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Full text of "Monthly bulletin of the Bureau of the American Republics ..., Volume 2"

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF TEXAS 



'..-.. ..i 



I ■.■;-i 



69S0.« P191 V.2 1894/95 NO. 2-12 
LAC 




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unit: 

Frequent application is made to the Bureau tor the address 
of United States Consuls in the South and Central American 
Republics. Those desiring to correspond with any consul clkn 
do so by addressing "The United States Consulate** at the 
point named. Letters thus addressed will be delivered to 
the proper person. It must be understood, however, that it 
is not the duty of consuls to devote their time to private 
business, and that all such letters may properly be treated 
as personal and any labor involved may be subject to charge 
therefor. 

The following is a list of United States Consulates in the 
different Republics: 



Argentine Republic — 

Buenos Aires. 

Cordoba. 

Rosario. 
Bolivia — 

La Paz. 
Brazil — 

Bahia. 

Para. 

Pernambuco. 

Rio Grande do Sul. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

Santos, 
r «fii[iLE— 

^^ Antofagasta. 

r^^^C Coquimbo. 
'^^ Iquique. 
^ Talcahuano. 
Valparaiso. 



Colombia — 

Barranquilla. 

Bogota. 

Cartagena. 

Colon (Aspinwall). 

Medillin. 

Panama. 
Costa Rica— 

San Jos6. 
Dominican Republic- 

Puerto Plata. 

Samana. 

Santo Domingo. 
Ecuador — 

Guayaquil. 
Guatemala — 

Guatemala. 
Haiti — 

Cape Haitien. 

Port au Prince. 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Honduras — 

Ruatan. 

Tegucigalpa. 
Mexico — 

Acapulco. 

Chihuahua. 

Durango. 
"^ Ensenada. 

Guaymas. 

La Paz. 

Matamoras. 

Mazatlan. 

Merida. 

Mexico. 

Nogales. 

Nuevo Laredo. 

Paso del Norte. 

Piedras Negras. 

Saltillo. 

Tampico. 



Mexico — Continued, 

Tuxpau. 

Vera Cruz. 
Nicaragua — 

Managua. 

San Juan del Norte. 
Paraguay — 

Asuncion. 
Peru— 

Callao. 
Salvador — 

San Salvador. 
Uruguay — 

Colonia. 

Montevideo. 

Paysandu. 
Venezuela— 

La Guayra. 

Maracaibo. 

Puerto Cabello. 



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i 



CALL NO. 

G9ao.6 

P191 
oop.l 



TO BIND PREP. 

DATE 3Jan»A6 



AUTHOR AND TITLE 

Pan American ur 
• • • Bulletii 



C ATA LOG U ER ^J . ^ 
RETURN BOOK TO 1 



STUB FOF 



SPECIAl 



CATALOGUE DEPT. E 

in a more general 
savings the unnec 
persons who appa 
tions applied for 
intention of emb 
extending busine 
afford the slight 
cost price of the I 
The result of tli 
hopes ijeith which 
rare to be noted, 1 
with the cordial 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Honduras — 

Ruatan. 

Tegucigalpa. 
Mexico — 

Acapulco. 

Chihuahua. 

Durango. 
"^ Ensenada. 

Guaymas. 

La Paz. 

Matamoras. 

Mazatlan. 

Merida. 

Mexico. 

Nogales. 

Nuevo Laredo. 

Paso del Norte. 

Piedras Negras. 

Saltillo. 

Tampico. 



Mexico — Continued, 

Tuxpau. 

Vera Cruz. 
Nicaragua — 

Managua. 

San Juan del Norte. 
Paraguay — 

Asuncion. 
Peru— 

Callao. 
Salvador — 

San Salvador. 
Uruguay — 

Colonia. 

Montevideo. 

Paysandu. 
Venezuela — 

La Guayra. 

Maracaibo. 

Puerto Cabello. 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Department of State, 

Washington, U. S. A., 1894. 

It is impossible to comply with requests for the free 
distribution of the publicatious of this Bureau. The de- 
mand for Handbooks and Bulletins has increased so rapidly 
as to njake compliance impossible, because of the limited 
editions published. The lists of applicants desiring to be 
supplied with every Handbook and Bulletin issued by 
the Bureau largely exceed any edition published, and these 
lists would be constantly increased if the requests received 
daily at the Bureau were acceded to. Yet, it is well under- 
stood that many requests are received from persons having 
good reasons for desiring the information asked for, and both 
willing and able to pay the slight cost of these documents. 
Recognizing these facts, the Bureau some months ago issued 
a circular announcing that thereafter the publications of the 
Bureau would be sold to all applicants at a small price. This 
was done with a view of extending rather than limiting the 
circulation of the information published by the Bureau, and 
at the same time securing the utmost impartiality in such 
distribution. It was believed that this course would result 
in a more general circulation of the information secured in 
saving the unnecessary labor of replying to requests from 
persons who apparently had no special interest in the publica- 
tions applied for, and that all who had a well-grounded 
intention of embarking in business in foreign countries, or 
extending business already established, would be able to 
afford the slight expense involved in the payment of the 
cost price of the Bureau documents. 

The result of this experiment has more than justified the 
hopes with which it was undertaken. With exceptions too 
rare to be noted, the plan embraced in the circular has met 
with the cordial approbation of the business men of the 



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J*^ 



PRICE LIST OP PUBLICATIONS. 

country, and if the progress made thus far in extending the 
circulation of these publications shall be continued it will be 
possible to largely increase the numbers of each edition of 
future publications. 

Many of the earlier Bulletins have been included in more 
recent publications. This applies especially to the tariflFs, Com- 
mercial directories and newspaper directories of the diflFerent 
Republics. 

Suggestions from manufacturers and dealers as to their spe- 
cial needs of information will receive prompt attention by the 
Bureau. 

The following list embraces a catalogue of the Bulletins and 
Handbooks published since the organization of the Bureau, 
of which copies may be secured by remitting to the under- 
signed the price named in inclosed list. 

PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU 
OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Cents. 

3. Patent and Trade-mark Laws of America 5 

4. Money, Weights and Measures of the American Republics 5 

6. Foreign Commerce of the American Republics 20 

8. Import Duties of Brazil 10 

10. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto Rico 15 

11. Import Duties of Costa Rica 10 

13. Commercial Directory of Brazil 5 

14. Commercial Directory of Venezuela 5 

15. Commercial Directory of Colombia 5 

16. Commercial Directory of Peru....? 5 

17. Commercial Directory of Chile 5 

18. Commercial Directory of Mexico 15 

19. Commercial Directory of Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Uru- 

fifuay 5 

30. Import Duties of Nicaragua 10 

21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised) 15 

32. Import Duties of Bolivia 20 

23. Import Duties of Salvador 5 

24. Import Duties of Honduras 10 

25. Import Duties of Ecuador 5 

26. Commercial Directory of the Argentine Republic 5 

27. Import Duties of Colombia 5 

28. Commercial Directory of Central America 10 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

Cents. 

39. Commercial Directory of Haiti and Santo Domingo 5 

30. First Annual Report of the Bureau, 1891 10 

33. Handbook of Guatemala « 35 

33. Handbook of Colombia. ..„ 30 

34. Handbook of Venezuela 35 

36. Import Duties of Venezuela , 5 

38. Commercial Directory of Cuba and Puerto Rico 10 

39. Commercial Directory of British, Danish, Dutch and French 

colonies 10 

42. Newspaper Directory of Latm America 5 

43. Import Duties of Guatemala 25 

44. Import Duties of the United States 5 

45. Import Duties of Peru 25 

46. Import Duties of Chile , 25 

47. Import Duties of Uruguay 25 

48. Import duties of the Argentine Republic 25 

49. Import Duties of Haiti 10 

50. ELandbook of the American Republics, No. 3 50 

51. Handbook of Nicaragua 50 

52. Handbook of Santo Domingo 50 

53. Immigration and Ifand Laws of Latin America 40 

55. Handbook of Bolivia 40 

61. Handbook of Uruguay y, 50 

62. Handbook of Haiti 50 

63 How the Markets of Latin America May Be Reached 40 

67. Handbook of the Argentine Republic 50 

68. April Special Bulletin, Costa Rica 25 

69. Handbook of Ecuador .- 50 

PUBLICATIONS NOT NUMB8RBD. 

Commercial Directory of Latin America 40 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau, 1892 5 

Third Annual Report of the Bureau, 1893 15 

Manual de las Republicas Americanas, 1891 (Spanish edition of 

Hand-book No. i) 50 

International American Conference Reports and Recommenda- 
tions, including Reports upon the Plan of Arbitration, Reci- 
procity Treaties, Inter-Continental Railway, Steamship Com- 
munication, Sanitary Regulations, Customs Regulations, 
Common Silver Coin, Patents and Trade-Marks, Weights 
and Measures, Port Dues, International Law, Extradition 
Treaties, International Bank, Memorial Tablet, Columbian 
Exposition — 

Octavo, bound in paper $0 50 

Octavo, bound in half Morocco i 50 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

Cents. 

Monthly Bulletins, $i per annum; single copies lo 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, first volume, 852 pages, bound 
in cloth, contains upwards of 24,000 commercial terms in 
English, Spanish and Portuguese 3 00 

Money may be sent by postofl&ce money order, payable 
to the Director of the Bureau of the American Republics. 
All other remittances are at the risk of the sender. Postage 
stamps will not be received, 

CLINTON FURBISH, 

Director. 

These publications may be purchased from Rand, McNally 
& Co., Chicago and New York. 



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lARl 



The Monthly Bulletin 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



July, 1894. 

Chapter I, 
AMERICAN LIVE STOCK. 

(English and Spanish.) 



THE HORSE. 



HINTS ON SELECTION, CARE, AND MANAGEMENT. 

In selecting ahorse, more actual knowledge is needed than 
can be secured from books alone. The accurate judge of 
horseflesh is one who has made the subject a practical^ 
continued study for years, and who has at command not only 
the close knowledge gained by experience, but a good under- 
standing, as well, of the principles which underlie force and 
action, applied in the movements of the horse. For an ex- 
haustive discussion of this subject, the reader is referred to 
anyone of the special works on the horse — especially such 
books as "Sanders' Horse Breeding" and **Helm*s American 
Roadsters and Trotting Horses.'' We can only undertake to 
give a few of the more prominent points, which may possi- 
bly aid somewhat in forming an intelligent judgment. 

First. For draft, a horse must have weight; he may have 
fine action also, but the weight he must have, if capable of 
long pulls before heavy loads. The shoulders should be 
upright and heavy below, in order that strain on the traces 



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2 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

may be met by collar resistance at such an angle as will 
utilize all of the force exerted. The draft horse should 
stand fairly high in front (rather prominent withers), and 
must have a chest of ample width to permit free expansion 
of lungs when under any temporary strain. The legs are 
best short, and should never exhibit that smooth, puflfy 
appearance which always indicates a tendency to form fat at 
the expense of muscle; the canons should be flat, and the 
joints, especially, hard and firmly bound together. As we 
have stated, fine action is not ab.solutely necessary, but for 
farm use a good, sprightly walk is certainly desirable. Right 
here we may say, that a horse of 1,200 to 1,400 pounds weight 
is about the heaviest that will be found profitable c n the ordi- 
nary farm; the heavier animals will always be in demand for 
a diflferent purpose, and an intelligent judgment will select 
in reference to the purpose for which desired. To be too 
"fiery*' or *'high strung" is an objection; the draft horse 
should be pre-eminently an animal of quiet — yet not slug- 
gish — temperament. A strong, even puller will resist fatigue 
better, and do more service. 

Second. For speed, the shoulders should be slanting, the 
withers medium to low, the loin and rump high, and the hind 
quarters long and furnished with powerful muscles. In the 
race horse, the propelling power comes from the rear, and a 
greater mistake could not be made than to select for running 
a horse at all deficient in these parts, no matter how fully he 
might fill the judgment in other respects. The legs must 
have some length, and here may be added double caution as 
to their quality; not a particle of surplus flesh or fat should 
be apparent, and joints in particular must be closely knit to- 
gether. The English Government has a set of rules for the 
use of those who select horses for cavalry service, and we in- 
sert them here; they are called "Points for Rejection,'* but 
will answer equally well as points for selection: 

"Reject a horse whose forelegs are not straight ; they will 
not stand wear. Stand behind the horse as it walks away 
from you and you will be able to notice these defects, if 
they exist. 



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THE HpRSE. 3 

** Reject a horse that is light below the knee, especially if 
immediately below the knee ; the conformation is essen- 
tially weak. 

** Or a horse with long, or short, or upright pasterns. Long 
pasterns are subject to sprains; short or upright pasterns 
make a horse unpleasant to ride, and, on account of extra 
concussions, are apt to cause ossific deposits. 

** Or a horse with toes turned in or out. The twist gener- 
ally occurs at the fetlock. Toes turned out are more objec- 
tionable than toes turned in. When toes turn out the fet- 
locks are generally turned in, and animals so formed are 
very apt to cut or brush. Both, however, are weak for- 
mations. 

** Reject a horse whose hind legs are too far behind. Good 
propelling power will be wanting, and disease as a result 
may be expected in the hocks. And a horse which goes 
either very wide or very close behind, and one with very 
straight or very bent hocks. The former cause undue con- 
cussion ; the latter are apt to give way. 

"Reject a horse that is 'split-up* — that is, shows much 
daylight between the thighs. Propelling power comes from 
behind, and must be deficient in horses without due muscular 
development between the thighs. 

"Reject a horse with flat or overlarge feet, or with very 
small feet ; medium sized are best. 

'* Also, with one foot smaller than another." 

MANAGEMENT OF BROOD MARES. 

As the breeding season approaches and preparations begin 
to be made for the matings, small breeders, who have one or 
two mares, are constantly in search of information as to the 
proper selection of a sire, as well as the care and management 
of the mare before and after mating. 

The large stock farms are always provided with either a 

competent veterinary or a foreman, who has had experience 

in handling mares at this precarious time, but the small 

breeder is frequently far from competent advice, and, as he 

has only himself to depend upon, must understand fully the 



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4 BUREAU OF THE AMERICA}^ REPUBLICS. 

methods to save his mare and the valuable foal in an emer- 
gency. There are certain things desirable in a mare selected 
for breeding purposes, some of them so strongly to be de- 
sired that they may be considered essential. In the first 
place, the mare must be ot a frame suitable to carry a foal, 
and be of vigorous enough constitution to insure that she 
will be able to sustain the drain upon her system caused by 
the foal during pregnancy and after delivery. Large, roomy 
mares are to be chosen, as they aie more likely to impart 
their size^ to their oflfspring and the foal has more room to 
grow. Mares of great width across the hips, and with the 
back ribs large and deep, are of a conformation peculiarly 
desirable, as their structure, besides allowing plenty of room 
for the growing foal, reduces the risks incident upon parturi- 
tion. She should also be a good feeder, and be furnished 
with an udder which will give sufficient milk, or else the 
foal may show the want of proper nourishment by a lack of 
strength and development. A mare which is noticeably de- 
fective in structure should not be selected for a breeder, and 
it will not pay to waste any time upon her. Her milking 
qualities can only be determined by giving her a trial for a 
season, though an experienced man may frequently make a 
tolerably close guess. 

If a mare is in constant use in harness, it is better to give 
her a few days of pasture before breeding. If this can not 
be readily done, give mashes and let up in her work. The 
fact that a mare comes in season ^hile in use is no reason 
why she should not be turned out previous to breeding, for, 
while she might repeatedly be in season and be served each 
time, she would, in all probability, fail to catch any of the 
services, especially if a mare that had never had a foal. 
Race mares are generally let up entirely while in foal, though 
instances are on record of mares going through an entire 
campaign while nourishing foals; but this is to be condemned, 
and it will be found more profitable in the end to throw them 
out. If the mare is required for service after breeding, be 
very careful that she is not strained in her work. Do not 
give her fast work, and let her take her own time going up 



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THE HORSE. 5 

hills. With care, she can be used to almost the day of foal- 
ing, and I believe the ordinary work is better for her — of 
course, making it very light during the latter part of the 
term. The beneficial effects of exercise upon the mare 
should not be lost sight of. 

When the mare is in foal if she is not intended for work, 
she should be turned out in good pasture. The grasses should 
be nourishing, but not rich and succulent enough to disagree 
with her stomach or make her unwieldy from fat. Stomachic 
derangements are a common cause of miscarriage, and the 
use of too much soft food, producing relaxation of the bowels, 
is the most common complaint. On the other hand, the food 
must be sufficiently nourishing, or the mare will become thin 
and will starve her foal in its growth. Mares that have been 
•fed a great deal of com all their lives will be found to do 
better if given a feed or two daily after they are six months 
in foal, especially if the autumnal grasses are not rich and 
plentiful. Excessive fat should be avoided, as it is a type 
of disease and interferes with the due nutrition of the foal, 
while it induces complications at foaling time, not only inter- 
fering with the process of parturition, but also being liable to 
cause fever. If the mare is kept at work, she should have some 
kind of green food, care being u^ed to avoid anything too 
succulent, as the mare*s organs are liable to become over- 
heated by this kind of food. Any of the grasses or clovers 
fill the requirements very well, and after they are gone, car- 
rots, sliced in a bran mash every night, form an excellent 
food. 

Excitement of any kind is a frequent cause of miscarriage 
or ** slipping,** and everything which tends in that direction 
should be avoided. The smell of blood is said to have a 
very decided tendency to produce abortion; and it is a fact 
that the miscarriage of one mare will aflfect others in the same 
way. If a mare has slipped her foal in a previous pregnancy, 
care should be taken to guard against a repetition of the 
occurrence, as she is more apt to do so again than one that has^ 
heretotore escaped the accident. It occurs most frequently 
about the fourth or fifth month, and extra care should be 



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6 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

given her about this time. She should be isolated from 
other mares and kept quiet; it is better to give her the free- 
dom of a small paddock to herself than to confine her, as she 
may become restless and anxious from want of exercise. 
Purging drugs should not be given, unless absolutely neces- 
sary, and if the bowels are in such a condition that a relax- 
ation is required it can usually be secured by the use of bran 
mashes and a change to more suitable food; but if this fails, 
use should be made of the mildest possible aperient which is 
likely to answer the purpose. It is also advisable to begin 
about four months previous to foaling to give her twice a 
day — night and morning — a half pint of hempseed, and to 
continue this until within a week of foaling. Commencing 
at the same time, add to her feed night and morning one 
ounce of the fluid extract of viburnum prunifolium, ccntinu- • 
ing for two months. It can be obtained at any drug store. 
Good clean wheat is also recommended as a preventive of 
abortion, and many experienced men, if a mare begins to 
strain or show other signs of approaching abortion, imme- 
diately give her a handful of whole wheat, and this is also 
found to be very eflfective. Care must be taken, of course, 
to have the wheat clean and free from *'smut** or ergot. 

It would not be advisably to here lay down any rules for 
the management of the mare during parturition, any further 
than to see that she is comfortably located previous to its 
arrival, and is allowed her freedom, in order that she may 
assist herself; for I think it is better in nearly every case to 
leave the process to nature, and if assistance is needed, be- 
yond the very simplest kind, to at once secure the services 
of an experienced and competent man. If it is necessary to 
confine her when she begins to show signs of her approach- 
ing delivery she should have a box stall, care being taken 
not to excite or injure her, and plenty of good bedding pro- 
vided for her. She should not be haltered, as she needs per- 
fect liberty to help herself and to attend the colt as soon as 
it is foaled. An attendant should be supplied her, not neces- 
sarily to interfere with the process or to assist her, but it will 
be found that she will acquire confidence from his presence, 



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THE HORSE. . 7 

and will not be so likely to become nervous as if left entirely 
alone. The attendant should, if possible, be one who has 
had some experience of that kind, and he may in some cases 
be able to render her some trifling manual assistance. But 
in the large majority of cases she will have no trouble, and 
the attendant's services will not be required at all. 

Immediately after foaling, the mare should be give a warm 
''slop** consisting of bran or crushed meal, with a little salt, 
the whole mixed with plent> of warm water. This warms 
the mare, and enables her to more quickly recover from the 
effects of foaling. For some time after foaling she should 
be provided with nourishing food, and if it is too early for her 
to obtain plenty of good grass she should have carrots, bran 
mashes, and a feed or two* of oats daily, the oats being given 
as a gruel, the water of which it is made first having the chill 
taken off. Rye grass, cultivated and cut daily, is very well 
thought of by many who have used it; but, while it is much 
to be preferred over hay, it is not equal to go6d clover grass. 

The mare should be returned to the horse on the ninth 
day, and will nearly always be found in season at that time. 
She should again be tried on the twenty-first day, and if she 
refuses the horse, it is pretty good evidence that she is in 
foal. If she is found in season on the second trial and takes 
the horse, she should again be returned ten days after and 
tried once more. Many breeders try their mares on the fif- 
teenth day as well, but this is hardly necessary, and I believe 
the days indicated will prove as satisfactory as any that can 
be suggested. 

THOROUGHBREDS 

The English Thoroughbred is the undoubted scion of Eastern 
blood — Turk, Barb and Arabian — improved and perfected by 
the influence of skillful handling and natural conditions 
peculiar to English soil and climate. 

The American Thoroughbred is, of course, a lineal de- 
scendant of the parent stock — English. 

In the United States, it has been found advisable to permit 
a certain relaxation of the rigid rules adhered to in the Eng- 



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8 BUREAU. OF THE AMERICAN REPUBI.ICS. 

lish Slud Book, and to admit animals that show an unmixed 
descent for five generations of pure blood. This necessarily 
admits animals which are not strictly Thoroughbred, but if 
for five generations nothing but Thoroughbred stallions are 
used, the resulting animal is so nearly Thoroughbred as 
to answer all requirements. Indeed, we are inclined to 
think that the American system of breeding and recognized 
rules for entry have done much toward making the American 
Thoroughbred the successful rival of his English cousin, which 
he has proved himself to be. 

The head of a Thoroughbred is fine; neck slender, but well 
set on act the shoulders; chest deep, wide and bounded by shoul- 
ders long and slanting, hindquarters high and well muscled; 
legs flat, with short canons, long, elastic pasterns, and 
rounded, well-made feet. Not a pound of surplus fat is car- 
ried when in racing trim; the cords and muscles stand out 
clearly and play in action like the sensitive strings of some 
delicate instrument. The Racer is essentially nervous in 
temperament; many have been made vicious by careless 
handling, and not a few have failed to show extreme speed 
on the turf because of failure to understand and appreciate 
their nerve peculiarities. 

Many regard the Thoroughbred as a mere fancy animal — the 
especial horse of the sporting fraternity — but we do not agree 
with such expression. His indomitable will and wonderful 
endura ce, combined with his beauty of form and usually 
good size, make him a horse of much value to use on native 
mares of mixed breeding, and the colts thus produced are 
among our most stylish saddle and harness horses. The 
South has always been rich in the blood of the Thoroughbred; 
and since there has been little call for horses of the heavier 
breeds until recent times, mules being employed almost exclu- 
sively for heavy draft and farm work, the racer has served a 
most valuable purpose. As heavier stallions are now being 
introduced extensively, we shall find the mares of racing 
stock a valuable foundation for producing an excellent gen- 
eral purpose horse. 



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THE HORSE. 9 

AMERICAN TROTTERS. 

The history of the origin and improvement of American 
Trotters furnishes one of the most, if not the most, remarka- 
ble examples of human skill in developing and training to 
desired lines, qualities which before had remained partially 
developed or entirely latent. The courage and stamina ot 
the Trotting horse, in brief, are found in the use of Oriental 
blood in and through the royal blood of the Thoroughbred; 
but to those remarkable individual animals hereinafter men- 
tioned — in which the trotting gait seems to have been a spon- 
taneous development of the trotting instinct combined with 
the energy and speed of the Racer — belongs the credit for 
this immediate origin. 

Among the horses which may be thus considered original 
sources of trotting blood, and first in the list, by acknowl- 
edged right, stands Imported Messenger, himself a Thorough- 
bred, and embracing some of the choicest blood of the desert 
in his make-up, as will be seen by a simple statement of his 
paternal ancestry: Imported Messenger was a gray horse, 
foaled ill 1780; imported to United States in 178^, and died 
on Long Island in 1808. His first sire was Mambrino; second 
sire, Engineer; third sire, Sampson; fourth sire, Blaize; fifth 
sire. Flying Childers; sixth sire, Darley Arabian. His dam 
was sired by Turf, by Matchem, by Cade (who was a son of 
Godolphin Arabian), and his second dam was by Regulus, 
also a son of Godolphin Arabian. His great grandsire, 
Samson, was a black horse out of all keeping with the ideal 
Thoroughbred in appearance, being large, coarse, and heavy- 
boned, but with a wonderful power of speed and bottom. 
Samson's reputed and recorded sire was Blaize, a bay thor- 
oughbred, but his conformation and the inclination to trot 
which he transmitted to his offspring have led students of 
equine history to doubt the record of his paternity, and assert 
that his dam was covered by a Coach horse. If this were 
true — and it seems at least reasonable — it was the most fortu- 
nate accident that could have occiured, since it furnished the 
exact combination to insure a change of gait and still retain 
the fire and instinctive speed of the racer. 



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lO BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The peculiar conformation of Imported Messenger — low, 
round, almost flat withers — has been faithfully handed down 
to his lineal descendants; and it is a matter of common note 
that all true Messenger-bred trotters have always enjoyed a re- 
markable freedom from all kinds of foot, leg, and bone dis- 
eases. Messenger blood is found in nearly every family of 
American trotters; and through his great grandson, Rysdyk's 
Hambletonian, we have a family pre-eminent above all others 
in steady reproduction of the trotting gait, through a long 
line of noted descendants, of which we shall write later. 

Another original source of trotting blood was found in 
Imported Bellfounder, a blood bay, with white diamond on 
nose and white left hind foot- His breeding has always been 
a matter of question, but by the best evidence obtainable his 
pedigree is as follows: sire. Old Bellfounder, out of Velocity 
by Haphazard, by Sir Peter, out of Miss Hervey by Eclipse. 
Grand dam of good blood, but not Thoroughbred. This 
stamps him as a true descendant of the Fireaways, a strain 
which has never been excelled for the saddle. Bellfounder, 
the "Norfolk Trotter/* was foaled about 1815, imported to 
America in 1822, and died on Long Island in 1843. He was 
a natural trotter, of remarkable honesty, and his truest 
descendants have since been known as ** field trotters," 
showing their best speed when free from all restraint of reins. 
The peculiar value of the Bellfounder blood is found, like 
that cf Duroc, in its happy combination with the blood of 
Messenger. 

First in trotting lines, by acknowledged right, are — 

The Hambletonians : The family takes its name from Rys- 
dyk's Hambletonian, descended, on the paternal side, from 
Imp. Messenger, through his thoroughbred son Mambrino 
(American) and Mambrino *s son, Abdallah, sire of Hamble- 
tonian. The dam of Hambletonian was by Bellfounder. 
Through Hambletonian we have the Volunteers, Edward 
Everetts, Alexander's Abdallahs, Almonts, Messenger-Durocs, 
Happy Mediums, Wilkeses, Dictators, Wood's Hambleto- 
nians, Electioneers, and many others of acknowledged emi- 
nence, laying claim to the general title of Hambletonian. 



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THE HORSE. II 

The Mambrinos, another great family — descended, on the 
paternal side, from Imp. Messenger — take the name from 
Mambrino Chief. His sire was Mambrino Paymaster, a sou 
of Mambrino, who was also the grandsire of Hambletonian. 
All the Mambrinos, Champions, and many others are grouped 
under this head. 

The Bashaws take their name from Young Bashaw, a son 
of the Imp. Barb, Grand Bashaw. Young Bashaw was the 
sire of Andrew Jackson, who in turn got Long Island Black 
Hawk ; and through the latter we have Green's Bashaw, the 
Mohawks, and others of note. 

Closely related to the Bashaws are — 

The Clays, who take the family name from Henry Cla3% a 
son of Andrew Jackson, above mentioned. From this horse 
we have the numerous strains of Clays; and through his 
famous grandson, George M. Patchen, we have the branch 
which bears his name. 

The Morgans we have already mentioned as taking the 
name and excellence of old Justin Morgan. Under this head 
we have the Black Hawks (exclusive of Long Island Black 
Hawk, who was by Andrew Jackson, with no trace of Mor- 
gan blood), Ethan Aliens, Knoxes, Daniel Lamberts, Fear- 
naughts, Morrills, and others. 

AMERICAN SADDLE HORSES. 

The saddle horse is a modem production — based on a 
growing demand for something not only handsome, but com- 
fortable as well, for saddle use. 

..^ The origin of the Saddler is, of course, found in thorough- 
bred blood, supplemented by the blood of easy pacers which 
have proved potent in imparting saddle gaits. 

In appearance, the typical Saddler is a combination of 
Thoroughbred and Trotter, having the size, gameness and easy, 
clean-going action of the former, with the quiet, intelligent 
appreciation of education at the trainer's hands, which we 
find so marked among the trotters. All colors are found — 
bays, browns, blacks, chestnuts and grays, about in the order 
named. Stallions weigh from i,ooo to 1,200 pounds; mares 



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12 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

proportionately less. The head is fine ; neck slender, but 
well arched and muscular; shoulders and girth deep and 
ample ; back short ; rump close and generally sloping ; quar- 
ters long and well muscled, and legs fine-boned, neat, close- 
fleshed, and without feather. 

HACKNEYS. 

The origin of the Hackney can not be stated in definite 
terms; indeed, it has been only within the last decade that it 
has been strictly considered a breed. 

The foundation of the Hackney must be sought in the 
blood of the Hunter, combined with that of the English 
Thoroughbred, and with sufficient infusion of blood of the 
common middle-sized horse — generally known in England as 
the "Farmer's Horse'* — to insure harness gaits and tracta- 
bility. The strains of blood which are just now most popu- 
lar among Hackneys are those of * 'Confidence*' and **Fire- 
away," individuals, especially of the latter breeding, com- 
manding ready sale at good figures. The Fireaways were 
especially noted as the best saddle strains which England 
has ever seen, and their blood, handed down through im- 
ported Bellfounder, as will be seen in chapter on American 
Trotters, has proved desirable in more than one direction. 

The colors found are bays, blacks, browns and chestnuts, 
often with white star and sometimes with white feet and 
ankles. In size they are about equal to the French Coacher, 
standing fifteen to sixteen hands high, and weighing from 
1,000 to 1,300 pounds. The Hackney is especially high at 
the withers; shoulders strongly slanted; neck well crested, 
and carrying the head very high; back short; legs of medium 
length, close knit; canons broad and flat; pasterns shorter 
than with Thoroughbreds and Trotters, but longer than with 
draft breeds; feet firm and of moderate size; forearm espe- 
cially short, giving an unusually high knee action, and quar- 
ters well muscled and compact. 

The Hackney's disposition is kind, and his speed in harness, 
while by no means comparing with that of the trotting horse, 
is still amply sufficient for all heavy carriage use. The Hack- 



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THE HORSB. 13 

ney really approaches closer to the standard of the Trotter 
than any of the other carriage breeds. They are uniformly 
hardy, strongly built, have an abundance of **style,'* and the 
best specimens' can be relied on for endurance at long dis- 
tance. 

The Hackney has become the English gentleman's favorite 
horse-of-all-work, being largely used for park riding as well 
as light road driving, and in our eastern cities, where the tend- 
ency is so often to pattern after English custom and style, 
the Hackney finds his most congenial American home. 

FRENCH COACH HORSES. 

These horses are the direct result of the wisdom and fore- 
sight of the French government. Some time during the latter 
part of the Eighteenth century, the government began the 
establishment of studs and breeding stables, in anticipation 
of an approaching scarcity of good horses for the cavalry 
service. Thoroughbred stallions from England were intro 
duced and their services offered to breeders at remarkably 
low rates, the policy of the government being to buy back 
the get of these horses, and eventually establish a breed of 
the peculiar type desired. The practice led to a great deal 
of trickery in the way of selling good-looking individuals on 
appearance solely, the fraud only appearing when the animal 
was used for breeding purposes. To obviate this trouble, 
the French government adopted the plan of buying up supe- 
rior stallion colts and rearing them in the public studs. 

In addition to this, the owners of very superior stallions 
are granted a bonus by the government, on condition that the 
stallion in question shall remain in the country for service ; a 
second class — the owners of stallions good but not fine — are 
allowed to offer their stallions for service, but receive no sub- 
sidy. No stallions except these two classes, and those belong- 
ing to the government, are allowed to stand. In certain 
departments of France only — as notably in Ome, Calvados 
and Seine-Inf6rieure — is government attention directed to the 
production of Coachers. 

The color of the French Coach is usually bay, but chestnuts 



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14 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS.. 

are abundant and blacks quite common; the fashion in 
America calls for bays, and most of our importers have 
selected with a view of supplying this fashionable demand. 
In size, they rank with the Cleveland — an average weight 
falling between i,ooo and 1,200 pounds for stallions. The 
head is small with full forehead, expressive eyes, fine muzzle, 
and medium, quick-playing ears. The neck is long, well 
arched and firmly set on long, sloping shoulders. The back 
is short ; hips long and well up ; legs of good length, firmly 
knit, and with tough, well-made feet. In general appear- 
ance the French Coach horse is just what the name indicates, 
a stylish, well-made carriage horse of good action and fine 
appearance. 

CLEVELAND BAYS. 

We have no authentic data regarding the origin of the 
Cleveland breed, but give what seems to be the most prob- 
able of the many theories advanced. Professor Low says: 

"It has been formed by the same means as the Hunter, 
namely, by the progressive mixture of the blood of the Race 
Horse with the original breeds of the country." 

The name of the breed is taken from the district of Cleve- 
land, in Yorkshire, England, where it was first known, and 
the term bay was added to indicate the prevailing color. 

Color, invariably a bright bay, either light or dark, with 
black mane and tail, black points, and usually a small white 
spot between "bulbs" of the heel. In si^e they are medium, 
individuals standing from sixteen hands to sixteen hands 
three inches in height, and weighing from 1,100 to 1,300 
pounds. The head is of fair size, with a face of kindly 
expression and intelligent cast; neck finely arched and well 
set on to long, sloping shoulders; back short; loins even and 
powerful; hips of good length, and legs straight, close knit, 
and free from long hairs at the fetlock. 

The Cleveland bay is a general purpose horse, heavy 
enough for all ordinary farm work, and active, stylish, and 
with ample speed for either wagon or carriage use. In breed- 
ing he transmits color, bone, style, kind, and docile disposi- 



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THE HORSE. 15 

tion, and general characteristics to a marked degree; he is 
easy to handle, and for use in grading on the pony mares of 
the great Southwest, we doubt if his superior can be found, 
or, indeed, his equal. Royalty and Lord Derby, both prize 
winners, are excellent representatives of the breed, and fully 
bear out the proverbial good judgment of their respective 
importers. 

THE SUFFOLK PUNCH. 

This breed of horses, which has for many years enjoyed 
such merited popularity in England, has of late years found 
substantial and growing favor with American breeders. The 
origin of the Suflfolk breed is somewhat obscure, but the best 
evidence obtainable indicates the use of Norman stallions on 
the best native Suffolkshire mares. That this is true is strongly 
evidenced by the Suffolk color— sorrel or light chestnut — 
which has so often been found a compromise color between 
bay and gray ; the former being represented in the native 
mares, the latter being the predominating color of the Nor- 
man stock. 

As far back as 1745 the Suffolk was famed for its still 
prominent characteristic — draft ; and notices of the breed at 
the drawing matches of that period mav be unearthed among 
the old files of some of the English newspapers. Improve- 
ment o£ the Suffolk has been very great, especially within 
the last quarter century. 

Color, almost invariably chestnut or sorrel ; size somewhat 
less than Shire or Clydesdale, having an average height of 
fifteen and three-fourths to sixteen and one-half hands, and 
weighing at maturity from 1,400 to 1,800 pounds. The body 
is round, close and compact, with short, clean legs, and pas- 
terns free from the troublesome long hair of the Shire and 
Clyde. The shoulders are long, and lie well forward for 
draft ; the bone is small, but firm ; the hind quarters long, 
heavy and well coupled to a short, close-knit back. The 
general appearance indicates a rather over medium-sized 
sorrel horse with heavy, round body and short legs. The 
Suffolk is emphatically a draft animal, valuable for remark- 
able steadiness and great faithfulness in the collar. 



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1 6 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

He will pull every pound which is possible, and no whip 
is needed or should be used to urge his natural freedom in 
work. As a horse for the general farmer, it would be hard to 
find one more suitable — having a good, fast walk, an even, 
''all-around '* trot, and sufficient weight to save muscle work 
before plow or harrow. 

PERCHERONS. 

The Percheron is an old French breed, long noted for rapid 
and effective draft work, and always supposed to owe much 
of its excellence to Eastern blood. 

Color varies, gray — mostly dappled — predominating, while 
there are many pure blacks and bays, and all shades of gray, 
from the darkest iron to almost pure white. The body is 
low, square and full in all points, with magnificent head, and 
a neck, which, for beauty, would not disgrace the proudest of 
Barbs. Legs are short in proportion, and, while very mass- 
ive, are yet fine and cl^^e knit. Percheron breeders claim 
almost perfect immunity from bone and leg diseases, such as 
ringbone, splint, windgalls, etc. Our own experience with 
the breed, particularly with the half-blood colts from native 
mares, has not justified an admission of this claim, and we 
feel compelled to state that some breeders, and many who 
have used the Percheron grades for heavy farm or other work, 
have expressed a belief that the Percherons are even more 
subject to these troubles than some of the other breeds. 

The Percheron is a draft breed, mature stallions weighing 
from 1, 600 to 2,100 or 2,200 pounds, and their get from ordi- 
nary mares weighing from 1,200 to 1,700 or 1,800. pounds, 
when grown. They arequick, active, and intelligent; Some 
have thought them vicious, and we have known a number of 
ill-tempered representatives of the breed ; but it is more than 
likely that the troublesome temper was caused by unskilled 
or "vicious'* grooms. While they stand change of climate 
as well as any of the large breeds, yet we can not say — as do 
some of their partisan breeders — that they acclimate with 
perfect safety. 



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THE HORSE. i; 

CLYDESDALES. 

Like the Percheron, the French draft, and in fact all of the 
other draft breeds, the Clydesdale owes its original merit to 
the Black Horse of Flanders — a lineal descendant of the great 
Black Horse of northern Europe. 

Color, either bay, brown, or black, with usually a white 
strip in the face, ''blaze," and more or less white on the 
leet and lower parts of the legs; occasionally there is found 
a dun, chestnut, or even sorrel. The color which may be 
called peculiar to the breed is a light bay, fading to still 
lighter bay at the flanks, between the thighs, and forward on 
the belly line. In size they are classed with the large breeds, 
stallions ranging from 1,700 to 2,100 pounds, and mares from 
1,200 to 1,600 pounds. In appearance, the Clydesdale horse 
is a large, tall, rangy animal, with a long head, medium neck, 
strong legs, heavily fringed with hair below the knee, and 
long, slanting shoulders — the latter a point well worth notic- 
ing as inclining toward greater activity than is usual with the 
large breeds. 

As compared with the Percheron or the French draft, the 
Clydesdale horse is longer legged, longer bodied, and of 
more quiet temperament. Our obsen^ation and experience 
with the half blood colts from native mares fully bear out 
the assertion that they are, almost without exception, kind, 
quiet, intelligent, and easily broken. One very prominent 
characteristic is their naturally fast walk. The American 
farmer is not slow to apprecriate the superior value of a team 
that will plow three acres of ground in a day, as against one 
that, with the same plow, will turn but two acres; and this fact 
has done much to advance the interests of the Clydesdale in 
America. The tendency of late to widen the breach between 
Clydesdale and English Shires has induced breeders of the 
former to look more to appearance and action, and gradually 
lower the average in weight — thus leaving to breeders of the 
latter a market demand for great weight and appearance, with 
action somewhat in the background. 
A point to which many object is the fringe of long hair at 



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1 8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

the fetlock, already referred to; the objection, however well 
founded, has caused certain breeders to attempt a reduction of 
the characteristic — with what success remains to be seen. In 
the South, the Clydes are perhaps not so well known as the 
French draft; but the few shipments made are said to have 
done remarkably well. It is claimed indeed, that no other 
horse of the heavy breeds can .so well endure the Southern 
climate. 



EL CABALLO. 



INDICACIONES PARA LA SELECCION DE ESTOS 
ANIMALES Y SU MEJOR CUIDADO Y MANEJO. 

Para elegir un caballo de la prppia clase se necesita poseer 
mayor conocimiento de este animal que el que puede adqui- 
rirse solamente en los libros. Nadie puede ser buen juez de 
caballos si no ha estudiado practicamente el a.sunto por espa- 
cio de muchos alios, y no une d los frutos de la experiencia 
una idea bastante clara de los principios d que obedecen la 
Fuerza y la Acci6n, en cuanto pueden aplicarse d los movi- 
mientos de este animal. El a sun to estd tratado con cuanta 
extensi6n puede apetecerse en varias obras notables relativas 
d este objeto especial, entre las cuales pueden citarse en 
primera linea el libro de Sanders titulado Horse Breeding 
(cria de caballos) y el de Helm denominado Ameridin Road- 
sters and TrotUng Horses (caballos americanos de tiro y de 
trote); y el que quiera informes detallados sobre cualquiera 
de estos puntoshardbien en procurarse aquellas publicaciones 
y estudiarlas atentamente. En este opusculo no podrdn ha- 
cerse sino indicaciones generales, ilustrativas solamente de 
los particulares mas importantes. 

I. 

Cuando se desea un buen caballo de tiro es preciso atender 
con preferencia d su peso. Es bueno que el animal tenga los 



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EI. CABAI.I.O. 19 

movimientos fdciles, pero la circurastancia de que tenga tam- 
bi6u mucho peso es absolutamente imprescindible para que 
sea capaz de arrastrar grandes cargas. Sus paletas deberdn 
ser rectas, y de base bastante ancha para que la tracciou 
ejercida por las tiraderas se antagonize debidaniente por la 
resistencia que ofrecela collera, efectudndose esto & un dngulo 
de tal abertura que permita utilizar por completo la fuerza 
ejercida. 

Un buen caballo de tiro debe ser lo mas alto posible, en la 
parte del frente mds bien prominente de antepecho, y debe 
ser igualmente tan ancho de pecho que permita la expansi6n 
libre de los pulmones en cualquier momento de cansancio. 
Las patas cortas son las mejores, y nunca deben mostrar una 
apariencia lisa 6 hinchada, que sierapre indica ima tendencia 
d producir gordura d expensas del musculo; la parte inferior 
de la pata debe ser aplanada, y las coyunturas especialmente 
fuertes y bien atadas. Segun dijimos no es absolutamente 
necesario el buen movimiento, pero para la labranza es preferi- 
ble uno que sea bueno y ligero. De paso dir^mos que un caballo 
de 1,200 d 1,400 libras es el mds conveniente para la labranza; 
los caballos mds pesados estardn siempre en demanda para 
otros propositos, y un criterio propio los escojerd segun el fin 
para que se les desea. El ser demasiado "fogoso** 6 
**muy obstinado" es una objeci6n; el caballo de tiro deberd 
ser preeminentemente un animal quieto, aunque no de tem- 
peramento flojo. Uno fuerte y de tiro seguido resistird 
mejorla fatiga y hard mds trabajo. 

II. 

Para la carrera, las paletas deberdn ser oblicuas, el ante- 
pecho de mediano d inferior, el muslo y parte trasera altos, 
el cuerpo largo y con ponderosa musculaci6n. En el caballo 
de carrera, la fuerza motriz viene de atrds, y no podria come- 
terse peer error que el de escojer para la carrera un caballo 
en algo deficiente en esto, por mucho que llenase todos los 
requisites en otros respectos. Las patas deben tener un largo 
suficiente, sin muchas carnes ni mucha gordura, y particular- 
mente con las coyunturas bien unidas. El Gobiemo ingl6s 



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20 BOREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

tiene un Reglamento para el uso de los que escojen caballos 
para la caballeria. A continuaci6n lo insertamos. Se titula: 
"Indicaciones para negarse d aceptar;'' pero bien sele podria 
llamar '*Indicaciones para escoger." 

"Rechazad todo caballo cuyas patas delanteras no sean 
derechas; pues no resisten d la fatiga. Poneos detrds del 
caballo al ponerse ^1 d caminar, y podr^is notar estos defectos, 
si es que existen. 

"Rechazad todo caballo que sea delgado debajo de la 
rodilla, mayormente en la parte inferior; esta conformaci6n 
es esencialmente d^bil. 

"Tambi6n todo caballo con cuartillas largas, cortas 6 para- 
das; las cuartillas largas estdn sujeta^ d torceduras; las cortas 
6 paradas hacen al caballo desagradable para el que va d 
montarlo, y d causa de las frecuentes concusiones que reciben 
estdn expuestas d que en ellas se formen dep6sitos huesosos. 

"Tambi^n todo caballo con cascos torcidos hacia fuera 6 
liacia dentro. La torcedura generalmente ocurre en la cuar- 
tilla. lyos cascos torcidos liacia fuera son mds objetables que 
los torcidos hacia adentro. Cuando estdn torcidos hacia fuera 
las cuartillas son encojidas,y los animales asi formados estdn 
muy expuestos d cortarse 6 danarse. Ambas, sin embargo, son 
conformaciones d^biles. 

"Rechazad todo caballo cuyas patas traseras se incHnen 
mucho para atrds; le faltard la fuerza motriz, por lo que puede 
resultarle enfennedad en los jarretes. Tambi^n todo caballo 
que camiua con las patas traseras muy separadas, 6 juntas, y 
el que tiene los jarretes muy rectos 6 muy torcidos; aquello pro- 
duce demasiada concusi6n y esto lo hace aptodque serinda al 
cansancio. 

"Rechawid todo caballo que tenga las patas muy separadas; 
la fuer7.a motriz viene de atrds y debe precisamente ser defi- 
ciente en los caballos que carecen del necesario desarrollo 
muscular en aquel paraje. 

''Rechazad todo caballo de casco aplanado 6 demasiado 
grande, 6 demasiado pequeno; los de casco mediano son los 
me j ores. 



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KI^'CABALLO. 2 1 

**Tambien todo caballo que tenga un casco mds pequeno que 
elotro.'' 

tratamienTo de las YEGUAS DE CRIA. 

Al acercarse la 6poca de la cria y comeuzar preparaciones 
para sortear las yeguas con los caballos padres, los criadores 
en pequena escala que no poseen sino una 6 dos yeguas pro- 
curan siempre obtener infonnes que los ilustren debidamente 
acerca del caballo que ban de escoger, como tambi^n sobre 
el cuidado y tratamiento que necesita la yegua antes y des- 
pu6s de su fecundaci6n. 

En las grandes haciendas de crianza hay siempre, 6 bien 
un veterinario competente, 6 bien un empleado experto, d 
quien se encomiendael importante asunto de cuidar las yeguas 
en esta ^poca precaria. Pero los criadores en pequena escala 
carecen frecuentemente del consejo adecuado, y en general 
no tienen d qui^n volver los ojos, sin quedarles mas recurso 
que descansar en sus proprias fuer^as. Es preciso por lo 
tanto procurar que entiendan tan completamente como se 
pueda los m^todos que deben seguir para salvar la yegua, lo 
mismo que su cria en caso de emergencia. 

Hay ciertas cosas que deben buscarse siempre en una 
yegua cuando se trata de escojerla para objetos de crianza; y 
entre ellas hay algunas hasta tal grado importantes que 
pudiera considerdrselas como esenciales. En primer lugar 
la yegua debe estar conformada de manera que sobrelleve 
bien los sufrimientos de la preiiez, y que sea de constituci6n 
suficientemente vigorosa para que su salud nose altere por 
virtud de su estado, ni durante el perfodo antedicho, ni en 
consecuencia del parto. Se deben escojer yeguas robustas y 
bien desarroUadas, puesto que con ello resulta mds probable 
que el potro saiga con id^n^icas cualidades de robustez y 
lozanfa. Las yeguas cuyo didmetro entre las ancas sea muy 
considerable, y que tenganlas dltimas costillas grandes y bien 
encorvadas, deberdn preferirse para madres d todas las demds, 
puesto que su conformaci6n, d parte de suministrar capacidad 
suficiente para que el feto se desarroUe sin dificultad, hace 



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22 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

tambi^n que scan menores los riesgos que pueden venir del 
parto. 

Debe tambi^n cuidarse mucho de elegit una yegua que sea 
buena criadora, y que d^ suficiente leche; porque de lo con- 
trario el potro sufrird por falta de la nutricion adecuada^ y 
dejard mucho que desear en cuanto d robustez y desenvolvi- 
miento. 

Una yegua que deje ver desde luego algun defecto de con- 
formaci6n no debe escojerse uunca para madre, porque el 
dedicarla a semejante objeto seria perder el tiempo y el 
dinero. 

En cuanto d la determinaci6n de sus m^ritos como buena 
criadora serd siempre necesario poner d prueba la yegua, d 
lo menos por algun tiempo; pero un hombre prdctico y ex- 
perimentado, podrd, sin embargo, descubrir desde luego y 
sin gran trabajo, lo que haya exactamente en este particular. 

Si la yegua que se destina para madre estd siempre traba- 
jando aparejada, sera bueno, antes de entregarla al caballo, 
que se la deje descansar por algunos dias y andar suelta en 
potrero. Si esto no puede hacerse sin inconveniente, se la 
debe alimentar con salvado mezclado con agua, y disminuirle 
el trabajo. 

El hecho de que una yegua pueda quedar prenada aunque 
se la tenga ocupada en el trabajo no es argumento contra el 
consejo de que se la deje libre y se le d€ descanso, puesto que 
en toda probabilidad el resultado de no hacerlo asi serd la 
p^rdida del potro. A las yeguas de carrera generalmente se 
las deja libres y en descanso durante la preiiez; pero tambi6n 
ha habido casos en que se las ha hecho correr en ese estado, 
durante tpda una campaiia, sin perjuicio aparente. Esta 
prdctica debe sin embargo ser condenada, puesto que al fin y 
al cabo resultan mas ventajas, cuando se las <leja en reposo. 

Si se necesitare el trabajo de la yegua despues de estar pre- 
nada, serd preciso tener cuidado de no cansarla demasiado. 
No debe hacersela andar muy de prisa, y hay que permitirle 
que al subir las lomas se tome el tiempo que quiera. Si se 
procede con cuidado y prudencia podrd trabajarse con ella, d 
pasar de su estado, casi hasta el mismo dia del parto. El 



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EI. CABAI.LO. 23 

mejor trabajo que puede ddrsele es el ordinario d que este 
acostutnbrada, procurando por supuesto alijerarlo cuanto se 
pueda en el ultimo perfodo de la prenez. Es precise no per- 
derde vistar que el ejercicio es siempre provechoso para el 
animal en este estado. 

Cuando la yegua estd prenada y no hay necesidad de dedi- 
carla al trabajo se la debe dejar suelta en lugar donde exista 
buen pasto. Este debe ser nutritivo, aunque no tan rico y 
suculento que pueda caerle mal en el est6mago 6 ponerla 
demasiado gorda. Las indigestiones y en general todas las 
enfermedades del canal intestinal son causas frecuentes de mal 
parto. La enfermedad mas coraun de esta clase, que consiste 
en demasiada soltura del vientre, procede del uso excesivo de 
alimento suave. Es in6til demostrar que es necesario que la 
yegua reciba la suficiente alimentaci6n, pues que de lo con^ 
trario se pondrd flaca, llegdndose tal vez hasta el extremo de 
matar al feto. Una yegua que ha sido alimentada toda su 
vida con maiZ en cantidad abundante, lo pasard mucho mejor 
despues del sexto mes de la prenez, si se le dd una 6 dos veces 
por dia una raci6n de dicho grano, especialmente en el caso 
de que los pastos del otono no sean bastante ricos 6 no se en- 
cuentren en abundancia. Debe evitarse con cuidado que la 
yegua se ponga demasiada gorda, porque la gordura es una 
clase de enfermedad que se opone d la debida nutricion del 
feto y que produce complicaciones en el momento del parto, 
facilitando al mismo tiempo la presentaci6n de la fiebre. 

Si la yegua tiene que trabajar, serd preciso darle algiin 
forraje verde cuidando sin embargo de que no sea demasiado 
suculento, puesto que el alimento de esta clase es capaz de 
producir una irritaci6n peligrosa en la economia del animal. 
Cualquiera clase de alfalfa, 6 de pasto comiin, llenard las con- 
diciones que se desean, y si se hubiere pasado la estaci6n en 
que este alimento se encuentra con abundancia podrd darse 
de comer d la yegua cualquiera otra cosa que llene en lo posi- 
ble las mismas condiciones. Las zanahorias cortadas en re- 
banadas y sumergidas en uu atol de salvado, constituyen un 
excelente alimento que debe darse d la yeguas todas las 
noches en el caso antedicho. 



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24 BUREAU OP THB AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

Debe evitarse con cuidado que el animal se asuste 6 saiga 
por cualquiera causa de su estado normal de reposo, pues que 
todo lo que saque d la yegua de esta quietud puede ser causa 
de un mal parto. Se dice generalmente que este sobrevieae 
muchas veces por solo el olor de la sangre, y es cosa positiva 
que el mal parto de una yegua que anda con otra3 en su mismo 
estado las afecta igualmente haci6ndolas mal parir tambi^n. 

Una yegua que ha mal parido una vtz estd expuesta d que 
le suceda lo mismo en las subsiguientes ocasiones ; y por eso 
hay que tener mds cuidado en proporcionarle reposo y man- 
temerla aislada de las otras. Lo mejor seria en este caso 
dejarla suelta en un pequeno corral destinado exclusivamente 
para ella y donde pueda hacer todo el ejercicio conveniente. 

Debe evitarse mucho dar d la yegua ninguna medicina pur- 
gante, d menos que no sea absolutamente indispensable. Si 
los intestinos estdn en tal estado que se hace indispensable 
evacuarlos por este medio, lo mejor que puede hacerse es ali- 
mentar la yegua con atol de salvado y con otro pasto que 
sea menos productivo de estrenimiento. Si estos medios 
suaves resultaren insuficientes podrd apelarse d los purgantes, 
escogiendo siempre el que sea menos violento en su acci6n. 

£n todo caso es siempre util que desde cuatro meses antes 
del parto se haya estado alimentando d la yegua con la semilla 
Uamada canamon, de la que debe ddrsele una media pinta por 
lamanana y otra por la noche todos los dias, continuando este 
tratamiento hasta una semana antes del parto. Al mismo 
tiempo, ademas de la semilla indicada se debe dar junto con 
ella d la yegua por la manana y por la noche una onza del 
extracto fluido de viburnum prunifolium^ pero esta medicina, 
que puede encontrarse en cualquier botica, no debe darse por 
mds de dos meses. El trigo limpio y de buena cualidad estd 
tambi^n recomendado como remedio para impedir el mal 
parto, y muchos criadores experimentados acostumbran dar 
d la yegua un punado de trigo en el momento que descubren 
en aquella cualquiera sintoma que indique la proximidad de 
un mal parto. El resultado ha sido siempre satisfactorio. 
Es preciso tener mucho cuidado, sin embargo, de que el trigo 
este limpio y enteramente libre de moho y de comezuelo 6 
ergot. 



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EL CABAIXO. 25 

No seria juicioso forraular ninguna regla especial con res- 
pecto al tratamiento de las yeguas durante el parto, pero debe 
decirse en general que es importante procurarles alojamiento 
c6niodo y dej arias en libertad de ayudarse d si mismas. Es 
mejor por regla general dejar SQla & la naturaleza, y que el 
auxilio que se preste d esta en caso de necesidad sea el mds 
simple posible. Por supuesto si ocurre una dificultad seria 
debe acudirse en al momento i un hombre competente y de 
suficiente experiencia en el ramo. 

Si ftiere necesario encerrar d la yegua cuando empieza d 
presentar los sintomas del parto debe pon^rsela en uno de los 
compartimientos de la caballeriza, procurando que nada haya 
que la moleste 6 le cause dano, y que tenga una buena cama 
en que descansar. No debe estar amarrada ni tener ataduras 
de ningtina clase, puesto que le es necesaria perfecta libertad 
para ayudarse d si misma y para atender al potro en el 
momento de haber nacido. 

Serd bueno que haya alguien encargado de atender d lo que 
necesite, no precisamente para que intente hacer algo ni pro- 
cure ayudar la, sino porque la experiencia demuestra que con 
su presencia la yegua adquiere confianza y no estd tan expuesta 
d asustarse y ponerse nerviosa como cuando se la deja entera- 
mente sola. Este sirviente debe ser en cuanto sea posible un 
hombre prdctico y experimentado, capdz, si la ocasi6n lo 
requiere, de ayudar al animal con alguna sencilla operaci6n 
manual, En la gran mayoria de los casos no habrd absoluta- 
mente ninguna necesidad de sus servicios. 

Inmediatamente despu^s del parto debe darse d la yegua una 
especie de sopa caliente compuesta de salvado 6 de harina 
gruesa de raaiz con un poco de sal, mezclado todo en una gran 
cantidad de agua. Con esto se da calor d la yegua y se la 
pone en actitud de recuperar mds pronto sus fuerzas, extenua- 
das per razdn del parto. El alimento que debe ddrsele por 
algun tiempo despu^ de aquel acto debe ser siempre muy 
nutritive y si fuese demasiado temprano en el ano para poder 
darle buena yerba, habrd que apelar d las zanahorias, d los 
atoles de salvado y d una 6 dos raciones diarias de avena, 
esta iiltima administrada en la forma de una especie de 



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26 BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

almid6n, preparado con agua, no caliente sino simpleraente 
tibia. El forraje de centeno cultivado y cortado diariamente 
es en la opini6n de muchos un excelente alimento para estos 
casos ; pero si bien es cierto que debe preferirsele con mucho 
al heno ordinario, tambi^n lo es que no puede compardrsele 
en cuanto d bondad con el forraje de alfalfa. 

Nueve dias despu^s del parto puede ponerse de nuevo la 
yegua donde estdn los caballos, y por regla general se en- 
contrard que estd otra vez en disposici6n de ser fecundada. 
Si d los veintiun dias se prueba de nuevo y ella rehusa el ca- 
ballo es casi cierto que ya se encuentra prenada. Si en esta 
segunda prueba no rehusase al i*aballo, deberd volverse d 
hacer el experiniento diez diasmds tarde. Hay muchos cria- 
dores que vuelven d hacerlo a los quince dias, pero esto me 
parece que es enteraraente iunecesario. Lo que queda ex- 
puesto se encontrard tan satisfactorio en sus efectos corao 
puede desearse. 

CABALLOS DE RA2A PURA. 

( Thoroughbreds,) 

El caballo ingles de pura sangre es un vdstago indudable 
de la raza pura oriental, turca, berberisca y drabe, mejorada 
y perfeccionada por virtud de manejos diestros y de las con- 
diciones naturales que son inherentes al clima y suelo de In- 
glaterra. El caballo de pura sangre americano es por supuesto 
un descendiente directo del ingles. 

En los Estados Unidos se ha considerado conveniente sepa- 
rarse algun tanto de las estrictas reglas que se observan en 
Inglaterra para la inscripci6n de los animales en el libro de 
registro (Stud Book), admitiendo en este d los que puedeu 
probar su descendencia sin mezcla por el espacio de cinco 
generaciones. De aqui resulta que se registran animales que 
no son estrictamente de pura sangre ; pero si por el espacio 
de cinco generaciones nunca se ha usado un caballo padre que 
no sea de pura raza, el animal resultante de aquellas uniones 
viene d ser en realidad casi tan de pura raza como cual- 
quiera otro, Uenando para el efecto cuantos requisitos pueden 
desearse. En realidad nos parece que el sistema americano 



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EL CABALLO. 27 

de crianza y las reglas que se han reconocido en America para 
el rejistro de los animales han contribuido d convertir el 
caballo americano 'e pura sangre en el rival, sino el vencedor 
del caballo ingles. 

La cabeza de un caballo de raza pura es fina, su pescuezo 
es delgado pero bien asentado sobre los cuartos anteriores, 
su pecho ancho y bien desarroUad », sus cuartos traseros altos 
y musculosos, sus patas planas con canas cortas, sobrecascos 
largos y eldsticos y cascos redondos y bien formados. Ni 
una libra de gordura mds de la debida ha de existir en 61 
cuando estd en disposicion para la carrera. Sus musculos y 
tendones deben estar claramente marcados y ponerse en ac- 
ci6n con tanta facilidad como las cuerdas mas sensitiyas de 
cualquier delicado instrumento. El caballo de carrera es 
esencialmente nervioso en su tempe.amento, y asi es que 
muchos se han vuelto resabiosos por consecuencia del mal 
manejo, y no pocos han dejado de obtener el 6xito en las 
carreras que de otro modo hubieran podido alcanzar cierta- 
mente, d causa solo de que han dejado de entenderse y apre- 
ciarse las peculiaridades de sus nervios. 

Hay muchos que no ven en el caballo de pura raza sino un 
objeto de capricho, el caballo especial de los aficionados & 
las carreras; pero nosotros no podemos estar de acuerdo con 
semejante idea. La indomitable voluntad de este animal y 
su maravillosa resistencialohacende mucho valor paVa servir de 
padre uni^ndolo i ycguas del pafs de raza mezclada, y muchos 
potros obtenidos de esta manera se encuentran entre nuestros 
mds elegantes caballos tanto de silla como de tiro. En el sur 
siempre ha habido muchos caballos de esta clase, y desde que 
se introdujeron alii poca ha sido la demanda por caballos de 
mayor peso. Para arrastrar grand es cargas y ejecutar los 
trabajos de la agricultura no se han empleado hasta hace poco 
sino las mulas; el caballo de carrera ha servido para prop6- 
sitos mds altos. 

Como ahora 3e estan introduciendo en gran niimero caballos 
padres de mayor peso encontraremos que las yeguas de car- 
rera suministran un buen medio para que de su mezcla con 
aquellos resulte una raza de caballos excelentes para todo lo 
que se desee. 



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28 BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

CABALLOS AMERICANOS DE TROTE. 

La historia del origen y mejoramiento de los caballos 
americanos de trote suministra uno de los ejemplos mas 
notables, si uo el rads notable de todos, de lo que puede hacer 
el esfuerzo hunij^no en el desenvolvimiento y educacion de 
una variedadde animales, imprimi^ndolesun tipo y cualidades 
fijas que antes hr \ran estado latentes, 6 manifestadas solo de 
una manera imperfecta. El brio y la resistencia del caballo 
de trote provienen, para decirlo en pocas palabras, de la 
sangre oriental que se mezcl6 para formarlo con la real sangre 
del caballo de raza pura; pero trayendo lascosas de mds cerca 
hay que buscar el dicho origen en los famosos animales que 
se nombrardn despu^s, en que el trote parece ser ima cosa 
natural y espontanea^ y en que se combina el instinto de 
trotar con la energfa y la velocidad del caballo de carrera. 

Entre los caballos que como se ha dicho pueden conside- 
rarse como origen y fuente de la variedad de que se trata, se 
encuentra ocupando el primer puesto en la Hsta, segun todos 
lo reconocen, el Uamado ''Imported Messenger'* que era de 
pura raza y poseia en su constituci6n la sangre mds escojida 
del desierto. Una simple noticia de su genealogia por parte 
de padre 16 demostrard fdcilmente. " Imported Messenger " 
era un caballo que naci6 en 1780, fudimportado en los Estados 
Unidos en 1788, y muri6 en Long Island en 1808. La Knea 
de sus antepasados arranca de *' Mambrino,*' que engendr6 d 
"Engineer/' que engendr6 d ''Sampson," que engendr6 d 
"Blaize," que engendro d "Flying Childers," que engendro 
d " Da-l jy Arabian." Sumadre fu6 engendrada por "Turf," 
cuyo padre era " Matchem " que tenia por padre d " Cade," 
el cual era hijo de " Godolphin Arabian," y la madre de su 
madre habia sido engendrada por " Regulus, ' ' que era tambi^n 
un hijo de "Godolphin Arabian." Su antepasado "Samp- 
son " era un caballo negro que en nada parecia ser de pura 
raza, pues que era grande, pesado y huesudo, pero que desple- 
gaba sin embargo una velocidad maravillosa y tenia mucha 
resistencia. Su padre " Blaize " fu^ un caballo bayo de raza 
pura, pero cuya conformacion, asi como su incliuaci6n al trote, 



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EL CABALLO. 29 

que transiniti6 d sus descendientes, ban hecho dudar d 1« s que 
se ocupande esteasunto, de que sea aut6ntico el origen y ascen- 
dencia que se le atribuyen, babi^ndose Uegado d asegurar que 
debi6 su nacimiento d un caballo de cocbe. Si as{ fuere la 
verdad, lo que no parece fuera de ra26n, la tal mezcla cons- 
tituy6 el accidente mds feliz, puesto que de alH result6 una 
conibinaci6n exacta para conseguir el cambio del paso, rete- 
niendo al mismo tiempo la fogosidad y la^-j^stintiva velocidad 
del caballo de carrera. 

La peculiar conf6rmaci6n de "Imported Messenger/' que 
era un caballo bajo, redondo, casi piano en la cruz, se batras- 
mitido fielmente en toda la linea de su. descendencia, y es 
cosa que se ba observado universalmente que todos los caba- 
llos de trote de la raza de ''Imported Messenger *' se ban 
visto siempre Hbres de toda especie de enfermedades en el 
casco, en las patas, 6 en el bueso. Casi no bay ninguna 
familia de caballos americanos de trote que no tenga sangre 
de " Imported Messenger/* y por el intermedio de su bisnieto 
"Rysdyk*s Hambletonian" tenemos una familia que se dis- 
tingue entre todas las otras por la manera constante con que 
transmite y perpetua, por una larga serie de descendientes 
notables, la buena disposici6n para el trote. De 61 bablare- 
mos mds tarde. 

Otra fuente y origen de nuestros caballos de trote ba de en- 
contrarse en "Imported Bellfounder/* un caballo bayo, que 
tenia una mancba blanca en forma de alfajor sobre la nariz, 
y que tenia tambi^n blanca la pata de atrds izquierda. Siem- 
pre se ba disputado con respecto d su genealogia pero las 
mejores pruebas que pueden obtenerse indican que.aacio de 
"Old Bellfounder/* que era bijo de la yegua "Velocity" y 
del caballo "Haphazard/' el cual era bijo de "Sir Peter/' 
que d su tumo lo era de la yegua "Miss Hervey" y el caballo 
"Eclipse/' Su abuela era una yegua de buena sangre pero 
no de raza pura. Segun esta genealogi'a el caballo de que se 
trata era un verdadero descendiente de los " Fireaways/' una 
raza de caballos de montar que jamds ba sido superada. 
"Bellfounder/' el "Norfolk trotter" naci6 por el ano de 
1815 y fu^ importado en America en 1832, muriendo en Long 



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30 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

Island en 1843. Era por naturaleza un caballo de trote y de 
muy buenas disposiciones, y sns mas legitimes descendientes 
ban desplegado siempre mayor velocidad mientras mds libres 
se encuentran de la retencion de las riendas. El m^rito pecu- 
liar de los caballos de la raza ** Be 11 founder '* se encuentra, 
lo mismo que el de los caballos de la raza de ** Duroc/' en la 
feliz combinaci6n de su sangre con la de "Imported Mes- 
senger." 

Los caballos de trote que estdn reconocidos en pleno de- 
recho d ocupar el primer lugar en su clase son los siguientes : 

Los Hambletonianos ('* Hambletonians.*') Esta familia 
toma su nombre de **Rysdyk*s Hambletonian,*' descendiente 
por la parte de padre de ** Imported Messenger " y de su hijo 
*' Mambrino '* (nacido en America), y del hijo de " Mambrino'* 
nombrado **Abdallah," padre de '*Hambletonian.*' La madre 
de este fue engendrada por ** Bellfounder." De '* Hamble- 
tonian*' tenemos los llamados ** Volunteers," *' Edward 
Everetts," ** Alexander's Abdallahs," *' Almonts," **Messen- 
ger-Duroc's," ** Happy Mediums," **Wilkeses," *' Dictators," 
** Wood's Hambletonians," *' Electioneers " y muchas otras 
clases de reconocida eminencia, comprendidas todas bajo el 
titulo general de Hambletonianos. 

Los ** Mambrinos," otra gran familia, que desciende por 
parte de padre de ** Imported Messenger " tom6 su nombre 
de ** Mambrino Chief," cuyo padre fu^ ** Mambrino Pay- 
master," que fu^ engendrado por ** Mambrino," el cual era 
tambi^n abuelo de ** Hambletonian." Los '* Mambrinos," 
** Champions," y muchos otros deben ser comprendidos en 
este grupo. 

Los ''Bashaws" toman su nombre de ** Young Bashaw" 
cuyo padre fue ** Imported Arabian Grand Bashaw. " *' Young 
Bashaw " fue el padre de ** Andrew Jackson " que engendro & 
'*Long Island Black Hawk," del cual hemos tenido d * 'Green's 
Bashaw," los ** Mohawks " y otros caballos de nota. 

Estrechamente unidos d los " Bashaws ' ' estdn : 

Los "Clays," que toman su nombre de familia de " Henry 
Clay," que tuvo por padre al "Andrew Jackson" antes men- 
cionado. De este caballo tenemos las numerosas clases de 



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EI< CABALLO. 3 1 

"Clays;*' y de su famoso nieto " George M. Patchen '* tene- 
mos tambi^n la rama que lleva 3U nombre. 

Los ''Morgans'* que ya hemos mencionado derivan su nom- 
bre y excel encia del viejo ** Justin Morgan.** En este grupo 
han de colocarse los *' Blackhawks,'* excluyendo sin embargo 
de ellos, & "Long Island Black Hawk** engendrado por 
"Andrew Jackson,'* que no tiene huellaa de sangre de Mor- 
gan. Pertenecen d la misma familia los ** Ethan Allen,** los 
"Knoxs,** los "Daniel Lamberts,*' los "Feamaughts,** los 
'•Merrills " y otros. 

CABALLOS AMERICANOS DE SILLA. 

El caballo amencano de silla es una producci6n modema 
debida d la gran demanda de un caballo de montar que fuese 
no solamente bonito sino que tuviese tambi^n paso c6modo. 

La fuente 6 raiz de esta raza hay que irla d buscar, por 
supuesto, en el caballo de saagre pura, cuya sangre se mezcl6 
con la de caballos menos veloces produciendo movimientos 
mds adecuados para el objeto. 

En apariencia el caballo de silla tipico es una combinaci6n 
del de raza pura y del de trote, teniendo el tamano, actividad, 
y movimientos fdciles del primero, junto con la educabilidad 
y las demds cualidades caracteristicas del segundo. 

Los hay de todos colores, bayos, oscuros, negros, castanos 
y tordillos, predominando estos colores poco mds 6 menos en 
el orden en que se les ha nombrado. Los caballos padres de 
esta clase pesan de mil d mil dos cientas libras. El peso de las 
yeguas es mendr en proporci6n. La cabeza de estos animales 
es fina, su pescuezo delgado, pero bien arqueado y muscu- 
lar. Sus cuartos delanteros y el lugar donde se pone la cincha 
son amplios y desarrollados, el lomo corto, las ancas estrechas 
y generalmente inclinadas, los cuartos traseros largos y mus- 
culosos, y las patas delgadas, poco huesosas y de musculos 
apretados, y sin pelo. 



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32 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

LOS *' HACKNEYS/' 

El origen de los caballos que Uevan este nombre no puede 
explicarse en t^rminos precisos, y en realidad de verdad no 
se les ha considerado conio formando raza especial sino 
durante los diez ultimos anos. 

El elemento constitutivo del ** Hackney'* debe buscarse 
en la sansnrQ del denominado '' Hunter " combinada con la del 
caballo ingles de pura raza, con el aditamento de la suficiente 
infusi6n de sangre del animal ordinario, de tamano mediano, 
que se conoce generalmente en Inglaterra con el nombre de 
caballo de campo {farmer's horse), De estos tres elementos 
reunidos resultan su modo especial de andar y la facilidad 
de manejarlo. Las variedades de ''Hackneys" que gozan 
de mas popularidad en Inglaterra son las denominadas 
* 'Confidence " y "Fireaway.** Los caballos de estas dos 
razas, especialmente los de la ultima, aseguran buenos 
precios y pronta venta en todos los mercados. 

El "Fireaway'' es notable especialmente por las cualidades 
que hacen de ^1 el mejor caballo de silla que jamds se ha 
visto en Inglaterra, y las virtudes de su raza trasmitidas d este 
pais con la importaci6n del "Bellfounder" como se v6 en el 
capitulo de los caballos americanos de trote, han resultado de 
gran prpvecho en mds de un sentido. 

El color de los "Hackneys" es vario: los hay bayos, 
negros, oscuros y castaiios. A menudo tienen una estrella 
blanca, y algunas veces tienen las patas y los sobrecascos 
tambi^n blancos. En cuanto d su tamano son casi iguales al 
"French Coacher" que tiene de altura de quince d diez y seis 
manos, y de peso de mild mil trescieutas libras. El "Hack- 
ney" tiene la cruz alta, los cuartos delanteros fuertemente in- 
clinados, el pescuezo bien arqueado, la cabeza muy alta, el 
lomo corto, las patas de mediana longitud, el cuerpo fomido, 
las canas anchas y aplanadas, las sobrecascos mds cort6s que 
en los caballos de raza pura y los de trote, pero mas largos 
que en los de la raza de tiro, las patas firmes y de tamano 
moderado, el antebrazo especialmente corto, de donde re- 
sulta que puedan levantar bien altas las patas, y los cuartos 
traseros musculosos y compactos. 



\ 

/ 



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EI. CABAI.I.O. 33 

El "Hackney" es manso por naturaleasa, y la velocidad de 
que es capaz cuando estd ensillado, aunque no puede compa- 
rarsedc; ning^na manera con la del caballo de trote, es sin em- 
bargo suficiente paraque puedausarse sin desventaja aun para 
camiajes pesados. El "Hackney*' se aproxima mds estrecha- 
mente al tipodel caballo de trote que d cualquiera otro de las 
razas que se usan para carruages. Es por regla general fuerte, 
de constituci6n poderosa, y con mucho brio al mismo tiempo. 
Puede contarse tambi^n con la facultad de resistir la fatiga de 
una larga distancia que adoma d los mejores caballos de esta 
dase. > 

El " Hackney " ha venido d ser el caballo favorito de los 
ingleses, destindndosele d toda clase de trabajo. Se le usa 
para pasear en los parques y para tirar de carruajes lijeros. 
En nuestras ciudades del Este donde existe la tendencia dd 
modelar las cosas conforme al sistema ingl^s» el " Hackney " 
ba encontrado un hogar que lo recibe con simpatia. 

CABALLOS FRANCESES DE COCHE. 

Estos caballos ( "French Coachers ' ') son el resultado directo 
de la sabiduria y prevision del Gobiemo francos. A fines del 
siglo XVIII {undo este Gobiemo establecimientos de crianza 
de caballos, previendo que habna pronto una escasez de estos 
animales propios para el servicio de la caballeria. Hizo 
traer de Inglaterra caballos padres de pura raza y los puso d 
disposici6n de los criadores, d precios muy bajos, siendo el 
principal objeto del Gobiemo comprar los potros que de esta 
manera se obtuvieren, y conseguir tambi^n, si fuera posible, 
una raza particular del tipo que deseaba. Di6 esto iugar d 
muchas causas de queja, por cuanto se vendieron animales de 
muy buena aparencia, pero sin los requisitos apetecidos, espe- 
cialmente cuando se trataba de usarlos para prop6sitos de 
crianza. El Gobiemo francos tuvo al fin, para remediar estos 
males, que adoptar el plan de comprar potros de superior 
cualidad para dedicarlos d ser en su oportunidad caballos 
padres, cridndolos entre tanto y cuidando de ellos en estableci- 
mientos sostenidos por el Estado. 



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34 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Ademds de esto se concede en Francia una prima d los 
posedores de caballos padres de superior cualidad, & condi- 
ci6n de que no salgan del pais y permanezcan en 6\ haciendo 
el servicio d que se les destina. Tambi^n se permite que los 
duenos de caballos padres buenos, aunque no de clase superior, 
puedan ofrecerios para el Servicio sin recibir auxilio pecuniario . 
Ningiin caballo padre que no pertenezca d estas dos clases, 6 
que no sea de la propiedad del Gobienio, puede usarse legal- 
mente. 

En algunos departamentos de Francia, espedalmente en el 
de Orae, el de Calvados y el del Sena inferior, el Gobiemo 
se ocupa directamente de atender d la propagaci6n y perpe- 
tuidad de la raza de los caballos de coche. 

El color de este caballo francos es generalmente bayo, pero 
hay muchos que son castaiios y tambi^n negros. Los que la 
nioda prefiere en America son los bayos. y la mayor p^rte de 
nuestros importadores los escojen con el objeto de suplir esta 
deuianda del mundo elegante. Su tamaiio es casi el mismo 
que el de los caballos de la raza de ** Cleveland," y su peso 
por t6rmino medio varia entre mil y mil y doscientas libras 
en los caballos padres. Su cabeza es pequena con la frente 
ancha, con ojos expresivos, boca y nariz finas, y orejas media- 
nas y de rdpido movimiento. El pescuezo lo tiene largo, 
bien arqueado y fimiemente asentado en los cuartos delanteros 
que son largos y suavemente inclinados, el lomo es corto, las 
ancas largas y levantadas, las patas de buena longitud, bieu 
trabadas y con cascos duros y bien confomiados. El aspecto 
general de estos caballos, como podrd descubrirse echando una 
mirada d los grabados que los representen, es exactamente lo 
que su nombre indica : un caballo de carruaje elegante y bien 
hecho con buenos movimientos y de bella apariencia. 

LOS '^CLEVELAND BAYS.** 

No tenemos datos aut^nticos respecto al origen de la raza 
que Ueva este nombre, pero haremos constar lo que parece 
mas probable entre las muchas teoria? que sobre este asunto 
ban sido propuestas. 



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EL CABALLO. 35 

Seg6n el Profesor Low, esta raza ** ha sido formada de la 
misxna manera que el 'Hunter,* d saber; por la mezcla 
progresiva de la sangre del caballo de carrera con la de los 
caballos oriandos del pais." 

El nombre de la raza estd tornado del distrito de Cleveland 
en Yorkshire en Inglaterra, donde fu^ conocida por primera 
vez, y el t^rmino "Bay" se anadi6 d esta designaci6n por 
causa de que el color bayo es el que prevalece en estos ani- 
males. 

Este color es invariablemente brillante, bien sea claro u 
oscuro. Las crines del pescuezo y de la cola son negras. 
Suele presentar el animal puntos negros y tambi^n una mancha 
blanca en la parte camosa del casco. El tamano de estos 
caballos es mediano, teniendo una alzada que varia de i6 
manos d i6 manos y 3 pulgadas. El peso varia tambi^n de 
mil ciento d mil trescientas libras. La cabeza de estos ani- 
males es de tamano regular, y la expresi6n de sus ojos es 
suave 6 inteligente. El pescuezo lo tienen bellamente arquea- 
do y bien asentado en los cuartos delanteros, que son largos 
y suavemcnte inclinados. El lomo es corto, los sobre lomos 
parejos y poderosos, las ancas de buen tamano, las patas 
derechas, fomidas v sin largos pelos en el sobrecasco. 

Los ** Cleveland Bays " son caballos utiles para cualquier 
objeto, pues tienen suficiente peso par^ ejecutar todos los tra- 
bajosagricolas ordinarios, ademds de la actividad, elegancia, y 
velocidad de paso que se necesita para el tiro, bien sea de 
carros 6 carruajes. Trasmiten d sus descendientes su color, 
su constituci6n, elegancia, mansedumbre, docilidad, y sus 
demds cualidades caracteristicas, de una manera sumamente 
marcada. Son fdciles de manejar, y para el prop6sito de 
mezclar su raza con la nuestra ordinaria del gran Sudoeste 
nos parece que seria imposible encontrar ningunos otros que 
les fuesen superiores, ni tal vez iguales. Dos caballos c^lebres 
Uamados *' Roj^alty " y "Lord Derby," uno y otro agraciados 
con premios, Son excelentes representantes de esta raza y 
justifican plenamente el buen juicio proverbial de sus respec- 
tivos importadores. 



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36 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

LOS ** PUNCH'' DE SUFFOLK. 

Esta close de caballos que per muchos anos ha gozado de 
mucha popularidad en Inglaterra ha encontrado mucho favor 
en los ul times anos entre los criadores americanos. hi origen 
de esta raza es algo oscuro, pero segiin los me j ores datos 
existentes puede decirse que es debido d la mezcla de caballos 
padres normandos con las mejores yeguas de Suffolkshire. 
La verdad de esta teoria se demuestra claramente por el color 
castano lijero 6 alazdn, que es una mezcla del bayo y del tor- 
dillo, el primero de cuyos colores es el distintivo de la 
yeguas de Suffolk, mientras que el segundo lo es, por regla 
general, del caballo normando. 

En ^poca tan remota como 1745, ya tenia fama el caballo de 
Suffolk por su cualidad predominante y caracteristica, que es el 
tiro de grgnde pesos. En los peri6dicos ingleses de aquellos 
tiempos pueden encontrarse noticias respecto d este particu- 
lar. El mejoramiento que ha experimentado esta clase 
especialmente en los liltimos veinte y cinco anos ha sido muy 
notable. 

El color de estos caballos es casi invariablemente 6 alazdn 
6 castano. Su tamaiio es un poco mds chico que el de los 
"Shires" 6 "Clydesdales, "pues su alzada'por t^rmino medio 
es de quince manos y tres cuartas d diez y seis y media manos. 
Su peso en pleno desarrollo varia de mil cuatrocientas d mil 
ochocientas libras. Su cuerpo es enjuto y compacto, sus 
patas cortas y limpias y con los sobrecascos libres de los pelos 
largos que tienen los "Shires** y los "Clydes.** Los cuartos 
anteriores son largos y bien conformados para el tiro, los 
huesos pequeiios pero s61idos, los cuartos traseros largos, 
pesados y bien ajustados d un iomo corto y fomido. El 
aspecto general del animal lo hace aparecer al pronto como 
un caballo alazdn de mediana altura, de cuerpo redondo y 
pesado y de patas cortas. El "Suffolk** es por esencia un ani- 
mal de tiro de mucho precio por causa de su notable firmeza 
y const ancia en el trabajo. 

El arrastrard el mdximum posible de peso sin que se necesite 
usar el Idtigo ni apremiar en ninguna manera su natural 
libertad de acci6n en el trabajo. 



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EL CABALLO. 37 

Como caballo de uso general para los agricultores seria 
dificil encontrar otro que fuese mas adecuado, puesto que 
tiene un paso bueno y rdpido, ademds de suficiente peso y 
resistencia para tirar del arado 6 del rastro. 

LOS "PERCHERONS." 

El *' Percheron ** es uu antiguo caballo francos, notable por 
su trabajo de tiro rdpido y efectivo, cuya excelencia segun 
siempre se ha supuesto depende en mucho de la sangre 
oriental que corre en sus venas. 

Su color varia, pero por regla general puede decirse que es 
tordillo, generalmente del matiz mas oscuro. Los hay sin 
embargo enteramente negros y tambi^n bayos ; y ent;re los 
mismos tordillos los hay que varian desde el mas oscuro hasta 
el casi bianco. 

Son estos caballos de poca alzada y de aierpo ancho y casi 
cuadrado, con la cabeza magnifica y un pescuezo que por su 
belleza no seria desdenado por el mds elegante de los caballos 
drabes. Sus patas son cortas en proporci6n, y aunque macizas 
son sin embargo finas y enjutas. 

Los criadores de estos caballos mantienen que estdn per- 
fectamente libres de toda enfermedad de los huesos y en las 
patas. Nuestra propia experiencia sin embargo, especial- 
mente con los potros obtenidos por el cruzamiento de esta 
raza con la dc las yeguas nativas, no ha corroborado este 
aserto. Ademds de esto no faltan tampoco algunos criadores 
y varias personas de otras clases que ban empleado los 
'* Percherons'* en trabajos agricolas pesados 6 en otras cosas, 
que creen sujetos estos animales d las referidas enfermedades 
en mayor ^rado tal vez que las otras razas. 

El "Percheron** es un caballo de tiro. Los padres en 
perfect© desarrollo pesan de mil seiscientas d dos mil ciento 
6 dos mil doscientas libras. Su progenie obtenida con 
yeguas ordinarias no excede nunca en pleno desarrollo del 
peso de mil ochocientas libras, variando ordinariamente 
entre mil doscientas y mil setecientas. 

Son los "Percherons ** prontos, activos 6 inteligentes. 



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^S BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Hay quien los considera resabiosos y sabemos de un buen 
numero de representantes de esta raza que son de mala dis- 
posici6n. Pero puede tambi^n suceder que estos defectos 
dependan del mal manejo de los que andan con ellos. 

Aunque resisten los cambios de clima tanto como los caballos 
de cualquiera otra raza, no podemos sin embargo decir, como 
lo hacen algunos criadores, que se aclimatan sin peligro. 

LOS ''CLYDESDALES." 

Los caballos Uamados "Clydesdale** deben su m^rito 
original, asi como los '* Percherons,'* los franceses de tiro, y 
en general todos los de las otras razas, que se dedican d este 
ultimo uso, al caballo negro de Flandes, que es un descen- 
dieente por Hnea recta del gran caballo negro del norte de 
Europa. 

Su color es generalmente 6 bayo 6 negro, u oscuro, teniendo 
por lo comun una faja blanca en la cara, cuando toda la cara 
no tenga este color. Las patas principalmente en la parte in- 
ferior son siempre mds 6 menos blancas. De vez en cuando 
se encuentra un '* Clydesdale ** cervuno, castana, 6 alazdn. 
El color que puede considerarse distintivo de la raza es el 
bayo claro, mucho mds pdlido en los costados y en la parte 
interna de los muslos y en la inferior del vientre. Juzgando 
por el tamano pudieran clasificarse estos animales entre los 
pertenecientes d las razas de mayor volumen, puesto que los 
caballos padres varian en peso de mil setecientas d dos mil 
cien libras, mientras que las yeguas pesan entre mil doscientas 
y mil seiscientas libras. 

En su apariencia externa el ** Clydesdale** es un caballo 
grande, alto, de cuerpo prolongado, de cabeza larga, de pes- 
cuezo mediano, patas firmes, muy llenas de pelo debajo de la 
rodilla y con los cuartos delanteros largos € inclinados. Esta 
ultima cualidad es digna de tenerse en cuenta, pues que in- 
dica mayor actividad que la usual en las razas de caballos de 
gran volumen. 

Comparados los "Clydesdales*' con los "Percherous** 6 los 
caballos franceses de tiro, se encontrard que tienen el cuerpo 



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Et CABAI.I/>. 39 

mds largo que estos ultimos, que sus patas son tambi^n mds 
largas, y que tienen mayor docilidad. Las observaciones que 
hetnos hecho, y la experiencia que hemos adquirido respecto 
de potros de sangre mezclada, obtenidos con yeguas del 
pais, justifican plenamente el aserto de que son casi sin ex- 
cepci6n mansos, quietos, inteligentes y f4ciles de domar. 
Una de sus cualidades caracteristicas mas prominentes es que 
naturalmente caminan pronto. El agricultor americano no 
tarda mucho en apreciar que una pareja de caballos que puede 
arar tres acres de terreno en uu dia es superior d la que con 
el raismo instrumento no pueda arar mds que dos acres, y este 
hecho ha servido de mucho para favorecer el cr^dito de los 
** Clydesdales" en America. 

La tendencia que se ha observado ultimamente de diferen- 
ciar mds y mds las razas de los ''Clydesdales'* y de los 
**Shires*' ingleses ha inclinado d los criadores de los primeros 
d fijarse sobre todo en el aspecto y los movimientos, bajando 
gradualmente el promedio en el peso, dejando asf d los cria- 
dores de los segundos un mercado libre para la demanda de 
grande peso y volumen, y descuidando hasta cierto punto 6 de- 
jando en lugar secundario, todo lo que se refiere d la accion 6 
facilidad en las movimientos. 

Un particular acerca del cual muchos encuentran objeci6n 
es la franja de pelo largo que tiene este caballo en el sobre - 
casco; y de ahi ha resultado que varios criadores hayan 
emprendido remover 6 dismiuuir este signo distintivo; pero 
hasta ahora no puede juzgarse del resultado. En el Sud 
los "Clydes'* no son tal vez tan conocidos como los caballos 
de tiro franceses, pero los pocos que se han enviado alii pare- 
cen haberdado muy buen resultado. En realidad ha llegado 
d decirse que ningun otro caballo de raza pesada puede sopor- 
tar tan bi^n el clima del Sud. 



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40 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL 
EXPOSITION. 



There is to be held at Atlanta, Ga., U. S. A., in the fall 
of 1895 an Exposition, international in its character, and de- 
signed to demonstrate the practicability of extending the trade 
of the Southern States of this country with the South and 
Central American Republics. The central idea of the pro- 
moters of this enterprise is thus expressed, and yet, as they 
have proceeded with their work they have found themselves 
tending constantly in the direction of a really international 
exposition. The promoters believe in the assured completion 
of the Nicaragua Canal and are awake to the necessity for tak- 
ing early steps to secure the trade that will naturally result from 
the completion of this undertaking. They have witnessed 
the rapid growth of the Southern Republics and the growing 
inclination of their people to trade with this country. Tak- 
ing steps to increase their lines of manufacturing, the enter- 
prising people of the New South are looking for enlarged 
markets for their productions and believe they can see them 
among the people of this Continent. Speaking in the lan- 
guage of their preliminary prospectus the promoters of the 
Atlanta Exposition say: 

The central idea of the '* Cotton States and International 
Exposition*' is to increase the trade and secure closer com- 
mercial relations between this country and Central and South 
America, Mexico and the West Indies. The certainty of 
the construction of the Nicaragua Canal, the rapid progress 
being made in those couniries, and the growing demand for 
manufactures, material and supplies, which these United 
States can furnish, make it imperative that we shall bring 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 4 1 

to their attention at the earliest date and most convenient 
place the full capability of this countr}'^ to supply all their 
needs, and also demonstrate the exceptional facilities our sea- 
ports provide for the mutual interchange of commodities. No 
country in the world can hold forth equal advantages for such 
commerce with all of this western continent as the United 
States, but the small per cent of trade we enjoy is proof that 
we have not given it the attention it required. 

The charter of this company proposes that it "shall hold 
in or near the city of Atlanta, an exposition of the products 
and resources of the Cotton States and other States of the 
United Slates and of all other countries, and of the appli- 
ances, machinery, inventions and devices used in cultivation, 
prepartion, manufacture and use of such products and re- 
sources, together with exhibitions of works of art, and in- 
ventions of all persons who may exhibit the same.*' 

Under this charter the company has already secured in the 
city of Atlanta alone nearly one-quarter of a million of dol- 
lars as a minimum fund, and has secured the use of the splen- 
did grounds and buildings of the Piedmont Exposition Com- 
pany, on which has been expended nearly ^200,000. 

These grounds are just outside the city limits, beautifully 
located, and supplied with ample transportation facilities, 
consisting of convenient tracks on the main line of the Rich- 
mond and Danville railroad, with well-arranged stations at the 
grounds and in the city, and also three finished electric lines 
from the center of the city to the grounds, also streets with 
asphalt and block pavements leading direct to the gates. 

Plans are under way for large and complete buildings filled 
with all that is necessary to accommodate the largest ex- 
hibit that can be collected, and surpassed by no exposition 
held in this country, except the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion and the Centennial at Philadelphia. 

GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS. 

A bill has been introduced in Congress to secure the aid of 
the United States and a Government exhibit in a national 
building, such as has been made several times elsewhere, and 



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42 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

showing the progress since made, and especially adapted to 
the development of the Cotton and other Southern States. 

WOMAN'S BUILDING. 

A large, capable and enthusiastic committee of ladies is 
already energe.ically at work to secure the funds for a build- 
ing to be devoted to the exhibition of woman's work and 
progress in every department of domestic, social, literary, 
art, or other work by which the feminine talent of this age 
is making the world richer and purer. The work already 
done is a guarantee of a magnificent success. 

NEGRO BUILDING. 

The progress of the Negro race since their emancipation 
has had no adequate presentation at any time, and now it is 
proposed to accept the proffer of Bishops Gaines, Turner and 
others to give the opportunity for a full display in a building 
of their own, of the best product of their race in the various 
industries and pursuits that have been open to them, and 
such evidences as they can present of educational and intel- 
lectual progress. The few and inadequate presentations they 
have made have fitted them to enter at this time into a larger 
and more complete exposition of their own work. 

STATE EXHIBITS. 

The unanimous and enthusiastic indorsement of the Ei 
sition by the governors of all the Southern States and 
hearty responses made by them to the proposition fd 
interstate feature, assures the probability of magnif 
State exhibits. The location of the Exposition in the 
center of these States will give all an equal chance to pre^ 
to the world a more complete exhibit of the wealth, progr^ 
and future possibilities of the South, and on a scale prop 
tioned to their most ambitious desires. 



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K 



:tion. 43 

U 

^ — Mexico, 

be invited 

^3. ^ Uional and 

} provided 

< to the cou- 

S and the 

loser com-^ 

f the Nica- 

^'^ ressofthat 



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42 



showing the 
the develop 



A large, ( 
already ei^e 
ing to be dc 
progress in 
art, or othe: 
is making t' 
done is a gi 



The prog 
has had no 
proposed to 
others to gi 
of their ow 
industries i 
such eviden 
lectual prog 
have made 
and more c< 



The unan 
sition by tt 
hearty resp< 
interstate f 
State exhib 
center of th 
to the work 
and future 
tioned to th 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 43 

FOREIGN STATES. 

Foreign countries, and especially those near us — Mexico, 
the West Indies, Central and South America — will be invited 
to participate by representative exhibits, both national and 
individual, in buildings of their own, and in those provided 
by the management. These will give an impetus to the con- 
stantly increasing trade between those countries and the 
United States at Southern ports, and bring about closer com- 
mercial relations, in anticipation of the building of the Nica- 
ragua Canal, and greatly aid in the successful progress of that 
enterprise. 

The appended map shows the position of Atlanta with 
reference to the great marts of commerce in the United States 
as well as to the seaports from which products of this country 
are to be exported. 



LOS EST ADOS ALGODONEROS Y LA EXPO- 
SICION INTERNACIONAL. 



Eu el otofio de 1895 ha de tener lugar en la ciudad de At- 
lanta, Estado de Georgia, de los Estados Unidos de America, 
una Exposicion, que tendrd el caracter de internacional, y 
cuyo objeto principal serd poner de manifiesto la posibilidad 
practica deaumentarel trafico mercantil entre los Estados del 
Sud de este pais y las Republicas de las Americas Central y 
del Sud. En el desenvolvimiento de esta idea fundamental 
del certamen, encontraron los promotores que era indispen- 
sable convertirlo prdcticamente en una verdadera Exposicion 
Internacional. Para ellos es asunto de firme creencia que el 
canal de Nicaragua ha de ser construido, y que es por tanto 
indispensible tomar desde ahora, 6 cuanto mas pronto sea 
posible, medidas necesarias para apoderarse del trdfico que ha 
de resultar naturalmente dela reali2aci6nde aquella empresa. 
Ellos han presenciado el rdpido desenvolvimiento que ha 



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44 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tenido efecto en las Reptiblicas latino-americanas, y tienen 
conocimiento de la inclinaci6n cada ve/, mayor que existe 
entre sus habitantes de tntrar con nuestro pais en relaciones 
comerciales. Y juzgan, por lo tanto, que al emprender como 
ha emprendido el pueblo laborioso y en^rgico del nuevo Sud 
el acrecentamiento de su industria fabril, y buscar natural- 
mente para sus manufacturas mercados nuevos, se facilita 
mucho la realizaci6n de ambas tendencias, estableci6ndose un 
comercio cuyas corrientes no tengan que salir de los limites 
de este hemisferio. Usando las palabras de que se valieron 
en su Prospecto. preliminar los promotores de la Exposici6n 
de Atlanta, debe decirse lo siguiente: 

'* La idea fundamental de la *Exposici6n Internacional de 
los Estados algodoneros ' es aumentar el trdfico entre este pais 
y los Estados de Centro y Sud America, Mexico y las Antillas, 
estrechando lo mas posible sus relaciones comerciales. La 
certeza de que el canal de Nicaragua llegard d construirse — 
el rdpido progreso de los pafses antes nombrados — y la cre- 
ciente demanda que en estos se nota por las ma lufacturas, el 
material, y las provisiones que los Estados Unidos pueden 
suministrar — son cosas todas que hacen imperativo para noso- 
tros llamar la atenci6n de los dichos pueblos, lo mas pronto 
posible, y de la manera y en el lugar que sea mas conve- 
niente, hacia las oportunidades que les ofrece este pafs, y las 
facilidades con que cuenta para proveerlos de cuanto pueden 
necesitar — demostrando al mismo tiempo las ventajas excep- 
cionales que tienen nuestros puertos de mar para el mutuo 
canje de mercancfas. 

'*No hay pais en el mundo que pueda ofrecer para este 
comercio del hemisferio occidental las ventajas que ofrecen 
los Estados Unidos. Si las cifras hasta ahora obtenidas no 
corresponden debidamente d lo que debia esperarse de este 
hecho cierto, hay que atribuirlo d que no hemos prestadp al 
asunto la atenci6n debida. 

"La carta fundamental de esta Compaiiia pone de mani- 
fiesto que es su prop6sito celebrar en la ciudad de Atlanta, 6 
en sus inmediaciones una Exposici6n de los productos y 
recursos de los Estados algodoneros, como tambi^n de los de 



J 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 45 

otros Estados de los Estados Unidos y del extranjero, exhi- 
bi6ndose ademds en ella las invenciones, mdquinas, y sistemas 
y procedimientos en prdctica, para el cultivo, 6 fabricaci6n, 
seguu sea el caso, de los articulos exbibidos, asi come 
tambi^n las obras de arte y los inventos de cualquier g^nero 
que quieran mostrarse al publico. 

"Paia Uevar a debido efecto los prop6sitos que acaban de 
explicarse, la Compaiiia ha reunido ya, en solo la ciudad de 
Atlanta, el capital minimo de doscientos cincuenta mil pesos, 
y contratado ademds el uso de los espldndidos edificios y ter- 
renos de la Compaiiia denominada ' Piedmont Exposition 
Company,' en que se ban gastado como j2oo,ooo pr6xima- 
mente. 

** Estos terrenos, colocados A muy corta distancia de los 
limites de la ciudad, y bellamente dispuestos, estdn provistos 
de abundantes facilidades para el transporte de la gente y de 
los articulos exbibidos. La Ifnea troncal del ferrocarril de 
Richmond y Danville estd unida con ellos por medio de un 
ramal conveniente, que estd provisto de c6modas estaciones. 
Hay tambi^n tres lineas de carros movidos por electricidad 
que parten del centro de la ciudad y terminan en los mismos 
terrenos. Y 4 todo debe anadirse que las calles y caminos 
ordinarios que conducen 4 los viajeros, hasta las mismas puertas 
de la Exposivi6n, estdn pavimentadas con asfalto, 6 con trozos 
de madera. 

'* Estdn completdndose los pianos de los nuevos edificios 
que se trata de construir, y se espera que en todos ellos se 
habra de encontrar reunida la colecci6n de articulos m4s 
grande que se haya nunca exhibido en ninguna parte en este 
pais, excepto en Chicago en la Exposici6n Universal Colom- 
bina, 6 en Philadelphia, en la tambi^n universal del cente- 
nario de la independencia. 

EDIFICIOS DEL GOBIERNO. 

" En el Congreso de los Estados Unidos de America se 
present6 oportunamente un proyecto de ley con el objecto de 
obtener del Gobiemo federal n6 solo su auxilio pecuniario 
sino tambi^n la remisi6n de los articulos adecuados, para que 



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46 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

sean exhibidos, segtin se ha hecho hasta ahora muchas veces 
en casos andlogos, en un edificio nacional. Allipodrdobser- 
varse el progreso que se ha efectua^o en el desarrollo de la 
riqueza y de los recursos de los Estados algodoneros y de los 
demds de la Uni6n." 

EL EDIFICIO DE LAS MUJERES. 

"Una Comisi6n de Seiioras, numerosa en su personal, y 
llena de entusiasmo, adenids de ser sumamente capa^6 ilustrada, 
ha tornado & su cargo, con en6rgico empeno, la reunion de 
fondos con el objeto de levantar un edificio en que se exhibau 
los resultados del trabajo de las mujeres, y el progreso que 4 
ellas se debe en los diftrentes raraos de la actividad social, 
no solo en lo relativo al hogar dom6stico, sino tambi^n en las 
ciencias, las artes, la literatura, y en todas las demas esferas 
en que bajo la influencia de su sexo se purifica 5' se mejora 
el mundo. Lo que hasta ahora tiene conseguido esta 
Comision es una garantfa de que sus esfuerzos seran coronados 
por un dxito magnifico." 

EL EDIFICIO DE LOS NEGROS. 

"El progreso alcanzado por la raza negra despuds de su 
emancipaci6n no se ha exhibido nunca de una manera satis- 
factoria y adecuada. Ahora se trata de llenar esta omisi6n 
aceptando la oferta de los Obispos Gaines, Turner y otros, que 
se proponen hacer una exhibici6n completa de este particular, 
en un edificio exclusivamente construido por ellos para este 
objeto. AUi se verdn los mejores productos del trabajo y 
actividad de los negros, y se pondrd de manifiesto tambi^n el 
progreso que hayan realizado hasta ahora en punto d educa- 
ci6n y cultivo intelectual. Las exhibiciones de este genero 
que ya ha habido, aunque pocas y bastante incompletas, han 
preparado sin embargo d los promotores de este pensamiento 
para hacer esperar en el presente caso algo verdaderamento 
satisfactorio." 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 47 

EXPOSICIONES PARTICULARES DE CADA ESTADO. 

"La aprobaci6n undnime y entusiasta que han dado al pen- 
samiento de la Exposici6n los Goberaadores de todos los Es- 
tados del Sud y la cordial respuesta que de todos ellos se lia 
recibido respecto d que concurran al certameii los Estados d 
que respectivamente presiden, hacen esperar que los resulta- 
dos que se obtendrdn en este punto serdn magnificos. Situada 
como lo estardla Exposici6n en el verdadero centro de aquellos 
Estados, tendrdn todos id^nticas oportunidades para ostentar 
por completo su riqueza y su progreso, asf como las posibili- 
dades que tiene el Sud en lo futuro, haci6ndolo todo en tal 
escala que satisfaga sus mas ambiciosos deseos.'* 

ESTADOS EXTRANJEROS. 

"A los Estados extranjeros, y especialmente d Mexico, las 
Antillas, Centro America, y la America del Sud se les invitard 
•d que concurran, tanto nacional como individualmente, en- 
viando sus respectivos articulos, y exhibi^ndolos, bien en edi- 
ficios construidos por los mismos paises, bien en los que 
aqui se provean para ese objeto. Con esto se dard impulso al 
tndfico siempre creciente entre los referidos pueblos y los 
puertos del Sudde los Estados Unidos de America, y se entre- 
chardn todavia mas las relaciones comerciales que existen en 
el dia, y que deben procurar fomentarse ahora mds que nunca, 
en vista de que se va d construir el canal de Nicaragua, y de 
lomucho que puede hacerse en favor de tan util empresa.** 

Los mapas que se acompaiian muestran la situaci6n de At- 
lanta relativamente d los grandes centros de comercio en los 
Estados Unidos de America, y tambi^n d los puertos de mar 
por donde pueden exportarse los productos de este pais. 



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48 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



MEXICO. 



ENCOURAGEMENT TO GOLD MINING. 

Legation of the United States, 

Mexico, June ij, 1894, 
To the Honorable Secretary of State, 

IVashin^^toHy D, C. 
Sir: In encouragement to gold mining in this country the Mexican 
Government, by Federal decree, grants certain concessions to parties 
who engage in the development of gold mines and placers. I have the 
honor to inclose copy of said decree, taken from the Diario Oficial of 
the 1 2th instant, together with a translation thereof. I am, sir, etc. 

(Signed) Isaac P. Gray. 



Department of Public Works, 

■* . 

Third Bureau. 

The President of the Republic has been pleased to direct 
me the following decree, to wit: 

Porfirio Diaz, Constitutional President of the United 
Mexican States, to the inhabitants thereof. 

Know Ye^ 

That the Congress of the Union has been pleased to de- 
cree the following — 

The Congress of the Mexican States decrees: 

Sole Article. The Executive is hereby empowered, dur- 
ing the period of one year dated from the promulgation of 
this law, to make contracts for the prospecting and operating 
of gold mines and placers, in accordance with legislation now 
in force, and subject to the following conditions amendatory 
of said legislation: 

First. The contracts shall be in the form of concessions, 
which the Executive shall issue freely, and upon the hypothe- 



\ 



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MEXICO — ENCOURAGEMENT TO GOLD MINING. 49 

sis that it is in possession of data sufficient to justify the 
belief that such concession is to cover the mining of gold in 
the district to be developed. 

Second. For the purposes of this decree gold mining regions 
shall include deposits of that metal, whether alluvial or not, 
as well as deposits wherein the gold is found mixed with 
some other metal, but where the commercial value of the 
gold exceeds that of the other concomitant metals. 

Third. No region shall be considered as gold bearing if 
the average show of metals in all the mines included therein 
yields less of gold than expressed in the foregoing para- 
graph. 

Fourth. As soon as the nature of the ore changes in such 
manner that the average yield mentioned in the foregoing 
paragraph is not realized the contracts granted under this law 
shall be revoked. 

Fifth. Each contract shall clearly specify the limits of the 
tract to be developed. 

Sixth. Within the limits of such tract the concession- 
aires can designate and acquire as many claims as can be 
located upon unoccupied territory, or incorporate thereto 
claims belonging to the concessionaires prior to the date of 
the contract, as well as any others they may hereafter acquire 
by purchase or other legal manner. 

Seventh. Concessionaires shall obtain prospecting permits 
subject to the laws in force, all other companies or private 
individuals being inhibited from prospecting in that district 
for any kind of metals, but with the proviso that such permits 
shall be good for six months and no longer ; and that once 
lapsing and during the two years immediately succeeding, 
neither the concessionaires nor any other party can obtain 
such exceptional prospecting permits. 

Eighth. The concessionaires can import into the Repub- 
lic, free of import duties, the machinery, instruments, tools 
and necessary apparata for the purposes of prospecting and 
development of materials of construction for mines and 
metallurgical officies, provided such concessionaires first 
advise in each case with the Department of the Treasury and 



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50 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

abide by the regulations thereby imposed. Should the coq- 
cessionaires sell a portion or all of the supplies thus imported 
without the consent of the Government, they shall lose all 
such supplies thus sold, and forfeit also all the franchises 
granted in the concession, unless such sale be rendered neces- 
sary by bankruptcy or liquidation. 

Ninth. The concessionaires shall enjoy a rebate on the 
annual mining tax for a period of ten years, paying in the 
first year at the rate of one-tenth of the impost in force, and 
an increasing amount each year until the full tax becomes 
payable in the eleventh year. 

Tenth. During ten years time the concessionaires shall be 
exempt from all Federal impost, with the exception of the 
tax alluded to in the foregoing article, and with the exception 
of taxes payable in stamps, and mintage and assay taxes or 
dues. 

Eleventh. The concessionaires shall invest in their under- 
taking, during the first three years, a capital of $500,000 at 
least, to be increased to $1,000,000 during the following five 
years. 

Twelfth. The concessionaires shall, within the tinie of the 
terms designated in the contract, present the plans, samples, 
ores, descriptive reports and geological specimens resultant 
upon their prospects. 

Thirteenth. The concessionaires shall allow an inspector, 
appointed and salaried by the Executive, to examine the 
work of prospect and of mining. 

Fourteenth. The concessionaires shall guarantee compli- 
ance with their obligations by a deposit, in minimum, of 
$10,000 in bonds of the public debt, to be furnished at the 
time of signing of the contract, and which they can not re- 
deem until they have proven the inversion of capital (see 
Article II) of at least $200,000. If the bonds deposited bear 
interest the depositors shall withdraw the coupons in due 
time for collection. 

Fifteenth. The exemptions from imposts mentioned in the 
ninth and tenth articles do not include the mining of alluvial 
gold. In such case the concessionaires, if discoverers thereof. 



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MEXICO — IRRIGATION. 5 I 

shall pay, during the mining of such alluvial gold, at the rate 
of one-third of the imposts in force. 

Sixteenth. Within two years from the date of this contract 
the concessionaires shall establish a metallurgic establishment 
of treating at least 400 tons of ore per week, or in place of 
such establishment, any other concern capable in the judg- 
ment of the Secretary of Public Works of such amotmt of 
work. 

I therefore order the same to be printed, published, cir- 
culated, and that due compliance be had thereto. 

Given in the Palace of the Federal Executive of the Union 
in Mexico, on June 4, 1894. 

(Signed) Porfirio Biaz. 

To Lie. Manuei, Fernandez Leal, 

Secretary of Public Works ^ Mexico, 



IRRIGATION. 



LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Mexico June 16, 1894, 
To the HONORABLE Secretary of State, 

Washington, D. C 
Sir: The enclosed extract from the Diario OficicUoi I5th.inst., will 
acquaint yon with the bases of concessions the Mexican executive is 
authorized, by Federal decree, to grant persons who may engage in. 
irrigation. 

I am, etc., (Signed) Isaac P. Gray. 

Department of Public Works, Mexico, 

Second Bureait. 
decree Junb 15, 1894. 

The President of the Republic has been pleased to ad- 
dress the following decree: 

Porfirio Diaz, Constitutional President of the United Mexi- 
can States, to the inhabitants thereof. 

Know Ye, 
That the Congress of the Union has been pleased to decree — 
The Congress of the United Mexican States decrees: 



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52 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Article I. The executive is authbrized, under this law and 
the law of June 5, 1888, to make concessions to private par- 
ties and to companies for the better use and improvement of 
waters lying within the Federal jurisdiction, for irrigating 
purposes, and as power to be applied to various industries. 

Article II. The concessions which may be granted shall be 
under the following conditions: 

1. Prior publication of petition in the official journal of the 
respective Federal Entity or State. 

2. Without conflict with the interests or vested rights of 
any third party; the courts first deciding in case of objections 
filed. 

3. Presentation of plans, profile charts and descriptive re- 
ports for the full comprehension^ of contemplated works^ 
such presentation to be made within the time specified in the 
concession. 

4* The obligation to allow an engineer to inspect the plans 
and construction of all the works, an inspector appointed by 
the Executive and paid by the Company. 

5. Obligation to make a deposit, in bonds of the public 
debt to guarantee compliance with the stipulations under the 
concessions. 

6. Obligation"^ to submit for examination and approval, 
to the Department of Public Works, all schedules for sale or 
lease of waters. 

Article III. The Executive can grant to Companies the 
following concessions and privileges: 

1. Exemption for five years from every Federal impost, 
save the internal-revenue stamp taxes, on all capital in- 
vested in the plans, construction and repair of the works de- 
fined in the contracts. 

2. The duty-free importation, for one sole time, of the 
machinery, scientific instruments and apparata necessary to 
the plans, construction and development of the works. 

3. The right to occupy, free of expense, public and 
national lands for the passage of canals, the construction of 
dams or dykes, and the formation of reservoirs. 

4. The right to appropriate, on the ground of public serv- 



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MEXICO— COAL FIELDS. 53 

ice and utility, the property of private parties, per payment 
of proper indemnity, and in accordance with the provisions 
defined by the railroads, in tracts sufficient for the uses de- 
scribed in the foregoing Article. 

Article IV. Pursuant to the provisions of this law and those 
of the law of June 5, 1888, the Executive shall regulate the 
issue of waters in the Federal District and Territories, mak- 
ing concessions for the construction of dams and reservoirs, 
subject likewise to the stipulations established in the Civil 
Code. 

Article V. The Executive is authorized to grant the duty- 
free importation on machinery and apparata necessary for 
the using of waters for purposes of irrigation and power to 
companies obtaining concessions for that piu-pose from the 
States, provided such companies give guarantees to perfect 
such works, and in accordance with rules and regulations to 
be established therefor by the Executive of the Union. 

(Signed) Pablo Macedo, Speaker House, 

R. DoNDfe, President Senate. 
E. Cervantes, Clerk House. 
A. Garcia, Clerk Senate. 
Ordered published, printed, circulated, etc. 



COAL FIELDS OF MEXICO. 

j The following interesting account of the discovery and 

; development of the coal fields of Mexico is taken from a 

recent number of a paper published in that Republic: 

Prior to 1880 it was generally assumed by both geologists 

( and engineers that there were no commercially important 

I coal -bearing formations in Mexico. As early as 1870 a 

j small amount of coal had been mined in the State of Sonora, 

near the town of Los Bronces, for the use of local smelters, 

and in some other portions of the country a little coal had 

been taken out for local use, but none of these deposits had 

been carefully examined, and in view of the almost entire 

absence of transportation facilities they were not deemed of 

4. much importance. By 1880 railroad development had coni- 



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54 BUREAU OF THK AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

menced to play an important part in opening hitherto inac- 
cessible regions, and when, about the time a number of 
samples of anthracite were sent to the Government Bureau 
of Mines for analysis, so much attention was attracted that 
a comitnission was appointed to visit and examine the locality 
from which it came, and also other points where coal was 
reported as existing. After devoting considerable time smd 
study to the matter the commission rendered a very compre- 
hensive report, in which it was shown that anthracite, bitu- 
minous and brown coals existed in a number of the Mexican 
States in such quantity as to be of the utmost economic im- 
portance to the country, so soon as railroads should be built 
to them, providing a means of transportation. Until nearly 
1890 very little work of importance was done, though many 
mines had been opened, some operated, and a better knowl- 
edge of the extent and condition of the coal fields arrived at. 
The most fully developed coal field in the country is that 
in the State of Coahuila. This is evidently a part of the 
coal field lying on the north side of the Rio Grande, around 
Eagle Pass, Tex., and covers a considerable area in the 
Mexican State named. Geologically, all of the coal mea- 
sures occur in the cretaceous formation, and are divided into 
two beds, the upper, or Laramie, and the lower, or Fox Hill, 
both corresponding with the coal-bearing fonnation of the 
same name in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. In what is 
^ termed the Rio Grande region, lying near to Piedras Ne- 
gras, the Fox Hill group outcrops and is mined to a small 
extent, the product being a variety of cannel coal, useful for 
certain purposes. From Sabinas, extending south and south- 
east, the Laramie group is developed, and in it the mines at 
Sabinas, San Felipe, Hondo, and Alamo are operating, sup- 
plying coal for various railroads, principally the Mexican In- 
ternational; making coke for the use of smelters in the various 
Mexican States, and also shipping a considerable portion of 
the output through the port of Piedras Negras into the United 
States. The coal measures throughout this region are greatly 
disturbed by faults and foldings, another difficulty encountered 
being the irregularity in the width of the seams, and oc- 
casional intervention of barren areas. 



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MEXICO — COAL FIELDS. 55 

In the State of Sonora, lying along the Gulf of California 
and extending north to the line of Arizona, coal was found 
and used by local silver smelters so early as 1870. At the 
towns of Los Bronces and La Barranca some small openings 
were also made. In 1890 an English company sent an engi- 
neer to examine the reported discovery of coal near San Mar- 
cial, sixty miles from Guaymas. It was found that about 17 
feet beneath the surface a seam of anthracite occurred, vari- 
ously reported as 3 to 9 feet in thickness. The company 
secured a concession of 4,000,000 acres of land, and planned 
to develop the coal and construct a railroad to the port of 
Guaymas, in the Gulf of California, from whence coal was 
to be exported and also supplied to Pacific steamers. Failing 
to carry out the provisions specified, the concessions were 
declared forfeited, and shortly afterward were granted to a 
Mexican company, organized to carry on the proposed work. 
Explorations with the diamond drill and by prospectors show 
that this coal field is quite extensive. It is reported to 
have been traced sixty miles east from San Marcial, nearly 
one hundred and twenty miles northeast, and in the north to 
the Arizona line. The developments started by the Mexican 
company are about forty miles from Ortiz, lying between 
Hermosillo and Guaymas. The drill is said to have shown 
three distinct seams of coal, 2, 4, and 7^^ feet respectively. 

It is all anthracite or semi-anthracite, containing from 8 to 
15 per cent ash and sulphur, according to reported analyses. 

In the State of Puebla some fifty -nine coal mines had been 
opened up to 1896. In the district of Acatlan, in the southern 
part of the State, twenty mines were opened, eighteen of 
them belonging to one company. Owing to poor facilities 
for transportation, difficulties encountered in mining, and the 
rather poor quality of the coal, little work of importance has 
been done. Most of the mines were opened in hopes of 
securing from the State government the bounty of jf 1,000 per 
year for ten years, and freedom from taxation for twenty- 
five years, which had been oflFered to the first company which 
should supply Puebla with a quantity of coal at a price no 
higher than that of wood. Very attractive inducements were 



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56 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

also offered to railroads which would build in and develop 
these coal properties and the contiguous country. 

In the State of Jalisco coal has been found at a number of 
places — on the border of Lake Chapala, in the Rancho del 
Veralito, Chiquilista, and in the Ameca and San Gabriel val- 
leys. Small deposits have also been discovered in the 
States of Vera Cruz, Hidalgo, Taraaulipas, Tlaxcala and 
Nueva Leon, some of that occurring in the latter States, being 
used on the locomotives of the Mexican National Railroad. 
A deposit of a variety of bituminous coal known as Gra- 
hamite is reported as having been found a few miles up 
the river from Tampico. 

Brown coal, or lignite, is found in a number of loc lities in 
Mexico, but is little used, practically not at all in a com- 
mercial way. As a rule it presents the same peculiarities both 
as to formation and character as the lignites of Texas, Colo- 
rado and other localities in the United States. 



STEAMSHIP CONCESSION. 

The Diario Oficial publishes the concession granted to Mr. 
Elliseo Canton Julio for the establishment of two lines of 
navigation, one between the ports of the Gulf of Mexico, 
with the privilege of extension to the United States and Eu- 
rope; the other between the ports on the Paci6c Coast and the 
United States and South America. 

These navigation companies must be organized within a 
year from date; within two years one of the lines must be 
in service; and within two years and three months the other 
line. 

The Pacific line will be composed of three steamers of 
2,500 tons each, and two of 500 to 1,000 tons each; the former 
to have a speed of twelve knots, and the latter of eight. 

The Gulf line will have three steamers of 4,000 tons each; 
two of 2,000 tons each; and two of 500 to 1,000 tons each; 
the first five to have a speed of 12 to 14 knots, and the last 
two of 8 knots. 

The Pacific steamers will run between San Francisco, 



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MEXICO— MISCELLANEOUS NEWS. 57 

Cal., and Panama, with the privilege of extending further 
north and further south. 

The Gulf Steamers will ply between Vera Cruz, Progreso, 
Habana, and American and European ports, with the privi- 
lege of touching at any ports. 

The two lines must make connections with the terminal 
Stations of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec Railway, for inter- 
oceanic traffic. 

There will be special rates for Government freight and 
troops and employes, as well as immigrants. The latter must 
not be less than twenty -five in number on any steamer, in 
order to obtain the benefit of the reduction. 

Beans, peas, corU; rye, and other analogous national prod- 
ucts will pay as a maximum freight 40 francs per ton between 
the Gulf ports and Liverpool. 

The usual franchises and concessions are given, and the 
contract is for thirty-three years. 

Before the completion of the time fixed for the opening 
of the lines the concessionaire must give a bond as a guar- 
antee, in the sum of {30,000, or deposit that amount in bonds 
of the public debt. 



THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY OF MEXICO. 

Speaking of the tobacco industry of Mexico, the Two 
Republics published at the City of Mexico, in its issue of June 
2, says: 

It is an indisputable fact that there is a growing demand for 
Mexican tobacco i.i the United States and also in several 
markets of Europe, and it i» within the power of those who 
handle the leaf of this country to cause this demand to be- 
come very much greater. The best Mexican tobacco is too 
often converted into what are branded as Habana cigars, and 
many people who enjoy the fragrant weed of this country 
imagine they are smoking Cuban tobacco. As yet the cigar 
factories of this country can do little more than supply the 
domestic demand, and for this reason no great effort is being 
made to open up foreign markets for Mexican cigars. Until 



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58 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the excellence of the cigars of this country becomes more gen- 
erally recognized abroad, other countries will reap the greater 
part of the benefit to be derived from the growing popularity 
of the Mexican leaf. In other words, most of the tobacco 
exported from Mexico is made into cigars elsewhere, and 
smokers are not aware that the Cuban or American cigirs 
which they enjoy are made chiefly from Mexican tobacco. 
With cigars the case is different. These are usually sold 
for what they really are, and the more cigars Mexico exports 
the greater will become the fame of the tobacco of this 
country. 

The popularity of Mexican tobacco is further attested by 
the fact that the present growing crop of the State of Vera 
Cruz is about to be contracted for by owners of factories in 
Havana and the United States. 



THE TEHAUNTEPEC RAILWAY. 

The Tehauntepec Railway which has been in process of 
construction for the past forty years, and has in that time ex- 
perienced every phase of adversity, is now practically com- 
pleted. It is announced that the first train from ocean to 
ocean will pass over it on August i, proximo. 

The northern, or Atlantic, terminus is the port of Coatza- 
coalcos, at the mouth of the river of that name, and distant 
about twenty-five miles from the thrifty city of Minatitlan. 
The southern terminus is Salina Cruz, on the Pacific Ocean. 
The road is about 190 miles long, its general direction being 
north and south, traversing the southern portions of the 
States of Vera Cruz and Oaxaca. 

This is the first transcontinental line constructed in Mex- 
ico, and its completion is a matter of great importance not 
only to that Republic, but also to the entire maritime 
world ; especially the United States. The distance between 
United States ports and those on the west coast of Central 
and North America and Australia, will be materially short- 
ened over the present route via the Isthmus of Panama. 

The Republic of Mexico wisely retains control of this rail- 
way. 



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MEXICO— MISCELLANEOUS NEWS. 59 

ENCOURAGEMENT OF MERCHANT MARINE. 

The recent session of the Mexican Congress made the fol- 
lowing provisions looking to the encouragement and devel- 
opment of the merchant marine of that Republic. 

Congress, before adjourning, empowered the Executive to 
take all the necessary measures for the creation of a Mexican 
Merchant Marine, subject to the following conditions : 

I. Foreigners may be permitted to acquire national vessels. 

II. The present legislation as to the make up of crews is 
to be repealed. 

III. Registration of native or foreign-built vessels under 
the Mexican flag is to be facilitated by the abolition of the 
bond for the proper use of the flag. 

lY. The existing system of issuing shipping licenses is to 
be modified, and the rule making obligatory the renewal of 
such licenses is to be done away with. 

V. A Marine Registry is to be established as a measure of 
protection to seafaring men. 

VI. Bounties^ for the encouragement of shipbuilding may 
be granted in accordance with the following principles : 

a. The bounties for steamers shall be greater than for 
sailing vessels. 

b. The amount of bounties shall be assessed according to 
the gross tonnage of the vessel. 

c. The bounties for the construction of engines and othei' 
auxiliary apparatus shall be adjusted to a standard unit not 
less than one hundred kilograms in weight. 

VII. Navigation bounties may also be granted in accord- 
ance with the following principles : 

a. The unit of the bounty shall be greater for sailing ves- 
sels than for steamers. 

b. The bounties shall be proportional to the tonnage of the 
vessels and the distance run, measured on an orthodromic 
line. 

c. The bounties shall be granted to all shipbuilders and 
owners, and for not more than ten years. 

d. The navigation bounties shall be on a descending scale. 



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6o BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

e. Sailing vessels of less than fifty tons and steamers of 
less than seventy-five tons are not to be entitled to a bounty. 

VIII. A temporary reduction or removal of the import 
duties may be granted on materials of all kinds which enter 
into the construction of wooden, iron, or steel vessels, but in 
order to enjoy the benefit of such exemption importers must 
give a bond for the duties, to be cancelled when the employ- 
ment of the material in the construction of the vessels has 
been proved. 

IX. The Executive may concentrate all matters relating 
to the national marine under the control of a new department 
of Government. 

X. Foreign vessels may be permitted to enter the coasting 
trade, but only in particular sections and for a given length 
of time, the Executive always reserving the right to enforce 
the prerogatives of national vessels in this trade. 



SANITARY DUES. 



The President of the Republic of Mexico has approved 
the bill recently passed by Congress authorizing the collection 
of **sanitary dues," as follows : 

I. For bill of health, according to the following scale: 
Mexican and foreign vessels sailing for a foreign port are 

to pay: Steamers, $5; sailinic ships, $3. 

Mexican and foreign vessels sailing for a Mexican port are 
to pay: Steamers, ^3; sailing ships, %2. 

II. For sanitary visit, as follows: 

Vessels arriving from abroad are to pay 2 cents per ton's 
capacity at the first Mexican port at which they touch and i 
cent at the others; but the dues are never to be less than %\o 
at the first port and $5 at the others. 

Vessels trading between Mexican ports are to pay i cent 
per ton, but the dues are never to be less than ^3. 

III. Quarantine dues, as follows : 

Mexican and foreign vessels, withou*. distinction are to pay 



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I 



MEXICX) — MISCELLANEOUS NEWS. 6 1 

3 cents per ton's capacity for every day which they are held 
in quarantine. 

Every person on board is also to pay a given sum per day, 
according to a schedule to be drawn up by the Board of 
Health. 

IV. Charges for disinfection: 

These dues are to be collected according to a schedule to 
be drawn up by the Board of Health. 



[From the ** Two Republics" of June 50, 1894.] 

PEARL FISHING. 

Seiior Comejo*s company have the largest concession for 
pearl fishing given by the Government. It reaches from the 
limits of Guatemala to the mouth of Colorado River, in the 
Gulf of California, with exception of the islands of Espiritu 
Santo, Cedros, and San Jose. Senor Cornejo informs us that 
the annual take of pearls averages ? 150,000, and the take of 
shells from 400 to 500 tons, which are worth from J 140 to 
1 1 60 per ton. The apparatus used for pearl fishing is now 
of the latest improvement, and accidents are very rare. 
There is still a little diving done in the old way by the 
Indians, "buzos de cabeza,'* on their own account. Some 
of these men will go down in thirty and fifty feet of water, 
and remain under water close to three minutes. 

The darker colored pearls are the most valuable. The 
black, green, and blue of various shades are not found in 
other parts of the world. The vessels and apparatus of the 
company are valued at J 150,000. There are 40 fishing boats 
at 8 tons burden ; 7 vessels of from 25 to 100 tons. Every 
year some notable pearls are taken, and this year, between 
September, 1893, and May, 1894, ?8o,ooo worth of pearls 
were secured, among which were five or six splendid ones, 
two black and three blue, exceptionally beautiful, weighing 
six carats each and worth from $5,000 to $10,000 each. 

The principal markets are London, Paris, and Germany. 



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62 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

PRICE OF PUBLIC LANDS IN MEXICO. 

The following is the schedule of prices at which public 
lands are to be sold during the fiscal year beginning July i, 
1894. They are the same as those at present in force. 

Price per hectare— 
SUtes— (2H acres.) 

Aguas Calientes $2 25 

Campeche « i 65 

Coahuila 75 

Colima 2 25 

Chiapas i 55 

Chihuahua 75 

Dnrango 1 75 

Guanajuato 3 35 

Guerrero i 10 

Hidalgo 2 25 

Jalisco 2 25 

Mexico 3 35 

Michoacan 2 25 

Morelos ; 4 50 

Nuevo Leon 75 

Oaxaca i 10 

Puebla 3 35 

Queretaro 3 35 

San Luis Potosi 2 25 

Sinaloa i 10 

Sonora i 10 

Tabasco 2 00 

Tamaulipas 75 

Tlaxcala 2 25 

Vera Cruz 2 75 

Yucatan i 65 

Zacatecas.. 2 25 

Distrito Federal (federal district) 5 60 

Tepic (territory) i 65 

Baja California (territory) 65 

These prices are usually payable in some form or other of 
Government security. 



The Mexican Government has recently granted concessions 
for the construction of the following railways : A line from 
Aguas Calientes to the mines of Tepezala ; from La Paz to 



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MEXICO— MISCELI^ANEOUS NEWS. 63 

the mines of El Triunfo in Lower California ; from San Juan 
de las Huartas to a point on the Pacific Ocean ; a line from 
Perote to Tezcutlan; from Mazatlan to Rosario; from San 
Luis de la Paz, State of Guanajuato, to San Miguel in Allende 
on the Mexican National. The concession to the Mexican 
Pacific Railway has been declared null and void. 



The President of Mexico has decreed that the impost of 
1500,000 shall be levied on all the distilleries of alcoholic 
liquors for the next fiscal year the same as last fiscal year. 



The following are items taken from Mexican Financier of 
May 26, 1894: 

The exportation of dyewoods from the State of Sinaloa is 
a new industry which promises to grow to considerable pro- 
portions. A shipment of 700 tons of the wood consigned to 
Falmouth, England, was recently made from the port of Peri- 
buete. Shipments are also being made from Altata. 

A company with a capital of ^50,000 was recently organ- 
ized at Tlacotalpam, State of Vera Cruz, for the purpose of 
engaging in the manufacture of cotton -seed oil. The neces- 
sary machinery is about to arrive from the United States, and 
it is hoped that its erection will be completed and the whole 
mill in running order before the close of the year. It is 
intended also to export the crushed seed to England, where 
it is made into cakes for cattle. It is probable, too, that the 
company will undertake the extraction of oil from the coyol 
nut and the castor bean. 

Jaxisco. — A company to work the gold placers at Pihuamo 
was organized at Guadalajara, the 15th inst. Ventura Anaya 
y Aranda was chosen president. Messrs. H. A. Hilton and 
A. G. Higbee, both experts of much experience in this 
class of work, started for Pihuamo on the i6th, and will at 
once begin the erection of sluices and commence active 
operations. The claims owned by the company comprise a 
zone ten kilometers long, following the course of a river 
which in the driest season has an abundance of water for 



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64 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REFUBUCS. 

working requirements, and great hopes are entertained that 
the enterprise will prove an unqualified success. 



The San Lorenzo Company, in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico, 
has opened the first 400 meters of the irrigation canal, the 
portion most difficult and costly. Some 1,500 meters yet 
remain to be opened. When this work is finished 100,000 
acres of very fertile land will become available. 



The Governor of the State of Guanajuato, Mexico, has 
issued a circular throughout the State, calling for full statis- 
tical data relating to farming properties, and mines and reduc- 
tion works. He has also in view a law for modernizing the 
schoolrooms of the State so as to improve the hygiene and 
convenience for teaching. 



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ARGENTINE REPUBUC. 



65 



ECONOMIC RESOURCES OF THE ARGEN- 
TINE REPUBLIC. 



From an official volume entitled * 'Statement Regarding 
the Economic and Financial condition of the Argentine Re- 
public, " we extract the following interesting information 
regarding that country. 

With an area of 2,894,257 square kilometers there are 
scarcely 4,531,000 inhabitants. That is to say, there are 1.6 
inhabitants per square kilometer, while Belgium shows 242; 
Spain, 34.6; and the United States, 7 inhabitants per kilo- 
meter. 

While the population during the last decade has increased 
50 per cent, owing to immigration and natural growth, the 
cultivated area of the Republic has increased 300 per cent. 
As compared with eighteen European countries, the Argen- 
tine Republic holds the lowest rank. It has 14 kilometers 
under cultivation for every 1,000, whereas France, Belgium, 
Italy, and Spain present, respectively, 549, 539, 402 and 
391 kilometers. 

Cattle breeding and agriculture engage chief attention in 
the Republic. During the last ten years the increase in 
homed cattle has reached 57 per cent. 

In 1883 there were 65,000,000 sheep, and in 1892, 75,000,- 
000 head, or, say, an increase of 15 per cent. 

Taking the three quinquennial periods from 1878 to 1892, 
the following statement shows the chief products exported: 



Products. 



1878-82 



I 



Wool toils... I 4S5.692 

Cowhides thousands...] 11,504 

Meat products tous...| 141.432 

Tallow I 77.541 



1883-87. 



602,436 
12,744 

159.070 
73.283 



1888-92. 



685.164 
19,001 

321. 115 
91,088 



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66 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBWCS. 



With reference to agricultural production, the following 
statement shovs the progress realized in this branch during^ 
the last ten years: 



Products. 



Wheat tons... 

Maize 

Flour 



Exports. 



187&-82 



31,243 
193.996 

7,787 



1883-87 



523.427 

943.708 

26,688 



1888-92. 



1,395.294 

1,814,024 

47,635 



The above three products, when added to those of the 
herds and flocks, represent about 80 per cent of the value of 
the annual exports. 

The chief manifestations of the manufacturing industries 
are connected with the production of sugar, wine, eau de vie, 
beer, matches, .stearine candles, com milling and theat pre- 
serving. • 

The sugar produce in 1883 was 12,000 tons; to-day it is 
almost 35,000. The production of wine in 1883 is put at 
200,000 hectoliters; at present it exceeds 660,000. 

And if the import returns as to these products are ex- 
amined, it will be found that said imports, besides beer, eau 
de vie, matches, edible grain substances, furniture, etc., have 
decreased in proportion to the national, production, the de- 
velopment of which, in turn, depends upon the ever-increas- 
ing needs of home consumption. 

According to returns of the Inland Revenue Office, the 
seventy four breweries that are in operation in the Republic 
had an output in 1892 of 4,040,827 litres of small beer and 

8,57S»i39of ale- 
There are at present 193 distilleries, with an acknowledged 
output of 37,242,069 litres; 364 factories of spiritous bev- 
erages, with an output of 4,011,047 litres per annum; six 
large match factories, with an annual output of 125,549,000 
boxes. 

The bank of the nation keeps a statistical and minute 



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ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 67 

record of the factories, whose owners are desirous of opening 
an account there: and the data on the matter show that there 
are in the metropolis of the Republic 347 factories whose 
owners possess in round numbers a capital of ^40,700,000, 
and who employ 12,200 operatives. 

The public land belonging to the State amounts to 42,406 
square leagues, without taking into account those let out on 
lease. 

During the last ten years more than 10,000 kilometers of 
railroad have been constructed. The traffic of these lines 
has increased as follows: In 1885 there were 5,587,299 pas- 
sengers; in 1892 there were 11,709,017; in 1885 there were 
4,145,117 tons of goods carried, and in the first half of 1893 
the figures were 6,360,260 tons. 

The number of letters, telegrams and parcels sent through 
the post is continually increasing. 

The value of the imports, which amounted to J8o,ooo,ooo 
in 1883, rose to ^164,000,000 in 1889, and fell to {67,000,000 
in 1 89 1, inconsequence of the crisis. In the first six months 
of 1893 the value of the imports stood at 50,291,966 gold 
dollars. 

The exports, which in 1883 stood at {60,000,000, in 1892 
had reached {113,000,000, and in the first half of 1893, 
$70,355,939 in gold, with this peculiarity, that the increment 
has been a constant one during these ten years, a circum- 
stance which shows beyond all question that the crisis has not 
in the least influenced the sources of production of the 
country. 

The revenue has continued to increase, as may be seen 
from the following figures: 

Amount in millien 
Quinquennium— dollars. Per cent. 

1878-82 100.7 — 

1883-87 198 80 

1888-92 380:5 90 

In 1891 there was an emigration of 44,120 persons, while 
in 1892 there was an excess of immigration over emigration 
of 10,080, and the first halt of 1893 of more than 3,000. 



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68 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

CITY OF BUENOS AIRES, STATISTICS MARCH, 1894. 

The rainfall for the month was 1.15 milimeters. 

On March 31 the population was estimated at 586,665 in- 
habitants. 

There were 2,103 births, the nationality of the parents 
being: Argentines, 228; Argentine father, foreign mother, 48; 
foreign ' father, Argentine mother, 215; foreigners, 1,239. 
The nationality of the remaining parents is classified as 
unknown. 

There were 407 marriages, the nationality of the contracting 
parties being: Argentine husbands, 75, wives, 109; Italian 
husbands, 163, wives, 149; Spanish husbands, 84, wives, 75; 
French husbands, 32, wives, 34; English husbands, 8, wives, 
6; German husbands, 7, wives, 6. Remainder unknown. 

The deaths amounted to 1,010, which is a slightly higher 
rate than in the month of February, and lower than the 
month of January. The nationalities of the deceased were 
as follows: Argentines, 730; Italians, 181; Spaniards, 75; 
French, 42, English, 16; Germans, 4; rest unknown; 543 
deaths were of children under 4 years of age. There were 
72 deaths from infectious diseases, being: measles, i; diph- 
theria, 39; scarlet fever, 5; typhoid, 20; croup, 6; influenza, 
i; 525 deaths occurred in the daytime, and 586 at night. 

The port returns show 198 vessels of every description as 
entering, with 12,047 passengers, and 124 sailings, with 6,618 
passengers. 

The immigration returns show entries from beyond seas 
3,499, and emigration to beyond seas, 2,568. The nation- 
ality of the immigrants was: Italians, 2,685; Spaniards, 468 
French, 113; Germans, 70; Austrians, 51; Belgians, 23 
English, 20; Swiss, 20; Eianish, 8: Portuguese, 8; Russians, 8 
North Americans, 4; and Argentines, 14. 

The police returns show a total of 1,048 prisoners in the 
penitentiary, and 122 in the correctional prison for women and 
children; 436 cases of assault, homicide, and robbery took 
place during the month, and 3,256 breaches of the peace, 
2,009 of which were cases of drunkenness. There were 83 



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ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



69 



accidents, causing injury to 86 persons. There were 8 sui- 
cides, and 8 attempted suicides. Seven fires were reported, 
the losses amounting to ^71,950, of which $58,400 was cov- 
ered by insurance. 

The real estate sales comprised 829 properties for $7,682,- 
017, the average rate per meter being $13.66. The nation- 
ality of the sellers and buyers was (cents omitted): 



Arj^entines. 

Italians 

Spaniards .. 
French....... 

English 

Germans.... 
Companies . 



Sellers. 



339 
225 

92 
29 

8 

31 
29 



Value of 
sales. 


Buyers. 


I3.946.428 


168 


1. 133.872 


404 


360,417 


66 


253.167 


34 


122,006 


7 


128,364 


25 


T.227,807 


II 



Value of 
purchases. 

$1,996,406 

1.475.7" 

684,451 

602,023 

40,128 

648,193 

1.315.052 



The nationality of the remainder is unknown. 

One hundred and seventy-six properties were mortgaged 
for a total of $1,865,344, being an average of $23.90 per 
square metej. 

Tne transactions on the Bolsa amounted to $529,596,076, 
and $36,772,689 gold were sold. 

Forty-five trade-marks were registered and nineteen 
patents granted. 

At the end of the month there were 8,329 patients in the 
hospitals and retreats, and 1,478 in the lunatic asylums. 

The entries into the markets comprised 42,223 head of 
cattle, 67,594 sheep, 556 pigs, 142,909 fowls, 5,490 turkeys, 
2,953 ducks, 1,315 brace partridges, 8,730 brace pigeons, 
4,710 rabbits, 2,338 geese, 5,106,435 kilos vegetables, 29,729 
kilos cheese, 2,821,037 kilos fruit, 202,061 kilos fish, 12,186 
kilos shellfish, 16,538 kilos butter, 77,832 kilos tripe, 112,377 
dozen eggs. 

The 287 bakeries used 3,004 tons of flour. 

The waterworks supplied 2,511,963 kiloliters of water. 

The eight tramway companies carried 6,903,948 passengers, 
making 172,750 round trips, employing 7,187 horses, 3,487 
personnel, with 428 cars in service. 



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70 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBI.ICS. 

The six railway companies carried 635,402 passengers, and 
156,950 tons of freight. 

The postoffice dealt with 6,547,664 letters, etc. 

The messenger service ran 12,181 messages. 

Seven thousand one hundred persons attended the race 
courses, and spent 1511,294 at the ** sport." 

The theatres were attended by 114,861 persons, the gross 
incpme of the thirteen which were open during the month 
being ^134,596. 

The public lighting was done by means of 7,513 gas 
lamps, consuming 300,520 cubic meters of gas, at a cost of 
163,860; and 5,213 kerosene lamps, using 39,090 liters of 
kerosene, at a cost of ^13,030. 

Eight thousand seven hundred and nine tons of basura 
were burnt during the month. 



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CHILE. 7 1 



CHILE. 



THE NITRATE INDUSTRY. 

The totals exports of nitrate from Chilean ports for the 
year 1893, amounted to 20,655,161 Spanish quintals, as fol- 
lows: 

Quintals. 

To the United Kingdom, for orders 10,259,887 

The United Kingdom, direct 386,441 

Gcnnany 51016,779 

Holland and Belgium 922,883 

Mediteranean ports 272,941 

France 1,314.767 

United States, east coast 2,187,277 

United States, west coast 190,417 

Mauritius 45»o3i 

China 390 

Chile 58,424 

Peru „ 195 

Bolivia 49 

Ecuador 40 

Of this total there was shipped from the different ports 
quantities as follows: 

Iquique 10,014,231 

Pisagua 4683,769 

Junin J, 2,332,626 

ColetoBuen^ 55o.95o 

TalUl 1,435.307 

Antofagasta 668,871 

Tocopclla 969,407 

Total 20,655.161 

The exports for the first quarter of the year 1894, show an 

excess of 1,736,494 quintals over that of the corresponding 

period of the preceding year. 
The total value of the exports of nitrate for the year 1893, 

was 129,7^0,000. 
Last March the Chilean Government published a notice 



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72 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

in the principal cities of Europe and the United States, 
inviting proposals for the purchase of the first lot of the 
Government nitrate beds and nitrate refineries in northern 
Chile. The senventeen different properties then advertised 
comprised 1,395 acres not yet worked, and 678 acres more 
or less worked; the amount of merchantable nitrate of soda 
remaining in these seventeen deposits was estimated by the 
Government engineers to be 1,603,739 tons, and its market 
value as it now lies in the beds was appraised at $3,500,000. 
The bids were to be opened at Santiago, on June 15, and the 
sale awarded to the highest bidder. The Chilean Govern- 
ment has now given notice of the sale of the second lot of 
nitrate beds in the same district. The appraised value of 
these forty-three properties now advertised for sale aggregates 
$9,504,809, United States gold; they contain 5,513 acres un- 
worked, and 1,408 acres partly worked, and are estimated to 
contain 4,634,967 tons of merchantable nitrate of soda when 
refined. The bids are to be opened at Santiago, October 15, 
1894. These nitrate deposits average twenty-six miles by 
railroad from the shipping ports, and the crude nitrate 
(caliche), averaging 40 per cent merchantable nitrate, is 
appraised by the official engineers at about $2 per ton in the 
bed. To facilitate intending piurchasers the plans and speci- 
fications of the several nitrate properties now offered for 
sale have been sent to the Chilean consulates in this country 
and in Europe. The second sale now advertised is about 
three times as large as the former lot. 

The mineral exports from Chile for the year 1893 were as 
follows: 

Copper $4,320,000 

Manganese 384,000 

Gold 96,000 

Silver 7,200,000 

Nitrate 29,760,000 

Total ^ 41,760,000 



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VENEZUEL.1. 73 



VENEZUELA. 



NEW REGULATIONS AFFECTING FOREIGNERS IN 
VENEZUELA. 

[Gaccta Oficial de Venezuela, May 12, 1894.] 

On May 12 and 14 the President of Venezuela approved the 
following enactments of Congress affecting the rights of for- 
eigners in that Republic. 

Under date of May 12, 1894, the President of the Repub- 
lic of Venezuela approved a law passed by Congress regulating 
the exercise of the freedom of the press guaranteed to the 
Venezuelan citizens by Article XIV of the Constitution. 

Article XIV of this law reads as follows: To be the owner, 
editor, manager, contributor, printer, or in any way a cola- 
borer of a newspaper, book, pamphlet, or writing of a polit- 
ical character it is required to be a Venezuelan. 

Section i. Foreigners shall be permitted to be owners, 
editors, printers, managers, or colaborers of books, pam- 
phlets, newspapers, or writings of scientific, literary, indus- 
trial, technical, or any other character not dealing with the 
politics of the country. 

Sec. 2. Such foreigners as may violate this provision shall 
incur for the first time a fine of not less than one hundred 
and not more than one thousand bolivars. A double fine 
shall be imposed in the case of a second offense, and if the 
offense is committed a third time, the foreigner shall be 
expelled from the territory of the Republic. 



Decree of May 14, 1894. 

[GaccU Oficial (Official Gazette), Venezuela, May 14. 1894.I 

I, Joaquin Crespo, the Constitutional President of the 
United States of Venezuela, upon consultation with the 
Council of Government, considering : 



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74 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

I. That under Article 78 of the Constitution of the Repub- 
lic, the President has the power, after having heard the 
opinion of the Council of Govfemment, '*to forbid the ad- 
mission into the national territory, or to expel from it, those 
foreigners who have not a domicile in the country and who 
are notoriously pernicious to the public order.** 

II. That in order to carry these provisions into effect in the 
proper manner it is necessary to know who are the individuals 
who come into the country, as it has been done for the same 
purpose in some other nations, do hereby decree as follows : 

Article i. Foreigners arriving in Venezuela shall file 
before the Collector of Customs of the respective port a 
declaration, supported by the documentary evidence stating 
the following : 

I. Their name and the names of their parents. 

II. Their nationality. 

III. The place and date of their birth. 

IV. The place of their last domicile. 

V. Their profession, occupation, or manner of making their 
living. 

VI. The name, age, and nationality of wife and minor 
children, if accompanied by them. 

Article 2. The collectors of customs shall report by wire 
to the National Executive the facts stated in the said dec- 
larations. If no declaration is made they will report this 
fact. 

Article 3. If the newly arrived foreigners have not docu- 
ments to append to their declarations, the statement can be 
proved by the testimony of trustworthy witnesses who are 
acquainted with them. 

Article 4. Foreigners who have entered the territory of the 
Republic during the last six months shall file the above said 
declaration before the Governor of the Federal district if they 
live in said district, or before the President of the respec- 
tive State if they reside in its capital. Should they reside 
in any other place in the country their declarations shall be 
made before the respective local authorities, who will trans- 
mit them to the president of the State. 



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VENEZUELA.. 75 

Article 5. In the cases referred to in the preceding Arti- 
cle, the Governor of the Federal district, or the President of 
the respective State, shall report the facts to the National 
Executive in the same manner as provided for in Articles 2 
and 3 of the present decree, in order to enable the National 
Executive to decide whether those foreigners who have 
made unsatisfactory declarations, or who have been unable 
or unwilliag to make any, are to be considered pernicious or 
liable to expulsion. 

Article 6. The consuls of the Republic shall cause the 
present decree to be published in their respective consular dis- 
tricts, for which purpose they shall have it translated from the 
Spanish into the language of the country They shall send 
to the Government a copy of the newspaper in which the pub- 
lication has been made. 

Article 7. The Secretaries of Internal Relations, of Foreign 
Relations, and of the Treasury shall take charge of the execu- 
tion of the present decree. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the National Execu- 
tive, and countersigned by the Secretaries of Internal Rela- 
tions, Foreign Relations, and the Treasury, in the Federal 
Palace at Caracas on May 14, 1894, the eighty-third of inde- 
pendence and the thirty -sixth of the Federation. 

Joaquin Crespo. 

Josfe R. NufJEZ, 
Secretary of Internal Relations, 

P. EZKQUIEL ROJAS, 
Secretary of Foreign Relations, 

Pabricio Conde, 

Secretary of the Treasury, 



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76 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



NICARAGUA. 



The following information regarding gold and silver minings 
in Nicaragua, is taken from a letter of recent date from Mr. 
J. Crawfords, of Managua : 

Valuable silver mines have been discovered in three min • 
eral districts in Nicaragua. The ores are principally varieties 
of argentite. None of these mines have been developed. 

Valuable **reefs'' and '*lodes*' or *'trae fissure veins" of 
low grade containing gold are numerous in Nicaragua. Ex- 
cepting two, the mines are worked by crude processes with- 
out regard to the character or constituents of the gold-con- 
taining deposit; yet they yield from one-half to two and one- 
quarter ounces of gold — about 670 fine to the ton of gangue^ 
or ore. Water for power and wood for timbering are gener- 
ally abundant and convenient to these mines. 

Three mineral districts h-ave been discovered in Nicara- 
gua containing high-grade gold deposits in fissures and veins. 
Two of these deposits are about fourteen miles distant from 
sufficient water for power, or wood for timbering and for 
steam power. These mines have been worked only in small 
areas and a few feet deep. The fragments of quartz that 
show several particles of gold easily discernible by the 
naked eye, are selected by Indian boys. These are culled 
over again by men and the pieces of quartz perceptible to the 
unaided eye, are crushed into powder in the concave surface 
of a rock, a hand muller or pestle. The mixture of gold 
and mercury is separated from the gangue by water. By this 
process only quartz containing over I500 to the ton is worked. 
It is yet impossible to give a reliable estimate of the gold 
per ton of gangue in these high-grade mines. T^e gold dr 
metal from these mines is usually .887 to ,goo fine. 

Valuable placer mines have also been discovered in Nic- 
aragua. One district is at Princapulka, on the southeastern 



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NICARAGUA. 7 7. 

side of a mountain range in northeastern Nicaragua; the other 
is on the northwest side of the same range and in the same 
section. These mines yield about four ounces of gold per day, 
average, to four miners with picks, shovels and rocker. 

•No hydraulic power works have yet been erected in either 
of these districts, although the water in creeks and rivers 
descends over numerous cascades, rapids, and falls, from their 
sources in the mountains. The placer gold is from .867 to 
.872 fine. It is mixed with silver. 



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•78 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



ECUADOR. 



From the Panama Star and Herald of recent date we make 
the following extract, showing measures which are proposed 
for increasing the revenues of the Republic of Ecuador: 

** Among the many new projects and reforms that are to 
be laid before the approaching Congress is one for the pur- 
pose of increasing the country's revenues by a tax of 4 
sucres per quintal upon the quantity of cocoa harvested, and 
and J. 2. 40 sucres upon coffee. The idea is very popular in 
the interior, but, as may be supposed, quite the reverse along 
the Pacific slope, or to be concise, the cocoa and coffee pro- 
ducing area. 

"The wants of the country are increasing every day; fresh 
liabilities have to be met, and its credits maintained, but these 
very desirable ends can not be obtained upon a palpably empty 
purse. Up to the present everything — with ond exception — 
has been taxed and surtaxed, until the strain upon each in- 
dustry has become too great. Until recently, if extra funds 
were required, an appeal was made to the import dues, which 
to-day are 40 per cent (!) in excess of their original standard. 
A3 a natural consequence of this the consumer has borne the 
burden of contributing to the country's advancement. This 
would be quite fair were one man's requirements greater than 
those of his fellow. Quite right, if the man who, to use 
a vulgar phrase, is making money "hand over fist," were 
to expend a correspondingly large amount in his own private 
needs, as the poor quill-driver earning the princely salary of 
J 1 00 a month. Or, I would go still further, and yet say that 
it was quite right did the surtaxes not apply to the prime nec- 
essaries of life. But such is not the case; your poor man 
spends as much as his richer brother, not in luxuries, be it 



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ECUADOR. 29 

'^ujiderstood, but in the actual requirements of his daily ex- 
istence. Manifestly, the system is, to say the least of it, un- 
fair. Possibly this view of the question has struck the people 
in power (for the measure I mention emanates from a Gov- 
ernment quarter) and they have properly decided to make the 
money grub contribute a just and equitable share by taxing 
tlie source of his riches. 

**As a matter of fact the prime cost of a quintal of cocoa, 
tliat fetches I14.50 in New York, is not more than 7 sucres, 
or, say, $4 American gold. The freight from Guayaquil to 
the United States is ji.io, so that between the producer, the 
"broker, and the exporter the sum of $9*40, or, say, 84 per cent 
or thereabouts of its actual value, is divided. From this, one 
must reduce 4 per cent, which is the exporter's maximum 
share. Thus we have the producer and the broker— or, more 
comprehensively, the debtor and creditor (since they invari- 
ably stand in this relation to each other), deriving enormous 
profits from a source that does not supply the country with a 
single centum of revenue, for it must be borne in mind that 
it is the New York merchant who pays the exports dues. 

'* Cocoa is the mainstay of the country and the nature of 
each year's crop determines her commercial relations for the 
time being, but these relations, though of paramount impor- 
tance, can but slightly affect the cocoa grower and his credi- 
tor, who derive the greatest profits and contribute the mini- 
mum to the public revenues. They are always certain of 
huge gains while a demand for the article exists, and should, 
until the demand and their fabulous profits cease, contribute 
a fair share toward the support of the country." 



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8o BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



GUATEMALA. 



INTERNAL TAXATION. 

By legislative decree No. 494, the Government of Gua- 
temala orders that from and after July i, 1894, all taxation 
for national purposes shall be designated under six heads as 
follows: 

I. Stamped paper and stamps. All contracts and docu- 
ments of all kinds, shares of stock, bonds, insurance and 
other policies, pawnbrokers* tickets, receipts, powers of attor- 
ney, letters of credit, leases, bills, accounts, drafts, bills of 
exchange, doctors' bills, promisory notes, protests, last wills 
and testaments, manifestoes, patents of land, all petitions, 
writs, returns and records of all kinds in judicial proceedings, 
certificates, certified copies, orders, passports, all memorials 
and petitions to the authorities whether executive, legisla- 
tive or judicial, titles, diplomas, commissions, etc., shall have 
to be written on stamped paper, ranging in value according to 
the value involved in the transaction to which the document 
refers; i^ cent when the value involve 1 is less than tio; 10 
cents when it does not exceed 1 100, and 10 cents for each 
1 10 when the amount exceeds $100. 

When no stamped paper of the required class can be had 
at the place, this circumstance shall be set forth; and the pay- 
ment of the tax shall be made by attaching to the document 
as many stamps of the class or classes provided for by the 
same decree as may cover the value of the stamped paper. 

Commercial books of all kinds, registries, books of accounts, 
ttc, shall require a lo-cent stamp on each folio. 

Articles II and III of. the decree explain particularly the 
amount to be paid in each case. 

The lai'.ursi 10 coiiply wi:h the provisions of this decree will 



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GUATEMALA. 8 1 

render the document inadmissible as evidence, until the 
defect is cured, besides subjecting the signers thereof to pay 
a fine, equivalent to lo per cent on the amount involved in 
the transaction, or to twenty times the value of the stamp or 
stamped paper which ought to have been used, if amount is 
expressed. But no fine shall exceed $500. 

The fines shall be to the benefit of the informers or of the 
authorities who discovered the violation of the law, if there 
is no informer. 

II. Direct tax on the sales and exchange of real estate. 
This tax, amounting to 5 per cent on the value of the 

property sold or exchanged, shall be paid on all conveyances 
of real estate by sale or exchange, unless the property belongs 
to the Government, or is worth less than $100. When the 
conveyance is made for the settlement of some estate, among 
the heirs themselves, the tax shall not be due. 

No deed of conveyance shall be recorded if no evidence is 
attached to it of payment of the tax. 

Fines and other penalties are provided for to punish the 
violations of these provisions. 

III. Tax on conveyances by descent, and gifts or donations. 
All conveyances by descent, whether under a will or ab 

intertato, and all gifts or donations, shall pay as follows: 

One per cent on the value of all donations and legacies or 
bequests tp legitimate descendants. 

Two per cent on the value of all donations and legacies or 
bequests to legitimate ancestors, or to illegitimate recognized 
children or relations. 

Three per cent on the value of all donations and legacies or 
bequests to wife or husband, legitimate or illegitimate brother 
or sister, and adopted children. 

Five per cent on the value of all donations and legacies or 
bequests to all collateral relatives and to the foster father. 

Eight per cent on the value of all donations and legacies or 
bequests to all relatives by marriage. 

Ten per cent on the value of all donations and legacies or 
bequests to strangers. 



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82 BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The decree establishes some cases of exception, and pro- 
vides for the enforcement of its provisions in this respect. 

IV. Consumption duties. 

Under the head of "consumption duties'* charges are made 
on the consumption of meat and the manufacture of salt. 

Each head of cattle slaughtered shall pay I2. 50, and each 
quintal (100 pounds) of salt shall pay 50 cents. 

V. Tax on real estate. 

A tax of six per 1,000 on the assessed value of real estate 
shall be paid in Guatemala. 

VI. Road tax. 

Every man between the age of eighteen and sixty years is 
bound to work four ds^ys every year on the public roads, or 
to pay in lieu thereof 50 cents for each day of service. 



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COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL INFORMATION. 83 

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL INFOR- 
MATION. 



MEXICO. 

The project of sanitation of the City of Mexico under- 
taken by Mr. Orozco gives promise of great success. 

Thus far all the scientific points upon which the plan was 
based, have been borne out by practical results. The pure 
water of La Viga has been successfully diverted from its 
former course and made to flow through many of the city 
drains, thus eflfectually preventing the stagnation and decom- 
position of sewage. The general health of those portioris- 
of the city in which Mr. Orozco 's plan has been realized has; 
been so greatly improved that he has been the recipient of 
an emphatic and spontaneous vote of thanks from the resi- 
dents of those sections. 

In his most commenable scheme looking to the proper 
drainage of the City of Mexico, and consequent improvement 
of the sanitary condition of the city, Mr. Orozco has encoun- 
tered two serious obstacles, both of which, however, it is 
thought will be overcome. 

The first is the defective construction of many of the 
sewers which does not admit of the passage of water through 
them ; the second is, that Mr. Orozco is not permitted to dam 
the water of La Viga to a level necessary to give the passage 
of the water through the sewers the velocity and volume 
requisite to reach all portions of the sewage system and prop- 
erly scour them out. 

It is understood that the objection to Mr. Orozco 's damming 
the water of La Viga to the necessary level, is on account of 
a slight and temporary inundation of private property adjoin- 
ing the canal when that level was attained. To meet this 
difficulty it is proposed to construct some levees, or other 
means of protection. It is also proposed to so repair the 
present water mains and sewers of the city that they may be 
utilized in Engineer Orozco 's scheme. 



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i54 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The following monthly summary of the weather for June^ 
^1894, is taken from the official report of the Central Meteoro- 
logical Observatory of the City of Mexico : 

Temperature of the air (deg. Fahr.) — 

Monthly mean, in shade 64.0 

Monthly mean, in sun 64.6 

Maximum, in shade 81.5 

Maximum, in open air 90.3 

Minimum, in shade 50.9 

Minimum, in open air 44.6 

Total range, in shade 62.6 

Total range, in open air 45.7 

Barometrical pressure (inches)— 

Monthly mean 23.08 

Maximum 23.18 

Minimum 22.94 

Greatest range in 24 hours 0.16 

Total range in the monlh 0.24 

^Relative humidity (saturation 100) — 

Monthly mean 59 

Clouds — V 

Prevailing direction N.E. 

Number of cloudy days 15 

Number of clear days 7 

*Winds (miles per hour) — 

Prevailing direction N.W. 

Mean velocity •. 3.3 

Maximum 27.9 

Kainfall (inches) — 

Total in month 1.6 

Greatest fall in 24 hours. 0.3 

Number of rainy days 16 

:Evaporation (inches) — 

Monthly mean, in shade 0.13 

Monthly mean, in sun o 37 

Maximum in 24 hours, in shade 0.34 

Maximum in 24 hours, in sun 0.53 



The copy of the Mexican Financier of July 7 was printed 
on paper manufactured by the San Rafael paper mills of the 
City of Mexico. In its quality and finish this paper com- 
pares favorably with that used by periodicals in the United 
States and other countries. Speaking on this subject the 
J^exican Financier sayS: 

**We have hitherto imported our paper, but with the 
recent great advance in the art of paper-making here, inau- 
gurated by the San Rafael mill, we find it possible to supply 



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COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL INFORMATION. 85 

ourselves at less than the price of importing the same class 
of paper. Cheap silver will, we fear, be a very dear metal 
for foreign manufacturers of articles similar to those made 
in this country. Mexico, as we have pointed out before, is 
following in the same path of industrial independence as 
Japan and China." 

The Sonora and Sinaloa Irrigation Company, which owns 
a concession, granted in the name of Mr. Carlos Conant, for 
the construction of an irrigation canal in the States of So- 
nora and Sinaloa, is rapidly pushing forward its work. When 
completed the canal will be seventy feet wide on the bottom, 
having a fall of fifteen inches per mile, and will carry a 
stream of water six feet deep. For more than one year a 
steam dredge costing I2 7,000 has been at work. The con- 
cessionaire has a land grant of 550,000 acres, lying between 
the rivers Yaqui and Mayo, which will be opened to settle- 
ment as soon as the canal shall have been completed and the 
land subdivided. 

The concession given to W. H. Carlsen in April last for 
the construction of a railway from Tijuana, Lower Cali- 
fornia to Ensenada has been officially promulgated. This 
road must be completed within eight years. 

A concession has been recently granted to Messrs. Rubira 
& Co. to erect at Tajaiiiiroa, in the State of Michoacan, a 
plant for the manufacture of cloth from cotton and wool, as 
well as from the other fibers which grow freely in that region, 
and have not been hitherto utilized for manufacturing pur- 
poses. 

This enterprise is interesting, not only as being one of 
many new industries springing up in our neighbor Republic, 
but particularly because it purposes to bring into use re- 
sources of the country which have been left slumbering 
during all these years. 

A company has been recently formed for the purpose of 
developing and working antimony beds lately discovered 
near the station of Guzman on the Mexican Central railway. 
The vein which has been foUow^ed for about thirty feet is 



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36 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

three feet wide. Miners get out 300 pounds of high-grade 
.ore for $1.50. The ore is remarkably pure and is absolutely 
free from arsenic or lead, it runs 50 per cent metallic anti- 
mony and commands I46 per ton in Liverpool. Ordinary 
miners are plentiful and work for 50 cents per day; expert 
miners work for 75 cents per day. 

By a recent arrangement the line of steamers now plying 
between New Orleans, Belize, Livingston, and Puerto Cortez 
will, in future, touch at the Mexican ports of Progreso, Vera 
Cruz, and Tampico monthly. 

The concession granted by the Mexican Government to the 
Chiapas Mining Company, Limited, of London, for the con- 
struction of a railway from a point on the Teapa River, in the 
in the State of Tabasco, to Solosuchiapa, in the State of 
Chiapa, has been officially declared null and void, owing to 
the fact that conditions embodied in the concession had not 
been complied with. The concessionaries lose tlie guarantee 
deposit of 16, 000. 

The concession held by Mr. Woodhouse for the construc- 
tion of a railway between the stations of Guadeloupe and 
Apizaco, on the Vera Cruz line, to the iron works at Zacatlan 
in the State of Puebla, has been declared forfeited, owing to 
the failure of the concessionaire to deposit the required 
guarantee within the time stipulated. 

The harbor works contractors of the city of Vera Cruz 
are considering a proposition from a French company repre- 
sented by Engineer M. Emile de Morteau, looking to the 
permanent improvement of the harbor of that city. The 
plan as proposed is ver}- extensive, involving the expendi- 
ture of $7,000,000; when completed there will be a depth of 
twenty-seven feet of water alongside the wharves. The 
dredges, which will be used in the work are those formerly 
in the service of the construction of the Panama Canal. 



In the month of May last, there was exported from Yuca- 
tan 33,437 bales of henequen (sisal hemp) weighing 11,831,502 
pounds and valued at $621,153.86. 



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DON IDIARTE BORDA. 87 



DON IDIARTE BORDA. 

[Communicated.] 

Don Idiarte Borda was bom in the city of Mercedes, the cap- 
ital of the department of Soriano. His parents were Don Juan 
Idiarte and Dona Maria Borda, both of them French Basques 
and industrious people, who settled in that city in 1840. They 
established a restaurant, with ball-playing grounds attached, 
which at that period was the center of reunion of the great 
number of Basques who then resided in the picturesque city 
of Mercedes. Senor Idiarte Borda received no other primary 
instruction than what could then be obtained in the country 
schools. He learned to read and write in a small primary 
school, but never attended colleges or universities, because of 
the limited means of his parents. He was devoted to study 
and exceedingly clever, and by constant application he taught 
himself all the branches, which rendered him a well-informed 
man, relatively speaking. 

When Senor Idiarte Borda reached the age of manhood, 
he married a beautiful young lady of Mercedes, Doiia 
Matilde Banos, the daughter of an honest business man, 
Don Francisco Banos, and Dona Manuela Sanchez. This 
most distinguished lady is still living. About that time the 
political movement known as "la invasion,'* of General Don 
Venancio Flores took place, which resulted in the overthrow 
of the government of Don Bernardo Berro. Senor Idiarte 
Borda joined the revolutionary party and contributed to the 
triumph of its ideas. 

After the pacification of the country, Sefior Idiarte Borda, 
who was fond of public life, was elected justice of the pfeace, 
and filled this position for some time, until the revolution 
headed by Gen. Don Timoteo Aparicio broke out. Then 
Senor Idiarte Borda again took up arms in defense of his 
party, and was present in several encounters of that bloody 
strug^le. 



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88 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

In the month of April peace was re-established, and Senor 
Idiarte Borda was called, successively, to fill the positions of 
Counsel for Minors, and Mayor of Mercedes. While holding 
the latter office the dictatorship of Don Lorenzo Latorre 
occurred. 

In 1875, when the revolutionary movement known as the 
"Tri-color" took place, Senor Idiarte Borda lent his assist- 
ance to the cause, which was decided in the memorable battle- 
fields of Palomas and Guayabos — fighting by the side of 
Fonda, Lalleman, and other distinguished citizens who un- 
dertook to defend the institutions of the country trodden 
upon by the military movement of January 15, 1875. When 
the revolution was suppressed and the dictatorship of Colonel 
Latorre affirmed, Don Justo R. Pelayo was appointed Politi- 
cal Chief of the Department of Soriano, and he went to Mer- 
cedes strongly recommended to Bernardino Echevarria, who 
was a person of great influence in the department, and a 
great friend of the dictator, as well as the best friend of 
Senor Idiarte Borda. 

When the elections for the new legislative chamber took 
place the Political Chief of Soriano, Senor Pelayo, acting in 
harmony with Don Bernardino Echevarria, recommended to 
the consideration of Colonel Latorre the following list of 
deputies, to represent the Department of Soriano, to wit : 
Juan Idiarte Borda, Antonio Gonzalez Roca, and Juan Meza. 
This ticket was accepted without objection and voted by the 
** qolorados *' and ** nacionalistas,*' who took part in those 
famous elections — forerunners of all the others which have 
taken place up to this date. 

Senor Idiarte Borda took his seat in the chamber, and the 
first act of that body was the approval of all that had been 
done by the Dictator. It may be said that from that moment 
the public life of the present President of Uruguay started. 
When the government of Don Lorenzo Latorre was over- 
thrown, Senor Idiarte Borda remained firm in his seat in the 
chamber. His influence grew greater, and he became a warm 
friend of General Santos, whose confidence he enjoyed to the 
utmost degree. 



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DON IDIARTE BORDA. 89 

When the revolution, which ended at Los Palamares de 
Soto (Quebracho) was overpowered, Senor Idiarte Borda, 
together with Senor Abdon Arosteguy, Dr. Benito M. Cuii- 
arro, Dr. Jos6 Roman Mendoza and other deputies, entered 
into the conspiracy which was called '*of the minority/* 
their object being to overthrow the tottering government of 
that period. But Santos was informed of the purpose of 
those who up to that time had been his friends, and the 
latter saw themselves compelled to abandon the country and 
go to Buenos Aires. Most of them, however, soon returned 
to their own country, thanks to the change in the political 
situation operated by the cabinet called *'Ministerio de la 
Conciliaci6n.*' 

When General Don Maximo Tajes was elected President 
of the Republic Senor Idiarte Borda was also elected to serve 
in the Chamber of Deputies as representative of the Depart- 
ment of Soriano, an election which did not please either the 
President or Colonel Galarza, both of whom were afraid that 
Senor Idiarte Borda would counteract their influence in the 
business of Soriano, in which they thought their influence 
ought to be eternally supreme. From that moment the 
rivalry which keeps the present President at a distance 
from the "chands** leaders orginated. 

In the preparatory movements which had preceded that 
election of 1887, Senor Idiarte Borda had been appointed Vice- 
President of the Executive Committee of the "Colorado" 
party, and as»such he could strengthen the bonds of friend- 
ship which connected him with Don Julio Herrera, then 
Secretary of War, who was preparing his way to become the 
President of the Republic* 

It has been said that Senor Idiarte Borda took an active 
part in the financial transactions which ended in the failure 
of the National Bank and produced the violent crisis, the 
liquidation of which is now almost at an end. Notwithstanding 
this, the President of the Republic is rather poor, his whole 
property, consisting, as far as it is known, of the house on 
Ituzaingo Street, where he resides, and a concession granted 
him by the municipal corporation of Mercedes for the man- 



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90 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

agement of a market in that city in association with the 
Deputy Don Jos^ Modesto Irisarriand another person. This 
concession has been a subject of considerable opposition by 
the local press on account of its being considered prejudicial 
to the general interests. 

In the preliminary movements for the last election, and 
while Seiior Idiarte Borda was serving as a Senator in the 
Department of Maldonado^ he was chosen to preside over the 
Executive Committee of the * 'Colorado" party, and in that 
position he showed great ability and energy in carrying out 
the purposes of the party in power. 

The new President of the Republic is a man of simple 
habits and amiable disposition; he is very systematic, and 
personally takes care of all domestic details in his house. 
He dislikes- show and vain ostentation. This is the citizen 
whom the course of events has brought to preside over the 
destinies of the Republic of Uruguay. 



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^ 



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r~:T. 



. Tlic .Texas Stat!j Hifc"':l ArrclitJ 



IRT^BtOI,^ ^NTUMBKR II 



Vol II. No. 2 



XH E 



MONTHLY BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Bureau 



OF THE 



American Republics 



WASHINGTON, U. S. A. 



AUQUSX, 1894 



^'- . AJlfSf^xcXA^isi lyivE Stock. (English and Spanish.) 

CtkSL^t:GT I — Th« Model Cow. Compiled by E. 
^^ I^iddick 

SttC736^Xr3 ■ CoM-MERCiAL MusEUM. (English and Span- 
ish.) 

,.»?"'^^B&MJ»uAy Koreign Commerce 



91 

128 

141 

144 

-I^iscellaneous Notes - - - - 148 

^^GmxniBLA.^ XISTKORMATION 153 



%^r: 



;iiqfxJ^®^^^' ^o Cents 



Per Annum, Ji.oo 






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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE. WASHINGTON. D. C. U. S. A. 



Director — Clinton Furbish. 



While the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications 

of the Bureau of the American Republics, no pecuniary 

responsibility is assumed on account of errors or 

inaccuracies which may occur therein. 



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n« rem state ffisfc..,, i^sm^^ 



The Monthly Bulletin 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



August, ,1 394'. 



AMERICAN LIVE STOCK. 

(English and Spanish.) 



Chapter II. 
THE MODEL COW. 



Imagine her standing before 3'ou. General style a wedge- 
shape, nearly the opposite of the beef type, or as the triangle 
to the parallelogram. Her quiet disposition is deceiving, in 
a measure. For, let a stranger, a stray dog, an unusual noise, 
or anything startling appear, and her meekness is laid aside ; 
her quiet eye flashes, her head is throwa up from its normal 
position of a slight decline, her back seems to become rigid, 
tail slightly elevated, and nostrils extended. She stands on 
the defensive, or is ready to take the aggressive if any dan- 
ger threatens her calf. Now, her appearance is that which is 
often called the nervous disposition. Every good dairy cow 
seems to be made up this way. But this nervous tempera- 
ment of the cow should not be excited, or she will be short 
at the pail, and short in cream of what she does give ; for 
the quiet meditative way should be hers when she is making 
milk. 

But to her points: We note a rather long, dishing head, 
large, prominent eyes, set well apart and down her face ; large 
muzzle and mouth, small, feminine ear, with rich, oily secre- 
tories inside; small tapering horn, if she is not of a polled 

7 BULL 



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92 BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

breed, though it may be good sized at butt ; wide jaws, throat 
well cut up, and free from dew-lap until close to the brisket, 
a long ewe-neck, sloping shoulders, thin at the top but open- 
ing wide down at the forelegs, so that they stand well apart, 
showing wide chest and plenty of room for heart action. 
Let us step to the rear and Rote the ** business end'* of 
the cow. The first point that deceives attention is the im- 
mense udder., e^^tending from away up in front to away up 
her back 'pi'rts, the further the better,- with plenty of loose 
skin in her twist. I place great importance on the udder being 
extended well to the front, with four well-placed, medium 
sized teats, with two or four rudimentary teats ; the skin 
should be loose and hairless ; large, extended milk veins ; 
crooked and large holes, for more depends on the size and 
numbers of these than on size of veins, for certainly the veins 
will carry off all the blood the hole will let back through to 
the heart. The famous cow ** Jewel '* has four on each side. 
"Alma,'* holding the diploma for best dairy cow of the 
Northwest, has veins away up to her front legs, and four 
holes on each side. These veins are called by different 
names, but are not so essential as to have the above charac- 
teristics. The so-called butter cord lies in the flank ; it is a 
rounded cord, about the size of one's little finger to three 
times that size. J have noted that all good butter cows have it 
largely developed. But I find upon investigation that it is 
§imply a cord to assist holding up the abdomen, and has no 
connection with the udder. The escutcheon — that is, the hair 
in the twist and on rear bottom of udder which goes the 
wrong way — is usually on good cows, but not always ; it should 
be continuous, for if broken, it indicates the stopping of the 
flow of milk, or that it is not kept up through the year. 

The back should be straight, but when age begins to tell, 
the spine will sink somewhat by reason of the weight of the 
stomach, and the incessant and large demands on the nerve 
force which runs through the spinal cord. Open back — that 
is, open large vertebrae, indicates large nervous force. This 
is of greatest importance, for on a good back hang all the 



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THE MODEL COW. 93 

profits. It not only has to hold up the large abdomen, but is 
the insulator through which flies the nervous force. 

Note the wide hips and pelvic bones ; tail large at its junc- 
ture, but tapering down to a fine point below the hocks, with 
small bulb of oily matter at point, and with a good brush. These 
xaay seem of small importance, but each one has its special 
bearing « n the making of a good dairy cow. Large barrel, 
with ribs well sprung, flat, and space between them, open 
twist, thin, bony thighs, small legs. Throw over all a loose 
hide, golden color, covered with thin hair, the more to the 
square inch the better, and you have a type of a dairy cow of 
which, if bred and fed aright, you will have no trouble in 
getting a good specimen. 

Always breed to a dairy type of a bull, and from the time 
the heifer is bom, always feed for a butter cow. She should 
be bred so as to come in from twenty to twenty -four months 
old, for nature sets at work those qualities that provide for 
the forthcoming young early in its life, thereby giving an 
impetus to the points toward milk instead of beef. 

MANAGEMENT OF A CALVING COW. 

The birth of any young animal is a time of great physical dis- 
turbance to the mother. The whole system undergoes a vio- 
lent change. The circulation of the blood, which previously 
nourished the fetus, often making 10 per cent of the weight of the 
dam, is suddenly confined to the latter, and this is a serious 
matter for her. The flow of blood through the system is 
thus stimulated, and lor a few days there must always be 
danger that any mistake in the management may lead to 
trouble of various kinds, unless means are taken to avoid this 
by judicious treatment. One who well understands the physi- 
ology of an animal may easily adapt the treatment to the 
necessities of the case ; but this is a subject that is too much 
neglected in the education of the farmer or a dairyman. It 
is better that the whole subject should be considered from 
this point of view than that distinct rules should be laid down 
that can never cover every case that may happen, for there 
are so many differences in cows and in their general treatment 



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96 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

which is thus taught to drink. If the cow and calf remain 
together the latter may feed in his own way: 

Under such circumstances, there may be nothing wrong in 
a large stock for years, and many careful farmers have never 
in a long life had any trouble in this direction. And, indeed, 
if any security of this safety is expected it will be in this 
way. This has been the custom of the writer, and in more 
than twenty years* experience, he has never had an5rthing 
happen to disturb the safety of all the farm animals, and 
never lost a young animal, or had a sick old one. This is 
due simply to the system of precaution which was taught in 
his young days and practiced since. 

This qniet isolation is to be kept up for three or four days, 
and with cows four days should be the rule, for then the milk 
has become normal, and all risks of danger are quite over. 
Milk fever, the most to be dreaded of all diseases of animals 
at this time, is no longer possible, and the ordinary good treat- 
ment of the dam will bring her to the full condition of milk- 
ing in the course of two weeks, which is time enough, and 
this is not to be hastened by too free feeding, or the 6rst 
effect will be that common result, an attack of garget, or 
inflamed udder. This need never happen to any well-man- 
aged animal. Too much food is the prevalent cause of this 
trouble, after which comes exposure to cold or rain, which is 
the same in effect, before the animal has fully recovered 
from the strain on the system above mentioned. 

There is a way of making haste slowly, or of losing all by 
being too hasty. And these are both true in feeding cows or 
any other animals in this condition. To go slow and sure 
should be the rule in feeding. Very gradual increase of food, 
and only as it is really needed by the gradually recovering 
animal, whose milk naturally increases as the young animal 
grows, is of paramount necessity. And at the first indication 
of excessive feeding the increase should be stopped. The 
milker of the cow mentioned is thought to be worth I150 a 
month, and, after the feeding, this milking comes next, for it 
is this which will indicate the first result of mistaken feed- 
ing. One animal, of course, will vary in this respect from 



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THE MODEL COW. 97 

Others, and eveo'one is to be studied for itself. Some too 
eager persons will make ihe mistake of thinking that the food 
will all go to milk, but this really depends on the kind of 
cow it is, and as much harm may be done in over-excitement 
of the milk organs as that of the digestive functions. 

CALVES, FOOD AND MANAGEMENT. 

The growing period in the life of all animals subject to 
domestication is relatively an important one, and, therefore, 
during that period, they should receive every reasonable 
attention that can be given them. In rearing calves for the 
dairy, we require to bear in mind (i) that the development 
should be steady and continuous; (2) that while we should 
aim at vigorous muscular development, we do not want to 
encourage the fat-producing functions in any marked degree; 
and (3) that the development of ner\'Ous force should be 
encouraged by giving the animals large liberty in exercising. 
It will follow, then, that new milk, pea meal, com meal, and 
oil cake will not occupy so prominent a place in the diet of 
a calf for the dairy as of one intended for beef. But they 
may be used to some extent, more especially new milk and 
oil cake. 

The calves should, of course, have new milk for, say, two 
or three weeks from birth, and then new and skim milk for, 
say, two Weeks, after which they will usually do very well on 
skim milk and certain adjuncts, more especially if the 
adjuncts are suitable. But it is impossible to lay rules that 
will be equally applicable to every case, owing to the great 
difference in the individuality of the animals. For instance, 
one calf with vigorous development may get along without 
any new milk after the age of two weeks, while another 
might require it for four weeks, or even for a longer period. 
While the aim should be to curtail the new milk ration as 
soon as this can be done without injury to the calf, care must 
be taken not to impede seriously the growth of the young 
animal, lest it sustain permanent harm. The last mistake 
would be the greater of the two. The change from new milk 
to skim milk should always be gradual, so much so that no 



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98 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

indication of it will be perceptible in the appearance of the 
animal. During this period of transition, oil cake is intro- 
duced, or ground linseed or flaxseed gruel, as may be deemed 
preferable. If the latter is used, it must of course be fed 
in connection with the milk, but if the former, it may be 
given with the meal to be mentioned below. The flaxseed 
gruel is made by soaking a small quantity of flaxseed in a 
large quantity of water and then boiling for one hour. When 
the gruel is added to the milk while hot it helps to bring the 
milk to a normal temperature. Otherwise, it may be heated 
on the stove or by pouring hot water into it. The fonner 
process is somewhat laborious, and the latter tends to undue 
distension of the stomach. However, the milk should not 
be fed when cold. When obtained from a separator it is in 
fine fonn for being fed. 

The following are some of the most suitable adjuncts that 
may be used during the milk period: i. Oats ground at first, 
and later, ground or whole. 2. Equal parts of ground oats 
and bran, or of ground barley and bran, or of ground oats, 
ground barley and bran, with linseed meal or oil cake or flax- 
seed gruel added as already described. No single grain 
ration will compare with oats in rearing calves, and so per- 
fectly are they adapted to the requirements of the dairy calf 
that they may be used with much freedom, as an article of 
diet. The additional adjuncts in winter may constist of hay 
and ensilage, or sliced or pulped roots in lieu of the ensilage. 
In summer, a supplement of some nutritious soiling crop of 
fine growth will prove helpful; in fact, it is a necessity unless 
the calves are plentifully supplied with good pasture. 

The conditions as to management generally require careful 
attention. The young animals should be kept in a loose box 
stall, which, in winter, must be warm. Several may be kept 
in one enclosure when there are proper facilities for giving 
each calf its due portion of milk. In summer this place 
should be darkened to afford them a refuge from flies, even 
though they may have the run of a grass paddock in addition. 

It is more imperative with dairy calves than with those of 
the best breeds that they have abundant exercise to develop 



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THE MODEL COW. 99 

nerve power in a high degree. This must continually be borne 
in mind on farms where a complete system of soiling is 
adopted, and where, in consequence, the same necessity for 
exertion on the part of the animals in securing their food is 
not felt. 

The weaning period will vary with the abundance or 
scarcity of the milk supplies and the constitution of the calf. 
Where a calf is a good feeder, the weaning may, in case of 
absolute necessity, take place at the age of three months. 
but where there is the slightest tendency to delicacy or dainti- 
ness in taking food, it should be deferred until the calf is five 
or even six months old. Where skim milk is plentiful, it is 
put to a very good use when given to calves that have reached 
that age which would enable them to get along very well 
without it. 

Whatever may be said in favor of rearing steer calves of 
the dairy breeds for veal, or for **baby*' meat, I am con- 
vinced that there is no profit in trying to rear them for beef 
making when matured or nearing maturity, for the reasons (i) 
that they do not attain sufficiently heavy weights in a given 
time or when matured : (2) that they do not mature so quickly 
as animals of the beef breeds; (3) that the expenditure of 
food is too much in proportion 4o the increase in weight, and 
(4) that the meat does not possess qualities of the first order. 

Thnt there is a difference in the dairy breeds as to their 
capacity for beef making I will readily admit, but of none of 
them can it be said that they will produce steers of equal 
average weights with the Hereford or Shorthorn, when, say, 
two and a-half to three years old. There may occasionally 
be found some specimens that grow to a good size and weight 
in proportion, but they form the exception. 

That the steers of the dairy breeds will not mature so 
quickly as those of the beef breeds is highly probable, for 
the reason that the cows and also the bulls do not mature so 
quickly. The beef breeds have been put under so high a 
pressure in reference to early maturity that it has to some 
extent impaired their milking properties, a pressure which 



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lOO BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the dairy breeds would not stand without being injured 
likewise. 

THE ART OF MILKING. 

No doubt the product of a cow is changed for better or 
worse by improper milking, and it is quite as .true that the 
art of milking must depend for its effectiveness upon a 
knowledge of the peculiar characteristics of the cow, espe- 
cially of the cow*s udder, and also of the method of produc- 
tion and the character of the milk. There is a reason for all 
things, and certainly there are reasons why milking should 
be performed in certain ways. These may be stated as 
follows: 

First. Milking should be done gently and with ease to the 
cow, and with a certain manipulation of the udder to imitate^ 
as much as possible, the action of a sucking calf. 

Second. It should be done rather deliberately than other- 
wise. 
. Third. The udder should be drained to the last drop. 

Fourth. The more frequently milking is done, the greater 
is the yield of milk, and the more butter there is in it. 

These points all depend upon the fact that the cow's udder 
is not a reservoir of milk whtch is slowly accumulated drop 
by drop, as it is found during the period between two milk- 
ings, but it is a secreting gland which acts most copiously 
during a period of excitement. In this it resembles the 
salivary glands of the mouth, the pancreas, and other digest- 
ive glandular organs, and the lachrynal glands of the eye, 
which are equally secreting organs, and not reservoirs. These 
glands are constantly secretins: their special fluids, to a small 
extent, but under excitement the secretions are greatly in- 
creased and flow copiously. The milk glands have the 
same peculiarity, and soon after the act of milking is begun, 
and not before, the udder fills and the milk flows until the 
supply of glandular tissue ready for conversion into milk is 
exhausted. Then a new growth of tissue begins and goes 
on in the interval, and it will stop under certain conditions if 
the milk is not drawn, when the small quantity of milk formed 



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THE MODEL COW. lOI 

in the udder will be absorbed, and the udder will dry up, as it 
is termed. 

The milking should be done quietly and easily so as to 
bring the cow into a calm condition that will permit the 
secretion of milk to go on without any interference. The 
udder should be manipulated in such a maimer as to excite 
the necessary nervous action required for the conversion of 
tissue into milk. This is done by squeezing the teats, and 
drawing them down and pressing them upward alternately. 
It should be done deliberately to give time for the conver- 
sion of the last lobule of glandular substance into milk, and 
not completed until this is effected. 

The udder should be drained to the last drop, and the milk- 
ing performed at such intervals as will produce the most 
copious secretion of milk, for the special reason now to be 
given. If a cow's udder is carefully separated from the 
carcass killed while in milking condition, it will be found to 
consist of a m iss of spongy tissue, with a great number of sep- 
arating ducts, like the various branches and sources of a 
stream, all beginning in dense glandular and fatty tissue at the 
upper part of the udder; and these may be traced, like the 
various diverging twigs of a bush until the finest branches 
end in masses of very minute globules of glandular substance 
of the form of clusters of grapes. Bach of these minute 
lobules contains a single globule of fat. The whole udder, 
all along the milk ducts, has three secreting glands to some 
extent; but they are greatly more numerous at the upper 
part of the udder where this organ spreads broadly upon the 
surface of the abdomen, and receives an enormous number 
of exceedingly fine blood vessels, ramifying among the 
glandular tissue, and ending in branches which connect with 
these grape-like lobules. 

FOODS FOR MAKING MILK. 

There are persons, and some who claim to be professors of 
science, who insist that the food of a cow has no special 
effect on the milk; that the milk, being a product of the ani- 
mal, is the same in all cases as long as the cow remains in 



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I02 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

good health and all her functions are going on healthfully. 
This, however, is not in accordance with the belief or expe- 
rience of those who feed the cows and whose business it is to 
procure the best quality of milk. Nor is the claim supported 
by the most intelligent and independent scientific students, 
who are more apt to depend upon their own investigations, 
carefully made and verified, than to take without question 
the conclusions of others whose reputation is based chiefly 
on the fact that they are foreign, and who are quite unac- 
quainted with actual dairy practice, even in their own coun- 
tries, being chemists and not practical men. Fortunately, 
this slavish dependence upon French and German chemists 
as guides for American dairymen and farmers is rapidly dis- 
appearing, and the leaders in American agricultural science 
are now investigating these matters for themselves, and as 
each is able to reach a certain conclusion, he is falling into 
line with the common experience of practical men who know 
that the food has everything to do with the quantity and 
quality of the milk of cows. 

But something more than this is required for success in 
practice, and more especially just now when the value ot all 
the foods offered for sale is higher than ever before, and the 
constant tendency of the prices of farm products is downward. 
The milk producer must now study more closely than ever 
the nature of those foods which are indispensable for profit- 
able production of milk for all purposes, so that he may guide 
himself in accordance with his special needs. 

The butter maker wants fat mostly and must feed for this; 
the cheese maker wants a large quantity of milk not exces- 
sively rich in fats, but with a sufficient proportion in it to 
give the required quality to the product; while the milk seller 
must have, according to the law, at least 13 per cent of solids, 
of which one-third nearly must be fat, and the caseine must be 
in excess of this proportion. The butter maker is not under 
the same stringent exigency in regard to the quality of the 
milk he produces, so far as the protection of the public by 
means of laws is concerned, but yet the necessity fpr profit is 
inexorable and even stronger than laws, while the cheese 



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THE MODEL COW. 103 

maker and the milk seller are bound by penalties to produce 
milk up to a certain standard, which is 12 to 13 per cent of 
solid matter, of which the caseine is in excess of the sugar 
and the fats. But the butter maker must have a large excess 
of fat, and 5 and 6 per cent is as little as he can make 
profitable. 

All this goes to show that a knowledge of the character of 
the foods used is indispensable for success to every one who 
is feeding cows for profit, and that each class of dairyman 
has a different point of view and end to reach from the others, 
and, to gain his end, each must vary his practice somewhat. 

It is now all but universally accepted as a guiding princi- 
ple of feeding animals that the fats of the food go directly 
into the blood from the digestive organs unchanged and make 
fat in the animal, and that the individual disposition of the 
animal determines whether the fat shall be deposited in the 
muscular tissue, as in the best mellow skinned beeves, or on 
the internal organs as tallow, as in the poor, hard-skinned, 
feeders, the udder of the cows, as in the special butter 
makers — the Jerseys and Guernseys — as breeds, and indi- 
vidual animals of all other breeds. 

This leading principle being well understood it follows that 
the feeder of cows must necessarily choose the foods that are 
best adapted for his special needs. The butter maker will 
use those in which the fats are known to be well flavored and 
highly colored and in the largest proportion. The mere milk 
producers may ignore the fat elements of the food and take 
those substances which contain the flesh elements (the pro- 
teiue) with a moderate proportion of fats only. For those 
foods which go to make flesh are tho*=ie which will make the 
caseine of the milk, a substance which is almost precisely of 
the .same composition as the solid m tter of flesh. 

The list here given shows the composition of the various 
foods in common use, as given in the last annual report of 
the Massachusetts State Experiment Station: 



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I04 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Per cent of fiir-dry matter. 



Cornnieal 

Hominy meal 

Peameal 

Linseed-oil meal 
Cottonseed meal 

Wheat bran 

Brewers grain .... 
Cocoa duat 



Proteine. 


Fat. 


Starch, 
sugar, &c. 


9 to i6 


3 to 5 


73 to 83 


7 to 12 


5 to 12 


68 to 78 


21 


2 


55 


30 to 39 


6 to 9 


32 to 44 


36 to 51 


Qto 14 


20 to 33 


15 to 20 


3 to 6 


51 to 62 


16 to 33 


2 to 6 


43 to 67 


15 


25 


45 



The most conspicuous point in these fij^ures is the wide dif- 
ference in the composition of several samples. This shows 
how necessary it is that these should be purchased on analy- 
sis, as the value of any one for a special use may vary 50 per 
cent, or more, even, from the averajje, and, further, this differ- 
ence will explain how it is that the results from their use may 
vary so much as to cast doubt on the reports made of the 
feeding of them. And thus, in the use of them, the market 
value can only be justly based on the quality, or the feeder, 
to be safe, must estimate them on the basis of the least value 
for the elements of nutriment contained. 

HOW TO MAKE BUTTER. 

The management of the cream is the most particular of all 
the special points in butter making, both as regards the quan- 
tity and the quality of the butter. Sweet cream makes less 
butter, and that of a less pleasant flavor, than soured cream. 
But if the souring is carried too far the flavor of the butter is 
deteriorated, as the acidity hastens the production of those 
volatile acids which, when in excess, produce that condition 
which is known as rancidity. 'It is to the very moderate 
quantity of these acids in the butter that the pleasant, nutty 
flavor and peculiarly agreeable odor of good butter are due. 
The proper condition of the cream is called ripeness. The 
ripening of cream consists in the production of a certain quan- 
tity of lactic acid in the milk, of which the larger part — from 
60 to 75 per cent — of the cream consists. The quantity of acid 
in the cream should be no more than is suificient to give it 



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THE MODEL COW. 1 05 

a mild, pleasant-sour taste, and this may be produced pre- 
cisely by the following methods, with shallow or deep cold 
setting, respectively : With the former, the milk is set in 
shallow pans, at a temperature of sixty to sixty-two degrees, 
in pure air, for thirty-six hours, when it is skimmed, the milk 
being still sweet or slightly soured. The cream, skimmed at 
intervals of twelve hours, is kept in a covered jar at the same 
temperature, and fresh cream is added to the first skimmings. 
The whole is gently stirred to mix all together. At the expira- 
tion of thirty -six hours from the first skimming the cream will 
be in the best condition for churning and " ripeness,'* as it is 
now termed, and for making excellent butter. With the cold air 
and deep-pail setting, the cream is skimmed twenty-four hours 
after the milk has been set, and is kept in a pail set in the 
tank at the usual temperature of forty-five degrees until there 
is enough for the churning, or the cream of each skimming 
may be churned each day. But the cream must then be 
ripened before it is churned. This may be done by exposing 
the cream to a temperature of sixty to sixty-five degrees for 
twenty-four hours to produce the requisite acidity or ripeness; 
but this delay may be avoided and the ripening hastened by 
adding a sufficient quantity of sour milk or buttermilk of the 
previous day's churning to produce this sourness. Generally 
one quart of the sour milk to twenty quarts of the sweet cream 
will be enough for this purpose, the cream being gently 
stirred so as to mix the sour milk evenly through it. The 
precision with which .this ripening is effected is the main 
point in making the best quality of butter, and to be sure 
about it, the thermometer should be used to regulate the tem- 
perature and the time should be noted ; for temperature and 
time act together, and one element being in excess, the other 
needs to be reduced to reach the desirable effect. Before 
putting the cream in the churn the cream jar should be 
brought into a warm room for twelve hours and stirred always 
gently until it is as warm as sixty-two or sixty-five degrees if 
in cold weather. If in warm weather, the average tempera- 
ture should be fifty -five degrees, ranging one or two degrees 
higher or lower according to circumstances. The chum is 



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I05 BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

scalded out and then rinsed with fresh, cold water, when it 
is ready for the cream. Seated on a chair by the chum, the 
operator turns the churn at eight revolutions to the minute, a 
little faster than a second to each turn. At first, gas will be 
evolved from the cream, and this will need to be let out two 
or three times by opening the vent hole, during t^n minutes, 
when it will cease. Soon the cream will thicken, when a 
few quicker turns will be made now and then to break it 
down. When it begins to make a splashy noise the butter is 
coming. Then a view should be taken to see that the butter 
is not overchumed. When it is in grains as large as wheat 
grains and peas the churning is done. The buttermilk should 
be drawn off through the opening at the bottom and cold 
water poured into the churn, which should be moved back 
and forth a few times to wash off the milk. 

It is a common thing in dairies to add a handful of salt to 
the buttermilk in the chum before drawing it off from the 
butter. It is believed that this facilitates the separation of 
the butter from the buttermilk. It is also recommended to 
wash the butter in brine as it comes from the chum. Both 
these practices are justified by good reasons. Butter is lighter 
than milk, and even than water; but not so much lighter than 
water as to cause an easy separation of it from the liquid. 
Milk is viscous and adherent to the butter, and it is not easy 
to separate the butter from it quickly, on this account. Then, 
when salt is added to the buttermilk the density of it is 
increased, and, necessarily, the butter floats from it more 
easily. So when brine is poured into the churn when the 
buttermilk is drawn off, its density causes the butter to rise 
in it more freely, and at the same time it dilutes the milk 
adhering to the butter, and this, too, hastens the separation. 
The importance of this simple practice is thus perceived. 

The complete removal of all the milk from butter intended 
for long keeping is indispensable. The caseine of the milk 
is really a ferment, an active chemical agent in the decom- 
position of tlie butter, and the change of the fat, in part, to 
volatile acids which confer a very undesirable odor and flavor 
to the butter. But when the butter is intended for immediate 



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LA VAC A MODELO. 107 

use, it does not require such complete separation from the 
milk, and a little of it may be left in the butter with advan- 
tage, as it develops that fine flavor which is known as the 
nutty taste and the aromatic odor which give the sweetness 
to butter. Without these butter is quite insipid and has a 
very indistinct odor of mere fat. Thus the butter maker may 
spoil his product by too much carefulness in washing it, and 
do what is often thought to be a fault, and the effect of over- 
washing. 

This should be well understood. Water can not take any- 
thing from fats of any kind. They can not dissolve any part 
of it, and thus butter is not itself hurt in any way by any 
amount of washing in pure water. But the washing takes 
from the butter the small remnant of milk remaining in it 
and leaves it pure and necessarily flavorless. In course of 
time, a few days or longer, the butter begins to change by an 
inherent chemical process, and the flavoring acids are slowly 
developed in it. And then it is ripe, much as a fruit becomes 
ripe, and acquires its finest flavor by the production of the 
first elements of decomposition in it. If butter is to be 
packed for future use, this change in it will go on sufficiently 
without any help from a starter in the form of a remnant of 
the buttermilk, but if il is for immediate use, a minute 
quantity of milk is desirable in it. 

[To be continued.] 



GANADO AMERICANO. 



Capitulo il 
LA VACA MODELO. 

Imaginaos que estd la vaca 4 vuestra vista ! Su aspecto 
general es el de una cuna, casi la antitesis del tipo del toro y 
guardando con €1 una relaci6n andloga d la que existe entre el 
tridngulo y el paralel6gramo. En apariencia es mansa, pero 
en realidad no siempre lo es. Si alguna persona desconocida 

Sbul 



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Io8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

6 un perro extraviado se acerca d clla, 6 si oye algun ruido 
extrano, 6 acontece algo sorprendente, vereis que su manse- 
dumbre se desvanece, que su mirada tranquila se vuelve 
airada, que su cabeza se levanta separdndose de su posici6n 
normal que es inclinada hacia la tierra, que su lomo se vuelve 
rigido, que su cola se levanta lijeramente, y que las ventanas 
de su nariz se ensanchan en gran manera. Es que entonces 
se ha colocado en la defensiva, y estd lista para el ataque si es 
que algun peligro amenaza d su ternero. A este estado de 
la vaca se le llama generalmente >vl temperamento nervioso. 
Todo buena vaca de leche parece estar constituida de esta 
manera. Mas no debe excitarse esta condici6n nerviosa, porque 
el resultado de ella serd que la vaca tenga poca leche, y que 
la que d€ no abunde en crema. Para que la vaca d€ bueaa 
leche es necesario que se mantenga en su actitud sosegada 
y meditativa. 

En cuanto d sus caracteres debe decirse que los prin- 
cipales son los siguientes : Una cabeza mas bien larga y 
aplanada, ojos grandes y prominentes bien separados uno 
de otro y colocados bastante abajo en la cara, boca y nariz 
grandes, orejas pequeiias y femeninas provistas en su 
interior de gldndulas secretorias de abundante liquido 
oleoso, cuemos pequenos y puntiagudos, si no es de la raza 
que carece de ellos (estos cuernos, cuando los hay, pueden 
ser de buen tamano en la base); quijadas anchas, garganta 
bien cortada y libre de papadas hasta Uegar d la panza, cuello 
arqueado hacia dentro, y cuartos delanteros inclinados, del- 
gados en la parte alta y ensanchados cada vez mds hasta 
alcanzar las patas, de manera que se mantienen bien separados 
uao de otro, mostrando uu anclio pecho y dejando capacidad 
bastante amplia para la accion del coraz6n. Si se mira d la 
vaca por la parte de atrds se encontrard que lo primero que 
presenta es su inmensa ubre, que ocupa un grande espacio y 
estd cubierta por piel floja y eldstica que pemiite fdcilmente 
el ensanchamiento y coutraccion del organo. A mi juicio es de 
gran importancia que la ubre se extienda bien hacia la parte 
delantera y que tenga cuatro pezones bien situados y de 
tamano mediano ademds de otros rudimentarios que pueden 



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LA. VACA MODEU). 109 

ser dos 6 cuatro. L,a piel de la ubre debe estar desprovista 
de pelos. Los vasos 6 canales por donde se excreta la leche 
debet! ser grandes y bien ramificados. Los orificios para la 
excrecion deben ser numerosos y de grande didmetro, porque 
la cantidad de la leche obtenida depende nids del tamaiio y 
cantidad de estos orificios que del tamano de los canales 
mismos. La famosa vaca "Jewel** tenia cuatro orificios en 
cada lado del pezdn. La vaca "Alma/* que obtuvo un 
diploma por ser la mejor vaca lechera del Noroeste, tiene las 
venas 6 canales secretorios extendidos hasta las patas delan- 
teras y cuatro orificios en cada lado del pezon. Estas venas 
tienen varios nombres, pero no es tan esencial ocuparse de 
ellas como de los otros caracteres que se ban mencionado. 

La Uamada "cuerda de la mantequilla*' estd en los costados, 
y es una cuerda 6 vena redonda cuyo grueso 6 tamano varia 
desde el del dedo menique hasta tres veces el mismo didme- 
tro. He notado que todas las vacas que son buenas mante- 
quilleras tienen esta cuerda sumamente desarrollada ; pero 
tambi6n he encontrado despu^s de la oportuna jnvestigaci6n 
que no es mds que una cuerda que ayuda al sostenimiento del 
abdomen, sin tener conexi6n alguna con la ubre. El '*es- 
cudo*' (escutcheon), es decir el pelo que se nota en el cuello 
y parte posterior de la ubre y que crece en sentido inverso, es 
cosa que se encuentra con frecuencia, aunque no siempre, en 
las buenas vacas. Caso de encontrarse debe ser continuo, 
porque si estd interrumpido es senal de que puede interrum- 
pirse la secreci6n de la leche, 6 de que esta no puede consegu- 
irse durante todo el ano. 

El lomo debe ser recto, pero cuando la vaca empieza d 
ponerse vieja el espinazo se hunde un poco, por raz6n del 
peso de la panza, y porlaincestante y gran demanda ejercida 
sobre la fuerza nerviosa que corre d la largo de la medula 
espinal. Anchasy grandes vertebras indican una gran fuerza 
nerviosa. Esta es de la mayor importancia, por lo cual suele 
decirse que de un buen lomo penden todas las ganancias. El 
hecho es que el lomo no solamente es el sost^n de donde 
cuelga el grande abdomen, sino que es tambien el aislador 
por el cual corre la fuerza nerviosa. 



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no BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

La pelvis de las vacas debe ser ancha. La cola debe ser 
gruesa en el punto de inserci6n, pero debe ir disminuyendo 
en didmetro hasta Uegar d una punta fina, en que debe tener un 
bulbo para segregar una sustancia oleosa, terminando todo 
con una buena cantidad de pelo. Esto puede parecer de 
poca iraportancia, pero la verdad es que cada uno de estos 
caracteres tiene su especial significado en el conjunto de 
los que deben reunirse en una buena vaca lechera. La 
caja del cuerpo debe ser grande, las costillas bien abiertas, 
chatas y dejando suficiente espacio entre una y otra, las ancas 
delgadas y huesosas, las patas chicas y femeninas. El cuero 
suave, de color de oro, cubierto de pelo, y cuanto mas espeso 
tanto mejor, completara el tipo de una vaca de leche, que 
bien tratada y alimentada satisfard todas las exigencias. Si 
se trata de crtanza debe buscarse sienipre para estas vacas un 
toro de la misma clase. En cuanto d la ternera debe alimen- 
tdrsela desde que nace con el objeto de hacer de ella una 
vaca mantequillera. Este procedimiento debe continuar- 
se de raanera que d los veinte 6 veinticuatro meses de edad 
pueda dejdrsela ser madre, pues que la naturaleza provee 
desde los primeros aiios de la vida d lo que se necesita para 
fijar las cualidades que quieren obtenerse mds tarde. De esta 
manera se puede dar desde el principio mayor impulso d la 
produccion de la leche que d la de la carne misma del animal. 

TRATAMIENTO DE LAS VACAS PRE^ADAS. 

El momento del parto en todos los animales estd siempre 
acompanado de perturbaciones fisicasdegrantamano. Todo 
el sistema del organismo experimenta un violento cambio. 
La circulacion de la sangre con que previamente se alimeu- 
taba al feto, cuyo peso constituye d menudo la deciraa parte 
del de la madre, se concreta siibitamente d la de esta ultima, 
origindndose de ello una situaci6n seria. El curso de la san- 
gre por todo el sistema se encuentra estimulado, y por 
espacio de alguuos dias hay siempre peligro de que un 
error en el tratamiento pueda causar graves males. 
Uno que entienda bi^n la fisiologia de un animal 
puede coniprender fdcilmeute el tratamiento adecuado 



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LA VACA MODELO. Ill 

para las necesidades de cada caso, pero este es punto por 
desgracia demasiado desatendido en la educaci6n de los horn- 
bres de campo. Es mejor que todo el asunto sea considerado 
desde este punto de vista, pues que no es posible dar reglas 
fijas aplicables d todos los casos, siendo tan grandes las dife- 
rencias que existen en las vacas. En realidad el tratamiento 
adecuado d que debe someterse una vaca 6 cualquiera otro 
animal de los que se dedican d la agricultura, cuando estd 
proxima d parir, debe descansar sobre el conocimiento de lo 
que el animal necesita, no solo en este momento critico de su 
vida, sino durante cierto tierapo antes y despu^s, de donde 
resulta que deben hacerse con tiempo los debidos preparativos. 
Debe haber un tratamiento adecuado para la madre en esta 
circumstancia, como debe haberlo igualmente en todas las 
otras emergencias de la vida del animal. La vaca debe 
encontrarse en buen estado de salud, y con todas sus funciones, 
como la digesti6n, la acci6n de los intestinos, y la de todos 
los demds 6rganos del cuerpo, en el orden normal. Debe 
tener tambi^n tranquilidad, en todos los sentidos, debi^ndose 
procurar mantenerla alejada de toda causa de irritaci6n 6 
sobresalto. Por el espacio de algunas semanas antes de que 
ocurra el parto debe darse d la vaca un alimento lijero pero 
del cardcter mds nutritivo. Debe evitarse estimularla dema- 
siado ddndole mucho grano; y si se la alimenta con forraje 
seco, que generalmente produce estreiiiniiento, debe cor- 
rejirse este mal resultado con el uso de alimentos laxantes 
como raices, 6 atoles de salvado. Es de grande importancia 
conservar los intestinos en buena condici6n, puesto que toda 
pertubacion en ellos causard ciertamente un daiio serio al 
sistema, bien produciendo un estado febril, bien causando el 
debilitamiento del animal por falta de la nutrici6n necesaria. 
En general puede decirse q le en este respectodebe tratarse d 
las vacas en semejante estado, como se haria si estuvieran 
convalesciendo de alguna enfermedad en que es indispen- 
sable cuidarlas con esmero. 

Puede formarse una idea de la importancia que se da por 
los que entienden de esto d los preparativos de que se trata 
recordando lo que pas6 con una de las vacas de mds valor en 



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112 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

el mundo exhibida en la Exposici6n Universal Colorabina de 
Chicago. Esta vaca que en ocasiones ha producido mds de 
mil libras de mantequilla en un aiio estaba alli puesta al 
cuidado del primer experto en estas materias, que es el bien 
conocido Mr. Fuller, criador canadense de vacas de la raza 
denominada ''Jersey.** A este senor se le pagaban ^4003! 
mes para que atendiese debidamente d la alimentaci6n de la 
vaca antedicha durante la prueba 4 que se someti6 al animal 
en aquel certamen. Esto demuestra bien claro cuales son las 
ideas del amo de la vaca con respecto 4 la importancia de 
alimentar d esta del modo debido Verdad es que d esta 
vaca se la puede considerar como una cosa fenomenal, pero 
aunque asi sea, siempre es una vaca con las mismas cualida- 
des fundamentales que todas las otras, aunque desenvueltas 
y perfeccionadas hasta el grado mds alto por los tratamientos 
adecuados. 

Otra cosa d que debe atenderse con cuidado es la de procu- 
rar que se mantengan en buen estado de actividad los 6rganos 
secretorios de la leche. Si se estimula indebidamente la 
ubre por medio de alimentos ricos, dados en exceso de las 
necesidades del animal, es cosa cierta que resultard dano. 
El alimento debe ser tal que conserve al animal en buen es- 
tado de salud sin aumentar demasiado la carga de la ubre, que 
no tendrd salida sino despu6s del nacimiento del ternero. 
Puede hasta ser necesario ordefiar la vaca .si es que la ubre se 
encuentra endurecida 6 inflamada por exceso de alimento. 
Puede suceder tambi^n que sea prudente reducir la constitu- 
ci6n del animal usando purgantes sencillos, tales por ejemplo 
como una pinta de aceite de lina^a cruda, 6 una libra de sal 
de Epsom, puesto que el sistema quedard inmediatamente 
aliviado por virtud de este movimiento intestinal. Es siem- 
pre mucho mejor no recurrir d las medicinas y hacerlo todo 
y en debido tiempo por medio del alimento, si es posible. 

Ademds de esto debe tambi^n tenerse siempre cuidado 
con que nada moleste d la vaca, ni perturbe el reposo en que 
debe estar. Todo el mundo sabe que apenas nace el temero la 
vaca se retira, cuando puede hacerlo, d algun lugar separado 
donde est^ libre de temores con respecto d este ultimo. A 



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LA VACA MODELO. II3 

este instinto materno hay que dar satisfacci6n poniendo la vaca 
en algun lugar tranquilo y de poca luz, en el interior del 
establo. Kstos lugares deben siempre-enconirarse, tanto para 
el uso de las vacas como de las yeguas y hasta de los otros 
animales menores, en todo establo bi^n construido. El indi- 
viduo que estd d cargo del establo 6 en especial de la vaca 
prenada debe vigilar con cuidado mientras se encuentre en 
aquel lugar de retiro hasta que Uegue el momento del parto. 
Cuando este ocurra, si no se presenta novedad alguna, no 
debe hacerse nada que queda interrumpir, suspender 6 per- 
turbar el acto. Deben darse por lo nienos algunas cuantas 
horas d la vaca parida para que desaparezca la perturbaci6n 
causada por el parto. La naturaleza misma hace que la 
madre atienda desde luego 4 las primeras necesidades del 
temero, y es mejor dejarla sola y que ella misma haga las 
cosas en el orden natural. Pero si en ^pocas anteriores la 
vaca se ha encontrado sometida d un tratamiento diferente d 
que el animal est6 acostumbrado, deberd entonces cogerse el 
temero desde el momento mismo en que nace y antes que la 
vaca lo hay a tocado, llevdndolo d otro lugar debidamentepre- 
parado para recibirlo y donde serd atendido como se requiere. 
Hay que dejarlo quieto hasta que al cabo de algunas horas se 
sienta con hambre. Entonces la vaca, que tambi^n ha estado 
descansando con toda la comodidad posible, y d quien debe 
haberse dado para conseguirlo una bebida caliente de atol de 
harina de avena, que es purgante y nutritiva al mismo tiempo, 
puede ser ordellada, para darle en el acto esta leche al temero, 
d quien de esta manera se ensefiard tambi^n d beber desde el 
primer dia. Si la vaca y el temero permanecen juntos hay 
que dejar d aquella que alimente d este d su manera. 

Teni^ndose este cuidado puede suceder que nunca ocurra 
novedad alguna por espacio de muchos anos, aun en fincas 
donde haya un gran n6mero de vacas. Hay muchos hacen- 
dados cuidadosos que jamds han tenido en toda su vida ningtin 
contratiempo d este respecto. En realidad no puede contarse 
con ninguna esperanza de seguridad sino procediendo de esta 
manera. Esa ha sido la costumbre del autor de este articulo, 
y en mds de veinte anos de experiencia ni le ha acontecido 



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114 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

nunca cosa alguna que afectase la seguridad de los animales 
dedicados d la agricultura, ni ha perdido nunca ninguna cria, 
sea potro 6 temero, ni tenido tampoco ningun enfermo. Esto 
se ha debido simplemente al sistema de precauci6n que se le 
ensen6 desde joven y que despues ha practicado constante- 
mente. El aislamiento de la vaca en un lugar tranquilo debe 
continuarse por tres 6 cuatro dias (cuatro es la regla general), 
porque entonces la leche se encuentra ya en su estado normal 
y casi todo el peligro ha pasado completamente. Ya no es 
posible que se presente la fiebre de la leche que es la enfer- 
medad mds terrible de todas las que puede tener un animal 
en aquel estado. El buen tratamiento ordinario ird trayendo 
poco d poco d la vaca al estado de salud necesaria para poder 
ser ordeiiada sin riesgo alguno. Esto se conseguird al cabo 
de dos semanas, y serd bueno no acortar este tiempo dando 
demasiado alimento d la vaca, porque de lo contrario puede 
sobrevenir una enfennedad, 6 por lo menos una inflamaci6n 
de la ubre, que jamds se presenta en ningun animal bien 
tratado. El demasiado alimento es la principal causa de 
estas afecciones, pero la exposici6n al frio 6 d la lluvia, antes 
de que el animal haya recuperado sus fuerzas extenuadas por 
virtud del parto, es tambien causante de graves males. 

En estas cosas debe procederse pronto andando despacio, 
porque puede perderse todo por andar con demasiada pre- 
cipitaci6n. Y esto es esencialmente verdadero cuando se 
trata de la alimentacion de las vacas 6 de cualesquiera otros 
animales que se encuentran en este estado. La regla que debe 
seguirse entonces invariablemente es andar despacio pero 
con paso seguro. Un auraento gradual en el alimento, y solo 
el que se necesite en realidad para la recuperaci6n paulatina 
de las fuerzas perdidas, y para la producci6n de la leche que 
naturalmente se aumenta d medida que crece el ternero es de 
la mds imperiosa necesidad ; y en el momento en que se vea 
la menor indicaci6n de una alimentacion excesiva debe po- 
nerse termino d aquel aumento. 

Al ordenador de la vaca antes mencionada se le pagaban, 
segiin se ha dicho, $150 al mes, loque demuestra que despuds 
del cuidado y responsabilidad de alimentar la vaca, que ocupa 



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LA VAC A MODKLO. II5 

el primer puesto, viene en segundo lugar la cuesti6n de 
ordefiarla, en la que se ver4 claro el mal resultado de 
cualqnier sistema erroneo de alimentacion, caso de haber 
existido. Cada animal por supuesto tiene que diferir y difie- 
re en este respecto como en otros, de todos los demds de su 
especte, as{ es que d cada uno se le tiene que estudiar indi- 
vidualmente. Hay personas demasiado precipitadas que 
padecen el error de creer que todo lo que come el animal se 
vuelve leche; pero eslo depende en gran manera de la clase 
especial & que la vaca partenece, y tanto daflo puede hacerse 
excitando demasiado los 6rganos secretorios de la leche como 
perturbando las funciones digestivas. 

AUMENTACION Y TRATAMIENTO DE LOS TER- 

NEROS. 

L,a 6poca del crecimiento de los animales sujetos d domes- 
ticacion es relativamente importante, y en consecuencia de 
ello resulta necesario que se le preste la debida atenci6n. En 
la crianza de los terneros, en una lecheria, se necesita tener 
presenter 1** que el desarroUo del animal sea regular y con- 
stante ; 2° que si bien es cierto que debe aspirarse d un 
desarrollo muscular vigoroso, tambien lo es que debe evitarse 
el aumento de la gordura en ningtin grado notable ; y 3° 
que el desarrollo de la fuerza nerviosa debe ser fomentado, 
dando d los animales la mayor libertad para hacer ejercicio. 
De aqui se sigue que la leche nueva, la harina de chicharos, 
la de maiz, y el bagazo de las semillas aceitosas, no ocupan 
un lugar tan prominente en la alimeutaci6n de los terneros 
dedicados d la lecheria, como en la de los dedicados al matadero 
despu^s de que crezcan. Estos alimentos sin embargo deben 
usarse en cierta cantidad, especialmente la leche nueva y el 
bagazo antes nombrado. Los terneros deben aliment arse con 
leche nueva por las dos 6 tres primeras semanas subsiguientes 
d su nacimiento. Despu^s hay que darles una mezcla de leche 
nueva y de leche descremada por espacio de otras dos sema- 
nas ; y despu6s de trascnrridas estas se les podrd mantener 
muy bi^n con leche descremada y con otras cosas d prop6sito. 
Es imposible dictar reglas aplicables d todos los casos, lo cual 



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Il6 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

depende, como se ha dicno, de la gran diferencia que existe 
individualmente entre los animales de la misma especie. Uq 
teruero de vigorosa constituci6n puede por ejemplo pasarlo 
muy bi^n sin ninguna leche nueva d las dos seroanas de haber 
nacido, mientras que puede haber otro que necesite la misma 
aiimentaci6n por cuatro semanas y hasta tal vez por mds largo 
tiempo. El fin d que debe aspirarse consiste en acortar la 
raci6n de leche nueva tau pronto como pueda hacerse sin 
perjuicio para el temero, teni^ndose cuidado de no impedir 
seriamente el crecimiento del animal, no sea que le sobre- 
venga dano permanente, lo cual despu6s de todo seria la 
mayor equivocaci6n que pudiera cometerse. 

El cambio de la leche nueva por la leche descremada debe 
ser gradual hasta tal punto que no debe ser perceptible en la 
apariencia del animal ninguna indicaci6n de que aquel se ha 
efectuado. Durante este periodo de transici6n se puede usar 
el bagazo antes mencionado, 6 bien harina de linaza cruda 6 
cociuada en forma de atol, segun se estime preferible. Si se 
usa este ultimo alimento, debe emplearse tambi6n la leche, 
pero si se usa el bagazo habrd que ddrselo d la vaca en uni6ii 
de la harina que se mencionard mas tarde. El atol de linaza 
se prepara hirviendo por el espacio de una hora en una grande 
cantidad de agui una pequena porcion de semillas de linaza; 
si entonces, y mientras este calieute, se le mezcla con leche. 
la temperatura de esta se pondrd d la altura normal, lo cual 
es de importancia, pues que de otro modo seria necesario 
calentar la leche en una estufa, 6 mezclarla con agua caliente. 
El primero de estos dos medios implica algun trabajo y el 
segundo tiende d producir una expansi6n indebida del est6mago. 
El liecho es que la leche no debe darse como alimento estando 
fria. 

Los alimentos enumerados en la siguiente lista pueden coa- 
siderarse como los mejores entre la clase de adjuntos que 
habrdn de usarse durante el periodo de la leche, d saber: 
I. Avena: para los primeros dias molida, para mds tarde 
molida 6 entera. 2. Una mezcla en iguales partes de avena 
molida y de salvado, 6 de cebada molida y salvado, 6 de las 
tres cosas juntas, agregdndole harina de linaza 6 bagazo 



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LA VACA MODELO. 1 17 

de semillas oleosas, 6 atol de linaza, procediendo para 
hacer la mezcla en el orden que se ha explicado. No 
hay ninguna cosa que pueda compararse con la avena 
para alimentar & los teraeros y se la debe usar con tanta 
frecuencia y abundancia como sea posible. 

Los alimentos que deben usarse como acesorios 6 adjuntos en 
la ^poca del invieraoson el heno, el forrajeensilado y las raices 
6 tub^rculos preparados en forma de pulpa 6 cortados en reba- 
nadas. En el verano puede usarse con. provecho alguna 
yerba tiema y nutritiva, la que d decir verdad es siempre 
necesaria d no ser que se tengan abundantes pastos. 

El tratamiento en general debe ser cuidadoso. Los teme- 
ros deben tenerse en departamentos amplios, pero cerrados, 
que en el invienio deben calentarse. Si hay las proprias 
facilidades para darle d cada uno de ellos su debida raci6n de 
leche podrdn ponerse varios en un mismo compartimiento. 
En el verano debe este conservarse oscuro con el objeto de 
que las moscas no vengan d molestar d los tenieros. Junto 
con estos compartientos puede haber un pequeflo corral sem- 
brado de yerba de pasto donde el animal pueda correr. 

£1 ejercicio abundante es una de las cosas que deben bus- 
carse con mds cuidado para la debida crianza de los temeros, 
por cuanto constituye el mejor medio de desenvolver su 
poder nervioso. Esto es mds esencial todavia cuando se 
trata de temeras destinadas para ser en su dia vacas de leche. 
Este es asunto que deben tener siempre d \x mira los agricul- 
tores en cuyas fincas se acostumbra abonar todo el terreno, y 
donde por consecuencia no se necesita que el animal haga 
muchos esfuerzos ni ejercicio notable para obtener su ali- 
mento. 

El periodo de destetar los temeros varia en proporci6n d la 
abundancia 6 escasez de la leche y d la constituci6n del ani- 
mal. Cuando un temero se alimenta bien podrd ser deste- 
tado en caso de absoluta necesidad d la edad de tres meses ; 
pero cuando exista en ^1 la tendencia mds lijera d hacerse deli- 
cado en el alimento, debe posponerse el destetamiento hasta 
que llegue el animal d la edad de cinco 6 seis meses. Podrd 
usarse la leche descremada con mucho provecho ddndola de 



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Il8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

beber a los teraeros aiin despu^s de haber llegado d aquella 
^poca en que realmente no la uecesitan. 

Por mds que se diga en favor del sistema de criar novillos 
de la ra7«a lechera para envialos al matadero, tengo la con- 
vicci6n de que no hay ventaja en darles este destino, cuando 
ban llegado d la edad de su completo desarroUo, 6 estdn 
pr6xin]os d alcanzarlo. Lasrazones que tengo para ello son: 
I*, que no tienen todavia el suficiente peso; 2*, que los 
novillos de estas razas no se desarrollan tan pronto como los 
de las razas propias para el matadero; 3* , que el gasto de la 
alimentaci6n es demasiado grande comparado con el aumento 
del peso; 4* , que la came de los terneros de esta clase no es de 
primeracalidad. 

Admito sin dificultad que hay muchas diferencias en este 
respecto dentro de las mismas razas de vacas lecheras, pero 
tambi^n s6 que en ninguna de ellas se pueden ver novillos de 
tanto peso corao los que se encuentran en la raza de ** Here- 
ford'* 6 de ** Shorthorn," cuando tienen de dos y medio d tres 
aflos de edad. Podrd haber de vez en cuando algun novillo 
de raza lechera que tenga buen tamaiio y peso en propor- 
ci6n, pero eso serd seguramente una excepci6n de la regla. 

Es cosa que tambieu puede probarse sin gran dificultad que 
los novillos de las razas lecheras no alcanzan su desarrollo 
completo tan pronto como los de las otras razas destinadas 
para el matadero. A las vacas y d los toros le sucede lo 
mismo. Los animales que se destinan tan solo para la pro- 
ducci6n de came ban sido sometidos d tratamientos tan en^r- 
jicos para obtener prontamente su desarrollo, que este se ha 
efectuado hasta cierto punto d expensas de las otras cuali- 
dades que se cultivan para obtener una vaca lechera. Los 
terneros de la ultima raza no resistirian aquellos procedimien- 
tos sin perjuicio de su salud. 

EL ARTE DE ORDERAR. 

No queda duda alguna de que el producto de una vaca se 
cambia para bien 6 para mal por virtud de la manera especial 
con que se haga el ordenamiento. Este en realidad es un 
verdadero arte, que para ser bueuo y productivo de buenos 



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I,A VACA MODELO. II9 

efectos, ha de fundarse en un conocimieuto perfecto de los 
caracteres distintivos que presenta la vaca, y especialmente 
de la organizaciou de su ubre, y de los m^todos estudiados 
par la raejor producci6n de la leche. Todas las cosas tienen 
una raz6n de ser, y ciertamente son varias las que exigen que 
el ordeflamiento se ejecute de cierta manera. Estas razones 
pueden recapitularse como sigue : 

I* . El ordenamiento debe hacerse suavemente y sin dar 
niolestia d la vaca, manipulando con la ubre de tal manera 
que se imite en cuanto sea posible la acci6n del teraero cuando 
estd mamando. 

2* . Debe hacerse m4s bien con calma que de prisa. 

3* . Debe sacarse de la ubre hasta la ultima gota de leche. 

4» . Mientras mds frecuente sea el ordenamiento, mayor 
ser4 el reKdimiento de la leche y mayor la cantidad de man- 
tequilla que se encuentre en ella. 

Estas reglas estdn fundadas en el hecho de que la ubre de 
la vaca no es un dep6sito de leche que se haya ido acumulando 
alH gota por gota, sino una gldndula secretoria que ejerce su 
acci6n mds copiosamente durante un period o de excitaci6n. 
En esto se parece d las gldndulas salivares, al pancreas, d 
las gldndulas del sistemadigestivo, dlaslacriraales, yd otras 
que son 6rganos secretorios y no depositos. Estas gldndulas 
estdn constantement segregando sus fluidos especiales en pe- 
quenas cantidades Pero cuando se las excita la secrecion 
auraenta considerablemente y las descargas son copiosas. Las 
gldndulas que segregan la leche tienen lamisma peculiaridad, 
y poco despu^s de que erapieza el a?to del ordenamiento, y 
no antes, la ubre se llena y la leche se descarga hasta que se 
agota por completo la cantidad segregada. Entonces princi- 
pia el periodo de una nueva secrecion que continua hasta que 
se verifica un nuevo ordenamiento. Podria suceder que no 
sacdndose la leche fuese esta absorbida y que se secase la 
ubre como se dice generalmente. Ya se ha dicho que la 
vaca debe ser ordenada de una manera sosegada y suave d 
fin de que el animal permanezca quieto y no haya nada que 
perturbe la secreci6n de la leche. La manipulaci6n de la 
ubre debe hacerse como se ha dicho, d fin de no producir 



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120 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

mds efecto que la accion nerviosa indispensable para el caso. 
Esto se consigue exprimiendo los pezones, tirando de ellos 
alteraativamente hacia abajo y liacia arriba, procediendo en 
todo con calma y no interrumpiendo la operaci6n hasta que 
se hay a sacado toda la leche. 

ha, necesidad de hacer esto y de que el ordenamiento se 
efectue d tales intervales corao los que sean adecuados para 
obtener la mds copiosa cantidad de leche se encuentra expli- 
cada por la ra26n siguiente. Si se mata una vaca cuando estd 
en estado de ordefiarse y se amputa la ubre para examinar su 
constitucion interior, se encontrard que estd formada por una 
masa de tejido esponjoso en que hay multitud de vasos y 
canales distintos, d la manera de las diversas ramas de un 
rio. Todos estos canales empiezan en uh tejido glandular 
denso y mantecoso que se encuentra en la parte superior de la 
ubre, y desde alii puede seguirseles en su camino, viendo que 
se dividen y subdividen como el tronco de un drbol, hasta que 
al fin las ramas mds delgadas penetrau en ciertas masas de 
tejido glandular, y de forma globulosa, semejantes en su forma 
d racimos de uvas. Cada uno de estos pequeiios gl6bulos con- 
tiene una sustancia grasienta. A lo largo de estos canales 
para la leche hay tres gldndulas secretorias; pero ademds de 
ellas y en la parte superior de la ubre hay otras varias, especi- 
almente cuando este organo se extiende sobre la superficie del 
abdomen, donde recibe un numero enorme de vasos sanguineos 
excesivamente delgados que se ramifican dentro del tejido 
glandular, y cuyos ultimos extremos se reunen con los gl6bulos 
congregados en forma de racimo, segun se ha dicho ante- 
riormente. 

ALIMENTOS A PROPOSITO PARA LA PRODUCCION 
DE LA LECHE. 

Hay personas, y entre ellas algunas que pretenden ser ver- 
sadas en la ciencia, que mantienen que el alimento de una 
vaca no produce efecto especial en la naturaleza 6 calidad de 
la leche, puesto que esta no es mds que un producto del animal 
y tiene que ser la misma en todos los casos mientras pernia- 
nezca en buen estado de salud y se efectuen sin pertubacion 



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LA VAC A MODELO. 121 

todas sus funciones. Semejante doctrina no estd sin embargo 
en consonancia con la experiencia y el convencimiento de los 
que se ocupan en alimentar vacas y cuyo negocio consiste en 
procurar la mejor cualidad de leche. Tampoco puede decirse 
que la opiui6n antedicha est^ sostenida por hombres cien- 
tificos de la clase mds inteligente y observadora, los que por 
regla general se atienen sobre todo d lo que les derauestra su 
propia investigaci6n de los hechos, cuidadosamente obser- 
vados y comprobados, y gustan mds de descansar en lo que 
les ensef^a la experiencia propia, que de aceptar conclusiones 
hechas por otros cuya reputaci6n consiste principalmente en 
que son extranjeros, y que siendo qufraicos y no hombres 
prdcticos no saben nada de lo que se ve diariamente en las 
haciendas y potreros, aun en sus propios pafses. Afortuna- 
dameute esta especie de esclavitud en que se ha querido tener 
d los hombres de campo de este pais, sujetdndolos d tener 
por guias d qufmicos franceses y alemanes, estd rdpidamente 
desapareciendo, y los hombres mds adelantados en la ciencia 
agncola americana, se ocupan ahora de investigar las cosas 
por si mismos, d efecto de poder llegar d conclusiones positi- 
vas d la vez que propias. El resultado que se va obteniendo 
concuerda con la experiencia comiin de las hombres prdcticos 
que saben que el alimento lo hace todo en cuanto d la can- 
tidad y calidad de la leche de las vacas. 

Algo mds que esto se necesita para tener ^xito en la prdc- 
tica, especialmente en estos tiempos en que el valor de los 
alimentos vendidos en el mercado es mds alto que nunca, y 
en que se observa ademds una tendencia constaute d dismi- 
nuir los precios de los productos agricolas. El traficante en 
leche debe estudiar ahora con mds cuidado que nunca la 
naturaleza de los alimentos que son indispensables para hacer 
que la producci6n de aquel articulo sea beneficiosa en todos 
sentidos, y satistaga las especiales necesidades de su co- 
mercio. 

El fabricante de mantequilla necesita esencialraente que la 
leche contenga grasa, y debe alimentar dla vaca de la manera 
mas conveuiente para conseguir aquel resultado. El fabricante 
de queso por su parte necesita una gran cantidad de leche no 



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122 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

demasiado rica en grasa, pero que tenga de ella la cantidad 
suficiente para que el queso saiga de la cualidad requerida. 
El simple vendedor de leche ha de cuidar d su turno de que, 
como lo requiere la ley, tenga su articulo, por lo menos, un 
trece por ciento de sustancias s61idas, de las cuales una tercera 
parte sea de grasa, mientras que la caseina se encuentre en 
proporci6n todavia mds grande. El fabricante de mante- 
quilla no tiene que tener tanto cuidado con respecto d la cali- 
dad de la leche qne produce, por lo menos en cuauto hace d 
la protecci6n del publico por medio de las leyes; pero como 
la necesidad de obtener gauancias es inexorable y mds fuerte 
que las leyes, resulta que mientras el fabricante de quesos y 
el vendedor de leche estdn obligados bajo las penas de la ley 
d producirun articulo que conteuga doce 6 trece por ciento de 
materia s61ida y en que la caseina este en exceso del azucar 
y de la grasa, el fabricante de mantequilla tiene necesaria- 
mente que buscar un articulo en que la grasa est6 en exceso, 
d lo menos en un cinco 6 seis por ciento, puesto que todo lo 
que baje de este limite haria improductiva su ocupacion. 

Todo lo que va dicho tiende d demostrar que el conoci^ 
miento del cdracter de los alimentos usados es indispensable 
para el 6xito de cuantos se dedican d la alimentaci6n de las. 
vacas para objetos de lucro, y que cada clase de traficante en 
leche tiene un punto de vista 6 un fin distinto, conforme al 
cual han de variar necesariamente loS procedimientos que 
ponga en practica. 

Es cosa ahora casi universalmente aceptada como principia 
y guia en el asunto de alimentar los animales, que las grasas 
que se encuentran en el alimento van d la sangre directamente 
y sin cambiarse desde los organos digestivos, para formar la 
grasa del animal, y que la disposiciou individual de este: 
ultimo es la que determina si la gordura debe depositarse ea 
el tejido muscular, como sucede en el mejor ganado de piel 
suave y lustrosa, 6 en los 6rganos interiores y en la forma de 
sebo, como en los animales mal alimentados de cuero dspero, 
6 en las ubres de las vacas, como sucede en las de la raza de 
** Jersey *' y de *' Guernsey " que son especialniente producto- 
ras de mantequilla, no menos que en otras pertenecientes d 
otras razas. 



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I,A VACA MODEW. 1 23 

Bi6n entendido el priucipio se sigue de ^1 que el criador de 
vacas debe necesariamente elegir los alimentos mis adecua- 
dos para el objeto especial de su industria. El fabricaute de 
mantequilla usard aquellos alimentos en que se sabe que pre- 
dominan en gran proporci6n las sustancias grasas, de olor y de 
color acentuados. Los meros productores de leche se cui- 
dardn poco de aquellos elementos grasos y preferirdn las sus 
tancias en que predominen los elementos productores de carne 
(la proteina) y tengan solo una moderada proporci6n de 
grasa. Esta ultima es la que produce la caseina cuya com- 
posici6n quimica es casi la misma exactamente que la de la 
materia s61ida de la carae. La lista que se dd d continuaci6n 
muestra la composici6n de los varios alimentos que estdn en 
uso comun, segun el tiltimo informe anual de la estaci6n 
experimental del Estado de Massachusetts : 



Tanto por ciento de materia alimen- t proteina 
ticia secada en el aire. 



Harina de maiz | 9 d 16 

Harina de "hominy *' , 7 d 12 

Harina de chicharos | 21 

Harina de linaza 1 30^39 

Harina de semilla de a]i;od6n 36 d 51 

Salvado detrigo ! 15 d 20 

Residues de cerveceria | 16 d 33 

PoIyo de cacao ; 15 



Almid6n, 
Grasa. az<icar» 
etc. 



3^5 73 ^ 83 

5di2 68d78 

2 55 

6d 9 32d44 

9 d 14 20 d 33 
3 d 6 I 51 d62 

2 d 6 33 ^ 67 

25 45 



Lo que aparece mds culminantemente en estas cifras es la 
vasta di ferencia en la composici6n de las varias sustancias. Esto 
muestra cudn necesario es que no se compren dichos alimentos 
sino despuesde analizados, puesto que el valor de cualquiera de 
ellos paraun uso especial puede exceder en un 50 por ciento 6 
mds al ordinario. Esta diferencia ensefiard que los resulta- 
dos que se obtengan de su uso puedan variar tambien conside- 
rablemente. Asi es que en el uso de dichas sustancias el 
valor de ellas debe basarse solo en su cualidad, y que el cria- 
dor para estar seguro debe estimarlos sobre la base del que 
sea mds barato y contenga los elementos nutritivos que se 
desean. 

9 BUI, 



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124 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

MODO DE HACER LA MANTEQUILLA. 

El tratamiento de la crema es una de las cosas mas impor 
tantes eu todo lo relative d la fabricaci6n de la mantequilla, 
asi en lo que respecta 4 la cantidad, como d la calidad del 
articulo. La crema dulce dd menos mantequilla, y la que 
produce es de olor menos agradable que la de la crema un poco 
agria 6 cortada. Pero si el cortamiento ha ido demasiado 
lejos se. echard d perder el sabor de la mantequilla, puesto 
que la acide^ precipitard la producci6n de las sustancias void- 
tiles, que cuando se encuentrau en exceso producen el pecu- 
liar estado que le dd el nombre de rancia. Una canti- 
dad muy moderada de estos dcidos le dd un gusto agra- 
dable y cierto olor muy bueno. Cuando la crema estd en la 
condici6n adecuada se dice que estd "madura.'* La **ma- 
durez'* consiste enquese ha producidoen ella cierta cantidad 
de dcido Idctico, que generalmente representa de sesenta d 
setenta y cinco por ciento del total de la leche en que estd la 
crema. Esta cantidad de dcido Idctico no debe ser mayor que 
la necesaria para producir un gusto lijeramente dcido y agra- 
dable, lo que puede conseguirse de un modo fijo usando 
cualquiera de los dos mdtodos siguientes: 

El primero consiste en poner la leche en vasijas de poca 
profundidad d una temperatura de 6o° d 62°, en aire puro, por 
espacio de treinta y seis horas, descremdndola entonces. La 
leche estard en ese momento todavia fresca, 6 cuando no, 
lijeramente agriada. En cuanto, d la crema despu^s de 
recogida con cuidado d inter valos de doce horas, se la deja en 
una orza 6 tinaja d la temperatura indicada. Las nuevas 
cantidades de crema que se recojan se echardn en las mismas 
vasijas y se tendrd cuidado de revolver el todo suavemente d 
fin de que se mezcle bien. Al tenninar treinta y seis horas 
despu^s del primer descremamiento, la crema estard en las 
mejores condiciones posibles de **madurez" para hacer una 
excelente mantequilla. 

En el segundo metodo se descrema la leche d las veinti- 
cuatro horas despues de haberla dejado en reposo en una 
vasija profunda y al aire frio. Despues de separada la crema 



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LA VACA MODELO. 1 25 

se la pone en un cubo que se coloca en el tanque d la tempera- 
tura usual de 45**, hasta que se reune la cantidad suficiente 
para empezar d hacer la mantequilla. Esto no puede ser 
sin embargo antes de que la crema est^ '*madura,'* lo cual 
puede conseguirse exponi^ndola & acd6n del aire d la tem- 
peratura de 60** d 65**, por el espacio de veinticuatro horas, 
en cuyo tierapo se obtendrd toda la acidez necesaria. Esta 
demora puede sin embargo evitarse y apresurarse la **madu- 
rez*' de la crema, mezcldndola con una cantidad de leche 
cortada, 6 de suero del dia anterior. Por regla general una 
botella de leche cortada para veinte de crema fresca es pro- 
porci6n suficiente, teniendo cuidado de remover la mezcla 
suavemente aunque de tal manera que queden bi^n incorpora- 
das las dos sustancias. 

La cualidad de la mantequilla depende precisamente del 
grado de **madurez*' de la crema; y para estar seguro de ello 
debe usarse siempre un term6metro, d fin de regular la tem- 
peratura, Uevando nota del tiempo empleado, porque si la 
temperatura y el tiempo ejercen su acci6n combinada y si una 
estd en exceso del otro, es preciso que los dos se nivelen para 
obtener el deseado efecto. 

Antes de colocar la crema en la mdquina de hacer mante- 
quilla debe Uevarse la orza 6 tinaja en que se encuentre d un 
cuarto caliente, donde se la debe conservar por espacio de doce 
horas, agitdndola con suavidad hasta que todo la masa se 
pongad una temperatura de 62° 6 de 65° en tiempo de invier- 
no. En el tiempo de verano la temperatura debe ser de 55®, 
subiendo 6 bajando uno 6 dos grados segun las circumstancias. 

La mdquina de hacer mantequilla ha de estar bi^n lavada con 
agua caliente y luego enjuagada con agua fresca, despu^s 
de lo cual se pone en ella la crema. Sentado en una silla 
junto d ella, el operador empieza d moverla d razon de ocho 
revoluciones por minuto, procurando que cada sucesivo movi- 
mieuto sea aproximadamente un segundo mds veloz que el 
anterior. Al principio se desarrollardn algunos gases d que 
se dard salida abriendo el agujero que les permite escaparse. 
Esto no tendrd que hacerse sino durante unos diez minutos, al 
cabo de los cuales cesard la formaci6n de gases. Pronto se verd 



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126 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

que la crema se pone espesa, y entonces unas cuantas vueltas 
mds rdpidas hardn precipitar la operaci6n. En el momento 
en que empieza d sentirse un ruido como el que producen los 
golpes dados en el agua se tiene la senal de que empieza i, 
formarse la mantequilla ; y entonces es necesario tener cuidado 
de no dar d la mdquina demasiadas revoluciones. Cuando la 
mantequilla estd en granos tan grandes como los del trigo 6 
como los chicharos la operaci6n estd concluida. El suero debe 
sacarse por medio de la abertura que estd en el foudo de 
la mdquina, dentro de la cual debe entonces derramarse 
agua fria^ agitdndola bi^n diversas ocasiones d fin de que 
quede bien lavada. Es costumbre general en las fincas de 
leclieria agregar al suero un punado de sal antes de sacarlo 
de la mdqina de hacer mantequilla ; y se cree que con esto se 
facilita la operaci6n de separar la mantequilla y el suero. 
Tambi^n se ha reconiendado lavar la mantequilla en salmuera 
en el momento en que saiga de la mdquina. Las dos 
prdcticas estdn apoyadas en buenas razones. La mantequilla 
es mds lijera que la leche y que el agua, aunque con respecto 
d esta ultima no lo es tanto que permita una fdcil separaci6n. 
La leche es viscosa y se pega d la mantequilla de tal manera 
que no es fdcil separarla con prontitud; pero si se anade sal al 
suero se aumenta la densidad de este y necesariamente la 
mantequilla flota con mayor facilidad. Asi es que cuando se 
derrama salmuera dentro del suero, la densidad de la 
mezcla hace que la mantequilla suba d la superficie, diluy^n- 
dose tambi^n la leche que le estd adherida, con todo lo 
cual se precipita la separaci6n. La importancia de esta 
simple prdctica es por lo tanlo fdcil de percibir. 

Cuando se intenta guardar la mantequilla por algun tiempo 
es indispensable dejarla enteramente libre de toda la leche 
que pudiera estarle adherida. La razdn de esto se encuentra 
en el hecho de que la caseina es un fermento, y un agente quf- 
mico bastante activo, que produciria la descomposici6n de la 
mantequilla, convirtiendo la sustancia grasa, d lo meuos en 
parte, en aquellos dcidos voldtiles que le dan el mai olor y el 
mal sabor que la caracterizan cuando estd rancia. Pero 
cuando la mantequilla debe usuarse inmediatamente, la ante- 



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LA VAC A MODELO. 12 7 

dicha separaci6n no necesita ser completa. Antes por el 
oontrario es mejor que le quede un poco de leche, porque con 
ella se desenvuelve un cierto aroma junto con una especie de 
sabor de nueces, que la hacen sumamente agradable. De otra 
manera la mantequilla seria muy insipida y con un olor bas- 
tante indiferente de mera grasa. Asi esque el fabricante de 
mantequilla puede echar d perder su articulo si se esfuerza 
demasiado en lavarlo mucho. 

Este es punto que debe entenderse bien. El agua no puede 
remover ninguna especie de grasa. No la disuelve absoluta- 
mente, y asf es que la mantequilla en si misma no sufre per- 
jnicio alguno pormucha que sea la cantidad de agua que se le 
eche encima. Pero los lavados le quitan 4 la mantequilla el 
pequefio resto de leche que habia en ella, dejdndola pura, y 
necesariamente sin olor alguno. 

A su debido tiempo, unos dias mds tarde 6 mds temprano, la 

mantequilla empieza d sufrir la accion de un procedimiento 

quiroico especial, que se verifica en su interior, y entonces em- 

piezan d desenvolverse poco d poco los dcidos que le dan sabor. 

Puede decirse que entonces estd "madura,** como se dice de 

las frutas, siendo entonces cuando adquiere su mejor gusto, 

debido solamente d la producci6n de los primeros elementos 

de descomposici6u. Si la mantequilla ha de envasarse para 

nso future este cambio espontdneo se ird verificando sin nin- 

gdn auxilio exterior; pero si ha de usarse el artfculo inmedia- 

tamente serd bueno que se le agregue una pequefta cantidad 

de leche. 

[Se continuard.] 



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128 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



THE BRUSSELS COMMERCIAL MUSEUM. 



ITS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS. 

The Brussels Commercial Museum has been in existence 
for about eight years. It occupies a large building, belong- 
ing to the Government, and prominently situated in the city. 
It is a branch or dependency of the Department of Foreign 
Affairs, which has control in Belgium of all the commercial 
business of the nation ; but it has a special division relating 
to "transportation,** belonging to the Department of Rail- 
roads, which is an independent branch of the Government. 

EXHIBITION ROOMS. 

The Museum was started originally for the sole, or at 
least the main, purpose of collecting samples of all those 
articles of merchandise which were sold by other countries 
in all the markets of the world, in competition with Belgium. 
These samples, placed in this way at the disposal of the Bel- 
gian manufacturers, might enable them to rearrange their 
methods of fabrication to conform themselves with the re- 
quirements of any desired market. A statement was attached 
to each sample, setting forth the place from which it came, 
the cost price of the article, the cost of transportation, in- 
surance, custom-house duties, and all other additional ex- 
penses necessary, the manner of packing the article, its re- 
tail market price, the average amounts sold in the market, 
etc. The statement contained occasionally, in addition to 
the above information, the names and addresses of the lead- 
ing merchants engaged in importing or exporting the article. 

The Museum also receives all the samples of raw material, 
imported from abroad, whose purchase by the Belgian manu- 
facturers might be more advantageous, when made directly 
in the place of origin, than indirectly through some inter- 
mediate European market, whether in England, Germany, or 



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THE BRUSSELS COMMERCIAL MUSEUM. 129 

France. The latter idea was carried on so far as to cause col- 
lections to be made of samples of cereals from the Balkans 
region, supposed to be liable in the future to enter into com- 
petition with similar articles from other European countries 
or from the United States. This particular effort seems, 
however, not to have produced any practical result; as a 
Museum, no matter of what kind, is certainly not the place 
where speculators or purchasers will apply to inform them- 
selves on the qualities of the cereals. 

The samples above named, whether of raw materials or of 
manufactured articles, were furnished the Museum by the 
Belgian Consuls or their agents, in the respective localities, 
who were reimbursed for all such expenditures. 

Several rooms of the Museum are now set apart for the 
preservation of the said samples, although, as stated here- 
after, the latter have lost much of their importance. Their 
exhibition which originally constituted the paramount pur- 
pose of the institution, has become little by little, under the 
teachings of experience, a matter of secondary consideration. 
On the other hand, some branches or dependencies, which 
were originally established merely as a complement, or have 
been created of late, have grown in importance and tend at 
present to occupy the first place. 

BUREAU OF INFORMATION. 

The Museum — that is, the collection of samples — has been 
completed by the establishment of a bureau of information 
attached to it, which deals with a large variety of subjects 
and includes all countries. It is intended to give prompt 
answer to all inquiries made to it on statistics of imports and 
exports into or from any country outside of Belgium, the 
financial and commercial condition of the same, its peculiar 
necessities, its commercial habits, its methods of payment, 
the systems of credit which prevail in it, its usual rates of 
exchange, its facilities of transportation, its tariff laws, etc. 
Applicants may be informed also of the names of the prin- 
cipal commercial houses of each country, such as furnished 
by the respective consuls, or as given in the respective Year 



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130 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Books or other official publications. This branch of the 
Museum has developed into a very important department, 
which attracts already one-half, more or less, of the whole 
number of visitors. 

BUREAU OF PROPOSALS AND CONCESSIONS. 

Industrial enterprise is unable, as a rule, to get all the in- 
formation which it may need on the public works of impor- 
tance undertaken by the Government, whether at home or 
abroad. People may need to be acquainted with the nature 
of those works and with the terms and conditions on which 
the concessions therefor are to be made by the Governments. 
To meet this necessity a bureau has been attached to the 
Museum, under the name of "Bureau d'adjudications" 
(Bureau of Proposals and Concessions), in which accurate in- 
formation can be obtained concerning all the works to be 
undertaken by either the Belgian or any foreign Government, 
such as railroads, wagon roads, bridges, telegraphs, prisons, 
hospitals, etc., and on contracts for the transportation of 
mails and for other services. The Bureau can show to the 
interested parties the text of the specifications, maps, plans, 
etc., and acquaint them with the terms and conditions set 
forth in the published invitations for proposals, thus enabling 
them to compete if desired. The information furnished by this 
Bureau emanates from the Belgian consuls in the respective 
countries, who have been given special and strict instructions 
to that effect. This branch of the service of the Museum is 
highly valued by the public. The visitors of the Bureau of 
Proposals and Concessions form about one-fourth of the total 
number. 

BUREAU OF TRANSPORTATION. 

Another important Bureau, not less highly valued, is the ene 
called ** Transportation.*' It deals especially with maritime 
transportation, and, although in reality it does not belong to 
the Museum, it has been attached to it for the sake of con- 
venience, and to better accommodate the public. By con- 
centratirg in only one office everything relating to this mat- 
ter much useless labor is saved. 



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THE BRUSSELS COMMERCIAL MUSEUM. 131 

This Bureau can furnish, either at once, or with a delay of 
two or three days, all information desired on the facilities of 
transportation, freights, lines of steamers or sailing vessels, 
etc., etc., from any Belgian port to any port in the world- 
When the Bureau has not at hand the means to answer the 
inquiries made, it applies to the navigation companies of 
Antwerp, which answer by return mail. The inquiries are 
numerous, and are received not only from the people of the 
country, but also from people of foreign countries, even from 
France. They are always answered. The visitors of the 
Bureau of Transportation form also a fourth of the total num- 
ber of the daily visitors of the Museum. 

INFORMATION GIVEN GRATUITOUSLY. 

It must be stated also that the information furnished by all 
the bureaus of the Museum is fumi.shed gratuitously, and 
that the personnel of the institution makes, always, an effort to 
respond satisfactorily to all the inquiries. 

SECONDARY BUREAUX OR DIVISIONS. 

For the rendition of the different services which fall under 
the jurisdiction and scope of the Museum, it has, in addition 
to the Exhibition Rooms already referred to — access to which 
is free to all — a certain number of special divisions, respect- 
ively intrusted with the said services. Visitors desiring in- 
formation on some special subject can be referred at once, 
the moment they enter the Museum, to the proper division 
or oflBce. Each division is in charge of an officer or officers, 
whose duty it is to give the visitors the proper answers and 
furnish the information desired. 

LIBRARY AND READING ROOM. 

As a complement of the institution, there is in the Museum 
a Library and Reading room, free to all, open daily from 9.30 
a. m. to 12 m , and from 2 to 5 p. m. All the Belgian papers, 
most of the statistical publications of different countries out- 
side of Belgium, and a great many Directories can be con- 



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132 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

suited there. The usefulness of this Library is seriously 
impaired by the lack of funds, as the appropriations thus far 
made by the Government, have been insufficient for the pur- 
chase of certain publications, the prices of which are com- 
paratively high. 

NUMBER OF VISITORS. 

The following statement, appearing from an official report 
on the subject, submitted to the Departunent of Foreign 
Affairs of the Kingdom, shows the number of daily visitors 
to the different departments of the Museum during the month 
of October, 1893: 

In search of general information 48 

To the Bureau of Proposals and Concessions 26 

To the Bureau of Transportation 25 

Total 99 

PERSONNEL OF THE MUSEUM. 

The personnel of the Museum — without counting the Trans- 
portation Department — consists of one director, a^ chief clerk, 
two first-class clerks, three second-class clerks and four mes- 
sengers and watchmen. All these persons are paid out of 
funds of the Department of Foreign Affairs. 

The Chief of the Bureau of Transportation and the two 
clerks who work under him are paid by the Department of 
Railroads. 

EXPENSES. 

The total amount required to run the Museum, exclusive of 
salaries, does not exceed 20,000 francs, or ^4,000 per year, 
furnished by the Government. This sum includes all gen- 
eral expenses, as fuel, small repairs, stationery, postage 
stamps, purchase of documents, subscriptions to newspapers, 
purchase and renewal of samples, and publication of the Cata- 
logue. It is manifestly insufficient, and the library alone 
absorbs already a large portion of the appropriated sum. 

The purchase of samples does not make a large figure in 
the ordinary expenses, as the managers of the Museum do not 



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THE BRUSSELS COMMERCIAL MUSEUM. 1 33 

consider this service one of paramount importance . It is very 
difficult for them to obtain in due time, at each season, such 
new samples as are desired, especially of woven articles. It 
is very often the case that when samples reach the Museum 
the article represented by them is already out of fashion. On 
the other hand it would be asking too much of the consuls to 
require them to furnish such minute information as might be 
necessary to make the sample department a complete suc- 
cess. The expense incurred, should this plan be adopted, 
would also be considerable. Many commercial firms expend 
m this respect every year larger sums than the whole 
amotmt appropriated for the Museum. 

The managers of the institution confine themselves to the 
collection of samples of typical and general character, which 
admit of little or no change, and leave to each one individu- 
ally the task of getting himself any desired specific informa- 
tion. They willingly accept all that the consuls or ac- 
credited correspondents send to them, but they give more 
importance to frequent and accurate reports than to samples, 
the value of which is liable to decrease. 

THE BULLETIN. 

There is a source of revenue for the Museum, consisting 
in the publication of the Bulletin which completes the pro- 
gram of its services. This weekly paper, issued under the 
title of Bulletin du Musie Commercial (Bulletin of the Com- 
mercial Museum) does not pretend to be, in some respects, 
anything else than the Prospectus of the Museum, and is 
edited by the personnel of the establishment. The amounts 
yielded by the subscriptions and advertisements, added to 
the appropriation made by the Government, are applied to 
meet the expenses. 

CONCLUSION. 

It may be said, in recapitulation, that the Brussels Com- 
mercial Museum lives and thrives rather on account of the 
service done by the Bureaux created and attached to it after 
its establishment than by its collection of samples. The 



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134 BCREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

term Museum is therefore improperly given to it. It is in 
reality a Bureau of information, sufficiently well equipped, 
and the information on various subjects which it furnishes 
seems to be highly appreciated by the Belgian commercial 
and industrial world. 



EL MUSEO COMERCIAL DE BRUSELAS. 



El Museo Comercial de Bruselas, establecido hace cosa de 
ocho anos en un vasto edificio de la propiedad del Bstado, 
que ocupa totalmente, constituye un ramo 6 dependencia di- 
recta del Ministerio de Negocios Extranjeros, d quien in- 
cumbe en Belgica todo lo relativo al comercio. Hay en 61 
sin embargo, una secci6n importante, llamada de **trans- 
portes,"que estd regida y sostenida por el Ministerio de 
Ferrocarriles, Correos y Telegrafos, porque d este, con ar- 
reglo al sistema belga de organizaci6n administrativa, le 
corresponde por derecbo todo lo relativo d aquel servicio. 

EL MUSEO PROPIAMENTE DICHO. 

El Museo Comercial, tal como fue concebido en su origen 
consiste simplemente en una colecci6n de muestras, tan com- 
pleta como ha podido obtenerse, de cuanta mercancia puede 
venderse, 6 se vende, en los mercados extranjeros, en com- 
petencia con las dela misma clase producidas, 6 fabricadas, en 
B61gica. Estas muestras estdn d la disposci6n de los pro- 
ductores y fabricantes del Reino, d fin de que despu6s de exa- 
minarlas y estudiarias con la atenci6n que les parezca propia 
puedan determinar si conviene 6 no d sus intereses introducir 
algtin cambio en sus sistemas de producci6n, 6 de fabricaci6n 
que haga mas vendibles sus mercancids, 6 las acomode mejor 
d las exigencias de los mercados. 

Cada una de las muestras va acompaiiada con una noticia 
por escrito, en que se da cuenta de la procedencia del artfculo, 
su precio en el pafs de origen, el gasto adicional que imponen 
los trausportes, aseguros, derechos de aduanas, etc., etc., el 



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EI* MUSEO COMERCIAI. DE BRUSELAS. 135 

m^todo 6 manera de empaquetarlo 6 envasarlo, la cantidad 
del mismo articulo que por t6rraino medio se vende en cada 
pais, el precio que por 61 se paga al menudco — y en algunos 
casos el nombre y la direcci6n de los principales comerciantes 
del pais de origen dedicados d su venta. 

Se ha formado igualmente en este Museo una colecci6n de 

muestras de las materias primas, procedentes del extranjero, 

que los fabricantes belgas suelen, 6 solfan, adquirir, no di- 

rectamente en el pais de origen, sino en alg6n niercado euro- 

peo, bien en Inglaterra, Alemania 6 Francia. Con esto se 

procur6 Uamar la atenci6n de los expresados fabricantes ha- 

cia el hecho de que tal vez podria series mds ventajoso com- 

prar el articulo en el mismo lugar donde se produce. Y en 

el desenvolvimiento de estas ideas se lleg6 hasta el extremo 

de traer muestras de los cereales de la regi6n de los Balkans, 

creyendo que podrian en su dia hacer competencia d los de 

otros paises de Europa, 6 los de los Estados Unidos. Esto 

no parece, sin embargo, que condujese d ningun resultado 

prdctico, pues un Museo, no es por cierto el lugar d donde 

acudirdn los compradores de cereales, sean 6 no especuladores, 

para informarse de las cualidades del articulo de su comercio. 

Todas las muestras exhibidas, tanto de materias primas, 

conio de articulos manufacturados, se recibieron en el Museo 

por conducto de los C6nsules y agentes consulares de B61gica, 

en los diferentes paises. El Gobiemo les habia ordenado 

que las reuniesen, y les satisfizo oportunamente lo que gastaron 

en comprarlas. 

Son muchos los salones del Museo, que estan consagrados 

d la exhibici6n de estas muestras. La colecci6n es impor- 

tante ; pero como se verd mas adelante, su valor ha tenido que 

cederen mucbo al de otros departamentos del instituto. An- 

dando el tiempo, y en virtud de la experiencia adquirida, se 

lJeg6 al convencimiento de que esta coleccion, considerada 

en el principio como la cosa mas esencial del Museo, si no 

tal vez como su unico objeto, es mucho menos util que otros 

departamentos 6 servicios establecidos recientemente, 6 que 

no fueron creados sino como cosa accesoria 6 compleraen- 

taria. 



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136 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

OFICINA DE INFORMACION. 

Unida al Museo propiamente dicho se estableci6 casi desde 
el principio una Oficina denominada de informaci6n, y desti- 
nadad contestar preguntas y suministrar noticias sobre multi- 
tud de materias, no simplemente circumscritas al Reino de 
B^lgica sino extensivas d todas los demds paises. Eutre los 
asuntos acerca de los cuales este Oficina ilustra al publico se 
encuentran los siguientes; estadisticas de importaci6n y 
exportaci6n en todos los paises, situaci6n en que se encuen- 
tran estos bajo el punto de vista comercial y rentfstico, 
necesidades comerciales, y hdbitos y costumbres del mismo 
g6nero que en cada cual prevalecen, m6todos de pagos y 
sistemas de cr6dito que sean peculiares d cada uno, movimi- 
entos que en ellos se hayan efectuado respecto d cambios, 
modos de hacer los transportes, derechos que tienen que 
pagarse con arreglo d los respectivos Aranceles de aduanas, 
y gastos de otro g6nero en que se tenga que incurrir necesaria- 
mente, nombres y direcciones de los principales comercian- 
tes, conforme d listas suministradas por los C6nsules, 6 d 
lo constante en los Anuarios oficiales de cada pais, etc. Este 
servicio ha adquirido una vasta importancia, y hoy por hoy 
puede decirse que en general es el que mas llama la atenci6n 
del publico. El numero de las personas que acuden d esta 
Uficina, forma poco menos de la mitad de los visitantes del 
Museo. 

OFICINA DE CONCESIONES ADMINISTRATIVAS 6 
DE CONTRATACION DE OBRAS PUBLICAS. 

No es posible que la industria pueda informarse directa- 
mentey por si misma acerca delasobras publicas importantes 
que se ejecutan 6 tratan de ejecutarse en el extranjero. Pero 
como le interesa mantenerse al corriente de lo que pasa en 
este concepto, y saber cual es la clase de trabajo que se ha 
emprendido, 6 trata de emprendarse, los pliegos de condi- 
ciones formulados por el Gobierno, los pianos y dibujos, y 
todo lo demds conducente d formar cabal juicio, se ha tratado 
de satisfacer d todo esto con el establecimiento en el Museo 



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EL MUSEO COMERCIAL DE BRUSELAS. 137 

de una Secci6n especial denominada en francos * 'Section 
d 'adjudications/* lo que en castellano pudiera traducirse 
como **Oficina de concesiones administrativas/* 6 **de con- 
trataci6n de obras publicas.** AUi se dan informes oficiales 
y aut^nticos sobre toda obra p6blica (caminos de hierro, puen- 
tes, calzadas, tel6^n^fos, trabajos cualesquiera de otras clases, 
construcci6n de hospicios, prisiones, etc.), que se era- 
prenda en B^lgica, 6 en cualquier pais extranjero. En esta 
Oficina se encontrardn, y pondrdn d disposici6n de los intere- 
sados para el debido examen, los pliegos de condiciones y 
demas documentas necesarios, imparti^ndoles la instrucoi6n 
necesaria para que puedan tomar parte en la licitaci6n. Todos 
estos datos se reciben por conducto de los C6nsules, d quienes 
el Ministerio de Negocios Extranjeros tiene dadas 6rdenes 
terminantes con ese objeto. Esta parte del servicio del Museo 
ha encontrado gran favor en el publico y el numero de per- 
sonas que acuden d ^1 representa poco mas 6 menos una cuarta 
parte de la totalidad de los visitantes del Museo. 

OFICINA DE TRANSPORTES. 

Otro departamento importante y no menos apreciado por el 
pueblo, es el denominado en general ** de transportes, ' * aun- 
que realmente se dedica de una manera mds fija d los trans- 
portes maritimos. Como se ha dicho, esta Oficina no es en 
realidad una dependencia del Museo, sino una seccion anexa 
d ^1 para comodidad del publico. Reuniendo en un mismo 
edificio todo lo que se relaciona con los asuntos sobre que 
pueden solicitarse noticias se evitan muchos pasos fatigosos 
y se llenan mejor los prop6sitos del Gobiemo. Todo de- 
pende en ella del Ministerio de ferrocarriles correos y tele- 
grafos. 

Aqui se dan informes, muchas veces en el acto, y cuando 
no con solo una demora de dos 6 tres dias, sobre los medios 
de transporte, lineas de navegaci6n, fletes, precios de pasage, 
etc., desde un puerto cualquiera en el reino de B^lgica d un 
puerto cualquiera de cualquiera pais del mundo. Cuando la 
Oficina no tiene ella niisma el modo dedar respuesta, escribe 
d la Compaflia de navegaci6n de Amberes, que d vuelta de 



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138 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

correo suministra los informes pedidos. Las solicitudes que 
esta oficina recibe, asi del interior del Reino, como del ex- 
tranjero, inclu>endo d Francia, son may numerosas; y i 
todas se da respuesta. 

Los visitantes de la Secci6n de transportes forman cada dia 
la cuarta parte de los que concurren al Museo. 

ORGANIZACION. 

Para el debido desempeno de estos diferentes servicios hay 
en el Museo, ademds de los Salones en que se exhiben las 
muestras, y que estdn siempre abiertos al publico, el numero 
adecuado de oficinas, 6 dependencias, d las que son encarai- 
nados los visitantes, asi que hacen conocer sus deseos. Cada 
una de ellas estd provista con los empleados necesarios, d 
quienes corresponde contestar lo que se le pregunte. 

Ademds de todo esto existe en el Museo una Biblioteca y 
sala de lectura, abierta al publico, y donde el que quiera 
puede ir d trabajar todos los dias desde las gj4 de la manana 
hasta las 12, y desde las 2 hasta las 5 de la tarde. 

Allf se encuentran todos los peri6dicos belgas, y las publi- 
caciones estadisticas y los Directorios de B^lgica y de todos 
los demds paises. Es de sentir que por falta de fondos no 
tenga esta Biblioteca la posibilidad de engrandecerse todo lo 
que es desearse, pues hay muchas obras que no puede propor- 
cionarse por virtud de su elevado precio. 

VISITANTES. 

Los visitantes diarios del Museo, segun consta de informes 
oficiales transmitidos al Ministerio de Negocios Extranjeros, 
durante el nies de Octubre de 1893, se distribuyeron como 
sigue : 

En busca de noticias diversas 4^ 

Oficina de concesiones 26 

Oficina de transportes 25 

Total 99 



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ED MUSEO COMBRCIAL D£ BRUSELAS. 139 

PERSONAL Y GASTOS. 

El |>ersonal del Museo (sin contar con el de la secci6n de 
transportes) consiste de un Director, un oficial mayor, dos ofi- 
ciales tres empleados subaltemos, y cuatro mozos de servicio, 
6 encargados y vigilantes del Museo. 

Este personal estd pagado de los fondos del Ministerio de 
Negocios Extranjeros. 

El de la Secci6n de transportes, que consta de tres emplea- 
dos, estd pagado por el de Ferrocarriles, Correos y Tel^- 
grafos. 

El cr^dito concedido en el presupuesto del Estado para el 
sostenimiento del Museo asciende solo d veinte mil francos. 
Con esta suma hay que atender d todo, incluyendo sueldos, 
calentamiento, gastos de escritorio, compra de libros, sus- 
cripci6n d peri6dicos, compra de nuevas muestras y renova- 
ci6n de las antiguas, y publicaci6n del Catdlogo. Es evi- 
dente que esta cantidad es muy exigua. En solo la Biblio- 
tecase consume una buena parte de ella. 

La compra de muestras no entra por mucho en los gastos 
ordinarios del establecimiento, pues que la Direcci6n del 
Museo no considera que esta parte especial del servicio sea 
lamas importante. Es por otra parte un hecho cierto que 
aunque cuesta mucho obtener en cada una de las diversas 
^pocas del ano las pfopias muestras de los nuevos artfculos 
que vienen al mercado, especialmente en tejidos y g^neros 
de vestir, sucede comunmente que cuando se reciben en el 
Museo han dejado de estar de moda, y perdido por consi- 
guiente su valor prdctico. Ademds de esto, para hacer un 
muestrario completo, con todas las indicaciones y noticias que 
se necesitan, tendria que exigirse de los C6nsules una compe- 
tencia que no hay derecho de esperar, aparte de que seria in- 
dispensable hacer grandes erogaciones. Hay casa de comer- 
cio que gasta en este particular, en cada aiio, para su propio 
uso, mas de la cantidad total que cuesta el Museo. 

Asi es que con respecto d muestras de mercancias lo que se 
procura en el Museo es reunir las correspondientes d aquellas 
que pueden considerarse tipicas en sus respectivas clases, y 
que son poco susceptibles de modificaci6n, dejando d cada 

10 BUL 



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I40 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cual el trabajo de buscarse porsi mismo las uoticias especiales 
que necesite. 

Por otra parte, el Museo acepta con gratitud todo lo que 
en esta linea le envien los C6nsules, 6 los amigos y corres- 
ponsales ben6volos que quieran favorecerlo; pero siempre 
da mas valor d informes frecuentes y precisos que d las niues 
tras de articulos, cuya importancia como se ha dicho puede 
desaparecer en poco tiempo. 

EL BOLETIN DEL MUSEO. 

Existe para el Museo otra fuente de renta que es al mismo 
tiempo un complemento adecuado de sus varios servicios, y 
consiste en la publicaci6n de un peri6dico semanal titulado 
'* Boletin del Museo Comercial." Este peri6dico no tiene 
mds pretensiones que la de ser en alguna manera una especie 
de prospecto del Museo, y estd redactado por los empleados 
del mismo. 

El producido de la subscripcion y los anuncios se une d las 
sumas concedidas por el Presupuesto, y ayuda d cubrir los 
gastos. 

CONCLUSION. 

En resumen, el Museo Comercial de Bruselas vive y pros- 
pera mds por los servicios anexos que se crearon con posterio- 
ridad d su establecimiento, que por lo relativo d la exhibi- 
ci6n de muestras. La denominacion de ** Museo " es por lo 
tanto impropia. Debia mas bien llamdrsele Oficina de infor- 
maci6n, para cuyo objeto estd utilmente organizada ; y al 
hecho de que suministra en efecto los datos y noticias que se 
le piden se debe indudablemente la popularidad de que dis- 
fruta en el mundo industrial y comercial de B61gica. 



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COFFEE IN PERU. 141 



COFFEE IN PERU. 



The following statement of progress being made in the 
cultivation of coffee in Peru has been furnished the Bureau 
by a gentleman well informed upon the subject: 

Peru has been known for many years as a coffee -producing 
country, but the coffee grown on the coast has been absorbed 
by the domestic consumption, and Peru's appearance as an 
exporter of coffee is of recent date, although she is likely to 
be a considerable competitor with other countries. Coffee 
was formerly raised on the coast, and is still cultivated at Pacas- 
mayo with success. But although the cultivation on the coast 
could be somewhatextended, it must always remain restricted, 
as there are only certain favored localities in which the 
planter can hope for a good return. 

The region which Peru offers to the coffee planter, unsur- 
passed in fertility and almost unlimited in extent, is situated 
on the eastern slopes of the Andes, at a height of from 6,000 
to 2,000 feet above the sea, among the network of streams 
and rivulets that find their way into the great affluents of the 
Amazon. This region has hitherto been shut off from the world 
by lack of communications, and, above all, by the difficulty 
of crossing the high ridge of the Cordillera in order to descend 
to the coast. In spite of these difficulties coffee has been cul- 
tivated both in the South in the gold-bearing district of San- 
dia and Carabaya, and in the center of Peru, in the valleys of 
Chanchamayo, Vitoc and Huanuco. It is the Chanchamayo 
district in particular, for most of the coffee that passes under 
the names of Vitoc or Huanuco comes from Chanchamayo, 
that is now assuming importance. This is due to the 
completion of the Central or Oroya Railway to its present 
terminus at Oroya, giving railway carriage over the crest 
of the Cordillera, and also to the opening up of the 
Peren^ and adjacent valleys. Oroya is about sixty miles 
from the Chanchamayo valley, and there is a fair road 



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142 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

all the way passing through the town of Tarma, the capital of 
a debartment, with good hotels and some 8,000 inhabitants. 
The Chanchamayo Valley, itself about ten miles long, is now 
in the hands of private owners, but the rich and extensive 
valleys beyond it of the Perend, Paucartambo and Rio Colo- 
rado have now been linked on to La Merced, the last town in 
Chanchamayo, by the extension of the Tarma-Chanchamayo 
road. The present output of cofifee from the whole region is 
about 1,500 tons per annum, but extensive planting has lately 
taken place and production will shortly be trebled. 

It is considered that coffee can be raised at the expense of 
five Peruvian soles per quintal, or 100 pounds, the yield of a 
tree after the third year being about three pounds. Clearing 
ground is inexpensive, the hillsides being covered with 
dense but light timber, easily felled and burned. 

Coffee is usually bought at the planter's door by Italian 
houses in Tarma at prices varying from 18 to 30 shillings, 
and the cost of transport of a quintal from Chanchamayo or 
from Peren^, to the port of Callao by mule and railway is 
about 4 shillings per quintal. Recent lots have been sold in 
New York at 22 cents, gold, per pound, a price whJch is 
equal to that of the best Mexican or Central American, with 
the exception of one or two favored qualities, and will im- 
prove when the coffee is better cleaned for the market. 
Freight to New York from Callao by the Merchants' Line is 
j£^ per ton, while the British Royal Mail Company have 
recently put down their r^tes from ^5 to ^4 in the expecta- 
tion of increased production. 

The principal difficulty of cultivation in the Peruvian Mon- 
tana lies in the broken character of the ground. This in 
itself is favorable to coffee cultivation, as the hillsides afford 
slopes wh^re the young plants can be raised without being 
exposed to the sun all day long, and the expense of protect- 
ing the young plants by artificial shade is avoided. But the 
broken ground and frequent streams, the necessity of bridges 
and cuttings, etc , render the question of communications the 
most important of all. It is this reason that makes the ooen- 
ing up of the Peren^ so significant. Planters are unwilling 



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COFFEE IN PERU. 143 

to settle aloof from the main roads, and to face the cost of 
keeping open trails through the forest, and of bridging 
rivers, where these primary necessities are not undertaken 
by large capital or by associated effort. There is, therefore, 
considerable reluctance in taking up free grants from the 
Government away from the main communications, the settlers 
discovering that a very material part of the product of their 
activity is absorbed by persons holding titles to adjacent 
lands. A tendency is, therefore, to move into lands, where 
solid bridges and roads have been made and are maintained. 
The climate of the whole Chanchamayo and Peren^ dis- 
trict is excellent, and malarial fever may be said to hardly 
be known. Labor is supplied by the Indians from the Cor- 
dillera, the ordinary wage being from 50 to 60 cents Peru- 
vian silver per day. 



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144 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



URUGUAY. 

THE FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF 
URUGUAY IN 1893, AND FACTS CONCERNING THE 
TRADE, THE POPULATION AND THE POSTAL 
SERVICE IN THE SAME NATION. 



IMPORTS INTO THE REPUBLIC OF URUGUAY IN 1893. 



Countries. 



England 

Germany 

Italy 

France 

Spain 

Brazil 

A.reentine Republic 

United States 

Belgium 

Cuba 

Chile 

Paraguay 

Portugal 

Holland (Netherlands)... 

Canary Islands 

Switzerland 

India, China and Japan. 

Venezuela 

West Indies 

Mauritius Islands 

Austria-Hungary 

Malvina Islands 

Barbados 

Australia 

Sweden 

Other countries 



Total. 



Dutiable 
merchandise. 



I5.773.3" 
1.685,457 
1,937,028 
1,917,900 
1,728,506 
1,282,852 

777,795 
862,120 
910.693 

197.465 

78,669 

44,062 

11,090 

3,880 

100 

458 

334 



Free. 



1632,469 

460,458 

58,014 

35,197 

115.969 

316,208 

417,539 

245,569 

173,376 

243 



4.386 



492 



Total. 



I6.405.780 

2.145,915 
1,995,042 

1.953.097 
1,844,475 
1,599.060 

1,195,334 

1,107,689 

1,084,069 

197,708 

78.669 

48,448 

11,090 

3.880 

592 

458 

334 



17,211,720 , 2.459,920 



19,671,640 



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URUGUAY. 145 

EXPORTS FROM THE REPUBLIC OF URUGUAY IN 1893. 



Countries. 



England. . 
Germany. 

Italy 

France.... 

Spain 

Brazil ... 



Ar^^tine Republic 

United States of America. 

Belgium 

Cuba 

Chile 

Paraguay 

Portugal 

Holland (Netherlands) 

Canary Islands 

Switzerland. 

India, China and Japan. .. 

Venezuela 

West Indies 

Maaritius Islands 

Austria-Hungary 

Malvina Islands 

Barbados 

Australia 

Sweden 

Other countries 



Dutiable 
Merchandise. 



13,231.988 

1.555. 149 

455.633 

5.570.522 

330.453 
4,900,846 

4.672.591 
1,410,110 

3.520,507 
432.433 
142.679 



350,041 



Total . 



810 
20,416 



4.079 



1.979 

150 

40 



Free. 



I23.965 
8,810 

70.715 

56.114 

47.953 

595,027 

106,976 

21,508 

9,090 

1,500 

657 



4.766 



7,000 
12,219 
13.716 

6,183 



4,032 



26,600,426 



90,716 



1,080,947 



Total. 



13,255.953 
1,563.959 

526,348 
5,626,636 

378,406 
5.495.873 
4.779.567 
1.431.618 

3.529.597 
433,933 
143.336 



350,041 



4,766 



7,810 
32.635 
13.716 

6,183 

4.079 
4.032 

1.979 

150 

40 

90,716 



27.681,373 



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE IMPORTS INTO THE REPUBLIC 
OF URUGUAY IN 1893 AND 1892. 



Years. 



Counties. 



England 

Germany 

Italy 

France 

Spain 

Bra2il 

Argentine Republic 

United States of America . 

Belgium 

Cuba 



1893. 


1892. 


$6,405,780 


15,647,479 


2.I45.9I5 


2,091,625 


1,995,042 


2,020.052 


1.953.097 


2,259,361 


1,844.475 


1,774,601 


1,599,060 


1.313.195 


I. 195.334 


1.073.476 


1,107,689 


1,104,772 


1,084,069 

197,708 


835.508 


136,960 



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146 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Comparison between the imports into Uruguay^ etc, — Continued. 



Counties. 



Chile 

Paraguay 

Portugal 

Holland (Netherlands).. 

Canary Islands 

Switzerland 

India, China and Japan 
Austria-Hungary 



Total 

Increase in 1893. 



Years. 



1893. 



78,669 

48,448 

11,090 

3.880 

592 

458 

334 



19,671,640 



1892. 



64,467 
61,196 

14.1" 
5.884 
1.049 



346 
1,114 



18,404,296 



1,267,344 



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EXPORTS FROM THE REPUB- 
Lie OF URUGUAY IN 1893 AND 1892. 



Countries. 



France 

Brazil 

Argentine Bepublic 

Belgium 

Bngland 

Germany 

United States of America. 

Italy 

Cuba 

Spain 

Portugal 

Chile 

Venezuela 

West Indies 

India, China and Japan . .. 

Mauritius Islands 

Canary Islands 

Austria-Hungary 

Malvina Islands 

Barbados 

Australia 

Sweden , 

Paraguay 

Norway 

Other countries , 



Total 

Increase in 1893 . 



Years. 



1893. 



15,626,636 
5.495.873 
4.779.567 
3.529.597 
3,255.953 
1,563,959 
1,431,618 

526,348 

433.93 ^ 

378,406 

350,041 

143.336 

32,635 

13,716 

7.810 

6,183 

4,766 

4,079 

4.032 

^979 

150 

40 



90,716 



27.681,373 



1892. 



t4.4iQ.379 

4.514.075 

2,985,304 

3,164.933 

4.479,241 

2.006,656 

2,244.398 

367.955 

630,977 

424.737 

144.054 

426,577 



8,266 

1.350 

11,679 



4,202 

872 

9.454 



565 

200 

115,946 



25.951.819 



1,729.554 



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URUGUAY. 



147 



It can be seen that while the imports from the United 
States into Uruguay, amounting in 1892 to 11,104,772, and in 
1893 to $1,107,689, increased in the latter year to the extent 
of $2,917, the exports from Uruguay to the United States, 
amounting in 1892 to 12,244,398, and in 1893 to 11,431,618, 
have sustained so large a decrease as 1812,780. 

All the amounts given in the preceding statements are in 
Uruguayan gold dollars. 

The Uruguayan gold dollar is equivalent to 5.36 Spanish 
pesetas; 5.40 French /ra/«rj/ 5.40 Italian lire; 51 English 
pence and $1.02 in United States gold coin. 



MOVEMENT OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS FROM 1S89 TO 1893. 



,Year. 



1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 



Imports. 



136,823,863 
32,364,627 
18,978,420 
18.404,296 
19,671,640 



Exports. 



125,994,107 
29,085,519 
26,998,270 
25.951,819 
27,681,373 



Total. 



162,777.970 
61,450,146 
45.976,690 
44,356,115 
47.353.013 



AMOUNT OF DUTIES CX)LLECTED IN THE CUSTOM HOUSES. 

In 1892 $8,598,360 

1111893 8,967,780 

The population of the Republic on the 3i.st of December, 
^893, was 748,130 inhabitatants. 

Postal movement in Uruguay in 1892 and 1893. 



Postal matter. 



Letters stamped 

•* unstamped 

Official correspondence 

Postal cards 

Printed matter 

Samples < 

Circulars and business matter 
Registered matter 



1892. 



22,962,224 



1893. 



5,603.392 


7,017.413 


122.577 


97.432 


462,104 


560.864 


50,970 


123.585 


15,912,236 


17.185.321 


41.231 


46,305 


522.105 


766,544 


247.609 


253.741 



26,051,205 



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148 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The following comparative statement of cattle slaughtered 
in Uruguay and the Argentine Republic for the season just 
ended is taken from the Uruguay News of June 3, 1894 : 

The slaughtering season at Liebig's saladero, at Fray 
Bentos, was brought to a close on May 20. A total of 205,590 
head of cattle were slaughtered there since December 12. 

The cattle killings in the River Plate and Rio Grande up 
to May 31, 1894, show how much this business has been 
developing here lately. In Montevideo 350,510 head of 
cattle were slaughtered, and up the coasts of the Uruguay 
494,100, a total of 844,610 head of cattle. In Buenos A5rres 
320,800 were killed, and up the river at the Argentine estab- 
lishments 217,500, a total for the Republic of 538,300. In 
Rio Grande the total was 350,000. Thus Uruguay has done 
this year almost as much as the Argentine Republic and Rio 
Grande together 



MEXICO. 



Great interest is being taken in the development of the 
uses of the fibrous plants, which grow in greatest abundance 
in the Republic of Mexico. 

Several of the leading newspapers and periodicals pub- 
lished in that country have within a very recent date discon- 
tinued the use of imported paper, substituting therefor 
paper manufactured at home, and from material grown at 
home. The experiments thus far made have proven most 
satisfactory, and it is anticipated that within a very short time 
Mexiio will have developed within her borders another in- 
dependent and profitable industry. 

Recently Prof. Frances Jeffrey, of Montana, arrived in Mon- 
terey for the purpose of examining the fibrous plants of the 
country. 

He visited many of the cities and villages along the line 
of the Mexican Gulf Railway and elsewhere in the State of 
Tamaulipas, and made many crucial tests of the pulp of the 



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MEXICO. 149 

cacti, maguey, banana, palm, pitas, wild pineapple, sugar 
cane, rice straw and fibrous timbers. 

From the pulp of the maguey he found he could make a 
better quality of tinted paper, and from the fiber a better 
quality of cloth than is now made from flax. From the pulp 
of the pineapple his experiments showed that he could manu- 
facture a quality of white paper superior to any now made 
from fibrous plants, and from the fiber of the pineapple he 
can make a cloth of finer quality, and more durable than silk. 

The supply of all the above-named fibrous plants is inex- 
haustible and cheap ; and the profits that may be made by 
converting them into the various useful commodities for 
which they seem so well adapted are incalculable. 

Professor Jeffrey, who has had large experience in the 
manufacture of paper, is organizing a stock company of ^300 - 
000 paid up capital in gold, and will at once establish a large 
mill in Monterey for the purpose of carrying into practical 
effect the result of his observations and experiments. 



A commission composed of distinguished Chinese ofi&cials 
recently visited the City of Mexico for the purpose of making 
a careful study and investigation of the resources of that 
Republic, previous to signing a commercial, industrial and 
immigration Chinese-Mexican treaty. The commission is 
composed of men eminent in the diplomatic service of China. 
They propose spending at least three months in the Republic, 
and extend their investigation over the greater part of the 
country. 

The President of the Republic of Mexico has issued a 
decree establishing an internal parcels-post service. Such 
parcels are not to exceed five kilograms in weight, nor one 
meter and twenty centimeters in girth. The postage for 
these parcels is to be 12 cents for every 500 grams or fraction 
thereof. 



During the first half of the current year there were imported 
into Mexico from England galvanized iron sheets to the 



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150 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

amount of 1,077 tons, valued at ^12,464, against 1,585 tons 
of the value of ^19,629 for the corresponding period of 1893. 



There were imported from England during the first half of 
the present year railway iron and steel to the amount of 7,846 
tons, valued at ^35,379, as against 3,613 tons, valued at 
^17,477 for the corresponding period of last year. 



Regular train service has been inaugurated on the recently 
completed Tehuantepec Railway, and it is reported that the 
local trafl&c on the line is already very heavy. 

The pier at Salina Cruz, the Pacific terminus, is about 
completed. 

The operating headquarters of the company are at the 
port of Coatzacoalcos. 

A journal commenting on the depreciated value of hemp 
in Yucatan advises the producers of that article to form a 
combine, and employ an agent with power vested in him to 
dispose of the fiber as the best opportunity offers. The 
present low price is due to the wholesale buying up by United 
States houses of the crops of individual farmers, to whom a 
lump sum is offered far below the real value, and the others 
have no resource left but to follow suit. 



The attention of agriculturists is called to the fact that a 
planter of the State of Vera Cruz has forwarded to the 
United States a consignment of the flour of the plantain. 
The process of making the flour is not stated, but it would 
seem that the consideration of this new food is worth inquir- 
ing into. 

An order for a fresh shipment has been received by the 
planter from the States. 

The drainage of Mazatlan by the municipal authorities of 
that place is soon to be commenced. 
The City of Mexico is at last free from the evils of bad 



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MEXICO. 151 

drainage. The Orozco project for the perfect sewerage of 

the capital has been completed after years of work and 
expenditure of millions. 



The concession to Mr. Augusto Bertrand, for the construc- 
tion of a railway from San Juan de Huertas to the Pacific 
Ocean, was promulgated on 2 2d ultimo. 

This concession calls for the construction of a railway to 
start from San Juan de las Huertas, in the State of Mexico, 
to touch Texcaltitlan and Ixtapan in the same State, and 
Cocuyca and La Union, in the State of Guerrero, and to 
terminate at a suitable point on the Pacific Ocean. A branch 
may also be built from the main line to Pungarabato in the 
State of Michoacan. Construction must be commenced 
within twelve months, counted from June 22, 1894, and the 
line must be finished within eight years from the commence- 
ment of construction. The concession carries no subsidy. 



It is the general impression that no coal is mined in Mexico. 
This is a mistake ; the fact is that Mexico sends coal to the 
United States. It is not sent in large quantities, but a consid- 
erable portion of the output of the mines at Sabinas, San 
Pelisse, Hondo, and Alamo is sent to the United States over 
the Mexican International Railroad, and enters through the 
port of Piedras Negras. Nevertheless, the railroads of 
Mexico get much of their coal supply from England. When 
the rate of exchange is too higli they bum wood. Most of 
the coal mines so far found are near the northern boundary, 
and the cost of transportation to the interior is greater than 
the ocean and rail cost from England. 



The Mexican Central Gold Mining Company has beeh 
organized in Chicago with a capital of 13,000,000. 



Eight hundred and sixty -nine thousand three hundred and 
eighty -six dollars' worth of Mexican products were shipped 



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152 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

from Tampico to foreign ports during the month of -May 
passed. Over three-fourths of this amount were destined for 
the United States. In the same month Progreso exported 
5,400 tons of hemp, consigned mostly to United States ports. 

The total imports of Mexico for the first half of the fiscal 
year 1803-94 were $16,694,311, showing a decrease of $2,- 
214,774, as compared with the corresponding period of the 
fiscal year 1892-93. 

The total exports for the first half of the fiscal year 1893-94 
were 37,458,010, a decrease of $2,968,982 from the corre- 
sponding period of 1892-93. 

In this calculation the Mexican dollar is estimated at par 
value — that is, I5 to the pound sterling, 20 cents to the 
franc, etc. 



Official announcement is made by the Government of 
Mexico that, commencing August 15, the charges made by 
consuls of that Republic for the certification of each set of 
consular invoices will be as below : 

Fee. 

If the declared valae of the invoice does not exceed |ioo I2.00 

If it exceeds |ioo but does not exceed |i,ooo 4'00 

For every I500 or fraction thereof in excess i.oo 



The first steamer, the Jessmore, of the whaleback line ply- 
ing between New York, Baltimore, and Tampico, sailed 
recently from the latter port. As part of her cargo she car- 
ried a full carload of bullion shipped by the Guggenheim 
smelter, of Monterey. This line of steamers, known as the 
** Johnson Line," is now fully inaugurated and will make 
three trips per month. Three steel steamers of 3,000 tons 
each compose the line. Extensive docks and other facilities 
for handling the business have been completed at Tampico. 
The agents of the line in New York are Messrs. William 
Johnson & Co., and in Baltimore, Patterson, Ramsay & Co. 



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COSTA RICA. 153 

COSTA RICA. 



GIFTS FOR AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS. 
At the conclusion of the Fair most of the Costa Rican ex- 
hibits, those of archaeology excepted, were presented to 
various American institutions. The Commission, not being 
able to comply with the numerous applications received from 
many places of the United States, and from abroad, and not 
wishing to break the collections, decided to make a distribu- 
tion of them as follows : 

To the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C: 
A large collection of stuffed animals native of Costa Rica. 

To the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. : 
A collection of fifty-four varieties of fibers. 

To the University of Pennsylvania : 
A valuable collection, embracing eighty-seven specimens of ancient 
pottery, Indian arrows, bow, staff, and pellet blow-gun; besides, 
two large show cases and four smaller ones. 

To the city of Philadelphia for its museums : 
All natural products, agricultural, forestal, mineral, as above de- 
scribed, seventy-eight skins, fishing implements, wines, liquors, 
oils, etc. A collection of national l>ooks, the entire educational 
exhibit — ^text-books, practical works, ete. A collection of silk and 
cotton fabrics ; a collection of Panama hats ; a collection of uten- 
sils made of w6od, carved ; castings from foundries, two models of 
pieces of statuary, a large collection of photographs, a shield 
and flags, and eight large show cases. 

To the Northwestern University of Chicago : 
A collection of plants, roots, barks and seeds. 

To the Columbian Museum of Chicago : 
Twenty large show cases and twelve fine stone urns with a relief in- 
scription : "Costa Rica en Chicago,*' as a souvenir of its partici- 
pation at the World's Columbian Exposition. 



OFFICE OF THE MAYOR, 

Phii«adelphia, Augyisi 7, 1894, 
Senor Don Joaquin B. Calvo, 

Chargt d* Affaires of Costa Rica, Washington^ D, C. 
Dear Sir : The City of Philadelphia has been greatly favored by 
your very valuable donations of natural products, l>ooks )>nd educa- 



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154 BURBAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tional materials. The Costa Rican Pavilion, with its contents, in Chi- 
cago, was a large and handsome museum in itself. We know that it 
attracted great attention from its intrinsic value. We are also aware 
of the fact that no other country, from the north or from the south » 
presented as finely prepared, collections as your Government sent ta 
the Chicago Exposition. This was the largest and best collection of 
its kind in Chicago. 

The City of Philadelphia, therefore, wishes to express, through its 
representative, its full appreciation of this most magnificent gift. 

The following objects and collections were among the most valuable 
parts of the donation : 

1. A complete and beautifully prepared collection of the woods of 
Costa Rica. 

2. A large and valuable collection of coloring and dye-stuff plants. 

3. A valuable collection of textiles and fibers. 

4. A large collection of gums and resins. 

5. A collection of cereals. 

6. A collection of legumes. 

7. A collection of honeys and sugars. 

8. A very fine collection of premium coffees and cocoas. 

9. A handsome collection of gold-hearing rocks. 

10. A collection of wines and liquors. 

11. A large collection of wild animal skins. 

12. A collection of tropical fruits in wax. 

13. A collection of shells. 

14. A collection of fishes and marine algae. 

15. A collection of ants, wasps, and bees' nests of value. 

16. A collection of fishing implements. 

17. A general collection of minerals. 

18. A large and very valuable collection of drugs and medicinal 
plants. 

19. A collection of silks, native cloths and manufactured articles. 

20. A collection of bows and arrows from the Indians. 

21. A very valuable and beautiful set of national books, maps, etc. 

22. A collection of photographs. 

23. A valuable school exhibit, made up of text-books used in Costa 
Rica, of toys and other articles manufactured by the schools. Also, 
garments of various kinds, fine sewing and embroidery. 

These various groups of articles, taken collectively, form an attrac- 
tive and valuable museum, which the city of Philadelphia most highly 
appreciates and gratefully acknowledges through her representative, 
the Mayor of the city of Philadelphia. 
I am, your obedient servant, 

(Signed.) Edwin S. Stuart, Mayor. 



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COSTA RICA. 155 

LEGAciON DE Costa Rica, 

WASHINGTON, D. C, AugUSt 12, 1894, 

Hon. Edwin S. Stuart, 

Mayor of the City of Philadelphia. 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yoar note dated 
the 7th instant, in which yon kindly convey the assurances of the 
appreciation with which the city of Philadelphia and yourself, as its 
representative, have accepted the donation of natural products, l>ooks 
and educational materials, etc., from Costa Rica, exhibited in Chicago, 
and presented to the city of Philadelphia through the Costa Rican 
Commission at the World's Columbian Exposition. 

The entire contents of your note and of the one received from the 
Director of Museums of the city of Philadelphia, were transmitted to 
my Government, and it affords me pleasure to assure you that they 
will be received with great satisfaction and highly appreciated by the 
Government and the people of my country. 

I am, sir, yours very respectfully, 

(Signed) J. B. CAlvo, 

Chargi d' Affaires, 



By an act of Congress approved July 28, 1894, the Gov- 
ernment of Costa Rica offers to pay a premium of 25 cents 
per tree to everyone who shall engage in the cultivation of 
the cacao, and who shall plant not less than 500 trees. The 
law takes effect from date of promulgation July 29. 

The premium shall be paid on evidence that the tree is 
three years old and has been properly cultivated. 

No premium shall be paid under this law to anyone com- 
mencing the cultivation of the cacao tree subsequent to 1900. 
Companies and individuals in whose favor other premiums 
may have been already allowed shall not be entitled to the 
benefits of the law. 



The Government of Costa Rica has granted authority to 
the Costa Rica Railway Company to make a second issue of 
bonds to the amount of 100,000 pounds sterling. This money 
is to be expended in the construction of a long iron pier at 
Port Limon, and in making extensive repairs along the ex- 
isting line of railway; also in meeting any existing obliga- 
tions. The Government assumes no financial responsibility 
on account of the scheme. 

II BUL 



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156 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



[Prom Report of British Consul at Buenos Aires, April 6, 1894.] 

The number of American agricultural machines imported 
during the last wheat harvest was enormous, and may be 
attributed not only to the cheapness of the machines, but to 
the enterprise of the manufacturers in sending trained ma- 
chinists to look after them when at work. The average 
"chacrero'* (small farmer) is by no means a highly trained 
agriculturist, and it is absolutely necessary that there should 
be some one capable of showing him how to use his "reapers 
and binders,'* etc., otherwise they soon become unservice- 
able from rough treatment. During a trip through the wheat 
districts in Entre Rios last December I constantly found 
American travelers superintending the working of their 
machines, and they seemed to have their hands full. I 
never met a single traveler for any British firm, and I caa 
not help thinking that by a little more enterprise British 
manufacturers might obtain a larger share in the trade of 
cheap agricultural machinery which threatens to become a 
monopoly of the United States. The British manufacturers 
appear to hold their own as regards the heavier and more 
expensive machinery, such as threshing machines, etc. 



ARGENTINE IMMIGRATION. 



LETTER FROM MINISTER BUCHANAN. 
No. 39. Legation of the United States, 

Buenos Aires, July 12, 1894, 
To the Hon. WAI.TER Q. Gresham, 

Secretary of State, 
Sir: The report of the Argentine Commissioner of Immigration for 
the year 1893 has just been published; it shows the following totals of 
immigrants and emigrants for the years 1890, 1891, 1892, and 1893, 
(first-class passengers not included): 
Year. Immigrants. Emisraots. 

1890 111,000 83,000 

1891 52,000 82,000 

1892 73.000 44,000 

1893 84,Joo 48,000 



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COWMBIA. 157 

A net gain by immigration during the foar years, of 63,000 persons. 

Of the immigrants during 1893, 79 per cent were Italian, 13 per cent 
Spanish, 5 per cent French, 20 per cent Russian, i^ per cent German, 
iK per cent Austrian, lyi per cent Swiss, the remainder British and 
Belgian. 

The report claims that more families came into the country during 
1893 than in any previous year. 

Prominence is given to the subject of Russian immigration. In this, 
the Argentine government is doing everything it can to make the Jew- 
ish colonization successful. 

I have the honor etc., William I. Buchanan. 



COLOMBIA. 



[From Report of Acting British Consul at Panama, April 30, 1894.] 

The ''Colombian Quartz Mining Company, Limited,** was 
recently formed in London to acquire a group of gold mines 
near Santiago de Veraguas, in the province of Veraguas. The 
capital of this company is 200,000 pounds sterling, only half 
of which has been issued. The property is a very extensive 
one, containing upwards of eight miles of gold veins, the 
main lode of which has been traced for several miles, show- 
ing an average width of twelve feet, and an average yield of 
thirteen hundredweight to the ton. During past years a 
great deal of work was done on these mines by the Indians 
as well as by the Spaniards. Already the company has con- 
structed thirty -three miles of cart road, in addition to a large 
amount of prospecting. To show from the work already 
done, there are upwards of 400 tons of ore lying on the dump, 
and the mines are now sufficiently opened up to yield 2,000 
tons per month if properly worked. There is in course of 
erection a plant to treat twenty tons daily, and if its results 
prove satisfactory, arrangements will be carried out for a plant 
to work 100 tons a day during next year. This whole dis- 
trict has been very little prospected, but so far as is known it 
holds out great prospects to enterprise and capital. Labor is 



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158 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cheap, water power generally is easy to obtain, and heavy 
machinery can be transported from the coast on ox carts. 



The Panama Railroad has chartered three ships from the 
Standard Oil Company to run between New York and Colon. 
The ships owned by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company will 
now be run by their owners, so that there will be two lines 
between those ports. 



CHILE. 



The Chilean Government has under consideration the proj- 
ect of requiring all import duties to be paid in the national 
money, the cost of exchange added. At present twenty -five 
per cent of the duty is payable in gold. It is also proposed 
that the export duty on nitrate, now payable partly in the 
national currency, shall be paid in gold, or by accepted let- 
ters of credit. The four millions of dollars surplus, which it 
is hoped will be gained by this operation, are to be applied 
to the fund for conversion of the national paper currency. 
This proposed financial scheme is to go into effect December 
ist proximo. 

The Chilean Government has just granted a concession to 
a syndicate, of which a Mr. Rawson is the head, for the con- 
struction of a railway to the nitrate beds in the province of 
TarapacA, from either the port of Iquique or Pisagua. 



The buildings of the Santiago Exposition are almost com- 
pleted, and are said to be well filled with articles from the 
United States, Great Britain, France, Germany and other 
commercial countries. The exposition, which opens in Sep- 
tember, give promise of great success. 



From the recent sale of the first group of nitrate proper- 



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GUATEMALA. 159 

ties, the Chilean Government realized upward of three 
million dollars. This is considerably above the minimum 
price set by the Government. The sales were made to native 
Chileans, but it is presumed they acted for English capitalists. 



The large dry -dock being constructed by the Chilean Gov- 
ernment at Talcahuano will be completed and opened for use 
by the end of the present year. It will be capable of taking 
up the largest vessels, and will be of great service 10 foreign 
shipping on the Pacific Coast. 



GUATEMALA. 



The following is the text of a decree recently issued by the 
Government of Guatemala : 

"From and after the ist of August, 1894, holders of 
Chilean, Peruvian, and other silver coin will apply to the 
National Mint to have the same changed into national money. 

** Foreign money which may still be unchanged on the 15th 
of September proximo shall be stamped as national coin, and 
only in this way shall it be legal tender in the Republic until 
it is recoined. 

'* From said date the importation of foreign silver money 
is prohibited. 

"Persons visiting the Republic may import sums not to 
exceed $300 per capita. 

"The Government will provide the country with the 
national gold an I silver money which may be necessary for 
business affairs.** 



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l6o BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

VENEZUELA. 



[From Report of British vice-consul at Barcelona, April, 1898.] 

Hopes are entertained that the coal mines at Naricual be- 
longing to an English company (Guanta Company, Limited) 
will contribute to increase commerce. The quality of the 
coals is said to be splendid, but the supply is not yet suflS- 
cient to meet requirements. It is expected that it will in- 
crease considerably with the use of adequate machinery 
which is expected. The cheap price the company will be 
able to sell at will surely encourage many steamship com- 
panies to buy it; taking also into account the facilities and 
safety of the Guanto harbor, where an excellent wharf has 
been constructed by the same company. 



Large deposits of crude petroleum have been recently dis- 
covered in the State of 2ulia in the Republic of Venezuela. 
Samples of the crude substance have been analyzed at 
Caracas and are found to contain 50 per cent of crude petro- 
leum. The principal deposit yet discovered is in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the River Tara, and is capable of producing 
4,000 gallons daily. Sefior Christobal Dacavitch, a Russian 
engineer, is now soliciting a concession with the view to ex- 
ploiting the discovery. 



The Government of Venezuela is taking steps looking to 
the establishment of schools of agriculture throughout the 
Republic for the purpose of teaching the youth of the country 
the principles of farming. It appears that the young men of 
that country are sadly in need of such training. The soil of 
Venezuela is immensely rich, yet with the present primitive 
methods employed the results obtained are meager. The 
raising of wheat will be strongly advocated; also that of 
homed cattle and other animals. 



The contract for the construction of the railway between 



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CUBA — ECUADOR. l6l 

Caracas and Careaero has been approved by Congress. The 
contract is g^ven to Count Carlos Leon. 



By order of the President of the Republic, the introduction 
of dynamite and other explosive substances into the country 
is prohibited. 



The Cong^ress of Venezuela has granted to an American 
syndicate a concession to construct a tunnel through the 
Avilli Mountain and operate an electric railway between La 
Guayra and the capital. It is expected to begin work in 
September next. 



CUBA. 



Latest official information from Cuba is to the effect that 
the production of sugar in 1893 was 5,461,691 bags, or 
755»86o tons. The crop in 1894 is 7,486,295 bags, or 1,056,050 
tons. 



ECUADOR. 



A meeting of the Guyaquil Chamber of Commerce was held 
on the 26th of June, when it was resolved to petition Con- 
gress that a gold standard be adopted. The new Vice-Presi- 
dent is in favor of the measure, as also is Sr. CaamafLo, the 
Governor of Guayas, the man of he day, and many other 
influential government officials and private individuals, and 
it can, with a certain amount of safety, be predicted that a 
gold standard will be adopted, and that the basis of the sucre 
will be fixed at either ^od or ^id sterling — presumably the 
latter. 



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l62 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

BRAZIL. 



The various States of Brazil are adopting vigorous meas- 
ures to Secure laborers from Europe and elsewhere. The 
Legislature of Para has authorized the governor to enter into 
a contract for the introduction of 30,000 immigrants, and the 
State of San Paulo has just signed a contract for the intro- 
duction of 50,000 immigrants. The States of Bahia, Pernani- 
buco, Alagoas, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Garaes are all mov- 
ing in the same di ection. 



SALVADOR. 



The committee representing the holders of the bonds of 
Salvador has resumed the payment of the bonds, both ex- 
terior and interior, which was interrupted by the recent revo- 
lution. 

A committee of prominent citizens of San Salvador has 
been named to revise the contracts made by the late Ezeta 
Government. 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Frequent application is made to the Bureau for the address 
of United States Consuls in the South and Ceiftral American 
Republics. Those desiring to correspond with any consul can 
do so by addressing "The United States Consulate" at the 
point named. Letters thus addressed will be delivered to 
the proper person. It must be understood, however, that it 
is not the duty of consuls to devote their time to private 
business, and that all such letters may properly be treated 
as personal and any labor involved may be subject to charge 
therefor. 

The following is a list of United States Consulates in the 
different Republics : 



Argbntinb Republic — 

Buenos Aires. 

Cordoba. 

Rosario. 
BouviA — 

La Paz. 
Brxzh, — 

Bahia. 

Para. 

Pernambuco. 

Rio Grande do Sul. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

Santos. 
CHII.B— 

Antofagasta. 

Aric^. 

Coquimbo. 

Iquique. 

Talcahuano. 

Valparaiso. 



COI^OMBIA — 

Barranquilla. 

Bogota. 

Cartagena. 

Colon (Aspinwall). 

Medillin. 

Panama. 
Costa Rica — 

San Jose. 
Dominican Republic- 

Puerto Plata. 

Samana. 

Santo Domingo. 
Ecuador — 

Guayaquil. 
Guatemala — 

Guatemala. 
Haiti— 

Cape Haitien. 

Port au Prince. 



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UNITED STATES CONSUI.ATES. 



HoirauRAs— 

RuatMi. 

Tegucigalpa. 
Mexico — 

Acapulco. 

Chihuahua. 

Durango. 

Bnsenada. 

Guaymas. 

La Paz 

Matamoras. 

Mazatlan. 

Merida. 

Mexico. 

Nogales. 

Nuevo Laredo. 

Paso del Norte. 

Piedras Negras. 

Saltillo. 

Tampico. 



Mexico— Continued. 

Tuxpau. 

Vera Cruz. 
Nicaragua— 

Manopta. 

San Juan del Norte. 
Paraguay — 

Asuncion. 
Peru— 

Callao. 

SAI.VADOR — 

San Salvador. 
Uruguay — 

Colonia. 

Montevideo. 

Paysandu. 
Venezuei^a— 

La Guayra. 

Maracaibo, 

Puerto Cabello. 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Dbpartment of State, 

Washington, U. S. A., 1894. 

It is impossible to comply with requests for the free 
distribution of the publications of this Bureau. The de- 
mand for Handbooks ai\d Bulletins has increased so rapidly 
as to make compliance impossible, because of the limited 
editions published. The lists of applicants desiring to be 
supplied with every Handbook and Bulletin issued by 
the Bureau largely exceed any edition published, and these 
lists would be constantly increased if the requests received 
daily at the Bureau were acceded to. Yet, it is well under- 
stood that many requests are received from persons having 
good reasons for desiring the information asked for, and both 
willing and able to pay the slight cost of these documents. 

Recognizing these facts, the Bureau some months ago issued 
a circular announcing that thereafter the publications of the 
Bureau would be sold to all applicants at a small price. . This 
was done with a view of extending rather than limiting the 
circulation of the information published by the Bureau, and 
at the same time securing the utmost impartiality in such 
distribution. It was believed that this course would result 
in a more general circulation of the information secured in 
saving the unnecessar>' labor of replying to requests from 
persons who apparently had no special interest in the publica- 
tions applied for, and that all who had a well-grounded 
intention of embarking in business in foreign countries, or 
extending business already established, would be able to 
afford the slight expense involved in the payment of the 
cost price of the Bureau documents. 

The result of this experiment has more than justified the 
hopes with which it was undertaken. With exceptions too 
rare to be noted, the plan embraced in the circular has met 
with the cordial approbation of the business men of the 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

country, and if the progress made thus far in extending the 
circulation of these publications shall be continued it will be 
possible to largely increase the numbers of each edition of 
future publications. 

Many of the earlier Bulletins have been included in more 
recent publications. This applies especially to the tariflFs, com- 
mercial directories and newspaper directories of the different 
Republics. 

Suggestions from manufacturers and dealers as to their spe- 
cial needs of information will receive prompt attention by the 
Bureau. 

The following list embraces a catalogue of the Bulletins and 
Handbooks published since the organization of the Bureau, 
of which copies may be secured by remitting to the under- 
signed the price named in inclosed list. 

PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU 
OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

.' Cents. 

3. Patent and Trade-mark Laws of America 5 

4. Money, Weights and Measures of the American Republics 5 

6. Foreign Commerce of the American Republics 20 

8. Import Duties of Brazil 10 

10. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto Rico 15 

II Import Duties of Costa Rica 10 

13. Commercial Directory of Brazil 5 

14. Commercial Directory of Venezuela 5 

15. Commercial Directory of Colombia 5 

16. Commercial Directory of Peru 5 

17. Commercial Directory of Chile 5 

18. Commercial Directory of Mexico 15 

19. Commercial Directory of Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Uru- 

«?uay 5 

20. Import Duties of Nicaragua 10 

21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised) 15 

22. Import Duties of Bolivia 20 

23. Import Duties of Salvador 5 

24. Import Duties of Honduras 10 

25. Import Duties of Ecuador 5 

26. Commercial Directory of the Argentine Republic 5 

27. Import Duties of Colombia 5 

28. Commercial Directory of Central America 10 



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PRICE LIST OP PUBLICATION 

Cents. 

29. Commercial Directory of Haiti and Santo Domingo 5 

30. First Annual Report of the Bureau, 1891 10 

32. Handbook of Guatemala 35 

33. Handbook of Colombia 30 

34. Handbook of Venezuela 35 

36. Import Duties of Venezuela 5 

38. Commercial Directory of Cuba and Puerto Rico 10 

39 Commercial Directory of British, Danish, Dutch and French 

colonies 10 

42. Newspaper Directory of Latm America 5 

43. Import Duties of Guatemala ; 25 

44. Import Duties of the United States 5 

45. Import Duties of Peru 25 

46. Import Duties of Chile 25 

47- Import Duties of Uruguay 25 

48. Import duties of the Argentine Republic 25 

49. Import Duties of Haiti 10 

50. Handbook of the American Republics, No. 3 50 

51. Handbook of Nicaragua 50 

52. Handbook of Santo Domingo 50 

53. Immigration and Land Laws of Latin America « 40 

5S. Handbook of Bolivia 40 

61. Handbook of Uruguay 50 

6a. Handbook of Haiti 50 

63 How the Markets of Latin America May Be Reached 40 

64. Handbook of Ecuador 50 

67. Handbook of the Argentine Republic 50 

65. April Special Bulletin, Costa Rica 25 

New United States Tariff Law ^ 05 

PUBLICATIONS NOT KUMBBRBD. 

Commercial Directory of Latin America 40 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau, 1892 5 

Third Annual Report of the Bureau, 1893 15 

Manual de las Republicas Americanas, 1891 (Spanish edition of 

Hand-book No. i) 50 

International American Conference Reports and Recommenda- 
tions, including Reports upon the Plan of Arbitration, Reci- 
procity Treaties, Inter-Continental Railway, Steamship Com- 
munication, Sanitary Regulations, Customs Regulations, 
Common Silver Coin, Patents and Trade-Marks, Weights 
and Measures, Port Dues, International Law, Extradition 
Treaties, International Bank, Memorial Tablet, Columbian 
Exposition ~ 

Octavo, bound in paper „ fo 50 

Octavo, bound in half Morocco i 50 



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PRICE WST OP PUBLICATIONS. 

Cents. 

Monthly Bulletins, $i per annum; single copies lo 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, first volume, 852 pages, bound 
in cloth, contains upwards of 24,000 commercial terms in 
English, Spanish and Portuguese 3 00 

Money may be sent by postoffice money order, payable 
to the Director of the Bureau of the American Republics. 
All other remittances are at the risk of the sender. Postage 
stamps will not be received, 

CLINTON FURBISH, 

Director, 



The second volume of the Code of Commercial Nomen- 
clature is now in press and will be ready for delivery about 
the ist of October. This is the final edition of the English, 
Spanish, and Portuguese edition, containing about 24,000 
terms, including about 830 pages. Price, bound in cloth, $3. 

El segundo tomo del C6digo de Nomenclatura Comercial 
se encuentra en prensa y estard Hsto para distribuirse para el 
primero de Octubre pr6ximo. Este tomo es el ultimo de la 
serie inglesa, castellana, y portuguesa, consta de 830 pdg^nas 
y contiene cerca de 24,000 vocablos. Su precio, encuarder- 
nado en tela, ^^3. 



These publications may be purchased from Rand, McNally 
& Co., Chicago and New York. 



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1- 



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0.& 




The Texas State 


ffisten'r:! hssmWou. 


Vl^J^OBE 


Number 12 




Vol II. No. 3 



THE 



MONTHLY BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Bureau 



OF THE 



American Republics 

WASHINGTON, U. S. A. 



SEPTENIBKR, 1894 



American Live Stock. (English and Spanish.) 

Chapter III— The Cow (Continued). Compiled 

by E. T. T. Riddick 163 

Whe>t Statistics 184 

The Reciprocai. Commercial Arrangement of 
THE United States under the Tariff Act 
OF 1890. (English and Spanish.) - - - 185 

Mexico — Miscellaneous News 188 

Guatemala — Amendments to the New Tariff - - 192 
Ecuador — Message of the President - - - 205 
General Information 210 



Single Numbers, 10 Cents Per Annum, $1.00. 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE. WASHINGTON. D. C. U. S. 



Director — Clinton Furbish. 



While the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications 
of the Bureau of the American Republics, no pecuniary- 
responsibility is assumed on account of errors or 
inaccuracies which may occur therein. 



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THe Tm. Stats ffistcnd tociafioj. 



The Monthly Bulletin 

OF THB 

BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS- 



September, 1894. 



AMERICAN LIVE STOCK. 

(ENG1.1SH AND Spanish.) 



Chapter III. 
THE HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN COW. 



It is a universally admitted fact that no other breed so suc- 
cessfully combines milk, cheese, butter, and beef as the 
Holstein-Friesian. As milk producers, they are without a 
parallel, and the milk containing, as it does, a large percent- 
age of caseine, is of the very highest quality for the manu- 
facture of cheese. As butter cows, the best bred Holstien- 
Friesians surpass all other breeds, and within the past few 
years, no breed has made such rapid advancement as butter 
producers. Several families and several herds can show a 
larger average butter yield than any other breed. In propor- 
tion to the whole number of cows tested, those of this breed 
show a larger average yield than any other. A large 
majority of all the public tests made in America, where cows 
of this breed have competed, have been won by Holstein- 
Friesians. 

The quality and flavor of Holstein-Friesian butter is very 
superior. It holds its flavor and carries unusually well, as 
actual experiments have proven. At the Chicago Fat Stock 
and Dairy Show, held at Chicago in November, 1885, the 
following pri/.es were awarded to Holstein-Friesians: first 



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164 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

prize on best tub of butter from New York State; special 
prize of ^50 offered by the De Laval Separator Company for 
the best fifty pounds of butter; second prize for the best five 
prints or rolls of one pound each. 

At the Iowa State Fair of 1885, Holstein-Friesian butter 
was awarded first. 

At the Ohio State Fair in 1887, one of these cows was 
awarded the premium for producing the best quality of butter. 

At the American Fat Stock and Dairy Show at Chicago, in 
1877, the first prize was awarded to Holstein-Friesian butter. 
The sweepstakes dairy butter at this show was also made 
from Holstein-Friesian cows. 

The first prize for butter made in Michigan was also 
awarded to butter made from this breed of cows. 

The sweepstakes over butter of all breeds, there being 
eleven entrees, was awarded to Holstein-Friesian butter 
which scored higher than any other butter in the show. 

In 1889, Dairy Herd Premiums were offered at the follow- 
ing State Fairs, and won by Holstein-Freisians: Ohio, Iowa, 
Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas and Indiana, various breeds 
competing at each fair. In Indiana, the sweepstakes pre- 
mium for bull, dairy breeds, a large number of cattle enter- 
ing, the Holstein-Friesians won; also the sweepstakes for 
dairy cow won by this breed with sharp competition. 
Among the dairy butter tests at the State fairs in 1889, those 
in Ohio, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, 
Michigan and Detroit International, were won by cows of 
this breed . They also made the best tesls in milk at Ohio, 
Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Michigan, Indiana and 
South Dakota. Thus it will be seen that this breed has won 
nearly all the important dairy prizes in butter and milk 
throughout the leading fairs. At the New York Dairy and 
Cattle Show in 1887, their butter was awarded first premium, 
competing with butter made from other breeds. At the same 
show, ''Clothilde" won the sweepstakes for the best butter 
cow of any breed, the one producing the largest quantity of 
butter during twenty -four consecutive hours of the exhibition, 
sixteen animals being entered for the test, and twelve actu- 



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THE COW. 165 

alb' competing, of which five were Jerseys, one Guernsey, 
and six Holstein-Friesians. 

In the test for *'cow producing the largest quantity of but- 
ter during three consecutive days of the exhibition'' at the 
Buffalo International Fair of 1888, a Holstein-Friesian, Ben- 
ola Fetcher, secured the prize. At the Ohio State Fair in 
J887, the premium for the cow producing the greatest amount 
of butter in a given time was divided between two Holstein- 
Friesian cows, each making the sa^ne amount of butter, and 
the most that was made. At the Minnesota State Fair in 
1887, a Holstein-Friesian cow was awarded the premium as 
the cow producing the greatest amount of butter. 

As a beef breed they are deservedly popular. In size, 
vigor, and capacity to take on flesh at an early age, feed con- 
sidered, they will compare favorably with any of the distinct 
beef breeds. This has been amply shown by the experience 
of every Holstein-Friesian breeder, by various tests and ex- 
periments, and by the position they have occupied whenever 
exhibited at the Chicago Fat Stock Show, where, in 1888, it 
was found that a registered Holstein-Friesian steer had made 
the largest weight per diem of any animal ever exhibited at 
this show, and ever known to have been made in the United 
States. Also, in a test made by the Agricultural College of 
Michigan, when two each of Galloways, Shorthorns, Hol- 
stein-Friesians, and Jerseys,, one Hereford, and one Devon 
were selected, and an accurate record kept for seven months 
of food consumed, daily ration, monthly weights and gains; 
it was found that ihfe two Holstein-Friesians had made the 
largest gain per day for a given time, and one of them the 
greatest gain per day since birth. Many instances could be 
given showing the remarkable results obtained where animals 
of this breed have been fed for beef. 

For family use, where quantity and quality of milk are both 
an object, the Holstein-Friesians have no equals. Their 
strong, vigorous constitutions and marked freedom from dis- 
ease are important considerations, as milk conveys disease 
more readily than any other food. 
The average yearly milk records made in a herd of Hol- 



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1 66 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Stein- Friesians the writer knows are without parallel. If 
large records of single individuals are worthy of considera- 
tion, how much more important are large average records, 
made by a great number of animals of the same family or 
herd, to a person desiring to procure choice, rarely-bred ani- 
mals that are not only great milk and butter producers them- 
selves, but can be relied upon to trahsuiit these qualities to 
their descendants. Pedigree without peformance is valueless, 
while performance without pedigree is of comparatively small 
value, inasmuch as it does not definitely prove unusual pro- 
ducing powers to be an inherent quality. The merits of a 
family or herd should not be measured by the performances of 
a single individual, but by the combined or average product 
of the majority, or the whole. 

Sixty -nine cows and heifers of the herd we speak of have 
made milk record^ that average 16,019 pounds 21-23 ounces. 

Forty-six cows and heifers average 17,043 pounds 3 10-23 
ounces. 

Twenty seven cows and heifers average 18,042 pounds. 

Nine cows and heifers average 20,231 pounds 8 1-9 ounces. 

THE GUERNSEY COW. 

Merit is usually modest and quite often goes unrecognized and 
unrewarded. This applies most strictly to the Guernsey cow> 
which, while it certainly surpasses the Jersey, and very much 
so, on an average, in yield of butter, has never yet enjoyed 
the advantages of a boom such as has been conferred upon 
the Jersey for many years past with all the skill and energy 
of professional breeders used to the arts of advertising and 
manufacturing sales. The Guernsey may not have the grace 
ful form and symmetrical beauty of the Jersey, but, on the 
principle of " handsome is that handsome does,'* she is to be 
considered with the highest regard. Indeed, some of the 
best of the Jersey cattle might be called homely as compared 
with the best of the Guernseys, which are by no means de- 
void of beauty both in color and form. And it has been 
whispered, with most probable truth and reason, that some of 



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THE COW. 167 

the best of the Jerseys have been improved in their pro- 
ductive quality by the help of a cross of the Guernsey put in 
*'ou the sly.** 

The Guernsey is closely related to the Jersey and is a close 
neighbor of it, being bred upon the adjacent island, the sec- 
ond in importance of the group known as the Channel Is- 
lands, which lie in the English Chamnel near the coast of 
France. The race is believed to have originated from that 
of Normandy, on the adjacent coast of France, for these 
islands were Norman and not French, and the customs and 
laws yet in existence upon them are based upon those of the 
Norman race, which, under William the Conqueror, made 
England a Norman conquest. But for more than a century 
past this race of cattle has been kept free from mixture by the 
most stringent laws, and has been interbred in the most care- 
ful, skillful, and successful manner. The chief product of 
the island has been fine butter, which has enjoyed the high- 
est reputation in the best of the English markets, and the 
Guernsey cow has become noted for the fine texiure and 
flavor and exceedingly high color of her butter. 

This cow is not a small animal. The common weight is from 
900 to 1,200 pounds, which is nearly one-half more than that 
of the Jersey cow. Her form is typical of a good cow, hav- 
ing all the fine points in perfection. This effect of long 
breeding for these points is only a reasonable result of the 
accurate views in this respect of the Guernsey breeders, 
whose practical ideas are typified by the scale of points used 
at the exhibitions as tests of merits of the competitors for 
the premiums. This scale of points is noteworthy, and is as 
follows : 

Points. 

Deep yellow skin 6 

Soft skiu and fine hair and red and white color 8 

Prominence of milk veins 5 

Forni of udder 10 

Every one of these is practical and free from those fancy 
notions which have led the Jersey breeders far astray, and 
at one time threatened to destroy the usefulness of this more 
fasliionable race. When more points were given for color of 



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l68 BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBWCS. 

skin, switch, tongue and hoofs, and shape of horas and muz- 
zle than for the udder and milking quality, it was only rea- 
sonable to expect that the breeding would soon become faulty, 
and that when a cow was discarded because of her *' white 
stockings, heavy neck and crooked horns, ' * in spite of her 
great butter product, the race would soon deteriorate ; and so 
it was found, until the foolishness was arrested by the good 
sense of the rank and file of the Jersey breeders, who changed 
the system abruptly by a change of the rules of the associa- 
tion. 

The distinguishing feature of the Guernsey is its solidity 
of form. It is not fawn-like, but a stout, well-built, yet 
graceful animal, well proportioned, and evidently of a robust 
and hardy constitution. No Guernsey cow has as yet been 
convicted of the tuberculosis habit ; she is not that kind of 
a cow, as her sister Jersey is to so large an extent. She 
has a deep, full brisket, full crops and thickness through the 
chest, which afford ample space to a large lung and heart 
JJ development, which is wholly opposed to any weakness of 

J' constitution. Neither is she given to the loss of her calves, 

n. and abortion is exceedingly rare and never a constitutional 

defect. She is a working cow, a strong, robust butter maker 
par excellence, and all. else is subordinated to this leading 
quality in a cow. 

But her qualifications in this respect are to be judged by 
every one of the points in the scale above given. The deep- 
*| yellow skin indicates the quality of the fat in and under it. 

And as all the fats of the animal are derived from the same 
food and are colored by the same constitutional idiosyncrasy, 
it follows that the deep-yellow skin signifies, as the neces- 
sary consequence, that the butter will be colored in the same 
way, and this ability to give a natm-al tinge to the butter of 
a deep, rich yellow — approaching an orange in its shade— is 
!^ typical of the Guernsey cows. This yellow tendency is con- 

spicuous in these cows. It is seen in a yellow ring around 
the eyes, in the ground color of the horns and hoofs, and 
breaking out at the tips of the horns, in the ears, and 
wherever the fine, silky hair is parted on her shoulders 



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THE COW. 169 

and every other part of the body. The exfoliations from 
the skin are yellow-like scales of gold, as if the coat 
had been sprinkled with gold dust. The skin has a soft, 
velvety touch, and the hair is fine and soft. To press the 
skin gives the feeling of an elastic cushion, and it moves 
upon the muscles as if loosely thrown over them. The rich 
brown red, or shades varying to a lemon fawn, with white 
intermixed ; a mild, gentle expression ; large, soft, dreamy 
eyes, all go to make her attractive, and even picturesque, 
when as a herd these cows are scattered over a verdant pas- 
ture or stand in a clean stable, in the stalls, waiting to con- 
tribute their offering of rich milk in return for generous 
feeding and kind care. 

Only one breeder has ever given any attention to the coloj 
of his herd. He cultivated a shade which is quite common, 
a light orange, fawn, and white, which quite aptly resulted 
in a noted strain known as the Cloth of Gold, or the drap d'or^ 
family in the Guernsey vernacular, which is Norman French. 
In time, by selecting his animals, the white was dropped and 
the golden shade was made solid, and very beautiful animals 
were reared by this breeder. The taste of the Guemseymen, 
wise and practical, however, was not inclined to any special 
color, and in time the herd was separated and absorbed in the 
general stock. 

There are some fine herds of Guernseys in the United 
States, but all are working herds, containing cows which 
average fourteen pounds of butter each for the whole herd, 
heifers and old cows included, and many of these cows are 
good for twenty-seven pounds of butter weekly. Some have 
reached to 700 pounds in the year, and it is very rare that a 
cow of this breed will yield less than twelve or fourteen 
pounds weekly. 

JERSEYS. 

This breed — the best known and most widely distributed 
of the Channel Island groups — has long held a high place in 
public favor. Although there is no doubt that the Jerseys 
were originally from Normandy, in France, they were long 



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170 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN RKPUBUCS. 

ago trausplanted, and became the peculiar breed of the Chan- 
nel Islands. 

Improvement of both groups was eflfected by the kindly 
care and attention lavished upon them. In no portion of the 
world, probably, is there more attention given to the com- 
forts of the cow ; she is the mainstay and source of revenue to 
her owner, and holds a place in his aflfections justified by her 
financial importance. Under these conditions, supplemented 
by judicious selection in breeding, they have risen to their 
present merited position. In the United States, superior in- 
ducements have caused extra eflfort toward improvement and 
the establishment of so-called fancy strains, until it may be 
safely asserted that there are as good Jerseys bred in America 
as can be found among those bred in their native islands. 
Their importation to America dates from as early as 1830, and 
from 1850 to the present time has been rapid and systematic. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE JERSEY. 

There are four different markings or styles of color to be 
found among registered Jerseys, and, as tastes differ, each 
style is in sufficient demand to justify the continued supply: 
(i) Fawn and white, evenly variegated; (2) solid fawn; (3) 
brown and white, and (4) solid brown. Solid color means all 
one color — that is, without admixture of white. 

The head is small, close fleshed, broad at the forehead and 
narrow between horns, with strongly dished face; large, ex- 
pressive eyes, set wide apart, thin, delicate ears, and small, 
crumpled, amber-colored horns. The neck is thin, long, fine 
at the head, and set into the shoulders — ''ewe -necked;" 
shoulders thin and light, forward ribs flat, ** fish-backed," 
but increasing in curvature to the loin; hip fairly wide, but 
rump narrow, and buttocks lean; body deepest at the flank, 
presenting the V-shaped outline of all milk breeds; front legs 
short, fine boned, straight and small; hind legs somewhat 
coarser, and, in the less improved animals, rather crooked. 
The best improved specimens have been bred away from the 
crooked hocks of their ancestors, and can present as straigh 
and clean a pair of heels as one would wish to see. The 



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THE COW. 171 

Jersey udder, as a rule, is not large, but its capacity is good, 
and the escutcheon, in all its forms, is built upon a rich orange 
yellow skin, which clearly marks the dominant characteristic 
of the animal — butter. The general appearance of the Jersey 
is that of all highly sensitive, nervous temperaments ; and, 
taken in connection with its peculiar color, furnishes a striking 
resemblance to the well-known Southern deer. 

CHARACTERISTICS. 

The all-absorbing trait of the Jersey cow is the uniform rich • 
ness of her milk in butter contents; the globules are large, 
causing the cream to separate easily and quickly from the 
body of the milk, and the butter produced from it is usually 
more highly colored, under the same conditions as to food and 
care, than that of any other breed except, perhaps, Guern- 
seys. In size, the Jersey ranks with the small breeds, mature 
bulls weighing from 1,000 to 1,300 pounds, cows from 650 to 
950 pounds. 

As a family cow to supply cream or butter or both for the 
home table, the Jersey has no superior. For the butter 
diiry, as a special-purpose cow, she is also excellent. 

Landseer*s Fancy made 936 pounds 14^^ ounces in one 
year; Massena made 902 pounds 3 ounces; Matilda, 4th, 
made 927 pounds Sj4 ounces; more recently Bisson's Belle, 
31,144, owned byMaury Jersey Farm, Columbia, Tenn., made 
1,028 pounds 155^ ounces butter in one year, from a yield of 
8,412 pounds 7 ounces of milk; and still more recently, and 
heading the Jersey list for butter yielded in 365 successive 
days, comes Signal's Lily Flagg, 31,035, owned by Matthews 
and Moore, Huntsville, Ala., with a year's record of 1,047 
pounds ^ ounces butter from a yield of 11,339 pounds milk. 

These records are phenomenal, of course, and represent 
high feeding and still higher care, but none the less are they 
important as showing the recognized butter value of the 
Jersey breed. The yield of Bisson's Belle is really most re- 
markable on account of the small yield of milk reported as 
producing such an enormous yield of butter. A simple opera- 
tion in long division shows that it took, in round numbers, a 



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172 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBWCS. 

a trifle less than 8^ pounds (about a gallon) of her milk on 
an average throughout the entire year to produce a pound of 
** well-worked, marketable butter, salted not heavier than 
one ounce to the pound.*' The ratio of butter to milk is so 
remarkable, indeed, that many doubt the record reported, 
and declare it a physical impossibility. Signal's Lily Flagg, 
the present Jersey queen, averaged throughout the year i 
pound of butter to a trifle less than loj^ pounds milk. She 
is certainly a wonderful cow. Her record and that of Bis- 
son's Belle were reported in good faith by honorable gentle- 
men, whose personal integrity can not be questioned, and we 
see no reason to doubt their published and certified state- 
ments. 

The beef capacity of the Jersey breed is small. If sex in 
offspring could be controlled, it might be profitable to breed 
Jerseys on a large scale for their butter feature alone, but 
since tne number of steer calves is usually equal to the. num- 
ber of heifers, and since there is always greater or less num- 
ber of heifers deficient in milking quality, which must be fed 
for the butcher, it is evident that breeding Jerseys for home 
use — not for sale as breeding stock — might prove a losing 
business. 

It is very commonly stated that the bulls of this breed are 
vicious and ill tempered. We think this opinion is based 
upon nothing more than the fact of their extremely nervous 
temperament, already referred to. They undoubtedly re- 
quire skillful handling ; but when so managed, are not mor« 
inclined to viciousness than the bulls of other breeds. 

[To be continued.] 



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LA VACA. 173 



GANADO AMERICANO. 



. Capitulo III. 
LA VACA DE HOLSTEIN Y FRISIA. 

Es un hecho universalmente admitido que no hay otra raza 
de vacas que combine en tanto grado las cualidades necesa- 
riaspara la prOducci6n de la leche, el queso, la mantequilla y la 
carae, como la de Holstein y Frisia. Los productores dicen que 
per lo que hace d la cantidad de leche que de ellas se obtiene 
sou sin rival en el mundo, y tambi^n que su leche es la que 
coutiene el mayor tanto por ciento de caseina, lo cual la hace 
de primera ciase para la fabricaci6n del queso. En cuanto 
& la mantequilla es tambi6n cierto que las vacas de esta raza^ 
sobre todo en los ultimos anos, han superado en excelencia 
i todas las demds. 

La cualidad y aroma de la mantequilla producida por la 
leche de estas vacas son verdaderamente superiores y se con- 
servan por largo tiempo, como la experiencia lo ha demos- 
trado. En la exposici6n de ganado que se celebr6 en Chi- 
cago en Noviembre de 1885 y d que se di6 el nombre de 
"Chicago Fat Stock and Dairy Show'* se adjudic6 el primer 
premio d algunas vacas de esta raza, por haber producido la 
mejor mantequilla en el Estado de New York. Tambi^n se 
les concedi6 un premio especial de $$0 ofrecido por la com- 
pania denominada ** De Laval Separator Company*' por las 
mejores cincucnta libras de mantequilla exhibidas. Y se les 
di6 ademds un segundo premio por los mejores cinco cilindros 
6 rollos de mantequilla, de una libra cada uno, presentados 
al concurso. 

En la feria del Estado de Iowa en el mismo aiio de 1885 se 
di6 tambi6n el primer premio d esta clase de vacas por la 
excelencia de su mantequilla. En la del Estado de Ohio de 
1887 se concedi6 igualmente el premio ofrecido por la misma 

13 BUL 



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3 74 BUREAU OF THE. AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

excelencia d una vaca de esta clase. 

En otro feria de ganado (American Fat Stock and Dairy 
Show) tenida en Chicago en 1877 se.nabia adjudicado igual- 
mente el primer premio & las vacas de Holstein-Frisia ; y en 
la lecheria de competencia (Sweepstakes Dairy) que alli 
estuvo establecida, la mantequilla exhibida estaba hecha 
con leche de vacas de la misma clase. ' 

En Michigan tambi^n obtuvieron el primer premio por la 
^excelencia del mismo articulo. 

Hubo tambi6n un certamen en que tomaron parte once razas 
-6 clases de vacas, y la mantequilla de las de Holstein-Frisia 
conquist6 el primer premio. 

En 1889 se ofrecieron premios en las ferias de los Estados 
■de Ohio, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas 6 Indiana, y 
aunque entraron d competir diversas razas, la de Holstein- 
Frisia sali6 victoriosa. En Indiana el premio del certamen 
(Sweepstakes premium) para el mejor toro de la raza d que per- 
tenecen las vacas de leche fu6 adjudicado al Holstein-Frisia. 
Lo mismo sucedi6 respecto de la vaca, d pesar de que se le 
hizo una viva competencia. En las diferentes exhibiciones 
de mantequilla hechas en 1889, en las ferias de los Estados 
de Ohio, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa 
y Michigan y en la intemacional de Detroit, las vacas de 
Holstein-Frisia obtuvieron el primer premio. Tambidn se 
juzgo de la excelencia de la leche de estos animales, y se le 
concedi6 el primer premio en las ferias de Ohio, Iowa, Min- 
nesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Michigan, Indiana, y South Da- 
kota. Se verd por lo tanto que la. raza de que se trata se ha 
llevado los mds importantes premios de las principales ferias 
por su leche y mantequilla. 

En la exposici6n que hubo en New York en 1887 (New 
York Dairy and Cattle Show) se adjudico el primer premio d 
la mantequilla producida por estas vacas, d pesar de que le 
hicieron competencia las de muchas otras razas. Una vaca 
llamada **Clotilde,*' que tom6 parte en este certamen, gan6 el 
premio sobre todas las otras de las demds razas por la exce- 
lencia de su mantequilla y por la mayor producci6n de este 
jarticulo en veinticuatro horas consecutivas. Die;; y seis vacas 



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LA VACA. 175 

entraron en la contienda, pero cuatro se separaron de ella. 
De las que quedaron, cincoeran * 'Jerseys/* una * 'Guernsey/* 
y las seis restantes de Holstein-Frisia. En la feria interaa- 
cional celebrada en Buffalo en 1888 una vaca de Holstein- 
Frisia, denominada "Benola Fletcher" conquist6 el premio 
concedido d la que produjese mayor cantidad de mantequilla 
durante tres dxas consecutivos en el concurso. 

En la feria del Estado de Ohio de 1887 el premio concedido 
d la vaca que produjese la mayor cantidad de mantequilla 
en un tiempo dado tuvo que dividirse entre dos de Holstein- 
Frisia, puesto que cada una produjo id^ntica cantidad. 

En la feria del Estado de Minnesota en 1887 se di6 tambidn 
el primer premio d una vaca de esta clase por la cantidad de 
mantequilla que produjo su leche. 

Son tambi^n estos animales muy dignos de estimaci6n y 
sumamente afamados por iaz6n de la came que suministran 
para el mercado. Comparan favorablemente con todas las de 
las otras clases en cuanto d tamano y vigor, asi como tambi^n en 
cuanto d la buena calidad de su came, lo cual se ha demostra- 
do ampliamente por varias pmebas y experimentos, especial- 
mente en la Exposici6n de Chicago (Chicago Fat Stock Show) 
de 1888, en que se encontr6que un novillo de Holstein-Frisia, 
exhibido alii, habia alcanzado mayor peso por dfa que cual- 
quiera otro animal, no solo en la Exposici6n, sino en todos 
los Estados Unidos. En una pmeba hecha en el Colegio de 
Agricultura de. Michigan, donde entraron en competencia 
vacas Galloways, Shorthoms, Holstein-Frisians, y Jerseys, 
en numero de dos por cada clase, y ademds una Heresford 
y una Devon, y en que se llev6 una cuenta exacta, por 
el espacio de siete meses, del alimento consumido por 
aquellos animales, de las racioncs que se les daban diaria- 
mente, del peso que tejlfan al fin de cada mes, y del aumento 
obtenido, se encontr6 que las dos Holstein-Frisia eran las que 
habian ganado mds, por dia, en un periodo determinado, y que 
una de ellos era la que tambi^n habfa ganado mds por dia en 
todo el tiempo trascurrido desde su nacimiento hasta entonces. 

Muchos ejemplos de esta clase podrian citarse para demos- 
trar los notables resultados que pueden obtenerse cuando se 



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176 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

crian estos animales con el objeto de destinarlos al matadero. 

Para el uso dom^stico, en que se busca primordiafmente 
la cantidad y cualidad de la leche, las vacas de Holstein- 
Frisia no tienen igual. Su constituci6n fuerte y vigorosa y 
el notable hecho de que est^n Hbres de enfermedades, son 
consideraciones importantes, puesto que la leche trasmite 
los males con mayor facilidad que cualquiera otro alimento. 

El autor de este trabajo sabe que el promedio anual de 
leche producida por una vacada de la raza de Holstein-Frisia 
no admite comparaci6n. No hay duda de que al tratar de 
elegir entre animales finos, aquellos que producen mayor 
cantidad de leche y mantequilla, y en que pueda confiarse que 
trasmitirdn & sus descendientes las misnias cualidades, tendrd 
que atenderse & lo que producen por t^rmino medio algunos 
indi viduos determinados. Fdcilmente se comprende, entonces, 
que ha de ser mucho mds necesario todavia, enterarse del 
promedio de la producci6n en grandes grupos de animales de 
la misma clase. El arbol geneal6gico carece de valor si no 
esta acompafiado con resultados prdcticos ; pero estos por si 
solos tampoco valen mucho cuando no hay la genealogia, 
que garantiza que los poderes productivos son cualidad de 
raza. Los meritos de una familia 6 de una manada no deben 
medirse tampoco por los hechos de un solo individuo, sino 
por el promedio del producto combinado de la mayoria, 6 de 
la totalidad. 

Setenta y nueve vacas de la manada de que se trata produ- 
jeron 16,019 Wbras 21-23 onzas de leche por t^rmino medio. 

Cuarentay seis vacas dieron 17,043 libras 10-23 onzas. 

Veinte y siete vacas dieron 18,042 libras. 

Nueve vacas dieron 20,231 libras 81-9 onzas. 

LA VACA DE GUERNSEY. 

El m^rito es generalmente modesto, y d menudo pasa sia 
ser reconocido y apreciado. Esto puede aplicarse en alto 
grado d la vaca de Guernsey, que aunque por regla general 
es indublemente superior d la de Jersey en cuanto d la pro- 
ducci6n de la mantequilla, nunca ha disfrutado sin embargo- 
de los ruidosos aplausos, que durante muchos aftos se haa 



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LA VACA. 177 

concedido & la de Jersey, merced d la habilidad y perse ve- 
rancia de sus criadores, diestros en el arte de hacer anuncios 
y vender ventajosamente sus artfculos. La vaca de Guernsey 
puede no tener la buena forma y la belleza sim^trica que 
tiene la de Jersey, pero si se sigue el principio de que '* bello 
es lo que produce lo bello,'* se deberd mirar d aquella con 
may grande consideraci6n. Tan cierto es esto que algunas 
de las mejores Jerseys podrian tenerse por feas, compardn- 
dolas con las mejores Guernseys, que no por cierto estdn 
desprovistas de belleza, ni en cuanto d su color, ni en cuanto 
d su forma. Y no ha dejado de decirse, con bastante proba- 
bilidad de acierto, que algunas de las mejores Jerseys ban 
side beneficiadas en sus cualidades productivas por medio del 
cruzamiento verificado calladamente y sin ruido, con la raza 
de Guernsey. 

La vaca de Guernsey es parienta muy cercana de la de 
Jersey. Ambas proceden de dos islas que estdn inmediatas 
y que pertenecen al grupo conocido con el nombre de Islas 
del Canal, que se encuentran en el de la Mancha, cerca de 
la costa de Francia. Se cree que la raza debe su origen d la 
provincia francesca, la Normandia, que estd en la costa 
cercana. Las dos islas fueron normandas, y las costumbres 
y las leyes que todavia existen en ellas estdn basadas en las 
de la raza normanda que bajo Guillermo el Conquistador 
domin6 la Inglaterra. Esta raza de ganado ha conservado su 
pureza por espacio de mds de un siglo, en virtud de \ma legis- 
laci6n muy estricta, que ha atendido d su perpetuaci6n con 
gran prudencia^ inteligencia, si« permitir mezclas de ninguua 
clase. El producto principal de la isla de Guernsey ha sido 
en todo ese tiempo una delicada mantequilla, que goza de la 
mas alta reputaci6n en los mejores mercados ingleses. La 
vaca de alli ha venido d ser notable por la delicada contex- 
tura, el color subido y el buen gusto, que caracterizan d su 
mantequilla. 

Esta vaca no es pequena. Su peso comun es de 900 d 
1,200 libras, que es casi la mitad mds que el de la de Jersey. 
Su forma es tipicamente el de toda buena vaca, sin que le 
falte ninguno de los requisitos mas esenciales. Esto, que es 



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1 78 BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REIPUBUCS. 

debtdo d inteligentes esfuerzos, hechos por muchos anos sin 
interrupci6n por los criadores de estos animales, se ha demos- 
trado bien en las Exposiciones todas, en que han entrado d 
competir para los premios. Los ntimeros que en ellab ban 
alcanzado son dignos de estudio, y se dan d continuaci6n : 

Pi^l de color amarillo fuerte 6 

Pi^l suave, pelo fino, rojo y bianco 8 

Protuinencia en los canales Idcteos 5 

Forma de la ubre .; lo 

Cada una de estos ntimeros estd basado en hechos prdcticosi 
libres de los caprichos € ideas fantdsticas que extraviaron 
tanto d los criadores de la vaca de Jersey, y que Uegaron 
hasta d hacer temer que esta ultima, d pesar de estar mds de 
moda, perdiese su utilidad. Cuando por el color de lapiel, 
por el ** switch/' por la lengua, por las pezunas, por la forma 
de los cuemos y por los musculos, se daban numeros mas altos 
que por la ubre y por la calidad de la leche, no era sino rauy 
razonable esperar que la raza se deteriorase. Una vaca lleg6 
d ser rechazada porque ** tenia medias blancas, un pescuezo 
abultado y los cuemos torcidos," d pesar de que su produc- 
ci6n de mantequilla era muy grande. Pronto se encontroque 
este error conduciad malos resultados, y se le puso corrective. 
El buen sentido de la mayoria de los criadores de Jersey 
cambio repentinamente de sistema, adoptando nuevas reglas 
mucho mas aceptables. 

Lo que mds distingue d la vaca de Guernsey es la solidez 
de su forma. No es un animal ligero, sino robusto y de buena 
estructura, aunque gracioso y bien proporcionado. Su consti- 
tuci6n es resistente y recia. No se sabe todavia que nin- 
guna vaca de Guernsey haya sufrido tuberculosis, como por 
cierto le sucede en sumo gradb d su hermana la de Jersey. 
Tiene una grande papada, y muy ancho y espaCioso el pecho, 
d fin de que haya amplio juego en sus grandes pulmones y 
se mueva bien el G0raz6n. No es frecuente en ella que se les 
muera el temero, y los malos partos son cosa extremadaniente 
rara, y en ningun caso debida d defecto de constituci6n. Bs 
una vacade trabajo, fuerte, robusta, y por excelencia pro- 



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I.A VACA. 179 

ductora de mantequilla. Todo lo demds estd subordinado en 
una vaca & tan prominentes caracteres. 

Sus cualidades en este respecto deben ser juzgadas segun 
las numeros de la espala arriba mencionada. El color ama- 
rillo subido del cuero indica que en 61 y debajo de ^l, hay 
bastante grasa. Y como todas las grasas del animal se deri- 
van del mismo alimento y deben su color d las mismas causas, 
se sigue de ello, como consecuencia precisa, que el cuero 
amarillo subido es una indicaci6n de que la mantequilla tendrd 
el mismo color. Asi es que en efecto un matiz de amarillo, 
semejante al de la naranja, caracteriza la mantequilla de las 
vacas Guernseys. Es singular que en ellas, todo sea, 6 tienda 
a ser, amarillo. Se les nota este color al rededor de los 
ojos, en los cuemos y en laspezunas, en las orejas, y en donde 
quiera que se abra el pelo fino y sedoso de este animal. Las 
exfoliaciones de la pi^l son amarillas como escamas de oro, 
cual si aquella hubiese sido salpicada con polvo de este 
metal. El cuero es suave al tacto, y parece aterciopelado. 
El pelo es fino y tambidn suave. Cuando se hace presi6n 
sobr^ el cuero, se siente como si se comprimiese un almo- 
hadon eldstico, suavemente colocado encima de los musculos. 
Su rico color rojo oscuro, 6 sus diversos matices hasta el color 
cer\nino con mezcla de bianco, su expresi6n dulce y tranquila, 
sus ojos grandes, su mirada tranquila y soiiolienta, todo con- 
tribuye d que sea esta vaca no solo agradable y atractiva, sino d 
que d6 aspecto pintoresco d cualquier paisage, en que se las 
vea esparcidas por los verdes prados, 6 dentro de sus limpios 
establos, listas para retribuir con rica leche la abundante 
comida y la esmerada atenci6n que ban recibido. 

No hay masque un criadorque haya dedicado alguua aten- 
ci6n al color de su ganado. El fue el que obtuvo a:iuel color 
naranjado claro, y cervuno y bianco, que e.« ahora tan comun, 
en la clase Uamada ** Patio de Oro" 6 '' drap d'or'' en el 
idionia de los Guernsianos, que es francos -normando. 
Aadando el tiempo, y haciendo la debida selecci6n, desapa- 
reci6 el color bianco, haci^ndose mis prominente el tinte de 
oro. Asi es que los animales de este criador fueron muy her- 
mosos. El gusto de la gente de Guernsey, gente entendida 



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l8o BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

y prdctica, no se iiiostr6 inclinado d un solo color especial, 
y de ahi vino que se dej6 mezclar al ganado anterior con el 
de los demds colores. 

Hay en los Estados Unidos algtmos bnenas vacadas de 
Guernsey, pero son todas de animales de trabajo, en que las 
vacas producen por termino medio d ra26n de catorce libras 
de mantequilla. Muchas de ellas pueden dar hasta veinte y 
siete libras por semana. Algunas ban Uegado d dar hasta 700 
libras en un aiio, y es may rara la que rinde menos de doced 
catorce libras d la semana. 

I,AS VACAS DE JERSEY. 

Esta raza — la mis conocida y generalizada de las del grupo 
de islas del Canal de la Mancha — ha disfrutado por largo, 
tiempo un gran favor en el publico. No hay duda de que 
las vacas de Jersey son oriuudas de Normandia, en Francia, 
de donde fueron trasportades hace mucho tiempo d las 
islas del canal, en que vinieron al fin d convertirse en una 
raza peculiar. El mejoramiento experimentado por ellas y 
las de Guernsey se debi6 d la atencion que se puso en criarlas. 
Probablemente no hay otra parte del mundo en que se atienda 
d la vaca con mayor esmero, lo que por otra parte se explica 
pues ella constituye para su amo el principal element© con 
que puede contar para su propio sostenimiento. Ella es la 
fuente esencial de su riqueza, y ella ocupa en su afecto un lugar 
muy importante. Estas consideraciones que indujeron d pro- 
ceder de una nianera juiciosa en la elecci6n de los mejores 
tipos para la cria, ban levanlado esta vaca d la alta posici6n 
que con justicia ocupa. En los Estados Unidos por virtud de 
los mayores alicientes que ha habido para mejorar todas las 
razas de animales llamadas de lujo, se ha llegado d tal ex- 
I tremo con las vacas de Jersey, que puede decirse sin temor 

de padecer equivocaci6n, que las hay tan buenas como las de 
sus islas nativas. Su importaci6n en America data de 1830 
y desde 1850 hasta la fecha ha continuadode un modorapido 
y sistemdtico. 



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LA VAC A. l8l 



DESCRIPCION DE hk VACA DE JERSEY. 

Las hay de cuatro diferentes colores d saber: (i) Cervuno 
y bianco, con manchas sim^tricas de igual tamano ; (2) cervuno 
sin mezcla de otro color ; (3) oscuro y bianco ; y (4) entera- 
mente oscuro. 

La cabeza de esta vaca es pequetia, con la parte camosa 
may compacta, ancha en la frente y angosta entre los cuernos, 
la cara bastante aplanada, los ojos grandes y expresivos, d 
bastante distancia \ino de otro, las orejas delgadas y finas, y 
los cuernos pequeflos, torcidos y de color de dmbar. Su 
pescuezo es delgado, largo y arqueado hacia abajo ; el cos- 
tillaje es chato en la parte anterior, pero aumenta en curva- 
tura hacia el abdomen. La panza es bastante ancha angostdn- 
dose hacia la parte posterior del cuerpo. El cuerpo en general 
presenta aquella forma de Vque es caracteristica de todas las 
buenas clases de vacas lecheras. Las patas delanteras son 
cortas y con huesos finos, f ectos y |)equeflos : las traseras son 
algo mds ordinarias y en algunos animales de clase menos fina 
un tanto encorvadas. Los mejores tipos de estas vacas dis- 
tan mucho de presentar los encorvados jarretes que caracteri- 
zan d sus antecesores, y tienen las patas tan derechas y lim- 
pias de sinuosidades como puede desearse. Por regla gene- 
ral la ubre no es grande, pero de su^ciente capacidad, y el 
**escudo ** en todas sus formas estd constituido por una piel de 
rico color de naranja que indica bien el que adoma al pro- 
dacto caracteristico de este animal, que es la mantequilla. 
El aspecto general de la vaca de Jersey indica que es de un 
temperamento nervioso y altaraente sensitivo, lo cual unido d 
su color peculiar la hace tener una semejanza notable con 
nuestro bien conocido Ciervo del Sur. 

CARACTERES E3ENCIALES. 

El principal rasgo caracteristico d^ la vaca de Jersey es la 
uniforme riqueza de su leche en cuanto d mantequilla. Los 
gl6bulos son grandes, y permiten que la crema se separe con 
proatitud y facilidad del cuerpo de la leche. La mante- 
quilla asi formada es generalmente deun color mds pronuncia- 



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182 BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

do, supuestas siempre las mismas candiciones de alimento y 
cuidado, que la de todas las otras vacas, exceptuando tal vez 
las de Guernsey. Por lo que hace al tamafio, la vaca 
de Jersey figura eutre las de pequeno volumen. Los 
toros en perfecto desarroUo pesan de 1,000 4 1,300 libras, y 
las vacas de65oa95o libras. 

Como animal destinado para los usos dom^sticos, es decir, 
para proveer d la familia de crema 6 mantequilla, 6 de lasdos 
cosas, para la mesa, la vaca de Jersey no tiene superior. Para 
la fabrica de mantequilla, como animal productor, es tambien 
excelente. 

La vaca llamada *%andseer*s Fancy *' produjo 936 libras 14 J{ 
onzas en un ailo; la *'Massena*' 902 libras y 3 onzas; 
la ** Matilda Cuarta," 927 libras 83/^ onzas. Mas reciente- 
mente la**Bisson's Belle,*' No. 31,144, pertenecicnte d la ha- 
cienda de Maury Jersey, Columbia, Tennessee, produjo 1,028 
libras 155^ onzas de mantequilla en un ailo, sacadas de 8,412 
libras 7 onzas de leche ; y aun mds recientemente todavia y 
encabezando la lista de las vacas de Jersey por lo que hace 
al rendimiento de mantequilla en 365 dias consecutivos, 
aparece la ^'Signal's Lily Flagg," No. 31,035, perteneciente d 
Matthews y Moore, Huntsville, Alabama, que produjo 1,047 
libras ^ onzas de mantequilla en un aiio, con 11,339 libras* 
de leche. 

Estas cifras son por supuesto fenomenales y representan 
una alimentacion cuidadosa y un tratamiento muy esmerado, 
pero no pierden por eso su importancia, en cuanto d demostrar 
el especial m irito da la vaca da Jersey para la produccion de 
la mantequilla. 

Los resultados obtenidos con la vaca ** Bisson*s Belle " son 
ciertamente los mds notables d causa de la pequeiia cantidad 
de leche con que se obtuvo un rendimiento tan enorme de 
mantequilla. Una simple operacion aritm6tica demuestra en 
numeros redondos, que de cerca de un gal6n de su leche se 
obtuvo, por t^rminO medio, por todo el ano, una libra de 
** mantequilla bien hecha, vendible en el mercado; con menos 
de una onza de sal por libra. " Esa proporCi6n entre la man- 
tequilla y la leche fue tan notable que rauchoS dudaron de la 



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LA VACA. 183 

verdad del caso y declararon que era naturalmente imposible. 
"Sigaars Lily Flagg/* la presente remade ltiST«c«s 4e 
Jersey, di6 por t^rmino medio en un ^no, d raz6n de una libra 
de mantequilla porun poco m^nos de 10 libras y J^ de leche. 
Es ciertamente esta vaca una cosa maravillosa. I;os resul- 
tados que con ella y con la "Bisson's Belle" se ban obtenido 
constan en in formes suministrados, de buena f^, por personas 
honradas, cuya iutegridad nadie puede dudar, y no hay motivo 
por lo tanto para que se ponganen disputalasmanifestaciones 
que han hecho piiblicamente y que ban certificado. 

Los animales de la raza de Jersey no son muy d proposito 
para el matadero. Si estuviese en la mano del hombre hacer 
que nacieran mas vacas que toros de esta clase, seria prove- 
choso procurar que asi sucediese, porque con ello se daria 
impulse d la producci6n de la mantequilla. Pero puesto que 
el numero de los temeros resulta poco mds 6 menos igual al 
de las temeras, y hay siempre un numero mayor 6 menor de 
vacas deficientes en la calidad y cantidad de su leche, hay 
que criar d los unos y las otras para el matadero. 

Se dice comunmente que los toros de esta raza son bravos. 
Creemos que esta opini6n descansa solamente en el tempera- 
mento extremadamente nervioso del animal. Necesitan 
mdudablemente que se les maneje con cuidado, pero cuando 
esto se hace, no hay raz6n para creer que este toro sea mas 
fiero que el de las otras razas. 

[Se continuard.] 



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184 BUKEAD OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



WHEAT STATISTICS. 



According to the wheat estimates issued by the Hungarian 
Minister of Agriculture on the ist of Septemher instant, the 
world's wheat crop for the year 1894 will be 2,476,000,000 
bushels, an increase over the crop of last year of 197,000,000 
bushels. The Minister's estimates of the deficiency in the 
consuming countries, to be covered by importing countries, is 
14,474,000 bushels less than last year, while the surplus of 
exporting countries will be 65,581,000 bushels in excess of 
last year. 

It may be added that Hungary is a large exporter of wheat, 
the surplus for the present year being reckoned at 45,390,000 
bushels, while Austria; the integral part of the same empire, 
will, in the same time, import more than 30,000,000 bushels 
of wheat. It can not, therefore, be assumed that the report 
of the Minister could be influenced by Hungarian interests. 

The deficits for the countries importing most largely are 
estimated as follows: 

Bushels. 

Great Britaia 170,220,000 

Germany 32,625,000 

Austria 3i,774.ooo 

Italy 29.788,000 

Belgiom 25,533,000 

France 19,859,000 

All others i 54.727,000 

Total 3^*526,000 

And the surplus supplies of the leading export countries 
are estimated as follows: 

Bushels. 

Russia 141,850,000 

Argentine Republic 73,672,000 

United States 70,925,000 

Hungary 45.392,000 

All others 112,406,000 

Total 444,245,000 



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RECIPROCAX COMMERCIAL ARRANGEMENTS. 185 

The Striking feature of this is the estimate for the Argen- 
tine Republic. It will be observed that the Hungarian esti- 
mate places Argentina second as an exporting- country this 
year, and nearly 3,000,000 bushels ahead of the United States. 
It is evident that the Argentine product is becoming an im- 
portant factor in the wheat market of the world, and is 
rapidly growing in importance: it will probably become our 
most formidable competitor next to Russia. India is out of 
the comparison, as its surplus for this year is estimated at no 
more than 22,696,000 bushels. 



THE RECIPROCAL COMMERCIAL AR. 
RANGEMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 
UNDER SECTION THIRD OF THE TARIFF 

. ACT OF 1890. 



Section 71 of the act of Congress entitled "An act to reduce 
taxation, to provide revenue for the Government, and for 
other purposes,'* in force since the 28th of August, 1894, 
provides as follows: 

"Sec. 71. That section three of an an act approved October 
first, eighteen hundred and ninety, entitled 'An act to reduce 
the revenue and equali2e duties on imports and for other pur- 
poses,' is hereby repealed; but nothing herein contained 
shall be held to abrogate, or in any way affect, such recip- 
rocal commercial arrangements as have been heretofore made 
and now exist between the United States and foreign coun- 
tries, except where such arrangements are inconsistent with 
the provisions of this act." 

Under the clause, now repealed, of the law of 1890 duties 
were imposed upon coffee and other products of Vene- 
zuela, Colombia and Haiti. But under the operation of the 
new tariflF act these duties have been repealed, as shown by 



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1 86 BUREAU OF THE AATERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the following circular issued by the Secretary of the 
Treasury: 

Treasury Department, 

Office of The Secretary,^ 

WASHINGTON. D. C, Aug^USt JO, 1894. 

To Collectors and Other Officers of the Customs : 

1. All articles beretoforc subject to duty but made free by the provi- 
sions of the act of August 28, 1894, may be withdrawn from warehouse 
on and after August 28, 1894, without the payment of duty. 

2. All manufactured articles specifically or generally provided for in 
Schedule K, which are composed wholly of materials other than wool 
or worsted, or of which some one material other than wool or worsted 
is the component part of chief value, will be admitted on and after 
August 28, 1894, at the rates of duty prescribed in the new act; all other 
manufactured articles specifically or generally provided for in said 
schedule will continue, until January i, 1895, to pay the rates of duty 
imposed thereon by the act entitled **An act to reduce the revenue, 
equalize duties on imports, and for other purposes, " approved October 
I, 1890. 

3. Coffee and tea, and hides and skins, raw or uncured, whether dry, 
salted or pickled, will be admitted free of duty on and after the 28th day 
of August, 1894, and Treasury Circular (Synopsis 12150) dated March 24, 
1892, issued in accordance with proclamations of the President of the 
United States dated March 15, 1892, and directing the collection of 
duties upon certain articles, being the products of, or exported from, 
Venezuela, Colombia and Haiti, is hereby revoked. 

J. G. Cari^isle, Secretary, 



LOS ARREGLOS COMERCIALES DE RECL 
PROCIDAD CELEBRADOS POR LOS ESTA- 
DOS UNIDOS EN VIRTUD DEL ARTICULO 
3^ DE LA LEY DE ADUANAS DE 1890. 



El articulo 71 de la Ley dictada por €1 Congreso con el 
titulo de **Ley para reducir los impuestos, proveerde reuta al 
Gobiemo y otrosobjetos,*' y puesta en observancia desde el 
28 de Agosto del presente ano de 1894, provey6 como sigue : 

'*Art. 71. Se deroga el articulo 3 de la ley promulgada el 
i*^ de Octubre de 1890 y titulada 'Ley para reducir las rentas, 
igualar los derechos de importaci6n y otros objetos.' Pero 



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RECIPROCAI. COMMERCIAL ARRANGEa<JENTS. 187 

no por eso deben entenderse derogados, 6 afectados en nin- 
guna manera, los arreglos comerciales de reciprocidad que 
ban sido celebrados hasta ahora entre los Estados Unidos y 
algnnos paises extranjeros, y estdn en existencia, excepto en 
caso de que dichos arreglos sean incompatibles con las dis- 
posiciones de esta Ley/' 

En cumplimiento de la clausula, ahora derogada, de la 
citada Ley de 1890, se habian impuesto derechos de importa- 
ci6n sobre el caf(6 y otros articulos de Venezuela, Colombia y 
Haiti. Pero estos derechos han sido suprimidos al ponerse en 
ejecuci6n la nueva Ley. 

La siguiente es la circular expedida por el Secretario del 
Tesoro, el 3ode Agosto de 1894, porcuyo articulo3^ secomu- 
nic6 la anterior resoluci6n d las diversas Aduanas del pais. 

Dbpartmento DEI* Tesoro, 

Oficina del Secretario, 
Washington, D. C, Agosto 30 de 1894. 
A los Administradoras y demds empleados de las Aduanas : 

1° Todos los articulos que hasta ahora han devengado derechos, pero 
que por las disposiciones de la nueva I^ey, que empez6 d rej^r el 28 de 
Agosto de 1894, han de admitirse libres, se podrdu sacar de los Alma- 
cenes, desde la citada fecha en adelante, sin pagar derechos. 

2'' Todos los articuloi manufacturados respecto de los cuales se hace 
determinaci6n, especifica 6 generalmente, en la Tabla K, que estdn com- 
pnestos en su totalidad de materiales que no son lana, ni estambre — 6 en 
que ese material distinto de la lana y del estambre es el componente de 
mayor valor — ^serdn admitidos, desde la fecha antedicha de 28 de 
Agosto de 1894 en adelante, previo el pago de los derechos que se 
senalan en la nueva Ley ; y todos los demds articulos manufacturados, 
respecto de los cuales se hace provisi6n especifica 6 generalmente en la 
mencionada Tabla, continuardn pagando, hasta el i*' de Enero de 1895, 
los derechos que les impuso la Ley titulada, *' Una Ley para reducir las 
rentas, igualar los derechos de importaci6n y otros objetos," aprobada 
el I** de Octubre de 1890. 

3® El caf^ y el t^, los cueros y pellejos, al pelo 6 sin curar, ya sean 
secos, salados, 6 en salmuera, serdn admitidos libres de derechos desde 
el 28 de Agosto de 1894 en adelante ; y la circular de la Tesoreria 
(Sinopsis, 12,150) de 24 de Marzo de 1892, expedida en consecuencia 
de las Proclamas del Presidente de los Estados Unidos de 15 de Marzo 
de 1892, imponiendo derechos d dertos articulos producidos en Vene- 
zaela, Colombia, 7 Haiti € importados aqui, queda por la presente 
revocada. J. G. CARLISLE, el Secretario. 



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1 88 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



MEXICO. 



Meteorological summary for the month of August, 1894, 
taken from reports of National Meteorological Observatory, 
City of Mexico: 

Temperature of the air (Deg. Fahr.). 
Monthly mean in shade 624 

** •* ** sun \ 63.0 

Maximum in shade 7^8 

*' "sun 91.0 

Minimum in shade 59.9 

** ** open air 44.6 

Total range in shade 27.9 

If «i <* open air 46.5 

Barometrical Pressure { Inches), 

Monthly mean 23.10 

Maximum , 23.20 

Minimunr. *. 22.99 

Greatest range in 24 hours 0.14 

Total range in the month 0.21 

Relative Humidity (Satur. 100). 
Monthly mean « 66 

Clouds. 

Prevailing direction NE. 

Number of cloudy days 20 

'* ** clear days 

Winds (Miles per hour). 

Prevailing direction NW 

Mean velocity 2.68 

Maximum 34.41 

Rainfall (Inches), 

Total in month 1.56 

Greatest fall in 24 hours 0.30 

Number of rainy days « 18 

Evaporation (Inches), 

Monthly mean in shade 0.09 

<< *• «• sun 0.27 

Maximum in 24 hours in shade ~ 0.12 

** ** sun e. 0.39 



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MEXICO. 189 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN MEXICO. 

Following is an approximate list of the number of public 
schools in the Republic of Mexico, without including profes- 
sional schools sustained by the Government. Moreover,* 
there are no statistics from the States of Aguas Calientes, 
Chihuahua, Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Oaxaca, which would 
increase the total to 8,000 schools. 

Campeche .«... 70 

Coahulla 93 

Colima » 42 

Chiapas 127 

Dnrango 86 

Guerrero 412 

Hidalgo 590 

Mexico 989 

Michoacan 285 

Morelos 222 

Nnevo Leon 307 

Paebla 1,130 

Queretaro 103 

San Luis Potooi i.... 336 

Sinaloa 247 

Sonora 179 

Tabasco 56 

TamauHpas 136 

TIaxcala 248 

Vera Cruz 607 

Yucatan 342 

Zacatecas 341 

Federal District 114 

Tepic 100 

Lower California 38 

Total 7»2oo 

The total number of pupils enrolled in the above schools 
^s 431,177, and the average daily attendance 314, 152. The 
annual cost of maintaining them is $3,339,191. 



14 BUL 



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IpO BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

THE JETTIES AT TAMPICO. 

In a recent address delivered at Brown University, Rhode 
Island, Mr. E. L. Corthell, the well-known engineer said : 
^The great success, physical and commercial, of the Mis- 
sissippi jetties led the Mexican Government to undertake a 
similar work at the mouth of the Panuco river, near the City 
of Tampico. The wonderful changes, coming as if by magic, 
produced by these works are worthy of a brief statement: 

*'So late as 1890 a shifting, dangerous bar so completely 
obstructed the mouth of the Panuco River in the Gulf of 
Mexico that no attempt was ever made to bring a vessel to 
the City of Tampico, seven miles inland. All vessels, sail 
or steam were obliged to anchor in the stormy waters of the 
gulf, miles from land, and all their cargoes were lightered 
back and forth over this dangerous bar, where the waves 
broke constantly in its shallow depths. All traffic into the 
Republic of Mexico either entered through the harbor of 
Vera Cruz, also a dangerous one, or by the three railroads 
crossing the Rio Grande. Now, by deepening the bar at 
Tampico, almost a revolution in commerce has occurred. 
Tampico, from a port of no importance whatever, has been 
raised to the rank of the second entrepot of the Republic. 
The business is greater there than at any railroad entrepot of 
the border. One of the most beneficial eflFects has been like 
that which occurred at the mouth of the Mississippi; the 
rates ot freight from Liverpool, New York, Philadelphia and 
New Orleans even, have been reduced one-third, and the 
Mexican Central Railway, which furnished the money for 
building these works, and brought its line from the table 
land to the Gulf, is, by the latest reports, blocked by th-e 
freight which is now entering and leaving the port of 
Tampico." 



MEXICO— MISCELLANEOUS. 

A company has been formed in Boston, of which N. D. 
Carroll is the head, for the purpose of going extensively into 
the cultivation of coffee, sugar-cane and tropical fruits, in 



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MEXICO. 191 

the State of Vera Cruz, along the line of the newly con- 
structed Tehuantepec railway. They have bought and se- 
cured control of 26,600 acres of the finest lands in that State. 



The last spike in the Guadelajara & Zapapan railroad was 
driven July 14 by the Governor of the State of Jalisco, 
Gen. LuisCuriel. 



Mr. Joseph Theophilus Commagere, representing the 
Mexican Subterranean Telephone Company, has entered into 
a contract with the Mexican Government to furnish the City 
of Mexico an underground system of telephones. The tele- 
phones to be used are of an invention different from, and 
said to be superior to, any now in use. The company is re- 
quired to commence work within six months after the promul- 
gation of the contract, and have the service open to the pub- 
lic within two years after the work is begun. The rate to be 
charged must not exceed $4 per year for each instrument. The 
company is to deposit ^5,000 in bonds as a guarantee of good 
faith. 

The City of Mexico is now lighted by 493 electric lights, 
208 gas lights, and 1,550 oil lamps. The cost of lighting for 
the month of June was $19,556. 



The Mexican Central Gold Mining Company has been or- 
ganized in Chicago, with a capital of $3,000,000. 



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192 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



'; C 



GUATEMALA. 



3 

n 



H 



AMENDMENTS TO THE NEW TARIFF * 
DECREE NO. 503. 

I, Jos^ Maria Reina Barrios, a General of Division and the 
Constitutional President of the Republic of Guatemala, 

Considering that it is advisable, in the interest of both the 
Treasury and the commerce, to make such amendments to the 
tariff as have been suggested by experience, and that the 
said amendments have been carefully studied by the commit- 
tee created by Article III of the Decree of the National 
Legislative Assembly, marked No. 325: 

In use of the power vested in the Executive by Article II 
of the same, do hereby decree as follows : 

The amendments herein made to the tariflF of import duties 
shall be in force in regard to all merchandise to be taken out 
of the custom-houses on and after the isth of September 
next. 

AMENDMENTS TO SECTION THIRD. 

COTTON ARTICLES. 



Number of items in 






English 
transla- 
tion. 


Guatema- 
lan trans- 
lation. 


Duties. 


189 


201 
202 

203 


Chemises, cotton, plain, for women or girls, 
including weight of contamer, kilo 


|IV 


190 


Chemises, cotton, trimmed or embroidered 
with cotton, for women or girls, including 
weight of container, kilo 


200 


330 


Shirt*!, cotton, white or colored, with or with- 
out collars and cuflfis, for men or boys, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo 


130 



•NoTH.— The new tariff, promulgated on November 4, 1893, and Pot In force onjMO»ry 
1, 1S94, and amended by the present decree, was published in the Monthly BuLLBTiMOf 
this Bureau corresponding to the month of June. 1894, By referring to the numbers m 
either column it will be easy to find out the difference, whether favorable or advene to 
the importer, which has been established in the amendment 



P 



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GUATEMALA. 



193 



Nnmber of items in 



English 

trmnsla- 

tion. 



331 



332 
191 

215 
233 



234 



Guatema- 
lan trans- 
lation. 



397 
398 
500 

501 



399 
415 

430 



431 



204 



205 

247 
322 

343 
371 



372 



407 
408 
409 

410 

445 
509 

532 



533 I 



Shirts, cottou, while or colored, with linen 
bosoms, with or without collars and cufife, 
for men or boys, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo ^ , 

Shirts, cotton, embroidered, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Collars, cotton, plain, dozen 

Lawn (oldn batista) cotton, gross weight, kilo... 

Cuffs for shirts, cotton, dozen pairs 

Dresses and suits, ready-made, any kind of 
cotton goods, of all classes and patterns, 
with or without tnmmmg of the same ma- 
terial, for children under 8 years of age, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Dresses and suits, ready-made, any kind of 
cotton goods, of all classes and patterns, 
with trimmings or embroidery of linen, 
wool, or silk, for children under 8 years of 
age, including weight of container, kilo 

SECTION FOURTH. 
LINBN ARTICLES. 

Chemises, pure or mixed linen, plain, for 
women or girls, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo : , 

Chemises, pure or mixed linen, embroidered 
or trimmed with linen, for women or girls, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Shirts, pure or mixed linen, white or colored, 
plain, with or without collars and cufi&, for 
men and boys, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Shirts, pure or mixed linen, white or colored, 
trimmed or embroidered, with or without 
collars and cuffs, for men or boys, includ- 
ing weight of container, kilo 

Collars, pure or mixed linen, plain, dozen..., 

Cuffs, pure or mixed linen, for shirts, dozen 
pairs 

Dresses or suits, ready-made, of all classes 
and patterns, any goods of pure or mixed 
linen, with or without trimming of wool or 
linen, for children under 8 years of age, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Dresses or suits, ready-made, of all classes 
and patterns, any goods of pure or mixed 
linen, with trimmings of silk, for children 
under 8 years of age, including weight of 
container, kilo 



Duties. 


1 75 

2 00 

75 
I 00 



I 25 



3 00 



3 00 



3 00 
I 00 



4 00 



8 00 



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194 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Number of items in 


^English 
transla- 
tion. 


Guatema- 
lan trans- 
lation. 


598 


716 


791 


717 


839 


708 


826 


719 


827 


720 


747 


721 


718 


722 


720 


724 


721 


725 



SECTION FIFTH. 



WOOI.BN ARTICI^ES. 



Dresses or suits, ready-made» any goods of 
pure wool, or of wool mixed with cotton, or 
any other yegetable fiber, of all classes 
and patterns, with or without trimming of 
silk or wool, for children under 8 years of 
age, including weight of container, kilo 



DuUes. 



4 00 



SECTION SIXTH. 

SII*K ARTICLES. 

Loops, curtain, pure or mixed silk, with their 
tassels, and cords, even if their interior 
frame (alma) is of some other material, 
including weight of container, kilo 7 50 

Wraps (abrigos). lace, or any material of 
pure or mixed silk, including weight of I 
container, kilo 9 00 

Trimmings (adomos), pure or mixed silk, ! 
even if their interior frame is made out of 
some other material, including weight of 
container, kilo 7 50 

Trimmings (adomos), pure or mixed silk, 
even if their interior frame is made of 
some other material the greatest part 
thereof containing beads or bugles, glass, 1 
metal, or paste, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo I 3 75 

Cushions, covered with any material of pure 1 
or mixed silk, plain, trimmed or embroid- 
ered, with or without fillings, including | 
weight of container, kilo 9 00 

Articles, silk mixed with cotton, linen, or | 
wool, knit, not specified, including weight * 
of container, kilo | 12 00 

Articles, silk mixed with cotton, linen, or 1 
wool, with or without embroidery of the , 
same materials, not specified, including * 
weight of container, kilo ' 7 50 

Articles, silk mixed with cotton, linen, or 
wool, the largest part thereof being 
trimmed with beads or bugles, glass, metal, 
or paste, not specified, including weight of 
container, kilo 600 



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GUATEMALA. 



'95 



Number of items in 



English I Guatema- 

transla- jlantrans- 

tiocL I laiioo. 



722 



723 



834 



726 



727 



806 


728 


724 


729 


725 


730 


726 


731 


727 


732 


822 

■ 


733 


732 


734 


729 


735 


730 


736 


731 


737 


818 


738 


750 


739 


735 


740 


831 


741 


733 


742 


795 


743 


742 


744 



745 



Belts or sashes (bandas), pure or mixed silk 
burate, plain or damasked, inclading 
weight of container, kilo 

Belts or sashes (bandas), pure or mixed silk, 
network, including weight of container, 
kUo 

Robes (batas), all kinds, pure or mixed silk, 
plain, trimmed, or embroidered, each 

Blond lace, pure or mixed silk, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Blouses, any material of pnre or mixed silk, 
plain, trimmed, or embroidered, each 

Boas, silk mixed with cotton, linen, or wool, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Boas, pure silk, mcluding weight of container, 
kilo 

Tassels, pure or mixed silk, even if their in- 
terior frame (alma) is of an^r other material, 
including weight of contamer, kilo 

Buttons, made out of or covered with silk, or 
material containing silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Brocade (brocado), pure or mixed silk, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo 

Burate, mixed silk, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Burate, pure silk, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Socks, pure or mixed silk, knit, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Drawers, pure or mixed silk, knit, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Chemises, any material of pui^ or mixed silk, 
plain, trimmed or embroidered, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Undershirts, pnre or mixed silk, knit, includ- 
ing weight of container, kilo 

Capes, wraps, or opera cloaks, any material 
of pure or mixed silk, plain, trimmed or 
embroidered, for ladies, each 

Masks, pure br mixed silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Covers, table (carpetas), any material of 
pure or mixed silk, plain, trimmed, or em- 
broidered, including weight of container, 
kilo 

Nests, any goods of pure or mixed silk, cacb 



Dotieaip 



6 00 

9 00 
15 00 
15 00 

3 75 

6 00 
12 00 

7 50 



7 50 


2 00 


450 


9.00 


15 00 


J5 00 


15 00 


15 00 


n 25 


12 00 


9 00 


4 50 



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196 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 



Number of items in 


English 
transla- 
tion. 


Guatema- 
lan trans- 
lation. 


809 


746 


784 


747 


802 


748 


803 


749 


804 


750 


805 


751 



808 

736 
781 

740 
741 



752 

753 
754 
755 

756 



745 


757 


738 


758 


739 


759 


835 


760 


817 


761 



Shawls (cfaalcs or rebosas), pure or mixed 
silk, plain, figured, trimmed or embroid- 
ered, including weight of container, kilo. . 

Jackets, any goods of pure or mixed sjlk, 
plain, trimmed, or embroidered, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Ribbons, silk mixed with cotton or any vege- 
table fiber, including weight of container, 
kilo 

Ribbons, pure or mixed silk, with elastic, up 
to 4 centimeters in width, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Ribbons, pure silk, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Ribbons, pure or mixed silk, white or colored, 
with metal clasps or eyelets, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Sashes, pure or mixed silk, with or without j 
elastic, plain, trimmed, or embroidered, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo 

Clarin (sieve cloth), pure or mixed silk, for 
sieves, including weight of container, kilo. 

Headdresses or caps (cofias), pure or mixed 
silk, plain, trimmed, or embroidered, dozen . 

Counterpanes (sobrecamas or colchas), pure 
or mixed silk, with or without linings or 
covers, plain, trimmed, or embroidered, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo 

Counterpanes (colchas), lined or covered 
with silk material or with material con- 
taining silk, padded with cotton, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Cravats or neckties, pure or mixed silk, with 
or without interior frame of any other ma- 
terial, including weight of container, kilo... 

Cord or braid, pure or mixed silk, even if the 
interior frame is of another material, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo....* 

Corsets, any material of pure or mixed silk, 
with or without trimmings, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Vest patterns, any goods of pure or mixed 
silk, plain, embroidered, or interwoven, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Slippers in pattern, pure or mixed silk, 
drawn or cut oflF, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 



[8 


75 


4 


50 


3 


75 


9 


00 



3 75 

9 00 

9 00 

II 25 

9 00^ 

3 75 
6 00 

5 75 

4 50 
9 00 

6 00 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



GUATEMALA. 



197 



Number of items in , 



English 
transla- 
tion. 



753 



754 



755 



Guatenia* 
Ian trans- 
lation. 



799 



786 



774 



775 



762 

763 
764 



756 


765 ; 

1 


746 


766 


744 


767 


737 


768 


748 


769 


749 


770 


717 


771 


782 


772 


783 


773 



Dress patterns, auj material of mixed silk, 
as grosgrain, moire, taffeta, ottaman, 
surah, and others, plain and without any 
trimming, for ladies, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Dress patterns, any material of mixed silk as 
in the foregoing item, trimmed or em- 
broidered, including weight of container, 
kilo 

Dress patterns, any material of pure silk as 

grosgrain, moire, satin, taffeta, ottaman, 

I surah, and others, trimmed or embroidered 

, with pure or mixed silk, for ladies, includ- 

I ing weight of container, kilo , 

Dress patterns, crepe, muslin, nun's veiling 
(velillo), or other similar silk material, 
plain, trimmed or embroidered, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Curtams or draperies (cortinas or sobrecor- 
tinas), any material of pure or mixed silk, 
plain, trimmed, or embroidered, including 
weight of container^ kilo , 

Crepe, pure or mixed silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Collars, pure or mixed silk, plain, trimmed 
or embroidered, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo... 

Damask, pure or mixed silk, including I 
weight of container, kilo 

Damask, pure or mixed silk, interwoven or 
embroidered with threads of false or fine 
metal, including weight of container, kilo... 

Aprons, any goods of pure or mixed silk, 
with or without trimmings or embroideries, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Insertions (enbutidas), pure or mixed silk, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Insertions (enbutidas), pure or mixed silk, 
the greatest portion thereof containing 
j beads or bugles, glass, metal or paste, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo 

Petticoats or tmderskirts (enaguas interiores 
or fustanes), any material of pure or mixed 
silk, plain,trimmed or embroidered, includ- 
ing weight of container, kilo 

Lace, pure or mixed *^ilk, including weight 
of container, kilo 



Duties. 



7 50 
9 00 

13 00 

18 75 

12 00 
15 00 

12 00 
6 00 

4 5»> 

12 00 

12 00 

6 00 

9 00 
15 00 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



\ 



io8 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 




819 

757 
758 

815 



772 

734 
774 



776 

777 
778 

7*79 



764 


780 


766 


781 


743 


782 


789 


783 


790 


784 


767 


785 


768 


786 


769 


787 


770 


788 



789 

790 
791 



Socks, babys', pure or mixed silk, knit, with 
or without soles, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Bdgin^ (espiguilla), pure or mixed silk, in- 
clndmg weight of container, kilo 

Edgings (espiguilla), pure or mixed silk, the 
greatest part thereof being trimmed with 
beads or bugles, glass, metal, or paste, in* 
eluding weight of contamer, kilo 

Slips, long (faldones), any material of pure 
or mixed silk, plain, trimmed or embroid- 
ered, for infants, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Felt (felpa orfelpila), pure or mixed silk, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo 

Fringe (flecos), pure or mixed silk, including 
weight of container, kilo ; 

Covers (forros) for umbrellas, parasols or 
shades, sewed together or in pieces, pure 
or mixed silk, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Linings (forros), any material of pure or 
mixed silk, for hats, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Linings (forros), any material of pure or 
mixed silk, sewed togther or in the pattern 
for capes or cloaks, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Fringe (franjas)«mixed silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Fringe (franjas), pure silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Galoon, pure or mixed silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Galoon, pure or mixed silk, the greatest por- 
tion thereof containmg beads, or bugles, 
glass, metal, or paste, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Gauze, long (linon) or grenadine, pure or 
mixed silk, plain, percale-like, figured or 
embroidered, including weight of container, 
kilo 

Caps (gorros or birretes), pure or mixed silk, 
plain, trimmed, or embroidered, with or 
without visors, dozen 

Grosgrain silk (Gro.)t moire, satin, taffeta, 
serge, ottoman, surah, and other goods of 
mixed silk, including weight of container, 
kilo 



7 50 
12 00 

6 00 



12 


00 


6 


00 


12 


00 


6 


00 


9 


00 


12 


00 


6 


00 


12 


00 


12 


00 



6 00 

22 50 
II 25 

6 00 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



GUATEMALA. 



199 



Namber of items in 



English 

trsnslm- 

tioo. 



775 

773 

759 
823 

816 

785 

787 
788 

771 

797 
792 

793 

794 

820 
796 



Gustema- 
Isn trans- 
lation. 



792 



793 



794 
795 



796 



797 



798 
799 



800 



801 
802 



803 



804 



805 
806 



Grosgrain silk (GroJ, moire, serge, ta£feta, 
ottoman, surah, and other goods of pure 
silk, including weight of container, kilo 

Gloves, pure or mixed silk, knit, with or 
without trimming, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Edgings (guarda), pure or miked silk, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo 

Thread, twist, pure or mixed silk, in wooden, 
metal, or pasteboard reels or spools, for 
i«ewing, including weight of container, kilo . 

Slips, layette, or sets of baby 's linen (jaticos), 
any material of pure or mixed silk, plain, 
trimmed, or embroidered, even if some ar- 
ticles in this set are of some other mate- 
rial, includmg weight of container, kilo 

Jerseys, or jersey iackets, pure or mixed 
silk, knit, plain, trimmed, or embroidered, 
including weight of contamer, kilo 

Lama, pure or mixed silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Lama, pure or mixed .silk, embroidered or 
interwoven with thread of false or fine 
metal, including weight of container, kilo... 

Garters, pure or mixed silk, plain, embroid- 
ered, trimmed, or interwoven, with or 
without elastic, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Netting (mallas), pure or mixed silk, knit, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Mantillas or mantilets, pure or mixed silk 
lace, with trimmings or embroiderings, in- 
cluding weight of container, kilo 

Mantillas or mantilets, pure or mixed silk 
lace, with trimmings or embroiderings, the 
greatest portion thereof having beads or 
bugles, glass, metal, or paste, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Manufactures of pure or mixed silk not 
specified, including weight of container, 
kilo 

Stockings, pure or mixed silk, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Muslin, pure or mixed silk, plain, figured, 
or embroidered, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 



Duties. 



12 00 

15 00 
12 00 

3 75 

12 00 

15 00 
7 50 

6 00 

6 00 
15 00 

12 00 

6 00 

12 00 
15 00 

22 50 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



200 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Number of items in 



i 



English 
transla- 
tion. 



838 



857 



838 



765 
810 

811 



Guatema- 
lan trans- 
lation. 



807 
808 

809 

810 
811 

812 



812 


813 


776 


814 


777 


815 


778 


816 


829 


817 


830 


818 


800 


819 


828 


820 


760 


821 


801 


822 



Vestments, priestly (ornamentos sacerdo- 
tales), and dresses for images, any mate- 
rial of silk mixed with wool, cotton, or 
linen, even if having embroidery or gal- 
loons made out of metal not gold "or silver, 
including weight of contaijier, kilo 

Vestments, priestly (ornamentos sacerdo- 
tales), and dresses for images, any mate- 
rial of silk mixed with wool, cotton or 
linen, with embroiderings or galloon of 
silver or gilded silver, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Vestments, priestly (ornamentos sacerdo- 
tales), or dresses for images, pure silk ma- 
terial, even if having embroiderings or 
galloons of silver or gilded silver, includ- 
ing weight of container, kilo 

Fichus, pure or mixed silk, including weight 
of container, kilo * 

Shawls (patiolones), silk mixed with cotton, 
linen or wool, including weight of the paper 
inside, kilo , 

Shawls (paiiolones) silk burate, crepe-like, 
plain or embroidered, including weight of 
the paper inside, kilo 

Shawls (panolones), any material of pure 
silk, including weight of paper inside, kilo. 

Handkerchiefs, silk, mixed with cotton, wool 
or linen, including weight of container, 
kilo 

Handkerchiefs, pure silk, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Handkerchiefs, tulle, pure or mixed silk, 
with or without trimmings including weight 
of container, kilo 

Umbrella^, any material of pure or mixed 
silk, each 

Umbrellas, small (paraguitos), any material 
of pure or mixed silk, plain and without 
any trimming, each 

Pique, pure or mixed silk, quilted or not 
quilted, including weight of container, kilo. 

Tulle, pure or mixed silk, plain, figured or 
embroidered, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 

Embroidery (randas), pure or mixed silk, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Reps or corded goods, pure or mixed silk, 
including weight of container, kilo 



Duties. 



3 75 



750 



15 00 



12 00 



450 



9 00 
10 50 



3 75 
750 



15 00 



I 20 



90 



12 03 



22 50 



12 00 



6 00 



.1 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



GUATEMALA. 



20I 



Number of items in 


EngUsh 

transia- 

Uon. 


Gaatema- 
Ian trans- 
lation. 


807 


823 


813 


824 


814 


825 


779 


826 


780 


827 


798 


8a8 


763 


829 


833 


830 


821 


831 


761 


832 


762 


8.V5 


824 


834 


825 


835 



751 

728 
752 

832 



836 

837 
838 

839 



Sacques (sacos), all kinds, pure or mixed 
silk, for men or boys, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Silk, floss, all colors, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Silk, twist, to sew, embroider, or knit, all 
colors, including weight of container, kilo... 

Hats, high crown, cylindrical, all sizes, cov- 
ered with plush or satin of pure or mixed 
silk, with or without strings, each 

Hats, felt, of all clksses and sizes, not speci- 
fied, including weight of container, kilo 

Parasols or shades (sombrillas), any material 
of pure or mixed silk, trimmed or embroi- 
der!, each 

Fabrics, pure or mixed silk, not specified, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Velvet, pure or mixed silk, plain or figured, 
including weight of container, kilo 

Suspenders, pure or mixed silk, with or 
without appurtenances, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Embroidery, or embroidered strips (tiras 
bordadas), pure or mixed silk, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Embroidery, or embroic ered strips (tiras 
bordadas), pure or mixed silk, the greatest 
part thereof containing beads or bugles, 
glass, metal, or paste, including weight of 
container, kilo 

Tissue, pure or mixed silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Tissue, pure or mixed silk, the greatest part 
thereof containing thread of false or fine 
metal, including weight of container, kilo.. 

Dresses or suits, ready-made, any material 
of pure or mixed silk, plain, trimmed, or 
embroidered, and the parts thereof when 
sewed together, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo ; 

Braid, pure or mixed silk, including weight 
of container, kilo 

Dresses or suits, pure or mixed silk, with or 
without trimmmg or embroiderings, for 
children under 8 years of age, including 
weight of container, kilo 

Veils, tulle, pure or mixed silk, with or with 
out trimming or embroiderings, includmg 
weight of container, kilo 



Duties. 



12 00 
3 00 
3 75 

I 50 
3 00 

I 50 
18 75 
12 00 

9 00 

12 00 

6 00 
9 00 

7 50 

18 75 
3 75 

i 9 00 

I 

' 18 75 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



202 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Number of items in 



English 
transla- 
tion. 



.-i' 



868 



1382 
1383 
1384 
1385 
1386 

1387 
1388 

1389 
1390 
139 1 
1392 
1393 
1407 

1408 



Guatema- 
lan trans- 
lation. 



1095 



1390 
1391 
1392 

1393 
T394 
1395 
1396 

1397 

1398 

1399 
1400 
140 1 
1444 

1445 



'U 






SECTION SEVENTH. 

ARTICLES OP IRON. 

Brads, wrought iron or wire, up to 24 milli- 
meters in length, gross weight, kilo 



SECTION NINTH. 

ARTICLES OP WOOD AND OP WOOD AND IRON. 

Carriages, weighing up to 100 kilos each, net 
weight, each kilo 

Carriages, weighing from 100 to 250 kilos, 
net weight, each kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 250 kilos up 
to 500 kilos, net weight, each kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 500 up to 
750 kilos, net weight, each kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 750 up to 
1,000 kilos, net weight, each kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 1,000 kilos, 
net weight, each kilo 

Carriages weighing up to 100 kilos each, un- 
finished, without upholstering or painting, 
net weight, kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 100 up to 250 
kilos each, unfinished, without upholster- 
ing or painting, net weight, kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 250 kilos up 
to 500 kilos each, unfinished, without up- 
holstering or painting, net weighty kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 500 up to 750 
kilos each, unfinished, without upholster- 
ing or painting, net weight, kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 750 kilos up 
to 1,000 each, unfinished, without uphol- 
stering or painting, net weight, kilo 

Carriages weighing more than 1,000 kilos 
each, unfinished, without upholstering or 
painting, net weight, kilo 

Furniture, fine or ordinary wood, veneered 
with fine wood, put together or in pieces, 
even if they have mirrors or marble tops, 
gross weight, kilo 

Furniture, fine or ordinary wood, veneered 
with fine wood, covered with leather or 
cloth, not containing silk, with or without 
marble tops or mirrors, gross weight, kilo- 



Duties. 



50 



25 



09 



07 



30 



35 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



GUATEMALA. 



203 



Namber of items in ' 



English Guatema-i 

transla- ' Ian trans | 

tioQ. lation. 1 



1409 

1410 
14IX 

1412 
1494 



I 



1446 



1447 



1448 



1449 



1509 



1826 

1763 
1624 



1848 , 

! 

1883 j 

I 

1897 I 



Furniture, fine or ordinary wood, veneered 
with fine wood, covered with silk cloth or 
with cloth containing silk, even if having 
mirrors or marble top, gross weight, kilo... 

Furniture, bent wood, rattan, or osier, with 
or without mafble tops or mirrors, gross 
weight, kilo 

Furniture, all kinds, with inlaid, work, mar- 
quetine or ornaments of wood, tortoise 
shell, ivory, or metal, gross weight, kilo 

Furniture frames, wooden, polished, var- 
nished, turned, or painted, gross weight, 
kilo 

Furniture frames, unpolished, unvarnished, 
unturned, not painted, gross weight, kilo.. 

SECTION TENTH. 

ARTICLES OF LEATHER AND SKIN. 

Harnesses, leather, all kinds, with or with- 
out ornaments of metals, and the loose 
parts thereof, for wagons and carriages, 
including weight of container, kilo , 



SECTION TWELFTH. 

MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 

Pianos of all kinds and sizes, set up or not, 
with or without crank, or winding appar- 
atus, and loose parts or repairs, gross 
weight, kilo , 

Hats, straw, or imitation, all kinds and 
sizes, trimmed, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo , 

Chalk for billiard cues, including weight of 
container, kilo 

SECTION THIRTEENTH. 

STATIONERY. PASTEBOARD, AND OFFICE AR- 
TICLES. 

Note paper, small size, plain or rough faced, 
with or without edges imitating lace (cal- 
ado), stamped or smooth, white or colored, 
ruled or not ruled, including weight of con- 
tainer, kilo 



Duties. 



40 

45 

25 

15 



75 



35 

8 00 
I 00 



$0 40 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



204 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Number of items in 



EnKlish 
transla- 
tion. 



Guatema- 
lan trans- 
lation. 



I Duties. 



Writing paper» pure or mixed linen, nnrnled, 
gross weight, kilo 

Wrapping paper, straw, imitation of the so- 
called China paper, gross weight, kilo 



25 
15 



Given at the palace of the executive power in Guatemala on the 23d 
of August, 1894. 

JOSE MARIA REINA BARRIOS. 
JOSE MARIA GONZALES, 

Secretary of the Treasury and Public Credit. 



GUATEMALA TO TEHUANTEPEC. 

A telegram from Guatemala announces that an Anglo- 
Dutch syndicate, which is projecting the construction of rail- 
ways in Central America, has a survey party in the field 
looking for the most feasible route for a road to connect 
Guatemala City with the Tehuantepec Railway. Should the 
contemplated line be built, a concession would have to be 
secured from this Government which, we believe, would 
favor the line, as it would put the railway system of this 
country in connection with Central America which is likely, 
within a few years, to see its isolated bits of railway line 
developed into a network of roads connecting all the chief 
cities there. In fact, the Anglo-Dutch syndicate contem- 
plates perfecting a system of railways for all Central Amer- 
ica. — Mexican Financier. 



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ECUADOR. 205 



ECUADOR. 



The message transmitted on the loth of June, 1894, to the 
Constitutional Congress of Ecuador by the President of that 
Republic, Doctor Don Luis Cordero, refers to the financial 
condition of the country in the following language : 

*'The financial condition of the Republic is, as you well 
know, far from being easy. The slow increase of the reve- 
nue does not keep pace with the rapid movement of the ex^ 
penses, and the latter can not be stopped without paralyzing 
at the same time the growing and necessary progress of our 
country. 

** It is easy to see that the ccreatest part, if not the whole, 
of the amounts required to meet the necessities of the public 
service become larger every year. Those necessities in- 
crease with the population of the country, and with the con- 
ditions of civilization which the enlightenment and welfare of 
the inhabitants of Ecuador render imperative. 

"In order that you maybe able to form an idea of the 
proportion between our receipts and expenditures, and see 
therefrom the necessity of an improvement in regard to the 
former, I shall submit to you a short recapitulation of the 
facts, not without apologizing for the displeasure which the 
dryness of numerical statements necessarily produces, even 
when, as happens in the present case, these statements are 
indispensable. 

"The main source 01 our national revenue consists of Cus- 
toms Duties. The receipts in this respect from 1890 to De- 
cember 31, 1893, have been as follows : 

1890 13,208,288 81 

1891 2,499,669 43 

1892 2,520,130 20 

1893 3.030,334 20 

from which it results that during the last two years of the 
administration of my distinguished predecessor, Dr. D. An- 

15 BUL 



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2o6 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tonia Flores, the amount collected at the custom-houses was 
15,707,958.24, while during the first two years of my own 
administration it has been only $5,550,454.40. The diflfer- 
ence in favor of the former period amounts to $157,493.84. 

•' The Ecclesiastical Tax (contribucidn eccUsiasticd), which 
was established in lieu of the old tax known as Diezmo (tithes), 
gave in the same four years the following results : 

1890 $277,26507 

1891 -.. . 200,492 97 

1892 406,337 21 

T893 468,589 75 

"It is plain that the latter sum, corresponding to 1893, 
is not yet sufl&cient to meet the requirements of the ecclesi- 
astical budget, which amounts to over $200,000 per year, and 
leave a balance in favor of the Government sufficient to make 
up for the loss of over $400,000 per year, sustained by the 
abolition of the tithes. This remark is strengthened by the 
fact that the apparent increase of the ecclesiastical tax in the 
last two years is due to the fact of its consolidation with 
another tax, formerly called * general tax,' or 'tax of 1 per 
thousand * and levied on country real estate. This consoli 
dation shall continue as long as the tax of 3 per thousand, 
and the tax on cacao are insufficient to meet the said budget. 

*' The Tax on Brandies has not made any noticeable prog- 
ress, and has proved insufficient to meet the patriotic purposes 
for which it was intended. Those purposes were the support 
and promotion of public instruction, the fundamental base on 
which the progress of all nations rests. You will see else- 
where how much is expended, with laudable earnestness and 
enthusiasm, in that important matter. The yielding of *'the 
tax on brandies,*' during the said four ycrars, has been as 
follows: 

1890 1132,64291 

1891 171,817 27 

1892 185.83372 

J893 176,67904 



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ECUADOR. 207 

"The Stamp Revenue yielded in the same period : 

1890 $116,73606 

1891 106,95849 

18^ — 109,30474 

1893 — 123,29285 

'* The Postage Stamps and Postai, Cards yielded : 

1890 « $59,87229 

1891 59.37865 

1892 55*99465 

1893 58,09536 

"The apparent decline in this branch in the last two years 
is due to the fact that a portion of this revenue, known by 
the name of timbres teUgrdficos (telegraphic stamps), has 
been detached from it and made an independent tax, which, 
in 1892, yielded $11,761.86, and $18,377.08 in 1893. 

'*The Alcabala Tax, or tax on the transfers of real estate, 
yielded, from 1890 to 1894: 

1890 $104,001 70 

1891 81,698 26 

1892 96.805 45 

1893 • 114,695 79 

"The tax called Registros y Anotaci6nes yielded : 
1890 $14,400 61 

1891 17.905 36 

1892 17,020 46 

1893 20,287 47 

"The proceeds from the salt monopoly (estauco de la sal) 
from September 4th, 1890, in which it was again enforced, 
have been : 

1890 $34,057 61 

1891 -.... 192,821 13 

1892 « ^ 232,745 50 

1893 • 222,540 65 

"The Tax on Tobacco yielded : 

1S90 $14,928 30 

1891 29,986 45 

1892 27,558 87 

1893 20,879 61 



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2o8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

"The proceeds from the Gunpowder monopoly (Estanco de 
la Fdlvord) were: 

1890 I13.342 82 

1891 22,252 05 

1892 20,303 28 

1893 26,351 13 

**I will not mention other minor sources of revenue, which 
have yielded in analogous proportion. 

"In order that you may judge of the total amounts in the 
four years above cited, I now submit them to you. They 
were: 

1890 $4,182,581 19 

1891 3.584,36583 

1892 3,799.303 80 

1893 4.325.701 86 

"The combined sums of 1890 and 1891, and of 1892 and 
1893, are: 

1890-1891 17.766,94702 

i892-i893.>. 8.125,005 66 

"The difference of $358,058.64 is in favor of the first two 
years of my administration. It is, indeed, an insignificant 
increase, if compared with the growing demands of the 
public necessities and with the amount which should have 
been required to meet in the proper way the said necessities. 

"The tendency to increase the expenses, clearly shown by 
the honorable legislature of 1892, which acted, undoubtedly, 
under a fervent desire to promote the progress of our countrj% 
is by itself sufficient proof of the urgent necessity of creat- 
ing new sources of revenue, to supply our modest treasury 
with adequate resources. ' ' 

The President then goes on to enumerate the principal 
expenses, stating that the Army, Navy and Military affisiirs 
{Ejircito y Marina y Gastos militares) caused in 1890 and 1891 a 
total disbursement of $1,662,149.65; -in 1892-1893 $i,735»- 
868.43. Public instruction (InstrucciSn Pfiblicd) involved in 
1890 1891 a total cost of $937,106.49. In 1892-1893 $1,067,- 
056.09. 

Public Works {obras pUblicas) required in 1 890-1 891, $1,131,- 
283.39. In 1892-1893 only $884,796.10 were disbursed. 



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ECUADOR. 209 

The Police (polici£) involved in 1890 and 1891 total ex- 
pense of $489,388.54. In 1892 and 1893 the cost was I591,- 
867.73. 

Worship and ^^^TiM\t.s{culto y beneficenciS) in 1890 and 1891 
were represented by the sum of i»455,932.43 ; and in 1892 and 
1893 by 5508,598.38. 

The Postal Service (correos) required in 1890 and 1891 an 
expense of 1145,301.82, and in 1892 and 1893 of $176,887.02. 

Telegraphs and Telephones figure in the list of expenses, 
for 1890 and 1891, at $156,309.80, and in 1892 and 1893 at 
$205,132.21. 

The Diplomatic expenses were in 1890 and 1891 $32,970,183 
in 1892 and 1893, $51,219.44. 

The total amount expended was, in 

1890-1891 , $7,881,774 80 

1892-1893 8,513,975 43 

The balance or excess of $632,000.63 corresponds to the 
second period. 

The President deplores in his message the high rates of 
exchange and calls the attention of Congress to the fact that 
the Government, desiring to buy a bill of exchange on Lon- 
don lor 9,116 pounds sterling 5 shillings and 10 pence had 
to pay at the rate of 96 per 100. 

In relation to the Intercontinental Railway the President 
says: 

'* Ecuador as well as the other Republics of South America 
had entertained flattering hopes in regard to the prompt exe 
cution of the grand undertaking of the Intercontinental Rail- 
way. But the happy time seems not to have arrived as yet 
in which the fraternity of sixteen Republics should be forever 
established by means of that powerful bond of concord. We 
must confine ourselves to doing as we are,within our individual 
means and in our own territory. This unsatisfactory expec- 
tation has not prevented the Government from paying its 
share of the expenses incurred in the surveys of the colossal 
work devised by the audacity of the North American genius. " 



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2IO BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

NICARAGUA. 



[The following items referring to Nicaragtim are taken from a recent German official 

report] 

Boots and shoes (duty 80 centavos (cents) per pound) are 
only imported in small quantities from North America. In 
superfine ladies* shoes Vienna is to the fore In men's boots, 
and the common class of ladies' foot-gear home industry has 
made such progress that it is now able to compete success- 
fully with foreign goods. 



There is always a considerable demand for composite 
candles. They are supplied mainly by Belgium. 



Caoutchouc (india rubber) was formerly an export article of 
some moment, but it is now disappearing more and more. 
This is owing to the recklessness with which the trees have 
been bled. 

New plantations have not been started, and the time is 
rapidly approaching when this article will disappear from the 
list of export articles. 



CHILE. 

GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS. 

From the report for the year 1893 of Mr. Budge, ex- 
Director General of railways of Chile, the following sum- 
mary is made : 

The cost of the railways belonging to the State on Decem- 
ber 31, 1892, amounted to $60,288,968. On December 31, 
1893, it stood on the books at $64,289,727, being an increase 
in value of $4,000,759. To this amount there remains to be 
added about $13,000,000, on account of the outlay in the 
construction of various lines that have been or will be added 
to the railway system of the State. 

The traffic receipts show an increase of $3,456,000 over 
the receipts of the previous year. The total number of pas- 
sengers conveyed by the State railways amounted to 4,866,- 



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CHII^E. 211 

843. The population of Chile is between three and a 
quarter and three and a half millions, so that the nnmber of 
travelers by the railways shows a proportion to the popula- 
tion of only 150 per cent. 

The total mileage of the Government railways at the end 
of 1892, according to Director General Budge's report, gives 
1,169 kilometers — about 725 miles. 

The total number of kilometers open for traffic at the close 
of the year 1893 was 1,350 (837 miles) — an increase of 181 
kilometers. With respect to the rolling stock, the ex-Direc- 
tor General informs us that there were in 1893 205 locomo- 
tives in use, of which 115 were of American make and 90 of 
English manufacture. 

The report recommends that 100 more locomotives be 
added to the present equipment to meet the demands of the 
traffic. 

The total number of passenger coaches in service was 233, 
of which 107 were reported as English make and 122 as 
American. The total number of freight cars in use at the 
end of 1893 was 4,385, with a carrying capacity of 49,537 
tons. 

CHILI RAILWAY EXTENSION. 

A bill to empower Don Gustavo A. Oehninger to construct 
a railway from Puemo to Rancagua, a distance of about 70 
kilometers, has passed the Deputies. 

A bill to empower Mr. Charles A. Waters to construct a 
railway from Antofagasta to Aguas Blancas has passed both 
Chambers. 

A bill has passed the Deputies to declare of public utility 
the lands necessary for an electric tramway between Santiago 
and Santa Rosa. 

A bill to empower Don Cesar Covarrubias to construct a 
railway from Melipilla to Quilpud has passed a first reading 
in the Deputies. 

A bill authorizing the prolongation of the Tongoy Railway 
has passed the Senate. 

A bill to employ Don Jos6 Tomas Ramos to construct a 
railway from San Felioe to Piguchen has passed a first read- 
ng in the Senate. — Chilian Times, July 7. 



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212 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



COTTON GROWING. 

Recently a consignment of twenty-two bales of cotton was 
received in the city of Buenos Aires from the province of 
Santiago del Estero. This is the first cotton ever received 
in that city, and as there are no facilities for separating the 
fiber from the seed, no use could be made of it. Large quan- 
tities of cotton are and can be grown in portions of the Argen- 
tine Republic, and it is argued that manufacturers of cotton 
ginning machinery could find it profitable to look to intro- 
ducing their machinery into that country. 



The government of the Argentine Republic has decided 
that foreign trade-marks have no priority over marks previ- 
ously registered in that Republic. 

This is a most important decision and should not be lost 
sight of by manufacturers who may not have already registered 
their trade mark in that country; they should lose no time in 
having this done, or they may find to their cost that their well- 
known trade -mark is being used on some spurious or inferior 
article of merchandise. 



The exports of wheat from the Argentine Republic for the 
first six months of this year, ended June 30th, were 1,029,546 
tons, exceeding for the same period in 1893, 29,000 tons. 
The July shipments are estimated at 100,000 tons. The 
stock on hand is 330,000 tons, three-fourths of which are 
ready for immediate shipment. The area sown for the next 
season now exceeds by 28 per cent that of last year. Uruguay 
has 50,000 tons ready for shipment. 



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URUGUAY — COLOMBIA. 2 13 



URUGUAY. 



[From Report of Belgian Consul at Montevideo.] 

The authorities are rigidly enforcing the license law on all 
commercial travelers disembarking here. On arriving here 
all travelers and representatives of commercial houses whose 
firms have no licensed agent in this city must exhibit their 
own license (annual cost 540 francs) before they can receive 
their samples. The hotels are also carefully watched to pre- 
vent any evasion of the law. 



Reports from various parts of the Republic indicate that 
the wool clip for coming shipments will be in excess of past 
years' shipments. The larger part will go to the United 
States. 

On September 10 five sailing vessels were loading with 
wool at Montevideo for New York. 



The President of Uruguay has been authorized by the Con- 
gress of that country to appoint a special commission to ex- 
amine into the improvement of the harbor of Montevideo. 

To carry into effect the preliminary investigation of this 
matter the Government is authorized to expend the sura of 
^150,000. 



COLOMBIA. 



Recent advices from Panama state that a line of steamers, 
British built, but sailing under the Mexican flag, will soon be 
put on between that port and San Francisco in connection 
with the Tehuantepec railroad. 



The Caribbean Steamship Company has made a contract 
with the National Government of Colombia to establish a 



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214 BUREAU OP TH£ jUmitlCXN REPUBLICS. 

line of coasting steamers whose itinerary will be the ports 
of Rio Hacha, Santa Marta, Cartagena, Colon, Bocas del 
Toro, Port Limon, Bluefields, and Saint Andrew's. The 
contract is made for five years, the Government to pay the 
company ;£2io per voyage. 



VENEZUELA. 

By decree of the President of the United States of Vene- 
zuela dated July 4, 1894, the maritime and territorial custom- 
house established at Puerto Porlamer on the southeastern 
part of the Island of Margareta was abolished. 

The business of said custom house, as well as all the 
papers, documents, and appurtenances have been transferred 
to the custom-house at Juan Griego on the northern coast of 
the same island. 

The Island of Margareta, called by some Nueva Esparta, 
lies in lattitude 11® north, and longitude 64® west, about 
thirty miles north of Cumand. 



SPANISH POSSESSIONS IN AMERICA. 



ISLAND OP PUERTO RICO. 

During the fiscal year of 1893 to 1894, the amount collected 
by the custom-houses of the Island of Puerto Rico was 
*2, 507,706.36. 

The above sum represents an increase in the Government 
receipts, under this head, over the preceding year of 1892-93, 
of ^452,362.54. 

The custom-houses which collected the largest were the 
following : 

San Juan (the capital of the island) l94o»68S 

Ponce 721.535 

Mayaguez 488,805 

Arecibo 306,124 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Frequent application is made to the Bureau for the address 
of United States Consuls in the South and Central American 
Republics. Those desiring to correspond with any consul can 
do so by addressing "The United States Consulate" at the 
point named. Letters thus addressed will be delivered to 
the proper person. It must be understood, however, that it 
is not the duty of consuls to devote their time to private 
business, and that all such letters may properly be treated 
as personal and any labor involved may be subject to charge 
therefor. 

The following is a list of United States Consulates in the 
different Republics: 



Argentine Repubuc- 

Buenos Aires. 

Cordoba. 

Rosario. 
Bolivia — 

La Paz. 
Brazil— 

Bahia. 

Para. 

Pemambuco. 

Rio Grande do Sul. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

Santos. 
Chile— 

Antofagasta. 

Arica. 

Coquimbo. 

Iquique. 

Talcahuano. 

Valparaiso. 



Colombia — 

Barranquilla. 

Bogota. 

Cartagena. 

Colon (Aspinwall). 

Medillin. 

Panama. 
Costa Rica — 

San Jos6. 
Dominican Republic- 

Puerto Plata. 

Samana. 

Santo Domingo. 
Ecuador — 

Guayaquil. 
Guatemala — 

Guatemala. 
Haiti — 

Cape Haitien. ^ 

Port au Prince. 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Honduras — 

Ruatan. 

Tegucigalpa. 
Mexico — 

Acapulco. 

Chihuahua. 

Durango. 

Ensenada. 

Guaymas. 

La Paz. 

Matamora^. 

Mazatlan. 

Merida. 

Mexico. 

Nogales. 

Nuevo Laredo. 

Paso del Norte. 

Piedras Negras. 

Saltillo. 

Tatnpico. 



Mexico — Continued, 

Tuxpan. 

Vera Cruz. 
Nicaragua — 

Managua. 

San Juan del Norte. 
Paraguay — 

Asuncion. 
Peru— 

Callao. 
Salvador — 

San Salvador. 
Uruguay — 

Colonia. 

Montevideo. 

Paysandu. 
Venezuela— 

La Guayra. 

Maracaibo. 

Puerto Cabello. 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Department of State, 

Washington, U. S. A.. 1894. 

It is impossible to comply with requests for the free 
distribution of the publicatious of this Bureau. The de- 
mand for Handbooks and Bulletins has increased so rapidly 
as to make compliance impossible, because of the limited 
editions published. The lists of applicants desiring to be 
supplied with every Handbook and Bulletin issued by 
the Bureau largely exceed any edition published, and these 
lists would be constantly increased if the requests received 
daily at the Bureau were acceded to. Yet, it is well imder- 
stood that many requests are received from persons having 
good reasons for desiring the information asked for, and both 
willing and able to pay the slight cost of these documents. 

Recognizing these facts, the Bureau some months ago issued 
a circular announcing that thereafter the publications of the 
Bureau would be sold to all applicants at a small price. This 
was done with a view of extending rather than limiting the 
circulation of the information published by the Bureau, and 
at the same time securing the utmost impartiality in such 
distribution. It was believed that this course would result 
in a more general circulation of the information secured in 
saving the unnecessary labor of replying to requests from 
persons who apparently had no special interest in the publica- 
tions applied for, and that i^ll who had a well-grounded 
intention of embarking in business in foreign countries, or 
extending business already established, would be able to 
afford the slight expense involved in the payment of the 
cost price of the Bureau documents. 

The result of this experiment has more than justified the 
hopes with which it was undertaken. With exceptions too 
rare to be noted, the plan embraced in the circular has met 
with the cordial approbation of the business men of the 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

country, and if the progress made thus far in extending the 
circulation of these publications shall be continued it will be 
possible to largely increase the numbers of each edition of 
future publications. 

Many of the earlier Bulletins have b^en included in more 
recent publications. This applies especially to the tariflfe, com- 
mercial directories and newspaper directories of the different 
Republics. 

Suggestions from manufacturers and dealers as to their spe- 
cial needs of information will receive prompt attention by the 
Bureau. 

The following list embraces a catalogue of the Bulletins and 
Handbooks published since the organization of the Bureau, 
of which copies may be secured by remitting to the under- 
signed the price named in inclosed list. 

PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU 
OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Cents. 

3. Patent and Trade-mark Laws of America 5 

4. Money, Weights and Measures of the American Republics 5 

6. Foreign Commerce of the American Republics 30 

8. Import Duties of Brazil 10 

10. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto Rico 15 

11. Import Duties of Costa Rica , 10 

13. Commercial Directory of Brazil 5 

14. Commercial Directory of Venezuela 5 

15. Commercial Directory of Colombia 5 

16. Commercial Directory of Peru 5 

17. Commercial Director^' of Chile 5 

18. Commercial Directory of Mexico 15 

19. Commercial Directory of Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Uru- 

fifuay 5 

20. Import Duties of Nicaragua 10 

21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised) 15 

22. Import Duties of Bolivia 20 

23. Import Duties of Salvador 5 

24. Import Duties of Honduras 10 

25. Import Duties of Ecuador 5 

26. Commercial Directory of the Argentine Republic 5 

27. Import Duties of Colombia 5 

28. Commercial Directory of Central America 10 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATION 

Cents, 

39. Commercial Directory of Haiti and Santo Domingo.... 5 

30. First Annual Report of the Bureau, 1891 10 

32. Handbook of Guatemala 35 

33. Handbook of Colombia 30 

34. Handbook of Venezuela 35 

36. Import Duties of Venezfiela 5 

38. Commercial DJrectory of Cuba and Puerto Rico 10 

39. Commercial Directory of British, Danish, Dutch and French 

colonies 10 

42. Newspaper Directory of Latin America 5 

43. Import Duties of Guatemala 25 

44. Import Duties of the United States.. 5 

45. Import Duties of Peru 25 

46. Import Duties of Chile 25 

47. Import Duties of Uruguay 25 

48. Import duties of the Argentine Republic 25 

49. Import Duties of Haiti 10 

jo. Handbook of the American Republics, No. 3 50 

51. Handbook of Nicaragua , 50 

52. Handbook of Santo Domingo 50 

53. Immigration and Land Laws of Latin America 40 

55. Handbook of Bolivia 40 

61. Handbook of Uruguay 50 

62. Handbook of Haiti , 50 

63 How the Markets of Latin America May Be Reached 40 

64, Handbook of Ecuador 50 

67. Handbook of the Argentine Republic 50 

-68. April Special Bulletin, Costa Rica 25 

New United States Tariff Law 05 

PUBI4CATIONS NOT NUMB8RBD. 

Commercial Directory of Latin America 40 

•Second Annual Report of the Bureau, 1892 5 

Third Annual Report of the Bureau, 1893 15 

Manual de las Republicas Americanas, 1891 (Spanish edition of 

Hand-book No. i) 50 

International American Conference Reports and Recommenda- 
tions, including Reports upon the Plan of Arbitration, Reci- 
procity Treaties, Inter-Continental Railway, Steamship Com- 
munication, Sanitary Regulation^, Customs Regulations, 
Common Silver Coin, Patents and Trade-Marks, Weights 
and Measures, Port Dues, International Law, Extradition 
Treaties, International Bank, Memorial Tablet, Columbian 
Exposition— 

Octavo, bound in paper .T. $0 50 

Octavo, bound in half Morocco i 50 



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PRICE I.IST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

Cents. 

Monthly Bulletins, $i per annum; single copies lo 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, first volume, 852 pages, bound 
in cloth, contains upwards of 24,000 commercial terms in 
English, Spanish and Portuguese 3 00 

Money may be sent by postoifice money order, payable 
to the Director of the Bureau of the American Republics. 
All other remittances are at the risk of the sender. Postage 
stamps will not be received, 

CUNTON FURBISH, 

Director. 



The second volume of the Code of Commercial Nomen- 
clature is now in press and will be ready for delivery about 
the ist of October. This is the final edition of the English, 
Spanish, and Portuguese edition, containing about 24,00a 
terms, including about 830 pages. Price, bound in cloth, 23. 

El segundo tomo del C6digo de Nomenclatura Comercial 
se encuentra en prensa y estard listo para distribuirse para el 
primero de Octubre pr6ximo. Este tomo es el ultimo de la 
serie inglesa, castellana, y portuguesa, consta de 830 pdginas 
y contiene cerca de 24,000 vocablos. Su precio, encuarder- 
nado en tela, ^3. 



These publications may be purchased from Rand, McNally 
& Co., Chicago and New York. 



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1^« fe Skt Edorinl tociafioo. 



^wtjf 



WBtoi^E Number 13 Vol II. No. 4 



the: 



MONTHLY BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Bureau 



OF THE 



American Republics 



WASHINGTON, U. S. A. 



OCTOBKR, 1894 



Amhricxn Live Stock. (English and Spanish.) 

Cliapter IV— The Cow (Continued). Compiled 
by E. T. Riddick - - - -• - - 215 
Cotton States and International Exposition. 

(English and Spanish.) 229 

Mexico— Presidential Message. (English and Span- 
ish.) 239 

Argbntine Republic — Cotton Industry - - - 252 

Brazcl 259 

Salvador — Tariff Exemption. (English and Spanish.) 261 

COMMHRCIAL NOTES 264 



SiKOi^K Numbers, 10 Cents Per Annum, Ii.oo 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE. WASHINGTON, p. C.^ U. S. 



Director— CL,U!irov Furbish. 



"While the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications 
of the Bureau of the American Republics, no pecuniary- 
responsibility is assumed on account of errors or 
inaccuracies which may occur therein. 



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The Texas Stato Eis!cn::l teciitioo. 



The Monthly Bulletin 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

October, 1894. 



AMERICAN LIVE STOCK. 

(English and Spanish.) 



Chapter IV. 

THE AYRSHIRE COW. 



It has been said, and with much truth, that reputation is oft 
got without merit and lost without deserving. This applies 
most truly to the Ayrshire cow. This cow has been bred 
and reared for the dairy for more than a centurj'- with all the 
skill and perseverance possible, by the most careful and expert 
breeders, and, up to a very recent period, possessed the 
highest reputation as the most profitable animal for this 
special use. As a milJcer and as producing excellent milk, 
and as free from the common proclivity to disease^ and espe- 
cially as a cheese producer, this cow has ranked first among 
the dairy breeds. But that evanescent attribute of most 
things, popularity, has in late years forsaken this cow, and 
little is now said in her favor. And this in spite of all jus- 
tice and her special merit. The reason of it is quite apparent. 
There is not so much money for the professional breeders in 
this cow, and the others w'hicb are less numerous and of more 
recent introduction have been found more profitable to sell. 
The Jersey and the Dutch, or Holstein, have taken the pri- 
ority in this respect, and have, by dint of profuse advertis- 
ing and persevering puffing, been brought into notice, to the 

16 BUL 



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2l6 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

seeming discredit of the Ayrshire. The Ayrshire, however, 
still holds a high place in a quiet way in the dairy, and will 
always do so, because of the distinct peculiarity of her milk. 
It is the best milk for cheese and for domestic use. And this 
depends upon her natural disposition and the character of her 
milk. Figure and form and color are not essential qualities 
in a cow that will fix the value permanently or for profitable 
use. But yet no exception can be taken against the Ayrshire 
on these accounts, for she is a handsome, well formed ani- 
mal, and typical of a milker. She is a good feeder and by no 
means hard to suit in regard to pasture or ability to turn 
food into milk and butter. But it is as a milker and producer 
of cheap and good milk that she is pre-eminent. Her milk 
is not as rich in fat as that of the Jersey or the Guernsey, but 
in this respect it is of more value for special purposes. The 
fat globules of Ayrshire milk are smaller than those of any 
other cow. And on this account, the milk is better adapted 
for cheese and for family use than any other. The cream 
rises more slowly and is more intimately mixed with the 
milk, and is thus more easily taken into the system and 
turned into nutriment. As infants' milk, for which there is a 
very wide use, that of the Ayrshire is preferable to any other, 
as it is more nutritious and healthful. It more nearly 
approaches the natural mother's milk in this respect, and if 
the physicians knew the value of it in this peculiarity more 
generally, no other milk would be needed for this purpose. 
Some physicians who have made a study of milk for this use 
insist on the use of that from a fresh and healthy Ayrshire 
cow, and some have taken the trouble to visit the dairy and 
select the cow whose milk is to be supplied to the family for 
the use of the infant. The fat in milk is the most important 
part of it for several reasons. It is the most particular con- 
stituent of it in the digestive process, and as regards the pro- 
portion of fat and the more minute division of it in the milk, 
that of the Ayrshire most nearly approaches that of the human 
female than any other. Consequently, for domestic use it is 
the best and safest. 



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THE COW. 217 

SHORTHORNS OR DURHAMS. 

The origin of this valuable breed has always been a sub- 
ject of more or less dispute — ardent admirers of the Short- 
horn claiming an almost unbroken line of pure descent and 
improvement solely by careful selection, feeding and manage- 
ment ; others, perhaps partisans of other bfeeds, claiming 
that whatever improvement has been made, and in fact, 
whatever excellence the breed might possess, has been 
brought about by judicious but stealthy crosses with superior 
individuals of other breeds. That there was a time when 
the Shorthorn ancestry were only native cattle, even the most 
earnest advocates of their purity must admit; but it is also 
true that, if there have been any radical out-crosses since the 
breed became definitely known as such, they have been 
exceedingly stealthy ones. 

Their probable history begins with the cattle of the main- 
land of Europe, in the provinces bordering on the Baltic and 
North Seas. These cattle possessed many of the qualities 
now claimed by Shorthorns, including color and size ; but 
there was a general disposition toward excellence in milking 
qualities rather than the full, rounded, symmetrical, beef 
outline of a majority of modem Shorthorns as bred for range 
improvement in the Western States. As early as 1740, per- 
manent records were kept by the more careful breeders; and, 
according to Mr. Bates, there were fine Shorthorns upon the 
estate of the Earl of Northumberland as early as the year 
1600. 

DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS. 

Widely varying in color, we find almost all markings 
except black, brown, and brindled; in some families pure 
deep cherry red, in others snowy white, and between these 
two extremes are red and white in all grades as to size and 
arrangement of spots — red roan, white roan, roan and White, 
and speckled or *'turkey" roan. In size, the Shorthorn ranks 
among the largest of known breeds, bulls of mature age 
ranging from 1,900 to 2,300 pounds, and cows from 1,200 to 
1, 600 pounds, with occasional individuals considerably ex- 



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2l8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ceeding these figures. The general form is square, with well- 
filled points, straight back, keeping the line even and well up 
at the rump; quarters deep and full, but not bulging; ribs well 
sprung, giving a wide back and rounded barrel; muzzle clear 
orange yellow (in some families light drab); wide open nos- 
trils, and rather thin-fleshed lips; eyes clear, bright, and sur- 
rounded by rings of orange -colored flesh ; horns clear or 
cream-flecked, short and usually curving inward ; ears thin 
and delicate, showing clear orange wax; neck short and fine 
in the cow — in the bull heavy, and rising with age ; back 
level; loin full, buttocks wide apart ; tail small just above 
the brush; brisket wide and full; and legs close, fine boned 
and well-prbportioned to size of body. 

The Shorthorns are emphatically general -purpose animals, 
although, perhaps, the majority of breeders persist in classing 
them with the purely beef breeds. When selected and bred 
for milk, they are exceedingly valuable as dairy stock, but 
it must be admitted that the general tendency to breed and 
feed for show has greatly increased their beef capacity at the 
expense of milking qualities. In some of the strains of 
families — as notably the Princess and Duchess strains — the 
dairy features have been carefully preserved, and even among 
the most pronounced beef families an occasional excellent 
dairy cow will be found. 

RED-POLLED CATTLE. 

The Red-Polls, while tracing their history well back into 
the last century, have only recently attracted any consider- 
able attention. Their origin is somewhat clouded in ob- 
scurity. Suffolk county, England, had from very early 
times a breed of polled cattle, and it is more than probable 
that this Suffolk breed, had much to do with molding the 
type of and dehorning the Norfolk breed, which was the first 
to attract attention trom outside parties. 

DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS. 

Color a deep rich red, with only the brush of the tail white, 
occasionally vvhite on the udder in cows, but this, while not 



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THE COW. 219 

regarded as an absolute disqualification, is not favort d. Size 
above medium, mature bulls weighing from 1,700 to 2,100 
pounds, and cows from 1,100 to 1,400 pounds. The head is 
neat, with a tuft of hair curling over the narrow frontal points, 
and a light colored, clear-cut muzzle. The neck is clean and 
fine, with little dewlap ; ribs springing — not broadly arched, 
but filling the demand for rounded outline of barrel ; legs 
clean, fine and short. In the cow, the udder should be large, 
but not meaty; when empty it should hang in creases or 
folds ; milk veins should be prominent, and knotted or pufifed. 

It must be confessed that most of the modem breeders of 
Red-Polls have been too intent on securing size and beauty 
of contour to preserve, as carefully as they should, the really 
valuable dairy qualities of the breed. If a change be not 
made in this direction, we shall soon be compelled to say of 
them, as we might now say of the Shorthorns, that they were 
originally excellent dairy stock, but have been greatly in- 
jured by the pernicious custom of feeding high for the sho v 
ring. 

Red-Polls are, in general appearance, hornless Devons (see 
also illustrations), and they are bred and advertised as gen- 
eral-purpose cattle. They are claimed, and we think fairly, 
to be the rivals of the Shorthorns for general use in the 
Western United States. They are quiet, good feeders, easy 
to handle and ship, and, as all must admit, attractive in color 
and form. If the Red-Polls are carefully bred, and we may 
expect to see them grow rapidly in public favor, and secure 
on their merits high rank as a combined milk and beef breed. 

DEVONS. 

Lying south of the Bristol Channel, on the map of England, 
may be found the country or shire of Devon. Much of its 
physical geography, as also that of the country adjoining it 
on the west, Cornwall, presents characteristics strikingly 
similar to that of Wales. Indeed, the people of these lower 
wester.i counties were as safe from Roman incursions, behind 
the vast forests which covered the alluvial deposits of lower 



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220 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

England, as were the people of Wales in their rugged moun- 
tain fastness. 

In Wales, we have at present the North Wales and Pem- 
broke breeds as undoubted descendants of these wild cattle ; 
and in the shire of Devon, occupying more especially its 
northern slope, has existed for generations the ancestry of 
the Devon breed — familiarly known in England as the ** North 
Devons,** to distinguish them from the cattle occupying the 
lowlands of Devon and the countries to the east. That the 
breed is of remarkably pure descent is attested by the won- 
derful impressiveness in marking offspring. Within the pres- 
ent century their size has been increased, beef capacity 
improved, and milking qualities especially advanced. The 
Earl of Leicester was among the most noted of early English 
breeders, followed by Lord Somerville and Lord Western, 
who were not only breeders but did much, also, to improve 
the quality of the animals bred. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVON. 

Color a rich deep red throughout, excepting a central tuft 
of long white hair in the brush of the tail, and a white spot 
on the udder in cows, and above the purse in bulls. Upper 
line almost perfectly straight from the head to the tail; in 
the bull, the neck is of course somewhat arched above this 
level. The head is neat and trim, rather long in the cow, but 
short and masculine in the bull, and well pointed to a bright 
flesh-colored muzzle; eyes prominent, bright, wide apart, 
and encircled by rings of flesh-colored skin ; horns rather 
long, slender, curving outward, forward, and upward, waxy 
clear at base, and tapering to almost needle-like points of 
darker shade. The ear is sprightly; neck small at head, 
without dewlap, and full and broad at the shoulders ; fore- 
quarters quite apart, showing good lung power, and slanting 
well back, a feature in strict keeping with their well-known 
activity. The barrel is round and close-muscled ; loins even ; 
hips square ; rump smooth ; tail long, slender, and invariably 
tipped with white ; flank low cut ; brisket deep, and legs 
short, straight, and cleaned fleshed. 



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THE COW. 221 

Probably the most prominent trait of the Devon is his 
sprightly energy. In the early days of the present century, 
when the fertile prairies of the Great West held their virgin 
soil unbroken, the fanners of New England found abundant 
exercise in removing the stones, stumps, and saw-logs with 
which their land was covered. For this purpose oxen were 
employed almost exclusively, and the grades from those early 
imported Devons were eagerly sought. 

As work oxen, the Devons have no superior in the world ; 
they lack, perhaps, the weight necessary to move enormous 
loads, but their remarkable quickness, combined with an 
intelligent observance of the driver's will, make them invalu- 
able for work of certain kinds. For beef, little recommenda- 
tion is needed ; the improvement of the breed has, with many 
breeders, been almost entirely in this direction. 

The Devons are probably as nearly general -purpose ani 
mals as may be found among the present known breeds. In 
size they are medium, bulls, when matured, weighing from 
1,200 to 1,600 pounds, and cows from 900 to 1,100 pounds. 

(To be continued.) 



GANADO AMERICANO. 



Capitulo IV. 

LA VACA DE AYRSHIRE. 

Se ha dicho, y con mucha raz6n, que la reputaci6n se ad- 
quiere d menudo sin tener m^rito y que se pierde tambi^n sin 
merecerlo. Esto se aplica con mucha verdad d la vaca de Ayr- 
shire. Esta vaca ha sidocriada por mds de un siglo con todo 
el cuidado y la perseverancia posible por los criadores mds 
expertos, y hasta hace poco posefa la mds alta reputaci6n 
como el animal de mayor utilidad para el uso especial de 
producir leche. Por la cantidad y la excelencia de esta, 
por estar generalmente libre de enfermedades, y por las 



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222 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

circunstancias especiales que la hacen productora de queso, 
esta vaca se ha mantenido en primera linea. Pero en los 
ultimos alios ha perdido su popularidad y dejado de estar 
de moda. Al presente poco 6 nada se dice en su favor, d 
pesar de lo que en justicia se debe sin duda alguna & sus 
m^ritos especiales. La ra26n de este descr^dito ha de encon- 
trarse en que la crianza de estas vacas no es tan provechosa 
para los ganaderos como el de otras que son menos numerosas 
6 de mas reciente introducci6n. La vaca de Jersey y la de 
Holstein han tornado preferencia en este respecto, y & 
fuerza de anuncios repetidos han logrado sobreponerse 4 la 
de Ayrshire. Esta, sin embargo, conserva siempre, aunque 
no lo pregone, un alto lugar entfe las vacas de leche, y ese 
puesto lo conservard siempre d causa de la especial bondad 
de su leche que es la mejor que se conoce para hacer queso y 
para usos dom^sticos. Ni la figura ni el color son cuali- 
dades esenciales que puedan fijar pennanentemente el valor 
6 la utilidad de una vaca ; pero ni aun bajo este concepto 
puede decirse nada contra la de Ayrshire porque es un animal 
hermoso y bien forraado. Es tambi^n fdcil de alimentar y no 
exige gran cuidado en cuanto al pasto que deba ddrsele para 
que produzca leche y mantequilla de buena calidad. Ea 
estos dos punlqs es una vaca de primer orden, y si su leche 
no es realmente tan rica en grasa como la de la vaca de Jer- 
sey 6 de Guernsey, es sin embargo de mucho valor para ob- 
jetos determinados. Los globulos de su leche son mds 
pequenos que los de la de cualquiera otra vaca, y de .aquf 
resulta que aquella sea la mejor de todas para hacer queso y 
para los usos de familia. La crema sube mds despacio y 
estd mds intimamente mezclada con la leche, y por esto es mas 
fdcil de asimilarse para la nutrici6n. Para alimentar los 
ninos, uso d que se la destina con grande generalidad, es pre- 
ferible d todas las otras, por haberse demostrado que es la 
mds nutritiva y saludable. Es la que mds se aproxima en 
estas cualidades d la leche humana; y si los medicos estuvie- 
sen mds enterados de esta peculiaridad de la leche de la 
vaca de Ayrshire no recurririan d ninguna otra. Hayalgunos 
facultativos, sin embargo, que han estudiado este punto y que 



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LA VACA. 223 

hasta se ban tornado el trabajo de visitar un establo y escoger 
por si mismos la vaca con cuya leche debia alimentarse el 
nifto. Los que ban becbo este estudio reconocen que es la 
mejor lecbe. Los elementos grasos que bay en la lecbe son 
los mas importantes para los efectos nutritivos, y entran en la 
digesti6n como una de las cosas mds importantes. En cuanto 
i la proporci6n de grasa y su mayor diluci6n en la lecbe, la 
de la vaca de Ayrsbire en la que mds aproxima d la bumana, 
como se ba dicbo anteriormente. Para usos dom^sticos es 
sin duda la mejor y la mas segura. 

LAS VACAS DURHAM 6 DE CUERNOS CORTOS. 

Siempre se ba disputado mds 6 menos acerca del origen de 
esta importante raza. Sus mas ardientes admiradores pre- 
tenden una ascendencia pura ininterrupida por largo espacio 
de tiempo, sin que el mejoramiento dependa de otra causa 
que de una cuidadosa seleccion, buen alimento y el trato 
adecuado. Otros, que son tal vez partidarios de ptras razas, 
pretenden que todas las ventajasque las vacas Durbam poseen 
son solo el resultado de cruzamientos ocultos, pero juiciosa- 
mente bechos, con individuos superiores de las otras razas. 
Que baya liabido un tiempo en que los antepasados del 
ganado de Durbam eran solo ganado ordinario del pais, es 
cosa que se admite basta por sus mas fervientes admiradores; 
pero tambien es verdad, que, si ba babido algun cruzamieuto 
radical despu^s de que la raza qued6 definitivamente es- 
tablecida, ha de baber sido tan excesivameute oculto que no 
sesabe por nadie. 

Lo probable es que este ganado proviene del continente de 
Europa, especialmente de los lerritorios banados por el Bil- 
tico y el Mar del Norte. El ganado de aquellas looalidades 
poseia mucbas de las cualidades que boy adornan al de Dur- 
bam, incluj*endo en el las el color y el tauiano, pero mostraba 
ademds una disposicion general d producir excelente lecbe, 
que no caracteriza la mayoria del actual ganado de Dur- 
bam, que se usa en los Estados del Oeste para mejorar la 
raza de animal es destinadas para el matadero. En epoca tan 



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2 24 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

temprana como 1740 se tomaron observaciones cuidadosas 
sobre este ganado ; y, segun Mr. Bates, habia animales muy 
buenos de esta clase en las haciendas del Duque de Nortb- 
emberlaud en el ano de 1600. 

DESCRIPCION Y CARACTERES. 

Aunque varian mucho en el color, casi ninguna de estas 
vacas es negra, 6 bermeja, 6 del color mezclado llamado en 
ingles **brindle.*' En algunas familias el color es rojo puro 
subido de cereza ; en otras es bianco como la nieve. Y entre 
estos dos extremos las hay rojas y blancas de todos matices, 
especialmente en las manchas, que tambidn varian mucho en 
sus dimensiones. El ganado de la raza de Durham figura 
entre los de mas tamaflo. Los toros en perfecto desarroUo 
tienen un peso que varia de 1,900 d 2,300 libras. El de 
las vacas es de 1,200 d 1,600. Hay sin embargo alguno que 
otro individuo cuyo peso excede considerablemente d estas 
cifras. 

La forma general del animal es cuadrada, con todos los 
6rganos bien desarrollados, el lomo derecho y sim^trico, la 
parte posterior ancha y bien desarrollada, pero no abultada ni 
salienie en demasia, las costillas bien arqueadas dejando 
bastante espacio para formar la cavidad abdominal, el hocico 
de color anaranjado claro, y en algunas castas plomizo, con 
las ventanas de la nariz bi^n abiertas, y con los Idbios poco 
carnosos, los ojos claros. brillantes y rodeados de manchas 
circulares en forma de anillo de color naranjado claro, los 
cuernos de color claro 6 salpicados de manchas de color de 
crema. cortos en tamafio y generalmente encorvados hacia 
adentro, las orejas finas y delicadas y de color tambi^n ana- 
ranjado claro, el pescuezo corto y fino en la vaca, pero ancho, 
y cada vez mas fuerte segun la edad eu el toro ; la cola corta 
en la parte que precede al manojo de pelo, la papada ancha y 
plena, y las patas, pr6ximas una d otra, de huesos finos y bien 
proporcionadas al tamafio del animal. 

Los Durham sou propiamente animales utiles para todo, 
pero la mayoria de los criadores persiste en clasificar'os 
entre los destinados puramente para el matadero. Si se crian 



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LA VACA. 225 

las vacas de esta clase para hacerlas lecheras dan resultados 
muy valiosos, pero debe admitirse que la tendencia general 
d criarlas y alimentarlas para ser exhibidas en concursos y 
exposiciones ha aumentado grandemente las cualidades que 
las hacen utiles para el matadero, disminuyendosu m^ritocomo 
vacas deleche. £n algunas familias, notablemente entre las 
Princesas y las Duquesas, se ban conservado con cuidado las 
cualidades que las hacen buenas productoras de leche, y aun 
entre aquellas familias en que mas predomina el desarrollo 
de la came que ha de venderse en el niercado, se encuentra 
de vez en cuando alguna vaca de leche de la mejor cualidad 
posible. 

GANADO ROJO Y SIN CUERNOS. 
(red-polled cattle.) 

Los animales de esta raza (Red Polled) remontan en su his- 
toria hasta el siglo pasado ; pero no han empezado d atraer 
considerablemente la atenci6n del publico sino en los lilti- 
mos anos. Su origen estd bastante envuelto en oscuridad. 
El condado de Suffolk, en Inglaterra, ha tenido desde los 
primeros tiempos una raza de ganado sin cuemos y es mds 
que probable que d ella se deba en mucho el haber modelado 
el tipo, y hacer desaparecer los cuemos de la raza de Norfolk, 
que fue la primera en llamar la atenci6n del publico en 
general. 

DESCRIPCION Y CARACTERES. 

Este ganado es de color rojo pronunciado y con el pelo de 
la cola bianco. Hay algunas vacas de esta clase que tienen 
la ubre tambi^n blanca ; pero aunque esto no es una tacha 
absoluta, hace desmerecer al animal que la presenta. Su 
tamaflo es poco mds que mediano, los toros en perfecto 
desarrollo pesan de 1,700 d 2,100 libras, y las vacas de 1,1000 
d 1.400. La cabeza es bien cortada y presentando en la 
frente un manojode pelo largo yrizado, el hocicobien hecho 
y de color claro, el pescuezo fino y bien delineado, con papada 
poco voluminosa, las costillas arqueadas, pero no mucho, 
sino solamenie lo suficiente para dar la capacidad bastante al 



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2 26 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

abdomen, las patas finas, limpias y cortas. En la vaca la 
ubre debe ser grande pero no camosa ; y cuando estd vacia 
debe colgar formando pliegues. Los canales para la secre- 
ci6n de la leche deben ser salientes y bi6n marcados. 

Debe confesarse que la mayor parte de los criadores mo- 
demos de los Red-Polls ban cuidado demasiado de obtener 
ani males notables por su tamano y la belleza de su forma, 
descuidando, en contra de lo que debian haber hecho proce- 
diendo con mejor acierto, las grandes ventajas que pueden 
sacarse de estas vacas cuiddndolas para hacer lecheras. Si no 
se Gambia de sistema pronto podremos vernos en el caso de 
decir como se dice ya de los Durham, que fueroft original- 
mente una excelente raza para la lecheria pero que poco i 
poco se ban ido degenerando en este concepto y sufriendo per- 
juicio grande d consecuencia de la perniciosa costumbre de 
darles demasiado alimento para hacerlas lucir en las exposi- 
ciones. Los Red Polls se parecen en su aspecto general i 
los Devons, menos los cuenios (v6ase la lamina), y en general 
se les cria y anuncia como animales de utilidad general. En 
los Estados del Oeste se les considera, con raz6n a nuesm) 
juicio, como rivales de los Durham para aquel objeto. Son 
quietos, se alimertan bien, son faciles de manejar y de era- 
barcar, y, como todos admiten, de forma y color agradables. 
Si se crian con cuidado los Red -Polls podemos esperar verbs 
crecer rdpidamente en el favor del publico y conquistar un 
alto rango como animales igualmente propios para la produc- 
cion de la leche y para proveer de came d los mercados. 

LOS DEVONS. 

Al sur del Canal de Bristol, en Inglaterra, se encuentra el 
condado de Devon. Hay mucho en su geografia fisica, y en 
la del de Comwall que estd inmediato d el por el lado del 
Oeste, que lo hace notablemente semejante al pais de Gales. 
En realidad las gentes de estas localidades del Oeste de 
Inglaterra se encontraron tan libres de las incursions de los 
romanos, detrds de las vastas selvas que cubrian los dep6sitos 
aluviales de la Baja Inglaterra, como lo estuvieron las de 
Gales protejidas por las asperexas de sus montanas. 



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LA VACA. 227 

En Gales tenemos al presente las ra^^as llamadas del Norte 
y de Pembroke, que pueden considerarse como descen- 
dientes indudables del ganado salvage ; y en el condado de 
Devon, especialmente en su parte del Norte, ha existido por 
generaciones la raza que Ueva su nombre y que en Inglaterra- 
es familiaramente conocida bajo la designacion de ** Nortb 
Devons,'* para distinguirla mds especialmente de la que 
habita las tierras bajas de aquella regi6n y los territorios 
hacia el Este. Que esta raza es de descendencia notable- 
mente pura se atestigua por la maravillosa facilidad con que 
transmite y perpetua sus cardcteres distintivos. En el curso 
del presente siglo se ha aumentado su tamauo, se ha mejorado 
la cantidad y calidad de su came para los usos del mercado, 
y se han desenvuelto raucho sus cualidades por lo que hace d 
la producci6n de la leche. El Duque de Leicester {u6 uno de 
los primeros y mds notables individuos que se dedicaron en 
Inglaterra d la crianza de este ganado. A 61 le siguieron Lord 
Somerville y Lord Western, que no solamente fueron simples 
criadores, sino que hicieron tambi^n mucho para mejorar la 
calidad de los ani males. 

DESCRIPCION DEL DEVON. 

El color del Devon es rojo oscuro sin mezcla de otros 
matices, excepto en el pelo con que termina su cola, que es 
bianco, y excepto tambi^n en la ubre de las vacas donde hay 
una mancha blanca, la que tambi^n se encuentra en la bolsa 
de los testiculos de los toros. La linea desde la cabeza hasta 
la cola es casi perfectamente recta, aunque en el toro por 
supuesto el pescuezo se encuentra algun tanto arqueado. La 
cabeza es fina y bidn cortada, un poco larga en la vaca, pero 
corta y masctdina en el toro, terminada por un hocico de 
color de came ; los ojos son salientes, brillantes, bien sepa- 
rados y rodeados de manchas en forma de anillos tam- 
bi^n de color de came. Los cuemos son un tanto largos, 
delgados, encorvados hacia fuera, hacia adelante, y hacia 
arriba, de color de cera claro en su base, y oscuro en lo 
demds, terminando gradualmente en punta tan aguda como un 
aguja. Las orejas son muy vivas, y el pescuezo pequeilo en la 

17 BUL 



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228 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

parte inmediata & la cabeza, sin papada alguna, y ancho y de- 
sarrollado en la parte anterior. La parte delantera es volumi- 
nosa y presenta mucha capacidad para contener los pulmones. 
El cuerpo aparece inclinado suavem^nte hacia la parte pos- 
terior, cuyo cardcter estd en perfecta armonia con la bien 
conocida actividad del animal. La caja del cuerpo es redonda 
y bien provista demusculos, los lomos son parejos, la parte 
de atrds cuadrada y suave ; la cola larga, delgada e invaria- 
blemente terminada con un pufiado de pelo ; los costados 
muy bajos, el ^ntepecho hondo y las patas cortas, derechas y 
musculosas, pero enjutas. 

Probablemente el cardcter mds notable del Devon es su 
gran viveza. En los primeros dias del presente siglo, cuando 
todavia no se habia tocado el suelo virgen de las f^rtiles pra- 
deras del Gran Oeste, los agricultores de la Nueva Ingleterra 
encontraron abundante ejercicio removiendo las piedras, tron- 
cos y raices con que sus propios terrenos estaban cubiertos, y 
para este objeto empleaban bueyes casi exclusivamente, y los 
que se buscaban con mds empeiio eran los de la raza de De- 
von recientemente importados. 

Como buey de trabajo el Devon no tiene superior en el 
mundo. Quizds le falte el peso necesario para mover enormes 
cargas, pero su notable prontitud unida d su inteligente obe- 
dienciad la voluntad del que lo maneja lo hacen de inmeuso 
valor para trabajos de ciertas clases. 

Como animal destinado para el matadero poca recomenda- 
ci6n se necesita. El mejoramiento de la raza en este sentido 
ha sido el objeto que se ban propuesto casi exclusivamente 
muchos de los criadores. 

Los Devons son probablemente tan utiles para objetos gene- 
rales como cualesquiera otros de los animales de las otras 
razas conocidas. Su tamafio es mediano. Los toros en per- 
. fecto desarroUo pesan de 1,200 d 1,600 libras y las vacas de 
900 d 1,100. 

(Continuard.) 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 229 



THE COTTON STATES AND INTERNA- 
TIONAL EXPOSITION. 



The Cotton States and International Exposition to be held 
in Atlanta, Georgia, during the fall of 1895 is intended prima- 
rily to bring together an epitome of human effort and a collec- 
tion of the important products in all countries of the Western 
Hemisphere. Its scope is, however, international, and 
exhibits are invited and expected from all the other conti- 
nents. 

This Exposition takes its name from one of the most 
favored regions on the globe, extending from the Potomac 
to the Rio Grande, with its broad range of soil, latitude and 
climate, made broader and more extensive by a topography 
which includes every geological formation kupwn to the 
earth, carrying in its folds almost the entire series of the 
mineral kingdom. 

The agricultural products of this region equal in value the 
exports of the United States, and its manufactured products 
are more than sufficient to pay for the imports of the entire 
country. These products are within easy reach of salt water 
along 3,000 miles of shore line, with numerous harbors that 
float the ships of all nations. 

The United States Government has aided this Exposition 
by an appropriation of $200,000 for an exhibit, similar in 
plan and scope to the one made at Chicago. In the debate 
on the appropriation the most distinguished orators of all 
political parties vied with each other in enthusiastic commen- 
dation of the enterprise. That debate and the action of 
Government placed the Exposition at once upon an interna- 
tional plane. Inquiries are already coming in from foreign 
countries. President Diaz has announced his determination 
to make an exhibit of the resources dnd products of Mexico, 
and semi-official advices from Caracas indicate that the Gov- 



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230 BUREAU -OP THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

ernment of Venezuela contemplates a display of its products 
here. Information received through the Belgian consul at 
Atlanta is to the effect that the .Eling of Belgium is consider- 
ing the advisability of placing in this Exposition a magnifi- 
cent collection of the resdurces of the Congo basin. The 
indications are that the Exposition will not be lacking in 
picturesque features. A Mexican village will be a unique 
attraction, and similer ones will come from other countries. 
But while encouragement will be given to picturesque and 
bizarre attractions, there will be no toleration of fakes and 
humbugs. 

' Feeling that one of the first and best results of the Expo- 
sition would be to bring about a fuller exchange of the wares 
and products of the countries of North, South, and Central 
America, and thereby to open at once the new era of com- 
mercial expansion and industrial development which thought- 
ful men predict for the Western World, the management 
dispatched its first commissioners to the Southern Republics. 

The first of these. Col. Isaac W. Avery, of Georgia, is by 
profession a journalist and historian of this State, and was 
for a long time closely connected with public affairs at Wash- 
ington. For several years he has been engaged in a success- 
ful effort to promote direct trade between the South Atlantic 
and European ports. He is admirably equipped to present 
the claims of the Exposition to the governments and public 
men of South America. He sailed from New York early in 
October for Rio de Janeiro and from Brazil will go to Uruguay 
and Paraguay. Mr. Charles H. Redding, Commissioner to 
Mexico, has already met with success in the exhibits 
announced from that country. 

One of the most important appointments yet made is that 
of ^r. W. P. Tisdel, of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 
to represent the Cotton States and International Exposition 
in Centra^ and South America. Mr. Tisdel has extensive 
acquaintance and business connections in those countries, and 
was for two years a representative of the World's Columbian 
Exposition in South America. He sailed from New York on 
the loth of October and will visit in turn Guatemala, Hon- 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 231 

duras, Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, and prob- 
ably Venezuela and Ecuador. 

In the matter of transportation an important concession has 
been secured from the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. In 
a recent letter to President Collier, Mr. Tisdel says : 

** I can offer free transportation, as far as the Pacific mail 
lines can be utilized, for exhibits, and can make reduced 
rates of travel to and from the States to commissioners and 
others who will visit the Exposition." 

The Exposition will be held at Piedmont Park, two miles 
from the city . The site covers 189 acres of ground, on which 
1300,000 has already been expended. The park will be 
reached by five well -equipped electric lines, and also by the 
tracks of . the St>ttthem Railway Company. Within the 
grounds an Intramural railway will afford easy and quick 
access to all the buildings. 

ft is not proposed to build cheap imitations of the World's 
Fair building^s, or to spend money in tawdry decorations, but 
to erect substantial, imposing, roomy, well-ventilated and 
well-lighted structures, which will fully protect all classes of 
exhibits and furnish every facility for effective dispilay. 

Besides the Government building, which will be one of the 
most imposing, the plan includes the following edifices; the 
third dimension is the height from floor to cornice: 

Manafactures an^ Liberal Arts 216x370x65 

Machinery 100x500x48 

Mioing and Forestry ^ 80x320x60 

AgriciiRSfe ."..t.. 150x300x65 

Electricity ; «.*. 91 x 250x65 

Transportation « 1^x4-3x50 

Woman's Bailding ^ 150 x 250 x 65 

Pine Arts 100x200x65 

Negro Building « 150x250 

Tobacco bailding, plan not competed. 

In addition to these, will be the buildings erected by States 
and foreign countries. The Legislature of Louisiana has 
already, by resolution, provided for a State exhibit, and it is 
expected that all the Cotton States afid many of the others 



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232 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

will be represented. The governors and commercial bodie s 
have already given the Exposition their indorsement. 

Atlanta is an ideal site for the Exposition. Its elevation 
of nearly i,ioo feet above sea, its freedom from extremes of 
heat or cold and its immunity from epidemics make it one 
of the most desirable residence cities in the United States. 
Its population of 100,000 is rapidly growing. It is the heart 
of the Piedmont region and the leading city of the Cotton 
States in point of enterprise and progress. 

There are many reasons why this Exposition will interest 
the people of South and Central America. A special reason 
is that the Cotton. States, with their mixed populations, are 
working out the same social and industrial problems which 
confront the Southern Republics. Brazil, withits four millions 
of recently emancipated slaves, has undertaken the reorgan- 
ization of its labor system — the same task which the Cotton 
States began thirty years ago. 

Foreign exhibits will be admitted to the United States free 
of duty. The following proviso is part of the appropriation 
act: 

All articles whichshall.be imported from foreign countries for the 
sole purpose of exhibition at said Exposition, upon which there shall 
be a tariff or customs dut}*, shall be admitted free of payment of duty, 
customs, fees or charges, under such regulation as the ^cretary of the 
Treasury shall prescribe ; but it shall be. lawful at any time during the 
Exposition to sell for delivery, at the close of the Exposition, any 
goods or property imported for and actually on exhibition in the Expo- 
sition buildings, or on its grounds, subject to such regulation for the 
security of the revenue, and for the collection of import duties as the 
Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe ; and all such articles, when 
sold or withdrawn for consumption in the United States, shall be sub- 
ject to the duty, if any, imposed upon such articles by the revenue laws 
in force at the date of importation, and all penalties prescribed by 
law shall be applied and enforced against such parties, and against 
the persons who may be £^lty of any illegal sale or withdrawal. 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 233 



LA EXPOSICION INTERNACIONAL DE LOS 
ESTADOS ALGODONEROS. 



La Hxposici6n intemacional de los Estados Algodoneros que 
se lia de celebrar en Atlanta, Georgia, en el otofLo de 1895, tiene 
por primordial objeto ofrecer 4 los ojos del mundo un epitome 
adecuado de los esfuerzos de la actividad humana en el hemis- 
ferio occidental, y una colecci6n bien ordenada de los pro- 
dactos mas importantes de esta porci6n del uni verso. Su cardc- 
ter es sin embargo intemacional, puesto que se espera que 
concurran & ella todas las demds naciones del Viejo Mundo, 
a cuyo efecto se les ban hecho las invitaciones oportunas. 

Esta Exposici6n toma su nombre del de una de las regiones 
mas favorecidas del globo, que es la que se extiende desde 
el Potomac hasta el Rio Grande, abrazando una grande varie- 
dad de terrenos, latitud y climas, diversificada mucho ni4s 
todavia por causa de sus especiales condiciones topogrdficas, 
que incluyen cuanta formaci6n geol6gica es conocidaenla 
ciencia, y permiten que se encuentre en su suelo la serie en- 
tera de los objetos y sustancias que constituyen el reino 
mineral. • 

El valor de los productos de la agricultura en esta regi6n 
se equipara al de las exportaciones todas de los Estados 
Unidos, y el de los articulos manufacturados d que la indus- 
tria da nacimiento en la misma son mds que suficientes para 
pagar el precio de la totalidad de las mercancias importadas 
en el pais. Estas riquezas, lo mismo la fabril que la agricola, 
tienen fdcil salida al oceano, por nunierosos puertos abiertos 
en una extensi6n de costa de mds de tres mil millas, y fre- 
cuentados por buques de todas las naciones. 

El Gobiemo de los Estados Unidos ha prestado auxilio d 
esta Exposici6n, concedi^ndola un cr^dito de |2oo,ooo, para 
organizar con ellos una colecci6n andloga en cardcter d la que 
el mismo Gobiemo present6 en Chicago. En el debate que 



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234 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tuvo lugar cuando se trat6 de conceder dicho cr^dito tomaron 
parte activa los oradores mas distinguidos de todos los parti - 
dos, y todos ellos rivalizaron unos con otros en recomendar 
elocueniemente la erapresa. Ese debate y la acci6n del 
Gobiemo imprimieron desde luego d esta ultima una tendencia 
intemacional. 

De los paises extranjeros se ban recibido ya diferentes 
comunicaciones, solicitando informes respecto de este certa- 
men. El Pi'esidente Diaz ba anunciado su determiuaci6n de 
bacer que Mexico est6 representado por una colecci6n de sus 
productCK naturales y manufacturados. Y de Caracas ba 
llegado, aunque solo semioficialmente, la noticia de que el 
Gobierno de Venezuela se propone tener en el concurs© id^n- 
tica participaci6n. Segun lo informado por el C6nsul de 
B^lgica en Atlanta, el Gobiemo de Bmselas se ocupa en estos 
momeutos de estudiar la conveniencia de que aparezca en 
este concurso una magnifica colecci6n de los productos del 
Congo. 

Todo indica, por otra parte, que la Exposici6n no carecerd 
tempoco de rasgos pintorescos. Habrd en ella una represen- 
taci6n perfecta de una aldea mexicana, que llamard mucho la 
atenci6n, y representaciones semej antes de las poblaciones 
de otros paises se exbibirdn junto con ella. Pero d la vez 
que se conceda la atenci6n debida d todo lo que sirva para 
aumentar el atractivo de la Exposici6n, se evitard tambi^n 
con cuidado todo lo que en\nielva cbarlatanismo y falso 
brillo. 

Estando como estdn los promovedores del pensamiento 
bajo la impresi6n de que el primero y el mejor de los resulta- 
dos de esta Exposici6n serd el de que se desarrollen en mayor 
escala los cambios y el tfdfico comercial entre las naciones 
del Norte, del Centro, y del Sud de America, y de que entre 
por lo tanto dicbo comercio en aquella era de mayor expan- 
si6n, d que aspiran todos los hombres pensadores del Nuevo 
Mundo, ban enviado ya sus agehtes y representantes d las 
demds Repdblicas. 

El primero de estos Comisionados, que es el Coronel Isaac 
W. Avery, de Georgia, periodista de profesi6n, 6 bistoriador 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 235 

4e su Bstado, ha vivido por largo tieinpo ocupado en Wash- 
ington en los asuntos piiblicos. Por muchos afios ha dirigido 
•sus esfuerzos, con notable 6xito, en el sentido de fomentar el 
tr&fico directo entre los puertos del Atldntico en la parte del 
Sud de este pais y los puertos de Europa, y se encuentra en 
drcumstancias y aptitud admirables para explicar los fines y 
prop6sitos de la Exposici6n de que se trata d los Gobiemos y 
hombres publicos de Sud America. Se embarc6 en New York 
r& principios de Octubre con direcci6n d Rio Janeiro ; y del 
Brasil pasard d Uruguay y Paraguay. 

Mr. Charles H. Redding, que es el Comisionado nombrado 
para M6xico,« ha couseguido ya resultados notables, y asegu- 
rado la promesa de que se enviard por aquel pafs la colecci6n 
anunciada. 

Uno de los nombramientos de mas importancia que hasta 
ahora se ban hecho es el del Coronel William P. Tisdel, 
Agente de la Compafiia de vapores de la Mala del Pacifico, 
para que represente d la £xposici6n en los pafses de la 
America Central, y en algunos otros de Sud America. Mr. Tis- 
del tiene un vasto conocimiento de esos paises, se encuentra 
con ellos en multitud de relaciones de negocios y fue por el 
-espacio de dos anos el representante de la Exposici6n Uni 
versal de Chicago en la America meridional. El 10 de Octu- 
bre sali6 de New York y visitard sucesivamente las Rep6- 
blicas de Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa 
Rica, Colombia, y probablemente Venezuela y Ecuador. 

En el particular de los transportes se ha obtenido de la 
Companfa de vapores de la Mala del Pacifico una concesi6n 
importante . En una carta del Presidente de la misma, el Senor 
Collier, dirigida d Mr. Tisdel, se dice: "Puedo ofrecer trans- 
porte libre, en toda la extensi6n utilizable de la linea de los 
vapores de la Mala del Pacifico, d los articulos que deban 
€xhibirse, y puedo ofrecer reducci6n en los pasages de ida y 
vuelta d los Comisionados y otras personas que visiten la 
Exposici6n." 

Esta se celebarard en el Parque de Piedmont, que estd d 
dos millas" de la ciudad de Atlanta. El terreno ocupa una 
«xtensi6n de 189 acres, en cuyo arreglo conveniente se ban 



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236 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

empleado ya $300,000. Podrd tenerse fdcil aceeso & este 
Parque por medio de cinco lineas de ferrocarril el^ctrico, 
perfectamentfc equipadas y bien servidas, y por las del 
ferrocarril ordinario que pertenece & la Compaiiia denominada 
"Southern Railway Company.*' En los terrenos mismos de 
la Exposicion habrd un ferrocarril intramural, que permitird 
d los visitantes, trasladarse de un punto d otro con rapidez 
y comodidad. 

No existe la intenci6n de construir edificios que sean imita- 
ciones baratas de los de la Exposici6n Universal de Chicago, 
6 de gastar dinero en adomos sobrecargados. Los edificios 
que se construirdn serdn s61idos, de aspecto imponente, espa* 
ciosos, bien ventilados y de todo punto d prop6sitoparael objeto 
dqueseles destina. En ellos se hallardn bien protegidos 
todos los articulos, y se encontrard tambi^n cuanta facilidad 
pueda desearse para que la exhibici6n delos mismos articulos 
se haga de la manera que por los expositores mismos se estime 
ser mas venlajosa. 

Aparte del edificio del Gobiemo que serd uno de los mas 
notables, habrd, segun los planes hasta ahora formados, los 
mencionados en la siguiente list a. Los numeros de la tercera 
columna, representan la altura del edificio desde su suelo 
hasta la comiza. 

' Edificio de las Manufacturas y artes liberales 216 x 370 x 65 

Id. de la Maquinaria 100 x 500 x 28 

Id. de las Minas y riqueza forestal 80x320x60 

Id. de la Agricultura '. 150x300x65 

Id. de la Blectricidad 91 x 250x65 

Id. delos Transporiefi • 126x413x50 

Id. de las Mujeres 150 x 250 x 65 

Id. delas Bellas Artes 100 x 200x65 

Id. de los Negros 150X 250 

Id. para el Tabaco, sa plan no estd completo todavfa. 

Ademds de los ^nteriores habrd los edificios particulares de 
lo^ Estados de la Uni6n y los de los paises extranjeros que 
concurran d la Exposicion. La Legislatura de Louisiana ha 
dictado ya las oportunas medidas para que se organize una 
colecci6n de los articulos y productos de su territorio ; y se 



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COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 237 

espera que los Estados algbdoneros y muchos de los demds 
del pais determinardn hacer lo mismo. De sus diferentes 
Goberaadores, y de las grandes asociaciones comerciales que 
en ellos estdii establecidas, se hai^ recibido ya sefialadas 
muestras de aprobaci6n y simpatia. 

Atlanta es una localidad que pudiera llamarse ideal para el 
efecto de celebrar en ella esta Exposici6n. Su elevaci6n & 
cerca de 1,100 pies sobre el nivel del mar, y el hecho de que 
se encuentra enteramente libre asi de 'los calores excesiv6s 
como de los extremos fries, junto con su inmunidad contra 
las epidemias, la hacen ser una de las ciudades mas apete- 
cibles de los Estados Unidos para el objeto de vivir en ella. 
Su poblaci6n que Uega ya d 100,000 habitantes estd creciendo 
incesantemente. Estd situada en el coraz6n de la reg^6n de 
Piedmont, y es la ciudad mds principal de los Estados al^o- 
doneros, en cuanto a espiritu de empresa y progreso rdpido. 

Hay multitud de razones para hacer creer que esta Exposi- 
ci6n interesard d los pueblos de la America Central y del 
Sud, y entre ellas descuella la de que los Estados algodone- 
ros, con su poblaci6n mixta, estdn empeflados en resolver los 
niismos problemas sociales 6 industrials que se encuentrau 
planteados en aquellas Republicas. El Brasil con sus cuatro 
millones de recieu emanicipados esclavos ha emprendido la 
reorgani2aci6n de su sistema de trabajo, que es la misma 
tarea en que tuvieron que empefiarse hace treinta afios los 
Estados algodoneros. 

Los articulos extranjeros que vengan destinados d la Expo- 
sici6n serdn admitidos sin pagar derechos de aduanas. La 
siguiente determiYiaci6n forma parte de la Ley de Pr^supuestos 
en que se concedi6 el creditor 

*' Todos los articulos que se importen del extranjero con 
solo el objeto de exhibirlos en la Exposici6n, y est^n sujetos 
i derechos de aduana, serdn admitidos libres de toda carga, 
con sujeci6n sin embargo d las reglas que para el caso pres- 
cribael Secretario del Tesoro. Serd licita la venta de todo 
lo importado de esta manera, y que se encuentre efectiva- 
mente expuesto al publico en cualquiera de los edificios, 6 en 
los terrenos de la £xposici6n, pero la venta ha de ser d 



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I 238 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

I 

I condici6n de no entregar el articulo hasta que se termine el 

concurso, y de estar sujeta tambi^n i, las reglas que dicte 
el mismo Secretario del Tesoro par seguridad del pago de los 
dereclios de importaci6n. Y todos los articulos asi vendidos, 
6 los que se retiraren de la Exposici6n para entregarlos al 
consiuno, tendrdq que pagar los derechos de importaci6n que 
sefialen las leyes que est^n entonces vigentes. Y todas las 
penas que sefialen las mismas leyes serdn aplicables y se 
aplicardn & todas las personas que resulten culpables de cual- 
quiera venta 6 retiro de mercancias que se haga ilegalmeute. ** 



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MEXICO. 239 



MEXICO. 



PRESIDENTIAL MESSAGE AT THE OPENING OF 
THE FIRST SESSION OF THE SEVENTEENTH 
CONGRESS OF THE UNION, SEPTEMBER 16, 1894. 

Tbe passages of the message which have a bearing upon 
commerce, and in general the material interests of the Repub- 
lic, are the following : 

MININb INDUSTRY. 

"The mining industry continues its ever-increasing devel- 
opment. The records of the department for the promotion of 
public welfare show it conclusively. The number of appli- 
cations for grants of mining property has considerably 
increased. The number of settled cases transmitted by the 
mining agencies has also grown larger. Between the date of 
my last message and the last day of the last month 519 pat- 
ents, or titles of ownership of mining property, ha\'e been 
issued, covering 3,281 units of mining property of one hec- 
tare each. 

"Amongst the mining enterprises worthy to be mentioned 
on account of the importance of the work done by them, the 
French company, which exploits the copper mines at Boleo, 
in the territory of Lower California, ranks in th^ first place. 
Less than ten years ago Santa Rosalia was a locality entirely 
uninhabited, and now it has a population of 4,700 inhabitants. 
The village has been provided with water by means of an 
iron conduit of sixteen kilometers in length, built by the 
company. A breakwater is now being built by the same, in 
order to improve the harbor, and the construction of the 
warehouses and office rooms of the Custom-House, as well as 
the harbormaster's quarters, also undertaken by it, has been 
finished. The railroad lines which establish communication 



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240 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

between the Custom-House and the offices of the company, as 
well as with the several mines which belong to it, have a 
length of a little over thirty-five kilometers. During the 
fiscal year, which ended on the 30th of June ultimo, the 
yielding of the mines belonging to this company amounted to 
131,000 tons of copper ore, and the quantity of ore which was 
smelted and otherwise worked, represented by figures not 
much different from the above, yielded 9,500 tons of pure 
copper. 

* 'Under the act of Congress, promulgated on the 6th of June 
ultimo, which granted privileges to the mining companies 
undertaking the exploration and exploitation of gold mines, 
a company has been organized m this city, with a capital of 
<3,ooD,ooo, whose field of operations will be the auriferous 
deposits of the State of Oaxaca. A contract to that effect 
has been duly entered into by the said company with the 
Department for the Promotion of Public Welfare. 

" Another contract of analogous nature, also for the work- 
ing of gold mines in Lower California, is now under nego- 
tiation.** 

AGRICULTURE. 

** Progress is also noticeable in agriculture, especially in re- 
lation to the purchase of lands suitable for the raising of 
coffee, and in the organization of companies having for their 
object not only that special cultivation but also the cultiva- 
tion of other products of the tropical regions not less noble. 

** Our farmers, partly stimulated by the advantages offered 
to them by the last act of Congress on the subject, and parti}' 
schooled by the sad experience of the last years of drought, 
have undertaken to find out the best manner of using the 
water, both as a motive power and for the purposes of irriga- 
tion. The crops which in some States were threatened by the 
late coming of the rainy season, are now in a very promising 
condition, in consequence of the general rains which have 
prevailed throughout the country ever since last July.** 



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MEXICO. 241 

IN\1TATION TO ATTEND THE IRRIGATION CONGRESS AT 
DENVER. COLO. 

'*An invitation has been extended through our Minister in 
Washington to the Government of the Republic, to be rep- 
resented at an Irrigation Congress to be held during the first 
days of the present month at the city of Denver, in the State 
of Colorado. The Department for the Promotion of Public 
Welfare appointed a proper representative, who started in 
due time from this capital." 

PUBLIC LANDS. 

''During the period to which this message refers 430,000 
hectares of public lands have become private property. That 
number embraces denouncements of vacant lands, sales of 
surveyed lands, opening of lands adjacent to towns or cities 
and set apart to be used in common by their inhabitants, and 
concessions granted to surveying enterprises. The convey- 
ances have been made in the form and manner provided for 
by the laws in force before the 30th of June ultimo. 

"The new law on public lands began to be in operation on 
the ist of July, and in pursuance with its provisions land 
agencies have been established in the capitals of the States 
and Territories." 

IRRIGATION CANALS AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS. 

"Under the direction of a scientific commission at Sonora, 
a new irrigation canal has begun to be built on the right bank 
of the Yaqui River. The works for another canal, under- 
taken on the left bank of the same river by the Colonization 
Companj' that has control of the lands adjacent to that side 
of the stream, are greatly advanced. 

" Near the Mayo River several irrigation canals have been 
opened by private individuals. 

" Lands have been distributed among those colonists who 
have come and settled in the new towns founded on both 
sides of the two rivers above named. The efforts made by 
both the Government and private individuals to settle and 



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242 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cultivate the lands of those regions have been attended with 
success. Peace and confidence will be aflfirmed there by these 
means.'' 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, 

'*In regard to the manufacturing industries I shall call 
attention to tke fact that a manufactory of articles of jute 
has been established at Orizaba. The owners of that estab- 
lishment will not only take advantage of that material, but 
also of some of the other excellent fibers produced by our 
soil. 

POSTAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

**The proceeds of the mail service during the last year 
amounted to $1,220,017, which shows an increase of $49,127 
in comparison with the yieldings of the previous year. 

'*The Commission appointed to revise the Postal Code has 
finished its work, which is'now being examined by the proper 
department. The revised Code will be promulgated as soon 
as possible. 

**A decree has been issued by which a domestic parcels- 
post system is established in Mexico. Postage on parcels 
has been considerably diminished. It used to be 32 cents 
per pound; now it is 12 cents per 500 grams. Small com- 
mercial transactions have been thereby facilitated. 

*' Postage on periodical publications and on schoolbooks 
has also been reduced to a great extent. Periodical publica- 
tions used to pay 4 cents per pound; now they pay only 2 
cents per 500 grams. School books used to pay 8 cents per 
pound; they now pay 2 cents per 500 grams." 

TEI.EGRAPHIC LINES. 

"Between the month of April ultimo and the present date 
602 kilometers of telegraphic lines have been built, and 
the whole telegraphic net, which new measures 41,642 kilo- 
meters, has been repaired and left in good condition. Thir- 
teen thousand six hundred telegraphic posts have been 
replaced by new ones." 



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MEXICO. 24a 

RAII.ROADS. 

"Notwithstanding the serious difficulties which, owing t<r 
the depreciation of silver, the public prosperity has had to- 
encounter, our railroad system has been enlarged during the 
last three months to the extent of 1 1 1 kilometers. The whol& 
system now measures 11,100 kilometers. 

" The railroads which have extended their lines are : Tue 
Mexican Railroad, the line of railroads of the Federal Dis- 
trict, which is already 209 kilometers long ; the Interoceanic 
Railway, which on the Morelos line has reached Puente de 
Ixtla; the Merida and Campeche, the Tecolutla to Espinal, 
the Izucar de Matamoros to Acapulco, and the Puebla Indus- 
trial Railroad, which now reaches Huejotzingo. The Mex- 
ico, Cuemavaca and Pacific Railway is being pushed with the 
same energy which was displayed at the beginning of its 
construction, and has completed its sixty-ninth kilometer. 

"The Hidalgo Railway has made considerable improve- 
ment in its tracks and some of its stations, and has decided 
finally about the location of the line of Tulancingo to Tuxpsm. 

"The International has begun the construction of a new 
branch, which starts from * Reata Station * and will connect 
the trunk line with the city of Monterey. The maps and 
plans have been finally approved. 

" The Monterey and El Golfo Railway has made impor- 
tant improvements, especially at the Monterey and Tampico 
stations. 

"The Vera Cruz and Boca del Rio Railroad has completed 
its lines and finally organized its service. 

" It is very gratifying to me to be able to close this short 
statement of the progress made in our country in the matter 
of railroads, by informing the Chambers that the Istmo de 
Tehuantepec Railroad has been finished. The work being 
done there now is for the purpose of perfecting the lines. 
Progress is being made also at Salina Cruz, one of the termi- 
nal points of the road, for the construction of a pier which 
extends 246 meters into the sea, up to a depth of nine feet, 
thus allowing large vessels to come alongside the pier, and 
i8bui« 



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244 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

load and unload their respective cargoes with facility. It is 
very probable that the line will be open to the public service 
by next October. 

" It is seen, therefore, that the spirit of enterprise in regard 
to this matter has not lessened at all. During the last three 
months ifourteen railroad concessions, without subsidy, have 
been granted. Some of them are for lines entirely new, 
while some others are to amend or modify other lines already 
granted. All of them have had for their object to improve, 
by rapid and easy communication, the agriculture of the 
country as well as its mining and industrial interests." 

OTHER PUBLIC WORKS. 

'*The wagon roads whose preservation belongs to the Fed- 
eral Executive have been attended to as extensively as per- 
mitted by the present circumstances of the Treasury. 

'*The drainage works of the valley of Mexico have con- 
tinued without interruption. The works in the tunnel have 
been done regularly ever since the Board of Directors took 
immediate control of the same. They are at present in a 
remarkably fair way of progress. The preparatory gallery, 
which has a length of 10,021 meters, is already finished. 
The lining has been completed only to the extent of 9,500 
meters. The balance will not take long to be finished. As 
to the grand canal, I can say that the volume already exca- 
vated is represented by 9,084,000 cubic meters. 
' **The works for the preservation of the rivers and canals 
in the valley of Mexico have been continued. The San 
Juan Canal has been widened, and the current of the River 
Chico has been rectified. Proper stiidies and surxeys are 
being made to utilize in the proper way the waters of the 
valley. 

** Works for the improvement of the Santa Rosalia harbor 
have been undertaken, according to a contract. The break- 
water which will form the harbor lias been already built to 
an extent of about fifty meters, which -is a fifth of the total 
length. 

'* Proper attention is being paid also to the establishment 



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MEXICO. 245 

of lighthouses at Salina Cruz, the terminal port on the Pacific 
of the Tehuan tepee National Railroad. A lighthottse was 
inangorated to-day at Ceibaplaya, which is expected to be of 
great service to the coastwise trade. 

''A breakwater has been built at Ciudad Juarez, which will 
protect that city against the invasion of the waters of the 
Rio Bravo. Spurs No. 3 and g}4 have been completed. 

'*The works to improve the harbor of Vera Cruz are going 
on satisfactorily. Considerable progress has been made in 
the construction of the northwestern dam, and of the break- 
water parallel to the seashore." . 



MEXICO. 



DISCURSO DEL PRESIDENTE EN LA APERTURA 
DEL CONGRESO 170 DE LA UNION, EL 16 DE SE- 
TIEMBRE DE 1894. 

Los pasajes del discurso presidencial que hacen relaci6n al 
comercio y en general & los intereses materiales de la Rep6- 
blica son los siguientes : 

INDUSTRIA MINERA. 

"La industria minera sigue en creciente desarroUo, como 
lo indica el movimiento del ramo en la Secretaria de Fomento. 
Bl numero de solicitudes de concesi6n aumenta considerable- 
mente, asi como el de expedientes concluidos que remitenlas 
Agendas de Mineria, habi^ndose expedido, desde la fecha de 
mi anteriot info i me hasta el dia ultimo del mes pr6ximo 
pasado, quinientos diez y nueve titulos de propiedades mineras 
correspondientes d tres mil doscieptas ochenta y una perte- 
nencias de una hectdrea. 

"Entre las empresas mineras dignas de mencionarse, por 
la importancia de las obras que ha Uevado d cabo, se encuen- 
tra la compaflia francesa que explota los minerales de cobre 



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246 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

bel Boleo, en el Temtorio de la Baja California. Hace poco 
menos de diez aiios qne el lugar de Santa Rosalia estaba en- 
teramente desierto, y hoy cuenta con cuatro mil setecientos 
habjtantes. La compaiiia ha llevado el agua A la poblaci6n 
por medio de una cafleria de hierro de diez y seis kil6metros 
de longitud. Construye un dique para mejorar el puerto, y 
ha conclufdo los almacenes de la aduana maritima y las ofici- 
nas de la misma aduana y de la capitania del puerto. Los 
ferrocarriles que ponen en comunicaci6n lats ofjcinas de la 
aduana con las de la compaflia y con los grupos de minas que 
explota, se extienden 4 poco mas de treinta y cinco kil6me- 
tros. Durante el afio fiscal que termin6 el 30 de Junio ultimo, 
la producci6n de las minas ^\x6 de ciento treinta y un mil tone- 
ladas de minerales de cobre, y la cantidad de mineral bene- 
ficiado, muy poco diferente de la anterior, produjo mis de 
nueve mil quinientas toneladas de cobre puro. 

" En virtud de la ley del Congreso promulgada en seis de 
Junio ultimo, concediendo franquicias & las empresas que se 
dedicaran & la exploraci6n y explotaci6n de criaderos de ore, 
se ha organizado en esta ciudad una compaRia, con capital de 
tres millones de pesos, para la explotaci6n de criaderos auri- 
feros en el Estado de Oaxaca, habiendo celebrado el contrato 
respectivo con la Secretarfa de Fomento. Est4 para ajnstarse 
otro con una empresa que ha de trabajar minas de oro en la 
Baja California." 

AGRICULTURA. 

"Tambi^n se nota movimiento en la industria agricola, 
sobre todo en la compra de terrenos para el cultivo del caf^, 
y en la organizaci6n de empresas para la explotaci6n y ex- 
portaci6n del mismo fruto y de otros no menos nobles de las 
regiones tropicales. El mejor aprovechamiento de las aguas, 
en riegos y como potencia, ocupa asimismo d nuestros agri- 
cultores, estimulados en parte por las franquicias que otorga 
la uffima ley que expidi6 el Congreso sobre la materia, y en 
parte aleccionados por las consecuencias dtslb^ j&ltimos afios de 
sequ{a. Las cosechas, que se vieron amenazadas en algunos 
Estados por el retardo en la estaci6n lluviosa, presentan en 



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MBXICO. 247 

la ^ctualidad un aspecto halagador, d consecuencia de que las 
llavias se generalizaron en todo el pais desde el mes de 
Julio." 

INVITACION AL GOBIERNO PARA HACERSE REPRESENTAR 
EN EL CONGRESO DE RIEGOS EN DENVER, CX)LORADO. 

"Invitado el Gobiemo de la Reptiblica, por conducto de 
su Ministro en Washington, para hacerse representar en un 
Congreso de Riegos que habfa de tener lugar en los primeros 
dfas del presente mes, en Denver, Estado de Colorado, se 
nombr6 por la Secretarfa de Fomento un representante, que 
sali6 de esta capital en tiempo oportuno." 

TIERRAS PUBLICAS. 

*' Durante el periodo d que se refiere este informe, se ban 
.reducido d propiedad particular cuatrocientas treinta mil hec- 
tdreas, por denuncios de terrenos baldios, por ventas de ter- 
renos deslindados, por fraccionamiento de ejidos y por adju- 
dicacioo d empresas deslindadoras y habi^ndose hecho las 
enajenaciones con arreglo d la legislaci6n que estuvo vigente 
basla el 30 de Junio del presente aiio. El 1° de Julio comenzd 
d regir la nueva ley sobre enajenaci6n de terrenos baldios. 
En virtua de ella ban quedado establecidas, en las capitales 
de los Estados y de los Territorios, las agendas que ban de 
entender en los asuntos del ramo.*' 

CANALES DE IRRIGACION Y OTRAB MEJORAS. 

"Bajo la direccion de la Comisi6n cientifica de Sonora, se 
di6 principio d un nuevo canal de riego en la orilla derecha 
del Rio Yaqui, y continiian muy adelantados los trabajos en el 
canal que construye en la orilla izquierda la empresa de coloni- 
55aci6n de los terrenos inmediatos d aquel rio. En el Mayo, 
se ban terminado tambi^n algunos canales de riego abiertos 
por particulares. Se ban hecho distribuciones de terrenos d 
colonos que ban ido d establecerse en los nuevos pueblos fun- 
dados d las mdrgen^s de ambos rios. Los trabajos empren- 
didos por el Gobierno y por los particulares, para colonizar 



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248 BUREAU OP THB AMBSICAN REPUBUCS. 

y poner en cultivo las tierras de aquellas regiones, van 
teniendo buen ^xito ; con lo que se conseguiri afirmar en ellas 
la paz y la confianza." 

INDUSTRIA MANUFACTUBERA. 

''En cnanto d la industria manufacturera, Uamar^ la aten- 
ci6n hacia el hecho de haberse establecido en Orizaba una 
fdbrica de efectos de yiite, cuya empresa se propone elaborar, 
ademds de esa fibra, alg^nas otras de las excelentes que pro- 
duce nuestro suelo.** 

COMUNICACION POSTAL. 

*' Los productos del correo en el ano pr6ximo pasado ascen- 
dieron d un miI16n doscientos veinte mil diez y siete pesos, 
excediendo d los del anterior en cuarenta y nueve mil ciento 
veintisiete. 

"La comisi6n nombrada para proponer las reformas al 
C6digo Postal ha terminado su proyecto, que, revisado por la 
Secretaria del ramo, se pondrd en vigor tan pronto como sea 
posible. 

** Se ha expedido im decreto estableciendo para el interior 
del pais el sistema de transporte de paquetes postales. Para 
ellos se reduce considerablemente el porte ; pues de treinta y 
dos centavos por libra, se ha disminufdo d doce por quinien- 
tos gramos, facilitando asi las pequenas transacciones mer- 
cantiles. 

** Tambi^n en el porte de las publicaciones peri6dicas y de 
los libros de instrucci6n primaria se hizo reducci6n notable ; 
en las priraeras, de cuatro centavos libra, d dos centavos por 
quinientos gramos ; y en los segundos, de ocho centavos libra, 
d dos centavos por los mismos quinientos gramos." 

LINEAS TELEGRAFICAS. 

" Del mes de Abril d la fecha, sehan construfdo seiscientos 
dos kil6metros de Ifneas telegrdficas, y se han conservado y 
consolidado los cuarenta y un mil seiscientos cuarenta y dos 
kil6metros, que mide actualmente la red ; habi^udose em- 
pleado en las reparaciones trece mil seiscientos postes 
nuevos." 



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MEXICX). 249 

FERROCARRILES. 

"No obstante las serias dificultades que oponen d la pros- 
peridad publica la baja y fluctuaci6n de la planta, nuestra red 
de ferrocaniles ha aumentado en exteosi6n, durante los 
ultimos tres meses, ciento once kil6metros. Hoy tieue en 
totalidad once mil ciento. 

"Las Empresas que han prestado su contingente para el 
aumento referido, son: la del Ferrocarril Mexicano, la de 
Ferrocarriles del Distrito Federal, que alcanzan ya una ex- 
tensi6ri de doscientos nueve kil6metros; la del Interocednico, 
que ha avanzado en la linea de Morelos hasta Puente de 
Ixtla; la de M^rida d Campeche; la de Tecolutla alEspinal, 
la de Izucar de Matamoros d Acapulco, y el Ferrocarril 
Industrial de Puebla, que se halla en explotaci6n hasta Hue- 
jotzingo. El de Mexico d Cuernavaca y el Pacifico, conser- 
vando su actividad inicial, ha construido hasta el kil6metro 
sesenta y nueve. 

**E1 Ferrocarril de Hidalgo ha perfeccionado notabliemente 
la via y algunas de sus estaciones, habiendo, ademds, termi- 
nado la localizaci6n definitiva de la linea de Tulancingo d 
Tuxpam. 

"El Intemacional ha iniciado el proyecto de un nuevo 
ramal que, partiendo de la estaci6n "Reata,** unird la linea 
troncal con Monterrey. Se han aprobado ya los pianos res- 
pectivos. 

"El de Monterrey al Golfo ha realizado mejoras impor- 
tautes, muy particularmente en sus estaciones de Monterrey 
y Tampico. 

"El de Vera Cruz dBoca del Rio ha integrado la via y 
regularizado su servicio. 

"Muy satisfactorio me es cerrar esta breve exposici6n de los 
progresos de las vias f^rreas en el pais, poniendo en conoci- 
miento de las Cdmaras que se ha dado cima d los trabajos 
del Ferrocarril del Istmo de Tehuantepec. Continuan las 
obras de perfeccionamiento de esa via; y al t^rmino de ella, 
las del muelle de Salina Cruz avanzan en el mar doscientos 
cuarenta y seis metros. hasta encontrar una profundidad de 
mds de nueve, permitiendo d los buques de mayor calado 



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250 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

atracar & €\ y verificar con facilidad la carga y descarga 
directa de los trenes. Es inuy probable que en el pr6ximo 
mes de Octubre se abra al trdfico la linea. 

"No desmaya, pues, en nuestros dias. el espiritu de em- 
presa para la construcci6n ferroviaria, segiin lo confirman, 
en el ultimo trimestre, las catorce concesiones sin subvenci6n 
(nuevas y de reformasd las anteriores), cuyo objetx) ha sido 
beneficiar, por tan util medio de comunicaci6n, algunas re- 
giones donde mds se favorezca A la agricultura, la indu^tria 
y la mineria." 

OTRAS OBRAS PUBUCAS. 

** Las carreteras cuya conservaci6n corresponde al Ejecutivo 
Federal, se ban atendido hasta donde lo ban permitido las cir- 
cumstaucias actuales del Erario. 

"Los trabajo del Desagiie del Valle de Mexico ban con- 
tinuado sin interrupci6n alguna. Los del tiinel se ban prose- 
guido con toda regularidad, desde que estdn baci^ndose bajo 
la inmediata vigilancia de la Junta Directiva. Hoy se encuen- 
tran notablemente adelantadas. La galeria preparatoria 
se balla terminada en su extension total de diez mil veintiun 
metros, y su revestiraiento se ba becbo en nueve mil quinien- 
tos, por lo que estard terminado en muy pocos dias. En 
cuanto al gran canal, el volumen excavado es de nueve 
millones ocbenta y cuatro mil metros cubicos. 

' * Se ban continuado las obras de conservacion de los rios y 
canales del Valle de Mexico, babi^ndose becbo la ampliaci6n 
que exigia el canal de San Juan y la rectif5caci6n del Rio 
Cbico. Siguese estudiando un proyecto para regularizar con- 
venientemente las aguas del Valle. 

"En el puerto de Santa Rosalia se ban emprendido las 
obras de mejoramiento, conforme al contrato relativo. El 
malec6n que formard el recinto del puerto, esta ejecutado en 
una extensi6n de poco mds de ciento cincuenta metros, quinta 
parte de la longitud que deberd tener. 

"Estd llevdndose d cabo el proyecto general para el alum- 
brado maritimo de Salina Crux, puerto terminal, en el Pacffico, 
del Ferrocarril Nacional de Tebuantepec. Hoy se inaugiu-a 



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MEXICO. 251 

en Ceibaplaya una luas, cuyo establecimiento era neocsario 
para el comercio de c^botaje. 

" En Ciudad Juirez se construy6 un malec6n para proteger 
d la ciudad contra la invasi6n d^ las aguas del Rio Bravo, y 
se ballan terminados los espolones tres y nueve y medio. 

"Continiian las obras del puerto de Vera Criiz, y se ha lo- 
grado en ellas considerable adelanto, asi en el dique del 
Noroeste, como en el malec6n paralelo 4 la playia.*' 



CENTRAL METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATORY, 
MEXICO CITY. ' 

Monthly snmmary for September, 1894. 

T^MPSaATURS OP THB AIR (DBG. PAHR.). 

Monthly mean in shade , ^ 62.6 

'• •• sun 63.1 

Maximum in shade ; 77.0 

•• sun : 88.9 

Minimum in shade 50.9 

" •« open air 43.2 

Total range in shade 26.1 

*• '• *• open air „ ,. 35.7 

Barometrical Pressure (Inches), 

Monthly mean 23.06 

Maximum ^ 23.20 

Minimum 22.95 

Greatest ran^e in 24 hours 0.16 

Total range in the month 0.26 

Relative Humidity (Satur. loo). 

Monthly mean 68 

Clouds. 

Prevailing direction NE. 

Number of cloudy days 20 

** •* cleardays. o 

Winds {Miles per hour). 

Prevailing direction , \ NW 

Mean velocity , 2.90 

Maximum , 25.70 

Rainfall (Inches). 

Total in month „ 3.42 

Greatest fall in 34 hours. 1.64 

Number of rainy days 21 

Evaporation (Inches), 

Monthly mean in shade. ^ 0.07 

** •• "sun ..,....,....,., 022 

Maximum in 14 hours in shade o. 11 

•* •• sun 0.33 



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252 BURBAU OF THB AMBRICAN RBPUBLICS. 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



The Minister of the Interior of the Argentine Republic, in 
his report recently submitted to Congress, says : 

*' Last year our railways were extended 252 kilometers,, 
which gives a total of 13,961 kilometers of railway in the Re- 
public, and representing thirty-one kilometers for every 10,- 
000 inhabitants. In the United States the proportion is thirty- 
nine to every 10,000 inhabitants. The total capital repre- 
sented by the railways of the Republic is ^436,422,437, in 
gold, as follows : 

Government lines $44,424,304 

Guaranteed lilies % 86,031,080 

Private companies 240,785,183 

Provincial, with and without guarantee 65,181,870- 

436,422.437 

The earnings of these lines for the year were as follows : 

Government lines 11,472,583 

Guaranteed lines 10,572,459. 

Private companies 47,658,821 

Provincial lines 7,060.807 

66,764.670 

This shows an increase over the previous year of $7,372,- 
878, or about 12.41 per cent, which, considering the crisis, is 
wonderful. 

The working expenses for the year were : 

Government lines |i, 373.020 

Guaranteed lines 9.497,454 

Private companies 23,056,308- 

Provincial companies 5.493.327 

39.420,109 

The expenses increased 17,344,133 over previous year,, 
which is solely attributable to the rise in gold^ 



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ARGENTINE REPUBIJC. 253 

The net earnings for the year were : 

Government lines |i94,i26 

Guaranteed lines 2.199,453 

Private companies 24»6o2.5i3 

Provincial companies 1,567,480 

28.563,572 
The losses were: 

Government lines I94i563 

Guaranteed lines 1,124,448 

1,219,011 
The total traffic returns for the year were : 

Number of passengers ', 12,969,145 

Tons of cargo 6,295,992 

Tons of luggage 64,094 

An increase over previous year of 1,381,566 passengers, 
898,632 tons of cargo, 6,870 tons of luggage. 

The Government has set apart $2,000,000 in gold to meet 
the guarantees, payable $500,000, gold, quarterly. 



COTTON IN ARGENTINA. 

Below is given the first two of a series of articles to be 
published by " The Review of the River Plate "on the subject 
of cotton industry and cotton growing in the Argentine 
Republic. 

I. 

Perhaps the only industry which has not been affected to 
a very marked degree by the crisis of the past few years is 
the manufacturing cotton industry, which every year is taking 
firmer root in the country. 

As yet the cultivation of the cotton plant has received but 
little attention from capitalists, but before many years have 
past greater attenti6n will be given to its development on 
accotmt of the large field open for the supply of raw material 
to the numerous factories established throughout the country. 
Before treating on the cultivation of the cotton plant in 
Argentina, we will review the numerous factories which use 



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254 BURBAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cottoi; for their prime material, which at present has to be 
imported. 

We will only describe a few of the principal hosiery fac- 
tories, so that it can be seen that no pains have been spared 
by the promoters to place this nacent industry on as firm a 
footing as possible. 

We will begin with the hosiery factory belonging to 
Messrs. R. Monteros & Co., situated in the Calle Victoria 
and known as the San Carlos Factory. This factory was 
founded early in 1891, and occupies an area of 4,831 square 
meters. There is a branch established in Belgrano, which 
is principally used as dye-works. There is also a large ware- 
house for the storage of goods in the Calle Rivadavia. This 
factory turns out vests, socks and drawers of knitted cotton. 
There are about 427 machines. A portion of these, known as 
the Brandson knitter, turn out 600 dozen pairs of elastics for 
men's socks, and 200 dozen wristbands for vests. There are 
also buttonhole machines and others for sewing the wristbands 
on to the vests; knitting machines which turn out 160 meters 
of textures for ladies and children's vests, and several Wig- 
ston machines which knit 120 to 150 kilos per day. The 
remaining machiner>- comprises Brandsons automatic knitters 
for seamless socks, with an output of 600 dozen pairs per 
day. The machinery is moved by a sixty-horse-power 
engine, and the establishment is lighted throughout by elec- 
tric light. 

The socks and vests when taken off the knitters are pressed 
in Birrop steam presses capable of dealing with 15,000 to 
16,000 pieces per day. A North American engineer is in 
charge of the knitting machinery, which is worked by women, 
the total number of operatives employed amounting to about 
500 persons of both sexes. The daily output of the estab- 
lishment is about 600 dozen socks and 200 dozen vests, and 
the amount of cotton yam consumed, 500 kilos per day and 
3,000 kilos of woolen yam per year. The factory price of the 
socks is from' I2.50 to I4.85 per dozen, and for vests from 
{7.80 to {18 per dozen. 

The wages paid vary from $2 to $6 per day. The capital 



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ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 255 

invested in the factory amounts to about half a million dollars 
paper. The proprietors are contemplating important altera- 
tions so as to enable them to be better able to meet, the 
demand. 

In 1892 Messrs. Joselin Huergo & Co. established a cotton 
factory in the Calle Venezuela, which possesses forty knitting 
machines of various sizes, all being of the latest invention. 
The daily consumption of cotton is from 150 to 2qo kilos. 
The daily output is about 100 dozen vests. 

The motive power is supplied by a five -horse -power engine. 
The factory employs about 150 to 200 operatives, who earn 
on an average $3 per day. The vests fetch from 1 12 to I17 
per dozen. The building is lighted throughout with the elec- 
tric light. About ^^40,000 have been sunk in the estab- 
lishment. 

We next come to the quilt and vest factory of Messrs. 
Castagneto & Lastreto, situated in the Calle Cordoba. The 
quilt factory was established in 1883, and that for vests in 
1892. The former department is fitted with the following 
machinery : A four-horse-power engine driving five Singer's 
machines for common quilts ; six large knitting machines and 
two small ones ; one beginning machine, one opening machine 
and one carder. There are eighty stretching frames, in the 
main building and twenty in an adjoining building. The top 
floor of the building is used as a warehouse. 

The next section turns out twenty dozen daily ^ and when 
the new works, which are at present in hand, are completed, 
this number will be greatly increased. About 200 operatives 
are employed, who earn from 11.25 ^^ ^2.50 per day. The 
annual consumption of cotton is about 70,000 kilos, first class, 
and 30,000 kilos of second and third class. The annual out- 
put in the quilt department is about 25,000 counterpanes, 
which are sold at from $$ to ^o each. The buildings stand 
on a space of seventy meters by ninety. The capital 
employed is about {150,000. 



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256 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

II. 

In 1893 Messrs. Baibiene and Antonini established their 
hosiery factory in the Calle San Jos6, on land having 
a superficial area of one thousand square meters. The 
machinery is principally of North American manufacture 
and comprises 1 1 winding machines, with 40 spindles each ; 
55 knitting machines for making vests, and i special knitting 
machinjB for making the collars ; 4 rectilineal machines for 
the manufacture of wristbands and elastics for drawers and 
vests; 2 wristband machines, 5 buttonhole makers, 5 machines 
for stitching on buttons, 6 for crochet and embroidery work, 
and six for double seams. The stocking department contains 
24 frames for ladies* stockings, 26 knitters for elastics of 
same, 50 frames for men's socks, 7 presses, and 200 machines 
of various systems for seaming and finishing the goods. The 
motive power is supplied by a forty -horse power engine. The 
entire building is illuminated by electric light. The factory 
employs from 350 to 400 operatives of both sexes, who are 
under the direction of an American foreman. Wages aver- 
age from $1.80 to $3 per day, there being some operatives 
who earn as much as $4 per diem. 

The daily output consists of 300 dozen vests, 200 dozen 
pairs of ladies' stockings, and 350 dozen pairs of men's socks. 
The factory price for these goods averages — men's vests, Si 2 
to $40; women's vests, $6 to S30; men's socks, $3.60 to S5, 
and women's stockings, from S2 to $5. The factory uses 
250 kilos of yarn per day, all of which is imported from Ger- 
many, France,, and England. The capital represents about 
^300, 000. 

Messrs. Juan Esteban and Co. founded a vest factory in 
the Calle Cangallo, in 1891, possessing seventy machines 
of various systems, among them the chain system. About 
two hundred female operatives are employed who earn on an 
average $3 per day. The monthly output consists of 1,200 to 
i,5Qo dozen vests, which sell from Sio to $30 per dozen. Sr. 
Esteban is making preparations for the cultivation of a large 
area of land for cotton planting, and also intends extending 



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ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 257 

his factorj so as to be abU to make vests, stockings, drawers, 
etc. This gentleman is also credited with the intention of 
establishing a spinning factorj in Buenos Aires. 

La Pabrica Algodonera is the name given to the hosiery 
factory of Sr. Alfredo Rivero, in Calle Cordoba. This estab- 
lishment was started in 1893, and is at present only worked 
on a small scale. One hundred operatives are engaged, and 
the monthly output averages from 1,800 to 3,000 dozen vests 
of different kinds, colors and sizes, from the finest to the 
coarsest. 

In the same year Messrs. Enrico Dell'Acqua and Co. 
opened their hosiery factory in Calle Callao. This firm has 
its headquarters in Italy, with branches in Sao Paulo (Brazil) 
and Buenos Aires. The share capital is 1,500,000 liras. At 
Dresent seventeen machines are at work. The weekly output 
comprises 300 dozen vests and drawers. The yam is im- 
ported from Italy. About fifty hands are employed. 

Sr. Pedro Azum fitted up in 1893 a miniature factory in 
Calle Salguero, for the manufacturing o£ cotton, wool, and 
silk hosiery. There are eight very fine knitting machines 
and four seamers. Six hundred kilos of yam are consumed 
monthly, and the output is sixty dozen articles, which sell 
from $66 to {120 per dozen. This gentleman is also deeply 
interested in the formation of a Company for acquiring all 
the raw cotton grown in the country. 

Messrs F. Pachianotti & Co. has a small vest factory in 
Calle Catamarca with an output of 100 dozen per day, for 
which work 100 women are required. There are eighty 
machines driven by an eight-horse-power engine. 

Mr. A. Bumichon in 1890 established a factory for the 
manufacture of quilted counterpanes of imitation cashmere, 
indiana and damask, fine satin, silk, satin, etc., quilted petti- 
coats, and also for the preparation of medicinal cotton. The 
yearly output comprises some 8,000 to 10,000 counterpanes 
which are sold at the factory from $7.50 to J80 each. About 
1,500 kilos of medicinal cotton are made every month. The 
factory imports more than fifty tons of raw cotton every year. 



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258 BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Machinery is now being laid down for making wick for 
candles and for matches. Spinning machinery has been 
ordered from Europe. Mr. Bumichon also proposes to be 
one of the first cotton growers in this country. 

There is another knitting factory also in the Calle Cata- 
marca belonging to Sr. E. Chaillon, founded in 1893, with a 
capital of $50,000^ gold, possessing fifty knitting machines, 
and siity for other work, and giving employment to 100 men 
and women. The output is about 100 doeen vests of fine 
quality per diem. Sr. Chaillon formerly Jiad his factory in 
Paris, but removed it to Buenos Aires on account of this be- 
ing a better market. He is also growing cotton on a large 
scale in the Province of Corrientes. 



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BRAZlIf. 259 



BRAZIL. 



The Diario Oficial of August 24 publishes an "edital*' 
of the Ministry, of Agriculture containing the conditions 
under which the service for the navigation of the 
Amazon and its affluents, at present carried on by an 
English company, ^s hereafter to be conducted. To the 
existing lines from Belem to Manaos and Iquitos, on 
the frontier of Peru, and those of the Purus, Madeira, 
Negro, etc., the Brazilian Government has added a new 
line from Belem to Oyapock, touching at Macapd, Bai- 
lique, Araguary, and Amapa, situated on the coast of the dis- 
puted Franco-Brazilian territory. The steamers destined for 
this service are required to be constructed upon the most 
modem models, with a speed of twelve English miles, a frig- 
orific chamber, and to be capable of carrying 200 to 500 tons 
of merchandise. They must also be fitted to convey fifty 
first-class passengers and two hundred second-class, and the 
plans are to be submitted for the approval of the Minister of 
Agriculture, as must also be the tariff of rates to be charged 
for the conveyance of goods and passengers. A reduction 
of 50 per cent is required to be made on merchandise and 
passengers sent by order of the Government, except in rela* 
tion to the Ministry of Agriculture, the museums of Belem 
and Manoas, and expositions, official or promoted by the 
Government, when the transportation will be gratuitous. la 
addition to the new Oyapock navigation service, the Gov- 
ernment imposes on the party to whom the concession shall 
be g^nted the obligation of building a *'trapiche*' at Manaos,, 
within a period of two years, and at Itacoatira and Piratinim, 
within a period of five years, counting from the day on which 
the navigation shall be inaugurated. The concession will be. 
for five years, and tenders must be presented to the Ministry- 
of Agriculture on the loth of October next. The Minister 
of Agriculture reserves the right of deciding without appeal 

19 BUI« 



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26o BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

in case of any differences arising between the Government 
and the concessionaire. 

The following item treating of Brazilian commercial affairs, 
is taken from a recent copy of the European Mail: 

**The course of Brazilian finances just now is particularly 
encouraging, and the trade prospects in that Republic are 
brightening to a very appreciable extent. The exchange is 
now much nearer to the neighborhood of i^. than it has been 
for some considerable time, and it can hardly be recognized 
how important this improvement in exchange is to those 
railway and other companies working in Brazil which have 
to remit to London their profits for distribution. Thus, the 
improvement which is daily taking place in Brazilian railway 
securities — and which, we are convinced, is likely to continue 
for some time to come — is justified in that the various com- 
panies* earnings are worth considerably more pounds sterling 
than they would have been a few months back with the 
exchange at 9^. And not only in this respect is the position 
more favorable. The traffic increases on the Brazilian lines 
are decidedly encouraging and point to a revival of trade. 
It is not indeed too optimistic to think that the revival in 
Brazilian matters — and, indeed, in all South American affairs 
— will reach very large proportions.** 



Referring to the rise in the Rio exchange, the following 
extract from the Bresit is understood to state the position 
fairly: 

"The pacification of the country is assured, the coffee crop 
is abundant i the deliveries -are larger than ever, and prices 
are well maintained, besides which, the production of cotton 
and rubber is exceptional this year. In a word, the credit of 
the country is rising in Europe, besides which, the recent con- 
ferences between Count Figueiredo, the president of **Banco 
Nacional Brazileiro," and the Ministers, together with several 
financiers in Rio, is thought to have some connection with the 
said movement. " 



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SAI,VADOR. 26r 

The Lisbon Jomal do Commtrcio, says that late news with 
regard to the Brazilian coffee crop places the production at 
8,000,000 bags, the previous estimate having been 7,000,000 
bags. Our contemporary, taking the ave;rage of th^ two 
estimates, puts the value of the crop in the neighborhood of 
;j^3o,ooo,ooo. 



SAI.VADOR. 



TARIFF EXEMPTION. 

I am glad to report to you that the Govetnment of Salva- 
dor has just made a material concession to the ef port trade 
of the United States, of which our expoirt^rs should take 
advantage. 

In a report dated January 31, 1894, *I advised the Depart- 
ment that the President of Salvador had issued a decree 
imposing an additional duty of 25 cents (gold) per quintal 
(100 pounds) on all articles thereafter to be imported into 
this Republic, whether they had been previously on the free 
list or not. On the 5th of February I addressed a letter to 
the Minister of Foreign Relations, in which I s .id: 

*'I beg you to kindly advise me whether the decree in 
question covers 'the products ^d manufactures of the United 
States,' which, according to the memoria of your department, 
*are to be admitted in Salvador free of customs duti^es and of 
any national or local tax. * " 

After several, presentations of- the matter since then, I 

[Extract from May Con^ul^r Reports, pag;e 80.] , 
•" Import Duty of Salvador.— Consul A. L. PoUock, o( San Salvador, under dale of 
January 31, 1894. reports Chat ati addHidnal d\ity of 25 per cent (gold) per 100 pounds has 
been levied, by ^ decr.ee of the Pjesid^trof Salvador, on.all goods hereafter irapbrted 
Into Salvador. This includes all articles which were admitted free, with the exception 
of com, rice; bians, and salt. The' new tix 'is applied to t)ie building of^ the railroad 
from La Union to San Miguel, ^nd iqiporters will r«ceive sto«k in that enterprise tu th^ 
amount of the additional duty they pay." 



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262 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

received to-day the following communication from the Min- 
,ister of Foreign Relations, to wit : 

" The Minister of the Treasury, in a note of yesterday, 
tells me that although by virtue of the decree of January 29 
(31) of this year a duty of 25 cents (gold) per quintal (100 
pounds) has been levied on all kinds of merchandise, the 
Government will in the future abstain from collecting it with 
respect to the products and manufactures of the United States. 
In this way I answer your note dated February 5, giving you 
all due apologies for the delay in my reply, which has been 
entirely independent of my will." 

As the impost in question remains in force on all other 

foreign goods, the advantage gained fur our exporters is 

apparent. I have requested, by telegraph, the consular 

agents at -^ajutla. La Libertad, La Union, and Santa Ana to 

inform importers of the decision. 

Alexander L. Pollock, 

Consul. 
San Salvador, April 11, 1894. 



SALVADOR. 



ex^nci6n de derechos. 

Tengo*el gusto de informar d V. que el Gobiemo del Sal- 
vador acaba de hacer una concesi6n importante al comercio 
de exportaci6n de los Estados Unidos, de que deben aprove- 
charse los que entre nosotros se dedican d este negocio. 

En un informe fechado el 31 de Enero de 1894 d{ aviso al 
Departamento de que el Presidente del Salvador habia 
expedido un decreto por el cual se impuso un derecho adicio- 
nal de 25 centavos en oro, por quintal, d todos los artfculos 
que se importasen despu^s de aquella fecha, aplicdndose esta 



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SALVADOR. 263 

medida hasta d aquellas mercaderias que se encontraban en 
la lista de las que debian adraitirse libres.* 

Con fecha 5 de Febrero escribi una carta al Ministro de 
Relaciones Exteriores en que le decia lo que sigue : 

^'Suplico d;y. se sirva bondadosamente informarme si el 
decreto en cuesti6n es aplicable d 'los productos y manufac- 
turas de los Estados Unidos* que segun la Memoria de su Mi- 
nisterio ' deben admitirse en Salvador libres de derechos de 
aduana, 6 de todo otro impuesto nacional 6 local.' " 

Despu^s de varias representaCiones sobre este punto, hechas 
con posterioridad, me ha Uegado hoy la siguiente comunica- 
ci6n del Ministro de Relacion Exteriores : 

^'El Ministro de Hacienda me dice en nota de ayer que 
atmque por virtud del decreto de Enero 29 de este afio se 
impuso un derecho adicional de 25 centavos en oro, por 
quintal, & todas las mercancias importadas, el Gobiemo se 
abstendrd en lo futuro de hacer efectivo ese derecho con 
respecto d los productos y manufacturas de los Estados 
Unidos. Dejo con esio contestada su nota del 5 de Febrero, 
presentando al mismo tiempo mis excusas por la demora en 
dicha respuesta, que ha sido en absoluto independiente de mi 
voluntad." 

Como el impuesto de que se trata permanece vigente con 
respecto d todas las demds mercaderias extranjeras, es apa- 
rente la ventaja obtenida por nuestros exportadores. He 
pedido por tel6grafo d los agentes consulares en Acajutla, La 
Libertad, I^ Uni6n, y Santa Ana, que d^n conocimiento de 
esta decisi6n d todos los importadores. 

Albxander L. Poli^ock, 

CSnsu/. 

SAji Salvador,, AM/ 11 de 1894. 

[Bztniclo del " Consalar Report " del mes de Mayo de 1894, pagina 80.] 
**' Derecho de imporUci6n en Salvador.— El Consul A. L. Pollock, de San Salvador, 
da cnenta con fecha de 31 de Enero de 1894, de que por decreto del Presfdente del 
Salvador se ba Mnpnesto on derecho adicional de 25 centavos en oro, por cada 100 
libras. sobre todas las mercancfas que en lo adelante se importen en el Salvador. Esto 
se bace extcnsivo 4 todos los artfculos que se admiten libres de derechos, excepto el 
maix, el arroz, loe frijoles, y la saL El nuevo impuesto ha de aplicarse i, la construcci6n 
del ferrocarril de La Uni6n d San Miguel, y los importadores recibirdn en acciones de 
aqoella empresa el derecho adicional que tengan que pagar." 



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264 BUREAU OF .XHB AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

COMMERCIAL NOTES. ' 



HONDURAS. 



[From Report of British Consul at Amapala, February 9, 1894.] 

Duringf ihe last six years trade between this port and Ger- 
kflany lias increased more than 75 per cent, pwing to the fact 
that two German steamship lines have been established 
between this coast and Hamburg via the Straits of Magellan. 
Atfirst it was believed that such. a line woul<^ prove a. losing 
speculation, but practical results established by the ** Kosmos " 
line, the 6rst venture, were such as. to warrant the establish- 
metit' of another line, the ** Kirsten," from the same country, 
and tb-day we'have both lines doing each a paying carrying 
tra'dei to say notliing of commerce diverted fron^ other 
countries to German markets. These lines together send out 
to this coast al)out 6fteen large steamers per year, and they 
so time their voyages as to g;o back loaded with coflfee or 
other produce. As these steamers, offer freight rates lower, 
and deliver goods (direct from wharves in Hamburg to wharves 
in Central American ports without the expensje ai^d breakage 
blF transshipment at' the Isthmus 6f Panama^ much merchandise 
formerly ordered only from England is now bought in 
Germany! 



PARAGUAY. 

[From a recent German official report.] 



As yet Belgium defies all competition m good quality cheap 
firearms and appurtenances. It would now, however, be 
well for us to try and get a footing, ais there is an increasing 
demand for these goods. 

The sale of German beer is still coiisiderable in spite of 
the heavy competition it has to face from Norwegian beer, 
and the produce of the Quilmes brewery n^ar Buenos Aires. 
It is, therefore, important that we maintain our standard of 



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COMMERCIAX NOTES. 265 

quality, about which complaints are being made. Light 
beers, of the Pilsener type, are preferred here. 

Cordage is imported mainly from Spain. Germany should 
now endeavor to get a firmer footing here. 

In hats and caps Germany has not yet succeeded in gain- 
ing over any oif this trade, which is in English, French, and 
Belgian hands. Our hats, although not of superior quality, 
are dearer than the others, and they also leave much to be 
desired . on the score of finish . 



PERU. . 

The United States are leaving no stone unturned to in- 
crease their trade with the South American Republics. They 
have just established a new line of steamers, the " Merchant 
Line," the vessels of which import kerosene, resins, calico, 
preserved foods, sewing machiues, etc. The line> which ap- 
pears to be very successful, is under the charge of Messrs. 
Grace & Co. — Belgian Consul at Mollendoy May 7, 1894. 



tJRUGUAV. 



Notwithstanding the interference of the fitesy the custom- 
house receipts for August show an increase of {100,000 
over those for the corresponding month last year, and of 
$200,000 as compared with 1892. They are also {150,000 in 
excess of the return for July last: 

Importation 1774,441 30 

Exportation ? 44,97701 

Departments, estimate ,J, 66,00000 

Total 885.418 31 

Same month, 1893 780.80600 

Same month, 1892 682,35300 

The Montevideo Times observes: 

"These figures are satisfactory in every way, and show 
both that the steady advance on the customs revenue of last 
year is fully maintained, and that the season is already 



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266 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

recovering from the depression of the winter months, which 
made itself acutely felt in June and July. We have little 
doubt but that this advance will be sustained during the rest 
of the year. This solid phase of the customs revenue should 
be of great assistance to Sefior Borda's government in putting 
its financial affairs into a satisfactory shape." 



The exports from Montevideo to the United States during 
August comprised 39,000 dry hides, 507 bales wool, 3 bales 
stag skins and 6 bales carpincho skins. The total exports to 
the United States for the year have been 261,500 dry hides, 
2,838 bales wool, 80 bales hide cuttings, 149 bales hair, 1,024 
tons bones, 6 bales stag skins and 9 bales carpincho skins. 



The exports of jerked beef during the second half of 
August were: 46,266 bales, weighing 77,690 quintals, to Bra- 
zil; 9,000 quintals to Cuba, and 3,200 quintals to Puerto 
Cabello. 



The Montevideo custom-house returns for August show 
that the revenue for the month amounted to ^885,418.31, an 
increase of ^104,611.80 when compared with August, 1893. 



CHILE. 

The Chilian Minister of Finance has submitted to a mixed 
commission the budget of items .of public expenditure for 
1895, amounting to $57,000,000 in paper and'^8oo,ooo ster- 
ling. This, at present rate of exchange, represents a total 
of $73, 000,000. 



The Permanent Nitrate Committee's public statistical cir- 
cular for October states: Total exports to Europe, September, 
1,480,000 quintals ; loading for Europe, October i, 3,700,000 
quintals; arrivals in Europe, September, 73,700 tons; deliv- 



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COMM£RCIAI< NOTES. 267 

cries in Europe, September, 46,800 tons. Visible supply,. 
Europe, October i — stocks and afloat — 283,160 tons. 



The Chilean Council of Ministers has drawn up a bill to 
be presented to Congress on its reassembling, empowering 
the President to purchase from the present concessionaires of 
the Transandine Railway the portion of the railway lying 
within the limits of the Republic and which is completed. 

The purchase is to carry with it all the material and fran- 
chises belonging to the company. 



ECUADOR. 

[From United SUtes CooiuUr Reports, October, 1894.] 

The following statistics are furnished by Consul-General 
Geo. C. Dillard, Guayaquil : 

CACAO. 

Cacao received at Guayaquil up to April 30, 1894 ; arriba, 
55,812 quintals (of 100 pounds); balao, 3,263 quintals; ma- 
chala, 4,344 quintals; total, 63,419 quintals, against 102,467 
quintals for same period in 1893. 

The appearance of the crop at present would indicate that 
the supply of arriba for May and June will be very plentiful, 
but for the following months there will be a great falling off. 
As the rains, which were suspended in March, came again in 
April, the orchards are flowering again, and there may be a 
fair after-crop of arriba in October and November. The , 
general opinion as to the total cacao crop is that it will be 25 
per cent less than that of 1893 — that is 300,000 quintals. 

COFFEE. 

The coffee crop of 1893 reached over 50,000 quintals, being 
considerably larger than for any previous year. As there is 
now much more land in coffee than last year, a still larger 
crop is expected this year; and the information from the 
Daule, Boliche, and Zaguachi districts is very favorable. 



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268 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

The crop of 1894 is expected to. reiach 60,000 quintals at 
least. The new crop begins to come in during July and 
August. .... 

The attention of agriculturists has been directed to the 
planting of coffee in the mountain districts, from 2,000 to 
5,000 feet above sea levej, and there is a vast extent of avail- 
able land which can yet be utilized for tbe.grqwth of coffee. 

When handled properly, the coffee grown i^ Ecuador is of 
superior quality, and I have no doubt but that, in a few years, 
it will deserve a separate classification in our markets as 
Guayaquil coffee. 

Besides the coffee lands tributary to Guayaquil, there is a 
large area of the very 'finest coffee lands in the upper prov- 
inces of Esmeraldas and Manabi. 



COLOMBIA. 



The Department of State is officially informed by the 
Consul -General of the United States at Panama, of the 
enactment of a law by the Legislature of the State of Panama, 
Colombia, levying' a tax of 10 per'ceiit on all imports into 
that State. Before becoming operative the law must be 
approved by the Congress of the Republic. 



HAITI. 
PASSPORT REGULATIONS. 



[From United States CoatuUr ReporU, September, 1894.] 

' Vice-Consul -General Terres informs the Department of 
State, in a report from Port au Prince dated August i, that the 
Haitian Government has revived the passport law of 1864, 
requiring identification of persons arriving in or departing 
from thait country, and the issuing of certificates as to the 
fulfillment ot certain formalities on penalty of a fine of I500 
or J 1, 000. Passports to leave the country su-e required on 
penalty of a fine of I300. A person leaving a foreign port 
to go to Haiti must obtain a passport, or visi of passport 



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CX>MMERCIAI. notes;- 269 

from the Haitian Consular agent tbere,on penalty of a fine 
of J300 on arrival, the fee for passport being ^i and the 
w>/ 50<:ents. ' - 



VENE2UEr.A. 



(United States Consular Reports, September, 1894.] 

Consul tluraacher, of Maracaibo, under date of August 6, 
transmits to the Department of State resolutions, or orders, 
of the Venezuelan Executive, directing that "glutinous 
paste '• being a prepared food shall be scheduled in the fourth 
tariff class, and that "wire manufactured in the form indicated 
at tbe foot of the said resolution for fetfcing pastures and 
fields '^ shall be introduced through the Ctistom-Houses free 
of duty. 

COSTA RICA. 

[Prom United States Consular Reports, Cktoberj^ 1894.I 

Consul Harrison R. Williams, under date ot San Jos^, July 
2, makes the following report to the Department of §tate : 

LUMBER. 

The native woods of Costa Rica principally utiUzcd as lum- 
ber consist of two or three varieti^ of cedar,, as well as sev- 
eral cheaper and less durable woods unknpwn in northern 
countries. 

Of imported lumber, pine is the only kind used in any 
quantity, with sonie oak brought for use of the railroad in its 
repair siiop. The principal: objection to pine s^nd other for- 
eign lumber id that in a very few years it is attacked by 
insects, which eat through* the stoutest pieces and completely 
destroy them. 

The value of lumber imported frpm the United States dur- 
ing the year 1893 was #3,816 in American gold. Tl^ere is an 
import duty of, say, 2 Ji. cents, in American currency, per kilo- 
gram (3.3046 pounds) on lumber such as boards, rafters, and 
for construction purposes generally. 

According to a Government decree dated July 28, 1890, all 



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270 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

lumber for construction imported for use in Port Limon is free 
of duty untill July 29, 1895. 

Cedar is worth about $6 and mahogany about $S (American 
money) per ton of 40 cubic foot. 

In view of the small demand for foreign lumber and the 
condition of general building at the present time, there is 
very little to be suggested in the way of extending trade. 
Sawmills are being erected in different parts of the country, 
and native woods are well adapted for most local building 
pmposes. 

DYEWOODS. 

The principal wood exported is fustic, very little, if any, 
being shipped to the United States, nearly all going to 
Europe, principally to Germany and France. 

There are on an average from 15,000 to 16,000 tons shipped 
per annum from the Pacific side, and a small quantity from 
the Atlantic side. In consequence of these shipments the 
supply of this dyewood is becoming exhausted. In fact, 
reliable parties engaged in this business state that within the 
next five or six years this class of wood will have all been 
cut. This refers to the accessible supplies on the coast and 
within easy handling distance. Inland there is a very large 
quantity, but the cost of bringing it down to shipping points 
would exceed the value of the wood. 

The value of the wood is about ^5 in gold per ton, de- 
livered alongside the vessel, the price varying accordingly 
as the vessel loads in the Gulf or outside on the coast. 

Fustic brings from ^4 to jQs (^19. 46 to $24.33) P^r ton in 
the United Kingdom, and about the same price in Germany 
and France. 

Lately a decree was issued by this Government imposing 
a duty of $1 (Costa Rica currency)* per ton on fustic, as well 
as on all other woods. . Fustic is the principal dyewood ex- 
ported 

Information as regards the other dyewoods is impossible 
to obtain. 

• 45.7 ccnU American on July i, 1894. 



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COMMERCIAI, NOTES. 271 

WHEAT FLOUR. 

The standard of living in Costa Rica does not differ from 
that which prevails in the United States. The inhabitants of 
the cities eat wheat flour, while the country people feed 
principally on com meal. The quality of flour most used is 
of the first class, and is imported from St. Louis, San Fran- 
cisco, and New Orleans. 

In the year 1893 flour to the value of ^289, 418, in American 
gold, and wheat to the value of ^2 1,418 were imported. 
None but American wheat and wheat flour are imported. 

The import duty on flour is 4 cents per kilogram (2.2046 
pounds) and wharfage lyi cents per kilogram, or, say, ij^ 
cents and five-eighths of a cent in American gold, respec- 
tively. 

The import duty on wheat is 2 cents per kilogram, wharf- 
age 1% cents per kilogram, or, say, seven-eighths of a cent 
and five-eighths of a cent, respectively, in American gold. 
Wheat destined for the San Jos^ flour mill pays only one-fifth 
part of duty and wharfage. 

Wi eat and flour are paid for by means of drafts at three, 
sixty, and ninety days* sight on New York, New Orleans, and 
San Francisco. 

Wheat and flour are shipped from the United State's by 
three different lines; New York to Port Limon, the Atlas 
line, one steamer weekly; New Orleans to Port Limon, one 
steamer weekly; San Francisco to Punta Arenas, Pacific 
Mail line, one steamer fortnightly. 

There are no obstacles at present to the trade in American 
flour, as the entire quantity of flour and wheat consumed in 
Costa Rica comes from the United States. As to the prospect 
of extension of business, the question is rather that of main- 
taining the present status. 

Flour in Costa Rica is mostly consumed by bakers. There 
is very little baking done in private houses, nearly all of the 
bread being prepared in the bakeries. 



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2 72 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REHUBUCS. 

GUATEMAI.A. 

The contract for the construction '6f the unfinished part of 
the Guatemala Northern Railway has been let, and it is 
thought the work will be completed Within one year from the 
present time. 

The road as now projected will be about i6o miles long, 
and will connect Port Barios on the Gulf of Honduras, and 
the capital of the Republic. 

At Guatemala City connection will be made with tlie Cen- 
tral Railway of Guatemala, extending from Guatemala City to 
San Jos^ on the Pacific Coast, thtis forming a trans-isthmian 
line. 



El Guatemalteco, the ofl&cial paper of the Government of 
Guatemala, publishes in its issue of August 29 ultimo the 
statement made by the Commissioner of Customs of the Re- 
public, of the receipts of the government thfough his de- 
partment, from January r to June 30, 1894, as follows : 

Import duti^ ,. Iii5i8,539 36 

Exportduties .' ; ...'. 93o,393 12 

2,448.937 48 
In addition to the above the following amounts were paid , 
into the treasury during the same six months : 

Reshipment duties.. ,$869 99 

Fines .........; ......J 3,7io 18 

Sale of forfeited articles ;i«..«.. 4,07026 

Difference in the exchan^ ,- 747,021 72. 

Sum...... ...;... 755.672 15 

Grand total 3,204.60963 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Frequent application is made to the Bureau for the address 
of United States Consuls in the South and Central American 
Republics. Those desiring to correspond with any consul can 
do so by addressing '*The United States Consulate'* at the 
point named. Letters thus addressed will be delivered to 
the proper person. It must be understood, however, that it 
is not the duty of consuls to devote their time to private 
business, and that alL such letters may properly be treated 
as personal and any labor involved may be subject to charge 
therefor. 

The following is a list of United States Consulates in the 
different Republics : . - 



Argentine Repubwc — 

Buenos Aires. 

Cordoba. 

Rosario. 
Bolivia — 

La Paz. 
Brazii.— 

Bahia. 

Para. 

Pemambuco. 

Rio Grande do Sul. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

Santos. 
Chile— 

Antofagasta. 

Arica. 

Coquimbo. 

Iquique. 

Talcahuano. 

Valparaiso. 



Colombia — 

Barranquilla. 

Bogota. 

Cartagena. 

Colon (Aspinwall). 

Medillin. 

Panama. 
Costa Rica — 

San ]os6. 
Dominican Repubuc- 

Puerto Plata. 

Samana. 

Santo Domingo. 
Ecuador — 

Guayaquil. 
Guatemala — 

Guatemala. 
Haiti — 

Cape Haitien; 

Port au Prince. 



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UNITED STATES CONSUI.ATES. 



Honduras — 
Ruatan. 
Tegucigalpa. 

MEXICX) — 

Acapulco. 

Chihuahua. 

Durango. 

Ensenada. 

Guaymas. 

La Paz. 

Matamoras. 

Mazatlan. 

Merida. 

Mexico. 

Nogales. 

Nuevo Laredo. 

Paso del Norte. 

Piedras Negras. 

Saltillo. 

Tampico. 



Mexico — Continued. 

Tuxpaii. 

Vera Cruz. 
Nicaragua — 

Managua. 

San Juan del Norte. 
Paraguay — 

Asuncion. 
Peru— 

Callao. 
Salvador — 

San Salvador. 
Uruguay — 

Colonia. 

Montevideo. 

Paysandu. 
Venezuei^a — 

La Guayra. 

Maracaibo. 

Puerto Cabello. 



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BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

Department of State, 

Washington, U, S. A., 1894. 

It is impossible to comply with requests for the free 
distribution of the. publications of this Bureau. The de- 
mand for Handbooks and Bulletins has increased so rapidly 
as to make compliance impossible, because of the limited 
editions published. The lists of applicants desiring to be 
supplied with every Handbook and Bulletin issued by 
the Bureau largely exceed any edition published, and these 
lists would be constantly increased if the requests received 
daily at the Bureau were acceded to. Yet, it is well under- 
stood that many requests are received from persons having 
good reasons for desiring the information asked for, and both 
willing and able to pay the slight cost of these documents. 

Recognizing these facts, the Bureau some months ago issued 
a circular announcing that thereafter the publications of the 
Bureau would be sold to all applicants at a small price. This^ 
was done with a view of extending rather than limiting the 
circulation of the information published by the Bureau, and 
at the same time securing the utmost impartiality in such 
distribution. It was believed that this course would result 
in a more general circulation of the information secured iti 
saving the unnecessar>' labor of replying to requests from 
persons who apparently had no special intere3t in the publica- 
tions applied for, and that all who had a well-grounded 
intention of embarking in business in foreign countries, or 
extending business already established, would be able to 
afford the slight expense involved in the payment of the 
cost price of the Bureau documents. 

The result of this experiment has more than justified the 
hopes with which it was undertaken. With exceptions too 
rare to be noted, the plan embraced in the circular has met 
with the cordial approbation of the business men of the 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

country, and if the progress made thus far in extending the 
circulation of these publications shall be continued it will be 
possible to largely increase the numbers of each edition of 
future publications. 

Many of the earlier Bulletins have been included in more 
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Suggestions from manufacturers and dealers as to their spe- 
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The following list embraces a catalogue of the Bulletins and 
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of which copies may be secured by remitting to the under- 
signed the price named in inclosed list. 

PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU 
OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Cents. 

3. Patent and Trade-mark Laws of America 5 

4. Money, Weights and Measures of the American Republics 5 

6. Foreign Commerce of the American Republics 20 

8. Import Duties of Brazil 10 

10. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto Rico 15 

II Import Duties of Costa Rica 10 

13. Commercial Directory of Brazil 5 

14. Commercial Directory of Venezuela ,... 5 

15. Commercial Directory of Colombia 5 

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17. Commercial Directory of Chile 5 

18. Commercial Directory of Mexico 15 

19. Commercial Directory of Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Uru- 

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21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised) 15 

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23. Import Duties of Salvador 5 

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28. Commercial Directory of Central America 10 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATION 

Genu. 

29. Commercial Directory of Haiti and Santo Domingo 5 

y>. First Annual Report of the Bureau, 1891 10 

32. Handbook of Guatemala 35 

33. HandbookL of Colombia 30 

34. Handbook of Venezuela 35 

36. Import Duties of Venezuela 5 

38. Commercial Directory of Cuba and Puerto Rico 10 

39. Commercial Directory of British, Danish, Dutch and French 

colonies 10 

42. Newspaper Directory of Latm America .5 

43. Import Duties of Guatemala 25 

44. Import Duties of the United States 5 

45. Import Duties of Peru 25 

46. Import Duties of Chile 25 

47. Import Dutiesof Uruguay 25 

48. Import duties of the Argentine Republic 25 

49. Import Duties of Haiti 10 

30. Handbook of the American Republics, No. 3 50 

51. Handbook of Nicaragua 50 

53. Handbook of Santo Domingo , 50 

53. Immigration and Land Laws of Latin America 40 

55. Handbook of Bolivia 40 

61. Handbook of Uruguay ,. 50 

62. Handbook of Haiti 50 

63 How the Markets of Latin America May Be Reached 40 

64. Handbook of Ecuador 50 

67. Handbook of the Argentine Republic 50 

-68. April Special Bulletin, Costa Rica 25 

New United States TariflP Law..... 05 

PUBLICATIONS NOT NUMBSRBD. 

Commercial Directory of Latin America 40 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau, 1892 5 

Third Annual Report of the Bureau, 1893 15 

Manual de las Republicas Americanas, 1891 (Spanish edition of 

Hand-book No. i) ..: 50 

International American Conference Reports and Recommenda- 
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Common Silver Coin, Patents and Trade-Marks, Weights 
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PRICE UST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

Ceuts. 

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All other remittances are at the risk of the sender. Postage 
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Director. 



The second volume of the Code of Commercial Nomen- 
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terms, including about 830 pages. Price, bound in cloth. $3. 

El segundo tomo del C6digo de Nomenclatura Comercial 
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y contiene cerca de 24,000 vocablos. Su precio, encuarder- 
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l^ya-.5- 1« roas State ffistMJc:! 4ssocijiM«. 

Whole Number 14 Vol II. No. 5 



X H E 



MONTHLY BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Bureau 



OF THE 



American Republics 

WASHINGTON, U. S. A. 



NOVKMRKR, 1894 

American Live Stock. (English and Spanish.) 

Chapter V — Sheep. Compiled by K. T. Rid- 

dick -..----. 273 

Mexico 286 

Argentine Republic — Cotton Industry (Continued) - 287 

Uruguay 292 

Vexe/.uela — Banking Laws. (English and Spanish), 

etc. 296 

EcrADOR - - 306 

Conference of Manufacturers. (English and 

Spanish) . . - ^09 

Commercial Notes - - - - - - 313. 

Dox Rafael Iglicsias - - - - 321 

Single Numbers, 10 Cents Per Annum, ^loc 



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BUREAU 20F THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE. WASHINGTON, D. C, U. S. A. 



Director — CXinton Furbish. 



While the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications 

of the Bureau of the American Republics, no pecuniar)* 

responsibility is assumed on account of errors or 

inaccuracies which may occur therein. 



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Tlie Texas Slate Histoiic:J AssocMod. 



The Monthly Bulletin 

OF THE ' 

BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



November, 1894. 



AMERICAN LIVE STOCK. 

(English and Spanish.) 



Chapter V. 
SHEEP. 



FEEDING FOR WOOL. 

Few shepherds take sufficient thought of the necessities of 
the fleece in the feeding of the flock. And yet in the major- 
ity of cases, this is the most important part of their business. 
The wool of the sheep is a special product and calls for spe- 
cial feeding. It is a highly nitrogenous substance, and thus 
needs food of the same character for its quality. In all feed- 
ing there are two important ends to be thought of. One is 
the sustenance of the animal and the other the special prod- 
uct of it. In feeding cows for butter the expert dairyman 
gives the most particular care to his special product, but the 
shepherd rarely does so. When a cow is to be tested for 
butter product, the food is selected with the utmost care in 
regard to the fitness of it for the end in view. But how few 
wool-growers take thought in this direction. 

It is well known by all intelligent shepherds that the least 
fault in the condition of the sheep is apparent in the wool. 
There are weak spots in it where the fiber has not been nour- 
ished sufficiently, or where the sheep has been subject to 
some adversity. The wool suffers, but the sheep escapes, 

20 BUI, 



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2 74 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN^ REPUBLICS. 

just as if the fleece were a safety valve or a spring to take 
up some extra pressure on the animal. And this is true. 
The first necessity of the animal is to live. The next is to 
store up any surplus vitality in the fleece. And in a ewe the 
lamb comes in between these two necessities. Thus, the 
fleece gets the surplus nutriment after the sheep and the lamb 
are provided for. 

Wool consists of about 80 per cent of carbohydrates, 16 per 
cent of nitrogen, and nearly 4 per cent of sulphur. It has 
nearly the same composition as skin, and is really an out- 
growth of the skin. In the winter-feeding of sheep, which 
is the period of the greatest growth of the fleece, it is well 
known how frequently the sheep suffers in regard to the con- 
dition of the skin, and how this affects the fleece. The wool 
falls off", and under the bare spots, the skin is red and irri- 
tated so that the animal bites it. When this happens, the 
wool is found to be dry, and the natural grease and yolk 
deficient in it. This is due in every case to some fault in feed- 
ing. Perhaps this is irregular, or it is overdone, or the food 
is wanting in proper nutriment. It is very certain that ver}- 
little care is given as to the selection of food, except by the 
expert shepherds who have had long experience to guide 
them, but even many of these need to give more study to the 
wool-growing part of their business, and this is proved by the 
very irregular weights and qualities of the fleeces at the shear- 
ing exhibitions. 

There are two main considerations that concern the feeder 
of the flock that is kept for wool. One is nutritive quality 
of the food, and the other is digestibility. Or one is the 
right material to be used, and the other its availability. 
Both are equally important. Certainly, the food must be 
rich in nitrogen, because the fleece is nothing less than so 
much flesh that must be put on the animal. It must also be 
rich in fat-forming elements, because the yolk and grease 
are .so much fat, if they are outside the carcass. But food 
rich in nitrogen is difficult of digestion, and all animals fed 
on such food require the other elements to be such as will 
aid in the digestion of it. It is on this account that roots are 



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SHEEP. 275 

found so useful for sheep. The reason is that they are 
wholly digestible, are healthfully laxative, and aid greatly 
to make other food more digestible. Thus it might go with- 
out saying that the best wool is the product of root-fed sheep. 
And that this is so, we have to look only to the English 
flocks, whose wool is the best in the world, and this because 
the sheep are fed for the production of the best mutton in 
the world. The wool is simply flesh in another form, but 
chemically identified in composition. And roots form a 
standard part of the feeding of the English flocks. Experi- 
ence has proved that the change from this kind of feeding, 
when sheep have been imported to America, has been the 
cause of the rapid deterioration of the animals, and the dis- 
appointment of their new owners. No doubt, the culture of 
root crops must be more generally adopted if we wish to 
excel in the growth of the sheep and the best kinds of wool. 
The Canadian sheep greatly surpass those of the United 
States. This may be attributed to the better feeding by the 
Canadian shepherds. They use more roots and peas. Peas 
are highly nitrogenous. The 19 per cent of legumin, which 
this grain contains, has almost the identical composition of 
wool. Chemically considered, a typical ration for sheep 
might consist wholly of peas. For a wool-bearing ewe that is 
carrying a lamb, peas contain the exact elements that are re- 
quired for the wool and the milk, excepting some of the fat 
needed. Thus this grain, with some fat-making food, would 
make up the most nutritious food for a wool-bearing flock. 
Com would supply the deficiency in fat. But alone, this 
grain is a most undesirable food for sheep. Why it is so is 
apparent, considering the above facts. And . the prevailing 
com feeding is unquestionably the cause of much loss and 
disappointment among beginners in sheep-keeping. Clover 
hay, is, no doubt, the best rough fodder for sheep. But it 
must be in the best condition and quite free from mold. 
This defect of clover hay is quite common, due, perhaps, to 
the difficulty in curing it. But mildew has a bad effect on 
the sheep by reason of its inflammatory eff*ect on the system 
and its almost immediate result on the skin, causing irritation 



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276 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

and congestion, by which the wool is deprived of nutriment 
and loses its attachment to the skin and falls off. In one case, 
a flock that was doing well were fed on moldy clover hay, 
and in a week the wool was loosening, and by the spring, 
half the flock were almost wholly bare. That flock, as might 
be expected, reared but few lambs, and the ewes had but 
little milk. 

Protection from extremes of weather is necessary for the 
good quality of the fleece. Wet has a bad effect on the 
wool of sheep that are crowded together, and all sheep are 
fond of huddling. The wet wool, under the pressure and in- 
fluence of warmth, felts, or as it is termed, becomes **cotted,'* 
and in some cases splits, and the split ends interlace and mat 
together. This, of course, destroys the value of the fleece. 
German shepherds clothe their sheep to protect them from 
the winter rains, and the English grease the fleeces. These 
precautions are almost unknown here, but it may sometimes 
\>e found profitable at least to protect the sheep for the sake 
of the quality of the fleece. 

But no doubt the most effective means of improving the 
wool is to produce good mutton. Even the Merino may be 
made a muton sheep. The fine French Rambouillet sheep 
is as good an animal as could be desired, and the Delaine 
sheep of parts of New York and Ohio is equally good for its 
carcass. But without roots for the winter feeding and better 
pastures, it is vain to expect excellent mutton, and this brings 
us round again to the previous remark that root growing must 
be the basis of excellent wool. 

TO FATTEN SHEEP. 

Sheep should always be fed with the utmost regularity, and 
though fond of variety, feeding sheep resent a sudden change 
to an unaccustomed feed stuff. Hence combination of feeds 
is better than change — that is, let the day's ration comprise a 
portion of all the feed stuffs — say one in the morning, a 
second at noon, and a third at night. There are many devices 
for keeping them clean between feeds; perhaps as simple 
and effectual way as any is to have the troughs set loosely on 



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SHEEP. 277 

notched cross-boards ; then they can easily be turned bottom 
up when not in use. 

Water should be provided in abundance, and of a tempera- 
ture not below an ordinary cistern or well. In very cold 
weather the matter of watering can be regulated only by 
pumping a number of times a day; the surplus, if any, may 
be tipped out of the trough into a waste trough, and conveyed 
out of the building to prevent freezing. A sheep that is full 
fed on heating grain requires water several times a day, else 
it will not thrive. The same remark is true as to salt. 

With swine it is a bad practice to keep grain lying by them; 
with sheep it is worse, it is ruinous. The sheep is the most 
fastidious of all domestic animals ; it will contend stoutly for 
the first place next to the pump spout or a certain clean 
comer in the grain trough. For this reason, all troughs 
should be turned over or covered tight the moment they are 
emptied, to prevent any foulness from accumulation. What- 
ever grain is given, the flock should be watched while they 
eat it; if a few are a little "off" their feed*' on account of 
muggy weather or other cause, the hearty eaters should not 
be allowed to linger and consume the residue of feed. They 
should be promptly driven from the troughs and the remain- 
ing feed removed, else they, too, will be in danger of getting 
"off their feed." 

A good grain for fattening sheep is shelled corn, one-half; 
barley or rye, one-quarter; oats, one-quarter. Years of ex- 
perience satisfies us that it pays, unless the mill is very 
remote, to have all grains ground, even ior sheep, and the 
finer the better ; the process of resalivation will be just as 
well performed with meal, as with grain; there is much grain 
that will escape the act of regurgitation and remastication ; 
and, most important consideration of all, the particles of 
grain have to be reduced, either by the mill, the teeth or the 
stomach, infinitesimally small before they will lend them- 
selves to the great work of nutrition. We would have com 
meal ground nearly as fine as wheat flour, if possible ; then 
the waste will be reduced to a minimum, and the process of 
alimentation will be best promoted. 



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278 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

Sheep that have been shut up to be fattened do not require 
any more exercise ; they are supposed to have made their 
muscles, and now they are to develop fat, which requires 
rest. To this end, they should be kept not only quiet but 
absolutely dry. There is no other sure method of keeping 
them free from catarrh and "snuffles," and no sheep can 
fatten with its nostrils half stopped up with disgusting 
accumulations of mucous. It needs all the air it can obtain 
by the deepest and fullest inhalations to oxygenate and 
assimilate the immense amount of concentrated feed which 
is being taken into the stomach and ultimately into the 
blood. Though requiring to be dry, both above and under 
foot, the sheep-house should not be warm and steamy. Glass 
windows should exclude the storms, but be opened to admit 
the air freely at all other times, and that at a sufficient 
elevation not to strike the sheep directly. 

Whether in the sheep-house or in the feeding yard adja- 
cent, the grain troughs should be flat bottojned to prevent 
the master sheep from heaping up food and exercising 
monopoly. 

From the time the flock is put into the yard to begin the 
fattening process, it should be nearly or quite a month before 
the ration of grain is increased up to their full capacity of 
consumption. An increase of two quarts a day will carry the 
feed in that time from one bushel up to three per day; and 
that amount of corn or meal is about all that 100 average 
Merino or Southdown wethers can be induced to eat, with 
plenty of clover hay. It is best to divide this into two 
feeds; one at noon, another at night. Grain feeding in the 
morning is not advisable; some sheep have a human slug- 
gishness and lack of appetite upon rising. 

(To be couliuued.) 



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LOS CARNEROS. 279 



GANADO AMERICANO. 



Capitulo v. 



LOS CARNEROS. 

ALIMENTACION NECESARIA PARA LA PRODUCCION DE LA 

LAN A. 

Pocos criadores han estudiado suficientemente las necesi- 
dades del carnero en lo relative d su alimentaci6n para poder 
decir con exactitud la que debe ddrsele d fin de que 
produzca la mayor cantidad de lana, 6 la lana de mejor clase ; 
y sin embargo, en la gran mayoria de los casos, esta es la 
parte mds importante de su industria. La lana del carnero 
es un producto de naturaleza especial que requiere alimenta- 
ci6n tambi6n especial. Es una sustancia altamente azoada 
que requiere, por lo tanto, que el alimento del animal que la 
produce sea de la misma clase. Dos son siempre los pro- 
l>6sitos del alimento : uno es el sostenimiento del animal, 
otro es la producci6n del artfculo especial que se trata 
de obtener con 61. Cuando se crian vacas con el objeto 
especial de la producci6n de mantequilla, los vaqueros expertos 
atienden con mds empeiio d lo que favorece la producci6n de 
este artfculo, y elijen con el mayor cuidado el alimento mds d 
proposito para este objeto. Pero i cudn raros son Ics criadores 
de cameros que se preocupan de este asunto I 

Es cosa bien sabida entre todos los que entienden el manejo 
de los cameros que la menor cosa que se experimente en 
alios aparece de niomento en la lana. Si el animal no ha 
sido alimentado suficientemente hay puntos en la fibra de la 
lana que carecen de la fuerza debida. Lo mismo sucede 
cuando el carnero ha sufrido algun contratiempo. En muchos 
casos el animal recupera aparentemente sus fuerzas, pero la 



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28o BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

lana atestigua la prueba mds 6 menos severa d que el carnero 
ha estado sujeto. La primera necesidad del animal es vivir; 
despuds viene la de emplear todo el exceso de vitalidad qpe 
pueda haber en 61 en la producci6n de la lana ; y cuando se 
trata de una oveja, hay que afiadird estas dos necesidades las 
relativas a la conservaci6n del cordero. En este ultimo 
caso la alimentacion Ka de ser calculada, primero para la 
oveja misma, despu^s para el cordero, despues para la cualidad 
y cantidad de la lana. 

La lana consiste en cerca de un 80 por ciento de carburos 
dehydrogeno, un 16 por ciento de azoe y cerca de un 4 por ciento 
de azufre. Tiene casi la misma coniposici6n que la piel, y 
en realidad no es otra cosa que una producci6n de este ultimo 
6rgano. En el invierno, que es el periodo del mayor crecimien- 
to de la lana, es cosa bien sabida por todos los criadores 
que el animal sufre frecuentemente por el estado de su piel, 
y que en ese caso se le cae la lana dejando espacios calves, 
de color rojo, y tan encendidos 6 irritados, que el animal se 
estd mordiendo constantemente. Cuando esto sucede, la lana 
es seca y carece de su grasa y suavidad natural. Puede 
decirse que esto es siempre debido d alguna falta en la ali- 
mentaci6n, bi^n porque sea irregular, bidn porque sea 
excesiva, bi6n porque carezca de los elementos nutritivos que 
son necesarios. Es por desgracia demasiado cierto que se 
tiene muy poco cuidado en la elecci6n del alimento que debe 
darse al carnero, y que solo alguno que otro entendido pastor 
de grande experiencia se ocupa de este asunto. Aun en este 
ultimo caso, mucho queda por hacer con respecto d la pro- 
ducci6n de la lana, como se demuestra por las grandes irregu- 
laridades en el peso y cualidad de este articulo, cual ha side 
exhibido en las exposiciones. 

Hay dos consideraciones princi pales enlo que concieme dla 
alimentaci6n de los cameros para el objeto de que produzcan 
buena lana. Una es la cualidad nutritiva del alimento, y otra 
la de la mayor 6 menor digestibilidad de este. Una es la del 
material propio que deba usarse, y otra la de su mayor 
aprovechamiento. Las dos son igualmente importantes. 

Ciertamente el alimento debe ser rico en azoe, porque la 



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LOS CARNEROS. • 28 1 

lana necesitm mucba cantidad de esta sustancia. Tambi^n debe 
ser rico en elementos que formen grasa, porque la lana debe 
contenerla. Pero el alimento mu}' rico en azoe es de dificil 
<iigesti6n, y bay que mezclarlo por lo tanto con otros que 
la hagan fdcil. Es por esta causa que las rafces son tan 
buenas para los carneros, pues que ademds de digerirse bi^n 
producen un saludable efecto laxante y contribuyeii mucho & 
hacer asimilables los demds alimentos. De aqui resulta, 
como un hecho demostrado, que la mejor lana es la de los 
carneros alimentados con raices. Para demostrarlo bastaria 
solo con echar una mirada 6. los rebafios ingleses, cuya lana 
€S la mejor del mundo, y aunque los carneros se crian con el 
objeto de que produzcan buena carne para venderse en el mer- 
cado. La lana difiere de la carne simplemente en la forma, 
pero una y otra son identicas en cuanto d composicion quimica. 
Las raices forman el elemento principal en la alimentacion 
•de los rebafios ingleses, y la experiencia ha demostrado que 
ain cambio de este r6gimen, cuando el animal ha sido impor- , 
tado en America, produjo siempre un desmejoraniiento nota- 
ble en la constituci6n del camero y un desengaiio doloroso en 
sus mievos propietarios. No hay duda de que debe adoptarse 
con mayor generalidad el cultivo de aquellas plantas que 
tienen raices propias para este objeto, si se quiere que los 
carneros se desarroUen bi6n y produzcan lana de la mejor 
calidad. 

El camero del Canadd es superior en mucho al de los Esta- 
dos TJnidos, y esto depende solo de su mejor alimentaci6n, 
efectuada, por lo comun, con raices y con chicharos. Estos 
ultimos contienen mucho azoe, y el 19 por ciento de la legu- 
mina que existe en este grano presenta una composicion casi 
identica d la de la lana. Si se atendiese solamente al punto 
de vista quimico, el alimento de los carneros debiera consistir 
unicamente en chicharos. Para las ovejas, cuando estdn 
prenadas, este grano es tambien el mejor, pues que con- 
tiene precisamente los elementos que se requieren para pro- 
ducir as{ la lana como la leche, faltdndole solo algunos 
-de los elementos productores de grasa ; y si estos se le 
agregan se obtendrd seguramente el alimento mds 



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282 BUICEAU of the AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

nutritivo posible para las ovejas en este estado. El raaiz es 
un alimento bueno para el efecto de proveer de grasa; pero si 
se dd exclusivamente, sus efectos serdn pemiciosos para el 
carnero. La raz6n de esto es bi^n clara, si se consideran 
debidamente los hechos expuestos. Puede decirse sin temor 
de errar que la alimentaci6n de los cameros con solo mafz 
es causa de muchas p^rdidas y de muclios desenganos entre 
los que empiezan d ejercitarse en la crianza. 

El heno de alfalfa es sin duda el mejor forraje ordinario 
para los cameros, pero debe estar en la mejor condici6n posi- 
ble y enteramente libre de musgo. Es muy comun que la 
alfalfa tenga este defecto, que es muy pernicioso para los 
cameros, pues que produce en ellos un efecto inflamatorio, de 
que resulta una grande irritaci6n y congesti6n de la piel, que 
priva d la lana del alimento debido y determina su caida. 
Hubo un caso en que al cabo de una semana de alimentaci6n 
con heno de alfalfa que e^staba enmohecido empez6 d aflojarse 
la lana de los carneros que formaban el rebaflo, y que hasta 
entonces habfan estado muy lozanos; y cuando lleg6 la prima- 
vera la mitad de ellos se encontraba completamente sin lana. 
Aderads de esto, como era de esperarse, hubo en el rebano 
muy pocos corderos y las ovejas no tenfan sino muy poca 
leche. 

Otra cosa que se necesita para la buena calidad de la lana, 
es la proteccion del animal contra las extremas inclemencias 
del tiempo. La humedad tiene muy mal efecto sobre la 
lana de los carneros, sobre todo cuando estos se reunen y 
arriman unos d otros estrechamente, segun es su costumbre. 
La lana hiimeda, oprimida y calentada por los cuerpos de los 
animales, experimenta una trans formaci6n que generalmente 
termina en que sus hebras se me.zclen y apelotonen unas 
con otras haci^ndola por lo tanto perder su valor. En 
Alemania los pastores ponen d sus carneros un vestido 
para protejerlos contra las lluvias del invierao. En lugla- 
terra los pastores los untan con aceite. Pero aqu{ en los 
Estados Unidos estas precauciones son casi absolutamente 
desconocidas. Pudiera ser provechoso sin embargo que se 



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LOS CARNEROS. 283 

prestase rads atencion i este particular, del que depende en 
tan alto grado la cualidad de la lana. 

No hay duda de que el mode rads eficaz de raejorar la lana 
es producir buena came. Hasta el camero merino puede 
hacerse un excelente animal para el matadero. El famoso 
camero francos llamado "Rambouillet ** es tan bueno para 
este objeto como el mejor que puede encontrarse, y lo mismo 
sucede con los carneros *' Delaine '* que se propagan bi^n eb 
varias partes de los Estados de New York y Ohio ; pero sin 
tener buenas raices en el inviemo, ademds de los pastos ade- 
cuados, sera en vano esperar que el animal tenga excelente 
canie, y esto nos trae de nuevo 4 la observaci6n que antes 
hicimos de que las siembras de plantas con raices alimenticias 
deben ser la base en que descanse la producci6n de una buena 

lana. 

COMO DEBEN ENGORDARSE LOS CARNEROS. 

LrOS canieros deben siempre alimentarse con la mayor regu- 
laridad posible, porqueaunque aestos animates les gu•^ta mucho 
la variedad en su comida; sufren siempre mds 6 menos con 
cualquiera cambio siibito que en esta se verifica. De aqui 
resulta que sea siempre mejor la mezcla y combinaci6n de los 
alinientos que el cambio de ellos, por lo cual es de aconse- 
jarse que la raci6n de cada dia se componga de todos los 
materiales que ban de usarse para la nutrici6n altemdndolos, y 
ddndolos por ejemplo unode ellos en la manana, otro al medio- 
dia y otro por la noche. Hay muchos medios de conseguir 
que no se ensucien entre una comida y otra los dichos mate- 
riales, y quizes el medio mds sencillo y eficaz para conseguirlo 
consiste en arreglar los pesebres de tal manera que se les 
pueda volcar facilmente y ponerlos boca abajo cuando no 
estdn en uso. 

Debe haber agua en abundancia y tenerse cuidado de mante- 
nerla d una temperatura que no sea interior a la de un pozo 6 
aljibe ordinario. En dias de mucho frio la provision de agua 
debe hacerse, por medio de bombas, un cierto numero de veces 
al dia ; y toda el agua que sobre debera sacarse del establo 
para irapedir que se hiele dentro de 61. Un camero que estd 
alimentado con granos productores de calor requiere que se le 



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284 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

d^ agua varias veces al dia, pues de lo contrario no prospe- 
rard. La misma observaci6ii debe hacerse con respecto d la 
sal. 

Es mala costumbre hasta cuando se trata de los puercos 
dejar los granos regados al rededor. Puede decirse que este 
hdbito es ruinoso cuando se trata de los carneros. Son estos 
los mds delicados de todos los animales dom6sticos en punto 
d U limpieza de lo que comen 6 beben. A veces pelean con 
gran tes6n por el primer lugar cerca de la canal de la bomba, 
6 por el lugar rads limpio que ha3'a en el pesebre. Esta es 
la raz6n porque todos los pesebres deben volcarse 6 taparse 
con cuidado, cuando estdn vacios, d fin de evitar la acumula- 
cion en ellos de ninguna suciedad. Cualquiera que seael grano 
que se d€ al rebano, serd siempre bueno vigilar con cuidado d 
los animales mientras lo estdti comiendo. Si hay algun car 
nero que no qui^re comer, bidn por causa del tiempo dema- 
siado caliente 6 por otra causa, no por eso se debe dejar 
que los otros nids glotones se detengan por mas tiempo del 
necesario y consuman todo el alimento. A estos se les debe 
separar prontamente de los pesebres, recogiendo con cuidado 
cuanto quede en ellos. Si no se limpian bien los pesebres 
se corre el riesgo de que aun esos mismos glotones no quieran 
copier. 

Un alimento que puede recomendarse para engordar los car- 
neros consiste en una mezcla de maiz desgranado, cebada 6 cen- 
teno y avena, en la proporci6n de una mitad del total volumen 
para el primero, y una cuarta parte para cada una de las 
otras. La experiencia de varios aiios nos ha demostrado 
que es litil, d no ser que el molino est6 muy lejos, usar los 
dichos granos despues de molidos. Aiin para los carneros 
grandes serd mejor el grano mientras mas finamente estd 
molido. El acto de la salivaci6n tiene lugar del mismo modo 
con la harina de dichos granos que con el ^rano entero ; y 
hay que tener en cuenta que si se usa este ultimo hay muchos 
granos que se pierden por raz6n de que el animal los 
regurgita. La mds importante consideraci6n entre todas es 
la de que las particulas del grano tienen que ser necesaria- 
mente reducidas, ya sea por el molino, ya por los dientes, ya 



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I.OS CARNEROS. 285 

per el est6mago, & una masa extremadamente fina, antes 
de que pueda utiltzarse en la grande obra de la nutrici6n. La 
harina de maiz debe ser tan fina si es posible como la de 
trigo ; y SI esto se hace, los desperdicios quedardn reducidos 
al minimum, y el procedimiento de la alimentaci6n se verifi- 
cara con mayor ventaja. 

Los caraeros encerrados con el objeto de cebarlos no 
necesitau hacer ejercicio: se supone que ya tienen todo lo 
que se quiere en cuanto d musculos y que lo que les falta es 
la gordura, que para desenvolverse requiere el descanso. Es 
por esta ra26n que se les debe tener no solo quietos sino 
absolutamente secos. No hay m6todo mds seguro que este 
ultimo para libertarlos de catarros y obstrucciones en las fosas 
nasales ; y no hay camero que pueda engordar cuando tiene 
las nances medio tupidas con asquerosas acumulaciones de 
sustancias mucosas. 

El carnero necesita t8do el aire que pueda obtener, y 
sus 6rgaoos respiratorios requieren la mds dmplia y libre 
inhalacion de aquel fluido, para oxigenar yasimilar la in- 
mensa cantidad de alimento concentrado quepenetra en su 
estoraago y se convierte ultimamente en sangre. 

Aunque se requiere que el camero este en lugar seco, el 
establo no debe ser caliente ni humeante. Los vidrios de las 
ventanas, excelentes para impedirque el agua penetre, deben 
estar abiertos para dar entrada libre al aire en todo el resto 
del tiempo, y las ventanas deben estar colocadas d suficiente 
altura para que el carnero no se encuentre directamente 
en la corriente. 

Bien sea en el interior del establo, bien en el corral inme- 
diatOy los pesebres deben ser de fondo piano d fin de evitar 
mayor acumulaci6n de grano en alguno de ellos, en detrimento 
de la igualdad que debe observarse con todos. 

Desde el momento en que el rebaiio entra en el corral para 
empezar a ser cebado hasta aquel en que se le dd el mdximum 
posible del alimento, ha de pasar por lo menos un mes, puesto 
que el auxnento debe ser gradual. Un aumento de dos litres 
f>or dia hara que al cabo del tiempo indicado la raci6n haya 
subido de uno d tres *' bushels ** diarios, que es la mayor canti 



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286 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

dad de maiz 6 de harina de maiz que cien cameros merinos 6 
*'Southdowus" pueden ser inducidos d comer cuando tienen 
bastante heiio de alfalfa. Es mejor que se divida esto en 
dos comidas, una al mediodia y otra por la noche. Darles 
grano por la mafiana no es siempre bueno ; hay algunos 
carneros que tienen falta de apetito y de habilidad de diges- 
tion en las primeras horas del dia. 

(Continuard.) 



MEXICO. 



It is learned that the Department of Communications has 
approved the location of the line of^ the Mexico, Cuernavaca 
and Pacific Railway from Cuernavaca to Acapulco, a distance 
of about 175 miles. 

The route surveyed will open up the rich States of Morelas 
and Guerrero, the latter being especially rich in gold mines, 
now in operation and being prospected. 



A federal decree has been published in the official organ of 
Mexico, El Diario Oficiai, ordering a general census of the 
inhabitants to be taken on October 20, 1895. 

To insure the success of the undertaking the Department 
of Encouragement has issued circulars to the various local 
authorities containing preliminary instructions as to how to 
proceed in the work. 



From the Mexican Financier of No^vember 3 it is learned 
that the Secretary of the Treasury has petitioned Congress 
for authority to impose a special tax of 25 cents per ton on 
all merchandise entering or leaving the country by way of 
Vera Cruz, for the purpose of defraying the cost of the new 
customs warehouse to be erected at that port. 



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ARGENTINA. 287 



ARGENTINA. 



THE COTTON INDUSTRY. 

(Continued.) 

III. 

As yet no attempt has been made to manufacture ribbons, 
and this is somewhat surprising seeing the amount that are 
imported every year. In 1891 34,519 kilos of ribbons, ex- 
cluding those of silk, and valued at $61,013, were imported, 
while the imports for the past year amounted to 70,956 kilos, 
valued at $188,575; the in ports for the past four years 
amounted to 210,354 kilos, with a valuation of $446,330. 

As mentioned in the last article, Messrs. Burnichon & Co. 
have devoted a portion of their factory to the making of 
wicks for candles, lamps, and matches, but only on a small 
scale ; a factory specially devoted to this branch of the indus- 
try will shortly be opened in Barracas, and to show that there 
is ample room for a factory of this description, we have only 
to state that the imports for the past four years amount to 
300,000 kilos, valued at $250,000. From the preceding chap- 
ters will be seen the strides that the cotton manufacturing 
industry is making in the country; but before it can make 
much more headway, it is undoubtedly necessary that, from 
the raw material to the finished article, it be cultivated, spun, 
and woven in the country. At present the cotton factories 
import more than 84,000 kilos of yarn per annum. 

The manufacture of cotton woven goods in this country is 
destined to increase rapidly in the near future, on account of 
the innumerable varieties of textile plants, which abound 
everywhere As yet, however, cotton growing may be said 
to be in its infancy, as only a few agriculturists have of late 
taken to growing cotton as a business, and that only on a 
small scale, on account of the lack of spinning mills to pre- 
pare the raw material for the factories. A spinning mill, 



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288 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

however, is shortly to be established in the city, and those 
who have undertaken the cultivation of the cotton plant will 
find a ready market for their goods, and will reap for the first 
few years a rich reward. 

The provinces and territories most suitable for the cultiva- 
tion of the cotton plant are those situated in the north of the 
Republic, such as Rioja, Catamarca, Corrientes, the southern 
and central Chaco, Misiones, Jujuy, Tucuman, Santiago, and 
Salta. With the exception of a few species such as al^odon 
sa/picado, Indian cotton, etc., and a few which grow well in 
the driest earths, the cotton plant requires loose and nutri- 
tious soil, damp rather than dry, with sufficient vegetable 
mold. Virgin soil is not so good as land which has already 
been cultivated. The Chaco Austral, on account of the 
geological composition of its soil, is destined to produce good 
and abundant crops of cotton, as has already been proved by 
various trials made with different classes of seed. The soil 
of the Province of Entre Rios contains all the necessary ele- 
ments for the production of g:ood cotton, as it contains 4.02 
per cent water, 63.85 per cent sand, and 18.87 per cent arjil. 

In a report made to the English Foreign Office by the Con- 
sul in Rosaria upon the cultivation of cotton in the Delta of 
the Parana, we find the following: *'For my part, I would 
not hesitate a moment in making an experiment, by way of 
trial, in any of the islands of the large rivers. It is desirable 
to make experiments with the seed of the exquisite Cata- 
marca cotton as well as with the different Egyptian varieties. 
The Catamarca cotton is produced on a plant which the in- 
habitants there cut down every year, leaving nothing but the 
root. The plant springs up the year the seed is sown, reach- 
ing maturity during the second year, and continues to shoot 
up from the root with the most complete productive vigor 
during ten to fifteen years.*' 

Cotton growing is likely to become the first source of 
wealth to the province of Corrientes, as it is destined to be 
cultivated on a large scale, having first been planted to a 
considerable extent before the Paraguayan war in the sixties. 

In the Province of Salta, there exists an indigenous shrub 



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ARGENTINA. 289 

^hicli tlie natives call Lluchdn cotton and also Palo borracho 
and Samubti to which botanists give the name of Chorisia in- 
signis. This shrub is a species of cotton plant, and grows to 
a height of 33 to 46 feet, and measures i foot 8 inches to 6 
feet 6 inches in diameter. Its bark is from half to three- 
quarters inches thick and is distinguished by very large lumps 
and is of greenish grey color. The trunk is spongy and the 
wood of a dirty yellowish white. The bark is composed of 
long and strong filaments, or textiles, which might with ad- 
vantage be applied for rope making ; the substance produced 
by the capsule is almost identical with th^t of cotton, except 
that its fibers are short, but nevertheless after being carded, 
it would serve for mattresses, pillows, etc. This plant is 
found abundantly in the whole of the north of the Republic. 
Cotton has been cultivated in Mendoza for more than 
thirty years, and although it was taken up with interest by 
landholders and agriculturists, they soon saw the difficulties 
that the said cultivation offered on account of difficulty in 
transport and the heavy freights. What is now grown is all 
employed for local requirements, and is woven on old-fash- 
ioned looms. As soon as a spinning factory is established 
in Buenos Aires, Mendoza will be among the first of the 
provinces to send in their cotton products. 

IV. 

At the end of the eighteenth century there existed in the 
Misiones territory a large colony composed of more than 
30,000 inhabitants under the direction of the Jesuits. Cotton 
was cultivated on a large scale, and the m mufactured prod- 
ucts not only supplied the requirements of the people, but 
fine pieces of woven articles were exported to Spain. Even 
now, there still exist ruins of these vast establishments of 
the spinning mills and weaving sheds. 

The soil of the Misiones territory is most suitable to the 

cultivation of cotton, as the following extracts from a letter 

of an influential colonist in those parts to the Immigration 

Department clearly show : 

In November, 1892, Hook a kilo of seed of so-called dwarf cotton and 

21 BUI* 



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290 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

another kilo of the large variety, which I distributed among the people 
of the Alurralde Colony, who sowed them at the ends of January and 
February in prepared ground, on which n^aize, mandioca and other 
seeds had previously been sown, and toward the middle of May they 
had already begun to gather cotton ; this shows you the rapidity with 
which the plant developes there. The cotton fiber gathered there is 
long and sufficiently white. A square sown with dwarf cotton gives 
20,000 plants, and with the large variety, 10,000. 

We will now refer to the quantity of raw cotton and woolen 
yam imported during the past three years, and the various 
cotton goods imported during the same period. In 1891 the 
imports of raw cotton amounted to 64,658 kilos, whereas for 
the two years 1892 and 1893 it amounted to 325,028 kilos or, 
say, an annual increase of more than 200 per cent. The im- 
ports for the first six months of the current year were 24,296 
kilos. 

The imports of cotton 3 arn for the three years amount to 
941,625 kilos, and of woolen yarn in 1893 to 58,526 kilos. 
The imports of wicks for lamps and candles for the four years 
1891 to i8q3, amounted to 319,235 kilos. The total value of 
the manufactured cotton goods imported during the above 
period amounts to more than $76,000,000. From the above 
we deduce that there is alread}' a market in Buenos Aires for 
more than 700,000 kilos of raw cotton, for the manufacture of 
counterpanes, quilts and medicinal cotton ; that the hosier}* 
factories which we have described consume nearly a million 
kilos of cotton yarn ; that the new wick factories will re. 
quire over 100,000 kilos of yam per annum, and lastly, the 
spinning mills to be erected will require more than 3,000,000 
kilos of the raw material per annum. 

Turning now to the cultivation of the cotton plant, a light 
soil with a mixture of sand, but fertile, in which the roots 
near to the surface can spread out easily, is most adaptable; 
the most suitable is soil composed of aluvion, or which being 
near to streams has been covered by water containing a larjje 
quantity of vegetable substances. The soil of the Chaco 
which is composed of aluvion, humo -arenaceous, argillo- 
arenaceous humus, is the most appropriate for the cultivation 
of cotton. A hectare will produce from 1,320 to 3,300 



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ARGENTINA. 291 

pounds of seed, according to the class of cotton plant, and 
state of cultivation. With 4,000 pounds of seed manure is 
formed which gives the same result as by employing 40,000 
pounds of ordinary manure. Cotton, like any other plant, 
requires the. tillage of the earth to be deep, and the operation 
to be carried out repeatedly and before the sowing season. 
In the northern parts of the Republic, the preparation of the 
ground should be commenced in the month of July. 

As the cotton plant is sensitive to cold, it should be sown 
in this country, and in the territories and provinces situated 
in the north, from the end of September and during the 
whole of the month of October. The seed should not be 
sown in shady places. The gathering ot the crops should 
be concluded in the month of May at the latest. In a cotton 
plantation receiving proper attention in a suitable place it is 
estimated that the annual species gives one and a half to two 
pounds of raw cotton, with the seed to each plant. It is 
calculated that from four to seven pounds gross weight of 
cotton, a pound of clean cotton in a proper state for sale is 
obtained. A square of ground well cultivated should contain 
eight to nine thousand plants. Estimating the square at 8,000 
plants and the gross production at one pound per plant, we 
shall have 8,000 pounds per square, which reduced to one- 
fifth as the net product, leaves at least a profit of 1,600 pounds 
per square (4.17 acres). 

As cotton planting is virtually in its infancy in this country, 
it has been impossible to obtain any reliable data as to the 
cost of cultivation, but it may be taken that two men are 
sufi!icient to prepare and sow one square of land. 

We think it will be clearly seen from these articles that a 
large field is open to cotton planters, and that it is only neces- 
sary for the first spinning mill to be erected in Buenos Aires 
for this nascent industry to become one of the principal ones 
of the Republic. 



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292 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



URUGUAY. 



The Government of Uruguay has now under consideration 
the proposition of Mr. Edward Cooper, of Montevideo, to 
establish a new port on the Atlantic coast of that Republic. 

The point at which the proposed seaport is to be made is 
the **Coronilla," about three leagues distant from the Bra- 
zilian line, State of Rio Grande do Sul. 

Owing to the existence of several large outlying islands, 
the harbor is perfectly sheltered from the rough weather of 
the Atlantic, and the water is of depth sufficient to admit 
large vessels. 

From the Coronilla to Rio Janeiro the distance is 860 miles 
— 300 miles less than that from Buenos Aires, and about 200 
miles nearer Rio than is Montevideo. 

Mr. Cooper's project has for its immediate basis and pur- 
pose the exportation of live stock to the markets of Rio and 
other cities of Brazil. 

Coronilla is the natural and most adjacent port for the 
provinces of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, and Cerro Larga, which 
it is claimed contain at the present time 4,000,000 head of 
cattle, about one-half the entire product of the Republic. 

With the exception of a very few live animals, brought 
with difficulty and much expense from Montevideo and 
Buenos Aires, the. markets of Rio and other cities have to 
depend largely for their meats upon the unpalatable *'tasajo/' 
or sun-dried beef of the country. 

• Below are given the terms as proposed by Mr. Cooper and 
his associates. It will be observed that no aid or guarantee 
is asked from the Government: 

I . Mr. Edward Cooper, or the company which he repre- 
sents, is authorized to construct at the Coronilla, in the 
Department of Rocha, a port specially destined for the 
exportation of live cattle, constructing for that purpose a 
breakwater starting from one of the islands eastward of Point 



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URUGUAY. 293 

Coronilla, with moles or docks in the manner most convenient 
for the loading and discharging of vessels, and to provide 
the port with moorings, buoys, and lights, necessary for the 
security of navigation. 

2. The concessionaire shall present the general plan of the 
works for the approval of the Executive within three months 
after the granting of the concession, and detailed plans 
before beginning the works. 

3. The concession is granted for fifty years, during which 
time the constructing company shall have the exclusive right 
of loading and discharging in the port, and to charge for 
anchorage, transport and storage, establishing the required 
services and constructing the necessary buildings. 

4. The general goods entering or leaving the new port, are 
to pay the existing import or export dues, and the Govern- 
ment may create the same fiscal taxes as in other ports of 
the country. 

5. The administration of the port in political, sanitary, and 
custom-house matters shall always belong to the State, and 
its ships shall have free access to it at all times, and can 
make use of the company's works free of any charge. 

6. The entering and leaving the port is completely free to 
any ship not doing operations in it. 

7. The port may be opened as soon as the works have 
advanced sufficiently to oflFer safe shelter to vessels. 

8. The company shall construct the offices necessary for 
the employes which the State may require for the adminis- 
tration of the port. 

9. In case the fiscal rents produced by the port should not 
be sufficient to cover the expenses of administration the com- 
pany is to pay the deficit. 

10. The Government cedes gratuitously to the company the 
use of the islands east of the Coronilla Point, and of the coast 
around the port, including the right of quarrying stone for the 
works and accessories. 

1 1 . The company is authorized to expropriate 2,500 hectares 
of land near the port, and if there be fiscal lands in its vicinity, 
fit for the fattening and storing of animals to be kept as re- 



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294 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

serve stock for exportation, these are ceded to the company 
to the extent of 15,000 hectares, not including the land 
belonging to the Santa Teresa fort. 

12. The introduction, free of charge, of the materials and 
tools required for the works is granted to the company. 

13. The company's capital, represented by its landed, mari- 
time and floating properties, is free of any tax or charge 
during ten years from the date of the opening of the port. 

14. The works shall be commenced within nine months 
after the approval of the general plans and shall be finished 
in two and a half years. 

15. The majority of the company's employes shall be 
natives of the Uruguay Republic. 



[From advance sheets of the United States Consular Reports for Xovcniber, 1S94.] 

PROPOSED INTERCONTINENTAL RAILWAY CON- 

FERENCE. 

Consul Schramm, of Montevideo, under date of September 
6, advises the Department of correspondence between him- 
self and the Minister of Public Works of Uruguay, with refer- 
ence to the subject of the proposed intercontinental railroad. 
In his letter, dated August 23, the minister, Mr. Juan Jos^ 
Castro, writes to Mr. Schramm, transmitting a copy of the 
work entitled "Treatise on South American Railways," etc., 
which was compiled by him under instructions from the 
Uruguayan Government for transmission, with a map, to the 
World's Fair, Chicago. He says that the book and map will 
show the important part Uruguay will have to play in the 
great work of establishing International communication be- 
tween the countnes of the Western Hemisphere. He ex- 
presses the opinion that the intercontinental railway project 
will result in establishing direct communication between the 
United States of America and Canada to the estuaries of the 
River Plate and Chile, and that the Interoceanic Railway of 
South America will reduce the time from the Pacific, the 



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URUGUAY. 295 

River Plate, and Brazil to the European continent and Great 
Britain. Mr. Castro adds: 

Uruguay has deemed the most efficient means to aid this enterprise 
in a practical form to be the publication of a comparative statement of 
the railway systems extending through the countries of Peru, Bolivia, 
Chile, Argentine Republic, Paraguay, Brazil, and Uruguay, the author- 
ized (railway) extension of which already amounts to 80,000 kilometers, 
of which 32,000 kilometers are built, 11,000 kilometers are under con- 
struction, 13,000 kilometers are under survey, and 24,000 kilometers are 
to be surveyed. In this network of lines, the Intercontinental Railway 
will find an expeditious means of extension from I,a Plata, Bolivia, to 
Ta Paz, Sucre, Asuncion del Paraguay, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, 
Buenos Aires, and Valparaiso, traversing regions of the greatest rich- 
ness, full of variegated products of the fauna, flora, and mineral king- 
doms. 

It is to be expected that these enterprises will not be neglected by 
the countries interested, and that, in consequence, the 121,000,000 in- 
habitants of the continent will be able to tighten the ties of American 
confraternity by means of interchange and the most friendly relations. 
For the purposes of this great American work, the holding of a new in- 
ternational conference imposes itself as mdispensable, be it in Wash- 
ington or in one of the River Plate cities, in order to consider the most 
practical ways and means to bring the work to execution and the vari- 
ous other capital points, namely, technical conformity of the broad- 
gauge service and of the rolling material, service, etc., systems of ac- 
counting, bonded transit, etc. Uruguay — of this you may rest assured — 
will not abandon the post of honor it is designated to take in collective 
action with the other American Republics to effect the realization of the 
work which may be demanded of each, and which, there can be no 
doubt, will have a powerful influence upon civilization and the devel- 
opment of the industries and commerce of the new world, the funda- 
mental basis of its great future and aggrandizement. 



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296 BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



VENEZUELA. 



THE BANKING LAWS. 

The proposed establishment at Caracas of a banking 
house, under the name of ** Anglo- Venezuelan Commercial 
Bank,'* with power to issue notes receivable in payment of 
all public and private debts, having given occasion for rep- 
resentations and protests on the part of some merchants and 
other people in Venezuela, the President of the Republic, 
General Don Joaquin Crespo, deemed it advisable to cause 
the banking laws of Venezuela to be republished in news- 
papers of the country, and to write furthermore, in the shape 
of a letter, dated at Maracay, October 4, 1894, addressed to 
Doctor Don Feliciano Acevedo, a distinguished gentleman of 
Caracas, an exhaustive explanation of the whole subject. 
It is thought that the publication of this letter, wherein the 
formal declaration is made that the Government has no in 
tention of creating paper money, and that of the statutory 
provisions in force in Venezuela on this particular matter, 
has caused all apprehensions felt there to be dispelled. But 
the commerce at large, both in that Republic, and in all the 
others which form the Union represented by this Bureau, 
will find it interesting to have said laws translated as well as 
reprinted in the pages of this Bulletin. 

BANKING LAW. 
(Approved Juia' 4, 1864.) ' 

Be it enacted etc., etc., etc. 

Art. 1. Banks of deposit, exchange, and discount may be 
allowed to be established freely, without any other formalities 
than those required by the Code of Commerce, in force in 
Venezuela, for the establishment ot commercial houses in 
general. 

Art. 2. Banks of circulation, or emission — that is to say. 



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VENEZUELA. 297 

banks having power to issue notes payable at sight to the 
bearer, may also be permitted to be established subject to 
the provisions of the present law. 

The bank notes shall not be, under any circumstances, for 
less value than five pesos sencillos * 

Art. 3. Banks of emission may be established either by 
a single person, or association of persons jointly respon- 
sible as general partners with the whole of their property for 
the operations of the bank, or by joint stock companies, 
wherein the responsibility of the stockholders is limited to 
the amount of their shares. 

Art. 4. All banks of emission are indispensably bound to 
comply with the following provisions, to wit : 

1. To file with the Secretary of *' Fomento,'* (Secretary of 
the Department for the Promotion of Public Welfare), within 
at least fifteen days previous to beginning business, a certi- 
fied copy of the deed of partnership, or individual document, 
under which the bank was established, and also a copy of 
the entry the-eof in the registry, and of the rules and regu- 
lations which shall govern the bank. Said rules and regula- 
tions must state : First, the name of the bank ; second, its 
capital ; third, the manner and form in which this capital 
must be paid; fourth, the purposes of the bank; fifth, its 
legal residence ; sixth, the number of branches which it may 
have, and the capital and residence of each branch ; and 
seventh, the period of its existence. 

2. To publish every week a statement of their condition, 
stating, according to their account books, and with proper 
clearness, the number of bank notes, and the aggregate value 
thereof, which are kept by them in their safes ; the aggregate 
amount of deposits; the amount represented by promissory 
notes payable on maturity; the amount of promissory notes 
whose payment has been delayed, or whose payment is not 
expected at all, a separate enumeration being made of either 
class; the amoimt loaned to the directors, managers, stock - 



•The peso sencillo, in contradistinction of the peso fuerte (hard dollar, of 100 cents,) 
consists only of 80 cents. 



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298 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

holders, and agents of the bank ; and the amount of its lia- 
bilities. 

3. To publish the minutes of all the meetings of the stock- 
holders, and transmit information to the Department of 
Fomento of all changes made in the rules and regulations of 
the bank. 

The failure to make any of the publications referred to in 
the foregoing paragraph shall render the bank liable to be 
closed immediately and put in liquidation. 

Art. 5. The banks established under this law by joint stock 
companies shall have to comply additionally with the duty 
of forming a reserve fund to meet unforeseen emergencies; 
said fund to consist : First, of a fourth part, at least, of the 
capital, which shall not be actually disbursed except for that 
purpose ; and, second, of 10 per cent, at least, on the profits, 
which shall be set apart and deducted from each dividend, 
at the time of its being declared. 

The other three-fourths of the capital of the bank shall 
be paid, either wholly and at once, or partially and at diflfer- 
ent subsequent dates, as the rules arid regulations may provide. 

Art. 6. All banks established under this law shall have the 
power to create new branches, additional to those which were 
mentioned in the application for the patent, on condition, 
however, to report the fact to the National Executive, in 
order that the said new branches may be considered in- 
cluded, as provided in the said patent. 

Art. 7. No bank shall have authority to issue notes for 
more than twice its paid-up capital ; and these notes shall be 
paid at sight, either at the bank, or at <iny of its branches, 
but in the latter case up to the amount of their respective 
capitals. 

The violation of this provision shall render the bank liable 
to the same penalty established in the final paragraph of 
article 4. 

Art. 8. Banks of emission, established by joint stock com- 
panies, are forbidden to loan money on their own stock. 

Art. 9. They are also forbidden to pay dividends of profits 
not actually made. 



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VENEZUELA. 299 

Art. 10. Bank notes, at sight and to the bearer, shall en- 
title the owner to make execution on the property of the 
individual banker, or of the company to which the bank 
belongs, provided that they are formally protested, without 
acknowledgment of the signature. 

Art. II. The fraudulent fabrication of bank notes shall be 
considered and punished as the counterfeiting of money. 

Art. 12. Any false statement made by the director of a 
bank, in any of the publications above provided for, shall be 
punished by fines from $100 to ;?i,ooo, without prejudice to 
any other action which according to the nature of the case 
may be proper. 

In case of failure of the bank, the director or directors, 
who may be found guilty of the frauds above stated, shall be 
punished as defaulters. 

Art. 13 If any bank shall lose one-half of its capital it 
must be put at once in liquidation, unless the company, or 
some new associates, agree to restore the lost capital. But 
no creditor or debtor of the bank shall be allowed to become 
one of those new associates. 

Art. 14. The national executive shall cause the statements 
of the banks of their branches to be compared and proven 
monthly, or whenever it may be deemed advisable, upon 
actual examination of books, papers, and safes, by either the 
Secretary of "Pomento,'* or any official or person designated 
by him. 

EXECUTIVE DECISION OF SEPTEMBER 20, 1893. 

Whereas some applications have been filed in behalf of 
certain banks already established and of others which are to 
be established hereafter, asking for several concessions, and 
among them for an order that their notes should be receivable 
as legal money in the national collection offices: Therefore, 
the President of the Republic, after having heard the opinion 
of the Federal Council, which is in favor of the concession, 
has been pleased to decide: That the notes of the Commer- 
cial Bank of Caracas, of the bank to be established at 



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300 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Valencia, and of any other bank which may be established 
in the future, and shall ask it, shall be received as money in 
the national collection offices, provided that said banks allow 
one officer appointed by the National Government to take a 
seat in the board of directors, and inspect their operations, 
although without deliberative vote, the said officer to be paid 
by the bank. 



VENEZUELA. 



LAS LEYES BANCARIAS. 

El proyecto de establecer en Caracas una instituci6n ban- 
caria, que debe llamarse **El Banco Comercial Anglo- Vene- 
zolano,'* con facultad de emitir billetes, que se recibirdn en 
pago de todas las deudas publicas y privadas, fue motivo 
para que se hicieran diferentes representaciones y protestas 
contra esa medida por parte de algunos comerciantes y olras 
personas de la Repiiblica. El General Don Joaquin Crespo, 
Presidente de Venezuela, estim6 conveniente, en vista de 
esos hechos, hacer publicar de nuevo en los peri6dicos del 
pafs las leyes sobre bancos que estdn vigentes en Venezuela, 
y dar tambi^n d luz, en forma de una carta, que fech6 en 
Maracay d 4 de Octubre de 1894 y dirigi6 al Sr. Doctor Don 
Feliciano Acevedo, personage importante de la Republica 
una explicaci6n detallada de todo lo ocurrido en este par- 
ticular. 

Es de creerse que el tenor de esta carta, donde se hace la 
declaraci6n formal de que el Gobiemo no tiene la intenci6n 
de crear 6 establecer papel moneda, y el de los textos legales 
sometidos con ella d la consideraci6n publica, habrdn disipado 
todos los temores y aprensiones que pudieran haberse susd- 
tado. Pero el comercio, en general, tanto de aquella Repu- 
blica, como de las otras que forniaron la Uni6n de que esta 
Oficina es el representante, encontrard tal vez util conocer 



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VENE2UEI<A. ^ 301 

has leyes. Por eso se publican en este Boletin, en caste- 
llano y en ingles. 

LEY DE BANCOS. 
(AprobAdA EI* 4 DE Jui.10 DB 1894.) 

El Consejo, &c., &c., decreta: 

Art. I*'. Pueden establecerse libremente bancos de dep6- 
sitos, giros y descuentos, sin mds formalidades que las que 
prescribe el C6digo de Comercio vigente en Venezuela para 
el establecimiento de casas de comercio en general. 

Art. 2^, Tambi^n podr4n establecerse bancos de circula- 
ci6n, es decir, que emitan billetes pagaderos 4 la vista y al 
portador; pero estos bancos quedardn sujetos d los preceptos 
de esta ley. 

§ unico. Los billetes en ningun caso podrdn representar 
una cantidad menor de cinco pesos sencillos. 

Art, 3*^. Los bancos de circulaci6n pueden fundarse : 1° 
por un solo individuo, 6 por varios en sociedad solidaria- 
mente responsables con la totalidad de sus bienes; y 2° por 
sociedades an6nimas, es decir, sociedades por acciones, d 
cuyo importe se limita la responsabilidad de los socios. 

Art. 4°. Unos y otros bancos de circulaci6n estdn obligados 
a Uenar imprescindiblemente las formalidades que siguen : 

I . Consignar en la Secretaria de Fomento, quince dias 
por lo menos antes de empezar su giro, copia autorizada de 
la escritura de sociedad, 6 de establecimiento, si fuere un solo 
individuo, inclusa la anotaci6n del registro; y copia igual- 
mente autorizada del reglamento del da/ico en el cual ha de 
constar: 1° la denominaci6n con que se ha de conocer el 
banco: 2° su capital : 3° la manera y t^rminos con que este capi- 
tal debe ser enterado en caja: 4® el objeto que se propone: 
5° el lugar de su residencia: 6^ el nuniero de sucursales que 
haya de tener el bancoy capital de cada una de estas y el lugar 
de su residencia ; y 7® su duraci6n : 

2* . Publicar semanalmente el balance extractado de sus 
libros, en que debe constar con claridad el importe total de 
los billetes que hubiere en caja, con especificacion del im- 



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302 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

porte respective ; el importe de los dep6sitos si los liubiere ; 
el de los pagar^s en cartera, considerados realizables d su 
vencimiento ; el de los demorados y los irrealizables de que 
se llevard cuenta separada ; el de los pr^stamos d los direc- 
tores, administradores, accionistas y demds agentes del banco, 
y el de las obligaciones del misino banco: 

3* . Publicar tambi^n todas las actas de las juntas generales 
y trasmitir d la Secretaria de Fomento noticia de las altera- 
ciones que se hicieren en el reglamento de la compania. 

§tinico. La omisi6n en publicar todo lo que se previene 
en este articulo sujeta al banco d ser cerrado inmediata- 
mente y puesto en liquidaci6n. 

Art. 5°. Los bancos establecidos por sociedades an6nimas, 
conforme d este decreto, tendrdn adenids el deber de formar 
un fondo de reserva para casos adversos, que se compondrd : 
1°. de una cuarta parte, por lo menos, del capital social, que 
no se desenibolsard sino en tales casos : y 2^, De un diez por 
cientOy por lo menos, de las utilidades, el cual se sustraerd de 
cada dividendo que se hiciere. 

§ linico. Las trescuartas partes del capital del banco debe- 
rdn enterarse en caja, en su totalidad 6, en porciones sucesivas, 
segun lo dispongan los estatutos del banco: 

Art. 6°. 1,0s bancos establecidos podrdn establecer otras 
sucursales, ademds de las que hayan indicado al solicitar la 
patente, dando cue ita al Ejecutivo Nacional para que se con- 
sideren como incluidas en ^sta, previos los requisitos que 
establece esta ley. 

Art. 7^. Ningun banco podrd emitir billetes por mds del 
duplo de su capital efectivo enterado en caja ; y estos de- 
berdn ser convertidos d su presentaci6n, tanto en el 
establecimiento principal, como en las sucursales hasta el 
capi al de cada una. 

§ unico. La contravenci6n d esta regla lo sujeta d la 
misma pena establecida en pardgrafo unico del articulo 4^ por 
la falta de publicaci6n de su estado. 

Art. 8°. Se prohibe d los bancos de circulacion por acetones, 
prestar cantidad alguna con garantia de sus propias acciones. 



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VENEZUELA. 303 

Art. 9°. Tambi^n se les prohibe hacer dividendos de utili- 
dades que no se hayan hecho efectivas. 

Art. 10°. Los billetes 4 la vista y al portador seran titulo 
ejecutivo contra los bienes de los banqueros particiilares, 6 
contra los bienes de las sociedades an6nin)as, en virtud de 
formal protesta, sin reconocimiento de firma. 

Art. 11°. La fabricaci6n fraudulenta de billetes de banco 
se considerard y castigard como la fabricaci6n de moneda 
falsa. 

Art. 12°. Las falsedades que cometieren los Directores de 
bancosy en la publicaci6n de sus actas y de los balances, se 
castigardn con multas de ciento d mil pesos, sin perjuicio de 
cualquiera otro procedimiento d que pueda dar lugar la 
naturaleza de la falta. 

§ unico. En caso de quiebra del banco, se considerard y cas- 
tigard como deudor alzado al Director 6 Directores que 
liubieren cometido diclios fraudes. 

Art. 13°. Si un banco perdiere la mitad de su capital, deberd 
ponerse imniediatamente en liquidaci6n, d menos que lacom- 
pania 6 nuevos socios convinieren en reponer el capital per- 
dido ; pero no podrdn ser nuevos socios los acreedores 6 deu- 
dores al banco. 

Art. 14°. El Ejecutivo Nacional hard comprobar mensual- 
mente, y cuando lo tenga por conveniente, por medio del 
Ministro de Fomento 6 otro de susagentes, 6 de las personas 
que tenga d bien designar, el estado del banco y sucursales, 
con vista de sus libros, cajas y carte ras. 

DECISION PRESIDENCIAL DE SETIEMBRE 20 DE 1893. 

Habiendo solicitado algunos bancos ya establecidos y otros 
por establecerse, entre otras concesiones, la de que sus billetes 
sean recibidos en las oficinas nacionales de recaudaci6n,como 
moneda de ley legal, el Presidente de la Republica, con el 
voto afirmativo del Consejo Federal, ha tenido d bien re- 
solver; que los billetes del- Banco Comercial de Caracas, los 
del que lia de establecerse en Valencia, y los de cualesquiera 
otros que en lo sucesivo se establecieren, y solicitaren igual 



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304 BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

concesi6n, puedan recibirse en las cajas nacionales, siempre 
que dichos bancos admitan un empleado fiscal nombrado por 
el Gobierno, con ingerencia en la Direcci6n, 6 inspecci6n en 
sus operaciones, aunque sin voto deliberative, siendo de cargo 
del respectivo banco el pago de este empleado. 



[From advanced sheets of the United States Consular Reports for November, 1894.] 

PROPOSED RAILROAD IN VENEZUELA. 

Consul Plumacher, of Maracaibo, under date of October 3, 
transmits to the Department of State a copy and translation of 
a contract entered into by the Government of Venezuela tor 
the construction of a railroad from Puerto Cabello to Carenero. 
**Should this project be carried out," saj-s the consul, ''the 
coast towns will receive incalculable benefit, and the railway 
will be one of the most important in Venezuela." The con- 
tract was made by the Minister of Public Works and the 
Soller Navigation Company, of Barcelona, Spain, represented 
by Juan Baptista Soles Ferre. The Soller Navigation Com- 
pany obligates itself to build, within four years from April 2, 
1894, a railroad which, starting from Puerto Cabello and pass- 
ing through La Guayra and the coast towns, shall terminate 
at Carenero. The line may be constructed according to the 
single-rail system, "with great velocity," or in the ordinary 
manner, according to the judgment of the contractors. In the 
latter case, the width of the line will be i meter, 7 centi- 
meters (3 feet 6 inches) between the rails. Branch lines will 
be constructed to neighboring towns or localities as public 
interests require. The builders of the road are to own it 
"perpetually and irrevocably," and no similar concession in 
the territory to be traversed shall be made for ninety years. 
Timber used for the road may be cnt in the public forests. 
Construction machinery and tools are to be exempt from im- 
port duties. The company is to have no Government subven- 
tion or guaranty, and must pay annually to the public treasury 
"5 per cent of the liquid product of the line." Freight and 



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VENEZUELA. 305 

passenger rates will be fixed by agreement with the Govern- 
ment. The work of construction must begin within ten 
months from August 22, 1894. The public lands needed for 
the road are given free, but compensation must be made for 
rights of way through private property. 



VENEZUELAN TARIFF ON SHIRTS OF KNITTED 

COTTON. 

Under date of August 25, Consul Plumacher, of Maracaibo, 
reports the publication of a Federal decree which directs that 
shirts of knitted cotton (stocking knit) imported through the 
custom-houses of Venezuela shall be scheduled in the sixth 
class (50 cents per kilogram=2. 2046 pounds), with an augmen- 
taiion of 50 per cent upon the amount of the duties thus 
levied. 



22 BUL 



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306 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



ECUADOR. 



The exports from Ecuador in 1893 were about 15^4 per 
cent larger than in 1892. 

.It is noticeable that the only domestic article, whose ex- 
portation decreased, is India rubber ; and this fact, which 
seems to have been observed also in preceding years, is ex- 
plained by the reported destruction of a large number of old 
rubber trees, without their having been replaced by young 
trees. 

The Cacao crop in 1893 was the largest known during the 
last fifty years. The production of this article in the famous 
cacao district of Arriba reached 13,093 tons, against 10,966 
tons in 1892. Machala produced 3,077 tons against 2,232 
tons in 1892. Balao gaye 1,782 tons against 1,752 in 1892. 

The average price of the cacao in 1893 was, in French 
money, 83.30 francs, or $16.63 P^r quintal (100 pounds). 

The crop of coflfee was also larger than in the preceding 
years, and the average price which was paid for this article 
at Guayaquil, in 1893, was in French money, 90.80 francs, or 
$18.16 per quintal. Mr. Ph. de Baroncelli, vice-consul of 
France at Guayaquil, in a report to his Government, just pub- 
lished, says, the cultivation of coffee in Ecuador seems to be 
more profitable than that of cacao, the additional advantage 
being on its side, that the tree begins to produce in less time. 
He says that the attention of capitalists has been called to 
this fact, and that the cultivation of coffee was carried in 1893 
to a much larger extent than in the previous years. 

The exportation of sugar in 1893 was 1,000 tons in excess 
of the exportation in 1892. 

Tagna, or vegetable ivory, which was sold at the average 
price of 6.85 francs, or $1.35 per quintal, was exported in 
1893 to the amount of 17,222 quintals. In 1892 the exporta- 
tion was much below these figures. 



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ECUADOR. 



309 



COMMERCE. 

The movement of vessels in the Port of Guayaquil in 1893 was as 
follows : 

ARRIVALS. 



Flags. 



French 

British 

Ecuadorian 

Other nationalities. 



Total 



Sailing 
vessels. 



4 

1,521 

15 



1.540 



Steamers. 



II 
81 



75 



167 



Total 
tonnage. 



23,431 
103.954 

23.7^0 
116,447 



267,552 



DEPARTURE. 



French. 




II 

81 


23.431 
103,776 

22,815 
"5.793 


British 


3 

1,514 

15 


Ecuadorian 


Other nationalities 


75 




Total 


1,535 


167 


265,815 





The Ecuadorian vessels include all kinds of minor vessels, chatas^ 
etc., etc., through which a large coastwise commerce is carried on. 



CONFERENCE OF MANUFACTURERS. 

As will be seen by the following call, there is to be held in 
the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, a conference of manufacttu-ers 
of the United States for certain well-defined purposes. Be- 
sides the gentlemen representing the Manufacturers* Associa- 
tion of Cincinnati, whose names are appended to the call, it 
is proper to be stated here that this laudable eflfort to extend 
the markets of otu- manufacturers has the support of very 
many manufacturers throughout the country. The Bureau of 
American Republics is in receipt of letters commending this 
project from many firms of established reputation, who assert 
their belief that the scheme proposed will result in largely 
extending the commerce of the American Republics. 

The committee appointed by the local Manufacturers' Asso- 



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3IO BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

elation, of Cincinnati, to prepare and issue a call for a con- 
fere;ice in that city, of manufacturers from all sections of the 
country, for the purpose of effecting a national organization, 
met and prepared the following circular letter, which will be 
as widely distributed as possible : 

Gentlemen: The Manufacturers' Association of Cincinnati and 
Hamilton county, Ohio, desiring to promote the prosperity of the manu- 
facturing interests of the entire country, and appreciating the impor- 
tance of concerted action, hereby respectfully invite your organization 
to be represented at a 

CONFERENCE OF MANUFACTURERS, 

Which will be held in the city of Cincinnati on the 22d day of January, 
1895, for the purpose of general interchange ot views, looking to the 
formation of a National Association of Manufacturers, which shall em- 
brace among its purposes : 

First : The advocacy of carefully considered legislation, to eucour- 
age manufacturing industries of all classes throughout the country. 

Second : The discussion^ of ways and means whereby trade relations 
between the United States and foreign countries may be developed and 
extended. 

Third : The establishment in South American Capitals and other de- 
sirable points of permanent expositions for the display of American 
products. 

Fourth : Such other topics as may be agreed upon by the convention. 

It is desired that this convention shall be nonpolitical, nonpartisan 
and uonsectional. 

The invitation hereby extended is without limit as to number of at- 
tendants, and is cordially extended not only to accredited delegates 
from organized exchanges, representing manufacturiug interests, but 
to any individual manufacturer who may have the promotion of the 
general good by organized efforts sufficiently at heart to be willing to 
meet 'with us. 

The favor of reply, not later than December i prox., accompanied 
by suggestions, is respectfully requested. 

W. T. PERKINS, 

Fredbrick Pentlargb, 
B. W. Campbei.1., 
H. C. YEISER, 
Chas. F. Thompson, 
Committee from the Manufacturers* Association of Cincinnati and 
Hamilton couuty, Ohio. 



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ECUADOR. 311 

CONFERENCIA DE FABRICANTES. 

Como se verd por la convocatoria que se publica & continaa* 
ci6n va d celebrarse ahora en la ciudad de Cincinnati, en 
Ohio, una conferencia de fabricantes americanos, en que se 
discutirdn algunos puntos de importancia prdctica bien de- 
terminada. 

Aparte del gran peso que dan d ese proyecto los nombres 
de las personas que lo inciaron, y que representan la Asocia- 
ci6n de los fabricantes de Cincinnati, hay que tener en cuenta, 
en favor de la idea, la aprobaci6n que la mayor parte de los 
fabricantes del pais, en todas sus secciones, ha prestado 
siempre y continua prestando d todo lo que se encamina al 
laudable objeto de extender los mercados. 

La Oficina de las Republicas Americanas ha recibido muchas 
cartas, autorizadas por firmas de gran valia, en que se elogia 
el proyecto antedicbo, y en que se manifiesta la creencia de 
que de 61 resultard notable impulso y acrecentamiento en e^ 
comercio de las naciones del Nuevo Mundo. 

La Comisi6n nombrada por la mencionada Asociaci6n de 
Fabricantes de Cincinnati para preparar una convocatoria 
para la referida Conferencia en aquella ciudad, se reuni6 
como era debido, y despuds de meditar el asunto con la 
raadurez que corresponde, determin6 dar al publico, en la 
forma de una circular, que se tratard de distribuir entre el 
mayor numero posible de los fabricantes del pais, el docu- 
ment© que dice asi : 

CIRCULAR. 

SBf^oREs: La Asociaci6u de los Fabricantes de Cincinnati, y del 
Condado de Hamilton, en Ohio, deseosa de fomentar los intereses 
fabriles de todo el pais, y conocedora de las ventajas que siempre 
tiene la acci6n combinada, ha determinado invitar i, Ydes , de la manera 
mas respeiuosa, d bacerse representar en una Conferencia de fabri- 
cantes, que habrd de celebrarse el 22 de Enero de 1895, en la ciudad de 
Cincinnati, con el objeto de discutir lo conducente al establecimiento 
de una Asociaci6n nacioual de fabricantes, destinada d los sij^uientes 
fines: 

Primero. Abogar por la oportuna proniulgaci6n de leyes que esti- 
mulen la industria fabril en todo el pals. 

Segundo. Discutir los niedios y arbitrios de que deba hacerse uso 



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312 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

para desarroUar y extender las relaciones comericales entre los Esta- 
dos Unidos y los demds paises. 

Tcrcero. Establecer en las capitales de la America del Sad y en los 
demds puntos que se estimen convenientes Exposiciones permanentes 
de los productos americanos. 

Cuarto. Estudiar todas las demds cuestiones que acordare la Con- 
ferencia. 

Se desea que esta carezca en absoluto de cardcter politico, no repre- 
sente d ningtin partido, y est^ privada de espiritu secdonal. 

No hay Hmite en cuanto al niimero de las personas invitadas. Con 
la misma cordlalidad se convida 4 tomar parte en la Conferencia d los 
delegados legitimamente acreditados de las Bolsas, Loujas d otros 
estableclmientos 6 cuerpos representantes de intereses fabriles, como 
d cualquiera fabricante individual, que tenga interns en conseguir el 
bien de todos por medio de trabajos sistemdticos y bien combinados, y 
que se sienta dispuesto d concurrir. 

Se suplica respetuosamente d los que acepten la invitaci6n que tengan 
d bien contestar antes del i'' de Diciembre pr6ximo. Con la respuest^ 
podrdn venir todas las indicaciones que estimen conveniente hacer. 

W. T. Pbrktns, 
Frederick Pentlarge, 
B. W. Campbell, 
H. C. YEiSBR, 
Chas. F. Thompson. 

El Comity de la Asociacion de los fabricantes de Cincinnati y el Con- 
dado de Hamilton en Ohjo. 



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COMMERCIAL NOTES. 313 



COMMERCIAL NOTES. 



COLOMBIA AND VENEZUELA COFFEE. 

The recently enactea tariff bill of the United States re- 
peals the duty of 3^ cents per pound on coffee imported 
from Colombia and Venezuela which was imposed by the 
special proclamation of President Harrison dated March 15, 
1892. 

Prior to the imposition of this duty these coffees found their 
principal market in this country, where they were more pop- 
ular than in the markets of Europe. 

The revocation of this discriminating tax appears to have 
turned this valuable trade, which had almost entirely left us, 
again to our shores, and it is believed that the conditions 
existing prior to March, 1892, will be speedily restored. 



CHILE. 

SALES OF CHILIAN NITRATE PROPERTIES. 

The following letter has been addressed to the editor of 
the London Economist, and appeared in a recent issue of that 
paper : 

Sir : The accompanying list of nitrate properties sold by the Gov- 
ernment of Chile on the 15th instant, and the prices realized, may be of 
interest to readers of the Economist, 



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3M 



BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



List of nitrate properties sold by public auction by the Chilian Gov- 
ernment at Santiago on October 75, iSgj, 



Name of properly. 



Santa Catalina 

Quebrada de Pazos I 

Do. II 

Porvenirty Demasias 

San Luis de Cuyo 

Huascary Chinquiquiray. 

Providencia 

Resurreccion 



Reserve 
price. 



Grounds between LaPalnia. 

and Pefia Chica. 

Ascencion de Capetillo 

Fortuna 

San Antonio de Flores 

Candelaria ' 

Trinidad j 

San Jorje de Perea j 

Grounds between San Jorje 

and Rosario. | 

Ascension de Loayza 

Compania de Negreiros ' 

Grounds west of Ramirez.. 
Grounds between San Do- 

nato and Ramirez. 

Dolores 

San Luis 

Santa Clara 

LaPerla 

Carmen Alto 

Paradas de Loayza 

Puntilla de Huara 

Grounds east of Coustancia 



^22,184 
9.500 
12,000 
3i»035 
9*000 
52.330 
28.272 
34.381 

9,000 

3.000 
2,000 

4,800 
41.737 
60.481 

K3.375 
21,000 

12,000 

6.563 

156,000 

22,000 

17.489 

7.900 

113.234 , 

51,840 

26,146 j 

5.700 ' 

90,000 I 

33,000 



Sold at. 



/22,l84') 

11.150} 
12,000; 

31.035 
9,000 
52,330 
60,000 
34.381 

9,000 

3.000 
2,000 
4.800 

41,737 
60,481 

10,375 
28,000 

12,000 

6,562 

156,000 

22,000 

17.489 

7,900 

138,000 

97,000 

37,000 

5.700 

156,000 

33.000 



Purchaser. 



Williamsons, B a 1- 
fourandCo., Val- 
paraiso. 
Chilian Company. 

Do- 
Galt^. 

Do. 
New Tamarugal Ni- 
trate Co. 
Do. 

Shiell. 

Do. 

Do. 
' Perfetii. 
I Do. 
! Do. 
I Do. 

' Charme. 
i Do. 
Do. 
I Do. 

i 

Lascelle. 
Do. 

Gildemeister. 
< International Co. 
; Granja. 
' Do. 
I Rosario Nitrate Co. 

Devescovi. 



992,967 I 1,080,125 



I scarcely need point otit to you the importance resulting from the 
facts that those prices, so largely in excess of the ** upset value." is 
indicative of two results, (i) the gradual increasing value of nitrate 
properties ; and (2) that as 50 per cent of the proceeds of sales is 
reserved for the restoration of the Chilian currency to a specie basis, 
these prices can not fail of having a beneficial efiPect on the rate of 
exchange, which already is bearing fruit to the soundness of the finan- 
cial policy initiated by Seiior Don Augustin Ross, formerly Minister 
Plenipotentiary to this country. It is worthy of note, also, that these 
properties have been acquired by those who possess an intiuiatc knowU 



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COMMERCIAL NOTES. 315 

edge of the industry, thus proving their confidence in its future. I am, 
sir, your o»>edient servant, John Harold. 

October 18, 1894. 

The Government will offer for sale on the 15th of May 
proximo, another lot of nitrate fields, the minimum estimated 
value of which is 1,042,500 pounds sterling. 



COLOMBIA. 

[From advanced sheets of I'niled Slates Consular Reports for November, 1894 ] 

United States Consul Clifford Smyth, under date of July 
26, 1894, from Cartagena, makes the following report to the 
Department of S*ate : 

On the 20th instant, the construction of the Cartagena- 
Magdalena Railroad was formally completed, and the •oad 
opened ior traffic with appropriate ceremonies. The plan 
for this railroad was originated by a Boston company some 
three or four years ago. Capital was invested in the enter- 
prise to the extent of about 12,000,000. Work was actually 
begun here two years ago, but owing to the natural difficulties 
of soil and climate, together with the necessity of importing 
all labor and machinery from tiie United States, progress on 
the road was slow as compared with similar enterprises in 
more advantageous countries. Considering the grave obstacles 
with which railway engineering has to contend in this country, 
the result in this case furnishes a most gratifying instance of 
American skill and energy, and at the end of their construc- 
tion labors, the company has justly become the recipient of 
much flattering commendation at the hands of thosfe Colom- 
bians who are looking forward to an era of increasing pros- 
perity for their country. 

The completed road is somewhat over sixty miles in length. 
It runs from Cartagena, in a southerly direction, to Calamar, 
the nearest town on the Magdalena River. It is a narrow- 
gauge road, stone ballasted, and without any heavy grades. 

Now that this road is permanently established, the mer- 
chants of Cartagena are confidently predicting a rettmi of the 



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3l6 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

abundant trafl&c that was formerly conveyed through this 
port. Years ago, owing largely to the natural advantage of 
an unexcelled harbor, Cartagena knew no rival on this coast 
as a trading city. In those days, transportation from the 
Magdalena River was effected by means of a canal, but for 
some reason, trade languished, and the canal fell into disuse 
and became unnavigable. Barranquilla was built and Carta- 
gena's commercial supremacy disappeared. For years, no 
effort was made to reestablish what naturally belonged to 
this city, and it remained for some enterprising Americans to 
discover the brilliant advantages that belonged to Cartagena 
as a seaport, and to give those advantages their practical 
value by means of the railway that has just been completed. 
Of course, at the present stage of its existence, any state- 
ment of the value of this road to the city must be purely 
con* ctural ; but, taking into consideration the excellence of 
the road and the facilities it affords for quick transportation 
of freight from the main artery of commerce (the Magdalena 
River) to one of the best harbors on the South American 
coast, there seems to be no reason to doubt that it will fully 
realize the degree of usefulness predicted for it by its pro- 
moters, and become a most important factor in the develop- 
ment of Colombian resources and industry. Already, large 
exporters in the interior are announcing their intention to 
ship their goods through this port hereafter instead of through 
Barranquilla. This may be a temporary detriment to the 
latter city, but, on the other hand, it is believed that the 
operation of the railway will act as a stimulus to the latent 
capabilities of the country in every direction, and that Bar- 
ranquilla \\ill be benefited as well as Cartagena. 



NICARAGUA. 

[From the Panama Star and Herald, October 2$, 1894 ] 

The National Legislative Assemoly has authorized the 
president to use the national revenue, or to enter into con- 
tracts with individuals or corporations, without the pre-requi 



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COMMBRCIAL NOTES. 317 

site of ratification, for the extension of the national railroad 
and the construction of new branches, the building of the 
following lines being recommended in preference: From 
Chinandega to Viejo, from Leon to Subtiava, or from Que- 
zalguaque to Telica : from Masaya to Jinotega or Matagalpa ; 
from Chinandega to the Departments of Bsteli or Kueva 
Segovia; from Matagalpa to Jinotega or to some point on 
the Rio Grande ; from some port on Lake Nicaragua to the 
Rama ; from Granada to Rivas and San Juan del Sur, a 
branch running from this line to the Costa Rican frontier and 
the department of Carazo, and from Managua to La Paz. 



The assembly has approved a contract made by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior with J. A. Gomez for the construction of 
a wharf at San Juan del Sur. 



The government has granted Mr. Salvador Rivas the privi- 
lege of importing wool, cotton, or silk for the manufacture 
of cassimere and other cloths. The privilege is granted for 
fifteen years. 



SALVADOR. 



The government has authorized the "Compaiiia del Muelle 
de Acajutla '* to unload at Puerto Viejo material for the con- 
struction of a new wharf. 



Mr. Jose Ruiz Salas has been appointed Consul of Salvador 
at Sana Cruz, Teneriffe, vtfe Herman Vorbeck. 



COSTA RICA. 

Mr. Francisco MenSiola Boza has entered into a contract 
vnih the Ministerio de Fomento by which he agrees to establish 
cable communcation between Costa Rica and the United 
States. 



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3l8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

JAMAICA. 

Advices from Kingston bring the informatiou that a mys- 
terious and deadly malady is prevailing among the native 
cattle on the island of Jamaica. 

The acting governor has appointed a commission, consist- 
ing of three of the leading citizens of the island, to make an 
investigation of the origin and nature of the disease, and to 
report a plan for its suppression. 

Up to the present time the veterinary surgeons have been 
baffled in their efforts at making any satisfactory explanation 
of this strange and destructive malady, its cause and peculiar 
character. 



PERU. 

The financial results of 1893 have been made public, from 
which we gather that the receipts amounted to 7,066,330 soles, 
and the expenditure to 6,572,927 soles, showing a surplus of 
493*403 soles. 

The customs for the first half of 1893 produced 2,073,314 
as compared with 2,975,993 soles for the corresponding 
period of 1892. — South American Journal^ October 27, 1894. 



CUBA. 

[•-rotn advanced sheets of U. S. Consular Reports for November. 1894.] 

Mr. Ramon O. Williams, Consul -General at Havana, under 
date of August 20, 1894, submits the following report to the 
Department of State : 

SUGAR EXPORTS FROM. CUBA. 

I have the honor to inclose a statement showing the exports of sugar 
and molasses from Cuba during the six months ending June 30, 1894, 
complied by the Boletin Comercia/ of this city (Habana). 



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COMMERCIAL NOTES. 



319 



Exports of suj^ar of the present crop {/8gs^*g4) from the Island of Cuba 
from fanuary i to\fune jOy j8^. 



To 



Bags. 



Hogsheads. | Tons 



Per cent. 



United States 1 5.686,974 

Great Britain 34.626 

North of Europe....' 6 

Spain I 118,843 

Other ports ; 106,049 



Total, 1894 1 5.946,498 

ToUl, 1893 , 3,050,984 



Increase in 1894.. ..1 2,895,514 
Decrease in 1894 



7,748 


792,397 
4,791 


95.66 
0.58 






16,447 
14,676 

828,311 
556.512 


1.99 
J. 77 






7,748 1 
14,059 1 


100 




i 


271,799 




6.311 .. 









Exports of molasses of the present crop {i8gj-'g4) from t e Island of 
Cuba from fanuary i to fune 30, 18^4. 





To 


1 
Hogsheads. ; 


Tons. 


Per cent. 


United States , 


1 

35.0..8 1 
6.719 1 

» 1 


26.56S 

5.099 


83.87 
16.10 


Great Britain.-- 


Spain 




0.03 




1894...'' 

1801 


Total, 
Total. 


41.738 1 
29.319 1 


31.675 
22,268 


100 




in 1894 




Increase 


12.419 j 

1 


9.407 









According to these statements, the United States has taken 95.66 per 
cent of the sugar exports and 83.87 per cent of the molasses exported 
this year from Cuba. 



NEW PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING RAMIE FIBER. 
[From Advanced Sheets of the U. S. Consulor Reports for November, 1894 ] 

Consul-General Pratt writes from Singapore, September 7 : 
I have the honor to report that my attention has recently 
been called to a new and economical process for the extrac- 
tion of the fiber of the ramie plant by simple chemical means 
and heat. Desirous of satisfying me as to the efficacy of the 



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320 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

above, the inventor took a quantity of the plants, stripped 
off the bark in my presence, and after about forty minutes 
boiling in his mixture produced a mass of fiber which 
seemed entirely free from gum or other deleterious ingre- 
dients, and which, after having been simply washed in cold 
water, dried a few hours in the sun, and then pulled out with 
the fingers, appeared in proper shape for spinning, as may 
be judged by the inclosed sample, which I beg you will 
kindly have submitted to the vSecretary of Agriculture for his 
opinion* which the inventor and his associates wish espe- 
cially to have, with his views as to the extent of territory in 
the United States over which the ramie plant can be success- 
fully cultivated, in order to decide as to the advisability of 
the introduction of their process. If, as I am inclined to 
think, the ramie will thrive in our Atlantic and Gulf States 
of the South, in southern California, and in New Mexico, 
our agriculturists would greatly benefit by producing the plant, 
were a cheap and easy means afforded for the extraction of 
its very valuable fiber. 



•Sample transmitted to the Secretary of Agriculture and; by him, referred to the 
Division o' Fiber Investigation for examination. 



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DON RAFAEL TGLESIAS. 32 1 




DON RAFAEL IGLESIAS, 

PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA. 
[From La Revisia Ilustrada, New York.] 

Don Rafael Iglesias was born at San Jos6, the capital of 
the Republic ot Costa Rica, on the i8th of April, 1861. He 
belongs to one of the most prominent families of the country,, 
and bears a name which shines conspicuously not only in the 
political history of the Republic, but in the history of all 
the efforts made in favor of the progress and welfare of the 
Costa Rican people. 

At the age of nine years, when he had already completed 

23 BUL 



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322 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

his primary education, he entered as a pupil the famous Col- 
lege of Cartago, then the -most celebrated institution of its 
kind in Central America. This college which was in charge 
of two Spanish professors, by the name of Farraz, has had 
the honor of counting among its graduates Don Francisco 
Picado, one of the men who has done most in Costa Rica for 
for the promotion of public instruction. Young Iglesias 
remained there for three years, at the end of which time he 
went to San Jos6, where he entered the university called" St. 
Thomas,'* and continued his studies, giving constant evidence 
of his talent and of his love for learning. Here he received, 
on [the i8th of March, 1875, when only 14 years old, the 
degree of Bachelor of Sciences and Letters. 

He entered then the law school of the university, where 
he soon secured distinction from both his teachers and his 
fello .V students. The honor was imparted to him, on several 
occasions, of being chosen to represent his class at some 
public examinations, both on the Roman and the public law. 

The career of the young student, so brilliantly opened, was 
interrupted unfortunately in the fourth year of his law studies, 
by pecuniary reverses sustained by his family. Young Don 
Rafael was then compelled to leave the school and throw 
himself into the arena to struggle tor life. But he did it 
resolutely and with no fear or hesitation at all. Obstacles, 
if any happened to present themselves in his way, had no 
power to detain him ; they served, on the contrary, to stimu- 
late and increase his energy. He was prodigiously active 
and enterprising, and as he made good use of his talents, he 
had the satisfaction to succeed. He soon became, as he has 
continued to be ever stnce, the firm support of a large 
family. 

After having thus secured, through persevering and well- 
conducted labor, a moderate fortune, he devoted himself 
with faith, with enthusiasm, and with highly patriotic inten- 
tions, to the study of the political questions of his country 
and of its social and economical condition. He had felt, 
since his school days, such a decided predilection for this 



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DON RAFAEI. IGI.KSIAS. 323 

kind of study, as to cause him to sustain, in days of mourn- 
ing for the Republic, the persecution of the Government. 

The official candidate for the Presidency of the Republic, 
in, the electoral campaign of 1889, was Sefior Don Ascenci6n 
Esquival, who independently of his own great merits, was 
then acting as President and had, therefore in his favor, great 
probabilities of success. But Sefior Iglesias, with eleven of 
his friends, started a new party which he called **Constitu- 
tional,** and whose principles he defined and defended with 
indefatigable activity and earnest and persuasive eloquence, 
whose nominee for the Presidency was Sefior Don Jos^ Joa- 
quin Rodriguez He organized this party with great skill 
and ability, and through the unity he gave to its eflforts, and 
his good management of the campaign, he succeeded in se- 
curing the sympathies of the majority in favor of Seiior 
Rodriguez, who carried the election by a large vote. 

As soon as Senor Rodriguez was inaugurated^ Sefior Igle- 
sias, who was the central and most prominent figure of the 
successful party, was called to take a seat in the Cabinet, as 
Secretary for the united Departments of War and the Navy. 

The period of the administration of Senor Rodriguez had 
the misfortune of being marked by unusual bitterness in the 
struggle between the political parties of the country, and on 
more than one occasion the Government was compelled to 
watch the said struggle, and even take some action to pre- 
vent its manifestations from disturbing public order and 
peace. But it was marked also by numerous improvements 
in all the branches of the public service, and especially in 
the subject of immigration which constitutes in all respects 
the most peremptory necessity of the country, and a condi- 
tion, no doubt indispensable, for the rapid development of 
the wealth of the Republic. 

At the last election, the Conservative party relying upon 
its union and good organization, as well as upon the divisions 
among the Liberals, was in great hopes of success. But at a 
certain well-chosen moment one of the branches of the Lib- 
erals, which called itself ** Civil party," proclaimed Sefior 



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324 BUREAU OF THE AMERIOAN REPUBLICS. 

Iglesias as its candidate, and secured his election, and with 
it the triumph of liberal and progressive ideas. 

Seiior Iglesias was inaugurated, according to the provisions 
of the law, on the 8th of May, 1894, and the event was 
attended with very significant manifestations of popular 
approval. 

His first acts as Chief Magistrate of the Republic have 
shown his anxiety to satisfy the demands of public opinion. 
This has happened especially in the particular tact displayed 
by him in the selection of the distinguished gentlemen he 
called to form his Cabinet. 

The new Government has begun its patriotic labors by 
introducing reforms in the organization of the executive de- 
partments, and by providing, as proper, for the relief of the 
economical situation of the country, as well as for the public 
instruction, the administration of justice in criminal matters, 
and the satisfaction, in so far as it depends upon the Govern- 
ment, of all social necessities. Its attention is at present 
engaged, with due preference, in entering into contracts witli 
the Atlantic Railroad Company, studying concessions of 
lands made or to be made to the same, and taking many 
other measures of great importance to the nation, whose para- 
mount interest lies at present, perhaps more than ever, in the 
development of its natural wealth, and the preservation of its 
credit. 

Sefior Iglesias is trying to carry high and patriotic ideals 
into actual practice. He is endeavoring to accomplish all the 
improvements which were started or thought of in the pre- 
ceding administration ; but naturally he has so far given pref- 
erence to those particular ones, started by him personally, 
and to which he gave form and existence. These, for in- 
stance, the reorganization of the army, the improvement in 
the garrison service, and the acquisition of additional war 
elements for the defense of the country. 

The distinctly liberal tenets of the political faith of Sefior 
Iglesias, his experience in state matters, his clear conception 
of the special circumstances and needs of Costa Rica, in all 
the branches of social activity, fully guarantee his success in 



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DON RAFAEI, IGLESIAS. 325 

the delicate and important work which devolves upon him 
as Chief Magistrate of the nation. 

Under such favorable auspices the country expects of him, 
with reason, the reali^sation of the magni6cent program of 
government, which he submitted to his fellow-citizens in the 
solemn act of his inauguration as President of the Republic. 

Let it be so for his own honor and for the greater glory of 
the worthy and interesting nation, over which he has been 
called to provide. 



DON RAFAEL IGLESIAS. 



PRESIDENTE DE LA REPUBLIC A DE COSTA RICA. 
[De La Revista Ilustrada, de New York.] 

Naci6 don Rafael Iglesias en la capital de la Republica, el 
18 de Abril de 1861, y desciende de las familias mds notables, 
y que con timbres de gloria han figurado en la politica y en 
la prosperidad y cultura de su patria. 

De nueve anos de edad, hecha completa preparaci6n en la 
ensefianza primaria, fu6 alumno del Colegio de Cartago. insti* 
tuto de renombre en Centro America, y entonces, bajo la 
direcci6n de los profesores espafioles senores Farrdz, en el 
cual, sea dicho de paso, se distingui6 el notable educacionista 
costarricense seiior don Francisco Picado. Alli el joven 
Iglesias, curs6 los tres primeros afios de sus estudios secunda- 
rios, y habiendolos completado en la Universidad de Santo 
Tomds, en San Jos6 de Costa Rica, recibi6 el grado de 
Bachiller en Ciencias y Letras, con notable lucidez y evi- 
dencia de sus talentos y amor al estudio, el 18 de marzo de 
1875, & la edad de 14 afios! 

Continu6 en la misma Universidad sus estudios de Derecho, 
y prueba de la distinci6n que mereci6 de sus profesores y 
companeros, es el hecho de haber sido designado varias 
veces, para representar en exdraenes piiblicos, las clases de 
Derecho Romano y de Derecho Publico. 



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326 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Desgraciadainente la carrera iniciada con tan brillante 6xito, 
tuvo que ser interrumpida, cuando en el cuarto ano de estu- 
dios de la diffcil ciencia, reveses de la fortuna redujeron el 
capital de la familia de un modo tal, que don Rafael, joven, 
casi adolescente, se vi6 obligado d abandonarlos para lanzarse 
d la lucha por la vida. Y entr6 en ella con dnimo resuelto 
y voluntad inquebrantable. Los obstdculos no le arredraron, 
antes bien, en ellos retempl6 su espfritu. Su iniciativa fu6 
fecunda, su actividad prodigiosa y su clara inteligencia a la 
altura de su actividad 6 iniciativa. En este rudo batallar 
obtuvo la recompensa del triunfo y la fntima satis facci6n de 
haber sido y de ser valiosisimo sost6n de su numerosa familia. 

Conquistada una regular fortuna en el campo honroso de 
perseverantes y bien dirigidas labores, con f(6, con entusiasmo, 
con miras de elevado patriotismo, consagr6 sus facultades i 
estudiar las cuestiones politicas y el modo de s^r social y 
econ6mico del pais. Estudios estos por los cuales desde su 
ninez tenia especial predilecci6n, y que le ocasionaron, d la 
edad de 19 anos, persecuciones y sufrimientos, en dfas que 
guarda con luto la bistoria de Costa Rica. 

Iniciada la campafia electoral de 1889, para la renovaci6n 
de los supremos poderes de la Naci6n, surgi6 del seno 
oficial la candidatura del seftor . Licenciado don Ascen- 
ci6n Esquivel, quien d- la saz6n en calidad de Designado, 
ejercia el Poder Ejecutivo, y tenia d su favor las proba- 
bilidades de la victoria, tanto por sus prestigios propios, 
como por la influencia de su elevada posici6n. En tales cir- 
cunstancias el senor Iglesias, en uni6n de once compafteros, 
enarbola el estandarte del Partido Constitucional que se 
inaugur6 entonces, y su actividad no tuvo limites, y su elo- 
cuente y persuasiva propaganda se bizo sentir por todas partes 
recogiendo frutos abundantes. El di6, en fin, fonna y disd- 
plina al partido que proclamaba la candidatura del sefior 
Licenciado don Jos6 J. Rodriguez. La unidad de esta agrupa- 
cion politica, y su acci6n bien dirigida, atrajo bdcia sf una gran 
mayoria, dando por resultado el que era natural esperar. El 
sefior Rodriguez fu6 electo Presidente de la Republica por 
el voto del mayor niimero de sus conciudadanos. 



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DON RAFAEL IGLESIAS. 327 

Inaugtirada la administraci6n, el nuevo Presidente llam6 
al senor Iglesias, alma del partido que lo habia elevado al 
poder, para que se encargase de la Secretaria de la Guerra y 
Marina. 

Durante la administraci6n del senor Rodrfguez, las luchas 
de la politica fueron recias, y casi constantemente forzaron la 
ateuci6n del Gobiemo & dirigirlas, encamindndolas en sentido 
de evitar desbordamientos y dificultades que pudieran com- 
prometer la paz y el orden. Muchas mejoras se Uevaron & 
efecto en varios de los ramos de gobiemo, y sobre todo, se 
di6 preferente atenci6n d la mis perentoria de las necesidades 
del pais, la inmigraci6n, dnico elemento para el desarrollo 
de una prosperidad rdpida. 

Llegados los dias de la Ultima campafia electoral, alentaban 
al Partido Conservador, unido y bien organizado, las divi- 
siones del Partido Liberal, hasta que en momentos preciosos, 
una de las agrupaciones de este mismo Partido, con el nombre 
de Partido Civil, proclam6 la candidatura del sefior Iglesias, 
logrando por este medio el triunfo de la idea liberal y pro- 
gresista. 

El senor Iglesias tom6 pbsesion de la Presidencia de la 
Republica, conforme & la ley, el 8 de mayo dltimo, aconteci- 
miento que fu6 celebrado con rauy significativas y populares 
manifestaciones publicas. 

Sus primeras disposiciones como Jete del Estado han dado 
cr^dito d su acierto para satisfacer las exigencias de la opi- 
ni6n publica, de lo cual ha sido prueba la selecci6n de los dis- 
tinguidos ciudadanos que forman el Gabinete. 

Ha principiado el nuevo Gobiemo sus tareas patri6ticas, 
iniciando reformas que comprenden mejoras reclamadas en 
la organizaci6n administrativa y por la situaci6n econ6mica 
del pais, la instrucci6n p6blica, la justicia criminal, y las 
necesidades sociales, en cuanto del Gobiemo depende satis- 
facerlas ; y ocupan de preferencia su atenci6n los contratos 
con la Compama del Ferrocarril al Atldntico, las concesiones 
de tierras hechas d esta, y otros negocios de importancia 
trasceudental para la Naci6n, empenada mds que nunca, en 



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32 8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

el desenvolvimiento de sus fuentes de riqueza, y enlaestabi- 
lidad del credito nacional. 

Persigue el seiior Iglesias ideales patri6ticos y elevados, y 
al tener 4 su cargo la direcci6n suprema del pais, en el nuevo 
periodo que se inicia, continua las mejoras que se propuso 
Uevar adelante en el periodo anterior, mirando como es 
natural con especial carifio, aquellas 4 que 61 misnio di6 vida 
y forma real. Tales son la reorganizaci6n del Ej6rcito, la 
mejora del servicio de guarniciones, y la adquisicion de los 
elementos de guerra necesarios para completar losque pudiera 
requerir la defensa nacional. 

El dogma netamente liberal que informa el credo politico 
del senor Iglesias, la experiencia adquirida en todos los 
asuntos del Estado, y su visi6n clara de las condiciones 
especiales de Costa Rica, en todas las esferas de la actividad 
social, constituyen plena garantia de acierto en sus delicadas 
y trascendentales labores como primer Magistrado de la 
Naci6n. 

Bajo auspicios tan favorables, el pais espera con ra26n, del 
eximio ciudadano que rige sus destinos, la reali2aci6n del 
magnffico programa de gobierno presentado d sus compatrio- 
tas en el acto solemne de tomar posesi6n de la Presidencia de 
la Rep6blica. 

Que asi sea para honra suya, y para la mayor gloria de su 
patria, digna y simpdtica. 



BRAZIL. 



President-elect Prudente de Moraes will be inaugurated 
President of Brazil on the 15th instant. 
The following cabinet has been announced : . 
Minister of Finance — Rodrigues Alves. 
Minister of Foreign Affairs — Carlos de Carvalho. 
Minister of Industry and Public Works — Antonio Olyntho. 
Minister of Marine — Admiral Elisario Barbosa. 



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PARAGUAY — HONDURAS. 329 

Minister of War — Bernardo Vasques. 

Minister of the Interior — Gon9alves Ferreira. 

President Moraes is the first President of the Pepublic 
elected by the people. General Fonseca was chosen Presi- 
dent and Peixoto Vice-President by Congress. 



PARAGUAY. 



General Egusquiza has been elected President of Para- 
guay. He was educated in the National College of Buenos 
Aires, and entering the Argentine army rose to the rank of 
lieutenant colonel, which rank was accorded to him when he 
joined the Paraguayan array. Entering the political arena 
in 1882, he was elected a National Deputy. He has also 
held the post of military commander in several departments, 
and was Minister of War in the Cabinet of President Gon- 
zalez. He was made a general in 1893. 



HONDURAS. 



Semiofficial advices from Tegucigalpa, of the r 2th instant, 
say that at the national election Policarpo Bonilla was 
elected president by an overwhelming majority, and his 
brother, Manuel Bonilla, was elected vice-president. 

The new constitution was adopted by an almost unanimous 
vote. 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Frequent application is made to the Bureau for the address 
of United States Consuls in the South and Central American 
Republics. Those desiring to correspond with any consul can 
do so by addressing "The United States Consulate" at the 
point named. Letters thus addressed will be delivered to 
the proper person. It must be understood, however, that it 
is not the duty of consuls to devote their time to private 
business, and that all such letters may properly be treated 
as personal and any labor involved may be subject to charge 
therefor. 

The following is a list of United States Consulates in the 
different Republics: 



Argentine Repubi^ic- 

Buenos Aires. 

Cordoba. 

Rosario. 
B01.IVIA— 

La Paz. 

Bahia. 
Para. 

Pernambuco. 
Rio Grande do Sul. 
Rio de Janeiro. 
Santos. 
Chile — 

Antofagasta. 

Arica. 

Coquimbo. 

Iquique. 

Talcahuano. 

Valparaiso. 



Colombia — 

Barranquilla. 

Bogota. 

Cartagena. 

Colon (Aspinwall). 

Medillin. 

Panama. 
Costa Rica — 

San Jos6. 
Dominican feEPUBLic- 

Puerto Plata. 

Samana. 

Santo Domingo. 
Ecuador — 

Guayaquil. 
Guatemala — 

Guatemala. 
Haiti— 

Cape Haitien. 

Port au Prince. 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Honduras — 

Roatan. 

Tegucigalpa. 
Mexico— 

Acapulco. 

Chihuahua. 

Dorango. 

Ensenada. 

Guaymas. 

La Faz. 

Matamoras. 

Mazatlan. 

Merida. 

Mexico. 

Nogales. 

Nuevo Laredo. 

Paso del Norte. 

Piedras Negras. 

Saltillo. 

Tampico. 



Mexico — Continued. 

Tuxpau. 

Vera Cruz. 
Nicaragua — 

Managua. 

San Juan del Norte. 
Paraguay — 

Asuncion. 
Peru— 

Callao. 
Salvador — 

San Salvador. 
Uruguay — 

Colonia. 

Montevideo. 

Paysandu. 
Venezuela— 

La Guayra. 

Maracaibo. 

Puerto Cabello. 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Department of State, 

Washington, U. S. A., 1894. 

It is impossible to comply with requests for the free 
distribution of the publications of this Bureau. The de- 
mand for Handbooks and Bulletins has increased so. rapidly 
as to make compliance impossible, because of the limited 
editions published. The lists of applicants desiring to be 
supplied with every Handbook and Bulletin issued by 
the Bureau largely exceed any edition published, and these 
lists would be constantly increased if the requests received 
daily at the Bureau were acceded to. Yet, it is well under- 
stood that many requests are received from persons having 
good reasons for desiring the information asked for, and both 
willing and able to pay the slight cost of these documents. 

Recognizing these facts, the Bureau some months ago issued 
a circular announcing that thereafter the publications of the 
Bureau would be sold to all applicants at a small price. This 
was done with a view of extending rather than limiting the 
circulation of the information published by the Bureau, and 
at the same time securing the utmost impartiality in such 
distribution. It was believed that this course would result 
in a more general circulation of the information secured in 
saving the unnecessary labor of replying to requests from 
persons who apparently had no special interest in the publica- 
tions applied for, and that all who had a well-grounded 
intention of embarking in business in foreign countries, or 
extending business already established, would be able to 
afford the slight expense involved in the payment of the 
cost price of the Bureau documents. 

The result of this experiment has more than justified the 
hopes with which it was undertaken. With exceptions too 
rare to be noted, the plan embraced in the circular has met 
with the cordial approbation of the business men of the 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

country, and if the progress made thus far in extending the 
circulation of these publications shall be continued it will be 
possible to largely increase the numbers of each edition of 
future publications. 

Many of the earlier Bulletins have been included in more 
recent publications. This applies especially to the tarifiFs, com- 
mercial directories and newspaper directories of the different 
Republics. 

Suggestions from manufacturers and dealers as to their spe- 
cial needs of information will receive prompt attention by the 
Bureau. 

The following list embraces a catalogue of the Bulletins and 
Handbooks published since the organization of the Bureau, 
of which copies may be secured by remitting to the under- 
signed the price named in inclosed list. 

PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU 
OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Cents. 

3. Patent and Trade-mark Laws of America 5 

4. Money » Weights and Measures of the American Republics 5 

6. Foreign Commerce of the American Republics 30 

8. Import Duties of Brazil 10 

10. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto Rico 15 

II Import Duties of Costa Rica 10 

13. Commercial Directory of Brazil 5 

14. Commercial Directory of Venezuela 5 

15. Commercial Directory of Colombia 5 

16. Commercial Directory of Peru 5 

17. Commercial Directory of Chile 5 

18. Commercial Directory of Mexico 15 

19. Commercial Directory of Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Uru- 

<?uay 5 

20. Import Duties of Nicaragua 10 

21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised) 15 

22. Import Duties of Bolivia 20 

23. Import Duties of Salvador 5 

24. Import Duties of Honduras 10 

25. Import Duties of Ecuador 5 

26. Commercial Directory of the Argentine Republic 5 

27. Import Duties of Colombia 5 

28. Commercial Directory of Central America 10 



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PRICE I.IST OF PUBLICATION 

Cents. 

29. Commercial Directory of Haiti and Santo Domingo 5 

30. First Annual Report of the Bureau, 1891 10 

32. Handbook of Guatemala 35 

33. Handbook of Colombia 30 

34. Handbook of Venezuela 35 

36. Import Duties of Venezuela 5 

38. Commercial Directory of Cuba and Puerto Rico 10 

39. Commercial Directory of British, Danish, Dutch and French 

colonies 10 

42. Newspaper Directory of Latin America 5 

43. Import Duties of Guatemala '. 25 

44. Import Duties of the United States 5 

45. Import Duties of Peru 25 

46. Import Duties of Chile ^ 25 

47. Import Duties of Uruguay 25 

48. Import duties of the Argentine Republic 25 

49. Import Duties of Haiti '. 10 

50. Handbook of the American Republics, No. 3 50 

51. Handbook of Nicaragua 50 

52. Handbook of Santo Domingo * 50 

53. Immigration and Land Laws of Latin America 40 

55. Handt>ook of Bolivia :.. 40 

61. Handbook of Uruguay 50 

62. Handbook of Haiti 50 

63 How the Markets of Latin America May Be Reached 40 

64. Handbook of Ecuador 50 

67. Handbook of the Argentine Republic 50 

68. April Special Bulletin, Costa Rica 25 

New United States Tariff Law .,.„ 05 

PUBLICATIONS NOT NUMBERED. 

Commercial Directory of Latin America - 40 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau, 1892 5 

Third Annual Report of the Bureau, 1893 15 

Manual de las Republicas Americanas, 189 1 (Spanish edition of 

Hand-book No. i) 50 

International American Conference Reports and Recommenda- 
tions, including Reports upon the Plan of Arbitration, Reci- 
procity Treaties, Inter-Continental Railway, Steamship Com- 
munication, Sanitary Regulations, Customs Regulations, 
Common Silver Coin, Patents and Trade-Marks, Weights 
and Measures, Port Dues, International Law, Extradition 
Treaties, International Bank, Memorial Tablet, Columbian 
Exposition— 

Octavo, bound in paper , |o 50 

Octavo, bouud in half Morocco i 50 



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PRICE LIST OP PUBLICATIONS. 

Cents 

Monthly Bulletins, $i per annum; single copies lo 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, first volume, 852 pages, bound 
in cloth, contains upwards of 34,000 commercial terms in 
English, Spanish and Portuguese 3 00 

Money may be sent by postoffice money order, payable 
to the Director of the Bureau of the American Republics. 
All other remittances are at the risk of the sender. Postage 
stamps will not be received. 

CLINTON FURBISH, 

Director. 



The second volume of the Code of Commercial Nomen- 
clature is now in press and will be ready for delivery about 
the ist of October. This is the final edition of the English, 
Spanish, and Portuguese edition, containing about 24,000 
terms, including about 830 pages. Price, bound in cloth, I3. 

El segundo tomo del C6digo de Nomenclatura Comercial 
se encuentra en prensa y estard listo para distribuirse para el 
primero de Octubre pr6ximo. Este tomo es el ultimo de la 
serie inglesa, castellana, y portuguesa, consta de 830 pdginas 
y contiene cerca de 24,000 vocablos. Su precio, encuarder- 
nado en tela, ^3. 



These publications may be purchased from Rand, McNally 
& Co., Chicago and New York. 



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No. 6 



V 



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/ 



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m Texas State Eistciir:J Association. ^ 



► -^J^wnohn Number 15 Vol II. No. 6 



THE 



MONTHLY BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Bureau 



OF THE 



American Republics 

WASHINGTON, U. S. A. 



DECEIVIBER, 18©4 

• _ 

American Live Stock. (English and Spanish.) 

Chapter VI — Sheep (Continued). Compiled by 

E. T. Riddick - SS^ 

Consular and Other Fees 346 

Brazil — Extracts from Inaugural Address of Presi- 
dent Moraes 358 

Mexico 360 

Honduras — Central American Exposition - - - 362 

Uruguay 367 

Chile - - 369 

Guatemala - - - 371 

Dominican Republic — Tariff Decree - - - 372 

Venezuela — Letter of President Crespo - - - 375 

Costa Rica .... . . _ 387 

Commercial Notes 389 

Single Numbers, 10 Cents Per Annum, Ji.oa 



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BUnCAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE. WASHINGTON. D. C. U. S. A. 



/Xrec^or-^hiNtov Furbish. 



Although the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications 

of the Bureau of the American Republics, no pecuniar}- 

responsibility is assumed on account of errors or 

inaccuracies which may occur therein. 



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Google 



The Texas Stato Eistcric:il AssGCiatiOQ. 



The Monthly Bulletin 

OP THB 

BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

DBCBMBBR, 1894. 



AMERICAN LIVE STOCK. 

(Engwsh and Spanish.) 

Chapter VI. 

SHEEP. 
[Continued.] 



SOUTHDOWN SHEEP. 
There are many things about the Southdown sheep that 
sheep raisers may study with profit. It is interesting to go back 
to the middle of the last century and learn the state of sheep 
raising and woolgrpwing in England. About 1755 Mr. 
Bakewell, of Dishley, in Iveicestershire, began the improve- 
ment of the then existing breed of sheep of that country. 
About twenty years later, his friend, Mr. Ellman, began the 
improvement of the short-wooled sheep of England, confin- 
ing himself to the sheep found in the counties of Surrey and 
Kent. The peculiar region was known as the Southdown, to 
designate it from a part of the same range of hills lying to 
the north, and the sheep found indigenous to those elevated 
lands were called the Southdown sheep. These hills were 
natural pasture lands, consisting of a '' long range of chalky 
hills diverging from the stratum which intersects the king- 
dom from Norfolk to Dorchester. They enter the county of 
Sussex on the west side, and are continued almost in a direct 
line as far as East Bourne, where they reach the sea.** 

24 BU1« 



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332 BUREAU, OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

These consist of a succession of open "downs '* some sixty- 
miles long and five or six wide, without many inclosures. A 
herd of sheep had belonged to this region for centuries and 
had become perfectly well adapted to the conditions of the 
region and took their name from this range of hills. From 
this breed of sheep have sprung up the other families of 
**downs *' which, under the influence of more liberal feeds, 
have other though similar characteristics. 

By the introduction of turnip husbandry, the farmers were 
able to keep more sheep on the same areas, and to keep 
them better. A uniform and more abundant food supply was 
secured. The sheep matured more rapidly and took on a 
more symmetrical form for mutton purposes than formerly. 
Not only were they larger at an earlier age, but they were 
generally improved in vigor and hardiness. They became 
smaller in the bone and fattened at a much earlier age. 
"Instead of four years, they now were fit for the shambles 
at two years, and many were sent to the market at an earlier 
age." Nor in all this did they become so artificial as not to 
be able to endure "occasional short pastures*' and herd 
stocking. Nothing is said of the qualities of the mutton pre- 
vious to this, but it is now said to be finely grained. The 
wool was a broadcloth wool; it now was so much changed 
that its usefulness found another place with the manufactur- 
ers equally valuable. Formerly, it had been a horned sheep ; 
it now became a polled sheep, though it was not unusual to 
find the males with small horns. The dusky or sometimes 
black faces, so characteristic of the breed, are supposed to 
belong to the primitive sheep, which were black. Occasional 
black lambs are yet produced in Southdown flocks and are 
admissible as in other breeds of sheep. The black faces of 
the Southdowns vary in flocks both in England and this coun- 
try. Some breeders fancy them with white faces. The 
Prince of Wales is so reported. The Southdown Association 
of America has established a standard in this which is gener- 
ally recognized by breeders of this country. 

The fleeces of the Southdown sheep, as with Leicesters, 
have been a secondary consideration and somewhat neglected. 



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* SHEEP. 333 

since the meat was esteemed so much more important. There 
has been, however, a very great increase in weight since 1800, 
at which time Mr. I^iccock says: ' "The average weight of 
the fleece of a Southdown hill sheep was two pounds ; in 1835 
it was three pounds. The fleece of the lowland sheep that 
used to be three pounds is now three and one-half pounds or 
even four pounds:*' The length of the staple also was in- 
creased from one and one-half to two until it was four inches 
in length. From a carding wool it became a combing wool, 
partly from the improved machinery that came into use in 
the mills. The Soutlidowns have been more widely dissemi-' 
nated than any other of the breeds of England. They have 
a firm footing in the United States. Phil Thrifton, who is 
unquestioned authority, says the first Southdowns imported 
into this country were by John H. Powell, of Philadelphia, 
in 1824, from John EUraan's flock. In 1828 Samuel Thome, 
of New York, and R. A. Alexander, of Kentucky, introduced 
some of this breed from the Webb stock. 

The head of the Southdown is snlall and hornless ; the 
face speckled or gray and neither too long nor too short ; the 
lips thin and the space between the nose and eyes narrow; 
the under jaw or chop fine and thin ; the ears tolerably wide 
and well covered with wool, and forehead also, and the whole 
space between the ears well protected by it, as a defense 
from the fly; the eye full and bright, but not too prominent; 
the orbits of the eye, the eye-cap or bone, not too projecting 
that it may not form a fatal obstacle to combing ; the neck of 
a medium length, thin toward the head, but enlarging toward 
the shoulders where it should be broad and high, and straight 
in its whole course above and below; the breast should be 
wide, deep, and projecting forward between the forelegs, 
indicating a good constitution and a disposition to thrive. 
Corresponding with this, the shoulders should be on a level 
with the back and not too wide above ; they should bow out- 
ward from the top to the breast, indicating a springing rib 
beneath and leaving room for it ; the ribs coming out hori- 
zontally from the spine and extending far backward, and the 
last rib projecting more than the others; the back flat from 



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334 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the shoulders to the setting on of the tail ; the loin broad and 
flat ; the rump long and broad, and the tail set on high and 
nearly on a level with the spine, the hips wide, the space 
between them and the last rib on either side as narrow 
as possible, and the ribs generally presenting a circular 
form like a barrel ; the belly as straight as the back ; the 
legs neither too long nor too short; the forelegs straight 
from the breast to the foot, not bending inward at the knee, 
and standing far apart both before and behind; the hocks 
having a direction rather outward, and the twist or the meet- 
ing of the thighs behind being particularly full ; the bones 
fine, yet having no appearance of weakness, and of a speckled 
or dark color; the belly well defended with wool, coming 
down before and behind the knee and the hock; the wool 
short, close, curled, and fine, and free from spiry, projecting 
fibers. 

MERINOS. 

Stewart in his valuable work, **The Shepherd's Manual," 
says: 

**The Spanish Merino existed as a distinct race 2,000 years 
ago, and the fine robes of the Roman Emperors were made 
from the wool of Spanish flocks. There is no history or 
tradition as to their origin which can be accepted as reason- 
able by any practical shepherd. It is probable, however, 
that the fine-wooled sheep which we read of in the ancient 
histories were rather the natural product of very 'favorable 
conditions of soil and climate, by which inferior races were 
greatly improved, than of any direct efforts to breed them up 
to a desired standard.'' 

To the American breeder, an accurate account of the origin 
of Merino sheep would be of considerable interest; but, 
unless some as yet unfound history be discovered, the precise 
origin of the Merino will remain a matter of deduction from 
circumstantial evidence. The Merino is certainly the oldest 
of surviving breeds, and as its authentic history is almost co- 
existent with the history of Spain, we may, for all practical 
purposes, and without further question as to its remote origin, 



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SHEEP. 335 

regard it as a creation of Spanish breeders, who used the 
finest sheep of Italy and Africa, and were further assisted in 
improving the then native flocks by the natural adaptation of 
Spanish soil and climate to the rearing of the fine-wooled 
sheep. The first importations of pure Spanish Merinos to 
the United States were soon lost sight of, through being 
mixed with other blood. 

From the United States Merino Sheep Register we take 
the following authoritative 

DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS : 

** There must be a perfectly authenticated line of ancestry 
extending to one or more of the importations of Merino 
sheep from Spain, made prior to 1812, without a mixture of 
any other blood. The constitution is indicated by a health- 
ful countenance, expanded nostril, short, strong neck, deep 
chest, round barrel, strong, short back, strong loin, heavy 
bone of fine texture, muscle fine and firm, and skin thick, 
soft, and of a pink color. 

** Under the term fleece must be included quantity, quality 
and condition of the wool, as shown by the weight of fleece, 
the length and strength of staple, crimp, fineness and true- 
ness of fiber, evenness throughout, freedom from gare, and 
the fluidity and amount of yolk. 

**The term covering includes the extent and evenness of 
the fleece over the whole body, legs', belly, neck, and head; 
the quality, luster, crimp, density, and length of wool, and 
the quality and kind of oil or yolk. The shoulders should 
be well placed; back broad; quarters long and well filled 
up ; head short ; folds in the neck, elbow, flank, belly, thighs, 
and tail. 

**Rams at full growth, in breeding condition, should weigh 
130 pounds or upwards, and ewes about 100 pounds. The 
head should be of medium size ; muzzle clear, nose (or face) 
covered with short, glossy, furry hair; eyes bright and 
placid; forehead broad; ears soft, thick and set wide apart; 
ewes hornless; horns on the ram well turned (set not too 
closely to the head and neck, nor yet standing out too wide) 



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336 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

and free from black or dark colored streaks. The neck 
should be short on top and long below ; strongly set to the 
head and shoulders, becoming deeper toward the shoulders ; 
folds heavier underneath and extending up the sides of the 
neck, including heavy dewlap and apron. Thfe legs should 
be short, straight, well spread apart, and bone heavy ; hoofs 
clear in color and well shaped. General appearance should 
be bold and vigorous, with symmetrical form, and proper 
complexion of covering.*' 

In the South the Merinos are better known than any other 
breed of sheep; the fact of their continued breeding for 
centuries in the hot, dry climate of Spain, and the further 
fact — or perhaps we should say supposition — of a remote 
ancestry from the still warmer latitude of northern Africa, has 
fitted them especially for the warm, dry, elevated regions of 
the Southwest. It must be borne in mind, however, that the 
Merinos do not come in conflict, in any particular, with the 
heavier sheep of the down and long-wool tribes. The 
mission of the Merino is to furnish wool, and that, too, of 
the finest quality ; and for this purpose he stands admittedly 
without a rival. 

THE DELAINES-MERINOS. 

The origin of this family is of recent date, and has grown 
out of a continued and steady demand for what is known as 
Delaine wools. Just what constitutes Delaine wool is rather 
hard to define, but the process of manufacture requires comb- 
ing instead of carding — the fibers being laid parallel with 
each other, and spun at full length in the yam. It is claimed 
that no deep in-breeding has been practiced, and that the 
sheep are, therefore, free from all taint of weakness so fre- 
quently traced to incestuous breeding. On the other hand, 
it is stated that nothing but the purest Merino blood has ever 
been introduced, and to explain the seeming contradiction, 
we may say, in brief, that the Delaine-Merino has been pro- 
duced by a careful system of crossing the pure Spanish with 
the American Merino. 



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I,OS CARNEROS. 337 

DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS. 

The fleece presents a uniformly smooth surface, dark on 
the outer end of wool, but a * 'black-top*' — caused by excess 
or sticky character of yolk, and consequent clogging up with 
dirt to form an outer crust — is considered a great objection. 
The natural oil or yolk should be freely liquid, not gummy, 
showing an even white color and rising to the top of the 
dense, fine covering. The staple (fiber) is of good length, 
averaging from two and a half to three inches in wool of 
one year's growth, covering the body and legs to the knees. 
The animal is of good size, mature rams weighing about 150 
pounds, and ewes about 100 pounds-^with a vigorous consti- 
tution and a carcass for mutton which, in a fine wool sheep, 
is surprising. 

The Delaines, as well as the Black-Tops and Dickinsons 
are smooth, no folds, only a fullness at the throat being per- 
mitted. Their breeders make no pretense of 'Mine-pure*' 
descent from a single sheep or a single flock, but, on the 
conlrar>% are rather proud of having secured in combination 
the blood of the best (in their judgment) flocks in America 

and Spain. 

(To be continued.) 



GANADO AMERICANO. 



Capitulo VI. 

LOS CARNEROS. 

[Continiia.] 

"SOUTHDOWN." 



Hay muchas cosas en los cameros de la raza denominada 
''Southdown " que los criadores pudieran estudiar con 
provecho. Es interesante remontarse d la mitad del siglo 
pasado y enterarse del estado en que entonces se hallaba la 



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338 BUREAU OF THp AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cria de los cameros y la producci6n de la lana en Ingla- 
terra. En 1755, pr6ximamente, Mr. Bakewell, de Dishley, en 
Leicestershire y emprendi6 el mejoramiento de las razas de 
cameros que eutonces existian en aquella porci6n del pais. 
Yeinte aftos mds tarde su amigo, Mr. EUman, empez6 d 
hacer lo misnio con el camero de lana corta de Inglaterra. 
limitando sus esfuerzos d los de la regi6n de Surrey y Kent. 
Y de la localidad especial conocida alii con el nombre de 
"Southdown,'* para diferenciarla de una parte de la misma 
Ifnea de montaflas que se levanta hacia el norte, vino el 
calificativo de **Southdbwn/' que se di6 4 los cameros que 
se encontraron indigenas en aquellas alturas. Estas montaflas 
que forman una larga cadena, divisoria del reino, de Norfolk 
d Dorchester, penetran en el condado de Sussex por el lado 
del Oeste y se contindan casi en linea recta hasta East Bourne 
donde Uegan al mar. La naturaleza de su suelo es calizo. 
Se encuentran en ellas abundantes pastos naturales espar- 
cidos en una serie de prados abiertos de cosa de sesenta 
millas de largo y de cinco 6 seis de ancho. A estos prados 
se les llama en ingles *' downs,*' y de aqui y de su situaci6n 
hacia el Sud ha venido el nombre de *' Southdowns.** 

Un rebafio de cameros se habfa perpetuado en esta regi6n 
por varios siglos y adaptddose perfectamente d las condi- 
cionesde la localidad. Este es el origen de la raza de que 
se trata, de la que han provenido todas las otras familias 
que bajo la influencia de la alimentaci6n y otras circums- 
tancias han venido d presentar los mismos caracteres. 

Desde que se introdujo el cultivo del nabo ha sido fdcil la 
crianza de mayor numero de cameros en una misma exten- 
si6n de terreno y conservarlos en mejor estado. Aquel cultivo 
suministra un medio de alimentaci6n saludable, uniforme d 
la vez que abundante, y en virtud de este alimento el animal 
se desarrolla con mds rapidez y to ma mejor forma para los 
prop6sitos del matadero. Result6 de aqui que los cameros 
fueran mds grandes en tamaiio, y que d una edad mds temprana 
adquirieran generalmente un notable estado de vigor y de- 
sarrollo. Se disminuy6 el tamafio de sus huesos y se les 
pudo cebar d una edad mas temprana. Antes no se les envia- 



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I.OS CARNEROS. 339 

ba al matadero sino d los cuatro aftos : ahora podfa envidr- 
seles i los dos anos de edad, y en algunas ocasiones un poco 
antes ; pero no por esto se volvieron tan artificiales que no 
fnesen capaces de soportar de vtz en cuando otra clase de 
pasto menos nutritivo. 

Nada se dijo de las cualidades de su came antes del cul- 
tivo antedicho, pero despu^s de €1 el grano de aquella ha 
stdo siempre fino. La lana no era d prop6sito sino para fabricar 
pane, pero despu6s cambi6 tanto que se la pudo utilizar en 
mnchas otras cosas de no menos valor. Originalmente 
tenian cuemos estos cameros, ahora no los tienen d no ser 
alguna que otra vez, los machos, y siempre de pequefio 
tamano. La cara oscura y algunas veces enteramente negra 
que es caracteristica de esta raza se supone ser debida d 
los primitivos cameros que eran negros. Todavfa se pro- 
ducen de vez en cuando en ** Southdown '* algunos carneros 
de este color, y son admisibles como en todas las demds 
razas. Las caras negras de los '*Southdowns*' varian bas 
tante en los rebanos de Inglaterra y los de este pais. Algu- 
nos criadores se enipenan en producir caras blancas, y se dice 
que estd entre ellos el Principe de Gales. La asociaci6n 
americana que se titula ** Southdown Association of Amer- 
ica " ha establecido en esto un tipo fijo que estd aceptado en 
general por los criadores de este pais. 

La cualidad de la lana, lo mismo en estos cameros que en 
los de Leicester, ha sido asunto de consideraci6n secundaria, 
y algunos casos se ha Uegado hasta perderla de vista en 
absoluto. Toda la atenci6n se ha dedicado d la came. A 
pesar de esto, desde el afio de 1800 hasta la fecha, se ha 
notado un g^ande aumento en la cantidad de lana obtenida 
de estos animales. Mr. Luccock dice que en el aiio de 1800 
la lana producida por un caruero de las montafias de South- 
down pesaba por t^rmino medio dos libras, y que en 1835 
este peso se habia aumentado hasta tres libras. Anade el 
mismo escritor que la lana de los cameros de las tierras bajas, 
que anteriormente llegaba d tres libras por cabeza, era en la 
^poca en que 61 escribia del peso de tres libras y media y d 
veces cuatro libras. 



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340 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

Tambien se ha aumentado la longitud de la liebra, la cual 
media originalmente una y media pulgadas, mientras que 
ahora llega en ocasiones hasta cuatro. Antes era una lana 
propia solamente para ser cardada, ahora podrd peinarse bi^n 
con la maquinaria de mejor clase introducida en las fdbricas. 

Los **Southdowns'* son les cameros ingleses que mds se 
han diseminado en el mundo, y en los Bstados Unidossehan 
arraigado firmemente. Phil Thrifton, cuya autoridad en la 
materia no puede disputarse, dice que los primeros * 'South- 
downs'' importados en este paislo fueron por John H. Powell, 
de Philadelphia, en el aiio de 1824, quien los tom6de los re- 
bafios de John EUman. En 1828 Samuel Thome, de New 
York, y R. A. Alexander, de Kentucky, introdujeron tambien 
algunos de estos cameros de los rebaflos de Webb. 

La cabeza del ''Southdown** es pequefta y sin cuemos: la 
cara regular, ni demasiado larga, ni demasiada corta: los 
labios delgados: el espacio entre la nariz y los ojos angosto: 
lamandibula inferior fina y delgada: las orejas tolerable- 
mente anchas y bi^n cubiertas de lana : la frente del midmo 
modo : el espacio entre las orejas protejido igualmente por 
la lana como para defender al animal contra las moscas : los 
ojos saltones pero no demasiado prominentes : las 6rbitas de 
los ojos en el borde superior no tan salientes que hagan impo- 
sible peinar la lana : el pecuezo de mediana longitud, delgado 
hacia la cabeza, pero ensanchado hacia los hombros, donde 
debe ser alto y de bastante didmetro : el pecho ancho. pro- 
fundo y proyectdndose hacia delante entre las patas delan- 
teras. Todo esto indica una buena constituci6n y una 
actitud favorable para el desarrollo, 

Ademds de lo expuesto, los cuartos delanteros del camero 
deben estar d la misma altura que el lomo, y no demasiado 
anchos pOr arriba: deben inclinarse hacia afuera desde la 
parte alta hasta el pecho, indicando asf que hay debajo una 
cavidad costillar de sufficiente anchura. Las costillas deben 
partir del espinazo trazando una Hnea horizontal y extendi£n- 
dose hacia la parte de atrds. La dltima costilla debe pro- 
yectarse mds que las otras. El lomo debe ser chato desde 
los hombros hasta el nacimiento del rabo. Los lomos son 



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hOS CARNEROS. 341 

anchos y aplanados lo mismo que los cuartos traseros en 
su parte alta. El rabo comien7.a casi d la misma altura que 
el espinazo. El didmetro posterior es ancho y el espacio 
entre la ultima costilla y los huesos de la pelvis en cada lado 
tan estrecho como sea posible. Las costillas presentan gene- 
ralmente una forma circular imitando mds 6 menos la de un 
barril. El perfil del abdomen es tan recto como el del lomo. 
Las patas no son ni demasiado largas ni demasiado cortas, 
rectas, sin inflecciones 6 curvaturas de ningun g^nero, desde 
el cuerpo hastala pezuna, y bi^n separadas, tanto las delanteras 
de las traseras como una de otra respectivamente. La parte 
entre la rodilla y la pezufia tiene cierta inclinaci6n hacia 
afuera. Los huesos son finos pero sin ninguna apariencia de 
debilidad y de un color manchado u oscuro. El abdomen 
bien defendido por lana y alcanzando. tanto en la parte de 
adelante como la de atrds, hasta un punto intermedio entre 
la rodilla y la pezufia. La lana corta, unida, encrespada, 
fina y libre de fibras salientes 

LOS CARNEROS MERINOS. 

Stewart en su importante obra titulada **E1 Manual del 
Pastor *' dice lo que sigue : 

** El merino espanol existia ya como una raza distinta hace 
dos mil anos, y las finas togas de los Emperadores romanos se 
hacfan con esta lana, producida por los rebanos de Espafia. No 
hay historia 6 tradici6n relativa d su erigen que pueda acep- 
tarse como razonable por ningun pastor prdctico. Es proba- 
ble sin embargo que el carnero de fina lana de que se habla 
en las historias antiguas fuese, mds bien, el producto natural de 
condiciones muy favorables, asi de suelo, como de clima, 
por cuyo medio muchas razas inferiores fueron mejoradas 
considerablemente, que el resultado de ningun esfuerzo 
directo para la crianza de los animales hasta obtener el tipo 
deseado.** 

Para el criador americano seria de considerable interns 
tener una noticia exacta y esmerada del origen del carnero 
merino ; pero d no ser que se descubra alguna historia de 
este animal todavia desconocida, la determinacion del origen 



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342 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

de esta raza permanecerd siendo asunto de simples conjeturas, 
por lo que pueda deducirse de pruebas circumstanciales. La 
raza del carnero merino es ciertamente la mds antigua de las 
que existen, y su historia aut^ntica es casi coexistente con 
la de Espafia, por lo cual, considerando las cosas prdctica- 
mente y sin detenemos & investigar acerca de su origen m4s 
remoto, podemos bien considerar al animal como una creaci6n 
de los criadores espaftoles, quienes importaban los mejores 
cameros de Italia y de Africa y mejoraban con ellos los 
rebanos del pais, ayudados por la natural adaptaci6n del suelo 
y del clima de EspaRa para la crianza del ganado de lana 
fina. Las primeras importaciones de merinos puros espafio- 
les en los Estados Unidos fueron pronto olvidadas & causa 
de las mezclas, que se efectuaron casi inmediatamente 
despu^s, entre los animates introducidos y los nativos del pals. 

DESCRIPCION Y CARACTERES. 

La siguiente descripci6n del merino y de sus caracteres 
estd tomada del '* United States Meiino Sheep Register'' y 
dice como sigue : 

**Debe haber una linea perfectamente autenticada de la 
genealogia del carnero merino que alcance hasta una 6 mds 
de las importaciones que se hicieron de este animal directa- 
mente de Espaf^a y sin mezcla de ninguna otra sangre, antes 
del ano de 1812. El caracter de la raza estd marcado por su 
aspecto saludable, las ventanas de la nariz amplias y ensan- 
chadas, el pescuezo corto y fuerte, el pecho profundo, el 
tronco 6 cuerpo redondo, en forma de un barril, el lonio 
fuerte y corto, cuartos traseros fuertes, huesos pesados pero 
de fina contextura, los mtisculos finos y firmes y la piel 
gruesa, suave y de color rosado. 

'*Cuando se habla del vell6n de estos animal es, se entiende 
que se trata de la cantidad, calidad y condici6n de la lana 
tal como se demuestra por su peso, y tambi^n de la longitud 
y fuerza 6 resistencia de las hebras, su eucrespamiento, 
finura, suavidad 6 igualdad en todas sus partes, asi como 
tambi^n que no tenga nudos y que sea suficientemente 
oleosa. 



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LOS CARNEROS. 343 

*'Cuando se habla de la cubierta (covering) del animal, se 
da i entender que se trata de la extensi6n 6 igual reparto de 
la lana sobre todo el cuerpo, incluyendo las patas, el abdomen, 
el pescuQzo y la cabeza, asi como tambi^n de la calidad, lustre, 
encrespamiento, densidad y longitud de la lana, y la cualidad 
y naturaleza del aceite que contiene. 

**Los cuartos delanteros de este camero estdn bien situa- 
dos, su lomo es ancho, su cabeza es corta, su piel forma plie- 
gues en el pescuezo, en el nacimiento de las patas delanteras, 
en los costados, en el vientre, en la parte posterior del cuerpo 
y en la cola. 

''Los machos en pleno desarroUo y en estado de procrear 
deben pesar 130 libras 6 mds. Las ovejas deben pesar 100 
libras. La cabeza debe ser mediana, su hocico debe presen- 
tar la nariz bien cortada y cubierta con un pelo corto, lus- 
troso y lanudo. Sus ojos son pldcidos y brillantes, su fr*te 
ancha, sus orejas suaves, gruesas y bien separadas una de otra. 
Las ovejas no tienen cuemos, y los cuemos del macho estdn 
bien conformados y no demasiado apinados sobre la cabeza 
y pescuezo, ni tampoco demasiado separadbs el uno del 
otro, y libres de listas negras 6 de color oscuro. El pescuezo 
debe ser corto en la parte de arriba y largo en la de abajo, 
firmemente unido d la cabeza y cuartos delanteros, cerca de 
los cuales se vuelve iHis profundo. Los pliegues 6 dobleces 
de la piel son mds pesados en la parte de abajo que en la de 
arriba y se extienden hacia los lados del pescuezo, incluyendo 
lo que se llama la papada y el delantal. Las patas deben ser 
cortas, derechas, bien separadas, de huesos duros y pesados 
y con pezuiias de color claro y de buena forma. El aspecto 
general del animal es atrevido y vigoroso con forma sim6- 
trica y con una cubierta de lana bien acondicionada.'* 

En el Sud de los Estados Unidos los merinos son mejor 
conocidos que todas las otras razas de cameros. El hecho de 
haber sido criados por siglos en el clima cdlido y seco de 
Espafia, yel otro hecho, 6 talvez la suposici6n, de que sus 
antepasados vivieren en una latitud todavia mds cdlida en el 
norte de Africa, han contribuido d que estos cameros se en- 

25 BUL 



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344 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cuentren en su elemento propio en las regiones elevadas, 
secas y calientes del sudoeste. 

Debe tenerse presente que los merinos no se eucuentran en 
conflicto bajo ningun concepto con los caraeros mds pesados 
de las tribus de ''Downs*' y Long-wool. La misi6n del 
merino es suministrar lana de la cualidad mds fina, y para 
este objeto estd reconocido por todos que no tiene rival. 

LOS MERINOS DELAINE. 

El origen de esta faniilia es de fecba reciente, y se ha 
debido d la continua y creciente demanda de las lanas 
llamadas de *' Delaine.** Es por cierto dificil definir que 
cosa es la lana de ** Delaine;'* pero en las fdbricas se ne- 
cesitaba un artfculo de la clase d que aquella pertenece, capaz 
de ser peinada en vez de cardada, con fibras paralelas unas d 
otras y susceptible de ser devanada en el huso en toda su 
extension. 

Se pretende que para conseguir este resultado no ha sido 
preciso ningun cruzamientodentro de la misma raza, y que estos 
carneros estan por tanto libres de aquella especie de debili- 
dad, que tan frecuentemente .se observa en animales de origen 
incestuoso. Pero por otra parte se mantiene con igual empef.o, 
que ninguna sangre diferente de la mds pura del merino 
espafiol ha sido introducida en la raza de los ** Delaine." 
Para explicar esta contradicci6n aparente puede decirse en 
pocas palabras que el merino de ** Delaine" debe su origen 
d un cruzamiento esmerado de la raza pura espafiola con la 
americana. 

DESCRIPCION Y CARACTERES. 

El vell6n de estos animales presenta una superficie uni- 
formemente suave. La lana es mds oscura en el extreme 
exterior que cerca de la piel ; pero es preciso tener cuidado 
de no confundir el camero de que se trata con el denominado 
en ingles ''black top," nombre que en castellano podria tra- 
ducirse "cubierta negra," que le viene de la especie de 
costra de este color formada sobre la superficie del vell6n, d 
causa de la gran cantidad de grasa mds 6 menos pegajosa 



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LOS CARNEROS. 345 

que existe en la lana de esta familia y que retiene la 
tierra y demds suciedades con que acierta d ponerse en con- 
tacto. Esa grasa en el camero ** Delaine '* no es gomosa sino 
muy fluida, es de color bianco, y sube hasta el extremo de al 
lana fina v abundante que forma el vell6n. La hebra de esta 
lana es de buena longitud, midiendo por termino medio de 
dos y media d tres pulgadas en la lana de un afio edad. La 
lana cubre el cuerpo y las patas hasta las rodillas. 

Estos carneros son de buen tamafio. Los machos en per- 
fecto estado de desarrollo pesan 150 libras; las ovejas too libras, 
pr6ximamente. Tienen una vigorosa constituci6n; y su carne 
es de tan buena calidad que verdaderamente sorprende en 
un animal de lana fina. 

Los caraeros "Delaine** lo mismo que los * 'black- tops*' 
y los "Dickinsons *' carecen de pliegues carnosos, y la unica 
cosa que presentan parecida d dichos pliegues, es cierta 
plenitud en el pescuezo. 

Los criadores no pretenden pura genealogia para ningunode 
sus carneros 6 rebaftos; y por el contrario se sienten mas 
bien inclinados d afirmar, como lo hacen con cierto orgullo, 
que sus animales se han debido d una combinaci6n de las 
ra7.as mds excelentes d juicio suyo de carneros espaftoles y 
americanos. 

[Continiia.] 



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346 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

CONSULAR AND OTHER FEES 



CHARGED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY THE CONSULS OF THE LATIN AMER- 
ICAN REPUBLICS. 



One of the most cherished aims of the International Amer- 
ican Conference, which held its first meeting at Washington 
on the 2d of October, 1889, and terminated its labors on 
the 1 8th of April, 1890, was the unification not only of the 
port charges, such as pilotage, wharfage, lighthouse, etc., 
collectable in the different independent nations of America, 
but also of the consular fees and dues chargeable in all ports 
of the New World in matters of commerce and navigation. 

Two sets of recommendations were then adopted : One re- 
lating to Port Dues and the other to Consular Fees. Although 
they were submitted to the respective Governments, with 
proper support by the Executive*, no action has as yet 
been taken. 

The recommendations were as follows : 

ON PORT DUES. 

First. That all port dues be merged in a single one, to be known as 
tonnage dues. 

Second. That this one charge shall be assessed upon the n^ross ton- 
nage, or, in other words, upon the total carrying capacity of the vessel. 

Third. That each Government fix for itselt the amount to be charged 
as tonnage dues, but with due regard to the general policy of the Con- 
ference upon the subject, which is to facilitate and favor navigation. 

Fourth. That there be excepted from the provision of Article i the 
dues charged or to be charged under unexpired contracts with private 
companies. 

Fi(\h. That the following shall be exempt from tonnage dues : 

1. Transports and vessels of war. 

2. Vessels of less than 25 tons. 

*The President of the United States transmitted to Cong^ress the recommeodatioos 
of the Conference by a special message, dated July 14, 1890. See Ex. Doc. No. 18a 
Senate, sist Congress, ist session. 



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CONSULAR AND OTHER FEES. 347 

3. Vessels which by any unforeseen and irresistible cause shall be 
compelled to put into port, deviating from their course. 

4. Yachts and other pleasure boats. 

ON CONSUI^AR FSBS. 

That the Governments represented in the Conference be recom- 
mended to prepare a uniform classification of the acts requiring the 
intervention of consular agents, fixing the maximum fees which should 
properly attach to each one of such acts, especially those relating to 
commerce and navigation. 

MEXICO. 

Mexican consuls in the United States of America are not 
allowed by their Government to charge other dues or fees 
in matters relating to commerce and navigation than the 
following : 
Consular Manifest: 

For vessel carrying a cargo of merchandise $10 00 

For vessel cleared in ballast 4 00 

Certificate to bill of health, for each certificate 2 00 

Certificate to power of attorney, for each signature authen- 
ticated 4 00 

Invoice Fees as follows: 
Invoices from — 

$1 to $100 in value $2 00 

100 to 1,000 ** 4 00 

1,000 to 1,500 ** 500 

1.500 to 2,000 ** 6 00 

2,000 to 2,500 ** 7 00 

2,500 to 3,000 •* 800 

3,000 to 3,500 ** 9 00 

3,500 to 4,000 ** 10 00 

4,000 to^ 4,500 ** II 00 

4,500 to 5,000 ** 1200 

5.000 to 5,500 '* 13 00 

5,500 to 6,000 " 14 00 

6,ooo to 6,500 ** 15 00 

6,500 to 7,000 ** 16 00 

7,000 to 7,500 " 17 00 

7,500 to 8,000 " 18 00 

8,000 to 8,500 '* 19 00 

8,500 to 9,000 ** 2000 

9,000 to 9,500 ** 21 GO 

9.500 lO 10,000 ** 22 00 

10,000 to 10,500 ** 23 00 



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348 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

Invoice V^^s— Continued. 
Invoices from — 

10,500 to 11,000 *' 24 00 

11,000 to 11,500 ** 25 00 

11,500 to 12,000 ** 26 00 

12,000 to 12,500 ** 27 CO 

12,500 to 13,000 ** 28 00 

13,000 to 13,500 '* 2900 

i3»50o to 14,000 ** .* 30 00 

14,000 to 14,500 ** ... 31 00 

14,500 to 15,000 ** 32 00 

15,000 to 20,000 " 42 00 

20,000 to 25,000 " 52 00 

25,000 to 30,000 '* 62 00 

30,000 to 35,000 ** 72 00 

35,000 to 40,000 ** 82 00 

40,000 to 45,000 ** 9200 

45,000 to 50,000 '* loi 00 

For every $1,000 in excess of $50,000, $1.00 for each $500.00. 

"Tonnage Dues'* and "Custom-house Clearances*' are 
paid in Mexico at the respective Custom-houses. 

Mexican consuls do not issue any bills of health, and 
content themselves with affixing a certificate to the bill given 
by the health officers of the port. 

Bills of lading do not require any certification by Mexican 
consuls. 

GUATEMAI.A. 

The consuls of Guatemala in the United States of America 
do not charge anything under the head of tonnage dues, 
custom-house clearances, or certification to custom-house bill 
of health. But the following dues and fees are to be paid 
them, namely : 

Consular manifest. $10 00 

Consular bill of health 2 50 

Invoice fees as follows :— 

On invoices amounting to less than $100 $2 50 

On invoices from $100 to $500 3 50 

On invoices from $500 to $1,000 5 00 

On invoices from $r,ooo to $3,000 6 00 

On invoices from $3,000 to $6,000 6 50 

On every additional $1,000 over J6, 000 50 



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CONSUI.A.R AND OTHER FEES. 349 

In case of fraud an additional charge will be made, over 
and above the regular consular fees, of $5.00 for each invoice. 

According to Article 48 of the Consular Regulations of 
the Republic of Guatemala, whenever the consul has any 
doubt as to the truth of the statements of an invoice, he has 
authority to demand that the original bills shall be appended 
to the invoice. 

It must be remembered that the Guatemalan consuls do 
not certify any invoice which is not made in exact accord- 
ance with the form or model provided for by their Govern- 
ment, and which can be examined at the consulates. 

In addition to the invoice fees, the fee of $1.00 is charged 
for each bill of lading accompanying the invoice. 

No charge is made for certification of one copy of the 
invoice. 

Civil Registration fee, $1.00. 

HONDURAS. 
The port dues and charges, or fees, paid to the consuls of 
Honduras in the United States, are the following: 

TonaRe fee None. 

Custom-house manifest, each port I5 00 

Consular manifest None. 

Invoices (only required ou shipments of arms and am- 
munition) 2 00 

Custom-house bill of health 2 50 

Consular bill of health. None. 

Bill of lading (only required on shipments of arms) No charge. 

Certifying signature 4 00 

SALrVADOR. 

The consuls of Salvador in the United States are author- 
ized to charge, under Article 122 of the Law regulating the 
Diplomatic and Consular Service of Salvador, the follow- 
ing fees: 

For each sailing license , $2 00 

For visaing clearance or any other papers of the ship 50 

For receiving in custody the papers of all Salvadorian vessels of 

over 150 tons burden, as provided by law 2 00 

For receiving in custody the papers of all Salvadorian vessels of 

less than 150 tons burden i 00 



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350 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

For certificate of inspection of cargo of vessels, etc 2 00 

For authenticating protests and declarations of the masters of 

the vessels 2 00 

If testimony is taken, for authorising the deposition of each 

witness 50 

But if the deposition of the witness covers more than four pages, 

for each additional four pages i 00 

For each annotation on the crew list 50 

For each passport : i 00 

For each certificate of life i 00 

For visaing passport 50 

For each legalization of documents i 00 

For consular manifest 2 00 

For consular bill of health 2 00 

For invoices 250 

For poweis of attorney 3 00 

NICARAGUA. 

The charges made by the consuls of Nicaragua in the 
United States are as follows: 

'Tonnage fee for each vessel of less than 50 tons $0 50 

Tonnage fee for each vessel of less than 150 tons i 00 

Tonnage fee for each vessel of more than 150 tons 2 00 

Custom-house manifest, irrespective of amount or number 

of pages 4 00 

Consular manifest 200 

Invoices, irrespective of amount i 00 

Custom-house, bill of health 2 00 

Consular bill of health 2 00 

Bill of lading No charge- 

Certifying signature, 50 cents; if notary 100 

Passport I 00 

COSTA RICA. 

[From the Cosla Rican Consular Tariif, Section 3d, Articles 24 to 51 of the Consalir 

Regulations.] 

For the clearance by the consulate of any sailing or steam 
vessel, at a port wherein it has wholly or in part discharged 
or taken on cargo, except in the case provided in the follow- 
ing article, 5 cents per ton. ' 

For the clearance by the consulate of any sailing or steam 
vessel, at a port at which the ves.sel touches only to do 
some particular commercial operation, as follows ; (i) If the 



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CONSULAR AND OTHER FEES. 351 

vessel has paid the full fee above provided, at one consulate, 
it will only be required to pay at each of the other ports of 
the consular district, one-half of that fee, for each ton, 
23^ cents. (2) This reduction shall be made whenever there 
is a whole or a partial discharge or taking on of cargo at an 
intermediate port on the voyage. 

For the clearance by the consulate of any sailing or steam 
vessel, at a port out of the regular line of travel, at which 
the vessel touches, either voluntarily or in distress, without 
landing or taking on passengers or freight, if the vessel 
remains in port for more than 24 hours, as follows : 

Vessels not exceeding 100 tons burden, $2.00. 

From 100 to 300 tons, $3.00. 

Over 300 tons, J5.00. 

If the vessel remains in port less than 24 hours the fee 
will be reduced one-half, in each of the following cases : 

For the clearance at the consulate of a packet steamer 
plying regularly between two ports. 

At a port at the end of the line, per ton, 2 cents. 

At any intermediate port, per ton, i cent. 

For the dismantling, fitting or refitting of a sail or steam 
vessel, for each ton, 5 cents. 

For every entry of discharge or shipping on the crew list, 
or of the shipping or landing passengers, or for any other 
entry which may be necessary on said list, for each entry, 
50 cents* 

For making and delivering the list of the crew, I2.00. 

For certificates of visit and inspection of a vessel, its cargo, 
-etc., J2.00. 

For attesting any record of proceedings relating to repairs 
in the vessel, preservation of the cargo, etc., in case of arrival 
in distress, for each attestation, 5 cents. 

For attesting a charter-party, $2.00. 

For settling and certifying questions regarding wages of 
the members of the crew, $1.00. 

For settling questions regarding passage fares, $1.00. 

For the substitution of the master or captain of a vessel : 



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352 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

If the vessel is of less than loo tons burden, li.oo; if over 
100 tons, $2.00. 

For provisional sailing license {pasavante), enabling a 
vessel to sail under Costa Rican flag on its voyage to the 
Costa Rican port, where the vessel must be registered : If 
the vessel is of less than 100 tons burden, $10.00; if over. 
100 tons, $20.00. 

For maritime protests, or extraordinary declarations, 
entered or made before the consul by the master of a vessel 
on his arrival at a foreign port, regarding incidents of the 
voyage, $2.00. 

If any declarations of the members of the crew, or of 
other individuals on board the vessel, are to be taken, 50 
cents for each declaration. 

If the written declaration fills more than one page, one 
additional dollar shall be charged for each page. 

For certificates in cases of a change of flag, withdrawal of 
papers, etc., $10.00. 

For any ruling which the consul may make in approving 
the distribution of damages, or declaring the advisability of 
bottomry bonds, abandonment of the vessel, etc., $5.00. 

For attesting bottomry bonds, or maritime insurance poli- 
cies, $4.00, and one-half of i per cent on the amount of either 
the bond or the policy if it is less than $4,000, and one-fourth 
of I per cent if the amount exceeds $4,000. 

For intervening in the sale of damaged or perishable mer- 
chandise, one-half of i per cent on the value. 

For assistance in case of wrecking of a Costa Rican vessel, 
or any other accident which may befall it, besides the 
expenses of the trip, $5.00 per day. 

For replacing, in case of loss, the log book, the bill of 
health, or the list of the crew, $5.00. 

For certifying to inventory of cargo (sobordo)^ bills of 
health, passports of passengers of a steamer or sailing vessel 
not Costa Rican, 2 cents per ton, if the certificate is made at 
the original port of departure. If the certificate is made 
at any other port at which the vessel may touch to take 
freight, i cent per ton. 



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CONSULAR AND OTHER FEES. 353 

For certifying to a special inventory (sobordo) of merchan- 
dise to be transshipped, in a foreign port to Costa Rica, I5.00. 

For certifying to a special inventory (sobordo) of a vessel 
to which the merchandise has been transshipped, $2.50. 

For certifying to invoices, each copy 70 cents. 

For any other authentication or certification not mentioned 
in this section, and which the consul should issue in the dis- 
charge of his duties in connection with Costa Rican vessels, 
$1.00 each. 

For a short or a full copy of any record or document con- 
cerning navigation, li.oo per page. 

COLOMBIA. 

The consuls of Colombia in the United States of America 
do not charge anything under the heads of tonnage dues, con- 
sular manifest, consular bill of health, or bill of lading. 

Merchant consular invoices take the place of consular man- 
ifests. 

Total clearance charges, on vessels of all siises, including 
custom-house clearance, $20.00, and custom-house bill of 
health I2.00, amount to $22.00. 

The i^^s for certifying powers of attorney, I2.00 each. 

The invoice fees are as follows : i 

Six invoices, of one to four packages of merchandise, 
$4.00 each invoice, $24.00. 

Forty invoices of five packages of merchandise and up- 
wards, $8.00 each, $320.00. 

VENEZUELA. 

The consuls of Venezuela in the United States of America 
do not charge anything under the heads of tonnage dues, con- 
sular manifests, or consular bill of health. They charge the 
following : 

Custom-house clearances, $6.00. 

Vis^ to custom-house bill of health, $2.60. 

Bills of lading, in number of forty -six, at $2,00 each, $92.00. 

Invoices, forty -six in number, as follows : 

Four invoices, to the value of from $1,600 to $3,200 $3.00 
each, $12.00. 



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35 4 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Thirty invoices, to the value of from ^3,200 to ^4,800, 

^4.00 each, ^120.00. 

Twelve invoices to the value of upwards of ^4,800, at $6.00 

-each, $72.00. 

ECUADOR. 

The consuls of Ecuador in the United States of America 
<io not charge anything under the heads of Custom-house 
clearances or bill of lading. They collect the following: 

Tonage dues, per each registered ton, i cent. 

Consular manifest, per each registered ton, i cent. 

Custom-house bill of health, $2.00. 

Consular bill of health, $2.00. 

Certificate to power of attorney, $2.00. 

Invoices as follows : 

On total value of invoices not exceeding $200 in value, 
$1.00. 

On total value of invoices from $200 to $500 in value, 
$2.00. 

On total value of invoices from $500 to j5 1,000 in value, 
$4.00. 

And 50 cents more for each $1,000, or fraction thereof, 

in excess. 

PERU. 

The consuls of Peru in the United States of America do 
not charge anything under the heads of custom-house clear- 
ances, consular manitest, or consular bill of liealth. Their 
charges are as follows : 

Tonnage dues, at the rate of 2 cents per ton net registered. 

Visd to custom-house bill of health, $3.00. 

Invoices as follows: 

Ten invoices to a value not exceeding $50.00, at the rate 
•of $1.00 each, $10.00. 

Ten invoices of value from $50 to $100, at the rate of $2.00 
each, $20.00. 

Ten invoices of value from $100 to $500, at the rate of 
$4.00 each, $40.00. 

Ten invoices of value from $500 to $1,000, at the rate of 
^6.00 each, $60.00. 



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CONSULAR AND OTHER FEES. 355 

Three invoices of val^e from 1 1,000 to 1 1,100, at the rate 
of 16. 20 each, $18.60. 

Four invoices of value from ji,ioo to $1,400, at the rate 
of 16. 80 each, $27.20. 

Certificate to powers of attorney or authentication of any 

signature, $3.00. 

BOUVIA. 

The Bolivian consuls in the United States of America do 
not make any charges under the heads of tonnage dues, con- 
sular manifest, bill of health, or bill of lading. 

They charge $4.00 for each invoice, and from $3.00 to- 
$4.00 for each power of attorney, according to the time 
given for its preparation. 

CHILE. 

The consuls of Chile in the United States of America do- 
not make 'any charges under the heads of tonnage dues, con- 
sular bill of health, bill of lading, invoices, or consular 
manifests. The charges made by them are as follows: 

Custom-house bill of health, $100. 

Certificate to power of attorney, $2.00. 

Authentication of signature, $2.00. 

BRAZIL. 
The following are the legal charges made in the Braziliaui 
consulates in the United States, as elsewhere, for the clear- 
ance of vessels, issuing and visaing passports and other doc- 
uments : 

Tonnage does, 500 tons, per ton $0.0546 

500 to 3,000 tons, per ton 00054. 

Custom-house clearances, vis6...' 1.638 

Certificates of vessels in ballast 6.552 

Crew list, vis^ i 638 

Castom-house bill of health, vis6 2.73 

Consular bill of health, in ports where there is no official to 

issue such 5.46 

Legalizing consular invoices, each 2.73 

Vis< of bills of lading, each o 546 

Any certificate, per page, or part of page 1.092 

Passports, not required, but issued by request 3- 276 

Vis€ of passport , i.63S^ 



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356 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

The consuls of the Argentine Republic in the United 
States of America do not make any charges under the heads 
of consular manifests, consular bills of health, or invoices. 
Their charges are as follows : 

Tonnage dues, per ton, 2 cents. 

Custom-house clearance, $4.00. 

Yis6 Custom-house bill of health, J2.00. 

One hundred and twelve bills of lading at $2.00 each, 
^224.00. 

Certificate to a power of attorney, I2.00. 

Drawing a general power of attorney, J8.00. 

Drawing a special power of attorney, I5.00. 

URUGUAY. 

The following is the full schedule of fees charged at the 
consular offices of Uruguay in foreign countries : 

For recording and visaing a vessel's manifest, per each 50 
tons, official measurement, $1.50. 

(No charge for anything in excess of 500 tons.) 

For recording and visaing the manifest of a vessel touching^ 
at more than one port, consuls residing at intermediate ports 
shall charge a single fee of ^5.00. 

For authenticating a bill of health or issuing one, ;?2.oo. 

For certifying to the clearance of a vessel in ballast, I2.00. 

For extending the sailing license of a national vessel, 
$3-oo. 

For provisional sailing license (pasavante) whenever there- 
unto authorized, I6.00. 

For reissuing sailing license, certifying to the same, and 
returning the canceled license, I3.00. 

For a new crew list, I2.00. 

For making changes in the crew list, li.oo. 

For witnessing the inventory of a vessel, for every six 
hours, $8. 00. 

For inspecting a vessel, J 6.00. 

For each order of inspection and survey of a vessel, $2.00. 



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CONSULAR AND OTHER FEES. 357 

For the sale of a national vessel in foreign ports, 4 per 
cent. 

For assessing, adjusting and distributing the shares of a 
vessel and cargo in case of damages (avend genera) ^ 2 per 
cent. 

For attending an auction sale, for every account which the 
consul may approve, valuation and adjustment of simple 
damages (avends simples), personal attendance in case of ship- 
wreck, or any other, per hour, $1.00. 

For receiving in custody ship's papers, $2.00. 

For each arbitration, 1 10.00. 

For attesting or canceling a charter party, J6.00. 

For drawing a will, $10.00. 

For opening a sealed will, S6.00. ' 

For custody of a will, $4.00. 

For making inventories, $4.00. 

For translating any letter, account or document', per page, 
$z 00. 

For recording any interest, capital, partnership, mortgage, 
or any other contract between parties, $10.00. 

For attesting any instrument of deposit, receipt, quit-claim, 
etc., $2.00. 

For each entry of approval of accounts, J 2. 00. 

For drawing and authenticating powers of attorney, $4.00. 

For taking the deposition of a witness, or an expert, $2.00. 

For drawing and recording a protest or declaration, $4.00. 

For certifiying to the above, $2.00. 

For each order or permit issued by the consular agent, 
$1.00. 

For recording and issuing certificate of citizenship, birth, 
<leath, life, residence, origin of goods and other like instru- 
ments, $2.00. 

For authenticating the signature of any document, $1.00. 

For proving and verifying signature, I3.00. 

For each passport, whenever authorized, $2.60. 

For sealing and visaing a passport at the request;of bearer, 
^1.00. 



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35S BUREAU OF THK AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

For every entry, return, or act not mentioned in this 
schedule, $4.00. 

For copy of any document, entry or return, per page, 50 
cents. 

In order to expedite the movements of vessels carrying: 
the national flag, it is ordered that the consular fees which 
should be paid at the time of clearance for ports of the- 
Republic, as prescribed by the foregoing schedule, shall be 
reduced to them 50 per cent. 



BRAZIL. 



From the ofiicial text of the address of President Prudente 
de Moraes, delivered on the occasion of his inauguration,. 
November 15, 1894, a few extracts are given, indicating the 
policy of the Executive. 

The new President is the first to be elected to that high 
office by the vote of the people of Brazil — his two prede- 
cessors, Fons6ca and Peixoto, having been chosen by the 
vote of the National Convention. 

The Republic is then firmly seated in the national conscience, so- 
dseply rooted that it can never hereafter be shaken. 

The adversaries of the new institutions must be now undeceived. 
Moored by the strong anchor of federation, the Republic will resist all 
the storms which may be let loose against it, however strong and 
violent. 

Within the sphere of my constitutional powers P shall spare no effort 
to accomplish the realization of this hope, guided by the following rules 
and principles : 

The faithful observance of the free and democratic form of govern- 
ment adopted in the Constitution of the 24th of February, strengthening 
and upholding with scrupulous care the autonomy of the States in 
harmony with the national sovereignty and the independent and 
mutual respect of the powers set up as organs of that sovereignty. 
Respect for the exercise of all constitutional liberties, and guarantees 
maintaining concurrently and emphatically obedience to the law and 



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BRAZIL. 359 

the prestige of the constituted authorities, as conditions necessary to 
the maintenance of order and progress. 

The administration of the public funds with the utmost care, in the 
collection and employment of the revenues and with the severest and 
most persevering economy, reducing the expenditures to balance with 
the rceeipts and extinguishing the deficit in the budget. 

Punctuality in the payment of the successive debts which, for many 
years handed down from generation to generation as an ever-inci eas- 
ing inheritance, have become a heavy burden, and gradual resumption 
of the currency so as to raise it from its present state of depreciation. 

Encouragement to private enterprise in the development of agricul. 
tare and manufactures and the introduction of immigrants, to explore 
the inexhaustible riches of our vast territory, peopling it with their 
numbers and rendering it fertile with their toil. 

Complete guarantees for full liberty of suffrage— the fundamental 
basis of a representative democracy. 

The maintenance of order and quiet in the interior and of peace with 
foreign nations, without sacrifice of our dignity or our rights, and cul- 
tivating and extending our relations with friendly nations. 



The South American Journal, of December 15, speaking of 
Brazilian affairs, says : ^ 

Our advices from Brazil continue to be most satisfactory. The coun- 
try is settling down to business, and the new President is unremitting 
in his earnest efforts to promote the recuperation of its great natural 
resources. In finances economy is the order of the day. 

26 BUI* 



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360 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



MEXICO. 



Writing of the resources of the State of Tamaulipas a 
correspondent of the Two Republics has this to say in the issue 
of that paper of December 15 : 

CLIMATE. 

The climate of the State is very equable. The seasons are regular. 
They do not have extreme heat, and the winters are more like spring 
weather in Northern States. They seldom have any frost — never 
enough to damage the crops. There is not a day in the year but what 
they are plowing, planting and reaping along the line of the Monterey 
and Mexican Gulf railway, from Monterey to Tampico. 

TA.MPICO NOTES 

The Johnston Steamship Company has three steamers running 
between Tampico, Baltimore and New York. They make three trips 
per month. 

In additioa to it there are three other steamship lines, one of whose 
steamers come and leave twice a week and make connection going and 
coming at Tuxpan, Vera Crux. Progreso, Havana, Key West, Balti- 
more, New York, St. Johns, New Brunswick, and all the princ'.pal ports 
on the continent of Europe. In addition to the above there are a 
number of oc^^an ships and coast steamers and schooners that arrive 
and clear daily, all laden with goods consigned for points on the line 
of the Monterey and Mexican Gulf railway, and they carry out with 
them the products of this country. 

WATER ON THE BAR. 

Ever since the jetties were completed twenty months ago, the depth 
of water on the bar has been from twenty -two to twenty -four feet, at 
no time has it been less than twenty -two feet. Hence the largest ships 
that now cross the Atlantic or plow the ocean wave can cross that bar 
and come up to the Tampico wharves without the aid of lighters or 
towboats. 



FLAX CULTURE. 

The experiments made in flax culture in the State of Mor- 
ales by Mr. J. Hamer are giving good results, says the Mex- 
ican Financier. 



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MEXICO. 361 

Some twenty acres were planted, care being taken to vary 
the soil and make the trial as vigorously scientific as pos- 
sible. 

Probably no such thorough and systematic experiments in 
flax culture have ever been made in the Republic. 

Samples resulting from these experiments have been pre- 
sented to experts in this form of husbandry, and pronounced 
by them as being of a superior quality. 



It is reported that a syndicate composed of Chicago busi- 
ness men has recently purchased a body of land in the State 
of Oaxaca amounting to 93,000 hectares (232,500 acres, 
about). 

It is proposed to enter upon the cultivation of the rubber 
tree on a large scale. The Federal Government offers a 
bonus of 4 cents per tree, and the State Government an 
additional bonus of i cent for every tree planted. 

These lands lie near the Pacific Coast convenient to the 
port of Salina Cruz, the western terminus of the Tehuante- 
pec railway, and are rich in the production of tropical 
fruits, cabinet and dye woods, coffee, cocoa, sugar cane, 
indigo, etc. 



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362 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



HONDURAS. 



CENTRAL AMERICAN EXPOSITION IN 1896. 

On the 2 2d of February, 1896, there will be opened in 
Tegucigalpa, Honduras, a Central American Exposition. 
The following rules and regulations have been adopted to 
govern exhibit orders : 

' RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

1. The Exhibition will consist of the products, manufac- 
tures and works of art of Honduras, and also the works of 
art, machinery, and industrial and agricultural products of 
Central America and of the United States of North America. 

2. The management of the Exhibition shall be in charge 
of a Director-General and three Commissioners, who shall 
have full powers to act on everything relating both to its 
organization and to the transaction of its business. 

3. The Director-General, with the advice and consent of 
such judges as may be appointed by the Commissioners^ 
shall bestow three medals and a certificate, or diploma, on 
each one of the classified groups; as follows: 

A First Class silver medal, carrying with it the privilege, 
for the period of two years to be counted from the date of the 
award, of a discount of 50 per cent on the custom duties 
levied on all articles of the premiumed class which may be 
imported into Honduras by the awardee. 

A Second Class white bronze medal, carrying with it the 
privilege, for the period of eighteen months to be counted 
from the date of the award, of a discount of 33 per cent on 
the custom duties levied on all articles of the premiumed 
class, which may be imported into Honduras by the awardee. 

A Third Class bronze medal, carrying with it the privilege, 
for the period of one year to be counted from the date of the 
award, of a discount of 25 per cent, of the custom duties 



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HONDURAS. 363 

levied on all articles of the premiumed class which may be 
imported into Honduras by the awardee. 

4. The Exhibition shall be held in appropriate buildings 
constructed to that effect, at a convenient distance from the 
Honduras railroad, on the ground set apart by the Govern- 
ment. 

5. The Exhibition shall be opened on the 226. day of Feb- 
raary, 1896, and shall last for at least three months. 

6. In order to secure uniform action in the management of 
the Exhibition, each country shall be requested to appoint at 
least one Commissioner, with the following powers and 
duties : 

(a). To distribute copies of the rules and regulations of the 
Exhibition, blanks of application for space, etc., among all 
those who in their opinion may desire to be exhibitors. 

(d). To receive the applications, lists of articles to be ex- 
hibited and other documents coming from the exhibitors of 
their respective countries. 

(c). To communicate with the Director-General on all sub- 
jects relating to the Exhibition, and submit to him from time 
to time the applications for space. 

{d). T«> divide the space allotted to each country among 
the exhibitors of the same. 

7. All the expenses incurred in consequence of the repre- 
sentation of a country, which shall not be met or covered by 
the authorities of the same country, shall be payable by the 
exhibitors themselves. 

8. The Director-General shall give to each Commissioner 
and to the exhibitors, before September i, 1895, information 
of the space set apart or allotted to them. 

9. The application for space shall be made in the manner 
and form set forth in the blanks, which shall be duly prepared 
and printed; and all the said applications shall be in the 
hands of the Director-General before the ist of January, 
1896. 

10. The exhibits shall begin to be admitted on September 
I, 1895 ; and any space not actually occupied by an exhibitor 
on February i, 1896, shall fall again under the control of the 



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364 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

Director-General, who shall dispose of it as he may deem 
proper. 

11. All the articles sent to the Exhibition shall be classi- 
fied as follows : 

Group First Food and its accessories. 

Group Second Forests and the products thereof. 

Group Third Horticulture. 

Group Fourth Viticulture. 

Group Fifth Pomology. 

Group Sixth Horses and mules. 

Group Seventh Neat cattle and sheep. 

Group Eighth Other animals used for alimentary purposes. 

Group Ninth :... Fishes and their products. 

Group Tenth Mines and metallurgy. 

Group Eleventh Machinery. 

Group Twelfth Transportation. 

Group Thirteenth Electricity. 

Group Fourteenth Manufactured articles. 

Group Fifteenth Liberal arts. 

Group Sixteenth Fine arts. 

Group Seventeenth Government exhibits. 

12. All bundles or packages containing articles to be ex- 
hibited, sent from any place in Honduras, shall be marked 
"Central American Exhibition,'* and be accompanied with 
the statement of the name of the exhibitor and an itemized 
list of the contents. 

13. Bundles and packages coming from any foreign country 
shall be sent addressed to the Director-General of the Central 
American Exhibition, and must have the name and address 
of the exhibitor plainly marked on the outside cover. Inside 
the bundle or package there must be an itemized invoice, 
made in triplicate, giving the price of each one of the exhib- 
ited articles. One of the three copies shall remain on file at 
the ofl&ce of the Director-General, another shall be left to- 
gether with the merchandise, and the third one shall be given 
to the consignor. 

14. Each article shall bear a card or label giving the name 
and address of the exhibitor. 

15. The Director-General and his assistants shall attend to 
the unpacking and proper installation of the exhibits, and at 



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HONDURAS. 365 

the end of the Exhibition they shall see also that they be 
packed up and forwarded to their respective owners. 

16. All Hondurean exhibits shall be received and taken 
care of by a special committee, appointed for that purpose ; 
but each exhibitor maybe permitted, if he so wishes, to 
attend themselves to the receiving, unpacking, installing, 
and removing in the end their own articles, either personally 
or through some agent, Wt always under the inspection of 
the Director-General. 

17. Information may be obtained from the Director-General 
in regard to the renting of stands for the sale of some articles. 

18. No exhibitor shall be allowed to transfer to any other 
person the space or stand granted to him, or to sell, without 
any special permission, other articles than those duly ad- 
mitted belonging to him. 

19. The exhibitors shall affix to each article a card stating 
for the information of the public, the price of the same 
article. 

20. No article sold at the Exhibition shall be removed 
therefrom, unless by special permission, before the Exhibi- 
tion is closed. Special arrangements shall be made for 
perishable articles. 

21. Steam, water, gas, or electric power shall be furnished, 
at small expense, to all the exhibitors who may apply for it ; 
but the exhibitor shall state in his application the amount of 
force and velocity which they desire to have at their dis- 
posal. The exhibitors shall furnish at their own expense the 
pulleys, belts and bands which may be required. 

22. The Director-General and the Commissioners reserve 
the right to decide about the advisability of admitting an 
article sent to the Exhibition, or of refusing to admit it, if 
in their opinion the said article is in any manner dangerous 
or objectionable. 

23. Neither the Director-General nor the Commissioners 
shall be held responsible for any loss which for whatever 
.cause may occur in the Exhibition; but all possible precau- 
tion shall be taken to protect the property of the exhibitors. 

24. All foreign articles imported into Honduras through a 



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366 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

port of entry, for the purpose of being exhibited at the 
Exhibition, shall be permitted to be taken directly to the 
Exhibition buildings, under such vigilance and with such 
precautions as the custom-house authorities may deem ad- 
visable, but without being subject to any examination or 
•search at the port itself. At the close of the Exhibition the 
same articles may be permitted to be sent in the same way 
to the port from which they are to be exported. All articles of 
all classes, which may be imported into Honduras to be either 
^exhibited or used at the Exhibition, and those which maybe 
introduced by the exhibitors for their own personal use and 
not for sale, shall be admitted free of duty, provided that the 
importer thereof shall prove by a certificate of the Director- 
General and the Commissioners that he is entitled to this 
privilege. 

But no article which has been sold at the Exhibition shall 
be permitted to leave the buildings or grounds thereof until 
it has paid such duties as may be levied upon it by the tariff 
law. Both the seller and the purchaser shall be provided 
with the legal documents necessary to facilitate these trans- 
actions. 

25. All the exhibited articles shall be withdrawn and re- 
moved from the buildings and grounds within one month sub- 
sequent to the close of the Exhibition, excepting, however, 
those which maybe there under the special care of the Director- 
General and the Commissioners. Such articles of merchandise 
as may remain in the Exhibition after the lapse of one month, 
as above stated, shall be sold by the Commission to meet the 
expenses. 

26. Every exhibitor, by the mere fact of taking part in the 
Exhibition, becomes bound to comply with the rules and reg- 
ulations enacted for the government of the same. 

27. The Commissioners and the Director-General reser\'e 
the right of supplementing, amending, revising or repealing 
any section or article in the present Rules and Regulations, 
and of deciding such questions as may arise in regard to 
which no provision is made by the same. 



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URUGUAY. 



367 



URUGUAY. 



The Montevideo Times of November 7 contains a lengthy 
review of the commercial conditions now existing in Uruguay, 
based upon the customs receipts of the country during the first 
ten months of the current year, as compared with those of 
the three preceding years. 

From the article referred to the following extract is taken : 

The year is now so far advanced that we may make some profitable 
comparisons as to the economical progress of the country. The first 
thing to which we naturally turn for such a purpose is the customs 
revenue. The following table gives the custom-house receipts for the 
first ten months of the current and past years (cents omitted) : 



1893. 



1894. 



January I767.675 

February , 744f003 



Man:h.. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October 



821,610 
873.430 
732,943 
670,72') 

637.644 
772,500 
788,225 
761,628 



Total I 7,570,384 



$924,716 
910,922 
1.053,068 
1,007,392 
862,115 
785.011 
730,636 
884,415 
810,343 
864,949 



8,833,567 



In favor of 1894 11,263,183 

Monthly average, 1893 757,038 

Monthly average, 1894 883,356 

When we remember that the worst period of the crisis had already 
passed in 1893 these figures give a reassuring and unmistakable proof 
of business recovery, and this is made still more evident by the follow- 
ing comparison of customs revenue : 

1891, twelve months $8,655,834 

1892, twelve montbs 8.634,547 

^893, twelve months * 8,967,000 

i8g4^ ten months 8,833,567 

We thus see that the ten months of 18^4 have produced more than 



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368 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the twelve months of 1891 and of 1892, and almost as much as those of 
1893. In fact, the monthly average for the current year promises to be 
very little short of the monthly average for 1889 (1900,900) which was 
the height of the **boom," and the year in which the custom receipts 
of the Republic reached the highest figure yet recorded. This is an 
easily verified statement, though it is possibly even startling to those 
who still maintain the impression that we are suffering from severe 
business depression . So far as the custom-house receipts afford a guide 
this is not the case, but, on the contrary, they tend to show that the 
current year is, if anything, an improvement on the normal le^el. 

AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITION. 

The Rural Association of Uruguay, with the co-operation 
of the Government of the Republic, will hold an Agricultural 
Exhibition in the city of Montevideo from March i to March 

31, 1895- 

The Exhibition will be divided into three sections, viz.: 

First — Live stock and poultry, and their products. 

Second — Agricultural machinery and implements of all 
kinds. 

Third — Agricultural products. 

Of these three sections the ^ second alone will be interna- 
tional, the remaining two being reserved exclusively for 
native exhibitors. 

Thoroughbred horses, cattle and pure-bred sheep, bred 
abroad, may, however, be exhibited, provided the owners are 
domiciled in the country. 

The Rural Association will use its good offices with the 
Executive to obtain the admission free of duty of articles sent 
from abroad for exhibition, on the condition that should any- 
such articles be sold in the country the duty shall be paid. 

Applications for space must be made by December 31 
instant, addressed to the managing committee. 

Forms for making such application may be obtained from 
the officers of the Rural Association of Uruguay, at Monte- 
video. 



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CHILE. 369 



CHILE. 



The following communicatioa from the United States Sec- 
retary of Legation at Santiago, Chile, gives particulars of 
of the opening of the Chilean Mining and Metallurgical Ex- 
position : 

No. 164. LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Santiago, October 29, 1894. 
Honorable W. Q. Gresham, 

Secretary 0/ State ^ Washington, D, C, 

Sir : After several postponements, the Chilean National Mininji; and 
Metallurgical Exposition was opened yesterday with formal and im- 
posing ceremonies, in which the President of the Republic and the 
principal functionaries of the State, civil and military, assisted. 

The attendance was large, estimated at 20,000 persons, and the pro- 
gram announced for the opening was carried out in all its details. 

The number of exhibitors — more than 400 — is considerably in excess 
of that expected, and the building space yet provided is insufficient for 
the operation of the whole collection of machinery. Further erections 
will soon be completed, and in a couple of weeks the Exposition in all 
its mining features, embracing eij;ht sections, will be in full display. 

The value of the machinery exhibited is said to amount to more than 
15,000,000, Chilean currency. 

Next month there will be added agricultural and horticultural de- 
partments. Foreigners conversant with such matters, say the Exposi- 
tion is highly creditable, and the Chileans are flattered at the magni- 
tude to which the enterprise has grown and the success which has 
marked its inauguration. 

1 have the honor to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

[Signed] OwEN McGarr. 

THE COAL INDUSTRY IN CHILE. 

The Chilean Times of November 10 has a lengthy article 
on the above subject, from which may be summarized the 
following facts : 

The Chilean coal measures already explored extend from 
Coronel to Port Montt, embracing hundreds of square miles 



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370 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

in area. The mineral is found at easy depths in seams 
ranging from three to nine feet in thickness. These lands, 
with the coal privileges, are obtainable for a mere song by 
the additional payment of a trifling royalty of from lo to 20 
cents per ton for the coal removed. 

In the face of the fact that these fields are practically 
inexhaustable, and might easily be made to yield a supply of 
coal not only sufficient for the home demand, but also for 
that of the neighboring republics, the importation from 
abroad amounts to 50,000 tons monthly. 

With the coal easily accessible, and with the best and 
most reliable mining labor to be found in the world, the 
present total yearly output is not greater than that of 1880, 
and is, in fact, diminishing year by year. 

The difficulty of mining these coals is no greater than has 
been encountered and overcome in the great coal-producing 
countries elsewhere, such as Australia, New Zealand, etc. 

According to the article referred to above, '.he obstruction 
to this very important industry lies in the defective titles to 
the lands. To meet this difficulty it is understood that the 
Government has en proyecto a law known as the litre denuruio, 
which it is hoped will serve to protect investors against 
claimants holding doubtful title deeds. 



A new Chilean Cabinet has been formed, consisting exclu- 
sively of members of the Liberal party. 

The portfolios are distributed as follows : Seflor Ramon 
Borros Luco, Premier and Minister of the Interior; Senor 
Louis Barras Borgono, Minister of Foreign Affisiirs; Seftor 
Salustio Fernandez, Minister of Finance ; Seiior Fernandez 
Albano, Minister of Justice ; General Rivera Jofre, Minister 
of War. 



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GUATEMALA. 37 1 



GUATEMALA. 



As stated in the dispatch of Minister Young to the Depart- 
ment of State, given below, a new and advantageous contract 
has been negotiated between the Government of Guatemala 
and the Pacific Mail Steamship Company: 
No. 147. 

Legation of the United States, Guatemala and Honduras, 

Guatemala City, December 6, 1894. 
Hon. W. Q. Gresham, Secretary of State: 

Sir: I have the honor to inform you that a few weeks ago the con- 
tract Ijetween the Government of Guatemala and the Pacific Mail 
Steamship Company expired. 

The Guatemalan Government seemed disposed not to enter into 
another contract with the steamship company, but through the courte- 
ous, able, and energetic management of. the company's general agent, 
Mr. W. P. Tisdel, now here, a contract for five years has been negoti- 
ated and already signed by the Government of Guatemala and the 
Pacific Mail Steamship Company, by which the company enjoys greater 
powers and more extensive privileges than it has ever been able to 
obtain heretofore. 

This event is of great importance to the commerce between the 
United States and the Central American republics, since the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company has all the passenger and freight business 
between the United States and the republics of Central America on the 
Pacific. 

For more than a quarter of a century the Pacific company has done 
almost all the carrying trade between the United States and the 
republics on the Pacific Ocean, and much of the progress of these coun- 
tries during the last twenty-five years is due to this company. 

It is to be hoped that under the now vigorous management of this 
great corporation new impetus will be given to the commerce between 
the United States and the republics of Central America. 

I have the honor to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

[Signed] P. M. B. Young. 



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^72 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 



TRANSITORY TARIFF DECREE— TAKING EFFECT 
OCTOBER I, 1894. 

[ Translated from the Official Gazette, published at Santo Domini^o. September 24. 1894-] 

Ulises Heureaux, General of Division in Chief of the 
National Army, Pacificator of the Country and Constitutional 
President of the Republic, 

Considering, that exceptional circumstances of a purely 
moral character as well as others regarding administrative 
order, impose upon the Government the necessity of allow- 
ing a temporary provision for the purpose of reducing by 25 
per cent the tariff rates upon the importation of certain arti- 
cles of general consumption ; — and 

Considering, that these same considerations make it desir- 
able to admit free of import duties some articles of merchan- 
dise of prime necessity, as well as to establish a fixed duty 
upon others ; — and 

Having advised with the Council of Secretaries of State— 
Decrees : 

Article i. The following articles shall be allowed a reduc- 
tion of 25 per cent upon the appraisment : — 

Wheat flour, rice, lima beans, beans ordinary, peas, 
cheese in balls, cheese coihmon, lard, butter, herrings 
smoked and in pickle, salt fish, mackerel in barrels and 
half barrels, pork in pickle, common soap, potatoes, onions, 
garlic in strings, candles of composition, vermicelli of all 
kinds, and bacon. 



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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 373 

Article 2. There shall be exempt from all fiscal imposts 
the following articles : 

Beef in brine, dried beef, com meal. 

Also, declared free of all fiscal and municipal imposts : — 

Machinery for use in agricultural and industrial establish- 
ments. 

Plows, and all kinds of farming tools. 

Cross-ties of wood and steel for railroads, and all kinds of 
cars and rails for the same. 

Article 3. A fixed duty is established for the importation 
of the following articles of merchandise : 

Galvanized iron, per quintal $1 00 

Roman cement, per barrel, up to four quintals gross 60 

Firebrick, per 1,000.. 4 00 

Fireclay, per barrel ^25 

Screws, and strips of zinc, per quintal 2 00 

Brick for mason work and roofs, per 1,000 i 50 

Boards, planks and joists of pine, per 1,000 2 50 

Boards, planks and joists of pitchpine, per 1,000 4 00 

Shingles, or small boards for roofing, per 1,000 i 00 

Copper in sheets or bars, per quintal 5 00 

Copper, composition (sheathing, etc.) 2 50 

Nails of malleable iron and cast iron, per quintal i 00 

Hay, per quintal 25 

Slates and tiles for roofing, per 1,000 i 50 

Coal, per ton 2 00 

Nails of composition copper, per quintal 5 00 

Nails of zinc, per quintal 2 00 

Empty sacks, each 04 

Starch, per quintal 2 00 

Backets or pails of galvanized iron, per dozen 3 00 

Iron beds, ordinary, for one person, each 2 50 

Iron beds, ordinary large, each 4 00 

Iron beds, ordinary, of gilded metal, will pay according to the 

valuation 

Soap, sapolia, per quintal 4 00 

Soap, coco, per quintal 4 00 

Glass balls, per hundred 50 

Strainers of metal, per dozen i 00 

Safety pins, per 1,000 2 00 

Candy balls, per quintal 8 00 

Ginger ale, per dozen bottles 70 

Nipples for guns, pjr 1,000 ^ i 50 



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374 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Cases for revolvers, per dozen 4 00 

Rubber coats, common, per dozen 12 00 

Rubber coats, waterproof, fine, of other classes, per dozen 24 00 

Webbing for girths and belts, per yard 05 

Mineral water, per dozen bottles i 50 

Sweat bands, common, for hats, per dozen i 50 

Sweat bands, fine, for hats, per dozen 3 00 

Lining, common, for hats, per dozen i 50 

Lining, fine, for hats, per dozen 3 00 

Article 4. All articles which are imported as samples, if 
they are not made useless for consumption, shall be consid- 
ered as useful objects, and there shall consequently be paid 
thereon the duties provided by the tariff law in force upon 
importations, even in case of their being odd pieces if they 
belong to objects which are used in pairs, such as stockings 
and the like, etc. 

Article 5. The present decree is of transitory character, 
and its effects will nullify any other law, decree or provision 
which may be contrary thereto, and will take effect from the 
ist of October next. 

Given in the National Palace of Santo Domingo, capital of 
the Republic, on the 29th day of the month of September, 
1894, the fifty-first year of independence and the thirty-sec- 
ond of the restoration. 

U. HEUREAUX. 
Countersigned : 

The Minister of Hacienda and Commerce, 

RIVAS. 



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VENEZUELA. , 375 

VENEZUELA. 



THE ANGLO-VENEZUELAN COMMERCIAL BANK * 

[English and Spanish.] 

Letter of the President of the Republic, General Don 
Joaquin Crespo, to Sefior Don Feliciano Acevedo, while 
temporarily in charge of the Executive Power. 

Maracay. October 4, 1894. 
SeiJor Doctor Don Feliciano Acevedo, 

Etc., etc., etc., 

Caracas. 

Esteemed Friend : An address to the President of the 
Republic, signed by the members of the Chamber of Com- 
merce and by several merchants at your capital and at La 
Guayra, expressive of tht apprehensions felt by the commerce 
on account of the proposed establishment of the Anglo- 
Venezuelan Commercial Bank, has been circulated through 
the public press. It states positively that the impression 
produced in the country by the proposed establishment of the 
Bank above named has been deep and alarming. 

The signers of the address feel uneasy at the idea that by 
virtue of the fact that the Government is bound to receive 
in its collection offices the notes issued by that bank, the 
disastrous regime of paper money may be easily established. 

Such a wrong conclusion, which I shall ascribe to no other 
motive than excess of zeal, has been circulated through the 
newspapers in the different States, commented upon unfairly 
by the opponents of the situation, and turned into a cause of 
alarm, frightening the timorous, and furnishing a weapon to 
those who only long for some pretext to defame the author- 
ities. 

Moved by the respect to public opinion upon which the 

*The Act approved July 4, 1864, wnich is the banking law now in force in Venezuela, 
wa» published in English and Spanish in the November Bullbtin. 
27 BUL 



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376 BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

administration over which I have the honor to preside rests, 
and by my desire to comply with the vast duties which the 
. position I feel and my own personal convictions impose upon 
me, I want to state in a few words that the proposed meas- 
ure far from giving any just occasion for uneasiness or alarm, 
shows on the contrary how earnest and solicitous the Gov- 
ernment is in attending to the satisfaction of the general ne- 
cessities, and in improving the economical conditions of the 
country. 

Under the decree of July 4, 1864, which is the law in force 
in Venezuela upon this subject, banking business is free. 
Taking advantage of this provision, and of the constitutional 
precepts in the same line, Mr. Hastings informed the Gov- 
ernment of his intention to establish a bank at Caracas, to be 
known as the Auglo -Venezuelan Commercial Bank. No op- 
position could have been made to his idea, without violating 
the written law of the country, and taking, therefore, for 
granted that the bank would be actually established, the 
Government decided to conclude with it the contract of 
October 7, 1893. 

Nothing can be found in that contract, duly approved by 
the national Congress, which is not manifestly correct. Mr. 
Hastings bound himself to open a current account with the 
Government and give it credit to the amount of 5,000,000 
bolivars,* for the payment of which 13 per cent of 60 per 
cent of the customs receipts should be pledged. The amount 
pledged is less than 8 per cent of the whole revenue derived 
from the maritime custom-houses. No commission was to be 
charged for collecting it, and the interest was to be 10 per 
cent, to be compounded yearly. 

The Government is now bound under a contract with the 
Bank of Venezuela, which gives it credit only to the amount 
of 2,500,000 bolivars, to pay interest at the rate of u per 
cent, to be compounded monthly, and for the payment of 
principal and interest has pledged the whole of its revenue : 
in addition, the bank is paid a collection commission of 2 per 
cent. The Government therefore deemed it to be advisable 

•Oil January i, iS9i, the Venezuelan bolivar became fixed in value at 19.300015. 



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VENEZUELA. 377 

for the public interests to enter with Mr. Hastings into the 
agreement above mentioned. A mere knowledge of numbers 
will make any one think in the same way. 

On the other hand, there is a resolution in force under 
which the Government is bound to receive in payment, in the 
national collection offices, not only the bank notes issued by 
the banks established at the time of the enactment, but also 
the notes of any other bank to be established thereafter. The 
only condition upon which the said privilege is to be enjoyed 
by the banks consists in their permitting an official appointed 
by the Government to intervene in their management and 
superintend their negotiations. 

The Bank of Venezuela is now enjoying this benefit, and 
the Caracas bank also enjoyed it until it decided to withdraw 
its consent to the intervention of the official above named. 

Under these circumstances it is plain that the proposed 
acceptance of the notes of the new bank, which has so 
unduly alarmed the commerce, is absolutely nothing else thati 
the strict compliance with a legal provision which is in force. 
This concession has been coupled, nevertheless, with the 
thoughtful provision that the bank must establish a branch 
at whatever place it may desire to make use of its privilege, 
in order that the redemption of the note by gold may be 
instantly made, and that, as categorically set forth in one 
clause of the agreement, the Government reserves all the 
powers and faculties which the law gives it for the super- 
vision and vigilance of the institutions of that kind. 

If the agreement in question has been made, as appears 
from the above, in strict compliance with the laws of the 
country, if nothing is granted by it which can not be right- 
fully demanded, if the Government is enabled by it to secure 
considerable financial advantages, the unjustifiable alarm 
which it has caused must necessarily excite surprise. 

It is perfectly known to all, that through the public 
press, and through all other channels, the scarcity of money 
and the necessity for increasing the currency have been made 
patent. Farmers and other people engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, which are the foundation of the national wealth. 



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378 BUREAU OK THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

have complained, and still continue to complain, ot the un- 
tisual diflSculties with which they have to contend to obtain the 
money necessary for their business. They complain, further- 
more, with great reason, of the necessity ih which they see 
themselves placed of paying interest at large rates, and 
giving excessive securities, for such small advances as are 
required for the gathering of their crops. 

Such a state of things is certainly calculated to constitute a 
threat against the common welfare, and gives origin to harmful 
monopolies of capital, and no less harmful discouragement to 
the farmers. 

In trying, therefore, under these circumstances, to open to 
foreign capital the doors of the country, the Goveniment 
does the same as is daily practiced by the commercial com- 
munity whenever the price of an article of first necessity- 
becomes increased, namely, to look for it where it abounds 
and make it go where it is scarce. What personal interest 
suggests to all merchants, the public interests demand impe- 
riously from any Government which is true to its duties. 

Having shown by the above that the Government has not 
in any way whatever violated the law, and that in making an 
effort to bring into the country new capital, has merely met 
the public demand, and promoted fruitful competition, whose 
outcome shall be a lower rate of interest and a greater facility 
for all business operations, I shall say something now in re- 
gard to the alleged possibility of the creation of paper money 
in Venezuela^, an allegation, indeed, which involves an 
offense to the Government, never inflicted by the country 
upon any former administration, and from which the present 
one might claim, with more solid foundation than all others, 
to have been spared. 

It must be remembered that in the early part of last year, 
when owing ^o the scarcity of silver coin the small commer- 
cial transactions had become very difficult, the Government, 
in its zeal for promoting the welfare of the Republic, and se- 
curing regularity in the rates of exchange, decided not to 
proceed to re-coin the depreciated currency, without first hear- 
ing what the Caracas commerce, to a large extent represented 



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VENE2UELA. 379 

by the Bank of Venezuela, had to say. The opinion was 
expressed officially by the said bank that the coinage of 
6,000,000 bolivars would relieve the situation, without pro- 
ducing danger in any other respect. The Government 
thought proper to accede at once to the wishes so expressed 
by the merchants, and went so far as to issue the decree 
under which the suggested coinage should be made ; but it 
soon noticed that the depreciation of silver continued 
steadily, and that danger was to be apprehended of new 
embarrassments being created in consequence of the said 
coinage. Then motu propria, acting under no other inspiration 
than its patriotism, in spite of its own financial difficulties, 
and paying no attention to the gain or profit it might derive, 
and of which it might make use to smooth all conflicts, the 
Government decided to stop the coinage and limit the issue 
to the 2,0000,000 bolivars which had then been coined. 

On what ground, therefore, can any suspicion be enter- 
tained against a Government which has so acted, and which 
has givea to the country so many proofs of its patriotism? 

The fact is to be noticed, on the other hand, that paper 
money can only be created by a special act of Congress, and 
not by the individual action of ^ny bank. 

This being the case, can there ever be any Congress in 
Venezuela, which, being aware, as it should be, of the disas- 
trous effects of paper money, may be willing to create it in a 
country whose greatness and prosperity have been derived 
precisely from her having avoided with great care the fiscal 
error which all the other South American countries have 
incurred? 

I do not dare to imagine any government in Venezuela 
which might advise such iniquity. Every serious mind 
ought to do justice in this respect to the man who, while in 
the exercise of the power, has given such unequivocal proofs 
of his convictions on this subject, and whose own property 
situated in the country should become subject to the depre- 
ciation, and eventual ruin, necessarily arising out of the 
establishment of paper money. If personal interest may 
have any weight in matters of this kind, it should lead also 



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380 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

to supporting the patriotic zeal which inspired the message 
addressed by me to Congress explaining all the evils of 
paper money and advocating the preservation of the gold 
standard as a symbol of the prosperity and credit of our 
country. 

It is indispensible for the country to be firmly convinced 
of the righteousness of our action, and of the fact that in 
the contract with Mr. Hastings there is nothing at all to be 
censured. 

The fear expressed in the **Manifestaci6n,*' to which I 
have referred in this letter, that the bank might act in com- 
pliance with its rules and regulations, but at London, and out of 
the reach of our national influence and the control of our laws, 
might set aside the laws of the country governing banks, is 
entirely groundless. The apprehended action would be in 
open conflict with the code of commerce, which requires all 
banks to have their domicile in the Republic, and also with 
Article 14 of the decree of July 4, 1864, expressly accepted 
and assented to by the contractor, which reads as as follows: 
'* The National Executive shall cause an examination to be 
made, monthly and at any other time it may be deemed 
advisable, by the Minister of Fomento, or by any agents, or 
delegates appointed by him, of the condition of the bank 
and its branches, for which purpose free access shall be given 
them to its books, papers and safes.*' 

The foregoing statements will prove to the country that 
the Government, in entering into the contract herein referred 
to, with the above-named bank, acted not only under an 
earnest desire to attend to the urgent public necessities felt 
at that time, but also without forgetting the permanent inter- 
est of the nation, and taking every possible precaution to 
prevent said interest from being injured. They will prove 
also that the Government, having become aware that the 
manifestations made by the commerce, and by the press, of 
the fact that the people indorse the statements and recom- 
mendations of the Presidential message above mentioned, 
will recommend to the next Congress, in pursuance of its 
own convictions, and in obedience to the public feeling, that 



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VENEZUELA. 381 

the Constitution should be amended by adding a provision 
forbidding absolutely and forever the establishment of paper 
money, and the giving to any kind of bank notes the legal 
tender character. All danger in the future in regard to this 
grave subject shall thus be avoided. 

I should be pleased, sir, if you would cause this letter to 
be published, together with the banking law, and with the 
Executive Decree of September 20, 1883, issued through the 
Department of Fomento, so as to re-establish public confi- 
dence in such a degree as is indispensable not only for the 
good progress of our domestic aflfairs, but also for the main- 
tenance of the credit which we deservedly enjoy abroad, and 
to remove, furthermore, completely, all pretexts, no matter 
how futile or slanderous, of which the few enemies of public 
order who may now exist might take advantage. 

I am your friend, 

Joaquin Crespo. 



VENEZUELA. 



EL BANCO COMERCIAL ANGLO-VENEZOLANO. 



NO SE PERMITIRA EN VENEZUELA LA CR^ACION DE PAPEL 

MONEDA. 
Carta del Seftor Preside^te de la Republica, General Don 
Joaqufn Crespo, al Sefior Doctor Don Feliciano Acevedo, 
Encargado del Poder Ejecutivo. 

Maracay, 4 de octubre de 1894. 
SEf^oR Doctor Feliciano Acevedo, 
Etc., etc., etc., 

Caracas. 
EsTiMADO AMiGO : Susciita por los miembros de la Cdmara 
de Comercio y por varios comerciantes de esa capital y de 
La Guaira, ha circulado en la prensa una manifestaci6n diri- 
gida al Presidente de la Republica, expresiva de los temores 
que abriga el gremio mercantil con motivo del proyecto de 



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382 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

un Banco Comercial Anglo Venezolano, y en la que se afirma* 
al mismo tiempo, que la impresi6n producida en el pais por 
ese proyecto ha sido profundamente alarmante. 

Inquieta d los firmantes de la manifestaci6n, la idea deque 
al obligarse el Gobierno d recibir en sus oficinas los billetes 
que emitiera ese banco, podria fdcilmente sobrevenir el de- 
sastroso regimen dt\ papei moneda. 

Solamente d un celo excesivo habr^ de atribuir semejantes 
deducciones, que llevadas fK)r la prensa periodica d los diver- 
sos Estados, ban sido comentadas aviesamente por los advcr- 
sarios de la situacion, convirtiendolas en motivo de alarma, 
con el objeto de araedrentar a los meticulosos y de dar annas 
d los que s61o buscan pretextos para difamar d los magis- 
trados. 

Respetuoso d la opini6n publica, en la cual estd sustentada 
la actual Administraci6n que tengo la honra de presidir, con- 
secuente con los grandes deberes que me imponen el cargo 
que ejerzo y mis personales convicciones, quiero en breves 
Hneas explicar un asunto que, lejosde haber debido producir 
alarma y desa26n, comprueba lo atento que estd siempre el 
Gobierno d las necesidades generales, en su deseo permanente 
de mejorar las condiciones del pais. 

Por el Decreto vigente de 4 julio de 1864, el estableci- 
miento de bancos es libre industria en Venezuela : apoyado 
en esa disposiciofl legal y en los preceptos constitucionales, 
manifest6 al Gobierno el Seflor Hastings su intenci6n de 
establecer un Banco Anglo- Venezdlano en esa capital. 

No era posible rechazar ese pensamiento sin infracci6n de 
la Ley escrita ; y supuesta, en consecuencia, la instalaci6a 
del Instituto, se celebro el contrato de octubre de 1893. 

En dicho contrato, aprobado por el Congreso Nacional, 
nada hay que no sea visiblemente correcto. El contratista 
Hastings se compromete d facilitar al Gobierno en cuenta 
corriente una cantidad de cinco millones de boUvares, que 
este ultimo se obliga d garantizar con el trece por ciento del 
sesenta de los impuestos aduaneros, es decir, s61o con menos 
de ocho por ciento de la renta de aduanas maritimas, sin 



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VENEZUELA. sS^ 

comisi6n de recaudaci6n. £1 interes fijado es de diez por 
dento al alio, capitalizable anualmente. 

El Gobierno, que tiene en su contrato con el Banco de 
Venezuela un cr6dito de s61o dos millones quinientos mil 
boUvares, con un interns de doce por ciento anual, capitali- 
zable mensualmente, con la garantia de la totalidad de nuestros 
ingresos, sobre lacual percibe, ademds, el Banco una comisi6n 
de dos por ciento, juzg6 conveniente d los intertses publicos 
la proposici6n del Sefior Hastings, como la juzgard cualquiera 
que tenga el simple conocimiento de los numeros. 

Existe, ademds, una resoluci6n, por la cual se obliga el 
Gobiemo d recibir en las Oficinas Nacionales los billetes de 
los Bancos existentes y los de cualesquiera otros que en 
adelante se establecieren, con la unica condicion de que 
admitan un empleado fiscal, nombrado por el Gobiemo, con 
ingerericia en la direcci6n 6 inspecci6n de las negociaciones. 
Goza actualmente de este beneficio el Banco de Venezuela, y 
de el goz6 tambien el Banco de Caracas, hasta que voluntaria- 
mente retir6 el fiscal nombrado conforme d la ley, de modo 
que al establecer el Gobiemo la aceptaci6n de los billetes del 
nuevo Banco, lo que ha alarmado indebidamente al gremio 
mercantil, no ha hecho mds que reconocer un derecho que 
una disposici6n legal otorga, imponidndole, ademds, con pre. 
visivo cuidado, la condici6n de establecer sucursales en los 
puntos donde aspire d obtener aquel derecho, para que pueda 
hac^rsele al portador la inmediata conversi6n del billete en 
oro, y sin perjuicio, como lo previene categ6ricamente un 
articulo del contrato, de ejercer el Gobiemo todas las facul- 
tades con que la ley le autoriza para la vigilancia de esa 
clase de Institutos. 

Si, pues, el contrato referido se halla estrictamente 
ajustado d las leyes, y no se concede en ^l nada que no se 
tenga derecho d reclamar, y, por el contrario, consigue el 
Gobiemo, por las relatadas estipulaciones, ventajosas condi- 
ciones de cr6dito, ha de ver con sorpresa la injustificada alarma 
que se ha provorado. 

Sabido es que, tanto por medio de la misma prensa, como 
por manifestaciones de todo genero, se ha hecho publica la 



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384 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

general necesidad que existe de diuero: quejdbanse y a6n 
quejanse los agricultores de ins61itas dificultades para la con- 
secuci6n de este elemento, indispensable al desarrollo de su 
industria, fuente principal de la riqueza nacional: quejanse 
con raz6n de los crecidos intereses y excesivas garantias que 
se les exigen, hasta por simples avances, para la recolecci6n 
de sus cosechas, lo que en definitiva constituye una amenaza 
para el bienestar comdn. 

De aqui se originan funestos monopolios del capital y 
desaliento del esfuerzo laborioso por la carestfa del dinero. 
Al pretender, pues, el Gobiemo abrir las puertas al capital 
extranjero, no hace sino lo que ejecutan d diario los miembros 
del gremio mercantil cuando se encarece un articulo de 
primera necesidad ; esto es, solicitarlo en donde abunda para 
Uevalo d donde escas^e. 

Lo que el lucro personal sugiere d cualquier negociante, lo 
impone el interns publico d todo Gobierno cumplidor de sus 
obligaciones. 

Comprobado, por lo que dejo expuesto, que el Gobiemo 
en nada ha trasgredido la ley, y que al desear el ingreso de 
nuevos capi tales, ha atendido al reclamo publico, tendente d 
una competencia fecunda que abarate el interns del dinero y 
facilite las negociaciones, s61o falta por decir algo sobre la 
posible creaci6n del pa/>e/ tnoneda en Venezuela, sospecha 
injusta que ningun otro Gobierno ha merecido en el pais, 
y de la cual ninguna otra Administracion debiera estar d 
cubierto con rnds justicia que la presente. 

Recu^rdese que d principios del aflo anterior, al tenerse 
conocimiento de que por la escasez de la plata se hacian difi- 
ciles las pequefias transacciones del comercio, el Gobiemo, 
celoso por el bienestar de la Republica y por la regularidad 
de los cambios, no quiso decretar nueva acunaci6n de aquel 
metal depreciado, sin oir antes la opini6n del comercio de 
Caracas, que en su generalidad compone el Banco de Vene- 
zuela. Se crey6 para entonces, y asf lo manifest6 en docu- 
mento oficial aquel Instituto, que una emisi6n de seis millones 
de bolivares salvaria, sin peligro, las dificultades. Asf lo 
decret6 el Gobierno acto continuo : pero acentuada la baja 



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VENEZUEI.A. 3^5 

del metal y temeroso luego de que la acuflaci6n proyectada 
pudiese acarrear algun desequilibrio, de motu propio, y sin 
mds inspiraci6n que su patriotismo, lirait6 la acunaci6n d los 
dos millones para entonces acufiados, d pesar de los embara- 
20S econ6micos con que luchaba, y sin tener en cuenta las 
utilidades que habria reportado y que le hubieran servido 
para allanar todo conflicto. 

iCon qu6 derecho, pu6s, ha podido sospecharse de quien 
asi procede, de quien ha dado tales gajes al pais? 

Per otra parte, el /^/^/ moneda s61o puede ser creado por 
ley especial del Congreso, y no por iniciativa particular de 
ningun banco. 

Ahora bien, i podrd existir en Venezuela algun Congreso 
que sabiendo los desastrosos resultados del papel moneda^ 
quiera implantarlo en un pais que debe su prosperidad y su 
grandeza d haberse salvado siempre de aquel error fiscal de 
los demds pueblos sur-americanos ? 

No me atrevo d imaginar que ningun Gobiemo pretenda 
en Venezuela proponer tamana iniquidad. Todo espiritu se- 
rio debiera hacer justicia en este particular al homljre que, 
en ejercicio del poder, ha dado prendas inequivocas de sus 
convicciones respecto de la doctrina en cuesti6n, y que, 
ademds, tiene sus propriedades vinculades en el pais, las que 
estarian sujetas d la depreciaci6n y consiguiente ruina que 
habria de sobrevenir si Uegara efectivaraente d establecerse 
el regimen del papel moneda ; de suerte que si en algo pesa el 
personal interns, 61 confirmaria el celo patri6tico que inspir6 
el Mensaje dirigido por mf al Congreso, en que haciendo 
constar lo perjudical del papel moneda, aconsej^ la conserva- 
cion del patr6n de oro, como simbolo de prosperidad y cr^dito 
de la patria. 

Es indispensable que el pais quede bien convencido de la 
lealtad de nuestros procedimientos, y de que en lo relativo 
alcontrato con el Senor Hastings, no existe nada, ni aiin 
remotamente, censurable. 

El temor expresado en la Manifestaci6n de que me ocupo, 
de que podria funcionar el Banco desde Londres, segtin sus re- 
glamentos, fucra del alcance de la influencia nacional y del freno 



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386 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

de nuestras Uyes, no tiene raz6ii de ser, porque ello colidiria 
con el C6digo de Coraercio, que previene que todos los ban- 
cos deben tener su domicilio en la Republica, y con el arti- 
culo 14 del Decreto de 4 de julio de 1864, aceptado expresa- 
mente por el contratista, y que dice asi: "El Ejecutivo 
Nacioual hard comprobar mensualmente, y cuando lo teiig^a 
por conveniente, por medio del Ministro de Fomento, u otros 
de sus agentes, 6 de las personas que tenga d bien designar, 
el estado del banco y sus sucursales, con vista de sus libros, 
cajas y cartcras.*' 

Todo lo expuesto comprobard al pafs que el Gobiemo al 
celebrar el contrato con el proj^ectado banco, si se inspir6 en 
el deseo de atender d necesidades publicas urgentes, no ol- 
vid6 ninguna previsi6n en resguardo de los interesesnaciona- 
les permanentes ; y ya que por las manifestaciones del co- 
niercio y de la prensa se ve que el pais concuerda con el 
deseo expresado por el Gobierno, en el Mensaje antes enun- 
ciado, por propia convicci6n, h interpretando el sentimiento 
publico recomendard al pr6ximo Congreso la adici6n de un 
articulo d nuestro Pacto Fundamental, en que quede consig- 
nada la prohibici6n absoluta y por siempre de la creaci6n del 
papel Moneda, y de la circulaci6n for^osa u obligatoria de 
cualesquiera billetes. Asf quedard conjurado todo peligro 
para lo futuro en tan grave particular. 

Me agradaria, Sefior Doctor, que publicase usted esta carta, 
junto con la Ley de Bancos y la Resoluci6n del Ministerio de 
Fomento, fechada en 20 de septiembre de 1883*, d fin de 
restablecer la confianza ptiblica tan indispensable, no s61o 
para nuestra buena marcha interior, sino para el sosteni- 
miento del merecido cr^dito de que gozamos en el exterior, y 
de quitar pretextos, siquiera sean futiles 6 calumniosos, d los 
pocos enemigos del orden ptiblico. 
Soy su amigo, 

Joaquin Crespo. 

*Rbta Ley lo mismo que la resoluci6n ministerial de 18S3 se publicaron en el Bdetfa 
de Noviembre, en ingl^ de pdgina 296 d 300, y en castellano de p&gina 300 A 304. 



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COSTA RICA. 387 

PROJECTED RAILWAY IN VENEZUELA. 

Under date of November 15 Mr. E. L. Plumacher, Consul 
at Maracaibo, communicates to the Department of State the 
text of a contract entered into between the Government of 
Venezuela, and Francesco Galleti and others, for the con- 
struction of a railway, from Coro to Sabaneta. 

According to the terms of agreement, the contractors shall 
commence the work of construction within one year from 
date of contract (October 20, 1894), and the line shall be 
declared opened for public traffic within two years after that 
date. 

The road will be single track, with a width between rails 
of I metre and 7 centimetres (3^ feet). The material used 
in the construction shall be of the best quality, and the work 
shall be done in accordance with the most scientific devel- 
opment of the day. 

The grades are not to exceed 3 per cent, and the curves 
shall have a minimum radius of 75 metres. 

The National Government cedes to the contractor each 
alternate allotment of land of 500 metres in length, and the 
same measure in breadth, lying on each side of the line 
throughout its entire length. 

The line will extend from the city of Coro, in the State of 
Falcon, to Sabaneta, passing through Boraure, El Cardon 
and El Bresil, and will be 32 kilometres (19 miles, about) in 
length. 

COSTA RICA. 



The Government has extended for two years the free intro- 
duction of railroad material for the construction of branch 
lines which will serve for the development of the lands in the 
neighborhood of the Atlantic railroad. 

A sailing license, and permission to fly the national flag, 
has been granted to the steamship Herbert, belonging to 
Messrs. Hoadley, Ingalls & Co., of Limon, Costa Rica. The 
steamer was built at Rocky Hill, Conn., in the United States. 



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388 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

A contract has been entered into between the Government 
and Mr. C. S. Tockelson, an American citizen, for the colo- 
nization of a large tract of first-class lands on the Atlantic 
coast, and the construction of means of communication by 
rail, cart, etc., in and to said lands. 



The correspondence between Dr. Niederlein, charged with 
the arrangement of the , first Commercial Museum of the 
United States, and Senor Calvo, Charge d 'affairs of Costa 
Kica in Washington, referring to the splendid collection of 
the natural products of the latter country exhibited at Chicago, 
and subsequently presented by the Costa Rican Government 
to the city of Philadelphia, Pa., has been published. 



In view of the high rate of foreign exchange, the Gov- 
ernment, anxious to preserve the credit of the nation and to 
obviate the sacrifices entailed by the faithful compliance with 
its foreign debt obligations (the $500,000 amount of the yearly 
interest, having risen to the enormous sum of $1,250,000) has 
initiated an arrangement with the holders of Costa Rican 
bonds looking toward honorable adjustment favorable to all 
parlies. 

The periodical withdrawal from circulation of the Treasm^f' 
notes still continues. Up to October 20 last, there had been 
destroyed $369,364 of said national currency, there remain- 
ing in circulation $450,855, which, however, will soon be 
withdrawn. 



Several new telegraph ofiices have been established in re- 
mote localities of the Republic. 



In order that no town may lack the resources of medical 
science, and to further spread sound, hygienic information, 
the Government has divided the country into medical circuits 
and appointed a professor of medicine in each of these cir- 
cuits. 

The annual report of Dr. Bansen, Director of the National 
Insane Asylum, shows that this institution is organized in the 



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COMMERCIAL NOTES. 389 

same manner as the first-class ones of the most advanced 
countries. 

The reports of the progress made by the young men being 
educated abroad at the expense of the Government are very 
satisfactory. 

Competition on a large scale is now being carried on among 
the several collegiate institutions of the country for the pur- 
pose of stimulating the students. 

A Museum of Pedagogy has been established in San Jose, 
comprising kindergarten, primary, secondary, normal, uni- 
versity, professional (technical), fine arts (music, drawing, 
painting) instruction. Each department.will show the orgjani- 
zation and system of management in all civilized countries of 
the institutions belonging to it, the plan and curriculum of 
studies, text-books, methods of instruction, furniture, scien- 
tific apparatus, buildings (plans and models), specimens of 
work done by the scholars. The idea has received the 
warmest greeting everywhere; the Museum prospers and 
gives promise of great success. 

A new line of steamers has been established between 
Mobile, Ala., and Puerto Lim6n, Costa Rica 



COMMERCIAL NOTES. 



The Brazilian Government has decided to discontinue the 
quarantine station at the Island of Fernando do Noronha, 
and establish a similar station at Tamandare on the main land 
in the same latitude as this island. 

The reason a.ssigned for this action is, that in additiou to 
Fernando do Noronha being a penal settlement, the scarcity 
of water renders its condemnation for this purpose desirable. 

It is understood that the construct on of the lazareto at 
Tamandare is progressing. 

This action on the part of the Government will render the 
long and expensive voyage to Ilha Grande unnecessary for 
vessels bound to the northern ports of Brazil. 



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390 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

From information received from Rip de Janeiro, it is 
learned that by recent action of the Congress of Brazil ves- 
sels carrying foreign flags will be allowed to engage in the 
coastwise trade of that country for a period of two years. 
After the expiration of that time this right will be restricted 
to Brazilian vessels. 



Recent advices from Caracas are to the effect that the dis- 
coveries of petroleum in Venezuela are developing most 
favorably. 

An analysis of crude petroleum taken from one of the wells 
lately discovered by» Engineer Dacowitch assays as follows : 

Per cent. 

Ether, gasoline, naptha 12.5 

Benzine 3.5 

Kerosene 48 

Lubricating oil 27 

Residuum 9 

This well at present yields a daily output of 4,000 gallons, 
and it is believed a much larger yield will be jobtained when 
it is sunk to lower petroleum -bearing strata. 



The Minister ol Finance of Venezuela has announced a 
decree removing the prohibition of the admission of chewing 
tobacco into that country. All kinds of chewing tobacco are 
now admitted under the seventh class. 



The Republic of Honduras has adopted the gold dollar of 
the United States as its standard coin. 

The present currency of Honduras was demonetized Octo- 
ber 15, 1894, and the demonetized coin will now be redeemed 
at the rate of 1 1.50 of the new currency. 



The joint commission of engineers appointed by Chile and 
the Argentine Republic to locate the line of demarcation 
between the two countries in the Patagonian province, 
resumed work in the early part of the current month. It is 
thought the work will be finished during the present season 
of warm weather in the Southern Hemisphere and the ques- 
tion finally disposed of. 



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COMMERCIAL NOTES. 391 

The long pending boundary question between Paragaay 
and Bolivia has been at last settled. 

By treaty agreement between the two countries Bolivia 
acquires territory which gives her an outlet along the right 
bank of the Paraguay River for a distance of about twenty 
leagues. 



The estimates given below of the coflfee crop of the world 
for the current year are taken from the Mexican Financier of 
December i, 1894: 

"Of the 8,000,000 sacks which make up the Brazilian cof- 
fee crop this year, 3,400,000 are from the State of Rio de 
Janeiro, 3,700,000 from the State of San Paulo, 350,000 from 
the State of Bahia, and 550,000 from the States of Espirito 
Santo and Ceard. The crops of other countries are stated to 
be, Mexico, Costa Rica and Central America generally, 
1,500,000 bags; Venezuela, 800,000; Porto Rico, 150,000; 
Java and the Dutch East Indies, 1,000,000; Ceylon, Manila 
and other East Indies, 320,000, and Africa, 230,000 — making 
a total crop for the year of about 12,000,000 bags, against a 
total estimated consumption of about 10,500,000 bags. 



Mr. Leon Jastremski, Consul at Callao, under date of No- 
vember 12, advises the Department of State as follows: 

On the 6th inst. a decree was issued providing for the stamping of 
commercial and legal documents and paper of well-nigh every descrip- 
tion, all the way from 2 centuras to 100 soles. 

Various penalties are imposed for non-compliance with said decree. 

Another decree of the same date doubles the duty on all alcohols, 
wines and liquors of foreign production imported into the Republic 
after January i, 1895. 

The imposing of these additional taxes is for the purpose of raising 
the funds required for carrying on military operations against the 
revolutionists. 



The President of Peru has announced that in order to meet 
the financial necessities of the country an additional tax shall 
be levied on all tobacco, cigars and cigarettes sold in the 
Republic. 

The duty on all kinds of tobacco imported from the United 

28 BVt, 



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392 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

States will be li.oo per kilogramme (2.20 pounds); cigars, 
$3.50 per kilogramme; cigarettes made of tobacco from the 
United "States, $50.00 per 1,000 packages; foreign tobacco 
for chewing, snuff, cut and fibred tobacco ready for use, per 
kilogramme, $1.50. 

This law goes into effect January i, 1895. ' 



Reliable information from Cuba is to the effect that under 
the favorable weather conditions that have existed on the 
island the yield of sugar per acre from the cane crop will be 
very large. 

The scarcity of money and the high price paid for labor 
throughout the cane-growing region it is thought will 
materially reduce the acreage, thus making the output of 
sugar no greater than that of last year. 



By a recent decree of the Supreme Court of the State of 
Panama, the ordinance of July 2, 1894 imposing an ad 
valorem duty ot 10 per cent on goods entered at the port of 
Colon and Panama, has been declared unconstitutional. 

Hereafter goods entering at these ports will not be required 
to pay this additional duty. 

It is not thought the Supreme Court of the Republic of 
Colombia will interfere with this decision. 



The premium on American gold prevailing in Haiti at the 
present time is 20 per cent. This high rate of exchange is 
attributed to the fact that an unusually large coffee crop is 
just now being put on the market, and large sums of money 
are needed to move it. 



At the last session of the Congress of Ecuador a law was 
passed, dated August 18, 1894, imposing a tax of 5 cents per 
quintal (100 lbs.) on all sugars sold in the Republic, whether 
domestic or imported from abroad ; also an import tax of 2 
per cent on foreign liquors. 

These duties are imposed for the benefit of certain 
charities. 



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UNITED STATES CONSULATES. 



Frequent application is made to the Bureau for the address 
of United States Consuls in the South and Central American 
Republics. Those desiring to correspond with any consul can 
do so by addressing "The United States Consulate** at the 
point named. Letters thus addressed \vill be delivered ta 
the proper person. It must be understood, however, that it 
is not the duty of consuls to devote their time to private- 
business, and that all such letters may properly be treated 
as personal and any labor involved may be subject to charge 
therefor. 

The following is a list of United States Consulates in the 
different Republics : 



Argentine Republic — 

Buenos Aires. 

Cordoba. 

Rosario. 
Bolivia — 

La Paz. 
Brazil — 

Bahia. 

Para. 

Pemambuco. 

Rio Grande do Sul. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

Santos. 
Chile — 

Antofagasta. 

Arica. 

Coquimbo. 

Iquique. 

Talcahuano. 

Valparaiso. 



Colombia — 

Barranquilla. 

Bogota. 

Cartagena. 

Colon (Aspinwall). 

Medillin. 

Panama. 
Costa Rica — 
. San Jos6. 
Dominican Republic- 

Puerto Plata. 

Samana. 

Santo Domingo. 
Ecuador — 

Guayaquil. 
Guatemala — 

Guatemala. 
Haiti — 

Cape Haitien. 

Port au Prince. 



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UNITED STATES CONSUI^ATES. 



Honduras — 

Ruatan. 
Tegucigalpa. 
Mexico — 
Acapulco. 
Chihuahua. 
Durango. 
Ensenada. 
Guaymas. 
La Paz. 
Matamoras. 
Mazatlan. 
Merida. 
Mexico. 
Nogales. 
Nuevo Laredo. 
Paso del Norte. 
Piedras Negras. 
Saltillo. 
Tampico. 



Mexico — Continued. 

Tuxpaii. 

Vera Cruz. 
Nicaragua — 

Managua. 

San Juan del Norte. 
Paraguay — 

Asuncion. 
Peru — 

Callao. 
Salvador — 

San Salvador. 
Uruguay — 

Colonia. 

Montevideo. 

Paysandu. 
Venezuela — 

La Guayra. 

Maracaibo. 

Puerto Cabello. 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

D15PARTMENT OF STATE, 

Washington, U. S. A., 1894. 

It is impossible to comply with requests for the free 
<listribution of the publicatioiis of this Bureau. The de- 
mand for Handbooks and Bulletins h£is increased so rapidly 
as to make compliance impossible, because of the limited 
editions published. The lists of applicants desiring to be 
supplied with every Handbook and Bulletin issued by 
the Bureau largely exceed any edition published, and these 
lists would be constantly increased if the requests received 
daily at the Bureau were acceded to. Yet, it is well under- 
stood that many requests are received from persons having 
good reasons for desiring the information asked for, and both 
willing and able to pay the slight cost of these documents. 

Recognizing these facts, the Bureau some months ago issued 
a circular announcing that thereafter the publications of the 
Bureau would be sold to all applicants at a small price. This 
was done with a view of extending rather than limiting the 
•circulation of the information published by the Bureau, and 
at the same time securing the utmost impartiality in such 
distribution. It was believed that this course would result 
in a more general circulation of the information secured in 
saving the unnecessary labor of replying to requests from 
persons who apparently had no special interest in the publica- 
tions applied for, and that all who had a well-grounded 
intention of embarking in business in foreign countries, or 
extending business already established, would be able to 
afford the slight expense involved in the payment of the 
•cost price of the Bureau documents. 

The result of this experiment has more than justified the 
hopes with which it was undertaken. With exceptions too 
rare to be noted, the plan embraced in the circular has met 
with the cordial approbation of the business men of the 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

country, and if the progress made thus far in extending the 
circulation of these publications shall be continued it will be 
possible to largely increase the numbers of each edition of 
future publications. 

Many of the earlier Bulletins have been included in more 
recent publications. This applies especially to the tariffs, com- 
mercial directories and newspaper directories of the diflferent 
Republics. 

Suggestions from manufacturers and dealers as to their spe- 
cial needs of information will receive prompt attention by the 
Bureau. 

The following list embraces a catalogue of the Bulletins and 
Handbooks published since the organization of the Bureau, 
of which copies may be secured by remitting to the under- 
signed the price named in inclosed list. 

PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU 
OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS.- 

Cents* 

3. Patent and Trade-mark Laws of America 5 

4. Money, Weights and Measures of the American Republics 5 

6. Foreign Commerce of the American Republics 20 

8. Import Duties of Brazil 10 

10. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto Rico 15 

II Import Duties of Costa Rica ,.. 10 

13. Commercial Directory of Brazil „••• 5 

14. Commercial Directory of Venezuela 5 

15. Commercial Directory of Colombia 5 

16. Commercial Directory of Peru 5 

17. Commercial Directory of Chile , 5 

18. Commercial Directory of Mexico 15 

19. Commercial Directory of Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Um- 

fijuay 5 

20. Import Duties of Nicaragua 10 

21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised) 15 

22. Import Duties of Bolivia » 

23. Import Duties of Salvador 5 

24. Import Duties of Honduras 10 

25. Import Duties of Ecuador 5 

26. Commercial Directory of the Argentine Republic 5 

27. Import Duties of Colombia 5 

28. Commercial Directory of Central America 10 



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PRICE LIST OF PUBLICATION 

Cents. 

29. Commercial Directory of Haiti and Santo Domingo 5 

30. First Annual Report of the Bureau, 1891 10 

. 32. Handbook of Guatemala 35 

33. Handbook of Colombia 30 

34. Handbook of Venezuela 35 

36. Import Duties of Venezuela 5 

38. Commercial Directory of Cuba and Puerto Rico 10 

39. Commercial Directory of British, Danish^ Dutch and French 

colonies 10 

42. Newspaper Directory of Latm America 5 

43. Import Duties of Guatemala 25 

44. Import Duties of the United States 5 

45. Import Duties of Peru 25 

46. Import Duties of Chile 25 

47- Import Duties of Uruguay 25 

48. Import duties of the Argentine Republic 25 

49. Import Duties of Haiti 10 

50. Handbook of the American Republics, No. 3 50 

51. Handbook of Nicaragua 50 

52. Handbook of Santo Domingo 50 

53. Immigration and Land Laws of Latin America 40 

55. Handbook of Bolivia 40 

61. Handbook of Uruguay 50 

62. Handbook of Haiti 50 

63 How the Markets of Latin America May Be Reached 40 

64. Handbook of Ecuador 50 

67. Handbook of the Argentine Republic 50 

68. April Special Bulletin, Costa Rica 25 

New United States Tariff Law 05 

PUBLICATIONS NOT NUMBERED. 

Commercial Directory of Latin America 40 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau, 1892 5 

Third Annual Report of the Bureau, 1893 15 

Manual de las Republicas American as, 1891 (Spanish edition of 

Hand-book No. i) ! 50 

International American Conference Reports and Recommenda- 
tions, including Reports upon the Plan of Arbitration, Reci- 
procity Treaties, Inter-Continental Railway, Steamship Com- 
•munication, Sanitary Regulations, Customs Regulations, 
Common Silver Coin, Patents and Trade-Marks, Weights 
and Measures, Port Dues, International Law, Extradition 
Treaties, International Bank, Memorial Tablet, Columbian 
Exposition— 

Octavo, bound in paper $0 50 

Octavo, bound in half Morocco i 50 



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PRICE UST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

Ccnis 

Monthly Bulletins, $i per annum; single copies lo- 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, first volume, 852 pages, bound 
in cloth, contains upwards of 34,000 commercial terms in 
English, Spanish and Portuguese 3 00 

Money may be sent by postofl&ce money order, payable 
to the Director of the Bureau of the American Republics. 
All other remittances are at the risk of the sender. Postage 
stamps ivill not be riceived, 

CLINTON FURBISH, 

Director, 



The second volume of the Code of Commercial Nomen- 
clature is now in press and will be ready for delivery about 
the ist of October. This is the final edition of the English, 
Spanish, and Portuguese edition, containing about 24,000 
terms, including about 830 pages. Price, bound in cloth, $3. 

El segundo tomo del Codigo de Nomenclatura Comercial 
se encuentra en prensa y estard listo para distribuirse para el 
primero de Octubre pr6ximo. Este tomo es el ultimo de la 
serie inglesa, castellana, y portuguesa, consta de 830 pdginas 
y contiene cerca de 24,000 vocablos. Su precio, encuarder- 
nado en tela, ^3. 



These publications may be purchased from Rand, McNalljr 
& Co., Chicago and New York. 



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?ffb.J- 

VI? I '^^ Tews stats ffistarical AssoditioD. 

</ J WhoiA Numbbr 1 6 Vol. II. No. 7 

THE 

MONTHLY BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Bureau 



OF THE 



American Republics 

WASHINGTON, U. S. A. 



JANUARY, ISQfS 



SPECIAL BULLETIN. 

New Tariff of the United States of America 

Taking Effect August 28, 1891^ 

(In Spanish and Portuguese.) 



Single Numbers, 10 Cents Per Annum, Ix.oo 



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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REfHiBLICS, 
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE. WASHINGTON. O. C. U. 8. A. 



Director — Ci^inton Furbish. 



Although the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications 

of the Bureau of the American Republics, no pecuniar)- 

responsibility is assumed on account of errors or 

inaccuracies which may occur therein. 



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Die Texas Stats fiistcnc:J AssociatioD. 



The Monthly Bulletin 

OP THB 

BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



January, 1895. 



TARIFF ACT OF AUGUST 28, 1894. 



The following is a schedule in Spanish and Portuguese of 
the free and dutiable articles, with the dutifes thereon, under 
the tariff enacted by the Congress of the United States in 
August last, and taking eflFect on the 28th of that month : 



NUEVO ARANCEL DE ADUANAS 



DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DE AMERICA. 
BN FUERZA DESDE EL 28 DEJAGOSTO DE 1894. 



El Senado y la Cdmara de Represeniantes de los Estados Unidos 
de Atnirica, reunidos en Congreso, han acordado que d partir del 
i^ de Agosto de 18^4, si otra cosa no se dispone en esta Ley, se 
pcrcibany paguen por todos los artUulos importados del Extran- 
jero 6 retirados para el consumo, que se especifican en los adjunios 
cuadroSy los derechos one en ellos se ordenan. 
29 BUI, 393 



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394 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

CuADRO A. — Productos quitnicos^ aceites y pinturas. 

No. Desigrn€Lci6n de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

tftlapartida. Doll, cents. 

Acidos : 

1 Addo ac^ico 6 pirolenoso adval. 20 por ciento 

2 — b6rico libra ... 03 

3 — cr6mico (d. ...04 

4 — citrico adval. 25 por ciento 

5 — tdnico 6 tanino libra ...60 

6 — tdrtrico adval. 20 por ciento 

7 Alcoholes perfumados, con inclusi6n del agua de 

Colonia y otras aj^is^ de tocador. asi conio las 
preparaciones d base de alcohol no especial- 

mente expresadas gal6n 2 oo 

y ad val. 50 por ciento 

8 Aliintina, alumbre, tortas de ideuii al ombre de 

paten te, sulfato de aliimina. tortas de aliimi- 

na y aluuibre cristalizado 6 molido libra ... 004-10 

8>^ Amoniaco : carbonato adval. 20 por ciento 

— clorhidtato 6 sal amoniaco fd. 10 por ctento 

— sulfato Id. 20 por ciento 

9 Betiin de todas clases id. 20 por ciento 

Carb6n de huesos (negro animal), para decolorar 

losa2iicares id. 20 por ciento 

10 B6rax bruto 6 borato de sosa libra ... 02 

Borato de cal - id. ... oi>^ 

B6rax refinado id. ... 02 

io>^ Alcan for refinado adval. lo per ciento 

11 Creta preparada, precipitada, francesa y encar- 

nada, y todos los demds preparados de creta 

no especificados adval. 20 por ciento 

12 Hidrato de cloral (chloral hydrate) id. 25 por ciento 

13 Cloroformo ..,. libra ... 25 

Productos derivados del alquitrdn de hulla: 

J4 Todos los colores 6 tintes derivados del alqui- 
trdn de hulla, sea cualquiera el nombre con que 
Be les conozca, no especialmente expresados... 

ad val. 25 par ciento 

14^ Oxido de Gobalto. libra ... 25 

1^ Colodio 7 los compueatos de piroxilina, sea cual- 
quiera el nombre con que se les conozca. .libra ... 40 

— en Idminas in hojas, pero no en articulos ela- 
borados id. ... 50 



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I«A VUSVA TARZFA PS IX>3 E99^490S WnEDOS. 



*»S 



No. Designacibn <U i0f Jfferc^ueias, Derechos. 

4e la partida. Doll ccntit. 

— en articnios total 6 parcialmente concluidos. 

ad val. 45 por cieoto 
16 Colorantes para el aguardiente^ yino, cerveza 6 

otros licores ad val. 50 por ciento 

t^}i Drogas, tales como : cortezas, habas. bayas, b^l- 
samoSi retonos, bulbos 7 ralces bulbosas y ^ex- 
crecencias, frutas, flores, fibras secas € insectos 
desecados; semillas, gomas y gomo-resinas, 
yerbas, bojas, llquenes, musgos, nueces, raice$ 
y tallosi especias, vegetales, semillas arom^ti- 
cas (no de hortaliza), semilla3 de caricter no- 
civo, yerbas silvestres, maderas, especialmente 
empleadas en la tintura; todos estos productos 
cnando no sean sustandas comestiblesi pero si 
avaloradas por el reflno 6 molido 6 por otra 

manipnlaci6n coalquiera, no especificgdos 

ad val. 10 por ciento 

17 Eter sulfdrico libra .. 40 

Espiritu de ^ter nitrico id, . . 25 

Uteres, aceites 6 esencias de fmtas id. 2 00 

Eteres de todas clases, no especificados id. i 00 

18 Extractos y cocimientos de campeche y de otros 

palos tint6reos. extracto de zumaque y de *cor- 
tezas usadas comunmente para tenir 6 curtir, 
no especificados, incluso el extracto de cortezas 
de abeto del Canadd ad val. 10 por ciento 

19 Gelatina, cola comiin y de pescado, y vejigas de 

pescado preparados id. 25 por ciento 

30 Glicerina : crnda no punficada libra ... 01 

— purificada id. .. 03 

ai Tinta y polvos para hacerla; tinta de imprenta, y 

todas lasdemds tintas no especificadas.ad val. 25 por ciento 
23 lodoformo '.libra i 00 

33 Extracto de regaliz en pasta* barritas (a otros 

formas id. .,. 05 

34 Magnesia *. carbonato medicinal id. ...03 

— caldnada , id. ... 07 

— snlfato 6 sal de Epsom a id. ... 00 1-5 

35 Morfina y todas las sales de la misma on^a ••• 50 

Aceites: 

36 Aceite de alizarina (alizarine assistant) 6 gceitie 

soluble ii olettto de sosa, 6 aoeite rojo de Tor- 



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39^ 



BUREAU OP TUB AMBRICAN RBPUBUCS. 



No. Designacidn de las Mercancias, 

dc la partida. 

quia ad val. 

27 — de ricino « gal6n 

28 — de higado de bacalao.. ad val. 

29 — de linaza y de adormidera, crudo hervido 6 

oxidado gal6n de t% lib. 

30 — de patatas 6 alcohol amilico ad val. 

31 — de canam6ti y de colza ga]6n 

32 — de olivas, proprio para la aUmentaci6a . ...fd. 

33 — de menta ad val. 

34 — de foca, de arenque, de ballena y otros pes- 

cados no especificados id. 

35 Eztracto acuoso de opio, para usos medicinales, 

y su tintura» como Idudano, y todos los demds 
preparados Uquidus de opio no especificados... 

ad val. 

36 Opio que contenga m^os de 9 por ciento de mor- 

fina, y el preparado para fumar libra 

El preparado para fumar y demds compues- 
tos de opio depositados en la Aduana no se re- 
tirardn de los mismos sin haber satisfecho los 
derechos, y estos no podrdn ser bonificados. 

Colores y barnices: 

37 Sulfato de barita, manufacturado tonelada 

38 Azules, tales como el berlin^, priisico, chino y 

todos los demds que contengan danuro de 

hierro, secos 6 molidos en aceite libra 

— en pasta 6 mezclados con agua. Adeudarda 
segiin el peso de la materia seca que contengan 

libra 

39 Blanco fijo, 6 sulfato artificial de barita, y bianco 

de sat6n 6 sulfato de cal artificial ad val. 

[40 Negro de hueso de marfil 6 vegetal, de cual- 
quiera clase que sea, incluso el negro animal y 
el negro de humo, secos 6 molidos en aceite 6 
agua ad val. 

41 Amarillo y verde de cromo, y todos los demds co- 

lores de cromo en que entren el plomo y el bi- 
cromato de potasa 6 sosa, secos, molidos 6 mez- 
clados con aceite 6 bien en pasta 6 mezclados 
con agua. Adeudardn segiin el peso de la ma- 
teria seca que contengan libra 

42 Ocre y tierras ocrosas, Siena, y tierras de Siena, 



Derechos. 


DolL cents. 


30 por ciento 


..• 35 


20 por ciento 


... 20 


10 por ciento 


... 10 


... 35 


25 por ciento 


25 por ciento 



20 por ciento 
6 00 



3 00 



06 



06 



25 por ciento 



20 por ciento 



03 



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JJl N^BYA TARIPA DQ LOS BSTADOS UNIDOS. 



397 



No. DeHgnaciSn de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la partida. Doll. ceoU. 

sombra y tierras de sombra, molidas en 

aceite libra ... oi X 

43 Azul Ultramar, seco» eu pasta 6 mezdado con 

agna, y el azul preparado para lavar, que con- 
tenga nltramar libra ...03 

44 Bamices, inclnsa la laca del Jap6n ad val. 25 por ciento 

— d base de alcohol, por el alcohol que conten- 

gan, derecho adidonal de gal6n i 32 

45 Bermell6n y demds colores que contengan mer- 

cnrio, secos 6 molidos en aceite 6 agaa...ad val. 20 por ciento 
Bermell6n que no contenga mercurio pero hecho 

con plomo 6 que contenga plomo libra ... 06 

46 Blanco de cal y de Paris : secos id. ... 00 % 

— molidos en aceite, 6 mdstico id. ... 00 }i 

47 Oxido de zinc y pintui'as blancas que contengan 

zinc, secas 6 molidas en aceite id. ... 01 

48 Todos los dem^ colores, ya sean secos 6 mez- 

dados, molidos en agna 6 aceite <i otras solu- 
ciones, inclusos todos los colores en tubos, las 
lacas, los pasteles, el azul dicho azur y el vi- 
driado {/rostings)^ no espedalmente expresa- 
dos ad val. 25 por ciento 

Compuestos de plomo: 

49 Acetato de plomo : bianco libra ... 02 % 

— moreno id. ...01 % 

Litargirio id. ... 01 % 

50 Nitrato de plomo id. ...01 % 

51 Amarillo mineral id. ... 01 )i 

Minio (rojo de plomo) id. ... 01 % 

52 Blanco de plomo y pintnra blanca que contenga 

plomo, secos, en pasta 6 molidos 6 mezclados 

con aceite libra ... 01 % 

53 F6sforo id. ... 15 

Polasa: 

54 Btcromato y cromato ad val. 25 por ciento 

55 Hidriodato, iodito y iodato de potasa libra ... 25 

56 Nitrato de potasa 6 salitre refin ado id. ... 00 % 

37 Prosiato de potasa rojo 6 amarillo ad val. 25 por ciento 

Preparados : 

^ Todos los preparados medicinales, inclusos los^de- 
rivados del alquitrdn de bulla, asi como los de 



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39« 



MRlfiAQ^ 6¥ T&n ASfH^ICAH ^mPVm^^. 



No. Designaci^fh kt^rMetcanck^, Derechos. 

4cUip«i«M». "' DolLcMt*. 

patente k ba^ ^ alco&d 6 en Cuyt ^repara- 

cf^ entre el alcohol, do eapectficades libra ... 56 

Sin embarjifO, este derecho no podri ser infe- 
rior k 25 por dento ad val. 

59 TodOs los preparados medictnales no eipedfi- 

^dos ^ adval. ±5 por ciento 

59^ Verde de Parfey ptlrpura ^ lx>iidres id. t% % por c 

60 Prodnctos 6 preparadoi conocidos con los fiombres 

de dlcalis, alcaloides» aceites destilados, aceites 
oienciaies, aceites obtenido^ por la presi6n 6 ta 
fasi6n y toda^ las combia'actoaes de^estos pi^o- 
dtetos, as{ como todosr loft conapuedtos quinricos 
y sales, no especificadas ad tal. 35 por ciento 

61 P^reparados- destinados al tratamtento del cabello, 

la boca, los dientes 6 la piel, tales como cosing- 
ticos, dentlfricos, pastas, pomadas, polvos y 
todos los demds preparados de toeador y per- 
fumeria, nor espedficados 4 ad val. 40 por ciento 

63 Santonina ^ todas sus sales qae conteng^an 80 por 

ciento de Santonina poi^ 16 nienos Ii!>ra i Ob 

JabSn: 

^3 Jab6n : de Castilla adval. 30 por ciento 

— de fantasia, perfamado, y to los los jabones 
de toeador y medlcinales 6 que contengan un 
medtcamento cualquiera adval. 35 por ciento 

— Los demds, no especificados id. 10 por ciento 

Sosa: 

64 Bicarbonato d^ sosa6 *'ja/^ra/f#i'' libra ... 00 % 

65 Hidrato de sosa 6 so«a c^astica id. ...00^ 

66 Bicromatoy crotnato de sosa adval. 25 por ciento 

67 Sal de sosa 6 crist ales de sosa libra ... 00 >i 

Cenizas de sosa id. ... 00 % 

68 Silicato de sosa ii otros silicatos alcalinos id. ... 00 ^ 

69 Esponjas, musgo marino 6 de Islandia ad val. to por ciento 

70 Estricnina y sns sales Onza ...30 

71 Azttfrerefinado, SBbliniado6flordeaznfre..ad val. 20 por ciento 
7a ^nmaqne molido id. 10 por ciento 

73 Cr6mor tdrtaro y tartaro de patente id. 20 por ciento 

74 Cristales de tdrtaro y de heces de vino« refinados 

en parte fd. 20 por deirto 



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hA NUBVA TAltlFA DB UOS K8TADOS VMIDOS. 



3W 



No. Designacidn de las MercancUu, Derecbos. 

de la psrtkia. Doll. 4 

75 Tartrato de dosa y de potasa, 6 sal dc la 

Rochela « « libra ... oa 



76 



77 
78 



79 



8o 



8i 



$2 



83 



84 



CuADRO B. — TierraSy cerdmica y crisiaUrta, 

Ladrilhs y tejas: 

Ladrillos : sin bamiz, esnialte, adornos ni nin- 
gnna clase de decorado ad val. 25 por ciento 

— bamitados, esmaltados, adomados 6 deco- 

rados id. 30 por ciento 

— TefTSLCtSLriosimaenesic^re brick) tonelada 100 

Tejas y baldosas : sendllas, sinbarnizar, adornar, 

pintar, esmaltar, vitrificar ai decorar ad val. 25 por ciento 

— adomadas, barnizadas, pintadas, esnialtadas, 
vitrificadas 6 decoradas, inchisas las baldosas 
encdusticas ad val. 40 por ciento 

CemttUOf cal y yeso: 

Cemento romano, de Portland y todo cemento 
hidrdulico : en barricas, sacos <x otros embalajes, 
con inclusi6n del pesode estos loolibras ... 08 

— k granel.-....^ .• Id. ... 07 

Los demds cementos ad vah 10 por ciento 

Cal, con inclusion del peso del barril 6 embalaje 

100 libras ... 05 

Yeso de Paris 6 gipso : moHdo tonelada r 00 

— calcinado id. r 25 

Arcillas 6 iierras: 

Arcillas 6 tierras : en bruto 6 sin elaborar, no es- 
pecificadas id. i 00 

— elaboradas 6 mannfacturadas, no especifi.- 
cadas .'. id. 2 00 

— para hacer porcelana, 6 sea el kaolin id 2 00 

Manufacturas de barro y porcelatia: 

Manufactttras ordinarias de barro, amarillas ix 
obscuras, lisas 6 con relieves, articulos de gr£s 
ordinano y crisoles, sin decorar de una mauera 
cualqoiera ad val. 20 por ciento 

I/>za, porcelana, asper6n fino (parian), bizcocho, 
artefactos de barro, gr^s y alfareria, con inclu- 



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400 



BUREAU OF THB AMSRICAN RBPUBUCS. 



30 por ciento 



35 por ciento 



40 por ciento 
30 por ciento 
20 por ciento 



No. Desif^nadbn de las Mercancias. Derechos. 

<de la partida. DoU. ( 

si6n de placas» omamentos, jugnetes, bibelots^ 
jarrones y estatnitas, blancos, sin adomos ni 
decorado algano ad val. 

45 Los mistnos, pintados, mati^ados, esmaltados, es- 
tampados, dorados 6 decorados de cualquiera 
otra manera -... ad val. 

"86 Todos los detnds artefactos de barro 6 de ana sos- 
tancia mineral cualquiera, con inclusi6n de 
los remates de lava para quemadores de gas, no 
especifiados, adornados de cualquiera manera 

ad val. 
Los mismos, sin adomar....: Cd. 

87 Retortas de gas id. 

Vidrio y sus manufacturas: 

88 Botellas verdes y de colores, moldeadas 6 prensa* 

das, inclusas las de cristal 6 semi-cristal, de mds 
de una pinta de cabida, damajuanas y bom- 
bonas (con 6 sin funda), Uenas 6 vaclas, ya 
adende 6 no derechos su contenido, y demds 
manufacturas de vidrio verde 6 coloreado, cris- 
tal 6 semi-cristal, moldeadas 6 prensadas, no 

especlficadas libra 

Prascos de vidrio verde 6 coloreado, moideados 
6 prensados, inclusos los de cristal 6 semi- 
cristal : 

— que nocontengan m^ de una pinta ni menos 
de X de pinta libra 

— de menos de % de pinta gruesa 

Todas las demds manufacturas de vidrio liso, 

verde 6 coloreado, moldeadas 6 prensadas, 

inclusas las de cristal 6 semi-cristal ad val 40 por ciento 

89 Todas las manufacturas de vidiio, tall ad as, gra- 

badas, pintadas, coloreadas, estampadas, mati- 
xadas, decoradas. plateadas 6 doradas, con 
ezclusi6n del cristal piano azogado 6 lunas 
para espejos adval 40 por ciento 

90 Botellas, garrafas ii otras vasijas de vidrio, de 

todas clases, talladas, grabadas, pintadas, 
coloreadas, estampadas, matizadas, grabadas 
al agua fuerte 6 adornadas 6 decoradas de 
cualquiera otra manera, d ezcepci6n de los 
articulos similares que tengan simplemente el 



00 H 



01 H 
40 



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I«A NUBVA TARIFA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 40 1 

Ko. Designacibn de las Mercancias. Derechos. 

•de la pallida. Doll, cents. 

goUete y el tap6n esmerilados, no espedficados, 
incliisa la cristalerfa opaca 6 imitaci6n de por- 

celana ad val 40 por ciento 

Si estdn llenas, adendar^ derechos aparte 

de los qne corresponden al contenido como si 

estnviesen vacias, si no se preceptiia otra cosa. 

-91 Yidtio para vidrieras en cilindros. crown ^lass y 

vidrioordinario para vidrieras, sin pulimentar : 

— que no ezcedan de 10x15 polgadas de super- 

fide libra o 01 

— de|may or dimensidn, sin ezceder de i6z 24 pal- 

gadas de snperfide (d .. oi>( 

— ' de mayor dimensi6n, sin ezceder de 24x30 

pnlgadas de superfide id ... 01^ 

— de mayor dimensi6n, sin ezceder de 24x36 

polgadas de snperfide id . . 02 

— de mayor dimeasi6n id. ... o2>< 

Sin embargo, el vidrio para vidrieras, en ci- 
lindros, el crown glass y d vidrio qrdinario para 
vidrieras, sin pnlimentar, importados en cajas, 
deber^ tener 50 pi^ cnadrados en cada caja 
(teni^dose en cnenta, en tan to como sea posible, 

las dimensiones del vidrio), y se aforardn por ei 
peso real del vidrio. 
•99 Vidrio para vidneras, en cilindros, y croumglass^ 
pnlimentados : 

— qne no ezcedan de 16Z24 pnlgadas de super- 

fide pi^ cuadrado ... 02>^ 

— de mayor dimensi6n, sin ezceder de 24x30 

pnlgadas de snperfide id. ... 04 

— de mayor dimensi6n sin ezceder de 24x60 

pnlgadas de superfide id. ... 15 

— de mayor dimensi6n Id. .. 20 

•93 Cristales pianos acanalados.g cilindrados 6 t:n 

^ bruto, ^ ezcepci6n del crown glass y del cristal 

para vidrieras ordinario 6 en cilindros : 

— que no ezcedan de 16x24 pulgadas de super- 

fide pi^ cuadrado .. oc^ 

de mayor dimensi6n, sin exceder de 24x30 pul- 
gadas de superfide id. .. 01 

— de mayor dimensi6n id. ..oi>i 

Todos los cristales pianos acanalados, cilin- 
drados 6 en bruto, que pesen mds de 100 libras 



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401 BURBAU OP THE AJdERICAN RSPUBtlCS. 

No. Designaci&n de las MercamcUs, Derechos. 

de Im pftvtidm. Doll. ccali» 

por 100 i>t^ caadrados, adeudardn aa dered&o 
adicional por el exceso, con arreglo d las bases 
precedentes. Enti^ndase, sin embargo, que si 
estos cristales aoa pulimentadoo, siiaTuadot» 
esmerilados (k opacos, adendardn loe itiismoft 
derechos que los colados, pulimentadot y sin 
azogar. 

94 Cristales plaa<M colados y polimentados, estiva 

6 no acabados y sin azogar : 

— que no ezcedan de 16x24 pulgadas de super- 

fide pi^ cuadrado .. 05 

— > de mayor dimensi6o, sin ezceder de 24x30 

pulgadas de svperficie ..- id. .. 08 

— de mayor dimensi6a, sin exceder de 24x60 

pulgadas de superficie id. ,.2z% 

— de mayor dimensi6n id. ..35 

95 Cristales pianos colados, pulimeotados y azoga- 

dos, iuclusas las lunas para espejos : 

— de mas de 144 pulgadas cuadradas, sin ex- 

ceder de 16x24 pulgadas de super- 

ficie » pi^ cuadrado ... 06 

— de mayor dimeDsi6n, sin exceder de 24x30 

pulgadas de superficie •« id. ... 10 

— de mayor dimensi6n, sin exceder de 24x60 

pulgadas de superficie pi^ cuadrado . . 23 

— de mayor dimensi6u . ....id. .. 3S 

96 Las lunas para espejos 6 cristales pianos aso- 

gados, con niarco, no adeudardn menores 
derechos que los seiialados para dichos cristales 
sin marco. abonando por los marcos el derecho 
que les corresponda separadamente. 

97 Los cristales pianos colados, pulimentados, azo- 

gados 6 sin azogar, el vidrio en cilindros, el 
croTtm z^s y el vidrio ordinario para vidrieras, 
curvados, despulimentados, opacos, escarcha- 
dos, esmerilados, esmaltados, biselados, gra- 
bados al agua fuerte 6 de otro modo, en relieve, 
tenidos, matizados, coloreados, pintados 6 
adorn ados 6 decorados de otra manera cualquie- 
ra, adeudardu sobre los derechos ordina- 
rios ad val. 10 por dento- 

98 Lentes de todas clases, inclusas las usadas para 



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I.A NUKVA TARIFA DE LOS ESTAD08 UNIDOS. 



403. 



No. Designacidn de kis Merca^tclas. Derechos* 

de la pftrtida. DolL cents. 

estrabismo, gemelos y demds instrnmentos de 

6ptica, inclusas sus monturas ad val. 40 por ciento 

99 Cuentas de vidrio, sueltas, en sartas 6 en car- 
tones 9A val. 10 por cienta 

100 Lentes de vidrio 6 de cristal de roca, est^n 6 no 

enteramente concluidas ad val. 35 por cienta 

loi Esmalte fnsible y vidrios para Imternas mdgi- 

cas ad val. 25 por cienta 

102 Toda clase de cristales matizados 6 pintados, 

para vidrieras, y sns partes sueltas, espejos 
cnyas dimeosiones no ezoedan de 144 pnlgadas 
cuadradas, cos 6 sin marco 6 caja, asi como 
todos los dem^ articolos de vidrio en los 
cnales esta Mtima materia constituya la parte 
de mds valor, na especificados ad val. 35 par cienta 

Mdmioly piedras y sus manufacturas : 

103 Mdrmol de todas clases en bloqaes, en bruto 6 

simplemente escuadrado pi^ ciibico .. 50 

104 Mdrmol, aserrado, preparado 6 en otra forma, 

con inclusi6n de las tablas, mosaicos y losas 

para pavimento pi^ c<ibico ... 85 

(No pudieudo computarse d cada tabla 6 
losa m^nos de una pulgada de grueso ) 

105 Manufacturas de mdrmol, onix 6 alaba^tro, no 

especificados ad val. 45 por cienta 

Piedras : 

105X Piedras de talla, granito, gr^s, caliza y demds 
para construcci6n 6 monumentos, excepto el 
mdrmol, sin labrar ni preparar, no especi- 
ficadas pi^ ciibico .. 07 

106 Las mismas del niimero anterior, no especifica- 

das, cortadas, talladas 6 pulimentadas..ad val. 30 por cienta 

107 Piedras de afilar, est^n 6 no concluidas Id. 10 por cienta 

Pizarra : 

108 Pizarras, Jambas de chimenea de pizarra, f rentes 

de idem, losas para mesas y todas las demds 
manufacturas de pizarra noespecificadas. ad val. 20 p6r cienta 

109 Pizarras para tejados id. 20 por cienta 



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404 BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

CuADRO C. — Metales y 5US Manufacturas, 

No. Designacibn de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la partida. DolL cents. 

Hierro y acero : 

i09}4 Minerales de hierro, incluso el mineral de hierro 
manganlfero, asi como las escorias 6 resCduos 
de las piritas calcinadas tonelada ... 40 

no Hierro en lingotes, goas, hierro especnlar 6 
Spiege/eisen, ferromanganeso, ferrosillcio, y 
desperdicios 6 sobrantes de fundici6n, de hierro 

forjado 6 de acero tonelada 4 <» 

S6I0 se considerardn como sobrantes de hierro 
6 acero los desechos 6 desperdicios de hierro 7 
acero qne no puedan servir mds que para ser 
fundidos de nuevo. 

Ill Hierro redondo, en cabilla j varilla, de menos de 
7-16 de pulgada de diametro, y barras <i otras 
piezas de hierro laminado, no espedfica- 

dos libra ... 00 8-10 

Sin embargo, todo hierro en placas, tochos, 
bloqnes d otras formas menos perfeccionadas 
que el hierro en barras y mis acabadas que el 
hierro en lingotes, ezcepto las piezas de fun- 
dici6n, adeudard un derecho de 5-10 de cent por 
libra ; igualmente todo hierro en barras, tochos, 
trozos ii otras formas 6 tamanos, en cnya pre- . 
paraci6n se emplee como combustible el carb6n 
de lefia, adeudard nn derecho de 12 doll, por 
tonelada. 

112";: Hierro en barras, ya sea batido 6 laminado. con 
inclusi6n de barras planas que no tengan 
menos de una pulgada de ancho y ^ de pul- 
gada de grueso libra ... 00 6-10 

Hierro redondo que no baje de ^ de pulgada de 
didmetro, y cuadrado que no baje de ^ de 

pulgada de lado ••• libra ... 00 6-io 

Hierro piano de menos de una pulgada de ancho 
6 m^nos de >i de pulgada de grueso; hierro 
redondo, de menos de ^ de pulgada de did- 
metro, no bajando este de 7-16 de pulgada, y 
cuadrado de menos de }( de pulgada de lado 
libra ... 006-10 

113 Yigas, bridas, tirantes, piezas de dngulo, cana- 
lones, barras de carretero (car truck channels). 



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LA NUEVA TA&IFA DB LOS SSTADOS UNIDOS. 



405 



No. 
dt la putlda. 



Design€u:i6n de las Mercancias, 



Derechos. 
Doll, cents. 



... 00 5-10 


... 00 6-10 


30 por ciento 


25 por ciento 



X X, colnmnas y postes 6 secdones de los mis- 
mo8, barrotes 6 vignetas para cubiertas de 
buqnes y otras formas para construcciones, 
tanto de hierro como de acero, ya sean planas, 
agajereadas 6 preparadas para sn uso res- 
pectivo » libra ... 00 6-10 

114 Planchas de bierro 6 acero para calderas ii otros 

usos (ezcepto las hojas para sierras que mds ade- 
lante se ezpresardn), que tengan por lo menos 
el grueso del alambre niiinero 10, recortadas 6 
sin recortar, y bierro 6 acero para canones de 
fusil, recortado 6 laminado en canales, avalua- 
dos en: 

— I cent 6 menos por libra libra 

— mds de I sin exceder de i>^ cent por libra .id. 

— mds de I j^ sin exceder de 4 cents por libra 

ad val. 

— mds de 4 cents por libra id. 

Toda plancha de hierro 6 acero mds delgada 

que el n^m. 10 del calibrador adeudard como 
hierro 6 acero en hojas. 

115 Hierro 6 acero forjados solos 6 en Gombinaci6n, 

de cualquier forma 6 en cualquier grado de 
elaboraci6u en que se encuentren, no especifi- 

cados libra ... oi|i 

El hierro y el acero forjados, solos 6 combina- 
dos, preparados por cualquier procedimiento, 
no adeudardn en ningdn caso menos de 35 por 
ciento ad val. 

116 Hierro 6 acero en flejes, cintas 6 rollos, no espe- 

cificado adral. 30 por ciento 

117 Barras, carriles de hierro 6 acero 6 con parte de 

acero, carriles de X 7 carriles pianos de hierro 
6 acero taladrados libra ... 00 7-20 

118 Hojas de hierro 6 acero com^n 6 negro, CwU in- 

clusi6n de todo hierro 6 acero conocido en el 
comercio con la denoniinaci6a deblock taggers 
iron or steel comiiQ 6 negro, y el hierro 6 acero 
para canones de fusiles, avaluados en 3 cents 
por libra para abajo: 

— de m^nos grueso que el niim. 10 y no bajando 

del grueso del alambre niim. 20 libra ... 00 7-10 

— de m^nos grueso que el niim. 20, no bajando 



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izedbyGoOQle 



Derechos. 


Doll, ccate. 


... oo 8-IO 


... OI I-IO 


... OI I-IO 



406 BUREAU OF THE AM^ERICAN RBPUBUCS. 

No. Designacidn de las Mercancias, 

-de la pMtfda. 

del grueso del n^ mere 25 id. 

— mds delgadas qae el niim. 35 id. 

— esiriadas 6 onduladas id. 

Todo bierro 6 acero en hojas, com&ti 6 negro, 

cuyo grueso no sea inferior al del alambre 
n<im. 10, adeudard como hierro 6 acero ea 
planchas. 

119 Todo hierro 6 acero en hojas 6 planchas, en flejes, 
cintas 6 rollos d ezcepci6n del que en el co- 
niercio se conoce con la denominaci6n de hoja 
de lata brillante, mate, taggers tin^ especificado 
mds adelante, galvanizado 6 recubierto de 
una capa de zinc, peltre <i otro metal, 6 de una 
aleaci6n de los mismos, adeudard % de cent por 
libra sobre los derechos marcados en eljniimero 
anterior para las clases respectivas de la hoja 
de hierro 6 acero com^n 6 negro, 6 sobre el 
hierro 6 acero llamados taggers iron 6 steely 
segiin sn calibre 6 forma. 

.120 Hierro 6 acero en hojas, pulimetitado, alisado 6 
abrillantado, cualquiera que sea su denomina- 

ci6n libra ... 01 % 

El hierro 6 acero en placas (x hojas, asi como 
el hierro 6 acero llamados taggers iron or 
steely cualquiera que sea su denominaci6n (ex- 
cepto los pnlimentados, alisados 6 abrillanta- 
dos, ya especlficados), que hayan sido corroidos 
6 limpiados por medio de un dcido 6 por cual- 
quier otro procedimiento 6 material, que hayan 
sido batidos en frio, solamente suavizados, pero 
no pulimentados, adeudardn }/i de cent por 
libra, mds que el hierro 6 acero com^n 6 negro 
en hojas 6 el llamado taggers iron 6 steel. 

.121 Hojas 6 placas de hierro 6 acero, 6 hierro 6 acero 
(taggers iron or steel) recubiertas de una capa 
de estano 6 plomo, 6 con una aleaci6n de que 
formen parte estos metales 6 alguno de ellos, por 
la inmer8i6n ii otro procedimiente, conocidas en 
el comercio bajo la denominaci6n de hoja de 

lata brillante, mate 6 taggers tin libra ... 01 1-5 

El derecho reducido fijado en esta partida se 
aplicard d partir del i** de Octabre de 1894. El 
derecho aplicable d los objetos no ezpresados, 



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I^ NUBVA TARIFA DB U>S BSTADOS UNIDOS. 407 

No. DesigtMcidn de ias Mercancias, Derechos. 

4e ia puftida. Doll. 



fabricados en todo 6 en parte de hoja de lata 
brillante 6 mate 6 de hojas 6 placas de Iderro 
6 de acero, expresadas en la presente partida, 
6 en los cuales la tal materia constituya el ele- 
mente d^ principal valor, no podrd ser inferior 
al establecido para las indicadas materias de 
que el objetose halle compuesto principalmente. 
132 lingotes de acero, lingotes dentadoe, bloqnes 6 
Inpias (slabs) ^ cnalquiera que sea el procedi- 
miento por qne estdn fabricados; coBos 6 
matrices ; todios y barras ; barras de dngulo 6 
biseladas ; drboles de transmisi6n para baques 
de vapor, de manivela ii otros; transmisiones; 
ejes de uni6n 6 de manivela; bielas y ^mbolos; 
moldes obtenidos por presi6n, recorte 6 estampa* 
ci6n; placas para sierras total 6 parcialmente 
elaboradas ; moldes de forja 6 acero para es- 
tampar, moldes para cafiones de fusil, no en 
barras; aleaciones usadas en sustitnci6n del 
acero en la fabricaci6n de herramientas; toda 
dase de fbrmas y fundiciones de acero moldea- 
das en arena seca, en marga 6 en hierro 
fnndido; hojas y placas no especificadas; acero 
de todas clases y formas no expresadas: todos 
estos articnlos avaluados en: 

— I cent por libra 6 menoe libra ...003-10 

— m^ del sin excederde 1 4-10 decent la libra id ... 00 4-10 

— fd. 1 4-10 id. 1 8-10 id. fd. ... 00 6-10 

— Id. 1 8-10 id. 2 2-10 id. id. ... 00 7-10 

— id. 22-10 id. 3 cents la libra id. ...009-10 

— id. 3 id. 4 id id. ... 01 2-10 

— id. 4 id. 7 id id. ... 01 3-10 

— id. 7 id. 10 id. id. ... 01 9-10 

— id. 10 id. 13 id. id. ... 02 4-10 

— id. 13 id. 16 id id. ... 02 8-10 

— id. 16 cents la libra id. ...047-10 

Alttmbre: 
I S3 Yarillas para la fabricaci6n del alambre, para 
remaches, tomillos, cercas ^ otros usos^ ya sean 
redondas, ovaladas, planas, cuadradas 6 de 
cnalquier otra forma, inclusas las de hacer da- 
Tos, en rollos 6 de otra manera. avaluadas en: 

— 4cents6menos porlibra libra ... 00 4-10 



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4o8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

No. Desij^nacidn de las Mercancias. Derechof. 

de la partida. Doll, cents. 

— - mds de 4 cents por libra id. ... oo y 

Toda varilla redonda de hierro 6 acero, cuyo 
didmetro sea inferior al niimeFo6 del calibrador 
del alambre de hierro, se clasificard y adeudard 
como alambre. 
124 Alambre redondo de hierro 6 acero de cualquier 
didmetro: 

— no inferior al n^ 13 del calibrador libra ... 01 % 

■i— inferior al n® 13, pero no al n° 16. fd. ... 01 % 

— inferior al n^ 16 id. ...02 

Todos los demds alambres de hiero 6 de acero 

y los alambres 6 cintas de acero vulgarmente 
conocidos con el nombre de cintas 6 alambres 
para mirinaques, para (:ors^, para mechas, 
para agujas, para cuerdas de piano y para re- 
lojes de todas clases, asi como todos los denids 
alambres de acero, est^n 6 no pulimentados, en 
rollos 6 tendidos, cortados en longitudes deter- 
minadas y estirados d la hilera en fHo, indnso 
el alambre para sombreros; alambre piano de 
acero ii hoja de acero cortada en tiras, est^n 6 
no recubiertos de algod6n, seda 6 otras mate- 
rias 6 de metal; todos estos articolos, cnalquiera 
que sea su forma 6 mano de obra, avaluados en 

mds de 4 cents la libra ad. val. 40 por dento 

Sin embargo, los artfculos fabricados con 
alambre de hierro 6 de acero adeudardn, ade- 
mds del derecho mds elevado senalado al alam- 
bre empleado en su fabricaci6n, un derecho adi- 
cional de i cent por libra. 

Disposiciones generates: 

Its ^o se hard bonificaci6n ni rebaja de derechos por 
dano 6 p^rdida total 6 parcial ocasionados por 
oxidaci6n 6 decoloraci6n del hierro 6 acero 6 de 
cualquier maaufactura de que estos metales 
sean dnico 6 parcial componente. 

Manufaeturas de hierro y acero: 

ia6 Anclas 6 partes de anclas de hierro 6 acero, hier- 
ros y manivelas de hierro forjado para fdbricas, 
hierro forjado para buques, y piezas forjadas 
de hierro 6 de acero 6 de ambos metales com- 



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I 



LA NUBVA TARIPA DE I*OS ESTADOS UNID08. 



409 



01 a- 10 



01 ^ 



No. DesignacUm de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la fMUtidm. UoU. cents. 

binados para bnqaes, rndqninas de vapor y 
locomotoras, asC como sus piezas sueltas.... libra ... 
137 Bjes 6 partes de ejes» barras para ejes, bos- 
qnejos de ejes y partes forjadas para los tnis- 
tnos, de hierro 6 acero, sea cualquiera el grado 

de elaboraci6n libra ... 

Si los ejes de hierro 6 acero se importan ajus- 
tados d las ruedas 6 partes de estas, tatnbidn de 
hierro 6 acero, adeudardn iguales derecho? que 
las ruedas d que van unidos 

1 28 Yonques de hierro 6 acero 6 de ambos metales com- 

binados, por cualquier procedimiento que est^n 
hechos y sea cualquiera el grado de elaboraci6n 

libra .., 

129 Idartillos y mazos de herrero, herramientas para 

tender carriles, Haves y palancas, de hierro 6 
acero libra .. 

130 Tubos de todas clases, indnsos los usados parn 

calderas, cafiones de chimenea y tirantes para 
calderas, de hierro fotjado 6 acero ad val. 25 

131 Pemos, con 6 sin paso de rosea 6 tuerca, bos* 

quejos de pemos y bisagras concluidas 6 sin 
concluir, de hierro 6 acero libra ... 

132 Guamiciones de cardas, hechas de alambre de 

acero templado pi6 cnadrado ... 

— Lasdemds Id. ... 

133 Tnberia de fundici6n de todas clases libra ... 

134 Yasijas, fuentes, placas para estufas, morrillos, 

planchas comunes, de sastre y de sombrerero, 
de hierro fundido, y piezas de fundici6n no 
especificadas libra ... 

135 Objetos moldeados de hierro maleable no especiB- 

cados id. ... 

136 Utensilios hnecos de fundici6n, barnizados, estatia- 

dos 6 conun bano cualquiera (d. ... 

137 Cadenas de todas clases, de hierro 6 acero. ad val. 30 

CuchilUrfa: 

138 Cortaplumas, navajas de bolsillo 6 raspadores de 

todas clases, avaluados en : 

— 30 cents por docena 6 en menos ad val. 25 

— mds de 30 sin exceder de 50 cents por do- 

cena doceua ... 

3P ILL 



■ 01 y^ 

por ciento 

01 y^ 

40 
20 
00 6-10 

00 8-10 

00 9-10 

02 

por cieuto 

por ciento 



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4IO 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



No. Designacidn de las Mercancias. Derecbos. 

de la partida. Doll, cents. 

— m&s de 50 cents sin exceder de i dollar por 

docena „ id. ... 25 

— mds de i sin exceder de 1.50 dollars por 

docena fd. ... 40 

— mds de 1.50 sin exceder de 3 dollars por 

docena id. ... 75 

— mds de 3 dollars por docena ad val 50 por ciento 

y ademds sobre todos los articalos antes ex- 

presados, avaluados en mds de 30 cents sin 
exceder de 3 dollars por docena, un derecbo 

adidonal de ad val. 25 por ciento 

Bnti^ndase que las bojas, mangos d otras 
partes de cualquiera de los ai tfculos antes men- 
cionados, que se importen de otra manera que 
unidos d los cortaplumas, navajas de bolsillo 6 
raspadores, no adeudardn un derecbo inferior 
al establecido para dicbos articulos avaluados 
en mds de 30 cents por docena. 
J3g Sables y sus hojas, y armas blancas ad val. 35 por ciento 

140 Cucbillos de mesa, tenedores, y trinchantes 

avaluados en mds de 4 dollars por docena ; 
navajas de afeitar y sus bojas, concluidas en 

todo 6en parte ; tijeras y cizallas ad val. 45 por ciento 

Cucbillos de mesa y tenedores, de las demds 
clases ; afiladores, cucbillos de caza, de cocina, 
de pan, de mante quilla, de frutas o de queso, de 
emplomador, de pintor, para paleta y de artista, 
de todas clases.; asi conio todos los cucbillos, 
tenedores y afiladores para cociueros 6 car- 
niceros ad val. 35 por ciento 

141 Limas, bosquejos de limas, escofinas y limas de 

simple talla, scan cuales fueren el tamano y la 
clase : 

— de 4 pulgadasde Ion gitud para abajo... docena ...35 

— de mds de 4 pulgadas y m^nos de 9 fd. ... 60 

— de 9 pulgadas de longitud 6 mds id. i 00 

Armas de fuego: 

142 Mosquetes. fusiles de baqueta y escopetas de caza, 

y sus partes sueltas ad val. 25 por ciento 

143 Escopetas de caza que se carguen por la reed- 

mara, fusiles y carabinas de combinaci6n, pis- 
tolas, y partes sueltas para dicbas armas . ad val. 30 por ciento 



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LA NUBVA TARIFA DE JjOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 



4" 



Ko. Desi^^acidn de Uis Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la partida Doll, cents. 

144 Hojas, placas 6 manufactaras, esmaltadas 6 

vidriadas, de hierro, acero ii otros metales 

ad val. 35 por ciento 

Cloves y puntaSy tachuelas y aguj'as: 

145 Clavos y puntas, cortados d mdquina, de hierro 

6 acero Id. 22 ,'4por c 

146 Ctavos para herrar, tachuelas j todos los demds 

clavos de hierro forjado 6 acero, no especifi- 

cados ad val. 30 por ciento 

147 Clavos de^alambre de hierro forjado 6 de acero . Id. 25 por ciento 

148 Clavijas, tnercas y rodajas, herraduras de caballo, 

malo 6 bney, de hierro forjado 6 acero... ad val. 25 por ciento 

149 Puntas, clavos para suelos 6 sin cabeza, cortados 

d mdqnina, de todas clases id. 25 por ciento 

150 Agujas para mdquinas de coser 6 hacer media, 

agujas de crochet, pasadores de cintas, agujas 
de hacer media, y todas las demds especifi* 
cadas, y cabetes (bodkins) de metal ad val. 25 por ciento 

Flacas: 

151 Placas de acero grabadas, estereoti picas, electro- 

tlpicas y de otros materiales, grabadas 6 lito- 

grafiadas para imprimir a4 val. 25 por ciento 

152 Bclises 6 placa de junta para ferrocarriles, de 

hierro 6ac^ro id; 25 por ciento 

153 Remaches d6 hierro 6 acero id. 25 por ciento 

Sierras : 

154 Sierras de corte transversal pi^ lineal ... 06 

— para mdqninas de aserrar ......Id. ... 10 

— largas, de mano 6 de tiro id. ... 08 

— circnlares « ad val. 25 por ciento 

— de mano, con canto 6 lomo, y todas las demds 

no especificadas id. 25 por ciento 

155 Tomillos comunmente Uamados de madera : 

— de mds de 2 pulgadas de longitud libra ... 03 

— de mds de una sin exceder de 2 pulgadas de 
longitud id. ... 05 

— de mds de media pulgada sin exceder de una 

de longitnd id. ... 07 

— de media pulgada para abajp id ... 10 

155 >^ Ballenas, varillas, virolas, mangos y demds partes 

de paragnas 6 sombrillas, hechas total 6 parcial- 



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412 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



No. Desijcnacidn de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la partida. Doll, cents. 

mente de hierro, acero 6 cualquier otrb metal 

ad val. 50 por dento 

156 Ruedaa para caminoi de hierro y partes^de raedas, 

de hierro 6 acero, j raedas provi9tas de llantas 
de acero para ferrocarriles, est^o 6 no del todo 
concluldas, llantas 6 partes de llantas de hierro 
6 acero, para locomotoras, wagones ii otro 
material de ferrocarril, total 6 parcialmente 
manufacturados ; lingotes, inclusos los dentados, 
changotes 6 bosqnejos para los mismos usos,cnal- 

qniera que sea el grado de elaboraci6n libra ... 01 X 

Las ruedas 6 partes de ruedas, de hierro 6 
acero, asi como las ruedas que se importen 
unidas & ejes de dichos|metales, adeudardu con 
arreglo d lo establecido para las ruedas impor- 
tadas separadamente. 

Metales varios y sus manufacturas : 

157 Aluminio en bruto y aleaciones de todas clases de 

que sea principal componente el aluminio. libra ... 10 

158 Argent6n, melchior 6 plata alemana, sin manu- 

facturar ad val. 15 por cienlo 

159 Lat6n en barras 6 galdpagos ; lat6n viejo, recortes 

de lat6n 6 de bronce, y forro viejo 'de metal 
amanllo, d prop6sito s61o para ser fundido de 
nuevo ad val. 10 per cicnto 

160 Bronce en polvo, oropel 6 lentejnelas ; bronce» 

lat6n 6 aluminio, en hojas id. 40 por ciento 

Cobre%^ 

161 Cobre en placas laminadas, llamado cobre de 

calderero, en hojas, varillas, tubos, y fondos de 
cobre, con inclusi6n de los blindajes de metal 
amarillo, de que sea principal componente el 
cobre, sin mezcla de hierro no galvani^ado 

ad val. 20 per ciento 

Oro y plata: 

162 Hilillos y alambre de oro, plata in otros metales, 

no especificados w ad val. 25 por cienlo 

163 Oro en hojas id. 30 por ciento 

164 Plata en hojas y polvo de plata id. 30 por cicnto 



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I^A NUEVA TARIFA DE I*OS ESTADOS UNID05 

No. Desifrnacidn de las Mercancias, Dere 

dc la partida. Doll. 

Plotno: 

165 Minerales de plomo y escorias de idem libra ... • 

El mineral de plata y todos los demds mine^ 
rales que contengan plomo adeudardn mi dere- 
cho de )i de cent per cada libra de plomo que 
contengan, de conformidad d la muestra y pre- 
vio el correspondiente ensayo hecho en el puerto 
de entrada. El m^todo de ensayo serd el gene- 
ralmente adoptado por las oficinas ofidales de 
esta clase establecidas al efecto en los Estados- 
Unidos. 

166 Plomo en galdpagos y barras, plomo fundido y 

plomo viejo colado en bloques y barras, y des- 
perdicios de plomo viejo, bnenos iiiaicamente 

para ser fun didos de nuevo libra ... 

Cuando ciertos palses extranjeros perciban 
derechos de exportaci6n sobre los minerales 6 
escorias de plomo 6 sobre los minerales de plata 
que contengan plomo, todos los artlculos com- 
prendidos en las dos partidas precedentes que 
procedentes de dichos pafses se importen en los 
Estados-Unidos adeudardn los derechos que les 
eran aplicables anteriormente d la entrada en 
vigor de la presente Ley. 

167 Plomo en hojas, tubos, perdigones, plomo de 

vidriero y en alambre libra ... < 

\(f]% Niquel, 6xido de nfqnel y aleaciones de todas 
clases de que sea principal componente el 

nlquel libra ... 

\^H Mica ad val. 20 

168 Plamas metdlicas, excepto las de oro gruesa ... < 

169 Cabos de portaplumas, portaplnmas 6 partes de 

portaplumas y plumas de oro ad val. 25 

170 Alfileres metdlicos, inclusos los de cabeza fija 6 

de vidrio, ganchos para el pelo, alfileres de 
seguridad, los de sombrero, gorra, chal 6 cinta- 
r6n, siempre que no se asimilen en el comercio 

d los artfculos de joyeria ad val. 25 ] 

i7o>^ Mercurio libra ... < 

171 Metal para caracteres de imprenta, por el plomo 

que contenga id. ... < 

Caracteres de imprenta nuevos ad val. 15 



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4X4 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



No. Designacibn de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la partida. DolL centt. 

Relojes: 

172 Cron6metros en cajas 6 de marina y partes de los 

mismos fd. 10 por ctento 

173 Relojes de todas clases y sus partes sneltas, ya 

yenganembaladosseparadamente6no...adval. 35 por ciento 

Zinc 6 peltre: 

174 Zinc en bloqnes 6 galdpagos libra ...01 

175 Zinc en hojas, sin pulimentar ni mds mano de 

obra que el simple laminado id. ... 01 % 

176 — viejo, bueno dnicamente para ser manufactu- 

radodenuevo id. ... 00 U 

177 Manufacturas y objetos 6 artlculos compuestos 

en todo 6 en parte de cualquier metal, total 6 
parcialmente manufacturados, no especifica- 
dos ad val. 35 por ciento 



CuADRO D. — Madera y sus manufacturas. 

179 Mimbre y sauce : preparados para la fabricaci6n 

de cestas ad val. 20 por ciento 

— en manufacturas id. 25 por ciento 

— junco y ratdn preparados para hacer muebles 

de rejilla id. 10 por ciento 

180 Toneles y barriles vacios, tablas en atados para 

cajas de aziicar, cajas de embalaje y tablas 

para fabricarlas, no especificados ad val. 20 por ciento 

i8o>^ Limpiadientes de materias vegetales id. 35 por ciento 

181 Muebles de casa 6 de escritorio, de madera, est^n 

6 no concluidos, manufacturas de madera 6 de 
que sea principal componente la madera, no 
especificados .- ad val. 25 por ciento 



CuADRO E. — Azficar. 

162 Se deroga por la presente la parte de la Ley titu- 
lada ^^ Ley para rcducir las rentas del TesorOt 
unificando los derechos^ etc.y elc,,** aprobada el 
i^ de Octubre de 1890, que autorizaba la emisi6n 
de permisos para la fabricaci6n del a^iicar y 
ofrecia una prima d los fabricantes de azticares 



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LA NUEVA TARIFA DB LOS BSTADOS DNIDOS. 41$ 

No. DesignacHm de las Mercancias, DerechoB. 

de la partida. Doll, cents. 

de remolacha, sorgo, cafia de aziicar 6 savia 
del arce, prodncto de los Estados Unidos. En 
an consecuencia, no se concederdn en lo suce- 
sIto I06 permisos en cnesti6n, ni se abonard 
prima algnna d los fabricpjntes de dichos pro- 
dnctos. 
182 >^ Sobre todos los aziicares, reslduos de los tanques, 
jarabes de miel de cana 6 de remolacha, mela- 
dos, melados concentrados, melazas concretas 

6 concentradas, se percibird un derecho de 

ad val. 40 por ciento 
Los az^cares superiores en color al n^ 16 del tipo 
holand^s, asi como los decolorados, adeudardn 
ademds del 40 por ciento cul valorem ya men- 

cionado libra ... 00 yi 

No obstante, cuando los mencionados pro- 
ductos (aziicares, residtios de los tanques, etc.) 
sean de producci6n 6 se importen de pafses que, 
en el acto de su exportaci6n, abonen directa 6 
indirectamente una prima d los exportadores, 
adeudardn sobre el derecho antes establecido 
el adicional de i-io de cent por libra. Sin 
embargo, los importadores del aziicar en cues- 
ti6n podrdn ser dispensados de pagar el refe- 
rido derecho adicional cuando se conformen 
con las reglas que dicte el Secretario del Tesoro. 
Esta franquicia no se concederd mds que cuando 
los importadores presenten un certificado expe- 
dido por el respectivo Gobiemo del pais de ori- 
gen, haciendo constar que no se ha concedido 
ninguna prima indirecta por los derechos paga- 
dos sobre la remolacha 6 la cana que ha servido 
para la obtenci6n del az6car, y que tampoco se 
ha abonado 6 se abonard prima alguna directa. 
Queda ademds entendido que ninguna de las 
anteriores prescripciones podrd derogar 6 modi- 
ficar en modo alguno las estipulaciones del Tra- 
tado de reciprocidad comercial concluido el 30 
de Enero de 1875 entre los Estados Unidos y el 
Rey de las Islas de Hawai, ;ii las disposiciones 
de cualquiera Ley anterior del Congreso relativa 
d la eiecuci6n de dicho Tratado. 



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4l6 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

No. Designacibn de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la partida. DolL cenU, 

Toda clase de melazas : 

— de mis de 40 sin exceder de 56 grados polari- 
m^tricos gal6n ... 02 

— de mds de 56 grados Id. ...04 

183 Azdcar cande y articulos de confiteiia de todas 

clases hechos total 6 parcialmente de aziicar, 
asl como los azdcares que, despu^s de refinados, 
hay an sido tenidos, coloreados 6 adulterados de 

una manera cualquiera ad val. 35 por aento 

Glucosa 6 axticar de uvas Id. 15 por ciento 

Sacarina Id. 25 por ciento 



CuADRO F. — Tabacoy incluso el elaborado, 

1S4 Hoja de labaco 6 tobaco en rama i prop6sito para 
capa de cigarros puros : 

— sin despalillar, importada en tercios, cajas, 
paquetes 6 d granel libra i 50 

— de8palillada» importada en igual forma.. ..(d. 2 25 
185 Tabaco para tripa de cigarros puros : 

— sin despalillar» importado en tercios» cajas. 
paquetes 6 d granel id. ... 35 

— despalillado, importado en igual forma.... id. ...50 
En el presente Arancel, se entiende por hoja 

de tabaco dpropbsitopara capa de cigarros puros 
la clase de tabaco en rama conocida en el comer- 
do como tabaco para capa, y por tabaco para 
tripa de cigarros puros el que estd en hojas 
sin manufadturar, cuando sea evidente que no 
puede servir para los usos anteriormente refe- 
ridos. 

Cuando el tabaco en rama importado en ter- 
cios, cajas, paquetes 6 d granel sea producto de 
diferentes paises 6 se componga de calidades y 
valores diferentes, el todo se sujetard al mismo 
regimen que el tabaco para capa de cigarros 
puros, salvas las di&posiciones que d continua- 
ci6n se expresan. Si el tercio, caja, paquete 
de tabaco 6 tabaco d granel de calidad uniforme 
contiene mds de 15 por ciento de tabaco en rama, 
propio por su color, fineza y tamano para servir 
de capa de cigarros puros, la totalidad del ta- 



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IJl NUEVA TARIFA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 417 

No. Desig^nacidn de las Mercancias. Derechos. 

•de Im partida. UolL centi. 

baco contenido en dichos tercios, cajas, paqne- 
tes 6 bien d igranel segnird el regimen del 
referido tabaco para capa de cigarros puros. 

Coando los Colectores 6 Administradores de 
las aduanas, no se hallen autorUados al efecto 
por los reglamentos' que dicte el Secretario 
del Tesoro, no pennitirdn la entrada del tabaco 
en rama importado en tercios, cajas, paquetes 6 
d granel, sin que yenga acompanado de facinras, 
badendo constat en detalle la calidad de la 
hoja, ya se destine d capa 6 d tripa de cigarros 
puros, qnebrado 6 self -working bales, 

£n el acto de examiner las facturas para 
clasificar el tabaco importado en rama, si el 
enviose componede menos de 10 tercios, el Vista 
6 el Agente debidaniente antorizado al efecto 
podrd reconocer uno solo de ellos, si asi lo 
jnzga oportnno. Caando se trate de un envio 
superior d 10 tercios, se reconocerd uno solo por 
cada serie de 10. El ezamen de 10 manojos 
en cada tercio se considerard como legalmente 
sufi^iente. 
«86 Tabaco de todas clases, elaborado 6 sin elaborai , 

no espedficado libra o 40 

187 Rap^ de todas clases, molido en seco 6 hiimedo, 

preparado, perfumado 6 en otra forma.... libra o 50 

188 Cigarros, cigarrillos y tusas (cherools) de todas 

clases Id. 4 ... 

y ad val. 25 por ciento 
Los cigarros de papel y cigarrillos, inclusas 
las envolturas, adeudarda los mismos derechos 
que los cigarros puros. 



CuADRO G. — Productos a^fcolas y comestibles. 

Animal es vivos: 

189 Auimales de todas clases, no expresados.ad val. 20 por ciento 

Cereales y sustancias farindceas: 

190 Trigo sarraceno, ma(z, harina de maiz, ayena, 

centeno, harina de centeno, trigo y harina de 

irigo ad val. 20 por ciento 



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4i3 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 



Derechos. 
Doll, ceuts. 

15 por cienta 

30 por ciento 
40 por ciento 
20 por ciento 
... 01 ^ 

... 00 S-io 

... 00 '4 
... 00 H 



No. DesignaciSn de las Mercancias, 

de la partida. 

Harina de avena Id. 

191 ' Cebada, indusa la perlada, de patente 6 mon- 

dada id. 

Malta de cebada id. 

192 Macarrones, fideos j productos similares id. 

193 Arroz: sin c^scara ^.. libra 

— con cdscara 6 sin la cdpsnla floral, pero si 
con sns peliculas propias id 

Harina y moynelo de arros^ y el arroz partido 

que pase por la criba nietdlica del ntim% 12.. libra 

Paddy 6 arro2 con su cdpsula floral id. 

Productos de la leche : 

194 Mante quilla y sus equivalentes id. ... 04 

195 Queso id. ... 04 

196 Leche condensada» con inclusi6n del peso de la 

vasija id. ... 02 

Azdcar de leche Id. ... 05 

Olros productos agricolas : 

197 Judias ad val. 20 por dcnto 

198 Judfas, guisantes, setas y demds legnmbres pre- 

paradas 6 conservadas en latas, botes, botellas 
6 de otra manera, asi como los encurtidos y 

salsas de todas clases ....! ad val. 30 por dento 

\Qfi% Huevos docena ... 03 

199 Heno tonelada 2 00 

200 Miel de abejas gal6n ... 10 

201 Liipnlo libra ... 08 

202 CeboUas bushel ... 20 

203 Guisantes : secos id. ... 20 

— partidos .........bushel de 60 libra*^ ...50 

— en sacos de papel, cartones 6 otros oequenos 
embalajes „ libra ... 01 

204 Patatas bushel de 60 libras ... 15 

Semillas: 

205 Semillas: de ricino bushel de 50 libras ... 25 

206 — de lino, de adormidera y otras oleaginosas no 

especificadas bushel de 56 libras ... 20 

206'/^ — de hortaliza, agricolas y otras, no especifi- 

cadas ad val. 10 por ciento 

207 Legumbres en estado natural, no especifica- 

das « id. 10 por cicnto- 



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I.A NUEVA TARIPA DB LOS BSTADOS UNIDOS. 



419^ 



No. DesignacUm de las Meramdas, Derechos. 

de la partlda. DolL cents. 

x^yi Paja id. 15 por dento- 

207^ Cardones para peinar panos (d. 15 por ciento- 

Pescado: 

ao8 Anchoas y sardinas; conservadas en aceite 6 de 
otro tnodo» en latas de hoja ce lata que no 
pasen de 5 pnlgadas de lon^itud, 4 de ancho y 

3>^defondo caja 6 bote ... 10 

idem id. en medias latas que no midan nids de 
5 pnlgadas de largo, 4 de ancho y i ^ de 

fondo ^ una ... 05 

Idem Id. en cnartos de lata, que no midan nids 
de 4 ^, pnlgadas de largo, 3 >^ de ancho y i % 

de fondo ..una ... 02 % 

Idem id. importadas en otra forma ad. val. 40 por ciento- 

ao9 Pescado ahumado, seco, salado, en salmuera 6 
preparado de otra manera para su conserva- 
ci6n libra ... 00 % 

2 CO Arenqnes en salmuera, conservados &n hielo 6 
salados, y pescado de mar conservado en 
hielo libra ... 00 %, 

3 IX Pescado en latas 6 cajas de hoja de lata (i otro 

material, con exclusi6n de las sardinas 6 an- 

. choas y del pescado que se presente en otro 

embalaje, no especificado ad val. 20 por ciento- 

Frutas y nueces: 

Frutas : 

213 Manzanas, verdes 6 maduras, secas, desecadas 6 

preparadas, de cualquier modo que sea.. ad val. 20 por ciento 

2i3>2 — Ddtiles y pifias id 20 por ciento 

214 — Uvas id 20 por ciento 

215' — Aceitunas verdes 6 preparadas id 20 por ciento 

216 — Naranjas, limones y limas : envasadas 

pie ciibico de capacidad ... 08 

— dgranel miliar i 50 

— y ademds un derecho de 30 por ciento ad 
valorem por las cajas 6 barnles en que se 
presenten. 

Cuando la madera delgada que com- 
ponga los costados, fondos y tapas de las 
cajas para naranjas y limones sea de pro- 
ducci6n y fabricaci6n de los Estados Unidos 



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42 o 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



No. DesignaciSn de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la partida. Doll ceats. 

7 se exporte para la cotifecci6n de cajas 
destinadas d dicho uso, tales cajas podrdn 
reimportarse llenas de los referidos frutos, 
mediante el pago de^la mitad de los derechos 
senalados & sos similares extranjeras. 

217 Ciruelas, ciruelas pasas, higos y pasas de todas 

clases, inclusas las de Corinto producto de 

Zante libra ... 01 % 

218 Confituras, dnlces y frutas conservadas en azdcar, * 

altiilbar 6 melaza, no especificadas, inclusa la 
copra 6 nuez de coco preparada 6 desecada, asi 
como las jaleas de todas clases ad val. 30 por dento 

219 Prutas conservadas en su propio jugo id 20 por ctento 

220 Cdscaras de naranja y de lim6n, en conserva 6 en 

dulce / Id 30 por ciento 

Nueces: 

221 — Almendras : con cdscara libra ...03 

— sin cdscara Id. ...05 

222 — Avellanas y nueces comunes de todas clases : 

con cdscara Id. ... 02 

— sin cdscara id. ...04 

223 — Mani ad val. 20 por dento 

224 — Cocos con cdscara y demds nueces no expre- 

sadas, con 6 sin cdscara id. 20 por ciento 

Came y sus productos : 

224)4 Came de buey, de camero y de cerdo, fresca...id. 20 por ciento 

225 Extractos de came id. 15 por dento 

225 >4 Manteca de cerdo , libra ... 01 

225^ Carnes de todas clases, preparadas 6 conserva- 
das, no expresadas • ad val. 20 por ciento 

226 Avcs vivas libra ...02 

— muertas y preparadas id. ...03 

Productos varios: 

227 Raiz de chicoria, tostada, molida 6 grannlada, 

en rollos 6 preparada de otro modo, no especi- 

ficada libra ... 02 

229 Cacao preparado 6 mannfacturado, no especih- 

cado id. ... 02 

Chocolate con azticar, aromatizado 6 de otras 
clases: avaluado en 35 cents 6 menos por 
libra libra ... 02 



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LA NUKVA TARIPA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 

No. DesignaciSn de las Mercancias. Derech( 

de la partida. Doll, cen 

— avaluado en mds de 35 cents por libra, asf 

como los dnlces de chocolate ad val. 35 poi 

330 Manteca 6 mantequiila de cacao Ubra ... 03 

231 Raiz del amarg6n y be] lotas, preparadas, y otros 

prodnctos osados como sustitutos 6 eqnivalentes 

del caf£, no ezpresados libra ... 01 

232 Almid6n, inclusas todas las preparaciones que 

puedan emplearse como tal id. ... 01 

233 Dextrina, almid6n tostado y gomelina 6 goma 

britdnica id. ... 01 

234 Mostaza molida, conservada 6 preparada, en 

frascos 6 en otra forma ad va!. 25 poi 

234^1 Orqoideas, mugnete, azaleas, palmeras y demds 
plantas de invemadero, destinadas d la orna- 

mentaci6n 6 para cortar sus flores ad val. 10 poi 

235 Especiasmolidas 6en polvo, noexpresadas.libra ...03 

Pimienta de Cayena sin moler id: ... 02 

Salvia id. ... 01 

236 Vinagre gal6n ... 07 

La fuerza normal del vinagre es la que 
requiere 35 granos de bicarbonato de potasa 
para neutralizar una onza Troy de aquel pro- 
ducto. 



CuADRO H. — Liquidos aicohSlicos, vinos y demds bebia 

Liquidos alcoMlicos : 

237 Aguardiente y demds liquidos alcoli61icos, manu- 

facturados 6 destilados de granos ii otras sus- 
tancias, no espedficados gal6n de prueba i 80 

238 Toda medida de gal6n de vino se contard como 

un gal6n de prueba por lo menos, y la medida 
normal para determinar la fuerza de los aguar* 
dientes ^ otros liquidos alcoli61icos 6 licores 
importados serd la que determinen las leyes 
relativas d la renta interior. Bl aguardiente y 
los licores espirituosos importados en cascos de 
menos de 14 galones de capacidad serdn con- 
fiscados. 

Bl Secretario del Tesoro estd facultado para 
disponer que se averigiie la fuerza de los vinos, 
cordiales ^ otros licores por medio de la destila- 



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422 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBWCS. 

No. Desijs^nacidn de ias Mercancias. Derechos. 

-de la partida. Doll, cents. 

don ii otro cualqaier procedimiento, cuando no 
sea posible hacerlo por los medios que determi- 
nen las leyes 6 reglamentos vigentes. 
^39 Los compuestos 6 preparados en que entren espl- 
ritus destilados como principal compontote, no 
especificadoS) adeudardn an derecho que no 
podrd ser inferior al se&alado d estos dltimos 
(d excepci6n de los preparados medicinales d 
base de alcohol expresados en la partida n° 58). 

240 Cordiales, licores, arak, ajenjo, kirschwasser, 

ratafia, y demds bebidas alcoh61icas 6 amargos 
de todas clases d base de alcohol, no especifica- 
dos gal6n de pmeba i 80 

241 Los aguardientes, alcoholes y otras bebidas espi- 

rituosas no adeudardn derechos inferiores d los 
marcados para las clases de primera pmeba ; 
pero irdn credendo proporcionalmente al an- 
mento de fnerza con relad6n d dicha primera 
prueba, y todas las imitaciones de aguardientes 
6 alcoholes '6 vinos importados bajo cualquiera 
denominaci6n adeudardn el derecho mds alto 
marcado para los articulos legitimes que se 
trata de imitar. y en ning^n caso adeudardn 
menos de un dollar por gal6n. 
^42 Rom de laurel (bay-rum) destilado 6 compuesto, 
de primera pmeba, y proporcionalmente para 
fuerza superior gal6n i 00 

Vinos: 

^43 Vino de Champagne y demds espnmosos : 

— eu botellas que no pasen de un cuarter6n y 
hagan mds de una pinta docena 8 00 

— id. de una pinta para abajo y mds de media 
pinta id. 4 00 

— id. de media pinta para abajo id. 200 

— (d. ii otras vasijas de mds de un cuarter6n, 
ademds de 8 dollars por docena de botellas, por 
el exceso del cuarter6n, un derecho adicional 

de gal6n 2 50 

^44 Vinos no espumosos, con inclusi6n del vino 6 licor 
de jengibre y del vermouth : 

— en cascos 6 en otros envases que no sean bo- 
tellas 6 tarros: 



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LA NUEVA TARIFA DE I.OS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 423 

No. Designacibn de las Mercandas. Derechos. 

-de la partida. Doll, cents. 

^ que tengan 14 por ciento 6 menos de alco- 
hol puro id. ... 30 

— que tengau mds de 14 por ciento de alcohol 

puro id. ... 50 

— en botellas 6 tarros» por caja de una docena 
de tales recipientes, cada uno de los cuales no 
contenga mds de un cuarter6n y pase de una 
pinta» 6 dos docenas de botellas 6 tarros de una 
pinta de cabida para abajo cada uno caja i 60 

El exceso que resulte de estas cantidades en 
cada botella 6 tarro adeudard 5 cents por pinta 
6 fracci6n de la misma ; pero no se cobrard 
aumento de derechos por las botellas 6 tarros. 

Todos los vinos, cordiales de jengibre 6 ver- 
mouths, importados, que coiitengan mds de 24 
por ciento de alcohol se clasificardn y adeuda- 
rdn como liquidos alcoh61icos. 

No se hard rebaja 6 conipensaci6n alguna por 
rotura de las botellas, 6 merma 6 dano que 
sufrau los vinos, licores, cordiales 6 alcoholes 
destilados. Los mismos, iniportados en botellas 
6 tarros, deberdn venir en enibalajes de doce 
botellas 6 tarros por lo m^nos, adeudando en 
caso contrario como si en efecto se hubiera 
cumplido con esta condici6n. 

El tanto por ciento de alcohol contenido en 
los vibos y jugos de frutas se determinard en la 
forma que por reglamento determine el Secre- 
tario del Tesoro. 
^5 Cerveza clara (ale), porter, y la ordinaria : 

— en botellas 6 tarros gal6n ... 30 

No se cobrard derecho adicional 6 distinto 

por las botellas 6 tarros. 

— que no se presente en botellas 6 tarros id. ... 15 

^6 Extracto de malta, inclnsas todas las preparacio- 

nes de igual nombre conocidas en el comercio 
como tales : 

— Hquidos. en cascos gal6n ... 15 

— id. en botellas 6 tarros id. ...30 

— s61idos 6 condensados ad val. 30 por ciento 

247 Jugo de la cereza y de la ciruela 6 viao de ciruela 

y otros jugos de frutas, no especificados : 

— que no tengan mds de 18 por ciento de alco- 



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424 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



No. Designacidn de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la particU. Doll, cents. 

hol gal6n ... 50 

— conteniendo mds de 18 por ciento de alco- 
hol gal6n de prueba i 80 

348 Ale 6 cerveza de jengihre ad val. 20 por ciento 

No se cobrard derecho adicional 6 distinto 
por las botellas 
249 Todas las imitaciones de agnas minerales natu- 

rales y las aguas minerales artificiales..ad val. 20 por ciento 



250 



251 



252 



CuADRO I. — Manufacturas de algoddn. 

Hilo para coser € hilados cardados, urdimbres, 
6 hilados de urdimbre» simples, en plegadoras 
6 paquetes, madejas, bobinas 6 en otra forma(ex- 
cepto el hilo de algod6n en carreteles. que mis 
adelante se expresa) : sm colorear, blanquear, 
tenir ni mds mano de obra que el torcido d dos 
6 mds cabos simples : 

— hasta el n** 15 inclosive libra 

— de mas del n° 15 sin exceder del 50 

por ntimero y libra 

— de mds del n** 30 Id. 

— coloreados, blanqueados, tefiidos, peinados 6 

6 con mds mano de obra que el torcido d 
dos 6 mds cabos simples : 

— hasta el n° 20 inclusive libra 

— de mds del n° 20 por niimero y libra 

En ningtin caso el derecho podrd ex- 
ceder de 8 cents la libra por los hilados 
avaluados en 25 cents 6 menos, ni de 15 
cents la libra por los avaluados en mds de 
sin exceder de 40 por igual unidad.* Todos 
los hilados avaluados en mds de 40 cents 
adeudardn un derecho de 45 por ciento ad 
valorem. 

Hilados de algod6n en carreteles, conteniendo: 

— 100 yardas 6 meuos docena de carreteles 

— mds de 100 yardas, por cada 100 yardas 6 
fracci6nde 100 yardas de mds 

docena de carreteles 
Tejidos de algod6n que no tengan mds de 50 hilos 



03 

00 1*5 
00 X 



06 

00 3-10 



05 % 



05 H 



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LA KQ«YA TARZPA, 0S LOS 89TAD08 0101005. ipSI^ 

No. Desigfaci^ de la^ MireMtcku, DerechoB. 

de I« pwtfakL Doll. 



por pnlgada cMwlrada, coatadte ea la tranm ^ 
nrdimbre : 

— sin blaaqaeor, tcfiir, colonatv matisat, piinlar 
tiiestatnpar.*«.........»«^».— .^^...yatdacitadcada ... oi 

— blanqodado^, ».»»..«m«.-». ..•«•••—•• .••.•.{<}. ... oi X 

— tefiidos, coloreados, matizadosv ptotadbs & 
estampadoB ^ .^ « „td. ... oo 

253 Tejidos de algod6a qjoe tengan m^ de 5» hilos 
sin ezcedef de 100 por pnlgada cnadraida, con- 
tados en la tvama 7 aordinrtxire : 
~ sin blanquear, tefiir, colorear» matixar, pinlar 
ni estampar : 

— sin e»Gcder de 6 yardas cnadxadaa por 
libra. .^ ...... •».»... ...yarda cuadrada 

— de mis de 6 sin ezceder de 9 yardas 
cnadradas por libra fd« 

— de mis de 9 yardas cnadradas pot 
libra id. 

— blanqucados: 

— sin exceder de 6 yardas cnadradas por 
iiora *.•.*•... •«*...*.^ ••••...«. ..«.«. .«• ..a... •.••••.••!ici. 

— de mds de 6, sin ezceder de 9 yardas 
cnadradas por libra, ^....^.... id. 

— de mis de 9 yardas cnadradas por libra 

id. 

— tefiidos, coloreados, n ta tig ad o s, pintados 6 
estampados : 

— sin ezceder de 6 yardas cnadradas por 
iicra* ••••«•••.•....•.<.•..•.•.•..••••• ••>•%..••«. .M...10. 

— > de mas de 6 sin ezceder de 9 yardas cna- 
dradas por libra ....^..•. id. 

— de mis de 9 yardas cnadradas por libra 

id. 
Todos los lejtdos de algod^n qne no 
tengan mis de 100 kilcs por pulgada 
cnadrada, contados en la trama y nrdim- 
bre, adeudarin adcmisv cnando no> est^ 
bianqneados, tefiidos, coloreados, mafcixa- 
dos, pintados 6 estampados y se kayaa 
ayaloiida en mis de 7 cents por yarda 
cnadrada, nn devecbo de 25 por ctento 
ad valortm; cnando estte blanqaeados y 
se bayaa aimlnado en m^ de 9 cents por 



01 


X 


01 


% 


01 


H 


01 


H 


01 


H 


02 


IX 


03 


H 


»3 


H 


03 


% 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

A 



426 . BUREAT^ OF THB AMERICAN REPUBI^ICS. 

No. Desiznacidn de las Mercancias. Derechos. 

de la partida. Doll cents. 

yarda cnadrada, adeudardn igualmente ^5 
por ciento ad valorem^ y cnando est^n teni- 
dos, coloreadOs; matizados, pintados 6 es- 
tampados y se hay an avaluado en mds de 
12 cents por yarda cuadrada, el de 30 por 
cx&ato ad valorem. 
254 Tejidos de algod6n que tengan mds de 100 sin ex- 

ceder de 150 hilos por pulgada cnaylrada, con- 

tados en la trama y urdimbre : 

— sin blanquear, tefiir, colorear, matizar, piiitar 
ni*estanipar : 

— que no excedan de 4 yardas cnadradas 

por libra yarda cuadrada ...01^ 

— de mds de 4 sin exceder de 6 yardas cua* 
dradas por libra ^ ...Id. ... 02 

— id. 6 Id. 8 Id id. ... 02 ^ 

— id. 8 yardas cuadradas por 

libra ^ id. ... 02 U 

Tejidos de alj2;od6n, etc. : 

— blanqueados: 

— sin exceder de 4 yardas cuadradas por 

libra ; .......yarda ctiadrada ... 02 % 

— de mds de 4 sin exceder de 6 yardas cna- - 
dradas por libra -•,... id. ... 03 

— id. 6 id. 8 (d id. ... 03 M 

— id. 8yardasCuadrad£is por libra. id. ...03^ 

— tenidos, coloreados, matizados. pintados 6 
estampados: 

— sin exceder de 4 yardas cuadradas por 

libra :i * id. ...03 4 

— de mds de 4 sin exceder de 6 yardas cua- 
dradas por libra. '.. id. ... 03 H 

— id. 6 id. 8 id id. ... 04 j^ 

— id. 8 yardas cnadradas porlb.. id. ... 04 K 
Todos los tejid6s de algod6n que tengan 

mds de 100 liilos)^ sin exceder de ' 150 por 
pulgada cuadrada, con tados en la trama y 
urdimbre, Isin bianquear, tefiir, colorear, 
matiza, pintar nl estampar y avalnados en 
mds de 9 cent4 por yarda cuadmda, adeu- 
dardn 30 por ciento ad valoretH ; los blan- 
queados, avaluados en mds de 11 cents por 
yarda cuadrada, 35 por ciento ad valorem ; 



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LA NUEVA TARlPA DE LOS ^TADOS UNIDOS. 427 

No. Designacidn de Ids Mercanctas. Derecbos. 

de la pvllda. Doll, cents. 

y los tenidos. coloreados» nlatizados pinta- 
dos 6 estanipados, avaluadosen m£s de 12^ 
cents por 3-arda cnadr^da 35 pof c. ad val. 
355 Tejidos de algod6n de mds de 150 sin exceder de 

200 hilos por pnlgada cuadrada, contados en 

la trama y nrdimbre : « 

— sin blanquear, tefiir, colorear, matizar, pintar 
niestampar: 

— sin exceder de 1%. yardas cuadradas por 

libra yarda cuadr'ada ' ... 02 

— demds de 2>% sm exceder de 4>^ yardas " 
cuadradas por Hb'ra. ;... Id. ...-02 }i 

— Id. 4X £d. 6 id Id. ... 03 

— Id. 6 yardas cn&dradas por libra. id. ... 03 % 

— hlanqueados: 

— sin exceder de 3>^ yardas cuadradas por 

hbra ..id. ... 02 ^ 

— de nids de 3^ sin exceder de ^% yardas 
cuadradas por libra... •..'....;... idl ... 03 %. 

— id. ^yi id. 6 id.....; id. ... 04 

— id. 6yardds cuadradas por libra, id. ... 04 % 

— tenidos, coloreados, niatizados, pintados 6 
estanipados : 

— sin exceder de %% yardas cuadradas por 

libra .id. ..: 04 '% 

— de mds de %% 6in exceder de'4>^ yardas 
cuadradas por libra ....id." ... 04 % 

— id. 4^ id. 6 id....;... .id. ... 04 ^ 

— id. 6 yardas cuadradas por libra.. .id. ... 05 
Todos los tejidos de a]god6n que tengan 

mds de 150 hilos sin ^xceder de 200 porpul- ' 
gada cuadrada, contados en la trama y en 
la nrdimbre, sin blanquear, teEir, colorear, 
matizar, pintdr ni estanipar y avaluados 
en mds de 10 cents por yarda cuadrada, 
adeudardu 35 por ciento ad vector em ; los 
blanqueados, avalnados en nids de 12 cents 
por yarda cuadrada, 35 por ciento ad va- 
lorem ; y los tenidos, coloreados, matiza- 
dos, pintados 6 estampados, avaluados ea 
mis de I2>^ cents por yarcta cuadrada, 40 
por ciento ad valorem, 
256 Tejidos de algod6n'que tengan mis de2ooliiloi 



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4^S BUREAU OF THB AMBRICAN KBPUBLICS. 

No. Desij^nacidn de las MercancUis. Derechos. 

de la panid* Uoll. c«uIm. 

per pulgada cuadrad% eontadoA en la tramcb y 
ttrditnbre : 

— sin blan<ioear, toAir, oolorear, uMtiiXftr, piniar 
ni estampar: 

— sin esceder de a>^ yardafi enadradaa por 

libra V yarda cnadrada ... o^ 

— de nids de 2>^ sin esceder de 3>^ yardas 
cuadradas por libra id. ... o;\ % 

— id. 3>^ W. 5 id... id. ... 04 

— id. syardascaadradasporlibra ...id. ...04 Vi 

— blanqueados : 

— sin exceder de 2>^ yardas caadradas por 
libra....^ •* id. ... 04 

— de mds de 2>^ sin esceder de 3>^ yardaa 
cnadradas por libra id. ...04 ^ 

— id. 1% id. 5 id. id. ... 05 

— id. 5 yardas cnadradas por libra...id. ... 05 '-^ 

— tefiidoB, coloreados, pintados 6 estampados : 

— sin exceder de 3>^ yardas cuadras por 

libra id. ... 05 % 

— de ttidsde 3 >^ yardas cuadradas per lb. id ... 06 %, 
Todos los tejidos de algod6n sin blan- 

quear, tenir, colorear^ matizar, pintar ni 

estampar, avalnadoaen mds de 12 cents por 

yarda cnadrada, 6 blanqneados, avaluados 

en m&s de 14 cents per yarda cnadrada* 6 

tenidos, coloreados, matizados, pintados 6 

estampados^ avalnados en mds de 16 cents 

por yarda cnadrada, adendardn on dcrecho 

de 35 por ciento ad vcdarem, 

357 Se comprender&n entre loa teji^es de algoddn 

expresados en las precedentes partidaa de eate 

cuadro todos los tejidos de algoddn en pieza« ya 

sean labrados, de fantasia 6 llanos* no tarifados 

expresamente en el presente Arancel, cnyos hilos 

de trama y urdimbre puedan contarse ya sea. 

por medio del deshilado 6 por otro, procedimi- 

ento prdctico. 

3|ll Ropas hechas y articulos de vestir de todas clases, 

pannelos y corbatas, hechos de algod6n <k otra 

fibra vegetal, 6 de qne estas fibras sean el ele- 

mento de principal valor, confeccionadas en 

todo 6 en parte por el sastre, costnrera 6 fabii- 



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LA WUEVA TARIFA D« W)S BSTADOS tJNnX)S. 



4«9 



116. Dts^gnacidn de las Mercancias. Defedlot. 

dc la partida. Doll, cents. 

cante, no especificados ad val. 40 por ciento 

a5Q Pel pas, terciopelos, veludillos, pan as acolchadas 
(corduroys) y demds tejidos afelpados, de algo- 
d6n 6 de otra fibra vegetal: 
— sin blanquear, tefiir, colorear, matizar, pmtar 

niestampar adval. 40 por ciento 

— blanqneados, tefiidos, coloreados, matiza- 

dos, printados 6 estampados Id. 47^^ pore 

a6o Cortinas de felpilla, tapetes de mesa y todos los 
articnlos mannfacturados de felpilla de aIgod6n 
6 en los cnales tal felpilla sea el elemento de 

principal valor ad val. 40 por ciento 

Porros para mangas 7 demis tejidos compuestos 
de algod6n y seda, conoddos bajo elnombre de 
teiidos para mangas, con ray as de seda, seda 
rayada ii otros ad val. 45 por ciento 

261 Medias y calcetines de algod6n ^ otra fibra vege- 
tal, hectaos d mdquina 6 al telar, no especifica- 
dos ad val. 30 por ciento 

a62 Medias 7 calcetines, orillados, confeccionados 6 
terminados total 6 parcialmente *en bastidores 
6 mdqoinas de punto, 6 hechos & mano, con m- 
clasi6n de las medias y calcetines sin costura y 
de las comisas y calzondllos de tricot; todos 
estos articnlos hechos de algod6n fi otra fibra 
vegetal, est^i 6 no conclufdos ad val. 50 por ciento 

263 Alamares, trendllas, cabetes para botas, zapatos 

y cors^, cordones, cordondllo^, galones, terlix 
{webbing) t goring t tirantes, mechas para 1dm- 
paras y velas, tejidas, trenzadas 6 torcidas, 
forro para Uantas de medas de bidcletas, tiras 
de dnta parahnsos (spintUe binding) ; todos estos 
articnlos de algodon 6 otros fibras vegetales, 
combinados en parte con caontchonc fi otras 
materias ad val. 45 por ciento 

264 Todos los demds artfcnlos de algod6n, inclusa la 

lona dcAgada para velas (duck) y los adamas- 
cados de a)god6n, en pieza 6 de otro modo, no 
espcdficados, asi como los tejidos combinados 
con caontchottc ad val. 35 por ciento 



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43P 



9URKAU p^ THE A^^RXCAIi REPUBLICS. 



CuADRO J. — Z^ino, cdnamOy yute y minufacturas dt estas 

materias. 

Nd. Designacibn de las Mercancids. Derechos. 

de la partlda. DoIL cents. 

265 Lino rastrillado conocido bajo ei nombre de lino 

aprestado {dressed line) .libra •.. 01 ^ 

a66 . Cdnamo rastrillalo coaocido bajo el nombre de 

cdnamo aprestado (dressed line) ......id. ... 01 

267 Hilados de yute r"V' .....ad val. 30 per cicnto 

268 Cables, cuerdas y bramaate (excepto el bramante 

paraatar) hechosen todo 6 en parte de cdnamo 
de Nueva Zelaudia, de islle 6 fibra de Tampico, 
de Manila, de pita (sisal grass) 6 de cdnamo 
de la India (sunn) ad val. 10 per ciento 

269 Alfombras, de cdnamo 6 de yute ...Id 20 per ciento 

272 Redes en pieza/redes flotantes, redes barrederas 

y jdjjegas, de lino i...... id. 40 per ciento 

273 Hules para pavimentos, grabados, pintados 6 es- 

tampados, inclusos el lin61o, la corticena, los 
tapetes de corcho, lisos 6 con dibujos, y todas 
las demds telas encera4as (excepto los tafetanes 
encerados), asi cooip las telas impermeables no 
cxpresadas, que valgan: 

— 25 cents 6 menos poryardacuadrada.ad val. 25 per dento 

— nids de 25 cents por yarda cuadrada id. 40 per dento 

273>^ Tubos 6 mai^gueras, compuestos en todo 6 en 

parte de lino, cdnan^o 6 yute « ....-Id 4° po^ dento 

274 Hilados 6 hilo para coser, 4^ lino 6 de cdnamo 6 

de una de estas materias mezclada con otras tex- 
tiles ' ..!...! .id 35 per dento 

275 Cuellos y punos hechos total 6 parcialmente de 

lino ...docena de piezas ... 30 

y ad val. 30 por cicnto 
Camisas y prendas de vestir de todas clases, com- 
puestas total 6 parcialmente de lino, no especi- 

ficadas \ ad val. 50 por dento 

275>^ Cintas de lino, tejidas con 6 sin hilos metdlicos, en 
rollos 6 carreteles, destinadas exclusivamente d 
la fabricacion de Hennas 6 medidas de cinta 

ad val. 25 por dento 

276 Encajes, puntillas (edgings) ^ redecillas, velos, 

bordados, entredoses, encanonados, plegados, 
pasamaneria, bullones, cortinas de encaje para 
ventanas, articulos bordados d realce (lam- 



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LA NUKYA TARIFA DB I.OS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 



431 



No. 

<le U paitida. 



Designacibn da lasMercancias^ 



Derecbos. 

. Doll, cents. 



277 



beared) t artlcolos bordl^dos d tnano^ d ,m^x^- 
na, paiiuelos bordados y objetos con feccion ados 
total 6 parcialmente con encajes, encario^iados 
p^eg^dos 6 bullones; tddosestos artlculoshc^hos 
de lino, yute, a1god6n d otra fibra. vegetal, 6 de 
material en que estas fibxas, 6 algup^ d^ «llas, 
6 una mezcla de las niismas, scan el principal 
coniponente en valor, no especifiQados....ad yal 50 por ciento 
Todas las denies manufacturs^s de lino, cdnamo, 
yute <ik otra fi bra vegetal (esiceptp el algpd<Jn) 
en las que las menciopadas fibres textiles^ d . 
una de ellas, sean el eleu^ento de principal . 
valor, noespecificadas..^..., fid val. 35 por ciento 



279 



280 



181 



182 



CUADRO K:*-^Land y sus' m'anufdctutas , 



Borra de lana, mungo (desechos de tela de lana 
dura y fioa) shoddy (lana procedente del deshi- 
lado),desperdictos de la filatura, inclusos tos car- 
dados, reslduos carbontisados 6 fana carbonf- 
zada.. ....• .:...ad val'. 

Lanas de camero y pelo d^ caniello, cabra, alpaca 
d otros animales semejantes, bajo la fbrma de 
hilados, hilos \9so& {roping); 6 hilos de mechk 
(tops) » ;.ad^al. 

Hilados de lana 6 estambre, hechos en todo 
6 en parte de lanaj estambre, pelo de ^ame- 
llo, cabra,' alpaca iy otros animales, avaluados 



— 40 cents 6menos la libra.. ...* ad val. 

— mds de 40 cents la libra. :..;.:;..... id 

Manufacturas de puntoy todos los tejidosfabti- 

cados d mdquina 6 al telar de punto (etcepto 
las pfendas devestir), asi conio lod cUales 
hechos en todo 6 en parte de lana, estambte; 
pelo de camel lo, cabra, alpada <x. otros aifimates, 
avaluadusen: 

— 40 cents 6 menos la libra. ......... .ad val. 

— mfis de 40 cents' la libra......;.....;... ...:.ld. 

Mantas, sotiibreros de lana, franelas para fopa 

interior y fieltro para mdquiDid,s de imprimir. 
compuestos eto todo 6 en parte de lana, pelo de 



15 por ciento 



20 por ciento 



por ciento 
por ciento 



por ciento 
por ciento 



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43« 



BDKEAU OP 1Ffi8 AMOBftlCiaV KBPZTBCXCS. 



No. 

de la 



Derechos. 

Doll. 



283 



a84 



«85 



386 



DesignaciM.tU ias Mrrcamcias, 



camello, cal»ra, alpaea^ otres antawles, «^ra1aa- 
dos en : 

— 30 cents 6 menot la Hbra ad val. 15 por dento 

— mds de 30 Bin exi^eder de 40 o^nts la libra .id. 30 por dento 

— mds de 40 cents la libra • Id. 35 por dento 

No obstante, \aa mantaaqoetengan m^ de 
3 yardas de longitnd segmWui el regimen de 
lot tejidoa^e lana6'dee«tattibre, y laa frane- 
las que peses mia de 4 oniat por yarda cua 
drada adeudarin como telas para ▼estidos. 
Tel as para vestidos de mujer y de nifio, forros, 
telas •italianas (JkUtan cioth)^ estamefia y leji- 
^dos similares, asi como todos los compnestos 
total 6 pardalmente de lana, estambre, pelo de 
camello, cabra» alpaca ti oiros animales, inclusos 
los combinados con caoutchouc, no expresados, 
avaluados en : 

— 50 cents 6 menos la libra,. ~ .»^ad val. 40 por denlo 

— mds de 50 cents la libra »- id. 50 por dento 

Ropas hechas de todas clases, 6 articulos de ves- 

tir en general, est6n 6 no acabados, no espedfi- 
cados, y fieltros no expresados; todos estos ar- 
ticulos bechos total 6 pardalmente de lana, 
estambre, pelo de camello, cahra, alpaca ti 
otros animales, indnsos los combinados con 
caoutchouc, avaluados en : 

— mds de i}^ ^dollar la libra....... ....... ....ad vaL s* .por dento 

— menos de i}i dollar la libra,. -..«^..«ud. 4S por dento 

Mantones, dolmanes, chaquetas, talmas, ulsters y 

demds prendas exteriores, para sefioras y nifios, 
J articulos similares 6 qt^e tengan uso andlogci, 
asl como tambi^n las prendas de trioot ; todos 
estos articulos compuestos total 6 parciaXmente 
de lana, estambre, pelo de camello, cabca, 
alpaca ii otros animales, est^ no condui- 

dos .t.-.*..... ^ ......ad val. 50 por dento 

Tejido para dnchas, terlit (wgbbu^g:)^ J^cri^g^s, 
tirantes, dniuronef, trencillas, galones, fleooSy 
cordones, cordoncillo, alamares 7 borlas. pasa- 
nianerla para guamecer vestidos, encHJes, bor- 
dados, redecillas para el pelo^ t^dos de malla y 
Tdlos, botones indnsos los de agremdn 6 deotras 
formas para borlas 6 adornos: todos estos arti- 



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hk »USVA 1CARIFA HE IXMB SSTADOS UNXDOS. 



433 



Na 
de la putlda. 



Desi^acfSm de iss Mtrcmmims, 



DereChos. 
Dott.4 



culos, 0ean ^ bo elistieoa, de lana, cstambse, 
pelo de catnello, cabra, alpaca <i otcos ani- 
males, 6 de vMHerial en 4|fie estas sustancias 
sean el principal compoaeote...* »akl val. 

287 Alfombras de Anbusson, de Azminster, moqneta 
y felpilla, estampadas 6 lisas, alfombras tejiJas 
de mia sola pieza para habitaciones y todsis las 
demds de igual clase 6 naturaleza, en corte 6 
pieza, tapices orientales, de Berlin 6 otros ani- 
logos ^ — ad val. 

«68 Alfombras aterciopeladas de Sajonia, Wilton j 
Toumai, estimpadas 6 lisas, t tocias las dem6s 
de igual clase 6 naturaleta, en corte 6 piexa 

ad val. 

389 Alfombras de Bntselas, estampadas 6 lisas, y 
todas las dem^ de ignal clase 6 naintaleza, en 
corte 6 piexa. ad val. 

290 Alfombras y tapices aterdopelados (velvet and 

iapesiry velvet carpets)^ lisos 6 con dibujos, 
estampados en la urdimbre 6 de otro mode, y 
todos los demds de ignal dase 6 natnraleKa, en 
corte 6 pie«a ad val. 

291 Tapices de moqneta de Bmselas, lisos 6 con dibn* 

jos, y todos los demds an&logosen corte 6 pieza, 
estampados en la nrdimbre 6 de otro modo 

ad val. 

J92 Alfombras venectaaas d tves tlntas y todas las de 

ordimbre de igual a4>mbre. ( Treble ingrain^ 

three pfy, and mil chain Venetian carpets). m.^ val. 

293 Alfombras bolandesas de lana y £ dos tintas 

(wool Dutch and two ply ingrain carpets) jbA val. 

294 Droguetes 7 arpilleras. estampados, coloreados 6 

de otro modo, y alfombras de fieltro en pieza, 
lisas 6 con dibt^os ^.^.^ ^d val. 

295 Alfombras, de lana, Uno 6 algoddn 6 compnestas 

en parte de sua de estas materias, no espccifi- 
cadas.. ad val. 

296 Las esteras, ntedos, portieres, lapetes de mesa 

(covers)^ cqjkies, alfombritlas para pi£s de 
camas, almohadones artisticos y toda parte de 
alfombi» 6 tapete, en todoid parte de lana, no 
especificadas, adeudarda ka derechos sefiala- 



50 |>or dento 



40 por dento 

40 por ciento 
40 por dento 

40 por ciento 

42>^ por c. 

l^yi pore, 
30 por dento 

30 por dento 

50 por dento 



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434 > 

No. 

de la partida. 



BUREAU OF THB AldlBRICAN KKPUBUCS. 



Designacidn de las Mtrcancicis, 



Derecbos. 

I>oU. cents. 



dos d las alfombras de igual .clase 6 aatnraleza 
en corte 6 pieza. 
397 La rebaja 4e derechos senalada d las manniactu- 
ras de lana entrard en .vigor el if de Eoero de 
1895. 



CuADRO ly. — Seday sus manvfacturas . 

298 Seda tnannfacturada eii parte de capollos 6 de de^- 
perdidos de seda, sin otra elaboraci6n que I a 
del car4ado 6 peinado ad val. 30 por ciento 

Se4a bilada 6 hflo simple, trama, on^andi, seda 
para cpser, torzal, hilp de borra 4e s^da y toda 
clase de hilo de seda, asl como la seda bilada 
en madejpis 6 carreteles, en.urdimbre 6 en plega- 

doras., ......*. , ad val. 30 por ciento 

.-99 TerciopeloSf felpillas y demds tejidos afelpados, 
compuestos de seda 6 en los quales la seda sea 
la materia de principal valor ....libra i 50 

Felpas de seda 6 en, las cijales la seda sea la ma- 
teria de principal yalor ..,, ,.,. id. I 00 

En ning^n caso estos artkulos adeud&r^n menos 

de 50 por ciento ad valor€m. 
Tcjido para cincbas, gorin^^s^ tirantes, cinturones, 
trencillas, gaioues, flecos, cordones y borla», 
sean 6 no eldsticos, botones y adomos; todos 
estos artfculos de seda 6 en los cuales la seda 
sea el elemento de principal valor .» ad val. 45 por ciento 

Encajes y artfculos compuestos total- 6 i>arcial^ 
mente de encaje ;bordadoSi inclusos los becbos* 
d JDiano 6 d mdquina, panuelos, encafionados y 
bullones para ouellos,. tejidos de malla y velos, 
vestidoa beebos y prendas de vestir^de todas 
' dases, inclusos los de punto,.conreccionadQs en 
todo6enparteporelsadtre,lamodista6elfabri« ' 
cante;. todos estos articulos becbos de-seda 6 ea 
'. ' los cuales esta materia sea el elemento de 
principal valor, asl ooino todas las mauufactu- • 
ras de seda guamecidas de-cuentas, noespecifi- 

cAdos .1 ; ^......t.. .ad val. 50 por ciento 

302 Manufactnras de seda d de que la seda sea el.prhi- 
cipal componente en valor, inclusas las combi- 
nadas con caoutcbouc, no especificadas.ad val. 45 por dento 



300 



301 



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I,A NUEVA TARIPA DB LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 435 

CuADRO M. — Pasta pan^ hacer papely papel y libros. 

No. Desifrnacibn de las Mercancias, Derechos. 

de la partida. ' Doll, cents. 

Pasta y Papel: 

J03 Pastas de madera para hacer papel, fabricadas d 
mdquina y las obtenidas por procedimientos qnl- 
micos, blanqueadas 6 sin blanquear. ad val. 10 por ciento 

304 Papel para forro de buqaes y fieltro para 

tecbos.. :..: ..:; .....i...fd. 10 por ciento 

306 Papel para imprimir, con 6 sin cola, s61o utiliza- 

ble para libros y peri6dicos ad val. 15 por ciento 

307 Papeles conocidos en el comercio bajo el n ombre 

de papeles copiadores, de filtro y papel de 
plata, papel de seda, bianco, inipreso 6 colorea- 
do, presentadb en libros copiadores, en resmas' 

6 de otra iforma ..ad val. 35 por ciento 

Papel albuminado 6 sensibilizado ; papel para 
escribir y sobres con dibujos en relieve, graba- 
dos, impresos y adomados ad val. 30 por ciento 

308 Papel pergimino,' papeles charolados (surface- 

coated) y manufacturas de estos papeles, car- 
tones, dlbums para fotografias, aut6graros 6 
cOlecciones (scrap albums) y nianufacturados en 

todo 6 en parte. ........ ad val. 30 por ciento 

Litografias sobre piedra 6 xinc, estdn 6 no encua- 
dernadas (excepto las ettquetas 6 sortijas para 
cigarros, con letras 6 en bianco, la niiisica, las 
ilustraciones que fbrmen parte de publicaciones 
pen6dicas 6 de diarios y que vengan en uni6n 
de los mismos, yaCbt^n encuadernados 6 formen 
parte de un libro impreso) en papel fi otra ma- 
teria cualquiera : 

— que no excedan de 8 mil^simas de pulgada 

de espesor........ libra ... 20 

7— ^ de m^ de 8. sin exceder. de 20 miHsimas de r 
pulgada de espesor y de nids de 35 pulgadas > 
cu^dradas por las superficies que deban ^-e- 
cort arse 4 .>«.«r.... ^ «.4,.b..««..d.«.^... libra ... 08 

— de; mds de 8 sin exceder de 20 mil^simas de 
pulgada de espesor y que no excedan de 35 
pulgadas cuadiadas pbr las superficies que de- 
ban recortarse....i ;. .;....; :...;. libra* ... 05- 

Litograftas sobre ptedra ^-ssinc, «en cart6n 6 otra 
materia cualquiera, que excedan de 20 mil^si- 



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436 



BUtK:EA.U OF THE AMERICAN RBPOBUCS. 



No. l>esig^imcidn dt las AUrcancias. Dcfdchotf. 

<le la pn-tida. UoU. cents. 

tnas de pulgada de espesor libra ... 06 

Btiquetas 7 sortijas para dgarros, litografiadas, 
con letras 6 en bianco, impresas aobre piedra 6 
xinc : 

— con menos de dice colores, pero no por medio 

del bronce 6 de hqjas metfilicas ^ ^^ libra ... 20 

— con diez colores 6 m^ 6 por medio del bronce. 

pero no por medio de hojas metdlicas (d. ... ^ 

— en todo 6 en parte por medio de hojas metdU- 

cas ~ ...«.......id. ••* 40 

Manufacturas de fapel : 

309 Sobres de papel » adval. so por ciento 

31U Papel para tapizar, papel para mamparas 6 de- 
lanteras de chimenea, papel para escribir y 
para dibujo y todos los demds papeles no 
especificados ad val. 20 por ciento 

31 1 Ltbros en bianco de todas dases id. 20 por ciento 

Ubros. inclnsos los folletos y grabados, est^n 6 no 

encuadernados, fotograflas, grabados al agua 
fuerte, mapas, cartas marinas, miisica y todo 
impreso no especificado ad val. 25 por ciento 

312 Maipes, por baraja que no ezceda de 54 cartas y 

en proporci6n por todo n&mero de cartas de 

mds baraja ... 10 

y ad val. 50 por ciento 

313 Manufacturas de papel 6 de materia en que el 

papel sea el principal componente en valor, 

no especificadas ad val. 20 por ciento 



CUADRO N. — Articulos varies, 

314 PtQceles de pelo, cepitlos y plameroi. ad val. 

Escobas ..« (d. 

Cerdas de pverco 6 de ^abali, eaeogidas, en ata- 

do8 6 preparadas de caalquiera otra manera.... 

Ubra 

Botones y hormillas para botones: 

315 Hormillas pmra botones: Idstenes, muer, pafio, 

seda y otras manufaciaras anilogaii, tejidos 6 
hechos en im ^mano y forma ^ de tal maaera 



35 por ciento 
90 por ciento 



07 « 



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LA 14UBVA TARIPA DK LOS EBTADOS UNIDOS. 



4S7 



No. 

de la 



316 



317 
318 

3i8>i 



3i« 
319 

3» 



3« 



332 



3»3^ 



324 



325 



Desifrnacidn de las Mercancktt^ 



«Mtado»q«e 86lasirvair pam la coiifeed6a de 

botones «... adval. 

Botones designados eael comerdo bajo ^ nombre 
de botones de dgata-. •^ - id. 

— de ndcar y de'care3r, en todo 6 en parte oon- 
clntdos, par Hnea (medida dc betoaea de v-ifx 
depttlgada) .^ — ...^.......gruesa 

y adival. 

— de marfiU ntarfil vegetal, vidrio, hueso y asta, 
en todo 6 en parte conclnidoa .«^....ad val. 

— para acapatos, lieeho» de papeU cartdn, papi£ 
mach^, pasta ^ otros materiales semejantea 
no especifieados. ..^^....•^••^...........ad val. 

Carb6n bitamiaosoy esqoislD. ^..tanelada 

— Cisco de carbon dft ptedra« qoe pase por oaa 
criba cayasmallastengan % palsada...toneUida 

Cofe. ..^.. .^»* ^,.*^ ^..., .....ad vaL 

Tapones de oonchov manafkctaradkia en todo 6 en 
parte libra 

Dados» damas, jnegos deajedret^ baiaa para billar 
6 otros jaegoa an^^lagosy de marfil, liueso ii otros 
matetiales. ...^ ..^.^ ...^ •-•••... ad vil. 

Mniieoas, cabeMs de idem, males 6diteat!a8 para 
jngar, decnalqaiera materia qoe seanv y otros 
jngnetesdecnalquier clase que no^tdn fabri* 
cados. de goma, losa, poreelawa, parian^ 
bizcocluv barro coddo 6 gr6s no especiflca^ 

dos.. ad val. 

£L regimen de esta partida. no entrard en 
vigor antes del i** de Encro de 18^. 

Bsmeril en graao^ maaufactnrado, molido* en 
polvo 6 rcfinadok. •»•#«.•.••••••.« .••• .^......libra 

Maierias explasivas: 

Cofaetea de todas clases, sin descnento por tarr 6 

averla...... ad val. 

Pnlmin antes, polvos fulminantes y artfculos and- 

log68, noespecificados... .«••••••..« ••...«• id. 

P61vora de fnsfl y demds materias ezplosivas 

nsadas para minas^ cantatas^ actilleria) 6 oata, 

qne valgan : 

— 20 centa 6 nMooa Iftlibva.. ^•^ •- ^.^...libra 

— wte de.20 cents la libia — ...id. 



Doll. MOM 


1. 

1. 


10 pos 


danto^ 


«5 P^ 


ciento 


.« 01 




15 por 


dento» 


35 por cientoi 


29 por 


dento 


... 4» 




... 15 




15 P» 


ciento 



50 por dento 



25 por dento 



00 8-10 



50 por ciento 
30 por cienCoi 



OS 
08 



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438 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBI,ICS. 



No. Designacidn de las Mercancias. Derechos. 

de la partida. Doll, cents. 

3a6 Cerillas y fdsforos de todas closes .ad vaL 20 por ciento 

336 >^ Instrumentos de miisica y sus partes suelta^ (ex- 

cepto los mecanismos para pianos y sus partes ^ * 

sueltas), cuerdas para instrumeiitos de miisica» 
no expresadas, madera 6 cajas para instru- 
mentos de miisica, silbatos» diapasones y metr6- 
nomos. „ ....ad val. 25 por ciento 

327 Cipsnlas: de percusi6n id. 30 por ciento 

— para minas ^ ...miliar - 207- 

398 Plumas y plumones de todas clases, preparados, 
tenidos 6 manufacturados, incliisos los cubrepi^s^ 
y otras manufactnras de plum6n, pdjaros pre- . 
parados y coucluidos para adorno, plumas, fru- 
tas, granos, hojas, flores* tallos y sus partes 
sueltas, artificlales 6 de adorno, de cualquter 
materia que sean para modistas, na especifi- 
cados ad val. 35 por ciento 

329 Pieles de adorno, beneficiadas sin manufactnrar.. 

id. 20 por cientii 
Pelo preparado para sombreros. .„^...4..; id. 20 por ciento 

330 Albanicos de todas dases, ercepto los ordinarios 

de hojas de palmera ,> iil, 40 por ciento 

331 Tacos para fusiles, de todas clases..>^ .....»ld. 10 por cienta^ 

332 Pelo humano, limpio 6 peinado, pero no mann- 

facturado Id. 20 por ciento 

332^ Crin rizada para colcbones y canias id. 10 por ciento 

333 Tejido de crin, dicho para crinolinas 

yarda cuadrada ... 06 

334 — dicho para asientosdesillas »^.... id. ...20 

335 Sombreros para caballeros, senoras y ninos, 

hechos de pelo de conejo, castor 4 otros ant- 
males, 6 de que estos pelos sean el principal 
componente en valor, manufacturados en todo 
6 en parte, inclu«as las formas de pelo para 
sombreros *...^ i ..ad val. 40 por -ciento 

/oyer fa y piedras preciosas: 

336 Joyeria: todo articulo no especificado, siempre ^ - 

que forme parte de lo que en' el comercio se ' 

llama joyeria, y camafeos montados (in/ratnes) * 

ad val. 35 por ciento 

337 Perlas,inclusasla5ensartadas,peronoengastadas 

id. 10 por ciento 



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LA NUKVA TARIFA DE LOS ESlTADOS UNIDOS. 



439 



No. Designacidn de las Mercahcias. 

de la pftitida. 

338 Piedras preciosas de todas clases, talladas, pero 

no engastadas , .....id. 

— engastadas, no especificadas, inclusas las per- 
las engastadas id. 

— imitaciones de piedras* preciosas que no exce- 
dan de una pnlgada de tamaxLo, sin engastar... 

ad val. 
Piedras preciosas de todas clases, sin tallar....id. 

Cuero y sus tnanufacturas : 

339 Snela ; id. 

340 Cnero para correas y para transmisi6n, y cuero 

no especificado ..id. 

3 1 1 Becerros curtidos 6 curtidos y ' preparados, cuero 
preparado para palas de zapato 6 botin, inclu- 
sos el becerro cHarola'do \paieni enameled ana 
japanned)^ estd 6 no preparado y concluido, la 

gamu2a y las otras pieles no especificadas 

ad val. 

Becerros, para encuadernadores, pieles de kan- 

guro, de camero y de cabra, inclusas las de 

cordero y cabrito, preparadas y concluidas...... 

ad val. 
Pieles para tafilete, curtidas, pero no concluidas.. 

id.* 
Cuero para martinetes y mecanlsmos de piano. id. 
CaUado de cuero id. 

342 Cuero cortado para palas de zapatos 6 botines, 

6 en otras fornias, propio para la fabricaci6n 
de articulos manufacturados. .!..ad val. 

343 Los guantes de todas clases, hechos en todo 6 

en parte de piel, est^n 6 no concluidos, adeu- 
dardn coo arreglo d la siguiente clasificaci6n, 
seg^n su longitud despu^ de estirados 16 mis 
posible: 

344 — Guantes de piel de camero, concluidos, para 

senoras y nifios (schtnaschen) : 

— que no tengan uidis de 14 pulgadas de 
longitud docena de pares 

— que tengan mds de 14 sin exceder de 17 
pulgadas de longitud id. 

— que tengan mds de 17 pulgadas de longi- 
tud '. ...id. 



Derechos. 
Doll, cents. 

25 por ciento 
30 por ciento 



10 por ciento 
10 por ciento 



10 por ciento 
10 por iciento' 



20 por ciento 



20 por ciento 

16 por ciento 
20 por ciento 
20 por ciento 



'20 por ciento 



I 00 

1 50 

2 00 



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ized by Google 



44XX RUKBAU OP THB AMKBICAM R8POBIJGS. 

No. D€signaci6m de las Metrc€mcia$. Derechos. 

de la paffMA Doll, ccbir. 

— Guantes de piel dc cimicro, ooaidv£dof^ imra 
oftbadleros {schmascM^n) .«•. .^.Jd. 3 oo 

345 ~ Guantes de piel de camevo 6 de c^rdeM^ 
o«BQla(do9» para aenoras y nifios : 

— que M> lengam n^ de 14 palj^adai de 
loiigititd..*M.M-..— ^•.••.«» •^•••••^••••M..id. I 75 

— que teavan mis de 14 sin exceder de 17 
pnlgadas de longhud. ••.^•..^•..•»..^.»..4d. 2 y$ 

— que tengan mds de 17 pnlgadas de longi- 

tud , .....^ id. 5 75 

— Guantes de piel de camero 6 de cordero, con- 
clnldos, paracabaUeros^.^....^»....^.^*».^d. 4 00 

34i — Guantes de piel de cabra, de cabritilla 6 de 
otra piel que no sea de camero, concl o tdos, 
para senoras y nifios : . 

— que no tengan mds de 14 pnlgadas de 
longitud ^.^-.^.........docena de pares 2 25 

— que tengan mis de 14 sin exceder de 17 

. puleadas de longitud id. 300 

— que tengan m^ de 17 pnlgadas de longi- 
tud • ••••^•••••••••••••••••••a SM*** ••»••• •M«»«»«r**««»»lCl* 4^^ 

— Guantes de piel de cabra, de cabritilla 6 de 
otra piel que no sea de camero, conduidos, 

para caballeros - «....^...docena de pares 4 00 

^yj — Guantes de piel de camero, de todas clases, 
parasefioras y aifios, cuando se haya hecho de- 
saparecer el granulado exterior de la piel : 

— que no tengan m^ de 17 pnlgadas de 
longitud..* .^^...•^.- ^docenade pares i 75 

— que tengan mis de 17 pnlgadas de longi- 

fcUu •• ••••••••• •••••••»••••.••.••••••••••.«•■.«••• •••va.icu 2 73 

— Gnantes de piel de camero, de todas clases, 
para caballeros, cuando se haya hecho desa^ 
parecer el granulado exterior de la piel ,^... 

docena de pares 4 00 
348 — Gnantes de piel de cabra, de cabritilla ^ de 
otra piel que no sea de camero, de todas clases, 
para sefioras y ninos, cuando se haya hecho 
desaparecer el grannlado exterior de la piel : 

— que no teng^ mis. de 14 pnlgadas de 
longitud .rdocena de paves 3 25 

— que tengan m^ de 14 sin exceder de 17 
pnlgadas de longitud Id. 300 



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LA NUBVA TARIFA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 



441 



No. 

de la partida. 



Designacidn de las Mercancias, 



Derechos. 
Doll. % 



4 00 



4 00 



I 00 



— que tengan mds de 17 pulgadas de 'ungi- 

tttd id. 

— Gnantes de piel de cabra, de cabritilla 6 de 
otra piel que no seade camero, de todas clases, 
para caballeros, cuando se haya hecho desa- 

parecer el granulado exterior de la piel 

doceaa de pares 

349 Ix)6 guantes de piel, fbrrados, adeadardn, ademds 

de I06 derechos antes senalados» el adicional de 

docena de pares 

350 Ix)s guantes en corte (glove tranks)^ ya compreu- 

dan 6 no todas sus partes componentes, adeu- 
dardn el 75 por ciento del derecho aplicable d la 
clase de guantes d cuya fabricaci6n sedestinen. 

Manufacturas divcrsas: 

351 Manufactnras de dmbar» amtanto, tripa, coral, 

corcho, cuerdas de tripa, cnerda 6 crin de 
Florencia, azabache» pasta» espato, cera 6 ma- 
teria en que estas sostancias 6 alguna de ellas 
sean el principal coniponente en valor, no 
especificadas ad vaL 25 por ciento 

352 Manufacturas de hueso, vimta, yerba, asta, goma 

^dstka, boja de oalma, paja, plantas, ballena 
6 de materia en que estas snstancias 6 alguna 
de ellas sean el principal componente en valor, 

no especificadas... ad val. 

Bnti^ndase que la yerba y la paj'a de que se 
trata en esta partida deben hallarse en su estado 
natural y no en fibras aisladas. 

353 Manufacturas de cuero, peleteda, gutaperchn, 

gotna eldstica vulcanizada conocida bajo el 
nombre de caoutchouc endurecido, pelo humano, 
papier mach^ 6 gipso, fibra endurecida y otras 
manufacturas de pasta de madera 6 de otra 
pasta, d de materia en que estas sustancias 6 
alguna de ellas sean el principal componente 
en valor, no especificadas ad val. 30 por ciento 

354 Manufacturas de marfil, marfil vegetal, ndcar,gela- 

tina, carey 6 de materia en que estas sustancias 
6 algima de ellas sean el principal componente 
en valor, no especificadas, asi como los artfculos 
conocidos en el comercio como pasamaneria ^6 

32 BUL 



25 por ciento 



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442 



BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



No. Designacidn de las Mercancfas. Derechos. 

de la partlda. Doll, cents. 

adomos de cuentas 6 azabache ad val. 35 por ciento 

355 Caretas de papel 6 pasta id. 25 por ciento 

356 Esteras, de fibra de coco 6 ratdn id. 20 por ciento 

357 Lapiceros de madera con Idpiz de plombagina 6 

de otra materia, y pizarrines con funda de ma- 
dera. ad val. 50 por ciento 

Pizarrines de las demds clases id. 30 por ciento 

358 L^pices de plombagina sin fnnda de madera... id. 10 por ciento 
358>^ Placasyhojasdelgadas, secas, parafot6grafos..{d. 25 por ciento 

359 Pipas, cazoletas de id., de cualquier materia, y 

todos I06 demds articulos para fumadores, no 
especificados, inclnsos los librillos de papel para 
cigarrillos, las bolsas para tabaco de'fumar 6 
mascar y el papel para cigarrillos en cualqnier 

forma .ad val. 50 por ciento 

Pipas ordinarias y cazoletas para id., de arcilla, 
avaluadasen5ocents6menoslagmesa...ad val. 10 por ciento 

360 Paraguas, sombrillas y quitasoles, recubiertos de 

tejidos compuestos total 6 parcialmente de seda, 
lana, estambre, pelo de camello, de cabra, de 
alpaca 6 de otros animales, 6 de cnalquier otra 
materia que no sea el papel ad val. 45 por ciento 

361 Palos para quitasoles, sombrillas y paraguas, lisos 

6 esculpidos, est^n 6 no concluidos ad val. 30 por ciento 

362 Desperdicios, no especificados id. 10 por ciento 



Mercancfas litres de derechos, 

KkT. 2 — A partir del dia 1° de Agosto de 1894, se importardn 
libres de derechos los siguientes articulos, d menos que no se hallen 
designados de una manera especial en el presente Arancel: 

363 Acidos empleados para usos medicinales, quimicos 6 fabriles, no 

especificados. 

364 Ac6nito. 

365 Bellotas con cdscara, frescas 6 secas, pero no molidas. 

366 Agatas sin manufacturar. 

367 Albtimina. 

368 Alizarina y colores 6 tintes de alizarina, naturales 6 artificiales. 

369 Ambar y sus imitaciones, sin manufacturar 6 en bruto. 

370 Ambar gris. 
372 Sales de anilina. 



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LA NUEVA TARIFA DE W)S ESTADOS UNIDOS. 443 

373 Animales importados especialmente para la cHa. Ningiin animal 

gozard de franquida, 6 no ser de para raza conocida y regis- 
trada en debida forma en nn libro llamado studbooky que se 
Uevard al efecto. El Secretario del Tesoro dictard las dispo- 
siciones que juzgue oportnnas para el estricto cumplimiento de 
esta medida. El ganado vacuno, caballar, lanar y cnalesquiera 
animales dom^ticos que hayan cnuado la frontera, 6 por ha- 
berse extraviado 6 por haber sido conduddos por sns dnenos d 
pastar del otro lado de la Ifnea, asf como sns crlas, podrdn 
▼olver d entrar en los Estados Unidos libres de deredios» median- 
te el cumplimiento de las formalidades qne prescriba el Se- 
cretario del Tesoro. 

374 Animales importados temporalmente en los Estados Unidos, por 

on perlodo que no exceda de seis meses, para ser presentados 
en exposidones 6 certdmenes agricolas 6 de ganaderia, median- 
te la oportuna garantia, de acuerdo con las disposiciones 
dictadas por el Secretario del Tesoro, asi como las parejas 6 
yuntas con sus ameses y aparejos y los vehfculos que sean 
propiedad de las personas que emigren del extranjero d los 
Estados Unidos con sns familias, destinados al uso particular 
de las mismas, con sujed6n d las prescripdones dictadas por 
el Secretario del Tesoro, y animales salvajes 6 fieras destina* 
das d exposidones zool6gicas, para fines cientlficos y para la 
ensenanza, no para la venta 6 el lucro. 
XJl Achiote y sus extractos. 

376 Minerales de antimonio, sulfnro de antimonio crudo y antimonio 

en estado de r^gulo 6 de metal. 

377 Apatita. 

380 Tdrtaro crudo. 

381 Arrow-root sin elaborar. 

382 Ars^nico y sulfuro de ars6nico <x oropimente. 

383 Arseniato de anilina. 

384 Modelos para la ensenanza, compuestos de cristal y de metal » 

cuyo valor no exceda de 6 cents por gruesa. 

385 Articulos importados por el Gobiemo. 

386 Productos brutos, usados para tenir 6 curtir, no especificados. 

387 Articulos de producd6n 6 manufactura nadonal que sean rdm- 

portados sin haber sufrido elaborad6n alguna ni mejora por 
ninguna clase de procedimiento 6 industria; barricas, toneles, 
damajuanas, sacos y toda vasija de producd6n americana, ex- 
portados conteniendo productos nadonales, 6 vacios, y reimpor. 
tados con articulos extranjeros, inclusas las duelas 6 tablas que 
se reimporten en forma de toneles, barrica s 6 cajas ;;;frascos 6 
botellas para azogne, de producd6n indigena 6 extranjera, 
cuando se hay an exportado de los Estados Unidos; siempre qu« 



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444 BUREAU OF THB AMBRICAN RBPUBI4C& 

se detnoesire la identidad de todos estos articalos, con arreglo 
& las disposiciones dktadas por el Secretario del Tesoro Con 
respecto d los sacos, ao se admitirdn libres mds que los atneri- 
canos que reimporte el ezportador. Si alguno de estos articu- 
los est& sujeto d un derecho interior al verificarse la exportaci6n, 
deberd probarse que 6ste se ha pa^ado previamente y que no- 
se ha reembolsado. Bsta disposfci6n no es aplicable d los artl- 
culos por los que se haya satisfecho prima 6 drawdacJt, 
cuya reimportaci6n no podrd hacerse sino niediante el pago 
de derechos ignales d la prima recibida, ni tampoco d los 
artf culos manufacturados en los dep6sitos de Aduanas y expor- 
tados con suieci6n d alguna disposici6n legal vigente. Cuando 
se reimporte tabaco manuiacturado que se haya exportado sIm 
previo pago del impuesto interior vigente, quedard bajo la 
Gustodia del Colector 6 administrador de Aduanas hasta tanto 
que se hay an reiutegrado los derechos legales con los sellos 
correspondientes. 
38t Amianto no manufacturado. 

389 Cenitas de lena y sus lejfas ; cenizas de raiz de remolacha. 

390 Asfalto y betiin asfdltico, brutos 6 desecados, sin mds prepara- 

ci6n. 

391 Asaf^da. 

392^ Tejidos para hacer sacos de embalar algod6n, tejidos de 
yute y todas los demds semejantes propios para embalar el 
algod6n, compuestos en todo 6 en parte de cdfiamo, lino, yute 
6 cabos de yute. 

393 Bdlsamo de Gilead. 

394 Quina y otras cortezas de que pueda extraerse la quinina. 

395 Carbonato de barita natural 6 viterita y sulfato de barita, asf 

como las baritas sin preparar y la tierra de barita. 
3^ Bauxita. 

397 Cera de abeias. 

398 Campanas rotas y metal para campanas, en pedazos, bueno s61o- 

para ser nuevamente refundido. 

399 Bramante para atar, hecho total 6 parcialmente de cdnamo de 

Nueva Zelandia, de is^/e 6 fibra de Tampico, de pita (sisa/- 
grass) 6 de cdnamo de la India (sunn)^ d simple torsi6n y que 
no tengan mds de 600 pi^s por libra, incluso el bramante de 
Manila que no tenga mds de 650 pi^s por libra. 

400 Pieles de pdjaro preparadas para su conservaci6n, sin otra 

elaboraci6n. 

401 Pdjaros y aves, terrestres y acudticas. 

402 Bismuto. 

403 Vejigas, inclusas las natatorias de los peces, y otros tegnimentos 



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LA NUEVA TARIFA IMS LOS EST ADOS UNIDOS. 445 

aniiuales, en bruto, salados para ser conservados, sin manto- 
facturar, no especificados. 

404 Sangre seca. 

405 Ykriolo atnl 6 snlfato de oobre. 

406 Salchichon de Bolonia. 

407 Telas para cecla^os, destinadas especialmente al uso de I06 nto- 

linos, pero no utilitables para la confecci6n de articulos de 
vestir. 

408 Huesos sin elaborar, quemar, calcinar, moler ni preparar por el 

vapor 6 deotra manera, asi como el polvo de hueso 6 carb6n 
animal, y las cenizas de hueso, solo utilizables como abono. 

410 Libros, grabados y fotograffas, encuademados 6 sin encuader- 

nar, grabados al CLgua ftierte, m^sica, mapas, cartas marinas, 
impresos m^ de veinte altos antes de la importaci6n, cartas 
hidrdgrdficas, libros y publicaciones peri6dicas y cientificas, 
publicaciones editadas por sociedades cientlficas, literarias 6 
acad^micas destinadas d sus abonados; publicaciones hechas 
por particnlares para ser distribuidas gratuitamentC) asi como 
los documentos piiblicos procedentes de Gobiernos eztranjeros. 

41 1 Libros y folletos impresos ezclusivamente en nn idioma que no 

sea el ingl^, y libros y miisica al relieve para ciegos. 

412 Iibro8,^^^rabados, fbtograFIiSis, grabados al agua fnerte, est^ 6 

no encuademados, mapas y cartas marinas, importados de 
Orden superior 6 para uso de la naci6n 6 de la Biblioteca del 
Congreso. 

4x3 Libros, mapas, mf^ica, litografias y cartas marinas, importados 
en remesas de dos ejemplares solamente, para uso de alguna 
corporaci6n docente, literaria, cientifica 6 religiosa, 6 para fo- 
mento de la& bellas artes, 6 para alg^n establecimiento cienti 
fico, colegio, academia, escuela, seminario 6 cualquiera otra 
instituci6n de enseiianza de los Estados Uuidos, y tambi^n 
para las bibliotecas del Estado 6 pdblicas, con arreglo d las 
disposiciones dictadas por el Secretario del Tesoro. 

4x4 Libros, bibliotecas, muebles y otros efectos domisticos de personas 
6 familias eztranjeras, que no tengan m^nos de un ano de uso 
fuera del pals, ni est^n destinados d otra persona 6 d la venta. 

416 Pasta del Brasil. 

417 Trenzados, esteras, cintas y demds manufacturas andlogas, de 

paja, viruta, verba, hoja de palma, sauce, mimbre 6 ratdn 
para (^uarnecido de sombreros, gorros 6 tocas. 

418 Agatas del Brasil sin labrar. 

419 Mdrmol brecha (breccia), en bloques 6 losas. 

4ao Cerdas de puerco 6 de jaball, sin labrar, escoger, preparar ni en 

atados. ^ 
421 Bromo. 



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44^ BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

432 Mijo para escobas. 

433 Lingotes de oro 6 plaia. 
424 Pez de Borgofia. 

434;^ Loaa ordinaria (burlaps) j sacos para cereales confeccionadoi 
con esta tela. 

435 Coles. 

436 Monedas y medallas aatiguas, prop! amen te tales, de origen 

anterior al afio 1700. 

437 Cadmio. 

438 Calamina. 

439 Alcanfor en bruto. 

430 Cast6reo. 

431 Cuerdas de tripa, cnerdas para lAtigos y crin de Plorencia, no 

manufacturadas 6 simplemente en forma de cnerdas. 

433 Cerio. 

433 Creta sin manufacturar. 

434 Carb6n de lena. 

435 Rafz de chicoria cruda, seca 6 sin secar, pero sin moler. 

436 Sidra. 

437 Algalia natural. 

438 Cromato de hierro 6 mineral de cromo. 

439 Arcilla comiin azulada, en barricas, iinicamente utilizable para 

la fabricaci6n de crisoles. 
441 Carb6n de piedra dicho antracita y para provision de los buqucs 
americanos (se prohibe la descarga). 

443 Alquitrdn mineral, en bruto y todas sus preparaciones, exccpto 

las medicinales, asi como los prodnctos del alqnitrdn de hulla 
que no sean colores 6 tintes, no especificados. 

444 Cobalto y mineral de cobalto. 

445 Coca de Levante. 

446 Cochinilla. 

447 Cacao sin elaborar, y sus hojas 6 vainas. 

448 Caf6. 

449 Oro, plata y cobre en moneda. 

450 Pibras 6 hilo de coco. 

451 Mineral de cobre. 

453 Cobre viejo, bueno solamente para ser refundido, desperdidos 
de cobre nnevo y todos los metales de composici6n en qnc el 
cobre sea la materia de principal valor, no especificados. 

453 R^gulo de cobre, cobre negro 6 com6n y cemento de cobre. 

454 Cobre en placas, barras, lingotes, galdpagos <\ otras formas, sm 

manufacturar y no especificado. 

455 Caparrosa verde 6 sulfato de hierro. 

456 Coral marino, sin cortar ni elaborar. , 

457 Corcho y corteza de alcomoque, sin manufacturar. 



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t,k NUBVA TARIFA DE IjOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 447 

458 Algod6n, borra y desperdicios de algod6n. 

459 ^^^^ dc hierro 6 de acero cortados de conyenientes dimensiones. 

est^n 6 no perforados, con 6 sin bebillas, para pacas de al- 
god6n. 

460 Criolita. 

461 Orchilla. 

462 Discos de piedra para juego de curling^ 6 de tejos, 7 mangos 

para idem. 

463 Cari y polvos de can. 

464 Cachunde. 

465 Hueso de jibia. 

466 Raiz de amarg6n en estado natural, seca 6 no, pero sin moler. 

467 Diamantes inclusos los de mineros» vidrieros y grabadores, sin 

engasiar, polvo de diamante, y piedras destinadas d la fabri- 
caci6n de relojes. 

468 Dividivi. 

469 Sangre de drago. 

470 Drogas, como cortezas, habas, bayas, bdlsamos, botones y 

bnlbos, raices bulbosas, excrecencias, frutos, flores. fibras 
secas, insectos secos, semillas, gomas y gomo-resinas, yerbas, 
hojas, Uquenes, mnsgos, nueces, ralces y tallos, especias, 
plantas, semillas aromdticas y semillas procedentes de algtin 
crecimiento morboso, yerbas y lenos tint6reos, siempre que 
ninguna de estas substancias sea comestible y se presente en 
estado natural sin baberse aumentado su valor por el refinado, 
molido ii otro cualquier procedimiento de fabricaci6n, no es* 
pecificados. 

471 Huevos.de aves, peces 6 insectos. Pero no los huevos de las 

ayes de caza, cuya importaci6n no se permitird m^ que para 
las colecciones cientificas. 

472 Esmeril. 

473 Comezuelo ( Ergot) , 

474 Abanicos comunes de hoja de palma y hoja de palma sin manu- 

facturar. 

475 Maizena (Farina), 

476 Figutines de modas, grabados en acero, cobre 6 madera, ilnmina- 

dos 6 sin iluminar. 

477 Plumas y plum6n para camas, de todas clases, en bruto y sin 

preparar, colorear ni manufacturar, no especificados. 

478 Peldspato. 

479 Fieltro adhesivo para forro de buques. 

480 Pibrina en todas sus formas. 

481 Pescado fresco 6 conservado en hielo. 

482 Pescado para carnada. 

483 Pieles de pescado. 



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44^ BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

484 Silice, piedra de chispa y sflice tnolido. 

485 Esteras para pisos» hecbas de paja redonda 6 hendida, inclusat l«s 

e^teras chinas. 

486 P<3siles. 

487 Plantas frutales, tropicales 6 sexnitropicales, importadas para «1 

cultivo. 

Frutas y nucces: 

489 Pmtas verdes, madnras v secas» no especificadas. 

490 Tamarindos. 

491 Nueces del Brasil, nueces "Cream,** nueces 6 huesos de palma, 

no especiScadas. 
493 Pieles de abrigo sin preparar ; pedazos de pielesde adomo, pre- 
parados, cnando no puedan sevir m^ que para la fabri- 
caci6n de sombreros. 

493 Pieles de abrigo de todas clases sin ninguna preparaci6n. 

494 Goma gambir (Gambler), 

495 Crista! en pedazos y cristal instil, bneno s61o para ser mann- 

facturado de nuevo. 

496 I4minas 6 discos de cristal toscamente tallados 6 sin elaborar, 

s61o td.il izables para la fabricaci6n de instrumentos 6pticos, 
anteojos y telescopios. l/>s discos que excedan de 8 pulgadas de 
didmetro podrdn haber recibido el suficiente puHmento para 
determinar la clase del cristal. 

Yerbas y fibras : 

497 Istle 6 fibra de Tampico, yute, cabos de yute, abacd (Manilla) 

pita (Sisal-grass) t cdfiaoio de la India (Sunn)^ lino en rama, 
lino 9in rastrillar, estopa de lino 6 de cdiiamo, cdnamo, 
sin rastrillar, desperdicios de cdfiamo, lino, yute y estopa, 
asi como todas las demds yerbas textiles 6 substanciias vegc- 
tales filamentosas, sin manufacturar ni preparar, no especifi 
cadas. 
498. Moldes de batidores de oro y pieles para idem. 

499 Grasas y aceites (incluso el aceite de bacalao) usadosen la fabri- 

caci6n de jabones, en el estirado del alambre 6 en la prepa- 
raci6n de los cueros, y s61o utilizables para estos usos, no 
especiiicados. 

500 Guano, abonos y sus andlogos. 

501 Sacos y telas ^^ gunny (yutc), viejos 6 de desecho, s61amente Utiles 

para ser de nuevo uiauufacturados. 

503 Gutapercha sin labrar. 

504 Crin de caballo 6 pelo de ganado bovino y de otros animates, 

est^ 6 no limpio. estirado 6 sin estirar, no especificado, y pdo 
humano en bruto, sin Umpiar ni estirar. 



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I.A NUEVA TARIFA DE I*OS ESTADOS UNlDOS. 449 

505 Cueros en bruto, secos, salados 6 conservados. 

506 Recortes de cueros, en bruto. con 6 sin pelo, 7 otros materiales 

para hacer cola. 

507 Cuerdas de cuero. 

508 Piedras de afilar. 

509 Cascos 6 pezuiias sin manufactnrar. 

510 Raices de liipulo para el cultivo. 

511 Cuernos y partes de los^mismos sin mannfacturar, indnsas ^us 

puntas 6 pedacos. 

512 Hielo. 

513 Goma eldstica sin labrat y Ifquida ; desperdicios de esta gobta 

procedentes de objetos viejos, buenos s61o para ser de nttCto 
mannfacturados. 

514 Anil, extract© y pasta de afiil, y carmines. 

515 lodo cmdo y iodo sabHmado. 

516 Ipecacuana. 

517 Iridio. 

519 Marfil aserrado 6 cortado en pedatos, sin m^ mano de obra, 

incloso el marfil vegetal. 

520 Jalapa. 

521 Azabache sin manufactnrar. 

522 Ramas para zahomar (Joss-stick^ Joss^ligM). 

523 Jarda vieja. 

524 Sosa de varech. 
« 25 Kiserita. 

526 Cianita y kainita. 

527 Lac'dye, en bruto, en palillos, granos 6 escamAs. 

528 Esencia de laca (L<u spirits), 

529 Lacterina. , 

531 Lava sin manufacturar. 

532 Sanguijtielas. 

533 Jago de lim6u, de lima y de naraflja amarga. 

534 Rafz de regaliz sin moler. 

535 Botes de salvamento y aparatos salvavidas, especial men te im- 

portados por sociedades que tienen per principal objeto 
fomentar el salvamento de la vida hnmana. 

536 Citrato de cal. 

537 Cloruro de cal 6 polvos para blanquear. 

538 Piedras litogrdficas sin grabar. 

539 Tomasol preparado 6 sin preparar. 

540 Piedra imdn. 

541 Rnbia com^n 6 de la India, molida 6 preparada, y todos sus 

extractos. 

542 Snlfato de niagnesia 6 sal de Epsoni. 

543 Magnesita 6 carbonato de magnesia natural. 



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450 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

544 Magnesio. 

545 Imanes artificiales. 

546 Oxido y minerales de manganeso. 

547 Mand. 

548 Manuscritos. 

549 Ta^tano 6 m^dnla, en brato. 

550 Malvavisco. 

551 Medallas de oro, plata 6 cobre, para certdmenes 6 pretnios,. 

sietnpre qae hayan sido recibidas, ofrecidas y aceptadas real- 
meute como distinci6a honorifica. 

553 Espuma de mar en bruto 6 sin elaborar. 

554 Leche fresca. 

555 Aguas minerales naturales de todas clases y sus sales obtenidas* 

por eyaporaci6n, siempre que estos articnlos vengan acom- 
panados de un certiAcado debidamente legalizado, haciendo* 
constar que no se ban preparado artificialmente por un pro- 
cedimiento cualquiera y que proceden de un manantial mineral 
designado ; limonadas, soda water y demds similares. 

556 Minerales en bruto sin ninguna elaboraci6n de refino 6 molido- 

d otro g^nero de manufactura, no especificados. 

557 Modelos de inventos 6 adelantos artistlcos, inclusos los de maqui- 

naria, que no puedan tener otro destino. 

557 >^ Melaza que no marque mds de 40 grados al polarimetro y que 

contenga 20 por ciento 6 menos de agua. 

558 Musg6s, algas marinas y demds sustancias vegetales, en bruto* 

6 sin mannfacturar) no especificadas. 

559 Almizcle en bruto, importado en sus bolsas naturales. 

560 Mirabolanos. 

561 Agujas para coser y zurcir. 

562 Diarios y publicaciones peri6dicas, entendi^ndose por estas Ulti- 

mas las que apareceu peri6dicamente por semanas, meses 6 
trimestres, sin encuademar 6 simplemente d la rtistica, y que 
no contienen mds que articulos de actualidad. 

564 Nuez v6mica. 

565. Estopa. 

566 Ocre y tierra de ocre, Siena y tierra de Siena, y sombra y tierra 

de sombra, secos, no especificados. 

567 Tortas oleaginosas. 

568 Aceiles: de almendras, dmbar, dmbar gris, crudo y rectificado. 

anis, anilina, espliego, bergamota, cayaput, alcarabea, casia, 
canela, cedrato, manzanilla, citronela, algalia, semilla de 
algod6n, crotontiglio, hinojo, jazmin, juglandio, enebro, la- 
vanda, lim6n, lima, macis, de azahar, de grasa perfumada 
6 saturada por las flores, de nogal 6 de nueces, no especi- 
ficados^, aceite de naranja, aceite de olivas para usos in-- 



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LA NUEVA TA^IFA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 45 1 

dustriales 6 mdquinas, impropio para la alimeiitaci6ii, no 
especificado ; esencia de rosas, aceites de palma y de coco» de 
romero, sdsamo, tomillo, ordgano rojo 6 bianco, Valeriana^ 
esperma de ballena, ballena y otros aceites de pescado pro- 
cedentes de pesqueHas americanas, iaclusoel pescado y denids 
prodactos de las mismas ; petr61eo bruto 6 refinado. 

Sin embargo, cuando el petr61eo bruto 6 sus prodactos se 
importen de palses que graven con derechos los producidos en 
los Bstados-Unidos, adeudardn un derecho de 40 por ciento ad 
valorem, 

569 Opio, crudo 6 sin manufactarar, no adulterado, que contenga 9 

por ciento 6 mds de morfina. 

570 C^scara de naranja y de lim6n, al natural, sin uiuguna prepa- 

raci6n. 

571 Orchilla liquida. 

573 Minerales de oro, plata y niquel, y mata de niquel. 

574 Osmio. 

575 Coadros al 61eo y acuarelas, dibujos y bosquejos originales, 

pruebas de artista al agua fuerte 6 grabados, y estatuaria, no 
especificados. Se entienden por estatuaria las obras artisticas 
de bulto 6 de relieve, de mdrmol, piedra, alabastro 6 metal, 
ejecutadas por escuUores 6 estatuarios, y por cuadros al 61eo 
todos los que no se hay an hecho en todo 6 en^parte por medio 
de modelos, ii otros procedimientos mec^icos. 

576 Paladio. 

577 Materias en bruto para la fabricaci6n del papel, de todas clases,^ 

como yerbas, fibras, trapos, desperdicios, raspaduras, virutas, 
papel viejo, trozos de cuerdas, de tela de sacos, sacos 6 tela de 
yute (fcunny)^ viejos 6 de desecho, dlamo 6 otras maderas que no 
puedan tener otra aplicaci6a que la fabricaci6n del papel. 

578 Parafina. 

579 Pergamino y vitela. 

580 Ndcar sin aserrar, tallar ni elaborar de cualquier otra manera. 

581 Guisantes frescos, d granel, en barilles, sacos 6 otros envases. 

582 Pieles y otros efectos de los indios que pasen 6 repasen las fron- 

teras de los Estados-Unidos, de conformidad d los reglamentos 
que dicte el Secretario del Tesoro. Enti^dase que este beue- 
ficio no se hard extensivo d 16s g^neros que vengan en pacas 
<3i otros envases desusados entre los indios. 

583 Bfectos personales y mobiliario, no mercancias, de ciudadanos de 

los Estados-Unidos fallecidos en el extranjero. 

584 Peltre y metal britdnico, viejos, para ser refundidos de nuevo. 

585 Aparatos, utensilios, instrumentos 6 preparados fisicos 6 cien- 

tlficos, inclusos los frascos y estuches en que vengan acondi- 
cionados, estaturia, modelos 6 formas de mdrmol, bronc6, ala- 



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452 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

bastro 6 yeso, pintnras, dibujos y grabados al agva fuerte, 
cuando todos estoB articulos se importer de buena fe, para uso 
de algnna sociedad 6 iastituci6ii establecida para fines religio- 
soss, doceates, cientfficos 6 Uterarios, 6 para el fomento de las 
bellas artes, no para la venta. 

586 Fosfatos, crudos 6 natiTOS. 

587 Plantas, drboles, arbustos y vides de todas clases, cOnsiderados 

como plantas de semillero, no especifidadas. 
586 Yeso 6 sulfato de cal, sin moler. 

589 Platino, en lingotes, barras, hojas y alambre. 

590 Platino» sin manufacturar y en vasijas, retortas y otros aparatos 

6 recipientes y sus partes sueltas, para laboratorios qaimicos. 

591 Arados, rastros de piias 6 de discos, mdqninas para cosechar, 

segadoras» sembradoras, plantadoras, guadaneras, rastrillos de 
tiro, arados para surcar la tierra y batidoras y desgraaadoras 
de algod6n. Debe entenderse que cnando los arKcnloB de que 
se trata se importen de paises que perciban derechos de entrada 
sobre sns similares de procedencia de los Bstados-Unidos, 
segnirdn el regimen que les era aplicable anteriormente d la 
entrada en vigor del presente Araocel. 

592 Plombagina. 

593 Felpa negra, Uamada de sombrereros, de seda pura 6 con mezcla 

de algad6n, empleada ezclnsivamente en la fabricaci6n de 
sombreros de hombre. 

594 Piedras para pulimentar 6 brunir. 

595 Carbonate de potasa en bruto 6 black sttUs; potasa ednstica 6 

hidrato, con ittclusi6n de la refinada en varillab 6 rollos, 
nitrato de potasa 6 salitre bruto ; sulfAto de potasa, bruto 6 
refill ado; clorato y tainriato de potasa. 

596 Libros profesionales, iitiles, instrumentos y utensilios, para ofi- 

cios 6 empleo de las personas que se trasladen d k)6 Estadoa 
Unidos, cuando realmente sean de su propiedad, con eitclusi6n 
de la maquinaria 6 artkulos destinados d una niannfactnra 
cualqniera, 6 para btras pei'sonas 6 tambf^ para la renta. 
Tampoco se eztenderd esta franquicia d las deeoraciones, 
trajes y accesorios de teatro, d no ser que se importen por 
propietarios 6 directores de teatros con el objeto de dar 
representaciones teniporalmente y d condicidn de que tales 
efectos sean us ados y no se destinen d la venta 6 d otras 
persouas, median te cuplimiento de las formalidades que 
prescriba el Secretario del TeAoro. Al efecto, se prestard 
fianza que garantice el pago de los derechos realmente apli- 
cables d estos objetos, caso*de que nose reexportaren dentro de 
los seis meses siguientes d la fecha de su importaei6n. No 
obstante, el Secretario del Tesoro, cuando lo ju%gue con- 



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hk NUEVA TXRIFA DB LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 453 

vcuiente 7 d soUcitud del interesado, p6drd prorrogar este 
plazo por un nuevo periodo de seis mcses. 

597 Pain (plain6n vegetal procedente de ciertos helechos de las islas 

de Hawai), destinado d rellenar colchones 6 como absorbente. 

598 Piedra p6tnet. 

600 Plnmaft de ave, pr«paradas 6 sin preparar, irds no en articulos 

elaborados. 

601 Solfato de qutnina v todos los alcaloidea 6 sales de las quiaas. 

602 Trapos viejos no especificados. 

603 Insigoias y joyas para tmiformes, estatoas 7 niodelos de escultura, 

importados de bnena fe, para oso de alguna sociedad estable- 
cida esclusivamente para fines doceutes, literarios, filo6<Sficos 6 
religiosos, 6 para el fomento de las belles artes, 6 para uso de 
algiitt colegio, academia, escuela, seminario cientifico 6 biblio- 
teca p^blica de los Estados Unidos ; pero bajo la palabra, 
insignias/' se entenderdn ^aicamente las insignias 6 emble- 
nias de an empleo 6 dignidad que se llevan en el vestido 6 
en la mano, en los actos p^blicos de la respectiva sociedad 

6 corporaci6n, con ezclusi6n de todo articnlo de niueblaje,. 
prenda de vestir ordinaria 6 propiedad particular. 

604 Cuajo, natural 6 preparado. 

605 Azafrdn y cdrtamo 7 sns extractos, 7 tortas de azafrdn. 

606 SsLgd crudo 7 f^cula de sagii. v 

607 Salictna. 

608 Sal d granel 6 en sacos, bardies d otros envases, adeudando el 

envase como si se importase separadamente. 

Qtieda entendido que cuando la sal se importe de pafses que 
graven con derecbos la procedente de los Estados Unidos^ 
adeudard los derechos que le eran aplicables anteriormente d 
la entrada en vigor del presente Arancel. 

609 Colagria. 

610 Tripas para embutidos. 

6f ( Semillas de anis, mijo, alcarabea, cardamomo, culantro, algod6n, 
crotontiglio, comino, hinojo, alholva, cdtlamo, marrubio, mos- 
taza, colza, algarroba, remolacha, de mangel-wurzel, sorgo 6 
catia de aziicar para la siembra, y todas las semillas de flores» 
gramlneas, bulbos 7 raices impropias d la alimentaci6i], no 
especificadas. 

612 Salep. 

613 Conchis de todas clases, sin tallar, pulimentar ni manufacturar de 

ninguna manera. 

614 Cafiones de escopeta de caza, forjados, con la superficie interior 

sin pulimentar. 

615 Camarones 7 otros mariscos, en latas ix otros recipientes. 

616 Seda cuda 6 devanada directamente del capullo, no en doble hila 

7 sin torcer ni elaborar de cualquiera otra manera. 



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454 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

617 Capallos de seda y desperdicios de fdetn. 

618 Huevos de gusaao de seda. 

619 Esqueletos y preparaciones anatdmicas. 

620 Caracoles. 

621 Nitrato de sosa 6 nitrato ciibico v clorato de sosa. 

622 Sullato de sosa dicho saU-cake 6 niier-cake, 

623 Sodio. 

624 Manufacturas de esparto para la fabricaci6]i ii omato de som- 

breros. 
525 Objetos 6 mnestras de hisioria natural, botanica y mineralogia, 
itnportados para gabinetes 6 prop6sitos cientificos, no para la 
venta. 

Especias: 

626 Casia/casia verdadera y brotes de casta, sin moler. 

627 Canela y f ragmen tos de canela, sin moler. 

628 Clavos y pediincolos de especia, sin moler. 

629 Raiz de jengibre, sin moler, no conservada ni azucarada. 

630 Mads. 

631 Nuez moscada. 

632 Pimienta blanca 6 negra, sin moler. 

633 Pimienta sin moler. 
63s Yesca. 

636 Trlpodes y soportes para encastillar objetos de barro, gr^ 6 loza. 
636 >^ Sellos de correos 6 de la renta interior, extranjeros, est^ 6 no 
inutilizados. 

638 Piedras y arena : piedras de molinoen bloqnes, en bruto 6 mann- 

facturadas, 6 con aros de hierro ; acantilada, sin labrar ; piedra 
p6mez, cuarzo terroso (roUen stone) y arena en bruto 6 mana- 
facturada. 

639 Estoraque. 

640 Oxido de estronciana, y estroncianita 6 carbonato mineral de 

estronciana. 

642 Azufre precipitado, azufre crudo en masas, mineral de azafrc, 

como piritas 6 snlfnro de hierro al estado nativo, que tengan 
mis de 25 por ciento de azufre, y azufre no especificado. 

643 Acido sulfiirico. Enti^ndase que cuando el dcidosulfdrico se im- 

porte de pafses que graven con derechos el producido en los 
Estados Unidos, adeudard los derechos que le eran aplicables 
con anterioridad d la entrada en vigor del presente Arancel. 

644 Residnos de oro y plata. 

645 Sebo y grasa de lana, inclusa la conodda en el comerdo bajo el 

nombre de " dkgrcLS " 6 grasa obscnra de lana. 

646 Tapioca, casabe 6 yuca. 

647 Alquitr&n y brea vegetal, y pez de la brea del carb6n mineral. 



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LA NUEVA TARIFA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 455 

648 T^ y plantas de t^. 

650 Dientes natnrales 6 sin manafacturar. 

651 Tierra blanca (Peldspato albuminoso). 
653 Cacbtmde. 

653 Mineral de estafio, casiterita d 6xido negro de estafio, estano en 

barras» bloqnes, lingotes 6 granular. 

654 Oropel, en hilos, hojas 6 lentejuelas. 

655 Palillos de tabaco. 

656 Habas de Tonkin. 

657 Tripoli. 

658 Cixrcnma. 

659 Trementina de Venecia. 

660 Agaarrds 6 esencia de trementina. 

661 Tortngas. 

662 Caracteres de imprenta viejos para ser refundidos. 

663 Uranio (6xido y sales de). 

664 Vims de la vacnna. 

665 Agallas (Valonia). 

666 Cardenillo 6 subacetato de cobre. 

667 Obleas no medicinales ni comestibles. 

668 Cera vegetal 6 mineral. 

669 Bfectos personales de individuos que vienen d los Estados Unidos 

(no mercancfas), con exclusi6n de todo objeto que no sea de 
uso de dichas personas 6 indispensable para sus propias necesi- 
dades y conveniencia, 6 fines de sn viaje, y de los destinados d 
otra persona 6 para la venta. 

671 Barba de ballena sin elaborar. 

Madera: 

672 Troncos y maderas redondas, sin labrar, no especificados. 

673 Lena, madera para mangos, fondos 6 duelas, ripia, varas de 

liipnlo, posies para empali2adas» travesanos de ferrocarril, ma- 
dera para constmcci6n de buques, inclnsas las bordas, no espe- 
dficadas. 

674 Maderas de constmcci6n, hendidas 6 aserradas» inclusas las 

usadas para berlingas 6 con8trucci6n de muelles. 

675 Maderas de construcci6n escuadradas 6 desbastadas. 

676 Tablas» maderos aserrados y demds maderas en bruto 6 simple- 

mente desbastadas, excepto las tablas. maderos y piezas de 
cedro, de lignum vitce^ de madera de Jamaica (lancewood)^ boj, 
granadillo, caoba, palo de rosa, madera-sat^n y todas las demds 
de ebanisteria. 

677 Tablillas {clapboards) de pino. 

678 Tablillas, (clapboards) del pino Uamado spruce, 

679 Cubos de ruedas, postes, hormas para calzado, piezas de madera 

para wagones, remos, culatas de fusil, fondos de toneles y de- 



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456 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN RBPUBUCS. 

mds piezas similares desbastadas 6 simplemente aserradas. 

680 Listones. 

681 Estacas y empaluadas. 

682 Ripias. 

683 Doelas de madera de todas clases y madera sin manufaciurar. 

Sin embargo, cuando todos I06 articalos expresados eu las 
partidas 672 y siguientes hasta 683 inclusive procedan de 
paises qae los graven con derechos de exportaci6n 6 diferencia- 
les segnirdn el regimen que les era aplicable con anteiioridad 
d la entrada en vigor del presente Arancel. 

684 Maderas de cedro, de guayaco, de Jamaica (lancewood)^ de ^bano. 

boj« granadillo, caoba, palo de rosa (pali8andro),desat^n y toda 
clase de madera de ebanisterfa, en troncos, desbastadas 6 cor- 
tadas ; bambii y cana de Indias, sin mannfacturar, ralz 6 ma- 
dera de brexo, asi como sus similares, sin mannfactnrar 6 sim- 
plemente cortadas en trozos, para sevir k la fabricaci6n de los 
objetos dque se destinen; canas inclusas las de bambti y palos 
de las maderas Uamadas /ar/ri^^, hairwood^ palo de hierro, 
madera de pimienta, naranjo, mirto y otras no especificadas, 
desbastadas 6 s61o cortadas en paloa 6 varas de longitad pro- 
porcionada, ya sea para bastones de paraguas, sombrillas, 
qnitasoles, Idtigos, 6 simples bastones, y jnncos de Malaca solo- 
cortados en longitudes proporcionales d los objetos d que se 
destinen. 

685 Toda clase de lanas de camero, pelo de camello, cabra, alpaca 

<y otros animales semejantes, pieles con su pelo 6 lana, carda- 
dnras, desperdicios del hilado, del cardado 6 del torcido, de 
borra, de cintas de carda (i otras, trapos viojos, compnestos en 
todo 6 en parte de lana, no expresados. 

686 Obras de arte de artistas americanos que residan temporalmente 

en el extranjero <x. otras obras de arte, inclusas las pinturas 
tobre cristaU cnando sean importadas expresamente para un 
instituto nacional, 6 corporaci6n municipal, 6 del Estado, 
asociaci6n religiosa, colegio (i otra instituci6n piiblica, inclusos 
los vidrios de ventana pintados 6 coloreados. Pero esta 
exenci6n se sujetard d las prescripciones dictadas por el Secre- 
tario del Tesoro. 

687 Obras de arte, dibujos, Rrabados, retratos y vistas fotogrdficas y 

aparatos cientificos. import ados por artistas ix. hombres de letras» 
traidas del extranjero, para exhibirse temporalmente en exposi- 
ciones, 6 para el fomento de las artes, ciencias 6 de la industria 
de los Estados Unidos, y no para la venta ; y retratos y vistas 
fotogrdficas importadas paraexposiciones por cualquiera asocia- 
ci6n establecida de bnena fe y con autorizaci6n superior, expU* 
cita y (inicamente para fomento de las ciencias, artes 6 de la 



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I.A NUBVA TARIFA DK I*OS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 457 

industria, 7 no con destino d la venta, someti^dote para ello & 
las mstmcciones comonicadas por el Secretario del Tesoro* 
preria la pre8taci6n de fianta que responda del pago de loa 
derechos qne pnedan corresponderles, si no se reexportan 
dentro de los seis meses signientes & su importaci6n. Bnti^- 
dase qne el Secretario del Tesoro esU facnhado para prorrogar 
seis meses mis el ezpresado plato. 
688 Obras de arte, colecciones para ilustrar los adelantos de las 
dencias, artes, 6 mannfactnras, fotografias, trabajos de terra 
cotta, mdrmol, barro, porcelana y copias artisticas de obras 
antignas, de metal ii otros materiales, importadas para expo- 
siciones permanentes en un local determinado» por sociedades 
6 institnciones establecidas para el fomento de las artes.6 de 
las ciencias, 7 otros articnlos andlogos importados en iguales 
condidones para la erecci6n de alg^n monumento, 7 no para 
la yenta ni para otro objeto, previa la prestad6n de fianza 
para el pago de los derechos que pnedan corresponderles si 
se les da otro destino» con arreglo d las prescnpdones que dicte 
el Secretario del Tesoro. Dichos artfculos quedardn sometidos 
4l la vigili^nda de la Adnana. Bnti^ndase que esta exenci6n 
no se extiende d las asodaciones 6 corporadones dedicadas en 
algiin modo d negocios particulares 6 de cardcter comerdal. 
789 frames. 
690 Zafre, 6 6xido azul de cobalto. 

Art. 3. — Todos los artfculos sin manufacturar, no espedficados en 
el pre^ente Arancel, adeudardn d su importad6n 10 por ciento ad 
valorem^ y todos los articulos manufacturados en todo 6 en parte, no 
espedficados, 20 por dento ad valorem. 

KsLt, 4. — Todo articulo no espedficado, semejante por la materia de 
que estd hecho, su calidad 6 disposid6n, 6 el nso d que se destine, d 
otro artf culo espedficado, adendard d su importad6n el mtsmo derecho 
qne el articulo d qne mds se asemeje por alguna de las enundadas dr- 
cnmstandas; 7 si un articulo no espedficado ofrece semejanza con 
Tarios espedficados y tarifados con diferentes derechos, adeudard 
aqnel que fije la partida que marque ma7ores derechos; y si un articulo 
no especificado estd compuesto de varios materiales, se aforard como 
si estuviese hecho solamente del material que adeude mds altos 
derechos. Por "/rtWi*^/ r{?wi^<?«^»/^'* se en tiende en este Arancel el 
material que exceda en valor d cada cual de los otros componentes, 
cnyo valor se determinard con arreglo al que tiene dicho material, tal 
como se encuentra en el articulo. Si un artfculo puede aforarse por 
mds de una partida, adeudard por la que marque mds altos derechos. 
Art. 5. — Los articulos de fabricad6n extranjera, que de ordinario 
se presentan marcados, estampados 6 sellados 6 con etiquetas, asi 
como los embalajes de cualquier articulo de importaci6n, deben pre* 

33 BUL 



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4S8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

sentarse con las marcas, sellos 6 etiquetas que indiquetf con perfecta 
claridad, en lengua inglesa, el pais de procedencia y su contenido, sin 
cuyo requisito no serdn admitidos d entrada. Cnando log articulos 
importados vengan provistos de marcas, sellos 6 etiquetas que indiquen 
cantidades» niimeros 6 medidas superiores d los realmente contenidos 
en dichos bnltos, no se entregardn al importador antes de que tales 
marcas, sellos, etiquetas, etc., se hayan rectificado en la forma debida. 

Art. 6. — No se admitird en ninguna Adnana de los Estados Unidos, 
d laittiportaci6n, ning<in articulo 6 mercancia en que se imite 6 copie 
el nombre 6 marca comercial de alguna manufactura 6 de alg<in fabri- 
cante del pais. 

Para ajudar d los fundonarios en el cumplimiento de esta disposi- 
ci6n, todo fabricante del pais que tenga marca propia podrd exigir que 
•a marca, nombre, domicilio y descripci6n de la primera se registren 
en libros que se llevardn al efecto en el Departamento del Tesoro, con 
arreglo d las prescripdones dictadas por su Secretario, pudiendo ade- 
mds entregar en dicho Departamento facsimiles de dichas marcas ; 
despu^ de lo cual el mismo Secretario remitird copias de las expresa- 
das marcas d las Aduanas 6 sus Administradores. 

Art. 7. — Todos los materiales de producci6n extranjera con destino 
d la construcci6n, armamento y eqnipo de buques constmidos en los 
Estados Unidos por cuenta de casas extranjeras y para ser propiedad 
extranjera, 6 para ser empleados en el comercio extranjero 6 en el 
de los puertos del Pacifico con los del Atldntico de los Estados Unidos, 
asi como todos los materiales necesarios para la con8trucci6n de sus 
mdquinas, podrdn importarse in bond, 6 bajo la oportuna garantia y 
con pruebas de que no es otro su destino con arreglo d lo que deter- 
mine el Secretario del Tesoro. En su consecuencia, estos articulos no 
adeudardn derechos. d condici6n de que se jnstifique su empleo en la 
forma indicada. Los buques que obtengan este beneficio no podrdn 
dedicarse al comercio de cabotaje de los Estados Unidos mds de dos 
meses en un ano, sino mediante el pago de los derechos abolidos per 
esta disposici6n. Pero los buques constmidos en los Estados Unidos 
con materiales del pais por cuenta de casas extranjeras y para ser 
propiedad extranjera no podrdn emplearse en el comercio de cabotaje* 

Art. 8. — Todos los materiales de producci6n extranjera que sean 
necesarios para la reparad6n de buques americanos empleados en el 
comerdo exterior, con inclusi6n del trdfico entre los puertos del Atldn- 
tico y los del Pacinco de los Estados Unidos, podrdn sacarse de los 
dep6sitos, libres de derechos, con arreglo d lo que disponga el Secre- 
tario del Tesoro. 

Art. 9. — Todas las mercancias fabricadas total 6 pardalmente con 
materias importadas 6 sujetas d un impuesto de renta interior y desti- 
nadas d la exportaci6tt, cuando no hayan satisfecho derechos, 6 no 
tengan adherido d ellas debidaniante un timbre 6 sello de la Renta inte- 



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LA NUEVA TARIFA DE U)S ESTADOS UNIDOS. 459 

liDT, necesitari^ para exportarse sin pagar derechos 6 sin llevar el 
timbre antedicho, haber sido fabricadas, conforme d las reglas que 
prescriba el Secretario del Tesoro, en almacenes que reunan las con- 
didones de los dep<5sito6 (bonded uforehouses) de la clase 6a. I/>s fabri- 
cantes de dichas mercancias prestardn previamente fianza que garan- 
tice el fiel complimiento de las disposiciones legales, asl como de los 
reglamentos que dicte el Secretario del Tesoro. No se permitird en 
tales dep6sitos la fabricaci6n de liqoidos alcoh61icos derivados de 
granos, almid6n, melazas 6 azficar, indusas las soluciones 6 me«clas 
de estos Uquidos alco]i61icos 6 de alguno de ellos. 

Los artlculos fabricados en esta clase de dep6sitos podrdn luego ex- 
portarse con franqnicia de derechos, sin necesidad de cumplir las for- 
malidades relativas al timbre de la renta, si se Ueva d cabo esta 
operaci6n bajo la vigilancia de un funcionario especialmente designado 
al efecto. 

Todas las materias empleadas en la fabricaci6n de dichas mercan- 
cias, asi como todos los empaques, enyases, recipientes, marcas y eti- 
qnetas, necesarios para su acondicionamiento podrdn, de conformidad 
•con las reglas dictadas por el Secretario del Tesoro, transportarse 
sin pagar derechos 6 inipuestos de renta interior d uno de los dep6Bit08 
de fabricaci6n, y los g^neros importados podrdn, bajo las mismas 
reglas transportarse con franquida de derechos de los dep6sitos de 
Aduana d los de fabricad6n. Sin embargo, estos privilegios no se 
hardn extensivos d los instrumentos, md^uinas 6 aparatos destinados 
A la constracd6n 6 reparad6n de los dep6sitos de fabricad6n 6 d 
nsos de la fabricaci6n misma. 

No podrd retirarse de los dep6sitos de fabricad6n ningiin artfculo 6 
materia sino para la exportaci6n directa 6 para el transporte y expor- 
tad6n immediata bajo fianza y bajo la vigilancia del funcionario en- 
cargado al efecto por el Colector del puerto. Este funcionario deberd 
•certihcar que se ha llevado d cabo el transporte 6 el embarque, segiin 
el caso, debiendo igualmente describir los articulos por sus marcas 6 
de otra manera, indicando la cantidad, fecha de la exportaci6n y 
iiombre del buque exportador. Los gastos que ocasionen estas opera- 
dones, que se practicardn en todo caso bajo la vigilancia de un emplea- 
do de Aduanas designado al efect9, serdn decuenta del fabricante. 

Bl Colector deberd formar una nota exacta de todas las mercandas 
•entregadas por cuenta de los dep6sit06 de fabricaci6n, debiendo tam- 
bidn presentar el fabricante un extracto mensual firmado bajo jura- 
mento y d completa satisfacd6n del funcionario de Aduanas encargado 
<de este servido. Este extracto deberd mendonar con el mayor detalle 
posible todas las mercancias exportadas y empleadas en la iabricaci6n 
4e los artlculos exportados. El propietario de un dep6sito de fabricaci6n 
deberd, antes de dar principio d sus operaciones, remitir al Secretario 
^iel Tesoro una rdaci6n de todos los artfculos que se propone fabricar 



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460 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

en el mismo, debiendo indicar el modo de fabncaci6n y la naturaleaa 
y cantidad de los ingredientes que trate de emplear. 

Los articulos fabricados en virtnd de las presentes disposiciones 
podrdn» mediante la observancia de los reglanientos que prescriba el 
Secretario del Tesoro, retirarse y remitirse d uno de los dep6sitos de 
Aduana situados en un puerto exterior, d fin de ser exportados inme- 
diatamente. Las disposiciones del articulo 3433 de los Estatutos revisa- 
dos se aplicardn, en tan to como sea posible, d todos los dep6sitos de 
fabricaci6n establecidos en virtud de la presente Ley, asi como d las 
mercanclas que en ellos se depositen. 

Art. 10. — Queda prohibida la importaci6n en los Estados Unidos de 
todo libro, foUeto, papel, escrito, anuncio, circular, impreso, pintura, 
dibujo <i otra representaci6n, figura. imagen, sobre cualquiera materia 
que sea, 6 plancha, fundici6n, instrumento 6 cnalquier articulo, de 
cardcter inmoral, 6 droga, medicina 6 cualquiera sustancia para evitar 
la concepci6n, 6 procurar un aborto ilegal. La misma regla se apli- 
card d los billetes 6 anuncios de loteria. No se permltird la entrada de 
estos articulos separadamente 6 en embalajes en uni6n con otros arti- 
culos cuya importaci6n sea permitida ; y si aquella se intentare, tanta 
las niercancias como los bnltos que las contengan serdn detenidos por 
los empleados de Aduanas, persigui^ndose el hecho en la forma que 
mds adelante se expresa, d no ser que se justifique, d satisfacci6n del 
administrador de la Aduana, que los objetos obscenos 6 prohibidos se 
ban introducido sin conocimiento del importador, propietario, agente 6 
consignatario. Enti^ndase que las drogas arriba mencionadas estdn 
exceptuadas de esta prohibici6n y sus consecuendas, cuando vengan d 
grantfl y no est^n destinadas d ninguno de los fines preinsertos. 

Art. II. — Todo funcionario, agente 6empleado del Gobiemo de los 
Estados Unidos, que dsabiendas ayude6 favorezca d alguien en la infrac- 
ci6n de alguna de las disposiciones que prohiben la importaci6n, anun- 
cio, comercio, exposici6n, envio 6 recepci6n por correo de publica- 
ciones 6 grabados obscenos, 6 preparados para impedir la concepci6n 
6 procurar el aborto, <i otros objetos inmorales, se considerard reo de 
delito punible cada vez con una multa que no pasard de 5,000 dol- 
lars. 6 con pena de presidio por no mds de diez aiios, 6 con ambas cosas. 

Art. 12. — Los jueces de distrito '6 circuito de los Estados Unidos,. 
ante quienes se presente acusaci6n escrita de cualquier infracci6n 
de lo dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores, pddrdn, si sa acusa- 
ci6n estd fundada, d satisfacci6n del juez, bien en conocimiento propio- 
6 en mera creencia, acompanada de las razones en que tal creencia 
se apoya. y previa la prestaci6n de juramento por el acusador, 
expedir, con arreglo d la Constituci6n, un auto dirigido al tptarshal 6 
su represenlante en el distrito, ordendndole que busque, aprehenda v 
tome posesi6n del objeto en cuesti6n, mencionado en los dos articulos^ 
precedentes, y haga inmediata entrega de los mismos, d fin de que 



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I^A NUEVA TARIPA DB LOS BSTADOS UNIDOS. 46 1 

sea condenado y destrufdo; y estos procedimientos se pracUcardn 
«ii la misma forma que cnando se trate de aprehensiones municipales 
7 con ii^ales deredios de apelaci6n. 

A&T. 13. — La maquinaria que entre para sufrir reparaciones podr& 
importarse en los Estados Unidos sin pagar derechos, previa la presta- 
ci6n de garantia, que serd doble del valor calculado, y deberd ser 
reexportada des pu^s de su reparaci6n ; el Secretario del Tesoro dic- 
tard las disposidones oportunas para evitar todo fraude y asegurar 
la identidad de los objetos reexportados, limitando d seis meses la 
facultad de exportarla por el mismo pnerto de entrada, y concediendo 
tambi^n un plazo igual para la cancelaci6n de las fianzat. 

Art. 14. — Ademds de los derechos establecidos, adeudardn un dere- 
cho diferendal de 10 por ciento ad valorem todas las mercancias im- 
port adas en buques extranjeros; pero quedan excluidos del mismo los 
g^neros importados en buques extranjeros que por tratado 6 convenio 
est^n asiniilados en ^sto d los buques nacionales. 

Aht. 15. — Bxcepto en los casos previstos t)or los tratados, la impor- 
taci6n de mercanclas de cualquier puntodel extranjero s61o se efectuard 
en buques de los Estados Unidos 6 en buques pertenecientes d siibditos 
de la naci6n de que las mercancias procedan en propiedad6 en la que 
de ordinario se embarquen por primera vez para su transporte. Toda 
mercancia que se importe con infracci6n de esta disposici6n, asf como 
los buqnes en que venga» con todo su cargamento, jarcias, aparejos y 
muebles, serdn confiscados, quedando sujetos en un todo d las disposi- 
ciones y reglas que rigen para el cobro, distribuci6n y remisi6n de 
objetos confiscados, seg^n se previene en las diferentes leyes que versan 
sobre la renta. 

Art. 16. — Ix> preceptuado en la disposici6n anterior no se aplicard d 
los buques 6 mercancias importadas en buques extranjeros, en cuya 
naci6n no se apliquen disposlciones de esa naturaleza d las embarca 
Clones de los Estados Unidos. 

Art. 17. — Queda prohibida la importaci6n en los Estados-Unidos de- 
ganado vacuno y sus cueros, sea cualquiera el pais extranjero de que 
procedan. Esta disposici6n podrd suspenderse por decreto especial 
del Secretario del Tesoro, en que se d^ noticia oficial de que los 
ganados de dichas procedencias no tienen enfermedad que pueda per- 
judicar al de los Estados Unidos ; el mismo Secretario adoptard cuantas 
medidas sean necesarias para Uevar d efecto esta disposici6n 6 suspender 
su ejecuci6n como queda dicho, y remitird copias de sus decretos d los 
funcionarios d quienes corresponda y d los agentes 6 representantes de 
los Hstados-Unidos en el extranjero, segtin le pareciere. 

Art. ]8. — Todo el que voluntariamente infrinja alguna de las dispo- 
slciones del artlculo anterior, incurrird en una multa que no pasard de 
500 dollars, 6 en prlsi6n que no excederd de un ano, 6 en ambas cosas, 
d juicio del Tribunal. 



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462 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

Art. 19. — Los artlcalos que, siendo producto 6 fabricaci6n de los 
Bstados Unidos, se exporten sin haber adeudado derechos 6 con boni- 
ficaci6n de los mismos, pagardn d su reiniportaci6n un derecho ignal 
al impuesto interior marcado para los mismos ; pero los fabricados en 
dep6sitos afianzados y exportados con arreglo d la ley serda aforados 
como si se importasen por vez primera del extranjero. 

Art. 20. — I/as mercanclas procedentes de buques naufragados en las 
costas 6 aguas jurisdtccionales de los Bstados Unidos 6 en sus rios, que 
hayan estado abandonados por espacio de dos anos, pueden ser impor- 
tadas libres de derechos por cualqulera que las haya salvado 6 puesto 
d flote, y^presentado en el puerto mds inmediato al lugar del naufragio, 
snjetdndose d lo que al efecto disponga el Secretario del Tesoro. 

Art. 21. — Los talleres de fundici6n 6 refino de metales establecidos 
en los Bstados Unidos podrdn considerarse cotn'^ dep6sitos de Aduana, 
conlarreglo d las disposiciones dictadas al efecto por el Secretario del 
Tesoro, d condici6n, no obstante, de que estos fabricantes presten pre- 
Tiamenteal Departamento del Tesoro la oportuna fianza. Los niinera- 
Ics 6 metales en bruto que, requieran fundirse 6 refinarse para su 
empleo en las artes, y que se importeu d fi.a de ser reexportados 
despu^s de sufrir la expresada operaci6n, pero sin manufacturar, 
pueden retirarse, sin pagar derechos con sujeci6n d lo que disponga 
el Secretario del Tesoro y bajo la direcci6n del funcionario desig- 
nado, en sus primitivos embalajes 6 d granel, del buque <i otro vehiculo 
en que se haya efectuado la importaci6n, 6 del dep6sito en que se 
encuentren, al otro en que haya de tener lugar la fundicl6n 6 refino, 
juntamente con otros metales de preduci6n nacional 6 extranjera. En- 
ti^ndase que cada dia se apartard la cantidad de metal refinado equiya- 
lente al metal importado, cuyo metal asi apartado no se retirard de los 
talleres sino para su transporte d otro dep6sito 6 para su exportaci6n, 
bajo la vigilancia del expresado fnncionario, cuya certificaci6n des- 
cribfendo los artlculos por &us ma rcas, cantidad, fecha de la importa- 
ci6n y nombre del buque 6 vehicnlo en que se hizo la importaci6n, con los 
demds detalles que puedan exigirse, serd entregada al Colector de Ada- 
anas y servird para dar fe de que la exportaci6n se ha realizado ; 6 bien 
podrd retirarse d otro dep6sito, con arreglo d lo dispuesto por el Secre- 
tario del Tesoro, 6 ser destinado al consumo, mediante el pago de los 
oportunos derechos. Bl empleado de Aduanas designado por el Secre- 
tario del Tesoro deberd vigilar todos los trabajos ejecutados, asi como 
todos los demds servicios d que se refieren las precedentes reglas ; los 
gastos que ocasionen estas operaciones serdn de cuenta del fabricante. 

Art. 22. — Por los materiales importados con pago de derechos para 
la fabricaci6n de articulos producidos 6 manufacturados en los Bstados 
Unidos, se abonard d la exportaci6n de estos articulos un drawback 
igual d los derechos satisfechos, m^nos i por ciento de los mismos. Bn- 
ti^ndase que si los articulos exportados estdn hechos en parte con mate- 



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LA NUBVA TARIFA DE IX)S KSTADOS UNIDOS. 465 

riales nacionales, la parte que de los eztranjeros haya entrado en sa 
composici6n deberd set aparente de manera que su cantidad 6 medids 
pneda determinarse exactamente. El drcuvback acordado con arreglo 
i la legislaci6n vigente continuard pag^dose en la misma forma, 
siendo preciso identificar los materiales importados que se han em- 
pleadoen la fabricaci6n 6 producci6n de artlculos que tengan opci6n i 
la deyolnci6n de los derechos de Aduanas d su exportaci6n, antes de 
efectuar esta restituci6n, comprobar la cantidad de los mismos em- 
pleada 7 los derechos abonados por ellos, el hecho de haberse fabri- 
cado los articulos en los Estados-Unidos y de haberse efectnado su ez- 
portaci6n, y el drawback correspondiente se abonard al fabricante, 
prodnctor, exportador 6 6 la persona por ellos designada en docn- 
mento escrito, con sujeci6n d las disposiciones dictadas por el Secre^ 
tario del Tesoro. 

Akt. 24. — Qneda absolutamente prohibida la importaci6n de articu- 
los, mercancias y g^neros manufacturados en todo 6 en parte por 
presidiarios 6 presos en el extranjero, y el Secretario del Tesoro dictard. 
las reglas oportunas para el mejor cnmplimiento de esta disposici6n. 

Art. 36. — La Secci6n 2804 <lc los Estatutos Revisados se modified 
como signe ; 

Sscci6n. 2804. — '*No podrdn importarse cigarros puros sino ea 
cajitas que no contengan mds de 500 cada una, y no se admitird decla- 
raci6n de entrada por bultos .que contengan menos de 3,000 cigarros. 
Los cigarros as( importados se depositardn en almacenes 6 dep6sitos 
pdblicos, 6 almacenes con fiana^a (bonded warehouse)^ y no podrdn reti- 
rarse de ellos sin previo reconocimiento y sin que se haya puesto d cada 
cajita 6 caj6n nn sello que atestigiie la visita, asi como el niimero de 
orden de que se tomara raz6n en la Aduana El Secretario del Tesoro 
qneda antorizado por la presente Ley para facilitar los sellos de que 
se trata 7 para dictar todas las disposiciones necesarias para la ejecu* 
d6n de la presente ley." 



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A NOYA TARIFA DOS BSTADOS UNIDOS. 465 

A NOVA TARIFA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS 
QUE ENTROU EM VIGOR 



A 28 DE AGOSTO DE 1894. 



O Senado e a Casa de Represcfitantes dos Estados Unidos da 
America reunidos em Congresso decretam : 

Que desde o primeiro de Agosto de mil oitocentos noventa e quatro, 
— a menos que nao se especifique de outro modo nesta iei, — todos 
PS artigos importados de paizes estrangeiros au retirados de depo- 
sitos aduaneiros para consumOy e mencionados nos quadros desta 
tarifa^ serao sugeitos aos direitos especificados nestes quadras^ a 
smber: 

QuADRO A. — Materias cfUmicas^ oleos, tintas, e c6res. 
Acidos: 

1 Acido acetico on p^rolenhoso 20 por cento ad yal. 

2 Acido borico 3 centavos por libra. 

3 Acido chromico 4 centavos por libra. 

4 Acido citrico 25 por cento ad val. 

5 Acido tannico ou tannino 60 centaros por libra. 

6 Acido tartarico 20 por cento ad val. 

7 Perfnmaria alcoholica, inclusive agua de Colonha e outras aguas 

de toncador, e compostos alcoholicos n&o especificados nesta 

tarifa $2.00 por gallao e 50 por cento ad val. 

S Alnmina, pedra hume, massa de alumen ou sulphato de aluminio 

impuro, e alumen crystalisado ou moido 4-10 de um centavo 

por libra. 
%%, Carbonato e sulphato de ammonia 20 por cento ad val.; Muriato 

de ammonia ou sal ammoniaco 10 por cento ad val. 

9 Graza de toda a especie, 20 por cento ad val.; Carvao animal 

para clarifica9§o de assucar 20 por cento ad val. 

10 Borax em bruto ou atincal, 2 centavos por libra; Borato de cal, 

i>^ centavos por libra; Borax refinado 2 centavos por libra. 

io>^ Camphora refinada 10 por cento ad val. 

XI Greda preparada, precipitada, franceza, vermelha ou giz, e 

todas as mais prepara9oes nao especificadas nesta tarifa 20 

por cento ad val. 

12 Hydrato de chloral 25 por cento ad val. 

13 Chloroformio 25 centavos por libra. 



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466 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Preparagdes de coaltar: 

14 Todas as c6res ou tintas de coaltar por qualquer nome conheci- 

das e nao especificadas nesta tarifa 25 por cento ad val. 

i^yi Oxydo de cobalto 25 centavos por libra. 

15 Collodio e todos os compostos de pjroxylina, por qaalqucr 

nome conhecidos, 40 centavos por libra; em rolos oufolhas, 
mas nao em artigos, 50 centavos por libra ; em artigos de 
mannfactura completa ou parcial 45 por cento ad val. 

16 Materias corantes para corar aguardente de uvas, vinho, ccrvcjt^ 

ou outros licores 50 por cento ad val. 

\()% Drogas ; taes como cascas, favas, bagas, balsa mos, botdes oa 
rebentos, bolbos, raizes bolbosas, excrescendas, fmtas, flores, 
fibras scccas, insectos seccos, graos, gommas e gommas-re- 
sinas, ervas, folhas, lichens, musgos, nozes, raizes e talos; 
especiaria, hortaliza, sementes aromati9as, sementes de cresd- 
• mento morbido, e pans de tincturaria ; todos os especificados 
nao comestiveis, mas preparados por refina^So, moagem 00 
outro meio de manufactura, e n§o especificados nesta tarifa....i(> 
por cento ad val. 

17 Etheres sulphuricos, 40 centavos por libra ; espirito de ether 

nitroso, 25 centavos por libra ; etheres, oleos e essencias de 
f rut as, $2. 00 por liora ; etheres de toda a especie n&o especifi- 
cados nesta tarifa |i.oo por libra. * 

18 Extractos e decoc95es de pdo campeche e outros pdos de tiotor 

aria, extracto de sumagre, e extractos de cascas, os osados 
communmente para tingir ou cortir, n^ especificados nesta 

tarifa, e extractos de casca de pinho do Canadd loporcenta 

ad val. 

19 Gelatina, grude, colla de peixe ou ichthyocol e bexigas de peixe 

preparadas 20 por cento ad val. 

ao Glycerina, impura, i centavo por libra; refinada, 3 centavos por- 

libra. 
31 Tinta e p6s de tinta, tintas de imprensa, e todas as mais nio 

especificadas nesta tarifa 25 por cento ad val. 

22 lodoformo |i.oo por libra. 

23 Extractos de alca9uz en massa, rolos e outras formas 5 cen- 

tavos por libra. 

24 Carbonato de magnesia, medicinal, 3 centavos por libra ; mag- 

nesia calcinada, 7 centavos por libra ; sulphato de magnesia 
ou sal de Epsom 1-5 centavo por libra. 

25 Morphina e todos sens saes 50 centavos por onga. 

OUos: 

26 Alizarina auxiliar, seja oleo soluvel, oleato de soda, on oleo de 

vermelho da Turquia 30 por cento ad val. 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 467 

27 Oleo de ricino 35 centavos por gallao. 

98 Oleo de figado de bacalhdu 20 por cento ad val. 

29 Oleo de li]iha9a> e de sementes de dormideira, cr6, cozido, ou 

ozydado 20 centavos por gall^ de 7>^ libras. 

30 Oleo Poossel ou alcohol amylico 10 por cento ad val. 

31 Oleo de sementes de canhamo, e de colza 10 centavos por 

gall^. 

32 Azeite doce para a mesa 35 centavos por gallao. 

33 Oleo de hortela-pimenta 25 por cento ad val. 

34 Oleos de phoca, arenque, baleia, e ontros peizes, nao especifica- 

dos nesta tarifa 25 por cento ad val. 

35 Bztracto aquoso de opio, para uso medicinal ; tinctura de opio» 

como laudano, e todas as mais prepara90es de opio, n&o espe- 
cificadas nesta tarifa 20 por cento ad val. 

36 Opio que tenha menos de nove por cento de morphina, e o pre- 

parado para fumar, |6.oo por libra. Opio preparado para 
fumar, e outras prepara9des de opio em depositos aduaneiros, 
nao se poder^ retirar destes sem se terem pago os direitos 
devidos, e estes nSo se poderao restituir. 

TintaSf Cdres e Vernizes : 

37 Sulphato de baryta, ou barytes, preparados fa.oo por tone- 

lada. 

38 Azul de Berlim, da Prussia, da China, e outros, compostos em 

parte de ferro^yanureto de ferro, seccos ou moidos em oleo 
ou misturados com este, 6 centavos por libra ; em massa ou 

misturados com' agua 6 centavos por libra da materia em 

estado secco. 

39 Blanc-fize ou sulphato de barytes artificial, e branco-setim ou' 

sulphato de cal artificial 25 por cento ad val. 

40 Negp-o, seja de osso, marfim, ou vegetal, por qualquer nome que 

se conhe9a, inclusive carv^ animal e p6 de sapatos, seccos 
ou moidos em oleo ou agua 20 por cento ad val. 

41 Amarello, verde, e as mais cdres de chromo, em que entram 

chumbo e bichromato de potassio ou sodio como partes compo- 
nentes, qner seccas ou moidas em oleo ou misturadas com este, 

quer em massa ou misturadas com agua 3 centavos por 

libra da materia em estado secco. 

42 Ocre e terras de ocre, sienne ou terra de sienna, e terra de som- 

bra, moidos em oleo \% centavos por libra. 

43 Azul Ultramar, seja secco, em massa, on misturado com agua, e 

azul de lavenderia com ultramar 3 centavos por libra. 

44 Vernizes, inclusive a chamada colla de ouro, e charao, 25 por 

cento ad val.; e vernizes alcoholicos pagarao mais um dollar e 
trinta e dous centavos por gallao do alcohol que contenham. 



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468 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

45 Yermelhao, e outras cdres qne contenham azougne, quer seccas 

ou nioidas em oleoou agua 20 por cento adval.: 

vemielbdo sem azougue, e feito de chumbo inteiramente ou 
em parte 6 centavus por libra. 

46 Branco de Hespanha, e de Pariz, seccos, X centavo por libra; 

moido em oleo on potea % centavo por libra. 

47 Ozydo de zinco, e tintas ou cdres brancas com zinco, seccas on 

moidas em oleo i centavo por libra. 

48 Todas as mais c6res e tintas, quer seccas ou mistnradas, moidas 

em oleo ou agua, e todas outras solu9des, inclusive todas as 
cdres em tubos, lacas, crayons, esmaltes e escarchados, nao 
especificadas nesta tarifa 25 por cento ad val. 

Productos de Chumbo: 

49 Acetato de chumbo, branco, i}i centavos por libra; pardo, \% 

centavos por libra; lithargyrio \%, centavos por libra. 

50 Nitrate de chumbo i f^ centavos por libra. 

51 Carbonato de chumbo. \% centavos por libra; minio \% cen- 

tavos por libra. 

52 Alvaiade, e tintas e cdres brancas com chumbo, seccas ou em 

massa, moidas ou misturadas com oleo \% centavos por 

libra. 

53 Phosphoro 15 centavos por libra. 

Potassa: 

54 Bichromato e chromato de potassa 25 por cento ad val. 

55 Hydriodato, iodureto, e iodato de potassa 25 centavos por 

libra. 

56 Nitrato de potassa ou salitre, refinado %, centavo por libra. 

57 Prussiato de potassa, vermelho ou amarello 25 por cento ad 

val. 

Preparagdes: 

58 Todas as prepara9oes medicinaes, inclusive as de coaltar e as pro- 

prietarias, em que entre alcohol como parte componente, oa 
em cuja compo6i9^ este se empregue. e nao especificadas de 
outro modo nesta tarifa, 50 centavos por libra; com tanto que 
OS direitos pagos n§o sejam menos de 25 por cento ad val. 

59 Todas as prepara9oes medicinaes n§o especificadas nesta tarifa 

25 por cento ad val. 

59 >^ Verde de Pariz e purpura de Londres i2>^ por cento ad val. 

60 Productos ou prepara9des conhecidas por alcalis, alcaloides, 

oleos destillados, essenciaes, exprimidos, extractos e todos os 
compostos dos precedentes, e todos os compostos e saes chimicos 
n^o especificados nesta tarifa 25 por cento ad val. 



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A NOYA TARIPA DOS BSTADOS UNIDOS. 469 

61 PrepaTa9des para o cabello, bocca, dentes, ou pelle; taes como 

cosmeticos, dentifridos, massas, pomadas e p6s, e todas as 
prepara^oes e artii^os de perfumaria, n&o especificados nesta 
tarifa 40 por cento ad val. 

62 Santonina e todos os seus saes que contenham oi tenia por cento 

on mais dessa |i.oo por libra. 

Sabao: 

63 Sabao hespanhol, 20 por cento ad val.; sab^o fino, perfnmado, e 

todas as especies de sab^ de toucador ou medicinal, 35 por cento 
* ad val.; sab^ de qnalquer outra classe, n^ especificado nesta 
tarifa 10 por cento ad val. 

Soda: 

64 Bicarbonate e super-carbonate de soda }i centavo por libra. 

65 Hydrato de soda ou soda caustica % centavo por libra. 

66 Chromato e bichromato de soda 25 por cento ad val. 

67 Sal soda, ou soda crystallizada, % centavo por libra ; car bo- 

nato de soda do comerdo % centavo por libra. 

68 Silicato de soda ou outro silicato alcalino yi centavo por libra. 

69 Esponjas, musgo marinho ou de Islandia 10 por cento ad val. 

70 Strychnina (estrydmina), e todos os seus saes 3ocentavos por 

on 9a. 

71 Enzofre, refinado, sublimado, ou flores de enxofre 20 por 

cento ad val. 

72 Sumagre moido 10 por cento ad val. 

73 Cremor-tartaro e tartaro de patente 20 por cento ad val. 

74 Tartaro e ci^staes de borra de vinho, refinados em parte 20 

por cento ad val. 

75 Tartaro de soda e potassa, ou sal de Rochella 2 centavos por 

libra. 



QUADRO B. — Terras^ Obra de Barro, Lou^a, Porcelana t 
Vidro — Tijolos, Telhas e Azulejos, 

76 Tijolos n^ vidrados, esmaltados nem ornamentados de modo 

algnm, 25 por cento ad val.; vidrados, esmaltados ou ornamen- 
tados 30 por cento ad val. 

77 Tijolos magnesianos refractarios |i.oo por tonelada. 

78 Telhas e azulejos, lisos, n^o vidrados, adomados, pintados, 

esmaltados, vitnficados, nem ornamentados, 25 por cento ad 
val.; ornamentados, vidrados, pintados, esmaltados, vitrifica- 
dos, ou adornados, e os encausticos 40 por cento ad val. 



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470 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Cimento^ Cat e Gesso: 

79 Cimeato romano, de Portland, e os tnais hydraulico?, em barri- 

cas, saccas ou otros volumes, 8 centavos por*cem libras, 
inclusive o peso da barrica, etc.; em granel, 7 centavos per 
cem libras ; outros cimentos 10 por cento ad val. 

80 Cal, 5 centavos por cem libras, inclusive o peso da barrica ou 

volume. 

3i Gesso moido, |i.oo por tonelada, calcinado |i-25 por tone- 

lada. 

Barro e terras : 

52 Barro e terras, em bruto, ndo especificados nesta tarifa, |i.oo por 

tonelada; preparados ou manufacturados, nao especificados 
nesta tarifa, I2.00 por tonelada ; kaolino ou argilla de por- 

celana I2.00 por tonelada. 

Lou9a de barro, de p6 de pedra, e porcelana : 

53 I/>u9a de barro commum, amarella ou parda, lisa ou em relevo ; 

I/>u9a commum de p6 de pedra. e cadinhos, nao decorados de 
modo algum 20 por cento ad val. 

S4. I<ou9a branca, de porcelana, marmore de Paros, biscuit, 
de agilla ou p6 de pedra, inclusive placas, adomos, brin- 

quedos, berloques, vasos e estatuetas, sem adomo algum 

30 por cento ad val. 

S$ Lou9a pintada, colorida, esmaltada, estampada, dourada ou de 
outra forma adomada, de porcelana, marmore de Paros, bis- 
cuit, argilla ou p6 de pedra, inclusive placas, adomos, 
brinquedos, berloques, vasos e estatuetas 35 por cento ad val. 

86 Todos OS artigos de materia terrea ou mineral, inclusive bicos de 

lava para combustores de gaz — ^n^ especificados nesta tarifa, 
e adornados de alguma maneira, 40 por cento ad val. ; n&o 
adomados 30 por cento ad val. 

87 Rctortas de gaz 20 por cento ad val. 

Vidro e obras de vidro : 

d& Garrafas de vidro verde ou colorido, moldado ou prensado, de 
crystal de rocha ou vidro calcareo, com capacidade de mais de 
meio litro ; Garrafdes, com ou sem coberta, vasios ou cheios, 
seja o conteudo sugeito ou n^o a direito ; e todas as outras gar- 
rafas, frascos, redomas, etc., das mesmas materias, nao especi- 
ficados, nesta tarifa, }( centavo por libra ; garrafas e frascos 
de n^ mais de meio litro e nao menos de um oitavo de litro, i 
1-8 centavos por libra ; de menos de um oitavo de litro, 40 cen- 
tavos por grossa: todas as outras obras das materias mencio- 
nadas acinia 40 por cento ad val. 

4^ Todos OS artigos de vidro lapidado, gravado, pintado, colorido* 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS BSTADOS UNIDOS. 47 1 

estampado, de cdres» adorn ado, prateado on doarado, com 
exclosao de vidro laminado prateado ou vidro em lamina para 
espelhos 40 por cento adval. 

^o Todas as garrafas» frascos, vasos e outros artigos, lapidados, 
|2^avados, pintados, coloridos on de c6res, estampados, lavra- 
dos, on de outro modo adomados, com ezcep9^ dos que tenham 
s6 as rolhas esmerilhadas — n^ especificados nesta tarifa, in- 
clnsive os de vidro-porcelana ou opalescente, 40 por cento ad 
val.; com tanto que, quando os mesmos artigos se importarem 
com conteudo, os direitos mencionados se cobrem em addi9^ 
ao especificado para o conteudo. 

-91 Vidro cylindrado, n^o polido, de Bohemia, e commum de janella, 
cujas dimensdes n§o sejam mais de dez pollegadas de largo por 
quinze de comprido, i centavo por libra ; de maiores dimen- 
sdes, mas que n^ passem de dezeseis pollegadas por vinte e 
quatro, iX centavos por libra; de maiores dimensdes, mas 
que nao passem de vinte e quatro pollegadas por trinta, iX 
centavos por libra; de maiores dimensdes, mas que n^ passem 
de vinte e quatro pollegadas por trinta e seis, 2 centavos por 
libra; maiores ainda, 2)4 centavos por libra; com tanto que vidro 
cylindrado, da Bohemia, e vidro commum de janella, nao poli- 
dos, importados em caixas, se devam acondiciouar com cinco- 
euta p^s quadrados em cada caixa pouco mais ou menos, se- 
gundo as dimensdes do vidro; e assim os direitos devem-se 
determinar, conforme ao peso real do vidro. 

-92 Vidro cylindrado e vidro da Bohemia, polido, de dimensdes de 
n§o mais de dezeseis pollegadas de largo por vinte e quatro de 
comprido, 2}^ centavos por p^ quadra do ; de dimensdes maio- 
res, mas que n^ passem de vinte e quatro pollegadas por 
trinta, 4 centavos por p^ quadrado ; maiores, mas que nao pas- 
sem de vinte e quatro pollegadas por sessenta. 15 centavos por 
p^ quadrado ; de dimensdes maiores do que as acima mencio- 
nadas «2o centavos por p^ quadrado. 

^3 Vidro estriado, laminado ou em chapa tosca, com exclusao do 
cylindrado, do da Bohemia e do commum de vidra9a, de 
dimensdes de n&o mais de dezeseis pollec^adas por vinte e 
quatro, )( centavo por p^ quadrado ; de dimensdes maiores, 
mas que nao passem de vinte e quatro por trinta pollegadas, i 
centavo por p^ quadrado ; de dimensdes ainda maiores, i ^ 
centavos por p^ quadrado ; todo vidro estriado, laminado ou 
chapa tosca, que pese mais de cem libras por cada cem pes 
quadrados, pagard pelo excesso um direito addicional na razad 
dos especificados; com tanto que todo vidro laminado ou cylin- 
dro, quando esmenlhado, alisado ou de outro modo escurecido, 



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472 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

pague o mesmo direito do vidro fundido em latnina, polido, 
mas nao prateado. 

94 Vidro fundido polido, em lamina, acabado ou nSo, e nao prate- 

ado, de nao mais de dezeseis por vinte e quatro poll^adas, 5 
centavos por p^ quadrado ; maior, mas nao de mais de vinte e 
quatro por trinta pollegadas, 8 centavos por p^ quadrado- 
maior ainda, mas de nao mais de vinte e quatro por sesenta 
pollegadas, 22 >^ centavos por p^ quadrado ; de todas as dimen- 
sories superiores ds mencionadas 35 centavos por p^ qua- 
drado. 

95 Vidro fundido polido, em lamina, prateado ou azougado, vidro 

em chapa para espelhos, de superficie de mais de cento qua- 
renta e quatro pollegadas quadradas, e de n^o mais de dezeseis 
por vinte e quatro pollegadas, 6 centavos por p^ quadrado; 
maior, mas de n^ mais de vinte e quatro por trinta pollegadas, 
10 centavos per p^ quadrado; maior ainda, masde nao mais de 
vinte e quatro por sessenta pollegadas, 23 centavos por p^ qua- 
drado ; de todas as dimensoes superiores is mencionadas 

38 centavos por p^ quadrado. 

96 Nenhum vidro em chapa para espelhos, nem vidro laminado, azon- 

gado ou prateado, com moldura, pagard um direito menor do 
que o imposto em vidro similhante sem moldura, mas pagard 
em addi9§o o direito imposto nasmolduras importadassepara- 
damente. 

97 Vidro fundido polido, em lamina, azougado ou prateado, oa nk>, 

e vidro cylindrado, vidro da Bohemia, e o commum de vidra^a, 
curvados, esmerilhados, escureddos, escarchados, areiados, 
esmaltados, enviezadados, lavrados em relevo, gravados, de 
duas folhas, coloridos, de cdres, pintados, ou de outro moda 
adomados, pagar§U> nm direito de dez por cento ad val. em 
addiydo ao imposto nos mesmos lisos ou nSuo adomados. 
9S Oculos, lunetas, oculos duplos, binoculos de theatro, e outros in- 

strumentos opticos e suas arma90es 40 por cento ad val. 

99 Contas de vidro, soltas, enfiadas ou em cartoes 10 por cento 

ad val. 

100 Lentes de vidro ou crystal, de manufactura parcial ou acabada 
35 por cento ad val. 

loi Bsmalte fusivel, e chapas de vistas para lantemas niagicas 

25 por cento ad val. 

102 Janellas de vidro pintado ou de cdres, e suas partes, espelhos de 
superficie de nao mais de cento quarenta e quarto pollegadas 
quadradas, com ou sem caixilhos ou caixas, e todos os artigos 
manufacturados de vidro, ou de que este seja a parte compo- 

nente de mais valor, nao especificados nesta tarifa 35 por 

cento ad val. 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOB BSTADOS UNID06. 473 

Marmore epedra^ e suas Matmfacturas : 

103 Marmore de toda especie, em bmto, tosco ou esquadrado s6 50 

centavos por p^ cubico. 

104 Marmore, serrado, lavrado on n^, inclnsive lousas, cubos mosai- 

C08 e ladrilhos de marmore, (nenhuma lousa devendo-se coo;- 

patara menos de uma poUegada de espesso) 85 centavos 

por p^ cubico. 

105 Manufacturas de marmore, onix, ou alabastro, n^ especificadas 

nesta tarifa 45 por cento ad val. 

105^ Pedra lioz, granito, pedra areienta, pedra de cal, e outras pedra3 
proprias para construc9^ de edificios ou monumentos, com ex- 
cep^ao do marmore, n^ manufacturadas nem lavradas, n^ 
especificadas nesta tarifa 7 centavos por p^ cubico. 

106 Pedra lioz, granito, pedra areienta, pedra de cal, e outras pedras 

de construc9^ e de monumento, com excep9^ do marmore, 
n§U> especificadas nesta tarifa, desbastadas, lavradas, on poli- 
das 30 por cento ad val. 

107 Rebolos, acabados ou n^o 10 por cento ad val. 

108 Ardosias, pedras de ardosia para chamin^, lousas para mesas, e 

todas as mais manufacturas de ardosia n^ especificadas nesta 
tarifa 20 por cento ad val. 

109 Ardosias para telhado 20 por cento ad val. 

QuADRO C. — Metaes e suas Manufacturas. Ferro e Ago, 

109 >^ Minerio de ferro, inclusive o manganifero e escoria ou residuo 
do6 pyrites queimados 40 centavos por tonelada. 

ifo Ferro em linguado, ferro gusa de lastro, spiegelelsen, ferro-man- 
ganez, ferro-silicio, ferra de retalho, seja forjado ou fundido, e 
a^o de retalho, $4*00 por tonelada ; mas n^o considerar-se-ha 
como ferro ou a90 de retalho sen&o o de refugo, proprio s6 para 
nova manufactura. 

Ill Ferro roli90, em rosea ou verga, de menos de 7-16 pollegada de 
diametro, e barras e pe9as de ferro laminado n5o especificadas 
nesta tarifa, 8-10 centavo por libra ; com tan to que ferro em 
chapa grossa, lupas t outras formas, de menos trabalho do que 
ferro em barra, com excep9ao de fundi95es, pague um direito 
de 5-10 centavo por libra ; e que todas as barras, lupas, lingua- 
dos, e pe9as quaesquer, em cuja manufactura se nsa de carv^ 
de lenha como combustivel, paguem um direito de I12.00 por 
tonelada. 

iia Ferro em barra, lammado ou batido, inclusive tiras de nSo 
menos de i pollegada de largo e ^ pollegada de espesso, 6-10 
centavo por libra; ferro roli90 de nSo menos de ^ pollegada 
de diametro, e o quadrado de n^ menos de }( pollegada de 

34 BUL 



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474 BURBAU OF THB AMBRICAN RBPUBUCS. 

esquadria, 6-10 centavo por libra; tiras de menos de i polk- 
gada de largo e H pollegada de espesso; ferro roli9o de menos 
de ^ e nao menos de 7-16 pollegada de diametro, e ferro 

quadrado de n§lo menos de )i pollegada de esquadria 6-10 

centavo por libra. 

113 Ferro em vigas, barrotes, traves, angulos, em carris de calhi 

para trucks de carro, em T, cm columnas e postes, on partes e 
sec9oes destes, vdoe, e pe9as formadas de constmc^^o, com as 
mais formas estructuraes de a90 e ferro, sejam poncdotiados 
on n§o, on promptos para o uso 6-10 centavo por libra. 

114 Chapa para caldeiras ou outro fim, de a90 on ferro, exceptnando- 

se chapas para serras, de espessura n§o inferior ao namero 
10 da bitola de arame, tesourada ou n^, e ferro ou 390 
fotjado laminado, tesourado ou laminado em ranhura, de valor 
de um centavo ou menos por libra, 5-10 centavo por libra; de 
valor de mais de um centavo at^ i}4 centavos, 6-10 centavo 
por libra; de valor de mais de i>^ centavos at^ 4 centavos, 
30 por cento ad val.; de valor de mais de 4 centavos, 25 por 
cento ad val.; com tanto que ferro e a9o em chapa de menos 
do n.io da bitola de arame, pague direitos como ferro eago 
em folha. 

115 Pe9as forjadas de ferro ou a90, ou de ferro e a9o em combina- 

9&0, de qualquer forma, e de qualquer griu de manufactara, 
nao especificadas nesta tarifa, i}4 centavos por libra; com 
tanto que nenhuma dessas, por qualquer processo feita, pagne 
um direito menos de 35 por cento ad val. 

116 Ferro e a90 para arcos, bandas, e ferro e a90 em rolo, com 

ezcep9lU> dos especificados de outro modo 30 por cento %d 

val. 

117 Barras-carris, de a90 ou ferro, e as feitas em parte de a90, trilbos 

em T, c OS cbatos de ferro ou a9o punccionados 7-2ocentaT0 

por libra. 

X18 Ferro e a9oem folha, commum ou preta, inclusive ausadana 
manufactura de folha de Flandret, e ferro e a90 forjado lami- 
nado, de valor de 3 centavos ou menos por libra, de espessora 
entre 10 e 20 da bitola de arame, 7-10 centavo por libra; de 
espessura menor que 20 e at6 25, 8-10 centavo por libra; de 
espessura menor que 25, i i-io centavos por libra; ferro e zgo 
enrugado, i i-io centavos por libra; com tanto que todoo ferro 
e a90 em folha commum ou preta, de espessura n^ inferior ao 
numero 10 da bitola de arame, pague os mesmos direitos de 
ferro e a90 em chapa. 

X19 Todo o ferro e a90 em folha ou chapa, o para arcos, bandas, oo 
em rolo, com excep9^ da conhecida folha para lata, galvani- 
zado ou coberto de zmco ou peltre, ou outro metal oa liga de 
metaes, pagard X centavo por libra mais do que os direitos 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS BSTADOS UNIDOS. 475 

especificados para as formas e medidas correspondentes da 
folha cotmnuxn ou preta. 

lao Ferro e a9o em folha polida, bninida a]martello, ou abrilhantada, 
por qualqner nome conhecida, iM centavos por libra; com 
tauto que a^o e ferro em chapa ou folha para lata, ezcepto a 
polida, brunida a martello, ou abrilhantadai tratado ou lim- 
padado por um acido, ou por outra materia ou meio, e o lami- 
nado a frio, alisado sem polimento, pague )i centavo mais por 
libra do que os direitos especificados para a folha commum on 
preta das dimens5es correspondentes. 

I ax Perro e a^o em chapa ou folha, inclusiye a para lata, coberta de 
estanho ou chumbo, ou uma mistura destes, por mergulho on 
outro processo, as quaes se conhecem no commercio por folha 
de Flandres, folha de lata, etc., i 1-5 centavos por libra; com 
tanto que a reduc9&o realizada nos direitos especificados n^ 
tenha efieito at^ o primeiro de Outubro de mil oitocentos oitenta 
e quatro. Nenhum artigo nao especificado nesta tarifa, fabri- 
cado inteiramente ou em parte de folha de Flandres, folha de 
lata, ou de ferro ou a9o em chapa ou folha mencionada no 
precedente; ou em que tal folha de Flandres, folha de lata, 
etc., seja a materia componente de mais valor, pagard um 
direito menor do que o imposto na materia componente. 

laa Linguados, lingnados dentados, lupas e chapas grossas de a90» 
por qualquer processo produzidos ; pe^a^ para cunhos ; barras 
direitas, conicas on envie^adas ; eizos ou arvores para Tapores, 
de manivela, e outros ; pinos de biela ; varas de connexSo e 
bra90s de embolo ; pe9as formadas, prensadas ouestampadas ; 
chapas de serra, de manufactura acabada ou parcial ; moldet 
de martello ou a9o estampado a cunho ; moldes para canos de 
espingarda que nao sejam em barras ; ligas usadas em sub- 
stitui9ao de a90 na fabri9ao de ferramentas ; pe9as de a90 de 
toda a sorte e forma, fundidas em areia secca, marga, ou 
moldes de ferro; folhas e chapas nao especificadas nesta 
tarifa, todos os mecionados nao sendo de valor de mais de um 
-centavo ou menos por libra, 3-10 centavo por libra ; de valor 
de I centavo at^ i 4-10, 4-10 centavo por libra ; de i 4-10 
-at^ I 8-10, 6-10 centavo por libra ; de i 8-10, at6 2 2-10, 7-10 
centavo por libra ; de 2 2-10 at6 3 centavos, 9-10 centavo por 
libra; de 3 at^ 4 centavos, i 2-10 centavos por libra; de 4 
■at^ 7 centavos, i 3-10 centavos por libra ; de 7 at^ 10 centa- 
vos, I 9-10 centavos por libra ; de 10 at^ 13 centavos, 2 4-10 
centavos por libra; de 13 at^ 16 centavos, 2 8-10 centavos 

por libra ; de mais de 16 centavos por libra 4 7-10 centavos 

por libra. 



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47^ BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBI.ICS. 

Aramt: 

ia3 Aramc de ferro e a90 para a fabri^lU) de arrebites ou parafuso^, 
e arame para cercas, seja redondo, OTal, chato, qnadrado» on de 
outra forma qnalquer ; e yerguinha para a manufactura de 
cravos de ferradnra, em rosea ou de outra forma, de valor de 
4 centavos ou menos por libra, 4-io centaTO por libra; de 
▼alor de mais de 4 centavos, }(. centavo por libra ; com tanto 
que verguinha roli9a de ferro ou a^o, de diametro menor que o 
numero 6 da bitola de arame se considere como arame 
e sugeito ao mesmo direito deste. 

124 Arame roli9o de ferro ou a90, de diametro nao menor que o 

numero 13 da bitola de arame, \% centavos por libra ; menor 
que o n. 13 bX€ o n. 16, lyi centavo por libra ; menor que o n. 
16, 2 centavos, por libra ; todos os outros arames de ferro e 
a90 em arame ou tiras', conheddos por arame de crinolina, 
arame para espartilhos, para brocas, agulhas, de piano; para 
relogios, e todos os arames de a90, polidos ou n§o, em roscas 
ou nao, em pe9as cortadas, fiados a frio por cunhos ; arame 
para chap6os, chato de a9o, ou tiras cortadas de chapas de 
a90, cobertos ou nsLo de algodao, seda, metal, ou outra materia, 
e todas as manufactnras de ferro ou a9o adma mendonadas, 
de qualquer forma, cujo valor seja de mais de 4 centavos por 
libra, pagar§o um dirdto de 40 por cento ad valorem; com tanto 
que artigos fabricados de arame de ferro ou a9o paguem o dire- 
ito maximo a que seria sujeito o arame usadonasua manufac- 
tura, e um centavo addicional por libra. 

Disposigdis Gercus: 

125 Nunca fazer-se-ha abatimento ou reduc9ao alguma de direitot, 

por motivo de avaria parcial causada por ferrugem on perda 
de c6r, sobre lerro ou a90 de qualquer espede, nem sobre 
artigo algum fabricado inteiramente ou em parte de ferro ou 
a90. 

Manufacturas de Ferro e Ago; 

126 Ancoras e suas partes, de ferro ou a90 ; ferragena de moinho e 

manivelas de ferro foijado para construc9§o de navios ; pe9as 
forjadas de ferro ou a9o ou destes em combina9do, para navios, 

machinasa vaporelocomotivas, e suas partes 1 2oioc^tavos 

por libra. 
It7 Bixos e suas partes, barras de dxo, barras toscas e outras 
pe9as forjadas para eixos, quer de ferro ou de a9Q, e de qual- 
quer grdu de manufactura, i yi centavos por libra ; com tanto 
que eixos de ferro ou a90 que se importarem montados em 
rodas ou partes de rodas de ferro ou a90, paguem o mesmo 
direito das rodas em que vierem montados. 



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A NOVA XAKIPA DOS £STiJ>08 UKIDOS. 47.7 

xa8 Bigomas de ferro ou a^o, on destes em combina9So, por qualqaer 

processo fabricadas, on de qualqaer grdu de manufactura...... 

i)( centavofi por libra. 
129 Martellos e malhos de ferreiro, ferramentas para trabalhar 

trilhos, canhas, e alaTancas, de ferro on a^o i}4 ceota^KM 

por libra. 
Z30 Canos oa tubos para caldeiras« e outros, estais, de ferro foijado 

Ott a90.^...a5 por cento ad val. ' 

131 Cavilhas, com rosea on porca, on sem ellas ; cavilhas toscas, e 

gonzos acabados ou toscos, de ferro on a90 i}i centavospor 

libra. 
132 . Porros de cardas, com bicos de arame de a90 temperado, 40 centa- 

V06 por p^ qnadrado; com bicos de ontro metal 2ocentaTM 

por p^ qnadrado. 

133 Tnbos e canos de toda a espede, de ferro fnndido 6-10 

centavo por libra. 

134 Vasos, chapas de fogSo e ontras, c§es de chamin^, ferros de engom- 

mar, ferros de alfaiate e de chapeleiro, de ferro fundido, e 

fandi9oes de ferro n^ especificadas nesta tarifa 8-10 centavo 

por libra. 

135 Pnndl9oes de ferro malleavel, nflo especificadas nesta tarifa.^... 

9-10 centavo por libra. 

136 Vasos de ferro fimdido, vidrados, estanbados, ou revestidos de 

outra materia 2 centavos por libra. 

137 Cadeias ou correntes de toda a sorte, de ferro ou a90 30 per 

cento ad val. 

Cutelaria : 

Ij8 Canivetes, facas de bolso, e riscadores, de todas as eapecies. de 
valor de nao mais de 30 centavos por duda, 25 por cento ad 
val.; de valor de 30 at^ 50 centavos, 12 centavos por duzia; 
de 50 at^ I dollar, 25 centavos por do^ia ; de i dollar at^ 1}^ 
dollars, 40 centavos por duzia; de i>i dollars at^ 3 dollars, 
75 centavos por duzisL ; de mais de 3 dollars por duzia, 50 por 
cento ad val. ; e todos os mendonados, de valor de mais de 30 
centavos e nao mais de 3 dollars por dn^ia, pagar&o um direito 
addidonal de 25 por cento ad val. ; com tan to que as folhas, 
eabos e mais pe9as dos referidos artigos, quando se importa- 
rem separadamente dos mesmos, paguem um direito n3o 
mfsnos que o etpecificado para aquelles artigos de valor 
superior a 30 centavos por duzia. 

i^ Espadas, snas folhas, e outras armas brancas 30 por cento 

ad val. 

140 Pacas e garfos de mesa e de trindiar, de valor de mais de 4 dol- 
lars por dnziA de pe9as ; navalhas e suas folhas, de manufaie* 
txira acabada ou parcial, e tesonras, 45 por cento ad val.; 



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473 BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBI.ICS. 

todas as mais facas, garfos, e aiiadores de mesa, todas as facas 
de cagador, de cozinhai para pSo, nianteiga, frutas ou queijo, 
de chumbeiro, pintor, de palheta, de artista ; e facas, garfos 
c afiadores de cozinheiro ou carniceiro .35 por cento ad val. 

141 Limas de qualqner especie, laminas para ellas, e grozas, de 

quatro pollegadas on menos de comprimento, 35 centavos por 
dnzia ; de mais de 4 e menos de 9 pollegadas, 60 centavos por 
duzia ; de 9 pollegadas on mais i dollar por dnzia. 

Armas de Fogo : 

142 Espingardas de ezercito ou de ca9a, *de carregar pela bocca, 

clavinas de ca9a, e partes dellas 25 por cento ad val. 

143 Espingardas de caga de carregar pela culatra, clavinas e espin- 

gardas de ca^a em combinagao, pistolas, e partes das mendoa- 
adas 30 por cento ad val. 

144 Folhas, chapas, obras, ou artigos de f^rro, a90 ou outro metal, 

esmaltados ou cobertos de substftncias vitreas 35 por ceo to 

ad val. 

Fregos, FregdeSy TachaSy e Agulhas : 

145 Pregos e pregoes cortados, de ferro ou ajo 22 >^ por cento 

ad val. 

146 Cravos de ferradura, tachoes, e todos os pregos de ferro foijado 

ou a90 nao especificados nesta tarifa 30 por cento ad val. 

147 Pregos de arame ou pontas de Pariz, de ferro forjado ou a90 

25 por cento ad val. 

148 Preg5es, porcas, arruelas, ferraduras e cannelos, de ferro for- 

jado ou a90 25 por cento ad val. 

149 Tachas, arestas e preguinhos cortados de toda a especie 25 

por cento ad val. 

150 Agulhas para machinas de costura ou de fazer meia, de crochet, 

para fitas ; de meia, e todas as mais nao especificadas nesta 
tarifa, e abre-ilhozes de metal 25 por cento ad val. 

151 Chapas gravadas, de estereotypia, electrotypia, de a90, e chapas 

de outras materias, gravadas ou lithographadas, para impres- 
sao 25 por cento ad val. 

152 Chapas de connexao para trilhos de estrada de ferra, e barras de 

liga9ao ou talas, de ferro ou a90 25 por cento ad val. 

153 Arrebites de ferro ou a9o 25 por cento ad val. 

154 Serras bra9aes, 6 centavos por p^ linear ; serras mechanicas, 10 

centavos por p^ linear ; serras verticaes e de puzar, 8 centavos 
por|p6 linear ; serras circulares, 25 por cento ad val. ; serrotes, 
serras de costado, e todas as mais nao especiiicadas nesta tarifa 
25 por cento ad val. 

155 Parafusos, os cbamados para madeira, de mais de 2 pollegadas 

de comprido, 3 centavos por libra ; de mais de i e n§o mais de 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS KSTADOS UNIDOS. 47^ 

• 

2 pollegadas, 5 centavos por libra ; de mais de }i pollegada e 
nao mais de i pollegada, 7 centavos por libra ; de y^ pollegada 
ou menos 10 centavos por libra. 

155 >^ Yaretas para arma95es, ponteiras, corredi9as, pnnhos, e as mais 

partes de guarda-chuvas ou chap^os de sol, inteiramente on em 

maior parte de ferro, a90, ou outro metal qualquer 50 por 

cento ad val. 

156 Rodas para estradas de ferro, ou partes dellas, de ferro ou a^o ; 

rodas com camba de ago para estradas de ferro, sejam de 
mannfactnra completa ou parcial ; cambas ou aros e suas par- 
tes de ferro ou ago, para locomotivas, carros, wag5es e outros 
veMculos de estrada de ferro, e de mannfactnra acabada ou 
parcial ; e linguados, lingnados dentados, lupas on pegas tos- 
cas para a fabrig^ das mesmas rodas, cambas ou aros, sem 
atteng^o ao grdu de mannfactnra, X centavo por libra ; com 
tanto que as rodas, ou suas partes, de ferro on ago, que se im- 
portarem montadas em eixos de ferro ou ago, as rodas e os 
eixos pagnem conjuntamente o mesmo direito das rodas im- 
portadas separadamente. 

Varios Metaes e suas Manufacturas': 
X57 Aluminio, em bmto, e ligas em que este seja o metal componente 
de mais valor 10 centavos por libra. 

158 Argentina, albata, ou prata allema, n§o manufacturadas 15 

per cento ad val. 

159 Lat^ em barras ou lingnados, latHo velho, retalhos de lat^ ou 

ouro hollandez ; forro velho, ou metal amarello, proprio s6 para 

nova mannfactnra 10 por cento ad val. 

x6o P6, lentejoulas ou gr^os finos, de bronze ; folha de bronze ou ouro 
hollandez, e de aluminio 40 por cento ad val. 

Cobre: 

161 Cobre em chapa laminada, conhecido por cobre de latoeiro; 

folha, verga, e fundos de cobre ; forro de cobre, ou de metal 
amarello, de que cobre seja o metal componente de mais valor, 

e que vAo contenha ferro n§o galvanizado 20 por cento ad 

val. 

Ouro e Prata: 

162 Ouro, prata, e outros metaes n&o especificados nesta tarifa, em 

barra o fio......25 por cento ad val. 

163 P olha de ouro 30 por cento a d val . 

164 Folha e p6 de prata 30 por cento ad val. 

Chumbo : 

165 Minerio e escoria de chumbo, }i centavo por libra ; com tanto 

que o minerio de prata e todos os mais que contenham chumbo. 



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4^ BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 



• 



pagttem» )4 centavo por libra do chumbo,. determinado por 
amostra e ensaio no porto de entrada; usando-se dos meios de 
obter amostras e fazer ensaio que se empregam nas offidnas de 
ensaio publico nos Estados Unidps. 

x66 Chumbo em linguados e barras ; chumbo fundido e ou de refnii^; 
em pe9as e barras fundidas, e retalhos proprios unica- 
mente para nova manufactura, i centavo por libra ; com taato 
que, si algum pai% estrangeiro imp6r direitos de ezporta9ao no 
minerio ou escoria de chumbo, ou no minerio de prata que con- 
tenha este, que se ezportem aos Estados Unidos, os ditos lingu- 
ados, barras, pe9as, e retalhos, vindos de tal pais estrangeiro. 
continuem a pagar os direitos estabelecidoe pela lei de tarifa 
que estava em vigor at6 a ratifica^^ da presente. 

167 Chumbo em folha, tubos ou canos, muni9do, de vidraceiro, e em 
fio iX centaves por libra. 

i6y^ Nickel, oxjdo de nickel, ou liga em que este seja o metal compo- 
nente de mais valor 6 centavos por libra. 

167X Mica 20 por cento ad val. 

268 Pennas de qualquer metal que n§o seja ouro 8 centavos por 

grossa. 

169 Ponteiras para canetas, porta-pennas e suas partes, e pennas de 

ouro 25 por cento ad val. 

170 Alfinetes de metal, inclusive os de cabe9a massi^a ou de vidro; 

Alfinetes para o cabello, de seguran^a, para chap^o, chale ou 

cinta, OS que nao se cdnhe9am no commercio por bijouteria.*..** 

25 por cento ad val. 

i7o>^ Azougue 7 centavos por libra. 

271 Metal de typos, ^ centavo por libra do chumbo que contenhatn ; 

typos novos 15 por cento ad val. 

Relogios : 

172 Chronometros de navio, e partes dos mesmos 10 por cento 

ad val. 

173 Relogios de parede e de algibeira, e partes dos mesmos que vie- 

rem juntas ou separadamente 25 por cento ad val. 

Zinco : 

174 Zinco em peda90s ou linguados i centavo por libra. 

175 Zinco em chapa, nao polido, e cuja manufactura nao passe da 

lamina9ao \% centavos por libra. 

176 Zinco velho e usado, propno unicamente para nova manufac- 

tura % centavo por libra. 

177 Artigos e obras manufacturadas, nao especificados nesta tarifa, 

inteiramente ou em parte de qualquer metal, e de manufactura 
acabada ou pareial 25 por cento ad val. 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 48 1 

QuADRO D. — Madeira e suas Manufaciuras, 

179 Vime preparado para obra de cesteiro, 20 por cento ad val. ; obras 
deyimei 25 por cento ad val.; palhinha ou junco para cade- 
iras 10 por cento ad val. 

a8o Pipas, barricas e barris, vazios ; abatidas para assucar, e caixas 
montadas ou abatidas para mercadorias, de madeira, e n&o 
espedficadas nesta tarifa 20 por cento ad val. 

180K Palitos de materia vegetal 35 por cento ad val. 

181 Mobilia de casa ou gabinete, de madeira, de manufactura aca- 
bada ou parcial ; obras de madeira, ou de que esta seja a ma- 
teria componente de mais valor, n^o especificadas nesta tarifa 
25 por cento ad val. 



QUADRO E. — Assucar, 

j83 Fica abrogada a lei entitnlada "Uma lei para reduzir as rendas 
publicas, regular os direitos, e outros fins," approvada no dia 
primeiro de Oatubro de mil oitocentos e noventa, em tanto 
quanto a mesma autoriza o conceder licen9as de produzir assn- 
car e pagar premios aos productores de assucar de beterravas, 
sorgho, canna, ou bordo, nos Estados Unidos, e d'aqui em 
diante nao serd lidto conceder licen9a de produzir assucar, 
nem pagar premios pela produ^ao de assucar de especie 
alguma, sob as disposi^des da citada lei. 

^%2}4 Todos 08 assncares, residuos de tacbo on tanque, xa ropes de 
sumo de canna ou de beterrava, melada, mela9o concentrado, 
pagar^ nm direito de 40 por cento ad val.; e todos os assucares 
de c6r superior ao n. 16 do padrSo bollandez, e todos os desco- 
rados, pagarSo, em addi9§lo ao dito diieito de 40 por cento, }i 
centavo por libra. 
Todos OS assucares, residuos de tacho on tanque, xaropes de 
aumo de canna ou beterrava, melada, me]a90 concentrado, 
productos ouvindos de um paiz que ao tempo de sua exporta- 
9^ pague directa ou indirectamente um premio d dita expor- 
ta9§o, pagarao, em addi9So aos direitos acima especificados, 
i-io centavo por libra; com tanto que ao importador de assu- 
car producto de paiz estrangeiro, cujo gevemo paga taes pre- 
mios, possa ser relevado este imposto addicional sob o regula- 
mento que establecer o Secretario do Thesouro, ao apresentar 
o dito impotlador uma certid^o do governo do referido paiz 
estrangeiro de se n§lo ter pago premio indirecto em excesso do 
imposto a que se^am sugeitas as beterravas ou cannas de que 
se fabricao dito assucar; e com tanto que nao se deva entender 
que por disp08i9ao alguma da presente se abrogue ou prejudi- 



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482 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

que o tratado de reciprocidade commercial conclnido entre os 
Bstados Unidos e o rei das Ilhas Hawaii a 30 de Janeiro de 
1875, ou que se annullem as disposi9oes ' dequalqaer lei do Con- 
gresso decretada para levar a eflfeito o dito tratado. 
Mela9o de mais de quarenta e nao mais de cincoenta e seis grdas 
de prova polariscopica, 2 centavos por gallao; de mais de 

cincoenta e seis grdus 4 centavos por gallao. 

183 Candi e todos os doces, inteiramente ou em parte de assucar, e 
assucares tingidos, coloridos, ou adulterados de modo qual- 
<lQ^f« 35 por cento ad val.; glucosa ou assucar de uva, 15 por 
cento ad val.; saccharina 25 por cento ad val. 



QuADRO F. — Tabaco t sitas Manufacturas , 

184 Tabaco para involucro, de cbarutos, nao desfibradp, a condicio- 

nado em fardo; bala, caixa, pacote, ou em granel» {1.50 por 
libra; o mesmo desfibrado $2.25 por libra. 

185 Tabaco para enchimento de charutoSi nao desfibrado, acondicion* 

ado em fardo, bala, caixa, pacote, ou em granel, 35 centavos 
por libra; desfibrado, 50 centavos por libra. Pelo termo ''tabaco 
para involucros," deve-se en tender o assim denominado no com- 
merdo, e tobaco em folha importado em fardo, bala, pacote, 
ou em granel, sendo productode paizes differentes ou de quali- 
dade e valor difierentes, pagard o mesmo direito de tabaco para 
involucros de charutos. Si do conteudo de qualquer fardo, bala, 
caixa, pacote, ou por9ao de tobaco em folha de qualidade egnal, 
mais de qninxe por cento seja folhas de c6r, fineza e tamanho 
que as tomem proprias para involucros de charutos, o conteudo 
inteiro ficard sujeito ao mesmo direito de tabaco para involu- 
cres. Os Inspectores das Alfandegas ndo deixarao fazer-se 
entrada alguma, senao de conformidade cpm o reg^lamento 
que establecer o Secretario do Thesouro, de tabaco em folha 
acondicionado em fardo, bala, caixa, pacote, ou em granel, a 
menos que as facturas respectivas ndo espedfiquem detalhada- 
mente a classe ou qualidade do metmo tabaco, quer para in- 
volucros ou enchimentos, quer '*Quebrado"ou fardos antomat- 
icos, con forme o caso. Na inspec^ao feita para determinar a 
classifica^ao de tobaco importado em folha, deve-se examinar 
um volume pelo menos de cada factura de menos de dez vol- 
umes, e um volume por cada dez volumes ou mais, si julgar 
necessario o offidal avaliador; sendo o exame feito pelo dito 
official ou outra pessoa competente; e para. determinar a clas- 
sifica9ao e a quantia dos direitos, considerar-se-ha exame legal 
o feito com dez punhados tirados de cada um dos volumes ez- 
aminados. 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS ESTADOS UNID08. 483 

186 Tabaco, manafacturado on em rama, de toda a especie, ndx>e8pe- 

cificado nesta tarifa 40 centavos por libra. 

187 Rap^ e p6 para rap^, de tobaco, moido a secco ou hnmedo, e 

adnbado, perfamado, ou nSuo^ de toda a especie 50 centaToe 

por libra. 

188 Chamtos e cigarros de toda a sorte, {4.00 por libra e 25 por 

cento ad val. ; chamtos e cigarros com involncro de papel^ 
inclusive os involucros, pagariu> os mesmos direitos espedfica* 
dos para chamtos. 



QuADRO G. — Productos Agricolas e Viveres. 

Animaes vivos : 

189 Todoe OS animaes vivos nao especificados de outro modo nesta 

tarifa 20 por cento ad val. 

Cereaes : 

190 Trigo mourisco, maiz, fubd, aveia centeio e farinha de centeio, 

trigo, e farinha de trigo, 20 por cento ad val. ; farinha de 
aveia 15 por cento ad val. 

191 Cevada» cevada pelada, de patente ou descascada, 30 por cento 

ad val. ; malt ou cevada germinada 40 por cento ad val. 

X93 Macarrao, aletria, e todas as massas similhantes 20 por cento 

ad val. 

193 Arroz limpado, \}i centavos por libra ; nao limpado, ou o que 

tenha 86 a casca interior ou pergaminho, 8-10 centavo por 
libra ; farinha fina ou grossa de arroz, e arroz quebrado de 
modo de poder passar por urn crivo de arame n. 12, X centavo 
por libra; arroz com a casca exterior % centavo por libra. 

194 Manteiga, e snbstancias d imita9lU> della 4 centavos por libra. 

X95 Queijo 4 centavos por libra. 

X96 Leite conservado ou condensado, 2 centavos por libra, inclusive o 
peso da lata ou outro vaso em que se importar. 
Assttcar de leite ou lactose 5 centavos por libra. 

Productos Agricolas : 

Z97 FeijSo 20 por cento ad val. 

198 Peij&o, ervilhas, cogumelos, e outros legumes, preparados ou 

conservados em latas, potes, garrafas, ou outro vaso ; conservas 

de vinagre e molhos de todas as sortes 30 por cento ad vaU 

198 >^ Ovos 3 centavos por duzia. 

199 Peno $2.00 por tonelada. 

aoo Mel 10 centavos por gall^. 

aoz Lupulo 8 centavos por libra. 

902 Cebolas 25 centavos por alqueire. 

ao3 Brvilhas seccas, 25 centavos por alqueire ; ervilhas divididas^ 



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484 BXJRBA.U OF THE AMBRICAN REPUBLICS. 

I 1-5 centavos por libra ; em cart5es, papeis e outros pacotM 
peqnenos.-— I centavo por libra. 

304 Batatas % centaTo por libra. 

Sementes : 

305 Sementes de ridno }^ centavo por libra. 

206 Linha^a, sementes de dormideira, e outras oleiferas n^ especi- 
ficadas nesta tarifa 25 centavos por alqoeire. 

206 >^ Sementes de hortaU9a, de aRricultura em geral, e todas as maia 

nao espedficadas nesta tarifa...... 10 por cento ad val. 

207 Legumes em sen estado natural, nao especificados nesta tarifa 

...^..10 por cento ad val. 

207 >^ Palha 15 por cento ad val. 

207K Cardos penteadores 15 por cento ad val. 

208 Anchovas e sardinhas, acondicionadas em ateite oa de ontro mode, 

em latas ou caixas de lata de n&o mais de 5 poUegadas de com- 
prido, 4 pollegadas de largo e 3>^ pollegadas de fnndo, 10 
centavos por caiza ; em meias caixas de nao mais de 5 polle- 
gadas de comprido, 4 pollegadas de largo e i^ pollegadas de 
fnndo, 5 centavos cada meia caixa ; em quartas caixas de nSuo 
mais de 4^ pollegadas de comprido, 3>^ pollegadas de largo e 
iX pollegadas de fundo, 2}i centavos cada uma; acondicion- 
adas de oatra forma 40 por cento ad val. 
309 Peixe, fumado, seccado, salgado, em salmonra, on de outro 
modo conservado ^ centavo por libra. 

210 Arenques, em salmoura, gelados, on salgados, e peixe do mar» 

gelado ou acondicionado em gelo % centavo por libra. 

211 Peixe em latas on outro vaso de lata ou outra materia, com 

ex9ep9§o de ancbovas e sardinhas, e peixe acondicionado de 

qualquer outro modo, n§o especificado nesta tarifa 20 por 

cento ad val. 

Frutas e Nazes : 

213 Ma9^, verdes ou maduras, seccas, desoocadas, evaporadas, ou 

preparadas de forma qualquer 20 por cento ad val. 

2i3>^ Tamaras e abacaxis ou ananaz 20 por cento ad val. 

314 Uvas 20 por cento ad val. 

215 Azeitonas, verdes ou preparadas 20 por cento ad val. 

216 Laranjas, limoes e limas, em volumes, 8 centavos por p^ cubico 

do volume; soltos, {1.50 por mil, e mais um imposto de 30 por 
cento ad val. nas caixas ou barricas em que vierem as ditas 
laranjas, limdes ou limas; com tanto que a madeira em chapa 
ou taboinhas de que se fazem os topos e fundos das caixas de 
laranjas e limdes, sendo de produc9§o nacional, possam tomar- 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS ESTADOS UKIDOS. 485 

se a importmr com as ditas frutas, pagando a metade do direito- 

imposto em caizas idoiticas de prodoc^&o oa fabrica^^ intei- 

ramente estrangeira. 
317 Ammacas, yerdes on passadas, figos, passas e outraa uras seccas, 

inclusive asde Corintbo i}4 centaTOS por libra. 

9ift Confeitos, doces, e fmtas consenradas em assncar, xarope oa 

m^a^o, nfio especificados nesta tarifa; coco deseccado, e 

gel^as de toda a especie 30 por cento ad val. 

2x9 Fmtas conservadas no sen propno snmo 30 por cento ad val. 

390 Casca de laranja on lim&o, em consenra on confeitada 30 por 

cento ad yal. 

221 Amendoas com casca, 3 centavos por libra; descascadas s 

centavos por libra. 

222 AyellSs e nozes (de nogneira), com casca, 2 centavos por libra; 

descascadas 4 centavos por libra. 

333 Amendoim on mandnbi 20 por cento ad val. 

224 Cocos com casca, fc outras nozes com casca on descascadas, nfU> 

especificadas nesta tarifa 30 por cento ad val. 

Carries : 

334X Came fresca on verde, de vacca, cameiro, e porco 30 por 

cento ad val. 

235 Bxtracto de came 15 por cento ad val. 

335>^ Banha i centavo por Ubra. 

22^^ Carnes de toda a especie. preparadas on. conservadas, n§o espe- 
cificadas nesta tarifa 30 por cento ad val. 

336 Aves domesticas, 2 centavos por libra; depennadas e estripadas 
3 centavos por libra. 

Varios praductos: 

22ri Raiz de chicoria, torrada on assada, moida, granulada, em rolos 
on preparada de outra forma, e nao especificada de outra 
modo nesta tarifa 2 centavos por libra. 

339 Cacao, preparado ou manafacturado, nao especificado nesta 
tarifa, 3 centavos por libra, chocolate, assucarado, aromati- 
sado, ou preparado de outro modo, de valor de nao mais de 35 
centavos por Ubra; 3 centavos por libra; de mais valor, e doces 
de chocolate 35 por cento ad val. 

330 Manteiga de cacao ou sua imita^^ 3>^ centavos por libra. 

331 Raiz de taraxaco, bolotas preparadas, e outras substancias para 

a adultera9§o ou substitui9^o do caf£, nslo especificadas nesta 

tarifa 1% centavos por libra. 

333 Amido e todas as prepara^oes ordinariamente usadas como esse, 

de qualquer substancia obtidas \% centavos por libra. 

333 Deztrina, amido torrado, gomma falsa ou ingleza i}i centa* 

vos por libra. 



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486 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

934 Mostarda, moida, em conserva, ou preparada, em garrafas on 

de oatra forma acondicionada 25 por cento ad val. 

a34>^ Orchideas, lyrioe dos valles» azaleas, palmeiras, e oatras plantas 

de estufa, destinadas para usos omamentaes 10 por cento 

ad val. 
a3s Especiaria, moida ou pulverizada, nao especificada nesta tarifa, 

3 centavos por libra ; pimenta de Gain^, n^ moida, 2^ centa- 

vos por libra ; salvia i centavo por libra. 

936 Vinagre, 7^ centavos por gall&o. O vinagre de prova ou padrfto 

serd aquelle de que uma on9a fica neutralitada por 35 gHUM 

de bicarbonato de potassa. 



QUADRO H. — Espiritos Aicoholicos, Vinhos, etc. 

237 Aicuardente e outros espiritos alcoholicos fabricados ou destillm- 

dos de ceraes ou outras substancias, e nSo espedficados nesta 
tarifa {1.80 por gallSo normal. 

238 Cada medida de gallao deve-se contar como um gallao de prova, 

ao menos, e a medida normal para determinar a prova on 
for9a alcoholica de cognac e outros espiritos alcoholicos de 
qnalquer especie que se importarem, deve ser a indicada 
peas leis relativas d renda interior. Ser§o confiscados o cognac 
e outros espiritos alcoholicos que se importarem em barria de 
menos de 14 galldes de capacidade. 
O Secretario do Thesouro fica autorizado, quando houver por 
bem, para mandar averiguar a prova dos vinhos, cordiaes, e 
outros licores, por meio de destilla^slo ou de outro modo, nos 
casos de ser impossivei determinal — a peloe meios indicados 
uas leis em vigor. 

239 Todos OS compostos, misturas, ou prepara95es (com ezcep9§o 

dos espedficados no quadro em que se trata de prepara9des 
medidnaes) de que alcohol seja uma parte componente, ou em 
que espiritos alcoholicos constituam o componente de mais 
valor, nao espedficados nesta tarifa, pagardo um dirdto nao 
inferior ao imposto em espiritos destillados. 

240 Cordiaes, licores, aguardente arroz, absinthio, kirschenwasser, 

ratafia, e outras bebidas alcoholicas ou amargos de todas as 
espedes, ndo espedficados nesta tarifa {1.80 por gall§o nor- 
mal. 

241 Aguardente, espiritos e todas as bebidas alcoholicas devem sem- 

pre pagar os dirdtos indicados para os da primeira prova; 
mas para os de prova mais alta os dirdtos devem-se augmen- 
tar propordonalmente, e todas as imita9oes de aguardente, 
espiritos alcoholicos, ou vinhos, por qnalquer nome que se im- 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 487 

portem, devem pagar o mazimo dos direitos indicados para os 
verdadeiros artigos que simoletn, n^ devendo esse direito ser 
em caso algum menos de {i.oo por gallao. 

242 Bay rum (licor destiUado do loureiro), agoa de lonreiro, sejam 

destillados ou compostos, de primeira prova, $1.00 por gallao, 
angmentadose o direito proporcionalmente para os mesmos de 
prova mais alta. 

243 Yin ho de Champanha e outros espumosos em garrafas de mais 

de meio litro e nSo mais de um litro, |8.oo por duzia de garra- 
fas ; de mais de quarto litro e nao mais de meio litro, $4.00 pOf 
dnzia; de um quarto de litro ou menos, {2.00 por duzia; em 
garrafas ou outros vasos de mais de um litro, |8.oo por duzia 
e mais $2.50 por gallao do excesso. 

244 Vinhos nao espumosos ou de fermenta9ao acabada, inclusive o 

vinho ou cordial de gengibre, e vermuth, in barris ou pipas \ 
ou vaso qualquer que nao seja botija nem garrafa, os quaes 
contenham quatorze por cento ou menos de alcohol absoluto, 
30 centavos por gallao; com mais de quatorze por cento de alco- 
hol absoluto, 50 centavos por gallao. Bm garrafas ou botijas, 
por caixa de doze garrafas ou botijas de nao mais de um litro e 
mais de meio litro, ou de vinte e quatro garrafas on botijas de 
nao mais de meio litro, |i.6o por caixa ; e por qualquer quanti- 
dade em excesso das indicadas, deve-se pagar em direito de 
5 centavos por meio litro ou por9ao menor; as garrafas ou 
botijas, porem, serao izentas de direitos addicionaes. Vinhos, 
cordial de gengibre, ou vermuth, que tenham mais de 24 por 
cento de alcohol, devem-se considerar espiritos alcoholicos e 
sujeitos aos direitos indicados para estes. Nao de deve fazer 
abatimento algum nos direitos por motivo de quebra, ou ava- 
ria. Vinhos, cordiaes, aguardente, e outros licores alcoholi- 
cos, devem-se acondicionar em valumes de nao menos de uma 
du^ia de garrafas ou botijas, e os importados em volumes de 
menos de uma duzia, patrarao os mesmos direitos dos que vierem 
em volumes de uma duzia. A percentagem de alcohol nos vinhos 
e sumos de frutas determinar-se-ha pelo meio regulamentar 
que estabelecer o Secretario do Thesouro. 

245 Cerveja de toda a sorte, em garrafas ou botijas, 30 centavos por 

gallao; mas as garrafas e botijas serao izentas de direitos; 
cerveja emoutrovaso qualquer 15 centavos por gallao. 

246 Extracto de malt, e todas as prepara^des conhecidas por tal, 

floidos e em barris ou pipas, 15 centavos por gallao; em garra- 
fas ou botijas, 30 centavos por gallao; solidos ou condensados 
30 por cento ad val. 

247 Sumo de cerejas ou ameixas, e vinho destas, e sumo de outras 

frutas, n3o espedficado nesta tarifa, os quaes contenham de- 



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488 BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBUCS. 

zoito por cento ou menos de alcohol, 50 centavos por gallao; 

com mais de dezoito por cento de alcohol {1.80 por gall§a 

normal deste. 

248 Cerveja de gengibre, 20 por cento ad val., sen do izentas de direi- 

tos as garrafas em que vier. 

249 Aguas d imita9^ das mineraes naturaes, e todas as agnas mine- 

raes artificiaes 20 por cento adyal. 



QuADRO I. — Manufacturas de Algodao: 

350 Fios e fila9a cardada, urdiduras e fios de urdidnra, simples, seja 
em orgaos ou ma^os, meadas ou canilhas, on de qualquer outra 
forma, com excep9^ de fios de costura em carreteis, n^ cora- 
dos, branqueados, nem tingidos, feitos de n^ mats de dous 
fios simples torddos, 3 centavos por libra por todos os numeros 
at^ 15; pelos numeros de 15 at^ 30, 1-5 centavo mais por nu- 
mero; pelos numeros maiores ainda, % centavo mais por nu- 
mero; Corados, branqueados, tingidos, penteados, ou feitos por 
juntar ou torcer dous ou mais fios simples, seja em orgdos, 
ma9os, meadas, ou canilhas, on de qualquer outra forma, com 
excep9ao de fio de costura em carreteis, 6 centavos por libra 
pelos numeros at6 20; e pelos numeros maiores, 3-10 centavo 
mais por numero; com tanto que em caso algum devam os 
direitos exceder 8 centavos por libra para fios ou fila9as, cujo 
valor n^ seja de mais de 25 centavos por libra; nem 15 centa- 
vos para os de valor de mais de 25 centavos e n&o mais de 40 
centavos por libra; e que todos os fios e fila9as cujo valor seja 
de mais de 40 centavos devam pagar um direito de 45 por 
cento ad val. 

251 Fio de algodao (fio de costura) em carreteis com cem jardas ou 
menos cada um, 5>^ centavos por duzia; com mais de cem jar- 
das cada um, %% centavos por cada cem jardas on parte em 
excesso desta quantidade. 

25a Panno de algod^, nSo branqueado, tingido, colorido, pintado, 
nem estampado com nao mais de cincoenta fios de nrdnme e 
trama por poUegada cuadrada, i centavo por jarda quadrada; 
branqueado, iX^ -centavos por jarda quadrada; tingido, colorido, 
pintado ou estampado 2 centavos por jarda quadrada. 

253 Panno de algod^, n^ branqueado, tingido, corado, colorido, 
pintado, nem estampado, com mais de cincoenta e n&o mais de 
cem fios de urdume e trama por pollegada quadrada, de ndo 
mais de seis jardas quadradas por libra, \% centavos por jarda 
quadrada; de mais de seis e n^ mais de nove jardas quadradas 
por libra, \]i centavos por jarda quadrada; de mais de nove 



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A NOVA TARIFA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 4S9 

jardas quadradas por libra, i H centavos por jarda qaadrada; 
branqueado, de nao mais de seis jardas quadradas por libra, 
ij4 centavos por jarda qaadrada; de mais de seis e n^ mais 
de nove jardas quadradas por libra, iH centavos por jarda 
qaadrada; de mais de nove jardas quadradas por libra, 2X 
centavos por jarda quadrada; tingido, corado, colorido, pin- 
tado on estampado, de nao mais de seis jardas quadradas por 
libra, 2^ centavos por jarda quadrada; de mats de seis e n§o 
mais de nove jardas quadradas por libra, 3^ centavos por 
jarda quadrada; de mats de nove jardas quadradas por libra, 
3^ centavos por jarda quadrada; com tanto que todos os 
pannos de algodSo com n^o mais de cem fios de urdume e 
trama por poUegada quadrada, e n^o branqueados, tingidos, 
corados, coloridos, pintados, nem estampados, cujo valor seja de 
mais de sete centavos por jarda quadrada, paguem urn direito 
de 25 por cento ad val.; que os branqueados, de valor de'mais 
de nove centavos por jarda quadrada, paguem 25 por cento ad 
val.; e que os tingidos, corados, coloridos, pintados, e estam- 
pados, cujo valor seja de metis de doze centavos por jarda 
quadrada, paguem 30 por cento ad val. 
354 Panno de algodSo, n§o branqueado, corado, tingido, colorido, 
pintado, nem estampado, com mais de cem e nao mais de 
cento e cincoenta fios de urdume e trama por pollegada qua- 
drada, ede nao mais de quatro jardas quadradas d libra, i}^ 
centavos por jarda quadrada ; de mais de quatro e nao mais 
de seis jardas quadradas d libra, 2 centavos p