought 
to be, so lucid, as to be plainly 
perceived by the careful hearer 
without the aid of either promise 
or recapitulation. Its transitions 
are not easy ; iu wit is obnoxious 
to misapprehension, and therefore 
may possibly exasperate : and 
some of its similies are so confus- 
ed and so trite, as to serve neither 
for illustration nor embellishment ; 
for then only, when sparingly and 
aptly used, are rhetorical figures 
'< like apples of g^ld in baskets of 

The sermon is founded on Luke 
X. 18. Afler some general rq- 
roarks, explanatory of the text, Dr. 
£. tracesihe progress of Christian- 
ity in the world. He then ably 
describes the duty of its preach- 
ers, and indicates the various 
meaps by which their mission 
may be most success^lly accom- 
plished. With pointed satire and 
with holy zeal he combats the 
sneers and doublings of the unbe- 
liever on the one hand ; and on 
the other he forcibly descants ujk 

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•n the injuries, which pure Chris- 
tianity sustains from the false fer- 
Tours of ignorant and fanatical ex- 
horters, who mar the beauty of 
rtlig^on, who clothe that angel of 
peace in a demon's dress, and un- 
der the pretence of piety seek on- 
ly a support in their idleness, and 
a cloak for those disorders of 
which they are the occasion. 
After exposing these opposite 
evils, and showing them to be ex- 
tremely injurious to the progress 
of undefiled religion, he concludes 
▼ith the usual addresses to the 
candidate and the church. To 
the first he is affectionate, to the 
last respectful. 

The charge by Rev. Dr. La- 
throp is paternal and instructive ; 
and the right hand of fellowship 
by Rev. l3r. Kirkland contains 
hints on the exercise and display 
of christian charity, on which 
christians of every name would 
do well to meditate. 

ART. 8. 

A dUcourte^ delivered at Sftring^ 
Jield^ Oct. 30, 1805. On occasion 
of the completion and ofiening of 
the great bridge over Connecti^ 
cut river^ betivcen the towns of 
Sfiringfield andlVest^S/iringJieid. 
By Joseph Lathropj D, D. pastor 
of the church in West -Spring Jield. 
2d edition, Springfield, (Mas.) 
H. Brewer, pp. 16. 

The first object of this discourse 
is to exhibit the wisdom and be- 
nevolence of God in adapting the 
earth to the habitance of men. 
The author then shows it to have 
b«;n the design of the Deity, not- 
withstandmg what is done for us, 
that we should do something for 
ourselves. He lastly very happi- 
ly uses the occasion for suggest- 
ing several reflexions of immense 
importance. He refreshes the 

mind with proofs of God*s exist- 
ence. He displays the nature and 
duties of civil society. He shows 
the superiority of civilized to sav- 
age life. He remarks upon the 
necessity of subordination, labour, 
and union in a community, and of 
a firm and stead]^ government to 
the prosperity of a people. He 
speaks of the advantages of divine 
revelation, and closes with a strik- 
ing summary of the a priori argu- 
ments in favour of a future state. 

Dr. Lathrop is a w liter who is 
always filled with his subject, anrf 
who gives to every subject he 
touches a high degree of interest. 
His style is simple, perspicuous, 
and forcible. He communicates 
much matter in an easy manner, 
and performs more than he prem- 
iss. We regret that so good a 
sermon, as the one we have des- 
cribed, should not be impressed 
on better paper and with a better 
type, and that its punctuation and 
orthography should be sadly im- 

ART. 9. 
A discourse delivered before the 
members of the Boston Female 
Asylum^ Sept. 20, 1805, being 
their Jifih anniversary. By WiU 
Ham Emerson ^minister of the first 
church in Boston. Russell & 
Cutler. 1805. pp.ZQ. Text. 
Matt. xxiv. 13. 

This discourse is introduced by 
a text, which is perhaps more ap- 
propriate to the circumstances of 
this charitable institution, than any 
other in the whole compass of the 
sacred writings. The delicacy 
and elegance of the compliment it 
conveys must have been peculiarly 
grateful to the members of thw 
society, and have excited a degree 
of expectation, which, we dare to 
say> was not disappointed in thq 

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progress of the discourse. The 
connexion of -the text is well illus- 
trated and applied ; the observa- 
tions follow fronfi it without labour 
or constraint. 

Though the Female Asylum has 
been generally approved, still there 
are some benevolent and judicious 
men, who have been doubtful of its 
ultimate tendency, and have there- 
fore been less unreserved in their 
commendations, than our author. 
We do not say that he has been 
immoderate in its praise ; but we 
suggest to his consideration, whe- 
ther he has not expressed himself 
with too little caution, when he 
compares to the avarice and envy 
of Judas the motives of those per- 
sons " who may persist in con- 
demning the desigp of this institu- 
tion ?" The friends of the Asylum, 
however, have found in the preach- 
er an eloquent advocate, and, but 
for the exceptions just mentioned, 
an enemy might almost be made a 

The word ^ reciprocity" is hard- 
ly admissible, and the phrase " em- 
pyrean heavens" is rather above 
the heads of common audiences. 

We extf act the following spec- 
imen of tlie writer's style and man- 

The fubjcift alfo fuggcfls a fine IcfTon 
cm the effe<5t of commendation. How 
fweet is the voice of praife ! It is necef- 
fary to the young, it is exhilirating to 
the old. There is none fo high as to be 
above, and none fo low at to be beneath 
Its influence. To repofe under the fliade 
of the laurel, we fee the fhident wafting 
his confUtution before the lamp, the 
Aatefinan denying himfelf cafe, and the 
vi(ftorious general braving death in a 
thoufand forras. Let us however dif- 
tinguirti the applaufe of the fickle mul- 
titude from the calm approbation of the 
wife and go«d. The firft it unworthy 
the purfuit of man or woman, the laft 
Is an ornament of grace, of which the 
moft moded chriftian is permitted to be 
load ; it it a crown of glory, which the 

humbled chrifUan may be proud to wetr. 
This alone it genuine honour ; it it the 
- natural and well ripe fruit of genuine 
worth. It it fometimet in pofleflion of 
the humble cottager, at well at of him 
who figuret in the walks of publick life. 
Thit is that good name ^vbUb u hftier thorn 
^ecious ointment^ and raiber U he cbefem 
than great rkbeu To a perfon confdiotts 
of merit, whofe adUont are guided by 
wifdom, and terminate in private happi- 
neft, publick utility, and the honour of 
religion, how grateful the commendation 
of a difcerning friend ! It it like the pre- 
cious ointment, which was wont to moift- 
en the head of the Hebrew pried, and 
to perfume hit facerdotal vedmeots. Or 
it may be likened to the dews, which 
copioufly defceoded on the hills of Her- 
mon, quickening the progrefs of vegeta- 
tion, and clothing them with luxuriance 
and beauty. It is at once the dimulut 
and the reward of beneficence. And it 
is a reward which we cannot, without 
doing violence to the bed feelings of the 
heart, refrain from bcdowing. A% like 
begets like, love begets love. It is im- 
podible to behold a high degree of na- 
tural beauty, and be filent in its praife. 
It is equally impoflible to witnefs an z€t 
of fincere generofity, and not feel a fen- 
timent of complacence for the agent. It 
it immaterial whether the a^ion be done 
for our advantage, or that of our neigh- 
bour. Jefus would have commended a 
fimilar adHon in Mary performed for 
any other man ; and he would have 
praifcd the fame deed performed for him 
by any other woman. What a beautiful 
encomium it here paid by our mader to 
his worthy friend ! Who will henceforth 
doubt if love of honour, within moder- 
ate limits, may be judified ? It is mani- 
fed that Chrid here faniSUfies a defire of 
glory, and confecratet it to the praifHce 
of virtue. Veriiy 1 fay unto you, wherrv^ 
er tbu gofPel ^U be preached tbrougbout tht 
nvh^ie vj»rid, there Jhall aJJo ihity tbat this 
vfman hath done^ be told for a tmemorial etf 
her, Blefled Jefut ! We thit dav help to 
make thee a true prophet. In thefe endt 
of the earth we veri^ thy words. Yet, 
thou excellent woman, who anointedft 
with precious ointment the holy faviour 
of the world, at the di dance of eighteen 
centurietfrom thy death, we publiih thy 
beneficence with joy and gratitude. 
Though no datue it ere^ed to thy fame, 
thy bounty ihall yet be had in everlading 
remembrance : without the aid of brafs. 

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tliy diart^lcr will ererj where bt dear. 
HTbcreTcr the gofpel of our falvation 
Ihall be made known ; wherever it {liall 
carry peace to the turbulent, and light to 
ihofe in dirknefs ; wherever it (hall offer 
pardon to the penitent, and immortality 
to the good, there ihall thy lovely name 
be n>are fragrant than the perfumes, and 
iby memory precious at that of the jufl ! 

ART. 9. 

d 9ermon^ fireached at the ordina^ 
tion of Rrv, Chartva Lowell to 
the pastoral care qf the west 
church and congregation in Bos^ 
toHjJan, 1, 1806. By Elifihalet 
Porter^ pOJitor of the first church 
in Rojcbury, Annexed are The 
charge^ by Professor Ware ; and 
right hand qf felloivshi/iy by Mr. 
Buckminster, Boston ; Belcher 
k Armstrong. 

The chief entertainment of an 
ordinatioo sermon is to be found in 
the addresses at the close. The 
preceding matter resembles the 
half hour, which is spent in the 
drawing room before dinner : it is 
irksome ; but a good^atured and 
civil man, if he does not attend to 
it with delight, will endure it with 
patience, sensible that a half hour, 
•* though it may be tedious, can- 
not be long,^ and that the feast* 
which is to follow, will compensate 
him for his mental fatigue. Mr. 
Porter b an entertainer who de- 
serves our thanks ; for whilst he 
has interested and pleased us in 
the conclusion of his discourse, he 
is neither long nor dull in the in- 
troductory part. His text is," Sanc- 
tify them through thy truth ; thy 
word is truth ;** and the two di- 
f i^ons of his subject are, " I . It is 
by. means of truth, that God sanc- 
tifies mankind. 2. The word of 
Cod is the truth, by which this 
itnportant purpose is effected." 
The three extracts which follow 

^re favourable specimetii of his 

I will not assert, that the knowledge 
of the truth and the practice of right'' 
eousnets are inseparably connected ; an4 
much less, that the latter is always in 
eiact proportion to the former. But it 
is a fact, which I believe will not be de-* 
aied, that they have been associated in m 
manner, which could not have been the 
result of accident. A history of the pro- 
gress and state of reli<4l^is knowledge, 
in the various ages and countries of the 
world, would be found a valuable indet 
of their state of moral improvement. 

To search the scriptures, in order to 
acquaint ourselves With their meaning, 
is our indispensable duty. When we en- 
gage in this employment, we must take 
with us our reason and conscience. l'he»e 
are essential to our understanding the 
writtea word of God. Without their 
light and aid, we cannot proceed a step 
in interpreting the sacred scriptures ; but 
shall be led into crrour and absurdity^ 
by the first metaphor, or £gurative ex^ 
pression that occurs. 

The successor of a Mayhew and a 
Howard ou';ht not to content himself 
with low attainments in knowledge and 
goodness. This fiock have been accuse 
tomed to substantial food, and mu^t noC 
be fed with chaff. They will require 
knowledge and understanding ; or in 
other words, doctrines and precept«« 
founded on plain seriptore and coramoa 
tense. * 

The charg^e, by Professor WarCf 
is such as we should expect from 
the decent and correct mind of its 
author. It is destitute of oma« 
ment, and contains little novelty. 
But as ornament would be mis^ 
placed in an authoritative exhorta- 
tion, and novelty could not be ob- 
tained, without deviating from the 
model which St. Paul has given, 
these circumstances, we think, en- 
title it, not to censure, but praise. 
In the following passage, Mr. 
Ware, without insisting on any 
doubtful qualifications, points out^ 
in concise terms, the endow mcnts, 
which a candidate for ordination 
ought to possess. We give it as 
a specimen, not only of his style. 

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fcOWEN*S oiscotnsB^ 

but of his moderation and good 

The miniftry, Which you hare receiv- 
ed yourfelf, you will be careful alfo to 
commit, as you ihall be called io provi- 
dence CO that fervice, only to faithful 
men, who give fatisfatSbory evidence of 
a found underdanding, of competent 
knowledge, of pure morals, of unquef- 
tionable piety, and of unbleniiflied rep- 

The light hand of fellowship, by 
Mr. Buckminster, is the splendid 
performance of a young man of 
genius. The following simile was 
received by the auditory with a 
murmur of applause ; and we 
doubt not it will afford a high grat- 
ification to the reader. 

Is there not, amidft all the varieties of 
difcipline and faith, enough left us in 
common to preferve a unity of fpint f 
What though the globes, which compofe 
our planetary fyflem, are at fometimes 
nearer than at others, both to one anoth- 
er and to the fun, now eroding one an- 
other's path, now ccHpGng one another's 
Irght, and even fometimes appearing to 
our fhort-fighted vifion to have wander- 
ed irrecoverably, and to have gone off 
into boundlefs fpace ; yet do we not 
know that they are ftill reached by fome 
genial beams of the central light, and 
continue, in their widefl aberrations, to 
gravitate to the fame point in the fyf- 
tem f And may we not believe that 
the great head of the church has always 
difpenfed, through the numerous focie- 
tics of chridendom, a portion of the 
healing influences of his religion ; has 
beld them invifibly together, when they 
have appeared to be ru(hing fartheft 
afunder ; and through all the order and 
confufion, conjundtion and oppofition, 
progrefs and decline of churches, has 
kept alive in every communion a fu- 
preme regard to his authority, when 
clearly known, as a common principle 
of relation to him and to one another I 

In the extract which follows, 
Mr. B. has, with a few masterly 
strokes, drawn the true characters 
of the great May hew, and the vir- 
tuous Howard. 

Surely the de(k, whtre fuch men M 
Mayhew and Howard have flood, is 
privileged above the common ^aih of 
publick inflru(5tion. — Of Mayhew we 
have heard and read only, but enough 
to know, that poflerity will bear and 
read of him alfo. They will be corioiM 
to learn more of that intrepid fpirit, 
which nothing could deprefs ; of that 
vigorous underflanding, which broke fo 
eafily the little meihes which were fpread 
to entangle it. However they may hef- 
itate to follow him in all his f pecula- 
tions, they will never hcfitate to admire 
his noble attachment to his country, its 
liberties, its churches, and its literature ; 
they will not beinterefted to depreciate 
the independence of his virtue, the 
manlinefs of his piety, and the undiflem* 
bled love for the caufe of his Redeemer. 
Howard we have feen ; and who that has 
feen him has forgotten the patriarchal 
iimplicity of his chara(5ler, united with s 
tendernefs, which would have been ad- 
mired even in a brother ? "Who that 
knew him is not eager now ta afliire us,^ 
that h^ had ingrafted the moft fublime 
virtues and honourable accomplifliments 
of his predeceffor on the found and na- 
corrupted flock of his own integrity f > 

In the last extract we have 
marked a word, which appears to 
us to be incorrectly employed. 
As Mayhew and Howard only 
stood in the pulpit, other publick 
instructers ought not, in the same 
sentence, to have walka assigned 
to them. 

ART. 10. 

A dUcourae delivered at the request 
qf the jimertcan revolution »o- 
a>/t/, before that wciety^ and the 
state society of the Cincinnati^ on 
the death of Gen. Christopher 
Gadsden^ Se/it. 10, 1805. By 
A^athaniel Boweny A, M, rector 
if St, Michael* Sy and member qf 
the American revolution society. 
Published at the request of the 
two societies, Charleston. W. 
P.Young, fifi. 22. 

There are various defects in 
this discourse. The style is to# 

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itPfttM^Kt to jottirsoM^s mtnoffkur. 


liiiterted. In the composition of 
the sentences, there are too many 
members and useless adjeodvesi 
Two or three instances of bad 
grammar are discoverable* The 
felativest t/tat and wfdchy are too 
often elliptlcally omitted, and the 
ibrmer is sometimes tised, when 
the latter should have been prefer* 
red, both on account of perspicuity 
9fid euphony* We are willing to 
believe ^nf thmg commenda" 
lory of Gen. Garden, but the 
generality of readers tirotild have 
been more pleased with a biog-' 
raphical narratlcmi than loose eu-* 
logy in the b«dy of the discourse, 
lod ^jointed historical facts in 
the notes. From the present 
work the future historian can glean 
Bothing ; and no funeral orator of 
m illustrioas statesman or renown^ 
fd commander will consider it as 
a model for eloquence or cnco« 

ART. 11. 

J iufifilement to JohnsonU English 
Dictionary s By Qeorge Msuon* 
Re'printed fit>m the London 
Quarto edition. New York, for 
I. Riky & Co. 8vo. 

Mr« Mason has unquestionably 
produced a very useful work, 
Irhich ire recommend to all the 
(rc^rietora of Johnson^s dictiona- 
|ry. We are sorry to find in his 
pre£Bu:c, that he has treated the 

great luminary of his age whh 
disrespect, atid, we believe, with 
injusUce. He talks of Ma inaccus 
raciesj qf hU vatiotu mamMten* 
eiea with /ttmae{fy qf fda toant qf 
diligence J qf the natrcttmeaa qf hi9 
tnteiHgencef qf his mistakes f qf hi^ 
negligence^ and dejiciency^ qf hi: 
highly ridiculous observations. 

The dictionary of Johnson is a 
stupendous work, considered as 
the production of one man ; and 
has been regarded by the best 
judges, as superiour to the French 
lexicon of the forty academicians* 
According to Garrkk^s compii« 

He has beat forty French^ and mil 
beat forty more. 

The genius of Johnson ought not 
to have been degraded to the 
mechanical drudgery of such % 
work, though no man living couI4 
have executed it so well. It was 
Hercules cleansing the Augean 
•tables, the most arduous, and 
least glorious of his labours. The 
task of Mr. Mason was compaiy 
atively easy. He had only to picl^ 
up what might have dropped ot 
been overlooked by the laJ>ouring 
hero. The task Was performed 
by the removal of the filth. Noth- 
ing remained for Mr. Mason but 
the light labours of the broom- 
Mr. Mason, in his attack on the 
Doctor, reminds us of Shake- 
speare^B << flea op the lip of • 

VoLIII.Ko«9< 9 

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Ok New Publications in the U. States, for February, 1806. 

Sunt bona, sunt quxdam ine4iocria, rant malar phira.— ffART. 

9^ IVe cannot too often repeat foricttations to authors^ printers^ ond hoekfel'^ 
lerj in the different parts of the United States to fend us bj tbe earlieft op' 
portunittes fpoft paid) notices of all books <wbich they have lately publijbed, 
pr <iuhicb they intend to publifh. Tbe lift of new publications contained in 
tbe Anthohgy is tbe only lift nuithtn our knonuledge publifhed in tbe United 
States ; and confequently the only one that can be ufeful to the publick for 
purpofes of general reference. If authors and publiftfcrs wll therefore con^ 
fent to communicate^ not only noticeSf but a copy of all thoir publications^ 
fuch ufe mif^bt be made of them as would promote^ »whai all unite in ar^ 
dently ivi/king^ the general intertji of American literaturet and tbe more 
e'xtenf've circulation of books • 


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Ipmber, Coonul & Oo. 97^ ctp. isoe. 

iH THE n^n%. 

The Maritime Law of Europe. By 
M. D. A. Azuni, late fenatpr, and judgjB 
of the commercial and maritime court fit 
Hice, member of the acaflemies of fcien- 
ces at Turin, Naples, t^lorence, Modf na, 
Alexandria, Carrara, Rome, and Triede, 
member of the Athenzum of arts, and of 
|he academy of legiHation at Paris, ;; nd 
pf the academy of arts aud fcieocM at 
MarTeilles. TranOated from the lad 
Paris editiQu. S yols. 8vo. Pricp to 
ittbfcribers 3 dollars a vol. }iev9, York. 
Ifaac Riley & Co. 

Smith's Newhampfhire lAtin Gram- 
jRar. 19mo. D. Carliile, for John ^eft, 
^ ^(lon. 

Underwood on the dife^fin of chil- 
dren. 8vo. Bofton, David Weft; 

Paley's View of the evidences of thp 
chriftian religion. Third American e- 
dition. 8vD. XX Carlifle, fofr John We% 

Chaptairs Oh^miftry. 8vo. Bpftoii, 
^omas it Andrews. 

Abridgement of Morfe's Geography. 
I vol. 1 2mo. Boflen, Thpmas & Andrews. 

Baxter's mtfcellahies, ccmutining, Call 
to the Unconverted — Walks in Solitude 
r*-«nd Dying Thoughts. 1 vol. J2<nO. 
^IliUfl^phi^, Woodw«»d. 


The particular communion of the Bap* 
tift churches explained and vindicfted. 
Two tra^, publi^l^ originally by the 
author in 1789 and 1794 : togedier with 
an appendix, containing obfervatioiirand 
arguments on the prefeot (late of coo- 
troverfy refpedsng that fubje^. Bf 
Thomas Baldwin, d. p. 1 Smo. about 800 
pages. Price to fubfcribers 1 dollar 
bound. Bofton, ^ianning & Loring. 

A voluine of fermons oo intereftin^ 
fubje^b. By Sir Henry Moncrieff Well- 
wood, Bart. D.p. and r.a.s. Edinburgh, 
and fenior chaplain in ordinary in Scot- 
land to hit royal highnefs the prince of 
Wales. 8vo. between S and 400 pa^et. 
Price boupd and lettered 1,75. Harti6z49 
Conn. Lincoln & Gleafon. 

The Village Dialogues. By the eml- 
penUy pious and R^v. Roland Hill, of 
I/>ndon. Thefe dialogues, thirty-four 
in number, are on a variety of intereftmg 
fubjeifts, and efpecially the ilave trade. 
S vols. 12mo. about 350 pages each, fiii» 
paper. Philadelphia. Woodward. 

A nf?w work, entitled. Political World, 
or an inquiry refpeaing th^ rights am) 
dutifis of the peopk of all countries. Bj 
Elihu Palmer. The fubjea of this work 
will be prefented to the piiblick under 
fonr g^eral divifiont, including, 1. ^ 
pbilofophick developement of the monX 
conftitution and eflinitial rights of ha<- 
man exiftence. 2. The belt fneaos of 
preferving thefe rights under the tafhl* 
ence of corredt political tiftabliihmeBti, 
tn this part of the work a particular dif- 
cuflion of the czcellenpies and defe^ of 
the American conftitutions will be pre- 
fented. S. The conne<aion between civ, 
il and ecdefiaftical defpotifm. Under 
this divifion pf the fubjea it vrill be 
proved, that until church and ftate (haU 
be feparated in their rcfpedlive empires, 
and their rights and boundaries roariced 
with di<Vina and difcriminate precifion, 
it will be impoflible to place republican 
liberty upon any folid or durable foun- 
dation. 4. An anticipated view of tho 
moral and fcientifick confequences refutt- 
ing from the uniyerfal e&ibliibment of 
liberty, together with anfwers to the for- 
midable obje<5tions whicb have been ad- 
vanced againft the perfeaable nature of 
maurand the triumphant reign of re- 
publican virtue over the whole eartl^ 
ifmo. pp. S50, Price |x>uiid 1 dpUaf. 

Digitized By 





A edOe^&^n of pCiUfl) and hymn tttQ«s, 
taken principally from a celebrated work, 
Jttdy pablifliea in London, and ufed at 
tbe chapel of tke Lock Uofpical, &c. To 
Wfhick will be added fome of tbe mod far 
voarite tunes at prefenc in ufe in the U- 
aitcd States. This work will be adapted 
for kmr Toices and organ for the pub- 
Jick worikip. As the foil harraonyt or 
thorough baft, is annexed to the treble, 
in fiaaU notes, it will be e<}uaUy calcu- 
lated for the piano forte with one or two 
voices. The whole work will contain 
about 900 pages folio, including a titl^ 
p^e, index, Si. The firft number, of 8 
pages folio, engrared, will be publidied 
the I ft of March, and continueid month- 
Ij. Price to fubfcribcrs $0 cents, to non- 
tohTcriberB 75 cents. Qofton, C. Oraup- 
oer, pobliiher. 

The Man of FeeHng, a sord, by H. 
Mc Keuzle, Efq. author of the Man of 
the World, &c. with an account of thtf 
author s life, neyer before puhlifhed. 1 
voL 8vo. price 1 dol. Richmond, Vir. 
S. Grantland. 

A new mufical work, entitled The 
Harmonick Magaaine. To be publiflied 
in numbers, femi-monthly, and to con- 
tain fele^ions from the coropofitions of 
the mod celebrated mudcians in 'Eu- 
rope, together with American original 
compofitions. Each number to contain 
32 pages quarta A title page and in* 
dez to be given with the volume. Pric^ 
S dollars per annum, or 50 cents per 
number. Sal^m, Ma^. S. Holyokei 


A- benottfiil Stertttypt Prayer^Booi, in 
doable colamns, ISmo., with large face 
oinion letter, on S64 plates, was publiih- 
ed by the Univerfity of Cambridge, £ng. 
iahr S ; and fince then an 8vo. £Dgli& 
Teftaacnt in long primer. The£e are 
the firft fmits, we tmft, of many excel- 
kot prodndions of this kind, which may 
be cxpeded to proceed from that prefs. 
We are happy %o hear, that the Univer- 
ityof Oxford has adopted the fame 
plan of printing ; and that preparation* 
are now making there to begin a new 
Odavo edition of the Welih Bible in 
fkercotype, of which the Society for 
promoting Chriftian Knowledge has en- 
gaged twenty thonfand copier. A Ste- 
notype Pocket Bible, in WelOi, of 
twenty thouiand copies, had been 
previoully undertaken for the Britifli 
•ad Foreign Bible Society, by the Uni- 
verfity of Cambridge. 

The Bookfellers have agreed to re- 
print Dr, y^Smfi>M*j E>t^Jk P$iUi with the 
addition of Cbmucrr^ Spenfir^ and the oth- 
er early poets, as weU as the mod eminent 
of thofe poets who have died lince Mr. 
Jdmfms feries doTed. The whole will 
form a complete body of EogliHi poetry. 
The early poets vrill be colledfced, and 
the additiood lives wnCten by Mn AUn- 
mdcr Chmim€rs. 

A new edition of Dr, Jiibnfintx works, 
being the fourth fince his death, is alfo 
in theprefs, and will appear in the early 
part of the winter. This has forat ad- 
( ao4 illnllrativo not^ . 

It is in the department of ancient 
claflicks, that the emulation of the Geo* 
man literati appears chiefly to be ftimu» 
lated. Many hiave come forth from the 
fchool of Heyne. The edition of JJomert 
Jliad^ by Frofeflbr Wolf, who prefixed 
an elaborate colle<5tion of proofs, deduce 
ed from internal and external circum* 
Aances, that aii the poems afcribcd to 
Homer were not written by the fame 
hand, has excited great attention in 
France, where it has been oppofed by 
the leaumed Reviewer ef the hillorians 
of Alexander the Great. 

The doubts which have been darted 
in England, on the authenticity of the 
four celebrated orations fuppofcd to have 
been delivered by Cicero after his return 
from exile, and which had been refuted 
by Gefner in his lectures before the 
Royal Society at Gottingen, from 1753 
to 1759, were revived by Mr. Wolf, whp 
reprinted, in 1801, the arguments on 
both (ides of the queftion, with his ob- 
je<^ons to thofe of Geiher, and intima* 
tions that the authencity df another Ci- 
mous oration of Cicero might be difput- 
ed. Accordingly, in the following year, 
he printed the oration pro MarcdU^ with 
an tntroduddon, and commentary, main^ 
taining it to be fpuripus. Thele eflays, 
which we apprehend to have been mere- 
ly fportive, threw the publick ccnfors of 
literature into no fmall perplexity and 
conftemation ; and they fcem to hav^ 
thought Wolf, like Antteus, to be inviiH 
pbl^ on the foil from wl^ch lie TpruAft 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



At length, Wormius ventured to encoun- 
ter him on Danifh ground : and printed 
another edition of the controverted ora- 
tion, with annotations, in which, ftep by 
ftep, he gravely refuted M. Wolf, proba- 
bly much to the amufement of the lat- 
ter, whofe only view it thought to have 
been, to indulge his humour at the ez- 
penfe of perfoos who prided themfelvet 
on the reputation of fupcriour criticifm. 

The new edition of Tacitus^ with Ru- 
pcrti's Commentary, <publi{hed (at the 
late Leipzig fair) by Dieterich, is merely 
a compilation, printed with bad types on 
coarfe paper. At the fame time, M. 
Fritfch, of Leipzig, publiOied an edition 
of the younger Fiiny'j works, edited by 
fichafcr ; and alfo, of Propertitts^ by Mr. 
Kninol of GielTen. The former is an 
improvement of Gefner*s edition ; and 
U printed with excellent types, on fine 
paper : but the latter is, in the£e refpedls, 
much inferiour to Heyne*8 Tibullus. 

Mr. Wool! has in the prefs. Biograph- 
ical N^moirs of the late Dr. I. Wart on, 
with a fele^ion from his poetical works, 
and an eztenfive literary correfpondence 
between eminent perfons, left by him for 

J. C Davie, Efq. has in the prefs, Trav- 
els in South America, in a feries of let- 
ters to the late Mr. Yorke, of Taunton- 

Mungo Park, with his companions, 
who failed from Portfmouth a few 
months ago, having touched at the if- 
lands of M. Jago and Goree, arrived at 
Kayay, on the river Gambia, on the 
14th of April, whence they were to pro- 
ceed in a few days into the inieriour of 
Africa. The heat was at that time fo 
cxceflive, that the thermometer was, in 
the middle of the day, 100 degrees in 
the Hiade, and frequently three hours af- 
ter funfet it continued from 82 to 92 

Mr. Humboldt is beginning to pub- 
lifli the refults of his late travels, with 
an affe(5Vation that deferves to be repro- 
bated. He begins with fome ezpcnfive 
numbers of botany, and thence proceeds 
to fome other numbers of zoology and 
geology, promiling that he will conde- 
fcend alfo to give to the publick an 
mkridgfj account of his travels, adapted 
to general reading. His condefcenfion 
does not, however, terminate here : for 
he tells the world that he may probably, 
in a few years, publifli a full account of 
Im* travels, but that the akrid^ed account 

may fatisfy curiofity till he has letfure t« 
gratify it fully ! 

Mr. Irving, author of a work on 
Englifli Compofition, and of the Lives 
of the Scotti(h Poets, is engaged on a 
Life of the celebrated George Buchanan. 

The emperour of Ruffia propofet 
forming an in(Htutioo at Peterlburg for 
the purpofe of improving the navy* 
which is to be called the Marine Mufe- 
unL In this inftitution, leflans in all the 
fciences neceifary to be known by a fea- 
officer will be given. It will publi ih a 
fort of journal upon every fubjedt that 
concerns the marine. There will be ax- 
tached to the mufeum a library, and a 
colledUon of natural hiftory, which will 
be eonftantly open to the (Indents. The 
eftabU(hroent is to be under the direc- 
tion of the minifter of the marine, and 
the members are to wear a uniform like 
that of the marines. 

General Alexander Palitzyn has tranf^ 
lated into the RufHan language the Voy- 
age of Lord Macartney to China, which 
will be accompanied with very fine plates. 

M. Dupuis, of the In(Htute, has read a 
curious memoir on the phoenix. He d&- 
mondrates that this celebrated bird nev- 
er exided. It was (lated to return at pe- 
riods of 1481 years ; but writes very 
confiderably relative to this duration. 
Herodotus relates many wonderful things 
concerning the phoenix ; Pliny fpeaks of 
its reprodudUon ; Tacitus informs us, 
that it repairs to Heliopolis to die. U 
was confecrated to the fun. One of the 
times of its appearance occurred during 
the reign of Sefoftris, 1 328 years before 
our era. Horns Apollo and Nonnus ai^ 
ftrt that it was an emblem of the fun, 
and one of the names of that luminary. 

A fociety has been ellabliflied at Ber- 
lin, whofe objedb is to fend midionaries 
every year to Africa, and efpecially tD 
that part of it inhabited by the negroes, 
that with the light of chriAianity they 
roav di^ife fome tindhire of our arts, 
and fow feeds of a more refined civiliza- 
tion. Two miiTionaries have already fat 
out for Guinea. 

A variety of valuable antiquities have 
been difcovered in The(raly. Among 
them are the buds of Ariftotle and Ana- 
creon, a large (latue of Ceres, with a 
coin of Lyfimachus, and fome remarka- 
ble pillars. A Greek MS., containing 9 
commentary of Nicephorus on the an* 
cients, and the ancient Greek church ^ 
was ^covered at th^ fame timt. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



The raTtarches 2rt Pompeii are contin- 
wei with great fuccefs. The queen of 
Naples has been with the royal family to 
tnfpedl them, and ia her prefence was 
difcorered an ancient, edifice, in which 
were found vafes of the greatefl beauty, 
oedaU, muficai indniinentt, and what 
is o{ more value than all the reft, a beau- 
tiful bronze (latue reprelentingHercule* 
knHog the celebrated hind of mount 
Meaolus. The compofition and dedgn 
of thJU ^ronp are perfc<Et. In the fame 
bic'Idiag have likewife been found fome 
extremely beautiful paintings, among 
vhich one reprefening Diana farprifed 
by Aifteon is particularly didinguifhed. 
The colonring of Diana is equal to any 
thing that Titian ever produced. The 
queen, it is faid, intends to have this 
ftnu^ure repaired. She has likewife or- 
dered the chevalier Venuti to fuperin- 
teod at Rome the execution of a work 
u marble, alabafter, and metal, reprtfent- 
iag Pompen in miniature. The cheva- 
Ker has already executed a ilmilar per« 
formance, reprefenting the temples of 
Psftum, which is m the pofTeifion of 
the queen. 

At the town of Fiefolc, near Florence, 
abeaottfal amphitheatre has been dif- 
eovered, and the greateft part of it clear- 
ed from the rubbifli. It is fuppofed 
that h would contain at lealt 30,000 


Nentrai J2^£<f.— The editor, having 
TCcdved letters from feveral perfons of 
dtfitn^ion in Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
aad B»fion, mod of whom are perfonally 
■nkmiwn to him, adviftng him to repub- 
lilh his numbers on neutral rights in a 
Bore permanent form, and their advice 
having been backed bv that of fome of 
the noft refpe^bkble of his friends in this 
pUce, makes the following reply to all 
thefe applications at once. His circum- 
fiances are not fuch as to enable him un- 
iffifted to carry on a work through the 
pre(s of the magnitude this would be, 
BO' would pmdence juIHfy the attempt, 
without the fnpport of a fubfcription to 
K leafl an indemnifying amount. The 
fbbjed is becoming in fome degree trite, 
ind, to borrow from a letter before me, 
piblick curiofitT, alwap capricious and 
ealily wearied, is fomewhat abated for 
reading performances of this nature. Aa, 
however, the numbers which have ap- 
peared in this paper, and which are in a 
tbteoC preparation to appear, will, when 
the Cms it complet«d| ^tford at leaft « 

more extensive view of the fnbje^, in alt 
its afpe(fls, than any publication that has 
yet iilued from the prefs ; the editor i* 
ready and even defiruus to comply with 
the requefls with which he has been hon- 
oured, if a fubfcription for that purpofe 
can be filled. And that the experimenc 
may be fairly made, he offers the follow- 
ing propofals :— The numbers, with thofe 
to come, (hall be remoulded, revifed,aod 
corredked, and form a firft part ; a par- 
ticular anfwer to fome of the fophjfma 
of War in Difguife, will form a fecond 
part ; and a colleifHon of all the official 
documents and memorials which have 
appeared, having relation to the fubjedl, 
fhall be added by way of Appendix ; fa 
as to put the purchafer in pofTeifion of 
a book to which he may at any time re- 
fer for all the information he may de- 
fire on a quefUon of fo great national 
moment. As it is not practicable to af- 
certain what the hze of the book will be, 
it is not eafy to fix upon the price, k 
is poffible it may extend to a volume o£ 
400 or perhaps 500 pages, and it will be 
afforded at the ufual price of a work of 
fuch a fize. To be put to prefs as fooa 
as the appearance of the fubfcription li(k 
wUl juOify it. W. COLEMAN. 

[N. r«ri Evening P^,] 

We have received from Philadelphia 
a profpectus of a new periodical paper, 
to be calkd The Hour, b^ Thomas Time- 
keeper ; to be published every Monday, 
and will, for the moft part, be devoted t« 
topicks immediately eonnedted with the 
Hour; embracing politicks, arts, fciences^ 
and polite literature ; and incloding, in 
8 more efpecial manner, a review of the^ 
new books, magazines, repoAtories, and 
various journals of the United States. It 
will confift of eight large ocraVo pages* 
elegantly printed. The price 4 dolhira 

Rev. Samuel Auftin and Mr. Ifaiah 
Thomas, jun. have iflued propofals for 
publifhing, by fubfcription, llie com- 
plete Works of the late Rev. Prefident 
Edwards of New Jerfey, in eight o^vo 
volumes of about five hundred pages 
each, price fourteen dollars, bound. — 
The publick are now in pofifeflion of 
thefe works, but in feparate volumes and 
imperfe^ ^itions. It was thought a 
tribute of refpedl due to this great and 
amiable theologian, that it would be 
promotive of the literary reputation of 
our country, and efToBtially fuhfecve cht 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


IfBDlCAL llEl'Oll't^ 

tatifc of ti^th Slid piety in general, to 
coUedb thefe works and publilfk tbem un- 
der one entire impredlon. Since this 
plan was proje<£ted, a fimilar one hat 
been fermed, and the execution of it is 
sow in confiderable fonfeardnefs on the 
other iide of the Atlantic. But fr«n the 
late increafe of taxes impofed br the Bri- 
tifh government, and other incidental 
caufes, books imported from £ngland 
cannot be afforded hj bookfellers as 
cheap as thofe which are printed here. 
Befides, it is to our reproach to fufiSn* the 
works of a man of fo much celebrity and 
ftich uncommon attainments, a man who 
{lands on the height of eleyation, as a 
lnetaphy^cian,a theologian, a difcrimin<« 
ating cafuift, and an experimental chril^ 
tian, to Want that patronage in his own 
country which they have abroad. 

The Plays of William Shakefpcare,. 
t?ith Johnfon and Steevens* notes, aug- 
mented by Ifaac Reed, are now publi{h-< 
in^ by Meflrs. Riley & Co. of New York, 
and Maxwell, &c.of Philadelphia. This 
fird complete American edition will be 
contained in feventeen roluities crown 
Odtavo, printed in a ftyle eminently 
beautiful on a nfie cream-coloured woven 
paper, under the immediate dire<5bioo 
ftnd fuperintendance of an editor, allifled 
by feveral men of letters. 

SytUnUtmi IVwh, — ^Mr. Francis Ki- 
chok, of Philadelphia, propofes to re- 
print the works of Dr. Sydenham, in two 
volumes odlavo, price about three dol- 
lars fifty cents. Alany phyfidant hava 
been confulted on the fuDJedlt who <kmi* 
cur in recommending their publlcatioiL 
They will be publiihed with notest tn* 
tended to render them more ufefiil to 
the American (hidcnt of medicine, hj 
^njamin Ruih, M. D. Profeflbr of Med- 
icine in the^ univeriity of Pennfylvania. 
As the expenfe of publi^ng thele works 
will be confiderable, and the fale not ea- 
tenfive, they cannot be undertaken with^ 
out a profpe<^ of fuccels ; all ph3rficiana 
therefore who are inclined to encourage 
the publication of them, are defired to 
tlfe their intereft among their medical 
friends, and to transmit the names o# 
JubTcribers to F. Nichols, T. Dobfon, J. 
Omrad & Co. and S. F. Bradford, book- 
rdlert, Philadelphia { or h> White, Bur- 
ditt, & €o. Bofh^n. 

Mr. Samuel Pleafantf, jnn. of Rich- 
*'»<>nd, Virginia, is preparing for the 
prefs. Part I. of the lecond volume of 
toe Revifed Code, containing a colledion 
if fach a<^ of the geoeral aiTfaibly af 

Virginia, of a publici: and perfnaHeit 
nature, as have been pafled fmce the 
year 1801, together with thofe of the 
fame nature, which iprere omitted in the 
laft edition of that work, from 1793 ta 
] 801 indnfive, with notes of reference 
to former and fubfeqaent ftatates ; fo 
which will be added an appendix and 
copious indax.^ 

From ThurfJajt Jan. 16 to Tbmfi 

day^ Feb- 13, as reported to tbt 

Board of Health* 

Male. Fan. Ck. 
Accident 1 

ConAimptioQ 4*5 9 

Debility 1 

liropfy I 

* Fever, nervoof 6 s 

Old age S 4 

PeripneumoDy I 

Suddenly S 1 

Unknown S \i 


• ProbaUf focotrcA. 

18 15 !• 

Foa FcaauART. 

AT the commencement of Febro* 
ary the weather was cdd for tbtf 
mod party and ibmetiroes attended 
with fnow. Afterwards, a doady 
atmofphefe, fudden changes to warm 
weather, which quickly diflblved the 
(hows, and then as ftiddenly beeame 
cold. From abotit the middle of 
the month it has been uniformly 
mild ; the fnow has di&ppcaredy 
and vegetation commenced. 

The acute difeafes of the month 
have been fewer, than might have 
been expeded from the great varia- 
tions of temperature, which have ex-, 
ifted. In the return of deaths (which» 
by the way, is deficient and incorrect^ 
but better than none) we find icarce- 
ly any acute difeaies named. The 
truth is, that moft of thofe diforderst 
which recuited, were cured by mcd^ 
icine. Among thde may be enume* 
rated a few ca(es of pneumonic ia» 
Hammation, of rheumatifin, of ca* 
tarrh, and foroe of typhoa mitioff 
followed by long protradcd conva^ 
kiceoce. Chronic complaints foro^ 
at prefent much the ku){eft propof^' 
tioB of difeaif. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



MARCH, 1806. 


caieiNAL LETTKE8 YHox svaoft. 

JVb. 8. 

PomBfio....Palaee qf Queen Joan.,..Tomb qf Virgiitt..Grotto qf FomU/ios 

BsLOw the tafiiib of Kiaia Is 
fituated the villagt of Posilipo. 
The coontry houses here are a 
cod retreat during the heat of 
sommer. They are built against 
the hill of Posilipo, composed of 
tupa and volcanick substances, and 
their wails are washed by the wa^ 
tcrs of the bay, which hcf e, flowing 
against the base of the hill, leaves 
no room for a carriage way beyond 
Posilipo ; afterwards there is only 
a narrow footpath, in traversing 
which the passenger is often wet 
by the spray. Sir William Ham- 
flton had a house here, where he 
used to retire and enjoy the cool- 
ness of the evening. They are 
mere occasional dwellings ;' the 
tpBct is so circtimscribed,that there 
is DO room for gardens ; some of 
them liave a terrace with a few 

ofthe night console them for the 
lassitude they are tortnented witl^ 
during the fervid heat of the day* 
One of these casinos was pointed out 
to me, as having been, a short time 
before, the residence of an English 
nobleman, whose eccentricities a- 
mused theNeapolitans. He always 
dressed in the most effeminate man- 
ner,the neck and bosom of his shirt 
edged with fine lace and open like 
a child's. He dined at eight 
o'clock, the Italians dine at two ; 
and making his servants take the 
lights, he would go and work in 
his garden by candle light. 

Close by Posilipo the ruined 
palace of Queen Joan projects into 
the bay. This was the spot, in 
which that barbsux>us queen com« 
mitted thoso licentious and cniel 
acts which history attributes to her. 
The building is very large, and not 
80 far ruined, as to prevent be^ 
ing repaired. It affords shelter to 
fishermen and their boats. While 
strolling amid its ruins, reflecting 
on the scenes of blood and licen* 
tiousness which had formerly been 
acted within its walls, the sight of 
a fisherman, coming JFrom some of 
its obscure apartments, started me 
from my reverje, as though I had 
seen one of the ghosts of its an- 
cknt inhabitants. 

Below Posilipo arc the extensive 

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ruins of the villa of Luctillus. It 
is now called Scuola di Virgilio. 
From these ruins is one of the 
most extensive views about Na- 
ples. You see Vesuvius, the bay, 
the islands of Capreac, Ischia, Pro- 
chyta, cape Misenus, Baix, Su:. 

There is a winding path, be- 
tween the Kiaja and Posilipo,which 
ascends the hill to some houses 
and a church, situated near its 
summit. When arrived here, a 
peasant conducts you through Helds 
of vines and groves of fig trees to 
a rude, romantick spot, of rather 
difficult access, and points you .to a 
little ruin, shadowed by trees, and 
overgrown with wild flowers and 
ivy, the name of which cannot be 
mentioned without emotion.... how 
much then must be felt in seeing 
the tomb of Virgil ! The lower 
part is of a square form, the upper 
pait conical. In the inside are 
some remains of stucco. There 
are four openings, one of which is 
quite overgrown with bushes. It 
is built on the edge of a precipice, 
near the entrance of the grotto, 
and the thick growth of the bushes 
prevented my seeing the carriages 
rolling over the pavements thirty 
or forty yards below my feet ; the 
noise, reverberating in the grotto, 
led me to discover its vicinity, 
though I could not see it. 

Nothing is certain ; and the de- 
scendants of that being, to whom 
Apollo gave the chaff, have exci- 
ted doubts in the mind of the clas- 
sick pilgrim, whether this is the 
real tomb of the poet. They have 
ti'ied to prove, that his ashes repose 
on the other side of the bay. The 
reasons for believing this to be his 
tomb are founded on constant tra- 
dition, and that its form and con- 
struction agree with the descrip- 
tion given by Donato, in his life of 
Die poet. 
Opposite the tomb a small mar- 

ble slab is inserted in the rock with 
two Latin lines, inscribed to the 
memory of Sannazaiius. But, ai 
Dupaty observes, " a rage for 
antithesis" has led the author to 
praise him so extravagantly, that 
we deny him even the share of 
merit which he really possessed. 
' Nothing can exceed the beauty 
of the view from thb place 
tlirough the branches of the trees^ 
The bay, a part of the city, the 
mountain, and the coast on the oth/- 
er side, are partially discovered. 

.^.I must endeavour to give you 
some idea of the grotto of Posi- 
lipo, one of the most extraordinary 
objects around Naples. I shall 
quote you its history from a short 
manuscript work, upon the an*- 
tiquities of Pozzuoli, given me by 
an Italian gentleman. << It is not 
certainly known at what time this 
grotto was formed. It existed in 
the time of Augustus, ^nce Strabo, 
his cotemporary, speaks of it dis- 
tinctly. Sonw think it to have been 
the work of LucuUus, because Plu- 
tarch,hisbiographer,says one of his 
most pleasing employments at Na- 
ples was to pierce thro' mountains. 
This grotto was very narrow in the 
time of Alphonzo I. of Arragon^ 
who made it much larger at each 
end ; and after this, Don Pedro dl 
Toledo paved it, and left it in its 
present state." 

Turning to the left, after passing 
the suburb of Kiaja, the road enters 
the grotto, cut through the hill of 
Posilipo to maintain the connection, 
without passing over it, between 
Baix, Pozzuoli, and the city. The 
entrance is extremely picturesque 
The hill being cut away presents 
to you a perpendicular wall a hun- 
dred feet high, above which the 
summit is crowned with pines and 
various shrubs, and luxuriant fes- 
toons of ivy are hanging dovm the 
sides of the rock The passage i» 

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about thirty feet in width and 
nearly a hundred in height at each 
€nd, in order to admit as much 
fight as possible 9 but it slopes away 
to the centre, where it is not more 
than eighteen feet. It is nearly a 
mile in length ; and at the entrance, 
%rheR you look through the other 
aperture, appears diminished al- 
most to a point, like the effect pro- 
daced in looking through an in- 
verted telescope. As the rays of 
Hght, admitted at the extremities, 
would not reach the middle of the 
passage) about one third the dis» 
tance is seen by an opening, m^ 
clining upwsutis about thirty feet 
above the entrance, through which 
a firesh supply of light is admitted 
to the centre. Carriages general* 
ly go provided with torches, but it 
, is difficult to drive, as the distant 
light dazzles the sight, and makes 
il impossible to see any object, 
when in the middle of the grotto. 
The first time I passed thro' it 
I was in a chair with a friend, who 
fortunately held the reins ; for I 
could have paid no attention to th« 
horse. My admiration was excited 
by the romantick appearance of 
the entrance* The %ht9 admitted 

at the other extremity, so effectu- 
ally dazzled my eyes, that I coukl 
not see the carriages which were 
driving rapidly by us, much less 
the peasants on foot, whose hal- 
looings were blended with the re- 
verberated noise of the wheels on 
the pavements. I had passed 
through the obscurity of the 
grotto and emerged again into the 
open air, before I could arrange 
my sensations. In warm weather 
the coolness, which is felt imme- 
diately on entering, is refreshing, 
and the passage through the grotto 
becomes very pleasing. There are 
many openings on each side, closed 
with gates, which lead into exten- 
sive caverns, formed by cutting 
stones used in building. In one of 
these openings,to wards the centre of 
the grotto, a hermit has his gloomy 
cell, and there passes his life, con* 
templating in silence a skull, by 
the feeble light of a lamp. The 
peasants bestow their charity, and 
receive his blessing ; the luxurious 
man of the world is driven by his 
hermitage with velocity, while the 
noise of the wheels does not dis* 
turb his meditations. 

For the Aktholoot* 




Thb distinguishing feature of 
Dr. Howard's character was good 
sense. He thought with aocuracy, 
and reasoned with clearness. This 
was the style of his publick dis- 
courses, which were always solid 
and judieious. As he was not 
gifted by nature with a mellow and 
harmonious voice, as there was no 
frenzy in his eye, no enthusiasm 
either in his heart or head, and as 
he had no proud confidence in his 
own elocution, he did not ac- 
l^re the repuUtion oH a popvUar 

preacher. But there was not any 
thing offensive in his delivery, ar- 
tificial and disgusting in his tones ; 
his emphasis, though not forcible^ 
was just ; and there was such per- 
spicuity in his language, so much 
novelty or importance in his ideas, 
that he seldom &lled to command 
the attention of an auditory. 

Is not such a mode of preaching, 
on the whole, the most useful I 
The admirers of eloquence, who 
go to a church as to a theatre, for 
the sake of having their passioiui 

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xnovedi and who think that a ser- 
mon is not good, unless it inspires 
them either with mty or terroury 
will condemn the discourses of Dr. 
Howard as cold and unaffecting. 
But when it is considered of what 
materials christian congregations 
»re composedi this censure will 
appear unjust. Those who attend 
publick worship are commonly 
the most decent and virtuous part 
of the communit]r. They are pa* 
reaotSy who lead to the house of 
God their children, whom they 
have trained up in the habits of 
prder and decorum. It is the du^ 
ty of a minister to confirm such 
persons in the good practices, 
ivhich they have already learned, 
to exhort them to persevere in 
them, and daily to make new im^ 
provements in virtue ; to instruct 
the young in the obligations, with 
which, from their want of years 
fmd experience, they are not yet 
|u:quainted, and to point out to 
them the danger of yielding to 
temptation ; to fil) the minds of 
the hearers in general with adontr 
tion and gratitude to God, the au* 
thor of every perfect gift, and with 
respect and affection to Jesus, 
through whom we receive the 
phrisdan religion ; and to warn all 
to prepare for death, to avoid the 
punishments, and to qualify them* 
selves for the happiness, of a fu-' 
ture world. These are important 
and interesting themes ; but to disr 
play them with advantage it is not 
necessary to have recourse to the 
language of passion, or vehement 
gesticulation. A different senti-i 
inent, it is confessed, prevails 
among many, both preachers and 
liearers. The former deal in bold 
figures and hyperbolical descrip* 
tions. They address a congrega* 
tion of sober christians, as if they 
were an assembly 6f heathens, or 
a band of thieves and murderers. 

Their doctrine descends not like 
the dew, but like the rain in 
a storm ; their voice is not small 
and soft, but it rolls like thunder^ 
or roars like a whirlwind* They 
paint the character of the vicious 
man with blacker strokes of de- 
pravity, than those with which 
Milton has drawn the character of 
Satan ; and they represent the 
Supreme Being, as hating the 
work of his own hand% as fired 
with anger, and armed with ven^ 
geance. The hearers listen with 
admiration of the wonderful ora« 
torical powers of the speaker* 
Though their bosoms are agitated 
almost to agony, yet they are at 
the same time charmed ; for there 
are many men, who are never so 
much delighted, as when objects 
of terrour are by luminous and 
expressive language rendered visi- 
ble to their eyes. The effect of sucli 
preaching sometimes is, that the 
hearers,their mental sight being ac- 
customed to none but glowing cel- 
ours,are too much inclined to consi- 
der the common and easential duties 
of life, which are best performed 
with cfdmness and moderation, as 
not sufficiently splendid to be of 
any value. Religion they suppose 
to be something more than humble 
reverence of God, love to Christ, 
justice, sincerity, and benevolence j 
apd it is never so highly prized by 
them, as whep it partakes the most 
largely of enthusiasm. 

To such an impassioned kind 
of eloquence the temperate Dr. 
Howard could not attaiii ; and 
frofn our knowledge of his senti- 
ments we pan say, he would not 
have attained it, if he could. But 
though he was never fervent, yet 
such was the goodpess of his heart 
and his affectiop to his friends, 
that he was sometimes pathttick. 
We particularly recollect two oc» 
caaipna, in w|uch tbe auditories 

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ffttt much moved by the simt>le 
pftthos of his voice and language. 
One was at the funeral of Rev. Dr. 
Clarke, whose sudden death every 
one bewailed. The other was at 
a pablick commencement^ when 
lus long-tried and faithful friend, 
the firesident of the university, lay 
dangerously sick. On both these 
occasioDs, diough there were other 
performances, and by men y^o 
were commonly esteemed more 
doquent than he, yet the tide of 
grief rose to its height, whilst he 
was praying. 

This effect was in part produced 
bf the unaffected simplicity of his 
chancter. When Dr. Howard 
appeared to be moved, every per:* 
son believed that he was reiedly 
moved. Any event, which so 
good a man lamented, was a sub^r 
ject of lamentation to all good 
men : it was impossible therefore 
to resist being drawn with him 
into the same current of grief. 
Sm^icity distinguished Pr. How* 
ard oQ these, and pn all other oc- 
casions. He never covered his 
mind with the vam|sh of art ; he 
never pretended to more feeling, 
knowledge, or virtue, than he pos:* 
teased ; but w|th manly plainness 
be exhibited his sentiments and 
character, such as they existed. 

This freedom from affectation 
was probably one of the causes of 
the taciturnity ,which was regretted 
by his friends. The duke de la 
Bochefoucauh observes, that nq 
man ever opens his moi^th, unless 
prompted by vanity ; aiid though 
we do not entirely assent to the re« 
inarkf.^for Rochefoucault is the 
litirist of human nature, and dis* 
poacd to exaggerate all its foibles 
«d vices,...yet we arc compelled 
to grant, that niany of the speeches 
which we hear are dictated by 
noity and affectation. Of this 
tnith Dr. £[oward was scDsible ; 

and this led him often to be silent. 
He did not choose to speak of him* 
self ; he had no ambition to wotuid 
the feelings of his neighbour b^ 
a smart reply or a witty sarcasm 9 
for flattery and compliments, eithef 
serious or sportive, he was totally 
unqualified by his sincerity ; hit 
exemption from prejudice pre- 
vented him from railing against 
the opinions of otfiers, because 
they differed from his own ; hi$ 
civility rendered him unwilling, by 
needless contradiction, to offen4 
those who were present ; and his 
prudence, his benevolence, his re? 
Ugion, forbade him to slander the 
absent. We have cut off so many 
of the usual topicks of conversa* 
tion, that few are left for the candid 
Howard. The subjects, which he 
preferred, were science, literature^ 
politicks, morality, and theok)gy ; 
and when he spoke on them, he 
was listened to with pleasure. But 
he was not always grave and scif 
entifick ; for he sometimes enliv- 
ened conversation with a sprightly 
sally ; and he frequently charmc4 
the benevolent, by defending the 
reputation of a brother, when un* 
generously attacked. He was si« 
lent, but never absent in company ; 
he listened with attention to wha^ 
others said ; and a pleasant smile 
often niarked his approbation of 
the observations of his friendsf 
particularly of the young, who ret 
quired this encouragement. 

Of humility, the peculiar virtue 
of the christian, he was an eminent 
example. No grace of the mind 
is so often affected as humility. 
There are men, who, under the 
name of foibles, accuse themselves 
of feelings, which they secretly 
hope every one will regard as 
amiable weaknesses. There arc 
others, who, that they may enjoy 
the satisfaction of speaking of 
themselves, even acknowledge 

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their vices. There are others, 
•who humble themselves with so 
;much stateliness, and condescend 
with so much dignity, that it is 
manifest that they think them- 
selves supcriour to those who are 
in their presence. In fine there 
arc others, who write long jour- 
nals of humility, to be read after 
their death, and which, though 
they are dictated by vanity and 
egotism, are designed to possess 
the minds of those who peruse 
tliem with an exalted idea of their 
sanctity ; for they confess in gen- 
eral terms, that they are the vilest 
of men ; whilst they are careful 
not to specify the particular acts 
of folly, meanness, and insincerity, 
which are known to their contem* 
poraries. The humility of Dr. 
Howard was not of this spurious 
sort ; he never mentioned either 
his virtues or his faults ; but it 
was evident at the same time to 
ail, who were intimately acquaint- 
ed with him, that he had a humble 
sense of his own talents and mor- 
al attainments. 

His humility was sincere ; and 
sincerity was the soul of all his 
virtues. He did not join in senti- 
ment with those, who think that a 
good cause may sometimes be 
promoted by stratagems. A sub- ' 
terfuge and deceit, an equivoca? 
tion and a lie, were in his view 
equally criminal. For the sake 
bf obtaining the approbation of 
men, and promoting his worldly 
interest, he did not profess .to 
esteem what he really despised. 

The sincerity and uprightness 
of his mind led him to inquire af- 
ter truth with diligence, and to 
pursue it with impartiality. The 
result of his careful investigation 
was, that he saw reason to reject 
the theological system of Calvin ; 
pnd though at the time, in which 
be entered on his ministerial life> 

the religious opinions that he a- 
dopted were much more unpopu- 
lar than they are at present ; yet 
he was not deterred by this con- 
sideration from openly declaring 
what he believed. The creed 
which he thus early embraced, he 
saw no cause afterwards to change^ 
but he persevered in it to the last. 
We presume not to say that he 
had discovered the truth ; but of 
tl.ii we have not any doubt, that, 
blessed by his Maker with a clear 
understandmg, he exerted himself 
to obtain it, with industry and pa- 
tience, humility and devotion. To 
those who are disposed to appeal 
to the authority of intelligent and 
virtuous men, in support of their 
opinions, the authority of Dr. 
Howard might with force be urg- 
ed. But on this species of arguk 
ment, which is seldom brought 
forward, except by those who 
cannot produce any better proof, 
no stress ought to be laid ; be- 
cause experience shows,....though, 
before we become acquainted with 
the actual state of human life, wo 
are ready to suspect the contrary, 
....that wise and good men are not 
confined to any particular system 
of religious faith. 

The candour of Dr. Howard 
equalled his love of truth. He was 
not only indulgent in his thoughts, 
and tolerant in his conduct, toward 
those who differed from him in 
opinion, but he also treated them 
with respect and kindness. The 
religious sentiments of christians, 
however erroneous tliey might be, 
and their ceremonies and modes 
of worship, however superstitious 
they might appear, he maintained 
ought always to be treated with 
decency ; and he neither allowed 
in himself, nor did he approve in 
others, a sarcastick and irreverent 
way of speaking, of objects, which 
any sincere believer might deepi^ 

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ttcred. For this Catholicism he 
Was entitled to great praise ; be- 
cause the temptations to an oppo* 
lite practice are Tery powerful ; 
ind nothing is more common than 
to hear christians, especially those 
who esteem themselves wiser or 
more holy than their neighboursf 
charge each other with absurdity, 
wperstiticxi, fanaticism, or hei> 


The spirit of Dr. Howard ren- 
dered him averse to such unchar' 
kable thoughts ; for mildness 
reigned in his heart. Gentle by 
nature, by habit, and by religion, 
be could not express severity, 
which he never felt ; gall could 
lot fiow from his tongue, for there 
was none in his constitudon. His 
temper was sweet and amiable ; 
and his good sense forbade him to 
embitter it with bigoted and ma- 
lignant invectives. His soul was 
calm ; and what motive had he to 
disturb its tranquillity with the fu- 
nous storms of uncharitable zeal ? 

This well regulated temper in- 
ipired him with constant cheerful- 
ness. Though reserved, he was 
not solemn ; though serious, not 
gloomy. The peace, which dwelt 
in his heart, appeared in his coun- 
lensDce, in traits which no art can 

That such a man was dear to 
his friends will readily be believed ; 
nd he was so friendly in his dis- 
position and behaviour, that many 
were bound to him by this afiec- 
iBonate tie. His parishioners lov- 
td him as a brother, or honoured 
him as a father : for they knew, 
that he had engaged in the minis- 
try &om pure, disinterested, and 
pious motives ; that he discliarg- 
cd all its duties with diligence and 
fidelity : that he rejoiced with 
them, when they rejoiced, and 

wept with them, when they wept, 
The affection, which they felt for 
him, never suffered any interrup- 
tion ; but as old age approashed, 
and he advanced toward heaven, he 
became more deeply fixed in their 
hearts, like a tree, whose roots pen- 
etrate still &rther into the earth, in 
proportion as its branches rise in 
the air. He was dear to his brethren 
in the ministry, who always wel- 
comed him with smiles of compla- 
cence. He was dear to all his 
fellow-citizens, who admired his 
good sense, and venerated his pat- 
riotism, his integrity, his bevo- 
lence, and his sanctity. As a kind 
master, a tender husband, and m 
most indulgent parent, he was in 
particular dear to his family. That 
he was dear to God we have rea- 
son humbly to believe ; for the 
character, which he possessed^ 
must have been formed by habit- 
ual devotion, by piety which filled 
his heart, and whence, as from a 
copious fountain, flowed all the 
virtues which he practised. 

The reader will learn with plea- 
sure, that this good man enjoyed 
as much felicity, as usually falls to 
the lot of mortals. His days were 
passed with usefulness, an approv- 
ing conscience, and the blessing of 
heaven ; and though he was some- 
times sick, and sometimes afflict- 
ed, yet tlie edge of bodily pain 
was blunted by patience, and the- 
force of mental anguish was weak-' 
ened by resignation. A constitu- 
tion naturally delicate was pre- 
served to old age by Qare and tem- 
perance ; and to a world of un- 
mingled joy he at length passed^ 
through the valley of death, with- 
out experiencing many of the 
horrours, which sometimes over-: 
shadow the dismal region* 

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Wc hope ftdne of our gty retden, mth whoa oicthod and diflaeit are almott wjmoAbMon, «tl 
be detonred by Its title Aron tile foUowine paper. They will, we think, find mich of that itaa* 
tfo^ned, nlaiilf , and dlgniicd tenae which we aee hi the phlloaophical ^iMafi of «be agaa of 
Anne and the fim Oeoc|e» whkh aitithoili and uietafriior h«T« of tots •hooit aaetsod* 


Method is despised hy some* 
«nd its utility exaggerated by oth* 
•rs. Many writers consider rulf* 
as shackles of genius. Others 
believe them a great assistance; 
but they choose them so injudi- 
ciously, and multiply them to such 
excess, that they render them use- 
less and even pernicious. All are 
equally in the wrong : the former 
for undervaluing method, because 
they are noi masters of a good 
one ; the latter for believing it ne- 
cessary, when they understand 
none Uiat is not very defective. 

A Work* without order, may 
succeed by its details, and place 
its author among the good wri* 
ters : but a better arrangement 
Would render it more worthy of 
success. In matters of reasoning, 
it is impossible that the light should 
be diffused equally over all the 
parts, if method is wanting ; in 
things of amusement, at leasts it is 
certain, that every thing, which is 
not in its place, loses some part of 
its beauty. But without loitering 
in all these discussions, let us de« 
fine method, and the necessity of 
it will be' demonstrated. I say 
then, that method is the art of re- 
conciling the greatest perspicuity 
and the greatest precision with 
«11 the beauties, of which a subject 
is susceptible. 

There are writers, who know 
not how to confine themselves 
within their subject. They lose 
themselves in digressions without 
number, and they find themselves 
again, only to repeat what they 
4ad said : it teems as if thy be- 

lieved, that hy rambles and tepeiW 
tions they might supply the things 
which they know not how to say« 
Othets change their style, without 
consulting the nature of the sub* 
ject which they treat. They pique 
themselves on their eloqu^K:ef 
when they ought to be contented 
with reasoning. They give yoa 
an analysis, when they ou^ht te 
give a description ; and theu* ima« 
gination grows hot and grows 
cold, almost always in the wrong 

That we may not wanikr in the 
course of a work, and that w« 
may say every thing in its premier 
place and express it convenientlyt 
it is absolutely necessary, to em* 
brace our object in a general view# 
Obscurity, when it is rare, ^ may 
proceed from inadverta^ce i bttl 
when it b frequent, it arises certain* 
ly from the confused maimeTf 
in which we «eiee the subject of 
which we treat. We judge Ddl 
weH of the proportions of eac^ 
part,but when we see the whole at 

Poets and orators early felt tii0 
utility of method. Among tliaiBi 
accordingly, it made the moat nm 
pid prog^ss. They had the ad* 
vantage of making trials of their 
productions upon a whole people t 
witnesses of the impressions tbef 
made, they had opportunist m 
observing what was wanting fai 
their works. 

The philosophers had not the 
advantage of the same admom* 
tbns. Thinking it below them tb 
write for the muhitude, they made 

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h, for a long time, a duty to be un- that unity of action is necessary^ 
intelligible. Frequently it was Other observations discovered oth« 
nocbin^ more than a fetch of their er nil us, and the poets had, con- 
cerning method, ideas so exacts 
that it was reserved fdr them to 
give lessons to the philosophers. 

Although their rules are the 
fruit of experience and reflexion f 
some writers have combatted 
them, as if they were only old pre* 
judices. They have thought to 
establish new opinions by reviv* 
ing the errours of the first artists, 
and restoring the arts to their ori- 
ginal barbarity. 

It is not to render service to 
genius to disengage it from sub- 
jection to method. It is^ for themy 
what the laws are to a freeman. 

Poems will please, only in pro- 
portion as these rules are observed. 
If we find attractions in episodes, 
it is because each of them is one ; 
and by consequence separated 
from the work^ with which it is 
not connected, has its beauty. All 
together, they compose a poem in 
which are beautiful things, but 
make not a beautiful poem : in 
fact, if, descending from details to 
details, we perceive not unity in 
any part, the entire work will be 
but a chaos. All the parts, then, 
ought to form a single whole. 

The rules are the same for elo- 
quence ; but wliilc experience guid- 
ed the orators and poets, who cul- 
tivated their arts without affecting 
to give precepts, the philosophers 
wrote in a method which they had 
not discovered, and of which they 
believed they ghve the first les- 
sons. They have composed trea* 
tises on rhetorick, on poetry, and 
on k>gick« Without being poets 
or orators, they have known the 
rules of poetry and eloquence, be- 
cause they have sought for them 
in models, where the examples 
were to be found. If they had been 

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possessed early of , equal models 
Qf philosophy* they would not 
have, been so slow in acquiring the 
a/'t of re^uling. It is because they 
hs^ve l)een. deprived of this aid, 
that tliey have inserted in their 
logick so few of ^isefiil things and 
sp many subtilties. i 

; The method, wfhich teaches ^ to 
make a whole> is common to all i 
kinds. It is, above all, necessary . 
io works of re^sonhig,; for the 
attention diminishes in propprtion 
as it is divided, and the mind seiz* 
es nothing, when it is distra9ted 
by too great a number of objects. 

. But, the unity of action in works 
ipteuded to interest us, and the 
unity of object m such as are/ 
composed to instruct us, equally 
demand, that all the parts among 
themselves should be in exitct 
proportion, and that, subordinate . 
the one to the others, they rels^te ^ 
£^1 to the same end. By this, uni-, 
ty brings us to the principle of the 
greatest connexion of ideas j up- 
on this it depends. In truth, this 
connexion bemg founJ, the begin- , 
lUBg, the end, and the intern^edi- , 
ate pwuts,. are determined : every , 
thing which ^terp the proportions 
i^ cut off^ and we can no longer i 
lop, or, displace any thing, without , 
iajury, ^ the connexion or the 

. To discover tliis connexion it , 
is necessary to fix our object, \m« . 
til we can determine the principal 
parts of it, and comprehend them, 
all in th^ general dfvisictfi. We 
must avoid divisions merely arbi- 
trary, and even prclimioary divi-. 
sions, by which we decoiiipese ai^T 
object in all its part^ ; the mind 
of the readeF would be fat%ued 
from the. first entrance of the 
T^rk 'r things which would be 
most essential to him to retain*, 
would ^e^ape him, aa4 th^precau^ 
tions, which the author should have 

taken to makelirmself understoedr 
would often render him uninteUi-* 
gible. To begin by dividons 
without number, to make a ^at 
shew of method, is to bewilder 
ourselves ki an obscure labyrinth 
in order to arrive at the light* 
Method never proclaim^ kself less,, 
than when there is most of it. 

The beginning of a work, then> 
cannot be too simple, nov too en- 
tbely disengagedfrom every thing 
which occasions any difficulty. 

The general division being madcr 
we ought to search for the order 
in which the parts contribute the 
most to diffuse upon each other* 
light ^nd attraction. By this, aH 
will be in the greatest coimcxionr 

Afterwards each part should be 
considered in paiticnlar^ and suIk 
divided as often as it includes ob-^ 
jects, eapb of which can constitute 
a little 'whole. Nothing 
admitted into these subc^visions^ 
which can alter the unity of them> 
aitd the parts kno^ no other order^ 
than that which is lindicated by a. 
gradation the mpst obvious. Iiv 
works composed to interest us, it 
is the gradatioix of. sentim^it ; in 
otliers it is. the gradation of en* 
dence. But to conduct ourselveft. 
surely, ic is necessary to know how 
to choose atndiigiour ideas, wbkJi 
preset themselVes^ : the ehoice i» 
necessary^ that we may adopt no-; 
thmg^ whick continbutes not to the 
strictest oonnexiott o( ideas. Ev^ 
ery thing that is not attached to 
the subject we treai^ ought to be 
rejected ; even thmgs wiiich ha«ei 
sttme coAnexjon with it, desenroi 
not alwayji to be employed. Xluik 
right bekmga only to those thingsr 
which caa connect themselves ^ 
most sensibly t» the end which we. 

The subject, and the end, are 
the two points x& vieir^ whick 
ougHt to rebate uoh. Tbui^whca 

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ah Id^ occurs, we have to consider 
whether, bein^ connected with our 
subject, it developes It in relation 
to the end, for which we treat it ; 
and whether it conducts us to that 
end by the shortest course. 

In taking our subject* for the 
bnly fixed point, we may extend 
ourselves indifferently on aH sides. 
Then, the farther we raTt;ible, the 
less the details, among which our 
thoughts wander, have relation to 
ohe another ; we no longer know 
Where we are to stop, and we ap- 
*pc9t to Undertake sc\'eral works, 
without accomplishing any. But 
when we have, for a second poinV 
fixed, an end well determined, 
the road is marked ; every step, 
cbhtiibutes to a still greater devel- 
opement, and we aniVb at th6 <k>ii« 
4p]||imoQ without having ever gone 
i>ut of our way. If the whole 
work has a subject and an end, 
every chapter has equally both the 
Ane and the other ; and so has ev- 
cfjr section, tod every phrase. It 
Is the'rcforc necessary to pursue 
the satne conduct in the details. 
By this", thf work win be one in 
ike whole ^nd in every part, and 
in ^ be in the greatest posMble 
"ps&e^oti. By cdpforming to the 
^Ad^le of the gitatest connfex- 
Jhil^'t work win be reduced to the 
llp^ft^M tititn&er of chapters, the 
t to the smallest humber of 
AS, the sections to the small* 
er of periods, and the pe* 
Sl'^^^'th^ smaUtst number of 

tare aQ objects ilrc'con- 
^'thefotmauon of a dngle 
Ra^'^TMsis'tlrei'eaaofajit is so 
""^d tfe to p^ H^tj^ ftoxn 
Mfe to anothfef . ** Wte arc, 
f1^' <Hir greatek Wtfctrt%ion^ 
E 66tiditfcted hf so Ac sort of 
We dt^ht ttcfcfor0 
tly io '^fttdttvtf doteelves^ 
1^ WO msqr not go put of the sub- 

ject we have thosen. It is'neces- 
sary to give so much more atten- 
tion to this, beeaiise always in com- 
bat with ourselves to prescribe 
limits and to overleap them. We 
think ourselves authoi4zed, under 
the smallest j>retext, in our gre^lt- 
est departures. It often seems, 
that we are more curious to she^ 
that we know a great deal, than t« 
make it appear we know well 
those things we treat. 

Digressions are not permitted, 
but when we find not in the sub- 
ject, on which we write, material^ 
Jto present it with all the advantages 
*we desire. Then we look else- 
where for that, which it does not 
afford ; but it is with the design 
to return to it soon, and with the 
hope of diHTising ofer it more light 
and ornament. Digressions and 
episodes ought not therefore ever 
to make us forget the principal 
subjecL They roust have in that 
subject their beginning, their end, 
and they must incessantly return 
to it A good wiiter is like a tra- 
veller, who has the prudence never 
to quit his path, except to entetr 
again with accommodations prop- 
er to enable him tp continue Jm 
journey more happily. A great 
.work is to be coasidened like a dis- 
course of a few pages, or periodsi; 
for the method is the same for the 
one and the other^ » 

We tsAf Iabour,on the diffcreht 
parts of af work, according to the 
*o«fer in which we have^stributcH 
them '; and li^e may also, when thj5 
ptoi hW -been well digested, ^ss 
Ittdifitrently from the commence- 
in^t to the end, or to the middle, 
and, instead of subjecting ourselveis 
tb any order, consult only the im^ 
Imlse or inclination,l?bich prompts 
im to seixe themoirienti in which 
^ are more prcpaared to tareat of 
tpne part than another* = ^ - 1 

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THlb KBMA&XEft. 

There is in this conduct a lib- 
erty, which resembles, without be- 
ing a disorder. It relaxes the 
mind by presenting to it objects 
always different, and leafes it at 
liberty to resign itself to all its 
vivacity. Nevertheless the subor- 
dination of the parts fixes the 
points of view, which prevent or 
correct all digressions, and which 
recal ua continually to the piinci- 
pal object. We should employ all 
aur address to regulate the mind, 
vithout depriving it of Its liberty. 
Whatever order men of talents 
discover in their works, it is rare 

that they subject themselves to it, 
when they study. 

It remains to treat of the differ* 
ent kinds of works* For there are 
three, in general ; the didactick, 
the narration, and the description : 
for we reason, we relate, and we 
describe. In the didactick we lay 
down questions and discuss them ; 
In narration we expose facts^ true 
or imaginary, which comprehends 
history, romance, and poems : In 
description we paint what we see, 
and what we feel, which belongs 
particularly to the orator and to 
the poet. 


Ab. r. 


Trbre is a word on every one's 
tongue, to limit the meaning of 
which however, by an indisputable 
definition, seems scarcely less dif- 
ficult, than to " tell you where 
fancy's bred.** It is ta^c ;...6ome- 
thing about which every one talks, 
because nobody is willing; to be- 
lieve he is ignorant of what all the 
rest of the world knows. Yet, 
'When curiously examined, it ap- 
pears to be something so aerial and 
volatile in its nature, ihat it can 
scarcely be grasped by the meta* 
physician, and which, at the sight 
of the chains of logick, 
•prcadi lit Ilglit wln^ tnd ia a mofncat pick 

The principles by which it is 
regulated ar? Ulippoacd to be ai va- 
riable, aa its nature is mysterious. 
Not <^ly does the taste of every 
age apparently differ ; but }^ pvr 
ery nation of the sfune ^^, and I 
had almost said in every individual 
of the same nation, does this Pro- 
teus assume new ibrms, and frol- 
ick in new caprices. That taste 
bas AQ law is commonly supposed 
to be on^ of |;hose universal aofl 

wMlmdim FnU^mtitf Hoa. / 

indisputable truths, which, like the 
maxims of the schools, must e- 
qually silence the cavils of the ig- 
norant and the wise. 

Still, however^ there are some 
difiiculties attending the common 
opinion of the mutability of tastet 
which seem to me almost to make 
heresy pardonable. We believct 
after all, that taste is a woixl of 
some significance. We even as- 
cribe to its influence ail that is 
beautiful and lovely in art^ and tl o' 
its nature, like the musick of Aii- 
el, is unseen and incomprehcnsi** 
ble, yet we cannot forbear to hear 
its harmony above and around us. 

But if (he opinion we mention is 
correct, these conclusions are all 
fallacious. If taste be thus lawless 
and capricious, he, who calls hinir 
self the man of taste, has little cause 
pf self complacency. Hisassump- 
tiop pf some fixed principles of 
judgfnent is perfectly gratuitous ; 
apd if we refuse to concede them, 
there are no statutes oF reasoning 
on which he can extort our belief. 
T9 ta)k of th^ capons of criucisn^ 

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0k this suppodtton, is unmeaning 
and ridiculous ; for what is the val- 
ue of piinciples, the application 
of which depend on something 
which is thus arbitrary and muta- 
bk ? The critick, if there is no 
ftandard of taste, is only the legis- 
lator of caprice, and the lord 
i^haocellor of whim. The praise, 
which he and the world give 
to the writings, which taste has 
embalmed and consecrated, is pue- 
rile and groundless ; our admira- 
doD is all traditionary and inherit- 
ed, and we only repeat raptures 
already a thousand years old. 

To say, however, there exists no 
standard of taste, seems little less 
than to affirm, that there are no 
common feelings in our nature,and 
nothing similar in the construction 
of our minds. , It does not require 
much philosophy to perceive, that 
beauty exists in the mind, and not 
in the object of its contemplation. 
It b then obvious that,as the grand 
and prominent appearances of ex- 
temal nature do not change, if 
there were an essential diversity 
in our relish for them, it could a- 
rise only from the variety and mu- 
tabilicy of our perceptions. But 
the rose is as sweet to you as to 
me. We differ not in our wonder 
at what is sublime, or our delight 
in what is beautiful in nature ; 
though there is not equality in our 
ktilmgMf there b no dbcordance. 
If dioi ^f pleas- 

ure sre unequal, 

we must oeueve, mai there are 
tooie common principles of judg- 
ing of the perfection of those arts, 
wincil profess to imitate the obf- 

KttuX produce our perceptions. 
J grant any identity in the for* 
BadoD of our minds, can we for- 
bear to conclude, that mankbd 
most retain these principles as 
loog 1^ pature, which it 19 t)ie 

province of poetry and painting to 
depicture, and the passions, which 
it is their province to analyze and 
unfold, remain invariable and the 
same ? 

But this conclusion is not mere- 
ly authorized by speculation. It 
b only on the supposition of a 
standard of taste, that we can ac- 
count for the £act, that there are 
principles of judging, which have 
continued permanent and estab- 
lished. The origin of these prin- 
ciples will not account for it, for 
that is just what we should sup- 
pose it would be on the tiieory 
we advocate. La g6nie, says La 
Harpe, a considere la nature, & 
Tembellie en I'imitant, des esprits 
observateurs out considere le g6n- 
ie, & out devoile par analyse le se- 
cret de dcs merveilles. That wc 
should acquiesce in tiie principles 
thus collected, that the decisions 
of criticism in one age should be 
submitted to and affirmed in another 
cr, b surely inconsistent, with any 
other supposition, than that thef 
are founded on the constitution of 
our common nature. It b unnecr 
essary to attempt to prove that 
there is such acquiscence, for whp 
will deny, that Longinus.and Quin- 
tiiian are arbiters of elegance now. 
equally as among the ancients, and 
that whatever was sublime or beai^« 
tiful to them continues so to us. 

It is however in taste, as it is, in 
some degree, in i^iorals ; though 
its general and essential principles 
are immutable and unquestionable^ 
vet their application to individu4 
mstances is not a little fluctuating. 
We shall accordingly be told of th^ 
opposing sentiments, and still ag- 
itated controversies among men of 
taste ; and that deep fixed as these 
principles may be, they do not sc* 
cure even criticks from deceptiot). 
We 8ha)l be tpld gf t)ic su<;ceas 9( 

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TltB R^if ARKC&: 

iU^ Ibrgery of Sigoniire,* and re- 
ihihded that a boy of eighteen,! in 
the eig^hteenth century, when the 
Idolatry of Shakespeare was at it^ 
height, successfully imposed Vor* 
ligern on Parr and half the En- 
gli&Ii nation, as a genuine relick of 
the bard of Avon. If, indeed, in 
the days of Cicero, they disputed 
on the nature of Atticism, and the 
orator was accused of a style vitia- 
ted and Asiatick ; if Seneca and 
Tacitus arc pronounced the cor- 
niptors of Roman taste, and Fon- 
fenelle in France, and Johnson and 
Gibbon in England, receive a sini- 
Har sentence from criiicks of no 
▼tilgar rank, he must be a strong- 
Herved controversialist, who will 
issert that the philosophy of taste 
Ss completely understood. Still, 
because their application is not un« 
isrring, it is no proof that principles 
are not fixed, and if this diversity 
can be accounted for, tlie theory 
irill remain unshaken. 

The Common nodon of the na- 
ture of taste, that it is an ong;inal 
knd distinct faculty, or rather a 
certain indefinable instinct, which 
discriminates by feeling and de- 
cides by impulse, is not perhaps 
¥cry philosophical. >Ve will not 
lindertake to puzzle our readers 
and ourselves with a metaphysical 
refutation of the opinion from the 
ponstiuction and laws of the mind. 
The palpable ^ct, th^t taste is 

Siatured and perfected by expe? 
ence, as it accounts for the pro- 
duction of it on principles exactly 
analogous to that of all the other 
powers of the mind, Js of itself 

The fact,which is here assumed^ 
^li I presume be conceded, but, 
to destroy the possibility of doubt, 
I win produce a proof as decisive 

' « The zxkthOr dt the tract, De CoixtAlaflone, 
fM»""T printed among the worU of Cicero. 

. as it is indisputable. Sir Jbs^tii 
Reynolds* relates*of himself, ;hat 
at his first visit to the Vatican he 
walked about it for a long time. 
Surveying with delight the variou* 
paintings which adotn^d it ^ tiJl 
at length, after he had been fa- 
tigued by the toil of admiration; 
he inquired of his guide for the 
works of Ragaclle, and was coollj 
informed, that the first paintings 
he had been shown, and wliich he 
had passed by, almost without ex- 
amination, were the works of that 
surpassing genius, who is to An- 
gelo what Virgil is to Homer. / He 
adds, that he was by no means in- 
duced to dispute the justice of the 
sentence, which had so long given 
Raffaelle his rank ; but suspect- 
ing his own judgment, he sat down 
to the study of his works, and at 
length disciplined his mind to ac* 
quiescence in the decision. 

If it be granted then that taste 
is factitious, it is placed on the 
same foundation, as the other facul- 
ties of the mind, and the varieties 
of taste are to be explained on pre- 
cisely the same principles, as the 
varieties of reason and judgment. 
We might as well say, that morals 
are baseless an4 fortuitous, because 
men dispute on them, as to say, 
that taste has no laws, because all 
do npt assent to them. Indeed we 
have here a foundation for what, 
after all, we find true in fact, for 
greater permanency in the decis« 
ions of taste, when once made, than 
in those of reason a|id judgment. 
For the passions, pn the delinea-i 
tion and" colouring pf which so 
much of the influence of poetry 
and elegance depends, are infinite* 
ly less variable in their operations, 
than the judgment and reason. W q 
accordingly 6nd,that while systems 

• Life hj Malone. Ttils account b quoted 
from memory, but b, I believe, fubtUaUaDf 

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«v-rf- ^ 

ff recop4ipf science fade away and 
are forgotten^ >the language of na- 
ture and of passion is eternally the 
same. The philosophical theories 
Qf the ancients are now neglected, 
©r regarded only for the beauties 
9f the style in which they are con- 
'^/sjed ; but their poetry and ele- 
^u^Qce sti}l find an echo in every 
^ttast, tl^ creations of their fancy 
1^ still warm and breathing with 
life, still sparkling and ruddy with 
^dec^ying youth. 
jt It would be easy to enumerate 
iMDe of the secondary causes of 
the diversities of taste, such as the 
dififerent degrees of original sensi- 
iHUtyi and U)e accidental associa- 
%^ of peculiar situations. But I 
kllt^S9iFt^Spt;JiUi Rcmarker is al^ 
Tt JUi r t^MTp^ ^Wi suspected of be- 
IWbMke]? l^vig'breQthed ; ^ and 
^me of our Juveo^la will begm to 
cxdaim i^gaiost this indefatigable 
4esceQdant of'Orestea. l>et me 
^y observe, that I an> far from 
^^lteI]4ing f^r s^ standard so rig- 

orously limited, as to exclude f con 

the list of fine writers Seneca oij 
Tacitus, Fontenelle or Gibbon j^ 
still less for one which \vould es^ 
^lude any fcUchy of ii^vention, or 
frolick of fancy, because it deparu^ 
from its laws, or which would c^n^ 
onize feebleness and triviality, ^^ 
cause they do not offend them. Tho 
fine arts iiave some beauties, &uc^ 
i^s the French call Jine^aesy which,f 
fron> accidental circumstances, arq 
more or less praised in difierent 
ages, but their grand and essential 
beauties are, I believe^ regi^lated 
by law^, as invariable as nature it-', 
self.-r-To me this is not merely ^ 
question of curious speculation ; 
for if I doubted the existence of ^ 
standard of taste, I should lose^ 
^uch glow while I read, apd alJ| 
trembling when I write ; I ahoul^ 
Ipse too, while I meditate the grea^, 
Qiastera of taste, ^U tl^^ C9inp}a* 
cency, wli^ch arises frp^ |hc whif*. 
per of vanity, that I may hereafter 
be worthy to prai^ thei^. 


Ufmft Uder vartai nutrttttr Sifjrs coiymtiatm^.tloH0 

M. U. 


Tbxsb two poets appeared near-* 
If at the same tkne. Both com-' 
toed tlie dkadyantagcs of low 
VMh and the want of 'educatioi^ ; 
flSd tha p«wers'of both expanded 
vnssisted by the genial warmth of 
pitnma^ tttl they exeited the at^ 
teMion,«a)dpiit>curedtiie ^tout oi 
tJie publickv But here ^he resem-^ 
Uaoce ceastfSi Bkx>mfiekl bias al-< 
ieady.oudiv«d hi6 repQtatk)n ; but 
ll» rawtatioD ofii B^vn* «till in^ 
ereaaed, thougk hn wa^bhntelf the 
eaose of Im miierablei end. His 
geoniSyfdU of ftre and feeling, made 
m forger hb ftnble^ We thought 
enly oiwtlieVitii ef M .we rtunesiw 

bered the man, it was to fegreC^ 
that fortune had not been moroii 
prot)itious, and saved. ham from 
those temptadohs, which he wbh 
unable to reakt.^ The adirocotea 
of Bloomfield advance, that the 
narrow cell of a cobler's st^ll i^ leae 
propitious to theexpansion of ge^ 
nlus, than the open fields, where 
the mind is easily di^wn by (he 
beauties of natuxe t^ leave tfav 
plough) and walk in her fiowefyt 
peiths*^ vfiiut hifi poems exhibit Mf 
proof ef a mind eqqal ta condeiv*4 
in^ tbotfe beauties, which abpmid 
in Burds.^ The applause of ))i» 
fellow apprentu^s for « few happ^ 
i^mee might qasily iead ;idDa t» 

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rf?c his leisure moments to writ- 
ing verses ; and without possess- 
ing that genius^ of whose power 
We hear so much, and see so little, 
he might produce a poem, which, 
considering the disadvantages un- 
der which he laboured^ would pro- 
duce surprise. The hand of pat- 
ronage would be extended J>y those, 
who are desirous to bring forward 
talents and merit ; and the voice of 
criticism would be silenced by a 
reference to his former circum- 
stances. But comparative merit 
cannot be allowed in the republick 
of letters. Authors must be final- 
ly judged by their works alone. 
The few beauties, which we find 
in Bloomfield) cannot palliate his 
feults. A momentary gleam may 
burst through the thick darkness ; 
. but the prospect is gloomy, and we 
are eager to quit the dreary scene. 
Should his genius be as prolifick 
ILS was Rhea, Saturn is as insatia- 
ble as ever to destroy the off- 
spring as soon as bom ; and no de- 
ceit will now save a favourite pro- 
duction from his ruthless, tooth. 
The genius of Burns struggled 
agahftt. paverty and the insolence 
of petty office ; but rose superiour 
to every obstacle. We labour 
^h pleasure through a barbarous 
glossary, that we may fully relish 
bis beautie*:. We learn his lan- 
guage and become his country- 
man, that we may enjoy the inno- 
cent pleasures of the cotter's Sat- 
utdAj night. 


The excellence of thb work is 
BO longer questioned. The seal 
of merit hals been affixed to it by 
the hand of time ; and few are so 
hardy, as to question his decrees. 
Every one would be thought 
acquainted with it, yet I doubt, 
wt^ether it ever produced suffi- 
«ientiaterest to spoil a dinner for 

its greatest admiref « Tbmi^h fbtf 
of the flashings of genius, and the 
observations of an acute under- 
standing, it wants interest to keep 
attention alive« The novelty of 
language soon wears off. The 
unexpected resemblance between 
dissimilar objects^ and the peculiar 
mode of viewing them, at first de- 
lights, but soon fiitigues ; and we 
look in vain for incidents, upoftr 
which to rest our wearied imagin- 
ation. We find ourselves lost m 
a wilderness of flowers ; and when 
satiated with admiring their singu- 
lar form^ and varied tintsi we re- 
flect, that we are not trancing 
towards the end of our loumef ; 
our guide, instead of relieving ua 
by pointing out the object, to which 
we should be advancing, only pre- 
sents us with a fresh nosegay. 
This want of interest can but in 
part be attributed to the local sub- 
ject of the work. The satires of 
Swift and Pope afford us great 
pleasure in the perusal, though 
Dennis and Wood are known to 
us but from these authors. And 
though the characters of the En- 
glish revolutio|i are uncommon^ 
and such as are rarely exhibited 
upon the theatre of the world, 
yet the same desire of overtumng^ 
•very thing established by age ltd 
the French to imitate the English 
in their revolution ; and when ev- 
ery thing of importance had been 
overthrown, to turn their seal to 
things of no consequence. We 
therefi>re find many observations 
in Hudibras, which may with pro- 
priety be applied to the scenes* 
that have lately been exhibited id. 
France. Much therefore ofth» 
want of interest in this poem my0Lt 
be attributed to iu radical defect 
paucity of incidents and to its be- 
ing unconnected. The judgment » 
of Johnson has corrected the critic, 
cism of Dryden^ wba thought the^ 

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work would have been improved 
by beroick metre. But it may 
still remain a doubt, whether the 
same talents and judgment differ- 
ently employed might not have 
produced a more interesting pic*' 
turc of the manners and conduct 
q{ the ^uiaticka of the English 


JoHKsoM says in his life of But-* 
Icr, « Nor even should another* 
BuUer arise, would another Hu- 
dibras obtain the same regard." 
But neither this prediction, nor 
the £ite of all their predecessors 
lost in the same path, can deter 
many from seeking immortality 
by following the same footsteps^ 
Without possessing the genius of 
l^utler, which illumbies every page 
of his works, his imitators assume 
his dress, and think, tmder the 
name of tiudibrastick verse, they 
may conceal poverty of thought 
and grossness of language. But 
as it is easy to ape the trifling pc 
culiarities of great men, it should 
be remembered, that, as great 
qualities seem more conspicuous 
by the neglect of trifles, every 
thing is wanting, where those 
qualities are not to be found. The 
paintings of genius will attract ad- 
miration, whether they modestly 
display their beauties in simple 
colours, or are tricked off in a 
court dress ; but a splendid frame 
must draw the eye of observation 
from a mere daub. Familiar lan^ 
l^age^ neglected verse, and low 
imagery, are not sufficient to bring 
to our minds the muse of Butler. 
We may without effort be induced 
to glide down the sileiit stream of 
modem poetry, where we are only 
guided by industrious imitation. 
But over a rugged road some su- 
periour power must lead us, or we 

Vol. in. No. 3. R 

shall not be induced to follow- 
This mode of writing may be suc-^ 
cessfully used, where we "mean to 
satirize on objects tnean alid tem«» 
porary* We may caricature, 
though we can hardly draw a pic-* 
ture, in Hudibrastick verse. The 
passing follies of the hour may be 
ridiculed in this verse i and we are 
pleased to see an author succeed 
in holding up to derision in it cha-' 
racters who, with the bad princi-» 
pies of the day, endanger our civil 
and political safety. But, not con-» 
tent with rendering to Caesar the 
things that are Casar^s, many of 
our criticks, with more patriotism 
than judgnfient, so surcharge with 
flattery every American publican 
tion, as to disgUst even our vitia-« 
ted palates. We were led to this 
remark by lately seeing in our pa- 
pers a selection frotn the Port Fo- 
lio upon Detnocracy Unveiled ; in 
which Mr. Fessenden is ranked 
before ButJcr, and has Churchill 
and the first English satirists pla- 
ced by his side. We could not but 
regret, that so useful an author, 
and one who has afforded us so 
much pleasure, should thus have 
his feelings injured by injudicious 
praise. He seetns not to have cast^ 
a look at imtnortality ; but to have 
been content with having merited 
the applause of his country, and 
of his own heart, for promoting 
the cause of virtue and of good 


Could one of our pious ances- 
tors, who first landed on these 
shores, by somd magkk spell be 
raised from the grave, where he 
had reposed for years, his aston- 
ishment, at the present manners of 
our lacUcs, would no doUbt be very 
great. He would no longer, as in 
his day, find ladies employed in 

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domestick occnpations, in the ar- 
rangement of the household, in 
heedle ^ovk, &c. but he would 
find the use of the distatt* almost 
tin known to them, and that the 
knowledge of fashions had suc- 
ceeded to the knowledge of domes- 
tick economy. Should he exam- 
ine, whether they had acquired the 
accomplishments, to which they 
boast tiicir time had been devoted, 
Le would find their knowledge of 
musick sufficient to make them 
unwilling to play, but in the par- 
tial hearing of thoiy own family ; 
he w^ould sec them fond of danc- 
ft)g, but unable to move with 
grace ; pleased with poetry, but 
confining their admiration to the 
daily effusions of the newspapers ; 
io eni^ptured with romance, as to 
devour every novel placed before 
tlicm ; making perhaps an unu- 
sual effort to paint, and producing 
ivhat is deemed exquiwte by them- 
selves and firiends, becatise at the 
first view any one may know for 
"What it was designed ; discarding 
the decent dress of thcii^ ancestors 
for ridiculous fashions, imponed 
from abroad ; and much more at- 
tentive at the playhouse, than at 
church- With such a picture be- 
fore him, he might, without being 
deemed a skeptJck, doubt the 
boasted superiority of our present 
mailners ; whether the solid qual- 
ities of his day had not been ex- 
changed for mere tinsel to catch 
the eye ; and wliether women 
■were now more useful members 
of the community, than fbrmerty. 
Should he then observe our morals, 
which were formerly preserved by 
strictness of authority, now left 
exposed to tlie rude buffets of the 
world, without one established 
principle to guide them amid the 
quicksands of passion, or to guard 
them against the ccJntagion of cor- 
rupt examples, imported with our 

fashions ; and that they h^i to 
look to feeling alone for assisst-* 
aUce, I treml)le lest his doubts 
should be rerrioved, and the ver* 
diet be given in favour of hb own 
age. Though wc could not deny 
the justice of this decision, no one^ 
I believe, would wish to bring back 
the manners of that age, when the 
mistress was little more than an 
upper servant in her own house, 
and her ideas not raised above that 
'condition. In the first settlement 
6f this country, the men were 
wholly occupied in obtaining a 
bare subsistence ; and the aid of 
the female was necessary to add to 
their hard fare a few of the com- 
forts of life. Custom continued 
what was commenced from neces- 
sity, even after an intercourse with 
other nations had introduced more 
iit)eral ideas. Most men, rivetted 
to old habits, were imwilling to 
see their wives and daughters em- 
ploy that time in impro>'ing their 
minds, which they thought ought 
to be occupied in domestick em- 
ployments. These prejudices are 
now nearly removed ; women are 
raised from their station in the 
kitchen to a rank in society ; but 
no means are taken to prepare 
their minds fb» their new situafton. 
The infant is sem to school, be- 
cause the avocations of the mother 
wiU not permit her attention to it. 
At school, its mind is first opened ^ 
but instead of hanng goodness in- 
stilled into it, and made a part 6f 
its constitution, it receives the 
knowled:4:e of evil, from which tht, 
female mind, not designed for the 
bustle of the world, should be kept 
as long as possible. At different 
schools she remains nine or ten 
years, learns to read, to anarwer by 
rote such questions in geography 
&s the common school-books con* 
tain, and perhaps may be enabled 
to cast up -a shopkeeper's mcCQunt* 

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from ber dancing master shf |ias 
iiot even learnt to walk ; and erp 
«he is a mother, the little musick 
she raay have acquired, is quite 
forgotten. But is her mind now 
prepared, and has her educaiioa 
fitted her for acting her part in so- 
ciety ? or are women born without 
minds, and only designed to con- 
tinue the species ? If so, we ouj!;ht 
to have a tribunal of mariiages, 
that by crossing the breed the race 
might be improved. But, without 
recurring to such monsters as Ca- 
tharine and Elizabeth, history and 
our own experience inform us, 
that woman has ever possessed ^ 
mind fine and delicate ; and al- 
though its texture may frequently 
be destroyed by education in its 
infancyy that she was designed for 
the companion, not for the servant 
of man. This mind then should 
J>e culcivatedi she should be taught 
to think as well as to read. For 
many, with a laudable desire of 
knowledge, but undirected in the 
means of obtaining it, feed with 
avidity on whatever books chance 
throws in their way, and tliink they 
have stored their minds, by lodg- 
ing tlie principal ideas in their 

memories. But not knowing how 
to use their knowledge, it is of no 
more service to them, than treas- 
ure is to the miser, who ahvays 
keeps il fast locked, and fears to 
look at it himself. She who only 
reads, instead of useful and nutri- 
tiou* herbs and flowers, will collect 
nettles and weeds, and at best will 
only obtiiin useless trash. If she 
really wishes to improve her mind, 
she must be willing to study, and 
thoroughly to undersUuid cveiy 
thing she undertakes ; and shp 
will not then in vain request the 
direction of her fiiends. She may 
do this, without neglecting those 
exteriour accomplishments, which 
give a captivating and irresistible 
dignity to the female person. She 
may be able to participate in all 
our joys, and alleviate all our cares; 
temper our awlour with modera- 
tion, and ejcite our dormant be- 
nevolence mto action. She woul4 
then neither be regarded in the 
degraded state of a housekeef)er, 
nor as a pretty toy to be admired.; 
but as our best companion, for 
which God and nature designed 


UTftACTs rmoM memoim of >iakmont£l, writtkv bt himself. 

Makmontiil informs us tliat 
he was bom at the small town of 
Bort in the Limosin, of which he 
gives a beautiful portrait : 

« Borty seated on the Dordogne 
between Auvergne and Limosin, 
presents a fearful picture to the 
first view of the traveller, who, at 
a distance, from the top of the 
mountain, sees it at the bottom of 
a precipice threatened with inun- 
dation by the torrents that the 
storms occasion, or with instant 

annihilation by a chain of volcanick 
rocks, some planted like towers on 
the height that commands th^ 
town, and others already hanging 
and half torn from their base. But 
Bort assumes an aspect more gay, 
as these fears are dissipated and 
tlie eye extends itself along tlie 
valley. The green and woody- 
island that lies beyond the town, 
embraced by the river, and anima- 
ted by the noise and motion of a 
milli is filled with birds. On thp 

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banl^s of the river, orchards, mea- 
dows, and com fields, cultivated by 
^ laborious people, form varied 

!>ictures. Below the town the val- 
ey opens, presenting; on one side 
m extensive meadow watered by 
continual springs, and on the oth- 
er fjelcjs crowned by a circle o^ 
hills, whose gentle slope forms a 
pleasing contrast with the opposite 
rocks. Farther on, thjs circle is 
broken by a torrent which, from 
the mountains, rolls and bounds 
through forests, rocks, and preci- 
pices, till it falls into tlie Dordogne 
by one of the most beautiful cata-* 
Tacts of tlie continent, both for the 
volume of water, and the height 
of its fall ; a phenomenon which 
only wants more frequent specta- 
tors to be renowned and admired. 
It is near this cataract that the lit- 
tle farm of St. Thomas lies, where 
I used to read Virgil under the 
shade of , the blossoming trees that 
surrounded our bee hives, and 
where their hon^y afforded me 
such delicious repasts. It is on 
the other side of the tpwn, beyond 
the mill, and on the slope of the 
mountain, that the garden lies, 
%vhere on welcome holidays my 
father used to lead me to gather 
grapes from the vines he himself 
had planted, or cherries, plums, 
and apples from the trees he had 
grafted. But the charm that my 
native village has left on my mem- 
ory arises from the livid impres- 
sion I still retain of the fii*st feel- 
ings, with which my soul was im- 
bued and penetrated, by the inex- 
pressible tenderness that my par- 
ents shewed me. If I have any 
kindness in my character, I am 
persuaded that I owe it to these 
gentle emptlons, to the habitual 
happiness of loving and being lov- 
ed. Ah ! what a gift do we re- 
ceive from heaven, when we are 
^lesscd with kind, affectionate par? 
fnts ! 

< I also owed much to a certain 
amenity of manners that then dis- 
tinguished my native place ; and 
indeed the simple gentle life we 
led there must have had some at- 
traction, since notliing was more 
rare than to see the natives desert 
it. Their youth was instructed, 
and their colony distinguished itself 
in the neighbouring schools ; but 
they returned again to their town, 
like a swarm of bees to the hive, 
with the sweets they had col- 

Marmoptel is to be regarded 
as the immediate cause of the 
great change i^hich has taken 
place in the dramadck world ; of 
simplicity in declamation,and truth 
in the costume of the theatre. — ^ I 
had (says he) long been in the habit 
of disputing with Mademoiselle 
Clairon,on the manner of declaim- 
ing tragick verses. I found in her 
playing too much violenpe and im- 
petuosity, not epough suppleness 
and variety, and above all a force 
that, as it w^s not qualified, was 
more a-kin to rant than to sensibiN 
ity. It was this that I endeavour* 
ed discreetly to make her under- 
stand. « You have," I used to say 
to her, ^ all the means of excelling 
in your art ; and great as yon are, 
it would be easy for you still to rise 
above yourself, by managing more 
carefully the powers of which you 
are so prodigal. You oppose to 
me your brilliant successes, and 
those you have procured me ; you 
oppose to me the opinions and the 
suffrages of your friends ; you op- 
pose to me the authority of M. de 
Voltaire : who himself recites his 
verses with emphasis, and who 
pretends that tragick verses re- 
quire, in declamation, the same 
pomp as in the style ; and I can 
only answer I have an irresistible 
feeling, which tells me that decla- 
mation, like style, may be noble, 
ma^estjck, tragick, with simpiici^ 

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tf ; that expression, to be lively 
and profoundly penetrating, re- 
quires gradations, shades, unfore- 
seen and sudden traits, which it 
cannot have when it is stretched 
and forced." She used to reply 
fometiraes with impatience, that 
I should never let her rest, till she 
had assumed a familiar and comick 
tone in tragedy. " Ah I no, Ma- 
demoiselle," said I, ** that you will 
never have ; nature has forbidden 
Jt ; you even have it not,while you 
are speaking to me ; the sound of 
your voice, the air of your counte- 
nance, your pronunciation, your 
gestures, your aldtudes, are natu- 
rally noble. Dare only to confide 
in this native talent, and I dare, 
warrant you will be the more tra* 

< Other counsels than mine pre- 
vailed, and, tired of being impor- 
tunate without utility, I had yield- 
ed, when I saw the actress sudden- 
ly and voluntarily come over to 
my opinion. She came to play 
Roxane at the little theatre at Ver- 
sailles. I went to see her at the 
toilette^ and, for the first time, I 
found her dressed in the habit of a 
sultana $ without hoop, her arms 
half naked, and in the truth of 
Oriental costume x I congratula- 
ted her. ^ You will presently be 
delighted with me," said she. « I 
have just been on a journey to 
Bourdeaux ; I found there but a 
very small theatre $ to which I 
^"^ obliged to accommodate my- 
self The thought struck me of 
'educing my action to it, and of 
making trial of that simple decla- 
mation you have so often required 
of me. It had the greatest success 
^cre : I am going to try it again 
l»ei*, on this little theatre. Go 
•od hear me. If it succeed as 
*cll» &rewel my old declamation." 

* The event surpassed her ex- 
psctatiQu and mine. It was no 

longer the actress, it was Roxane 
herself,whom the audience thought 
they saw and heard. The aston- 
ishment, the illusion, the enchant- 
ment, was extreme. All inquired 
where are we ? They had heard 
nothing like it. I saw her after 
the play ; I would speak to her of 
the success she hM just had, 
« Ah !" said she to me, ^ don't yon 
see that it ruins me ? In all my 
characters, the costume must now 
be observed ; the truth of decla- 
mation requires that of dress ; all 
my rich stage-wardrobe is from 
this moment rejected ; I lose 
1200 guineas worth of dresses; 
but the sacrifice is made. You 
shall see me here within a week 
playing Elrctre to the life, as I 
have just played Roxane." 

* It was the Elcctre of Crcbillon. 
Instead of the ridiculous hoop, and 
the ample mourning robe, in which 
we had been accustomed to see 
her in this character, she appeared 
in the simple habit of a slave, 
dishevelled, and her arms loaded 
with long chains. She was admi- 
rable in it ; and some time after- 
ward, she was still more sublime 
in the Electre of Voltaire. This 
part, which Voltaire had made 
her declaim with a continual and 
monotonous lamentation, acquir- 
ed, when spoken naturally, a beau- 
ty unknown to himself; for on 
seeing her play it on his theatre at 
Femcy, where she went to visit 
him, he exclaimed, bathed in tears 
and transported with admiration} 
« // r* not I who vn'Ote that^ *ti8 she: 
she has created her part .'" And 
indeed, by the infinite shades she 
introduced, by the expression she 
gave to the passions with which 
this character is filled, it was per- 
haps that of all others in which 
she was most astonishing. 

< Paris, as well as Versailles, re-i 
cognised in these changes the truo 

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tnigick accent, and the new degree 
of probability that the strict ob- 
servance of costume gave to the- 
atricai action. Thus, from that 
time all the actors were obliged to 
jabandon their fringed gloves, their 
Toiuniinous wigs, their feathered 
liats,and all the fantastick apparel, 
that had so long shocked the sight 
«f all men of taste. Lekain him^ 
self followed tlic example of ma- 
demoiselle Clairon ; and from that 
moment their talents, thus perfec- 
tedf excited mutual emulation, and 
were worthy rivzds of each other,* 
Mkrmontel speaks thus of an 
iaterview.with Massillon : 

< In one of our walks to Beaure- 
gard, the country-house of the 
bisho{M*ick, we had the happiness 
to visit the venerable Massillon. 
The reception tliis illustrious old 
man gave us, was so full of kind- 
ness, his presence and the accent 
of his voice made so lively and 
tender an impression on me, that 
the recollection of it is one of the 
most grateful that I retain of what 
passed in my early years. 

< At that age, when the affeo» 
tions of the mind and soul have, 
reciprocally, so sudden a commu- 
nication, when reason and senti- 
ment act and re-act on each other 
with so much rapidity, there is no 
one to whom it has not sometimes 
happened, on seeing a great man, 
to imprint on his forehead the fea- 
tures that distinguished the char- 
ILCter of his soul and genius. It 
was thus that among the wrinkles 
of that countenance already decay- 
rd, and In those eyes that were soon 
to be extingubhed, I thought I 
could still trace the expression of 
that eloquence, so sensible, so ten- 
der, to sublime, so profoundly pen- 
etrating, with which 1 had just been 
enchanted in his writings. He 
|)ermitted us to mention them to 
liim, and to offer him the homage 

of the religious tears they hai 
.made us shed.' 

The origin of M armontel's cel- 
ebrated Tales does him great cred- 
it. He had procured the ap- 
pointment of Editor of the Mer- 
cure Francois for Boissy, a man of 
letters in distress ; Boissy found 
himself unequal to the task of sup- 
porting the publication, and appU- 
ed to Marmontel for his frieodly 
aid : 

< Destitute of assistance, finding 
nothuig passable in the papers that 
were left him, Boissy wrote me a 
letter, which was a true picture of 
distress. ^ You will in vain have 
given noe the Mercure," said he ; 
^ this favour will be lost on me, 
if you do not add that of coming to 
my aid. Prose or verse, whatever 
you please, all will be good from 
your hand. But hasten to extri- 
cate me from the difficulty in whicli 
I now am ; I conjure you in the 
name of. that friendship which I 
have vowed U> you for the rest of 
my life." 

* This letter roused roe from my 
slumber ; I beheld this unkappf 
editor a prey to ridicule, and the 
Mercure decried in his hands, 
should he let bis penury be seen. 
It put me in a fever for the whole 
night ; and it was in this state of 
crisis and agitation that I first con- 
ceived the idea of writing a tale. 
After having passed the night with- 
out closing my eyes, in roHiag in 
my fancy the subject of that I hs?e 
entitled Alcibiadcj I got up, wrote 
it at a breath, without laying down 
my pen, and sent it off. This tsk 
had an unexpected success. I bad 
required that the name of its au- 
thor should be kept secret. No 
one knew to whom^to attribute it ; 
and at Heh'etius's dinner, whene 
tlie finest connoisseurs were, they 
did me the honour of ascribing it 
to Voltaire, or to Montesquieu.' 

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ORIGIjVAL, Quaixi vldeOr, par est ; et me Narcis»ii»- 


For the Anthology. C»tcraqueutde.mi; quifinmi«t,o«€»- 

dere cccii 

PROSOPOPCEIA UMBR.E. "" '"^f^rm. ''"^''^ n«P»«-«- 

_. _. . . «. . Seu formam a»pici», non me Ccpbei* 

jEmcla Dli, DiYis^e piior ; Diva ip»a \\t^ 3(> 

futura, ^ Pulcbrior,aul blando vatefdilecta Phaoni, 

Me nui perpctuum tcnebrw damnasset 5^^ ^apit aitonitum generis te finua ve- 

»P*<^* . . tosti ; ^ 

Jaa Dew a pnmi cre»cemi» ongioe Ante fui, quam tempo. ««t^ tcofleccara^ 

mundi, tangit 

Qamn soli, radios et cali accenderit ignei. i^^^^^ Mllertit honot ; mihi Cvadua, 

Uh ego Kixn cerrem imitatnx corpont fratre 

mobra, ., . . . * Com Ditido, et magni dtbcBt praecmdia 

CdettiMiQC numca ; mik ultima Tar- mundi, 35 

. tara parent, Natur» in taiebri» penltms pemt^que. 

Fintoinsqiie domus, Atlantaique recesstn. repos^ta 

N«iproaT05qn«ra«,primamveabongi- D^^ecu esse ocatit per mt moitaiaU» 

ne gcntem, ultr^ 

Ipa tero membns semper redeuaubus Sivt e» mirator renim : mirabere noitrai. 

*^^' , Kempe triumphatum Ponti de rege w- 

A^ce mibi propno Tireft reparaatur ab perbo 

^^*- ,. ^^ Praesidio uniut nortro qvit nticit ? ego 

Cant Titam, queit vitam adimo ; mi- \ciu% 40i 

tricta prwtant Sostinui cunctos, quum t«, Romane, U- 

Qveuego quotidie exequias et nmera ^^^^ 

dfsco. Iflustrem ex tuto iacolis dnm conficb 

Maxima naturae popuHt arcana retexi, bostem. ^ 

^dcraqne et T^ti laqueata palatia cccU. y^^^^ ^Hter molem dypei •eptcmplicit 

Adman, astrorumque cboros mortalibus umu 

oclis. 15 Oppofuit ducibns Teucritque nientibo* 

Qood tenebrx luces, quod lux optata Ajax. 

^ tenebraa 2t tamen huic pugna, si verum quxrts^ 

Exapnat, nostntim est ; requierarpraebe- j„ -jl^ 45 

mus amicam pi^ ja^^, „e,^j . clypeum nempe illc; 

Omibtts altera© recreuites fngore ter- ^^ memet 

^7' ... . Ho8tib\is objeci ; et quod plus mirerisr 

Qoin et, dum mgnt citbem circumvolo inermem. 

pennis. jjg^. virtus haec una niea est. Scit Flai^ 

MBMnxm qnicmiqae wen» d«ct«qae ^^^ ^^^^ 

Mtf runt «0 gj n„T,j ^^ ^^j^, multum debere, Vitdli 

ftfljdii, ingemi cnodimt. mommeBCU, g^j Marius, fusU Numidis, captoque Jis- 

viamque g^rthl 5Q 

Afectant liquid© super aurea sidcra cccto. Quinducibusmagnostetitignorationostrv 

P«r me pytamidftm qudndam fostigia q^jq, -^^^ V\ciM, qui, classem educerc 

mensus ^^j 
udtor esseThales; perme,qui fulmiae 

**;^P»«-,. .^. . ,. . r30..« Seu formam,' ete. /cnir«CWr^. 

Fnpt Alexandri patren, •iU judicis [25..« sibiiudices/etc Fabula«if/irf 

itaemas fedt. Kfc me torn crtdwe^flem, [38,. c sive es,* etc. Virtvi, 

[52...* Quos inter Kiciat/ &c ViE. 

[t4* ..« per me,' &c Dimosthsnm* -^/i*. /i^. X, cap. 12. 

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Dum p«vet Actzim, magico containing 

Credens roriflu* vultumintabescereluna, 
Cccropias afflixit ope$,qua5 Martiacorda 


llomulidum «imiU fac«ret trepidare tu- 

multu, ^ ^ 

Docti animos nisi ^rmassct sollertia Gralli. 

Quid rcferam, quantos ubus mortalibu* 

Quot pecori prPMtem ? Qtiis non um- 

bracula, quis non 
iiadivit gratas platani potantibiu um- 
bras ? 60 
Munere qui* no«tro Phxbcam lampada 

Villosx silva caudae prohibere Sciurum ? 
Quin, quibus usque pedum Titan defen- 

ditur umbra. 
Umbripedes popuH, qua Sol violentior 

JEthiopAm rccu dcipectat cuspide, nos- 
trum ^ ^5 
Agnoscunt meritum. Quin et decus ad- 

dimus illi» 
Quidquid Apellasi gaudent animisse co- 
Utque artis pan nunc tantum, sic decuit 

Tota mihi, ad radios quum circumscri- 

bcre solis 
Humanam docui propria sub imagine 
formam. 70 

Sed uceo ; ne, quod reprehendit Tul- 

liuB, omnes 
Falsx glorioix videar scctaricr umbras. 
••• L« 

[71 ...« TuUius.'— Or*/, in Piume, 

" MADOC." 

MAID of the %o\6Kti locks, Szt ottier lot 

May gentle heaven assign thy happier Iov«, 

Bhie-eyed Senena I . . They loitered on, 

Alodg the urindlngs of the grassy shore. 

In such free Interchange of inward thought. 

As the calm hour Intrlted i or at timet. 

Willingly silent, Ibtening to the bird 

Whoie one repeated melancholy note* 

By oft repeating meUnchoiy made. 

Solicited the car ; or gladlicr now 

Harkeniiig that chearful one, who knonrtth all 

1 he long of all the vilnged choristtrs. 

And, in one sequence of' melodious sounds. 

Pours all their music. But one wilder straifl 

At fits came o'er the water ; rising now. 

Now with a dying fall, in sink and swell 

More cxquintely sweet than ever art 

Of man evoked from instrument of touch. 

Or beat, or breath. It was the evening gale. 

Which, passing o'er the harp of Caradoc, 

Swept all its chords at once, and blended all 

Their music into one conttouoos flow. 

The solitary bard, beside his harp 

Leant underneath a tree,who«e spreading bought 

With broken shade that shifted to the breesCv 

Played on the wavlhg waters. Overhead 

There was the kafy murmur, at his foot 

The lake's perpetual ripple, and from far. 

Borne on the modulathtg gale, was heard 

The roaring of the mountahi cataract. . . 

A blind man would luve loved the lovely q>oC. 

l^or the Monthly Anthology* 

I^rom 3erjaU*s Poenu*. 

The following Speech, for substancej was actually 
made by a noted gamester In N.H. on obtaining 
a verdict against the unanimous opinion of the 
judges, by tampering with the Jury. 

WE CM* and shwJUd, stirr'd our stumps. 
But z — ds f they put us to our tmmff. 
They held cwti^curds, led tuit beside, 
With aU four b^mmrt on their side. 
They play'd the deuce ! but wc more 

Ftnest'd on hearts^ and playd the Inave. 
We better knew the paei to ^^ 
And won the game at but by trichs / 


^Written in 1802.] 

WIKTBR, clad In rUde array. 
Held his empire o'er the day ; 
Chill the sleety north-east blew. 
High its surges ocean threw. 
Now they lash the sandy shore. 
Whitening on tke rocks they roar. 
Late the syren southern gale 
Wanton'd in the swelling sail ; 
Late secure the vessel roVd 
O'er the wave, that gently movM. 
The mariners eJtdlting view 
The dim-discovered mountains btoe. 
Then the storm began to lour, 
Fiocdy beat the sletty shower^ 

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VUly howl to iMaen'd wind*. 

To direct oo frkadlf lifht 

(ahntncw thraosii the gloom of tSf^ti 

tut the lamp, that erst so sure 

HarhM die coarse, thick Humt obasnre. 

flow fact oaavailiag care 

Tlddf to hdplcas, wild dcs|»air. 

Looder now tlM tempeit tavci« 

B||bcr twcd tho hcavtaig waves i 
jbw they daah the liecble sUff 
^Va the craggy* pointed cliff « 

Raw iaoenda the dytag groan |... 

lloaght aTalta the widowl moao« 

Maoght the tear by pity shed 

O'er the nOcka of the dead. 

Ay free, aff hin% your story tell* 

When wi* a boson erony s 
But stQl keep something to yoorfti 

Ye scarcely tell to ony. 
Conceal yonrsel as weel*s ye can 

Frae critical disseetlon } 
Bat keek thro' eT*ry other man* 

wr shatpoed slf taispeetlon. 


tfnt aacred lowe e* weel-plac'd lordg 

Lmcoriantly Indtdge It ; 
But never tempt the Illicit tore, 

Tho' naethhig should divulge It | 
I wave the quantum o* the sin & ' 

The hasard of concealing ; 
But Och f It hardens a' wlthta. 

And petrifies the feeling I 


By Sunia. 


1 LANG hoe tbooght, my yoothfti' IHcndt 

A iometldng to have sent you, 
IW k skoold aerve nae Ither end 

Ihan Jnat a kind memento ; 
Bat how die sab)ect theme may gang. 

Let tkAe and chance dctermlno i 
fmlkasn It may totn out a Sang a 

fnh^ai turn ont a Sennoo. 

IM try the world soon, my lad, 

Aa«, Aadicw dear, beUeve me, 
TcH find manklhd an uaco' t^uad, 

And mockle they may grieve ye } ' 
ttar cnc and trouble set your UMughtb 

Vm when your end's attained i 
AM a* your vleira may come to nougliCs 

WhcwevYy ncrre la strained. 


l%9p.Mf» men asc vfllafaia ^i 

*Ifee ital, harden'd vricked, 
Wkihae oie check but homa 

Astaafisw restricted s 
B«i Otf^ mankind aie unco weak, 

An'mieu be trusted s 
VttLF the waTertog balance shake« 

ad HMlyr^ht adjusted I 


Bttey wbe Uf in Feitnne^ strife^ 

IMkfice we should na censare« 
ite«a ik> Ivpertant End of life 

9m diMlly may answer : 
^^m may ^ aii honest heart, 

^w^^Mftlth hewty stare hhn \ 
*Vi IMF tnfc n-nKbof*! pnvts 

iMit nee eap^ m apoK Mn, 

Tb catch Dame Fortune's goUen sm8% 

Assiduous wait upon her ; 
And gather gear by ev'ry wile 

That's lustify'd by Honour i 
Hot for to hUe it In a hedge* 

Nor for a train-attendant : 
But for the ^orious prlvUegd 

Of being Independent. 


The fear o* Hdl H a hangman's wUp* 

To baud the wretch In order ; 
But where ye feel yoor Honour grip* 

Let that ay be your border : 
It's slightest touches. Instant pause..* ^ 

Debar a' side-pretences ; 
And resolutely keep It's Uws* 

Uncaring c ons aque ncca. 

Hie great Creator to revere* 

Must sure become the Creature j 
But still the preaching cant forbear* 

And ev'n the rigid feature i 
Yet ne'er with Wits prophaoe to rangf» 

Be complaiiance enteaded } / 

An atheist-laugh's a po<w exchange 

For Deity oCended t 

When renting round tai Pleaiurf ^ ting* 

Religion may be blinded } 
Or if «he gie a random sting. 

It may be little minded ; 
But when on Llle we're tempest-dilv^ 

A conadence but a canker—* 
A correspondence fin'd wi' Hcav'n 

is sure a noble anchor 1 

Aiieu, dear amiable youth f 

Your heart can ne'er be wanting f 
May Prudence, Ferrttude, and Trudi 

ErtA your brow undanntlng I 
In ploughman phrase, ** God send yon IftOd^ 

Still dally to grow wiser t 
And may ye better reck the rede* 

Than evct did th' edvkcr I. 

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Williams's hei^orts of casea 


For MJRCH^ 1806. 

bUrarer. Nam ego dkcrc verum ascucvi. 
maximc laudari mcroHur.—— Pliny. 

uinotavi, quz cmnmntanda, qoc escimenda, iK 
Ncquc uUi pati«abiiM rcprchcoduntttr, quam o#^ 

ART. 13. 
Kefiortn fif casea argued and dc^ 
termined in the aufireme judicial 
court of the state of Massac hu^ 
^uettH from ^efit, 1804 to June 
1805, both incltiszx*e. By Fs- 
phr^m IViiitanis, Esq, Vol, I, 
8t'o. ///?. 570. 85 bound. North- 
ampton, published by S. &. E. 
Butler. 1805r 

We congratulate the ptiblfck on 
the appearance of the present work ; 
the- first-fruits of the ofiice of re- 
porter, fately established by author- 
ity of the legislature. In arbitrary 
goveninients, where the people 
have nothing to do with the Jaws 
but to obey them^ a work of tJiis 
kind would be highly useful, tho' 
hardly to be expected ; for decis- 
ions and precedents, like acts of 
the legislirture, limit the power of 
rulers and judges : but that a 
free people, whose boast it is, that 
they are governed by httcs and not 
by men^ should be totally iudiff^r* 
tnt to what passes in their courts 
of justice is a thing we ahould 
hardly credit, on less evidence than 
that of experience. What should 
we think of the legislature, if our 
statutes were to be found only in 
the books of the secretary's office ? 
Would it not be deemed a most 
criminal violation of the rights of 
the people ; the most obvious of 
which is, that of knowing the laws 
by which they are governed ? And 
yet a moment's reflexion will serve 
to convince us, tliat k is no less so, 
that the decisions of our courts 

of justice shoukJ crist only in the 
breasts of the judges, Or ita the 
lumber of a clerk's ofiicc. 

TIi€ law of this commonwealth 
may be divided into two heads } 
the statute and the common law : 
and this latter is properly distin- 
guishable into two kinds,in respect 
to the source from which ft fs de- 
rived ; namely, what we had, be- 
fore the revolution, adopted from 
the English law, and such general 
customs or usages (for we ac- 
knoXvIedge no ftarticular one^) as 
have prevailed in this state, and 
have acquired the force of law> 
thoupjh they make no part of the 
English system of jurisprudence. 
Of r)ur stiitutes, nmch the greatest 
number are privajtc or special ; 
and of those which regard the 
whole community, a considerable 
number refer to the organization 
of the government. They arc of 
a political, rather than a civil na- 
ture. • Of those which prescribe 
rules of civil conduct to the citi- 
zens, rules for making and ex- 
pounding contracts, principles of 
decision on the questions daily ag- 
itated in our courts of justice, the 
number V9 small ; indeed, it roay 
be a question, whether our system 
of jurisprudence would suffer an 
injury by their total repeal. Be- 
sides, the exposition of statutes 
necessarify belongs to the judicial 
courts. The sphit, rather than 
the letter of the law, is what wc 
are bound to regard. Plowdc© 
compai*es an act of the legislature- 
to a autr The words are onlj the 

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Kuak, or shell •', the sense or mean- 
ing is the kernel or soul of the law. 
It is the business of the courts to 
strip off the hwsk. He, therefore, 
who would understand the mean* 
ing- of the statutes, must carefully 
study the judicial constructions, 
which, from time to time, ha^'e 
,been put upon them* 

But the maxims and rules of 
the common law greatly exceed 
those prescribed by statute, both 
in Dumber mnd importance ; and 
pf these* judicial decisions furnish 
the oniy evidence. What is the 
common law of this state ? A pe- 
rusal of the records of the English 
courts of justice, books of reports, 
the treatises of the learned sages 
of the profession, preserved and 
handed down froi^ the times of 
highest antiquity, w^ll furnish the 
answer as it respects that paxt of 
our lavs, which we have borrowed 
from the English ; bu)L how is the 
line to be drawn between what we 
have adopted fit>m the English 
law, and what has been rejected as 
inapplicable ? Our po^stituuon fiir^ 
Irishes us with a rule on the sub- 
ject. Whatever has " been adopt- 
ed, used, and approved in the prov*- 
ince, colony, or state of M^tssachu- 
setts Bay, and usually practised on 
in the CQurts of la^w," exicepting 
such parts « as are repugnant to 
the rights ai)d liberties contained 
i;i the constitution," is law here. 
But how shall we be enabled to ap- 
ply this rule ? where shall We look 
ipr the evidence of this adofition^ 
usagcy and a/ifirobation y the evi- 
dence of what has been the usual 
practice in our courts of law ? We 
have no books of reports ; no ev? 
idence of oiu* judicial decisions } 
no treatises of learned sage^ of the 
profession.* History is of great 

* At Rome the Opinions of the Jwru* 
tmmhit called the rupmta prudetdvm^ were 
of great weight ; and a coosiderable par^ 
tf the Roo^aii Uwit fbiiA4e4ttpoo th«i3^« 

use in explaining laws ; but no 
one has taken the tix>uble, with 
reference to this subject, to exam- 
ine the history of tlie state, from 
its settlement to the revolution. 
The legal customs and usages, 
which have spnuig up among us, 
have JX^ycv been rolkcXed^ In 
short, our common law is truly au 
unwritten law. It is merely oral, or 
communicated by word of mouth* 
It rests altogether on micertuin 

There is some uncertainty and 
contradiction in judicial decisions, 
compiled even by eminent lawyers, 
judges, and reporters appointed by 
authority, and preserved in print. 
But will tliere not be a thousand 
times more uncertainty and con- 
tradiction ; or rather, will there be 
any certainty, any uniformity, in 
decisions never committed to writ^ 
ing ? What would be thp i:ondition 
of our statute law, if it rested soler 
ly on the memory of the members 
of tlie legislature ? And what should 
occasion a difference in favour of 
judicial decisions, which are the 
proper and only evidence of those 
laws, which are ratified by the tacit 
consent of the people, when they 
depend on the memory of lawyers, 
or even of the judges who pro- 
nounced them. It is not an easy 
task to become thoroughly ac-> 
quainted with the principles of the 
English law. It is a task of much 
greater difficulty, to become mas- 
ter of the law of this common-* 
wealth. Our statutes are probably 
worse penned than th^ British ; 
and we have no phart to direct us 
in the search of our legal customs 
and usages. Our law does not de- 
serve thp name of science. Our 
judges cannot know, if they would, 
wjih apy good degree of certainty, 
the points which have heretofore 
been decided. Is it then wonder- 
ful, that they should pursue the 
easier, but mpre dangeraus courw 

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of deciding all questions according 
to the inipi*essions on their own 
minds, at the moment ; and then 
substitute their own private opin- 
ions in the place of law ? Such 
eidges cannot be said to declare the 
w ; they make it. Like arbitra- 
tors, they make their award, and 
deliver their own opinions. 

Some have imagined, that the 
records furnish all the necessary 
information on this subject. It 
may be observed, in the first place, 
that our records are far from be- 
ing as perfect as they ought to be. 
The business is intrusted to clerks, 
often incapable, and too often rep 
miss in the performance of the du- 
ties of the oiSce. But admitting 
the records to be framed and kept 
in the best possible manper, sdll, 
ftom the nature of the thing, they 
furnish but little evidence of our 
legal customs ; because they rare? 
\y contain a strfficient statement of 
rile facts, on which the decision is 
fjrounded, and never the argu? 
ments and reasoning of the court. 
We have niade these brief ob- 
servations, as an introduction to the 
consideration of the work before 
us. We trust there are few of 
pur readers, who are not equalr 
ly with us ^mpr^sscd wjih the 
conviction that the design of tliis 
work is highly important ; that it 
is one, which. If welP executed, 
promises more publick utility than 
any measure pur government has 
l^dopted since the formation of the 
constitution. A correct history of 
"what passes in courts of justice is 
of incalculable advantage. With 
a single exception, It is the best of 
all books. It perpetuates the lar 
bours and sound maxims of wifee 
and learned judges. It serves to 
make the path of duty plain before 
the people, by making the law a 
knovm ruie of conduct ; and for the 
same reaspn, it diminishes lifig^- 

tion. It has a tendency t» limit . 
the discretion of judges ; and con- 
sequently, increases liberty. Where 
there are no fixed established max- 
ims of law, the citizens are in the 
same situation as farmers, whose 
lands are not divided by any mon- 
uments or known bounds^ They 
will be very likely to go to law, and 
Tcry unlikely to obtain satisfactory 
decisions. Maxims of law are like 

How for the work before us b cal- 
culated to answer these valuable 
ends,wQ shall hereafter have occa- 
sion to consider. 

With regard to vrhat is the best 
method of reportpg, we are sensi- 
ble that a diflfcrence of opinion pre- 
vails among those, most conver- 
sant with the subject. Some have 
been careful to state the facts at 
great length, to insert a Ml copy 
of the pleadings, the arguments of 
the counsel, as diffusely as they 
were delivered at the bar, the cases 
and authorities cited and relied pn^ 
and the opinions of the judges, at 
full length ; while others have giv- 
en a very abridged state of the case, 
together wjth the mere point de- 
cided ; omitting not only the ar- 
guments of the bar, but the most 
of the reasoning of the court. It 
is obvious to remark, that each of 
these methods has its advantages 
and disadvantages. They are ex- 
tremes ; and in this, as in every 
thing else, " in medio tutissimus 
ibis." Prolixity fatigues,while ex- 
treme brevity leads to obscurity. 
But there is a conciseness, which 
is no enemy to perspicuity, and a 
prolixity, which confounds, instead 
of enlightening. Perhaps it is not 
in the power of a reporter to say 
just jnough for some readers, with- 
out saying too much for others. 
But we are decidedly of opinion, 
that iftodern reports are, in gen«« 

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tlf Tlt£ 8UP11KMB itTDlCIAL COTt)lT. 


ft!, too prolix. Expunge from 
them every thing not material in 
the statement of fiBM:ts; everything 
from the argumentg, which does 
ftot bear on the question ; and ev- 
ery thing given for the reasons of 
the decision which is wholly fbr« 
. flgn and irrelevant, and many a 
flKe folio would dwindle into a du* 
Wedmo. The eight or ten volumes 
of Vesey jun. would be reduced to 
two or three ; Dallas would be re* 
duced one half ; Wallace* to a 
few pages ; Cranch would make 
No. I, of Vol. I., and Root would 
entirely disappear. But our read- 
ers must n«t conclude from what 
we have said, that reports may not, 
in our judgment, be too concise. 
We arc not believers in the " short 
cuts to knowledge." In reports it 
is indispensable, that all the mate* 
liad hcts be correctly stated, the 
pieaifings, when the case turns up- 
on them, the judgment of the 
court, and the outlines of the 
grounds or reasons ol the decision. 
Nothing trifling or impertinent 
should be inserted, and nothing 
material omiUed. 

Of the qualifications of a report- 
er, thei*e can be but one opinion. 
'He must possess industry to col- 
lect suitable materials, judgment 
to select and arrange them, and 
great accuracy in every thing. In 
a word, that is the best book of re» 
ports, which contains the greatest 
number of cases upon important 
pmts, in which the reasons and 
gtounds of the decisions are so 
dearly set down that they cannot 
easily be mistaken $ and he b the 
best reporter, whose works ap- 
proach the nearest to this standard. 

Mr. Williams, in a very modest 
ind well written preface, which 

* Rtportt of Cases adjudged io the 
cvcvit covrt of the United Sute*, for 
the thira circnit« 

prepossessed us in his favour^ and 
led us to anticipate something 
good, appears to have been fully 
aware of the difficulties, with which 
he had to contend, and of the ad* 
vantages and disadvantages of the 
diflcrent methods in use of report* 
ing cases. It seems to have been 
his endeavour to avoid the extremes 
of prolixity and brevity. Where 
he deemed the points new and ab« 
struse, he professes to be copious. 
In cases of less importance, and 
especially in matters of practice, 
he aipis at conciseness. Not hav- 
ing the materials for reports, with 
which his office furnished himt 
submitted to our inspection, we are 
unable to determine whether he 
has omitted any case which ought 
to have been given to the publick. 
But we have no hesitation in sayw 
ing, that some of those selected 
might have been spared, without 
any Injury to the work. For ex* 
ample, what must foreigners think 
of the state of our jurisprudence, 
when it is thought necessary twice 
to state, as solemn decisions of our 
supreme court, that an administra'* 
tor, and an individusd in his own 
right, cannot join in prosecuting 
an action ? [p. 104, 480.] That 
an action ybr money had and receive 
ed does not lie for a surety ,who has 
paid the debt of his principal ? [p, 
1 3f .] Who ever supposed it did ? 
A reporter should always bear in 
mind,that it is only cases of" weight 
and difficulty" that should be re-* 

Some of the cases are spun out 
to a most unreasonable length, and 
contain matters which, for the hon^ 
our of the state, we think, should 
never have appeared in print. If 
individuals will use or rather abuse 
the liberty of the press, in publishi 
ing what disgraces them and us in 
the judgment of our neighbours 
and of foreigners, it cannot be heljH 

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rd j but Mr. W. is an officer of the 
government, and, as such, bound at 
sdl times to consult its honour. A 
reporter, like a witness, should re- 
port nothing but the truth ; but he 
is not bound to state all that passes 
in court. We shall not much re- 
gret it, if foreigners should be dis- 
posed to question his correctness, 
"When he states, that the first law 
officer of the commonwealth 
persevered in an attempt to 
file a plea in abatement [Martin v. 
the Commonwealth in errour, p. 
353] after several general impar- 
lances, and after a plea in bar had 
been pleaded at a former term. If 
there is any principle of law well 
established in our courts, it is, that 
8 plea in abatement cannot be re« 
ccived in another term, after a 
general imparlance. We are at a 
loss to understand what the attor- 
ney-general means by saying, <' that 
the court of exchequer, to which 
tn appeal from the admiralty lies, 
has not judiciary power. No writ 
of errour lies to that couit." [p.873.] 
Some of the pases in this voK 
^me are so v^ry /larticular in their 
&cts and circumstances, that they 
cannot operate as precedents on 
other occasions. They should 
have been omitted. It seems w^ 
are indebted to the grand jury for 
the county of Plymouth for one 
needless report. [Commonwealth 
¥. O'Hearsey, p. 1 37.] The attorr 
ney-general drew the indictment 
•gainst his own opinion, put of re-, 
Mfiect to the grand jury. Possibly 
the reporter, following thq attor- 
ney-general's example, inserted it 
in his collection^ against his better 
judgment. Uy this means, we 
ppor reviewers have been obliged 
to peruse it much against ours. 
We cannot but think that the poor 
culprit has conducted, in this busi- 
ness, with the most propriety. He 
confessed the facts, and left it to 
the court, without troubling thcip 

with counsel, in so plain a case, tt 
declare the laws. We hope all 
concerned will profit by this ex- 

We are also of opinion, that the 
arguments of some of the judges, 
in the case alluded to, [Martin ▼. 
the Commonwealth] as well as ia 
many others, might have been cclj^ 
densed, with advantage to the pw?^ 
lick, and without doing any inju- 
ry to the arguments themselves. 
"We are not agreeably impressed 
with " wordy eloquence" from the 
bench ; still less, with attempts at 
eloquence without success. As 
the style of laws should be concise, 
plain, and simple, so decisions of 
courts, which declare the law, 
should be neither diffuse, tumid, 
nor rhetorical. The language of 
judges should correspond with tlie 
dignity of the office, and with the 
majesty of the subject. Great or- 
nament is as ill-becoming in the 
style of a " reverend judge," as a 
black gown, turned up with pink, 
(the dress of the federal judges) is 
unbecoming his person. 

We believe that there is a style 
apd manner peculiarly fitted to the 
bench. An eloquent harangue at 
the bar or in the senate would be , 
unseemly from the mouth of a ven- 
erable judge. The sages of the 
law,who are"legibus patriae optime 
inslituti,"who may justly boast of the 
" viginti anpoiiim lucubrationes," 
should not for a moment be sus- 
pected of sacrificing precision to 
the harmony of periods. Lord 
Mansfield was a scholar and an or- 
ator ; but his eloquence at the bar, 
in the senate, and on the bench, 
were as much unlike each otlier, as 
the eloquence, of which we com- 
plain, is imlike either. 

After all, we are not enemies to 
true eloquence. And when our 
judges shall have taken as much 
pains in forming opinions in the 
cases before them as Lord Males'; 

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in ttt* %\iT1itUZ iUDlCJtAt cot«t. 


field altffay did, and shall have 
spent as many years in the acqui- 
^on of polite and elegant litera- 
tttpc as he did, we shall not object 
to their being as eloquent upon the 
bench as his lordship. It will no 
doubt subject us to the " suspicion 
of dulness," yet we shall not scni- 
fle to declare, that in a judge we 
prefer labour to genius^ and pains- 
taking to ingenuity- 

Among other instances of pro- 
fijdty that occur in these reports, 
may be niendoned,the case of Smith 
T. Bowker, [p. 76] which occu- 
pies nearly six pages. By the 
▼ay, the defendant is called Josefih 
VkdJotham ; which is the true name ? 
We think sormething like the 
following would hare comprized 
crery tl^g material in the case. 
If we are correct in this, it shews 
how much might have been gained 
hj a judicious abridgment of many 
of the cases in this volume- 

«* This was trespass for taking 
the plaintiff's cows. A case was 
stated for the opinion of the 
court, in substance, that the pres- 
ent plaintiff had before made a 
promissory note to one Sweetser, 
who purchased a writ of attach- 
ment thereon against the plain- 
tiff, calling him of Orange, in the 
county of H., instead of Athol, in 
the county of W., his true place of 
abode. Service was made by J.S., 
deputy sheriff of H. county, that 
he had attached a hat, the property 
of A. S. named in the writ, and 
left him a summons for his ap- 
pearance. This summons was left 
at th» dwelling house of the plsdn- 
dff in Athol, in which town he has 
•Iways lived. There was no ap- 
pearance, and judgment was ren- 
dered, by defisiult, at the first term, 
ami execution issued and directed 
to the sheriffs, &c. of W. and H. 
on^ties, describing the parties a»- 
in the writ of attachment^ and was 

delivered to the defetidatit, A 
deputy sheriff in W. cotmtyi 
who, by virtue thereof, took 
the cows mentioned in the declara- 
tion, and sold them to satisfy the 
execution. For the defendant was 
cited Crawford v- Satchwell, 3 
Stra. 1218. The court was clear- 
ly of opinion, that the defendant 
was not a trespasser. He was jus- 
tified by his precept in doing what 
he did. Smith should have ap-^ 
peared and pleaded the Wrong ad- 
dition of place in abatement. By 
not doing sd he waved the mis- 
take, and he now comes t6o late to 
avail himself of it. Judgment for 
the defendant.** 

Simfnons &c.v.W.C.Apthorp 8cc, 
[p.99] petition for a review, or new 
ti-ial. The case is not long, but it' 
might have been shorter. It would 
have been sufficient to state, as in 
the margin, that k was determined 
by the court, that on stich petitions; 
the petitioner f hall be confined, on 
the hearing, to the allegations m 
the petition. 

The case of Hall v. Hall [p. 10 1 ] 
i* too trifling to merit insertion^ 
The decision is also, to say the 
least of it, questionable. It was 
probably made without any consid- 
eration. We think the oath of a 
witness to prove payment as" high*' 
and better evidence, than the bare 
receipt of a collector of taxes. 

Clap V. Joslynin review [p. 129]. 
The circumstances of this case 
were very particular, and such, it 
is to be hoped, as will never hap- 
pen again. It was unnecessary to 
state them. All that seems use- 
ful to mention is, that in this case 
the court settled it as a rule of 
ptactkef that in an action of re-^ 
view, granted by the court under 
the statute, tlie court may, on a rule 
ta shew cause, quash the writ for 
want of notic6 to the advecse party, 
of the application for a review > or^ 

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the court may then hear the par- 
ties on the merits of the petition 
for a new trial. 

Walker &c. v. Maxwell, [p. 
104.] In this case two new ques- 
tions were decided. 1st, that the 
allegation, by a defendant who be- 
longs to another state in the union, 
that the debt for which he is now 
sued has been attached in his hands 
as garnishee by process of foreign 
attachment in hb own state, at the 
suit of a creditor there, ...that all the 
firoceeding% m the foreign attach^ 
ment were purnumt to the statute 
in «t«cA */a/e, is not sufficient. The 
statute should have been set forth, 
that the court might see whether 
the proceedings were authorized 
by it or not. 3d, that amendment 
may be allowed, after argument on 
demurrer. We have called these 
new points ; the second was not a 
new question, being the same that 
was decided in Holbrook v. Pratt, 
[p. 96] but the decision was nrw, 
being directly contrary to the for- 
mer one. 

This case occupies twelve pages, 
little less than a fortieth part 
of the volume, and costs every 
reader 10 cents,., a great deal more 
than it is worth. It was not ne- 
cessary, to state the pleadings ; 
that part printed in italics «nd the 
substance of the rest would have 
been sufficient. There is nothing in 
these records of pleadings so excel- 
lent as to merit insertion at length. 
It is but justice to Mr. W. to 
say, that his statements of fitcU 
seem much more correct than 
those drawn up by the counsel, 
which are often stuffed with im- 
pertinent matter ; and in some in- 
stances so erroneous, as to require 
correction by the reporter. 

Other examples might be giv- 
« of statements and reports un- 
necessarily prolix. There arc also 

cases where the statements are kn 
complete. But we shall leave it 
to the sagacity of our learned rea« 
ders to discover and point them 
out. On this subject we shall 
barely mention some slight inac-^ 
curacies in the case of Harris v» 
Clap, &c. [p. 308]. 

It would appear from many parC» 
of the report that the judgment 
was at law and not in equity, Ani 
yet the chief justice speaks (p. 
319,330) of the surety conung 
into the court as a court of eqxiity 
for relief. 

The four judges, who were of 
opinion for the plaintiff, agree that 
the interest on the award shall 
commence at the expiration of 
120 days from the acceptance of 
it in the common pleas, .which 
was 1st Tuesday January 1798 ; 
and yet the interest appears to 
have been cast from the 13th June 
179S,the time of commencing the 
suit on the bond. The judges do 
not seem to be agreed as to the 
time, from which interest mighi be 
computed on the penalty. Tliach- 
er J. fixes on one himdred and 
twenty days after the judgment on 
the award, as the penod. Sewall 
J- (we think with more propriety) 
fixes on the demaQd, that is, the 
commencement of the suit in the 
case before the court. It would 
seem that the judgment was at law. 
The debt adjudged to the plaint^ 
was 85000 the penalty of the bond, 
and 2U0O,55 cents, as damages 
for the detention of the debt ; and 
yet the true measure of damages 
seems to have been declared to be 
the penalty and interest on it from 
the commencement of the suit. 
What but equity prevented the 
plaintiff from recoveringyiii/ mter^ 
^tj viz. S3035 ? The defendant 
did not ask equity. We have not 
looked inta thb point. Perfaapt 

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J 45 

courts of law assume the right of 
limiting interest to the equity of 
the case. The doctrine may be, 
that the penalty is forfeited, and 
that the court," in their discretion, 
give 9uch damages^ and no more, 
for the detention of the debt, as the 
plaintiif shall have sustained. The 
one sluliing usually given in Eng- 
land seems to imply, that some 
damages must be given, and that 
less than the whole interest may 
be given. It has not been usual 
here to give any damages for the 
detention of the penalty of a bond, 
and the framers of the statute of 
I March, 1799 [III. p. 29] do not 
Beem to have conceived, that inter- 
est might be given on the penalty 
or damages for the detention of it. 

\Vc were singularly struck with 
the case of Porter v. Bussey. [p. 
436.] No reason is given for the 
decision, but we are favoured with 
a very good argument of one of 
the learned judges against it. We 
cannot say what our opinion might 
have been, if we had been favoured 
with the reasons of the court. At 
present we incline to the opinion 
of the judge, who dissented. 

Doubtless other cases besides 
those mentioned will occur on a 
careful perusal of this volume, in 
which the critical and learned rea- 
der may be inclined to think, that 
tJic facts have not been clearly and 
concisely stated, and the grounds 
of the decision perspicuously re- 
ported. But they are not very nu- 
merous, nor are the defects per- 
haps very important. We think 
.the greatest crrour is on the side 
of prolixity. The author has too 
often, we believe, " yielded to infe- 
riour sense, and doubted hb own ;" 
a fault not very common at the 
present day, and which the re- 
porter will probably menrl, if he 
continue to follow the trade of an 
author. At the beginning cf the 

Vol. III. No. 3. T 

work we observed a small impro- 
priety, which the reporter seems 
himself to have corrected at an 
early stage. We mean the des- 
cribing of the action immediately 
after the names of the parties z 
thus, '*" Debt. This was an action 
of debt." "Assumpsit. This was 
an action of assumpsit," Sec. But 
there is another redundancy, which 
runs through the whole work. We 
allude to his always naming the 
judges who concurred in the opin- 
* ion stated. We think the publick 
ought to know, what judges decid- 
ed ; but we are of opinion, that tliia 
knowledge would be better com- 
municated by stating, in general 
terms, that the unanimity of the 
court is to be understood in every 
case, where a difference of opin- 
ion is not expressly stated ; and 
where all the judges did not at- 
tend, at any term, or in any partic- 
ular cause, a short note at the be- 
ginning or end of such teim or 
cause, as the case may be, would 
have saved a great number of very 
unnecessary repetitions. 

Where a judge adds nothing to 
the grounds or reasons of the de- 
cision, it seems quite unnecessary 

to state that Mtcch justice 

thought the plaintiff was entitled 
to judgment, and not the defend- 
ant. It would be sufficient simply 
to say, that such justice or justices 

It has appeared to us, that Mr. 
W. is not particular enough hi his 
method of clung staJi^s. In 
some instances we are left to con- 
jecture what statute was intended. 
The dat^ of our statutes is geiier- 
ally given, but tlie titles , being 
sOnutimes omitt'jd, and several 
having been enacted on the same 
day, considerable time is sometimes 
required to finil the one referred to. 
We readers expect that authors 
will spare no puins to promote our 

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wittiAMs's nftponi-s of cxst* 

case and convenience. It would 
have been easy for Mr. W. to have 
referred to the vohime, pag^e, and 
even sectiwi of the act. \Vhen 
he has done this, we have found 
mir labour considerabrly lessened. 

The learned^ judges [in p. 60, 
61, Stc] speak of the statutes of 
Edward the thhd, and James the 
iirst, relating to the office of justice 
of tlie peace. Either they or the 
reporter should have hi formed us, 
"What particular statutes were inten- 
ded. During the long rtign of the 
former, no less than three hundred 
and eighty-six statutes were made. 
It is possible the judges refer- 
red to Edward III. anno I, c. 16, 
2 c. 6, 4 c. 2, 9 c. 5, 18- stat. II. c. 
3, 18 Stat. IV. 34 c. 1. James I. 
anno 7, c. 5, 21 c. 12. Tne same 
remark applies to some other En- 
glish statutes alluded to hi the \vork. 
The references to the very few 
authorities cited are generally cor- 
rect ; bat what book does the au- 
thor mean by I. Wm.'s Abr. 427, 
[cited in p. 50] I Does he mean I. 
P. Wm's Rep. p. 429, or Wm.'s 
Dig. of the Stat, law, whkh is in a 
single volume in our edition ? 

We have observed altio a loose 
method of quoting passages from 
statutes, See. These qtiotations, in 
our opinion, should be exact. The 
author is not obliged to take any 
more than what he deems appo- 
site ; but he should cite literally. 
And though pvrhaps the variations 
in this voiume are not very mate- 
rial, yet tIc condemn the practice 
as leading to errour. 

On a careful perusal of this voi- 
time, but not with any particular 
view to find errours in gram- 
mar, or errours of the press, we 
have discovered, as we conceive, a 
number, not noted by the author 
In his errata. Some of these we 
mhall subjoin to our report. They 
mp% sufficiently numieix)us to prove> 

that our authors and printers arr 
too negligent,when they appear be- 
fore the tribunal of the publick. To 
the haste with which the work ap^ 
pears to have been prepared for the 
press, and run throxigh it^s no doubt 
to be attributed many of these uiis-' 
takes. But, we think, the pul>lick 
Would have gained more in cor* 
rectne'js, tlian they would have lost 
By delay, if the piibircation had been 
deferred a few months. We caa 
assure our readei*s, that we have 
not wished to find errours. Ir 
would have given us more pleasure 
to have pronounced the work fault" 
less. Mr. W. is a lawyer, and 
ftx>m his notes it would appear, 
that he is iio mean one. We con^ 
sider these notes as judicious, and 
useful in illustrating, and some- 
times ciyrrecthig the text. Wc 
wished to meet with them more 
frequently. Professional gentle- 
men are greatly indebted to Mr. 
Douglas for his learned and care* 
ful notes in his very excellent re* 
ports. When the decisions of the 
King^s Bench, with lord Mansfield 
at the head of it, admit of illustra- 
tion and correction from notes of 
a reporter, no court in this coun^ 
try can complain of this freedom 
taken with their detei-minations. 
It has, besides, the sanction of Mr. 
Justice Foster's opinion and ex- 

It is not, perhaps, expected that 
we should review the decisions and 
opinions of the court, contained ia 
this volume. This task will b^ 
wndeitaken by the several mem- 
bers of the profession, labouring in 
their vocation, by the publick, bf 
our judicial* tribunals, and we hope 
by the learned judges themselves. 
Decisions in this state have beeit 
hitherto so little regarded, that, we 
have no doubt, some of these will 
be questioned ; and that succeedr 
ing judges will go upon broader 

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^gitnmd, than that avowed in Eng- 
land, where it is held, that judges 
are bound by determinations pro- 
viously and solemnly made, where 
the same points come again in liti- 
-gadon ; except where the decisions 
.arc Tno9t evidently -contrary to rea- 
-san, mamfcatly absurd or unjust, or 
<learly contrary to the divine law. 
It would, perhaps, be going too far 
to say, that any of the judicial opin- 
ions recorded in tins volume are 
-deserving of these harsh ^lithets ; 
and yet we will venture to predict 
that some of them will be found 
incorrect ; and that tliey will nei- 
ther receive the sanction of suc- 
ceeding judges, nor the approba- 
tion of the sages of the law in the 
other states. We will venture to 
include in this number the decision 
[Bartlett V. Knight, p. 401] con- 
trary to a former one in this state, 
that a judgment, brought from an- 
other state in the union, has not the 
same effect here, which it would 
have had if used in the state in 
which it was recovered.* The 
reasoning of the learned judges (if 
It merits to be called reasoning) in 
support of their ojMnion, cames 
little weight with it. The contra- 
ry was decided in the circuit court 
of the U. S. in Pennsylvania [Arm- 
strong V. Carson's Ex'rs. 2 Dall. 
Rep. 302]. We think, with Mr, 
Justice Wilson, that whatever 
doubts there might be on the words 
of the constitution, the act of con^ 
gress has effectually removed 
them, having declared in direct 
terms, that the record shall have 
the same effect in the court into 
which it is carried, as in the court 
from which it was taken. We are 
the more dissatisfied with this de- 
cision, because it aeem* to savour 
of a spirit of disunion. It hafi 

# The Chief Jttftke and Jostke Straqf wcff 

some appearance of a preference 
(which, we fear, is unjust) of our 
judicial proceedings to those of 
the other states in the union. 

We cannot subscribe to some of 
the opinions expressed in the case 
of Foster v. AblK)t Adm'r. [p. 234.] 
We think the facts of the .case fur- 
nished a complete bar. What do 
the learned judges mean by a de- 
x:ree of insolvency ? If they mean 
a decree of cUstiibution, do they 
intend to assert that, till tltts decree 
is made, a creditor, whose claim is 
rejected by the commissioners, and 
who does not prosecute by way of 
appeal according to the statute, 
may sue at common law I 

Nor csx\ we yield our assent to 
the decision in the case of Fales v. 
Thompson, [p. 134] on the point 
that the assignees of a bankrupt 
are not entitled to come in and 
prosecute a real action commejio- 
^d by the bankrupt. 

In a -case, circumstanced as that 
was, wp incline to the x>pinion that 
the deed of Asa Thompson, the fa- 
ther, was fraudulent as against the 

Other decisions might be men- 
tioned as exceptionable ; but wp 
forbear entering further into the 
subject. If the learned judges 
should be disposed to think, that 
we have alreaidy gone too far, we 
trust that we shall have their for- 
giveness, when they consider that 
we have differed less in opinion 
with the court, than they have dif- 
fered from each other. We can as- 
sure them, 3Lhat the observation* 
we have made, have not proceeded 
from a de^re> on our part, to dcr 
preciate their (earning or talents, 
for which we have the most cordi- 
al respect ; npr with a view to lesr 
sen the value of Mr. W/s labours ; 
for we believe, they will prove ad» 
vantageous to the publick,and hon- 
ourable, w^ p^cerely wish w^ 

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CQuld add profitable, to him ; — ^but 
principally, that wc may have an 
opp'ortunity of expressing our sin- 
cere conviction, that our system of 
jurisprudence is radically defective, 
and that we shall never Tiave any 
thoroughly examined and well-di- 
gested determinations, decisions 
■which will stand the test of time 
and serve as permament and fixed 
rules, so long as the judges, the 
depositaries of our law^ are wan- 
dering through the state, without 
any fixed or permanent place of 

The old proverb that a " rolling 
stone gathers no moss" is not more 
true, than that a court, constantly 
in motion, settles and establishes 
no principles of law. When the 
principal business of a court is to 
travel and to retail the law in every 
county town, is it reasonable to ex- 
pect deep research, nice discrim- 
ination, or copious discussion on 
legal questions ? Let our readers 
figure to themselves our supreme 
judicial court in session at Lenox, 
for example. Questions of law and 
trials of fact are blended together 
on the docket. Amid the tumult 
and bustle necessarily incident to 
trials by jury, counsel occupied 
and teased with clients, witnesses, 
&c. it is easy to see how questions 
of law will be argued, even by em- 
inent counsel. The judges, long 
absent from their families, can 
hardly be supposed to be perfectly 
at ease in their minds. Denied all 
access to books, «nd fatigued with 
the labours of the day, and liable, 
from their situation, to constant in- 
terruptions, they cannot so much as 
have an opportunity of communi- 
cating their sentiments, or of hear- 
ing one another's reasons. On Sat- 
\irday morning they must pro* 
nounce judgment. Under such 
circumstances is it not cruel to ex- 
mct an opinion, and ridiculous to 

, expect a matured and well-digest- 
ed one ? The first thoughts which 
occur to a sensible, and if you 
please to a learned lawyer, on legal 
questions, may be reasonable, we 
grant ; but they may not be «o rea- 
sonable, «o just, as after thoughts. 
The conjectural positions of natu- 
ral reason, if not fortified by prec- 
edents, if not confirmed by ele- 
mentary writers, or if they are not 
the result of much previous study 
and patient investigation, are al- 
ways to be distrusted. A judge 
should think reasonably, but he 
should think and reason as one 
" long accustomed to the judicial 
decisions of hi^ predecessors." He 
should be well vei*sed in history, 
and especially in the history of the 
constitution, laws, manners, and 
-customs of his own country. 

The study of New-England an- 
tiquities, if wc may he allowed the 
expression, is a necessary qualifi- 
cation of a New-England judge. 
We recollect having been, a few 
years ago, strongly impressed with 
its importance on reading Hazard's 
Historical Collections. It is well 
known,thatin New-England much 
greater regard is shewn to pro- 
bates and letters of administration 
brought from the neighbouring 
states, than is allowed by the En- 
glish law, or by tlie laws and usa- 
ges of the other states in the union. 
We have found our courts admit- 
ting executors and administrators 
to sue here on the authority of let- 
ters obtained in other states, tho' 
we do not recollect that we ever 
heard th^m explain the origin of 
this deviation from the English 

It appears from the journal of 
the commissioners of the united 
colonies, 19th of the 7th month, 
1 648, [II. Hazard, 1 24, 1 35] « cer- 
tain propositions were commended 
by the commissioners to the con- 

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sideimtidil of the general courts of 
the several colonies," which, as far 
as relates to our present purpose, 
weft, " that, for the more speedy 
and free passage of justice in each 
jurisdiction, wills,proved and certi- 
fied in one of the colonies, without 
delay be accepted and allowed in 
the rest : and that administration, 
granted in the colony to which the 
intestate belonged, being duly cer- 
tified, be in force for the gathering 
io of the estate in the rest of the 
cojonies," By returns of the com- 
missioners, it afterwards appeared, 
that all the general courts had as- 
sented. Would it not have been 
dedrable,that the legislature should 
have made provision for publishing 
eii the old lavfs of the province, 
rather than the firivate acts passed 
since the revolution ? It is appre- 
hendcd,that the knowledge of these 
is absolutely necessary to a thor- 
cragh understanding of what is now 
considered as the common law of 
this commonwealth. 

On perusal of this, volume of 
reports we were forcibly struck 
with the small number of cases 
and authorities cited. Those of 
our own courts do not exceed ten, 
and those from the English books, 
probably, fall short of one hundred. 
Both lawyers and judges seem to 
be sparing of authorities, and lib- 
eral of declamation and reasoning 
upon general principles. In this 
particular the ^work unfortunately 
resembles Root's reports. Decis- 
icms, which rest altogether on the 
good sense of the judges who makfy 
^c ought not to say, who ftrO'> 
wjawf them, will be of little use. 
They do not make, whr.t was un- 
certain before a permanent rule, 
^ a rule implies something bind-^ 
iog, something which is to be fol- 
lowed. In such cases the suc- 
ceeding judge will be too apt to 
decide a^ his predecessor did, that 

is, according to his own private 
sentiments j and thus we catmot 
expect to have the scale of justice 
even and steady. It will waver 
with every new judge's opinion. 

It would give us pain to find ev- 
idence in these reports, that our 
learned judges are unfriendly to 
the use of precedents ; because it 
would indicate a greater reliance 
on their own abilities, (and we ac- 
knowledge they are great) than 
any men, in our opinion, are justi- 
fied in entertainingj We are far 
from yielding a blind obedience to 
authorities. There are casesy 
which do not require them, and 
there are decided cases, which 
weigh little against clear and solid 
principles of reason. But it is well 
known, that the rules respecting 
contracts, which furnish a great 
branch of civil business, are, in 
general, tl^ same in this and most 
European countries, being most- 
ly derived from the civil law. We 
ought to avail ourselves of their 
decisions. It is safer for the wi^ 
scst judge to lean on the matured 
and well-settled opinions on such 
questions, than on his own private 
judgment. We are pleased with 
lord Ken yon 's sentiments on this 
subject. " Those, who are confid- 
ent m their own superiour abilities," 
says that sound lawyer and able 
judge, " may perhaps fancy that 
they could make a new system of 
laws, less objectionable than that 
under which they live. I have not 
that confidence in mine ; and am 
satisfied by the decisions and 
series of decisions of great and 
learned men, on the rules of law i 
and it is my duty, as well as my 
inclination, to follow arid give eff 
feet to those rules." The same 
great judge, speaking of lord 
Hardwickeobservesjthat hisknowK 
edge of the law was most extraor-t 
dinary ^ ths^t he had been train^ 

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nsp Tcry carljr in the pursuit, and 
had the greatest industry, as well 
as abilities, and in short was a 
consummate fnaster of the profes- 
sion. Yet he observes, " it was 
tiot the practice of this great judge 
to give his opinion on a sudden ; 
tmt after mature consideration, and 
after hearing all that could be said 
lor and against the point in ques- 

Judges, who do not avail them- 
•selvcsof the " light and assistance*' 
t>f former precedents, will be often 
4bund diifering in opinion. In the 
course of nine months, and in the 
trial of little more tlian one hun- 
4)red causes, we have observed a 
dflference of opnion on the bench 
in no less than fifteen instances. 

In the King's Bench, during a 
period of thirteen years, every rule, 
order, judgment, and opinion was 
tinanimous. Tliis gave weight to 
the decisions, certainty to the law, 
and infinite satisfaction to the suit- 
ors. How honourable to the law, 
and we may add, to the judges 1 
They were all men of unquestion- 
able abilities, and some of them, as 
lawyers, not infeKourtolord Mans- 
field himself. But all were ^ long 
personally accustomed to the ju- 
^cial decisions of thdr predeces- 
sors ;*' all felt themselves bound 
*y them. No one thought him- 
self at liberty to "decide according 
to his owH private judgment, but ac- 
cording to the known laws and cus- 
toms of the land.** This extraor- 
ifinary unanimity affords the high- 
est evidence of their industry as 
mc]\ as candour. Lord Mansfield 
^Ihiding to itj says, ^ it never could 

* if onr )odget have objectiom to the 
pase of Ett^b authorities, there does not 
0eem to be any reason why they thould 
put avail themselves of American. We 
(do not recollect to have met with a sin- 
gle quotation, either by the bench or at 
iibe bfr, from Soiltvan's LaadTitlft. 

have happened, if we did not t* 
mong ourselves communicate our 
sentiments with great freedom; 
if we did not form our judgmcnti 
without any prepossession to firtt 
thoughts.** Too many of our ju- 
dicial opinions are nothing but/ri/ 

If the present volume of reporti 
8lK>uld be less esteemed in the oth- 
er states, than those of Mr. Dallas, 
we think it will not be on account 
of any superiority of Mr. D.otcf 
Mr. W. as a refiorter : and we are 
very unwilling to admit that the 
judges of Pemisylvania, and espe^ 
cially of the comnnon pleas, (of 
which court there are some excel- 
lent decisions in Dallas) are men 
of superiour ablKties to the judgci 
of our supreme court. If the de* 
cisions of the former should be 
deemed superiour, it must be as* 
cribed to the favourable advantt^t 
under which they were made. In 
that state questiotts of law are prin- 
cipally decided in Philadelphia, anrf 
trials of fact and issues of law are 
not mixed up together as with us. 
The mention of Dallas's rcporU 
reminds us of a liint to Mr. AV. 
suggested by the perusal of the 
volume before us. We have ob- 
served in a few instances expres- 
sions which it would have been well 

to have avoided, some of them pc' 
culiar to New^England. Wc have 
no doubt Mr. W. has taken pains 
on this subject ; and we think the \ 
worki8,in thisrespect, more correct 
than any legal work yet published 
in this state. Instead of summing 
up to the jxiry, Mr, W. speaks of 
charging the jury ; for evidence 
produced, by the prosecutor, he 
speaks of endence produced b/ 
government ; for first count in the 
indictment, in some instances, he 
B9ysj Jlrtt charge in the indictment^ 
he uses, exceptions madcy inrtcad 
oitakeny to a plea ; motiop rej^ 

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ci, fer motion did not prevail ; 
hdding a term of tlie court, for ses- 
won ; letters of guan^anship set 
€ddey for revoked or ann uiltd ; pass- 
ing a decree, for making a decree. 
We imagine the foregoing expres- 
«ons will seldom be met with in 
correct legal wiitings. But our 
great objection to this work, as far 
as Mr. W^ is responsible for it, is 
ks bdlk. Its size is unreasonably 
swelled by large type and large 
margin. By expunging all unne- 
cessary matter, compressing what 
ought to be compressed, using a 
type similar ta that «sed iii 5ie 
4iODdon edition of Barrow's re- 
ports, 2d edition, the work might 
have been compiized within some- 
thing le&6 than half its present 
bulk. It might have been pub- 
lished as the ^rst fiart of volume 
Jirtt^ to the great saving of the 
purse and time of purchasers and 

This work, though " sent to its 
account with all its imperfections 
on its head," (and they are not a 
few) We nevertheless recommend 
to the profession and to our read- 
ers. We sincerely hope Mr. W. 
will persevere. We wish him a 
double portion of the spirit of pa- 
tience and labour. He already 
possesses judgment and accuracy 
of thinking ; and we will venture 
to assure him, that he will in due 
l5me, if he faint not, inherit the 
reputation of an excellent repor- 
ter. Let him always bear in mind, 
and let it animate him to use dou- 
ble diligence, that the man, who 
employs his time and talents in 
transmitting to posterity with ac- 
cnracy, precision, and true judg- 
ment, a history of cases of weight 
ind difficulty, is a real benefactor 
to the publick : And surely there 
Bever was a time, when such la- 
bours, however they may be apprc- 
ckud, were so much &^ed* 

They cannot do all the good thcjr 
ought J but they will do much* 
The legislature must do the rest. 
We Fwspectfully entreat that hon- 
ourable body to consider %he ju-' 
diciary as an object of much the 
greatest importance of any confi- 
ded to thek care. We believe it 
IS in their power to lay the foun-* 
datioH of a system of juiisprudencey 
which in a few years may evea 
equal that of Great-Britain. To 
accomplish this, it is indispensable 
that the trial of facts and law be 
separated.- The former should b« 
in each county, and the latter in 
one, or, at most, in two or three 
stated places. There is, in the 
nature of things, no more reason 
why questions of law should be de-' 
terminetl in each county, than that 
the statutes should be framed and 
enacted in each county. County 
tines have nothing to do with ei- 
ther ; and it is just as proper that 
the legislature should be ambulato- 
ry, as that a court, nof of trialj^ 
but of law, should be so« 

Let the legislature shorten their 
own sessions, and apply the saving; 
to the sQpport of the judiciary. 
The people would be every way 
gainers. In England the jucUciary 
costs the nation a large sum ; but 
not half so mueh as it is worth s 
the legislature...nothing. In thi» 
fltate the legislature costs the state 
a large sum, the judiciary ...a mere 
ti*ifie. It is time to abuidon the 
expectation of law from a court of 
pie-poudre. Letfiot this institu- 
tton of reporter be suffered to lan- 
guish and 4^C) ^^P wsjoi of eikx)ur- 
agement. Let the legislature 
strengthen the ^ things that ate 
ready to perbh." We may th^n 
look forward through the numfl* 
iation and gloom of the present 
time to the period, when our ju-* 
dicature shall lift up its head amon^ 
the states ^ and when our judicial 

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tlF« or DR. HOPKIKS. 

decisions shall become the envy of 
our neighbours, and the admira- 
tion of the world. 

Since the publication of this 
volume the publick liave sustained 
a great loss in the death of the 
venerable Judge Strong. His in- 
integrity never was called in ques- 
tion. He was a sound lawyer, and 
well versed in the most dry and 
. least attractive branch of the pro* 
fession...the doctrine of pleading. 

Errata not noted by the author. 

P. 3 1.35 
]6« 28 





read 21 

for " 26 February, 

14, after •• county," strike out the 
six following words. 
4, for •* constitution" read con- 

29, for ** prima" read primae.** 
20, the sentence following is unin- 

58, margin, expunge the wo»d " taken." 
87 L21, for ** this meedng" read their 

92 20, for ** diversion" r. diverting. 
101, margin at bottom and index ^deceit** 
for " an action brought against 
him for the articles," r. for an 
action brought against Ynmfor the 
pties of the articles. 
1 04, margin, for "promisser" r. promitsee. 

134 1. 24, and margin, for "February 27" 

r. February 26. 

135 29, for «* June 28, 1801" r. June 

23, 1800, (prokaUy,) 
152, note, last line, for "March 10,1784,- 

read February 6, 1784. 
198, margin, " Particular statutes of in- 
solvency" would be more proper 
than ** Statutes of bankruptcy." 
See V. Acts of Cong. sec. 61 p.8I, 
flOl 1.28, for " account" read decree. 
802 28, for " plead" read pleaded. 

4, for •Huiministrator" r. executor. 

15, and index " Statutes of Common' 
wealth;* for " 19th June" read 
20th June. 

25, for "no statute*^ read a statute. 

34, for " exigences" r. exigencies. 

20, for " are" read were. 
1 , for " were" read was. 

10, the sentence following is in- 

34,"pre8cripiion"i8 not the proper 




430 2, for «* were «wom r. were no* 

445 1 3, for ** was sufficient" r. was not 

454 1, dele semicolon after " contest- 
ed." There are many errcurs in 

the punctuation. 
460 6 , for "9th section" r. 10th secttoo. 
475 32, for " afford" read offend. 
495 17, " Judgment arrested," quere 

de hoc. 

« Courts,** 1. 5, for " objection may be ta* 

ken" r. objection may be made. 
" Dedaralionr for " had" r. bad. 
" Evidence^* 1. 1, for "indorscr" r-indoneck 
" Joinder in action,** for " 180" r. 48a 
" iV>v triai,** 1. 4, 5, for *^539." r. 530,541. 
« Revi^ 4," for " 157" read 16a 
" Statutes of the Commonvoealtb 1786, J^ 

7 (References),** for " 443" r. 158. 

It is possible, that the copy of 
the statutes, &c. cited and referred 
to, which we have used, may be 
incorrect ; for very few of our 
publications, not even excepting 
the statutes, have any prctendons 
to correctness. 

ART. 14. 
Sketches qf the life qf the late Eeu, 
Samuel Hopkins, D, D. pastor (f 
the first congregational church in 
J^ewporty written by himself ; in- 
terspersed with marginal note* 
extracted from hh private diary: 
To which is added, a dialogue, by 
the same hand, on the nature and 
extent qf true christian submis- 
sion ; also, a serious address to 
prqfessing christians : closed by 
Dr, Hart's sermon at hisfunerai 
With an introduction to the whole 
by the editor. Published by Ste- 
phen West, D. D, pastor of the 
church in Stockbridge. Hart- 
ford, Hudson & Goodwin. 1805. 
pp. 240. 

Nothing but the celcbiity of 
Dr. Hopkins's name would have 
induced us to give that attention to 
thes^ memoirsj which is common- 
ly expected of reviewers j fiw: «« 

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hopes and fears are simUai^ tothosa 
of Dr. Hopkins. 

These sketches are introduced 
by some proper remarks of the ed-» 
itor, written m a much better style, 
than any other part of the volume^ 
The facts b Dr. Hopkins's life, as 
in the life of every stiidious inan, 
are few. We learn, that he was 
bom Sept. 17, 1721, and died Dec* 
30, 1803 ; that he was admitted 
into Yale college at the age of six-* 
teen ; that he resided much in the 
family of President Edwards, with 
whom he studied divinity ; that he 
was settled first at Housatonock, 
1743 ; that he Was dismissed in 
1769, by the advice of a council, 
on account of the deficiency in his 
pecuniary support ; that he was 
afterward invited, after much oppo- 
sition, to settle at Newport ; that 
his enemies were at length recon-* 
clled to his sentiments J that he 
was ordained there April 11, 1770, 
and continued with this people, 
through many difficulties and dis« 
couragements, till tlie day of his 

These tnemoirs contalti also 
some domestick anecdotes, and, 
what will be more interesting to 
the theological reader, some ac** 
cotmt of the controversies, in which 
the Doctor tras engaged. As he 
has given his name to a laf ge and 
respectable class of christians in 
the United States, it may not be 
uninteresting to our readers to 
hftve a regular list of the Doctor's 
pubUkations. The principal ben<* 
cfit, which he is supposed by his 
friends to have conferred upon the 
science of theology, may be stated 
in the words of the fond editor of 
this little volume. 

To Do6koT Hopkins afc we indebted 
for a better uoderfbtnding of the deliga 
and end of what are generally termed 
ti^t means o/grace^ and their ufe and appli* 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

1 14 

iitB-^o^. D«. n0§tiim,. 

tatrofk tfr tit^ rtfpeB hmpemUnt^ trnfn^trt-i 
id ftmnersy than was before had. His 
difcerning mind, in the early part of his 
publick miniflry, difcovcred a roanifeft 
hiconfiftcncy in the exbortaticm and direc 
Hens given t9 unhelie^trs by eminent divinet,- 
with the doffrina they pubiickly taught 
and ftrenuoufly maintained. Though 
the doctrine of the total moral depravi- 
ty and corrupiioa of the human heart 
ttas clearly taught, and forcibly urged 
by Calviniftick divines ; s^nd, ctear evi- 
«knce produced from the litoly fcriptur**, 
that aU the exercifas of the natural heart 
—all the doings and ferviccs tjf unregen- 
erate linncrs, were, not only unaccepta- 
ble, but hateful in the fight of God ; yet 
tbfucb doings and feri*ic€s did the Unrcgen- 
erate find thcnrfelves exhorted and urg- 
ed ; and this as the appointed way to obi- 
tain the favour of God aud converting 
grace. Though the do^rinet were juU 
atid fcriptural, the enlcrtatknt naturally 
operated, rather againft, than in favour 
of the finii«r'8 fenlible coiiticlioD of 
fhcir ufh. By attending tD the Doe- 
tor's writmgs on this iniporunt fubje^, 
it foon became obvious, that, as the holy 
fcriptures require the immediate exercife 
<ff god\f forrow and repentance, fipner* 
9i no defcription are e^fer to be exhort- 
ed to any oth«r doingSy or fuppofed dit- 
ties, thaA fuch as imply love to God* and 

No unin{]piired divine, before Do^Htor 
Hbpkins, had ever fct this fubjeiSl in » 
proper and fcriptnrai light. And the 
ben,efit derived to the cbri(Uan clule, 
fipva \\U writings on this intere;Aing and 
important fubjedk, is fulficient to com- 
peiifate the ftudy and kbuurs of a whole 
Kfe. P:9, 

The first publicatfcn of Dr. H. 
vras three sentione, entitled, " Sin 
through divine interfiofdiioftj an ad* 
vantage to the imivene^ and yet 
this 7¥) excwtefor sin or encourage'*^ 
TnetH tit itr \7S9. These had 
a second edition in Boston 1773, 
and one in Edinburgh about the 
sviie tin)^.. 

In the year 1765- wa« puh&hecl' 
w An mquiry concerning the firom-^ 
i^8 of the gotiflelj Whether any of 
them are made to the exercises and 
doings c^fieraonft in an imregenerate 
$tiUe i Containing ranarh on two 

9&rmm9ypubU9ked ty t>t. Mayhul^ 
(^ Boston,** A reply was made 
to this book by Mr. Mills, a c^-' 
vinistick minister in Connecticut* 

fa lf€^t a fertrion ^ich T pfeachcrf 
ift the old (buth mceting--houf<ft in Boftotf 
was pubiifhed at the defire of a number 
of the hearers. The title •# it it, •• Tk 
importance and ^eaffity of eBrtJUatu ma- 
JiJeriag Jcfui Cbrifi in iht extent of fas 
hi^h and gUrious chariSerl* The text 
Hebrews iii. 1 . H^ was compofed witir 
a defi^ to preach ft in Bolfen, as I 
exf>e<^ed foon to ^ there, vnder a coik 
viaion that the docfMoe of thtf divinity 
of Chriil was much negledted, if not dif-' 
believed by a number of the miniftert 
in Bofton. 

In the fame year I pnblif^ed two f^- 
mons, one from Romans vit. 7. the ethtf 
froirt John i. 13. contatnfog 6xty-fivef 
pages in a fmall comprehenfive type. A 
fccond edition of thtffe fennons wtt 
printed in 17^3. 

In the year 17^9 1 puW!fhed mr a*- 
(W«t to Mr Mills of one hundred eigh- 
ty four pagCT» oiSkavo, on a fmall compre- 
henfive type. The followiiig was the li-* 
tie of it^ •* Itbe true fiate and charaSUr 
of the unre^eneraUi fitipped of all mif" 
ftprf.ntation and difgwifr-^^^l believe 
this book, with what wis afterwardr 
pabfiihed Oft the ^ne fubyea, was the 
meant of ' fpreading and giving mncll 
light and convidKoa, with refpe^t to the 
real character and doings of the unre-^ 
generate ; and has in a great meafilrr 
put a ftop to exhorting the nnregenerate 
tedo duty in order to obtain regeoeri- 
tioo, which was very common aflBoajf 
preoeheFB before iftiat tim«» P* ^5. 

The bold positions, contained in 
these works of Dr. Hopkins,called 
forth remarks frorti several of that 
class of divines, Virho chose to b» 
called moderate calvinKts. We 
prefer to relWe the progress of the 
controversy in the tmanectfed sim- 
plicity, and self-complacency of 
the Doctor's own language. 

In ifie latter end of the year I7flft •' 
beginning of 1 770, Mr. William Hart si 
Saybrook publiflied a dialogue, under 
the following title, *« Brief remarks on a 
number of falfe pofitions, and dangeroos 
mtaw9, wluek at« ^nsidA^g in ^^ 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

tmt :or -Bft. ffpvfciKf. 


dcourfos Jju^iv pubJiihed, wrote by Dr. 
Whitaker aod Mr. Hopkius." And fooa 
jiter there was a fmall pamphlet pub- 
Cihed, which was doubtlcfs written by 

iitradted andipd the loflueaee deficpcd ; 
and probably had a contrary efFe^ m 
the iflue. ' 

This occafioned my writing remark* 
on thofe publications ; efpeciaily the dia- 
4ogiie, with the following: title. ** Afur 
MUi/ver^MS M Mr, HarCt late diaUgu^^ 
ui a letter to a fr'uud^ This was • pub- 
lifljed in «he fpring of 1770, containing 
only thirty one pages, to which I did 
not attempt particularly to vindicate the 
do<ftrines I iiad publifhed-; but rather to 
ihow the uofairoels and difingenuity of 
Mr. Hart, and his falfehoods, and iclf- 
contradt<£lions, in what he had written. 

Mr. Mills did not make any reply to 
my anfwerto him. But as I had alTerted 
in that anfwer, that vn regenerate iiAner* 
do not do any duty, Mr. Ihimmen.way. 
(new Dr.) having before pubLThed eight 
iermous to eflablini the conirary, wrote a 
book of one hundred twenty leven p^- 
^^ Oiflavo, againft me and my po(ition« 
^nd publiflied it in the year 1772. Tl^ 
year before, the above mentioned Mr. 
Hart wrote a pamphlet againft Prefi- 
4ent Edwards' pi niertation on the nature 
of true virtue, in which he repeatedly 
mentioned my uame and writings with 
dHapprobation. And about the fame 
time, Mr. Molet Mather (now Doaor) 
fmbliiheii a piece in which he condemn- 
ed fentimeots found in Prelident £d« 
wards*, Dodlor Bellamy's and my wril- 

As I was fcnfible the difference be- 
tween me and thefe authors originated in 
OUT different ideas of the nature of true 
hotinefs, in 1773 I publifhed a book of 
two hundred twenty pages, o<Skavo, con- 
taining, •• An emfuiry into tht naturt of 
Hrue Minefs ; wi/A am af>f*nJix** in 
which I anfwered the publications above 
mentioned. That on the nature of true 
faolinefs had a fecond edition of one 
thoofand five hundred copies, in tht 
year 1791. Mr. Hart and Dodlor Math- 
er wrote no more. But DoAor Hem* 
menway published retnarks on ray an» 
fwer to him, in 1774, contaioti^ on« 
hundred fixty fix pages, o^avo. But u 
•little or nothing wat in this added to 
what was contained in his firft book, and 
It contained perfonal reflexions, and too 
much heat and baughtineft ; til which 
he confcfTed to me afterwards in a per- 
fonal Interview, T did not think it worth 
while to take any publick notice of it. 
And 1 believe it was not much read, and 
had but little influence on the mvoAk 
of any. i^. 100. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


UK. eocs's rHAuocrmAL DittsmrATzoir. 

The other works of Dr. HopV 
Idns are, " A dialogue concerning' 
the slavery of Africans^ Vc 1776, 
reprinted by the Abplition*Society 
in New^York, 1785, with an ap^ 
pendix by the author.—^ — •^^An en^ 
guiry concerning thefvXure state (^ 
those %t>ho die in their sins** pvo. pp. 
400. 1783. ■ System o/DoctrineSy 
l5*c. 2vols. 8vo. pp.1244. 17^3. 
For this the author unexpectedly 
yeqeived nine hundred dojlars. 
•< Ufe ofSi4sannah Anthony ; do, of 
J^s, Osborn^* This, we believe 
is a complete li^t of the works of 
Pr. H. published in his lifetime. 
In the present volun^e however 
arc contained two tracts, which 
•were probably ^^teemed worthy of 

The first, entitled <« A Dialogue 
between a Calvinist and a Semi* 
f^vinist,** proves, to the perfect 
conviction of the Semicalvinist, 
that he ought to be willing to be 
damned. After the doctiine is 
proved, the advantages of it are 
summed up by the OSvinist in the 
loiiowing words : 

It it ftutcd te •nltrgv tli« mind of thf 
fhnfHaa, and co extend his ideas and 
thoughts to obje^ which ar^ great and 
immense, and to wake up the feelinga 
and eiercHes of didotereOed benevo- 
lence, of fqpreme love f Ck>d, and r^ 
gard to the general good, which fwaj- 
lows up aod forgets his o^n perfonal in»> 
tereft, as nothing, ia coniparifon ^th 
thefe grand obJM^. This ^ill help 
him, in the heft and eafiei^ manner to 
diftingoiOi between true religion and 
falfe : and to obtain, and maintain th^ 
evidence in his pwn mipd, that he it a 
Iriend to God* and has that benevo(eoce 
in which holineis does fununarily confift. 

This will prepare him to acquiefce ip 
the eternal deftry Aion of thofe whp 
perifli, and even to rfjoice in it, u noc 
ceflary for the glory of Qod, and thf 
grcateft good of the whole, in the ezer- 
cife of that difinterefted beneyoleocet 
which makes him to be willing to be one 
^ that 0aful , wretched number, were thit 
l^f^cCary tQ anfwer thefe fndf. i*. 16^ 

We have lately read of a curiom 
fact respecting the alligators of the 
Missisippi, that, in the fail) they 
swallow pitch pine knots, which 
remain in their stomachs duiing 
their wintry torpor, and probably 
are chosen on account of their dif« 
i|cult digestion to keep the coats 
of the stomach fropi collapsing. 
If any plain honest christian wish- 
es to exercise his intellectual diges- 
tion, and prevent the evil effects of 
religious security an^ torpor, we 
recommend this tract, as contain* 
ing as knotty a point, as he will 
probably find among the stores of 
theological nutriment, which the 
ingenuity of polemicks has pro- 

The second traqt i$ an address 
to christians upon the signs of the 
times. Many great and good men 
. have imagined, that thej^ had cer- 
tainly expls^ecji the prophecies of 
scripture ; but we a^ inclined still 
tp believe, notwithstanding the la* 
hours of Dr. Hopkins, that no 
prophecy of scripture is of any pri- 
vate interpretation. 

A discourse by pr. Hart of 
Prestont upon the death of the exf 
cellent subject of these memoirif 
concludes the volume. 

We are sorry to say, that th^ 
style pf Dr. H., in tliese posthur 
mous works, is too often incorrupt, 
vulgar, and colloquial. Instances 
of false grammar are not rare, and 
the coinage of sych Y^ord^ as 
itinerate^ and reluctate^ add$ npth» 
ing to the copiousness pr purity of 
the English language. 

ART. 15. 
An inaugural Hissertatipn on respU 
ration. Subpfiitfed to the pufdck 
exafninqtion of the Faculty if 
Physiekf under the authority of 
the trustees of Columbia college^ 
in the state of JSTewjfork^ the Hi, 
Rev,BeniaminMoore^DJ), fireS' 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



ident ; Jhr the degree of Doctor 
of Phynck^ on the 15fA day qf 
MvemSer, 1805. By Thomas 
Cock^ citizen of the state of Kev>» 
York. New-York, printed by 
T. 8c J. Swords. 1805. 

Ik an inangnral dissertation wp 
look not for novelty, but we have 
aright to expect accuracy ; and 
our opinion of the candidate for 
collegiate honours is drawn from 
the principles and sentiments he 
has adopt^. The author of the 
dissertation before us has evidently 
given some time to the investiga- 
tioDof the subject which he dis- 
cQsses, and the work contains u^e- 
fol information. We regret, that 
it is not marked by that accuracy 
which wc arc authorized to expect, 
and which in scientifick works b 
peculiarly necessary. 

The only opinions which arc 
new to us, or to the medical world 
in gencrah are those quoted from 
Mr. Davy. We regret, that we 
have not had the good fortune to 
see, and cannot procure the works 
of Mr. Davy. The opinion, that 
azote as Well as oxygen is absorb- 
ed by the pulmonick blood, we 
•arely cannot controvert, and so 
&r as speculation will authorize us 
ve art disposed to subscribe to it. 
The other opinion, adopted from 
Davy, cannot be so easily admits- 
ted. This is, that air, or the mix- 
ture of oxygenous and azotick 
gasses, not oxygen and azote which 
iom the b^kse of air, is received 
into the blood.* Dr. Cock has 
<}aoted no experiments which con- 
irm this opinion, and it is not so 
plausible, as to command assent 
unsuj^rted by facts. 

• htWi MckdyMr. Dtvy^opinloiiF W^ 
ntesa^d k to tnm Dr. Cock*i tfinmitlon; 
«K« f c fe i ca cc to Tbomiwoa and Bottoclr htm 
Wmtomipect.tlutMr. D. bcUerct only, tlu| 

ART 16. 
ne history of JVorth and South 
America^ from its discovery to 
the death of General Washings 
ton. By Richard Snowden. 2 
vols, 12mo. Philadelpliia. Jacob 
Johnson. 1805. 

Thx author of the above mcn« 
tioned work observes in his pro- 
face that, ^ In what relates to 
South Amedca, Dr. Robertson's 
History has been implicitly fbl- 
lowed. His arrangement of the 
subject, his chronological order, 
and bis very style have been adop^ 
ted, ^ ^^ l>^9t that can be chosen. 
To condense his details, to intro- 
duce only the most prominent and 
characteristick events,has been the 
principal effort, and invariable pur« 
pose of the epitomizer : endeav- 
ounng, as he progressed, to pre- 
serve unbtt>ken the connexion aM 
continuity of events ; and in the 
ivhole, to present the reader with 
a brief, but interesting view, of one 
of the most important xras in the 
annals of the world.'* 

The author appears to have been 
considerably successful in the ex** 
ecution of hb proposed plan. The 
History commences with the dis- 
covery of America by Columbus, 
and relates the formidable difficult 
ties be was obliged to encounter ; 
the talents and perseverance which 
he ci^hibited in combating those 
difficulties ; and the ungrateful 
and ungenerous returns which the 
Spanish nation made to his eniK 
nent services. It relates the suc<^ 
ceeding discoveries of the new 
world ; the conquest of the Mex^ 
ican and Peruvian empires ; and 
<:oncludes with their entire subject 
tion to the kingdom of Spain. 

The second volume begins with 
relating the conjectures which have 
been made respecting the peopling 
of America ; it gives the ch^cte^* 

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irtTi«s or cviAMf^s wifttyt twtm 

x>f the Indiamiattvcs ; the state of 
the British colonies at the termina'- 
tion of the French war ; of theu* 
4kttercation with the parent counr 
iry ; it proceeds to give a getwral 
.AtaechiQf.tbe An^eiican war^ and 
tiie acceptance.of the federal coa- 
#titutioB ; it inserts the &reweU 
.adki^ess of Cenerai Washington, 
4a 1796 » and concludes with a 
description of his person^ 

Though this work is acompila- 
4kin almost entirely in the words 
pf .other authors, it contains much 
iMeiul miortxkBX^ for those read- 
ers* wU have boC time tP peruse, 
|ikd eaaoot tas^y ploc^r)b larger 


iCifMis^ JJnea ^ the PtaftUe qf 
Phy9kk. By WiHiam CuUen^ 
M. D, tfc. WUk praetieml and 

' €XfUtaHUor\f note&f by John Rothm 
eramf Jl£ D, New York s 
Printed \^f L. NichoUa> for L 

- SUey&Co. 

WE are rejoiced to see Cul|eB 
jgk m ifirraRT ^tteiioan^dress. Per* 
imps his i^eneial correctness, his 
^DOootrovertiUe practice, and his 
fHqMraUeled popularity, entitle him 
40 aiDse elegant habiliments than 
Ams in which he. here appears 

It is tmneeessary to reeorameod 
-CoHeafs pnu^tice of physick to the 
-MBuaal of phyaiciana. We Ten* 
mre to advise the medical tyro t» 
<#x all the pMcticai patt of the 
irork firmly in his memory. He 
•«rill find ittore advantage* 
ing tkiorougfaly possessed of it^ 
Ihiin liN>m nianing through a hunt 
idred of your Oarwims and Bed- 
^^•tfl^ and others like themu The 
ijaipqrf of sposs^ an4 coUapse, m^ 

^^cli Cullen prided Mmself as the 
greatest effort of his genius, is £aJ- 
len with many more theories, and 
m41I he followed by others innume- 
rable, till physicians return to Hip« 
pocrates, and learn to ohserre na- 
ture, before they reason on her op* 
etations. The loss of this theory 
does not afibct the practice of Cul* 
len, which remains a model of ei^ 

The edition be&Mre us is execute 
ed with a good types on tolerable 
p^>er, and is about as free from 
typograpliical erroiu^ as Amer» 
lean editions of medical worl^ 
generally arc. This work was fofb 
jnerly printed in four vdumes, 
^en compressed to two, and now 
the printer ha* contrived to com* 
pel the whole into a single volume. 
JHence tjse type sf>pears verj 
crowded, and the nqites are in s 
character so small, as barely to be 
legible. It is copied from Rotheiv 
am^s edition. That by R^ is ia> 
ter, and the notes are more appro- 
priate, though fewer in number. 
Bosquillon, the French translator 
of CuHen, has given very copious 
and valuable notes on this work 
These would be a considerable so* 
quisition to English medical liters* 
ture. They would enhance the 
value of Dr. Culien's book, and at 
the same time posses the advan* 
tage of affording a comparative 
■view of French and English med 

We have been informed, that it 
is contemplated to publish this 
work at Worcester. It is desira* 
hiey that it ahouU appear in a style 
•uiled to th^ meiAs o( the weak, 
and to the extensive cmulatioa 
insured it. The aherstion of 
names of medical simples and 
compounds, to those of the last 
Cdihbur^ phartnaC!(;^)^dii or db« 
Mnsatory, would increase the yal* 
ue of the bocki And save studcbtt 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

Hottex Of oodiriii^ ftntti^ow. 


^ kbour of referring to oki phar-^^ 

fUHvood j or J The J^<rt» Mm of 
Feeimg, By William Godwin, 
In two -volumes. New York : 
trinfed for I. Riley k Co. N^. 
i, City-Hotel. 1805* 

Tbough the first talents are 
iecessary to the production of a 
good novel, wrhfngs of this spe- 
cies are contmually attempted. 
Why that which is arduous should 
fce rentured on in commofi, or this 
track of literature be travelled by 
crowds, it is difficitlt perhaps satis-' 
&ctorily to settle. Were authors 
restricted by the pentiry of their 
calling to a fewness of tliemes, 
some cause would appear Ibrthcfr 
abounding in fable : hot topicks 
tn letters bekig numerous and free, 
it is hard to^accotmt for their £Bincy 
for one. Every description of 
Itteratit and of no description too, 
counsellors and clergy, statesmen 
and ladiesi book-idlers afid beatx^ 
aome without brains and some 
with, as if smit by enchantment, 
couch the qtrill for ronlance^ 
Bteedihg nuns atid bloodless 
corses, vacant €astles aUd peopled 
caverns, blue flames and White, 
red flames and green, damsels 
and knights, duennas and squires, 
friars and devils, with death's-heads 
and cross4K>nes to boot, dance the 
hay through their works, as though 
desciiption were crazed. 

tiK «Mn 

Ttie tflnes liiite becfl, 
ftn oiic» tli€ IB 

lai llwrca&cod ;. tat now, ihtj tile mtjOO, 
Vkh tventy nortsU Binrdef% on.tbelr ttowwug 
iad pofb M Cirom our itMb. SfUK£9« 

Among the multitude that af* 
imx \JbM department of wrsting^ 

though less ghostly thaA his com^ 
panions, Mr. Godwin is cc^spic-^ 
ttous. From the refined reveries 
of Political Justice he turned hit 
attention to the manufacture of 
stories. How well he succeeded 
in thts ^shionabla eftiplOymetit 
Cakb WilUams and St. Leon 
honourably show. The first is • 
treasure aitaOngat !*6bbi8h of its 
order, and the second^ notwith-^ 
standing the declaration of Horace, 

^odCttn4u« Mtefidli wM tie, kiGr«4alot otfl* 

con^ues to be a &voiirtte a&ioof 
the majoitty of readers^ But uni^ 
form excellence is attakiable \ff 
no%e ; and, m the pcribimalMo fae^ 
fore us, Mr. Godwki has felled* 
Whether, the pkn of this novel 
is unfavourable to thcgcnkis of its 
writer, or his former prodactbn* 
have exhatisted hit vein, or wiiat 
has contributed to his present mis^ 
Carriage, it is liot ezpresaiy our 
business to say. But, were w« 
caUed to accorunt for the feihiret wo 
have defected, We should conceive 
that Mr. G. had mistaken hb 
province ; that the gallantries of 
Paris, and the exploits of coUtgkiis^ 
were Unsuitable materiak for the 
aOthor of Falkland, and the tre-^ 
mendoos Bethiem OabOf . ' The^ 
ai»e depositions that seelh destine 
ed for the herotck alone, that at*' 
tain to objects elevated wkh dig^ 
nity and easey but ^ discover ae 
gracefolnetB in stoopfeg to kf f kks * 
On the mountains of Swh2ei1and^ 
in the cotnAiunity «fn>bbers, with 
every thing chivsdrous, Mr. Cod'' 
wm appears eonsemtiatiely at 
home : Bttt, in deiwencBiig^o pet' 
xf ehonrcterseaid- pas4kms,lh the' 
management of a teteni^tete^ or the 
manoeuvre of a love-matter, ht apt* 
ly retninds'on^ of Hferctrtcs at the^ 
distaff. It might be obstiryfcd <rf 
him, as of aome fimncr geniny 
that he isouid'aettlptiire haroee'iA 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



marble, but wanted art to carve a 
head on a nut-^sheli. 

The leading defects in the New 
Man of Feeling are, violent nieta«» 
phors, long-winded reflections, and 
declamatory sentiment. .Fleet** 
wood seems possessed of all the 
foibles of our author, with very few 
of his excellences* On those oc-* 
casions, where he used to be in- 
structive or entertaining, he ap-* 
pcfars here to be irrelative or tedi* 
ous ; where he was formerly eleva- 
ted or moving, he seems how to 
be fulsome or puerile. He b fre^ 
quently so inflated with the efifer-^ 
vescence too of his hncy, that he 
resembles new beer in the labours 
of refinement* He is continually 
sighing at the v^t with a sad 
string of ah8...»ahs»...ahs ! ! ! or 
poppmg ofl* in foam with..«.good 
God !...just heavens !...and, poor 
Mary ! You must first be contented 
to remove the froth from his sur-* 
face, before you taste of his spirit, 
or you may be frosted to the eyes 
in the exuberance of his head* To 
afford our readers an example of 
the true sublime and pathedck, we' 
quote the following soliloquy of 
the Aw Man of Feeling : 

Shall t go to nly wi(^, and confront 
her with this new evidence of her guilt } 
l^o, I will never speak with her, never 
•^e her more. It is k condescension un- 
worthy of an injured hOsband ever to 
admit his prostitiited consort into hi« 
presence! k is as if God should go down 
and visit Satan in his polluted, sulphu- 
rous abodes ! How from my inmost soul 
I abhor her ! HoW I will hold her up to 

the abhorrence of the woHd ! How 

I should Kke Co see her torn with red-hot 
pincers 1 ■ ' T o vrhat a height I have 
lovedf hsr ! No, no, no, no, no'-v^ever ! 

IS this, gentle readers, be not 
rbetorick run mad, then have we 
no. skill in criticism. Another ob^ 
jection to Fleetwood is the fashion 
ot its episodes. They seem to 

break out unnaturally from thd 
body of the work, and wear the ap* 
pea ranee of excrescences, rather 
than branches. We are told a 
kind of cock-and'buU story about 
a Whimsical Utile bOy, who trav- 
elled, nobody knows how fio*, and, 
in fact, nobody cares, to introduce 
himself, forsooth, to Louis the 
fourteenth. Now this, certainly, 
is a very singular afi*air, and for 
that reason, unquestionably, very 
pretty. But Mr. Godwin should 
remembet-, that he is not compos- 
ing for the entertainment of nurs- 
eries* Our author too, ever will-* 
ing to take up any threads but 
those of his story, diverted him- 
self so loiig in the mill at LyonSf 
that we began to suspect him to 
be occupied by the spinning out of 
other matter than silk. For a doz- 
en pages, or more^ we heard noth- 
ing but the rattling of 9Vf{ft9^ chil- 
dren scampering for broken twisty 
and the trampling of a mill'horset 
who gave spring to this hubbub* 
On the whole ; there b very little 
in these volumes that reminds one 
of Mr. Godwin, Excepting his Wsit 
to Rufiigny and ids name on the 

EUmenia of General Jtnovftedge^in^ 
troductory to uaefid books in the 
firincifxU brandies ^ Uierature 
and scienter designed t/d^y Jbf 
the junior students in the urn" 
veraitieSy and the higher classes 
in schools. By Henry Ketty B. D, 
fellow and tutor of Trinity Col" 
lege^ Oiford. Philadelphia,MaX'« 
. well, for F. Nighols, iPhiiadcl- 
phia, and J. A. Cummingsi Bos- 
ton. 1803. 2 vok. lano. jM^ 
d50 each. 

This is among the few bookl 
which merits the currency whith 
it has found. Mr. KeU indeed i* 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



not a man of superlative talents, but 
k does not require very transcend^ 
ant powers to accomplish all that 
he proposes. His design is to give 
a survev of the general objects of 
knowledge, which he reduces un- 
der the following classes : Relig- 
ion, language, history, philosophy, 
poiite literature and the fine arts, 
Mid the sources of national pros- 
perity. We were at first apjjre- 
hcDsive that we were sitting down 
to the examination of another at- 
tempt " to show a royal path to 
geometr}' ;** and we give Mr. Kett 
his highest praise, when wc say 
Wir suspicions were unjust. ' He 
has not debaned the dignity of lit- 
erature, by making superficial 
knowledge of it more easy ; he 
only gives his youthfiil reader a 
tiev of the objects and present 
state of science, and admits him 
to see at a distance its ^< goodly 
prospects," and hear its « melo- 
dious sounds," without conceal- 
ing or diminishing the diHiculties, 

which must be overpassed before 
he can completely enjoy them. - 
The American edition is re- 
markably neat, and we examined 
it with unmingled pleasure, till we 
met the following passage, which 
is inserted in a note on the chapter 
on the Greek language. 

The English fcadcf mnrt make a due allo^rancd 
for Ujc cxAgccrated praiic of a credulou* claoiH 
cal pedant, who wem* to believe all the idle «to- 
riea which the Grecian writcn relate of their 
countrymen. If the celebrated Romance* of Mrs. 
Raddiffe had been written by a Republican u# 
Athena, they would probablf have held the firac 
rank in ancient literature. 

Thatcublinne moralist, and profound scholar^ 
Mr. Godwin, la equally liberal or hia praise of the 
language, literature, and tlrtuc* of the Roman*. 
8ce Godwfai's inquirer. £ditor. 

We want words to express our 
indignation at the unexanipled im- 
pertinence of this intrusion on Mr. 
Kett. Its a^urdity and imbecil- 
ity does not at all apologize for its 
insolence ; and if the works which 
are reprinted in this country are to 
be thus polluted, our hopes from 
the growing utility of our press 
must be at oacc relinquished. 

Of Xfiw Publications in the U- States, for March, 1806. 

tem bona, cant ^fm^vn mediocrli, font nuda phira.<i*MAftT. 

^Cy We cannot too often refieat Molicitations to authors^ printerg^ and 
bookieilersy in the different parts of the United States^ to send us Ay 
the earliest opportunities (post paid) notices qf all books %vhich they 
have lately published^ or which they intend to publish^ The list of 
Jfruf Publications^ ^c. contained in the Anthology is the only list 
Vfithin our knowledge published in the United UtaleSy and consequently 
the only one that can be useful to the pubtick for purposes of general 
reference. If authors and publishers mil consent to communicate^ not 
only notices^ but a copy of all their publications^ such use might be 
made <f them as would promote^ nvliat all umte in ardently wishing^ 

' the general interest qf Atnerican literature^ and the more extensive 
circulation of books. 

mw WORKS. 

HirroRT of the Rife, PirogreA, and 
Termination of the American Revolu- 
tion; interfperfed with bioflrraphical, 
political, and mond ObfervauosM. lo 

Vol. 111. No. 3. W 

three volnmet. By Mrs. Mercy War- 
ren, of Plymouth, (NfaC) Vols. I. and 
n. 8vo. I ft vol. pp. 44b, Sd Tol. 412. 
Boflon : Printed by Manning & Xx)nng9 
for £. Larkin. 1805. 

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. The firfV Sopplcmcnt to the Philadel- 
phia Medical aud Phyfical Journal, col- 
feifted and arranged by B. Sniiih Barton, 
Prufelfor of M.ttcria Medica, Natural 
H:ftjry, and Botany, in tiie Univcrfity of 
Penulvlvania 8vo. Philaddphia 1806. 
A Sv^^Ti of Geometry and Trip^onom- 
etry ; together with a treaiife on bur- 
Tcyii): ; teaching variou* ways of tak- 
h\}; chc furvey of a licld, alio to protract 
the fame» and lind the area. Ukewife 
revitan.^uiar farrcying ; or an accurate 
picthoii of calcuU'iiuj^ the area of any 
field ariihmerically,wuh(nit theneceOtty 
of plotting it. To the wKoIe arc added 
fcveral mathematical labletj, nccellary 
for folving qncftlons in trt;^r,>non>etry and 
furveving ; with a pariicular «xplana- 
tion (if thole tables, and the manner of 
%ii\n^ them. Compiled from various au- 
thors, by Alrcl Flint, A. M. Hartford. 
JJncoln & Gleafoii. 

No 85 of A new atid complete Ency- 
clop<Tdia, or univetfal diaionary of arts 
and fciences. 4to. New York. 

The An^erican Gardener's Caknder ; 
adapted to the cliniatei and feafon- of 
the United States, containing a complete 
account of all the work nccelTary to be 
done in the kitchen garden, fruit garden, 
orchard, vineyard, nnrfery, pleafure- 
ground, flower garden, greeii-houle, hot- 
honfe, and forcing frames, for every 
month in the year. To which are annexed, 
extenfive caralog^ne»of thediflEcrent kinds 
of plants, which may be cultivated eiTher 
lor ufe or ornament in the feveral de- 
partments, or in rural economv ; divided 
into eighteen alphabetical clalie*, arcord- 
rng to their habits, duration, and modes 
cif culture ; with explanatory introduc- 
tions, marginal marks, and their true 
I.innxan or botanical, as well an EngHfli 
pames ; together with a copious index to 
the Iwdy of tbc work. By Bernard 
M Malion, nurfery, rc»dfman,andflorift, 
Philadelphia. Price, full bound, 3,50; 
Philadelphia. 1^06. 

A Compendious Dictionary of the Eng- 
lifli langua;?e, in which five thoufand 
. words are added to the number found in 
the heft Englifli compends ; the ortho- 
graphy is in fome inft^nccs corrected, 
the pronimciation marked by an accent, 
or other fuitable direction ; and the defi- 
nitions of many words amended and im- 
proved. To which are added, for the 
benefit of the merciiant, the (ludfiDt and 

ihe traveller, 

I. Tahles of the moneys ef moft of the comwer- 
cial nations in the worhl, with the value cxprdflcd 
la fterUng and cent*, il. TablMof wdghttaod 

mc.iAues *nclcnt and vnoA'sn, wUfc tb< pro^oc* 

tlon bctv en iho Jcvti-tl Wcluhts ufcd in the prin- 
c*4i cities of Kuropc. lit. I be divttioiis oi time 

AH .»«!■' tlv Jt\Nb, Creeks, and Ronui'.*, y^itli A 
r;ih;f'cxlii'.Mii ;Mbf manner of fating. 
IV An u»;ui»l Im ot the put-oflfico in ths. U:-iir4 
S'^N-b. wMJi uic- It.ttc^ ani: covnf'.crs in vh.c 'l.cj 
af rcn-<i«ivcU fitua'ci', ar d the dUt.ircc: of c*ch 
ftu;i. the hat'of ;'cvf nin .: I V The ) i;n bcr 
of in; ahitants ii^ ihe U. htat©<. v.ilh the . n.oi.nt 
ol rxp'Tls. VI Nt^v anti i: tcrtliuiec . ■ v :>-^|- '..x'.'.cn (i rcmarL.jhIc r\\n'.$ nd UiicOv e. ic». 

By Noah Webfter, Ffq. From Sidrfer 
Prefs for Hudfon & Goodwin, Hartford, 
aiid Increafe Cooke A. Co. New-Haven. 
1 'Jmo. pp. 408. 1 1^06. 

A C(5l lection of the F.lTays on the Sub- 
jca of Epilcopacy, which originally ap- 
l^cared in the 'Albany Ceminel, and 
wUich are afcribed principally to Rev. 
Dr Lin^, Rev. Mr. Breafley, a. d Tbok 
Y, How, Efq. With additional note* 
and ftmarks. New York. T. St, J. 
Swords. 1 dol. \h06. 

.\ Paftoral Letter from the Right Rev. 
Thomas John Cbgget, D. D. bifliop of 
the Proteftant Epifcopal Church io Ma- 
ryland, to the clergy and congregation of 
the faid church. * New York. T. & *. 
Swords. 1 806, 

An abridgment of Henry on Pnyer, 
confifting of a judicious coHedlion of 
feripiures, proper to the fcveral paru of 
the duty, with an effay on the nature 
and duty of prayer ; to which are^ an* 
nexed fome forms of prayer. Ey a com- 
mittee of the North Confociation of 
Hartford County. Hartford, Lincoln & 
Glcafon. 50 cents. 

Familiar Letters, to the Rev. Johtji 
Sherman, once p*ftor of the church m 
Mansfield, in particular reference to hi* 
lat« antt-f rinirarian Treatife. Ey Danict 
Dow, paftor of a church in ThompfoD, 
Connedlicut. Hartford. Lincoln and 
Glealon. 1806. *i5 cents. 

llluftraiions and Refleckions on the 
ftory of Saul's coufulting the witch of 
Endor. A difcourfe, delivered at Weffc- 
Springfield. By Jofeph Lathrop, D D. 
paftor of the brft church in faid town. 
8vo. pp. 20. Sp/iagfield, (Matt) (L 
Brewer. 180«. 

A new-year's fermon, preached at 
Lee, January 1, 1804. By Rev. Alvan 
Hyde, paftor of the church in Lee. 

A difcourfe .before the Society for 
propagating the Gofpel among the In- 
dians and others ia North America, de- 
livered Nov. 7^ 180J. By Jofeph Eck- 
1^, D. D. Minifter of the Old South 
Church in Bofton. £. Lincoln. 

A fermon, delivered at Lenojt, (Mafi!> 
Eebruary 20th, 1806, being 41m day oji^ 
tbc eiecuuoa ^f £pHnW ^^^^^^^t V^ 

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motttttr eATirootnr. 


•rd, A.M. paftor of the church irt Leitok. 
Price 12^ cents. Stockbrul^e. Heimaa 

' A difcotiHe, delivered at HiiUbofougJi, 
Neivhampfhire, by Rev. Stephen Cha- 
pio ; being his iirA after ordiuarion. 8vo. 
Amherd. ioleph Culbing. 

A dtfconrfe dehvered at firooklinc, 
S4ch Nov. 1805, tie day which complet- 
ed a century from the incorporation of 
the town. By John Pierce, A. M. the 
fifth mioifter of Brooklise. Cambridge. 
W. Hilliard. 

Fofcari ; or the Venetian exile, a tra- 
gedy, in five adi By John B. White, 
E{q. 8yo. Price 50 cents. Charleftoo, 
<S. C.) ^806. 

The Pifcataqua Evangelical Magazine, 
No. I of tlie 2d Vol. »vo. pp. 46. 12 
ceott. Aroherft. J. Cafliing. 

New Colle^ion of Spiritual Songs, 
ttio(Hy original. By Rev. Coleman Pen- 
dleton. Raleigh, (N. C.) J. Gales. 

The complete Valentine Writer, for 
both fezes. Baltimore. Fryer and 
Clark. 1806. 

Th« Laws paired at the lad feflion of 
the general afiembly of Virginia. Rich- 
aMtnd. Samuel Plealants, jun. 1806.* 
**Who (hall be govcrnour, Strong or 
Sullivan f or, the iham-patriot onmaik- 
•d ; being an eipofition of the farallv 
lucceftful arts of demagogues to exalt 
f hemfelves, by flattering and fwindling 
the people ; in a variety of pertinent 
fiacts, drawn from facred and profane 
hi(b>ry. 8vo. pp. 50. Boftpn. 1806. 

The Bofton lelf-ftylcd Gentlemen Re- 
viewers reviewed, By the author of the 
Science of San^iity ; and that truly ori- 

final produ<5lion analytically delineated. 
y a Berean. Svo. BritileborougH, 
(Ver.) William FefTend^. 

An Exhibition of FaifVs, fupportcd by 
documents, for the information of the 
militia officers of the flate of Maflachu*- 
lettf ; containing a ftatement of the cau- 
fes which led to the arreft of Captain 
Jofeph Loring, jun. 8vo. pp. 96. 37^ 
cents. Boflon, David Carliile. 

NIW KD1T20N9. 

Sermons of John Baptid MalBllon 
and -Lewis Bourdaloue, two celebrated 
French preachers. AIfo,a fpiritual par- 
aphrafe of fome of the pfalms, in the 
form of devout meditations and prayers, 
by J. B. Muflillon. Tranflated by Rev. 
Abel Flint, paftor of the churcb in Hart- 
ford, l^mo. i^p.SlO. 1 dol. Hartford, 
lincolA & deaTon. 

The Iaj t*f the-Ltft Mtnfh^, ftpoeA, 
by Walter Scott, with noie>, &c. 1 vol. 
-IVmo. extra boardi, pp. '2^0. fine hot- 
preH'cd paper. I dol. New York, llaac 
Riley ik Co. 1806. 

1 he Free-Mafbn's Monitor, or illuf- 
trations of malonrv, in two parts. By^ 
1 homas Smith Webo, pail mafler of Tem- 
ple Lodge, Albany, &c. \*2mo. Boiloa, 
printed for H. Culliing, Providence, &c. 

War in Difgrnie, or the frauds of ihe 
neutral fla^^. bvo. Charleftoii, (S. C) 
-E. Morford. 1806. 

An Anfwer to War In Difgiiife, by ah 
American fhtelman. 8vo. Charlcftoa. 
Morford. 1 806. 

War in Dilg^ife, &c. 2d edition, fa 
1 3mo. boards, pp. 2'iH. fine paper. 75 
cents. New York. Riley & Co. 1806. 

Tlie Infirmities and Comforts of Old 
Age. A re»mon to aged people. By 
Joleph Lathrop, D. D. paftor of the Brit 
church in Wtft-Springlicld. Sd edition. 
Springfield, (Maff.) H. Brewer. 

The Seraphical Young ii hep herd, being 
a Very remarkable accotint of a ydung 
Shepherd in France, who attained to an 
uncommon and evangelical knowledge of 
the true God andlefui Chrift ; tranllat«d 
from the French, with notes by CCaley, 
jun. 18mo. dU cents. Boflon, J. WeA. 


Letters to a Young Lady on a Covrfe 
of Englifh Poetry. By John A i kin, M. 
D. 1 'Jmo. fine woven paper. Boftoh. 
Munroe and Francis. 

The firft numl^er of Madoc, a poem, 
by Robert Southey. Fine woven pa- 
per, large 8vo. Bofton. . Muuroe & 

OfDan's Poems. 2 vols, with plates. 
New York. 

Letters to Rev. Mr. Auflin on Infant 
Baptifm. By Daniel Merrill, A. M. paf- 
tor of the church of Chrift in SedgwicTc 
l^mo. Bofton. Manning & Loring. 

The Cxih and laft volume of c/r- 
tVn^s Fxpofition of the Old Teftament. 
Charleftown. S. Etheridge. 

The fecond edition of the Tirft Num- 
ber of the Chriftian Monitor, a relig- 
ious periodical publication, by **a focicty 
for promoting chriftian knowledge, pi- 
ety, and charity.** 12mo. pp. 192. — 
Bofton, Munroe & Francis. 

Apology for Infant Baptifm and the 
ofual • modes of baptizing. By John 
Reed,I). D. paftor of a church and con- 
gregatioi^ in Bridgewater. In which 
Work the objedlions and reafoniogs of 
Rev, Daniel Merrill, ind the princiifal 

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Baptift writers «re c6ofidtred and an-* 
iwered. 1 2mo. pp. 270. Bofton. 

The New HampHiire Latin Grammar • 
corapreheoding all the necelTary rules in 
orthography, fyntax, and profody ; with 
explanatory and critical notes. By John 
fimith,'A^» profeflbr of the learned Ian* 
guaget at Dartmouth College. Second 
edition, with large additions. 12mo. 
Bofton. John Weft. 

Paley's Moral Philosophy. 8vo. J. 

The fulfilling of the Scriptures de* 
lineated. By Rev. Robert Fleming. 
Charleftown. S. Etheridge. 

The Spirit of the Publick Journals, or 
the beauties of the American newfpa- 
pers. The firft No. to appear in April. 
Baltimore. S. Bourne. 

The third volume of Scott's Com- 
meotary. Philadelphia. W. W. Wood- 

yaoposiD TO bk ruBLtssio bj s(7B« 


A cheap edition, highly improved and 
much enlarged, of the original work, en- 
titled, Nature Difplayed in her Mode of 
teaching language 16 Man ; or a new 
and infallible method of acquiring a lan- 
guage in the /liorteft time poiEble, de- 
duced from the analyfls of the human 
mind, and confequently fsited to every 
capacity. Adapted to the French. ' By 
K. G. Dufief, of Philadelphia. 9 voU. 
large 8vow Fjne paper. Pricf to fub- 

feribers 5 dols. in boards. PbtladdpMi. 
John Watts. Subfcriptions received lA 
Bo(h>n by J. Gourgas. 

The Family Ezpofitor abridged, ac- 
cording to the plan of its anthor, tho 
Rev. Philit> Doddridge. In two vols. 
8vo. By S. Palmer. To this edition 
will be prefixed a portrait of Dr. Dod- 
dridge, and an account of his life and 
writings. Hartford. Lincoln & Gleafon. 

I'he Dodlrine of the Law and Grace 
unfolded. By John Bunyan, author of 
the Pilgriin*s Progrefs. To the above 
will be added, Grace abounding to the 
■ Chief of Sinners, being a faithful account 
of the lifie aud death of Mr. John Bun- 
yan. Inone vol. 12mo. pp. SOa Price 
to fubfcribers 87-( cents bound. Boftoa. 
Manning & Loring. 

An entire new work, entitled. The 
Hiflory of Wyoming, or the county of 
Luzerne, in Pennfylvania, from the firft 
fettlement in 176S to 1806. By Abra- 
ham Bradley, £fq. 

Vidlor, or The Independents of Bohe* 
mia, a grand romantick play, as perform- 
ed with great applaufe at Providence ; 
and, Rudolph, or The Robbers of Cala- 
bria, a grand romantick melo-dramai 
withchorulTes.atf performed laft wyiter 
at New York with unbounded applti fe. 
Written by John Turnbuli, late of New 
York, now of Charlefton theatre. Fine 
paper. 1 dol. to fubfcribers ; 1,87 to 
nonfubfcrib^rs. p^iarledop, S. C. Wqi. 


Mr. Grahame, author of The Sabbath, 
^ pofUJi has jufl finifhed a new volume of 
poems, )9rhich will fpeedily be published. 

A Second Colleton of Letters to a 
Young Clergyman, bv the Rev. Job Or- 
ton, is nearly ready ior publication. 

A Life of Jlomney the painter, from 
the pen of Jiayley, will fliortly appear, 
and will be accompanied with ft variety 
of engravings. 

The (ixth voluine of the General Bio- 
graphical D!<5lionary, by pr. Aikin, Mr* 
Morgan, Sec. w^Ich hafl fnet with a 
temporary djclay, is gone to the prefs. 
It is condudied by the fapie writers with 
thofe of the preceding volumes ; hut the 
Spanifli and Portugupfe literary biogra- 
phy will be given more at l»r^e by a 
gentleman peculiarly acquainted with 
that department. 

A profpeAus of two periodical works 
has been iffued at New York, the fif A 

entitled, The Cotitinent ef Sttrofe, er the 
Parit Correfpoadctit ; aud the fccond, 
IS Avurique du N^td^ ou Le Corrrfpondcnt 
dts Miats Unit, In the firfl part of the pro- 
pofed work will be comprehended a brief 
analytical account of ^f the produdions, 
in every branch of literature, fciencc, 
and the ^rts, which may appear on the 
continent of Europe, exhibiting fuccelT- 
iyely to view the progref* and ftate of 
knowledge, in France, Germany, Ruflja, 
Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Spahi, 
Switzerland, and liaIy.^To each num- 
ber will be fubjoiucd, important /late 
papers, Paris price-currents of merchan- 
dize, and other yfeful commercial intelli- 
gence.- — The various articles will be ar- 
ranged under the general heads of phy- 
fical and mathematical fcicnces ; — ccop- 
cmy and ufeful arts ;— morals and poli- 
ticks ;,^hiftory and biography ; — fine 
arts ;— 'general hiflory of literature.-r^ 

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. BoA SB mecount will be ^ven of every 
•rticle as wilt render it ealily underftood, 
and, in fuch a manner as to briug into a 
fmalt compaft the moft valuable ideas 
and interefb'ng fad^s, in every depart- 
ment of fcience and the belles-lettres, 
and to make known to the people of the 
United States the producStions of men of 
geniu« and talents in Europe. As 
a fui table htrm/wffioM to this work, 
the Editor propoCes to give a CaUUogut 
rmfimne^ of Greeks Latin., Engtjfiiy FrcHih^t 
Spaaijb^ and Julian 6eUj, felevSted from 
the beft biblio^aphical and periodical 
works that have appeared in France* 
and which will prefent a brief retrofpedl 
of the literature and i'cience of pafl 
years. A good catalogue of books io 
foreign languages is much wanted by 
men of letters in America, many of 
whom are unable to make a proper lelec- 
tion from a want of a fuitable means to 
guide their choice* The Editor has 
fpared no pains in making a CQlle«flion, 
with a particular view to the United 
States ; and he indulges the hope, that 
the profeflbrs of unrverfities, colleges, 
and academies, the members of learned 
focietiet, and the lovers of literature and 
the arts, in general, will find in the 

numbers of the Continent 0/ Sitrofie^ or tbf 
fans Cnrreff^ndtnt^ much ufeful bibliogra^ 
phical intelligience, and valuable infor- 
mation in all the various branches of hu- 
man knowledge, and that they will hon- 
our the prefent undertaking with their 
patronage and fupport. The fir(l 
work will be printed in Englifli, and 

ufcfbl commercial informatioo will bt 
added. A^ this work will be publifhe4 
in the French language, by H, CarUat, at 
Paris, American authors and publiihcra 
will have an opportunity of having their 
prodtidtions made known throughout 
Europe : for which purpofe it will bt 
neceilary to make early communications 
of them to J/uM RiUy \^Co.zi NewYork, 
by whom arrangements will be mad* 
relative to both works, for the convc* 
nience of fubfcribers in every part of th« 
United States. The fecond work will b« 
compril'cd in numbers of about 32 paget 
o<^vo, and publifhed tnontbly at PaHt, 
at 25 cents epch. (^ Subfcriptions re* 
ceived at the Anthology Office. 

The long expetSked Tour of Colonel 
Thornton through various parts of 
France, a fplcndid work, which has been 
nearly three years io hand, ib now nearly 
ready for publication. It will be com- 
prifed in two volumes imperial quarto, 
illuflrated by about ei^ty beautiful en* 
gravings in colours, by Mr. Scott and 
other artiftb, from original drawings, de- 
fcriptive of the country, cuftoms, and 
manners of the people, taken by the in- 
genious Mr. Bryant, who accompanied 
the Colonel ezprefsly for that purpoie. 
This tour was performed during the ceP- 
fation of hoftilities, toward the concio* 
fion of the year 1 802, and the route be* 
ing entirely different from that ufiially 
taken by Engliili travellers, no fmall de- 
cree of information and intereft is expedl- 
pd to refult from the perufal of the work. 
To ^hefporffman in particular it cannoc 
fail to prove highlv gratifying, as we 
have no account whatever of the (late 
pf fporting in that country. Another 
edition of the work will appear at the 
fame time in royal quarto, with the 
platen uncoloured. 

Mrs. Opie's Simple Tales are in a (bitf 
of forwardnefk. 

Letters to a Young Lady, from the 
pen of Mrs. Weft, have been pubiiflied 
in England. 

In the £le<5lora1 Library at Munich 
have been difcovered the Four Gofpe!s,\ 
and a liturgy of the eleventh century, 
in fmall folio, on iine white parchment, 
wfitten ip a beautiful difbnift charader, 
and in the highed (late of prefervation. 
They are very fplendidly bound, and 
ornamented nvith precious ftones and 
pearls : the clafps are of gold, and they 
are lettered on the back with ivory. 

A Secret Hi (lory of the Court of St. 
Clovidi in a S^^ of Letters from a Gca^ 

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hVtttiKM AK* fiiit6%oPHicAL x*nrfctti<i*»c«. 

tfbnftfl an iPirll to k Kobl^tnto in Lotf- 
4oD, will a|ipear immediately. 

The univcrfal and heartfelt tribute of 
^pt6t which has been paid to the me- 
iDory of the late lamented Lord Nelfun, 
hu communicated it« influence to the 
iMiinters and poets ; and many, very ma- 
«y, have, ever lince we had the advice 
•f hif death, been exerting all their 
^wer» to perpetuate hi» praife and im- 
fltOrialiie hU fame. They began with 
toiixing marks of their regret with the 
Illuminations for his brilliant vidlory, in 
^hich the blazing windows bore teftr* 
monj to the feelings of the inhabitants, 
** in wordi that blaze, and thoughu thai burn." 

It muft be acknowledged, however, 
tbat fome of the infcription^ were more 
^milar to readings in Wc(tmio(ler-Ab- 
bey, than to the tranfpareocies of a re- 

Jean, the artift, of Newman ftrect, cx- 
liibited a traiifparency of Britannia, with 
the ufual iniignia of Fame, the vicfloriet 
of the gallant Admiral, and on the weil 
fide an ura, witli the followiug infcrip- 
tion : 

•» FrttannU, vldor, ever muft deplore 
Her darling; Hero, Nelson, now no more !»• 

The infcrtption at the houfe of Mr. 
Abraham Goldlmid was peculiarly ap- 
propriate and intelligent. Between two 
cordons of lamps, iu tranfparent letter*, 

<* 1 rcjokc for my couBtry, but mourn for my 

But fetting afide thefe little effiifions 
pf the hour, we 6nd that feveril great 
'Works are in hand on the occafion. 

Meifrs. Boydells intend having a very 
cmpital pi^reengraved in the firft Oyle in 
commemoration of the event, but we be- 
lieve have not yet entirely arranged the 
plan, though it will be laid before the 
|>ublick in a few days. 

Mr. Wea and Mr. Heath have llpr 
fKHineed and advertifed their plan. 
. Mr. Copley has dated that he intemk 
painting a large pi(5ture on the fame fub^ 

We have, befide thefe, mtny advertife- 
jtents fr^m other artifts who intend 
fvbKOiing memorials on a fmaller fcale, 

"Mr. Orme has advertifed an engrav- 
ing from A pi<Sture to be painted by Mr. 
Craig ; and Mr. Ackermann, we have 
iMen told, will almoU immediately pub- 
lifli a highly-fbliked graphick record Of 
the AdmiraPt vidhnies, &c.« furmounted 
With a naval trophy m booeur of his me- 

The Honourable Mrt. Dtmeriiai p^ 
fented to the Corporation of the City fC 
London a marble Buft of Lord Ivt^uon, 
which is to be plact-u on an elegant n-.;ir- 
b!epedeftal,aiid depoiitcd in tne Coua* 
cil-Chamber at Guildtiall. 

la kUut a month's time Meffrs. Eoy- 
dtHls will pubiilh a portrait ot Lord Na- 
fon, which ib now engraving bv LarlofB, 
from a pidurc painietl by ?>tr WiltiaH 
Becchey, and prelenltrd to the Corj)orj|- 
tion ot tJie Citv ot Loudon by the lat« 
Alderman Btiyoell. 

We faw this pi<£lure loon after it wai 
finiflted, aud thought it oi.c ot ti.e hi.«ft 
that Sir William beechey ever j.aiiuttt.-*- 
It is a molt fpirited and anmuitd lot' 
trait, marked with m W and appjtpnkie 
charader, but not painted to bt vit-tved 
upwards ot tCventy teet above the eye, 
and at that height we were very niuch 
mortified to lee it exhibit td lu the 
Council-Chamber at GujIchiUl, where it 
is placed immediately over the leat of 
the Lt)rd Mayor. But jiitticc to the 
memory of our famenied Hero dcnaids 
its removal to a iituation nearer the e>e; 
for here the whole portrait appt;»is of 
one tone of colour, aitd the honourable 
fear in the Admirarsforehcjid, which was 
a remarkable mark, is entirely lolt 'i he 
portrait of I.ord Rodney, which is Co 
paiuicd that it would adniit of beiu^ 
placed at a greater height, is about 
twelve feet from the eye. 'i he lituatioo 
of the two portraits n<ight be changed, 
and Lord Neifon put iu tlu; place now 
appropriated to Lord Rodney, and ^kt 
^,Ju. — Lond. Month, KctrbJfeS. 

Advices recently received from Naples 
contain further detaib relative to the un- 
rolling of the manul'cripts dilcovered tt 
Herculaneum. Lleven perlon^ are it 
prefent employed in unrolling and copy* 
ing. The manufcripts hitherto inff>e^ 
ed amount to about MU, eight of whicii 
have already been interpreted and iranf- 
mitted to the minifler beratti, that they 
may be examined by the Academy, and 
ordered to be printed. Thefe man6icript« 
are, fix of Epicurus, entitled, ii ^, t^ 
0>co , On Nature. Another ib by Phi- 
lodemus \ its title is, xat^ rnt Ofyn, Ob 
Anger. The eighth wants both tbte 
title and name of tbe author. It treats 
of nature and the worihip of the godi. 
The next four are almoft entirely ex- 
plained ; bu^ they have not yet been 
tranfmitted, becaufe'Mr. Hayter and iWe 
Abb^ Foti, of the order of St.* Bafil, joint- 
tjF Art to Aipcriottiid tbcir ptibiicatiob* 

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Thf Ahh4 Foli has firfl to collate the 

coj».eH with the ori^naU, to Tiipjily what 
itaeceJAry^aad to traiin^ie. Mr.Hayrer 
cMli-c- after him, alrers what he thinks 
jr.»per in the fupplement* and tranOa- 
tian>, and delivers the copy to M. Fo(i,to 
W a^iii tra ifcribcd. The dday occa- 
fiitacd hy \f r. Hiyrer in his labours, it 
the mfai yf\\y ihefe manufcripts have 
mot yet '>«en feat e-ther to the Academy 
or the Ml isf!?r. Their title-* are as fol- 
low : one on log^ck, entitled On the 
S^rens^h of Arguments drawn frofhAnal- 

/* r».. Treat ife on Vices and the coii" 
ir-^ry V'rtttcs — I," '^'>'rl. On Death. 
Thefe three works are by Philodemiis. 
The author of the fourth is Poliftratus ; 

^xoyn rtrx e 

■OKwr;^- a h 


r- . —.»'•::. X-* '*^^« *'.«», On unreafonable 
Cf>n*^mpi ; that is, of ihofe who dcfpife 
tr-jc'l'r * what others commend ^ — 'I'his 
nxAnufrript is the leaft damaged, and ma- 
ny naTa^es of it arc abfolutely untouch- 
ed The other pafyyti are in a great part 
by Ph?f 'demu'^ ; they treat of rhctorick, 
of pnerry, and of morality. The publi- 
ca*"K>n of iSefe manufcripts cannot take 
phre with all the expedition that could 
Dewtfhrxl, a^ the originals are to be en- 
friTcd b.-fore they arc prefenred to the 
p'jHijck. This procefs requires much 
tiric and money, and the want of the lat- 
ter Will conGderably retard the publica- 
tion. M. Rofini.bifliop of Piizzuoli,^to 
wKo-Ti the puhlick is indebted for the 
fragment of Philodemus on Mufick, it 
t*^* perfon appointed by the Court of 
N-r»le» to fuperintend the engraving and 
the pjb!ic?-f)on of thefe manufcripts. 

A diflirgui(hed man of fcience at 
N2p<e> h^3 publiflied an account of a 
Tifit he paid to Pompeii fince the late 
rj^Mrches ordered by the Queen of 
Saples — The principal particulart of 
kt4 ftarement are as follow : — ** In a 
fcvch l^egun about fcven years ago was 
difcovered the capital of a pilafler, which 
Was fufpevfled to be the lateral front of a 

•^The pafTagc which ferrts for «Qtrmc4 
it twelve palms lopg, and ten wide. It 
leads to a court, the walls of which ar4| 
covered withftaccoof various colour«.*r« 
The capitals and cornices arc in good 
prefervation ; and I there obferved 4 
rofe, which is a mailer*piec< both of d*«. 
fign and execution. All the apartments 
are decorated with beautiful painting*, 
on a red, blue, and yellow ground. You, 
there fee likewife detaciied columns, with 
flowers, candelabras, an^ ornaments, ia 
the bc(l Ayle. To the left are t,wo apart* 
ments, which were probably thofe of 
the maOer aitd miftrei's. Ibe pamter 
gave a free Icope to his imagination ia 
all the pidlures, which I beheld with in« 
expreffible delight. JNuthing' can h% 
VAOTC pleafiug, among others, tlian .4, 
dance 'of perfons in maiks ; and noihin|p 
more graceful than a little bird pecking 
at a balket of figs. In the centre of tba 
court is a ciflern, the implwviMm of the. 
Romans. On a marble pcdeHal i^ > 
young Hercules feated gn a hind of 
bronze. I'heie two pieces, one of whicli 
weighs about twenty pounds, and the. 
other forty, are of the moft 6ni{lie4 
workmanfliip. The water fell from the 
mouth of the hind into a beautiful couch 
of Grecian marble. Behind the pedelUI 
wa) a table, the ydtow feet of whicli 
reprcfeut the claws of an eagle. — Thefe 
perfe<5^ works have likewife beci| 
conveyed to the Mufeum. A lateral 
corridor on the right lead^ to a fecon4 
court, which was furr^nded by piazzaa, 
as is proved by the o^igonal columne 
covered with ftucco. In one of the a«» 
partments are obferved two Bacchantee 
holding tbyft, — Above the window, to; 
the right, is a paii^ting of Europa, of 
great beautv ; (he is quite naked, and ir 
feated on the bull, which it plunging 
into the fea. Beneath is a young mam 
carrying a baCket o( fruits : he is raifing^ 
himlelf on tiptoe ; and this attitude re« 
quired of the artifl a fVrongly marked 
ezpreiHon of the mufcular fyOan. Qm 
the oppofite fide a beautiful female dan« 
eer excites admiration : (he is holding 
and flrikin^ two cymbals ; Ker ▼eil'^ 
which floats behind her, protfucet a very 
fine efFedt On proceeding into thead*- 
joining hall, the firQ thing that flruck 
roe lyas a magnificent pavement of x\m 
mofl precioois African marbles. The 
ceiling reprefents Venn < between Mare 
and Cupid. In this hall were Anind l^ 
fmall idol of bronze, a gold vale weifb« 
loe tia-ee ooocflii a gold coin, and twelve 

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^hef» of eopper, with the cffiory of Vef*. 
pafiaa. In the hall to the left fragments 
of piAures, painted on wood, half car- 
bonized, were diftlnguiniable : they were 
Inclofed in a kind of niche« : this wai 
the bed chamber ; eight little columns 
by which it was fupported may ftill be 
feen : they are of bron2e, and to their 
iummits ftill adhere fome pieces of gild- 
ed wood, which probably formed a can- 
opy. On the lateral wall were painted 
two pricfts With4ong beards, and cloth- 
td in robe* of blue and green : they 
have been removed to the Mufeum. 
The kitchen contained a great quantity 
of utenfib, moftly of iron inlaid with 
151 vcr in inconceivable perfe<5t?on.— 
But what moft ftruck me were five can- 
delabra* painted in frefco on a ground 
of an e«remely brilliant yellow : I 
icarcely knew how to leave the room 
which contained this mafter-piece of 
tafte and elegance : they are fupported 
bv fmall figures, whofe attitude, drefs, 
Mnd drapery, ire fo exquifitely graceful, 
that they might ferve as models to all 
the belles in the world. In this houfe, 
as in mod others of the ancients, you 
Und no window opening towards the 
Areet. I was ftruck with the fragments 
of a chariot which is ftill remaining in 
the coach-houfe : you may perfedlly 
diftinguifti the wheels and the brafs or- 
fuments of the chariot itfelf. — Ciofe to 
the habitation is feen a door that con- 
dtt6b to another, and which, to judge by 
its exterior, will not furni(h fewer beau- 
ties whenever it (hall be permitted to be 

Mifs Edgeworth will publifti early in 
January a new work, in two volumes, en- 
titled Leonorz.^'Lon, Montb. Mag, 

^frwn Friday f FeL 20, /• Tburfday^ March 
20, a$ reported f the Board of Health 
kj tbi Sextom, 


Male. Fern. 






CoUc, bilidus 







Fever, biltout 












From Feb, 20/^ to March 20/^. 

THE weather Of the paft month haf 
been, for the moft part, cold and unplea- 
fant. This is to be attributed to the 
prevalence of rough north-eafttrly winds, 
which have existed through the montb, 
almoft without intermiflion. 

** No gently-breathing breeze prepares the 
spring ;•* 
but nature has again invefted herfelf 
with her wintry robe. 

To the north-eafterly winds may be 
afcribed innumerable catarrhs, fome of 
which have been fo fevere a-» to demand 
medical aid. Pneumonic inflammation 
has been common, but not fatal. Belides 
thefe inflammatory difeafcs, there havt 
been fome cafes of cynanche tonfillarii, 
and we are informed that the cynanche 
maligna exifts. Typhus mitior, which 
was prevalent in the autumn and did not 
entirely difappear during the winter, 
feems again to have become frequent. 

Some time fince, we remarked ** that 
vaccination was fcarcely heard of.** It. 
is with forrow that we repeat this remark. 
— People think that phyficians arc eager 
to propagate this difeafe for their own 
advantage. This is a very miftaken no- 
tion ; for the faculty rather receive injury, 
than profei&onal emolument, from the 
vaccinating practice. A fpirit of phi- 
lanthropy has excited great exertions for 
the diffufion and prefervation of this 
pradkice ; yet the time may cume, when 
that fpirit will be extinguiftied by the 
prejudices of fome, and the cold indiffe* 
fence of others. 

Editors'* Mtet, 

THE continuation of the review of the Trans- 
aCcions of the Academy unlbrtunatoly was not 
prepared in season for the present nunribcr. 

We should be proud to number the Authoft 
of the EsMy on Method and the Character of 
Dr. Howard among the regular contributor* to 
the Anthology. It makes us nobis carior to be 
allowed to unite with oun the productions of 
minds, stored as theirs are with the riches of ripen- 
ed thought, and ample and digested knowledge. 

The verses of L. are classical and ingenious. 

We should be pleased to be frequently indebted 
to the writer of the beautiful lines on Shlpvirfcclt. 

We do not precisely understand A. B.'s design. 
If he means to quarrel with the Reviewer of the 
sermon In question, he Ukm an odd method, bf 
coinciding with htm In opinion {...If with the 
Writer, he cannot escpect that we shosld mske 
our work the Uicatic of Ch« ilspace* 

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APRIL, 1806. 



M. 4i 

Island qf J/uida„Jake qf Agnano,„grotto del Cane,„bath9 qfSt, (rermain* 

The lake of Agnano is one of 
the objects which is pointed oiTt to 
the curiosity of a stranger. It is 
about four miles frdm Naples. Af- 
ter passing the grotto, there is a 
house on the road side, where a 
guide is taken to conduct him to 
the lake, and the grottcJ del Cane. 
The man was instantly ready, and 
Was bringhig as usual a torch and 
a dog. The poor animal was 
toeagre and feeWe, and was unwil- 
lingly dragged along. I had no 
wish to see him tortured, and in- 
sisted upon his being released, and 
his actions seeitied to me more 
Expressive than words codid have 
been. When the man let go the 
i*ope which Was round his neck he 
did not immediately run away, but 
looked up at us and seemed to 
wonder how he had escaped his 
accustomed torture ; he continued 
thus till we drove off, and then 
turned slowly round and returned 
to the house. 

The guide got tip behhid the 
carriage and we soon turned off to 
the right. After passing for some 
time beautiful fields highly culti-^ 
vated, we descended a hill and 
came in si^ht of the lake, surfoun- 
dtA by hills. It b a beautiful 
piece of water, about half a mile io. 

Vol. III. No. 4. X 

circumference. There were va*- 
lious species of wild fowl sporting^ 
on its surface. They appeared to 
be conscious of the security they* 
enjoyed, for they suffered me to 
come close to thetn without dis- 
composing themselves. The sur- 
face of the lake is soihetimes al- 
most covered w?th them. It forma 
a part of the territory devoted to 
the htmting pleasures of the king^ 
and no vulgar sportsman ever 
dares disturb the tranquillity of 
the place. As the king seldonk 
htmts here, the birds live unmo- 
lested, and multiply continually. 
Nothing could be fliore pictur-< 
esque tham this lake surrounded 
by hills ; ks snoooth scm^ce waa 
unruffled by the slightest breeze^ 
the wild ducks Were Swimmings 
and diving in perfect security $ 
there were no houses to be seen^ 
a few goats Were reposing under 
the shade of son^ trees on one 
Side, and except these there was 
nothing to interrupt this delicious 
solitude, which i*ecalled to my 
mind the fabled tranquillity of the 
golden age. 

On the side of one of these hills 
is situated the grotto del Cane. 
This is only a hole in the side of 
the luH, closed with a gate. It is 

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not capable oF containing more 
than half a dozen people. The 
bottom is jTuiddy, covered with/ a 
vapour, destructive to animal life. 
The c;m<\^ prepares himself with 
two [ightqd torches to shew the 
effect ; the moment that one of 
them h brought within a few in- 
ches of the bottom it is instantly 
exiint^ulshcd. The vapour docs 
not rise above a foot from the 
SU) m<;t;, and is confined to a part 
of the cavcr The experiment of 
tiic torch is sufiicient to exemplify 
the eftects, but a number of dogs 
are kept to gratify the miserable 
euriosity of ti-ose who choose to 
sec their sufierings^. The animal, 
after being held a minute in the 
Qave, is thrown into strong con-- 
\uIsions, and would soon empire if 
sivfTercd to remain ; but as hi^ 
loriure must be repeated tq gratify 
the next traveller who comes, he 
i^ taken out before he is quite dead 
and thrown into the lake, where 
he soon recovers. From this ef- 
fect upon dogs, the hole^ for it i» 
nothing else, receives its name. 

A little distant from tlie grotto 
del Cane, and on the border of the 
lake, are tlie sweating baths of St. 
Qerinuin. These are some low_ 
buildings constructed over crevi- 
ces in the earth, through which 
hot sulphureous vapours arise, 
which are considered of great ser- 
vice in many disorders. The sick 
ftom some of the hospitals at Na-- 
Ijlca are occasionally brought here, 
^d placed for some hours in these 
]X>oms. The walU and floors are 
covered with sulphur, nitre, de- 
posited by the vapour in ^le most 
bcautifnl forms. The vapour is 
QOrilinually flying out in diff*erent 
places, and some of the rooms are 
^ hot as to occasion immediate 

This circular valley 4d the centre 
of which is situated the lake of Agna-^ 
no, is without doubt tke crater of an 
extinguished volcano^ The appear- 
ance of the sides evidently denotes 
this, and these vapours are rem^ 
nants of its ancient volcanick state. 
The sra niiMt be very remoto^ 
when tliis crater was in a burning 
state, as no record of it is found 
in history, and the sides of it are 
now covered witl^ a fertile soil ; 
and to effect this process, nature 
requires the aid of many centuries^ 

On my return from visiting the 
lake, as it was a fine afternoon, f 
did not return immediately to the 
city, but rode down to the shore> 
which is about two miles from the 
grotto. On the left was the pro- 
montory of Posiiipo, and to tha 
right the beach extends towards 
Pozzuoli# In front, and but a short 
distance from the shore, is the 
island of ^isida ; this is a mere 
rock, of small circumference, rising 
almost perpendicularly out of the 
water ; it contains a small fort. It 
is £^ place where vessels perform 
quarantine and unlade their car- 
goes, when they come from any 
country where contagious diseases* 
prevail. The directors of the 
health oflice will not permit themt^ 
to come within the mole of Naples^ 
and they are obliged to remain 
here forty or sixty days, and some* 
times for a longer period. 

It is a pleasing ride from the 
beach to the grotto, and a commoa- 
excursion in the afternoon. Oa 
netuming through the grotto to- 
war<ls evening, if the servant is not 
provided with a torch, it is the cus- 
tom to purchase at a houss close 
by the entrance a little bunch of 
bark stripped from the grape vinesji- 
which bums long enough to li^ht^ 
)^ thcougjii the i^tto* 

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JVo. 6. 

IN ittf last number, as jnay be 
remembered by a few, I admitted 
that gcDtlemcn df the faculty are 
too fond of indulging in theoretical 
speculations. After remarking 
that all mankind were prone to the 
the same lazy habit, I stated some 
causes which pardcularly led phy- 
sicians into it. The reasons there 
stated were founded upon a pre- 
sumption that th)^ Doctors knew 
the truth, hat cottld not make it 
tntelligible to others. But we are 
still more strongly induced to talk 
fionf^nse, when we are unable to 
Ynake an explanation satisfactory 
to ourselves. For how shaU we 
avow this to the patient, and thus 
authorize him to doubt our omnis* 
cience. Explain we must ; and 
here agaiin if others are sfidsfied 
vith out sophistry, which they 
may easily be made to be, we are 
apt to feel contented with it like- 

L#et it not be supposed that I 
%rcL making a precious confession 
of the ignorance of the faculty. 
Doubt not, gentle reader, that we 
are stored with science. But our 
knowledge is still progressive. 
We shall not for a century to 
come know what plants will 
spring up in a garden, when we 
kiiow not what seed has been 
sown in it ; nor shall we sooner 
than that be able to assign to 
every vegetable its true place by 
seeing its first germination, or by 
viewing a single leaf. The sci- 
ence of phy sicks is embarrassed by 
its relation to facts ; it has not 
yet approached so near to pure in- 
telligence as mathematicks. 

Our patients lead us to adopt 
64$e doctrine not only by oblig- 

ing us to talk, but also by hurry- 
ing us to act. We must do some- 
thing, at least so the Doctors com- 
monly think, or we shall be dis- 
placed, not by the more kno\ung, 
but by the more daring. Under 
such circ;um6tances the medical 
man discovers that Ms rtpiuation 
depends not so much on his itral 
acquisitions, as evidenced in las 
practice, as upon keeping up a 
good face, and talking wtIL 

But it is asked, what all tliis 
leads to ? Must the patient detail 
his complaints and then receive 
his orders without any explanation 
of his situation, without any inti- 
mation of the importance of Lis 
disease, or of the probable course 
of it \ Must no good lady follow 
the Doctor to the door to ask what 
he really thinks, and kindly to sug- 
gest her own remarks \ I answer 
that I propose not such seycre 
restrictions. If principles are 
straight lines, as practice is never 
governed by one principle alone, 
so the line of practice is variously 
inflected. The anxiety of the sick 
and their friends must be attended 
to, and even their cuiiosity grati- 
fied when it can easily be done. 
But if a physician is employed, in 
whom a proper confidence is re- 
posed, he should be allowed his 
own time to form and to express 
his sentiments ; or, at least, the 
patient and his friends should only 
give him occasional opportunities 
of makingexplanatiohs,without im- 
posing on him an absolute necessity 
of so doing. The physician at the 
same time should feel bound to 
state every thing within his know^ 
ledge, of which the communica- 
tion can benefit the patient. C. 

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^tm%ra vtti, *l li/ci, titretttm ipivrnt tantam mihi ajinmi ^clyf^atem^ mi hUr fr^td" 

fyos emrminum fruetut mamerem^ qtiod met im strefiht r«. 

fiompcmumtur Tacitut Dial de CraL 12. 

Jlot woodi ind groves ind solitary places to me afford sensations of a pure delight. It is there 
J enjoy the pleasures of a poetick imagination ; and among those pleasures It Is not the least 
fhat they ve pursued lar from the noise ^nd bustle df the Forl4* Murphy's Trans. 

THE silent recesses of poetry 
are the residence of pure hearts 
and cultivated minds. Folly and 
vice do not disturb by their intem- 
perance or criminality the distant 
retreat of the poet ; and leisure is 
always to be found for strengthea* 
ing the foundations of pietyy and 
invigoradng the germinations of 
:genius. Nature affords continual 
subjects for the experiments of 
fancy, and her admirer always de- 
lights to exercise his mind in such 
pleasant recreations. He is sur- 
rounded by scen|es, which may 
gratify the fullest exuberance of 
imagination ; and before him are 
scattered thopsands of objects, 
•which by som^ peculiar attribute 
give new incitement to the play- 
someness of fancy. Remoteness 
from ncdse and dissipation is to the 
pure lover of poetry approxima- 
tion to beauty and tri^th. As he 
lias receded from vice, he has ad- 
vanced towards purity ; and if he 
has left the pomp and prodigality 
of a Roman metropolis, he lives 
in the coolness and greenness of 
the valley, communing with his 
own spirit, or conversing with those 
illustrious intelligences, who are 
imiiiortal in their writings. Se- 
cedit animus in loca pura atque 
innocentia, fruitui*que sedibus sa- 
cris. " Free from those distrac- 
tions, the poet retires to scenes of 
foiitude, where peace and inno- 
f^cc reside. In those haunts of 

contemplation, he has his pleasing 
visions. He treads on consecrated 

Tacitus, in the Dialogus de 
Oratoribus, has in the person of 
Maternus described in finished 
composition the beauties and the 
charms of poetry. He has cxhib* 
ited them in the strength of truth 
and in the elegance of fiction ; and 
he has added new power to his 
picture by contrasting them with 
the disgust and deformity of the 
practice of law and publick decla** 
mation. This however was not 
the particular object of Tacitus. 
It only serves as a most beautiful 
introduction to the general sub- 
ject to be afterwards fully dis- 
cussed, the causes of corrupt elo- 
quence. We are indeed highly 
indebted to the Roipan historian 
for such a dialogue, and perhaps 
we ought not to regret, that he has 
discoursed more upon oratory, 
than poetry. Yet Tacitus might 
have entered farther into the de- 
scription of the elegance of verse 
and the felicity of the poet. He 
might also have opposed the se- 
renity of silence apd the attractions 
of retreat to other causes of dis- 
quietude, than the perplexity of law 
and the tumults of eloquence. An 
orator, whose heart is bursting 
with ambition, and whose cheek is 
bloated with declamation, and a 
^awyer besieged with complaining 
clients and tormented VUh con- 

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tradictory statements and testi- 
mony, are ipdeed far removed from 
the tranquillity and cheerful devo- 
tion of the worshipper of nature ; 
but the avaricious merchant, the 
wily s|>eculator, and the idle genr 
tleroan '«ire also the fit subjects for 
the experiments of spleen and the 
tortures of disappointment. The 
miserable beings, who haunt the 
publick and private places of dissir 
padon, like thin ghosts of depart- 
ed reality, are far from the sweet 
complacency of rural scenery and 
the endless delights of varying nar 
ture. Look at the sad counte- 
nances of some, and -remark the 
malignant joyfulness of others, 
who are occupied in schemes, in 
folly, in riot, in nonsense, and wick- 
edness,...and then wonder at their 
wishes and pursuits. With such 
beings the poet has no sympathy. 
He hates their melancholy and 
thdr turbulence. He flies from 
their contact, as the traveller from 
a storm, and is glad that he knows 
their folly only by instinctive averr 
uon ; and he rejoices that the silent 
contagion of their complaints nev- 
er i^ects the salubrity of his 
groves, fmd tliat he hears their tri- 
umphs and huzzas only by the 
gentle undulations of distant noise, 
which softly flow to his retreat. 
If from necessity he is sometimes 
obliged to be present at scepes, 
which his poetry and purity reject, 
he sighs for his clear sky or shady 
woodwalk, and exclaims in the lan^ 
guage of Matemus, Me vera dut- 
ches, ut Virgilius ait, Mus9, remo- 
tum a sollicitudinibus, et curis, et 
necessitate quotidie aUquid contra 
animum faciendi in ilia sacra illos- 
que fbntes ferant. « But, as Vir- 
gil sweetly sings, me let the sacred 
liluses lea^ to their soft retreats, 
their living fountains and melodi- 
ous groves, where I may dwell, 
remote from care, master of my- 
self, and under no necessity of do- 

ing every day what my heart con- 

No one will depy the felicity of 
the poet thus situated, for his cher- 
ished recess is far from the tu- 
mults and strife of the world, and 
yet if inclination prompt, he may 
taste in fiill luxuriance the various 
blessings of society. Virgil some- 
times left his retreat and honoured 
the capital of the world with his 
presence ; he was welcomed at 
the banquets of Augustus, and at 
the theatre he received the ap- 
plauses of the Roman people^ 
Testes Augusti epistoljc, testes 
ipse populus, qui auditis in tlieatro 
versibus Virgilii, surrexit univefr 
BUS, et forte prxsentem spec- 
tantemque Virgilium veneratu$ 
es, sic quasi Augustum. " To 
prove this, the letters of Augustus 
are still extant ; and the people, 
we know, hearing in the theatrfe 
some verses of Virgil, when he 
himself was present, rose in a body 
and paid him every mark of homr 
age, with a degree of veneration, 
nothing short of what they usually 
offered to the emperour." Yet 
such scenes were not congenial to 
the purity and elevation of hia 
mind. He rather loved his green 
shades and sequestered walks ; he 
admired loneliness and cool tranr 
quillity, where the heart may find 
utterance for devotion, and poetry 
may soften the passions to mel- 

Rura mihi et riqui placeant in vallibu^ 


Flumina amem silvasque ingforias 

O qui me geli^it in vallii>ut Hzmt 

Sisut, et iogenti ramonun protegat um- 

bri ! Geor. 2. 485. 

Oh may I yet, by fame forgotten, dwell 
By gushing founti, wild wood, and sha4if 

pyry ddl ! 

Hide me, some God, where Hxmus' valea 

And boundless shade and solitude de- 
fend. SoTHi»v 

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In hit tilk near Naples, Virgil 
enjoyed all the quiet and silence 
he loved. He was lired of the 
brawls and civil contentions, which 
had so long agitated the Roman 
commonweaHh. Poetry he adori- 
ed, and with the fullest inspiration 
of the Muses he composed his 
Geprgics and part of the jEneid 
in the pleasantness of retirement* 
Ht there loved to muse on the 
mellowness of the landscape, to 
study the curious economy of his 
bees, and to revel in the ransack 
of Troy, and luxuriate in the fu* 
jture splendour of lulus. Such 
■was Ihe lovely mind of the poet, 
ihat, though he vras equal to the 
most dignified elevation in heroick 
poetry, he continually adverts to 
nature and her analogies. We 
accompany Jloeas to hell with su- 
))lime feeling, and with great in- 
terest are we present at his com- 
bat with Tumus, yet how do we 
love to linger on the tranquil inlet, 
retreating from the boisterous or 
^ean on the African shore ; and is 
It not most pleasant, like Meli* 
bcus, to talk of liberty and rural 
life with fortunate old Titynis, re- 
IDubans sub tegmine fugi. Study the 
biography of Virgil, read his Ec- 
logues and Georgics, and you will 
6nd how much his mind was de- 
voted to the poetry of nature and 
ks consequent felicity. He is con- 
linually delighted with the fruits 
pf his own farm, the shady beech, 
the curling vines,the hour of even- 
ing, the high rock, the young 
gheep, and the wood-rpigcon. With 
such scenes and ohjects before 
tiim, his fency was fertile and his 
pictures were true. His reflec- 
tions and remarks are perfectly 
correspondent They have all the 
fteanty of truth and all the loreli- 
ness of morals. It seems as if 

the purity and innocence of natmt 
were fitted necessarily to escita 
feelings of goodness and send* 
ments of piety. Virgil, from his 
single objects or his landscapes, 
loves to glide gently into morals ; 
the tale is told, and the applicatiai 
is known ; the picture is complet* 
ed, and its virtue is irresistible ; 
the poet has instructed like t 
preacher, and the preacher hat 
charmed like a poet. 

Such subUme effects were part* 
ly owing to his retirement from 
the nonsense and business of the 
world. He fled from tlie stupid 
admiration of the crowd, and tb« 
incessant din of parasites and fodii 
to the tranquillity of his villa ami 
the pure musick of nature. Herfe 
he passed his hours as his verses 
have celebi^ated, and enjoyed sueh 
felicity as Matemvis has eulogized, 
Ac ne fortunam quidem vatum, et 
illud felix contubcmium,coinparare 
timucrim cum inquieta ct anxil 
oratorum Tita : licet illoacertamint 
et pericula sua ad consulatus etex* 
crint, malo securum ct aecretum 
Virgilii secessum, in quo tamen 
neque apud divum Augnstum gra* 
tia caruit, neque apud popuhna 
Romanura notitia. « If we now 
consider the happy condition of 
the true poet, and that easy com' 
merce in which he passes his titne, 
need we fear to compare his sitaa* 
tion with that of the boasted oH* 
tor, who leads a life of anxiety, 
oppressed by business and over* 
whelmed with care I But it is said, 
his contention, his toil, and danger, 
are steps to the consulship. How 
much more eligible was the soft 
retreat in which Virgil passed hii 
days, beloTfed by the prince, and 
honoured by the people I** 


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Aa. ii. 

• ti «« foTie nofinunquam tetnpys ^ohpiastpie nit loaiirafmnevlas htas tD^nonerr, petiium 
imfHratvmque vttvmys ; ut in hgtndoy qux pridem icierint^ km ejpemrntur quasi 



mam it quid him remttum ia Iktfri* at, quin iJ tamen cbrnpluuvH 

i\. Gellius, Prsf. in Ngct. Att. 


THERE is hardly a surer 
inark of the degeneracy of modern 
Iheralure, than the inordinate at-* 
tention which is now paid to 
bibliography. The knowledge of 
dtle pages has succeeded to the 
knowledge of subjects, and to as- 
eertuin the year of an editio firin-i 
eepM is now thought of as much 
knportance and divides the learned 
SA seriously, as to settle the true 
JtAX of the birth of Chri^st. ^irc 
m^ aH^d /toasts inverdre^ magna 
fmr» eruditionrs €9C ; but to know 
«*er^ a tiling may be found is 
▼cry consistent with ignorance of 
^hat may be found there. It is 
well worth- inquiry whether the 
Hmumerable literary journals of 
the present age have promoted 
Ae cause of real learning. Cer^ 
tain it is, that the race of laborious 
scholars is nearly extinct. Bo-' 
chart may perhaps be said to have 
been revived in Bryant ; Walton 
«nd Castell in Kennicot^ Bent** 
ley in Wakefield, and more than 
tae scholar of the old school fn- 
Siir William Jones. But these meiv 
are now dead ! Where now are 
th« universal scholars^ who can 
loast of being the legitimatB 
aoccessors of Selden, Grdtnis, L# 
Clerc, Vossius, and Baylc ? What 
wonderfully cro^vded and compre- 
hensive minds I Alas, we are 
iardly competent to the republi- 
cation of their works. Damnosa 
^nid non imminuit dies i 


If I understand Dr. Johnson's 
remarks on this subject, in his life 
of Waller, he means only to aajr 
that the private exercises of n 
pious mind are not susceptible of 
a poetical dress, because if they 
are expressed at all they must be 
expressed in language, which has 
been appropriated to passions less 
sacred. Hence mo Jt of the sacred 
poetry of Dr. Watts may, by the oc- 
casional substitution of the names* 
of mortal beauties, be converted 
ihto love songs and canzonettas. 
But when JohnsoA goes on to ^y,' 
that' the ** enlargement of ouf 
comprehension, or the elevation 
of our fancy is rarely to be hoped 
from ihetrical devotion, because 
whatever is great, desirable, o* 
tremendous Js comprised in the 
name of the Supreme Being,** 
surely he, miist have forgotten tlie 
sacred poetry of Bavki, and the su* 
blime prayer of Habakkuk^ which 
you cannot read without breathing 
ihort with rapture. •* Omnipo^ 
tence, he says, cannot be exalted.** 
True ; but its operations may be 
described, and our conceptions be 
made to approxknate toward what 
we can never fully embrace^ 
« Infinity cannot be ampUfied."^ 
Neither can it 1^ ki strictness coiU'' 
prehended ; but the mind may be 
filled witli iUustrations of a subj^ 
which it cannot completely gra)^« 
^ Perfection cannot be improved,'^ 
But it may be 6Qnt^)»pli4<;4f 9(A 
admired, and x\m is all which devo« 

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tional poetry alms at accomplish* 
ing. Surely the morning hymn of 
Adam and Eve in Milton, Thom- 
son's hymn on the seasons, and the 
devotional pieces of Mrs. Barbauld 
ve sufficient to rescue English 
Ycpse from the censure of Johnson, 
when he says, " that all attempts 
to animate devotion by pious poe- 
try have miscarried." The true 
reason of these miscarriages I sus- 
jfect is this ; that the finest poets 
have not been the most devotional 
Christians, or the greatest saints 
have not been the best poets. 


It is curious to observe what 
confusion, uncertainty, and con-^ 
tradiction involve one of our 
most noted literary anecdotes. 
"VVho has not heard the famous 
story of the student at one of the 
English universities, who was re^ 
quired to write a theme upon the 
miracle at Cana, and having de- 
layed his task till he was in danger 
of being punished for his negli- 
gence, rescued himself by the fol- 
lowing impromptu. 

The modest water taw Its Go4 and bloihed. 

The truth is, that this is a literal 
▼ersion of the last line of a latin 
epigram of Crashaw, the first col-* 
lection of whose poems was pub* 
lished in 1646. The line alluded 
to is the following. 

Lympha pudka Deum vidit & crabuk. 

- This veiy epigram was after- 
wards translated by Aaron Hill, 
one of the heroes of the Dunciad> 

and passed for an origiiHd« 


When Christ at Cana*s feast by power divine 
Inspired cold water with the warmth of wine. 
See i cried they, while In reddening tide It gnsh*d 
tlw bashful itrcim hath lico UiXJod aad Uoihad. 

It was said by Aikin of the late 
Dr. Enfield, tltat he was perfect 
master of what may be called the 
middle etylc. If any living author 
may claim the honour of succeed- 
ing to this character it is Aikin 
himself. His « letters to his 
son" should be in the hands of 
every young man, upon hb en- 
trance into the world, in preference 
to Little's poems ; and his « let- 
ters to a young lady upon a course 
of English poetry" are worth at 
least as much as any bonnet in 
Cornhill. There is a chastencss 
of sentiment, a susceptibility of 
poe ical beauty, a coolness of ded* 
sion, and a liberality of mind dis- 
co^ ered in every line of this en- 
gaging writer, which show the 
influence of literature on a mind, 
which perhaps bears no very ori- 
ginal stamp, but b solid enough 
to take a polish, and pure enough 
to reflect rays of genius^ and of 



The editor of this work de- 
serves the thanks of his country- 
men for his perseverance in the 
ungrateful task of disciplining the 
taste of a money -getting age. I 
will ventufe to say that the literary 
history of modem times does not 
Ornish a more honourable instance 
of a miscellany devoted exclusive- 
ly to elegant literature, and relying 
for support on the intellectual 
sympathy and lettered generosity 
of a people, whose literary exports 
are so few, and so unprofitable, 
and who will long find, I fear, 
that the balance of trade is against 
them* We were glad to see this 
popular work assume at the begin- 
ning of the year a more graceful 
and convenient costume. If it 
would retain the admiration of the 
elegantium fonuarum spcctatorcs, 

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let it exhibit no wanton airs, no 
wicked looks, no Cjrpiian gestures. 
Mille habet arnatus ; let lis be al- 
ways authorized to add, miUc dc' 
center habet, 


I WAS long puzzled to know who 
was the bishop of Aleria, mention* 
cd in Johnson's prefisice to Shake- 
speare, as the father of conjectural 
criticbm. I have since foimd that 
his name was John Andrew, that 
he was secretary of the Vatican li- 
brary, and was employed, at the 
first introduction of printing into 
Rome, in revising manuscripts, 
writing prefaces and dedications, 
and correcting proofs. Pope Paul 
II. appointed him to the bishop- 
rick of Aleria in the island of Cor- 
nea, where he died in the year 
1493. ^ The republick of letters 

b indebted to him for on edition 
of Livy and of Auhis Gellius, 
printed at Rome, in &Uoy 1469 ; 
of Herodotus in 1475 ; and of 
Strabo, printed at Venice, in folioy 
in 1472 ; he also edited the epis- 
tles of Cyprian, and the works of 
St. Leo." 


Trb foUoNving epigram was 
written by Sannazarius, upon the 
erection of two bridges over the 
Seine, by Jucundus or Giocondoy 
who was afterwards joined with 
Raphael and San Gallo, after the 
death of Bramante, in superintend- 
ing the erection of St. Peter's. The 
point cannot be preserved in En- 

Jucundus geminos fecit tibi, 8equ«iU| 

pontes : 
lore tnum potit banc ^SxMXt pwti/Um^ 



Collected ia • tow ttuough tb^ coontry la 1803, by M. Fcmew. 

From the Monthly Magazine^ 

THE lateness of the season and 
other circumstances obliged me 
to use greater expedition on my 
return through Italy, than I had 
intended. I have not, therefore, 
been able to make all the inquiries 
I wished into the state of the liter- 
ature and the arts in upper Italy. 
The few notices which 1 shall now 
communicate compose my whole 

I know not whether you have 
heard of the new Academia Ital" 
iana. It has existed about two 
^ears,and has this peculiarity, that 
It has no fixed place of residence. 
Ks members, among whom are 
the most celebrated literati in ev- 
ery department of wcicncc, and 

Vol. III. No. 4. Y 

many of the first artists, are dis- 
persed throughout all Italy, tt 
has likewise foreign associates ia 
France, England, and Germany, 
whose number was at first fixed at 
foi-ty, but which is now intended to 
be augmetited to an hundred. The 
present president of the Academy 
is Count Vargas, who Is known to 
the publick by his Saggio sull' Efi" 
fiigramma Greco^ and other literary 
labours. He now resides at Na- 
ples. I called, at Siena, upon the 
secretary, Sachetti, who carries on 
the conxspondence of the Acade- 
my, and superintends the publica- 
tion of its Transactions, in order 
to inquire more minutely into the 
constitution and objecta of this 

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J!RfR¥1P ^^rf> Of i|TWATu|i?i 4«» 

0ocicjy, whiph, j| B^i^rf time pre- 
ti9Vis tp iw depaimr? ftpro Rpmp, 
^i4 me % Ui9np^r i« ej^ec^ n^ ^ 

, I sp^^t t>fp dftyi ai: %j>a, sm^ . 
Va3 employed tlve grc^^f t p^?t of 
Ibat Unte in vi^wir^ tbe Stenese 
school, with which I hact feefgre 
Kut an imperfect acquakitance. Its 
finest nias^er-piec^ bjavfi fortii- 
tiat»:Iy; been preserved froja the 
tempest of the revolution, probajt 
filjr hec^i^e in Fr^ce thi? schoo^ 
i£i ies3 knp^ than it deserves to 
be/ ^ saw m the churches i^ gre4 
iiuna^rof exquisite pictures by 
^altha^^ PeVuzzi, Sodena, Caso^ 
lani, 9M others, which, }n colour* 
^S ^d^ expression, far excel the 
works* of the Florentine school, of 
the same l»erx>dt The mannerists 
of tills scfiooi, however, \^gkk 
yv^ ]^ca«]iini, an^ Vmk,^ 
since their titne, it has funushed 
no productions of merft* I cojobl 
not procure a sight of the cele-^ 

Umtd ^dQQ% paipt^9 in 12?U 

by Guido di Siena, which ens^Udd 
the Sienese to dispute with the 
Florentines the' inerik of tiieir 
Cimabue m the pestora^on of 
painting ; for the church of St. 
Dofnenicoy ^here It fbrmerlj 
]iung, wa^ destroyed by the late 
fi^rthquake, and the pictures have 
bc^en reipoved fix>ip it tp ^ place 
lo which I coidd not obtaia admitr 
tance* The paintings ei^cuted 
by Pinturkcbib, apd by Rafuel 
d'Vrbiuo in bis early youth, whi^h 
arc placed in the library adjoining 
the cathedral, were mu^h mor^ 

Steresting to me tha^ the floor oif 
e latter figured by Bei^cafumL 
If wkh diesp productions yoii 
compare those of Pinturipchio's 
pencil, ajone, the superrority of 
Rafkera genius immediately ap^ 
peart* The gaUer^ of Span- 
jsocchi and Saracirvi are Ukewise 
vorthgi^, g£ notice » thi^ cpntai^ 

Wany good ^pi^s by $iff>e«| 
pa^i^rs, together with fOWip ^api- 
t^ pno^Mcti^nf of Qfii^v ikliools. 

At lieghqjT^ J \f *» »»!W QuripM» 
to see the library of Q^^et^p Pog-. 
giali, a man of letters, and the 
propriet9V hiriv^e^ .^e is a mem* 
tier ^f^|>^ A.ca4exay of FlQ^i^^pe, 
aa4QI^ pC the ppepft 9ie^4^^ Crusr 
cqnti, He is 9^i:\y- qi^CHl^ ii^' 
^ndeavou^ig; to ^^ to th^ r^put^t 
tion of the Ut^ratur^ pf bjia l^tiv^ 
cp^yitry, by editiftpa ^ cl^^K 
works, fC)folttpL^g elcgaixc^ fWi 
th^ otiTi^ correcln^s. for tjaj^ 
piilVfpose he devp^ ^wp ^% i^ 
th^^ ^eek to the co)i%tio9 of v^^»f^ 
scripts an4 e^ly e^liuons, ipr 
whiph b^ but <bur aa^^g^|i» 
I^<>gg^li> lfl?Wyi wfeujb <<Q^$ai9| 
lOtWfX voluqi^St i^ yi^nyalf^ ^j 
^Y in Italy, ^ igeU pi the apqieDti 
Ofid i»r^ ^tipfii^ of. ^taljpui AUtbQ«!% 
as in those which are more mod- 
ern and elegant. There is not 
a book in it which is not distiiw 
goiah^ eitim ^ ^a ]»r^fc <^l* 
rectnessj or by some other typo* 
graphical excellence. How little 
K wants of being complete, appears 
from the catalogue of the books 
which are still wanting, and whose 
fium^r an^ofots, to alboot aso. 
He besides pos^^sqs a cot^sidera^ 
ble coUection of ma^qsGript8,whJx:h^ 
with the early ediUonS| qccupjf 
anoither ap^qneAt ; a^opg tbesCf 
he shewed me, as the tnost pr^^ 
cioi|s artri:^e ip th<^ ooH^xU^p, a 
ra^pijcripti copy of D^(e, o^ 
porp^ment, which he con^^rs^ 
9fie oi( the i^ost s^p^ient, an^ pi^ 
babiy contemporary with t^ auf 
tbor. Poggiaji has* a design, of 
pi:int£ng this wof^^^^ whiQh €;optajbQf 
a great nnmber ii passages that 
vary cons^en^ly from t^e: ordinal 
ry v^rsioi^s, and would : cl^^ up 
many obscurities ip JDantef tpgetk* 
er with the mi^rc^i copam^tary; 
with which, it i^, accompani^ 

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«rrs 4K irti/tw 


td^y acquired in thirty years 
spent in* coikction ahd stady, is as 
itnifue as his Hbhu'y. He men^ 
tioned that he had tame idea of 
pubHsfaiii^f at one time orothei'} 
a bibtiof^raphy of itaban' titeraCiire. 
Poggiaitt iidk amjiinctian ivitk fdur 
other members of the Acad^myr 
9f FltirdBce, has, ^r several years^ 
been edlecting materials f6r a new 
edition of the great Diuoniario delin 
Cntacih and he shewed i;pe a whoid 
chest iuU of piBperBy which con* 
Udned spoils taken, fior tlnit pm> 
pose, from a multitude of authors 
both ancieiit and nioctera. H^ 
himself wasi unable ^o say whenr 
this new e<tition would appeal^. 
The prescfnt state of wSkkts in Ita-< 
ly is too imfaroitrable to large and 
expeoatve pubfibatioi^, but lie 
thinks that the want of Buch a 
work, whic h is universally expe> 
riehced, woidd procure a consider* 
aUe dediaad for it The Farna^to 
Xf^tH^ha^ whieb appeiared at Leg^* 
bom, twelve years ago, in fifty 
pocket volum,e» ; the collection of 
the MfveiUeri' Iftfikmiy in twenty 
ive volume^ octavo, and the nvioH&s 
of Machiavelli, in ^ volun&es octa- 
VO) besides many other \(orks of 
aneient Italian authors^ yiory elo*> 
gantly printed at the sanoie piaee^ 
w^re edited' by PoggiaU, ane are 
regarded as the most coftect edir- 
tions. Witii respect to- IVJaphiar 
yellif who is his favourM^ author,- 
be told me, that he imended tQf 
publish another splendid edition, » 
inferiour in no respect to Didot's 
or Bbdooi's, and then he could die 

Tiie impreteion prodtlcejl by 
the cathedral of SK*na) togetl>er- 
with the BuHisterio and tlic haiig^ 
in^ tower, situated in a remote 
and solitarj^ spot, where you scaix:e- 
ly meet a human creature, is sin^ 
gmku* and striking. * The spectator 

invites BmselftiiUiapdrted into 
another age, or into a country of 
the East. The decepticm wafe 
heightened by the unexpected 
^ight of a train of ten or twelve 
ioad^^ameki which J^assed just 
at the mdmaitt,when we Were letf\B- 
ing the cathedral tb |*o to the Bath 
ttstetto. .Ab6ut a Jeague fsom 
Sjfena a <ok)ny of these animals 
has be^n estabUshed, where thef 
propagate, anid are emjrfoyed is 
^tarrying burdc-ns. In the catho* 
dralof Siena, among the multi* 
tude of large ^cttii^s which de* 
collate the walls, I found only ctoe 
go6d piece, by Perin dd VagJi a 
in the rest Are scarcely worth 
looking at 

The pnuMihg-estabBsfasnent^ of 
the Typdgn^hvcal Sodety of Pi^ 
is a recent) but appar^tly a stxc^ 
oessful institution. The works 
printed at it are (Qstingtusfaed by 
the beauty of the letters, the gbod* 
ness of the pitper, Und the ycorrect-' 
ness of the impressiotK. As » 
proof I need only jnehtibn the new 
edition of Gesarotti's Works, of 
whieb nine were printed 
when J was at Pisai The tentlf 
will contain the Academick Dis- 
courses of the author, which Were 
pever before published. Rpsina, 
a man of letters, who conducts 
this establishQient, gave me ^e 
first sheets of the volume. The 
discoursed , are written with great 
ejoc^uence as well as elejgance/ 
Among the living authors of Italyy 
Cesarotti is, without dispute, one 
ol* those wlio possess the greatest 
talents and the mo;5t polished taste. 
The Society hfts announced splen- 
did fuiio editions of the four first 
classick poets of Italy, Dante) Pc 
trurpa, Ariosto, and Tasso. The 
number of subscribers w^s com- 
plete, but they had not yet com- 
menced printing. I, however, saw- 
a pi*oo& sheet of Dante, with wh#si^ 

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paxssinr statb cy umATumx a«i> 

works th€f be{^. The paper 
and impression were very beauti* 
fiili but the form appeared rather 
too long in proportion to the 
breadth. The collection will 
form twelve volumes, each of 
which wilt cost three sequins (about 
1/. 10#. English,) and the works 
of each author will be accompani* 
cd with his portrait, engraved by 
Morghen. It is now the fashion 
to prut the name of each subscri* 
ber on the Ititle of his copy, and 
that method will be followed with 
this work. The Society likewise 
prints a literary journal, which 
seldom pronounces any opinion 
where it cannot praise, and mere? 
1y inserts a notice or extracts. 
The greatest part of the works of 
which it treats are foreign, and 
principally Frenph ; the literature 
of France being now exclusively 
cultivated in Italy. The native 
productions are so £ew, that a iour^ 
T)al, devoted only to Italian htera-* 
ture, could scarcely be supported, 
especially if it were obliged to ap-i 
pear regularly at stated periods. 

• At Florence I could not stop 
longer than four days ; and what 
are four days in a city which, next 
to Rome, contains the mpst nu<^ 
merous and the most precious 
treasures of the arts, and where 
four months would scarcely be 
sufficient to survey, with proper 
attention, all that is worthy of no- 
tice ? I immediately relinquished 
the idea of seeing every thing, and 
c<mfined myself to the most capital 
works and the first-rate artists re- 
siding in that city. The Palazzo 
Pitti is now scarcely worth th^ 
trouble of going to see it. The 
French carried off between sixty 
and seventy pictures, and among 
them all the good pieces \t con-r 
tained. In the Gallery I missed 
not a single article, either statue 
•rpictik;e, excepting the Venus 

de Medici. The two statues of 
the family of Niobe (the second 
daughter and the son, who lies 
dead and extended on the groiuid,) 
together with other pieces which 
had been removed to Palermo, 
had recently been brought back, 
and, to my great joy, I found them 
in their former places; The stat* 
uary, Santarelii,a native of Rome, 
who had resided, for the last ten 
years, at Florenct, is one ollkthe a- 
blest artists In his line. He likewise 
imbosses portraits in wax, and his 
success in taking likenesses pro-, 
cured him abundance of employ- 
ment during the war. He has like- 
wise much talent for mechanicks. 
At the house of Fabre, a pupil of 
David*s school, who obtained some 
distinction in the last exhibition of 
the Academy of Rome, before the 
death of Ba&seville, and has, since 
that period, constantly resided at 
Florence, I saw an historical pic- 
ture, the subject of which is taken 
from Alfieri's Tragedy of Saul, 
and represents a vision of that 
king, tormented by his evil con- 
science. It would be difficult to 
discover the subject, without some 
explanation ; but the artist, in ex, 
cusc of himself, says, that he 
ohose this circumstance at the 
particular desire of Alfieri, who 
had much m^re talent for the 
composition of a tragedy, than 
of a picture. I never observed in 
any modem painter such a per- 
fect execution of all the parts, such 
a masterly disposition of the co- 
lours ; and in the mechanical part 
of his profession Fabre is indispun 
tably as accomplished an artist as 
can possibly exist. The plan and 
ground of the picture, which com-s 
prise a good deal of landscape, are; 
so exquisitely beautiful with regard 
to the disposition, colours, and 
proportions, that, excepting Rein^ 
hart, I know no l^dscapCTptgint^r 

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who could excel it. The same 
commendation may be given to all 
the Qtker subordinate parts of tho 
]iiece, but does not apply to the 
principal object : for accuracy in 
the details, brilliancy in the colour- 
ing^, and the highest degree of per- 
fecdon in the execution, are not 
sufficient to form a good dramatick 
picture : and those are almost 
the only good qualities of this 
piece. The composition is patch- 
tdj the action theatrical, the ex- 
pression overcharged, and the 
style has the usual faults of the 
French school ; the figures are 
invariably muscular, the drapery 
precisely folded into a thousand 
small plaits, and the light thrown 
vpon the most brilliant colours, so 
that the eye has no repose, except- 
ing in the landscape. The car- 
Bation resembles ivory, and the na- 
ked parts arc daubed. The tone 
of the whole is much too glar- 
ing and lively for a grave subject. 
At the same artist's I saw several 
£iis portraits, in which his great 
mechanical merit is ably displayed. 
Among these were the portraits of 
General Clarke, who commands at 
Florence, and of the Queen of 
Etniria, both striking likenesses. 
Fabre possesses a beauti&l ancient 
portrait, which he attributes to Ra-» 
pbael, and six admirable land^ 
scapes, two by Caspar, two by 
Poussin, and two by Annibal Ca^ 
lacci, which are all in the highest 
preservation, and are alone a sufV 
fident inducement to visit the art- 
ist. Another French painter, nam-r 
cd Desmareas, likewise deserves 
the traveller's notice. He belongs 
also to the French school, but a 
greater contrast cannot exist thai^ 
between him and Fibre, and it is 
interesting to see the former im- 
mediately after the latter. Fabre 
has neither invendon nor fire ; his 
whole ai:t is mechanical, and he 

aims only at neatness and perfec- 
tion, with which he charms the 
eye of the amateur. Desmarez 
possesses the talent of invention, 
fire, and energy ; he is partial to 
grave,pathetick,andtragick scenes, 
and his colouring is suitable to the 
gravity of his subjects, but it is 
rude, inaccurate, inharmonious 
and rather repuiuve than agreea- 
ble to the eye. He has more taU 
ent than art. If both agree in any 
point, it b in tliat which they de** 
rive from their common school ; in 
the theatrical disposidon and over- 
charged expression of the postures 
and attitudes^n which consists the 
real essence of the French school, 
and, .perhaps, generally of the 
French manner of considering na- 
ture. Desmarez, however, incon- 
testably possesses a genius for 
dramadck painting, and a creative- 
ima^inadon, of which Fabre is 
destitute ; only it is a pity that he . 
has been spoiled by his school. 
All the composiUons I saw at his 
house, consisting principally of 
small sketches, painted in oil, were 
of tragick subjects ; for instance, 
the death of Lucretia, the death 
of Virginia, the death of Cesar, 
&c. a dying Cato, as large as life, 
tearing his bowels out of his body, 
is a truly horrible figure, which he 
executed for Lord Bristol, and had 
almost completed ; but as that ec- 
centrick Mscenas of the arts is 
now dead, he will scarcely find 
another customer for it. This tlie 
ardst himself apprehended when I 
brought him the unexpected ac- 
count of his Lordship's death from 
Rome. It was late before Desma- 
rez embraced the profession. The 
revolution, which has otherwise 
been so prejudicial to the arts, 
brought them, in him, a worthy 
pupil. Before the revolution he 
was secretary to the French em- 
bassy at Stockholm, and practised 

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•tbiftklMMra htWa JDcvm amuae** 
Vieot I but when he loft that posty 
ka<to^p«lad hunaelf to the aft with 
4110I1 asal a]l4 suocesa, that he baa 
wrivod at this dtg^e of pex&ctaoa 
atk the aosst difficult of its branches. 
He ia aalU ia the prune of lifet 
aothal probafaiy bis talents mmf 
Dot yet be completeiy develo^d. 
lieliveacnftirelfHibts aiily has a 
ciiltimtedt mdettandio^y gravky of 
.oharaotefyand yet great vhiacity in* 
oooveffsatiofi. I ahouid rather have 
takei^ tbisartist for aa Italnn tban^ 
a FrencJifnaw, and to me bis ac- 
yiatntaan^ was eaitremely intev- 
«linga You nay be sore I did 
^oioottt to /visit our worthy ooun-^ 
tvyiDaft^DoaFi^i{^)o<Hackert. He 
4aQs- not indeed raside bere^ as he 
did^at N^^los^in a royal mansion, 
Iwt he; has handaome and spaoious 
afiartinoota in a^ pakce ;. and the 
great? numbor of his works, some 
jttat^eguo, others half finished or 
ciflBfdeted^ proves him, notwitb- 
fltondiny Hs^iac r eas m g agt^^to be 
0ie same active and in^strious 
artis* that be has been aA his^ life. 
Thnoui^fa the immense muhittide 
of I»ece8i whkb he has contiauatly 
ifkhand, hisart has at length be^ 
Gome-purely aaechanical. Htick- 
oil composes lintle ; he has enjoy- 
ed the felicity of residing the bttst 
part of his life in a country, where* 
nature is. so h^hly picttiiresque 
that the artist may produce a fine 
picture by only copying the views, 
aad filling up.the fore-^roond, not 
so miKzh from his own invention 
as from studies after nature* Of 
this description are most of Hack- 
ert'a pieces. To the poetry of the 
art he never attained. His land- 
saapes arepoetick only in the same 
degree aanatui^, which he copied, 
po68essed«|>oetick character. His 
distances are in general fine, and 
have the genuine tone of an Ital- 
ian ciim»|e^ Almost all his mid- 

dle cproMnds are Aow of a imifbili 
bright greent and his fort-grounds 
of a pale blmah gfeen tolout*, 
wbidi not rarely destroys the haiw 
mony .of the back-grounds. The 
fignrer commonly introduced into 
htt pictures are the shepherds* 
shepherdesses, herdsmen, and 
cattle of those countries where be 
found his origimd^ ; but the ladies 
and gentlemen, with whom he was 
£re^ently obliged to decorate the 
landscapes which he i>aiBted at 
Naples for the kii^g, are intdersii 
ble^ Hackert was just employed 
^pon three landscapes, destined 
for Wdmer, ail of whkh werp 
about half finish^. It Was the 
latter end of July ^hm I saw him,, 
and yet he asfiured me that alir 
thner wookt l;>e sent off to Weimcr 
in September. Two jt>f tbesn, ar 
View near Rome from |thc Vilhi 
Madama, over Pont Molle^ of the( 
Sabine Mountains, illuminated by^ 
the setting Sun ; and andtlier c^ 
Hcaole and the Vale of Amcv 
near Florence, are for the Duke' 
of Weinier, and the third for aa^ 
Englisb gentleman residhi^in that 
town. Of the other numerous* 
paintings of this artist, whieh I 
saw, I shall say nothing. A per*- 
son can scarcely look at all Uax^k.- 
ert's painting in two Hours ; they" 
fin two spaaous r<'<^^ <^^ forpi 
a small gallery. The spectator 
would be induced to believe, that 
they are the productions ef severw 
al persons, though they arc the 
labour of hb hands alone. I can-* 
not, however, deny, that Hackert's 
whole sysu^m has something of 
the air of a manufactory. 

I should like to say a few word^ 
concerning the master-pieces of 
modem spulpture, the statues of 
Michael Angelo Buonarotti, in th« 
Capella del Deposit!, the architect 
tecture of which is the work of the 
same artist. But when a perspti^ 

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il is ^xacdf tUs wUkh mmB(i% tm 
au^paeat th« acfaniratioiiof tb«M 
"WOrk^ : you admive thoir mafpi^ 
tu<i% tbclr orig^naJ^ciiaractejr ; bv^ 
you 93t% a8lQBi&h«d ;a^«he gigaoticl^ 
mind wkkh could creau auch% 
worid. No artist has dasfilaydl^ 
himsetf m his works with such 
trutht such strength, and such uni- 
foroiity, a» Miehaal Aagislo. Ho 
^Yory where appears tho sauo, but 
<ixUy at different naomeius and po«r 
nods of his Ufe. Thus^ibr ezaai^ 
pkfl in the cielin^ of ScxUia'« 
cha^iel) ho nppeai»>Bi the flower o^ 
hiff g^iius ; «vtbe Last J:wdgiaciir 
be^ a vig^rooa okk sniiv futt o£ 
profouadexpetieneo and maturat 
energy^ ;. but: the bkM8oi» of hi^ 
gjenius hasc faded) and yoUr nay 
perceive tha;k hiS' ait gfowsr oUV 
with himv Lasti)s is has two pi&i* 
tur^ m the Pauline chapel> w» 
viaw hftos, together wUh Yoa aity ia 
tho woalBiese and decrepitude oC 
hoary^ ago» But while I ant 8p«ok>* 
ingi of the. artiat^ I vua the risk 06 
forgetting has works.^ I iateaded 
t0 say aoraething coacemiBg; ther 
Four Perieda of the Day^ andhi» 
figure of: Gdu]iao0de Medici (who, 
in the Hioraing of Ule, was^ phiag-* 
ed iaio) the gloomy empioe o£ 
death,) which, for^the Uvxng.«nd 
speaking expn'essKm'ie the poiii^ 
tidQ and attitude) ia^ inkpitahle^ 
Qn the earoGfihagus at his feet, lie 
tbertwQ e^^iqiiLiitt, figures, Aurora^ 
and I Cropnaculo. The fermer. 
shews that. Michael- Angelo waa 
aensiUe to. female beauty, and 
knew perfectly well how to ex- 
press k ; but beauty of a su- 
blQnti of a grare character: Tfte, 
cbarming; fine of Aurem ia ani-^ 
neated l^ fUkexpceesien^of.' md** 
ifturhoty, which imparts to it a; 
moving interest. The body and 
limbs of this figure are exquisitely 
formed and disposed. In the 
bosom, howefer, Michael Angelo's 

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PElKSBirr STATt e» l.rtBll*ttJMl, 8cc. IN ITALt. 

idea of female bcautf docs not ap^ 
pear founded on the most perfect 
model ; for in this figure, as well 
as in that of Nighi, the bosom is 
faulty ; the two hemispheres are 
placed at too great a distanCei and 
their form is not handsome. But 
so much the more bold, powerful, 
and masculine is the broad chest 
of Crepusculo, who, as well as Day, 
is throughout of a f^gantick, co- 
lossal nature, cnergetick, and won- 
derful, such as Michael Angdo 
alone knew how to create. I can- 
not say much in commendation of 
Night, though muck celebrated by 
poets. Considered impartially, 
she Is a huge caricature on woman, 
presenting disagreeable forms snd 
striking disproportions, whether 
you examine her unnaturally long, 
flat body, (Usfigured whh folds and 
wrinkles ; or the leg, which is 
inuch too long for the thigh ; or 
the ugly bosom, ot the ungraceful 
position ; in which last quality 5he 
is rivalled by Day, her companbn 
on the tame sarcophagus. Night 
has been praised because her sleep 
is so perfectly natural ; the ex- 
pression of tlie tiace is certainly a 
true representation of a person in 
sound sleep ; but who sleeps in 
such a constndned posture ?* Next 
to the original magnitude of these 
figures, the manner in which they 
are executed demands the admira- 
tion of the conncnsseur, and the 
study of the artist. The figures 
are not quite finished in many 
partS) and still cleave here and 

• That tboe four figvret ate intended to rep- 
resent the four timet of the day,...Dajr and 
Miehr, Anrora and 'rwUlcht,...we are ihiormed 
oiuy by tradieion } and It should be observed, 
that, with Ihe ejcception of Night, who b asleep. 
none of the figures luve any charactcristick te 
ctoflnii inch • mppottttoa. 

there to the rude block of marble 
which serves for their basis ; but 
where they are finished, the chisel 
has been employed with wonderful 
ability. Michael Angelo knew not 
how to paint ih marble likeCanova, 
but how to sketch and to model 
with the chisel. All the parts on 
which the light falls, and which 
are exposed to the view, are finish- 
ed in the highest degree, almost 
to a polish ; on the contrary, in 
those which recede into the shade, 
or are otherwise withdrawn from 
the view, the chbel is perceived 
%vithout any farther polbh« No 
neglect appears in the form, which 
is every where equally perfect and 
complete, but merely in the puts 
which are concealed ; thb negli- 
gence however, ovinces the genius 
of a master. This liberty taken 
by Michael Angelo with the ine- 
characal portion of his art, this 
evident OMitempt for everything 
superfluous (for whatever is not 
essential, and at most- can only 
please the eye) gives to his execu- 
tion (hat solemn grandeur and 
boldness, that lofty and haughty 
character, which are peculiar to 
his productions. But I must part 
from you, ye sublime creations of 
the sublimest genius, who sheds 
a lustre upon the age of modem 
art ; I must leave the sanctuary 
which incloses you, perhaps for 
ever. Adieu, ye noble forms I 
never may the rude hands of bar- 
barians drag you from your native 
home ! And thou sublime, divine 
genius ! drop a spark of thy fiery 
spirit into our enervated art, and 
inspire it anew with more solemn, 
more grand, aad more manly con- 

To be continued. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

tMs KtUkuktlk* 



^hannl«M milth and salutary wo. JoHNiotr. 

m. 8* 

It b the opinioD of some per- 
sons by no means deficient in good 
sense and respectability, that the- 
atrical representations are injuri- 
ous to the morals of a people. Im- 
prest with this conviction they op- 
posed the establishment of a thea- 
tre in this town^ and now, in many 
instances, abstain from attending it. 

Prejudices of this nature arise 
from a narrow education and ig- 
norance of the world ; since no 
civilized people ever existedj a- 
xnong whom the dramatick muse 
was not a distinguished favourite^ 
whose smiles have been codrted, 
and whose labours have been ap* 
plauded by the best and wisest 
men of all nations. 

It would be superfluous to recur 
to the sages of antiquity, and in- 
form the reader, that Socrates and 
Cicero were in the habit of attend-* 
ing theatrical exhibitions, the lat- 
ter of whom Was bound by the 
closest ties of intimacy and affec- 
tion to the eelebriated Roscius. It 
might plausibly be objected, that 
these men, though virtuous and 
wise, were yet pagans, and conse- 
quently not obliged to lead the 
strict exemplary life which chris-f 
tianity requires. It ill becomes 
those, who have embraced the gos- 
pel, to encourage by their pres- 
ence the idle amusements of a 
wicked world, and to sit listening 
for hours together, amidst a pro- 
miscuous crowd, to the studied hu- 
mours and fictitious distresses of 
buffoons and mimicks. But if it 
can be shown, that the great 
teachers of christian morality, and 
defenders of christian doctrines^ 

Vol. m. No. 4. Z 

have not only attended, but vmtteh 
plajrs, it will follow, that theatres 
are by no means so dangerous as 
bigotry and ignorance apprehend. 
Addison, Young, and Johnson 
Were tiot mch, who would know- 
ingly have encouraged immoral- 
ity, or have lessened the influence 
of religion. 

The first of these writers wrot<i 
in defence of revelation, and was 
not less distinguished by his piety 
than his literature. 6ince the in- 
vention of letters, tio mortal authoi* 
ever produced so wonderful an efJ 
feet on the morals and manners 
of society. He brought philoso- 
phy from the libraries of the learn- 
ed, and introduced hct* at tlie 
toilettes of ladies. During the 
publication of the Spectator, na- 
tional improvement became visible, 
conversation took a more inter- 
esting and edifying turn, dulness 
ahd iifipeHinence fled before the 
mighty magician^ and even infidel** 
lly lost a portion of her audacity, 
and grew more modest and unas-^ 
sUmiog. Now thk great sage not 
only attended plays, but in the 
immortal work alluded to, which 
was expressly written (or the reli- 
gious and moral improvement of 
a nation, frequently discusses the- 
atrical subjects, and passes nume- 
rous encomiums on his contem- 
porary dramatists- Nay, he wrote 
plays himself, and his tragedy of 
Cttto, whilst it increased his repu- 
tation as a writer, in no respect 
diminished his authority as a moral 
and religious instructor. 

Dr. Young was distinguished 
by a reli^ous sensibility, wiacli 

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rAz REM^AnrkB. 

bwdcred on cnthuahoitv. Yet 
chnitkiiv and clergyman as he 
was, he thought it neltlier incon- 
sistent with his profession, nor 
derog,*tory from his dig^nily, to 
write plays. His Uevengc, one 
of the noblest productions in our 
l^inguage, will reuitiin au ever- 
lastuig monument of hi» genius, 
and will be read and acted as long 
as that lajiguage shall Ui uiider- 

If any iian of the last century 
stands, eminently high in his re 
%ious> HKiraJ, and literary char- 
acter, that man is Dr. Samuel 
J^ihnsoa. This great moralist, 
notv.'Ithstanding the strictness of 
his principles, was^ fond of the 
tframa, and was the intimate friend 
•f David Garrick. He would 
probably have writLen many plays, 
bad hi<i Irene succeeded, but on 
t\\i: \\\ success of this piece turned 
his attcnilon to other departim:nt&. 
of iitci'ature. 

Let none thcrefoi'e, who do not 
surpass the moral and religious 

worth of i^ldison, Yotrag< ani 
Johnson, mveigh agidnst the ini" 
moral tendency of dramatick ex-- 
hibkions. The charge is not true 
at the present day, and were Jere^ 
my CoiUer to rise from the grave, 
he might justly ridicule the insip- 
idity, bi^t could pot truly arraign 
tilt; morality of th^ modem draim^ 
Unfounded censures of this nature 
ought to be confined to the monks 
of the cli^ibter, or the fanaticks of 
the tabernacle- As Johnson exr 
presses it in my motto, * harmless 
mi4'th and salutary wo' are at pres- 
ent the mnocent offspring of the 
theatre, and I have sometimes ex- 
IK'riencedas much ediiBcation from 
a good play as from a good ser- 
mon. But sh9uld the play chance 
to be some modem novelty, of no 
intrinsick worth, yet still I can de- 
rive much amusement fit)m the 
talents of the mere distinguished 
performers, the broad farce of 
Twaits, the chaster humour of 
Bernai'd, and the buskined dignKy 
and- electrifying enei;gy of Cooper*^ 


'nanUAted for the AntMiogf from La Dect^b 

We- sometimes meet in the 
world those pleasant originals, 
whose part here below seems in- 
tended to serve only for the amuse- 
ment and instruction of thdr fellow 
creatures. I have jugt made an 
slcquaintance with a being of this 
nature. His history might fill 
volumes ; but as I have neither 
the time nor inclination to write, t 
shall content myself M'ith offerihgp 
only a slight sketch of his charac- 

Giacomo Delia Rocca was bom 
in Italy on the banks of the Tiber, 
and not £ar distant from the most 

celebrated city in the universe.^ 
He was most uncommonly prone 
to be dissatisfied with every thiug 
aroimd him . At the age of twentf 
he made an examination of every 
different government, without be-^ 
ing able to discover one to which 
he could accommodate himself. 
This throne was fbunded on the 
ruins of liberty, that was tottering 
to its fall ;. on a third was seated 8^ 
vicious prince r in another mo- 
narehyr there were too many wise 
institutions ; farther on,cvery thing 
seemed to him in disorder. In 
oUe republick mdies only vftst cs^ 

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THE 3LAn or DiSCOirrEIfT. 


teemed ; In another all was dis- 
simuladon ; this was composed 
only of speculators ; that of proud 
supercilious nobles : and as to all 
the others it was difficult to deter- 
mine what tJiey were. Though 
he had a clviice, and thoi^h the 
forms of government were very 
Tarious, yet S. Delia Rocca, from 
these circu^nstances,•^ras not more 
happy. Sole heir of an immense 
fbrtuDe, he was highly caressed 
by his parents, wbo,observing with 
anxiety the gloomy and discontent- 
ed characterof their son, proposed 
that he should trareL 

But alas here \vas another eno*- 
Jbarrassment i what climate could 
find attractions for him who was 
hOTti under the mild skies «f Italy, 
in the bosom of tliat country, the 
nursery of the arts, on tliat fertile, 
favoured soil ! He might indeed 
seek for other men in order to com- 
pare them with his fellow countiy- 
mcity to gain experience and know- 
ledg^e of human aature ; but to 
seek a country more blessed by 
the orb of day, more caressed by 
nature ! . . . . this would be mad- 
ness. No matter ;'it is the wish 
of S. Delia Rocca to travel : it is 
indeed the only means of diverting 
his mind. His parents agree to it^ 
and consent to the departure of 
their son. 

To what country shall he go ? 
This is not easy to dedde upo». 
To England? There the weather 
is too cold, the atmosphere is thick* 
cned with fog ; there they bum 
coal ; the people are so independ- 
ent, that they can insult you with 
impunity ; in that country they 
live on fiesh ; a most horrible re- 
past for S. Delia Rocca* No, we 
will not go to flngland. 

Shall we to the North ? Then 
we should perish with cold. I will 
not hear of Scandinavia. Prussia 
Sfi too military. In Germany there 

is too much ceremony. The ice of 
theNonhi;. melancholy and danpcr- 
ons. The Heh eliiai is not jHjlished 
cnoui'h, Batana is a low.nmrshy 
coaintry. The lar of Briibant is 
damp, thick, and unhealthy. In 
Turkey the women are condemned 
to seclusion, or only permitted to 
appear veiled. Poland is a flat,uni^ 
form country, ^nd S. Delia f^occa 
loves variety. All that might have 
determined him for this lastcountry 
is, that his mother possessed a great 
estate there. But interest was not 
his inducement for travelling, and 
in this respect all countries were 
indifferent to Iiim. Assailed by a 
thousand desires, he sees only a 
tiresome iinifonnlty in the happi- 
ness he enjoyed : a mild, temper 
j*ate cfimate was necessary to Gia- 
como, where there was a variety 
of seasons ; a land inhabited by a<* 
miable, lively, graceful, sensible 
women, and by men of an affabili- 
ty of mRnncrs, whose occupations 
were varied, and to whom the ennui 

of life was unknown Behold 

then S. Delia Rocca in the road to 

HowjBvcr teeming with pleasures 
is this theatre of wonders, it is yet 
incompetent to fulfil the wishes 
of a madman, %vhose misfortune is 
an eternal desire of novelty. The 
women were not such as his iroa« 
gination had painted them : there 
was to much assurance in their 
air ; no modesty bowed down their 
heads ; they possessed the talent 
of smiling,without the inclination ; 
of being absent from design ; of 
lookeig upon one object without 
perceiving it, only to contemplate 
another to which their eyes were 
not apparently directed ; of listen- 
ing,without hearing ; of welcoming 
with kindness thoae^for whom they 
fck only disgust ; one held negU* 
gently to her eye an opera glass, 
for which she had no need ; an- 

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Other supported the gaze of the 
beholder with an air of ignorance 
that she was the object of con* 
tcmplalion, and, in order to shew 
a delicate hand, knew how to re*- 
move a lock of hair which in no 
way incommoded her ; in short, 
thp eyes of this one would have ap- 
peared entirely lifeless, without the 
fire of voluptuousness, or the 
lightning of envjr ; and the red 
and white had replaced on her 
complexion the roses and lilies. 
He did not tell me under what as- 
pect he beheld the men, or what he 
thought of tliem ; all that I know 
is, that he soon embarked for 

The war had just ceased, and 
the new world oftercd to tlie old 
m form of government which pos- 
sibly might satisfy S. Delia Rocca. 
But he carried also into this coun- 
try his melanchply character.— « 
Life appeaned to him only a mo^ 
ment, tediously prolonged ; the 
air was always too thick or too 
sharp ; the foliage had not variety 
enough of shades ; the morning 
was scarcely different from the 
evening, and one day constantly 
resembled another. Be8ides,they 
might have^ formed inuch better 
laws at Philadelphia ; the people 
had not sufficiently profited by 
their lessons of experience ; they 
ought to have better consulted the 
manners and relations of the state. 
As to the country, it was in vain 
that the striking beauties of an 
immense view, varied by the lux-, 
tiiiant hand of nature, offered 
themselves to his eye. It was not 
for him that bloqmed the enamel 
of the meadows, that the birds 
warbled their songs of melody, that 
the flowers exhaled their perfumes, 
or the rivulets meandered through 
verdant plains. 

I shall not follow our discontent- 
pd fiicud through all his travels, 

and the reader will permit me to 
leave him to pay a viat, alone, to 
the East and West Indies, and to 
Africa, that he might there disap. 
prove of whatever was done, blame 
all customs, all institutions, find* 
ing that the man of nature was too 
savage, and that civilized people 
were too far removed from nature. 

After aP absence of ten years, 
he returned to Europe ; and ar- 
rived just at that period, when the 
division of Poland took place, three 
portions of which had been made 
without its consent. The esUtes 
of our travel ler*s mother, situated 
in a palatinate of the centre, 
were divided into three lots, and 
each of them confiscated ; one by 
the empress of Russia, who was 
not enriched by it ; another by the 
king of the Romans, who had no 
expectation of advantage from it ; 
and the third by the king of Prus- 
sia, who rendered justice only to 
his ancient subjects. Here cer- 
tainly was sufficient to ofiend a far 
moi*e gentle disposition than that 
of S. Delia Rocca. But, by ^ ><>" 
conceivable contradiction, he was 
only moderately affected by it, 
and as he saw nothing more than 
an abuse of the generality of in- 
stitutions, and being most singu- 
larly whimsical, he consoled him- 
self by arguments that would have 
discouraged any ptlier being but 
himselfi '^ Had I to contend with 
but ouc crowned head," said he to 
himsel£^ '^ I would hazard a few 
remonstrances ; but to complain 
to three different princes, one of 
whom might send roe into Sibe-^ 
ria, another imprison me, and 
the third make me a proposition 
to enter his army....I find that 
either of these rewards is not 
worth the trouble that I should 
give myself in obtaining them.'*— 
Therefore he remained quiet. 

This diminution of his (ortuoe> 

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teemed to render hira more rea- 
sonable. What was the cause of 
his reconciliation with mankind 
would have been for others a mo- 
tive for renouncing all connexion 
with them. But he learns that 
the most powerful nation of the 
world has suddenly changed its 
govemment,and is desirous of giv- 
ing itself new laws. Here is a 
fine opportunity for a visionary 
reformer of constitutions, in whose 
eyes all are bad or imperfect ! 
S. DelU Rocca suffers it not to 
escape, and behold liim anew irt 
the capital of this regenerated peo- 
ple. He mingles among schem- 
ers, he examines, he approves^ he 
comments, he adopts. But the 
work, in which he has been assist- 
ipg, is soon replaced by some 
other. His labour commences 
anew : and this project has the 
late of the first ; that is to say, it 
i^ adopted} overthrowni and re- 

Whilst he mmgled in what did 
not concern him, those things 
which ought to have occupied bim 
were disposed of without his 
knowledge. To be brief, his large 
fortune is annihilated. The blow 
had been felt as far as his native 
country, and his estates no longer 
belonged to him in consequence of 
a measure,about which it had been 
forgotten to ask his advice. 

The resuh of this event was 
very happy,becau8e it obliged him 
to call into exercise his resources 
and his talents to gain a subsist- 
ence. He soon contracted the 
habit of era ploy inent, and this habr 
It dissipated the ennui, which till 
then had overwhelmed him. Every 
moment being occupied, there re- 
Tmav>ed no time for him to blanje, 
or, like too many other idlers, to 
regulate the state. 

Having followed all the periods 
of tl^c revolution of the country 

that he inhabited, he had remark- 
ed that he had in no one of them 
discovered a single being content-) 
ed with himself or with those 
around him. At first loud excla-< 
mations wrre uttered ; then,frozen 
by terror, all where hushed to sin 
lence, and driven to concealment ^ 
was there a change, they inveighed 
against it ; was it followed by 
another, they complained. At 
length order appeared on firm 
foundations, property was secured 
and respected, the adversa^;y was^ 
deprived of the means of injuringi^ 
the inclination only remained to 
him. The fugitives were recalled^ 
and the honest man retired to 
his evening's rest, without being 
tormented by the recollection o^ 
the past, or fear of the future. 
Very happily for S. Delia Rocca,^ 
and without doubt for the people 
in the bosom of whom he livedo 
this new order of things coincide^ 
with his ideas. But what was 
his astonishment at the sight of 
these men, who had ardently de- 
sired the reestablish ment of order^ 
and of those, to whom it restored; 
tranquility I Some shook their 
heads, others shrugged their, 
slioulders, a third appeared to sup^ 
press something even while he 
approved, a fourth spoke n;»yst^eri- 
ously, and without explanation. 

Impatient of these ifii and these 
andfy S. Delia Rocca, having 
become a man of gallantry since ho, 
had inhabited a couptry famed for 
the reign of the fair sex, cultin. 
v^ted the society of the la-, 
dies. It was quite another thing !^ 
The old foupd not the French o( 
the present d^y sufficiently gallant;, 
the young complained of the re-v. 
forms that were wished to be in-v^ 
troduced among some very agrees-^ 
ble customs, that had come into, 
vogue within the last seven oj^. 
eight years. 

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S. Delia Rocta finish^ bj con« 
eluding;, both from hia experience 
mnd observations, that man was an 
animal very difficult to please ; 
who, in the midst of real bless^ 
ings, was always occupied about 
some imaginary good. Giaco- 
faoj judging hy the spectacle be- 

fore him how ridiculous he must 
himself have appeared at the tim* 
he was so continually censuring 
every thing around him, corrected 
himself of his follies ; and thus 
the discontent of others has effec* 
tually cured his own. 



RorisE AtJ has been too often ex^- 
tolled as a philanthropist. Mr. 
Burke said of him, that he loved 
his kind and hated his kindi-ed. 
The exposure of his children, by 
whatever sophistry It may be ex- 
cused, is an indelible blot on his 
humanity ; and in\'alidates all his 
pretensions to philanthropy. For, 
can that philanthropy be genuine, 
which is founded on the extinction 
of the parental affections ; and 
which,xvith more than savage bru- 
tality, forsakes the poor innocents 
it brings into the vorld ? 

Every page of Rousseau glows 
with the captivations of that senti- 
mental luxury, of which he is so 
great a roaster ; and which he ar- 
rays in all the blandishments of 
eloquence. Hence the source of 
that admiration, which his writings 
have so universally excited.— 
Though his judgment, as a philo^ 
a'ophcr, was not profound ; yet 
his tase was so exquisite, that he 
strews flowtfrs in the most rugged 
way, and interests the passions 
iand the fancy, in the investigation 
of the most abstract propositions. 
This is his great excellence. 

In his new Eloise, the interest 
consists, not so much in the diverr 
sity or the combination of the in- 
cidents, as in the beauty of the 
sentiment, and the magick of the 
diction. The picture of JuUa is 
highly finished ; but it leaves on 
the mind more impressions of re^ 

From Fdlowtt<^ CItfiftUo I>ai!o(b|ibf. 

spectthan of tenderness, of admir* 
ation than of love — At times she 
appears an heterogeneous mixture 
of apathy and passion, of prudence 
and of coquetry. In some situa* 
tions she wants tenderness, in 
others firmness ; and she is often 
less governed by the Warm im- 
pulses of affection, than by the 
abstractions of philosophy. 

His Emilius, though marked by 
the illuminating touches and the 
oiiginal conceptions of genius, yet, 
considered as a system, is more 
conspicuous foritssingulaiity than 
its truth. It pourtrays a system 
of education, which, if it were uni- 
versally adopted, would keep the 
human species in a state of per- 
manency between light and dark- 
ness, between savage baibarity and 
civilized refinement. It would 
counteract the moral and physical 
improvement of man, the pro- 
gress of knowledge, and the p»ro« 
ductiveness of industry. 

Though Rousseau had little be- 
neficence, yet his writings, breath* 
ing nothing but the reciprocal love 
and kindness and confidence of the 
Golden Age, contributed, by their 
wide diffu^on and their enchanting 
ekx)uence,to render humanity fath- - 
ionable ; and they have, at least, 
this meritf-^that no man can well 
Hse from reading them, without * 
feeling a higher respect for his 

Thate^em? and febrile sen* 

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1»a1i&'a CAAlUCtX^ Ot S^. JOIttlir. 


mkiAxjy which was the characleris" 
tick peculiarity of Rousseau, while 
It proved the origiaof ma&y of his 
lyiiaeries, was, perhaps, a priiici" 
pal source of his greatness. It 
imparted a singular delicacyi fresh-' 
Dess, aad animation to every page 
of his writings. His feelings, in 
wiiatcver channel they flowed, 
ru3lied on with a resistless impet' 
uoaity ; but, in the end, they made 
a wreck of his understanding. 
His judgment waa lost in the un- 
remitting turbulence of his sensa*^ 
lions ; and in some intervals of in- 
sanity, he exhibited the melancho- 
ly prospect of genius crumbling 
into ruins. 

Tlie language of Rousseau was 
always a faithful mirror of what. 
Was passing in the heart ; which 
90W thrilled with rapture, and now 
caged with passion^ Of his style, 
the peculiar characteristick is exu^ 
berance of imagery ; profusion, 
without distinction of lustre. It 
often resembles a landscape, in 
which there is a great assemblage 
ef beautiful forms, without any in- 
termediate spots of barrenness ; 
but without any objects of a strik- 
ing and prominent grandeur ; and, 

in the contemplation of which, the 
eye ts, at last, satiated by the uni-^ 
ibrmity. Yet, highly coloured a« 
is the eloquence ^ Rousseau,! bc-f 
lieve that the generality of readers 
would peruse his works with lea» 
relish, if they were less adorned^ 
And it must be confesaed, that the 
ornaments, with which they are. 
embellished, are not the frippery 
and patchwork of a paltry artisty 
but the rich copiousness of an 
highly saturated imagbation ; and 
they often possess a charm, of 
which even the apathy of the cold-^ 
est critick can hardly be insenublc 
to the fascination. He who wish-. 
es to perfect himself in those deli^ 
cacies of language or curious felici-' 
ties of phraseology, which impress 
a palpable form, a llviog entity oi» 
the fleeting tints and sensations of 
the heart, should carefulfy analyse 
the genius of the style of Rousseau ^ 
should search into the causes, from 
which result the beauty and spkn*^ 
dour of hiB combinations ; and en-^ 
deavour to extract fi'om an atten** 
trve perusal of the Eloise and the 
EmiliUs, a portion of that taste by^ 
which they were inspired^ 



A$ to Jortih, whether I look back 
fb his verse,to hisprose,to his critical 
or to his theological works,there are 
few authors to whom I am^ so much 
indebted for rational entertainment 
or for solid instruction. Learned 
he was, without pedantry. He 
was ingenious, without the affecta- 
tion of singularity. He was a lov- 
er of truth, without hovering over 
the gloomy abyss of skepticism, 
and a friend to frec4nquiry, with- 
out roving into the dreary and 
^thless wiWs of latitudinaiianism. 
ii« had a heart which never dis- 

graced the powers of his under-- 
standing. With a lively imagina- 
tion, an elegant taste, and a judge- 
ment most masculine and iiost 
correct, he united the artless and 
amiable negligence of a school- 
boy. Wit without ai jiature, and' 
sense without eflbrt, he could, at 
will, scatter upon every subject ; 
and in every book, the writer pre- 
sents us with a near and disflfitet 
view of the real man. 

His style, though inartiflciid, i$- 
Bometimes devated : though fe- 
miliar^ it is never mean i a&(i tho* 

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CltARAcTtR Olr bit. JORTIX. 

employed upon various topicks of 
theology, ethicks, and criticism, it 
Is not arrayed in any delusive re- 
t^emblance, either of solemnity, 
from fiainatiCal cantv-of profound^ 
Bess, from scholastick jargon,...of 
pi^eciaion, from the crabbed fbr- 
aialiues of cloudy philologists,.. .or 
9f refinement, from the technical 
babbie of frivolous connoisseurs. 

At the shadowy and fleeting re- 
putation,which b sometimes gain- 
ed by the petty froUcks of literary 
Vanity, or the mischievous strug- 
gles of controversial rage, Jortin 
never grasped. Truth,which sonle 
men are ambitious 6f seizing by 
surprize in the trackless and dark 
recess, he was content to overtake 
in the broad and beaten path : And 
in the pursuit of it, if he does not 
excite our astonishment by the ra- 
pidity of his strides, he, at least, 
secures our confidence by the firm- 
»css of his step. To the examin- 
ation of positions advanced by oth-» 
er men, he always brought a mind, 
which neither prepossession had 
seduced, nor malevolence polluted. 
He imposed not his own conjec- 
tures as infallible and irresisdbie 
truths, nor endeavoured to give an 
air of importance to trifles, by 
dogmatical vehemence. He could 
Support his more serious opinions, 
without the versatility of a sophist, 
the fierceness of a disputant, or 
the impertinence of a bufibon.... 
more than this.... he could rclin* 
gtdsk or correct them with the calm 
and Jteady dignity of a writer,who, 
•While he yielded something to the 
arguments of his antagonists, was 
conscious of retaining enough to 
Command their respect. He had 
too much discernment to confound 
difference of opinion with maligni- 
ty or dulness, and too much can- 
dour to insult, where he could not 
Ijcrsuade. Though his sensibili- 
ties Were neither coarse nor slug- 

gish, he yet Was exein^t fnm# 
those fickle humours, those rank' 
ling jealousies, and that restless 
waywardness, which mea of the 
biightest talents are too prone to 
indulge. He carried with hini, 
into every station in which he wss 
placed, and every subject which 
be exploi*ed, a solid greatness of 
soul, which could spare an ink* 
riour, though in the offensive form 
of an adversary, and endure an 
equal with, or vrithout, the sacred 
name of friend. The importance 
of commendation, as well to bid 
who bestows, as to him who claims 
It, he estimated not only with jus- 
tice, but with delicacy, and there- 
fore he neither wantonly lavished 
it, nor withheld it austerely. But 
invective he neither provoked nof 
feared ; and, as to the seventies of 
contempt, he reserved them for oc- 
casions where alone they could 
be employed with propriety, arid 
where, by hbnself, they always 
ucre employed with effect. ...for 
the chastisement of arrogant dun- 
ces, of censorious sciolists, of in- 
tolerant bigots in every sect, and 
unprincipled impostors in eve^ 
profession. Distinguished in va- 
rious forms of literary composi- 
tion, engaged in various duties of 
his ecclesiastical proTessioi*, and 
blessed with a long and honoura^ 
ble life, he nobly exemplified that 
rare and illustrious virtue of char- 
ity, which Leland, in his reply to 
the letter-writer, thus eloquently 
describes. "Charity never mis- 
represents ; never ascribes ob- 
noxious principles or mistaken 
opinions to an opponent, wliich he 
hmi self disavows ; is not so earn- 
est in refuting, as to fancy positions 
never asserted, and to extend its 
censure to opinions, which loill 
perhaps be delivered. Charity is 
utterly averse to sneeringj the most 
despicable species of ridicukt 

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that most despicable subterfuge of 
an impotent objector. Charity 
never supposes, that all sense and 
knowledge are confined to a par- 
ticular circle, to a district, or to a 
country : Charity never condemns 
and embraces principles in the 
same, breath ; never firofeMes to 
confute, what it acknowledges to be 
just, never presumes to bear down 
an adversary with confident asser- 
tions ; charity does not call dis- 
sent insolence, or the want of im- 

plicit submission a want of com- 
mon respect." 

The esteem, the affection, the 
reverence which I feel for so pro- 
found a scholar, and so honest a 
man, as Dr. Jortin, make me 
wholly indifferent to the praise and 
censure of those, who vilify, with- 
out reading, his writings, or read 
them. Without finding some incen- 
tive to study, some proficiency in 
knowledge, or some improvement 
in virtue. 


For the Anthology. 


AGAI>I the ftrength of Wlnttr fiOli, 
Mi niflaa forces diMppear, 
And now the dowoy-piolooM galet • 
Loose ftom Ills grasp xbt joaxhM year. 

Retumine Spifng wirh ttoU eye. 
Her irfrgta bpMm coM with dew. 
Bids (Mr anrndant graces fly, , 
And nature's faded charms i 

Again, amid the darkening grove^ 
It heard Che venial voice of Joy, 
Agaia the mag^ powers of love 
'^hOr solUy winiUog aru employ. 

Wkh merry, heart, and cheetM song 

Th^ ploaghmaa treads the hUckening field, 

PeHghted as he moves aloog 

To coont what loture harvests yldd. 

TV impatient sailor leaves the shofe» 
Adveacoring on the watery waste, 
Undaoitad hears the sorges* mar 
And leaflcas bfsva tha howling blase 

Tea, spring retoms ; but wanting now 
Tlie joyi which earlier yean have known. 
The snnny smOe, the micrond4d brow. 
Which marked the Spring of Life, have Sewn. 

H*««M«, April 11, 1805. 

. VoHILNo.4. 2A 


To an agreeable young lady, but eSc 
tremely lean. 

By Swift. 

DEATH went nimi a solemn day 

At Pluto's hall his court to pay : 

The phantom, haying humbly kisC 

Hb gri«Iy monarch's sooty fitt. 

Presented hfan the weekly bills 

Of doctors, fevers, plagues, ana pills. 

Pluto, observing since the peace 

Tlie burial -article decrease. 

And, vext to see afialrs miscarry, 

DeclarM in council, Ddth must marry} 

Vow'd he nd longer could support 

Old bacheloin about his court ; 

The Interest of bis realm had need 

That Death should get a numerous breed} 

Young Deathllngs, who, by practice made 

Proficient In thdr father's trade. 

With colonies might stock around 

His large donUniont nnder ground. 

A consult of coquettes below 
Was call'd, to rig hhn out a bean t 
Prom her own head Megasra takes 
A periwig of twisted snakes i 
Which in the nicest fashkm curfd 
(Like toupets of thl<i upper world), 
Wth flour of sulphur powder*d welt. 
That graceful on his shoulders fell ^ 
An adder of the sable kind 
In Hne direct hung down behfaid s 
The owl, the raven, and the bat, 
Cltthb'd fora fcatha to his hat | 

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Hi* coat, M luvrtr*! Tclvtr flail,' 
Bcqacath'd to Pluto, corpiC and all. 
But, loth hto person to expose 
Baro, Ultc a carcaM pkkt by crow*, 
L. Uwy«r o'er hh iMnda and faoe 
Stuck artfiiHy a parciinocnt-ca«c. 

Thua fumkhed out, he •cot liis traia 
To take a bpusc In Warwick-lane ; 
The ** faculty," his humble friends, 
A compllmeiital mejsjige lendu : 
Thek presMeat hi •cartel g«iwa 
Hatangu*«l, and welcom'd him to town. 

But Oe«tli hid buskien to dkpatch •, 
Hla mind was ninning on hit match. 
And, hearbiit much of Daphne's fame. 
His ** majesty of tenors*' came. 
Fine as a colonel of the guards. 
To vWt where she sate at canU : 
She, as be came Into the room. 
Thought him Adonis In hi» bloom. 
And now her i»eart with pleasure jumps > 
She scarce remembers what is trxmips i 
For such a shape of skin and bone 
Was neves seeo, except her own ; 
Charm'd with hh eyea, and chin, and snout. 
Her pocket-glass drew slUy out j 
And gtew enamour^ with iter phiz, 
A« just the coimtcrpart of hfc. 
She darted many a private -glance. 
And freely made the ftnt advadce ; 
Was of her beauty grown so vain. 
She doubted n«t to win the vmidtu 

Nothing Bhe:thovght could sooficr gala bin&r 
Than vrith her wit to entertain him. 
She ask'd about Ynfg fciends below ; 
ThU meagre fop, that battcf'd beau : 
Whether some laU departed toast* 
Had got galUnts among tltt ghoiU I 
If Chloe were a sharper stiU 
As great a* ever at quadrille f 
(The ladle* there must need* be rook* ; 
For cards, we know, arc Pluto's boojt* I) 
If Florimel had found her love. 
For whom she Uang'd herself above i 
How oft' a week was kept a ball 
By Proserpine at Pluto's halll 
She fancied those Eiysikn shades 
The svtreetest place for masquerades : 
How pleasant, on the banks of Styx, 
To troll it in a coach aod sis t 

Vrhat pride a female heart Inflames ! 
How endless 0C ambitkm'^ aims ! 
Cease, haughty nymph ; the Fates decicer 
Death must not be a spon»c for thee : 
For, when by chance the meagre ihade 
Vpon thy hand hb finger laid. 
Thy hand a* dry and cold as lead, 
Hb matrimonial spirit fled ; 
He felt about tils heart a damp. 
That quite extlngulsk'd Cupid's lamp : 
Away the ArlgHtefl spectre scuds, ' 
And leavct my lady !a the audt* 

For tht AmM^. 


OF Solomon's soKa. 

en that thoa vrert Uke bim «>o dfcw 
Life from the same maternal breast. 

No crimson should my cbcek imbue. 
When I thy llpt in sccitt piot. 

Bomt I'd pcrsuafle thee to vctum, I 

With me dorocftiek bliss to prove, 

>^ here from my mother I would leanr 

To keep thee, all the lore of love. 

Thy Up should rich delicious wine. 
My own pomgcanate vintage, taste ; 

On thy left hand my head recline. 
And tliy right arm enfold my waist. 

When «uch a heaven of bliu we sharcr 
ShouMl sleep exhausted nature seiae. 

Maid* of Jerusalem, forbear 
To wake my love untfl be please. 

What stranger from the wilderness 
Comes leaning on her love f the mai* 

Wliom once 1 rais'd with chaste carest 
Beneath the citron's spreading shadfc. 

Within that comocrttci grote 
Thy parent first enataracM her driU* 

There first the pledge of i hiu oi i i V>ty^ 
Gaa'4 on her mothei^ ftco Md m^N^ 

Set me a signet on tWae ar«n. 
And on thy heart my toaa gc If t 

The spell would drive, wMi potent dniVr 
The fiend of ^alooiy away. 

The cruel fiend, greedy •■ death. 
No art can soothe, noflhttery tiaci 

Whose eyes ait btomShg coal*, whote bitatfr 
A scorchfaig, all detourtog P 

LoTe ever tSeorand < — , — 

No floodt can quench hk hUM«ly 1%^; 

No wealth corrupt Mb, for he ifiiMV 
The sordid w^fiMCMt fxtm hk d|hU 

Our Uttle shter nraet ind f idiv 

Her boMm lite the tefint toft. 
Wait* till the 

Swell thd 

e goi^e vernal 


CBloe new-marTy*d look* on men no mmfi 
Why thcB if» pUlfi fef what a|ie toflk'* ^'^^^ 

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H«w leautiful it ni^ki ? 

WOW caate cUll evening oo, and twUigbt grajr 
Ibdin her »ober livery all thingt clad ; 
tOcncc aecompnktf ; ^or bust «nd kM, 
They to thdr gratty conch, that to cMr neiti 
Wore alonk { all bot the wakeful nlshtfaigale ; 
She all n%iit long her amorooi 4eKant fung ; 
eOence w«« pleaa'd } now gkMr'd the firmanent 
Wkh JIviDg aapphin t Hetpemi, thai kd 
The starry host, rode brightest, till the mooa 
UsiOK iB ciooded majesty, at tength 
ilpparent qiicon, unveUod her peerless Ilghc, 
AaA o*ct the dark her silver mantle threw. 


As when the moon, refulgent lamp of night ! 
O'er heav'n'sdear asure ipreods her sacred light, 
When not a breach disturbs the deep serene* 
lod not a ckmd o'ercaats the solemn scene ; 
Around her thione the vivid planeu roll. 
And stars annnmber'd giM the glowing pole, 
©•er the dark trees a ycflowtr verdure shed. 
And tip with silver ev'ry mountain's head ; 
Then shine the vales, the rocks in prospoct rise, 
A food of glory bursts from all the skies : 
The consckraa swains, rejoicing in the sight, 
Cye the bkie vanlt, and ble» the useful light. 

Pipe's Home a. 

How beantflal is a^ht 1 
A dewy It cahncss fills tfte siknt air» 

No ndst obscures, no little cknid 

Breaks tlsc whole sacae oi heaves : 
In fnU-orb*d glory the majestick moon 

AoUs throogh the dark blue depths. 

Beneath Saer steady ray 

The desert ciccle spreads. 
Like the Toood ocean gkded with the sky. 

iiow beastiliil is night 1 



By Dr. Johnson, 

(Mt Lasdcon AngQcantmi 4uictom et emenda- 

LEXICON ad finemloiigo loctamloe tandem 
Icaliger nt doxit, tenuis pertsfus opells. 
Vile IndignatQs ftndlnm, m^afqne molefta^ 
iBgemk epoius, fcribendaqtie lexlca m^n^ ig^^ 
IHmnst i s , poeaam pro pqeob omnibus ^ ^m . 
me qoldem rede, fubUmis, doftos et acer, 
t^^em decuit maK>ra fequl, majoribus aptum, 
^ vctcrum modo £ida ducwB, modo ft^mfai 

J^rat et qukqold virtm, fkpleatia quicqatd, 
Blxerat, impeiliqae tkes, ca^ue meatus, 
l ^ riuo ayit aahaa kdmtm f^lTcrct orbca. 

fallimur exemplis } temere fibi turb a fcholarvfn 
Ima tuas credit pcrmittl Scaligcr bit. 
Quifque fuum norit modulum ; tibl priine, virb- 
• Ut ftudiis i>crcm, aut anftm par efle querells, 
Hon mihi forte datum ; lent! lira teguinis obfiut 
FrigDia, »eu nimium longo jaculfle vetcmo, 
Stve mihf mentem dederit natnn minorem. 

Te AerIK functma eara, vocnmque lakbris 
Tuto ekidatem fpatBs Ikpfentia dia 
Excipit snhereis, ars omnli flaudtt amico, 
Lkiguarum^ue oraoi terra dlfcordla coocon 
MoltipUci reducem cbcum fonatore magiltrum. 

Me, penfi immuab cum jam mihi redder, inaiMs 
Defidix flors dura manet, graviorque iabore 
TriAli et atra flulcs, et tanlz tsedia vitae. 
Nafcuntur curis cone, vcxatque dolorum 
Impo/tuna cohors, vacuae mala fbmnia mentis. 
Nunc damoia juvant nodurnae gaudia menfae, . 
Nunc loca fola placeot -, fruftra te, toame, m. 

Alme voco, impatiens noAis metuenfiiue did. 
Omiria fcrc u ir o trefridas, ckipnsD omnia iairo, .i 
Si qua ufquam pateat melloris fiemita vitc. 
Nee quid agam inverilo, meditatos grandia, cogor 
Notior ipfc mihi ficil, incnitumque fiiteri 
fcAuM et ingenlam vano ft robore jactans. 
Ingcnium nifi materiem dodrina minlArat, 
CcOat inops renmi, at torpet, fl marmoris abfit 
Copia, Phknad tecunda potentia coeli. 
Q^qidd agam, quocunqne ferar, cenitlbas 

Res angufta doml, et macrae penaria mentis. 

Non rationis opa anhnas, nunc parta recenftas 
Conf)}idt aggdias. et fe miratur in fllis. 
Nee iibi de gazs prvOns quod poilulat ufus 
^ Sommns adeffc jubet cdia domfautor ab arcc ; 
Non operum fcric ferlem dtnn computat sevl, 
Prsctcritii frtthur, tetos aut ruralt honores 
Ipfc fol judex, adae bene munera vitas ; 
Bed fua regna videns, loca node filentla hrte 
Horret, ubt vane fpedes, anibneqae Aigaces, 
St rerum volitantTare per Inane figurae. 
Qjxid fadamf teiMbrlfiie plgram damnart tfe- 
Keftat i an acclngar ftodils gravlorlbus audax f 
Aut hoc, flnioAim eft, tandem ooraleslca poC- 


from Mar^y^ Lffic of Johnfiai. 


{AfterievlABff and o^nj^t ^ 

the SaiBfli Lcft- 

WHEN ScaHger, whole yean oTiaboor paft» 
Behdd hh Lexicon complete at left. 
And weary of his talk, with woodbine oycs. 
Saw from words ptt'd oa vrords a fabtick rift. 
He curs*d the Indaftf y. Inertly ftroag. 
In creeping toll that eoald perfift so long. 
And If, enrag'd lie cried, Heav*n meant to *«A 
Iti kaeneft fcniMnce •» the guiUf bead. 

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The dradscrf of words the damnM would know, 
Doom'd (o write Lexlcoiu io endldi woe.« 

Yet.TOD lud cause, great Genius, to repent ; 
*« You loft good days that might be better fpent ; 
You weU might grudge the hounof ling>ring pain. 
Ami view your learned labours with difd^. 
To yon were giv*n the Urge expanded mhid. 
The flame of genha, and the tafte refined. 
*Twas yours on eagle wings aloft to foar^ 
And amIdJt rolling worlds the Great Firft Csoft 

explore j 
To fix the Kras of recorded time. 
And live In cr*ry ape, In ev*ry dime ; 
Record the chlcfc, who propt their country's 

caufc ; 
Who founded empires, and eftabUfhM laws ; 
To learn whate*cr the tage with virtue fraught, 
Whate^ the mnfc of moral wlWom taught. 
Thefc were your quarry; thcfe to you were 

And the wocld's ample volume was your own. 

Yet wam*d by me, ye pigmy wlu, bewaret 
Kor with immortal Scaliger compare. 
Forme, though his example ftrlke my view. 
Oh I not for me his foot&eps to purfiie. 
Whether firtt nature, unpropitious, cold. 
This clay compounded in a ruder mould ; 
Or the flow current, loit'ring at my heart. 
Mo gleam of wit or fancy can impart ; 
Whatc'er the caufe, from me no numbers flow. 
Ho vifioos warm me, and no raptures glow. 

A mind like 8caUger% (Upeciour ftUl, 
Mo grief could conquer, no misfortune chUl. 
Though for the n^xe of words his native (Ucs 
He feena'd to quit* 'twas but ag.iin to rile ( 
To mount once oMre to the bright fpurce of day. 
And view the wonderp of th' stlterift way. 
The love of fame his gen'roos bofom ftr'd ; 
Sach feiencc haU'd him, an4 each mufo infpir'd. 
for 1^ the taq» of lemming trim'4 the bays, 
And nations grew harmonious in his praile* * 

My talk perform*d, and all my labours o*er. 
For me what lot ha'* fortune now hi ftore i 
The llftleik wUfluccecds, that worft difcafe. 
The rack of indolence, the fluggUh eafe. 
Care growf on care, and o'er my aphing brahi 
Black melancholy pours her morbid train. 
Mo khid relief, no lenitive at handy 
I feek at nridnight clubs, the fodal band ; 
But midnight dubs, where vrit with noift coo* 

Where Comus revels, and where wine Inljpircti 
Del%ht no more : I fieek my kmdy bed. 
And call on deep to Ibothe my langukl head. 
3ut fleep from thefe (ad lldi flies far away ; 
I mqarn ail night, and dread the coming daf. 
Exhaufted, tir'd, 1 throw my eyes around. 
To find Come vacant fpot on daflkk ground { 
An(\ loon, vain hope I I form a grand defign } 
Languor fuceeeds, and all my pow*ndedine. 

^ 8fe Scaliger'f epigram on the fame fub^, 
communicated, without doubt, by Dr. Johoion. 
ecat.lffg.i74»,p.». » 

If (deaoe open not her rtcbdk vtin. 

Without materials all our toil is vain. 
A form to rugged ftone when Phidias gives, 
. Beneath his touch a new creatton lives. 
Remove his marble, and his genfaa dies ; 
With nature then no breathtaig ftatue vtei. 

Whatc'er I plan, 1 SeA my pow*facoafiBM 
By fortune's frown and pcnurf of mind. 
I boitt no knowledge gleanM with toO aad ixife. 
That bright reward of a well-aded life. 
1 view myftif, while realbn's feeble light 
Shoots a pale gUmmer through the g^^omof 

Whne pafiions, error, phantoou of the bniOv 
And vain opbikms fill the dark domain ; 
A dreary void, where tears with grief comhin'd 
Wafte all withbi, and defolate the mhid. 

What then rcmabis t Muft I In flow decBoe 
To mute Inglorious cxSt old age refign I 
Or, bold ambition kindling hi my hreaft. 
Attempt (bme arduous laik! Or, were it beft 
Brooding o'er Lexkons to pals the day, 
And hi that labour drudge my life away i 

For the Anthology, 


WET with the tears, whkh cveidng wecpe, ' 
The closhig flower conceals her breast. 
Secure the vernal waihler sleeps. 
The virice (tf love and joy supprest. 

Ere long shall night assume her sway. 
Reposing nature on her arm 
Blot the lart purple flush of day, 
Dissolve the twilight's lingering charm. 

And thus the transient joys of life 
Fade on Attention's sober eye, 
nil vcxt no more w 1th various strife 
IMan learns to slumber or to die. 

H»o»oo*, April, 1806. 
% And learn with equal eas^, to sleep or die. 


DOR|in>A*k sparkling wtt and eyes. 

United, cast too fierce a light. 
Which bhues high, but quickly dies, 

Patas not the heart, but hurts the sight. 

Love Is a calmer, gentler joy. 

Smooth are his looks, and soft his pace i 
Her Cupid Is a black-guard boy. 

That runs his link f^U bi your face. 

Dot SIT. 

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For jiPRIL, 1806. 

Ubrnm tnam legl 8c qiuiQ dil^^eiitlidme potui 
bitrarer. Nam ego dkere venim anaevi. 
: laudjui mcrentor.— — PliDy. 

annocavl, que comnratandt, que esteioidt, ar- 
Ncque ulli patkoclus rqwchcndontur quam qui 



Afemaira of th^ American Academy 
of Art9 and Scienoea. Vol, I, 
1805. 4to. pp. 564. 

Part IL Physical Papers. 

/. Observations ufion an hyfioth^ 
eais for aotving the fihenomena of 
iight^ with incidental observations^ 
tending to shew the heterogeneous* 
ness of lights and of the electrick 
flidd^ by their intermixture^ or 
union J with each other. By James 
Bowdoinj Esquire^ President of the 
American Academy of Arts and 

The celebrated Dr. Franklin ob- 
served, that he was mtich in the 
dark about light. And it must be 
acknowledged, that, notwithstand- 
ing the great progress we have 
made in opticks, many difficulties 
still remain relative to the nature of 
fight, or the manner in which vis- 
ion is produced. It is well known, 
that modem philosophers have 
proposed two hypotheses for the 
purpose of explaining this point. 
In one, adopted by Huygens, Eu- 
ler, and some others, an extremely 
subtile, elastick fluid is supposed 
to penetrate all bodies, and to fill all 
space ; and vibrations,being excited 
in it by the action of luminous 
bodies, are propagated to the eye, 
and produce in that organ the sen- 
sation of vision in the same man- 
ner, as pulsations of air produce in 
the organ of hearing the sensation 
of sound. According to the other 

hypothesis, maintained by Sir Isaac 
Newton and others, light consists 
of particles of matter, extremely 
minute, which being projected or 
thrown off from luminous bodies 
in every direction by a repulsive 
force, and reflected by opaque bo- 
dies, produce the sensation of vi- 
sion by impulse on the eye. 

The hypothesis, on which the 
author of this Memoir remarks, is 
contained in some queries, propos- 
ed by Dr Franklin, and is m sub* 
stance the same as tlie former of 
the two preceding ; to which the 
observations may be considered as 
objections, or arguments in favor 
of the other. 

In one part of the reasoning in 
form of quenes relative to the pro- 
duction of light in various instances 
by motion, on supposition that the 
hypothesis of vibration is true, 
more seems to be assumed than is 
granted in the hypothesis. It does 
not appear to be inferable from Dr, 
Franklin's statement, nor from any 
other, that we recollect to have 
'seen, that every kind and degree of 
motion in the elastick fluid is sup« 
posed or admitted to be productive 
of the sensation of vision ; nor 
does this ^em to be a necessary 
consequence. Jn the theory of 
sound, though the vibratory agen- 
cy of the air is clearly ascertained, 
yet it is not supposed that every 
kind and degree of motion in the 
air produces the sensation of 

The author's ideas respecting 
th^ heterogeneousness of light ati4 

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MEMOltlS OF Tin 

dfthe clectiickfltild may be well 
Jeamed from tlie following extract, 
it being noted, that he uses fire in 
it as synomimous with liijht. 

« Electricity and fire. differ in 
many respects, and in some they 
4kgFee » as hath been siiewn in 
Dr. Fr,ankHn*9 letters on elec- 
tricity. So far as they agree in 
.Xheir effects, their nature may be 
presumed to be alike : or rather, 
Iron) that agreement and simili- 
tude 'Of eJSects, I tliink it may be 
inferred, that they are mixt with, 
and g^erally do accompany each 
other ; and tliat each produces its 
,own effect at tlie time of their 
joint operation. The effects of 
electricity, similar to those of fire, 
being produced by the fire mixt 
Yiith it ; and the effects of ^re^ 
resembling those of electricity, be- 
4ng produced by the electricity 
mixt with that : the compound 
taking its name from the predom- 
inant princ^>le." 

Is it not more probable that 
^pne fluid, operating in different 
modes and circumstances, produ* 
M& those diflerent effects ? 

II. Observations on lighty and 
$he waste (^ matter in the stm 
Mnd Ji'Xt starsy occasioned by the 
constant efflux <^ light from 
4hem ; with a conjecture^ profios^ 
^d by way ^ ^uery^ and suggest^ 
^ng a Tttcanj by which their sever- 
fil systems might be Jireserved 
from the disorder and final rxdn^ 
40. which tluiiy seem Uable by that 
,w^aste qf matter^ afid by the law 
4^ gravitation^ By James Bow*' 
jioia^ HsguirCf Presidetit qf the 
tdmerican Academy qf Arts juad 

I>t. Franklin had made som« 
objections to the Newtoniaii doc- 
trine of light on the ground, that 
•I'hiiMRe mw>t. conaequentijr be a mo- 
ineAlum «i: force in the particles 

of light, and a waste in the i 
of the sun, V^hich do not accord 
with experienoe and obsenration. 
Mr. Bowdoin endeavours to re- 
move these ol>jections. Accord- 
ingly the " Observations on Light" 
in the former part are calculated 
to show, that the inference relative 
to the motion or momentum of 
light is not just, and of course the 
objection, raised on it, unfounded. 
In the other part, after some good 
observations on the waste of mat- 
ter in the sun by emission of lights 
the hypothesis is introduced, which 
is announced with so much mod- 
esty and caution in the title. The 
author ,apparently well apprized of 
the difficulty of supporting it with 
evidence, merely proposes it as a 
query, or subject of consideration. 
That wonderful phenomenon, the 
ring of Saturn, which appears to 
tlie planet like a vast, surrounding, 
luminous arch, suggested the idea 
of conjecturing tljat a hollow 
sphere or orb might encompass 
the several systems, which com- 
pose the visible heavens. This 
surrounding orb is supposed to be 
fitted by its structure, and the 
properties of gravity, repulsion of 
light, &c, with whifth it is furnish- 
ed to stop tjie rays of light, reflect • 
tltem to tiie source, whence they 
emanated, and thus prevent loss or 
waste of any matter within it, and 
preserve the magnitude of the sup 
and stars ; and also to serve as a 
counterbalance to the mutual grav- 
ities of the systems and bodies, in- 
closed by it, thus contributing to 
the preservation of their relative 
distances, and the pix>Iongation of 
their regular motions. 

The Iblkjwing remark shows, 
that the author was not insensible 
_to the weight of objections. " To 
this hypothesb objections may be 
made, and such as might prove it 
to be) like many an one which ha^ 

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preceded it, a mere ph^nophical 

UJ, Ohacrvationt tending to 
provty by phanomcna and tcrifiturcy 
ike eadHtence of an orbj which «i/r- 
TDundM the whole vidblcy material 
system ; and which may be necet^a* 
ry to fireaerve it from the ruin, to 
wthich^ vithout wuch a counterbal" 
ancej it 9ee7na liable by that urdversat 
firittcifUe in matter j gravitation^ By 
•Barnes Bo^vdoin^ J&tq, President 
•f the jlmcrican Academy qf Art9 
and Sciences, 

In this Memoir i» adduced the 
cvideiice, on which the author de* 
pends to support his hjrpothe^ of 
an aIl<«UTTOunding orb. 

^ The evidence is-«-«phoenomena 
and scripture. 

^ The phcenomena are— the lu^ 
minous girdle in the blue expanse, 
called the Milky Way ; other lu- 
iimioiis appearances in it ; and the 
expanse itself.'' 

With respect to the Milky Way, 
objection is made to the opmion, 
that its appearance is occasioned 
by the blended light of stars f and 
k is observed, << the phoe^menon 
strikes us^ as it may be supposed^ 
■Qch a luminous ginUe would 
stiike, if its light were reflected 
from the concave sur&oe of a &r 
distant orb ; ta which, en the hypo- 
thesis assumed, it had been pro-r 
pelled from the numerous systems 
which the orb enfolds.'' 

Quotations are given from Fer^ 
g:uaon and Smithy containing some 
•bae iT ations on the milky way» 
and descriptions of some whitish 
^lota or iuminoin appeanmces m, 
the hearens. And it la obsenred*. 
<* From these phcenomena it scema 
Boc tmprobablB, that the Mi&f 
Way, lAd those: lucid spots, are 
partaofacoDcavsci)ody or od>, ai 
the same nature with some of tiie 
•cber heareniy bodied ; and wiiose 

bght transmitted to us, es^btta 
those phenomena, according to 
the laws and circumstances, which 
regukte it." 

Sir Isasic Newton's explanation 
of *^ th^ blue concave expanse^ 
which surrounds, and appears t» 
limit viable nature," b considered 
as unsatisfactory. The «opinion 
relatively to thb phcrnomenon, en-^ 
tertained by this author, and hia 
ground for supporting it, may be 
seen in the following extract. 

^ Nattire is simple and unifiornt 
in Us operations. From the same 
cause follow like effects ; and these 
indiizate the same cause. Bodies 
of every kind, through the medi^ 
um of light, produce their respect^ 
ive phcenomena, and these demon* 
strate the reality of those bodies. 

**Fn>m these principles we infer 
the reality of those terrestrial bo« 
dies, which, by reason of thdr situ^ 
ation and distance, can only be the 
objects of sight: and from the 
same principles we also infer the 
Fealky of the heavenly bodies, the 
planets, and fixed stars. If thi* 
last inference be just, is it not 
equally just to infer, from the same 
principles, the reality of the blue 
circumaniJ}ient expanse : that isf 
that it is a real concave body, en^ 
compassing all vis&le nature ?" 

After the statement of s«ch cv" 
idtncciki finrourof an orii smround*' 
ing the visible universe, as seeom 
to him to be deducibie from nature 
al phceaomena, farther light !• 
sougitt in the sacred scriptureBv 
His own words express his sott^ 
mcnts on the propriety of recut^ 
ring to this source of information* 

*^ In regard te the subject m 
hand, there seems to be a happf 
cninciriepne between phasnomemi 
and scripture ; and therefore io 
fvrthcr evidence of soch an cnlif 
and in evidence of several other 
orbs sinular, and concentriilt te if, 

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we may recur to scripture : sev- 
eral passages of which appear ap- 
plicable to that purpose. 

*' It seldom happens that natural 
philosophy is made to borrow as- 
sistance from thence : but though 
scripture may not be intended to 
instruct us in the philosophy of 
materiai^nature, it may neverthe- 
less give, and be intended to give, 
some hints of its constitution, or 
general system." 

The passage, first adduced as 
evidence of the author's hypothe- 
sis, is, he observes, ^ a remarkable 
one, and may serve in some mea- 
sure to elucidate the rest." « It 
U God that builded hU atoriea in the 

From the preceding extracts, 
some idea may be formed of the 
hypothesis of an all-surrounding 
orb, the g^und on which it rests, 
and the author's view of certain 
phoenomena. This hypothesis is 
proposed for consideration in a 
manner well calculated to engage 
the attention, and secure the can- 
dour of the reader. We have 
been entertained in the perusal, 
though our ideas do not coincide 
with the author's in all his reason- 
ings and conclusions. By enlarg- 
ing the powers of telescopes and 
extending our views into the celes- 
tial regions, we find new evidence 
in fiivour of the opinion, that the 
lucid appearance of the milky way 
and some other parts of the etheri- 
al expanse, arises from the blend- 
ed light of stars, and new reason 
to doubt the reality of a solid sur- 
rounding orb. Observation and 
theory render it probable, that suf- 
ficient provision is made for pre- 
serving the harmony of the mo- 
tions in the various systems, which 
compose the universe, without the 
supposed external, endotiDg coun- 

terbalfoice. But if we cannot dts« 
cover sufficient reason to admit 
this supposition as a constituent 
part of the fabrick of science, we 
think it merits a respectable place 
in her collection of curious hy- 
potheses, formed by eminent 

IV» An account of a very un" 
common darknesM in the states qf 
Mw'England^ May 19, 1780. By 
Samuel WilUamB^ A. M. HoUia Pro^ 
feasor of Mathematicka and PMlosO' 
fihy in the University at Cambridge^ 

The extraordinary darkness of 
the 1 9th of May, 1780, cannot be 
easily forgotten by those who ob- 
served it. We are happy to see 
an account of that phoenomenon 
preserved, which we think will be 
read with no small interest by the 
lovers of natural knowledge. The 
facts, which Dr. Williams had 
been able to collect, are related 
with clearness and the general 
principles of the explanation ap- 
pear to us to be satisfiictory. 

According to this statement, the 
unusual darkness began between 
10 and 1 1 o'clock in the morning, 
and continued till midnight ;•— 
from the accounts received the ex- 
act boundaries of it could not be 
determined, but it seemed to have 
extended through the New-Eng- 
land states. There was some va- 
riety in the appearances, the de- 
gree of darkness, and probably ia 
the duration at different places ;— 
<< in most parts of the country peo- 
ple were unable to riead common 
print ; determine the time of day 
by their clocks or watches ; dine, 
or manage their domestick busi- 
ness without the light of candles ;'* 
the colour of the clouds appeared 
to be a mixture of fiunt ned, yellow 
and brown, ahd hK>st other objects 
appeared to be tinged with yellow ; 
thunder was heard in the mom* 

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ing, and rain fell in small showefs, 
■which appeared to be thick, dark, 
and sooty, VLpd on the surface of it, 
when received in vessels, as well 
as on that ipf rivers, &c. a light 
scum was observed, which on ex- 
amination was found to be the 
black ashes ot burnt leaves ; in 
some places the vapours seem-> 
ed to Ve ascending ; " in most de- 
scendiiig ; and in all very near to 
the surface of the earth ;" " the 
a/i/ieara?ice and effects were such 
as tended to make the prospect ex- 
trenifrly dull and gloomy ; candles 
were lighted up in the houses ; 
the birds having sung their even- 
ing songs, disappeared and became 
silent ; the fowls retired to roost ; 
the cocks were crowing all around 
as at break of day ; objects could 
not be distinguished but at a very 
little distance, and every thing 
borfe the appearance and gloom of 

A general view of the cause of 
this wonderful darkness is exhibit- 
ed in the following extract. 

** It is well known that in this 
part of America, it is customary to 
make large fires in the woods, for 
the purpose of clearing the lands 
in the new settlements. This was 
the case this spring, in a much 
greater degree than is common. 
In the county of York, in the west- 
em parts of the state of New- 
Hampshire, in the western parts 
of this state, and in Vermont, un- 
commonly large and extensive 
fires had been kept up. • Tlie peo- 
ple in the new towns had been 
employed in clearing up their 
lands in this way for two or three 
weeks before ; and some large and 
extensive fires had raged in the 
Woods for several days before they 
could be extinguished. In addi- 
tion therefore, to'what arises from 
evaporation, and those exhalations 
which are constant and nnturalj 

Vol. III. Ncr. 4. 2B 

a much larger quantity of vapour 
arose fix)m those large and numer- 
ous fires which extended all a- 
round our frontiers. As the weath- 
er had been clear, the air heavy, 
and the' winds small and variable 
for several days ; the vapours in- 
stead of dispersing, must have 
been rising and constantly collect- 
ing in the air, until the atmos- 
phere became highly charged with, 
an uncommon quantity of them» 
floating near the surface of the 
earth." ^ 

To this account is annexed some 
information, principally taken from 
the English Philosophical Trans- 
actions, respecting instances of ex- 
traordniary darkness, which in 
former times had been observed in 

K An account of the effects of 
tightnijig on two houses in the city 
of Philadelfihia, By the Hon. Ar^ 
thur Lee, Esq, F, A. A, 

The lightning, which produced 
the effects here described, happen- 
ed in the summer of 1781. One 
of the houses was unprotected by , 
a conductor j and the copper poin^ 
of the conductor of the other ap- 
peared, on examination, to have 
been melted, at some preceding 
time, into a form, resembling that 
of a button. The lower end of this 
conductor was about two feet be- 
low the surface of the ground. In 
eacli case the fluid appeared to 
have passed through a considera- 
ble extent of the building by. one 
or more bell-wires, which, though 
melted in some parts, answered 
the purpose of conducting the 
charge ; the falling however of the 
fused metal on the floor occasion- 
ed the burning of holes in it. The 
course and efl'ecls of the lightning 
in one of the houses is particular- 
ly marked by a figure. 

In some remarks, suggested by ' 

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MeMomt Of TKB 

the facts he had related, Mr. Lee 
justly observes, that belUwires in 
a house *' ought always to be dis- 
posed with a view to the possibili- 
ty of their becoming conductors.'* 
And, ^ that the points of conduc* 
tors should be examined from 
lime to time.^ 

FL An account of the effects 
^f Ughtfdng on o iargc rock in 
GlouccatcT. By the Reverend Eli 

The tunc^ when lightning pro- 
duced the effects here descri- 
bed, was the lath of March, 1782. 
The content of the rock above the 
ground, on which the discharge 
was made near the top, is almost 
ten fcct. The lightning, having 
broken off about 20 pounds of the 
lock, and beside cracked it in sev- 
eral directions to a small extent, 
was divided into three parts, which 
passed off in different directions, 
each producing effects, that were 
▼ery strOdng. Dr, Forbes appears 
m> have examined these effects 
with close attention, and to have 
de8crS>ed them with great accu- 
racy. He has illustrated them by 
a figure. They were indeed ex- 

It is very much to be wished, 
that whenever lightning strikes an 
€lbject on the earth, some person, 
who lives near it, would examine 
the visible traces, and communi- 
cate all the facts, which he can 
ascertain, to the Academy or some 
other society, that, if valuable, they 
may become publick, and may be 
applied, as bs as ther nature will 
admit, to the purpose of improv- 
ing our knowledge on this high- 
ty important subject. 

VIL An account qf a very CU' 
rious apfiearance qf the electrical 
Jtidd^ produced by raiaing an elec* 
tricai kite in the time ^f a thunder^ 

ehower. By Lodtnmi Baldwin, 
Esq. F, A, A, 

In tills experiment, performed 
in the summer of 1 77 1 , an elec- 
trical kiie was elevated to the 
height of some tall trees, or per- 
haps somewhat above them, at a 
time, when the upper edge of a 
highly charged cloud, rising from 
the north-west, had reached the 
altitude of 55* or €0». Col. Bald- 
win was soon surrounded with the 
appearance of a fiery atmosphere, 
or bright flame of fire, with some 
faint flashes, visible to himself and 
other persons at a smaH dbtance. 
This electrical phenomenon con- 
tinued to increase and extend it- 
self till, the cloud having nearly 
obscured the heavens about the 
zenith, the kite was drawn down. 
The experimenter however was 
subjected to no inconvenience but 
surprise, and a degree of debUity> 
which, he thinks, that surprbe 
might po8si>ly have occasioned. 

VIII. Ohaervatiome and conjee* 
tterea on the earthquakes of Ah»- 
England, By Prqfeasor fVil-* 
Barney F, A, A. 

The design m writing this trea- 
tise and the plan of it are exhib- 
ited in the following extract,which 
is the first paragraph of it. 

^ In looking over some of the 
histories of New-England, I ob- 
served, that the religions turn of 
mindjwhich distinguished the first 
planters of New -England, had led 
them to take notice of all the 
earthquakes which happened m 
the country after their arrival. 
Several of thtm seemed to be 
pretty well described ; and in 
some of their phenomena there 
seemed to ^ an agreement. As 
several of these accounts were 
contained in writings but little 
known, I thought it might be of 
some senice to pliilosophy, if a 

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particular account of them could 
be collected. This is what I have 
attempted in the following treatise. 
In the Jiru fiart of it I have set 
down the most particular accounts 
1 could find of their phenomena. 
The second contains observations 
and remarks upon their Agreement 
and operations. In the ttdrd^ 
conjectures are proposed as to 
their causes : and in the fourth^ 
some general reflections are added 
as to their nature, use, and 

In the first part, Dr. Williams 
gives a narrative of the principal 
^ts relative to the earthquakes in 
New-England, from 1$38, when 
the first happened, which was ob^ 
served by our ancestors, after their 
landing at Plyniiouth, to 17«3 in^ 
elusive. Five of these were much 
greater than the reat ; namely 
the earthquakes of 1658, 1658, 
1663, ir27, and 1755 ; the last of 
which was the greatest. 

In the observations and remarls 
it is said, that all the earthquakes 
which have happened in this coun- 
try, are of the same kind, having 
an itndulatory motion ; that their 
general cQurae is nearly from the 
north-west to the sputh-east ; that 
their origin was probably at a con^ 
siderable (Ji$tanct from NewrEng- 
land in a northrwestem direction ; 
that " tp the south-west? they have 
several times reached as fur as 
Maryland ; but never so far as 
Vir^nia or Carolina ; to thd north«> 
east, they have been bounded by 
M'jvarSco:ia ; having never been 
fdt much further than Halifcuc ; 
from the unknown land^, at the 
north-west, they hav.c gone off 
souji-cttst into the Atlantrc : their 
extent this way, being grpater than 
We are nble to trace on either 
point of the compass,'' — that as 
ixT as can be gathered from the 
accounts, it seems probable, that 

most of the great shocks have 
reached to much the same places : 
the small ones, indeed, liave not 
had such an extent ; being felt 
only in different provinces and 
towns,*V-that there are no facts, 
by which the velocity of these 
earthquakes can be determined^— 
that the intervals of time between 
their occurrences are very une- 
qual and irregular, and that 
earthquakes seem to have no con- 
neciioii with any thing 4hat falls 
under our observation. / 

With respect to the causes <^ 
the earthquakes of New-England, 
it is inferred from the facts before 
stated, that they " have been pro- 
duced iqr something which has 
moved along under the surface of 
the earthf* " What thus moved 
junder^ and hove vp the surface of 
the earth, was probably a strong 
rlaatick vafiouvy** — *< a fluid of th« 
same nature as that which is now 
called inflammable air** 

In the opinion of this author 
^ the contents of the earth will ao- 
count for the origin^ and the struc* 
ture of it will account for the mo- 
tion and direction of a subterra- 
neous vapoiw." 

Under the head of general re- 
flections on earthquakes, it is ob- 
served, " U" we are right in our 
conjectures on the causes of earth- 
quakes, we may conclude, that the 
gldje always has been, and will be 
subject to such ^concussions,"— * 
that, *' nolv.itlistanding all their 
tenible effects, earthquakes seem 
to he a necessary consequence of 
such laws of nature, and powers 
in matter, as are, upon the whole, 
greatly bej>eficial to thu globe,"— 
that " these extensive and power- 
ful agitations tend* to Weaken the 
attrac'iion, loosen, the parts, and 
open the pores of the earth ; and 
thtis to fit and prepare it for the 
purposes of vegetation, and for thi^ 

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various kinds of produce that are 
necessary for the support of an- 
imal life,"-^that " we have no 
way to form any rational con- 
clusions as to the time when an 
earthquake will happen, from any 
inferences founded on the knowl- 
edge of the nature and operations 
of their causes ; nor can we re* 
ceivc much, if any, help fi-om any 
firecedififf wgTifi,"— that " it must," 
however, "be supposed, that earth- 
quakes (like all other events that 
depend on natural causes) are sub- 
ject to certain and determined 
Jaws and rules, which are in them- 
selves constant, regular, and har- 
inoniousy— whether these laws, or 
this regularity, be known to us of 
not ;" — that " it ^yas no doubt 
with a view ultimately to moral 
fiuT^ioses, that the laws of nature 
were first established : and noth; 
ing can be better adapted than 
niany of their operations, to awak- 
en and direct the attention of man- 
kind to the supreme governour of 
the world,"— and that « of his fa- 
vour mpitals may be sure, so long 
as they maintain a steady regard 
to the rules of virtue." 

We could with pleasure make 
much larger extracts from this 
very valuable Memoir, did we not 
fear, that the present article would 
then be too long. Earthquakes 
inake most awful impressions on 
the mind, i^nd excite an ardent de- 
sire to be particularly acquainted 
with the nature'and effects of those 
of our own country, to which we 
are exposed. Wc have perused 
the account before us with much 
isatisfaction. It contains many im- 
portant facts, many ingenious con- 
jectures, many excellent reflec- 

IX, An account of West-River 
^Jount^m^ and the appearance qf 

there having been a volcano in it. 
By Daniel Jones ^ Esq, 

West-river mountain is in the 
state of New-Hampshire, on the 
eastern bank of Connecticut river, 
opposite to the mouth of West- 
river. Mr. Jones is of opinion, 
that there has been an eruption on 
the south side of this mountain 
about eighty yards from the top. 
Some people in the vicinity, hop- 
ing to find gold, have there dug to 
the depth of seventy or eighty 
feet. " The external parts of the 
hole are entirely rock, and in 
many places much burnt and sof- 
tened. There are small holes in 
various places of the rock, where 
they dig, like the arch of an oven, 
and the rock seems to be dissolved 
by heat ; the cinders and melted 
dross adhere to it, and hang down 
in drops like small icicles, some- 
thing resembling in colour the 
cinders of a* furnace, or black 
glass, and it }s so fastened to the 
rock, that It appears as if it was 
originally part of the same." . . . 
" At the mouth of the hole, there 
was blown out melted dross, which 
stuck to the rocks ; and in the hole 
were found various pieces of stone, 
which appeared to be dissolved by 
fire, and the sidpsof the rock black- 
ened by fire ; so tliat this hole 
must have been filled ^p since the 
eruption took place." ' 

Such are the prpdpal appear; 
ances, observed on the mountain, 
Which seemed to indicate that 
there had beep volcanick eruptions. 
And great qiiantities of stone, fall- 
en or thro\vn from the mountain, 
are thought to furnish evidence of 
explosions or violent agitations. 

Beside the evidence, that arises 
from the present appeai-ance, there 
was also information from some 
old, credible people, who had livecl 
opposite to the mountain, that 

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there had been frequent explosions 
in it, and emissions of fire and 
smoke. The last explosion, that 
the author recollects, happened, as 
he observes, about five or six years 
before the date of this account, 
Nov. 2, 1783. The noise resem- 
bled that of an earthquake, and the 
earth trembled considerably where 
he was, at a distance of four or 
five miles. 

X. An account ofcrufitiona^ and 
the present afifiearance in West" 
River Mountain, By Mr, Caleb 

IVIr. Alexander observed ap- 
pearances on this mountain simi- 
lar to thosei described by Mr. 
Jones in the last Memoir. He is 
however of opinion, that there 
have been eruptions of fire at two 

According to information, that 
had been received, explosions had 
been heard as loud as the report 
of a cannon ; other times 
they had been heard at the distance 
of fourteen or fifteen miles ;...that 
violent eruptions of fire had been 
observed several times, when the 
flame ascended to a great height 
in the air. 

ART. 17. 

w4 viev> of South Carolinft^ as rf^ 
sfiects her natural and ciruil con- 
cerns. By John Drayton, 1802, 
Charleston, W. P. Young. 8i/o. 

\ vol. fi/i, 252, ' 

Works of this nature havp been 
so multiplied in Europe, from the 
importance which every one be^ 
lieves his own city and district to 
possess, and are produced with so 
Jittle labour, that it is necessary to 
guard against the introduction of 
pus evil into our own country. A 

few tables of probable population, 
of weather, imports and exports, 
with descriptions of the publick 
buildings,have swollen the account 
of a commercial town into a huge 
quarto ; and as the authors of 
such works convey so much in- 
formation to the publick, they" 
think themselves licensed to neg- 
lect every ornament ; though even 
novels, at present deemed the 
meanest articles in the shop of lit- 
erature, are supposed to be adorn- 
ed with the beauties of language, 
and variety of incidents. Statis- 
ticks, as they aflford the only means 
of judging correctly of the pros- 
perity of a country, of its rise and 
decline, are extremely useful ; and 
though they will not admit all the 
beauties of imagery, do not refuse 
all ornament. A work of this 
kind should contain much new in- 
formation ; and facts should be 
so well authenticated as to support 
the conclusions, that are drawn 
from them. We hope our readers 
will be able to judge from the 
following account, how far Mr. 
Draytox^ has succeeded in these 

We shall forbear to speak of 
the inelegapce, if not impropriety 
of the title ; and shall only ob- 
serve, that it is sufficiently general 
io include every thing that can be 
said of South-Carolina. Our au- 
thor divides his work into three 
chapters, the first of which con- 
tains the geography and natural 
history of South^Carolina, which is 
again subdivided into " situation, 
and by what authority ; discovery, 
and name j face of the country ; 
mountains ; climate ; diseases ; 
rivers, lakes, and water courses ; 
minerals, springs, cascades, and 
natural curiosities ; productions 
vegetable and animal." Of these 
our author treats in their order, 
and prefixes to tlie whole a short 

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iDtroduction, turgidt obscure, and 
full of forced epithet^. In speak- 
ing of the fece of the coiintry, he 
divides S.CaroUna into three di* 
visions ; the upper, above the falls 
^f the rivers, contains 9450 square 
miles. The middle and lower, di- 
vided from each other by the sand 
hills, contain U510. The coun- 
try rises gradually from the sea 
for eighty miles, and is an exten- 
sive plain, except where intersects 
ed by water, producing nothing 
but pines, and thence denominated 
pine barren. These pine barrens 
are devoid of underwood, being 
frequently burnt for the purpose 
of producing early spring pastur- 
age* Upon the numerous creeks 
itnd rivers, which divide this plain, 
are rich and fertile savannahs, al- 
most the only lands cultivated in 
the lower division. The best rice 
plantations are made on these 
marshes, where the tidei^ows, but 
above where the salt watjer rises. 
They require no manure, and are 
inexhaustible. He neglects how- 
ever to inform us, that some gen^ 
tiemcn have converted their salt 
marshes into rice plantations, by 
raising dykes for the exclusion of 
the salt water, and bringing in a 
trough or canal fresh water iHom 
the river above. After a few 
years, these are found equally pro^ 
ductive with the fresh marshes. 

The middle country resembles 
the lower, the banks of the rivers 
being alone profitable to cultivate. 

The upper country is diversified 
like trie northern states into hill 
and dale ; but its mountains seem 
to raise our author from the hum- 
ble style, he had before used. He 
Carries us to the top of the table 
mountain, and after stating it^ 
height at 3168 feet, the highest 
mountain in the state ; and showr 
ing us on one side the lover's leap 
$00 feet perpendiculari he mcnr 

tions the mountdns, that nay 
thence be seen in the various di- 
rections, and adds, ^ To the east 
and south-east the eye may range 
without any other control, th^ 
what the unerring laws of nature 
ha^e ordained in the curvature of 
the globe. Thirty fiurms or more 
are hence dutinguished by the na- 
ked eye at any one view ; the 
mountsons wind along in elevated 
majesty, and roaring cataracts, 
leaping from rock to rock, hasten 
down their ddea to ran vttfa more 
gentle Btreama along the vales be« 
low." When " elevaited for above 
thes|Aereof hnmoi Ufe," as he 
afterwards expresses himseif, ^bf 
the cloods, whkh sweep below 
him," he discovers thirty forms or 
more, we can only compare hira 
to the hawk, who, striviog to soar 
above the towering eagle, is drawn 
from Ins lofty light to sets some 
lUtk Urd below. The rest of his 
description it extremely fmerik. 
He represents the cliraate of the 
vUppcr country as foie and wholes 
some ; but says that, firom the 
great quantities of stagnant waters 
in the )ower parts of the state 
producing many reptiles and in- 
sects, ^ it is not surprising that 
the hot months should be chequer- 
ed with sickness." We regret 
that neither here, ^r under the 
head of diseases, he has given us a 
table of births and deaths, for his 
account U much (tpo general to 
remove the common impression, 
that the climate is extremely un- 
friendly |Lo the constitution of the 
whites. The table of diseases 
may. give an idea of the destroying 
angePs form ; but not of the ex- 
ertions of his powers. After de- 
scribing the dreadful whirlwinds 
and hail storms that are experienc- 
ed in this state, he attempts to 
prove, that they owe their origin 
(0 the aituati<»i of South Carolina 

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in the temperate tooit^ near the 
tornd. He shovild first, however, 
have proved to us, that these dread* 
ful scourges were not feh in anf 
other shmtion ; and then we might 
be disposed to fisten to his argo« 
ment. Nor would he hare thoaght 
the climate of that state peculiarlf 
variable, because the therxnometer 
has Taried 83* in one season ; if 
he had known that it had been in 
Maine ^(f* below the cypher in 
winter, and at near an 100* above 
it in summer. He gives an opki- 
ion, that the cfimate amdiorates ; 
but, sensible that he does not pro- 
duce sufibient authority to support 
the opinicHi, he seems cautious in 
risking It. Hb tables of weather 
are only of the extremes of heat and 
eold,fbr ten years from 1750, and 
eight 3rears from 1791, and of rain 
for 7 years from 1795. By which 
it appears, that in the above years, 
the thermometer was but once 
above 96*, and seldom bek>w 22* 
above the cjrpher ; and that the 
ram in the above years varied from 
42,9 to 75,4 inches. Our author 
passes from climate and ^seases 
to rivers, &c, ; but he treats with 
no more respect, the bread and 
extensive Savannah and Santee, 
than he does the minor streams of 
Ashley and Edisto. The tides ex- 
tend op the rivers about 80 miles ; 
but in the Santee not more than 
15. On the coast they rise from 
6 to lOfeet, but are much influenc- 
ed by the wind. Nothing but the 
desire of mentioning every thing, 
could have induced our author to 
speak of lakes; a pond of less than 
a mile in circumference being the 
only thing resembling them in the 
state. Rfteen pages are employ- 
ed upon fossils, minerals, &c^ when 
as Q^ny lines would have decribed 
the whole. He speaks at length 
of some mammoth bones deposit- 
^ in the Chai'leston museum, and 

upon the authority of Mr. JcfTer- 
son decides them to be similar to 
those fotmd in Siberia, and then^ 
with much faigenuity, conjures up> 
Srst the theory of the zones having 
exchanged places from the moving; 
of the ecfiptick ; then Mr.Buffon'i 
theory of the earth's having at 
first been fluid from heat, and hav- 
hig, in the true spirit of qnixotlsmy ' 
combatted these theories to his 
own satisfaction, he at leng& dis- 
covers that they only « spring from 
the bram of a fertile imagination.'* 
Not contem with this vktory, he 
itpeaks of the theories of other nat- 
uralists, and of the ice islands of 
St. Pierre, loaded with bears and 
elephants j but having already ex- 
hausted his own ingenuity, he 
leaves us in doubt, to overturn 
these theories ourselves, if T9t e are 
so disposed. Mill, building, and 
lime stones, ochres, asbestos, and 
slate are found in the upper par€» 
of the state ; and he wishes that 
we should think, that, besides iron 
and lead, they possess gold and siU 
ver, yet concealed in the earth. 
His botanical catalogue is fuU, 
though he himself tells us, it is not 
complete ; but his account of ani- 
mals is only a short list of names. 
Our author divides his second 
chapter into political and rural 
economy, which he subdivides Into 
^ population, militftry force, ten- 
ures, value of estates and build- 
ings, agriculture, manu£xcturcSf 
inland nav^;atiQ0t roads, and cora- 
merce." Under the head of pop- 
ulation he gives a long and unin* 
teresting account of tlie lodVuns, 
their wars, &c. ; and with regard 
to the early white and negro 
population the only facts estab- 
lished are, that white popula- 
tion decreased till 1734, that in 
1765 there were 40,000 whitt-s, 
and 90,000 blacks, end that in 
1800 there were 1 90,^5$ whites. 

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daatton's view of 

149,336 blacks in South-Carolina. 
6ince however Mr. D. wrote, the 
prohibition against the importation 
of slaves has been taken off ; and 
in the years 1804 and 1805 there 
were 13,000 negroes imported 
into Carolina. He states the ef- 
fective militia at 35,785, of which 
number 1743 arc cavalry, regular- 
ly armed, trained, and uniformed. 
Lands are holden originally by 
grant from the state, and now con- 
veyed by simple deed. Th eir val- 
ue must of course vary very great- 
ly in tliis state. Tide swamp, the 
best land for rice, is woith, if cul- 
tivated, from 870 to 890 per acre. 
The income of the planter is still 
more unequal, some possessing 
880,000 and others only 840 per 
annum. Our author then passes 
to agriculture, a subject which he 
seems to understand much better, 
than any other in his book ; and 
though what he says upon it might 
have been comprised m one third 
the space it now occupies, much 
information respecting the culture 
of rice and cotton, the staple arti- 
cles of South-Carolina, may be ob- 
tained by those unacquainted with 
the Southern states. A table is ad- 
ded to show the different modes of 
planting rice in South -Carolina, 
Spain, Egypt, Sumatra, and China. 
He is particular in describing the 
machines for preparing those ar- 
ticles for market ; but does not 
give sufficient praise to the mw 
gin for cotton, and water mill for 
rice lately invented ; probably be- 
cause they are as yet used but by 
few persons. To the reasons, 
which he gives why indigo is less 
cultivated now than formerly, he 
might have added, that its prepara- 
tion is extremely unwholesome, 
even to the negroes. Nor does 
he inform us, that oil is contained 
in the cotton seed, and that, tho' 
at present thrown away, yet by 

experiment it has yielded a gallon 
of oil to a bushel of seed. At the 
close of the article upon agricul^ 
ture, he speaks of slavery ; and 
though our feelings revolt at the 
attempt to justify slavery, yet we 
must have the candour to allow, 
that he has represented the con- 
dition of the slaves in Soutli-Curo- 
Ima without prejudice. An ab^ 
horrence of slavery has led us to 
depict the wretched negro, groan- 
ing undier the task of an inhuman 
overseer, but we shall subjoin his 
account of them, which we believe 
to be correct. " They are work- 
ed by certain tasks, wliich are not 
unreasonable, and when they are 
diligent in performing them, they 
have some hours of the day to 
themselves. Hence they are en- 
couraged to plant for their own 
emolument, raise poultry for their 
own use, or for sale ; and are pro- 
tected in the property which they 
thus acquire. With good masters 
they are happy and contented, and 
instances are known, where they 
have declined an offered freedom. 
It is prohibited by law to work 
them more than certain hours in 
the day, during different portions 
of the year ; and their owners arc 
liable to a penalty, if they do not 
feed them in a suitable manner. 
Should they treat them cruelly 
they are amenable to tlic laws." 
He might have added, that the 
fear of becoming infanK)Us, a much 
more powerful motive than any 
positive law, obliges the gentle- 
men of Carolina to whom the 
greatest part of the slaves belong, 
to treat them with humanity. He 
is correct in saying, that, without 
negroes, part of South-Carolina 
must still have remained deep 
swamps and dreary forests. The 
manufactures of So utli -Carolina 
deserve not the little that our au- 
thor says of tlicm. Of the canals 

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he mentions the Catawba and San* 
tee have alone been commenced, 
and the latter is the only one yet 
6nished. The Santee canal was 
begun in 1793, and finished in 
1800, at an expense of about 
150,0001. sterling ; and in the 
spring of 1804 there had been no 
dividend *, but a hope was enter* 
tained, that the following year 
they should divide 1 per cent. 
Both these canals received en^ 
couragement from the legislature. 
No one who has ever travelled 
hi South Carolina can believe our 
author's account of the roads a* 
gainst the evidence of his senses, 
which pronounce them infamous. 
Nor under the present existing 
laws can they possibly be better ; 
but the traveller will join with him 
in hoping, that the day will come 
when bridges shall be more fre- 
quent, than thev are at present ; 
and that the spirit of the people 
will allow tolls to be imposed. Un- 
der the article of commerce he 
gives a great number of tables of 
imports and exports at different 
periods. His third and last chap- 
ter is divided into << Histories ; 
government and laws ; revenue ; 
civil divisions ; cities and towns ; 
religion i charitable societies ; lit- 
ierature ; modes of living ; charac- 
ter and diversions." His first ar- 
ticle is a list of tl^ different ac- 
counts of South -Carolina, that 
have ever been published. From 
the Constitution he passes to the 
Wyesuet which he represents as 
jSoi^risbing. It is derived princi- 
|if^ly Irofti direct taxes, and from 
fpe iiiteipit of a paper medium 
' d of the debt due from the 
^tatfi^. His account of 

I M long, but unintercst- 

ibg. Cedrgetown and Beaufort 
■re mere Tillages, and the other 
'towns he itMltbot have not a col- 
iK:tiim of mdottn hotttes* From 

Vol. ni. fJo. 4. 2C 

religion , of which he says only a 
few words, he passes to charitaj^le 
societies, of which the South-Car* 
olina for the support of the fami- 
lies and the education of the chil- 
dren of unfortunate deceased mem- 
bers, and the orphan house, are the 
most important. The article of 
literature should have been en- 
titled education, for under it he 
speaks of nothing but schools and 
colleges, which are not in a nour- 
ishing state. The South -Carolina 
college at Columbia was liberally 
endowed in 1801 ; and the ques- 
tion will soon be determined, whc- 
the mind is capable of close appli- 
cation to study in that climate ; 
or whether, equally enervated with, 
the body, it cannot there be trained 
to exertion. In delineating the 
character of the Carolinian, our 
author has wholly failed. In na 
state in the union are the manners 
of the different classes so various ; 
but in Mr. D.'s description we 
perceive not the marked distinc- 
tion between the gentleman, edu- 
cated in Europe, who to polished 
manners unites an hospitality un- 
known in the old world ; and the 
white savage of the borders, who 
to his own cunning has added the 
fierceness and cruelty of his neig:h- 
bour, the sable aboriginal. Nor 
do we see a middle class with the 
want of feeling of the lower orders, 
and the pride of the upper j or the 
young men of Charleston immerg- 
ed in dissipation , and instead of 
imitating the urbane manners, and 
improving by the conversation of 
their fiithere, wasting their time 
in foolish revels and boyish mis- 

We have examined this work 
in the owler of its arrangement, 
and must conclude, that, consid- 
ering the opportunities, which our 
snthor had for years of collecting 
loaita^ialsi that iie has afforded ub 

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very little infotTnation. He seems 
impressed with the idea, that it 
was necessary to write on every 
subject connected with South-Car- 
olina, and that all were of equal 
importance. But if we should 
grant for the moment that his. in- 
formation was worth publishing, 
we would confine* him to those 
subjects to which he 8eem6 com-* 
pelent, and to those tables which 
may serve hereafter as useful doc- 
uments. Instead of throwing 
light upon his subject, he ft-equent^ 
Jy rendei's it obscure by attempt- 
ing to show his learnings Hi« 
langU4ge is sometunes incorrect. 
Be is constantly used for ar^, and 
substantives receive a gender,when 
Ihey are not meant to be person!* 
fied. Hi^ style is sometimes obf 
scurc, and frequently turgid, par- 
ticularly when he aims at the sub- 
lime. We shaU conclude our 
review with a quotation from his 
description of the Cata\*ba falls. 
.« They are situated a little above 
Rocky Mount ; and the approach 
to them is over hills which line 
the sides of the river. On either 
side the rocks, are piled Dfxin a 
wall of many feet high, and hills, 
rising above thenL in sharp conical 
summits, nod over the rupture be- 
low. Now the Catawba is arrest- 
ed in its course, and from, a width 
of one hundred and eighty yards, 
tliis river is forced by the hills and 
rocks on either side to shoot down 
the gulph in. a channel of only 
ninety-five yards wide^ Collecting- 
its watei*s, impetuous and noisy, k 
thunders down the fails ; tumbling 
.over massy rocks^ and foaming 
from shore to shore ; wheeling 
its large whirlpools^ and glancing 
from rock to rock with maddening 
fury. Nor ceasing its troubled 
%vavesy until it has overleaped 
twenty falls in the distance of two 
and aa half xniles} and has precip- 

itated from its height, a depdi of 
ninety feet. Here, below Rocky 
Mount, it begins to subside v and- 
spreads over a channel three hun- 
dred and eighteen yards wide ; 
but is THii composed. For miles 
belowy rocks are scattered in its- 
way ; at times irritating its waters^ 
and provokiAg the rapidity of its 
streanv. So a preud and haughty 
disposition cannot bear control , 
but rushes onward ^vith unabating 
violence, scorning all opposition 
which is surmountable, repossess- 
ing its tranquillity by slow degrees i 
and becoming again incensed with 
whatever risi^ in its way." 

AUT. 18; 

jin account of the malignant Jrver^ 
which fircvailcd in the city of 
J\rt"w- Yorky durifig the autumn of 
1305. Containing^ 1. The pro- 
ceedings of the board of health to 
prevent the introduction qf ma- 
Hgnant fever, 2. TheriiCiPro- 
gressy and decline of the late epi-^ 
demick. 3. An account of the 
Marine and BeUervue hospitals^ 
luhh the number qf patients re^ 
ceivedy anct dieatha which liave 
occurred^ at each of these eata-- 
b&slnnentSy during the sickly sea^ 
son, 4. Record of deaths^ Ufc^ 
^c, 5. Opinion of several end'^ 
nent physicians^ respecting the 
cause of maUgnant fever ^ in sev* 
trai different parts of the United 
States, 6,: The situation qf the 
convicts in the state^prison^ with 
respect to health during the last 
sttnuner, 7. Desultory observa-- 
tions and reflections. 8. The 
various modes qf cure adopted 
in the maUgnant fever. By 
James Hardie, Sro. pp, 196. 
New-York, Southwrck k Hard- 
castle. 1805. 

IT is well known that a diTcrsi* 
ly of opimoQ has preyailed amons. 

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|>hysicians Tcspecting the origin, 
nature, and treatment of Yellow 
l-^cvcr. The question has been 
agitated an a manner not the most 
•calm and dispassionate, among 
fpentleraen of the faculty ; at the 
same time, many of their fellow 
citizens have chosen their sides, 
and their co-opemUon hasjiot tend- 
ed to diminish thp zeal and ani- 
mosity, vvith which the -controver- 
sy has been supported. It has 
thus been rendered unpleasant for 
those who sought truth only to 
canvas the subject. 

From one jwirty we are told, that 
the disease has been owing to the 
£Jth of our cities^ and to the nau- 
seous exhalations from our docks ; 
and, in some instances, they have 
even pointed to the particular 
heaps of dirt, in which the poison 
has been generated. They seem 
almost to have seen the miasmata, 
with so much familiarity do they 
talk of them. 

The other party consider all this 
as an unjust charge of the evil to 
a country too new and pure, and 
*madulterated, and fieaceabk^ to be 
the mother of a disease so strong- 
ly n^arked, and of wliich the char- 
acter is so malignant. They con- 
sider the reputation of the countiy, 
and, in many instances, of the par- 
ticular city in which they reside, 
as injured by the suggestion, that 
this disease is of domestick origin ; 
and these considerations do not 
make them listen 'with the more 
patience to the statements and ar- 
guments of their adversaries. 

As facts have been stated by the 
different parties, they have, often- 
times, been so coloured by the 
prejudices on both sides> that it 
has become almost impossible to 
discover their true complexion. 
Meanwhile, to guard against the 
great calamity, the judicious have 
.cndeav^ttred U> remove aU those 

things, charged as the domestick 
sources of the, disease, xviid at the 
same time to subject to qxiaranline 
all persons and things , coming 
from suspected places, at <:eriain 

Such has been the conduct oT 
the legislature of the state of 
New York. They have authoris- 
ed the establishment of a board of 
health, in their metropofis, with 
powers to guard against every sup- 
posed source of the disease. ^ The 
powers of this board appear to be 
ample ; and it caiuiot be doubted 
that they must feel disposed to 
use every exertion to save them^ 
selves and their fellow citizens from 
this common scourge. Notwith-r 
standing their efforts, the disease 
did prevail there the last autumn. 
During its prevalence, the board 
of health was necessarily the cen- 
tre of information, respecting its 
origin and progress. The book 
before us was writteo by the sec- 
retary of that board. It was sure- 
ly in his power, probably more 
than in any other man's, to com- 
mand all the materials for such a 
work. If, therefore, ^e has not 
told the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, his 
ciime must be considered nothing 
less than perjury. 

We know not the character of 
Mr. Hardie, nor have we looked 
for information on this subject 
from any other quarter, with which 
his may be compared. For the 
present we must rely on the gen- 
eral complexion of the work, aa 
the ground of an opinion. From 
this we are induced to believe, that 
Mr. H. is exceedingly well quali* 
fied for the task he has undertaken! 
and that he has executed it with 
accuracy and impartiality. 

The first chapter of this work 
contains an account of the estab- 
lishment of the board of he^th, at 

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New York, of the powers with 
which they were lit vested, and of 
the measures they adopted to pre- 
vent, and afterwards to restrain 
and mitigate the disease. In this 
chapter, therefore, we find an ac- 
count of the first appearances of 
any alarming cases of fever ; and 
it also informs us of the extreme 
caution, with which the board pro- 
ceeded, before they gave & publick 
alarm, as well as 6f their fidelity 
in reporting truly the existence 
of danger,- when that was duly as- 
certained. From that time they 
published faithful reports ; and 
while the rich were warned to re- 
move from the city, an asylum 
Was opened for the poor. The 
propriety of such conduct needs 
Yiot be displayed. 

It appears that the first case, 
which was called yellow fever by 
any person, occurred on the 8th of 
June. From the 9th to the 24th 
of July three other cases occurred, 
which vfrere believed, by many, to 
be of the same nature. The first 
case, which was acknowledged by 
both parties to be yellow or malig- 
nant fever, was that of James 
Dougherty. This occurred on 
the 24th of July, and was followed 
by a few cases in August ; but 
the disease was not epidemick 
till September 5th. Respect- 
ing Dougherty, It appeared, that 
he was at the quarantine ground 
on the 3d or 10th of July. This 
gives room for suspicion, that he 
contracted his disease there ;'but 
on August 7th, it is asserted by 
the health officer, « that no case of 
yellow fever has existed either at 
the hospital, or on board the ship- 
ping at the quarantine ground 
since the first of July hist, except 
those sick persons who have been 
sent from the city of New York." 
If, as was afterwards asserted by 
Dr. Hosack, there Iras ^n almost 

unlimited intercourse between th% 
quarantine ground and the city^ 
it must have been practicable to 
detect the health officer, had his as- 
sertion been unfounded. If it was 
true, we must inquire whether 
those persons sent from the city 
really had the yellow fever, and, 
if they had, whence its origin. 

We had intended to examine 
the evidence on this subject at 
large, but this would lead us too 
far for the limits of a review. To 
state the evidence with sufficient 
precision,we must copy a great part 
of the work before us. To this 
therefore we refer, and it should 
be consulted by every man inter- 
ested in this subject. The evi-* 
dence is far from sufficient to de- 
cide the general question in con- 
troversy ; but we believe that 
every impartial reader will agree, 
that, in this caacy the domestick or- 
igin of tha yellow fever is render- 
ed most probable. 

We cannot pass over this chap- 
ter, without noticing a very 
handsome communication, which 
it contains, addressed by Dr. Sir 
James Jay, to the board of health. 
In this he proposes, in order to 
ascertain facts, and to narrow the 
ground of controversy, that the 
board should adopt the following 
method. " Desire the leaders of 
each party to give you in vfriting 
^n accurate Matory^ or description 
of yellow fever, mentioning parti- 
cularly those fiecuHar symptoms 
attending its commencement, pro- 
gress, and termination, which dis- 
tinguish yellow fever from any 
other- fever. These descriptions 
of yellow fever will be a kind of 
standard for you and other gentle* 
men to judge by, of all doubtful 
cases that may subsequently occur. 
When you have obtained such a 
history fh)m each party, whcnev* 
er a suspicious case appears, let a 

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physician of each party visit the 
patient, and if they disagree as to 
the disorder, let them give ^ou an 
•account of the symptoms attending 
the case ; from whence, by com- 
paring it with the standard, you 
may be able to judge whether it is 
yellow fever or not ; and whether 
the sick person should be remov- 
ed, or not, to the marine hospital.** 
Practitioners will see difficulties in 
this plan, and that it could not at 
once be carried into effect in the 
most perfect manner ; it would 
however be gradually improved, 
and is certainly worthy to be adopt- 
ed. Wherever medical men wish 
to attain truth; they might in this 
method succeed ; at the same 
time, the lovers of controveray 
would be, in some measure, re- 
strained by the limits they would 
prescribe to themselves. 

The second chapter contains an 
address from the board of health 
to the citizens of New York, dated 
Nov. 13. This gives a general 
account of their proceedings, and 
of the Extent of the late disease. 
It displays feelings and principles, 
which do them honour. 

The contents of the 3d and 4th 
chapters arc sufficiently expressed 
in the title. The documents they 
contain are very valuable. 

In the 5th chapter we have the 
" o|Hnions of several eminent phy- 
aicitfis respecting the cause of 
malignant fever, in several differ- 
ent parts of the United States." 
The first article is a letter from 
Dr. Pardon Bowen, of Providence, 
giving an account of the fever, 
which prevailed there the last 
summer. After detailing the 
£akcts, this very respectoble physi- 
cian infers, *< that the fever was 
the yellow or malignant fever, and 
that it had its origfn, or stood 
aoniehow or other conneoted with 
one or all three** of certain vessels 

he had mentioned. We refer in- 
quirers to the letter ; but we beg 
them to attend to the *' extremely 
offensive bilge water," which made 
some workmen in the neighbour- 
hood sick, causing some of them 
to vomit ; and which was ^ par- 
ticularly offengive" to some per- 
sons who " had been much accus- 
tomed to the smell of bilge water.** 
We do not mean to support the 
opinion, that the ytllow fever de- 
rives its origin from the filth of 
our cities. Were we advocates 
for its domestick origin, we should 
not think it necessary to adopt this 
opinion. But justice requires us 
to remark, that in this instance, 
at Providence, the bilge water may 
as fairly be suspected to be the 
source of the disease, as any con* 
tagion imported. 

The second article in this chap- 
ter is a communication from Dr. 
Hosack, which had been publish- 
ed in the Morning Chronicle. In 
this that gentleman refutes some 
calumnies, which it would seem 
had been thrown out against him. 
He also declares that the events of 
the last season tend to confirm 
tHe opinion he had held, — viz. 
" that the yellow fever is not the 
product of our own soil or climate, 
but is always introduced from a- 
broad** He says the intercourse 
between the quarantine ground 
and the city was ahnost unlimited, 
but he does not state how the dis- 
ease was introduced into the quar- 
antine ground ; and from the work 
which is under review we arc led 
to suppose, that there was not 
any cause for a belief that the 
quarantine ground was infected 
from abroad. Dr. H. however 
adds, that " it is unnecessary for 
him to go into details ; that a 
clue to the investigation of the 
facts upon this subject is in the 
possession of the proper authority, 

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hardie's account of the maligmakt fbver. 

&c.'* Till we learn to what cir- 
cumstances Dr. H. refers, our final 
judgment upon this matter must 
Y^ in some measure suspended. 
In the mean time we- cannot read* 
ily believe that Mr. Hardie could 
be ignorant of any important facta 
upon this subject ; nor can we 
more readily suspect that any man 
in his situation would attempt to 
conceal facts, which must inevita- 
bly be brought to light at a future 

Dr. Hosack's communication is 
followed by a letter from Dr. Stu- 
art of Grenada. This letter states 
some facts respecting the fever, 
which prevailed in Grenada in 
179S,and expresses his conviction, 
that that disease was imported 
from BouUam in the ship Hankey. 
Dr. Stuart may have formed cor- 
rect opinions respecting the origin 
of that disease, but surely his let- 
ter does not prove that the yellow 
fever is always imported either 
into the West-Indies, or into this 

The fifth chapter is concluded 
by an extract from « a view of the 
climate and soil of the United States 
pf America," by C. F. Volney. 
In this the subject of yellow fever 
is considered in a general way, and 
the Frenchman is seen in the dis- 
cussion of it ; but the extract con- 
tains many important remarks. 
Mr.Volney is decidedly of opinion, 
that the yellow fever may and ac- 
tually does arise in the United 

The sixth chapter contains a 
lettier from Richard L. Walker 
^d N. I. Quackenbos, physcians 
of the state prison of New- York, to 
the board of inspectors of that in- 
stitution. In this letter it is stated, 
that two cases of yellow fever oc- 
ipurred in that prison in the month 

of August, one of them attended 
with the black vomiting. The 
writers add, " it deserved to be re- 
niarked, that the circumstances of 
the cases preclude all suspicion uf 
their having infected one another^ 
or of the disease having arisen 
from any foreign or contagious 
source.** These cases deserve to 
be thoroughly investigated. We 
hope, that the believers in impor- 
tation at New-York will strictly, 
but candidly inquire into thb mat- 
ter. It is presumed, that the phy- 
sicians to the state-prison would 
readily assent to such an inquiry, 
as it would not imply any doubts 
of them, except such as arise 
from the fallibility of all men. 

Chapter seventh contains " de- 
sultory observations and reflec- 
tions." These do much credit to 
the author, and will be found ia« 
teresting to readers in general, as 
well a^ to the faculty. In this 
chapter we are^ told that among^ 
more than twenty persons, exposed 
to James Dougherty, no one " re- 
ceived the least infection or con- 
tagion ;'* and several analogous 
remarks are made. 

The eighth apd last chapter on 
modes of cure is a valuable addi- 
tion to the work. 

To our imperfect analysis we 
add, that the perusal of this work 
has afforded us much satis&ction, 
and we recommend it to general 

Should unfortunately any of our 
cities be again visited by this ma* 
lignantdisea^ we earnestly solicit 
persons, who may have similar op- 
portunities for information, to pub- 
lish similar works ; and to re- 
member, that fidelity and accu- 
racy in the investigation and state- 
ment of &ct8 will stamp on their 
productions the highest valu^. 

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Tke^ Christian Momtor z a reiig* 
iouM pcriodicfU work. By a 
society for promoting christian 
knovUdgCy fdetyj and charity, 
JVb, \, Boston. Monroe U 
Francis, pp. 190. 

Amoko the peiiodfe&l publica' 
tjoos of the day, there has been 
wanting one, which, without regard 
Id sect, should consult the edifica- 
tion of christians in general. To 
encourage a work of this sort, we 
learn that a society was formed in 
the coarse of the year past, which 
has presented to the publick its 
incipient efforts in the little book 
before ns^ It consists of exhorta** 
tions, prayers, and meditations 
suited to persons of various coi^ 
ditions in various circumstances. 
The sectary who loves nothing 
wikicb does not breathe a spirit of 
party will find nothing here either 
savoury to his taste op provoking 
his malevolence. Equally remote 
from bigotry as from enthowasm 
the Chrmtian Monitor, we are toldi 
numbers among^ its supporters and 
friends believers of diverse theo« 
logical tenets. It has no features 
of a controverdal character. It 
designs to strengthen that faith 
which is the pillar of morals, to 
brighten that hope which gilds the 
]»ospect of futurity, and to ani- 
inate the labours of that love,which 
ia the beginning and end of the 
gospel. It insinrcs ^e feeble con- 
vert with oourage, and pours grace 
from its lips into the ear of penif 
teoce. It especially calls the 
jonmg to the work of religion in 
the morning of life, that they may 
be saved the pangs of a bitter re- 
pentance^ and the unavailing tears 
•f those who, though ;bey repentf 

arc yet never made whole. It im- 
plores a plentiful stream for the 
thirsty, and a guide for the mourn-' 
ing pilgrim. It prays for the 
generations of men which are 
passing away, and for the children 
of God who are hastening to the 

Whilst we tiiQS applaud the pur^ 
pose and spirit of the work, we 
dare not give our unqualified ap« 
probation of the present number. 
The matter is good ; but the man-* 
neris in numerous instances de- 
fective. The thoughts are impor-^ 
tant and striking ; but m the ex-» 
pression and in the style there is 
an air of negligence and abrupt-* 
ness. The prayers are often be- 
gun and closed as though the au- 
thor wa» in haste. Its worth has 
gratified its friends, and pleased 
the publick ; but its excellence is 
not so conspicuously manifest as 
to silence the opposition of its en- 
emies, or the clamours of criti- 
cism. We are satisfactorily in- 
formed that this valuable tract is 
undergoing some desirrsable a- 
mendments, that it will shortly 
appear from the press of Mun? oe 
and Francis in an improved form^ 
and that the Society under whose 
patronage it is published will pn>* 
ceed with alacrity in their pious 

The poetical works of Rkhard 
Savage. With the life qf the 

' author, New-York : Wm. A» 
Davis. Ii05. 

Perhaps no poet of equal pre-^ 
tensions is so little read as Richard 
Savage : many remember his mis- 
fi>rtunes,but few mentbn his verses. 
Why it has so fallen out it is diffi- 
cult to say. Pope commended his 
muse and Johnson pronounced 
turn a gcniusi and one would sup- 

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pose the suffrages of such men 
were a sure indication of his dura'* 
ble renown. But, if the Bastard . 
be Excepted, there is little now 
that he is recalled by beside the 
Epigram on Dennis and the Biog** 
raphy of his Friend. Among the 
wits of his day he was as brilliant 
and ragged as Apollo could wish, 
and, though his life was irregular, 
his muse was correct. Poor 
Savage ! in the melancholy rec« 
ords of that description of gentle- 
men denominated bards, thy histo- 
ry is mournfully pre-eminent, and, 
though thy song may be neglect- 
ed, thy errors will be remembered 
for a humiliation to genius. 

Thb edition, enriched with John-* 
son's life of the author, is correctly 

Eut out of hand, but its typography 
I so diminutive, that it appears to 
have issued from the press of the 

PocTM/rom the PoriugucBe ofLueM 
De Camoensj with remarks on hm 

' liff^ \Sfc, ^ By Lord Viscount 
Strang ford, 1 vol. 12mo.Phiia« 
delphia. Maxwell. . 

The life of*Camoen8 was a Kfe 
ef continual hardship and danger ; 
^et he was encouraged by the in- 
spiration of the Muses, and hi^ was 
often blessed either by tlie gentle 
smiles or the pensive remembrance 
bf the fairest ladies of hi^ love, 
tike Ovid he was driven into ex- 
lift for love, but sonnets and can* 
zonets cheered and delighted him. 
He was shipwrecked in the East 
Indies, but, like Cesar in Egypt, 
he saved his life by swimming 
with one hand, while with a noble 
spirit of literature he bore up his 
" Lvaad" with the other. Hie 
epuLck poem is known to the En- 
gluh reader by the translation of 
Mickkt who has made us ac- 
quainted with a variety of beauties. 

which are not to be found in the 
original, even by the palriottck 
researches of the Portuguese. The 
minor poems of Camoens now at- 
tract admiration and applause, 
which they never before received. 
We have not read the originals^ 
and tlierefore cannot ascertain their 
value, but report says, that in Lis- 
bon those only are highly esteem- 
ed for their simplicity, tenacious- 
ness, and delicacy, which have for 
their subject the beauties of nature^ 
or the feelings of love. Lord 
Strangfbrd's poems, if we may- 
judge from the Portuguese coup- 
lets, which arc interspersed thro* 
the volume, arc themselves orig- 
inal, for they bear no resemblance 
to the pretended architypes. 
Grace and defiance are the char* 
acteristicks of these canxons and 
sonnets. They are vrritten by a 
noblcmuifWho, with the polish and 
rkse of a court, has evidently unit* 
ed the strength and dignity of lit- 
erature. They are on a variety 
of subjects, such as are easily sug- 
gested to a lover, a poet, and a 
wanderer 4 and most are composed 
withtheardour of passbn, wrought 
into refinement* and with the 
sentiments of nature, p6lish-% 
ed into elegance. The noble 
lord however frequently ofiendt 
against purity and delicacy. We 
o]^en admire ^e chams of hk 
love songs, tnd we often lament 
that such poetry was written. This 
little volume is intended toberead« 
during th^ intervals of other piea^ 
•nres and pumiitt ; and when the 
ladies rise from t^ harpsichord^ 
or return from their walk, they 
ere often attracted by the aonnett 
of loitfStangford, which lie oo the 
easy so&or the pleaagnt paritoor 
window. We know not what re» 
roedy to offer ; for when impropri- 
ety b decorated by the cbsjins of 
delightfiil poetry \ when indebcacf 
of allusion is almost evanescent in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



the refinement of elegant phrase* 
ology ; and, when the criminality 
of passion is superficially conceal^ 
cd by the fashionable embroidery 
or delicate needle work of fancy 
or sentiment, who will regard any 
bterdiction of perusal ; who will 
receive any counsel for discrim* 
inatioh ? 

If therefore licentious poetry is 
l^ad, moral poetry must be read 
also ; indelicacy must be manful* 
ly opposed by purity ; the conta- 
gion of Little must be neutralized 
by Thomson ; and where we are 
iittracted into false sentiments, vi- 
cious feelings, and impure thoughts 
by the refined fascinations of 
Strangford, 1 we must be recalled 
to truth, to sobriety, to virtue, and 

religion by the authority of Cow« 

These remarks chicfiy apply to 
the poems on love, its operations, 
and analogies. The sonnets on 
other subjects are full of chaste 
nature and true sentiment. Strang- 
ford certainly will receive the son-* 
net wreath of English poetry from 
the youngest of the Graces. He 
has made us a most beautiful pre- 
sent of early leaves and vernal 
flowers ; and though the spring 
fly has often corroded the green 
leaf, and the worm lurks in the 
musk rose, yet purity may throw 
these away, and accept only the 
tender sprigs and new flowers, 
which ^row in the valley or hf 
the running waters. 


Of New Publications in the U. States, for Afril, 1806. 

8ont bona* nuit quiedam meiNocrU, sunt mala plura.— 44ART. 


SiiMONS on various Subjedb,eTangeli- 
eil, devotional, and practical, adapted to 
the promotion of chriftian piety, fiamily 
itiigion« and yovtbful virtue. By Jofeph 
lothrop, D. D. pafktf of the §ri church 
tn Weft Springfield. 8vo. pp. 408.-» 
Worcefter, Hatah Thomas, }un. 

Rstet atnd Orders of the Court of 
Common Pleas, called the Mayor's Court 
•f the City pf New York,app»rovcd 29th 
March. 1806. New York. 

• Ofafervatlons on the impreflment of 
American feamen, by the officers of 
(hipe of war, and vefTeU commiifioned 
by, and a^ing under the authority of 
Chreat-Britain ; with a few remarks on 
the dotftrina of non-exportation. To 
which is added a oorre^ lift of imprelT- 
ed feamen. By a citizen of Baltimore. 
BiKltmiore. Boobin & Murphy. 

• A Geographical Di^onaiy of the 
9aitcd States of North America ; con- 
taiaing a general defcription of each ftate» 
the population, noftiber of acres, foil, pro* 
fkidttOBs, natural cupofitieiif &c ; a def- 
cri^tion of the rivers, lakes, mineral 
iyriagi ytnimatains, maaufadhtres, tra4e/ 

Vol. III. No. 4. 2D 

and commerce ; with a Aiccimf^ accotml 
of the Indiana, Michigan, and upper and 
lower Louifiana tert-itories. Likewife 
the populations of thofe counties, towns, 
&c. which have been ascertained by xh6 
cenfus of 1800. To which is added ai 
defcription of more than 1000 places, not 
noticed in any former geographical work* 
£mbelli(hed with a map of the United 
States. Br Jofeph Scott, author of the 
United States Gazetteer, &c. Philadelphia. 
Jacob Johnfon, ) 2mo. 1 906. 1 Yol. 

The American Farrier, adapted for 
the convenience of the farmer, gentle^ 
than, and fmith, being a fure guide to 
prevent and cure all maladies and dif- 
tcmpers that are incident to horfes of 
what kind foever ; and alfo for the dif- 
eafes incident to cattle. By Auguftuf 
Franklin. Fredericktown, Maryland. 

The celebrated fpeech of the Hon. 
John Randolph on the non-importatioa 
refolution of Mr. Gregg. New York. 
Riley & Co. Svo. 

The Juvenile Bxpofitor, or Sequel of 
the common Spelling Book. 1.2mo. New 
York, Daniel D. Smith. 

Maflkchu(kt9 MiKtia Laws, pnbliflte^ 

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under the infpe<^on of the Adjutant 
General of the Commonwealth, with the 
New Militia AA, pafled March 1806. 
Price 25 cents. Bofton. Thomas & 

A difcourfe, delivered in the Prefljy- 
terian church in Wall-ftreet, March 2.Sd, 
1806, at the requeflof a fociety of Tadie*, 
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with fmall children. By R«v. Dr. Miller 
doler. New- York. 

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the Nfewport Mercury. 

A funeral fermon: on the death of the 
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rejueft. Newport, R. F. Farnfworth^ 
1805. 8vo. pp. 46. 

. Aa oration, delivered in the fecond 
Baptifl church in Newport, on the 4th 
of July, A. D. 1805. By Noah Bi/bee, 
jun. Publiflied at the requeft of the 
author*! friends. Newport, R. I. Office 
of the New|)ort Mercury. 1805. pp. 42. 

A fermon, preached at the funeral of 
Mir.AlJiel JLootnis. By Mtoies Warren, 
A, M. of South Wilbraham. Springfield, 
H. Brewer. 

A fermon, by Mr. Peter Jay- 8vo» 
pp. 23. Bofloni £. Liacelo. 


The four firft volumes of PTowdcn's 
Hidorical Review of the State of Ireland. 
Firft American edition. 8vo. Philadel- 
phia. McLaugi>lin & Graves. 

The Elements of Euclid. By Robert 
Simpfon, M. D^ Emeritus Profeilbr of 
Mathematicks in the Univerfity of Glaf» 
gow. Svo. Price 2,50. Philadelphia, 
Matthew Carey. 

The 6th vol. of EaftV Reports. Bal- 
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Ailronomy explained upon Stir Ilaac 
Newton 8 principles, and made eafy to 
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thew Carey. 

A complete Concordance to the Holy 
Scriptures of the Old and New Tefta« 
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index to the Bible ; very ult:ful to all 
chridians who ferioufly read and ftudy 
the infpired writings. In two parts. 
- Containing, 1. The appellative, or com- 
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names in the fcripture. To this part is 
prefixed a table, containing the fignifica* 
tron of the words in the original langua- 
ges from which they are derived. To 
which is added a Concordance to the 
book called Apocrypha. The whole di- 
gefted in an eafy and regular method. 
By Alexander Crudes, M. A. The firft 
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phia. Kimber, Conrad, & Co. 

The firft number of Madoc, a poem, 
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roe & Francis. 

The Maritime Law of Europe. By 
M. D. A. Azunt, htte fenator, &c. 
I'ranflated from the laft Paris edition. 
2 volumes Svo. Price to fubfcribers 3 
dollars a volume. New York, Ifaac 
Rilay & Co. 

Letters to a Young Lady on a Courfe 
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12mo. pp. 230. Munroe & Francis, Bof- 
ton. Thomas & Whipple, New buryport. 

The Fulfilling of the Scripture*; oran 
efi*ay, fliewing the exadt accompliflimenf 
of i\vi word of God in his works per- 
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atheifts of the prefent day. By Rev. 
Rjubert Fleming, paftor of a ehorch in 
Rotterdam. 1 vol. 8va pp. 394^—^ 
Cl^rleftown, Samuel Etheridge. 

7-he Principles of Religion, as profefl^ 
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called Quakers ; written for the inft ruc- 
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From the London copy, with corre^on» 
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Le(1ie*s Hiort and eafy Method with 
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chriftian religion is explained by infalli* 
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yet fias been,, or poffibly can be. ISmo. 
Baltimore, Dobbin & Murphy. 

A iliort and plain Expofition of the- 
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By the hte R^. loh Orton, S. T. D. 
publiihed from the author's manufcripts. 
By R. Centleman. Worccfter. Thomas, 
jun. 6 voU. 8vo. 

Orton's Kxpi)fition of the Old Tcfta- 
ment. 6 vols. Bvo. Bofton, Etheridee 
& Blift. 

Thoughts on the Trinity, by George 
Mmac Huntingford, D. D., F. R.'s. 8vo. 
25 cts. Boflon, Enlign Lincoln. 

Fables for the Indies, by Edward 
Moore. To which are added, Fables of 
Flora, by JLanghoroe. 12mo. Havcr- 
bilL F. Goaid. 

The New Uoiyerfal lietter Writer 
containing letters ob every ufeful fub- 
jedi. To which are added, Kochefou- 
caalt*s moral Maxims and Refle<5lions,and 
a Tery copious and valnable Euglifh 
l>i<aionary. By the Rev. Thomas Cooke, 
A- iVf. 1 vol. ISmo. I ^ol. fine woven 
paper. S. Etheridge, Cbarlettown, and 
Thomas & Whipple, Newburyport. 

The Engliih Nun, or the Sorrows of 
Edward and Loiiifa,« novel. New- York. 

Human Prudence ? or the art by 
which a man or woman may be advanc- 
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CO real grandeur. Adapted to the gcn- 
ias of the citizens, and defigned for the 
uTe of fchools in the United States. 
Firfl American from the 8th London 
edition. With many corrections, traHa- 
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Ifma 75 cents bound. Dedham Her- 
man Mann. 1806. 

Memoirs of the Life of Lord Nelfon. 
To which is prefited an engraved fron- 
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falgar. J 2mo. pp. 46. Bofton, W.Normao. 

IN THB PltE8«. 

Fergnfon's Ledlures. 2 vols, of letter 
prefs 8va and 1 of plates 4to. Phila- 
delphia, Matthew Carey. 

The 5th and laft vol. of Piowden*8 
Hi(h>rical Review of the State of Ireland. 
8vo. woven pap<;r. Philadelphia. Mc 
Laughlin & Graves. 

ProfeiTbr Smith's Latin Grammar.-— 
ISmo. Bofton, John Wed. 

Simpfon*8 Algebra. Philadelphia, 
Mitthew Carey. « 

Eaft s Crown Law. 2 vols. Bsdti- 
more. Peter Byrne. 

6aunders*8 Reports, with notes bv Ser- 
geant Williams. 2 vols. Baltimore, 
Peter Byrne. 

Underwood on the difeafes of chil- 
dren. 8vo. Bofton, David Wefl. 

Chaptall's Cherairiry. 8vo. BoAoOi 
Thomat & Andrews . 

The rd and laft volume of Mrs. War- 
ren's Hiftory of the Aweric^i Revolu- 
tion. 8vo. Bcfton, Kben. Larkio. 

Pal<»y'8 Philofo]*hy. 6vo. BoAon, 
JohH Weft. 

■ Burdcr*s Village Sermons. 12mo» 
Boflon. E. Ivincohi. - 

No. 11. of the ChrilHan Monitor, 1 2ino. 
Bofton, Munroe & Francis. 

Mrs. Chapone's Letters on the im- 
provement of the Human Mind, addref- 
• fed to a young lady. 1 2mo. Portland, 
Daniel Johnfon. 

Pope's Homer*s Iliad. S vols. 1 8mou 
Bollon. Edw. Cotton. 

The Poems of Ollian, tnmflated by 
Macpherfon into £«gli(h verfe. 2 vols, 
with plates. New York. 

Life of Bonaparte to the battle of Auf- 
terlitz, an original compofition. Balti- 
more, Warner &. Hanna. 


Two Treatifes of Government. By 
John Locke. In the former treatife the 
falfe principles of Sir R. Filmer and his 
followers, in fupport of the divine right 
of kings, are dete6bed and overthrown. - 
The latter is an eflay concerning the true 
original extent and end of civil govem- 
meat. Ornamented with a Ukenefsof' 
the author. 8vo. pp. 400. To fubfcri- 
bers, bound, 2,25. Salem, Barnard B. 

The Works of that celebrated orator 
and fbatefman, the Right Honourable 
Edmund Burke. From the lateft Lon- 
don edition. 8vo. 4 vols. pp. 500 each. 
Price 2 dots, a volume, in boards. Bof- 
ton. John Weft and Oliver C. Greeoleaf. 

The Sacred Mirror, or Compendious 
View of Scripture Hiflory. Containing 
a faithful narration of all the principad 
events recorded in the Old aiid New 
TeOaments, from the creation of the 
world to the death of St. Paul. With a 
continuation from that period to the 
final defhiidUon of f erufalem by the, Ro- 
mans. Defigned for the mental improve- 
ment of youth, and particularly adapted 
to the uie of fchoolt. By Rev. Thomaa 
Smith, author of the Univerfal Atlas, 
Sic &c. To which will be added, a co- 
pious index, not contained in the En- 
glifti edition. 12mo. pp. SOa Price to 
fubfcribert 1 dollar bound. Bofton, S. 
R Parker. 

The Trial of Virtue, a facred poem : 
being a paraphrafe of the whole book of 
Job, and defigned as an explanatory 
comment upon the divine original. la- 

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riety- of its paflaget. In fix partt. To 
which it annexed, a diflertacion upon the 
book of Job. Bv Chauncy Lee, a.m. 
paftor of a church in Colebrook, Con. 
18 mo. pp. 200* Price bound to fob- 
fcribers, 75 cent*. Hartford, Con. 

Thomion's Seafont. With Dr. John- 
Ion*! life of the author. 8vo. 1 vol. pp. 
about SOa Embelliihed with four en- 
gravings, defcriptive of the four reafooi. 
price to fubCcribers, bound, S, *25 ; fuper- 
£ne paper, elegantly bound, .'?, 50. lied- 
bam, (MaC) Herman Mann. 

The life of the Rev. John Wefley, A.M. 
To which will be prefixed, a compre- 
benfive hiftory of the Wefiey family : 
and an appendix, exhibiting the rife, 
progrefs, and prefent dale ^f the Metb- 
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price to fubfcnbers, bound» lt50 ; to 
pon-fubfcribers 1,75. Baltimore. Dob- 
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Anhiflorical View of Herefies,andvin« 
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Mc Farland, a.m. minifter of the gofpei. 
Concord, New-Hampfliirt. Price 1 doU 
lar. Concord, N. H. George Hough. 

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The Wife* Interfperied with a vari- 
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tbe whole prai^ce, autbocity, and duty 
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] vol. 8vo. pp. 45a By a geatlemam 
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2 dols. Portfinoittli. Cbtrlca Fierce aod 
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The American Mufical Muieum; 
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heart, and intercft the feelings ; fpecula- 
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A new work, entitled, life and Adven- 
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part of the globe. Philadelphia. 

parrAaiNO roa the pikss. 

Zollikofifer^s fifty-two fermons on the 
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Thomas, jun. 

Lathrop's S^rmoos on various impor- 
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J^xtraff 9/ a Utter from a gentleman in Cam^ 
bridge Unlverjity {^England) to one of the 
e£tors of tit Anthology^ dated February 
6, 1806. 

I AM. glad, t)iat you are a^vely em- 
ployed in promoting a fpirit and tafte 
for polite literature. In encouraging 
and efie<£ling this obje<5l, I am certain 
that in your country in particular, men 
of letters will conduce mbre to the real 
happinefs and comforts of fociety, than 
in acrimonious difquifition^ on theology 
or poJiticks. You cannot too often in- 
culcate to your countrymen a truth, of 
which too many of them appear regard- 
Jelj : ** Didicili^ fideliter artes, emollit 
mores ncc finit effe fcros.** From thefe 
we may hope that the thrifty economy 
of the (peculator and merchant may in 
time be exacted into the liberality of the 
gentleman and fcholar. Herbert Marlh 
has not publiihed his fermons : in which 
Ke perhaps ads wifely, as the clamour 
would be very great, and fuch it the na- 
ture of the champions in the oppofite 
caufe that St. Paul himfelf could not 
quiet them. I am glad that the great 
learning of H. Marlh has at length n>ft 
fome reward in a place on the civil lift 
of £.500 per annum. Your complaint 
on the exceflive deamefs of books is very 
juft, and much felt in England. The 
printers and bookfdlert conHder noth- 
ing but themfelves, and have the power 
to do as they pleafe^— I do not at present 
recoiled any late work which I have 
read with to much pleafure, as ** The 
Iaj of the laft Minftrel,** a poem de- 
fenptive of Border mannert, which in 
many places feems to me to contain the 
true fpirit of fong. The author is a gen- 
tleman, whofe ancefVor» were the adorv, 
and who bimfelf now lives on the fcene 
of hts ftory. 

Mr. Hayley, wifiithat aAlvc philan- 
thropy wMcli marks everv adion of hit 
ftfe, has addrefled the ffiuowing circular 
letter to the pcrfons who have honoured 
the intention of raifing a puMick monu- 
ment to Cowper by entering their namet 
c» the lift of fubfcribers : 

** Gntttude sad Intaf^rfty feem to require from 
sne, St thb time, ao adoreA to the fovouren of a 
p««n, which I propoCcd to the pobUck, m* tribote 
flltse to A dsparted ohjcA of national eftpem and 
alTcdioo. To publUh a Milton in three quarto 
▼<3liimes (inclnding all the MainrfcH|>ts of Cowper 
rdatlRg to MUCQQ, at ttM price of fix gulBCMf wtf 

a propofal, that, with extenfive encooragenCfft, 
m^hc have gratified the wifhes of Cowper'a ar- 
dent adniirert, and, in rendering a figna) and juii 
honour to him, mi{;ht alfo have honoured the tafte 
of an enlightened and a liberaJ nation. 

** 'niough the Gjgnature of rcveral moft rrfpeA- 
. able iiame> feemedto afford an honourable {anc^ 
tlon to my firft idea ^f a poblick Monument fbrmy 
litcrarv friend, yet I am now diTpoied to reliiH 

auifh that idea ; and I acealoufly fuUdt, not only 
lofe who have befriended it, but the pubHck at 
large to co-operate with me in a new, and differ- 
ent, rrark of regard to the memory of the pocC| 
on a pUn, whicn I haiten to explain, and to re- 
commend to their favour. 

** Since the publication of my firft propofal, • 
favotirite godfon and namelake of Cowper hat 
had the mluortune to become an orphan at an 
early age. It haa occurred to me, that 1 may 
improve the tribute of general refped to the me- 
mory of the poet, by converting hb manuferipta, 
relating to Milton, not into marhle, but Into a lit- 
tle fund, to Affift the education and futnre ettab* 
liAiment of this intcrcftine orphan. I am confi.' 
dent that no tribute of twpcA to Cowper** me- 
mory could be more truly accepubic to hit pure 
and beneficent mind than what I now propofe ;. 
and I feel a pleafbre in believing, that I may grat- 
ify many of hii admfarera by affording tbcm an 
opportunity of purchafing the pofthumou^ poetry 
mmy frleiid, and of indulging, at the f^me t1me». 
their feeUnga of tendemeft and benevolence to* 
ward! an orphan particularly endeared to th« 
departed poet. 

'* It is therefore my prefent biteittlon to print, 
not a Milton In three vokjmes, but the Latin and 
Italian poema of Milton tranflated bv Cowper 
(With all that remahv of hia proJeAed difftrtatlona 
on Paradife Lott) In one handfome quarto, at tb« 
price of two guineaa. 

•• I cheriih a langidne hope that the liberality 
of the publick, and a general wi(b totesufy af- 
fectionate refpect to Cowper'a memory, in a 
manner, that will appear, I tnifl, pecul'uriy foltcd 
to the tendernefs and the beneficence of his char- 
ader, may render fuch a Tubfcriptioo aa I have 
now propofcd. in ibme degree adc^uaisi^ftthe de* 
finUe oDied in vieVv. ^^ 

•• To tbofe who have ho n o u ie d roe with their • 
names for higher funps on my former plan. It ii 
my duty to fay, that the perfona who have paid 
their. money to the relt>eaive bookfellers men- 
tioned in the firat propofal, are at liberty to n> 
fume the whole, or what portion of it they think 

»• If, on the contrary, they generoufly devote 
the whole fum (fublcribed toward* a Monument 
for Cowper) to the orphan god -child of the poet^ 
I think It right to allure them, that, whatever 
may be raifi« by the prefent application to their 
liberaHty, will be veiled in two tnifteea, i^amuel 
Sa3i:h«a«d lo^ Sargent, efiauires, membera of 
parliament, for the boiefit of the Orphan, whom 
f have mentioned. ^, «-v«ij^ 

Feb. 4, iftXS. W. HAYLET. 

Pelpham, near Chkhefter. 

•♦ Cowper'a tranflaOonafrom the Latin and Ital- 
ian poemTof Milton arc already ''•2£«^./2 
the prdi, from the copy that includea hia Uteft 

**'?^^Vona Inclined to befriend the puWloi. 
tkm h2rE?ecommended to their favour, ^the 

KSSs to N?r. Johnfon of St. Paul'. Church Yard, 
oa to Mr. Evans, Paii-Maii. .«<v»jNft»«- 

••rSliwho have made their «^j^e pay, 


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Mr. Carr, who ha« already favoured 
the world with his Stranger in France, 
and with hit Travels round the Baltic, 
lia« lately made the T»ur of Ireland^ and ii 
now preparing an accouot of that almod 
Mukaown country which he intends to 
publifh under the title of tbe Stran- 
GKR IN Ireland. The work will make 
one elegant volume quarto, fimilar to the 
X^orthem Summer, and will be embellifhed 
with a variety of engravings by Mcd- 
LAMo from drawings by Mr. Carr. 

Mr. Walter Scott, author of the 
Poem of the Lay of the laft Minftrel, it 
preparing an edition of the long negleiSbed 
works of John Dryden. 

The following details relative to the 
arts at Rome are given by one of the 
moft dilliuguiOied fcientiiick men of that 
city. — ** We cannot boaft of many literary 
produ^ions, but, to make amends, great 
pains are taken for clearing, cieandiig, 
and better preferving, the ancient monu- 
ments of architecture. His Holinefs has 
greatly promoted this part of the art, one 
of the moft interetllng of antiquity.-* 
The architedk and the antiquary will ac- 
quire new fubjeAs of erudition, and new 
works and new engravings will be rend- 
ered neceflary. The Works of Dcfgo- 
detz, a new edition of which is about to 
be published by M. Carlo Fca, will derive 
an immenfe advantage from thefe la- 
bours, and will become almofl entirely 
new. How dtfTerent from what we have 
been accuflomed to behold it, will ap- 
pear that celebrated Pantheon, hitherto 
almoft unknown, though the mofk beau- 
•tiful of ancient edifices, and in the beft 
prefervation I The Flavian Amphithea- 
tre, or Colifeum, will be cleanfed, and 
the publick will have accefs to it, as to a 
mufeixm. The Temple of the Sybil at 
Tivoli ha^ been repaired ; and the two 
arches of Septimius Severus and of Con- 
ftantine have been cleared of the earth 
which covered them. The column of 
Antoninus has beea cleancdaiid is no lon- 
ger covered with duft. The fuppofed 
Temple of. Vefta at Rome, on the Tiber, 
as well as the neighbouring one of Fortw 
ma Firilit^ will be cleared of the rubbifh 
in which they ha?c been as it were bur- 
ied ; and the interior of them will be 
cleaofed. Thus by the exertions of his 
Holinefs, ancient Rome will be expofed 
to view, and modern Rome will be em- 
bfelliflied. Kor has the Holy Father for . 
gotten the nfof^ celebrated of the modern . 
buildings, the fmall circular temple ered^- 
ed in 1502, after the dcfigns of the il- 
iuftrious Braxnante Lazaeri, under the 

aufpices of Ferdinand the CatholickKiog 
of Spain. It fell into ruins fome years 
lince, not from age, but in confequeoce 
of the lat« troubles. It was fold, in or- 
der that its precious materials might be 
removed : but his holinefs has refolvcd 
to repair it in a flyle of great elegance. 
In a (hort time M Carlo Fea will 
fpeak of all thefe new undertakings 
in the fecond volume of Mifcellanies, 
which he has particularly devoted to 
what relates to the refearches now car^ 
rying on, exclulive of what will be 
faid in his Illuftrations of Defgodctt— 
M^ Guattani will likewife treat of them 
in a new journal which M. Carlo Fea is 
about to undertake. The former gentle- 
man is at prefent engaged on the Se- 
quel to the Unpubliflied Monuments 
in which will be found many interefting 
particulars. The Mufeum of the illuf- 
trious Cardinal Borgia has palTcd into 
hands by which it will not be ncgled- 
cd. His nephew, the prefent pofleffo^is 
a man of information, and has a deep 
fenfe of the glory which the Cardinal 
acquired for his family by this unique 
colle<5li«n. He continues the engrav- 
ings which his uncle intended to have 
executed from drawings of the moft re- 
markable obje<5U in the Mufeum. He 
has communicated the Mexican Manu- 
fcript to M. Alexander von HumboWt, 
and has permitted him to make ufe of 
it for his work : but he is thwarted in 
his noble defigns by the pretenfioof of 
the Prcpagamia, The Cardinal made 
that fociety his heir, but bequeathed the 
Mufeum and other legacies to his fami- 
ly. He unfortunately made ufe of tbe 
expreifion, ** My Mufeum which is at 
Velleiri ;** and the Propaganda claim a 
right to every thing that happened to 
be at Rome at the moment of the Cardi- 
naPa death, though the articles incon- 
tedibly formed part of the Mufeum.— 
By a fecond fatality the Coptic inflni- 
mcnts, for which M. Zoega has juft 
completed the defeription, were among 
the obje£U that had been broui:hC to 
Rome. This important work cannot 
therefore be publiHied till after theded- 
fion of the procefs, unlefs the two par- 
tips come to a previous arrangements — 
Two learned Sicilians, the Chevaliers 
Landolini and Serrini, have refided for 
fome time at Rome. The former, who 
has already evinced fuch seal for the an- 
tiquities of his country, is ftill engaged 
in refearches at the Theatre of Syra- 
cufe ; and we are indebted to him for 
the rcccni difcovery of two fine flatues, 

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an iBTcuUpius and a Venui, which, 
however, are not fo beautiful at has been 
averted. He is at this moment writing 
a Memoir on fome infcriptiom found at 
the Theatre of Syracufe. The Cheva- 
liar Sirini is endeavouring to difpufe of 
hiii coHciftion of yolcanick produvftious, 
and is preparing for a tour in the north '* 

M. Lartioue has at length completed 
a large and beautiful map of America in 
relief. The mountains, ifland<(, and the 
tints of the fea, are all exhibited in a 
manner mofl capable of intereQing thofe 
who make geography their ftudy. 

Rev. Ifrael Worfley, who has lately 
•fcaped from France, is about to pubiim 
in one volume, fmall o^flavo, an Account 
of the State of France and its Govern- 
ment during the lafl Three Year*, parti- 
cularly as it has Relation to the Belgic 
Provinces and the Treatment of the 

Mr. Duppa has in the prefs, and will 
publiflv early in the fpriug, a life of Mi- 
chael Angelo- Buonaroti, compriUng his 
charadber as a poet, painter, fculptor, and 

Mr. Bigland has in the prefs, and 
nearly ready for publication, Letters on 
Natural Hiftory. The obje<ft of this 
work is to exhibit the view of the wif- 
dom and goodnefs of the Deity, fo emi- 
nently difplayed in the formation of the 
uoiverfc, and the various relations of 
utility which inferiour beings have to 
the human fpecies. It is calculated par- 
ticularly for the ufe* of fchools, and for 
youth in general of both fexes, and will 
De illudrated by upwards one hundred 
engraved fubjetfb. The fame writer has 
recently publifhed a fecond edition of 
his Letters on Ancient and Modern 
Hiftory, in ocfbavo, which forms a hand- 
fome library-book, with an elegant en- 
graving of the author. 

Avariety of Lives of Lord Nelfon have 
been announced, from the price of Hx- 
pence to one- hundred guineas. The three 
mod conliderable are, that bv Meflrs. 
Art HO a and CLaitKx, and that under 
the patronage of the new Earl, and an- 
other from the houfe of Mr. Bowyer of 
Pall Mall. Each of tkem claims the re- 
commendation of original materials ; and' 
a far as the fubjedk itfelf is fulceptible 
of noveltv of illuftration, they all Appear 
ft) be entitled to the patronage of the 

A moft valuable colledHon of EafTem 
ifeRS., tRe property of Major Oufcley, 
brother of Sir William Oufeley, was 
Wrought to £ogland by the laft Bengal 

fleet. The number of Ara^c, Perfiitay 
and Sanfcript books, amounts to nearly 
fifteen thoufand volumes. Beiidtt tbeitf 
there are vad coUe^ions of natural hif» 
tory and mineralogy, and a great many 
botanical paintings executed in the mou 
accurate manner. The quantity of ad-* 
ditional ouriotitiee and momimcnts i* 
very great. There are many portfoiioe 
of immenfe iize, containing mythological 
paintings of great antiquity, ipleadidly il- 
lumiuated, and coUet^ed from all partv 
of Hiodoftan, from I'hibet, Tartary^ 
China, Ceylon, Ava, &c. I'o thefe are 
added feveral idols of (lone, metal, wood« 
and other materials. There is alfo a ca- 
binet of the mod rare medals, gems, and 
other antif^ucs. The treafure is ftilL 
farther enriched with a complete feries 
of the coins flruck by Mahometaa 
princes fince the reign of Timour, ind 
with fpecimens of armour, horfe fumi^ 
ture, (words, f pears, bows and arrows^ 
and all the weapons ufed in Periia, India, 
and other countries of the £a(h The 
Major has alio executed, on the fpot, in 
various parti of India, original draw- 
ings. He has alfo brought home mu(i^ 
cal iudruments, and icverai hundred 
tunes fet to mu(ick by hirofelf, from the 
voice of Perilan, Caflimerian, and Indian 
lingers. The iituation of Major Oufeley, 
as Aid-de-Camp to the Nabob of Oude, 
gave him great advantages for procuring 
(uch commodities ; and his acquilitions, 
added to thofe of bis brother. Sir W^ 
Oufeley, who already polTcffes eight 
hundred Arabic, Periian, and Turla(h 
MSS., will form a more fplendid collec<^ 
tion than any that is pofTeHed in Eu- 

Mr. Kidd propofet to publiffi a neW 
edition of Homer, with collations of ma- 
ny maoufcripti never before examined. 

One of the moft intimate friends of 
Winkelmann, the celebrated German an- 
tiquary, named Berendis, lately dcceafed, 
left among his papers feveral letters of 
that celebrated man. Thefe have been 
publi(hed by Gothe, who has added 
various pieces of his own compoHtionv 
in which he end^vours to place the 
charadter of Wiokelhiann in a new light 
as a writer and as a man, by delineating 
him in themoft remarkable circum(lance» 
of his Kfe. Gounfeller Wolfe, of Halle, 
has enriched this volume with a very' 
curious piece on the literary and philolo- 
gical (hidies of Winkelmann. Laflly, pro^ 
UiTor Meyer has contributed' a well* 
written Hiftory of the Arts in the lad^ 
Century, which- condudef the work, ttf 

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ME0ICAL REl»0!lT. 

Whsdl OailM hM tliottglit ^t to icive the 
tide of •* Winkeimman and hit Age." 

M. fchonberger, of Vienna, one of 
tkc irft iModfeape-paittters of the age, 
' kaa recently been engaged in a tour of 
the moft pi<!hirefque parts of Switzer- 
land and Ital^. His prododliont are 
principally diftingitiihed for the happy 
arrangement of the objedks, for the ef- 
Ie6b of the perfpe<5Hve, and the beauty of 
the colouring. This ableartiftisas well 
known in France as in German jr, by his 
beautiful pieces, id the exhibition of 
J 804. Thefe were, a View of the Envi* 
rons of Baise, near Naples, at fun-rife ; 
the Ikll of the Rhine, near Schaffhaufen ; 
and the Cafcades oJFTivoli, by moon«» 
tight : performan(^es in which the touch 
and the native graces of Claude le Lo- 
rain were difcoverable. 

A new and complete edition of the 
Works of the celebrated Franklin will 
ipeedily make its appearance in Eng- 
land, le will embrace tiot only all 
fbat is contained in former editions, but 
Kkewife much new matter tranfmitted 
Irxpre&ly for the work from America, 
Bedde a corretfl likenels of the vener- 
able philofopher, it will contain eight 
engravings of fcientifickfubje<5b,ezecuted 
by Mr. Lowry. 

F/tM March 20 t6 Aprit 20. 

THE weather during the latter part 
of March was cold and tempefhious. 
The winds mod commonly north-ealler- 
ly, and often accompanied with fnow. 
The commencement of April brought 
milder weather and feme eafl winds. 
Afterward the wintry north-wed return- 
id, and prevailed to the end of the month. 
On the whole, the ead wind has exifted 
Ufs frequently than ufual, and the wea- 
ther has been colder. 

An epidemic catarrh attended with fe- 
Vere febrile fymptoms, of {hort duration, 
hasbeen quite common. Slight inflamma- 
tory affe^ons of the throat, and violent 
ones of the lungs, have appeared ; and 
fheumatifm hai» occafjonally occurred. 

Toward the clofe of March an uncom- 
mon difeafe appeared at Medfleld, the 
fymptoms of which we (hall record with 
«• much accuracy, as our information 
will Admit. Aay thiog further on thif 

fubje^ will be rcceitred with pTelftirf 
from thofe, who. have feen the difeafe. 
It is faid that one or two cafes of the fame 
nature appeared in Bodon. The fubje<^ 
were children between the ages of eigh^' 
teen months and two years. Thofe, who 
could explain their feelings, faid they 
were attacked .with a numbnefs in one 
arm, fucceeded by violent pain in the 
head, naufea and vomiting, throbbing of 
the carotid arteries, and rednefs of the 
eyes. In feme of the cafes, there was 
ereat pain in the domach and bowels, 
back, and limbs. The tongue was white, 
the pulfe, in this dage, very hard and 
quick. After thefe a<Stions had continued 
a few hours, they gradually fubfided. 
T^e arterial adHon cfpecially became very 
feeble, fo that the pulfc in the wrid could 
fcarcefy be felt ; though the vibration 
of the carotids dill appeared. Slight 
fpafms took place in fome in dances. 
Petechia appeared on various parts of the 
body. At lad the vital and morbid ac- 
tions difappeared one after the other, the 
pulfe became imperceptible, a deathlike 
torpor fucceeded and laded fome hours, 
after which the patient funk into th« 
arms of death. The duration of the dif- 
eafe was generally from 1 8 to SC hours, 
Of eight or nine patients afTedled, only 
one recovered, though the mod adlivc 
pra^ice was employed. Infpedlion of 
the bodies of 4 of the difeafed difcovered 
nothing very remarkable. The veffels of 
the brainand iu membranes, efpecially the 
pia mater, were fomewhat turgid with 
blood ; the domach and intedinal canal 
flightly inflamed. Mediield is a village 
18 miles from Bodon. It contains 800 in- 
habitants, and is confidered healthful. 
In the lad autumn, many cafes occurred 
of the autumnal fever, but it was not un- 
ufually fatal. No peculiar local cauTe 
has been dete<lled, which can pofliblv be 
confldered the fource of this difeafe. 
The patients were within a fpace of two 
miles ; but there was no reaibn to think 
the difeafe was communicated from one 
to another. In one indance, two of the 
stffedted were of the fame family. We 
have related the fa<5b, and leave others 
to fpeculate upon them. 

The appearance of fmaU p^x, in this 
town and a neighbouring one, during 
this month, has produced a large number 
of cafes of vaccination ; fo that there it 
fcarcely a phyiician in town, who hasr 
liot, at prefent, fome patients with the 

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MAY, 1806. 


JV'o. 5. 

J^ozzuoii„Jhe So{faterra,„Monte Jsruovo...Lakc of ^vemut... Ruins of 
£aix,.,BathM qf J\/ero,.,Cafie Miaenua.^Elysian fieida. 

1 MUST carry you once more 
through the grotto, to see the en- 
virons of Pozzuoli, abounding with 
Tarious interesting objects. It is 
necessary to leave the carriage at 
Pozzuoli, and take a mule or a 
boat, according to the object you 
have in view. 

PozzuoH is a small town, about 
five miles fromNaples ; it is at pre- 
sent a place of little consequence, 
though the ruins of its ancient edi- 
fices attest its former importance. 
As the works of nature demand 
precedence of those of art, I shall 
give you some account of the val- 
ley of Solfaterra, situated about a 
mile from the town. After ascend- 
ing gradually the greater part of a 
mile, the road descended a little 
and entered the valley. This is 
an ancient volcanick crater, about 
half a mile in circumference. The 
bottom is composed principally of 
sulphur in a crude state. If you 
take up a stone and let it fall upon 
the ground,the hollow sound which 
is returned is a proof of the cavity 
beneath, and makes you tremble at 
your situation. It is surrounded 
by rugged rocks, except at the en- 
trance, which exhibit the action of 
fire to which they have been ex- 
posed, and in many different places 
the smoke is seen climbing up their 

Vol. III. No. 5. 2E 

summits. At the extremity of the 
valley a building is elected for 
making allum ; and the boilers 
are heated by the natural fire of 
the place. The hot vapour and 
steam here issue through the crev- 
ices with violence and noise: . o 
one unused to these scenes these 
"workmen did not appear in a safe 
situation ; but habit subdues fear, 
and the workmen have no more idea 
of danger than if they were working 
at a common fire. I saw many 
beautiful specimens of native siilr 
phur, and many christalizations cf 
sulphur and nitre ; but they are 
so liable to be destroyed by the 
moisture that I did not think it 
worth while to bring them away. 

In the neighbourhood of Pozzuoli 
are the ruins of an ancient amphi- 
theatre of great extent. Tv/o sto- 
ries of it yet remain. In a garden 
in the town, an ancient temple was 
discovered a few years since, be- 
neath the surface of the earth. Ex- 
cavations were made by order of 
tlie court, and the temple was 
cleared of the dirt and rubbish in 
which it was buried ; all the movea- 
ble objects were transported to the 
museum at Poriici. The antiqu-i- 
rians have decided that it was ded- 
icated to Jupiter Serapis. Tlie 
external waJls were square, and 

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against them are a number of small 
chambers, twelve or fifteen feet 
square, destmed %f> the pnests. 
The altar in the centre was encir- 
cled with superb granite columns, 
the greater part of which are 
thrown down. The temple was 
formerly filled with water to the 
height of seven or eight feet, and 
the lower part of these columns 
pi^sent the same appearance as a 
piece of wood which has been, in 
the sailor's piira»e, honey -combed. 
The worms have bored iholes in 
the granite four or five inches in 
depth, some of them big enough 
to insert^ a finger. When it is 
considered that granite is one of 
the hardest species of stones, these 
holes must cerUiinly be esteemed 
a singular cmioslty. 

Aixes seeing the ruius about 
Pozzuoli, I took a boat to cross over 
to the coast of Baix. Some ruin- 
ed piers which project into the 
harbour, are vulgarly called the 
Bridge of Caligula, but are supposr 
ed io be the ruins o£ the ancient 
mole. I landed near Monte Nuovo, 
which is on the edge of the water 
between Pozzuoli and Boxx^ This 
mountain is about a mile in cii'- 
cunvfcrence, and two hundred feet 
perpendicular. It rose up on the 
night of the 29th of September, 
1538, after a succession of earth- 
quakes. It buried a village and 
separated the lake of Avernus. 
Its surface is. barren, producing on- 
Jy a few shrubs, and coarse grass. 
Behind the Monte Nuovo Is the 
Lake Avernus inunortalfzed in the 
sixth book of the -^neid. The 
gloomy wood tlrat formerly sur- 
rounded it, that pestilentfal aii*, 
which was fatal to the birds who 
flew over it, no longer exist, ex- 
except in the description of the 
poet. I cannot give you a better 
accomii of it than in the words of 
manusciipt,before quoted :..." The 
lake of Avernus is an object inter- 

esting to the naturalist, the poct^i 
the historian. It is the crater of a 
volcano, fi-lled whh \fater, which 
was sounded by admiral Mann and 
found to be 600 feet in depth • 
Aristotle calls it one of the proi- 
gies of this kind that existed on 
the earth. The ancient Grecians 
made it their hell, imagined it to 
be surrounded with four rivers, 
and gave llieni. names of rivers in 
their own country. The Romans, 
wkh VirgH at their hcad,.fiftUowc4 
the same idea. They called the 
Lucrme Lake, Cocytus ; the Lake 
of Fusaro, Acheron ; the baths of 
Nero, or rather the subterranean 
source of them, was Phcgethon ; 
and lastly, the waters in the ob- 
scure chambers at the bottom of 
the lake of Avernus, common] j 
called the Grotto of the Syl»i 
were the Styx. What Homec 
says of the Cimmerian regions, in 
tlie travels of Ulysses, relates ac- 
cording to Dacier and the other 
criticks to the environs of Avernus* 
Strabo had anciently the same 
opinion. In the obscure, gloomj 
wood, that formerl)F surrounded 
this place, .£neas gathered the 
golden branch that procured him 
admittance into the infernal re- 
gions*" In the neighbourhood arc 
a great many ruinsr among which 
are those of Gums. 

At some distance fix>m the 
Monte Nuovo, towards Baia&, are 
the baths of Nero. The beach is 
here interrupted by some rocks 
and ruined walls which project 
into the sea. Among these the 
steam and vapour is continually is- 
suing from the boiling pool below, 
whieli is at the extremity of a 
dark, narrow, winding Gave« To 
descend to this boiling water, re- 
quires a violent effort ; it is neces- 
sary to strip to the skin, and even 
then possess considerable resolu- 
tion to penetrate in the dark, al- 
most stifled with the heat and. 

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<team. A fellow is always ready 
with a bucket, in which he puts 
two or three eggs, and going 
into the cave, dips it into the pool 
below, and by the time he returns 
into the open air, the eggs are suf- 
ficiently boiled. I eat an t^^ 
cooked in the water from this nat- 
^jffsA cauldron i the man who went 
down appeared to be much exhaust- 
ed by the exertion, I entered the 
jcave a little way to experience the 
-effect. At first I could walk up- 
right, without any inconvenience 
from the vapour which passedover 
my head. After three or four 
ysurds, it was necessary to stoop a 
iittle ; and in progressing farther I 
went upon my hands and knees, till 
the vapour growing hotter and hot- 
tec, I was glad to turn round and 
escape into the open air. This 
boiling water is not confined to a 
small spot ; even on the beach, un- 
der the rocks for several yards, if 
you scrape away the sand a few in- 
ches on the very edge of the water 
of the bay, the hole is filled with 
boiling water. Near these rocks 
there is a bathing rooix\ with an 
arched ceiling, on yvhich some of 
the stucco is stiU remaining. This 
Is said to have been part of the 
palace of Nero, and was probably 
supplied from the boiling source 
just described. 

I now returned to the boat, and 
and being roired a short distance, 
was landed at Baiie. Ancient Ba- 
ix is now covered with the sea, the 
highest parts of a fewbuilcfing^s only 
remain. Three oi these are very 
remarkable, and are called Tem- 
pio di Venere, T^mpio di Mercu- 
no,Tempiodi Minerva; but these 
names are given vdthout founda- 
tion, and the antiquarians suppose 
them to have been anciently Ther- 
mae. The Temple of Mercury is 
circular, and lighted by an opening 
from the top ; the earth now rises 

to within a few feet -of the cornice. 
A very strong reverberation is pro- 
duced, by striking the ground with 
a slick, and a whisper against the 
wall is distinctly heard on the other 
side. The little ruin called the 
Tempio di Venere is the jnost beau- 
tiful I have ever seen. It is of an 
octagon form, overgrown with ivy, 
and is extremely picturesque. 
These and some other shs^cless 
ruins are all that remain of an- 
cient Baix. This beautiful coast 
has experienced the most extraor- 
dinary changes from the violent 
earthquakcs,with which it has been 
ravaged. Under the wall of a large 
castle,in a very commanding situa- 
tion, arc placed a few Habitations, 
the inhabitants of which cultivate 
the vineyards situated among the 
ruins, and this is all the population 
of modem Baix. What a re- 
verse ! Even in the most luxurious 
days of ancient Rome, this place 
became a proverb from the sensu- 
ality and debauchery of its inhabi- 
tants, the beauty of the climate, and 
those fascinating shores, once the 
theme of the poets and the resort of 
the dissipated. The corruption of 
Baix was a theme of perpetual satire 
with the moralists, among whom 
Martial says that the most virtuous 
matron in Rome would be convert- 
ed into a perfect Messalina in tliis 
dangerous residence. Seneca as- 
serts that it could not be the resi- 
dence of any person possessed of 
any principle of virtue, and Cicero 
was reproached for having a villa 
in this neighbourhood. 

No longer the haunt of pleasure 
and dissipation, the coastof Baix is 
strewed with hiins ; earthquakes 
have destroyed its temples and pa- 
laces, but the delicious climate still 
remains, and the landscape is still 
beautiful and picturesque. 

Again embarking I lefl Baix 
and landed on the other side of the 

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Castle. At every step some ruin 
is to be seen ; one is pointed out, as 
being the tomb of Agrippina, mur- 
dered by her infamous son : but 
there is no authority for this sup- 
position. A little farther on are 
the cente camerclle^ or the prisons 
of Nero. These are narrow subter- 
ranean gallerics,which are tliought 
to have supported some terrace. 
There is nothing in their con- 
struction to justify the idea of their 
having been prisons. 

After gaining the summit of the 
hill, the guide conducted me into 
the fiisciene mirabile. This is a vast 
reservoir, under ground, about 
seventy feet in depth ; the roof is 
supported by square pillars cover* 
ed with stucco, ^vhich are as entire 
as if they had been just constructed. 
This immense reservoir was for- 
merly filled with water, though 
for what particular purpose is not 
known. It is generally supposed to 
have been for the Roman fleet, sta- 
tioned at Miscnum. The water has 
encrusted these columns with a sub- 
stance of excessive hardness ; it is 
half an inch in thickness, and is ca- 
pable of receiving the most beau- 
tiful polish. It is manufactured into 
various little ornaments, 

from this hill is seen the pro- 

montory of Misenum, the Mare 
Monte, and the Elysian Fields, in 
which are the ruins of ancient 
tombs. This view,which the pen- 
cil alone can give any idea of, does 
not need the additional interest, 
which their classick names excite, 
to chain the admiring stranger to 
its beauties. The most interesting 
classick recollections here unite 
with the fantastick, the wonderful, 
and beautiful appearances of na- 
ture to excite altemately the most 
delightful sensations, or plunge 
the mind into the most pleasing 
reveries. Every foot of these pla- 
ces is classick ground, and, before 
viewing them, looking into some 
of the Roman poets, adds vivacity 
to the sensations they excite ; 
above all, every one ought to read 
the sixth book of the -£neid before 
he makes this excursion. 

The pleasure of the traveller, in 
viewing these scenes, is interrupted 
and partly destroyed by the number 
of beggars, which surround him. 
The number of poverettos and 
miserabiles who are haunting your 
steps seem like the ghosts of the 
ancient inhabitants, and society 
appeared to me to be more ruined 
than the buildings. 



[Concluded from p. 184.] 

ON our arrival at the frontiers 
of the Italian Republick, at Scari- 
er, kisini, situated on the summit of 
the Appenines, we began to be 
tormcntetl by customhouse-offi- 
cers. In tht Roman and Tuscan 
territories little ceremony had 
been niade respecting our passes 
and trunks, but in the Republick 
we were treated with such suspi* 

cious severity, that, in spite of all 
the inconveniences to which we 
were subjected by this conduct, it 
frequently appeared perfectly ludi- 
crous. I had a parcel of books 
in my trunk, and had not the least 
idea that they could give any um- 
brage ; but tllfey causedtis a thou- 
sand vexations, which continued 
from the moment \vc entered the 

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Repttbiick till we reached the foot 
of the Splii^cn, where its juris- 
diction terminates. When the 
books were discovered, I \^ as told 
that my trunk must be scaled up 
till we arrived at Bologna, because 
the strictest orders had been issu- 
ed to suffer no books to enter the 
territories of the State, without 
the precaution of sending them 
sealed to Bologna, where they 
would be returned to me after they 
had been rerised. When I ex-> 
pressed my surprize to tlie custom- 
house-officer, and added, that I 
should have expected such a pro- 
ceeding in the Papal dominions, 
but not in the Italian Republick, 
he replied very frankly, " Yes, it 
should be so ; but at present we 
are more afraid of books than of 
the Pope." At Bologna, notwith- 
standing all my remonstrances, 
my books were declared to be 
merchandize, and in that city, as 
well as at Parma and Milan, I was 
obliged to pay duty for them as 
such. During all this time I was 
never master of my trunks, for in 
all the towns through which we 
passed, they were detained at the 
custom house. In this blessed 
nepublick all the regulations rela- 
tive to travellers are calculated 
only to harass and extort money. 
In the Parmesan, which is now a 
French province, we experienced 
the same vexatious treatment as 
to our trunks, passes, &c. 

Our residence at Bologna was 
» short, that I could only visit the 
Gallery of Sampicri, where many 
<>W impressions were renewed, 
h) this city Italian literature still 
njMntains th^ prepondei'ance, and 
I found only two booksellers who 
I *oW French works. At Modena, 
^arma, and Milan, the trade in 
French books, and probably the 
^udy of French literature, is at 
ie^ on a par with the Italian. At 

Bologna I met with a few moro 
books in the Bolognese dialect, for 
my collection of the various dia- 
lects of Italy. 

At Modena there are few works 
of art worthy of notice, since the 
ducal collection has been remi^ved 
from the palace. — At the library, 
which is admirably arranged, and 
is particularly copious in historical 
works, I spoke with the Padres 
Pozzetti and^Scotti, who jointly 
perform the office of librarian^ 
which was before held by T^ra- 
boschi, and his predecessor, Mura- 
tori, alone. The manuscripts oc- 
cupy a spacious apartment. A- 
mong other curiosities I saw a 
beautiful copy of Provcn9al Poems^ 
containing pieces by 143 different 
poets. At a bookseller's in this 
place I found two new works, 
which considerably interested 
me. One of these was an 
Italian Translation of Kotzebue'9 
Misanthropy and Repentance* 
and the other an Exposition 
and Examination of Kant's Philc* 
sophy, by Francesco Soave. Out 
of curiosity I bought the latter, a 
pamphlet of only 108 pages, fifty^ 
two of which are occupied with 
the Exposidon, and the remainder 
with the Examination. Upon 
closer inspection I found that what 
the author calls his Exposidon, is 
nothing more than a scanty ex* 
tract from that of Villars. In his 
Dedication to the Vice-President 
Melzi, he says, that he undertook 
this examination of a Systemic 
which is beginning to extend itself 
in Italy, only vrith a view to warn 
and caution youth against study n 
ing it ; for, says he, in another 
place, it has been forbidden even 
in Germany by several Govemi 
ments, and has been ill-received by 
almost all. After this it may 
easily be conceived how his ex-» 
amination and refutation are con^ 

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ducted. It does not appear that M. 
Soave has understood) or taken in 
A proper sense, a single sentence 
of liis author ; and even what is 
most intelligible is distorted and 
placed in a ludicrous light. I 
was' informed, when too late, that 
this Italian Anti -Kan list resides at 
Modena, where he is teacher of 
philosophy at the CoUegio^ or JJceo 
•/Vaztona/r, otherwise J should have 
made a personal acquaintance with 
bim. Soave has long been esteem- 
ed in Italy as a man of talents. 
He is the author and translator of 
eeveral works, and has written a 
Grammatica Ragionata diUa Un* 
gua JtaUanoy which is accounted 
the best Italian Grammar extant, 
though it is rather a sketch than 
a complete work ; likewise a col- 
lection of Novcld Morally in two 
volumes, each containing eighteen 
tales which are narrated with great 
case, and are in high estimation 
fcr the elegance and purity of 
their style. He has likewise writ- 
ten a System of Logick and Meta- 
physicks, after the manner of 
Locke and Condillac. Among 
his translations, that of Virgil's 
Georgics is much esteemed. He 
has likewise render dd into his nsu> 
tive language the Idylls of Gesner, 
and the Abstract of Locke on 
the Human Understanding, by 

At Parma I found, to my re» 
gret, that the beautiful Corregios 
which I saw there ten years since, 
were gone. I was unable to ob- 
tain admission to the pieces by 
Corregio, which were found in an 
apartment in a nunnery, and which 
Bodoni made known in a splendid 
work, with a description by Ghc- 
rardo de Rossi, of Rome. Bodoni 
would, however, have procured 
me access to them, had not the 
t»nly person that can entei* the con- 
vent whenever he pkasQs, the 

French Prefect, who is a friend of 
Bodoni's, been indbposed. The 
designs for the engravings of Bo- 
doni's work were sketched by 
Vieyra, a Portuguese, in a few 
hours. Another artist, of the 
name of Trcvisani, is at present 
employed by the French Prefect 
in taking copies of them in oil. 
At the Academy, which now con- 
tains nothing but the prize-pieces 
of young artists, I heheld, on a 
small scale, the effects of French 
repacity, which we experienced at 
Rome in a much greater degree. 
AH the antique statues which for- 
merly stood in the hall of the A- 
cademy, and those dug out of the 
subterraneous ruins of Velleji, 
stood packed up in chests, ready 
to be sent off to Paris. Am5ng 
them were some busts of Emper- 
ors, and figures with most exqui- 
site draperies. 

Bodoni's printing-office at Par- 
ma is a curiosity which no travel- 
ler ought to omit seeing: The 
proprietor himself is a man of the 
utmost politeness, cordiality, and 
good^nalure, with whom you 
feel the same freedom in the first 
minute as with an old friend. His 
acquaintances know perfectly- well 
how to take advantage of his dis« 
position to serve every one. When 
any of them has produced a pal- 
try poem, a discourse, or any 
worthless trifle, the kind Bodoni is 
easily prevailed upon to print it ; 
and thus a great quantity of trash 
passes through his presses, and is 
purchased at high prices, on ac- 
count of the beautiful type, by the 
collectors of works of his printing. 
His splendid editions of the Latia 
Classicks are in less estimation 
than the Italian, because they are 
not very correct. Didot has de* 
tected a number of very gress 
errors in his Virgil. Of hb Ital- 
ian authors, the works of Tasso^ 

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Aminta^ and the Gierusalemma 
Ubermtay edited by the Abate 
Serassi) are in high repute for 
their correctness. His Petrarca 
deserves the same commenda- 
tion. On the contrary, the admi- 
i^le Roman edition of Dante, by 
Padre Lombardi, is justly prefer- 
red to Bodoni's, which was edited 
by Monsignor Dionisi, of Verona. 
Dionisi ought perhaps to have 
been more capable than any other 
person of producing a correct 
edition of the Divina Commediay 
for he devoted about thirty years 
of bis life almost entirely to the 
study of Dante, and there is not a 
manuscript in Italy, not an early 
or a rare edition, which he has not 
collated, for the sake of the dif- 
ferent readings. But instead of 
taking one of the best editions for 
his ground work, and then judi- 
ciously selecting the best readmgs, 
he has, according to his caprice, 
composed a Pasticcio of them all, ' 
and produced a text that has no 
other authority than the taste of 
Monsignor Dionisi, which none 
can certainly allow to be genuine. 
Padre Lombards, during the eigh- 
teen years be was employed on his 
Dante, likewise collated most of 
the MSS. and early editions ; but 
posessing more judgment, he se- 
lected the Mdobeatina edition for 
his groundwork. He gives his 
reasons for rejecting or admitting 
certain readings, which are almost 
always judicious, and, in conse- 
quence of fortunate conjectures, 
which he afterwards found con- 
firmed by MSS., has amended the 
text where it wanted correction. 
On this account Bodoni's Dante is 
in less request, while his Tasso 
and Petrarca are caught up with 
avidity. He defers his intended 
cditiui of Ariosto, which the ama- 
teurs have long been anxiously 
expecting; ; he says he is afraid of 

^ undertaking a work of such mag* 
nitude, in six volumes, and various 
sizes. He has an idea of com- 
mencing a Homer, in four vol- 
umes, in large folio. He intends 
to print only the text, and was still 
undecided what edition to select 
for the groundwork. My com- 
panion, M. Riemer, a worthy pu- 
pil of Wolf, advised him to take 
the edition by that author, which 
is universally acknowledged to be 
the best, both for the correctness 
of the text and of the impression. 

The two equestrian statues of 
the Dukes Alexander and Ranieri 
Faniese, in the square at Placenza, 
deserves to be ranked among the 
most distinguished productions of 
modem art, notwithstanding all 
the violations of good taste observ- 
able in their style. They arc 
symbolicaL The hero Alexan* 
der is represented riding against 
the tempest, which blows back his 
robe and the mane of his snorting 
charger. The whole group has 
an air of boldness, and appears to 
be pushing forward with a resolu- 
tion becoming a warrior. The 
figure of Alexander Is however 
rather too mean for a hero. The 
other, who is a statesman, rides at 
a more moderate pace, and in a 
more cautious manner. The 
forms of both the horses might be 
better ; but there is great spirit it| 
their movements. — How different 
is the impression made by the 
representation of a Cosmo de Medi- 
ci, an Alexander Famese in the 
coat of mail of the middle ages, 
and mounted on a stately charger, 
and by tlie figure of a naked Bon- 
aparte, striding forward with a 
globe in one hand, and a long stick 
in the other, as Canova has repre- 
sented him, and for which, as may 
easily be conjectured, that artist 
has received tmbounded applause. 
The nearer the traveller ap- 

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|jroaches to Milan, the more dusty, 
but likewise the more lively, the 
roads become. The soil is also in 
a much higher state of cultivation. 
To discover here any traces of the 
war would require a penetrating 
eye : that its effects are still felt 
both by the inhabitants of. the 
country and of the city, I was in- 
formed by several : yet the gener- 
al affluence and the native industry 
of the people announce, that in a 
few years of peace they would 
cease to be felt, if the mother re- 
publick did not continually send 
out new leeches. Milan is at pre- 
sent, beyond dispute, the most 
cheerful and lively town in Italy ; 
iaind though in the populous city 
of Naples there may be more 
noise and tumult, yet in the for- 
mer there is more ideally useful 
activity and bustle. The exces- 
sive luxury which now prevails at 
Milan, indeed shews that a small 
number are revelling at the ex- 
pense of the majority. You, how- 
ever, perceive no misery ; and 
though the necessaries of life are 
dear, yet there is a great quantity of 
specie in circulation. Every thing 
is so Frenchified at Milan, that 
you scarcely conceive yourself to 
be in Italy ; and to a person com- 
ing from the south of Italy, the 
Milanese dialect sounds like a 
French Patois, 

In this place you hear a great 
number of the literati speaking of 
Kant's philosophy, but I did not 
meet with one who was acquainted 
with it intimately, and through the 
original source. In general, an 
Inexpressible confusion and fer- 
mentation at present prevails in 
the heads of the young Uterati at 
Milan. Unfortunately it can nev- 
er take a favourable turn as long as 
they are obliged to borrow the 
light that is to illumine them from 
their neighbours on the Seine. 

The celebrated poet Monti, who 
obtained such reputation by his 
BafisevUliade^ is lecturer of the bH* 
les'httres at the academy of Brera. 
The Academy of arts is under 
the direction of a young artist, of 
twenty- five, called Bossi, who not- 
withstanding his youth, fills that 
post with ability and dignity. He 
is an artist of extraordinary talent, 
and an uncommonly cultivated 
mind. By his means many an 
important improvement has alrea- 
dy been made in the academy, and 
he hopes to eff«ct otliers with the 
assistance of Mclzi, whose confi- 
dence he possesses. The class of 
decorators and of the artisans in 
general, who make architectonic 
ornaments, enjoys the benefit of 
the instruction and models of Al- 
bertolli, the most expert artist in 
that line in all Italy. Nothing can 
be more tasteful, more neat and 
ornamental, than his drawings and 
inventions, which arc partly known 
by three volumes of engravings 
of his embellishments. Appiani 
is esteemed a capital portrait- 
painter, and indeed the first in 
Italy, and he deserves that char- 
acter ; but he must not be com- 
pared with the ancient great por- 
trait painters of Italy and other 
countries. Our modem art has 
its peculiar character, and a par- 
ticular point from which it must 
be viewed. Our present painters 
are no more able to rival Titian, 
Raphael, Diirer, and Holbein, than 
our sculptors can vie with those 
of ancient times. The ancient 
works are the fixed classick rule, 
the standard of unattainable excel- 
lence, and only to approach this 
perfection is a great commenda- 
tion for a modem artist. A mod- 
em production of art possesses 
great merit if it but evince sotinc 
traces of resemblance to the works 
of antiquity, 1 saw some per* 

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traits at Appi^ni's, which had 
much nature and gracefulness in 
the disposition.— -His colouring is 
charmingt but not ti*ue ; rather 
delicate than strong. I was par- 
liculfirly pleased with his treat- 
ment of inferiour objects, which 
appear to be, but actually are not, 
neglected. They are merely sub* 
ordinate to the principal subject. 
This artist has likewise made 
some attempts in tlie historical 
way, but be will scarcely obtain 
cmy great reputation in that Line. 
He is not destitute of inventive 
taient, but his composition and de- 
sign are deficient in style, and his 
£gui*es in character. Appiani 
possesses a Madonna in excellent 
preservation, said to be by Leonar- 

do da Vinci, to which he attaches 
a very high value, but upon near- 
er examination it might perhaps 
be only a Luini. 

Such are the few observations I 
had an opportunity of making on 
literature and the aits during my 
expeditious jouraey through Italy. 
I now hasten to close my long let- 
ter, while I cast a fai^ewel look 
towards the enchanting land in 
which I have resided almost ten 
years, which I love as my adopted 
country, which has furnished me 
with a never-failing source of ex- 
quisite recollections, and which, in 
the gloomy and inclement regions 
of the North,wiIl present my fancy 
with the images of a screner hea- 
ven and a more delightful earth. 


Nii mm wnrtaU temmuty 
^tdorit eiueptut ittgemtqui bonis. 

M. 15. 


IN some such gloomy moment 
as that of parting with a friend, or 
of wounding my body, I cannot 
but meditate on the evanescent 
nature of human life. These 
heavens, say I, are magnificent, 
but I shall not always behold them : 
this terrestrial scenery is luxuriant 
and beautiful, but it will not charm 
me forever. I had a fiiend, in 
whose vigour I rejoiced, whose 
knowledge instructed, and whose 
humour delighted me ; but the 
place that knew him knows him 
no more« If I repair to the well- 
known closet, its occupant is gone ; 
if I visit the parlour circle, his 
musical and facetious voice is not 
heard. At club, on 'change, in 
the mall, I no longer meet his in- 
telligent eye, nor grasp his benef- 
icent hand. If I nsit his tomb, I 
see nothing but a mass of offensive 
ashes. Yet he is immortal by his 

Vol. III. No. 5. 2F 

living thoughts and glowmg words. 
The ars omnium conservatrix ar- 
tium still reflects the image of his 
heart and shows the imperishable 
beauty of his mind. I learn in- 
struction from the fact. I too 
would leave some print of my 
hand and some vestige of my foot 
in the dust of this globe. 1 cheer- 
fully assist in planting this forest 
and forming this parterre, in the 
hope that they will live in youthful 
efflorescence, when he who now 
sees me at my labour, shall seek 
me and I shall not be. 


First the necessary arts are 
practised, aftci-ward those which 
are convenient and pleasurable. 
First hunting, then fowling, then 
fishing. First pasturage, then ag- 
riculture, then gardening. First 
thatched houses, then log...framed 

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....bnck stone marble. First 

besmearing the body, then skins.... 
coaree cloths... .dyed cloths...lmeiTs 
. ...muslins... .bleaching....vftishiTig... 
and all the tinkHng omaments of 
a ParifiianbeUe. 


is justly esteemed an elegant wri*- 
ter ; but his labour is fuHy ecjiial 
to his success. Without a parti* 
cle of genius, he disputes the 
ground with faine inch by inch. 
He fabricates hi^ sentences as the 
weaver does his cloth, yet with 
more toi3, and less satisfactit>». 


None better deserves a page m 
eccentrick biography than this ex- 
traordinary man. He seems to 
have possessed the learning, know F- 
edge oC the world, and the graces, 
which lord Chesterfield so eagerly 
desired for bis son. He was a 
scholar, a courtier, and a debau- 
chee. In his consular office he 
emulated the patriotism of Drutus 
and the dignity of Scipro ; yet in 
private life he was an extravagant 
epicure, and tolerated in his friends 
the grossest impurities. He had 
an almost incredible versatility of 
temper and talents. As occasion 
suited, he could be grave with phi- 
losophers, a mimick with buffoons, 
cruel as Nero his master, or spor- 
tive as the lamb that frolkks on 
the mountain's side. He spent 
the day in sleep and negligence, 
and the night in loves, gaiety and 
song. He was serious in trifles, 
and he trifled with every thing se- 
rious. He even mocked the so- 
lemnities of death, caosmg his 
veins to be opened and closed al- 
ternately, untfl nature refused to 
supply ferther opportunity to his 
' indifference and pastime. He was 
equally singular in his writings. 
•Sometimes he scourged and some- 

times he praised the proflllgatie fa-^ 
vou rites of a profligate court, and 
used liis wit and learning by turns 
to provoke and to condemn the 
excesfses of his time. But notwith^ 
standing the depravity of his man- 
ners and the obscenity of his pca^ 
there ai^ several editions of his 
works ; and the ingenuity of chris- 
tian editors has- been often exer- 
cised to ascertain the meaning of 
hi's fttnny punsy imd indicate the 
point of his wicked epigrams. The 
following story wiU show the play- 
ful elegance of his satire, though 
none will believe k as a matter of 
fact. Matrona quacdam Ephesi 
tarn notje erat pudickix, ut vicina- 
rum quoque gentium feminas ad 
stri spectacukim evocaret, Haec 
ergo cum virum extulissit, non 
contenta vulgari more funus pas- 
sis prosequi crinibus, aut nuda- 
lum pectus in conspectu frequen- 
tix pteBgere^, in conditorium etiam 
prosequuta est deftnactum, posi- 
tumque in hypogceo, grxco more, 
corpus custodire ac ftere totis noc- 
tibus dicbasqne ceppit. Sic afflic- 
tantem se ac mortem inedia- pcr- 
sequentem non parentes potuei-unt 
abducere, non propinqur : magis- 
tratus ultimo repulsr abierunt : 
complorataque ab omnibns singu- 
laris exempli femma quintum jam 
diem sine alimento trahebat. As- 
sidebat xgrx fidis^ima ancSla, si- 
iTiul\:]ue et lacr}*mascommendabat 
lugenti, et quoties defecerat^ posi- 
tum m monumcnto lumen renova- 
bat. Una igitur in tota- civitate 
fabnla erat ; ct solum ilind afful- 
sisse Terum pudicitisc amorisque 
exemplum omnh ordinis homines 
confitebantur : cum interim iui- 
perator provrnicx latrones jussit 
crucibus affigi, secundum illam 
eandem casulam,in qua recens ca- 
daver matrona, deflebat. Proxima 
ergo nocte cum miles, qui cruccs- 
servabat, ue quis ad sepulturam 

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coqK>ra detmberet, notasset sibi 
et lumen inter monumenta darius 
fulgeas, et gemitum lugentis au- 
disset ; vitio gentis humans con- 
cupiit scire quis aut quid faceret. 
Desceudit igilur in conditorium ; 
tisaque pulcherrima muliere, pri- 
me quasi quodam monstro, infer- 
nisque imaginibus turbatus siib- 
stitit : deinde ut et corpus jacen- 
tis conspexit, et lacrymas conside- 
ravit, fticiemque unguibus sectam ; 
ratus scilicet, quod erat, desideri- 
om exstincti non posse feminam 
pati ; attulit in monumentum cx- 
nulara suam, coepitgue hortari lu- 
gentem. Re perseveraret in dolore 
supervacuo, et nihff profuturo ge- 
mitu pectus diduceret : omnium 
eundem exitum esse : sed et idem 
domicilium ; et cxtera, quibus ex- 
iilceratx mentes ed sanitatem rc- 
vocantur. At ilia ignota consolar 
tione percussa, lac.eravit \cehemen- 
tius pectus, ruptosque crines su- 
per pectus jacentis imposuit. Nee 
recess't tamen miles sed eadem 
exhoitatione ^entavit dare mulier- 
culx cibum, donee ancilia vini 
.certe ab eo odoia: -corrupta, pri- 
mum ipsa porrexit ad humanita- 
tem invitantis victam manum : 
deinde refecta potion e et cibo, ex- 
pugnare doming pertinuciam ccc- 
pit : et quid proderit, iiui\iit, hoc 
tibi^ ^ soluta inedi^ fueris ,? si tc 
vjvaui scpeliens ,? si> ^ntequam 
fata poscautjin^cmnatum spirivum 
eftuderis ? 

JdcSnercmaut nuoes credto curare sepultos! 

\1s tu rcviviscere reluctantibiis 
^tis exstinctum ? vis discusso 
muliebri errore, quam diu licuc- 
rit, lucis commodis frui ? ipsnm 
te jacentis corpus ammonere debet, 
ut vi\'a3. Nemo invitus audit, 
cum cogitur aut cibum sumere, 
aut vivere. Itaque mulicr aliquot 
die rum abstinentia sicca, passa est 
frangi pertinaciam suam : ncc mi- 

nus avide replevit sc cibo, quara 
ancilia, quae prior victa est. Cx- 
terum scitis quid tentare plerum- 
que soleat humanam satietatem. 
Quibus blanditiis impetraverat mi- 
les, ut matron a vivere vellet, iisdem 
etiam pudicitiam ejus aggressus 
est. Nee deformis, aut infacun- 
dus juvenis castac videbaKtr, con- 
cihante gratiam ancilia, ac subindc: 

— PI)dtone ctUm pugnabk unorl f 

Ncc vcuk lo mcntem (^uoniBi-cosedcri* arvli f 

Quid duitius moror ? ne banc qui- 
dcm mulier partem corporis ab- 
stinuit victorque miles utrumque 
pci«Guasit. Jacucrunt ergo una, non 
tantum illanocte, quanaptiasf«.c-- 
runt, sed postero etiam ac teriio 
die, prxclusis videlicet conditorii 
fonbus) vut quhque ex notis igno- 
tisque ad momimepitum venisset, 
putasset exspirasse supei* corpus 
viri pudicissimam uxorem. Cx- 
terum delectatus miles et fonna 
mulieris ct secreto, qUicquid boni 
qili facultates proterat, coemebat ; 
et prima stattm nocte in monu- 
mentimi ferebat. Itaque <:ruci- 
arii unius parentes, ut ^nderu^t 
laxatam custodiam, detraxcre noc- 
te pendentem, supremo que man- 
davcrunt officio. At miles cir- 
cumscriptus dum rcsidet, ut pos- 
tero die vidit unam sine caduverc 
crucem ; veritus supplicium, mu- 
licri, q\iid acciifisset, tx^x)nit : ncc 
sc cxspectaturom judicis sentcn- 
tiam, sed gladio jus dictum ni iij- 
navix sux : oommodarct modo ilia 
pciiluro locum et fittale conditori- 
\im familiar! ac \nro faceret. Mu- 
licr non minus niisei^cors quam 
pudica ; Ncc istud, inquii, Dii 
sinant ut codem ter^ipore duovuni 
carissimorvmi homlnum duo func- 
ra spcrtem : malo mortuum im- 
pcndcrc, quam vivtim occidcrc. 
Secundum banc onitionem, jubel 
corpus marili sui toUi ex area, at- 
que illi, qux vacabat, cruci adiigi. 

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Usus est miles mgenio pnidcnds* 
Eimx feminx ; posteroquc die pop- 

tilus miratti's est, qtla ratbne mor^ 
tus isset in crncem ! 

We gUdly embrace an opportunity of performing a promte long tlnce made, and bitert the fol- 
lowing Life of Bcntley from a London publication of 1783. The profouad and unequaUed leara- 
log of this Great Scholar ii now universally acknowledged, and at length 

Nationi slowly wise and meanly just 

To buried noerit raise the tardy bust. 


Late Regius Professor qf Liixniiityy and Master of Trmity College^ 
Cambridge^ EtigUmd, 

*^ * PLATO, de Legft. IV. 

obstacle to his success. The sta- 
tutes of that college prohibit the 
election of fellows j who are not old 
enough to be admitted to priests* 
orders. Bentley, at this period} 
was but twenty. 

Not long after this disappoint- 
ment, he Undertook the charge of 
a school at Spalding, in Lincoln- 
shire. His residence in this place 
was probably of short continuance, 
as he was recommended, by his 
college, to Dean StiUingfleet, as 
tutor to his son, whb had been ad- 
mitted pensioner of St. John's 
College, in 1677. Bentley took 
his degree of Master of Arts in 
July, 1683, and then resided some 
time with his pupil, at Oxford, 
where he devoted a large portion 
of his attention to the examination 
of manuscripts in the Bodleian 
Library, which ofi'ered to his view 
an inexhaustible mine of intellec- 
tual treasures. 

His natural inclination for criti- 
cal disquisition discovered itself at 
a very early period. Before he 
was twenty -four years of age he 
had written an Hexapla, in a large 
quarto volume. The first column 
of this work contained all the 
words in the Hebi^ew Bible, aiid 
in the other five columns he wrote 

Richard Bentley, was bom 
on the twenty-seventh of January, 
1 662, at Oulton, in the parish of 
Roth well, near Wakefield, in York- 
shire. He was descended from a 
family of some consideration, who 
possessed an estate .and seat, at 
Hepeustall, near Hallifax. His 
father, Thomas Bentley, was a re- 
putable tradesman, at Wakefield, 
and married the daughter of Ma- 
jor Rictiard Willis, of Oulton, who 
had formerly engaged in the ser- 
vice of the unfortunate Charles. 

This lady, who possessed an-ex- 
ccllent understanding, initiated her 
son Richard m his accidence. 
His fatlier died while he was 
young, but left him a faithful 
guaidim and firm friend in his 
grn* ather, who placed him at 
the Grammar school in Wakefield, 
where lie was clLstinguished for 
the quickness of his parts, and 
regularity of behaviour. 

At a very early age, for he was 
not yet fifteen, Mr. Bentley was 
admitted of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, May 24th, 1676, un* 
der the tuition of Mr. Johnson. 
On the twenty^-second of March, 
1682, wliile he was a junior bach- 
elor, he stood candidate for a fel- 
lowship. His youth was the onfy 

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t»^ W BftKTfitrZ 


th6 Cbald^e, Synat^, and v^lgaf 
Latin interpretations, as Well ai 
those of the Septuagint, of Aqiula> 
SymmachuS) and of Theodosian. 
He resolved to derive his knowl* 
edge of Hebrew from the ancient 
versions, and not from the more 
modem Rabbins ; and in order to 
&cilitate the execution of this 
plan, and to enable him to com- 
pose such a work, he must have 
perused the whole Polyglott, ex- 
cept the Arabic, Persic, and Ethi- 
opk ver^ioRa. 

At the same time he filled 
VDother quarto folume with vari- 
ous reaiUhjIs, drawn from the old 
tniishKtfottSy which might have 
m^ a setoUd part to the Critica 
men of €^>elhis, if it had becii 

About the year 1T90, he became 
domestick chaplain to the Bishop 
of VVorcestcr, the education of 
whose son he had superintended. 
He resided fourteen years with 
this right reverend patron, whose 
esteem he enjoyed m a high de- 
gree, while he held a correspon- 
dence with the literati of every 

His' character now tanked high 
in the estimation of all his learned 
countrymen ; and in 1691, his 
first publication established his 
reputation beyond dispute. A 
fragment of a Chronognlphy writ- 
ten by John of Andoch| sumam- 
td Malala, had been di^vered in 
the Bodleian Library, in maniH 
script, and was preparing for pub- 
fication, by the learned Humphry 
Hody, of Wadham College. On 
this occasion, at the desire of 
Lloyd, Bishoppf St. Asaph, Bent- 
ky repenised this work, and in a 
Latin epistle, addressed to Dr. 
Mill, he published critical pbserva; 
dons on several Greek authors, 
particularly on those quoted by 
Mglak J and corrected the passa- 

ges which hid be^ cdi!r«pled li^ 
the ci^elefisness of thfet writer^ «r 
the i«[p«rfecti<m of tlie inaiiu«> 

This epistle wsn 8ui]^cnned t# 
Xht Chrono^raphy^ which wai 
publishied in FebrusNry, 1699^ witk 
a Ladn translation and notes, by 
Chilmead, and a dissertatida on 
the author, by Hody. 

This first pvoductkm «f Beatley 
stamped a lustre on his reputation^ 
which the eaiila of his enemies^ 
and the sneers of the ignorant couM 
hot efface fW)ni the aiibds of tht 
teamed ftwi in Engtoil, and on 
the eontinent. He waa now nam*' 
bered among the inott eminem 
Bcholars <^ the age, md his Epis^ 
tie Was read and quoted on every 

He was now introdnced to puV 
Hck notice, by the trustees of the 
Honourable Robert Boyle, wh^ 
appomted him the first preacher 
of the Lecture^ insdtuted by tkat 
great man's will, to vindicate the 
great fundamentals of natural aad 
revealed religion, against the a^ 
larroing attacks of Atheism. He 
was only thirty years of age, and 
had not taken priests' orders, when 
he delivered the first lecture, at 
St. Martin's Church, March 7th> 

He was recommended in tlie 
strongest terms to the trustees, by 
Biahop Sdllingfieet and Bishop 
Lloyd. The splendid abilides^ 
ivhich he displayed in the exccu« 
don of tliis office justified die 
choice, and the recemmendation. 
All his successors have built upon 
the foundadon which he laid. 

During this period, he main* 
tained a philosophical correspcMi* 
dence with Sir Isaac Newton. 
The dearest friendship subsisted 
between them, and he composed 
his sermons with that great man's 
approbadon. In these discourses 

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lie pro)?sed the foUj of the atheists 
wth rc^>ect to the preseot life} 
«nd the incapacity of matter and 
motion to think. He confuted 
their aiuertiona by considering the 
faculties of the soul} the structure 
and origin of the human body^ 
and the ongin and frame of the 
vorldywhiie he appHed the mathe- 
matical principles of his friend 
Newton '!» /evidence tbfi b^ipg of 
a God. 

These lectures .were omginally 
{n^lished at the desire of the trus^ 
ieeS} and have Ji>een reprinted 
several timeS} at well as translated 
in many ibrdgu langtiages. Their 
merit is oat confined, ^r local : 
they are. as well known on the con*- 
tin^ in England. If they 
have any fault, it is the frequent 
wittidsms with which they are 
interspersed. We have some- 
times suspected} that he wished 
to imitate South, whose composi* 
tioas are frequently too jocose for 
the pulpit. There -is an astrono- 
mical err«r in one of the discours- 
es, which was pointed out by Keil. 
To the friendly assistance^ or 
rather counsel, which he received 
firom the learned philosopher, he 
was justly entitled. By tlie advice 
of Bentley, and hy his earnest spli^ 
citations, Sir Isaac was mduced to 
publish his Princijda. So gceat 
was the diffidence of this eminent 
man, that he was fearful of trust- 
• ing his immortal labours to the 
scrulinizmg eye of the ciitick. 
The iirtportunity of the fnendy 
however, prevailed ; and conquer- 
ed his natural diffidence. To 
these repeated and urgent instiga- 
tions the world was indebted 
for the early publication of that 
invaluable performance. 

On the 2d of October, 1692, 
Bentley was installed a prebendary 
of Worcester, by his patron Bish- 
op Stiliingfleet ; and when the 

death of JMr. Juitel vacated the 
place of Royal Librarian, at St 
James's, he was appdnted his sue* 
cessor. A warrant was issued 
from the Secretary's Qfficu for 
that purpose, in December, 1593, 
and he received his patent in April 
following. His active mmagcr 
ment was fully proved, as sooD'as 
he was instituted into bis nev 
office; for he recovered abofca 
thousand volumes, of various 
kinds, and different values, which 
had been withheld from the King's 
collection of books, in defiance of 
the act of parlianvent, ivith orderS) 
that a copy of every w.ork which 
is entered at the Hall of the Sta- 
tioner's com^^ai^ shall betran$> 
piitted to the Royal Lihrar}* as 
well as to those of every university 
in England and Scotland. 

This appointment may be 
deemed one of the greatest mis- 
fortunes of Bentley's lifci as it 
engaged him in a dispute vith 
Mh Boyle, which created him a 
legion of enemies, who cominued 
for a long course of years to load 
him with abuse. 

Mr. Boyle was a young inap 
pf family, fortune, and abilikics. 
Of course hb followers were rnt 
merous. Pentley stood alone. 
He singly, however, sustained the 
attacks of his adversaries, and 
while he proved the justice of hi? 
clause, shewed himself their equd 
in wit and genius, in learning and 

The opinions .pf the literary 
world have long decided in favour 
of 3entley. We shall, however, 
give an account of this grand con- 
troversy, as it may justly be consid- 
ered as an event of the first magni- 
tude in the life which we are now 
writing, and may prove 

•• Wlut dire effects from trivial causes ipriflC"* 

At the desire of Dr. Aldrich, 
Dean of Christ-Churph^ Mr. JJojte 

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im Ot BSlTTLEtir 


trtldeftdok the publicotion of a 
new edition of Phalaris ; and as 
he wished to consult a manuscript 
of the epistles, which was in the 
king's library, he commissioned 
Mr. Bennet, a bookseller, to apply 
in his name to Bentley, who had 
very lately entered upon his office. 
The book was delivered to the 
messenger ; but as the librarian 
was going into Worcestershire, a 
few days after, he insisted upon 
having the manuscript returned. 

Bennet affirmed, that he receiv- 
ed the book, after a solicitation qf 
several months, and that it was ta- 
ken from him by the librarian 
(who disparaged the work and the: 
editor, in bis <lbnversation), al- 
though he had informed him, that 
the examination was not complet- 
ed. These assertions were partly 
refuted, and partly^ contradicted* 

The Epistles were published in 
1 694. The preface, by Mr. Boyle, 
gave an account of the edition, and 
when he mentioned rto manu- 
script, said, that the collation 
could not be carried farther than 
the fortieth Letter, because the 
book was taken away, by the «in- 
^iilar kindness of the librarian. 

A few days before the publick 
sale of Phalaris, Bentley, by acci- 
dent, saw a copy in the hands of a 
person, to whom it had been pre- 
sented. As soon as he had. read 
the prefeice, he wrote an account 
of the affair to Mr. Boyle, in hopes 
that he would order the leaf which 
contained the charge to be reprint- 
ed. An answer was returned, 
couched in very civil terms, but 
saying, that the story had been 
written according to Mr. Bennet's 
representation ; that he was hurt 
at the refusal of the manuscript, 
but that if he had been deceived, 
he should certainly acknowledge 
his error. 

The book was disseminated, and 

^e exceptionable passage remain^ 
ed unaltered. 

In this situation the affair rest^ 
ed for near diree years, during* 
which tlmcf in 1696, Bentley wa» 
admitted to his degree of Doctor 
in Divinity ; and preached on the 
dayof the publick commencement. 
His erudition was now so celebrat-* 
ed, that his advice was asked with 
regard to a new edition of some 
RomanClassicks, which were to be 
published at the University pvess» 
for the use of the Duke of Glou-^ 
cester. He procured the type» 
Iroim Holland, with which these 
books were printed ; and advised 
Laugbton, to whom the Virgil 
was entrusted, to fblk)w Heinsius. 
His ideas, however, did not coin- 
cide with those of the Doctoiv 
Terence was publbbed by Leng ; 
Horace by Talbot ; and CatuUusy 
Tibullus, and Propertius, by Mr. 
Annesley, who was afterwardv 
Earl of Anglesey. 

While the Canobridge press was 
engaged in printing these splen* 
did editions, in 1697, Dr. Bentley 
published his Dissertation on the^ 
Epistles of Themistocles, Socrates^ 
Euripides, Phalaris, and the Fables 
of Esop. This work was added to 
a new edition of Wotton's Reflec- 
tions on ancie^it and modem Learn- 

The injury which he had receiv- 
ed in the preface to Phalaris was 
not forgotten. In this dissertation, 
he defended himself against tlie 
charges of Bennet, and asserted 
that the Epistles which had been 
attributed, for so many centuries, 
to the Tyrant of Agrigentum, 
were spurious, and the production 
of some sophist. Mr. Boyle was 
attacked for employing his time \xk 
in the publication of so contempti- 
ble an author, and accused of de- 
grading a miserable performance, 
by abadediiion. 

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ttP£ or BwrtxT. 

• Ilk the epfune of this year> the 
learned Grcvius published hia edi- 
tion of Callimachiis, which was 
QEiriched with the notes and ani- 
viadversiona of Dr. Bentlcy, aft 
well as ivith his IcoUectbn of the 
fragments of that poet. 
. This new edition of Wotton's 
Reflections appeared just as Mr. 
Boyle was setthig out for Ireland ; 
and the urgency of his huuness 
prevented iSs wruing an immedi- 
ate answer. In the following year»^ 
however, hepttblished an examina^ 
lion of this dUsertation^izi which he 
attempled t» vindicate the Episfefes 
of Phalarls, and the Fables of Esop, 
from the charges of Bcntley, and 
to prove their authenticity. 

This once famous^ book, which 
was perused with such raptures b^ 
the learned and the unlearned, is 
BOW disregarded. 

it is still to be found in the IL- 
lM<aries of the curiows ; but, al- 
though the book contains some, 
learning, and much wit, it is rare- 
ly mentioned ; and the highest 
prmse that can be justly bestowed 
on Mr. Boyle's labours, is, that 
they occasioned a republioation, 
with large additions,of the immor<r 
%sl dissertation on tlM Epbtles of 

This work, in its improved state, 
appeared in 1699. His adversary 
now began to feel the strength of 
^ose powers which he had slight-* 
ed ; and in order to animate a dy-i 
ing cause, many engines were em* 
ployed to overturn Dr. Bentley's 
reputation. Several pamphlets 
were published : sarcastick r^ec-» 
tions were substituted in the {4ace 
•f sound argument. He was accu* 
sed of plagiary. It w^s asserted 
that his observatioos on Callima- 
ehus were borrowed almost wholly 
from Stamley. 

. Some people of consequ^ce 
appeared in the lists^ against ^ hixQ* 

Smalridgt wrote abuHesqfue paro^ 
dy on the dissertation, in order to 
prove that Bentley was not the au- • 
thor of it, by the same arguments 
Vhich the Doctor had employed to 
evince that the Epistles of Phaia- 
lis were spurious. 

. King, tlie author of the JoumcjT 
to London^ ridiculed him and his 
performance, in some " Dialogues 
of the Dead j'* which, in his pre- 
fihce, he says were the production 
of a gentleman at Padua, and writ- 
ten by him, on account of the cha* 
racter which he had received of a 
troublesome cridck, whose na^ne 
was Mentivo^io. In these dia- 
logues there is a small portion of 
wit, but little genius ; and it can 
hardly be supposed, that the cause 
could be much aided by so trifiing 
a performance. 

Dr. Johnson, in his life of King, 
has mentioned his engaging in 
this dispute, in the following man- 
ner : ^' In 1697, he mingled in ths 
controversy between Boyle and 
Bentley ; and was one of those who 
tried what wit could perform in 
opposition to learaing." King's 
Dialogues of the Dead, however, 
were not published before 1699. 

Garth mentioned both the oppo- 
nents in his Dispensary . 

** So diamoiUlB take a luftre from their fbU, 
And CO a Beatley tte we owe a Boyle !** 

Some of the wicked wits, even 
in his own university, drew the 
Doctor's picture^ with the guards 
of Phalaris prepaiing to thrust him 
into the bull. In Bcntley's mouth 
they put a label, on which viras 
written," I would rather be Roast- 
bo, than BovLED." 

In the Tale of a Tub, Swift ridi- 
culed our great critick and in the 
Battle of ^e Books, he has des- 
cribed Bentley and Wotton defend- 
ing each other, side by ^de, until 
they were both transfixed by Mr. ^ 
Boyie^ triumphant pivelin. 

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TtB HfclftAktti^. 


Bcnriey, Indeed, stood almost 
single in the controrersy. While 
Boyle, who was a young man of 
great expectations and brilliant 
parts, was assisted by the wits, and 
by the Literati, whHe the Learned 
and the Ingenious enlisted under 
his lianner, Bentley, by choice^ re- 
mained independent. Several of 
his friends at Cambridge offered 
their assistance. The Doctor, 
however, resolutely rejected their 
overtures. He was well acquaint- 
ed with the justice of his cause, 
and knew that he might rely on 
the vigour of his own abilities. 
Several passages in Mr. Boyle's 
book, even his own friends had 

deemed unanswerable. They 
Vrcre shown to Bentley. He im- 
mediately confuted them, and 
"unveileid the latent errors.** 
As soon, indeed, as he had perused 
the answer, he openly declared, 
that the whole was equally liable 
to objections. 

The voice of the people, for 
some years, supported Xht asser- 
tion) s of Boyle, and his adherents. 
But the obstinacy of prejudice at 
length gave way, and the Learned 
became unanimous in their opin- 
ion. It is scarcely necessary to re- 
mark, that the decision was against 
the Epistles of Phalaris. 
To be continued. 


JVb. 9. 

IBad yu^i tfioevrav mii fuUre ml arrtgawiiam m h umd a m, itlum didim, verimt Mi has 
Mojtra Mcrimvi, Ciccap. 

by Vanity, and he was sent into the 
world, as soon as he arrived at the 
A|;e of manhood, to create a new 
order of beings. He has not been 
idle in executing his commission, 
for few of the present race but can 
trace aome affinity to this ancestor. 
Several of my acquaintance quar- 
ter his arms, and their features too 
istrongly resemble their great pro- 
genitor to need the herald's office 
to prove them genuine heirs. 

The$e gentlemen are ever eager 
to impress strangers with an idea 
of their own importance, and X 
seldom recollect meeting them in 
a tavern or a stage coach, where 
all enter as equals, that they did 
not attempt superiority, by inform- 
ing us of their great connexions, 
their own consequence, and their 
large concerns ; and, by retailing 
the hacknied observatioDS of others 
endeavour to make us suppose 
them aa familiar iivith the most 
Qot^ parts of cither continent, aa 

THE Remarker does not neaa 
to confine himself to literary top* 
icluH but will occasionally lash 
those Mbles, which though they 
are neither punished as crimes by 
the severe hand of Justice, or ai 
i^cet are censured from the puir 
pit, yet tend to undermine the 
props of social intercourse. He 
has chosen egoti&m for the subject 
of the present paper. 

Egotism claims his descent 
from Vanity and Pride. To an 
inordinate desire of applause and a 
too great esteem for himself wliich 
iie inherits from his parents, he 
adds the desire of being the sole 
object of thought and considera- 
tion wherever he is. With the 
aensibility of Vanity, but without 
the firmness of Pride, he ah rinks 
from every wholesome truth ; and 
prefers the flattering applause of 
the worthless, to the silent esteem 
of the good. Great pttns were 
4aken in hia edupatioo, particularly 

Vol. III. No. 5. 2G 

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with • the vicinity of their own 
town . Raised upon this scaffolding 
they may sometinaes succeed iiv 
exciting a momentary gaze, but 
it is seldomr sufficient to support 
the wefght of the giant, who press- 
es upon it ; and wh^n it sinks 
under him, he falls beneath tln^ 
contempt of those, who wonld 
have respected hmx as an e^uaL 
Occasional applaikse, far from sa- 
tiating an^ egotist, only makes lum 
more eap^er to show his imagined 
superioiity. He resembles him- 
self ta the sun, before whose ef- 
fulgence the smaller Luniinaries 
hide tlieir diminished heads, aixl 
those, who are not dazzled by his 
splendour, he regai'ds as prying 
philosophers, unable to gaze on 
his brightness by their own powers, 
but eager to find by artifictai 
means every dark spot, and mali- 
ciously proclaim it to the world; 
with a suggestion, that ere long his 
fire 8haUbet:Misinned,and universal 
darkness cover his whole cfise. 
With these ideas he expects an 
implicit assent to eve?y thing he 
titters ; dind flatters himseli^ dials 
in sounding forth his own merits, 
he is pouring instructioB into 
minds eager to receive lit. For 
Egotism, though at ftTst but a 
Bmall seed, yet, cultivated by doat- 
ing parents and submissive de- 
pendents, soon becomes so largo* a 
tree, that every fleeting folly may 
irest thereon. I have known a lady 
deprived of pleasure for a whole 
evening, when her new headdress 
had passed nnwKked ; a wic re- 
^tlre chagrined, when he wa» the 
only person who laughed at a pun, 
he had been the whole day stwly mg ; 
and Rosa^ with tears in her eyes, 
TOWS we have notasle, because she 
has heard a whisper, while ske was 
exhibiting her powers of execution 
in musick. ■ People go mofe into 
^^society to display themselves- and 

their talents, than to gain instraC'^ 
tion ; but as no society will suffer 
an equal to engross all its honours 
and pleasures, an egotist is obliged 
to resort to persons of inferiour 
talents ; and he delights to astonish 
his Lilliputian companions by a 
display of his o^vb wonderful pow* 
ers. But a man will always ap- 
proach towards- the level of his 
associates ; and low company gen* 
erally bespeaks- a degraded imnd. 
The pleasure we receive from the 
perusal of the works q£ Richard- 
son cannot prevent our turning a- 
way with disgust, when we sec 
him avoid the society of men of 
learnings and delight in being sur- 
rounded like an Asiatick prhice by 
^ Qrowd of dependent women, who 
would continually offer incense to> 
hb vanity. If egotists would con- 
fine themselves to their inferiours, 
their folly would be harmless r bat 
they frequently endeavour to as- 
sume the same manners aitnon^ 
their equals and snperiours. 

From the long intimacy that has 
subsisted between my family and 
Mr. Puff's, I frequently meet him 
in society ; and although there 
are many good points in his char- 
aater, yet by always endeavouring 
to make himself the only object c^ 
importance, he is universally shun- 
ned> as the destroyer of social 
pleasure. Diming in company 
with him lately, the conversation 
turned upon the relative political 
situation of our country to Europe. 
Puff" appeared uneasy for a mo» 
ment's pause to pat in a word ; 
but at lengthy being UBable longer 
to bear restraint, he interrupted 
one of our first political chanicter» 
by directly contradicting him. 
Having silenced opposition, he un* 
dertook to lay open to our view 
the inmost recesses of the labyrinth 
of polidlcks, although hb hearers 
did not perceive the connexioa^ 

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. THE REMAllKEll. 


bet<<reen the compliments that Mr. 
Puff had received at St. Cloud or 
Madrid, and the political state of 
Prance and Spain. As when the 
leader of a nocturnal riot, exulting 
at having beaten down the watch, 
perceives himself deserted ; and 
that those he 4eemed his frietfds, 
ashamed -of hts outrage, had rang- 
ed themselves on the side 'of his 
^versary, stands motionless with 
rage and terror ; so stood our he- 
lo, when he saw every ear atten- 
tive to His vanquished rival, «ind 
210 one listening to his harangue. 
Soon after the conversatiion turn- 
ed upon agriculture, when my 
IHend Pwff deterniined to be re- 
venged, and iihmediatcly inform- 
ed us, that there were n« cattle 
"Worth rsHsing in the country, but 
ffom his breed ; and said so much 
of his improvements in agricul- 
ture, that a stranger would have 
supposed every thing valuable in 
that art had been intixxluced here 
by him. This speech was only re- 
-ceived with a contemptuous smile, 
which so disconcened Puff, that 
takiug out his watch, he remem- 
bered an engagement at4:hat hour, 
. and iiistani3v retired. 
. 3lU J^ufl^ felicity 18 at moments 
ttWQundedl When surrounrled 
hy. a cco5«d of inleriuurs, who fieck 
to his table for his dinners or the 
^.credit of visiting hkn, no peacock 
spreading bis gaudj tail, and strut- 
,^ ting among "barn -door £6 wj, swells 
^ii^th vomFti 4cUgbt i And the smile 
' «f ecstacy 4^emains on lits cheek, 
I vhile ^e i^eifftes his own adven- 
^,f^l^fg^^dihchomz^cth^ has 
^^Jbieeb jpaid' to his superiour merit. 
..moment, benevolence 
"^ ** uihat ihe smooth cilr- 
ruffled by a sinde 

^ since, I met with an- 

j^lnstancc of egotism 

Imers, who has lost 

^ the good will of his^ best friends by 

I young 

a constant innttention to any, but 
his own feelings. According to 
the custom of our town, he called 
to pay a visit of condolence to a la- 
dy who had just lost her husbimd ; 
but unhappily with a face so full of 
roirth and jojlitf , that tlie lady has 
never recovered the shock it gave 
her ; and «oon after he appeared 
at a wedding with woe and misery 
depicted In his countenance ; but 
In neither instance from a design 
to insult the feelings of his friends. 
He arfterwarrds paid his addresses 
to a yoruAg lAdy of fortune ; but, 
when the preliimnjuiies were nearly 
arranged, an unfottunate incident 
brok« offthc TOalch. Having heen 
made lieutenant of an independ- 
ent company, the firstday ibe wore 
his regimentals, he called ito see 
his Du^dnea ; who w^as 4it tihat m- 
stant bewailing a beaudful .and 
cherished leck,<she liad fostanthe 
morning, from the awkwardness 
of her perruquier. His feefings 
were tuned too high to accord with 
her spirits ; and as he could not 
lower them, discord was the con- 
sequence. He treated her mis- 
fortune mth contempt, and observ- 
ed tlwU; a few shillings would more 
than replace the loss, The lady 
had already borne too much, she 
therefore informed him, that she 
had always tlvnight he could 
love no one but himsclC, tliat she 
was no^v convinced of tt, and beg- 
ged iiever to sec him more ; and 
though this affair was made up 
by the intercessKyiKif tiiends, sinv 
ilar ones soon occurred, which 
made the breach irreparable. 

Egotism has been supposed in- 
(figcnous to our soil ; if so, it is 
the lofty hemlock of our forests^ 
whose slender mots cannot sup- 
port its towering head against Uie 
rude blasts of winter, but over- 
thrown it lies forgotten, and gives 
place ta more useful trees. 

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X^ v!<^.. «J«riK: -otorn«. ». X^-*^*^^'^'^."'*' 
Ad^^t *•*> mfldidim ^um ▼tdent come, came, tnd to the woodlands weTlwf, 

aon™ And gather all the sweetest flowers of May : 

AmpytryooUdei ; per et alta tacumioa ^^r dash the glistening dcw^rop from thekif j 

nioates * Let it remain, chaste emblem of oar pkf. 

Hzmonii, et ialtui, arrt «t qtUBCunq- And when we^cullldewh choicest flo«ti,nl 

BoMet '*'^* 

IHc quidem immtuo jim corde ddlore 

SupfAiee ▼©€€ l<»f«m tmploraje, qu» mor- 

tit adempu eat 
Obodkio «t nsddat, ^Hs nequt damnet 


nitce favens prccibtu ttninm modera 
torOlympi liqnido Chtroa mtcat aethera 

Oxvu 1804. 

/for //*<r Anthology. 

TOt^Nd tADY. 

TEikrftcytd nuUt, wiMse vtfrMl ehMms4ii|riaf 
The opening tweete of yooth1«ncloadiAday x 
The br^hi luffuAtm of whose cheeks declare. 
T9o canker saps the bloomhig roses there : 
Whose loftenM hearts ao mder passions move. 
Than the sweet tumults of Incipient love : 
Come, so with me, and decJc the earthy bed, 
l^ere lovely Mary slumbers wltfi the dead ! 

Tor she, like you, was innocent and fstf. 
And i6ve% bright visions bless*d her oaclf day : 
And she, like you, possess'd each vltgia grace, 
WJOch love can laocy, or the Noiei trace. 

And conKfye youths^ who fai the festive throog. 
Late trtpp*d'wlth her the sprightly dance along : 
You who have Hstcn*d to h«r accentu mild, 
Ahd gloWed w%h tott devotion, when she smBM : 
You who have felt the maglck ofhtr eye, 
AM bNit^*il« ttnetnftlbia, mo deOdrntt Jfgh t 
O ! come vrith us, and weave a garlaad meet 
To dock onr liH^y^ halloited, test rotreau 

.panghters oC^.grl^ who in life's TQiCaU. 
' dawn, 
MarkM sorrow's chllHiw douds o*escast the t^ofn : 
rfooi Whtse wan chcti'tWt early rose U fled, * 
Aad vithcitog U)ki h«t)^ the drooping hoad : 


JTy MatAtfB Frkr, 

BEKEATH a verdant laurel** ampk fiiadi^ 

His lyre to mouniftai mmsbers ftrmig, 
Horace, immortal Bard, fupioely laid. 
To Venus thus addrefii'd the fong : 
Ten thoufand little Lovea axounda 
Listening, dwelt on ever)' found. 

Potent Venoa, hia thy foflh 

Sound ao most his dire alanns. 
Youth on ftleat wings is flovrir : 

Graver years come rolling on. 
Ipare my age,^nAt fof arms > 

Safe and humble let me rett. 

From all amorous care rekasM. 
Potenc Yeiuis, bid thy /on 

6ouad no more his dire alaitcs. 

Tet, Veoos, vrhy do I each aonificp«e 
1\t ft^yMt wfMth.for.^toa'ti hali I 
Wliy4o 1 all day lamcii^ and figlh 
Unleft the beauteous maid be nigh f 
And why iJl n^t pwcfue |ier \tu«$.(if9«^ 
Through flower mta<k'ihd ciVfi*! tMo* ' 


Thus fung the Bard ; and thustheGodde*^ 
Submltfvc bowco LoM^lmptilaas yokr: 

liivery fttfewMd evair«ao»i 
Shall own my rule, and fear my raget 
CprnpeiPd by ^if, thy kflii^flMB pnvc« 
That aU the f^orltf was bom to lovf* , < 

'• ' ' '- ''iwtnrr. ■ '-^ 

Bid thy deftbiM lyre diA:over 
* Soft dfclire told gentle pjhp t*^ ' 

Ohtn plW*; in* a»«^r» l«v«*e* • ^ 

Through her ear Me r I wiM t Ota**' . 
Verlh fhaUpltafc, and Sfhs •lalUWi**' 

Cupid docs with Pli 

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By J, Mac/iheraojiy Eiq, 

THt wind ii up, the Ad4 it bare ; 

Some hermit lead me to his cell. 
Where Coocenplatlan, lonely /air, 

With Messed Content bat cboie to dwell. 

It opens to ray ^gbt, 
IWk In the rock ; betide the flood ; 
Dry fern around obstruct* the light ; 
The winds above It move the woo<l. 

fteflccted in the lake I tee 

The downward mountaim and the tkles. 
The flying bird, the waving tree, 

Tlie goats that en the hiin arise. 

TTie grey-cloaked herd drives on the cow, 
Tlie tlow-paced fowler walks the heath } 

A ftecltied pointer scoun the brow ; 
A muting shepherd ttandt beneath. 

Carre o*er the ruin of an oalc. 
The woodman liftr hit axe on hlgk» 

The hint re-echo to the stroke ; 
I tee, I tee the ihlvert fly. 

lome rural mail, with apron ftilly 
Bringt fuel to the liomdy flame s 

I see the smoky columns roll. 
And through the chinky hut the bcacn. 

Beiide a stone o*ergrown with moes. 
Two well-met hunters talk at ease ; 

Three panting dogs beiide repoee } 
One bleeding deer ii stretched on graM» 

A lake, aC dbtance, spreads to sight. 
Skirted with shady forests rouod, 

2d midft an itiand't rocky height 
SusCaiat a ruin once renowned. 

One tree bendt o'er the ludted wallt, 
Ttro broad-wloged eagfet hover nigtr. 

By iotervalt a fragment falls. 
As blotn tlie blast along the sky. 

Two rough-spun hinds the pinnace guMft 
With tab*ring oars, along the flood ; 

An juTs^icr, bending o*cr tlie tide, 
Uaags firom the boat th* infidions wood. 

Beside the flood, beneath the rocks. 
On grassy bank two lovers lean ; 

Bend on each other amorous looks. 
And lecm to laugh and kiss between. 

The wind Is rastUng In the oak } 
Tbey seem to hear the tread of feet ; 

lliey start, they rise, took round the rock i 
Again they smile, agairt tliry meet. 

Bat seel the grey mist ttmo the lake 
Ascends upon the shady hills ; 

Dark stomu the murmuring forests shakey 
Rain beats*— resound a hundred rIVs. 

Te Damon's homely hut I fly ^ 
f see it smoking o'er the plain ; 

When storms are past,— and fair the iky, 
ni often seek my cave again. 


By Mallet. 

YE fl»ldolght (hades, ^er luKiire spread t 

Dumb silence of the dreary hour I 
la honour of th' approaching dead, 
Arpund your awlul terrors pour. 

Yes, poor around. 

On this pale ground, 
Through all this deep shrroundkig gIooiD» 

The sober thought. 

The tear untanght. 
Those mcctest mourners at « tomb. 

Lo 1 as the flirpUc'd train drew near 
To this hst mansion of mankind. 
The stow sad bell, the sable bttr^ 
In holy mnsfaig wrap the mind 1 

And while tliclr beam. 

With trembling ftream. 
Attending tapers faintly dait ; 

Each mould*rlng bone. 

Each sculptur'd stone. 
Strikes mote instmcttoa to the heait f 

Now let the sacred organ blow. 
With solenm pause, and soondiBg atow | 
Now let the voice dne measore keep. 
In strains that sigh, and words that weep | 
TU all the vocal current blended roll. 
Not to depress, but Ult the soaring soul s 

To lift it in the Maker's praise. 

Who first inform'd our frame with bfcacB^ 
And, after some few stormy daysi 
No*r, gracioas, gives us o*er to death. 
No King of Fears 
In him appears. 
Who flMits the fcene of human woes : 
Beneath bi» iMde 
Secnrely laid. 
The dead alone InU true repose. 

Then, while we mingle dust with dust. 

To One, supremely good and wise, 
Rabe haUel^iAhs ! Cod Is just. 
And man most happy when he dies f 

Nb winter past. 

Fair spring at last 
.Receives him on her flowery shore ; 

Where pleasure's rose 

Immortal blows. 
And sia and sorrow are no jnere ! 

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LIKE merry Momw, wliilc the Godi wert qjjufi- 

I come— <o give an eulogy on Uughinjr I 
True, cvurtfy CheftcrficM^ with crttlck seal, 
AfTerts that Uughlnfr's vaftly ungenteei ! 
The boilt'rous Ihake, he layi, diltorta fine facet, 
And rob> each pretty feature of the grKct 1 

gut yet thii paragtth of pcrfcA taftc, ' 
ti other topick* wa« not over<hafte ; 
He like the Pharifirea in this appears 
They ruin'd widows, but they made Umg^yray*!!. 
Tithe, anil'e, mint, they sealouily affeded. 
But the law's weifduler matters lay negleaed x 
And while an Inrca ttrains their fqueamifli caul, 
Down goes a monttroos caiTiel><4)unch and all. 

Yet others n**^ *■ f«S«« ^*ith warmth difpoU 
Man's rifiblcs dminguifli oim fhMB brute ; 
While inttind, reafon, both In commoa own. 
To laugh is manli prerogative alone ! 

Hail, rofy laughter ! tfiou deferv^ft the baya 1 
Come, wirn thy dimples, animate theft lays, 
WhUtl univerfal peals atteft thy praUe. 
Daughter of Joy ! thro' thee «se health attain, 
W hen Efcula^iaa recipes arc vaio. 

Let fentimentalUts ring in our ears 
The tender joy of {eriei--the luxury of tears*- 
HcracUtus may whine, and oh 1 and ah !-* 
I like an hoaeR, hearty, ha, hah, hah 1 
It makes the wheels tf nature gUblier play ; 
Dull care (tipyrclTes ; fiiiooth« life's thorny way | 
Propds the dandag current thro* each vdn j 
Braces the nerves ; coiroborates tlie (Main \ 
Shakes ev*ry mufde, and throws off the f^Mcn. 

Old Homer makfs yon teoaiKs of the ikies, • 
His Gods, love laughing as they did their eyes ! 
It kept them hi good humour, huOiM their fquab- 

As frowaril dUldrM arc a|»eat\l by banblei : 
Ev*n Jove, the thund'rer, dearly lov'd a laugh. 
When, of fine nedar, he had taken a quaff { 
It helni dlgcftion when the feaH runsTi^h, 
And dWii a ic i the foqiii of potent Buifwidf • 

But, hi the mala, tho* laoghlng I afiprove. 
It is not cv'ry kind of laugh I love t 
Foi'many lau^ e'en candour mutifondexna I 
Some are too lull of add, fome of o^legm ; 
The load h«rfc-Uufrh (Improperly Si ftiPd,) 
The ideot fimpcr, like the flumbVing chUd, 
Th* affcded laugh, to Bicw a dhnpled chi«. 
The ftieer contemptuous, and broad vacant grin. 
At* defVIcabte all, as Strephonh ftnlle. 
To ihew his Hrory legions, nuik and Mc. 

The hMMft Uugh, unttodied, attacooirM, 
By nature prompted, and true wit faiipir'd. 
Such as Q^ felt, and Falltaff knew before, • 
When humour ret the table 6n a roar ; 
Alone def^rves tk* applauding mufe's grace I 
The reft— |i all contortion and grimace. 
But you exclaim, ** Your Eulogy's too dry s 
•* Leave dUlertatkio and exemplify I 
•• Prove, by exper i me n t, your maxhns true : 
** And, what you praife fo highly, make us do.** 

In tPOth ! hop'd this was already done. 
And Mirth and Monras had the laurd won I 
Like hondi Modge, unhappy Ihuuld I faU, 
Who to a crowded audience told his tale. 
And laugh*d and lh|n«ir'd all the while MmAM 
To grace tlie ttory, as he thoitthi, poor etf I 
But not a fmgle fbul his fufftage gave— 
While each long phis was Terlous as the grave f 

"^"ftmlM ' ^^^ "«»^» Uugh loud f (n«» 
I thought vou an, ere thb, would die with la«gh. 

This did the feat ; for. tickled at the vftim« 
A burft of laugh rer, like the eledikk beam, 
Shook all the audience— ^t h: mu at him ! 
Like Hodge, (hould cv'ry ftratagen and while 
Thro* my long ftory, no't excite a fmfle, 
I'll bear it with becoming modcfty ; 
But (hould my feeble dTorU move your dee, 
Laugh, If yon firirly can-^at not at MCI 


By Prhr, 

'* Sid tuicunqwe vela fvtens 

** AvU cmlmine itiiriMf \S^e, StKtft 

INTERR*D beneath this marble ftoae 

Lie fauntering Tack and idle Joan. 

While rollinp tnreefcorc years and one 

Did round this globe their courfes run } 

If hunun tliingj went ill or wdl. 

If changing empires rofe or fdl, 

The mominc paft, the evening came. 

And found this couple Hilt the fame. 

They walk'd, and eat, goods folks : whit dn I 

Why then they walk'd and ear again : 

They foundly flept the night away ; 

They did jutt nothing; all the day : 

And, having bury'd children ft»uf, 

Would not take nains to try for mote. 

Nor fitter dtner had nor brother } 

Thev feem'd juft tally d for each other. 

Tneir moral and oeconomy 
Moft perfedly they made agree t 
Each virtue k^ ks proper bound. 
Nor tref^aA'd on the other's ground. 
Nor fame nor ccniure they regarded ; 
They ndther punHn'd nor rewarded. 
He car'd not what the footman did : 
Her maids (he neither prais'd nor chid ; 
So every fervanttook hk courfe i 
And. bad at firft, they all crew worft. 
Slothfol diforder fill'd his ftable. 
And lluttiih plenty deck *d her table. 
Thdr beer was ilrong j their wine was pott j 
Their meal was large : their grace was ihoit. 
They gave the poor the remnant meat, 
Juft when it grew not fit to cat. 

They paid the church and parMh ratd 
And took, but read not, the receipt } 
For which they daim their Sunday's doe, 
Of flumbering in an upper pew. 

Na man's defeds fought they to know ; 
So never made themfe^es a foe. 
No nun's good deeds did they comm^ i 
So never rah'd themfdvcs a friend. 
Nor cherhh'd they relations poor. 
That might decreaft their prefent ftorc : 
NOr bam nor houfe did they repair ; 
Tlut nnight oblige their future hdr. 

lliey ndther added nor confounded } 
Tliey neither wanted nor abounded : 
Each Chriftroas they accompts did dear. 
And wmiad thdr bottosn round the year: 
Nor tear nor fmilc did they cmpluy 
At newK of publick grief or joy : 
When bells were rung, and bonfires made, 
If alk d, they ne'er aeny'd their aid : 
Theb* jug was to the ringers carried. 
Whoever other Ulcd or married. 
Tlieh- billet at the. fife wa* foond. 
Whoever was depos'd or crown'd. 

Nor good, nor had, nor jMti^not wHb i 
They would not team, nor couKfudaifiCff 
Without love, hatred, joy, or fear, 
Thef led— a kind of— as It were : ^ 

Nor with d, not car'd, nor laugh'd,.n9r t"" 
And lb they liv'd, and (b they dkd. 

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Fowl MAYj 1806, 

Lftnun taam legi ie quara dSigentlMliiie potol andoOnfl. ppUt comoMitaiidft, ««a c . „ 

Mtntcr. Kim t^ (U<^e Teram atiabrl. Neqoe uJll pitieiitiiM rcpreboidiiotur qiua qol 

AKf. 19, 

Onr God in one firraon only / and 
JeMUM ChTt9t a dittinct being 
frwn Qadf maintained and de* 
ftndtd. By John Shermanyfia^^ 
tar of the Jirat efmrch in MamM^ 
fiMy (Can.) Worcester. I. 
TlKMiias^jilii. 1805.8T;o.y^/k.l98. 

Wflsif we saw this book an- 
flounced) we knew not whether its 
appearance was to be deprecated 
as a signal of theological warfare, 
or whether it should be hailed aa 
the harbinger of a^rakened learn* 
Ing, inquiry, and industry among 
our clergy. Though the trtnita* 
Han controreray has now existed 
more than sixteen centuriesy and 
was kept up in England during the 
whole of the last age with little in- 
termissaon, first with the Arians, 
and afterwards with the Sodnians, 
yet we belieTe that the present 
treatise is one of the first acts of 
direct hostility against the ortho- 
doXf which has ever been com- 
tnitted on these western shoreb. 
Coming so late as Mr. S. now 
must to the scene of action, he can 
hope to attack or to defend only 
with weapons stnpped from the 
bodies of the slain, who are heap'> 
ed in heatry piles on the Held of 
liieologioal dispuution. 

The present work, we observe) 
is not written to establish any new 
upinion respecting the character 
of Christ, but ia confined merely 
t»a denial of his deity in general^ 

Vol. III. No. 5. 2H 

and the received ddctritie of the 
trinity in particular. In the fol* 
lowing review we shall ehdcavouf 
to give an impartial account of the 
work ) to correct any palpable er* 
rours of fact ; oocasionally to point 
out deficiencies ; and sometimes M 
censure and sometimes to com- 
mend, without enlisting ourselves 
under the banners of Mr. Sherman 
or his antagonists. 

In the introdiK?tion Mr. 8., aft 
ter some remarks oh the specula^ 
live differences among christians, 
and the necessity of religious ca* 
tholicism) prepares his reader fdf 
his occasional deviations from the 
received text and translation of the 
scriptures by vindicating the pro- 
priety of such alterations from the 
constant improvement in biblical 
criticism, frtwn the history of our 
present English version, and la^ 
ly, from the authority of the Sayf 
brook assembly^ which declaresi 
<< that the originals of the Old and 
New Testament are the final tesoit 
in ail cases of controversy." The 
occasion of publishing this work 
and the situation of the author are 
set forth in the following passage. 

My fendmeott becoming difftrent, 
from thofe believed and avowed at my 
ordbation, hone(ly compelled me frank- 
ly to declare them, notwithflanding the 
evils, which the ftateof the timet gkve 
me to Ibrefee^ woeld undeubcedly be re- 
alized in confequeace. I have not been 

The publication of my fentimentt 
gave mnbrafi xa the Origiaal ASocA* 

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tlon of MtntDen in the county of Wind- 
ham ; and they proceeded to expel me, 
on this account, not only from their 
body» as a voluntary Auociation, but 
from all ** mmiJlMal eomnexhn.** 

It was my intention to have publifl> 
ed a general (Utemeat of the manner in 
which this affiiir was brought to its cri- 
fis. But for certain reafons which I did 

high and obscure cxpressitms ftt 
the entrance of Christ on his pub* 
lick ministry, L. Crellius wasted an 
immensity of learning to make it 
probable Uiat we should read ^v in- 
stead of hK in the first verse ; 
Clarke and the Arians are contented 

r ai ' > c^ ►. • -* ^^^ ^^ affixing: to Smc without the 
not fufficientty confider, it u at prefent x — : i u j« V^ -u 

withheld. I would only obferve, that, by ^arUcle a subordinate sense ; the 
the decree of the Aflbciation, or any de- nH>re modem Unitarians suppose 

crees which, as a body cf mere EesUfiaJlickSf 
Vfithout mfpemtmna fnm the dntrdm^ viihota 
their JanSioH, and witbrnit putfuing tbe ngular 
Jt/ctpUne pcittted out by our Lord^ they may 
alTume the authority to makej confider my 
good chriftian andminiderial (hmdingnot 
m the leaft degree impaired. Were they 
an ecdeliaftical court, known in thefcrip- 
lures ; had they charged me with crimt, 
with a breach of the divine law to man- 
kind ; and were there any other kind of 
iniquity found cleaving to my garment, 
than that / cannot fee with tbeir eyes, and 
perceive wtb tbeir undetfandings ; I might 
conlider myfelf as a£n^Ud by their de- 
cilion. Butt as the matter now (lands, I 
feel the authority of the Lord Jefus ftill 
refHng upon me, and fhal! not defert my 
tninifterial office. They, and others who 
ihall fubfcribe to their doings, may treat 
me according to their pleafure : There 
is One that judgeth between us. To 
HIM (hall the appeal be made. 

The work is divided into two 
parts. In the first the author en- 
tieavours to shew ^ that the pas- 
sages and considerations alleged 
in fiivour of the supreme and inde* 
pendent deity of Christ do not es- 
tablish such doctrine concerning 

In the first section, those pas- 
sages are examined^ which repre- 
sent Christ as the creatcr of all 
worlds. These are John i. 1 — 14. 
Col. i. 16, 17. Heb. i. The pro- 
cm to John'^s gospel has long been 
the crux antitrinitariaTJorunu They 
have agreed in nothing but to 
wrest it from the hand&of the ortho- 
doxybut have nererbeen able to con- 
vert h into an auxiliary. Though 
some of the early Polish Socinians 
thought they could apply all its 

that the word xvyoc does not here 
signify a person, but only an at- 
tribute of Deity, and that there is 
no imequivocal intimation of Christ 
till the 8th verse ; and last^ all, 
a cridck, whose femiliarity with 
scriptural phrases and terms is 
not inferiour to the knowledge of 
any of his predecessors, Newcome 
Cappe, has ventured to restore and 
vindicate the original interpreta* 
tion of Socinus. Mr. S. adopts 
the most common explanation of 
the Unitarians, that by jwyoc is in* 
tended the reason, or wisdom of 
God, which the evangelist elo- 
quently personifies. We find 
some remarks on the use of the 
preposition «^, and the word »- 
Kin«»nv, which ai*e not unimportantf , 
and then are called to the faotious 
passage in Col. L 1&, 17. 

The difficulties, which attend the 
explanation of these vereeSias refer- . 
ring to the new moral creation^ or 
rather orgauKation undev the gos* 
pelysre not a few ; and Mr. S. has 
in some degree injured the plau- 
sibility and compactness of his 
own interpretadon by not suffic- 
iently attending to the propriety 
of clearly referring all the clauses 
without exception either to one 
Creadon or the other. Hence we 
think he should have admitted no 
other interpretation of wfonronof tk 
nrievK than this, *^ first-bom or most 
eminent of the whole creation ;** 
in the same sense in which Christ 
is elsewhere styled ^Jim dom a- 
mong^ numy brethren^' Ronu viik 

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n. Mr. S. also argues in fiaiyaur 
of the identity of the agency at- 
tributed to Christ in the 16th and 
in the 3.0th versesy from the use 
of the same preposition << by" in 
our .English version ; vhen he 
must hare recoHected^ that in the 
original n is used in the former, 
jmd ito in the latter clause. Tliis 
Yaiiation, though it does not de- 
stroy the force of the argument, 
yet deserved to be noted. By 
*< things 4n heav^" Mr. S. sup- 
poses are meant, Jews, and by 
« things in earth,*' Gentiles. The 
passages, quoted to illustrate this 
meaning of the words, certainly 
prove no such application ; for 
though by ^ new heavens and «ew 
earth," in Isaiah, is probably in- 
tended the Nourishing state of the 
christian church, in which Jews 
and GentUes are included, we have 
never yet seen any passage which 
decisively .shows, that Gentiles arc 
ever described under the figure of 
the eauby.or Jews under that of 

In the second section are exam^ 
ined the proofs of Christ's omm- 
fiotcnccy which jare usually drawn 
£rom the introduction to the epis- 
tle to the Hebrews. Onthbpasi- 
sage the author is unusually kioid % 
aii4 cong;raXulates himself on hav- 
ing driued from it ^^ substantial 
and inviiiciy>le evidence of the truth 

In th|e third section are consid- 
ered the texts, which are supposed 
to teach the omnUcience of Christ. 
Here we think the author quarrels 
unnecessarily with our English 
translation of Rev. u. ^3. The 
expressions which he would sub- 
stitute are not nearer to the orig- 
inal, than those which he aon* 

Section fourth contains a long 
quotation from Christie to explain 
John iii. 1 3. The author then en- 

deavours, though wit^i no peculiar 
ingenuity, to obviate the proofs 
from other texts of Christ's omm^ 
fire9cnce. The passages which 
are adduced to prove the eternity 
and immutabiHty of Christ are ex- 
amined in the two next sections, 
and in the seventh the power which 
our Saviour exercised on earth of 
forgiving ^s^ns is discussed with 
much learning and acuteness. The 
distinction is pointed out between 
i^MTMc and Xvmfus ; It is shown that the 
former, derived from tfyfi^itia law» 
fuly conveys the idea of licence, le- 
gality, or a moral right to exer- 
cise a\^thority ; and that it is the 
word used by our Saviour tp sig- 
nify the power oi forgiveness 
which he exercised on earth. It 
is aftemvards maintained and con- 
firmed by the trathocity of CalyaU) 
Macknight, and Pool, that the for- 
giveness of the sins of the para* 
lytick in the passage in question 
means only his deliverance from 
his disorder. This Jewish mode 
of speech is then illustrated by 
several passages in Isaiah, and a 
similar representation from the 
New Testament is produced in the 
following passage. The argu- 
ment we do oot recollect to have 
spen stated before with equal acute- 

A very plain example of fimilar rep- 
r^eotatkm occurs in the New TeAament* 
** Then faid Jefus unto them again, Peac£ 
be unto you : At my Father halh fent 
me, even fo I fend you. And when he 
had faid this, he breathed on them and 
iaith unco them, Receive ye the holy 
gfaofl. Whofiefotver fint ye remit they 
are remitted unto them ; and whofefoev- 
er fins ye retain they are retained.** 
But were the Apoflles endowed with the 
power of forgiving the fins of men, or 
fixing their fint upon them in the literal 
fenfe of this phrafcology ? All that can 
be f^d, concerning them in this rcfpedt, 
19, that they bad tit pvwer cf healing all 
manner of d'ifeafa^ and infiiU'mg judgments §n 
fach as oppofM them in the performance cf the 
imtiu of tleir mij/lon. Accordingly we 

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MfYIIMV W T» f %;»fTf . 

find, that PamI omfcd the fim of JBlraa^ 
the forcerer, to bt retaiaed, by Qxiog 
blindneCi upon him, for labouring to turn 
away the deputy from the faitL Thb 
was the extent of the Apo(Ue*t power to 
forgive and retain iint. This therefore 
wai all that Chrift himfelf pofleiTed, while 
here on earth. For he told them, that, 
as the Father had fent him, fo he com- 
miiiioned them ; i. e. with the lame pow- 
er to forgive and retain iins which he 
poflefled. There can be no queftion 
then, that, by forgiving the fins of the 
paralytick/>uriArd meant nothing more 
than healing him of his diforder, taking 
away the confequence of that intemper- 
ance, of which he had been gmlty. 
Hence our Lord replies to the maucious 
wrefting of his words by the Pharifees, 
iFhtther U it eaftcr to/ajy Thy Juu ie fyr* 
WvAi ihtt f «r /oySpr, Arift «md %vaik / L e. 
What matter is it about the ezpreflions, 
which we ufe, if they are but in- 
telligible ? Which beft conveys the idea 
of cure, to fay in the language of the 
prophets^ which you cannot but under- 
lUnd, Tbyjimt ht f9rgto€m ibet f or to lay 
in plain common language, Arife and 
%oaU f Surely you dilblay a captious 
difpofitioo in cavilling about words. StO^ 
ii0t y$ may know thai tbi Son 0/ mam katk 
vi$b»riiy om the earth H hrgvinfms^ tO taka 
away the difeafes wliicn come upon men 
for their fins, th«m faith he io the/uJ 9/ the 
fa(/y, Arife, tah up thy hett^ aitd g9 inU 
Uite hotfe, p. 60. 

The eighth section coMdns a 
very full discussion of the use of 
the word ^orMfi in the Old and 
NewTestament, in order to prov^y 
vhat we believe no one will deny, 
that ^ there is nothing in the word 
itfcoxxma itself, which confines it to 
divine homage. The kind of hom- 
age implied in any particular in-* 
stance is to be decided by the 
circumstances under which it is 
paid." P. 62. 

The next sectfbn is employed 
in examining several important 
texts, in which name^ and titles 1^ 
propriated to God appear to be 
given to Christ. We 4)ave i|ot 
room to pass every criticism in 
review before us ; a few remarks 
on some erroneous suppositions of 
Mr. S. may not be unprofitable. 

Oe tb« on^aal of Jotm sx. %ih 
Mr. S.. makes xht foUowing 6^ 
aervation ; 

Both xv^ and ^roc, Lord and God, 
are in the nominative, and require ibme 
verb to ibcceed, ia order so nnkc feftih. 
9ior Opd, is, tndaed, oltta vM» for thm 
vocative. But we have never iofo aa 
inflance of this ufe of tvfioc Lord. It t< 
believed,that there is no example of it in 
the fcriptures. 

What does Mr. S. think of Jolui 

XUl. 13. ^fOK fBWMfV/M, I /llB^waSCy 1UU 

• tM^mt ^ lie bad better atoo have 
forbomto supply^ what he tup- 
poses to be the ellipsis in thia ex* 
clamatioA of Thomas. 

Jerem. xxiii. 6. ^ Hb name 
shall be called Jehovah our right- 
•ousnesa.*' On this appellation 
Mr. S. observes, ^ Chrkt is here 
called, in Hebrew, Jehmahm^Twi* 
kenu. Abraham, that Father of 
the fidthfol, called the ineunt, on 
which he was to sacrifice his Son, 
JehoYah-*-Jireh. Motes built an 
akar and called it J£HOVAH 
Nissip— Gideon built an altar and 
called it JEHOVAH—Shal- 
lum. Yea, when Darid brought 
up the ark, from the house of 0« 
bededom, to the city of David, he 
styles it, in his song on the occa* 
sion, both Qod and Jthovah ^ God 
it g<me np. vnth a MAout^ the lArd 
(Heb. Jehovah) vaUh the 9ound qf 
the truwfiet. Thus evident is it,. 
that Jehovah is not a name appro^ 
priated only to i^e supreme God.'* 
Here we think the zeal of the au« 
thor has rather overleaped his good 
sense, and led him to express him^ 
self inaccurately. If any thing ia 
plain from the OM Testament, k 
is, thsi, the title Jehovah can in 
stricmess of speech be given to 
none but the only true God. >&• 
cause it is, sometimes used in com^ 
portion with other words, at in 
the instances above cited, to con* 
stitute a name, it cannot wiibh any 
more propriety be said, that per- 

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ittis or tfatogs Urns nomiiMited are 
caJkd Jeboivtth^ tlian that the city 
Elizabelhtown is called Elizabeth. 
Surelf also it caimot be supposed 
by any persoQ) who attends to the 
subject, that, in the passage which 
Mr. S. has quoted from Psalm 
xifii., the ark is called either God 
or Jehovah. 

We are also satisfied that the 
author is mistaken in lus inter* 
pretatioD <^ Isaiah viii. li. com- 
pared with 1 Pet. ii. 8 ; but we 
can Mily refer him to a most val- 
uable Dote of the learned James 
Peirce? on Heb. iL IS., and also to 
Dodson on this passage in Isaiah ; 
£oir tbe limits of our review, and 
perhaps others will say of our 
knowledge, do not allow us to 
expatiate in elaborate cridcism, 
and copious illustration. 

** We Dow proceed to exam- 
ine," aajra Mr. S. in the next sec* 
tion, ^ such passages as are said to 
indicate or imply two natures in 
Christy a divine and human na- 
ture.'* After stating the argu- 
ments in fervour of the reading j 
in 1 Tim. iii. 16. Mr. S. offers the 
blowing translation of a passage, 
which, we beUeve, will forever ex- 
cruciate the wit of the antitriiuta? 

Indeed openly proclaimed to all rank» 
saddefcriptiojif » the fublimemyAery of 
SodJiads, which hat been made koowa 
to mortal man, fubAantiated by miracu- 
loiu atteftationi, rerealed to infpirc4 
neffeogen, preached to the nations, cre^ 
dited bj the worl^, ^braced with jo^t 
M exohatioQ. 

Mr- S. must pardon us for our 
c|uniQB» that he derives not his 
prbkc^nl credit from his original 
attempts at Greek criticism. He 
makes several remarks to justify 
his unnecessary and paraph rastick 
version of iftoMyvfttws, a word to 
\f hich cimfetaediy in Engli^ ex- 
actly covrespooda. 

W^ntfti (in Mr. S.'s version, te 
mortal man) cannot be justified by 
any parallel passage in scripturey 
and hardly by theGreek idiom ; «Hti 
is nevei^ used in the passive to ex* 
press the diaclosure of truths to 
the understanding ; and finally, it 
is too much to say that the verb 
ao m u if ifit n o no morc signifies tq re« 
ceive ufiy than it does to receive 
down,'* Though its classical use 
is undoubtedly extensive, yet in 
the New Testament it is repeated* 
ly used to signify the assumption 
of Jesus into heaven. Indeed 
whether e, or •f, or ^ be the true 
reading in this celebrated text, we 
think every impartial theologian 
must confess that the subsequent 
clauses can be properly applied 
to a person only, and to no person 
but Jesus Christ. 

Mr. S. conjectures that him is 
the true reading in Zach. xii. 10. 
He might have added, that Ken« 
nicott assures us it is found in 
Jbriy Hebrew MSS. to whkh Do 
Rossi has add^ the authority of 
several edkiona* 

On the celebrated prediction of 
the birth of Jesus in Isaiah vii. 14. 
we have much to obaene, but this 
is not the place for our remarks. 
We will only suggest, that if thia 
prediction, as |lrlr. S. supposes, 
does hot relate to the birth of 
Christ, there is no Htei^ predic- 
tion of his birth In the Old Testa- 
ment. It is true that many ilkis* 
trious pames ip acriptural criti- 
cism, among whom we may men-i 
tion Grotius, support Mr. S. in his 
opinion ; but it should he recol- 
lected, that they also maintained a 
double sense of the prophecy^ 
whereas Mr. S. with Porphyry, the 
modem Jews, and the subtile Col- 
lins not only contends that the 
name Imnmnuel belongs only ta 
the child which the prophetess of 
that time was to conceive, but &r* 

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ther supposes that the eYsngettst 
in Matth. i. 23. does not mean to 
apply it in any sense> as a firedic- 
Hon of the birth of Jesus. Mr. S. 
▼entures also to intimate his doubt 
whether Isaiah ix. 6, 7. has any 
reference to Christ. We are fully 
sensible of the difficulties, which 
attend the application of prophe- 
cies under the old dispensation 
to characters and events in the 
new, but we are not yet prepared 
(o give up these capital predic- 
tions, though they have always 
perplexed the apologist for Christ- 
ianity, as well as the oontrover- 
aiaiist. We think also that a more 
full and accurate account of the 
Tariations of the different versions 
in this latter passage might have 
been expected. 

Section twelfth, upon the plu* 
iPoUtm* applied to God in tlie Old 
Testament, and section thirteenth, 
upon the appearances of wliat is 
called the €ngel of the Lordj are 
written with much abiUty ; and a 
consideration of two very popular 
objections, in section fourteenth, 
closes this part of the work. In 
answer to the question what atone- 
ment can there be, if Christ be 
not verily the supreme God, Mr. 
S. has the following observations. 

Did thefuppofed (ffviae matun become 
obedient unto death, even the death of 
the croff ? Did divinity itfcif fuffer ? 
Our opponents do not pretend it. This 
is true only of the man Chrifl Jefus, 
Whatever virtue in his obedience unto 
death, mufl therefore be the virtue of the 
man ChriA Jefus only. 

But, fay our opponents, the union of 
divinity to the huqianity conferred an 
infinite dignity upon the fufferings of the 
human nature, and rendered them infi. 
nitely precious, fo as to amount, in effiscty 
to the eternal fufiierings of the whole hu* 
man race. Thus Chrift fatisfied the de- 
mands of juftice, in the room and (lead 
of our apofbte world. 

Th^ do(ftrine that the union of the 
divinity to humanity conferred an infinity 

dignity upon the Mkntifgt of thekniiiia 
nature, is only an tBwgination of their 
own brain; for the fcripturesiay nothing 
of this abfurdity. They fay nothing of 
the virtue of his fufferings being en- 
hanced by any fnch connexion. If the 
nnion of Deity to hmnanity rendered the 
humanity any thing different from mere 
humanity ; if it raifiad it beyond its na- 
tural dignity to the dignity of God ; why 
may we not conclude, that it rendered it 
impoffihUi imeapaUt offyfferimg ? This, in the 
days of the apofUes, was the condufioa 
of certain metaphyseal reaibners. And 
it nuy be as well inferred, from the con- 
fideration of the union of Deity to huma- 
nity, that Chrifl mud have been imp^phU^ 
as that the fufferings of the man dhrilk 
Jefuswere infinitely more than human 

It was, fay our opponents, m £vime ptf 
fit, who fufifi;red ; and therefore thefe 
fufferingt were precious, in proportion 
to the dignity of the perfonage fuffering. 
They will have it that it was GOD, who 
died on the crofs. 

That Chnft was really the infinite God. 
is a do<£hine not known in the fcriptures^ 
Befides, may we not turn the tables and 
iay, that God*s hungering and thirfHng, 
in the human nature, after earthly food, 
was infinitely derogatory from the dig- 
nity of the divine nature, as to affirm, 
thut God's fuffering on the crofs, in the 
human nature, conferred an infinite dig* 
nity upon that, and rendered its fufTeringt 
inconceivably more precious, than mere- 
ly human fufferings ? Sufferings furely 
denote great wealuiefs, want of flrength. 
and dignity of nature. And, fince the 
infinite God fuffered, he mufl be very 
tttfai, impoUfitf and devoid of dignity. 

Do our opponei^ts diflike this repre? 
fentation ? Will they fay that thefe things 
are true only of the human nature, the 
man Chrifl Jefus ? Thfn let them not con- 
found things which they thcmfclves dif- 
Hnguifh. Let them acknowledge, that 
the fufferings of the man Chrifl JdTus 
were clothed with no ether than merely 
human dimity ; and were no more pre- 
cious than merely human fufferings. Let 
th^m look out for fome more fcriptural 
and rational do^rine of atonement : For 
there is, clearly, no more ability in the 
man Chrifl JcA|s to fatisfy divine jufKce, 
upon their fcheme, than upon oum^ 
P. 142. 

1 he second part is introduce 
by the following stat^tnentf 

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SttXmCAlr ON THE TElKlTt. 


Hating fhown upon what grounds 
we are noc c«nvtncad, hj the argumenu 
of the advocates for the fupreuie and in- 
dependent deity of Chrift, we proceied to 
ftate what appears to us dire£i mmd p^ftivt 
frmf, tAat drift is tmt ih* ucft bigb Gii^ ha 
m iiiag eniirtly SfmB frmm Chd^ hferiomr mud 
deftmdady bi$ Smjir^mmt^ meffimitry 5cc 

In what follows there is noth- 
ing remarkable, because if Christ 
is really a human being only^ there 
cannot be much room for laborious 
criticism or ingenious illustration 
of passages in which he is repre- 
sented %A a man. The parade of 
mathematical reasoning in page 
147 'is> we think, childish and un- 
necessary. The remarks in sec- 
tion 2, upon the meaning of the 
word «<m, are acute, and upon the 
prayer of Christ upon the cross, 
forcible. To prove Christ a dis- 
tinct and dependent being, we have 
found no place in the present vol- 
mne, where the reasons are more 
forcibly stated than in the follow- 
ing passage. 

We come* now, to a very memorable 
psiffage, which embraces the whole eco- 
nomy of Chrift's exaltation, and which 
ftates minutely the duration and ifTue of 
it. ** Then cometh the end, when he 
flull have delivered up the kingdom to 
God, even the Father, when he {ball have 
put down all rule, and all authority and 
power. For he muft reign till he hath 
put all enemies under his feet. The la(t 
enemy that (hall be deflroyed* is death. 
For he hath put all things under him. 
But, when he faith all things are put un- 
der hsm, it is manifefl that he is except- 
ed, which did put all things under him. 
And, when all things fhaU be fubdued 
nnder him, then ihsdl the Son aUb him- 
self be fubje<fi unto him that put all 
things under him, that God may be all 
2d all.** In this paifage the following 
things are worthy of obfervation. 
mI. The Son is fpoken of under his 
PBgheft defignation. This the moft emi- 
aent advocates of his deity are compelled 
to acknowledge ; for he is fpoken of in 
dM capacity of ruling and governing all 
tilings, and fubjedting every thing to his 
dominion, excepting the infinite God : 
Which they fay is beyond the power of 
a creature to pcrforok 

8. He is reprefentod at a difHnd be- 
ing from God^-~To God he is co delivef 
lip the kingdom, and God is excepted 
from the number of beings to be fubje€t- 
ed to him ; which manifefts that God is 
as diftindl A being frottt hioi, as thofe not 
excepted. Indeed if he were not thua 
diftinguiihed, there would be so proprie* 
ty in making the exception. 

S. The extraordinary powers by 
which he puts down all rule and authcv* 
rity, and fubdues all things to himfeir» 
are reprefented as not inherent, but dele* 
gated powers from that God, ** who did 
put all things under him.** 

4. InunMiiately after the fubje<^on of 
the lad enemy, death, the Son is to relin- 
quilh the management of the kingdom to 

5. Then the Son himfelf is to become 
a fubjedk to him, who did put all things 
under him. 'The meaning of this plainly 
is, that the Son fliall then defcend from 
his exalted ftate of authority. He (hall 
no longer bt the oftenfible governour, 
vicegerent, or medium through whom 
God r\iles and manages all things ; but 
ihall appear in his own natural rank« 
without any authority over his fellow 
fubjecfb ; and God (hall govern without 
any vicegerent. 

The whole of the above account coin- 
cides, perfeiftty, with our fcheme of fen- 
timent ; and is diretSbly in the face of the 
fentiment of our opponents. According 
to their fcheme the Son humbles himfelf 
to become Mediator ; and is, as mediator, 
inferiour to the Father. Upon the con- 
dufioa of the mediatorial work, then, he 
muft rife to bii former Jlation^ and take e- 
qual rank with the Father. But this paf- 
fage reprefents that he is to taJte a lower 
fiation tham he now has, and tO become fub- 
\e^ to him, who put all things under him. 

Befides, how can the Son, as mediator, 
become fubje<ft when he ceafes to hold 
that chara<Sier ? What is it that is to be 
fubjed^, if not the fecond perfon in the 
Trinity ? 

Further. Our opponents ' fuppofe 
that, when the economy of redemption 
is finiHied, the mediator is to deliver up 
iht kingdom into the hand of God ; that 
IS, of the three perfons jointly, between 
whom there will no longer be any eco- 
nomical fubordinati(m. But this paflage 
a£*erts, that it is to be delivered into the 
hands of God the Father, tbefirft perfon ; 
who is here reprefented as having put 
all things under him, So that the jSon 
and the Holy Ghoft will not hold a rank 
equal to the Father *s. 

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»otr*i f AMiuAa Lsmrsjis. 

MortcffWf m 00 on^ i» excepted from 
fttbicAioo to the nedtatorial Soo, bat he 
who did put all things uader hicn, which 
if the Father from whom th€ Son recciv-* 
•d the kingdom, and tawhom hedelivert 
it «py it It plain, that the Holy Ohoft it 
■ot excepted, and muft be one who it 
Ibfa^e^ed to the Son. And at the Soo it 
to give all that govemiBent which he 
received into the hands of the Father, 
he taaS^ give the goTemmciit o%tT the 
Holy OlMft isto hit haodt, fo that at the 
tonclufion of the economy of redemption 
the Holy Ghoil will fKll be under the 
rule of thfe Father : Contrary to their 
doctrine on thit fubje^ 

Finally, If the Son it to delivar up the 
kicigdom to the three perfoni jointly 
coniidered, then he mud deliver up the 
kinedom to himfelf, he being one of 
thefe perfoot. P. ]6t. 

We wish that we had room to 
extract the remarks on the form 
used in baptism, and on the term 
Holy Sj^rit. But we can only say 
of the last section, that, in our 0- 
pinion, it is the most ingenious* 
plausible, and impressive in the 
whole volume. We do not say 
timcliuive^ for this reason, among 
others, that we might be thought 
t6 intend a pun. 

The style of Mr. S. though not 
flowing and polite, is generally 
correct, and sufficiently elegant for 
polemick writings. We think 
that he is sometimes too familiar, 
and sometimes too dogmatical. 
His mode of attacking his adver- 
saries resembles more the untu- 
tored and natural dexterity of a 
rustlck boxer, than the gniceful 
flourishes of a practised fencing 
master. By declining to establish 
any scheme of his own, relating to 
the person of Christ, it is evident, 
tliitt Mr. S. combats the trinita- 
rians with much advantage. Other 
controversialists have commonly 
wasted their strength in defending 
some heretical offspring of their 
own braui, and by this incum- 
brance have exposed themselves 
t» more formidable attacks^as a 

man fights tinder great disadnn- 
tages with a child in his arms. 

We have been thus copious in 
our account of this book, on ac- 
count of the novelty, the boldness, 
and ^e force af the attack which 
it makes on a doctrine, which is at 
least professedly believed by a 
lai'ge majority of the clergy of 
New-England. If they read tiiis 
book, they will be sensible that it 
must either be answered, or thrown 
by with affected contempt ; for 
though it contains not an argu- 
ment against tlie docti*ine of the 
trinity which has not been often 
repeated, still it offers a kind of 
challenge to the orthodox, and is 
written, we believe, with the most 
imdissembled conviction. Let the 
inexperienced reader however keep 
in mind, '^ that one great advan- 
tage possessed bv the Unitarians 
in their wa 
results froc 
of their be 
the Unitari 
were cons; 
masters of 
their turn 
ments tenc 
system din 
soon appeal 
their groui 
• Wflberftrct. 

ART. 20. 

FamUiar Letter* to the Eet^erend 
John Sherman^ once pastor of (t 
church in Mansfield^ in fiartic* 
uiar rtference to hia late jintU 
tiimtariun treatise. By Daniel 
Dovfj fm9tor of a church in. 
Thomfison^ (Con.) Hartford. 
1806. Svo. /i/i. 51. 

From XJbXs familiar letter writer 
the person of Mr. Sherman is in 
much greater danger thaa liis ar- 

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guments. Our readers perhaps 
will esteem us partial, uncanduiy 
and heretical for such an appar** 
ently contumelious remark; but 
we confidently rest our justifica- 
tion on their unbiassed judgment, 
if they should ever happen to read 
these letters, which discover the 
utmost contempt of scriptural crit- 
icism, ignorance of theological 
opinions, impudence of style, and 
bigotry of doctrine. 

ART. 21. 

American Annals ; or a chronology 
teal hUtory of America from its 
discovery in 1492 to 1806. In 
two volumes. By Abiel Holmes^ 
D,D. A, A. S, minister of the 
first church in Cambridge. Vol. 
I. comfirinng a period of two 
hundred years. Cambridge. W. 
Hilliard. 8vo. 

IN Rome the people were care- 
ful to mark down the occurrences 
of every year. Hence the name of 
Annals. This register was safely 
preserved, but at the same time ex- 
posed to publick inspection, that ev- 
ery one might read it, and every er- 
ror be corrected by those who could 
give the most accurate information. 
The aiFairs of that city and empire 
are therefore better known, than 
the rise and progress of other na- 
tions. We know not only what 
was done by their oonsulsy but 
even the names of the con- 
suls, from Brutus and Collatinus to 
the destruction of the empire. If 
similar records had been kept and 
preserved in other nations, or if 
historical societies were formed in 
every community, who should 
make it their business to note 
transactions rather, than to write 
upon the times, the advantages 
resulting to the cause of truth 

Vol. III. No. 5. 2 1 

would be exceedingly important. 
Such institutions would at least 
provide instruction for those grave 
and sober-minded readers who 
look after facts, instead of seeking 
for amusement in fabulous sto- 

Individuals have done this a- 
mong ourselves. The fathers of 
New England, though in some 
things too superstitious, were care- 
ful to note down, not only what 
was extraordinary or marvellous, 
but also common events, tlie oc- 
currences of the year, the names 
of persons who were raised to 
honour, together with many par- 
ticular circumstances by which 
posterity might judge of their 
characters. Winthroii^ Johnsouy 
and Prince enabled Hubbard^ JSTcoL 
and Hutchinson to give very cor- 
rect information of the affairs of 

We say nothing of the Magna- 
lia^ that comfiages rerum, where 
facts, fables, biography, 8cc. &c. are 
mingled in such a strange manner^ 
as to be a chaos of remarks, rather 
than of materials ; and where the 
writer, whenever he tells what he 
himself believes, is sure to stagger 
the faith of others. 

Dr. Holmes has extended the 
plan of his work and calls it Ameri- 
can Ajinals. <« While local histo- 
ries of particular portions of A- 
merica have been written, no at- 
tempt, he says, has been made to 
give even the outline of its entire 
history." We think him very ca- 
pable of doing this, and that the 
American Annals contain a great 
deal of information ; many his- 
torical documents ; and a variety of 
knowledge, for which the laborious 
author deserves the thanks of the 
friends of literature. Dr. H. is 
well known as an author, many 
of his compositions are before the 
publick, and very few works of 

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biography, written in tiiis country, 
can be compared with his life of 
Dr, Stiles, The Annala^ in our 
opinion, must add to his reputation 
as an author, and the work will 
certainly be more generally useful. 

It has been uniformly his aim 
<< to trace &cts, as nHich as possi- 
ble, to their source." Original 
authors have the preference ; and 
this i» an apology " for the occa* 
sfonal introduction of passages, that 
will not be generally understood." 
These areput into marginal notes, 
and nny gratiify a number of his 
readers. We are likewise pleas- 
ed with his retaining the obsolete 
style and orthography of certain 
writers, for by this- we may know 
more of them, and their works* 
Many think this useless, and that 
it only incumbers- the pages ; but 
certainly we want ^ the marks ef 
authentick documents"" ; and why 
riK>uld not the antiquary be grati- 
fied Mrith his dry morsel, as well 
othera who relish the luxury of 
sentiment, and are sometimes 
tery fastidious in their taste ? 

We know not a better plan of 
writing annals,, than the Dr. has 
chosen, especially if the book be 
designed for a library ; instead of 
being once read and thrown aside. 

His accuracy of research 
would have been unnecessary, if 
it were not to be son&idered as a 
book of reference, to which we 
resort when our attention is dis- 
sipated, and which will be useful 
to some who have time to read 
but little, and who can here gather 
facts, that before were scattered 
over many volumes. 

We have read with pleasure 
many observations and lively re- 
marks in the American Annals, 
especially in the Notes, which an 
ordinary writer would never make, 
even in a book designed for enter- 
tainment more than use ; but 

which men of taste and sentimeiif 
can scatter over the driest parts of 

The first volume comprises the 
history of two centuries, i. e. from 
the voyage of Columbusj H92, to 
the year 1562. 

The annals o€ 1691 are cwi- 
fined to New-York, and Virginia, 
and to a few facts. The /irovmce was 
difvided into ten countie9. Majvr 
Schuyler with a fmrty of Mohawkt 
went over Lake Chamfdain and at- 
tacked the French settlements. 

There were some events, how- 
ever, very important to Massachu- 
setts, which took place that year. 
The cruelty of the Indians was 
excessive upon our frontiers ; and 
the &mousCharter of William and 
Mary was granted. Perhaps Dr. 
H. reserves the notice of this to 
the succeeding year, when it arriv- 
ed and was accepted by the peo- 
ple. As it is one of the very im- 
portant events in the history of 
New £ngland, we hope he will 
give some account of the strug- 
gles of our agents in England, 
and the very important change 
that was made in the government. 
The^ old patriots never liked it. 
The more moderate, as well as the 
loyal party, always thought it was 
better thsoi the old one ; as it pat 
some cheek upon the phrensy of 
democracy, at the same time that 
it secured all our essential rights. 
We would recommend to the con* 
sidcratioB of this respectable in- 
quirer a curious extract in the 
9th volume of Historical Collec- 
tions — ^the conversation between 
King WiUiam and Dr. Inci'ease 

It is the earnest wish of all 
who have read this first volume 
of American Annals, that the 
second may soon appear, and 
that Dr. Holmes may meet 
with every encouragement in car-" 

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rying on a work of such a consid- 
"crable magnitude among our liter- 
ary productions. 

The first hundred pages relate 
to the voyages which were made 
hy the Spaniards, or other nations 
of Europe^eforetheEnglish adven- 
turers took any distinguished part. 

Another hundred pages describe 
events previously to the settlement 
of New Plymouth. 

Though modem writers are 
<|uoted9SUid references are made to 
the .pages where events arc re- 
corded) it is evident, that tlie 
author has read the original wri- 
ters ; and he also x^uotes from 
them both in the oii^al and the 
translation. Herrera, Peter Mut- 
sa, Diaz, Casas, Sec. as well asRob- 
ertson and Clavigero. 

Robertson, so much celebrated 
among the historians of modem 
Europe on account of his manly 
and beautiful style, is not so much 
to be depended upon for facts, as 
many who appear in a more .plain 
dress. He is accused by Clavigero 
and otheraqf great^partiality ; and 
his mind might be.abovethat very 
minute attention to things, wliich 
an Annalist shQi^ld >make the ob- 
ject of his care. ;Br. H. says, in a 
note upon the discovery of Ameiv 
ica, «< Some Spanish authors 
have ungenerously insinuated 
that Columbus was led to this 
great enterprise by information of 
a country to the West, with the 
addition^ advantage of a journal," 
&c. He refers to Hackluyt and 
Robertson, Appendix, No. 17. for 
a confirmation of this. There 
was no necessity of touching upon 
this controversy in his Annals. 
He had only to mendou the voy- 
age of Columbus. But if lie said 
any thing, he ought to have said 
more. Since the discussion of 
Robertson, the matter has been 
more disputed than everj and 

not by Spaniards only. Mr. 
Otto wrote a paper upon this 
subject in the second volume of 
the Transactions of the American 
Philosophical Society, which has 
been reprinted in^nore than one 
country of Europe ; and endeav- 
ours to prove by Robertson's con- 
cessions, as well as additional evi- 
dences, thatColumbiTs was assisted 
very much by Martin •Behem,who 
sailed in 1484 from Portugal, and 
discovered Brazil, and other parts 
of S. Aincrica. 

"In 1492 the Chevalier Be- 
5iem undertook a journey to visit 
Nuremberg, his native country. 
He there made a terrestrial globe, 
ivbich is looked upon as a master 
piece for the time, and which is 
still preserved in the library of 
that city. The outlines of his 
discoveries may there be seen un- 
der the name of Western Lands, 
and from their situation it cannot 
be doubted they are the present 
coasts of Brazil," 8ic. 

" This globe was made tlie same 
year Columbus sat out on his voy- 
age. Therefori'e it is impossible 
that Behem could be profited by 
the discoveries of Uiis naviga- 
tor, who went a more northerly 

Though I>r. Robtrtson treats 
the history of Behem as the fic- 
tion of some German authors ; 
yet he acknowledges that " Behem 
had settled at Fayal ; that he was 
the intimate /tiend of Christopher 
Columbus ; and that Magellan 
had a globe made by Behem, by 
the help of wliich he undertook 
his voyage to the South Sea," &c. 

He relates also that in 1492 
he paid a visit to his family at 
Kurembcrg, and left there a map, 
diawn by himself, of wluch Dr. 
Forster procured a copy, and 
which in his opinion partakes cf 
the imperfection of cosniograplii- 

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cal knowledge in the fifteenth 

To be continued. 

ART. 22. 

Facta and observations relative to 
the Mature and origin of the pet' 
tilentialferver^ ivhich prevailed in 
this city, in 1793, 1797, and 
1798. By the College of Phyd- 
dans of PhiladeHihia. Philadel- 
phia. Thomas Dobson. 1798. 
%vo. pfi, 52, 

jldditional facts and observations 
relative to the nature and origin 
of the pestilential fever. By the 
College qf Physicians of Philadel^ 
phia, Philadelphia. TJDobson. 
1806. %vo. pp.99. 

The first part of this work was 
published in 1798 ; — ^the second 
within the present yew. The two 
are now included under one cover, 
and we shall briefly notice the con- 
tents of each. It is the desijjn of 
these publications to prove, that 
the yellow fever is a contagious 
disease, and that it is introduced 
into our country by importation. 
In our last number we gave a fe*- 
view of an account of the yellow 
fever at New York the last season ; 
and we then said, that this account 
rendered the opinion of its do- 
mestick origin, in that instance, the 
most probable. We purposely 
avoided giving a general opinion 
on this subject, and we shall not 
think ourselves inconsistent, if we 
declare that other accounts of the 
same disease at other times, or in 
other places, support an opinion 
which may appear contradictory. 
We presume not to determine the 
character of witnesses, but we can 
declare the result of the evidence 
which \b offered. Time may re- 
concile apparent inconsistencies, 
or may bring to light truths which 

have been concealed. For this 
purpose, time must be employed 
in careful and faithful observations 
by those whose situation permits. 
To us opportunities for such ob- 
servations are rare, and we pray 
Heaven they may continue so. 

It is well known, that the Col- 
lege of Physicians of Philadelphia 
have from the year 1793 profess- 
ed their belief,that the yellow fever 
was an imported and contagious 
disease. Deference should be 
paid to the opinion of so respecta- 
ble a body ; but it is the motto of 
modem days « nullius in verta 
magistri ;'* and those who seek 
for truth will investigate facts, 
rather than ask for opinions. 

In the first part of this work we 
have an account of the introduc- 
tion of the pestilential fever into 
Philadelphia in 1798 by the ship 
Deborah. From the details given 
in the notes, and particularly in a 
letter from Dr. Daniel De Benne- 
ville, it appears very clearly, that 
in many instances the disease could 
be traced to a connection with the 
shipDeborah ; and likewise that in 
other instances the persons, who 
had such connection, appeared to 
communicate the disease to their 
friends and attendants. It is how- 
ever to be remarked, that this ves- 
sel emitted a " disagreeable and 
ver}- offensive stench" to a consid^ 
crable distance ; and that sevei-al 
among the persons who were sup- 
posed to derive their diseases from 
this ship, of whom Dr. De Benne- 
ville himself was one, did not go 
even upon the wharf at which she 
laid, but were only opposite the 
wharf, &c. On the other side, 
however, it would seem by the ac- 
count that the disease, with which 
those persons were seized, was in- 

In the second part of this work 
the College declare their adher* 

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MlATlirs f« ¥HS ^MttLCKtlAt ysVSH. 


«fiet to their ftirifter dpinions ; 
which, they say, have been con- 
frmed by events and retearchet 
subsequent to the former declara- 
^n of those opinions. In this 
part we have some letters from 
respectable physicians and others, 
which deserve consideration .-« 
There are also some ^ minutes of 
the sitting managers of the Penn- 
sylvania Hospital,'* tending to 
shew, by events in that hospital, 
that the yellow-fever is an infec- 
tious, if not a contagious disease. 

There follow letters from Dr.C. 
Wistar,andDr.G.Bensell. They 
relate *< facts tending to prove the 
conUgious nature of the yellow- 
fever at Germantovftt in the year 
1798." These arc such as must 
make the incredulous hesitate. 

« The history of the origin and 
progress of the yellow fever in 
New Haven, 1794," is extracted 
from the N. York Evening Post, 
and is corroborated by private let- 
ters. • In ^t, almost the whole 
was originally derived from Drs. 
Eneas and Elijah Munson. This 
history traces that disease to in- 
fection from a chest of clothes im- 
ported from the W. Indies in the 
sloop Iris. On this subject there 
has been a strange contradiction 
of evidence. From the whole to- 
gether, which this volume contains 
on the subject, it is fair to con- 
clude, that the chest of clothes 
was the source of (Usease. 

We pass over other things less 
important to notice « an account 
of the rise and progress of the 
fever, which prevailed in South- 
wark, during part of the summer 
and autumn of the year 1805, by 
Dr. W. Currie." As this account 
is published by the College with- 
out comment, it has all the weight 
of their reputation in its fiavour. 
For we ought to presume that if 
a&y fellow of tKe College had 

known any thing which tended to 
invalidate it, that would have re- 
ceived equal publicity. 

In this account it appears, that 
the first instances of tho disease 
were in S. Crisman's family. 
Three of this family visited the 
quarantine ground on July 2Ist ; 
at which time unclean veasels were 
lying there. One of these vessels 
had put two persons (Mi shore 
there nine days before, both of 
whom were dangerously ill of the 
yellow fever. On the 27th of 
July one of these persons in Cris- 
man's Esimily, and on the 28th the 
other two were attacked with yellow 
fever. The one, first seized, died 
on the Sd of August ; the others 
recovered. From these three per- 
sons the disease seems to have 
been communicated, by intercourse 
more or less direct, to others in 
succession . If notliing is omitted 
in this account, we must conclude 
that the disease originated from 
the imprudent exposure of certain 
persons to infection at the quaran- 
tine ground. 

We recommend this work both 
to physicians and to all persons, 
who have any concern in making 
or in executing quarantine laws. 
If our commerce is subjected to 
embarrassments from quarantine, 
for God's sake let us have this 
process so perfect as to secure us 
from foreign disease. It is a 
strange son of respect for the lib- 
erties of the people, which subjects 
merchants and mariners to great 
pecuniary and personal embarrass- 
ments, and at the same time per- 
mits any idle boy to take from us 
the benefit of such sacrifices. 

Well aware that the discussion 
of this subject will not interest a 
large portion of readers, we omit 
many remarks, which the occa« 
sion presents. 

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4i6Txeft o9 0AAm> t7oiiTamiM7^.«oiaiMi» 


^ Mrthem Summer^ 0r iraveU 
round the Baltic^ through Den* 
'tnark^ Sweden^ Russia^ PruaiUty 
and fiart <^ Germany^ in the 
year 1804. By John Carr^Eaq^ 
author qfthe Stranger in France^ 
is^c ifc. Bvo. PivHadclpliia, 
S. F. Bradford. 

When an "English traveller 
tells us that he went abroad for 
liealth and si^rits we very natup- 
«lly conclude^ that a narrative of 
his adventures will exhibit little 
felse than a severe caricature of 
•the various subjects of his obseiv 
vations. But the most invidious 
examination ivill discover in this 
work very few of those misrepre- 
sentations which would he expect- 
ed as the usual effect of strong nar 
tional prejudice operatin^f on the 
impatience of all he^h. The au- 
thor travelled in the exerdse of a 
singular indulgence for foreign 
peculiarities which earlier travels 
had so matured) that his avowed 
and honourable predilection for hit 
Dative land in no instance intrudes 
itself to degrade the character of 
any other. This work presents to 
the reader much of that kind of 
minute, local information, which is 
amusing to any one, and to an ioex- 
|>erienced tourist indispensibly ne- 
cessary, but which many travellers 
disdain tonotice#nd stillinore want 
«kill to manage. The lonnger may 
iind in it much to wile away an 
idle hour with, and, if his heart has 
not been cankered and corroded, 
and Ms mind unnerved by sloth, 
will feel himself quickened into 
something like life, by some well 
wrought scenes of woe, drawn 
from history, and several striking 
instances oi' the mutability of for- 

tune. To the panM&tickit offas 
no gorgeous displays of sentiment, 
and indeed nothing but fine d^ 
scriptions of the wild and pictur- 
esque. And a potitical theorist 
would probably be disappointed in 
not finding the order and unifoi^ni- 
ity of the work interrupted and 
disfigured by the introduction of 
.dry and useless calculations. The 
only strange and unusual trait 
which distinguishes this work, is, 
that we may ^lean from it more 
knowledge of individual and ntt- 
tional character, and more topo- 
graphical information tlian gazet- 
teers or geographical compilations 
generally afford. If there is any 
fault sufficiently great to he notic- 
ed, it is, that his descriptions of 
works of art are sometimes too in- 
complete to gratify m connoisseur, 
and not always clear to one who is 
not. Here his penods are some- 
times prolonged, till they become^ 
what they generally are not, ol>> 
scure and confused* 

TJie Sha4e of Plate ; or^a defenct 
qf religion^ morality^ and govemr 
fnent, A poem in four fiarff 
By David Hitchcock, To which 
t# prefixed^ a sketch of the aur 
thor*a iife, Hudson, H. Cros- 
well. 12mo. price 25 cents. 

The Muses, Uke most other la* 
(ties, have loi^ had the reputation 
of being somewhat capricious in 
the distribution of their favours, 
and 9nce their favouiites join in 
the accusation, we are joompelled 
to believe that it must be just. I^ 
however, they were formerly caj; 
pridoosf they have of late become 
lawless. The inspiration of poe- 
try which was formerly reserved 
for those minds, in which refine- 
ment and feeling had been nour* 
iahed by solitary thought and uar 

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kfokeD study, has of bte been felt 
even at the work bench, and the 
plough. What mysterious con- 
nexion, what secret analogy there 
is between stitching shoes and 
making verses, ive are at a loss to 
discover ; but certain it is, that the 
cobler's stall has lately been re- 
markably fruitful of poets. Our 
ewn country is not without her 
claims to a share in the honour 
which England m^ assume fr«m 
this fecundity in " self-taught 
bards \^ and Mr. Hitchcock, the 
author of the book, whose title we 
have just quoted, is to be the sup- 
porter of our renown. Our bard> 
we must acknowledge, is yet un- 
fledged, and indeed has scarcely 
broken his shell ; but we doubt not 
that if he should be warmed by the 
incubation of some 4^merican Ca- 
pel Loftt, he will hereafter rise on 
as strong a wing, and sustain as 
iarbg a flight as either of the 

We have the following account 
of Mr. Hitchcock prefixed to the 

David Hitchcock, th« author of ^ the 
fotlowing poem, was born at Bethlem, 
county of Litchfield, (late of Connecti- 
cut, io the year 1773. Hi« father, who 
was an iKjneft and induflrlous Hioemaker, 
after being reduced by a feries of mi«for- 
tunes, to the lowef^ ftate of poverty and 
wretchedoeft, died -in the year 1790 ; 
leaving fix children, of whom our author 
was the eldefl, and a weakly and bereav- 
ed widow, dependent upon the world 
for prote^on and fupport. His inabili- 
ty to educate his children will readily be 
perceived ; but as the eldeO difcovercd 
an early difpoHtion to learn, he fpatvd 
no pains to gratify it, both by inftnidb'ng 
him and fending him to fchool, (when 
want of money or cloathing did not pre- 
vent) from the fifth to the thirteenth year 
•f his age. By thefe fmall materials our 
author acquired enough of the rudimentt 
of learning to enable him to make fur- 
ther improvements by his own applica- 
tion, at fubfequent periods of his life. 
Some of hU firft productions were para- 

phrafes on the thirty-ninth Pialm, thr 
latter part of the firft chapter of JLuke, 
and others of a ferious complexion. 
Thefe he compofed principally i» the 
night, white watching whh his father ia 
his lad ikkneSi. 

In the 26th year of his age he married ; 
and though he may be ground more cloie 
by penary on this account, (Kit ht en- 
joys peacf and contentment, and has the 
addition of three cl^ldreo to his family, 
upon which he deats alraoft as much aa 
the epulent do upon their riches. 

Such has bece the origin and progreA 
(to the thirty-fiecond year of his age) of 
a man, who ibruggUng under all the ^\U 
adrantages of want of education, indi- 
gence, obfcurity, and the contumely of 
the wortd, has produced, by the aftoo- 
iflking e^rts of his genius, the following 
Poem, belides a number of imaUer piece» 
of a facirical oalk 

It cannot be expected that we 
should undertake either a criticism 
or analysis of this production. It 
is an essay, in eight-syllable metre, 
on Religion, Politicks, and Morals^ 
which the author put into the 
mouth of Plato f and, though his 
style is hardly such as the Gods 
would adopt, if they should visit the 
earth, yet as every man possesses 
some rank in intellectual dignity, 
whose mind is superiour to his cir- 
cumstances,this writer's merit must 
be admitted,and his poetry endured. 

The author has a ri^ht to one 

While Phoebus from the human race 
Hid the bright fplendour of hi^ face. 
And from the feat of darkncfs hurPd 
A fable mantle o*cr the world : 
While men from toil, repofe obtain'd. 
And univerfal fileace reigned ; 
The ghoft of an immortal foge. 
Who flourifli'd in the Grecian age. 
Sudden into my prefence broke. 
And thus the radiant viiion fpoke t— 

Stranger, forbear, be not difmay'd ; 
Fm Plato's once departed £hade; • 
Who from cekftial fpheres recede, 
The righteous caufe of heaven to plead ^ 
And clear iu juOice, truth, and grace 
From the afperfions of your race. 

O'er earth, where*er a God is known. 
Mankind, their deftiny bemoan i 

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They all ibmfe fpedous pretext {nrnt. 
To tax kiad Providence with bUme ; 
Each thiuk the Deity they ferve, 
Ch;iflifes more than they deferve ; 
And that their fuflferings here beloWy 
Are one dcfpotick fcene of woe. 
In ChrilUan land, where gofpel light 
Illumes the intelledkual light. 
Oft have 1 heard your race repine. 
That they're abus'd by power divine $ 
That theyVe deprived of happinefs, 
Becaufe their parents did amifs : 
Tlut their exigence here below 
1$ but a pilgrimage of wpe. 
For which the haplelt race of mtn 
Are fubje<Sb to difeafe, and pain ; 
And when their days on earth are paA» 
Mult feel the pangs of death at lall : 
That Unce the firft unrighteous deed, 
Mankind through every age muft bleed ; 
And be dandefUnely devour'd 
By famine, peflilence and fword : 
That man, had it not been for this. 
Had reveird in eternal blifs ; 
And free from hcknefs, death, or paio. 
Would now in paradife remain ; 
That lince their lire was thus derang*d. 
The laws of nature have been chang'd ; 
And counterwork their priftine plan. 
To fcourge the feeble race of man ; 
Whence they're to every woe bctray'd. , 
For crimes which they could not evade : 
Oft they enquire the caufe they've given. 
Thus to be made the fport of heaven ; 
And why its vengeance (hould aflail 
A race fo impotent and frail. 

^ sketch of the geogr&fihjf mi 
firesent state of the united Urri" 
tones qf J^fbrth AfRerica ; iq 
which is addedy a list qf the wv- 
tral nations a?id tribes qflmUam 
in Canada and the United States^ 
isTc. irtc. By B. Davies, Phi- 
ladelphia, A. Bartram. 

The object of this little work is 
to give a bird's-eye view of the ge- 
ography ^sUtistickB^ £cc. of the Uni- 
ted Sutes of America. In the fol- 
lowing extract we have the design 
of the author. 

This compend, in whvch nothing 
more than a iketch can be given of the 
geography, and exilHng flate of the uoi- 
t«d territoriet, il divicM into two parti : 
the firft c«nuins a lenertU account of die 
foils, climates, winds, mountains, lakes, 
rivers, bays, capes, mines, and minoib; 
and the lecoad, confilHng of dgfatccs 
geographical and Aatiftical tables, com- 
prifes a brief view of the ettent and 
population of the whole empire, as wcA 
as of the individual ftates, their trade aad 
ibipping, conftitutions and military force, 
revenues and expenditures. 

As far as we have ezaminedy 
the work appears accurate, and will 
. be found particularly useful to a 
traveller through the country. 


Of New Publications in the U. States, for Mav, ISOfi. 

Sunt bona, sunt qusdam medSocrU, suet malt plan. —MART. 


Trial of Samuel Chafe, an aflbciatc jof- 
ticeofthe fupreme court of the United 
States, impeached by the houfe of repre* 
fentatives, for high crimes and mifde- 
me^nors, before the ieoate of the United 
States. Taken in (hort hand, by Samu- 
el H. Smith and Thomas Lloyd. In tvro 
lai^e o<£Uvo volumes— > Vol. S, in boards, 
price, to fubfcribers, 4 dols. and a half, 
and to non-fubfcribers 5 dols. Waih- 
ington. & H. Smith. 

An iiviugural Eflay on the diffirrtot 
theories thiu have beta advanced oa the 

fubje^lof the proximate caufe of con- 
ception in the human female. By I>»- 
aiel Newcomb, A. fi. of Keene, N. U. 
member of the Philadelphia Medical 
Society. 8vo. pp. 38. Philadelphia, 
John H. Ofwald. 

Twelve Letters addrefled to Rev. Sa- 
muel Auftin, A. M. in which his vindt- 
cation of partial waihing for Oiriftiio 
Baptifm, contained in Ten JLetters, is re* 
viewed and difproved. By Daniel Mer- 
rill, A.M. paOor of the church of Chrift 
in Sedgwick. ISmo. pp. S»6. Boftoo* 
Maoning JtLoriBf- 

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A new Msp of tb« United flutes of 
Anerica, tacindiag part of Louifiasau 
Drawn from the lateft aucbori(i«6 ; re* 
vifed aod corre<3ed by Ofgood Carhoo, 
S£il. teacher of matbenaticks in Bofton. 
6doU. in (heets to fubfcriben. Bofton. 
John Sullivan jun. 

A Speech, delirered in congrtfi, on 
the 15th April, 1B06. While the houfe, 
in committee of the wholei were difcuiT- 
ing the bill for forti^og the ports and 
htf boors of the United States. By Jo- 
£ah Qoioc^, £fq. member of congrels 
from Maflachufetts. 8vo. Bodon, prin- 
ted by Rttflell 3t Cutler. It06. 

Eaffat Oifcoorfes on BapttliD. ISmo. 
pp. I5& Bofton. D. CarliOe. 

A diicourie delivered in trinity church, 
in Newport, on thurfday 27th Novem* 
ber, 1805. an appointed day of publick 
thankigiTing and praife. Bj Theodore 
Dehon, A. M. redbir of Trinity Church. 
Fubli(hed by particular defire. New- 
portt a. I. 1806. 

An addrefs on Mufic, delivered to the 
Ptrft Bapcift Singing Society, Boftoo, on 
the evening of the 1 5th May inft. By 
fcrdinaod Ellis, A. M. Bofton. 


Volume I. part I of The New Cyclo- 
pasdia, or Univerlal Dit^onary of Aru 
and Sciences. To be completed in SO 
vols, quarto. By Abraham Rees, D. D. 
F. R. Sw Editor of the laft edition of 
Chamber's DidUooary ;— with the al&ft- 
ance of enxioent ^rofe^onal gentlemen. 
Ifluilrated with new plates, including 
BUpa, engraved for the work, by fume of 
the raoft diftinruiihed artifts. The 
whdie ifflpyovra and adapted to this 
country, by gentlemen of known abilities, 
>y whofe aid it will be rendered the^oft 
eofl^>lece work of this kind that has yet 
appeared. Price of each half voL to fub- 
fieribers 3 dols. Philadelphia, Bradford. 

A'treatife on the Difeafes of Child* 
tmxt 3u»d management of lofanu from the 
Birth. By Michael Underwood, M. D. 
licentiate in Midwifery, of the Royal 
College of Phyficians in JLondon, 8ic. ice. 
Second American from the fixtb Xx>ndon 
odition. 8vo. pp.270. Bofton. D.Weft. 

Reflexions on the Rife and Fall of the 
fncieotRepublicks^dapted to the prefent 
ftsteof Great Britain. By Bdward W. 
Montague, jun. iSmapp. 336. Phjla^ 
delphia. C P. Wayne. 

iir TBS raxse. 

'Wklker't Critical Pronouncing Die* 
liooary of th« Ibt^fi/k l4Maf»8fe» 
Vol. 111. No. $. Sk 

From the third Lotidoo edition ; con* 

tainiog the laft improvements and correc* 
tions of the author. 1 vol. Svo. New 
York» S. Staaft}ury & co. 

The 2d. vol. of Judge Cain's Report* 
New York, Riley 8c Co. 

Powell on Devices. 1 vol. Svo. New 
York, Riley 8c Co. 

Part 3d of Cain*s New York Term 
Reports, which completes the Sd vol* 
New York, Riley & Co. 

Elements of geometrv, containing the 
firft fix books of £uclid, with a fupple* 
ment on th6 quadrature of the circlOf 
and the geometry of folids. By Jehn 
Playfair, F. R. S. Edin. profeflbr of ma- 
thematicks in the univerdty of £din« 
burgh. Price 2 dols. Philadelphia. 

A new work entitled Elenora, by 
Mifs Pi I kinton. New York, Riley 8t Co. 

The Enchanted Lake, a beautiful po* 
em, traaflated from the Italian, by Rich- 
ard Alfop, Efq. New York, Riley 8c Co. 

A Portraiture of Quakerifm, taken 
from a view of the education and difd- 
pline, fecial manners, civil and (>olitical 
ecenomy, religious principles and charac- 
ter of the fociety of Friendit. By Tho- 
mas Darkfon, A. M. author of feveral 
effays on the flave trade. 8 vols. 8vo. 
To lubfcribers 5 dols a fet, bound ; coarfe 
copies 3 dols. New York. Stanfbury, 

Charnock*8 Life of Admiral Nelfon. 
1 vol. Svo. New York, Riley 8c Co. 


A celebrated work entitled. The Civil 
Hiftory of Chili,tranflated from theltalian 
of the abbe Molina. S vols. Hvob with 
plaies. New York, Riley 8c Co. 


Briflno & Brannan have juft put tO 
prefs, and will publifli by the firft of 
June, a highly ioterefting work, entitled^ 
** Memoirs of the Life and Writings of 
Richard Cumberland,** with Anecdotes 
of many of the principal characters during 
his time. Wehaveperufed the above work 
with fenfible pleafure. In point of in- 
tereft it is little inferior to Bofwelfs Life 
of Johnfoo, in point of ftylc it is very fsr 
above it. In i^'uing this edition, Meflrs. 
Brilban and BtannLO will make a valua- 
ble prefent to the American public, and 
we have no doubt will find thcmfelves 
haodfomely remunerated. We know 
not the work of a late date which we 
think will bcfo popVilar. — NT.£v. Pofij 

David Hitchcock, author of the "* Shade 
of Plato," and the •♦ Knight and Quack," 
19 ptepaiii;^ Aoatb^ wont Iw tht pr^ 

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3fn. AiTAMSs iTctxu ON i}fy nitt. 

From tbc *20tb of April f tl: tKV* •/ May. 

Tnc weather during the latter part of 
April wa4)^eiieralty cold and the windt 
from the no th-caft. They haver bought 
us but little of t lie vernal mHduef* ; for a^ 
t1\ouj;l\ the iky' has fearcc bc^ir covered 
with A cloud, yet chilling from 
tlie eaft hnve reigned alnuift tniinterupt- 
eiity. 'I'he mouth, on the whole, has 
bepn remarkable for its coolnefs and dry- 

Pneumonic inflammation ha« been 
quite a common difeafe, during the pad 
month. In many cafes the attack has 
been violent ; biit bassoon yeildcd to the 
vigoroui application of rtnitdies, and 
tvifhourmuch hfs of blooJ, As far as oar 
ohicrvations-and information relative to 
this difeafe have extended, the treatment 

of It, during the pad fcafon', has Been te** 
ry fuccefsfull, and the lancet hacr been 
rather unfrequentlr cmplored. Nu- 
merous rhenmttic anre<!^ions have apptfar^ 
ed nhis month. Fever has been very 
comroan, cli)ectaHv among children. 
The invafion of thii difeafe has beeir 
gtneraHy fcrdden aild fevere, but ofihort 
duratiort. Thofrf chronic aflfetSiion* of 
the lung.f.wMch have e\ifKed fome time, 
ha^'e been mtich aggravated during ihb 
month*, and^ new one* have appeju-ed. 

^altpox has again (liown iifelf ; and in 
rhe centre of tlie moft populous part of 
the town. The early removal of the pji- 
tient prevented the infection being com- 
municated for this time. Vaccination ia 
very widely difiRifed through the town, 
Starcehr have there ever exifted fo many 
cafe* at one time, at at prefetit. 

Wc cannot d«ny ouraelV€& the [Measure of jrwertinR thff follo>ktrtg i|'e«ch, whicit ha» never 

been pnhunico, aitlu)tigh it» leiigtli compel'' iit to cxchidc a part of uur tuiial colleetkm. As the 

■ Mi»^cct doc» not re«pccr any looal aiti) ic»nporary miotlon of party politicks, wc do not by \t% 
ittiicnion depart from our principle of ever Intrr'nclunf on the province- of ibe gaacttes. The 
d<epiy learned and profound invc<ti^4rion:> of t^^• liberal ard acojoiplifbcd scholar will bc a^ 
prcc ubed by all who are qualified to jcd^c. 


On tfie Hill to /irrnnr the ahtse of the lirivii-grft and ihiTThinitiea en^- 
j'jycil I'y Jorcitpi m/iU6tirs wfthin thf United States, 


RE it enafted, &c. Tint from and" affer the 
pMlfage of ihi-i ad, if any foreign ambatfatlur, 
njlniftcf, or other perf 'rt, entltkd to enjoy" within 
die U. S. the privileges and immunities df a 
foreign miniitcr, ihicll commit any vidation of 
the municipal Uwif^ which, if committed bv a 
perrmi wTienabte to rtie ordinary judicLil aurhori* 
ty uf the {dace, where Ihch am^^lladcr, minlftcr, 
or other perfon, miiy l>c at t he time of commit- 
ting fuch offence, wi?uld '.>e Indictalde by a Ktand 
i try, and ptinithable by death,- by corporaipun- 
i.H'ucnt,«r by impriibnmcnt or oonhnmoritto 
Mhmir, the prcfidctit of the U 8. upon apj>llca- 
tlon made ta hinn by the executive authority of 
♦lie ftate or territory witerc fuch otTencc may bc 
tommlted. or upon tifc cotnplaint ro hl-n of anv 
^cti6n Injured or ag,^vtd by ftich ofCenee to' 
committed, and uporr proof «)f tlie f^cbt, latiiXtc- 
tory to the faid prc'Jdcnt, »>clnK fumilhed to him 
in fbppoft of fuch application of complaint,' 
fttall lie, and horeb)iti» authnrifed to demand of 
the fovereign of the faid offeiidhig ambaiTador, 
tninlftcr, of other*perfon, juHicc upon the offend. 
*cr, and reparation tti any peffooor Dcrfotwrhits 
liijured or aeerievcd i and in cafe of the refuCsl 
or nc'^'lcd of nie faid fovereign to comply with 
fuch demand for Jurtioe and reparation, tlie pre* 
fident of the U. 8. > hereby further auihorifcd to 
onier Aich ainhaOailor, minlitcr, or other pcrfon 
to offendin];, t* depart frnm the U. s. and the 
territories thereof ; or to And hitn liome to hit 
foverdgn, accordiug to the aegravation of the 
offence, and at hb the faid prendcnt*i difcrttinn. 
(»ec. a. That from and aftertbt patf ige of this 
a^l, if any fiud;;n ambaiTador, mlnifter, or other 
pcrfon entltlU to enjoy within- the U S the prf- 
vileges and immunities of a tordf^n min liter, (hall 
wltmn the i:. 8. or the tcititonet thereof com- 
mit any aA orhoftUity or enter into any confpl- 
taoy afi^iailrUte Koverameot j0f the U. IK or O^att 

prrfonally fnOilt or treat with dlfrcfped the Pre- 
Ifilent of the U. 8. for the time belig, the faid 
Pri fident ihallb^, and U hereby authorifed, at hi» 
dtkrctinn, to cr.lcr the faid ambaaador, ndniflcr 
or other pcrfon fo ofTendhip, to withdraw from 
the feat of gov^emtnent and the territory oT C<d- 
umbi.\ , or to depait from the U. 8. and the terri- 
tories thereof ; and in cafe of refufal or neRlc^ 
bv (Uch amhafTadOr, minitter, or othet petlbnao 
afore faid, to Obey l\ich order within a reaionabie 
time, of which the faid prefldent (hall Judge, tbc 
fait! prcfident ihall bc, and b hereby fnrtner au- 
thorifed to ftDd the laid ambaflador, miaiilcrt or 
other pcrfon as aforcfatd, home to his toretdgn i 
and In either cnfe to demand of the faU fbver- 
el||ii,ttirpaoilk'oentof ftich ofiendiae ambalb- 
d»r, minitler, or other perlon ai aforcfaM* accord- 
inK to the nanirc and apvravatlon of the OtTcilce ; 
aad confoniiablc to the lawX of nationa. 

sec. \ Thatin every cafe, when the prcfidcnt 
of the U. 8. Ihall, under the authority of thia ad. 
order any foreign ambamidor, mlnifter, or other 
pe^on entitled lo enjoyt wlihiii the u. 8. the pri- 
vileges and immui^itlei of a f jrcign minitter, to 
wtrbdraw from the (bat of gOTenftnent an4 the 
tcnitory of Coiumb^ \.o€* to depart from the 
U. 8. and the territpria thereof ; or (hall fend any 
fl^h offendlAr ambtflTador, minMer, or other per- 
Uti as aftrefaid, home to his tovereign the MA 
prefident lhall,ln|the order eiven to fuch amballa - 
dor, mlnifter, or other perion as aforcfkid, to de-r 
part, or to vrithdraw, fignlff the oficnee upotf 
which fuch order Ihall b« f&iiRded : and ikuMMt- 
fieu to the fovereign of the fitkl ambafTador, mio- 
nier, or other oerfon at aforcfald, the reafb^ gbr 
which fuch order IhaU have boes gWea» or ttn 
which the faid ambalTador, minttler, or other per- 
ton as aforefald, (bail be fent home i particularly 
fpecifying that fkfdi proceediqgf are not on ac- 
count of any natioiialdiflercnccs, but nil att— ill 
of the perlbnal mifconduft of toch •f^fr^f Ti it ft'. 
Aimitcr, or othtr pcrfta M atorefjOA* 

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Sttsyr.if. PF THE United Stai-es.. 
Monday^ March 3, 1806. 


There are two points of view, 
Mr. President, iu which it appears 
to me to be important that the 
pravisions of this UiH should l>c 
considered : The joue, as they rer 
Jate to t/ie laws of nations ; a^ulthj; 
iDther, as they regard t^e cojiatitu- 
lion of Xhe jjniied States. From 
J>oth these sources have arisen i^^^ 
.ducements, combining to produce 
jconvictlon upon my mind yf the 
propriety, andmdeed tlic necessity 
jof some measure, ;sin4lar in prin- 
xiple to that which I have had the 
iionour to propose. I shal,| take 
the liberty to state them in their 
^arns ; endeavouring to keep them 
as distinct frpo) each other, as the 
great and obvious diifcrence of 
their character reqwires, and thajt 
their combination oi> this occasioa 
may appear in the striking light, 
Fliich may render it the most e£- 

By tlie lavs of nations a foreign 
pimister is entitled, not barely tp 
the general security and protection 
which the laws of every civilized 
people extend to the subjects of 
other patipns residing among 
them : he Is indujged with many 
privileges of a high and uncommon 
nature ; with many exemptions 
from the operation of the laws of 
the country where he resides,and a- 
mong others with a genw*al exemp- 
tion from th^ juri^ctlonof thejur 
dicial courts, both civil aofl crimiiir 
al. This tmmanity is, in respect to 
the criminal jurisdiction, without 
limitation ; and ap ambassador) tho' 
guilty of the n^o^t aggravated crimes 
which the heart of maa can con*- 
ceive, or hit hand commit^ cannot 
be punished for them by the tribu- 
nals of the sovereign with whom 
J|C fesides. Should he conispire 

.the dest^ction of the constitution 
or government of the state, no jury 
of his peers can there convict him 
of treason. Should he point the 
dagger of assassination to the heart 
of a citizen, he cannot be (Kit to 
plead for the crime of murder^ 
In these respects he is considered 
iis the suliject not of the state to 
jw hich hje is sent, but of the state 
which atiJit Ivm, and the only punp ' 
ishment which can be inflicted on 
Jiis crimes is tft to liie justice of 
Jijs master.. " 

In a repnblicain govjernment, 
Jike that under which we Ivavc thp 
happiness to live, this exemption 
is not enjoyed by any iudividuaJ 
x>f the nation itself, however exalt- 
ed in rank or station. It is our 
pride and glory that all are equal 
in the eye3 of the law : that, how- 
ever adorned wi|:h dignity, or arm- 
ed with power, np roan, owing al- 
legiance to the majesty of the 
nation, can skreen himself from 
the vindictive arm of her justice ; 
yet even the nations whose inter- 
nal constitutions are founded upon 
this virtuous and honourable prin- 
ciple of equal and universal rigbtS) 
have like all the rest submitted to 
this great and extraordinary ex^ 
ception. In order to account for 
so singular a deviation froip prin^ 
ciplcs In every oth^sr respect ^ 
deemed of the highest moment 
and of the most uiuv^r^al appUca^* 
tjon, we must enquire into the 
reaiona which have induced all the 
nations of the civilized world to this 
broad departure from the fundament 
tal maxims of their government. 

The most eminent writers on 
the laws ef nations have at differ- 
ent times as§ignc4 various reasons 
fox this phenojnenan in politicks 
and morals. It has sometimes 
been said to rest upon JictiouB of 
law. The reasoning has been 
thus ; every sovereign prince if 
independent of al) others and i^ 

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Mk. AB4Mt'8 t^BBCtt M tlill Witt 

sucht eamKH, even when person- 
ally withb the territories of anoth* 
er, be amenable to his jurisdiction. 
An ambassador re/iresenta the fier^ 
Mon of his master, and therefore 
xnust enjoy the same immunities : 
but this reasoning cannot be sati&> 
fectory ; for in the first placej a 
foreign misister does not necessa- 
rily represent the person of his 
master ; he represents him' only 
in his affairs ; and besides repre- 
senting him> he has a pernonal ex* 
istence of /ih ovm^ altogether dis- 
tinct from his representative char- 
acter, jjnd for which, on the prin- 
ciples of common sense, he ought, 
like every other individual, to be 
responsible ; at other times anoth^- 
er fiction of law has been aliedged, 
in this manner ; the foreign min*" 
ister is not the subject of the state 
to which h^ is sent, but of his own 
sovereign. He is therefore, to be 
considered as still residing ttnVAzn 
the terrttorica of his master, and 
not in those of the prince to whom 
he IS accredited. But this fiction, 
like the other, forgets the/kertono/ 
existence of the miniater,^ It is 
dangerous at all times to derive 
important practical consequences 
from fictions of law, in direct op- 
posiiion to the fact. If the prin- 
ciple of personal representation, 
or that of exterritoriality, annexed 
to the character of a foreign min- 
ister be admitted at all, it can in 
sound argument apply only to his 

• It {9 manifed, that if et h r rUv t M Btf 
yttfe to be alfow^ to miniflten 10 tht 
who^ extent of the tenfi, it woul4 entitle 
them to many right* which thty certain- 
|]r hare ooc i on the other hand the pri- 
vilegfes allowed them extend far beyond 
what the ifniverfal law of nations pre- 
fcihes in their favour on tbii f^oudd. 
Both thefe portions will be proved here- 
after, and alfo that thh cxtrnnrly loiji-jtttim 
yixierritoriality i* not always fuificient 
"0 af<;ertain the rights to which a minif- 
er may pretend. Mar tent* Summary 
tftk9 M^dfra La-ui of Nations, Btei 7| ^|, 


eScial conduct ; to his ictt in thi 
capacity of a miniat€r,and not to his 
private and individual affairs. The 
minister can represent the /Person 
of the prince, no otherwise than 
as any agent or factor represents 
the person of his principal ; and 
it would be an ill compliment tOr« 
sovereign prince, to consider him 
as personally represented by liia 
minister in the commission of an 
atrocious crime. Another objec- 
tion against this wide-encroaching 
inference from the doctrine o£fier^ 
sonal re/iretentationis^ihAi it is suit- 
able only to monarchies. The miQ<- 
Jster of a king may be feigned to 
represent, in ail respects, the per- 
son of his master ; but what fter^ 
Bon can be represented by the am- 
bassador of a republick ? If I am 
answered, the moral person qf the 
nation ; then I reply, that can be 
represented by no individual, bdng 
itself a fiction in law, incapable of 
committing any act, and havingno 
corporeal existence susceptible of 
representation. t I have said thus 

f The reprefentati^ chara^ler of the 
asnbaifador is the fign of repnefentatioa 
of the fovereign who (ends, addrefled to 
|he fovertign who receives the muiifter. 
Ambafladors being naturally the mmmdatm' 
riti of the prince by whom they are feot, 
the reprefentative character, by the law 
of nature, confifts in the power Of tranf* 
a^ag any publick bufinefs io the oams 
and right cf the ioTereign,by whom tbry . 
are fent, with another fovereiga power : 
confequently by the law of nature aa 
Ambaiflador ir «•/ as it were the fame moral 
ffrfia as he who fends him, fo as to bt 
the fame as if hit matter hirafelf were 
prefenc 1 nor is the prince to whom he 
iff fent bovnd to coafider him as hit •» 
^ual. And as there is no nsceflUy, either 
for the tranfadkioo of bulinefa, or for the 
dignity of the fender, which may be pre- 
ferved without k, of that reprefentative 
charaAer which confilb in the power •f 
repreftiKiiig the ^ktfim of ibt £mdcr, 
neither is the reprdfenutive charaAcr^ 
when ftretched beyond the rules of nam- 
ral law, any part of the v»tamtary law of 
hatioDi : 9n(l confequently If inttodu^ 

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eoxcKRirtiro roxsioK ^xyitTEmt*- 


tnnch on thh subject, because I 
have heard in conversation these 
legal fictions alledged against the 
adoption of the bill on your table, 
and because they may perhaps be 
urged against it here. 

But it is neither in the fiction of 
txterritoriaMty^i nor in that of peiv 
sonal representatioi\ that we are to 
seek for the substantial reason up- 
on which the customary law of na*- 
tions has founded the extraordina«' 
ry prinleges of ambassadors— It 
b in the nature of their office'^ of 
Xh^T duties y and of their nfuaiion^ 

By their office^ they are intend- 
ed to be tHe mediators of peace, 
of commerce, and of friendship 
between nations ; by their duiiesy 
xhey arc bound to maintain with 
firmness, though in the spirit of 
conciliation, the rights, the hoiiour, 
and thfe interests of their nation, 
even in the midst of those who 
bare opposing interests, who assert 
conflicting ngbts, and who are 
guided by an equal and adverse 
sense of honour ; by their eitua* 
tum^ they would, without some ex-> 
traordiaary provision in their fii^ 
vour, be at the mercy of the ytrj 
prince against whom they are thus 
to maintain the rights, the honouri 
and the interest of their own. As 
the ministers of peace and friend** 
ship, their functions are not only 
of the highest and most beneficial 
ufility, but of indispensable neces- 
sity to all nations, having any mu- 
tual intercourse with each other* 

,t»y v&fit it (t put of tbe ctrftomary taw; 
if by treaty, pan of the cooTemioaal 
law of oatTons, Wherefbrt the eoifimi^ 
ttt derived frtnn tbif chamber ref^ieAng 
A mh a ffa dort, belaag neither to the taw 
^nature, nor to the Tolontary law of 
natiooa ; much lefs 6d they ian^on the 
^ramitoaa adcfitioiia by which they are 
amplified. Hence ooMtien u boimdto 
acVnoowledge them« nnleft in confequenca 
tf viprefii (Hp«iladoB. ir«y. JmJUitmt 
^ lh iaw pf MtOMrt atd mtimi* iW/. 6, 
«6w 19^ $.18412. 

They arc the only instnifnents 
by which the miseries of war can 
be averted when it approaches, or 
terminated when it exists. It ia 
by their agency that the prejudices 
of contending nations are to be di^ 
sipated, that the violent and do- 
structive passions of nations are to 
be appeased ; that men, as ^ as 
their nature will admit, are to be 
converted from butchers of their 
kind, into a band of friends and 
brothers. It is thb consideratioOf 
Sir, which, by the common coo* 
sent of mankind, has sukrounded 
with sanctity the ofikial character 
•of ambassadors. It is this which 
has enlarged their independency 
to such an immeasurable extent. 
It ia this which has loosed them 
from ail the customary ties which 
bind together the social compact 
of common rights and common 

But immunities of a nature so 
extraordinary cannot, from the 
nature of mankind, be frequentlf 
conferred, without becoming lu^ 
hie to frequent abuse* As ambavr 
sadors are still beings subject to 
the passions, the vices, and infirm^ 
ities,<^ man, "however exempted 
from the danger of punishment^ 
they are not exempt from the com* 
mission of crimes. Besides their 
participation in the imperfectiona 
of humanity, they have temptar 
tions and opportunities peculiar to 
themselves, to transgressions of a 
very dangerous description, and a 
very aggravated character. While 
the functions of their office place \x\ 
their hands the management of 
those great controversies, upoii 
which whole nations are wont to 
stako their existence, while their 
•situations afford them the niean^ 
and stimulate them to the employt 
ment of the base Init powerful 
weapons of fiiction, of corrupdoi^ 
and of treachery, their very privi% 
leges and iminun^4^ poncur xx\ 

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Ifll. ADAkS^ sreiXH 099 TRE BILL 

^sailing their integrity, by the 
|>Fomise of security even in case 
of defeat ; of impunity even after 

The experience .of all ages and 
^f every nation has therefore point- 
<cd to the necessity of erecting 
«ome barrier against the abuse of 
lof those immunities and privileges) 
Kith which foreign ministers have 
at all times, and every where, been 
indulged. In some aggravalcd in- 
stances the rulers of the state, 
where the crime was committed, 
have boldly broken down the wall 
of privilege under which the guil- 
ty stranger would fain have shel«- 
tered himself, and in defiance of 
4the laws of nations have delivered 
up the criminal to the tribunals of 
the country, for trial, sentence and 
execution. At other times the 
popular indignation, by a process 
still more irregular, has without 
the forms of law, wreaked its ven- 
geance upon the perpetrators of 
those crimes, which otherwise 
•must have remained unwhipp'd of 
•justice. Cases have sometimes 
cccurred, whea the principles of 
«clf preservation ukI defence have 
justified the injuved government, 
^endangered in its vital parts, in 
arresting the person of such a 
minister during the crisis of dan- 
ger, and confining him under 
guard until he could with safety be 
removed : but the praaice which 
the reason of the case and the 
usage of nations has prescribed and 
recognized, is, according to the ag- 
gravation of the offence, to order 
the criminal to depart from the 
territories, whose laws h% has vio- 
lated, or to send him home, some- 
times under custody, to his sover- 
eign, demancting of him that jus- 
tice, reparation and punishment, 
which tlie nature of the case re- 
quires, and which he alone is en- 
4t)pd tp dispense. Tliis power is 

admitted by the concurr^t test 
mony of all the writers on the 
laws of nations, and has the sancr 
tion of practice equally universal. 
It results indeed as a consequence 
absolutely necessary from the iiir 
dependence of foreign ministers 
on the judicial authority, and is 
perfectly reconcileabje wjth it. 
As respects the offended natioD,k 
is a measure of sclfrdefence, juslir 
iied by the acknowledged dcsUttt- 
tjon of every oth^r remedy. A» 
respects the offending minister, it 
is the only me^^ of remitting hini 
£oT trial and punishment to the tri- 
bunals whose jurisdiction he canr 
npt recuse ; and as respects hi» 
sovereign, it preserves inviolate 
his rights, apd pt the samcum« 
manifests that confidence in his 
jus^Cf which drilized nations, 
living in an>ity, are bound to place 
in each other.* 

• It ieemt it may be laid on tbii fub- 
ie<£l that there is no cafi, in which ll^f 
ordinary tribunals can extend their ju- 
rifdi(5Hon over publick minifVers; ani 
this with the more confidente, as I find it 
«t the opinion of Gioiiui. This i« inco» 
telbble with regard txi copunoo oiFcocw ; 
pud as for crimes of fUtc, wherein tlif 
ambafTador yiolatcs the law of nations, 
particularly if he attempt the life of the 
prince to whom he is fent, the fovereigi 
alone, or the council of fbte in hit be* 
half, can tak^ cognisance of it, can arreft 
^he traitor in his bo^fc, and after: 
wards fend him with the proofs to the 
prince his ma(ler for punifliment /f'/f"^ 
fir^i Amhtjad»r, ^ml 1, $. 29. 
. Princes fomedmes oblige minifters to 
depart from their dominions, and fend 
iheniaW^yiiQI^^^.'^^i^defport. QoteB 
Elizabeth cj^ufedDqn Bernardin deMeo* 
i]oz^,an^b»iIador of Spi^n, and the biihof 
pf Roff, an)baflador from the queen of 
^Scots, to be fliipppd oE Louis 2 4th of 
^^s^lce fent under guard to the frontieri 
of Savoy a nuncio from the pope. Tb^ 
lung of Portugal difmifled In like manr 
Xier a minifter from the pope, in 1646. 
And in 1659, under cardinial Mazarii^ 
the relident ffpm theele<aorof Brandecr 
{>urg ^as ordered to quit the jdiig4<'°t i 

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CO]»CEilltl«r6 FOREIGN MINf^TER^^; 


' On these principles, thus equit- 
Mc add moderate in themselves, 
and thus universally established, is 
founded every provision of the bill 
i)efbre y6u, so far as it inoplicates 
the law of nations. I harve been 
fiilly aware that, although by the 
constitution of the Unites States 
congress are authorized to define 
and punish offences against the 
few of nations, yet this did not im- 
ply a power to innovate upon those 
htws. I could not be ignorant that 
the legislature of one individual, 
in the great community of nations 
has no right to prescribe rules of 
conduct which can be binding up- 
on all, and therefore in the provis- 
ions of this bill, it was my prima- 
ry object not to deviate one step 
horn the worn and beaten patl\; 
not to vary one jot or one tittle from 
the prescriptions of immemorial 
ttsage, and unqiiestioned authority. 
In consulting for this purpose 
the writers, characterized by one 
df our cywn statesmen, in a pamph-' 
let recently laid on our tables, as 
^ the lumiharies and oracles to 
whom the appeal is generally 

and afterwaritf put ioCo tire baftile; 
whence he was taken, feot to Calais in 
cuftody, and there embarked. In 1667, 
the qneen regent of Spain ord!ered the 
irchbiihop of Embrun, ambaiTador of 
Spain, to withdraw ; and would not fuf- 
fbr him to wait in Madrid for the letten 
which he ezpe<5Ud to receive by the 
ird courier. All he could obtain was 
to ftop at Alcala until their arrival ; and 
there he received thert. WUpufart^ I .S«sa 
An etnlNdrador ought to be indepen- 
dent of every power, except that by 
which he is lent : and of confequcnce 
ought not to be fubjetft to the mere mu- 
nicipal laws of that nation, wherein he is 
ix> exercife his futidlions. If he grofsiy 
iffends, or makes an ill ufe of his cha* 
rm^^, he may be fent home and accufed 
before his mafter ; who is bound either 
U> do juftice upon him, or avow him- 
£df the accomplice of his crimes. Chrif'- 
Un't BUeiJhme. fV. 1. f. ^Sti^-^te atfi 

ihade by nations who prefer an ap" 
peal to /at», rather than to power,'*' 
I found that they distinguished tho 
offences which may be comtnittedf 
by foreign ministers into two 
kinds, * the one against the mu*^ 
Hicipal laws of the Country, where 
they reside ; ahd the other ag^ainst 
the government or state, to which 
they are accredited ; and that they 
recoinnnfendcd a correspondent 
modification of the manner inf 
which they are to be-treated by the 
offended sovereign. The first 
section of the bill therefore directs 
the nk>de of ti'eatment towards 
forcij^n ministers^ guilty of Atfinott* 
offences against the municipal 
larwi : for 119 to those minor tran^^ 
gressions, which are uatally left 
unnoticed by other states, I have 
thought no provision necessary for 
them. The section points out 
the mode by which Ike insulted 
state or injured individual may ap- 
ply to the chief magistrate of the 
Union for redress, and by what 
process the president nvay obtain 
reparation from the offender's sov- 
ereign, or, in case of refusal, dis- 
miss the offender from the terri- 
tories of the United States.f 

* Suppofe an ambaffador guihy of ;» 
orime, deferving punilhment in a courfe- 
of ju(Hce ; ;where then is he to be ac- 
cufed and puniflied ? 

In this quedion we muft diflinguiih 
between two (brts of crimes, of which an 
ambaffador may have been guilty. Eith- 
er he has fimply committed an ofience,. 
injurious to civil fociety and the publick. 
tvanquillity, fuch as homicide, adulter]!;^ 
or alinoft any other of the comrnmi trimerp 
as they may be termed ; or he has tcanit 
greifed agamft the perfon of the fover- 
eign,ov againft the (late» which is ufiiall]^ 
cailtd Ueajim or h^hiity. BymherJhMk. JDls 
fof Ltgat§rum^ tuith Barhtyrmcs f^mmtntatry^ 
thap. 17, $.6. 

f Should an ambaffador forget the du- 
ties of his dation, (honld he render him- 
felf difagreeable and dangerousj fhrnx 
cabals and enterprises, permcioas tM tho 

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The stcoad section provides for 
the case of offences ag^st th« 
government or the nation. If the 
faisult is direct upon the president 
of the United States himself, it 
authorises him at once to discard 
the offender ; if the injury be a- 
gainst the nation by any conspira- 
cyi or other act of hosdlity, it of- 
fers the means of removing at 
once so dangerous a disturber of 
the pubiick tranquillity. This al« 
so yfiW be found exactly conform* 
able to the directions in Vattel.* 

tranquillity of the citisent, the (bte, or 
priace, to whom he is feat, there are fev- 
tral wavs of corre^ag him, proportion* 
ace to the nature and degree of hit fault. 
If he maltreats the fubjectt of the (late» 
if he commits any a& of iniuftice or 
▼ioleoce towards toem, the fubje^ inju-> 
red are not to feek redref<i from the com- 
mon magi(h-acy, the ambaflador being 
Independent of their jurifdidlion ; con- 
feqoently thofe magiftrates cannot pro- 
ceed directly againflt htm. On fuch oc- 
caliont the lovereign is to be applied to ; 
be demands juftice from the amoaiTador^s 
mader, aod» in cafe of a refutal, may or- 
der the infolent mintf^er to quit his do- 
■linioas. ymUd. JWI 4, ei, 7, $. 94. 

* Should a foreign minifter offend the 
prince himfelf, be wanting in refpe(5t to 
him, and by his intrigues raife difhirb- 
ancet in the ftate and court, the injured 
prince, from a particular regard to the 
Ainider's mader, fometimes requires that 
1m ihould be recalled ; or if the fault be 
more heinousithe prince forbids him the 
court, till he receive* an anfwer from hit 
mailtr $ but in important cafes he pro- 
ieeds fo far as to order him to quit hit 
dominions. Every fovereign has an un- 
^eftionable right to proceed in thie 
aianner ; for, Ixing mader in his own 
dominions, no foreigner can (lay at hit 
coon or in his dominions without hit 
permifBon. And though fovereigns are 
generally obliged to hear the overtures 
Of foreign powers, and to admit their 
mtoiften,this obligation ceaies entirely 
with regard to a minider who, being 
bimfelf wanting in the duties incumbent 
qa him from his character, becomes dan- 
gerous or juftly fufpeded by him to 
whom be is to coneonly as a minider of 
Bcacf, feltot Aal4,«*.7,$.e5,96. 

The third section brings me to 
the consideration of the relation 
which tlie.biii bears to the cotftU 
tution of tlie United States. It 
contains a regulation, the object of 
which is at once to prevent all 
misunderstanding by the offending 
minister's sovereign of the grounds 
upon which he should be ordered 
to depart or sent home ; and to 
mark by a strong line of discrimi- 
nation the cases when a fortigo 
minister is dismissed for miscon- 
duct, from those when he is expn:!- 
led on account of national differ- 
ences. In this latter case, by the 
general understanding and usage 
of nations, an order to depart, giv- 
en to a foreign minister, is equiva- 
lent to a declaration oJF war. In 
the European governments, where 
the power of declaring war, and 
that of negpciating with foreign 
states, are committed to the same 
hands, this nice discrimination of 
the Apecihck reasons for wLicli « 
minister may be disniissed, is &r 
less important than with us. The 
power of declaring war is with us 
exclusively vested in congress ; 
and as the order to depart, when 
founded on national disputes* a- 
mounts to such a declaration, it ap* 
peai-s to me by fair inference, tfiat 
for such cause the president of the 
United States cannot issue such aa 
order without the express request 
or concurrence of congress to that 
effect. It was from this view of 
the subject that in the present bill» 
the power vested in the president 
to send home a culpable minister 
is so precisely limited to the cases 
when the minister shall have de- 
served that treatment by his per- 
sonal misconduct. This distinc* 
tion between the cau*eB for which 
a foreign minister may be sent 
home has been solemnly recogniz-* 
ed) in a remarkable manner, by this 
government in Uie treaty^ wkii &» 

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Britain of 19. Nov. 1794, in the 
26th article.t 

Here, Sir, the ^fskding home a 
minister for national causes is re' 
cognized to be the very test of a 
rupture, and exactly tantamount to 
a declaration of war. But tKe 
same act, done for the minister's 
personal misconduct, is ackno>yU 
edged to be a right of both parties, 
which they agree to retain ; and 
h is stipulated that it shall not in 
that case be deemed equivalent to 
a rupture. The expressions used 
imply that the parties did not con- 
sider themselves as intro4ucing in 
this part of the article a new law, 
but as explaining the old. It is 
merely declaratory, « for' greater 
certainty," and tlie previous ex* 
istence of the right is recognized 
by the stipulation that both par- 
ties shall rttain it. This is one of 
the articles of the treaty which 
have expired. But, as expressing 
the sense both of our own nation, 
and of Great Britain upon the sub- 
ject to which it relates, it is as ef- 
fectual as it ever could be. Its 
provisions are still binduig upon 
both parties, as part of the law of 
nations, tho' they have ceased to be 
obligatory as positive stipulations. 

This view of the subject will al* 
so fumbh me with an answer to 
the question which has more than 

f ..^od for grtater certatnty, it h d<?- 
cUrfidf that a rupture ihill not l>e deem- 
ed CO exift, while uegodaiionf for ac* 
commodating ditferences (hall be depend- 
ing, nor until the rcrpe(5live ambaUadors 
Dr miniders, if fuch there (hall bc» fl\all 
be recalled, or fent homt! on account of 
fuch di^rences, and not on accoiuit of 
periboal inifcondu<5^ according to the 
nature and degrees of which, both par- 
ties retain their riglits either to rcquefl 
the recal, or immediately to fend home 
the ambaflador or tnitrifter of the other : 
and that without prejudice to their mu- 
fu^ friendflup and good underilandlng. 
Trsaty ^Ub G^riUia, 19 NviK 1 794^ art.JLH^ 

Vol. HI. No. 5." :: L 

once been put to me, and which 
may perhaps be repeated here. It 
has been asked, whether the first 
and second sections of the bill are 
not superfluous ? whether the ca- 
ses are not already provided for^ 
and whether the president does 
not, beyond all question, possess 
the power which they purpose to 
vest in him ? 

That the power Is beyond all 
question vested in him, is^ Sir» 
more than I can take upon me to 
say. Had I thought it beyond all 
question, I certainly should not 
have brought forward the bill in4ts 
present shape. And I will in can- 
dour add, that if, after a due con- 
sideration of the subject, the senate 
should be of opinion, that the pow- 
er is vested in him beyond all ques- 
tion, they will of course either re- 
ject the bill, or reduce it to a mere 
modiBcation of the manner iu 
which he shall exercise the right, 
whenever he shall deem it expe- 

By the constitution of the Uni- 
ted States, the executive power 
generally is vested in the president, 
and he is expressly authoiized and 
directed to '* receive ambassadors 
and other publick ministers.*' Now 
Sir, by the general grant of tlie 
executive power, according to the 
writers who have scrutinized and 
diacriininatcd with the nicest ac- 
curacy the powers of government, 
the power of declaring war would 
of course be included. Such is the 
opinion not only of Montesquieu, 
but of Kousneau, the most repub- 
lican of writers on laws and con- 
sUtuiions. The piacllcc of all the 
govenaneots iu Europe which ev- 
er recognized the division of pow- 
ers is conformable to this theory. 
But our coiisiitaiion has cr.pressly 
made the declaration of war a le- 
giilativc yet, and, by fair inference, 
whatever is by the custom of na- 

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tions eqnivalcnt to a declaration of 
war we are bound to consider as a 
legislative act also. Thus then, 
although the president is invested 
•with the executive power, and al- 
though he is to receive foreign 
ministers, yet, not having the power 
to declare war, he cannot possess 
ihat of ordering away a foreign 
minister for causes of national dif- 
ference, because that is a virtual 
declaratkin of war. He is atitho- 
rizw'd to receive foreign ministers, 
and by tHis gratu of power he must 
be authorized to determine when, 
how, and whom he will receive as. 
such. He roust be conskiered as 
possessing the power to determine 
upon all those cases when a man, 
coming as an accredited minister, 
may by the laws of nations be de- 
nied a reception ; and be must al- 
so be allowed to determine when he 
will cease to receive a man in that 
capacity, after he has been admit- 
ted. This includes, as it appears 
to me, the right to request his re- 
cal, and even to intimate the Wish 
to a foreign minister that he would 
depart. But whether it also in- 
cludes the power positively to or- 
der his departure, and still more, 
to send him home by constraint, is 
not in my mind absolutely beyond 
a doubt. Ceasing' to receive him 
Qs a publick minister, is not order- 
ing him away ; much less is it 
sending him home. It is clear 
the constitution did not intend the 
{Mresident should have the power to 
•end home a foreign minister in 
some cases ; it has not, hi express 
terms, given him the power in any 
case. Whether he has it by im- 
plication, in the case of a minister's 
misconducti seems to me not abso- 
lutely beyond a doubt, and I be- 
lieve the very doubt in a point of 
this magnitude would operate to 
prevent its exercise in a case of 
the utmost need. That doubt it 

was my purpose by this bill to 
remove. To remove it, if it exists, 
is unqnestionably within the power 
of congress, and the occasion calls 
loudly for their interposition. The 
doubt appears the more rational 
from the fact that the power has 
never been exercised. The revo- 
cations of exequaturs of two foreign 
consuls by president Washington 
have been mentioned as cases in 
pointy but are not applicable : for, 
in the first place, consuls are not« 
entitled to the privileges or im- 
munities of foreign ministers ; and 
in the n«xt, the revocation of an 
exequatur is barely equivalent by- 
analogy to tlie cetBatinn to receive 
a minister. It neither sends the 
man away, nor even orders him to 

But it has been the fortune of 
this bill to be attacked from quar- 
ters hi direct opposition to each 
other ; and while, on the one hand, 
it has been censured as vesting in 
the president a power which be- 
yond all question he possesses al- 
ready ; on the other it has been 
blantcd as putting in hb hands 
a power which beyond all ques- 
tion he has not, and which the con- 
stitution never intended he should 
have. This construction of our 
constitution has been lairf down, 
• Sir, for our edification and im- 
provement, by a foreign minister, 
in his correspondence with onr 
secretary of state, which I speak 
of as a matter of publick notorietyr 
because it has been published in 
all our newspapers, and remains 
uncontradicted. I must however 
observe, that at the time when this 
bill was introduced I had never 
seen, and had 110 knowledge of this 
learned Spanish commentary upon 
the constitutbn of the United 

I had not imagined that the 
true intent and meaning of our 

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our great national compact was to 
oe settled by a foreign minister ; 
neither did it enter my heart to 
conceive that the government of 
the United States was to receive 
lessons from a Spaniard upon the 
extent of its constitutional powers. 
Yet, Sir, so it is. The Spanish 
minister has first chosen to con- 
strue into an order, what he was 
expressly told was not an or- 
<ier ; and next to tell the secretary 
of state tliat this order is contrary 
to the spirit of the confttitution and 
government of this country. I find 
however that there are even A- 
vnerican citizens, who think, with 
this diplomatick expounder of our 
Jaws, that the president in no case 
has the power to order a foreign 
minister to depart fi*om our terri- 
tories. I have myself always in- 
clined to the opinion, that, for these 
cases of personal misconduct, the 
power of removal was given by the 
spirit of the constitution, though 
Hot perhaps by its letter. That 
he ought to possess it, is not in my 
mind a subject of doubt at all ; for 
considering the nature of a foreign 
minister's privileges, and the dan- 
ger and urgency of the cases 
wherein men invested witli that 
character most frequently abuse 
them, to deny the president the 
exercise of the only means which 
can control them, is to deny 
the nation itself the means of 
self defence at the most perilous 
extremities. It may be asked 
whether this argument would not 
apply, with equal force, to the ca- 
ses in which I deny the president's 
power to expel a foreign minis- 
ter, and in which the bill does 
not propose to give it. To this, I 
answer, No. In every possible 
c^e, when a publick minister could 
be ordered home on account of na- 
tional differences, congress must 
be in sessioBi or must be sum- 

moned for the pui-pose. , Such a 
state of things cannot suddenly 
arise. It is a measure never to be 
resorted to, unless with the settled 
<letenni nation of war ; and its ex- 
ercise never can be necessary for 
the president to tSc execution of 
his constitutional powers. 

But the personal misconduct of 
a minister may happen at any 
time, when congress is not in ses- 
sion as probably as when it is. It 
would certainly happen more fre- i 
qucntJy in the former case than in 
the latter, if during the recess no 
power of restraint upon him 
could be used. These are offen- 
ces, the detection of which would 
often be accidental, sudden, unex- 
pected ; calling for the instantane- 
ous interposition of a vigorous 
arm to rescue the country from 
its danger. Suppose a conspiracy 
Tike that of Tarquin's ambassa- 
dors, or that of Catiline at Rome, 
like that of Bedmar at Vetiice, 
like that of Cellamare in France : 
To say that the president ^ould 
have no weapon of defence with- 
in hb reach, until congress should 
be assembled, would give the con- 
spiring minister the power to ex- 
ecute at full leisure such orders 
as Cellamare received from Car- 
dinal Alberoni, and enable himi 
before his hand could be arrested, 
to 9et fire to all the mme$. It is 
therefore as clear to me, that the 
president ought to possess the 
power of expulsion for personal of- 
fences, as that he oufht not to 
possess the same power for causes 
of national controversy. And if 
the constitution by its silence has 
left it questionable, it seems to me 
incumbent upon congress to re- 
move every shadow of doubt from 
the case. \^ . 

Among the pther objections 
which I have heard ailedged a- 
gainst any legislattve^tct upon this 

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subject^ I shall now notice that 
which I consider as of the least 
real weight ; and that is, that oth- 
er nations have not made it a sub- 
ject of legislation. But other na- 
tions have mu t» the exemption of 
foreign ministei*s from their civil 
jurisdiction a subject of legisla- 
tion, as appears in Martens.* And 
witli respect to the criminal jurisr 
dictions in cases of common 
wmes> it is remarkable that Ihp 
same Martens says the English, 
Jbr the ivant qfan exfirtss law upr 
on the subject, havp departed from 
the usages of all other nations in 
this partipular, and made foreijrn 
ministers amenable tp their crimir 
pal jurisdiction .f Now, Sir, if the 
English nation are th]4s charged 
with a deviation from the practice 
of all other civilized nations, be- 
cause they have not m^de ap ex- 
press law for acceding to it, surely 
no exception ca|i be tal^en against 
us for making precisely such a 
|aw ai| England is said to want. 

• The exemption of foreign Tniniflen 
from the junfdidHon of the ftate is reg- 
ulated in Hollsmd by the ordinances of 
the States General, of U Auguft, 1676, 
♦nd 9 Sept. 1679; and of the State* of 
fJolland of 8 Aug. 1659, SO July and 
J * Aug. 1 $61, Sec the •• Groot PUcaaj 
Boek" under date of thcfe years. In 
England, hy a<ft of parliament, 10 Ann, 
cb. 7. In Portugal, by ordinance of 1 748. 
Msrfttu* Summary, A, vii. fh. 5, §. 3, «. b. 

f In the praaice of the European nat 
lions we ^md, that in cafes o^ fnvatt 
•nmn epv[^i%%d by arainifttir, it is tbo't 
commool^ lufficicnt to demand his rccal. 
Though in T-ngland the want of an tx- 
prcf* law feems to leave minifters Wirh- 
out ihelter IH>m a crimmiil profecution. 
>ti thdcafSrof (Vace crimes, it is thought 
Jufficie« to feisfk his peribn, while the 
f#lety of the (l^tf ijji in danger, r^jlcafing 
and fending him home afterwards ; even 
this extreniity is not commonly reforterf 
f6, if the danger is lefs Imminent, and if 
It will admit the ezpedicfBt of fending 
^^^7 tlie ipifiifleri P» demanding his re- 
CM« MkrUttf* £Mi. k vii. c. 5, 5. 1 b% If, ^ 

This law, therefore, instead of a 
mark of singularity, must be re- 
garded as a lest of conformity. 
Instead of throwing us into a cor- 
ner with the solitary exception, it 
introduces us into the general cir- 
cle of nations. It is not in sullen 
derogation, but in explicit affirm- 
ance of the general usage. It is 
no variation of our political com- 
pass ; it is only the steady point* 
ing of our needle to tlie real pole. 
But a still more concjusive an- 
swer to this objection is, thtit oth- 
er nations have made no law upon 
this subject, because, conformably 
to their constitutions, the act of 
sending hoqie a foreign minister 
. is in all cqse€ a?i executix^e net ; and 
of course an act i-equiiing no le- 
gislative interposition. J have al- 
ready shewn. Sir, that by our con- 
stitution, it nmst in some cases, be 
considered as a legislative act j 
and hepcc arises a reason peculiar 
to ourselves fpr regulating the 
yhole subject by legislative sane* 
tion : reserving ^o congress the 
power to exercise it when it be- 
comes equivalent tp a declaration 
of war, and leaving it in the hands 
of the president when it is upon 
oyr own prjnciplts an act purely 

These, Sir, ^^^ the condderc- 
tjons deduced fropi the laws of na* 
tipns find from our own consdlu- 
tion, upon which the bill was pre- 
sented to the senyite in its oiiginal 
shape ; the amendment reported 
by order pf the roniniittee is en- 
tirely in tlie spi]il of the bill, aijd 
only bpe^ifies the precise mode In 
which the order for the removal of 
a criminal foreign minister shall 
be executed* This section piay 
perhaps be deemed expedient even 
ifit should be conclud<;cJ that the 
abstract power is unquestionably 
vested in the president. For even 
if he has the'pow^r without th« 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



legalized oi^ans of carrying it into 
effect, as to all purposes of publick 
benefit, the case is the same as if 
he had it not. It is^ 6n this sup- 
position, one bf those authorities 
which require an organic k law to 
render it practical. Nor is this 
the only instance in which the con^ 
stitution has left it in the discretion 
of congress to prescribe the man* 
ner of carrying its injunctions into 
effect. The very first law in your 
statute bopk is an example of the 
same description. The constitu- 
tion had enjoined that all civil offi- 
cers of the United States, and of 
the stiveral states, should be sworn 
to its support, but had not particu- 
larized the manner of administer- 
ing the oath ; and the first act of 
the first congress under our presr 
ent ^rohstltation was to provide the 
necessary regulation. 

It may now perhaps be expect- 
ed, Sir, that I should give some 
explanation of the more immedi- 
ate circumstances in which the 
bill originated. And here, I am 
Sensible that I tread upon delicate 
ground. So highly honourable 
and respectable is the office of a 
foreign minist