Skip to main content

Full text of "The Monthly chronicle of North-country lore and legend [microform]"

See other formats


MJ rt i|- Country- 

re and 

'' '' ' '. ," lite 1 

3n i i ..;-';:/- , 

. "-;' ;;:: : , 

>, ' ":."' 

v lUt'lW ! ' 









Printed and Published for Proprietors of the " Newcastle Weekly Chronicle " by 



Lord Armstrong. By Major Evan R. Jones ............ 1 

Candyman. By R. Oliver Heslop ........................... 6 

Stokoe : 

By John 

'Whittingharn Fair," 7; "The De'il Stick the 
Minister," 78; "Captain Bover,"135; "The 
Quayside Shaver," 175; "The Outlandish 
Knight." 198; "Bob Cranky's Adieu," 252; 
"X. Y. Z. at Newcastle Races," 323; "Bin-, 
norie, or the Cruel Sister," 374 ; "The Horrid 
War i' Sangyet," 398; "The Fair Flower of 
Northumberland," 462; " Newcaasel is My 
Native Place," and "Bobby Nunn," 485; 
" Sandgate Lassie's Lament for the Death of 
Bobby Nunn," 486; "Christmas Day in the 
Morning," 546. 
Halton Castle .................................................. 8 

Thirlwall Castle .................................................... 9 

Richard Welford : 

Sir Henry Brabant, 10: the Rev. John Brand, 
M.A., 11 ; George Brewis, the Rev. Wm, 
Brewis, 13 ; John Trotter Brockett, 14 ; Sir 
Robert Brandling, 66; Robert Brandling, 67; 
Charles John Brandling, 68; .John Brown, D.D., 
122 ; Lancelot Brown, 124 ; Michael Bryan, 125 ; 
John Bruce, 126 ; John Buddie, 162 ; William 
Buhner, 164 ; Sir Thomas Burdon, 210 ; William 
Burdon, 212; George Carleton, 213; Robert 
Carey, Earl of Monmouth, 266 ; Rev. J. D. 
Carlyle, B.D., 268; Rev. James Chadwick, 
D.D., 269; George Carr, 306; Cuthbert Carr, 
307 ; John Carr, the Rev. George Carr, 309 ; 
William Carr, 310 ; Leonard Carr, 354 ; Ralph 
Carr, 355; Ralph Carr-Ellison, 385; Sir Robert 
Chambers, 387 ; William Chapman, 388 ; Henry 
Chapman, 442: Edward Charlton, 443; Edward 
Chicken, 445; John Clark, M.D., 506; Joseph 
Clark. 507 ; Sir John Clavering. 509 ; James 
Clavering, 509 ; Clayton, the Rev. Richard, 538 ; 
Cock, William, 540 ; Ralph Cole and Sir Nicholas 
Cole, 541. 

The Sunderland Babbies ................................... 16 

The Wreck of the Stanley.... 17 

The Hedley Kow ................................................... 19 


Grey Street, 21 ; Grainger Street, 79 ; Blackett 
Street and New Bridge Street, 102 ; Northum- 
berland Street and its Offshoots, 158 ; Newgate 
Street, 214 ; Gallowgate and Percy Street, 270 ; 
The Side, 311 ; The Close, 350 ; St. Nicholas' 
Churchyard and St. Nicholas' Square 399 ; The 
Quayside, 453 ; Neville Street and Scotswood 
Road. 510 ; Elswick Road District, 551. 

Early Wars of Northumbria : 26, 59, 106, 171, 227, 
258, 298, 347, 414, 450, 490, 532 

The Stote Manby Case ........ . 30 

The Robin ............................................................ 31 

Langdale Pikes ...................................................... 32 

Wallace's Raids in Northumberland ......................... 34 

The Sleuth or Blood Hound. By the late James 

Clephan ................................................. 36 

Our Roman Roads. By William Brockie ...... 38, 51, 114 

A Gateshead Prodigy ............................................. 40 

Allom's View of Durham ........................................ 40 

King Arthur and Arthur's Hill ............................... 41 

The Lion Bridge, Alnwick ...................................... 41 


Burying the Colours of a Regiment in Newcastle 

A Yorkshire Robberv and its Detection.. 42 
The Margetts Mystery The Inventor of the 

Steam Plough A Highwayman Tragedy . 90 
ihe Greenhow and Martineau Families The 

Watchman's Rattle Alnwick Corporation 138 
Lieutenant Aclamson, R.N. The Helm-Wind 

Pudding Chare A Long Word 186 

A Hartlepool Ginevra St. Nicholas' Church and 
the Scottish Prisoners A Sunderland Hero- 
General Monk in Newcastlt Ridley Villas 235 
John Barksby The Nest on the Tomb A Les- 

bury Epitaph 282 

Edward Jennings, V.C. William Surtees^ a 
Corbndge Veteran Kirby Fight Henry 

Russell in Newcastle 330 

Alderman Thomas Forster Newcastle Pants 

.Mrs. Barrett Brownintr Oalaly Castle 378 

Head of the Side The Biddick Pitman The 

Wedderstone 425 

The Bell Tower at Morpeth Algernon Charles 
Swinburne An Ancient Doorway Starlings 
at Alston The Petting Stone at'Holy Island 

-Barnum in Newcastle 474 

A Northumbrian Bake-Stick A Clown and his 

Geese on the Tyne 522 

Sir John Femvick A Prince's Nurse Charles 

Avison, organist The Side, Newcastle 570 

North-Country Wit and Humour : 42, 91 139 187 236 
283, 331, 379, 427, 476, 523, 571 

North-Country Obituaries : 43, 92, 139, 188, 236, 283 331 

3SO, 427, 477, 523, 572 

Record of Events : 45, 93, 140, 189, 237, 285, 332, 381, 

423. 473, 524, 573 

Extinct Wild Animals in the North 49 

Ghosts at Tudhoe 52 

Football in the North 54 

Swallowship 55 

Charles Dickens in the North . 57 

The Uaudy Loup 63 

Two Famous Waterfalls : Lodore and Colwith 64 

Chollerford 71 

Barnard Castle 74 

Lartington 75 _ 

Cotherstone 76 

Barnard Castle Tragedies 76 

A Roxburghshire Poet. By Sir George Douglas, Bart. 79 

The Miser of Ketton 84 

A Cumberland Worthy : Mr. George Routledge 85 

The House Sparrow and the Hedge Sparrow 86 

Uncle Tob.y's Exhibition of Toys 87 

The Academy of Arts 90 

The Victoria Hall Disaster, Sunderland 97 

Lottery Offices in Newcastle 101 

Mr. Sims Reeves's Early Career 110 

Middlesbrough New Town Hall, <tc 110 

The Prince of Wales and the Chilling-ham Bull 113 

A Fatal Balloon Ascent from Newcastle 117 

Langley Castle 117 

Chipchase Castle 119 

BleaTarn 128 

The Skylark 129 

Garibaldi's Sword 130 

Charms for Venom 132 

The Delaval Papers 133 

Whitton Tower, Rothbury 136 

Rector Gray: A Sunderland Worthy 137 

The Pitman of Biddick and the Earldom of Perth ... 145 

A Chartist Spear 148 

The Grand Duke Nicholas at Wallsend 150 

The Reedwater Witches 151 




Norham Castle 151 

Thomas Sopwith 154 

William Veitch, Covenanter and Farmer 155 

Dinsdale Spa 157 

Lambton Castle 161 

Morpeth 166 

Cost of Newcastle Mayoralty a Century Ap;o 174 

Trinity House, Newcastle 176 

Football at Chester-le-Street 180 

The Cuckoo 181 

A North-Country Mystery 181 

"Canny" 183 

Wastwater and The Screes 184 

The Bewick Club ami its Founders 193 

A Letter of the Poet of the Seasons 199 

Cumberland and the Scottish Kings 199 

Duddo Tower and Stones 200 

Cartington Castle 201 

.Scenes and Characters iu " Guy Mannering " 202 

Miss or Mistress 205 

Sir Bevis Buhner, Knight of tlie Golden Mine ..... 205 

John Bright's Connection with the North 206 

Kirkstall Abl>ey 209 

The Coming ami Going of tlie Judges 222 

The Rook and the Jackdaw 231 

"Wandering Willie" 235 

The Miller's Cottaffe, Ban-as Bridge. Newcastle 234 

Mr. .lames K. Anderson in Newcastle 241 

Marshall Wade's Koad 245 

The Pardoned Mutineer 247 

Kiver Police Station and Dead House, Newcastle 248 

" The Quicks' Buring Has in Sidgate " 249 

Freemen's Well Day at Alnwick 253 

Wearmouth Bridge Lottery 254 

Staward Peel and Dickey of Kingswood 255 

Bothal Castle 257 

Illustration!* of Kail way Development 262 

Kn-suth's Visits to Newcastle 276 

The Magpie 277 

Crowd y 278 

Gas Lighting in the North 279 

AV' Hartlepool 279 

Sanctuary at Durliam Cathedral 289 

Northern Sun Dials 292 

John the Pieman : A Snnilerland Character 295 

Calaly Castle, Northumberland 295 

Help, the liailway Dog 297 

The Wags of Durham 301 

Mrs. Browning's Birthplace 303 

The Threepwood Case 315 

Leopold Martin's Recollections 318 

Old Newcastle on the Tuthill Stairs 319 

Lewis Thompson 322 

The Chaffinch 324 

St. Helen's Auckland Hall 325 

Richard Ayre 326 

Mercenaries in Northumberland 326 

Ttie Roxbya and Beverleys 327 

Aske Hall. Yorkshire 329 

Thomas Wilson, Author of "The Pitman's Pay " 337 

The Lumley Ghost Story 339 

The Marquis of Londonderry 341 

Hareshaw Linn 343 

St. John's Church, Gateshead Fell 344 

Norton Church 345 

The Greenfinch 358 

Bishop Butler at Stanhope 358 

The Author of " The Tales of the Border " 363 

Bull-Baiting in the North 365 

The Salters' Track ... 366 


Ponteland Tower 367 

Fox How, Arnbleside 368 

Katy's Coffee House, Newcastle 369 

The Muggleswiek Conspirators 370 

Clifford, the Shepherd Lord 373 

North-Country Sailors and Pompey's Pillar 375 

Kepier Grammar School 375 

Cross House, Westgate Road, Newcastle 377 

Gibside and its Owners 390 

The Village of Alnmouth 392 

Racing in the Northern Counties 394 

A Mysterious Mail Coach Robbery 402 

The Chiff-Chaff 404 

A Blind Scholar : Laurence Goodchild 405 

Bear Baitine 406 

The Castle Garth, Newcastle 406 

St. Nicholas' Cathedral, Newcastle 408 

J. W. Carmichael, Artist 412 

Windy Monday 418 

Robert Bolron, the Spy 420 

Sir George Bowes, Defender of Barnard Castle 421 

Durham University 422 

Millet's "Angelus' 1 432 

Baron Brown, the Durham Poet 433 

Newcastle Apprentices 435 

The Cut-Purse Ordeal 439 

St. Mary's Island, Northumberland 441 

Thomas Dixon, Corkcutter 447 

St. Giles's Church, Durham 448 

Rob Roy in Northumberland 459 

The Central Station Hotel, Newcastle 464 

Mr. Walter Scott 464 

Leprosy in the Northern Counties 465 

Sherburn Hospital 468 

The Swallow and the Swift 469 

Christopher North at Klleray 471 

Sir John Fenwick, Jacobite 481 

Ralph Gardner, of Chirton 487 

Rock Hall, Northumberland 490 

The .Story of a BorderTrance 494 

Ralph Waldo Emerson iu Newcastle 495 

Old House at Hexliam 496 

Haltwhistle Church 497 

The Floating Island in Derwentwater .. ... 500 

Blanchland 500 

The House Martin and Sand Martin 514 

The British Association in Newcastle 515 

Willimoteswick Castle 517 

The Sockburn Worm 518 

Wmdermere Lake 521 

The Luck of Edeuhall 529 

Kepier Hospital, Durham 535 

Bothal Village, Northumberland 537 

Newcastle Jesters 543 

Bolton-on-the-Aln 544 

A Tyneside Hero ; 545 

Captain Wiggins 547 

North-Country Fairies 548 

Football at Workington .. ... 550 

The Pollard Worm 556 

The Great Riot at Hexham, 1761 557 

Mark Littlefair Howarth 559 

Rydal Water and Rydal Mount 560 

Fairy Pipes 561 

Hermitage Castle 562 

The Wagtails 564 

"Tommy on the Bridge " 566 

Sir Thomas Riddell and Sir John Lesley 566 

Sir Daniel Gooch 568 

PhiueasT. Barnum.... 569 

Hermitage Castle (Frontispiece) Page 

Armstrong Park, Heaton Section, Newcastle 1 

Residence of Lord Armstrong, Jesmond 4 

Banqueting HalL Jesmond Dene 5 

Halton Castle 8 

Thirlwall Castle . 9 


J. T. Brokett's Book Plate 15 

The Sunderland Babbies 16 

The Wreck of the Stanley 17 

Grey Street, Newcastle 24 

Grey Street, Newcastle : Scene during the Snowstorm 25 




Maps, Arms and Defences of the Ancient Britons, &c. 
27, 28, 29, 60, 61, 62, 107, 108, 471, 173, 228. 230, 259 
260, 261, 298, 299, 349, 415, 416, 417, 451, 452, 491, 492, 

493, 532, 533, 534 

The Robin 32 

Langdale and Langdale Pikes 32 

View from the Top of Langdale Pikes 33 

Allom's View of Durham 40 

The Lion Bridge, Alnwick 41 

Swallowship 56 

Birthplace of Charles Dickens, Gad's Hill Place 57 

The Falls of Lodore 64 

Colwith Force 65 

Chollerford, North Tyne 72 

Barnard Castle, Lartington, and Cotherstone Church 73 

Barnard Castle, from the Tees 75 

Grainger Street, Newcastle 80 

Butcher Market, Newcastle 81 

Art Gallery, Newcastle 82 

The House Sparrow and Hedge Sparrow 86, 87 

Uncle Toby's Toy Exhibition 88 

Academy of Arts. Newcastle 89 

Victoria Hall, Sunderland : 

View from the Park, View from Laura Street, 
Interior, the Fatal Door, Scene of the Catastrophe, 

Two Sketches of the Memorial 97,93,99, 100 

Richardson's Shop, Blackett Street, Newcastle 103 

Eldqu Square, Newcastle 103 

Carliol Tower, Newcastle 104 

Public Library, Newcastle 105 

Middlesbrough Town Hall and Municipal Buildings.. 112 

The Prince of Wales and the Chillmgharn Bull 113 

Langley Castle 120 

Chipohase Castle 121 

Blea Tarn 128 

The Skylark 129 

Whitton Tower 137 

The Watchman's Rattle 138 

A Chartist Spear 149 

"ACraaFoot" 149 

Norham Castle 152, 153 

Singleton House. Newcastle 158 

Blind Asylum, Newcastle 159 

Dame Allan's School, Newcastle 159 

St. Thomas's Church, Newcastle 160 

Lambton Castle, Durham 161 

Entrance to Morpeth Old Bridge 167 

Old Mill by the Bridge at Morpeth 167 

Morpeth Parish Church 168 

Morpeth Market Place 169 

Gateway of Morpeth Castle 170 

Trinity House. Newcastle 176, 177 

Museum, Trinity House, Newcastle 178 

Chapel of Trinity House, Newcastle 179 

The Cuckoo 181 

Wastwater, Cumberland 184 

The Screes, Wastwater 185 

Memorial to Lieutenant Adamson 186 

Duddo Tower and Stones 200 

Cartington Castle 201 

Dorothy Foster's Visiting Card 205 

Kirkstall Abbey, near Leeds 209 

Newgate, Newcastle, about 1400 214 

Newgate in 1813 215 

Demolition of Newgate, 1823 215 

The Newgate, Newcastle, 1789 216 

Groined Archway of Newgate, 1823 217 

Demolition of South Transept, St. Andrew's Church 218 

St. Andrew's Church, Newcastle 219 

The Black Horse, Neweate Street, Newcastle 220 

Scotch Arms, Newcastle, 1843 221 

The Toll Booth, Gateshead 223 

The Old Moot Hall 224 

Sheriff's Procession to meet the Judges 225 

Tynemouth Castle 228 

Lmdisfarne Abbey 228 

Whitby Abbey 230 

The Rook and the Jackdaw 232 

Wandering Willie 233 

The Miller's Cottage, Barras Bridge, Newcastle 234 

Old Windmill, near Walker-ou-Tyne 237 

River Police Station, Newcastle 248 

The Quicks' Burying Ground, Newcastle 249 

Staward Peel " 256 

Bothal Castle, Northumberland !!!!!"!!!"" 257 

Rains of Monastery at Jarrow 259 

A Chmle ....... 260 

Swords and Axe-head.... 261 

Puffing Billy, 1813 .."".I"."""'.'.". 262 

Stephenson's Engine, 1815 262 

Stephenson's Engine, "Rocket" 263 

Chat Moss, showing Stephenson's line ""'.'. 263 

Opening of Stockton and Darlington Railway. 264 

The Rainhill Competition, 1829 : The " Rocket" First 265 

Gallowgate, from Percy Street, Newcastle 272 

Darn Crook, Newcastle 272 

Old Houses in Percy Street, Newcastle 273 

Corner in Percy Street. Newcastle ....'.'... 273 

Gallowgate Hopping, Newcastle 274 

The Mairpie 277 

New Municipal Buildings, West Hartlepool 280 

Stranton Church, West Hartlepool 281 

Church Street, West Hartlepool 281 

The Nest on the Tomb, Jesmoud Cemetery 282 

Sanctuary Knocker, Durham " 239 

Sun Diai at Haydon Bridge 293 

Seven Dials 294 

Calaly Castle, Northumberland 296 

Help, the Hail way Dog 297 

Coxhoe Hall, Durham 304 

Long Walk, and The Avenue, Coxhoe 305 

Head of the Side, Newcastle, 1876 312 

The Side, Newcastle 313 

Gale Cross, near the Sandhill, Newcastle 314 

Sweeper's Entry, Close, Newcastle 319 

Panelled Chamber, Tuthill Stairs, Newcastle 319 

Elizabethan Mansion ou Tutl.ill Stairs 320 

West Entrance to Panelled Chamber 321 

ChalHnch 324 

St. Helen's Auckland Hall, Durham 325 

Aske Hall, Yorkshire 329 

Fletcher's Entry, Groat Market, Newcastle 333 

St. Michael and All Angels' Church, Newcastle 335 

Fell House. Residence of Thomas Wilson 337 

Hareshaw Linn 343 

St. John's Church, Gateshead Fell 344 

Norton Church 345 

Effigy in Norton Church 347 

Part of Earl's Inn, Newcastle, 1846 351 

The Yellow Doors Tavern, Close, Newcastle 352 

Close Gate, Newcastle, 1826 ... 353 

The Water Tower, Close, Newcastle, 1346 353 

The Greenfinch 358 

Latin Inscription in the Rectory House of Stanhope... 359 

Stanhope, Weardaie 360 

Stanhope Church 361 

Stone Bridge over the Wear, Stanhope 362 

Ponteland Tower 367 

Fox How, Ambleside 368 

Katy's Coffee House, Newcastle 369 

Kepier Grammar School, Houghton-Ie-Spring 376 

Cross House, Westgate Road, Newcastle 377 

Gibside Hall, Chapel, and Banqueting Hall 392 

Alnmouth 393 

St. Nicholas' Church, Newcastle 400 

Union Bank, St. Nicholas' Square, Newcastle 401 

Old House in St. Nicholas' Square, Newcastle 401 

TheChiff-Chaff 405 

The Castle Garth, Newcastle 408 

St. Nicholas' Cathedral, Newcastle 409 

Cover of Font, St. Nicholas' Church 410 

Pew Standards, St. Nicholas' Church 411 

Brinkburn Priory 415 

The King's Cairn, Dunmail Raise, Cumberland 417 

Procession of Boats on the Wear, Durham 424 

Garden Party in the Castle Grounds, Durham 425 

Millet's " Angelus" 432 

The Cut-Purse Ordeal 440 

St. Mary's Island, Northumberland 441 

Three Tuns Inn, White Cross, Newcastle 446 

Autograph of Edward Chicken 446 

Residence of Thomas Dixou, Sunderland 448 




St. Giles's Church, Durham 449 

The High Crane, Quayside, Newcastle 4bA 

Grinding Chare, Quayside, Newcastle 454 

Quayside, Newcastle 454 

Hornsby's Chare. Newcastle 455 

Grain Warehouse, Quayside, Newcastle 4bb 

Hi(?h Dykes Tavern, Broad Chare, Newcastle 456 

Old House in Broad Chare, Newcastle 457 

House Where Lord Eldon was Born 458 

The Glasshouse Bridee, Newcastle 458 

The Central Station Hotel, Newcastle 464 

Sherburn Hospital 465 

Sherburn Hospital Gateway 468 

Chimney Swallow 470 

The Swift J/0 

Christopher North's Cottage at EUeray 473 

Ancient Doorway, Mowhray Park, Sunderland 475 

Monument to Thomas Thompson 478 

Ralph Gardner's House at Chirton 488 

Rock Hall, Northumberland 489 

Old House at Hi-xham 49 

Haltwhistl.- 497 

Views of Blanchland 501-2-3-4-5 


Central Railway Station, Newcastle 512 

Elswick Works, Newcastle 513 

House Martin and Sand Martin 514, 515 

Willimoteswick Castle 517 

Windermere Lake (two views) 520, 521 

A Northumbrian Bake Stick 522 

Elephant Rock, Hartlepool -. 526 

Eden Hall 529 

Fairy Well, Eden Hall 531 

Luck of Eden Hall 531 

York Castle 533 

The Conqueror at the Seige of York 534 

Kepier Hospital, Durham , 536 

Botlial Village 537 

Bolton on the Aln 544 

Sea Fight off Yarmouth 545 

Elswick Lane : Entrance to Elswick Park 552 

Elswick Hall and Park 553 

Elswick Cemetery 555 

Rydal Mount 560 

Weardale Fairy Pipe 561 

The Wagtails 565, 566 

The Side, Newcastle 571 

Lord Armstrong ? 

John Brand -^ 

Georgs llrcuis 13 

John Trotter Brockets 14 

Thomas Gray *J 

George Dodds 44 

Joseph Baxt-r Ellis 45 

Thomas Kiclianlx>n 45 

William Sut'.on 45 

John Lucas 46 

Mrs. Ashton Dilke 47 

Arthur 48 

Charles John Brandling 69 

Joseph Barlow 83 

George lioutl'-.l:;>- 85 

T. Humphry \Var.l 96 

Kims 110 

William Fallows Ill 

Raylton DIM in 112 

G. Gordon l!o-.kins 112 

Dr. John Brown 1^2 

Lancelot (" Capability") Brown 124 

Michael Bryan 126 

John Bruce 127 

Rev. Robert G ivy. M.A., Rector of Sunderland 137 

John Augustus O'Shea 142 

Professor John Stuart Blackie 143 

Henry BlackUrn 143 

Archduke Rudolph, Crown Prince of Austria 144 

Major le Caron ..... 144 

Thomas Sopwi th 154 

John Buddie 162 

William Buhner 164 

Dadabhai Naoroji 189 

King Milan of Servia 192 

Richard Pigott 192 

H. H. Emmerson 193 

Robert Jobling 195 

JohnSurtees 195 

Ralph Hedley 196 

Thomas Dickinson 197 

John Bright 208 

Sir Thomas Burdon 211 

Bishop Carleton 213 

Samuel Carter Hall 240 

Duchess of Cambridge v 240 

James R. Anderson in 1846 and 1886 241 

Mr. Anderson as Ulric, 1838 242 

Mr. Anderson as Macbeth, 1871 244 

Robert Carey, Earl of Monmouth 266 

Bishop Chad wick 269 

Louis Kossuth 276 

Prince Albert Victor 279 

William Gray 280 

Georpfe Pynian 230 

John Barkslry 282 

R. S. Newall, J.P 283 

Henry George 285 

James Craig 287 

Carl Rosa 288 

John the Pieman, a Sunderland Character 295 

Hut. Aklerson, Bellman of Durham 301 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning 304 

Rev. George Carr 309 

Leopold Charles Martin 318 

Lewis Thompson 322 

Richard Ayre 326 

William Roxby Beverley 328 

Edward Jennings, V.C 330 

Thomas Wilson, author of "The Pitman's Pay " 337 

The Marquis of Londonderry 342 

Bishop Butler 360 

John Mackay Wilson 363 

Bernard Gilpin 375 

Benjamin Piummer, J.P 380 

J. K. Smith 380 

Sir Jacob Wilson 383 

l\alph Carr-Ellison 385 

William Chapman 389 

Laurance Goodchild 405 

J. W. Carmichael 412 

Dr. Lake, Dean of Durham 426 

William Drummond 426 

The Shah of Persia 429 

Baron Brown, the Durham Poet 433 

Dr. Edward Charlton 444 

Thomas Dixon, Cork-cutter 447 

Walter Scott 464 

John Wilson : Christopher North 472 

Joseph Clark 507 

Professor W. H. Flower 516 

Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, Bart 516 

Professor J. S. Burdon-Sandersou 517 

The Marquis of Londonderry 525 

Arthur Brogden 527 

Wilkie Collins 528 

Eliza Cook 528 

Rev. Richard Clayton, M. A. 539 

Rev. Robert Wasney 539 

Captain Wiggins 547 

Mark Littlefair Howarth 559 

William Wordsworth 561 

" Tommy on the Bridge '.' (Thomas Ferns) 566 

Sir Daniel Gooch 568 

PhineasT. Barnum 569 

SirJohnFenwick 570 

Charles Avison, Organist 570 

Charles Marvin ., 573 




VOL. III. No. 23. 

JANUARY, 1889. 



(Coan Jtotolani) 


j|HE fond hopes and "best laid schemes" of 
parents have oft been frustrated by the 
tyrant voice of genius. Honour and obedi- 
ence to beloved guardians are commend- 
able and to be cherished. But the human soul and 
intellect cannot be formed and fashioned like the pot- 
ter's clay. We may not change the colour of the iris, 

the character of the voice, our form and stature : much 
less the Divine essence the soul and its stock-in-trade 
within us. Ben Jonson had a trowel in his hand for 
long, a book in his pocket and volumes in his brains the 
while. Davy ignored his indentures to the apothecary to 
search the hills for minerals and dream of future renown. 
Linnaius was intended for the Church ; but he neglected 




I January 

theology, obeyed the still small voice, and became the 
immortal founder of botany. Faraday obtained food for 
his craving genius from the books he stitched, responded 
to the inward monitor's call, and held "aloft among the 
nations the scientific name of England for a period of 
forty years." The generous offer of a friend and the 
solicitous guidance of parents made William George 
Armstrong a lawyer. He locked himself up amid parch- 
ment rolls and tomes of decisions and authorities, gave 
his undivided heart to the pursuit of science, and made 
a column of water lift a hundred tons ! 

Children are not necessarily the best judges of that for 
which they are best intended. They frequently make a 
wrong selection under the influence of surroundings not 
intended to give them the bias. In maturity they often 
abandon their first love. Many boys are without pre- 
ference ; they continue indifferent to every vocation from 
the village green to the end of life. This was not the 
case with the boy William George Armstrong. Me- 
chanics were to him a passion from childhood, and physi- 
cal science absorbed his hours of relaxation as a schoolboy 
and as a student at law. His father was the son of a 
Cumberland yeoman, who became a corn merchant, an 
alderman, and a mayor of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, while 
his mother was a daughter of William Potter, of Walbottle 
House, Northumberland. To this worthy couple, a son, 
afterwards the famous engineer, was born on Nov. 26, 
1810, at Pleasant Row, Shieldfield, Newcastle.* 

William entered the Bishop Auckland Grammar School 
in 1826, where he remained for several years. During 
his residence at Bishop Auckland, he gratified his me- 
chanical ingenuity at the works of Mr. Ramshaw. He 
was invited to that gentleman's home, where he found 
"a help-meet for him." Aye, and one who, during a 
busy, eventful, and brilliant career, has seconded his best 
efforts and cheered his anxious moments. She shares 
to-day his noble fame. Upon leaving school young Arm- 
strong entered the law office of Mr. Armorer Donkin, an 
intimate friend of the family, and a man of influence and 
position in the cemmunity. His legal curriculum was 
finished at the office of his brother-in-law, Mr. W. H. 
Watson, the late Baron Watson, then a special pleader in 
the Temple. In 1833 he returned to his native town to 
become a partner with Messrs. Donkin, Stable, and 

Mr. Armstrong was not an orthodox English sports- 
man. Though fond of music, the cry of the hound failed 
to charm his senses. Fishing was his favourite sport. 
He imbibed the taste from his father. Even in this pas- 
time his inventive genius found employment. A new bait 
basket was contrived, whereby the minnow was kept at a 
lower temperature; his tackle was continually under- 
going improvement ; and he became one of the most ac- 
complished fishers on the Coquet. It was during an out- 

* For view of birthplace tee IfmtUy Chronicle, voL L, p. 286. 

ing through the Craven district of Yorkshire in quest 
of trout that the idea which culminated in his fame first 
came to him. He was rambling through Dent Dale, in 
1836, when his attention was arrested by an overshot 
water-wheel turned by a gurgling rill. The mill-wheel 
supplied the power for some marble works at the foot of 
the declivity. Twenty feet only of several hundred feet 
descent was utilised ; the rest remained unproductive. 
The possibility of the stream as a motive power at once 
engrossed Mr. Armstrong's thoughts. Intuition took 
the hint. For ten years he thought and wrought Jo 
perfect and realise his idea. Now the freights of nations 
are swung by his crane, and his hydraulic machinery is 
found on every mart of commerce in the civilized world. 

But the time during which he was harnessed to the 
legal profession was in truth a period of apprenticeship 
in constructive mechanics. Scarcely a day passed when 
Mr. Armstrong was at home that he did not spend 
several hours at Watson's High Bridge Works, either 
superintending his own models or watching the construc- 
tion of scientific machinery. It was a severe struggle be- 
tween a sense of duty to his partners and profession on the 
one hand, and innate genius on the other ; and the young 
solicitor kept swinging like an erratic pendulum between 
the law office and the lathe. The first attempt of Mr. 
Armstrong to realise his ambition to convert a column of 
water into a motive power was by means of an automatic 
hydraulic wheel, acted upon by discs made to enter a 
curved tube at the radius of the wheel-edge. It was an 
ingenious contrivance, and its utility was tested at the 
Skinner Burn. This was admirable experience, and a 
valuable lesson ; but the wheel failed to realise the in- 
ventor's expectations. 

Soon after this time a sensation was produced in the 
scientific world by a phenomenon which transpired at one 
of the Seaton Delaval Collieries. The workmen declared 
that something "uncanny like" was seen at the engine 
boiler, and when they adjusted the safety-valve while 
steam was blowing off, fire was said to reach out towards 
their finger-tips. Tyneside philosophers, and subse- 
quently men of science throughout the country, became 
interested in the mystery ; and it was discovered that 
electricity was evolved under the following circumstances : 
The boiler was found to be insulated upon a dry seating, 
and the friction produced by the escape of particles of 
water blowing away with high-pressure steam produced 
electricity, and a nervous shock was experienced when 
the hand was held in proximity to the escaping steam. 
Experiments bearing upon the generation of electricity 
by high-pressure steam were commenced by a number of 
scientific men ; but the lawyer distanced the philosophers 
in the measure of success attained. Numerous tests were 
made as to the best material for insulation and the best 
form and lining for the exit of steam. At last the 
hydro-electric machine was produced at the works of 
Messrs. Watson and Lambert, Carliol Square. Large 




numbers of this celebrated machine were constructed for 
the Polytechnic Institution of London, for Professor 
Faraday, and for the scientific institutions of Europe and 

When the invention had been completed, Mr. Arm- 
strong returned to his favourite study, and continued to 
make experiments to perfect his hydraulic machine : at 
last he succeeded. A fortunate circumstance materially 
assisted in bringing it under public notice and into prac- 


tical use. In 1845, Mr. Armstrong became associated in 
his legal capacity with a company organised to supply the 
towns of Newcastle and Gateshead with water. When 
the company was formed, Mr. Armstrong delivered a 
lecture at the Literary Society of Newcastle, and demon- 
strated the utility of his invention by a working model. 
Soon thereafter a few friends joined with him to erect a 
crane on Newcastle Quay, where its usefulness could be 

put to the test in loading and discharging ships. Three 
more cranes were eventually ordered by the Corporation 
of Newcastle. A somewhat interesting circumstance, 
which tended to forward the popularity of the hydraulic 
crane, took place at this time. Let the inventor himself 
relate it : 

Amongst others the late Sir William Cubitt (then Mr. 
Cubitt) took a very early interest in the machine, and 
wrote to Mr. Jesse Hartley, who was then the engineer 
of the Liverpool Docks, urginghim to go and see it, but 
that somewhat eccentric gen- 
tleman, who was very averse 
to novelties, at first flatly 
refused to do so. A second 
letter from Sir William Cubitt 
put the matter in such a light 
that Mr. Hartley could not 
persist in hia refusal without 
incurring the imputation of 
shutting his eyes to improve- 
ments ; so without giving any 
notice of his intention he went 
to Newcastle alone to see the 
crane. It was not at work 
when he arrived, but the man 
in charge was there, and Mr. 
Hartley entered into a banter- 
ing conversation with him. 
This man, who went by the 
name of '* Hydraulic Jack," 
had acquired great dexterity 
in the management of the ma- 
chine, and being put upon his 
"mettle" by Mr. Hartley's in- 
credulous observations, he pro- 
ceeded to show its action by a 
daring treatment of a hogshead 
of sugar. He began by run- 
ning it up with great velocity 
to the head of the jib, and then 
letting it as rapidly descend, 
but by gradually reducing its 
speed as it neared the ground 
he stopped it softly before it 
quite touched the pavement. 
He next swung it round to the 
opposite side of the circle, con- 
tinuing to lift and lower with 
great rapidity while the jib was 
in motion, and, in short, he 
exhibited the machine to such 
advantage that Mr. Hartley's 
prejudices were vanquished. 
Mr. Hartley, who will be re- 
membered as a man whose odd 
ways were combined with a 
frank and generous disposi- 
tion, displayed no feeling of 
discomfiture, but at once called 
upon the author, whom he la- 
conically addressed in the fol- 
lowing words : *' I am Jesse 
Hartley, of Liverpool, and I 
have seen your crane. It is 
the very thing I want, and 
I shall recommend its adop- 
tion at the Albert Dock." 

With scarcely another word he bade adieu, and returned 
to Liverpool. This anecdote marks an epoch in the his- 
tory of hydraulic cranes, which then passed from the stage 
of experiment to that of assured adoption. 

The triumph of the invention and the fame of the in- 
ventor were now established ; and in 1847-8 the Elswick 
Works, intended for the construction of hydraulic ma- 
chinery, were founded by Mr. Armstrong and his old 
friend and partner Mr. Alderman Donkin, Mr. Alderman 




Potter, Mr. George Cruddas, and Mr. Richard Lambert. 
From this beginning the famous works of Sir William 
Armstrong and Partners have developed. 

Mr. Armstrong had no part in the international jumble 
out of which the Crimean War was begotten. But when 
the appeal to arms was made, he was sufficiently human, 
and enough of a patriot, to wish success to British arms. 
He watched the movements of troops, the formation of 
lines, the approaches and means of defence with the 
anxiety of an Englishman, but from the plane of science. 
Difficulty was experienced at Inkerman in bringing up 
heavy artillery. Two eighteen-pounders were finally got 
into position ; they contributed largely to turn the tide of 
battle, and gain the doubtful day. " Why cannot lighter 
guns obtain a greater range ? " That was the question 
which occurred to Mr. Armstrong. And he grasped this 
proposition with all that strength and continuity which 
characterise him. Inkerman was fought in November, 
1854. Within a month he had solved the problem, 
convinced the War Secretary, and commenced the 
gun. The arrow in its flight tirst suggested the best 

for rifled ordnance. A Committee of the House of 
Commons, reporting upon the whole question, said : 

Mr. Armstrong proposed method of constructing a 
gun which rendered it capable of enduring the strain to 
which rifled ordnance is submitted. This method was 
certainly at that time the only one capable of fulfilling 
that condition ; and your Committee have had no 
practical evidence before them that even at this mo- 
ment any other method of constructing rifled ordnance 
exists which can be compared with that of Mr. Arm- 
strong. In combination with his system of constructing 
or manufacturing a gun, Mr. Armstrong had introduced 
to the notice of the Government a plan of breechloadinsr, 
the gun being rifled on the old polygroove system, which 
involved the coating of the projectile with soft metal. 
This combination of construction, breechloading, rifling, 
and coating the projectiles with soft metal, came to be 
termed the Armstrong system. The range and precision 
of the gun were so vastly superior to all field ordnance 
known at the time, that, after careful and repeated trials, 
the Committee appointed to investigate the question 
recommended its adoption as the field gun of the 
service. , 

The Adjutant-General of Artillery pronounced the 
Armstrong field gun the best then known that also- 
being " the opinion of officers of Artillery of all classes.' 
The success of the gun was conclusive, the result of the 

form of projectile. But material of construction and its 
application, the mode and method of rifling, loading, 
and of exploding shells all the questions involved in 
gunnery had to be thought out anew and by a single 
mind. Experimental guns were constructed, and trials 
were made at early hours and in out of the way places, on 
the moors at Allenheads and by the sea-shore. At last, 
in the spring of 1856, the Armstrong gun was ready for 
official scrutiny. The first gun submitted to the Govern- 
ment was a three-pounder. A five-pounder was next 
made for further examination ; it was adopted. Heavier 
cannon, to be constructed on the Armstrong principle, 
were required at once. The Rifled Cannon Committee 
tested the capabilities of the (run to the uttermost, and 
recommended it as combining the best known elements 

struggle was most gratifying to Mr. Armstrong, and 
fortune was at his feet. But he rose to a sublime height, 
and gave the fruit of his genius, his toils of years, his 
hope of reward and renown, without fee or consideration, 
to his country. The nation applauded the deed of 
patriotism. The Queen conferred upon him the dignity 
of Knighthood and Commander of the Bath. His 
services were found imperative for the construction of the 
gun ; and he was made Engineer of Rifled Ordnance, 
with a salary of 2,000 a year, and, later, Superintendent 
of the Gun Factory. The Government required that 
guns should be constructed with secrecy and despatch. 
Woolwich was entirely unprepared for such work, and an 
arrangement was made whereby the Armstrong guns 
should be made at Elswick. Lord Derby's Government 

January I 
1889. f 


made the contract. Under its provisions the Elswick 
Ordnance Company were obliged to provide all the works 
and machinery for making the ordnance required, and 
confine them entirely to the execution of Government 
orders. Should the works be kept idle through want of 
orders from the Department for War, the company was 
to receive compensation, to be assessed by the Attorney 
General. This arrangement continued until the spring of 
1863, when Sir William resigned his appointment, and 
the contract between the Government and the Elswick 
Company was cancelled by mutual consent. 

But few of the original features of the Armstrong gun 
are maintained in the ordnance now made by the in- 
ventor. The coil formation, the rifling, and the breech- 
loading when desired, are adhered to. And in view of 
the results of the trials at Spezzia, it is only fair to add 
that the gun still holds the supremacy. But the original 
little three-pounder, which two men could carry, has 
grown into a one hundred ton wire gun, the most 
destructive weapon upon earth. 

From modest beginnings the Elswick Works have 
gone on increasing and extending until now they cover 
about seventy acres of ground, and afford employment 
to 12,000 contented men. Towards the end of 1882, 
they were joined to the well-known shipbuilding works 
of Charles Mitchell and Co., of Low Walker, under 
the corporate name of Sir William George Armstrong, 
Mitchell, and Co., Limited. The position for their 
enterprise is admirable : their capabilities for build- 
ing and mounting war vessels arising out of a remark- 

able combination of genius, skill, workmanship, hydraulic 
contrivances to make and handle ordnance, and work the 
guns when mounted are certainly unsurpassed. When 
the new company's stock was placed upon the market, the 
applications exceeded the shares to be issued fourfold. 

Although he had been frequently invited to associate 
himself in some direct manner with the management of 
the public affairs of his native town, Sir William Arm- 
strong only once solicited the suffrages of his fellow- 
citizens. And then his services were declined. A grave 
crisis had arisen in 1886. Mr. Gladstone, having pro- 
duced a Home Rule Bill for Ireland which had failed to 
secure the support of a large section of the Liberal party, 
was defeated in Parliament. Then followed a general 
election. Sir William Armstrong was a Liberal ; but he 
dissented from the Irish policy of Mr. Gladstone. Re- 
quested to come forward as a candidate on Unionist 
principles for one of the two seats for Newcastle, he 
agreed to stand, with Sir Matthew White Ridley as his 
colleague. Mr. John Morley and Mr. James Craig, 
Gladstonian Liberals, were, however, returned. It was 
Sir William Armstrong's first and last contest in New- 
castle. But though excluded from the House of Com- 
mons, he was offered a seat in the House of Lords. This 
offer, made in 1887, was accepted. Elevated to the 
peerage as Baron Armstrong of Cragside, he was hon- 
oured by the Government of the day with the duty of 
seconding the Address in reply to the Speech from the 
Throne. It goes without saying that he discharged this 
function with dignity and credit 


( January 
I 189. 

Lord Armstrong has ever taken a deep interest in pub- 
lic institutions and affairs. It was through him that a 
committee was appointed by the Government to report 
upon the coal measures of Great Britain. He has actively 
participated in the deliberations, and is a past president 
of the British Association, the Institute of Mechanical 
Engineers, the Institute of Civil Engineers, and kindred 
societies. The Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Newcastle is indebted to Lord Armstrong, its president, 
for more than his bountiful hand and wise supervision. 
His lectures from its platform have added to the high 
position it occupies among the societies of England. In 
1844 he addressed the members upon hydro-electricity. 
During the next session he delivered three lectures on 
" The Employment of a Column of Water as a Motive 
Power for Propelling Machinery." These, together 
with addresses delivered to the various scientific and 
mechanical institutes, and articles contributed to maga- 
zines and publications, are all in the special direction of 
his fame. But in the winter of 1873 he gave the society 
and his townsmen the result of a visit to Egypt in 1872, 
in four lectures. These lectures now constitute a small 
volume, full of information and charm. 

Bountiful gifts from Lord and Lady Armstrong have 
become such frequent occurrences that they no longer oc- 
casion surprise. Were the Jardin d'Acclimatation re- 
peated on the western slopes of Newcastle, no one 
would wonder. A lecture hall for the Literary Society 
to-day, an operating theatre for the Infirmary to-mor- 
row ; thousands to restore a grand old steeple ; thou- 
sands more to the Children's Hospital ; three-fourths 
of a 20,000 bridge across Benton Valley; ten thou- 
sand to the Natural History Museum ; a Mechanics' 
Institute, and a long range of schools, for the work- 
men of Elswick : a Banqueting Hall for the city of 
his birth ; Parks for his fellow-citizens ! I am told 
that his wealth is still immense. The more he bestows 
the richer he becomes. To satisfy the cravings of the 
student, to reclaim the child from disease, are deeds for 
more than evanescent applause. What are bags of gold 
in the vaults compared with a mortgage upon the hearts 
and brains of men and women ? And the parks he has 
provided, the acres which his bountiful heart has wisely 
bestowed upon the people, are more valuable to him now 
than ever before : the quality has been transformed, the 
area transferred into the grateful visages of the people ; 
and smiling little faces of generations yet unborn shall 
bless the memory of him who vouchsafed for them recrea- 
tion grounds surrounded by the beauties and riches of 
nature who enabled them to breathe the air of heaven 
amid the hum and strife of earth. He who can evoke 
the blessings of the poor is more than a prince : and his 
fame shall resist " the empire of decay." 

The banqueting hall in Jesmond Dene, like the Armstrong 
Park adjoining, forms part of the princely gifts of Lord 
Armstromg to the people of Newcastle. 

Lord Armstrong's portrait is copied from a photograph 
by Messrs. W. and D. Downey, taken a few years ago. 

j]R. MURRAY, of Oxford, pausing in the her- 
culean task of his "New English Dictionary," 
_ tells us" The fact has of late years power- 

fully impressed itself upon philological students, that 
the creative period of language, the epoch of 'roots,' has 
never come to an end. The ' origin of language' is not to 
be sought merely in a far-off Indo-European antiquity, or 
in a still earlier pre-Aryan yore-time ; it is still in peren- 
nial process around us." A literary language is hostile to 
word-creation. But such is not the case with language in 
its natural state. "The unwritten dialect," he adds, 
"and, to some extent, even slang, and colloquial speech, 
approach in character to language in its natural state, 
aiming only at being expressive, and treating memory 
and precedent as ministers, not as masters. In the local 
dialects, then, in slang, in colloquial use, new vocables 
and new expressions may at any time be abruptly brought 
forth to serve the needs of the moment. Some of these 
pass at length from colloquial into epistolary, journalis- 
tic, and, finally, into general literary use. The dialect 
glossaries abound in words of this kind." Such a word is 
"candyman," a word known to every pitman in Durham 
and Northumberland, which has a place in the English 
language and is defined in "The New English Dic- 
tionary " as meaning, in the North of England, " a bum- 
bailiff, or process server." Now, everybody knows the 
"candy," or "sugar-candy," which lured the juvenile, 
happy in the possession of a penny, to purchase its sticky 
sweetness from the tempting window, or which was an 
irresistible bait to our infantile ha'penny when displayed 
with all the blandishment of the itinerant " candyman." 
But what possible connection can there be between the 
grave " bum-bailiff " of the dictionary and the wandering 
confectionery man with sweet discourse ? This question 
was asked in the London Kotet and Queries just a dozen 
years ago, and was in that same volume fully and finally 
explained by Mr. W. E. Adams, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
who wrote " It is not often that we are able to trace so 
satisfactorily the origin of provincial words as we are that 
of the word 'candyman.' It is, as was stated in the 
editor's note (Notes and Queries, vol. v., p. 325, April 
22nd, 1876), 'a term in the North for men employed to 
carry out evictions against cottage occupiers.' There was, 
in October, 1863, a great strike of miners at the collieries 
of Messrs. Strakers and Love, in the county ot Durham. 
As no adjustment of the difference was possible, the 
owners determined to eject the miners from their cottages. 
For this purpose a large number of curious characters 
were engaged by the agents of Messrs. Strakers and 
Love. Among the persons so engaged was at least one 

January \ 


whose ordinary occupation was that of selling candy 
and other sweetmeats in the neighbouring towns. The 
man was recognised and was chaffed about his calling by 
the evicted miners. Very soon, of course, the term 
'candyman,' which rapidly became a term of reproach, 
was applied to the whole class. Since that time the word 
has come into general use over the two Northern Counties 
whenever ejectments take place." Like the verbs to 
bowdlerize, and to boycott, the substantive candyman 
has thus taken its place as an English word in very 
recent years. The adoption of "candyman," however, 
dates from an earlier period than that mentioned by Mr. 
Adams. It seems to have been first used during the 
" great stick" of 1844, and had already become general in 
1863. But for the prompt record of the unlikely connec- 
tion between sugar-candy and the serving of a warrant, 
what groping might not some twentieth century philolo- 
gist have made, "as vainly in the 'word-hoard' of Old 
English speech, or even the fullest vocabulary of Indo- 
European roots, as in a school-manual of Latin and Greek 
roots and affixes," to find the origin of the bum-bailiff 
candyman ! R. OLIVER HESLOP. 

STIu U0rtft=0tmti*B (Sarlatttr 


)" tokoe. 

jjALLADS embodying a series of riddles are 
much rarer in the English language than in 
the language of Sweden, Denmark, or other 
Northern nations. The riddles in these 
ballads are sometimes propounded to a knight, sometimes 
to a lady, and often to the Evil One himself ; in the 
latter case, the demon is sure, of course, to be puzzled and 
unable to answer the questions. 

In addition to its enigmatical character, the metrical 
construction of " Whittingham Fair " is of a duolinear 
form, common to many ballads which have descended to 
us from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These 
compositions were generally of a rude and simple kind, 
consisting of verses of two lines only, with an interval of 
rest at the end of each, which the minstrel made use of to 
play a symphony (either to lengthen the ballad or to 
display his musical skill). Vocalists, when singing such 
ballads without instrumental accompaniment, it may be 
easily inferred, would introduce some burden to replace 
the symphony of the minstrel. Some of these burdens 
consisted of short proverbial expressions, such as " 'Tis 
merry in the hall, when beards wag all." Others were 
mere nonsense lines that went glibly off the tongue, 
giving the accent of the music, but having no connection 
with the subject of the ballad. Examples of these 
burdens are common in the plays of Shakspeare and the 

Elizabethan dramatists. The " Willow willow " of Ophe- 
lia in " Hamlet," and "Hey ho ! the wind and the rain " 
of the clown in "Twelfth Night," are specimens, as are 
also the "Fallal la" and the "Tol derol"of our own day. 

"Whittingham Fair," like many other old ballads, has 
been relegated to the nursery, and is sometimes sung 
without the first verse, though it is then evidently in- 

The melody which here accompanies the song we 
believe to be the original tune, and is always sung to it in 
North and West Northumberland. 

Are you go ing to Whit-ting-ham Fair? 

Pars - ley, sage, rose - ma - ry and thyme, Re- 

jjP^r fljb^fe^g^ 

mem-ber me to one that lives there, For 

once she was a true 

lov - er 


Tell her to make me a cambric shirt, 
Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme ;* 

Without any seam or needlework, 
Then she shall be a true lover of mine. 

Tell her to wash it in yonder well, 
Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme ; 

Where never spring water or rain ever fell, 
And she shall be a true lover of mine. 

Tell her to dry it on yonder thorn, 
Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme ; 

Which never bore blossom since Adam was born, 
Then she shall be a true lover of mine. 

Now he has asked me questions three, 
Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme ; 

I hope he'll answer as many for me 
Before he shall be a true lover of mine. 

Tell him to buy me an acre of land, 
Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme ; 

Betwixt the salt water and the sea sand, 
Then he shall be a true lover of mine. 

Tell him to plough it with a ram's horn, 
Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme ; 

And sow it all over with one pepper corn, 
And he shall be a true lover of mine. 

Tell him to sheer't with a sickle of leather, 

Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme ; 
And bind it up with a peacock feather, 

And he shall be a true lover of mine. 

Tell him to thrash it on yonder wall, 

Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme, 
And never let one corn of it fall, 

Then he shall be a true lover of mine. 

When he has done and finished his work, 

Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme ; 
Oh. tell mm to come and he'll have his shirt, 

And he shall be a true lover of mine. 

The second line of the song " Parsley, sage, rowmary, and 
thyme," fullv bears out the condition of being a nonsense line, 
having no connection with the lubjeet ; but when we once heard 
the ballad the singer achieved a still higher pitch of absurdity by 
solemnly chanting "Parsley, sage, grwa merry in time, an the 
correct burden. 


j] ALTON CASTLE or Tower is situated 
about a couple of miles north of Cor- 
bridge, and within a short distance of the 
Roman Wall. It is regarded as a good specimen of the 
late pele tower. Without possessing any distinguish- 
ing feature, it is interesting from the fact that its stones 
were mostly taken from the neighbouring Roman station 
of Halton Cheaters, which was identified by Horsley as 
the Hunnum of the Notitia, the fifth of the stations from 
the east per lineam valli and the headquarters of the 
Sabinian cavalry regiment. Two Roman funereal tablets 
are built into the surrounding walls. A small chapel ad- 
joins ; but, save the chancel arch and the east window, 
little of the original architecture remains. 

The manor originally belonged to the family of Halton, 
and appears in the list of lands held in drengage under 
King John. There was a John de Halton in Henry III. 's 
reipm, and a William of the family was High Sheriff of 
Northumberland in the seventeenth year of the reign of 

Edward I. A sister, Margaret, inherited a moiety of the 
manor, the other moiety being possessed by the Carnabys 
of Carnaby, a famous Northumbrian family who in the 
reign of Richard II. appear to have been in possession of 
the whole manor. Preserved in this Border tower was a 
sword of the Carnabys, 5ft. 4in. long. There is a tradi- 
tion to the effect that when the country was infested with 
mosstroopers one of the Carnabys had a commission to 
apprehend and try them. Whilst he was engaged upon 
the trial of some thieves who had fallen into his hands, a 
notorious character was seized by his son, who asked his 
father what should be done with him. "Hang him," 
said the father. At the termination of the trial with 
which he was occupied, the elder Carnaby ordered the 
culprit to be brought before him, but was informed that 
the sentence had already been carried out. There is a 
similar tradition, however, about Belted Will. 

A relic of the feudal system, according to a statement 
in the proceedings of the Newcastle Society of Anti- 
quaries for 1882-t, is still observed at Great Whittington. 
The freeholders are obliged to send seven mowers and 

January \ 
1889. / 



fourteen reapers to Halton Castle for one day every year 
when called upon. It is called the Bond Barge. The 
labourers receive no wages, but are supplied with victuals 
and drink. 


pHE ruins of Thirlwall Castle are situate on 
an eminence on the west bank of the Tipalt, 
a tributary of the South Tyne, at a short 
distance north of the point where that rivulet was 
crossed by the great Roman Wall. Though the 
castle is said to derive its name from the Scots 
piercing the wall here, it has evidently had no con- 
nection with the great barrier. Horsley, indeed, con- 
jectures that it might have received its present name 
from a passage of a branch of the South Tyne through 
the wall a little to the west of the fortress. There is, 

however, a tradition that the castle received its name 
from the fact that the Roman Wall was "thirled," or 
penetrated, at this point. The walls are in some places nine 
feet thick, and the place was defended by a strong outward 
barrier. There is evidence that this stronghold was built 
entirely of stones from the Roman Wall. In 1831 the 
south wall fell into the Tipalt. The ruins now present a 
picturesque appearance, derived from its situation on a 
rocky boss about thirty feet from the stream. Thirlwall 
Castle was for many generations the seat of the Thirl- 
walls, whose heiress, in 1738, married Matthew Swin- 
burn, of Capheaton, who sold the castle and manor to the 
Earl of Carlisle. Dr. Bruce in his "Roman Wall," 
says : " Amongst the witnesses examined on the occa- 
sion of the famous suit between the families of Scrope 
and Grosvenor, for the right to bear the shield 'azure, a 
bend or, 'which was opened at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in 
1385, before King Richard II. in person, was John 
Thirlwall, an esquire of Northumberland. The witness 



\ 1689. 

related what he heard on the subject of the dispute from 
his father, who 'died at the age of 145, and was, when he 
died, the oldest esquire in the North, and had been in 
arms in his time sixty -nine years.' Such is the lan- 
guage of the record of these proceedings, preserved in the 
Tower of London." 

at Jttarft 'Eton^t Cgne antr 



" Sir Henry Brabant, another alderman, profest, if the 
King should command him to kill a man in cold blood, 
he took himself bound in conscience and duty to execute 
his commands." " Life of Ambrose Barnes." 

j]NE of Richardson's reprints " The Eve of 
the Revolution in Newcastle" (already 
quoted in our sketch" of Sir William 
Blackett the Second) is a letter to King 
James II. from Sir Henry Brabant, complaining that his 
loyalty to the Crown had not been supported as it should 
have been by some of his colleagues in the municipal 
government of Newcastle. The writer of this epistle 
came, like so many other "men of light and leading" in 
Newcastle, from the adjoining palatinate. His father, 
John Brabant, of Pedgbank, had bound him apprentice, 
in 1636, to Alexander (afterwards Sir Alexander) Davi- 
son, one of the leaders of the Royalist party in New- 
castle, and one of the most venerable and venerated 
aldermen of that faction. The times were becoming 
critical when he entered upon his apprenticeship ; they 
became still more so before his indentures were half com- 
pleted ; long ere his term expired the country was en- 
gaged in civil war. In the eighth year of his servitude, 
when the Scots stormed Newcastle, his master was killed 
fighting, at the age of eighty, upon the town wall. 
Trade being at a standstill, he made no effort to secure 
a "turnover," and when he applied to be admitted to 
the freedom of the Merchants' Company he was fined for 
neglecting to complete his apprenticeship. Pleading ig- 
norance, he obtained a remission of one-half the fine, and 
on the 1st September he was received into fellowship. 
Not for long, however, did he enjoy his privileges. He 
had taken lessons in loyalty from the master who died 
sword in hand defending the Stuart cause, and express- 
ing his opinions too freely, he incurred the displeasure of 
the authorities. By order of Common Council, in 1649, 
he was publicly disfranchised for being in arms against 
the Parliament. 

What became of Mr. Brabant during the interregnum, 
is not stated. At the Restoration he regained his 
freedom, and, being impoverished in his estate by the 
civil commotions, obtained from Charles II. the office 
of collector of customs, &c., in Newcastle. The 
Shrievalty came to him in 1662, and five years later he 
rose to the higher position of Mayor. Excisemen in 
those days were not usually very popular persons, and 
even collectors of customs, when invested with municipal 
authority, were apt to be regarded with aversion. 
"There were none that bore office in the excise but 
rogues," said John Lee, yeoman, " being at William 
Mason's house in the Bigg Market," on the lath 
October, a few days after Mr. Brabant's election. " And 
what was Henry Brabant," he temerariously asked, 
" but an exciseman ! and none but broken rogues had 
such places." For which outspoken speech, and seditious 
words against his Majesty, Lee was hauled up before 
a magistrate, as, at a later date, Albert Hodgson was 
cited for saying something to the contrary effect. 
Hodgson being a Catholic, railed at Alderman Davison, 
son of Brabant's master, " and did with much invitracye 
and malice asperse and abuse Mr. Davison," adding that 
"none of the aldermen were worth anything except 
Mr. Brabant," &c. In the times of the Stuarts, as in 
our own day, railing and abuse were the common 
heritage of persons in authority, for party spirit in 
politics and religion is eternally the same. 

In the books of the Trinity House is a record that 
Alderman Henry Brabant and Ralph Jenison were 
deputed by the town to attend the King in council for the 
adjustment of a dispute pending between the town and 
Mr. Edmoud Curtis, who had undertaken to clear 
away the wrecks in the river. The Hostmen's books 
contain entries that "Ralph Jenison, governor, and 
Henry Brabant, Esq., going to London, are desired to 
use their endeavours to secure an Act of Parliament for 
regulating the abuses of collieries," &c., and that in 1681 
the Hostmen appointed a committee to consult Henry 
Brabant and other officers in the Custom House, with a 
view to compel ships to discharge at a proper ballast 
quay, or shore, within the river. Items of no great 
importance are these, except to show that Mr. Brabant 
was living in the sunshine, after some years spent in the 
shade. The circumstances under which he became 
Mayor a second time, at Michaelmas, 1685, are given in 
his letter to the King. In that document he appears as 
a knight, and it is believed that he received this courtly 
title at his Majesty's accession in March previous. The 
honour came too late to be of much use to him. For in 
June, 1687, being then about 66 years of age, he died 
died, as he had lived, a poor man. There is an order of 
Common Council, dated 1707, by which 5 was to be 
given " to Lady Brabant in charity," and that is the last 
time the name appears in the municipal annals of 

January \ 
1889. / 



gflje ?Rtt). |oljn $ranb,, 


The father of John Brand was parish clerk of 
Washington, near Durham. His daily occupation is 
not stated ; probably he was a farm labourer, or small 
handicraftsman ; if he had been in better circumstances, 

local historians would have told us so. His son John 
was born on the 19th August, 17*4; his wife died 
shortly afterwards, and when he married a second 
time he allowed his brother-in-law, Anthony Wheatley, 
to bring the boy to Newcastle to be brought up. Mr. 
Wheatley was a shoemaker in the Back Row, a narrow 
thoroughfare which extended eastward from the foot 
of Westgate Street. (A view of the Back Row, which 
has now disappeared, was given in the Monthly Chronicle, 
vol. ii., p. 137.) He was only a small tradesman, follow- 
ing an ill-requited calling in a poor neighbourhood, 
with squalid surroundings, but he did the best he could 
for his adopted son. 

As soon as he was old enough, young Brand was sent 
to the Royal Free Grammar School of Newcastle, an 
institution which a newly-appointed headmaster the 
Rev. Hugh Moises was endowing with fresh life. 
Under his careful tuition, the lad made rapid progress. 
Wise and thoughtful beyond his years, as boys brought 
up by foster-parents often are, he became a diligent and 
obedient scholar a credit to the school, and a source of 
pride and gratification to bis teachers. At the age of 
fourteen he was withdrawn from Mr. Moises's care, and 
bound apprentice to his uncle. 

It was, perhaps, fortunate that the sedentary occupa- 
tion of a cordwainer fell to his lot. Shoemaking, as 
practised before the introduction of machinery, was 
favourable to the formation of studious habits. Young 

Brand had acquired at the Grammar School a taste for 
learning which he was unwilling to neglect. His uncle, 
being a lenient master, and most likely proud of the 
accomplishments of his youthful relative, raised no objec- 
tion. Thus, unfettered at home, and encouraged by Mr. 
Moises, the lad kept up his studies, conned over his 
lessons as he sat at work, and grew up to manhood 
clever and accomplished. 

When his indentures of apprenticeship expired, in 1765, 
Mr. Brand was desirous of utilising his acquirements in 
a more congenial sphere. But no opening presented 
itself to his maturing genius, and he remained with his 
uncle. During his servitude he had begun to woo the 
Muse, and ventured into print with "A Collection of 
Peetical Essays. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Printed by I. 
Thompson, Esq., 1765." 

Under the will of Bishop Crewe, Lincoln College, 
Oxford, was endowed with twelve exhibitions to be held 
by natives of the diocese of Durham, and in 1768, when 
Mr. Brand was taking up his freedom of the Cordwainers 
Company, it occurred to Mr. Moises that the bishop's 
munificence might be utilised to rescue his gifted protegu 
from a life of drudgery and indigence. Opulent friends 
were consulted, and favourable responses obtained. On 
the 8th of October, 1768, Mr. Brand was admitted a 
commoner of Lincoln College, and on the 10th of the 
month following he was elected a Lord Crewe ex- 
hibitioner, the value of which, at that time, was 30 per 
annum. His collegiate course lasted three years, and 
when it was ended he was ordained by Dr. Egerton, 
Bishop of Durham, and licensed to the curacy of Bolam. 
In 1773, returning to Newcastle, he officiated as one of 
the curates of St. Andrew's, and the following year, Mr. 
Matthew Ridley, of Heaton, gave him his first pre- 
ferment, the curacy of Cramlington, of the yearly value 
of 40. 

While at Oxford, Mr. Brand had renewed his dalliance 
with the poetic Muse. The subject of his verse was sug- 
gested by frequent walks along the banks of the Isis to 
the ruins of Godstow Nunnery, the burial place of "Fair 
Rosamond," paramour of Henry II. In 1775, when he 
took his bachelor's degree, he gave these poetical medita- 
tions to the printer, and they were published in a thin 
quarto (with a copperplate engraving by Ralph Beilby), 
under the suggestive title of "Illicit Love." For- 
tunately, soon after its publication, he turned to a 
more attractive and more useful study that of 
antiquities. In November, 1776, he sent to press, 
from his residence in Westgate Street, Bourne's 
little book on the Antiquities of the Common Peo- 
ple (which had become scarce) with copious addi- 
tions of his own, under the title of "Observations 
on Popular Antiquities." This work, expanded from 
materials which Mr. Brand left behind him, and from 
other sources, was re-issued in 1813 by Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) Henry Ellis, and has been several times reprinted. 



A few months after it was published the author was 
admitted a member of the London Society of Anti- 
quaries ; the year following he was appointed under 
usher in the Grammar School of Newcastle, where he 
had received his early education ; and in 1781, having 
in the meantime taken his M.A. degree, he was preferred 
to the ushership. The curacies of Cramlington and St. 
Andrew's, Newcastle, supplemented by his income as 
usher, afforded him a moderate competence, and he lived 
in Newcastle, with his aunt, Mrs. Wheatley, as his house- 
keeper, in comparative ease and comfort. 

While thus engaged, be had been collecting materials 
for a history of Newcastle, and by Christmas, 1783, 
had made substantial progress with his work. It 
happened that just at this time the rectory of St. 
Mary-at-Hill and St. Andrew Hubbard, in the City of 
London, fell vacant, and the Duke of Northumberland, 
the patron for that turn, offered the living to Mr. 
Brand, adding to it the office of private secretary and 
librarian. On the 8th of February, 1784, he read him- 
self in at St. Mary-at-Hill, and prepared to take up 
his permanent abode in London. Directly afterwards, 
another appointment fell in his way. Dr. Morrell, 
secretary to the London Society of Antiquaries, died 
on the 19th of the month, and through the influence of 
the duke, and the high opinion which his fellow 
members entertained of his merits, Mr. Brand was 
unanimously chosen to fill the office. 

And now, resident in the Metropolis, provided with 
ample means, and having free access to public records 
and private collections, Mr. Brand was able to push his 
history of Newcastle more rapidly towards completion. 
Frequent reference to it is made in his " Letters to 
Ralph Beilby," published by the Newcastle Typographi- 
cal Society. Obtaining from the Common Council of 
Newcastle, on the 14th June, 1787, permission to dedicate 
the work to them, he commenced to solicit subscribers, 
and on the 16th May, 1789, it was announced as ready for 
delivery, price three guineas, in two volumes, royal 
quarto, and liberally illustrated with 34- plates, &c., 
engraved by Mr. Fittler. 

For two and twenty years Mr. Brand fulfilled the 
duties of secretary to the Society of Antiquaries and 
rector of St. Mary-at-Hill. He did not marry, but lived 
with a housekeeper at the rooms of the society in 
Somerset Place, Strand, till, prosecuted by common 
informers for non-residence, he was compelled to occupy 
his parsonage. After the publication of his "History," 
nothing of importance issued from his pen. He con- 
tributed a few papers to the " Archaeologia," and printed 
a quarto pamphlet about some inscriptions discovered in 
the Tower of London, and that was all. Not that his 
pen was idle during that long time. On the contrary, it 
was constantly at work, though in another direction. He 
n.ade it the chief business of his life to collect scarce and 
out-of-the-way books and manuscripts, and enrich them 

with pen and ink sketches of their authors, explanations 
of the text, and other useful and critical annotations. 
Many hundreds of books, pamphlets, and tracts were 
gathered together at Somerset Place and the parson- 
age, some of them of the rarest character. Writing a 
small, thin hand, but clear and legible as print, he was 
able to compress a great deal of matter into a fly leaf, or 
the back of a title page, and scores of his treasures were 
in this way illustrated, explained, and improved. 

On the morning of the llth of September, 1806, while 
preparing for his usual walk through the City to the 
office of the Society of Antiquaries, Mr. Brand suddenly 
died in his study. He was buried in the chancel of 
his church of St. Mary-at-Hill, where a tablet, bearing 
the following inscription, preserves the memory of his 
pastorate : 

Within the Communion Rails lies interred the Body of 
the Rev. John Brand, 22 years and 6 months the faithful 
Rector of this and the united Parish of St. Andrew 
Hubbard. He was also perpetual Curate of Cramlington, 
in the County of Northumberland, and he was Fellow 
and Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries. He died 
llth September, 1806, in the 63rd year of his age. His 
affectionate Aunt, Mrs. Ann Wheatley, of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, has erected this Monument to his Memory. 

By his will dated March 14, 1790, Mr. Brand be- 
queathed all his " books, English portraits, prints, 
ancient coins, household furniture, cloaths, and linen," 
and all the residue, &c., to his aunt and sole executrix, 
Ann Wheatley, who had brought him up. The old 
lady proceeded to realise the property, and the sale of 
the books and MSS. which he had gathered together 
was a notable event in London. A priced catalogue of 
the first part of the "Bibliotheca Brandiana" shows 
that the sale lasted from May 6 to June 20, 1807, 
comprised 8,611 lots of books, &e., and 243 lots of 
MSS., and with a second auction in February follow- 
ing of more than 4,000 duplicates, and collections of 
pamphlets, realised 17,000. 

Probate was granted to Mrs. Wheatley in November, 
1806, the value of the property being sworn as under 
800. But after the sale, when it was ascertained how 
inadequately that sum represented the value of Mr. 
Brand's effects, another probate was issued, and the pre- 
vious one was declared to be null and void. At Mrs 
Wheatley's death, her furniture and other goods and 
chattels were bequeathed to her maid, Mary Sharp, who 
had lived with Mr. Brand in London. From Mary Sharp, 
who resided for some years in Cumberland Row, New- 
castle, and died at the age of 90, they came to her niece 
Ann, wife of Edward Hudson, of Alnwick, and are now 
in the possession of Mrs. Hudson's representative, Miss 
Almond of that town. Among them are Mr. Brand's 
cabinet of coins and curios, gold watch, clock, portfolio of 
prints, and various framed pictures and engravings. His 
writing desk (upon which the Rev. Mr. Wasney, the 
popular curate of St. Thomas's Chapel, wrote his sermons 
while lodging with Mary Sharp) is owned by the widow 




of the late Mr. William Armstrong, master printer of the 
Newcastle Chronicle a friend of the Hudson family. A 
collection of papers and letters by and relating to Mr. 
Brand, including his memorandum book for 1799, and a 
MS. notice of his works by the late Mr. Thomas Bell, 
was purchased by the Rev. J. R. Boyle, in 1885, and is 
now in the library of the Newcastle Society of Anti- 

Our portrait is taken from a miniature kindly lent by 
Mr. J. C. Brooks, of Newcastle, who inherited it from 
Mr. John Martin, librarian to the London University. 
So far as is known, this is the only recognisable portrait 
of Mr. Brand in existence, the liknesses prefixed to the 
" History of Newcastle," and sometimes found attached 
to the catalogue of the "Bibliotheca Brandiana, " being 
only shadow-outlines, or silhouettes. 



In the early part of the present century three brothers 
named Brewis came from the country to Newcastle, and 
started business as cartmen. They were industrious, 
thrifty, God-fearing men, and they prospered. John, the 
oldest, became an elder and precentor at the High Bridge 
Presbyterian Chapel, round which loving memories of the 
Rev. James Murray still lingered, and his brothers 
William and George were among his fellow-worshippers 
They all brought up families in respectability and com- 
fort. One of John Brewis's sons became a popular 
Independent minister (of him more presently) ; one of 
William's children was George Brewis, attorney, pioneer 
of building societies in Newcastle, and temperance 

George Brewis was born about the year 1814, in Percy 
Street, and was educated by Mr. John Weir, a well- 
known schoolmaster of the period. As a boy he entered 
the office of Mr. John Clayton, town clerk, where he 
continued eleven years, and thence transferred his 
services to Mr. George Tallentire Gibson, to whom he 
was articled with a view of entering the profession of 
the law. About 1845, he was placed on the rolls as an 
attorney and solicitor, and at once commenced a prac. 
tice as the legal adviser of building societies, the founda- 
tion of which, with much foresight, he had laid during 
his clerkship. 

Incentives to thrift in the form of building societies, 
and incitements to sobriety in the shape of total abstin- 
ence pledges, came in together. Joseph Livesey, the 
founder of teetotalism, visited Newcastle in the autumn 
of 1835. George Brewis signed the pledge on the 22nd 
June, 1836, and immediately thereafter became an active 
propagandist of temperance principles. When the first 
report of the " Newcastle Teetotal Society " came out, its 
roll of officers was filled with these well-known names : 
President, Jonathan Priestman ; secretaries, Jas. Rew- 

castle (corresponding), Geo. Hornsby (minute), John 
Benson (registering), and Geo. Brewis (discipline). 

Following the bent of his own inclination as well as the 
traditions of his fore-elders, Mr. Brewis was an earnest 
Nonconformist. As a youth he taught in the Sunday 
School of High Bridge Chapel ; in manhood he became 
a member of the Congregational Church assembling in 
St. James's Chapel, at the head of Grey Street. In 
politics he was an advanced Liberal, and gave energetic 

support to Mr. J. F. B. Blackett, Mr. Peter Carstairs, 
and Mr. (afterwards Sir) Joseph Cowen, in their re- 
spective candidatures for the representation of New- 
castle. With municipal matters he did not actively 
intermeddle till late in life, and then, having been a 
Poor Law Guardian for a time, he fought for a seat in 
the Council, and was unsuccessful. 

Mr. Brewis died suddenly in his office, Royal Arcade, 
on the 3rd December, 1867, and a few days later was 
interred in Elswick Cemetery with the solemnities of a 
public funeral. 

$eo. SKUltam 


William Brewis, eldest son of the before-named John 
Brewis, was born in Newcastle on the 8th of October, 
1804. Trained to the religious life by his father at High 
Bridge Chapel, and manifesting early inclinations for the 
work of the ministry, he was sent to Rotherham Indepen- 
dent College, in September, 1820, on the eve of his 17th, 



year. After passing through the usual curriculum, he 
was called to the pastorate of the church at Lane End in 
Staffordshire, and on the 26th of April, 1825, received the 
rite of ordination. His next appointment was at Kirby 
Moorside ; thence he removed to Gainsborough ; and in 
1837 he became minister of the Congregational Church at 
Penrith, where he remained until called to his reward, 
thirty-two years later. 

The congregation at Penrith was small in number and 1 
in influence when Mr. Brewis entered upon his ministry 
there, but his preaching attracted hearers, and in no 
long time he built up a strong and flourishing cause. 
Such was his success that, after a few years' labour, a new 
building, in which his Penrith followers might worship 
with convenience and comfort, became desirable. But, 
although his hearers were numerous, their resources were 
slender. It was not until 1865 that they felt justified in 
commencing to build a place that should be worthy of 
them and their position. When, however, they did begin, 
they built for posterity. Completed in July, 1866, at a 
cost of 3,500, the handsome new edifice became a centre 
of renewed life and activity, sixty members were added in 
one year, and the various organisations which have their 
origin and find their home in a prosperous religious 
community, grew and flourished under the roof of Penrith 
Congregational Church. 

i'or three years only was Mr. Brewis permitted to see 
the fruition of his labours. The end came somewhat 
suddenly. In the morning of Saturday, May 22, 1869, 
after family worship, he complained of sickness, and in 
the afternoon, sinking from his chair, in a kneeling 
posture he passed away. On the Wednesday, while his 
old friend Samuel Plimsoll, M.P., and ministers from all 
parts of the Northern Counties gathered round, his re- 
mains were buried in the private cemetery of the congre- 
gation. A sermon from the text, " The Lord God is a 
Sun," which he had prepared the day before his death for 
the ensuing morning service, was read the following Sun- 
day in a dozen neighbouring chapels, and, being after- 
wards printed, had a wide circulation. 

|ol)n Srottec Crockett, 


During the fifty years which preceded the general 
adoption of steam locomotion, when methods of inter- 
communication and opportunities for interchange of 
thought and opinion between provincial communities 
were limited, Newcastle was the home of gifted men, 
whose acquirements in literature and science, in anti- 
quities and art, gave the town a definite position among 
trans-metropolitan centres of intellectual activity. Excel- 
lent are their names Adamson and Atkinson, Bewick 
and Buddie, Burdon and Brockett, Dobson and Double- 
day, Hodgson, Losh, and Mitchell, Mackenzie, Richard- 
eon, and Turner, Williamson, Wilson, and Winch. Ad- 

mirable were their enterprises the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, Society of Antiquaries, Typographical 
Society, Institution for the Promotion of the Fine Arts, 
Botanical and Horticultural Society, Mechanics' In- 
stitute, and Natural History Society. "True men were 
they in their time " these pioneers and promoters of cul- 
ture in Newcastle. " They rest from their labours"; but 
their works, for the most part, survive, and bear testi- 
mony, generation after generation, to their wisdom and 
foresight, to their energy and devotion. 

Among these leaders of thought in Newcastle, John 
Trotter Brockett was a prominent figure. Born in 1788, 


his early surroundings had been in the highest decree 
favourable to the acquisition of knowledge and the cul- 
tivation of literary taste. The Rev. William Turner 
Unitarian divine, scientific lecturer, and director-general 
of intellectual progress on both sides the Tyne super- 
intended his education ; his father (claiming on the 
mother's side descent from the Nonconformist family of 
Angus) was Deputy-Prothonotary in the local Courts of 
Record, and supervised his studies in mathematics and 
jurisprudence. His own diligence, aiding the sound 
training of teacher and parent, enabled him, at the 
proper age, to enter with confidence upon the profession 
of the law. Having completed articles with Messrs. 
Clayton and Brumell, the leading solicitors in the town, 
he became managing clerk to Mr. Armorer Donkin, in 
due time was admitted an attorney, married a daughter 
of John Bell, merchant, and settled down to a lucrative 

Mr. Brockett commenced at an early period of life to 
write, to edit, and to publish. In 1817, his name appears 
as the editor of a new issue of Bartlet's " Episcopal Coins 




-of Durham and the Monastic Coins of Reading, Minted 
during the Rei(rns of Edwards I., II., and III." Heat 
the same time reprinted two rare tracts one of 1627, 
"A Short View of the Long Life and Reigne of Henry 
the Third"; the other, dated 1650, being "An Exact 
Narration of the Life and Death of the Reverend and 
Learned Prelate and Painful Divine, Launcelot Andre wes, 
late Bishop of Winchester." The excellence of the typo- 
graphy displayed in these reprints by the printer (Mrs. 
Hodgson) induced him to suggest the formation of 
a society for the re-issuing of scarce tracts, and the 
preservation of local compositions, in the best style 
of printing that the town could produce. He was 
busy at this time with a learned treatise upon a 
question that was occupying the attention of local 
politicians, and the following year it was issued, 
with the long-drawn title of "An Enquiry into the 
Question whether the Freeholders of the Town and 
County of Newcastle-upon-Tyne are entitled to vote for 
members of Parliament for the County of Northumber- 
land" an inquiry, by the way, that was answered by 
the Reform Bill. As soon as this, his first bit of inde- 
pendent authorship, was out of hand, Mr. Brockett 
resumed his reprint proposals. A pamphlet on "Hints 
on the Propriety of Establishing a Typographical 
Society in Newcastle," which he published in the same 
year as the " Enquiry," led to the formation of a literary 
organisation based upon his suggestions. The Newcastle 
Typographical Society sprang into being at once, and, 
although its aims were limited and some of the members 
were not very careful about the utility of the productions 
which they put forth, a collection of their tracts 
about 80 in number is not without historical value. 
The society printed for private distribution as a rule, 
and in very limited numbers, Of some of their publica- 
tions only twenty copies were issued ; of a few as many 
as 300 were struck off, and these were generally offered 
for sale, but for the most part the number printed was 
a hundred. On various issues were engraved the special 
devices of the issuing members, being generally cuts by 
Bewick, representing a ruin with armorial bearings. 
Mr. Brockett's vignette, which appears upon a dozen of 
the tracts, was one of the most striking, as his pamphlets 
were, from a historical point of view, among the most 
valuable of the series. 

In 1825, appeared the first edition of his far-famed 
" Glossary of North-Country Words" ; it was followed in 
1829 by another and much more comprehensive book 
under the same title ; and after Mr. Brockett's death, 
his son, aided by local men of letters, brought out the 
work in the two-volume form that is now most com- 
monly met with. A " Glossographia Anglicana," from 
MSS. which Mr. Brockett had prepared for publication, 
was privately printed a few years ago in "The Sette 
of Odd Volumes, "with a biographical sketch by Frederick 

From the title of the first book to which Mr. Brockett 
put his name it may be inferred that he was interested 
in the collection of coins and medals. To a knowledge 
of numismatics, which was at once deep and wide, he 
added a passion for gathering together not only the 
shining discs which attract men to that special cult, 
but curios of all kinds, and especially rare editions of 
rare books. Mr. Fenwick tells us that his collection 
of the former at a ten days' sale in London, in 1823, 
realised 1,760; and his library of scarce and curious 

books, which occupied fourteen days in the selling, 
brought 4-, 260. No sooner had he disposed of these 
treasures than he began to accumulate afresh. Dr. 
Dibdin, the famous antiquary, passing through New- 
castle in 1837, was entertained by the literati of 
the town, and in the charming book which he after- 
wards published, "A Bibliographical, Antiquarian, and 
Picturesque Tour in the Northern Counties of England 
and in Scotland," describes his intercourse with Mr. 
Brockett in terms of mingled humour and apprecia- 
tion : 

More than once was the hospitable table of my friend, 
John Trotter Brockett, Esq., spread to receive me. He 
lives comparatively in a nut-shell : but what a kernel ! 
Pictures, books, curiosities, medals, coins of precious 
value, bespeak his discriminating eye and his liberal 
heart. You may revel here from sunrise to sunset, and 
fancy the domains interminable. Do not suppose that a 
stated room, or rooms, are only appropriated to his 
BOKES : they are " upstairs, downstairs, and in my lady's 
chamber." They spread all over the house tendrils of 
pliant curve and perennial verdure. For its size, if 1 
except those of one or two Sannatyners, I am not sure 
whether this be not about the choicest collection of books 
which I saw on my tour. 

From an early period of his life Mr. Brockett was a 
member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Newcastle, and for some years preceding his death he 
undertook the responsible duties of one of its secretaries. 
He assisted at the formation of the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries, and became an active member of its Council. 
The Newcastle and Gateshead Law Society found in him 



one of its warmest supporters, and awarded him, in 18J2, 
its special thanks for services he had rendered to the pro- 
fession before a Parliamentary Committee. He was a 
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London ; the 
well-known initials of that institution formed the only 
affix that he consented to couple with his name. In 
domestic life, he was a pattern of all that was amiable. 
His family participated with him in his favourite studies 
and pursuits, and his home was the abode of peace and 
happiness. Some years previously to his death he lost his 
eldest sen. He sustained the shock with surprising 
fortitude ; but it may have been the remote cause of 
his death, which occurred at his house in Albion Street 
on the 12th of October, 1842, in the 54th year of his age. 

was the popular name given to two 
Hfe-sized leaden figures which for many 
years formed the chief attraction and laud- 
mark in Broad Street (now Roker Avenue), at the 
junction of Fulwell Lane and Church Street, Monk- 

in its later days by " Gentleman John," a soubriquet 
which clung to Mr. John Smith, shipowner, all through 
his successful career from a blacksmith to a capitalist. 
But previous to this it ia said to have been the residence 
of the great-grandfather of the late Mr. George Cooper 
Abbes, of Cleadon Hall, who purchased the two figures' 
which had been brought over from Germany (with ten 
more) by some speculative skipper, and set them up to 
adorn the entrance to his house. The other figures found 
their way into the hands of different gentlemen in the 
County Palatine, and most of them have probably Jong 
ere this been melted down for the sake of the lead. The 
duty on lead, in the shape of ore, was four pounds a ton a 
hundred years ago, whereas the Babbies, being "works 
of art," would be admitted either duty free or for a com- 
paratively small charge. 

Between sixty and seventy years ago, the Broad 
Street mansion (or, as some say, the house next to it) 

wearmouth. The house with the garden pillars thus 
ornamented was once a very pleasant residence, remark- 
able for having a clock and bells, and was occupied 

was occupied by a Scotchman of the name of Rae 
who kept a -genteel school in it, which was attended 
by the children of the principal Sunderland families the 
Kennicotts, Robsons, &c. Mr. Kae's wife was the sister 
of a Miss Gilbert, the mother of the celebrated Lola 
Montez, whose real name was Eliza Gilbert. Eliza, 
whose father is said to have been an officer in the 
British army serving in India, was sent home from 
the East while yet a mere child, and boarded 

January I 

1889. j 



with Mr. and Mrs. Rae, from whom she received 
the elements of a Rood substantial English education. 
She had for her schoolfellows many who, when she after- 
wards became world-famous, remembered her as a very 
interesting, clever, pretty girl. 

A few years ago, the Babbies were presented to the 
Roker Park, where they may now be seen ; but it is 
proposed to place them on the pillars at the entrance 
from Roker Promenade when the gateway shall have 
been completed. The style of dress denotes the 
figures to be of German or Dutch manufacture. The 
scythe which the man is represented in the act of sharpen- 
ing, is the Flemish or Hainault scythe, with which a good 
workman could cut an acre of corn easily in a day, and 
which was introduced into this country by some enter- 
prising farmers about fifty years ago, to take the place of 
the Irish scythe-hook, which had itself supplanted the 
old toothed hook or sickle, all to be rendered obsolete in 
their turn by the reaping machine. 

TOmft at tire 

(HE wreck of the Stanley at the mouth of the 
Tyne took place on the 24th of November, 
1864. During the early part of that day, a 
strong breeze blew from the east-south-east. 
It was not, however, sufficiently violent off the mouth of 
the Tyne to account for the gradual rise of the waves as 
the day advanced. In the afternoon, the storm, of which 
the wind from the quarter indicated had been the herald, 

gradually grew in violence until it became evident that 
there were serious grounds for apprehension as to the 
safety of vessels which were then in the offing. About 
half-past four o'clock an occurrence took place which, 
unfortunately, proved the precursor of further and 
more serious disasters. One of the Tyne Commis- 
sioners' hoppers, in tow of a steam-tug belonging to 
Mr. Lawson, of South Shields, was outside the bar, when 
the towline parted. The hopper was driven behind the 
North Pier, the two men who were on board of her being 
rescued by means of life-buoys by some of the pier men ; 
while the tug was dashed upon the Herd Sands, whence 
her crew were saved by the South Shields lifeboat. The 
next vessel which ran on shore proved to be the passenger 
steamer Stanley. 

This fine vessel was the property of the Aberdeen 
Steam Navigation Company. She was an iron screw- 
steamer, and was built at West Hartlepool by Messrs. 
Pile, Spence, and Co. in 1859. Her register tonnage was 
376, her actual burthen being 552 tons. She had sailed 
from Aberdeen on the previous night, bound for London, 
in charge of Captain Howling, having a crew of 2j 
hands, all told. The number of passengers at the time 
of sailing was 30, about half of whom were women. 
The vessel had also a full cargo on board, and on her deck 
were about 48 cattle and 30 sheep. She proceeded on 
her voyage with every prospect of reaching her desired 
haven in safety, until off the Northumberland coast, 
where she first began to experience the effects of the 
storm. Finding the sea so turbulent in-shore, the 
Stanley stood out seaward in the expectation of finding 
smoother water, but discovered th:it she was only run- 




ning into the full force of the gale. In this terrible 
plight, the captain determined to steam for the Tyne, 
the mouth of which was reached about a quarter to five 
o'clock. The master had only once during his nautical 
career been in the Tyne, and that was about twenty 
years previously. Under these circumstances, he na- 
turally felt considerable hesitation in taking the bar, 
more especially as the tidal lights were not then 
burning. He fired a couple of rockets for a pilot, but 
none came off. A tug-steamer did, indeed, leave the 
harbour, but she never approached near to the 
Stanley. The mate, however, who had frequently 
sailed to and from the Tyne, expressed his readiness 
to steer the vessel into port. The captain yielded to 
his representations, and the head of the steamer was 
turned towards the bar. This was safely crossed. But 
the ship had got no further than just off the Spanish 
Battery, when, with a dreadful shock, she struck upon 
the rocks known as the Black Middens. 

As soon as the peril of the Stanley was seen from the 
shore, a number of the coastguardsmen set about getting 
the rocket apparatus ready for firing. The Tynemouth 
lifeboat, the Constance, was promptly manned, while the 
North Shields lifeboats, the Northumberland and 
Providence, with the South Shields lifeboats, William 
Wake, Tyne, and Fly, were also got out and pulled 
down the harbour into the Narrows. Intelligence of the 
catastrophe spread with lightning-like rapidity, and the 
consternation and excitement of the inhabitants in the 
sister towns at the mouth of the Tyne were intense. 
The night was pitch dark, and from the elevated 
headland overlooking the harbour the sea could be made 
out only by a broad band of white foam ; but a couple of 
hundred yards from the shore could be dimly discerned 
through the gloom some dark object indicating the 
position of the ill-fated vessel. The roar of the waves, too, 
was deafening ; but in the lulls of the storm the despair- 
ing wail of the poor creatures exposed to the pitiless 
waves was heard with painful and agonizing distinctness. 
As the tide fell, the rocket apparatus was carried over the 
rocks, and preparations were made to establish means of 
communication with those on board. 

Before the disaster, the Stanley had been provided 
with four lifeboats ; but, after striking upon the rocks, 
three of these were speedily smashed to pieces. An 
attempt was made to launch the remaining lifeboat ; and 
for this purpose four of the crew got into her, taking with 
them four female passengers. While the boat, however, 
was being lowered from the davits, a heavy sea caused 
her to turn round and sink. Three of the seamen were 
rescued by those on board, but the four ladies and the 
fourth seaman were, in a moment, swept beyond the 
reach of aid. 

After firing one or two abortive rockets, the coastguard 
at last succeeded in establishing communication with the 
Stanley. The line carried by the rocket was soon the 

.means of carrying a stout warp between. the vessel 
and the shore ; and upon this warp the cradle was 
slung. The first man to venture into the cradle was an 
ordinary seaman, named Andrew Campbell, who was 
safely conveyed to the shore amid the cheers of the 
bystanders. A second seaman and a woman next got 
into the cradle, but, unhappily, they fell or were 
thrown out, and were drowned. The second mate, 
James Knipp, then took his place in the cradle, and was 
safely drawn through the raging waters to the shore. 
Owing to an unfortunate error of judgment on tho 
part of some one, the hawser was secured in such a 
manner that it was no higher than the rail of the ship, 
the consequence being that those on shore could not get 
it clear of the water. The result of the mistake was 
soon painfully palpable. When a seaman named Buchan 
had been drawn about midway between the vessel and 
the shore, the bight of the warp was borne by his 
weight against the rocks, amongst which the whip-line 
of the cradle became entangled, and the cradle itself was 
brought to a standstill. Inspired by the strength born 
of despair, the determined fellow managed to haul himself 
hand-over-hand to the shore by the warp. The warp and 
cradle being, by this untoward accident, rendered use- 
less, an end was put for the time being to any further 
efforts in that direction ; and the unfortunate pas- 
sengers and crew still on board were left to their fate 
until the full tide of the morning should afford an 
opportunity for the resumption of measures for their 

The captain and his mate appear to have done every- 
thing in their power towards saving the passengers from 
being swept away. Two women the only two who were 
afterwards saved were induced to place themselves in 
the foretop, where they were securely lashed ; and three 
or four more were bound to the shrouds beneath. The 
bulk of the female passengers, however, were too much 
affrighted and prostrated by the fearful experiences 
through which they were passing to venture from the 

About half-past nine o'clock, the steamer was struck 
by a tremendous sea. The hull yielded to the irresistible 
blow, and parted abaft the mainmast. The force of the 
waves swung the fore part and larger portion of 
the vessel completely round until it was left in a position 
with the bow breasting the waves. At this time the 
whole of those on board were on the larger portion of the 
vessel. The second-class cabin was on the deck, and the 
top of it formed what was known as the bridge or "look- 
out." Affording as it did a place of refuge from the 
breakers which poured incessantly upon the doomed 
vessel, it became crowded by female passengers and a 
portion of the crew. All were tightly lashed to the rails 
by which the sides were guarded. But a terrific breaker 
swept the entire structure, with its shrieking occupants, 
into the sea, where they all perished. 

January I 



The survivors in other parts of the vessel had taken 
refuge in the fore and main rigging, whence several of 
them were washed into the sea. The same fate befel 
two of the women who had been lashed to the shrouds, 
while another, unable to bear up against the exposure 
and hardships of that terrible trial, expired from 

About five o'clock next morning the sea had suffi- 
ciently fallen to permit a resumption of the exertions 
to save the survivors. Three rockets were fired before 
a communication with the vessel was established. This 
time those on board made the warp fast to the mast- 
head, by which means it was kept out of the angry 
surf, and the incline materially facilitated the working 
of the cradle. Soon all was ready for recommencing the 
work of rescue, and in a few minutes afterwards the whole 
of the survivors were brought safely to land. 

There were lost, in all, about twenty-six lives ; and 
with the other disasters which occurred at the harbour's 
mouth during that memorable night, the catalogue of 
mortality was swollen to between thirty and forty. 

There has since been no such lamentable experience 
in the history of Tyne navigation, the great improve- 
ments effected by the enterprise of the River Com- 
missioners having largely contributed to the greater im- 
munity from fatal disaster which is now enjoyed, while 
the brave members of the Tyneraouth Volunteer Life 
Brigade, which owes its origin to the wreck of the 
Stanley, are ever ready to render assistance when neces- 
sity arises. 

The sketch of the wreck which accompanies this article 
is taken from a painting by Mr. J. W. Swift, a local 
artist of the time. 


j|HE whole surface of the globe, so far as it 
has been inhabited and explored by man, 
is supposed to have been infested more or 
less in former times, if not still, by super- 
natural beings of one sort or another. Some of these 
sprites have been held to be beneficent, others malig- 
nant, others again only mischievous or tricksy. Some 
seem to have been thought ubiquitous, if not omni- 
present, or at least able to appear, or capable of being 
called up, at any time or place ; while others are local 
goblins, frequenting particular spots, and never wandering 
beyond certain narrow limits. The counties of Durham 
and Northumberland are popularly believed to have 
abounded as much as any known region with these crea- 
tures of the imagination, which have not even yet been 
all forced to flee away by the spread of secular know- 
ledge. The Brownie and Dobie, the Brown Man of the 
Moors, Redcap, Dunnip, Hob Headless, Silky, the Cauld 

Lad of Hilton, the Picktree Brag, are all local sprites of 
more or less celebrity, haunting particular spots, and 
varied in characteristics. The Hedhy Kow is not one of 
the least famous of the number. 

According to all accounts, this Kow was a "bogie," 
mischievous rather than malignant, which haunted the 
village of Hedley, near Ebchester. Some uncertainty pre- 
vails as to the precise locality here indicated; for there are 
at least four Hedleys within a short distance of the old 
Roman station on the Derwent, viz., Hedley, near 
ilickley, in the parish of Whittonstall ; Black Hedley, 
near Eddy's Bridge both in Northumberland ; Hedley, 
or Hedley Hall, on the skirts of Blackburn Fell, formerly 
a great waste, in the parish of Lamesley ; and Hedley 
Hope, near Cornsay, in the parish of Lanchester the 
two last in the county of Durham. Whichever of these 
four neighbourhoods was that haunted by the Kow, it is 
perhaps impossible now to tell. Neither, in fact, does it 
matter very much, as the localities are only a few miles 
from each other, with only the river Derwent intervening. 
One thing all are agreed on, the Kow did nobody any 
serious injury, but merely took delight in frightening 

To whomsoever he appeared, lie usually ended his 
frolics with a hoarse laugh at their fear or astonsihment, 
after he had played them some sorry trick. To an old 
woman, for instance, gathering sticks, like Goody Blake, 
by the hedge side, if not actually out of the hedge, he 
would sometimes appear as a "fad" or truss of straw, 
lying on the road. If, as was natural, the dame was 
tempted to take possession of this "fad," her load in 
carrying it home would become so heavy that she would 
be obliged to lay it down. The straw would then appear 
as if "quick," the truss would rise upright like the 
patriarch Joseph's sheaf, and away it would shuffle 
before her along the road, swinging first to one 
side and then to another. Every now and then 
it would set up a laugh, or give a shout, in the 
manner of a rustic dancer when he kicks his heels and 
snaps his fingers at the turn of the tune ; and at last, with 
a sound like a rushing wind, it would wholly vanish from 
her sight. 

Two men belonging to Newlands, on the left bank of 
the Derwent, opposite Ebchester a place now rendered 
famous in connection with the mysterious person who 
claimed to be Countess of Derwentwater went out one 
night about the beginning of the present century to meet 
their sweethearts. On arriving at the appointed place, 
they saw, as they supposed, the two girls walking at a 
short distance before them. The girls continued to walk 
onwards for two or three miles, and the young men to 
follow without being able to overtake them. They 
quickened their pace, but still the girls kept before them ; 
and at length, when the pair found themselves up to their 
knees in a mire, the girls suddenly disappeared with a 
most unfeminine ha, ha, ha ! The young men now per- 



I January 

ceived that they had been beguiled by the Hedley Kow. 
After getting clear of the bog, they ran homeward as fast 
as their legs could carry them, while the boggle followed 
close at their heels, hooting and laughing. In crossing 
the Derwent, between Ebchester and Hamsterley Hall, 
the one who took the lead fell down in the water, and his 
companion, who was not far behind, tumbled over him. 
In their panic, each mistook the other for the Kow, and 
loud were their cries of terror as they rolled over each 
other in the stream. They, however, managed to get out 
separately, and, on reaching home, each told a painful 
tale of having been chased by the Hedley Kow. 

A farmer of the name of Forster, who lived near 
Hedley, went out into 'the field very early one morning, 
as he intended driving into Newcastle, so as to be there as 
soon as the shops were opened. In the dim twilight, he 
caught, as he believed, his own grey horse, and harnessed 
it with his own hands. But, after yoking the beast to the 
cart and getting upon the shaft to drive away, the horse 
(which was not a horse at all, but the Kow) slipped away 
from the limmers, setting up a great "nicker" as he 
flung up his heels and scoured away "like mad" out of 
the farmyard. 

The Kow was a perfect plague to the servant girls at 
farm houses all round the Fell. Sometimes he would call 
them out of their beds by imitating their lovers at the 
window. At other times, during their absence, he would 
overturn the kail pot, open the milk house door and invite 
the cat to lap the cream, let down "steeks" in the 
stockings they had been knitting, or put their spinning- 
wheel out of order. Many a time, taking the shape of 
a favourite cow, he would lead the milkmaid a long chase 
round the field before he would allow himself to be caught ; 
and, after kicking and "rowting" during the whole milking 
time, " as if the de'il was in Hawkie, " he would at last up- 
set the pail, slip clear of the tie, give a loud bellow, and 
bolt off tail on end, thus letting the girl know she had 
been the sport of the Kow. This trick of his was so com- 
mon that he seems to have got his name from it. 

It is related that he very seldom visited the house of 
mourning a clear evidence that, demon though he was, 
he was not quite destitute of sympathetic feeling. But 
on the occasion of a birth he was rarely absent, either to 
the eye or to the ear. Indeed, his appearance at those 
times was BO common as scarcely to cause any 
alarm. The man who rode for the midwife was, 
however, often sadly teased by him. He would 
appear, for instance, to the horse, in a lonely place, and 
make him take the "reist,"or stand stock-still. Neither 
whip nor spur would then force the animal past, though 
the rider saw nothing. It frequently happened that 
the messenger was allowed to make his way with- 
out let or hindrance to the house where the " howdie " 
lived, to get her safely mounted behind him on a 
well-girt pillion, and to return homewards so far 
with her unmolested. But as they were crossing some 

stank, or fording some stream, the Kow would come up 
and begin to play his cantrips, causing the horse to kick 
and plunge in such a way as to dismount his double load 
of messenger and midwife. Sometimes when the farmer's 
wife, impatient for the arrival of the howdie, was groan- 
ing in great pain, the Kow would come close to the door 
or window and begin to mock her. The farmer would 
rush out with a stick to drive the vile creature away, 
when the weapon would be clicked out of his hand before 
he was aware, and lustily applied to his own shoulders. 
At other times, after chasing the boggle round the farm- 
yard, he would tumble over one of his own calves, and 
the Kow would be off before he could regain his feet. 

One of the most ridiculous tales connected with this 
mischievous sprite is thus told by Stephen Oliver in his 
"Rambles in Northumberland": "A farmer, riding 
homeward late one night, observed as he approached a 
lonely part of the road where the Kow used to play many 
of his tricks, a person also on horseback a short distance 
before him. Wishing to have company in a part of the 
road where he did not like to be alone at night, 
he quickened the pace of his horse. The person 
whom he wished to overtake, hearing the tramp 
of the horse rapidly advancing, and fearing that 
he was followed by some one with an evil intention, 
put spurs to his steed and set off at a gallop, an example 
which was immediately followed by the horseman behind. 
At this rate they continued whipping and spurring, as it 
they rode for life or death, for nearly two miles, the man 
who was behind calling out with all his might, ' Stop ! 
stop !' The person who fled, finding that his pursuer was 
gaining upon him, and hearing a continued cry, the words 
of which he could not make out, began to think he was 
pursued by something unearthly, as no one who had a 
design to rob him would be likely to make such a noise. 
Determined no longer to fly from his pursuer, he pulled 
up his horse, and adjured the supposed evil spirit : 
' In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, who art thou ?' Instead of an evil spirit, a 
terrified neighbour at once answered the question and 
repeated it, ' Aa's Jemmy Brown, o' the High Fields. 
Whe's thoo f " 

Mr. William Henderson, in his "Notes on the Foil 
Lore of the Northern Counties of England and the 
Borders," institutes a comparison between the Hedley 
Kow and Ben Jonson's Robin Goodfellow, the Irish 
Phooka, the Scotch Water Kelpie, the Icelandic Grey 
Nykkur-Horse, the Flemish Kludde, the Yorkshire 
Padfoot, and other famous goblins, all of which 
were believed to take a variety of shapes, appearing 
sometimes like an ox, sometimes like a black dog, oc- 
casionally like an ass, and at other times like a sow, a 
horse, a white cat, a rabbit, a headless man, or a headless 





HTft* Jbtmtrf at 

j]REY STREET is generally regarded as a 
noble monument to the genius of Richard 
Grainger. To trace its origin we must go 
back in thought to the spring of 1834, for 
then it was that Mr. Grainger entered into arrangements 
with the representatives of Major Anderson for the pur- 
chase of the celebrated Anderson Place, at a cost of 
50,000. Other property, including the old theatre in 
Mosley Street, probably cost him about 45,000 more. 
Having made this costly venture, his next step was to lay 
his plans for projected new streets before the Town 
Council ; and this was done on March 27th of the above 
named year. He desired to remove the Butcher and 
Vegetable Markets, then comparatively new, and to build 
on the site a magnificent thoroughfare which should co n 
nect Blackett Street with Dean Street. Many were the 
difficulties he had to encounter. The owners of the threat- 
ened property, and other persons who had invested their 
money in the neighbourhood, sang out lustily against any 
change being made. Grainger was not disposed to yield 
to this clamour if he could possibly help it. Accordingly, 
he exhibited his plans in the Arcade on the 29th of 
May. They were eagerly inspected by the public, and 
obtained such general approval that about five thousand 
signatures were appended to a memorial in their 
favour. A counter-petition only obtained some three 
hundred signatures. Expressions of approval were also 
obtained from a parish meeting in St. Andrew's, the 
Chamber of Commerce, and other bodies. The Council 
met on the 12th of June to consider the whole question, 
when, by twenty-four votes against seven, it was resolved 
to treat with Grainger. On the following 15th of July, 
sanction was formally given to the plans. Great were 
the rejoicings when the news was made known. The 
parish churches rang out merry peals ; Mr. Grainger's 
workmen were regaled in the Nun's Field ; in fact, the 
town was en file. 

Then Grainger set to work with all his characteristic 
energy. He began to lay out his new streets on the 30th 
of July. The levelling of the ground was a most expen- 
sive undertaking. Nearly five trillions of cubic feet of 
earth had to be carted away, at a cost of upwards of 
20,000. In the course of the excavations, portions of an 
ancient crucifix and a gilt spur were found, as well as a 
quantity of human remains, on the supposed site of the 
burial ground of St. Bartholomew's Nunnery. The work 
was not without its perils. On the llth of June, 1835, 
for instance, about three o'clock in the afternoon, three 
houses on the south-west side of Market Street suddenly 
fell with a tremendous crash whilst in course of erection. 
The buildings had nearly reached their intended height 

At least a hundred men were at work upon and imme- 
diately around them, several of whom were precipitated 
to the ground with the falling materials, and were buried 
in the ruins. Many more had almost miraculous escapes 
from a similar fate. As soon as the alarm had subsided, 
the other workmen, upwards of seven hundred in number, 
devoted themselves to the relief and rescue of the suf- 
ferers. Of those disinterred, one, the foreman of the 
masons, died in a few hours ; four were dead when found ; 
fifteen were got out alive, but greatly injured, and two of 
them died, making seven in all. Grainger himself had a 
narrow escape. He had inspected the houses but a few 
minutes before ; when they fell, he was standing upon the 
scaffolding of the adjacent house. 

Let us see if we can realise something of the general 
appearance of this locality before Grainger converted it 
into a palatial thoroughfare. The higher part of what is 
now Grey Street was a place of solitude and retirement. 
Waste ground surrounded Anderson Place. One of our 
local poets has recalled the time when Novocastrians 

Walk up the lane, and ope the Major's gate. 
Pass the stone cross, and to|the Dene we come, 

Then, halting by the well where angels wait 

To bathe the limbs of those in palsied state, 
(So saith the legend), gaze in musing mood 

On the time-honoured trees where small birds mate. 
Unlike the nuns, build nests and nurse their brood, 
And prove that Nature's laws are tender, wise, and good. 

Outside the Major's boundary there was plenty of life, 
and plenty of noise, especially on Saturday nights. 
Itinerant vendors indulged in their quaint cries. Women 
and children (mostly the latter) sang 

Silk shoe ties, a penny a pair : 

Buy them, and try them, and see hoo they wear. 

Others made known their vocation by the cry : " Good 
tar-barrel matches, three bunches a penny." The air re- 
resounded with the invitation : "Nice tripe or mince to- 
night, liinnies ; gud fat puddins, hinnies, smoking het, " 
concerning which savoury viands the lines recur to the 
veteran's memory : 

And now for black puddings, long measure, 

They go to Tib Trollibags' stand ; 
And away bear the glossy rich treasure, 

With joy, like curl'd bugles in hand. 

The side adjoining Pilgrim Street was devoted to the sale 
of poultry and eggs ; that opposite, and therefore nearer 
the Cloth Market, to the stalls of the greengrocers. The 
intervening space was given up to the butchers, whose 
shops ran in rows from north to south. These shops had 
stone fronts, with tiled roofs, and an overhanging canopy 
in front. 

Such, then, was the general character of this part of the 
good old town in the past. We may turn now to its 
features in the present. Let us start from Blackett Street, 
and walk quietly down to Dean Street. At once our at- 
tention is arrested by the noble column usually known as 
the Grey Monument. On October 6th, 1834, a. public 
meeting was convened to con-ider the propriety of cum- 




memorating, by the erection of a statue, the services 
rendered to the cause of Parliamentary Reform by the 
then Earl Grey. William Ord, Esq., presided, and the 
idea was unanimously approved. A sum of 500 was 
subscribed in the room. On February 13th, 1836, a 
model of a Roman Doric column by John Green was 
adopted, to cost 1,600 ; and it was resolved to commis- 
sion E. H. Baily to provide a suitable statue of the earl, 
at a further cost of 700. The construction of the 
column was entrusted to Joseph Welch, builder of the 
Ouseburn Viaduct, and Bellingham Bridge across North 
Tyne. The foundation stone was laid by Messrs. J. and 
B. Green, architects, on September 6th, 1837, and the 
column was finished on August llth, 1838. Baily's statue 
was placed on the summit thirteen days later. 

The monument is 133 feet high, and contains 164 steps 
in the interior. A glass bottle, containing coins and a 
parchment scroll, was deposited in the foundation stone. 
The scroll records : " The foundation stone of this 
column, erected by public subscription in commemoration 
of the transcendent services rendered to his country by the 
Right Hon. Charles Earl Grey, Viscount Howick, Knight 
of the most noble Order of the Garter, and Baronet, was 
laid on the sixth day of September, one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-seven, by John Green and Benjamin 
Green, Esqrs., Architects. Building Committee : The 
Rev. John Saville Ogle, of Kirkley, in the county of 
Northumberland, Clerk, A.M., Prebendary of Durham ; 
Edward Swinburne, of Capheaton, Esq. ; Thomas Emer- 
son Headlam, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, Esq., M.D. ; John 
Grey, of Dilston, Esq. ; Thomas Richard Batson, of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Esq., and Alderman ; Armorer 
Donkin, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Esq., and Alderman ; 
Ralph Park Philipson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Esq., 
and Town Councillor ; John Fenwick, of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, Esqr. ; James Hodgson, of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, Esq., and Alderman ; Emerson Charnley, of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Esq., and Town Councillor." 

On the exterior of the column is cut the following in- 
scription : " This Column was erected in 1838, to com- 
memorate the services rendered to his country by Charles 
Earl Grey, K.G., who, during an active political career of 
nearly half-a-century, was the constant advocate of peace 
and the fearless and consistent champion of civil and 
religious liberty. He first directed his efforts to the 
amendment of the representation of the people in 1792, 
and was the Minister by whose advice, and under whose 
guidance, the great measure of Parliamentary Reform 
was, after an arduous and protracted struggle, safely 
and triumphantly achieved in the year 1832." 

Near the Monument is the Victoria Room, formerly used 
as a music-hall. In its early days, political meetings were 
occasionally held here, whereat Thomas Doubleday, 
John Fife, and Charles Larkin were usually the chief 
speakers. Later on, an effort was made to popularise 
cheap Saturday and Monday evening concerts in this 

room. Amongst others who took part in them were Mr. 
William Gourlay, the talented Scotch comedian, who 
sang comic songs here when the theatre, a little lower 
down Grey Street, was not open ; Mr. Fourness Rolfe, 
also of the same theatre ; the sisters Blake ; and Miss 
Goddard, afterwards Mrs. Gourlay. 

At the corner of the little lane just a step or so further 
down Grey Street, the Newcastle Journal had its printing 
and publishing offices at one time. Mr. John Hernaman 
was the editor of this paper for some years, and got into 
several scrapes owing to the violence with which he 
attacked his political opponents. On one occasion he fell 
foul of Mr. Larkin, who, in return, made mincemeat of 
him (metaphorically) in a scathing pamphlet, entitled, 
"A Letter to Fustigated John" the word "fustigated" 
being an old synonym for "whipped." It was, in fact, 
Mr. Hernaman's unpleasant experience to have to endure 
corporal chastisement more than once in the course of his 
journalistic career. One of his whippings occurred at 
the Barras Bridge. In another case, several Sunderland 
men came over to Newcastle to avenge themselves for 
what they considered an unfair criticism on certain of 
their transactions. They suddenly burst in upon the 
editorial presence, and asked Hernaman for the name of 
the writer of the objectionable article. The latter 
declined to furnish them with any information on the 
subject. On this refusal, he was attacked with walking- 
sticks and horsewhips. The case came up in due time 
at the Sessions, where the defendants were "strongly 
recommended to mercy on account of the very great 
provocation they had received." They were each called 
upon to pay a fine of 50. Fortunately, the days of such 
journalistic amenities in Newcastle may be safely enough 
regarded as over now for good. 

Across the way is the Central Exchange Hotel, with its 
handsome dining-room, its rooms for commercial tra- 
vellers, &c.; and on our left hand there is another of a 
similar character, also devoted to commercial men and 
their customers, named the Royal Exchange. The latter 
is at the corner of Hood Street, so called after an alder- 
man of that name. In this street is the Central Hall, 
used for Saturday evening concerts, teetotal gatherings, 
and revival meetings. It was originally a Methodist New 
Connexion chapel, in which Joseph Barker used at one 
period of his career to hold forth to large congregations. 

Passing Hood Street and Market Street, we come to 
the Theatre Royal, the successor of the establishment 
in Mosley Street. The portico of the Theatre Royal is a 
striking feature of the street, though unfortunately 
it remains incomplete to this day. The design is 
taken from the Pantheon at Rome. Six noble Corinthian 
columns, with richly executed capitals, support the pedi- 
ment, in the tympanum of which it a sculpture of the 
royal arms, the work of a Newcastle artist who died all 
too soon for the ripening of bis fame. This work of his 
has often won the approval of critics in such matters. It 

1889. ) 



is here that the Theatre Royal front has been suffered to 
remain unfinished, for it was orignally intended to 
place a statue of Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic 
Muse (after Sir Joshua Reynolds's famous pour- 
trayal of that great actress), on the top of the 
pediment. The building was opened in 1837, under 
the management of Mr. Penley, with an address from 
the pen of Thomas Doubleday, the "Merchant of 
Venice," and an ephemeral afterpiece. The house has 
remained a popular home of the drama ever since. 
Most of the great players of their day have fretted 
and strutted their little hour on this stage ; and some 
of them laid the foundation of their future fame and 
fortune here. Macready (who first appeared in the old 
theatre at the foot of the street, of which his father 
was manager for about twelve years) was always a 
Newcastle favourite, alike in his youth and in his 
prime. He says himself of his first appearance 
here: "I was warmly received, and the partiality 
with which my early essays were encouraged 
seemed to increase in fervour to the very last 
night, when I made my farewell bow to a later 
generation." The great tragedian appeared on March 
15th, 1850, as Cardinal Wolsey (in "Henry VIII.") 
and as Lord Townley (in the "Provoked Husband," 
by Vanbrugh and Cibber). After playing these parts, 
Macready delivered his farewell address to his New- 
castle friends. In the course of it he said: "When 
I retrace the years that have made me old in acquaint- 
ance and familiar here, and recount to myself the many 
unforgotten evidences of kindly feeling towards me, 
which through these years have been without stint or 
check so lavishly afforded, I must be cold and insensible 
indeed if time could so have passed without leaving deep 
traces of its events upon my memory and my heart. 
From the summer of 1810, when, scarcely out of the 
years of boyhood, I was venturing here the early and 
the ruder essays of my art, I date the commencement of 
that favourable regard which has been continued to me 
through all my many engagements, without change or 
fluctuation, up to the present time." 

Samuel Phelps and James Anderson, two of Macready 's 
trusty lieutenants in his great Covent Garden enterprise, 
have frequently played here with acceptance. So has 
Charles Kean, who, by the way, was hissed in Hamlet 
on his first appearance in that character in Newcastle, 
and cut up by the newspapers afterwards. He went, 
much astonished, to the manager. " Good gracious, Mr. 
Ternan, they've hissed me ; what on earth have I done ?" 
"Well, Mr. Kean, you've cut out altogether the lines 
beginning," &c. " Good gracious !" rejoined the dis- 
comfited tragedian, "who could ever have thought they 
would know Shakspeare so well down here !" " Oh, yes, 
Mr. Kean," answered Ternan, quietly, "they know their 
Shakspeare here, I can assure you." Ternan was a very 
able Shaksperian actor himself. 

George Bennett and James Bennett were, among other 
popular tragedians, here in their younger days; and 
Barry Sullivan was always a warm favourite. Of 
comedians, Charles Mathews, Buckatone and his cele- 
brated Haymarket company, Sothern (Lord Dundreary), 
Toole, and others, have fulfilled successful engagements 
in the Theatre Royal. Salvini has acted on the Royal 
boards also, as have Madame Ristori and Madame 
Sarah Bernhardt. Of our own queens of the stage since 
1837, nearly all have appeared here at one time or 
another ; but it is such an invidious task to pick and 
choose amongst them, that we are fain to shrink from it 
altogether. It would be very unfair not to make mention 
of the many years of managerial toil given to this stage 
by the late Mr. E. D. Davis, for, by common consent of 
all qualified to judge, he was ever, as actor, as artist, 
and as manager, a gentleman. Since his retirement, this 
house has been under the direction of Messrs. W. H. 
Swanborough, Glover and Francis, Charles Bernard, and 
Howard and Wyndham, who are the present lessees. 
Be the day far distant when the Newcastle drama, with 
all its honourable records, shall, to use Lord Tennyson's 

Flicker down to brainless pantomime, 

And those gilt-gauds men-children bwarm to see ! 

Probably this house held its largest receipts on Sept. 20, 
1848, when Jenny Lind appeared in "La Sonnambula." 
The prices were : Dress boxes, 1 lls. 6d. ; upper boxes 
and pit, 1 Is. ; gallery, 10s. 6d. The receipts amounted 
to upwards of 1,100. Sims Reeves and Madame Gassier, 
Grisi, and Mario, and all the great operatic stars have 
appeared here. Sims Reeves, indeed, came out on tht 
Newcastle boards. Our sturdy fathers hissed him too. 
They stood no nonsense in those days, either from a 
Charles Kean or anybody else. 

The Theatre, Grey Street, itself, and indeed all the 
streets and buildings in Newcastle, presented a strange 
appearance on the morning of March 3, 1886, owing to a 
great fall of snow on the previous day and night. Our 
artist's sketch of the scene will convey a better idea of it 
than any mere description. 

Passing by Shakspeare Street, we find ourselves about 
to cross the High Bridge, which is another intersecting 
thoroughfare, running from Pilgrim Street to the Bigg 
Market. There is nothing specially remarkable about it, 
save that at least one somewhat remarkable man of his 
day has associated his name with it. James Murray, for 
so was he called, studied for the ministry, but he could 
not obtain ordination to any pastoral charge by reason of 
his peculiar views on church government. He came to 
Newcastle in 1764, and found friends who built him a 
chapel. And here he remained, preached, and laboured, 
until his death in 1782, in the fiftieth year of his age. 
The titles of some of his published discourses afford some 
indication as to his character. Amongst them are 
"Sermons to Awes." "New Sermons to Asses." "An 





1889. f 


















old Fox Tarred and Feathered," and "News from the 
Pope to the DeviL" On one occasion he gave the 
authorities a fright, and seems to have got frightened 
himself into 'the bargain. Thus runs the story. He 
announced his intention of preaching a sermon from 
the text, " He that hath not a sword, let him sell 
his garment and buy one." Those responsible for the 
peace of the town, knowing their man, grew rather afraid 
when they heard of this ominous text. They sent some 
of the town's sergeants to form a portion of the congre- 
gation. All passed off quietly, as it happened ; but then 
it occurred to Murray that he had better find out how he 
really stood in regard to the powers that were. Forth- 
with he went up to London, and called on Lord Mans- 
field, the then Chief-Justice. He obtained for his 
application the conventional reply: "Not at home." 
" Tell him," was the sturdy rejoinder, " that a Scotch 
parson, of the name of Murray, from Newcastle, wants 
to see him." He was admitted. What passed at the 
interview ? We can only guess from the judge's last 
words, quoting a simile in the Book of Job : " You just 
get away by the skin o' your teeth. " 

In 1780 the year of the Gordon riots in London, so 
vividly depicted in Dickens's "Barnaby Rudge," the 
year when there was danger of a general attack on the 
Roman Catholics Murray w;is to the fore again. In 
that year there was a contested election in Newcastle. 
Murray proposed a sort of test, or pledge, to each of the 
candidates aimed, of course, at the religionists, with 
whom he had waged a life-long war. Sir Matthew 
White Ridley would have nothing to do with it. Even 
Andrew Robinson Bowes, who was never in the habit of 
sticking at trifles, vowed that "he would be blessed" 
only that was not quite the exact word ! " if he gave 
anything of the sort." The third candidate, Sir Thomas 
Delaval, gave the required pledge; but he was unsuc- 
cessful at the poll. 

We might add more concerning this curious cleric, 
but content ourselves with relating two anecdotes 
which reveal him on his better side. The first is, that, 
being on the highway leading to Newcastle on a rainy 
day, he overtook a labouring man who had no coat. 
He himself had two. He took one off, and put it on 
the wayfarer's back, with the remark: "It's a pity I 
should have two coats and you none; it's not fair." 
The second refers to an incident which occurred in his 
chapel here, A Scotch drover turned into the place one 
Sunday rather late, and was content to stand. Nobody 
offered him a seat. Murray waxed wroth. "Seat that 
man," thundered he; "if he'd had a powdered head, 
and a fine coat on his back, you'd have had twenty pews 
open ! " 

The remainder of Grey Street, though made up of 
noble buildings, calls for little notice. In 1838, one of 
them was occupied by a Mrs. Bell, who kept it as a board- 
ing house. One of h<r boarders was Mr. James Wilkie, 

who at the time held the office of house-surgeon and secre- 
tary to the Newcastle Dispensary. In a fit of temporary 
insanity this poor man threw himself out of an upstairs 
window, and injured himself so dreadfully that he died 
shortly afterwards. This victim of an o'erwrought brain 
had been connected with the institution for fifteen years. 
That he was held in general respect in Newcastle may be 
gathered from the fact that about a thousand persons 
followed his coffin to its grave in Westgate Hill Ceme- 
tery, where a monument was erected to his memory. 

Amongst other establishments on the east side of Grey 
Street is that of the Messrs. Finney and Walker, whose 
premises were for many years the publishing office of 
the Newcastle Chronicle. Opposite is a noble pile, now the 
Branch Bank of England. 

Nobody can take a thoughtful glance at the thorough- 
fare we have been traversing without admitting that it is 
a masterpiece of street architecture : a monument to the 
genius of the two men principally concerned in designing 
and erecting it John Dobson and Richard Grainger. 

d at $crrtftumlmir. 


[| HEN travelling through the picturesque 
stretch of country that lies between Tyne- 
dale and the Tweed, and noting its many 
indications of marvellous prosperity, it is 
difficult to realize that its verdant hills ana smiling 
valleys were ever less peaceful than they now are. And 
yet, if the whole island was searched from Cornwall to 
Caithness, there could be found few districts that have 
undergone greater changes, or played a more conspicuous 
part in the national history. In pre-Roman times, much 
of the surface of Northumberland was covered with bogs 
and marshes, and much more with dense and almost 
impenetrable forests. Its inhabitants were the Ottadini 
a fierce and warlike tribe of the Brigantes who have 
left their hill forts, their weapons, and their tumuli, as 
the sole evidences of their constructive skill. When 
Caesar's hordes invaded Britain, fifty years before the 
Christian era, they were never able to penetrate these 
Northern wilds. Their accounts of the people with 
whom they did come in contact, however, furnish material 
from which a very fair estimate of the local settlers can 
be formed. The men, they tell us, were tall, strong, and 
active ; the women fair, well-featured, and finely-shaped. 
Both sexes gloried in a profusion of red or chesnut- 
coloured hair, and their favourite method of adornment 
was by a process of painting, or tatooing, not unlike that 
practised by many savage races in our own day. Their 
robes, too, when robed at all, consisted entirely of skins ; 
their oft-moved huts were little better than nests of 



boughs and reeds ; and their time, when not engaged in 
fighting, was usually devoted to the exciting pleasures of 
the chase. Cattle were extensively reared as a means of 
subsistence ; but, except along the coast lines, there was 
no effort made to till the land or to encourage the growth 
of corn or other grain. 


Such, in brief, is the picture which old chroniclers give 
of the appearance and habits of the Britons. It is abun- 
dantly sufficient for our purpose, as we desire to deal 
only with the warlike attributes of this primitive people, 
and to point out the methods by which they sought to 
check the advance of our earliest invaders. When the 
well-disciplined legions of Rome first secured a footing, 
they found the southern portion of the country very 
thickly populated. The natives were as courageous as 
they were fierce, and defended their woodland settle- 
ments by deep trenches and highly piled barricades 
of fallen timber. They were swift of foot, as well as 
expert swimmers, and these qualities together with 
their skill in crossing fens and marshes enabled them to 
pounce suddenly upon their adversaries, and as suddenly 
to disappear with the spoil. Their ordinary arms con- 
sisted of a small dagger and spear ; but, in war times, these 

were augmented by a light shield, by long and heavily- 
bladed swords of bronze, and by javelins which they could 
throw with great accuracy and effect. These latter mis- 
siles were not lost by the act of propulsion, as they were 
attached to the wrist by leather thongs, and could be 
drawn back to the thrower as soon as their mark had 
been reached. At the lower end of this curious dart was 
a round, hollow ball, stocked with pieces of metal, and the 
noise caused by the flight of this alarming rattle added 
to the exciting cries and antics of the gaily-stained 
warriors has rendered many a well-meant attack of the 
Roman foe inoperative. 


But by far the most famous of British implements of 
war was the chariot. It was drawn by a couple of small, 
wiry, and perfectly trained horses, and afforded space for 
two or three fighting men, as well as for a driver. The 
body of the vehicle was a combination of strength and 
lightness, nd at the extremity of its stout axles were 
fixed scythes or hooks for slashing and tearing whatever 

came in their way. They could be driven at immense 
speed, even over the roughest country, and were usually 
of most use at the commencement of a battle. While 
dashing madly about the flanks of an opposing lorce, 
their occupants would throw their terrible darts with 
great adroitness, and the very dread of this onslaught not 
unfrequently broke the ranks of Caesar's finest troops. 
When they had succeeded in making an impression on 
the advancing foe, and saw their way for a joint attack, 
the Britons leapt from their chariots, formed into a 
solid and compact body, and fought on foot with all 
their accustomed intrepidity. The drivers, meanwhile, 
withdrew the chariots from the strife, and took up 
positions which would best favour the retreat of their 
masters if the tide of battle should roll against them. 
" In this manner," says Caesar, " they performed the part 

both of rapid cavalry and of steady infantry." "By 
constant exercise and use," he adds, " they have acquired 
such expertness that they can stop their horses in the 
most steep and difficult places when at full speed turn 
them whichever way they please, run along the carriage 
pole, rest on the harness, and throw themselves back into 
their chariots with incredible dexterity." It is worthy of 
note that the great leader makes no reference to the cruel 
accessories which are said to have adorned the axles of 
these vehicles. This omission has caused many writers 
to doubt whether such instruments of torture were ever in 
existence. It is impossible, of course, to speak positively 
on such a matter ; but it is well to remember that similar 
appliances have been used in other lands, and that our 
own museums contain relics from more than one British 
battle field which antiquaries think could hardly have 
been used for any other purpose than that described. 


In tactics and strategical skill, the natives displayed 
considerable talent. When in readiness for the fray, the 
infantry in wedge-shape formation occupied the centre ; 
the cavalry and the chariots constituted the right and left 
wings; and at the rear were strong bodies of reserves. 
They were quite alive to the importance of harassing an 
enemy before delivering the chief attack, and were fully 
impressed with the necessity of a well-executed move- 
ment on the hostile flanks. They were formidable adver- 
saries in every way, and if their weapons had been of a 
better quality not made of bronze that bent beneath a 
heavy stroke it is quite possible that the first Roman in- 




vasion might not have been repeated. As it was, indeed, 
Csesar never made any great headway, and could only 
maintain himself with difficulty in localities that ad- 
joined the coast. In the language of Tacitus, he was " a 
discoverer rather than a conqueror," and even his dis- 
coveries, in these islands at least, were not far reaching. 


But if Csesar made little impression on the Britons, he 
carried away reports which were well calculated to arouse 
the ambition of his successors. Nearly a century elapsed 
before the Romans again undertook the work of subjuga- 
tion ; but they were then better prepared, came in greater 
numbers, and set about their task with such care and 
deliberation that a speedy conquest seemed assured. It 
is not necessary to follow the fluctuating fortunes of their 
numerous campaigns in the South. From the landing of 
Aulus Plautius in A.D. 43, down to the advent of Julius 
Agricola in 78, bloodshed seldom, if ever, ceased. There 
were terrific struggles with the Silures under Caractacus, 
and with the Iceni under Boadecia. There were furious 
onslaughts upon the Druids of Anglesea and the Brigantes 
across the Humber. Fire and sword went hand in hand, 
and the track of war was followed by famine and disease. 
Victory was not always with the assailants ; but whether 
they lost or won at the commencement, they always ended 
by bringing the natives under their yoke. 


It is with the coming of Agricola that we get our first 
records concerning the district that constitutes the pre- 
sent county of Northumberland. There is an absence of 
detail about many of the recitals ; but they will serve, 
perhaps, to throw a little lifrht on the condition of the 
North Country and its occupants at a very remote period. 
The famous chieftain we have named was as skilful in the 
arts of peace as in those of war. He had served under 
Seutonius Faulinus against the "Warrior Queen," 
and was greatly beloved by his army. Under his able 
guidance the fortunes of Rome underwent a marvellous 
change. Deserted posts were recovered, refractory tribes 
were punished, and an attempt was made to bring the con- 
quered people into greater harmony with their masters. 
While this work was proceeding in the southern province, 
Agricola marched north of the Humber, gained victory 
after victory, and ultimately found himself face to face 
with the brawny races near the higher reaches of the 
Tyne. There is no absolute record of early battles in this 
district, but it is fair to suppose that the Ottadini like 
the Brigantes of Yorkshire and Lancashire, and the 
Gadeni of Cumberland and Westmoreland would be dis- 
persed to their mountain retreats, and that Agricola 
would then, according to his invariable custom, protect the 
acquired territory by throwing up strongly entrenched 
works for the accommodation of his soldiers. 


By the spring of 81 having ensured the safety of his 
communications the Roman leader was ready for a 

further advance, and he began his march northward with 
every confidence in the ultimate triumph of his army. 
While traversing the open country, he was practically 
unassailable, but at the river fords, and amid the moun- 
tain passes, his progress was disputed with all the obsti- 
nacy that a clever and courageous foe could devise. 
Many an entrenched hill top in Coquetdale and Glendale 
had to be stormed before the invaders could proceed, 
and as the conflict in every case was at close quar- 
ters with the Britons in possession of the best 
ground the assailants lost enormous numbers of their 
men ere even the Cheviots were reached. In the end, 

the defenders were always compelled to give way ; and, 
being then driven before Agricola's dashing legions, they 
were put out of harm's way behind the line of forts he 
erected between the Firth of Forth and the River Clyde. 
Having, by the summer of 83, completed this under- 
taking, the Roman leader renewed his journey towards 
the Highlands, and everything seemed to indicate that bis 
pevious successes would be continued. He was no sooner 
out of sight, however, than the Caledonians descended 
from their hill strongholds, swarmed over his defences, 
and, in a night surprise, managed to annihilate one of his 
divisions. Returning with all speed, Agricola attacked 
his daring assailants, and succeeded in beating them. 
But the damage they inflicted upon bis troops and earth- 
works, precluded all attempts at further advance, and he 
was compelled to winter in a very inhospitable region. 
The campaign recommenced with the fine weather of 84 ; 
but as 30,000 natives, under the heroic Galgacus, had 
posted themselves on a well chosen spur of the Grampians, 
it was necessary at once to dislodge them. After a fierce 
and destructive battle, the Romans carried the position, 
and inflicted terrible losses on their retreating foe. But, 
though defeated, the Northenera contrived to check 
the foreign advance. When morning dawned, the in- 
vaders saw only a silent and deserted land. Their late 
adversaries had disappeared as if by magic, and left 
nothing behind them but smoke and flame and ruin. 
With a crippled army and straitened supplies, it would 
have been extremely hazardous to penetrate into the hill 
country, and Agricola found himself compelled to relin- 
quish his enterprise. He returned by easy stages to ; the 


1SS9- I 



entrenchments he had left on Tyneside, and there, putting 
his troops into cantonments, he threw that mighty 
earthen rampart across the country from Wallsend to 
the Solway Firth which has been a source of specula- 
tion and wonder through all succeeding ages. His cam- 
paigns had taught him that it was much easier to march 
through a poverty-stricken district than to remain in it, 
and he fondly hoped, by his famous barrier, to confine the 
infuriated Northmen within the boundaries of their own 
desolate wilds. 


So seriously had Agicola's inroads crippled the native 
tribes, that it required thirty years to rehabilitate their 
shattered forces. In the reign of Hadrian, however, they 
recommenced hostilities, and attacked the Roman garri- 
sons all along their line. Matters had become so serious 
in 120, that the energetic Emperor journeyed with all 
haste to this country, and did everything in his power to 
quell the rebellious spirit that had been engendered. He 
was successful in restoring the wavering allegiance of the 
Yorkshire Brigantes, and tried to accomplish a similar 
result among the tribes on the Borderland ; but all his 
efforts to gain ascendency over the Ottadini and their 
Caledonian allies proved abortive. It thus happened that 
the Clyde line of forts was demolished, that the country 
for a hundred miles to the southward had to be abandoned 
by the invaders, and that the conquests of Agricola were 
rendered useless. To more effectually protect his remain- 
ing possessions, therefore, Hadrian spanned the country 
with a second and more formidable line of works, on a site 
closely adjoining the mound of his predecessor. It was 
evidently the intention of the Romans, at this period, to 
make the Tyne their northern boundary, and they would 
have been saved endless trouble if they had adhered to 
their resolve. But different commanders had different 
ideas. Lollius Urbicus one of the great captains of 
Antoninus Pius advanced from the wall in 138, and, 
slowly fighting his way, carried the Roman banner once 
more to the Forth. Having connected that river with 
the Clyde by means of an earthen bank and a score of 
strong redoubts he conceived that Northumberland and 
the Scottish Lowlands had been permanently won. The 
tribesmen declined to so understand it. In 183, they 
again broke through the Scottish barrier, assaulted the 
forts, and after several sanguinary encounters with the 
column sent to the relief of the beleaguered garrisons 
compelled the Roman legions to seek safety beyond their 
southern defences. 


The "barbarians" as the Ottadini were called had 
matters pretty much in their own hands until the arrival 
of the Emperor Severus in 207. Though suffering badly 
from the gout and other maladies, this aged warrior 
gathered his forces, and led them with a vindictive heart 
towards the disputed land. But the tremendous 
difficulties he encountered, on passing the vallum of 

Hadrian, show very clearly that the country had nevei 
been altogether under foreign control. There was an 
absence of really good roads, the rivers were unspanned, 
and large tracts of wood and morass were almost impass- 
able wildernesses. Every inch of the invaders' progress 
was disputed. Though not sufficiently numerous to risk 
a pitched battle, the natives contrived to commit in- 
calculable mischief. Their intercourse with the Romans 
had already taught them the value of metal head-gear 
and shoulder guards, and, with such protections, they 
were able to maintain a succession of skirmishes and 
flank attacks that were as irritating as they were 
destructive. When aided, later, by their old allies of the 
Scottish Lowlands, the resistance they offered would 
have deterred a less valiant enemy. But Severus was un- 
daunted, and doggedly plodded on. What with regular 
fighting, losses in ambuscades, and sickness caused by 
unceasing labour in draining bogs, cutting down forests, 
bridging rivers, and constructing solid travelling ways, 
his force is said to have been reduced by 50,000 men. In 
spite of all obstacles, however, he succeeded in reaching 
a more northerly point than any of his predecessors, and 
eventually struck such terror into the native hordes that 
they were driven to sue for peace. With the exception 
of this solitary result, the campaign was as barren as any 
that had gone before. Of this fact the Emperor himself 
was thoroughly convinced. He realised reluctantly, it 
may be that the debateable land between the Tyne and 
the north could never be permanently held by his 
legions ; and his first care, on his return southward, was 
to supplement the earthworks of Hadrian and Agricola 
with a strong and formidable wall of solid stone. It 
would serve no useful purpose to describe the Tyneside 
works in detail ; but it may be interesting to explain the 
nature of the operations which the Romans from time to 
time carried out. According to the account of William 
Hutton, there were really four barriers. The defences of 

4 ar ic ola, hadTian &ev-erus 
& ^-fs\ 

Agricola consisted of a double rampart of earth, having a 
ditch so planned as to cause a rise for the assailants of 
nearly 20 feet. To further strengthen this obstacle, 
Hadrian deepened the ditch, and, with the soil so ob- 
tained, constructed a third mound, 10 feet high, a little 
more to the northward. These all ran in parallel lines. 
When Severus, as we have stated, conceived the idea of a 
still mere formidable structure, he raised a barrier of 
stone. It was 8 feet thick and 12 feet high, with an addi- 
tional elevation of 4- feet for the battlements. Added to 
this, at equal distances, were a number of stations or 
towns, 81 castles, and 330 turrets all connected by good 
wide roads, along which troops could move from one 
threatened point to another with the greatest facility. 




But for fear all these impediments should prove insuffi- 
cient, the north front was protected by a tremendous 
ditch alone its whole course. Having a span of 30 feet, 
and a depth of 15, it is not surprising that the military 
chiefs should have regarded their last effort as insur- 
mountable. As long as ever the Roman supremacy 
lasted, this line of defence was constantly garrisoned by 
many thousands of armed men ; but for 130 years after 
the death of its valiant founder if we except an abortive 
raid by Constantius Chlorus there was no attempt made 
to leave its protecting shelter. 


The first illustration shows the sword, dagger, and 
spear-head in use amongst the Britons, as well as the 
hooks that are supposed to have been attached to their 
chariots. These latter were sketched from specimens in 
the British Museum, and clearly indicate the effects of 
corrosion from their long sojourn in the ground. No. 2 
eives the generally accepted notion of an ancient chariot 
and shield. No. 3 is the ground plan of a British fort 
near Hepple, in Coquetdale. It shows three lines of 
entrenchments, at varying heights, round the sides of a 
commanding hill ; while at the summit may be seen the 
excavations that were commonly used as store-rooms or 
places of shelter. No. 4- shows in a rough form the sec- 
tions of the barriers erected by Agricola, Hadrian, and 



j|R. BARON PARKE heard an extraordinary 
case at the Northumberland Assizes on the 
28th of February, 1855. From the magnitude 
of the claim and the romantic story raised on behalf of the 
plaintiff, it caused an intense amount of interest, not only 
in the North of England, but throughout the country, 
and more particularly in Lincolnshire. The claimant and 
plaintiff was William Stote Manby, a gardener of Kiln 
Yard, Louth, a man in a most humble walk in life. 
Mr. Samuel Warren, Q.C., the author of that then 
popular standard novel "Ten Thousand a Year," was 
leading counsel for the claimant, and it was said at the 
time that he undertook the case gratuitously. 

The plaintiff claimed to be heir-at-law of Mrs. Dorothy 
Windsor, a widow, before her marriage Miss Dorothy 
Stole, spinster, daughter of Sir Richard Stote, Knight, 
Sergeant-at-Law. As such heir-at-law he sought to re- 
cover extensive estates in Northumberland. The de- 
fendants were Thomas Wood Craster, Esq., and Calverley 
Bewicke Bewicke, Esq., and others, their tenants. The 
first two defendants were sued as the representatives of 
Sir Robert Bewicke and Mr. John Craster, tenants of the 
estates prior to 1780. 

The value of the estates claimed by the Louth gardener 
was stated to be about 50, 000 a-year; but probably this 
was an exaggeration. They comprised, however, the greater 
part of the hamlet and extra-parochial chapelry of Kirk- 
heaton, near Belsay, including Kirkheaton Hall, the 

living of the chapelry, and a land-sale colliery ; an estate 
adjoining Howdon Pans, in the parish of Wallsend, of 
about 297 acres, the coals under which were sent to Lon- 
don Market under the name of " Bewicke and Oraster's 
Wallsend " ; an estate in the adjoining parish of Long 
Benton ; and an inn called the Coach and Six Horses. 
The estates altogether were stated to consist of about 
4,000 acres, with valuable mines below. 

The plaintiff sought for a declaration that he was heir- 
at-law of Dame Dorothy Windsor (who died, aged 84, in 
1756, in Upper Brook Street, London, possessed of the 
above-named properties, which were known as the 
"Windsor Estates"), and also heir-at-law of his grand- 
father, Stote Manby, who died intestate in 1780, leaving 
William Mauby, of Louth, his only son and heir-at-law, 
who died in 1809, leaving two sons, Richard and the 
plaintiff, but Richard had died a bachelor in 1820. The 
plaintiff claimed that he was entitled to the manors, here- 
ditaments, and premises of which Dame Dorothy Windsor 
died seized, and asked that it might be declared that he 
had been kept out of possession of the estates by col- 
lusion and fraud, that the defendants were not entitled 
to avail themselves of the Statute of Limitations, and 
that possession of the property might be delivered up 
free from incumbrances. 

Mr. Warren entered fully into all the circumstances of 
this extraordinary case with great clearness, ability, and 
eloquence, which enhanced the interest and excitement in 
Court. He recounted the biography of the plaintiff's 
grandfather, Stote Manby, the original heir-at-law, who 
was a very illiterate man, unable to read or to write even 
his own name, a day labourer or carter, who during 
his later days was supported by his wife's labour and 
the casual charity of his neighbours, and who lived all his 
life in a wretched mud hovel, scarcely fit for human habi- 
tation, in the village of Keddington, near Louth. It 
was explained that William Manby (the plaintiff's father) 
was born in 1747, and resembled his father in mental 
incapacity, and in being unable to read or write his 
own name ; that plaintiff's brother (Richard) was also 
very poor, and, until he died, unmarried, worked for his 
daily bread ; that all these members of the plaintiff's 
family had lived and died in total ignorance of their title 
by inheritance to the Windsor Estates; and that the 
plaintiff only first became aware of his rights in 1846, 
when he was told by a very old man, living in Louth, 
that a trial was heard at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 1781, 
which showed that his grandfather, Stote Manby, was heir 
to the wealthy Dame Dorothy Windsor, but being of weak 
mind had been kept out of the property unlawfully. The 
plaintiff's story was that Sir Robert Bewicke and Mr. 
John Craster, being tenants, retained undisputed posses- 
sion of the estates from 1756 (the time of Dame Dorothy 
Windsor's death) until 1780, " most unrighteously and 
cruelly" taking advantage of poor Stote Manby's in- 
capacity ; that one Harvey, an attorney, came down 





to Louth in 1780, and undertook to be Stota Manby'a 
lawyer ; that Harvey commenced actions which were 
defended on the grounds, first, that Dorothy Windsor 
was not seized of the estates, and, secondly, that Stote 
Manby was not her cousin and heir ; that in 1781 an 
action was tried at Newcastle, before Mr. Justice Nares 
and Mr. Justice Heath,* in which Stote Manby's heirship 
was established by a verdict of the jury ; that on 
the day after his trial a second action was called on 
as to another portion of the property, but that by 
fraud and connivance no trial took place, Harvey having 
been prevailed upon to abandon the action and enter into 
a compromise, the effect of which was to secure to the 
then plaintiff, Stote Manby, and his heirs, a rent charge 
of 300 a year, leaving the defendants of 1781 in quiet 

The object of the trial in 1855 was to unravel all these 
proceedings, as well as any subsequent transactions that 
had taken place, and to put the plaintiff, William Stote 
Manby, on a verdict being given in his favour, in posses- 
sion of the whole of the Windsor estates. Before, how- 
ever, Mr. Warren had proceeded far with his opening 
of the case he was stopped by Mr. Baron Parke, who 
stated that he considered the Statute of Limitations 
barred all title on the part of the plaintiff. Mr. Warren, 
therefore, having no alternative, consented to be non- 

What became of the annuity or rent charge which 
Messrs. Craster and Bewicke granted to old Stote 
Manby, when (as above alleged) he resigned his claim in 
1781, does not appear. 

The case (after the non-suit) was carried into the Court 
of Chancery. The defendants demurred for want of 
equity, and relied on the Statute of Limitations. The 
preliminary process to enable the plaintiff to establish his 
case was, however, granted by the Court. After a long 
and protracted hearing, on the 23rd April, 1857, Vice- 
Chancellor Sir W. Page Wood decided that nothing had 
been elicited to support the allegations of the plaintiff, 
and his bill was consequently dismissed with costs against 

The Lincolnshire Journal in April, 1857, explained how 
the claimant was able to carry his case to the Court of 
Chancery : 

The manner in which the funds were raised for the 
purpose of enabling the plaintiff to prosecute his sup- 
posed claims was by borrowing sums of money with the 
promise to re-pay twenty for every single pound when he 
should have obtained possession of his estates at New- 
castle, &c., but that in the event of his not succeeding in 
his suit the money so advanced should be considered as a 
free gift. 

* The only record of the case in the Newcastle Chronicle 
for 1781 is as follows : Before Sir George Nares and 
the Hon. Justice Heath, at the assizes opened in New- 
castle, Saturday, August 13, 1781, " the long contested 
cause between the claimants of the estates of the late Sir 
Richard Stote, of Jesmond, near this town, was this week 
compromised by the parties." 

The bait took admirably, and an immense number of 
the unwise, anxious to secure the prospect of receiving so 
large a return for a small outlay (well knowing that in no 
legitimate business could they make one pound realise 
twenty) rushed to deposit various sums according 
to their means ; some selling their pigs, some borrowing 
money, some reducing their stock-in-trade that they 
might embark in this lottery ; and, in this manner, hun- 
dreds have invested their all in the risk. 

After repeated delays, when some of the less san- 
guine were beginning to fancy all was over, the case was 
announced positively for trial a few days since, and the 
spirits of the subscribers rose to fever heat. On Tuesday, 
the 31st ult., the case commenced, and day after day 
letters announcing the flourishing state of the suit were 
received from a party in London who was watching its 
progress ; and five to one was freely offered that the 
plaintiff would obtain a favourable verdict, and be placed 
in possession of the estates forthwith, when alas ! for 
the mutability of mundane affairs the news that the 
arguments of the four eminent and learned counsel 
engaged for the plaintiff had failed to make out a case 
reached here on Saturday morning last, and that Sir W. 
Page Wood had, without calling upon defendants for 
their answer, dismissed the bill with costs. 

It would be far easier to imagine than to describe the 
shock which this intelligence caused, and how deep and 
bitter were the lamentations of the deluded friends. 
Several had anticipated the pleasing prospect of retiring 
from business and enjoying for the remainder of their 
days that otium cum diynitale which a favourable issue 
promised them ; but all these hopes of future happiness, so 
long and fondly cherished, were, at one fell swoop, totally 
extinguished, "leaving not a wrack behind." Sic transit 
yloria "Afanbi." 



O English bird is a greater favourite than the 
robin (Sylvia rubimla). It is more or less an 
all-the-year-round resident in the Northern 
Counties. Many persons are under the belief that it is 
only a winter songster; but this arises from the fact 
that the bird is less noticed in summer. Its song may 
be heard, in fact, in almost every month of the year. 

Though so great a favourite, the redbreast is a fighting 
bird. The ' males, at least, are exceedingly selfish and 
pugnacious. Where food is placed out, they will attack 
and drive off other birds of superior size, and they often 
fight with and kill each other. I have noticed that 
the robins fight most savagely amongst themselves in 
autumn ; and this may account for the rather widely 
prevalent opinion that the ungrateful young males actu- 
ally kill their fathers ! I have seen many robin fights, 
some deadly, but the pugilists were almost invariably 
mature males. 

The robin, with its ruddy and olive plumage, is well 
known to most residents in town and country, chiefly 
from its familiar and confiding habits, and its song is 
always welcome, either during the dreary days of winter 
or in the prime of summer. Here it has many endearing 
familiar names, including the ruddock, robinet, &c., 
which latter designation may be taken to mean "little 
robin." In Germany it is called Thomas Guidito ; in 




Norway, Peter Kousuiead ; and in Sweden, Tomiiii- 
Liden. In every country in Europe pretty stories and 
legends are told of it. The robin has had its praises sung 
by the poets almost as frequently as the nightingale. The 
young birds, until they attain their mature plumage, 
have their feathers mottled grey and dusky ; but even in 
their early youth, after they leave the nest, they have 
all the bold, perky ways and characteristics of the old 

In size and plumage, the male and female birds are 
much alike, though the latter are rather smaller than 
their mates, and their ruddy and olive-grey plumage is 
not so brilliant as that of their more pugnacious mates. 
When on the ground in search of food, the robins pro- 
gress by a series of brisk hops, then halt, and turn their 
heads knowingly from side to side. Their food is varied 
according to the season of the year. The nest may occa- 

sionally be found in very unexpected situations, from the 
roof of an outhouse to the open bottom of a hedge. Many 
instances are recorded of robins nesting in living rooms 
and bedrooms. Usually the bird builds a nest of withered 
grass and roots, lined inside with fine grass and hair. 
The eggs, from five to six, occasionally seven in number, 
vary much in their colour and markings, as most birds' 
eggs do. Some are profusely covered with ruddy freckles 
and blotches, whilst others are of a dull white hue, with 
few or no ruddy freckles. H. KERR. 

JJANGDALE PIKES form a grand mountain 
group at the head of Great Langdale, the 
vale of the upper part of the River Bra- 
thay, one of the feeders of Lake Winder- 
mere, They soar into three rugged and picturesque 
summits. Two of them Harrison Stickle and the Pike 
o' Stickle figure prominently in almost all the best 
views of the English Lake District, though they 
nowhere appear to greater advantage than from 
Lingmoor, ou the opposite side of the valley. 
The other pike is known as Gimmer Crag, but is over- 
shadowed by its grander neighbours. From certain 
points the two pikes Harrison Stickle and Pike o' 
Stickle appear to be quite close together ; still, they 
are in reality so far apart as to leave a gap by no means 
easy to cross. The Pike o' Stickle, which is seen to the 
left in our sketch, has an altitude of 2,300 feet above 


January I 
1889. f 



the level of the sea, and is very rugged and broken, 
while Harrison Stickle rises to a height of over 2,400 
feet, and is more easy of ascent than the other, which it 

Although the Langdale Pikes are surrounded by 
mountains of more commanding height, yet from many 
places they appear to rise in a group from the plain. 
This is notable in our first view, which is taken from a 
short distance down the Langdale Valley. 

The prospect from the Pikes is varied and exten- 
sive. Langdale, with its cultivated enclosures, is seen 
far below, its tarns glistenintr in the sunlight ; fur- 
ther away is Windermere and Esthwaite Water ; 
whilst in the extreme distance a glimpse of the 
sea may occasionally be obtained. To the south 
the massive bulk of Wetherlam confronts the eye, 
Coniston Old Man and Grey Friars shutting in the 
view beyond. To the east rises Loughrigg Fell 
and the mountains surrounding Ambleside. To the 
north-east are Helvellyn, Seat Sandal, and Fairfield, 
with Skiddaw and Blencathra, or Saddleback as it is 
more commonly termed, overlooking Derweutwater. 
This lake cannot be seen from Harrison Stickle, but a 
fine view of it may be obtained from the Pike o' Stickle. 
To the west, rearing its miehty head above Bowfell is 
Scawfell Pike, the highest mountain in England, and 
Scawfell, which for many years held this title until the 
point was decided by the Government surveyors. To the 
north of the Scawfell Pikes rise Great End, Great Gable, 
and Glaramara. 

Stickle Tarn, noted for its fine trout, reposes at the 
foot of the precipice known as Pavey Ark, a projecting 

shoulder of Harrison Stickle. It is used as a reservoir 
for the Government powder-mills at Elter Water. The 
stream from the tarn, known as Mill Gill, makes t 
series of pretty cascades, which, with the towering 
background of Harrison Stickle, form a striking and 
effective picture. 

The tourist traversing Langdale may note on the face 
of Lingmoor Screes a long white mark. This is the dales- 
men's sun dial. When Sol's rays reach this mark, they 
know that it is twelve o'clock. Elsewhere at the 
hamlet of Chapelstile the inhabitants indulge in the 
mild joke that it was there that Adam and Eve 
were married, the allusion being to Adam and Eve 
Fleming, who were the first couple joined together in 
wedlock at the church. A short distance further down 
the valley is the village and church of Langdale. 
Harriet Martineau tells an anecdote about this primitive 
place of worship that is worth repeating. "A few years 
ago," says she, writing in 1855, "the rotten old pulpit 
fell, with the clergyman, Mr. Frazer, in it, just after he 
had begun his sermon from the text, 'Behold I come 
quickly.' The pulpit fell on an elderly dame, who 
escaped wonderfully. Mr. Frazer, as soon as he 
found his feet, congratulated her on surviving such an 
adventure : but she tartly refused his sympathy, saying, 
'If I'd been kilt, I'd been reet sarrat (rightly served), for 
you'd threatened ye'd be comin' doon sune.' " 

There is a mountain track from Langdale past Stickle 
Tarn into Easdale. It was while returning home over 
this pass, one winter's evening in 1807-8, that George 
and Sarah Green, hard-working dalesfolk, were lost 
in a snowstorm, which at the same time imprisoned 





their half-dozen bairns within a remote and solitary 
cottage in Easdale for several days. De Quincey, in 
his "Memorials of Grasmere," refers to the story, telling 
how the eldest girl, then only nine years old, exhibited 
the greatest care and foresight in providing for the 
requirements of her little brothers and sisters. Agnea 
Green, however, succeeded in getting out of her temporary 
prison, finding her way to Grasmere, and alarming the 
neighbours. After a search of three days, the bodies of 
the parents were discovered on White Crag, near the 
Pikes, in their last long sleep. This melancholy incident 
elicited the sympathy of the whole of the inhabitants of 
the Lake district, inspired Wordsworth to write memorial 
stanzas on the subject, and brought material help for the 
orphans from Royalty itself. 

It is worth noting that very few of the ordinary English 
song birds, and no skylarks, are to be seen or heard in 
these narrow valleys. The residents account for it by 
the fact that the precipitous crags afford shelter for 
numerous hawks, which, with ravens and crows, are 
frequently seen hovering about the hills. Formerly 
eagles were wont to build in the Pikes; but the 
shepherds declared war against them, because they not 
unfrequently carried off a young lamb. The birds were, 
therefore, either killed or driven away. Failing that, 
the eggs were taken from the nests a proceeding often 
attended with great danger, as the dalesmen had some- 
times to be suspended from the tops of precipices by 

Our drawings are reproduced from photographs by Mr. 
Alfred Pettitt, The Art Gallery, Keswick. 

in J9mrtfttttit 

j]N the year 1297, Sir William Wallace, who 
had succeeded, in spite of the mean 
jealousy of the haughty and turbulent 
Scottish nobles, in freeing his country for 
the time being from the English yoke, led his exasperated 
followers into Northumberland, and burned and laid 
waste the country wherever he went. Forduu and the 
other Scottish historians relate that a principal reason for 
his invading England at this time was the extreme dearth 
and scarcity that prevailed in North Britain, arising 
from the inclemency of the season, joined to the 
calamities of war, which had been for so many 
years waged cruelly and mercilessly by both parties 
alike the English fighting for conquest at the beck of an 
arrogant monarch, and the Scots for national inde- 
pendence, under self-appointed chiefs, not always co- 
operating heartily with each other. The English his- 
torian Walsingham describes this particular year by a 

rather singular epithet. He calls it "penuria frugum 
illaudabilis," that is, "for scarcity of grain not worthy to 
be praised." 

Having determined on making the expedition, in order 
to subsist his troops at the expense of the enemy, 
Wallace is said, in his capacity of regent, warden, 
or guardian of Scotland, in the name of King John 
Baliol, to have obliged all the fighting men of the realm 
between sixteen and sixty to follow him under pain of 
death; and it is added that this penalty was inflicted 
on the disobedient by hanging them up on gallowses 
erected for that purpose in every barony and considerable 
town. But the allegation is probably a gross libel on the 
memory of the Scottish chief. 

After making himself master of the town of Berwick, 
which had been evacuated on his approach, Wallace 
crossed the Tweed into Northumberland, the prin- 
cipal inhabitants of which had fled with their families and 
goods to Newcastle, and even still further south, there 
being no armed force at hand to make head against 
the invaders. King Edward was in Flanders, waging 
war with the King of the French for the re- 
possession of Guienne; and the heads of the English 
nobility, neither well satisfied with the king's foreign 
policy, which demanded constant contributions, nor on a 
good common understanding among themselves, were 
scarcely in a position to meet Wallace in the field, after 
the signal victory he had so lately gained at Stirling. So 
the Scots marched unopposed as far as the Forest of Roth- 
bury, which was then, as its name imported, a thickly 
wooded district, and constituted a natural fortress some 
seven miles long by four broad. From this place as a 
centre or headquarters, they spread themselves through 
the low country, laying it waste with fire and sword, 
killing all who opposed them, collecting great spoils, and 
destroying everything they could not carry away. The 
priests and monks of all orders were among the first to 
flee for their lives, for the Scots in those rude times were 
known to feel little or no scruple with regard to their 
sanctity, so many of the Churchmen being soldiers as 
well as priests; and the Rector of Rudby, Hugh 
Cressingham, who had only a few weeks before been 
slain on the field of battle, had his dead body flayed, 
and the skin cut in pieces to be distributed as trophies. 

The Scots continued to burn and plunder at their 
pleasure all over Northumberland, till about the term 
of Martinmas, meeting, indeed, with no opposition or dis- 
turbance, except when in the neighbourhood of the castles 
of Alnwick, Warkworth, Harbottle, Prudhoe, and other 
fortresses, from which the garrisons occasionally sent 
forth parties to attack the rear of the marauders, or to 
pick up stragglers, who, when they fell into their hands, got 
very short shrift, being taken, as the Border phrase 
ran, " red fang." While they remained encamped in the 
parish of Rothbury, the Scots of course would make con- 
stant use of the Reiver's Well, which is still to be seen 

January I 



near the principal entrance to Lord Armstrong's resi- 
dence, Cragside. 

Having pretty well exhausted the resources of the 
eastern district by the month of November, Wallace col- 
lected all his forces together, and marched away west- 
wards towards Carlisle, with the view of occupying that 
city, possibly to make it his winter quarters. In 
the course of his expedition up the Tyne, he 
stayed two days at Hexham, where the priory had been 
burned down, or at least plundered, by a foraging party, 
who had likewise set fire to the nave of St. Andrew's 
Church, as well as a school-house connected with it. On 
this second visit, the following singular scene is said by 
Walter Hemingford, the monk of Gisborough, in his 
history, to have occurred : 

Three monks, all who had the courage to remain, were 
observed in a small chapel. Thinking the danger was 
over, they had forsaken their hiding places, and were en- 
deavouring to repair the damages of the late visitation, 
when, in the midst of their labours, they discovered the 
Scottish army, and fled in dismay to the oratory. The 
soldiers, however, with their long spears, were soon 
among them, and, brandishing their weapons, com- 
manded them, at their peril, to give up the treasures of 
the monastery. "Alas," said one of the monks, " it is 
but a short time since you yourselves have seized our 
whole property, and you know best where it now is. " At 
this juncture Wallace entered, and, commanding his 
soldiers to be silent, requested one of the monks to cele- 
brate mass. He obeyed, and the Scottish Guardian and 
his attendants assisted at the service with becoming 
reverence. When the consecration was about to take 
place, Wallace retired for a moment to lay aside helmet 
and arms. Instantly the avarice and ferocity of the soldiers 
broke out. They pressed upon the priest, snatched the 
chalice from the high altar, tore away the ornaments and 
sacred vestments, and stole even the missal which the 
priest was using. When their leader returned, he found 
the priest in fear and horror at the sacrilege. Wallace, 
indignant at such conduct, gave orders that the villains 
should be searched for and put to death, and in the mean- 
time took the monks under his own special protection. 
As some atonement for the outrage committed, the Guar- 
dian granted to the monks of Hexham a charter of pro- 
tection for twelve months. 

The town of Corbridge was burned by the Scots 
about the same time ; as was likewise a small 
house of Benedictine nuns at Lambley, near Halt- 
whistle. It is said that the wretched occupants of 
the nunnery suffered the common fate of female captives 
in such savage incursions torture and ravishment. 
But whether such foul atrocities were approved or sanc- 
tioned by Wallace may be seriously questioned. If 
they were, one can only say that such sanction or 
approval, even in hot blood and in direct reprisal, was 
wholly inconsistent with all that one has heard of him 
from the outset to the close of his career. 

The citizens of Carlisle, when summoned to surrender, 
shut their gates in defiance, and made such preparations 
for a resolute defence as determined the invaders to turn 
away from it and to employ their strength in laying waste 
the neighbouring country. The Forest of Inglewood, 
comprehending all that large and now fertile tract of 
country extending from Carlisle to Penrith on the left 
bank of the Eden, and also Allerdale as far as Cocker- 

mouth, was overrun and harned. The raiders next 
turned eastward, with the view of making similar havoc 
in the county of Durham. But they were driven 
back by a terrible storm of snow and hail, wherein 
many of them perished by hunger and cold, which was 
ascribed to the seasonable protection given by St. 
Cuthbert to his own people. From thence Wallace 
marched eastward towards Newcastle by the old road 
on the north side of the Tyne ; and when the raiders were 
passing Heddon-on-the-Wall, and a party of them were 
foraging about Newburn, the inhabitants of Ryton, 
thinking themselves securely defended by the depth of 
the river, provoked the Scots with such opprobrious 
language that they forded the Tyne, and plundered and 
burned the town, spreading a great panic throughout 
the neighbourhood. As the Scots approached New- 
castle, the burgesses, having made every necessary pre- 
paration for defence, sallied forth in order to fight them, 
upon which the enemy turned another way. Again 
traversing Northumberland, and destroying everything 
they had missed in the former part of their raid, the 
invaders returned to their own country without oppo- 
sition, and loaded with rich spoils, which they divided 
after once more crossing the Tweed. During this inroad, 
either in coming or going, the Scots encamped on a 
hill in the neighbourhood of Carham, on the south bank of 
the Tweed, three or four miles from Coldstream, and 
there they reduced to ashes an abbey of Black Canons 
which had been founded at a period unknown as a cell 
to the Priory of Kirkham, in Yorkshire. 

The horrible ravages committed by Waallace and 
his followers on this occasion are described in the fol- 
lowing manner by King Edward himself, in a letter 
to Boniface VIII., that infallible pontiff who proclaimed 
that "God had set him over kings and kingdoms" : 
"The Scots inhumanly destroyed an innumerable 
multitude of my subjects, burnt monasteries, 
churches, and towns, with an unpitying and savage 
cruelty, slew infants in their cradles and women in 
child-bed, barbarously cutting off women's breasts, and 
burnt in a school, whose doors they first built up, about 
200 young men." 

But it must be recollected that this catalogue of 
atrocities, scarcely paralleled, and certainly not exceeded, 
by any on record in European history, was drawn up on 
hearsay evidence, and therefore must not be taken as 
literally true. Still there can be but little doubt that the 
Scots did commit horrid atrocities. Wallace himself, in 
fact, was merely a sort of patriotic reiver. The manners 
and tastes of the times, however, were altogether against 
the weak and conquered, whether they were. Scots or 



I January 
1 18S9 

tlje late game? ffilepljan. 

A stark moss-trooping Scot was he, 
As e'er couched Border lance on knee. 
Through Solway sand, through Tarras moss, 
Blindfold, he knew the paths to cross : 
By wily turns, by desperate bounds, 
Had baffled Percy's best blood hounds. 

Lay of the Last Minstrel. 

JIN days of yore, when England and Scot 
land were under separate Crowns, and too 
close neighbours to be good friends, blood 
hounds were kept on the Borders for the 
capture of light-footed reivers ; and how best to train 
them for their vocation, and how best to evade their 
native and cultivated instincts, were important items in 
the curriculum of a Tweedside education. On both sides 
of the boundary river, accomplished blood hounds were in 
anxious request ; and if they could be got ready-trained 
by the enemy, no scruples would stand in the way of their 
acquisition. English and Scottish poets have alike sung 
their praises. Somervile is eloquent of Border strife, and 
commemorates the swiftness and sagacity of the hound 
which ran marauders down. 

****** Upon the banks 

Of Tweed, slow winding through the vale, the seat 

Of war and rapine once, * 

There dwelt a pilfering race, well trained and skilled 

In all the mysteries of theft, the spoil 

Their only substance, feuds and war their sport. 

Veiled in the shades of night they ford the stream : 
Then, prowling far and near, whate'er they seize 
Becomes their prey. Nor flocks nor herds are safe ; 
Nor stalls protect the steer, nor strong-barred doors 
Secure the favourite horse. Soon as the morn 
Reveals his wrongs, with ghastly visage wan 
The plundered owner stands, and from his lips 
A thousand thronging curses burst their way. 
He calls his stout allies, and in a line 
His faithful hound he leads : then, with a voice 
That utters loud his rage, attentive cheers. 
Soon the sagacious brute, his curling tail 
Flourished in air, low bending plies around 
His busy nose ; the steaming vapour snuffs 
Inquisitive ; nor leaves one turf untried, 
Till, conscious of the recent stains, his heart 
Beats quick. His snuffling nose, his active tail, 
Attests his joy. Then, with deep opening mouth, 
That makes the welkin tremble, he proclaims 
Th' audacious felon. Foot by foot he marks 
His winding way. 

O'er moor and moss goes the untiring "sleuth-hound" 
"the northern name," says John Trotter Brockett in his 
Glossary, " for the bloodhound ; so called from its quality 
of tracing the sleuth," "the slot or track of man or beast 
as known by the scent." 

These dogs were held in great estimation by our an- 
cestors; particularly on the Borders, where a tax was 
levied for maintaining them. Their scent was so re- 
markably quick that they could follow, with great cer- 
tainty, the human footsteps to a considerable distance, as 
fox-hounds chase a fox, or as beagles and harriers chase a 
hare. Many of them were, in consequence, kept in cer- 

tain districts for the purpose of tracing thieves and ma- 
rauders through their secret recesses. 

Thai maid a prive assemble 

Of well twa hundir men and mea, 

And sleuth hundis with thaim gan ta. 

The lines here quoted by Mr. Brockett form part of 
"The Bruce," the well-known poem of John Barbour, 
Archdeacon of Aberdeen ; he who, in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, immortalized himself in the affections of his country 
by the lines commencing "Ah! freedom is a noble 
thing !" Sir Walter Scott refers to him in a note to the 
passage of "The Lay of the Last Minstrel" 
which heads this article. "The kings and heroes 
of Scotland," says he, "as well as the Border 
riders, were sometimes obliged to study how to evade the 
pursuit of bloodhounds." Barbour informs us that 
Robert Bruce was repeatedly tracked by sleuth-dogs. 
On one occasion he escaped by wading a bow-shot down 
a brook, and thus baffling the scent. The pursuers came 

Rycht to the burn that passyt ware ; 

Bot the sleuth-hund made stinting thar, 

And waveryt lang tyme ta and fra, 

That he na certain gate couth ga ; 

Till at the last Jhon of Lorn 

Pursevit the hund the sleuth had Icrne. 

A sure way of stopping the dog was to spill blood upon 
the track, which destroyed the discriminating fineness of 
his scent. A captive was sometimes sacrificed on such 
occasions. Henry the Minstrel tells a romantic story of 
Wallace, founded on this circumstance. The hero's little 
band had been joined by an Irishman named Fawdon, or 
Fadzean, a dark, savage, and suspicious character. After 
a sharp skirmish at Black Erne Side, Wallace was forced 
to retreat with only sixteen followers. The English 
pursued with a Border sleuthbratch or bloodhound. 

In Gelderland there was that bratchel bred, 

Siker of scent to follow them that fled ; 

So was he used in Eske and Liddisdael ; 

While [i.e. when] she gat blood no fleeing might avail. 

In the retreat, Fawdon tired, or affecting to be so, 
would go no farther. Wallace, having in vain argued 
with him, in hasty anger struck off his head, and con- 
tinued the retreat. When the English came up, their 
hound stayed upon the dead body. 

The slouth stopped at Fawdoun ; still she stood ; 
Nor farther wold, fra time she fund the blood. 

The bloodhound is the subject of an interesting leaf 
of Charles Knight's " National Cyclopaedia of Useful 
Knowledge. " Here is the first paragraph of the descrip- 
tion : " The name of a hound celebrated for its exquisite 
scent and unwearied perseverance ; qualities which were 
taken advantage of, by training it, not only to the pursuit 
of game, but to the pursuit of man. A true bloodhound 
(and the pure blood is rare) stands about 2Sin. in height, 
and is muscular, compact, and powerful. The forehead 
is broad ; the muzzle is long and deep, with pendulous 
lips. The nostrils are wide and well-developed ; the ears 
are ample and pendulous ; the aspect is serene and 
sagacious. The tail is long, with an upward curve when 




in pursuit ; at which time the hound opens with a voice 
deep and sonorous, that may be heard down the wind for 
a very long distance." Reference is made by the writer 
in the encyclopaedia, further on, to the statement of Sir 
Walter Scott, that the breed of bloodhounds was kept up 
by the Buccleuch family on their Border estates till within 
the eighteenth century. 

Those who are familiar with Border story will remember 
the raid of 1528. Its record is to be read on various pages. 
The late Dr. Charlton's " Memorials of North Tynedale " 
quote it from the State Papers. On a Monday morning in 
January, William Charlton and Archibald Dodd, with two 
Scots, Harry Noble and Roger Armstrong, rode a foray, 
with several others, into the Bishopric ; seized the parson 
of Muggleswick, and bore him away ; plundering the in- 
habitants as they went, The country rose in pursuit, led 
by Edward Horsley, bailiff of Hexham. Thomas Erring- 
ton, " with a sleueth hounde," was among the pursuers; 
and by him was Charlton of Shotlyngton Hall slain as he 
fled. Noble met the same fate. Dodd and Armstrong 
were captured and executed, and hung in chains at 
Alnwick and Newcastle ; the other two being gibbeted at 
Hexham and Haydon Bridge. There is, perhaps, no more 
graphic picture of Border life in the time of the Tudors 
than was penned by the Earl of Northumberland, after 
the event, for the eye of Henry VIII., and his great 
Minister, Cardinal Wolsey, when Englishman and 
Scot Ivad descended hand in hand upon the Bishopric, 
and suffered death. The capture of the priest ; the chase 
by Wolsey's bailiff of Hexham ; the impassable flood and 
the barricaded bridge ; the hunt with the bloodhound by 
the swollen waters of the Tyne ; two of the fugitives 
slain, two captured ; and all four hanged in chains : a 
foray which, as Dr. Charlton remarks, "confirms the say- 
ine of a writer of the day, that these Border thieves 
would be Englishmen when they will, and Scotsmen when 
it suited them," being ever ready for a raid on either or 
both sides of the Tweed. 

North and south of the Border stream, the bloodhound 
was in use for centuries ; and in the old town of New- 
castle he makes his mark in the Municipal Accounts. 
When the reign of Queen Elizabeth had yet more than 
ten years to run, there was some one "wanted" by the 
Council of the North at York, over whose deliberations 
the Earl of Huntingdon then presided. What the man had 
done that he should be in such urgent request, does not 
appear. He must have greatly offended, or there would 
hardly have been such running to and fro to lay hold of 
him. Horsemen and pedestrians, and also a bloodhound, 
were sent in hot pursuit; and as the burgesses of New- 
castle had to bear some portion at least of the cost, and 
the Chamberlains made a note of the corporate disburse- 
ments, we catch a glimpse of the chase after the fugitive. 
In the mayoralty of 1592, there was "paide for the 
chairges of 3 horses 2 daies, and riding to Darneton and 
Sheiles, to make enquirie for James Watson, commanded 

by Mr. Maior, 6s. 6d." Not only were horsemen abroad 
in quest of him, but man and dog were intent on his trail : 
" Paide for a sloo-hound, and a man who led him, to goe 
make enquirie for James Watson, 5s." A third item 
heightens our curiosity to know more of a man whom 
Lord Huntingdon and his colleagues were so eager to run 
down: "Paide for the charges of 3 men, one sent to 
Anwicke, the 2 " (the second) "to Stockton, and the 3" 
(the third) "to Seaton Dallywell, with my Lord Presi- 
dentes letters, to make search for Watson, 5s." All the 
payments occur in the month of April, and " Watson " 
was evidently familiar enough to the corporate officer; 
but he is only a name to us no more. 

In the days when Watson was pursued by horse and 
hound, such chase of man was an accustomed thing. In 
the latter years of Elizabeth, we meet with mention of the 
immemorial employment of the bloodhound in Weardale. 
The institution was a public charge, though persons not a 
few would gladly escape from the burden. Thus much we 
learn from a presentment of May 26, 1601, to be found in 
Watkins's "Treatise on Copyholds," under the head of 
"Customs, &c,, of Weardale, in Durham." The passage 
relating to the bloodhound is this : 

We find that there is a slough-hound, which now is, 
and heretofore hath been, kept and maintained within the 
said park and forest of Weardale ; which said hound, or 
some other, is to be kept and maintained, from time to 
time, as need requireth. 

Whereas we have given our charge for the maintaining 
of a slough-hound ; so it is that we have had and already 
have hail of keepers upon the costs and charges of the park 
and forest only. 

Now there is sundry that would withdraw themselves 
from bearing and maintaining the said slough-hound, and 
some of them do deny any payment for the maintaining 
of the said slough-hound. 

Therefore we do humbly crave your lawful favour, that 
we be not separated, but continue in maintenance in the 
said slough-hound, as ever heretofore it hath been used 
and continued. 

Such was the presentation made, and such its prayer, in 
the time of that most pleasant of prelates, Tobie Mathew, 
who "could as well not be, as not be merry." The blood- 
hound of his park and forest of Weardale was not, appa- 
rently, in perpetual keeping. A hound was there ; and 
it, "or some other, was to be kept and maintained, from 
time to time, as need required." 

The volume from which we make the quotation has a 
remark, with a reference to Sir John Skene as the autho- 
rity, that "the slough-hound was to trace the Scots, 
who stole cattle in the night." When the owners missed 
them, " the dog was turned out to hunt their footsteps in 
the morning." 

At the time of the presentation, in the year 1601, 
the Tudors were near the end of their reign. They came 
in with the battle of Bosworth Field, and their going out 
was to be marked by the peaceful union of England and 
Scotland under one Crown. Border raids had gone ; a 
Scottish king was coming in ; and there were tenants in 
Weardale who chafed under the charge of keeping up a 
blood-hound. Perchance they had come to the conclusion 



j January 
\ 1889. 

that co-operation in such a cause was no longer necessary, 
but that every man bereft of his beeves might be left to 
look after the reivers himself. Quite as likely, however, 
they belonged to the order of men who, in all ages, 
whatever be the public needs, have been "impatient of 

Thirty years, or thereabouts, from the time of the in- 
quiry into the customs of Weardale, the blood-hound was 
in requisition in the county palatine ; and now, it is not 
the Corporation of Newcastle, but the Churchwardens of 
Darlington, who make the payment. In 1630 they have 
an item in their accounts running thus : "For fetching 
of aslee-dogg, 6d." The historian of Darlington, Mr. W. 
H. D. Longstaffe, observes in a note : "The use of the 
sleuth or blood -hound was then much in vogue ; and Den- 
ton, in Northumberland, and Chester-le-Street, appear to 
have been the places where the owners, and probably 
breeders, of these animals lived." 

How much such animals were prized in former times 
may be inferred from one of the entries of the Calendar 
of State Papers. A couple had been lost by a, Baron of 
France in the reign of Elizabeth ; and it was to her great 
Minister that application was made for assistance in their 
restoration. On the 21st of September, 1573, Adrian de 
Gomiecourt, writing to Lord Burleigh from Rochester in 
French, " solicits him to assist the Baron de Berlaymont 
in the recovery of a pair of bloodhounds. " Burleigh was 
besieged on all sides for his good offices ; he must befriend 
a host of suitors in matters small and great ; and when 
two hounds were lost the chief adviser to England's Queen 
must lend a hand for their restoration ! 


j|N r the arrival of the Romans in this country, 
the physical aspect of Britain was very 
different from what it is now. The uplands 
were covered with heather and whins, or 
shaded by dense forests, while the banks of the rivers 
formed impenetrable jungles, and a great part of the 
low-lying grounds was overspread with marshes, as were 
the bleak -barren table-lands with bogs. One of the first 
requisites of the invaders, if they meant to keep perma- 
nent possession of the island, was to construct practicable 
high roads through the interior, affording ready means of 
inter-communication. The Britons had, doubtless, long 
before formed track-ways through the woods, by means 
of which the several independent or allied tribes could 
have intercourse with each other occasionally ; but these 
rude paths were more like those which the natives of 
New Zealand or New Guinea used before the advent of 
Europeans, or still use, than anything we now associate 

with the name of a made road. They were neither 
levelled, raised, nor paved ; nor were they always 
straight, but "worked with sinuosities along," like Col- 
man's Toby Tosspot, so as to avoid the natural obstacles 
that lay in their way, or to touch at the scattered settle- 
ments with which the country was more or less sparsely 

If these British track-ways, however, suited their 
purposes, the Romans naturally adopted them ; if not, 
they constructed others ; and their engineering work 
proceeded until they had covered South Britain, and 
Scotland as far as the Grampians, with a complete net- 
work of national highways, scientifically formed, and 
rather to be compared with our modern railroads than 
with those narrow lanes and horse tracks which sufficed 
for our easy-going ancestors down till within less than 
two centuries since. These roads were raised some 
height above the ground which they traversed, and pro- 
ceeded in as straight a line as possible between the several 
termini, running over hill and dale with very little re- 
gard to natural inequalities. Being constructed in an age 
when the laws of property, if they might be said to exist 
at all, were superseded by the rights of conquest, they 
did not require to be diverted, like most of our modern 
country roads, from the direct line, and thrown into vexa- 
tious angles and obliquities by the bias of private interest. 
And so, except where some natural barrier made it im- 
possible, the Roman roads almost invariably pursued a 
straight course. It was only the interposition of a hill 
which could not be directly ascended, the interruption of 
a river which was unfordable, or the intervention of an 
impassable morass, like the Chat Moss, the Lochar Moss, 
or the Dogden Moss, that turned the Roman military 
engineers out of the precise route they had laid down for 

The road itself consisted of three distinct layers of ma- 
terials the lowest, stones, mixed with cement (statumenj; 
the middle, gravel or small stones ( rudera}, to prepare a 
level and unyielding surface (without the least rugged- 
ness, " sine salebris-"), whereon to receive the upper and 
most important part of the structure, which consisted of 
large blocks of stone accurately fitted together. In the 
neighbourhood of towns, they usually had raised footways 
(margincs) on both sides (convmerginaria), which defined 
the extent of the central part (agger) for carriages, which 
was paved with large stones, and was usually about 
eighteen feet wide. The road was accurately barrelled, 
so that no water might lie upon it ; and where the nature 
of the ground permitted, the soil was wholly removed 
before the first layer was placed, so as to ensure perfect 
solidity. The roads were thus said to be made "by 
delving and building beneath " (fodiendo ae tubstruendoj. 

The expense of their construction was enormous, but 
they were built to last for ever ; and many of them con- 
tinued, under all the injuries of predatory barbarians, 

January 1 
1889. I 



Vandalio landholders, agricultural improvers, and inclem- 
encies of climate, wonderfully perfect, down to a recent 
period. Having the whole power of the country at their 
command, and tribes and nations innumerable to be their 
labourers, the Romans were not frugal of the toil of 
others. The poor natives had to do all the drudgery, 
from quarrying the stones out of the rock and squaring 
them to serve as flags, to carrying them up craggy preci- 
pices where no carriages could go ; and where little or no 
road metal was to be found near at hand (as was not often 
the case, however, in the North), the unhappy drudges 
were forced to bring gravel, sand, or lime, occasionally 
from seven or eight miles off, either on their own backs 
or on those of their beasts of burden, arbitrarily requisi- 
tioned for the purpose. The Caledonian chief Galgacus 
is represented by Tacitus as telling his followers that the 
Romans wore out the bodies and hands of every people 
they subjected, in clearing and draining woods and 
marshes, with floggings and insults (corpora ipsa ac manus 
Sylvia ac paludibis emuniendis, vevbera inter et contu- 
melias, contereunt) ; and there can be no doubt but that 
he spoke the truth. 

The Romans, as is well known, were great bridge- 
builders, as well as masterful road-makers, their 
commanders usually taking the title of pontifex among 
their other high honours. Yet it is remarkable that only 
three bridges are mentioned by the writers of the Itiner- 
aries as occurring in Britain, and one of them is Pons 
JE\i\, or jfElius's Bridge, which is well known to have 
spanned the Tyne opposite Newcastle. Most of the roads 
in this country crossed the rivers they encountered, not 
at bridges, but at shallows or fords, for some time at 
least after they were constructed ; so that unless resort 
was had to rafts or bridges of boats, the travelling on 
these must have been very precarious, having to be regu- 
lated by the rains and controlled by the floods. At every 
thousand paces along the route there were mile-stones 
placed, and some of these still remain in situ, while the 
pedestals of others are to be seen in many places, with 
holes in them to receive the pillars. 

Of many of the Roman roads, not only in England, but 
in the greater part of the Roman empire, an account has 
been preserved under the name of the Itinerary of 
Antoninus, which specifies the towns or stations on each 
road, and shows the distance between them usually a 
day's march. This record was long supposed to be a pub- 
lic directory or guide for the use of the soldiers ; but if 
this were the case, it is extremely confused and imper- 
fect. It often omits in one iter or journey towns which 
are directly in its course, and yet specifies them in 
another ; it likewise traces the same road more than once, 
and passes unnoticed some of the most remarkable roads 
in the island. History is silent as to the tune and the 
compiler of this register ; but the most likely conjecture 
is that it is merely the heads of a journey formed by some 
traveller or officer, who visited the different parts of the 

empire from business or duty, during the reign of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and that it was 
supplemented in some parts so late as the reign of Diocle- 
tian. Besides this Itinerary, we have the " Description of 
Britain, " attributed to Richard of Cirencester, and taken 
from ancient (if not contemporary) records now lost. 
From these two sources we learn that there were four 
great trunk roads in Britain, viz., the Watling Street, the 
Erming or Ermine Street, the Ikenild Street, and the 
Fosse Way; and modern researches have revealed the 
existence of a great many more, connecting the principal 
towns with each other and with the coast. For purposes 
of direct communication from sea to sea, as well as inter- 
nal intercourse, these roads were infinitely better fitted 
than any that existed in the island down to the compara- 
tively recent days of Marshal Wade, Thomas Telford, 
and John London Macadam. 

Of the four great lines of intercommunication above 
named, we have only to do with the two first, as the 
Ikenild Street and the Fosse Way ran through the 
southern part of the country the former from the Land's 
End to the coast of Suffolk, and the latter from Exmouth, 
in Devonshire, or Lyme Regis, in Dorsetshire, to the 
Humber, about Saltfleet, in Lincolnshire. The Watling 
Street, on the other hand, traversed England and Scot- 
land throughout almost their whole length, or at least 
as far north as the Grampians and the Moray Firth, and 
sent out branches in all directions, connecting the princi- 
pal towns, which numbered some hundreds, and affording 
the troops ready access to all the main points, whether 
inland or on the coast. The term Ermine, Ermyn, or 
Herman Street, again, though primarily applied to a 
great road leading from Southampton (Clausentum) and 
Chichester (Regnum), where the Emperor Vespasian 
fixed his head-quarters when in Britain, through London 
(Londinium) to Yarmouth or Colchester (Camalodunum), 
coinciding, for a great part of the way, with the line of 
the South-Western and Eastern Counties Railways, is 
also applied to other great consular or military roads one 
of them at least in our district. It is to be observed that 
none of the road-names are those given by the Romans 
who constructed them ; they are only those affixed by the 
semi-barbarous Anglo-Saxons and Jutes who came 
in after the Romans left. The term Watling (some- 
times written Waecling) most probably is only a corrup- 
tion of the word " wathol," a road or way ; and street is 
the Latin "stratum," a pavement, which was applied to 
such great trunk roads as were regularly paved or flagged 
(viae strata). The term Ermyn, again, which was ap- 
plied to a number of lines in various parts of the country, 
not otherwise connected with each other, but all usually 
taking the shortest cut between their terminal points, 
may either signify that the roads so designated were the 
quickest marching routes (itinera eelerrima), and, there- 
fore, specially dedicated to Hermes, the messenger of the 
gods, known to the Saxons as Eormen, or it may merely 



I 1889 

mean that they were chiefly used as military roads (Ger- 
man, Heerstrassen). 

Descriptions of the roads themselves will be given in 
succeeding articles. WILLIAM BROCKIE. 

|NDER date June 15, 1757, the "Local 
Historian's Table Book " records the inter- 
ment of Robert Clover, "a young man 
of uncommon parts and application," who had ac 
quired "nice skill in music,'' could draw, sketch, 
and paint, and had made "considerable progress " in 
modern languages, astronomy, and mathematics. When 
only fifteen years of age, we are told, he wrote two 
poetic pieces in imitation of Milton's "L'Allegro, " which 
William Hilton, of Gateshead, "published with his own 
poems"; but "by intense labour he injured a delicate 
constitution, and died when approaching to manhood, be- 
loved and esteemed by all who knew him." 

Turning now to Hilton's "Poetical Works," which 
form two thick octavo volumes, published in 1776 by 
Thomas Saint, Newcastle, we 6nd the two pieces referred 
to. They are entitled "IlGiorno" and "LaNotte" 
in English, "Day "and "Night." " Day" commences : 

Thirsis ! why will ye lose 

That precious part of day, the morning's prime, 

And foolish spend that time 

When ev'ry balmy sweet of nature flows 

In sleep's unmeaning joy ? 

Come, rise, receive the tribute of the morn, 

Morpheus and his visions scorn, 

Resist the drowsy god, command him hence, 

Immers'd in indolence, 

And taste of pleasures that will never cloy. 

There are over a dozen pages, written in this high- 
pitched tone, evincing most remarkable gifts in a lad of 
fifteen. Accompanying them are an " Elegy on Clover '' 
and a "Memoir "of the youth, by Hilton himself, who 
appears to have been a companion of the precocious boy, 
and to have regarded his decease as a public calamity. 

R. W. 

^ SFteto of J3urftant. 

||HE accompanying view of Durham, taken 
from the north-east, is strikingly romantic 
and picturesque. The original drawing was 
made by Thomas Allom more than half a century ago. 
Many changes have of course been made in the city and 
its surroundings since the sketch was taken. The pre- 
dominating feature of the landscape depicted by Allom 
is the grand old cathedral which rears its majestic form 
against the sky. Other cathedrals may present more 
graceful outlines, but few can compare with it for situa- 
tion. The city appears to be scattered over a number 
of irregular hills, the ground by which it is approached 
oeing thrown up into circular mounts. From the north- 
east the cathedral appears to great advantage, its northern 
and eastern fronts, " like the mitre which binds the 
temple of its prelate, giving the noblest supreme orna- 

January 1 



ment to the capital of the principality." To the right of 
the cathedral are the battlements and tower of the castle, 
and to the left is shown the ancient church of St. 
Nicholas. In the middle distance is Elvet Bridge, built 
by Bishop Pudsey about the year 1170, and afterwards 
repaired by Bishop Fox, who granted an indulgence of 
the Church to all who contributed towards defraying the 
expense of the undertaking. 

Hill, Newcastle, was so named by Mr. Isaac Cookson, 
the owner of the property, after his son Arthur ! We 
may add to Dr. Bruce's statement that the name given to 
the place originally was Arthur Hill. Other children of 
Mr. Cookson were honoured in the same manner. And 
so it comes that we have streets close at hand, and form- 
ing part of the old estate of the Cooksons, named John, 
Edward, William, and Mary. 

Htwjj gtrtftttr 

it iff it aSri 

the meeting of the British Association at 
Newcastle in 1863, an eminent antiquary, 
not connected with the district, delivered a 
most interesting address on Arthurian Legends. He 
pointed to the legends regarding the mythic king in so 
many parts of the country and on the Continent. 
Coming nearer home, he said Arthur's Seat, at Edin- 
burgh, had its name undoubtedly from the British 
hero; there was the Arthurian legend very widely 
spread which connected King Arthur with Sewing- 
shields on the Roman Wall, and which will be found in 
Dr. Bruce's "Wallet Book of the Roman Wall"; and 
there was still another legend which located King Arthur 
on the Derwent. Even in Newcastle, the antiquary said, 
he understood they had an Arthur's Hill,, and he had 
no doubt it could be traced to the all-pervading 
monarch. In the discussion which followed, Dr. Bruce, 
who was present at the sectional meeting, to the great 
amusement of the audience, and the discomfiture of the 
enthusiastic King Arthurite, quietly stated that Arthur's 

I ANY subjects engage the attention of the 
antiquary and the painter in the neighbour- 
hood of Almvick. The Castle, of course, 
stands first in importance, and it is this venerable struc- 
ture which is delineated in our sketch, the standpoint 
being the Lion Bridge, itself a most picturesque object. 
From the battlements of the bridge a fairly comprehen- 
sive view of the castle may be obtained. Those who 
wish to include the bridge and castle in one grand scene 
will have to walk a short distance along the river bank. 
It is here that the artist may frequently be seen with 
busy pencil. The bridge figures prominently in Turner's 
srreat picture of AInwick by moonlight. An incident in 
connection with it is described by Oliver Wendell Holmes 
in his "Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," as an illustra- 
tion of the strange fact that trivial things are often re- 
membered when more important ones are forgotten. " I 
remember," he says, "the Percy Lion on the bridge over 
the little river at AInwick the leaden lion with its tail 





stretched out straight like a pump handle and why? 
Because of the story of the village boy who would fain 
bestride the leaden tail, standing out over the water 
which breaking, he dropped into the stream far below, 
and was taken out an idiot for the rest of his life." 

antr ainnuntavit$. 



In 1763, on peace being declared, after a war of 
many years between this country and France, a singular 
and exciting incident was witnessed in Newcastle the 
public burial, with military honours, of the old colours of 
the 25th Regiment of Foot, then commanded by Lord 
Lenox. What were the exact proceedings cannot now be 
stated, the records of the event being very scant indeed. 
These records merely state " that on Tuesday, May 31st, 
1763, the old colours of the 25th Regiment, being so much 
wounded in Germany, and particularly at the glorious 
and ever memorable battle of Minden (August 1, 1759), 
were buried at Newcastle with military honours." Pro- 
bably, however, the old flags, as they were borne along 
the streets of the town, in their tattered and torn condi- 
tion, to the place of burial, would be demonstratively 
greeted by the townsmen. Doubtless, also, the soldiers 
forming the remnant of the regiment, as they preceded 
and followed the emblems, would be welcomed in a 
manner worthy of their countrymen. The place of inter- 
ment is not stated ; but possibly it was one of the church- 
yards of the town. With the burial of the flags an impor- 
tant war period may be regarded as having closed, and it is 
worthy of note that, on the following day, the people 
had their minds diverted to religion and peace ; for on 
Wednesday, June 1, 1763, the Rev. John Wesley arrived 
at Newcastle from Scotland, and on that and several fol- 
lowing days spoke to immense audiences. 

J. S. Y.. Hull. 

The following curious story is copied from " Annals 
of Yorkshire": "Samuel Sunderland, Esq., who flour- 
ished in the reign of Charles I. and in the Common- 
wealth, resided at Arthing Hill, not far from Bingley. 
He was one of the richest men of his age, and had accumu- 
lated an immense quantity of gold coin, which he 
preserved in bags placed on two shelves in a private 
part of his house. Two individuals, who resided at 
Oollineham, determined to rob Mr. Sunderland -of the 
whole, or, at any rate, a considerable quantity, of his gold ; 
and in order to prevent the chance of successful pursuit, 
they persuaded a blacksmith at Collingham to put shoes 
on their horses' feet backward way. They arrived at 
Arthing Hall according to their purpose, took away as 

much gold in bags as they could carry off, and, notwith- 
standing the communication of an alarm to the family 
before they left the house, succeeded in accomplishing their 
retreat. The weight of the gold they took away was too 
heavy for their jaded horses, and they were compelled to 
leave part of it on Blackmoor, where it was afterwards 
found by some persons of Chapeltown. It so happened 
that the robbers had taken a dog with them on their ex- 
pedition, and this animal, in the hurry of their retreat, 
they left behind them, fastened up in the place from 
which they had taken the gold. The friends and neigh- 
bours of Mr. Sunderland, who had determined upon pur- 
suit, immediately saw in this dog the means of detecting 
the offenders. Having broken one of its legs, to prevent 
its running too fast for their horses, they turned it loose. 
It proceeded, notwithstanding its excruciating pain, to 
Collingham, and went directly to the house of its owners. 
The pursuers arrived, burst open the door, and found 
the thieves in the very act of counting the money. They 
were sent to York, tried, condemned to die, and their 
own apprentice was compelled to act the part of execu- 
tioner. This young man, though innocent of any 
capital participation in the robbery, was so horror-struck 
by the deed he had been compelled to perform, that he 
criminated himself and followed the fate of his masters." 

NIGEL, York. 


A six-year-old little boy, residing in Jesmond, was 
joked one night lately about falling asleep in the tram- 
car. "Oh," he answered, "I went to sleep when I 
wasn't looking !" 


Tommy Atkins : " Look here ! I have known lots of 
camels work hard, a whole week, without drinking, 
when we were on the march." Jack Docker : " Git 
oot, man ! that's nowt ! Aa knaa lots o' asses whe 
drink hard a whole fortneet, wivoot warkin', and then 
march te the kitty. Yor camels cuddent de that, could 
they, noo ?" 


One of the directors of a local colliery recently visited 
the scene of his investment. Observing one of the work- 
men leaning on his shovel, and thus apparently idling his 
time away, he addressed him with some pomposity as 
follows : " My man, can't you find something else to do ? " 
This query somewhat staggered the workman, who replied : 
" Wey, what the deuce have ye te de wi't? Gan te Jarrico, 
ye fyul ! " The director reported the matter to the foreman, 
who with the alacrity of an official who knowi who 
"butters his bread," hurried off to the delinquent and 
exclaimed : " Hi, come here, ye slavering cull ! Did ye 

Ja .'J? r !' 1 



not knaa who that wes whe wes heor just noo ? " "Hoo 
should aa knaa ? Onny way, whe is he ? " was the reply. 
" Oh, ye'll knaa varry syun. Yell hev te 'pologise, or 
gan hyem." "Weel," said the man, "aa divvent want 
te gan hyem, se aa'll 'pologise." Off he went. Mean- 
while, the director had reached a group of officals to whom 
he told the story. The man approached the director and 
asked: "Arn't ye the chep whe aa tell't te gan te 
Jarrico just noo? Aa's come te 'pologise, se aa'll just say, 
divvent gan noo ! " 


An engineman at Jarrow, referring to his son who had 
been out of work, said to an inquirer : " He's making a 
varry canny living noo ; he hes a portigal engine ! " 


More than twenty years ago, when the work of restor- 
ing the ancient church of St. Michael, Alnwick, was 
going on, the Northumberland Light Infantry Militia 
was quartered in the same town for the annual training. 
In consequence of the sacred edifice being closed pending 
the restoration, the Corn Exchange was opened in its 
stead as a place of worship for those of the regiment who 
attended the Church of England. One Sunday morning, 
when the gallant corps was on church parade, a bold 
Novocastrian inadvertently strayed into the ranks of the 
Catholic party. Being perceived by the captain in com- 
mand, he was asked by that officer : " What religion 
are you, my man ?" Whereupon the straggler, with a look 
of bewilderment, answered : "If you please, sor, aa's a 
Corn Exchange man !" 

On the 13th of November, Alderman Thomas Gray 
died at his residence, Spital Hill, near Morpeth. About 
six weeks previously, he had received an apparently 

Mr. John Blagdon, one of the oldest shipowners of 
North Shields, died on the 6th of November, 1888. 

On the 6th of November, the remains of Mr. William 
Isaac Cookson, who had died at Worksop Manor, Not- 
tingham, on the 1st, were interred in the family vault at 
Benwell Churchyard, Newcastle. The deceased gentle- 
man, who was 76 years of age, was head of the firm of 
Messrs. Cookson and Co., coalowners and lead manufac- 
turers, Newcastle, and formerly lived at Benwell Tower, 
now the residence of the Bishop of Newcastle. 

Mr. J. W. George, printing overseer, who had been 
forty years in the service of the proprietors of the New- 
castle Journal, died on the 9th of November, aged 60. 

On the llth of November, Mrs. Oliver, wife of Dr. 
Thomas Oliver, one of the principal physicians at the 
Newcastle Infirmary, died at the residence of her father, 
Mr. W. Jenkins, J.P., at Consett. 

Mr. John Telfer, of the firm of Messrs. John Telfer 
and Son, wholesale and retail tobacconists, Newcastle, 
died on the 12th of November, at the age of 65 years. 

The Rev. Mr. Stepney, who had been in the Wesleyan 
ministry over fifty years, died at Houghton-le-Spring on 
the 13th of November, his age being 77 years. 


f//;/// ! 

II II f l!' 


'- Thos Grsy. 

Pied t/ci;i3-ll$8 

slight injury to his foot in alighting from his trap, and 
this was the origin of the illnuss which, unfortunately, 
terminated fatally. A native of York, where, for a time, 
he had been in the employment of the North-Eastern 
Railway Company, Mr. Gray came to Newcastle in 1851. 
He entered upon possession of the Alexandra Hotel, 
which he conducted for several years ; and he also became 
the lessee of the advertising stations on the North- 
Eastern and other leading railways in the kingdom. A 
few years ago, he commenced, with others, the issue of 
Gray's Time Tables for Scotland, and he was head of the 
firm of Gray and Co., printers, Edinburgh. In the course 
of a very active life, deceased had.been connected with all 
sorts of financial undertakings, and in most of them he 
had achieved very considerable success. Mr. Gray was 
elected to the Newcastle Council as one of the representa- 
tives of Elswick Ward on the 1st of November, 1871. 
In 1884-85, he served the office of Sheriff, and in 1886 he 
was raised to the position of alderman. He was one of 
the guarantors in securing Elswick Park for the use of 
the public, previous toils acquisition by the Corporation ; 
and he took a prominent part in the arrangements con- 
nected wilh the Royal Jubilee Exhibition in 1887. The 
deceased gentleman, who was married, was 64 years of 

Colonel Duncan, C.B., Royal Artillery, and member 
for the Holborn Division of Finsbury, died on the 16th of 
November. He was a native of Aberdeen, and was 52 
years of age. He unsuccessfully contested Morpeth against 
Mr. T. Burt, and afterwards, with a like result, the city 
of Durham. The deceased gentleman was a D.C.L. of 
Durham University. (See vol. ii., p. 144.) 



f January 

Mr. George Gamsby, who took a very prominent part 
in the Chartist movement, along with Mr. Binns, Mr. 
James Williams, Dr. Gammage, and others, died at Sun- 
derland on the 21st of November, in his 82nd year. 

Dr. Edward Headlam Greenhow, of Reigate, Surrey, 
formerly of Tynemouth, died suddenly in London on the 
22nd of November, aged 74. The deceased gentleman 
belonged to a family of doctors. The first who settled on 
Tyneside was Dr. Edward Martin Greenhow, a native of 
Stirling, who had been an army surgeon and served with 
General Elliot at the siege of Gibraltar, who was married 
at Tynemouth in 1786, and who died in Dockwray 
Square, North Shields, in 1835. A son of his, Dr. 
Edward Greenhow, followed the profession of his father, 
also in Dockwray Square, and was mentioned in connec- 
tion with the Margetts mystery. (See vol. i., page 58.) 
Another son of the old army surgeon was Dr. T. M. 
Greenhow, a well-known practitioner in Newcastle, who 
married a sister of Harriet Martineau, and whose sister, 
Sarah Greenhow, married Harriet Martineau's brother 
George, at Christ Church, Tynemouth, on the 26th of 
July, 1836 It was Dr. T. M. Greenhow, then surgeon to 
the Newcastle Infirmary, who recommended Harriet 
Martineau to try the effects of mesmerism for the cure of 
her ailments. (See vol. i., page 415.) 

The death was announced, on the 24th of November, 
of Mr. Morgan Robinson, mining engineer, Newcastle, 
and late manager of Wardley Colliery, from which he 
drew the first tub of coals to bank. 

Mrs. Leslie, wife of Mr. Andrew Leslie, the well-known 
Tyne shipbuilder, died at Coxlodge Hall, near Newcastle, 
on the 28th of November. 

Air. Adam Patterson, a member of the editorial staff of 
the Newcastle Chronicle, died after a short but severe 
illness, on the 29th of November. Though only a little 
over thirty years of ape, the deceased gentleman had had 
considerable experience as a journalist. After a short 
service on the now defunct Northern Daily Express he 
joined the literary department of the Chronicle, and for 
some time was in the London office of that paper. Re- 
turning to Newcastle, he resumed his position as reporter 
on the Daily Chronicle; and on the establishment of the 
Evening Chronicle, he was appointed to the post, which 
he held till his death, of its responsible editor. Mr. 
Patterson's frank and genial demeanour, combined with 
his honourable and upright conduct, had endeared him to 
all with whom he came in contact. 

Mr. William Daggett, of the firm of Messrs. Ingledew 
and Daggett, solicitors, Newcastle, died on the 6th of 
December. He was the eldest son of the late Mr. Alder- 
man Ingledew, but, for family reasons, he took the maiden 
name of his mother, who belonged to Pickhill, Yorkshire. 
The deceased gentleman was 63 years of age, and was 
born in Dean Street, over the offices he occupied up to his 
death. He served his articles as a solicitor with his 
father, and was admitted a practitioner in 1848. He 
represented St. Nicholas' Ward in the Town Council for 
twelve years, and acted as Under-Sheriff during his 
father's Shrievalty in the year 1852-53 ; while he was 
Sheriff himself in 1870-71. He retired from the Council 
in consequence of the pressure of professional duties and 
delicate health, and has since devoted himself exclusively 
to his avocations as a solicitor. He was Deputy-Registrar 
of the Newcastle County Court under the late Mr. Brook 
Mortimer, then joint Registrar with Mr. Mortimer, and 
on the death of that gentleman he became Registrar in 

conjunction with his brother, Mr. James H. Ingledew. 
On the creation of the Newcastle Bishopric, Mr. Daggett 
was appointed secretary to the bishop. 

On the 5th of December, Mr. George Dodds, ex-Mayor 
of Tynemouth, and a well-known temperance advocate, 
died at the residence of Mr. F. Gascoigne, his son-in-law, 
in Newcastle. For many years a resident at Cullercoats, 
the deceased gentleman was elected a member of the Tyne- 
mouth Town Council in 1877, and had thus served eleven 
years as an efficient and useful member of that body. 
He had been a Guardian of the Poor in the Tynemouth 


Union for fifteen years, and was connected with most of 
the philanthropic and benevolent institutions in the 
borough. Born in the neighbourhood of the Ouseburn, 
Newcastle, on the 19th of November, 1810, he had entered 
upon the seventy-ninth year of his age. To the last he 
retained bis connection with his native town, in which 
for a long period he carried on, successfully, a coffee- 
roasting business. Mr. Dodds first signed the temperance 
pledge on the 24th of September, 1836. He was the last 
surviving member of the original committee of the New- 
castle Temperance Society ; and on the occasion of his 
jubilee as an abstainer, two years ago, he received the 
congratulations of that body, as well as of the Tynemouth 
Council, and of his numerous other friends in the district. 
The deceased gentleman was also a keen politician, and 
took an active part in the agitation which preceded the 
Reform Bill of 1832. 

On the 5th of December, Mr. Joseph Jordon died at 
his residence, Burney Villa, James Street, Gateshead. 
For the last quarter of a century he took an active interest 
in the Gateshead Dispensary, and for the last few years 
acted as secretary. The deceased gentleman was about 
60 years of age. 

Mr. H. J. Trotter, M.P. for Colchester, son of the 
late William Trotter, of Bishop Auckland, died on the 
6th of December, at the age of 52 years. 

On the same day, Mr. W. Havelock, land agent and 
timber valuer, died at his residence in Hencote Street. 

January 1 
1889. j 



Hexham, in the 69th year of his age. The office of 
forester to the Greenwich Hospital Commissioners had 
been held by deceased and his fore-elders for three gen- 

born at Matfen, Northumberland, on the 2nd of January, 
18W, and has been a member of the Council since 1876, 
while in 1880-81 he occupied the position of Sheriff. 

XUorrtt at 


NOVEMBER, 1888. 

6. It was reported that some interesting experiments 
had been conducted at the works of Messrs. Bell, near 
Middlesbrough, with a new blasting material, named 
"Bellite, " the invention of a Swedish chemist. 

7. It was announced that Sir Lowthian Bell had been 
appointed by the Prince of Wales vice-chairman of the 
Organising Committee of the Imperial Institute. 

8. Mr. Joseph Baxter Ellis, on the eve of the termina- 
tion of his year of office as Sheriff, was entertained to 


dinner by the members of the Newcastle Corporation, at 
the Duuglas Hotel, the chair being occupied by Mr. 
Alderman Newton. 

Dr. F. R. Lees, of Leeds, delivered a lecture on 
"The Philosophy of Temperance," in the hall of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, Newcastle. 

9. The election of Mayors and other municipal officers 
for the ensuing year took place throughout the North of 
England. In accordance with an arrangement previously 
arrived at, the choice of Mayor, in the case of Newcastle, 
fell unanimously upon Mr. Thomas Richardson, who was 
proposed by Mr. Alderman Hamond, and seconded by 
Mr. J. G. Youll. Mr. Richardson, corn merchant, was 

Equally unanimous to the shrievalty, on this occasion, 
was the election of Mr. William Suttun, draper, who is t\ 
native of Langholm, Dumfriesshire, where he was born 
0:1 the 19th of December, 1837. He entered the Council 




as a representative of Jesmond Ward on the 1st of No- 
vember, 1878. At Gateshead, Mr. Alderman John Lucas 
was, without opposition, elected chief -magistrate. About 
fifty years of age, Mr. Lucas is a native of Eighton Banks, 
and was first elected a member of the Town Council, 

Gateshead, in 1868. The mayoral elections in the other 
local towns were South Shields, Mr. Alderman Scott : 
Stockton, Mr. Alderman Nelson ; Darlington, Mr. W. 
Harding ; Tynemouth. Mr. R. Collins ; Jarrow, Mr. 
Alderman Berkley ; Morpeth, Mr. William Clarkson ; 
Sunderland, Mr. Alderman Barnes ; Durham, Mr. Alder- 
man Boyd ; Middlesbrough, Mr. Raylton Dixon ; Hartle- 
pool, Mr. R. C. Black ; West Hartlepool, Mr. Alderman 
Pyman ; and Berwick, Commander Norman, R.N. 

10. The usual winter series of People's Concerts com- 
menced in the Town Hall, Newcastle. 

As President of the Durham College of Science in 
Newcastle, Dr. Lake, Dean of Durham and Warden of 
the University, issued an appeal for subscriptions on 
behalf of the College, a sum of not less than 20,000 
being required to place it in a sound financial position. 

12. The Rev. Dr. Dallinger, the well-known Wesleyan 
minister and scientist, lectured on a scientific topic in 

13. The brig Granite, of West Hartlepool, was 
wrecked at the mouth of the Tees, all hands, eight in 
number, being drowned. Miss Strover, sister of the 
registrar of Hartlepool County Court, while witnessing 
the ineflectual attempts of the lifeboat to save the men, 
fell dead from excitement. 

Benjamin Dunnell, 36 years of age, was committed 
for trial by the Newcastle magistrates, on a charge of 

attempting to murder Margaret Cooper. On the 24th, 
he was sentenced to five years' penal servitude by Mr. 
Baron Pollock. 

14-. In the House of Commons, in answer to a question 
by Mr. Milvain, Mr. Matthews, Home Secretary, stated 
that there had been a careful inquiry and report on the 
subject of the burglary at Edlingham Vicarage, near 
Alnwick, in Northumberland, for which offence two men 
were convicted in 1879, and had since been in penal ser- 
vitude. The circumstances elicited were most singular 
and unprecedented. After careful consideration, he had 
directed criminal proceedings to be taken against two 
others, and he had ordered the two men who were con- 
victed in 1879 to be released on license. Michael Bran- 
nagan and Peter Murphy, the two prisoners set at liberty, 
arrived at Alnwick from Dartmoor on the 16th, and met 
with a most enthusiastic reception from their relatives 
and the inhabitants generally. On the previous day the 
other two men, George Edgell, 46, and Charles Richard- 
son, 55 years of age, were apprehended by the Aluwick 
police, and remanded on the charge of having, on their 
own confession, been implicated in the burglary. The 
gentlemen who had been chiefly instrumental in bringing 
to light the true circumstances of the extraordinary case 
were the Rev. J. J. M. Perry, vicar of St. Paul's, Aln- 
wick, and Mr. C. Percy, solicitor, of the same town. Eg- 
dell and Richardson were committed for trial on the 21st; 
and on being brought before Mr. Baron Pollock, at the 
Northumberland Assizes, on the 24th, they pleaded guilty 
to the burglary, and were each sentenced to five years' 
penal servitude. In the House of Commons, on the 3rd 
of December, in answer to Mr. Milvain, the Home 
Secretary stated that a "free pardon " had been granted 
to Murphy and Brannagan, and that he had obtained the 
sanction of the Treasury, under the exceptional circum- 
stances of the case, to offer 800 to each man as pecuniary 

15. A coroner's jury in London returned a verdict of 
unsound mind in the case of Mr. William Snowden Robin- 
son, one of the senior solicitors practising in Sunderland, 
who had committed suicide by shooting himself at High- 
bury, whither he had gone on a visit. 

At a meeting of delegates of the Northumberland 
Miners' Union, it was decided to ask for an advance of 
wages to the extent of 15 per cent. The owners decided 
to offer an advance of 5 per cent, at hard coal collieries, 
and 2i per cent, at soft coal collieries. These terms were 
eventually accepted by the men. 

16. It was announced that Mrs. McGrady, of Monk- 
wearmouth, who had given birth to four children, had 
received 4, the Queen's bounty. (See vol. ii., page 574.) 
This, according to the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, was 
the only authenticated instance in England of a woman 
having borne four children at a birth. 

During a violent storm of wind, a little girl named 
Ethel Pender, six years of age, was blown into the middle 
of the street at Gateshead, and was killed by a passing 
vehicle. A good deal of damage was done to property in 
Newcastle and district. The gale was renewed with great 
violence on the 22nd, when a boy named Young, six years 
old, was killed by the fall of the chimney connected with 
the school at Stargate Colliery Village, in the parish of 

18. George Macdonald, a cartman, died at Blaydon, 
from the effects of injuries to his head, inflicted by 
Edward Tench, during a quarrel, on the 16th. The man 

January | 




Tench pleaded guilty to the charge of manslaughter, 
before Mr. Baron Pollock, at Durham Assizes, and was 
sentenced to ten months' hard labour. 

19. The result of the triennial election of the Gates- 
head School Board was announced, the Rev. W. Moore 
Ede, Rector, being at the head of the poll. The consti- 
tution of the Board remained practically unchanged. 

A handcuffed prisoner, named William Singleton, 33 
years of age, who had been conveyed to Wallsend Rail- 
way Station for removal to Tynemouth, suddenly threw 
himself upon the line, and was run over by a passing 
train, his injuries being such that he died in a few hours 
at the Newcastle Infirmary. 

Dr. R, S. Watson sat as arbitrator in reference to an 
application for an advance of Is. per ton in connection 
with the North of England Iron Trade. As the result of 
the arbitration, he awarded an advance of 5 per cent, on 
tonnage rates, and 6d. per ton on puddling. The men's 
claim was 10 per cent. 

21. A new Wesleyan Methodist Chapel was opened in 
Newport Road, Middlesbrough. 

Earl Spencer, formerly Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 
addressed a political meeting in the Assembly Rooms, 
North Shields. 

22. The steamship Vauxhall, of London, was sunk by 
collision with the steamer Prudhoe Castle, in Shields 
Harbour, but, happily, no lives were lost. 

23. Lord Armstrong, who had come forward as a can- 
didate for the representation of the Rothbury Division on 
the Northumberland County Council, addressed a public 
meeting at Rothbury, giving some interesting reminis- 
cences of his early connection with Cragside. 

24. At the Newcastle Assizes, Edward Tait, 21, fitter, 
was sentenced to four months' imprisonment for the man- 
slaughter of his brother, David Tait, in Newcastle. 

John Dove and Elizabeth Dove, husband and wife, 
who had been committed for trial on the charge of the 
manslaughter of their daughter, Minnie Dove, were ac- 
quitted at Newcastle Assizes, before Mr. Baron Pollock. 

26. Mr. J. G. Youll, solicitor, was elected an alder- 
man of the Newcastle City Council. 

27. During the prevalence of a severe storm, a fishing 
boat from Alnmouth, belonging to George Richardson, 
was capsised, and Robert Richardson, one of three bro- 
thers, was drowned. 

At a conference, held in Newcastle, of representatives 
of the medical charities and others, it was decided that a 
subscription be opened to found an institution to be de- 
signated the North of England Samaritan Society, with 
the object of supplying medical and surgical appliances, 
&c., to the deserving poor. 

29. At the Durham Assizes, William Waddle was 
sentenced to death by Mr. Baron Pollock, for the murder 
of Jane Beetmoor, or Savage, at Birtley Fell, on the 
22nd of September. (See vol. ii., page 526.) 

Mr. Gainsford Bruce, Q.C., son of the Rev. Dr. 
Bruce, of Newcastle, author of " The Roman Wall," was 
returned to Parliament, as member for the Holborn 
Division of Finsbury, in succession to the late Colonel 

Sir William Vernon Harcourt presided at the annual 
dinner of the Newcastle Liberal Club, and in the evening 
addressed a meeting in the Town Hall. The right hon. 
gentleman spoke on the following evening at a meeting 
at Darlington. 

30. Voting papers, to the number of 85,000, were 
issued to the owners of property and ratepayers in New- 
castle for the purpose of ascertaining whether a majority 
were in favour of triennial instead of annual elections of 
Guardians. On the papers being examined, it was found 
that 9,428 voted in favour of triennial, and 5,921 for 
annual elections. 


1. The Durham Salt Company was registered at 
Somerset House, with a capital of 200,000. 

3. Mrs. Ashton W. Dilke, widow of a former member 
for Newcastle, was present and spoke at the annual 

meeting of the Newcastle and Gateshead Women's 
Liberal Association. 

4. A Jewish Young Men's Improvement Association 
was inaugurated in Newcastle. 

It was announced that Mr. J. Baxter Ellis had ac- 
cepted the office of chairman of the Botanical and Hor- 
ticultural Society of Newcastle, Northumberland, and 

The first launch took place from the new shipbuilding 
yard of Messrs. W. Gray and Co., West Hartlepool. 

5. The shareholders of the High Gosforth Park Com- 
pany, at an extraordinary meeting, resolved to reduce the 
capital from 100,000 to 60,000, the shares in future to 
rank as of 30 instead of 50. 



6. It was announced that, in view of the demand for 
higher education at a reasonable coat, the managers of the 
Wesleyan Orphan House Elementary Day School, New- 
castle, had decided to replace it by a Science and Art 
School, under the regulations of the Science and Art 
Department, with Mr. J. S. Chippindale as head master. 

4. Mr. and Mrs. F. J. W. Collingwood, of Glanton 
Pike, Northumberland, celebrated their golden wedding. 

6. The magistrates at Bedlington, on the application 
of Mr. Richard Fynes, as lessee, granted a full license to 
the new Theatre Royal at Blyth. 

7. At a special meeting of the Cowpen Local Board, it 
was unanimously decided to light Cowpen township with 
electricity, at a cost of 575 per annum. 

8. Mr. R. S. Donkin, M.P., opened a new Church 
of England Working Men's Club, in Tyne Street, North 

9. In the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, Mr. Arthur 
Nicols, F.G.S., lectured, under the auspices of the Tyne- 

side Sunday Lecture Society, on " How did the World 
liepin. and how will it end ? Ancient Beliefs and Modern 
Science." There was a crowded audience, the chair 
being occupied by Mr. Alderman Barkas. 

General entrances. 

NOVEMBER, 1888. 

14. Thirty miners were killed by an explosion of fire- 
damp in the Frederick Pit, Dour, Belgium. 

Information was received that Mr. Jasper Douglas 
Pyne, M.P. for Waterford West, had been drowned 
whilst crossing in a steamer from Dublin to Holyhead. 

15. The marriage of Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., 
with Miss Mary Endicott, daughter of the American 
Secretary for War, was solemnized at St. John's Church, 
Washington, United States. 

19. The Empress Frederick of Prussia, with her 
daughters, arrived in England on a visit to her mother, 
Queen Victoria. 

21. Another outrage was reported from the East End 
of London. An intoxicated woman was attacked by a 
man in a lodging-house with a knife. He only succeeded 
in inflicting a slight wound in the throat before she gave 
the alarm. Though followed for a distance, the criminal 
managed to get away. 

About this time storms were frequent on the East 
Coast, many shipwrecks and much loss of life being re- 

23. A farmer named Dennis Daly was murdered near 
Gloun-na-Geentlay, near Tralee, county Kerry, Ireland. 

23. Death of Major Purcell O'Gorman, who sat in the 
House of Commons for several years, and enjoyed the 
distinction of being the biggest man in the House. He 
was one of the supporters of Dr. Kenealy when that mem- 
ber applied for a Royal Commission to inquire into the 
Tichborne case. 

24. O'Connor beat Teemer in a sculling match on the 
Potomac River, United States. On the 26th, Beach 
defeated Hanlan on the Paramatta River, Australia. 

26. At Betley, Staffordshire, a pointsman named 
James Jervis murdered his wife and two children, and 
took his own life. 

A boy named Serle, aged 13, was murdered at 
Havaut. Suspicion fell upon a lad named Husband, who 
was arrested and charged with the crime. 

30. Several sittings of the Parnell Commission were 
held during November, and much important evidence 
was given concerning outrages and murders in Ireland. 


2. Mr. Cunninghame Graham, M.P., was ordered to 
withdraw from the House of Commons by the Speaker, 
in consequence of having characterised the refusal of 
Mr. W. H. Smith to give a day for the discussion of a 
certain motion as " a dishonourable trick." 

A demonstration took place in Paris, under the 
auspices of the Municipal Council, in honour of M. 
Baudin, a deputy who was killed at the time of the Coup 
d'etat, December 2, 1852. 

3. Prompt measures were taken by the British 
Government for the relief of Suakim, on the Red Sea, 
that town having been besieged for a considerable time by 

7. Richard Wake, an artist for the Graphic, was killed 
by an Arab bullet whilst making sketches at Suakim. 

9. A daring attempt to carry out lynch law took place 
in the mining town of Birmingham, Alabama, United 
States. A mob demanded the officers of the gaol to give 
up a prisoner who had murdered his wife and children. 
This was refused. Firing was at once commenced, and 
about twenty of the mob were killed or wounded. During 
the encounter the sheriff turned a Galling gun on the 

Printed by WALTER SCOTT, Felling-on-Tyne. 





VOL. III. No. 24. 

FEBRUARY, 1889. 


<vtittct milts 3mmaI0 tit the 

ILTHOUGH at the present time this country, 
from its increased population and the waste 
lands being brought under cultivation, is 
entirely free from the large and more 
dangerous forms of ferae natura?, yet in days gone 
by the Northern Counties of England, which were one 
vast range of forest and fell, teemed with animals living in 
a state of nature. 

Long after the Roman occupation wolves were so 
numerous in the North that in the 10th century, during 
Athelstan's reign, roadside retreats were erected in York- 
shire for the protection of travellers from the attacks of 
the savage brutes. For some centuries later the wolds 
of Yorkshire and the great forests of Lancashire 
were over-run with these animals. Even down 
to the 15th century, during the reign of Henry VI., 
Robert Umfraville held the castle of Herboteil 
and manor of Otterburn, in Northumberland, of the 
King by the service of keeping the valley and liberty of 
Kiddesdale free from the ravages of wolves which infested 
the great Northumbrian forests. It is supposed the 
last of these animals in England was slain during 
the reign of Henry VII. 

A few years ago Mr. James Backhouse, ot York, 
assisted by his sons, discovered in a limestone cave, 
situated on a ridge of hills separating Weardale and 
Teesdale, in the county of Durham, and about 500 feet 
above the valley of the Tees, a perfect skeleton of a wolf, 
with bones of other members of this species, besides bones 
of the lynx, wild cat, yellow-breasted martin, wild boar, 
red and roe deer, and other animals still living in the 
district ; but no remains of pre-historic animals were 
found in this cave. Quite recently bones of the wolf, 
wild boar, bear, wild cat, and Boi primigenms have 

been discovered in the peat moss and the limestone caves 
of Cumberland and Westmoreland, thus undoubtedly 
proving that these animals were distributed throughout 
the Northern Counties in former times. 

The wild boar, which was one of the beasts of the chase 
of the ancient Britons, who had it represented on 
their coins, roamed contemporaneously with the wolf, as 
the numerous skulls and other bones found in the peat 
mosses of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmore- 
land, and the many relics of these animals discovered in 
Teesdale caves and other similar limestone caves, bear 
testimony. Some immense boars' tusks, now preserved in 
Middletou Hall, near Wooler, were discovered in Cress- 
well Moss, Northumberland ; and, on the discovery of the 
Roman Station at the La we, South Shields, several perfect 
tusks of the boar, with broken antlers and bones of red 
deer, roebuck, oxen, and other animals were found and 
transferred to the Public Library Museum of that town. 

In the parish church of Stanhope, in the county of Dur- 
ham, is preserved a Roman altar found on Bollihope Com- 
mon, bearing the inscription that it was dedicated to the 
god Silvanus, by Caius Tetius, Veturius Micianus, com- 
mander of a wing of cavalry, in consequence of his having 
taken a wild boar of extraordinary size which many of his 
predecessors had in vain endeavoured to capture. A 
similar altar has been discovered in Northumberland 
dedicated to the same deity by the hunters of Banna. 
The village of Brancepeth, about five miles south-west of 
Durham, is supposed to have taken its name from Brawns- 
path, the path of an enormous boar, which for years was 
the terror of the surrounding district. Ultimately it was 
beguiled into a pit fall, and slain by Roger de Ferie with 
his sword. An old grey stone, supposed to be the remnant 
of a cross in the township of Feery (now Ferry Hill) is said 



to commemorate the successful adventure of Roger de 
Ferie, whose posterity occur in the freehold records as late 
as 1617. The village of Brandon, near Brancepeth, is 
said to derive its name from Brawnsden or Boarsden. 

The last positive information we have regarding these 
animals in the above-named county are from the accounts 
of the bursar of the Monastry of Durham, for payments 
made for bringing in wild boars, dating from 1531 to 1533. 
We have no authentic records when these animals were 
finally extirpated from English soil ; but that they existed 
in the great forests of Lancashire and Westmoreland well 
into the 17th century, we have historic evidence to show. 
Previous to the introduction of firearms many a swarthy 
tusker flourished in the vast oak forests and reedy coverts 
of these Northern Counties. 

The stag, or red deer, now only met with in all its freedom 
among the wild scenery of the Highlands of Scotland and 
some of the Western Isles, was formerly numerous through- 
out the extensive forests of the North-Country. They 
must have been relatively plentiful in Northumberland 
and Durham, for on the discovery of the Roman station at 
South Shields, as I have already stated, quantities of broken 
antlers and other remains were found. Thus it would 
appear that venison had been largely used as food by the 
Roman conquerors. A great many perfect antlers of red 
deer have been, from time to time, brought up from 
the bed of the Tyne by the dredgers. Some that I have 
seen were in a very perfect condition, and, judging from 
their partially-fossilised state, must have lain long in the 
river bed. Red deer must have lingered longer in the 
North-West Counties after their disappearance from the 
Northern Counties, for it is recorded that the last of these 
animals were destroyed in the great forest of Bowland in 
Lancashire in 1805. 

The roe buck, like the red deer, is unknown in a wild 
state south of the Firth of Forth at the present day. 
Yet it lived coetaneous with its larger relative, its bones 
and antlers having been found in the same caves and peat 
mosses with those of the red deer. 

During the post-glacial age, reindeer roamed throughout 
the length and breadth of the British Isles, and they 
have left their remains in the peat mosses and river 
deposits of the North, as well as in other districts of the 
country. Their disappearance would seem to be due to 
climatic changes, as several attempts have been made to 
introduce them into the Highlands of Scotland ; but in 
every instance they have failed. Even at the present day 
the reindeer of Swedish and Norwegian Lapland are 
gradually retreating further north within the Arctic 

Antlers of the European elk (Cervus alecs), an animal 
at present confined to northern Europe, were found in 
Chirden Burn, North Tyne. They are now preserved in 
the pal;eon tological department of the Museum of Natural 
History, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Other remains of Cerna 
alecs have been met with in the neighbouring counties, 

and a skull with the antlers attached was found in 
Whitrig Bog, Berwickshire. This find is now in the 
museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 

Going back to prehistoric times, we find that the 
gigantic Irish deer (Cervus megaceris giganteus), so 
named from the abundance of its remains found in the 
shell marl and peat bogs of Ireland, once ranged through 
the forests of the Northern Counties. Its bones have been 
discovered in Northumberland and Durham, at the 
mouth of the Tees, and at South Shields. The jaws and 
other bones of this beast unearthed at Shields were 
deposited on the boulder-clay, beneath the peat and brick 
earth. They are now in the Newcastle Museum. 

Bos primigeniui (the Urus of Ceesar) must once have 
been plentiful from the number of its remains found in the 
peat mosses of the North. Two skulls of this gigantic 
extinct ox, with their horn cores attached, in the 
possession of Mr. Robert Blair, South Shields, were dug 
out of Jarrow Slake near that town. Skulls of the extinct 
Bos longifrons, in the Public Library Museum, South 
Shields, were found amongst other animal remains at the 
Roman station at the Lawe. 

We have it in evidence that the European lynx had its 
habitation in these Northern Counties, from its well-pre- 
served bones found in conjunction with the bones of wolf, 
wild boar, wild cat, and others in the Teesdale cave. 
Upwards of a century ago, the wild cat was not uncommon 
in the North of England, but, at the present time, it is con- 
fined to the Northern Highlands of Scotland. The last 
recorded instance of its capture in Northumberland was of 
one being killed on the Eslington estate, belonging to the 
Earl of Ravensworth, nearly fifty years ago. 

The yellow-breasted marten, now restricted to the 
Highland forests of Scotland and Wales, and the woods of 
Lincolnshire, with a few individuals which still linger 
among the mountainous crags of Cumberland, formerly 
inhabited these parts. Its remains have been found 
in Teesdale cave, and in the more recently discovered 
sea cave at Whitburn Lizards, near Marsden. A yellow- 
breasted martin was caught in the grounds of West 
Chirton House, near North Shields, on May 23, 1883. In 
the following week another animal of this species was 
taken in a trap at Harehope, near Alnwick, North- 
umberland. Doubtless these two animals, a male and 
female, caught within a week of each other, had strayed 
away from their haunts in the Cumberland hills. The 
one taken at Chirton came into my possession a few days 
after its capture. It was fierce and intractable, burying 
itself in the hay of its bed, and refusing all food 
when looked at. Although it lived nearly two 
years in confinement, it never lost its savage wildness. 
Previous to these captures the last instance on record of 
the yellow-breasted marten seen in Northumberland was 
one which had taken up its abode in a crow's nest near 
Rothbury about 60 years ago. 

February I 
1889. f 



The foumart or pole oat is now almost, if not already, 
extirpated from out the counties of Durham and North- 
umberland. A few yet remain among the crags of Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland. 

The European bear (Ursus aretoi) and the beaver 
existed in this country within historic times, and many of 
the first-named animals were imported into Imperial 
Rome for the gladiatorial shows. Few remains of either 
of these animals have been discovered in the Northern 
Counties. A perfect skull and some bones of the 
Caledonian bear found in the peat at Shaws, Dumfries- 
shire, are now in the museum of the Society of 
Antiquaries, Edinburgh. The jaws of the beaver found 
in the marl in Loch Maree, near Cupar-Angus, are 
deposited in the same museum. Other remains of the 
beaver have been found in Dumfriesshire, Roxburghshire, 
Berwickshire, and in Sedbergh and other places in 
Yorkshire. WM. YELLOWLT. 




IATLING STREET began, on the coast of 

Kent, with three short branches converging 
on Canterbury, those from Dover (Dubris), 
Richborough (Rutupium), and Limpnie (Por- 
tus Lemanus) respectively, and then it went on to London 
(Ijondinium), from which, as now, a number of distinct 
lines of road diverged. Then by way of St. Albans, 
Dunstable, Wroxeter, and other towns, sixteen or seven- 
teen in all, the Watling Street arrived at Abergwyngregyn 
(now simply Aber), once the residence of the native 
princes of North Wales, and Bangor, on the banks of the 
Menai Strait, whence there were ferries across to the Isle 
of Angelsey (Mona), the chief seat of the Druids. This 
line coincided for a considerable part of the way with the 
old Irish mail route from London to Holyhead. At a 
place which the Romans called Etiocetum, now Wall, in 
Staffordshire, a branch called the Via Devana, left the 
Holyhead line, and proceeded westward to Chester 
(Deva), then a much more important place than it now is. 
From Chester the Watling Street came on by Northwich, 
where the Romans made good use of the copious brine 
springs, and passed Knutsford and Altringham, nearly 
on the line of the Cheshire Railways, to Manchester 
(Mancunium), where it crossed the Mersey ; thence over 
the moors by Ilkley (Olicana), Masham, Hornby, and 
Catterick (Cataractonum) to a ford over the river Tees 
near Piercebridge (Ad Tisam), where it entered the county 
of Durham. 

From Piercebridge, the Watling Street passed away 
nearly north, through a rich and interesting country, in 
the direction of Auckland, almost on the line of the old 
highway, to Binchester (Vinovium or Vinovia), then a 

town of same extent, said to have been the site of a pot- 
tery which produced ware equal, if not superior, to any 
made in Britain, and popularly famous for the numerous 
coins of the higher and lower empire found there, called 
Binchester pennies. The Wear was crossed in the neigh- 
bourhood of Willington, from whence the road stretched 
due north past Brandon Hill to the Dearness, and so on 
to Lanchester (Epiacum), where the Roman town occu- 
pied a lofty brow on a tongue of land formed by the 
junction of two small streams on the west side of the 
modern village. This was a very important place four- 
teen hundred years ago, as evidenced by the numerous 
antiquities dug up on its site.* It had a court-house 
(basilica), aqueducts, and public baths, and likewise an 
arsenal and commodious barracks, which latter, we are 
told, were rebuilt by the Emperor Gordiauus when they 
had fallen into decay. After leaving this noble station, 
the road ran past Leadgate, and to the westward of 
Pontop Pike, to Ebchester (Vindomora), where it crossed 
the Derwent into Northumberland, and where the re- 
mains of it are still plainly to be seen, both near the 
modern village, and as it ascends the hill opposite, lead- 
ing to the Corstopitum, now Corchester, close beside Cor- 
bridge, where the Tyne was crossed. 

Corstopitum was one of the most important towns on 
the banks of the Tyne, not only during the Roman period, 
but for several ages afterwards, even down to the terrible 
times of the Scottish wars. From it the Watling Street 
ran, in a generally straight line, nearly north-north-west, 
through Northumberland, over the Cheviots, into Scot- 
land ; and during the Middle Ages and down till last 
century, when other roads were made, it continued to be 
the great central route of communication between Eng- 
land and Scotland. On this account it is probable that 
the great fair for live stock held at Stagshawbank, near 
Corbridge, immediately south of the Roman Wall, at 
stated periods through the year, has come down to us 
from the time of the Roman occupation. 

The Roman Wall was crossed at a place called Portgate, 
near Halton Chesters (Hunnum) ; and then the Watling 
Street stretched away, almost as straight as the crow flies, 
to Risingham (Habitancum), near Woodburn, on the 
Reed. This famous place, the name of which signifies 
the home of the giant, is mentioned by Sir Walter Scott 
in the notes to " Rokeby, " as it had previously been by 
Warburton in his account of Northumberland, published 
in 1726, as distinguished by the possession of the celebra- 
ted "antic figure" of Robin of Reedsdale, who is sup- 
posed to have been a great Roman hunter in the primeval 
British forest, t The river Reed was here crossed over 
to the right bank, along which the road proceeded for six 
or seven miles, mostly in the line of the old turnpike, 
past Troughend, till it crossed the river once more at 

* See Monthly Chroniclt, vol. it, page 73. 
t For Robin of Risineham gee Monthly Chronicle, vol. ii., p. 63. 



f February 

The next station was Bremenium, now High Rochester, 
or Riechester, near Burnhope Craig, placed on the brow 
of a steep rugged hill, with walls seven feet in thickness, 
chequered with ashlar work, and defended by triple ram- 
parts of earth. It was the strongest fortress the Romans 
possessed in Northumberland, commanding, as it did, the 
pass over the Cheviots into Reedsdale ; and before they 
took possession of it, it was the chief fortress of that tribe 
of the Brigantes known as the Ottadini, whose couutry is 
believed to have extended from the Tyne to the Forth, 
along the sea coaat, and for some distance inland, where 
they bordered on another British tribe, inhabiting Jed 
Forest and Teviotdaie the Gadeni. 

After leaving Rochester, the road ran straight north, 
and made for the border line between England and Scot- 
land at the head of Coquet, following the course of the 
Sills Burn, crossing the wide waste of Thillmoor, by 
way of Gemmelscleugh, or Gemmelspath, reaching Chew 
Green, the Ad Fines of the Itinerary, at the foot of the 
Brown Hart Law, on a gently sloping hill, at the base of 
which the two heads of the Coquet have their rise. 
This is a most wonderful place, almost bewildering in the 
intricacy of its fortifications. 

Beyond Ad Fines the road bends round Brown Hart 
Law ; and while doing so it crosses the border line, and 
from thence proceeds northward, on the back of the range 
of hills which send down their streams into the Cayle, 
near the Hindhopes, on the west of Blackball Hill and 
Resby Fell ; thence by the head of Skerrysburghope, and 
onwards for Wodenlaw, the eastern base of which it 
skirts, and descends the mountains to the Cayle, which 
it passes at Towford. On the top of Wodenlaw there have 
been two forts, defended on the south-east by triple ram- 
parts for the purpose of guarding the mountain pass. 
This elevated station commands a magnificent prospect 
on the west, north, and east. Westward the whole 
northern slopes of the Cheviot range are exposed to view. 
On the north, the lofty range of the Lammermoors limits 
the vision, while eastward the German Ocean is visible. 
Between Wodenlaw and the summit of Soltra lies a beau- 
tiful country, encircled by alpine summits, extending to 
nearly forty miles in diameter. Almost in the middle of 
the magnificent scene the three-peaked Eildons are 
seen from base to crest. 

The Watling Street, leaving the valley of the Cayle 
and traversing that of the Oxnam, past Street House and 
Pennymuir, reaches the Jed, near its junction with the 
Teviot, at Bonjedward (Gadanica), where there was 
another great central station. Then, crossing the Teviot, 
it runs over Lilliard's Edge, the scene of the battle of 
Ancrurn Moor,* to a station in the neighbourhood of the 
Eildon Hills (the Trimontium of the Romans). This 
station is understood to have been at Eildon, where the 
headquarters of the troops were established; and at 

* See vol. ii., page 245. 

Newstead, a mile or BO further on, immediately below 
Melrose, the numerous Roman antiquities which are 
found demonstrate it to have been a large town at least 
down till the close of the fifth century, when the Romans 
abandoned Britain. The Tweed was here crossed, it is 
thought, by a stone bridge of which the abutments were 
once traceable on both sides of the river. 

Thence the Watling Street proceeded northwards up 
the west bank of the Leader, past Chester Lee and Black 
Chester to Channelkirk, situated on the southern slopes 
of the Lammermoors. From Channelkirk, where the re- 
mains of the Roman camp are still to be seen, the great 
road pursued its way over Soutra Hill across Midlothian 
to the site of the modern city of Edinburgh. 

In many parts of its course, both northwards and south 
wards, the Watling Street is still open. During the last 
three-quarters of the eighteenth century, and the first 
quarter of this, the cattle trade from Scotland mostly 
passed along it; and the traffic at some times of the year 
as after the Doune and Falkirk Trysts, the largest fairs in 
Britain was enormous, the herds of black Highland 
kyloes following one another, without intermission, for 
days, on their long, weary way southwards to the great 
fair at Chipping-Barnet, near St. Albans, if not disposed 
of elsewhere on the route. One need not wonder to find 
the road much out up in many places, considering for 
what a length of time it continued to be thus used with- 
out the least pains being taken to keep it in order : con- 
sidering also that every farmer in the vicinity felt no 
manner of scruple in carting off stones from it, and that 
the county surveyors used the same freedom when form- 
ing new statute-labour or turnpike roads. 


CSftcreto at 

j]ANY long years ago, before there were any 
ironworks in or near the pleasant village 
of Tudhoe, or any paper manufactory in 
the neighbourhood, or ladies' seminary, 
or gentlemen's boarding school, or even a public-house 
when the township was entirely rural, and the principal 
inhabitants besides the vicar were the farmers who occu- 
pied the eight farms of Tudhoe Hall, Tudhoe North 
Farm, High Butcher Race, Black Horse, York Hill, 
Coldstream, Tudhoe Moor, and Tudhoe Mill a company 
of reapers assembled at the last named place, in the 
farmer's kitchen, to regale themselves on the evening of 
the concluding reaping day with a " mell supper " the 
North Country term for the feast of harvest home. The 
mell dolly or kirn babby, made of the last cuts of corn 
reaped, gaily decorated with ribbons, had been carried 
home in triumph by the women from the harvest field. 

February 1 


with merry shouting, singing, and dancing, and duly 
fixed up above the dresser, to remain there till the next 
year ; and the farmer's wife had had her week's ohurnins' 

hat forenoon, so as to have plenty of fresh butter to 
regale the company with, and there was a whole pile of 
barmy fadges, of beef and mutton and pork and home- 
made cheese everything, in short to constitute a hearty 
hearty, wholesome, substantial supper while the good- 
man had laid in what he deemed an adequate supply of 
liquids to cheer the hearts and raise the spirits of the 
assembled company. But either the party was larger 
than had been expected, or they drank more freely than 
their host had anticipated, for the liquor was exhausted 
before the thirst of some of the older hands had been fully 
satisfied ; so it was agreed that each of them should con- 
tribute a small sum, and that one of the company should 
be despatched forthwith to the nearest public house for a 
fresh supply. The mission was entrusted to a poor 
fellow, a sort of half-wit, who was always ready to go 
on anybody's chance errands. He was directed to go to 
Sunderland Bridge, which was about a mile and a half 
distant, and get a couple of quart bottles of whisky filled 
at the public house, and come back as fast as his legs 
could carry him. But when he had been absent nearly 
three hours, the thirsty souls naturally began to be very 
impatient. As he seemed likely to be loitering by the 
way, one of the men at length swore, with a deep oath, 
that he would go and bring him back by " the lug and 
the horn," but, on second thoughts, he resolved to 
give him such a fright that he would run 
straight to the mill-house, without once daring 
to look over his shoulder. Accordingly he procured 
a sheet,' drew it round him, and stalked out to meet 
"Simple Simey." His thirsty compotators waited long, 
but neither the messenger nor the man in search of him 
appeared. Some of the company went home disgusted, 
but a good many sat still in expectation. At last day 
began to break, and they could sit no longer. But just 
when they were on the point of departing the poor half- 
wit rushed in among them, pale and trembling ; and when 
they asked him why he had stayed so long, and whether 
he had seen anything uncanny, he replied, " Aye, that aa 
have I As aa was coming past the Nicky-Nack Field, a 
white ghost came out upon me, and aa was sair freeten'd ; 
but when aa looked aa saw a black ghost ahint it ; so aa 
yowled as loud as aa could to the black ghost to catch the 
white ghost ; and the white ghost leukt about, and when 
it saw the black yen, it screamed cot amain and tried to 
run away ; but blackey was ower clivvor for't, and ran 
like a hatter, till it gat haud o' whitey, and ran away wiv 
him aalltogether !" When day dawned, and the men 
ventured forth to seek their companion, they discovered 
in the Nicky-Nack Field a few fragments of the sheet in 
which he had been wrapped, but what had become of the 
man himself could never be ascertained. 

Another Tudhoe tradition relates to an incident that 

happened to the occupier of Tudhoe Mill about the end 
of the last century. He is represented to have been a 
quiet, steady man, who always came home sober from 
Durham, Bishop Auckland, or elsewhere on market 
days. On one occasion he had been at Durham on business, 
and had been detained till night-fall. He was returning 
home on foot, and had reached Sunderland Bridge, when, 
looking up the bank before him, he espied, at the distance 
of about twenty paces, a stiff-built man trudging along 
the road. As the place was lonely, he felt glad that he 
was likely to get a companion to walk home with, 
although he wondered that he had not observed the per- 
son before, as the road was quite straight at the place. 
The stranger seemed to be a tallish man, wearing a broad- 
brimmed hat, which made the farmer suspect he must be 
a Qnaker. While this increased his wonder that a 
member of that respectable society should be travelling 
alone there at that time at night, he quickened his steps 
so ae to overtake him. It was very strange, however ; the 
quicker he walked, so much the quicker glided on the 
person in advance, and yet without appearing to exert 
himself in the least. They kept at about the same 
distance from each other, while both accelerated their 
pace, until they arrived at Nicky-Nack Bridge, and the 
miller was about to turn off to the gate on the right hand. 
In doing so he withdrew his eyes from the object before 
him, it might be just for a moment, and when he looked 
again there was nothing on the bridge, nor on the slight 
ascent beyond it, nor yet in the lane further away. 
Astonished at this, and determined to solve the mystery, 
he turned and examined every place where it was possible 
the man might have concealed himself. But it was in 
vain that he did so. A suspicion now for the first time 
flashed through the miller's mind, that it might possibly 
be an apparition ; but, as he had never knowingly harmed 
anybody, he had no apprehension that any "ill thing" 
could have been sent to haunt or frighten him ; and so, 
without feeling in the least nervous, but much puzzled 
what to think of the affair, he went straight home, where 
he told his wife what he had seen. He got little satisfac- 
tion, however, from the good dame, who was a very matter- 
of-fact woman, and who assured him that he must have 
been dreamingwith his eyes open. Till the day of his death, 
however, the miller remained unconvinced. It was some- 
thing supernatural he had seen ; there could be no doubt 
about it. But why it should have been sent to him, at 
that particular time and place, he knew no more than 
the man in the moon. And so the matter had to 
rest. Nevertheless, if we might venture to suggest 
an explanation, we should be inclined to say 
that the honest man had only seen his own shadow 
thrown upon the road right in front of him by that 
mighty mother of enchantments, the moon, who had 
coyly popped in behind a cloud at the moment when the 
Eidolon disappeared. 
Many similar legends (some of which are mentioned in 



I February 
\ 1889. 

Charles Waterton's Autobiography, quoted on p. 450 of 
this volume of the Monthly Chronicle), lingered long 
among the old inhabitants of Tudhoe, but with the spread 
of education, and the great influx of strangers into the 
district to carry on the coal-mining and iron industries, 
they have now mostly faded out of recollection, and are 
beyond hope of recovery. 

jfaatball in tft* J!0rtft, 

HE cannot pretend to determine at what 
period the game of football originated. 
That of hand-ball, as we learn from the 
" Iliad," was practised in Ionia and the 
Troad before the days of Homer. We also find it alluded 
to in many passages of the Latin classics. Thus Plautus 
says: "The gods have men for their balls to play with." 
Seneca speaks of "skilfully and diligently catching 
the ball, and aptly and quickly sending it on." 
And *' the ball is mine " (Mea pila est) was pro- 
verbial among the Romans for " I've won ! " In this 
country football has been a favourite winter game 
from a very remote date how far back neither Strutt 
nor any other writer on sports and pastimes can tell 
us. King Edward III. prohibited it by public edici 
in 1349, because it was supposed to impede the pro- 
gress of archery, then all-important as a branch of 
national defence ; and King James I., in his "Basilicon 
Doron," fulminated against the game, as he did against 
the use of tobacco, in the following strain : " From this 
court I debar all rough and violent exercises as the 
football, meeter for lameing than making able the users 
thereof." But, notwithstanding this interdict, con- 
firmed as it was under the Commonwealth, merry- 
makers continued to play at .the heroic old game, even 
in the narrow and crooked streets of London, 
which, as Sir William Davenant wrote, was "not 
very conveniently civil." One of Hone's correspondents, 
writing in the "Every Day Book," says that when he 
was a boy football was commonly played on the Sunday 
mornings before church time in a village in the West 
of England ; and he adds that, at the time when he wrote, 
it was played during fine weather every Sunday after- 
noon by a number of Irishmen in some fields near 

There is a short description of a country wake in the 
Spectator, wherein the writer, believed to be Addison, says 
that, after findine a ring of cudgel-players, " who were 
breaking one another's heads in order to make some im- 
pression on their mistresses' hearts," he came to a football 
match, and afterwards to a ring of wrestlers, and also a 
group engaged in pitching the bar. And he concludes 
by saying that the squire of the parish always treated 
the company every year with a hogshead of ale. 

Football was very common on the Borders during the 

long wars between England and Scotland. Whenever a 
foray was contemplated, as it often was, in time of truce, 
a match would be got up, under cover of which great num- 
bers would assemble without exciting suspicion, and 
concert a plan for making a raid over to the English or 
Scotch side, as the case might be. At other times, 
persons not friendly to the existing Government would 
meet at football, and there talk treason without being 
suspected. Each district had rules of its own; but in 
almost every parish, and in every town or village, 
some particular saint's day was set apart for 
"playing a gole " at camp-ball, field-ball, or foot- 
ball, as the game was variously named. The usual 
time was at Shrovetide, when sports and feast- 
ing were in full vogue all over, previous to the 
commencement of Lent. The regular custom was to have 
a cockfight as well as a football match on Shrove or Pan- 
cake Tuesday. At some places every man in the parish, 
gentry not excepted, was obliged to turn out and support 
the side to which he belonged, and any person who neg- 
lected to do so was fined ; but this custom, being attended 
with inconvenience, has long since been abolished. 

At Inveresk, in Midlothian, there used to be a standing 
match at football en Shrove Tuesday, there called 
Fastern's Een, between the married and unmarried 
women, and the former, it is said, were always victorious. 
This was a peculiar case, however. 

In most places the contest was between the bachelors 
and the married men. In towns where there was a 
market cross, the parties drew themselves up on opposite 
sides at a certain hour, say two o'clock p.m., when the 
ball was thrown up and the play went on till sunset or 
later, fast and furious, the combatants kicking each 
others' shins without the least ceremony, though it might 
be against the rules. 

At Scone, the old residence of the Kings of Scotland, 
handball and not football was the favourite game pre- 
ferred ; and there, though no person was allowed by the 
conventional law to kick the ball, but only to run away 
with it, and throw it from him when stopped, there was 
generally some scene of violence before the game was 
won, which caused it to be proverbial in that part of the 
country " All was fair at the Ball of Scone." 

The conqueror at a handball match was entitled to 
keep the ball till the next year, when he had the much 
coveted honour of being the first to throw it up. A man 
belonging to Hawick, named, if we mistake not, Glen- 
dinning being a crack runner, who had often come off 
victor in his native town in the matches there, where the 
opposing players are the residents east and west of the 
Slitrig, locally known as the Eastla' and Westla' Water 
Men was in the habit of crossing the Border every 
year about Shrovetide, and taking a part in the ball 
quisition during the day, together, of course, with lashings 
of drink. 
Such are some of the historic features of a pastime 

February 1 



play, sometimes in Northumberland, and at other 
times in Cumberland ; and he generally managed to 
bring home the ball with him in triumph. In some 
places the prize for the victor was a new beaver hat, and 
when Glendinning knew that to be the case, he always 
went away with as shabby an old head-covering as he 
could find, confident that he would come back with a 
much better one after a new victory. 

Brand tell* us that it was once customary among the 
colliers and others in the North of England for a party 
to watch at a wedding for the bridegroom's coming out 
of church, after the ceremony, in order to demand money 
for a football a claim that admitted of no refusal, for, if 
it was not complied with, the newly-married couple were 
liable to be grossly insulted, with loud hootings at least, 
if not getting bespattered with mud. 

In several places, it was the custom to carry the foot- 
ball from door to door, and beg money to be spent in 
refreshments ; and here likewise it was dangerous to 
refuse, because the recusants' windows were very likely 
to be broken by the lads as soon as it was dark. Where 
the game was played in the High Street, people generally 
took the precaution to shut their shops and barricade 
their front windows in the course of the forenoon. The 
scene, when the players got fully heated, would baffle 
description, old and young contending as keenly as if the 
prize had been a kingdom. Sometimes, where a river 
intervened, as it does, say, at Hawick, Jedburgh, 
Alnwick, Wooler, Chester-le-Street, and other places, the 
players considered it no obstacle whatever, but rather 
thought it the best of the fun to plunge in tumultuously, 
be the water deep or shallow, and rather risk being half- 
drowned than interrupt the game. 

On Shrove Tuesday there was always a great game at 
football in many parishes in the North of England. 
Chester-le-Street, Rothbury, Alnwick, Wooler, and other 
towns, were particularly famous. The game is still 
played with great vigour in the former place between the 
up-towners and the down-towners. Brand describes the 
ceremonial as observed at Alnwick in the year 1762. The 
waits belonging to the town came playing to the castle at 
2 p.m., when a football was thrown over the wall to the 
populace congregated before the gates. Then came forth 
the tall and stately porter dressed in the Percy livery, 
blue and yellow, plentifully decorated with silver lace, 
and gave the ball its first kick, sending it bounding out 
of the barbican of the castle into Bailiffgate ; and then 
the young and vigorous kicked it through the principal 
street* of the town, and afterwards into the pasture, 
which had been used from time immemorial for such 
enjoyments. Here it was kicked about until the great 
struggle came for the honour of making capture of the 
ball itself. The more vigorous combatants kicked it away 
from the multitude, and at last some one, stronger and 
fleeter than the rest, seized upon it and fled away pursued 
by others. To escape with the ball, the river Aln was 

waded through or swam across, and walls were scaled and 
hedges broken down. The victor was the hero of the day, 
and proud of his trophy. 

When Lord John Russell, in the year 1835, introduced 
the Municipal Reform Bill into the House of Commons, 
its provisions created much excitement throughout the 
country, and numerous meetings were held all over Eng- 
land, either in support of or in opposition to the measure. 
The Duke of Northumberland, jealous of any interference 
with his manorial rights, gave the most determined 
opposition to the bill, and left no stone unturned to pre- 
vent Alnwick from being included within its scope. As 
one cheap and ready means of effecting his object, he gave 
the sum of 10 that year to the ball players to be spent in 
seasonable refreshments. A man named Joe Ramsay 
was running down the street proclaiming the glad news, 
when an old woman cried aloud that it would have 
been wiser like if his Grace had given the money to 
the poor. "Damn the poor ! they want everything," 
was Joe's sharp rejoinder. There were a good 
many Chartists at that time in Alnwick, and they 
managed to get up a petition in favour of the bill ; but 
the bulk of the freemen, either of their own spontaneous 
accord, or seeking to curry favour with the duke and his 
agents, sent up petitions, much more numerously signed, 
for the withdrawal of the borough from the bill; and 
Alnwick was accordingly erased in the House of Lords, 
and remains to this day outside the area of reformed muni- 
cipal corporations. With the money given by the duke, 
several barrels of strong ale were purchased, and a regular 
jollification took place in the Town Hall, after the ball 
play was over. There was " dancing and deray" to the 
heart's content of the lads and lasses, and "guttling and 
guzzling" among the elders, till the small hours of the 
morning ; and the solid and liquid stuffs left over were 
consumed next day by all who felt inclined to come. An 
unlucky Chartist, who had the temerity to intrude him- 
self into the jovial company, thinking there was 
no reason why he should not have his share of 
the good things that were going, was detected 
as soon as he showed his face, laid violent hands upon, 
and would have been tossed over the outside stone stair 
of the hall, if some of the more sober guests had not inter- 
fered. The venturesome Chartist's name was Will 

At Wooler, the game was played between the married 
and unmarried men ; nd after kicking the ball through the 
town, one party endeavoured to kick it into the hopper 
of Earl Mill, and the other over a tree which stood at the 
"crook of the Till." In the days of yore, this contest 
sometimes continued for three days. 

In many of the villages in North Northumberland, as 
well as in Yetholm, Morebattle, and other places on the 
Scottish Border, there was always a dance after the ball 
play, and a general feasting on currant dumplings, to 
cook which most of the kail pots were put In re- 




which has in our own day become more popular in all 
parts of the country than any other winter amuse- 
ment. W. B. 

[ EXHAM, with its historic associations, affords 
a fair field for the antiquary and archaeologist, 
and the lover of nature is delighted with its 
picturesque surroundings. Few parts of Northumberland 

can compare with it for delightful walks, not the least 
attractive being that from the old town to Swallowship. 
This is the name of a small promontory round which the 
Devil's Water peacefully flows in marked contrast to its 
previous noisy career. On both sides of the stream, for a 
short distance, vertical cliffs, clothed with verdure, add 
dignity to the scene. The place is much frequented by 
holiday parties and is a favourite subject with local artists 
and photographers. Our drawing is reproduced from .a 
photograph by Mr. J. P. Gibson, the well-known land- 
scape photographer of Hexhana. 

February \ 



fiidttntf tit tfte 

j]T is now more than eighteen years since 
Charles Dickens, " the most popular 
novelist of the century, and one of the 
greatest humourists that England has pro- 
duced," passed away, amidst the deep sorrow and regret 
of the whole English nation, and indeed of almost every 
civilized people. Turning over the leaves of Forster's 
life of the great writer the other day, I was struck with 
his evident liking for Newcastle and Newcastle people. 
That this liking was genuine, and not assumed to 
please his friend Forster,* seems plain enough, for he 
gives many eood reasons why he was so fond of North- 
Country men. 

But first a word about Dickens's birthplace, and the 
house in which he died at Gad's Hill. The great novelist 
was born in the end house at Mile End Terrace (a short 
terrace of six houses) in Commercial Road, Landport, 
Portsmouth. Curiously enough, the house was owned and 

Bir/A f/ace 

if CAtr/ls DtcJrens. 

occupied by a Newcastle gentleman, as he himself lately 
stated in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, for about 
fifteen years. It is now in the same state, and has the 
same appearance, as when Dickens first saw the light 
within its walls. Gad's Hill Place, where Dickens died 
suddenly on the 9th of June, 1870, is famous also for 

* For some account of John Forster, see vol. ii., page 49. 

its association with the exploits of Shakspeare's Sir John 
Falstaff. Indeed, there is an inn near it bearing the 
name of the redoubtable knight. It was at this inn that a 
waiter lamented the death of Charles Dickens because 
"he used to have all his beer there." The dining-room 
of Gad's Hill Place is depicted in Fildes's celebrated 

picture, "The Empty Chair. " Here it was that Dickens 
died. Seized with a fit during dinner, he was laid on a 
couch in a corner of the room, and never rose more. 

The first time Charles Dickens visited Newcastle was 
at the end of August, 1852. Some little while before that 
it was proposed that a series of amateur dramatic per- 
formances should be given by the most eminent authors 
and artists in behalf of the "Guild of Literature and 
Art," which had just been established for the benefit 
of poor members of those crafts who had been over- 
taken by sickness, old age, or misfortune. Sir Bulwer 
Lytton had written a comedy "Not so Bad as we 
Seem " for the amateurs, and this was first played at 
Devonshire House, her Majesty and the Prince Consort 
being present. Amongst the actors were Mark Lemon, 
John Forster, Wilkie Collins, Douglas Jerrold, Charles 
Knight, John Tenniel, Augustus Egg, &c. Stanfield, 
Maclise, Grieve, Telbin, and other eminent artists 
painted the scenery, and the distinguished company the 
most remarkable company of actors that ever "starred" 
through the provinces set out on their tour through the 
large provincial towns. Everywhere the enterprise was 
a big success. Whether the room was large or small 
they did not perform in a licensed theatre it was always 
packed from floor to ceiling. 

Before the company arrived at Newcastle, John Forster 
had to return to London on some important business 
or other. This was a disappointment, and so was 
the absence of Douglas Jerrold, who, from some cause 
which I cannot make out, did not appear in Newcastle. 
The comedy was performed in the Assembly Rooms on 
the 27th August, 1852. "Into the room," writes Dickens, 
"where Lord Carlisle was, by-the-bye, they squeezed 600 
people at 12s. 6d. into a space reasonably capable of holding 
300." Of the performance as a whole, the Newcattle 





Chronicle has a well-written criticism. After lamenting 
the absence of Forster and Jerrold, that paper goes on to 
say : "The play itself is loosely hung together, the plot 
is insufficient and meagre, and does not furnish adequate 
motives for the development of the conclusion ; but with 
the aid of fine music, costly costumes, magnificent 
scenery, and really respectable acting, it went off exceed- 
ingly well, and was most enthusiastically applauded." 
The Chronicle speaks very highly of the acting of Charles 
Dickens, especially in the farce, where, along with Mark 
Lemon, he kept the audience in a continual roar of 
laughter. The farce, I believe, was a new one, 
entitled " Mr. Nightingale's Diary, " and was played for 
the first time at Newcastle. An unfortunate accident 
had occurred at the Central Station on the arrival of the 
company, a pair of runaway horses upsetting one of the 
vans containing the scenery, every atom of which was 
turned over. By good luck, however, there was no 
damage done. 

The Guild of Literature and Art Company were at 
Sunderland, August 28, the night after the Newcastle 
performance. Writing from the Wear borough to 
Forster, Dickens says : " Last night, in a hall built like 
a theatre, with pit, boxes, and gallery, we had about 1,200 
people I dare say more. They began with a round of 
applause when Coote's white waistcoat appeared in the 
orchestra, and wound up the farce with three deafening 
cheers. I never saw such good fellows. Stanny (Stan- 
field) is their fellow-townsman, was born here, and they 
applauded his scenes as if it was himself." Dickens had 
walked from Newcastle to Sunderland that morning. 

The hall engaged by the amateurs at Sunderland 
was a perfectly new one, having, in fact, had the slates 
put on only overnight. As Dickens was manager of 
the company, and responsible for everything before and 
behind the curtain, his anxiety and " worrit " lest the 
place should prove unsafe, and an accident should 
happen to the immense audience assembled within its 
walls, nearly made him ill, and all but caused him to stop 
the performance. But Dickens always got fun out of the 
most serious difficulties, and we cannot help smiling at his 
own description of his dilemma, " I asked W.," he says, 
"what he thought, and he consolingly observed that his 
digestion was so bad that death had no terrors for him ! " 
"The only comfort I had," he continued, "was in stum- 
bling at length on the builder, and finding him a plain, prac- 
tical North- Country man, with a foot rule in his pocket. 
I took him aside, and asked him should we, or could we, 
prop up any weak part of the place. He told me there 
wasn't a stronger building in the world ; that they had 
opened it on Thursday night to thousands of the working 
people, and induced them to sing and make every possible 
trial of the vibration. " This somewhat pacified Dickens ; 
the performance took place, and, as we have seen, was a 
great success. 

Mr. Dickens's earliest public readings were given at 

Birmingham on behalf of a new literary institute there, 
and his services were of course gratuitous. This was in 
the middle of December, 1853. Although he insisted 
that a number of seats should be reserved for working 
men at threepence each, the institution was bene- 
fited by these readings to the extent of between 400 
and 500. In the following year, for a similar 
purpose, he read at Bradford in a carpenter's shop, 
with equally satisfactory results, the price of admission 
being 5s., though he again stipulated that a number of 
threepenny seats should be reserved for workmen. The 
natural result of Dickens's kindness was to over- 
whelm him with applications from all parts of the king- 
dom to read (without pay, we may be sure) for all sorts of 
institutions and objects, which in self-defence he was 
obliged to decline. From the great interest taken in his 
readings, however, and the enthusiasm with which they 
were always received, he conceived the idea of paid read- 
ings for the benefit of Charles Dickens himself. It was 
not till after much doubt and hesitation that he came to 
this resolution ; indeed, it took him years of anxious 
thought before he finally decided. In April, 1858, how- 
ever, he began with a series of sixteen readings in Lon- 
don, and in August of the same year he took his first 
provincial tour. 

He visited Newcastle in its turn on the 24th and 25th 
September, 1859, and gave three readings in the Tcwn 
Hall. The first evening he read his "Christmas Carol.' 
On the following afternoon he read "Little Dombey," 
and the " Trial " from "Pickwick"; and at night, the 
"Poor Traveller," "Boots at the Holly Tree," and 
"Mrs. Gamp." I was present at the first reading, when 
the room was full, but by no means crowded. Dickens 
did not read from the orchestra platform, but from his 
own table, constructed for the purpose, which was placed 
on the floor at the organ end of the hall. Afterwards he 
expressed himself as being much pleased with his visit, 
both as regards the audience and the hearty way in 
which he was received. 

In 1861 Dickens was again in Newcastle, and gave three 
readings in the Music Hall, Nelson Street, on the 21st, 
22nd, and 23rd November, "before an audience (said the 
Daily Chronicle) which any author, however distin- 
guished, might feel proud to appear. " The people were 
packed as close almost as apples in a barrel, and the 
hall, which had just been enlarged and decorated, looked 
brilliant, fully one half of the audience being eaily dressed 
ladies. The readings were from "David Copperfield," 
"Nicholas Nickleby," "Little Dombey," and the 
"Trial" from "Pickwick." I cannot forbear quoting 
Dickens's opinion of a Newcastle audience, which he 
gives in a letter to Forster : " At Newcastle, against 
the very heavy expenses, I made more than a hundred 
guineas profit. A finer audience there is not in England, 
and I suppose them to be a specially earnest people ; for, 
while they can laugh till they shake the roof, they have a 

February } 



very unusual sympathy with what is pathetic or passion- 

Bravo ! Charles Dickens. I was myself present on the 
"Dombey" night, and could not help remarking how 
deeply affected the late Mr. Lockey Harle seemed to be 
when the reader came to the death of little Paul. He 
could not conceal his emotion, and indeed made no effort 
to do so. He was affected in quite another fashion how- 
ever, when the " Trial " from " Pickwick " came to be 
read. No schoolboy at a pantomime could laugh more 
heartily at the eccentricities of clown or the mishaps of 
pantaloon than did Mr. Harle at the rich humour of the 
trial scene, and his merriment at times rose to a perfect 
shout at the turgid eloquence of Serjeant Buzfuz. 

An accident, which might have been very serious, 
occurred on the second night, an account of which 
Dickens wrote, not only to Forster, but to his 
friends at home. I will give his own words : " An 
extraordinary thing occurred on the second night. 
The room was tremendously crowded, and my gas 
apparatus fell down. There was a terrible wave among 
the people for an instant, and God knows what destruc- 
tion of life a rush to the stairs would have caused. Fortu- 
nately a lady in the front of the stalls ran out towards 
me, exactly in a place where I knew that the whole hall 
could see her. So I addressed her, laughing, and half 
asked and half ordered her to sit down again ; and in 
a moment it was all over. It took five minutes to mend, 
and I looked on with my hands in my pockets." 

Early in March, 1867, Dickens was once more in 
Newcastle, and gave three readings in the Music 
Hall, which was again densely crowded. Writ- 
ing to his friend Forster, he pays another high compli- 
ment to Newcastle people, which I think is worth 
giving : "The readings have made an universal effect in 
this place, and it is remarkable that, although the people 
are individually rough, collectively they are an unusually 
tender and sympathetic audience ; while their comic 
perception is quite up to the high London standard." 

As far as I can discover, this was Charles Dickens's fourth 
and last visit to Newcastle, and as I have only undertaken 
to give a brief account of his visits to the North of England, 
his future career, however interesting, has no place here. 
Everybody knows now that, although these readings 
were a splendid success, they undoubtedly shortened the 
life of the great novelist. There has been nothing like 
them, as regards their financial results, either before or 
since. Including America, the readings yielded him, in 
two years, the magnificent sum of thirty thousand 
.pounds ; but the earning of that large sum of money cost 
us the life of the most genial and popular writer that 
England has yet seen, or in all probability ever will see. 

W. W. W. 

OTarrf of $0i*tftttnt&rta. 



j|FTER Severus had completed his astounding 
defensive works in the North, there was a 
long interval of profound peace. Not a few 
of the native tribes embraced the religious 
faith of their masters, and the entire country displayed 
unmistakable signs of progress. Many noble towns 
sprang into existence on the five great highways that the 
Romans had constructed ; and as these important settle- 
ments contained spacious baths, handsome theatres, and 
highly ornamented seats of learning, the condition of the 
people was vastly improved. On the death of Constan- 
tino the Great, however, in 337, there was a renewal of 
the warlike troubles, though this time they originated 
from a somewhat different source. Frank and Saxon 
were ravaging the unprotected coasts, and the Picts and 
Scots a rapidly rising power were continually coveting 
possession of the Tyneside wall. After allying them- 
selves with the Ottadini, they broke through in 367, and 
carried devastation far south of the barrier. Theodosius 
repulsed them, strengthened his positions, and for a time 
restored order. But the power of Rome was now de- 
cidedly on the wane. A critical state of affairs on the 
Continent led to the withdrawal of many of her garrisons 
in 403, and the Southern Britons having been weakened 
by frequent drafts of their finest men to the foreign wars 
of their conquerors were left to shift pretty much for 
themselves. In 426, the legions of the Empire, under the 
command of Gallic, came to their assistance for the last 
time, and endeavoured, though fruitlessly, to repair the 
grand works of Hadrian and Severus. On their final 
retirement, in 436, the attacks of the Northern allies were 
renewed more fiercely than ever ; and as they were now 
able to swarm over the wall, or outflank it by boating 
expeditions across the Solway, its use for defensive pur- 
poses was no longer worth a thought. The flourishing 
settlements along its course were deserted, the hunted 
natives fled in despair, and hundreds of them perished of 
hunger, in the caves, hills, and woodlands to which they 
turned for shelter. Further south, the aspect of affairs 
was not less desponding. Instead of uniting against the 
allies of the Borderland, the Britons made bad worse by 
quarrelling and fighting amongst themselves. Driven at 
last to despair, Vortigern, their leader, addressed an 
abject prayer to Rome for help. "The barbarians," he 
pitifully wrote, "chase us into the sea. The sea throws 
us back upon the barbarians, and we have only the hard 
choice left us of perishing by the sword or the wave*." 
Rome, however, was now powerless to help, and hence 
followed that cry for assistance to another land which 



( February 

led to the Saxon invasion and the gradual effacement of 
the British race. 


The invitation to these hardy rovers is said to have been 
given to Hengist and Horsa a couple of chieftains who 
were on a piratical cruise in the English Channel and 
they were allowed to land in Kent, about the year 470, as 
a recompense for the aid they were expected to render. 
It would be a long story to describe how they treacher- 
ously turned upon their British allies, sent them flying 
into the interior, and then, having brought over large 
numbers of their Jutish and Anglian friends, gradually 
established themselves along the entire eastern seaboard 
to Lincoln. It is only necessary for our purpose to refer 
to these invasions as the forerunner of others that speedily 
took place to the north of the Humber, and kept the 
natives constantly on the war path. The Brigantes and 
the Ottadini were still the most formidable races along 
that portion of the coast which stretches from Spurn 
Head to the estuary ;of the Forth ; while the Gadeni 
occupied the hilly west country from the Clyde to the 
Mersey. When the Ottadini, about the year 470, began 
to be seriously molested by the Angles, they were readily 
joined by their neighbours in an effort to repel the 
invaders. So successful were they in this enterprise, that 
they retained their independence long after the more 
southerly tribes had succumbed. There is much con- 
fusion amongst historians as to the points that were 
first attacked, and as to the dates of the rapidly repeated 
inroads. The only thing clear is that for a century 
after the Roman departure the inhabitants of this 
northern land were assailed by foes who were quite as 
valiant as their predecessors, and that the condition of 
the people sadly deteriorated. The new comers possessed 
an abundance of good arms. Every warrior had his spear, 

his battle-axe, and his sword all of sound and well- 
tempered metal. Some had bows and arrows for distant 
conflict; some were protected by a species of leathern 
armour; and most of the leaders wielded ponderous 
clubs, pointed with spikes of iron, that were as effective 
in a melee as the better-known mace of the middle aces. 

Their helmets, too, were far in advance of anything pre- 
viously seen. They were elaborately ornamented, mainly 
constructed of hard metal, and seem to have supplied a 
pattern for the nose-piece, or face-protector, that was 
afterwards so generally adopted. 


With such aids, and with a constant augmentation of 
recruits, there could be little doubt as the ultimate suc- 
cess of the strangers. They do not appear to have known 
the meaning of a reverse, and one horde followed another 
in ever increasing numbers. Landing at Flamborough 
Head, in 547, the famous Ida marched a well-disciplined 
force of warlike Angles towards the North. They 
passed, with difficulty, through the wild woodlands that 
covered the surface of our present Durham, and, after 
gaining a secure footing across the Tyne, began systema- 
tically to make themselves masters of the land. Either 
by sword or by torch, Ida swept away every British and 
Roman settlement he discovered, and earned for him- 
self the terribly significant title of the "Flame-bearer." 
His career was many times checked, though only for 
brief periods. Urien, the hero of so many stirring 
legends, is said to have offered a strenuous resistance and 
to have wreaked vengeance on many a raiding band ; but 
the foreign invaders, fighting with the utmost steadiness 
and bravery, and strengthened by vast reinforcements 
from Jutland, gradually won their way to a kingdom. It 
occupied a belt of country about forty miles wide 
extending from the Tyne to the Forth, and was after- 
wards known by the name of Bernicia. To overawe the 
natives and to secure his own possessions, the new ruler 
at once erected a strong castle on the cliffs at Barn- 
borough, and from this commanding altitude, for over a 
dozen years, launched his thunderbolts at all who dared 
to question his supremacy. 


While Ida was busily engaged in establishing his autho- 
rity in Bernicia, Ella, another of the Angles, also effected 
a landing on the Yorkshire coast. The Brigantes, in 
many skirmishes, disputed his passage from the sea; but, 
though they harried and impeded him, he drove them 
right back to the Pennine chain of hills, and eventually 
brought under his influence all the territory that lies 
between the Humber and the Tees. The new possession 
was called Deira, and included in its area the most im- 
portant city that the Romans ever held in this country. 
At this period, the desolate district between the Tees and 
Tyne does not appear to have belonged to either of the 
Anglian conquerors. It had been studded by the camps 
and stations of the Ceesars ; but, whether from design or 
accident, it now remained as a neutral zone between the 
armies of two powerful chieftains. With the death of Ida, 
in 559, Ella lost no time in seizing the hitherto neglected 
land, and when the frontiers of the rapidly growing states 
thus lost their buffer, and became contiguous, warlike 
operations were not long delayed. 

February \ 



For some years Ella is said to have waged a fierce fight 
against the twelve sons of Ida, and with very fluctuating 
results. Professor Veitch, in his "Border History," 
asserts that the southern leader was ultimately successful, 
and a large portion of Bernicia was added to the kingdom 
of Deira. Whether this was really the case or not and 
most authorities are against him it is quite evident that 
the Angles of the two principalities formed the aggressive 
element in the country, and were either constantly in con- 
flict with each other or with the Britons to the west of 
them. In 567, Hussa, of Bernicia, took advantage of the 
sadly disorganized condition of the native tribes, and 
made several highly profitable forays into their settle- 
ments. The losses thus caused had the effect of bringing 
the different races to their senses. They seemed to realise, 
.at last, that they were powerless while divided ; and, 
therefore, as a great tribal battle near Carlisle, in 573, 
had established the supremacy of the hardy Gadeni, the 
leaders of that people succeeded in bringing about a union 
for mutual defence. The Britons of Lancashire, Cumbria, 
and the whole of the western lowlands were included in 
this new confederacy, and it was thenceforth known as 
the Kingdom of Strathclyde. It was separated from 
Angle-land on the north-west by the great forest of 
Ettrick ; and by that formidable earthen rampart, called 
the Cattrail, which runs from near Galashiels, through 
the county of Selkirk, to Peel Fell on the south side of 
Liddesdale. Every available hill was at once strength- 
ened by earthen terraces ; stores were accumulated for 
the men who had to defend them; and the passes all 
along the frontier were placed in readiness for the deci- 
sive struggle that was so speedily to ensue. 


If the men of Strathclyde had boldly assumed the 
offensive, it is probable that a march into Coquetdale, or 
a determined dash down the valley of the North Tyne, 
would have enabled them to wrest much of their lost ter- 
ritory from the Anglian holders. But though secretly 
preparing for a great battle, they could not restrain their 
ardour, and a series of small but annoying raids served to 
acquaint their enemies with what was going forward. It 
thus happened that, while the Britons were gradually 
concentrating for an attack that should be irresistible, the 
Angles were made acquainted with all their movements, 
and were in that way enabled to take precautions against 
the expected onslaught. It was not until the autumn of 
580 that the native allies decided upon a general advance. 
The harvest season had just concluded when they began 
to assemble in the vicinity of the Cattrail, and every 
British tribe was represented by its most trusty "braves." 
The combined force was under the command of Urien a 
chivalrous old chieftain from the foot of Helvellyn who 
had oft before taken the initiative against the Angles. 
He is reputed to have been a nephew of the Southern 
Arthur, and to have performed deeds that even the 

Knights of the Round Table had never surpassed. When 
he took charge of his followers in the present instance, 
he found a mighty array of warriors around him. They 
had an abundance of provisions ; a numerous camp fol- 
lowing; and made merry, over their bright and pleasantly 
tasted mead, in many a torchlight glen. But " the yel- 
low beverage, though sweet, was ensnaring." It made 
the reapers sing of war war with the shining wing but 
it was as fatal as poison in the action they were preparing 
to fight. It raised their courage and enthusiasm to the 
utmost ; but it dulled the cunning of their brain. And 
yet they never needed their acuteness more than in the 
enterprise before them. The antagonist they were about 
to meet was the wily Theodoric, one of the most powerful 
sons of Ida, and a man who never lost a chance. Like 
his father, he also had gained an unenviable reputation 
as the Flamddwyn, or Flame-bearer, and his acts afforded 
ample justification for the title. No sooner did he learn 
that the Britons were leaving their homes for the ren- 
dezvous in the Cheviots, than he sent his emissaries to 
plunder the deserted settlements, and to destroy all that 
could not be carried away. But while numerous bands of 
his savage adherents were thus employed, he did not 
forget the danger which threatened his own frontier. 
Many of the abandoned hill retreats were quietly occu- 
pied, and, having greatly improved their defensive works, 


strong garrisons were left in charge of them. Sloping 
entrenchments became in this way very noticeable fea- 
tures on every piece of rising ground, and serious ob- 
stacles they must have proved to any assailants. Having 
thus provided places that would check the pursuers in 
case of an unexpected reverse to his arms Theodoric 
headed his finely equipped forces in the direction of his 
carousing adversaries. He found them gathered near the 
fort of Guinion which was the key to the kingdom of 
Bernicia on the north-west and around this spot the 
clang of battle resounded for an entire week. The posi- 
tion of the stronghold is not very clearly defined. Some 
writers give the locality as on the side of Peel Hill, near 
the source of the Liddel ; others near the head of 
Stanhope Burn ; and others, again, at a secluded spot 
near the junction of the Tweed and Gala water. A few, 
without much evidence to sustain their contention, have 
asserted that the scene of the conflict was at Ewart, on 
the south-east corner of Millfield Plain, and that it took 



I February 

place "against Ida in 570." A battle may very likely 
have been (ought against the Britons in Glendale ; but aa 
the digging up of bronze swords appears to be the principal 
evidence, it is nearly certain that the date of such a 
struggle must be fixed a century or a century and a half 
earlier than the period under notice. Contact with 
Rome had quickly proved the inutility of bronze as a 
material for defensive weapons, and the Britons, even 
before the Saxon advance, were nearly as well armed as 
their piratical invaders. But there is another, and 

Turnpike Ijoai 

equally strong, objection to the Ewart theory. There 
could be no battle with the famous Ida in 570, as that 
ruler died after a reign of only twelve years, and had 
been succeeded by Hussa and other of his sons before the 
advent of Theodoric. It is not wise, however, to dogma- 
tise about an era so remote. All that can be fairly said 
is that the probabilities seem to favour 580 as the date of 
this eventful campaign, and that it was continued to its 
bitter end amid the splendidly fortified slopes of the 
Cheviots. Many of the ancient bards have dealt with its 
stirring incidents, and have conjured up ghastly pictures 
of the scenes that were enacted. Their accounts do 
not always harmonize especially as to the name of 
the British leader but if we accept the version of 
Taliessin, who was a friend of Urien, there can 
be little doubt that this fierce old warrior was chief 
among the heroes who struggled so long, and so 
tenaciously, for supremacy at the deep war ditch. He 
was the " guledig " around whom the Britons gathered 
at the rosy dawn, and who saw so many of them 
cold in death before sundown. We are told that there 
was a "brow covered with rage" on Urien, when he 
furiously attacked his foes at the White Stone of Galy- 
stein; and that many men were "gory-tinted" in front 
of the slanting mounds they strove to win. Both 
leader and lieutenants were conspicuous for heroic deeds ; 
but it was for the grand old chief that the highest appro- 
bation of the chroniclers was reserved. Exultingly they 


If there is a cry on the hill, 
IB it not Urien that terrifies ? 
If there is a cry in the valley, 
Is it not Urien that pierces ? 
If there is a cry in the mountain, 
IB it not Urien that conquers ? 
If there is a cry in the slope, 
IB it not Urien that wounds ? 

But prodigies of valour are powerless against a well dis- 
ciplined foe. There were doubless many Saxons who, 
"with hair white- washed and a bier their destiny," would 
stand shivering and trembling with a bloody face. They 
were not alone, however, in their grief. Hundreds of 
stalwart Britons bad dropped beside them, and were 
already wailing on the gravel bank of Garanwynyon, 
when the noble Urien fell. One of the old bards tells us 
how the truncated body of this hero was buried on the 
slope of Fennock, and how the head, with "its mouth 
foaming with blood," was carried in sorrow from the field. 
Owain, the son of this Cumbrian Bayard, also met hia 
death at the hand of the Flamddwyn, and, when he did 
so, "there was not one greater than he sleeping." But 
the fate of the old chieftain and his son was shared by 
many other mighty warriors. Of the 363 tribal leaders 
who followed him so furiously to the onslaught, there 
were only two who came safely from the " funeral fosse." 
Though they had gone forth "flushed with mirth and 
hope, " and had dashed repeatedly through the Anglian 

None from Cattraeth's vale returned, 
Save Aeron brave, and Conan strong. 

Their golden torques, and their chains of regal honour, 
were collected from the dead 
warriors as trophies of the 
hardly-won victory, and their 
valuable stores were plundered 
or destroyed. The poorer fight- 
ing men had little but their 
weapons to lose, and these, 
together with the lifeless hands 
that had wielded them, lay for many a long day after- 
wards amid the " sweet flickering play of sunshine on the 
grass." The survivors, utterly dispirited and demorlized, 
fled again to the dreary hills and moors of the west, and, 
for a generation at least, never again ventured to question 
the conquerors' sway. Like thousands of their brethren 
in the South, they were compelled to seek a means of sub- 
sistence far from their old homes, and leave to the 
stranger the wooded lands they loved so well, and for 
which they had " fought with such sublime tenacity." 


The fortified hill, as shown above, is from a sketch 
in Roy's "Military Antiquities." It is known as the 
White Cather Thun, and is situated in Strathmore. 
Though not directly referred to in our article, it furnishes 
an admirable illustration of the class of defences which 
the Britons constructed so largely in all parts of the 

We are indebted for our ground plan of an entrenched 
hill to the "Local Historian's Table Book," by Mr. M. 
A. Richardson. It represents a defensive work of the 
Saxons constructed probably on a site from which the 
Britons had been ejected and must have been of con- 
siderable strength and importance. It is situated on the 
Coquet, a little below Harbottle, and doubtless played a 
prominent part in many of the early campaigns on the 
Northumbrian frontier. In addition to the splendid 
protection afforded by the river and its tributaries, the 

February 1 
1889. f 



triple rampires are all very formidable objects being 
nine feet at the bottom and six at the top, and having a 
fifteen feet ditch in front of each of them. On the 
weakest, or west side, there is a fourth line of entrench- 
ments ; but on the north-east the face of the hill is inac- 
cessible. The interior length of the fortress is 130 yards, 
and its breadth 90 yards, so that it was capable of accom- 
modating a large number of fighting men. 

The drawing of the torque is taken from a sculptured 
monument. The outer ring is only an enlarged view of 
the ornament round the neck of the figure, and it shows 
very clearly how the flexible bars of bronze, silver, or 
gold were twisted into the requisite form. 

||T was customary in the last century for the 
men of the village of Ford, every Shrove 
Tuesday evening, to play a football match, 
married versus single. The village at that time stood 
much nearer the church than it does now in fact. 
under the very shadow of Ford Castle and, we are 
told, the married men played towards the church, and 
the unmarried from it. Before commencing the match, 
all the men who had been married during the previous 
year were compelled to jump over, or wade through, 
the Gaudy Loup ; otherwise they were not allowed 
to join in the game. The custom long ago fell into 
abeyance, and now is entirely forgotten; but another 
custom connected with the Gaudy Loup is yet remem- 
bered, and possibly had its origin in that connected 
with football, as Brand speaks of the custom in the 
North of England of demanding money from newly- 
married couples, at the church doors, for footballs. 

The Gaudy Loup was a pit filled with water, and 
generally full of rushes, that stood somewhere on the site 
of the plantation known as Neville's Plantin', and in close 
proximity to the Delavals' cock-pit. The Castle Quarry 
in this plantation so-called from its supplying the stone 
for the rebuilding of Ford Castle by Sir J. H. Delaval 
eventually swallowed up this pit, and another and the 
last "gaudy loup" was found in a field on Ford Hill 
Farm, which field is now glebe land, on the south of 
Ford Rectory. Some years ago, the custom having died 
out, and the pit being a nuisance, Mr. Ralph Chisholm, 
the tenant of the farm, had it filled up. Within the recol- 
lection of old people still living, the bridegroom was 
required, on the occasion of a wedding at Ford Church, 
to jump over, or wade through, the Gaudy Loup, or forfeit 
money to be expended in drinking to the health of the 
newly-married couple. 

A little picture, "Going to the Gaudy Loup," repre- 
senting Lord Delaval on one of hia two favourite white 
ponies, Abraham and Isaac, was long a memento of the 
custom to the villagers of Ford. When Lord Delaval 
returned to Ford Castle in 1803 from Seaton Delaval, 
where he had been married, in his old days, to his second 

wife, Miss Knight, some one was bold enough to remind 
him of the Gaudy Loup, and his lordship, taking the hint 
in good part, rode up the hill to view the hole ; but, it is 
needless to say, preferred paying the forfeit, which he 
did in a very handsome manner. The little picture, in its 
black frame, hung for years over the fireplace in the 
cottage of Molly Swan, at Ford, until, it is said, it was 
presented to the Marchioness of Waterford when she 
went to reside at Ford Castle. 

The Gaudy Loup being some distance from the church, 
the paten stick seems to have been eventually found more 
convenient. This stick was placed before the church door 
when a newly-married couple was leaving the sacred 
edifice, and the bride as well as the bridegroom was re- 
quired to leap it, or forfeit the usual money. This 
practice not being in conformity with the ideas of the 
rector, he tried to discourage it. Other influence was 
also brought to bear, and the villagers, not wishing to 
give up old " rights, " abandoned the churchyard for the 
outside of the churchyard gates. Here, on the king's 
highway (close to the old mounting steps for pillion 
riders), fearing no interruption, they tried the paten 
stick again ; but, the stick not being long enough, a rope 
was substituted, either end being held at one of the gate 
piers. Although difference of opinion exists in the 
parish as to the desirability of discontinuing this custom, 
the young people who scramble for "coppers" on such 
occasions do not appear inclined to let it drop. Nor is it 
altogether certain that the bridal parties are averse to 
it, for not long since, on the occasion of a double 
wedding, the brides and bridegrooms seemed to enjoy 
the fun as much as any of those present. 


A " Gaudy," or " Gaady day," as it is called, is a high 
day or holiday familiar to the pitmen of Northumberland, 
as to the authorities of the University of Oxford. At the 
latter, the term is applied to the day when the governors 
dine together in their hall. This dinner happens only on 
the " gaudies," or feast days. Charles Lamb, in his " Re- 
collections of Christ's Hospital," tells us how the lads 
there saved up for a "gaudy day." In Northumberland, 
a day devoted to holiday, festivals, or revelry is known 
by the same name. 

When the pitman heard the notes of the cuckoo for the 
first time, there was no work that day, for all hands kept 
it as a "gaudy." And so the observances of Shrove 
Tuesday, or the festivities of a great wedding, were 
equally made the occasion for a "gaudy day." 

The origin of the word is plainly from the Latin 
gaudium, joy. So we have " to gaud," to sport, to keep 
festival; "gaudery," the finery worn on such occasions ; 
and the " gaudy loup," or leap compulsory on the festive 

The custom of obstructing the exit of a newly-married 



( February 

couple from the church until payment is made to the 
clamouring villagers is a very common one. In Cumber- 
land, the gates of the churchyard are all locked, and the 
bridal party remain prisoners till ransom can be arranged. 
At Bamborough and at Holy Island, there is what is 
called " the petting stone, " over which the bride is lifted 
as she leaves the church. The ceremony is said to be a 
specific against her "taking the pet"; but, like the 
" paten " or " petting stick " at Ford, the object of the 
obstruction is to obtain a money equivalent for com- 
muting the ordeal. R. OLIVER HESLOP. 

JCtocr jfamcrutf 
ilnircrrc airtf 

K Lake District is celebrated for its beau- 
tiful waterfalls. Two of them are pictured 
in the accompanying engravings, one of 
which the Falls of Lodore is copied from 

a photograph by Mr. Alfred Pettitt, the Art Gallery, 

Lodore is situate near the 

head of Derwentwater, and 

about three miles from Kes- 
wick on the road leading to 

Borrowdale. The locality is 

strikingly picturesque, and by 

some writers has been com- 
pared to the Trossachs in 

Scotland. The approach to 

the fall is from the rear of 

an hotel, past fish preserves, 

over a foot bridge, to a wide 

chasm filled with huge boul- 
ders. Above tower the rocky 

heights of Gowder Crag and 

Shepherd's Crag, both adorned 

with many varieties of foliage. 

The view of the chasm with 

its buttresses of rocks is the 

real sight of the place, and 

not the stream which courses 

through it. Seen on a sum- 
mer evening, when the lights 

are rich and the shadows deep, 

the scene is grandly imposing, 

whatever may be the state of 

the stream. Lodore is oftenest 

visited when the water is low, 

and much disappointment is 
then experienced. To see it 

in its full glory the fall 

should be viewed immediately after a storm, when the 
water comes down with a thundering sound that may be 
heard as far away as the Friar's Crag, near Keswick. 
Lodore cannot be called a cascade, being an intricate 
series of little falls, not continuous as a cataract, but split 
and disjointed by rocks. It is not an easy matter to 
arrive at the exact height, but in the aggregate it may be 
about 150 feet. The instrinsic merits of the waterfall are 
granted by all, but it undoubtedly owes much of its popu- 
larity to the rhyming description of it by Southey, which, 
extravagant as it may be in language, is not far from a 
true description. Here is the poem : 

How does the water come down at Lodore ? 

My little boy asked me thus, once on a time. 

Moreover, he tasked me to tell him in rhyme ; 
Anon at the word there first came one daughter, 

And then came another to second and third 
The request of their brother, and hear how the water 

Comes down at Lodore, with its rush and its roar, 
As many a time they had seen it before. 

So I told them in rhyme, for of rhymes I had store. 
And 'twas in my vocation that thus I should sing, 
Because I was Laureate to them and the King. 

From its sources which well 

In the tarn on the fell, 

From its fountain in the mountain, 

Its rills and its gills, 

Through moss and through brake, 


February I 
1889. [ 



It runs and it creeps, 
For a while till it sleeps 
In its own little lake, 
And thence at departing. 
Awakening and starting, 
It runs through the reeds, 
And away it proceeds, 
Though meadow and glade, 
In sun and in shade, 
And through the wood shelter. 
Among crags and its flurry, 
Helter-skelter hurry -skurry. 

How does the water come down at Lodore? 
Here it conies sparkling, 
And there it lies darkling : 
Here smoking and frothing, 
Its tumult and wrath in, 
It hastens along, conflicting and strong, 
Now striking and raging. 
As if a war waging 
Its caverns and rocks among. 

Rising and leaping. 

Sinking and creeping, 

Swelling and flinging. 

Showering and springing, 

Eddying and whisking, 

Spouting and frisking, 

Twining and twisting, 
Around and around, 

Collecting, disjecting, 

With endless rebound ; 
Smiting and fighting, 
A sight to delight in ; 
Confounding, astounding, 
Dizzing and deafening the ear with its sound. 
Reeding and speeding. 
And shocking and rocking, 
And darting and parting, 
And threading and spreading, 
And whizzing and hissing, 
And dripping and skipping, 
And whitening and brightening. 
And quivering and shivering, 
And hitting and splitting. 
And shining and twining, 
And rattling and battling 

And shaking and quaking. 
And pouring and roaring, 
And waving and raving, 
And tossing and crossing, 
And flowing and growing, 
And running and stunning, 
And hurrying and skurrying, 
And glittering and frittering, 
And gathering and feathering, 
And dinning and spinning, 
And foaming and roaming, 
And dropping and hopping, 
And working and jerking, 
And heaving and cleaving, 
And thundering and floundering ; 

And falling and crawling and sprawling. 

And driving and riving and striving, 

And sprinkling and twinkling and wrinkling, 

And sounding and bounding and rounding, 

And bubbling and troubling and doubling, 

Dividing and gliding and sliding, 

And grumbling and rumbling and tumbling, 

And clattering and battering and shattering ; 

And gleaming and steaming and streaming and beaming 
And rushing and flushing and brushing and gushing, 
And flapping and rapping and clapping and slapping, 
And curling and whirling and purling and twirling, 
Retreating and beating and meeting and sheeting, ' 
Delaying and straying and playing and spraying, 
Advancing and prancing and glancing and dancing 
Recoiling turmoiling and toiling and boiling. 
And thumping and Humping and bumping and jumping, 
And dashing and Hashing and splashing and clashing, 


And this way the water comes down at Lodore. 

Colwith force is a waterfall or series of cascades, on 
the Little Langdale River, situate about five miles west- 
south-west of Ambleside. The stream is broken by pro- 
jecting rocks, rushing amongst them in four falls and 
intermediate cataracts to the aggregate depth of 152 feet, 
the last fall being about 70 feet. It is hardly possible to 
see the whole of the cascade from one 
point of view : hence the artist has been 
able to give only a sketch of the last fall. 
The view from below is very grand, the 
mountain known as the Wetherlam rising 
grandly above. Colwith force is much 
visited by tourists during the summer 
months, and a guide who keeps the key 
of the door leading to it generally calls 
attention to the remains of a bridge which 
was thrown across the chasm for the conve- 
nience of visitors at the suggestion of Mr. 
Ruskin, who regards Colwith Force as one 
of the finest of its kind in the Lake District. 
The bridge, however, was not allowed to 
remain intact very long, as it was thought 
that tourists would commit depredations 
in the woods on the opposite bank of the 
chasm : so that portion immediately 
adjoining the south side was destroyed. 
Sufficient, however, remains to afford a 
standpoint from which a fine view can be 




at JHarft 'artoijrt 


!lid).u-t) SMelforb. 

tr Robert 


Like as the brand doth flame and burn, 
So we from death to life must turn. 

Ancient Brandling Epitaph. 

j]F we could trust one of those " fables and 
endless genealogies," against which St. Paul 
warned Timothy, it would appear that the 
Brandlings of Gosforth enjoyed " the claims 
of long descent." For, according to an elaborate family 
tree, compiled by some veracious flatterer, they could be 
traced back, through seven English kings, three Scot- 
tish monarchs, an emperor of Germany, and a noble 
assortment of dukes and marquises, earls and baronets, 
not to mention knights and esquires, to William the 
Conqueror and Malcolm the Third of Scotland ! But, 
whencesoever they came, or whatsoever may have been 
their relationship to the high and mighty personages 
above noted, the Brandlings were undoubtedly a race of 
strong-minded and courageous men, who, from the 
beginning of the sixteenth century down to our own day, 
helped to make local history, and to impress their works 
and ways upon successive generations of North-Country 
people. In the old times they were distinguished by 
strength of will, tenacity of purpose, and a kind of 
blustering independence which sometimes mounted to 
heroism and at other times degenerated into obstinacy. 
At a later period they were leaders in political warfare, 
pioneers in coal-mining and railroad enterprise, dis- 
pensers of unstinted hospitality, and either promoters or 
supporters of nearly every scheme that promised to bring 
substantial benefit to the industries of Tyneside. 

Robert Brandling, who may be said to have laid the 
foundation of the family fortune, was one of the sons of 
John Brandling, Sheriff of Newcastle in 1505-6, Mayor 
during the first year of Henry VIII., and thrice after- 
wards. He commenced the active business of life as a 
merchant adventurer, and, interesting himself in muni- 
cipal matters under the auspices of his father, was 
elected to the Shrievalty on Michaelmas Monday, 1524-. 
The office of Mayor was conferred upon him in 1531, and 
he was chosen to occupy the same high position (being 
also Governor of the Merchants' Company) for the 
municipal year 1536-7 the year which saw the beginning 
of the Reformation in England, and the end, as well as 
the beginning, of a rebellion against it, known through- 
out the Northern Counties as the " Pilgrimage of Grace." 
At a muster of the whole population of Newcastle 
capable of bearing arms, taken in 1539, he appears as an 

alderman of four wards Ficket Tower, Monboucher 
Tower, the New Gate, and Andrew Tower able to offer 
for the king's service (besides himself) eight servants well 
furnished in all points with bows, halberts, and harness, 
"and more if need be." He was Mayor for the third 
time in 15434, when the Earl of Hertford, coming to 
Newcastle with an army for the invasion of Scotland, 
reported the town to be "utterly disfurnished, and un- 
provided of all manner of grain " suitable for the victual- 
ling of troops. About this time, too, he obtained from 
the master and brethren of the Mary Magdalene Hospital 
a long lease of their lands at the north end of the town, 
including a coal mine in "St. James's Close," with 
liberty to sink pits at "Spittel Tongs" and Jesmond 
Fields, and became the purchaser of the tract of land 
belonging at the Suppression to the Nunnery of St. 
Bartholomew, known as the Nun's Moor. 

Occupying the important position which repeated 
occupancy of office and gradual acquisitions of property 
indicate, Robert Brandling was able to entertain at his 
mansion in the Bigg Market, called "The Great Inn," 
Lord Protector Somerset, who, upon the accession of 
Edward VI., brought another army to Newcastle to 
chastise the Scots. Somerset marched away to the 
victory of Pinkie Cleuch (or Musselburgh), and when 
in honour of that achievement he was conferring knight 
hoods upon the chief men of his army, he remembered 
his Newcastle host, and made him a knight also. On 
the day that the troops, facing homewards, crossed the 
Teviot, Sir Robert Brandling became for the fourth 
time Mayor of Newcastle, and shortly afterwards one 
of the town's representatives in the House of Commons. 

It was the first Parliament of King Edward VI. to 
which Sir Robert Brandling was elected a Parliament 
which, following the policy of the previous reign, 
placed at the disposal of the Crown the chantries, 
chapels, and lay guilds of the kingdom. Commissioners 
were appointed in the various counties by royal letters 
patent to survey and value them, and Sir Robert Brand- 
ling was one of those who acted for a part of the 
bishopric of Durham. The closing days of this Parlia- 
ment (April, 1552) were marked by a proceeding which 
long afterwards was cited as an illustration of the power 
of the House of Commons to punish offences against 
its members. Sir Robert Brandling charged Sir John 
Widdrington, Henry Widdrington, and Ralph Ellerker 
with an assault, and Henry Widdrington confessing that 
he "began the fray upon Mr. Brandling," was committed 
to the Tower, his alleged accomplices being released 
Before the year was out Sir Robert Brandling, in a con- 
test of a different character, received a vast addition 
to his already considerable territorial possessions. To 
understand the matter aright, it is necessary to turn 
back the pages of local history for the better part of half 
a century. 

On the 26th November, 1510, Thomas Surtees, the 

February 1 
1889. j 



last of a long line of his name who had held the manors 
of North Gosforth, Felling, and Middletou-in-Teesdale, 
died. His father had been twice married. Thomas and 
a sister named Catherine were the children of the first 
marriage; from the second union came a half brother 
named Marmaduke. On the death of Thomas, his sister 
Catherine, who had married John Place, of Halnaby, 
claimed the estates as heir (of the whole blood) to her 
brother, and Marmaduke claimed them as heir (of the 
half blood) to his father. While these claims were 
pending, Robert Brandling married Catherine Place's 
daughter Anne, and became, in right of his wife, a 
party to the contention. Forty years passed away, 
and then, on the 5th October, 1552, the suit ended in 
Sir Robert Brandling's favour. 

The acquisition of these fruitful estates, while they 
added to his wealth and importance, did not improve Sir 
Robert Brandling's position at Court. He was not a Refor- 
mer, or a friend of Reformers, and when, in the begin- 
ning of 1553, a new Parliament was ordered to assemble, 
and the King's Council "recommended " suitable persons 
to the constituencies, Robert Levvin and Bertram Ander- 
son were elected members for Newcastle. Their tenure of 
office was not of long continuance, though it was marked 
by the annexation of Gateshead to Newcastle, and the 
division of the bishopric of Durham. Queen Mary came 
in during the summer, and the Reformers went out. Her 
Council, adopting the tactics of their predecessors, 
" recommended " their nominees so strongly that "very 
few Protestants were chosen," and Sir Robert Brandling 
regained his seat. 

Twice more in 1555, under Queen Mary, and in 1563, 
under Queen Elizabeth the lord of Gosforth and Felling 
was sent to represent bib native town of Newcastle in the 
House of Commons ; once more in the municipal year 
1564-5 he was elected Mayor of the town and Governor of 
the Merchants' Company. Between whiles he served on 
commissions and inquisitions, and discharged the various 
duties attaching 'oo his office as an alderman and magis- 
trate. From a complaint made against him at the Privy 
Council by Cuthbert Bewicke, it would appear that in 
March, 1562, he was accused of treason ; if so, the charge 
must have broken down, for it was in the following 
December that he received the honour of election for the 
last time to Parliament. 

Shortly after the feast of Pentecost, 1568, when his 
younger brother, Henry, was Mayor of Newcastle, Sir 
Robert Brandling died. He left no lawful issue, and he 
had made no proper will. A paper writing, purporting to 
be a testamentary deed, but apparently a forgery, was ex- 
hibited by the Mayor at the Consistory Court of Durham, 
and the examination which followed led to some remark- 
able and not very creditable disclosures respecting family 
affairs, all of which may be read in "Depositions and other 
Ecclesiastical Proceedings from the Courts of Durham, " 
published by the Surtees Society. William Brandling. 

nephew of Sir Robert, who was away at the time, having 
" suddenly, upon a displeasure, departed into Flanders, " 
was declared to be the true and undoubted heir to his 
extensive possessions, and he obtained them, and held 
them in spite of the efforts of his relatives to dislodge 
him. About this somewhat obtrusive member of the 
Brandling family, his drunken brawl in St. Andrew's 
Churchyard, and other immoralties, there is enough, and 
more than enough, in the same Surtees Society's volume. 



Luxurious, avaricious, false, deceitful, 
Sudden, malicious, smacking of every sin 
That has a name. i>h,akspearc. 

William, son of Thomas Brandling, who, as we have 
seen, succeeded in 1569 in establishing his claim to the 
estates of his uncle, Sir Robert, did not long outlive 
his victory. Having sown his wild oats, and married 
a daughter of the Newcastle family of Holey, he settled 
down to enjoy his fortune. But he had been no more 
than six years lord of Gosforth and Felling when he 
died. On the 2nd October, 1575, he was buried at 
Jarrow, leaving a wife with two infants, a girl and a boy, 
to succeed him. The younger born of the two children, a 
boy aged nine months at the date of his father's death, 
inherited the property, and, unfortunately, he inherited 
at the same time a large share of his father's quarrel- 
some disposition, " Robert Brandling, heire of Felling,'' 
as the baptismal register of Jarrow names him, grew 
up to be an exceedingly headstrong, wilful, and turbulent 
personage a man who terrified the clergy, astonished 
the populace, and disturbed everything and everybody 
that came within the range of his influence. 

When he was about thirty years of age, Robert 
Brandling did homage for his manor of Felling to the 
Dean and Chapter of Durham. In 1610 he obtained 
from King James I. a grant of the site of the Abbey of 
Newminster; six years afterwards he added the ancient 
patrimony of the Lisles in South Gosforth to his North 
Gosforth manor, and about the same time obtained the 
fertile lands of Alnwick Abbey. The shrievalty of 
Northumberland came to him in 1617 ; he was elected 
M.P. for Morpeth in 1620 ; from which date his public 
life and noisy career may be said to have begun. 

One of his early manifestations involved the Corpora- 
tion of Newcastle. The journals of the House of 
Commons report that on the 26th March, 1621, he moved 
that the patent of Newcastle coals might be brought in 
"whereby they have received 500,000, and the hostmen 
impose 2d. upon a chaldron, whereby they have raised 
200,000." This was a hostile movement against a local 
monopoly. It did not succeed at the moment, but 
within a month the Commons had included the * ( coal 
monopoly by Newcastle " in a list of grievances which 
they sought to have redressed. Meanwhile, the Mayor 




and Aldermen revenged themselves by reporting, as con- 
servators of the Tyne, that they had failed to obtain 
reformation of abuses at Felling Wharf, which was in a 
state of decay, and had had soil thrown upon it, some of 
which had fallen into and obstructed the river. Then he 
set the Government at defiance, for, being appointed in 
1629 for the second time High Sheriff of Northumberland, 
he refused to serve, and fled into Scotland. From thence 
he returned, and, making his peace with the Privy 
Council, accepted the office, in order, as was believed, to 
annoy the burgesses of Alnwick and the ecclesiastical 
authorities, with whom he had been for some time at 
variance. Among other high-handed proceedings, being 
lay impropriator of the parish of Alnwick, he claimed the 
pews on the north side of the chancel of Alnwick Church, 
and went and occupied the seats of the Duke of North- 
umberland defying both the duke and the church- 
wardens to remove him. For this and similar offences he 
was excommunicated a penalty which he held in 
contempt and openly disregarded. Then he dragged 
sixteen burgesses of Alnwick before the Star Chamber, 
and they in return went the length of petitioning the 
Privy Council to take him in hand, alleging that not only 
did he abuse the Church and Churchmen, but had 
" several times laboured to take the life of his own 
children." He had become, in fact, unmanageable and 
unbearable, and the whole county rang with his offences 
and misdemeanours. 

What these were may be gathered from the " Acts of 
the High Commission Court at Durham" (Surtees Society, 
vol. 34. ) He was cited to appear before the Court on 
the 9th of August, 1633, charged with various offences. 
Remarkable evidence was given against him. For 
example, at Shilbottle Church, one Sunday after prayers, 
he called the vicar a "scabt scounderell, priest, or 
fellow.'' To Alnwick Church he took a Scotchman, 
and insisted upon his preaching there, and when the 
curate remonstrated he called him " base rascall, idle, 
druncken rogue," and did " jumpe him on the breast with 
a little staffe," and struck him over the shoulder. 
Another clergyman of Alnwick he abused in the street, 
telling him he was a " druncken rogue, rascall, hedg- 
rogue, and the sonne of a hedg-rogue, " and that he would 
draw both him and his father "at horse tayies and 
banish them the countrie." To Lesbury Church, where 
venerable Patrick Makilvian (who lived to be a cen- 
tenarian) was vicar, he went on a Sunday afternoon, and 
laying claim to the chancel, ordered the clerk's stall to 
be pulled down. The vicar told him that no one had 
a right to displace the clerk but the Bishop and his 
court, to which Brandling answered that the proudest 
bishop in England durst not meddle with his inheritance, 
and if the vicar interfered he would pull down his seat 
and reading pew, and as for the " usurping bishops " and 
their courts they were but "bawdy" courts to oppress 
people and get money for themselves, while the High 

Commission Court at Durham was "the most wicked 
court in England. " He further abused him, calling him 
a "Gallaway rogue," and threatening to "ly him in 
prisonn till he sterved and stincked." The Dean of 
Durham he called "Mr. Devill of Durham," and so on. 
All the evidence went to show that this degenerate 
descendant of Sir Robert Brandling was a most quarrel- 
some, abusive, and immoral man. 

It does not appear that the delinquent paid much atten- 
tion to the proceed ines of the Commission. He appeared at 
one or two of the early sittings, and, being contumacious, 
was committed to gaol ; but he broke the prison, and set 
subsequent citations at defiance. So witnesses were 
examined, and the judgment of the Court was pro- 
nounced in 1634- in his absence. The Commissioners 
sentenced him to imprisonment during the king's pleasure, 
to be excommunicated, to make public submission in the 
church of Alnwick, and in St. Nicholas', Newcastle, on 
several Sundays, and to pay a fine of 3,000 and costs. 

Whether Robert Brandling paid the fine, or whether 
he remained contumacious to the last, are questions that 
cannot be answered. Crown and Church had soon more 
serious matters on their hands than the punishment of a 
reprobate Northumbrian, and it is possible that, in the 
troubled times which followed, the delinquent and his 
delinquencies were overlooked and forgotten. The date 
of his death is also unknown. One "Robert Branling " 
was buried in St. Nicholas' Church, Newcastle, in 1636, 
but there is no evidence to identify him as the turbulent 
squire, and conjectures are useless. All that can be said 
for certain is that, having been twice married, first to 
Jane, daughter of Francis Wortley, of Wortley, and 
secondly to Mary, daughter of Thomas, Baron of Hilton, 
he left six sons, the eldest of whom, afterwards Sit 
Francis Brandling, of Alnwick Abbey, succeeded him, 
and that none of them inherited, in any marked degree, 
their father's propensities. 


Brandling for ever and Ridley for aye, 
Brandling and Ridley carries the day : 
Brandling for ever and Ridley for aye. 
There's plenty of coals on our waggon way. 

Pitman's Sony. 

Sir Francis Brandling, eldest of the six sons born of 
the marriages of the quarrelsome Alnwick squire, was 
elected M.P. for Northumberland during his father's 
lifetime. He sat in the last Parliament of King James 
I., and the first Parliament of King Charles I. (Feb., 
1624, to Aug., 1625), and in 1627 was High Sheriff of the 
county. Like his father, he was twice married. Like 
him, als, he had six sons. There was no immediate 
fear, therefore, of the race dying out. His heir, Charles 
Brandling (1) wedded Annie Pudsey, of Plessy an 
heiress, whose mother was a Widdrington. The third 
son of this marriage, Ralph Brandling, sold Alnwick 




Abbey to John Doubleday, a Quaker, and brought (by 
marriage) the estate of Middleton, near Leeds, into 
the family. Dying without progeny, as two elder 
brothers had done before him, he left Middleton to the 
next heir his brother Charles Brandling (2), who had 
married Margaret, daughter of John Grey, of Howick, 
ancestor of Earl Grey. Ralph Brandling (2) the only SOD 
of Charles Brandling (2) inherited Felling, Gosforth, and 
Middleton, and transmitted them to his second son, 
Charles Brandling number three. 

A considerable interval of abstinence from public 
affairs on the part of the Brandling family had occurred 
since Sir Francis held high office in the county of 
Northumberland. Charles Brandling the third was 
destined to end it. He was united on the 1st September, 
1756, to Elizabeth, heiress of John Thompson, of 
Shotton, and shortly afterwards, finding the old seat 
of the Brandlings at Felling inadequate to his ideas 
of a family residence, he erected Gosforth House, and 
took up his permanent abode there. During twenty 
years, surrendering most of his time to local business, 
and making himself useful and popular in town and 
county, he prepared himself for more responsible duties. 
In 1784, having a couple of years earlier filled the office 
of High Sheriff of Northumberland, he was elected with 
Sir Matthew White Ridley to represent Newcastle in 
Parliament. Opposition to his return had been threat- 
ened by Stoney Bowes, the profligate husband of Lady 
Strathmore, who had represented the town in the 
previous Parliament, but it did not reach the polling 
booth. Such was the influence of the united names of 
Ridley and Brandling in Newcastle, that for many 
years no one ventured upon a hostile candidature. When 
Mr. Brandling retired, at the close of 1797, the seat 
was taken, as a matter of course, by his son, Charles 
John, born February 4, 1769. 

Charles John Brandling entered public life with every 
possible advantage in his favour. The family influence 
was far-reaching ; the family relationships were wide- 
spreading. Four of his sisters were married Eleanor to 
William Ord, of Fenham ; Margaret to Rowland Burdon, 
of Castle Eden, the builder of Wearmouth Bridee ; Eliza- 
beth to Ralph William Grey, of Backworth ; Sarah to 
Matthew Bell, of Woolsington. He himself had been 
united, four years previous to his election, to a daughter 
of the ancient house of Hawksworth, of Hawksworth in 
Yorkshire. His wealth, too, if not profuse, was abund- 
ant. Improved methods of cultivating the soil and a 
growing demand for mineral fuel were increasing the 
revenues of his inheritance; and Gosforth and Felling 
were taking their place among the most profitable estates 
upon Tyneside. Riches, county influence, and the un- 
bounded confidence of a powerful borough constituency 
form admirable stepping stones to a useful and prosperous 
career. Possessing all these, young Mr. Brandling be- 
'Came the rising hope of the Tory party in this district ; 

justifying their expectations, he was returned unopposed 
to three successive Parliaments those of 1802, 1806, and 
1807. It does not appear that he made any great figure 

Chas Jni Brandling. 

in the House ; but he kept his party well together in 
Newcastle, and became a recognised leader of Conserva- 
tive thought and feeling in Southern Northumberland. 

At the dissolution in 1812, when he had been fifteen 
years M.P. for Newcastle, Mr. Brandling withdrew from 
Parliament. Not that he was tired of political life, for he 
continued to inspire the local adherents of his party, and 
to guide them by his counsel as before. But other and 
equally important matters demanded his attention. All 
over the North of Engrland men's minds were occupied 
by the growing power of steam perplexed by problems, 
and sustained by possibilities, of applying that subtle and 
potent agent to purposes of locomotion, both by land and 
water. At the Yorkshire collieries of the Brandlings 
John Blenkinsopp was already, as we have seen, working 
his patent " iron horse"; nearer home George Stephenson 
and William Hedley were experimenting in the same 
direction. It was evident that with every fresh appli- 
cation of steam to engineering more coal would be 
required, and Mr. Brandling found it necessary to 
curtail his Parliamentary course in order to watch over 
his great mining enterprises, and prepare for their exten- 
sion and development. 

George Stephenson lived at this time, and for many 
years afterwards, at the village of West Moor, adjoining 
the eastern entrance to Gosforth House. Mr. Brandling 
was a watchful observer of his proceedings, and became 
one of his earliest friends and supporters. A disastrous 
explosion at Mr. Brandling's Felling Colliery, in 1812, 
led to the invention of the safety lamp, and when the 
rival claims of Sir Humphrey Davy and George Stephen- 




son to the honour of that invention were being discussed, 
Mr. Brandling took the side of his humble neighbour. A 
sum of 2,000 had been presented to Sir Humphrey, and 
one hundred guineas to Stephenson a distinction which 
gave the friends of the latter offence. Mr. Brandling 
was consulted, and advised Stephenson to publish a 
statement of the facts upon which his claim was founded. 
The latter, with the aid of his son Robert, drew up a 
narrative, and when it was finished, after many correc- 
tions, and fairly copied out, father and son, Dr. Smiles 
tells us, set out to put the joint production before Mr. 
Brandling at Gosforth House. Glancing over the letter, 
Mr. Brandling said, "George, this will never do." "It 
is all true, sir," was the reply. " That may be, but it is 
badly written," and, taking up his pen, the squire revised 
the letter and fitted it for publication in the local news- 
papers. He took the chair at a public meeting which 
followed, and when a subscription for Stephenson, 
amounting to 1,000, had been raised towards which 
he and his various partners contributed 275 guineas he 
presided and made the presentation. The Newcastle 
Chronicle, reporting the proceedings, adds : " The 
cheerful and convivial spirit displayed by the chairman 
soon infused itself into the company, and rendered this 
meeting, from its commencement till its close, a scene of 
festivity and good-humour seldom witnessed." 

The " convivial spirit displayed by the chairman" was 
a characteristic of the English gentleman in those 
roystering days of the Prince Regent. People dined 
together, not wisely perhaps, but well and often ; and 
there were public gatherings and patriotic demonstra- 
trations, which always meant unlimited health-drinking 
and song-singing the "feast of reason and the flow of 
soul." In this way every year, by organizations called 
Pitt Clubs, "the immortal memory of William Pitt" 
was revered. Of the Northumberland and Newcastle 
Pitt Club, started in 1813, Mr. Brandling was a founder 
and the first President. 

The martial ardour that found expression at these 
convivial clubs was consolidated shortly after their 
formation by commercial depression and general dis- 
content. Riot and tumult broke out all over the 
country, and the moneyed classes feared a general in- 
surrection. To allay these fears and prepare for eventu- 
alities in the North of England, there was formed in 
December, 1819, under Mr. Brandling's command, " The 
Northumberland and Newcastle Volunteer Cavalry," 
to which was attached a troop of dismounted 
yeomanry raised in Newcastle. Before, however, the 
movement could be made effective the death of 
George III. involved a dissolution of Parliament, 
and Mr. Brandling's military aspirations were engrossed 
in political warfare. At the previous general election 
(1818) Mr. Thomaa Wentworth Beaumont had been re- 
turned, in succession to his father, as the colleague of Sir 
C. M. L. Monck, in the representation of the county, and 

his conduct in Parliament had given his Conservative 
supporters good ground for dissatisfaction, for, as ex- 
plained in the sketch of that ardent politician (Monthly 
Chronicle, vol. ii., p. 194), Mr. Beaumont, instead of sup- 
porting the Conservative Government, voted frequently 
with the Whigs. It was determined, therefore, that a 
candidate whose views and votes could be trusted should 
be brought out to oppose him. No one was considered so 
capable of overcoming the territorial influence of the Beau- 
mont family as Mr. Brandling, and he was induced to 
come out of his retirement and fight for his principles and 
his party. Preparations were made for a severe con tes 
but the call to battle had barely become audible when 
Sir Charles Monck declined to renew his candidature, 
and Mr. Brandling was returned to Parliament as the 
colleague of the man whom he had intended to exclude. 

On the 13th of December, 1823, the Town Moor of 
Newcastle was the scene of an interesting event. The 
Volunteer Cavalry assembled there at an extraordinary 
parade, and with admiring ladies and civilian friends 
massed around, Major Sir Charles Loraine, presented 
"the lieutenant - colonel commanding, Charles John 
Brandling, M.P.," with a copy of "the celebrated 
Warwick vase, found in Herculaneum, " weighing " up- 
wards of three hundred ounces," and, adds the chronicler, 
with visions of conviviality flitting through his brain, 
capable of holding "about eight quarts"! This was 
almost his last public appearance. In little more than 
two years afterwards, within three days of his fifyy- 
seventh birthday, he was summoned to a higher court 
than the High Court of Parliament, and a few days 
later his remains were buried at Gosforth. 

Summarising Mr. Brandling's political and social life, 
the editor of the Newcastle Magazine for June, 1826, states 
that, although he never made any pretensions to literary 
power, his conversation was that of a man of cultivated 
taste, and of an enlarged and well-informed mind. He 
was remarkably quick in his perception of genius in 
the fine arts, and equally eager to patronise it. To 
William Nicholson he gave commissions to paint groups 
of old servants, portraits of friends, and pictures of 
favourite animals. He purchased Henry Perlee Parker's 
painting of celebrated characters in Newcastle, and em- 
ployed him to paint a companion picture of a merry- 
making in the servants' hall at Gosforth House, intro- 
ducing portraits of the domestics. In private life, his 
hospitality and his urbane and generous disposition were 
proverbial. " His manly and candid manner, his cour- 
teous behaviour to his friends and acquaintances, and 
his affable demeanour to all ranks were such as it would 
be difficult to parallel amongst men of similar wealth and, 
connexions. His was the unostentatious and expansive 
and all-embracing hospitality of an ancient English 
Baron. He carried you back to the welcome and the- 
cheer of feudal times, without reminding you of their 
servility. " 




Mr. Brandling left three brothers, the eldest of whom, 
the Ev. Ralph Henry, succeeded to the property. To 
this clerical representative of the Brandlings came the 
misfortune of seeing the estates, which his family had 
held for 300 years, pass into the hands of strangers. He 
outlived his younger brother, Robert William, projector 
of the Brandling Junction Railway, chairman of the coal 
trade, and one of the receivers of Greenwich Hospital ; 
outlived also his brother John, Sheriff of Newcastle in 
1828-29, and Mayor in 1832-33 ; and died in Newcastle on 
the 26th of August, 1853, at the venerable age of 81 years 
" the last of the long roll of Brandlings " of Gosforth 
and Felling. 


j]HOLLERFORD is a hamlet in the township 
of Humshaugh and parish of Simonburn 
thirteen minutes' ride by rail N.W. from 
Hexham, on the Waverley Routa to Edin- 
burgh. It stands on the west side of the North Tyne, in 
the midst of lovely scenery. The village itself has 
nothing particular about it, but it is much frequented 
by anglers, and the inn, which is a conspicuous object 
in our engraving, is one of the most comforable in 
Northumberland. Moreover, Chollerford is a capital 
starting point for tourists bent on surveying the Roman 
Wall, and particularly the neighbouring station of 
Cilurnum, or Walwick Chesters, the proprietor of 
which, Mr. John Clayton, has unearthed a "rowth" of 
Roman antiquities such as is scarcely to be met with 
anywhere else. 

The modern name Chollerford is a mere modification of 
the ancient British appellative of the place Coill-uirin, 
"wood and water," corrupted by the Romans into 
Cilurnum and with the Anglian " ford " added. In 
long-past, pre-historic times, sun and moon worship must 
have been prevalent here, for the Romans, whose usual 
practice it was to incorporate in their theology and place 
in their pantheon the gods whom they found worshipped 
in the lands they conquered, raised altars at Cilurnum to 
the Moon goddess, known to the Britons as Comh-bhan- 
teinne, Latinized Coventina, " the lady companion of the 
God of Fire," the Sun. 

As the Tyne is subject to sudden floods, which come 
down almost like a wall of water, with little or no warn- 
ing, when there has been heavy rain up among the fells, 
the fords and stepping-stones by which it could ordinarily 
be crossed must have been always unsafe ; and so the pro- 
vident Romans would lose no time in setting about the 
building of a bridge, by which to keep open their com- 
munications east and west in all seasons and weathers. 
It had long been known that the vestiges of a Roman 
bridge were to be seen in the river opposite to Cilurnum, 
and within a short distance south of the modern village ; 

but the land abutment on the eastern side, which is by 
far the most striking feature of the work, was not dis- 
covered till the year 1860. Successive beds of sand and 
gravel had for ages encumbered it ; and at the time of its 
discovery a fir plantation grew upon this deposit, which 
had the fallacious appearance of a moraine, or glacier- 
debris heap. The river, too, which runs very rapidly, 
and is subject, as already observed, to great floods, for- 
saking for some distance at this place its ancient bed, had 
left the abutment dry, completely submerging the corres- 
ponding work on the opposite side. Dr. Bruce tells us 
that it was at the suggestion of Mr. William Coulson, of 
Corbridge, that Mr. Clayton engaged in the explorations 
which revealed to archaeologists this fine specimen of the 
engineering skill of the Romans. Alexander Gordon, in 
his "Itinerarium Septentrionale," published in 172b, 
describes the bridge as he saw it in the beginning of last 
century ; and a plan of the whole structure, and a 
bird's-eye view of the eastern abutment, is given in Dr. 
Bruce's great work on the Roman Wall. There were 
three water piers, the foundations of two of which are 
still easily discerned when the water is low ; and the 
third, lying under the east bank of the stream, was some 
time ago partly exposed ; but to prevent the river from 
encroaching upon the erections immediately behind it, it 
was found necessary to restore the bank to its original 

Agricola is believed to have first formed the adjoining 
station, and also to have thrown some sort of bridge 
across the Tyne ; but the works were certainly recon- 
structed or partly repaired by the Emperor Lucius Sep- 
timus Severus and his undutiful sons, in the beginning of 
the third century. The Notitia place the prefect of the 
second wing (ala) of the Astures at Cilurnum ; and these 
" Sons of Somebody " (hidalgos) from the skirts of the 
bleak snow-clad Vinnian Mountains, in Northern Spain, 
would find here, though in a latitude twelve degrees 
nearer the Pole, a climate milder than their native air, 
and scenery unsurpassed for beauty by any to be found in 
their native valleys. That it was an important station 
plainly appears from the number of Roman roads that 
converged upon it, and the great variety of inscribed 
stones, altars, votive tablets, &c., dug up on its site. 
Some have conjectured that it was here the Emperor 
Alexander Severus was murdered by the mutinous 
soldiers in the year 235, and that Elfwald, King of 
Northumbria, called by Simeon of Durham " a pious and 
upright king," was slain in A.D. 788 ; the locality, at any 
rate, was "near the Wall," and Elfwald was buried at 

During the troublous times that succeeded the fall of 
the Roman Empire, the bridge over the Tyne at Cilur- 
num must have been destroyed ; and, when better days at 
length dawned on Nortumberland, another bridge on 
another site was erected. In the reign of Richard II., 
Bishop Skirlaw granted a release from penance, for thir- 



( February 



February \ 
1889. / 



r-^-n^^ |- ^-^=-^^-^i 
^ ^j t ^J!jr_: 


teen days, to all who would contribute by labour or 
money to the repair of this bridge, which had fallen into 
decay "by the inundation of the waters," " whereby the 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood" were "in great dan- 
ger. " It would seem that an appeal had been made on 
behalf of the bridge three years before, but that it had 
nought availed. Repaired, however, it now must have 
been ; and it continued to be serviceable down till the 
year 1771, when the ever-memorable great flood carried it 
away, along with most of the other bridges on the Tyne. 
Four years afterwards, the present structure was raised. 
It consists of five arches, four of which are seen in our 

23irritarTy Castle. 

I HIS ancient seat of the proud Norman family 
of the Baliols is finely situated on the 
north or Durham bank of the river Tees. 
The ruins occupy more than six and a 
half acres. The rock on which the keep of this superb 
relic of feudal grandeur stands is eighty feet perpendicu- 
lar from the bed of the river. From the highest part of 
the ruins the visitor enjoys a commanding, beautiful, 
and most extensive prospect in every direction. Imme- 
diately adjacent to the river the banks are thickly 
wooded ; at a little distance they are more open and cul- 
tivated ; but, being interspersed with hedge-rows and 
isolated trees of great sire and age, they still retain the 
richness of woodland scenery. The river itself flows in a 
deep trench of solid rock, chiefly limestone and marble. 

The oldest part of the ruins is believed to date from at 
least the eleventh century ; and tradition ascribes the 
erection of the castle to Count Bernard, son of Guy 
Baliol, who came into England in the train of William 
the Conqueror. He is said to have been famous for feats 
of arms against the Saracens, and was the ancestor of the 
short and unfortunate Baliol dynasty, which succeeded 
to the Scottish throne at two different epochs, under the 
patronage of the first and third Edwards, kings of Eng- 
land. The castle often changed masters during the 
Middle Ages. Upon the forfeiture of the unfortunate 
John Baliol, Edward I. seized the place, as well as the 
other English estates of his refractory vassal. Bishop 
Bek laid claim to it, as belonging to the regalia of his 
Palatinate ; but Edward, instead of allowing the validity 
of his pretensions, seized upon the Palatinate itself, with 
all its pertinents, and bestowed Barnard Castle upon 
Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in whose family it 
continued for five generations, till it passed into the 
hands of the Nevilles, on the marriage of Anne of War- 
wick to Richard Neville, the King-Maker. Warwick's 
daughter Anne brought the castle once more into the 
hands of the Crown, through her marriage with the Duke 

of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III. This over-ambi- 
tious prince made it his chief residence, and strengthened 
its fortifications for the purpose of bridling and suppress- 
ing the Lancastrian faction in the Northern Counties. 
Richard's cognizance of the " bloody and devouring boar" 
still appears, not only on the walls of the castle, but in 
several parts of the adjoining town. 

During the reign of Henry VII., an Act of Parliament 
was passed enacting that " Barney Castelle, " which was 
"in theKyng'senheritaunce,"but was "a lawless place," 
in consequence of the disputed jurisdiction which the 
bishopric of Durham and the counties of York and North- 
umberland claimed over it, should in future be deemed to 
be within the county of York only, "that ys to sey par- 
cell of the Northryddyne of the same countie, any use, 
custom, privilege, or other matter or thynge to the con- 
trarie notwithstandynge. " This Act, however, does not 
appear in any of the statute books, but a copy of it oa 
parchment is preserved in the Harleian Collection in the 
British Museum. How long it remained in force does 
not appear. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the castle waa 
amongst the wide possessions of Charles Earl of West- 
moreland ; and on the rumour of his and the Earl of 
Northumberland's rebellion, known as " the Rising of the 
North," Sir George Bowes, of Streatlam, possessed him- 
self of the fortress, and resisted the whole power of the 
insurgents for eleven days, surrendering at length on 
honourable terms. The bridge over the Tees leading to 
Startforth, which consisted in Leland's time of three 
arches, is said to have been broken down during the 
siege, and the present bridge, consisting of two arches 
only, was subsequently built, dating from 1569. The 
castle was afterwards leased to Sir George Bowes ; but 
James I. granted it, on the expiry of the lease, to his 
guilty and unhappy favourite, Robert Viscount Brans- 
peth and Earl of Somerset, on whose attainder it again 
reverted to the Crown, and was appropriated for the main- 
tenance of the Prince of Wales's household. For this 
purpose it was demised to Sir Francis Bacon, attorney- 
general (the celebrated Lord Bacon), and others, for a 
term of ninety-nine years, in trust, to empower them to 
grant leases of the lordship or manor for twenty-seven 
years, or three lives, under certain rents, for the prince's 
benefit ; and the survivors of these grantees afterwards 
assigned their rights to Sir Henry Vane, cofferer to the 
king, who obtained, in the year 1635, from Charles I., a 
grant of free warren, with the offices of Master-Forester 
and Chief Warden of all Forests and Chases within the 
demesne of Barnard Castle, for him and his heirs. Four 
years later, he had sundry additional privileges conferred. 
William III., in 1699, created Barnard Castle a barony, 
and it now supplies one of the titles of its holder, the 
Duke of Cleveland, who, besides being Earl of Dar- 
lington and Baron Raby of Raby of Castle, is likewise 
Viscount and Baron Barnard of Barnard Castle. 

February } 


During the Civil Wars, the castle was held for King 
Charles, but Oliver Cromwell forced the garrison 
to surrender, having, by the advice of a deserter 
from the royal army, erected batteries on a command- 
ing eminence on the Yorkshire side of the Tees, called 
Towler Hill, whence he levelled the engines of destruc- 
tion with such effect as to render a prolonged resistance 
out of the question. 

The ruins now show the remains of four courts, enclos- 
ing the space stated above, a considerable portion of 
which is occupied by the gardens of a neighbouring hotel, 
laid out with great taste, so as not to interfere with the 
characteristic features of the place. The west or strongest 
side of the castle, crowning the lofty cliff, seems to 
have contained the state chambers. The south court is 
cut off from the others by a deep moat, and a wall forty 
feet high. The second or north-east court is in like manner 
separated by a moat and wall from the two smaller courts 
which lie on its west side. The third court, entered by a 
bridge from the second, lies on the east side of the castle, 
between the south court and the fourth court or citadel, 
from which it is also separated by a moat. A small oriel 
window, overlooking the Tees, still bears the boar of 
Richard III., carved within ; and at the north-east angle 
of this court is a great round tower, known as Baliol's 
Tower, about fifty feet high, and one hundred and fifty 
feet above the river, forming the principal feature in 
almost every view of the castle. It bears every mark of 
great antiquity, and is remarkable for the curious con- 
struction of the vaulted roof. It is said to have been 
greatly injured during the last French war by the opera- 
tions of some persons to whom it had been leased for the 
purpose of making patent shot. The area of the castle 
contains Brackeubury's Tower, formerly 
used as a dungeon. It has a large arched 
vault, with cells, and an opening at the 
top for letting down provisions to the 
wretches immersed therein. The inner 
and outer moats, with the sluices, and 
the situation of the drawbridges, may 
still be traced. In the adjoining 
grounds, called the Flatts, a large 
reservoir, called the Ever, was formed, 
and the water collected in it was con- 
veyed thence in pipes for the purpose of 
supplying the garrison, as well as the 
cattle enclosed within the walls of the 
outer areas, in times of public danger, 
for which protection the adjacent lands 
paid a rent, called Castle-guard-rent. 
The ruinous state in which the great 
fortress now exists is said to be mainly 
due, apart from the natural decay 
through time and neglect, to that Sir 
Harry Vane from whom Cromwell 
prayed the Lord to deliver him. 


Lartington, which is one of the prettiest villages in 
Britain, or indeed anywhere else, and which enjoys the 
rare privilege of not having a single public-house within 
its bounds, is situated on the south side of the Tees, about 
a mile from Barnard Castle. It is fortunate, likewise, 
on account of the adjoining hall being the property and 
residence of a family which may be said to have been for 
several generations exceptionally considerate of the 
highest interests of the people within the scope of their 
influence. The Withams, of Lartington Hall, originally 
from Lincolnshire, but settled for about two centuries in 
the North, and adhering, like so many of the County 
Palatine and Northumbrian gentry, to the Catholic 
religion, have intermarried with the Howards, Staple- 
tons, Silvertops, Salvins, Dunns, &c., but are chiefly re- 
markable as having been, many of them, very warm 
friends of popular education, and patrons as well as cul- 
tivators of science. To Henry Thornton Maire Witham, 
who died in 1844-, the town of Barnard Castle is indebted 
for its Mechanics 1 Institute, as well as its first Infant 
School ; and previous to the erection of the incomparable 
Bowes Museum, one of the chief attractions to intelligent 
visitors was the Witham Testimonial Hall, in the Market 
Place, raised as a memorial to that gentleman, who had 
been president of the institute and a liberal contributor 
to its funds. Mr. Witham, who was distinguished for his 
love of scientific research, laid the foundation stone, in 
1831, of a building attached to Lartington Hall, intended 
for a museum, which he furnished with an extensive 
collection of geological and mineralogical specimens, as 
well as a valuable collection of paintings by the most 
j esteemed masters of 
the Italian and Flem- 
ish schools, with others 
of more modern date. 
This museum, which 
is freely open to pub- 
lic inspection at all 
tunes, has been en- 




J February 
_\ 1839 

entirely remodelled under the euperintendenoe of the 
Rev. Thomas Witham, who has spared no expense to 
make it one of the most attractive and interesting institu- 
tions of the kind to be found in England. The building 
shown in our sketch is the school-house of the village. 


The village of Cotherstone is not far from Lartington. 
Near it, on a steep, verdant knoll called the Hagg, over- 
looking the junction of the Balder and the Tees, is 
a fragment of the mouldering wall representing the 
old castle of the Fitzhughs, Lords of Romaldkirk, 
the last of whom is said to have been killed by 
falling, with his horse, over a stupendous rock 
rising from the riverside high above the encircling 
trees, and known as Percy Myre Castle, as he was re- 
turning at night from hunting in Marwood Chase. This 
is only one of the traditions and legends with which 
the neighbourhood of Cotherstone abounds. Indeed, it is 
the very centre of a rich folk-lore district. Another tra- 
dition relates to a solitary rock on the adjoining moor, 
called "the Butterstone," at which it is told that during 
the Plague of 1636, when the fairs in the district were all 
" cried down," and the grass grew in Newcastle streets, a 
kind of market was held, the country people, who were 
afraid of visiting Barnard Castle for fear of catching the 
infection, bringing their butter, eggs, and so forth to 
this stone, leaving them there, and retiring, whereupon 
the townspeople came in their turn and took away the 
articles, leaving the purchase money in a bowl of water, 
its passage through which liquid was supposed to do 
away with the risk of contagion. Down to quite a recent 
date Cotherstone formed part of the parish of Romaldkirk, 
but it is now constituted into a separate ecclesiastical 
district, with a fine church, of which we give a view. 
The village is most noted, however, for its being one of 
the last places in the country where the old custom, once 
general, of christening the young cattle and horses sur- 
vived ; so that at one time, when its name was men- 
tioned, you would hear it said, as if proverbially " O, 
aye, that's Cotherstone where they kirsen cauves." 
Cotherstone cheese rivals that of Stilton in flavour. The 
village is largely colonised by members of the Society of 

iternmrtt CaetU 

RHE ancient town of Barnard Castle has been 
the scene of several dark tragedies, one of 
which, shrouded in hitherto unpenetrable 
mystery, stands as a notable exception to 
the popular belief that "Murder will out." 

Sixty years ago, the youths and maidens of the 
(town and neighbourhood were in the habit of 

making frequent pilgrimages to the parish church- 
yard at Startforth, on the Yorkshire side of the Tees, 
to visit the grave of the hapless Hannah Latham. 
This poor girl belonged to Lartington. She was an 
orphan, nineteen years of age, and lived as farm servant 
in the immediate vicinity. Being induced to visit 
Barnard Castle, she got into a dancing-room in 
a public-house, where she remained till a late hour. 
A villain volunteered to see her home, and on 
the way thither, at a lonely part of the road, he 
took advantage of the poor girl's helplessness, committed 
a brutal outrage, and, maddened by her stout resistance, 
maltreated her in such a way as to cause her death. -In 
the morning her dead body was found at the road side. 
Singular to say, the miscreant was never discovered. In 
memory of a tragedy so shocking and so mysterious, a 
pretty obelisk was erected. The traveller from Barnard 
Castle to Bowes, Stainmoor, or Brough may see it from 
the road as he passes. There is an inscription on the 
stone to this effect 

This pedestal is raised by voluntary donations to the 
memory of Hannah Latham, who fell the victim of a 
sanguinary villain on the Brignall Road, within a mile of 
this place, on the 1st of January, 1813, and in the 19th 
year of her age. 

Ill-fated orphan, though no parent's tear 
Was fondly shed in anguish o'er thy bier. 
Yet shall thy murderer, while on earth, remain 
The victim of remorse, despair, and shame. 

A much older story of crime is recorded in "The 
Barnard Castle Tragedy" of local collectors, Joseph 
Ritson having giving it that title in his "Bishopric Gar- 
land," from whence the ballad has been copied into the 
legendary division of Richardson's "Local Historians 
Table Book." This ballad shows how one John Atkin- 
son, of Murten, near Appleby, servant to Thomas How- 
son, miller, at Barnard Castle Bridge End, courted How- 
son's sister Elizabeth ; how, after he had gained her 
affections, he paid court to another ; how he married 
this other by the treacherous advice of one Thomas 
Skelton, who, to save the priest's fees, performed the 
ceremony himself ; and how Elizabeth, upon hearing the 
news, broke her heart, and bled to death on the spot. 
The writer of the ballad, after relating Atkinson's deceit, 
proceeds thus : 

Then he made all alike, Betty's no more his dear ; 
Drinking was his delight, his senses to doze, 
Keeping lewd company, when be should repose ; 
Her money being spent, and they would tick no more, 
Then with a face of brass he asked poor Betty for more. 

He at length met with one, a serving maid in town ; 

She for good ale and beer oft time would pawn her gown, 

And at all-fours did play, as many people know 

A fairer gamester no man could ever bhow. 

Tom Skelton, ostler, at the King's Arms does dwell, 

Who this false Atkinson did all his secrets tell; 

He let him understand of a new love he'd got, 

And with an oath he swore she'd keep full the pot. 

Then for the girl they sent, Betty Hardy was her name, 
Who to her mistress soon an excuse did frame : 
" Mistress, I have a friend at the King's Arms doth stay, 
Which I desire to see before he goes away." 

February \ 



Then she goes to her friend, who she finds ready there, 
Who catch'd her in his arms " How does my only dear?" 
She says, "Boys, drink about, and fear no reckoning large," 
For she had pawned her smock to defray the charge. 

They did carouse it off till they began to warm ; 
Says Skelton : " Make a match ! I pray where's the harm?" 
Then with a loving kiss they straightway did agree. 
But they no money had to pay the priest a fee. 

Quoth Skelton, seriously : "The priest's fee is large ; 
I'll marry you myself, and save all the charge. " 
Then they plight them both unto each other there, 
Went two miles from the town, and goes to bed, we hear. 

Then, when the morning came, by breaking of the day, 
He had some corn to grind, he could no longer stay ; 
" My business is in haste, which I to thee do tell " 
So took a gentle kiss, and bid his love farewell. 

Now when he was come home, and at his business there. 
His master's sister came, who was his former dear ; 
" Betty," he said, " I'm wed, certainly 1 protest," 
Then she smiled in his face " Sure you do but jest." 

Then within few day's space his wife unto him went, 
And to the sign o' the East, there she for him sent. 
The people of the house, finding what was in hand, 
Stept out immediately, let Betty understand. 

This surprising news caus'd Betty fall in a trance, 
Like as if she was dead ; no limbs she could advance. 
Then her dear brother came ; her from the ground he took : 
And she spake up and said : " O my poor heart is broke !" 

Then with all speed they went for to undo her lace, 
Whilst at her nose and mouth her heart's blood ran apace ; 
Some stood half-dead by her, others for help inquire ; 
But, in a moment's time, her life it did expire. 

"This story," says Ritson, "being both true and 
tragical, 'tis hop'd 'twill be a warning to all lovers." 

Barnard Castle was the scene of a more authentic 
tragedy in 1845. On the 9th of August, in that year, 
a tailor, named Joseph Yates, who had been drinking 
the whole day, fell in the evening into the company 
of three young men, named George Barker, Thomas 
Routledge Raine, and John Breckon. These youths, 
having discovered that Yates had some money in his 
possession, determined to rob him of it. So, about 
midnight, when he was in company with a woman 
named Catherine Raine, the three lads, with a girl 
named Ann Humphreys, followed him to a place on 
the banks of the Tees known as the Sills. There, 
after a short scuffle, they took his money, and then 
threw him into the river, where he was drowned. 
Returning over the bridge into the town, the men urged 
the women to swear to secrecy ; but as Raine would not 
accede to their request, she was seized, thrown over the 
parapet, and was drowned also. Humphreys then swore 
to keep the matter a secret, and was permitted to go 
home. The bodies were found a few days afterwards. 

Humphreys kept her oath inviolate for nearly a year, 
and it was not till near the end of July, 1846, that 
any arrests were made. Barker was apprehended at 
Shildon ; Raine at Ecclefechan, in Dumfriesshire ; 
and Breckon in Durham Gaol, where he was confined on 
another charge. All three denied any knowledge of the 

The case against them came on for trial at the York 
Assizes, August, 1846, when Ann Humphreys gave 

evidence to the above effect, fully inculpating the three 
prisoners with the double murder ; but, inasmuch as her 
testimony was not supported by other witnesses, there 
was some doubt in the minds of the jury as to the pri- 
soners having actually committed the capital crime, and. 
a verdict of " Not Guilty " was consequently returned. 

Further evidence was, however, afterwards obtained to 
corroborate that of Humphreys, and the three prisoners 
were arraigned on April 7, 1847, before Mr. Baron Rolfe, 
for robbery only. The grand jury having brought in a 
true bill, counsel for the defence put in a special plea of 
autrefois acquit, which, however, was disallowed. The 
trial, consequently, proceeded. 

Several witnesses testified to seeing Yates in an. 
intoxicated condition in the streets of Barnard Castle, 
to seeing Yates with Raine, and to seeing Yates and 
Ruine afterwards with the prisoners. But the evidence 
of Ann Humphreys was of the most remarkable character. 
As summarised in the statement of Mr. Bliss, the 
counsel for the prosecution, it was to the following 
effect : 

She went to bed, she stated, between twelve and one 
o'clock, her sister, her father, and her child being then 
asleep. Being restless and uneasy, from some unaccount- 
able cause, she, without disturbing the rest of the family, 
dressed herself again, and went downstairs. While 
standing at the door, she saw Yates and Catherine 
Raine together. Then the three prisoners joined 
them, as did Humphreys herself. All six crossed the 
bridge over the Tees to the Yorkshire side of the river. 
Yates and the girl Raine walked before, followed by 
Ann Humphreys and Thomas Raine, Barker and 
Breckon bringing up the rear. As they were going along 
Raine said to Humphreys: "Yates has some money. 
How must we do to get it from him ?" She replied : 
" Poor little fellow ! do not meddle with him. He will 
spend it all among you." When they had proceeded 
about two hundred yards along the Sills, Barker began 
to quarrel with Yates relative to a coat which the 
former had been charged with stealing on informa- 
tion given by the latter. Barker asked Yates if he was 
going to appear against him on account of the coaf 
Yates answered that be was. Barker then struck 
Yates several times, whereupon all three of the pri- 
soners pounced upon him, rifled his pockets, and threw 
him into the Tees, which was in high flood at the 
time. The two girls, naturally horrified, ran back to- 
wards the bridge, shouting " Murder ! " The prisoners 
ran after them, stopped them, and silenced their 
outcries. They threatened that they would murder 
them likewise, if they would not swear secrecy. 
Raine refused to keep silence, and said she would 
tell the police ; and so she was seized and thrown over the 
parapet of the bridge. Humphreys begged for her own 
life, which was spared on her swearing most solemnly 
never to divulge what she had seen. 





The jury, at the close of the second trial, returned 
with a verdict of " Guilty," and Mr. Baron Rolfe, in 
passing sentence, used the following emphatic language : 

It is impossible for any one who has witnessed the pro- 
ceedings of this trial, not to feel that you have been 
guilty of two of the most barbarous murders that 
perhaps the annals of crime ever furnished. You have 
succeeded, undoubtedly, in defeating the ends of justice 
hitherto ; and I presume that, upon the first trial, 
material circumstances that have now come out in 
evidence were not brought forward, either because they 
had not come to light, or were not known to exist ; 
for I am perfectly certain any jury which has heard 
what has been detailed on this occasion could not have 
the remotest doubt but that you barbarously, and not 
merely, as I suspect, for objects of plunder, but from 
some motives of revenge, murdered that young man, 
and followed up that with equal barbarity' in murdering 
the young woman ; and 1 see enough to convince me that 
ou formed the desperate plan of murdering Ann 

umphreys also. I confess I feel somewhat ashamed 
that the law is not able to reach you further than it is. 
But this I will say to you, that whether your lives shall, 
by the pleasure of God, be terminated early or protracted 
late, you will live the objects of abhorrence and detesta- 
tion even among your guiltv associates amongst whom 
you will be placed, who will be ashamed aud contami- 
nated at being with you. The severest sentence which 
the law allows me I shall pass upon you, and it is that 
you be severally transported across the seas, to such 
place as her Majesty, by the advice of her Privy Council, 
shall direct, for the space of fifteen years. 

And with the expatriation of the three prisoners this 
singular case closed, so far as the British public was con- 
cerned. The two trials, Latimer tells us in his continua- 
tion of Sykes, cost the county of York 1,309. 

air, and is from an old -MS. book dated 1764, now in the 
possession of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle. 



ljtt tokoe. 


pROM the earliest ages, satire has been one of 
the most powerful instruments in the hands 
of poet or writer to lash those against whom 
they owed a grudge, or who afforded a sub- 
ject on which to exercise their talents ; and priests and 
ministers of religion have been perhaps more than any 
other class the butts at which the bolts of sarcasm or 
raillery have been launched. 

"The De'il Stick the Minister" is a tune which has 
enticed the fancy of more than one rhymster to fit it with 
appropriate verse ; but the song which is here given, and 
which, we believe, was composed by Mr. John Farrer, of 
Netherwitton, was very popular about sixty years ago in 
Northumberland. It is, too, a felicitous example of that 
class of song which, pourtraying the characteristics of 
some well-known individual, and wedded to an air which 
everyone knew, was readily adopted and sung by the 
community. The tune is a well-known Northumbrian 

Our wile she keeps baith beef and yell Aud 

tea to treat the Slin - is ter; There's 

nowt for me but sup the kale. The 


beef's for the Min - is - ter. 


sides, a hot - tie keeps in by To 

warm his breast when he's no drv ; While 



ter ! 

Our Minister he's now fawn sick : 

Waes me, the Minister ! 
Wha'll save us now fra Auld Nick, 

Gin the Lord tak' the Minister! 
Left to oursels, we ken fu' weel 
The brent upstairs we canua spiel : 
We'll just turn back and meet the De il, 

Gin the Lord tak' the Minister. 

Our Minister he has nae pride, 

Ne'er a bit. the Minister ; 
He just sits by our fireside, 

Kin' he war no' the Minister. 
He taks the gudewife by the hand, 
Says, " John, man, sit : what uiaks ye stand ? " 
Has a' the bairns at his command 

He's a holy man, the Minister. 

The covenant he can explain 

He's a wise man, the Minister ; 
Thinks na religion like his ain 

We maun think like the Minister. 
The Papists are a wicked sect, 
They no belang the Lord's elect ; 
Gin Parliament their claims accept, 

May the De'il stick the Minister 1 

Our Minister, he's aft in want ; 

He's a puir man, the Minister; 
Whate'er he wants we a' inun grant, 

We maun supply the Minister. 
And aft to him a horse we lend ; 
His wife and bairns on us depend, 
Tho' our ainsels can hardly fend. 

May the De'il stick the Minister ! 

Yet still he's useful in his place ; 

He's a braw man, the Minister ; 
At ilka feast he says the grace, 

Naue fitter than the Minister ; 




And when the glasses come in view, 
He says, " We'll drink, but no Ret fou', 
Sic deeds the Lord does not allow." 
Yet fou' gets the Minister. 

He preaches loud ; he saf t does pray ; 

This says the Minister 
"Ye need no fear your dying day, 

Gin ye be like your Minister. 
Ye'll get abune, ye needna fear ; 
Be sure that after me ye speer. " 
But faith we doubt, when we get there, 

We'll no see the Minister. 

ir CStorge 

jjN the evening of the 21st December, 1888, in 
the Cottage Hospital at Hawick, at the age of 
sixty-one, there passed away a man (he was a 
wood-turner by trade) whose name is probably by no 
means generally known throughout his native county. I 
have good authority that of one, himself a professional 
man of letters, who knows the Colonies well for stating 
that in Canada, Australia, and probably the United 
States, the name of James Thomson and his poems of 
"Hairst" and the "Wee Croodlin Doo " are household 
words. A certain amount of local reputation Thomson 
did, no doubt, enjoy ; still it is difficult, in his case, to 
avoid recurring once more to the hard saying concerning 
a prophet in his own country. This is perhaps scarcely 
the time or the place to enter upon a critical estimate of 
Thomson's poetry. As a poet he has no breadth of range, 
little originality in his choice of a subject, and perhaps, 
in a general way, as little in his method of treating one. 
Yet, in spite of all these disadvantages, the fact remains 
that much of his book "Doric Lays and Lyrics," pub- 
lished by Dunn and Wright, of Glasgow is what another 
local poet in my hearing described it to be, " real poetry." 
In proof of this assertion, note in particular the passages 
which speak of children and the life of children. Again, 
if they be not "real poetry," by what means have 
Thomson's lyrics succeeded in winning their way to vast 
numbers of hearts in which exile has perhaps only ren- 
dered more acute the sentiment of home? It is, of 
course, undeniable that a poet must be born, and cannot 
be made ; but it is no less certain that a man who has 
been born a poet may be made a much better one. James 
Thomson of Hawick with reverence and regret let his 
name be spoken owed all his poetry to his birth. 
"Should any of these simple rhymes," he wrote in the 
preface to his book, "be the means of touching a chord 
in the heart, or kindling a smile of happiness or enjoy- 
ment at the fireside of the sons of toil, the author will 
be amply rewarded." Such was the end which he pro- 

posed to himself ; and he attained it. Below is reprinted 
one of the best known of his poems : 

Up fra their cosie beds 

Afore the break o' day, 
Skippin' round the corner, 

Brattlin' down the brae ; 
Hearts a' sae happy, 

Faces blithe and gay, 
A merry band o' bairnies 

Seek their Hogmanay. 

Careless o' the blast sae bleak, 

Snawy drift or shower, 
Though the roses on their cheek 

Turn like the blaewort flower 
Frae ilka door they're jinkin' 

To hail the happy day ; 
And they a' gang a linkin 

To seek their Hogmanay. 
Bonny bairnies, come awa'. 

It's little I've to gie, 
But ye shall ha'e my blessing a', 

And ae babee. 
When manhood's care comes o'er ye, 

Ye'll mind the merry day 
When, happy-hearted bairnies, 

Ye sought yer Hogmanay. 

at ifoto castle. 

(Srainger jptreet. 


J1GAIN we find ourselves at the Grey Monu- 
ment, but this time we mean to saunter 
along the noble street to which has been 
assigned the name of Newcastle's greatest 
We are within a stone's throw of Richard 
Grainger's birth-place in High Friar Street, just behind 
the present Dispensary. We have gazed on the mag- 
nificent work of the poor widow's son fortunate enough 
to win a rich wife, though as we have strolled down 
Grey Street. Let us see now what there is to interest 
us in its worthy companion and rival Grainger Street. 

Grainger Street, like Grey Street, is emphatically one of 
shops, and very handsome shops too. But our readers 
would scarcely thank us if we were to make an inventory 
of them. We are at the principal entrance to the Central 
Exchange Art Gallery and Reading Room. Shame upon 
us if we pass its door indifferently, for it is one of the 
sights of Newcastle. 

The history of the room is interesting. Grey Street 
had been laid out ; Grainger Street planned out also ; 
what was to be done with this considerable triangle of 
waste land left between them ? Grainger's first idea was 
to erect a Corn Exchange, which, being covered, should 
enable merchants and their customers to transact their 
business in greater comfort than before. For at that 
time the corn market was held in the open air in St. 
Nicholas' Square (where the cabs now stand) on Tuesdays 
and Saturdays. At eleven o'clock on these days, a man 



( February 
\ 1889. 

who lived in Drury Lane stationed himself at the head of 
it as the " Major " proclaimed the hour, and rani; his bell, 
whereupon the merchants opened their sacks, and the 
business began. Grainier, then, built the Exchange with 
this object in view. But the Corporation of that day 
would not fall in with it. They listened to the protests 
of the shopkeepers in the neighbourhood of St. Nicholas' 
Square ; moreover, the occupants who were beginning to 
settle in Market Street declared that corn-laden carts 
would be unsightly before their doors. 

Well, in consequence of opposition of this sort, the Corn 
Exchange project had to be abandoned. It occurred then 
to Grainger that a place where the purposes of a news room 
could be combined with those of a commercial exchange 
was one much needed in Newcastle. Accordingly, in 
1839, this building was opened as an Exchange and News 
Room. Subscribers to the number of 1,132 had been 
obtained ; there was, of course, the inevitable dinner, to 
which some four hundred sat down, and thereat the 
Mayor, Mr. John Fife, presided ; and so the scheme was 
continued until December, 1869. 

In that year it was found impossible to keep open the 
institution any longer. The rent was too heavy ; the 
support accorded was inadequate. With an enterprise 
and a courage worthy of the highest praise, Messrs. T. P. 
Barkas and W. Tweedy the reputation of the latter as a 
wood was then at its height in this North-Country 
came gallantly to the rescue. They determined to 

carry on the News Room and the Exchange, but to add 
attractions in the shape of an Art Gallery and occasional 
Industrial Exhibitions. There was a general feeling of 
relief when these public-spirited townsmen announced 
their intention ; for it was felt that the conversion of so 
noble a building into a vulgar casino, or anything of that 
sort, would have been a downright calamity. Messrs. 
Barkas and Tweedy re-opened the building on the first 
of June, 1870, commencing with about 700 subscribers, 
which have since, under the management of Mr. Barkas 
(now Mr. Alderman Barkas) and his son Mr. Tweedy 
having retired very largely increased. 

The interior of the Exchange (see page 82) is striking 
enough. Twelve massive pillars, arranged in semi-circular 
order, mark the limits of the news room proper ; all else is 
open to the general public at a fixed charge per head. 
Here are the pictures, curiosities, articles of vertu, and so 
forth ; here, too, are held the concerts, &c. The exterior 
is in architectural harmony with the rest of Grainger's- 
buildings in the neighbourhood. The corners are rounded 
oil, and surmounted by domes, beneath which are massive 
Corinthian columns. Few places of mere business can 
boast of more elaborate embellishments than can the 
shops in this part of the town. 

We may now leave the Exchange. Opposite us i 
Nelson Street, chiefly notable for its Lecture Room, 
which has been the scene of many animated political and 
theological meetings. So far back as the year 184-3, in the 





month of January, Robert Owen expounded his peculiar 
system here at great length. An Irishman present at- 
tempted to reply to the lecturer, but was at once uncere- 
moniously ejected. He speedily returned, reinforced by 
a large number of his countrymen, who were indignant at 
the roughness displayed towards him. The doors being 
barred against the mob, they were attacked with sticks, 
broken bed-posts, chair legs, &c., until at length an 
entrance was forced, when the audience beat a hasty 
retreat by means of the doors and windows. Fortu- 
nately, no serious personal injury was done to anyone 
concerned in this foolish affray. Then, in the month of 
July of that same year, John Bright addressed a crowded 
meeting here on the then burning question of the Corn 
Laws. In May, 1857, John Frost, the Chartist, was pre- 
sented in this room with an address of congratulation 
from a number of sympathising supporters of his views. 

But it would be impossible to go at length through the 
list of public men who have stood on the platform of the 
Lecture Room, without writing, substantially, a history 
of the Radical Reform party in Newcastle for the last 
half-century, and that would be foreign to the purpose of 

these papers. Here, amongst others, Charles Attwood 
proclaimed his sturdy Radicalism, and David Urquhart 
aired his characteristic views on the diplomacy of Tx>rd 
Palmerston. Here Charles Larkin often thundered 
against the Tories, and George Thompson brought an 
indictment against other forms of slavery than that 
which befel the negro, whose constant friend he was. 
Mr. Joseph Cowen was a familiar figure on these boards 
from his early years ; and, later on, he was in the chair 
when Mr. Joseph Chamberlain first addressed a New- 
castle public meeting here. Sir Charles Dilke delivered 
from this platform the speech on the Monarchy which 
created so much stir at the time. Mr. James Watson, 
bookseller, Mr. James Gilmour, photographer, and Mr. 
Thomas Gregson, watchmaker, represented the more 
purely local Radicalism of Newcastle in this room on 
many and many an occasion ; all three have passed into 
the silent land. Theological opinion of all sorts has 
found expression here, from that of Father Ignatius and 
Thomas Cooper to that of Mrs. Annie Besant and Mr. 
Charles Bradlaugh. 

Above this room is another, formerly known as the 





Music Hall. Here Gavazzi has more than once declaimed 
against the teachings of Rome ; here, too, Charles 
Dickens came, on his second visit to Newcastle, to give 
some of his popular readings from his own works. He 
would not go back to the Town Hall on any account ; 
indeed, he is said have denounced its internal arrange- 
ments with Saxon force and emphasis. A little further 
along is a Primitive Methodist Chapel, the foundation 
stone of which was laid by the Rev. W. Clowes, of Hull, 
on November 21st, 1837. It was finished in the following 
spring, and will accommodate about a thousand persons. 
A little further along still is the Cordwainers' Hall, 
whose motto was that " oppression's iron hand should ever 
be legally resisted." The opposite side of the way is 
devoted to satisfying bodily wants in the eating and 
drinking line. Here also is located the Working Men's 
Club a very deserving and creditably managed institu- 
tion. The corner shop at 
the Grainger Street end was 
long known as "Barlow's 
shop," occupied for many 
years by the late Joseph 
Barlow, bookseller and news- 
agent.* We are now at the 
corner also of what is always 
called emphatically, The Mar- 
ket ; and thereby hangs a 

We have seen already how 
Grainger made a clean sweep 
of the old markets of our 
town when he took in hand 
the formation of Grey Street. 
We may now see what he 
built in the place of what he 
had knocked down. In a 
sense, the architect was an 
iconoclast; but he was not 
one altogether. He pulled 
down only that he might 
rebuild and restore ; and 
this market building cer- 
tainly one of the finest in Erjgland, perhaps the very 
finest, all things considered is an excellent instance in 
point. It was finished and ready for its purposes on the 
22nd of October, 1835. Great were the rejoicings of the 
public on that great day. A grand dinner was held in 
the Vegetable (division of the) Market, and the then 
Mayor, Mr. J. L. Hood, occupied the chair. Nearly two 
thousand persons sat down ; many more would have 
liked to have kept them company. It was very sensibly 
resolved by the organisers of the feast that the charges 
should be moderate on such an occasion ; and, accord- 

* Mr. Barlow, whose cheerfulness of temper was not affected in 
any way by the loss ot his eyesight, died in Northumberland 
Street, on October 15, 1886, in his seventy-eighth year. (See next 

ingly, the guests at the lower part of the avenue were 
only charged a couple of shillings a-head, whilst those 
who sat at the upper or north-east end were required to 
pay five. So great was the demand for tickets, however, 
especially of the latter class, that many of them were sold 
for ten and even fifteen shillings a-piece. Altogether 
nine hundred tickets were thus disposed of. 

Whilst the lords of creation were thus feeding, the fair 
ladies, according to our amiable insular custom, were 
graciously permitted to look down upon them from a 
gallery specially erected for the purpose. About three 
hundred took advantage of these seats. Dinner over, the 
speech-making began, and some appropriate addresses 
were given by Mr. Ord, M.P., Mr. John Clayton (Town 
Clerk), and Mr. John Dobson. But the hero of the day, 
of course, was Richard Grainger himself, who, on rising 
to say a few words, was received with round after round 


of enthusiastic cheering. Of this famous dinner in our 
modern local history, Mr. John Adamson, the learned 
biographer of the poet Camoens, is reported to have said, 
maybe with some pardonable enthusiasm : " Nothing 
was like it since the days of Belshazzar ; but instead of 
a prophet predicting impending destruction, we had a 
Mayor and Corporation that made the welkin ring with 
shouts of coming prosperity." The banquet was held on 
the 22nd ; the Market, in its various departments, was 
opened for business on the following 24th. 

Figures are not, as a rule, very attractive reading ; yet 
we fancy that two or three here may prove interesting to 
the good people who throng from all parts of the town, 
and from the surrounding country-side also, to "The 

February > 
1889. / 



Market." Let it be set down, then, that this temple of 
trade comprises an area of 13,906 square yards, or 
about two acres. Its length is 338 feet 3 inches ; its 
breadth, 2*1 feet 7 inches. In the Butcher Market 
proper there are four avenues, which contain 183 shops, 
*ome of them, however, devoted now-a-days to the sale of 
other wares. Of these shops, no less than 157 were taken 
by butchers before the building was opened a strong 
proof of their confidence in the stability of the enter- 
prise. There are 360 vertical windows, and 60 skylights 
in the eastern avenue alone. The original Vegetable 
Market is now mainly given up to the vendors of second- 
hand books. In this hall, as it was originally called, there 
were 55 shops and 104- windows. It is 318 feet long and 
57 feet wide. 

The Corporation paid 36,290 for the Markets ; but, as 
a, set-off, they received 15,000 on account of the old 
market which had been demolished ; so that the net cost 
of the building to the ratepapers came to 21,290. On 
the opening day, the meat offered for sale exceeded any- 
thing previously known in the North of England ; whilst 
the Green Market (for so was the Vegetable Market gen- 
erally called) was distinguished by an " almost boundless 
profusion " of exhibits. 

Of course so notable an event in the history of our 
town did not escape the local poets of the time. It 
may amuse the reader to transcribe one of their 
"screeds" to use one of their own favourite words. It 
runs as follows : 

(Tune "Canny Newcassel.") 

Wey. hinnies, but this is a wundorful scene, 

Like some change that yen's seen in a playhoose ; 
Wlie ever wad thowt that the awd Major's dean 

Wad hev myed sic a capital weighhoose? 
Where the brass hez a' cum f rae nebody can tell, 

Some says yen thing and some says anuthor ; 
But whe ever lent Grainger 't aa knaa varry well 

That they mun hev, at least, had a fother. 

About Lunneu, then, divvent ye myek sic a rout, 
For there's nowt there ma winkers te dazzel ; 

For a bell or a market, there issent a doot, 
We can bang them at canny Newcassel. 

Wor gratitude Grainger or sumbody's arl'd, 

Yet still, mun, it myeks ye a ! shuther, 
Te see sic a crowd luiking eftpr this warld 

Where the Nuns used te luik for the tuther. 
But te yor awn interest dinna be blind, 

Tyek a shop there, whatever yor trade is ; 
Genteeler company, where can ye find, 

Than wor butchers, green wives, and tripe ladies? 

Ye see the wives naggle aboot tripe and sheep heeds, 

Or washing their greens at a fountain, 
Where the young Nuns used to be telling their beads, 

And had nowt but thor sins te be countin' ; 
There the talented lords o' the cleaver and steel 

May be heard on that classicull srrund, sor, 
Loudly chanting the praise o' their mutton an' veal, 

Though they're losm' a happ'ny a pund, sor. 

When them queer Cockney folk cum stravagin this way, 
(Though aa've lang thowt we're gettin aboon them), 

They'll certainly noo hae the mense just to say, 
That we've clapt an extinguisher on them ; 

It's ne use contending, they just may shut up, 
For it's us can astonish the stranger ; 

They may brag o' their lords and their aad king te boot, 
What's the use on't? they hevent a Grainger! 

To the student of character, the Saturday scenes in the 
Market are often full of interest. Thousands pass and 
repass ; buxom heusewives and rosy lasses jostle against 
sisters who have only too clearly the wearing marks of 
poverty. Each tradesman, every saleswoman is on the 
alert for customers, particularly if the goods are perish- 
able. One class of visitors always attract attention 
when they perambulate the Market, namely, the brides, 
bridegrooms, and bridesmaids from the outlying country 
villages. With these it seems to be the rule to "leuk 


throo the Mairkit." On their appearance they are the 
observed of all observers. Nor do they seem to care 
a button for the good-humoured chaff which is occasion- 
ally addressed to them, especially if any of the party 
are recognised as acquaintances or customers. Indeed, 
they rather seem to like the obtrusive attention thus 
paid them. What wonder? Why should they be angry 
or we surprised? Was there ever woman yet that 
wouldn't turn her head to look at a bride, and then to 
criticise the husband? 

Returning to Grainger Street, we notice on our lett 
Market Street, with its huge drapery establishments, 
where you may buy anything you want in that line, 
from a pennyworth of tape to a bishop's lawn sleeves or 
a duchess's sables. Shop after shop of more or less hand- 
some dimensions are passed till we come to West 
Grainger Street. Near the end of this substantial addi- 
tion to Newcastle streets, we find ourselves between 
St. John's Church and graveyard on our left, and the 
Savings Bank on our right. Of the latter it is only 
necessary to record here that it was founded in January, 
1818. The business was at first conducted in the Mayor's 




Chamber (or Parlour) in the Guildhall ; then at the 
end of the Tyne Bridge ; then in the Arcade ; and now 
where we see it. Crossing Westgate Road, we pass by 
the Douglas Hotel, an imposing architectural pile, and, 
on the other side, the County Hotel, which is an enlarge- 
ment of an earlier (but substantially the same) building, 
and find ourselves in front of the Central Station. 

So come we to the end of this street of shops. But 
we must not forget to remind the reader that the part of 
the street we have just left is the palatial successor to a 
narrow and not particularly inviting thoroughfare, 
known as St. John's Lane, sometimes Copper Alley, 
because wages were there often paid in coppers. 

Mitiev 0f tfitttan. 

BOUT the middle of last century, one of the 
most familiar figures at Barnard Castle and 
Richmond markets was John Wardell, or 
Weardale, then tenant of Ketton, a farm in the town- 
whip of Braffertou, two or three miles south from 
Aycliffe, on the left bank of the Skerne. He was com- 
monly known by the nickname of the Miser of Ketton. 

There being no market at Darlington for corn in those 
days, Johnny, as he was called, had to take his wheat 
and other grain further afield ; and as the roads were 
very bad for the most part mere horse tracks, 
and for carts quite impassable the produce had to 
be carried on the backs of pack horses, each of which bore 
something like a couple of bolls. With six or eight such 
horses, Johnny was wont to march in procession, riding 
upon the foremost, with a very primitive saddle, made of 
coarse sack-cloth, stuffed with straw, and known as Sods- 
and-Sunks ; and the rest of the cavalcade followed close 
behind, tied in tandem fashion, with a lad similarly 
mounted on the hindmost horse. Wardell thus travelled, 
as occasion served, to Barnard Castle on the Wednesdays, 
or Richmond on the Saturdays, leaving home some time 
the night before, so as to be ready when the market 
opened. As soon as the horses had been divested of 
their loads, they were taken back to the nearest 
convenient place outside the town, and left 
there in charge of the lad, till his master had 
pot his marketing made. In this way Johnny was saved 
the expense of stabling and baiting his steeds, and no 
Boniface in either town ever saw a penny of Johnny's 
money, for both the lad and he carried thick slices of 
home-made "inaslin" bread (a mixture of wheat and 
rye), and "kitchen" to it, in the shape of skim-milk 
cheese, which they could moisten at their discretion with 
a drink of water. 

On these occasions Johnny was clad in a homespun 
grey coat, manufactured from the wool of his own sheep 
by his wife and daughters, the whole of whose leisure 

time was filled up with spinning on the long wheel, and 
woven by one or other of the country weavers who were 
then to be found in every village. His feet were covered 
with rough tacketed or hobnailed shoes, and his legs 
with coarse woollen hoggers, which came up to above his. 
knees. His knee breeches had been worn by his father 
and grandfather before him. They were made of well 
tanned or tawed sheepskin, and, having descended with 
other heirlooms te> himself, they had become, in the service 
of three generations, so thickly engrained with grease and 
dirt, that, with the assistance of an old rusty nail, they 
served at market the purpose of a Roman wax tablet for 
the calculation of Johnny's accounts. 

It was in this queer trim that Mr. Wardell appeared at 
the sale of Stickabitch, a property situated between the 
road from Blackwell to Croft and the Eiver Tees, and 
began to make biddings for it, in competition with some 
of the big-wigs from Darlington and Durham, who 
were there expressly to be buyers. These gentry 
eyed Johnny with supreme contempt, and rudely 
questioned his ability to pay even the arles, or earnest 
money, for confirming the bargain, in case the property 
were knocked down to him. But Johnny, to the astonish- 
ment of all, drew forth from his ample coat pocket an 
old stocking foot filled with guineas, many of which 
had King Charles the Second's head on the obverse 
and an elephant on the reverse, showing that they were 
of the original mint. The result was that the property 
was knocked down to Mr. Wardell, who tabled, there and 
then, not merely the arles, but the whole price, and re- 
ceived a receipt in full, with an obligation by the agent of 
the vendor to complete and hand over to him the neces- 
sary deeds within a given time. 

But Stickabitch was not the only one of Mr. Wardell's 
purchases. He also owned High Beaumont Hill, in the 
township of Whessoe, Aycliffe Wood, and Chapel House, 
opposite Gainford. Ketton belonged to Sir Ralph 
Milbanke, and Johnny, as one of his chief tenants, had a 
place of honour assigned to liim at the half-yearly rent 
dinners at Halnaby, when it was his habit to give the 
toast of his landlord's health in the following terms : 
"I'll gie ye a worthy and respectable gentleman, Mr. 
Sir Ralph Milbanke, Esquire, Knight and Baron-Knight. 
I'm certain showr ye'll all drink it heartily, with all the 
honours, as we're all in duty bound. Lang may he leeve, 
and be a blessing to every yin connected wi' him, and 
when he's called upon at length to his last account may 
he get a full quittance for ony mistyeaks he may have 
made, and get a front seat i' heevin." 

But Johnny's ideas of another world were somewhat 
gross and earthy. He was once heard to say : " They 
may talk of heevin as they will, but gie me Ketton 
Greens, on which a man can grow seven crops o' yits i' 
seven years, all good gift, corn and straw, and I'd be- 
content to stay here for ever, if it were God's will, for I've 

February 1 



always held that a bird i' the hand is worth two in the 
bush, and I never was a good hand at sinking. " 

A friend once suggested to Johnny that he was merely 
gathering money for his heire to spend, and hinted 
that he would be a much wiser man if he sat still 
and enjoyed himself in his old age, now that he had far 
more than he could ever get through in any reasonable 
way ; but Johnny replied with an air of complete content- 
ment, " Beins, man, if they have as much pleasure in 
spendin' J t as I have in gatherin' 't, e'en let them be deinV 
Yet, though he thus professed indifference with regard to 
what his heirs might do after he was dead and gone, he 
could not bear the idea of waste in any department occur- 
ing under his eyes, nor had he the least grain of toleration 
for the expensive follies of his more fashionable con- 
temporaries. His neighbour, Mr. Stephenson of Braf- 
ferton, kept a pack of harriers, and one day, when he 
heard the hounds passing through that gentleman's 
estate, he said to those about him, "Beins, lads, de ye 
hear them jowlers yonder? Dinnot ye hear they're cryin' 
esh and yak?" meaning ash and oak; for he foresaw 
that the cost of the pack would by-and-by have to be met 
by the sale of the timber on the estate. And when some 
time afterwards he heard a new Lincolnshire pack, of a 
deeper and louder tone, going past, he exclaimed. " Beins, 
lads, de ye but hear 'em? They're roarin' out land and 
all, land and all !" And, sure enough, Stephenson's folly 
before long made complete havoc of timber, land, and all 
he had. 

Mr. Warden's grandsons, if all tales be true, verified 
the old saying, "Gear hardly won is lightly spent," for, 
instead of following their grandfather's example, they 
spirited his estates through the air as soon as they had 
got them into their own hands ; and as, according 
to the French proverb, " Play (gaming) is the offspring of 
avarice," so they became keen betting men, and are even 
said to have associated with George the Fourth when he 
was the leading man of the day on the turf, and the 
" First Gentleman in Europe. " The result may easily be 

We have heard that, vhen farmers in South Durham 
want a handful of straw to stop a hole in a corn sack, one 
may still occasionally hear them say, " Run away, lad, 
run away, and bring me one of Johnny Wardell's clouts," 
or varying the metaphor, "Bring me here a Barney- 
Cassel wisp." 

Mr. Wardell was succeeded at Ketton by the cele- 
brated Mr. Charles Colling, who first introduced the 
improved Durham shorthorn breed of cattle into the 

W. B. 

R. GEORGE ROUTLEDGE, founder of the 
great publishing firm which is associated with 
his name, who died on December 13, 1888, 
will always be remembered as one of the pioneers of 
cheap literature in this country. 

Born at Brampton, Cumberland, so long ago as 1812, 
Mr. Routledge had reached the advanced age of 76. His 
first step in business was in Carlisle, where he was ap- 
prenticed to Mr. Charles Thurnam, bookseller. On the 

termination of his indentures, he went to London, where 
he entered into the service of Messrs. Baldwin and Cra- 
dock, a firm of booksellers of the old type. Three years 
afterwards he started in business on his own account, 
though in a very modest way, in Ryder's Court, Leicester 
Square. It was not till 1836 that he attempted publishing 
upon an extended scale. His first attempt was with 
"The Beauties of Gilsland Spa," but it was a failure. 
He was more successful in 1843, when he published 
"Barnes's Notes on the Old and New Testament," in 21 
volumes. Five years later appeared the first of the great 
series of "The Railway Library," of which more than a 
thousand volumes have been issued. This was the com- 
mencement of the era of cheap literature. Then came 
Fenimore Cooper's works, followed by the novels of 
Bulwer Lytton, for the copyright of which Mr. Routledge 
and his partner (for he had taken a partner) paid the 



I February 

author 20,000. Altogether the novelist received no less 
than 40,000 from this firm alone. Another of Mr. Rout- 
ledge's successes was with Mrs. Beecher Stowe's "Uncle 
Tom's Cabin, " of which his company sent out ten thou- 
sand copies in a single day, the total sale by this one firm 
being upwards of half a million copies. 

Retiring from business in January, 1888, Mr. Rout- 
ledge was entertained at dinner by his numerous friends. 
In the course of a speech on the occasion, he related some 
of his business experiences. The following extract will be 
found interesting : 

In 1855 we published a beautiful edition of Longfellow's 
poetical wurks, with one hundred illustrations from draw- 
ings by Sir John Gilbert, engraved on wood by the 
Brothers Dalziel, with a portrait on steel by Samuel 
Lawrence. We spent over 1,000 on these illustrations, 
and 283 more on future editions. We published similar 
books to this for several years after aa Christmas books, 
but the novelty having gone off, they became less remu- 
nerative ; the production being so costly, we had to dis- 
continue them. In 1857 we commenced publishing 
Shakspearo in 50 Is. monthly parts, under the editorship 
of Howard Staunton, for which he was paid 1,000; the 
drawings on wood, about one thousand in number, were 
made by Sir John Gilbert, and engraved by the Brothers 
Dalziel. The plant of this work cost 10,000. This is 
without the cost of printing and binding. In February, 
1859, we brought out Part I. of an extensive work on 
Natural History, in five large volumes, by the Rev. J. G. 
Wood, the drawings on wood by Wolfe. Zwecker, Har- 
rison Weir, and other well-known artists on natural 
history subjects ; the drawings were engraved by Dal- 
ziel Brothers. The plant of this work has cost 16,000, 
and has paid us very well. From this date we have pub- 
lished a great number of juvenile books, and several hun- 
dred novels and other standard works. In 1368 Longfellow 
visited this country, bringing with him an unpublished 
work, "The Xew England Tragedies." Wo gave him 
1,000 for this small volume, and 500 for the translation 
of Dante, and with other poetical works published at 
intervals, he has received about 3,000 for copyrights in 
this country. In April, 1883, we commenced the Universal 
Library, edited by Professor Henry Morley, in Is. 
monthly volumes, bound in cloth, comprising standard 
works of the best old authors, such as Sheridan, Dante, 
Emerson, Homnr, and others. Fifty-eight volumes of 
this series have been published up to this time, and the 
sale has exceeded our expectations. In 1836 one book 
only was published, but at this date the number exceeds 
over 5,000 ; so that for fifty years I can say that I have 
published 100 books each year, or two a week. 

The later years of Mr. Routledge's life were in part de- 
voted to the acquisition of certain estates in Cumberland 
which had at one time belonged to his ancestors. Every 
year he went to reside at Cumrenton, where these estates 
were situated. As a matter of fact, he never lost his 
interest in the place of his birth. He was made a Justice 
of the Peace for Cumberland in 1877, and was afterwards 
appointed Deputy Lieutenant. In the year 1882-3 he 
served the office of High Sheriff. 

Mr. Routledge was twice married, his first wife being 
Miss Warne, by whom he had three sons and three 
daughters ; his second wife was Miss Mary Bell, sister of 
Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, by whom he leaves one son and 
one daughter. 

We are indebted to the London Stereoscopic Company, 
54, Cheapside, for permission to publish the portrait 
which accompanies this notice. 

antr tfte 

||HE house sparrow (Passer domesticus), even, 
more so than the pert and confiding robin, 
is familiar to the residents of town and 
country alike. Like the poor, they are "always with us," 
especially if the weather be extra severe, when they 
gather, with other small birds, at our doors and in back 
yards in search of food. At such times a party of say 
half-a-dozen sparrows are often bullied by a single robin, 
and driven away from the food, only to return again a 
minute or so afterwards. The cock and hen sparrow, 
even the young, are handsome, well-marked birds when 
they reside in the country ; but in towns, owing to the 
dust and smoke, they always look draggled and dingy, 
though in all conditions they are invariably pert, cheerful, 
and pugnacious. The latter peculiarity is most observ- 
able in the pairing season (Mr. Duncan's drawing shows a 

cock sparrow in its nuptial plumage), when a dozen birds 
may sometimes be seen fighting together at once, even 
in the middle of a busy road or street. But at all times 
of the year, except in cold, wintry weather, they may 
be found quarrelling. 

From time out of mind the cheery and cheeky sparrow 
has been hotly persecuted by agriculturists and horti- 
culturists as a destroyer of grain and fruit. But, where 
not unduly numerous, these familiar and omnipresent 
birds, despite what has so often been said to the con- 
trary, do a vast amount of good in fields and gardens by 
destroying the grubs and insects which prey on the pro- 
duce. In summer, when sparrows are rearing their 
young though in mild weather I believe some of them 
breed nearly all the year round they may be seen in 
numbers in gardens hawking after and catching butter- 
flies almost as nimbly and successfully as the spotted fly- 
catcher. Mr. John Hancock, the eminent Northern 
ornithologist, has a good word for these birds. As Mr. 

February > 



Hancock remarks, undoubtedly the sparrow takes grain 
when he can get it, which is only during the time of har- 
vesting, but "our sociable little friend ought to be cre- 
dited with devouring also the seeds of weeds, and thus 
materially assisting in keeping the land clean." 

Our little friend has a wide European range, and latterly 
he has established himself in America and Australia. 
Moreover, I have seen him at Simla, in India, close to 
the Himalayas. 

The hedge sparrow (Accentor modularis) is not really a 
sparrow. Though resident with us, it is a member of the 
warbler family, and it may often be heard in song very 
early in the year, and even in severe weather, if the 
warm rays of the sun enliven the wintry scene. It has 
many common names in various parts of the country ; 
but its most descriptive and appropriate name is the 
hedge warbler. It is also known as the shuffle-wing, 
winter fauvette, hedge creeper, hedge chanter, dunnock, 
hempie, bluey, and hedgie. The latter, so far as I know, 
are the most common names of the bird in the North of 

England and South of Scotland. This modest, nnns- 
suming, and highly useful bird feeds almost exclusively 
on worms and insects, and is of great service to gardeners 
and agriculturists. It is an all-the-year-round resident 
with us, and in very severe winters many perish through 
cold and lack of food. 

The bird figured in our second engraving is found over 
the most parts of Europe, from Italy to the Scandinavian 
countries, as also in Asia and AsiaMinor. Its song is sweet 
and cheery, and almost as loud as the more self-assertive 
robin. It is an early- breeding bird, and when the hedge- 
rows are just commencing to bud, its nest is only too 
easily detected by the marauding schoolboy, who too fre- 
quently cannot resist the temptation of appropriating its 
beautiful greenish-blue eggs. 

The cuckoo not unfrequently selects the nest of the 
hedge sparrow (but more frequently that of the meadow 
pipet) in which to deposit her egg. When the eggs are 
hatched, the greedy young cuckoo hustles the legitimate 
nestlings out of the nest. The old " hedgies " feed the 

young gourmand as if it was their own offspring, and even 
carefully tend and feed it after it has left the nest, and 
till it can procure its own food. Aristotle, who was em- 
ployed by Alexander the Great as a naturalist during his 
protracted campaigns, asserted that the young cuckoos 
eventually destroyed their foster parents ; and the fool in 
Shakspeare's " King Lear " seemed to be of the same 
opinion when he referred to the poor old monarch's un- 
filial daughters : 

The hedge sparrow fed the cuckoo so lone 
That she had her head bit off by her young. 

As the young cuckoo has a very large gape I have heard 
a Northern boy say "the beggor was aall gob " it may 
occasionally kill its foster parents, when feeding it, but 
not intentionally, I think. 

The nest of the hedge sparrow is usually found in 
hedges, hedge bottoms, or detached thorn bushes ; but 
occasionally I have found its nest in low trees, and even 
amongst the rafters of a lonely cattle shed in the fields. It 
has also been known to build in a disused garden roller, 
and in other rather eccentric and unusual situations. 
The nest is generally well-built and symmetrical, the 
inside warmly lined with grass, wool, or hairs. Two 
broods, except where accidents or robberies occur, are 
usually reared in the season, the first occasionally as soon 
as the middle or end of March. Sometimes, however, 
three broods may be reared in an early and favourable 
season. The young birds are lighter in plumage than the 
old ones, until the moult takes place about August. The 
nest plumage is much mottled, and tufts of down may be 
seen adhering to the young birds, especially about the 
head, for some time after they leave the nest and are 
fairly strong on the wing. The male bird is from five to 
six inches in length. The female in plumage closely 
resembles the male, but is rather smaller, and the lower 
part of the back is slightly more olive-coloured. 


j]X interesting exhibition of toys, contributed 
for poor and sick children by the members 
and friends of the Dicky Bird Society, in 
response to an appeal made by Uncle Toby, 
conductor of the Children's Corner in the Newcastle 
Weekly Chronicle, was opened in the Academy of Arts, 
Blackett Street, Newcastle, on Monday, December 24-, 
1888. The collection, which was admirably arranged by 
a number of volunteer assistants, and presented an ex- 
ceedingly varied and attractive display, consisted of 7,615 
articles, in this total being included 2,500 packets of 
sweets presented by Uncle Toby himself. 

The inaugural ceremony was performed by the Mayor 
of Newcastle (Mr. Thomas Kichardson), who alluded 



[February 1889. 

,\\ x i i *, '. ^ssJ-^&^fc 32 ^gr ^ .-/art 

\\\ \ = j -^ i *f SfS^BP rsl^WV 

ix 5 zr: 

February 1 



to the origin and growth of the Dicky Bird Society, 
which at present had an aggregate of 164,000 members. 
Addresses expressive of sympathy with the objects of the 
movement were also delivered by the Sheriff (Mr. 
William Button), the Rev. Dr. Bruce, the ex-Mayor of 
Newcastle (Mr. W. D. Stephens), the Rev. Canon Lloyd, 
vicar of Newcastle, Dr. Rutherford, the Rev. Canon 
Franklin, and the Mayor of Gateshead (Mr. Alderman 

The articles again remained on view on the 26th, and 
on the evening of that day the closing address was de- 
livered by Mr. Alderman Barkas, who expressed a hope 
that the company would all be ready to co-operate with 

Uncle Toby and his coadjutors in a similar undertaking 
next year. The exhibition, during the two days, was 
visited by nearly 20,000 persons, and, so far as the man- 
agement knew, not one article was destroyed or removed. 
The presents were despatched to the various institutions 
on the following day. 

The sketch of the interior of the Academy of Arcs 
which accompanies this article was taken before it was 
found necessary to construct additional tables, running 
the entire length of the room, to accommodate the whole 
of the contributions Uncle Toby had received. Our 
drawing, however, gives some idea of the interesting 



I February 
I 18S9 

Slje llta&emg of $,rtjs. 

Half a century ago, Thomas Miles Kichardson, the 
celebrated local artist, established an annual exhibition of 
pictures by British artists, first carried on under the title 
of the "Northumberland Institution," in Brunswick 
Place, Newcastle, and afterwards (in conjunction with 
Mr. H. P. Parker, another distinguished local painter) in 
the Academy of Arts, Blackett Street. 

The building which is shown in our view, and in which 
Uncle Toby's exhibition of toys was held, was designed 
by Mr. John Dobson, and erected by the well-known 
builder, Mr. Richard Grainger. Building operations com- 
menced on September 15th, 1827, and the edifice was 
opened to the public on June llth, 1828, the occasion 
being an exhibition of works of art, including costly 
models of St. Paul's, London, and St. Peter's, Rome, 
which were lent from the museum at Ravensworth Castle. 
The total number of oil paintings and water-colour draw- 
ings on view was 315 ; there were a dozen models, busts, 
and studies, and eleven pencil drawings ; making a total 
of 338 objects of art. The principal exhibitors were T. 
M. Richardson, who sent 15 pictures ; and H. P. Parker, 
who was represented by no less than 23. Among the 
other local artists who sent pictures were : G. Balmer, 
Jun., J. W. Carmichael, E. Landells, G. B. Richard- 
son, (brother of T. M. Richardson), T. M. Richard- 
son, Jun., C. TeiTot, J. R. Ryott, R. S. Scott, J. Bouet, 
and W. Wailes. The following non-residents were also 
represented :- J. M. W. Turner, A. W. Calcott, F. 
Danby, John Wilson Ewbank, Copley Fielding, G. 
Lance, J. Linnel, W. Mulready, and R. Pickersgill. 
The exhibition closed on the 13th of September the same 

The building was again opened on October 6th follow- 
ing for the "exhibition of pictures by the most celebrated 
ancient and deceased masters, selected from the best col- 
lections," and an exhibition of water colours was held on 
the 31st October, 1831. 

Under date September 3, 1832, we find the following in 
Sykes's Local Records: "The Northern Academy of 
Arts in Blackett Street, Newcastle, having been disposed 
of in shares of twenty-five pounds each, and its title 
changed, the following notice of its opening was given to 
the public: 'The Newcastle-upon-Tyne Institution for 
the General Promotion of the Fine Arts. The share- 
holders and the public in general are respectfully in- 
formed that the above institution for the exhibition of 
pictures and sculpture, &c., will open for the first season 
on Monday, the 3rd day of September. By order of the 
committee of management, KEENLTSIDE and WALTON, 
secretaries. ' " 

The next event of any importance in connection with 
this building was the Polytechnic Exhibition, held on 
April 6, 1840. We gather from Mr. Latimer's continua- 
tion of Sykes's Local Records that the affair was intended 

for the benefit of the Mechanics' Institutes of Newcastle 
and Gateshead, and the North of England Fine Arts 
Society. The exhibition, which was of the most extensive 
character, was entered by the Academy of Arts, Blackett 
Street, where a number of beautiful paintings were ex- 
hibited. The Joiners' Hall, entered from the last-named 
apartment, was fitted up for the exhibition of a large 
microscope and other optical instruments. A temporary 
gallery thrown across High Friar Street connected the 
rooms in Blackett Street with others in Grainger Street 
and Nelson Street. In the Victoria Room (now the 
Northumberland Hall) the articles displayed were so 
numerous and splendid as almost to defy description ; 
but Mr. Orde's racing trophies, won by Beeswing, a mar- 
vellous collection of English manufactures in porcelain, 
bronze, steel, silver, and glass, a series of beautiful coats 
of mail, and a great variety of ornithological specimens 
by Mr. Hancock, may be particularly enumerated. A 
short staircase led from the Victoria Room to the Music 
Hall, which was almost entirely devoted to machinery 
and manufactures, and to which the continual movement 
of so many articles imparted great animation. This 
brilliant exhibition was finally closed by a soiree on 
Wednesday, September 2, when the receipts were found 
to have reached 4,458 15s. Id., leaving a clear surplus, 
for the benefit of the three institutions, of upwards of 

On April 24, 1848, another Polytechnic Exhibition was 
held in the building, when the arrangements were almost 
precisely similar to those made for the previous exhibition 
in 1840. 

The Academy of Arts was afterwards let to an auc- 
tioneer, the late Mr. Charles Brough, who found its large 
space eminently suited to the display of his customers' 
goods. It is now occupied by Messrs. Davison and Son, 
auctioneers, having been acquired by purchase in 1874 by 
the junior member of the firm, Mr. Joseph Davison, Jun. 

aittr Cffntumttarwo. 

Mr. Conrad Haverkam Greenhow, writing to Robin 
Goodfellow, the conductor of the local gossip depart- 
ment of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, has thrown some 
fresh light on the mysterious disappearance at North 
Shields which was described in the first volume of the 
Monthly Chronicle, page 58. Mr. Greenhow says : 

The facts are these : John Margetts was a paid 
assistant of my father's. At five o'clock one morning 
in February, 1826, he went out with some medicine to 
deliver to a Mrs. Gaunt's in Tyne Street, and never 
was heard of again. I happened to be at home at the 
time, and in company with the Rev. Mr. Neal, of South. 
Shields, tried to find a clue to the mystery. We found 
that a Mr. Profit, a mason, who lived opposite the end 
of Church Street, heard, early in the morning, a scuffle- 

February 1 



in Tyne Street, and someone cried, "What are you 
doing with me ?" The parties passed along Tyne Street, 
and the watchman at Chapman's Bank in Howard Street 
saw two men leading another down Union Street. The 
watchman thought the third man was drunk, and so 
took no notice. We next found that Mrs. Cornforth, 
of the Whitby Arms, in the Low Street, near the New 
Quay, hearing a cry of murder between five and six 
o'clock, looked out, and saw two men dragging another 
along. Now, they never got on to the New Quay, as 
a watchman at the Northumberland Arms saw nothing 
of them: so we concluded that they had gone down 
the lane leading to Brown's flour mill. We got a war- 
rant to search, and, in a dilapidated attic, found a leather 
neck collar, torn, evidently in a scuffle. A man known 
by the name of Joney Aird, who had a stall on the 
New Quay, kept his things there. Aird disappeared 
soon after, and on the arrest of Burke and Hare at 
Edinburgh for the murder of the Italian boy, my father 
sent Mr. Park, who had a painter's shop near, and 
knew Aird, down to Edinburgh, to see if Aird and 
Hare were the same man. Mr. Park at once identified 
Hare as Aird. And I have not the slightest doubt that 
Aird (or Hare) had made away with Margetts, and sold 
his body at Edinburgh to be dissected, as Burke, before 
execution, confessed to having killed many for that 

The following letter in reply to Mr. Greenhow's state- 
ment was subsequently addressed to Robin Goodfellow: 

Grosvenor Place, North Shields, Dec. 27, 1883. 
Dear Robin, Having read in your issue of last week 
Mr. Greenhow's letter, in which he mentions Mr. Park, 
painter, going down to Edinburgh to identify Hare or 
Aird as being concerned in the disappearance of Mar- 
getts, I beg to offer some corrections in the matter. 
From correspondence belonging to my deceased father, 
in reference to my grandfather's visit to Edinburgh, 
I find that this Aird, who was a great bird fancier, 
and had a stall in the old fish market, North Shields, 
disappeared about the same time as Margetts. My 
grandfather, who took a great interest in birds, was on 
very friendly terms with Aird, who often paid a visit 
to his place of business in Olive Street. On the arrest 
of Burke and Hare in Edinburgh, as mentioned in Mr. 
Greenhow's letter, my grandfather did go to Edinburgh 
to see if Hare was the said Aird, but did not identify 
him, as he had been liberated two days before he arrived, 
his delay being by the coach in which he travelled either 
happening on accident or by storm. Burke was executed 
the morning of my grandfather's arrival. As, however, 
he had travelled so far, the warder in charge of the body 
asked him if he would like a piece of the murderer. My 
grandfather assenting, he cut off one of Burke's ears ! 
The memento is still in possession of the family. I am, 


The Rev. William Fisken, minister of the Presbyterian 
Church of England at Stamfordham, Northumberland, 
died in the early part of 1884-. Mr Fisken was a septua- 
genarian, and had laboured for 37 years a few miles from 
Wylam, on the banks of the Tyne, where George Stephen- 
son was born. Mr. Fisken, who was a native of Perthshire, 
alongside the study of theology, diligently pursued 
mechanics. In this latter science his brothers, Thomas 
and David, were equally proficient. Mr. Fisken will be 
remembered by posterity, as he well deserves to be, and 
especially by agriculturists, as having been one of the two 
inventors of the steam plough, the other being his brother 
Thomas, a schoolmaster at Stockton. 

Several years ago an important trial came off at Westmin- 
ster upon the merits of the invention. The parties were 

the Messrs. Fiskeu and the Messrs. Fowler, the eminent 
implement makers at Leeds, and the finding of the jury 
was that the Presbyterian minister at Stamfordham and 
the schoolmaster at Stockton-on-Tees were the original 
discoverers. It is somewhat singular that the appliance 
which perfects the plan of the brothers, who had been 
working together at the steam plough, suggested itself to 
each of them independently and simultaneously. The 
late Mr. William Chartres, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the 
solicitor employed by the Fiskens, used to tell how the 
two brothers wrote to him on the same day about the final 
discovery, but that he received William's letter first. 

Mr. Fisken also invented a potato sowing machine, an 
apparatus for heating churches, and the "steam tackle" 
which has helped to render the steam plough of so much 
practical use. 

The foregoing, from one of my note-books, may be 
worthy of insertion in your pages. NIGEL, York, 

The notice of Drummond, the Sunderland highwayman, 
in the Monthly Chronicle (vol. ii., p. 317), reminds me 
of the following incident : My great-uncle, Joseph 
Revell, Miulras Civil Service, was crossing Bagshut 
Heath in a post-chaise, or carriage, with a friend, Mr. 
Mellish, when they were stopped by two mounted men, 
who deprived them of their purses and watches, and then 
rode away. After passing, one of the highwaymen fired 
his pistol into the back of the carriage. Mr. Revell aU- 
dressed some observation to Mr. Mellish, but, receiving 
no answer, looked at him, and found he was dead ! The 
ball had passed through the woodwork of the chaise, and 
entered the back of Mr. Mellish's neck. 



Two tourists from Durham were lately approaching the 
village of Cotherstone in Teesdale (which both knew very 
well), when they met a native, out of whom one of them 
decided to "take a rise." The following exchange took 
place between them : Tourist : "Hey, my man, what 
village is that there ?" Native: "That be Cotherstone, 
sor." Tourist: "Isn't that where they christen the calves?" 
Native : "Aye, sor, but it's eftor fower o'clock on Friday 
efternuin, an' they doant chrissen on Satorday nor Sun- 
day ; thoo'll hae te wait till Monday morn for thy torn !" 

A pitman residing at Windy Nook takes pleasure in 
repeating his dreams. One evening, some quarrymen, 
desirous of having a joke with him, asked Geordy 
to tell them a good one. After some little persuasion, 
he complied as follows: "Wey, lads, aa dreamt the 


I February 
\ 1889. 

other neet aa wes deed, an' wes tyaken doon belaa ye 
knaa whor aa mean. When aa gets te the gates, the 
little imp that ininds them says : ' What's yor 
trade ? ' 'A pitman, ' says aa. ' Whor de ye come frae?' 
'Windy Nyuk,' aa tells him. 'Come in, lad,' he says, 
'thoo's the forst pitman frae thor, but we're swarming 
wi' quarrymen ! ' " 


In one of our neighbouring villages lives a miner, who 
is much addicted to strong liquor. His wife and children 
often suffer great privations through his drunken and 
impecunious habits, although he can generally manage to 
bring some dainty morsel from the "toon" for his own 
supper. One Saturday night he returned in a merry 
mood with a pound of sausage, which he ordered his wife 
to fry. As the cooking proceeded, Geordy slept ; and 
the poor woman, to whom necessity knew no law, shared 
the treat with her children, and liberally besmeared the 
mouth of her sleeping spouse with the fat. Presently he 
awoke, and demanded his sausage. "Wey, thoo's 
eaten't," said his wife, and as a proof showed him his 
greasy face in a looking-glass. "Beggor, aa must hev," 
said Geordy, "seein's believin ! " 


The other day, a hawker, plying his vocation in 
Gosforth, knocked at the door of a cottage ; the lady of 
the house came, and, discerning that he was about to 
offer some article of common use for sale, tartly re- 
marked : " Aa nivvor buy owt at the door I' 1 "Ah, 
weel, " said the hawker, " then aa'll sell ye summat at the 
winder ! " 


Some time ago, a company of travelling actors were 
playing Macbeth at a colliery village within the prover- 
bial hundred miles from Newcastle. All went well until 
the last scene, where Macbeth was being pursued by 
Macduff. Macbeth enters breathless with excitement, 
and in a tragic manner places his hand to his ear in a 
listening attitude, exclaiming, " Hark ! what noise is that 
I hear? Enemies are on my track!" Just then the 
buzzer at the colliery was blowing, notifying that the 
pit would be idle the next day. A pitman in the back 
seats shouted out at the top of his voice: "It's the buz- 
zor, ye beggor ! The pit's off the morn ! " 

A house painter being asked by his employer if he had 
ever worked in London, replied : " No, aa nivvor think o' 
gannin' thor ; wey, ye cannot git broon rowl in London 
it's aall shag ! " 


The other day a young man, who has a twin brother, 
went with his mother into a certain butcher's shop in 
Shieldfield. Seeing himself in a looking-glass, the young 
man exclaimed : " Muthor, thor's wor Tommy in the 
shop." The good lady looked for Tommy, but failed to 
find him. At last the truth dawned upon her, and she 

said to her son : " Wey, it's yorsel' ; ye divvent knaa 
yor aan fyce from Tommy's ! " 


Mr. Matthew Young, a gentleman prominently con- 
nected with several local bodies at Berwick, died in that 
town on the 10th of December, 1888, at the age of about 
66 years. 

On the llth of December, Mr. Matthew Carter, for- 
merly builder, farmer, and manager of Smith's Charity, 
died at Hartlepool, at the advanced age of 76. 

On the 13th of December, Mr. William Hedley, J.P., 
colliery owner, died at Burnhopeside Hall, Lanchester, in 
the 81st year of his age. He was the last survivor of the 
four sons of the late Mr. William Hedley, who it is claimed 
was the inventor of the locomotive engine. The father 
became connected with collieries in the county of Dur- 
ham, and was assisted by some of his sons, who eventually 
succeeded him. They were partners in the firm of 
Thomas Hedley and Brothers, Quayside, Newcastle, and 
owned South Moor, Craghead, and Holmside collieries. 
The second son, Thomas, brought the name of the family 
prominently before the public some years ago by his 
munificent legacy towards the fund for the establishment 
of the Bishopric of Newcastle, of which he was thus 
practically the founder. Mr. William Hedley, like his 
relatives, was also distinguished for many works of charity 
and philanthropy. The deceased gentleman, among 
several other local bequests, left 1,000 to the Newcastle 
Royal Infirmary. 

On the same day, the Rev. Dr. Maclennan, vicar of 
Brampton-in-Cleveland, and formerly assistant chaplain 
of St. Thomas's, Newcastle, died at the age of 60. 

Colonel the Hon. Augustus Liddell, late Deputy- 
Ranger of Windsor Forest, and uncle to the present Earl 
of Ravensworth, died on the 14th December, at his resi- 
dence at Eaton, aged 76 years. 

Dr. Horan, a well-known medical practitioner at Sun- 
derland, died there on the 18th of December, at the age 
of 64 years. 

On the 19th of December, Mr. George Young, senior 
member of the firm of Messrs. Young and Sons, con- 
tractors, Monkwearmouth. and a familiar figure in Sun- 
derland, died at Bishopwearmouth. He was 69 years of 

On the 20th of December, it was announced that Mr. 
John Sewell, a native of Bishop Auckland, and formerly 
master of the Herrington Wesleyan School, Sunderland, 
had been killed by coming in contact with a rock while 
bathing at Gatton, Queensland, on the 28th of October. 
He was only 30 years of age. 

About the same date was reported the death of the 
Rev. John Broadbent, a Wesleyan minister formerly 
identified with Sunderland, but who had latterly been re- 
moved to Richmond, in Yorkshire. 

Mr. Jonathan Priestman, J.P., a well-known coal- 
owner, died at his residence at Derwent Lodge, Shotley 
Bridge, on the 21st of December. He was the youngest 
son of the late Jonathan Priestman, of Benwell House, 
near Newcastle, and his father was a very influential 
citizen of Newcastle, being engaged in the tannery busi- 

February I 
1889. r 


ness, and specially in the production of morocco and other 
fancy leathers a calling which he followed with consider- 
able success. This gentleman was the first president of 
the Newcastle Temperance Society. The deceased filled 
the position of manager of the Consett Iron Works with 
much ability for some time, being succeeded by Mr. 
Jenkins, the present manager. Mr. Priestman after- 
wards devoted more attention to the coal trade, and he 
had been for a number of years prominently connected 
with the commercial life of Newcastle. He was managing 
owner of Ashington Colliery, Northumberland, and 
through his instrumentality many improvements were 
effected at that place. He was also head of the firm 
which owned the Victoria Garestield, near Winlaton. 
Mr. Priestman was a member of the Society of Friends, 
and was brother-in-law to Mr. John Bright, M.P., his 
eldest sister having been married to that distinguished 
statesman ; but she died in 1841, and Mr. Bright married 
a second time in 1847. The deceased gentleman took an 
active part in the promotion and management of the 
Newcastle Royal Jubilee Exhibition, and he was a mem- 
ber of the Finance Committee of the local Coal Trade 
Association. Mr. Priestman was chairman of the Lan- 
chester and Consett bench of magistrates, and was 63 
years of age. 

On the 31st of December, Mr. Michael Spencer, a mem- 
ber of the firm of John Spencer and Sons, Newburn 
Steel Works, died at his residence, Walbottle Hall, near 

The Rev, Mother Mary Aloysius O'Connell died, in her 
73rd year, in the St. Bede's Convent of Mercy, Simder- 
land, on the 31st of December. The deceased lady was a 
cousin of the great Daniel O'Connell. 

Mrs. Lough, widow of John Graham Lough, the 
eminent sculptor, died at her residence, 42, Harewood 
Square, London, on the 29th of December. She was 
upwards of seventy years of age, and had survived her 
distinguished husband eighteen years. She was a daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Henry North, domestic chaplain to the 
Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, and she was 
married to Mr. Lough in 1832. The deceased lady, in 
compliance with the oft-expressed wish of her husband in 
his lifetime, presented the original models of his principal 
works to Newcastle, and they were afterwards placed in 
Elswick Hall, the collection having been inaugurated by 
Mr. Joseph Cowen, then senior member for the borough, 
on the 24th of October, 1877. Mr. Lough was a native of 
Greenhead, near Minsteracres, Northumberland, where 
he was brought up as a working mason. 

On the 3rd of January, 1889, the Rev. Thomas Russell, 
one of the co-workers with Hugh and James Bourne in 
founding the Primitive Methodist Connexion, died at 
Dover, in the 83rd year of his age. The rev. gentleman 
travelled in the Stockton circuit during the last severe 
visitation of cholera, and in 1853 he was stationed at 

Mrs. Clark, wife of Mr. Edward Clark, solicitor, died 
suddenly at Portland House, Benton, on the 5th of 
January. The deceased lady was a daughter of Mr. 
George Stanley, formerly lessee of the Tyne Theatre, and 
during the brief period she spent as an actress she gave 
proof of considerable talent. 

Mr, Robert Newlands, a gentleman largely interested 
in business matters in Jarrow and South Shields, and 
father of Messrs. Newlands, solicitors, died in the former 
town on the 8th of January. 

Mr. Leopold Charles Martin, the only surviving son 
of John Martin, the famous painter, who was a native of 
Haydon Bridge, Northumberland, died in London on the 
8th of January. His life had been spent, for the most 
part, in the public service. Through the interest, 
it is stated, of Sir Robert Peel a warm admirer of 
the artist Mr. Leopold Martin obtained a post in a 
Government office, and was thus furnished with a 
career congenial and suitable to him, though he still kept 
up his relations with the world of art, science, and litera- 
ture. Mr. Martin married a sister of Mr. John Tenriel, 
the inimitable Punch, "cartoonist," and some of his 
leisure Vas devoted to literary labours. " Illustrations of 
British Costume from William I. to George III.," " Gold 
and Silver Coins of all Nations," and "The Literature of 
the Civil Service," are among the works published by him 
at various times. There had just been commenced in the 
Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, {rom the pen of the deceased 
gentleman, the publication of a series of personal remin- 
iscences of his distinguished father. The articles having 
been completed before the author's death, their publica- 
tion was continued from week to week. For accounts of 
the different members of the Martin family John, 
William, and Jonathan see vol. i., pp. 343, 418, 434 ; 
vol. ii., p. 43. 

A Cambridge University correspondent, on the 10th of 
January, recorded the death of Mr. Ernest Temperley, 
bursar and assistant-tutor of Queen's College, who was 
born in 1849, and was educated at Newcastle Grammar 

On the 13th of January, Mr. John Charlton, licensed 
victualler, Drury Lane, Newcastle, died at his residence, 
in Northumberland Street, in the 71st year of his age. He 
had carried on business in the town for the long period of 
about forty years, and was much respected by the very 
large number of people who knew him. The deceased 
gentleman was a brother of Mr. James Charlton, of 
Chicago, a well-known authority in the railway world of 



DECEMBER, 1888. 

10. The Senate of Durham University decided to 
admit evening students of the College of Science in New- 
castle to the titles and degrees of the university. 

At the Durham Convocation, Mr. Edwin Codling, 

the first artizan who had obtained that distinction, re- 
ceived the degree of Bachelor of Science in the University 
of Durham. 

Mr. G. T. France was elected chairman, and the 

Rev. A. F. Riley vice-chairman, of the Gateshead School 

The committee of the Bedlington Mechanics' Insti- 
tute celebrated the 38th anniversary, by planting a num- 
ber of trees in the ground in front of the large building in 
Front Street. 

11. The first marriage waa solemnized in St. George's 
Church, Newcastle, the bride being Miss Elizabeth Ada 


I February 
I 18S). 

Swan, daughter of the late Mr. William Swan, of Walker, 
and the bridegroom Dr. Arthur Brumell, of Morpeth. 

Mr. Thomas Cooke, of the firm of Messrs. Hedley, 
Turnbull, and Cooke, was elected representative of St. 
John's Ward in the Newcastle City Council, in the room 
of Mr. J. G. Youll, recently elevated to the position 
of alderman. 

12. Mr. Richard Fynes, of the Theatre Royal, Blyth, 
was presented with an iDuminated address and an album 
by his friends of Newsham and New Delaval. 

13. The Rev. Robert Brown, of Erskine Presbyterian 
Church, and for upwards of thirty years a minister in 
Newcastle, announced his acceptance of a call to Bramp- 
ton, in the Presbytery of Carlisle. Previous to his 
departure, the rev. gentleman was presented with an 
illuminated address, two oil paintings, and a purse of 
gold by members of his old congregation and friends. He 
was inducted into his new charge on the 1st of January 

The Rev. A. L. Laird, M.A., was inducted to the 
pastorate of Arthur's Hill Presbyterian Church, New- 

A destructive fire occurred at Messrs. Graham and 
Co.'s saw mill and timber yard, at the west side of Tyne 
Dock, South Shields, the damage being estimated at 
several thousand pounds. 

14. A scheme of amended and extended representation 
was adopted by the Newcastle Board of Guardians. 

Mr. Joseph Dodds, accepting the Chiltern Hundreds, 
retired from the representation of Stockton-on-Tees, for 
which he was the first member, and for which he had sat 
in the House of Commons since 1868. There came for- 
ward as candidates Sir Horace Davey, Q.C. (Liberal), 
and Mr. Thomas Wrightson (Conservative). The election 
took place on the 21st, the result being Davey, 3,889; 
Wrightson, 3,494. Sir Horace Davey was consequently 

16. A woman, named Jane Rigg, died in Victor 
Street, Monkwearmouth, from the effects of injuries 
alleged to have been inflicted by her husband, William 
Uigg, on the 9th. 

The chancel of St. Nicholas' Cathedral, Newcastle, 
was re-opened by the Bishop of Derry. 

17. The new Theatre Royal, Blyth, erected for Mr. 
Richard Fynes, was opened in the presence of a large 

It was announced that, during some ploughing opera- 
tions, a circular-built grave, supposed to be of Roman 
origin, had been unearthed on the farm of Unthank, near 

18. William Waddle, who murdered Jane Beadmore. 
at Birtley Fell on the 22nd of September, 1888, was 
executed in Durham Gaol, Berry being the executioner. 
(See vol. ii., pages 526, 573.) The convict had, a day or 
two previously, confessed his guilt of the crime to Dr. 
Lake, Dean of Durham. 

19. The Tees shipbuilders gave notice for an advance 
of 12i per cent, in their wages. 

A new Surgical Home, in connection with the Throat 
and Ear Hospital, was opened at the corner of Brighton 
Grove and Stanhope Street, Newcastle. 

The inaugural address was delivered by Mr. George 
E. Shotton, president, to the members of the National 
Association of Draughtsmen in Newcastle. 

20. It was announced that the Rev. S. E. Pennefather, 

vicar of St. George's Church, Newcastle, and the Rev. 
Christopher Bird, vicar of Chollerton, had been installed 
as honorary canons of the diocese of Newcastle. 

21. A home for waifs and stray children was opened 
at Gosforth by Mr. W. D. Stephens, J.P. 

22. John Boulton, a man well known in aquatic circles, 
and 36 years of age, committed suicide by hanging him- 
self, at Gateshead. 

The Christmas pantomime of "Sindbad the Sailor," 
the libretto being by Mr. W. Morgan and Mrs. Howard, 
was produced for the first time at the Theatre Royal, 
Newcastle. The subject of the pantomime at the Tyne 
Theatre, in the same city, was "Puss in Boots," which 
was presented for the first occasion on the 26th. 

24. A theatrical license for twelve months was granted 
to St. George's Hall, Newcastle. 

26. Twenty-two men, forming part of the crew of the 
screw-steamer Storm Queen, of Newcastle, which had 
been wrecked in the Bay of Biscay, on the 22nd, were 
landed at Dover by the Norwegian barque Gulnare, by 
which they had been rescued. The captain (Mr. Jaques) 
and other five hands were drowned. 

28. Sir Edward Grey, M.P., presided at the annual 
dinner of the North of England Commercial Travellers' 
Association, held in the Assembly Rooms, Newcastle. 

Mrs. Lowrey, residing at 12, City Road, Newcastle, 
gave birth to three children two males and one female. 
This was the second case of triplets which had occurred in 
the same city within a few weeks. 

31. A boy named James Moore, aared 15, was fatally 
stabbed in Railway Street, Sunderland; and John 
Me. Donald, another lad, 14 years of age, who was sus- 
pected of having inflicted the injuries, was arrested on the 
charge. The coroner's jury returned a verdict of wilful 
murder against him. 

JANUARY, 1889. 

1. New Year's Day was ushered in by the customary 
interchange of good wishes and other observances ; but in 
Newcastle remarkable quietness prevailed, and during 
the night only six persons had been taken into custody. 

Park Terrace Presbyterian Church, Windmill Hills, 
Gateshead, of which the Rev. J. Anderson Watt is 
minister, was opened by the Rev. J. B. Meharry, B.A., 
of London. 

Notice was issued by the Iron Shipbuilders' Society 
to the Employers' Association on the Tyne and Wear, 
asking that, at the expiration of January, an advance of 
12^ per cent, in wages should be granted. A similar 
notice had been served on the masters in the Tees district, 
which includes the Hartlepools. On the 8th, the em- 
ployers, in the latter case, decided to close the yards after 
the 16th, such men as might be retained being engaged 
from day to day. The men of the Tyne and Wear 
eventually agreed to accept the offer made by the masters 
of an advance of 5 per cent, on piece prices and Is. per 
week on time wages, dating from the first week of Feb- 
ruary, and another like advance dating from the first 
pay in July. 

2. An inquiry on behalf of the Local Government 
Board was held at South Shields by Mr. Thomas 
Codrington, in reference to an application by the Cor- 
poration to borrow 3,375 for public improvements and 
other purposes. 

February | 



A fog of great density prevailed on the Tyne and 
along the Northumberland and Durham coasts, consider- 
ably impeding the navigation and traffic. 

3. Mainly through the instrumentality of Mr. Thomas 
Stamp Alder, about 3,000 poor children were fed in New- 

Nominations were officially received for the New- 
castle School Board, the triennial term of which was 
about to expire. Forty-one gentlemen, in all, including 
the fifteen retiring members, were nominated. As no 
important question affecting the past policy of the Board 
was involved, an effort was made to avoid a contest by a 
friendly arrangement. With this view, a meeting was 
held in the Council Chamber on the 5th, under the pre- 
sidency of the Mayor (Mr. Thomas Richardson), and 
another, by adjournment, on the 6th ; but on neither 
occasion was a compromise arrived at. With the 
exceptions of Messrs. William Hill, John Laidler, 
and Alexander Stewart, working men, the whole of 
the persons nominated, apart from the retiring mem- 
bers, eventually withdrew. The three persons above 
named, however, refused to retire, so that an election was 
rendered inevitable. The election took place on the Hth, 
and the result was declared next day as follows : 

John Robert Wood (Catholic ) 15, 740 

Thomas Keenan (Catholic) 14,743 

Alexander Stewart (Workman) 13,784 

John Laidler (Workman) 13,683 

William Hill (Workman) 13,604 

J. H. Rutherford (Unsectarian) 11,496 

A. T. Lloyd (Churchman) 10.654 

G. Luekley (Unsectarian) 9,045 

R. S. Watson (Unsectarian) 8,478 

J. C. Laird (Unsectarian) 8,462 

W. R. Plummer (Churchman) 8,413 

S. E. Pennefather (Churchman ) 8, 368 

R. G. Hoare (Churchman) 7,883 

W. H. Stephenson (Unsectarian) 7,867 

John Thompson (Unsectarian) 7,828 

Benjamin Barkus (Churchman) 7,569 

George Bell. Jun. (Unsectarian) 7,104 

J. Shepherdson (Unsectarian) 6,570 

The first fifteen on the list were declared to have been 

A handsome organ erected in Jesmond Baptist 
Church, Newcastle, and presented by Mrs. Potts, was 
opened by a concert of sacred music. 

4. A deputation, headed by Lord Armstrong, and 
representing the local committees appointed to consider 
the proposals of the Admiralty and the War Office for the 
defence of the Clyde, the Forth, the Mersey, the Tyne, 
and the Tees, had an interview with the Marquis of 
Salisbury, at the Foreign Office, to urge upon him that 
the protection of British ports and commerce connected 
with them was a national duty, and not a work which 
localities could or ought to undertake. 

5. From the final official list of the Hospital Sunday 
.and Saturday collections made in Newcastle in October 
last, it appeared that the total sum realised was 3,614 
3s. Id. ; places of worship contributing 1,810 Is. 2d., and 
manufactories 1,804 Is. lid. In the previous year the 
relative amounts were from churches and chapels 1,971 
Os. 5d., and from works 1,545 15s. 2d., making together 
3,516 15s. 7d. 

The quarterly certificates of the accountants in the 
Cleveland iron trade showed the price to be 33s. 3 - 58d. 
per ton, making the tonnage rate of 9'41d., or an advance 
of '13d. per ton. 

The result of the election for Tynemouth School 

Board was made known, the eleven members returned 
being the Rev. Father Stark, Mr. L. M. Johnson, Mr. 
Ellis, the Rev. T. Brutton, Mr. Isaac Black, Mr. R. D. 
Scott, the Rev. David Tasker, Mr. Joseph Garrick, the 
Rev. Mr. Horton, Mr. Grant, and Dr. J. M. Robson. 

An offhand match was rowed on the Tyne, from 
the High Level to the Redheugh Bridge, between George 
Bubear, of Putney, the English professional champion, 
and George Norvell, of Swalwell. The stakes were 20 
a-side, and the Swalwell oarsman eventually won by a 
length and a half. 

7. The new Hall and Sunday School for St. Philip's 
Parish was opened in Longley Street, Newcastle. 

The Rev. Dr. Joseph Parker, of the City Temple, 
London, preached in the Town Hall, Hexham, that town 
having been the place of his birth. On the following 
evening, he lectured at Sunderland on ' Clocks and 

An international draughts match James Smith, of 
Spennymoor, against Charles F. Barker, of America 
was brought to a close at Spennymoor, in the county of 
Durham, and ended in a decisive win for Barker, who 
scored five games against one by his opponent, with 23 

8. Mr. Gainsford Bruce, Q.C., M.P., was entertained 
to a banquet, given by the Newcastle Conservative Asso- 
ciation and the local Conservatives, in the County Hotel, 
Newcastle, in honour of his return to Parliament for the 
Holborn Division of Finsbury. The chair on the occasion 
\vas occupied by Sir M. W. Ridley, M. P. 

Strangers were brought to fill the places of sailors 
and firemen who had struck work at Seaham Harbour, 
the point in dispute being the mode of shipping and 
unshipping crews. The strike was settled on the llth, 
and the men resumed work next day. 

9. The election of members of the Sunderland Schoo 
Board took place, with the result that the state of the 
parties remained unchanged, the fifteen seats being filled 
by eight Unsectanans, six Churchmen, and one Roman 

Mr. T. Milvain, M.P., formally opened the new pre- 
mises of the East End Working Men's Conservative 
Association, in High Street, Sunderland. 

Clarghyll Hall, situated about two miles from Alston, 
was partly destroyed by fire, and the Rev. Octavius 
James, the occupant of the house, perished in the flames. 
The reverend gentleman was 71 years of age, held the 
living of Kirkhaugh, and had been a justice of the peace 
for the county for about 40 years. 

10. It was announced that the will of Mr. William 
Isaac Cookson, of Worsop Manor, Notts, and Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, had been proved, the value of the personal 
estate being sworn to exceed 585,000. 

The wife of Mr. R. B. Crow, butcher, Hylton Road, 
Sunderland, gave birth to three children, all girls. On 
the 12th of the same month, the wife of Mr. Finlay, 3, 
Hammond Street, Newcastle, was delivered of three 
children at a birth. 

Mr. Brewis Elsdon, of the firm of Elsdon and Drans- 
field, solicitors, Newcastle, acting on instructions received 
from the Secretary of State, proceeded to AInwick, and 
made application before the Rev. Canon Trotter for four 
summonses against four persons for conspiracy in the 
famous Edlingham burglary case, when Brannagan and 
Murphy, who have since been released, were sentenced 



j February 
\ 1889. 

to penal servitude for life at the Northumberland Assizes 
in 1879. 

12. Messrs. Bell Brothers, Limited, ironmasters and 
salt manufacturers, Fort Clarence, Middlesbrough, issued 
a circular, announcing that they had disposed of their 
salt property to the Salt Union, Limited. 

13. Mr. T. Humphry Ward, husband of the author of 
"Robert Elsmere," and himself attached to the literary 
staff of the Times, delivered a lecture this evening, in the 
Tyne Theatre, on "Matthew Arnold." 

14. It was announced that the Rev. Theodore Charles 
Chapman, M.A., of St. John's, Lowestoft, had accepted 
the living of Jesmond Church, in Newcastle. 

etteral ccnrrcntt?. 


14. An election took place at Maidstone in consequence 
of the death of Major Ross. The result was as follows : 
Fiennes Stanley Wycham Cornwallis (Conservative), 
2,050 ; John Barker (Gladstonian), 1,865 ; majority, 185. 

16. Death of Prince Alexander of Hesse, aged 64, at 

18. Much anxiety was felt about this time on account 
of the reported capture of Mr. H. M. Stanley and Emin 
Pasha by the Madhi ; but subsequent information was to 
the effect that two other whites had fallen into the 
Madhi's hands, and this led to the error. 

The result of an election at Colchester of a member of 
Parliament, in the room of Mr. H. J. Trotter, deceased, 
was declared as follows : Lord Brooke (Conservative), 

2,126; Sir William Brampton Gurdon (Gladstonian), 
1,687 ; majority, 439. 

20. A force of 4,000 men, composed of British and 
Egyptian soldiers, attacked a body of Arabs who had for 
some time been threatening Suakim, on the Red Sea. 
The Arabs were driven from their trenches with a loss of 
about 400 killed and wounded. The British loss was very 

21. In consequence of the violent and abusive language 
used by Dr. Tanner, M.P., during the sitting of the 
House of Commons on the Appropriation Bill, he was 
suspended from the service of the House. 

The body of a woman was found in Poplar, Lon- 
don, under circumstances which led to the belief that she 
had been strangled, She was afterwards identified as 
Lizzie Davis, an unfortunate. No clue was obtained to 
the person or persons supposed to have committed the 

Death of Mr. Laurence Oliphant, aged 60, well 
known as a diplomatist and author. 

24. The House of Lords and House of Commons were 
this day prorogued. 

Death of the Rev. Charles Cuthbert Southey, vicar 
of Askham, near Penrith, son of the poet Southey, aged 
70 years; also of Mr. Philip Henry Muntz, formerly 
M.P. for Birmingham, aged 78 years. 

26. Death of General Louis Melikoff, a famous Russian 
soldier, aged 65 years. 

27. A Native Indian Congress was held at Allahabad. 

28. Death of Elizabeth Pritchard, Newport, aged 104 
years ; also of Lord Eversley, who was Speaker of the 
House of Commons from 1839 to 1857, aged 93 years. 

Execution of a desperate character, Prado, in Paris, 
for the murder of a woman named Marie Aguetant. 

31. A boy named John Gill, eight years of age, was 
found dead within a stone's throw of his parents' house 
in Bradford. The body was horribly mutilated. No 
clue could be found to the mystery. A milkman was 
arrested and charged with the murder, but was subse- 
quently liberated. 

An extraordinary hoax was perpetrated in Mexico. 
A report was sent to all quarters of the globe giving par- 
ticulars of a rising in Mexico, in which seventy -two priests 
were killed by the Government forces, and two hundred 
others ordered to be executed. This was afterwards 
proved to be a stupid joke. 

JANUARY, 1889. 

6. A young man named Jenkins, an artist, enticed his 
sweetheart, Emily Joy, into his studio, at Godalming, 
Surrey, where he violated and murdered her. Jenkins 
afterwards gave himself up, and confessed the crime. 

7. A British force routed a force of Red Karens in 

Terrible storms occurred in the United States, many 
persons being killed and injured. 

12. The British steamer Priam was wrecked off the 
Lisargas Isles, Spain, when over one hundred persons 
were drowned. 

14. William II. opened the Prussian Diet. There 
was, he said, a great improvement in the economic situa- 
tion, in industry, and in the position of the working 

Printed by WALTER SCOTT, Fellmg-on-Tyne. 




VOL. III. No. 25. 

MARCH. 1889. 



J1TANDING on the terrace in front of the 
Winter Garden, Sunderland, the spectator 
will note that one of the most striking build- 
ings in sight is the Victoria Hall. It was 
here that the sad and never-to-be-forgotten calamity 
occurred on the 16th of June, 1883, when no fewer than 
183 unfortunate children lost their lives. 

A public performer named Fay had issued notices in 
the early part of the week to the effect that he would 
give a grand juvenile entertainment at the hall on the 

Saturday afternoon ; and, as a means of securing a good 
attendance, he circulated tickets admitting children at 
the reduced price of one penny each to the gallery. He 
likewise announced that prizes, in the shape of books, 
playthings, etc., would be distributed at the close 
of the performance. The entertainment commenced 
at three o'clock, when there were about eight hun- 
dred children in the body of the hall, eleven hundred 
in the gallery, and a few in the dress circle, which was 
otherwise empty. There were scarcely any adults 

Victoria "Nail. Sunderland. 

from He Park. 





present besides Mr. Fay and his assistants, only a few 
nursemaids accompanying such of the children as had 

Kcfa-ia Hall. 

I a ura STreeJ Kent 

paid the full price of admission and got accommodated 
in the better parts of the house. 

All went on well until the close of the proceedings, 
when the entertainers began to distribute prizes to the 
children downstairs. But as soon as those who were 
crowded together in the gallery, without any grown-up 
person to keep them in order, saw that the presents were 
being scattered about down below, they naturally became 
excited, and began to fear that none would be left for 
them. In an instant a number of the children rose to 
their feet, and made their way to the folding doors lead- 
ing to the staircase, their intention being to run down 
into the body of the hall and share in the distribution of 
the toys. 

About three parts of the way down the winding 
staircase was a door which opened inwards. This door 
had for some unexplained reason, or perhaps quite acci- 
dentally, been fastened partly open by a bolt in the floor, 
leaving for egress a width of about two feet only barely 
sufficient for one person to pass at a time. The foremost 
of the eager youngsters dashed impetuously through the- 
folding doors, and swept in a living torrent down the first 
twoflightsof stairs. So long as the way waslighted and clear 
they passed on safely enough, until, streaming down from, 
landing to landing, and passing the doors and windows of 
the dress circle into the corridor, they approached the- 
doorway above mentioned. The winding stair prevented 
those who were rushing down, with all the eagerness of 
children in a hurry to participate in the fun, from seeing 
what was actually happening in their immediate front. 
Those who were in advance were pushed forwards to the- 

.1 li..d4Mlfillll Mil HlllliriH*HtriJllllllllil.l44J mill 

\Y> I -^w^ 

_2=S H-aSi H ilKl H fj-f "ft.'? 

'== y/rterior ofKctiriitlsIl 

March I 
1889. / 



door by the crowd behind them, without the possibility of 
resisting the pressure. The narrow exit between the half- 
open door and the door-frame was speedily choked up, 
one spectator averring that he saw nearly twenty of the 
poor little creatures one above another struggling to get 

out ; and as the rush was still coming incessantly down 
like an avalanche from a mountain side, the children in 
front had not the least chance of escape. Some fell 
against the door ; others were forced upon them by the 
pressure behind ; and the lower part of the staircase was 
filled in an instant of time with a heap of helpless children 
whom it was physically impossible to rescue or relieve. 
Those who were still rushing down the stairs in tumul- 
tuous haste, cheering as they came on, and struggling who 
should be foremost, had na idea of what was going on 

X / / V N -^=^ 1 1 N>^ 


Scene of tip Catastfnkt. 

below. So, quicker than one can tell, a dense pile of 
bodies was crushed in the fatal trap, between the door 
and the wall, such being the amount of pressure to 
which the frames of the hapless little ones were subjected 
that the strong wrought-iron bolt, whose presence did the 
mischief, was bent by the force of the compact of the 
shrieking and struggling mass of humanity, literally 
heaped up in tiers. 

It was evident that before the life was crushed out of 
them they struggled desperately; for when the death-bolt 
was at length raised, after the bodies of the dead and the 
dying had been extricated, and the living had been hurried 
away from the appalling scene, the landing and the flight 
of stairs leading down to it were seen to be covered with 
pitiful evidences of the tragedy. Little caps and bonnets, 
torn and trampled, were lying all over the place ; buttons 
and fragments of clothing littered the floor ; here lay the 
fragment of blue ribbon which had tied up some little girl's 
hair; there lay a child's garter ; on another spot the sole 
of a little boy's boot torn from the "uppers," furnishing 
mute but significant evidence of the violence of the death- 

The caretaker of the hall, Mr. Frederick Graham, was 
the first who became aware that something dreadful had 
happened. When he got to the lobby, at the foot of the 
gallery stairs, he found a number of children lying there. 
After he had got them cleared out with no small diffi- 
culty, he proceeded from the outside towards the fatal 
door, being attracted thither by the groans and cries of 
such of the sufferers as were still alive. Mr. Graham 
at once perceived that the bolt had caught in such a way 
that the door could neither be opened nor shut entirely, 
and through the aperture, about two feet wide, thus 
formed, he caught sight of a writhing 
mass of human forms. He made one 
frenzied but futile effort to force back 
the door, and then rushed upstairs 
by another way into the dress circle, 
from which position by strenuous 
efforts he succeeded in stopping the 
further flow of children to the stair- 
case. He then hurried back to the 
door, when he saw at once that the 
only means of rescue was to pull the 
bodies one by one through the aperture. 
With the assistance of a gentleman 
named Raine, a railway clerk named 
Thompson, and a police -cons table 
named Bewick, he commenced the 
ghastly task. Further help fortunately 
soon arrived in the person of Dr. 
Waterston and others. As soon as a 
body was pulled out, it was rapidly 
examined, and, if dead, laid out in the 
area or dress circle ; while if the little 
sufferer still lived (and the signs of 



\ 1889. 

vitality were of ten very difficult to detect), the child was 
at once conveyed to the Palatine Hotel, the Infirmary, 
or some other house in the neighbourhood, where Drs. 
Beattie, Dixon, Murphy, Welford, Lambert, Harris, 
and other medical men, who were promptly on the spot, 
devoted themselves ungrudgingly to the work of mercy. 
The conduct of the cabmen of the town was also beyond 
all praise. They flocked to the hall with their vehicles, 
and rendered valuable help in conveying the injured to 
che Infirmary and elsewhere. 

Meanwhile, the dreadful news had spread like wild- 
fire through the town, and the hall was soon besieged by 
thousands. The excitement was indescribable mothers 
screaming for their children, and fathers fiercely striving 
to force their way into the building. It was, however, 
deemed prudent not to admit anyone until the work of 

rescue had been completed ; but the gentlemen, all of 
them full of sympathy and compassion, who volunteered 
to assist in the necessary but thankless work of keeping 
back the excited crowds, found it a most difficult task. 
When, at length, those claiming to be the parents of 
missing children were admitted in batches to the area and 
dress circle, the scene inside baffled all description. The 
children were laid out in rows, terrible to behold, many 
with blackened faces, swollen cheeks, and parched 
lipe. As parents identified their children, their shrieks 
were most distressing. In some cases they fell upon 
their dead children, clasped them in their arms, and 
cried aloud over their dear ones. In many instances 
the mothers swooned away, and had to be carried to one 
side, where others, whose children had escaped, sought to 
restore and console them. One affecting case was that of 

a poor woman whom Mr. Errington, a member of the 
Town Council, was sympathetically assisting in her search. 
As she accidentally touched a corpse with her dress, a 
man said to her, perhaps somewhat roughly, "Don't 
stand upon them," when she replied, "Good God ! I have 
too many of my own to stand upon them." The unfor- 
tunate woman, a few minutes afterwards, discovered 
three of her own children amongst the dead ! Another 
instance is related of a man who, with his wife, pushed 
his way into the hall, and eagerly scanned the faces of the 
dead. Without betraying any emotion, he said, with his 
finger pointed and with face blanched, "That's one." 

Passing on a few yards further between the rows of little 
ones, he said, still pointing with his finger, "That's 
another." Then, continuing his walk till he came to the 
last child in the row, he exclaimed, as he recognised the 
third little one, " My God ! all my family gone." 

Among the many distressing features in connection 
with the affair, that of mistaken identity was not the 
least agonising. A number of children taken away in the 
excitement of the moment were afterwards returned to 
the hall, the poor people having been misled as to the 
identity of the shapeless little masses of humanity. IP 

March 1 



one case, a parent took home a little boy by mistake, 
and after arriving there found it was the body of a 
neighbour's child. Meantime, his own boy had been 
recovered alive, and was treated with all skill and 
care possible, though the little fellow died subsequently 
from his injuries. 

The victims of the disaster comprised 69 girls and 114 
boys. It was found by analysis that the greatest number 
were between the ages of 7 and 8 years. The following 
shows the numbers and ages : 

Ages. 11 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 

Victims... 1 1 613262337351914 5 2 
In some families the whole of the children were swept 
away, and there are known cases where the broken- 
hearted parents have gone to their last home, never 
having recovered from the shock. 

The disaster was the subject of talk and comment in 
every household in the land for more than the proverbial 
nine days ; and for many and many a year to come it will 
remain in the memories of fathers and mothers as the 
most lamentable event in their lives. But it evoked, too, 
a spontaneous and noble outburst of humane senti- 
ment, as is always the case when the heart of 
the community is touched. Money poured in from all 
sides, and a sum was subscribed for which there was 
no immediate direct need, as no bread-winners had been 
lost. Out of the amount promised, nearly 5,000 was 
received, and with this the expenses of most of the funerals 
were paid ; but unfortunate dissensions hindered the re- 
mainder from being put to use for building and endowing 
a Convalescent Home for Children, as at first intended ; 
and, with the exception of the sum paid for the statue in 
commemoration of the event, which has now found a 
resting-place in the People's Park, it still remains un- 

The view of the exterior of Victoria Hall is taken from 
a photograph by Mr. Paul Stabler, of Sunderland ; that 
of the interior is from a sketch by our own artist. The 
sketch of the staircase where the disaster occurred is from 
a drawing by Mr. Robert Jobling. Our other sketches 
show the Laura Street entrance to the hall, and the fatal 
door with the bolt in the socket. We also give sketches 
of the memorial group, and of the group in its glass case, 
erected in Sunderland Park. 



first public lottery in England occurred 
in the year 1569, and the profits were 
devoted to the useful purpose of making 
harbours, repairs of public works, &c. It is generally 
believed to have been the Genoese Government that con- 
ceived the idea of using lotteries as a means of adding 
to its revenue, and the example was soon followed by 
other nations, England amongst the rest. Little more 

than sixty years ago, the State lottery was one of the 
regular institutions of this country, the profits yield- 
ing the national exchequer more than a million a year. 
Every newspaper, London and provincial, teemed with 
advertisements appealing to the gambling instincts of 
the people. The usual number of tickets in a lottery was 
20,000, each of the value of 10. These tickets were first 
thrown open to the competition of contractors, which 
brought an advance of 5 or 6 each. After the contrac- 
tors were supplied, they in turn offered them to the 
public at a profit of 4 or 5, or fairly double the price of 
the first issue. Of course the poorer class of the people 
always the vast majority had no such sum as 20 to risk 
in a game of chance; and, to accommodate this class, the 
tickets were divided into halves, quarters, eighths, and 
sixteenths, the usual price of a sixteenth being 1 lls. 6d., 
BO that the agent must have pocketed a big profit, as the 
sixteenth of 10 is only 12s. 6d. Lotteries were finally 
abolished in England by Act of Parliament in 1826. 

We have recently met with a number of advertisements, 
songs, fly sheets, fee., issued by the lottery agents in 
Newcastle seventy or eighty years ago. E. Humble 
& Son, Mosley Street, and Watson & Sons, Edinburgh 
Tea Warehouse, Newcastle, appear to have done a great 
business in lottery tickets, and their numerous and 
tempting inducements to gamble, which they issued 
profusely, are even now very amusing to read. Herp 
u an enticing advertisement, printed in 1810 : 

All in one day 8th June, 1810. Grand State Lottery 
4 of 20,000, 4 of 5,000, 12 of 1,000, 20 of 500, &c., &c. 
Four Extra Prizes of 100 Tickets each, to be drawn next 
Friday, 8th June, 1810. 200,000 in Prizes. Only 5,000 
Numbers, a single Ticket may gain 100,000. Tickets 
and Shares are Selling by Messrs. Watson & Sons, Edin- 
burgh Tea Warehouse, Newcastle-on-Tyne. By the above 
salutary measure, every doubt is removed respecting Lot- 
teries being injurious to the morals of the people, and the 
principle placed beyond the reach of censure. 

We can scarcely understand where "the salutary mea- 
sure" comes in, unless it be the one-day drawing, which 
places everything " beyond the reach of censure." 

Like Silas Wegg, the agent not seldom dropped into 
poetry, and of this we give a specimen culled from a new 
song to the tune of " Derry Down " : 

To those who want riches this song is address'd, 
For of all plans to get them, sure this is the best, 
To try in the Lott'ry, now pray do attend. 
And 111 teach you the way how your fortunes to mend. 
Derry down, down, &c. 

The drawing begins twenty-eighth day of June, 
Which you all must allow will be here very soon ; 
Then purchase with speed, if you take my advice, 
For tickets will certainly get up in price. 
Derry down, down, &c. 

Here is the last verse of another "New Lottery Song,' 
to the tune of " Chapter of Kings ": 

On the eighth day of March Dame Fortune intends 
To distribute a part of her gifts to her friends ; 
Ye who wish to partake, don't a moment delay, 
But to Humble's famed office pray hasten away. 
Yet barring pother of this, that, or t'other, 
You afl must get prizes in turn. 



I March 

We quote next from a tiny little bill (five inches by 
three), the calm, convincing logic of which would satisfy 
the most sceptical as to the great advantage of specu- 
lating in a lottery ticket : 

One Fact is worth a hundred arguments, and one Lottery 
Ticket may be worth a Thousand Prizes in the ensuing Lot- 
tery, if purchased before the 12th of April next, for the 
first drawn Prize above 15 must gain 1,000 whole tickets 
whose worth is incalculable ! 

Exceedingly tempting, too, is another little hand-bill, 
which runs to this effect : 

The dawn of old England's good fortune by sea, in 
the American war, began 12th April, 1782, a day to be 
held in grateful remembrance by every lover of this happy 
country ; but with what gratitude will the fortunate pos- 
sessor of the first-drawn prize above 15 be impressed, the 
12th of April next, when 1,000 whole tickets are presented 
to him, which may gain upwards of 100,000 ! 

Sometimes the hesitating speculator is stirred up by a 
warning or threat like the following : 

In a few hours, the unsold Tickets or Shares now remain- 
ing in this town must be returned to London ; and 
amongst them, perhaps, several of the large Prizes. 
If you wish to make your Fortune, you must be quick 
there is No Time to be Lost ! 

Emphasis is always given to the statement that "the 
State Lottery is all drawn in one day," which seems 
to have been considered a great advantage. "Therefore 
(says one of Messrs. Humble's advertisements) Expedition 
is necessary in your application at the truly Lucky Office 
of Edward Humble Son, Mosley Street, Newcastle, 
where the only Prize of 40,000 pounds ever known was 
sold. Both the Five Thousands in the last Lottery were 
sold at the above office, to which you must quickly repair 
if you wish for a chance in the present Grand Scheme, 
it being limited to one Day's Drawing. God Save 
the King ! " 

But all this is not enough, it would seem, to induce the 
weak, the foolish, and the mercenary to embark in the 
scheme ; so, like Mrs. Jarley, the agents seek the aid of 
comic songs, interspersed here and there with " spoken " 
between the lines. We will quote a small sample of one 
of these effusions, "spoken " and all : 

There were Four and Twenty Lotteries all in a row. 
There were Four and Twenty Lotteries all in a row. 

Spoken There was five thousand all in one day. Five 
thousand what, sir ? Tickets, sir ; to be sure ; not one blank 
among them, and a Prize four times over, every time the 
wheel turns round, to make the poor rich, and raise the 
humble from the bottom to the top of the ladder of For 
tune, where they may sit 

And look so proud 
Above the crowd 
That's down below. 
For it's a lucky lottery, and therefore well be merry. 

Who could withstand all this wit and humour, these 
coaxings and blandishments? E. Humble & Son tried 
every means by which to tempt the cupidity of the public 
poetry and prose, pictures, epigrams, conundrums. Indeed, 
the extent and variety of the printed matter which they 

threw out at this time were amazing. Here's something 
to make a speculator's mouth water : 

A person sprung up in this town who predicted that the 
only Prize of Forty Thousand Pounds ever known was 
then on Sale at E. Humble & Son's truly lucky office, in 
Mosley Street. Wonderful to relate, this was the case ! 
The golden opportunity was embraced by a lady [a lady 
worth embracing !] who is now enjoying the fruits of her 
speculation. The same wiseacre who predicted that the 
Forty Thousand would be sold by Humble Son, now 
foretels that one, at least, of the Twenty Thousand in the 
next Lottery will be added to the Lists of Capitals sold by 

Coloured pictures, and not badly done either, were also 
pressed into the service of the lottery dealers. The 
following, we suppose, was considered very funny by our 
grandfathers seventy years ago: Two swells of the period, 
strolling along, wholly ignore a poor fellow out at elbows, 
who is trying to attract their attention. "Come along, 
Jack, "says one, "or we shall be bored to death. That 
fellow has no gratitude. When he had money, I took in- 
finite pains to teach him to spend it like a gentleman 
now it's gone, he is always teasing me with his 
wants it annoys me exceedingly." On the other side we 
find that things have changed, a lucky lottery ticket 
enabling Jack to give his quondam friend a Roland for his 
Oliver. Jack, fashionably attired, is again met by Tom 
and his friend, who courteously salutes him with "Jack, 
my dear fellow, won't you stop and let me congratulate you 
upon your good fortune ? I heard you had obtained a Prize 
in the Lottery, and it gave me much pleasure." Jack 
replies" Did you speak to me ? I don't recollect I'm 
in haste, and to be bored thus annoys me exceedingly I " 

W. W. W. 


anb Jlero 


J1LACKETT STREET, to which we now turn 
our attention, is one of the modern thorough- 
fares of Newcastle. It is associated in the 
local mind with the earlier results of the 
architectural genius of our great townsman, Richard 
Grainger, who built thirty-one of its houses, and the fine 
quadrangle of Eldon Square into the bargain. Of his 
many undertakings, this of Blackett Street was one of the 
first, though it ought to be added, on the authority of 
Mackenzie, that the "commodious and elegant plan " of 
the street was "furnished by Mr. Dobson, architect." 
To both these men of mark, indeed, Newcastle is indebted 
for much of its present architectural beauty. 

The street was constructed in the year 1824. Prior to 
that date the locality was an unwholesome one indeed. 
Along its south side, now occupied by substantial houses, 
ran the town wall, close beside which were pigstyes, 
stables, sheds, and a few straggling houses. On the other 

March 1 



side were gardens, so called ; but such gardens ! It would 
be more correct to call them a pestilent waste, devoted to 
the reception of all kinds of garbage and rubbish. And 
hereby hangs an amusing tale. 

On one occasion, when the place was in this desolate 
condition, some countrymen, engaged in carting manure 
from it, made a terrible discovery. Amongst the rubbish 




they found the body of a child. Information was con- 
veyed to the coroner, and a jury was summoned forthwith. 
Solemn "crowuer's quest" was held, in the course of 
which one sapient juryman, after touching the corpse, 
observed that it was very putrid as well it might be, 
considering the place it came from ! The coroner, how- 
ever, chanced to be a surgeon. He examined the body, 
and found it to be no other than a wooden doll ! But how 
came it to found where it was ? Well, the explanation 

was simple enough. This said doll was Alonzo's child, 
carried by Rollo in Kotzebue's play of "Pizarro," at 
that time a very popular piece ; and when Stephen 
Kemble retired from the management of the theatre, 
this "property," amongst other things, had been sent 
from his house in Newgate Street and thrown into the 
common receptacle. Thus was spoilt one sensational 

Such, then, was the condition of Blackett Street 
"before it was made," to parody the humorous saying 
concerning the Highland roads of old. But in 1824- the 
town wall in the neighbourhood was removed, with its 
J7 unsavoury surroundings, and the street formed. It ob- 
. tained its name from Alderman John Krasmus Blackett, 
-- father of Lady Collingwood, and was of course regarded 
as a great improvement. The street runs from the head 
of Pilgrim Street to the foot of Gallowgate ; let us stroll 
along it in that direction. 

But first let us note the shop at the corner on our left, 
with some of its windows in Pilgrim Street and others in 
Blackett Street, occupied of late years by an enterprising 
city councillor the first Scotchman, it is said, that has 
held the office of Sheriff of Newcastle Mr. William 
Sutton. Half a century ago this was the printing and 
publishing office of M. A. Richardson and his giftud son, 
George Bouchier Richardson. From it issued in parts 
and sections most of that rich collection of local history 
and biography, tradition and legend, which bears the 
name of "The Local Historian's Table Book." There, 
also, Mr. Richardson sold State Lottery Tickets, an an- 
nouncement of which was painted upon the board which, 
in the annexed engraving, is seen running the length of 
the premises. It was a notable place at that time ; it is 
i busy corner still. 

On the same side, about midway between Pilgrim 
Street and the Monument, is the new building whicli 
occupies the site of the old Mechanics' Institute, and 
nearly opposite is the scene of that dreadful tragedy 

El don. Syuare. 



f March 

which, on the 1st October, 1861, deprived Mark Frater of 
his life, and robbed Newcastle of a useful citizen. There, 
too, for many years, was the famous book shop of George 
Rutland a market for local literature the like of which 
has never been adequately provided in Newcastle since 
his retirement. 

We pass the Monument and come to the building 
known until recently as St. James's Chapel, but now in 
the possession of the Young Men's Christian Association. 
It was built in 1826, and had at one time a massive por- 
tico of four columns, supporting a simple pediment, as is 
dimly seen in the foregoing sketch. This was removed, 
and a front more in the Grecian style was adopted. It 
may be remembered that the St. James's people originally 
worshipped in Silver Street as Scotch Presbyterians ; 
when they came to the chapel now before us which, by 
the way, had Mr. John Dobson for its architect they 
adopted by degrees the Congregational form. They now 
assemble in another and much larger church in Bath 
Road, erected a few years ago. 

On the opposite side of the way is the United Presby- 
terian Church. A brick edifice was erected on the sitw 
in 1821. But on the formation of Blackett Street, the 
building was discovered to be not in line with it ; and the 
Corporation offered the congregation 100, on condition 
that they would build a new front, which was done. In 
1858, however, the whole edifice was pullod down, and 
the present oue, which is an ornament to the street, and 
boasts of a lofty spire, was put up according to the plans 
of Mr. Thompson. Nearly forty years ago, the then 
minister (the Rev. D. C. Browning) and his congregation 
pot to loggerheads, with the result that the former bade 
good-bye not only to his people, but to this connection, 
and took orders in the Church of England. 

The Academy of Arts next engages our attention. But 
a history of this building, accompanied by a couple of 
sketches, was given in the Monthly Chronicle for Feb- 
ruary. (See page 89. ) 

Crossing the street, we arrive at Eldon Square, the 
domestic paradise of some of our eminent doctors. 
Towering above the other houses in the quadrangle 
(allowing Blackett Street itself to represent the fourth 
side) is the centre one on the north side the Northern 
Counties Club. The middle of the square has now been 
formed into a pleasant little pleasure ground. But why 
Eldon Square ? The reason for the name is that it was 
originally intended to erect a figure of Lord Eldon within 
the enclosure. That has never been done ; nor does it 
seem likely that the work will now be taken in hand. 

Retracing our steps to the head of Pilgrim Street, we 
see before us, stretching away to the east, the thorough- 
fare of New Bridge Street. The street was constructed 
in 1812, and was intended to answer the purpose of an 
alternative road to Shields by way of the Red Barns and 
Elwick's Lane. As we start on our saunter from Pilgrim 
Street, we note, first of all, on our left Trinity Presby- 

terian Church, a neat building in the Early English style 
of architecture, erected from designs by Mr. Dobson. 
Next to it is the Church of the Divine Unity, built in the 
Decorated style of Gothic architecture, also from designs 
by Mr. Dobson. 

On the opposite side of the way is Erick Street, a short 
cut to the gaol. The street obtains its name from the 
circumstance that formerly a small stream, the Erick 
Burn, ran down the bank here to Carliol Croft. Carliol 
Street, which runs parallel with Erick Street on the 
same side, is so named from the ancient family of the 
Carlels or Carliols. 

Opposite Carliol Street stands the Public Library. 
The western part of the building (adjoining the Unitarian 
Church), the foundation stone of which was laid by Sir 


George Grey in 1865, was the home of the Mechanics' 
Institute, removed thither, the following year, from 
Blackett Street, and now amalgamated with the Library. 
Over this said Library there were many searchings of 
heart a few years ago. There were earnest partizans on 
both sides ; and keen was the controversy as to whether 
Newcastle needed such an institution. There were also 
difficulties as to a proper site. Several were suggested, 
but in 1878 the present site was definitively fixed upon, 
and Mr. Alfred M. Fowler, then the borough engineer, 
was directed to prepare plans and proceed with the 
building without further delay. But here came another 
difficulty. To make way for the new structure it was or- 
dained that an ancient relic of the old town, in good pre- 

March 1 




servation, too, should be levelled with the ground. This 
was the Carliol Tower, which was finally pulled down in 
1880. The building, which was also known as the 
Weavers' Tower, stood at the north-east corner of the 
town wall, which ran from it down Croft Street to the 
Plummer Tower, still standing. Between Carliol Tower 
and Pilgrim Street were, at one time, three smaller 
turrets, one of which was called the Waits' Tower, 
because it was formerly the meeting-place of a band of 
musicians maintained by the town. But all this part of 
the wall was pulled down in 1811. So far back as 1682, 
Carliol Tower had been fitted up by the Weavers' Com- 
pany as their meeting-place hence the second name. 
The old structure had been a silent witness of rough 
work in its day. In 1824-, some workmen found on its 
north side a cannon ball, weighing more than twenty- 
three pounds. It had penetrated about two feet into the 
wall, and was probably fired when the town was stormed 
by the Scots in 1644. 

Over the way again we pass by Croft Street, in which 
stands the Plummer Tower already mentioned. Next, 
and on the same side, we come to the Lying-in Hospital. 
an excellent institution. It has been in existence since 
1760, being at first located in Rosemary Lane, near St. 
John's Church; and has been in its present premises since 
1826. The inmates are required to show that they are 
poor married women ; and the motto of the institution 
explains their presence there. It is the short and expres- 
sive one : " Because there is no room for her in the inn." 
The elevation, details, and specifications of the several 
works of this hospital were all gratuitously supplied by 
Mr. Dobson. The style of the building is that which 

prevailed about the end of the reign of Henry VIII. 
Its cost was about 1,500, and amongst the subscribers 
were the Corporation, the Bishop Durham, the Trinity 
House, and various congregations who responded to 
pulpit appeals. 

On the opposite side of the road is Higham Place, BO 
named by its first proprietor, William Batson, from his 
estate in Ponteland parish. Not far from Higham Place, 
and on the same side of the way, stands the handsome 
little residence of the late John Dobson, architect. It 
was designed and erected by himself, and bears all the 
marks of the dignified style he gave to so many of the 
streets of Newcastle. For, be it understood, though the 
credit of reconstructing Newcastle is too often given to 
Grainger alone, it was Mr. Dobson who supplied the 
architectural features and details. Mr. Grainger was 
without doubt a great man in his day ; but he was 
mainly a builder and speculator. It was Mr. Dobson 
who was the architect and artist of the new town. Even 
the Butcher and Vegetable Markets, described on page 
82 of the present volume, were designed by Mr. Dobson, 
who was employed by the Corporation as the architect of 
the new buildings. The house in New Bridge Street is 
still occupied by Mr. Dobson's daughter, Miss Margaret 
Jane Dobson, who proved her devotion to her father's 
memory by publishing, a few years ago, a valuable 
memoir of the greatest architect the North of England 
lias produced. 

Of Oxford Street and Picton Place, a little further 
along, there is nothing particular to be said, save that 
St. Peter's Church stands at the head of the former. 
This is a modern building, and was intended originally 




I March 
1 1889. 

as a chapel of ease to St. Andrew's. The Rev. C. A. 
Raines still remains its first vicar. 

Proceeding, we pass on our right a building originally 
intended to serve as a Baptist chapel, which was erected 
in 1839. The building has had very varying fortunes, 
being at one time an auctioneer's mart, at another a shop 
for the sale of busts and figures, and so forth. Opposite 
are the offices of the Blyth and Tyne branch railway, at 
one time a substantial private dwelling-house. 

We now come to the " New Bridge " itself, from which 
this street is named. It was erected in 1812, to span 
what was then a wide, deep dene running from Pandon 
to the Ban-as Bridge. At that time this dene was 
emphatically a bonny place. As one stood on the new 
bridge and looked northward, gardens lined the ravine. 
Instead of the shriek of railway whistles, the sweet songs 
of birds filled the air in the Rummer months with their 
joyous melody from every twig and tree ; an old mill, 
with its ancient water-wheel, lent picturesqueness to the 
scene; the workman, freed fora while from his toil at 
the bench or the forge, cultivated his little garden plot in 
the pure fresh air ; lads and lasses strolled along in pairs, 
according to the old, old fashion ; and, when tired, re- 
freshed themselves in fruit and tea gardens. All is gone 

Crossing the bridge, we are at the corner of the Shield- 
field, and accordingly at our journey's end, so far as the 
street proper is concerned. And yet we are some distance 
from the Red Barns and Ehvick's Lane. The explana- 
tion is, that when New Bridge Street was constructed 
there was open country between the Shieldfield and the 
Red Barns. This has now all been built upon, and the 
street continued right along to the Byker Bridge. Yet, 
although running on in the same straight line, its name 
has changed. As we pass the entrance to the Shieldfield, 
we find ourselves in Ridley Villas ; yet for all practical 
purposes the street is still one and the same. The villas, 
semi-detached residences, are held by a lease of sixty- 
three years, or three lives, of Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart,, 
subject to an annual ground-rent of 5 each per annum. 
On the opposite side of the road the houses, called Regent 
Terrace, are leased in a similar manner. They are built 
on land once the property of Lord Stowell. At the end 
of Ridley Villas is the Dominican (Roman Catholic) 
Church, a very fine and substantial building. Its founda- 
tion stone was laid by the late Bishop Chadwick, the ser- 
mon on the occasion being delivered by Father Rodolph 
Suffield, whose subsequent secession to Unitarianism 
created much distress of mind to his colleagues and co- 
religionists. And so we are at this journey's end. 

< avlj> 

at Hm-tftuwtimff. 


j|OR some years after the dispersal of the 
Britons at the Cattrail the battle described 
in our last articlethe Angles of Bernicia 
and Deira were at war amongst themselves. 
The district between Tyne and Tees not unfrequently 
changed hands during this period, and raids even to 
the north and south of these rivers were by no means 
rare. There was no decided victory so long as the hardy 
Theodoric lived; but, on his death, in 587, the forces 
of Ella secured a succession of triumphs, and the now 
patriarchal king of Deira ruled for the first time over 
"a united Jforthumbria." The distinction, however, was 
of no great duration. Ella died in 589, and, as he left 
only a young boy to succeed him, the Bernicians got 
another chance. In those days, the first quality of a 
king was his prowess in the field, and none but hardy 
fighting men could reign. To no one was this fact 
better known than to Kthelric, the last son of Ida. 
Gathering his friends together, and boldly taking the 
initiative, he soon regained possession of Bernicia. 
Acting with great tact and judgment, he lost not a 
moment in following up his advantage, and found him- 
self, almost without a struggle, master of Deira also. 
But Northumbria was not yet the powerful State it was 
destined to become, though events were rapidly tending 
in that direction. After a reign of only three or four 
years, Ethelric, in 593, was succeeded by his son Ethel- 
frith, and thenceforward there was a striking alteration 
in the condition and prospects of the kingdom. The 
new ruler who was surnamed " the Fierce " was a 
brave, ambitious, and capable soldier. Withdrawing, 
apparently, from the doubtful position he held in Deira, 
he turned his energies to the north. Scot, Pict, and 
Cumbrian had been showing signs of reviving activity, 
and Ethelfrith assailed them with all the vigour of 
his fiery nature He attacked in many quarters some- 
times in two or three simultaneously and is reputed to 
have been the greatest aggressor on the Oymri that is 
known to history. The result of his early operations, 
as recorded by Bede, was that he made part of them 
tributary, seized further slices of their territory, and 
almost exterminated many of the smaller tribes. 


It was at this juncture, in 603, that Aidan, the first 
consecrated King of Scotland, entered a very emphatic 
protest against the plunder and destruction that was 
going on. He had watched the harrying of his allies 
with sorrow and misgiving, and resolved to make ft bold 
stroke for their protection. Gathering up a numerous 
and- powerful army, Aidan marched with all haste 

Murch 1 
1889. / 



towards the Bernician frontier. Ethelfrith waR not 
slow to accept the challenge ; and, after a rapid move- 
ment across country, the two forces were brought face 
to face at Daegsastan, on the Jed a site that is now 
generally fixed at Dawston. There are not many details 
of the conflict; but, seeing the cause in which the 
North Britons were fighting, one may readily imagine 
the desperate resolution with which they went into 
action. At the commencement of the onset, the Scots 
and their friends carried all before them. A brother 
of the Bernician king was borne down by the fury of 
the attack, and with him perished a whole division of 
the Angles. In the end, however, discipline demonstrated 
its unfailing efficacy. Recovering their ground with 
marvellous rapidity, Ethelfrith's soldiers swooped down 
on the now scattered allies, and literally cut them to 
pieces. Aidan, with a few devoted attendants, managed 
to effect an escape ; but the bulk of the gallant tribes- 
men, who had stepped out so gaily in the early morning, 
remained in agony or death upon the beautiful slopes 
of the lowland dale. 


After their successful exploit against Aidan, the Ber- 
nicians having allowed themselves a brief space for rest 
and recruiting took the war path once more. This 
time, however, it was to renew and consolidate their 
relationship with Deira. Ethelfrith had never intended 
to sever his connection with that state permanently ; 
and, as a consequence, no sooner was his own land safe 
from the assaults of the North Britons, than he began 
to devise schemes for re asserting his old sway beyond 
the Tees. Ella's son the world-famed Edwin was still 
too young to govern, and Ethelfrith recognised the 
importance of making his own attack while the lad was 
comparatively useless and unknown. His object was to 
get possession of the young prince, if possible, and to 
build up a strong Anglian kingdom over which he him- 
self might be lord and master. Everything seemed 
favourable for the full realisation of his hopes, when, 
in 605, he headed his fine army in the direction of 
York. Taken at a disadvantage, the men of Deira 
could offer but small resistance, and Edwin and his 
counsellors were compelled to seek safety by a hasty 
flight. Having been so far successful, Ethelfrith 
espoused the young prince's sister, and from that time 
with the gentle Acca as his consort he directed the 
destinies of all the land between the Humber and the 


While a great power had thus been rising in the 
North, many other parts of the British territory had 
experienced similarly eventful changes. The Jutes had 
fought their way to a kingdom in Kent; the Saxons 
had formed two states to the south and one to the 
north of the Thames ; while the Angles, in two powerful 
confederacies, ruled the bulk of the Midlands. These 

results were not accomplished without much bloodshed 
and many fluctuations of fortune. But the half-civilized 
natives, after years of valorous resistance, had either 
been "massacred with savage ruthlessness, " enslaved 
by their conquerors, or driven for refuge into the wilds of 
Wales or Devon. The invaders, like their Northumbrian 

brethren, were Pagan worshippers of Thor and Woden, 
and they not only "stamped out Christianity with fire 
and sword, "but overturned and destroyed every vestige 
of the grandeur which Rome had created. Starting as 
colonisers on the coast, they gradually became conquerers 
and settlers in the central plateau, and finished by the 
different communities warring amongst themselves. 
First one state and then another was in the ascendant, 
and its chief, or king, claimed supreme power over the 
whole of his neighbours ; but whether the Bretwalda, 
or Emperor as this ambitious functionary was desig- 
natedhad any real authority over the other rulers, is 
a question open to very considerable doubt. It is quite 
certain that all the monarchs of the Heptarchy engaged 
in warlike enterprises whenever the spirit moved them ; 
and it is equally clear that, for many generations after 
the Anglo-Saxon domination, there was no single man 
strong enough to over-lord the entire land. 


It was towards the close of this systematic apportion- 
ment of the country that Ethelfrith made himself master 
of Bernicia and Deira, and the union thus brought about 
had a very perceptible bearing on our history. With his 
vastly augmented power, the unscrupulous king was cap- 
able of great deeds. Suspecting that the young Edwin 
had found shelter among the Christianised tribesmen of 




\ IK 

lower Strathclyde, the Northumbrians again crossed the 
hills to the westward, overran the whole territory 
between the Lake District and the Dee, and thus broke 
for ever the continuity that had hitherto existed between 
the Britons of Oumbria and Wales. This campaign is 
remarkable for the illustration it furnishes of the savage 
justice of these early kings. In his attack on Chester, 
in 607, Ethelfrith gave an order which has earned him 
much condemnation from modern scribes. "Hard by 
the city," says Mr. Green in his admirable History of 
the English People, " two thousand monks were gathered 
in the monastery of Baneor, and after imploring, in a 
three days' fast, the help of Heaven for their country, 
a crowd of these ascetics followed the British army to 
the field. Ethelfrith watched the wild gestures and 
outstretched arms of the strange company as it stood 
apart, intent on prayer, and took the monks for en- 
chanters. ' Bear they arms or no, ' said the king, ' they 
war against us when they cry against us to their God,' 
and, in the surprise and rout which followed, the monks 
were the first to fall." Of the whole number, only some 
50 were saved. The effect of the slaughter was marvel- 
lous. Instead of being filled with indignation at the 
sacrifice of their spiritual guides, the Welshmen were 
so completely horror-stricken as to lose tbeir nerve. 
First they wavered, then they ran, and Ethelfrith gained 
one of the easiest victories of his career. 

In spite of the carnage, the young Edwin was neither 
found amongst the captured nor the slain. He had been 
wandering in many places, and obtained hospitality in 
not a few ; but it was not until he reached the Court of 
Redwald, King of the East Angles, that he secured a 
refuge from the storm which had so long threatened him. 
When Ethelfrith was made acquainted with the lost 
youth's whereabouts, he 
endeavoured in many 
ways to get possession of 
his person. Failing in 
these attempts, he sought 
to bribe Redwald to mur- 
der his unhappy guest ; 
and because here, again, 
he was baulked, he had 
recourse to intimidation 
of the most terrible de- 
scription. The southern 
king nobly declined to 
listen to either threats or 

entreaties. After thus resolving to defy his warlike 
and formidable neighbour, Redwald being assured 
that a serious quarrel must follow put himself at the 
head of a numerous army, and determined to carry the 
war into bis enemy's country. Ethelfrith was equally 
active. Before Redwald had given his final response, 
indeed, the Northumbrian leader had been concentrating 

his forces, and now hoped, by a sudden advance, to catch 
his rival on disadvantageous terms. There was mutual 
surprise, therefore, when the hostile bodies came suddenly 
together on the banks of the Idle, in 617, at a point not 
far from the Nottinghamshire border. Though the 
Northumbrians were outnumbered, they were not dis- 
couraged. They had long been inured to hardships, were 
splendidly trained in the use of their weapons, and were 
as well disciplined as a long experience of battle grounds 
could make them. The impetuosity of their attack led 
very speedily to the discomfiture of a strong division, 
under one of Redwald's sons, and fortune seemed likely 
to smile upon them once more. But the East Anglians, 
fighting with remarkable steadiness, offered an impene- 
trable front to all subsequent onslaughts, and defied the 
power of the Northmen to pierce their ranks. Impatient 
at such resistance, and growing anxious about his own 
small force, Ethelfrith and a devoted band of warriors 
made a resolute dash at the enemy's centre. It was 
splendidly checked, and, in the fierce struggle that 
ensued, the dauntless king met a hero's death. Dis- 
heartened by the fall of their veteran chieftain, the 
Northumbrians slowly gave way. Being threatened on 
the flank, however, their orderly retreat was turned into 
a shameless stampede, and they fell by hundreds as they 
rushed madly in the direction of York. On hearing of 
thia overthrow, the sons of Ethelfrith fled to the Scots, 
by whom they were hospitably treated, and the forsaken 
country thus lay at the mercy of its long lost prince. 

Supported by the victorious army of his well-proved 
friend and counsellor, Edwin at once continued his 
triumphant progress. It soon became apparent that the 
resistance to him would not be serious. Hundreds of his 
countrymen hastened to join the young prince in his long 
deferred home-coming, and by the time he reached the 
royal ville, at Malton, an absolutely peaceful succession 
was assured. Then began a reign of the most momentous 
description. Northward, his conquests extended beyond 
the Forth ; and Edwinsburgh the stronghold by which 
his new acquisitions were safeguarded is still recognis- 
able in the name of the present beautiful capital of 
Scotland. Southward, his aggressive career was equally 
irresistible ; and, with the aid of a newly-formed fleet, 
the Isles of Anglesea and Man were added to his 
dominions. So successful was he both in his wars and 
his politics that, in spite of attempted assassination and 
secret conspiracy, he gained for his territory a supremacy 
over all the other kingdoms of the Heptarchy, and for 
himself he earned the proud dignity of Bretwalda. It 
was now that the greatness of Northumbria reached its 
height. In addition to undoubted military skill, Edwin 
displayed a genius for civil government, and soon evolved 
something like order out of the existing chaos. So 
marvellously quick was the betterness, indeed, that "a 
woman with her babe might have walked scatheless from 

March I 



sea to sea." Peaceful communication was everywhere 
revived along the deserted highways, and the springs by 
the roadside were not only clearly indicated, but had 
brass cups attached to them for the travellers' use. It 
was an agreeable change for the people. For the king, 
too, a rest from the toils of war must have possessed an 
undoubted charm. Some faint traditions of the Roman 
past seemed to be flinging their glory round this new 
"empire of the English," or, "at any rate," says Mr. 
Green, "some of its majesty had come back with its long 
lost peace. A royal standard of purple and gold now 
floated before Edwin as he rode through the villages ; 
a feather-tuft, attached to a spear, preceded him as he 
walked through the streets. The Northumbrian king 
was, in fact, supreme over Britain as no king of English 
blood had ever been before. " 


It was while in the fulness of this splendour and power 
that Edwin was converted to Christianity, and witnessed 
the extraordinary fervour with which thousands of the 
Anglian people accepted the new faith. It is un- 
necessary in this place to explain how the superstitious 
king was induced to listen to the teaching of Paulinus; 
bow the heathen gods were overthrown ; or how, in the 
brooks and water-courses of every Northern valley, the 
settlers gathered to be baptised. Our purpose is more 
with the causes that disturbed the popular security, and 
these, in the olden time, were never long in coming. Not 
satisfied with the progress made in his own kingdom, 
Edwin sought to secure converts amongst the subjects of 
his rivals. This was too much for the adherents of the 
old religion, and the worshippers of Thor and Woden 
rose to arms against Northumbria's interference with the 
rights of conscience. It was at this time that Mercia 
sprang into notoriety as the champion of the heathen 
gods. Penda, its savage old king, was acute enough to 
see that such a struggle might enable him to not only 
win back his independence, but to snatch the over- 
lordship for himself. Not strong enough for a single- 
handed attack, however, he negotiated an alliance with 
Cadwalla, the Welsh king, and thus brought the Britons 
once more into antagonism with the Northumbrian ruler. 
The allies were speedily in the field ; but before they 
could penetrate far into the Northern kingdom, they 
found themselves opposed to Edwin's forces. This 
meeting took place at Hatfield Chase, some few miles 
north of Doncaster, in the autumn of 633, and led to a 
terrible disaster for the North. During the resolute and 
determined battle that ensued, Edwin yielded up his 
useful life in the midst of the furious combatants. 
Around him fell his gallant son, Osfrid, and the bulk of 
his most honoured chieftains. In the face of such a 
calamity, the Northumbrians seemed powerless, and, in 
the rout that ensued, they were scattered far and wide 
across the plain. Heaps of slain were left as relics of the 

heathen triumph, and as indications of the fate that was 
soon to befall so many other bands of the faithful. 


Cadwalla at once moved northward, and took posses- 
sion of the fortress at York ; while Penda directed his 
exertions against the converts of the Southern kingdoms. 
Success attended the allies in both directions. Among 
the valleys and hills of Yorkshire, as well as in the 
fenlauds of East Anglia, their arms were borne in 
triumph. The march routes were broadly marked by 
ruined dwellings and mutilated corpses. The weakness 
of womanhood and the innocence of childhood were no 
protection. Neither age nor sex were spared, and "the 
barbarity of torture too frequently added bitterness to 
death." Paulinus fled the land, his chosen ministers 
dispersed, and the followers of the new doctrine hid 
themselves in sore tribulation. In the months of 
tyranny that succeeded, the so-called Christian king was, 
if possible, more savagely cruel than his Pagan ally. 
Nothing seemed to diminish his outrageous vindictive- 
ness. The Northumbrians, strangely enough, made no 
attempt to exert themselves as a nation. The loss of 
their king had so completely demoralised them that 
they witnessed the division of their land without a 
protest. Osric, a cousin of Edwin, snatched a very 
doubtful position as lord of Deira ; and Eanfrid, a 
faint-hearted son of Ethelfrith, hastened from Scotland 
to mount the throne of Bernicia. Both were professing 
Christians when they began their sovereignty ; but both 
quickly apostatised in the hope that Penda's wrath 
would thereby be appeased. The expectation, however, 
was not realised. The King of the Mercians was far 
too busy to interfere, and Cadwalla's animosity was far 
too keen to allow of any thought of forgiveness. Seeing 
the utter futility of pleading, Osric, in 634, assailed the 
Welshmen in their stronghold on the Ouse, and paid the 
penalty of his rashness with his life. Eanfrid tried more 
gentle means, but was equally unfortunate. Taking with 
him a dozen stalwart soldiers, he entered the presence 
of Cadwalla, with all humility, to sue for union and 
peace. Here again there was bloodshed. The foolishly 
trustful stranger had scarcely made himself known before 
he was murdered, and Northumbria was once more 
dominated by a branch of the ancient race. 

The divisions of the Heptarchy are shnwn on our map. 
1 and 2 were Bernicia and Deira (better known as North- 
umbria) ; 3, Mercia ; 4, East Anglia ; 5, Wessex ; 6, 
South Saxony ; 7, East Saxony ; 8, Kent. The first four 
were occupied by the Angles, the next three by the 
Saxons, and Kent by the Jutes. The whole of the West 
Coast, lettered B, was occupied by the Britons at the 
close of the sixth century. 

The smaller map illustrates the site of two eventful 
battles, which, as will be seen, were both fought along 
the line of the old Roman road. Doncaster was an 
important station of the Caesars even in the earliest days 
of our history, and it became later a favourite seat of the 
Northumbrian kings, Coningsborough, too, contained 
the strongest of their Southern citadels, and formed a 



secure retreat in times of national danger or popular dis- 
content. Near it is a mound that is supposed to contain 
the remains of Hengist the Saxon ; and not far away is 
Tickhill Castle, a fortress that played a not unimportant 
part in the wars of the Commonwealth. 

. ^turo l\rrbro'o 

j]R. SIMS REEVES having recently published 
his autobiography, we are able to give an 
extract therefrom which confirms the state- 
ment made in the Monthly Chronicle, vol. ii., page 234. 
Mr. Reeves says : 

I was born October 21, 1821, at Shooter's Hill, in Kent. 
My father was a musician, and it was said that at an 
early age I used my voice with no little skill. When 
fourteen years old I performed the duties of organist at 
North Cray Church, where I likewise had charge of the 


local choir. " Doctors differ," it is said ; so, top, do sing- 
ing masters. The professor under whom I studied treated 
me as a baritone ; yes, and as a baritone I came 
upon the stage, and succeeded. While studying harmony 
and counterpoint under Mr. H. Calcott I practised the 
piano with John Cramer. I also learned to play more 
than one musical instrument, including the violin, violon- 
cello, oboe, and bassoon ; in fact, so proficient did I 
become as a violinist, that at the beginning of my career 
I not seldom undertook the duties of orchestral 
leader. In 1839, being then in my eighteenth year, I 
made my d&ut at the Newcastle-on-Tyne Theatre, as the 
Gipsy Boy in "Guy Mannering," for the benefit of the 
late tenor George Barker. 

Shortly afterwards Mr. Reeves secured an engage- 

ment at the Grecian Theatre, London, under the name 
of "Mr. Johnson," followed by an engagement with 
Macready at Drury Lane. In 1843, he studied in Paris, 
proceeding to Milan, where he made his cUbut at La 


NEW and handsome Town Hall, to which 
are added an entire series of municipal 
buildings, was opened at Middlesbrough-on- 
Tees on January 23, 1889, by the Prince 
and Princess of Wales. Such was the interest taken in 
the proceedings that 150,000 people lined the route of the 
royal procession. The Prince and Princess during their 
visit to the North were the guests of the Earl of Zetland 
at Aske Hall. 

Our sketch of the Town Hall, taken from a photograph 
by Mr. R. W. Gibbs, gives a complete view of this splen- 
did pile of buildings. The Corporation, anxious to meet 
the growing requirements of the borough, offered prizes 
for the best designs, and appointed as umpire Mr. Water- 
house, of London. The first prize was awarded to Mr. 
George Gordon Hoskins, of Darlington, and the selection 
of Mr. Hoskins's design was readily endorsed by the Cor- 
poration. Mr. Hoskins evidently aimed at raising a 
structure which should be externally expressive of the 
purposes for which it is intended. His treatment is 
dignified and effective. He would probably describe the 
style as thirteenth century Gothic, suffused with the 
feeding and spirit of the present time. It is much the 
same as that adopted with marked success in the Man- 
chester Town Hall and the Manchester Assize Courts. 

The foundation stone of the New Town Hall and 
Municipal Buildings, which will cost about 120,000, was 
laid by the Mayor of the borough, Mr. Alderman 
Fiddler, on October 24, 1883, and the work of erection 
has been carried out by Mr. Ephraim Atkinson, builder, 
of Bradford. 



The Mayor of Middlesbrough, Raylton Dixon, Esq., of 
the Cleveland Dockyard Company and Gunnergate Hall, 
Marton, was unanimously elected to the office of chief 
magistrate, although not a member of the Corporation, 
as the most suitable citizen for such a post in antici- 
pation of the Royal visit to the town. Mr. Dixon was 
born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1838, being the son 
of the late Mr. J. Dixon, of Wray, near Ambleside. 
Educated at private schools, he launched into life under 
the eye of Mr. Coutts, one of the earliest shipbuilders on 

March I 

ISS9. f 



the Tyne. Afterwards he was with Messrs. C. Mitchell 
and Co. In 1859, Mr. Dixon went to Middlesbrough as 
manager of a branch establishment of Messrs. Richard- 
son and Duck, of Stockton, and from that time till 
the present his record has been one of indomitable 
energy, grappling with and finally conquering the diffi- 
culties that beset the path to success. In 1863, as partner 
with Mr. Backhouse, he became a principal in the firm of 
Backhouse and Dixon, whose name was at one time a 
household word in the town. On the retirement of Mr. 
Backhouse, the interest centred entirely in Mr. Dixon, 
who with his brother, Mr. Waynman Dixon, now carries 
on the important works as Messrs. Raylton Dixon 
and Co. Mr. Dixon's connection with municipal life 
dates from the year which saw the opening of the Albert 
Park the gift of Mr. Bolckow by Prince Arthur, in 
1868. When Mr. Dixon retired from the Town 
Council last year, he was the oldest member of that 
body. In politics, Mr. Dixon is a staunch Conservative, 
and as such he stood against the sitting member in 1885. 

, gucljtteet. 

Mr. George Gordon Hoskins, of Thornbeck Hill, 
Darlington, the architect of the handsome Gothic pile 
comprising the Town Hall and Municipal Buildings at 
Middlesbrough, is a gentleman well known in all the 
leading architectural circles of the United Kingdom. 
Mr. Hoskins is the eldest son of the late Captain 
Francis Hoskins, of the 1st Royals, his mother being 
Julia, second daughter of Mr. William Hill, of 
Temple House, near Portsmouth. His paternal grand- 
father was Mr. Abraham Hoskins, of Newton Park and 
Bladon Castle, near Burton-on -Trent, whose sister 
married Mr. Bass, the father of the late Mr. Michael 
Thomas Bass, who was for many years M.P. for Derby, 
and whose eldest son is now Lord Burton. Mr. 
Hoskins first engaged in practice in London, but subse- 
quently removed to Darlington in the year 1864-, where 
bis abilities found early recognition. A large number of 
public and private buildings in Durham and North 
Yorkshire have been erected from his designs. Mr. 
Hoskins is the author of several works connected with 
architecture, some of which have obtained wide circula- 
tion. Our portrait is copied from a photograph by Mr. 
James Cooper, of Darlington. 

Jttr. JUtlliam /allow*, ?.?. 

William Fallows, one of the oldest and most respected 
citizens of Middlesbrough, was born at the picturesque 
village of Sleights, near Whitby, on December 10, 1797 
so that he is now in his 92nd year. Whilst an infant, his 
parents settled in Linthorpe, the native place of his 
mother. Subsequently they moved to Stockton, where Mr. 

Fallows's father became a schoolmaster. Young Fallows 
was sent to the Blue Coat School in that town. In 1811 
he was apprenticed to a firm of iron and timber merchants 
for seven years. After completing his term, he remained 
in their service for several years. In 1829 he was ap- 
pointed shipping agent at Stockton for the Stockton 
and Darlington Railway Company, and in the following 
year, when the railway was extended to Middlesbrough, 
he was promoted to the office of superintendent of the 

. Fallows . 

Railway Company's shipping of coals. As Middlesbrough 
developed, the Railway Company constructed a dock, 
which has since been several times enlarged, and Mr. 
Fallows, notwithstanding his great age, still holds his 
position as superintendent. The venerable gentleman 
has been a member of the Tees Conservancy Commission 
since its formation, and has taken a prominent part in 
its proceedings. He was also a member of the Middles- 
brough Corporation for many years, and in 1859 he was 
Mayor of the borough. For a long time he was one of 
the Guardians of the Poor, and he devoted a great deal 
of his active life to public work. Mr. Fallows has now 
and then from the rich store of his own recollections 
contributed scraps of antiquarian information to the 
columns of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle. 




March ) 



at WaUrf fltitr tfte 
CfttUtttgftffiit 25ttll. 

j]HE boar, the bear, and the wolf may still be 
hunted in continental countries ; but, in 
England, there remain nothing more ter- 
rible than the herds of white cattle, which roam 
through the well-wooded dells of Chillingham Park. 
They are said to be remnants of the stock that ran 
wild amid the forests and hills of ancient Northum- 
bria, and their shaggy appearance even now is both 
picturesque and formidable. It is very little more. 
There are occasions, of course, when they forget the 
civilizing tendencies of artificial feeding, and resort to the 
headlong charges of the olden time. An incident of the 
kind has been depicted by no less a master than Landseer, 
and the large painting occupies a prominent place in the 

dining hall of Chillingham. It appears that the present 
Earl of Tankerville, when a young man, was attacked 
while riding across the cattle enclosure, and would have 
sustained serious injury if a watchful gillie had not 
opportunely shot his incensed assailant. But in spite of 
this occurrence, the character of the breed is hardly bad 
enough to justify extreme precautions against them. The 
Prince of Wales paid a visit to Chillingham in the month 
of October, 1872, when it was announced that he would 
signalise the occasion by shooting the noblest specimen of 
the herd. His Royal Highness allowed himself to be 
stowed away in a hay cart that was carrying the pooi 
creatures their breakfast, and was thus able, from the 
hungry and unsuspecting herd that followed him, to 
exterminate the king bull at leisure. The plan, no doubt, 
was in accordance with courtly notions of safety, and 
was eminently calculated to secure the object in view ; 
but it was scarcely a feat to warrant any unusual iubi- 

Ik Priocfl ofc-Walos Mta Chiiiing^ara Bull, o.ctn.isfe; 




\ 1889. 

lation. Yet, as the sequel shows, the feat was highly 
appreciated in very distinguished circles. A few hours 
after the tragedy, the carcase wad brought from the 
scene of slaughter, and carefully deposited on the castle 
lawn. The photographer was ready, the Prince not un- 
willing, and the result as shown in our sketch. 


tmt, pltoU'is Caaistroag, Jleektn 
Jttaibm Wag, &c. 

j|HE only Ermyn Street (Eormen Street) with 
which we have to do was that direct route 
which ran from Pevensey (Anderida), on the 
coast of Sussex, through London, and across 
the counties of Middlesex, Herts, Cambridge, and Hunt- 
ingdon, to Lincoln (Lindum), and thence to the Humber 
at Ferriby, crossing that river thereabouts, converging on 
the central city of York, and sending out branches 
through the East and North Ridings, to Aldborough in 
Holderness (the country of the Parish), to Malton (Der- 
ventio), Pickering (Delgovitia), Filey Bay (Portus Salu- 
taris), Flamborough (Ocellum Promontorium), and Duns- 
ley Bay, near Whitby (the Dunum Sinus of Ptolemy), 
where a terminal station is believed to have been situated. 
From York northwards the main line seems to have gone 
on by Easingwold, Thirsk, and Northallerton at wbich 
latter place there are indubitable traces of the Roman 
occupation to the Tees, where it probably ran into the 
Watling Street between Stanwick and Croft, so as to 
cross at Piercebridge. But, if so, it shortly afterwards 
diverged easterly, and went on towards Durham and 
Newcastle, by Aycliffe, Rushyford, Chilton, Ferryhill, 
Sunderlaud Bridge, Chester-le-Street (Condercum), Birt- 
ley, and over Gateshead Fell to Gateshead (Gabrosentum) 
and the bridge across the Tyne (Pons j3Slii). From New- 
castle it may possibly have continued in the same direc- 
tion, in the line afterwards taken by the Great North 
Road, by Morpeth, Aluwick, Belford, and Tweedmouth, 
to Berwick-upon-Tweed, where there was a principal 
station, on the site of which the remains of the castle now 
stand. But, if it pursued this route, all trace of it seems 
to have been obliterated long ago. 

The Devil's Causeway is a name that was given by our 
ancestors to a road, likewise known as Ermyn Street, 
which ran across Northumberland (the country of the 
Ottodini), from Halton Chesters (Richard of Cirencester's 
Ad Murum), passing on the east side of Kirk Heaton, 
and thence over the Wansbeck, near the point where the 
Wansbeck Valley Railway crosses that river, by Thornton 
(Roger Thornton's birthplace), a short way to the east 
of Hartburn Church, in a straight course between 
Nether Witton and Witton Shields, to where the 

ruins of Brinkburn Priory now stand. It crossed the 
Coquet a little below the priory, at a place where the 
remains of the piers of the Roman bridge were perfectly 
distinct some years ago (and perhaps still are), "par- 
ticularly the ashlar work on the north side, covered with 
elm trees," as a learned correspondent wrote to Mackenzie 
in 1824-. There were likewise on the hill above the priory 
evident traces of a Roman villa, a few yards from the 
military way, the rampart and ditch across the neck of 
land being very apparent, likewise the foundations of 
houses and lines of the street ; but the stones had un- 
doubtedly been all used for building the priory. After 
passing Brinkburn the Causeway proceeded over Rimside 
Moor, crossed the Aln below Whittingham, passed Shaw- 
don and Glanton (where it was locally known as the 
Deor or Deer Street), to the Till, near Fowberry, then by 
Horton Castle, Lowick, and Ancroft, to the Tweed, 
which it crossed, according to some authorities, at a 
place called the Corn Mills, near West Ord, a little 
above Berwick; but, according to others, crossing the 
river at Tweedmouth, and thence passing by Ayton and 
Cockburnspath over the Lammermoors into East and 
Mid Lothian, where several Chesters, as near Spott, 
Drem, &c., would seem to mark its route, though there 
are no other existing traces. The Devil's Causeway was 
constructed, like the other Roman roads, ' with large 
stones in the centre and smaller ones at/ the sides. It was 
fully eight yards broad and two yards high, with four 
ditches, owing to there being a carriage road in the 
middle, and a narrow road on each side for foot passen- 
gers ; and so solidly was it constructed, that the great 
original ridge still in several places remains unbroken, as 
stated in Maclauchlan's survey, executed at the cost of 
the Duke of Northumberland. The road was connected 
with the Watling Street by two branches at least. One of 
these started from Bremenium, and went off in a north- 
westerly direction by the Dudlees, Branshaw, and Yard- 
hope to Campville, close to Holystone, where Paulinus, 
as recorded by the Venerable Bede, converted and bap- 
tised several thousand Pagans. Then, passing the Coquet 
near Sharperton, it went past the Trewitts to Lorbottle, 
Callaly, and Eslington to Barton, where it joined the 
Devil's Causeway before it crossed the river Aln, to the 
north of which stands Crawley Tower, built upon the 
east angle of a Roman station on an eminence near the 
road, which has been considered to be the Alauna Amnis 
of Richard of Cirencester. It is probable that this road 
was continued from Barton, by Alnwick, down to the 
port of Alnmouth, during the Lower Empire, since great 
quantities of grain were shipped from Britain to supply 
the Roman armies and garrisons on the Rhine. The 
second branch seems to have been formed to connect a 
chain of forts running round from the Watling Street, 
near Troughend, by Elsdon, Hepple, Tosson, Whitton, 
&c., with the Devil's Causeway. 
The Recken Dyke, or Wrecken Dyke so called in 

19. / 




North Durham is supposed to be the north-eastern 
portion of the Rycknild Street, described in Drayton's 
"Polyolbion," as well as by Ralph Higden, as stretching 
obliquely quite across the island, from St. David's 
(Menapia), the most westerly point of South Wales, " to 
the fall of Tyne into the German Sea." Beginning at 
this end, Horsley, who was reckoned in his day " the 
prince of antiquaries," says : "It seems to have come 
from the station (at South Shields), and to have crossed 
the marsh, then possibly a branch of the river, not far 
from the station. Thence it has passed most probably 
through, or a little to the east of, a house called Lay 
Gate ; from thence it seems to have gone near a house 
called the Barns, the garden wall probably standing on 
it ; and so on to the Draw Bridge close by Jarrow Slike. 
For this space, the traces of this way are very obscure and 
uncertain. In the 6eld beyond this bridge, the track of it 
is plain, and for near the full breadth of the enclosure 
sensibly raised above the level of the rest of the ground, 
though it runs cross the ridges. On the west side of 
this field or enclosure there is a small descent, and in the 
bottom a lane, which is the highway leading from Bowdon 
to Shields, and a small ascent on the other side in the field 
joining to this lane. As the military way descends on the 
one side and ascends on the other, it is bent into a curve, 
and then falls into the right line, in which it seems to be 
continued all the way to Gateshead Fell, for the space of 
five or six miles ; from thence it goes towards Lamesley 
and Kibblesworth, which it leaves a little to the south. 
It was very visible all the way, not many years ago, 
before Sir Henry Liddall inclosed and improved these 
grounds ; and the gardener at Cousin's House, who had 
formerly wrought on Gateshead Fell, assured me he had 
seen and helped to dig up some stones out of Wreken 
Dyke, which he called Bracken Dyke, so that he was 
altogether of opinion that this part of it had been paved. 
This way passes on towards Beamish, and I make no doubt 
has gone forward to Lanchester. It is indeed lost on the 
moor beyond Beamish ; nor is it any great wonder that it 
should be so, considering how soft and mossy it is. ... 
There is a remarkable tumulus near this way, not far 
from Ravensworth, besides which I observed another 
very considerable one, about a mile from Lanchester, 
called the Maiden Law, and probably the military 
way has not been far from this tumulus." In another 
place Horsley eays : " It consists of firm gravel and 
sand, and is hard and compact, so as to make a very 
good way at this time, at all seasons of the year. I also 
believe it has a mixture of stones, or somewhat of pave- 

Horsley thinks the road must have terminated at Lan- 
chester ; but John Cade, of Durham, in a paper drawn 
up by him, and addressed to the Dean of Lincoln (Dr. 
Kaye), on the Roman roads in the County of Durham, 
traces the Rycknild Street from St. David's, past Old 
Derby and Chesterfield (Lutudarum), to York, and from 

thence by Thornton-le-Street, near Thirsk, to Sockburn- 
on-Tees, where the river was crossed by a ford, thence by 
Sadberge, Stainton-le-Street, Bradbury, and Mainsforth, 
to Old Durham, where the Romans certainly had a sta- 
tion, over against which, on a tall cliff now known as the 
Maiden Scar, stood a fortification which has received the 
name of Maiden Castle. From Durham the road went 
over Chester Common to Chester-le-Street, and thence by 
the Black Fell, Usworth, Fellonby, Simonside, and Lay- 
gate, to South Shields station on the Lawe. That such a 
road was carried by the Romans through the central parts 
of the County Palatine, on the line here indicated, or near 
to it, the existing names of the places would not permit 
us to doubt, even were there no vestiges remaining on the 
surface at this day. The obvious similarity of name 
between Reckon and Rycknild disposes us to think that 
there was but one great transverse line of road leading 
from the south-west coast to the mouth of the Tyne 
which received this appellation ; but the authorities are 
so confused and contradictory, and the positive informa- 
tion they convey so meagre, that it is impossible to coine 
to any satisfactory conclusion on the point. 

The etymologies of Rycknild and Wrekin, given by 
Horsley, Hutchinson, Bertram, and other antiquaries, are 
quite conjectural, and of no value. Burton, in his com- 
mentary on Antoninus's Itinerary through Britain, reads 
Icknel instead of Rycknild, and derives the word from 
the Iceni, who inhabited Norfolk and Suffolk ; others 
point to the Wrekin in Shropshire, over or near which the 
Watling Street passed, as possibly affording some clue 
to the meaning of the name. For our own part we con- 
ceive that the original term must have been Reken or 
Recken Dyke, meaning the "Giant's Dyke." In 
Icelandic " regin " is used in the Eddaic poems for the 
gods, as in " blith regin " the blythe gods ; "uppregin," 
the powers above, the celestial gods; "ragnarock, " the 
twilight of the gods, the last day. And in Hugo von 
Togenberg's "Runner," a curious German poem of tha 
fourteenth century, we are told : 

How Master Dietrick fought with Ecken, 
And how of old the stalwart Recken 
Were all by woman's craft betrayed. 

The Maiden Way was the name given by the natives to 
a great causeway which turned off from the Watling 
Street, a little beyond Catterick, and went by Greta 
Bridge, where there is a small but very distinctly marked 
Roman camp, situated in the field close behind the 
Morritt Arms Inn, to the more important camp of Bowes 
(Lavatree) and Roy, Rey, or Rere Cross, the Cross of the 
Kings, on Stainmoor, at the summit of the pass from 
Yorkshire into Westmoreland. The cross standing there 
marks the spot (so tradition says) where William the 
Conqueror and Malcolm Canmore met in arms, but 
wisely resolved to settle their dispute amicably, and 
accordingly set up a stone to mark the boundary of the 
two kingdoms. Holinshed thus states the conditions on 





which the kings concluded peace : " That Malcolm 
should enjoy that part of Northumberland which lies 
between Tweed, Cumberland, and Stainrnoor, and do 
homage to the King of England for the same ; and that 
in the midst of Stainmoor there should a cross be set up, 
with the King of England's image on the one side, and 
the King of Scotland's on the other, to signify that one is 
to march to England and the other to Scotland. " From 
thence the way went on to Brough (Vertere or Verteris), 
Appleby (Galacum), Kirkby Thore (Brovonacae), Temple 
Sowerby, Brougham Castle (Brocavium), Penrith (Vo- 
reda), and Carlisle (Luguvallum), where it fell into the 
great north-western line leading into Scotland, by 
Netherby, Middleby, Castleover, Lanark, &c., to Paisley 
and Dumbarton (Theodosia). 

Prom Kirkby Thore, the Maiden Way struck off in a 
different direction from what it had previously followed, 
over the skirt of Cross Fell into the valley of the South 
Tyne, near Alston, to the station at Whitley Castle 
(Alione), the site of which is nearly opposite Kirkhaugh 
Church, and on the north side of Gilderdale Burn. Froir. 
that place it proceeded eastwards to Whittonstall, be- 
tween Ebchester and Corbridge. where it ran into the 
Watling Street. There was most likely an easterly con- 
tinuation of it, by way of Hedley, Coalburns, Winlaton, 
&c., connecting it with the Reken Dyke, which ran to 
Jarrow and South Shields, and also with the road 
leading to Gabrosentum and Pons ^-Elii. Local tradition 
bears this out ; but all trace of the road seems now to be 

The north portion of the Maiden Way struck off from 
the line of the Roman Wall at the station of Birdoswald 
(Amboglanna), a little to the westward of the place where 
the Wall crosses the Irthing ; and it proceeded nearly 
direct north, crossing the summit of the mountain ridge 
called Side Fell, and descending into the vale of Bew- 
castle, passing that place to the east of the station, the 
Roman name of which is matter of dispute (like that, we 
may remark cursorily, of many other stations), Horsley 
believing it to have been Apiatorium, Hodgson Banna, 
and Maughan Galava. From Bewcastle, it ascended the 
rising ground on the north side of the Kirk Beck, to a 
place called Raestown. Between this place and the 
Scottish Border the line is not easily traced, owing to 
parts of the way being covered with moss, and in other 
places through the occupants of the ground having car- 
ried away the stones to build fences. But after crossing 
the White Lyne, a tributary of the Esk, it ran past the 
Grey Crag, keeping to the right of Christenbury Crags, 
to a camp at Cross. It then crossed the Black Lyne, 
near its junction with another small stream, where there 
has been a strong position. Next it crossed the Skelton 
Pike, forded the Kershope Water, and entered Scottish 
ground. The Maiden Way between the Wall and Bew- 
castle is descri))ed as being above twenty -one feet broad, 
and made with sandstone. The stones are laid on their 

edges, and generally in the centre; on the sides they 
are found lying flat. Where streams of water cross the 
path, they are carried below it by means of culverts, 
covered with large flags. 

There are several other Maiden Ways in different parts 
of England, all so called, we fancy, from their being 
"made," that is, raised or elevated above the surface of 
the grounds through which they ran. 

After crossing the Border, the Maiden Way received 
another name the Wheel Causeway doubtless from its 
being the only road in the district it ran through that was 
practicable for wheeled carriages. Proceeding northward 
a little to the west of Muirdykes, now a station on the 
Waverley route, it passed one of the sources of the Lid- 
dell, at a place called Bagrawford, and then went on past 
the Peel and the Wheel Church to the table land which 
divides Liddesdale from Teviotdale, crossing between 
Wheeling Head on the right and Needs Law on the left. 
Then it bends away to the northward, a little to the west 
of Ravenburn, and makes for the eastern slope of Wolflee- 
hill, thence by the west side of Mackside to Bonchester 
Hill, on the Rule, where there was a principal station. 
From this point there are but few traces left of the road, 
which seems, however, to have branched out into several 
ways, and in particular towards and past Jedburgh, in the 
direction of Crailing and Eckford, and also of the Wat- 
ling Street at Street House, as indicated by a chain of 
forts or strengths running eastward from Bonchester, 
including Chesters, Camptown, and Cunziertown, near 
the station at Street House, and thence probably by 
Chesterhouse, near Hownam Law, Morebattle, Linton, 
and Lempitlaw, to Kerchesters, in the parish of Sprous- 
ton, where it would run into the road skirting the south 
bank of the Tweed from Cornhill, opposite Coldstream 
where there are very extensive earthworks the most 
remarkable possibly north of the Wall past Wark, Car- 
ham, and Maxwellheugh, to Roxburgh, at the junction 
between the Tweed and the Teviot, and so on to the 
Watling Street at Lilliard's Edge. But it would be end- 
less to pursue further the problematical ramifications of 
these Wheel Causeways, which seem to have permeated 
the whole country immediately north of the Cheviots, but 
of which the traces now remain only in the names of such 
places as Chesters, Blackchesters, Rowchesters, Chester- 
halls, &c. 

A name applied to several parts of the Watling Street 
running from York and Catterick to Corchester was the 
Learning Lane, an appellation the memory of which is 
still preserved in the names of many places along the 
line, in Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumberland, such 
as Learning, Leamside, the Learns, Ac. In all probability 
the word is just a corruption of the Latin "limes," a 

Another name current in sundry localities is the Stane 
Street, about the interpretation of which there is no 
doubt. One of these Stane Streets or Stanegates afforded 

March \ 
1889. / 



a direct line of communication between Cilurnum (Ches- 
ters) and Magna (Caervoran), for the accommodation, 
doubtless, of those whose business did not require them 
to call at any intermediate point. It passed near the 
modern village of Newbrough, and skirted the north gate 
of the station at Vindolana (Chester Holm). 


^atal asallfffftt Ss'ctnt tvam 
fleto cattle. 

|JN the evening of Monday, August 15, 1859, 
an immense number of people were assembled 
in the old Cricket Ground, Bath Road, 
Newcastle, to witness a balloon ascent, the aeronaut 
being a man named William Henry Hall, better known 
as "Captain Hall," who had a great reputation as a 
gymnast. The entertainment, or "grand gala" as it 
was called, was a speculation of Mr. Smith, the first 
lessee of the Victoria Music Hall, Grey Street, and 
as regards attendance the affair was certainly a suc- 
cess. Special trains were run to Newcastle, not only from 
many places in the locality, but from even as far as 
Berwick. As the evening was very fine, everything pro- 
mised to pass off pleasantly. It took three hours to 
inflate the balloon ; but at ten minutes to seven the 
ascent was made amidst the crash of music and the loud 
cheers of the spectators. 

When at the height of about a thousand feet, Hall got 
out of the car, and began a series of most extraordinary 
jjyrations on a trapeze, holding on first by his hands 
and then by his feet, while he performed his sickening 
exploits. Women screamed, and even strong men averted 
their faces in terror, so that it was quite a relief when the 
acrobat again took his seat in the car. Shortly after this, 
attention was called to the apparent eccentricities of the 
balloon, which at times descended quite low, and again 
shot up suddenly to a great height, until it appeared no 
larger than an ordinary hat. Finally, it passed out of 
sight, and the people in the grounds became interested in 
the music of the bands and other entertainments provided 
for them. 

Soon after ten o'clock, the cab which had been en- 
gaged to follow the balloon and its occupant arrived 
at the Cricket Ground. The driver had a sad story 
to tell. He reported that the poor "captain" had 
fallen from the car, and was then lying in a critical con- 
dition at the residence of Mr. Hugh Lee Pattinson, 
Scots House, near the Felling. Mr. Smith, accompanied 
by a surgeon, immediately drove to the scene of the 
accident. Some men who were working in a field when 
the balloon descended, stated that it came down slowly 
and steadily, and that Mr. Hall was just in the act of 
stepping out when it rose again with great velocity. 

Hall's feet became entagled in the ropes, and for some 
seconds he hung suspended head downwards, and 
then fell a distance of fully 120 feet. He was taken np 
unconscious, placed upon a couple of corn "stooks,"and 
carried into Mr. Pattinson's house. That gentleman did 
all he could for the sufferer ; and on the arrival of Mr. 
Smith with medical assistance, it was found that no 
bones were broken, nor were there wounds of any 
kind to be seen. Mr. Pattinson provided a spring cart, 
which was made as comfortable as possible with 
cushions, &c., and the injured man was conveyed to 
Newcastle. On his admission into the Infirmary, he was 
attended chiefly by Dr. Gibb, who from the first did 
not take a very cheerful view of the case, and it soon 
appeared that the doctor was right in his diagnosis. 
Poor Hall lingered until Thursday, 18th August, when he 
succumbed to the effects of his terrible fall. The funeral 
took place on the following Sunday, at Elswick Cemetery, 
an immense crowd being present at the ceremony. 

Two or three incidents in this fatal balloon ascent are 
worth recording. When Hall fell from the car, the 
ground was deeply indented in two places ; and yet his 
watch was quite uninjured, and continued to "go" until 
it had run down. A favourite little dog, of great intelli- 
gence, was in the car with his master, and was at his heels 
ready to jump when the balloon escaped from the grapp- 
lings. Much pity was felt for the poor dumb animal. 
which was never seen afterwards. Nor was the balloon 
itself ever re-captured. 

JIANGLEY CASTLE, the capital seat of the 
barony of Tynedale in the feudal times, can 
be approached either from Haydon Bridge. 
distant about a mile and a half, or from 
Hexham, eight and a half miles off, by the Hexham and 
Allendale Railway. It is described in Turner's "Domestic 
Architecture of the Middle Ages " as a fine example of a 
tower-built house of the latter half of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. Built about 1360 by Sir Thomas de Lucy, probably 
on the site of an older residence of the Tindales, it was 
destroyed in 1+05 by Henry IV., as he advanced into 
Northumberland to put down Archbishop Scrope's rebel- 
lion, which the Earl of Northumberland had joined. 
"Its ashlar stone work," says Mr. W. J. Palmer, in his 
"Tyne and its Tributaries," published in 1882, "appears 
as sharp and good as though it had only just been put 
up ; but neglect and abandonment have deprived its 
upper parts, windows, and openings of some of the 
masonry, the interior, with its fittings, having been de- 
stroyed by fire at some remote period." " On approach- 
ing it for the first time," he adds, "we seem to see the old 
stronghold very much as it must have appeared when it 



I March 
\ 1889. 

was the habitable seat of the barony of Tynedale. It has 
a strong tower or turret at each of the four corners, and 
immensely thick walls. Its position is not much raised 
above the plain, and there has been no moat round it, 
or external defence, the founders having relied on the 
strength of its walls and the garrison behind them. " In 
Hodgson's "Topographical and Historical Description 
of the County of Northumberland," contributed to that 
standard work of reference, "The Beauties of England 
and Wales," we find the following description of Langley 
Castle : 

It is well situated on the south bank of the Tyne, and 
though it has of late years been barbarously handled, it is 
by far the most perfect ruin of the kind in the county. It 
is in the form of the letter H, its walls near seven feet 
thick, its inside twenty-four feet by eighty, and the 
towers, one at each corner, about sixty-six feet high. The 
rooms remaining are all arched with stone ; those in the 
towers are fourteen feet square, and the four small fire 
rooms on the east each eleven feet by thirteen. The 
ground rooms, on the east and west, four on each side, 
have been much injured by being used as farm offices. 
The windows which have lighted the great hall, kitchens, 
&c., are large; those in the chambers mostly small, and 
built at an angle that would prevent the entrance of an 
enemy's arrow. The stone of which this fabric is built 
is yet so remarkably fresh as to exhibit in their primitive 
sharpness the characters of the masons. The whole of 
the inside is red with marks of fire. 

What here has been said of the old stronghold must be 
understood to apply to its condition a few years ago ; for 
Mr. Cadwallader J. Bates, its present proprietor, has since 
made such changes and restorations as have rendered the 
place habitable. 

The manor and barony of Langley were held by Adam 
de Tindale, qf King Henry I., by the service of one 
knight's fee ; and his grandson, of the same name, had 
livery of them in the sixth year of King Henry III. (A.D. 
1222), by paying a hundred shillings for a relief, accord- 
ing to the tariff then established, which was at the rate of 
centum solidi for every knight's fee. This Adam left only 
two daughters, his co-heirs, one of whom, named Philippa, 
became the wife of Richard de Bolteby, who, upon the 
division of his father-in-law's estate, obtained the barony, 
which continued for some generations in his family. But 
male issue failing, it passed by marriage to Thomas, son 
of Adam de Multon, who had assumed the name of Lucy, 
from his mother, one of the co-heirs of Richard Lucy, of 
Egremont. This Thomas Lord Lucy (so designated by 
Wallis, copying an inquisition in the* Tower of London, 
of the 33rd year of King Edward I.), became the husband 
of Isabel, daughter and one of the co-heirs of the last 
Adam de Bolteby, and therefore acquired the Langley 
lordship. A stirring event in the history of one of his 
immediate successors is thus related : In the year 1323, 
by order of King Edward II., Anthony Lord Lucy 
seized Andrew de Hercla or Herkley, Earl and Governor 
of Carlisle, for high treason, in the castle of Carlisle. He 
was assisted in the affair by Sir Richard Denton, Sir 
Hugh Lowther, and Sir Hugh Moriceby, knights, and 
four esquires. Sir Richard killed the porter of the inner 

gate who attempted to shut it against the party; but 
one of the earl's servants escaped to the Peel, a castle at 
Heihead, High Head, or as it was anciently written Pela 
de Hivehead, the seat of his lordship's brother, Michael 
Hercla, who by that means was informed of the disaster, 
and fled into Scotland with Sir William Blount, a Scot- 
tish knight, and others of his faction. In reward for his 
service, Lord Lucy was made governor of the castles of 
Carlisle, Appleby, and Egremont ; and, in the following 
year, he obtained a grant in fee of the castle and honour 
of Cockermouth, for which, as also for the manor of Lang- 
ley, he procured the privileges of free warren, " for the 
preservation of hares, conies, partridges, and pheasants, 
or any of them." 

The hero of this adventure left Langley to his son 
Thomas, who in his turn left it to his son Anthony ; and 
he, dying without male issue, and his daughter and heir 
Johanna surviving him only five years and three-quarters, 
and dying unmarried, was succeeded in his baronial 
honours and estates by his sister Matilda, wife of Sir 
Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus, after whose death 
she married Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, upon 
whom and his heirs male she settled her whole fortune, 
under the easy condition that, as their hearts were, so the 
arms of the two noble families might be united, for a 
memorial of her affection. 

Langley Castle and estate continued in the Percy 
family until the attainder of Henry Earl of Northumber- 
land by King Edward IV., after the battle of Towtou, 
in which he fell, leading the van of the Lancastrians, 
sword in hand. They then came into the possession of 
John Nevil, Marquis of Montacute, who held them six 
years, and he resigned them to Sir Henry Percy, Lord 
Poynings, on the latter being restored to his position and 
dignity, on subscribing an oath of allegiance to the 
Yorkist king in his palace at Westminster. The Percies 
kept possession of the castle and manor for about two 
centuries, but lost it in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
when Thomas Percy, seventh Earl of Northumberland, 
being involved in some of the intrigues for restoring 
Mary Queen of Scots, was driven into rebellion in 1569, 
and forced to fly into Scotland, whence he was, for a sum 
of money, betrayed to death in the hands of the Lord 
Huusdon, by the Regent, James Douglas, Earl of Mor- 
ton, who had formerly, during his exile in England, been 
much indebted to Percy's friendship. Langley afterwards 
became the property of the Ratcliffes, with whom it con- 
tinued till it was forfeited by James, the last Earl of Der- 
wentwater, in 1745, when it was transferred, with the rest 
of his valuable estates, by Act of Parliament, to the 
Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital, by whom it was 
sold, in October, 1882, to Mr. C. J. Bates, the present 

March 1 
18S9. J 



jjHIS famous old fortalice is distant about nine 
and a half miles north -north-west from Hex- 
ham, four miles north-west from Chollertoni 
and one mile or thereabouts from Wark, which lies on 
the opposite side of the North Tyne. Leland calls 
" Chipchase a praty towne and castle, hard on the easte 
parte of the arme of Northe Tyne. " Sir Ralph Sadler, 
in a letter to Secretary Cecil, says, "The most apte and 
convenyent places for the keeper of Tindale to reside in 
on all the frontiers are Hawgston, Langley, or Chipchase, 
in one of which iij placis men of service have alwayes 
been placed, and especially for the well executing of that 
office of Tyndale." "The old tower," says Hodgson, 
" still remains. Its roof is built on corbels, and has open- 
ings through which to throw down stones or scalding 
water upon an enemy. The grooves of the portcullis, the 
porter's chamber above it, and tattered fragments of 
Gothic painting on the walls, are exceedingly curious." 
The following more detailed description is by the Rev. 
C. H. Hawthorne, in his " Feudal and Military Antiqui- 
ties": "The pele, properly so called, is a massive and 
lofty building as large as some Norman keeps. It has an 
enriched appearance given to it by its double-notched 
corbelling round the summit, which further serves the 
purpose of machicolation. The round bartisans at the 
angles add to its beauty, and are set in with considerable 
skill. Over the low winding entrance door on the base- 
ment are the remains of the original portcullis, the like 
of which the most experienced archaeologist will in vain 
seek for elsewhere. The grooves are also visible, and the 
chamber where the machinery was fixed for raising it is 
to be met with, even as at Goodrich, where the holes in 
which the axle worked, and the oilway that served to ease 
its revolutions, may be seen ; but at Chipchase there is 
the little cross-grated portcullis itself, which was simply 
lifted by the leverage of a wooden bar above the entrance, 
and let down in the same manner. " 

Chipchase was anciently a member of the manor of 
Prudhoe ; and in the reign of King Henry II. it was the 
property of Odonel de Umfraville, who gave the chapel 
there to the Canons of Hexham, but the manor to his son 
and heir, in whose family it remained for several genera- 
tions. The Umfravilles, however, it would appear, had 
only a little fort on the present site. Godwin, in his 
"English Archaeologist's Guide," says the tower was 
built by Peter de Insula about the year 1250. This 
Peter is supposed to have been the ancestor of the Delisle 
family, or at least of a sept of that name. It came after- 
wards into the hands of a branch of the noble family of 
the Herons of Ford Castle. One of those Herons, Sir 
George, was slain in the Raid of the Redeswire ; another 
was seven years High Sheriff in succession ; and to a third, 
Cuthbert Heron, we owe the modern structure, it having 

been built for him in 1621, as testified by the initials of 
his name, C. H., cut in stone on each side of his coat of 
arms, with the date, above the south entrance. 

The last of the Chipchase Herons sold the estate to 
George Allgood, Esq., who, in his turn, disposed of it 
to a cadet of the Troughend family, John Reed, Esq., 
who was High Sheriff of Northumberland in 1732. At 
this gentleman's decease, in 1754, the property was 
inherited by his nephew, Christopher Soulsby, who 
assumed the name of Reed, and married the eldest 
daughter of Francis Blake, Esq., of Twizell. It after- 
wards, in consequence of the failure of the Northum- 
berland Bank, with which the Reeds were concerned, 
came into the possession of Ralph William Grey, Esq., 
sometime member for Tynemoutb, and subsequently 
(1861) passed into the .hands of Hugh Taylor, Esq., 
who represented the same borough for several years. 

The Rev. George Rome Hall, F.S.A., contributed to 
the Transactions of the Natural History Society in 1877 
a "Memoir on the History and Architecture of Chip- 
chase Castle," from which we take the following ex- 
tracts : 

The name of Chipchase takes us back to ancient times, 
when a village of Chipchase already existed on the south 
side of the present park, close to the bridge that leads to 
the mill and the ancient ford of the river. Scarcely a 
vestige now remains of it, but we can trace the founda- 
tions of two or three dwellings on each side of the hollow 
track-way. The ancient village of Chipchase was, no 
doubt, much earlier than the great pele-tower, and would 
be occupied in Saxon times. Its name is derived directly 
fron the Old -English word Cheap, a market; Anglo- 
Saxon, ceapian, to buy ; cypan, to sell ; and cheap, price 
or sale, which occur in Cheapside and East-Cheap, the 
old market-places of London, and in the numerous 
fihippings scattered throughout England, denoting 
ancient market-places and early seats of commercial 

The second part of the name of Chipchase comes from 
the Norman-French chasse ; French chasser, to hunt, 
signifying a place of hunting, ground abounding in game, 
such as the various species of deer, the wild boar, bears, 
wolves, and smaller objects of the chase. The "forest," 
like William the Conqueror's New Forest in Hampshire, 
seems to have been the most extensive kind of huntintr 
ground; next to this came the "chase," like Hatfield 
Chase, in Yorkshire ; then the "hunt," like Cheshunt, in 
Hertfordshire ; and last, and smallest of all, the enclosed 
" park." 

Thus the meaning of Chipchase is the "market " within 
the "chase " or hunting-ground of the Lords of Prudhoe, 
the great family of the Umfravilles, who held it as a de- 
tached manor of that important barony when the light of 
history first dawns upon Chipchase. 

It might be thought that many traditions, super- 
natural and otherwise, connected with the old historic 
tower at Chipchase, ought to cluster around the grey 
time-worn building, which bore the brunt of Border foray 

the treasure she took so much pains to hide in her life- 
time ; yet there is one legendary story at least connected 
with the ruinous pele-tower, similar to that of the Mother 
and Child of Chillingham Castle. It tells of an unfor- 
tunate knight. Sir Reginald Fitz-Urse, who, being for- 
gotten by the lord of the castle and his retainers, 
perhaps intentionally, as was not uncommon in those 
barbarous times, perished by starvation in one of the 
dark prison-chambers of the great keep. For hundreds 
of years, it is said, the ill-fated Sir Reginald has " re- 



I March 
1 1889. 

1889. t 





1 1889 

visited the glimpses of the moon," and the scenes of his 
own miserable end ; revenging himself first on his cruel 
captors, and then on their successors, by haunting the 
old pele, where the startled passer-by may yet sometimes 
hear the clang of armour mingled with groanings of a 
dying man, issuing from its dreary recesses at the weird 
midnight hour. 

As with most of the ancient Border towers and abbeys, 
there is here a popular tradition of an underground passage, 
or secret mode of egress from the castle, which, in this 
case, seems to be founded on fact. A low subterranean 
way has been traced from the level of the present cellar 
for a considerable distance southward, beneath the car- 
riage drive at the front, and leading towards the site of 
the ancient village of Chipchase. This is the traditional 
direction which recent research has quite lately verified. 
In case of siege (though the pele-tower is said to have 
been twice besieged, but never taken), such a mode of 
egress would be most desirable, and would certainly be re- 
sorted to on extreme occasions. 

It may be added that Edward I. (the greatest of the 
Plantaeenets, perhaps of all our kings), on one of his 
journeys into Scotland, is traditionally said to have 
remained at Chipchase Castle for one or two nights. If 
he did so, it must have been on his way northwards into 
Scotland, on the same occasion as that on which he heard 
mass at the head of the vale of North Tyne, above 
Keilder, in the "Bell Chapel," which is now entirely 

The scene of the popular story of the "Long Pack" 
is, by tradition, laid at Chipchase, although Lee Hall, 
near Bellingham, is also supposed to have been the place 
where the tragical incident happened which James 
Hogg, the famous Ettrick Shepherd, took for the founda- 
tion of his tale. 


'3Ttot>'t ftgttt attlf 

proton $.p., 


Fanciful as was the genius of Warburton, it delighted 
too much in its eccentric motions, and in its own solitary 
greatness, amid abstract and recondite topics, to have 
strongly attracted the public attention, had not a party 
been formed around him, at the head of which stood the 
active and subtle Hurd ; and amid the gradations of the 
votive brotherhood, the profound Balguy, the spirited 
Brown, ^till we descend, "To his tame jackal, parson 
Towne. " Isaac Disraeli : "Quarrels of Authors. " 

JHE "spirited Brown" of the foregoing ex- 
tract was one of the most celebrated, and at 
the same time one of the most unfortunate, 
of the many divines who have held the 
chief cure of souls in Newcastle. He was born, in 1715, 
at Bothbury, where his father (afterwards Vicar of 
Wigton) was curate. He was educated at Wigton 
public school, and in May, 1732, was sent to St. John's 
College, Cambridge. After taking his bachelor's degree, 
in 1735, he was ordained by the Bishop of Carlisle, and 
four years later, obtaining his degree of M.A., was 
admitted into priest's orders, and received a minor 
canonry and lectureship in Carlisle Cathedral. Being 
reproved for omitting to read the Athanasian Creed, he 

threw up his preferment, and remained in comparative 
obscurity till the rebellion of 1745. During the siege of 
Carlisle, he acted as a volunteer, and when, a few months 
later, some of the rebels were tried there, he preached 
two notable sermons "On the Mutual Connection between 
Religious Truth and Civil Freedom, and between 
Superstition, Tyranny, Irreligion, and Licentiousness." 
These discourses brought him under the notice of Dr. 
Osbaldiston, who induced the Dean and Chapter to give 
him the living of Moreland, in the adjoining county, and 
in 1747, when Dr. Osbaldiston was raised to the see of 
Carlisle, he made him one of his chaplains. 

Mr. Brown had ventured into print in 1743 with a poem 
on " Honour," which did not attract much notice ; but his 
next effort, an "Essay on Satire, occasioned by the death 
of Mr. Pope," drew the world of letters around him. The 
essay "breathed the very soul of Pope," and gave so much 

delight to Warburton, the literary colossus of his day, 
that he prefixed it to the second volume of his edition of 
Pope's Works. "Liberty, a Poem," followed, and added 
to his reputation. Warburton, writing to Hurd (30th 
January, 1749-50), says : 

Mr. Brown has fine parts ; he has a genius for poetry, 
and has acquired a force of versification very uncommon. 
I recommended to him a thing I once thought of myself 
it had been recommended to me by Mr. Pope an 
examination of all Lord Shaf tesbury says against religion. 
Mr. Brown now is busy upon this work. 

Warburton's suggestion bore fruit in "Essays on the 
'Characteristics' of the Earl of Shaf tesbury "a clear 
and vivacious book, in which the author maintained the 
impropriety of applying ridicule to the investigation of 
religious truth, asserted the religious principle to be the 
only uniform and permanent motive to virtue, and 
defended the credibility of Gospel history and Scripture 





miracles. The volume was issued by Bowyer in 1751, and 
the following year his faithful friend Bishop Osbaldiston 
presented him to the vicarage of Lazonby. There he 
began to woo the muse afresh, and produced " Barbarossa, 
a Tragedy," which was acted in London on the 17th 
December, 1754. Garrick wrote both prologue and 
epilogue, and spoke the prologue himself in the character 
of a Cumberland chaw-bacon, supposed to be the author's 
servant. In this play occur the oft-quoted lines : 

Now let us thank the Eternal Power ; convinced 
Thai Heaven but tries our virtue by affliction, 
That oft the cloud which wraps the preflent hour 
Serves but to brighten all our future days. 

And in the prologue is the equally well known couplet, 
put into the mouth of the Cumberland lad seeking his 
master : 

He must be there among you look about ; 
A weezen, pale-faced man ; do find him out ! 

The play was a success, and with the plaudits of the 
theatre ringing in his ears the author took his doctor's 
degree, and wrote another tragedy "Athelstan" 
which, however, waa not so successful. In 1757 appeared 
his most famous work" An Estimate of the Manners 
and Principles of the Times. " It was a strong philippic 
against national vices, and created a great clamour. 
Cowper, in the "Table Talk,"says that it "rose like a 
paper kite and charmed the town." Seven editions in 
little more than a year marked the height of public 
excitement, and testified to the power and genius of the 
writer. A second volume followed, but failed to attract 
the same amount of attention, and "An Explanatory 
Defence of the Estimate," &c., which the author put 
forth later, exhausted public interest in the subject. 

Just before the publication of the " Estimate," through 
the influence of Warburton, Lord Royston conferred 
upon Dr. Brown the living of Great Horkesley, near 
Colchester. Resigning his Cumberland preferments, he 
took up his residence at Horkesley, and republished 
Walker's "Narrative of the Siege of Londonderry, a 
Useful Lesson to the Present Times." There, also, he 
wrote a "Dialogue of the Dead, between Pericles and 
Aristides, being a sequel to a Dialogue of Lord Lyttel- 
ton's between Pericles and Cosmo," "The Curse of Saul 
a Sacred Ode," set to music, and performed as an 
oratorio, and " A Dissertation on the Rise, Union, and 
Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions of 
Poetry and Music." His ministry at Horkesley was not 
a long one. He managed to offend his patron, and to 
create a coolness with Warburton, who, in the meantime, 
had been consecrated Bishop of Gloucester. While 
matters were in a state of tension, on the first of June, 
1760, tKe Rev. Thos. Turnor, vicar of Newcastle, died, 
and his good friend the Bishop of Carlisle placed the 
living at Dr. Brown's disposal. Soured by his troubles 
at Horkesley, disappointed at receiving no higher reward 
from the Whig party, whose faithful servant he had 
been, he hesitated about accepting the offer. It was not 

until after six months of vacillation that he finally made 
up his mind, and it was not until the 7th of January, 
1761, that he was formally inducted at St. Nicholas' by 
the Rev. Mr. Dockwray, and entered into residence as 
vicar of the chief town in his native county. 

Local history has little to tell about Dr. Brown's career 
in Newcastle. He was absorbed in literary pursuits, and 
took but faint interest in public life and work. He had 
hoped for better things, and was, therefore, a discon- 
tented, reserved, and, at times, a melancholy man. His 
only diversion was music, and he certainly tried to assist 
his friend Charles Avison whose essay on " Musical 
Expression " he had probably prepared for the press 
in raising the standard of musical taste in the town. 
Adding a room to the old vicarage, he and Avison started 
a series of Sunday evening concerts there, which Dr. 
Rotherham, Ralph Eeilby, Mrs. Ord of Fenham, and 
other amateurs helped to make popular and useful. 

Baillie, the Nonconformist historian of Newcastle, 
states that Dr. Brown was " passionately fond of music," 
and a "very considerable master in that enchanting 
science." But to all his acquirements were joined 
"uncommon pride and weakness." "He was a High 
Churchman, and, of consequence, intolerant to Dis- 
senters, and rigorous in the exaction of his dues. 
Though aspiring to a mitre, yet could he not avoid 
treating his inferiors with contempt, and his superiors 
with insolence." William Hilton, a local poet ("Works," 
vol. i., 218), defending the doctor from some public 
lampoon, declared, on the other hand, that 

Approv'd, his early numbers rose, 
All own his pure, his nervous prose ; 
All own the heighth his sense can reach ; 
All own how justly he can preach. 
Even some who prize not truth or song 
Have felt the magic of his tongue. 

Dr. Brown published in Newcastle the following 
works : " The History of the Rise and Progress of 
Poetry through its Several Species," being the portion 
relating to poetry in the "Dissertation" previously 
quoted (J. White and T. Saint, 1764); "Thoughts on 
Civil Liberty, on Licentiousness, and Faction " (White 
and Saint, 1765); a sermon "On the Natural Duty of 
a Personal Service in Defence of Ourselves and Country," 
preached at St. Nicholas' on the occasion of a riot at 
Hexham (I. Thompson, 1761), and another " On Female 
Character and Education," preached before the guardians 
of the Asylum for deserted female Orphans, May 16, 
1765; "Twelve Sermons on Various Subjects" (White 
and Saint, 1764); and a "Letter to Dr. Lowth" in reply 
to an attack which Lowth had made upon him as a 
creature and sycophantic admirer of Warburton. In 
these latter works he announced the intended publication 
of "Principles of Christian Legislation, in Eight Books, 
being an Analysis of the Various Religions, Manners, and 
Politics of Mankind, &c., the Obstructions thence arising 
to the General Progress and Proper Effects of Christi- 



f March 
I 1889. 

anity, and the Most Practicable Remedies to these 
Obstructions " ; but this design, though begun, was never 

The closing scene of his life ill corresponded with its 
brilliant beginning. Dr. Dumaresque, a former chaplain 
to the English factory at St. Petersburg, had been asked 
by the Empress of Russia to assist in preparing regula- 
tions for some schools she was about to establish, and he, 
hearing through a friend in England that Dr. Brown was 
a proper person to consult, wrote to him on the subjectt 
and the correspondence being communicated to the Prime 
Minister at St. Petersburg, led to an invitation for Dr. 
Brown to join the ex-chaplain on the banks of the Neva_ 
The doctor accepted, and receiving an answer from the 
Minister signifying that the Empress was greatly pleased 
with his decision, and had sent 1,000 to defray the ex- 
penses of his journey, he prepared for his departure^ 
He left Newcastle in high spirits, made all his arrange- 
ments in London, and was on the eve of embarkation, 
when he fell ill with a sharp attack of rheumatic gout a 
disorder to which he had been frequently subject. 
Whether it was this illness, as some have asserted, or 
whether it was a polite intimation that his services 
were not required, that prevented the fulfilment of 
his intentions, may never be accurately known. In 
either case his disappointment was intense. He 
fell into one of those melancholy moods which had 
so often afflicted him, and could not rally. 
Bequeathing the property in his books and MSS. 
to the Rev. William Hall, M.A., of Newcastle, and 
arming his right hand with a razor, at his lodgings in Pall 
Mall, September 23, 1766, he terminated his existence. 

Our portrait of Dr. Brown is copied, by permission of 
Canon Lloyd, from an oil painting in St. Nicholas' 
vestry, placed there probably by the doctor's executors 
the Rev. Nathaniel Clayton and Mr. George Ord. 

Lancelot proton, 


Him too, the living leader of thy pow'rs. 
Great Nature ! Him the Muse shall hail in notes 
Which antedate the praise true Genius claims 
From just posterity. Bards yet unborn 
Shall pay to BROWN that tribute, fitliest paid 
In strains the beauty his own scenes inspire. 

Mason's "English Garden." 

Lancelot Brown, the most eminent landscape gardener 
of his day, who, from his constant use of the phrase " this 
spot has great capabilities," became known as "Capa- 
bility Brown," was a native of Northumberland. He 
was descended from the Browns of Ravenscleugh, near 
EUdon, and was born at Kirkharle, the ancestral home 
of the Loraine family, where he was baptised on the 30th 
of August, 1716. At Cambo School he received the 
rudiments of his education, and while yet a boy, develop- 
ing a taste for gardening, he was taken into the employ- 
ment of Sir William Loraine, who, at the time, was 

making extensive improvements in the surroundings of 
his mansion. From Kirkharle he went to Benwell, as 
gardener to Mr. Robert Shafto, and in 1739, or soon 
after, he entered the service of Lord Cobham, as one of 
the gardeners at his princely residence of Stowe, near 
Buckingham. There he had the opportunity of studying 
the improvements that, just before, had been effected by 
William Kent, painter, sculptor, and architect, and there 
it was that he married, and commenced his career as an 
artist gardener, architectural designer, and improver of 
pleasure grounds. 

Upon the death of Lord Cobham, in 1749, Mr Brown 
settled at Hammersmith, and became the oracle of taste 

in all matters relating to his profession. The owners of 
ancestral piles, and the possessors of wide-spreading 
estates, sought his advice and carried out his plans o 
improvement. Under his supervision some of the great 
houses of the kingdom were renovated, or rebuilt, with 
tasteful regard to comfort and convenience, and their 
environments of wood and water, garden and pasture, 
were thoroughly transformed. Straight walks and sullen 
ditches gave place to winding ways and glittering 
cascades ; rectangular flower plots and clipped arcades 
were replaced by stately terraces and undulating 
shrubberies ; everywhere that which had been common- 
place and formal was supplanted by something novel, 
something unexpected. His reputation brought him 
under the notice of George II., who, although no 
special friend of art in any shape for he liked neither 
"boetry"nor "bainting" had sufficient taste to recog- 
nise the improvements which " Capability Brown " was 
effecting, and made him his head gardener, with a resi- 

March I 



dence at Hampton Court. This post, being one of honour 
rather than of servitude, did not require the holder to 
curtail his professional work, and he continued to plan, 
deyise, and superintend extensive schemes of building and 
planting as before. For thirty years he reigned supreme 
as the arbiter of fashion in landscape gardening, and, 
adding to genius graceful manners and good sense, was 
honoured and trusted, admitted to confidence and 
friendship by men of distinction in the highest ranks of 

Like every other innovator, Mr. Brown had to face 
criticism and to suffer reproach. Old-fashioned people 
saw with regret the trim Dutch gardening to which they 
had been accustomed ruthlessly replaced by clumps and 
belts and mazy walks, and they shook their venerable 
heads at the reckless expense which seemed to be 
involved in the change. Cowper expressed the feelings 
of many others when, in the third book of the "Task," 
he thus satirised the all-powerful gardener : 

Improvement too, the idol of the age, 
Is fed with many a victim. Lo ! he comes 
The omnipotent magician, Brown, appears. 
Down falls the venerable pile, the abode 
Of our forefathers, a grave whiskerd race, 
But tasteless. Springs a palace in its stead. 

He speaks. The lake in front becomes a lawn, 
Woods vanish, hills subside, and valleys rise, 
And streams, as if created for his use. 
Pursue the track of his directing wand, 
Sinuous or straight, now rapid and now slow, 
Now murmuring soft, now roaring in cascades, 
E'en as he bids. Th' enraptured owner smiles. 
Tis finish'd ! and yet, finish'd as it seems. 
Still wants a grace, the loveliest it could show, 
A mine to satisfy th' enormous cost. 

Against Cowper's detraction may be set an anecdote 
related to the Rev. John Hodgson by one of Mr. Brown's 
disciples : 

A young nobleman sent for him to give him a plan for 
improving the scenery about his house. After noticing 
that his employer had a numerous family, for whom he 
showed great affection, and walking with him over his 
grounds, he observed, " My lord, your place has high 
capabilities, but your lordship must pardon me for saying 
that I cannot promise to effect as much as is wished, 
without requiring a sum which I am sure, from the 
great parental affection your children have bestowed 
upon them, your lordship on their account will not be 
inclined to expend." The hint was received with kind- 
ness and gratitude, and Mr. Brown went away unem- 

Lord Orford, in the supplement to " Pilkington's 
Dictionary," describes Mr. Brown as the " restorer of 
the science of architecture," the "father of modern 
gardening," and "the inventor of an art that realises 
painting and improves Nature." Repton states that 
Brown's fame as an architect was eclipsed by his cele- 
brity as a landscape gardener, and that " if he was 
superior to all in what related to his own peculiar 
profession, he was inferior to none in what related to 
the comfort, convenience, taste, and propriety of design 
in the several mansions and other buildings which he 
planned." Nearer home, Hodgson, describing Kirk- 

harle in his " History of Northumberland," adds : 
" The situation is low, and shaded by a hill to the 
south ; but the magic hand of Brown contrived to 
throw the sweetest charms into the fields of the place 
of his nativity, and to convert the landscape around 
the mansion of their lord into a woody theatre of 
stateliest view." 

Mr. Brown was appointed High Sheriff for the 
counties of Huntingdon and Cambridge in 1770, and 
filled the office with dignity and credit. His friend- 
ship with the noblemen who had employed him in 
renovating their family houses and country seats con- 
tinued till his death. One evening in 1783, as he was 
returning from an evening party at Lord Coventry's, 
he fell in the street, and died. Lord Coventry raised 
a monument to his memory at Croome, and Mason, the 
poet, wrote his epitaph, with this ending : 

But know that more than Genius slumbers here, 

Virtues were his which Art's best pow'rs transcend ; 

Come, ye superior train, who these revere, 

And weep the Christian, Husband, Father, Friend. 



Michael Bryan, an eminent dealer in pictures, and the 
compiler of a well-known dictionary of painters and 
engravers, was born in Newcastle on the 9th April, 
1757, and received his education at the Royal Free 
Grammar School, under its great head-master, the Rev. 
Hugh Moises. Arrived at man's estate, he went to 
London, and devoted himself to the study of the fine 
arts. In pursuit of this object he accompanied one of 
his brothers to Flanders, where he met the Hon. Juliana 
Talbot, one of the numerous siiters of Charles, sixteenth 
Earl of Shrewsbury, to whom, on the 7th June, 1784, he 
was united in marriage. 

Mr. Byran resided in Flanders till 1790, and spent 
most of his time in visiting and studying the masterpieces 
of art which were somewhat profusely scattered among 
the chief towns of that province. Returning to England, 
he settled in London, paying occasional visits to his 
native town, it would appear, for Thomas Bewick, in bis 
autobiography, mentions that, when he was preparing 
his "History of British Birds," Mr. Bryan lent him a 
book of Button's to read. But his fervid admiration of 
art soon sent him back to the Continent. Being in 
Holland when an order came from the French Govern- 
ment to stop all the English residents, he was detained at 
Rotterdam. While there, he made the acquaintance of 
M. L'Abord, who, a little later, negotiated through his 
influence a sale of the Italian portion of what was known 
as the Orleans collection of pictures to the Duke of 
Bridgewater, Lord Gower, and the Earl of Carlisle, for 
43,500. Eneas Mackenzie, in his "History of New- 
castle, " states that "his judgment of pictures was of the 





first order, bis information extensive, and his enthusiasm 
for the sublime and beautiful in works of art of boundless 
fervour. His opinion was consequently looked up to as 
decisive of the merit or demerit of paintings, whether 
derived from the ancient masters or from the easels of 
modern genius." 

Through the influence of the Duke of Bridgewater 
Mr. Bryan was sent to Paris in 1801, by royal authority, 
to buy such pictures from the cabinet of a celebrated 
collector, M. Robit, as he should consider worthy to be 
brought into England. Amongst his purchases on this 


occasion were two well-known pictures by Murillo 
"The Infant Jesus as the Good Shepherd," and "The 
Infant St. John with a Lamb." Three years later he 
left the metropolis, and, as was supposed, finally settled 
down with a brother in Yorkshire. But the fine art fever 
again claimed him, and in 1812 he went back to London 
and resumed his place in the world of pictures. This 
time he launched out into literature, and, between 1813 
and 1816, published in two volumes quarto, the 
" Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and 
Engravers" with which it is identified. Soon after it 
was completed Mr. Bryan entered into a fine art specula- 
tion which proved disastrous, and threw a cloud over the 
sunset of his life. He died at his house in Portman 
Place, London, from an attack of paralysis, on the 28th of 
March, 1821. 


At the beginning of the century, few places were 
better supplied than Newcastle with private schools for 
the education of the middle and lower sections of the 
community. At the Barras Bridge the Rev. William 
Turner, and in Pilgrim Street the Rev. Edward Prowitt, 
had flourishing boarding-schools for boys ; in Saville Row, 
in Westgate Street, and in Pilgrim Street, again, were 
half a dozen for girls ; while of day schools for boys 
(taught by men with the familiar names of Tinwell, 
Somerville, Askew, Murray, &c.), there were a score, and 
for girls about half that number. Thirty-six private 
academies in Newcastle, besides the Royal Free Gram- 
mar School and the charity schools of the various 
parishes, at a time when the population of the town was 
little over 28,000, testify to the earnestness of our fore- 
fathers in the matter of education. 

Adding to the number of teachers, and increasing the 
efficiency of the instruction given, there came to New- 
castle from Alnwick two young men Edward and John, 
sons of Edward Bruce, of that town, mason. As youths, 
they had taught a school at the foot of Pottergate, not 
far from the paternal home, where one of their pupils 
was a boy who afterwards became a famous Methodist 
Reformer and antiquary the Rev. James Everett. 
But Newcastle offered a wider field for enterprise, and 
in the year 1793, when Edward was nineteen and John 
eighteen years of age, they migrated from the banks of 
the Aln to the shores of the Tyne. So far as can be 
learned, they engaged themselves chiefly in private 
tuition giving lessons at the great houses in the neigh- 
bourhood. Gradually they made friends among the local 
gentry, and were employed by such well known families 
as those of Bigge, Ibbetson, Collingwood, Rowe, and 
Ingham. When a sufficient connection had been formed, 
they opened a school at West House, Byker. 

Under the Act of Uniformity every schoolmaster who 
was not a member of the Church of England was re- 
quired to take the oath of allegiance. Edward, being the 
elder brother, made the usual declarations, and received 
the customary permit ; John devoted himself more 
particularly to the out-door connection, and taught in 
schools and families. In one of the schools which the 
latter attended that of Mrs. Wilson, in Saville Place 
(now the home of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion) he found a wife. The object of his affections was 
Mary, daughter of Mr. John Jack, of Golden Square, 
London, to whom he was united at St. Andrew's Church, 
on the 14th of June, 1804. The marriage proved to be a 
happy one in every respect. Amiable and clever, Mrs. 
Bruce was admirably fitted to be a helpmate to an 
earnest and accomplished man. The pair settled down in 
Newcastle with bright prospects, for John Brace's in- 
dustry and enterprise had already procured for him the 



respect and approval of prominent people in the town, 
who were able and willing to render him good service. 
He had become a member of the Newcastle Loyal 
Associated Volunteer Infantry, and was learning to serve 
his country at an important crisis ; he was a frequent con- 
tributor to the Gentlemen's and Ladies' Diaries, and was 
gaining reputation as a skilled mathematician at a time 
when martial ardour gave additional interest and value to 
mathematical studies. 

When John Bruce had been married a couple of 
years, his brother Edward died, and he proceeded to 
carry out an idea which he had long cherished. He 
determined to expand his school into an establishment 
which should provide for sons of the local gentry and 
commercial community of Tyneside an education ap- 
proaching to that which was given at Winchester and 
Eton, Westminster and Harrow. Mrs. Bruce entered 
heartily into the project, and on the 18th of June, 1806, 
a circular was issued announcing the commencement of 
a new Academy in Newcastle, in " that large and airy 
house in Percy Street, at present occupied by Mr. 
Fish wick." 

Mr. Bruce, although, so to speak, a born school- 
master, united to skill in teaching an uncommon capa- 
bility for business. While, therefore, happy tact and 
gentle firmness secured the goodwill of the pupils, dili- 
gence and punctuality won the confidence of parents. 
In no great while Brace's School became one of the 
best known, because one of the most successful, educa- 
tional institutions in the town. There " county people, " 
wealthy merchants, and successful tradesmen placed 
their sons, and there the lads received an education 
which fitted them for college, the Quayside, or the 

counter. Among them, at Midsummer, 1815, George 
Stephenson, engineman at Killingworth Colliery, placed 
his son Robert, then about twelve years old, and in 
after life the great engineer was accustomed to say 
that to Mr. Bruce's tuition and methods of modelling 
the mind he owed much of his success, for from him 
he derived his taste for mathematical pursuits, and the 
faculty of applying it to practical purposes. 

Not only was Mr. Bruce a skilful teacher and sound 
man of business. He had another quality which helped 
his fortunes. He was an educational enthusiast. About 
the time that Percy Street Academy began to prosper, 
public interest in the matter of popular education was 
riding upon the crest of a long and wide-rolling wave, 
which (if the simile will bear it) Lancaster and Bell may 
be said to have set in motion. Every movement which 
tended to reduce intc practical shape the crusade against 
ignorance had his earnest support. When, as a mark of 
gratitude and loyalty, it was determined to commemorate 
the fiftieth year of the reign of George III. in Newcastle 
by providing for the unsectarian instruction of " the 
lower orders of youth, " he acted as co-secretary with the 
Rev. William Turner in the arrangements out of which 
the Royal Jubilee School reared its massive pediment 
above the New Road. He officiated in the same capacity 
to the committee of management of the school, sub- 
scribed to its funds, and in the second year of its existence 
made the handsome proposal to admit into his academy 
for twelve months the boy who most distinguished 
himself in the school each year showing thereby that 
his zeal in the cause of intellectual progress was of 
that practical sort which involves sacrifice. Another 
educational institution with which he identified himself 
was the Literary and Philosophical Society, then in the 
height of its fame and usefulness. He read few papers, 
and delivered no lectures, but he was an active member 
of the committee, and by his experience of teaching, and 
his knowledge of books, helped to make the institution 
the centre of intellectual life in Newcastle. In con- 
junction with his brother, he wrote an admirable school- 
book, entitled "An Introduction to Geography and 
Astronomy, by the Use of Globes and Maps ; to which 
are added, the Construction of Maps, and a Table of 
Latitudes and Longitudes." Other publications of his 
were an "Historical and Biographical Atlas," and a 
life of his friend Dr. Charles Button. If time had per- 
mitted, he would probably have made other contribu- 
tions to local literature ; but, devoted to his profession, 
Mr. Bruce rarely sought change or relaxation outside 
the special work which fell within its scope. He became 
a member of the Society of Antiquaries, but took no 
prominent part in its management or in its deliberations. 
He was an elder of Clavering Place Chapel, but abstained 
from participation in the religious controversies of the 
time. Although an ardent advocate of the abolition of 
slavery in the West Indies, he kept aloof from political 




conflict. To educate youth was his mission ; to that 
object he devoted all bis time azd all his energies. 

Mr. Bruce died on the 31st October, 1334, at the age of 
59, and was buried in the Nonconformist cemetery at the 
top of Westgate Hill, which, a year or two before, he had 
helped to establish, and of which he was a trustee. The 
Newcastle Chronicle of the 8th November following paid 
this striking tribute to his genius, his piety, and his 

The deceased possessed an enlarged and cultivated 
understanding, and had the comparatively rare faculty 
of communicating every variety of learning to every 
variety of intellect, in a manner which at once secured 
the respect and affection of the pupil ; and so eminently 
successful has he been as a public instructor, that a 
considerable portion of those persons who are now filling 
influential and respectable situations in this district of 
the country have been his pupils, and acknowledge with 
gratitude their obligations to their departed preceptor. 
In private life he was eminently distinguished for the 
sincerity and constancy of his friendships, and for the 
exhibition of those charities which adorn and sweeten the 
family circle ; and whether we contemplate him in the 
character of a husband, a lather, or a master, he affords 
an example which few reach, but which it is desirable 
all should follow. 

A few days after his interment j. public meeting of 
friends and pupils was held in Newcastle, at which it 
was resolved to perpetuate his memory by the erection 
of a monument, which should "express the loss society 
has sustained by his death, and stimulate posterity to 
follow his bright example." Upon the committee 
appointed to carry the resolution into effect were such 
well-known men as the Revs. William Hawks, James 
Pringle, Richard Pengilly, and James Everett, Dr. 
Wightman, Messrs. Thomas and James Annandale, 
Thomas Cargill, R. R. Dees, John Fenwick, James 
Finlay, William Kell, William Nesharu, 
and Joseph Watson. Their delibera- 
tions ended in the beautiful monument 
which, from a commanding position in 
Westgate Hill Cemetery, overlooks the 
eastern end of Elswick Road, and re- 
cords the successful labours of a man 
who, "possessing an unquenchable 
ardour in the pursuit of knowledge, 
stored his capacious mind with the 
learning which could expand the in- 
tellect, invigorate the character, and 
promote the happiness of mankind," 
enjoyed " the satisfaction of seeing 
many of his pupils occupying dignified 
stations in the professional and com- 
mercial sections of the community." 

The fame of Percy Street Academy 
was upheld and widely expanded for 
nearly a half century after Mr. Brace's 
death by his illustrious son and suc- 
cessor, now the venerable Dr. John 
Collingwood Bruce, historian of the 
Roman Wall, fellow of various learned 

societies, and promoter of innumerable schemes of phil- 
anthropy and benevolence. No small portion of the 
father's genius fell also upon a younger son, George 
Barclay Bruce, who, having learned the profession of 
an engineer under Robert Stephenson, and filled high 
positions among great undertakings, has recently re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood. 

ISUa <Tam. 

|i 1 1 ERE are three mountain lakxlets of this name 
in the English Lake District. One is at the 
head of the Watendlath valley, and another is 
in Patterdale ; but it is that which nestles in a deep rocky 
hollow at the head of Little Langdale to which attention 
is now drawn. It is the Blea Tarn par excellence the 
others being in no way comparable to it either for scenery 
or poetic associations. The name i derived from "blaae, " 
a Danish word meaning blue ; or the Swedish word "bla," 
having the same signification. The view from the road 
looking towards great Langdale, is most impressive, the 
Langdale Pikes forming a background hardly excelled in 
any other part of England. The highest peak is known 
as Harrison Stickle, next is the Pike o' Stickle, whilst 
the small cone to the left of the mountain group is the 
Gimmer Crag, having an almost unbroken descent of 
over 2,000 feet. The immediate surroundings of Blea 
Tarn were formerly destitute of foliage. This would 
seem to have been the condition of the district even as 
late as the time of Wordsworth. Now, however, a num- 
ber of larches are flourishing near the tarn, and on the 


March 1 
1889. f 


hill side, near a small farmhouse, are tnany trees, though 
somewhat stunted in growth. The house is certainly in a 
desolate spot. How the dwellers therein fare in the 
depth of winter can only be imagined. Wordsworth 
looked at the scene with a poet's eye, and selected it as 
the home of the Solitary in his " Excursion." His stand- 
pointnot the same as that selected by the photographer 
of the accompanying view, Mr. Alfred Pettitt, of Keswick 
is supposed to have been on a ridge to the north of the 
road. It is known as "Wordsworth's seat," and is 
pointed out to visitors by the farmer who occupies the 
cottage. The view hence is scarcely less striking than 
that depicted in our engraving, including, as it does, a 
fine prospect of Bow Fell, and its frowning neighbours 
that is providing the weather be propitious, which is not 
always the case in these higher latitudes, as the traveller 
often finds to his cost. The tarn itself presents no feature 
of interest. It is a still, solemn pool of oval shape, which 
has been described as " reflecting nothing but crags and 
clouds by day, and crags and stars by night." Here is 
Wordsworth's description of the scene in the "Excur- 
sion " : 

Behold ! 

Beneath our feet a little lowly vale, 
A lowly vale, and yet uplighted high 
Among the mountains ; even as if the spot 
Had been, from earliest time, by wish of theirs, 
So placed, to be shut out from all the world. 
Urn-like it was in shape, deep as an urn ; 
With rocks encompassed, save that co the south 
Was one small opening, where a heath-clad ridge 
Supplies a boundary less abrupt and close ; 
A quiet, treeless nook, with two green fields, 
A liquid pool that glittered in the sun. 
And one bare Dwelling ; one Abode, no more ! 
It seemed the home of poverty and toil, 
Though not of want : the little fields, made green 
By husbandry of many thrifty years, 
Paid cheerful tribute to the moorland house. 
There crows the cock, single in his domain : 
The small birds find in spring no thicket there 
To shroud them, only from the neighbouring vales 
The cuckoo, straggling up to the hill tops, 
Shouted faint tidings of some gladder place. 

jjNE of our best, earliest, and most persistent 
songsters, the skylark (Alauda afvensis}, is 
almost as great a favourite of poets and 
naturalists as the nightingale. It commences to sing 
quite early in the season, and can be heard in late 
autumn, when other birds are mute, and when the 
migrants have departed for the South. Some years ago I 
heard a lark in song at half -past one o'clock on a fine 
moonlight summer's morning, fully an hour before the 
song thrushes and blackbirds commenced to tune up. 

Unlike many of our favourite birds, the lark has but 
few common names. In England it is known as the lark 
and skylark ; in Scotland it is the laverock of the common 
people and the poets. Scottish schoolboys propound a 

kind of "guess," or conundrum, as to the dual names of 
the lark, cuckoo, and snipe, thus : 
The cuckoo and the gowk, the laverock and the lark 
that? mire-snipe, how many birds is 

Although six names are given, only three birds are indi- 
cated cuckoo, lark, and snipe. 

The lark is a resident, or rather partial resident, in the 
Northern Counties. When severe weather sets in, many 
of them retreat southwards, and their places are occupied 
by birds of the same species from more Northern locali- 
ties, or from the Scandinavian countries on the other side 
of the North Sea. 

The bird is a native of the whole of Europe. It does 
not seem to penetrate as far north as the Faroe Islands, 
Iceland, and Greenland, but it is found in Asia Minor 
and North Africa. In winter, the migratory larks are 
snared in vast numbers along the North, North-East, and 
East Coasts, as also inland, and in the large towns they 
are sold by thousands for the wretched mouthful of food 
they furnish. Some time ago a large poultry and game 
dealer informed me that the bulk of his winter lark sup- 
plies were from the Yorkshire, West Lancashire, and 
Lincolnshire coasts, though both Northumberland and 
Durham contributed no small quota of slaughtered song- 
sters to tickle the palates of epicures. Many thousands 
also come from Ireland and the Continent. 

The "manners and customs" of the skylark, with its 
finely brownish-mottled plumage, are well known to most 
country residents, and its song in summer's prime is a 
"joy for ever." Mr. Duncan's drawing is a most life-like 
representation. In early spring the birds separate into 
pairs, and are soon looking out for suitable nesting places 
in the meadows and pastures. Two broods are usually 
reared in the year the first about the middle of June, or 
earlier if the weather be favourable ; the second brood in 
late July or August. The male is rather larger and 
longer than the female, and is distinguished from its mate 
by the well-known crest on the top of the head, which is 
raised and depressed at will. As most schoolboys know. 




the simple nest not, however, so easily discovered is 
placed in a hollow of the ground, usually in a, grass field, 
and on the moorlands amidst the tawny bent grass. The 
nest is composed of dry grasses, the finer inside, the 
coarser outside. The eggs, usually four in number, vary 
much in form, size, and markings. Some, especially in 
the rich lowlands, are of a greyish white colour, with a 
tinge of purple, freckled all over with brownish spots, the 
darker colour being mostly concentrated at the larger 
end ; but in moorland districts they are almost invariably 
dark-coloured, and marked very like those of the meadow 
pipit, which, like the lark, nests amidst the dry bent 

Skylarks manifest great attachment to their nests and 
young, and, when incubation is in full swing, the hen 
will almost allow herself to be lifted from the nest rather 
than fly off. The bird never rises from or descends on to 
its nest. When the nest is found, there may generally be 
seen a narrow beaten track, extending often a good way 
from it, by which the birds leave and return. 

Professor Wilson (genial Christopher North) gives the 
subjoined delicious word picture of the skylark and its 
associations: "Higher and higher than ever rose the 
tower of Belus, soars and sings the lark, the lyrical poet 
of the sky. Listen, listen ! and the more remote the 
bird, the louder is his hymn in heaven. He seems, in his 
loftiness, to have left the earth for ever, and to have for- 
gotten his lowly nest. The primroses and the daisies, 
and all the sweet hill flowers, must be remembered in the 
lofty hill region of light. But just as the lark is lost he 
and his song together both are again seen and heard 
wavering down the sky, and in a little while he is walk- 
ing, contented, along the furrows of the braided corn, or 
on the clover lea that has not felt the ploughshare for 
half a century." HENRY KERB. 

jIFTER the failure of the Roman Republic 
JfOTM of 1849, in whose service he had performed 
prodigies of valour, General Garibaldi betook 
himself to America, where he worked as a 
journeyman for some time in the candle manufactory of 
Signor Meucci, at Staten Island. He afterwards joined a 
few of his countrymen and went to Panama. Five or six 
times he crossed the isthmus between the Atlantic and 
the Pacific, but found nothing to do. Then he departed 
for Lima, where he got the command of a vessel, in which 
he made some voyages to Hong Kong, the Sandwich 
Islands, and to Australia, and then round from Val- 
paraiso to Baltimore, where he obtained the command of 
another ship, the Commonwealth, a fine American clipper 
vessel of above one thousand tons burthen, carrying the 
American flag, and registered in New York, but owned 

by Italians. In this ship he sailed for Burope in the 
month of February, 1854, and in the course of the voyage 
he put into Shields Harbour, where the Commonwealth 
lay moored for a considerable time, taking in a cargo of 
coals for Genoa. 

Garibaldi having declined any public demonstration 
for, like all heroes, he was as modest as he was brave it 
was resolved, at a meeting held in the Lecture Room, 
Newcastle, on Tuesday, March 28th, to present him with 
an address of welcome and sympathy, accompanied with 
a sword and telescope, to be purchased by a penny 
subscription. The proposal, when made public, was re- 
ceived with great enthusiasm, demands for subscription 
lists coming from all parts of Tyneside. The presentation 
took place on board the Commonwealth, at Shields, on 
Tuesday, April llth, the day before she sailed. The fol- 
lowing gentlemen attended as a deputation : From New- 
castle, Thomas Pringle, Martin Jude, Joseph Cowen, 
jun., James Watson, James Charlton, John Kane, Josiah 
Thomas, Angus McLeod, William Newton, William 
Hedley ; from South Shields, Soloman Sutherland, 
Robert Miller ; from North Shields, Robert Sutherland, 
Thomas Hudson ; from London, G. Julian Harney ; also 
Constantine Lewkaski, Polish exile. Mr. Pearson, the 
general's broker, likewise accompanied the deputation. 
The sword was a handsome weapon, with a gold hilt, on 
which this inscription was engraved: "Presented to 
General Garibaldi by the people of Tyneside, friends of 
European Freedom. Newcastle-on-Tyne, April, 1854." 
The telescope made by Mr. Joseph English, Grey 
Street, Newcastle bore the same inscription. 

The deputation being introduced by Mr. Joseph Cowen, 
jun., that gentleman said : 

General, We are herea deputation appointed by a meet- 
ing of the friends of European Freedom in Newcastle, to 
express to you the gratification we have experienced at see- 
ing you amongst us, and to assure you of our profound sym- 
pathy for that noble cause with which you have cast the 
fortunes of your life. It is as distasteful for us to indulge 
in any complimentary ajxjlogies as I am sure it is for you 
to listen to them, yet we feel it necessary to offer a word 
or two in explanation of our proceedings. As soon as it 
became known that you were to visit the Tyne, an 
unanimous and enthusiastic desire was expressed by those 
who sympathised with the heroic struggles of your 
countrymen for their nationality and independence, to 
give you a welcome worthy of your great and well-won 
reputation as a soldier of freedom, and befitting this 
important district to offer. Your modesty would not 
permit you to accept such a demonstration. We could 
well understand your personal dislike to such a display, 
yet we would have rejoiced at having had such an oppor- 
tunity as the occasion would have afforded of urging our 
Government to regard the insurgent peoples, and not the 
absolutist and reactionary potentates of Europe, as theii 
most legitimate and faithful allies in the coming conflict, 
and of demonstrating to these said sovereigns the little 
regard entertained by Englishmen for their characters and 
calling ; yet we felt that in such a matter you were first 
and alone to be consulted, and at your request the propo- 
sition was abandoned. But, being unwilling to permit you 
to leave without some memorial of your visit, we have 
chosen this private and more acceptable, but we trust no 
less significant, mode of expressing to you the deep and 
earnest sympathy entertained by the people of Tyneside 
for your country and cause. 

1889. I 



Mr. Cowen then read the following address : 
General, Your presence in Newcastle affords an occa- 
sion for a pleasure and a duty. It is indeed a pleasure for 
us to welcome to our town the glorious defender of the 
Eternal City, the Italian patriot and hero, the friend and 
worthy helpmate of Mazzini in the holy work of Italian 
emancipation. We do welcome you right heartily. And 
in offering you with this welcome, the assurance of our 
most profound respect, we do not pretend to be conferring 
any honour upon you. The hero always honours the 
place of his sojourn. Neither do we care, by any enumer- 
ation of your gallant deeds, to justify our estimate of your 
worth. Your life and character are well known to 
Europe, and the mere name of Garibaldi is sufficient 
passport to the admiration of his contemporaries and the 
undying praise of history. Your example may also keep 
us in mind of our duty, the never-ceasing duty of at least 
encouraging by sympathetic words, if we cannot help by 
deeds, all who, like yourself and your compatriots, are 
ably engaged in the struggle for the Right. We pray 
you to believe that the heart of England is with your 
Italy. We, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, may take upon us 
to say so much. Whatever bargains may be made by 
Cabinets, whatever may be the unhappy complications of 
diplomacy, whatever may be our popular ignorance of 
foreign affairs, the people of England can never willingly 
be a party to any policy which would sacrifice the Italian 
nation to imperial or kingly interests. We would not so 
give the lie to our own worship of freedom. You, ( Jeneral, 
have not to be told that even a people which is free from 
foreign mastery may yet not be so much its own master 
as to always rule its course in the way its feelings and its 
conscience point. Yet be sure of this : England hopes 
for Italian independence. England may yet help it, 
when our hope ripens into earnest will. And when they 
who drive out the Austrian build up again a Republican 
capital upon the Seven Hills, the heirs of Milton and 
Cromwell will not be the last to say, even from their 
deepest heart, God speed your work ! 

After reading the address, Mr. Cowen went on to say : 

General, Along with this address I have tn ask you to 
receive this sword and this telescope. The intrinsic 
value of these articles is but small, and to a Republican 
chieftain who is accustomed to animate his compatriots 
by deeds of personal prowess such a sword my be more 
ornamental than useful. But when I tell you that it is 
purchased by the pennies of some hundreds of working 
men, contributed not only voluntarily, but with enthusi- 
asm, and that each penny reprepresents a heart which beats 
true to European freedom, it will not, 1 think, be un- 
worthy of your acceptance and preservation. We are not 
versed in the polite phraseology of diplomacy ; of the 
refined conventionalisms of courts we are ignorant ; re- 
presentatives of the people, we have no costly presents to 
offer for your acceptance ; but with that simplicity which 
best befits Republicans, we ask you to receive as a token 
of our esteem the articles before us. 

Garibaldi, who was much moved by this spontaneous 
expression of good-will, replied as follows : 

Getitlfcinen, I am very weak in the English language, 
and can but imperfectly express my acknowledgments for 
your over great kindness. You honour me beyond my 
deserts. My services are not worthy of all the favours 
you have shown me. You more than reward me for any 
sacrifices I may have made in the cause of freedom. One 
of the people a workman like yourself I value very 
highly these expressions of your esteem the more so 
because you testify thereby your sympathy for my poor, 
oppressed, and down-trodden country. Speaking in a 
strange tongue, I feel most painfully my inability to thank 
you in terms sufficiently warm. The future will alone 
show how soon it will be before I am called on to un- 
sheath the noble gift I have just received, and again 
battle in behalf of that which lies nearest my heart the 
freedom of my native land. But be sure of this Italy 
will one day be a nation, and its free citizens will know 
how to acknowledge all the kindness shown her exiled sons 
in the days of their darkest troubles. Gentlemen, I 

would say more, but my bad English prevents me Yon 
can appreciate my feelings and understand my hesitation 
Again I thank you from my heart of hearts, and be con- 
fident of this that whatever vicissitudes of fortune I may 
hereafter pass through, this handsome sword shall never 
3 drawn by me except in the cause of liberty. 

An interesting conversation on the aspect of affairs in 
Europe then took place between Garibaldi and his 
visitors. Subsequently, Mr. Cowen proposed the health 
of " General Garibaldi, and may the next time he visits 
the Tyne be as the citizen of an united Italian Republic," 
Mr. Lewkaski adding that he hoped the next time he 
met him would be on the banks of the Tiber, and not the 
Tyne a wish which the General very warmly recipro- 
cated. Mr. Harney proposed in fitting terms the health 
of "Joseph Mazzini, the illustrious compatriot of Gari- 
baldi," which was drunk with great enthusiasm. The 
deputation then survejed the vessel, exchanged friendly 
greetings with the patriot crew, and left for South 
Shields, three hearty cheers being given for Garibaldi and 
the good ship Commonwealth as the boat passed under 
her bows. 

The crew of the Commonwealth were all exiles most 
of them Italians who had fought under their captain in 
Rome and the Banda Oriental. Though they sailed under 
the star-spangled banner, none were American citizens. 

The following letter was penned just as the writer left 
the Tyne : 

Ship Commonwealth, April 12th, 1854. 

My dear Cowen, The generous manifestation of sym- 
pathy with which I have been honoured by you and your 
fellow-citizens is of itself more than sufficient to recom- 
pense a life of the greatest merit. Born and educated as 
I have been in the cause of humanity, my heart is en- 
tirely devoted to liberty universal liberty national 
and world-wide 'ora e sempre' (now and for ever). 
England is a great and powerful nation independent of 
auiliary aid foremost in human progress enemy to des- 
potism the only safe refuge of the exile friend of the 
oppressed ; but if ever England, your native country, 
should be so circumstanced as to require the help of an 
ally, cursed be that Italian who would not step forward 
with me in her defence. Your Government has given the 
Autocrat a check and the Austrians a lesson. The des- 
pots of Europe are against you in consequence. Should 
England at any time in a just cause need my arm, I am 
ready to unsheath in her defence the noble and splendid 
sword received at your hands. Be the interpreter of my 
gratitude to your good and generous countrymen. I 
regret, deeply regret, to leave without again grasping 
hands with you. Farewell, my dear friend, but not 
adieu ! Make room for mo in your heart. Yours always 
and everywhere, G. GARIBALDI. 

P.S. At Rio de la Plata I fought in favour of the 
English against the tyrant Rosas. 

The Rev. H. R. Haweis, writing of the Battle of the 
Volturno, and quoting the words of an actor in that 
conflict, speaks of Garibaldi " drawing his famous Eng- 
lish sword and leading the decisive charge which turned 
the fortunes of the day." This was the sword which was 
presented to the patriot by his friends on Tyneside. An 
old Garibaldian, one of the famous Thousand of Marsala 
who effected the conquest of Sicily, states that his great 
chief in all his Italian battles constantly carried the 
weapon whose history we have here related. 



I Marctt 
1 1889 


|JOT many years ago it was a popular belief 
that a stone brought from Ireland possessed 
the virtue of curing cattle that had the 
misfortune to have been envenomed by the 
bite of an adder or similar reptile. Not only were Irish 
stones held in high estimation as charms, but Irish sticks 
were alike prized. The farmer who dwelt in a valley in- 
fested with adders was fortunate if he possessed an Irish 
horse or an Irish cow ; a tooth of the former would as 
effectually neutralise a sting as an Irish stone or stick, 
and a touch from the cow was equally as efficacious. If a 
native of Ireland made a circle with his finger around a 
reptile, it died. According to Pliny, a serpent cannot 
escape out of a circle drawn around it with an ash rod, a 
belief held in Devonshire. In Germany the sap 
of the ash tree is drunk as a remedy for serpent 
bites, whilst in Sweden the touch of a hazel-rod 
deprives serpents of their venom. The Irish charm- 
stone, however, was the most popular reptile remedy 
throughout the North of England and in Scotland, and 
the belief in its virtue may be said to yet linger in the 
secluded dales north of the Humber. 

The following evidence of the belief in the virtue of the 
Irish charm in the North of England has been gathered 
by the writer, and may be considered the remnants of a 
deeply rooted superstition in the localities referred to. 
In the month of October, 1884, I handled a once famous 
Irish stone which was in the custody of a good dame, 
residing beneath the shadow of the Old Abbey of Blanch- 
land, in Northumberland. On inquiry being made for 
the charm, a search was made in the corner of a drawer, 
and a bag, yellow with age, was carefully brought out, 
unfolded, and its contents the Irish stone exhibited. 
The good lady was seventy-eight years of age, and the 
charm was in the house when she married into it, forty- 
nine years before. It was the property of her husband, 
who died about twenty -nine years since, and she had heard 
him say that the stone belonged to his father. During her 
time it had been lent "all up and down " to individuals 
who had got envenomed, or had cattle so suffering, and 
she could testify that its application stopped inflamma- 
tion, as she remembered effectually rubbing the face of 
her husband, who had been stuns; by a bee. The charm 
which, as she had heard them tell, came from Conuaught, 
is a water worn flint, lentiform, of a dark colour, blotched 
with white. This Blanchland charm had not been used 
for several years, but within the good lady's remembrance 
it was of considerable repute, it being the only Irish stone 
in the district. According to popular belief, there is 
probably no place north of the Humber where a " charm 
for venom" could be of more use than at Blanchland. 
The banks of the river, the Derwent, a tributary of 

the Tyne, are said to be greatly infested with adders. 
They are curiously enough called the "Earl of Derwent- 
water's adders," and thereby hangs a tale, which, if not 
so poetical as the legend of St. Patrick and the reptiles, 
is interesting in its way. Previous to the unfortunate 
earl suffering death no adders or other reptiles, so 
the story goes, haunted the banks of the Derwent. 
However, immediately the head of the earl rolled from 
the block in 1715, adders appeared in abundance on 
the river's banks almost from the source of the stream to 
where it enters the Tyne. The Derwent partly bounds 
some of the Derwentwater estates, and here adders are 
at the present day particularly numerous. Hence the 
Blanchland charm was held in very high estimation, 
numerous applications being formerly made for it. 

An " oldest inhabitant " at the head of the Wear valley, 
in the County of Durham, once informed me that he had 
had his arm rubbed with an Irish stone. When a boy 
and helping his father to build a stone wall in the 
fields, he had his thumb envenomed by some kind of 
a reptile. His father, a shrewd Scotchman, had 
previously procured a stone brought from the Emerald 
Isle by a wandering native. This charm stone was 
brought out and applied, commencing at the shoulder 
from whence the rubbing with the stone was gradually 
brought down the arm, until the pain was driven 
out. My informant was an intelligent resident who 
died five or six years ago at the age of 92 years. At 
Stanhope, in Weardale, a similar charm was kept by 
a Mrs. Clarke, who applied it to all comers with en- 
venomed limbs. The Stanhope stone, as described to 
me by a person who once had his hand rubbed with it to 
cure a sting, was about two inches square and about an 
inch thick. A few years ago a friend informed me that 
an Irish stone existed in a house on the banks of the 
Tees, near the town of Middlelon-in-Teesdale, and was 
kept expressly for the purpose of curing venom. 
Both of these charms have their history of wonderful 

Irish sticks were also held in high estimation for 
their healing powers in the Northern dales. Seventy 
years ago Weardale possessed one owned by a per- 
son named Morley. An elderly woman, now dead, 
gave me the following particulars respecting herself and 
this wonderful stick : When a scholar at the village 
school she had a ring- worm on her arm, and the mistress of 
the school rubbed the part affected with her gold wedding 
ring, a supposed remedy ; but the wedding ring charm 
failed, and the scholar was despatched to Morley's. The 
famed stick, which had a great reputation in the valley, 
was brought into operation and as far as my informant 
could remember a cure was affected. Sixty odd years 
ago an innkeeper's daughter, at St. John's Chapel, 
got stung in the hand, whilst working in the garden. 
The hand was cured by the application of an Irish 
stick, which was about five inches long and an inch 

1889. / 



thick. It was well polished, through repeated operations, 
and the charm remained at the public-house for many 
years, having almost as much practice as the village 
doctor. My informant, who died a few months 
ago, was eye witness to the operation, and was a brother 
of the young woman who was thus cured. 

The teeth of an Irish horse were evidently as efficacious 
as stones and sticks. Seventy odd years ago peats 
were largely used as a fuel by the dwellers in the 
higher reaches of the Wear valley. A Weardale resi- 
dent informed me that he remembered a lead miner's 
wife, who, whilst stacking peats, or in local parlance, 
mooing peats, in the yard, had her hand envenomed .by 
some reptile which had been amongst the peats when 
brought in from the moors. A neighbour, hearing of the 
good woman's misfortune, sent an Irish horse tooth with 
instructions to rub it over the envenomed hand. The 
order was obeyed, a cure was effected, and the tooth, 
having added to its reputation as a charm, was kept as 
such for many long years afterwards. A farmer in the 
same district informed me that an Irish horse tooth was 
for many years kept on his premises as a charm for 

An Irish cow possesses the hidden virtue accord- 
ing to the following: A friend in Teesdale informs 
me of a person who was envenomed by the bite of an 
ether. His hand and arm swelled to such a degree that 
he could not get his ncif through his great coat sleeve but 
with difficulty. Though this was alarming, a remedy 
was looming in the distance. In Holwick village, on the 
Yorkshire side of the Tees, a farmer kept an Irish cow 
reputed to be of the right kind for working a cure. 
Thither posted the suffering man. On the patient nearing 
the farmstead, the sympathising animal trotted to meet 
him, and energetically licked his hand. The cure was 
miraculous. A relation of mine witnessed some sixty 
years ago an extraordinary result of this virtue in Irish 
cattle. Large herds of these animals are driven through 
Northumberland to the Southern markets. They 
were frequently depastured for a night at Redesdale 
in one particular pasture which was infested with 
adders. One morning, after a drove of Irish cattle had 
departed, hundreds of dead adders, as witnessed by my 
friend, were found on the ground. The belief is that if 
an adder gets on to where an Irish cow has been lying it 
cannot get off, but dies. As previously stated, adders 
abound on the banks of the Derwent in North- 
umberland. At a place called Ackton, close to this 
stream, cows frequently get envenomed in the pastures. 
A dweller, having a cattlegate on a neighbouring farm, 
called Winnoshill, bought an Irish cow, and, fortunately 
for the owner, no reptile would touch it. My informant 
was an observing man. He had seen eight young adders 
bolt into the mouth of their parent and disappear on 
being suddenly surprised \ 


j]R. JOHN KOBINSON, a tradesman of New- 
castle, was fortunate enough, in the course of 
the year 1838, to rescue from destruction a 
large mass of documents which throw more or less light 
on the history and doings of the famous Northumbrian 
family of the Delavals. Some account of this family has 
already been given in the Monthly Chronicle (see vol. i., 
p. 4-37) : but we are concerned now with what we may 
fairly describe as the Delaval Find. 

The finder himself has explained to the Society of 
Antiquaries the nature of the documents he has saved 
from oblivion. The late Dr. Charlton, about twenty 
years ago, made mention, in an interesting lecture on 
"Society in Northumberland in the 17th Century," of 
the thousands of papers belonging to the Delaval family 
which were preserved at Ford Castle, among which 
were letters from nearly all the principal families of the 
North of England, as well as from the leading literary 
men of the last century. Ever since the delivery of Dr. 
Charlton's lecture, said Mr. Robinson, local historians 
had longed to have an opportunity of inspecting the 
collection at Ford. Yet during all these years there had 
been a vast pile of letters, despatches, and old records 
lying in a roofless warehouse at Old Hartley, not a dozen 
miles from Newcastle. Some few of these had been 
reduced to a decomposed mass of pulp, through the 
action of the winters' snows and summers' rains of 
more than fifty years. It was only by a portion of the 
roof falling upon the old papers that any of them had 
been preserved. Among these were the great seal of 
Henry VII., the privy seal of James I., an autograph 
of Queen Anne, and an autograph of the ill-fated Earl of 

It was through the courtesy of Mr. Lumsden, agent to 
the Marchioness of Waterford, that Mr. Robinson was 
allowed to collect what he thought would be of any 
interest. He began his labours among a vast collection of 
ledgers, tabulating the wages paid to the various work- 
men engaged in constructing Seaton Sluice a hundred 
years ago ; but, as he turned over ledger after ledger and 
countless piles of vouchers, he began to pick up packets 
of private letters of the Delavals, Irish State papers, and 
Admiralty despatches to Capt. Delaval, with innumer- 
able receipts for legacies and annuities paid to almost 
every family in Northumberland of any importance, 
together with the cost of cows bought at Hexham and 
Morpeth in the year 1590, as well as receipts for the 
daily articles used in castle and cot from time im- 

The following is an extract from one of the family 
letters written by Mrs. Astley (Rhoda Delaval), probably 
in 1751 : 

Yesterday se'nnight we were all at Newcastle assembly. 



\ 189. 

There was a great deal of good company. It was the 
day of the Mayor's feast. Ridley is Mayor. My Lady 
Blackett was there, and made many inquiries after you. 
My Lord Ravensworth dined here the other day. We 
have pitched the tent by the sea-side. It is placed in the 
Ijreat oval in the garden, all the warm weather, where we 
drink tea every afternoon. I imagine you have heard 
that Mr. Bailey is dead. Mrs. Symms says he left ten 
thousand pounds. He died of a fever. It is surprising 
to know what great cures have been done by Dr. James's 
powders. Here a sad fever has gone round the country. 
All who have taken it have recovered. I believe I told 

Sm that Sir John Grey is quite well, and seven more at 
artley that have taken the powders are cured of very 
sad fever after they had been light-headed some daya. 

The same lady writes again : 

Tinmouth and Cullercoates are much in fashion ; not a 
room empty. My Lady Kavensworth and my Lady 
Clavering were a month at Cullercoates bathing. My 
Lady (Swinburne and Miss Swinburne are gone to live at 
York. I must leave off, as it is chappie Sunday, though 
I am in a very scribbling humour. We shall have a very 
thin congregation to-day. It is the first Sunday divine 
service has been performed at Mr. .Ridley's chappie at 
Blyth, and curiosity will carry most of the people thither. 

The old letters abundantly confirm the popular stories 
about the amusements at Seaton Delaval. George 
Delaval, writing to his brother Thomas in February, 
1753, says: "It was in the Daily Advertiser that 
upwards of four thousand gentlemen and ladies had been 
assembled at Seaton Delaval to see the rope dancers." 
Mrs. Astley writes in December : " Bob has undertaken 
to entertain us with a pantomime entertainment of his 
own composing these Christmas holidays. He has taken 
in most all the people in the house as performers. I 
fancy it will be a very curious sight." Later, she informs 
her correspondent how the affair had gone off : " Bob 
has performed his pantomime entertainment before a 
great number of county folk, who showed their approba- 
tion by great fits of laughter." 

Much theatrical and other gossip of the time is con- 
tained in the following letter from Foote, the actor and 
dramatist of Dr. Johnson's day : 

London, March 13. 

In the North. What d'ye do in the North when you 
are wanted in the West? On the 24th instant appears a 
Farce of your H'ble Servant, which without the power- 
ful aid of such Freinds as Mr. Delaval will I fear en- 
counter a most disastrous Destiny. 

The Recorder of your Town of Newcastle has lately oc- 
casiund a small inflammation at Court. About four months 
since he dind with Ld. Kavensworth, and takeing up a 
newspaper which mentiond the Bishop of Glouscester as 
the Bishop of Chichesters successor in the Prince of Wals's 
family, declard that was the seccjd great officer about 
the Prince whom he had formerly known to drink 
treasonable Healths, Andrew Stone being the other. 

Ld Ravensworth made a Report of this to the Cabinet 
Council, which the two delinquents with the Solicitor- 
General, he being equally culpable, were ordered to 
attend ; sundry examinations were had, of what nature 
has not transpird ; the result of all is that the sub- 
sequent loyal attachment of these Gentlemen should 
obliterate the stain of their former principles, and the 
prosecution be branded with the ignominious titles of 
groundless, trifling, and vexatious. 

There is no news but what the papers will bring you, 
but we have long and pompous accounts of the Tilts, 
tournements, tumblings, and Bull-baitings at Seaton. 
Your Uncle Price says Mr. Pelham has hired the two 
danceing Bears to transmitt to your Brother by way of 

keeping him in the country till the Parliament is up, and 
Chitty swears that the coliers ac Billinsgate imploy all 
their Leizure hours in flinging of Somersets. You must 
expect the Wits to be arch, but I dont know how to take 
your calling me one, in your last, as I know in what light 
you men of Bussness regard that Character, but I give you 
leave to think of me as you please in every other respect, 
provided you do me Justice in one Article, that I am & 
ever shall be Dear Mr Delaval's 

Most obligd & obedt Servt 


Another letter of Foote's, as ill-spelt as the one just 
quoted, is addressed to Mr. John Delaval. It will be 
seen that the dramatist mixes up some scandal with his 
theatrical small talk : 

Pal Mai, Jany. 17th. 

I am sorry Dear Mr. Delaval should suppose he wanta 
a subject to interest and entertain me, whilst he has it in. 
his power to communicate his own happiness, &c., and 
that of his family. To the latter you have this morning a 
collateral addition by the birth of a Son to Miss Roach.* 

The Theatres have each producd a pantomime. That 
of Covent Garden is the Sorcerer, revivd with a new 
piece of Machinery that is elegantly designed and happily 
executed. The subject is a Fountain. The Genii of 
Drury Lane has some pretty contrivances, but the 
Inspector complains of its being barren of Incidents, 
defective in the plan, and improbable in the Denoue- 
ment. We have had no new Comedys but one given by 
Mr. Weymondsel and his Lady, Jo. Child is gone to 
France, the frail fair one turnd outof Doors,and a suit for 
a Divorce commencd. Francis's Tragedy called Con- 
stantiu is to be acted at Covent Garden. A Comedy 
called the Gamester is soon to be played at Drury Lane. 

1 am writing the English Man at Paris for Macklyn's 
benefit. The Attorney General is to be made a Peer, the 
Solicitor Attorney, and York Solicitor General. 

This is all the news I have now to offer, and, indeed, 
all that I have to say, except that 

I am most sincerely yours, 


The scale and magnificence of the private theatricals 
given by the Delavals can be best understood by the cost 
of one of the entertainments at Seaton Delaval. Here is 
a financial record which Mr. Robinson haa discovered 
among the wreckage at Hartley : 

FEBR. 1, 179a 

Ibs. B. D 

6 Hams Ornamented, at a mean 2011). each, 120 at 7d. . . 3 10 

2 Do. Swarm and Boar's Head,201lj. ea. 10 at 7d. . . 1 3 4 

6 Turkey pyes, calculated at 12s. each 3 12 

6 Ox tongues ornamented, 2s. 6d. p 15 

2 Do. plain. Do. 5 

2 Fillets Veal, 51hs. each, lOlbs. at 6d 050 

SPlatesof Collard Beef, at l/6p 12 a 

4 Aspeaks, contg 40 smelts io strong sauce, 3s. p 12 

52 Fowls includg Baisting, &c., compd 1/6 p 318 

12 Ibs. Butter, estimated for ornamentg Hams, &C, 012 

6 Ibs. Hog : s lard for Swann, &c., 8d 4 6 

12 Lobsters, at 9d. p. 090 

16 Plates of Jellys, 2/6 200 

14 Do. Blomonge, 2s 180 

7 Large and small Savoy Cakes, at 5s. p. 1 15 0- 

10 Apple Tarts, 1/6 15 

80 Cneese Cakes. Id. 068 

30 Apricot Tartletts, 3d. p 076 

24 Strawberry do. 2(1. p. 040 

40 Raspberry do. 2d. p. 6 8 

Confectionery acct. for cakes and Sundry sweet- V 4 ft 

meats, mottos, &c., &c f 

Cakes charged by Mr. Nuthwaite 17 6 

200 Golden pippins, 9s. , and 89 oranges, 10s. 6d. 19 6 

10 Plates of Blanched Almonds and Raisins, Is. 6d. p. . 15 

24 do. of Figs. French Plumbs, &c., at 4d p. 080 

White Bread used and crumbled away, &c,, 

2d.p.forl20 100 

31 2 

See Monthly Chronicle, 1888, p. 283. 




1 Pye left nearly whole .. .0100 & "" "' ? fter hav j"? Perused it lately (for 'twas by mere accident 

1 large Savoy Cake ................ 070 i recover d it) two or three times, I cannot find out what 

1 Tongue .......................... 2 6 I aim'd at by such a reverie. 

!h? n ? a t n ,'J, Bo <? r ' s , H ^ nea , r 'y w k; e 1 J. have re ad the GoosequiU twice since I have seen you 

kit Confectioner's Articles with very great satisfaction, and ajjree with Dr Hill 

Jellys', none of consequence.' ..... - 3 4 *r ' he r , M T nody '* as fine ? P ie f of "dicule as ha, lately 

27 16 2 appeared. I am to spend a classical hour or two with 

Beef for Gentlemen's servts., drivers, &c., Dlm tnis we ek, and we both wish you wou'd be so kind 

abt. 112 Ibs. at 4d ......................... 117 4 as to give us the favor of yr company. If you shou'd 

nhtoTn y d ' d " come t Vauxhall any night this week, yr chariot must of 

abt. 4 loaves 2s. p. ........................ OJ necessity pass by My lodgings which Ire at Mr. Bob" 

Hay for abt. 80 horses, computed 80. p. 2 13 4 ' Larsan s, burgeon in Lambeth, where I shou'd be obliged 

Oats for do., 3d. p 100 to you for a Bow as you go by the window. I am already 

- 3 13 4 ln . 2 reat Imputation, from having been seen to walk 

4 Ibs. Wax Candles for Dining Table extra, privately with you in the Gardens 

2s. Wd ................................... Oil 4 lamSr 

51b& Sperm, for Chandellicrs, &a, 2s. 6d. ____ 12 6 Yr mnst nhliVrl ft, nlWI* f 

Jibs. do. for Side Tables, &c. . 076 * r most oblig rt & obedt bert. 


12 Ibs. Mold Candles for stage Candlesticks, HINT TAKEN FROM THE GOOSEQUILL 

^.Tano^or^;^::::::::::::::::: c 10 8 8 ^MStS38 

Musicians supd. wages ............ 4 14 6 As a -! air-one commanded he came at the word 

Painter and Horse hire, about ...... 1 11 6 And did the grand ofh'ce in tyewig and sword. 

Chaise Hire for Musicians, about. ... 15 The atfair being ended so sweet and so nice 

- 710 He held out his hand with a you know M'era my price 

Woman In kitchen, meat 4 wages, 6 days, Is. Yr price? says my Lady-why Sr 'tis a brother 

Da in house 3 days',' 'da'.: :::'.::: : 4 I And Dootors must nevet tak e feesof each other. 
3 Joiners, 1 Day, each" 2s ..................... 060 

3Labrs. takinecare Horses, &c., Is. 6d. p. ..046 
2 Turners Waiters supd. will have 1 Is. p. ..220 

^Sr3davVassistin g inHouse,l s :6ip: 3Jji 

2 Fidlers for the dance after supper ................... 110 

47 17 
Sundry Wines, Spts ,& Ale, &c ................... 17 4 9 

65 1 9 - _ __ 
j Ibs. Tea, 10s .............................. 7 6 

2 Ibs. Coffee, 4s ............................. 080 C A.PT \I\ BOVFR 

5 Ibs. Sugar for Mull'd Wine, at 13d .......... 5 5 ==, 

Bibs' Da forNe a ''us lM.' >SC " UPStoir8 ' 16id ' * ^ ^^SSjURING the greater portion of the eighteenth 

12 Lemonsfor Do.riid....:.':::::::.'.'.'.'::::: 1 6 IB K^il II century, when all the nations of Europe 

Quarts Cretl a 9p. rCOaee :^ d '.'.'.'.'.'.'.-.'.'.'.'.'. | I IRU WCre " ^^ ^'^ ^ "* ther ' 

2* E SK 8 .................................... 016 \*^*^S&\ conscription enabled the Continental Powers 

^^ ^ 2 2 9A 

__ to provide soldiers for their armies, while the English 

6 Ibs. Com. Cands. Extra for House, Stables, &c ......... % 3 8* Government had in turn to resort to the "Law of 

Impress " to procure seamen to man their ships of war, 

14 Own Ffamy. Supr. 14s. & Tea 7s. dedt .............. 1 1 the Royal Navy being then, as now, the right arm of 

neatExpence 55 7 2* England. This oppressive and unpopular law, when 

,,..,,, , . T, , . brought into operation, naturally created an uneasy 
The last letter from Mr. Robinson's collection it is 

., .. ... , sense of individual danger amongst the sailors, keelmen, 
necessary to quote here was evidently written by a poor 

Gu c* *. u i n'u o -i. "j 11- and all workers on Tyneside whose avocations partook 
rub Street hack. Thomas Switzer s grovelling appeal 

for the honour of a bow from the wealthy Mr. Belaval is of a nautical cha! - aotCT ' and were made sti more hateful 

of a piece wrth his boast that he is already in great ^ the arbltrar y and cruel aots of the officlals to whom 

reputation from having been seen to walk with him in had been entrusted the <=^y mg out of these laws. 

Vauxhall Determined resistance, resulting in rioting and blood- 

13th May. shed, often followed the arrival of a vessel of war in the 

Sr, I have brought two of my Friend's, Collins and T ,. 0n His Majesty's Service" on the commence- 
honest master Randolph, to wait on you. I hope you will 

find something in the former as a Lyric ; and (if I have a ment of a press. 

right notion of your taste) am confident that, notwith- Only a few songs expressive of the popular feeling on 
standing the nuaintness of the times, in which Donne and 

others his contemporaries hew'd out every line they wrote, t he doln S s of the P ress K an e have survived the days of 

you will desire a better acquaintance with the latter. A their interest, and these are nearly all in an incomplete 

good critic in beauty can discover many fine features ... ,,.,,, , i n ^ r> * 

under the monstrous ruffs and farthingales with which all form but the short ballad of Ca P tam Bover 18 one of 

our old pictures are crouded and disgraced, the best. 

and if you can have the patience to read a morceau of 
mine written when 1 was a mere boy, under a love dis- 
appointment, I shall be glad to know whether you can 
find any drift or meaning in it, for 1 seriously declare, 


chief, by Mr. Richard Welford, appeared not long since 
^ th Nemastle Weeklv chronicle :- 
The first commission for the impressment of seamen 




was issued in the reign of Edward III. (1355), and upon 
occasions of emergency the practice continued down to 
recent times. Upon the Tyne, where the oversea coal 
trade furnished an excellent training ground for seamen, 
the system of forced service fell with remarkable 
severity. Local annals teem with records of riot and 
violence occasioned by the proceedings of the press gang 
at Shields and Newcastle. Performing obnoxious duties, 
aided by spies and informers, the officers and men of the 
impress service were hated by the seafaring and riverside 
people with an intensity of abhorrence that knew no 
limit. "Retaining a vivid recollection of the scenes of 
impressment which I have witnessed in my youth in 
the streets of this very town," writes Mr. Salmon 
("South Shields: Its Past, Present, and Future"), "the 
screams of the women and the shouts and imprecations 
ot the men, and the curses of the press gang who were 
tracking like bloodhounds the flying steps of some un- 
happy sailor, just returning perhaps in joy and expecta- 
tion to his wife and children after an absence of years, 
I cannot wonder at the abhorrence of the impress 
service which always prevailed among the North- 
Country seamen." To drub the gang, to outwit it, to 
escape from its clutches, to tar and feather its minions, 
were considered highly meritorious achievements, which 
often found expression in stirring rhyme and thrilling 

During the war with America, the Regulating Captain 
of the port of Newcastle, as the head of the impress 
service here was officially designated, was John Bover. 
He had been a captain in the Royal Navy, had seen 
service, and was a brave and gallant officer. While he 
remained in office, the barbarous system over which he 
presided was carried out with tact and discretion. Aided 
by his lieutenant, Cuthbert Adatnson, father of John 
Adamson the antiquary, he made the forces under his 
command respected as well as dreaded, for, although he 
could not at all times restrain the eagerness of his sub- 
ordinates to rescue men, he did his spiriting gently, and 
accompanied by as little hardship as the nature of the 
service permitted. With the one exception of the song, 
no ill-feeling towards Captain Bover displays itself in 
Tyneside literature ; no local annalist associates his name 
with discreditable incidents ; no local poet perpetuates 
disagreeable episodes of his life in scathing rhyme. 
Among the official classes, the municipal authorities, and 
the leading people in Newcastle, he was held in high 

When he died (May 20, 1782), aged 68 years, he was 
honoured by a public funeral, "as a testimony of his 
meritorious services to his king and country." Sykes 
informs us that the East York and Westmorland 
Militias, with their bands joined, marched from the 
parade to the house of the deceased in the Bigg Market, 
where the rank and file divided and lined the street to St. 
Nicholas' Church. First came Grenadiers with reversed 
muskets ; the beadles of St. John's and St. Nicholas' 
with covered staves ; bands playing the "Dead March," 
with covered drums ; the boatswain and crew of the 
deceased's barge; then the corpse, the pall borne by eight 
naval officers; Lieut. Adamson, R.N., chief mourner, and 
other mourners ; the ensigns of the militia, and of the 
26th Regiment from Tynemouth ; lieutenants, captains, 
and colonels, General Beckwith and Lord Adam Gordon ; 
the Sheriff, Aldermen, and Recorder of Newcastle ; the 
Mayor, with his attendants, and a battalion. In the 
churchyard the Grenadiers fired three volleys, "and 
thus, " adds Sykes, "did navy, military, and civil, with 
many thousands of people of all ranks, with the most 
minute decorum, pay the last tribute to the remains of a 
good and gallant officer, and a worthy man." 

Captain Bover was Regulating Captain of the Port of 
Tyne for twenty-four years at least. There is in Mr. 
Joseph Crawhall's possession a letter from the War 
Office to the Commander of the Land Forces at New- 
castle, as follows : 

War Office, 19tt May, 1759. 

Sir, The Right Honble. the Lords of the Admiralty 
having represented to me that Capt. Bover, who is em- 

ployed in raising men at Newcastle, will soon have a 
sufficient number of Men to send round, and their Lord- 
ships having desired tha he may have a Party of Soldiers, 
consisting of a Sergeant and twelve Men to go up with 
them, in case the Men should be mutinous, I desire you 
will be pleased to comply with their Lordships' request, 
when applied to by Capt. Bover for that purpose. I have 
the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient humble servant, 

To Major-General Whitmore, Newcastle. 

The Rev. Dr. Bruce informed the writer some years 
ago that he had heard Captain Bover was of French 
extraction, and that the family name was "Bouvier." 

The tune was taken down by the late Mr. Thomas 
Doubleday from the singing of a street musician, but he 
was unable to recover more than one verse of the ballad. 
In his opinion the melody was undoubtedly Northum- 
brian, and he thought could be traced back as far as the 
latter part of Queen Anne's time or the accession of the 
Hanover family. It is a tender and beautiful air, 
enough to deserve the best elforta of a Burns to fit it 
with appropriate verse. 

Where he3 f been, maw can - ny hin - ny? 

Where hes ti' ben, maw win - some man? 

Aw been ti' the nor-'ard cruis - ing back and for-'ard, 

i \ m . s =^ ^ 

-mm-f JV :r~l V m 2 fJI i 

Aw been ti' the nor-'ard cruis - ing sair and lang, 

-jfr-fr-+--\t-=s= =q^= 

ffrr 1 It ~ V &^ t 

Aw been 




Cruis - ing back and for - 'ard, 


daur - na come a - shore for Bov-er and his gang. 

, ilirtftljttrg* 

HITTON TOWER, anciently Whetton, which 
has long been the residence of the Rectors of 
Rothbury, stands at a short distance west 
from the small but pleasant village of Whitton, about 
half a mile south from Rothbury. Like several other 
parsonage-houses in Northumberland, it was formerly 
a very strong castlet, nd formed part of a range of 




towers whicb extended from Hepple, about five miles 
further west, to Warkworth at the mouth of the Coquet. 
These towers are now all in ruins except Whitton, which 
has always been inhabited. In 1381, Earl Gilbert 
Humfranville or Umfraville died possessed of the manor 
in which it is situated, and which his widow conveyed in 

t a 

marriage to the first Lord Percy, by one of whose 
descendants it was given in exchange to the Rectory of 
Rothbury for the old hall and glebe of that benefice, 
" which lay intermixed through the demesne of Rothbury." 
The walls of the tower, at the foundation, are eleven feet 
thick ; in the kitchen, nine ; in the bed-chambers, six. 
A vaulted cellar beneath is supposed to have been used as 
a refuge for the cattle in the event of a Scottish inroad or 
border raid previous to the Union of the Crowns. In this 
cellar there is a deep well, which supplied the inmates 
with water when the place was besieged or blockaded. 
The tower has been frequently repaired and beautified, 
and is now an elegant and commodious edifice. The Rev. 
John Thomlinson, Dr. Thomas Sharp, the Rev. William 
Birdmore, and the Rev. Dr. Drummond, who successively 
held the living during the last century, expended many 
thousands of pounds in enlarging the buildingandbeautify- 
ing the surrounding grounds ; and the two Vernon-Har- 
courts, sons of Edward, Lord Archbishop of York, made 
many improvements about the place during their incum- 
bencies, at a cost, it is said, of something like four thousand 
pounds. The Rector of Rothbury (now the Rev. A. O. 
Medd) is lord of the manor of Whitton by virtue of his 
office, and entitled by ancient custom to "command the 
freeholders to work for him so many days in the year at 
the hay and corn harvest." 

l VISIT to Sunderland Church cannot fail to 
recall the memories of half a century back, 

j wne n the Rev. Robert Gray, M.A., was 
interred in the old churchyard. Mr. Gray had held 
the rectory of Sunderland for eighteen years, during 
which time he was indefatigable in his pastoral 
labours, so as to merit and obtain the most sincere 
respect of the whole body of his parishioners, whether 
they belonged to the Established Church or not. 
During the terrible cholera visitation, he showed an 
example which only few of his clerical brethren were 

brave enough to follow, visiting the filthy slums where 
the plague prevailed most fatally, and ministering 
to the material as well as the spiritual wants of the 
poor patients to whose bedsides he came without 
shrinking. No wonder that the common people, who 
found in him a warm friend, ever ready to sacrifice his 
own ease and comfort for their special welfare, looked 
up to him with feelings surpassing common reverence, 
and that the name of Rector Gray is still current 



i IS 


amongst them as designating one who was a model of 
sacerdotal excellence. 

Mr. Gray's father was a jeweller in London, into whose 
debt the Duke of York ran deeply, and who at 
length got his bill settled out of a Parliamentary 
grant voted to that illustrious scapegrace. Mr. Gray 
himself camo to the North in 1816, as evening lecturer to 
his uncle, Dr. Gray, Rector of Bishopwearmouth ; and he 
acquitted himself so well in this comparatively humble 
capacity that when he got the presentation to Sunderland 
parish, from Bishop Barrington, in 1819, on the death of 
the Rev. John Hatnpson, the people all congratulated 
themselves on having so earnest and diligent a man as he 
was to labour amongst them, " in season and out of 
season," as they felt sure he would do. And they were 
not disappointed. An old lady (now ninety-three years 
of age), relates that she has seen him carrying a 
lantern and a basket, on a round of visits to 
the poor families at night, when few people could 
have faced the stormy and inclement weather ; and 
many an aged person, who may have been cheered by 
these kindly visits, or whose relatives may have bene- 
fited by them, could, doubtless, tell the same tale. Mr. 
Gray married a lady belonging to Sunderland, daughter 
of Mr. Rowland Webster, of the Deptford Patent 
Rojwry, and sister of Mr. Christopher Mating Webster, 
of Pallion Hall. 

This benevolent and popular clergyman died of a 
fever, caught in visiting the sick, on the llt'n of February, 
1838, aged forty-eight years. His funeral took place on 
the 20th, and old residents say that "there never was 
such a funeral in the town as Rector Gray's." The 
Sunderland Beacon wrote of it as follows : "There could 
not be less than between twenty and thirty thousand 
individuals assembled on the solemn occasion. The 
working classes appeared in their best apparel ; and all 
classes and degrees seemed impressed with feelings of 
deep emotion, as the solemn and sublime spectacle moved 
slowly along." The funeral train was composed of up- 
wards of seven hundred of the principal inhabitants of 
the town, a great number of carriages of the neighbouring 
gentry, and a detachment of the 30th Regiment then 
quartered in the barracks. Both Jews and Catholics 
marched amongst the mourners. A subscription was 
commenced shortly afterwards for erecting a memorial to 
the deceased, and the sum received amounted to nearly 
800. One-third of the fund was expended on the erection 
of a statue of Carrara marble, which was placed in 
the church entrance, under the tower, in March, 1840. 
The remainder of the fund was invested as an endow- 
ment for the Sunderland Parochial Schools, situated 
round by the Moor, which were thenceforth called the 
"Gray Schools." 

The sketch which accompanies this article is copied 
from a portrait (the only one we have seen) made by a 
wandering artist at the time the Rector was living. It 

originally belonged to Mrs. Burton, one of the aged 
inmates of the old Almshouses, Church Street, Sunder- 



In the January number of your interesting Monthly 
Chronicle, I observe, on page 44, an error in the paragraph 
regarding the Greenhow family. As the daughter of 
Dr. Thomas Michael Greenhow, perhaps you will permit 
me to state that his youngest sister, Sarah, became the 
wife, not of a brother, but of a cousin, of Mrs. T. M. 
Greenhow and Harriet Martineau. Mr. George Mar- 
tineau was a son of David ; the two ladies were daughters 
of Thomas Martineau. David and Thomas were, respec- 
tively, the second and the youngest sons of David Mar- 
tineau, of Norwich, a physician of Huguenot descent. 

The need of the watchman's rattle which is shown in 
the accompanying sketch is well enough illustrated 

in the following lines taken from an old bacchanalian 

song : 

We'll break windows, we'll break doors, 
The watrh knock down by threes and fours, 
Then let the doctors work their cures, 
And tinker up their bruises ; 
We'll beut the bailiffs out of fun, 
We'll make the mayor and sheriffs ran ; 
We are the boys no man dares dun, 
If he regards a whole skin. 

The sound of the rattle, harsh and loud, could hardly 
fail to bring assistance if law-abiding folks were within 

The particular instrument figured above has been pre- 
sented to the Sunderland Museum by Mr. John Moore, 
of Beckenham. Some "old Charley" of the year 1820 had 
been obliged to give it up during a row at the foot of 
George Street (in High Street), Sunderland. A watch- 

March I 



man's box was placed somewhere near the present 
Exchange, and more than once it was found turned on its 
face, with the tenant underneath. The number of " the 
watch " was but small, and the men employed were old, and 
sometimes portly, thus giving special ad vantages to young 
fellows "out for a lark." J. G. B., Sunderland. 


A correspondent calls my attention to a misstate- 
11 ii 'lit which occurs in the paper on "football in the 
North," p. 55, as to the borough of Alnwick being 
still unreformed. I confess that I must have been 
"oblivious," like Dominie Sampson, when I wrote to 
that effect. For Alnwick was one of the places to which 
the Commissioners, appointed in 1876 to inquire into 
such municipal corporations as were not subject to the 
Municipal Corporation Acts then in force, considered 
that these Acts should be applied. In pursuance of this 
recommendation an Act was passed (46 and 47 Viet., 
c. 18), cited as the Municipal Corporations Act, 1883 ; 
and in accordance with its provisions " the chamberlains, 
common council, and freemen " of Alnwick were recon- 
stituted as a corporate body, in the same way as if they 
had been mentioned in schedule B of the Municipal 
Corporations Act, 1835. But this corporate body pos- 
sesses no magisterial authority, the town being still 
within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates. 

W. B. 



A boiler explosion occurred recently in the neighbour- 
hood of Dunston, happily unattended by injury to any 
of the workmen. A man who happened to be very near 
the scene of the accident got a terrible fright. Rushing 
up to one of his mates, he exclaimed in his terror : " Is 
aa onny warse? " to which his mate replied : " No, thoo's 
aall reet." Whereupon he added : "Man, aa thowt aa 


A pitman was about to " flight " a favourite pigeon 
near the Central Station, Newcastle, when a policeman 
came up and told him no pigeon had to be flighted there, 
because of blocking the road up. The miner, pulling out 
his watch to see the time to a second, said to his pet bird, 
as he threw it on the flags, "Mind, Bessy, ma bonny 
bairn, thoo hes not to flee : se waak hyem, and say it's 
aall Bobby if thoo dissent win !" 


A few days ago, in Blyth, two or three young ladies 
met while out shoppinor, and the conversation turned on 
the all-important event, to them, of the annual full and 
fancy dress ball. Said one young lady to another : " I sup- 

pose you and your sister will be going ?" " Oh ! yes," was 
the reply. " Who is going to chaperone you ?" "I beg your 
pardon?" " Who is going to chaperone you ?" A pause 
then, suddenly seeing it, as she thought "Oh ! we 
always do our own hair !" 


An express train in a fog is, of course, anything but an 
expeditious vehicle of travel. The other day, a market 
woman, with her basket of butter and eggs, was heard 
grumbling aloud to herself, as the train cautiously felt 
its way on the line from South Shields to Newcastle. 
" Stopping agyen ! A bonny express ! It's waaking noo ; 
onnyway, aa could waak as fast !" As tlie train 
approached Gateshead, it jolted over the points, where- 
upon she laughed and said : "It's trotting noo !" 


An old lady, known as Jenny Latimer, resides not a 
hundred miles from Newcastle. One day a friend, 
referring to her name, asked her if she was any relation to 
Latimer the martyr, who was burnt at the stake. 
"Wey," said she, "aa's not sartin aboot it ; but aa had 
an uncle whe wes aythor scaaded or bornt !" 

Mr. John James Clay, a prominent member of the 
Masonic body at Sunderland, died on the 16th January, 
at Ventnor, Isle of Wight, whither he had removed for 
the benefit of his health. The deceased, who was 48 years 
of age, was a son of Mr. John Clay, of Herrington Hall. 

On the 20th of January, Mr. Benjamin Carr Lawton, 
at one time an extensive contractor, died at his residence, 
Fern Avenue, Newcastle, at the age of upwards of 70 
years. A native of Uewsbury, he came to this district 
when a young man, as a member of the firm of Rush and 
Lawton, who constructed part of the Newcastle and Ber- 
wick Railway. Subsequently he obtained the contract 
for the masonry work in connection with the High Level 
Bridge and its approaches, and afterwards was engaged 
in making the branch railway between Haltwhistle and 
Alston. The most important undertaking with which 
Mr. Lawton was associated, however, was the construc- 
tion of the piers at the mouth of the Tyne ; but after the 
works had been in progress for several years, differences 
arose, and the Commissioners assumed the control them- 
selves. These disputes led to a long and most costly 
arbitration, resulting in a verdict for Mr. Lawton for a 
large sum. The last contract upon which the deceased gen- 
tleman was engaged was that for the construction of the 
Team Valley Railway between Gateshead and Durham. 

Mr. Thomas Kay, who had been a member of the Mid- 
dlesbrough Town Council since 1872, and an alderman 
from 1886, died at Linthorpe on the 20th of January. 

On the 24th of January, Mr. Alderman Edward Lucas 
Pease, of Mowden, Darlington, died from the effects of 
injuries received by an accident in the hunting field about 
a week previously. The deceased, who was 50 years of 
age, was a son of Mr. John Beaumont Pease, of North 



\ 1889. 

Lodge, Darlington, and was a member of the Society of 
Friends. He had been a member of the Darlington Cor- 
poration since its formation ; he had also held the office 
of Mayor, and had for a long time been chairman of the 
Waterworks Committee. He was a magistrate of Dur- 
ham, and of Radnorshire, of which latter county he was 
High Sheriff some years ago. Mr. Pease had come for- 
ward as a candidate for the Durham County Council ; 
and on receipt of information of his death, the poll in the 
Darlington (4th) Division, in which there was a contest, 
waa closed after it had proceeded two or three hours. A 
fnsh election was thus rendered necessary. 

On the 26th January, there died at his residence, 
Weitern Hill, Durham, Mr. John Reed Appleton, a 
member of several local learned bodies. He belonged 
to khe Surtees and nearly every other antiquarian and 
archaeological society in the North, and was a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries of England. He possessed 
considerable literary ability, and was the author of a 
number of poems, which were collected and published, 
with other works, by Mr. Tweddell, of Stokesley. Mr. 
Appleton was 64 years of age. 

On the same day, died in Newcastle, Mr. James Mac- 
donald, who was well known in the theatrical profession 
as actor and manager in the North. During his career, 
he was manager for the famous Sam Roxby at Shields, 
Scarborough, and Hartlepool. He was one of the prin- 
cipals in the direction of Drury Lane Theatre in the time 
of Chatterton, and played one of the Dromios on the 
clamic boards of "Old Drury " in the great production of 
" The Comedy of Krrors." The deceased was a native of 
Newcastle, and was 60 years of age. 

Mr. Archibald Singers, of the firm of Singers and Co., 
vinegar manufacturers, Newcastle, died on the 31st of 
January, at an advanced age. 

On the 20th of January, Mr. Henry Philip Archibald 
Buchanan Riddell, C.S.I., late of the Bengal Civil Ser- 
vic, died in London, at the age of 69 years ; and on the 
30A, in the same city, died his sister, Jane Buchanan 
Riddell, aged 77. Both were members of one of the oldest 
and most respected families in the North of England. 

Mr. James Stott, nurseryman, died at Alnwick, at the 
advanced age of 90 years, on ihe 31st of January. He 
wa a pupil and friend of the late Rev. William Turner, 
tht eminent Unitarian minister, of Newcastle, and for 
nearly half a century he acted as pastor of the Unitarian 
Church at Alnwick. 

On the 1st of February, there were interred in Earsdon 
Churchyard the remains of Mr. William Short, for fifty 
yer foreman engineer at East Holywell Colliery, who 
had died at the age of 85 years. 

Mr. Robert Utterson, cashier and court-keeper at the 
Newcastle County Court, died on the 4th of February, at 
the age of about 33 years. 

On the 5th of February, Mr. James Outterside, a lead- 
ing shipowner in the palmy days of wooden vessels, and a 
prominent member of the Manchester Uuity of Odd- 
fellows, died at South Hylton, in the 78th year of his age. 

On the 5th of February was announced the death, as 
having taken place at Chicago, U.S., on January 12, of 
Mr. Andrew Paxton, formerly of Blaydon-on-Tyne, in 
the county of Durham. 

Dr. John Coatsworth Watson, a well-known medical 
practitioner at Sunderland, died in that town on the 5th 
of February. 

In the Newcastle Daily Chronicle of February 7 was an- 

nounced the death, which had taken place a few days pre- 
viously in America, of Mr. George Searle Phillips, a 
genleman at one time resident in this district. Better 
known by his pseudonym of "January Searle," he was 
born at Peterborough, Northamptonshire, in January, 
1815, or 1816. Mr. Phillips took the degree of B.A. at 
Cambridge. When he left the University, he gave him- 
self up to literary pursuits, and, proceeding to America, 
he wrote occasional articles for magazines and newspapers. 
He did not, however, stay there long. Returning to this 
country, he was, for a short time, connected with the 
Leeds Times. But about the year 1845, he was appointed 
secretary to the Huddersfield Mechanics' Institution, 
which was then one of the most prosperous societies of the 
kind in England. Under Mr. Phillips's energetic direc- 
tions it achieved still greater success. When he was at 
Huddersfield he associated himself with Dr. F. R. Lees 
in the editorship of The Truth Seeker, and some of his 
best writing is to be found in that magazine. After 
leaving Huddersfield, he lectured in connection with the 
Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutions, and after- 
wards as agent for the Northern Union of Mechanics 
Institutions. A notable feature of his appearance was 
the presence of a big black dog, which be had christened 
"Satan," and which invariably accompanied him on the 
platform. His first visit to Tyneside was about the- 
year 1848, but it was only a short one. He came back 
again afterwards, and resided two or three years, lectur- 
ing at many of the Mechanics' Institutes, and writing 
for various publications, local and national. Some 
special contributions as to the social condition of the 
people were written by him for the Newcastle Chronicle. 
When he left Newcastle he joined for a season a gang 
of gipsies. He embodied his impressions of them in an in- 
teresting volume entitled "The Gipsies of the Dane's 
Dyke." A favourable offer having been made to him by 
some of his American acquaintances, he returned to the 
States, and held a variety of appointments in connection 
with the press there. About 1870, however, he had a severe 
affliction, from the effects of which he never recovered. 
In 1873, he was taken to Trenton Asylum for the Insane ; 
but his case being declared to be hopeless, he was trans- 
ferred, three years afterwards, to the Morristown Lunatic 
Asylum, in New Jersey, where he ultimately died. 

Dr. Matthew Brumell, who for a long time had been at 
the had of the medical profession at Morpeth, died, at 
the age of 77, on the 8th of February. 

On the 9th of February, Mr. Jasper Stephenson, who 
was widely known throughout the North of England for 
his breeding and feeding of black-faced sheep, died at the 
residence of his son, Mr. Thomas A. Stephenson, Mill 
Hills Farm, near Haydon Bridge. He was about 70 
years of age. 




14. A sculling match was decided on the Tyne be- 
tween George Phillips Telford, of Newcastle, and Henry 
Follett, of Richmond, London, for 50 a-side, the course 
being from Dunston Gangway to Scotswood Suspension 


1SSO. / 



Bridge. The Metropolitan rower ultimately won by 

At the final meeting of the executive committee of the 
Bishop of Durham's Special Church Building Fund, at 
Durham, it was stated that the sum raised in con- 
nection with the fund had reached the grand total of 
134,915 15s. 6d. 

15. Mr. F. W. Wyndham, co-lessee of the Theatre 
Royal, Newcastle, was entertained to a dinner, previous 
to his departure on a visit to Australia. Accompanied 
by Mrs. Wyndham, he left Newcastle on the 30th. 

A widow, named Louisa Gillespie, 32 years of age, 
committed suicide by drowning herself in a vat of beer in 
a brewery at Gateshead. 

16. The polling in connection with the election of 
members of the Northumberland County Council took 
place. The following is a complete list of the sixty 
gentlemen composing the first Board : 

Mr. Adam Robertson, AInwick 
Mr. Albert Grey, Embleton 
Earl Percy, Lesbury 
Rev. J. Bowron, Warkworth 
Mr. R. H. Taylor, Hamburgh 
Mr. G. D. A. Clark, Belford 
Mr. W. O. Charlton, Bellinjrham 
Mr. R. B. Sanderson, Otterburn 
Aid. A. Darling, Berwick 
Captain Forbes, Berwick 
Mr. James Gilroy, Tweedmouth 

and Spittal 

Mr. J. R. Black, Islandshire 
Mr. R. Nicholson, Norhamshire 
Mr. H. N. Middleton, Belsay 
Mr. S H. Farrer, Gosforth 
Sir M. W. Ridley, Ponteland 
Mr. J. W. Spencer, VValljottle 
Mr. Jacob Wilson, Chatton 
Mr. Watson Askew, Crookham 
Mr. George Rea, Wooler 
Mr. W. Hudspeth, Haltwhistle 
Mr. J. Thompson, Plenmellor 
Mr. T. Carnck, Alleudale and 

Haydon Bridge 
Mr. Hugh Fenwick, Corbridge 
Mr. R. Stainthorpe, Hexham 
Mr. J. M. Ridley, Humshaugh 
Mr. G. A. Fenwick, Bywell 
Mr. M. Liddell, Prudhoe 
Mr. S. Stobbs, Slaley 
Mr. R. Nicholson, Morpeth 
Dr. James Trotter, Bedlington 

Mr. And. Fairbairn, Bedlington 
Mr. Geo. Grocock, Longhirst 
Mr. J. B. Cookson, Netherwitton 
Mr. W. Millons, Widdrington 
Mr. W. Forster, Harbottle 
Lord Armstrong, Rothbury 
Mr. J. W. Pease, Benwell 
Mr. R. M. Tate, Tynemouth 
Mr. J. T. Davison, Tynemouth 
Mr. J. P. Spencer, Tynemouth 
Mr. J. L. Gracie, Tynemouth 
Mr. J. M. Winter, Tynemouth 
Mr. Aaron Watson, Tynemouth 
Mr. S. Morrison, Tynemouth 
Mr. J. Eskdale, Tynemouth 
Mr. R. Walton, Tynemouth 
Mr. H. Richardson, Backworth 
Mr. G. B. Forster, Blyth 
Dr. Alex. Trotter, Cowpen 
Mr. James Routledge, Cowpen 
Mr. R. O. Lamb, Cramlington 
Mr. M. Dodd, Longbenton, Weet- 

slade, and Willington (,juay 
Mr. J. Simmons, Longbenton, 

Weetslade, and Willington 

Mr. Jos. Snowball, Longbenton, 

Weetslade, & Willington Quay 
Mr. R. E. Ornesby, Seghill 
Mr. J. W. Richai-dson, Walker 
Col. H. F. Swan, Walker 
Mr. H. H. Aitchison, \Vallsend 
Mr. L. W. Adamson, Whitlcy 

The first meeting of the Council was held in the Moot 
Hall, Newcastle, on the 24th of January, when Sir 
Matthew White Ridley, M.P., was unanimously elected 
Provisional Chairman. The twenty gentlemen elected as 
aldermen were : 

Sir M. W. Ridley 
Mr. J. M. Winter 
Mr. A. Darling 
Mr. R. M. Tate 
Mr. J. L. Gracie 
Rev. Dixon- Brown 
Mr. L. W. Adamson 
Mr. George Rea 
Mr. John Craster 
Mr. Watson Askew 

Mr. J. R. Carr-Ellison 
Sir Edward Blackett 
Mr. John Carr 
Mr. James Black 
Mr. Adam Robertson 
Mr. George Anderson 
Mr. L. C. Chrisp 
Mr. H. H. Scott 
Mr. R. Stainthorpe 
Mr. W. O. Charlton 

The second meeting of the Council was held in the Nisi 
Priua Court at the Moot Hall, Newcastle, on the 14th of 
February, when, on the motion '.of Earl Percy, seconded 
by Lord Armstrong, Sir Matthew White Ridley, M.P., 
was unanimously elected chairman for the first year. 

Efforts to bring about a compromise having failed, the 
shipyard workmen at Stockton and the Hartlepools 
ceased work. On the 5th of February, however, an 
amicable settlement was effected, the masters conceding 
an advance of ?i per cent, in wages on all piece work, and 

Is. 6d. per week on time wages. Work was recommenced 
next day. 

17. A new water supply for Hexham, drawn from the 
Ladle Well Springs, ten miles distant from the town, and 
provided at an estimated cost of 10,000, was turned on 
at the source by Mr. J. T. Robb, chairman of the Local 

18. The Durham Salt Company, Limited, was regis- 
tered at Somerset House, with a capital of 80,000, 
the field of operations being 63 acres of freehold land 
adjoining Haverton Hill, 

It was officially announced that St. Mary's School, 
Ryehill, Newcastle had been closed, under a recent local 
Act of Parliament. 

19. A deputation of the Northumberland miners made 
formal application for an advance of 10 per cent, in 
wages ; and a joint committee, representing masters and 
men, was appointed to deal with the question. The 
masters subsequently offered a sliding scale, but this was 
rejected by the men. The owners, on the 12th of Feb- 
ruary, offered an advance of 7 per cent, and another 
advance of 2 per cent, on the standard in a month's time. 
This proposal was submitted to the vote of tho men by 

At an aggregate meeting of the Amalgamated Society 
of Engineers in Newcastle, a resolution was unanimously 
passed approving of the action of the Grand Committee 
in applying for an advance of 2s. per week in wages, to 
ccme into operation on the 4th of February. An amicable 
compromise was arrived at between masters and men. 

20. Damage, to the extent of nearly 8,000, was 
caused by a fire which broke- out in the grocery depart- 
ment of the Co-operative Stores, Newgate Street, New- 

Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, M.P., lectured to an im- 
mense audience in the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, on tho 
British Government of India. 

21. Fifteen persons were injured by a railway collision 
at Carlisle. 

On this and the following day, Mr. J. H. Black- 
burne, the famous chess-player, gave exhibitions of his 
skill in the Art Gallery, Newcastle. 

22. Lady Eleanor Lambton, sister of the Earl of 
Durham, was married to Lord Robert Cecil, third son of 
the Marquis of Salisbury, the ceremony taking place in 
St. George's Church, Hanover Square, London. 

23. Arrangements were concluded for the installation 
of the electric light at Cowpen. 

The Prince and Princess of Wales visited Middles- 
brough for the purpose of opening the new Town Hall 
and Municipal Buildings. (See page 111.) 

24. It was announced in the Newcastle Daily Chronicle 
that a communication had been received from the rela- 
tives of Mrs. Lough, widow of the eminent sculptor, in- 
timating that, in accordance with the last wishes of the 
deceased lady, the whole of the remaining models and 
statuary forming her private collection would be pre- 
sented to the city of Newcastle, for addition to the Lough 
Models in Elswick Hall. 

24. A terrible tragedy was enacted at Wrekenton, a vil- 
lage at the extreme boundary of the borough of Gateshead. 
The victim was John Graham, a member of the Gateshead 
police force stationed at that place, who was suddenly sefc 
upon by Edward Wilkinson, a butcher, who first stabbed 
him, and then beat him to death with his own truncheon. 



X 1889. 

On the morning of the same day, the man Wilkinson had 
been fined at Gateshead for disorderly conduct, on evi- 
dence given by the unfortunate officer. The perpetrator 
of the shocking crime was arrested at a late hour in the 
vening at South Hylton. On the 30th a verdict of wilful 
murder was returned by the coroner's jury against Wil- 
kinson, whom the magistrates, on the 1st of February, 
committed for trial on that charge. 

The 130th anniversary of the birth of the Scottish 
poet Robert Burns was celebrated by a dinner, held 
under the auspices of the Newcastle and Tyneside Burns 
Club, at the County Hotel, the chair being occupied by 
Mr. Councillor Adam Carse. 

25. The election of members for the Durham County 
Council took place, there being 72 divisions, each return- 
ing one councillor. The following gentlemen were re- 
turned : 

Mr. Theodore Fry, Darlington 
Mr. Ed. D. Walker, Darlington 
Mr. Arthur Pease, Darlington 
Mr. J. L. Wharton.M.P., Durham 
Mr. Francis Greenwell. Durham 
Mr. T. Richardson, Hartlepool 
Mr. John Horsley, Hartlepool 
Major Gray, West Hartlepool 
Mr. Jonathan Samuel, Stockton 
Mr. J. A. I'ease, Crook 
Earl of Durham, Lamhton 
Lt.-Col. Sheppee, Birtley 
Mr. C. E. Hunter, Edmondsley 
Mr. John Feetham, Ayeliffe 
Mr. Wm. Robinson, Sherburn 
Mr. G. 11. Wraith, Tudhoe 
Marquis of Londonderry, Seaham 
Mr. Wm. Armstrong, Thornley 
Mr. W. F. Hall, llaswell 
Lt.-Col. A. S. Palmer, Felling 
Mr. W. W. Pattinson, Felling 
Mr. J. B. Simpson, Kyton 
Earl of Ravensworth, Whickham 
Mr. Jas Annandale, Benfieldside 
Mr. J. A. Curry, Collierly 
Mr. W. J. Joicey, Tanfleld 
Mr. C. F. Former, Hebburn 
Mr. Thos. W. Stewart. Hebburn 
Mr. E. ,1. J. Browell, Wustoe 
Mr. J, W. Page- Page, Norton 
Mr. Robt Thompson, Southwick 
Mr. W. T. Soarth, Teesdale 
Mr. W. H. Richardson, Jarrow 
Mr. Richd. Handvsirle, Jarrow 
Mr. A. M. Palmer, Jarrow 
Mr. C. Furncss, West Hartlepool 
Mr. W. H. Fisher, W. Hartlepool 

Mr. Thos. Nelson, Stockton 
Mr Jos. Richardson, Stockton 
Mr. Timothy Crosby, Stockton 
Mr. J. Lingford, Bp. Auckland 
Mr. George Pears, Shildon 
Rev. E. A. Wilkinson, Spenny- 


Mr. W. Lishman, West Auckland 
Mr. W. R. I. Hopkins, Witton- 


Mr. Thos. Douglas, Hunwick 
Mr. Ralph Peverell, Eldon 
Mr. N. R Lamb, Coundon 
Mr. James Lisle, Washington 
Mr. T. Koliaon, Chester-le-Street 
Mr. S. Galbraith, Brandon 
Mr. A. W. Elliott, Willington 
Mr. John Shiel, Elvet 
Mr. R. Armstrong, Easington 
Col. J. A. Cowen, Blaydon 
Major R, Burdon, Greatham 
Mr. Frank Stobart, Houghton 
Mr. John Wilson, Herrington 
Mr. Lindsav Wood, Hetton 
Mr. V. C. S.'W. Corbett, Rainton 
Mr. Wm. Jenkins, Consett 
Mr. George Nicholson, Leadgate 
Mr. Utri<-k A. Ritson, Manchester 
Col. Leadbitter, Esh 
Mr. William Morson, Ferryhill 
Mr. E. G. Marshall, Sedge'tidd 
Mr. W. Palmer, Bishopwearui'th. 
Mr. L. A. Gregson, Ryhope 
Mr. W. Watson, Barnard Castle 
Mr. Thos. Livingstone, Stanhope 
Mr Joseph Ridley, Wolsintrhara 
Mr. W. J. Oliver, Darlington.* 

The first meeting of the Council was held on the 7th of 
February, in the Court Buildings, at Durham. Mr. John 
Lloyd Wharcon was unanimously elected Provisional 
Chairman. The Council then proceeded to the election of 
the 24- aldermen, the result being as follows : 

Sir 11 llavelork-Allan 
Mr. H. J. Beckwith 
Mr. Thomas Bell 
Colonel John A. Cowen 
Mr. Wm. Crawford, M.P. 
Mr. David Dale 
Earl of Durham 
Mr. Theodore Fry, M.P. 
Mr. Wm. Jenkins 
Mr. W. J. Joice.v 
Mr. James Laing 
Marquis of Londonderry 

Mr. R. Old 
Mr. Arthur Pease 
Earl of Ravensworth 
Mr. Joseph Richardson 
Mr. Ralph Richardson 
Mr. W. H. Richardson. 
Mr. U. A. Ritson 
Rev. A. D. Shaftoe 
Mr. John Shields 
Mr. John Lloyd Wharton 
Sir H. Williamson 
Rev. O. P. Wilkinson 

26. It was found that an advance of 1 per cent, in 
the wages of the Durham miners had accrued under the 
sliding scale arrangement. 

27. Under the auspices of the Tyneside Sunday Lec- 

* This gentleman was eventually declared by the Local Govern- 
ment Board to have been duly elected for the South Ward, Dar- 
lington, the announcement of the death of Mr. Aid. Lucas Pease, 
the other candidate, having been received shortly after the poll 
bad been opened. 

ture Society, Mr John Augustus O'Shea, a well-known 
newspaper correspondent, delivered a lecture in the Tyne 

Theatre, on "Explorers I have Known." The chair was 
occupied by Mr. Alderman M'Dermott, of Gateshead. 

Late at night, a serious fire broke out at the works of 
the North of England School Furnishing Company, 
Limited, Darlington. The premises were almost com- 
pletely destroyed. About half-past ten, a section of a 
gable end, which the fire had not reached, fell upon the 
crowd standing below, killing two persons on the spot a 
man named Hogg and another called Thomas Boddy, 
while a third man, named Thompson, died shortly after- 
wards. Robert Wilson, a workman in the company's 
establishment, died from the effects of injuries on the fol- 
lowing day ; while Lionel Stainsby, a fifth victim, suc- 
cumbed on the 30th. On the 4th of February, a lad, 
named James Ham, died. The accident also led to a fatal 
result in the case of Ralph Smith, on the 7th, and in that 
of Robert Hall on the 9th, making in all eight deaths 
from the sad occurrence. 

At Alnwick Police Court, four policemen, named 
Harrison, Chambers, Sprott, and Gair, were charged 
with conspiring to give false evidence at the trial of Bran- 
nagan and Murphy, in connection with the Edlingham 
Burglary, in 1879. The hearing concluded on the 1st of 
February, when Harrison, Sprott, and Gair were com- 
mitted to the assizes for trial, Chambers being discharged 

30. The lifeless body of Mr. William Robinson, rate 
collector, Jarrow, was found in the Felling Pit Pond. 

31. It was announced that the personalty of the late 
Colonel H. J. Trotter, M.P., who died on the 6th of 
December last, had been sworn at 66,176 19s. lOd. 


1. On this and the following day, Lord George Hamil- 
ton, First Lord of the Admiralty, paid a visit to New- 
castle, and officially inspected the Elswick Works of Sir 
W. G. Armstrong and Co. 

Mr. Fred L. Moir, manager of the African Lakes 
Trading Company, lectured in Newcastle, under the 
auspices of the Tyneside Geographical Society, on "The 
Slave Trade of Nyassaland," the chair being occupied by 
the Mayor (Mr. Thomas Richardson). 




2. On this and the following day, a severe gale of wind 
and rain raged in Newcastle and district, and on the 3rd, 
the schooner Alert, of Montrose, ran ashore at Blyth, 
the captain, Mr. James Carr, being drowned. 

3. Professor John Stuart Blackie, of Edinburgh, de- 
livered a lecture in the Tyne Theatre, Newcastle, on 

"Burns," in connection with the Tyneside Sunday 
Lecture Society. Mr. Joseph Baxter Ellis, ex-SheriiF, 

A collision took place in the English Channel, be- 
tween the steamer Nereid, of Newcastle, and the Scot- 
tish ship Killochan, both vessels sinking within a few 
minutes of the crash. Of the 17 men composing the crew 
of the former, 11 were rescued. The crew of the other 
vessel consisted of 25 hands, of whom nine were saved, but 
one man John Stephen, a negro died shortly after- 
wards of exhaustion. 

4. The Right Hon. John Morley, M.P., and Mr. James 
Craig, M.P., addressed their constituents in the Town 
Hall, Newcastle, and received a vote of confidence. 

5. In the London Gazette was printed the text of 
an Order in Council constituting a new parish of Jes- 
mond, Newcastle, to be called the District Chapelry of 
St. George's. On the evening of the 10th, the Bishop of 
Newcastle instituted the Rev. Canon Pennefather as vicar 
of the new parish. On the same occasion his lordship 
dedicated the ring of eight bells which had been presented 
by Mr. Charles Mitchell, of Jesmond Towers, the donor 
of the church. They had been manufactured by Messrs. 
John Taylor and Co., of Loughborough, Leicestershire. 

A report was presented at the fifth annual meeting of 
the Bishop Newcastle's Fund, under the presidency of 
Mr. Albert Grey, showing that something like 70,000 
had been subscribed ; and it was resolved, on the motion 
of Mr. James Joicey, M.P., to continue the effort, and 

add the other 30,000 to complete the scheme of church 

Mrs. Fulton, wife of a labourer at Sunderland, gave 
birth to three children two boys and a girl. One of the 
boys was, however, still-born, and the girl shortly after- 
wards died. 

6. A verdict of "wilful murder" was returned by a 
coroner's jury at Sunderland, against a young girl named 
Mary Elizabeth Stockdale, whose child, Robert Stock- 
dale, 14- months old, had been found drowned in a pond 
in that town. 

7. The annual dinner of the Bewick Club was held in 
the large room of the Exhibition, Pilgrim Street, New- 
castle, under the presidency of Mr. H. H. Emmerson. 
On the following evening the Exhibition was opened by 
the Mayor of Newcastle. 

The Rev. Frank Smith was welcomed as the first 
minister of the Jesmond Baptist Church, Newcastle. 

8. A terrific gale prevailed over Newcastle and the 
North of England. 

9. A society, to be called the United Tyne District 
Labourers' Association, was formed in Newcastle. 

10. The premises of Messrs. Heclley and Co., drapers 
and outfitters, Linthorpe Road, Middlesbrough, were de- 
stroyed by fire, the damage being estimated at 30,000. 

At the Tyne Theatre, Mr. Henry Blackburn, editor 
of " Academy Notes," lectured under the auspices of the 
Tyneside Sunday Lecture Society, on "Pictures of the 

Year : the Royal Academy and the Paris Salon, " the 
chair being occupied by Mr. R. Jobling, vice-president of 
the Bewick Club. 

James Robinson, a boy 14 years of age, was drowned 
while endeavouring to rescue another lad, named John 
Elliott, who, on the ice giving way, had fallen into a pond 
at Spen Colliery, Elliott being afterwards saved by some 




I 188'J. 

11. The Claimant in the celebrated Tichborne case 
appeared and delivered an address in the Gaiety Theatre, 

(general crarreneejs. 


16. A German mission station at Tuga, Zanzibar, was 
attacked by Arabs. Many missionaries were killed and 
barbarously mutilated. 

18. An explosion occurred at Hyde Colliery, near 
Chester, when nearly thirty men lost their lives. 

An election of a Parliamentary representative in 
the place of Sir William Pearce (Liberal Unionist) 
took place at Govan. The result was as follows : John 
Wilson (Gladstonian), 4,420 ; Sir John Fender (Liberal 
Unionist), 3,349 ; majority, 1,071. 

24. Mr. William O'Brien, M.P., was to be tried at 
Carrick-on-Suir, Ireland, for offences under the Crimes 
Act. Owing to a disturbance, the magistrates ordered 
the court to be cleared. A disorderly scene ensued, in 
the course of which Mr. O'Brien left the court, despite 
the efforts of the police to prevent him. Mr. O'Brien 
eluded capture till the 29th, when he was arrested in Man- 
chester, and thence transferred to an Irish prison. 

25. A telegram announced that an English missionary 
and sixteen followers had been murdered near Tan- 
ganyika, East Africa, by Arabs. 

26. General Boulanger was elected for the Department 
of the Seine, France, by a majority of 81,550. 

Death of Archduke Rudolph, Crown Prince of 
Austria. At first it was reported that death arose from 
apoplexy, but it was afterwards revealed that he had 


2. Miss Susan Cobbett died at Farnham Villa, 
Wilmslow, near Macclesfield, at the age of 81. The 
deceased lady was the youngest daughter of the late 
William Cobbett, the editor of The Political Register. 
Mr. Cobbett had four sons, and three, if not more, 
daughters. Mr. William Cobbett, the eldest son, was 
well-known for his long quarrel with the law courts. 
He was imprisoned for contempt, and he and his wife 
made repeated and ingenious attempts to secure his 
release without complying with the stipulation of the 
judges. Mr. James Paul Cobbett, the second son, was 
a barrister. It was to him his father wrote the 
famous letters that constituted "Cobbett's Grammar." 
The third son, Mr. John Morgan Cobbett, married a 
daughter of Mr. Fielden, the well-known supporter of 
the Ten Hours Bill, and was for several years member 
for Oldham. Mr. Richard B. B. Cobbett was a solicitor 
in large practice in Manchester. The two youngest 
daughters, Susan and her sister, for several years lived, 
in modest competency, at Wilmslow. The elder of the 
two sisters still survives. (For an account of Cobbett's 
visits to the Northern Counties, see vol. i., p. 467.) 

3. During the arrest of Father McFadden, at Gwee- 
dore, Ireland, Inspector Martin, of the Irish police, was 
beaten to death by a mob. Several arrests were after- 
wards made. 

5-13. Evidence of a startling character was given before 
the Parnell Commission by Major Le Caron, otherwise 

taken his own life. The most remarkable rumours were 
current for a time, and the rash act was ascribed to an 
improper alliance with a lady. 

Thomas Willis Beach, who had been in intimate associa- 
tion with the Irish secret societies in America, but had 
had all the time been in communication with the British 

Printed by WALTER SCOTT, Felling-on-Tyne. 





VOL. III. No. 26. 

APRIL, 1889. 


at 23itflric& antt tfte 


j|HE battle of Culloden decided finally and 
fatally the fortunes of the young Pretender. 
Amongst the families of the Scottish 
nobility who took part in this great last 
attempt to restore the house of Stuart to the throne of 
Britain was that of Drummond, Earls of Perth. This 
family was at that time represented by James Drummond, 
the sixth earl. His grandfather, the fourth earl, had been 
created Duke of Perth by James II. ; but this was done 
after that monarch's abdicatiou. So our hero was sixth 
earl, or, if you have Jacobite sympathies, third Duke of 

At the battle of Prestonpans, and at the sieges of 
Carlisle and Stirling, Drummond commanded a detach- 
ment of the rebel army, and at Culloden he is said to 
have led the left wing of the Pretender's forces, which 
was principally formed of the clan of Macdonald. When 
swords were drawn and guns fired, the right wing, led by 
Lord George Murray, rushed to the onslaught. The 
Macdonalds considered themselves insulted by this mili- 
tary movement, and, in their vexation, hacked the turf 
beneath their feet with their swords. Drummond endea- 
voured to soothe their wrath, telling them that, if they 
fought with the bravery of their clan, they would make 
their left wing the right wing, and, in honour of their 
'deeds, he would ever after call himself a Macdonald. 
But the fortunes of the day were against the rebel prince. 
The clans led by Gordon rushed forward to be slaughtered. 
The battle was brief, but bloody. And when, at last, the 
rebel ranks turned and fled, the Macdonalds and their 
leader fled also. 

The Earl of Perth fled from the field on horseback. 
He rode on till the darkness of night covered the land, 
and then sought a hiding-place amongst friends. For a 
time he remained in concealment in Scotland. It is said 
that he even returned to Drummond Castle, where his 
widowed mother then resided. The castle itself was less 
safe than the neighbouring woods, in which he spent most 
of his time, always disguised, and often strangely so. He 
was sometimes seen, by persons who recognised him, in 
female dress, barefooted and bareheaded. Meantime, he 
and his brother, and other rebel lords of Scotland, were 
attainted of high treason by Act of Parliament. One day 
a search party came to the castle, expecting to find the 
earl there. Their arrival was unexpected, and he had no- 
time to escape. At length they came to the room where 
he was. When he heard them at the door, he stepped 
into a closet in the wall, before which a domestic planted 
herself and stood motionless until the searchers had gone 
elsewhere. Drummond then came from his hiding- 
place, clambered through the window, and gained the 
trackless woods. 

This and other adventures convinced him of the 
necessity of leaving his native land. He succeeded in 
reaching a vessel bound for the Tyne, and landed at 
South Shields. From Shields he went to Sunderland, 
where he remained for a time, but at length removed to 
South Biddick, a village on the Wear an abode principally 
of pitmen, but a place noted in traditions of the past for 
its smuggling propensities, and for its unlicensed manu- 
facture of spirituous liquors. 

All this had occurred in less than a year from the fatal 




day of Culloden. The earl's only brother, John Drum- 
mood, involved like himself in tha young Pretender's 
rebellion, and included in the same Act of attainder, had 
fled to France, and was now at Boulogne. From thence 
he addressed a letter to his brother at Biddick, dated the 
16th of April, 1747 exactly a year after the battle of 
Culloden in which he said: "I think you had better 
come to France, and you would be out of danger, as I 
find you are living in obscurity at Hough ton-le-Spring." 
(Biddick was then in the parish of Houghton.) "I doubt 
that is a dangerous place yet. . . . You say it is 
reported you died on your passage to France. I 
hope and trust you will still live in obscurity." The 
brothers continued to correspond for a time, but 
John Drummond died at Antwerp in the same year, 1747, 
having never been married. 

When the Earl of Perth settled at Biddick, he took up 
his abode in the family of one John Armstrong, "persons 
in a very humble situation, but of reputable character." 
Armstrong was a pitman, and the motives which led 
Drummond to seek a residence in his family are believed 
to have been, first, to allay suspicion of his rank by the 
humble character of his surroundings ; and, second, the 
consideration of the facilities a pitman might afford him, 
in case of need, to find a secure hiding-place in the 
recesses of a coal mine. 

Drummond, with a view to sustain his slender finances, 
now turned his attention to trade, and became a vendor of 
shoes. In this enterprise he did not succeed. Between 
the importunity of his creditors and the impecuniosity of 
his debtors, he found himself fast going to the wall, and, 
to avoid complete ruin, gave up his small business. 

Between the Earl of Perth and the humble people 
with whom he dwelt a cordial and sincere friendship 
sprung up. To John Armstrong and his wife Drum- 
mond had entrusted the secret of his rank, and in conse- 
quence they took the most vivid interest in his forlorn 
fortunes. But this was not all. They had a daughter, 
Elizabeth, named after her mother. She is described as 
a girl " of exquisite beauty, and amiable disposition and 
manners." She had only reached about her fourteenth 
summer when Drummond entered her father's household. 
He conceived a strong affection for the girl, which she as 
ardently returned a result to which her lover's romantic 
career no doubt contributed not a little. On the 6th of 
November, 1749, there was a wedding in the church of 
Houghton-le-Spring, and the Earl of Perth was married 
to the pretty daughter of the pitman of Biddick. The 
earl was thirty-six and the countess seventeen. 

For a time the newly-married couple still continued to 
live in Armstrong's house ; but by and bye a baby was 
born, and Nicholas Lambton, of Biddick Hall, who 
seems to have learned the story of Drummond's 
life, gave the unfortunate earl the Boat House of 
Biddick for a residence. The occupant of this 
house had charge of the ferry-boat which here plied 

across the Wear. The earl became a ferryman, and in 
the Boat House he established in a limited way the busi- 
ness of a country shopkeeper one of those modest mer- 
cantile establishments where almost everything of small 
cost, in every branch of mercery, grocery, and mongery, 
can be purchased. With the combined profits of the shop 
and the ferry he brought up, in a humble but respectable 
way, a family of six or seven children, 'all born within a 
dozen years after his marriage. So far as the father's 
time permitted he diligently endeavoured to educate his 
offspring, and even at one time formed the ambitious 
project that his eldest son, James, should become a clergy- 
man. He had not, however, the means to afford him the 
requisite scholastic training, but was compelled to send 
him to work in the coal pits. 

The second son, William, was sent to sea, and, in time 
became mate, and afterwards master of a vessel, of 
which latterly he was also part owner. During a pas- 
sage to London, he had the misfortune to be run down by 
another ship. The master and all hands were lost. The 
collision was characterised by details of most horrible 
character. The vessel which ran into Drummond's ship 
appears to have been practically uninjured, and might 
have rescued most, if not all, of the shipwrecked crew. 
Some of these unfortunate men swam to the surviving 
vessel and clambered up its sides, but were beaten off by 
its sailors, who, for this murderous purpose, had armed 
themselves with handspikes and other weapons. This 
worse than barbarous inhumanity was perpetrated by the 
crew at the command of the master, whose carelessness 
had occasioned the calamity, in order that no one from 
the wrecked ship should live to tell the story. These 
facts were afterwards made known by a boy who was on 
the vessel that escaped. Steps were taken to bring the 
murderers to justice; but the lapse of time and the ab- 
sence of sufficient evidence rendered this impracticable. 

It has been said that at thetimeofWilliam Drummond's 
death at sea, he had with him a number of family papers 
and other documents which related to his father's 
title and claims to the earldom of Perth. If this was 
actually the case, they were irrecoverably lost. 

The earl had been the occupant of Biddick Boat House 
a little more than twenty years, when a most disastrous 
flood occurred throughout the North of England. This 
was during the night of the 17th of November, 1771. The 
boat-house was carried away by the torrent. The lives 
of its occupants even were in the greatest danger. But 
the ferry-boat, which had been so long a means of adding 
to their income, stood them in good stead now. By its 
means Drummond carried his family to a place of 
safety, and their little homestead was left to its 
fate. When the flood had subsided, it was found 
that scarcely a single article of furniture had been 
saved. Amongst all the treasures, however, which they 
had lost, that which they chiefly regretted was a chest 
This chest contained " a tanned leather pouch, or bag. 

April 1 



or paper case, with three pockets, wherein were con- 
tained his (Drummond's) memorandm book, various 
family papers, letters, documents, &c. ; amongst which was 
a Ducal Patent of Nobility, as it was called when spoken 
of by him to the family, and also a favourite diamond 
ring, all which things had belonged to the Drummond 
family." The loss of these articles was deeply regretted, 
for it seems to have been at all times a hope amongst 
Drummond's family that the day would come when they 
might claim the lands of their ancient inheritance, and 
when these documents would be of the greatest value as 
evidence of their title. The " Ducal Patent of Nobility " 
is supposed to have been the original patent granted by 
James II. when he created James Drummond, the fourth 
earl, the Duke of Perth. So anxious was the sixth earl 
to recover this document that he spent many days in 
wandering along the shores of the Wear, hoping to find 
it. He was doomed to disappointment. 

More than once after the earl took up his abode at 
Biddick, he returned in disguise to his native land, and 
visited the scenes of his early life. On one occasion he 
went to Drummond Castle, and asked the housekeeper to 
conduct him through the apartments. She complied with 
his request, humming as she went from room to room, 
"The Duke of Perth's Lament." When he reached the 
apartment which once was his own, he cried out, " This 
is the duke's own room," and burst into tears. At 
another time, when he was disguised as a beggar, ne 
entered the house of a garrulous weaver, probably to 
gather up the traditions and gossip of the district. The 
clock struck. " What do you think of a machine like that 
in a poor weaver's house ?" exclaimed the man of warp 
and woof. To which the earl, taking out his massive 
ancestral gold watch, replied, "What do you think of a 
thing like that in a poor beggar's pocket ?" 

Towards the close of his life Drummoud was seized by a 
strone desire once more to visit the home of his fathers. 
To effect a full disguise a soldier's old red coat was pur- 
chased at Newcastle by his wife. Attired in this, he set 
out. In the neighbourhood of Drummond Castle he made 
himself known to various persons in whom he had confi- 
dence, and, amongst others, to a Mr. Graeme. His friend 
induced him to lay aside, at least whilst his guest, the 
soldier's coat, and lent him one in its place which better 
befitted his true rank. Throughout his career he seems 
to have maintained the bearing of a nobleman ; for, no 
sooner was the beggar's disguise put off and the dress of 
a gentleman assumed, than a lady who was present in- 
voluntarily exclaimed, "the duke looks like himself 
again." It was no doubt his distinguished figure which 
led General Lambton, the relative of. Nicholas Lambtaa, 
Drummond's benefactor, to exclaim one day on meeting 
him, far more in jest than in earnest, " Ah, you are the 
rebel Drummond ; 111 have you beheaded." Nicholas 
himself is said to have employed a similar but milder form 
of greeting. " I know you well enough ; you are one of the 

Drummonds, the rebels, but the Boat House and garden 
are yours for all that." . 

The inevitable lot of humanity <jame at length to the 
fallen Earl of Perth. He died at Biddick early in June, 
1782, in his seventieth year, and was buried at Painshaw 

Two years after the death of James Drummond, sixth 
Earl of Perth, the Act of attainder passed soon after the 
young Pretender's rebellion was repealed, and another 
Act was passed to enable George III. to restore forfeited 
estates to the heirs of attainted persons. The Act itself, 
in most cases, states who these heirs were, but the heirs 
of the Earl of Perth had not been ascertained. It, there- 
fore, declares only "That it shall and may be lawful 
to his Majesty, his Heirs and Successors, to give, grant, 
and dispose to the Heirs Male of the said John 

Drummond all and every the lands. 

lordships, baronies, fisheries, tithes, patronages, and other 
heritages and estates, which became forfeited .... 
by the attainder of the said John Drummond." The Act 
was evidently framed under the belief that James Drum- 
mond, the sixth earl, had died before his younger brother 

If, at this point in the story, the sixth earl's eldest son, 
James Drummond, then a pitman at Biddick, had come 
forward and asserted his claims, the subsequent course of 
events might have been very different from what it was. 
But he did not. He is represented as being deterred 
from doing this by several reasons. He was, in the first 
place, to a large extent, unacquainted with passing 
events. In addition to this he was extremely poor, and 
scarcely able to afford a shilling for any purpose except 
the maintenance of his family. But he appears princi- 
pally to have been deterred from making any claim by a 
timidity of disposition which was probably fostered by 
the secluded life which his father had necessarily led. 
He lived to the age of 70 years, and died at Biddick on 
the 7th February, 1823, and was buried near his father at 
Painshaw Church. 

During this long period, however, other claimants had 
not been idle. Soon after the repeal of the Act of at- 
tainder, one Captain James Drummond came forward, 
and represented himself as the direct lineal descendant 
and nearest heir male of James, fourth Earl of Perth. 
At this time the sixth earl and his brother were both be- 
lieved to have died shortly after the battle of Culloden, 
and the descendants of their grandfather were, in conse- 
quence, regarded as their heirs-at-law. This Captain 
Drummond appears to "have been able to bring forward 
evidence which satisfied the Court of Session that he was 
heir to the earldom ef Perth, and on payment of a fine of 
52,547 Is. 6id., the estates of the Drummonds were 
granted to him by the king. 

It has been asserted that this Captain Drummond 
attained the estates by personating an individual 
who died at Lisbon four or five years before 



I April 

the claim was made, and who was the real heir 
of the fourth Earl of Perth. But as this question does 
not affect the claim of the pitman's family of Biddick, we 
need not stay to discuss it. Tbis Captain James Drum- 
mond, whoever he might be in reality, was afterwards 
created Lord Perth, and died in 1800, leaving an only 
daughter, who afterwards married Lord Gwydyr. 

The second James Drummond of Biddick left a family, 
of whom the eldest son was Thomas Drummond, a man 
of very different disposition from that of his father. He 
inherited the traditions of his family, and, soon after his 
father's death, devoted himself diligently to the accumu- 
lation of evidence of his heirshlp to the earldom of Perth. 
The first Lord Durham is known to have believed in 
Drumniond's claim, and to have aided him in collecting 
evidence and pursuing his cause. In June, 1831, the case 
came on for hearing at the Cannongate Court Room, 
Edinburgh, when the jury unanimously decided that 
Thomas Drummond, of Biddick, was "nearest and lawful 
heir male of his deceased great-granduncle, Lord Edward 
Drummond," and so had every legitimate claim to the 
earldom of Perth and the estates of the Drummonds. 

The time was now approaching when the case was to 
come before the House of Lords. The Earl of Durham 
was ready to exert himself in every way in the claimant's 
favour. Unfortunately, however, at this point, Drum- 
mond incurred his patron's displeasure. The pitman was 
"a tolerable performer on the violin," which he used to 
carry with him into public-houses, and entertain his 
friends with stories of his family history, interspersed 
with musical performances. The company freely paid 
for his liquor, and he ceased to be a sober man. He used 
to tell them that, when he came to his estates, "worth 
eighty thousand a year," he would set them all right. 
But this was not all. Drummond must be prepared to 
appear at the bar of the House of Lords; 
so a dress suit was procured for him. Anxious 
to impress the villagers of Biddick with his finery, 
he displayed himself in the lane dressed as he in- 
tended to appear before the Lords in London. Alas ! 
the roughs of Biddick assailed him, and tore his swallow- 
tailed coat to shreds. The night before he was to appear 
at the House of Lords, the Earl of Durham's butler, in a 
mischievous lark, plied him with as much wine as he 
could induce him to swallow. The consequence was that, 
when he was summoned into the earl's room, he was 
"drunk and incapable." Lord Durham was disgusted, and 
refused to have anything further to do with the claimant. 

The case was at length heard in the House of Lords, 
but the decision of the peers was against the pitman. 

The claimant died on the 18th November, 1873, at the 
age of 81 years. Some of his descendants still live in the 
neighbourhood of Biddick, but have wisely refrained from 
reviving their claims, except perhaps in the fireside gossip 
of the village. 

I have told the story of the Earldom of Perth as it was 
told by the Drummonds, pitmen of Biddick. There it, 
of course, another version. The printed genealogies of 
the family state that James Drummond, the sixth earl, 
died on board the vessel in which he and his brother had 
embarked for France, shortly after the battle of Oulloden. 
There seems, in the case printed on behalf of the Biddick 
claimant, to be strong evidence against thi state- 
ment. On the other hand, Robert Chambers, in his 
"History of the Rebellion," mentions that in the chapel 
of the English Nuns at Antwerp, where John Drummond, 
the sixth earl's brother, was buried, there are elegantly 
expressed Latin epitaphs on both brothers. The epitaph 
on James Drummond, the sixth earl, is strong evidence 
that he was actually dead at the time when it was 
inscribed, which was, I take it, shortly after the death of 
his brother. If this be granted, there is no ground left on 
which to call in question the award of the Drummond 
estates made in 1785, unless, indeed, it be contended that 
the Captain James Drummond who then claimed and 
had his claim allowed, was a personator. But, if this 
even were assumed, it would in no way affect the case of 
the pitmen of Biddick. J. R. BOYLE, F.S.A. 


I HE illustration of a Chartist spear, copied 
from a sketch kindly made by Mr. W. H. 
Knowles, architect, recalls to memory the 
political turmoil that accompanied the agitation for 
reform in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. In 
the North of England especially the " physical force " 
part of the movement is associated with the hardy 
blacksmith community which had grown up at Win- 
laton. The organization of the great Crowley 
establishment at that village* was originally carried 
out on lines upholding Church and King in a 
highly orthodox fashion. Even the celebration of 
the North-Country "bonefire" was altered from 
Midsummer Day, and made an annual festival in loyal 
commemoration of Royal Oak Day. But the com- 
munistic principles which had been fostered under the 
system of working grew apace in latter days ; and 
"Crowley's Crew" developed a school of independent 
and unorthodox political thought in striking contrast 
with the ways of the older time. 

It was thus that the movement for reform in Parlia- 
ment found staunch adherents in the Blacksmith 
City. The Winlaton men had indeed "thews and 
sinews like their ancestors," and as they were 
also the cunningest of craftsmen in ironwork they 
naturally expressed their feelings and prepared to 

* For n account of Growler's Crew, see Monthly Chronicle, 
vol. ii.,' page 97. 



enforce their claims 
weapons made by 

at the point of formidable 
their own hands. These 
home-made arms were turned out in hundreds. 
Fowling-pieces were craftily acquired. 
Pattereeriet (the survival of the ancient 
paterero, or ship's cannon) were also 
obtained, and no less than fourteen of 
them were ready for use. Hand-gren- 
ades were ingeniously constructed from 
the strong stoneware material of empty 
blacking bottles. These were wrapped 
in stout canvas bags, filled with cuttings 
of nailrods and gunpowder, and then 
fitted with a fuse passing through the 
cork. But the characteristic weapons 
were those forged on the anvil by the 
Winlaton men themselves, and these 
were of three kinds. The " craa's foot " 
(the caltrop of the military strategist) 
was produced in large quantities. It 
was like a spur made with four sharp 
points arranged in triangular form, so 
that when thrown on the ground three 
points formed the base, and left a single 
deadly point upright. These contri- 
vances were intended to be sown thickly 
on the roads to impede the passage of 
cavalry. There was also the " pike," a 
light iron head, made like a halbert in 
shape, with a sharp thrusting point at 
the end. It had two edges, with an axe 
on one face, and a sharp, bent, knife- 
edged spur on the other. The pike had 
a short handle, and it could be concealed 
on the person. Its use was intended to 
be that of cutting the bridle of a cavalry 
soldier with the knife-like projection, 
and of either thrusting with the point, 
or giving a blow with the axe-faced 
side. The third weapon fabricated was 
the formidable arm here illustrated. It 
was a spear-head, and was socketed on 
a staff about eight or nine feet loner. 
The one here shown was forged by Mr. 
George Marshall, of Winlaton, who emi- 
grated to the United States in March, 
1840. It is a really fine specimen 
of smith- work "off the hammer," no 
finish having been put upon it after it left the anvil. For 
fifty years this weapon has been preserved in the possession 
of the family from whom it was obtained for presentation 
to the Black Gate Museum, Newcastle, where it now rests. 
It is at once an evidence of the skilful handicraft of the 
smith who wrought it, and a vivid memento of a turbulent 
time gone by. 
It will occur to anyone that these arms of the " physical 

force Chartists " were, after all, not weapons of offence, 
but of defence. Pike, and crowfoot, and spear were chiefly 
intended for protection from a charge of cavalry, and, 
happily, the history of the movement does not record the 
use of these weapons in actual conflict. That the men 
who bore them were resolute admits of little question, 
notwithstanding the many stories current to the contrary. 
It has, for instance, bean alleged that on slight occasion 
panic prevailed, and that they were then in the condition 
of Falstaff and his army- 
Scattered and possessed with fear 

So strongly that they dare not meet each other ; 

Each takes his fellow for an officer. 

But the men of Winlaton were no such cowards when 
they appeared as a community in arms. Their prepara- 
tions were made with the calmest care, and were planned 
with all the forethought of a well disciplined organiza- 
tion. Every man had his post, knew his instructions, 
and was exercised in the use of his means of defence. 
That this was the case is shown by an episode in which 
the agitation may be said to have culminated. It has 
been described as "A Memorable Night at Winlaton," 
and has been so graphically told by one who was there 
that it must be given in his own words. 

The narrator is Mr. Isaac Jeavons, the respected secre- 
tary of the Blacksmiths' Friendly Society. "Late at 
night, or at early morning," Mr. Jeavons relates, "two 
of the Newcastle Chartists arrived at Winlaton. 
They brought news that cavalry were coming to 
search the village for arms. The fife and drum 
immediately went round the town to arouse the inhabit- 
ants. The patereeries, fourteen in number, were fired 
with blank cartridge, then loaded with grape shot, and 
planted on the Sandhill ready for action. Men were told 
off, in twos and threes, to all the roads leading into the 
village. Each party had a gun, and their orders were 
that, if they should see or hear the approaching cavalry, 
the gun had to be fired. This was the signal for all out- 
lying sentinels to fall back and take up their places 
in the town. Two of the Winlaton leaders being 
marked by the authorities, were advised to keep out of 
the way. One of them 
was Edward Summer- 
side, who had been in- 
carcerated for selling 
unstamped newspapers; 
the other was Ellison 
Clark. Men with fowl- 
ing-pieces loaded with 
ball took up allotted 
positions, each man in 
his place. Hand gren- 
ades and crow feet were 

all planted ready for action. All pikes and spear 
heads not required for immediate use, were stowed 
away and hidden. The places of the two leading 
Chartists, who had been urged away, were taken 

"A OEAA poor." 



I April 
I 1989. 

by earnest men who were seen going about from place 
to place conversing in undertones with the men at 
their various posts. Happily, the news brought from 
Newcastle proved to be a false alarm, and the excitement 
subsided as daylight appeared. The episode, however, 
formed a turning point in the history of the movement at 
Winlaton, for after this some of the Chartists there began 
to lose faith in the Newcastle branch, and the agitation 
gradually began to subside. " 

Mr. Jeavons well remembers two of the general 
leaders of the Chartist movement. "During the agi- 
tation," he says, " Mr. George Julian Harney used 
to stop in Winlaton for weeks together. Mr. Harney 
was well known and greatly respected among the men for 
his genial conversation and manners. His buoyant youth, 
his hearty laugh, his favourite song, and the very tone 
and accent of his voice are recollected. The great 
Chartist lecturer, Dr. Taylor, was for some time concealed 
here, when there was a warrant out for his apprehension ; 
L~t it began to be suspected that he was in Winlaton, and 
he was in consequence sent away to Alston or its neigh- 
bourhood, where soon after he was apprehended and im- 

This narrative of an eye-witness enables ns to realize 
vividly how near to our own days and to our own doors 
the peril of a civil war was laid, and it gives a reality to 
the memento of the times preserved in this Chartist 

(Svfftttf Hufte iJuftrrlffd at 

ilHEN the allied sovereigns visited England 
after the overthrow of Napoleon, Alexander 
I., the Emperor of Russia, was accompanied 
by his brother Nicholas, afterwards destined to become 
Emperor himself. The Grand Duke Nicholas (for such 
was his then rank), anxious to see something of the 
method of working coals in this country, came down 
to the North to acquire the knowledge he needed. 

Among the prominent people to whom he was furnished 
with letter? of introduction was the Rev. Dr. Gray, then 
Rector of Bishopwearmouth, afterwards Bishop of Bris- 
tol. Dr. Gray introduced him to Dr. Clanny, showed him 
the bridge over the Wear, and entertained him to 
lunch in the Rectory. Subsequently, the Grand Duke, 
in company with his suite, which consisted of Sir William 
Congreve, the inventor of the Congreve rocket, and 
some half dozen Russian noblemen in military uniform, 
set out for Newcastle. Here he visited the Royal 
Jubilee School, through which he was shown by the 
Rev. William Turner, the celebrated Unitarian minister. 
Here likewise he inspected, with much curiosity and 
interest, several beautiful specimens of wood engraving 

laid before him by Mr. Thomas Bewick. The Grand 
Duke was invited by the Mayor (Sir Thomas Burdon) to 
partake of the hospitalities of the town, but these were 
courteously declined on the plea of other engagements. 
Afterwards he paid a visit to Alnwick Castle. 

The "illustrious stranger" arrived at Wallsend on 
December 16, 1816. Mr. John Buddie, the viewer of the 
colliery, had received instructions to show his Highness 
all that was to be seen, both above and below ground, 
and make him fully acquainted with the mode of winning 
and working the coal, ventilating the pits, &c. He was 
taken to Mr. Buddie's residence, which was situated 
in the immediate vicinity of the principal pit ; and there 
he was politely asked to take off his glittering uniform 
and orders, and put on the dress worn by a deputy-over- 
man, consisting of thick flannel trousers and a jacket of 
the same. This metamorphosis he accordingly under- 
went, and was then escorted to the mouth of the pit 
down which he was to be lowered. 

As almost all our readers doubtless know, the pits are 
round holes, of about 10 feet in diameter, sunk into the 
earth to the depth in some cases of 300 fathoms, nearly 
one-third of a mile, and divided by a wooden partition or 
brattice the whole way down, so as to form two shafts, 
one known as the upcast and the other the downcast. 
Before the general adoption of Fourdrinier's apparatus, 
the mode of descending a shaft was either by entering a 
large basket or corve used for hauling up the coals, or by 
putting one leg through a large iron hook at the end of 
the rope and clinging by the hands to the chain to which 
it was appended. The latter mode, contrary to what 
might be imagined, was the best and safest, and for this 
reason, that the basket was liable to catch the sides of the 
pit, and be thus turned upside down. Each person was 
provided with a short stick to keep himself from grazing 
the black and dripping walls as he proceeded downwards, 
and the rapidity of the descent was such as to render this 
precaution highly expedient. 

Wallsend pit was at that period in the full enjoyment 
of its fame as sending up the finest coals in the world, and 
on this account it had been selected to give the Russian 
prince the best possible idea of what a coal pit was like, 
and how it was worked so profitably as to nett its owners 
an annual income of fifty or sixty thousand pounds. 
There were no coal mines of any consequence then 
in Russia, and Nicholas had never seen one in his 
life. What idea he had formed in his own mind 
of a coal pit it is impossible to say ; but it is to be pre- 
sumed that he had either thought little about the matter 
or been very wrongly informed on the subject. For when 
Mr. Buddie escorted him up the ladder leading to the 
platform of the pit-mouth, and introduced him to the 
scene of operations, he stopped suddenly short, and 
asked with alarm whether that was really the place to 
which he had been recommended to come. Upon being 
assured that such was actually the case, he went forward 



to the very edge of the pit, and attempted to look down 
into the Tartarean abyss, up which a blinding smoke was 
rising ; then, stepping precipitately back, and holdincr up 
his hands in horrified amazement, he exclaimed in 
French, "Ah! my God, it is the mouth of hell! none 
but a madman would venture into it ! " After uttering 
these words, he hastily retreated, made his way back to 
Mr. Buddie's house, and there, slipping off his coarse, 
vulgar flannels as quickly as he could, again assumed his 
splendid uniform of a Russian general, with the badges 
of half the military orders in Europe hung about him. 
Then, without a minute's delay, he left Wallsend Colliery 
far behind him, never to attempt the exploration of 
another coal mine. 

(JAMES HOGG, the Ettrick Shepherd, though 
not a native of the district, was more 
familiar with every part of the Border 
country south of the Cheviots than any person to the 
manner born. His capital story of "The Long Pack," 
which is re-printed in the Monthly Chronicle, vol. i., p. 
250, is enough to entitle him to rank among the literary 
lions of Northumberland. Hogg was in the habit of 
singing the following song to the tune of "The Laird o' 
Cockpen, " when on a visit to his friends in Reedsdale : 

O the de'il's in the lasses, they taigle us sae, 
They're sweet as the hawthorn they're sour as the slae ; 
Though their souls seem as pure as the down on the swan, 
They would gan to auld Nick for a gallant young man. 
There were three bonny lasses that wonn'd in a glen, 
They wanted for naething but gallant young men ; 
They had gowd in their coffers, and dwelt in a ha', 
But they'd nae ane to lie between them and the wa'. 
Now the brown leaves were strewn upon Otterburn lea, 
And the robin was pourin' his plaint fra the tree ; 
And the wood flowers that late were sae blopmin'and gay, 
Drooped lowly and breathed their sweet spirits away, 

While these three dainty dames sat alone in their ha', 
Wi' their cheek on their hand, like arose 'mang the snaw ; 
O there's fifty braw fallows would hae mounted and run 
Had they ken'd what thae lasses were thinkin' upon. 

Then out spoke wee Annie, the youngest of a' 
Like the dew frae young rosebuds her accents did fa' 
" Charlie says that he loves me, but does na he ken 
That I've seen the bud blossom these aught years and ten?" 

Then Marion whisper'd I ne'er could tell what, 
Twas something 'bout Sandy, the Laird o' Dunlat ; 
And Jean shook down a shower o' loose ringlets like gowd, 
And said Robin was free, baith to them and the snood.* 

Thae lasses were mad each to hae a gudeman, 

Their aiths they hae pledged they hae plighted their 


They have trysted to meet at the mirk hour o' twar, 
And to learn the hail truth tho' they wrench'd it frae 


They met, and their deevilish cantrips they tried, 
Wi' each a lang rowan treet wand by her side ; 

* The snood, or snudge, was a fillet or ribbon, the wearing of 
which was the mark of maidenhood. 

t The rowan, roun, roan, or royne-tree, the mountain ash, was 
believed to be a sure preservative against witchcraft 

They shiver'd, and summon'd the spirits below 
To say gin they e'er sud be wedded or no. 

When, dreadfu" to sing o', three demons appear, 
Wi' a black hairy hide frae their hoof to their ear, 
And a tail playin' plisk their rough hurdies between, 
As deevils o' credit hae always been seen ! 

" We ken what ye're seekin'," ae deevil did say, 

But Jeanie and Annie had clean swarf'd away, 

When twa o' the demons sprang out wi' a yell, 

And caught the poor things to their breasts ere they fell. 

O wha ever heard o' sic deevils as mine ? 
They leapt frae their hides in a moment o' time ; 
Each mounted his bride on a braw mettled steed, 
And awa' for the Border at top o' their speed. 

Now at Gretna thae damies awoke the next morn, 
What had passed in the mirk hours I never could learn ; 
But when Phcebus keek'd into their chamber, he saw 
That they'd somebody laid between them an' the wa' ! 


j]MMORTALISED by Scott in the stirring 
rhythm of "Marmion," depicted with 
wondrous beauty and effect by Turner's 
magic touch, and filling many a page of 
history with all the charm of romance, "Norham's 
castled steep," as it stands beetling over "Tweed's fair 
river broad and deep," is an ideal scene of the Borderland. 
Its stern, embattled front tells the story of much strife 
and trouble, and still we see the " loophole grates " where 
captives were wont to weep ; but times have changed 
since the real Marmion with his golden helm rode 
single-handed into a throng of hostile Scots, "all 
for the love of his ladye." Norham was then 
deemed " the daungerest place in England " ; it is now a 
peaceful pastoral scene, and, under the softening hand of 
Time, the old keep attracts no more attention than as a 
monument of a martial period. 

Even since Turner painted his famous picture of 
"Norham Castle," in which in imagination we can 
see the turrets shining "in yellow lustre," the aspect of 
the keep has altered, for trees are gradually spreading up 
the slope of the hill, and, viewed from the Village 
Cross, half a mile away, the square tower is half 
hidden by its umbrageous robes. Into one of the 
flanking walls, too, a gardener's cottage has been 
built, and visitors from far and near by road, rail, 
or river can bear testimony to the excellence of the 
gardener's fruit, and the choice flavour of his goodwife's 
tea, when served in the romantic shelter of the Marmion 
Arch. Through this archway, it is supposed, Sir William 
Marmion rode full tilt at his enemies ; and through this 
archway also, in ascending the hill, the visitor obtains a 
pretty glimpse in perspective of the keep within. Our 
view given in the larger illustration taken from a water- 
colour drawing by Mr. C. X. Sykes is that selected by 
Landseer for his painting of the Castle, his standpoint 
being on a mound a little to the right of the Marmion 



Arch. The smaller illustration presents the southern 
view of the keep, and the door to be seen at the bottom 
of the building affords access to the dungeon. 

The Castle grounds are now kept with great care. 
Thanks to the artistic taste of Mr. H. E. H. Jerningham 
Mrs. Jerningham, of Longridge Towers, being the 
proprietrix rustic gates have been fixed in various por- 
tions of the ruins, and advantage has been taken of an 
outstanding portion of the works on the northern side to 
erect a grassy platform which commands a view of 
th interior of the keep as well as of the valley 
of the Tweed. In the gardener's cottage will be 
found a visitors' book, which bears many notable 
signatures, including the caligraphy of Count 
Herbert von Bismarck and M. Gambetta. The 
latter, however, wrote an assumed name. Mr. Jerning- 
ham, we need hardly say, is the author of the most reliable 
work to be had on Norham Castle. The book, which also 
deals with early Christianity in the North, is written in a 
graceful and picturesque style, and is published in a 
tasteful form by Mr. William Paterson, of Edinburgh. 

Camden describes the Castle as having " an outer wall 
of great compass, with many little towers in the angle 
next the river, and, within, another circular wall much 
stronger, in the centre whereof rises a loftier tower." 
Part of the ruins have been undermined by the 
river, and little remains except the great keep 

tower, 70ft. high, and the double gateway, which led to 
the bridge over the ancient moat, now a green hollow. 
The Castle was originally built by Ralph Flambard in 
1121, but was taken and partially destroyed by David, 
King of Scots, in 1138. It was subsequently restored by 
Bishop Pudsey, who built the great tower in 1154. King ' 
John had three conferences here with William the Lion of 
Scotland one in 1203, another in 1209, and yet another 
two years later. That in 1209 was respecting a castle 
at Tweedmouth, which John had twice tried to build, 
and William had as often pulled down ; and at the 
meeting in 1211 peace was ratified by the interven- 
tion of Queen Ermengard of Scotland. In 1215 King 
John besieged Norham to revenge the homage paid 
by the Northumbrian barons to Alexander of Scotland ; 
but, being unsuccessful, he was obliged to raise the siege 
in 40 days. In 1286 Edward I. met the Scottish noblea 
at Norham, and afterwards called a parliament at 
Upsetlington, on the other side of the Tweed, to settle 
his claims to the throne of Scotland. John Baliol swore 
fealty in Norham. In 1318 the Castle, then governed by 
Sir Thomas Gray, was besieged by the Scots, but without 
effect, in spite of two forts which they raised against it 
at Norham and Upsetlington. In 1322 it was taken by 
the Scots, but retaken by Edward after a ten days' siege. 
On the night of Edward III. 'a coronation, the Scots 
again besieged it, and took it in the following year. In 

CastU from Thi WcsT. SK-r^-^-JvSSL -_---rr-_-J^-.^ r--~~~-~-.~-^-^=~~==^:~~- 



1355 it was again taken and plundered. In the time of 
Henry VII. it was besieged, but was relieved by Fox, 
Bishop of Durham, and the Earl of Surrey. It was 
finally assaulted just before the battle of Flodden Field, 
and was taken through the advice of a traitor, who urged 
the Scots to descend from Ladykirk Bank to Gin Haugh, 
a flat ground by the river, and thence to throw down the 
north-east corner of the wall with their cannon : 

So when the Scots the walls had won, 

And rifled every nook and place. 
The traitor came to the king anon, 

But for reward met with disgrace. 

"Therefore for this thy traitorous trick 

Thou shalt be tried in a trice ; 
Hangman," therefore quoth he, "be quick ; 

The groom shall have no better price." 

Ballad oj Flodden. 

In 1603 Bishop Mathew devised the Castle to the 
Crown. Dr. George Carleton, the biographer of Bernard 
Gilpin, was born here, while his father was keeper of the 
Castle. "It were a wonderful processe," says Leland, 
" to declare what mischefes cam by hungre and asseges 
by the space of eleven yeres in Northumbreiand ; for the 
Scottes became so proude after they got Berwick, that 
they nothing esteemid the Enelischmen. " 

An incident occurred at Norham which was not only 
woven by Bishop Percy into his ballad of the " Hermit of 
Warkworth," but also, perhaps, guided Sir Walter Scott 
in the choice of Marmion as his hero. Leland tells that 
in the time of Edward II. a great feast was made in 
Lincolnshire, at which a maiden brought a helm of gold 
to Sir William Marmion, "with a letter of commaunde- 
ment of her lady, that he should go into the daungerest 
place in England, and there let his heualme to be aeene 
and knowne as famous." " So," continues Leland, "he 
went to Norham, whither, withyn four dayes of cumming, 
cam Philip Moubray, Gardian of Berwike, having in his 
band 140 men of armes, the very flowr of men of the 
Scottisch marches. Thomas Gray, Capitayne of Norham, 
seying this, brought his garison afore the bariers of the 
castel, behynd whom cam William Marmion, richely 
arrayed, as all glittering in golde, and wearing the 
heualme as his lady's present. Then said T. Gray to 
Marmion, ' Sir Knight, ye be cum hither to fame your 
heualme : mount upon yor horse, and ride like a valiant 
man to yon army, even here at hand, and I forsake God 
if I rescue not thy body, deade or alyve, or I myself wyl 
dye for it.' Whereupon he took his cursore, and rode 
among the throng of enemyes : the which layd sore stripes 
on him, and pullid hym at the last oute of his sadel to the 
ground. Then T. Gray, with the whole garrison, lette 
pryk yn emong the Scottes, and so wonded them and 
their horses that they were overthrowen, and Marmion, 
sore beten, was horsid agayn, and with Gray perseuid 
the Scottes in chase. There was taken 50 horses of price ; 
and the women of Norham brought them to the footemen 
to follow the chase." 

Though several villas have sprung up of late, the village 

of Norham consists chiefly of a single wide street, with a 
green, in the centre of which stands a queer pyramidal 
cross. It was anciently called Ubbanford, and, being the 
capital of the district of Norhamshire, was the place 
where the bishops of Durham exercised justice and held 
their exchequer. The Culdees, missionaries from lona, 
are said to have first preached the gospel in Northumber- 
land in this place. Gospatrick, Earl of Northumberland, 
died here, and was buried in the church porch. 

A church was built here by Egfrid, Bishop of Lindis- 
farue, and dedicated to St. Peter, St. Cuthbert, ind St. 
Ceolwulf, and hither Egfrid caused the remains of the 
Royal Ceolwulf (to whom Bede dedicated his church 
history) to be brought from Lindisfarne. Ceolwulf's feast 
was kept with much solemnity, and the country people 
used to come on that day to make offerings at his shrine. 

The feast of the translation of St. Cuthbert's body was 
also observed here with great splendour on the first 
Sunday and Monday after the 4th of September. A 
stone discovered in Norham bears the effigies of 
St. Peter, Cuthbert, and Ceolwulf. The present Church of 
St. Cuthbert is a handsome building, having a massive 
tower, with Norman zigzag arches. It was modernized 
1846-52, and restored at the instance of the Rev. Canon 
Waite about five years ago. The nave has a Norman 
arcade of five bays. The church is Norman, but the east 
end is Early Decorated. It contains the figure of a knight 
under a bold Decorated canopy ; also the effigy by Lough 
11857) of a former rector, Dr. Gilly, author of the " His- 
tory of the Waldenses." The stained glass is by Ballan- 
tine. The church had formerly three chantries, and pos- 
sessed the privilege of 37 days' sanctuary. 
There is a pleasant walk by the riverside. On the oppo- 



site bank are the woods of Ladykirk, with the church, 
dedicated by Jamea IV. to the Virgin in gratitude for 
having been preserved from drowning in a dangerous 
passage of the Tweed. 

j]R. THOMAS SOPWITH, M.A., F.R.S., was 
born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on January 3rd, 
1803, his father being a large cabinetmaker 
and joiner in the town. To this trade he was first 
apprenticed ; but the bent of his mind was altogether in 
the direction of literary and scientific pursuits, and he 
soon gave up the practical part of his father's business. 

When he had finished his apprenticeship, he left the 
cabinetmaker's bench, and studied land and mining sur- 
veying under Mr. Dickinson at Alston Moor. In these 
branches he became so competent and useful that Mr. 
Dickinson took him into partnership. He remained at 
Alston four years, and prepared, in conjunction with his 
partner, all the plans and sections of the lead mines in 
Alston belonging to the Greenwich Hospital. About the 
same time, also, he was employed in similar work for 
the Corporation of Newcastle and others. He found 
time, too, to publish an account with plans of the interior 
of All Saints' Church, Newcastle-on-Tyne. The etched 
plans and sections of the great Hudgill Burn Lead Mine, 
having been seen by the learned Dr. Buckland, professor 
of geology, led to an intimacy between the two gentlemen 
which ended only with the doctor's death. It was during 
his residence at Alston that he made the friendship of 
Mr. Hugh Lee Pattinson. Mr. Sopwith, though still a 
young man, was now beginning to make a reputation in 
the profession he had adopted ; and in 1830 we find him 
established in Newcastle as a civil and mining engineer, 
where he soon formed an excellent and lucrative business. 
Amongst other important matters, he surveyed and 
levelled a new road between Newcastle and Otterburn, 
and he began to be consulted by many of the leading 
county gentry on matters affecting their estates. In 
1832, Mr. Sopwith entered upon offices in the then newly- 
built Royal Arcade, where he continued until the year 
1845, in which year he received the valuable appointment 
of agent to the W.B. Lead Mines of Northumberland 
and Durham. 

During the thirteen years preceding his entrance upon 
this most important post, Mr. Sopwith was concerned in 
very many great undertakings. He made and prepared 
sections and surveys of the Forest of Dean, and showed the 
beds of coal and workings therein, afterwards reporting to 
the Woods and Forests Department of the Government. 
He was also occupied professionally with many great rail- 
waysthe Newcastle and Berwick, London and Brighton, 
Newcastle and Carlisle, and the Sambre and Mouse in 
Belgium; likewise with works connected with the im- 

provement of the River Tyne, &c. Whilst thus 
engaged he could scarcely help coming in contact 
with many eminent engineers, and he thus formed 
friendships with Brunei, Rendel, Buddie, the Ste- 
phensons, Nicholas Wood, and several other gentle- 
men of position in the engineering and scientific 
world. Besides these, he numbered among his intimate 
friends such men as Professors Sedgwick and Faraday, 
Sir Roderick Murchison, the Brothers Chambers, of 
Edinburgh, and indeed nearly all the more celebrated 
men of science of the last fifty years. When the British 
Association first met in Newcastle in 1838, Mr. Sopwith 
contributed no less than six papers on various subjects ; 
and on the second visit, in 1863, he was one of the 
secretaries of the Geological Section, besides contributing 

For the first years of his appointment as Mr. 
Beaumont's agent, Mr. Sopwith resided at Allenheads, 
taking great interest in the welfare of his workpeople, 
and especially in the education of the children. About 
1857, he went to reside in London, and in the year 1871 
he resigned the office of chief-agent of the W.B. Mines, 
which he had held for the long period of 26 years. He at 
the same time retired from the engineering profession, in 
which he had been engaged for fully half-a-century. 


The many honours Mr. Sopwith gained in science and 
art must not be forgotten. He was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, a Fellow of the Society of Arts, and a 
member of the Institute of Civil Engineers. His largest 
work, that on "Isometrical Drawing," went through 
several editions. "An Account of the Mining Districts 
of Alston Moor, Weardale, and Teesdale," had also a 
large sale. He was a frequent contributor to newspapers 



and magazines, and wrote several educational works, 
books of travel, &e. 

Mr. Sopwith died at his residence in London, 16th 
January, 1879, aged 76 years. Up to within a short time 
of his death, he had always enjoyed the best of health. A 
writer to whom we have been much indebted for a great 
deal of the information here given says of him : "With 
his natural flow of high spirits, conversational powers, and 
well-stored and retentive memory, he was a genial com- 
panion and a good friend, and will be long remembered 
with feelings of satisfaction by those whose advantage it 
was to have the pleasure of his acquaintance." The 
same authority gives us this interesting piece of informa- 
tion : "He was a ready and precise writer, as is proved 
by his journal, which consists of 168 volumes, containing 
descriptions of places and people, and numerous and 
amusing pen and ink sketches, which would do credit to 
a professional artist. This journal was begun when he 
was eighteen years of age, and continued to within a fort- 
night of his death, a period of fifty-eight years." 

ililltllt.-uir SFntrft, C0btatttn- 
atttr JFxvnuv. 

JIT is simply a record of history that James 
I. of England, his son, and his two grand- 
sons, laboured assiduously to overturn the 
Presbyterian government of the Scottish 
Church. Charles II., when he had sought refuge with 
the Scots, signed the famous Covenant which bound all 
subscribers to defend the true religion, to oppose all 
errors and corruptions, to unite for the defence of the 
king and his authority, and for the preservation 
of the religion, laws, and liberty of his kingdom. 
But, with that want of sincerity which was a prominent 
feature of the Stuart kings, he used to observe that 
" Presbyteriauism was not a religion for a gentleman." 
The religious persecution which ensued as a natural result 
of the king's determination to establish Episcopacy by 
force led to a-serious insurrection. The people, following 
their own pastors, celebrated divine worship in the fields 
or glens of their native country ; while, on the other side, 
severe penalties were enacted against all who attended 
these meetings or conventicles. 

Many ministers, distinguished for real courage and 
sincere piety, sacrificed their interests to their religious 
principles ; and amongst the most persecuted of these 
was William Veitch, the subject of this sketch. His 
father, John Veitch, was minister of Roberton, near 
Lanark, for 45 years, and William was born there in 
1640. John, the second son, was'minister of Westruther, 
in Berwickshire, for 54 years; James was ordained 
minister of Mauchline in 1656 ; and David was minister 
of Govan. 

William took his degrees at Glasgow University in 1650. 
Owing to appearances that Episcopacy was apparently 
to be the established religion of the kingdom, he resolved 
to pursue the practice of physic. This, however, he was 
dissuaded from following, through the advice of Mr. 
Livingstone, minister of Ancrum, who, showing the great 
esteem in which his brothers were held in the Church, 
besought him to follow in their steps. In 1663 he became 
chaplain to Sir Hugh Campbell, of Calder, in Moray- 
shire, but was forced to leave about September, 1664, 
for, according to law, none were permitted to be 
chaplains in families, to teach any public school, 
or to be tutors to the children of persons of quality 
without the license of the Episcopal Bishop of the 
diocese. He, therefore, returned home to his father, who 
had been ejected from his living, and had taken up his 
residence at Lanark, and while staying under the parental 
roof he became acquainted with Marion Fairlie (born 
1638), whom he made his wife in November, 1664. 

Scarcely had two years of married life passed over their 
heads when the first blast of persecution fell upon them. 
He was persuaded by the Rev. John Welch, minister of 
Irongray, to join that party of Covenanters which, after 
having raised 1,500 men, fell upon Sir James Turner's 
western forces, and made their commander prisoner. 
Their spirits having by this enterprise been con- 
siderably elevated, the Covenanters resolved to march 
on to Edinburgh for the purpose of obtaining 
reinforcements and provisions. From Bathgate they 
went to Collington, where Veitch, who was a 
daring man, was selected to enter Edinburgh to 
consult with Sir James Stuart respecting the assistance 
and supplies they stood so much in need of. He was 
captured and conveyed to Lord Kingston. Policy 
prompted him to offer himself as a volunteer in King- 
ston's front rank to march against the Covenanters, and 
thus he found an opportunity to escape. Not easily 
turned from his purpose, he now entered the city, where 
his errand proved fruitless, and, after being nearly cap- 
tured by Dalziel's horse, he returned to Collington. 

An encounter in which the Covenanters were defeated 
by Dalziel took place on Wednesday, the 28th November, 
1666, at Rullion Green, near the Pentland Hills, and here 
Veitch had another narrow escape from being captured. 
Falling in with a company of the enemy's horse, he was 
carried along with them they not knowing who he was. 
While descending a hill he made his escape, and found 
refuge in a shepherd's cottage on Dunsyre Common, not 
far from his own house. Here he remained in hiding 
for some days, when he managed to escape to Newcastle, 
where he took the name of William Johnstone. 

At Newcastle he contracted a dangerous illness, after 
recovering from which he returned at great risk to Scot- 
land to see his wife, whom he advised to retire to Edin- 
burgh, in order to avoid the annoyance she was subjected 
to by the soldiery who were in quest of him. During 



this visit to the West Hills of Dunsyre, he had another 
narrow escape, but contrived to return safely to New- 

Proceeding soon afterwards to London, he preached 
frequently there, and was on one occasion only saved 
from an exasperated audience by the intervention of 
Colonel Blood, of crown-jewel fame. He returned to 
Northumberland and settled at Fallowlees, in Rothbury 
parish, in 1671. Here he combined farming with his 
religious labours ; and, indeed, it was absolutely neces- 
sary that something should be done for the support of his 
family, as the fifth child made its appearance on the 
19th of July, 1672. 

The persecution he suffered here induced him to retire 
to Harnham Hall, where many attended his preach- 
ings. The mansion house of Major Eabington was given 
him as a residence, and part of it was used as a place of 
worship. The township of Harnham is about one and a 
half miles south-west of Bolam, in which parish it is 
situated. The village stands on the summit of a huge 
sandstone ridge, which in ancient times was crowned by 
a small fort. The manor was held in capite by Bernard 
de Babingtou in 1272, but the antiquity of this family in 
Britain may be traced back as far as the Conquest. Major 
Philip Babington was owner of the estate during Veitch's 
residence there. His wife, Catherine, was the widow of 
Colonel George Fenwick, of Brinkburn, some time 
Governor of Berwick-on-Tweed, and eldest daughter of 
Sir Arthur Heselrigg, of Nosely, in Leicestershire. On 
her death at Harnham, which took place some time after 
June, 1670, she was refused Christian burial, because she 
had died under sentence of excommunication for not 
giving due regard to ecclesiastical rule. This uncharit- 
able treatment perhaps embittered the soul of Major 
Babington against Episcopacy, and may, in a great 
measure, explain the hospitality he displayed towards 
the persecuted Covenanter. 

Veitch was, however, not suffered even here to reside 
in peace, for the clergy persuaded one Justice Lorraine, 
of the Kirkharle family, to issue warrants for his appre- 
hension. Previous to putting this into effect, the justice 
broke his leg in a drunken fit, and was deterred from his 
purpose. For four years Veitch resided at Harnham 
Hall, but, the estate having fallen into other hands 
through the death of his patron, the new landlord refused 
to continue Veitch as a tenant. 

Pvemoving now to Stanton Hall, in Longhorsley parish, 
in May, 1676, he fell under more persecution, especially 
from Thomas Bell a Scotchman who had been educated 
out of charity by the brother of Veitch. This ungrateful 
countryman now occupied the curacy of Allinton, and, 
in revenge for an affront put upon him by the minister of 
Westruther, he omitted no chance of destroying the 
prospects of William Veitch, until, at his instigation, 
Major Oglethorpe apprehended Veitch on Sunday, 
January 19, 1679, and carried him prisoner to the town 

of Morpeth, where he was detained twelve days. 
During the eleventh day of his imprisonment he wrote a 
letter to his wife, stating amid the few comforting assur- 
ances he could (rive her, that an order from Council com- 
manded him to proceed to Edinburgh for examination as 
to his alleged misdemeanours. On receipt of this letter 
his heroic wife set out with a man-servant through a 
storm of snow, for perhaps a last look on her hus- 
band, and had but a short interview with him before the 
drums summoned the guard which was to escort him to 
Edinburgh. The townspeople in Morpeth, Alnwick, 
Belford, and Berwick, we are told, " from curiosity ran 
after him to gaze." 

On the fifth day after Veitch left Morpeth, Thomas 
Bell met his death in a peculiar manner. He had 
been at Newcastle, and called at the residence of the 
curate of Ponteland while on his road home. The 
night was dark, the river Pont was swollen, yet 
Bell was not to be turned from his resolve to reach 
Allinton that night. Two days afterwards he was found, 
shoulder deep, frozen in the river Pont, his boots and 
gloves much cut by struggling in the ice. 

The examination of Veitch took place before the Council 
on February 22, and, although nothing criminal could 
be proven against him, he was kept in prison. Shortly 
afterwards an order came from the king ordering him to be 
handed over to the Criminal Court which met in July, 
in order that sentence of death upon the old charge of 
treason might be passed upon him. Through influence at 
Court, he obtained his liberation, with banishment into 

For some time afterwards he continued to conduct ser- 
vices through the western parts of Northumberland. In 
December, 1681, he was at Berwick, but the town was in 
great uproar through the news of the Earl of Argyle's 
escape from Edinburgh Castle, and Veitch deemed it ad- 
visable to retire to Bowsden, near Lowick, where lived 
his friend Luke Ogle, the ejected minister of Berwick. 

While there he dreamed that his house at Stanton Hall 
was on fire, and awoke in great consternation, with 
the resolve to go home in the morning. Falling 
asleep, he dreamed the same again ; and so im- 
pressed was he that all at home was not right, that 
he immediately set off. When within two miles of his 
own house he was met by his man-servant, who told him 
that search had been made for him for two days, as a 
stranger had made his appearance seeking shelter. The 
stranger was Argyle ! 

After consultation with Argyle, the two set off for Lon- 
don, the earl travelling as Mr. Hope. They reached 
Millburn Grange, eleven miles north-west of Newcastle, 
where Veitch was to preach that Sabbath, and on 
the Monday they proceeded to a friend's house near 
Newburn, where Veitch left Argyle in order to go to 
Newcastle, where he bought three horses for the journey 
at his own expense. After reaching London, Argyle went 

April 1 



to join Monmouth and other friends in Holland, where 
they were shortly afterwards joined by Veitch himself, 
who was " wanted " in England for the share he had 
taken in Argyle's escape. 

The English and Scotch refugees in Holland, having 
received offers of support from England and Scotland, 
determined to attempt the overthrow of the Government 
of James II., and, for this purpose, the Duke of Mon- 
mouth was to invade England, while the Earl of Argyle 
landed in Scotland. Veitch was deputed by the refugees 
to instruct their friends on the borders of England and 
Scotland of their intentions ; but he was obliged to hide 
in the Reedsdale district till after the execution of Mon- 
mouth and Argyle, whose scheme had utterly failed. In 
a wood near Newcastle, he remained in concealment for 
some time, and then ventured into the town to see his 
wife, who had removed thither. 

Veitch's career until the king's indemnity was pub- 
lished was full of narrow escapes. He then ministered 
at Beverley for a short time ; but, receiving a call to 
Peebles, he preached there from September, 1690, to 1694-, 
when he removed to Dumfries. Here he continued to 
minister till his death, which occurred May 8, 1722, at 
the age of eighty-two. The partner of all his joys and 
sorrows, the mother of his five sons and five daughters, 
died the day before him, aged eighty-four years. They 
had been married fifty-eight years, and were both in- 
terred in the same grave in the old church at Dumfries. 


jjNE of the few spas in the county of Durham 
that of Dinsdale-on-Tees reaches the cen- 
tenary of its existence this year. It was 
quite by accident that the spa was first discovered. 

Some workmen were excavating in search of coal in 
1789. When at a depth of 72 feet in the whinstone rock, 
they came upon a spring, which burst forth with a strong 
smell of sulphur, accompanied with a great deal of 
smoke. This unexpected flow of water, as might be 
expected, compelled the men to relinquish their boring 
operations. However, they dug a hole in the channel 
made by the rushing water, so as to form a sort of bath 
a very primitive one as we may easily imagine. Never- 
theless, it answered its purpose, and the bath was, down 
to 1797, greatly appreciated by the neighbouring 
villagers. Then a bathing house was constructed for the 
use of visitors, the majority of whom lodged in the 
village of Middleton near at hand. 

When it became known that sulphur water was good 
for rheumatic complaints and similar maladies, the fame 
of Dinsdale soon spread throughout the district. The 
first to receive relief in this respect was a man who, it is 

said, had been afflicted for many years with chronic 
rheumatism. After judiciously drinking the water from 
the spring, and using the bath, he began gradually to get 
renewed power in his limbs, and, finally, was completely 
restored. So we are told. 

The claims of the sulphur spring at Dinsdale were 
brought to the notice of the general public at the beginning 
of the present century by Dr. John Peacock, of Darlington, 
and Dr. Thomas Walker, of Hurworth. Dr. Peacock, 
who published his Observations in 1805, thought that 
the sulphur water was most beneficial in chronic affections, 
particularly of a rheumatic and dyspeptic character, 
diseases of the liver and spleen, and "a whole host of 
cutaneous disorders." 

Although, however, Dinsdale Spa has many advan 
tages, very few people visit the place now. Indeed, it 
was more appreciated half a century ago than it is at the 
present day, notwithstanding the apparent inclination of 
well-to-do folks to seek rest and quietness in the vicinity 
of sulphur springs. 

An interesting article in Diet and Hygiene gives 
some information anent the village of Dinsdale itself, 
including the owners of the estate. From this periodical 
we make the following extract : " Very extensive 
Roman remains have been unearthed in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the manor house, and it is not 
improbable that, nearly eighteen centuries ago, Roman 
warriors availed themselves of the facilities for bathing in 
the water derived from the Dinsdale sulphur springs. At 
the side of the road leading toward the manor house, 
there is an ancient elm tree, said to be 700 years old, 
the survivor of two which formerly stood in that position, 
known as the Abbot's elms. The church of Dinsdale 
is very ancient, and has of late years undergone com- 
plete restoration. The church and lands connected with 
it were given by one Ralph Surtees and his wife to 
provide lights for the altar of St. Cuthbert. The manor 
and estate of Dinsdale are still in the hands of the 
Surtees family, who have been connected with Dinsdale 
since the Norman period. The family name is itself 
derived from the banks of the river on which the estate 
is situated. In old chronicles, we find the name of 
Ralph Dittensdale, also described in the bad Latin of 
that date as Ralph de Super-Teysam Ralph of On-Tees ; 
otherwise, in Norman French, Surteys, which has 
become modernised into Surtees." 

Dinsdale Hall, which was erected fifty years ago, or 
thereabouts, by the first Earl of Durham, at a cost of 
35,000, is a large mansion, and was formerly used as 
an hotel, when it numbered among its distinguished 
patrons the Duke of Wellington and the Baroness 
Burdett Coutts. 

An amusing story, printed in the magazine quoted 
above, shows the effect of the sulphur vapour upon 
metals, especially gold and silver. A gentleman, so 
the story runs, divesting himself of his clothing for the 



f April 

purpose of taking a sulphur bath, hung his silver watch 
on a peg in the bath-room of the Spa Hotel. After 
dressing, he went away in the direction of his lodgings, 
but, discovering that he had left his watch behind, 
quickly retraced his steps. Upon the attendant fetching 
the watch and chain from the bath-room, the gentleman 
indignantly declared tha f they were not his property, 
strongly asserting that his were made of silver. It was 
only when he was shown the maker's name on the watch, 
and the uncommon pattern of the chain attached to it, 
that he could be convinced of his error. E. W. A. 

Jptrcettf at 

/lortl)ttmberlanb jstmt ant) ttjs 

tically, a continuation of Pilgrim Street ; 
but the difference in the name is easily 
^^-" enough accounted for when we remember 
tliat the ancient Gate (figured in vol. ii., page 81) frowned 
equally on both in former days. We take our start from 
the point where the old Gate once stood. 

And first we are detained for a moment on our left 
hand by Northumberland Court. This small court has 
little to stay our progress to-day ; and yet it has its item 
of interest all the same. Some thirty-seven years ago, 
one William Glover occupied the upper room in a tene- 
ment house here. He missed articles from his room, and 
these disappearances waxed frequent. So he devised a 
plan by which all unauthorised intrusion on his premises 
should be stopped for the future. And this was his plan. 
He obtained a large horse-pistol, loaded it with slugs, and 
then attached the trigger to the door of his room in 
such a way that anyone entering would cause the pistol 
to explode, not, of course, to the intruder's benefit. But 
how did he protect himself ? Well, he was able to (tain 
admission safely enough by previously pulling a string 
which passed through the frame of the door. Unfor- 
tunately, on the evening of December 6th, 1852, he 
entered his guarded room without observing this neces- 
sary precaution. Result : the pistol went off, and its 
contents killed him instantaneously. 

On the same side of the way is Brunswick Place, at the 
end of which is the Wesleyan Chapel of that name. 
This building may be considered the headquarters of the 
Wesleyan body in Newcastle. It was opened for public 
service in February, 1821, when the preachers were the 
Revs. Messrs. Newton, Atherton, and Wood. Its ex- 
terior is plain even to barrenness ; its interior commo- 
dious enough to accommodate two thousand persons. 
Some notable men have held forth here now and again. 

Dr. Morley Punshon won his rhetorical spurs in his 
early years as a stationed -minister in Newcastle, and in 
after years few towns were visited by him with greater 
pleasure. Other Presidents of the Wesleyan Conference 
besides Dr. Punshon have occupied the pulpit of Bruns- 
wick Place. More than once the Conference itself has 
met in Newcastle. One of these meetings was held in 
the summer of 1840, when Robert Newton was president, 
and Dr. Hannah secretary. Two Ashantee princes were 
present on that occasion ; but the local interest attaching 
to this particular meeting comes to this, that Mr. H. P. 
Parker, one of the foremost local artists of his day, pre- 
sented the body with a large picture representing the 
rescue of Wesley from the fire of his father's rectory. 
The painting was afterwards engraved, and became 
widely known. 

Passing on, let us pause for a moment at the Orphan 
House Wesleyan School. The stranger may note the 
date on che front of the building 1857. Right : and 
wrong. Right, for it was in that year that the schools of 
to-day were opened for educational purposes. But wrong 
in this wise : they stand on the site of the old Orphan House 
founded by John Wesley, the foundation stone of which 
he laid on the 20th December, 1742. (Monthly Chronicle, 
vol. ii., pages 504, 570.) The Methodists occupied this 
building until Brunswick Place Chapel was finished. 

On this same side of the street we come, next to Mack- 
ford's Entry, so named after its builder. Across the road 
is a small, quiet place, called Lisle Street, and then, a 
little higher up, we come to Saville Row, so named in 
honour of Sir George Saville, Baronet, who, during the 
years 1776 and 1777, resided here as colonel of the West 
York Militia. Ellison Place is a continuation of this 
street ; and here we find the modern Mansion House 
more precisely, the Judges' Lodgings at assize time. 

Singleton House we arrive at next, formerly the resi- 
dence of the Rev. Richard Clayton, by virtue of his 

position as Master of the Mary Magdalen Hospital ; sub- 
sequently occupied by Sir John Fife ; then transformed 
into an academy ; and now the photographic studio of 
Mr. Lydell Sawyer, and the centre of a series of tem- 
porary shops. 



We are now opposite Prudhoe Street. On that side of 
the street, a step takes us to the doors of the Victoria 
Blind Asylum. Pause we a moment here, for a more 
deserving charitable institution there is not in Newcastle ; 
and that, remember, is saying a good deal. Victoria ? 
Why the name? The explanation is simple enough. 
The Asylum was built in honour of the Queen's corona- 
tion, in lieu of squandering money over illuminations and 
the like ; and surely none can say that our city fathers were 
wrong in that idea. The determination to establish an 

James's Chapel, St. George's Hall, Cambridge Hall, 
and the College of Medicine. 

St George's Hall has been erected for the purposes of 
local volunteers, as has also its neighbour, Cambridge 

Dame Allan's charity is attached to the parishes of St. 
Nicholas and St. John. The school was founded by 
Eleanor Allan, of Newcastle, who, in 1705, assigned for 
its support a farmhold and tenant-right in Wallsend 
parish. The farm, held of the Dean and Chapter of 

institution of this sort was formed in the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1838 ; bufr in the first instance premises were 
obtained in the Spital, whence the establishment was 
removed to the existing building in 1841. Behind the 
asylum there was once a Bowling Green, after the Forth 
had disappeared. 

Across the road, again, we have Bath Road, so named 
by reason of its association with the Northumberland 
Baths. These baths owe their origin to a meeting con- 
vened on November 3, 1836, by the Mayor (Mr. C. J. 
Bigge), whereat Dr. Head lam and others supported the 
proposal that a lease should be obtained of about twelve 
acres of ground lying to the north of Saville Row, and 
that a company to consist of three hundred shareholders, 
at 20 each, should be established for carrying out the 
undertaking. The proposal was warmly taken up, and 
on June 24, 1839, the baths were formally opened. They 
were built from a design by Mr. Dobson, and the cost 
of their erection and fitting up was nearly 8,000. 

Contiguous to the baths was a once rather favourite 
cricket ground, now the site of Dame Allan's Schools, St. 

Durham, contained about 131 acres ; and when first 
assigned it brought in an annual rental of 61 19s. 5d. 
In 1708 this good lady died ; and in the next year the 
school was opened in trust for forty boys and twenty girls, 
the parishioners agreeing to subscribe annually for the 
clothing of the scholars. Other donations towards in- 
creasing the benefits of the charity came in afterwards. 
In 1723, Gilbert Campel, "innholder," left it 20, and 
Samuel Nicholas, organist, 10. Mrs. Chisholm, a clergy- 
man's widow, of Wooler, contributed 500 later on ; 
and in 1733, Mrs. Elizabeth Rogers, of Newcastle, left it 
50. In 1738, 250 was left by John Hewitt, or Huet, 
goldsmith, also of Newcastle. A good, sound, useful 
education is understood to be given to the scholars of 
Dame Allan's School. The new building is ornamented 
with a medallion of the benevolent founder. 

A view of the College of Medicine, the foundation stone 
of which was laid by the Duke of Northumberland on 
November 5, 1887, appears on page 46, vol. ii. 

St. James's Chapel, a spacious building, has sometimes 
been called by its supporters the Cathedral of theCongre- 
gationalists of the North. We have spoken of this body 
when dealing with Blackett Street, and need not repeat 
the story here. 

We may now return to Northumberland Street by way 
of Ridley Place, a quiet street running parallel to Bath 
Road. Of Ridley Place there is nothing particular to be 
said, save that it was built by one Mr. Grey, and by that 
Mr. Maskford whose name we have already found asso- 
ciated with an entry a little way from the present spot. 

Next to Ridley Place is Vine Lane, at the end of which 
stand St. Thomas's Schools. Some good work has been 



I Ap 

1 & 

done here. Amongst old scholars in the boys' depart- 
ment may be mentioned Mr. J. J. Pace, the borough 
treasurer of Newcastle ; Mr. Ralph Willoughby, the 
energetic superintendent of the Ragged and Industrial 
Schools in the New Road; Mr. T. Albion Alderson, 
organist and composer : the late Mr. William Mitche- 
son, for many years the head master of St. Andrew's 
School ; Mr. Andrew Beat, long the Workhouse school- 
master ; and others that might easily be named. These 
were all pupils of the late Mr. Henry Page, for more than 
twenty years the master of the boys' school, and a self- 
made mau. Commencing life as a working joiner, he 
became a certificated master by dint of hard private 
study. Even his recreations were intellectual. He took 
to the solution of mathematical posers as the duck takes 
to water ; in a game of chess he was a formidable oppo- 
nent ; and music was the solace of his lighter moments. 
He ended his days in Newcastle as the pensioned ex- 
master of the Victoria Blind Asylum. At St. Thomas's 
School he was succeeded by Mr. John Coulson, another 
self-made man, who from St. Thomas's went to Durham 
University, with the object of entering the ministry of the 
Church of England. In due course he was ordained ; he 
was further successful enough to win the prize of a fellow- 
ship of his University, and became afterwards the vicar of 
Holy Trinity, South Shields. 

We are now nearly at the end of Northumberland 
Street, so far as our right hand is concerned. We are 
quite at the end of it when we come to St. Mary's Place. 

But before quitting it for good, let us record one 
of its traditions. Seventy years ago, one Alexander 
Adams, who lived in Northumberland Street, bequeathed 
a fortune amassed in commerce to his natural son, then a 
resident in India. The devisee soon after died in Cal- 
cutta, a bachelor, and left all he had to his cousin, 
Thomas Naters, who was set- 
tled in New York, in the 
United States. In October, 
1836, Naters died in Switzer- 
land, and left his fortune, 
amounting to between 200,000 
and 300,000, to a respectable 
builder in Newcastle, named 
William Mather. The Swiss 
authorities were very loth to 
part with it, and claimed 
50,000 as legacy duty. The 
British Government remonstra- 
ted, arguing that Naters was not 
a naturalised subject of Switzer- 
land. The controversy went on 
for some time; but eventually 
the claim was settled by Mather 
consenting to pay the Swiss 

One more note we ought to 

make also, namely, that the houses terminating the 
north-west side of Northumberland Street were for- 
merly called Pedlar, or Pether Row, as having been 
built by one who laid the foundation of his fortune by 
hawking or peddling. 

Before us we have now the beautiful church of St. 
Thomas the Martyr. An old chapel of the same name 
stood for nearly six hundred years at the Newcastle end 
of Tyne Bridge. In the ninth year of the reign of James 
I. (June 12, 1611), this old foundation was, by Royal 
Charter, annexed to another venerable institution the 
Leper Hospital, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen. The 
time came when the ancient chapel, obstructing the traffic 
over the Bridge and blocking up the end of the Sandhill, 
had to be removed. It was pulled down, and in 1829 the 
present edifice, from designs by Mr. John Dobson, was 
erected in the Magdalen Field the place whereon the 
Magdalen Hospital formerly stood. Our drawing, which 
originally appeared in Richardson's "Table Book," repre- 
sents the church as it appeared about 1840. The ministers 
of St. Thomas's are Masters of the Hospital. One of the 
most popular of them was the Rev. Richard Clayton, and 
at his death, in 1856, it was considered that the time had 
come when the institution should be re-organized. Many 
were the heartburnings and squabbles over the matter, 
and needless is it to recall them now. Suffice it that a 
majority of the Corporation appointed as Mr. Clayton's 
successor the Rev. Clement Moody, Vicar of Newcastle, 
on the understanding that he was to accept such altera- 
tions in the constitution of the charity as might be 
adopted. The minority wanted an investigation into the 
state of the hospital by the Charity Commissioners ; the 
congregation desired the appointment of the Rev. T. D. 
Halsted, Mr. Clayton's assistant, whose Evangelicalism 
had made him popular. A split was the result of the 


April 1 



appointment, with the consequence that the Clayton 
Memorial (now usually called Jesmond) Church was 
built by the dissatisfied members. 


JlAMBTON CASTLE, the seat of the Earl of 
Durham, situate upon an imposing eminence 
rising boldly on the north bank of the Wear, 
about two miles from Chester-le-Street, in the county of 
Durham, occupies the site of Harraton Hall, formerly the 
seat of the D'Arcys. The original building was in the 
style of a manor house of the date of 1600. Considerable 
additions have since been made. The exterior presents a 
singular mixture of styles, the north front being Norman, 
and the other parts of the building, including the original 
portion, being Tudor and castellated, with ornamental 
turrets and embrasures. A terrace wall of considerable 
length and height faces the south. The whole is of varied 
outline, and produces, with its flag tower, an imposing 
and picturesque effect. 

The principal part of the interior has been fitted up in 
the Italian style. The drawing-room, library, and other 

apartments are richly decorated, whilst the walls are 
adorned with the choicest specimens of ancient and 
modern art. Many of the more important pictures were 
on view at the Newcastle Exhibition in 1887. Amongst 
these were a portrait of Lady Hamilton, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds ; a portrait of Master Lambton, by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, P.R.A. ; and portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Gar 
rick, by J. Zoffany, R.A. 

In 1854, the greatest fear and alarm were entertained 
as to the safety of this costly and magnificent mansion. 
The coal underneath the site of the building was ex- 
tracted as early as 1600. The old mode of working coal 
was by narrow drifts, leaving small pillars to support the 
roof, and these were sufficient at the time to bear the 
weight of the building above : but the upper seams, it 
appears, had only a covering of fire-clay, which, in course 
of time, decomposed. This, together with the additional 
weight put upon the surface by the enlargement of the 
mansion, caused the building, in 1854, to crack and shrink 
in several parts, rendering it unsafe and dangerous as a 
residence. Mr. John Dobson, the well-known architect 
of Newcastle, was consulted upon the subject. He im- 
mediately introduced iron ties, so as to prevent the 
building from further separating. The mines under- 
neath were examined, and the old workings filled up with 




solid brickwork. These and other precautions have been 
found effectual, and the mansion was afterwards put into 
complete repair. 

We are greatly indebted to Dr. Robert Hogg, proprietor 
of the Journal of Horticulture, for the loan of the en- 
graving of Lambton Castle. 

at Jtftarfe 


?n JUcijarb SiEelfort. 

JOHN BUDDLE was born at Kyo, near 
Tanfield, in the Durham coalfield, in the 
year 1773. His father was a schoolmaster of 
repute, a contributor to the Diaries, a corres- 
pondent of Emerson, Hutton, and other eminent mathe- 
maticians, and the editor and annotatorof a reprint of the 
Marquis of Worcester's " Century of Inventions," with an 
appendix "containing an historical account of the fire 
engine for raising water.'' Living amongst men whose 
chief pursuits were the winning and working of coal, the 
elder Buddie became intimately acquainted with the 

business. His colliery friends, most of whom worked 
largely by " rule of thumb," found him of great assistance 
in making their calculations, and thus he obtained a 
knowledge of colliery operations which was afterwards 
instrumental in raising him from the humble position of a 
village dominie to the more exalted post of colliery 

manager. His first appointment in that capacity was at 
Greenside, near Ryton ; his next and last at Wallsend. 

Buddie the elder died in 1806, and Buddie the younger, 
having been his father's assistant for several years, was 
unanimously appointed to the management of Wallsend 
Colliery. He was then upwards of thirty years old, had 
acquired considerable reputation, and was regarded as the 
most promising viewer in the North-Country. He made 
experiments and introduced improvements at which the 
old viewers in the district shook their heads, as old men 
always do when an innovator appears. But the un- 
doubted success of his schemes extorted from them an 
unwilling recognition of his wisdom, and admiration of 
hi? skill. The owners of Wallsend allowed him free 
scope for the exercise of his ingenuity, and he rewarded 
them by making their colliery the most successful in the 

One of his first improvements was the substitution of 
cast iron tubbing in shafts for the old and inefficient 
protection of wood. The heavy expense, and the fear 
that iron tubbing could not be made water-tight, or, if 
tight, that it would soon wear away by oxidisation, had 
deterred the old viewers from using it ; but Mr. Buddie 
and his father adopted the metal, and it answered their 
fullest anticipations. There was one drawback to its 
usefulness, however, which had to be overcome. The 
tubbing was cast in large circular bands the size of the 
shaft, and these banda were naturally of great weight, 
and therefore difficult to deal with. To remedy this 
defect Mr. Buddie suggested that the bands should be 
cast in segments, and fitted together in the shaft. The 
segments were tried and succeeded admirably. When 
placed in position and properly wedged, they formed an 
irresistible barrier to the passage of water. 

In 1809 Mr. Buddie successfully wrought out an idea 
to which he had devoted much anxious thought. His 
practical mind had long chafed at the difficulties ex- 
perienced in effecting thorough ventilation. He had 
experimented in vain with steam, with heated cylinders, 
and with the air pump, and now he turned his attention 
to the furnace system, seeking to increase its efficiency 
and minimise its dangers. Combined with this object 
was another, namely, to prevent the loss of coal involved 
in leaving huge pillars to support superincumbent strata, 
and to stop the " creeps, " with their attendant crushing 
and breakage, which followed attempts to reduce the size 
of the pillars. He, therefore, divided the workings into 
districts or panels, separated from each other by ribs or 
barriers of solid coal, and ventilated by distinct currents 
of air. By this means coal was obtained whole, the area 
of waste to be aired and travelled was reduced, "creeps," 
were seen in time and stopped, accidental fires were 
localised, and the workmen were supplied with purer air, 
and thereby rendered less liable to disease, disablement, 
and death. 

Mr. Buddie contributed in no small degree to the 



introduction and perfecting of the safety lamp. He had 
had sad experience of the want of such an invention at 
Wallsend, where, between the years 1782 and 1803, there 
were no fewer than eight explosions, in which, altogether, 
thirty-five persons lost their lives. At other collieries, 
too, his services had been frequently called into requisition 
by accidents of a similar nature. Year after year the 
holocaust of the mine destroyed its victims, till 1812, 
when public attention was roused into action by a 
disastrous explosion at Felling Colliery, in which ninety- 
two persons lost their lives. Out of that calamity rose a 
"Society for Preventing Accidents in Coal Mines." Six- 
teen days after the association was established, Mr. 
Buddie indited a letter to Sir Ralph Milbanke, the 
president, explaining the systems of ventilation then in 
operation, asserting that the limit of mechanical agency 
towards preventing explosions had been attained, and 
declaring that it was to scientific men only that the trade 
and the community must look for assistance in providing 
a cheap and effectual remedy. Before the month was 
out, Dr. Clanny, of Sunderland, had invented a "safety 
lamp," and exhibited it to the society. In less than two 
years from the publication of Mr. Buddie's letter the 
inventions of Sir Humphre}- Davy and George Stephenran 
were made known, and the objects of the society were 
accomplished. Sir Humphrey was in constant communi- 
cation with Mr. Buddie while his experiments on the 
nature and properties of flame were in progress; and 
when his lamp had been tested in some of the most fiery 
mines of the Northern coal-field, it was to Mr. Buddie's 
hands that Sir Humphrey committed it, as the best 
medium of making its benefits known to the mining 

Mr. Buddie was one of the first, if not the first, coal- 
viewer in the North of England who made any noticeable 
addition to the literature of the coal trade. He was a 
lucid and careful writer, and his pen made the driest 
details attractive. When th Natural History Society of 
Newcastle was founded, Mr. Buddie was one of its 
principal supporters, and to the proceedings of that 
learned body he contributed several valuable papers. 
One of the best of them is a "Synopsis of the Newcastle 
Coalfield," written in 1830. On the visit of the British 
Association to Newcastle, in 1838, Mr. Buddie read a 
similar but extended paper, the sections and ingenious 
model accompanying which were deposited in the New- 
castle Museum. 

The importance of preserving mining records was 
earnestly advocated by Mr. Buddie throughout his career. 
He read an essay on this subject to the local Natural 
History Society in 1834, brought the question before the 
members of the British Association assembled in New- 
castle, and n:ade out so good a case that Parliament 
authorised the establishment of the present Mining 
Record Office, and the- Crown appointed him one of the 
commissioners under the Dean Forest Mining Act. 

The fan-.e of Mr. Buddie's achievements led to his being 
employed largely as a consulting viewer. The third Mar- 
quis of Londonderry rested entirely upon his judgment in 
the management of his vast mineral property. It was he 
who advised the marquis to make a seaport town on his 
own estate, in order to facilitate the exportation of his 
coals. On the 28th of November, 1828, his lordship laid 
the foundation stone of the docks, with which the under- 
taking was commenced ; and close by, his son, Lord 
Seaham, performed a similar ceremony at the first house 
of a town to be called Seaham Harbour. Beneath the 
dock stone was deposited a plate bearing an inscription, 
which, amongst other things, stated that "in this under- 
taking the founder has been chiefly advised by the tried 
experience and indefatigable industry of his valued friend 
and agent, John Buddie, Esq., of Wallsend." 

As an employer Mr. Buddie was very popular amongst 
the pitmen. He paid the highest wages in the trade, and 
was liberal in his assistance to old pit acquaintances and 
deserving objects of charity. When an accident occurred 
he descended the pit with the men, sharing their hard- 
ships and encouraging them in their exertions. He 
made great efforts to establish a fund to provide for the 
widows and orphans of those who lost their lives in 
collieries, and for the support of such as were maimed 
and disabled, but did not succeed in realising the project. 
The education of the colliery population was also an 
object of his constant care. He contributed largely to the 
support of schools in the villages attached to the pits 
placed under his supervision, and was instrumental in 
in inducing other coalowners or agents to follow his 

In politics Mr. Buddie was a Liberal a supporter of 
Earl Grey and the Reformers. His religious views were 
of the same advanced character. He was a member of 
the Unitarian congregation which worshipped in Hanover 
Square under the personal superintendence of the Rev. 
William Turner,, as were most of the leaders of thought 
and opinion in Newcastle at, that time. But his sym- 
pathies and his charities were not limited to this or 
that particular denomination. He gave to all freely, 
judiciously, and without ostentation. When his useful 
and laborious life came somewhat suddenly to an end 
(October 10th, 1843) it was in a churchyard which he had 
himself presented to the suburb of Benwell that his 
remains were buried. 

Mr. Buddie was a magistrate, and commander of the 
Wallsend Rifle Corps, enrolled on the 1st June, 1803, and 
numbering 151 men. He died unmarried, and left no one 
to inherit his name. But the inheritance of his example, 
of his energy, his skill, and his boundless enterprise, 
descending to men who caught their early inspirations at 
his feet, has exalted the practice of mine engineering to 
the foremost rank among scientific avocations. Whenever 
the history of the Northumberland and Durham Coal 
Trade shall be written by a qualified penman, a high 




place must be assigned to the man who, converting the 
old colliery viewer into the mining engineer, minimised . 
the hazard of subterranean exploration, and introduced 
comparative certainty and safety into the great mineral 
industry of the United Kingdom. 

A correspondent enables us to add to the foregoing 
sketch a statement that Mr. Buddie, in his youth, was 
an ardent student of the violin ; but, as his duties in the 
mines increased, he gave it up, preferring to work out 
problems for the benefit of the miners to the gratification 
of his own private pleasure. After twenty years' holiday 
he tried his violin again, but found that his hand had lost 
its cunning. He therefore adopted a larger instrument, 
a contra, or double bass, founded a musical party of 
amateur gentlemen, and kept them together for many 
years. This was about 1825, and the society continued 
until 1840. The gentlemen who formed the party 
were Mr. Atkinson, his nephew ; Mr. John Cockrill, 
solicitor ; Mr. Burnip, solicitor ; Dr. Paul Glenton, an 
excellent player and judge of violins ; Mr. Barnett, 
ilautiat ; Mr. Robert Elliott Huntley, of Earsdon j his 
lirother, Dr. G. H. Huntley, of Howdon Lodge; and 
Mr. W. S. B. Woolhouse, now living. At the sale of his 
instruments, some thirty years ago, a beautiful Guarnerius 
and a viola were not sold. The late Mr. Moses Pye was 
the auctioneer, and he was most particular to have them 
kept out of the sale. A beautiful instrument was bought 
by Mr. McQuade, of Fellside. A Ruggerius, for which it 
was said Mr. Buddie paid 170, fell to Mr. Thomas 
Hudson, South Preston, North Shields. The contra or 
double bass mentioned before has quite a history of its 
own locally. It was either made by, or more probably 
bought from, Mr. Corsby, of London, a celebrated maker 
and dealer. It passed to the late Mr. Morland, musical 
instrument dealer, Collingwood Street, Newcastle, whose 
shop is now occupied by Mr. Preston, hia successor. At 
the sale of Mr. Morland's effects, the late Mr. Alfred 
Fox, furrier, Northumberland Street, secured it, and it is 
now ably performed upon, nightly, by Mr. Robert 
Preston, in the orchestra of the Theatre Royal, Newcastle. 



The establishment of the Shakspeare Press was unques- 
tionably an honour, both to the founders in particular, 
and to the public at large. Our greatest poet, our greatest 
painter, and two of our most respectable publishers and 
printers, were all embarked in one common white-hot 
crucible ; from which issued so pure and brilliant a flame, 
<r fusion, that ic gladdened all eyes and hearts, and threw 
a new and revivifying lustre on the threefold arts of 
1 ainting, engraving, and printing. Dr. Dibdin. 

In the middle of last century, several families of the 
r.ame of Bulmer were citizens of Newcastle. Christopher, 
Thomas, and Edward Bulmer were free butchers ; John 
was a member of the Incorporated Company of Felt- 
makers, Curriers, &e. ; while another Thomas and 

another John belonged to the House Carpenters' Com- 
pany. Into one of these two last-named families (the 
house carpenters), were born Fenwick and William 
Bulmer, whose happy lot it was to make the name known 
and remembered far beyond the limits of their ancestral 
home. Fenwick went to London, made a fortune in 
trade, and became Sir Fenwick Bulmer, Knight ; William 
went to London also, and attained to universal fame as a 
reformer and improver of the art of typography. 

William Bulmer was born in 1756. He served his 
apprenticeship in John Thompson's printing-office, Burnt 
House Entry, one of the narrow alleys extending from 
the upper part of the Side towards St. Nicholas' Church- 
yard. Thomas Bewick was serving articles at the same 
time with Ralph Beilby, and the two lads, meeting at the 
workshop of Gilbert Gray, bookbinder, struck up an 
acquaintance which lasted through life. Bewick tells us 
in his autobiography that Bulmer used to " prove " the 
cuts he (Bewick) had executed, being countenanced 
therein by his master, " who was himself extremely 
curious and eager to see wood engraving succeed." The 
writer of a biographical sketch of Mr. Bulmer in the 
Gentleman's Magazine (from which much of what follows 
is derived), adds that Bewick and Bulmer made it a 
practice whilst youths to visit together every morning 
a farmhouse at Elswick, and indulge in Goody Coxon's 
hot rye-cake and buttermilk dainties which that lady 
prepared for all who were inclined to enjoy a walk from 
the town before the business of the day commenced. It 
was Bulmer who printed the engraving of the " Hunts- 
man and Old Hound," which obtained for Bewick the 




premium of the Society of Arts, and to him is attributed 
the credit of suggesting to the rising engraver an im- 
provement, which was afterwards adopted, namely, to 
lower the surface of his blocks in places where distance 
and the lighter parts of the cuts were to be effectively 

Soon after he was out of his time Mr. Bulmer made his 
way to London, and entered the employment of John 
Bell, printer of "The Poets of Great Britain, from 
Chaucer to Churchill "a series of 84 (afterwards in- 
creased to 109) illustrated 18mo vols. About 1787 he 
made the acquaintance of George Nichol, bookseller to 
the King, who was then considering, in conjunction with 
Alderman Boydell, the best method of carrying into effect 
a proposed national edition of Shakspeare, illustrated by 
the first artists of the kingdom. Mr. Nichol found in 
Mr. Bulmer the man he needed to accomplish his great 
undertaking, and eventually the "Shakspeare Press' 
was established under the name of " W. Bulmer and Co." 
The first number of the " Shakspeare " appeared in 
January, 1794-, and was pronounced to be equal to the 
finest productions of Bodoni, Didot, or any other of the 
great continental typographers. "The nation, " remarks 
Dr. Dibdin, continuing the eulogy quoted at the head of 
this sketch, "the nation appeared to be not less struck 
than astonished, and our venerable monarch, George III., 
felt anxious, not only to give such a magnificent establish- 
ment every degree of royal support, but, infected with 
the matrix and puncheon mania, he had even contem- 
plated the creation of a royal printing-office within the 
walls of his own palace." 

The following year, while the Shakspeare and a folio 
edition of Milton were running through his press, Mr. 
Bulmer printed the "Poems of Goldsmith and Parnell, " 
in quarto. "The ornaments," he announced, "are all 
engraved on blocks of wood by my earliest acquaintances, 
Messrs. Bewick, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and London, 
after designs from the most interesting passages of the 
poems they embellish. They have been executed with great 
care, and I may venture to say, without being supposed 
to be influenced by ancient friendship, that they form the 
most extraordinary effort of the art of engraving upon 
wood that ever was produced in any age or any country. 
Indeed, it seems almost impossible that such delicate 
effects could be produced from blocks of wood " an 
expression of doubt which the king endorsed by ordering 
Nichol to procure the blocks themselves from Mr. Bulmer 
that he might convince himself of their reality. 

Stimulated by the public reception of the "Poems,' 1 
Mr. Bulmer, in 1796, published a quarto edition of 
Somervile's "Chase." All the engravings but one in this 
beautiful volume were designed by John, and engraved 
by Thomas, Bewick. Other beautiful books followed 
among them Dibdin 'a "Typographical Antiquities of 
Great Britain," and "Bibliographical Decameron," the 
"Antiquities of the Arabs in Spain," and the "Biblio- 

theca Spenceriana." This last-named work was con- 
sidered to be one of the most brilliant bibliographical 
productions in existence, on the score of mere typo 
graphical excellence. Similar praise was awarded to the 
"Decameron. "It was acknowledged," says the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, " to be the most eminently successful of 
all the works executed at the Shakspeare Press, in the 
development of the skill and beauty attached to the art 
of printing. Never was such a variety of ornament, in 
the way of woodcuts, and red and black ink, exhibited." 

Mr. Bulmer's success was attributable to a rare com- 
bination of qualities taste, tact, judgment, and foresight, 
aided by ceaseless industry and unremitting personal 
attention. He was the first to test the power and 
demonstrate the superiority of the Stanhope Press ; he 
made his own ink, and thereby secured such uniformity 
of colour that, although the " Shakspeare " was nine 
years in passing through the press,, the same harmony of 
tint and richness of colour prevailed throughout as if the 
ink had been all made at one time and the last sheet 
inked by the same hand in the same hour as the first ; his 
paper was always most carefully tested ; his workmen 
were the best the country could produce ; and he super- 
intended every detail of his business himself. When he 
retired in 1819, he had achieved an ample fortune, and 
secured the friendship of the most eminent men of the 

While William Bulmer was building up the greatest 
printing business in the kingdom, his elder brother, 
Fenwick, was accumulating wealth as a druggist in the 
Strand. Early in their commercial career, both the 
brothers had been admitted members of the honourable 
band of Gentlemsn Pensioners, now better known as her 
Majesty's honourable corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms. Of 
this band, William Gifford, editor of the Quarterly 
Review, was for a time paymaster. He was accustomed 
to send out every quarter circular letters to indicate that 
salaries were in course of payment, and, being upon terms 
of intimate friendship with the great printer, his notices 
to him sometimes sported into rhyme. Thus : 

O thou who safely claim'st the right to stand 

Before thy king, with dreaded axe in hand, 

My trustiest Bulmer ! know, upon my board 

A mighty heap of cash (O golden word !) 

Now lies, for service done the bounteous meed ; 

Haste, then, in Wisdom's name, and hither speed : 

For if the truth old poets sing or say, 

Riches straight make them wings and fly away ! 

In course of time Feuwick and William Bulmer became 
the oldest representatives of the Gentlemen Pensioners at 
Court. When George IV. ascended the throne Fenwick 
Bulmer was the senior member, and in honour of the 
occasion, and in recognition of his services, the new king 
conferred upon him the honour of knighthood. There- 
upon Gifford threw off the following effusion : 


Dread sir, whose blood to knighthood near 
Is sixpence now an ounce more dear 



\ 1889. 

Than when my summons issued last ; 
With cap in hand I beg to say, 
That I have money to defray, 

The service of the quarter past. 

It is gratifying to be able to record that both the 
brothers Bulmer remembered in their retirement the 
town in which they were born. William Bulmer, a 
couple of years after he left business, made a valuable 
present of books, printed at his own press, to the New- 
castle Literary and Philosophical Society ; Sir Fenwick, 
in April, 1824, a month before he died, sent the Incor- 
porated Company of House Carpenters in Newcastle a 
gift of a hundred guineas, the interest of which he de- 
sired might be distributed annually at Christmas among 
the poor widows of the company. The books are still to 
be found upon the shelves of the Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society's Library; the interest, it is to be hoped, 
is still distributed among the poor women whom the 
donor designed to benefit. 

William Bulmer died without issue, at Clapham, on the 
9th September, 1830, and was buried in St. Clement 
Danes, Strand. There is a portrait of him as a young 
man in the "Bibliographical Decameron," and one of a 
later period in Hansard's " Ty pographia. " Ours is 
taken from a likeness drawn on stone, in 1827, by James 

IJAMDEN calls Morpeth "a famous little 
towne," but says little else about it. It had 
for a long time a more than Northumbrian 
notoriety on account of its being the seat of 
a weekly market for live cattle, corn, and provisions, by 
far the best frequented in the North of England. It was 
held on the Wednesdays, when upwards of two hundred 
oxen and two thousand five hundred sheep and lambs, 
besides a considerable number of pigs, were usually sold 
every week, principally for the consumption of Newcastle, 
Shields, Sunderland, and other towns further south. The 
development of the railway system, however, turned the 
tide of fortune in this particular to the more important 
central locality of Newcastle ; and Morpeth market is 
now only a very moderate affair. In the olden time, still 
within the memory of many aged persons, no weary tra- 
veller who wished for a night's sound sleep would take 
up his quarters in Morpeth on a Tuesday night, as the 
market commenced early in the morning, and rest was 
thenceforth impossible, on account of the tremendous 

The Market Place is situated near the centre of the 
town ; but it was not sufficiently capacious, in Morpeth's 
palmy days, for the numerous droves of cattle, flocks of 
sheep, herds of swine, &c., which were exposed for sale. 
The sheep pens partly fronted the shops, leaving only a 

narrow passage to the doors, and were partly set up in 
the narrow lanes and courts adjoining. The corn was 
sold by sample, which the live stock, of course, could not 
be, and the lowing and bleating, shouting and bawling, 
cursing and swearing, before every dealer got the place 
he wanted, formed a medley which Donnybrook or Bar- 
tlemy Fair could not well have outmatched. 

The Market Cross was erected in 1699, at the joint 
expense of the Hon. Philip Howard and Sir Henry 
Belasyse, Knight. Near it, in Oldgate, stands an old 
isolated tower, the lower part of which contains the 
borough fire-engines, the next storey a clock, and above 
the clock a fine peal of bells hung for parochial use. 
" The Town Hall, " says an old writer, "affords on a small 
scale the peculiarity of style which Vanburgh has ex- 
hibited more at large at Seaton Delaval, ten miles to the 
south-east, and at Castle Howard in Yorkshire." It was 
built by that distingushed Flemish architect, Sir John 
Vanburgh, in the year 1714, the cost of it being defrayed 
by his liberal- patron, Charles, third Earl of Carlisle. 
The manorial court of the Carlisle family was appointed 
to be held in it. The building, however, was re-edified 
in 1870, from plans drawn by Mr. R. J. Johnson, archi- 
tect, Newcastle, the fajade being an exact reproduction, 
of the former one. 

Our view of the Market Place, showing the Market 
Cross, the Town Hall, and the old tower in Oldgate, is 
taken from Allom's Views in Westmoreland, Durham, 
and Northumberland, published by Fisher in 1833. 

Two engravings of old scenes in Morpeth are given in 
Richardson's "Table Book." One shows an old mill by 
the bridge over the Wansbeck, as seen in 1844 ; the other 
the entrance to the old bridge itself from the north. 
This latter structure was the scene of a curious coach 
accident in the summer of 1828. Richardson records the 
occurrence under date of July 23 : " As the Wonder 
coach, on its return from Alnwbk to Newcastle, was 
passing along the bridge at Morpeth, it was met by some 
carts, which caused delay, and one of the horses, eager to 
get on, began to plunge, and drew the coach against one 
of the guard stones on the east side : on which the wheel 
rising, threw the coach upon the battlement of the oppo- 
site side. Part of the battlement was knocked down, 
and three of the outside passengers, two men and one 
woman, trunks, coats, &c., were thrown over into the 
water. One of the passengers, Mr. Elliott, Jun., of 
Newcastle, whitesmith, had a very narrow escape from 
drowning. Grea,t praise is due to Mr. Thew, currier, 
John Stephenson, and Joseph Hedley, for their exertions 
in rescuing the passengers from the water. Fortunately 
no serious injury was sustained." 

Morpeth Parish Church stands on an eminence called 
the Kirk Hill, on the south side of the Wansbeck, on the 
west side of the post road, about a quarter of a mile out 
of the town, and not far from the castle. It is dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and its style of architecture 



shows it to have been erected about the middle of the 
thirteenth century. Sidney Gibson, in his "Visits to 
Northumbrian Castles and Churches," describes it as 
follows : " The nave is sixty feet in length by forty-six 
in breadth, with north and south aisles, divided by five 
arches. The chancel is forty-one feet in length by nine- 
teen in breadth, and has four windows, each of one light, 


on the south side. The great east window has five lights, 
with late decorated tracery, and is precisely in the style 
of the fine west window of Houghton-le-Spring one of 
the most spacious and beautiful churches in the North of 
England. The western end of the church is surmounted 
by a tower, and there is a capacious porch. The edifice 
contains many features of great interest to the ecclesio- 
logist amongst others, a curious aperture in the external 
wall, which was probably appropriated to the hearing of 

Anthony de Beck, Bishop of Durham, appropri- 
ated Morpeth Church to the chaplains officiating at 
his chapel at Auckland ; but after his death, Ralph, 
the son of William de Greystoke, recovered by law 
the patronage thereof. The living is a rectory in tue 
Rift of the Earl of Carlisle, valued in the king's 
books at 32 16s. 8d. The rectory-house, which 
stands on the east side of the post road, is a very 
handsome building. It was rebuilt in the year 1768, 
by Oliver Naylor, then rector. 

The time-worn ruin of the ancient castle crowns 
the eminence on the south side of the ravine which, 
further on, widens into the valley in which the 
town nestles. The old baronial fortress (the gate- 
way to which is represented on page 170) occu- 
pies the summit of a high ridge of land, and is re- 
markable for the picturesque beauty of the view 
it commands over the valley of the Wansbeck. 

Wooded heights towards the west and higher ridges 
towards the north, bound the view on these two sides ; 
but in other directions a more open country, finely 
diversified with woods and pastures, stretches away 

There is no evidence that the Romans ever occupied 
the site, or that the place made any considerable figure 
under the Angles and Danes ; 
but it seems probable that it was 
fortified, and that a " pele " or 
castlet was erected there by Wil- 
liam de Merlay, immediately 
after the Norman Conquest. 
John of Hexham expressly af- 
firms that there was such a 
fortress in existence in the year 
1138, when he states that it was 
at "the castle called Morpeth" 
that Ranulph de Merlay, Lord 
of Morpeth, entertained on the 
nones of January in that year 
eight monks of Fountains, who 
built the monastery of Newmin- 
ster. In 1215, the barons of 
Northumberland had recourse to 
Alexander II., King of Scots 
for protection against King John, 
who marched to the Borders, 
destroying with fire and sword all that came within 
his reach, as far as Berwick-upon-Tweed, where he 
committed inhuman barbarities. Amongst, other places 
he burnt the castles of Morpeth and Mitford, also 
Ainwick and Wark ; but Camden says the people 
of Morpeth burnt the town themselves, to prevent 
John and his followers getting any resting-place there 
on his infamous expedition. The castle was rebuilt, 
it seems, by Roger de Merlay, the last of that 






April I 
1889. I 






illustrious house, who died in 1266. This nobleman 
stood loyally to King Henry III. during the Barons' 
War, and thereby "escaped the misfortune of seeing, as 
his neighbour the baron of Mitford saw, his patrimonial 
estate strewed like a wreck around him." As he had no 
heir-male, however, his daughter Mary carried them at 
his death into the family of her husband, William, Lord 
of Greystoke, "a race recorded eminent in deathless 
fame," one of whom, Lord Greystoke, who died at 
Brancepeth in 1358, rebuilt Morpeth Castle on a grander 
scale. Elizabeth, daughter and sole heir of the last of 
the Greystokes, married Thomas Lord Dacre, of Gils- 
land, called Lord Dacre of the North, in the possession of 
whose descendants the barony continued down till the 
reign of Elizabeth, when the honours and estates of 
George Lord Dacre, who died under age, descended to his 
two sisters, Ann and Elizabeth, of whom the latter 
married Lord William Howard, "Belted Will." (See 
vol. ii., page 532.) The grandson of " Belted Will " was 
created Lord Dacre of Gilsland, Viscount Morpeth, and 
Earl of Carlisle in 1661 ; and from him the present Earl 
of Carlisle is lineally descended and inherits the barony 
of Morpeth and its appurtenances. 

Of the old stronghold of the Merlays, only some curtain 
walls now remain, if these, indeed, can be determined to 

date from so far back. A later fortified gate tower was 
built by William, known as the Good Baron of Grey 
stoke, who died in 1359, and who occasionally resided at 
his castle of Morpeth. There are winding stairs to the top 
of the tower, which is remarkable for strength and 
beauty. It is embattled, and formerly had angular 
speculating turrets at the north-east and south-east cor- 
ners, with a communication by an open gallery, which 
was supported on projecting corbels. In the centre of 
the arched roof of the gateway is a square aperture, 
calculated to annoy any such assailants as should get the 
mastery of the outer gate. The building was repaired 
some years ago, for offices of the agent of the owner, 
Lord Carlisle. 

The castle was still a place of strength in the reign of 
Charles I. It was taken by the Scots, under General 
Lesley, in January, 1644 ; but they were driven from it 
in the following year, after a protracted siege of twenty 
days, by the Marquis of Montrose, the General for the 
King in Scotland. The trenches still visible to the west- 
ward of the castle were probably raised by Montrose's- 
army. Leland, in his Itinerary, written in Henry 
VIII. 's time, says, "Morpith Castle standythe by Mor- 
pith towne ; it is set on a highe hill, and about the hill 
is moche wood. Towne and Castle belong to the Lordi 




Daores. It is well mayntayned." Hutchinson, whose 
" View of Northumberland " wag published in 1778, says 
he found little remaining of the castle but the old gate- 
way, and some miserable shattered parts of the outward 
wall, which enclosed the area and interior buildings. The 
space within includes about an acre of ground, measuring 
eighty-two yards from north to south, and fifty-three 
from east to west. It was converted in modern times 
into a garden, and no building of any kind now remains 

rf at Hmrtftunrtria. 


j]OR a long period, in 634-5, the Britons were 
in undisputed possession of the plain of 
York. The Saxon "princelings" had been 
killed, and Cadwalla, their vanquisher, ex- 
perienced little opposition to his onward progress. Being 
savage and cruel, he made periodic raids of vengeance 
into the northern parts of the territory, and seldom re- 
turned without a great haul of booty. It was during one 
of these high-handed exploits that the marauder's career 
was luckily checked. Oswald, the second son of Ethel- 
frith, was now heir to the unhappy land, and he was 
naturally anxious to regain possession of his own. 
Though trained among the holy men of Scotland, and by 
no means of a warlike disposition, the young prince was 
eminently cool and clear-headed. Waiting until Pendn 
was thoroughly involved with his southern foes, Oswald 
suddenly entered Northumbria, consulted a few of his 
adherents, and then retired to a safe hiding place in the 
Cheviots. It was amid the secluded gorges of this moun- 
tain range that the details of an eventful compaign were 
settled. Though many hardy fighting men responded to 
their chieftain's call, and swore to aid in the expulsion of 
the domineering Welsh, they only constituted a small 
army for the accomplishment of such a serious task as 
lay before them. But though deficient in numbers, as 
Bede says, they were strengthened with the faith of Christ. 
When everything was in readiness for a move, Oswald 
explained that all who followed him must cast aside their 
idolatry, as he meant to fight for the reinstatement of 
that holy religion which Edwin and his queen had so 
auspiciously inaugurated. There being no dissentients to 
either the object or the plan of operations, the order was 
given for a general rendezvous in the beauteous valley of 
the North Tyne, and it resulted, as may be supposed, in 
a considerable acquisition of strength to the Anglian 

But the movement served to warn Cadwalla of the 
danger that threatened him. His savage hordes had 

been sweeping across the country like an irresistible 
tornado, and leaving in their wake long lines of smoulder- 
ing homesteads and rotting carcases. They were resting 
in the vicinity of Hexham when the news of Oswald's 
advance reached them ; and, therefore, crossing the Tyne 
with all speed, they secured a strong position on the 
heights beyond. There is considerable doubt as to the 
exact locality; but it is fair to infer that their camp, 

stretched away to the rear of the present site of Beau- 
front, and intercepted the Northumbrian advance by way 
of Watling Street. If such was the case and it appears 
extremely likely the position would be guarded on its 
southern and western boundaries by the river, and on the 
north by the still formidable Roman Wall. Being bold, 
numerous, and well-equipped, the Welshmen had not the 
remotest fear of a reverse. They settled round their fires, 
shared their booty, and spent their leisure in revelry of 
the wildest kind. Their system of watching, however, 
must have been extremely defective. The Northumbrians 
appear to have been close at hand when this halt was 
called ; but not caring to attack with an inferior force, 
they strongly entrenched themselves on a hill that over- 
looked the bridge at Chollerford. 


It was here, on classic ground, that they resolved to 
await the onslaught which they knew their intrepid ad- 
versary would not long defer. But though in readiness, 
they were not idle. Bede who wrote when the fight 
was actually in men's recollections tells us that Oswald 
prepared a sign of the holy cross as the emblem under 
which he would make his stand, and that he persisted in 
rendering aid while his followers fixed it firmly in the 
ground. Then ordering all present to kneel, he raised his 
voice in the silence of this wild upland, and prayed for 
the help of heaven in the just war that was about to be 
waged against the haughty and fierce invaders. The 
supplication having concluded, and the first ruddy gleam 
of dawn having shown itself in the eastern sky, the ven- 




erable chronicler goes on to say tbat the Northumbrians 
" advanced towards the enemy, and obtained the victory 
as their faith deserved.'' William of Malmsbury accepts 
the same story, and would have us believe that the Angles 
left their carefully planned entrenchments and risked an 
encounter in the open field, for no other reason than that 
it would be "highly disgraceful for them to meet the 
Britons on unequal terms. " Such, of course, may have 
been the chivalrous feeling of Oswald, but, to say the 
least, it is very improbable. It is much more likely 
seeing that a kingdom was at stake that he husbanded 
lu's strength behind the earthworks that formed the first 
line of his hill defence, and hoped his choice of place 
would help to make amends for his lack of numbers. 
And this it most assuredly did. Whether the Welsh 
attack was delivered at early morn or dewy eve, it was 
both fast and furious when it did come. Cadwalla, " the 
fierce afflictor of his foes," fully sustained his reputation. 
He led his daring followers towards the Northumbrian 
position amid a shower of missiles, and tried to penetrate 
the wall of spears that bristled behind their ramparts. 
But his utmost efforts were unavailing. One contingent 
after another endeavoured to overcome the steady throng 
which gathered round the Northumbrian prince, and each 
in turn was compelled to retire in eonfusion. Then came 
the warlike Welshman, witli his best and bravest, and 
the crucial point of the struggle was at once reached. As 
the southern chief rushed at the obstacle before him 
probably, says a modern writer, constructed from the 
debris from the Roman vallum itself a fatal shaft pierced 
his breast, and he dropped backwards in full view of the 
combatants. Dismayed at the fate of their fallen leader, 
the Welsh wavered, and the momentary hesitation threw 
the rearmost contingent into some disorder. Seeing the 
evident uncertainty of his assailants, and noting their 
lack of fire and enthusiasm, Oswald judiciously let loose 
his Angles, and, dashing headlong on the disheartensd 
foe, turned a slight repulse into an irretrievable dis- 
rv>ter. Flying in all directions, the Welshmen were cut 
down in hundreds. The carnage became so horrible, 
indeed, that "the heaps of slain were countless. " They 
were thickest near that portion of the old wall which lay 
between them and their late encampment. Throwing 
away their arms, in order the more readily to scramble 
over, they died there as so many thousands of the Otta- 
dini had done two or three centuries before. "Never was 
day more lamentable for the Britons, or more joyful for 
the Angles." It completely dissipated all hope of the an- 
cient stock ever becoming a permanent power in the land 
again. It proved, beyond all question, that if the Anglians 
had come as helpers, they meant to remain as rulers. It 
was a victory so thorough and so complete that only few 
of the invaders survived it, and led many of the monkish 
writers to assert that nothing but the interposition of 
celestial power could have so utterly confounded Oswald's 


Whether it was a belief of this kind that led to the site 
of the battle being called " Heavenfield, " it would be im- 
possible to say ; but Bede vouches for the fact that, at a 
later day, the brethren of the church at Hexham used to 
make annual pilgrimages to the spot, and there watch 
and pray for the repose of St. Oswald's soul. So largely 
did this custom grow, even before Bede's time, that he 
tells us " they have lately made the place more sacred 
and honourable by building a church at it " the first, in 
all probability, that the followers of Christ ever reared in 
Northumbria for memorial purposes. In its locality, in 
later years, wooden crosses have frequently been found ; 
and, if we believe Camden, a silver coin of Oswald's 
with his bust on one side and a cross on the reverse was 
brought to light during the progress of some repairs to 
the structure in the time of Queen Elizabeth. These are 
circumstances which must be taken into account in de- 
termining the actual scene of the battle. The strongest 
evidence, however, is to be found in the fact that the 
position taken by Cad walla, after his move from Hexham, 
is just what a skilful leader would have taken if his 
object had been to intercept a hostile advance from the 
north. It effectually covered both Watling Street and 
the Devil's Dyke a few miles south of their junction 
and had the ready made defence of the Roman Wall 
between it and the expected enemy. That Cadwalla 
failed to place sentinels on that rampart is inexplicable. 
It may be, as historians tell us, that he misjudged the 
capacity of the small force that was being led against 
him, and felt sure he could oust them, at his own time, 
from any position that the natural character of the 
neighbourhood would enable them to select. He was 
mistaken, as many a greater man has been since, and 
yielded up his valiant life as the penalty. 

This decisive battle has been variously named. Some 
have called it Heavenfield, from the circumstance of the 
cross ; and some Haledown, or Holy Hill, from the fact 
that a square entrenchment is still visible near the village 
of Halton. But there have been so many centuries of 
warfare in south Northumberland that the prevalence of 
earthworks cannot be regarded as of much moment. 
Bede, though he indicates the district clearly enough, 
speaks of the fight as having taken place near Denises- 
burn doubtless a brook that flowed in the vicinity. 
There is no stream so designated in the present day ; but 
in the Erring burn which enters the North Tyne a short 
distance above Chollerford we evidently have the water- 
course referred to. As all these places are in a cluster, it 
is of little consequence, perhaps, which name is used. 
Their enumeration is mainly important as helping to 
strengthen the belief that the centre of the fight was 
between the Erring burn and the Wall the site, in fact, 
on which St. Oswald's Church still perpetuates the North- 
umbrian triumph. 



The happiest results followed the discomfiture of the 
pagan host. Bernicia and Deira were again united under 
one king, and, by his wise and merciful administration, 
soon recovered some of their old prosperity. In the new 
ruler, the Christians had a firm friend. No sooner was he 
securely seated on the throne, we are told, than he began 
to devise means for reclaiming such of his countrymen as 
had lapsed into heathendom, and for the conversion of 
those who had remained without the pale. To accomplish 
his object, he sought aid from the monks of lona the 

holy men amongst whom so much of his own exile had 
been spent. The request was granted, and in the summer 
of 635, Aidan commenced his labours amongst the lowly 
dwellers of the northern dales. Having established him- 
self at Lindisfarne now known as Holy Island he com- 
menced that marvellous mission which has since been the 
admiration of the world. Though the language spoken 
by the Angles was an unknown tongue to the kindly 
monk, he was by no means discouraged. Accompanied by 
Oswald in person, he began his exposition of the new 
faith, and "it was a most touching spectacle," we read, 
" to mark how patiently and carefully the king interpreted 
the word of life as it fell from Aidan's lips, and made ic a 
living reality to the listening throng." In seven days, if 
the story can be credited, as many as 15,000 persons were 
baptized in the rippling streams around the royal resi- 
dence at Bamborough ; and similar scenes were oft re- 
peated elsewhere. As an evidence of the earnestness of 
the converts, and the munificence of the king, a noble 
monastery soon rose above the cliffs of Lindisfarne. 
Being occupied by earnest teachers from Scotland, the 
new building at once became the centre of a grandly 
civilizing system. Its offshoots were quickly seen at 
Tynemouth, Hartlepool, Gateshead, and other distant 
localities. Its missionaries spread over the heathen 
realms far south of the Humber, and the reception of the 
new faith generally marked the people's submission to 
Oswald's authority. Slowly, but steadily, his power in- 
creased. First Wessex, then East Anglia, and afterwards 
the Picts and Scots, came to acknowledge his sway ; and 
ere long the King of Northumbria was again chief among 
the rulers of the Heptarchy. 

In his exalted capacity as Bretwalda, Oswald exer- 
cised an influence over his kinsmen that was eminently 
beneficial, and pursued a policy that augured well for the 
national weal. He strove to imitate the wise administra- 
tion of Edwin rather than to eclipse the warlike glory of 
Ethelfrith, and in this path he would have been content 
to labour if Fate had so willed. HH peaceful exertions, 
however, were not to continue. After reigning eight 
years, and when in the full floodtide of his prosperity, he 
was suddenly called upon to battle once more with the 
pagan hosts. Penda who had watched with indifference 
the priestly missions to Wessex could not tolerate 
Northern interference with the affairs of East Anglia. 
Gathering his savage Mercians quietly together, he over- 
ran that country, slew its religious ruler, and then an- 
nexed it. To avenge this slaughter and release his 
fellow-Christians from the pagan yoke, Oswald, in 642, 
led an army of Northumbrians into the enemy's land. A 
battle ensued at llaeserfield a place adjacent, probably, 
to the present town of Oswestry and the Northern force 
sustained a crushing defeat. Oswald, fighting bravely, 
died with his soldiers ; and his body, when afterwards 
found among the slain, was subjected to the grossest 
indignity. After striking off the head and arms, Pendu 
had them fixed upon stakes of wood, and reared above the 
scene of conflict. In this manner, it is said, he hoped to 
keep the monks away from his own land. The plan, for 
a time, seemed fairly effective, but, in the end, the 
disciples of Aidan carried off the relics to Lindisfarne, 
and, with their stories of miraculous healing, soon made 
the maimed limbs more powerful than the arms of the 
living man. 


The condition at Northumbria, for some years after 
the crushing defeat of Maeserfield, \vas by no means an 
enviable one. The country being distracted by civil 
wars between rival claimants for its throne lay at the 


^JtBgYv 1 ^^ 
^v,,-.^7^,'A \ v s V >.* >1 . ivA 1 

mercy of Penda, and he made desolate many of its richest 
and fairest valleys. From the Humber to the Tyne, and 
thence onward to the Cheviots, he everywhere showed his 
victorious banners. Even the royal seat at Bamborough 
with its commanding fortress on the rock was besieged 



f April 

by him ; but its splendid position rendered it impregnable 
to all ordinary assaults. Disappointed by his repeated 
failures, he pulled down all the adjacent cottages, and, 
piling the wood against the outward walls of the strong- 
hold, set the mass on fire in the hope, apparently, that 
he would destroy both building and garrison at one 
swoop. But this disaster, as the old writers assure us, 
was most providentially averted. The attempt was 
witnessed from a hermit cell on the Fame Islands, and 
Aidan thereupon raised his voice in prayer against the 
iniquity of the deed. "Never was supplication more 
efficacious. The wind that, at first, was blowing fair for 
the pagan object, was instantly changed, and, instead of 
the flames lapping the castle walls, they were driven 
back to the discomfiture of those who had kindled 

Though not marked on our map, Portgate a notable 
station on the Roman Wall occupied a position a little to 
the west of the spot at which Watling Street crosses it. 
Two miles north of this point, the Devil's Dyke branched 
away to the right, and, according to " Roy's Military 
Antiquities," crossed the Wansbeck at Aggerton ; the 
Coquet at Brinklmrn; the Aln near Whittingham ; the 
Beamish below White House : the Till near Fowberry ; 
and the Tweed in the neighbourhood of West Ord. Wat- 
ling Street, which ran towards the north-west, passed 
through the stations of Risingham and Rochester, in 
Hedesdale ; and thence by the Golden Pots, onThirlmoor, 
into Scotland. 

Our first illustration gives a view of lona, " that illus- 
trious island," as Dr. Johnson says, " whence the savage 
clans and roving barbarians of Xorthumbria and Scotia 
derived the benefits of knowledge, and the blessings of 
religion." It need hardly be said that the monastic ruins 
are not those which St. Columba founded. They are the 
remains uf a later erection ; but they serve to identify a 
spot, with its surrounding of wild waters, " where the 
highest in rank came to bow before the greater eminence 
of exalted piety." 

The view of Bamborough is only part of a larger sketch 
in Scott's " Border Antiquities." It is more than pro- 
bable that not a particle of the existing building can be 
traced back to the early period of which we write ; hut 
while saying this, it is by no means certain that the whole 
of the magnificent fortress should be credited to the Nor- 
mans. The square keep, with its clo*e resemblance to 
those of Rochester and Dover, was undoubtedly erected 
;ifter the Conquest. As to the round towers, however 
which are seen on the landward side many people believe 
them to have been raised by the Saxons, although at a 
riate something like three centuries later than Aidan or 
IN nda. 

Crrot at fjctocadtlc 
a Ctittttri) 

ILLIAM CRAMLINGTON, who was Sheriff 
and twice Mayor of Newcastle during the 
closing years of last century, left behind 
him the following account) now published for the 
first time) of the money he had spent in sustain- 
ing the dignity of his office, the sums he had re- 
ceived from the town, and the balance to his debit in 
the end. It should be remembered that, at the time 

named, the chief magistrate of Newcastle lived at the 
Mansion House in the Close, and exercised unbounded 
hospitality. Note may also be made of the fact that 
during his second term of office Mr. Cramlington tried to 
be economical, and did not spend much more than half 
the sum that his. first Mayoralty cost him : 

1776. September 20. This day I was 
chosen Sheriff of Newcastle. Cost 315 3 2i 
Deduct Salary 140, Gown 18 168 

157 3 24 

1786. September 18. Chosen Alderman. 

1788. Elected Mayor. Cost 2,051 13 94 

Town's allowance 1,333 7 6 

718 6 34 

1795. September 20. Again elected 

Mayor. Cost 1,083 210 

Reduced expenses with town's 

allowance 868 17 5A 

214 5 44 

Balance (Loss) 1,089 It 104 

If at home, deduct two years' house- 
keeping at 500 each 1,000 

Vide Book of Accounts in the closet 89 14 104 

The alderman who thus frankly admits us into his con- 
fidence was descended from an ancient and honourable 
Northumbrian family. He was a son of Lancelot Cram- 
lington of Earsdon, and carried on the business of a host- 
man, or coaltitter, having his offices, according to White- 
head's Directory 1787, at the foot of the Broad Chare. 
On the 18th May, 1752, he married, at All Saints' Church, 
Anne Scott, half sister to Lords Eldon and Stowell, by 
whom he had four children. Only one of them, Anne, 
lived to maturity, and she married John (afterwards Sir 
John) Chrichloe Turner, agent for the Greenwich Hos- 
pital Estates in the North, and for over thirty years 
owner of the leasehold estate of the Castle Garth, includ- 
ing the Old Castle. Losing his wife on New Year's Day, 
1764 (she was buried, with her children, at All Saints', near 
the north wall), Alderman Cramlington married again. 
He chose for his second wedding day, in 1772, the same 
day of the month (May 18) as that upon which his first 
marriage had been celebrated, and for his wife Anne, 
daughter of William Lake, of Long Benton, half-sister of 
Robert Lake, Commissary-General of America, and 
widow of Lewis Hick, of Newcastle, hostman. By 
Mr. Hick she had children, one of whom was married 
to Robert Shaftoe Hedley, Mayor of Newcastle in 1799 ; 
by Mr. Cramlington she had no issue. 

The late Mr. James Clephau was accustomed to relate 
a wonderful pun that the alderman made upon one of the 
famous river excursions which the Corporation were 
accustomed to take every Ascension Day. From some 
cause or other the Mayor's barge sprune a leak, and there 
was consternation on board. Nathaniel Punshon, the 
Under-Sheriff, expressed considerable alarm upon the 
occasion. "Don't you be afraid !" said Alderman Cram- 
lingtou to him ; " you are safe enough even if the whole 
Corporation go to the bottom." "How can that be?" 
queried the frightened and puzzled official. "Why," 
replied the alderman, with a twinkle in his eye, "an 
empty punshon always floats !" 



Alderman Crainlington died at his house in Pilgrim 
Street on Saturday, the 12th of May, 1810, at the good 
old age of eighty-five. RICHABD WELFORD. 






il> our great-grandfathers' and even in our 
grandfathers' days, every decent English- 
man had his chin clean shaved once a 
we>ik, or oftener. Whiskers were a mark 
of swellism ; moustachios were unknown ; and the bar- 
ber's vocation was in such a busy and flourishing con- 
dition that even some of the opposite sex were tempted 
to try their hands at the tonsorial art. 

Sykes, in his "Local Records," under date 1794, 
states : " Formerly on the Sandhill, and at this time on 
the Quay, near the Bridge, Newcastle, were people 
(chiefly women) %vho in the open street, on market days, 
performed the office of barber, at one-half the regular 
price. " 

Mr. William Stephenson, senior, the author of this 
popular song, and probably the oldest known writer of 
local ditties, was born in Gateshead in 1763. He was a 
clock and watchmaker to trade, but spent the best part 
of his life as a schoolmaster, on the Church Stairs, Gates- 
head. In 1832 he collected and published his poems and 
songs, in a thin octavo volume, dedicated, by permission, 
to the Rev. John Collinson, the then rector of Gateshead. 
The principal poem is entitled "The Retrospect," and 
introduces and deals with the eccentric and well known 
characters of Gateshead, as he knew it in his youth. 
Among others he mentions an old soldier named Tom 
Lough, whose wife was one of the Quayside Shavers, and 
handled her razor as deftly as the best of them. Nothing 
more is known of her, except that her manners and address 
to her customers are faithfully represented in the song. 
Mr. Stephenson died at Gateshead on the 12th day of 
August, 1836, aged 73. 

The song also appeared in John Bell's " Rhymes of the 
Northern Bards," published 1812, and we are indebted 
for the melody to the same indefatigable collector, whose 
copy is now preserved in the archives of the Society of 
Antiquaries, Newcastle. 

each mar - ket day, Sir, The 




round a small grate, Sir, In 

get them - selves shav'd in 






Gen -tie - men, who is the next to sit down?' 

A medley this place is, 

Of those who sell laces, 
With fine shirt-neck buttons and good cabbage nets ; 

Where match-men at meeting 

Give each a kind greeting, 
And ask one another how trade with them sets ; 

Joined in with Tom Hoggars, 

And little Bob Nackers, 
Who wander the streets in their fuddling gills ; 

And those folks with bags, Sir, 

Who buy up old rags, Sir, 
That deal in fly cages and paper windmills. 

There pitmen with basket? 
And 6ne posey waistcoats, 

Discourse about nought but who puts and hews best ; 
There keelmen, just landed, 
Swear " May they be stranded, 



If they're not shaved first, while their keel's at the/et "; 

With face full of coal dust, 

Would frighten one almost, 
Throw off hat and wig while they usurp the chair ; 

While others stand looking, 

And think it provoking, 
But, for the insult, to oppose them none dare. 

When under the chin, Sir, 

She tucks the cloth in, Sir, 
Their old quid they'll pop in the pea-jacket cuff ; 

And while they are sitting, 

Do nought but keep spitting, 
And looking around with an air fierce and bluff ; 

Such tales as go round, Sir, 

Would surely confound. Sir, 
And puzzle the prolific brain of the wise ; 

But when she prepares. Sir, 

To take off the hairs, Sir, 
With lather she whitens them up to the eyes. 

No sooner the razor 

Is laid on the face, Sir, 
Than painful distortions is seen on the brow ; 

But if they complain. Sir, 

They find it in vain, Sir, 

She'll tell them "There's nought but what patience can 

And a? she scrapes round 'em, 

If she by chance wound 'em, 
They'll cry out as thoueh she'd bereaved them of life ; 

" Od smash your brain?, woman ! 

Aa find the blood's comin' ! 
Aa'd rather been shav'd wiv an aad gully knife." 

For all they can say, Sir, 

She still rasps away, Sir, 
And sweeps round their jaw the chop-torturing tool ; 

Till they in a pet, Sir, 

Request her to whet, Sir, 
But she gives them, for answer, "Sitstill, ye fond fool." 

For all their repining-, 

Their twisting and twining. 
She forthwith proceeds till she's mown off the hair ; 

When finished, cries "There, Sir," 

Then straight from the chair, Sir, 

They jump, crying, "Daresay you've scraped the bone 
bare. " 

Eft* Crinitfi ftmtrfe, 

HO the ordinary Novocastrian, the neigh- 
bourhood with which we are about to con- 
cern ourselves is mostly a terra incognita. 
Certainly, no visitor passing along the 
Quayside, or entering the city by the elevated railway 
at the Manors, would guess that such an oasis as the 
Trinity House could be found in that labyrinth of not 
over fragrant lanes, entries, and chares, which intersect 
and permeate the locality where Newcastle merchants 
most do congregate. 

The visitor may reach the Trinity House from the 
Quay by way of Trinity Chare, or by going up the 
Broad Chare, and entering by the "great gate" to 
the left. This is the entrance gate referred to in the old 
books of 1632, "For men paintyng and gildinge the 
great yatte in the Brod Chair, 4s." The feeling of surprise 
and pleasure on passing from ancient slum into an atmo- 
sphere of affluent antiquity, is most marked, or felt, if the 
first visit be paid after the hot glare of a mid-day sun on 
the Quay has been experienced, and then the cool and 
enjoyable shade of old Trinity, brave in its coating of 
clean whitewash and paint, comes indeed as a grateful 

The Trinity House is the ancient abiding place of the 
"Guild of Masters and Mariners," not one of the original 
"Twelve Mysteries," but one of the "Fifteen Bye- 
Trades," of the "Free Incorporated Companies" of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, which in past centuries played 
such important parts in building up and sustaining the 
trade and commerce of the Northern centre of power and 




wealth. The establishment of this ancient society reaches 
far back into antiquity. A purely voluntary union for 
mutual protection was doubtless its first origin. 

The first trustworthy record of the Trinity Corporation 
is the purchase of the site of its present house, January 
4th, 1*92, of Ralph Hebborn, or Hebborne, of Hebborne, 
by "The Guild or Fraternity of the Blessed Trinity of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. " The transaction was really a 
gift, as the consideration was to be "a red rose, if de- 
manded, to be paid yearly, at midsummer, for ever. " It 
is described as in "Dal ton Place," probably named after a 
previous owner of the property, and by a resolution of the 
house, in writing, still preserved, dated January 4th, 
1505, " a hall, chapel, and lodgings for the brethren " 
were ordered to be erected. Again, Robert or Thomas 
Hebborne, son of the former benefactor, by a deed dated 
September 9th, 1525, conveyed to the fraternity 
some additional buildings on the north side of the 

aforesaid Dalton Place, thus enlarging the site, for 
which " a pottle of wine, if demanded," was to be 
paid yearly, on the vigil of St. Peter and St. Paul. So 
that for nearly four hundred years, through all the 
changes in the stream of time, and in the course of start- 
ling local historical vicissitudes, the brethren of the 
Trinity House have enjoyed and retained their secluded 
retreat. Both their privileges and their duties were 
enlarged as time progressed. Henry VIII. granted a 
new charter of incorporation, Oct. 5th, 1536, ''with a 
common seal, to implead and be impleaded." They were 
now first licensed "to build and imbattle" the High and 
the Low Lights, in Shields Harbour, " for the support of 
which they were empowered to receive 4d. for every 
foreign ship, and 2d. for every English vessel, enter- 
ing the port of Tyne." Subsequent confirmations and 
extensions of the charter were granted in the reigns of 
Edward VI., in 1548, Mary in 1555. "Elizabeth in 1584, 

' ' 



I April 
[ iteii. 

and James I. in 1606 and 1607. Queen Elizabeth re- 
founded the society under the name of " The Masters' 
Pilots, and Seamen of the Trinity House, of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne," and James I. constituted the society with a 
master, twelve elder brethren, two elder wardens with 
their two assistants, and two younger wardens with their 
assistants, and a jurisdiction extending from Blyth to 
Whitby, which was afterwards extended to Holy Island. 
The rights of pilotage, primage, lightage, with buoying, 
canning, marking, and beaconing the river, were con- 
ferred and confirmed, and a list of rates chargeable by the 
society were set forth in full detail. 

The entries in the old books of the Trinity House, 
dating from 1530, are a quaint record of the times 
through which it has lived and flourished. It is clear 
that this society has borne a more prominent share 
(as from its character it might be expected to do) 
than most of the other more purely trading guilds in 
the trials and turmoils of Newcastle history. The item of 
rent appears to be referred to in 1542 in the entry "Pd. 
for one pottell of wine for house farme W," and again, 
"July 29th, 1650, pd. for a pottle of brewed white wine 

for Bertram Anderson, due at St. Peter's Eve last past, 
2s. 7d." In 16W, when for the first time the Scots 
occupied Newcastle, after the miserable affair at New- 
burn, General Lesley appears to have occupied the house, 
and " the great Bess the Scottish army inflicted upon us " 
is mentioned on November 30, the same year. Four 
years later, during the great siege when the town on behalf 
of the king was so ably defended by its citizen garrison 
under Sir John Marley, the Trinity brethren appear to 
have had their share in the work ; and when the town fell 
the house was plundered by the Scots. On January 5th, 
the next year, very much against the grain apparently, 
the Scottish Solemn League and Covenant was " adminis- 
tered " " in the Trinity House Chappell," when a gratuity 
of 1 10s. was given to the preacher. 

Always, naturally, on the side of "law and order," the 
Trinity House was ever to the fore on the occasion of 
royal visits, of which in those days there was an abundance, 
as well as on other State events. Charles L, in 1633, 
was escorted to Tynemouth by the brethren. This was 
just after the " great yatte" had been painted and gilded, 
probably for the occasion of the visit. The brethren also 

1S89. / 



loyally addressed Jamea II. on his accession, and again 
in 1686 on the discovery of a plot against his life. The 
same loyal attention was paid to Anne when she ascended 
the throne, and to George I. During the troubled time 
of the '4-5, when Prince Charles Edward startled the 
whole kingdom, the Trinity House brethren manned 
the large guns on the town fortifications, and offered 
their services as well in the defence of Carlisle 
at the same period. In 1798, during the French war, 
the Trinity House offered to form an artillery company, 
to be attached to the "Newcastle Armed Association," 
and provided a erunboat for the defence of the harbour. 
And again, in 1803, when Napoleon had raised the alarm 
to fever height, the brethren arranged to enrol the pilots 
and others into a corps of "Sea Fencibles" for defensive 
purposes. The return of successful commanders was 
generally signalized by the Trinity House. After the 
fateful battle of Culloden, in 1746, the Duke of Cumber- 
land was presented with the freedom of the society " in 
a gold box.'' A more suitable occasion, however, was the 
presentation of an address, "in a gold box," in 1306, to 
the local hero, Admiral Lord Collingwood. 

From the constitution of the society it may easily be 
guessed that tho Trinity House to-day is a wealthy 
corporation, and rather exclusive in its character ; but the 
visitor will be treated by the officials with the greatest 
courtesy and attention. Before entering by the "great 
yatte," in the " Brod Chair," shown in our engraving, he 
will observe, suspended from the wall outside, an old 

rusted anchor, respecting which two legends are current, 
viz., that it is a veritable relic from one of the wrecked 
ships of the Spanish Armada of 1588, or that it originally 
belonged to the ship of a pirate, named, or nicknamed, 
Blackbeard, who, in the good old days, bothered these 
Northern Coasts. Once within the precincts, the visitor 
enters the "High Yard," and by a broad flight of steps 
he will find his way into the charmed region. The 
" Suminoner "is obliging and attentive, and the stranger 
will not regret the time spent in inspecting the pictorial 
treasures and curiosities of the Trinity House. In ad- 
dition, he will find the charming carvings, fittings, and 
general arrangements of the Board Room, vestibule, 
secretary's office, library, Trinity Hall, and the 
gem of a chapel, replete with interest and pleasure. 
A handy descriptive catalogue is provided, in which a 
brief account is given of the principal pictures, curiosities, 
and works of art stored in the official apartments already 

Of late years, portions of the extensive premises 
included in the High and Low Yards have been let 
off into offices and warehouses, and what was formerly 
the important "mathematical school," in the Low 
Yard, has ceased its work during the present 
generation. To middle-aged Novocastrians, and indeed 
over a much wider area, it will be a matter 
<Ji interest to know that the author of "TinweH'jf 
Arithmetic, " a standard work in its day, was a master of 
this school. The gallery on the roof, which was tha 



I April 

"Observatory," ia still to be seen, and the visitor must 
not omit to observe the oil painting, supposed to be a 
portrait of Mr. Tinwell, hung in the master's room. The 
alms houses for old mariners and their widows, in both 
the High and Low Yards, are of course still fully occu- 
pied. Hansel or Handsel Monday, the first Monday of 
the year, when the officers are elected, is the ereat day at 
the Trinity House. After business, the members are 
liberally treated, as an ancient custom, to bread and 
cheese and wine. The Church service is conducted in the 
pretty little chapel every Monday morning, the present 
chaplain being the Rev. W. L. Cunningham, of St. 

Many of the old city Guilds, having long lost their 
raison d'etre, are, of course, practically dying a natural 
death, but the Trinity House has, as yet, no such cause 
for decay. Though the important duty of lightage is now 
transferred to the River Commissioners, the Trinity Cor- 
poration is perhaps as virile to-day as at any previous 
period in the whole course of its long and eventful history. 



jjHROVE TUESDAY, which this year fell 
on March 5, witnessed the usual football 
contests at Alnwick, Sedgefield, Chester-le- 
Street, and other places in the North- 
Country. Some historical records of the ancient game 
will be found on page 54 of the present volume. Further 
information about the manner in which the old custom is 
observed in Chester-le-Street may be of interest. Here, 
then, somewhat altered and abridged, is the report that 
appeared in the Newcastle Daily Chronicle of March 6, 
1889 : 

Mr. Joseph Murray, of Newcastle, as the representa- 
tive of the Murray family, who have provided the ball 
for sixty-five years, duly appeared at one o'clock, with the 
ball in his hand. Immediately he threw out the ball the 
fun became fast and furious, and, contrary to all the tra- 
ditions of the game, the ball went rapidly up street, all 
the efforts of the Down-Streeters failing to stay the 
attack of the Up-Streeters, who seemed bent upon making 
a strong bid for victory. Right away the ball went up- 
wards, only to be checked opposite the Lambton Arms, 
and atrain at the King's Head ; then it did not stop until 
reaching Red Rose Hall. There a change took place ; 
the Down-Streeters made a big effort, and, by the aid of 
vigorous play on the part of a few fresh hands, conspicu- 
ous among whom was a well-known "county back," the 
ball was brought rapidly down street, and its progress 
was not checksd until it was shot into the half -frozen river 
Cone. Plunging in, through the ice and rushing waters, 
several adventurous players succeeded in getting the ball 
once more into play, at the expense of a thorough wetting. 
In a few minutes' time the ball was again forced into the 
river, and this time several youngsters got it upon the ice 
and tried to play it there, only to drop through the ice at 
very soft places and to lose the ball through the holes into 
the water, all of which caused immense amusement to the 
spectators. The ball again went up street after a terrific 
struggle, and there it remained, in spite of the herculean 
efforts put forth by the Down-Streeters. A few minutes 

before six o'clock the ball was returned to Mr. Murray, 
who addressed the multitude from the window of the 
Crown Inn, congratulating them upon the magnificent 
struggle there had been. An announcement was subse- 
quently made that next year a cup would be given to be 
held by some responsible person on behalf of the winners. 

A Chester-le-Street contributor to the "Notes and 
Queries " of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle gave the fol- 
lowing particulars in its issue for March 9, 1889 : 

For anything that is known to the contrary, the annual 
Shrovetide football match may have been played here in 
the time of the Romans ! There is nothing in the local 
annals or in the parish records to fix the date of its 
institution ; and there is not a time within living memory 
when it was not played with just as much enthusiasm if 
by less numbers than now. The grandfather of the 
writer of these notes was a native of Rothbury, and 
played in the annual Shrovetide match there as boy and 
man. Coming to the neighbourhood of Chester-le-Street 
about a century ago, he found the old custom of his 
Northumbrian home in full swing in "the city of the 
world," as it was then, as now, known and spoken of. 
That is the earliest period the writer can find oral 
tradition beginning. 

How the ball for the game was provided, or by whom, 
at that time, is not by any means so obvious as the fact 
that the game was played. But at a later period, in living 
memory, it can be made out that a Mr. Pybus, a saddler, 
who was also parish clerk, provided the ball. The fact of 
Mr. Pybus being parish clerk has doubtless led to the 
idea that the ball was provided by the parish in virtue of 
some covenant. There is nothing, however, in the parish 
records and accounts to show that any expense has ever 
been incurred, or moneys disbursed, for such a purpose. 

After the death of Mr. Pybus, his foreman, Mr. Fair- 
less, succeeded to his saddlery business, and also kept 
up the annual and ancient football custom. He married 
Mrs. Pybus, widow of the " late lamented, " and carried on 
the saddlery buisness where Mrs. Gibson's spirit vaults 
now stand, and where the divisionary line intersects and 
marks the territories of the Up-Streeters and Down- 
Streeters those dwelling south of that point being the 
Up-Streeters, and those to the north the Down- 
Streeters. The game appears to have been always 
played between those two distinctive portions of the 

About sixty-three or sixty-five years go it is difficult 
to fix the date definitely or with exactitude Mr. Chris- 
topher Ridley, now a very old man, but still hale and 
hearty, met Mr. Fairless in "The Mains" one morning. 
Mr. Fairless passed on his way towards the Ferry, and 
Mr. Ridley into the town. That is the last that is known 
of Mr. Fairless. From that day to this he has not been 
seen or heard of in Chester-le-Street. The affair caused 
the usual "nine days' talk," as Mr. Fairless was well 
known and highly respected. So far as is known, too, it 
was not even snegested that there were any domestic or 
pecuniary troubles from which he had any reason to flee. 

What may be called "The Murray Epoch " began witli 
the disappearance of Mr. Fairless. Mr. George Mur- 
ray, then carrying on an extensive business as chemist, 
druggist, grocer, and provision dealer, besides conduct- 
ing a farm or two, stepped into the breach caused by 
the disappearance of Mr. Fairless. When Shrove Tues- 
day came round he had a ball ready prepared, and 
punctually at one o'clock appeared with it at the door 
of his place of business at the north end of the 
bridge which spans the river Cone, and at the entrance to 
Pictree Lane. Before "throwing out" the ball, he ad- 
dressed a few words to the assembled crowd, stating that 
he had taken upon himself the duty of providing them with 
a ball for their ancient and annual match, not only that 
they might enjoy themselves, but that their ancient 
custom might be preserved and maintained. If they 
would accept the ball which he had provided, he would 
promise them that, as long as he lived, they should 
neither want a ball nor someone to " throw it out " every 
Shrove Tuesday. 

One word more about the general way in which the 



game is conducted, or rather not conducted, for only the 
players themselves have any control over it. The match 
is played, as we have seen, between the people living 
north and south of the Low Chare, the place 
where Mr. Eairless's shop was situated, and where 
the ball was then "thrown out." There is neither 
limit nor restriction to the number of players. 
Association, Rugby, and all other recognised codes are 
set at defiance. There are no goals, and there is 
but one object that is, to have the ball north or south of 
the Low Chare. At six o'clock, it is picked up and 
returned to the donor, who at once announces from some 
prominent place (generally an upstairs window of some 
public-house) that the " tip" or " Down Streeters" have 
won the game, according as the ball was above or below 
the Low Chare at that hour. Everybody is expected by 
everybody else to play " fairly" i.e., to kick or throw the 
ball as he chooses. Hiding the ball for some time and 
then running away with it (not a very difficult trick to ac- 
complish, and one which is sometimes practised) is put 
down with strong hands, and without ceremony. 

[JHE Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is usually due in 
this country about the middle of April, sooner 
or later according to the character of the sea- 
son. It is common in summer from the Lizard Point to 
the Orkney Islands. The bird is found throughout the 
whole of the European Continent from south to north. 
It occurs in Japan, Java, Kamschatka, Asia Minor, and 
many other parts of the world, as also in Africa. Ac- 
cording to Temminck and other naturalists, it is also 
found in South Africa, but only as a winter migrant. 

The birds are light and easy in their flight, and are 
sometimes taken for hawks when on the wing. Their 
mode of flight and change of plumage in autumn have no 
doubt given rise to the alleged transformation of the bird 
into a hawk. It is, of course, the notes of the male birds 
which are heard so frequently in spring in woods, fields, 
and hedgerows. The only note of the female is a gentle 

twitter, something resembling the syllables "Kwikwik- 
wik," and this note is said to be generally heard when 
the female is searching for a nest in which to deposit her 

Of the nesting peculiarities of the cuckoo, and the 
ejection of 'the legitimate young birds from the nest, 
much has been written by naturalists and general ob- 
servers. Perhaps the most minute and truthful accounts 
of the manner in which the young cuckoos dispose of the 
young birds in the nest are those given by Dr. Jenner 
and Mr. John Hancock. The cuckoos deposit their eggs 
in the nests of a variety of birds ; but, as Mr. Hancock 
observes, the intruded egg will most frequently be found 
in the nest of the meadow pipit, or titlark.- My own 
experience is decidedly in favour of the meadow pipit. 
I have found the eggs and young of cuckoos in, perhaps, 
a score of instances, in widely separated parts of England 
and Scotland, and, except in one instance, the eggs or 
young of the cuckoo were in the nests of meadow pipits. 
\ et the cuckoo's egg has often been found in the nest of 
the robin, pied wagtail, bunting, hedge sparrow, and 
many other birds. 

A correspondent of Science Gossip asserts he has found 
the egg of the cuckoo in the nest of the common wren a 
most rare and interesting occurrence, as it shows, what 
is now generally believed, that the cuckoo usually lays her 
egg on the ground and puts it into the nest selected either 
with beak or claw. In the case of the egg found in the 
wren's nest, it must have been protruded through the 
small hole in the side of the nest. In several instances I 
have found the eggs of the cuckoo in the nests of titlarks 
which were so placed that they must have been deposited 
by the beak or the claw of the female cuckoo. 

It has often been asserted that the foster-parents eject 
their own young from the nest after they are hatched, in 
order to make room for the greedy nestling ; and it has 
also been said that the female cuckoo returns to the nest 
and ejects the young birds in favour of her own nestling. 
But the close and interesting observations of Dr. Jenner 
and Mr. Hancock go to show that the young of the foster- 
parents are thrown out of the nest by the young cuckoo 
soon after it is hatched. 

The egg of the cuckoo is remarkably small, considering 
the size of the bird. I have a clutch of titlarks' eggs, 
with a cuckoo's egg taken from the same nest. The latter 
egg, in shape, size, and colouring, closely resembles the 
others, and few save experts can detect the difference. 


SC Hartft Ctftuttri) 

jlF the many strange stories of imposture with 
which the public have been made acquainted 
of late years, perhaps the most generally 
interesting, because of their romantic character, are those 
in which, for varying motives, members of the gentle 
sex have assumed the habiliments of men. Sometimes the 
fair impostor has served with ability before the mast ; 
at others has shouldered the rifle and fought through a 




campaign ; but almost invariably, after the lapse of a few 
years, some untoward circumstance has stripped off the 
disguise, and the impostor has stood confessed a woman. 
A most remarkable instance of this kind, which 
came under the writer's notice some few years ago, 
differed from the ordinary run, not only in the length of 
time (quite half a century) during which the imposture 
was successfully maintained the mask being only torn 
away by the great discoverer, death but also in the 
singularity of some of the attendant circumstances, which 
will probably seem to the reader to belong to the region 
of romance. 

Less than twenty years ago there lived in a miserable 
cottage in Toft Hill a small, half -mining, half -agricultural 
village in South Din-ham a solitary and decrepit 
recluse, commonly known amongst the villagers as Joe 
Piker, from the fact of his cottage adjoining a turnpike 
eate. Joe, who claimed as his proper appellation the 
more high-sounding name of Josiah Charles Stephenson, 
was always somewhat of a mystery to his neighbours, 
although he had dwelt amongst them for nearly fifty 
years. He lived alone : the parish dole was his only 
means of subsistence, but even out of that he always con- 
trived to spare something for his customary drop of gin. 
He had com" to one of the neighbouring collieries a mere 
.youth early in the "twenties" of the century, and had 
obtained work in the mine. At that time he kept 
a;>art as much as possible from the rest of the work-, and made no friends. In a year or two he wooed 
and won Sally, the red-cheeked servant-maid at the Bull, 
and the pair lived apparently a happy, uneventful life 
for some thirty years. No olive branches graced their 
household, but their mutual affection did not appear 
diminished thereby, and, indeed, became almost proverbial 
in the village. 

During these many years Joe alternated between coal- 
hewing in the winter and farm-work at which he was 
very expert in the summer. Eventually he left the pits 
altogether, and tnenceforward maintained Sally and him- 
self by "data!" work on the neighbouring farms. In 
those days, before the advent of the reaping machine, the 
use of the sickle or reaping-hook was an indispensable 
accomplishment of the agricultural labourer, and Joe 
speedily became famous as the fastest "shearer" of 
corn for miles round. After thirty years of wedded 
bliss, Sally died, leaving her spouse seemingly incon- 
solable at her loss. Joe vowed that naught would 
ever tempt him to enter the conjugal state again. 
The vow was soon forgotten, however, and in a year or 
two he led to the altar a second spouse. With her, how- 
ever, the course of true love ran anything but smooth, 
and in the short space of a week or two she left him for 
ever. To her friends and gossips she told the strangest 
and most incredible stories about her lord and master 
stories, which although verified long after, were simply 
scouted at the time, for everyone had known Joe 

for so long, whilst the veracity of his second wife was. 
rated at considerably below par. For nearly twenty 
years after their separation Joe dwelt alone, soon 
becoming a confirmed misogynist, and declining to allow 
a woman to enter his miserable abode. Never noted for 
much piety, he rapidly developed into a most blas- 
phemous old reprobate, whose profanity, excited by the 
most trivial annoyances, was truly blood-curdling. 

When mellowed by an extra glass or two of his 
customary drink, Joe would occasionally become mys- 
teriously oracular, and once or twice even went so far as 
to predict that his demise would make the greatest 
sensation of any event which had occurred in the village 
since he came into it. Little attention, however, was 
paid to the old man's vapourings, as they were thought to 
be. He invariably preserved a strict reticence as to his 
antecedents and birthplace ; once, and only once, confiding 
to the only crony he had, a small tradesman in the 
village, the fact that he hailed from Berwick -upon-Tweed. 
He stoutl^ resisted a proposal that he should return 
thither, and waxed angry and indignant at an offer to 
communicate with any of his relatives or friends in the 
Border town. 

In the early winter of 1869, Joe sickened, and soon it 
became evident that he was dying. A female neighbour 
volunteered to nurse him, but Joe drove her out of the 
house with horrible imprecations. At last the end 
came, and a couple of .kindly women went to the 
miserable hovel to perform the last offices for' the 
old recluse. Suddenly, in that mysterious manner in 
which rumours are floated in small villages, it began to be 
whispered that something extraordinary had occurred ; 
the village doctor and the village constable were seen 
hurrying to the cottage, round which a crowd speedily 
gathered, and by and bye the truth leaked out. "Old 
Joe, "who had been known and laughed at for so many 
years, whose first wife rested in the neighbouring church- 
yard, and whose second partner was jeered out of the 
place for what were regarded as her absurd inventions 
blasphemous, hardened, suffering "old Joe " was no man 
at all, but how shall it be written ? a woman. Daily 
papers had not then penetrated to every village, and an 
occurrence perhaps without parallel in recent times 
received a brief half-column of space in the 
local weekly paper, formed the subject of 
sundry doggerel verses by local poets, and soon 
was seldom mentioned. The burial was entered in the 
parish church register at Etherley as that of "an un- 
known woman, " who died November 23rd, 1869, and the 
inquiries set on foot by the then rector failed to elicit any 
information by which the entry could be amplified. 

According to the best information which could be 
obtained, it was in February, 1823, that Joe first 
reached the place. A tradition was current in 
the village for some time after bis death to the 
effect that, during the winter of 1822-3, a young 

April | 
1889. | 



shepherd left the neighbourhood of Berwick-upon-Tweed 
in charge of a drove of sheep for Newcastle market ; 
that a girl whom he had jilted disappeared about the 
same time, and that neither the one nor the other had since 
been heard of. The supposition was that the quondam 
Joe was the girl in question, and that she had murdered 
her faithless lover and assumed his attire. The 
writer has been unable to verify this tradition in 
any respect, although he believes that inquiries 
were set on foot at the time by the rector of the parish in 
which Joe died. The clergyman himself died a few years 
later, having been, as he stated, unable to arrive at any 
satisfactory solution of the mystery. Joe was supposed 
to be about seventy years of age at the time of death. 



WORD so familiar as to give the distinctive 
character to "canny Newcassel" seems to 
have little need of explanation. It is just one 
of those words, however, which has made its home here, 
but which is sadly misunderstood by outsiders. The 
patient John Ray heard it not ; and we turn to look for 
it in vain among the "English words proper to the 
Northern Counties " in his little volume of 1691. It does 
not appear in the collection of Nathan Bailey, the quaint 
"Philologos" who thirty years later published his Dic- 
tionary, in which were included "The Dialects of our 
Different Countries." When Dr. Johnson followed, in 
1755, with his English Dictionary, he did not record it. 
We come down, therefore, to our own times before we 
find the modest word included in an English dictionary. 
If we turn up Dr. Ogilvie's great work, "The Imperial 
Dictionary " of 1848, we do find the word. But this is 
not our own "canny." It is "cautious; prudent; art- 
ful; crafty; wary; frugal," &c. The Southern man 
accepts this rendering, and believes that our "canny 
man" means "cunning fellow." This may be explained 
by the fact that " canny " does not appear in literature 
before the seventeenth century 1637 being the date of 
the earliest quotation of its use in Dr. Murray's " New 
English Dictionary." All the early references to it are 
found north of the Tweed, and the trans-Tuedian usage 
of the word justifies the Southern Enelishman in under- 
standing it " to denote qualities considered characteristi- 
cally Scotch." 

In Northumberland, the word is of ancient currency, for 
it is part of the mother-tongue of the people. But the 
history, and the dialect which is part of the history, of 
this northernmost English county, show us how a folk, 
isolated at times from the rest of the kingdom have 
grown up by themselves in word and work. It is especi- 
ally shown in this word, which among the people of 

Northumberland has developed a meaning far differing 
from a rendering that ascribes to it mere cunning, or 
craft, or wariness. Here "canny" is an embodiment 
of all that is kindly, good, and gentle. The highest 
compliment that can be paid to any person is to say that 
he or she is "canny." As home expresses the English 
love of the fireside, so in Tyneside and Northumberland 
does " canny " express every home virtue. All that is 
good and lovable in man or woman is covered by the ex- 
pression, " Eh, what a canny body !" A child appealing 
for help or protection always addresses his elder as 
"canny man." "Please, canny man, gi's a lift i' yor 
cairt." "O, canny man, O show me the way to Walling- 
ton." What Northumberland bairn but has appealed, 
when punishment impended, " Please, canny man, it 
wesn't me!" The fishwife who wishes to compliment 
her customer, says, "Noo, rmm^-hinney, see what yor 

O, bonny Hobby Elliot, 

O, cannu Hobby still, 
O, bonny Hobby "Elliot, 

Who lives at Harlow Hill. 

The word, says the Rev. John Hodgson, "refers as 
well to the beauty of form as of manners and morals, but 
most particularly is used to describe those mild and affec 
tionate dispositions which render a person agreeable in 
the domestic state." 

Wor canny houses, duffit theekM 

Wor canny wives within 'em, 
Wor cannu bairns, se chubby cheek 'd, 

And sweet and clean yell find 'em ; 
Are a' decked put in Sunday trim, 

To mense this great occasion. 
Thomas Wilson: " The OMn' o' Dicky's Wig," 1826. 

Gan wi' me, like a cannu lad. 
T. Wilson: "Pitman's Pay," 1826, pt. 1, ver. 71. 

It has also the significations following : 

How well we remember the canny bit shop ! 

B. Gilchrist : "Sony of Improvements," 1835. 


To get us a canny bit leevin, 

Aw kinds o' fine sweetmeets we'll sell. 
W. Midford : -'Pitman's Courtship." 1818. 

What canny little wegges we used ta ha ta pay ! 

Geo. Chatt: " Old Farmer," 1866. 

Orderly, neat 

Eh, lads, but it's a bonny way ! 

But what myest pleased wor Nanny, 
Was seeing fogies, awd and gray, 

Paid just for keepin't cannu. 

T. Wilson: " The Oilin' o' Dicky's Wig." 

Careful "'Be canny wi' the sugar." 

Canny is also used adverbially, as, "Canny, noo, 
canny I" or " Gan canny! " that is, Go gently. 

A, IT, A, ma bonny bairn, 

A, IT, A, upon ma airm, 

A, U, A, thoo syun may lairn 

To say dada se canny. 
B. Nunn: " Sandyate Wife's Nurse Song.' 

This Northumberland word is just the simpler English 
term for what we should otherwise have to style in grand- 



iloquent language the highest human virtues. Benefi- 
cence, benevolence, magnanimity are all summed up in 
the plainer word canniness. So strong is this that to say 
one is "no" canny" is to say that he is simply unhuraan. 

When the traveller from the South experiences the 
congestion of traffic by which the lines to the Central 
Station at Newcastle are occasionally blocked, his train is 
suddenly pulled up, and he finds himself waiting on a 
viaduct. Below him there instantly gathers a promiscuous 
crowd of ragged bairns. From a dozen young throats is 
heard, in measured cadence, the chorus of a song, and 
from the guttural verse there comes up a constant ower- 
word. This, as it is heard over and over, is not an accusa- 
tion of the Southern gentleman. He is not being called 
"a cautious, crafty fellow." "Canny man" is really 
intended to convey the most touching appeal that the 
little hatless, shoeless, palpitating figure below can make 
to the better nature of his auditor, as he chaunts 

Hey, canny man, hoy a ha'penny oot ! 
Ye'll see some fun, thor is ne doot ; 
Whorivvor ye gans, ye'll heor 'em shoot, 
Hey, canny man, hoy a ha'penny oot ! 


JastUmtcr antr tfte 

j]O part of the English Lake District presents 
a more perfect combination of grandeur and 
wildness than Wastdale, with its gloomy 
lake, Wastwater. The surroundings com- 
prise some of the highest mountains in England, and 
from certain points of the vale the views are most im- 
pressive. It was Wordsworth's opinion that no part of 
the country is more distinguished for sublimity. 

Wastwater differs in many respects from other 
lakes in the same district. It occupies the greater 
part of the lower space of the valley, but in itself 
presents no interesting features, being without islets, 
promontory, baylet, or any diversity that might 
attract attention, while the shore or margin is 
straight, or only slightly curved. Its length is 
about three and a half miles ; its breadth about half- 
a-mile ; and it has the reputation of being the 
deepest of the English lakes ; indeed, the natives 
will tell you that it is unfathomable. The greatest 
depth, however, is probably between 270 and 280 
feet. There is no record of its having ever been 
frozen over, even in the severest winter. 

A mountain, called the Screes, overhangs almost 
the whole of the south-east side of the lake. This 
mountain is the most remarkable characteristic of 
the valley. The upper part of it is a mass of huge 
crags, the remainder consisting of loose stones, 
fissures, and ravines. The mountain dips almost 
perpendicularly into the water, and the journey 
along the foot of it is not unattended with danger, 

as there is always the possibility of some fragments of 
rock falling from the heights above. 

Hutchinson, in his history of Cumberland, published 
about a century ago, says: "Sometimes, when a more 
than ordinary break or rent happens, it causes a pro- 
digious noise, fire and smoke, which in the night time 
appears like lightning to the inhabitants of Nether Wast- 
dale, which lies opposite to the Screes, on the north side 
of the lake. In some parts of the Screes is the finest red 
ore, used for what is there called ' Emitting ' (rudding or 
marking) the sheep. On the top of the Screes stood for 
ages a very large stone, called 'Wilson's horse,' but 
twenty years ago it fell down into the lake, when a cleft 
was made about 100 yards long, four feet wide, and of 
incredible depth." It is well known that huge boulders 
have come rushing down into the lake during thunder- 
storms, and this may account for the "fire and smoke." 

In order to obtain the most favourable impression of 
Wastwater it is necessary that the traveller should ap- 
proach it from the foot, or south-west. The scene is most 
striking about a mile and a half from the head. This 
point has been selected by Mr. Alfred Pettitt, of the Art 
Gallery, Keswick, for the photograph of the Screes from 
which our engraving is copied. It is from nearly the 
same point that the view of the lake shown in our other 
engraving has been taken. The conical peak seen to the 
left of this latter picture is Yewbarrow ; that in the ex- 
treme distance is Great Gable ; the foot of Lingmell is 
shown to the right. From the same point a fine view is 
also obtained of Scawfell and Scawfell Pike, the latter 
the highest mountain in England. 

At the head of the lake is the hamlet known as Wast 
dale Head. It is a very wild and lonely spot; but in the 
summer hundreds of tourists visit it as a starting place 



April 1 



for an early climb to Scawfell Pike. Half-a-dozen farm- 
houses, a primitive church, the vicarage, an inn, and a tem- 
perance hotel nestle at the foot of huge mountain*. For 
IT any years a public-house was here the only accommoda- 
tion for visitors. A well-known dalesman, or statesman, 
named William Ritson, was the landlord. "Old Will," 
as he is familiarly called (for he is still living), is quite a 
character. He is close upon ninety years of age, stands 
six feet two in his stockings, and was, when in his prime, 
a noted wrestler. It is his proud boast that he overthrew 
the doughty Christopher North (Professor Wilson) in a 
wrestling match, though he admitted that he found his 
antagonist a tough customer. "Old Will" has met 
many prominent men in his time, and possesses an almost 
inexhaustible fund of anecdote. He has, however, left 
Wastdale Head, and now lives in a cottage in another 
part of the district. 

The church at Wastdale Head is one of the smallest in 
England. It it lighted by two windows and a skylight 
over the pulpit, and contains eight pews. It is probably 
large enough for all purposes, as the maximum population 
of the valley, during the last twenty-five years, has only 
been about 42 adults. Hutchinson states that in his time 
there were about 47 inhabitants, though the many ruins of 
cottages thereabouts showed that previously the village 
had been much mor considerable. He also says that 
one of the dalesmen of the name of Fletcher " derived his 
possessions from a course of not less than 700 years." 

Harriet Martineau, in her Guide to the Lakes, under 
date 1855, referring to a peculiar superstition in Wastdale, 
says : "A young lady who kindly undertook to wash and 
dress the infant of a sick woman, but who was not ex- 
perienced in the process, exclaimed at the end: *O, 
dear, 1 forgot its hands and arms. I must wash them.' 


The mother expressed great horror, and said that 'if the 
child's arms were washed before it was six months old, it 
would be a thief ' ; and added pitifully, ' I would not 
like that.' The hair and nails must not be cut for a 
much longer time, for fear of a like result." 

Though, as before stated, Wastwater should be ap- 
proached from the south-west, it may also be visited by 
way of the Sty Head Pass, the Black Sail Pass, and from 
the direction of Eskdale. The inexperienced mountain 
climber is not advised to undertake these journeys in 
tempestuous weather. Fatal accidents have happened in 
these passes through foolhardy attempts to penetrate 
them at improper seasons. To be on the Sty Head Pass 
in a thunderstorm is to experience sensations which will 
not be forgotten for a lifetime. Black Sail Pass, under the 
same conditions, is almost worse than Sty Head. Mrs. 
Lynn Linton speaks of the latter as follows : " If Honis- 
ter is stern, Sty Head is violent ; if Kirkstone is desolate, 
Sty Head is terrifying in certain aspects, when the clouds 
hang low over Wastwater, literally terrifying, as if the 
road was going down into the home of Eternal Death." 
There is a story that Baron Trenck once dashed down Sty 
Head Pass on horseback, and that he arrived safely at 
the bottom, having performed in one day a journey of 
fifty-six miles, through steep and difficult roads, which 
nearly killed his horse. 

Some grand sights are to be seen in Wastdale. In the 
winter, the icicles hang from the projecting crags of 
Great Gable in strange profusion, and when illuminated 
by the rays of the rising sun produce a most unusual 
effect, sparks of light radiating in all directions as from 
acrown of diamonds. Then there is a great ravine on 
the north-west side of Lingmell, known as Peasgill, Pease 
Gill, or Piers Gill. This is admittedly one of the most 

stupendous gorges in 
the Lake District, 
and should on no 
account be missed by 
the tourist. Hawl 
Gill, or Hollow Gill, 
at the foot of the 
lake, is also worth 
inspection. Here the 
granite rocks have 
been worn into sharp 
peaks, and will re- 
mind the Swiss tra- 
veller of the aiguittes 
of Mont Blanc. 

The inhabitants of 
these remote parts 
not unusually in- 
dulge in a joke at 
the expense of each 
other. It has been 
a long standing jest 



that the dwellers in Borrowdale, like the wise men of 
Gotham, built a wall across the valley to keep the 
cuckoo amongst them all the year round. Another 
jest is that Wastdale possessed the highest hill, the 
deepest lake, the smallest church, the biggest liar, and 
the most drunken parson in the Lake District. This 
probably applied to a period some half century ago. 
At any rate the witticism could not have referred to 
the present vicar the Rev. Thomas Perfect Bell as a 
more abstemious and amiable man does not exist. 



The memorial drinking fountain shown in the accom- 
panying sketch has been erected at the village of Culler- 
coats, Northumberland, to the memory of Lieutenant 
Adiimson, son of Major William Aclamson. It bears the 


following inscription : " Erected oy a few friends in 
memory of Bryan John Huthwaite Adamson, Lieut., 
R.N., commanding H.M.S. Wasp, who sailed from 
Singapore, September, 1887, and was never heard of 
after." EDITOR. 


A scientific account of the curious wind which blows 
around Crossfell, Cumberland, will be found in the 
Monthly Chronicle, 1887, page 474. Almost every 
inhabitant of Alston has either seen the Helm Bar or felt 
the effects of the Helm Wind. The bar is a cloud which is 

formed on the summit of Crossfell parallel to the wind 
itself. As for the wind, people who have come within 
its range describe it as a furious hurricane that overturns 
carts and plays general havoc with all moveable things. 
The phenomenon is uncertain in its visitations. Some 
years it appears only at comparatively rare intervals, 
but in others it appears on an average more than once a 
week. Thus, according to the report of Mr. W. Murray 
to the Meteorological Society, the Helm Bar was observed 
on 41 occasions in 1885, on 63 occasions in 1886, but only 
19 times in 1887. A. 


Bourne, the historian of Newcastle, took Pudding Chare 
to be a corruption of Budding Chare. (See voL i, p. 225.) 
But the name is spelt Pudding Chare, as at present, in a 
deed dated 10 February, 8 Henry VII., when the 
orthography throughout is so different to modern style. 

Another deed, in Latin, referring to the same place, 
notifies that James Delavale, Esq., grants to William. 
Stevynson, a burgess of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
and a worker in soft leather, "aliutario," all his lands 
and tenement in the said town, lying in the small street 
"venello" called "Puddyngchar," adjoining the tene- 
ment of the Chantry of the Holy Trinity, in the Church 
of St. John, on the south ; the small street called 
"Saynt Johnchar " on the north; the said small 
street " venell " called *' Puddyngchar " on the east ; 
and the land of Robert Mitford, gent., on the west. 
The document is sealed on the 4th May, 3 Edward IV., 
that is 1463, in the presence of, amongst others, Alan 
Bird, Mayor of Newcastle, Nicholas Wetwang, Sheriff, 
and John Richardson, Robert Baxter, William Rothom, 
and John Nicson, aldermen. 

Having proof that the small street was called Pudding 
Chare in the 15th century, we need not be surprised at 
finding the name doing service as a surname two 
centuries and a half earlier. In the " Rotuli Hundredo- 
rum " of the time of Henry III. and Edward I., a 
Matilda Pudding occurred, as holding, by what 
authority was not known, a property in Newcastle of the 
king, for which she returned twopence per annum. At a 
little later date one Waltero Pudding witnessed a deed 
of the Widdrington family. As neither of these persons 
prefixed the Latin preposition "de" to their surname, as 
was general at the time with those whose lands gave 
them their cognomen, the idea is suggested that the 
patronymic Pudding was given to the land rather 
than derived from it, and that the twelve feet by six which 
Matilda held, by an unknown authority, in the 13th cen- 
tury, swelled to a quarter or division of a city, "ti'co," 
at a later period, known by the name of Puddyngchar 
or Pudding's Chare. By reference to Mr. Heslop's 
glossary, it will be seen that, like many of the gates and 
towers of Newcastle, at least twelve of the twenty-eight 
chares of the city mentioned therein were known by 

April \ 
1889. / 



family names ; others were called after churches or reli- 
gious houses, and a peculiarity connected with it gave a 
name to each of the remainder. 

I do not think it will be considered presumptuous, in 
view of these facts, to suggest, as I now do, that Bourne, 
the historian, erred when he said Pudding was a corrup- 
tion of Budding. 

CUTHBERT HOME TRASLAW, Cornhill-on-Tweed. 


Aristophanes, the Athenian playwright, who flourished 
about 444 B.C., makes mention, in his comedy of the 
" Ecclesiazusae, " or " Female Parliament, " of a banquet, 
one of the items in the bill of fare at which was a dish 
whose name is composed of upwards of seventy syllables. 
A correspondent, under the signature of Delta, lately 
asked, through the medium of the " Notes and Queries " 
department of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, for the 
reproduction of this extraordinary word, which he said he 
had frequently heard the late Dr. Snape, head-master of 
the Newcastle Royal Grammar School, enunciate ore 
rotunda. The following answer was received from Mr. 
J. F. Stout, South Shields : 

Lepado-temacho-sel&cho -gale's -kranio -lei psano-drim- 
uprimmato-silphlo - karabo - melito - kfttakechfimeno - kiche- 
eplkossupho-phatto-periater-alektruon-opto- kephallio- kig- 
klo-pelefo-lag-6o-s(raio-bapho-traghano-ptCrugon. (Aris- 
tophanes, Eccles., i., 169.) 

This curious word may be rendered thus : 

remainder - of - heads - assafetida- lobster- honey-sprinklecl- 
thrush - blackbird - pigeon - dove- roasted-cock's-brains- wag- 
tail-cushat-hare-stewed-in-new- wine-seasoned-with-groats- 

The compound thus formed by the weaving together of 
the names of all kinds of dainties to make one huge dish, 
consists of 171 letters and 79 syllables, in the following 
order : 

drim - up o -primm -at - o- silph- i-o-kar-ab-o-mel-it-q-kat-a- 
kech -urn-en -o-kiche-ep-i-koss-uph-o-phatt-o-per-i-ster-a 

f!crrtft=Cfirtmtrt> 8Hit& ftummttr. 


"Come up and see us," shouted a pitman to his friend, 
"we've moved to another hoose fitted wi' militia blinds !" 

A little girl of twelve summers, who lived a good distance 
to the west of Newcastle, was once staying with her uncle 
in Jesmond. One day she was missed for some time. 
When she returned, her uncle asked where she had been, 
and she answered, " Doon the burn. " " Noo, " remarked 
her uncle, "ye hevn't such a large burn where ye live." 

"No, "replied the youngster, "butthor's a burgor yen 
doon at Tynemouth ! " 


A book canvasser rapped at the door of a house in 
Newcastle. On the appearance of the mistress, he said : 
"Noo, missus, can aa show ye a nice byuk?" "Aa 
divvent want onny byuks," was the reply. " Well," said 
the man, "literature nivvor wes se cheap as it is noo !" 
" Literature !" said the woman : " whativvor can wor 
Jack de wiv foreign byuks ! He tyeks in the Evenin'j 
Chronicle in ha'penny numbers, and reads hissel' te sleep 
ivvory neet. That's aall the literature he wants !" 

Mr. Fenwick, a former agent of the Lambtons, was 
consulting one of the tenants as to what he should plant 
on some particular place, when the tenant replied, "Aa 
think ye had bettor plant it wi' stewards. Nowt else 
seems te thrive in this country ! '' 


As a lady, wearing a respirator, was going down the 
principal street of a small village not far from Newcastle, 
a lad, standing at a corner, shouted to one of his com- 
panions : "Hey ! that wife hes a muzzle on ! Aa pity 
hor man," he added reflectively, "when she's lowse ! " 

A Gateshead family went to stay at Tynei:iouth last 
year. Whilst one of the members was being put to bed 
on the first night by its mother, the little girl heard the 
rumbling of the sea, and inquired : "What's that noise, 
muthor ? " " Oh, thet's the sea," her parent replied. " Is 
it rmning oot ? " asked the child. 


Magistrate : " \Tou must really get a judicial separation 
from your husband ; the court cannot help you any 
further." Angry wife : " Aa want nyen o' yor judicious 
experations ; he's been Judas eneuf te ine, the villin ; aa 
want ma eight shillings a week reg'lar, and then he may 
gan back tiv his mother agyen !" 


Some time ago a party of pedestrians met at a public- 
house near Stocksfield-on-Tyne. The relative merits 
of some absent chums as pedestrians was the topic 
of discussion. A certain person's name having been men- 
tioned, an old farmer-looking man, from the far end of the 
room, eagerly asked : "Whe'sthat?" " Geordy Broon," 
answered the interrogated. " Is he a Methodist ?" queried 
the old man. "Aye; aa believe he is." "Begox, aa 
thowt se," ejaculated the old fellow, clapping his hands 
together ; " aa thowt aa'd seen him tyekin the gate 
money at the chepel !" 


A certain young Tynesider, having joined a travelling 
theatrical company, made his first appearance, in a local 
town, as NorvaL, in Home's play of "Douglas." The 



\ 1889. 

aspiring tragedian succeeded pretty well in the character, 
but when he came to the part where the hero declares, 
"My name is Norval ; on yonder Grampian -hills my 
father feeds his flocks," he was interrupted by a man in 
the pit who knew him, and who fancied that our hero 
was trying to impose upon the credulity of strangers. 
" Divvent believe him, lads," he cried, "divvent believe 
him. He belangs Shields ; his feythor's a hoose pyentor, 
and his muthor sells tripe ! " 

i?0rtft=Cfftttttrg Obituaries'. 

On the 14-th of February, Mr. Joseph Davison, head of 
the firm of Messrs. Davison and Son, auctioneers, New- 
castle, died at his residence, Cheviot View Villa, Forest 
Hall. The deceased, who was a native of Sunderland, 
was 68 years of age. He commenced life in connection 
with the press, but had long been identified with the 
business of auctioneer, occupying latterly the Academy 
of Arts, in Blackett Street, the use of which was so 
generously granted for the Uncle Toby Toy Exhibition 
of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle. Mr. Davison, in his 
spare moments, was much attached to microscopical and 
horticultural pursuits. 

Mr. John Stokoe, Registrar of the Hexham County 
Court, died at Summerrods House, in that town, on the 
16th of February, in the 85th year of his age. 

On the 19th of February was announced the death of 
Mr. Peter Digney, of Saltburn, a member of various local 
bodies, at the age of 71. A native of Kirkcudbright, Mr. 
Digney was in early life an ardent Chartist, and was one 
of the most active supporters of Henry Vincent. 

On the 21st of February, Mr. Lewis Thompson, a native 
of Newcastle, died at his residence, Eldon Street, in that 
city. He was a son of Mr. Thomas Thompson, who lived 
for many years at Byker Bar. In his youth he was a 
student of medicine in Newcastle and London ; but he 
subsequently abandoned that pursuit, and became iden- 
tified with some chemical works in London and Paris. 
The deceased, who was a man of considerable scientific 
attainments, was 78 years of age. 

Mr. Thomas Archer, one of the oldest working printers 
in Newcastle, died at his residence, Prudhoe Street, in 
that city, on the 24th of February, at the age of 76. 

Mr. John George Newton, for many years manager of 
Messrs. Lambton and Company's Branch Bank, Quay- 
side, Newcastle, died on the 25th of February, in the 
fifty-first year of his age. 

On the 26th of February, the death was announced of 
Captain Donald Brotchie, formerly chaplain of the New- 
castle Sailors' Mission, and the author of several little 
works specially written for seamen. 

On the same day, Mr. W. J. Johnston, solicitor, who 
served his articles with his uncle, the late Mr. W. John- 
ston, of Mosley Street, to whose practice he afterwards 
succeeded, died at Harrogate, where he was temporarily 

"Elfin," of the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, announced 
on the 28th of February the death of Mr. Simon Robin- 
son, chemist and druggist, of Chester-le-Street. The 
deceased, who had reached the advanced age of 85 years, 
had held many public offices. 

Mr. Thomas Blain, who for many years had been 
identified with the public life of Sunderland and its 
various benevolent institutions, died suddenly in that 
town on the 27th of February. Mr. Blain, who was con- 
nected with the Society of Friends, and was also an 
active member of the Board of Guardians, was about 70 
years of age. 

On the 28th of February, Dr. David McLeish, a well- 
known medical practitioner, died at his residence at 
Grange Road West, Jarrow, at the age of 65 years. 

About midnight of the same day, died, at his residence 
in Framlington Place, Newcastle, Mr. John Milling, head 
of the well-known firm of John Milling and Co., whole- 
sale and retail warehousemen, Grainger Street, in that 
city. Mr. Milling was for some time a member of the 
Newcastle Town Council ; and it was chiefly throueh his 
instrumentality that the rent-roll of the Corporation pro- 
perty was prepared and issued in the year 1878. The 
remains of the deceased gentleman, who was 67 years of 
age, were removed to Harrogate for interment. 

Mr. Andrew Carr, accountant, who was for many years 
associated with his brother, Mr. J. M. Carr, in the man- 
agement and proprietorship of the Newcastle Journal, 
died somewhat suddenly on the 1st of March, in the 65th 
year of his age. 

On the 2nd of March, as Mr. M. T. Culley, of Coup- 
land Castle, near Wooler, Northumberland, was travelling 
in a train from London, he suddenly expired. The de- 
ceased gentleman was a magistrate for Northumberland, 
and chairman of the Glendale Board of Guardians. He 
was High Sheriff of the county in 1869. The deceased 
gentleman had been to London to undergo an operation 
in his throat. 

On the same day, at the age of 51, died Mr. Robert 
White, a well-known grocer in Sunderland, his death 
being attributed to a fall which he had sustained in his 
business about a fortnight previously. 

Mr. William Summers, another Sunderland man, and 
a somewhat important witness in the celebrated Abrath 
case a few years ago, also died on the 2nd of March. 

Mr. Matthew Coulson, proprietor of the Merrington 
Lane Ironworks at Spennymoor, and well known as a 
colliery engineer, died on the 9th of March, aged 58. 

On the 9th of March, the remains of Mr. Joseph Tyson, 
head master of St. Thomas's School, Newcastle, who had 
died on the 5th, at the age of 41, were interred in St. 
Andrew's Cemetery, Newcastle. Mr. Tyson, who had 
held the office since October, 1874-, was a most successful 
teacher, the passes of his pupils having reached the high 
standard of 97 "45 per cent. 

Mr. Jonathan Maddison, of Sidehead, Weardale, an 
active public man, a staunch Primitive Methodist, and a 
prominent Oddfellow, died on the 9th of March. 

On the 9th of March, also, died, very suddenly, Mr. 
G. H. Garrett, manager of Messrs. Stephenson and Co.'s 
engine works, Forth Street, Newcastle. The deceased, 
who was a native of Tamworth, his father being a clergy- 
man, was only 34 years of age. 

The death was announced on March 14 of Mr. John 
Aydon, a native of Winlaton, and one of the oldest 
tradesmen in Newcastle, in which he had been in busi- 
ness as a tea-dealer for almost half a century. 

On the same day was reported the death, at Newport, 
South Wales, of Mr. George Wilkinson, a native of 
Wylam, and manager, with Sir George Elliot, of the 

April | 



Monkwearmouth and other collieries in the North of 
England till 1855, when he went to South Wales to take 
sole charge of the collieries belonging to the firm of 
Messrs. Powell and Sons, which subsequently became the 
property of Sir George Elliot and others, under the name 
of the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company, Limited. 
Mr. Wilkinson was in the eightieth year of his age. 

Salisbury as "only a black man," delivered a lecture in 
the Tyne Theatre, under the auspices of the Tyneside 
Sunday Lecture Society, under the title of "An Indian'* 


^ortl)=(!lottntrg Occurrences!. 


12. Earl Granville, as the guest of Sir Lowthian Bell, 
at Rounton Grange, Northallerton, paid a visit to Mid- 

13. In the course of excavations being prosecuted in 
the Back Row, Newcastle, a broken tombstone was dis- 
covered, bearing the inscription "\V. B., May 26, Anno 
Domini," but of the year only the figure 7 could be made 

14. St. Valentine's Day was marked by a very large 
decline in the number of missives sent by post, not more 
than from 8,000 to 10,000 letters in excess of the usual 
daily number having been received at the Newcastle Post 

A strike commenced among some shipwrights, at 
Middlesbrough, for an immediate advance of 2s. per 
week, but an advance of Is. 6d. was ultimately accepted, 
and work was resumed on the 16th. 

16. It was announced that the Theatre Royal, Blyth, 
had been sold to a company by the proprietor, Mr. 
Richard Fynes. 

The Northumberland and Newcastle Winter Assizes 
were opened before Mr. Justice Denman and Mr. Mea- 
dows White, Q.C., as Commissioner. 

A special mission in connection with the Church of 
England, and intended to extend over ten days, was 
initiated in Newcastle. The missioners were received by 
the Bishop of the diocese in the Cathedral in the evening, 
and the work practically commenced on the following 
day. In the morning, about 200 cabmen, car-drivers, and 
others, were entertained to a breakfast in the Town Hall, 
at the expense of Mr. John Hall. In several cases, the 
mission was continued beyond the contemplated time ; 
and every day, for nearly three weeks, the Rev. W. H. 
M. Hay-Aitken delivered an address to business men in 
St. Nicholas' Cathedral, which was crowded at each ser- 
vice. On one of the days a sermon was also delivered by 
the Bishop of the diocese to the prisoners in the Gaol. 
The work was altogether regarded as very successful. 

A match in best-and-best boats took place from Dun- 
ston Gangway to Hepplewhite's Cottage, on the Tyne, 
distance one mile, between Thomas Purvis, of Walker. 
and Thomas Reed, of Pelaw Main, for 25 a-side. The 
latter won very easily. 

The last performance was given of the pantomime, 
"Puss in Boots," at the Tyne Theatre ; and "Sindbad 
the Sailor " was brought to a close at the Theatre Royal 
on the 23rd. 

17. The Hon. Dadabhai Naoroji, the distinguished 
Parsee, who had been characterised by the Marquis of 


View of British Rule in India." On the following morn- 
ing, Mr. Naoroji was entertained to a public breakfast in 
the hall of the Newcastle Liberal Club. 

18. A two days' special mission was commenced in, 
connection with the Salvation Army at Sunderland, under 
the direction of " General " Booth. 

In the Queen's Bench Division, the name of Mr. 
Joseph Dodds, solicitor, Stockton, and ex-M. P. for that 
borough, was struck of the roll of solicitors, on the ground 
that he had embezzled the sum of 11,800 belonging to 
an aged client, named Mrs. Meynell, and fraudulently 
converted a cheque for 2,000 into a negotiable security, 
appropriating the money. Mr. Dcdds, at the same time, 
resigned his position as alderman in the Stockton Town 
Council of which he had been a member since 1852. At 
a meeting of the Tees Conservancy Commissioners, on the 
4th of March, a letter was read from Mr. Matthew 
Dodds, stating that he was authorised by his father to 
tender his resignation of the office of Chief Clerk to that 
body. It was afterwards resolved that the letter be 
entered on the minutes, and that, in view of the circum- 
stances connected with Mr. Dodds, his appointment 
under the Commission be cancelled ; Mr. J. H. Amos, 
secretary, being appointed acting Chief Clerk ad interim. 
Mr. Dodds also tendered his resignation of the office of 
clerk to to the South Stockton Local Board. 

At the Northumberland Assizes, at Newcastle, com- 
menced the trial of Thomas Harrison, aged 70, late police 
inspector, Isaac Gair, 42, police sergeant, and Robert 
Sprott, 36, also a member of the Northumberland County 
Constabulary, in connection with the burglary at Edling- 
ham Vicarage. The charge against them was that, 
between February 7 and April 24, 1879, they conspired 
with George Harkes, superintendent of police, since 
dead, to obstruct and prevent the due course of justice by 



) April 
I 1889. 

giving false evidence against Michael Brannagan and 
Peter Murphy, on certain charges of shooting, at Edling- 
ham, with intent to commit a murder. Mr. Gainsford 
Bruce, Q.C., M.P., Mr. D. F. Steavenson, and Mr. Hans 
Hamilton, instructed by Mr. Brewis Elsdon, on behalf of 
the Solicitor to the Treasury, were counsel for the prose- 
cution ; while Mr. Besley and Mr. H. Boyd, instructed by 
Mr. Middlemiss, of Alnwick, appeared for the defendants. 
The case was continued de die in diem, and was brought 
to a close about two o'clock on the afternoon of the 23rd, 
when the jury, after an absence of 35 minutes, returned a 
verdict of not guilty in each case. Mr. Justice Denman, 
who, in summing up, had remarked that the case against 
Brannagan and Murphy was, according to the evidence, 
stronger than it was ten years ago, said, " A very right 
verdict, gentlemen, if you will allow me to say so." The 
defendants were then discharged. On the 2nd of March, 
it was announced that the two liberated men, Braunagan 
and Murphy, had received the amount of compensation 
(800 each) granted to them by the Government for 
wrongful imprisonment in the matter of the burglary. 
(See pp. 16, 95, and 142.) In the House of Commons, on 
the 7th of March, Sir George Campbell asked the Secre- 
tary of State for the Home Department whether he pro- 
posed to make any further inquiry into the Edlingham 
burglary case. The Home Secretary said he was unable 
to see that any further inquiry could be made which would 
throw light upon it or elicit any new facts. The North- 
umberland magistrates, at a meeting on the same day, 
authorised a sum of 413 5s. Id., the costs of the defence, 
to be repaid to the Chief-Constable, but resolved at the 
same time to urge that the expense of the defence should 
fall upon the Treasury. 

19. As the result of a vote by ballot, it was found that 
the miners of Northumberland had, by a large majority, 
accepted the terms as to the advance of wages proposed 
by the coalowners. Corresponding advances were after- 
wards granted to the colliery enginemen and to the 

21. The helpers employed in the thirteen shipyards on 
the Wear, to the number of over 2,000. struck work, their 
notice for an advance of Is. 6d. per week having expired. 
The masters offered an increase of 6d. per week, and this 
the men ultimately accepted. 

22. Some serious disturbances took place in connection 
with the seizure of wreckage at Holy Island. 

23. The triennial election of a School Board for South 
Stockton took place, the whole of the old members being 
re-elected, with the exception of the Rev. H. Winsor, 
whose seat fell to Mr. Isaac Lee. 

24-. The last of the winter series of lectures under the 
auspices of the Tyneside Sunday Lecture Society was 
delivered in theTyne Theatre, by the well-known Russian 
revolutionist known as "Stepniak," his subject being 
"Russian Democracy." 

A destructive fire broke out in Printing Court Build- 
ings, the Side, Newcastle, occupied by Mr. Andrew 
Reid, printer. The fire engines were on the spot five 
minutes after the alarm was given. 

25. At an influential gathering of shipowners at Hart- 
lepool, Mr. F. Yeoman was presented with a cheque for 
500, a silver jardiniere for fruit, and a diamond ring for 
Mrs. Yeoman, in recognition of his services in connection 
with well-decked shipping. 

26. The members of the Gateshead Choral Society 
gave their first invitation concert, in the Town Hall of 

that borough, the piece performed being Gade's cantata, 
"The Elf-King's Daughter." 

At Durham Assizes, before Mr. Justice Denman, 
Edward Wilkinson, butcher, was, after a short trial, 
found guilty of the murder of Police-Constable John 
Graham, at Wrekenton, Gateshead, and was sentenced 
to death. The prisoner interrupted the learned judge 
while passing sentence, exclaiming "Oh! let's have it ; 
it's no use bothering." Wilkinson was subsequently re- 
prieved on the ground of insanity. (See page 141.) 

A marine store dealer, named John Scahill, of Jar- 
row, in attempting to jump from the landing at North 
Shields on to the ferryboat, fell into the river and was 

Mr. R. E. Sprague Oram, travelling secretary to 
Lord Dunraven's Committee on the Sweating System, 
concluded a two days' inquiry in Newcastle. 

The iron manufacturers of the North of England and 
Cleveland district connected with the Conciliation Board 
made an advance of 2i per cent, in the wages of the iron- 

27. At Durham Assizes, trials arising out of three 
Sunderland tragedies were heard. The first case was 
that of John George Macdonald, 14, who was charged 
with the wilful murder of James Moore, on the 31st of 
December last. The jury returned a verdict of man- 
slaughter, and his lordship next day sentenced him to a 
month's imprisonment with hard labour, to be followed 
by four years in a reformatory. Mary Elizabeth Stock- 
dale, 25, domestic servant, was found guilty of the murder 
of her illegitimate child by drowning it in a millpond. 
The jury strongly recommended the accused to mercy on 
account of her weak intellect. Sentence of death was 
passed. Michael Smith, 20, labourer, was charged with 
the manslaughter of Catherine Duff, on the 10th of 
December last. A verdict of guilty was returned by the 
jury, and the prisoner was sentenced to seven years' 
penal servitude. On the 28th, William Rigg, 27, forge 
roller, was indicted for the wilful murder of his wife, 
Jane Rigg, at Sunderland, in December last, by beating 
her with a poker and cutting her throat. The jury found 
the prisoner guilty, and sentence of death was passed. 
The sentences on Stockdale and Rigg were subsequently 

28. About this time the last of the old "Crow Trees," 
which stood so long on the vacant space of ground oppo- 
site St. Thomas's Church, Newcastle, was removed to 
make way for a new building in course of erection upon 
the site. (See vol. ii., page 335.) 


1. An official inspection of some old relics which had 
been brought to light in Hanover Square, Newcastle, in 
the course of excavations being prosecuted by the North- 
Eastern Railway Company, was made by a number of 
the members of the Society of Antiquaries. It was at 
this point that Sir John Marley and his hardy Northum- 
brians defended the town against the attack of General 
Lesley and his Scottish host in 1640. 

The strike of 2,000 shipyard helpers at Sunderland 
was settled by the men agreeing to accept an advance of 
6d. per week, as offered by the masters, the increase which 
they had asked for having been Is. 6d. 

A prospectus was issued of the conversion of the 
Newcastle and Gosforth Tramways and Carriage Com- 
pany into a limited liability undertaking, with a nominal 

April I 



capital of 80,000, of which, however, only 50,000, in 10 
shares, was called up at the outset, 3,000 snares being 
taken by the vendors, and the remaining 2,000 offered to 
public subscription. 

In the report presented at the fifteenth annual meet- 
ing of the Newcastle Branch of the Royal Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, under the presidency 
of the Mayor (Mr. Thomas Richardson), grateful reference 
was, as usual, made to the efforts of Uncle Toby, through 
the medium of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, to incul- 
cate lessons of kindness upon the young. It was an- 
nounced at the meeting that this was the last season 
when hare and rabbit coursing would take place at Gos- 
forth Park under the auspices of the company which owns 
that estate. 

2. It was announced that there had been left as a 
bequest to the Newcastle Public Libraries, by the late 
Mr. Henry Philip Archibald Buchanan Riddell, C.S.I., 
of Whitefield House, Hepple, Northumberland, a library 
of between 800 and 1,000 volumes of rare and valuable 
books, dealing chiefly with the antiquities, archeology, 
and history of India and our other Asiatic dominions. 
(As to the death of the donor, see present volume, p. 14-0.) 
Almost simultaneously with this gift, Mr. Walter Scott, 
Felling, informed the Public Libraries Committee that it 
was his intention to present to that institution a copy of 
each of his publications which were already in print, and 
also a copy of such books as he might afterwards publish 
from time to time. 

After several days' trial, at Durham Assizes, the jury 
returned a verdict for the plaintiff in an action brought 
by Mr. H. F. Boyd, of Moor House, near Durham, 
against a man named Rutter and others, for trespassing 
on part of his land known as Mally Gill and Rainton 
Park Woods, near Finchale Abbey, the defendants 
having claimed a right of road over the ground in 

A boys' brigade was brought into practical operation 
in Gateshead, the founder being the Rev. R. T. Talbot, 
who had for the past two years conducted most success- 
fully a gymnasium for the poorer class of lads. 

Robert Nixon, one of four men who had been chal- 
lenged to a boat race, was drowned from a boat in the 
river Tyne, near Newcastle. 

Z. A mission church, dedicated to St. Mark, was con- 
secrated by the Bishop of Newcastle at Shiremoor. 

4. The Durham County Council held its second statu- 
tory meeting, and unanimously elected Mr. J. Lloyd 
Wharton, chairman of Quarter Sessions, to be chairman 
of the fully-constituted Council. Mr. Arthur Pease was 
elected vice-chairman. 

It was resolved to form a federation of the Liberal 
and Radical Associations in the county of Durham, Sir J. 
W. Pease, M.P., being elected President. 

The first annual conference of the National Amalga- 
mated Sailors' and Firemen's Union was held at Sunder- 

As usual on Shrove-Tuesday, the annual football 
match between "The Up-Streeters " and "The Down- 
Streeters " was played at Chester-le-Street. 

5. The first service of praise by the choirs of the local 
Presbyterian Churches was held in Trinity Church, New- 
castle, under the presidency of the Rev. J. B. Hastings. 

An exhibition in connection with the Jarrow and 
Hebburn Model Yacht Club was opened by Sir Charles 
Palmer, M.P. 

. A proposal to change the name of South Stockton to 
Thornaby-on-Tees was rejected by the South Stockton 
Local Board. 

6. Mr. Ralph Hindmarsh, auctioneer, offered for sale 
the fittings and furnishings of the Turf Hotel, Colling- 
wood Street, Newcastle, previous to the erection on the 
site of a Bank for Messrs. Hodgkin, Barnett, Pease, 
Spence, and Co. A large company assembled, many 
visitors embracing the opportunity of inspecting what for 
many years was one of the leading hotels of the city. The 
work of dismantling the old building, prior to the erec- 
tion of the bank, was actively commenced on the 13th. 
(Vol. ii., pp. 190, 327 and 573.) 

8. In the London Bankruptcy Court, an application 
was made and granted for a receiving order under a peti- 
tion presented on behalf of Mr. Matthew Bowser Dodds, 
of Stoekton-on-Tees, solicitor. 

9. The rules of constitution and a programme for Par- 
liamentary purposes were adopted by the Newcastle 
Labour Association. 

12. At the Gateshead County Police Court, Henry 
Nelson, about 60 years of age, and described as the 
"King of the Beggars," was sentenced to 14- days' im- 
prisonment, on a charge of vagrancy, in sleeping in a fire- 
liole at Winlaton. 

A stained glass window to the memory of Mrs. 
Streeter, and executed by Mr. Baguley, Newcastle, to 
tlie order of the Rev. Charles Streeter, her husband, was 
unveiled in Hedworth Church. 

While a man, named Joseph Harker, was fishing in 
the Wear, near Binchester Hall Wood, he discovered in 
the river the body of a woman, which was supposed to be 
that of Margaret Huntley, 26, a single woman, who had 
been reported missing from Drake Street, Spennymoor, 
since the 28th of January. 

10. After undergoing restoration, the old church of St. 
Abba, Beadnell, Northumberland, was re-opened by the 
Bishop of Newcastle. 

13. A workman named James Tucker, of Newcastle, 
was accidentally killed by the upsetting of a large steam 
crane, at the new dock in course of construction for the 
Blyth Shipbuilding Company, at Blyth. 

14. It was announced in a metropolitan journal that 
Mr. R. S. Newall, of Ferndene, Gateshead, had made a 
proposal to the University of Cambridge, to present that 
body with his refracting telescope, which has a 25 in. 
aperture and 30 ft. focal length, together with the dome 
and instruments connected with it. 

The North Shields town Council, the South Shields 
Town Council, and the River Tyne Commissioners having 
each agreed to pay one-third of the necessary expense, 
arrangements were concluded for the re-institution of the 
Time-Gun at the mouth of the Tyne. 

The tower of the old windmill near Walker Railway 
Station was removed by means of blasting. 

(general entrances. 


18. A boiler exploded in the basement of the Park 
Central Hotel, Hartford, Connecticut, United States. 
So terrific was the shock that the edifice was ruined. 
The debrit caught fire, and a scene ensued of unexampled 
horror. Fully fifty persons were killed. 

19. The result of an election in East Perthshire of a 



Parliamentary representative in the room of Mr. R. 
Stewart Menzies, was declared as follows : Sir John 
Kinloch (Gladstonian), 4,005; Mr. W. L. Boase 
(Unionist), 2,289 ; majority, 1,716. 

The death was recorded of William Frederic 
Tillotson, of Bolton, founder of an international bureau 
for the supply of fiction and special literary articles for 
simultaneous publication in the newspaper press. The 
death was also announced of Joseph Gung"l, a well-known 
composer of dance music. 

26. Death of Terance McArdle, of Liverpool, at the 
age of 107. 


4. General Harrison was formally installed at Wash- 
ington as President of the United States. 

- At the Manchester City Police Court, Charles Parton 
was committed for trial on a charge of robbing John 
Fletcher, and causing his death by administering a drug. 
A coroner's jury returned a verdict of wilful murder 
against Parton. 

Death of the Rev. J. G. Wood, author of many well- 
known works on natural history. 

6. King Milan of Servia abdicated his throne in favour 
of his son, Alexander I., and appointed M. Jovan 

Ristitch, General Protitch, and General Berlimarkovitch, 
. Lord George Hamilton, First Lord of the Ad- 

miralty, explained to the House of Commons a scheme by 
which the navy will be augmented by 70 warships at a 
cost of 21,500,000. 

About this time there were serious floods in the South 
of England. The water in the streets of Taunton 
was several feet deep, and hundreds of houses in 
the north part of the town were inundated. Several 
bridges were washed away. Enormous tracts of land 
were flooded near Bath, and many cattle perished. At 
Bristol, miles of streets were under water. The flooding 
of shops and warehouses caused a loss in that town alone 
estimated at 50,000. The churches and chapels in the 
district were closed on the 10th (Sunday), the ministers 
and leading members going about in carts relieving the 
inhabitants of the inundated localities. 

11. Execution of Jessie King at Edinburgh for the 
murder of her two children. 

12. The result of an election at Barnsley for a Parlia- 
mentary representative in the room of Mr. C. S. Kenny, 
was declared as follows : Lord Compton (Gladstonian), 
6,232; Mr. Bruce Wentworth (Conservative), 3,781; 
majority, 2,451. 

13. A colliery explosion was reported at Brynmally 
Colliery, Wrexham. About 20 lives were lost. 

The sittings of the Parnell Commission were ad- 
journed to April 1. The proceedings have been of a 
startling character. After some remarkable evidence had 
been given on behalf of The Times, Richard Piggott was 
called as a witness. He told 
how he became possessed of the 
letters which it was alleged in- 
criminated Mr. Parnell and 
other persons. The cross-ex- 
amination of Pigott proved him 
to be an utterly worthless 
fellow. On the morning of the 
27th 1'ebruary, when he ought 
to have presented himself at 
court for further examination, 
it was found that he -was miss- 
ing from the hotel where he 
had been staying. The follow- 
ing day a document, in the 
handwriting of Pigott, being a 
confession that he had fabri- 
cated the letters, using genuine 
letters of Mr. Parnell and Mr. 

Egan in copying words, phrases, and the general char 
acter of the handwriting, was read in court. Mr. Par- 
nell, and his secretary, Mr. Campbell, afterwards went 
into the witness box and denied the authenticity of the 
letters. Criminal proceedings for forgery were com- 
menced against Pigott, who, in the meantime, could not 
be found. On March 1, however, a telegram was re 
ceived from Madrid announcing that he had committed 
suicide in an hotel in that city. On March 12 a witness 
named Timothy J. Coffey, who admitted that he had 
deliberately made false statements, was committed to 
prison for contempt of court. After evidence by Mr. 
Soaraes, solicitor for The Times, as to Coffey's evidence, 
the Attorney-General announced that the case for The 
Times was concluded. 


Printed by WALTER SCOTT, Felling-on-Tyne. 

fit 4 (fc fo fo I/if fa ft - fl t $1 

J)rMrMrMrMrWrMrMrWrMcMrWrWyW s-MrMrM -*%!*%) *-MrWs-M .^ / W* ,/l -MMrM-)rM 

%%%%%%%% ^vSvSi&g ^ ^v^^ ^vSvRSggggg 




VOL. III. No. 27. 

MAY, 1889. 


STft* 3B*totdt Clufc 

(to jFfftmtfn-0. 

j|EVERAL art clubs, or associations for the 
study of painting and drawing, have at 
various times been formed in Newcastle. 
They generally consisted of a few profes- 
sional and amateur artists, who met together at stated 
times principally for the purpose of studying from the 
living model. The Newcastle Life School, which came 
into existence some ten years ago, was one of these insti- 
tutions. It included most of the best local artists of the 
day ; but it was limited in its scope. A taste for art was 
then manifesting itself in the North, the number of artists 
and art students greatly increased, and it soon became 
evident that an association more comprehensive in its 
aims was necessary to meet the (trowing requirements. 
This was recognised by all the members of the Life 
School. It was some little time before any definite steps 
were taken ; but eventually the Bewick Club was com- 
menced, under circumstances recorded in our sketch of 
Mr. Thomas Dickinson. It is sufficient to add here that 
the club has realised the most sanguine expectations of 
its promoters, that its membership continues to augment, 
and that a long period of usefulness may be confidently 
anticipated for it. 


The career of Mr. H. H. Emmerson, the president of 
the Bewick Club, is replete with interest to art students. 
That he was born with a genius for painting admits of no 
doubt. From his earliest years he could draw, and it is a 
well known fact that he excelled as a draughtsman before 
he could write. 

Henry Hetherington Emmerson was born in 1831 at 
Chester-le-Street in the county of Durham. He belongs 
to the family of which Emerson the philosopher, and 

Emerson the mathematician, were famous members. 
Though the names are spelt differently, they all spring 
from Hurworth-on-Tees. Excellence in art and pedes- 
trianism is not a combination usually found in youths 
of ten. Though devoting most of his time to draw- 

ing, young Henry did not neglect athletic sports. He 
became a very swift runner in fact, the fastest runner 
in the world of his age. The first time his name ap- 





1 1889 

peared in public prints was in connection with this sport 
not with art, as might have been expected. A chal- 
lenge from his backers was put into Sell's Life offering 
to run any lad of his age. It was never ac- 
cepted, but he ran several handicaps with professional 
men, and never lost a race. 

This by the way. All the while young Emmerson had 
been prosecuting his studies with ardour. He recalls his 
first oil painting to mind with much humour. He 
possessed some oil colours, but no medium. " Ah," said a 
youthful acquaintance, "I'll get you some oil." The lad 
at once made a raid upon his sister's boudoir, and 
stole her hair oil. With this medium young Emmerson 
painted his first picture in oils. The result may be 
imagined. The colours ran into one another the eyes 
into the mouth, the mouth into the chin, and so on. In 
vain did young Emmerson turn it upside down in the 
hope that the colours would run back again. 

At this time his studies were somewhat desultory. 
Having no regular instruction in art, he copied anything 
that took his fancy. But when he was thirteen years of 
age, it was thought that he should have the best avail- 
able instruction to be obtained in the district. He, 
therefore, went to Newcastle, where he studied under 
Mr. W. B. Scott, principal of the Government School 
of Art, then located in rooms above the shop now occu- 
pied by Mr. H. A. Murton, in Market Street. Amongst 
the students were the late Mr. John Campbell, father of 
Mr. John Hodgson Campbell ; Mr. John Surtees, the 
eminent landscape painter; Mr. Finney, now head 
master of the Liverpool School of Art ; and many others 
who have since risen to fame. Mr. Scott took a great 
interest in Emmerson, and rendered him all the assistance 
in his power. When he joined the school, it happened 
that he was rather late to enter into a competition for a 
prize. But Mr. Scott urged him to try for it, and 
allowed him to take his work home. One night, 
when he had nearly finished his drawing, he 
was overcome with weariness, and fell asleep. When he 
awuke he found that he had accidentally spoilt his 
drawing. He at once commenced a new one, and 
finished it in time for the competition. It won the prize, 
which was presented to him by the Duke of Northum- 

Emmerson continued his studies under Mr. Scott for 
about two years and a half. His next step was an im- 
portant one. A clergyman who had noticed the lad's 
talent sent him to Paris for six months. There he occu- 
pied his time in making copies of paintings in the 
Louvre. At the termination of this period, he went to 
London, and copied subjects in the National Academy. 
Afterwards he succeeded in gaining admission to the 
Royal Academy as a pupil. During the time he was 
thus engaged in London, he had his living to make, 
and the difficulty was how to prosecute his studies 
at the same time. It is sufficient here to say that for 

a time he knew what it was to want a dinner, for 
the reason that he had not the wherewithal to pay 
for it. It was only for a time. His introduction to 
many patrons was through the intervention of the Hon. 
Mrs. Oust. 

Success was now the word. He had won a reputation 
for painting children, and orders came in from every 
hand. Fully occupied, his exchequer was flourishing. 
Altogether he was doing very well. Another source of 
congratulation was the acceptance at the Royal Academy 
of a picture entitled " The Village Tailor," which was 
honoured with a position on the line. Had he remained 
in London, there is no knowing what letters might have 
followed his name; but it was to be otherwise. The 
influence of Mr. Ruskin was strong within him at 
this time. The great critic and philosopher had 
already noticed some of Emmerson's pictures very 
favourably, and when Ruskin put forth his dictum that 
every artist should live in the country, Emmerson accepted 
the theory. In fact, it fell in with his views entirely, for 
he had always had a love for active exercise and country 

Emmerson came back to the North, and went to live 
at Ebchester, where he met the lady who was to be his 
partner through life. The happy event took place soon 
after he arrived at man's estate. The first ten years of 
his married life were spent amid the sylvan beauties 
which are to be found at Stocksfield-on-Tyne a veri- 
table home for an artist. Here he painted many impor- 
tant works, several of which were exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. "The Queen's Letter," depicting an incident 
connected with dreadful disaster at Hartley Colliery, 
caused a great sensation. "The Foreign Invasion" and 
" The Branks" were bought by Lord (then Sir William) 
Armstrong. "The Critics," a popular work, was en- 
graved, and in that form commanded a large sale. 
Emmerson soon found it convenient to remove to Tosson, 
near Rothbury. Here he painted the portrait of Lord 
Armstrong, which was exhibited at the Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion ; "Johnny Armstrong's Return," now at Jesmond ; 
"Faithful unto Death," telling the story of a dog that 
was found licking the hands of a shepherd who had died 
in a snowdrift ; and many other works. One of the 
best of his pictures " Johnny Armstrong's Farewell " 
was in 1888 reproduced in the Monthly Chronicle. (Sea 
vol. ii., page 217.) 

During recent years Mr. Emmerson has resided at 
Cullercoats, where the picturesque fisherfolks have af- 
forded him many subjects for his pencil. 


Robert Jobling, vice-president of the Bewick Club, 
was born at St. Lawrence, Newcastle, in the year 
1841. He commenced to draw when he was about 
six or seven years of age, finding his subjects in the 
immediate neighbourhood of his home. His father 



was a glassmaker to trade, and, after a limited term 
at school, young Jobling went to work at the same 
factory. Here he continued until he was about sixteen 
years of age. All this time he had been devoting his 
spare hours to drawing and painting. He soon became 
convinced that it was his lot to become an artist. He had 
never had any instruction, nor had he seen anyone 

paint; nevertheless, he felt the inclination so strongly 
that he determined, at some future time, to devote 
himself to art. In the hope that he might gain 
some knowledge that would be useful to him, he 
obtained employment as a house painter ; but, of 
course, the opportunities afforded to him were extremely 
limited. His evenings, however, were spent at the School 
of Art conducted by Mr. W. Cosens Way. Two ses- 
sions of hard work in the elementary classes laid a firm 
ground work. An exhibition of his paintings, which he 
held in Newcastle some twenty years ago was so favour- 
ably noticed by the Newcastle Chronicle and other local 
newspapers that he determined to give up his employ- 
ment (he was then a foreman painter in a shipyard), and 
endeavour to earn a living by his brush and palette. 
Progress has been slow, but sure, and Mr. Jobling's 
position in the artistic world is in every sense grati- 
fying, for bin works find acceptance at the Royal 
Academy, and at most of the principal exhibitions in the 

Mr. Jobling is best known for his marine and river 
subjects. Living as he does at Cullercoats, he finds 
plenty of employment for the exercise of his talent. The 
fishermen and fisherwives are depicted by him with rare 
skill. In this department of art he has won his greatest 
triumphs. In tragic scenes, showing the brave fisher- 
folk fighting for life amidst the breakers, or in 
representations of peaceful moonlight, he is equally 
successful. Woodland scenery sometimes claims his 
attention, but less so than the coast. In the depart- 
ment of black and white he has done good work. The 
Art Journal and other illustrated magazines occasionally 
contain contributions by him, and acting as he does as 
the local artist for the Graphic, the pages of that news- 
paper are frequently adorned with his drawings. 


John Surtees, now the oldest artist in Newcastle, was 
born at Ebchester, in the county of Durham. Through 
the influence of the late Mr. Peter Annandale, he was ap- 
prenticed to Messrs. Robert Stephenson and Co., the 
well-known engineers. Shortly after he entered upon 
his duties, he joined the local Art School in Market 
Street, then under the charge of Mr. Frank Oliphant, 
husband of the novelist. Young Surtees devoted as 
much spare time as possible to his studies ; but the 
nature of his duties at Stephenson's Works was such 
that he was frequently employed there until ten o'clock 

at night. Still he must have made (food use of his time, 
as we find that, during the first year, he gained a prize 
for a drawing from the antique. 
At the end of his apprenticeship, Mr. Surtees would 




have joined a large engineering firm ' in London ; but 
Messrs. Stephenson and Co. were so desirous of retaining 
his services that they gave him the appointment of fore- 
man of the works. He remained with the firm for some 
half-dozen years more, and then determined to win a 
position as an artist. Long before he came to that 
conclusion, he had engaged a studio in Grainger Street, 
Newcastle, where he spent much of his spare time. One 
of his neighbours was the artist Edward Train, then a 
man of middle age. 

Soon after the commencement of his new career, 
Mr. Surtees sent two landscapes to the Royal 
Academy. Both were hung, and both were bought 
by David Roberts, R.A., a member of the Hang- 
ing Committee. This was a great encouragement. 
Hitherto, he had found difficulty in disposing of his 
andscapes ; but he subsequently received commissions for 
several scenes from nature. He soon gave up the painting 
of portraits and figures, which had previously engaged 
his attention, and devoted himself entirely to laud- 
scape. In the course of his sketching excursions he 
has visited over and over again the English Lake 
District, Scotland, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and North 
Wales. Extended sojourns have also been made in the 
Riviera, Florence, Bologna, Rome, Pompeii, and other 
parts of Italy. 

Soon after the second visit to Italy, Mr. Surtees was 
agreeably surprised to receive a letter from Sir Henry 
Ponsonby, requesting that a folio of his Italian sketches 
should be sent to Windsor for the Queen's inspection. 
This command was speedily obeyed, and her Majesty 
was graciously pleased to purchase two important 
drawings one of the Isola Bella, Lago Maggiore, 
and the other of the Arch on the Cap Martin. 
Mr. Surtees's drawings made in the region of 
Rome found ready buyers ; Lady Armstrong alone 
bought more than a dozen. Mr. Surtees's patrons are 
not confined to England, and include Mr. Cyrus Field, 
the American millionaire ; the Hon. G. C. Hawker, of 
Adelaide ; and Sir William Clarke, of Melbourne all of 
whom have important collections. 

The year 1888 was the twenty-fifth in which Mr. 
Surtees exhibited at the Royal Academy, and thirty of 
his pictures have been on view on the walls of that 

Mr. Surtees is wedded to a lady in every way fitted to 
perfect his happiness. An artist herself, and gifted with 
no mean literary talent, she is a true helpmate. How 
much of his success and happiness in this world is due to 
her encouragement and assistance is only known to the 
painter himself. 

short time connected with one of the departments of the 
Newcastle Chronicle. For two or three years he attended 
the School of Art, then, as now, conducted by Mr. Cosens 
Way, and before the age of 15 had secured medals for 
model drawing, anatomy, and painting, as well as other 


Ralph Hedley was born at Gilling, near Richmond, 
Yorkshire, in the year 1850. He came to Newcastle at an 
early age. After the usual period at school, he was for a 

prizes. He was apprenticed to Mr. T. H. Tweedy, wood- 
carver, of Newcastle, with whom he served his full time. 
During his apprenticeship, he carved three of the panels 
of the set of Tarn o' Shanter now at Chipchase Castle. At 
the termination of his indentures, Mr. Hedley was for 
a short time in the service of Mr. Gerard Robinson, 
with whom Mr. Seymour Lucas, A.R.A., served his 
apprenticeship as a wood-carver. This was only for a 
few months, as Mr. Hedley and another young man 
commenced business for themselves. The partnership 
did not continue long, as his companion died shortly 
afterwards. Since then he has carried on the business 
with most gratifying success. 

That Mr. Hedley is also a sculptor is not generally 
known. Not many weeks ago, when he visited the 
mansion of a local baronet, some marble alto-relievo 
panels were shown to him as being very fine. No one waa 
more surprised than himself when on examination he 
found that they were his own work, executed some dozen 
years previously. 

The principal pictures that Mr. Hedley has painted 
are " Northumberland Politicians " ; "The Sword 



Dancers," a sketch of which will be found in vol. i., page 
464; "The News Boy," "Proclaiming the Horse Fair 
at Corbridge," "The Wedding Quilt," "Last in the 
Market," "The Market Morning," "The Fishermen's 
Sunday," and "Contraband," the latter, when exhibited 
at the last exhibition of the Bewick Club, attracting more 
attention than any other of his pictures. Several of Mr. 
Hedley's works have been reproduced in chromo-litho- 

Mr. Hedley holds certain opinions of his own as to 
the mission of the artist He thinks that there are plenty 
of good subjects to be found in the North, and that it is 
unnecessary to go further afield. Moreover, he contends 
that an artist should give special study to events of our 
own day in preference to those which took place say a 
couple of centuries ago. This, he thinks, is the true ideal 
of the historical painter. That he carries out his views is 
proved by the subjects of his pictures. 


The history of the Bewick Club is so inseparably inter- 
woven with the story of the latter part of Mr. Dickinson's 
life that to recount the history of the one is practically to 
record the main incidents connected with the other. 

Thomas Dickinson was born some 34 years ago in 
Allendale. After the usual period at school, he came to 
Newcastle in 1872, and commenced to study at the Go- 
vernment School of Art, presided over by Mr. W. C. 
Way. His studies, however, were also partly under the 
guidance of his cousin, the late Mr. John Dickinson, the 
well-known portrait painter. At the examinations he 
carried off several prizes. At one time he had intended 
to follow the profession of an artist, but his health was so 
precarious that he was obliged to give up the idea. 

We now come to the inception of the Bewick Club. 
About eight or nine years ago Mr. Dickinson joined the 
Newcastle Life School an institution for the study of 
art which was then in existence. But it soon became 
apparent to him that an art club to be worthy of the 
name must be of a more comprehensive character. The 
Life School was too narrow in its scope ; landscape 
painters were not included, and there were defects in 
its organisation which must be repaired. Mr. Dickinson 
prepared the basis of a plan which ultimately resulted in 
the establishment of the Bewick Club. On submitting 
it to Mr. H. H. Emmerson, that gentleman heartily 
approved of it. Mr. Robert Jobling also approved of the 
scheme. Nothing further was done for a while. But one 
night it happened that the model whom the Life School 
had engaged did not put in an appearance. After sitting 
for a while, Mr. Emmerson observed : "Well, it won't do 
to waste time ; let us hold a meeting." " Agreed !" cried 
everybody present Mr. Dickinson then gave details of 
his plan. Finally, it was resolved to form a new society 
which was to be named the Bewick Club. At the annual 

meeting in January following the scheme was carried 
into operation, Mr. Dickinson being appointed honorary 

The next point to consider was an exhibition of pictures 
and an art union. It had struck Mr. Dickinson that as 
art unions had been successful elsewhere the same plan 
could be applied to Newcastle. No art union had been 
formed in the town before. There had been lotteries, but 
they were not legalized, and did not belong to the same 
category. Mr. Dickinson visited various towns in Eng- 
land and Scotland for the purpose of investigating tha 
methods of conducting art unions, and submitted the re- 
sult to the committee appointed to deal with the matter. 

The plan was ordered to be carried out. Mr. Dickinson 
next prepared for the first exhibition of pictures under the 
auspices of the Bewick Club, held in 1884, when Mr. 
James Noble and Mr. Faraday Spence were associated 
with him as honorary secretaries. Altogether the exhibi- 
tion was a success, the art union answered fairly well, and 
the committee had cause to be satisfied. The balance 
in hand, after paying all expenses, was 100. 

Exhibitions, all more or less successful from an artistic 
and most of them from a financial point of view, have 
been held every year since, that of 1887 being connected 



with the Jubilee Exhibition on the Town Moor. And 
the main work of organising them all has devolved on 
Mr. Dickinson. 



goljn tokoe. 


j|HE following is the common stall copy of an 
old Northumbrian ballad, of which there is 
a variety of versions in all the languages of 
Northern Europe. Ballads founded upon 
similar incidents are to be found in Scottish collections 
und*r the titles of "May Colvine " and "The Water of 
Wearie's Well," and also in the Scandinavian, German, 
and Slavic languages. The old Danish ballad of 
"Marstig's" or "Marc Stig's Daughter," said to refer 
to ' ' the exiled daughter of a Danish nobleman who was 
executed for the murder of King Erick Glipping, A.D. 
1286," tells an identical tale. 

By the term "Outlandish" is signified an inhabitant 
of that portion of the Border which was formerly known 
by the name of " the Debateable Land," a district which, 
though claimed by both England and Scotland, could 
not be said to belong to either country. The people on 
each side of the Border applied the term " Outlandish " 
to the "Debateable" residents. 

The tune was taken down by the writer from the 
singing of Mrs. Andrews, of Claremont Place, New- 
castle, sister of the late Mr. Robert White, an inde- 
fatigable collector, and a learned authority upon our old 
Northumbrian minstrelsy. 

out - land ish knight came 

from the North lands, And 







he came a woo - in' to 








told me 

= - S 

he'd take 

me un- 


/) L 


to the 

J * 
North lands 


I/ J 



, , 



there he would mar - ry 

"Come, fetch me some of your father's gold 

And some of your mother's fee ; 
And two of the best nags out of the stable, 

Where they stand thirty and three." 

She fetched him some of her father's gold 

And some of her mother's fee ; 
And two of the best nags out of the stable, 

Where they stood thirty and three. 

She mounted her on her milk-white steed 

And he on the dapple grey ; 
They rode till they came unto the sea side 

Three hours before it was day. 

"Light off, light oS thy milk-white steed 

And deliver it unto me ; 
Six pretty maids have I drowned here, 

And thou the seventh shall be. 

" Pull off, pull off thy silken gown 

And deliver it unto me ; 
Methinks it looks too rich and gay 

To rot in the salt sea. 

" Pull off, pull off thy silken stays, 

And deliver them unto me ; 
Methinks they are too rich and gay 

To rot in the salt sea. 

" Pull-off, pull off thy Holland smock 

And deliver it unto me ; 
Methinks it looks too rich and gay 

To rot in the salt sea. " 

" If I must pull off my Holland smock, 

Pray turn thy back to me, 
For it is not fitting that such a ruffian 

A naked woman should see. " 

He turned his back towards her, 

And viewed the leaves so green ; 
She catched him by the middle so small, 

And tumbled him into the stream. 

He dropped high, he dropped low 

Until he came to the side 
" Catch hold of my hand, my pretty maiden, 

And I will make you my bride. " 

" Lie there, lie there, you false-hearted man, 

Lie there instead of me ; 
Six pretty maids have you drowned there, 

But the seventh has drowned thee." 

She mounted on her milk-white steed, 

And led the dapple grey ; 
She rode till she came to her own father's hall 

Three hours before it was day. 

The parrot being in the window so high, 

Hearing the lady, did say : 
" I'm afraid that some ruffian has led you astray, 

That you've tarried so long away." 

" Don't prittle or prattle, my pretty parrot, 

Nor tell no tales of me ; 
Thy cage shall be made of the glittering gold, 

Though now it is made of a tree." 

The king being in his chamber so high, 

And hearing the parrot, did say : 
" What ails you, what ails you, my pretty parrot, 

That you prattle so long before day ?" 

"It's no laughing matter," the parrot did say, 

" But so loudly I call unto thee, 
For the cats have got into the window so high, 

And I'm afraid they will have me. " 

" Well turned, well turned, my pretty parrot, 

Well turned, well turned for me ; 
Thy cage shall be made of the glittering gold. 

And the door of the best ivory." 

May I 



iUtter at tit* 

at tft* 

, $art. 

j]N the issue of the Kelso Matt for April 13th, 
1779, is printed a letter which purports to 
have been written by James Thomson; the 
author of "The Seasons," and which (if it 
be, as it seems to be, genuine) deserves as the production 
of a man about whom too little is known, written at an 
interesting period of his career, and containing a highly 
characteristic passage to be accorded a wider publicity. 
Thomson's connection with the Kelso district is well 
known. The letter, which is addressed to a certain Dr. 
Cranston (who appears to have been the companion of 
the poet's early youth, and who was the son of the then 
minister of Ancrum), on the death of the recipient, fell 
into the hands of a brother, and subsequently into those 
of the brother's family. It then lay unnoticed among 
lumber until it happened to be taken up by a servant for 
the purpose of packing some candlesticks which were 
sent to Kelso to be exchanged. The person into whose 
hands it next fell fortunately discovered its value ; and 
it so came to be printed in the Mail. Of course this 
story, unless backed by strong internal evidence of the 
authenticity of the letter, would be worth little ; but I 
think it will be conceded that such evidence is forth- 
coming. The letter is without date, and signed only 
with the initials J. T. It appears to have been written 
soon after the arrival of the poet in England whither he 
went after the death of his mother. It opens with a 
somewhat diffuse statement of the writer's pecuniary 
position, followed, with some circumlocution, by an ap- 
plication for a loan, to be promptly repaid. It then 
proceeds as follows (the original spelling is retained) : 

Now, I imagine you seized wt. a fine, romantic kind of 
melancholy, on the fading of the year, now I figure 
you wandering philosophical, and pensive, amidst the 
brown, wither'd groves ; while the leaves rustle under 
your feet, the sun gives a farewell parting gleam and the 

Stir the faint note, and but attempt to sing, 
then again, when the heavens wear a more gloomy aspect, 
the winds whistle, and the waters spout, I see you in the 
well-known Cleugh, beneath the solemn arch of tall, thick, 
embowering trees, listening to the amusing lull of the 
many steep, moss-grown cascades ; while deep divine 
contemplation, the genius of the place, prompts each 
swelling awfull thought ; I'm sure, you would not resign 
your part in that scene att an easy rate, none e'er enjoy 'd 
it to the height you do, and you're worthy of it. ther I 
walk in spirit, and disport in its beloved gloom, this 
country, I am in, is not so very entertaining, no variety 
but that of woods, and them we have in abundance, but 
where is the living stream ? the airy mountain ? and the 
hanging rock ? with twenty other things that elegantly 
please the lover of nature ? Nature delights me in every 
form, I am just now painting her, in her most lugubrious 
dress ; for my own amusement, describing winter as it 
presents itself, after my first proposal of the subject, 

I sing of winter, and his gelid reign ; 

Nor let a rhyming insect of the spring, 

Deem it a barren theme, to me 'tis full 

Of manly charms ; to me, who court the shade, 

Whom, the gay seasons suit not, and who shun 

The glare of summer. Welcome ! kindred glooms ! 

Drear awfull wintry, horrors, Welcome all ! &c. * 

After this introduction, 1 say, which insists for a few lines 
further I prosecute the purport of the following ones 

Nor can I o departing Summer ! choose 
But consecrate one pitying line to you ; 
Sing your last temper'd days, and sunny calms. 
That chear the spirits, and serene the souL 

The terrible floods, ajd high winds, that usually happen 
about this time of year, and have already happen'd here,1~ 
(I wish you have not felt them too dreadfully) the first 
produced the enclosed lines ; the last are not completed. 
Mr. Rickleton's poem on Winter, which I still have, first 
put the design into my head, in it are some masterly 
strokes that awaken'd me being only a present amuse- 
ment, 'tis ten to one but I drop it in when e'er another 
fancy comes cross. 

The remainder of the letter, which is a somewhat 
lengthy one, is occupied with matters of less interest. I 
am indebted to Mr. John Smith, the present editor of the 
Kelso Mail, who has recently reprinted the letter in his 
columns, for permission to make this communication. 

Ctttnfcirlanlr antr tftc J^rotttsft 

JJOW often in history do we find the old 
Kings of Scotland laying claim to the 
Border lands, notably of Westmoreland 
and Cumberland, as being possessions of theirs by 
right of inheritance ! What foundation there was for 
this claim, and how at length it was compromised, 
is matter of history few are familiar with, though 
much of the strife ensuing of old betwixt the English 
and Scots originated in the rival claims to ancient 
Cumberland. This being a subject-of special interest to 
North-Country folk, a brief recital of the facts may not 
be out of place. 

According to Fordun, Constantine was the first of the 
Scottish kings who made the heir-apparent to his crown 
Prince of Cumberland. But there is reason to believe that 
Cumbria was not connected with Scotland till the reign 
of his successor, Malcolm I., the son of Donald IV., 
to whom it was ceded by the Saxon king Edmund (945). 
The territory thus ceded to the Scots consisted of the 
modern Cumberland and Westmoreland. It had con- 
stituted an independent British Kingdom, under the name 
of Reged, and had strenuously resisted the attempts of 
the Saxon kings to destroy its independence. At length 
Edmund the Elder, of England, succeeded in conquering 

* These lines appear to have been cancelled in the sequel ; but, 
in the address to the Earl of Wilmington at the opening of Winter, 
the poet speaks of filling his ear 

With bold description and with manly thought 

t The editor of the Hail supposes the letter to have been 
written at Barnet 



this little kingdom, and put out the eyes of the five sons 
of Dunmail, its last British king. He then bestowed his 
new acquisition on Malcolm, on condition that he would 
become his associate in war, or, as the terms are explained 
by Matthew of Westminster, " that he would defend the 
northern parts of England from the invasions of his 
enemies, whether they came by sea or land." (Vide Dr. 
Taylor's "History of Scotland," vol. i., p. 35.) 

Early in the Conqueror's reign, the counties of West- 
moreland and Cumberland were guaranteed to Malcolm 
III. and his successors, for which he did homage. " Ac- 
cording to Hector Boethius " [or circa about 1500] " the 
limits," quotes Hutchinson, "were ascertained by a cross 
erected on the heights of the desert of Stranmore, the 
remains of which are yet [1784] to be seen in the midst 
of a large entrenchment called Roy Cross." 

In 1091, Malcolm resigned these counties to the crown 
of England, and did homage to Ruf us on having confirmed 
to his crown " twelve towns in England, and an annual 
pension of twelve marks of gold," as arranged in the 
previous reign. The following year, however, offended 
at William for building a castle at Carlisle, and refusing 
subsequently to do homage in the presence of the 
English barons, the Scots King, in displeasure, in 
1093, " assembled an army and burst into Northum- 
berland, which he wasted with fire and sword." But 
while besieging Alnwick Castle he was surprised and 
slain by the Northumbrian earl, Robert de Mowbray. 

Cumberland for seems to have been held by, 
or withheld from, the Scots, much at the discretion or 
caprice of the English kings. In 1173, we find Henry II. 
promising to cede Northumberland and Cumberland to 
Scotland on King William the Lion engaging to aid 
him in suppressing the rebellion instigated by his son, 
Prince Henry. In the 13th century Henry III. revived 
the ancient claim of sovereignty over Scotland, 
which provoked Alexander II., on the other hand, 
to demand " delivery of the counties of Northum- 
berland, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, 
as his right by inheritance." This counter- 
claim led to a royal conference in New- 
castle, or, as Matthew Paris records, at 
York, resulting in the Scottish King's 
claims being compounded for by Henry 
granting him lands to the value of eighty 
marks yearly. Again, at the latter part 
of the century, we find Edward I., in final 
settlement of the Scots claim on the 
Northern Counties, assigning lands in 
Penrith and Sowerby in Cumberland to 
the yearly value of 200. 

The ancient Kingdom of the Cumbrians, 
according to Smollett (1758), extended 
from the walls of Severus as far as Dun- 
britton, in the western part of Scotland, 
and comprehended Galloway, Carrick, 

Kyle, and Cunningham. The homage, he says, which 
the Scottish kings paid to the English monarchs for 
their territories "was in all probability the foundation 
of the English claim to the sovereignty of all Scotland." 

N. E. R. 


jjN the rocky summit of Grindon Rigg, in the 
township of Duddo, and district of Norham- 
shire, are the remains of Duddo or Dudhowe 
Tower. A vault, which has been a safe hold for 
cattle, forms the principal remains ; but from the 
elevated situation of the old fortlet, it is still a 

conspicuous object all around. It was most likely 
built by one of the Stryveling or Stirling family, 
who anciently held the manor in dringage or drengage, 
having, it seems, been among those Saxon franklins who- 





were dispossessed of their estates at the Conquest, but 
bad them given back again, because they did not oppose 
William the Conqueror, either by their persons or their 
counsels. The rent which was rendered by them to the 
Crown was seven marks a year, which, if they were gold 
marks, would be equivalent to 128 9s. to. in sterling 
money. In 1391, the estate descended to William de 
Clavering, in tail ; and from the Claverings it afterwards 
passed into the hands of the Greys, part of whose extensive 
possessions it now is. A little to the north-west of the 
tower are six rude stones or pillars placed on the summit of 
an eminence, in a circular order, forming an area of ten 
yards diameter. The largest is about eight feet high. 
They are known as the Duddo Stones, and some learned 
archaeologists have set them down as Druidical ; but the 
local tradition is that they were placed where they stand 
in commemoration of a victory gained at Grindon, in the 
year 1558, by the Earl of Northumberland and his brother 
Sir Henry Percy, over a plundering and burning party of 
Scottish horse, accompanied, as Ridpath tells us, by some 
foot, who were either Frenchmen or trained and com- 
manded by French officers, and who were driven in dis- 
order across the Tweed. The accompanying sketch of the 
stones, showing their appearance in 1836, was published in 
Richardson's "Table Book," vol. iv., 1844. 

Cartittgtrrtt Caotlc. 

j]ARTINGTON, in old maps Cortington (pos- 
sibly by mistake), lies between two and 
three miles north-west by north of Roth- 

Oury. The first recorded owner was 

one Ralph Fitzmain, the King's fores- 
ter of Northumberland, who held it 

in 1154. It was afterwards possessed 

by a family that bore the local name, 

but which is now extinct. John de 

Cartington was knight of the shire in 

1428, 1*46, and 1472, during the troub- 
lous reigns of Henry VI. and Edward 

IV. He married Joanna, second 

daughter and co-heir of Sir Robert 

Claxton, Lord of Devylstoune, or Dil- 

ston, by whom he had an only daugh- 
ter. This lady married Sir Edward 

Katcliffe, son of Sir Thomas Rat- 

cliffe, of Derwentwater, county of 

Cumberland. Cartington remained in 

the Ratcliffe family for four or five 

generations, after which it came by 

marriage to the Widdringtons, the 

last of whom, Sir Edward Widdring- 

ton, of Cartington, who raised a troop 

of horse for the service of King Charles 

I., and whose estate was sequestered by the Parliament 
in 1652, had several daughters, but no son. Lady Mary, 
his eldest daughter and co-heir, married Edward Charl- 
ton, Esq., of Hesleyside, who was created a baronet in 
164-5, and got back the sequestered estates at the Resto- 
ration. After Sir Edward's death, his relict founded an 

almshouse at Cartington for four poor widows of the 
Roman Catholic religion, endowing it with about 6 per 
annum. Prom the Charltons the estate passed to the 
Talbots, coming ultimately into the possession of the 




present proprietor, Lord Armstrong. Little of the old 
fortress remains; but that little will now be carefully 
preserved, Mr. 0. 0. Hodges having been instructed by 
Lord Armstrong to put it in such order as to resist, as far 
as possible, the further assaults of time. Mr. Gibson's 
photograph, taken two or three years ago, shows merely 
a few fragments of wall standing ; but a woodcut in 
Richardson's " Table Book," here reproduced, proves that 
a very considerable portion of the old fortalice was in 
existence in 1841. 


CftararUvd in 

R WALTER SCOTT'S novel of "Guy 
Mannering" has always been one of the 
most popular of the Waverley series of 
fictions, and that not merely on account 
of the exquisite skill with which the somewhat in- 
credible story is told, but for the numerous well-defined 
characters, some of them real, and others veiled under 
fictitious names the latter even more realistic than the 
former that are happily introduced in the course of 
it. The scene is laid in Dumfriesshire and the neigh- 
bouring county of Cumberland, and the eventB are sup- 
posed to have taken place near the end of the American 
War. The leading incidents in the life of Henry Bertram, 
who is really the hero of the story, bear a strong re- 
semblance to those of the unsuccessful claimant in the 
famous Annesley Succession Case, tried in 1743, the names 
of many of the witnesses who appeared on that trial 
having been appropriated, with slight alterations, to 
characters in the novel. 

Ellaugowan, the supposed family seat of the Bertrams, 
had in its grounds the old castle of the same name, which 
had been in the possession of the family ever since 
Cumbria was a separate principality. That castle is sup- 
posed to have been Caerlaverock, an ancient fortalice, 
situated on a level plain on the east side of the Nith, 
about eight miles from Dumfries. After having under- 
gone innumerable sieges, and been taken, re-taken, 
dismantled, and restored several times, it was ulti- 
mately sacked by Cromwell, subsequent to whose 
time it ceased to be a tenable fortress, fell into 
decay, and now presents only a massive and pic- 
turesque ruin to the inspection of the tourist. Being 
close to the sea, it could not fail to afford a rendezvous 
and place of shelter to the smugglers who swarmed there- 
abouts a hundred years ago, and a particular gang of 
whom, in complicity with a tribe of gipsies, turn out 
to be main agents in the plot of " Guy Mannering." 

The Isle of Man was then, and for some time after- 
wards continued to be, the chief mart in the British 
Isles for contraband goods, such as Hollands gin, French 

wines and brandies, tobacco, silk, &c. ; and the Scottish 
shore of the Solway Firth formed a convenient landing- 
place for them. Most of the petty tradesmen in Gallo- 
way and Dumfriesshire, and not a few of the inferior 
landed gentry, were more or less connected with the 
smugglers, who were mostly desperadoes hailing from 
French and Dutch ports. 

These adventurers found very efficient allies in the 
gipsies who roamed over the district during the summer 
and autumn months, and found shelter during the winter 
in rows of wretched huts in secluded places, generally in 
the near neighbourhood of the sea, where they had been 
allowed to squat down by some easy-going laird. The 
Derncleuch of the story was one of those collections of 
cottages, such as were to be found in out-of-the-way 
corners on both sides of the Border less than a century 
ago. Kirk Yethohn, the headquarters of the Roxburgh- 
shire gipsies, is still to the fore as a very superior sample 
of the kind of hamlet described. 

Meg Merrilies, the queen of the Derncleuch gipsy 
gang, who is the pivot of the whole story, had her proto- 
type in the notorious Jean Gordon, of Yetholm, who was 
quite a character in her day, and of whom innumerable 
stories are told. A full account of Meg is given in the 
Monthly Chronicle, vol. ii., page 123. 

The real story of Dominie Sampson need not be 
repeated here, as it is told by Sir Walter Scott himself 
in the introduction ; but several traits in his character are 
popularly believed to have been taken from the Rev. 
George Thompson, son of the parish minister of Melrose, 
who was a man equally fatuous in the district he lived in 
for his profound scholastic attainments and his extraordi- 
nary absence of mind. He was engaged, for some time, 
as tutor to Sir Walter Scott's children at Abbotsford, 
and occasionally employed by the author of "Waverley " 
as his amanuensis. He was just such a person as Sir 
Walter delighted to meet with and study ; but, of course, 
the account of his acts and deeds in the novel is entirely 

Dandie Dinmont is, to my way of thinking, beyond all 
question the best portrait of a Scottish Border sheep far- 
mer ever exhibited to the public the most honourable 
to that respectable class of men the most creditable to 
the heart as well as the genius of the artist the truest to 
nature the most interesting and the most complete in 
all its lineaments. Sir Walter got acquainted with the 
man whom he christened Dandie during the first of 
his seven annual raids into Liddesdale, which took 
place in 1792. He started from Abbotrule, near Hawick, 
along with Mr. Robert Shortreed, sheriff-substitute of 
Roxburghshire, who knew the locality thoroughly ; and 
the first farmhouse that the couple visited was Millburn- 
holin, on the Hermitage Water, near the junction of the 
Whitrope Burn with the Liddell. The primitive condi- 
tion of the inhabitants of the district may be im- 
agined from what Scott's biographer tells us was the 




sensation this visit caused. When informed that 
Scott was an advocate, the farmer received him with 
great ceremony and insisted on himself leading his horse 
to the stable. Shortreed accompanied the farmer, who, 
after taking a deliberate peep at Scott, " out-by 
the edge of the door-cheek," whispered, "Weel, Robin, 
I say de'il hae me if I'se be the least feared for him noo ; 
he's just a chield like outsells, I think." According to 
Mr. Shortreed, this good man of Millburnholm, with 
whom Scott and his companion lingered over the punch- 
bowl till they were "half-glowrin," was the person who 
first suggested the character of Dandie Dinmont to the 

The old farm-house at Millburnholm has now disap- 
peared, having been replaced by a couple of new houses, 
built for the farm servants on Hermitage Farm, to 
which the place has been attached. 

The name of Dandie's homestead of Oharlieshope 
was probably suggested by Thorlieshope, a place which 
stands on a small burn falling into the Liddell, near 
its source, not far from Saughtree formerly the 
home of one of the sweetest of the Border minstrels, 
James Telfer, author of " The Gloamyng Bucht," 
who spent the latter part of his life there in the capacity 
of schoolmaster. The description of Charlieshope, 
however, does not in any way correspond to that of 
Thorlieshope; but Jock o' Dawston-CIeugh, Dandie's 
litigious neighbour, no doubt got his Christian name and 
cognomen from his being supposed to be located at Daw- 
stone Rigg, or Daustone Burn, on Saughtree Farm, op- 
posite to Thorlieshope. 

Another original character, however, has been more 
popularly identified with Dandie Dinmont I mean 
Mr. James Davidson, of Hyndlee, in the parish 
of Hobkirk, in Teviotdale, who carried the name 
of Dandie to his grave with him. Yet it seems certain 
that Scott did not become acquainted with this gentle- 
man till several years after the publication of the novel, 
and that he was then first pointed out to him by Short- 
reed himself, who had previously given him some account 
of Mr. Davidson's now famous breed of pepper and 
mustard terriers, as being such capital dogs for dealing 
with "fumarts and tods," that is, polecats and foxes. 

Mump's Ha', where Dandie first met Brown, alias Ber- 
tram, was a hedge alehouse, still existing, near Gilsland,* 
which once had a bad reputation for harbouring ban- 
ditti, such as haunted the wild country known as 
Bewcastle Waste, over which lay the route from Halt- 
whistle into Liddesdale. Staneshiebank Fair, at which 
Dandie said he had been, was of course the fair at Stag- 
shawbank, held thrice a year, near Corbridge. 

John Hay, who "catched a kipper" at the stream 
below Hempseed Ford, as told by the Laird to Colonel 
Mannering, was a most respectable man in the service of 

* Bee Monthly Chronicle, voL ii., page 125. 

the proprietors of the Kdso Mail newspaper, who went 
round the district once a quarter to collect the accounts for 
advertising. He was passionately fond of angling. He 
died about sixty years ago. Hempseed Ford is in the 
Tweed immediately below Kelso, in what is known as 
the Hendersyde Park Water. 

"Burning the water, " a favourite mode of fishing once 
in the Border rivers, is now, we believe, prohibited by 
law. Those who engaged in it employed a curious sort ot 
double boat, called trows Anglic^, troughs formed of 
two extremely light flat-bottomed boats united at the 
stem, and diverging by an angular curve towards their 
sterns, which were connected at the top by a piece of flat 
board. There was usually two men in each one to guide 
the trows by means of a long pole, called a keut or bang, 
and the other armed with a leister, or three-pronged fish- 
spear, to spear the fish. He who guided the boat was 
stationed towards the stern, while he who had the leis- 
ter stood with one leg in each trow looking down into 
the water between them to see if there were any 
salmon. A dry splinter or branch of fir, wrapped in 
rags, steeped in tar, supplied a light, to which the salmon 
were attracted and thereupon speared. 

Hazlewood House, the residence of the proud Nova 
Scotia baronet, Sir Robert Hazlewood, is understood to 
be represented by Liucluden House. It stands on the 
banks of the river Cluden, at a short distance from 
Dumfries, in the parish of Terregles, in Kirkcudbright 
shire, close to the beautiful ruins of Lincludeu Abbey, 
which was founded in the time of Malcolm IV., King of 
Scots, and has had its praises sung by Burns. 

Portanferry, where some of the most exciting of the 
scenes in the novel are laid, is probably the small harbour 
of Kelton, between three and four miles below Dum- 
fries. The county gaol at the latter town, where 
Glossin and Hatteraick came to such a dismal end, was, 
till a comparatively recent date, one of those filthy 
unventilated, old-fashioned dungeons, that were a dis- 
grace to civilization. 

To Gilbert Glossin we are first introduced as the Laird 
of Ellangowan's agent, manufacturing votes upon his 
needy patron's estate. Glossin afterwards manages to 
acquire the estate for himself, with what result every 
one knows. His prototype has been set down to be 
a certain " writer " or attorney in Jed burgh, long since 
deceased, who was noted for his perfect acquaintance 
with all the quirks of the law. 

Macmorlan, the sheriff-substitute, who is represented 
to have been " a man o' character, and weel spoken o'," 
was doubtless Sir Walter's travelling companion on his 
early visits to Liddesdale honest Robbie Shortreed. 

The character of Mr. Paulus Pleydell, advocate, is 
understood to have been drawn, with some little exag- 
geration, after an eminent Scottish barrister, named 
Andrew Crosbie, a native of Dumfries, and a man of 
mark in his profession, who flourished in the latter 



part of last century, and was well known to be a ban 
I'irant of the purest water, after the fashion of the day, 
as well as a trusty councillor and eloquent and successful 
pleader. His presence on the Saturday evenings at Cleri- 
beugh's Tavern, in Writers' Court, to indulge in innocent 
non-professional relaxation, with "a select knot of his 
friends, was quite an understood thing ; while his clerk 
as regularly betook himself to Lucky Wood's in the 
Cowgate, to have a game at high-jinks, in less formal 
and expensive fashion, with his brother quill-drivers. 

The group of Edinburgh celebrities to whom Pleydell 
introduced Mannering in Cleriheugh's tavern comprised 
a select knot of the most remarkable men that ever graced 
the Modern Athens. It consisted of seven individuals, 
every one of whom may be said to have justly 
earned immortal fame. These were Adam Smith, 
the father of economical philosophy ; David 
Hume, the metaphysician, politico-economist, and 
historian, who gave the first impulse to the Scottish 
and German philosophers that have revolutionised men- 
tal science; John Home, author of the tragedy of 
"Douglas," by the publication of which he gav mortal 
offence to the " unco-guid " portion of his country- 
men, who were horrified to think that a beneficed clergy- 
man should not only frequent theatres, but write 
stage-plays ; Henry Home, Lord Kaimes, author of the 
famous "Essay on Criticism," wherein he gave philoso- 
phical criticism the form of a science, by reducing it to 
general principles, methodising its doctrines, and 
supporting them everywhere by the most copious 
and beautiful illustrations ; Dr. Hutton, the geologist, 
who wrote "The Plutonic Theory of the Earth," 
to demonstrate the influence of the fire within, 
in opposition to Werner, who held that the greater 
part of the phenomena observable on the earth's 
surface was due to the agency of water ; Dr. Adam 
Ferguson, who wrote a history, long standard, of the 
"Progress and Termination of the Roman Republic," as 
well as a valuable text book on the "Principles of Moral 
and Political Science " ; and last, but not least. Dr. 
Joseph Black, who first established the doctrine of 
latent heat. 

Among the notes of introduction which Pleydell is re- 
presented as thrusting into Colonel Mannering's hand, 
were two addressed to John Clerk, Esq., of Eldin, and 
Dr. Robertson, both men of mark in their several spheres. 
Johnnie Clerk, as he was commonly called, was best 
known to the outside public as a broad humourist. Innu- 
merable were the queer stories circulated about him in the 
purlieus of the Parliament House. He was the son and 
namesake of the author of a famous essay " On Naval 
Tactics, Systematical and Historical, with Explanatory 
Plates," in which is embodied and explained the cele- 
brated manoeuvre technically called " breaking the line, " 
which was employed for the first time by Lord Rodney, 
in 1782, and led to his decisive victory over the French, 

under De Grasse, in the West Indies," and was adopted 
with invariable success by Lord Howe, Nelson, and 
others, during the war with France. Johnnie Clerk was 
not only a wit, as has been said, but a distinguished 
lawyer. He was for many years undisputed leader of 
the Scottish bar, and his fame extended far beyond the 
courts of law. Bold, able, and outspoken, he was known 
as the man who, after Henry Erskine, was the most 
earnest and energetic in the popular cause. When 
he spoke in public, crowds gathered to hear him, and 
it was rare that some piece of brilliant sarcasm or 
strong humour did not reward them ; nor did his hearers 
relish it the less that it was delivered in his native broad 
Scotch, which he pronounced with the perfect purity of a 
courtier of the days of Queen Mary or the Jameses. In 
times when everyone was sociable in Edinburgh, he was a 
favourite with the best society, shining with never-failing 
humour and endless store of anecdote. 

Dr. Robertson, whom Colonel Mannering was taken to 
hear preach, was the celebrated historiographer. As one 
of the ministers of Old Greyfriars' Church, Principal of 
the University of Edinburgh, and leader of the so-called 
Moderate party in the Church of Scotland, he was for 
many years the possessor of something like supreme 
power in ecclesiastical matters in Scotland. In politics, 
he was a Whig of the Revolution, and had a great ad- 
miration of General Washington, the American patriot. 
On the first outbreak of the French Revolution, he 
publicly exulted in the near prospect of seeing so many 
millions in France freed from the fetters of arbitrary 
government; but his policy as a churchman led to the 
origination of three seceding communities, and at length 
left the Established Church of Scotland with a mere min- 
ority of the population within her pale. 

Pleydell's old friend, James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, 
who was such an ardent admirer of Greek and Roman 
manners and customs, and whose entertainments, always 
given in the evening, in imitation of the suppers of the 
ancients, "when there was a circulation of excellent 
Bourdeaux, in flasks garlanded with roses, which 
were also strewed on the table after the manner of 
Horace," were frequented by the best society in 
Edinburgh whether in respect of rank or literary dis- 
tinction, was a notable person in every way. Monboddo, 
besides being an able lawyer and an eminent judge, 
an excellent classical scholar, and a voluminous author, 
was noted for the numberless paradoxes which he 
stoutly maintained in his philological, ethnological, and 
metaphysical writings. A Darwinian before Darwin, 
he asserted that man at first walked on all fours 
that he then learned to walk upright, at first with 
the aid of a stick, as might be seen in the 
ourang-outang, which he declared to be closely 
allied to the human race that in due time he 
made use of his hands, and acquired the art of swimming 
and that his having no tail now was due to its having 





been nipped off immediately after his birth by the mid- 
wife herself. Boswell, in his "Life of Johnson," gives 
a graphic account of his lordship's reception of the great 
lexicographer at his family seat in Kincardineshire. 


marriage." It would seem, then, that the testimony of 
the Delaval documents goes to show the use of the term 
Miss for unmarried ladies at a much earlier period than 
is generally supposed. 


MONG the Delaval papers discovered by Mr. 
John Robinson at Seaton Sluice was a card, 
of which we give an engraving, and which has 
been called Dorothy Foster's visiting card. It was found 
amongst a bundle of letters relating to the period from 
1715 to 1725. The editor of Notes and Queries, referring 
to Mr. Robinson's find, wrote: "This can scarcely 


litrigftt at 

have been the visiting card of Dorothy Foster, as before 
the days of George the Third, and for some time during 
his reign, the term Mistress is always applied to unmar- 
ried women, and not Miss, as on this card. The term 
Miss came into fashion in George the Third's time." 
Mr. Robinsons, however, has thrown further light on the 
subject, in a paper read before the Newcastle Literary 
Club. The following is an extract from Mr. Robinson's 
paper: "George the Third came to the throne in 1760. 
They could, therefore, have no dispute as to the date 
fixed by Notes and Queries. This small piece of card 
was not the only one on which the title of Miss was 
applied in the Delaval papers. The question was one 
which could, therefore, be easily decided by numerous 
letters. From 1740 to 1750, the term Miss was regu- 
larly used. Visiting cards were at that period playing 
cards, and on the back of Dorothy Foster's was part of 
the diamond. There was another visiting card ; it had 
been a playing card, but the picture had been defaced. 
It was inscribed : 'Miss Dalton's compliments to Mrs. 
Potter, and shall be glad of her company to drink tea with 
them this afternoon, Tuesday, 12 o'clock." Mrs. Potter 
was married to Sir George Hussey Delaval ten years or 
more before the reign of George the Third ; the card must, 
therefore, have been written before Mrs. Potter's second 

POULTS, an Edinburgh goldsmith, 
working the lead mines in Lanarkshire about 
1576, engaged one Bevis Bulmer to help him 
in his operations. Bulmer, a man of marvellous ingenuity 
and versatile gifts, was a native of Yorkshire, it may be 
of Bulmer in that county, and had previously been em- 
ployed in mining in the North of England. His mind 
was crowded with ingenious projects, while his restless 
disposition led him hither and thither in pursuit of things 
new and strange. Ceasing to interest himself in the lead 
mines, he received a commission from Queen Elizabeth, 
and permission from King James, to search for gold and 
silver in the Royal Mines. 

A number of references in the State Papers of Queen 
Elizabeth show us the reason why the English were inter- 
ested in gold mining at this period. Towards the end of 
1577, Captain Frobishers ships arrived at Bristol with 
a cargo of gold ore. This was melted down by Jonas 
Schutz, and a report was prepared concerning the amount 
of gold contained in the ton of ore. Another refiner, Dr. 
Burchard, gave different results, said Jonas was incom- 
petent, and indignantly demanded " two cwt. more of 
the ore, and that two honest men should be appointed to 
see that it was roasted fairly, " while Jonas accused the 
doctor of "evil manners and ignorance, and would have 
no dealings with him." In 1579, Martin Frobisher set 
out to the North-West for 2,000 tons of gold ore, and 
then we read of the ill-success of that voyage through his 
mismanagement of the assaying of the ore brought home, 
of the "ill-usage of Mr. Lok and others," and of charges 
against the gallant captain "of arrogance, obstinacy in 
his government at sea, and unbearable insolence in all his 

We find an adequate explanation of Bulmer's commis- 
sion in the voyages of Master Martin Frobisher. The 
disputes of the jealous refiners were settled by a reference 
to the Royal Mines in Crawford Moor. Queen Elizabeth 
determined to weigh the value of her newly-found posses- 
sions by a careful inquiry into the resources of the "Trea- 
sure House. " Bulmer was not slow in offering his services 
to settle her Majesty's difficulties. Being a born specula- 
tor, he seized his opportunity, and formed a joint stock 
company. He got twenty-four gentlemen as shareholders, 
who had each to be called ft Knight of the Golden Mine, 
or a Golden Knight. Only one knight, however, was 



made, and, strange to say, it was the originator of the 
company himself to whom that honour fell. 

Sir Bovis was not so successful in finding gold as be 
was in floating his company. He was assiduous in his 
search for the rustless metal. He got miners to work in 
Wanlockhead, Leadhills, and in the district nearer Craw- 
ford. The gold he obtained cost more than its weight in 
gold ; and as he was obliged to keep up an expensive 
establishment, probably to preserve the dignity of the 
company, he built himself a large house in the village of 
Leadhills, close to a hill still called by his name. There 
he lived as a Golden Knight, " feasting all sorts of people 
that thither came, wasting much himself and giving 
liberally to many, for to be honoured, praised, and mag- 

"Bulmer hoped," says K. W. Cochrane-Patrick, "to 
find the quartz veins with the gold in site," but was not 
successful. He got two large nuggets of gold, one weigh- 
ing six ounces and the other more than five. At Long 
Cleugh Head he got a piece of " sapper stone " (probably 
quartz), from which an ounce of pure gold was obtained. 
At this place he erected a stamping-mill and got much 
"small mealy gold." His greatest success, however, was 
in Henderland Moor, in Ettrick Forest, where, it is re- 
lated, he got much gold, " the like to it in no other place 
before of Scotland." 

Bulmer was not long in returning to England, telling 
the Queen the result of his researches, and bringing a 
splendid golden porringer, made from Scottish ore, which 
he gallantly presented to the Maiden Queen. He put 
a poetical inscription, written by himself, on the Royal 
porringer : 

I dare not give, nor yet present, 
But render part of that's thy own ; 

My mind and heart shall still invent 
To seeke out treasure yet unknowns. 

The Queen was charmed by this attention of her 
Golden Knight, and gave him the privilege of farming 
the duty on seaborne coals. This brought him to the 
valley of the Tyne. He did not long stay in Newcastle, 
however. The Tyne shippers and he soon quarrelled, and 
he threw up or was deprived of his post. He then took 
to lead-mining in Somersetshire, and silver-mining in 
Devonshire. He presented a large standing cup of this 
silver to the Lord Mayor of London. A verse of his own 
poetry inscribed on the cup doubtless enhanced the value 
of the gift. 

Sir Bevis next interested himself in Irish mining 
operations. In 1592 he organized a company to seek for 
calamite stone. In 1594 he was interested in supplying 
water to London "by one small pipe or string," from his 
newly-erected engine or waterworks. In 1599 we find 
him writing to the Queen concerning the clear profit she 
could make out of the imposts on French and Rhenish 
wines, and a month or two later he makes an offer for 
the farming of tin. 

In 1603, he received 200 from the English Exchequer 

to help him in the search for gold in Scotland. In 1604, 
the Scottish Privy Council issued a proclamation to pre- 
vent people molesting him in his search for minerals. 
After that, King James sent him to look after his silver 
mines in Linlithgowshire. 

The strange course of this spirited speculator came to 
an end at Alston Moor, in Cumberland, where he died 
in 1613, poor and neglected, because, with all his clever- 
ness, he lacked stability of character. And so he went 
down, "aye downe; and at last," says Atkinson, hU 
biographer, "he died in my debt 340 sterling, to my 
great hindrance. God forgive us all our sinnes." 



tottft tfte 

JOHN BRIGHT, the great orator and states- 
man, who departed this life on March 27th, 
1889, was connected with the North of 
England by family ties and political events. 
It was here that he got his first wife ; it was here that he 
was threatened with personal violence ; and it was here 
that he won his first seat in the House of Commons. 

Mr. Bright's first wife was a daughter of Mr. Jonathan 
Priestman, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. The marriage took 
place in the Friends' Meeting House, Pilgrim Street, 
Newcastle, on the 27th of November, 1839. It was thus 
announced the week after in the Newcastle Chronicle : 
"At the Friends' Meeting House, on the 27th ult., John 
Bright, Esq., of Rochdale, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter 
of Jonathan Priestman, Esq., of this city." A short 
paragraph in the same paper recorded the fact that on the 
evening of the wedding " the workmen in the employ- 
ment of Mr. Priestman, tanner, &c., were sumptuously 
regaled at the house of Mr. Thomas Wilcke, Temperance 
Hotel, Bigg Market." On the evening prior to the 
marriage a deputation of workmen presented a silver 
cream jug to " Elizabeth Priestman, as a token of respect 
on her marriage." 

A few years later, subsequent to the death of Mrs. 
Bright, and when he had entered into the agitation for 
the Repeal of the Corn Laws, Mr. Bright paid several 
public visits to the North. The first of these visits 
appears to have taken place on the 1st of December, 1842. 
Mr. Bright was accompanied on the occasion by Mr. 
Richard Raymond Richmond Moore, then a leading light 
of the Anti-Corn Law League. The meeting was held in 
the Primitive Methodist Chapel, Nelson Street, whicb 
was crowded to the doors. Sir John Fife presided, 
although there was at first some opposition to his taking 
the chair. Both Mr. Bright and Mr. Moore addressed 
the meeting at great length, their speeches being warmly 
applauded. Mr. Bright was back in Newcastle in the 



following month, this time accompanied by Mr. Cobden 
and Colonel Thompson, when a great meeting was held in 
the Music Hall, and when the following, among other 
gentlemen of prominence, interested themselves in the 
movement : Christian Allhusen, W. H. Brockett, Joseph 
Watson, W. Lockey Harle, and Captain Weatherley. 
The Lecture Room was the scene of the next meeting Mr. 
Bright addressed in Newcastle held on July 10, 1843, 
Dr. T. M. Greenhow in the chair. A fortnight later Mr. 
Bright was elected for Durham, of which more presently. 
Cobden and Bright, both members of Parliament by this 
time, were once more in the Northern Counties in the 
autumn of the same year, addressing meetings and being 
entertained at public dinners at Alnwick and Durham. 

An illustration of the rancorous spirit of the time was 
afforded during Mr. Bright'a tour in July, 1843. Mr. 
Archibald Prentice records in his "History of the 
League" that he and Mr. Bright crossed the Border 
country from Kelso to Alnwick, where they found "a 
great audience, consisting principally of agriculturists, 
many of them landowners and extensive farmers." An- 
ticipating the visit to Alnwick, the Newcastle Journal, 
then a fiery organ of the Tory party, printed the following 
paragraph : 

It is stated that Bright, the Anti-Corn Law agitator, is 
expected to visit the wool fair which will be held in Aln- 
wick shortly, in order to scatter the seeds of disaffection 
in that quarter. Should he make his appearance, which 
is net improbable (for the person has impudence for any- 
thing of this sort), it is to be hoped there may be found 
some stalwart yeoman ready to treat the disaffected vaga- 
bond as he deserves. 

But the Newcastle Journal was by no means alone at 
that period in entertaining strong prejudices against 
the "disaffected vagabond." Soon after Mr. Bright was 
elected member for Durham, the poet Wordsworth, paying 
a visit to the Cathedral City, was in the Dean and Chapter 
Library with its distinguished librarian, Mr. Raine, 
when a verger handed a note to Wordsworth from Dr. 
Waddington, the Dean of Durham, inviting him to dinner. 
Wordsworth hastily penned a refusal, remarking to Mr. 
Raine, "As if I would dine with a man that voted for 
John Bright !" Another story illustrating the same 
prejudice was lately told in the Athenceum : 

Some years after Mr. Bright had ceased his Parlia- 
mentary connection with Durham, he announced a visit 
to the Liberal member for the city, who, having some 
engagement which made him unable to be at home in the 
daytime, went to the cathedral to secure the services of 
the best-informed verger. "A friend of mine is coming 
to-morrow to see the cathedral," said he; "I want you 
to show him round yourself, and pay him special 
attention." "I'm very glad, I'm sure, sir, to 
show any attention to any friend of yours." 
"You will be sure he sees everything of inte- 
rest." "He shall see everything, sir, everything." 
Finding the verger so well disposed, the M.P. tried to 
make him better disposed still, and said : "He is a very 
important man, very ; you really must show him atten- 
tion in fact, it is Mr. John Bright." "Oh," said the 
verger, who was of Wordsworth's way of thinking, " I'll 
take good care that he doesn't steal anything away fra' 
the church ! " 

The event of most prominence in Mr. Bright's connec- 

tion with the North was of course his electicn for Durham 
in 1843. Twelve years before this the Cathedral City had 
earned some honour and notoriety by sending to St. 
Stephen's, in the room of Sir Roger Gresley, Mr. William 
R. C. Chaytor, who drove post-haste to London, and 
just reached the House of Commons in time to record his 
vote in favour of Earl Grey's Reform Bill. On the 26th 
of March, 1843, it was announced that Captain Fitzroy, 
one of the members for Durham, had accepted a Govern- 
ment appointment, and that a vacancy would be created 
in consequence. Lord Dungannon, who had contested the 
seat previously, at once came forward in the Conservative 
interest. The Liberals determined to do their utmost 
to bring forward a candidate, though they had very 
slender chances of being able to return him. They put 
out a placard on Tuesday, March 28th, asking the 
electors to reserve their votes, as they had hopes of being 
able to place at their command a candidate of undoubted 
Liberal principles. The weekly papers on the Friday 
following, however, broadly hinted that no Liberal candi- 
date would appear in the field, and that Lord Dungannon 
would score a walk over. The noble lord pushed forward 
a personal canvass of the electors; red ribbons were dis- 
tributed profusely, red flags were displayed all over the 
city, and bands of music, preceded by red flags, perambu- 
lated the streets in the evening of each day. It is now 
known that one of the last persons to whom the Liberals 
appealed all previous efforts having failed to produce a 
candidate was John Bright. The nomination of candi- 
dates was fixed for Monday, April 4th, on which day 
the Spring Assize was fixed to be held. 

Mr. Bright reached Durham at an early hour on the 
morning of the nomination day. Long before the time 
appointed for the proceedings to commence (mid-day) a 
large crowd had assembled in front of the Town Hall. 
Fronting that building a wooden erection had been run 
up as the hustings, but it was miserably small, and 
totally unequal to accommodate more than a fraction 
of those accompanying the candidates. Prominent 
in the crowd, and plentifully bedizened with red 
ribbons, was a group of some twenty or thirty 
miners, freemen of the borough, who were employed at 
the Marquis of Londonderry's Rainton collieries. A 
few minutes before eleven o'clock the sounds of music 
from the direction of Saddler Street announced the 
arrival of Lord Dungannon, and immediately afterwards 
Mr. Bright and his friends arrived. The Rev. George 
Townsend nominated Lord Dungannon, and Mr. William 
Lloyd Wharton seconded the nomination. Mr. John 
Bramwell, amid continued uproar, proposed Mr. Bright, 
and Mr. John Hardinge Veitch seconded. Lord Dun- 
gannon having addressed the crowd, Mr. Bright stood 
forward and was received with a strong demonstration 
and counter-demonstration, the latter being noisy enough 
to prevent his remarks being heard until Lord Dun- 
trannon and those immediately around him appealed 



for a hearing for the " straneer within their gates." 
The Mayor in due course took a show of hands, and de- 
clared the choice of the electors to be in favour of Mr. 
Bright. Thereupon Mr. William Lloyd Wharton de- 
manded a poll in behalf of Lord Dungannon. The polling 
took place on Tuesday, the 4th of April, the result 
being : Dungannon, 507 ; Bright, 405 ; majority for 
Dungannon, 102. 

The Liberal agents discovered that, after the declaration 
of the poll, the voters for Lord Dungannon had been 
invited to present themselves at the Wheat Sheaf Inn, 
Claypath. There they had placed themselves, by in- 
struction, at a certain window, situated in a dark 
corner, and through this window each had received a 
copy of the poll book and also a sovereign. Mr. 
Coppock, a famous election agent on the Liberal side, 
was despatched from London to inquire into the matter, 
Messrs. Marshall soon placed before that gentleman a 
number of witnesses, who de- 
posed to bribery having been 
repeatedly committed. A 
petition was therefore pre- 
sented against the return of 
Lord Dungannon. Mr. John 
Edwin Marshall took charge 
of the petition in London, 
whilst Mr. H. J. Marshall 
and Mr. William Marshall 
conducted affairs in Durham. 
A shoal of witnesses attended 
before the Parliamentary 
Committee, which eventually 
declared the election void on 
the ground of bribery by Lord 
Duneannon's agents. 

Mr. Bright again became 
a candidate. Assisted by 
two members of the League, 
Mr. Archibald Prentice and 
Mr. R. R. R. Moore, he 
made wonderful progress 
with his canvass, all the 
more so because a division 
had broken out in the 
opposite ranks. However, 
Mr. Thomas Purvis, a Chan- 
cery barrister in large prac- 
tice, and a member of a 
family that had resided for 
some time in the district, was 
selected as the Conservative 
candidate. The nomination 
took place on Monday, July 
24th, and the show of hands 
was declared to be largely in 
favour of Mr. Bright, but 

a poll was demanded for Mr. Purvis. The enthusiasm 
and partizanship were intense from the first opening 
of the poll at eight o'clock on the morning of Tuesday, 
the 25th of July. Dean Waddington and Dr. Ogle 
walked from the College, arm in arm, and polled 
together. Aa they passed down S addler Street, the 
cry, " You vote for a Quaker ! " wan directed to Dr. 
Waddington, who retorted, "I vote for a Free-Trader, " 
and Dr. Ogle, wheeling round to a group of citizens who 
were witnesses of the scene, exclaimed, "What do you 
think of that, lads ? Do you call that nowt?" The recapi- 
tulation of the scenes which were enacted during the day 
would fill a book, but we will only give one of them. Mr. 
Bright had been at the head of the poll throughout. 
Between three and four o'clock a group of ten freemen, 
whose begrimed faces appeared to indicate that they had 
recently been drawn out of some neighbouring colliery, 
were seen passing down Gilesgate, and the word was 





quickly passed, "Here's some of the marquis's men at 
last." Some doubt was entertained with reference to the 
course the Marquis of Londonderry would take, and 
. the action of this group of men was eagerly watched. 
They wore no colour or badge. At length they reached 
the polling place, and the first man stepped up to vote. 
"For whom do you vote?" asked the presiding officer. 
"For John Bright," replied the man. And then the 
Liberal partizans set up a tremendous shout, and counted 
victory as beyond a doubt. And it was. The final 
declaration of the poll gave the numbers as follows : 
Bright, 488 ; Purvis, 410 ; majority for Bright, 78. 

Thus ended the great election of 1843 the election 
which first made John Bright a member of the British 
Parliament. Mr. Bright declined to be " chaired, " and 
was the first man to break through the old custom. Mr 
Purvis darkly hinted at the action of some member of his 
party, presumed to be the Marquis of Londonderry, whose 
conduct had contributed to his defeat. John Bright 
represented the City of Durham for four years, when he 
accepted the invitation of the Manchester Liberals to 
become one of their candidates. 

IURROUNDED though they are by tali 

chimneys and smoking factories, the ruins 
of Kirkstall Abbey, near Leeds, are still 
a picturesque remnant of monastic times. 
The ruins were lately offered for sale, and there was some 
fear that they might disappear altogether. Fortunately, 
however, Colonel North, a native of Leeds who has made 
a great fortune from the discovery and manufacture of 
nitrate, purchased the property for 10,000, and handed 
it over to the Corporation of Leeds, who will no doubt 
take all proper means to preserve what remains. 

Kirkstal! Abbey was an offshoot from the Abbey of 
Fountains, the remains of which form one of the attrac 
tions of the neighbourhood of Ripon. The foundation of 
Kirkstall was indirectly due to a vow of Henry de Lacy, 
Lord of Pontefract, who, whilst suffering from sickness, 
determined to endow a monastery if he were restored to 
health. On his recovery, he handed over the district of 
Barnoldswick-in-Craven to the Church for the support of 
a monastery of the Cistercian Order. This order of 





monks derived its name from Cisteaux, or Cistertium, in 
Burgundy, France, and had been raised to great celebrity 
through the talents, learning, and sanctity of Saint 
Bernard, abbot of Claravallis, or Clarveaux, for which 
reason it was also called the Bernardino Order. 

Alexander, prior of Fountains, was in 1147 appointed 
abbot of the new foundation, with an establishment of 
twelve monks and ten lay brethren. Matters did not 
prosper with this little band. Their crops at Barnolds- 
wick proved a failure ; their buildings were destroyed by 
6re ; and the Scots bore off their cattle and flocks. The 
abbot, therefore, journeyed in search of a new settlement. 
The valley of the Aire seemed to offer all the requisites 
for a suitable home. The aid of Henry de Lacy was 
again invoked, and a site at Kirkstall was obtained. On 
the 19th May, 1152, the dejected company of monks 
removed from Barnoldswick to Kirkstall. In the short 
(space of thirty years they erected the abbey church and 
monastic buildings, a fair