(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Monthly Consular and Trade Reports"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



idb,Googlc 



» Google 






b,Googlc 



D,t„db,l^OOQlC 



idb,Googlc 



idb,Googlc 



idb,Googlc 



CONTENTS. 



CONTINENT OP AFRICA. 

Antericftn trade in MadagaMar li*-13 

(BeportB by Vice-Consiil Whitney and CoDBuIar Agent Stanwood.) 

CONTINENT OP AMERICA. 

Tbo Hancheater print trade of Colombia . j 33,34 

(Report bj Consul Smith, of Cartliagena.) 
Beef ottl« in Mexico and in the United Statea 39-15 

(Report by Consul-Ganeral Sutton, of MatamoroH.) 
Commercial travelers and trade joamalB in Soatb America 48,49 

(Report bj CoDsnl Smith, of Cartliagena.) 
Canadian tariff cbangea 54-6C 

(Report by Commercial Agent Carroll, of Port Stanlejaud 8t, Thomas.) 
How Canada i« governed 56-58 

(Report by Commeroial Agent Carroll.) 
Exports from the River Plate to the United BUtes 63-66 

(Report by Consnl Baker, of BnenoaAyree.) 
AHphalt and asphalt trade of Cnba 71-76 

(Report by Coueiil- General Badeau.) 
BMlioadB of Venezuela 89-90 

(Report by Consul Beach, of Puerto Cabello.) 
Colombia and its people 111-114 

(Report by Hinialer Scmggs.j 
Patent law of Braiil 114-llS 

(Tranunitted by Hi u later OBbom.) 

CONTINENT OF ASIA. 

Import of Amerioui goods into Java 14-lS 

(Report byConral UatBeld, of Batavia.) 
Indian ve. American wheat 19-34 

(Report by Conaal-Oeneral Hattaon, of Calcutta.) 
American plows and fanning milk for India 31-33 

(Report by Consnl- General Hattson, of Calcutta.) 
Hew Zealand meat export 58-63 

(B«port by Consul QriflBn, of AaoUand.) 
Usnolaetare of camphor in Japan 97, 9€ 

(Report by Canaoljonea, of Nagasaki.) 
The textile trade of Singapore 163-169 

(R^iort by Consnl Stnder.) 
Cotton goods trade of Penaug 169-174 

(Report by CouBular Agent Hfittenbacfa.) ,-, , 

.■...juCoogJe 



IV CONTENTS. 

AVSVBALASIA. 

Ajuerican woodeu wore in New Zealand --. .. 35-39 

(Report by Conaul Griffln, of Auckland. ] 
British Annexation of New Oninea 174-176 

(Report by Consnl GrifBn, of Anckland.) 
The Island of New Oniuea 176-181 

(Beport by Conanl Griffin. ) ' 

COVTINENT OF EVBOPE. 

The Angora goat 1-10 

(Report by Conent-Oeneral Heap, of CoDetantinople.) 
Cousoniption of Ameticaa meats in Germany andFrauoe 13,14 

( Report by Conanl Steuart, of Antwerp. ) 
How American wheat is imported into France 34^8 

(Report by Conanl Wilson, of Nantes. ) 
Commercial relations between France and the United Btatea 29-31 

(Report by Consul Peiiotto, of Lyons.) 
The alleged Bradford estate in Great Britain 45-47 

(Report b; Consnt-General Merritt, of London.) 
Prohibition of American pork in France 49,50 

( Report by Consul Rhoiles. ] 
German prohibition ,.,.. 50-53 

( Report by Consul-General Vogeler, of Frankfort-on-the-Hain) 
The consequential effects of German prohibition 52-54 

( Report by Consul Ryder, of Copenhagen.)..,. 

Eiportaof Swiss silk ribbons to the United States 66-68 

( Report by Consul Mason, of Basle.) 
Exports i>om Geneva to the United States 6&-70 

(Report by Consul Adams.) 
Exports Irom Lyons to the United States 70-71 

(Report by Consul Peixotto.) 
The world's silk industry 76-81 

( Report by Consul Peixotto.) 
The silk consumption of Europe .......... .. SS, 83 

( Report by Consul Peixotto.) 
Supply and consumption of silk in Fiance 83-84 

(Report by Consul Peixotto.) 
European silk goods — exports J 84,85 

( Report by Consul Peixotto, ) 
8Uk crop for 1883 86,86 

(Report by Consul Peixotto.) 
Production of silk goods in Lyons . 86,87 

(Report by Consul Peixotto.) 
Falaiflcation of French wines 68 

(Report by Consnl Wilson, of Nantes.) 
Reenmption of specie payments in Italy 90,01 

( Beport by Consul Duncan, of Naples. ) 
Foreign commerce of Serria 91,97 

(Report by Consnl-General Schnylei.) 
Prioesin Germany 109,105 

( Beport by Consnl.General Togeler.) 
Adulteration of food, drinks, and medicine 106,110 

( Beport by Consul Wilson, of Nantea.) 



^dbyGoOgle 



CONTENTS. T" 

rtgt. 
ArtiSdal colorine of n-ioes 110,111 

(Report by Coustil Kiiosevelt, of Bordeaax.) 
Dwolling-honse accommodatioDain Glasgow ............................... 118-121 

( Eeport }jy CoDnnl Korte. ) 
Value of IftDded property in Prance 131, 1S3 

(Roport by Consal Pelxotto.) 
FarmlDK iD Belginiu 1S2-13& 

(Eeport by CodsdI Tanner, of Liege.) 
The world'* coffee 135,148 

(Report by Cousni-Oeneral Merritt, of Loodon.)' 
Belgiui Commeroial MusenioB . ... . , . . US 

(Report by Consul WiUon, of Brosaeli.) 
St. Peterebnrg-CTOnBtadt canal 148-151 

(Report by Consul- Gienerat Stanton.) 
Tbepotaah indnatry of Staaafnrt 163-lM 

( Report by ConsnlFoz, of Brans wlok.) 
Mill wages ih Belginra 1K,156 

( Report by Consal Tanner, of Liege.) 
Statistics of a woolen mill at Nantes 1&1-15S 

( Report by Consnl Wilson.) 
Cottan mannfltctnres in Alsace 180,163- 

( Report by Consnl Ballow, ofKebl.) 

POLYNESIA. 

Conuneree and piodnotaof Samoa 98-191 

(Beprat by Consnl Canidns.) 

NOTES. 

BzacillaD import duty od floor 1^ 

Aawrioan ateanuhips for the Pactflo trade 1S2 

Coffee export from Brasll ISSt 

India and tbe United BUtea 182 

Egyptian finances 163 

Adulteration of wine and llqaora in France 181 

Tobaecofo Oemiany 184 

Apienltnn) in Haytl 184 

Austria and tbe Boatoo exhibition 184 

Silk trade of France 1804 186- 

China and Japan silk 18S 

IHstrcM in the Madeira laland ie& 

Fieneh wine harvest of lS8-i 183 

CdDditian of the oropain Enrope.... ., IB7,18& 

n JU1.T83 



^dbyGoogle 



idb,Googlc 



CONSULAR REPORTS . 

COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES. ETC. 



THE AVOORA GOAT. 



IMTEODTJCTOET. 



In compliaDce with your metnictioD "So. 104, dated tbe 27th of Feb- 
mary laat, I have the honor to tranBOiit herewith a report on the An- 
gora or mohair goat. 

I am indebted for the notes QQon which the report is prepared to Mr. 
Laarence Oregson Binns, an English merchant of old standing here, 
who, having been engaged for many years in the exportation of mohair^ 
is well informed on everything relating to the Angora goat. Mr. Binn» 
has at different times purchased and shipped large nambers of these 
goats to Australia and the Cape of Qood Hope as well as to the United 
States. The report is perhaps not as complete as might be de»ired, but 
if any farther information is wanted I shall be glad to renew my in- 
qniriea. 

The exportation of Angora goats wfts prohibited by decree in 1880, 
juid although the decree has not been repealed, I know of several lots 
that have been exported since it was isaned ; and if oar minister makes 
the request, tbe Turkish Government will probably grant a special 
permit for the exportation of us many as may be desired. 

In seasons of scarcity, which have, unfortunately, prevailed several 
times in the last few years, the goat bus been slaughtered for fond. It 
is probable that pasturage had become scarce aud dear in cous«-<|uence 
of drought, and that, in addition to the expense of feeding a large num- 
ber of goats, tbe difficulty of paying the Government tax, which is col- 
lected at the worst season for the farmers — some time before the clipping 
commences — compelled them to slaughter their least valuable animals. 
As an article of food, the flesh of tbe Angora goat is not desirable ; it 
resembles that of tbe common goat ; besides, tbe animal is too valuable 
to be nsed for food under ordinary circumstances. 

A knowledge of the climate^U, and vegetable production of Texas, 
Ckilorado, California, Western Virginia, and Western Pennsylvania con- 
vinces me that this goat will thrive in those States, and probably equally 
well in other districts — indeed, wherever there are monntains and hills 

"^^^ , Google 



2 THE ANGORA GOAT. 

for sammer pasture and valleys for shelter io winter. Scrub oak, their 
favorite food, is plentiful in California, and the nutritions bunch grasa 
on the eastern slopes of the Bocky Mountains will furnish them with a 
good and abundant pasture. 

Although tliere can be little doubt that the Angora goat will thrive 
in the United States as it has done in Australia and at the Cape, its 
success as a commercial venture is a matter that intending importers 
are better able to form a judgment upon thaa I am. ' It depends upon 
the demand for mohair in the United States, or, if the supply exceeds 
the demand, whether the surplns can be exported to England, which is 
the largest consumer, as profitably as it is l^om ber southern colonies. 



THE ANOOBA GOAT. 

The Angora or mohair goat is a native of Asia Minor, being found in 
large numbers in the districts of Angora, Beypazar, Geredeb, and Gas- 
t4mbol, and althongh a few flocks esist in the adjacent districts, by far 
the best animals and purest breeds are confined to the four localities 
above nentioned. 

Although in appearance the goats of these districts are easily distin- 
guished the one from the other, yet for all practical purposes the value 
of the fiber produced does not diSer. 

The character of the wools of these districtfi may be classified as fol- 
lows: 

Angora. — A very even style of hair, fine in quality and of &ir length 
of staple, and slightly greasy or yolky. 

Beypazar. — Very clean and free firom grease or yolk, containing a 
f^r proportion of fine hair. Any lack of quality is fully compensated 
for by the length of staple, this district's wool being the deepest grown 
of any. 

Qeredeh. — The finest all-round quality of any district, bnt very greasy 
and yolky, and therefore wastes more when scoured. Average length 
of staple, 

Caatdmbol. — Fine in quality and by far the most lustrous wools, fair 
length of staple and very clean, but very loose in the fleece, which does 
not hold together, as do the fleeces of the other districte, and, conse- 
quently, is rather wasty in the loom. 

It will be seen that each district has its merite as well as drawbacks, 
which prevents the one district taking precedence of the others as far 
as tlic quality of the hair is concerned; but for breeding purposes the 
AngcM^, Beypazar, and Geredeh goats are to be recommended on ac- 
count of the yield, which is light in thecase of the Cast4mbol breed. 

TIBLD OP WOOL. 

The average yield per goat in Asia Minor is about 3 pounds weight. 
This includes one-year old kids laud poor-bred animals. At the Cape 
of Good Hope, where the goats are properly cared for, and to which 
colouy none bnt the purest-brwd animals are now exported, the yield is 
much greater, being fW)m 5 to 6 jwuiids weight, including cross-breeds. 
^ The yield entirely depends upon the choice in the first instance of pure- 
' bred, lieavy-wooled animals, and the care bestowed upon them after- 
ward. There are many choice goats in Asia Minor whose fleeces will 
weigh from 12 to 18 pouuds. 



^dbyGoogle 



THE ANGOEA GOAT. 3 

POOD OP THE GOAT. 

Tbe food of the Angom goata couBists principally of scrub oak, and 
wherever this is to be found they thrive tbe best. In the absence of . 
tbia, however, they will eat gross with relish, with no perceptible dif- 
ference in the >-ield or quality of tbe hair; in fact, in the districts of 
Geredeh and Beypazar inauy of the flocks are fed on grass, as scmb 
oak is not very plentiful. They are also very food of the bark of the 
pines wtioh abound in the district of G-eredeh. During the winter, if 
the goats cannot get at the fresh food, tbey are fed with dried scrub 
oak and hay, and a little oats is giveu t« the animals every day; bat of 
these animals it may be said that, in the absence of their accustomed 
food, tbey will eat almost anything, being much hardier than common 
goats and sheep, and not nearly so fastidious about their food. 

During the summer the native Hock-masters feed their goats on the 
highlands and bills, where they remain night and day, but in the winter 
tbey are driven to the plains, wbei'e tbey can be housed at night or in 
very severe weather. The chief risk of the breeder in Asia Minor is 
when a heavy fall of suow takes place, followed by a hard frost, which 
faardens the snow on tbe surface, and the goats are pre^'ented &om 
getting at the grass uuderneath, and as, in most instances, the native 
breeders are too poor to provide fodder for stall feeding, many thoa- 
Bands of goats are starved to death. 



The climate is very changeable aud great extremes of heat and cold 
are experienced. In summer the temperature varies from 7<y^ to 10(K> 
Fab., and in winter as much as 5° t« 6'^ below zero is sometimes regis- 
tered, but the Angora goat does not suffer from these extremes. 

It is during the wet seasons of spring and autumn that the Angora 
goat is affected, for it cannot stand damp aud must be well housed during 
the night in the rainy season. It may be well to mention that at the 
Cape of Good Hope where these goats thrive well, snow is seldom or ever 
Been. 

The four districts mentioned are all situated at an altitude varying 
from 2,500 to 4,500 feet above the level of tbe sea, Geredeh beiog the 
highest and Angora the lowest. 

THB PBOPITS OP aOAT-BBEEDtNO, 

The profit arisingout of the industryof goat-breeding is, to the native 
breeder, insignificant, when compared with the profits accruing to the 
breeders at tbe Cape ; not that the industry could not be made to pay 
aa well in Asia Minor as anywhere, but for the following reasons : 

Ist. The breeder receives no enconragement from Government. 

2d, The breeder is subject to a heavy tax of from 18 to 25 cents per 
goat, and as tbia tax is collected early in March, what appears to be a 
tax of 18 to 25 cents is often double, for it is during the months of March 
and April that the greatest mortality takes place, and thus the breeder 
has to pay tbe tax n^n animals which may not survive for a month 
Tonger. The government does not take into accoont weak or sickly 
goats, bnt takes all indiscriminately. 

3d. Not being possessed of the means of paying the tax, the breeder 
is obliged either to borrow money atanexorbitantrateof interest or he 



,C~.tK1t^[c 



4 TUB ANOORA OOAT. 

disposes of the mohair for delivery at the clipping season at a figure far 
helow its market valae. 

4th. The breeder has to pay heavy rents for grazing lands. 

5th. Bis poverty prevents bim from making provision for the winter, 
and, in conseqaence, be loses many valuable goats. 

At the cape the breeder has none of these drawbacks to contend with, 
and conseqnently bia efforts are crowned with snccess ; the export of 
mohair from the Cape, in 1382, being 18,000 bales as against 150 in 1865. 

NATIVE MANUFACTURE. 

Many years ago, previous to the introdaction of mohair into Great 
Britain, the natives used large qoantities of the article in the manufact- 
nre of dress pieces, stockings, and a material which was water-proof and 
used us cloaks by the wealthier people, but as these goods were all 
manufoctured in baud-looms, they were expensive. As a bett*)r artitde 
at a much lower cost has been prodaced iu Europe, the industry has al- 
most disappeared tcom Asia Minor. 

EXPORT AND PRICE OF MOHAIR. 

^Nearly the whole clip of Tnrkieh mohair is shipped to Qreat Britain, 
Bradford, in Yorkshire, being the sent of manufacture. For many years 
the balk of the mobair was made up into dress pieces for ladies, bnt in 
1874 the fashion changed from lustrous or bright goods to soft; woolen 
materials, and the demand for the raw material fell off considerably. 

However, mobair was still used in the manufacture of other artidea, 
such as railway carriage linings, imitation velvets, and, later on, imita- 
tion seal skins. 

The average price of mohair for many years was S«. 6d- per pound, 
but in 1874 prices began to decline, till in 1879 it was sold in small 
quantities as low as ISd. per pound, but toward the end of 1879 a sad- 
den demand set in for imitation seal-skina and ice wools, and prices 
rose rapidly to 3s. per pound. The demand, however, fell off again, 
and mohair declined to 22d., at which tigure it now stands. 

There is now a probability of the fashion returning to bright goods, and 
an articlesuitablefordresseshaslately been produced by the celebrated 
firm of Messrs. Mitchell Brothers under the name of " electric " cloth, 
which is likely to sell, so that the raw material may advance in price 
again. Large quantities of mohair yarns are annually exported to 
France, Germany, and tbe United States. 

TH£ NUMBBB OP ANQOKA OOATS. 

The number of Angora goats in Asia Minor is computed at 2,600,000, 
yielding aboat 40,000 bales of 170 pounds each. For twenty years the 
annaal production has varied very slightly ; whereas ati:be Gape, where 
tbe common goat has been crossed with tbe Angora goat, not only has 
an article been produced equal to Tu^kL^Il molmir, but theannnal ex- 
portation of mobair bas wonderfully titi;rea»ed, as has been already 
mentioned. The Gape farmer bas round Ibat the breeding of Angora 
goats is remunerative at even the low jirtces he baa latterly obtained 
for bismobair, notwithstandinS^''*''*^'*"'^''^ prices paid for some of the 
stud rams and ewes exported ^ ^^^ Gai>e from Asia Minor, as will be 
seen from the annexed Ust 



^dbyGoOgle 



THB ANGOBA GOAT. 



The Angora goat in Asia Minor seldom gives birth to more than one 
kid, bnt at the Cape two kids to every ewe is the rule, and it is not un- 
common for a ewe to give birth to tbree kids^ &iid no doubt with proper 
care and attention, the result would be similar in the United States. 

THE CLIPPING SBASOH. 

The clipping season. In Asia Minor the goats are clipped early in 
AprU. At the Cape the farmers clip twice, once in June, and again 
about llovember. The wool of the second clip, however, is short in 
staple, and does not realize the full value of mohair ; still, it is a source 
of revenue to the farmer. 

BIPOETATION OF GOATS. 

Angora goats- have been shipiied in large numbers to the Cape and 
Anstralia, and in smaller numbers to the United States, bnt as yet the 
breeding of these valuable animals has not been taken upwitfa any spirit 
except at the Cape. The following particulars respecting the several 
exportationa &om 1867 to 1880 will be of interest : 

Id 1867 the Hon. Israel Diehl came to Turkey from the United States, 
and, proceedingto Asia Minor in company with a comi)etent persou, pur- 
chased about 200 goat«, which were then brought to Conetantinople and 
shipped by steamer to Liverpool, and thence by sailing vessel to the 
United States. Very heavy weather was experienced crossing the 
Atlantic, and many of the goats were killed or maimed. The surviving 
animals were sent to Texas, bnt, for some incomprehensible reason, the 
editors of several papers in that State waged war against the introduc- 
tion of these goats into the State, the consequence being that the farmers 
refnsed to take any interest in the breeding of Angora p^oats, and for 
many years no more were imported. The opposition displayed could 
only be' attributed u> spite against the importer. 
- In 1868 about 400 goats were exported to the Cape by sailing vessel. 
The voyage was a protracted one, and about 20 per cent, of the goats 
died on the voyage; the remainder were sold at very high prices; andit 
may be said that this was the starting point of the Cape farmers in this 
industry. 

In 1869 60 goats were sent by sailing vessel to Australia, all arriv- 
JDg in good condition after a voyage of 160 days. A further shipment 
of 30 goats was made in the following year to the same colony, and they 
^so arrived in good condition. 

In 1870 about 2,000 goats were sent to the Cape, by steamships via 
Gibraltar and Plymoa^, in shipmeuts of from 200 to 800. In the latter 
caae, and in the first instance mentioned, vessels were specially fitted 
ont for the conveyance of the goats. The average length of the voyage 
to the Cape by steamer was forty days, the losses on the way were 
slight, and good prices were realized for the goats. 

About the year 1876 a company in California sent an agent to Oon- 
fltsntinople, who proceeded to Asia Minor and bought about 200 goats, 
which were shipped to Liverpool, and from there to California. 

In 1878 a farmer from the Cape came to Turkey and selected 30 rams, 
with which he returned to the Cape. 

Id 1880 a shipment of about 400 goats was made to the Gape, where 



6 THE ANQOEA GOAT. 

tbey were sold, and realized very high prioea, as mach as £250 sterling 
being paid for a single ram and £105 for a ewe. 

Smaller sbipinente have been made from time to time to the colonies 
and the United States. 

BEST MODE OF PUEOHAHING. 

Hitherto ttie conrse pursued by those who have imported Angora 
goats into Gape Colony or Australia has been to order the animals from 
some firm connevted with the mobair trade, who would then ^end a com- 
petent person to the districts where the Roats are to be found, and this 
person, professiug a thorough knowledge of the couutry, and being ao- 
qcaiuted with the beat fiock-masters, wonld select sach animals as 
he conafdered proper for breeding purposes. Before purchasing any 
goat a thorough inspection should be, made to see that the animal is 
perfect in every respect, and again, previous to sbipmept from Constan- 
tinople, or any other port, an inspection of all the animals should be 
made by a medical man, and if there are any goats which may have 
contracted disease or become weak in the journey from the interior of 
Asia Minor, these should be left behind until they recover. 

PUBE BSEED ANIMALS. 

The following is a description of a pure breed Angora goat : A neat 
and tapering bead, with fineness of horn, which, in the case of a female, 
should be small, and inclining iu the male horizontally towards the 
back, slightly branching outwards. The hair should hang in a solid 
mass, and should be abundant both at the chest and hind-qnarters, 
covering the legs, which are short, down to the hocks. The wool should 
Burroaud the face, with a thick tuft in front of the horns falling over 
thA forehead. The ears should be smalt and the face white, and each 
animal should have a long, Sowing beard. 

PROBABLE COST OF GOATS. 

Kone of the animals intended for exportation should be younger than 
two years of age nor older than four. 

As the goats required for breeding purposes must be of the purest 
breed and perfect in every respect, and as such goats are generally 
found in the possession of well-to-do farmers who will not easily part 
with the animals, it is somewhat difficult to state what the exact cost 
would be, but judging from the prices paid hitherto, I should say that 
£8 sterling woilld be the average cost in Asia Minor. For some 
more would have to be paid, for others less. Fancy prices are often 
asked for best stud rams, and the Cape farmer who visited the conn- 
try in 1878 paid as much as £18 for one or more fine specimens. It 
is no economy to buy cheap goats, as such animals would not be 
thoroughbred and would never give satisfaction. This lias been dearly 
proved over and over again by those who bought cheap animals and 
exported them to the Cape. 

The following extract from the letter of a celebrated breeder of An- 
gora goats, substantiates my statement. He says, writing from the 
Cape: 

Q«od, refillj gooil goats ara qnite as scarce Id Turkey as they are here, and the 
Tnrka are, if aiijthinK, more loath to part with them than wo are. It took me with 
two agents a whole ilsj's hard work to bay one goat, and in spite of that I had t«paj 
« long price for him. 



THE ANGK>RA GOAT. 
Anether &nner, who boagbt a ram imported from Turkey, writes : 



My advise to all intending importera ie tfaat they should not limit the 
price to a ponnd or two, bnt pay such a figure as will secnre the very 
choicest goats. 

COST OP TRANSPOBT TO OONBTANTraOPLB. 

The cost of bringing the goat« from the iuterior of Asia Minor to the 
capital is email. If the weather is fine they can be driven down in a 
month, and tbe only charge would be tbe wages of the shepherdB. The 
only other meauB of traosport la by mnles, each male carry tng two goats. 
This method of transport is of coarse more expensive, bat in tbe win- 
ter it is necessary. The cost of transport in any ease would not exceed 
16*. per head. 

HOW TO IHPOBT THB GOATB INTO THB UNITED BTATBB. 

If tfa6 nnmber to be imported Is large and sufficient to allow of the 
expense, I wonld certainly advocate the fitting up of a steamship, either 
at some port of the United States or at Constantinople, for the express 
purpose of carrying goats. Should, however, the nomber of animals 
be small they would have to be shipped by steamer to Liverpool and 
thence to New York or Boston, unless there sboald be a vessel in the 
port of Constantinople at the time sailing directfor the United (States, 
as was the case upon several occasions, when large qaantities of arms 
were exported from the States, and the steamships, after discharging 
their cargoes, returned thereto. The goats might also be sent by sail- 
ing vessels, but, should the voyage be a protracted one, and the weather 
very boisterous, tbe risk would be great and the goats migb t suffer con- 
siderably. 

FITTING UP THE EXPORT VESSELS. 

The vessel should be well provided with pens, built expressly for tbe 
animals. These pens should be placed upon tbe upper deck and 'tween- 
decks, tbe lower hold being reserved for the fodder necessary for the 
animsle daring the voyage. Each pen should be made to contains 
goats, say 6 feet lon^ and 4 feet in width, and provided with a feed- 
ing-box the whole width of the pen, but so arranged that while the goat 
can feed with ease out of the box, it cannot get its feet into the trough, 
for if the food is trodden upon the goat will not ea4: it. The pens on 
the upper deck should be provided with slanting roofs, and all tbe pens 
should be raised from the decks at least 4 iuchee, to allow of the free 
passage of water underneath in case of seas being shipped, or of the 
decks being washed. The flooring of tbe pens should be perforated 
with small holes to allow tbe water or urine to pass off at once; and 
lastly, the vessel should be well anpplied with water-tanks, and means 
of ventilating the ^tween-decks. 

COST OP ODPOBTmO GOATS INTO THE UNITED STATES. 

To tbe first cost of the animals would have to be added freight from 
Constantinople to Liverpool, 308., movable pens, lOg.^ fodder, shep- 
herds, inspection fees, &c., 16s., and freight from Liverpool to the 
UDitea States, say, £3 per goat, or a total of £6 16s., per head, 



8 THE ANGORA GOAT. 

which, if added to the first cost, would bring the total to £L3 10«. But 
to be on the safe side and allow for losses daring the voyage aud unfore- 
seen expenses, it woald be well to put the average cost at £16. per goat 
delivered in the United States. This cost is based upon the sapposi- 
tion that the number of goats to be imported is small, and wonJd have 
to be shipped via Liverpool. Should the number be large and sufficient 
to allow of a vessel being chartered for the purpose, the exi>ense of 
ft«ight would be lessened, as the steamer might take a certain quantity 
of cargo in her lower bold, the space not being wholly required for fod- 
der. The regular mail-boats are not allowed to carry live goats firom 
Liverpool, so that small numbers would have to be shipped by one of . 
the irregular st«'amers. The writer has had experience in the shipment 
of small numbers of goats to the United States, and knows that they 
cannot be delivered at a less cost than £15 per head. 

OABE OF OOATB DCKING THB TOTAOE. 

The goats, having been got safely on board the vessel, should be 
placed in the pens, not more than three to a pen, rams and ewes sepa- 
rately ; and this having been accomplished, the daily routine will begin. 
Thoae in care of the animals must feed them three times a day, early 
in the morning, at noon, and in the evening. The quantity of hay oon- 
sumed by each goat per day is about 3 pounds, but they should not 
be stinted, and the shepherds should see that the feeding-boxes are well 
supplied. Water must be given to each goat once a day; five goats 
will drink about a gallon of water. Twice a week a handful of oats or 
barley must be given to eacb goat, care to be taken that no water is 
supplied immediately after the oats. The pens must be cleaned out 
every day, aud a little hay x)ut at the bottom of each pen for the ani- 
mals to lie upon. If any goat becomes sick or weak during the voyiige, 
it should be placed in a separate pen and be carefhlly tended. In 
flue weather the goats should be takeu out of the pens and allowed to 
roam the decks for an hour or two. A little salt should be placed in 
the feeding-boxes, as the goats are very fond of it, and it tends to keep 
them in good health. 

Assuming that the voyage from Constantinople to New York would 
occupy 40 days, the following would be the supplies necessary for every 
hundred goats : 20 tons of hay, 60 bushels of oats and barley, 1,OOU 
gallons of water, 60 pounds of salt. 

All these supplies can be obtained in Constantinople. 

SEASOIf FOR SHIPPma. 

The goats may be shipped from Constantinople between the months 
• of September and February, when the hair is of fair length, and the 
breed of the animals can be distinguished. It would, however, be ad- 
visable to have them shipped as early in the season as possible, say in 
Oclober or November, so as to avoid the severe gales which prevail in 
the Atlantic during the winter. The largest shipments to the Cape 
were made in the months of November and February. 

PBOHIBITION OF BXPOBIS. 

After the last shipment ofgoats to the Cape in 1880, the Turkish Gov- 
ernment prohibited the export of Angora goate. This was done in le- 
spoDse to a petition on the subject sent in by the native dealers in mohaiTf 



THE ANOOBA GOAT. 9 

vUo became alarmod at the rapid development of the iodastry at the 
G&pe, whicbtbey supposed was the cause of the depreciation in the value 
of mohair. Tlie true cause of the depreciation ha« been mentioned under 
tlie heading of *^ Export and price of mohair." 

This prohibition had nominall; been in force for many years, and was 
in reality only renewed in 1880, but lite all other governmental edicta 
in this country, it can be overcome, and need not stand in the way of 
intending importera. Some small outlay may have to be made to ob- 
tain a permit for exportation. Shortly after the prohibition the writer 
had s permit of esportation offered to him for 2,000 goats. The safest 
way, however, would be to apply for a permit through the minister of 
the United States, who would no doubt obtain it. 

As to the probabilities or possibilities against as well as in fkvor of 
the importing of Angora goats into the United States, it is impossible 
to say more than is embodied in this report. Intending importers can 
judge from the remarks made whether the industry would be a saccess 
or not. The climate, food, and all the requisites for Angora goat-breed- 
ing are to be found in the United States. I can simply supplemetit my 
report by the following extract from a letter written by a farmer in the 
State of Illinois, who imported a few Angora goats. Writing on the 
9th of December, 1880, he says : 

The gotU kre fat and appear to be !□ good health, and I koovr of no reaaoB why 
tliBf ahonld not be bred here sDcceBafally and prolitablj. 

G. H. HEAP, 

Consul- OeneraL 
(Tnited States GoN8ui.ATs;-QBNEiBAL, 

Constantinople, April 10, 1883. 



Pta-lUmlara of a $aU of Angtnt goat* at Ikt Cape of Good Sop«. 

PrlMieallied. 

Wild Blood £850 

Wrertlsr 160 

Forert Enler 90 

Commandei-iii-iihief B5 

Sea] Bearer 85 

Judge 75 

OoremoT-GeiMVal 75 

FvTTj Coat 75 

Citadel 70 

Colonel 65 

Winioi. 60 

Bnlar 60 

Lightning. 55 

Moaptain KiDg .50 



Ti(w-- - 

Anatoorat. 

Aubaamdor. 

Bevenne Officer. . . 

Knight 

Warward 



KlTerFleeee.. 

Ubertine 

PaMhrnl.. 



.IzedbyGoOgIc 



AMEBICAN TBADE IK MADAGASCAR. 



Priot reatlMd. 

Mottled Hose £75 

Diamond „ ,. 45 

Emerald 46 

P»nw 45 

Poarly 45 

Hyftcbth.: 45 

Star 35 

Handsome ,' 38 

Fleasnre 36 

Also foor rame without namea which realised 435 

Andfonrewee 890 



AHEBIGAH TRADE IS HASAOABCAB. 

REPORT BT TlOSOOlfBUI' JTSITITXY. 

I inclose to you herewith the required "retam of trade" between the 
United States and this port, and the " retam of navigation, " for the six 
months ending December 31, 18S2. 

The "retuFD of trade" shows that the imports amoauted to (207,409.82, 
and the exporte to 4257,4S8.M. Besides the imiiorts as shown by the 
retaro, American mannfactnres to the amount of abont $40,700 were 
brought i^m the United States, via Hamburg, in German vessels for a 
German boase. The total exports sent to the United States, as shown 
by the return, amounted to $267,488.54. Of this amount •140,763.53 
went in American bottoms, and the balance ($116,725.17) went by Eng- 
lish and French steamers, via Europe. 

As always before, the imports from the United States consisted largely 
of domestics, the value of all other articles being only $39,840.20. 

The " return of navigation " shows that the total nnmber of arrivals 
ftnd departures of all nationalities was 237 (116 arrivals and 121 depart- 
ures.) Of the arrivals 8 were men-of-war (steam) ; merchantmen, 108 j 
aggregate tonnage, 19,951 — by nationality, as follows: 2 American 
(sail), 1,297 tons ; 59 British (7 steam and 52 sail), 6,077 tons ; 40 French 
(19 Rteam and 21 sail), 10,864 tons ; 4 Oerman (sail), 1,102 tons ; 3 Nor- 
wegian (sail), 601 tons. Of these vessels 46 werecoant«rs that trade on 
this coast, and one steamer (mail) that calls bimonthly. 

American trade at this port contiuaes to hold Its own, and it is not 
excelled by any other except, perhaps, by British. 

Herewith inclosed please find the report of trade on the southwest 
coast of Madagascar by Consular Agent Stanwood, of Andakabe. 

B. M. WHITMBT, Viee-Gonsul. 

United States Gonsclate, 

TamattMfd, F^ruary 19, 1883. 



^dbyGoOgle 



AMERICAN TRADE IN HADAOA8CAB. 



ArtlQiM. 


1^^ 1 


Exports 


Amount 1 Tahie. Amonnt 


Valne. 




3, MS tier, sas «s 

a.B0O 28.UO00 

100,000 0,390 00 

%M0 ' 2,80030 

700 700 00 

2 1,00000^ 




































BMd^ nmij»lbbto.,lildepolMii,7pka...«ndIcMe 










2B7,tS8 

Si 


"glSSS 






















207,400 82 1 




"•«"» 



AXXaiCAH nUBB IN KADAQABCAB-CoBtinntd. 

a.— TRA-DK ON- 'I-HK S0XJTH"WH;ST COAST. 

BSPOSJ BT OOKBULAM AQBUT BIANWOOD. 

In compiling thia report I have had the same difficalties to eocoauter 
as explained in my last, viz, a positive refusal to give any information 
in some quarters, and in others giving answers so glaringly false that to 
qnoto them wonld be alxsurd. There are only two places where dnties 
are ooUected by the Hovae, and at these no records are kept, and 
emnggltng and bribery would render them valueless if they were. 

I seud herewith the invoices of the shipments made direct to the 
United States, bnt mnst add that there is a constant communication by 
boat with Maintyrano (Sakalava port, no dnties), and I cannot tell how 
mncb may have been shipped coastwise, for obvious reasons. Thevol- 
ome ol trade has been larger this year than for either of tbe five pre- 
ceding years, but most of it has gone as usual into English and French 
bands. • 

Two cargoes of fine wood have been shipped from here, tbe particu- 
lu« of which were previouHly sent. Other exports have been of the 
nsoal articles, as the extreme difBculty of getting samples forwarded, 
and, if they are sent, the almost impossibility of obtaining any informa- 
tion as to their fate, discourages those who are in a position to do so 
from endeavoring to bring forward any new articles. 

It is much to be regretted that there is not a large American house 
on this coast, independent of Mussulman interests or any foreign infln- 
eDce whatever, which wonld take a little pains to find out what articles 
were worth handling, and push them. 

The consular commercial reports are iiiU of extracts, quotations, &c., 
to prove the superiority of American manufactures. It appears to me 
that the want is American merchants. I have seen many countries, but 
never one where the general superiority of American manufactures was 
not admitted: but it would seem that the American merchant, although 
bolstered up by this admitted superiority, is still unequal to the task of 
competiug with the English merchant, especially in thia country. The 
reasons are not fax to seek, and I have no hope of any improvement 
antil a new house with large resources conies here. Thero is ample room, 
and the Hovas would be delighted to welcome a house of the style <n 



12 AHEBICAN TRADE IS HADAGA8CA&. 

Messrs. Holmes & Oo., and tbere ia no doubt but that if saoli an estab- 
lishmeat were here tSiey would, as before, simply " walk over the 
coarse." 

IMPOBTS. 

There has been an increase in the imports of American brown sheet- 
ings, which are the only American cotton goods imported here, bat a 
large proportion of the trade being Sakalava, the amoant of Balemporeg 
prints, iiaitation Muscat cloths, handkerchiefs, &c., is large as compared 
vith the brown sheetings, bright colors being in demand for this class 
of trade. All colored goods are English, French, or Bombay manufact- 

la cutlery there has been the usual trade in axes, hatchets, &e,, and 
an invoice of kaives of the inauufaoture of the Meriden Cutlery Com- 
pany, which came here early in the year, were so much superior to the 
ordinary t'Tade articles that they sold readily at extreme prices, and I 
am informed that several orders for more have gone forward. 

Crockery holds its own, as the new country which is beiug opened le 
absorbing considerable. Hardware is also iu demand for the country 
trade, and is readily bought at good prices. In a recent jonrney of sev- 
eral hundred miles in the Betsileo and Ebara countries I only saw one 
iron cooking pot. and this in the bouse of a Hova preacher, who had 
brought it from Autanauarivo, and iu one town of considerable size a 
common iron tea kettle was esbibited on the table in the house of the 
head man as an article of ornament. 

A determined effort is being made to open a regular trade with these 
rich districts from this coast, and there is no doubt of its ultimate snc- 
cess, although these people are slow to move. Several of the governors 
of the interior towuR are taking hold of the matter with a keen interest, 
which is a powerful factor in its favor. The pripicipal difficulty has 
been carriers. The recent trouble with Zetalee frij^htened the country 
, people nearly to the point of imbecility, and they would not undertake 
a journey at all nnless there was a white man with them. Considering 
his whole force was only seventy men, it would seem easy to take care 
of him. He is now reported to have gone to TuUear, and joined Lay- 
tnerisa. This, coupled with the advent of six hundred soldiers and a 
new commander, will, it is hoped, improve matters materially. 

Kerosene oil, — A small quantity of this was landed, ex Sicilian, in 
April : and there are imports also from South Africa, and some 
brought coastwise from Kossi-be ; but uo one has thought it worth while 
to bring a serviceable lamp at a reasonable price, t4 to (4.60 each be- 
ing the usual charge for a lamp. This kills the trade in oil." Early in 
this year the natives attempted to nse it with " korauna" lamps, and 
the result was an explosion, one woman burned to death and the other 
two inmates of the bouse being badly burned and narrowly escaping 
with life ; while the fire caused by it consumed about 60 houses, and at 
one time it looked as if a clean sweep of every building in the place 
Tould be the resujt. Of course this has given kerosene a set back with 
natives. But the real reason lies in the fact that no safe lamps within 
ordinary native means could be had. Ko matter if the lamps are out of 
&8hion at home, if a reasonable degree of safety can be had and a mod- 
erate price the natives will bay both lamps and oil ; while as it is the oil 
is not in demand for want of lamps to use it with. 

Miscellaneous articles of every description will sell here if seen. 11- 
lustrated catalogues and " taking" advertiaemeuts so advantageous in 



^dbyGOOgle 



AMEBICAS HEATS IN GBBMANT AND FBANCE. 13 

other coantries, are DOt the slightest uee. They convey no impression 
to the native mind ; and while any article that pleases them is bought 
(by barter) at an extravagant price, no amonnt of explanation will give 
them any idea from an illnstration ; it has no meaning to them ; it is 
simply a " taratasy " (paper), and no more. Any honse having direct 
commnnicatiOD with the United States could do well in theue lines if 
reasonable at the oatset. The tendency is, however^ I regret to say, to 
strangle a new trade at its birth by stnpendous prices, 200 per cent, 
profit being by no means unasnal for tbeee outside articles. 

Coin. — Of late there have been calls from Hovas for American and 
English gold in exchange for dollars in small sumti, and as I write a 
Hova from Maliambandy wishea to exchange $250 in silver for Ameri- 
can gold. This is the largest amonnt in any one snm that I have heard 
of yet; bnttriflingasit is, it shows progress in the right direction, when 
it is considered that two years ago they wonld not have it on any terms. 

All dollars now pass current here at equal values ; Mexican dollars, 
and Greek, French, and Italian five-franc pieces being the currency. 
VICTOR F. W. STAKWOOD, 

Consular Agent, 

Fmitkd States Consular Aoenot, 

AndaJcabe, December 30, 1S82. 



COKSUHFnOir OF AHEBICAH KEATS IV GEBHAHT ASD FBAHCE. 

XBFOST BY CONSUL BTBUART, OF ANTWERP. 

In the March number of the American Mail and Export Journal I 
nad with mnch interest an article entitled, the '^Pork question a^ain," 
bat it contains the following erroneous comparison regarding Belgium, 
to which I wish to call attention and to correct, as it weakens the force 
of the argameiit by greatly underrating the importance of Germany and 
France in oor foreign iwrk trade. 

The author gives a table of exports of American pork prodncts dur- 
ing the fiscal year ended 3d June, 1882, and adds : 

It will be Men bj the foicgoiQic tbat tbe coDSumptioD of Amerioan pork prodnote, 
ontflide of lard, ia 0«rnian]' and Frauce is inBlgDiGcant, both conntries uot «onmim- 
ing one-balf of tbat of Belgium aloDe. 

The mistake he makes is in assnming that the total importation into 
Belginm is consumed io Belgium, whereas it is merely in transit, and 
from 75 to 80 per cent, of the bacon and lard coming from the United 
States into Antwerp is sold to and consumed iu Germany ; and the same 
eomparisOD might have been made, In regard to American hams, with 
France, as before her prohibition decree Antwerp had a large trade 
with Northern France in that article. But the consumption of Ameri- 
can pork in Belgium is very trifling as compared with Germany and 
France. 

Antwerp acts as the broker for a great part of Enrope, and the large 
importations find their way here simply because this is the best market 
and the best distributing point on the continent. 

Since 1880 the Imports of American meat have fallen off greatly on 
account of the continned high prices ruling in America, bat the amonnt 
imported into Antwerp during 1882, as shown by the table herewith 
inclosed, had a valne of more than {6,000,000 ; and it is this large inter- 
est tbat makeB the dealers beie watoh with anxiety the action taken by 



14 



AMERICAN GOODS IN JAVA. 



tbe European Governments affecting tliis interest, and also to sen what, 
if anything, is to be done by oar QoTernment. 

I have called attention a nomber of times, and do again here, to tbe 
fact that American meat has its value on this market as an article of 
barter and not as an article of cousumption. Therefore, Belgium being a 
kind of transit depot, the heavy importation here tends to increase and 
not dimiDish the importance of Germany and France, for they are the 
recipients and consnmers; they are very important to oar foreign p()rk 
trade, and their absence will be felt when we again have a large surplns 
crop at home. 

I hopn to see these arbitrary prohibition decrees kept in view, for it 
is a qnestion affecting not meat alone, but msy be extended with eqnal 
jostice or injastice to any other of oar products that may stand in their 
way. 

The sanitary plea is, of coarse, an invention without reason and with- 
out truth. If the (Jermans will insist upon eating raw pork, they are 
entitled t« no sympathy for any consequence arising therefrom ; and as 
for France, in a question of endangering tbe public health, so long as 
we continue to import and drink her so-called wines and brandies, she 
would have greatly the advantage of us if all her ports were thrown 
open to oar pork even if it should be really much worse than they claim 
it to be. 

JOHN H. STEUART, 

GonsuL 

United States Consulate, 

Antwerp, April 12, 1883. 



tntport of baoo* and iard into Anlaorp, 1 



Total tbIdh, ■£,!««,>». 



Montlu. 


B«o». 


H^n... 


i^. 


I*rd. 


L.rtL 




]B,8M 

m 
m 

■■s 

1.260 

an 


SeatM. 

i 

au 
3<a 

132 

MO 
ITO 


■■g 


Otrt 

i.S 


























































•i,-ne,m 


mtao 


f2.8M,aM 


*3S4,M3 


«32,U2 





IHFOBTB 01* AKEAIC&S OOOSS nTTO 7AVA. 

REPORT By COSBVL HATFIELD. OF BATAYIA. 

la the hope that it may prove of some slight service in giving mer- 
chants at home an idea of the status iu this island, I beg to refer to the 
following conceroing the import trade here: 

The only article of Aotohci^ manafoctore which can be said to be 



AMEEICAN GOODfi IN JAVA. 15 

"imported" into Java is petroleum, and of tliis tbere la no dearth ; oii 
the uoQtraiy too much oil has lieen brought here. In Soerabaya alone 
a stock of some half a million of cases is stored, and the natural reault 
is, and has been for some time past, a low range of values, which shows 
no immediate prospect of much improvement, thougli powerful and 
wealthy syndicates are doing all they can to maintain prices. They 
lately raised their price to (2.14 per case of 10 gallons, retail. 

I trust soon to be able to send the Departmeiit my statistics and a 
report regarding this business, and defer further solution of it until 
then. 

I have heard much more, I am glad to say, during the past year of 
American manufactures than hitherto, and have also »een more of such 
goods exposed for sale. 

There is no donbt whatever in my own mind that, with a regulated 
means of supplying their wants, many import houses in this citv and ■ 
throughout Java would draw a portion of their Bupplies from the 
United States. I have been J^old so in more than one case, and see do 
reason to donbt the statement. 

With the difficulties and heavy expense and chances of damage, &c., 
incurred by transshipment of cargo via England or Holland, such as 
now take place, people, even if t^ey know what they ,want, naturally 
hesitate. 

Another fact of m< ment, which may perhaps seem remarkable, is that 
many, yes, very many, foreign merchants have but a faint idea, if any, 
of what American manufactures are tike, 

I make this statement with the knowledge that it may be sharply 
queried, but after the exhibitions of surprise and admiration I have 
seen betrayed at such samples of our workmanship as have been brought 
to Java, I can no longer donbt that this is the case. 

To any one familiar with the neatness, appearauce, lightness, and 
strength of the product of American factories and workshops, compared 
with the work sent out from many European (e8i)eciaUy German) mills, 
the troth of what I have stated cannot but be patent. 

It may be assumed as moderately certain that, notwithstanding all 
the difflcnltfes caused by a want of properly organized and subsidized 
ateam service between New York and the far East, a good business 
could be built up if purchasers could be shown samples. It is cer- 
tainly a pity that firms in the United States, who seem so ready to con- 
sign goods to Central and South America and other places, pay so 
little attention to Java. 

I can only recommend this. It is useless in the far East to expect a 
foreign merchant to order goods itom the United States when he has 
such a faint idea of what be may receive, sometimes no idea at all. I 
have heard importers here remark that if they o»Iy had a sample, or 
people at home would only make a small consignmeut, they would will- 
ingly send orders and money if a market could be found. 

It seems strange certainly that the enterprising business men of the 
United States should hesitate so long at this. In Qreat Britain and on 
the Continent firms regularly do this business; and it is a known fact, 
in Java at least, that a portion of the import trade is carried on by 
hoipses who by no means order all they sell ; they have a number of 
consignments on accounts which supply many goods. 

Petroleum vessels are constantly coming to Java, and thoagb they do 
Dot all come to Batavia, it would, I should imagine, be worth while try- 
ing this way of shipment, and transship via local steamers to this x'ort 



,iz.db Google 



16 AMERICAN GOODS IN JATA. 

&om Samarang or Soerabaya. If thU or somethiug very li&e it is not 
done, it will, I fear, be a long time before the tJnited States do much 
export trade with Java. 

OSCAR HATFIELD, 

Consul, 
Umitbd States Conhulate, 
Batavia, Ifov. 29, 188'j. 



APP8KDIX TO COVSUL EimKLD'S KEFOBT. 

For the proper appreciation of the value of the foreign commeroe of 
Java, the following extract from the letter of the Secretary of State 
(Commerce of the world and the share of the United States therein) is 
given as an appendix to Consul Hatfield's report : 

FORBIGM COMMERCB OF DUTCH INDIA. 

Tbe foTBigu tiade of the Dutch East Indies ciar only be reaotaed, in the abaenee of 
all other returns, either ooiisnlar, colonial, or by TMearoh, thronirh the retanis of tbe 
principal countnea having commercial iuterooarae therewith. This research gives 
the following resnlte ; 





of Daleh India for tk« ytar 1880-'81. 


Piinotp*! canDtriM. 


Import*. 


Ecporta. 




400.000 


fM, 00.00* 






'ii 

»,7».000 












■SSS 






I,»0.000 








u, on. 000 

■84)tOM 


BT.OOIOOO 
3,000.000 










llS,WEi,000 


M.M2,00C 





The foregoing statement, as compiled from outside oflSoial pnbl I cations, may be 
relied upon as being a very close estimate of the foreign trade of Duteh India for the 
year 188a 

Sngar, oolfee, and tobacco constitute more than three-fonrths of the exports of 
Dutch India. 

The principal portion of the sugar is exported to Holland, Great Britain, France, 
and the United States. 

The chief portion of the tobacco ie exported to Hollaod ; the same may be said of 
the coffee. Next to Holland the United States receives the largest quantity of coffee 
therefrom. 

The import* of the D|it«h Eaet Indies consist of n large assortment of manufactures 
and prodnce, of which tbe followiiiB are the principal articles : Cotton niaDufactures, 
rice, wonlfn goods, silk goods, earthenware, drugs and medioines, provisious (priuci- 
pnlly butter, hams, cheese, linb, Halted and preserved meats, &c.), machinery and im- 
pletuents, yarn, distilled spirits, glassware, jewelry ; iruu and steel and manufactures 
of; coal; copper and bronze anil maniifHcturesofi leather and manufactures of; meal, 
mineral waters, modes and fiifliions, petroleurn, opium, cigars, lard, tea, tinware, wines, 
&c. 

The imports of cotton niaunfi (■tnres into Dutch India amouuttoat least $15,000,000, 
and are received principally from the following countries: 

From Great Britain |6, TOO, 000 

From Holland 6.070,000 

From Straits SettlomeufH 1,880,000 

From France " 95,000 

From United States. _ "■- 8,000 

Total fhiinronndiea ey^ ^t*i i H,TC3,000 

.■,-..ii..,C<.x>^[c 



AMERICAN GOODS IN JAVA. 17 

Adding the exports from the Straits Settlements, and soch of the exports from Hol- 
land u are Britiab gooiU. to the exports from Great Britain, and^ wlU be soon that 
Enjitish oottoDB control the markets of Dutch India. 

The details of the trade of the principal conntries with Dutch India are given ia 
the following statements, to which should be added the inoieased value in the exports 
on their arrival in Dirtch India; 

Exparti frotn Holland. — Cotton manufactures, 15,600,000; iiOQ And manufacturu 
of, tl,690,u00; wearing apparel, mercery, hemp manufaotares^ silk goods, woolen 
goods, paper, steel and manufactures of, steam machinery and agncultoral imptemetitfi, 
distilled spirits, woolen and cotton yams, glassware, meal, inetrumentfl, copper mau- 
niaoturee, oils, tobacco man afac Cures, tinware, &:a. Total 91T,4U0.OO0. 

Exportt from the Straiti Settlemeitl) to Dutch India. — The principal exports from the 
Straits Settlements to Dutch India consist of wearing apparel (priucipally English], 
beeewax, bread and biscuit, cabinet ware (English), cotton manufactures (English), 
earthenware (English^ fish, dried and salted, eambier, sl^ssware (.Eaeiisil), flour, 
rice, ninnies, jewelry, boots and shoes (English), machinery (Engtisb), matches 
^English), mediGines (English), copper ware, hardware and cutlerv (English), iron and 
ironware (EniFlish), keroseae (American), opium, paints (English), paper (Eoglieh), 
provisions, silk and silk goods, spirits, tea, tobacco and cigars, umbrellas, woolen 
goods, &c. Total exports, $14,723,000. 

Inporta into Fi-anee frmn Dulct Jadia, 1880. 



Snmr, r«w I »6,65S,0«XI I •S.SW.W 

Coffee I MS.OOO MO.M 

Indi-o I 2*8.1)00 I 

Pewter, CTodo HI. 000 ■ 



«Sera 



■rtiolea B1,W)0 ] 

Total .'...-■ e, TOO, 000 ' 

ExporU fram Franot to Daloh India, 1880. 



Silk DUunirKdiref 

Wwl muafHtar«a 

Brandiee. cplrJU, and liqi 
PolteiTf, k'***' — ■" " 



"^'rtaiet'ta •kid ud I^Utaer i. 

JewlerT Jo ffoldand platlimm ... 

DTHued hidM 



In^orta info Great BHIain from DhUA India. 

















Bg,000 


















8, ■70,000 









AHEaiCAN GOODS IN JA.TA. 
Btgaerli from Gr»at Britain to Dutch India. 



AiiiiUm. 


ira. 


laa.. 


BRITUB COOM. 


Ml, WW 

ass 

W),0« 
StB,«H 

Ma, 000 

17% ODD 
138,000 

smIooo 

110,000 

is; 000 

010,000 


«»>,00« 








3(»,0M 

S,43^00» 


Cottinw; 










5^C-' 






118.000 

n&ooo 

n.oo« 
ist.oo« 


VM^U: 


St.,,^iS'iS; 






*^;zz:::.:::::;::::;::z:z;::::::::::::;:;:;:;:::: 




















tOUDSIt DOODI. 


17.000 


S 








m,ooo 








«^000 












8,0«S.OO0 


e.«e,ooe 





IniBorlt /hna Z}tiiek liuUa.—Free of duty : Coffee, >4,TOZ,000 ; guma, (76,000 ; liidDa, 
$100,000; woods, $60,000; tin, $40,000; eeaential oils, $35; indigo, and all other lirti- 
olea, $93,000; total fi«e of dnty,$5,OT6,000. DuliabU ii»poTtt : Hemp, $203,000 ; epices, 
$234,000; eugor, $1,716,000; all otber dutiable articles, $10,000; toUl dotiable, 
$2,154,000. Total imports, free and datiftble, $7,250,000. 

Exptartt to Dulek India.— Oat of a total direct export to Dutch India of $1,730,000, 
kerosene amounta to $1,670,000, leading onlj $60,000 for all oUiei articies, consisting 
of Bmoll lots of oottone, wooden ware, perfamorf , &a. It thus appeare that our direct 
exporta to Dutch India consist almost entirely of the single article of kerosene. 

Not only is onr trade proper with Dutch India against us, but the oarriace thereof 
is equally against. Of the total imports, foreign veaaels bronght $6,371,000, and 
American TBsaels $£179,000 ; of tt|.e exports, foreign vessels carried $673,000, auii Ameri- 
can vesHels $1,057,000. It happens here, as in onr trade with all other parts of Attia, 
as well as with Sonth America: Foreign ships carry European manufactures out, and 
on their return take cargoes for the United States, loading here with provisions and 
breadstnffa for Enrope ; there they load up again with manufactures for Asia, Africa, 
or South America. Always bringing us tne raw materials, but never takiug away 
any of onr manufactures I* 



idb,Googlc 



INDIAN VS. AMERICAN WHEAT. 



DTDUH VS. AKEKICAV WHEAT. 

XmPOST BY OOyBUli-daSSRAL KATTSOX, or OALOVTTA. 

The financial Btatement of India for lS83-'84, by tbe honorable E. Bar'- 
ling, minister of flnaDce, contains an interesting chapt«r, VII, on the 
wheat trade, with special reference to Indian competitioD with Americao - 
Theftt in the markets of Enrope, which I have the honor to inclose. 

H. MATTSOU, 

Contul-Qmeral^ 
United States Consulate General, 

Calcutta. March 19, 1863. 



THE WHEAT TRADE OF INDIA. 

fiTATSMKNT BT THE BONOIUBLB X. BAIIRIMG, MINISTER O 

[InclonuwloCoDiDlUattwHi'arepon.] 



1£>7. Thia trade may, for oil practical pnrposeB, be said U> date firom the year 1973r 
when the export duty was removed. In 18BI~'y2 nearly a million tons (19,B63,I>30 cwt. > 
wei« exported. The export during the (current year (lSS2-'83) will probably be abont 
14,000,000 cwt. — a figure which, althongh below. the exceptionally large nxport of 
laSl^EQ, is still 100 per cent, in eioeaa of that of Ig80->B1. The great atnries made in 
this tnde daring the lut few years are to a great extent dne to railway extensioiiH in 
India and, so far ae the great exports of ISSl-'SS ore ooucemed, to deficient crops in 
the United States. 

158. For aUpmctical pnrposee it may be said that the whole of the Indian wheat 
trade ia with Europe. In ie81-'82oDly310,000cwt.ont of 19,^63,000 cwt. weresbipped 
to other than European mBTltet«, The largest market for Indian wheat — ils for moat 
of the other staple products of India — is England. Oat of the total qaantity exported 
in 1881-'82 England took nearly oue-balf, and han taken abont the same proportion 
dniing the eoirent year. France took 6,306,000 owt. last year (la81-'82), and has this 
yew (leea-'SS) taken over 3,000,000 owl. out of the 11,828,000 cwt. already exported. 
Indian wheat also goes to Selgiam, Holland, Italy, and Egypt- But Bhiputents to 
Egypt are only nominally for that country. Ships go to Port Said "for orders," and 
the exports recorded in onr trade retorns as going to Egypt are mostly intended for 
•onM continental market. 

150. Thet«tslprodnctiouof wheat in the United Kingdom iseetlmated by Sir Jadea 
Caird at 13,000,000 quarters, or rather over 63,000,000 cwt. (2,650,000 tons). The 
yield is said by Sir James Caird to be decreasing. He estimates that from 1ST3 tolBTT 
tbe average yield was 2^ quarters to the acre, and In 1S79 not more than 2 qaarters. 
In former yeara the yield has reached 3^ quarters and more to the acre. He thinks 
that there is a decrease in fertility. The area under wheat is also diminishing, and 
land is being need for more profitable crops, for dairy farming, for grasing, and for 
narket-gardening. Looking to the increased population and to the general tendency 
to devote land to other uses than the srowtb of wbeat. it may be anticipated that the 
demand for wheat in England from other conntries will increase in the future. 

160. Doriog the calendar year 1882 the English market was supplied with wheat 
from abroad to the extant shown in the followmg table : 

Cwt. 
9,571, (Bl 



Turkey and Bonmania 721,030 

Chili ,. : : 1,656,361 

Aaatralia i S, 47S, 127 

British North Amerioa 2,684,82* 

Utited States , 35,069.623 



^dbyGoogle 



20 INDIAN VS. AMEEICAN WHEAT. 



ES'!:: 



Cwt 

174,888 

* 8, 477,4» 

Otlier couDtricB 267, S70 

Total , 64, 171, 632 

ISl. Inadilitinnti) tbisftinoQQt of whent vheat-fiourtntbe exteut onSjOiSfVOScwt. 
v»n Htipplind to the English market from foTeifpi countries duriag the year 1H83, of 
which the United Stalos fumtsbed 7,777,363 cwt. 

162. TbH tolnl iiuports uf wheat and wheat-flour were, therefore, 77,200,337 cwt., 
«f which the United States supplied nearly 43,000,000, cwt., or about 56 per cent, of the 
whole. It is clear, therefore, that theUiiit4!a States is thetnost formidable rival with 
which India baa to compete in the supply of wheat to the English market. Wbeat-floor 
lias not as yet been exjiortod trooi India. 

IfiS. In this competition the United Statoe possesses many natural advantages ov^ 
India, which are, however, to some extent counterbalanced by one important diiad- 

164. Looking first to the advantages, it is certain that the United States can supply 
& much larger total quantity of wheat (or export than can be supplied by India. Sir 
James Caird, addresaing the Statistical Society on November 15, 1381, said : 



ingle vear the United St.at«i increased their acreage by an extent equal to 
ur (the English) t«f.al growth. In the twenty years fi^m 1840 to 1B60 their wheat 
iroduetion rose irom 10,000,000 to 30,000,000 quarters. In the twenty years Aom 
U60 to 1860 it grew from 30,000,000 to 60,000,000 quarters, and their extent of good 
wheat laud is practically unlimited. Tbo two great corn products of that country are 
—•--' -i Indiar ' ^ ^. -^ - . — ,-,..■ , ... . 



Europe generally, will become increasingly dependent on America, and the price of 
wheat here will be chiefly ruled by the production there." 

165. In the statistical abetract of the United States for 1881 it is stated that in 18H0 



I under wheat was 37,986.717 acres, the total production amounting to 
S71,531,e24 owt., or over 63,000, 000 quarters (over 13,600,000 tons). 

166. It is difQcult to state accurately either tbe acreage under wheat in India or 
the tot*l outturn of the crop. Our agricultural statisticB are still very defective for 
most provinces, and there are none at all for Bengal. According to the fiKures given 
in the administration reports of the dilfi^reut provinces, there were, lu 18nl-'81, 
19,474,594 acres under wheat. These fiBuros are, however, inclusive of 1,000,000 acrei 
in Bengal, which is simply a guess, and is probably very wide of the mark. We shl^l 
probalilv not be far wrong if we take 31,000,000 as the total present acreage. The 
great wheat fields are in the Punjab, where also the quality is the best, the northwest 
provinces, Ondh, and the central provinces. Bombay, Berar, and Bengal also grow 
■wheat extensively, though in smaller quantity. 

167. The outturn per acre varies enormously according to the province and soil, and 
^according to whether the field is irrigated or not. Itisdifflcult to attain accuracy 
■on this point, but it would seem that for all India the average yield cannot be taken, 
■on a liberal estimate, at more than TOO pounds to tbe acre, which is less than half the 

Jroduce of English (from 1,500 to 1,600 pounds) and considerflbly less than that of the 
mercan wheat-fields (850 pouuds).1 At tiits rate of yield tbe total outturn would 
be about 6,500,000 tons, of which it may roughly be said that about 1,000,000 tons are 
STaJlable for export. 

168. The question of the extent to which the amount of wheat available for export 
could be increased without trenching on the food supply of the people or materially 
euhancing prices is one of great dilHculty. Sonic remarks bearing on the subject will 
be found Tu the Beport of the Famine Commissioners, Part I, paragraph 158. Some 
bigh authorities are of opinion that, under favorable conditions as regards the pros- 
pect of a market, it would be possible within a few years to double tbe amount of 
wheat available for export ; that is to say, to increase it to about 40,000,000 cwt. 
There can be no doubt that very large quantities of land are awaiting cultivation, 
especially in the Punjab, Burmah, Assam, and the central provinces, but, of course, 

* The low imports from Egypt were due to tbe war. The average imports froai that 
country to England are considerably higher than the figures given above. 

tin some places in America 25 bushels to the acre and more have been taken off an 
acre, but this qnanlityie greatly in excess of the average Yield. The average outturn 
in ISW for all tlie United States was 79!) pounds to the acre, but this was a small vield. 
In 1877, it wa8 848po\|nde. A yioldof 850ponnds tothescreisprcbablva fair general 
average. 

As regards ^he figure given above forlndia (700 pounds) it is to be borne inmiudthat 
it purports to give the averacf, .ield P^r acre. In some districts the yield is ccr- 
t«^ in Bicess of Ibis Igure, L>j pp all irrigated land, the yield U largely in exceM 

DiclzedbyGoOgle 



INDUN VS. AMERICAN WHEAT. 21 

a good deal of this land is not saitnble for tbe cnltivation of whe&t. In the eaBtera 
4lBlr<otB of tbe central provincea the new linM of railway will now open oat a veiT' 
lat^ tract of wheat-prodncing conntry, which np to the present time baa been □□»- 
Ue to Qnd a market for ita aorplna prtHlaoe, owing to defective means of commuaica- 

1^. An; opinion on this sabject can be little more than conjecture. All that oaa 
be said with cerrainty Is thnt, on the one hiiud, the Indian outturn ie oitpabte of very 
consideTable increase, and that the growth of the pupnlation in India is proceeding 
at a relatively slower rate than that of the United States, with tbe result that tha 
proportionate amoant of any increased protlnctioa required for home coDsamption itt 
less in the former than in the latter country. On the other hand, the pToctiSHCa of 
American are superior l<i those of Indian agriculture. The land in tbe NotthweRtora 
aud Western States is iinexbansted, and is of very great natural fertility. The acre- 
ago available for further cnltivation is described on hi^h authority as being "practi- 
caily unlimited. " The yield per acre in the United Slates is larger than in ludio. 
Under these circnmstances it miiy be regarded as certain that, although the Indian 
supply of wheat available for export may be very considerably increased, the Ameri- 
eaQ supply may be increased to a still greater extent. 

170. k fiiriher ailviiutage poaacHsed by the United States over India tH in the matter 
of ocean fyeighl. This advantage is not so great aa might be tbo case under diffurent 
condition as regardsthefiscallawsof the United States. The heavy duties levied by tbe 
Cnil«d Slates Ooverument on imported foreign goods uatiirally check the imports 
into America from Europe with the result that, in the comparative at>sence of a de- 
mand for freight fnnn Europe ti^ America, shipowners are obliged to retonp themselves 
by charging relativelv high freights fb>m America to Europe. The disadvantage 
ander wLii-h America labors by reasnu of thiK condition of things is artillciat and not 
natnral. It isiniposed by thehscnl law, and would be removed were that Uwcbaugad. 
In spit-e, however, of the present condition of the United States custoinB tariff, prox- 
imity to tbe English market, together with the fact that ludiau ehippiug has to pay 
canal rtnes, is snfflcient to turn llio scale in favor of tlif United States. The distance 
from New Tork to Liverpool is 3,013 miles. Tbe distance from Caliiutia to London 
by sea is ^,003 miles; from Bombay Co London 6,'JTl miles; from Kurrachee to Loudou 
6.IM> miles. Du -s are levied on passing through the Suez Caual iit the rate of I(J.50 
frauce per registered ton. 

171. The charge for steamer freight from New York to Liverpool ia variable. The 
rates in 1881 and 1H82 were, on afi average, for tbe year— 



173, In January of the present year, the rates were to Liverpool ^l«.6d.,aud to Lon- 
don 22t. 9d. per ton. Freights aeem generally to rule high in January. Comparing the 
rates from New York to Liverpool for 1892, with Indian rates, we Und that auriugtha 
year IBS:! the average charge iVom Kurrachee to London was £1 IHt. 9d. a ton; trnm 
Bombay to London £1 \5». 2^.,- from Calcutta to London £2 ^. ltd.* Taking tha 
average American rates of ISB'J as the basis of comparison. New York may be said to 
possess an advanlnge over Knrrachea to the extent of about 2Si. Id. or ^ii. 9d. a ton, 
over Bombay of 23a. fy^d. or 19a. 2id., and over Calcutta of 30a. 9d. or 28«, llrt. accnrd- 
ingly astbe Indian rates are compared with the New York rates to Liverpool or to Lon- 
don. On the other hand, Indian rates compare favorably with freight from San Pran- 
eisco to the United Kingdom, which in 1881 averaged £3 3«. Hid. a ton. Lost year of 
tbe whole import of wheat into the United Kingdom from the United States, 42 per 
•ent. was shipped from the Paci&o seaboard ; in 1881, it was tJl per cent. ; in 1H80 only 
16 per cent. 

173. The United States possess a further advantage in facility of inland communi- 
Mttion. The American railway system has been very rapidly extended during the last 
law years. No less than 105,000 miles of railway are now open. This rapid Diogt«ss 
iadne to the vigorous commercial enterprise of the people of America and to tbe large 



amonnt of capital seeking investment in American underlakiags. It is in thisrospecC 
nore than in any other that India presents a romitrkable contrast. Local capital i» 
either not available or seeks, generally upeaking, for more profitable investments tba» 
Indian railways afford. English capital has only receutly begun to turn il^attentioik 
to Indian railways, and can as yet scarcely be persuaded to dispense with govunimeot 
aMistance. The development of the cotintry ba«, up to the preaenC time, mainly de- 
Tolved on government, and, as a neoesaarj reenlt or this state of things, progress has 
bean relatively slow. 

174. In tbe matter of railway rates alao American is at a great advantage as com- 



22 INDIAN VS. AMtlUICAN WHEAT. 

£Bf»d to ladian wbeat. So far bnck as 1876 tbe T«te ttoia Chicago to New York, a 
iHtanoeof 961) miles, vcao oa an average 17 ceDta a bushel, ur£l 5a. 6d. per ton for the 
whole dlstaooe. la 1878 aad 1879 tbe published tariff rate was 20 oents p«r IM 
pounds (I8«. 4d. p«r ton) for the whole distance, bntnnder stress ol competition, wheat 
was carried &om time to time in 1H7D to New York, at 18, 15, and even as low as 10 
c«nta per 100 pounds, or 9>. 2d. per ton for the whole distance. Sir James Caif d, ia 
his evidence before the royal agnoulture commission in December, 1881, said tliat the 
rale had been rednoed as low as id. per ton per mile. This rate is equal to £1 per toa 
for the whole distance. The writer of an. interesting pamphlet, recently pabliahed in 
India,* gives 14.5 cents a bushel as the latest rate he has seen quoted. Thisiseqoal 
to £1 1(. 9d. per ton for the whole distance. In the official report on tbe foreiEu 
commerce of tbe United States for the fiscal year ending June ^, 1882, by the ohiaf 
of tbe Bureau of Statistics, the following figtues are given as the average thnmgh 
nt«« in leei from Chicago to New York; 




176. The competition of water cairiaee has evidently a markeil efi^t on rail ntt«s 
in America. In India, although about 90 per cent, of the wheat brought to Calcntt* 
is still brought down the Mv<^r in boata, this traOlo does not in tbe least regulate the 

176. I bftTe been informed on good authority that wheat is now carried from Saint 
Lonis, down the Mississippi, all lie waj through to tiverjiool, for 14 coiit« a bushel, 
-which is equal to 4i. 7id. per quarter or £1 I*, l^d. per tcm. Mr. Lpylaiiil, owner of 
the Li'vland line of steamers trading between Boston and Liverpool, told tbe ro;ral 
«r>mmi>'Bion on agriculture that the custom is to take Ihe wlieat at Chtongo (about 
1,500 miles from Bnstou) a.ui doliver it at Liveriwol at a through rate, iuolndiog 
^verythiuK. This rate iu 1881 averaged 'lOrf. a bushel of 60 pounds, or £1 11». l^T 
I>er ton. of which two-fift!i8 went to the ship and three- fifths to the railway, the divi- 
sion iHiiiig made bv arrangement. 

177. Turning to Iniiia, we find that the rate cbaraod in March, ISSi, by the East 
India Kaitway from Delhi to Howrah, a distance of 954 miles, is rupees 71 per 100 
tnaunds, whiuh at an eicbangp of l4. T|if., ist-qiial to £1 lU. 5d. pertain. 

178. From Lahore to Kurracbee, a distance of 831 mili-^, the rate is 12 annas 3 pie 
per mauud, equal to £1 l:t<. lllrf. i)er ton for the whole distance. 

17U. From Delhi to Bombay, over tbe Rajputaua Railway, a distance of 889 miles, 
the rate until very recently was 13 annas 6 pie per maund, equal to £1 17i. 5i<I. per 
ton for the whole distancft. 

180. From Jubbulpore to Bombay, a distance' of 616 miles, tbu rate is 10 annas S 
pie permaund, equal to £1 9<, 8)d per ton for tbe whole distance ; that is to say, it 
costs considerably more to carry a tou of wheat 616 miles over the Great Indian Peuin- 
anla Railway than it does to cwry the same quantity 'J<>0 miles over the American 

181. A comparison of rates fVom other stations would produce sioiilar results. But 
It is nnnecesaa'ry to ^o further. It Is abundantly clear that the Indian are much 
higher than Ihe American rittus. 

182. In the detailed manag«aieat of the trade also America has the advantase over 
India. There is fnr leas handling of the wheal between tbe geld and the holrf of the 
ehtp in the former than iu the latter country. The wheat is brought from the field 
into store-houses, nud thence ithot in bulk into the wagons, which are either brought 
alongside the ship or to warehonsen which lie close to the ship. In India, on the other 
hand, wheat is brought frooi tbe Held to a central station, say Cawupore, is there 
bought by one trader (perha^is the agent of the shipping firm, perhaps another inter- 
mediary) from another trader, who hat bought it from the cultivator. It is stored 
«nd bagged, then corteil to the railway station, unloaded, stacked at the station, ah& 
agftin iinstacked to be loaded into tbe wagons. On arrival at the port of shipment it 
is unloaded, stored, perhaps bought and sold once more, then carted to the shore, and 
pnt on board uilher from a jetty or from a boat. 



INDIAN VS. AMERICAN WHEAT. 23 

163. IndiaB wheat ia quoted in the Londou market at a lower price than AmerioAD 
or Anatraliao wheat. The average comparative prices during toe ;ear 1882 were as 
follows ; 

Par qasTter. 

American, best & 9 

Calontta. Clnb No. 1 43 1 

AnatraUan, beat 50 5 

184. I am iofonned that the Telatively low price of Indian wheat is notsomuohdoe 
to its quality, which Is generally very good, one to its admiztnre with dirtand other 
ioferiorgcains. At predent shippers pay for the oonveyanoe of aboot 5 per,oent. of 
dirt to England. 

185. The admistare of Infbrior grains with the wheat is, I believe, dne to the fact 
tbat enltivators often grow other grains in the same field as wheatasaresonroeinthB 
«Tent of the fyinre of the wheat crop. This praotioe tends to keep down the price of 
Indian wheat. 

189. 1 have dwelt at Bome length on this subject not only on account of its intrinsic 
importaooe, bat becaase I shall be slad if I succeed in drawing the attention of those 
who have a more intimate practical acquaintaooe both with the trade and the con- 
ditions of Indian agricaltare than any to which I can pretond, to the necessity of ez- 
«rtion with a view to strengthening hy all poaaible means the position of Indian wheat 
in the Bo^sh market. I have not disonsaed the qnestion of the relative cost of pro- 
dnction inTndia and in the United States, heoaose, independently of the somewhat 
difflcnit economic issues involved in this question, it is very difficult to obtain facts 
of a BufRcieatly reliable nature to permit of any very aooarate general conolnaion 
being iirawn from them. I may say, however, that there is reason to suppose that 
the prime cost of production in ^dia is less than io the United States. 

1941. It remains for me to stat« the measures which have been adopted by the sov- 
«mmenl with a view to facilitating the export of wheat to Europe. In the nrst place, 
the throngh rate for wheat conveyed from Delhi or Agra to Bombay has, in commnni- 
catiun with the agent of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, been re- 
dnced from i:i annaa 6 pie to 11 annas a mannd, and for other Kleins and seeds of the 
same cIom to 11^ annas a mannd. The reduction in the case of wheat will, therefore, 
be IB..') [ler cent, on the presant rates. It will, no doubt, be followed by a correspond- 
ing reduction on the East Indian line. For the future It will be possible to lay 
down wheat coming from abont Delhi or Agra to Calcutta or Bombay at a price of 
lapces, 4 4 3, ur, at an exchange of 1(. 7id., £0 69, Il^d. per ton less than has hereto- 
fore liRKo the case. To state the case in another way, the loweiing of the rates is 
equivalent to a reduction in price of slightly over Is. tkf. per quarter of wheat in the 
LoDdun market. 

191. In th«! second place, the restriction as reeards minimum toads has been abol- 
ished on the Rajpntana and Bombay, Baroda, and Central India lines. 

192. In a letter recently iaeued from the public works department, giving effect 
to tht» decision, the following passage occurs : 

• ' "la conclusion I am to draw general attention to the fact that every expansion of 
the export trade will bring to hear a heavier strain upon the facilities for handling, 
warehousiog, removing, and shipping, produce at the railway stations and ports. 
Theiw facilities are believed to be even now in many cases iaadeqiiate, and their im- 
provements will, his excellency the governor-geueral iu coniicil trusts, engage the 
oerions attention of the several local authorities at an early date." 

I trust that this very important branch of the subject will receive the serious at- 
tention which it deserves. 

W.l, Turning to the question of improved comuinnioations, it is to be observed that 
dnriiic the last two years the railway policy of the Covoriimeut of India has been un- 
•ettli^il. Idonot think that is any matter for surprise or for regret. In inaugurating 
ft policy under which railways were, to some extent at all events, to he couBtmot«d 
throngh the agency of private enterprise, it was almost inevitable that there should 
be a period of transition during which it mould be exceedingly difficult to.adhere to 
any nied. policy. It was easy to declare beforehand the broad aini which the Gov- 
ernment sought to attain, namely the construction of railways through the agency 
of noaided private enterprise, bot eiperience alone could show how far that aim waa 
attainable. We have now had two years' experience of the private enterprise policy. 
Dnriu)! that time a certain number of &ct>s have been accumulated, which, we thiA 
ate siifHcient to enable us to lay down a deflnite policy, at all events for the immediate 
(iitare, say for five years. We have, therefore, very recently addressed the secretary 
of state on the subject, but I am not as yet in a position to state what the flnal d»- 
mnon of the Qovernoieut will be, 

ld4. In the meanwhile I may as well state very briefly what have been the malA 



riz.db Google 



24 HOW AMEEICAN WHEAT 18 IMPORTED INTO FEANCE. 

fact* M Kgftrda nilway canatiiiation daring the laat two ;eu8. At the ci 
meot of tli« jean 1881-'cS there were §,€19 miles of rftilwav open to traffic, Bud 646 
miles noder ooDstructioii, making a grand total of work either comiileted or in hand 
of 10,3£5 milee. At the eommenoemeut of the year 1882-'83 there were 9,961 miles of 
line open tor traffic, and 1,302 nnder constcnction, making agraud total of '11,36;} 
miles either completed or in hand. During the year ISSa-'SJ, ^ wile* were open t* 
traffic, and the commencement of 1,194 miles of new line was aothorizad. The preaent 
poeition, therefore, is that we have 10,2.'>1 miles of line open tn traffic, and2,3%imile« 
either under conatruction or Banctioned for commencement in lS83-'84. It is eiiiected 
tiiat 719 miles will be opened for public use during the years 18ft3-'94, leaving 1,613 



mencemen. ,. _. 

that the amonnt of line either opeu or nmler conBtniction has ia two years been ii. . 
oreased by 2,aid miles. An immense deal, of course, remains to be done, and I trust 
it may be possible In the future to push forward the construction of railways at » 
more rapid pace than in tbe paat. At theeame time it may l>o hold that the progress 
during tlie last two jears has, on the whole, been fairly satisfactory. 



HOW AHEKICAH WHEAT IB IXFORTED IHTO FBAHCE. 

REPORT BY C0S8VL WILSOf/, OF NAytBS. 

I have tlie honor to traDSinit a report describing "how Americao 
wheat ie imported into Franco." 

It is inteuded rather for iH>pular reading of the farmery and niillera 
of the interior than as a guide to the exporter. 

While It ia Bnfficiently exact for the purpose indicated, yet it might 
vary a few cents per buahel in its stateoicuta of expenses and prices, 
and a few cents might be a grave loss to the exporter. 

Suppose the wheat to be at the seaboard, either Atlantic or Pacific, 
stored in one of the great elevator warehouses and ready for shipment 
abroad. 

The owner may live in the United States, in England, or on the con- 
tinent. London, Liverpool, and Paris are the great headquarters. 
Wherever he may live you may be sure he keeps the keenest watch 
over the grain market, extending his observations over the entire com- 
mercial world, knowing the present prices and Judging of future pros- 
pects in every country. The minister nf foreign affairs is not keener, 
more watchful, nor more interested in his observations of public affairs, 
either at home or abroad, than is the international grain merchant. 

The agent or broker in the United States does the shipping j he, in 
England, or on the continent, receives the cargo and manages its sale, 
both acting under the instructions of the owner. They keep themselves 
in constant communication and work together. This can only bo ac- 
complished' by the use of the telegraph. Mails are used only for general 
correspondence, regular reports, statement of accounts, &c. The ex- 
pense of the telegraph is largely reduced by a system of signals with 
an understood code. The vessel may sail with either of two sete of 
orders one for a given port- direct where her cargo is to be unloaded, 
the other for Cork or Falmouth "/or orderg." The latter term means 
that on her arrival at either port she will receive orders as to her des- 
tination. 

This coarse is preferred, as it gives the agent the advantage from 
Kev York a month, and from the Paci&c six months, more tame in which 



^dbyGoogle 



HOW AMEBICAN WHEAT IS IMPORTED INTO FRANCE. 25 

to diapoee of the cargo. Steamships- mnning on regular lioes carry 
large qoantatiea of grain. Of coarse the foregoing has uo application 
to them. 

Chartered vessels nsnaHy carry bat one kind of grain in one cargo. 

The freight team the Atlantic ports averages aboat $5.00 and 95.75> 
per ton, or II to 16 cents per basfael; from the Pacific ports $9 to $12 
per ton. 

A ship carriee about her dead weight in wheat, viz, one-third or one- 
half more than her measured tonnage. 

The wheat is usually shipped in balk, with a certain proportion iu 
sacks, to cover to more or less depth the bulk wheat. 

From the Pacific coast the proportion in sacks is greater, being nearly 
the entire cargo. 

The ship having sailed, her departure from almost any port in either 
hemisphere is telegraphed to London, and there published iu the mari- 
time papers, so that every grain merchant may know just how much 
grain is afioat, and when and where it may be expected to arrive. 

The report for the week ending March 3, 188.'i, was 21,981,483 bushels, 
of which six-serenths was destined for the United Kingdom. 

These cargoes of "wheat on passage and for shipment" are kept be- 
fore the i)HbIic by their publicatiob in daily evening joarnals called 
(one of them now before me) Floating Cargoes Evening List. These pub- 
lications are very specific as to kind, quality, and price of wheat and 
name of selling agent, but other matters are of slight interest, so they 
say "iron ship," "steamer," "sailer," &c. 

Cargoes " arrived at ports of call, now on sale," are reported in full. 
I give one as an illustration, from the Floating Cargoes Evening List,, 
of February 13 : 

Wlieat. 11. Cargoes; 

490O. No. 3, red winter, New York. "Bakran," An. Hontgomerr Jones, L'p'l \ 
Q— FoWy • -18-W. io— Cool and good. Cont. B. & H., both incl,, aampl. bt at 
Wallace Hall's, dr. 18 i ft. 

This translated and understood by the grain merchant is ae followa: 
Her cargo iB4,300qnartera (34 400 bushels) fromNew York. Ship, Bakran, Aiutrla- 
Ifoatgomery Jonea, of Liverpool, agent. She sailed January 8; is at Qaeenstown ; 
arrived February 8 or 9 ; has 18 days for unloading, and 4S honrs for orders ; was in- 
spected by Xo. Cargo is cool and good. Can be sent to the Continent, to Bordeanx, 
or Hamburg, or any place between ; the sample of cargo is at Wallace Hall's, London. 
Her draft is Itj feet 3 inches. 

In addition to these announcements the agent, whether at Liverpool, 
London, or Paris, commonicatcs with the grain merchants of England 
and the Continent in his endeavors to sell to the best ailvantage. Em- 
ploying the telegraph he keeps aa close relation with buyers over a 
stretch of a thousand miles, say from Marseilles to Hamburg and all 
intermediate ports, as with those of his own city; bids, offers, accept- 
ances, contracts, and guaranties are made with about the same "cer- 
tainty, celerity, and security," aa if on his own bourse. 



^dbyGoogle 



26 HOW AMEHICAN WHEAT IS IMPORTED INTO PEANCE. 

One of these dispatches aud its answer is given as a sample : 

[Telasnun (Tddi Llvarpool to Nhiiw.] 

Firm. Unsold, Mary Jonea forty-WTen tlirea pence U. K. Cttaabl^cn will conn 
forty-Beven. Market firm. 

WHITE. 

[TmulatioD-l 

I make a finn offer if nosold, ou leoetpt of reply, of the cargo of wtieaton the 

■•el Mary Joner -'■ ' — ' '-■"' -* "■ '-- "'-- '- '— 

United KiDgdi 

The sbipCa_ 

per qnariei. Market flnu. 



>\ Maiy Jones, at fortv-seTen ahiUiDftB and three pence per qnarter. She is for t^ 

nited KinKdom, whicb means her careo is to be sold on American terms. 

The ship Casablanca has arrived, and her cargo is for sale at forty-seven shillings 



tmTAVORABUE AKSWBR. 

Forty-eeven three, Jones, too high. Offbr forty-eix six pence. Kaiaire market 

The measare for wheat in the United States is the bashel ; in Eneland 
it is the " qnarter," which is, in roand numbers, eqnivaleDt to eight Bush- 
els, but exactly it is iSO pounds avoirdupois for wheat from the Atlantae . 
oooBt — SOO xwaudB irom California. ' 

The prices asked for " cargoes 6a passage" in the Evening List, be- 
fore referred to, and which I cite merely as an illustration, are as fol- 
lows : 39*. 6d. to Us. 3d. for Black Sea and East India wheat ; 46«. 6d. 
to 50s. 3d. for Anstralian wheat ; i3a. 9d. to 44s. for Chilian wheat ; 46*. 
3d. to 47s. 6d. for Atlantic wheat, 480 pounds ; 478. 6d. to 50s. 6d. for 
Pacific wheat, 500 pounds. 

The latter items reduced to United States coiuage and measare is 
equivalent to a price from tl.39 to $L.5I^ per bashel for American 
wheat This represents cost, Areight, and insurance to the United King- 
dom. 

TheveaselhavingarrivedatCork or Falmouth "for orders," and then 
or soon after her cargo been sold, she receives "orders" for her flnal 
destination, which, I will suppose, in the present case to be Xaotes. 

The freignt additional is about 10 per cent on that trom New York, 
but is sometimes specified to be a sum certain — ftvm 1} to 3 cents per 
bushel. 

Nantes is fast growing in importance in grain importations, nearly all 
of which come from the Unit«d States. This trade has grown up en- 
tirely since 1878, Before that time there was no United States trade 
in wheat. 





Twra. 




1 
III 


II 


18TB 






SJt,ttU 

1,»M.«1T 

1, fln.ua 

1,UT,0U 


■ 































idb,Google 



HOW AMERICAN WHEAT is IMPORTED INTO FRANCE. 27 

Tlie following is a list of the port clinrges aail expenses (illustration 
8im|ily) atKantes luil St. S'azaire respectively, the former for a ship 446 
tons regiuter, the latter 1,000 tons register — sailing vossels from America : 



Cl.«w». 




otUt ton*. 


l"^ 


PlIo«««fro toSLN ■ 


»58 77 
1 10 

si 

su 

M DO 
340 

110 
1» 10 

120 

S£ 

20 so 

WOO 














ISS 




































































2* 
















































ToT>t» from 31. Kauice lo M* (luwtrda u p«r agrMin 


....Ton., 1^ 




210 0« 









The cargo is taxed a tariff or import duty of 60 centimes (12 cents) 
per hundred kilogTams,or 3.4 cents per bushel. 
Flour is taxed 1 Itanc and 20 centimes per 100 kilograms. 
The cost of cargo aft«r delivery oii the deck and its storage or de- 
livery ou the railway must of course be borne by the buyer. It is fixed 
at 1 franc 50 centimes per tou of 1,000 kilograms. 

The wheat is usually put at once ou the railway to be shipped directly 
to its ultimate destination, as Htorage requires double haudliug and 
would consume nearly all the expected profit. 

A grain mercbautof sufficient standing to deal with the grain centers 
scarcely ever buys less tlian a cargo. 

Be then sells it out in smaller lots to the millers, and sometimes to 
other merchants. These transactions areusually managed at the bourse. 
The meeting time at the bouvee is from 4 to 5.30 o'clock, though the 
business men have formed a custom of meeting at the post-office, while 
gettiug- their mail, at from 9 to 10.30 o'clock in the moruing. 

A sale of a cargo firom a vessel means that it shall be delivered IVee 
on board the cars at St. Nazaire or Santes, whichever place the vessel 
may be in dock. 

The retail merchants then seek to make tht^ir sales, and to that end 
they must visit the town and cities in the adjoining departments whepe 
the mills are situated, sometimes 50 or may be 100 miles distant. There 
the same meetings and transactious take place at the bourses of their 
respective towns. 

The meeting at and transactions of the bourse is machmoregeneralin 

Europe than in the United Statee. Nearly every commercial man makes 

it hiB badness to attend the bourse daily, and they rarely visit each 

other at their places of business except by appointment 

Prices, of couTK, change here with as much rapidity as in the Uoitw) 



28 HOW AMERICAN WHEAT IS IMPORTED IKTO FRANCE. 

States. Tbose here given are from last quotations but maybe changed 
in a few days. They are inserted as examples. 

American wheat: 27.75 to 28.25 franca per 100 kilograms ; 22.20 to 
22.60 francs per hectoliter, equal to $1.45 to $1.18 per bushel. 

French wheat: 25 to 25.50 francs per 100 kilograms; 20to 20.40ftunc8 
per hectoliter of 80 kilogmms, equal to $1.29 to $1.34 per bushel. 

American flour: 57.60 t«59.50franc6per8ackofl69 kilograms; $3.16 
to $3.26 per 100 pounds. 

French flour ; 56 to 61 francs per sack of 109 kilograms ; $3.07 to 
$3.34 per 100 pounds. 

In the manner heretofore describeil there were iuiportwl into the port 
of Santes during the past year 1,687.000 bnahels of wheat. 

It may not be uninteresting to the farmer and ipiller of the Uuitetl 
States to know the price and production (outcome) of a given quantity 
of wheat as calculated in Paris taken from the Bulletin des Hallea. I 
do not reduceit to United States measures and prices, fearing mistakes in 
the intricacies of exchange, but it is easily understoml, for it is given in 
decimal parts. 

COST. 

100 quiululH (100 kiloirrftiiia) at 2fi.T5 francs 2, 675. Ofr 

Coflt of grill Jiug lOil kilograniH, 1.7'i frnticH per i|iiinCa1.. 175.00 

One moDtb'ii iutereaC on iaveHltiieiit dariug time it ie in tbe mill (tud getting 

tomoiket 13.37 

Totnl pHtiiiiated cost 100 qnintals wheat 2,a6a. 37 

PHODLCT, 

Franoa, 
68.00 qiiiotala of flour, Hmt tgaality, at 57.25fraDcs per rack of 159 kilo- 

grania, br 36.45 franca per 100 kilograuia 2,47h, 6* 

3,00 quiatuleof flour, aecoiid ijii:!]^;, at 30 Itancs 90.00 

3. 00 qiiintala of flour, third aud fourth qnalltf, 22 francs 66. 00 

S2.00 quintals off'al, brau, iLc, 13.00 Italics 297.00 

1.50 quiutala acreeniuga, 14 francs 21.00 

3S4.0& 

3, 50 quintals loub; evaporation, Slc 2,952.60 

100.00 quiutala, estimated gross profit 89.2a 

But tirmi this must be deducted the cost of sale, of traasportation, of the 
sacks, &c., which are estimated at 143. 17 

Estimated net loss, $10.73 53.94 

But it should be remembered that this calcnlation is made in tbe 
interest of the miller, aud so shonid be taken cum grano aalis. 

These calculations are not intended to be more than illustrations. The 
differences are somanyandthe bases sochangeable, that, thongh slight, 
exactness becomes a question of applied mathematics. 

For instance, Atlantic wheat is calculated at 480 pounds per quarter; 
sometimes the hectoliteriu France is 80 kilograms, and sometimes 77 or 
78 kilogi-ams. The rate of exchange is continually clianging. Tliat as- 
sumed has been 5.20 francs for one dollar. 

The ton is dififerent in England, France, and the United States, being 
2,240 pounds, 2,204 and 2,000 ponnds respectively. I have only intended 
to show in a general way how the thing was done. 

THOMAS WILSON, 

Oonxul. 

Uhited States Consulate. 

Nantes, France, April 1, 1883. 

DiclzedbyGoOgle 



FRENCH A^ID AHEBICAN COUHEHGIAL RELATIONS. 



COMMERCIAL ABLATIONS B£TWEEK FBAHC£ AND THS DHITZD 

STATES. 

RBPOSX BT OOKSTfL PgllOTTO, OF LTOfS, 

The EeoTiomiste Franfais, in its regnlar weekly issoe of Saturday, the 
24tb inutaQt, coutaius a leading article by its chief editor, Mr. Paul- 
Leroy Beaulieu, entitled, "The neceaeity of a comtnercial treaty' with 
th« United States," the salient points of which I deem of moment to 
traDslftte and submit for the appreciation of the Department, at the 
same time presentiug my own comments. A free translation, though 
strict in ite representations, will, it appears to me, be the best. The 
Economist sai's: 

It is important to consider, or, better, to open and secure for our oommeroe and 
»gricultnre this constAiitty developioK and increasing market— yesterday twenty-five, 
to-itHf fifty, to-morrow one hundred millions of souls, whioli is called the North 
American Union. 

The foreJKD commerce of tlie United States reaches the round fiKures of 8,000,000,000 
francs (11,^,000,000)., For the past ten years the following tnnle will show the ele- 
menta of this cdmrnerce : 



t™. 


Export., 

S88.283;040 
S13, 442, 711 
54(l,3B4,ffri 

710! 43», 441 


I»p„r.,. 


Biporta. 




ie-i--7s 


1843, 138, 210 

se7,4«8.a42 

4H!7tl'lB() 
4Si;323:i28 
437, 051, 532 
445, 777, 775 
087,985,665 
842.884,828 
714,823,817 




1119 SS< 288 




ii8,'87B;«8 

"TO,'«4i,4ei' 

1S1.1SI.0W 
K7, 814. 234 
384, 881.088 

iotIwjm 

258,712,718 
26,727.858 









































Prom the above statement it will easily he seen how great is the foreign commerce 
of the United States. 

From ItfPi-Ti (fiscal year July 1) to ISSl-^iS the iucrease has been nearly X per 
cent., while the foreign commerce of France remains very nearly stationary. 

It most also be said that the fiscal year 1881-^2 (which inclodes the jwrlod nnder 
consideration) was not a normal or onlinary year. 

The crops in general in the United States were Inferior, if not bad. 

In IS6I the cotton crop was IS per cent, inferior to that of ISHO ; the wheat crop tS 
per cent. ; the com crop, 30 per cent. ] and the rye, 15 per cent. 

Snch were the real causes of the decrease of Americon exports in ISm^r^. 

That this commerce wilt speedily asa in recover and take still larjiier proportions 
may l>e easily seen, if we have regard to the great immigration which the United 
fitates has had during the past fifteen years. This emigration to the United States 
has been aa followa : 

Kmigrmotl. 
]967-'68 a«2,189 

laes-jra 3.'>2,76e 

1869-70 387,203 

IdTO-*?! 321,350 

I871-'73 404,806 

I«7a-73 459,803 

1^3-74 313,3:Ja 

1874-'76 227,498 

l!f:5-76 169,986 

1H76-^ 141,857 

len-'n i3a,469 



FBENCH AND AUEB1CA!« COMMERCIAL BELATIONS. 



lB7S-'79 

1879-'8CI 

leSO-'SI (ia9,431 

1881-'B2 789,003 

A oonntiy which in three yean leceires 2,000,000 of new inhabituits, the greater 
part adolts, capable of aiding the development of her two and a half to three and 
a qnarter million' aqnare milea of land, covering a total anperficiai of 4,712,500 an- 
ezplored raitea, ia capable of right times rhe cnltivation of France, which has bat 
l,6Q6,fiT2 Bqnare kilometers, or 330,357 square milea. 

Snoh a country must very booh become the principal market of the world. Her 
foreign commerce to-day reaching 11,477,500,000 to |1^4,000,000 (or Joat about the 
fignresof the foreign commerce of France), may reach 13,800,0(10,000 at the end of the 
century, and in URy yearB from now |9, (360,000,000. 

What ptecautiouB [asks the Economiat] have Frenchmen taken to secure a fair pro- 
portion of thlB already great commerce, and which to-morrow may become ao enor- 

Aiter some reflectioDS, vhicli are more political than economical, Mr. 
Beaoliea coDtinues: 

In thia ItmneDte American market Fraooe has a partioipation, bat it ia very limited. 
The United States shonld bold the first rank among natlooefor her imports from 
France, but she really holds onlj' the fonrth, and for an amount relatively small fur a 
country from whom we import. 

In 1880, France imported &om the United States 731,000,000 of francs (1141,083,000), 
and exported bat 332,000,000 franca (163,066,000) ; whereaa little SwUzerland, with 
her 3,000,000 of population, bought of nt 220,000,000 francs (142,466,000) of merchan- 

Switzeriand, therefore, with her population of 3,846,104, bought at the rate (15.44 
of onr goods for each inhabitant (per head), whereas a citizen of the Uoited States 
bODght scarcely more than |1.25. Who will believe this to be a normal condition of 
affa&st 

WhatI in a whole year, these American people, so rich fn every way, whose eapi- 
talleta h^ve sach colossal fortunes, whose workmen receive snoh high wages, buy of m 
only I1.9S per head; that is scarcely more than 2 cents per weekl 

If the Americans wonid only come to buy of as per head what the Swiss purchase, 
our ezpoTta to the United States wonld reach 4,000,000,000 francs (1772,000,000), or 
the whole total of oui French exports. 

Mr. Beaulieu then appeals to FreDch statesmen to take broader views 
than those which have hitherto occapied their minds, and in this, in so 
far as he refers to home politics, he is strictly correct. Except tiam- 
betta, for ten years there has not been a French utateeman who has 
realized for his country the true means of enriching her commerce and 
industries by an extension of her relations with other lands tbrongh 
treaties and colonial acquisitions (the latter always, however, in the 
natural order of accretion.) 

Mr. Beaulieu proceeds to say, " That the solution of French difficulties 
isinatreaty of commerce with thegreatAmericauBepublic." "The situ- 
ation," he says, "was favorable for this during the past few years, and 
is even still more so to-day." 

And then this yoang but none the less most distinguished of French 
political economists indulges in the following remarks which are cunons, 
to say the least, and not unworthy of being sabstAntially quoted : 

Every one knows the financial prosperity of the United Stat«e Government. 

During the war of secession the United Slates eatabliabed enormous taxes, Just as 
we Frenchmen did after 1870, but with this diirere:ice, that white we bare since 
plunged into enormonsexpenses for internal improvementa,be8idesslneoures and pen- 
■iona, out of all character with our resoarces. the Americana have had only one tenons 
care, one thought above all others, i. <., to diminish their national debt. This debt of 
13,000,000,000 haa been reduced to leas than 1 1,600,000. 000 or arednction of 11,200,000,000 
while ooi national debt incr^aaes nearly ^00,000,000 annually. The Bepoblic of the 
United States has arrived at that point where ahe can relax her primitive rigor ir "* ~ 
abftTH^ nt tATtm- HYm hiui An Hsj-ma nT ntvAnnn. i. ^.. k " HnmlnA" of ivi»(lntjk ftfta 



..=db,Googlc 



AMERICAN PLOWS AND FANNING MILLS FOR INDIA. 31 

Wbkt to do with this ezceasT What nation has ever yet hod snch a windfoIIT 

Here cornea in the iceae of comedy. It must be lemembeTed that there ara in th» 
United States tiro political parties, one of tliese actually enjoya power, and is called 
the Bepnbiioui, althonghthisappellation should uot becoustrued aatoitabeingmora 
repnblicaD tlutn its adversaries. The other party in competition is called the Demo- 
oatic party. Thoa|th there bedifFerencsa of opinion in this latter party they aregen- 
ec»lly recoguiiod as Deiug " ftee traders." 

Now the Repnblicaa party who to-day had the m^ority in the Bxpirinp Congros» 
in order to cut the gronnd from nnder the feet of their adversariea reaolvea to pass » 
tariff bill and have passed such with the aid of the Senate and the odhesiim of the 
President, the effect of which will be twofold. 

The tariff largely rednces, or suppresses entirely, interior taxes and oertaio fbreiga 
categories of prime necessity, such as sngors and coffees. But it has increased tb» 
dmties OD woolens, wines, &c. With this new tariff onr already moderate exports must 
keftuther decreased. French ch am pa|{nes, for example, are taxed 57 cents per battle, 
and otHumoD wines over 14 cents the litre. 

Whereupon the Economist calls npon the French Government to take 
immediate steps towards securing a commercial treaty with the United 
States. It cites the already known individual labors of Mr, Leon Chottean 
in this behalf, the resolntioo of Congress in 1879, and concludes by saying 
that the French minister at Washington, who has now little or nothing 
to do there, could not be better employed than in seeking to bring aboat 
sach a convention. 

However on some points I may take issue with the Economist, I can- 
not bat agree with it on the general and final sabject, the necessity of 
a commercial treaty between the two conntries. I have already, in pre- 
Tions dispatches covering a number of years, argued the desirability 
of such a convention, and the capital point I have sought to make ia 
that onr manufactures would be the greater gain by such treaty. 
BENJAMIN P. PBXOTTO, 

Consul, 

UsiTBD States Consulate, 

Lymts, March 26, 1833. 



AHERICAH PLOWS AVD FAinTOTO KILLS POB INDIA. 

&SPORT BT CONSUL-QSNBRAL MATTSOK, OF CALCUTTA. 

With a view to the «sbibition to be opened here next December, I 
have the honor to present the following facts and suggestions in the 
hope that some Americau 
manufacturers may take ac- 
taoQ in the matter and avail 
themselves of the excellent 
opportnnity which that exhi- 
bition will undoubtedly af- 
ford. 

Thelndian "ryots ".{agricul- 
turists} cultivate 200,000,000 
acres of land and plow the 
aame from two to Ave times 
every year, with no better im- 
plement than an iron-pointed 

wooden stick,* which does piowiDg in iDdi*. 

not turn over the soil, bat only stirs and shakes it to the depth of 3 
to i inches. 




32 AMERICAN PLOWS AND FANNING MILLS FOR INDIA. 

Tbe enormoas quantity of small grain annaally prodnoed on these 
200,000,000 ncrea is cleaned and separated for food and for the market 
by the same system of hand winnowing which was in use amopg tbe 
Israelites of old, and which, for the European grain trade at least, ia 
now deemed inefficient. 

While, for reasons stated in my former reports, agricultural imple- 
ments, such as are manofactured in the United States, are not adapted 
to India, there is an important exception in respect to the plow and 
fanning mill. 

THE PLOW. 

The small American garden plow which turns a furrow of 8 or 9 
inches, and is so light that a ten years' old boy can carry it on his 
a shoulder and a good 

_^^'aJ|^^ ^ sizedpouycan work 

J^^mJ^^ XnE^vf. it in the field, is, in 

my jndgment, the 
very plow to intro- 
duce into India, 
witere an immense 
market awaits the 
suocessini manufacturer. It would, however, have to be made some- 
what different from the home model; the beam should be very light 
and long ^mnch like a common-wagon 
tongue), with a slight incline upwards, 
so that the end could be fastened with 
a clevis to the yoke of a pair of bul- 
locks of the size of common two-year 
old American country steers (the cattle 
here are yoked so far apart that there 
is room close to their hind feet for tbe 
Indian plow. workiug of the plow) ; the handle or 

handles should stand nearly upright in order that Uie plowman may walk 
Senear hiscattle that he can readily catch hold of their tails, because the 
Indian bullock -driver will insist on regulating the motiou of his cattle 
by jerking and twisting their tails near the root with his hands. In all 
other respects it should be jnst like our light garden plow with a high 
polish, so as to scour easy in the wet, heavy soil, but otherwise the finish 
might be plain and cheap, so that the plow would come within the means 
of the poor tenantry who compose the agriculturists of India. 

THE FANNIWa MILL. 

This should be made with special reference to cleaning and separat- 
ing wheat for the European market, and should be small, light, and 
cheap. It is very seldom that one ryot has more than 60 or 60 bui^hels 
of wheat to clean, and time is of no special object to him; the mill there- 
fore need not be made to do much work in a day, but rather to do it 
well. A little village community would probably become joint owners of 
one such mill, but there are 450,000 agricultural villages in India, and in 
many instances th'e "zemindar" {land proprietor) would buy it and let 
it out on hire to his tenauts. 

Many attempts have been made to introdace these implements from 
Europe, bat so far the samples have proved too heavy and expensive. 




^dbyGoogle 



MANCHESTER PRINT TRADE IN COLOMBIA. 66 

There 19 a imiveraally acknowleiJged waut for Ijoth of tbem, and ar- 
rangemvntH cau easily be made for tbeir trial at ttie GoverumeDt exper- 
imental faruiH. 

H. MATTSON. 

Consul- OeneraL 
XThited States OoNStrLATE-GENERAL, 

Calcutta, February 20, 1883. 



TEE MANCKESTEA PBIHT TRADE DT COLOKBIA. 

MEFOBT BY OONSVL. BMITB OF CASTBAOBNA. 

When it is taken into consideration that the moBt important item of 
import into Colombia is dry gootla, i»pecially prints aud similar goods, 
and that hardly a dollar's worth, auless indirectly, vomeR from Che 
United States, it becomes a serious concern to the American manufact- 
urers who are endeavoring to extend their trade to all parts of the 
Torld, why sach a state of affairs exists, it can be safely estimated 
that the trade in such goods alone vith Colombia amounts in value to 
(2,500, UuO annually. It may therefore be pardonable If attention ia 
again called to the Department upon this subject. 

Manchester controls the print trade of Colombia, and will continue to 
do so Just so long as onr manufacturers do not make a proper effort to 
secure their legitimate share. Everything is in fafor of our manu- 
facturers : they have the cotton on the ground, and use superior ma- 
chinery, that is an offset to lower wages ])aid to the English factory 
operatives. The distance on the voyage is twenty days shorter, the< 
freightsone-half less, and the prices asked for the prints about the same. 
The question naturally arises : Then who is to blame 1 Is it the buyer 
or the manufacturi-r T It-is solely the fault of the latter, for the follow- 
ing reasons : He does not pack his goods pro|)erly. He does not cut' 
them of the standard length of this country. He will not furnish a great- 
variety of designs to the small purchaser. He makes bis goods too 
heavy. He does not send out commercial agents to "drum up the 
trade." 

The standard length for prints is 23 inches wide and 29 to 30 yards 
long. The bales should have 50 pieces each and weigh, gross, 120 
pounds. 

It may be proper to illustrate the mode and style of a Manchester 
print-house doing business with Colombians. 

The house has rettident agents in all the towns where it does btisiness. 
This agent is nsually the most prominent merchant in the place and is 
veil known for his honesty and good judgment. It is his duty to keep 
the house well informed as to the financial standing of its clients, the 
lives they lead, and whether they are doing business within proper 
boands. The commercial traveler of the house puts in an appearance 
about twice a year, stops at the best hotel, is generally a junior partner, 
or has stock in the bouse he represents, is not lliuit<'da8 to his expenses. 
He calls upon his old friends and makes himself generally agreeable, 
never talking business, but quietly picking np points all the time. As 
he knows the standing of Cbe patrons of his house from the resident 
agent and his own observations, he can govern' himself accordingly iu 
selling them a new bill of goods. Or he is on hand armed with a proper 
power of attorney from his house to act for tbem iu forcing the collec- 
3 JUL 83 



34 HANCHESTEB PEINT TRADE IN COLOMBIA. 

tiou of A bad acconat, legally, if ueceasary, bnt geoerally amicably. Ho v- 
erer, he has Beldom to resort to either method, for 95 per cent, of hig 
accounts are good. . Some of the houseB may be slow paper, but ia such 
event due interest is charged. 

The failure of a commercial house in this couutry ia of rare occor- 
rence. During a resideuce in this district of four years I have kuown 
of but one buainesn failure. As a rule, the Colombians are very cau- 
tious aud conservative iu their business dealings. The credit given by 
Mancliester houses is nine, twelve, and eighteen months. About five 
MaDche.ster houses control the print trade of Oolombia. 

The styles and prices of printa adapted solely for this market are as 
follows: White ground prints, t^ucy designs, medium-sized followers — 
trails—sets, from 16 by 15, 16 by 16, and 17 by 17 ; none higher, gloss, 
purple the favorite color. The prices for fancy aud white grouud printa 
are : 
Cost in MftDchest«r: t. d, t. d. 

ISsqaanidie -■- 6 to 6 3 

lesqaaredia 6 9 to 7 

ITaquandie 7 to? 3 

The finish is light and firm, with slight face to make taster. 

PDBPLB PRINTS. 

Only two classes are sold in this market, first and second. 

First class, 17 square, cost in Manchester 8«. Sd. of 29 to 30 yards 
length. " 

Second class, which is printed on 15 square die, sells in Manchester 
at 6«. 3d. to 6t. 4^. 

Steam prints (not fast colors), 22 to 23 inches wide, of 30 yards length, 
are sold to the merchants at ia. to 4s. 3d. 

The above quotations I have obtained from the merchants after much 
inquiry and cautious questioning, and as they have — some twenty 
firms — giveu, with but trivial deviation, the same quotation, they can 
be relied upon. 

Pieces are made np 12 inches wide, stitohed at both ends, with tickets 
upon tbem. 

All samples are numbered. So there is no diflBculty in ordering the 
styles one may desire, without sending an elaborate explanation with the 
order. The weight (gross) per bale is also put on the samples. This 
is an important item, as duties are paid on gross weight, aud a purchaser 
very naturally desires to know the weight of the article before he gives 
bis order. 

To sum np ; If the American manufacturer desires to extend his trade 
with Colombia he must accommodate the wishes and tastes of the pur- 
chaser as to mode of packing, weight, variety of design, color, length, 
and width. Two millions of dollars coming to this country from the 
United States means that over $2,009,000 worth of Colombian products 
will go to our country to meet payment for same. What the Colom- 
bians desire in prints is mainly lightnesa iu weight aud variety in de- 
sign. Quality is of minor consideration. The leas the weight the 
smaller the customs duties. 

EDMUND W. P. SMITH, 

Ooniul. 

COMSULATE OP THE'UNITED STATES OP AjlIBElOA, 

OarthageTM, Colombia, April 10, 1883. 



,iz.db Google 



AMEttlCAN WOODENWAEE IN NEW ZEALAND. 



AKEBICAB WOODENWABE IN HEW ZEALAKB. 

BEPOST Br COmsVL aBIPFIS OF AUCKLAND, 

Nearly all the woodenwareimportediato Sew Zealand is of American 
mauuracture, and it is (ifratifyiug to me to be able to state that about 
tbree-fourthb of it is bronghc here direct. 

Tlievalaeoftbeiiupurtsofwoodenwareintothecoloiiy of New Zealand 
for the year 1881 was $55,075 agaiust 125,015 for the year 1S80, au in- 
crease of $30,030, This, of cuuriie, is exclusive of certaiu article? of 
iroDmoDgery combined with wood, doors, window-sash, and all kiuds of 
office aod household furniture, such as chairs, writing desks, tables, 
&c If the latter articles were iiicluded in the imports the amount 
would be increased to about $620,000. The woodware trade proper em- 
braces such articles as tubs, paila, buckets, washboards, oars, as- * 
handles, brush and broom handles, ahoe-pegs, wooden screws, clothes- 
pins, rolling-pins, butter churns, cheese molds, step ladders, bread 
boards, trays, platters, mallets, croquet and lawn tennis ttets, chessmen, 
checkers, checker-boards, shafts, oak rims, felloes, poles, shade and 
bUnd rollers, &c. It is now very generally admitted by dealers and 
importers that, with few exceptions, all these articles can be manu- 
factured much cheaper iu the United States than anywhere else. The 
choicest wood for such purposescan be obtained in America at very low 
prices, and there is do other country in the world that has so many in- 
genioos machines for the manufacture of all kinds of woodenware. 
There are several firms iu the United States that have extended their 
trade here with very little effort. It is well known, not only la New 
Zealand, but throughout Aastralasia that Messrs. Crane & McUahon, 
of Xev Y ork, have factories and saw-mills in almost every State in the 
Union, and that their factory at Greensburgh turns out 10,000 spokes and 
^ sets of rims per day. Their elm hubs, hickory and oak rims are 
very popular here. 

All the adjustable window-shades used in Auckland are of American 
manufacture. Hartshorns patent shade roller has been introduced iu 
every city and town iu the colony. With the help of this roller the 
window-shade is easily adjusted. The springs are made of the best 
tempered steel and conform to exact weights and lengths and each part 
of the roller is tested by a separate gauge. The automatic stop admits 
of any required degree of spring being held in reserve, thus providing 
for any lossof power from diminishingelasticityand allowing for shades 
of different size and weight. Mr. Hartshorn has received the highest 
award for his patent shi^e rollers at every exhibition where they have 
been pat in competition. He carried off the prizes at the ioternational 
exhibitions held at Sydney and Mellbourne, as well as at the world's 
fiiira at Philadelphia and Paris. 

OSBMAir AND BHQUSH WOODBNWABE. 

The small fraction of woodenware imported from England and Ger- 
many into New Zealand consists of bread platters, butter prints, egg 
cups, forks, spoons, wooden faucets, knife cleaners (cylindrical and 
board), cricket and lawn tennis bats, ninepins, chessmen, checkers, 
checkerboards, pepper-grinders, &c. Of the articles named above the 



36 AMEKICAH WOODENWARE IN NEW ZEALAND. 

chessmen, checkers, and boards come from Germany, the rest are of 
^English mHinfactnre. The chief characteristic of English and German 
voodeuware is that they indicate a maximam of labor with a minimnm 
of material, which, of course, is jnst the reverse of those made in the 
United States. 

The English knife cleaner is so ingeniously contrived that it might 
well pass for a Yankee invention. Jt resembles a grindstoDe in outline. 
Two or more knife blades, according to the size of the cleaner, are in- 
serted into narrow slits of the cylinder, leaving the handles to project 
like a ship's wheel. The crank is made to tnm exactly like that of a 
grindstone. Stifi' brushes within are caused to revolve by the tnrning 
of the crank and the brushes thuB rubbing against the knives thoroughly 
cleanse and brighten them. 

The English pepper-grinder sold here is another cnrionn instrument. 
It is a little larger than an ordinary popper-box, about 3 inches in 
high and H inches in diameter. The guest grinds his own pepper 
while at the table, which he can do only by hnraping his back and pro- 
ceeding as with the intention of boring a hole through the table. 

PRICES OF WOODENWARE. 

The cost of freight, cuatomB duties, and other charges make the prices 
of all kinds of woodenware much higher here than in the United States. 
The doty, however, on woodenware is only 15 per cent, ad valorem, and 
some articles, such as brush, woodware, buggy shafts, bent wheel 
rims, carriage shafts, spokes, felloes and naves, saddle-trees, butter 
charns, axles, axle arms and boxes, ship's blocks, &c., are admitted free. 
There is no demand here for wooden buckets ; galvanized iron ones are 
used in8t«ad. 

Cylinder chnms, size N'o. 1, sell here for abont $5.50; No. 2, $6.50; 
No. 3, from $6.50 to |7 ; No. 4, $8; battar-workere, from $7.50 to$I2.50 
each. Croquet sets from $3.12J to $6.25 each. Ax-handles from $2.25 
to $2.75 per dozen. Planes from $1 to $1.75 each. Mallets from $2.50 
to $5 each. Oars (ash), 6 to 13 feet long, 11 cents per foot, worth only 
7^ cents in New York per foot ; oars, 14 to 16 feet long, 17 cents per 
foot, 20, 22 and 24 feet, 23 cent«, 28 cents, and 36 cents : towel roUers, 
$2,50 to $3 per dozen ; tubs, $4 per nest ; clothes-pins, $1 per 5 gross ; 
wash-boards (wood) $2.25 per nest ; wash-boards (Zinc) $2.25 to $2.75 
per nest ; extra, $4 per nest ; corn brooms, extra, $6 per dozeoj 1} 
pounds, 3 string, painted handles, $4 per dozen ; 1^ pounds, 3 string, 
$4.40 per dozen ; No. 6, velvet hnri, $6.25 ; shaker broooLs, $6 per 
dozen ; whisks, $1.60, Eind pat«nt socket, 1^ pounds, $3.75, and patent 
socket, 1^ pounds, $4 per dozen ; pick handles, No. 1, $2.25 per dozen ; 
No. 2, $2 per dozen ; paint«d pails, $3 per dozen ; shoe-pegs, $1 per 
bushel. 

NEW ZEALAND WOODENWARE. 

New Zealand has developed the largest timber indnstry in the soath- 
»n hemisphere. The immense forests of kauri, kahikatea, pain, and 
rimu, in the province of Aukland, are fully appreciated by her enter- 
prising inhabitants. The annual output of sawn timber in this province 
alone is about 70,000,000 feet in addition to 2,000,000 feet of planed tim- 
timber, 6,500 doors, and about $75,000 worth oi other wood products. 
Of the different kinds of timber for manufacturing purposes, the kauri 
pine is the most valuable. The kauri forests of the province of Auck- 
land, cover over 200,000 acres, exclusive of the land still in possession of 



AMERICAN WOODENWAEE IN NEW ZEALAND. 37 

tJie Maoris or uatives. The kauri tree, as I have meiitioned iu former 
rep«rta, iB not foaod outside of the province of Anckland. 

There are 43 saw millfi in the province of Auckland, and about 250 
in the colony. The value of the lands and bnildiuga in connection 
with these mills and factories is set dowu in the last Government re- 
tnmB at $1,885,420. Over 8,000 persona are employed in connection 
with the timber industry of the i^olony. 

The kauri pine, of which the chief products are made, is more apt to 
shrink than the pine imported f^m America. The factories excel in 
the manufocture of doors, window sash, and various kinds of housebold 
furniture, hot make only in limited quantities and to special order 
what is known to the trade as woodeiiware. Their articles of coopery 
are worthy of praise, especially their butter kegs, wiiioh are made of 
kauri, totara, and puriri (the last is known as Kew Zealand oak). 
Amongst the native woods suitable for the manufacture of wooden- 
ware may be mentioned tawa {Larui taioa), used like ash, taraire [Laa- 
rus taraire,) white birch, rewarewa, honeysuckle {Kinghtia exceUa). 
These woods are used in considerable quantities for ax -handles and 
small cabinet work. AgriculturaJ implements and oars are sometimes 
made of mangiai, but these articles are not as good as those imported 
from America. Mapau is another excellent Hew Zealand wood ; it is 
ver>- tough, and is occasionally used in the manufacture of carpenters' 
tools. 

The great disadvantage the wood manufacturers experience in New 
Zealand is the high price of labor, and the duties charged on American 
pine and other timbers. 

There are several broom factories in Auckland, which produce excel- 
lent brooms at low prices, the broom-corn being imported from the 
United States free of duty. The handles are made of kauri, which 
though more inclined to warp than thoso made of American pine, are 
very serviceable, of a dark rich color, heavy and strong. 

The wash-boanls turned out at the Auckland TimL>er Company are the 
best made in the colony, and compare favorably with those imported 
fitun America. The other factories display very little art in work of 
this kind. Instead of dovetailing the pieces as in America they fasten 
them with nails, which detracts not only from their appearance, but 
durability. 

Astonishment is expressed by dealers in woodenware that the Ameri- 
can^ do not manufacture butter-prints for the market, for which there is 
a great demand. Butter- prints, however, like bread platters, must be 
hand-made, and no machine capable of cutting patterns in hollow hem- 
ispheres has as yet been invented. 

AMERICAN WOODWOKKIMO MACHINBBY. 

American woodworking machinery is employed to a greater or less 
extent in all the principal timber and wooden factories in Kew Zealand. 
The Auckland Timber Company uses by far the largest number of 
American machines in the colony. It would require a good size volume 
to enumerate all the various kinds of Americau machinery used at this 
establishment. Amongst those especially worthy of mention are Boult's 
carving, molding, and dovetailing machine; Brown & Howes gauge 
latbe; the Challenge Scroll Saw (Seneca Falls, N. Y.) ; the Eclipse Per- 
forator; the Variety Wood-turning Lathe (by the Kollstoue Maubine 
Company, Fitchburg, Mass.) ; Howley & Heimanes new style power 
mortiser, with speed of 800 strokes per minute, &c. ' 



38 AMERICAN WOODENWARE IN NEW ZEALAND. 

TbeVarietyWood-tuniing Lathe wilt in a few hours make maDy thon- 
sand druggists' boxes, button molds, tassel moldn, bonnet stands, balls, 
knoba, tops, toys, parlor croquet eeta, pencil caBes, organ-stops, wheels, 
spools, pipe stems, fauceta, checkers, aager, file and chisel bandies, 

The Eclipse Perforator ased by the Auckland Timber Company is 
. said to be the only round-hole power perforating machine ever placed 
before the public that will do stub and checqne work and lift at any 
given or required point. The cutters are so arranged that they shear 
out the holes, leaving the sheets iree, clear cut and without any burr, 
and as the punches are mn by gear they act independently of each other 
aud run for a long period without wearing ont. The cutters are easily 
sharpened by tapping them on the face with a light hammer. Stub and 
straight work can be run through at eqnal spewl, as fast as the feeder 
can put in the sheets three orfoar together, the work being delivered in 
the drop-box clean and flat. The timber company also use the Excel- 
sior Lathe, of the Globe Manufacturing Company, Middleton, Conn. 
This lathe is so simple in construction that it can be used even by 
nnpracticed hands. The length of its bed is 25 inches and theswingis 
5^ inches. The ways are of iron instead of wood. The machine is capa- 
ble of doing botli fine and common work. 

The Auckland Timber Company has also an endless variety of Ameri- 
can dimension planes, boring machines, molding, mortising, tennoning 
machines, cut-off and slitting saws, hand sawing machines, planingand 
molding machine, knives, woodturning chisels, and gauges, hollow an- 
gers, &e. Over 500 bands are employed in the factory of the Anckland 
Timber Company, and about twice that unmber in their town and bush 
saw mills. 

COST OF FEBIOHT ON WOODENWARE. 

The cost of freight on wooilenware imported into New Zealand from 
San Francisco and New York appears to me to be unusually high. The 
ratesof the Pacific Mail SteamshipCompanyoD woodenware to Auckland 
are $15 per ton measurement. The cost on the same gooils by sailing 
vessels fhjm New York to New Zealand is also very high and ranges 
from $7.50 to $8.25 per ton. The prices of woodenware are a fraction 
higher in San Francisco than in the eastern cities, but some of the Auck- 
land merchants prefer to pay the additional prices and also the extra 
cost of freight in order to secure a quick delivery of their goods. Be- 
sides there is always considerable delay iu the shipment of goods from 
New York. * 

The merchants complain that. the class of vessels which come here 
are generally very old, slow, wooden sailing vessels; totally unfit for 
nir« cargo or snch goods as are easily damaged. Moreover, it is said 
that these ships do not come direct to Auckland, but clear for. some 
other New Zealand port, either Lyttleton, Dunedin, or Wellington, and 
that goods thus shipped are fully six months in reaching their destina- 
tion, on account of the slow voyage. and the delay at the other New 
Zealand ports. It is claimed that the commisiiion merchant at Tew 
York represents that the ship, on discharging a portion of the cargo 
at the first port, can easily fill up with New Zealand produce (or the 
second port. The prospect of this second freight at high figures has 
the effect of inducing the master to charter his vessel at a low rate 
for the round trip, and the shipping agent com])eIs him to sign bills of 
lading at any price the agent may choose to charge. The owner of the 
vessel probably gets about $6.25 per ton on the cargo, ami the agent or 



BEEF CATTLE IN MEXICO AND IN THE UNITED STATES 39 

charterer from t8.75 to tlO per ton, thus gaioing a profit of abont 50 
per cent. The merchant here does not object to the profit made by the 
charterer, bat he does object to the long and nnnecessary delay in the 
traDsportation of his goods. The loss falls principally on the merchant 
at the second port 

I am ftally coDBciouB of the valae of the services of the commission 
man to the importer, bnt at the same time I cannot help believtng that 
trade npon a large scale should be conducted independently of them. 
The defeose made by the shipping agents is to the effect that the Aack- 
land merchants do not order goods enough to fill a ship, and they are 
compelled to call at a second port; but even suppose this to be the case, 
sorely small vessels could very easily be chartered for the purpose. 

Some of the New York exporters complain that they are in the hands 
of the shipping agents, and that if they send goods by outside vessels 
the shipping agents will refuse in the future to carry freight for them. It 
is always difflcnit to get at the exact truth in cases of this kind, but the 
fact nevertheless remains that the great bulk of American merchandise, 
and especially fine ironmongery, reaches this port by way of London 
and Sydoey. 

Q. W. GKIFFIN, 
Consul. 

Dbitbh) States Cokbtjlatb, 

Auckland, If. Z., Jtmttary 26, 1883. 



BEXF CATTLE IH MEXICO AKS 15 THE UHITEO STATES. 

REPORT BY COrrSUL-QRlfERAL SVTTON, Of XATAXOROS. 

On account of the close relation between the cattle interests of the 
United States and those of Northern Mexico the report treats of this 
industry in both countries. The United States is the final arbiter as to 
demand and price. The anpply, of coarse, comes largely from that por- 
tion of the United States lying west of the Mississippi, but, as I show 
in this report, the prime and beat aourcea, the bases of these herds, must 
come in the future as they have iu the past from Texas and Mexico. 

The increased price for such cattle will greatly stimulate cattle rais* 
ing iu Mexico, and the exports thereof wUl iu all probability reach a 
million dollars annually within a few years. 

I have thought that a brief statement of the new rulings under which 
breeding animals can be entered free might be appropriately published. 
From the great number of iuqniries which I receive I am confident that 
it would be of value to stockmen, and therefore I have referred to the 
matter herein. 

The value of the cattle-raising indastry in the United States is in- 
creasing with rapidity, and the magnitude of its fhture is almost beyond 
estimate. . 

The price of the beefsteak is a matter of universal interest. A vari* 
ation of a few cents per pound makes changes iu the living expenses of 
the millions. Great Britain and the Oontinent t>f Europe have of late 
years come to' have a direct interest in this cattle supply of the United 
States. 

While Australia and Sonth America will take some part in furnishing 
tlie European imports, the main source is and will continue to be that 
poriJOD of the United States lying west of the Mississippi. Texas, 



40 BEEP CATTLE IN MEXICO AND IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Iowa, Miasouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and the Territories are at present 
the most important sources of sapply. 

The ttital of stock cattle, not inclnding milch cows or oxen, in the 
United States was, in 1880, 22,500,000. Tbis would give less than one 
half of a beef to eaeh person in the United States. 

The population of the United States inereased from 33,600,000 in 
1870 to 50,000,000 in 1880, about3 per cent. This beef cattle increased 
from about 13,500,000 in 1870, to 22,500,000 in 1880, or about 66 per 
eent. 

The European demand has greatly increased within the last three or 
four years, and with the now processes of land and ocean shipmeut this 
export trade will steadily increase. 

The following table, compiled from statistics of the census of 1880, 
shows the visible supply of such cattle in all the States of the Union at 
that date, with per cent, of incrense from 1870 : 

BABI OF TBZ USSISSIPPI. 



Bute*. 


Mo. of 
cMUe. 


Inenwa. 




l.Bt3.0<9 

W4,ue 

M2,233 
Bfll.OlS 


P«rem 


t 
























MS8.0T8 


Ay-.B«. 










6M.00I 

60.<7M 
4M.W0 
4S2,Ma 

atn.lw 

378, lOS 

!se,fUfi 

IS: Si 

III 

M,M£ 

Cr%14fl 
611,780 

i«,aoi 




























































































6,873,928 












U, 092, DO* 











WB8T OF THB MISSISSIPFI. 



1. TBim» t.sm.am , 

2. Iow» l,TSS.Ma 

4. HlMOurl 1.«0,<WJ 

a. Kuiau ■ 1,019. KM 

11. KebiukA I 6W. HO I 

Five SUtM MM.BM I 

18. CklirDTola < 431. Ml r 

17. Arkuuu , 4S3,8B3 , 

ss. orsROD Ka,sei i 

B4. UlnDeaoti S4I,ln 

». Colnndo S1S,8)S 

ZT. Loaldsua | 282,418 ] 



C~.(iot^[c 



BEEP CATTLE IN MEXICO AND IK THE UNITED STATES. 41 

WEST OF TBB ICISSrSSIPPI-ConUDued . 



3ut». 


KB, MS 


iDCtMM. 






Per ami. 






B.Kl!T^« 





58, ago 

UM3 


i.sss 

2» 


s,z6n,*Ba 


AV,ge, ewi 


11, 418,313 


AT'a^e, fiM 



M. ArluHU 

Seren 8uta and sight TerrlLorlH 

To bIts SUtea mnd eight Tamtoriea 

TUrty-dgbt Sm(« uid dgbt TenltoriH "tO^^. 

A Study of the foregoing table is of mucli iaterest. Takiog the five 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, New York, and Penneylvauia, lyiag 
east of the Mississippi, we find 5,200,000 cattle, and that the rate of in- 
crease for the ten j ears has been on an average 4 per cent, per annum. 
In the other twenty-one States east of the Mississippi were 5,874,000 
head, which represented an average increase per annum of 35 per cent. 
Total east of the Mississippi 1 1,062,000 head, which represented an an- 
naal increase of 3.8 per cent. West of the Mississippi, in the Ave States 
of Texas, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Ifcbraska, were 8,159,851 head, 
an average annual increase of 35,2 per cent. 

In eeren other States and eight Territories west of tlie Mississippi 
were 3,254,432, an average aouual increase of 69.6 per cent. 

Taking the t«iTitory west of the river, twelve States aud eight Ter- 
ritories, and we And a total of 11,418,313, and au annual increase of 
52.4 per cent. 

These figures show the immense development of the cattle-raising in- 
dnstrj- in the West during that period. Since 1880 the ratio of increase 
west of the Mississippi has probably been ai>oat the same as the pre- 
vious average, say 50 per cent annually. At this date, nearly three 
years later, there are thus in that section from 25,000,000 to 30,000,000 
of such cattle. A rough estimate of their value would be from |25 to 
150 each. . 

Taking the medtnm both of numbers and prices, and we have27,500,000 
head, at $37.50 each, or a money value of $1,031,120,000. The demand 
for cattle is seemingly ioexhanstible, and the pastures of the West will 
support two, three, five, or perhaps even ten times as many as are now 
there. 

While the West is thus rapidly increasing its stock, it has yet to sup- 
ply the larger part of the eastern cities and foreign demand. The East- 
ern and Southern States supply the local demands, and send some cat- 
tie to the larger cities. New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and other 
large cities not only use the eastern supply, but draw more and more 
each year from the West. 

Chicago, Saint Lonis, and Kansas City are the chief western centers 
of the beef-cattle trade. In those cities and farther west some idea may 
be obtained of the immense number of cattle sent from the plains. To 
make good this drain and to supply the demand for more cattle to start 
the thooaands of ranches all over the West is the great problem of the 
present. One year the stockman goes to Oregon, another to Arizona 
or Hew Mexico or California after breeders for the foondation of hi" 



42 BEEF CATTLE IN MEXICO AND IK THE UNITED STATES. 

herds. His main retiaDC« has been, howerer, the empire State of the 
Soothwest, Texas. The preceding table shows very plainly how many 
cattle have been driven oat of that State. There ia no spot in the 
world where cattle can be raised so cheaply and at the same time be so 
near an unfailing market as on the boundless plains of Texas. Yet so 
great has been this demand, and so many cattle were driven from Texas 
between 1870 and 1880, that the average annual increase in tbat time 
was only 15.10 per cent., while in all the States and Territories west of 
the Mississippi the average annual increase was 52.4 per cent. In Wy- 
oming it was 278 per cent., in Dakota, 133.5 per cent., in Nebraska, 121 
percent., in Idaho, 113.7 per cent, in Arizona, 86,6 per cent., and in 
Colorado, 68.7 per cent, increase per annum. California, too, shows the 
drain apon her supply by the fact that she lost 2 per cent. In those ten 
years. 

In the search for stock to grow op to beef on these plains the whole 
available east and center of the United States is stripp«d of calves and 
young cattle. All these sonrces of supply are inadequate; and not only 
IB the supply inadequate, bnt there are other considerations of great im- 
portance to stockmen and to eaters of beef- 
It needs a hardy class of cattle on those plains to stand the severe 
extremes of heat and cold. The young stock from the Bast is too ten- 
der, too much civilized, in fact, to stand the test, and in a severe wloter 
30- per cent, of them die from cold and hunger. In Texas the cattle 
are more hardy, and hence the great demand for Texas cattle to make 
the basis of the herds. 

Kow, while Texas has nearly or quite 4,000,000 such cattle, yet the 
conditions are so favorable and markets are so good, rancheros there 
prefer to keep all breeders and sell only the three and four year old 
steers to be driven north and west to fatten for beef. Their breeding 
cows and heifers, the hardy and prolific base of their herds, they will 
not sell except for high prices. Hence for ihe last two or three years 
the cattle men of Colorado and that section have begun to look beyond 
Texas and into Northern Mexico. 

Boughly speaking, a line drawn from Gnaymas, on the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, to Tampico, on the Gulf of Mexico, represents the chief cattle 
range of Northern Mexico. From this enormous territory deduct one- 
third for monnttiins, deserts, and tillable land, and the remaining two- 
thirds is grazing land. 

Over all this territory, in every extreme of climate, from the thin, 
cold air of the high plateau to the low, hot lauds of the coast of Tamau- 
lipas, range the hardy progenitors of the Texas cattle — long-horned, 
large-boned, gaunt, immense beasts; they sire simply /ratB^s upon which 
the sweet grasses of Kansas and the West will make fine beef. Their 
greatest value, however, is not for themselves alone. Descendants of 
the fine stock brought from Spain by the Spanish conquerors, nature 
has adapted them through generations of neglect to their wild life. 
They are hardy: they are wild; and while their rating as to class is low, 
yet the good blood of the past generations is still there. As I have 
said, they themselves will make good beef when fattened on the west- 
em plains; but crossed with the improved bulls from the East or from 
Europe, one or two crosses brings tbem far above what the same would 
do for the ordinary class of cattle in the United States. Not only do 
they come up to a high grade of stock much more rapidly than the 
ordinary American cattle, but they still retain their great frames, the 
dark red color of the meat, and breed with great rapidity, but they are 
what the western stockmen admiringly call ''good metiers.'* They 



XuKlt^lc 



BEEF CATTLE IN MEXICO AND IN THE UNITED STATES. 43 

stili retain their wildnees, nnd hence do not stay tamely around water- 
holes eating the short, poor grass, as do the American stock, getting 
tbin and weak, to die in the first great storm. They mnltiply rapidly, 
stay ont in the good grass and brash, bare targe frames, fatten rapidly, 
and make the best grass-fed beef that goes East. No wonder that the 
stockmen of onr plains are anzions to get them. 

This portion of Northern Mexico would inclnde the States of Sonera, 
Chihnahna, Ooabuila, Nnevo Leon, and Tamanlipas, and portions of 
other States. 

In this Territory are, on a reasonable estimate and At>m latest data 
available, an area of 300,000 square miles, and aboat a million of inhab- 
itants. Of this Territory probably two-thirds is eaitable for, and more 
or less use<l for, the raising of cattle, horses, goats, sheep, and males. 
I can only ronghly estimate the number of live animals in this Territory. 

In Tesas, with an area of 237,000 sqnare miles, there were, in 1880, 
about 7,500,000 snch animals, divided as follows : neat cattle, 1,000,000; 
horses, 800,000 ; males and asaes, 132,000 ; sheep, 3,500,000. 

In this portion of Northern Mexico, with an area of, say, 300,000 square 
miles, there may be now something like 6,600,000 animals, and which I 
estimate as beiiig divided about as follows : goats, 2,500,000 ; neat cat- 
tle, 1,500,000; horses, 1^000,000: sheep, 1,000,000, and mules, 600,000. 

The difficulty of obtaining reliable statistics in Mexico makes it im- 
possible for me, at this time, to do more than give the above rongh esti- 
mate. I hope, however, during the year to obtain some reliable data 
on this industry. 

The exports of lire animals from Northern Mexico have been mostly 
of breeding cattle, beeves, saddle-horses, and ewes. 

The annual amonnt bas not been large. For the yeAr ending Jane 30, 

1881, the exports of live animals from Mexico to the United States 
amounted to *314,272, of which $296,262 came in on this frontier. Of 
this amonnt 467,768 was imported into the customs district of Brasses 
de Santiago ; t80,224 into the district of Corpus Christi ; {43,216 into 
that of Saluria, and $105,054 into that of El Paso and New Mexico. This 
trade bas been of but trifling importance until within the last year. 

The declared exports from this district for the year ending June 30, 

1882, were $160,160, as compared with $48,500 for the previons year. 
For the qnarter ending March 31, 1883, the exports are not yet footed 

ap, hot ^11 be abont $100,000, as compared with $62,030 for the same 
qnarter of 1382, and $21,904 for the same qnarter of 1881. 

AH the imports of live animals from Mexico have in the past paid an 
ad valorem duty of 20 per cent, in the United States. The' law of 1871 
^Revised Statutes, section 2.505) provides that animals alive specially 
imported from beyond seas for breeding purposes should be fi-ee of duty, 
under such regulations as should be prescribed by the Secretary of the 
Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury made substantially the follow- 
ing regulations: A special invoice thereof as breeding animals was to 
be presented to the consul ; the shipper was to swear that same were of 
saperior stock adapted to improve the breed in the United States. To 
this the consul was to add that, to the best of his information and be; 
lief, the above animals were intended for breeding purposes. 

On arrival in the United States the owner must produce the above 
and make oath to a similar statement. The collector must be satisfied 
that said animals are of superior stock adapted to improving the breed 
In the United States. 

The term "beyond seas" was held to mean anywhere beyond the 
limits of the United States. 



...Cooi^le 



44- BEEF CATTLE IN MEXICO AND IN THE UNITED STATES. 

ThU iQterpretatiou of the law seeiui* to have held for all these years, 
aod antil laat Jauuary. 

Under date of January 25, 13S3, a circular was issued firom the Treas- 
nry Department giving a decision of the United States Supreme Court, 
in a case from Maine, to the effect that the modifying clause as to t>e- 
ing of superior stock adapted to improving the breed in the United 
States, was unlawful, and ordering the duties returned to the importer. 
The circular then revoked so much of section 383 of the Treasury Regula- 
tions of 1874 as was affected by the decision of the court. The ques- 
tion as to " beyond seas" was not decided by the court nor changed by the 
circuiar. This left the law in force as it really read, instead of as mod- 
ified for so many years; and if the definition " beyond seas" was good 
law, all breeding animals could be imported free. 

Desiring to have the matter definitely settled, Mr. J. K. Walker, of 
Ooliad, Texas, appealed to me for the proper certificate. As I had no 
authority to change consular form fTo. 66, and as he could not swear to 
all required thereby, he finally presented to me the regular usual in- 
voice containing some 6U0 animals which he intended for breeding-pur- 
poses. Of these 15 were bulls, the remainder cows or heifers. He also 
handed me and swore to an affidavit that he had purchased said ani- 
mals to take to the United States especially for breeding purposes, and 
asked that I give a certificate as to my ioforaiatioa and belief. As he. 
made oath that he had ranulies in Texas, and was engaged in raising 
snch animals, swore to the affidavit, had ample evideuce to prove prior 
intentions, » good character, &c,, I gave him a certificate tliat I did bo 
believe. On his making entry at Browusville, Texas, he complied with 
all the requisites, and had no difilculty in proving to the satisfaction of 
the collector that his statement was true. 

Under the Treasury regulations they should have been admitted free 
' without further delay, but the collector, not caring to take so great a 
responsibility, asked for instructions tram the Treasury. The reply 
came i)roDiptIy to release the stock. 

This is of coarse a test case, and in future any person who can satisfy 
the consul and collector as to the truth of his statement can pass certain , 
classes of animals free of duty. 

It is to be hoped that instructions will soon be given to show what 
evidence a consul should require to be satisfied. As it now is, it is a 
veiy wide discretion to leave in any person's hands. 

The classes of animals which may properly be entered free are mares, 
fillies, cows, heifers, ewes, and she goats. A limited number of stallions, 
bulls, aud he goat^ may in some cases be properly imported with the 
other stock. The decision in this test case is already known the whole 
length and width of this frontier. Stockmen in Texas, New Mexico, Ari- 
zona, Kansas, Colorado, &c., will take full ad vautageofitaudgo to Mexico 
in greater numbers for breeders. It will also give a great impulse to the 
cattle-raising industry in Northern Mexico. Before this was known 
conditions were so favorable that large numbers of American aud Eng- 
lish stockmen had started ranches. Land can be found in such im- 
mense tracts, at such low prices, taxes are so low, labor is so cheap, the 
climate is so favorable, that even with all the risk and expense of living 
in Mexico and paying an ad valorem duty of 20 per cent, on the 
cattle sent to the United States they had figured out an ample margin 
of profit. By the decision of the court one half of their stock, when 
properly invoiced, will go into the United States free of duty. 

The demand is so much greater than the supply that it will hardly 



^dbyGoogle 



THE ALLEGED BRADFORD ESTATE IN GREAT BRITAIN. 45 

change prices thereof perueptihly, but will simply add 20 per cent, to 
the valne of one-half their tttock. 

In the States of Otiifanahaa, Uuahiilla, and ^uevo Leon a large amount 
of grazing land haa already bettii iturchaned, and the active prospecting 
has considerably increased prices. In Tamaulipas, but little has been 
done, as it lies off the line of the railways which are being most actively 
constnict«d and along the lines of which stockmen have mostly fol- 
lowed. 

lu this State of Tainanlipas, however, is perhaps the most perfect 
breeding and grazing country for cattle and horses In the world. There 
is more water than in Texas, the soil is very rich, and if it does not rain 
there are very heavy dews to keep the grass green. The State has a 
front of about 250 miles along the Bio Grande and aboot 300 miles along 
the GnU of Mexico. Unlike the other States of N'orthern Mexico the 
mountains do not cnt it all up into narrow valleys. The larger portion 
is very level, and in the whole State there is only a very small portion 
of waste lands or mountains. Back 60 miles from the frontier to where 
Americans can bny real estate the people live in the real old feudal 
manner. 

Somewhere in there toward San Fernando, Soto la Marina, Victoria, 
Tula, or theteabouts, is, in my opinion, the best opening for stockmen 
to buy cattle and horses for export or ranches on which to breed them. 

W. SUTTOlf, 

Consul, 

TJnitbd States Cohsulatb, 

Matamoros, April 13, 1883. 



TftE AXLEOED B&ASFOBD ESTATE IH GREAT BBITADT. 

BBPOBT BT OOSSVLGBSBBiL UBBBITT. OF LOSDOX. 

Periodically there breaks out in the United States a mania among 
certain families that they are entitled %■> vast estates in Great Britain, 
the proceeds of which are snpposed to be lying in the vaults ot the 
Bank of England, merely awaiting the demand of the " missing heirs ** 
to be Atrtfawith paid. The absurdity of these pretensions has so often 
been ez|>08etl that it seems almost an unnecessary waste of labor to 
prick another bubble of the same kind that has appeared of late in the 
United States, where the alleged " heirs" of Gov. William Bradford, 
first governor of the Plymouth Colony, imagine themselves entitled to 
the sum of $100,000,000, the accumulated principal and interest of his 
estate, said to have been left in England over two hundred years ago. 

It appears that the present instance of the inheritance folly was 
caased by some irresponsible paragraph in a newspaper in a Western 
State, which, having been extensively copied, has caused many letters 
of inquiry to be addressed to this office, asking that the statement be 
inveati gated ; and, judging by the number of these letters, I cannot 
refrain from saying that no one of the Fiigrim Fathers has left behind 
him so nomeroas a progeny as Governor Bradford. 

Although I was well aware that the " Bradford estate " was like scores 



^dbyGoQgle 



4t! THE ALLEGED BBAOPOBO ESTATE IN QBEAT BRITAIN. 

that have appeared before, I addressed a letter ou the subject to the 
Bauk of Eugland, aud received the foUowiug statement in reply : 

Bank or England, Jpril 10, 1803. 

DfAR Sut : I beg to acknoirledKe the t» 
to iuforin you that there iti uo uuclaimi-d »1 

bank in the name of Gov. WiUiain Bradford, nor is there, bo far is I a 
fuuDdatiou for the asaertion that tbare is. 

The only unclaimed property of which the bank has cogoi^iwice is such as is in- 
VMtMl in rovernment stuck or annuititw, and of this they havu no kuowledge beyond 
the actnarname o,r names iu which it is Inscribsd iu their books. 

Stoek and annuities, the dividends on which are unclaiuied for tan years, and iso- 
lated dividends similarly unclaimed, are truusferred to the eommissiooers for the re- 
duction of the national debt; but immodiatolj on such transfer, notice is sent to the 
stockholder at the address registerud in the buuk-book, sod {lains are taken to dts- 
covec him or his representatives, who can at auy time, ou foroishinK satisfuutory 
proof of their title, reclaim the stock, annuities, or dividends «o trausterred. 

There is no limitation as to the time when such reclaim can be mu<)e. The bauk 
receivM very numerous applications for unclaimed money from America, only a frac- 
tional percentage of which refer to funds in existence. These inquiries are always 
acBwered, and any means that you can take to spare the supposed cUimants the 
trouble, anxiety, and expense Into which they are led by designing penwns would at 
the same time confer a boon on them and spare the bank much unnecessary trouble, 
lam, Ac, S. O. GRAY, 

Chi^ Accountant. 
This letter, with the accompaDying circulars of the bank on the sub- 
ject, give full iaformatiOD of the position of the bank in the matter of un- 
claimed estates, aud if well known in the United States might be of some 
service iu putting a check to this ever-recurring inheritance folly: bat 
the experience of the past forbids the hope that so alluring a fraad will 
not always find victims, however often or thoroughly the fraud may be 
exposed. 

E. A. MEERITT, 

Consul- General. 
United States Consulatb-Qenebal, 

London, May 5, IS83. 

[FlntloDlosiuehi Conanl-Oenenl Uerrltt's report] 
VlKlaimed Itooti cmd divtdandt in the Bank nf England. 

CaiBF Accountant's Offics, Bank of England, 

Mag 30, 1881. 
Persons int^uirin^ for nnolaiiued stocks and dividends iu the public funds of Eng- 
land aud India, to which they believe they are eutltled, must supply tha foUowiug 
parti cnlars : 

1. The names and full addresses of the persons in whose names the stock is sup- 
posed to stand. 

2. The name of the stock and Its amount. 

3. The approximate ditto of its investment. 

As the bank have nothing to guide them in these searohea but the names of the 
stockholders, and as the same or very similar names often reour a great number of 
*' ~* -s essential that the above information should bo given with approximate 



The bank are bound by law not to permit any dealing with stocks and dividends 
except by the persoas in whose aames they stand, or, in the event of the decease of 
those persons, by their le^al personal representatives (so constituted by the bi^h 
DourL of justice, probate division). Failing either quallfloation, a claimant may in- 
stitute proceedings in the coort of chancery. It is therefore indispensable that ap- 
Elioauts should establish their right to deal with the fund in question either as stook- 
oldenorassuchcepreseiitativea, Mwell as shoiv that the said fund is identical with 



THE AIXEOED BBiJ)FOBl> BSIATE IN QBEAT BRITAIN. 47 

any knowledge of any of tie property of persona dying iuteHtate,-aor of the proceeda 
of estiit«e 'iu chancery, oor of uncluiniHd dividenda oa eatatea ia bankruptcy. And 
inrther, as they have likewise uo knowledge of the purpoaea for which iiiTeatmeata 
are made It is tiaeleu for claimanta to inquire for depoaita or Inveatmeuts supposed to 
be iQ ezi«t«ace for their benefit or for the benefit of other peiaoua. 



(Second Indosure In Consul-Oenenl Hen 



When divideuda have been paid over to the oouiniiiiaiouen for the reductiuii of the 
national debt, in congequeLice of their remaiuiug unclainied, appltcatiun for payment 
of the same may be made to the governor of the Bunk of England. 

In the case of sole auconnts nppliuatioa must be made by thn atoekholdsr, or by hia 
legal personal representative or representatives, if the stookhoider bo deceased; and 
in the case of joint accounts by the survivor or survivors, or one of them, or by the 
legal petBonal represeutative or representatives of the last survivor; and the cuaseof 
the non-receipt of the dividends, and whether the applicant or applicants own the 
atock abeolmely or us trustee or trustees must be stated. If the stock is trust prop- 
erly the natnre of the trnst and the name or names of the person or persons beneU- 
cially intercAted must, be set forth as the beneticiory or beneficiaries will be required 
te concur in the application, 

la the event of the governor of the Bank of England not being sattstted of the 
right of the person or persona making the claim the claimant or claimanla may peti- 
tion the court of chancery. (33 and 34 Vict., cb. 71, sec. 5^.) 

When the total amount of the dividends exceeds twenty pounds they cannot be 
paid until three months after particulars of the claim have been adverliaed. (33 and 
34 Vict., cb. 71, eecs. 56 and 57.) 

(The advertisements will be prepared by the bank, but they must he inserted by 
and at the expense of the applicant [or applicants], who must furnish the bank witli 
copies of the newapapers.) 

All communications with respect to unclaimed stock and dividends should be ad- 
dreaaed to the "accountant-general. Bank of England, £. C." 

le written on foolscap paper — on one aide only. The following 

To tke Goiwraor of Uu Bank o/ England: 

Sib: dividend [<] on [Acre <ta(«lA<j)arli(niIar(o/U««looJt] formerly atanding 

in the name [i] of [hert tlate tke namaa and deicriptioni a* recorded in the bank boeka^, 
having been paid over to the commiaaionem for the reduction of the national debt in 
consequence of its [or their'] remaining unclaimed for ten years and upwards, I [or 
m] aa the stockholder [or a* one of the itockkolden, or <u the ilocklioldere, or at tlie legal 
XTMOiialrepretmtalivelt'lo/lkeltOcklvtUter.o': - ■ ' . .. r , , .. 

'a*l tarriring ilockkolder, a« the Ca»e vuxy he' 
of the dividends to be paid to rae [or ua]. 

[ Here ttale Ike cause of the dividend* remaining iinreceived, and whetXer the dividend* are 
the propertjf nf Oit o^licaHt or apflvxint* dhaoXtitelg or trt Intil. 

If tie tUct it in triut name the benefioiariee and detoribe tht deedi giving than their in- 



Jtet«.- 

As the ^raoa [or jwrsM*] beuedcially iutereated in this stock I \_or tea] a 
tbta application. 



Ten days after tbe application haabeeu lodged, or alter the expiration of the period 
Banted in the adverthwrnents, and provided there has been no iutination to the con- 
trary and no counterclaim, the dividends will be payable to the applicant [or appU- 
canla] who must attend in person or by attorney at the chief accountant's office. 
Bank of England. Applicante, when attending iu fwraon, most be accompanied by a 
banker or atockholder rar the purpose of identmoation. 



:,lzedbyG00gle 



COMMEBCIAL TBAVELBB8 AND TRADE JODRNALH. 



OOMHEKCIAX TBATELSRB AND TKABE JOTrKVAI.S IH SOUTH 

AHEBICA. 

SEPORT BY CONSUL SMITH. OT CiBTHAaESA, T7NITED STATES OF COLOMBIA. 

Since holding this post I have met with bat oue repreeeiitiitive of 
an AnieiicaD commercial taonse. In my opinion the absence of these 
gentlemen is, more than anything else, the cause of oar trade with this 
country not being more rapidly extended. 

There is nothing like being on the ground to sell one's wares. Ad- 
vertiisements, price-lists, tra^lu jonrnaltj, catalogues, &g., have done much 
to pave the way towards introducing our manufactnres, but they can- 
not do all. It is certaiuly wortK the experiment on the part of the 
American manufacturer to send to Soath American countries, especially 
Colombia and Venezuela, a representative to introduce bia line of goods. 
It is not necessary for such agent to speak Spanish, as is eroneoasly 
supposed, for nearly all the merchants speak English. Besides, the 
commercial language in Spanish can soon be acquired. lu bringing 
bis samples with him the commercial traveler must have them in pieties, 
if possible, otherwise full duties wilt be charged by the eostom-hoiise, 
the same as in merchandise. 

All baggage over 100 kilograms in weight must pay a duty of 60 
cents per kilogram, gross weight. The customs regulations state that 
samples in pieces, in packages not exceeding in weight 25 kilograms, 
m&y enter free of duty. The custom of the European houses, so 1 have 
been informed, is to send these packages of samples to their different 
customers a package at a time, and when their representatives arrive 
they can take tham along with them to any part of the country with- 
out molestation, as the packages have been properly^nd duly entered 
through the merchant to whom the samples were consigned. English, 
French, and German houses have their agents constantly traveling 
through this country, which Is certainly a practical proof that it pays 
them to do so. 

It is an undeniable fact that such journals as the American Mail and 
Exporter, the American Exporter, and their class have had an effect 
of calling the attention of Colombians to the great extent and variety 
of American products and manufactures. These journals have quite 
a circulation among the merchants of this district, who pass them from 
hand to band. Immediate attention is attracted to advertisements in 
these papers by the handsome illustrations of the articles advertised, 
which also state the prices and weights. By such means, also, the manu- 
facturer is brought into direct contact with the buyer, thus dispensing 
with tbe expensive medium of the commission merchant. 

More than one merchant has informed me that by reading such class 
of journals his attention was drawn towards the United States as a bet- 
ter market for purchase and sale than Europe; and, moreover, he had 
saved money by finding out it was better, when possible, to deal with 
the manufacturer direct. Catalogues sent to this country should be 
written in Spanish, the price and weight of every article specified ; I 
mean gross weight when packed. They should also be profusely illus- 
trated. This consulate will be pleased to receive such catalogues, ad- 
vertisements, &c., and distribute them where " they may do the most 
good." 



^dbyGoogle 



PROHtBITION OF AMERICAN FOBE IN FRANCE. 49 

Advertisemeuts printed on fans, or f^^med, pay bigh duties at tbe 
CDStom -house. 

EDMUND W. P. SMITH, 

Contul, 
United States Consulate, 

Carthageaa, Colombia, April 15, 1883. 



FBOmBITIOH 07 AlCEBICAK POKK IN FKAKCE. 



At the reqaest of the membera of the American Pork and Lard Ex- 
change of Bordeaux, I traDBioit with this their petitioo to tbe Frencb 
miuister of commerce, UEgiog tlie abrogatiou of the measare against 
American pork, in which tbe attention of the minister is especially di- 
rected to the danger of reprisals on the part of tbe United States Got- 
ernment. 

ALBERT RHODES, 

Vontut. 
United States Consulate, 
Boue», April 4, 1883. 

BOBDBAUX, April 4, 18K). 
To Ike MlKUter of Comweroe, Pari* : 

Sir: We, Ihe nnilpr«i)^eii dealers at Bordeaux in American aeXt Dt«atB nod lard, 
bave Ihe honor to Bolicit from yuur excellenoy the 'friiilion of tbo proiniiiPB w> frn- 
qnentlj repeated in answer 10 our petitionx respecting [bo repeal of the decree of 
February 18, IRHl. 

Tho tolDtion of this question van no longer Le tlelnyed. Indeed it is already 
cleared ni», and onr ports shoir''' ««*-■ i*^ ^^at^^A e,^w *v,^ f.-..^ i^*^. .^f-nii^.. . 



(he privation of nhich has so pBinfLill; increased the cost of living for tbe laboring 
popalatiun. 

The spontanuons and disinterested representations aiidressed to your excellency by 
the prMidents and delegates of CUe Chambers of Commerce of Parts, Marseilles, Bor- 
deanx, and Havre have led us to hope that the just cbiims, couched in such urgent 
tenns by the mmt eminent members of the French commercial body, might have 
brnaght about the iramediate repeal of the prohibitive decree, and that jour excel- 
lency would thereby briUK to a close tills condition of affairs, which is absolutely 
punicions Ut the iudnstrial and cnnimerciul interests of our country. 

In granting, however, a favorable decUion to these jnst claims, we learn with rsuret 
that your excellency proposee committing for consideration a project for submittiug 
said salt meats, on tiieir entry into France, to a refrigerating process, againat ihe 
adoption of wbicb we most euerKeticalty protest. 

We are aware Chat a patent boa been taken out some years ago for a process of pre- 
serving meats by refrigeration. The proprietors of the process have been endeavor- 
ing 10 tind meaus of ntiliziug their invention, but it seems with but small succesg, 
since at this present time they are deeirons of having it adopted by tlie Government, 
anil thereby secure to themselves large and easy profits. 

The applicstion of Ibis process would bo ruinous, and would completolj hamper 
the trade. The constaut handling the me.its must be subjected to for refrigeration, 
the anpacking, the necessary grMiug for storage, the repacking, Slc, woul<l cause 
•Dch iucreoae of cost and such a deterioration of quality that It wonld be simply 
folly for any serions merchant to lay himself open to such risks. 

To these druwbacks, which by themselves are ample reaaoue for the rejection of such 
project, we further obtterve that it wonld seem U> us impossible that any meat sub- 
jected to the action of ii'Xtreme cold and afterwards brought to a higher temperature 
could be preserved, and this affirmation we are ready to maintain, niitwithRtanding 
Ihe laboratory oiperiments which have been made with a singlo ham. Tbe trade 
would be 90 hampered and exposed to so many hidden risks that it would no longer 
contain any element of surety in engaging tbereiu. ' 

*""^ . n,„.=...Got>8lc 



50 OEBUAIT PBOHIBITION. 

Of all tbe processes hitherto proposed, the refrigeratiou is that which we most pos- 
itively teject. If the most part of allutbere contaio objectioiisof almost equal grav- 
Ity, there still reuaioB one which has been already proved, and that is the mt^ clrcn- 
latlon, which for twenty years has never givea rise to auy complaint, nor been the 
caase of a single accident. 

The solution that we ask of your excellency, is to retam to the common law, and 
thns onl^ as Justice and reparation for the evil caused bv the decree of Pebma^ 18. 
We ask it not only in the interest of onr tf ade, but in tne intereete of the pnhlic in 
general. This deplorable law has bad the effect of provoking the American preaa to 
a series of violent and unjust attacks against all food products exported iWm Fnuioe 
to the United States, and should these attacks lie cootiaued, they must jiecEssarily 
depreciate said products, and finally drive them out of that vast and important 
market. 

And still farther, the Qoverament of the United Stales has been seriously menacing 
French commerce with reprisals, and thtse menaces are already being put into execu- 
tion. The increase of entry dutits ou our wines is of such a nature as to reduce con- 
siderably the output. These results we have already foreseen as the inevitable conse- 
quences of tbe decrre of February 18, notwithstanding the affirmations to thecoutrsry 
of interested parties, and we declare positively that the re^igerating process can 
never be considered as a measure of reparation, containing as it does all the effects of 
prohibition ; indeed, it is merely another and concealed method of perpetuating it. 
Onr Oovemment will most certainly never succeed by this means in breaking down 
the barriers raised against onr product* by the new tariff. 

We are aware how warmly your excellency is interested in our national commerce, 
and we are convinced that you will give due connideration to the foregoing remwrks 
which we have tbe honor to submit to j ou, and which vre hope will be favorably re- 
ceived. * 

We Ijeg your excellency to accept the assurance of our deep respect. 

(Signatures.) 



OEBHAK PKOHIBITIOH. 



y AMBRWAK EOa-MEAT. 

In my report on the tariff laws and cuBtoms regulatious of Germanyt 
dated January 25, 18S2, I showed that the principal reason for the 
many devices resorted to by German customs offlciata to impose a higher 
rate of duty on certain articles than the law contemplated, was not a 
direct puriKwe to discriminate against goods of American prodoction 
or manufacture, because these devices affected importations from other 
countries as well as those from the ITnited States, but that they pro- 
ceeded rather from a desire to propitiate and minieter to that protective 
spirit which, since the year 1879, was known to have come luto favor 
with the leading spirits of the German government. 

When I now refer to the reRolutioD adopted by the Oermaa Bundes- 
rath on the 2l8t day of February, 1883, prohibiting the importation 
of American hog-meat, a subject which I am aware has engaged the at- 
tention of the Department for several weeks, 1 do so merely to call the 
atteutioQ of tbe Departmeut to a peculiar circumstance in the adoption 
of that resolution, tending to show that it was bom of the same spirit, 
which for a long time confidently asserted that, in ihe eye of the German 
tariff laws and regulations, canned meat or peaches were fine "ironware." 

I shall endeavor to trace the resolution referred to to its real origin. 
It is clearly the policy of the Government, in these times of turbulent 
socialistic agitations, to form around itself a phalanx of loyal and con- 
servative elements, by means of legislation, which will convince them 
that the Government is appreciative of their wants and anxioas to foster 
and enhance their material welfare. As iu all other European countries, 
except Great Britain, the rural population of Germany is not ouly the 



IzedbyGoOgIC 



OEEMAN PEOHIBITION. 51 

most nainerous, but alao tbe most ooDservative element and leaat lo- 
clioed to adopt uew ]K>litical oi social theories. 

A ]>ateriial care exeruised over tbe rural populatiou, a proper min- 
iatmtiou to tlieir wants, therefore, mnat greatly strengtheu the Govero- 
meut. Thus gradually a reliable majority in the Reichstag, tbe popular 
and most essential legislative factor of the empire, may be created, 
which will support aod cairy out reformatoi y plans aiul assist in keep- 
ing in check the turbulent socialistic elements of the great cities. 

Xow, the competition of the American hog raiser and ])ork packer 
was severely felt by the rural producer of Germany. The imposition 
of a duty of 12 marks per 100 kilograms did not deter the American 
shipper. According to the present comixmition and temper of the Reich- 
stag, however, it was impossible to obtain a majority for a law either 
prohibiting, on some s)>ecious grouud, the importation of American pork 
or so to increase the duty tbereou as to make American competition im- 
poKsible. But an exitedieiit was soon foand. The Bundesrath is not 
only one of the legislative factors of the German Imi)eria] Government 
(and in that respect it somewhat resembles tbe Senate of the United 
States, while tbe Reichstag corresponds to tlie House of Heitresenta' 
tives), but it also exercises executive authority and functions ; in other 
words, its powers are not only legislative, but also supervisory, regula- 
tive, and executive. It is charged with the adoption and passage of 
suitable rules and regulations to carry into effect the laws of tbe empire. 

The Bnndesrath consists of fifty -eight members. These, in one view, 
represent tbe several sovereign states of tbe German Empire. Tbey are 
not elected like the members of tbe Ileichstag, but appointed by tbe 
several German governments. Of tbe 5ei members Prussia apxmints 17, 
Bavaria 6, Saxony and Wurtemberg 4 each, Baden and Hesse 3 each, 
Mecklenburg ScbVerin and Brunswick 2 each, and all other priucipali- 
tie«, iucludiug the three Hanse Towns, Hamburg, Bremen, and Luijeck, 
1 each. Tliis body, so constituted aud euipowerHd, was requested by 
the imi>erial chancellor to enjoin, by virtue of its regulative power, tbe 
imitortatiou of American pork on tbe ground that it was affected by 
tricbiuffi, and therefore unwholesome. 

Now, although this sweeping allegation was not supported by sufQ- 
cieiit proof, and although numerous ]>etitions and remonstrances against 
sncb » regulation were sent to tbe Government and to the Buudej^ratb 
fiom the manufacturing districts uf Germany, where American pork and 
bams had l>ecomciudispeuBabIearticIesof nourishment, tbeBundosratb 
unanimously passed the resolution referred to, the prohibition decreed 
to go into effect thirty days after its promulgation by the imiwrial chan- 
cellor. 

It is likely that the jwint which readily suggests itself, viz, whether 
one brunch of tUe Government ciui, upon an unproven assumption of 
facts, by a so called " regulation," abrogate aud annul a law duly en- 
acted and in full force aud effect, will be raised in the Reichstag when 
thac body convenes in May next; but I doubt that the discussion of the 
qaestioit will have any ))ractical result whatever. 

The public jouruals now announce that tbe decree of the Buudesrath 
will be published in a few days, and that the regulation therefore will 
go into effect early in April, 1883. 

Tbe unanimity of tbe decision reached by the Bundesrath, however, 
tias surprised even the friends of the measure. It was confidently be- 
lieved that not only tbe Hanse Towns but also some other members of 
that body would vote against a proposition of such doubtful justice and 
utility. Subseqnent developments, however, have shown how that una- 



52 COKSEQUENTIAt EFFECTS OF QEEHAN PROHIBITION. 

nimity was reached, and at the same time how little the Baadearath itself 
believed in the correotness of the allegatioo, that the American pork 
was nn whole BO me. 

1o make this statement of mine clear it ia only neceaeary to cite an 
article which apiHiitti-d in the Cologne Gazette, a leading and influential 
journal of Germany, in its issue of the 26th of February, 1883, which ar- 
ticle I Attach 10 tliia report and of which the following is a correct trans- 
lation, viz : 

On February 21 the Baodesrath decreed tbat thirty days after the prom iilgaf ion ot 
a Tegulatiun to that eHuct by the imperial cbaDcellor toe importation of American 
hogh and hug-meiit ahall be probibit»Ll, this resolntion having been adopted nnani- 
mously. It mi^bt create attonisbaienl tbat tbe Haose Towns have aUo given in their 
consent. But it must be obaerved that tbey have ouly reluctantly said, "Siomno 
eon$eiitiant, ego non dittentio." They have declared that they have been unable to 
ooijvince themselves of the utility or necessity of this metuiure. and that they bare 
given in their consent only because sanitary onutidarationa alone were urged ait a 
reason far the meaaure, aud they were tin willing to take the reaponsibiliry of Iwing 
alone indifferent to the bealtb of the German people. But ae wise merobants tbey 
have at least averted the wont consequence to their carrying trade, inasmuch as they 
have obtained permission to import American bog-meat for re-eiportatlon and to pro- 
vision their own ships with Aiaerican hog-meat. That seadien may eat trichinons 
meat with impunity we had not hither to heard uf. Or do the Hause Town men not 
believe in the danger of trichina) and the aeriousuess of the arguaieuta in favor of the 



As U) the sanitary consideration, the prohibition of American bog-meat will nn- 
donbtedly prove very heal tby for the purses of our estate owners, bnt very unhealthy 
foi the poorer classes of our papiilatioo. 

We will not to-dajF enter further into the subject, which to us is tbe most melaucoty 
piece of our economical policy. 

Comment on this article is unnecessary. It fitly characterizes the 
spirit of the measure referred to. I will only add iucouclnsiou that the 
views expressed aud implied in the article are shared by almost all those 
who have given tbe subject any attentiou. 

FERDINAND VOGELEB, 

Cotuul Oeneral. 
FBAIfSFORT-ON-THE-MAIK. Gebmakt, March 3, 1883. 



THE COHSSauSKTZAL EFFECTS OF OEBHAV FBOEIBITXON. 

REPORT BT OOSSUL BTDER. OF OOPEHBAOES. 

I have herewith the honor to report on a subject which is at present 
creating considerable excitement amongst the agricultural classes in this 
country. I allude to an imperial decree lately enacted by the German 
Empire, prohibiting the importation of live swine, pork, and sausages 
teom the United States into the ports of the German Empire. 

Fears seem to be entertained here that the very considerable export 
trade in these articles which is now carried on from this country with 
Germany may, at no very remote period and in consequence of this de- 
cree, be subjected to such regulations And restrictions as would mate- 
rially interfere with this trade, and that for the important agricultural 
interest of this country it wonld be desirable that Denmark should also 
issue a similar prohibitopy order against the importation of such stock 
from the United States. I do not, however, at present anticipate any 
immediatedangerof such prohibitory order being enforced; bnt should 
the German Government later on deem it necessary to place oneroas 
restrictions ou the trade from this country, under the plea that Ameri- 



CONSEQUENTIAL EFPEC'I'S OF OEKHAN PBOHIBITION. 53 

can swiiie and pork were beinf; introduceid ioto the empire tliroagh 
this channel, great preasare would doubtleiw be brought to bear so as to 
compel the Danish Government to issue a similar decree of exclusion in 
the interests of their agricultural community. 

In Investigating the importance of this branch of Danish trade, it will 
be found that the export of live swine is mainly directed towards Ger- 
mauy. Inasmuch na whilst the total export in 1881 of hogs and pigs 
from this connUy amounted to 25;{,291 head, of the value of 2%400,000 
kroners, of these no less than 237,118 head, of the value of -^1,350,000 
kroners, were exported to the German Empire. lu the same year, 
979,100 pounds of pork and hams, of the value of 396,000 kroners ; and 
946,000 pounds of beef and sausages, of the valueof 269,000 kroners, were 
likewise exported to the same couutry, giving a total export value of 
these articles of about 21,900,000 kroners. 

That a very considerable proportion of the live stock whitth is exi>orted 
ftom Denmark to Hambnrg is not intended for consumption in tbatem- 
pire, but is again re-exported in a slaughtered state to Holland and to 
Eogland, is not to be denied; but looking at the development which this 
trade has received in the latter years, it is felt by the commercial and 
agricultural classes in this country that they caunot at present afi'ord to 
lose the market of Hamburg as a middle link in this trade, and that 
even supposing that other markets could be found for the absorption 
of their surplus stocks of live swine, this would, in the first instance, 
at least, be attended with considerable pecuniary loss. At the same 
time, however, it may be presumed that Germany, especially at a time 
when its supplies from the United States are stopped, cannot well af- 
ford to be deprive^l also of its supplies from this country, and thatcon- 
seqneatly it may not place further restrictions on this trade thaiPmay 
be thought absolutely necessary for the preventing of American prod- 
uce being clandestinely introduced into the empire through neighbor- 
ing States. But if every shipment of swin^or its products has to be 
accompanied by certiScates and proofs of their origin, this will entail 
considerable expense, trouble, and loss of time. 

Proceeding next to investigate the extent ot the trade in these arti- 
cles between the United States and this country, it will be, seen that 
the importation of live swine, owing to the heavy espenses and risks 
attendiug the long sea voyage, may be classed as nil, whereas the 
trade ia hog products has gradually been on the increase in the latter 
years, the importation of pork and haras in 1881 amounting to 4,175,000 
pounds, of the value of 1,566,000 kroners, and of beef and sausages 
to 357,000 (MiuDds, to the value of 98,000 kroners. It will thus be seen 
that a restriction simply confined to a prohibition of the importation 
of live swine would not have any injurious eftects on the commercial 
relations between the United States and this country; and taking into 
oousideratiou that the swine products are imported for home consump- 
tion and not for re-export, thus tending to the welfare of the general 
commanity by' lessening the co.tt of living, I am of the opinion that 
these views will teud to outweigh with the Danish authorities any 
pressure that might be brought to bear upon them from the commercial 
agricultural interests for the furtherance of any such injurious restric- 
tions. 

The restrictive measure enacted by the German Empire, under the 
preteuse of sanitary reasons, ia but a dimsy veil which might easily be 
torn into shreds. It has more the appearance of a sop to satisfy the 
clamors of the agricultural classes, which have no doubt been suETer- 
iog firom the bad harvests in the last years ; but fortunately, this class 



54 OANADIAN TABI];^F CHANOES. 

of the community in Denmark hu from, varions circnmstances certataly 
not been subjected to aach unfavorable results as lias been the case in 
most of tfae other European states, and cf>use(]uentl.v the Danish Got- 
ernnvent will be in tietter position to withstand similar pressure from 
this class of their community. 

HENRY B. RYDER, 

Consvl. 
(Jnited States Consulate, 

Copenhagen, April 5, 1883. 



CAVASIAir TAKIf F CBAHOES. 

L AOENT CARROLL, OF POUT STANLET AKD ST. THOITAS 

I have the honor to transmit herein, for the information of the De- 
partment, an eihibit of the changes in the Canadian tariff, promulgated 
on the 30th ultimo, which I take from the Toronto Mail of the 31st 
ultimo. 

In this connection it may be proper to state that I liHTe compared the 
changes adverteil to with other liuts. and And them to lie correct. 
PHILIP CARROLL, 

Commercial AgenL 
Commercial Agency op the Uniibd States, 

Port Stanteff and St. Thomasy Canada, April 2, 1883. 



(From the Tonoto Hnil at Uarah II, 1881.) 

CHANGES IN TABIFF. 

S TO FRBB LWT— IS- 



Ottawa, March 30. 

The following ant the obaugea in tbe tariff; 

Agat«8 (bee). Add rabies, p«ails, sapphires, emeralds, gsraets, opola, not polished, 
Ac. 

Aniline d^ea (rree). Add In bnlli or packages, five pounds or over. 

Celnloid m sheets (made free last year). Add lumps or blocks. 

Colors (free). Add dry metallic oxide. 

Drills for prospecting for minerals. 

Dye, jet black. 

Hatters' plusli of silk or cotton. 

Kainite or German potash. 

Salts for fertilizers. 

Lnm1>er or timber, nnmonufsctured (free). Add greeiiwond and s&wdust, and blck- 
ory sawn to shape for spokes for wheels, not further man n facta red. 

Mineral waters, natural. 

Settlers' effects (free). Add musical iustranieots, sewing machines, lirestook, carts, 
and other vehicles one year in use. 

Add to the free list: 

Asphaltum, books bound, printed over seven years, or printed by any Government 
or BO lent L tic usaociatloo not for trade; msnuscripta, chronometers, compasses forahipn, 
copper in sheotA, Iron andisteel, old aad scrap; iron beams, sheets nr plates, and knees 
for iron or composite ships; iodine; crnde marble in blocks, 15 cubic feet and over: 
otto of roses; plaCinnm wire; sfled8,anise, coriander, fennel, andfemigreek; spurs and 
stilts for earthenware makers; sausage skins nr casings, nut cleaned; valerian mot; 
irire of brass or copper; round or flat wire of iron or steel, galvanized or tinned, or 



CANADIAN TABIFP CHANGES 55 

not 15 gauge and Bmaller; street rsilwn; bars or rails; flsh-plates and in elieeta for 
DMDnfacture ofiicrews. 

Oa tbe following articles there has been a decrease, and the rate is as follows: 

Bnckram, 10 per cent. 

BattOD-covere, 10 percent. 

Coal dnst, 20 per cent, ad valorem. 

Fmit, dried, vO per cent. 

Lamp-black and ivory black, 10 per cent. 

liCiul, uitrate and acetate of, 5 per cent. 

LiBather, lamb, ahaep, buck, deer, e1k, and antelope, dressed, and coloMd or not, 10 

Kid, tanned or dressed, and colored or not, 15 per cent. 
Liquorice paste, not given- 
Marble, in blocks, 13 cubic feet and over, Ttoe; same, nnder \5 cubic feet, 10 per 

Slabs, sawn on two sides, 10 per cent- 
Oil or enameled cloth, for trunk and valise makers, 15 per cent. 
Paper onion collar cloth, 5 per cent- 

Precions stones, agates, emeralds, jfamets, and opals, polished, 10 per cent- 
Spices (except nntmeg and mace) iingroand, 10 per cent. 
'I\>bBcco andsnulf, specific dnty of SO per ponnd [per cent, t]- 
Tnrpentine, spirits of, 10 per cent. 

BelU, except for churches, 'JO per cent., now dntiable accordiog to material. 
Cloth, of other niaterinla than cotton or woolen, made uniform, DO percent. 
Etber. sulphuric nnil nilric, 30 per cent- 
India rubber clothing, ina<le waterproof, 36 per cent- 
Jellies and jams, l> rents per ponnd, speciftc- 
Magic laniems and optical instraQients, to be 35 per cent.*; nickel anodes, 10 per 

Pocket books and pnrses added : ~ ~ 

Vaseline, and similar preparntio 
per ponnd. 

Woolen hosierr, same as woolen clothing, 10 ceikts per pound, and 25 per cent, ad 
valorem. p 

Dress and costume cloths, under iJS wide, and weighing not more than 3 ounces 
per sqnare yard, 20 per cent- 
Yams of wool or worsted, 2-ply or more, different colors combined, ormohairyams, 
white, or any color, imported by mannfiictnrers, 80 per cent. 

On the following articles the duty hasl)eeii increased; ' 

Acids, acetic, 15 per cent, per gallon; other acids, S5 per cent. 

Absinthe, (2 per gallon ; aniline dvss less than S pound packages, 10 per cent. 

Agricnltnral implement* and machines to pay speotfio and »d valorem equal to 35 
per or-nt. ; portable machines, spadi>8, boee, fortes, tbe same. 

Bed comforters tind quilts, 27^ per cent. 

Boot attd shoe laces, 30 per cent, 

Braces and suspenders, ;t0 per cent. 

Cards (playing), 6 cents per pack. 

Carriages to pay specific and ad valorem eqnal to 35 per cent. 

Carrii4(ee (children's), same as above. , 

Cordage of all kinds, W per cent. 

Cotton, printed or dyed, 2T| per cent, on 1st January, 1884. 

Cases, Jewel, watch, and similar casea, 30 per cent. 

Cane or rattan, split, 25 per cent. 

Drain and sewer pipes, glazed, 25 per cent. 

Fmit in aif'tight cane, 3 cents, 1 pound cans and ten, and so in proportion for large 

Fnmitnre, irmi bedsteads iuclnded, and oharged 35 per cent., and show-cases to be 
charged SS each specific and 35 per cent. 
Hair-cloth, 30 per cent. 

Carpeting, matting, or matw, 35 per cent, ad valorem. 
Lamp-wicks, W per cent. 
Music, printed, 10 per cent, per ponnd. 

Paper, wall and fancy papers, 30 per cent. ' 

Pamps, 50 cents each specific, to be added to present S5 per cent, ad valorem. 
Steel, in ingots, bars, sheets, coils, to pay ^ per ton on and after 1st July next. 
Files, speciSc, under 9 inches in length, 5 cents; 9 inches, and over, 3 cents per 

Tin crystals, 20 per cent- 
Tlnegar, 15 cents imperial gallon. 



^dbyGoogle 



5b HOW CANADA IS QOVEKNED. 

TegetabluB, tomatoea, and others, inctudiug corn in cans, 2 cents pet can of 1 pound 
Dr less, and so in uropnTtion for larger caoa. 
Prohibition of tbe export of de«r, wild tnrkeya, and qaail. 
Bounty on pig iron, $1,50 per tou, 3 years; (I per ton 3 years more. 



On and after May 1, 1883, tobacco and Hnnffs to pay 12 centa per pound on foreign 
leaf, and 'i cents per pound on Canadian ; all packages cigarettes or cut tobacco of 
leu ireigbt than one-twentieth of a pmind, 30 centa per pound; cigara, until Jaly 1, 
30 cents per poand, foreign leaf, 15 cents per pound if made from Canadian leaf; on 
and after July I, on cigars, foreign leaf, f3 per thonaand, Canadian leaf, fl.&O per 
thou sand. 



HOW CAVASA 18 OOTBAHEB. 

BEPOST BT COmiEROIAL AQEKT OiimOLL, OF PORT BIANLET iND ST. THOMAS. 

As is well kuown, there are seven provinces in the Dominion, viz : 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, 
Brttisli Oolunibia, and Manitoba. The total poiiulation of these prov- 
inces is 4,353,080. The executive authority is vested in tbe Queeu, ex- 
ercised throngh the Governor-General, who receives $50,0(10 i»er year 
as salar;v'. 

The Governor-General has thirteen advisers, kuown as the Cabinet 
or "Queen's Privy Council of Canada," each of whom receives a salary 
of $7,000 per annum and $1,000 in addiiion for each session of Parlia- 
ment', excepting the Premier, who rec»;ive8 $8,000 and an additional 
$1,000 i>er session, making the total annual salaries of these offiL-ers 
$155,000, $49,000 in excess of that paid to the President of the United 
States and bis Cabinet. 

A member of the Canadian Cabinet mnst be either a Senator or a 
Member of the House of Commons. 

Thereare twelvedepartments, viz: (1) of Justice; (2) of Finance; (3) 
of Agriculture; (4)of the Secretary of State; (6) of Mditia and Defense; 
(6)ofCustoms; (7) of Inland Revenue; (8) of the Interior; (9)ofPnblic 
Works; (10) of Railways and Canals; (11) of the Post-Offiee; and (12) 
the Department of Marine and Fisheries. 

The chiefs of these departments are to l)e addressed, tbr instance, 
thus: "The honorable Miuisterof Justice, Ottawa, Canada;" or,asthe 
case may. 

Parliament is composed of a Senate aud House of Commons. 

Senators are appointed for life, and members of the House of Com- 
mons are elected tbr five years. 

At present there can be but seventy eight Senators, and after the 
admission of Newfoundland into the Confederation tbe number is lim- 
ited to eigbty-two. 

In the late Parliament there were two hundred and six members in 
the House of Commons. Under tbe recent apportionment tbe House 
just elected will have two hundred and eleven members. 

Each Senator and member of the House of Commons receives $1,000 
per annum as compeusation. 

The sessions of Parliament are short compared with those of the Con- 
gress of the United States. There is no particular time or day for the 
assembbng of Parliament. It usually meets, however, in February of 
each year, being summoned to Ottawa by proclamation of the Governor- 
General, who also, villi t'^^ advice of the Cabinet, prorogues it, and, so 



now CANADA 18 GOVERNED. 57 

far as the Hoase of Commons is coiieemed, dissolves Parliament at the 
eud of five years or sooner. 

ParliameDt is opened in person by the Governor-General vith con- 
Biderable formality and pomp. 

The speaker of the Senate, who mast be a Senator, is appointed by 
the Governor- Gene ml. He bas in all cases n vote. Senators do not ad- 
dress the Speaker. They address the Senate. Intemperate or offensive 
laognage is dealt with by the Senate. The members do not vote "yea" 
and "nay," Those in favor of a motion are the "contents," and those 
opposed arc the "uon contents." 

In the Honee of Commons the members address the Speaker, who is 
elected by that body. 

The Si>eaker of the Senate takes part in the debates thereof. The 
Speaker of the House of Commons takes no part in the debates. B,e 
baa the casting vote in case of a tie. Unlike the Speaker of the Senate, 
he preserves order, and, on the whole, wields about the same power as 
the Speaker of the House of Bepresentative^ of the United States. 

The form of government, to a great extent, ia modeled from our own, 
or to that extent which its relation to Great Britain permits. 

The Govern or- General has certain powers, but he appears to have no 
will against that of the Govenimeut. He therefore seldom uses any of 
his prerogatives, but assents to sacb measures as the tiovernmeut may 
see fit to present. - 

Each province has a local legislature, in some of which there are au 
upper aud lower house, and in others one house. 

A lien tenant-governor, ai)[)oiuted by the Governor-General, presides 
over each province. 

With the excei>tion of members of the House of Commons and of the 
local le^slature, all ofQcers are appointed, and hold their positions 
during life or good behavior. 

Only certain office-holders ate allowed to vote. 

General election days appear like Sunday. All places seUinfc intoxi- 
cating drinks are closed. Tlie law on ihis subject is very stringent 
Any person violating it is fined heavily and jailed. 

Any i>erson who has attained the age of twenty-one years, and has 
an income of 1400 in a city, $300 in a town,$20Uin a village, and $200 
in a township may vote, provided he is a British subject. Any ]>ersou, 
meaning a male, owning property in one or more election districts, can 
vote in each district in which his property is located, provided it amounts 
to the figure in eitbcr of tbe places named above. The voting is by 
ballot, and only one voter is allowed in the poll at a time. Tbe rotam- ' 
ing of^ceris supposed to have the tickets printed with the names of the 
opjKfsing candidates thercou, who supplies each of his deputies with 
the number required at Iheir respective polls on the morning of election. 

Tbe tickets are numltered by the deputy returning olhcer, wlio, as each 
voter presents himself, initials the ticket, bands it to the voter, who 
proceeds to another apartment, afttxes the mark required by law oppo- 
site the name of the candidate of his choice, returns to the poll, Imnds 
the ticket to tbe returning ofitcer, who examines it on the outside to see 
that his initials are there, places it in the box, and the process is com- 
plete. Tbe candidate has nothing to do with the tickets or their prep- 
aration. Indeeil, it is unlawful that he should. 

Each candidate must deposit 4200 with the proper authority before 
he caa be recoguiKed as such. This sum is returned in each case sbould 
the defeated candidate receive more than oae-half of all tbe votes polled. 
If not, only the successful candidate's deposit is returned. 



68 KEW ZEALAND MEAT EZPOUT. 

Constitaeiicies are Bmall in Gaoada compared with the United States, 
and majorities are frequently as low as one, two, or three. Two or three 
handred is considered a large majority in most electoral districts. 

In this connectioD, and in conrlusion, it may be proper to add that 
the province of Qaebec is the pivotal province as to representation in 
the Dominion House of Commous. It has a fixed representation of 
sixty-five members, and the represeutation of the other provinces is in 
proportion to the number of their respective popalationa as the nom- 
ber sixty-five bears to the population of Qaebec. This is determined 
and adjusted decennially. 

PHILIP CARROLL, 

Commercial Agent. 
United States CoMMEEcrAL Agency, 
Port Stanley and St. Thomas, Canada. 



VSW ZEAI.A5D HEAT EXPOBT. 

REPORT BT CONSUL ORIFrilt OF AVOKLASD. 

The exportK>f frozen meat from Kew Zealand is altogether a new in- 
dustry, but it is one that bids fair to swell to very large proportions in 
the near future. The first experiment ever tried in this colony was in 
the mouth of February, by the New Zealand Laud Company. The di- 
rectors of this company, stimulated by the success attending the export 
of :^sh meat from the Uuited States and the Australian colonies to 
Great Britain , chartered a ship (the Dimediu) of about 1,260 tons, and in 
a short time put it in order with the necessary apparatus to receive the 
f^zen meat. The ship had space for 450 tons of meat; 5,000 cross- 
bred sheep were liilled for the purpose, with "the bloom on" — that is, 
were slaughtered near the run — so as to avoid the ill effects of beiag 
driven any distance. The sheep were frozen and packed in bags so as 
to preserve their shape, and then carefully stowed away. 

The vessel sailed from Dunedin on the 18th of Febmary, 1882, and 
arrived at Liverpool on the 24th May, after a voyage of ninety -eight 
days. The mutton was landed in escelleitt condition and was readily 
sold at l^d. (15 cents] per poand. The superior flavor of the meat and 
the extraordinary weight of the carcasses attracted such general atten- 
tion that the London Times devoted two or three leading editorial arti- 
cles npon the subject. It said, among other things : 

That llilt triumph orer physical difflcnltieH was almost !□ credible. It Is the prod- 
uct of a very large j^razing property, exteodinK over a half dosen pftriahes, brought 
from the antipodes and dl^ohai^ed iuto onr dsaf-meat market in a day. 

The success of the enterprise was not only remarkable from the fact 
that it was the flrst shipment of fresh meat from New Zealand, bat it 
was the first shipment from any of the Aastralian colonies in a sailing 
vessel. 

It is believed, however, that meat can be oarried mnch cheaper by 
steam than by sailing vessels. The voyage of the latt«r occupies twice 
the time of the former; moreover, sailing vessels have t« be provided 
with special and nnecoQomical engine power. Still for some time to come 
New Zealand shipper^ ^111 be mainly dependent npon sailing vessels. 

The New Zealand QkJrtping Company have nearly all their splendid 
steamers in readiness S z, the shipment of meat. The flrst steamer, the 



:dbv Google 



KBW ZEALAND MEAT BXPOBT. 59 

British Kiog, will Rail &om Lyttleton in the latter part of this month 
with 10,000 carcassee, weighing from 60 to 100 poauds each. The coat 
of freight by this company is 2d. {i i^ents) per pound, and the charge for 
freezingi9^^(lcent}perpound. Otherst^rnersofthis line are a<l revised 
to sail as follows : The Penstantou, 2,400 tons, from Port 'Chalmers in 
April ; the British Queen, 3,558 tons, from Lyttleton in May ; the Ionic, 
4,36S tons, in June, and the Doric, 4,300 tone, in July. AD these steam- 
era will take full car^^oes of beef and mutton. They are strong built 
vessels and have suffieient speed to make the passage to London, via 
the Straits of Magellan, in about forty-five days. This company has 
also fltteil lip the two fine sailing vessels, the Opawa and the Mataura. 
The former is loading at Christchurch and the latter at Auckland. 

That enterprising shipping firm, the Shaw, Saville & Albion Company, 
have oniereil to he bnilt by W. Bentley & Co., on the Clyde, three large 
atenmers, each of 5,000 tons burilen, for the New Zealand trade. They 
are to be fitted up in the best style and wilh refrigerators for carrying 
meat in large quantities. This company has alFo chartered a number of 
sailiug vessels tor the same trade. The Lady Jocelyn will shortly sail 
from Wellington and the Sorento fVom Port Chalmers with cargoes of 
meat. 

The beef and matton now being put aboard the Mataura, at Anck- 
land, is the best that can be |irocnre<l in the market. The machine em- 
ployed for freezing is one of Ilarlam's {latent dry-air reftngerators. The 
process by which the meat is frozen is as follows: Immediately after 
the sheep or oxen are killed they are at once conveyed on board and 
hang in the meat-room, the space of which is about 21,000 cubic feet, 
capable of taking in t>etween 5,000 and 6,000 carcasses of sheep. The 
freeznig apparatus is at once put in motion. It is driven by an engine 
of 80 horse-power. The machine is cajiable of delivering 40,000 cubic 
feet of dry air per hour, at a temperature of 60° to 80° below zero. Only 
2 tons of coal are required to keep the machine going for the full 
twenty-four hours. In cold latitudes it is not found necessary to use 
the machine for more than four to six hours per day. The hottest sun 
that ever shone down from a tropical sky would still leave the meat- ' 
room cold as the air of a hard frosty day in the severest winter of 
England. 

Sir Dillon Bell, the agent of the New Zealand Government at London, 
ig ftiHy aatisfletl that mutton from this colony can be placed in the 
London market at 6d. (12 cents) per pound, and leave a good profit both 
for the grower and the shipper. He estimates the meat sopply of the 
Australian colonies at 700,000 tons per annum, or 2,000 tons per day. 
Bat the real limit of the supplying power of the colonieit is the amount 
of tonnage that they can command ; and as meat can form ouly a por- 
tion of the cargoes of steamers or sailing vessels, and these vessels must 
secure fhward as well as outward freights in order to pay, there is not 
much prospect of even a fourth of this quantity being reached for many 
years to come. At an average of 350 tons per vessel, equal to three 
times that tonuage in bulk, including machinery and coal, it would take 
about three hundred large vessels annually to carry 100,000 tons. 

The meat trade in the future, at least as far as Anstratasia is con- 
cerned, will, I think, be fVom New Zealand. The high price of meat in 
Victoria and New South Wales is said to be exceptional, on account 
of the drought. Indeed, the long drouglit there was given as a reason 
for the loRsea of the Australian Frozen Meat Company during the year 
1882. The directors of that corapanv in their half-yearly report ad- 
mitted a loss of £3,080. 



60 NEW ZEALAHD UEAT EZPOBT. 

It is more tbao probable that the cotooiaJ exporters will sood find the 
Eoglisb process of freezing meat to be a very expensive one, and event- 
ually tbey will be compelled to adopt the Eastman or Home other Ainer- 
lean process. In the Eostinau process the macfainer; is verj' comjwct, 
and, besides; there is oot that continuous spray frbiu the wood pipe 
through which the air enters the freezing chamber in the English oia- 
«hine, resembliog a miniatnre snow-storm, and which has to be cleaned 
out every few minutes. 

The American process consists of a freezing chamber with double 
walls, between which is a current of air and a supply of ttsbestus, hair, 
cloth, mineral, wool, or other uon- conductors. Above the room is a 
reservoir of ice or other cooling agents, with nn adjacent pump. Cyl- 
inders are placed at suitable inter\'als in the chamber. From the reser- 
voir a pipe runs to the nearest cylinder and enters it at the bottom ; 
another ])ipe runs from the top of this cyliuder to near the bottom of 
the next, and so on throughout the series ; a retnrn pipe connects the 
last cylinder with the leservoir. The cooling liquid follows the course 
indicated. From the reservoir it is thrown by gravitation into the flrst 
cylinder, displaciag the warmer liquid thefein and forcing it up and 
over into the bottom of the next cylinder, and so on to the last, whence 
the pump lifts the warmer liquid back into the ice reservoir. The cyl- 
inders being air-tight, there is uo contact with the cooling liquid and 
the atmosphere in the freezing chamber, which may be kept at any 
temperature. 

The demand for fresh meat in England is becoming greater every 
day. The annual supply of sheep aloue in Britain has been reduced 
within the last few years from 40,000,000 tu 28,000,000, and the food 
supply of Ireland is "so meager as to ap^iear startling. The falling off 
in the number of cattle io the British isles is extraordinary : nor cau I 
see auy sign of improvement io this state of aCfairs. The colonies, of 
course, will be able to supply Great Britain with no inconsiderable 
amouut of meat and grain, but that country will be de[>endent oa the 
United States for the bulk of her food supply. 

The United States ships annually to England vast numbers of live 
cattle. She also sends to the same country about 20,000 carcasses of 
beef every week, besides vast quantities of pork, bacon, and hams. The 
truth is, the rcsourcea of the Uuited States for meat production are 
practically unlimited. Texas aloue has over 0,000,000 cattle, to say 
nothing of the millions of acres of laud iu t'Olorado, Wyoming, New 
Mexico, and Montana so wonderfully adapted for the growth of grain, 
cattle, or sheep. The export of frozen meat from the colony of New 
Zealand during the year 1882 amounted to 15,2ii cwt., valued at 
*90,9!)j. This year the export will be very much larger. The average 
wholt^sale price of beef and nintton in New Zealand is about 2^. (5^ 
cents) per pound. • 

TDE CAJ)HBD-MEAT TRADE. 

Until last year there h»s been a marked falling oft in the quantity 
and value of the exports of canned meat from New Zealand. During 
the year 1878 the total value of the exports of New Zealand preserved 
meat amounted to $3T2,22o. In 1881 the amount declined to $111,950. 
Last year the amount increased to $222,6G0. The subjoined table shows 
the quantity and value of preserved meat exported from New Zealand 
since 1878 : 



^dbyGoOgle 



NEW ZEALAND MEAT EXPORT. 





Year. 


; (Mnllty. 


T.loe. 






' Owl. 




















MSi 


;::::::!::::":"":;::::::"::::::"::::: 


21,31fl 


^eea 



The N«w Zealand GoTernmeDtbHs for some tinte past taken mncb paina 
to collect information in regard to the various niethoda pursued in the 
' United States for canning and compreosing meat for the British mnrkel, 
the kind of machinery nsed, the coat of constructing and ranntng the 
same, the extent of the industry, &c. Upon inquiry it was fonnd that 
one London firm alone, during a period of eleven months, imported 
594,000 cases of canned meat t^om the United States, amounting in 
valae to about 45,000,000. The firm stated that the 2 pound tins of 
American compressed meat sold readily in the London market at 6^^. 
(13 centa) per pound ; 6-pound tins, Gd. (12 ceiita) per pound; 14-|iound 
tine 53d. (llj cents) per pound. The same firm also gave information 
respecting the sizes of tins the most suitable to be used. They found 
the following sizes the beat : 2-pound tins packed in cases of 24 each ; 
4-poaDd, of 12 each; 6-pound, of 12 each ; 14-pound, of 6 each ; the 
principal demand being for the 2'-pound and 14-pouiid tins. In everj' 
thousand cases the proportion of the sizes should be about 3U0 cases 
2-poand tins, 25 cases 4-ponnd tins, 125 cases 6-pound tins, and 53» 
cases 14-pound tins. The tins are recommended to be lacquered, and 
not painted, and handsomely labeled. . The estimated cost of a plant 
capable of turning out 5,000 tins a day is put down at $2,750. To this 
would have to be added freight, commissions, &c., in shipping it from 
N . York to New Zealand. 

The inquiries of the New Zealand Government have led the people of 
the colony to believe that they can, with the help of skilled labor and 
mauhtaery from the United States, compete saccessfully with the Ameri- 
caa m6at trade in the London market. Several wealthy firms in Auck- 
land and Dunedin are soimpressed with this idea that they liave already 
ordered f^m New York the ne essary plant for conducting the meat- 
canning indostry on a large scale. The low price and superior quality 
of the New Zealand beef and mutton are certainly very favorable to the 
sacceas of the enterprise, hut the future alone can tletermine whether 
these advantages are sufficient to counterbalance those eiijoyed by the 
various meat-canning establishments in the United States. 

Doring a recent visit to Chicago I was fortunate enough to see Mr. 
Philip D. Armoar, who is at the head of the largest packing concern iu 
the world. I learned from him that thfe principal reason .why Chicago 
can compete successfully with New Zealand in the meat trade is that 
Chicago canners can dispose at home of all the meat which is not canned. 
Tbey have extensive distributive facilities, sending these cuts all over 
the conntry in refrigerators, thus competing with retail butchers. The 
hides and tallow also fetch fancy prices as compared with what they 
bring in New Zealand. The cattle blood is dried and sold at high 
prices for fertilizing purposes; and the horns and hoofs are taken by 
the glue aud comb manufacturers. In fact, no part of the animal i» 
lost. Owiug to all this, the cost of what is put into the cans is reduced 



62 NEW ZEALAND MEAT EXPOKT. 

to a mere nominal price. Id thia way tbe Cliioago canners are enabled 
to compete sacceasftilly with colonial beef. 

Tbe carcass trade — a new departure this season — is destined to father 
reduce thecostof tbecaDited product. Messrs. Armour & Go. bavecom- 
menced shipping fresh beef to Eastern cities iu refrigerator cars, and 
found it a sutMseitsful undertaking. Tlius a wider mhrket is afforded for 
the best cats and uu increase in the capacity of tbe establishmentis ren- 
dered necessary, both of which circumstances are calculated to reduce 
the cost of the meat reserved for the cauuiug proceRs. lu Messrs. Ar- 
mour &0o.'s house the opinion was expressed that the canning busiuess 
of the fnture cau ouly be carried on as au ni^unct to the regular pack- 
ing business, the sharp competition between caDuers and tbe high price 
of cattle beinf; the reasons for bis conclasioit. 

Messrs. Armour & Co. have killed 100,000 cattle a year for the. past 
two years. The fall is the busiest season. The slaughter averages about 
700 head a day, and rau up to 1,000 head oue day, which is the largest 
Dunlber ever bandied at the establishment in the time ^iven. About 
£00 bands are employed in the canning establishment. Of this number 
100 archils engaged in lacquering and lubeliug cans. Mr. Armour ex- 
pressed the opinion that the business of slaughtering would be done 
principally in the West. He said, " It is simply a law of nature that 
the bullock, like the hog, will be handled near the corn belt. In the 
East they have not the facilities fur killing bullocks that we have." 

AriHuur & Co., by means of their refrigerating establishments, are en- 
abled to kill cattle all the year round, ^xpurienw hits shown that beef 
slaughtered by themcttu be kejit i>erfectly sound and good for several 
months. 

It is reasonable to believe that similar establishments to those of Ar- 
mour & Oo. will at no distaat day be started in the vicinity of the great 
mountain raogosof Montana and New Mexico. Figures furuishe<l by 
the Hon. J. U. l>odge, statistician at Washington, give the uamber of 
beef cattle unnually slaughtered in the United States at 6,230,000 head, 
weighing 3,12o,U0U,0()U|)ounds. The receipts at the stouk yards of Chi- 
cago alone in one year were l,4t)8,65l> head, exclusive of calves. As 
many as 11,103 were slaughtered in a singleday. 

Some disappointment i» felt iu L jndou at the result of the shipments 
of meat from Australia for the year 18:S2, although the shipments rose ' 
frota 5(>j tons to 1,700 tons, showing au increase of I,13J tons over the 
year 1831. Still, fi'om thi3 preparations made, a mudi greater increase 
than that was expected. In the mouth of October, 183:i, the shipments 
were uuuaually large, but there was a great falling off ia the last two 
months of the year. 

The prospects of the meat trade of Australasia for this year is, as I 
have said |jtrevipusly, much brighter iu New Zealand than iu any of the 
other colonies. The New Zealand meat is not ouly lower in price but 
of a much better quality and flavor. During the year ISi'J there were 
forty meat-preserving factories iii oi>ei'ation in New Zealand, four in the 
province of Auckland, three in Taraiiiki, nine in Wellington, five at 
Ilawkes Bay, seven in Canterbury, nine in Marlborough, and three in 
Otagu. The number of hands employed in these factories was 4C8. 
The total value of the ground and builduigs of these establishments was 
$'SV2,625, and the cost of the machinery or plant of the same was 9 171,600. 
The total output of all the factories was 892,701 pounds, and the num- 
ber of cans was 203,20i. The moiLt put up at these establishments is 
not so salable as that front the United States. The tins used are indif- 
ferently executed aod are uinch heavier than the American ones. None 



EXPOBTS FBOU THE BIVEB PUk.TE TO UNITED STATES. 63 

of these establishments nse conical shaped cans like those maDufactnred 
in Saint Loais and Chicago, and which are so popul»r in the European 
markets. Some of the fiicloriea, however, are making prepuratious to 
do much better work iu the fatare than they have done in the past. A 
leading Auckland firm has in course of erection at their spacious build- 
ings on Queen street a meat-canning plant capable of turning out 6,000 
pounds of compressed beef per day. When finished this firm will have 
the most complete establishment of the kiad in the southern hemi- 
sphere. 



G. W. GRIFFIN, 

Contul. 



Uhitbd States Consulate, 
. Auckland, N. Z., March 20, 1 



EXPOSE FBOK THE RITEB FLATS TO THIS ITHITBD STATES. 

REPOHT BT OOSBVL BAKES, OF BCElfOS A TRES. 

In a report made to the Dei>artment of State, dated February 23, 1881, 
I gave the exports to the United States from the lliver Plate, i. e., all 
that part of South America, including Paraguay, Uragiiay, and the Ar- 
gentine Bepublic, drained by the ttio de la Plata for the year 1880.* 
In a subseqaeut rei>ort, dnt^ February 28, 1882, 1 gave a similar state- 
ment tor the year 1881. t I now give a table of the shiiimeiits from the 
Biver Plate for the year ending December 31, 1882. As iieretofore, it 
has t)tten compiled from officitil returns of expoits declared at the con- 
aalates of Montevideo, Paysandu, Boaario, and Buenos Ayres, for the 
first three of which I am indebted to the courtesy of the United States 
consular officers at those places respecti^'cly. The table shows the 
iunount and value of each article at the port of Bhijiment : 

Shipment* frmt tkt mter Plate to Ihe United Statu /m- the gtar 1882. 









PajwndD, 




QniuiHtr. 


V«]ue. 


a,TiH 


V.l«. 




be 


'as 
1 

18 


Til 

350 00 
8,206-M 


W2.4WTI 




■^^■■ 






























^JS^""-*!" 


■.■■.naSb^: 







i*« 


l^eeooB 






SS^;;;;:;;;;;; 


::::::t:: 










Til 




Old Iron... do...! 







,db, Google 



64 EXPORTS FROM THE RIVER PLATE TO UNITBO STATES 
Shipmeali/rom Ikt Riatr Plate to tin United Statu for titt gear 1682— Cootinued. 

BiruuLic OF UiiQUiT— CoDlinned. 







H<ntt«Tid»o. 


P.r«^«. 




QuMtity. 


V.lde. 


<Jo«.Uty. 


Viilii.. 




...It.. 












U 


"■ins 














&"'.-r •"!!';.::;.■ 






:::::::iiSS:: 

r 


AS 


■as 






Barapttbn 






4, tie 


•9a.G<WH 














■•■::;;;;;*:: 














pke*-- 


ss 


fuses 
















<,75j,eBsw 




113, UM <B 











BoHriO. 


b™« 


Ay™.. 




qu«dOt,. 


V.lne. 


QiwnUty. 


TaliM. 


£KeS\ri.s*™i'Ss« 


""f- 


154 003 


»5BB. 377)3 


S33.133 

28. OM 

1,130 

!«1 

302 


«i,3m,9TlS» 
ie7.SM2T 
313. 07D 35 
118,Tas W 
148,351 11 






ma 


19S.1S3M 
2.7B3 13 














13.337 
3»3 


2s:70Slt 

».B«01 














8,m 


i,«7i.nsw 


D«rMd«l.g»kin. 












fSfbX'^SS^a-.::.:;.:::::. 


do... 


3ST 


G.HSB3 


* 1S.«>4 47 
13,500 St 

i5.SBess 






■a 


sac 41 


>» 






















^u.dp>p«r«tock 








23 

33. OSS 


























, i-sin 


U,'48<« 


* 30.837 35. 












1 13,133 


43,41101 












i 


ws'oa' 


"S 


ssss 










2,333,0*3 37 




3, MO; 043 34 







The total sbiptneuts t« the United States from the Biver Plate for 

1880 amouDted to $11,451,060.6!), of whicb $5,456,801.62 weut from 
UrnguHj nnd $5,094,160.07 from the Argentine Bepublic. 

The total shipments to the United States from the Biver Plate for 

1881 amounted to $11,081,061.88, of which $6,054,368.37 went from 
Uruguay and $5,926,693.51 fi'om the Argentine Bepublic. And it will 
l>e seen from the foregoing and following tables that the total shipmeuts 
to the United States from the Biver Plate for the year 1882 amounted to 
$10,645,125.89, being $799,934.80 less than in 1880, and $1,329,935.99 leas- 
than in 1881. 



^dbyGoOgle 



EXPORTS FKOM THE BITEB PLATB TO UKITED STATES. 65 

For the purpose of ftirtber comparison I subjoio the following table, 
showing the total sliipmentB from the River Plate for the years 1881 and 
and 1882 respectively : 





Artlehw. 


1 


1881. 


188*. 


QouitltT. 

2,118 


VllQO. 

i89,Mne 


QBMUty. 


\Y^«. 




....nombw.. 


1.M3 


»8,004.T«7T7 
BM.3W2I 
MSloNM 


g'-^^i'SSi::;;.;;;. 


do... 






^'^^ 


s:- 


'"■^S 






210 

'■7, 

l.iflO 


44.M0O8 




w3 .;■■:-;■■ 


....naober.. 




^.^■ss 


DnriaiitMsikba 


do ... 


17.380 01 




1,177 

if 










'l7* 

33 

121. t8t 

100 

ai.»i| 


si SIS 10 

«M0« 
M*M8« 














g^iS'^'^:::::::::::::::: 


do .. 


910 04 






a 

118,711 1 

mi 

4.S87 




Horn pith* 




11,880 08 












IS 


4, VST 04 
1,M4 W 




















7.730 SO 


















11.091,081 gg 















This decided falling oKT in the volnme of exports is acconnted for in 
the general stagnation which has characterized the export trade to the 
United States, the prices here corresponding so nearly to those in 
American markets as to leave no margin for proflta. In regard to the 
exports from each port for the last year, it appears: 

1. That from Montevideo, while there was an increase of 2,553 bales 
of wool there was a decrease of 557,376 in the number of hides, and a 
general decrease in almost every other article of shipment, the total 
decrease in valne being 11,091,2^6.57. 

2. That from the port of Paysandu the decrease in the shipments of 
bone and bone-ash 6,425 tons, and in the total valne of the shipments of 
$91^18.22. 

3. That A^m fiosario, while there has been 4 slight falling off in the 
shipments of wool, there has been an increase of 90,000 in the number 
of hides, and a total increase in the valne of shipments of $219,161.53. 

4. That from Buenos Ayres there has been a falling off of 218,915 in 
the number of dry hides, and a general falling off in almost all other arti- 
cles of export, the total decrease for the year being $372,702.73. 

There is nothing new to report in reference to the export trade of the 
Argentine Bepnblic with the United States. So unusaai features, 
except nnnsual stagnation, have presented themselves during the last 
year. 

The annonncem^nt, however, that there has been a slight redaction 
in oar tariff of dnties on wool ha« caused some little animation in busi- 



66 



EXP0BT8 OP SWiaa HIBBONS TO THE UHITED STATES. 



nesB circles; and it is thought, even if tlie finer grades mast be still 
excluded from our market, that there will be an easier feeliug in regard 
b) the Cordoba or carpet wools, and that this will lead to increased ship- 
meots of this class during the present year. 

E. L. BAKEE, 

' Consul. 
United States Consulate, 
Bumoa Ayrea, March 21, 1883. 



EXPORTS OF SWISS SHE EIBBOKS TO THE UHITED STATE 

REPORT BT 00S8TJL MABOS. OF BA8LB. 

The total exports of silk and mixed ribbons irom the consular distriet 
of Basle to the United States during the first four months of 188:' nd 
1883, respectively, were as follows : 



Mouth*. 


IWi. 


». 






SOT. ess 

8i!«;7« 










«,m,!» 


.8,157,111 










Ba8,m 







The event has thus far fulfilled very exactly the prediction made in 
these reports on the lOth of February last, that although the trade of 
1883 opened with great vigor, the exports of January exceeding those 
of any one mouth since XiT2, there would be a marked decline to- 
ward the close of the quarter, and the aggregate of the year woold be 
probably less than that of 1882. 

The reason for this declioe in ribbon exports during March and April 
are sufiBcienUy obvious. 

First of all, the heavy importations of last autumn, and of December 
and January, exceeded the immediate demauds of the American mar- 
ket and left a somewhat unwieldy surplus in the hands of the importers. 

Still more important and infiuential was the fa^^t that by a sudden 
and arbitrary, decree of fashiou, "fancy" ribbons, that is to say, ribbons 
in patterns with different colors and tints^ became undesirable. The 
mode demanded plain ribbous, velvets, satins, £ailles, and particularly 
the variety of ribbed goods known in the trade as " Ottomans," and 
almost nothing else could be sold except at heavy sacrifices. The beau- 
tiful and elaiwrate products of the Jacquard looms in Basle and St. 
Etienne, which a season before had been in such demand, were sold 
in many cases by the American consignees for prices that hardly more 
than covered the duties which liad been paid on them. 

To make the matter still worse for the European manufacturers, the 
fickle decree of fashion turned almost wholly in favor of ribbous of nar- 
row width, those from 2 to 28 lines being most desirable. Wide goods 
(ribbons 28 to 48 lines) became a drug, and the rich and costly sash 
patterns, from 52 to 120 hues, which had formed so substantial a staple 



C~.(iot^[c 



EXPOBTd OP SWISS RIBBONS TO THE UNITED STATES. 67 

Id the trade of the preriuus two years, vare no longer in demand at any 
profit whatever. 

The fact was again clearly denionstr^ted tbat the United States make 
their own fashions in respect to ribbons, and that the character of this 
demand cannot be accurately predicted fix>in indications based upon the 
mode of Paris or Londoo. ^ 

Basle is now thronged with bnyera from England and the United 
States, placing orders for gooda designed for the autumn trade. The 
English buyers have made within the past fortnight heavy contracts, 
the burning of a large silk warehouse in London last winter and the de- 
stractiou of an immense stock of ribbons having created a deficit in the 
stock which it will require large quantities of new goods to fill. The 
American buyers stipulate for deliveries in July and August, and 
as the German demand meanwhile continues steady and strong for all 
classes of plain ribbons, the Basle manufacturers are ali-eady equipped 
with contracts which will enlist their exertions nntil past midsummer. 

The goods ordered for the United States are intended for entry after 
the 1st of July, underthe revised tariff, which will assessa duty of 50 per 
cent, upon silks Instead of 60 per cent, as levied by the present tariff. 
As the new tariff imposes a uniform duty upon all classes of silk rib- 
boas, iustead of making a difference of 10 per cent, between all silk pat- 
terns and those containing a specified proportionof cotton, it may fairly 
be assumed that the effect of ^is change will be to stimulate the impor- 
tation of all silk qualities and redace that of the inferior grades. 

THE BEIONINQ STYLES. 

There has rarely been a spring season in which the manufacturers 
have been so long puzzled to predict with certainty the character of 
the American demand for the coming antumn and winter trade. Until 
the middle of April the only certain indication was that no fancy rib. 
boDB. however rich and beautiful they might be, would be wanted. It 
was also apparent that the demand of the coming season would be for 
Darrower widths, mainly from 3 to 16 lines. 

Within the past fortnight, however, the requirements of the Ameri- 
can market for the coming season, so far as can be predicted irom here, 
irould seem to be for plain ribbons of the following varieties: 

1. Ottomans, or ribbed goods, in all varieties, as Ottoman envers, satins, 
Ottoman enver« failles, and plain Ottomans, in simple colors or doable- 
&ced, that is, the opposite surfaces in different colors, or in two tooes of 
the same color. The last of these varieties is for the moment the one in 
highest favor. 

2. Velvet ribbons, and short plushes, with reverse faces of satin. 
These are also made in two colors or tones, as black, brown, and dark 
green, with reverse satin faces of orange canliual and the brown shade 
known as terra cotta. 

3. There will be also the usual steady demand for plain failles, satins, 
and narrow taffetas, which last are used by American manufacturers in 
immense quantities for tying up packages of cottons, perfumery, station- 
ery, &c, or for binding worsted and other goods of domestic origin. \ 

Basle has but few looms adapted to the weaving of real velvet ribbon, 
but nearly ail the manufacturers here make short plushes, which, being 
cut open by hand, help to supply the demand for those qualities. Some 
eiceedingly rich combinattoos of colors in these hand-out velvet envers 
satins, are now in the looms for the American market. 

The great staple of the season, however, will be Ottomans^ which are 



68 EXPOBTB l-'BOH GENEVA TO THE UNITED 8TA.TE8. 

being woven in great profusion and in many attractivo combinations of 
color and effect. 

Large expenditures have been made during tbe past three months in 
adapting thousands of plain looms to ribbons of narrow widths, and the 
facilities in this department are now probably greater than at auy pre- 
vious time, but the costly and elaborate Jacquard looms are mostly 
idle, and will remain so until fashion takes a new and radically differ- 
ent departure. 

Baw silk, wbf ch has been steadily declining in price since last aotnmn, 
has probably reached it« minimum value, at least until tbe market 
comes under the inflnence of the new season's crop. It is hardly prob- 
able that prices of the raw staple can even then be lower, while any 
failure or blemish in the cocoon harvest would of course be followed by 
an immediate advauce. 

It is espected here that the changes in silk duties which will be ef- 
fected by the tariff law of March 3, 1883. will greatly stimulate tbe im- 
portatiou of silk goods into the United States, and the ribbon weavers 
of Basle and St. Etienoe are setting their sails at full spread to catch 
the freshening breeze. 

FRANK H. MASON, 

CotwuL 

Uhited States Consulate, 
Baale, April 30, 1883. 



EXPORTS FEOK QENEVA TO THE UEITEI) STATES. 

SEFORT BY OOSBVL ADAHS. 

According to the sabjoined table, the value of tbe exportation from 
this district to the United Sutes for 1882 was $1,179,611, an increase 
over 1881 of $322,358. The increase of each of the three principal ar- 
ticles is given in a second table. The exportation of watches is chiefly 
of the finer kinds, bat there is a large increase in tbe inferior kinds, and 
in watch material. The increase in musical boxes is almost wholly in 
the cheaper grades manufactured at St. Croix. 

The total exportation, which rose to »909,608 in 1871, fell in 1878 to 
$240,088, and rose again rapidly to the total of 1882. The increase is 
partly apparent only, and, io consequence of Department circular of 
June 20, 1881, requiring the declaration of invoices at the nearest con- 
sulate office, but there is no doubt that the sales to the United States 
are now i'ar greater than ever before. They now, however, show sigus 
of decrease, which I am inclined to explain by the prospect of revision 
of the tariff of import duties. I observe that the number of shippers 
bas diminished, the business passing into tbe hands of a few houses as 
it increases. 
. Apart from the recovery of the Americau market, tbe past year bas 
been an unfortunate one tor the commerce of this district. 

According to careful estimates made for the Journal of Agriculture 
in October, the harvests of cereals, hay, and fodder were good; of pota- 
toes, moderate; and of wine, by far the most important, very bad, a 
little better perhaps than in 1880, the worst year ever known here, but 
much below the average both in quantity and quality. Since October 
it bas rained incessantly in Central Europe, and the flnal results every- 
where are worse than as indicated by tbe estimates. 



,iz.db Google 



EXPOKTS FBOM GENEVA TO THE UNITED STATES. 



69 



As predicted in prerioas diapatolies, the prosperity of the city and 
canton of Geneva haa been compromised by the diversion of travel and 
traffic to the St. Gothard and other new lines of commiiuicatioa. The 
throngs of travelers that formeriy feathered here dnrinf the sommer are 
no longer seen, to the great loss of the hotels and the retail trade; the 
whole district of Upper Savoy is now fed by the new line from Belle- 
garde to Evian on the Lake, and the exchanges between Germany and 
the Mediterranean, formerly effected throngh Geneva and Marseilles by 
Lyons, or Tnrin by the Mont Ceiiis, now follow the St. Gothard to Milan 
and Genoa. 

The Federal Gonncil, acting, as it is said, in the interests of the rail- 
ways of northern and eastern Switzerland, which belong to the St. 
Gothard system, have aided the displacement of trafBc by suspending 
the tariff of freights over the West Swiss and the French railirays. To 
complete the calamity a landslide at the entrance of the Jura has car- 
ried away the line below the city, catting off all direct commuDication 
vitb France and Italy for mooths to come, the effect of which will be a 
great increase in the cost of all provisions from those countries, and a 
decrease in the wholesale trade of the city. 

Financially, as a great banking center invaded during recent years 
by the French cr^it companies, Geneva has suffered no less. Enoi- 
raons anms, for so small a city, were drawn into the speculations of the 
Union G6n^rale. and other similar enten)rjse8, and lost there. 

This combination of misfortunes has had one curious f ffect. Capital, 
intimidated by the risks of foreign investments, has been largely spent 
in the new conatrnctions of the city, and Geneva to day is oue of the 
most commodious and attractive cities in Europe. 

LYEL T. ADAMS, 

COHtul. 

Uhited States Cowsulate, 

GenOTo, January 7, 1883. 



Tablb a. — raluM of deelitred tstporU to thr Vniled SItUi from tin contalar dUlriet of 
Gmeva for the ytar 1883. 



Artielci. 
AiOhH colors ^ 


Flnrt qu.r- 

"„.»^ 

8,S3B li 
H. Wilts 

12,710 28 

70,150 21 
4,007 87 
.0,2«,8S 


SewDd 1 

»».mfl7 

a, 438 04 

7»:3»7 14 ] 
4.008 08 
12,583 88 ! 


Third 

q«»rter. 1 

*1>3 00; 
7.080 13 
130, 782 78 
11,810 04 , 
38.401 OS 
1»,S«SW 
4, 120 &2 ' 
12.010 34 1 


Fonrth 

14,038 48 

1&; i2« 87 


TotiJ. 
*I8.30G10 










?!S'.'■s?pf.^'"^"^;; 


'IrH 






?3S:I^;:::::;:-::;: 


sn.sBsoi 

lSe,7»8U 


loeioss 04 


2821027 11. 


Bis; 814 00 


1,170.81185 




78,MB7S 


».»»| 


"•■"'• 


31,828 04 






■ 



)„^,db,Googlc 



EXP0BT8 FBOM LYONS TO THE UNITED STATES. 





A^lclM. 


187,. 


un. 


18B0. 


IMl. 


laa. 


Le»th» 




i«SSS 


t]W,S03 
Sa,BT3 


US, 101 


3*0, OM 
13B.71S 


•{?5^ 


».?.-4" 




::::i';:;i wIms 


WB,KZT 


Tot.1 


1 sM.oes 


B5!,a8g 


H8,MI 


M7,ll« 


1.1THB11 



EXPORTS 7S0H LT0H8 TO THE UHITED STATES. 

4 REPOEl BY OOlfSUL PEIXOTFO. 

Tbe declared exports from the consular districts of Lyons to the XTnited 
States for the month of April Just closed amounted to $621,466.37, and 
for the first four months of the year ending April 30, they amounted to 
(3,941 ,876.05. For the corersponding four months of 1382, the; were 
$4,867,432.49— a decrease of 9925,556.44. 

The efljporta for April, 1882, were 4941,098.68, being a decrease of 
1319,632.31, of which decrease (234,615.6^ was in silk goods alone. In 
the decrease in tbeexports to the United States for tbe first four months 
of this year as noted above, 9862,220.79 were in silk gootls. 

This very considerabledecreasein the shipment of silk goods is owing 
to tbe new tariff, which, while under discussion, retarded and since its 
adoption (reducing the duties 10 per cent, and with the abolition of 
duties on charges at least 2^ per cent, more) has continued and will con- 
tinue to retard this class of exports till after the lat of July, the date 
fixed for the going into effect of the law. 

The raw-silk market during April has undergone very slight changes. 
The exports to the United States from Lyons amounted to 499,633.70 
against 4178,701.20 for the same month last year. 

The riiw silks of China, comparatively high as compared with those of 
European production, have made transactions difficult, especially as the 
demand has been very limited. The question now is, will an advance 
in European silks cause a fall in Asiatics t 

In the Cevenes district there remain quite important stocks of cocoons, 
the prices of which for the best yellow breed are $2.55, while the current 
qualities bring $2.31 to $2.41. 

Marseilles has a dull cocoon market. Milan — no improvement is noted. 
At Turin weak prices, but some little activity for organzines. At Lon- 
don, resistance continues against lower quotations, and some considera- 
ble business is reported in Japans. 

THE COMING SILK CROP. 

Both in Italy and in France the season is behind at least fifteen days. 
The weather this spring has been unusually cool — not to say cold. The 
mulberry trees are backward, with vegetation in general. It is impos- 
sible to forecast with any certainty the coming rS^tle. It is, however, 
true that more seed has been prepared and that the later the season the 
greater tbe security against frost, while precautions hare been taken in 
lat« years against too sudden and prolonged heat. 

From a recent trip through the silk-growing region, from communi- 
cations directly received, and from general prognostications I feel fairly 
Jnstifled in predicting a good silk crop for 1883. 



,i:.db Google 



ASPHALT AHD ABPHALT TRADE OP CUBA. 71 

FASHIONS FOR THE FALL. 

The orders given here to maanfacturerB thOB f^r for the autumn season 
point to figured silks and velvets as the coming mode. In fact even for 
summer, velvets are being largely used in connection with other material. 
Velvet bodices particularly seem to be largely la favor. 

The prospect of fall trade is not to be thus early discounted, but all 
indicatioDS speak favorably. 

BENJAMIN F. PBIXOTTO, 

ContuU 
United States Consulate, 

£yiMM,ifay2, 1883. 



ASPHALT ABX» ASPHALT TBASE OF CUBA. 

BBFOBT BI OOSBVL-QBNSRAL BADEA V, OF HATAKA. 

lu reply to the instructions of the Department, ealliug for a report on 
the asphalt trade of this island, 1 have the honor to state that before I 
assumed the duties of this ofiSce the vice-consul-general then in charge, 
Mr. Ramon O. Williams, had issued a circular letter to the consular offi- 
cers in Cuba calling for information on the following points: 

Ist. The location of the asphaltum mines or beds of this island. 

2d. The manner of tniuing it. 

3d. The cost of production at shipping port. 

4th. The atrnnal yield. 

5tli. yames of ports of shipment and distance from the mines to port, 
stating facilities for transportation and cost of same. 

6tfa. To what countries it is shipped and names of shippers. 

7th. The average market value ; and 

8th. How many miues are now being worked. 

To these inquiries the consular officers at Oardenas, Oienfliegos, 
Sagna la Orande, and San Juan de los Bemedioa made replies, which 
will be found api>euded hereto in full. The condition of the mines in 
the district of Havana is fully described below. 

The coDsalar officers of the remaining districts report no asphaltam 
mines in their jurisdiction. 

The chief engineer of mines of this island, Don Pedro Saltarain, has 
also been good enough to furnish the consulate general with a detailed 
and elaborate report, and as there is no higher or better authority on 
the subject, I submit a translation entire of this valuable document. 

It may be found to contain some-statements identical with those made 
by the consular oflSeers, but it seemed advisable to present these vari- 
ous views coming from different sources for the better inlormation of 
those interested. I believe that together they will aftbrd all the knowl- 
edge now accessible in regard to the location of the mines or beds fhim 
which the asphalt is obtained, the manner of its production, its cost and 
transportation, and the general condition of the trade. 

. ADAM BADEAIT, 

Consul- GeneraL 

United States Consulate General, 
Havana, April 19, 1883. 



^dbyGoogle 



72 ASPHALT AND A8PHALT TRADE OF CUBA. 

From ikt viM-oemtKlur agent ai Cardmat, 

U. S. COUHKROIAL AOEMCT, 

Conimiu, Nwtmber 2, 1882. 

Dkar Sir : Yonc com in an i cation of the 24th nitimo has been received, and I now 
h»Te the honor to reply to yopr qneations regardiog asphaltnin. 

Ist. The tQine« th»t are now t>eiDg worked are locat«d in the bay of Cardenas, in 
from 40 to 60 feet of water. There are others in the hay, bnt the cost of getting oat 
theaaphaltumiBSOgreatonacconntof depth of water that they have been abandoned. 
There are also others in the bavofsDohpoorqnality that they have never beea worked 
ainoB they were discovered. As far as I can learn there are only two mines on land 
in thin jurisdiction, one of very good quality and the other worthless ; neither of them 
are worked at present. 

3d. It iH biokeu from the hed with long iron ban, and then hoisted to the surfaoe 
with drags made of iron. 

3d. Betnoen ^2^ and $30, Spanish gold, per ton, according to quality. 

4th. About 200 tons. 

5th. Cai-denaa, about &1 to 7 miles distant from the city. In lighten, and, gen- 
erally speaking, in the same ligh'er that ban worked the drag. Cost of transporta- 
tion "inelnded in the cost of puoduction. 

6th. To the United States, principally New York, and some few small lote have been 
shipped to England and Oennaay. Mr. Juan Fde Torrdnteguy is the only shipper at 
this port. 

7th. It has, comparatively speaking, no market value here. The entire production 
is 6xporl«d. 

8tb. Only two mines In the bay are being worked at present. 

I have delayed a few dayn in replying to, yonr letter, as Mr. Tomtnteguy, the only 
minerof asphaltumin this district was away, and he was the only one who coiild give 
any correct Information on the subject. 

I have tbe honor to be, sir, very respectfully, yuur obedient servant, 

JOS. M. WASHINGTON, 

Fu!e-Con»ular-A gent. 

B. 0. WtU.IAM8, Esq., 

United Stalet Vu^Contvl-Omeral, Havana. 



From IAe Uuii^ Statu oanaul at Ci«»ftiego$. 

Unitkd States Cosh u late, 

Cimfiugoa, December 9, 1982. 

Sir : Keferring to the letter of the honorable vice-consQl-general, dated October 24, 
1BS2, and to my preliminary answer thereto dated November 28, I beg to state that 
the following report regarding the aspbaltum beds of this consular district may be 
relied upon as snbgtantiaily correct: 

There are bituminous deposits about one mile east of Santa Clara — one well 4 or 5 
feet deep, of an oily substance and inflammable. Five or six years ago arrangements 
were made to work this locality for petroleum, but the project was abandoned. 

Another and larger deposit is about 15 miles from Santa Clara, in the direction of 
Sazua la Grande, near "Kl Indio " plantation. 

Several other deposits are in Camajuani, about 19 miles from Santa Clara, in the 
direction of San Juan de los Reinedios. 

All of the foregoing are more or leas of a liquid character. 

There is a deposit of a enlid character located about 10 miles from Santa Clara, to- 
ward Remedies. The locality is called " Sabanas Nuevaa." This deposit belongs to 
the gas works at Santa Clara, It hoe never been worked for shipping puriiosea, hut 
the aNphslruni has been excavated In a rude way, aud used at tbe gas shop in Santa 
Clara, the eniavaiioa being 8 yards deep and 20 by 5 in length and width. The whole 
subsoil at thin place is aspbaltum of tbe best quality, and is found within three feet of 
the Burface oftlie ground. 

It Is believed, f^m signs noticed In the neighborhood, that another large deposit of 
aspbaltum might be found about three miles from Sabanus Nuevati, in Mio direction 
of Sauta Clara. 

Another bed of solid aephaltnm is noticed 3 niiliut from Hatichuelo, and in 12 yards 
of the Sagua River. It belongs to Mr. Diego G. Abren, who resides at Ranchuolo. 
Little or nothing is known of it beyond the fact of its existence. I fear t have some- 
what overstepped my instructions by not coiiflning this report to tue limits of my 
consular district; bnt considering that I have specifled the several localities, and con- 



ASPHALT AND ASPHALT TRADE OP CUBA. 73 

nderinz further tbe difficulty in obtAiDinii iDformatioD on sncli subjects in Cubs, I 
bare tuen the liberty of raportiu); ftll the information I poaseaa. 

Replying to tbe qaestions as propounded to me by nnmW', I beg to say: 

1st. Tbe loc&tioDB are stated ag above. 

Sd. None of the beds have been worked except in nrndeand limited manner. 

3d. The cost of production trlth proper machinery is not known. 

4th. I should estimate that tbe annual yield wonld be considerable if properly 

5th. TiannportatiOD in Cuba,eitherbyroador railroad, is not so goodusnally as in 
tbe United States. Santa Clara has an outlet by rallroftd to boUi Cienfiief^H and 
S^ua. and tbe several localities named are, as ebown above, only ebort distaucee 
from one or tbe other of these roads, 
fith. None has ever been shipped abroad that I csa bear of. 
7th. The products of these beds have never been on the market. 
8tb. None of the beds or mines referred to ate being worked, at least to any extent 
worthy of note. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WH. P. FIERCE, United Statre Co«*hI. 
Hon. Adam Badeau, 

UniUd Stata CoaniUGaneral, Haiana. ■ 



From tie oonimeraial agent at Sagua ta Grande. 

Saoua la Grahdb, ApHl ID, 1883. 
SiK : I beg to aokiiowleilge receipt of your telegram of last iiiKbt, asking if I had 
answered regarding the inquiry of thti 17th October in rtlatioii to aaphaltum mines 
in this juriuiuct Ion. Tliis matter I have no kiiowlodge of, iwit was received by Mr. 
Martinez abont a month before my return from the United Statfle, but as the subject 
is one that baa lieen talked of a good deal I am able to snpply the following partion- 
latST 

There are two undeveloped atTfflaltun) mines in this jnriadiGtion, eitnated on the 
■oftar plantation of San Antonia, owned by a man named Flagn^, located about 30 
miles from this point, the railroail running through the place. The coat of transpor- 
tation to tbe iHirt woald be abont $5 per hogahe^. As they are undeveloped I am 
unable to give the manner of working, the cost of the production, tbe possible yield, 
or the maNtet value. 

As far as I have been able to ascertain these are the only known mines or deposits 
in this department. 

I am, sir, very reepectflilly, your obedient servant. 

CLA.RENCE C. FOBD, 
Vniled Slaitt Comraerdal Agent. 
Hon. Adam BADBxr, 

Vniltd SUttet Com kI- General, Baimna. 



From lie vlet-commerBUiUageiit at Caibarieii. 

Caibarieit, Noren^r 31, 1883. 

Dkar Sir: Uy fHend, Mr. Joe^ Martinez, is here and has given me the following 
information in regard to the aaphaltum mines : 

lat. That in JatttHinico there am four asphaUum mines, located on both sides of the 
river Jatibonico, in tbe jnrisiliclion of Puerto Principe (Moron) and Sto. Esperita ; 
but tbey are not known in either proviucc, because the little that haa boon extracted 
from tbem baa been exported through Caibarien. They are close to the jurisdiction 
of Beni^ios, toward May^icuH. On one aide of the river there is a bed of aaphal- 
tum, in the Juriadict.iou of Moron, and another in the aame river; and towani the 
other aide of the river, in the jurisdiction of Sto. Espiritu, there are two others; these 
have never l>een worked, and liave, iudned, only lately been opeiieil. 

One of the beds, tbe one in Moruu, is liquid and can be ea«lly isulted. It is known 
by the name of " Mai Noaibre." 

The one thiit otfera moat advantages front its abundance and quality is the one in 
the river; it has a beantifol color. 

Theone in Moron ia situated on tbe eiitato of Encamacion-Leyba; tbeonciu theriver 
on tbe property of Mrs. Bira Marin ; and of the two in Sto. Espiritu, one is on tbe 
Mtate of Mr. N. Logon, and the other on that of Mr. Jos£ Oropesa. 



74 ASPHALT AND ASPHALT TRADE OF CUBA. 

Ur. Francisci) de In CbIeu1> hxl these miuea denonnoed to the Qovemmeut Mid 
obtained poesemlou of tbem ; but In order to avoid argninent with the owners of tbo 

Sound b« paid them (50 a year for each oabaleria (SS^ acres) where a«pha1tnm wm 
and. The oaid Caltada died Bonie three yesra ago, and ever sinoe the mines are 
almost iiQoared for, and even he had very little profit ont of them. He broaght • 

Rump that ff aa never aet to work, being part of it in Maj^igna and the other part 
1 Jatibonico. 

2d. The aephaltum was taken out by means of picks and crow-bare, for it was really 
never mined, being only worketl on the surface. From the mines the asphaltum wm 
oonveyed on mules backs as far as the road to Mayajigua, or rather to the bill of "Loa 
Anxelos " (3 miles), and from there in carts to Rosa Maria (6 miles), where thet« is i 
railroad named " Sagua and El Est^ro Real" (4) miles). 

3d. The cost of (he osphaltum, fivm the mines to El Bstoro Real, is |1S per ton, bnt 
It could be done for SlU if there was anybody who would work up the mines. From 
"£1 Estero Real" toCaibarlen or Cayo Prances the conveyance is done in lightefs at 
11.50. It ie easier to go to Cayo Frances, as the winds are more favorable. The ooat 
of working the mioes is not known, neither the yearly yield, because, as alMady 
stated, the work done has been merely a trial. 

5tti. From the mines to El Estero Real, on the coast, it is 1^ miles, and ftomthera 
to Cayo Frances or Caibarien, 16 or 16 miles, 

6th. The Little ssphaltum that was taken out by Calsada was sent to the Unit«d 
States, where it obtained a priie at the. Exposition at Philadelphia. 

7tb. The market value cannot be told, as what the coat would be of extracting the 
mineral is not known. 

Tbis is the only aaphaltum in the place, 

Hr. Martines tells me that if a sample of said asphaltnm is desired he can prooote 
yon a bax of same. He also tolls me that from the foot of "Los Angelos" to the shore 
a railroad could be easily made, as the ground la level and not rocky ; there ia only one 
Btrearo, and the only work would be to remove the ground. There is plenty of wood 
for the work. 

I am sir, yonr obedient servant, 

JOSE O. FUENTE8, 
rios- Com mercia I- A gmit. 

Ramon O. Williams, Esq., 



Pice-Conntl-Gentral of tiu UniUd Slalet, Havana, 



Btport on mina of aipkaltujn and Mimition* oil in iho UUtud of Cuia. 

[Fnrelsbtd tbe ooninUlc-gciierat of ths Colted Statrs Kt Hstus b; Don Pedis Ssltiindti, chief ta.- 
glSMT o[ mine* of tha Island.] 

The acientiSo societies of Havana have, on diflbrenl ocoasions, called attention to 
the abundance of bitnminous mineral existing in tbis island, and several reports, 
each as those of Don Joaquin J. Navarro, written in 1829, that of the civil engineer, 
C. Moisant, in 1857, as well ascertain articles published in the "Diario dela Horina,'* 
describe the various beds of this eiibstaooe and set forth the advantage to be derived 
from its employment for f\iol or in tbe manufacture of gas to be used for lighting, or 
ftom its application ia ship-building and for other industrial purposes. 

Tbe serpeutine formation, considered under this getierio denomination, cnmpoeed of 
serpentine with dikes of diorite of differeht varieties, is without. doubt the most ex- 
tensive and metalliferous in this island, and either itself oontaine all the beds of 
bltnmiDouB mineral, or has been the cause of the ooutiguuns layers, a faet I have hod 
opportunity to determine in the several exploratioas made by me np to the present 

Whether this rock is eruptive or whether it ie tbe diorite alone, which in general 
oooupies the central part, that metamorphoses the surrounding serpentine, it appears 
evident that the formation took place at the end of the Cretacean period at the same 
time with that of the bituminous beds existing in it or iocloeod in the adjacent strata 
of this period. 

The bituminous mineral ia found in three conditions — solid, soft or paaty, and 
llqnid ; and as In general the purity and qualitv of the beds beat some relation to the 
natnre of the surrounding soil, the layers inclosed in sand and Cretacean marl ore 
-always of solid asphaltnm mixed with earthy materials from tha circumjacent layers, 
whUe the beds of liquid or paaty mineral are almost exclusively of the serpentine 
ftrmation, with, besides, this marked difference between them and the solid asphalt, 
that the former are found in irregular veins, for the most part slight in yield, and 
with little or no proportion of earthy matter from the rocks that Inoase them. And 



lb Google 



ASPHALT AND ASPHALT TEADE OF CUBA. 75 

ao marked «re these diatiDot oharacteriiticB that it is often snffloieDt to lOBpect a 
speciniDn of the mineral to detenniae with probability, from its oonditioa and greater 
<rt1«aa purity, (he claas of soil and of bed trom which it is takeu. 

TUe soft and liquid mineralu are respectively tme plsaaspbalt, and oils more or lem 
bltDminonH, and are almost always foaod ia the aerpentiae formatiou ; these acquire 
a greater and often a omplete solidity on the snrface in conaequenoe of the erapo- 
ration of the essential oils which they contain. 

Neither of these classes of minerals is worked, altboagh in some localities they are 
Qsed in small quantities fur lighting pnrposes, but they are valnable indications of 
the probable existence at greater depth of lighter oils, petroleum or naphtha, indi- 
cationa which. In other conditions of development of the mineral industry, would have 
caused more namerons and elaborate inveatlgations than the feeble attempts which 
have hitherto been made. 

Neverthelesa, the works accomplished and the discovery of deposits of naphtha oil 
in tbemine called "Sao Jaan," situated in the province of Santa Clara, district of San 
Joe6 de loe Ramos, hacienda " Motembo," distant more than three leagues north of the 
railroad station San Jos£ de loe Ramos, and about as far as the coast, are of great im- 
portance and worthy of special mention. 

For some time attention bad been directed to the fact that at many points of this 
locality hydrocarbureted gas was escaping, and with the object of investigating the 
circumBtanee, Don Hannel del Cneto obtained the requisite permission from the gov- 
ernment general, and in the year lS-0 eatablished a bonng. After several at- 
tempts, which were ineffectual because of his little experience in this olass of opera- 
tions, he discovered, Aagust 18, 1881, at the depth of % meters, a deposit of napntha 
oil of extraordinary pnnty, which yielded some 25 gallons daily. Its special char- 
acterlstica are that it is colorless, transparent as the clearest water, easily inflammable, 
and leaves no sensible residue after its complete combustion ; its density is 0.764, it 
boils at a tempereture of HSt", dissolves asphaltum and reainoua matter, and, in flne, 
-"lecharr '-"" ' '-■^- -'^^ * * ..-_-..: — ^^,^- 



a the characteristics of a naphtha of the rarest and most exceptional limpidity 
and purity. 

In the hope of obtaining greater qnaulities of the oil the boring was continued, and 
at the depth of 748 meters another deposit of the same substance was discovered with 
a yield otiU) gallon* daily. 

This yield, however, soon diminishing, it was determined to continue the boring ; 
bntthe operation nnfortnnatety had to be discontinued at the depth of 300 meters, 



and at a time when the escape of gae was (greatest, on acconnlof the breaking oFtbe 
cable used for drawing ap the oil, and np to the present time it has been impossible 



Such is the present condition of this Interesting mine, but it is intended to make 
other borings at p<{iuts where, owing to the analogons uooditions, it is presumed that 
new deposits exist and where a favorable resnlt is anticipated. 

Besides these mines aootlier of bituminous nil is worthy of mention in the district of 
LagDnillas,proTlnceDf Matanzae, th ree or foar leagues south weet of Cardenas. Its yield 
has not been great during the last few years, not reaching more than 7D liters daily, 
^which flow from the sidee and bottom of a well of S5 meters depth ; but there is now 
a company preparing a preliminary boring in the hope of increasing the yield. This 
oil contains a great quantity of the bituminous element, and requires one or two claa- 
siScations for the extraotioa of the petroleum, the principal object proponed by the 
company referred to. 

From the same neighborhood two other petitions have been presented to the Gov- 
ernment, asking concesaioDB for minine the same substance, and therespectlvebound- 
•rim are now being det«rmined. 

Another mine of bituniitinus rock existing in the same province of Hatanzas is of 
great interest, both from Its quality, judging Irom the speoimens presented to the Oot- 
enment by tho«e iDtere8t«d, and from its abundant yield and favorable situation. It 
is only one kilometer from the north coast., at a place called " Eincon de Pnerto Es- 
condld*," municipal district i f Uato Nnevo, so that transportation for its products is 
eboap and easy, a cireamstauce well worthy of consideration in the workiug of this 
class of mines. Although it has been said that the mine is a bituminons rocK, its &s- 
«nre«cootaia a great quantity of soft asplialtnni, which, according to information le- 
eejved, constitnles the principal feature in the nchness of the mine. ' 

To thia group of iioft or liquid asphaltum it would seem, from its manner of forma- 
tion, certainly belongs the well-known asphalt of the Bay of Canlenss; since, jiid^ng 
frmn its appearance, and from the shells and live coral to which it is found adhermgi 
and vhich are included In its mass, it is probable that it has at some comparatively 
recent period annnied the liquid state and spread over the bottom of the t>a^. Tfae 
wawes of which It is composeil are sometimes 70 feet in thickness, of great punty, and 
much esteemed in the market or New York, where they sell at prices ranging from 
leO to »1S0 a ton. 

Tbe forpgolng ai« ths principal mines which, from the present condition or the i»- 



76 THE WOHLd'8 silk INDUSTRY, 

oeut orisin of these minerals can b« coDsidered as )Dc)nd«d in the gtoaf of soft or 
liquid biCDman ; and I dsab no-w to a short kocouut of the most notable mines of as- 
phalt, proparl^ »o oallod, which are in the provineeg of Havana and Pruardel Rio, 

In the province of Havana are the mines " Santa Teresa," "Jesus del Potosi," and 
" Santa Rosa." The first is sitnatod in the town of Las Minas, near the Bahia Rail- 
road. It was worked by a company until 1&B2 by means of wells and galleries to the 
depth of 86 meters. Its bed consieied of a vein of excellent miuera! in the serpentine 
formation, bnt whether it became exhausted, or whether proper search was not made, 
or ttom some other oauso, the mine has been completely aliandoned. 

Those called " Jesns del Potosi" and " Santa Rosa," the property of Messrs. Olynn 
and Gomez, border on andarelncatedin a place called "LasChnmbas," half a leagne 
Bonth of the station of Campo Ftorido, on the above-mentioned railroad and on the 
shores of the river Bacuranao. 

The mass or masses of asphalt taken from them are placed betweeo the oretacean 
marl and the Berpentine rocks which are found on the north, their direction being 
from sontheast to northwest, with an approximate width of 5 to 6 meters, and ei- 
treniely deep. This asphalt is quite impure, owing to the earthy matter which it 
contains; but, on the other hand, to the miitiireof the said earthy sabstance is owing, 
withont doubt, its more advantageous application as combustible in grates and rt^orts 
for the elaboration of gas, as is evideuced by various experiments made for the pur- 
pose, as also for street pavements, Sec, 

The slight nature of the preparatory works hitherto established, and the necessity 
for others which, though not properly belonging to the mines, were indispensable to 
their proper working, account fur the fact that no more than liOO to TOO tons have been 
extracted daring the present year ; baC it is safe to say that a bed, at once abundant 
and easily worked, exists ; besides wbicb, one of the most indispeasable conditions for 
cheap transportation is assumed, namely, its proiimity to tue railroad station of 
Campo Florido, distant some 15 miles from Havaua. 

The remaining mines of asphaltum now working are in the province nf Piflar del 
Rio. Those named " San JosiS" and " Constancia" are the property of Mr. Honry L. 
Crawford, and near the town of Banes, on the. banks of the river of the same name, 
which permits an easy transportation of the mineral to the neighboring port. Not- 
withstanding this favorable position of the mine, and the facts that the various 
masses of asphalt are near the surface, only few and insnScient works exist, and the 
production line hardly reached 400 tons during the last two years. 

The mines in the same province, entitled "Rodas Conoepcion" and " Magdalena," 
belonging to Don Ramon Balsiude, as well as the sngar plantations "CaDas" and 
"Tomaiita," on whioh these are located, at the head of thit extensive Bay of Mariel. 
These are mines worked under the open sky, upon massenof asphalt, notable for their 
dimen si o as especially the mine "Magdalena" of the plantation "Fomasita," which 
measures, in the part already laid bare by the works, 12 meters of thickness, more 
than 100 in length, and 1^ to IS meters iu depth. This mass lies in the direction of 
west-southwest to east- northeast, and is probably a continuation of the other two 
mines sitaated on the neighboring plantation of CaSas. 

Thoi|uaotity of mineralobtainedin these mines amouuts tJ] 1,000 to 1,300 tons a year,* 
which is partly consumed on the same estate of Seliot Batsinde, as fuel, and in the 
production of gas for lighting purposes. 

Besides these, there exist other mines, which are either not of so much interest, or 
have not lieen officially examined ; but those named are already snfflcient to prove 



the abundance of thesii bituminous substances existing in the island, especially 
Dorthem coast, and to demonstrate the creat advantages which might be deiivou 
from working them, both on account of the quality and quantity of the mineral, and 
troni their proximity to ports, rendering them of high importance and worthy of par- 
ticular attention fbim individuals or compnnlcs interest«a in the mineral Industry. 



THE WORLD'S SILK IHDUBTBT. 

BBPORT BT CONSUL FEIXOTTO. OF LYONS. 

I have the honor to submit the followiDg general report on the pres- 
ent 8tat« of the silk industry of the globe. 

The object of this diapatcb is to present to the American silk grower 
and manufacturer a brief but correct statement of the actual situation 
of this important industry throughout the world. 

France. — For general Uistorioal survey I beg to refer to my dispatch 



THE WOKLD'8 silk INDDSTEY. 77 

of October 1, 1878; for details of tlie industry in all ita branolies, filature 
moulinage, and fabrique, to my dispatches for the past foor years. 

To-day the silk manufactures occupy in the city proper and contig- 
uou« departments upwards of 120,000 looms, about 20,000 being power 
looms, and the productiou of silk stufib amounting annually to about 
*80,0«0,"00, $30,000,000 of which are mixed goods— silk and cotton, 
silk and wool, silk and liuen, &c. 

Atutria — Though dating back many years the mannfactui^e of silk 
goods has only within the past five or six years assumed au importance 
which has attracted serious attention. 

The Government has recently again come to the aid of an industry 
which presents so many and varied and happy means for the occupation 
of DO very inconsiderable portion of the commnnity. 

The chief centers of the silk manufacture are in the provinces of Bo- 
hemia and Uoravia. Around Yienna are clustered factories which pro- 
duce only the finest tisanes. Xearly every variety of silk goods are 
manufactured. 

The average weekly wages of ordinary weavers range from tl.15 to 
tl.30. Expert weavers, in fine goods, earn from tt to |6 per week. 

Anstrian mauufacturers copy and produce with remarkable fidelity 
the goods of Macclesfield, Zurich, Crefeld, and even approaching those 
of Lyons, 

About 15,000 to 20,000 looms, of which 3,000 are power looms, are 
employed. 

The total productiou of silk goods is estimated at from $10,000,000, to 
(15,000,000. 

So successfolly have the Austrjans competed with other rival coun- 
tries that they are not only able to enpply largely the want« of home 
consumption but to ship goods to the I>aunbian countries, where they 
have succeeded in obtaining important footing. 

The recent tariff laws on silk goods of from 15 to 30 per ceut. have 
in DO smalt degree served to protMit and develop the home industry. 

Formerly, Austria-Hungary was one of the b^t customers of Lyons, 
but, like Germany, this country has reduced her importations from 
France to insiguiUcant figures. 

Holland. — Uomparatively few silk maunfactures exist. BoCterdam 
is the principal point. 

Portugal. — The same is trne of this country, which, like Holland, im- 
ports most of ita silk tissues. 

Belgium. — At Antwerp very escelient goods are produced. I have 
remarked the superiority of this manuf^ture some years since in re- 
turning home from Boumania. In general, however, Belgium's produc- 
tion of silk goods is extremely limited. 

Russia. — ^The silk manufactories of Russia owe their creation to Lyons, 
lu other years Russia was a very large consumer of the silks of France. 
Later on she took from Lyons not only workmen, but a number of very 
important matters in the art of weaving. Once a very riob customer, 
actually Russia produces for herself the majority of silk goods which 
she consumes. 

The total prodactioa of silk tissues may be safely oalcnlated at 
•16,000,000. 

In fact, except for vclveta and very cheap goods of silk and cotton 
mixtures Bnsaia asks but very little from other countries, always hav- 
ing regard to the costly silks of French manufactures, of which she still 
takes fair quantities. 

Sjfria and Asia Minor. — Twelve thonsand looms, with a prodnction of 



78 THE world's flILK INDUSTRY. 

fh>in 94,000,000 to 45,000,000 of manufactured etuffs. It ia, however, diffi- 
cult to estimate the actual production and consumption. I particularly 
noticed tliis fact last year, in my visit to these countries, when enjoying 
the privilege of ihe coDg£ accorded me by the Department. There are 
actnally more silk goods consumed and sold in these countries than 
is generally known abroad. 

Very good silk is also produced from the cocoous raised ; in fact I 
noticed ^me exceptionally good silk, and on my return to Lyons found 
thia quality commanded a very important price, 

India.— There are probably not more than three thousand to four thon> 
sand looms in India, producing nnoually from $800,000 to tl,000,000 
vorth of silk goods. These tisanes are made from the native silks, and 
are called Corah and Tussor. I am personally acquainted with a Lyons 
bouse who sell about $200,000 of the silks products of India. 

The production of silk amounts to about 12,000 bales annually, of 
70 kilograms to the bale, which 1 value, in round figures, at $7,000,000, 
6,000 bales of which are shipped to France and Eugland. 

China. — Though official statistics are lacking, the most reliable author- 
ities fix the number of looms at 350,000, the production of silk stuffs alt 
$60,000,000 to $65,000,000, of which $6,000,000 to $7,000,000 worth are 
exported. There is no country where silk fabrics are so generally and 
80 largely consumed as in China — no country which produces such 
varied and brilliant colors and such variety and peculiarity of goods. 

The wealthy classes not only dress entirely in silk, but furnish every 
part of their habitation with this lovely and beautiful textile. 

The sobriety and economy of the Chinese is proverbial. 

The wages earned are utterly insignificant in comparison with Euro- 
pean and American labor. A reeler of silk is happy to gain cents per 
diem, a weaver 15 to 20 or 25 cents. A thousand years have scarcely 
wrought any changes. What the introduction of automatic machinery 
would accomplish no words can tell. 

With her wonderful harvest of the raw material, of which scarcely 
more than 90,000 bales are exported, the introduction of modern ma- 
chinery would completely transform this industry, which at present rests 
in very near the same state as in the time of Confucius. 

Japan. — Here again official statistics are wanting, purposely perhaps, 
and even those who have lived long in the country furuish contradic- 
tory reports. From the best authorities (personal as well as from com- - 
mercial reports] I fix the figure of looms at 220,000. The production is 
almost entirely consumed at home, the export of mannfactared silka 
being still inconsiderable. 

I beg to remark that throngbout this present dispatch I am referring 
almost entirely to manufactured piece goods, ribbons, handkerchiefs, 
scarfs, &c. 

Spain — The Moors brought, with many other contributions, silk man- 
ufactures into Spain. In the ninth century Spain already produced 
stnffs of silk and gold celebrated for the beauty and costliness of their 
manufacture. In the past, Murcie, Valence, Saragossa, and a few other 
districts, were the centers of this industry. To-day Barcelona is pre- 
eminently- the great manufacturing section of Spanish silk. 

In the absence of official statistics it is estimated that there are 
10,000 to 12,000 looms, producing from $6,000,000 to $8,000,000 annu- 
ally of silk goods. 

Italy. — For many centuries Italy eiyoyed the monopoly for the man- 
ntacture of silk goods. . 



^dbyGoOgle 



THE world's silk INDUSTRY. 79 

In my dispatch of October, 187S (referred to above), I have described 
how very largely this iudastry was transferred to France. 

At present, such cities as Genoa (celebrated iu all times for its vel- 
vets), Florence, Milan, Como, Venice, Naples, Bologne, Turio, &c., 
scarcely possess iu total more than 30,000 looms, and Como is among 
the largest places of production. It is estiinated that the Italian man- 
nfactures of silk stnffa amount to from $10,000,000 to «12,0IH),0OO. I 
legret to say that here, as elsewhere in Enrope generally, thejGovern- 
meut have no official statistics. 

Switserland. — Silk manufactares were undoubtedly originally intro- 
daced by weavers from Lyons. Beligious persecution drove many of 
the workmen of this silkopolis to the land of William Tell. 

In 1855 she had about 25,000 looms. la 1882 she possessed upwards 
of 40,000, more than 4,000 of which are power looms, while her produc- 
tion of silk goods amount to fh>m 916,000,000 to 118,000,000. 

Zarich is the principal manufiicturer of broad goods, Basle of ribbons. 

Switzerland exported to the United States in 18^1, from Zurich alone, 
over $4,000,000 worth of silk goods, increasing the dgure by 9450,000 
last year. Zurich produces for the most part plain goods, black and 
colored; recently, however, she has been remarkably successful in ar- 
mor es, satins, serges, and marcel iues. 

Basle has become the great competitor of St. Etieone, and with the 
United States has all but annihilated the once famous capital of the 
Ixtire. 

Our gifted representatives, Mason, has goue so extensively into the 
subject of Basle's production that further remarks are anneceasary. 

I^bor forms but a fourth of the cost of production in Switzerland; in 
France it is nearly a third. 

Oreat Britain. — Tradition attributes to John Hemp, who lived in the 
foartuenth century, the introduction of silk manufactures. 

The revocation of the edict of Nantes drove many French weavers to 
England and gave an immense development to this industry. At that 
epoch silk goods were admitted [as they are to-day) free of duty, but 
theGovemment, yielding to the strenuous influence of the greatweavers, 
prohibited, in 1697, the introduction at first of French goods, and later 
those of all other conntries. The results of this Draconic law did not 
answer expectations, and in 1824 it was repealed. The number of looms 
at that time did not exceed 24,000. The prohibitory laws were followed 
by cnstoms duties, which was an advance towards liberty of commerce, 
and proved advantageous. 

In 1829 England numbered 50,000 looms; in 1856,110,000; and in 
1860,150,000. The production was then estimated, including every vari- 
ety of goods into which silk entered as a component part, at 960,000,000, 
It is probable this dgure was exaggerated, though it is given by the late 
Mr. Aries Dnfour, a man who probably did more for Lyons than any 
other of his lame. Oreat has been the decay of this industry since then, 
and since the French treaty of commerce of 1880 England's silk pros- 
perity h^s follen constantly. 

In 1872 sbe possessed but 66,000 looms, 12,378 of which were power. 

The imports of silk goods in that year into England are given at 
» •U,000,000. 

From all the evidence I can obtain at this writing I place the present 
production of silk goods in England (not inclading ribbons and bind- 
ings) at 922,000,000 to 925,000,000. 

England excels particularly in plush-velvets, crnpes, Sttrah's moire- 



80 THE world's silk inddstrt. 

antiqae, ambreila silks, ribbons, galoona, handkerchief^, cravats, and 
goods of silk mixtuiea. 

The principal centers of silk manufactures are for broad goods, Uan- 
chester, Macclesfield, Bradford, and Spitalfields ; for roarcelines, Mac- 
clesfield ; for crapes, !Norwich ; for taffetas, Manchester and Maccles- 
field : for velvets, Bradford and Manchester ; for ribbons, Coventry 
and Nottingham; for flgared silks (faconn4s], Bradford, Manchester, 
and Macclesfield ; for handkerchiefs, &c., Glasgow and Manchester. 

Saxony.— In recent years there has been a remarkable development 
of silk manufactures in tbe little but ever-lDdostrious Kingdom of Sax- 
ony. 

The liberal introduction of machinery has greatly contributed to this 
happy restilt. There are a number of factories which possess from 800 
to 1,000 looms. 

Oermany. — Silk manufactures were first introduced in the sixteenth 
century. French weavers driven from France again appear as the 
principal founders. The Bbine provinces and Brandenburg became 
the centers of silk weaving. 

In later years tbe development has been extraordinary. lu 1SS2 the 
number of looms in Germany was estimated at 75,000 to 90,000. 

At Cr^feld there were 35,000 to 40,000 looms. In 1881 the produc- 
tion of that place alone was $20,000,000. 

The total production of Germany is fixed at (45,000,000, without .in- 
eluding ribbons, of which aboat $8,000,000 to |10,OOU,000 worth are 
manufactured. 

Gr^fetd has at present 25,000 to 30,000 looms devoted to velvet, and 
from 45,000 to 60,000 looms altogether. 

In ordinary seasons the silk manuf'actoring interest of Germany is 
divided into two-fifths for velvets, three-fifths for all other varieties. For 
tbe past two years this proportion has beeu reversed. Cr6feld, Blber- 
f61d. Barmen, Virsen, Mulheim, &c., are the chief towns devoted to this 
industry. There are upwards of one hundred and forty mauufactarers 
located at Cr^feld out of the 300 which Germauy is reputed to possess. 

It is incontestable that Germany has badly beaten France and all 
other countries in the last five years in the production of that class of 
silk goods which enter so largely into popular consumption. If she 
once imitated other countries, and particularly her great rival France, 
she to-day manufactures quite as original designs, which, if still lacking 
in that exqnisite taste for which Lyons is justly celebrated, are suffi- 
cieiitly varied to please and distract and find large consumption. 

To the manner of living of the German weaver, his domestic habit 
and working, bis regular hours and I'egular work for the same maiia- 
facturer, and to the custom of the manufacturer himself in buying the 
raw material on from six to nine months' time, to his ready adoption of 
new devices and new inventions, must largely be ascribed the wonder- 
ful success of the Teutonic silk manufacture. 

Tke United States. — lu making this fzeneral review of the silk mann- 
factures of the world I may be permitted to allude even to our own 
country, though naturally approaching tbe snbject with due deference 
to tbe latest statistics furnished to the recent censns by the " Silk As- 
sociation of America." I have, however, as a consul of the Government , 
of the United States, to appreciate the general commercial situation 
withont prejudice, and in that true spirit of impartiality which becomes 
a servant of the whole people, and uot of any one particular class. 

Twenty-odd years ofhighprotectiug duties, averaging fully SOper cent., 
and for at least a fourth, if not a third, of our tmporta as high as 60 per 



,C~.tK1t^[c 



THE world's silk INDUSTRY. 81 

cent., faa^ largely cootribated to bnild op our ailk msniifactarea, whoae 
total BDDiial production (iucluding all varieties of goods) may safely be 
fixed, at preaent, at from $35,000,000 to $38,000,000. Probably DOt 
more tbtm $15,000,000 (if tliat) come into direct cotnpetitioa with tbe 
piece goods fabrication of Europe. 

To our enterprising spiiit-aad recognition of the economical idea in 
the adoption of mechanical force, as mnch as to our tariff, are we 
indebted for the present position of onr silk industries. In the near 
futare it will more than ever be to tbe genius of American iuveutioD, 
aad its application, that the United States will keep what she has al- 
ready acqaired, and become one of the richest silk producing and silk 
mannfactnring conntries of the globe. 

TOTAL PRODUCTION. 

The total production of silk goods in the world may be estimated at 
aboDt $3^30,000,000. Deducting the manufactures of China aud Japan, 
ivhose economical situation is so very different &om other countries, 
there remain $270,000,000 worth of silk manufactures, which may be 
divided among different conntries, taking the maximaut as follows: 

Tnace 185,000,000 

G«nn»nr 45,000,000 

United Stat«8 35,000,000 

Great BriUin ai, 000, 000 

SnitierUnd 18,000.000 

Bnssia 16,000,000 

Aostria 12,000,000 

Iwlf 12,000,000 

SpaiD _ 3,000,000 

Other coDDtriea 17,000,000 

Grand total 270,000,000 

I admit that these figures ^re sabject to criticism, but am inclined to 
think that while the distribution may not be entirely correct the total 
sum is very nearly ao. 

If the manufacturers and merchants of the New World incline to con- 
ceal tbe veritable figures of their affairs, they but feebly Imitate those 
of Europe and the eastern hemisphere who have hidden and probably 
continue to hide the extent of their transactions. 

I estimate 470,000 as the number of looms employed in the silk goods 
production, including power looms, which thus explains the difference, 
for if hand looms were alone used the number would be very considerably 
greater. 

In a aabseqnent dispatch I propose to review the production of the 

French maDnractore, which in latter years has fallen so largely behind. 

the present dispatch is intended to present simply a ooup ^ceil of the 

silk mann&cUtries of the world. The Interested will natur^ly follow 

np the subject in all its details. 

BENJAMIN FBANKLIN PEIXOTTO, 

Consul, 
UsiTKD States Consulate, 

Lyona, February 7, 18S3. 
6 JUL 83 



^dbyGoogle 



SILK CONSUMPTION IN EUROPE, 



SUE OGESUKSnOV OF EUBOFE. 



REPORT BT CONSUL FEIXOTTO, OF LYONS. 

The condition houaes of Europe received and paased in 1882 7,617,157 
kilograms of silk ; in 1881 8,594,023 kilograma of silk ; in 1880, 7,196,986 
kilograms of silk; dividing these figures by countries the followiug is 
the statement for the past three years: 

Silk coxdUioned t« SuTopf dating tkt geare 1880, 1881, and 1882. 





'■as 


a.au.T3S 

2,82fl.33S 
'7Bi;88g 


"TS-m 


















iSSS^:::::::::;:;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;::::::::: 


B7,23» 


Total 


J.)»«,98« 


8,»4,028 


T,<n.lS7 



Thus it appears that the general depression of trade during the past 
year bae attected all conntries, tbongb in different degrees. 
The falling off between 18S2 and l!J81 has been, for— 



QoBntity. Per « 




r Austria and Switzerland seetn to have suffered tbe largest decline, 
while Germany has been favored, owing to the precedence she has taken 
in the production of low priced silk goods, especially for velvets of 
mixed tissues. 

Switzerland has not escaped the general depresi3ion and apparently 
suffered even more than France. 

These figures, however, are but apparent figures, if regard is bad to 
the fact that Lyons, as a raw-silk market and seller of organzine silks, 
supplies very largely foreign places, particnlarly Germany and Switzer- 
land, ei\joyiog thus an esceptiouably favorable distinction over other 
Bilk centers. 

This is fully proved in consulting the reports of the French custom- 
house, which furnish the exports as well as the imports of the country. 

Tbe exports of French worked silks to Germany and Switzerland for 
the past two years were as follows : 



Twr. 


T,0.™„,. '•»«"«■ 


Tool. 




18,0» I 2M,m 


"XS 











Admitting, which is not entirely true, that all silk exported for Swiss 
and German conaumi)tion was conditioned in Lyons, deducting from the 
above figures those silks actually known to be of French condition, and 



SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION OP SILK IN FRANCE. 83 

adding these to the Swia3 and Germau cbuditioDed ailks, the result ob- 
tained is OS follows : 





CODDtrlM. 


1 ,„. 


iBK. Der.rsBM. 


Pet nut 


r,«™ 





h?Si 


l,S3§,7Ql ■ 83.B85 
784, 1B9 ' 28, 333 


14.S 


0.m«.y.... 




807,411 


2.8 



I am Inclined to believe that these flgnres represent nearest the com- 
parative general consumption of silk in the three largest manafactaring 
eonntries, viz: France, Switzerland, and Germany for the past two 
years. If this be true, then it is quite clear that French silk manufac- 
turers have suffered most from the general depression. 

BESJAMIS F. PEIXOTTO, 

Contul, 
United States Consulate, 

Lyoni, February 15, 1883. 



SVFPLT AHD COH SVHPTIOV OF SILK IS TRASCE. 

BBPORT BY COarSUL PEIXOTTO, OF LTOyS. 

Keferring to the foregoing dispatch, No. 303, of yesterday, I beg to 
sabmit a report on the supply and consamptiou of silk in France for 
tbe past year of 1882. 

The French silk markets derive their supplies fh>ia two soarces : 

First, from the native prodnctiou of the country. 

Second, from silks imported from foreign lands. 

The native producriou for 1882 was 854,000 kilograms of raw silk. 

The foreign import was — 

Ist, of raw Bilks 1,920,017 kilograms ; 2d, worked silks fi72,908 kilo- 
grams ; total 2,503,015 kilograms ; besides 26,000 kilograms derived 
from dried cocoons imported at Marseilles. 

Tbe total supply of silk for France in 1882 amounted therefore to 
3,453,015 kilograms, derived as follows: 834,000 from cocoons harvested 
inFrance; 1,020,017 from foreign rawsitksj 672,998 from foreign worked 
silks ; 26,000 from foreign (dried) cocoons imported at Marseilles ; total 
3,453,015 kilograms. 

BxamJDing tbe statistics for the past nine years in regard to the 
same sabjecC, I flud the following interesting flgores : 

The »illi *upplg of France for Ihepatl nine yeart (1673-1862}. 





T«r. 


Franoh (Uk, 


FonlgD (Uk. 


^ 


mi 
len 

ISTS 
1877 

!S 




SM,000 
731, 000 
731,000 

ss 

(Ml MM 

as! 

700,000 
8H000 


as 

8:?r*:ooo 

2.810.OO0 


3,887,000 

S; 71?; 000 


i£ 




a,4U,ooo 


Total 


t, 080, 000 


BS,827,m 


41,W7,00« 



TTToo*^ 



84 



EUaOPEAX SILK Q00D8 EXP0BT8. 



It will be noticed from die above table that thongh there was a con- 
siderable increase in native production the supplies of raw silk taken 
by the French market in 1882 were less, with the exception of 1877, than 
for ten years. ^ 

Tnrning to the qnestion of consamption, I find on examining the re 
ports of the French condition houses located in the silk growing and 
silk manufacturing centers of France, the following to have been the 
amount of silk''ent«red and conditioned for the past three years: 





CandltlDn lionHia. 


1 -■ 


,.,. 


>!» 






r«^.«. 


Eitagramt. 

IH.tKt 

1S>.IT> 

'"IS 

21$! OM 

US 


"-^n, 






















a,aH.s78 
























































Total.... 









An increase is here also noticeable, but while the silk supply for 3882 
shows for the average with 1880-'81 a diminntioD of 791,000 kilograms, 
oris per cent., the silk consumption for the same time marks a de- 
crease of but 195,000 kilograms or 5^ per cent. 

From these facta it may fairly be concluded that large inroads have 
been made upon the stocks of raw material left from previous years, 
which are now fast disappearing, bringing the latest production alone 
on the market. 

BENJAMIN P. PEIXOTTO, 

Cotuul. 
TTnited States Consulate, 

Lyons, Febrttary 16, 1883. 



EUROFEAF SHE OOOZIS EXPOKTS. 

REPORT BT COXSTTL PEIXOTTO. OF LTOSB. 

I beg now to present the official figures of the exports of silk goods 
from France, Italy, England, and Switzerland for the past yearin com- 
parison with those of 1881. 



CoantriBn. 


,e«. 


im 


IncIMM. 








2111,128,000 
2,65:730 
11.778.0W 
8,000.700 


301.410,000 
Z.«Wi3M 
14.206,000 

8.«0,«« 


Ptrtitia. 


















SwiUedand 






20 



As will be noted there was a very considerable increase in the silk 
goods export of the above-named countries, and though the official state- 
ment of Germany has not yet come to hand, there is little doubt, con- 
sidering the great favor her manufactures of cheap velvets have eqjoyed, 
but what her exhibit will show an equally large angmentatfon. 

These official figures will doubtless cause much surprise to those who 



C~.(iot^[c 



SILK CEOP FOR 1883. . ' 85 

have regarded the past year ia Europe as eiugularly oue of depression, 
and tbe astODishmeiit will be iucreased when, cousultiiig the custom- 
house reports for tLe same periods, tbe following results will appear for 
impons: ' 

> Imporit of silk good* for the grart 1>*^1 and \^2. 



I 









rr»Di>«,. 

ktlOK^lM,,. 



iDcrcase iu tbe exports on tbe one side and dimituitioii in tbe imports 
OD tbe other is tbe striking feature here presented. 

The question naturjiUy arises, to what country or oountriea have tbe 
excess of exports '^oue, f 

The United States answers very largely this inquiry. Her silk goods 
imports for 1881 were $31,637,377 ami lor 1882 3(38,032,034, or very nearly 
$7,000,000 increase for the past year. 

Tbns while the consumption in tbe Old World has remained within the 
closest limits, the development in the 2!eic has eontinaed and continues 
to fnrnish outlets for superabundant production. 

Considering that a very large part of our silk imports are goods that 
ve can produce at home almost if not entirely as advantaEreons, onr 
maDofacturers have in myjadgment only tu encourage and promote 
sericulture in the United States and to a«lopt tbe recently discovered 
processes for reeling ailk, which tbe Serrell automatic machinery will 
give them, to arrive at an independence such as they have obtained iu 
cotton fabrics. 

BENJAMIN F. PEIXOTTO, 

Consul. 

UxiTBD States Consulate, 

Lyons, February 27, 18S3. 



SUE CROP TOR 1B83. 

SSPOET Br COSSJTL PEIXOTTO, OF LTOXS. 

I beg to submit the following brief report on tbe coming silk crop for 
1883. 

Though yet too soon to form any definite opinion, owing especially to 
the backwardness of the season, which appears to have been general, 
tbe following information, which I have obtained from reliable sonrces, 
may prove interesting : 

France, — Vegetation jjrogresses slowly; iucabation generally retarded. 

In the departments of the Drome and Ardeche hatching has com- 
menced ; no serious complaints. 

In tbe Gard and Yaucluse departments the worms have reached their 
first moltingB. Both in France and Italy tbe yellow laces are more 
largely favored than ever. This is also true of the Levant. 

Italy. — Fears are expressed in some districts that the hot season will 
overtake the fourth moltings, which would prove disastrous. 

In the Neapolittm provinces there is great inequality; the worms have 
reached the first stage in some sections, the second period in others, 
while in others they are but incubating. This diversity is owing to the 
difference in temperature and to cold and rainy weather. Tuscany has 



86 PRODUCTION OP SILK GOODS IN LYONB. 

been more favored, bat the Venetiau districts are as much behind aa iD 
France. 

Spain.^ln the Valence and Murcie districts the worms are at the 
second and third periods, and generally few complaints are heard, 
though the weather has been variable. 

Brou»sa. — The silk harvest will be late this year, owing to the back- 
ward season; eggs in abandanoe everj'where and of Pastenrs seed. 

8j/ria. — The majority of races are of Japan, though Var and Corsica 
contribute their share. 

Greece. — The worms are at their first period. 

Shanghai. — It is reported that vegetation has suffered from rains, and 
that mulberry leaves will be rare. This report needs confirmation. 

As a whole, while .the season has thus far been backward, no serioas 
complaints have reached Lyons from any quarter, and the prospect 
may be considered fair. 

BENJAMIN F. PEIXOTTO, 

Consul. 

United States Consulate, 

Lyons, May 9, 1883. 



PRODVCTIOH OF SUE GOODS IH LTOHS. 



The total product of silk goods in the consular district of Lyons for 
the year 1882 was $71,759,000. 

In 1881 the production reached $76,258,160, being superior by 6 per 
cent, or $4,498,830 over the past year. 

The reduction has been in the manufacture of plain goods of pure* 
silk and the waste of pure silk. 

I beg to inclose a table showing the production for each year and 
specii^'ing the nature of the articles mannfactured, the amount*, the 
increase, and decrease. 

BENJAMIN F. PEIXOTTO, 
ConsttL 
United States Consulate, 

Lyons, March 15, 1S83. 



The prodnation qf*ilk goo^ in ih« coiualar dUtriel of Lyen», in 1B82, compartd icilA IS8I. 



Bluk aUkB (fHUlH ud Uffetas, sonploa uid 

Colored iilvr(f^lWaDil tVffelM)'.'.'- - 1 - i 

PiBck and colored BotlnB (nil xUk) 

Black uiri colored velreU (niyee) 

Blick Knd colortd velvEta (pure Bilk)... 
ttSeOt and urftea for umbrellaii (nd prnt- 

choK, InHtTMiea, (bUck and coloriMl) 

HudkenhietB (nnblMolied, printed, and 

dTod) 

Taffelw, atrlptd or qnadrtll* (cinu uid 

Hoin antique and Fnui<;aiH(biaciEand ool- 



» Google 



PHODUCTION OF SILK GOODS IN LYONS. 
n^ produetioti ofnlk goodi in 1^ oomular dittrici o/ Zyo»a, fc. — Ci 





1881 


im. 


I»or«„. 


T>-xtaut. 


TTASTE— eontioned. 


S80.000 

T.7M.000 


see, 000 

. 10,818.100 




»»«.» 








IS, 8*5.000 










B0,(il»5.800 


27,688,600 


8,198,200 








rmcY .mi fiqurbd ooodb or puki bilk. 
FlEnnd and fucy BtnS* (duniui. ■rmurM. 


^8M,000 

ou,ooo 

772.000 
SM.000 


3,ew.ooD 

1,158,000 
772,000 
570,000 


»es.»oo 

IROOO 




rnniltnn ud dumb, Mottn (dnnua, Umpw. 




"^^j^r'^.r!:"^^r:^i 




Pkney ud flgnnd goad« for ciBT.tm K>rfa. 


1W,000 









BlKkud 
Bluk Kpri 
Plathw 
Tel rein 
Poplliu. 



fur Dillllncn aiid h 
(B|(ured. utriped, i 
SicUius.BengHliiic 



7lAiD ud flKored stu 
PUin >pd figured >i 






Btath Dt '.nk. >■>■ 

Sor^ ahsVlV.'il' 
FlEnred stnOt to 

UmbrelU ellki (iu..n., 

PckioiHiditriped aatlni (mixed). 

Tottl 



Ik. oottou, and thrud 
ratx (iDiied) 



5.01S.000I S,3«ft,000| 





10. 815 OOO 
0.7SSOOO 

'ttjIooo 

1,158,000 
S75.500 

380,000 
005,000 
57, MO 

sue, 000 
aw. 000 

1, 030, 000 

57»;o«o 

482. 5O0 
772.000 

.as 

772,000 




3,8»6,0O» 


5.4M.0M 


1,351,000 
IBS. 000 










-72.000 




»6.i00 

270. 9M 
103,000 














380. OOO 








338,100 




"■tfiZ 












M,M» 






















IB^OOO 













30.011.900 1 28.832,400 



Plain and flgnnd ataft of pnra aitki and mii- 



1 1 


1 




1>3,00« 






















183,000 


'■^SS! 


1 158 000 i 




lr2«;33ol 


315,470 









mtlltary tr)lDiiillD|;il ■ 



4,Bes,2«U; 4.W2,73o; 


MB, 470 1 


386,000 




1 


77 200 























78,258,180 71,759.3; 



IzedbyGoOgIC 



FALSIFICATION OF FRENCH WISKS. 



FAISinCATION OF FSENCH WISES. 

REPORT JUT COKSUL WSLSOS. OF SAXTBS. 

I have to iicknowleilge tbe receipt of (lis])atcb,iucli»si»g protests of 
the Cliaiiibers of Commerce of Bonleaiix ami CettCj in rcfercuce to 
tbe wiue reports of tliis coiiKiilate. 

I have had no reason to chan<;c tlie oi)iiiion expressoil iti tlie reports 
referred to in reference to the falsification of wines iu Fmiice. 

That the reports are necessarily imi»erfect in tei^linieal kdowletige of 
the subject is doubtless true; this is iilrea^l.v nientionwl in a prefatory 
remark in one of tbem, but tbe main features, as stated therein, are be- 
lieved to be substantially correct. In other words, tbe falsitication of 
wine is carried on to a considerable extent in France, and a portion of 
tbe wine thus fiilsilied is eont to the United States. 

No better argument can be furnished of the existence of this practice 
than tbe establishment by tbe French Government, iu the interest of 
public health, of tbe well-organized laboratories for the analysis of 
wines and other liquids, which are distributed tbronghout tbe principal 
towns of France. This step was not takeu without due consideration. 
It was known and admitted tbat these falsifications were increasing to 
sach au extent tbat something had to be done to protect the people, to- 
ward whom the French Government seldom ceased to exercise a pa- 
rental relation. Many of the mixtures referred to were inoffensive, but 
some were not, and this justified tbe action of the Government in tbe 
determination to protect its citizens. 

The French Government having taken this ground, it appears illogi- 
cal on its part to complain of the United States Government for taking 
advisory measures looking to some similar action for the protection of 
ttfe people of the United States, to whom a certain portion of falsified 
wine is exported. If this liquid is considered injurious to the French 
people it must necessarily be considered injurious to the American 
people. 

For some years France bas been laboring under tbe misfortune of con- 
etautly decreasing production in ber vineyards tbe presence of phyllox- 
era, and tbe demand at home and abroad has been greater than during 
the period of wine prosperity. The demand bas been met by mHUufact- 
aring what could not be grown. This product, tite Bordeaux Cham- 
ber of Comtneroe urges iu defense, is not injurioiis, and it probably is 
not in most cases, but the central fact remains that it is manufactured 
chiefiy through mixtures and the addition of substances foreign to the 
vine. It is not tbe natural wine which it is generally represented to be, 
and a certain percentage of it is injurious, as has been proved by the 
authorized laboratories of France. 

Wbile France as a friendly power is entitled, in the unfortunate and 
disastrous failure of ber wine crops, to tbe symjiathy of tbe United 
States, the primal duty of tbe latter is to take such measures as are 
dictated by prudential regard for the welfare of its own citizens. 
ALBERT RHODES, 

Contvl. 

Uhited States Consulate, 

Rouen, April 18, 1883. 



^dbyGoogle 



BAILH0AD8 OF VENEZUELA. 



THE BAILB0AD8 OF VEFEZ1TELA. 

REPORT BT COXSUL BEACH. OP PUERTO CABELLO. 

Tlie first railroad built aiid operatod iu Yeneznela began at Puerto 
Cal)ello and l«d to tliu westivard, lUotit; the stripof laud between the 
Bay of Tri(?8t« (tbe bsiy is an exteiision of llie Caiibbeuii Sea) and one 
of the Andean ninp-s, wliiub varies fi'om 1 mile to 2 milea in width. 
TThis strip of land is a jiiiiit formation produced b,v a wash -dowu from the 
monutains and a wabh-np from the sea, and is nearly dead level. When 
tbe road \va» |>roje<;te<t it wa.s with the intention and exploitation that 
it would be extended fur a distiinee. of about TO miles, and in i^ts eonrse 
to reach one or twp interior cities. I'linn the levelnes.'< of the ronttt and 
the sandy character of the Koil the work of grading was neither difficult 
nor expensive. Altout ID miles of the i-uad was put into oiwrntion, and 
kept in operation for a few mcuths. Financial embarrassment followed; 
the cars 8toppe<l running ; the rails were taken up and chipped away, 
and now nothing risible remains of the enterprise but ati outline view 
of the nearly jungle-overgrown road-bed. 

Tucacas is about 30 miles to the westwaitl of Puerto Cahello. From 
Tacacas to the mines of Aroa, where copper mining in prosecuted, the 
course is southwesterly, and distance 55| miles. Between these places 
an English company, attont the year 1870, built a 2-feet gauge railroad, 
mainly for use in connection with mining. The topography of the 
«oantry permitted the road to be built in almost an air line, it having 
but few slight divergencies. Tbe obstacles met with in its construction 
were many, and some very formidable. For a large portion of the way 
there were trees of great size, and a dense Jungle from 20 to 30 feet in 
height. From the nature of the obstacles it became necessary that the 
building and surveying of the road should be conducted in conjunction, 
and the line of the road was sometimes determined by the compass fol- 
lowing those who cleared a place for the track. A great deal of malaria 
abounded ; poisonous replies were frequently met with, and tigers and 
other wild animals were quite unmerous. The fertile soil was full of 
roots, rendenngthe gradiugL of tbe road a very great labor. Afew small 
«treams were crossed, theHargest requiring a bridge of 90 feet span. 
Tbe bridges are iron structures, the railroad ties are of iron, and even 
the telegraph poles along ttie line are of the same material. The road 
appears to be substantially constructed, and the cars run very smoothly. 
For 23 miles from Tucacas {he grade of the road has made an ascent of 
150 feet. Xear the western terminus of the roiul the mountain is ap- 
proached, and at the distance of 50 miles from Tucacas the elevation is 
700 feet. The road for its last 5 miles has an upward grade of tiOO feet, 
reqairiug especially constructed engines fur the movement of trains. 
There are nine stations on the road — all mere stations, except Tucacas, 
the starting- point, with a population of 1,200, and LaLuz, the practical 
terminns for general business, 50^ miles fh>m Tucacas, a village having 
a population of about 3,000. The freight cars of tbe road carry from 6 
to 6 tons, and the passenger cars about 30 passengers. Of late years 
the rood has, in addition to the copper ore, freighted considerable cof- 
fee and other general merchandise of the country, comiug mainly from 
Barquiaimeto, a city of 29,000 population, 60 miles beyond La Luz, with 
which it is connected by a coach aud cart road. The iMtssenger business 
of tbe road is very light. 



90 RESUMPTION OF SPECIE PAYMENTS IN ITALY. 

A railroacl from La Guira to Oaracas lias beeu in process of coostrac- 
tion for several years. The distance by a footpath over the interven- 
ing mountain is 8 miles, bat by the necessarily circuitous route of the 
railroad line it is 22 miles. Caracas is 2,600 feet above the sea at La- 
gnira ; but in passing over the lowest poiut of the intermediate mount- 
ain an altitnde of 3,000 feet is attained, from which there is a descent 
both ways. The track of the road is 3J feet pauge. The grade over 
the mountain is uniform 3^ per eeut. The road is built on a series of 
Averse cur>'e8, having a radius of 140 feet. Caracas is directly south 
of La Guira. In starting from La Guira the course of the itmd is west- 
ward, but it circles around to the southward in aseeuding the mount- 
ain, and the whole forms a large semicircle as it re-aches its southern 
terminus. In building the road work was begun at La Guira, and has 
been progressed from that point. The northern end of the road has 
beeu completed for over a year, aud is utilized for the transportation of 
material used in its- coDstructiou. In recently riding over the coach 
road between the cities named, which for much of the way is near the 
railroad line, I was enabled to observe the work as fully completed and 
as incomplete. Great scientific skill has beeu displayed in the engineer- 
ing; the work is well executed ; and, judging from the large force of 
men employed, the road will doubtless be in running order its entire 
length by the Ist of Jaly next, the time of opening fixed by its man- 
agers, and which is the time set for opening the international exhibi- 
tion at Caracas — both openings to be celebrated in conjunction. For a 
considerable part of the way the road passes along the precipitous sides 
of the mountaiu, haviug a surface of earth and shtderock, which is liable 
to be carried in large quantities on to the track by heavy rain showers, 
and which will be the greatest obstacle the operating of the road will 
have to contend against. 

Surveys have been made for other railroad lines, and a small amount 
of grading has beeu done on a proposed road between Puerto Cabello 
and Valencia, distance about 40 miles, with iatermediate mountain ele- 
vation of 1,800 feet. 

HORATIO N. BEACH, 

Conavl. 

United States Consulate, 

Puerto Cabello, Venexula, February 8, 1833. 



&E8VKPTI0N OF SPECIE PATHENIS IN ITALY. 

SEPORT BY OOSBVL DUNCAN, OF NAPLES. 

It has now been a week since specie payments were resumed in Italy, 
and thns far everything has gone on as smoothly aud regularly as if no 
change bad taken place. 

The 12th instant was the day fixed upon by the Government for re- 
sumption, and all preparation made accordingly. There was not, like 
with us in the United States, actual resumption some time beforehand ; 
on the contrary, just before that date there was considerable stringency 
in the money market, and many shrewd business men entertaiued 
doubts as to the Government being able to resume, or, if it did, to main- 
tain resumption. The Government, too, seemed to have had some mis- 
givings, for it made such stringent and vexations regulations for the 
exchange of specie for paper that leading bankers prefer going on the 



FOBEIGN COMMERCE OF BERVIA. 91 

market aud paying a premium of one-fiftli to one-fourth per (»Qt. rather 
than sabmit to the delay and anooyances. For iustance, the treasury 
offices are bept open but a short time daily ; so your tarn may not come 
if there be a crowd. With the bills presented for exchange you must 
also present ao invoice with tbeirnumbers ; then, if the amount required 
is over 50,000 lire two days' notice must be given. If it is less than 
100 lire it is paid in silver, aud if over 100 lire two-thirds in gold and 
one-third in silver. But people do uot fancy the silver. These regula- 
tions were, no doubt, made with a view of obstructing a rush on the 
treasury ofQcers during the first days of resumption, and it has had the 
desired effect, for neither here at ^Naples nor elsewhere in Italy has 
there been any trouble in this r^pect. 

Thus specie payments have been resumed in Italy without any ex- 
citement or disturbance to liusiuess. As to whether or not they can be 
maintained by the Government there is some question in business cir- 
cles, but if the peace of Europe is not disturbed I do not apprehend 
any difficnlty. Italian finances are certainly not in what can be called 
a brilliant condition, but they have steadily improved from a deficit of 
200,000,000 to 300,000,000 lire annnally to a slight annual surplus ; so 
that the Government has already been enabled to abolish some of the 
more oppressive taxes, such as the grist tax ; besides, the exportalions 
from Italy, as compared with the importations, are largely on the in- 
crease, so that the tendency to drain specie firom the country will not 
be so great as heretofore. 

As is well known, the Government obtained specie with which to re- 
anme by means of a loan in Englaad and Germany of 640,000,000 lire, 
for which it has to pay 5 per cent, iuterest. 

Small bills under 5 lire are to be withdrawn aud canceled, and silver 
take their places ; bat as yet no change is perceptible in the small cur- 
rency in daily use, aud I have not yet seeu a single silver lire as the 
resnlt of the change. 

B. O. DUNCAN, 

Consul. 

United States Consulate, 

Haples, April 19, 1SS3. 



FOBEIOH C01Uf£BCE 07 SEBVU. 

XEFOST BY OOSBJJL-QBSERAL SOnUTLBR. 

Area and population. — Servia before the treaty of Berlin of 1878 had 
an area of 14,605 square miles, and a population of about 1,337,000. The 
new districts added by the treaty of Berlin gave an increase of are« of 
4,195 square miles and about 303,000 population. The total area now is 
therefore 18,800 square miles, and the population at the end of 1881 was 
estimated at 1,760,000. 

QorernmenL — The government of the Kingdom being strictly consti- 
tutional gives all the necessary guarantees for the maintonance of good 
order, aud theexecution of justice. There isa national legislative assembly 
called the £A-i(;)f«cfttna composed ofouechamber only, three-fourthsof the 
members being elected by the people, aud the remainiDi; fourth being ap- 
pointed by the King. There are regular courts of justice, aud the jnris- 
prudence, both civil aud criminal, is based partly on Austrian and partly 



92 FOHGIGN COMMERCE Of 8EBVIA. 

■ on French models. By commercial and consular treaties lately cou- 
eluded, citizens of the United States have iu Servia all the rights and 
privileges enjoyed by subjects of other powers. 

Foreign trade. — Owing to its peculiar i>03itiou, the foreign trade of 
Servia has Ijeeu ap to the present cliieflyin Austrian hands. A very 
small portion goes soiitUwanl ttirougb Euroiiean Turkey towards Salo- 
uica, somewhat more from Niscb and Pirot towanls Bul^r-tria. The 
wines of the dis rict of Xegotin, which is sejtarated from the rest of 
Servia by a range of mountains, can be shipped down the Danulw with- 
out passing through Auatriau territory, but the great majority of the 
articles exported and imported pass through the towns on the Save and 
the Danube, and are carried by Anstro-llungaiian steamers. The com- 
pletion of the i-ailway from Pest to Belgiwle' will enable foi-oigii gooils 
to be sent to Servia with more speed and ease, as tbey will not neces 
sarily be trauHShipped iu Austrian territory. When the Servian rail- 
way now building is connected with tlif Turkish lines to Siiloniea, a 
large portion of Ser\'iau tra<le will probably be diverted to this channel 
as necessitating a, shorter land Ciirrhige. 

Servian statiutic:S are very far behind in point of years, and oven 
those are uot strictly lUicurate. From the following tables it will be 
possible to obtain an approximate idea of the foreign trade of Servia for 
the years 1871 to 1875. The ye^rs given are the fiscal years beginning 
on the Ist to 13tb of November. 

ExporlM /nm Serbia, ie7I-'75. 



Articles. 


1870-71. 

■■IK 

K.4K3 

1M.BK 
MB87 

re,sia 
n(i.in 


i,Wi^8« 

H7i<,e»o 

■232,»n 

i.m 

6(«4S>t 

«;«« 

loaisflj 


■■sS 

1, STJ. 632 
1M,9B0 
490, g77 

2S,a41 

ai,!7s 

132,250 
392,430 

S;!l! 

los', su 


2,aio.«a 

1,489.811) 
21B,a2 

li 

as 

iJ:S 


„^«. 


QTtia 


WOS^M* 














sS.r::::::;-.:::--::::;::::::;- 


3J.iH» 




t».0!8 


Wood, Hmimr, Te(»tiible», aad otter 






Hides, ■lElni, &o 


454,177 






5K.Sr.£3i,i»uii^ ■■:;::. 


1S7.»77 
1»,3«7 




i.m.oii 


B,3«l.llSfl 


a.iiB,8it 


,.n..m 









Of this about 84 per cent, was sent to or through Austria-Hungary, 
14 per cent, via Turkey, and 2 per cent, via Bouinania- The quantities 
of the chief articles of export were as follows ; 



OralD buiihfla..i BIO, 188 

Plpi ho«d .1 at»,OM 

Othsrwitlfl do.. .1 80.374 

WiDivHid Uqoon poaada.. 3,041, 03M 

Plum* dried do...., 4,101.517; 

Tolmiioo d<. ... 7*,77» 

SttTC* pleoaa.. 3a2.MS ; 

Oftkcdll poondi.. (l^7u7.G38 I 

IToof. do.... I,128.«es 



1871--72. 


187!-'-3, 


1873-74. 


18;«-7S. 


lT3,8O0 


430,779 


l,m*12 


W4.S09 



































































» Google 



FOREIGN COMMERCE OF SEBVU. 
Importi into Serhia, 1871-75. 

1871-T2. I IHTa-TB. I 1K3-T1. 



Wl»« wd liqiun 
Coflee 

VeetiaUi oils. .. 



ttl 8.321 
448, SM . 
IWS, 71» I 



a)S,J47 ■ 



Oibtr Tqteubic prvdacta, dyM, a] 
dn|!t. ftvila. Data, tee 

Hidnuid ftkia«, raw.... .,..^.... 

niilmuid (kuu, woTkrd 

Fbih. mtb. di7. ud Mlt 



^<Wr 

i-ibrr msUls Ic minenU — . 



CiMllM 

I>«<U,^^(a Jig. 
Waolen jun ... 
Cdiiod. nrn. Ac 
ClelfaK ntDOk. n 
■ilk. rotum. Al 



13S.ZU 



I S,4VS,1Z« 



24B,MI 


i"'m8 




68, 3M 










































M;4S8 


M,Bsa 


124. JW 


245, MT 


332, DM 


2«a,Mi 








































227,188 


934, HM 








TM,»7e 




801,388 


2,420,142 


l,aB,B85 


2,atis.sss 



74. TM 

48^741) 
Ifll. 442 
S42,Mt 

>«0.2SS 
888,671 

2,831.223 



Aboat 78 per cent, was imported via Austria-Hnngary. About 15i 
per cent, was imported via Tnrkey. About 6 J per cent, was imported 
ria Boamania. The qaantities of some of the chief imports were as fol- 

lOffB! 



ArticlM 


1870-71. 


I871-T3. 


■ 187!-'T8. 


18TJ-74. 


ie74-'7S. 


')nlB 


...biuhtls.. 


133,488 
^^ 

3S;SS 

103,430 


644,458 

S4:»4e 

487 
857.493 

3606 

"■as 


563,822 

4, 247) 786 
50,214.650 


58; 233 
312.180 


87.607 

26,111 

1,033 

402,403 


':^-.^,,:,, 




f^nham 


205.733 


37, 628, 07B 
435,307 



The transit trade through Serbia was : 

1^70-1871 $1,413,876- 

WHi)72 1,449,851 

1^3-1873 1,173,3® 

I-^TS-ICT* 1,496,101 

IffHe^ , 1,191,570 

Sinety-eight per cent, of this was between Anstria-Hangary and 
Tnrkey. 



^dbyGoogle 



94 FOSEION COMMERCE UF SEUVIA.. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS TOR 1880. 

Becent ServioD official ststrstics give the foreign commerce of Servia 
for 1880 as follows: 

lUPORTS. 

WbsEice. Value. 

AnBtria-Hungary »7, 630.33) 

England 1,301.443 

America. 512,635 

Italy 392,056 

Bonmania 327,463 

GiTinacT 317,364 

Tnrkey 264.563 

Balgaria a51.255 

Switzerland 167,428 

Bosnia S5,620 

France 68,556 

Spain 485 

Total 11,219,248 



Whither. Tilae- 

AnBtria-Hungary ^,875,341 

Balgaria 54tl,400 

Bosnia ■ 329,396 

Tnrkey 274,032 

France ^6,608 

Ronmania 53,432 

Total J6, 337, 109 

The traQsit trade ia 1880 amouDted to $300,075. 

Trade with Austria-Hungary. — AccordiD^ to llungariau i)ubIiBhed 
statistics, the exporte of 8er\'ia, from July to December, 18S1 (ttiz 
mouths), to Austria- Huugary amouutod to $3,171,000, aiid the imports 
£rom Austria-Hungary iu the same time to $1,902,000. 

Customs receipts. — The amouut received for customs duties for the 
fiscal year from Novembei 1, 1880, to October 31, 1881, was $1,009,498, 
of wliicli $486,G49 came from Belgrade. For the six nionlhs from No- 
vember 1, 1881 , to April 30, 1882, tlie total receipts of customs duties in 
Servia were $478,803.* 

,Export of hogs. — It will be seen, eveu from these scattered flgnres, 
that the chief articles of exportation from Servia are li%'e animals and 
dried plums. Among animals, pigs have the first place. The total 
exportation of pigs iu the budgetary year, from November 1, 1880, to 
October 31, 1881, was 302,tK)8 head. The export duties upon these 
amounted to 76,125 francs ($la,23o). Even by the new arrangements 
with Austria- Hungary, a heavy duty is imposed upon live animals, be- 
ing 4 florins per head upon cattle, and 1^ florins per head on pigs. 

'Hole by Conaal-General Scliuuler to report on the foreign eommorce of Serbia,- — In- 
formation received BubBequentfy to the completion of this report ahowB tlie total 
onetomH receiptB for the fiscal year ending October 31, 1882, oa $1,144,835. Of this 
amount $5,134 oime from the trade over the Drina, i. e., the direct tra!de with Bos- 
nia ; $74,2413 from the land traffic with Bulgaria, and Macedonia; $147,835 from the 
trade on the Save ; and the remainder, $917,621, from the Danube port«; these two 
it«ms, with the exception of the small amount of imports received at the ports below 
Uie Iron Gates, being exclnsively the trade with and through Auettia-UuDeury. 

The customs reoeipta of this year exceed the egtimates in the budget by t304,S35. 

The imonut of onstoinB duties received in the first quarter of tbe preeeot year — 
November, December, 1S82— January, 1883, is $250,824. 

euobkk scuotler. 

Apru. 7, 1883. 



^dbyGoogle 



FOREIGN COMMERCE OP SBETIA. 95 

This makes, at the Average value, about 7 per cent, ad valorem on cattle 
and 7^ per cent, ad valorem on pigs. The chief foreign mariiet for 
3erviau pigs, as also for those of Bonmania and Bulgaria, is in Hnn- 
gary, and there two central markets have been founded at Steinbruck 
and Oedftnbnrg. The conditions of the trade, hovrever, are not good 
for the Servians. The sanitary regulations are very severe, and, at any 
time when the Government of Austria-Hungary wishes to put pressure 
upon Servia, are enforced with extreme rigor. Sometiuiea the importa- 
tion into Hungary is entirely prohibited. For this sanitary reasons are 
sometimes only tM pretext. In addition to this, after the pigs have 
been driven to Oedenburg for sale no buyers are found, but mauy Jew- 
ish merchants and middlemen ofi'er to sell com for the nourishment of 
the animals until purchasers can be found. Owing to these proceed- 
ings, the proprietor of the pigs frequently duds himself with a very 
small profit, if, indeed, he does not sell at a loss. 

Evidently a saving could be made to the Servian stock raisers if the 
pigs were exported in the form of cured meat, and for that purpose a 
concession was granted some mouths ago to an Americao for erecting 
an establishment in Servia for curing pork and hams on the American 
system. The conditions were advantageons, hut the company has not 
yet gone into operation. 

Export of plums to tke United States. — The export of dried plums, as 
will be seen from the tables, amonnted in 1871 to $146,377^ in 1S72 to 
$232,807 ; in 1873 to $490,877; iu 1874 to $457,336, and in 1875 to 
(651,245. In 1879 the value of dried plums exporte«l, according to the 
English vice-consul at Nish, was only $190,450. In 1880 over 10,500,000 
pounds were exported, of a value of over $537,000. 

A very great portion of the plnm crop of Servia, generally at least 
half, and frequently much more, goes to the United States. The prunes 
are, however, sold to middlemen in Buda-Festh or Trieste, sometimes 
even JQ Hamburg and Amsterdam, and thus do not appear »s coming 
from Servia. According to the returns of our consul 'general at Vienna, 
I find that the amount of dried fruit, chiefly plums, sent to the TTnited 
States from Buda-Pesth and Trieste together, amounted in the year end- 
ing September 30, 1880, to $1,278,016; in the year ending September 
30, 1881, to $1,013,068, and for half of the next year to $638,S22. Of 
course a good portion of this came from Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Sla- 
vonia; but we may safely assume from these figures that the value of 
Servian plums sent to the United States isuot ferfrom a million of dol- 
lars annually. Mr. Milanovitch, one of the large plum-dealers in Bel- 
grade, assures me that ho has himself sent to America in one year as 
many as 2,250,000 [tounds, worth on the average about $80,000. Gen- 
erally the pmnes are roughly dried and packed in casks or mats; but 
two or three dealers have lately undertaken to dry the plums by arti- 
ficial heat, as in France, and export them in neat boxes, so that, while 
being superior in quality, they preseut a better appearance and bring a 
higher price. The plnms iu Servia are of an excellent quality, and if 
orders conld be sent directly to Belgrade, not only could a better class of 
prunes be obtained, but they could be put upon the market in Sew 
York more cheaply than at present. The best route for such shipments 
at present would be up the Save from Belgrade to Sissek, and then by 
railway to Flume (113 miles], or to Trieste (210 miles), preferably the 



drain trade.— The export of grain from Servia is not large, but will 
probably increase with the focility of commnuicatjous. The exports in 



..,C<.x>^[c 



96 FOBEIGN COHMEBCE OF SEBVU. 

1880 were: wheat 1,1G8,505 bosbels, rye 62^57 bnsbels, maize 1,029 
bnsheitt, barley and oats 112,523 basbels; and in ISSl, wheat 1)89,351 
bnehelf, i7*e 55,270 bnsliela, maize 14,784 btuheU, barley and oats 143,1^7 
buHhels. 

Export of skitu. — The export of BkiDS will probably form an impor> 
tant branch of trade. At present there are exported annaally aboat 
25,000 sheep skins, chiefly to Hungary, for the winter coats of the peas- 
antry, very f^eat Qnitntitiet being used at home for similar purposes; 
400,000 lamb skins, chiefly to Austria and Germany, for glove-leather; 
200,000 goat skins and 300,000 kid skins. The Serrian goat and kid 
skins are very excellent in quality, and considered superior to those of 
Greece and Macedonia. Bnllock hides are rarely exported; but, on the 
contrar>',are imported from Sonth America and India by way of Hamburg 
and Trieste. All the native and imported hides are consumed in the 
mannfactnre of opanlcat, or bide-sandals, worn by the peasantry. 

Export of wine. — The esportof wiuefrom Servia is constantly increas- 
ing, as the wines are of good Quality, and are found suitable for use in 
France in mixingwithother wines for tbefabrication of well-known brands. 
At the vine exhibition in Bordeaux last antamn, fifty -eight specimens 
of Serbian wines were exhibited and received seventeen prizes, of which 
two were gold medals, six silver medals, four bronze and six honorable 
mentions. Of the wines exhibited, thirty-nine specimens were red, re- 
ceiving twelve prizes ; and uineteen white, receiving five prizes. The 
comparison of the nnmber of prizes with those taken by other countries 
at this exhibition is interesting, though it is impossible to obtain the 
exact significance without knowing the extent of the competition. Ger- 
many, with Alsace, took thirteen prizes. Russia one, Bulgaria fonr, Kon- 
maniaone, Switzerland one, the Netherlands one, Turkey foar. Eastern 
Roumelia six. 

Imports of petroleum. — The only article imported from the United 
States, to the oest of my knowledge, is petrolenm. The imiiort of this, 
according to the table previously given, was, in 1871, 102,420 gallons; 
in 1872, 107,586 gallons; in 1873, 147,512 gallons; in 1874, 205,792 gal- 
Ions ; in 1876, 435,307 gallons. The imports from America in 1880 were 
$512,636, which is presumably all petroleum. We learn also from the 
Austrian official statistics that the import of petrolenm into Servia in 
1881, by the Danube Steam Navigation Company, was about 531,165 
gallons. Very little of tbis could have come either from Boumania or 
Austria, as on account of the cost of production these could not compete 
in price. Some deposits of petroleum shale have now been discovered 
in Bervia, and it is possible that in a few years they will be made pro- 
ductive. As yet, no attempt has been made tc work them. 

Import of salt — All the salt used in Servia is imported. Formerly 
the greater portion came from Boumania. Now a salt monopoly has 
been established by the Government, and the company which has taken 
the contract is bound to import a certain proportion from Austria-Hun- 
gary as well as from Boumania. Both in Austria and in Boumania the 
price of salt for export is less than of that sold m the country, and the 
result is that salt imported into Servia waa often smuggled into Aus- 
tria-Hungary, by boats, across the Danube and Save. This traffic, which 
the Austro- Hungarian Government has long complained of, can now 
probably be stopped. I may say here that the vexations customs reg- 
ulations along the Save and the Danube, as well as the equally obnox- 
ions passport system, cause great harm to trade, and even to the local 
frontier traffic. 

ManuffuAured goods used in Bervia are chiefly of Aaatrian origin, but 



MANUFACTUEE OF CAMPHOB IK JAPAN. 97 

the BnglUh are gradually obtaining a footbold. aad this it is expected 
they will improve when the railway connection is finished to Salooica. 
By tbeir commercial treaty the English obtained certain diminutions of 
dcty on manufactured goods, which, however, ander the most-favored 
nation clause, are equally applicable to the goods of the United States. 
The importation of vines, fruits, and vegetables into Serbia is now 
placed under certain restrictions to prevent phylloxera. • 

OBSTACLES TO BUSINESS. 

One obstacle to bnsine^aenterprises in Serviais the absence of banks. 
A law basjnst been passed authorizing the creation of a N'ational Bank 
of Servia, with a cjtpital of t4,00U,0OU, with its seat at Belgrade and a 
branch at Nish. The bank will have the exclusive right of isaning bank 
not«8, and will carry on all onlinary banking business. It will be es- 
tablisbcd by foreign capital. 

Both postal and telegraphic communications are good. There are 
fifty-nine telegraphic stations in Servia, eleven of which are open day 
and night. The internal rate is a franc for twenty-five wonhi. The 
telegraphs are managed economically, and yield a considerable rev- 
enue. In the year laSo this amonnted to over $45,UO0. 

EUGENE SCHUYLER. 

DifiTED States Consulate General, 

Athmt, March 29, 1883. 



KAHUTACTVUE OF CAUFHOB IK JAFAH. 

XEPOBT BT OOSBVL JOSE8. OF NAGABAKI. 

The manafacture of camphor is an important industry on the island 
of Kin Sbiu (Kew Shew). 

From the port of Nagasaki there were exported, in the year 1882, 
15,180.18 piculs, valued at 1277,792. A picul is 133^ pounds. From 
other ports of the island, not yet open to foreign trade, a large quantity 
was shipped by native merchants in native vessels to Shanghai in 
China, and Hong Kong, whence it finds its way to India and England ; 
little or none of it is exported to the United States. The camphor tree 
grows abundantly all over this portion of Japan. It is found alike on 
high elevations and in the valleys and lowlands. It is a hardy, vig- 
orous, long-lived tree, and fionrisbes in all situations. 

Many of these trees attain an enormous size. There are a number 
in the vicinity of Nagasaki which measure 10 and 12 feet in diameter. 
The ancient temple of Osuwa at Nagasaki is situated in a magnificent 
grove of many hundred grand old camphor trees, which are of great 
age and size, and are still beautiful and vigorous. I am told that there 
are trees at other places in Kiu Shin measuring as much as 2Q feet in 
diameter. The body or trunk of the ti'ee usually runs np 20 and 30 
feet without limbs, then branching out in all directions, forming a well 
proportioned, beautiful tree, evergreen and very ornamental. 

The leaf is small, elliptical in s^pe, slightly serrated, and of a vivid 
dark green color all the year round, except for a week or two in the 
early spring, when the young leaves are of a delicate tender green. 
The seed or berry grows in clusters and resembles black currants in 
size and appearance. The wood is used for many purposes, its fine 
7 JUL 83 r , I C~.(K"1t^[c 



98 COUHBBCE AND PBODDCTS OF SAMOA. 

grain reDderiug it especiallj- valuable for cabinet worb, while it is ased 
also for Hhip-building. The roots make excellent knees for ships. 

I have sent many seeds of the camphor tree to the United StAtes, in 
tiie Lope of adding to our own arboricnltnre. 

In the mannfactnre of camphor the tree is neceHsarily destroyed, bat, 
by a stringent law of the land, another is planted in its stead. The 
simple method of mannfactnre employed by the uatives is as followa : 

The tree in felled to the earth andcnt into small pieces, or, more prop- 
erly speaking, into chips. 

A large metal pot is partially filled with water and placed over a slow 
Are. A wooden tab is Utted to the top of the pot and the chips of cam- 
phor wood are placed in this. The bottom of the tab is parforated, so 
as to permit the steam to pass ap among the chips. 

A steam-tight cover is fitted on the tnb. From this tub a bamboo 
pipe leads to another tnb, throo^h which the inclosed steam, the gen- 
erated camphor, and oil flow. This second tnb is connected in like man- 
ner with a third. 

The third tab is divided into two compartments, one above the other, 
the dividing floor being perforated with small holes, to allow the water 
And oil to pass to the lower compartment. The apper compartment is 
supplied with a layer of straw, which catches and holds the camphor 
in crystal in deposit as it passes to the cooling process. The camphor 
is then separated &om the straw, packed in wooden tabs of 133^ poands 
each, and is ready for market. 

Aner each boiling the water runs off throngh a fancet, leaving the 
oil, which is used by the natives for illnminating and other purposes. 

A. C. JONES, 

Consul. 

United States Cohsglatb, 

Sagasahi, Japan, Marek 26, 1883. 



OOnCERCE An PKOSVCTS OF SAMOA. 

SBPORT BT THEODOBE OASIBIUS, OOlfSUL. 
AUEBIOAN VS. BRITISH Am) G£BMAN TRADE. 

In order to obtain accurate information concerning thecommerce and 
shipping of Great Britain and Germany with Apia, 1 had of necessity 
to defer sending a yearly report, for, without making a statement of 
the mercantile doings of these two countries in this part of the world, a 
commercial report embraciugonly those of America during the consular 
year would be a very meager and uninteresting affair. Both the Brit- 
ish and German consuls send to their Governments only at the end of 
the year a general commercial report, so that, by comparing the abstracts 
of the statistical statementa of their consolates with those of mine, the 
difference in the commercial activity of the three countries can be seen 
at a glance; and as both the British and the German consnU very kindly 
furnished this office with short statements of the shipping, imports, 
and exports of their respective countries during the year 1882, 1 sub- 
join them.' 

The statistical report which I attach, referring to American shipping 
and import trade to Apia, does not compare unfaTorably with the Brit- 
ish. The tonnage of American vessels which arrived here daring 1382 



COUMEKCB AND PS0DUCT8 OF SAMOA. 



99 



was 691 tons less tban the British, bat the Taloe of uierchaadiso broaght 
here from the United States by American vessels is greater by t43,946 
than the entire British imports directly in British ships, as will be seen 
from the sabjoined statements : 

Anrriean Mpplng aitri import* during 1883. 





1 

■s 

1 


1 


1 
1 


■b 


-3 

!t 
f 

Feb: I 
Ifur. 

tsst 

Aag. 17 


It 


1 


Clamd for. 


T.k»fc* 


Buk. 


tLtl 

'IS 

Ml. 81 

■Jii.ai 


U>r. U 
ll»r. S 

Uw. IB 


§:I£S:::::-. 

B»ll«( 




TmkMoto 


o™rJ:: 


Wi'wo 


TtkMOh. 


General.. 
Copra... 

QniBnI.. 

Oonnal., 
Osnenl.. 


'i't.'ooo 
io.'ow 

4:S 


FtlllilMidi 


ShM ABcbcr 
AnMhjit ... 

RhMAnclKT 
e«T«r 


S.ptl3 


BulljHt 

B*U«t 

as:::::: 


IS iris.- 




1. 014. 03 


i«.n7 

















' Tba Khoanar Tihuro bu bceo hM to the Oanuui bcLor; hsn. 
BEITISH 8HIPPINO AND COMMEKCE DUEINO 1882. 

Arrived : 21 vessels, of 2,565 tone ; lauded goods of invoice valne of 
£13,525; one man-of-war, 12 gnus, 200 men, and one yacfat of 100 tons. 

Sailed : 20 vessels, of 2,546 tons, with Samoan produce to the valae of 
£320; one man-of-war, 12 gnas, 200 men, and one yacht of 100 tons. 



Orrwum thipping and 



during l\i8i. 



AniTkl of sblp* Tot Gan^an ac 



II 



lit 



Usd(TG«raiM>flu 110 20.K&<n , tt2<l,<l2S 

Didn EDKllab Ok I ' 4m. W , %«8« 

URdsr Americu fljm 1 T | BU.Kt 4T,e£2 

Uadcr NonraicUD flag > 4 I.W3.W 






MKN-OF-WAK. 



all»,l 



Uavrrt. MB d«pl, lout 
r.Carola.ZlTOdapl.t 



GEKHAN PBEDOHIKANCE ON THE S^UTH SEAS. 

By the above statements it will be seen that the commerce o 
3oath Seas is almost entirely ii> ttie bands of the Germans, and i 



100 COMMERCE AND PHODUCTS OF SAMOA. 

coming each year more so. The reason of this is that the Oennaa Oov- 
ernttieut fosters it to the utmost extent ; their ships of war constantly 
cruise amoug the various groups of islands, demonstrating that it is 
protecting its subjects in good earnest and Jivill punish severely any 
one who injures them in any way. The conseqaence of this policy is 
that the Ueriiiaus have monopoiizetl the trade of nearly all the island 
groups, including ^e Marshall, Caroline, Crilbert, Ellice, Phoenix, Union, 
Tonga, and alao the Samoan, where they have their principal depot and 
whence they carry on the trade to the other islands. As I before stated, 
the German Qovernment has generally one or more ships-of-war sta- 
tioned in this harbor to keep the natives in order. Their greatest dread 
is the meu-of war, and the nation that sends the most to their islandfi 
is in their estimation the most powerful, and therefore the one to be 
most respected. The only way to establish commerce in countries In- 
habited by savages or semi-civilized races is to protect those who onder- 
take'the enterprising task in their lives and property. German mer- 
chants feel that they are the best protected, oouseqnbntly the vast trade 
which they have succeeded in building np in the Pacific. 

The commercial importance of this group is not generally well known 
in the United Statea, therefore a little information concerning its pro- 
ductive capabilities ahould be interesting to our exporters and import- 
ers. The immense fertility of these islands allows of the snccessful 
cultivation of nearly every tropical production. Coffee, sugar, and to- 
bacco could be produced with special bucccss, while the vast number of 
cocoa-nut trees growing here supply an unlimited qnantity of the val- 
uable oil obtained from the meat of the nuts. 

Although ouinparatively near to our shores, I regret to say that our 
trade with Samoa is insignificant wbeu compared to that of the far- 
distant Germany. A voyage for a sailing vessel between here and tbe 
latter requires generally 125 to 150 days, and the former only 30 to 35. 
When we take into consideration the value of the products of these 
truly lovely tslands, and the amount of merchandise, which is t>eing 
yeai'ly augmented, required by their half-civilized inhabitants, it is to 
be wondered that our commercial men overlook the importance to which 
they (the islands] would surely rise were American enterprise directed 
more to them. There is noticeable an improvement in this regard in 
Apia, it is true, but not so in any of the other islands. Two San Fran- 
cisco houses have established themselves at this port, and I believe are 
doing very well ; they are Greosmiihl, Moors & Crowford, and Wbight- 
man & Kust«l, both of which are making considerable . inroads into the 
trade of the two great German firms here. 

The exports from the different groups under my consnlar jurisdiction 
consist in copra, which is, of course, the principal article, cotton, cotton- 
seed, candle-unts, cocoa-nut fiber, and pearl and tortoise shells. One 
of the American firms bere'export to San Francisco a considerable qnan- 
tity of pearl shells from the Marshall and Caroline Islands, and have 
recently begun to ship many tons of copra to that city. There is a good 
prospect that this trade will soon develop into a very extensive one, for 
onr soap miinufacturers are beginning to learn that cocoa-nut oil is mueh 
superior for making fine toilet soaps to any other known oily substance. 
The French know this well, and conseqnently large quantiries of copra 
are sent to the Marseilles market. If San Francisco merchants would 
engage in this copra trade more than at present, the French will not in 
future have so good a market for their toilet soaps in the United States 
as they have had heretofore, and the thousands of dollars which are 
yearly paid by the Americans to France for this article would be retained 
at home. 



COMHEBCE AND PB0DUCT8 OF SAMOA. 



101 



I have in my poasessioo some atatisticaJ stakimeots of the Cterman 
Gmpire, which throw considerable ligbc apon the South 9ea trade of 
the C}«rmaas. I sabjoin some of them, altiioagh the latest are for the 
year 1877. They may prove interesting to some of oor merchants on 
the Pacific coast, and 8timalat« them to interest themselves more than 
hitherto in this valuable trade. 



Uhited States CoNSbLATB, 

Apia, December 31, 1 



THEODORE CANISIUS, 

Oonmil. 











'— 


Importa. 


EiporM. 


V<iml»rc>r«Upb 


Totkl nla«. OsmMi. 


Tobdnlne. 1 Qennui. 


TOUI. 


Oermu. 






' 


00 
0« 

57 
















U0,W0! 115,000 
SOl.JM , 1SS,K« 
Oil. MO M«,MO 

BSfi,»0 Ui,»0 






27. MO tlSO^MO 
MS,100 1 S1S,S00 

mCmo, m^«oo 

S««.BSOI 311, SU 
















»" 


OS 



Import* into the SaMoan and Tiiaga ttla»d» in Ike gtari 1876 amt IHT7. 





lDT0lC«nl<M>t 

ApU. 




1878. 


1877. 




•SS! 

1,000 

SIS 

11, zoo 

iZ 

33.000 

as 

1,300 
•S,000 


11.01S 


































s&ooo 






401,600 

K»,SOO 
70,000 


3M.8GS 

311,855 
85,000 


ThrnvhOarmuildiportcn „ 





Bi^mrU from tie Samoa and Tonga and other groM/ii. 
•itm. Valne ISTO. 




AnfolM. 


VduB 18T7. 


aiS',a:S„»''~r."'.-.::;::: 


•538.250 

'AZ 

025,850 
554,200 

7i:oio 

SU.8M 








Trt^ 



PEICES IN GERMANY. 



PRICES or OEBXAVT. 



On tbe 14th day of June, 1882, 1 had the. honor to send to the Depart- 
ment of State a report on the prices of lending articles of merchamUse 
in the German Empire during the month of April, 1882, as published by 
the imperial bnreau of statisties, reduced to American weight and coin. 
I now have tbe honor to transmit a statement of the prices of tbe snme 
articles in Germany in the month of January, 1883, the information be- 
ing derived from the same tiource. I deem tbese figures particularly in- 
teresting now, inasmuch as they show the decline of prices of all bread- 
stufis and most of tbe articlett connected therewith or related thereto, 
brought about by the fair harvests in the United States and other 
conntries, while it will also appear that the failure of other crops — nota- 
bly of potatoes and hops — haa brought about a decided increase of 
prices, tbe latter having risen ftvm an average of about 24 cents to more 
than 90 cents pec pound. In a general way, 1 think a comparison of 
the two tables of prices as they appear in my rei>ort of last Jane and ia 
this one will be fonnd of interest. 

BespectAilly submitted. 

FERDINAND VOGELEB, 

Consul- QenertU . 

Unitsd States Consolatb-Gsnebal, 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, March 22, 1883. 



Average whoUeaJt priof* o/ Itaiing article! of vurohaiidiit in lie Empire of OermaHy jm 
Janiiarji, lOSI. 

Wheat, per 100 pounds: 

Berlin, gowi, stranil, yellow |1 93 

Breilan, luediaiD 160 

DanziB, miied 1 89 

Fraokfort^ou-the-Hftin, from varioiu conatries... 2SH 

Halle-on-the-SBone, domeatic.sonndiCouDtTypTodnction 1 Si 

Cologne, RUeiiiali, fuuUIese a 15 

KSoi^sberg, good mixed 1 91 

Leipzig, Oermaii, good, sound 1 73 

Llndan, from various coaotrieB l 3 42 

MagtIeLiTirg, cuuntr; 197 

MauDheim, American, RoHiaa, OennaD, Hnngariao, medinm S 37 

Munich. Bavarian pnme 2 01 

FoHOD, good, Bonnd, average , 1 10 

Stettin, Inland, Roumanian, Hungarian, average 1 64 

Stuttgart, BuHHian, Hungarian, Bavarian, good 3 40 

Average 190 

Sye, per 100 pounds: i 

Berlin, good, sound, average 1 46 

Bremen, Sunth Buwian, good, sound 1 43 

Brest an, good, Round 1 36 

Dauxig. Holland 1 3i 

Frank fort- on -the-Maiu, frotn various countriea... 163 

Halle-oQ-the-Saone, domestic, eouud I 00 

Cologne, Rhenish, faultless 1 69 

Kunifcsherg, good, Round '. I 31 

Leipzig, German, good, sonnd 1 53 

Lindau, Hungarian 1 91 



PRICES IN QEBMAHT. 103 

Bje, per 100 poaads : 

LUbeck, BiiBoian $1 49 

Magdeburg, medium weighta.. -.. , 1 53 

MaDDheim, medium, from nil coontries 1 76 

Miiuicb, Bftvariftn prime 1 69. 

Posen, good, sound, average ,... ,,. 1 36 

Slettiu, Inland anil Russiftn , average 1 44 

Stuttgart, Bavariau and WUrtembergiou, good 1 85 

Average 165 

Barlej, per 100 poaudn; 

Breelau, m^iniu 139 

Danzig, large brewing, Prussian, Polisb, Rossian 1 32 

Prankfurt-ou-tbe-Maln, domestic and from tbe Wetterau 1 92 

Halle-on-the-Saone, domestic, oountrj, sound, mediam 1 71 

Konigaberg. light 1 24 

Leipzig, Oermau, good, sonjid ( 1 85 

Lindau, Hangarian 2 12 

Magdeberg, Chevalier 1 80 

Uaimbeim, froiu Baden, Bayarian, Pslatiuate, HtuigariaD, mediom 1 85 

Uaoicfa, Bavarian, prime 1 96 

PoseD, good, sonnd, average 1 36 

Stettin, average of all kinds 1 32 

Stuttgart, fh>m Wltrtemberg, good 1 36 

Average 163 

ICaiie, per 100 pounds: 

BrMlan, tuedinm 1 67 

Bambarg, Americau, mixed .,-, 1 56 

Leipzig, American, good, soaod - 

Stettin, Americau and BoamaniaD..... 1 47 

Average 1 63 

Oats, per lOOpounds: ^ 

Berlin, good, sound, average 1 34 

Bie«laD, good, sound, average .... 1 30 

Dausix, deliverable inland ISO 

PrankJert-on-the-Main, domestic , 136 

Halle-on-tbe-Saone, eouud, coantr;, medium 1 47 

Cologne, Bheuisb, fanttlass 1 &3 

KonigsbW, good, sonnd 1 S6 

Leipzig, (^rman, good, sound 1.41 

Lindau, Bavarian 1 62 

UagdebDi^, medium, light 1 61 

Uanubeim, Qerman, old and new, Buselan, medium 1 45 

Uuuleh, Bavarian, prime 1 41 

Posen, good. Bound, average I 28 

Stettin, from various conntriea, medium 1 28 

Stuttgart, Wiirtembergian, good 1 41 

Average i 1 38 

Potatoes, per 100 pounds (exclusive of bag): 

Berlin : 

Good earlj red, distilling, nnsasorted 41 

Good early red, sound, assorted, eating 63 

Breslan: 

OoodiSODnd Sileeian, eating 48 

Hagdebnrg : 

Pale tGd Sasonlan, eating 60 

Distilling 32 

Stettin : 

Sonnd light red 49 

Sonnd white 47 

Distilling 36 

Average 47 

r.KiiizcdbvGoOglC 



101 PEICE8 IN GERMANY. 

Hops, per 100 ponuda: 

Nuremberg: , 

Common co an try hops $82 91 

Lager-beer bops 89 46 

Superior lager- beer hops 102 54 

ATsrage 91 63 

Flour, per 100 pniiii<ls; 
a. Wheat Hour : 

Breslau, hflkom' Iiranil, Ko. 00, exelasiveof bag 3 29 

Hal le-on -the- Boone, domeetio, No. 00, eiclaslve of bag 3 4tt 

Cologne, Kheuish, No. 00, inolaBlve of bag 2 96 

LHbeck, Oeroian, No. 0, excluBJve of bag 3 OO 

Hboich, BavoriAD, No. 2, inolaBiveof bag 3 60 

Poten, domestic, No. 00, inolualve of bag 3 00 

Average 3 22 

6. Eye flour : 

Berlin, gfioA, sound, No. f, inclusive of bag 2 16 

Posen, domestic. No. ?, inclusive of bog 2 31 

Aveii^[e 2 19 

Bice, p«r 100 pounds : 
Bremen : 

Rangoon, table, hulled 8 10 

Broken, No. 0, knlled , 1 68 

Hamburg : 

Japan, bulled, lowest quotations 3 40 

Rangoon, hulled, lowest quotations 1 91 

Broken, hulled, loweat quotations 1 S2 

Lard, per lOOpovnds: 

Bremen, refined American, Wilcox brand 12 06 

Bacon, perlOOpouudi: , 

Bremen, sall«d American, half long, half short, clear middles 10 ti6 

Cotton, per 100 pounds: 

Middiing upland 11 95 

Good fair Oomra 9 14 

Hamburg, New Orleans mid dUag •. 12 08 

Wool, per too pounds : 

Berlin, North German medlnm 36 00 

Bremen, washed Baenos Ayres, prime 46 17 

Hamburg, Cape, extra superior, suow-whit« 45 RS! 

Hemp, per 100 pounds : 

Hamburg, Mexican fiber t)72 

Ltlbeck, St. Petersburg, pure hemp 5 12 

£aw silk, per 1 pound : 

Crefeld : 

Milan Organsiu claseique, 18-20 6 32 

China, 45-^iO 5 45 

Baw iron, per 100 ponuds : 

Berlin : 

Beet Scotch caxt. No. 1 Longloan 96 

English (Middlesbro) No. 3 77 

Breslau : 

Pudclle-imu , 63 

cast-iron 68 

Dortmund : 

Bessemer ran from the district of the Ruhr 73 

Wentpbalian puddle from the district of the Ruhr 68 

Dnsseldorf ; 

Best German puddle-iron 6S 

Bent German cast-iron 81 

Hamburg : 

ScotrbNo. 1 ; m 

Middlesbro No. 1 65 

Lu beck, forged Swedish bar-Iron 2 53 



ADULTERATION OF FOOD, DBINK, AND MEDICINE. 105 

Petroleam, per 100 piouiiilii, iocl ailing barrel : 

Bremen, Americ All white refined (1 63 

Dunzig, American white refined, duty paid 2 73 

Hamburg. American while refined 167 

Stettin. American white refined I ti8 

Coal. |iei lOOponnda: 
Berlin: 

Wettphaliaa, railed for gae purposes, at place of loading — 'JO 

Upper Siletian, at place of loading SO 

Lower Hileaian, at place of loading 19 

English nut, for smith nse.'at place of loading 18 

Brealaoi: 

LoWht Sileeian, for gas, at the mine 11 

Upper SileelBD, for gas, at the raiDO : 7 

Don bie sifted EDglish nut coal, on board 13 

Scottish machine coal, ou board 13 

DoTtmand : 

Lump coal, foe export, at the mine S 

PnitcfiiDg coal, at the mine 6 

Dnaaeldoff : 

Oas and dame coal, at the mine 8 

Fat and lean ooal, at the mine 6 

EsMn: 

Gas and flaniecoal, at the mine i 7 

Fat coal, at the mine 6 

Lean coal, at the mine A 

Oascoal, at the mine 8 

Hanibncg : 

Prime Went Hartlej steam-flfted ooal, on board 16 

Sunderland DUt coal, ou board 15 

Doubli>«ifted Westphallan not coal, on board 17 

Saarbnicken : 

Flame eoal . 9 

Fat coal 8 

Average H 



ADITLTEKATIOV OF FOOD, DBDTE, AJTS KBDICIITE. 

RBPOBT BT CONSUL WILSON, OF NANTES. 

TSo attempt will be made to describe the nninberless aiid evercfaaog- 
lag meaos and nabetaiices ased in these adulterations. It would be 
naelesfi labor. Any one interested can study it in the rolames already 
vritten. 

The object of this report is to consider and present to the anthorities 
of the United States some saggestions as to the prevention of adultera- 
tion of food, drink, and medicine. Nearly all civilized imtions have taken 
some steps looking in that direction. France, Germany, England have 
enacted years ago these laws of prohibition. 

In France the average yearly convictions of offenders under these 
laws have been, from 1846 to 1850, 106 cases ; from 1851 to 1855,6,780; 
from 1856 to 1860, 8,442 ; from 1861 to 1865, 4,605 ; from 1866 to 1870, 
3,014 ; frwm 1871 to 1875, 3,209 ; from 1876 to 1880, 3,398. 

These convictions have not been solely for adulterations of food, drink, 
or medicine, but have also included other articles, and also cases of de- 
ceit as to kind or quality of the merchandise or the place of its manu- 
facture. 

But with all these convictions the adulteration of food and drink have 
been of great frequency. The difflcnlty of detection, the indifference of 



106 ADULTERATION OF POOD, DBINK, AND UEDICINB. 

tbe pablic, the sni&ll amoDot involved in each transaction, the trouble*, 
annoyance, and expenBR of prosecution, and tbe donbtful recompense 
following it even in caBes of success were causes operatiug apon bnman 
nature applying in France aa well as elsewhere. 

In January, 1881, was established in Paris what I believe will prove 
the most eftective engine for prevention yet devised. It was tbeor- 
ganiziition hy the city of a cbemicH.! laboratory, under the charge of an 
experienced chemist, as an adjunct to the health office, nnd of which the 
health inspectors are officers. In their inspections of markets, butcher 
shops, grocerj' and provision uteres, cafes and restaurants, wine and 
beer saloons, druggists, milkmen, &c., whenever they found articles of 
which they were suspicious they took samples, sending them to the 
laboratory for Bnal.vsis. Any private iwrson could send a sample of any 
article, and it is made the duty of all police ofBcers to give the neces- 
sary aid. The courts and procareur do la republique fdistriet attorney) 
can call on tbe laboratory for an analysis of any article requiring such 
a test. Provision is made for payment iu certain cases, but that is not 
to hinder the benefit to the public. 

The working of this bureau is indicated iu the following sketch. It 
belongs to tbe health office and the sanitary insi)ectors report to its super- 
intendent, and, including these insjiectors, the pergonnel is as follows : 

One director or superintendent $1,300 

One deputy, perannnm 900 

On« cheniiut of tint olaw 480 

Thrve chemiatsur second olaaH,eacfa 330 

Three laborers, each 300 

INSPECTORS. 

Eight ioitpec tors, first clMS,etMih 480 

Eif^ht iDspectoiM, second claae, eocli 300 

ThirtT-twoinsTMCtors.ordinarv 5,840 

Mworiftl ■• 4,000 

Total perannnm 13,380 

ReceiptB for ISljl : 

Paid anslytMiB H.SSS 

CoBtHJu court: 8,105 

3,363 

Net cost for 18B1 10,917 

EOOM8 OCCUPIED. 

Office for superintendent. 
Laboratory for superintendent, 
l^eighing-i-oom: dark-room. 
Large room for laboratory. 
Cellar with seven rooms. 

METHOD OP WORK. 

Paris is divided into districts, and the inspectors are assigned to each 
district. They report all articles, either from their own observation or 
A'om the public, supposed to need snalyzation. They made, in 1881, 
24,655 visits of inspection. The expert chemists are kept at work, each 
one on his own specialty, in mtiking analyses. 

The analyses are of two sorts, one of which, the vnpaid, is only gen- 
eral, defining the condition of tlae articles as good, passable, bad, not dan- 



C.oo^il 



ADDLTEBATION OF FOOD, DBINK, AND MEDICINE. 



107 



geroua; bad, dangerous. Tbe otber is paid, accordin^to expense, Trom 
tl to (4, and gives the exact composition of the prodnct. Tbe samples 
entered and aaalj'zed In 1881 were as follows : 

Analyses Krataltons ■. 3,958 

AnolygM mid 378 

Anolyaea by iDspecton 2,181 

In 1881, total analyses 6,517 

The aoalyzerB examine and report on the following particniars : 

I. Gompotient parts of the perfumery. 

1'. Lead in tin pipes, siphons, and cans or boxes of preserved meats, 
frnits, &c. 

3. Salicylic acid in articles of food. 

4. Mud and deposit of sewers and sinks.' 

5. Falsifli^tiou of wine and adnlteratioo of articles of food. 

6. Beer and beer pumps. 

7. Coloring matter of playthings, simps, and sugars. 

8. Copper cooking- utensils. 

9. Tricbinosis in pork. 

10. Milk. 

II. Incombustibility of tbe decorations of theaters. 
13. Analysis of air in certain quarters. 

Betmlti 0/ anelgitt made In 1881. 



1 I i 




z» 




■,- 














82 






S8 


«i 


un 


Ml 


^i_ 





The proportions of articles found " bad " were, viz : 

Pneeot. 

Milk and creani 50.66 

Wine ■. 59.17 

AUothere 50.43 

Tiie grots cost of each analysis was, fi>r 1881, ,(2.03. 

Tlie net cost, deducting those paid for and costn allowed in court for 
analyses made for its use was, for each anulysis, $ t.5() ; for each trial, 21 
cents. 

A volame might be written on this subject. I forbeiir and have pre- 
pared, as the most practie-il step to a solution of these difflculties in the 
District of Columbia, the following dratl of a bill to be presented to 



...Cooi^le 



108 ADULTERATION OF FOOD, DBINK, AND MEDICINE. 

Congress if it shall meet the approbatioo of those ia aathority. It is 
Adapted from the Freucb, German, and Enfflish fawB on this sabject. 

Be it enacted, d:c., That the manufacture, preparation, or sale of, or hav- 
ing possession of the materials or appliances with intent to manufiuit- 
ore, prepare, or sell any adulterated article of food, medicine, or drink 
is hereby declare<l to be a misdemeanor, and every person cotiricted 
thereof shall be punished by imprisoameut not more than one year, or 
by fine not more than $500, nor leas than t20, or by both sach fine and 
imprisonment, at the discretion of the court. 

2. It shall be the duty of the clerk of the court in every case of oon- 
viction under this act to prepare a statement of the oSenae and of tlie 
conviction, and publish the Siime in the newspapers and by posted no- 
tices, as require<l by law for other legal notices, the coal of which shall 
be taxed to the defendant. 

NoTS. — Any other system of pablication might be adopted which 
would be effective aud certain, but publication is the best preventive. 

3. It shall be sufiSdent to constitute adnlteraljon under this act, that 
the article manufactured, prepared, or sold shall have been corrupted 
or debased, or changed in its composition or strength by the intro- 
duction or admission of any foreign substance, whether the same shall 
have rendered it unhealthful or not. But it shall be a good defense to 
a prosecution under this act if it be shown that due an<l full notice of 
the adulteration in its true ingredients and proportions. has t>een given 
to the public and to the buyer at the time of or before the purchase. 

NoTS. — I ouce thought of inserting the word " distilled " is connec- 
tion with "prepared and sold," but concluded it would excite undue op- 
position, while the words used were equally effective. Many adultera- 
tions are made which are not hurtful, as water in many art.icle8 to in- 
crease the weight; this weakens the articles. But many others are 
adulterated by an increase of strength, such as alcohol in weak wine; 
so I have concluded " corrupted or debased, or changed in its compos!- 
tiou or sti'ength by the introduction," &o. 

As to second clause, it is the deceit, actual or constructive, that 
makes the ofi'ense. If he advertises that bis butter is oleomargarine, 
that his coffee is one-half peas or chicory, that his whisky is one-third 
water, Ms milk the same, while his sugar has one pound of sand to four 
of sugar, no one can be imposed ou and no offense is committed. Per- 
haps the buyer wishes just such articles at the corresponding decrease 
in prices. 

If under this clause the seller offers articles noxious or dangerous to 
pnblic health, the law against drnegists selling poisons should punish 
him ; if not, another clause should oe added. 

4. It is hereby declared to be the duty of every manufacturer, preparer, 
and seller to ascertain and know whether the article he manufactures, 
prepares, or sells is adulterated or not, nnd no want of knowledge thereof 
shall be available as a defense. 

KoTE. — If this provision be not adopted the act will be of little avail. 
The intention of a druggist who sells poison by mistake is no defense; 
Qor should it be with the adulterator. It is his business to know that the 
article he sells representing to be pure is pure. The difference in the 
offenses should be provided for in the punishmeut, and if it were not 



ADITLTERATION OF FOOD, DEINK, AND MEDICINE. lU» 

cntnliersome and could be mode effective it might be well to provide for 
different grades of the offense — such as koowu or unkuown, making or 
selliag, aocoons or innocnoas, wholesale or retail, first or second offense. 

5. There shall be established at the city of Washington, nnder direc- 
tion of the CoMmissioners of the District of Golambin (or under the 
SmithsoniaD iDStitution), a chemical laboratory under such rules and 
regalatioDS as they may adopt for the management thereof. The per- 
sons employed shall consist of four ojterators, at a salary each of $l,'il>0 
per annum, one of whom shall be designated as superintendent and 
shun receive $600 per annum additional, all of whom shall be practical 
aoit seientihc chemists, and two laborers, at (600 each per annum. 

The person designated as superintendent shall be al the head of the 
laboratory, and shall bare the management and control of the work to 
be performed. He shall be resvousible for the accuracy of the tests and 
analyties, for the care and proper use of the apparatus and chemicals^ 
and shall give bond for the faithful performance of bis duties in the sum 
of 14,000. 

It shall be the duty of the superiutendent to make tests and analyses, 
free of charge, of all articles reported to him for that purpose by the head 
of my Executive Department of the United States Government, by the 
Commissioners of the District of Uolumbia, by the health ofQcer, or by 
any district attorney of the United States, and to report back the re- 
salts thereof. It shall also he his duty to make tests and analyiKs of 
any and all articles presented to tiim by any person who has dei)i'Bited 
vith the treasurer of the District a sum of money sufScient Ui cover the 
Gostof such test analysis, which sum shall be fixed by the Commissioners 
aod annooDced in these regulations. 

AH tests and analyses shall be made honestly and faithfully, and, so 
far as possible for science to determine, shall report the constituent ele- 
ments traly and correctly. 

KOTE. — I would suggest this laboratory might be made part of the 
Health Office. It would decrease the number of bureaus. It might 
b<- necessary to limit articles to those sent by the Coramissiouers, thus 
ginng to them entire and direct control. 

The Commissioners shall send to the United States district attorney 
for the District of Columbia each month, or more frequently if neces- 
sary, the resntts of the tests and analyses made at their reqnest, or that 
of any officer of the District, together with the names of all persona 
wbo appear therefrom to have violated this act, and the names of all 
witnesses supposed to have knowledge thereof; and it shall be the duty 
of tbe district attorney to institute the necessary prosecutions. 

Note. — ^The publication of these tests and analyses, with the names 
of tbe persons offending or adulterating, has been found the moat effect- 
is'e preventive of adulteration. 

7. For the protection of persons who may be charged under this act 
the superinteifdent is required to keep and retain in safe and good con- 
dition, untd the expiration of the statute of limitation, samples of all 
iirtivles tested or analyzed by him, which have been found to contain 
impurities or to have been adulterated, and, if requesteil, to deliver a 
portion thereof to the person charged, or to any other chemist desig- 
nated by him, and of the other portion to make an analysis, if so re* 



110 AETIFICUL COLOEING OF WINES. 

qwested by the court charged with the trial of the cans©, or the district 
attorney. 

8. Any manufacturer, preparer, or aelier of any article of foo<l, drink, 
or medicine, who shall refnse to sell or deliver samples thereof to any 
health officer or inspector demanding the same in proper baeiness hoara 
and offering to pay a reasonable price therefor, shall, on conviotion, be 
punished, &c. 

9. Any article of food, driulf, or medicine intended for sale, adulter- 
ated 80 as to come vithin the denanciation of this act, may be seized, 
captured, and confiscated aa nov provided by law for property found in- 
jurious to public health. If the articles can be puriHed so as to be in- 
nocuous, it shall be so done and then sold aud the proceeds divided as 
now provided in cases of confiscated property (or paid to the Commis- 
sioners and added to the poor land). If it cannot be so purified it shall 
be destroyed, 

10. In any action before aoy court of the United States located in the 
District of Columbia, brought to receive the value of any articles of 
food, drink, or medicine, hereafter sold and delivered, the person charged 
may plead that said articles were adulterated when delivered, so as to 
come within the denuncistiou of this act; and if on the trial the said plea 
shall be sustained, then tlie claimant, seller of said articles and his as- 
signee, if the claim has been assigned, shall forfeit and lose bis said claim 
or demand, and thejudgmeut of thecourt shall be one of forfeiture against 
him; butif and in case the party making such defense shall have received 
the articles aud converted them to hia otre use, then the court shall ren- 
der judgment against him and in favor of the District of Columbia for 
the value thereof, and this act shall apply to cases wherein the United 
States is a party. 

THOMAS WILSON, 

ConauL 
UwiTED States Consulate, 
Nantet, April 1, 1883. 



ABTIPICIAL COIOSnie OF WIRES. 

REPORT BT O0S8VL ROOSEVELT, OF BORDEiXTX. 

I have the honor to inclose herewith translation of an article published 
In the La Qironde, a journal of this city, April 1, 1883, on the artificial 
coloring of wiues in the department of Aude. 

GEO. W. EOOSEVELT, 

Conavl. 
United States Consulate, 

Bordeaujr, April 10, 1883. 



AKTIFICIAL COLORING OF WINES. 

IFrom Li Glnmde of April 1. ISSS.) 

Our private correspoDdent nritea to us fVoin Nnrbonne, Harcli 29: 

The Hf nilkatu uf wIdcs aud ii|iirits of Narbooiie, in a petition to tbe miuiirter of jiw- 

tica, risee, aud nut withoat vausu, against thtt artilicial coloring of wines, and olainu 

an immediate and energetic i-beck of ihut coDiniFroial fraud. 

That petition, whicb we have before ua, is long ; we can give oar r«adera only the 



COLOMBIA. AND ITS PEOPLE. Ill 

«*aenti*l pftrts of it. It Is eaid therein that Mr. Daranre, then ministeT of Justice (in 
OctotMtr, 1876) addressed the nttomeT-generalt a circnlsr letter requesting the repres- 
rion of artificisl coloring of wines. Has that oircnUr been recalled T Suoh rni^ht be 
Bnppoeed on soeius how liCtte itis oared Tor. Never, indeed, the petition contmnaa, 
have the wine tra^rs and the proprietors been so fliioded, as the; actually are, with 

SroepectDBea, cirimlais, advertisements, ex 'oiling txiwders, liqnids, and other products 
t for artificial coloring of nines. A nnmber of dooaraents are quoted, amongst which 
we find " Ronssillou concentrated," " Vegetable concentrat-ed extract," " Liffnoline," 
" Deep- black hae," " Yt^u table red," " Qrape Caramel, "and lastly, "Bordelalae hue," 
and "Bordelaise colorant." All the advertisements and circulars having for their titles 
the distinctive name of the r«coinmended product, are mentioned to the minister of 
Jostice. 

Onr inteutioD, the petitioners add, is not to act as denoiinceis, but to warn proprie- 
tors and trades against the extollera uf adulterations. The petition ends in claiming 
the issnine of a new circular reminding, as Hr. Dufauro had done, not only that pro- 
ceed in gssnonld be " taken against adultttration, eras inqf ah sire when practiced fraudn- 
lently and with the intent of deceitfully givini; wine the appearance of qualities which 
it does not possess, but that Articles 3:i-G0 of the penal code, 1 aud 3 of the law of 
May 17, 1819, a1lo« to reach also all incitements, not atlendtd with a renill, to use col- 
oring matters by article*, adm-tttenifiili, pam,phUt», prospeciuut," ^o. 

The qualified claims of the members of the syndicate of wLnes and spirits of Nac- 
bonne will certainly be listened to by the minislcr of Justice. The welfare uf the ma- 
jority of commerce is at stake. 

It would be Imprudent, however, to expect from only one member of onr Gnvern- 
meut, from him solely, the remedy to cause an evil to disappear in which every one is 
inteivBted. It is sure that large quantities of wines artificially colored are sent to 
France by Spain, bat are the sender? merely ttpauiardsT* 

It is not less certain that hundreds of hogsheads daily arrive on onr market filled 
with the produce condemned by the petitioners; but are those cashe aud the wines 
they contain bought and orderad only by the consumers T It is difficult fur us to be- 



COLOMBIA AHD ITS FEOFLE.t 

SEPOBT BT UB. aORUaOS. MlXiaTSB AT BOGOTA. 

From Houda, the bead of steam navigation on the Magdalena, to 
Boffoto, the capital of the Colombian Bepublic, the journey mast be 
made on mnletmck. The distance is less than TO miles, although it 
tiBnaltf requires from three to four days to complete it. However, with- 
in the last few years, a line of coaches has been eatahlisbed between the 
federal capital and Agnalarge, a stopping place some thirty miles dis- 
tant from Bogota, so that the Jonrney by muleback baa beou reduced 
to about 40 miles. 

After perfecting all ueoeBsary arraugements the day previous, the 
trawler rises at six, takes a light breakfast of chocolate aud bread, and 
hopee to be OD the way by seven. But people hero take life easy. 
Servants and guides and muleteers make no note of time, aud it is quite 
useless to try to hurry tbem, so that if he gets fairly uuder way by ten 
o'clock he is fortunate. As he ascends a Hpur of the eastern Cordillera 
there is revealed to him a most enchanting view of the surrounding 
oonntry. The atmosphere is singularly clear, pure, and exhilarating, 
and be breathes more deeply aud easily. The senses are no longer op- 
pressed by the sultry beats aud intoxicating perfumes of the valley; 

'This is denied by the Spanish newspapors. 

t This is the second of a series of reports (the first appeared In No. 30) which Mr. 
Scruggs proposes to vrrite on Colombia and its people, its industries aud fi>reigo com- 
merce, and on the best means for the enlargement of the commercial relations uf Ihe 
United States therewith. The series very properly beoins with a description of the 
country and its inhabitants, without a clear underslanding uf which it is impossible 
to fully appreciate its trade relations. The country, su I the habits and customs of 
itf people, being onoe understood, its foreign commerce is more easily comprehended. 



112 COLOUBIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

the limbs recover their wooted elasticity, and the mind seems more clear 
and active. 

Jnst beyond the deep,' broad valley of the Magdalena are the sdov- 
capped mountains of Tolina. Tbey seem marvelously near, and yet they 
are more than a hundred miles distant, so very clear and tranaparent 
is the atmosphere of this elevated region. 

In the opposite direction is the dish-shaped viilley of Guaduas, fringed 
with luxuriant foliage of the coffee plantations aud the virgin foresU. 
In the center of this valley reposes the parochial village, n'lth its ctiuruh 
steeples reaching upward as if in feeble imitation of the adjacent 
mouutaiD peaks. 

Thix valley of Gaaduas is over 3,000 feet above the sea level, and hag 
therefore an equable and temperate climate. But the atmosphere is 
quite damp, and fbeumatism, diphtheria, and goiter are among the 
prevalent maladies of the place. The population of the village is about 
20,000, the basis of which is the Chiboha Indian, the race which inhat>- 
ited this country at the time of the conquest by Quesada, in 1537. But 
here, as elsewhere in the Andes, the Indian has lost his race identity by 
amalgamation with the Castilian, and a Ohibcha of pure blood ia seldom 
seeo, except in the more remot« rural districts. The negro and his 
dci^nditnts are seldom seen here. They seem to thrive best in the hot, 
malarious region of the coast and on the margins of the great riverH. 

The next village of importance is Yillete. It has a population of 
about 2,000, mostly Indians and mixed breeds. Its elevation Is only 
about fiOO feet above the sea level, and it has an average temperature 
of about 85° F. Thougb qnite hot, the atmosphere is singularly dry 
and sanitary, and the place is often resorted toby invalids from Bogota 
and the more elevated regions. 

The valley is watered by the Rio Negro, justly so uamed, for its waters 
are as black as ink, so rendered by their passage through the coal aoil 
mioerat deposits along the foot hills of the Sierra. Kear by is a noted 
8ul])hnr spring, and the extinct volcano which Humboldt descril>ed as 
likely one day to break out ai^eah and destroy this l)eaatiful valley. 

Up to this point our journey has been alternating between deep val- 
leys and dizzy mountain peak». Wecrossone only to encounter another. 
Such is Camino Real or "Royal Highway," the only available route be- 
tween the Golombiao capital and the outside world. Within the past 
few years it has been much improved, it is true, and at great expense to 
the Government; but it is still little else than a mere mnle trail, not wide 
enough in many places for two mules to walk abreast, and so tortuous 
aud piecipitons ao to be impassable, esuept on the backs of animals 
trained to the roa<l. When we refiect that this is the overland highway 
of an immease commerce, and that it has been inconstant use since tbe 
Spanish conquest, we natnrally marvel that it is no better. It seems to 
have been constructed without anyprevionssnrvey whatever, and with- 
out the least regard for comfort or convenience, making short curvt-s 
where curves are quite unnecessary, or going straightoversomemount- 
ain spur or peak where the ascent might have been rendered less dif- 
ficult by easy curves. But to the observant traveler the inconveniences 
and hardships of the journey are in some measure compensated by the 
varied and captivating scenery. He passes through a variety of cli- 
mates within a few hours ride. At one time he is ascending a dizzy 
steep by a sort of rustic stairway hewn into the rock-ribbed moantain, 
where the air reminds him of achilly November morning; afew hours 
later heis descending to the region of the plantain and the banana, where 
the summer never euds aud the rank crops of fruita and flowers chase 



COLOMBU AND ITS PEOI^E. US' 

each other in nnbroken circle from JoDiiary to December. Oq the bleak 
crestfi of the paranuu he enooanters neither tree nor shrab; a few blades 
of sedge and the flitting of a few Bparrows give the only evidences or 
vegetable or animal life, while in the deep valley juBt below the dense 
groves of palm and cottonwoods arealive with birds of rich and varied 
plomage, and the air seems loaded with floral perfumes antil the senses 
fairly ache with their sweetness. 

Agnalarge is, as I have said, the last stopping place before exchang- 
ing the s^dle-mule for the coach. It is a little settlement of a few 
hundred inhabitants, situated on the eastern crest of the Cordillera 
which surronn^s the vast altiplane of Bogota. We here dismiss oar 
faithful male and take coach omnibas for the cities of the plain. The 
transition Irom the intense midsummer heats of Yillete, to the bleak 
Korember blasts of A-gualarge, has been a journey of but a few hours. 
Our ears and finger tips fairly ache with cold, and a strange numbness 
is felt in every limb. But the descent to the edge of the plain is rapid 
and within thirty minutes we are greeted by the clear, bright rays of 
perpetual spring. The ripening wheat fields, fringed by primroses and 
perennial flowers, alternated by green pasthres filled with sleek herds ^ 
of sheep and cattle, afford a landscape worthy of the artist's pencil or 
the poet's enthusiasm. 

This plain is the traditional elysium of the ancient Ghibchas, and 
their imperial capitol was near the site of the present capitol of Colom- 
bia; and, perhaps, aronnd no one spot on the American continent 
cluster so many legends of the aborigiiies, or quite so many improbable 
stories illustrative of the ancient civilization. Here one can almost 
imagine himself iu the north temperate zone, and in a country inhabited 
by a race wholly different from the people heretofore seen in the re- 
public. Agriculture and the useful arts seem at least » century ahead 
of those on the coast and in tbe torrid valleys of the great rivers. The 
ox-cart and plantation wagon have supplanted the traditional pack- 
mole andgronnd-aled. Theneat iron spade and patent plow have taken 
the place of wooden shovels and clumsy forked sticks. The inclosuros 
are of a substantial stone or adobe, and the spacious farm-house or gut'nfa 
has an air of palatial elegance compared with tbe mud and bamboo hut 
of theMagdalena. The people have a clear, ruddy complexion, at least 
compared with those heretofore seen in the country ; and their dialect 
is a near approach to the rich and sonorous Castiltan, once so liquid and 
harmonious iu poetry and song, and so majestic ana persuasive in the 
forum. None of these agricultural implements and none of these com- 
modious coaches and omnibnsses were mnnufaetured here or elsewhere 
in Colombia. They have all been imported from the United States or 
Europe. They were brought to Honda, packed in small sect ioas, by 
tbe river steamers and thence tugged over the mountains, piece by piece- 
One peon will carry a wheel, another an axle, a third a coupling-pole 
or single-tree, and the screws and bolts are packed in small boxes on 
cargo mules. The npper part or body of the vehicle is likewise taken 
to pieces and packed in sections. One man will sometimes be a month 
in carrying a wagon-wheel from Honda to the plain. His method is to 
carry it some fiO or 100 paces and then rest, making sometimes less 
than 2 miles a day. 

When the vehicle finally reaches the plain, the pieces are collected 

and put together by some smithy, who may have learned the art from 

an American or English mechanic. One scarcely knows which ought 

to be the greatest marvel, tbe failure to manufacture all these things in 

8 JUL 83 

, ..ii.,C.<.x>^lc 



114 PATENT LAW OF BSAZIL, 

a coantry where woode, and coal, and iron ore are so abnudant, or the 
obstacles that are overcome ia their aacceasfnl importatioD A*om foreign 
coantries. 

WILLIAM a. SCEUGGS, 

Minister Resident, 
On the Plains of Bogota, U. 9. 0. 



PATEST LAW OF BRAZIL. 

TBiSSMITIED BY XIStBTEB OBBOBSM. 

The general assembly decrees : 

Aktiole 1. In the oonoession of a. patent to the author of any in- 
vention or diBCOvery, the law guarantees the right of property and exda- 
Bive nae. 

Section 1. For the effects of this law the following shall constitate 
an invention or disoorery. 

Ist. The invention of new indaetrial prodaets: 

2d. The invention of new processes or the new applicatton of known 
processes for obtaining an industrial product or result. 

3d. The improvement of an invention already privileged, if it shall 
facilitate the mannfatiture of the prodnot or the nee of the privileged 
invention, or if it shall increase its utility. 

Those industrial products^ processes, applications, and improvements 
shall be considered new which np to the application for a patent have 
never, within or without the empire, been employed or need, and of 
which can neither be found descriptions nor publications of the method 
by which they can be employed or used. 

Seo. 3. The following iuTcatioua caauot be made the olyect of a 
patent: 

1st. Those contrary to law or morality. 

2d. Those dangerous to pnblic security. 

3d. Those noxious to public health, 

4th. Those which do not offer a practical industrial result 

Seo. 3. The patent will be conceded by the executive power, aft«r the 
fulfillment of the formalities prescribed In this law and in its regnia* 
tiona. 

Sec. 4. The exclusive privilege of a principal invention will only be 
valid up to 15 years, and that of an improvement to the invention, con- 
ceded to the author, will terminate at the same time with it. 

If public necessity or 'utility require the free use [vulgari«ag3o) of an 
invention, or its exclusive use by the state, during ita privilege, the 
patent can be disappropriated, in conformity with the legal formalities. 

Sec. 5. The patent is transmissible by any of the modes of cession or 
transference recognized by law. 

Art. II. Inventors receiving privileges in other countries can obtain 
a confirmation of their rights in this empire, provided that they fulfill 
the formalities and conditions of this law, and observe ttie farther dis- 
positious in force applicable to the case. 

The confirmation will give the same rights as a patent conceded in 
the empire. 

Sec. 1. The priority of the property right of that inventor, who, hav- 
ing solicited a patent from a foreign country, shall make a similar peti- 
tion to the imperial government within seven months, will not be inrali- 



PATENT LAW OP BRAZIL. 115 

dated by facts which may occur dcring this period, to wit: another 
rimiUr, petition, the publication of the inveution, and its use or em- 
pIoymeQt. 

^o. 2. To the tnTODtor who, before obtaining a patent, desires, to ex- 
periment in public with his iDventions, or wishes to exhibit them in an 
exposition, official or officially recognized, will be graot«da title provi- 
Bionally gniuant«eing to him his right of property for a specified time, 
and with the formalities required. 

Hbc. 3. During the first year of the privilege only the inventor him- 
self, or his legal successors, can obtain a privil^e for improvements on 
his own invention. It will be permitted to third parties, however, to 
present their petitions within the said period in order to estabUsh their 
rights. 

The inventor of an improvement cannot engage in tlie indnstry bene- 
fited while the privilege for the principal invention lasts, without an 
authorization from its author; nor can the latter employ the improve* 
nent withont an accord with him. 

Sec. 4. If two or more persons solicit a privilege at the same time for 
an identical invention, the Qovemment, except in the hypothesis of f 1 
of this article, will reqnirei that they shall previously determine the 
priority, either by meaus of an accord or in a competent court. 

Abt- III. The inventor who seeks a patent will deposit in duplicate 
in the department which the Qovemment shall designate, within a closed 
and sealed envelope, a report in the national idiom, describing the in- 
vention with accuracy and cleamoes, its purpose, and the method of 
using it, with the plans, designs, models and samples which may contrib- 
ute to an exact understanding of the invention and the elucidation of 
the report, so that any person co^izant of the sabjeot can obtain or 
apply the result, means, or product of which it treats. 

The report shall clearly specify the characteristic feature of the in- 
vention {privilegw)). 

The extension of the right of patent will be determined by the said 
features, mention of this being made in the patent. 

8ec. 1. With the document for deposit will be presented the petition, 
which should be limited to one single invention, specifying its nature 
and its purposes or applications iu accordance with the report and with 
the docmnents deposited. 

Sec. 2. If it shall appear that the subject of the invention involves 
an infraction of § 2, Art. I, or has for its object alimentary, chemical, or 
pharmaceutical products, the Government will order a previous and se- 
cret examination of one of the copies deposited, in conformity with the 
regulations to be issued ; and in accordance with the result it will or 
will uot concede a patent. 
From a negative decision there will be recourse to the council of state. 
Sec. 3. With the sole exception of the cases mentioned in the preced- 
ing paragraph, the patent will be issued without previous examination. 
In it the object of the privilege will always be designated in a concise 
manner, with a reserve of the rights of a third party and of the respon- 
sibility of the Government, in respect to the originality or utility of the 
invention. 

In the patent of an inventor, privileged outside of the empire, it will 
be declared that it is valid so long as the foreign patent is in force, 
never exceeding the specified period of ^ 4, Art. I. 

Sec. 4. Beside the expenses and fees incurred the patentees shall pay 
a tax of $'J0 for the first year, 930 for the second, 940 for the third, in- 
creasing 910 for each year that shall ensue, over the preceding annuity, 



116 PATENT LAW OF BEAZIL. 

for tbe whole period of the privilege. In do case will the annaitiea be 
lefunded. 

Sbo. 5. To the privileged ioventor vho improves his own iDveDtioa 
will be given a certificate of improvement, which will be appended to 
the respective patent. 

For this certificate the inventor will pay, once for all, an amonnt oor- 
t«spondiog to the annuity which has become dne. 

Sec. 6. The transfer or cession of patents or certificates will not enter 
into efttet nntil it has been registered in the bureau of agrioultore, com- 
merce, and public works. 

Abt. ly. TLe patent having been issued, and within a period of 30 
days, the opening of the deposited envelopes will take place, with the 
formalities which the regulations shall specifv- 

Tbe report shall be immediately published in the JDiario Official and 
one of the copies of the designs, plans, models, or samples will be opened 
for the inspection of the public and for the study of interested parties, 
it being permitted to take copies. 

Bec. I. In case the previous examination of which f 2, Art. Hi treate, 
has not takeu place, the Government, having published the report, will 
order a verification, by means of ezperimente, of the requisites and con- 
ditions required by law for the validity of the privilege, according to 
the method established for such examination. i 

Abt. V. A patent will liecome of no effect if it is annulled or shall 
lapse. 

Sec. 1. The patent will become null — 

1st. If in its concession any one of the requirements of §§ 1 and. 2, of 
Art. I, has been infringed. 

2d. If the patentee did not have priority. 

3d. If the patentee shall have falsified the truth, or concealed essen- 
tial matter in the re[>ort descriptive of the invention, whether in its ob- 
ject or in the manner of using it. 

4th. If the name of the invention shall be, with fraudoleut purpose, 
diverse from its real object. 

5tb. If the improvement shall not have the indispensable relation with 
the principal industry and can be coDstituted a separate industry; or 
there shall have been priority (preteri^) in the preference established 
by Art. II, § 3. 

Sec. 2. The patent will lapse in the following cases : 

let. The patentee not making efTective use of the inveution within 
three years, counting from the date of patent. 

2d. The patentee suspending the ef^tive use of the invention for 
more than one year.exceptbycauseof /brpsMwyeitr, judged sufficient by 
the Government, after consulting the respective section of the council of 
state. 

By use is understood iu these two cases, the effective exercise of the 
privileged industry, and the supply of the products in proportion to 
their employmeut or consumption. 

It being proved that the supply of the products is evidently insufficient 
for the needs of employment or consumption, the privilege can be re- 
stricted to a zone determined by an act of the Government, with the ap- 
prgval of the legislative power. 

3d. The patentee uot paying the annuity within the terms of the law. 

4th. Tbe patentee, residing outside of the empire, not constituting an 
accredited agent to represent hiiu befbre the Government or in court. 

5tb. Through tbe express rennnciation of the patent. 
' 6th. Tbe patent or foreiga title upon au invention also privileged in 
the empire, being discontinued. 



PATENT LAW OP BBAZIL. 117 

7th. The term of the privilege having expired. 

Bkc. i. The nullity of a patent or of ft certiflcat© of improrement 
will be declared by a decision of the commercial conrt {juizo oomm^oiat) 
of the capital of the empire, by mean* of the summary process of decree 
No. 137, of November 25, 1850. 

The following are competent to promote an action for nullity ; 

The solicitor of the treasury [procvrador dog feitoi da fozmda) and 
his assistants, to whom will be forwarded the documents and proofs, 
corroborative of the inftwition. 

And any interested party, with the assistance of that official and his 
aaeistants. 

Ad action of nullity in the cases of Art . I, ^ 2, Kos. 1, 2, and 3, having 
been begun, the execution of the patent and the use or employment of 
the invention will remain suspended until the final decision. 

If the patent shall not be annulled, the patentee will be reinvested in 
its eiyoynient with the integrity of the term of privilege. 

Sec. 4. The lapse of patents will be declared by the minister and sec- 
retary of state fbr the affairs of agriculture, commerce, and public works, 
withreconrse to the council of state. 

Abt. VI. The following will be considered infractors of the privilege : 

lat. Those who, without license from the patentee, manofecture the 
products, or employ the processes, or mafae the applications which are 
the object of the patent 

2d. Those who import, sell, or expose for sale, conceal or receive for 
the purpose of sale, counterfeited prodacts of the privileged industry, 
knowing what they are. 

Sec. I. The infractors of a privilege will be punished, in favor of the 
public coffers, with a fine from $600 to $6,000 ; and in favor of the pat- 
entee with from 10 to 60 per cent, of the damage caused, or which may 
be caused. 

Sec. 2. The following will be considered as aggravating circum- 
stances : 

1st. The infractor to be or to hare been an employ^ or workman in the 
establishment of the patentee. 

2d. The infractor to associate with an employ^ or workman of the 
patentee for acquiring knowledge of the practical method of obtaining 
or employing the invention. 

Ser. 3. The cognizance of in&actions of a privilege belongs to the 
juuea de direito (district judges) of the comarcag (districts) where they 
reside, who will issue, on the petition of the patentee or his legal repre- 
sentative, the warrants of search, apprehension, and deposit, and will 
prescribe the preparatory or preliminary proceedings of the process. 

The sentence will be governed by law No. 562, of July 2, 1850, and 
by decree No. 707, of October 9, of the same year, so far as they apply 
to the case. 

The products of which Nos. 1 and 2 of this article treat and the re- 
spective instruments and apparatus will be adjudged to the patentee 
by the same sentence which condemns the authors of the infractions. 

Sec. 4. The process will not hinder an action by the patentee to se- 
cure indemnifl cation for damage caused or which may be caused. 

Sec. 5. Commercial jurisdiction is snfBcientforallthecauses relative 
to industrial privileges, in conformity with this law. 

8eo. 6. The following will be punished with a fine of fh>m $100 to 
$500 in favor of the public coffers : 

1st Those who anuonnce themselves as possessors of a patent, using 
the emblems, marks, inscriptions, or labels upon prodncts or objects 



118 DWELLING HOUSE ACCOMMODATION IN QLA8Q0W. 

prepared for commerce or exposed for sale, as if they had been priri- 
leged. 

2d. Thoae inveutora who continue to exercise an industry as privi- 
leged, the patent being suspended, aDualled, or lapsed. 

3d. Those privileged inventors ■who in prospectuaea, advertisements, 
ioBcriptious, or by any mode of public notice shall mention patents 
withoQt designating the special object for which they were obtained. 

1th. Those professional men or experts who in the hypothesis of § 2 of 
Art. Ill, canse the general diffusion of the secret of the inventiou, with- 
out pr^adice, in such caae, to the criminal or civil actions which the 
laws permit. 

8bo. 7. The infractions of which the preceding paragraph treats will 
be prosecuted and judged as political crimes, iu conformity with the 
legislation in vigor. 

Abt. VII. When a patent shall be conceded to two or more co- 
iuventors, or when it becomes common by a title of gilt or aucoession, 
each one of the coproprietors can aae it freely. 

Abt. YIII. If a patent ahall be given or left in usufruct, tbe usa- 
fmctuary will be obliged, when bis rights cease through the extinction 
of the uauftuct or termination of the term of privilege, to give to the 
owner of the property the value at which it shall be estimated, cal- 
culated with relation to the time which the usofruct has lasted. 

Abt. IX. The patents of invention already conceded will condnne to 
be governed by the law of October 26, 1830, there being applied to 
them tbe dispositions of Art Y, § 2, Nos. 1 and 2, and of Art. Yl of this 
present law, with tbe exception of pending processes or actions. 

Abt. X. All dispositions to the contrary are hereby revoked. 



DWELLIHO HOTTSE ACCOKHODATIOV IH QLUOOW. 

SBPOBX OF COSSTTL BiRTE. 

Id an address recently delivered in this city to the students of tbe 
Glasgow University, by Mr. John Bright, on tbe occasion of hia in- 
auguration as lord rector, the somewhat startling statement was made 
tiiat 76^ per cent, of tlie persons residing in Glasgow lived in houses of 
one room. As Mr. Bright did not enter into details, nor did the news- 
papers comment upon it at the time, I have thought it might be of in- 
terest to the Department to i-eceive the facts and figures as I have 
hastily compiled them from the statistics. 

The entire population of Glasgow at last census, in 1881, was 511,520. 
This amount only refers to the city i>roper, but when most of tbe sab- 
nrban burghs are taken into account, and these to all intents and pnr- 
poses are actually part and parcel of the city, as much as Kew York 
and Harlem, or Washington and Georgetown, (although having distinct 
municipalities) the number is swelled to 705,140, Of those burghs, 
Govan is the largest, with 50,000 inhabitants, Partick next, with 33,000, 
and then follow in proportion Maryhill with 8,000, Billhead 7,000, and 
others with an average of 3,000 each. Govan, Partick, and Maryhill, 
may honestly be said to be the only burghs having real individnality, 
for in the cases of the two larger a very great percentage of the people 
both work and reside on the spot ; but the dwellings in the others are 
for the most part made up of Glasgow merchants' residences. In Glas- 
gow the proprietors of ground believe iu making as much out of it as 



DWELLIHG HOUSE ACC01IUODA.TI0K IN GLASGOW. 119 

possible, and the blocks of booses are nearly all bailt fonr stories hlKlit 
or about forty feet, aad these are divided into one, two, three, four or 
moreapartmeiit bonses according to situation and locality : stone being 
abundant in the district, that material is all but nniveraally used, and, 
as fl matter of course, the exteriors have tine appearance. 

In building, a body of experts in such matters, called the "dean of 
^ild court," insist on regularity in construction, and compel proprie- 
tors to adhere to the conditions of their like deeds as to uniformity of 
design, height, &e., and it js recorded that one builder who had ex- 
ceeded the ^aditional foar stories, on being brought before thesaid conit, 
pleaded ignorance oil the point, and declared that there " was no ground 
reiit op there." He had, in fact, paid too high a price for his gronod, 
and wanted to make the specnlation pay by adding a fifth story. 

At the last censna return the total population of the city was, males, 
248,467 ; females, 263,0fi3 j total, 511,620. 

liiese were divided over the followiiig districts : 

Bridseton 39,6SS 

CuulikeUe 37,908 

Dennistown 46,116 

Cilton 37,448 



StEoUox 4a,479 

Blyltawcwd 30,463 

MQloo 35,610 

Kelvin 53,787 

Aadacaton 36,753 

BatcbeMmtoim 44,447 

Gutbalg 39,127 

Ttadeston 17,804 

PoUokahieldB Park, landwaria 13,100 

Totkl within Glasgow mnmoipalit^ E11,6i0 

The population of the snbnrbs caloalated from the census returns 
gives the following facts : 

PirtickandHUlhead 3S,988 

Goran 51,783 

fiatberglan 13,786 

MmWII 18,386 

SheUerton 9,ie» 

Bhawlanda 798 

C«JlMart, LuigsJde, See....... 13,198 

GoTuihiLI, StnllibDiiKO, Ac 5,950 

Poll<Ariiawe,&o 5,451 

Kinning Pwk, 4,0 15,757 

DenniBtowD, landward 6,009 

St. Rolloi, landward 945 

GorbaU 6,010 

193 6S0 

It will thus be seen that the entire popnlatiou of Glasgow and snbnrbs, 
as at 1881, may be calculated as ander : 

GiMgow 511,520 

Snbnrb* 193,620 

Total 705,140 

Increase since 1871, 110,888. 

Since then, owing to combined prosperity in certain kinds of trades, 
the increase of population, both in Glasgow and suburbs, but more par- 
ticularly in the larger suburbs, may be calculated at 15,000 (for it is 
probable that iu two years Govan and Partick, owing to unusqal aotiv- 



120 DWELLINO HOUSE AOCOHUODATION DT GLASGOW. 

ity in the sbipboilding trade, have added over 8,000) . This would give 
for Glasgow and saborbs 720,140. 

In 18S1 the total nnmber of hoaaes in the dty was 119,059, and of 
these 12,724 were onoecapied. They were divided as nnder : 

House* of one nwm 35, ao 

HoiuMof tworooiUB i&.SA 

HooMB of three rooms VMA 

HoDses of four rooms .. ..,.,. 6,623 

Houses of five rooms knd upwards . ... 6,S£3 

Grscd total 119, OSS 

Calculating on the nambers of new tenements bnilt since then, and 
making allowance for old properties taken down by the Glasgow City 
ImproTement Trnst, and also a large block of honses to make room for 
the new municipal buildings iu the center of the city, the total nnmber 
of houses will not now be for short of 121,000, and of these no fever 
than 89,600 are of one and two apartments. The proportion in the 
larger snburba, too, will be about the same. 

Going back to retnma I find that the average rooms for inhabited 
houses is 2.322. The number of persons found in each occupied house 
iu 1881 was 4.738. It will thus be seen that two-thirds of the people 
of the commercial metropolis of Scotland live in houeesof not more than 
two apartments, and the following statistics for the city districti< will 
give a fair indication of the grouping of families : 



SIsMati. 




1 


ll 

? 




i 

S.OM 
MB 

•i 


!:| 

3,714 

iSS 

B;140 

■ i 

4»,»7 










'S 






g,M4 






*■'« 


















































— — 







There is one startling fact In connection with this social subject which 
I cannot help pointing out. The operative classes who live in tbe!<e 
apartments are remarkHbly prolific; and I have it from the best author- 
ity that 950 families live in Glasgow at the present time whose circle 
number from ten to sixteen persons. This means a population of some- 
thing like 10,000 persons living in 1,853 apartments. Whether this pro- 
lific quality is the cause or result of overcrowding is a matter of argu- 
ment. I only record the fact. 

,i:.jb Google 



TALTTB OF LANDED PROPEBTT IN FRANCE. 121 

The renta of houses of one apartment average abont £6 per annum, 
and those of two £6. In many instances, however, the renU of the sio- 
gla dwellings are paid monthly, and it might be mentioned that in 
Glasgow persons paying less than £10 per aannm are only made liable 
for half does for the "police rates." These come to something like 2s. 
6d. per ponud, the fall amoant of which is exacted from the inhabitants 
living in houses of two rooms and upwards. 

These, as nearly as I can gatUer, are the facte upon which the wise 
and eloquent lord rector based his statement. I need not point out to 
Che Department that it does not follow, as a logical sequence, that the 
hoiieaty of Glasgow is greater or more marked than that of the other 
large citiea of Great Sritain ; non constat that the enormous majority 
of dwellers in one or two rooms represent a degree of destitution greater 
than the mixed poverty of other cities ; or that this 76^ per cent, ever 
become as frequently a tax upon the state or private charity. I believe 
there is less destitatiou, less absolute deprivation, less misery and want 
in Glasgow than in her sister cities. There is certainly lesa dependence 
upon chanty and less open mendicancy here than elsewhere. The poor- 
est Scotch laborer is too proud to beg. My casnal impression of him is 
that he does not spend what he does not earn — and seldom even as much 
aa ho does earn — and that what may seem to be the social sin of poverty 
is perhaps only the Scotch beatitude — thrift. 

BRET HABTE, 

Conaul. 

United States Consulate, 

Glasgow, Apnl 13, 1883. 



VALUE 07 LAHSED PEOFEKTT IE PRAECE. 

REPORT BT aOSBUI, FEIXOTFO. OF LTOKS. 

The valne of landed property in France, as ascertained after four 
years' patient investigation by the Government of the Eepublic, baring 
regard to it« rentals and its market valne, is ascertained and reported 
to be $17,675,519,000, This does not include the value of the buildings, 
which, if added to that of land (according to the received estimates in 
France, and 1 believe in Europe generally), would make the total value 
of lands and buildings $26,408,020,000. The net revenues obtained from 
^m landed property (lands) is $600,485,000. 

By comparing the figures of the revenue with those of the market 
value and separating each according to the nature of the property, it is 
found that taken together, i. e., ensemble, the revenne from rural property 
with a valuation of (353.10 per hectare, is (10.20per hectare, or an in- 
vestment at 2.89 per cent. 

The rnral property of France is divided into six great categories, viz : 
Superior lands, such as orchards, hemp fields, and gardens ; arable 
lands, properly so called; pasture, meadow, or grazing lands; vine 
lands; timber; and lands or commons more or less cultivated. 

The snperior lands occupy actually a superficies of 695,000 hectares, 
having a market value of $738,997,000, and yielding a net revenue of 
$22,291,500. 

The average of the hectare being thus $32, an investment conse- 
quently of 3 per cent. 

The arable lands cover a surface of 26,000,000 of hectares, upon a total 
area of 60,000,000 of hectares of rural property, yielding a net revenue of 
(289,500,000, or by the hectare $10.80, or an interest of 2.68 per cent 



122 FABMIHO IN BBLOIUH. 

The meadow or pastore lauds are even more favored. Of tbese there 
are actnally 4,098,280 hectares, rendering! an Income of (03,208,987, 
repreaentjiig a market value of $2,856,300,974, being an investment at 
the rate of 3,20 per cent., and an income per hectare of 418.54. 

Id spite of the ravages of phylloxera, the vines of France still show 
an important production ; 2,320,000 hectares are devoted to vineyards, 
and the net revenue from these amounts to $58,198,185, which represent 
an average income per hectare of $24.89, or an annual interest of 4. 38 
per cent., continuing thus the most productive of rural investments. 

The timber lands of France cover a superficies of 8,397,000 hectares. 
Their market value reaches #1,208.587,490, and the net revenue derived 
is $36,469,630, an averafice of $4,34, or 3 per cent, per hectare, the valae 
of each hectare being $144.19, making these lands eqnol in profit to 
orchards and gardens, and superior to arable lauds. 

Meadows and pastures cover a auperfloiea of 6,706,800 hectares, having 
a value per hectare of $39.90, yielding a revenue of $1.18 per hectare. 

From year to year there has been an inoreaae in the value of unpro- 
ductive lands. 

The inqoiries made by the Government in this regard, with the same 
care ae in all other instances, show that since 1879 there has been 
cleared 1,406,155 hectares, or nearly 3,500,000 acres, which are at pres- 
ent olassiAed among arable and timber lands and vineyards, and which, 
nnder recent laws, are so taxed. 

For the information presented above I am indebted to the honorable 
Mr. Tirard, at present minister of finance (secretary of the treaanry). 
BENJAMIN F. PEIXOTTO, 

Contul. 

United Statbb Consulate, 

Lyons, March 21, 1883. 



PARHIVQ in BELOXim. 

SBFORT BT OOifSUL TATfXSR. Of LIEQE. • 

From the accompanying table it will be seen that Belgium presents, 
comparatively, the largest cultivated area of any country in the world, 
being nearly, if not quite, 00 per cent, of her entire territory, including 
rivers, mountains, and railways. 

Where every sqoare yard of land that can be cultivated is constantly 
under tillage, and has been so, and will continue tu be so for years, it 
renders a statement of not only acreage, but of yield, the more valuable. 

Acreage in Belgiam cannot fluctuate, because all available land is 
cultivated. 

That that is not available for crops is made remunerative from stones 
or timber. 

I estimate the average production of Belgium of all grain at 64,013,113 
bushels, and the consumption of the same at 18 bushels per capita. This 
to a population of 5,713,913 would require 103,700,434 bushels, which 
vould show a defleioucy to be supplied of 39,737,331 bushels. 

The large allowance per capita comes from the fact that the laboring 
classes subsist almost entirely on bread. This, too, being a Catholic 
country, is calculated to increase the consnmptiou of bread by the 
better classes. Horses, chickens, and cattle are fed here on cereals. 
All this considered, it would make my apparently high estimate at first 
sight seem small on reflection. 

It is diifleult to arrive at the exptmses attending the cultivatioii »f an 



FABMINO IN BELQIDH. 123 

acre of laod, as that depends so much od the prodact and the system 
of caltivatioii, as well as tipon the cost of the different manarea used. 

I have talked with many fanners, sod they all agree that they make 
no profits OD their crops. By the strictest economy they make enough 
to eke oilt an existence on the tout ensemble. Poultry, eggs, and dairy 
products contribnte largely towards enabling them to do this in.coti- 
nectiou with farming, and it is on this department of farming that their 
success hinges. 

The inclosed table shows an annual production of 274,967^824, or 48 
eggs to each inhabitant of this country, with an area no larger than the 
State of Georgia. I know of uo country that presents a more interest- 
ing field to the statistician. Sixty per cent, of its population are em- 
ployed in some kind of labor, which is a larger percentage than that of 
any other country in the world. Labor is cheap, and abundant, which 
is mnch better than being dear and scarce. 

Farming in most of the European States is pursued more irom habit 
than from any eucouragement of profit. It is strict attention to the 
most minute details, aud economy at every possible point, that brings the 
Belgian farmer through the breakers that threaten bia destruction. 
Hundreds of matters too small for our farmers to notice, would be fatal 
to the Belgian farmer to ignore. If our fanner practiced the same 
economy his profits would perhaps be double what they now are. 

Straw from grain is treated by the Belgian like it had a value. Straw 
fetches In this market aud throughout Europe from $10 to (22 per ton. 

It would be well for our iarmers to note this, and, by using compress- 
ing macbines to give it the smallest possible bulk, it seems to me that 
this item of farming could prove to be a source of revenue and export. 

His manure pile is covered in order- that the rain will not wash away 
its best ingredients, and if an animal or fowl is sick it is instantly sep- 
arated from the fiock and every attention given it. 

If his horse becomes helpless from age or is crippled, if not diseased, 
it is sent to the market and butchered. There is an average of S28 
horses butchered in Liege per annum, and there cannot be far sh<Hrt of 
10,000 bntchered in Belgium. Horse-fiesh fetehes on an average 5 
cents per pound. 

Americans must not be misled from this statement into the supposi- 
tion that people here eat every aud any thing; on the contrary, the 
cattle brought to many other markets would be rejected in Belglam and 
not permitted to be butchered. 

All beasts that are butchered here must first be carefully inspected 
by a veterinary surgeon, and marked according to their quality. In 
this and all Belgian cities there is a large brick building set apart by the 
city to which all beasts to be butchered must be sent. They are eare- 
fally examined by a veterinarj' surgeon employed by the city, and if 
they show the slightest symptoms of disease are condemned, killed on the 
spot, and Instantly bnried. If the beast is sound but lean, it is marked 
irith ared mark in a conspicuous place, which denotes second quality of 
beef. If it is in the best condition a blue mark is made on the breast, 
and two blue cockades given to its owner. 

One of these cockades the farmer is glad to keep, and if one goes into 
a darm-honse here, it not infrequently happens tiiat one sees the walls 
of the parlor decorated with these blue cockades. Tbe second cockade 
goes to the shop where the meat is retailed, and no one is allowed to 
use the bine unless they have bought the beef that has won it, under 
severe penalties. 

Tbe city butchers the beast in the most approved manner at a very 
moderate charge. This simple manner is moat effective in guaranteeing 



124 FAEHING IN BELOIUM. 

I 

bebestofbeef, becanseitcanbeseenataglanoetheiDducemeDtsto both 
the farmer and to tbe denier ID having the blue cockade; his cattle woold 
not fetch as much in tLe market 'with the red mark, nor the shop be pa- 
tronized so extensively, withont the bine cockade. This sjstem does 
more; it guarantees pure beef, and offers sufficient encoaragemeDt for 
the best qualities. 

Horses are similarly examined before being bntcbered, and those bay- 
ing the flesh know what they are buying, and the laboring-daBBes are 
glad to get it. 

The law is severe on anyone ■who should butcher a beast without 
having it examined, and no deception is used about the qualitytof 
beef, nor can any be U8e<l. The blue cockade speaks for itseJf, aod a 
second-class shop can lay no pretensions to having Orst-class meat. 

Horse-flesh that is retailed is sold in shops Uiat only deal in that 
flesh. 

All beasts mugt be butchered at the building set apart for that pur- 
pose by the city. 

I might write at great length on the many advantages of a system of 
this kind, but will forbear. The only thing that can be said against 
eating horee-flesh isthat, it being a domestic animal, it seems too much 
like eating & friend. 

Here the horse is divested of this piece of sentimentalism, and it is 
happy for the owner that this is the case. 

GEO. C. TANKEE. 

United States Consulate, 

JAege and Vervieri, March 29, 1883. 



SfateKont thoainffpopi'lation.acreagt, acreage in eultivaHon, arerage yield per aort, KHmicr 

of oaitU, fowU,ani egg* produtfiin Belgium/or IsiiS. 

Popalatign 5,713,913 

Ifationa) area 7,295, 7B3 

Laud in cultivation 4,000.000 

Other prmluctive land 2,000,000 

Total prodnotive land 6,000,000 

In cereals 2,400,000 

Farinaceoos crops . — •-. 48lt, 700 

Other cropo 583,000 

In orchards 499,200 

Fallow land 135,100 

Vines 800 

Inwooda 1,200,400 

KEC A PITUL ATION. 





Act... 


^yw/Jf^ 


^■Sit'" 




8»B,TMP 
713^118 

S:SSS 

11,000 

BX.OOO 

T,!Sa 

104,000 

iE 


42. S 
Xotknoirii. 






















































IM 









itof Und, and ertryUiIag Indaded, |3SaaMpn.i 



C'.dot^'lc 



THE W0BLD8 COFFEE. 

FAHM AHIUAIS. 



125 





ITnmbeT. 


Trii». 




3M,«« 

KW.0UO 

1,100,00a 

713. wo 

iii 

271, 121, MS 






























"™ 





















TEE WOBLD'S COFFEE. 

BBFOBT ST COSSVLQESERAL MBBMITT. OF LOKDOHT. 

The proposed commercial treaty between the TJnited States and 
Mexico has naturally attracted great attCDiion in England, both in 
bosiness and Government circles, and Parliament is being constantly 
memorialized by commercial bodies to again open diplomatic relations 
with Mexico so that English trade with that country may not be sup- 
planted by the United States. 

The possibility of Mexico growing large quantities of coflfee for the 
ITnited States was recently referred to by a member of Parliament as 
one of the probable results of tlie treaty, which would act unfavorably 
to EogUsh trade interests. At present there exists a three-cornered 
commercial relationship between Brazil, the TJnited States, and Great 
Britain, the TJnited States consuming the great portion of th.e Brazilian 
coffee expor-ts, the settlement for which is made through Great Britain. 
English mariufactnres are sent to Brazil in payment for the coQee, and 
cotton and grain are sent .from the United States to Great Britain in 
payment for English goods forwarded to Kio Janeiro. Should Mexico 
supply the United States with coffee there would ensue a derangement 
of the trade between Brazil aud England. 

England's positioa in the general trade is very important, both as 
being a large importer for re-exportation and as acting as the financier 
of the whole traffic. In order to illustrate the general bearing of the 
coffee bnsluess, the changes of recent years, the production, consump- 
tion, aud distribution of the product, I have prepared a series of tables^ 
with explanatory notes, covering the subject, which are herewith sub- 
mitted . 

PBODUCTIOK OF COFFEE. 

There are no reliable data wberefrom a complete estimate can be 
formed of the total produce of coffee iu all parts of the globe. The 
flnctnations of the annual output are great, and the distances far and 
wide apart in respect to the countries where coffee is cultivatetl. Ad- 



126 THE world's coffee. 

mitting this, it may be asserted, however, with certainty that with the 
exception of the island of Ceylon there has been more coffee produced 
in all countries during the past five years than at any previous period. 
This growth has been in sympathy with an iucreased demand for home 
conenmption in Gurope and in the United States. In British India 
coffee-growing has made progress though on a small scale. (See 
Table K.) 

No contiuuity of shipmeuts can be tabulated irom either Singapore 
or Maoilla. Those from Java and Sumatra are, as ^ as Europe is 
interested, embodied in the statistics under the head of the Netherlands. 
The retrograde movement in Ceylon becomes apparent by the table 
marked K. Tea and quinine are now nnder cultivation there iu Ilea of 
coffee over Inrge tracts of land. 

As a rough estimate of the entire production of the berry, the follow- 
ing table may be given, showing average of one year in two qoinqaen- 
nial periods: 



Wli«r« prodDcad. 


18T9-TI. 


IWS-'BJ. 




Tmu. 

to: MO 

24. wo 


'^m 




ss 





















The statistics of production of Domingo and Hayti, Oosta Bica, Vene- 
zuela, Goatemala, and Colombia are not at hand for comparison. As 
bearing on the probable pro^action of Brazil it may be said that the 
exports in 1881, on consular authority, were 4,139,419 bags, of which 
about 50 per cent, went to the United States. 

OOKHUMPTIOy OF COFFEE. 

On a basis of 145,000,000 population of Europe in 1866, exclusive of 
Bussia, where coffee is not in general nse, it has been ascertained ftom 
ofKcial sources that the consumption of coffee was 443,000,000 pounds, 
or a fraction over 3 pounds per capita. In 1881, the total consumption 
had increased within the same radius to 763,636,000 pounds, and the pop- 
ulation to about 176,000,000, and the average per capita consumption to 
about 4.40 pounds. The total supply of coffee to the United States 
was in 1866, 174,281,000 pounds ; in 1881, 455,190,000 pounds. Deduct- 
ing a limited quantity for re-exportation, the average consumption per 
capita in the United States: 1866, 5.60 pounds; 1881, 9.10 pounds. 

In other words, the United States average per head is nearly double 
that of Europe, and is constantly increasing. 



^dbyGoOgle 



THE woeld'b coffee. 127 

COFFEE OOHSUMPTION IK ECEOPE AND THE UKITED STATES. 



CODBtctM. 


1M>. 


IW. 


UU. 


vm. 




w,ns,7i)a 

U 781. TOO 
1:^377,300 

4% toe, MM 
17.SZB,W» 

M,W.T«I 

«,OOI).OOQ 


i09.ws,im 

120,187.(00 
M, 018, 000 
47.282,000 
8,843,000 

niawlsoo 

IT. 470, 400 

RigS! 

4,000.000 


Fotadt. 
105.000,000 

138, 8», ;(• 
is;s«;4oo 

12. 000, 400 
14.8I8.M0 

51.Gn,MD 
17. lOt, 1(0 
18,250^ MO 

(.000.000 


Ptundi. 
110,721.000 






47. 140. 000 
lalTMltOO 
















10,105,400 

i7,(^.im 
(.000,000 




Bubi. PorM^ f^^, Gt^ ^ iU- 






■n.uo.400 


'asss 


400, 708, seo 

88,330.224 


(07. 321. 000 
45,25; 080 








U1,07B.7M 


3oa,ui,aM 


(33,538,714 


352.807,680 






1T*,!»1,000 


in.W7,ooo 


203, OH. 000 








Coantrki. 


WTO. 


ISTl. 


1871 


■ ISTl. 




sg,iu,3oa 

G,OM,OM 


31, HO. 0*0 
la: 487, 000 
11,080,000 
10, 340. 400 
17 710,800 

n, 013, 000 

28,HT,Ua 
M. 041, 000 

0,000,000 


PfflKMl*. 

3«^7(T,«00 
204^000^000 
I^WOOO 
10,(20.000 
0^344,400 
14,004,400 
17, 082. 800 
10.118.(00 
JO, 737, 400 
27, 218. MM 

loisooisoo 

(,000,000 


lis 
















iJ:SilS 






18,444,400 

3,000,000 




S^ P«tiia. Tirt^T, OiM«. Hd M- 






eat, US. WO 


030,23^000 
18, Ml, OH 


4?I,»0,400 

7,000,312 


844,171,300 

28;hh;sm 








W7,5«a,re4 


»IS,Ht,OM 


408,183,712 


873.170V »» 






BS,»7,aM 


siT.BS^oeo 


208.800,000 


200,883.800 




Ca«ntrl<» 


m*. 


1875. 


1870. 


1877. 




raisonoM 
lol^So 

71,S8KM)0 
It w! 700 
■.too. 000 


48.18^000 
R.H4,0OD 
IS. 070. 000 
21,891.000 
18,091.000 

so. 850.300 
7.000,000 


U:S:!!S 

38, 340, 000 
0, 103, 200 
isimsoo 
24, 738. 000 
13, 021, 100 

7i;h4;mo 

S2. 728. 000 
21,024,200 

8.000,000 


105, 184, 200 






7^ 374, 000 








10,333:400 
74.475,700 






AOMll*... 




17,131,000 
7,000,000 


Spj^ Pjjt.,^ Tork^. G««.. -d fll. 






3S.iis.5«a 


000.3711,100 
72.775,840 


033, 03.1, 800 
15,327,848 


821.385,300 
55,023,128 








«3,«1.«B 


733. 162, 240 


048,001,448 


077,007,023 






»S, 871, 700 


JW, 070, 800 


341,088,200 


331. 830, OU 





XuKlt^lc 



128 

Tablk A.- 



THE W0EIJ)8 COFFEE. 
0/ dttmilei otolcMoot* «Ji««*lii9 tjt« ntppb' o^ <w/<*i ifc. — Continued. 



CooBtrtta. 


ms. 


1871, 


int. 


-. 




PHHUb. 

Ill, 031, OM 

lie. Til, 000 
86. we, 000 

asss 

10, 049, MO 
7.00«,M0 


FMndl. 
12S,01T.3M 

24lk!««.0l)V 

S2,a'»,ooo 

94.310,000 

io:7ob:mo 

I5.B03,U0 

sis 

e.oM.oo« 


Us 

M.O<^DOa 

B.«S,700 

ia.sm400 

nio&ooo 

18^302,300 
03. 310. too 
^400,000 
l^HTllOO 

1, 000, 030 


fStf- 






Ti.«K,m 






IB, Taw 

sssss 

i«,no,iw> 














8^_^ortngri, Toikv, OnxHtt. u>d B^- 






tn. gT4, 400 
n:in;M4 


BS3;4SS,«eO 


S3ft,M4.MO 
40. SIB, lit 


15;SS! 








703.341*44 


083, 001, »0 


080,003.414 










303.882,000 


«TT,84(^00<I 


44«, 831,000 


«M1»,*« 





OREAT BBITA.IN. 

Table B has the tendency to show the difference between the relative 
cousumption of tea and coffee. While tlie flrst^name*! article com- 
Dianda an average of ii potinda per head of population, the conBOoip- 
tioD of coffee is confined to a rate less than 1 pound. 

The tables marked C and D show, respectively, the imports from 
British possessions and foreign countries. The table marked E explains 
the uses of the trade, while iu Table F the re-export of snrplus import 
is illostrated. 

The total results are summarized in the table marked 0-, and are 
desisned to show the actual consaniption throughout Europe ; while 
another compilatiou, markeil H, explains the position which obtaiDS 
between Europe and the United States relative to production. 



-Tb™. 1 CoffM. ' Coeofc 


Tm. 




Fouadt. 

18.870,857 
28,910,048 
80^irTB,404 
31,352,332 
34,393, 100 

S|S!:| 

liliBiiass 

32.501,545 
34,978^432 
38, 983, 122 
37.350,334 

aiS 


1.331^847 
2,243.983 

% STB. 407 
2.361,200 
3,079,138 
2.019.591 
3,20«,TM 
3.080,«« 
2, 978, 344 
i;2!l:82T 
3, 997, 108 
4,452.529 
4,S83.W3 
3.334.155 

2,880:034 
2. 015, 869 


M,e7S.«T 
40;»3.3W 










44, 19i433 
48,740.341 
40, ait. 821 

6s,wg.os» 






















S:I!a2M 












36,(37,3«0 

|S:!!! 

lis 

MS 

B0.5««,S1« 
18,839,100 
30,310,673 
30. 831 013 














iss; ssss 

4.053,138 : 102.185,531 
4.238.6511 110.»B8,»» 
5.116.706 106, 815. 201 
5,701,880 1 111. 118. 481 
8,163. 163 ! 117,551, Ift2 
7,291.035 1123.401, MS 





















THE world's COFFEE. iZv 

TiBLE B.— T>« opMHM^tioa in Great Britain of Mffet, eoeaa, and Ua, 4'^. — CoutiDoed. 



Te«». 


Coffe*. 


Coaoa. 


Ta.. 


■ 




Pound: 
SI. 173. MS 


Found: 
7. 771, 703 
8,IS4.«W 

8, sti. em 


Poimd*. 








IS7, S7fl. 891 



1.17S,MI) 1I,«M,83(I 



158, S70. B4] 

iso,3i&,ni 

la^ 079,891 



Table C.-Co/m 


i>.por(./n 


m firil{«lt poMCMtoHi. 






\'^^..c.,^ !s,= , 


HwuiUnt. 


8o»toAf. 


Aden. 1 


xs-t 


h'-IS 








Hmndi- 


PniBd.. 


TM. 






P»w><t.. 


Fomti. 






71,000 








1S5T... 3.SSS,M1 . 32,777,093 
1*M-.' !.Kl,SM' 43,756.W3 
int., MI§S.Me 42.304.973 

1W-10;««; 740^^748 
IHI.. 10.74AtlB 79,793.101 
18M,.ll7,ni,M9l WOIUMO 
1W..U,91T, 100:90.468, 4(9 
UN.., lI,0H.ml81,4%379 


,;??^ 


















i.7m;^ 

!48l!40g 
B,M7.747 




TOllW 


1,244 






































"kZ 


08,277 
















B,3M 




180,646 
















iMB.: a,!iu;2Zi 9s:iaa,97o 
















11,487 













































































































































Tablk D. — Co^et imports from fonign oounirU* into Oreat Uritain. 



t In- I and Porto 



a,S!7,a77 . 
4,S«1,US . 
1,713,142 . 



Pmndi. Panndi, 



373. 7S1 
1,574,438 

997,372 
1,IU0.4S9 



I »M,««7 . 
2! 223! 177 i; 



.: 13,144,010 ! 1,888.992 

.i lls972.2M I I.433.0BH 

. 23,0^.648 1,640.352 . 

.' 14,Stt,344 3,206,910 

. to, 909, 808 1, 330, 000 



I 7. 703! 010 . 

1 3,800,044 :. 

2,800.410 . 



13, too 
1,181,080 
739,084 



.(■lOt^lF 



50 THE world's coffee. 

Tablx D.—Ccffet imporit front /oreigK oounlriet into Great BrUaiti—Coatiaaed. 



Pvunds^ I Povndt. , Ptnutdt. 



2,878,640 
47, Ht 



Ti)taH'm]fortt tini «zporU of ooffte into and from Great britain. 

Qmutitm I TiJi 

Tw. I 

I Import. Eiport Import, . 



2B,?Bl,aJ4 

29,sea,oM 

4!>.e«l,S20 



1M7. ]37,72».7t 



4.«a«.<74 
S, «K. 117 



^dbyGoogle 



THE WOELD 8 COFFEE. 





T«nu 


, Import. 
2M. 242. 740 


121,«e2.N8 
I47,SM.4U 

108,164,781 


SUwkud 


15ilS:i::::: 


77,678,587 






7Kum;304 


Sii28g!8M 

isi;ass;74» 


iSwSS::::::: 

IBTl-inK 























__. 







*Tb« qiuDtitr Ukeo for home oonaniDptlaB Id 1SS2, uid on icMcb dot; ha* boon paid, i 
Redistribution of Imported Coffee. 





Ytm. 


Fnmce. 
PdumK. 

im 

S8.ltB.585 
(7, 344. B40 

4,7«a.B5i 


Gerauuij. 

42,10«,ffll 
114^ 811s 008 

2a:4SiCa2o 


NfltherlMida. 
- ■■ - 
Pound: 
35,004,888 

21BI374.1M 
254:781; 796 

8l| B40i 480 


Btlgmm. 


8o»Ddl- 




Pnadt. 

11.S37.7B7 
22, WW, 298 
11,578.081 
59:273,984 
83,083.840 


S.KS,4M 

23:379.414 
50. 702, Me 

S7,*M,0S2 
11,202.458 


IWl-'W 














1 






T.„. 


F<m»dt. 

38,(nfi,4W 
48,890.088 

4!7B2|SS2 


lUlj. 


Turkey, 
Pnundi. 


■ 


Spin. 




Ptnmdt. 


FwnO,. 






7.880,878 
11. 871,4*7 

IS, 107, 152 

5,«5,152 


il,4M."488 
14,587.(80 

25,721152 
20,211,743 


1,847,7(4 










i»»-7s... 


i^S 








1 


' 







The Consumption ok Copfeb in Euroi'k. 

Table G. — SlaUmeni o/ ikeareragt annual coiumuptio* e/ coffee at tnpplied U> the under- 
mentioned ominfriM, dMinguUking the aeerage total Humtcr of pmidr teetght and the 
proportion ptr head qf popuUMon. 




187210 


878. 


,«., 


8.1. 


IV 


•s 
ll 


1 

<1 


•3 




J^^df. 


Pwnilt. 




i^7eii,0«iO 




1!8.71\000 


825 


























20, 472. 700 




!4, Oil, 400 




4.99 


5.80 



132 THE world's coffee. 

Table (!. — Slatemen' of the areragg annual cOKiuMpHon o/cofee, ^c— Con tinned. 
IMT lo IBTl. 1872 to ieT«. i IK7T (0 18E1. 



BvltHTland 

lUly 

Aurtria-Hnnitsry 

Spain, Fartugal, Turkey, 



ToUl Euroiw-. 
lledSUIeBDf Ame 



U 



St- 



ii 



II 



Paundi. 


I'oWfU. 


Ills 
ftSS 

8,800,000 


F«uiuU. 


IS. Mil 000 
t».34S,M0 

at. 874, aw 
70,S7a,aK) 

8,200,000 


Pound.. 










■i7.SSa,IKM 

ia.3m.vKi 

9,1)00,000 


"r.M 


e.10 


1.0« 
J. 90 






S34,68i,ew 

30,a80,T7* 


3,70 


603, 52^200 


3,eo 


6M.JM, 100 
Ba,7B1.3W 


o.n 


554,788,974 


7.»0" 


tBB.Blfl, OSfl 


B.41 


tK.i7S.tM 


3.S7 


»0,T28,SOO 


307, 8M, 360 


7.« 


3M,28»,W0 


7.01 



rent Bid U>lu; 

Ite.Bxports 

Retained for vonaumptluD 

heEarDHiD conn trice, except Kuula, Spain 
Ueullii M per t&Uloa ill round numberg . . 



iw^'7a. 


■„.-„. 


iB7»-'e«t 


round* 

7»1,B95,300 
[ NW,»1.400 


FoumU. 

877,085,728 
142.02«,MO 


Pound*. 

838,260.000 


i 101,703,000 


ia\ 037,200 


173, M«, BOO 


2, s«o. ooo, 000 

^B32,00«'.000 
'j60;72fl,'B30 


'•S;S,S 
■■SffiS 


■•S;»,S 



GUI.S.M.OH 187,2X7.000 

K8, 53)1, 724 »», 084.000 

MS, 807, 5t» 204, 1«4, OOO 

M7, MS, S24 233, 2&7. OOO 

S4«, BflS, BS6 317, 0*2. HW 

481,135,700 ' 2a8,80(l.r-- 



6U,001,448 341,80S,2M 

' «T7,OUT.fl2e 811, tat, 000 

' 703,342,044 308, 882; 800 

' eBB,ooi,2oo: S77,848,ooa 




C^.ooqI 



THE W0ELD8 COFFEE, 

JAMAICA. 

Table J.^Expmta nf coffee from Jamaioa. 




133 



«,1H.4T1 ' 
5,594. UK ; 
fi,5»4,»T8 ' 
4,»»,«St ' 

a.i22,aM ' 
t,s«s,2fi2 : 

«,7B1,D7G 
t. MS, 708 
i(IS5,0«B 





B, 716.609 












7.BU,4Be 
















1^611,245 
B, MO, 739 


























10,a33.M7 
10.188.387 







BBCAPITDLATIOK. 
ISJI-'U 2J,7»0,eT7 I 

Mse-Bo.. I i7,«sa.iM . 

mi-'«S I 30,739,208 , 

IBM-TO I 37,807,132 ' 

W7I-15 ! 3».Mg,42S ' 1.17S.B71 G, 800. 8K 

1879--80. ; 48, 835,917 ! 1.2ie.S»9 fl,Gft7,MII 



2,432.705 

1,6S9.D30 
3,818,870 



ATERAQB FOE EACH TEAR. 





5,SS8,17s! 
S. 181.038 1 

7,»ei,es« 1 

8,707,183 1 


87,308 
00.301 
^875 
re: 885 
234, 7M 
2SS;»20 


480,641 














1, 173, 811 









idb,Googlc 



THE world's coffee. 



) of Ihe itUtnil of Cej/Um, dU- 



QnBDtiCy. | Value 



18.895 . 
»,809 





STftais 

rS 

702,im 
921,508 
77S*S4 
5Kt,(32 
830, 2(11 
835,983 
813, «I 

800, S34 
58? 917 
735,325 

•■'■"' 


»:sia 

».7B8 

»!ee7 

38:«82 

721408 

^ .,33, 055 
3,811,817 

tii 


9S;54S 
l»i. 291 

«7:m 

222,590 
27.«4S 
WM4 

122,077 

82I3S1 
W237 

46; 768 


19o;Bfl7 

3S0,»6:i 
334,748 
445, 181 
2M,286 
2m;923 
338,769 

48t;3ii 

341, OWt 
430,021 

316[268 
184,719 

H2. iX 


871.883 
929,202 

s»e,4»o 

943, 5BS 
'.W7.47fl 

1,0M:(I30 

ii 

TSS.tHK 
92^ BOB 
M7, I«6 

g;!S! 

779,739 


8 732,' 05(1 










• "i*li>S 



































































REC A.PITDLATIOM, 



Pwttkta. 


i,ge7.a8i 

3,938.450 

i:«>7:ig8 


NatlTs coffee. 

645.123 
846,315 


TDUlqnutlty 

OvU. 
2,810,067 

4:Hi;7»s 

4,803,848 
3,7lS;4fl8 


Total vain*. 



























ATEKAQE FOR EACH YBAB, 



, 




186.787 1 


Z.Z 

743.394 












795,174 















idb,Google 



THE WORLD S COFFEE. 

BRITISH INDIA. 
Tablk L, — Expvrtt of coffte frotn Britith In^. 



135 



,.„. 


QoanHty. 

.siw 
,«oa 

;»oo 
;BOfl 

ISDO 

;?oo 

si! 812,' 300 

III 

35,041,900 

m;o«s:7oo 

33. 448, 100 

3«. 334.000 
40.436.000 
41,510,200 


mooey. 
*4S,J07 

II 

■ 33^481 

Si 

sol, ODg 
788,102 

'«70;i8g 

li§| 

i. m, 305 

,353,588 
, 304, 838 
, MB. 481 
.AM, 032 
,602,5*4 


Talno iD 
money. 




*Wr.f^ 




















498, S3S 
675, ISO 










s * 


2.339,055 


















3,80fl:B75 












875 - 


ai 










sisa 








jili 









EECAPITCLATION. 

































187,007,000 


7,532,343 





AVEKAGE OF EACH YEAR. 




THE UNITED STATES. 
Table i&,.—Ia^0Tt» of eoffee into Ike United State*. 



174,281,000 
1ST, 237,000 
24a,BS4,OO0 

2S4.i«i,5oa 

235,257.200 
31T,m,0O0 
2>3,«I<.0W 



1>. 720, 281 

20.ee«,25» 

25.281,491 
24. 531, 741 
24,234,S7» 

30,«e2,sa» 



C.OO^ilL' 



THE WOELD'S coffee. 
Tablz ii.—IinporUofoofteliHotlit Unilei Stata—CmitiDiieti. 





YtKtt. 


(in»Ut.«. 


T.1I16. 




Poundt. 


ZtoUort. 
U,Otu.«SS 




























s;si:!s 







HBCAPrrTTLATION. 



1887 'Tl 


1,263,881.700 

1, WO, 481, 800 

].iBi,*iB,ooo 


1M.744.OT 






770,(00, an 




ATIRAGE DOMNQ EACH TEAR. 


„ 




364.181,800 














CTo.oso.wi 







AVERAGE FERCEKTAGE PER HEAD OF POPOLATION. 







7 90 aandB. 3.30 S 


i-m. 



























Tbe fluotaations in regard to the coDsnmption of coffee have been 
soiaewhat vjoleat in coD»equeQce of the war, but now the old rate per 
capita has again been resumed, namely, a fraction over 3 poands. 





Table No. 


.—Importi ofooffee into Fra 


cefor 




Tea™. 


;k...s™...I 


Ponn 






































































































































































uis. 



.:.„db,GOOglC 



THE WORLD'8 coffee, 137 

Table No. l.—lmporit of coffie in France, ^.—Continued.. 
REC APITtJL ATION. 





Yon. 


QnutttlM. 


V(dn». 




J Kllonnn... i Ponnd.. 


r™«. 


D»1U™. 






: m«co« 




eo.7M,ooo 














::::::::::::::::.:::::;::::::: J^^SS 














' ' 






AVBBAOE FOR BACH YEAR. 





M.TC«,000 '. 
IIT. 018.000 1. 
ei).7M.OOO I. 



PROPORTION PER HEAD OF POPITLAHOS. 



IMl-'M.. 

)£?.::: 

1«TT-'81 .. 



GERHAnT. 

There are no etatisrics available prior to the date of the present 
empire. As the free city of Hamburg is the central depot for the cof- 
fee trade of Germany and Central Earope a Bpecial table of her imports 
is given. Despite competition, oansed by increased railway facilities 
between other ahippint; ports along the North Sea, Hamburg has not 
ooly held her former xmsition, but has considerably augmented her opera- 
tions in coffee, chiefly with Brazil and some of the West Indian piMses- 
sions. 

Inporli of coffee into Qermany for domeitie im. 

qnantltiH. Valocs. 

Centners. , Poands. i Muks. Dol1w>. 







ZM.«(»,ooo 

!lMTa,T0O 
IW, 091, 300 
Ml. 850, 000 
Z3+,080.000 
210.183,000 
218.713,000 








107,400 
199. OW 

1TS,001 

190,000 





























































RECAPITDLATIOH. 



W. 000 iU, 973, 000 



THE WOHLD'S coffee. 
ltnp«rtt of ooffm into Germany for domettie mtt — CoDtiauecl. 

AVERAGE FOR EACH YEAR. 



PBOPOETION PEE HEAD OF POPULATION. 



«?B 




90,915,700 1 
















WIJ 




t'*14 




!m;S71:!SS: 




8-25 
































„(«7,000 


221970,000 


z.m 




357.180,000; 



15. 222, TSO 
IT, SIZHM 



RBCAPITULATION. 



AVERAGE FOR EACH YEAR. 



HBTHBBLAND8. 



The tables distingnish the valaes aod quantitiea respecdrelf of im- 
ports and expotts and tbe stock available for consamptioii. The esti- 
mate per capita must be taken ivith some decree of consideration. It 
has not really gone into consurfiption, bat large quantities are kept in 
bond at the disposal of specnlatora. I^^evertheless, as the Inhabitants are 



XuK1t^[L 



THE WOBLDS COFFEE. 



interested in tbe coffee trade of Java, there is comparaUvely a larger 
quaotit; coosumed than in other'Europeao conotries. 



Imparl and export of eofftf, yMtrtandt. 



; a»,te,o« 

I 9«. 5*4, 000 

.:;;!;!;!" ;!;"!! !!!;;;!!;;;!, btIuo'coo 

II" !i;.\J!!;i!I !!!"!!!!!!!' iio!mo,'iwo 

' »J.«S,DOO 

.._ IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII mill mill M^ssaiooo 

S(l M.OM.OM 



RECAPITULATIOir. 



ins... 







aiport. 












KUogruu. 


PonDdi. 


































45, »ll^ OOO 












































73, am, ooo 






























fll.MtOOl) 




79,022,400 



PROPOBTION or SDPPLr PKB CAPITA. 




















, 







a tht Nelharlandt, by value. 





1 f tori«. ] 


rbirin: 
WJHMO 

asss 

33, Ml. 000 
30,084,000 

mItmIood 

M. Ml, OOO 
27,237,000 


io,4W.ooa 1 

fStS 

11,415,000 
I*, 194.000 j 


'^^Z 










ig.m$,ooo 

(E, 810, 000 

!!■?.■« 


{£i -.-:■ 






^^■^: 


18T» - 


42,211,090 1 













» Google 



THE world's COirEB. 

RBCAPlTtJLATlON. 















Ymn. 


Import*. 


Kipon*. 












Florin*. 


Dolkn. 








14ft, £<». 000 
ISl, 030.000 





















AVBRAOB DCRIMO RACH OF THE FITE TEAKS. 



lB72-'Tfl : Proportion ol 



IBTT-'Sl; Eiponded 



otfce per oplu. nS.M. 



This coantry has a ]arge consamption of coffee. 9til1. the rate per 
capita is not necessarily used by the inhabitants, as the DOrder locali- 
ties of Germany, France, and Eolland are largely supplied by the 
Belgian grocers. 

Table No. i.—lmporli o/coffee into Brlgiumfor donuttic uie. 





QDUtiUei. 
Kllognmi. PoQDdi. 


ValDM. 




Fnnf-t. 


DollUK. 


ises 






















19.3M.000 

asss 

as::!!! 

aa. 282.000 

22,023,000 
19,Olt2>0 

»^73:0O0 


4b;ito>o 

W, 3(18,000 
51. M, 000 
(B. 020,000 
«, 710, 000 
«, 848,000 


83,038,000 
36, MB, 000 

3l! 174, 000 
88, 334.000 
42,642.000 
M, 214, 000 






7.321, MO 










7.S«T,200 
B. 528.400 
10, S42. 800 


Jl?;:;:::::: : 


iS^:::::::;::::::::::;-;:::;:;:;:::::;:;: 


53,681.000, 10.fM.MO 
61,510.000 1 12. 303.200 



RECAPITCLATIOK. 



107,417,000 226,317,400 I 161,0; 



4«, 263,500 < 32,383,400 1 0^476,6811 
48,000,400 I 40,811, »0 ' 0,362,140 

81,707,800 40,782.800' 0.0S6,Mt 



THE WOBLD's coffee. 141 

Table Ko, 4. — Importt of cojea iiiio Btlgium for dotHttiU: «r»« — Continued. 

PEOPOBTION PBR CENT. PEE HEAD OF POPULATION. 





Tou*. 


QaaoUUe*. 
KUognma. PooDdi. 































DBNHABK. 

There are iio statistics issued in Denmark statiog tlie values of im- 
\toTtis. Tliere is a small export trade from Denmark, probably confined 
to the colonies in the arctic regions. Thepro rate consumption is larger 
in Denmark in sympathy with all Scaudanavian states than elsewhere 
OD the continent of Europe. 

Tablk No. 5. — Importt and ex^rt* of cofft», DeKtHark. 
[QbaoUUwodI;.) 



y™. 


Import, 
/■oinid.. 

iiiSi 

SIS 
ills 


Export. 


Stock mid 




FmndM 

t.m.vn 

3.290,080 

4, tea, gzs 

ii 

7;4oi;97s 

B, IBl, 788 
«,3>2,984 

4:^2« 

4! 092, 428 

B, £48. sag 


e,728,«» 






4,3U,>02 

«4 344|sei 

8!U4,7M 

r&is 

a. H^ Ta 





























SSCAPITUI-ATIOII. 





agss 

72, 247. on 








11.881,000 
24,174,800 






4!,»7S.lt00 


- 



ATEBAOE FOB EACH TEAS. 



1871-'7ff : IS. 10 poundi per bcul of popnlBtiOB. 



idb,Googlc 



■ THE WORLDS COFFEE. 

NORWAY. 
Table No. e.—Imporli ofcof-einio Simraffoi 



CeDtDtra. 


Poondj. Kroii«. 


DoUin. 


'^^ 


1 








at, as 
















1S,IW4 










115, S5S 
K8.M1 
124. 5S0 

157,405 
80.786 

"BBS. 

7.225,000 
7.302.000 

IBs 

7.803,000 










14.584,400' 0,5W.OOD 

i7;iw:«oo; 12:597:000 

10, 751, 800 e, 403, 00s 

15,070,000 1 11.762,000 
15,805.000 11.5.'».00O 
10,273,000 12.675,000 
13,422,000. 8.083,000 
16.903,500 0,itM,000 
1B,7B7,400 8.615,000 
18,725.800 7.883,000 


2,«<1,K* 
£217, SW 



KBCAPITULATIOS. 



AVERAGE OP TEAK. 



lBff7-'71 ... 

isra-'ie.. 

18T7-W.. 



. 8WBBDBN. 
'I'ABLK 7. — Imporh 6/ coffee into Sieedim for liomMHc ttM. 



QiuutltiM. 1 


T»l0M 


SlUlpDnd. 


14, 142, 900 
17.470^400. 

14. SIR, too, 

15, 757, 000 ! 
17,471.600 
19.245,400 
17, 98% 800 
24,881.600 , 
19.853,800 
21.588.000 , 
24^000; 
23,886.700 
£3,485,200 , 

25,188.000 


Eraser. 


Di)i:<in 












2? 003: TOO 

10.330,000 
2&SS^200 
21,455,900 

2* boo: 800 
25,439,200 
24,020,400 
34,235,900 
21,004,700 










10,653,000 

15.016,000 
17, 902, 000 
18,820,000 

14,054000 
14,058,000 
14,3«I.00O 


2.832.1(4 
5:(B».«U 

5. 107. mo 
4, sai.oo 

4.l53.:i« 
3,4I4>1' 



j.„db,Google 



THE WOELD'S coffee. 
Tabi^ 7.—Im.porU of eoffet into Swtien /or fym«$tic m 
RECAPITULATIOH. 



,«. 


Total rorooB- 
rampUou. 


Triuedat- 




Fwiulf. 

7S.«M.«M 
l[l2.B«3,4«a 

12D. osT, aoo 








in«--so 


n:s?:sS 


AVERAGE OF BACH fEAR. 




l^»1,840 








I0K--W 


24,011,40«i E,W1.4W 


The proportioQ calcalated per bead has been therefore as followB: 


ISM-Te. aTCnga of Mch ye»r, 4.14 poonds per Mpita A 

ie7«--8S. ■Ter.jjofe.cbjeM, 6.33ponnd.per«plt» 119.1t«nt« 


RUSSIA. 







iNo calcalations can be made in regard to coDsamption, there being 
probably few coffee-drinkers oatside the greater cities, as Moscow, UigftT 
and others, in addition to St. Fetersbarg. The pood is taken at 36 
pounds avoirdupois. The ronble valae varies, but as the customs dues 
are paid in gold there is no criterion for a proper comparison with other 
ooaatries. 

Table No. 8. — Importt of eoffte into Suuiafor domeilUi uw. 



TMrt. 


Pood«. 


tiUu. 
Ponndi. 


T.1 
ItoablM. 


Donan. 


IMt 


'. 848,816 


12,877,340 
lf«S8,'»48 
11,446.808 

ia,T»a.ao4 

lB,858,(i»a 

ls|ll0i4S0 
14,740,020 

10.407] 2S0 

IS, Ml, mo 

lB,048;9Sfl 


3,7si,»n 

MS:!! 
JS:| 

4.e7o!8e« 

5:084:!«4 

5, 419, U8 

6, sae, 110 


Mn,8IS 
















im " 


»S 


r^-T^ 








Si 


4G7|a)fl 


ai.7«s 
















l«M , 


510,004 


18;3«,304 


7, 1», 000 1 1, IM, 7S0 



BECAPITULATIOM. 



AVERAGE OF EACH YSAK. 

liBB-TO M,J«,*1» 

IgTl-IS U,a^34> 

U7».'80 ,.. lG,t5>,BKI 



XuKlt^lc 



THE WOELD's coffee. 



AUSTEIA-H UNGAET. 



The Austrian capital, Vieana, eujoys a great reputatiou in siipplyiog 
most excellent coffee. The country is provided mostly with Java coffee 
^m Amsterdam. Latterly Trieste has paid more attention to imports 
from Brazil, but the developmeut of railroads favors the competition of 
German ports, notably Hamburg. Again there is an increased ooi- 
sumption of chicory, largely imported from Germany, but this drug is 
likely tobeplacedou the shelf, since strenuous efforts are made to culti- 
vate a trade with South American states, whither large exports of Hud- 
garian floor are shipped, despite that a nearer supply could be had from 
the United States. 

Population, 38,600,000 in 1880, against 31,000,000 in 1865. 



Tablb Ko. 9.—ImporU o/eoffee into Aiuiria-Hunjiai'y for home i 







T« 


ue.. 














tounila. 


Oaldeo. 


DoUtn. 




111. 705 i 


ie,«K.20a: 


IB, m, 000 


Koes.oM 




























2W,M8; 




BOO 


]T,8S»,OO0 




































24. 888,000 


























































































■"•'""I 




im 







REG APITDLATION. 





i.Z5«.B08 









>i,»7,Doo ii,aa.K 



ATEBAOE TOTAL DCRIHG EACH YBAB. 

























15,1M.70» 









psopoBTiOM PSB csrr. per head op population. 







CtM. 














1 







idb,Google 



THE WORLDS COKFKE. 145 

' ITALY. 

Tbe consDiDption of coffee is liiiiiteil to a fraciioi) over one poun<) per 
head of i>opulation. The shi])t]ieiiis. liowfvfi-. nIiow a fair increase, 
commeDsurate with influx of |ii)|iiil.ili<in ami the ehauges brought since 
specie pnyment was resntiiciL 'J'lif |iti|iiiliLtiou has increased frotu 
22,(t00,000 in 1865 to 2SAW>MM in ISttl, 



TaBLB Xo. 10.— /»; oris of roffee info Ilalgfor domettie km. 



Qaantltie*. 
Kllasniui. I Ponndi. 



3,11^400 I IS.M'l.iBO 



SKC A PITU LATIOK. 



iin.71 


^ fl3,3ia,«» 


t38,sM.soa 


J(W.7M, lOO 
151. 851, MO 
IW. SSI, 000 


2Lwa,i4a 











ATERAGC TOTAL DURtKO EACH YXAR. 





1 ,t^^ 


M.aTi,a)o 

M, 874, 300 


ai.W8,0M 

30.870,380 
2>.IU8,!00 
















1 





FROFORTIOK PEK CEKT. PEE HEAD OF POPCLATIOtf. 



1 


1. 11 




""".,. 














1 







SWITZEBLAHB, 

The cnstoma returns give the imports in quantities only, without ref- 
erence to a declared value. The metric centner is equal to 220 pounds 
ayoirdnpois. Supply and consumption fluctuate according to the 
change iu season and consequent iaflax of visits of strangers. 
10 jttlSS 

Diciiiized by Google 



146 



THE WOELD 8 COFFEE. 
. 11. — Importt o/ Mffee into SviUerland /or domtitie lut, 

[Vo ntonii of Tslnm pabU(h«d.] 



Te«r«. 


.^t;.'^ 


Pimitd*. 




».an 

p 
















j^:::;:":::::::::::::::::::::;:::::::::;:::::::::::;::::::::::::;;:::::;;::::: 


iBsi.ua 















































RECAPITDI^ r ION. 



ATKSAOB OF EACH T 



ISn-'BI l».3U,Z3a 

PHOPORTION PBK CBHT. OF PBE CAPITA. 



POETUGAL. 

Tbe portof Lisbon haa, daring late years, made some progress and es- 
tablished a coffee market. Tlie imports from Portuguese settlements 
in Afhca are now on a somewhat larger scale, and enabled a re-export, 
as shown in the table marked 6. These exports comprise about 50 per 
cent, of tbe total of Portugnese imports from Africa, while tbe remain- 
ing 50 per cent, are retAined for home consamption. In addition thereto 
fl small quantity is imported from Brazil, and European portSj tbe total 
of which is enumerated in the table marked B. The quantities show 
the weight on which duty has been paid, and consequently leave to in- 
fer that tbe consumption per capita is now a fraction over 1 pound, tbe 
population of Portugal numbering 4,300,000. 

Table No. 12,— /mporf* o/ ooffte InUt Portugal /or dimeitu: aie. 



Ts»n. 


Sllonnm 


Ullnll. 


PomiM. 


DoUus. 




l,STi.3U 

i;i«:7lt 

I,<»I,107 

i.Jvt,m 

I.l»7.«» 

i.n*,sw 


4M.802 

wtwe 

u^7ll) 
tn, ett 

t8>:004 


aim: 812 

!, T«4, BM 
*.BW,ni 
i, SU, HO 

4;«tm 


SIS 

is; 










«7T.... 











,db, Google 



THE wokld's coppee. 147 

Tablx No. 12.— Importi of eofftetKlo PitrlHgal for domatie me, 4^.— Continaed. 

KECAPITDLATIOH, 





y««. 


XUoKnoDB-l Ullnte. 


Poondi. 


Doiim. 






17,081,770 

21.718, as* 


>,7IB,U0 
2mS:B81 










ATEHAGB OF BACH TEAE. 




l^^ 


t^iU 




1 1 



PROFOBTIO» PER HEAD OF POPULATIOK. 



Be-fxp<ni of jtroduca of Portuguae poiiaiioni In Africa. 



Tern. 


KUor™.. 


UllnU. 


Ponnd*. 


DotUni. 




52.m 
73»,tie 

lias 

2;730.»45 

2, aB7. Ill) 

]:«li:78S 


IM, 109. 800 
19S, 370, 000 

SM:7S«0I) 

rot rot! 000 
Be*.>Tg,ooo 

SM, 040. 000 


115,730 
1, •28,721 
1, 399. S38 
i;«M,a7B 

a,ai6,2S3 

2,372.048 
975,007 
3,581,000 
4, 347, BOO 
4,201.100 
0,000,843 

j: ass; 000 


14.017 






























H1,5S0 






sa 








SS'S 











KECAPITCLATION. 





1 ,~„o« 




10,300.700 

aiaa 


1 060.450 






iSSl 




:::::::;:;;:;:;::j 7.si:is 









ATERAQE £ACB TEAS. 



1 1 


2, 101, ft40 
4.788,420 
3.241,212 














■ 



. Consulate-Oenbral, 

London, March 26, 1883. 



. A. MEBBITT, 

Consul General. 



^dbyGoogle 



ST. PETEE8BUBG-CB0HSTADT CANAL. 



BELGIAN COHHERCIAl HUSEITH. 

REPORT BY OOXSUL JOBS WILSOfT. 

On the llti of Jaly, 1882, I reported to tbe Department that the 
Belgian Government had Just opened in thia city a "Commerojal Mu- 
seum," under the control of the miaiater of foreign affaiis. 

lu that diapatch I gave a detailed account of the object of the institu- 
tion, the official character of its organization, a description of the build- 
ing appropriated to tbe purpose, and the reaults anticipated from it. 

Since that date tbe bureau of iuformation has been daily open to tho 
public and all tbe different functionariea of the musenm have been con- 
stantly occupied in arranging and classiiying the exhibit specimens, 
but not until Saturday, tbeSlst iust., was this portion of the building 
o£Bcially inaugurated. 

The King honored the occasion with bis preaence, and in a brief 
speech congratulated the minisberof foreign aftaira upon tbe thorough 
and tasteful manner in which the muaeum was arranged, and expressed 
the confident hope that it would constitute an important factor in bring- 
ing about a new era of commercial prosperity in Belgium. 

Almost the entire corps of foreign diplomatic and consular represen- 
tatives were present on this occasion, and were, I think, generally 
pleased with what they saw. 

Aa in my dispatch, already referred to, I reported alt the important 
features of this museum, I shall here only remark that its inauguratioD 
under the auspices of the G-ovemment, in so thorough and costlya man- 
Ber, is only another evidence of the desperate and persistent effort this 
little enterprising kingdom is determined to make in order to hold for- 
eign markets for her manufactures against tbe growing importance of 
her larger rivals, of which the United States ia one of the most redoubt- 
able. 

JNO. WILSON, 

Consul, 

United States Consulatb, 

Bru»»el», April 23, 1883. 



ST. FETEBSBUBG-CHOHSTAJXE CAVAL. 

REPORT BT OONSUL-aSSERAL BTANTON. , 

St. Petersburg, as a port of entry, has always had to contend with 
two great obstacles to trade, viz, a long, severe winter, which closes tbe 
port about five months in the year, and a bar at the month of the Keva, 
which prevented vessels of deep draught fW>m approaching tbe city 
nearer than Cronstadt. 

Cronstadt, a fortified island of limited dimensions, has always been 
the actual port of St. Peteraburg for vessels drawing more than 9 feet. 
Here the cargoes were transferred to lighters and towed some 20 miles 
to tbe city. 

To obviate the consequent delay and expense and make St. Petera- 
boTg a port for sea-going vessels, nnmerons plans have been considered 
from the time of Peter the Great to that of the late Emperor, aad tbe 



ST. PETEE8BUEO-CEON8TADT CAMAL. 149 

object of tlie present paper is to ^xplaio what bas been and is beiofj^ 
done to overcome St. Peteraburg'a natural disadvantages. 

Peter the Gr<iat andertook the constmctioQ of a canal 15 fathoms 
wide along the shore of the Oolf of Finland lh>ni the Fontaaka Biver 
to Oranienbaum, and traces of this work are still to be found between 
Strellna and Serpee. 

From Peter's time to 1872 many plans were considered, bat no actual 
work was done. . In this year it was determined — 

1st. To organize and maintain as a Government route, at QoveromeDt 
expense, a canal which should be kept navigable for vessels drawing; 
18J feet of water. 

2A. To constmct this canal fh>m the Ekaterinoff channel of the Keva 
throagh the Gaononeer, Tolney, and Goutonetf islands. 

3d. To permit, in connection with tbe canal, the constmction of har- 
bor and docks by private euteri>nse, but under sncli restrictions as 
woald preclude all monopoly. 

4th. To maintain towards the center of the canal a strip of land ex- 
tending 10 fathoms from tbe outer wall of the dikes, as an inseparable 
appurtenance thereto. 

It was estimated that the constmction of such a canal would take six 
years to complete, and cost 7,500,000 roubles. 

In 1874 the plan was finally approved, and a committee was appointed 
to superintend the constructiuu of the canal. In consequence of inju- 
ries sustained by tbe dredgingiaachinery en route from England, work 
was not actually begun until 1B77, or three years later than was antic- 
ipated. The termination of the work was consequently set for 1883,80 
that the canal may be opened to traffic with the opening of navigation 
inlSSl. 

A^ closer study of the original plans showed the advantage of certain 
alterations, which were finally adopted, viz : ' 

1st. To construct the canal with two branches, one leading northward 
to the Neva and tbe custom-house on the Goutoneff island, the other 
southward to the village of Emiliauofka. 

2d. To build a pon of entry at the junction of the north branch and 
the Xeva, and to erect store-houses for imported merchandise. 

3d. To i>ennit tbe erection on the south branch of private warehouses 
foi- merchandise intended for exportation, bnt under such restrictions 
as will prevent monopoly. 

4th. The harbor to be bailt on the left bank of the sontheni instead 
of the northern branch of tbe canal. 

These alterations having been adopted in 1879, the work was carried 
oni accordingly. The length of the canal in this new direcLion is 25 
versts iilU fathoms; the length of the south branch being 3 versts!i20 
fathoms. That jiortion of the canal nearest Cronstadt, or 16 versts 'J5 
fathoms, will not be inclosed, but take the form of a channel 50 fathoms 
wide, dag in the bed of the gulf. The remainder of the canal will be 
protected by strong dikes. The inclosed portion will be 40 fathoms, 
except at the islands, where its width will be 30 fathoms. The depth 
throughout will be 20 feet. All the work on the canal will be finished 
this year, and the cost thereof is estimated at 3,500,000 roubles. 

Coufonoably to article 2d a harbor having a superficial area of 
4,500 sqaare fathoms will be constructed on Cannoneers and Goutoneif 
Islauds. This harbor is situate at the junction of the Neva and the 
northern branch of the canal, from which it is separated by dikes broad 
eoongb to permit the erection ot warehouses and the laying down of 
railway trucks. 

izcdbvGoogIc 



150 ST. FETEBSBUB0-CB0S8TADT CANAL. 

The basin ia to be faced \yitli stone qnays 750 fotboms in length, aoA 
capable of receiving 2,500,000 poods of merehaQdise for cnstoms inspec- 
tion. A branch of the Putiloff Railway will be laid to tbe warehouses, 
thus enabling the shipment of merchandise direct from the docks to tbe 
interior of Busaia. The cost of the docks, together with the cranes 
and railway, ia estimated at 2,500,000 roubles. 

As soon as this canal is completed, it is proposed to connect the 
ISeva from a point abo^e St. Petersburg, near Scblnsselbnrg, by means 
of a canUl whicb shall terminate at the village of Emitianofka with the 
new harbor. This will enable boats and barges from tbe interior of 
Kassia to discharge their cargoes directly at the port of export. 

The termination of this secondary canal completes also the scheme 
for rendering St. Petersburg a seaport, and restores to Cronstadt its 
original character of a fortress. 

Tbe plan of construction of the sea canal involved the dredging of 
the first three versts from the mouth of the ^eva through the Oannon- 
eers Island, and the adjacent shoals. It was decided to effect this by 
tbe employment of dams and pam^s, whilst dredges wore more to be 
need in tbe open portion of the canal and the deeper parts of the 
aotithem branch. 

The shallowness of the southern channel offered considerable diffi- 
culties. On the bar there was but 4 feet of water, and the mod barges 
had first to be towed over it by a steam-barge in order to enable the tow- 
boats to take them to the dumping-ground. 

Although work was began on both sides of the bar, the limited front 
prevented the excavation of more than !J,300 cubic fathoms during the 
season of 1877. In 1878, 5:),000 fathoms were excavated, and in 1879, 
iDcluding the work done by the pumps on Cannoneers Island, the amount 
removed was 79,U00 cubic fathoms ; in 1880, 161,000, and in 1881, 120,000 
cubic fathoms. The whole amount excavated from 1877 to 1882 is 
486,000 cubic fathoms, or two-thirds of the work to be done. The re- 
maining one-third will be finished in 1882 and 1833. 

In 1878 the erection of the dikes was begun. Those in the harbor 
were matle by driving a row of piles, which were cut off at the water's 
edge, backed up with earth, and paved with cobble stones. The canal 
dikes were differently constructed. Double rows of piles were driven in 
the deeper portions, and in the shoals fascines, and in some places cribs 
filled with stones, were used. The piling, cribs, and fascines served 
only to secure the dikes below water. The space between the double 
rows of piling was filled with earth, and when reaching the water's edge 
covered with fascines and paved. 

Great difficulty was experienced when the dikes had reached a beight 
of 2 or 3 feet above the water level, as tbe heavy seas, created by the 
prevailing west winds, washed tbe dams away. After a heavy gale had 
severely damaged tbe dikes, a temporary breakwater was built in front 
of the dikes by sinkingcribs filled with stones. 

The following plan for removing the soil excavated along tbe dikes 
was adopted with signal success: 

A large barge, furnished with a large vertical iron cylinder, received 
the mud through troughs, from the dredges. A strong centrifugal pump 
discharged water into this cylinder where it was mixed with the mnd 
and formed a liquid mass which was forced to the dikes throngh fioat- 
ing pipes, 16 inches in diameter. Here it was used for filling up the 
dikes, the earthy jtart settling and the water being carried off to tbe 

gulf- 



ed tyGoogle 



ST. FETEKBBUKO-CRONSTAJDT CANAL. 151 

For removiiiff the uoil excavated Id the nnprotected portions of the 
caoal, vooden and iron barges, with movable bottoms, were used, bat, 
proving unmanageable in heavy weather, steam barges were substi- 
tuted. 

Most of the dredges are bucket dredges, bat three, the property of 
the Morris and Gammiua' Dredging Company of !N^ew Tork, are grapple- 
dredgea, and under tbe management of Americans have done effective 
service during the last five years. 

The work on the harbor at Goutoneff Island was chiefly done by nav- 
vies, thoagh they were greatly assisted by a digging-machine. 

The quays of the haven are built on cribs filled with stone. They 
will be faced with cobble-stooes . be ginning 5 feet below and extending 
12 feet above the water-level. Work on the port was begun in the 
winter of 1881. The dama were completed by spring of 1882, when the 
water was pamped out and the work of deepening begun, 

Tbe following machines are employed, viz : 

Coblo fathonia. 

6 (Ireilgea, eic a vating daily from SOO to 300 

3 dredges, eicavatin); daily from 60 to 80 

5 iroa steam bargeti, folding bottomn, oanying . , .. 30 

14 irOD baiveB, foldinK bottoms, carrying. 6to7 

10 wooden bargea, foldinx bottoms, carrying 12 

57 Roodea barges, tight folding bottoms, Dairying Hto5 

12 Ht^ara low-hiats. 

1 ateom yaobt and 2 steam tenders. * 

2 QoatiDg eicarators for diaoharging soil into dikes. 
1 iteuD excavator for land irork. 

7 eDgiueswitb centrifugal pum|)e. 

Besides the foregoing the following are engaged antil the canal is 
completed, viz: 1 dredge, excavating daily 100 cubic fathoms; 2 loco- 
motives and 60 tracks; 3 American dredges, with 6 wooden barges ; 2 
tow-boats, and 1 st«am yacht. 

The estimated amount of work to be done was : 

1. Deepening channel cnbic fathoms.. 658,700 

2. Filling dflceB do.,., 272.284 

3. Piling dikes, below water-level fathoms.. 19,380 

4. Faring dikes Bq. fathoms,. 75,730 

To the 1st of January, 1882, the following amounts had been done, 
viz : (l.) 66J percent. ; (2.) 72^ per cent. ; (3.) 98.72 per cent. ; (4.) 21.66 
per cent. 

Tbe northern dike from Cannoneers Island to the entrance of the port, 
a distance of 2 versts 250 fathoms, and the enlarged portion of the 
Boathem dike at entrance to the port, a distance of 300 fathoms, are en- 
tirely completed. 

The latter dike is united to the general railway system by the Putiloff 
Railway. A harbor is established near the PnUloff Railway at the 
month of the soatbem canal. 

Eighteen per centum of the work on the import harbor at Goutoneff 
Island has been done. 

EDGAR STANTON, 

Conaul-General. 

Ukited States Oonsiilate-Gbnebal, 

8t. Petersburg, April 12, 1S83. 



^dbyGoOgle 



POTASH INDU8TKY OP -8TA88FUET. 



THE POTASH ISSirSTST OF STAS8FUKT. 

BT CONSUL FOX, OF BSVS8W10E. 

One of the most important indnatriea io this consular district is the 
prodaction of iwtaah fertilizen at the salt raineti of Stasefart. Ernst 
Herzl>erg, of Berlin, in a pamphlet-, entitled "DeuUcklandt Schatz in 
seinen Kaliaalzen^ ^ved a very Inuid account of this industry. But a 
short time since the winning of these mineral products was attained 
with difBculty. Ten years ago about 40,000,000 kilograms of Indian salt- 
peter, mostly ased for manufactnring purposes, were imported annually 
into Great Britain. In Europe the salts were further extracted from 
feldspath, sea water, and from the sweat of sheeji's wool. This latter 
Xirocess was formerly a regular industry in Moabit, near Berlin. 

The North German plain fh>m the left bank of the Weser, over 3pereD- 
berg to Inowrazlaw, and from Halle, over Hiinebur^ to Segeberg, is 
thought in all probability to have been at one time a sea; the immense 
salt layers at 8ta«sfnrt, Westeregeln, and Egelii are thus accounted for. 

In 1838 the Prussian ministry of commerce called for »n opinion from 
the " oberbergdmter'' (department of mines) as to what points stone salt 
would be most likely to be obtained. Various opinions were given, and 
it was finally decided.to make borings at Sta^furt. The shafts success, 
folly sunk at Stassfart in 1857 first came npton a kind of salt previously 
unknown. It was considered worthless and was cast aside, receiving 
the technical n^mn of "Abraumsalze." Ko one then imagined that it 
was thin very product which was to give the mineu a world-wide repu- 
tation. The' first to attempt the production of potash from this raw 
salt was Scbloto Douglas, of Aschersleben. Mr. J)ou;;lu8 first secured 
privileges to mine extensively at Westeregeln and then established there 
the potash and salt works Douglastall. This cHtablishment is now the 
property of the Oousolidated Alkali Works of Westeregeln. Since Mr, 
. Doaglas, many other borings have been made, but what wtm sought, 
viz, potash and magnesia salt, was not found in paying quantities; lately 
however, a new mine has been opened in Aschersleben which promises 
good results. 

Aft«r explaining ecieutiflcally the value of tlie {lotasli fertilizers, Mr. 
Herzberg says: 

Let [18 examine the situation in Germany; December Ist, 1480, tlie pnpnlatiOD of the 
Oeniiao Empire was 4!i,234,0lil against ei,7^,:!ri JD mTr>, an iiiereBiHi of l!,506,t>89 io 
five vears, or At tlie rate iif hatf a million a year. At this rate in twenty yean ve 
willbave55,000.00alnHteaaof 45,IH>U,lK)0tomaintain. To accomiilish this tb ere are 
simply three puasibilitii'B: Kitbor tbe t^xpon. of cerraU mnHt be curtailed, or the im- 
port incTeosed, or German niiil mnHt be made mort' prixluL'tive. 

Bait/.inger, in his work on political economy, speaking in connection 
with the great increase in population during the past ten years, says: 

No one tburoiigbly acquainted with tbo condit.ioi) of Gprmnn ngriciiltura ran gain- 
say tbe fact that our soil conid bavo pnidnupd one-fifrb, yea, even ono-tbini more, had 
our agrjculturista had bntter tertilizcira ut thiiir dispoHition. Genunuy bns Ibo means 
to obtain tbcae fertilizivrB, a natural product which she can Hiipply uut only to heraelf, 
but to the whole world for CI ' 



Inclosed I beg to transmit a report maile at my request by the firm 
of R. Weichsel & Co,, of Magileburg, showing the present situation of 
this industry. The export to the Ijuited States, as far as can be seen 
fKtm records of thisconsulate was in 1881 $539,932.38, in 1882 (510,120.50. 



..,C<.x>^[c 



POTASH INDUSTBY OF STASSFITRT. . 153 

This allows that American agricaltarists fully recognize the value of the 
Staaafurt manure Baits. 

For tiirther iuformation upon this subject I woald refer to the work 
of Hr. Herzherc, and to those of von Bischoffin Weisaenfek, Ochsenius 
in Uarburg, and Marker in Halle. 

WILLIAM C. FOX, 

C»*svL 
United States Oohsulate, 

Brunswick, February 2, 1883. 



THE POTASS IKDU8TRY. 

[Bapoctab7l[fl«n. R, Wslcbnl JC Cd.. or Uagdebarg. Inelowd In Conial Foi'a nqtort-l 

The buaiaeM year jast cloaad has b«en one of nnuiual proiperit;, nnd tbe b««t ever 
koovD in the ftnnftlH or the Staufiirt kali iudastries. The retrospect must indeed 
canse every manufacturer peculiar pleaMure, as but unlj a few yearn aince the outlook 
«a« BDythiDg but encouragiug, anJ the verf existence of man; of the eaCablishmonta 
wa« queetioned. It is vvtj doubtful if this era of prosperity would have dawued at 
all had not the miues almost at the laat moment fully recogaiKed the fact that the 
onlj way to retain ruliable aud solvent nurchasera for tbe raw salt was to limit the 
production to the actual demand : tho; therefore made a cooipaut among themaelves 
to mine only such qnantitieB of ran salt as would corresj>ond to the demand for muri- 
ate of potash. The following comparative statemenr of tbe eamallite production dur- 
ing the year lOHl-'^ shows clearly upon what good groands their hopes were based 
and what an important factor in the developmeut of the ioditstries this compact 
proved to be. There was mined the following quantity ; 

[In oentDen oarnklUte.] 




The above yielded reapectivelyca. 2,391,700 and 3,2&a,GO0 centners muriate of potaeh 
of a coDsistency oEi^ ver cent. The muriate of potash production of this year excet^ds, 
therefore,th»tof 18)41 by about one-half. Examiuiogthe prices, we have the interesting 
result that notwithstaudiax tbe enormous increase in tho production, the pricea 
increaaed corrmpondingly. In July. lliSO, iniirtate of potaah of 80 perceut. miltimuui 
atrength onnid be bought for 5.5(J to 5.71) marks per ^ kilograms, inclusive of sack. 
The name cgualily delivered throughout tbe whole year 1H81 was held at 5.60 marks. 
Up to December, 1S80, Ihe prices for delivery January- December, IHdl, iucreiiaed 
aucceasively to IS.lOmarkit, which price advanced further no that in January, IBcil, 
6.4.'> marks was paid, and in December the aauie year prompt delivery wait scarcely to 
lie had at 7.90to«.00niarkH. The delivery business of 164-i began iu IBHl with almost 
tbp same prices as paid in IStiO for 1031, that is, H.tli marks, advancing steadily to 7,60 
marks. In Ihe mean while the iiroduction in January, IStii, was held at !5.00 marks, 
fell to 7.00 marks in Juue, rose to 7.ri0 marks in September. On account of heavy 
oOem of outside nariiea the prices fell in November to 7.26 marks, and closed at 7.0O 
marks per oO kilograms for !iO per ceut., inclusive of socks, without any especial 
reqnesla. This great Increase in price is in the second instance to be considered the 
reantt of the working together of the more important manufiLcturera, who had united 
for tbe pnrponeof setliugatdrm inLiiiuium prices ; they were desirous of taking advan- 
tage of tbe high prices and were anxious to prevent unnecessary uudcraelling, which 
would malerially affect the firmness of the market. This sort of an arrangement is 
oaay to carry out, provided the demand is equal to or even exceeds the production ; 
in any other case i t is of little nae and does not hinder the backward tendency in prices. 
Thia fact ia now very evident at the close 6f the year, the water-way to tbe sea being 



154 



POTASH INDUSTRY OF STAS8FUET. 



^ . .. „ --„- , -i hand, ooDBiiniption bsiii); light, bear 

down tne prices. There are at present Qeffotiatioas pendiuK with the miiiea, the 
intention tKiing to reduce the 0BrnalIit« production and thereby that of mnriate of 
pola^h, in order tu reBtore the market to its former firm basis, This proves again 
that the mines alone have it in their bands to have a prosperons potash indostry. 

With more than ordiDar; interestare ail eyes concentrated upon the Aschernlebenei 
mines, ail are anxious to know what the reanlt of this new competition will be. Not- 
withstanding that we strongly oppose all guardianship of trade and industry, never- 
theless in the case citnd, we trust that it mny be possible, through the unity of the 
mines, to sncceed in finding ways and means to overcome the difficulties which the 
opening uf the nfth mine will cause. It is especially of great interest to the Leopold- 
shallpr; from this mine the Government of Anhalt obtains its largest revenue. In 
consideration of this fact, and further that this mine at the time tlie compact was made 
was the largest prodncer, the lion's share was therefore conceded to it, vix, one-half, 
Prussia, ono-fouFth, and Westeregeln and Agathoeachone-eighth. Through the opening 
of the Avcherslebener we have now to count with five mines, and if each of the mines 
demands a fifth part in the apportionment, Anhalt wonid lose too much. The whole 
momentary daily production at the end of December, 1881i, is 75,000 centners for An- 
halt, therefore 3T.&00 centners and a reduction from this quantity to a fifth, 1. e., to 
15,000 centers, would mean a daily toss of about 11,250 marks, calculating the centner 
carnallite 50 pfennigs. As before stated bere is a great obstacle to sarmount, which we 
trust the present negotiations may succeed in accomplishing. There was mined as 
follows ; 

KAW KAlHIT. 



Ulu«. 


1881. 


leaz. 


ldb.1 


Oeniner: 

S,»M 

I,5M,DIH 

l,9M,UKi 


Otntntn. 








limooo 








a,ios,»oo 


2.8M,OI» 





The home consumption in 18-1 was 635,000 centners ; in 1883 940,0 
305,000 ceutnera. Exported in 16Sl,carnallito2,4T0,000oeQtners; in 18831,864,000, a 
decrease of 006,000 centners. America is the largest purchaser, and this decrease of 
60(),000 centners is almost wholly the decrease in the e^iport to the United States. An 
interesting fact is, that the German agriculturists having become more and more 
convinced of the immense value of the potash fertilizers, are now demanding that the 
exportation be prohibited, or that an export dnty of 3 marks per 50 kilograms, which 
would have the same effect as actual prohibition, be levied. They desire tr 






for all ti 



BtOC( 



It ishardly in-obable that 



In this article the export during the year past was unimportant and only in the 
latter part of the year was there any especial call forit. Manure salt gnaranteed with 
n consistency of 87 per cent, and 12 per cent, potash was the most in de- 



OF MiOflBSIA. 



SULPHATE OF MAQNESIA. 

About fSO.OOO centners was produced. This article, a secondary production of mu- 
riate of potash, foil considerably in price, a natural coDsoquence of over-prodactlon, 

and it is now at such a pojut as to hardly pay for theneucssary water to wash itont. 



^dbyGoogle 



HILL WAGES IN BELGIUM. 



MILL WAGES DT BELOIUH. 

SBPOBT BY CONSUL TASSES. OF LIBOE ASD VERVISRS. 

As tlie cost of labor may have some bearing npon future legislatiou 
Id the UDited States I have the houor to transmit herewith a statement 
upon that subject prepared by Mr. Edward Krischer, of Verviers. 
GEO. 0. TANNER, 

COMUI. 

United STATBa Consulate, 

Liege and Verviers, March 23, 1883. 



WAGES PAID IN THE WOOLEN INDUSTRY IN THE DI8TEICT OP VEBVIEES* 

Being sabject to great variations, wages in this branch can only be 
reckoned approximately, for, of conrse, as business grows better work- 
men become more rare, and the scale of wages natnrally tends to rise. 
Then, too, some mill owners whose establishments are sitnated at aome 
distance from the center of trade are obliged to raise the salary as aa 
inducement to get hold of the necessary hands. - 

Some mills in the neighborhood of Verviera have nevertheless derived 
a benefit from that fact, I mean that being at a pretty good distance from 
town, they have created something like small colonies who are willing 
to work for less money becanse living is not so expensive as in town. 

The wages generally differ from one mill to another in very large pro- 
portion. This depends upon many circumstances, such as the pro- 
duction of the machinery, the difficulties presented by the articles 
made, &c. 

The day is generally reckoned at twelve hours, viz. from five to eight 
<^clock in the morning, from half past eight to twelve noon, from one 
to fonr, from half past four to seven afternooo. There are a few excep- 
tions -, some milts begin only at six and stop only fifteen minutes at 
eight, one honr at noon, and fifteen minutes at four o'clock. 

Usually workmen go home only at noon for dinner aud at seven for 
supper, but when orders are to be promptly executed they work after 
supper trom quarter past seven or half past seven till nine or ten, which 
tim6 is better paid than the day-time. 

Wheu it is necessary to work the whole night through, there is 
another set of hands who begiu at seven, to stop at midnight, and re- 
commence at half past twelve until five in the morning. 

Though working ten and one-half hours only, wages are paid them 
as a whole day of twelve hours. For night work the hands who duriug 
a previous week have been working day-time are called upon to do the 
night work during ^e week following and vice versa; this as a neces- 
sary precantioQ to insure good health. 

As an average I should conclude that men receive 3.50 francs a day 



(70 cents) J women receive 2.50 francs a day (50 cents) j children (at 
least twelve years old) 1.50 francs a day (30 cents). 

nKiiiz^dbvCoOglc 



156 HTATlSTICa OF A WOOLEN HTLL AT NANTES. 

AriTOge wagttper ilag tf «perative». 
PrepuatJon of wool : Franet, 

WuebomemBD 3.00 

Sorter (mole oT female) 2,50 

(piece worlc, abont L franc per 100 kllograma.) 

Scourer (male) *. 3,00 

IJryer (male or female) !i.TS 

Buri:8r(male). Wool carbonleer (male) 2.75 

Dyer (male) 2,50 

Fire- beaier (male) 4.00 

Eugi De-tender. 4,50 

Spinning mill : 

Oiler (male) 3.25 

Card feeder (male or female) piece work, according to produc- 
tion, about 0,40 francs per 100 hanks, the bauk being 1,535 

meteni in length 4.00 

Spinneni (male), (piece work I firanc per 100 banks) 4.00 

Piecer (boy or girfat lenat 13 yean old), Keneraliy the half of 

the Hpinnen' wages 1. 50 

Reeler (female), (piece work 0.50 francs per 100 banks) S.75 

Cleaner (male) 4.00 

Combing mill: 

Card-feeder (male or female), comber (male or female), drawiog- 

frame baud (female) 3.75 

Spinner (male) 5.00 

Fiecer{uale W to 20 years old) 3.00 

Piecer (male 15 years old) „ 1.50 

Cloth luonufactory : 

Warper (male or female), (paid also by piece) 3. 00 

Hauil-looui weaver (male), (by piece 0.35 to0.50fraDCsper 1,000 

picks) 3.75 

Power-loom weaver (male or female), (piece work 0.47 to 0.75 

francs ppr 1,000 picks) 3.75 

Fnller (male), fluisber (oiale), ureaser (male), sponger 3.00 

Picker (female), marker (female) 2.00 

Darner (female) 2.75 

pHuker (female), putting pieces io linen covers 2.35 



STATISTICS OF A WOOIEV UlLl AT BABTE8. 

SEPORT BY CONSUL WILSON. 

I have been euabled to procure, in a solitary instaoce only, the sta- 
tistics of a woolen mill in tbia city, which I herewith transmit. 

This section of Frauce is agricultural and commercial rather than 
manufacturing. The babita aud customs of the people are not luror- 
able to extension of maunfuctures. The common people, who would 
form the working classes in such establisbmeuts, are too independent, 
too careless, too uncertain, and their prico of labor too high, to make 
manufacturing profitable or to induce the investment of capital therein. 
I am credibly informed that on the exodus from Alsace and Lorraine, 
after the Franco German war, a committee of manufacturers visited 
this city with a view to its selection as a new location, but on examina- 
tion declined for the reasons above stated, though other things were 
favorable. 

The causes which have served to produce these habits and customs 
among the people would afford a theme for a moral philosopher and a 
political economist. I shall not even bint at them here. 

Twenty years ago there were nineteen cotton mills in operation in 
this city ; now (here are but one or two, or at most three, and they arc 
comparatively insignificant. 



^dbyGoOgle 



STATISTICS OP A WOOLEN MIBL AT NANTES. 



157 



The proprietor of the largest, on my applicatiou for »talisMc!!, ixwi- 
tively refoaed to give any information, alleging it wan noii<^ of the )>usi- 
ness of tbe United States Oovernment, and that he resented itn ])t(etni)r 
as an inqaisitiTe intruBion. 

i felt so baaiiliated that I made no fnrther endeavor hi that direution. 

I was fortnnate euongh, however, to find a geiiiletiiHit. owner t>f a 
woolen mill, who recognized the imponeibility of olilaining statistice 
unless private affairs were in some degree made )iiilili<-. 

Under proper safeguards of coofldence be gave me lUe following: 

STATISTICS OF A WOOLEN HILL. 

Area of land occupied, two acres; pivscnl eoKt valae, $30,000 ; area 
of Door of baildingB, 4,000 square meteis; nisiierial of buildings, stone; 
present cost value thereof, 940,000; miK'hinery used: nnmber of card- 
ing-engines, 10; number of mules or jacks, 15; number of spindJes,- 
3,000; present cost value of all machinery, including boilers, engines, 
&c.,t50,000; amount of taxes paid annually, (660; cost of coal per ton 
[2, 240 pounds) delivered at the mill, $5.30; rate of taxation on quick 
capital, 3 per cent; average rate of interest paid on capital borrowed, 
5 to 6 per Cent.; return on capital saHsfactory to owner, 8 to 10 )>er 
ceoL; cost of single set of cardiug-engines, as above described. 1600; 
total number of persons employed, 600; namber of hours labor per 
week, 68. 

Averagt Koge* paid ptr week. 

OveTMer : Jia.OO 

Second httnda 6.00 to 8.00 

Overlookera 5.00 to 6.00 

CommoD haods 3.60 to 4.00 

Women: 

Second haada 3.00 to 4.00 

Cominoa hands 2.00 to 3.50 

CJuldren l.S0to2.00 

lard hands : 

Enginetir 24.00 

Firemen 6.00 to 8.00 

Watchmen 5.00 to 6.00 

Utboren , 4.00 to 8.00 

III. 

The annuaire ataHstique de la France gives, for 1879, the following as 
the Dumber of spindles operated iD the departments belonging to this 
consular district : 



,.,.,^ 




SplDdlMOf 




iS 
















7,880 
3. DM 
10, S» 
























2I,SS5 











I attach also a map prepared by the Chamber of Commerce of l^antes, 
showiog the number of spindles of both wool and cotton in divers de- 



158 



STATISTICS OF A WOOLEN HILL AT KANTES. 



partments in France supposed to be dependent on and tribataij to 
Nantes as a port of export and import for all trade with the American 
continent. 

From the figares herein given the cbainber concludes the aggregate 
iiamber thus tributary to N^ant«8 to be 140,634 spindles of vool and 
2,671,143 spindles of cotton. This carte was prepared as bearing npon 
the prospective traffic of the proposed Panama sbip-canaL 

THOMAS WILSON, 

Consul. 
United States Consulate, 

Nantes, March 3, 1883. 




^dbyGoOgle 



COTTOir HANUFACTUBES IS ALSACE. 



COTTOK KAlTOTACTintBS IS ALSACE. 

BEPOST BT C0N8UI. BALLOW, OF KEBL. 

In a former report I briefly mentioaed the cotton induatrj of Alsace. 
I Bliall DOW eDdeavor to Btate the important facts relative to thia, by far 
the most important industry of this province, and one of the greatest in 
Germany. 

There are in operation in Germany at the present time about 5,000,000 
spiodles. Over ODe-third of this number, or 1,700,000, are in operation 
in Alsace. The importance of this industry will perhaps be better un- 
derstood if I state that the population of Alsace is 1,200,000 and the 
number of spindles 1,700,000, tias giviog an average of 1,420 spiudles 
to every 1,000 inbabitauts. 

The cotton mills, although scattered over the entire province, are 
much more numerous in Upper than in Lower Alsace, and the largest 
and most important establishments are located in the manufacturing 
cities of Millbansen, Colmar, Markirch, and Miinster. 

Since the annexation of Alsace to the German Empire, a number of 
the most important firms have established factories just across the bor- 
der in France. One noted venture of this kind is located at Belfort, 
where large works have been erected. These parties who have extended 
their business into France have in no way reduced their establishments 
in Germany, bat in some instances have changed the qnality of their 
productions to suit the German market. 

The manufacture of cotton was flrst introduced into Alsace in the 
year 1746, and improved gradually until the year 1802, when it receive4l 
a decided impetus from the subsidies granted by Kapoleon I. Since 
then itB progress has been marked and rapid, considering geographical 
disadvantages. 

But to show more plainly the progress of this industry in Alsace, I 
submit a statement lowing the condition of affairs in the years 1827 
and 1878: 

Stattmatt »luming Ike cotlon iiulittliTi of AltoM tn Vie j/eart ld2T and 1878. 

FOB THE YKAK IBIT. 





SplUDlBf-. 


WmvIsk. 


PimtiDK. 


Total. 




40 
4tt,St» 




27 








'SS 






a'rei 




"i.-iw:«i 




'•ii'SS 




'SiS 


•ESI 




10,340 








as:s 


ftSJS 

$1,«G,0M 


18,000,000 


KSKS 





















,=db, Google 



160 COTTON MANUFACTOBEB IH ALSACE. 

Slatam*nl^itwiiig l}ieoollomiii4m«trgofJ1»a«iiH Mejwar* 1S27 a«d 1878— Cantioned. 
FOB THE TEAS U1S. 

DeHriptiDB. SplDDlns. Wwiug. , PriiitiB|. ! TotiL 



1?™" - 




»».STO,0« 








MM4,«M 


"»•«.«; 

^*:^ 










lAMT 


4I,3U 








Ii4.ieo,«oo 

IIB.0O*.«>» 


»E 


W.MM,(IM 






•^rs 









The small increas« in number of operatives employed in the establish- 
meotfi for printing cottons is due to the introduetioD 6f new inventions for 
printing with rollers instead of by hand. It will be noticed that in 
1828 the number of people employed in printing was 11,248, and tbey 
produced abont 21,117,400 yards, while in 1878 but 6,577 were needed 
atxl 55,052,000 yards were proiluced. In the above statement no flgares 
are given at) regards the value of the cotton manufactured in 187S. This 
may be imputed to the fact that there are no means for obtaining awu 
rate information in this regard, but judging from facts and figures which 
I have received from reliable sources the value of the products for 1831 
was about 959,000,000, and for the year 1882 atwut $60,000,000. 

The oldest cotton mill in Alsace is at Mulhansen. This mill was estab- 
lished in the year 1746, and as it is a representative concern, and the 
largest on the oontinent, a description of it may be of interest. The 
three members originally interested in the establishment dissolved part- 
nership in 1758 and started separate mills, one of the company remain- 
ing in the old buildings and continuing business there. The firm since 
1802 has been known aa '' Dollfhs, Mieg & Go." Their gronnds are es- 
tenaive, covering over eighty acres; fiumber of buildings, 250. They 
have in operation 76,000 spindles and 700 looms. They were the first 
to introduce the printing of cottons into Alsace, and have always occu- 
pied the first position in this branch of indnetry. They are now using 
20 printing machines, the printing establishment and machinery cost- 
ing (500,000. 

This mil) produces one-tenth of the cotton manufactured in Alsace, 
the value of prodactions being about t6,000,000 per annum, the print- 
ing alone amounting t;o $2,000,000. Engines of 2,000 horse-power art^ 
used, requiring a consumption of 32,000 tons of coal per annum. 

All grades of yam from 10 to 100 are spun, the establishment (I&nd, 
buildings, machinery, &o.) is valued at $1,250,000. This estimate is 
made on the basi^of 20 francs, or a trifle less than $4 per spindle, allowing 
the difference for depreciation from use, &c. A new mill, land, buildings, 
machinery, &c., would cost $15 per spindle. This firm employs 3,200 
operatives — men, women, and children. They have recently established 
a fine mill at Belfort, France, where they give employment to a large 
number of operatives in the manufacture of cottons, especially for the 
French market. 

The cost of coal per ton delivered at Mulhansen during the year 1882 
was aa follows : Prom Boochamp, France, $4; &om Saarbroehen, $3.1l> 
to $3.50 per ton. 



^dbyGoOglc 



COTTOK MANUPACTDEE8 IN ALSACB. 1B%. 

EAW COTTON SUPPLY. 

Tbe raw staple ased is imported firont America, India, Bgypt, and in- 
small qoantities {torn Brazil and Australia. In tbe year 1878 tbe im- 
portation conBiBted of 69,449,252 pounds, divided as follows: From the 
United States, 35,159,878; India, 15,913,174; Egypt, 7,514,672; other 
conntriea, 881,528, and for the year 1881 the amount imported was- 
61,754,000 pounds, 39,699,000 poands of this being American cott-on. 

There are several large establishments in Alsace where ribbons and 
teztores are made in which both silk and cotton are nsed. The amoants 
of cotton nsed by these mills is not large, but the finest goods span are 
required. ' 

Of the 1,700,000 spindlea now in operation in Alsace it is safe to pat 
the number nsing American eottou at 1,200,000; the remainder consnme 
Indian and Egyptian cotton, the white qualities of which were not pro- 
daced twenty years ago. Manufacturers claim that they would prefer 
to use Louisiana cotton if it had a longer and finer silk ; it could be used 
to advantage in tbe manufacture of certain numbers which have of late 
been inlarge and increasingdemand. Atpresent, as there isalackof good 
Louisiana, the manufacturers are using white Egyptian for spinning Nos. 
40 to 60. Some, however, use American cotton in making textures Nos. 
40 to GO, and certain fine numbers are also made from this cotton. Com- 
plaint is made that the-potton is dirty and discolored, hut in no instance ' 
has cotton been received which had the appearance of being purposely 
aanded. They claim that for the past five years it has been growing 
worse ; but upon asking for samples of cotton in this condition I have 
received theanswer, "At present we have noneon hand;" and when I have 
inquired will not American cotton average well with other cottons the an- 
swer has been invariably in the atftrmative. Fault is found (and with 
reason) with the slovenly appearance of the bales of cotton from America. 
They are loosely wrapped and insecurely bonnd, and the cotton in conse- 
qnence badly discolored. I was shown some which in comparison with 
tbe way in which Egyptian cotton is baled looked anything but secure 
and neat. A little attention to this matter would, I am sure, well repay 
tlie growers. This is the mie, but there are, of course, exceptions to it. 
I was shown some Georgia uplands which for neatness and compact- 
ness compared favorably with those of other countries, although not as 
seoorely bonnd. 

I have examined various samples recently, and I consider the Ameri- 
can product fully equal to others as regards cleanliness, and in no in- 
stance did I find as many seed hulls as in samples of <!otton fVom other 
ooontries. The loss in weight of the finest grades of American cotton 
doring process of mannfacture Is from 10 to 12 percent.; Egyptian, 
from 20 to 25 per cent. 

Since the completion of the Saint Gothard tunnel the cost of trans- 
porting <^tton from Alexandria to Mulhaasen direct, or to Colmar, has 
been reduced fitim tl4.50 to $13 per ton, with a prospect of further re- 
duction. The cost of transporting cotton from Charleston to Mulhausen 
or Colmar is t26 per ton. From the port of Genoa to Malhansen, through 
the Saint Gothard, it is $1 per ton less than via Mont Cenis. 

WAQES OF OOTTON 0PEBATIVE8. 

The operatives at Mulhausen, Colmar, and in the principal mills are 
paid every fortnight. Mulhaasen pays tbe largest wages. Spinners 
«nd piecers are paid according to weight, the same as iron &ame tend- 

11 JDL S3 



162 COTTON MAHDPACTUEES IN ALSACE. 

era. Oreelers are children from ten to fifteen years of age, who are 
obliged to attend achool three hours daily; they receive wages varying 
fit>m 18 to 30 cents per day. The wages in the Alsatian cotton mills 
have doubled since 1832, with au average increase of 60 per cent, dur- 
ing the last thirty years. Operatives in Mulhausen now earn 20 per 
cent, more than in 1870, The following statement will ahow the wages 
paid to the different operatives in Mulhausen ; work, eleven hours each 
day: 

Ean^Hgi ptr teeek of the aperativet during the gear 1882, 

Cotton weaving: 

Bobbin windera (S 10 

Warpars 2 52 

Dreasers 4 80 

Woavera 3 00 

Foremen 5 38 

Cotton Bpinning! 

FoTemen to earden |6 00 to 7 SO 

Tender of beaten 1 80 to 3 40 

Cleansera of outU: 2 70 to 3 90 

Sharpeaera of cards 4 10to4 80 

Tenders of cards 1 60 to 2 10 

Tenders of drawing Crames 3 10 to 2 40 

Teodera of spindle frames S 88 to 3 90 

Bobbin winders of spindle frames 1 50 to 1 68 

Foremen to spinning 6 00to7 20 

Conductors of self-acting looms 3 90 to 6 10 

Tiers 3 00 to 3 90 

Bobbin winders 1 80 

Packer of spindles 4 SO to fl 00 

Laboring men ■. 8 30to3 00 

Tenders of steam-engines 6 00 to 6 50 

Firemen 4 80to5 10 

Watchmen 4 80 to 5 10 

Oreaseis 4 30 to & 10 

Driven, 3 00 to 3 60 

Average wages 4 13 

OOBT OF LEVINQ. 

The cost of living does not vary much in Alsace. The following 
statement will show the cost of the necessaries of life in Mulhaosen at 
present: 

Bread ^ per poand.. |0 04 

Floor do M 

Cbeese do 06 

^ine '. per quart.. 18 

Beef. per pound.. 18 

Bacon do 90 

Potatoes ; do.... 09 

Bice do 10 

£ggs per dozen.. S4 

Bntter (fresh) peri>ODDd.. 24 

Milk per quart.. 08 

Sugar . .. ....... , ..... . per ponnd.. 10 

Beer per quart.. 06 

Salt per pound.. 03 

Petroleum per quart.. 07 

Tea per pound.. 1 00 

CandlM do 17 

8om do 10 

Coflee,.. , do 30 



^dbyGoogle 



TEXTILE TRADE OF SIKOAPOBE. 163 

IBOHthoAL EDUCATION. 

Tbe Bnperiority of Alsatian prioted cottons has always been an ac- 
knowledged foot, and manufactarers are justly proud of their encceas in 
this branch, but it oan only be attributed to their energy and persever- 
ance, together with the habit of encouraging all advances made in this 
department in a most substantial manner. 

A school for preparing colors and for special chemistry for thep to- 
dnction of fine blending and fast colors was established in 1821. In thia 
school yonng men have an opportunity to perfect themselves in the dye- 
ing, printing, and bleaching processes, and in the manufacture of chemi- 
cals. Thisechool was founded by subscription for the purposeof instruct- 
ing students in the art of figure, pattern-drawing, &c., for prints. The 
faculty consists of 8 professors, and the average number of students in 
attendance is 300. Any person who has talents in this direction is re- 
ceived and instructed gratis. And to the taste and ability of these stu- 
dents may^ in a great measure, be imputed the excellence of Alsatiau 
prints, which up to this time have maintained their supremacy despite 
many hinderances. Among other means adopted to improve the cotton 
industry is that of a school founded in 1861 to instruct those wishing to 
learn everything pertaining to weaving. This was a decided success, 
and in 1866 a spinning school was established. In order to obtain ad- 
mission to these schools students mnst pass an examination to satis^ 
those in charge that they are capable of understanding the lectures de- 
Uvwed at these institutes. Said lectures comprise the tlieory of the ood- 
Btmctiou of machinery employed in weaving and spinning, the formation 
of textures, drawing plans for mills, in short everything pertaining to 
tbe snocessftil management of sacb establishments is taught. The period 
for study is two years. In the school is a collection of all kinds of ma- 
chines for spinning and weaving. These are generously donated by a 
large firm at Mnlhansen. As oan be readily seen the benefit derived 
from these schools by the cotton industry is very great^ and fully ap- 
preciated by the manufacturers, who are constantly stimulating the stu- 
dents by offering rewards, prizes, &c., as a recognition of deserved 
merit. 

FRANK W. BALLO0, 

0»tuia. 

Frited States Consulate, 

Kehl, Febrtiary 5, 1883. 



THE TEXTILE TRADE OP SIKQAFOSE. 

SBPOBT BY OOSBVL 8TUDSX. 

In my dispatch ;Xo. 44'i, of May 15 last, I acknowledged the receipt 
of a department circular addressed to tbe United States consular offi- 
cers in Europe, of date December 20, 1881, requesting information upon 
"textile fabrics," and presenting interrogatories for special informa- 
tion, 

I now Bend,herewithinclosed, marked A, a report on such textUe fab- 
rics as find tbe readiest market in this colony; and, marked B, a re- 
Sirt npoD the same subject by Ur. Ludwig Huttenbacb {of tbe firm of 
atz Bros.), United States consular agent at Penang, with samples of 



164 TEXTILE TBADE OF SINGAPOBB. 

the goods mentloDed in big report. I am much isdebted to Mr, L. Hnt- 
tenbaoh for hia valuable experience aod assistance iu this matter. 

The Department circular of December 20, 1881, contains two para- 
graphs, which mn as follows : 

1. Coosuli are Teqnwted to fomard aampten of printed fabrics, &o., eold in tb«ir 
distriota, where they caa be obtained, giving widths, leogth-s, and current wbolMale 

2. They are tequeated to obtain epeolal information on the subject of packing, as it 
ia thought that oar maDofaotarers hare much to learn from Europe in this regard, 
more partLcnlarly in that branch of the businens intuuilad for the export trade. 

The said circular also recommended that consuls apply to such firms 
as might bestow information in furtherauoe of the object, and that snch 
firms be named by them to the Department in tbeir respective reports. 

Having been very busy with my oEQcial duties, I had not the oppor- 
tunities n>r making such close observations of the textile fabrics finding 
a more or^less ready market in this colony. Stitl, a long residence here, 
employed in investigations of a commercial nature that might be of nse 
to American commerce and mauufactures, has enabled me to learn much 
about the commercial conditions of textile fabrics. 

For specific information upon textile fabrics, in the preparation of a 
report, I thought it best to apply to tbe firm of Katz Brothers, doing 
business at Singapore and Penang, and at all times well disposed to in- 
troduce American goods and to carry on a reciprocal Amerit^n trade, 
the manager of this firm at Penang, Mr.Ludwig Hiittenbach, being the 
United States consular agent at ^at port. This gentleman not only 
made np a report, but also forwiwled to me samples of all the goods, 
daly classified and numbered, to correspond implicitly with their men- 
tion in bis communication. 

Jeans, bed-ticking, striped and blue shirtings, &c., used in working 
shirts, jumpers, overalls, &o., he did not embrace iu his report, because 
their sale in this colony and adjacent countries is not very lai^e. If 
our cotton manufacturers once succeed in getting a sure footing in most 
of tbe articles he does mention, those other fabrics jnst alluded to can 
be gradually introduced. The matter will take care of itself, provided 
the manufacturers will consign at first, exercise patience, and twt took to 
big profits, if any, at first ; and this I very earnestly recommend in view 
of the great ultimate advantages sure to accrue. 

Mr. Hhttenbach'a report herewith is brief, systematic, very instractive, 
based upon sound practical experience gained duringa number of years 
in the active pursuit of business. 

The sale of cotton fabrics in Penang and Singapore (the latter espe- 
cially being the chief market and distributing place for all adjacent 
colonies, provinces, and the larger |K>rtioD of the Indo-Malayan Archi- 
pelago) is simply immense, 

Mr. Hllttenbach confined himself to those fabrics which are best 
known and most in demand by the natives, viz : 

a. Gray shirtings (unbleached). 

h. White shirtings (bleached). 

c. Drills. 

d. Sheetings. 

e. Cambrics. 

/. Turkey-red cloth. 
0. Sarongs. 
A. Prints. 

And in J he shows the manner and mode of packing of each kind 
mentioned. , ^ 

izcdbvGoOgIc 



TEXTILE TEADE OF BINGAPOBE. 165 

Id reality his report leavee little for mo to my; Btill I ventare to 
make a few romarkB, which I hope may be of some advantage. 

Ab regards " gray shirtiiiga " and "sheetingB," and the modes ob- 
served in England to render tbem, by "sizing," artificially heavy, in 
order to offer "heavy cloth for little money" in the Eastern markets, 
the importers here and the traders, and a great many consumers, know 
that the gooda are starched. The retail trader says to his native cas- 
tomer : " See, thin is a heavy cloth, of such width and length, weighing 
80 much per piece" (he can demonstrate it). " I can let you have 
thiB by the piece or yard for so much." Perhaps it is found too dear, 
and as a clever trader be will accommodatingly say: "Here is a piece 
a little less wide, therefore a little lighter, but not poorer in quality," 
and so on, either the same quality and less breadth, or the same breadth 
but lighter in weight. A bargain is finally made, and, regardless of 
breadth, length, or weight, the purchaser receives starched goods. 

It will be seen in Mr. Hiltteobach's report that the same article is sold 
in England to weigh different weights, though of the same breadth or 
length, at different prices. That is to say, a piece weighing so much to 
cost BO macb, free on board Liverpool ; or that another tissue is woven 
into different breadths, as well as lengths (quality the same for all), 
that a variance of different measurements is produced, all being starcbed 
alike. These various differences, perhaps more than the starch, enable 
all kinds of Eastern traders in cotton fabrics to be accommodating to 
castomers, and there is wisdom in being watchful and well posted in 
purchasing. 

Kow, let a tmder endeavor to introdace unstarched cloth, the pure 
article, and say to acustomer: " Here, I have another cloth that will 
wear mach better, it will cost you bo mach" (all depending on width, 
lengtfa, quality^, perhaps a little more per yard than the standard arti- 
cle, ^ow, the latter held alongside of starched cloth will hardly 
bear comparison j it feels flimsy between the fingers, the tissues appear 
looae and light, and he will say : " What^ay you more (or as much) 
for this light stoffi" Answer: "Yes." Purchaser: "Weigbapieoe 
of either, so I can see the difference." The trader weighs, and the un- 
Btarched American piece will weigh a trifle less than the starched, but 
the difference is less than the starch in the other would weigh. The 
starch, of course, cannot be weighed until the piece has been tcaahed and 
dried. The native average purchaser, having seen nothing else, will 
natarally say: " YoamoBt think lam demented to pay yon more, or as 
mach, for this new, light cloth as for the heavy." But the trader, eager 
to try whether the unstarched American shirting or sheeting cannot be 
introdaced, or to introdace it, knows that without a preliminary sacri- 
fice made to a good customer he is not likely to succeed, and will say : 
" Well, then, if you will buy some of the cloth you have been in the 
habit of' buying, I will give yon enough for a kabayua (sacque) free of 
ebargB (or at a very low figure) ot this new fabric, on condition that 
you make one, also, of the starched fabric you bought, and wear them 
and wash them both alike, alternately, and then let me know which 
of the two wore the longest," Sue. This being no hardship, and proba- 
bly cnrions to find out whether this new fabric is really better thau the 
heavier-looking one, he will readily agree, eBpecially if he hae a large 
&mily. Of conrse the uoBtaruhed, if well made and of good material, 
will wear longer and better, and very likely he will make this known to 
bis neighbors ; most certainly if lie does not, his wife will. 

That's what I wanted to show ; and what is trne in retail is troe ia 
wboleeale, only in a different way. 

n,.,iz.db Google 



166 TEXTILE TRADE OF SINGAPOBE. 

To introduce unbleached American shittiDgs and sheetin^a succesa- 
Ailly reqaires time and patience ; all tbe more as they are better and 
conseqnently dearer than the English starched goods of thesame weight 
All classes alike are accustomed to the latter, and, knowing nothing of 
any other kind, the importers here of cotton goods find little or no 
troable in selling the EDglish starched goods, which are cheap when 
compared with American manufactures, aud ofTer more manipulations 
owing to the many grades. Traders dread the time coming when the 
consumers will buy the American goods inpreference,aud oak/or them. 

What a manufacturer must do (unless he himself establishes a Arm or 
firms in a place or places in the East) in order to introduce gray shirtings, 
sheetings, &c., successfully, is first to secure a good, rehable firm and 
conaigD to them with the understanding that until- a real demand for 
his fabrics takes place he not only expects no profits, but is willing to 
fallj trust to aud abide by what his consignees do. Understanding 
Eaetem nations as I have learned to understand them, I would at first 
let a retail dealer have a small quantity of shirting or sheeting, weigh- 
ing, say, 7 or 8 pounds apiece, for tbe same price, if I could not get 
more, as the English standard of the same weight, and at the same 
time go to some trouble in demonstrating, in a practical, striking way, 
the difference between American clotb, free of starch, and the English, 
starched, of tbe same weight. 

It will be seen in Mr. UUttenbach's report, nnder tbe caption of 
"gray shirtings," that of tbe latter certain kinds are bonght by the 
Ohinese (also of cambrics] for the special puri)ose of being dyed blue 
and to be made into trouaere, jacketa, &c. He did not allude to the 
fact the lesa starch there is in the cloth the better it can be dyed, and 
that heavily starched cloth can hardly be dyed or not at all. 

In this colony indigo is grown and manufactured into dye-stuff by 
Chinese planters, and there are dyeing establishments where cotton 
fabrics are dyed blue, but not nearly as many as there are in China ; 
and this, I have no donbt, accounts in a measure for the fact that the 
demand for American fabrics has been steadily increasing there. Be- 
sides, in China they have a winter, while here there is none, aud as a 
consequence the Chinese require warmer and heavier material. 

For one kind of American sheeting, wide, heavy, and very good, to 
which Mr. Hiittenbach alludes, and of which he forwards a sample, 
though it is high priced ae compared with the Engliah article, a market 
has been created, and it is introduced successfully in Penang more than 
at Singapore. 

In drilla it is conceded that those of An;erican manufacture beat the 
English by reason of superior qoality rather than in price. It was a 
struggle of several years until American drills found asure footing, and 
tbe demand for tbem is now steadily increasing. The cloth is so good and 
strong that people generally have learned to use it m many more ways 
than they did formerly ; they are chiefly used by Europeans and those 
following Western civilization, aud also by large numbers of natives, 
aeafaring Malays especially, for loose jacketa and trousers. The kinds 
of American drills most in demand are repre>sented by samples with 
Mr. Uiittenbach's report. The northern half of the peninsula of Ma- 
lacca, Siam proper, and Burmah ought toprovea very good paying field 
for the drills and heavy sheetings above alluded to. 

Bleached shirtings (also muslins and cambrics) have an immense sale 
in the East; but as regards this colony I regret to say American shirt- 
ings have not found a footing as yet, although some small qnantities have 
been imported upon orders (not consignments) t<> try the markets. I 



XuKlt^lc 



TEXTILE TRADE OF SINQAFOBE. 167 

invite eaniest attention to what Mr. Hitttenbacli says apon this &bric 
in bia report, his firm in particular haviag imported some and endeavored 
to introdace them. He Baya that they do not appear to the same ad- 
vantage as those of English manufacture, and consequently, though 
hey are probably jnst aa stroug and durable as the latter, they will 
not fetch the same price. Consequently there is no profit in them, and,' 
nnless tbey can be had cheaper, no inducement to import them. 

American mannfactnrers can send to the East just aa good and well- 
made shirtings and muslins as tbe English can ; for they have excellent 
machinery and live in the land of cotton. They can get fair to good 
Louisiana and Sea Island cotton for chain and frame, and can spin as 
fine and even a thread aa in Europe; knotty, aneveu thread can, of 
course, never make a smooth, even tissue, no matter how good the 
weaver. That seema to be the whole secret, together with a carefhl 
study of economy in the mtinufactnre. 

There is do doabt about the ability of American mannfactnrers to 
tarn out just as good mnslins and cambrics as those of England, and 
the only question that remains is whether they care to enter, as r^ards 
the markets of the East, into competition with European manofacturers. 
I presume that the cost of mano&ctnre is the most important qaestion 
in thia matter. 

Turkey -red cloth has a large sale throughout British and Dutch India 
and the Philippine Islands, with the Sulu Aixihipelago. It is used by 
the natives in many ways; the color is sueh a fine bright red, and they 
hke that. They- use it in turbans, wearing apparel, upholstery, cur- 
tains, &C. I invite close examination of the sample sent by Mr. Hiitten- 
bach. It will be fonnd to he simply a very good article of muslin, well 
woven, stroDg and fine, and dyed Tarkby red ; the color being faxt or 
proof against washing. I have been told by experts in this and kindred 
articles that good dyeing, to bring out the true shade brilliantly and 
evenly, ia fully as important as the manufacture of the cloth; and it ie 
really anrprising that the few factories engaged in its manufacture in 
Eastern Switzerland have never yet had any competitora proving danger- 
ous to them. 

Next come aaroitgi. Mr. HUttenbach draws attention to the great im- 
portance of these goods, worn by both sexes. 

The miinafacture of sarongs is, owing to thediSerenttastesandnotions 
of the native wearers of Soutbern Asia, a never-ending study for the 
importers in the East as well as for the manufacturers in Europe. 

Pages upon pages might be filled in the endeavor to convey ideas 
about the many tastes and fancies, and to furnish descriptions of pat- 
terns and designs to no purpose. Any American manufacturer that 
would hke to engage in the manufacture of saronga and head-cloths 
(slendongs) and kindred goods nsed by the same people should make 
that a apecialty, and visit the factories to learn their manufacture, in 
Switzerland chiefly, also in Holland for the imitations of designs of 
true native-made sarongs of Java first; and the East should then be 
visited and carefully studied, going from one country to another, and 
the different tastes, fancies, and customs of the people and tribes ob- 
served. This should only be undertaken byyoung men already familiar 
wltJi the manufacture of cotton goods, ginghams, and prints especially, 
and when they feel competent to enter upon the manufacture of sarongs, 
Ac., tbey should select lor agents in the East, if possible, men who, as 
apprentices of commerce, have spent two or three years in a sarong 
mana£actaring firm, in order to continue " well posted" about changes 
in patterns and designs in the East, and also to focilitate the sale of uie 



168 TEXTILE TBADE OF SINQAPOBE. 

goods Beat to them. These cooditioiis are essential to snccesa, thoagli 
I am wilting to admit that importers who hare never been io sarong &c- 
tories, but hare dealt in the article for a long time, occasiooally IxKome 
very good jndges. Maonfactarers of ginghams would soon beconie 
adepts in the manufacture of sarongs ; but it must be taken into consid- 
eration that this article, unlike shirtings, sheetings, drills, prints, &c., 
find BO market in the United Btates, and are only worn in Bouthem 
Asia, chiefly on the peninsula of Malacca, and throughout the Indo-Ma- 
layan Archipelago. Factories engaged in this article, with an experi- 
ence of many years, seem to be fully able tosupply the demand from 
the East Still I can say that, to my knowledge, great fortunes have 
been made in the sarong trade. On the whole, however. It would be 
advisable at the present, time to direct attention to the manufactnre in 
America, and export therefrom of prints, as being of far greater impor- 
tance and sale than sarongs. 

I have written in former reports of the great importance of the prints 
or calico trade throughout Southern Asia, but the goods in market in 
this colony were all of European make since our war of rebellion. 

It is true American calicoes have been sold of late years in Java, aucl 
while I mention this I will also say what a reliable merchant, who dealt 
largely in this article, told me he experienced. Be said it wonld pay 
American calico manufacturers to come out here and study the trade 
in prints, and particularly the trades and fancies of the natives. He 
farther stated that among the calicoes his firm received from America 
there were some excellent designs and patterns, printed on very good 
cloth, that sold welt; but occasionally poor, uninteresting designs were 
printed on equally good cloth, costing just as much as the good patterns 
alluded to, and that as a consequence, in order to get rid of tbem, they 
had to sell them at a lower figure. The nse of this same good cloth for 
less pleasing patterns is therefore a mistake, and it alpo occurred, he 
continued, that they received very nice patterns printed on cheap cloth, 
which if printed on better cloth would have commanded a higher figure. 

He recommended that different grades of cloth (at corresponding 
prices) be used; that the best cloth always be used for the best and 
latest patterns, and so on. The natives, though they never changed 
the fashion of their wearing apparel, have their changes of fashion never- 
theless in the patterns of sarongs and prints. Whenever, he stated, 
they received new goods and exhibited the samples thereof, certain pat- 
terns would take well and have a rapid sale for about six weeks or two 
months, and thereafter they would become difficult of sale. A frequent 
change in patterns is therefore necessary, as welt as a thorough under- 
standing t)etween the merchant in the East and the manufacturer in 
the United States; and in order to facilitate communications a code of 
words for telegraphic messages should be arranged, 

The samples sent East should be duly classified, numbered, and thus 
placed on file. Sometimes a pattern has a large sale and the supply on 
hand is not equal to the demand. There is also a good deal of crimping 
done among merchants importing, in this, that, when they discover that 
a firm has imported patterns creating a demand, they get hold of samples 
of the same and send them by first mail to their correspondents to be 
copie<l, and order supplies of the same as quickly as possil>le. Thiii every 
importer of prints has to fear ; therefore, where it happens that his stock 
of a good pattern is unlikely to meet the demand, and should the demand 
be likely to last for some time he should order a fresh supply per tele- 
graph and have the supply on hand sufficiently large to last until the de- 
mand for this pattern ceases, even if he should not be able to sell all until 



COTTON GOODS THADE OF PEKAKO. 169 

tbeo. By sodoiDf^be will beat bis ccim ping competitor. Tfaegoods opon 
receipt of order, if not already made, can soon be printed and shipped; 
vbile the mannfactarer, who by mail receives a pattern for imitation, 
iDost firat get it cat before he can print and fill the order, and then prob- 
ably the goods arrive in the East when the pattern has ceased to be in 
demand. 

The telegraphic code shonld be ao arranged that the merchant csui 
shape his order so as to send bnt one word. 

For iDStaDce, a petition is classed and numbered A' ; he- wants, say, 
10 cases (tbe number of pieces per ease must be uniform and agreed 
upon) of this ; one code-word should cover this. All this can be system- 
atically arranged without much difBcuIty. 

I f^l to see why American "prints" should not find a large sale 
everywhere in Soutbern Asia; but any American manufacturer, in order 
to do a good business in this part of the world, most first visit it and 
study the trade and its oonneotioRS, especially ttie tastes and fancies of 
the Datives. By frequently visiting the bazaars of native traders one 
can learn folly as much as in importing houses. A trip to the East, 
vhea not too hurriedly made, is very instrnutive, on general principles, 
and may bear interest. 

I invite, finally, careful attention to the mode and manner of packing 
of tbe difierent fabrics, as explained in Mr. HiittenbaoU's report. 

I will not close without remarking that " cheap freights" (at fixed 
rates, too) is an important factor in the snccessfnl sale of American goods, 
generally, in the East, and that direct routes are greatly to be preferred 
to those subject to traneshipment, for various and good reasons. 

A. G. BTtTDBE, Consul. 

Umted States Cohsdlatb, 
Singapore, Septtmbtr 27, 1882. 



COTTON GOODS TRADE OF PSHANO. 

REPORT BT OOKSULAR AQElfT BVTTBSBAOB. 

The honorable Secretary of Btate, by circular dated Washington, 
December 20, 1881, having directed tbe consular ofiicers to give sucn 
information about cotton goods as might prove useful to the mannfact- 
nrers of the United States, I have the honor to submit tbe following 
report: 

The circular in question, it is evident, is intended for information 
from manufacturing quarters. This country, however, being a consum- 
ing one, my report cannot deal with the matter in the sense of the cir- 
cnlar; still, as tbe object of the same can only be to obtain such informa- 
tioD as migbt be eondncive to a development of the American trade in 
the above goods, I am inclined to believe that the knowledge of the 
opinion and of the wishes of the consumers, whereby a larger field for 
the sale of American goods might be opened, might be just as (if not 
more) osefiit than any economy or improvement which might result from 
observations gathered in the manufacturing countries. 

Theprinci]Hil articles which command an important and ready sale 
in oar and the neighboring ports are the following, viz : . 

a. Gray shirtings. 

^. White shirtings. 

•:■ Drills. 



^dbyGoOgle 



cd^TTON GOODS TRADE OP PENANO. 



d. Sheetiaga. 

e. Cambrics. 

/. Turkey-red oloth. 



h. Prints. 

The simpleBt way of placing the manafacturers tu a position to judge 
which qualities are moBt salable here is, in my opinion, to offer them 
samples. I beg, therefore, to send herewith samples of the whole widths 
of the various goods, and in the inclosore I beg to forward a special 
report on each kind, in which, according to the instrucfiona contained 
in the circular, I took special care to give as detailed information aboat 
packing as possible. 

The wholesale prices now current in our market are also mentioned 
iu these reports. It stands to reason that these prices are subject to con- 
stant fluctuations according to the state of the home markets. 

The rate of e:schange of late has been on average of Ss. Q^d. sterling 
per Mexican dollar for i months' sight bank paper on London. This 
rate, though of course also fluctuating, may be taken as a tbir basis for 
calculations. 

In case anything in the reports should call for further information, I 
need not say that, on my attention being called to it, I shall be glad to 
give the same. 

L. HtTTENBACH, 

Consular Agent. 

United States Oonsulae Agency, 

Peiiang, August 30, 1882. 



a. GHAT SinSTINGS. 

p. 1.— Packed in bal«s of 50 pieces, 39 incbea wide, 3(4 T^rds long, wcigliing Hi 
ponQds English; present price in England 7>. id. to 7i. bd. f. o. b. Liverpool. 

P, 2. — PaokiuR, width, length, weight the same as P. I ; present price in Europe 
6i. lOd. t o. b. Liverpool. 

These shirtings are imported here also of the same length and width, bnt weighing 
7 and 6 ponnds onlv. 

The two qualities, as per aamples, are salable at Mexican $13 to (43 per SO pieces, 
leas 4 per cent, for cash, while F. 2 a might realize Mexican t^ to $31, if weighiiig 7 
poonda, and aboat Mexican (2H for 6 pounds. 

F. 1 and 2 have s veiy large sale, aa, after being dyed blue, they are need by Chi- 



American goods of the above ^[nalit; oonldvSO far, not be impart«d with advantage; 
they are too dear, and do not weigh euongh. The English stuff is made of inferior ma- 
terial, and appareiitly heavier, by much starch being used. 

P. 3 <8 of American manufacture, and will best illustrate the above remarks ; these 
goodSj 39~38 inches wiSo, and 7i to 71 ponuds, stand in first cost in New York 5i 

F. 4.— Also in bales of 50 pieces, 45-44 inches, 39 yards, 10} to 11 ponnds, and cost- 
ing now f o. b. Liverpool lOi. 104., realises here Mexican fOS, less 4 per cent, for caab, 
for 20 pieces. 

This qaality is largely bought for Northern Sumatra. 

P. 6.— Packed as above, 36 inches, 26 yards, costing 5«. 2d. to &«. 3d. t. o. b. Liver- 
pool, has only a limited sale. 



P. 6. — Gray supers, in bales of SOpieces, 36 inches, 26 yards, costing 5(. l^d. to 5i. Sd. 
f. o. b. Liverpool, are imported in different qualities (or clBasifioatlons) ; the sample 
represents a middle quality, which sells at (Mexican), $1S to $34, less 4 per cent, for 

other hand is of 
P. 6; weight 5 

Google 



represents a middle quality, which sells at (Mexican), $1S to $34, less 4 per cent, 
cash, per 20 pieces. 

P. 7. — Fetches the same price ; it is only 34 inches wide, but on tbe other hand is 
enperior quality to 36-ioch; packing and length is the same aa P. 6; weight 
ponnds English. 



COTTON GOODS TRADE OF PENANG. 171 

P. e.— Gray T-cloth, 50 pieces per bals, 33 inches, £4 yards, 6 pouuda, at 3t. 7ii. t. 
o. b. Liverpool. 

P. 9. — Gray T-cIoth, 50 pieoes per bale, 32 incbea, 24 yards, 7 potinds, at it. I. o. b. 
LeTerpool. 

P. 10.— Gray T-oloth, 50 pieoes per bale, 32 iaches, 34 yards, T ponnds, at 4«. 44. f. 
O, b. Liverpool . 

P. 11.— Oray T-clotb, 50 pieces per bale, 32 inches, 24 yards, 7 poands, at 6t. 3ii. f. 

2 inches, 24 yards, 7} ponnds, at 6t. 6il. f, 

. .__, portant sale In this market; the price is 

TOKulated by larger or smaller atocks, and varies from (Mexican), |22 to f32.50, less 4 
percent, for cash, per 20 pieces, according to quality. 

In all the above goods, no American mannfacturea oonld be imparted here, as, the 
qaslity being too good, the price wonld have to be, of coarse, correspond La ^Ij higher. 
The buyers in this couDtry are very conservative, and the only Vav by which Amsri- 
ean goods could be introd^icsd woold be by making aa near an imitation of Eoglisk 
qualities as possible by nsing Inferior material and mnch staroh, by the employ- 
meat of the latter, of which the weight is artificially rendered much heavier. 

h. WHITE SHIRTINGS. 

The white shirtings "oM in this market, come, as far as I could asoertaiD, exoln- 
•ively from Encland ; the shirtings mannfactnred in America cannot compete with 
thoM from England, as the former are by far less nicely flaished, are of ooareer thread, 
knd are dearer. 

In report J, I give full details about packine of the various goods; the way in 
which shirtings are finished is eiplioic4y described io the report. Even with the 
long introduced favorite English goods only a very limited profit (sometimes none at 
all} can be realized, and it stands to reason, therefore, that no importer cares to order 
trial shipments of nnknown American goods, which, the first time^ are almost oertaia 
to result in a loss. 

If, however, the American manufactnres are made as near the English as possible, 
I vonld see no reason why the former should In the long run not become ns well liked 
as the latter. As American goods ore even exported b> Europe, there can be no doabt 
that, both as regard quality and price, the United States are quite able to compete Id 
this country. The conservative spirit of its population, to which I alluded already 
In report a, has to be overcome, and this in the first place requires time. 

As stated, it is not to be expected that any merchant would import American man- 
n&ctoreB ou his own account, and if the United States manufacturers are auxiona to 
iutrodnce their white Hhlrtlngs, it can, in my opinion, only be achieved by their send- 
ing eonaignmsnts for their account, as only in this manner it would be possible to 
make their brands known gradnally, and thns open them a large field. 

The aomplra which are herewith forwarded will give some idea as to which qual- 
ities are salable and what prices they will realize. There are a good many more 
qualities in the market, bnt I presume that the samples sent will quite answer the 

Tne goods are packed in cases of 50 pieces ; the prices are in Mexican dollars for 1 
corge, equal to 20 pieces, cash, less 4 per cent. discoonC : 
P. 21.-36 inchen, 40 yards per piece, selling at J78. 
P. 22. — 36 inches, 40 yards per piece, selling at $73. 
P. 03. — 36 inches, 40 yards per piece, selling at 103, latest quotation from England, 

10<. 9d. {. o. b. Liverpool. 
P. 24.-36 inches, 40 yards, costing f. o. b, Liverpool 9: 3d., eells at $56. 
P. 2S.— 36 inches, 40 yards, costing f. o. b. Liverpool 9*. lid, sells at $54.50. 

«. DRILLS. 

In drills it is Jnst the contrary than with white shirtings, viz : In this article the 
United States have carried off the palm, and the English goods meet only with a 
■mall sale lu comparison to American products. 

The favorite qnality in this market U the one as per sample 

P. 13. — 30 iQcaes.40 yards (In balesof 15 pieces), which, however, at present fetchoB 
only (Mexican) $79, leas 4 per cent, cash, of 20 pieces, while first-cost in New York, 
Dnited States carrency, is 7i cents per yard. 

American Koods have so far only been imported of this saperior quality ; but of 
Engliah origin, inferior brandscome to this market from time to time; they are, bow- 
erer, in addition to the poorer quality, also of leas width and do not attract the at- 
taation of buyers to any extent. 



.Google 



172 COTTOH GOODS TBADE OF PBNANG. 

It ie impostible Just nov to give any reliable nnotationa at to the selliag prices of 
these inferior brands. They sell from (50 npwords, oocording to quftlity. 

Although, us statpd, P. 13 is the most importftnt qiislity, T think it can b« no hkim 
to send also samples of the other (English) brands sUnded to. 

Thej are, as the American drills, also packed in bales of 15 piece*. 
Paid per piece f o. b. Liverpool : 

P. 14.-37-26 inches, 30 yards, 9 pounds, English drills, 5«. Hd. 

P. 15.— 27-26 inches, 30 yards, English drills, 5s. 7id. 

P. 16.— 28H27 inches, 30 yards, 9^ ponnds, Englisli drills, Ba. Id. 

P. 17.— 28 inches, 40 yards, 14 pounds, English drills, 10«. M, 

P. 18.— 28 inobes, 40 yards, 15 pounds, English drills, 10«. lid. 

Also in American drills, favorite as they are already, the trade conldbe still fnrlher 
IncTeased by redncing the prioe. If the difference in price between the good and in- 
ferior qualities can, by any means, be made smaller, the latter would peAaps, in the 
oonree of time, be entirely neglrcted, whereby the oonsnmption of the former wonld 
Daturally become correspondingly larger. 

If, through the information collected by the consular officers in the mannfactnring 
qnarters, goods can be mannfactured more economically, thiscould partly lead to the 
above suggestions being carried out. About othe^ measnrca, which, if nillowed out, 
would have a good effect on American trade with the East in general, I shall take 
the liberty to give ray opinion in my "commercial review" at the end of the present 
qaart«r. 

d. SHEETINQS. 

P. 19, — Only tbe quality as represented by sample, 36 inches, 40 yards (packed in 
bales of 90 pieces), is, of all American manufactnres, of Kood sale. 

P. 30.— Are samples of finer American sheetings, which, do wever, cannot be dispoaed 
of in this market, as they oannot compete with English gray sheetings, whictk are 
cheaper. 

In report a I dwelt more lengthily on thissnbject, andin order to avoid repetitions 
I beg to refer to the report just mentioned. 

P. 19, costing in New York 7} to 71 American centa per yard, realizes here np to 
980 (Mexican), less 4 per cent, for cast), percorge of 30 pieces. 

There are no other suggestions, besidea those mentioned in report a, to be offered 
with regard to sheetings. 



Cambrics ate also a very Important article of import here ; they come almost ex- 
clusively from Manchester, and, as far as I could ascertain, none have ever been man- 
nfoctnred in America. 

Tbe largest portion of cambrics imported are dyed bine bete, and in that color are 
used to a very great extent ; for iostance, for Chinese trousers and sack ooats. 

Also, this article is packed very tastefully in the way fully described by me in 
report^. 

There are many qualities in this market. The wav of packing and finishinE and 
the width and length of pieces are, however, exactly tbe same for all, and, in order to 
show the nature of the goods, it will, therefore, suftlce to send some samples of tbe 
most salable kinds. 

Tbe qualities as per samples 26 to 39 go under the name of " Cambric Nob, 15 and 
16," and those as persBrnpIes Ko. 30 UDOer the name of " Cambric No. S4." 

Tbe Belling prices, all understood per corge of 30 pieces, in Mexican dollarB, leas 4 
per cent, for cosh. There are 300 pieces in a cas&T-lO corges. 

P. 26. — 42-3 inches, 13 yards per piece, costing f. o. b. Liverpool 3>. lOid., sell at 
t34.2&. 

P. 37.^2-3 Inches, 12 yards per piece, costing f. o. b. Liverpool 3i. TM., sell at 
(33.50. 

P. 2S.— 43-3 inches, 13 yards per piece, costing f. o. b. Liverpool 3i. 2d., sell at 
118.75. 

P. 39.-42-3 inches, 12 yards per piece, costing f. o. b. Liverpool Ss. lid., sell at 

P. 30. — Cambric No. 34 Is in pocking, finishing, width, and length the same as 
cambric Nos.15 and 16, bat with the ditterence thatit is mode out of very poor quality 
of material ; in fact, it might be said that tbe stuff oonslsts to a greater extent of 
etaroh than of cloth. 

This particntar kiod of cambric is used by the poorer olasses of natives to wrap np 
corpses, a cheap price being of more importance tlian a cood quality. 

Sample No. 'M, more than any other, will illuslratewbat great perfection the Eng- 
lish have attained in fabricating goods rendered artiflclally heavy. 



COTTON GOODS TRADE OF PENAKGt. 173 

inimiuida ber«,ie well worthy 

/. TUEKKY-BSB CLOTH. 

portion of said goods miported here come 
Switzerland, lioweyeT,havebyfax tbepraf« 
aod low price. 

There 18 Dot mnch to be said of this article, althongb it Is not imported io snob large 
qnaotitiea aa drilla, shirtings, dto. ; still it oominaDas a fair sale and oan be reoom- 
meaded t* the attention of Amerioaa manufacturers. 

Herewith sampleeof thetwo moet salable qoalities. There are 60 pieces packed in 
a case, and tho price, aa nsnal, is to be nnderstood in Mexican dollars per corge of 30 
pieces, lees4 per cent, discount for cash. 

P. 34.-44-6 inches, in pieces of S4 yards, sells at (GO ; weight 41 pounds. 

P. ■Xt.—30 inches,34 7aTd>i, waight(aboat)Siponnds, sells at$45. 

g. 8ARON08. 

Saronzs, and other goods related thereto, snch as monchoirs f handkerohiefs), ging- 
hams, uawls, &o., with an eye to " native trade." are beyond any doubt the most 
importantarticlesof this coantry (Southern A£ia,iaoladiug the whole Malayan Archi- 
pelago), as they are unoxceptioually woru by men, women, and ohitdreu, and this 
colooy is the chief market (PeuauK >tDd SinEaporo) of the same. 

This article can t>e called a specialty of Switzerland; a very small quantity fluda 
its way from Holland — an imitatioQ of the patterns and deeigns by natives in Java 
(called "batticks"},but all other oouutries, as faros my knowledge goes, do not man- 
ufacture tbeee goods. 

I am sorry that I cannot give as fall details as the importance of the article renders- 
it desirable. The border ofa sarong, the number, &.O., of threads, colors thereof, the 
deaicna, Ac, all of such great ioiportituce that an insufiloiBQt or faulty duscrtptiou 
might be of very bad cousequencea. To give reliable information in all the details 
upon sarongs reiiuiree, in my opinion, a prufessiouul ; and the only suggHation whiuh 
I can offer is that manufacturers In the United Status send a competent person tiist to 
Switierland, in order to become fully acquainted with the mode or manner of mann- 
facturing, and thereafter ont to this country, to study the tastes and rvqoiiementSj. 
&c., of the native nutcbasers. The article is really of such great importonoe that I 
feel justified to make the above suggestion, and if it is carried out I shall, of course, 
be bappy to render to the respective gentlemen all possible assistance. 

Simply to give in idea of the nature of the goods, I forward herewith the samples, 

P. 33.— "TriDgann" sarong, 96-25 inotaea wide, and 160-156 inches long, sell at $13. 
(Mexican }, less f per cent, for cash, per 30 pieces. 

P. 33.— "BatticK" sarong, 42 looheswide and 75 inches long, fetch about $10 per SO 
pieces (SO nieces eqaal 1 oorge). There are generally SO toSScorgeapaokedina case; 
bat as to that there is no llxed rule, as sometimes they are paokM in quantities Jnst 
in execution ofa certain order, say 10 or 15 corgee. 

A. PRINTS. 

Prints, printed sbittinga, or cambrics can be disposed of in very large qaantities in 
this conntry. They are used to make Jackets, sacques, loose light garmenta for the 
upper body, which are worn by natives, Chinese, Burmese, Siamese, Hindoos, and al> 
HalBys — with one word, by all olasaea of the native population, by both aexea, bat 
chiefly by the female. 

This article, both aa regards colors and designs, is subject to constant ohangea, and 
there is olwaysalively inquiry after quite newpatterna. To manufacture this article- 
ad vsntageonaly requires, consequently, a thorough knowledge of the market, viz, of' 
the taateii of the natives, which, it will be understood, cannot possibly be given in a 
report, and can only be acquired by a personal study In this and adjacent countries 
and island*. 

It will be seen that the colora are only visible on one (dde — printed by the use ofa 
cylinder. 

The prices vary according to the quality of the oloth and the colors and daaigna. 

P. 31.— la a seriesof aamplea of goods whicliwereaold sometime ago. I cannot give 
the exact price. 

P. Sla.—'ja-H Inches, S4 yards, ooate f. o. b. Liverpoo, 6f. lOd. per piece, and fetchea 
(Mexican) |40 per corge ofSO pieces, luss4 percent, discount. There ale generally 60- 
pieces picked in a box. 



^dbyGoogle 



BBITISH ANNEXATION OF NEW GUINEA. 



Gray MrHngt ore paoked in bales of 50 ot 100 pieces. The bale (next to the goods} 

is Brat cohered with packing-paper, and after that (over the paper) with tor-coated oan- 
yaa, and lastly with the proper paoklag-canvas, whioh is carefully sewn up. ,Eaoh 
bale is provided with Sve atrouK iron hoops. 

mile Mrtingi are packed in tin cases, and 

illy pine) J i. e., wooden boxes. There are gi ^ _. , ^ 

18 flret wrapped up in white tisaae-paper, and aftai that in yellow packing-paper, and 
then aimplf placed in the case in Its whole length. 

Cambria* likewise in tin and wooden caaea. There are 10 corgea (eqnal to 200 
piocas in a case] ; 10 piecea are packed together, first wrapped (as a packet of 10) in 
white tissue-paper, fhen in brown packing- paper, and tied np with tape. 

Turkev-red oloth portly cornea to thia market in wooden and tin cases j partly only 
in wooifen coses lined with good card-board. The piecea are tied on both ends with 
a yellow string. There ore generally 60 pieces in a cose. 

Sarongi likewiae partly in wooden and tin cases, and partly in wooden coaea lined 
with thick paper only. Cue-half corge, eqnal to 10 piecea, ore packed in brown 
paper and tied Dp with tape. Quantity in each case according to the isquirementa 
of the bayer. 

Prinbare packed in the same way aa cambrics. 

Drilh, 15 pieces in a bole. The manner in which this is packed by the American 
maoufacturers — viz., their p oper ond canvfts and tied with ropes — is insufficient, as 

Ssnerally o Urae portion of the bales arrive In a torn and damaged state. Perhaps 
le way in which "gray shirtings" are packed, as above shown, oonid be recom- 
mended in order to avoid damage of the kind shown. 

SkMtiagt are packed in the same way as drills. The remorka made nnder the lattet 
bending ore applicable also to this article. 

L. HUTTENBACH, 

CoHwIar Agmtt. 
United Etatxs Consular Aokncy, 

Fmavg, Aiigu$t20, 1880. 



BRITIBH AJmXZATIOV 07 HEW OTTIVEA. 

SEPORT BT 00N8TJL QSIFFIlf, OF AUOSLiJ/D. 

The annexation of territory by the colonial authorities forma a new 
era in thehistory of Great Britain. Itis certainly a departure firomthe 
usual method pursued by that empire, aud is, so far as I know, wholly 
-without precedent in the history of any other country. It lb a precedent, 
however, -which, in the event of being sanctioned by the Imperial (Gov- 
ernment, will doubtless open up a new field of aggression for colonial 
statesmen. 

The proclamation was made on the 4th of April last, being read offi- 
cially at Port Moresby by Mr. Chester, the resident magiatrate of Thurs- 
day Island, Torres Straita, who acted on instructions from the Queens- 
land Government. The proclamation ia as follows : 

I, Henry Msjoribanka Chester, resident magistrate at Tboradoy Island, in the colony 
of Queensland, acting under inatructions of the GoTcmment of said colony, do hereby 
take posseesion of oil that portion of New Guinea and the iatauda aud islets adjacent 
thereto lying between the 141at aud the 156th meridian of east longitude, in the name 
and on behalf of Her Moat Qrocioua Majesty Queen Victoria, her heirs ond successors. 

In token whereof I have hoisted and sainted the British flog at Port Moresby, New 
Qninea, this 4th day of April, in the year of our Lord ISSJ. 

Qod save the Que«n t 

HENBY M. CHESTER. 

About thirteen Europeans and two hundred natives -were present at 
the reading of the proclamation.' 

Toward the close of the proceedings a royal salute was fired and three 
cheers given for Her Majesty the Queen. Mr. Chester then formally 



,C~.tK1t^[c 



BBITISH AHMEXATIOH OP NEW GUINEA. 175 

recognized Boe Vagi as the head chief of Port Moresby, and preseoted 
him with the British flag. 

It will be seen by a glaoce at the map that the proclamation embraces 
a large extent of territory, including the Admiralty Islands, the Xew 
Britain group, and others. In the Xew Britain group there are two 
islands of considerable size, viz, Kew Britain and N^ew Ireland, the for- 
mer being 300 miles long, with an average width of 30 miles, and the 
latter 337 miles in length, and about 12 miles wide. The proclamatioD 
does not refer to the t^hitory claimed by the ^Netherlands west of the 
llLst meridian of east longitade. 

Varioos reasons have been assigned for the action of the Qaeensiand 
Ooremment in taking possession of Kew Guinea. The sabject has been 
a very popnlar one with the Australasian colonists for many years, and 
the correspondence between the colonial authorities and the home Gov- 
ernment in regard to the matter has been both energetic and volnmi- 
Dons. In 1875 Sir Hercules Robinson, who was then governor of N^ew 
South Wales, pressed the annexation vwy strongly on the Imperial Gov- 
ernment, and the Earl of Carnarvon, the secretary of state for the colo- 
nies, in replying to that gentleman stated clearly enough that the Brit- 
ish Crown was not adverse to the annexation. He was of the opinion, 
however, that the cost of the enterprise should be borne by the colonies 
themselves. He said : 

There is not only ao diBinolioktion but a, tae&rtj williaguasa on the pnrt of the peo- 
ple and P>rliament of Britain to accept, wttethermexpenaeoriu political reeponHibili- 
ticB, the oommon bnidena of that empire of which thay are ho Jaatly proud, hat it la 
■imply impossible either for me to admit, or, if even I were to make tbe admiMlon, to 
persuade the English 'people, that the AoBtrallan colonies have no special interest in 
tbe annexation of Nen Guinea, an^ titat the tesponsibilitf rests exotosively with the 
Imperial Government. 

The subject was allowed to rest for a while, but was very soon opened 
again by the Government of Queensland in inviting the colony of New 
South Wales to co-operate with her in bringing about the annexation. 
Kothing, however, came of this joint action, and while every one of tbe 
colonies sympathized with the movement the Government of Queens- 
land appears to have been allowed to condaot the matter alone. 

Mr. Archer, the agent-general of Queensland at London, some months 
ago addressed an ofScial commnnication to the Imperial Government, 
aekiDg the sanction of the Orown to the annexation, and at the same 
time stating emphatically that the Government of Queensland was not 
only willing but fully prepared to incur the necessary expenditure of 

foveming the island. Upon receipt of the communication Sir Arthur 
Kennedy, the governor of Queensland, was instructed by the Imperial 
Government to report folly upon the subject. Sir Arthur's report was, 
1 learn, forwarded to London in March last, but the character of it has 
not op to tbe present time been made public. 

The colony of Qaeensiand is taking very great interest in the cnJtiva- 
tion of sugar and cotton. Indeed these two commodities bid &ir to 
become her most important articles of export During the Last few 
years she has made strennons efforts to promote these industries. The 
labor question has been the principal obstacle in the way. The right 
kind of help cannot be obtained from amongst the Australian blacks, 
who are rapidly disappearing, and the cost of introducing suitable labor 
bom the Polynesian Islands is about 170 per head. 

The inhabitants of "New Guinea are said to be better adapted for 
working in sugar and cotton plantations than any other in the world, 
and they could easily be brought to Queensland at an expense of a few 



,C~.tK1t^[c 



J 76 ISLAND OF NEW OUINBA. 

ehillings per head. The Bev. W, Q. Lawes, a well-known "Sev Oainea 
missionarj, however, contends that native labor cannot be got from 
that island " withoat force or deceit." He sayu : 

I apeak with certaint; when I aa; that those who are deslnms of getting labor 
fairly, treatJOK them honeatly, and retarnlug them foitliAillf will oertamlj be dis- 
appointed in mia quarter. 

He aays farther that not a Biogle N'ew Gainea native can be found 
even amongst the motley crew on the Pearl Shelland Beche de Mere Sta- 
tioQB, in TorreB Straits, where men are greatly needed. 

Mr. Lawea ia nevertheless strongly in favor of tbe annexation of the 
island. 

The colony of Queensland has bad to undergo, recently in London, 
the severest criticism for alleged cruel treatment of their Polynesian 
laborers. It has been said that the Queensland squatters not only 
habitnally murder their own blacks but kill off their Polynesian laborers 
just before the period of their term expires, in order to save the wages 
that would then be due them, and the expense of returning them to 
their homes. 

It must be borne in mind that the Queensland blacks are amongst the 
most crael and treacherous in the southern hemisphere. The Govern- 
ment on that account has not uufi'equently been compelled to resort 
to extreme measures in punishing them, in order to protect the lives 
and property of the European settlers. The stories, however, about 
the murder of their laborers before the expiration of their time of service 
are undoubtedly false, but they have been repeated so often that an 
imperial commission has been appointed to investigate the matter. 

. G. W, GRIFFIN, Oongul. 

Umited Stai-bs Consulate, 

Auckland, May 21, 1883. 



THE ISLAHS OF HEW OtTIHEA. 

SEPORT BT CONSUL QSIFFIlf, OF lUOKLASD. 

The recent action of the Govemmentof Queensland in taking formal 
posaeesion in the name of the British Crown of a part of the territory 
of the island of New Guinea, and which, up to the latest advices, 
awaited the sanction of the Imperial Government at London, has in- 
duced me to place before the Department of State the following infor- 
mation concerning that interesting country. 

Since Australia has been classed by geographers as a continent New 
Guinea is unquestionably the largest island in tbe world. It ia 750 
miles larger than the great island of Borneo, and Is more than six times 
as large as the State of New York. 

New Guinea or Papua lies wholly south of the equator, between the 
parallels 0° 22' and 10° 42' south latitude, and between the meridians 
of 130° 50' and 150° 50' east longitude. Its extreme length is 1,630 
miles, and its breadth varies from 30 to 410 miles. It is separated ou the 
south from Australia by the Straits of Endeavor and Torres, and on the 
east from New Britain by Dampier Strait. Its northern shores are 
washed by the Pacific Ocean, and on tbe west lie Coram and other 
islands of the Molucca Sea. 

The island appears to have been discovered by the Portuguese as far 



ISLAND OF NEW GUINEA. 177 

back as 1526, aad it is kDown that tlie Spanish navigator Yuigo Ort«z 
de Ketes rlaited it in 1516, and first gave it the name of New Gninea on 
aooonnt of the resemblance of the iababitants to the ne^ race. 

Id 1606 Torres took possession of it in the name of the King of Spain, 
and Tasman landed on the north coast In 1613. New Qainea was also 
visited by a nnmber of Dntcb navigators, who seem to be entitled to the 
honor of oondacUng nearly every important disoovery on the island for 
a i>eriod of two hnndretl years. Its best known bays and rivers still 
have Datch names. Dampier, the Eagliab navigator, in 1700, sailed 
along the north coast and discovered the straits bearing his name. In 
1827 the Dutch established a small colony at Triton Bay, which shortly 
afterwards disappeared. In 1843 the commander of H. B. M. ship Fly 
oondacted several explorations on the sontheaatem coast. Al£t«d B. 
Wallace discovered the village of Dorey, on the north coast, ia 1858 ; 
bat very little knowledge of the coontry was acquired antil 1872, when 
the celebrated Italian explorer, Signor D'Atbertis, penetrated toward 
the interior of the island and visited the town of Hatam and other 
places in the mountainons regions, where be obtained a magnificent col- 
lection of birds, plants, and insects. On account of ill health be was 
obliged to return home, but revisited the islands a few years lat«r and 
established his headquarters at Yule Island, at the entrance of Hall 
Sonnd, 270 miles east of Torres Straits. It was opposite this place, on 
the main land, that the American traveler. Dr. Junes, in company with 
a Swede, Karl Thomgren, waa murdered by the natives in 1876. The 
murder was committed by a tribe called the Boro, and, on the authority 
of Mr. Chalmers, was feari'ally avenged in July, 1882, by the Lesi tribe, 
with whom Dr. James lived. The L(«i warriors captured a Boro native 
and compelled the latter to guide them to the villaee-of Faitani, which 
was at once surrendered. The Boro people asked "Who are yout" 
The reply was, " We are the Lesi, come to pay yon ; you murdered for- 
eigners; they did not pay you ; they were afi^id." After some further 
parleying all the inhabitants of the village, including the women and 
children, were either butchered or bnmt to death, and the scene of their 
viU^e the next morning was but a heap of blatuened ashes. 

THE INHABITANTS OF NEW GUINEA. 

The istaud of New Guinea is so vast and the difficulty of communi- 
cating between the various settlements is so great that it would be a 
matter rather of surprise than otherwise if the native inhabitants did 
not appear to present several distinct types of race. The color of their 
complexion varies fh>m a deep sooty brown or black to a shade not 
much darker than that of the Malay. The blood of the tribes dwelling 
along the ooast has doubtless been intermixed with that of the inhabit- 
ants of other islands in the Faciflc. The typical Papuan has a peculiar 
black, rough, wooly hair, the word papua being derived from the Malay 
puapua, meauing wooly or curly. In stature he is a little taller than 
the Australian blacks, who are invariably below the medium height. 
Ills frame is stouter and his limbs are more symmetrical. He has a 
long face, projecting eyebrows, and a large nose. In this respect ho 
difi'ers greatly from the native Kew Zealander, whose £aoe is round and 
nose not at all prominent. The New Zealander, moreover, has straight 
black hair, and possesses a quieter and more dignified demeanor than 
the Papuan, who is habitually given to rollicking fun and fits of bois- 
terous laughter. 
13 JUL 83 



^dbyGoOgle 



178 ISI4AND OF NEW QDINEA. 

Mr. OctaTJos G. Stone, wbo recently viaitod TSeir Gainea, baa de- 
acribed six of tbe principal tribes Whom be met; 

1st. Tbe Uema tribe, inbabitiiiir tfae ooast ttom Moro, a little noitb 
fhHn Fresbvater Bay, as fer aa Otaba, situated abont 10 milea above 
Yale Iriand /Laval), diataat 00 ndlea. 

2d. Tbe Mfldva ttibe, Inbabiting tbe coast from Oiahn to Eapatri, 
Bitnated to tbe west of uie ManatDanD Siver, distanoe 40 mika. 

3d. Mota tribe; territory eiteads along tbe ooMt from Kapateki to 
Kapahapa cbwe to Bennd Head, diatanoe 60 miles. 

4tb. The Ealti^w, Ilviag en eminenoeB OTerlooking the sea, and oc- 
oapyinothe country of tbe Mota. 

6ui. The Eairapann tribe, extendiiig along tbe seaooast from Kapa- 
kapa to Mara, distance 40 miles. 

6tb. Tbe moontain tribe, called Eoiari by tbe Motn, and Kuni by tbe 
Eirapano, ocoapying a lai^ area in the interior, whose limita are an- 
certain. 

The Illema are not cannibals like the dark Papuans, and Mr. Stone 
<da8see t^m aa a sort of intermediate tribe eombining the oharacteris- 
tioe of botb the dark and light raoes. 

Each of these tribes speak a different language or dialect, but these 
dialects greatly resemble one another, and can be tnioed to tbe same 
common origin. In feet, all their rerioas forms of 8p«>eota are governed 
by the same laws and grammatical principles. Tbe accent is on the pe- 
naltimate, and forms a. certain goiile for pronnnciation. The langnage 
may be described as a soil and mnsioal one. It is composed pnooipaUy 
of vowels and liquidf, and has no gntturals nor harsh soanding coneo- 
nants. 

The natives who reside near tbe Haikasa or Pearl Biver are believed 
to be eanuibala. Tbey live a roving, reokless, dare-devil ;sort of life. 
ISieir coontiy is thiBlj' popalated and during ue rainy seasons exceed- 
ingly nnhealthy, on acoount c( tbe prevalence of mals^a. 

Tbe Papuans pievoe their e«« and nostrils and wear in them as orna- 
ments bamboo sticits and bright colored feathers. Some of them file 
their teeth to a shwp point Tbeir faces are frightftilly disfignred with 
bnge dark wetta, burnt in with red-hot coals and rubbed with variooa 
kinds of dyes. Tbey pass their time principally in hnnting and fishing, 
dancing and fighting. Their weapons consist of bows and arrows, clabe 
and spears. At Astrolabe Bay they have knives and axes of flint, and a 
whirl-bat made of bard wood exqafsitety carved. The food of tbe various 
tribes consists prindpally of pigs, do^, fowls, kangaroos, lizards, fisb, 
insects, yams, coooannts, bananas, melons, mangoes, bread fruit, and 
aagar cane. They possess a mde knowledge of agricoltnre and colti- 
vate extensive plantations, the soil everywhere being fertile, and break 
the ground with peonliar Bhtq>ed sticks. Their bouses are built of 
bamboo and raised on piles ; some of their dwellings, however, have very 
low roofo, slanting almost to the ground. Tbey possess a vagne sort of 
b^ef in a Supreme Being, and erect temples for worship. They prac- 
tice polygamy, and believe that a man baa a perfect right to as mtmy 
wives as he can sapport. 

Tbe inhabitants of the village of Dorey and along the aborea of Gee- 
brink Bay possess a much better intellect than thb other tribes and 
often have European fleatoree. Dr. Beccari believvfl that they have 
Hindoo blood in their veins, and claims to be able to trace tbeir religion 
to onentai origin. In tbe interior of the island the inhabitants display 
great skill in carving clubs out of a species of jade resembling the 
pcenamu or greenstone of Xew Zealand. 

DiclzedbyGoOgle 



ISLAND OF NEW GUINEA. 179 

Tbd Kirapano tribe are desoribed as being very liandBome. The hair 
of tbeir cbildreo is of a light golden color, which becomes darker aa ' 
they grow olAvt, tnmiDg first to a rich aubam and then black with an 
nDintstakablereddUh tange. 

All the trtbea deKght in painting tbeir fttoes and bodies, th«ir fevorite 
colors being Mack, yeHov, and red. They are addicted to mnrder, and 
their highest dhlefs do not heaitabe to beg and steal. The tatoo marks 
on the breasts of the chiefk Indicate the number of men they have slain. 
They wear for omantents head dresses made of the feathers of the bird 
of paradise, necklaces of boar tasks, and bracelets cut from a species of 
clear white shell. The men are noted for their slender waists, which 
approach almost to a deformity, bronght about by drawing tightly 
aronnd their bodies a itirdle made of native cloth. The process is a very 
painfhl one, bnt is none the less practiced on that account. The women 
on the contrary delight in large waists, thns reversing the Enropean 
fashion. 

The vjllaf^s EU<e thinly popniated and seldoro contain more than ten 
or twelve hoases, and generally less than that. The total aboriginal 
popnlation of the island is variously estimated fbom 700,000 to 800,000. 
The Dntch have formed qnite a cordon of settlements along the west 
coast, and o^ry on a profitable trade in exchanging commodities with 
the natives. They took possession of that part of Kew Gninea in 1828, 
daring the visit of Captain Bteinboom, of the ship Triton. They claim 
all the landTyingwest of 1410eastIongitDde, and it is believed that the 
British Government will not dispnte their right to it. 

THE mrGBIOR OF THE ISLAND. 

Very littJe is known abont the interior of the island, and with the ex< 
ception of the voyages made np theHaikasaand Fly.Kivers (the last of 
which was asoendM to latitude 4° 3ty south), it may welt he doubted 
wfaetiier any of the travelers have penetrated more than 20 or 30 miles 
within land. A large part of the country is mountainous, and some of 
the peaks in the sootbeaetem portion of the island which can be dis- 
tinctly seen in fine weather, are said to reach an altitude of 18,000 feet. 
Br. Becoari ascended one of the Arfoz range 6,500 feet, and expressed 
the opinion that the fall height of the moantain was over 10,000 fact. 

The island is believed to be well watered, and abonnds in mt^ifloent 
forests. The rivers, however, are not large, and few of them are navi- 
gable to any great distance. Mr. Stone in 1875, made a voyage np the 
Alaikasa Biver in a steam launch accompanied by Mr. Mcfarlane, the 
missionary, and four Sooth Sea islanders, but after traveling 64 miles, 
found that the river converged into two smaller ones, and that neither 
ofthem wasdeep enoughto admitofthepassageof his vessel. Hetook 
a small boat, however, and went some distance up the largest stream, 
along tbe banks of which he fonud yams, sugar-cane, and tobacco 
growing. Signor IXAlbertis made several voyages np the Fly River, 
the last of which was in the little steamer Neva in 1877. This 
river be believes to be the largest in New Gninea. It« source is in the 
high moaotainsttkat cross the island fhim west to east, latitude 5° south 
and 142^ east longitude. It flows toward tbe north tfaroagh two ranges 
of Mils which gradually increase in height. The river then takes a 
westerly direction, tnms again to the east, flows through a flat and 
swampy country, and empties into the sea in latitude 8f^45' south and 
longitude 144° east. 



^dbyGoogle 



^80 ISLAND OF NEW GUINEA. 

THE FAUNA AND FZX>BA. 

The geological structure anil the fauna aud flora of New Guinea bear 
a strong reeeinblauoe to those of Australia, aud this resemblauoe bu 
led to the belief in the existeuoe of gold in the island, and I have 
in my possession some specioienB of quartz obtained from taie mounbiia- 
ous regions, these having the appearance of gold-bearing veins. The 
indications certainly point to the existence of the precious metal in New 
G-ainea, but it is (^zGeedingly doubtful whether it has been found iu 
sufficient quantities to justify an emigration to thatooontry for gold- 
seeking purposes. 

With the exceptioD of a peculiar species of the wild pig and a fev 
mice, there are no placental mammalia in the island. The list of mar- 
supials is, however, large, and includes the tree kangaroo of the geoDs 
deDdh)lagns. Signor U'Albertis furnishes a catalogue of 173 species 
of birds, whicli he collected during his explorations in tue Fly Biver in 
1876-'77, many of wbich are peculiar to Hew Qainea. He ako gives a 
catalogue of other s)>ecie8 which he observed, but was unable to obtaiu 
specimens of them. 

Mr. A. B. Wallace says that over 400 species of land birds iu New 
Guinea ha^-e been described, wbich comprise a larger portion of gor- 
geously colored species than are to be found in any other oountrj. Ilf 
mentions 20 species of birds of paradise and an immense variety ot' 
kingfishers, parrots, and pigeons, including the rarest and most beauti- 
ful of their respective families. 

Signor D'Albertis is often very eloquent in his description of tiie 
different species of the birds of paradise, with which he met during his 
travels. He dwells with special delight on tiiBparadUa paggiana, Fara 
di»a apoda, and one of hybrid species to which he gave the name of fieva. 
Their sonorous notes seem to have had an indescribable charm for him. 
He says towards the end of bis diary ; 



All descriptions fail to give anything like an adequate idea of tbi- 
beautiful aud brilliant hues of the paradise birds peculiar to Ne«' 
Guinea. The American hummingbirds are said to corae nearest to them 
in the fairy-like stmcture of their plumage, and in the gorgeous metal- 
lic and ever-changing luster of their colors. 

The character of the vegetation of Hew Guinea, while like that <'i' 
moat tropical countries, has many features peculiarly its own. The foli- 
age is often so dense as to shot oat even the faintest gleam of sun- 
light. The island forms a sort of connecting link between the eastcni 
and western world. One part of it seems the veritable home of Iriditiii 
[^ants, aud the other partakes of the Australian world. There appears 
to be strong reason for believing that at one time there existed a neck 
of land between New Guinea and Geram, Bulu and Celebes, and aUo u 
neck of land between New Guinea and Australia. 

Signor d'AIbertis found the Malayan type of forests to predomiiiati-. 
hot at the same time admits that large tracts of the country have an Au? 
tralian look, the trees in many places being sparse aud affording easy jtiL- 
sage for men on horseback; the principal trees being the EueaiypUu paji u 
ana, the Banktia dentata, and several species of Accacia. Amount li^ 
plants he found many that resembled those of Anstralia, soch as tli- 
Elttcocarpua arnhemiciu, the TchelhaiRmera mvltijiora B. Br., the £eNti' 



I8LAND OP NEW GUINEA. 181 

Kwdtandinaf the Austraiianum Sm., bat he thought it jast as reasonble 
to believe that they were of Malayan type and migrated to Australia, 
as to believe that they were Anstralian plants which bad migrated to 
Kew Guinea. Signer d'Albertis also found that the eerpenta of the 
island resemble those of both continente, and some of these be describes 
as veiy large, and of the most poisonous character. 

Among tbe vegetable products of !New Guinea, having a commercial 
value, may be mentioned various kinds of aromatic bark, such as the 
nutrnw and ctanamon. 

G. W. GRIFFIN, Conivl 

UuiTKB States Consulatb, 

Aueklandy May 31, 1883. 



,„i,z.d by Google 



NOTES: BRAZILIAN lUPOBT DUTY ON FLOUB. 



BruUiu import duty oa floor The consul-^neral at Bio rives tlie 

following information concerning the import of Soar into Branl : 

In mykanuBlfeport I itatedthBtthedntylinnaaedbyBnuiloii the import of wheat 
flonr •monnted to Hi oeiit* per baireL I would now atate ttwt if tb« wiue floor be 
ibipped to ths iaferior pTovioce of MinoB Ootbmi il would, In addition, be sabject to 
B provieion&l dnty of |t.Xt par barrel. The freiftlit charge on m barrel of flonr a dia* 
tanceof SOO miles on the GoYeranient railroad leading fkom thjsojtf into that provinoe, 
being, oa fiu" aft the road ia now completed, ll.iiti. A« Hioaa Oeraes contains a popa- 
latiuQ of over two milllona it can Im leea that its heavy tax can affect American flooi 
trade very mnob. 

Ameiioan itsauihipi for the Puifio trade. — Consul-General Andrews 
reports &om Bio de Janeiro nnder date of June 10, 1883, that — 

The new Amerioan ateamabip Mariposa, 1,939 tons, of the Oceanic Company, Sail 
Fianotsco, whither sbe ia bonnd, arrived at Bio on the 8th in sixteen days and 
twenty-two honrs from PhEladelphia. Her matter, U. Z. Howard, states that in lati- 
tude IIP 39' north, longitude 41° 49' west, May ST, he saw the wreck of a veaael, bot- 
tom aide np, the keel of which waa abont 150 feet long, with her prow broken off as 
if by oolliaioQ. From there being no graaa or shells attached to it, he Judged that 
the wreck had been recent. No apara were visible. In a general conversation Cap- 
tain Howard said the Mariposa would be employed between San Franciaoo and tbe 
Hawaiian Islands; that other ateamara were being bnilt at Philadelphia for the oame 
trade, and that Mr. Clang Spreckels, of Ban Francisco, the principal owner, had nude 
large investnienta in American machinery for angar milts in the Hawwian IslAnds, 
in the belief that the reciprocity treaty would continne. Captain Howard, who ia 
acquainted in Japan, ia of the opinion that Great Britain is there gaining an ascen- 
denoy oveir the United States in prestige. 

CoOte export* from Brwdl. — Under date of June 9, 1883, the consul- 
general at Bio de Janeiro reports ; 

The coffee export trade was unuanally light dnring the two preceding montha, be- 
ing to tbe United States 310,788 bags, or 87,tlll bags loea than during the oortespond- 
iug two mouths of 18»&. 

There seemed to be a dead lock at one time in the coffee trade, the exporters hold- 
ing out fur a higher price than the Amerioan purchasers were willing to gi re. A break 
was made during the past few days, the exporters getting their price. Tlte orop of 
this year hasnot been harvested. There ia nothing to indicate but that It will be » 
good one, though it ia thought that it will not be qnit« as abnodsnt aa that of last 

India and the United Stat«i.— Under dat« of Maroh 23, 1883, Consnl 
Famham, of Bombay, reports as tbllowa: 

The financial statement of the OovemmcDt of India for 18K(-'84 is Just out, and it 
bean upon America inasmuch aa the question of India's competing with the United 
States as for aa exporting wheat to Europe in concerned, America would appear to 
have au immense advantage over India excepting where wheat is shipped from San 
Francisco, as freight ia much lower across tbe Atlantic from seabcord points «f ship- 
ment excepting dan Francisco. But the Govenunent of India keeps iu view that 
about 40 per cent, of the wheat shipped &om the United States to Europe is shipped 
from San Francisco at a higher rate of freight than from India to Europe. The Gov- 
amment has just made a reduction of 18 per cent, on the railway chorae for freight on 
wheat to Calcutta and Bombay, and recommends that railwaya in ^dia should be 
eonstrnoted by private enterprise. Lord Ripon, the viceroy of India, has gone core- 
fblly into the figures, and he does not hesitate to say that he believea there is a deal 
of room for private enterprise in India, In 1870 not a pound of wheat was exported 
from Bombay. Last year the exports footed up to 8,3a9,[)d'i cwts. In 1873 only 
383,933 cwts. linseed were exported ftom Bombay. Last year the exports footed up 
to 3,199,670 owU. With only abont one-tenth of the railway that America has, India 
■hipped last year one-eighth of the whole qnantityof wheat sent to England fromoll 
parts of the world. 



VOTES: EOYPTIAM FINANCES. 183 

XfTPtiUL liBMUMft. 

The foltoviog table exhibits the receipts and ezpenditore of the 
Egyptian GoTenuneDt daring the year eading December 31, 1882. 



L DiTMtHaewad tUM: I^jrpUui poiutd*. 

L*nd-Ux 6,836,867 

Other MMSMd taxes 3(M,9ftt 

■i. Indiract taxaa Mid nveniias ; 

jMtioe a6a.S90 

Gnatom-taooaM : 711,600 

Poats 8r,«» 

City-toll Kl.DM 

Salt _ iaS,370 

OtbarindirMt taxeaaodravennM 347,458 

i. Railwavs, telegrapha, and port of Alexandria; 

HailwayaandtalegraiAu 1,191,700 

HelonlD Ballway 6,830 

Port of Alexatidria 65,0IR 

4. KhediTisl poaMl ttaamen , B5,000 

5. RcTCDDea Mother State admliiiatrBtfoDa 88,980 

S. DiTere revannoB 74.075 

7. Qivera prodaotB 43,404 

e. BeimbniaeiDent of BQuiB advanced to the vlllagera 36,070 

9. Sams retainad from aalarlaa of employes to meet peniton paymenta..- 56,560 

8,946,556 
To be deducted : 

Dead direct tasoa 900,000 

Total receipta, |43,7», 780, or 8,746,556 



1. Tribate of Egypt to the Soblime Porte 678,486 

«. PubUcdebt 3,760,997 

3. Civil Dat and allowaneea 315,000 

4. Maleh Saaieh (srirate cabinet of the Khedive) 59,725 

J. Coancil of mlnlstera 9,293 

a UiaiatrT oTforelgn affain 13,16:1 

'. Hiniatryor Ooaace 603,476 

i. HinistiT of war and marine : 

War 422,961 

UailBe: 70,000 

0. Ministry of pnbliclnstmction 89,464 

lu. Ministry of Interior 574,196 

11. Ministry of Joatloe 281,754 

U. MinUtry of public works 439,270 ' 

\3. Railwaya, telegraphe, and port of Alexandria: 

Bailwaya and lelegnpha 471,912 

Port of Alexandria 36,737 

Rairway ofHelonAn 6,616 

II. Coatom-hoasea 63,579 

15. Poata 80,000 

16. Kb«diTlaI poatal steamers 1SO,000 

17. Salt 49,088 

l"*. Proviaton-atoree and "8taonnBbs"of the State 15,395 

l^(. ResFrred ftands for oontineeneles 50,000 

■Ji>. Pensions i 966.964 

Total, $«,319,840, or 8,463,968 

AGERCT ANP CONSITLATE-GENEBAIi OP TBB ITnITEI] STATES, 

Caibo, May 14, 1883. 



,„i,z.d by Google 



184 NOTES: ADULTEBATION OP FRENCH WDJES AND LIQUORS. 

AdvltflTRtioiL of winea and liqnon in Fran«e.— Under date of March 10, 
1883, CoDSol Wilson, of Nantea, reports as follows : 

Eeferriug to my dispatch No. )G, and that portion of it relating to the mnniclpal 
Isbotatorf at Paris, I now liave the honor to iDform the Department that I am credi- 
bly iuformed that tha publication of ita reports monthly, as naa been its practice since 
ita eBtabliahmeat, Is to be sappreesed ; that this is done b; the prefect of police npon 
the application of the society of wholesale wine mercbaute. I bave known heretofore 
that there was mncb opposition among the wine niercbant« to this pablioation. This 
laboratory hus ptoved a most efficient preventive of the adulteratloD and foleifloatlou 
of food and drink, and its aid ^ronld have been greator with more extended poblioity. 
II would have been much increased, if pushed to the extent of publishing the namea 
of the persons having sold, or offered for sale, the artiolee analysed. That the wi&e 
merchants have procured, oi labored to procnre, the suppression of the publication of 
these reports, la evidence gainst the bonafi4a of their declared wiUingneM to aid in 
the sQppremion of the trajDo in adnlterated and falsified wines and liquon. 

Tobaoco in Churmany. — Consul Harper, of MaDich, ander date of March 
14, 1883, supplies the following statistics coucerniog the crop, importa- 
tion, and oonsDmptiOD of tobacco in the Empire of Oermaay: 

In the year lSdl-'B2 there was planted in the German Empire 67,331 acTt:a with to- 
bacco. The crop was more favorable than in the nine preceding years. The total 
Talne of foreign tobacco imported into Germany iu 18T8~'~9 was ^'{,558, ODD. Thia 
amount fell to (5,164,600 iu ISTS-'SO, but rose again in 18Hl''e2 to |11,471,600. The 
duty on imported tobacco in Id81-'g2 amonnted to (5,960,351.10. The average oon- 
anmptioD of raw tobacco for maunfacturing purposes durinc the past fen years has 
been 74,403} tons yearly, or S^g pounds pur bead of the population. 

Agrumltore in Hayti. — Consnl Goutier, of Gape Haytien, nnder date of 
March 28, 1863, reports that the OoTerument, for the encoaragement of 
agriculture, has presented several measures which have been sanctioned 
by the legislature, viz : 

" Diminishing the duties on cofiee," and to supply the loes of revenue on this staplct 
"by augmenting the duties on all importations"; " Belling and leasing all govern' 
meet lands" ; " contracting a loan" ; " giving government lands to parties who reside 
upon, cnttivate, and improve them for a stat^ nnmber of years; ' " obtainine for 
and dUtribiitiug to agriculturista different kinda of seeds, principally cotton see^ in 
order tbat tliey may vary their culture"; "encouraging the better preparation of 
cottee, the planting of f^uit trees, and the extensive cultivation of the cocoa tree." 

The cocoa tree (chocolate tree) is indlEenons to San Domingo, and was transplanted 

in Hayti in 1665. The sugar-cane was brought ftoia the Canary Isles to San Domingo 

I in 1506, and the coffee tree was transplants here from the island of Martinique in 

1738. Columbus found both cotton and tobacco when he discovered this island. 



The Oovemment will enconraie the cultivation of the sngai-cane for the purpose of 
making sugar. An agricultural bank will bo established during the present year, 
with a capital of 50,000,000 francs, where agriculturists and others can obtain loans 
on mortgdge, with easy terms of payment. 

Anatria and the Borton Exhibition.— Under date of May 26, 1383, OoostU- 
General Weaver, of Vienna, reports to the Department as follows: 

The efforts made to aecure a fair representation of Vienna industry and art nt the 
Boston Exhibition are being crowned with remarkable success, 

Allhongb it wiw at first feared that the lack of time from the issuance of the circn- 
lars to the opening of the exhibition would prevent many from participating, who 
otherwise might have done no, yet at the instance of a few individuals, the patronage 
of a large and weiitthy commurciat society of this city, the Auatro- Hungarian Export 
Association was secured, to tlie end that hy the time Mr. Hoaa, the fcneial agent of 
the exhibition arrived, success had in general been secured by the adherence of from 
sixty to seventy of the largest mauufactarers and exporters of thia city, compriaing 
the glass, porcelain, hutton. leather, fancy articles, musical instrumenta, beer, and 
other industriea of this city and suburbs. 

Last Tuesday evening a meeting of the exhibitors and others intereated was bold 
in the exchange attended by about one huadroil individuals for the purpose of making 
arrangements for the necesaary committees and delegares. Under the auspicea of the 
Export- Vere in above mentioned, a local committee was formed, and a resolution paaaed 
to send out two delegates to Boston. It was hoped that they might so far receive Iho 



notes: silk trade of FBA.NCE FOB iSe-J. lo5 

recognitioii of tht GovernmBnt that the miniiter of oommerce wonld nunc iVom bis 
department »t least one member of the Vieaoa committee, and tbat the Government 
might aathorize their conanl at Bo«tou to aot vith the delegates wnt oat, and tbna 
give an offleial cbwact«r to the oommiMlon at BoBtjm. At all events, comparat 



firms of this city, to the number ol 
the piealdent of the Eiport-Vereln, a 
and others. 



led by the Zealand untiring energy of Mr, Haas 



Snk tnd« of TruuM fbr 1888.— Tbe followiug is a report by Gonsal 
Peixotto, of Lyons : 

The Bilk oommeroe of France for 1883, acoordiug to the very latest attainable Bta- 
tiatica (exporta and imports) hoe amounted to |66,006,000. 

Inolnding aU kinds of silk mannfootured goods, the exporta amonnttd to 958,093,000 ; 
tbe imports, |7,gi3,000. 

In 1881 tho exports were 947,^000; in 1880,(45,163,000. 

The increasn in the exports of silk manniaetnres Srom France to foreign coontriee 
for the past year over 1881 were (10,008,000, and ever those of 1880 113,^1,000. 

The diScrent classes and amounts of these goods for the past three years were as 
follows : 

ExporU of Jtwwk tin gv>d», 1880-1883. 



PUi goods (pnMHllk) 

Fimmd and imaej (pim tllk) 

If IihI lOk roods (|Mun sad nncj 

flilk nspeoand nuw* 

Stik tnin and ls»r_ 

Silk kaodkantaJab, orsTats, An.. 

BflkbootuT 

Silk trlmmlnn (pure Ud mixed), 

SllhilbbaB*(Blx*d> 

SUk Rood* of different nrlety ... 

Total , 



NS,SS8,0M 

2.8H.0M 

it.us.im 
3.iai,ooo 

'772,000 

sa^ooo 

8.88(1,000 



*B,m.D«o 

s. an, too 

U,l)W000 

a. Bi 0,000 



S,O8fl|00O 

a, 183,000 
2,si«,ooa 

380,000 



4T,18S,000 I S8. 003,000 



It ta proper to state thaf the increase iu the exports for tbe past vear occurred dur- 
ing the flrat half; fbr example, the exports for the first half of 1882 were 133,931,000 ; 
thoae for the second half, 935,863,000. 

Now, in the two previonB years the heaviest exiwrts occurred 
of each year. Had, therefore, the bnsiuess of the second balf of 
the nsaol flgnee, i. «., the nsual linslness of those seasons, this jeai 
on exceedingly favorable one for tbe French silk industry. Eve: 
not as unprofitable as it is generally sought to make it appear. 

The Imports of silk manafactores (goods of all varieties) for 1«PS, amonnteil 
97,913,000; In IBSl they were 99,650,000; in 1880, 98,106,000. Tbe ilecresee in these 
■eaill-— ■ -=— ■ -■-•'-— ' ""— 



1 the second half 
883 reaponded to 
would baTe been 
as it was, ft was 



imports D 



n pnre sUk and mixed silk and cotton ti 



Qiiiu uid Japui silk. — The conanl at Lyons, ander date of Febraary 
16, 1883, slioviii; the exports of Cbiua and Japan silks fi>r 1867 to 18S2, 
sayB that — 

As the manufacturers of the TJuited States employ very eonslderable quantities of 
China and Japan silks, it will be Interesting to learn the export of this material fh>m 
thoae conntries extending over a namber of yeara, The largest part of Chinese aud 
Japanese silk is said to be consumed at heme, but the Governments of those countriej 
fbmish no statistics confirming this assertion. I am, however. Inclined to beli^ 
that the statement If trae. From all the sources (private and otherwise) that Lfave 
been able to gather, I think the following table will be found to be reliable ii.^oiitb. 
senting the export for the periods named ; 



^dbyGoogle 



NOTES; POBBIGIT TBADE OP JAPAN 
Ttftal txporU of CMm ani Japan ^ikfrDat 1867 Ut 1883. 



■»~. 


8luut|!h«L 


Cuton. 


YokohaBUk 


ToUIt. 




ais 

ST, set 

7^312 

II 

M,SM 

SSI 

1«,<MT 


IS 
Is 


11, Ml 


as 

SI, Ml 

Ot,Ul 
















,a!s 








'»S 





















Foroiga trade of Japan. — According to Japanese official BtstiaticB, 
transmitted to the Dspartaient by Jdiaister Bingham, of Tokei, the 
foreign trade of Japan was as follows daring the month of April of the 
present year: Exports, 1,760,058 yen; imports, 2,3^807 yen — a bal- 
ance of trade agamat the empire of 473,748 yen. The trade during 
the month of March, accoidiug to the same authority, was : Exports, 
2,821,301 yen ; imports, 2,626,732 yen— a balance in favor of the em- 
pire of 194,569 yen. 

Diitrew in the Kadeiia blands.— Under date of June 9, 1883, Consol 
Du PontSyle, of Fimchal, reports as follows to tiie Department: 

Keferring to m; report of February 12, 1883, nbereiu I stated tbat there was a 
acaroity of food ftud Riilnre of oropa in Porto Snnto, I bare now to report Ui»t like ooa- 
ditions begin to prevail la this, the principal island of the Uodeira gronp. Raia is 
geuerall.v expeotod In Madeira dniiag the winter months, and fair settled -wetther 
about the lat of May. This year the order seems to bare been reversed. The winter 
months were dry and clear, while May was very rainy. The coneeqnences h>ve,b«en 
disastrous. It is anticipated that the potato crop—the obief reliance of the people — 
will laTEely fail. Beans will probably share a stmllor fate. The wine orop will be 
poor ana short. SuBerins among the poor already exists. 

lu the midst of this satfering there is plenty louked np. Ample deposits of com are 
held by importing merchants. But so heavy are the import dntles exacted by the 
Oovorument that importers cannot aObrd to sell except at prices which the poor oan- 
DOt afford to pay. 

So serious is the distress that the oivilgovemoc has addressed a letter to his connoil, 
aBkiuE what measures they advise to meet the emergency. The oonncil has advised: 

1. The temporary suspension of import duties on botn the coin in bond and that 
which may anive. 

2. The conoession of large credits for pub]lo works, inorder that the many enforoedly 
idle may tind work. 

Should the first measure be adopted, it will doubtless lead to an expanuon in the 
Americou trade. 

P. S. — Sloce writing the above I learn that the QovernmeDt has issned a dBorea by 
which the corn now in bond, and that which may arrive prerions to deptsmlMr 30, is 
to be admitted &ee of duty. 

French wine harrert of 1882.— Under date of January 12, 1883, Oon- 
^(U Piezutto, of Lyons, supplies the following statistics: 

T&vwiue harvest of the consular district of Lyons for the year 18M, including the 
followiis^g departments, prodnoed 4,021,51j hectoliters, repreaeating about iiH,473,330 
gallons, -.livtded oa follows: 

Heolollten. 

■*-'H;-u""" 553,600 

Ardfeohe .... -, g-j 



NOTES: COHDITIOB OF CEOPS Ih EUBOPE OEBMAMY. 187 

• HsotoUten. 

DouW 43,353 

Drtrae 63.2M 

latee «3,a60 

Jure 190,134 

Hftnt«-Loire 77,623 

Hifcrre 133.029 

Poy-de-DCme »00,248 

BhAoe 466,125 

SMtaw-et-Loiie 553,968 

JS»Toy 308.126 

Total '. 4,331.615 

From lOTO to 1S7B the annual huveeta avenged 11,880,000 gallons. Among the 
deuartmeuta which PBTtianlarlj safibred wen thoee of the Tosgea, Charente, Loire- 
InrerienTe, lodre-et-Loire, LoIre-ei-Cher, Teudte, and Mame, whioh loet about one- 
hslt Following thaee eame Hane-et-Ijoira, Tiena«, Nl^re, Daux-Mnea, CM«-d'Or. 
TlieM detteieat nanlti. wen iMt eBtlre^ due to phyUoxera ; the teaifMstun exerolMd 
* peonliariy bad inflBeaee, tbe waather being geuoallj nn&roroble. Motwithibtnd- 
ing thia dlMoiu^^K tabliM> tho wine grotren of Fnaoe, having leoonatitated their 
-' — ohetiah good hope' '~~ "- ' '' "■' — "■- '■ ->=" — -«■ 



the atnio«Fpliei«. 
total hatTM 



lopea for tbe ooming year, of oonree mA}eot to the ooiulitloiu of 



Tbe total harreot of Franse for the year waa S7S,4(H),744 gallona. ThU reaolt was 
inferior to the harreat of 1B81 by Tl,65l,»86 galloua. 

CONDITION OF THB CROPS IN SUBOPE. 

CodbdI Dn Boia, of Aix-la-Cliapelle, aDder date, of Jane 12, 1383, 
submits the following report on the condition of tbe crops iu Europe: 

CHOPS \f OBRMANY. 

Fur the paat six weeics the weather has been very dry, and many of the BKrianlt* 
Dial diatriots of Qermany are in preesing need of rain. WhUe thia dronght has not 
seriously damaged the crops, It has made them all more or leas baokward. Notwith- 
atandlDg thia baokwardness the prospeots of a good harvest have not been more en- 
couraging far Mvetal years. To the Oennaa forraer this is a great relief even though 
it be a promise tliat may not be fulfilled. 

Years have passed since a good medium harvest, lioth in quantity, and qnality, has 
been garnered in this land, and the agricaltnrat interests have gradually aet«riorated 
until at present the srain produced is of such inferior quality that it is doubtful if 
the gr^n-prodnolns interests of the empire were protected by a higher tariff whether 
Oerman wheat could compete sncoesstnlly with American wheat in the firat-class 
markets of the country. 

Never before In the histoiy of the past twenty years has the grain price beeu so 
low as at present, which is traced to two canses — cheap American wheat, and poor 
Oerman wheat. 

The early part of lant winter waa mild, and not withstanding the fact that bnt lit- 
tle snow fbll, and frqquent and severe frosts occurred, the seeds developed well. The 
spring plantiDK was successfnliy accomplished, which is a boon the German farmer 
has not enjofM for six years. Bye has an exoellent Sta^, with a good acreage. It 
stands Tery high, sud is now doina finely under the influence of a warm rain. 

In Prussia, especially iu East Pruesta, the prospects ore especially cheering. In 
some places wheat and rye sown in poor soil were turned under, owing to a meogBr 
growtb, but the Bprin<t planting is now in a prosperous state and bids fair to yield a 
good average. 



In Hanover, rye has l>een affected by the dry weather, bnt recent rains have mended 

' a great measure the injury caused by tbe drought. Jobannis rye is the most hardy 

is year. In sections where the other rye is backward, and of rather thin growth, 



this sort Is in fine condition, and promises an ezoellent harvest. 

Clover, which waa a short time since suflering much injury from tbe dryness, is 
BOW doing well. Oats are exceptionally fine. Vegetables are backward, bnt aro now 
dovel^^ing fast. The potato crop has not been in a better condition for years, and 
the aereage is larger than usaal. 

Hops are all that could be desired. The ocreaee is reported as being larger than 
last year, whleh fact has already had a visible effect on the market. 

The most promising of all afrrlcnltnial interests at present Is the f^att culture. 
Those interested in the prodncDon of wine conaldei a snccessfiil vintage this year as 
a strong prulSability, while all other kinds of f^nit are in a most flonnshing stale. 



188 H0TE8: CONDITION OP CROPS IN EUEOPE — EUBSIA — ITALY. 

CROPS IN nvsat.Kr' AXD Brsau. 

From HnDgarf and Biusift the reports are, m a rale, fATorable. In some sections 
oompl^nt is aeard DODoernliig the bBokwardneas of the cereals. The rains which 
have now set in may overoome that difficulty, aa it was the Tesnlt of dry weather. 



From Italy the reports are satisfactory, especially from Lomhardy, where all kinds 
of Tegetables are tn an excsUent state. 

InUieproTlnoeof Venioe and thronghont the Piedmont district there ianniveraal 
complaint about the dronght, bat in apite of this tlie farmers are expecting a rich 
harvest. 



re not at all roliahle, bacanse the climate, 

~r J J, r — J»* year in ""7 fi™* report conoerning the 

oondilion of the crop* I reported a moat favorable state of things, and observed that 
nothing coold disappoint the high hopes of the Oerman farmer except some ^reat 
calamity, snch aa an endnring drought or a cold, rainy season. In a dispatch written 
in SeptembBT I wasforced, however, to acknowledge that my prediction wonld not be 
realized, becanee one of the calamitieii which I mentioned had ocoaned. A rainy 
season began in July, and the cold, damp summer whiah followed retarded both the 
growth and the harvests of the varions cereals. While the quantity harvested was 
greater than it had been for years, the sontioaed dampness and cold bad injnred the 
quality to snch an extent that, as far as valne was concernml, only half a crop was 
harvested. Thus, whilo the outlook at prceent is very pTomising, Mill the usualoold, 
wet season may set in. as it Is now threatening to do, in which case the prospects 
which now promise at least a good average crop will not be realized. 



Diciiiized by Google 



INTDEX. 



A. 

Fag«. 

Adnltemtion of food, dmik, and medtcine ... 105-110 

winet and liqnon la Pi«iic« 184 

AgrioQltiin in India 31-33 

InBalgium 1S2-195 

inH«ytl -• IM 

Alsace: cotton msDU&ctuTea Id 159-163 

AmericAn mefttoin Qermftuy and Pranoe 13,14 

Amorican trade In HadagaHoar 10-13 

trade inTamstaTo. 10 

on tbeaonthweet ooast of Madagascar 11 

American prodnots in Java 14-lS 

M. Indian wheat 19-24 

wheat, hov it is imported Into France 24-96 

plows and fanning mUls for India 31-33 

pork in Franoe 49,50 

atcanuhipe for the Pacific trade ISi 

AmeriiA, Sonth; oommerclal travelers and trade Jonmals in 46,49 

Angora goats 1-10 

yield of wool S 

food of 3 

climate for 3 

proUts of breeding . 3 

mohair, mannfaotnre and export thereof ............ .... 4 

the kida, slipping season, Ac 5 

coat of 6 

transportation of 7 

care of , a 

partioalars of, a sale of........... 9,10 

Annexation: British, of New Ouiooa 

Artificial coloring of wines 110,111 

Asphalt: trade of Cuba 71-76 

Anstriaand the Boston exhibition 164 



Belgium: farming in 122-125 

commercial mnsenm of- 148 

mill wages in 155,156 

Bradford estate in Great Britain 34-47 

Brasil: patent law of 114-118 

import dnt; on fioor 168 

ooB'eeof 182 

Trade with Dutch India 18 



^dbyGoOgle 



British: estatoa, the Bradford cUiins 45-47 

silk fiidiiBti7 79 

dwelling BacaminodBtioii in Qlaagoir 118-lSl 

coffee Uade 138-132 

annexation of New Ouinea 174-176 



Camphor: mannfactareof in Japan 97,98 

Canada: tariff cbangea in 54-56 

howgovetned 56-56 

Canal; St. Petembnrg-Cronstadt 148-150 

Cattle: in Mexico and the United Btat«B 39-45 

China: aiUi of 185 

CoSfee: the world 125-147 

production of 126 

conBomption of 186 

consninption in Enrope and the United States...^ 137 

snpply to Great BriUin 128-130 

ra-export of, to other ooantriea 131 

consumption in Europe.. 131 

conenrnption of, for last 16 years 132 

export of Jamaica . ... . ....... 133 

export of Ceylon 13* 

export of British India 135 

impoTte of the United States 135,136 

France 136 

Germany 137 

Holland ., 138 

Belginm 139 

Denmark 140 

Norway 142 

Sweden.. 142 

Rnssia 143 

Aasttia-Hnngary 144 

IWly 145 

SwitMrland 145 

Portugal 146 

recapitulation of trade in 147 

exports of Brazil 182 

Colnmliia: Manchester print trade of 33,34 

and it* people 111-114 

Coloring; artificial,' of wines , 110,111 

Commerce : of Madagaacar 10-13 

of Dntch India 16 

of France 29 

of the Kiver Plate C3-66 

of Geneva .- 68-70 

ofServia 91-97 

of Samoa 98-101 

of the Pacific 1« 

Commercial: relations between France and the United States .... . 29-31 

travnlers and trade Jonrnala in South America . 4S 

mnsenm of Belgium 148 

Cotton man afiict tires iu Alsace 159-163 

goods trwie of Penang l&^-lT4 



.Google 



INDEX. m 

CiouBUdti St. PetenbDtg oftuftl 148-149 

Cioi«: rilk, for 1883 85-66 

oondHfoD of the, in Europe 1B7 

Cnb»:Mphftlttntdeof. 71-76 



Dntieain tlie Madeira Islnnda 186 

Dnty. (&«Tuiff.) 

Dwelling-hoaM ac«omin«dAtion« inQhwgow llB-191 



Egyptian flaaQCM.^ : 183 

Emigntion from FrouM to the United Statofl 39 

Enrope: lUk eonRomptlon of 89,83 

exporlBof B4,B5 

condition of crops of 187 

Exhibit! ona : AoBtrlft and the Boston .' 164 

Exports: of A.ngorBgo&t(i...... ... . ....... .... ....... 5 

from HadagascBT 11 

to and fh>m Dutch Indies 17,18 

of Kew Zealand meat 5S-43 

oftheBiTer Plate to the United States 63-66 

of Siriss silk ribbona to the United SUtes 66-68 

from Qeneva to the United States 68-70 

from Lyonato the United States 70,71 

of EuropMn dlk goods 84,85 

of Servia 93.96 



Faimingln Fi«uoe 132-lt5 

Floor t BrazlHan import daty on 189 

France; oonsamption of American meats in 13,14 

how American wheat is imported Into..,.. 24-38 

oommerciai relations between the United States and S9-31 

pivhibition uf American pork in *..,. 49,50 

exports from Lyons to the United States 70,71 

supply and sonaumption of silk in.. 83,84, 

wines, falsiacatian of, in 88 

Taiae of landed property in 121,13!i 

adnlteratlon of wines and liquors in 184 

■ilk trade of, 188» 185 

wine harvest of IBC 



Geneva. (Stt Switzerland.) 

Germany: consumption of American meats in 13,14 

prohibition of pork in 50-&9 

consequential effect* of German prohibition of American pork in.. 5S--&4 

prices in 102 

tobacco in 184 

Glasgow: dwelling-hoose acconunodations in 118-191 

Goat, the Angora 1-10 



^dbyGoogle 



H. 

Hayti, Agriculture iu 184 

I. 

Imports: of MadasosetiT 11,12 

Aineriaan goods into Java ., 14-lS 

of France 89 

Indian r« Amerioau wheat 19-^ 

India: Ameriaan plows and mtllaibr 31-33 

and She United States \m 

IndDstry: goat breeding of Angora 3-10 

wheat of India , 14-24 

iToodenware of New Zealand 36-:)9 

cattle of Mexico , 39-45 

meat of Kew Zealand 68-63 

asphalt of Cuba 11-76 

the world's sElk 76-31 

camphor, of Japan , , 97,98 

coffee of the world 125-148 

potash of Btassfart 153-1S4 

Italy: resumption of specie payments in 90.91 

J. 

Japan: mannbotareof camphor la 97,9!J 

silks of 185 

foreign trade of 186 

Java: American products In 14-18 

Journals, trade, in South America 48,49 

L. 
Labor. (See Wages.) 

Law: patent, of Brazil 114-118 

lAud: valneof, in France 131,133 

LlTiog: cost of, in Alsace 162 

in Germany 103 

Lyooa: exports from, to the United States 70,71 

M. 

Madagascar: American trade in 10-13 

Madeira Islanda : distress in 186 

Manchester: print trade of, in Colombia . . 33,34 

Hanufactnre: of camphor in Japan 97,98 

of cotton la Alsace 159-163 

Meats: oonsomption of American, in Oermany and France 13, 14 

export of New Zealand 58-63 

Medicine: food and drink, adnlteration of .' 105-110 

Mexico: cattle trade with the United States 39-4S 

Millar fanning, fbr India 31-33 

wages in Belglom 155, 15« 

statistioe of woolen, at Nantes 15&.156 

Mnsenm; Belgian oommerclal 148 

N. 

Nantes. (See France.) > 

New Guinea: British annexation of..... 174-176 

Uie island of 176-181 

New Zealand: meat export of 56 



,v Google 



Pve- 

Pkoiflc trade: American Btoamaliips far the 183 

Penuig: outton goods trade of 169-174 

PIdwh: Amerioui, aod fauaing mill for India 31-33 

Pork: American, inFrBnoe ,. 49, 5(^ 

Fotaah iaduatr; of Staaeflirt ISS-IU 

Prices of Angora goftta 6-9 

v-heat, American, AaatraUMi, and Indian 33- 

Manchester cottona in Colombia 3^4 

wooden ware In New Zealand 36 

oattle, United States and Mexican 40, 4X 

Hphaltin Cnlia 74 

rilk of the world 76-87 

InGenuany 103,103 

Priata: Manchester, trade in Colomhia 33,34 

Prodncta: Ameriean, in Java 14-18 

the Bilk, of Lyon* 66,a7 

ofSorvia 91-^ 

of Samoa.* 98-101 

Prohibition of American pork in France . > 49,60 

German 5&-6» 

cDnaeqnentiBl effect* of 63-64 



Railroada of Veneznela 69,90 

B«flnmpIion of apeoie pa^^entsin Italj 90,91 

Hiver Plate: exporta of the, to the United gtateg 63-60 



d prodncta of 96-101 

Ainertoan vf. firitiah and German trade in 96 

American ahlpplngand imports at 99 

Gennan predominance on the Booth Seaa 99,100 

■tatlBtioa of trade of 101 

Serbia: Ibrrign commeice of 91-97 

area and popnlatlon 91 

goTemment 91 

expoTta from 92 

import* into 93 

tr*deof, generollr '. 94 

enitoma reoeipta 94 

hogaof 94 

special note of eonanl-general 94 

plom orop of 96 

grain yield of :.. 96 

hide bade of 9B 

wioe prodnotioo : 96 

Import of patraleiun > 9S 

■alt ; 99 

mannfbotoree in 90,97 

obataolea to bnaliieaB 97 

SbipplOK: ehorgeaof 8t.l!Iasalie.. 



Amerieou, fbr the Paclflc. 
ISJULTSS 



.Google 



Silk: exportsof Switzorland 66-6a , 

the world's iDdnatrj 76-^1 

conBDinption of, in Europe H-it ! 

and snpplyof, in Frauce B!,^i 

European exports of Si,S 

crop for 1883 f6,S 

prodDction of, in L;oiis S6,^ 

trade of, iu France in 1882 ISi I 

of CMdh and Japan K> 

Singapore: textile trade MB-lffil | 

Specie payments: resumption of, in Italj 90,91 

Staasfurt: potash iudnstry of I52-I5i 

Statistics: of Angora goat 7-1" 

of trade in MadagsBcar IB, 11 i 

of bacon and lard consumption iu Antwurp II 

of trade in Java .' IG-li I 

of wheat trade in India , IMt 

of trade between tlie UDit*^d States and Ftanee / 2S-31 

of tlie wooden ware trade of Neir Zealand 35-^ 

of cattle trade, United States and Mexican 40,41 

of the trade of the River Plate : 63-^1 

of Swiss silk exports 66-^\ 

of Samoa Se-Hlj 

of coffee of the world 175-14"' 

of a woolen mill at Nantes 156-15i' 

of cotton maaufactnres iu Alsace lS6-t5'- 

trade of Penang 179-1T<| 

St. Petetsbarg-Crouetadt Canal H8-t'l 

Switzerland: exporte of silk ribbons of, to the United States (i6-ti^ 

from Genera, to the United States 6,S.?-'! 



Tamatave: trade of 1'! 

Tariff changes in Canada 1 W-M 

Textile trade of Singapore 1G3A& 

Tobacco in Germany ,. H 

> Trade, American: in Madagascar liM^ 

at Tamatave W 

on the southwest coast of Madagascar 11-1- 

with Java 14-1; 

Journals in South America 4?.t 

asphalt of Cuba .■- 71-? 

textile of Singapore 163-1'' 

cotton goods of Penaag 169-lT 

of the PaoiBc; American steamships for the ... 1* 

Travelers: American commeroial, in Sonth America ........ 49.1 



United States: commeroial relations between Pranoe and the.. 

cattle in the United States and Mexico.. 

exports from the Biver Plate to the ..... . . 

exports of Swiss silk ribbon to the 

exports of Geneva to the .. .... 

exports fhim Lyons to the 

India and the..... 



TalaeB of Angora goat 1 1-10 

wheat S3 

woodeovare 36 

cattle 40 

exports of Oeneva 6!) 

landed propertjr in France 121,122 

TeDetnela; railroada in 89,90 



W^cfl: mill, of Belginm 1&5,15G 

Wheat: Indian m. Amertoaa 19-24 

bow American is imported into France 24-2d 

Wine; falsi fl cation of French WS 

artifloial coloring of 110,111 

adulteration of, in France 1H4 

harveat of France, 1882 186 

Woodenware: Americaa, in New Zealand 3&--39 

Oerman and English 36 

prices of ,. , 36 

of Hew Zealand 36 

American machinery 37 

cost of freight on ; 38 

Wool: yield of the Angora goat-... 

Woolen mill at Nantes: statistics of 156-158 



^dbyGoogle 



idb,Googlc 



UNITED STATES CONSULAR REPORTS. 



REPORTS 



CONSULS OF THE UNITED STATES 



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC., 



CO]Sr8XJLA.R DISTRICTS. 



No. 32.— August, 1883. 



PUBLISHED BT THE DBFAKTMBKT OF STATE, ACCOHDIKG TO ACT OF CONOBB.SS. 



WASHINGTON: 

aOVBRNMENT PBINTINO OPPIOB. 
1883. 



,:.db Google 



idb,Googlc 



CONTElSrTS. 



CONTINENT OF AFRICA. 

American trade in Mauritius 200-202 

(Eeport by CousdI PrentU, of Port Louis.) 

CONTINENT ofr AMEBICA. 

Trade between Barrauquilla and thetlnit«d States I95-2U0 

(Report of CoBBul Dawson.) 
Trade of the Bahama bland '. 20!i-a06 

(Report of Conanl McLain, of Nassau,) 
Trade between Port Stanley and St. Thomas, and the United Statea 207-206 

(Beport by Commorcial Agent CarroU.) 
Condition of trade in Ontario 209-aiO 

(Report by Commercial Agent Bnfflugtou, of Chathaoi.) 
The protective poliay of Canada 217-219 

(Beport by Cousnl Crawford, of Coaticook.) 
Tho Valley of Monterey 280-S23 

(Beport b; Consul Campbell.) 
Colombia and its people 283-326 

(Report by Minister Scruggs, of Bogota.) 
Patent laws of Mexico 266-269 

(Beport by Consul Sntton, of Matamoros.) 
Foreign commence of Guatomala 269-271 

(Report by Consul Titna.) 
Minee ofTeuenaela 271-272 

(Beport by Consul Beooh, of Puerto Cabello. ) 
Haxican exports 378-^75 

(Report by Minister Morgan.) 
The precious metals of Mexico 277,278 

(Beport from oflBcials of Mexico through Minister Morgan.) 
Settlement of the national debt of Mexico 292-2S3 

(Beport by Minister Morgan.) 
Banks and banking in Colombia 293-296 

(Report by Consal Dawson, of Barranquilla. ) 
Commercial, financial, and political condition of the Argentine Bepnblio 395,396 

(Beport by Minister Osbom.) 
The industrial prognsi of Canada 296-296 

(Beport by Commercial Agent Bobbins, of Ottawa.) 
Haytian tariff changes 296-300 

(Beport by Consul Oontier, of Cape Haytien.) 
Agricnltnral progress in the Argentine Republic 309-332 

(Beport by Consul Baker, of Buenos Ajirea.) 
Mexico inviting immigration 332-;M't 

(Report by Minister Morgan.) 



^dbyGoogle 



IV CONTENTS, 

CONTINENT OF A§IA. 

AmericBU trade in Asia Minor 1^^91 

(Eeport of CodbqI SteTeni, of Smyrna.) 
Tea ICBde of Jftpan 360-266 

(Report by CodsqI Stahal, of Osftkn.) 
The Seyobelles Archipelago 34B-363 

(Eeport by Consul Mnssey.) 

AIT§TBALASIA. 

Iron and steel trade of New Zealand 280-384 

(Beport by ConBal Griffln, of Aockland.) 
New Zealand iron-sand, and American separatora S85-287 

(Beport of Coneul QrifBn.) 
Fidelity gaarantee policies iu Australia 387-361 

(B«pott by ConHol- General 8penoer,^)f Molboame.) 

CONTIWENT OF EVBOPE. 

Our new tariff and British manufactures 191-196 

(Beport by Consul Dockery, of Leeds.) 
American proprietary medicines in Belgium 311,313 

(Beport by Consul Tanner, of Liege.) 
Foreign commerce of Belgium 31^317 

(Report by Consul Steuart, of Antwerp.) 
American salted meats in France 21£>-330 

(Translated trom La Oironde, by Consul Boosevelt.) 
Electric locomotive headlights 236-237 

(Report by Consul -General Weaver, of Vienna. ) 
Shipbnllding in Leith 2!i8 

(Beport by Consul Leonard.) 
Straw goods trade of Italy 338-331 

(Report by Consnl Welsh, of Florence.) 
Spanish law on bottomry bonds 331,332 

(Report by Consul Marston, of Malaga.) 
Crops and flour mills of Hungary , .! 333,333 

(Beport by Consnl Sterne, of Buda-Peeth.) 
Cntlery industry of Sheffield 233--.i3» 

(Report by Consul Webster.) 
Dairy experiments In Denmark S3tM361 

(Report by Consul Byder, of Copenhagen.) 
Average value of Italian imports and exports %l-260 

(Beport by Consnl Welsh, of Florence.) 
The precious metals In France 276 

(Report by Minister Morton.) 
Mineral and metal indnstries of France 279,260 

(Beport by Coneiit Peixotto.) 
Commerce and products of Greece , 300-309 

(Report by Consnl- General Scbnyler.) 
Hygi en ie exhibition iu Berlin 353,354' 

(Report by Minister Sargent.) 
Importation of wines at Bordeanx.... ,.. 354,355 

(Beport hy Consnl Roosevelt.) 
The new fishery board of Scotland 355,356 

(Beport by Consnl Locke, of Leith.) 
Italian importa and exports 357 

(Report by Consnl Dnncan, of Nsples.) _. 

r,.,iz.dbXt.OOglc 



CONTENTS. V 

FoMign oommetoe of Pottagal 358 

(Boport by Consnl-Oeneial FrtuioiB, of Liabon.) 
OermaD imports Kod exports 358-363 

(Report by Commeroial Agent Smith, of Hayenoe.) 
iDoreMe of BelgiftD import duties ^. 363,364 

(Report by Consul Wilsoii, of BroaselB. ) 
Spanish wine in France 364-367 

(Bepott by CoDsnl Bbodee, of Bonen.) 
FoeUI saviDgs banks In ADstria 368-374 

(Seport by Conanl-Oeneral Weaver, of Vienna.) 
Denmark as a KntiQ-prodnoing conntry 374-370 

(Beport by CoBBol Byder, of Copenhagen.) 
Norwegian cod fisberies 376-378 

(Beport by Vice-Consnl ledahl, of Bergen.) 
Olive oil, pure and adulterated 378 

(Beport by Consnl Welsh, of Florence.) 
Opening of the Amsterdam Exhibition : 379-380 

(Beport by Consul Eckstein.) 
Our new tariff and Italian exports 380-381 

(Report by Consnl Dnnoan,of N^les.) 
TheeleetiTe franchise in Holland 381-386 

(Beport of Consul Eckstein, of Anuterdam.) 
Charitable institutions of Florence 386-390 

(Beport by Consul Webb.) 
The adulteration of wtnee in France 391-393 

(Translated from 'La Oironde," by Consul Booeevelt.) 
Adulteration of FMncbwinc* 392-394 

(Beport by Consnl Roosevelt.) 
Taxation in Oermany 394-408 

(Beport by Consul Smith, of Mannheim.) 

NOTES. 

Trade of Japan , 409 

HannfW^ture of brandy in Bavaria, 1B8S 409 

American imports into Cape Hsytien .^ 409 

AMwrican products at Havre .... 410 

Crops in Belgium 412 

Canadian copper for the United States 413 

American and British manufactnres in Canada 413 

Uannlactore and taxation of beer in Bavaria. lB8!i 413 

Population of China 413 

Lyons silk trade 413 

The European silk harvest 4U 



^dbyGoogle 



idb,Googlc 



CONSULAR REPORTS 



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



No. 32— August, 188^. 

AKBBICASr TRADE ZH ASU HnrOK. 

REPORT OF CONSUL STEVENS. OF SUYElfA. 
COUHTBBFEia'iNa AMEBIOAK TEADE-MAEKS. 

American domestaos, enpecially the " C»bot," are very popular in thia 
market by reason of tlieir dorability, and the demaud for them is large. 
This has led dishonest parties to attach an imitation trade mark to a 
mach poorer -quality of goods, manufactured in England, and to palm 
them upon merchants from the interior as the gennine " Cabot A." 
My predeceaaor, Mr. Dnncan, in his report for 1881, called attention to 
this practice. I regret to say that no diminution has fo>lowed, but rather 
ao increase, and closer imitations, with the effect to decrease the demand 
for the genuine and to-impair their reputation. Two specimens of imi- 
tation '^ade-marks, along with the genuine, were recently shown me. 
A comparison of these with the genuine will expose their dishonesty. 
On the genuine trade-mark' of the Dwight Manofoctaring Company 
appears the American coat of arms, with these words and figures 
iMneath : 

DWIGHT. 

MAN'G. CO 



40. 

On one ooant«rfeit there is first a line of stars, then an eagle perched 
npon a Pheniciaa boat (a wretched imitation of our coat of arms, bat 
oUwe enough to deceive the ignorant), with these words' and figures 
beneath : ^^ 

WHITE 

MAN'. 00 

CABOT 



.dbyGcWgle 



lyO AMERICAN TRADE IN ASIA MINOR. 

Another imitatioo coutain's the Hgare of a dove, beneath which are 
these words and flares : 

EALLI 

BROTHERS 

CABOT 



40. 

Injustice to the honse of Balli Brothers it should be stated that they 
congeiited to have the imitatiou trade-mark plaeed upon their English 
domestics not knowing; it was au imitation, and that when they became 
aware of the fraud, they had the stamp removed. But not all the job- 
bers in Smyrna are thus honorable, and goods with these counterfeit 
marks continue to flood the market. Whether the perpetrators of these 
frauds are manufacturers in England or jobbers here, I am not able to 
say. Perhaps there is collusion between them. However this may be, 
detection is not easy ; and even if it were, prevention would still be 
difficult. Just where, if at all, a remedy exists, is not apparent ; bat a 
knowledge of the facts will put honorable merchants on their goard, if 
it does not react upon the guilty parties. 

VSINO AMUaiflAN FAdKAOES FOB RUSSIAN FETSOLEUH. 

Another frand on American productions ha>s been recently developed. 
It consists in filling empty American petroleum cans and cases witb 
Bnssian petroleum from Baku, inferior in quality, and then putting it 
upon the interior markets for the genuine article. For some months 
past agents of the Russian wells have been making strenuous efforts to 
introduce their petroleum. To this end, they have offered it at prices 
below the market quotations, and have sought to have it undi'rvalned 
at the customs. Thus, Russian petroleum imported in barrels is sold at 
50 paras per oke (say 13 cents per gall<Tu) and should pay a duty of 8 
per cent.; when in cases, it ought to be appraised at from 3S to40 
piasters per case (say $1.65 to $1.76), this being the market price upon 
which the appraisement is made in collecting the duty of S per cent, on 
American petroleum ; and the same rates should be imposed upon the 
Russian article. But if Russian petroleum is appraised at leas than the ' 
price for which it is sold (and efforts in this direction have received the 
sanction, I am told, of the representatives of the Russian Ooverument 
here) it pays a lower duty than 8 per cent. exaot«d of American petro- 
leum and is thereby given an unfair advantage. 

AMERICAN UAdHINERY^ IMTLEMENTB, ETC. 

American manufactured articles, such as organs, sewing machines, 
freezers, chums, clocks, watches, agricnltunil implements, &c, are to 
be found in this market, but in limited quantity. The son of a former 
American consul here has established a ''Yankee notions " store, sell- 
ing on consignment, and is slowly introdncing the products of American 
ingenuity and skill. It takes both time and labor to induce this peo- 
ple 'to purchase and use anything new and out of the usual course, 



OUR NEW TAEIFF ASD BRITISH MAKUFACTUfiES. 191 

bovrever superior it may be to the old style, and this fact not beiog 
comprfheuded by some American man ii fact urera has caused them to 
abundou the field. X hare uot the slightest doubt but that the annual 
sale of the above mentioned articles mi^ht be iucreased many fold if the 
manufacturers were to send out trustworthy agents, and 0ve them time 
to work the market thoroughly before requiring remittances. The na- 
tives are slow and must be given time to be convinced of the utility of 
new things. But I feel sure that were this region worked with half the 
push, zeal and enterprise displayed in the development of home trade, 
the result wonld prove highly satisfactory. Were American farm labor- 
saving implements in general use bore the increase in the annual pro- 
ductions would be twenty fold, and the vast tracts of fertile land now 
ranuing to waste for tack of tillage would be brought under easy culti- 
vation. 

QUAY DUES AT SSTi'ESA. 

For a number of years past an obstacle to the development of the 
comfnerce of Smyrna, and a" source of much annoyance to importers 
and ex|>orters, has existed in the form of unequal and exorbitant dues 
exactetl by the private company owning the qnay and holding from the 
Turkish Government valnable privileges and concessions in connection 
therewith. "Sot only were their tarifi' rates e:iorbitant and dispropor- 
tionate ( they were extended beyond even the limit of the concession, 
causing frequent protests from consuls and merchants, and leading to 
prolonged diplomatic correspondence. American and English produc- 
tions sufl'ered most &om these inequalities. This state of affairs, I 
am happy to say, no lunger exists. Through the joint efforts of the 
American and English legations at Constantinople, a new schedule of 
quay rates has been agreed upon by which an average reduction of 
from 15 to 25 per cent, is effected, and the inequalities of the old rates 
in part removed. 

W. E. STEVENS, 

ComuK 

United States Coksitlate, 
Smyrna, June 23, 1883. 



OXTB. HEW TABIPF ASD SaiTIBH HANtJPACTDBES. 



THE WOOLES-GOODS TBADfl OP LEEDS. 

Prom what I have been able to leam I believe the tariff will prove 
disastrous to the chief industry of my district — the woolen trade. Dur- 
ing the agitation which preceded tlie enactment of this tariff law it was 
anticipateMJ here that a more liberal schedule of duties would beadopte<l, 
and the hopes of manufacturers were accordingly only raised for the 
moment, as it were, for ihey now find themselves face to face with little 
or no demand for their wares, and the complaints in consequence in- 
crease daily. It was for a little while thought that light woolen goods 
of a low class would benefit materially by the new arrangement, but on 
a strict analysis even this expectation is evidently not to be realized. 
And it is a matter of congratulation, uot only to the framers of the . 
tariff, who displayed so much wisdom, but also to American artisans 



192 OUR KEW TABIFP AND BEITISH MANUFACTURES. 

atid the American iteople generally, tliat there should he lett do loop- 
hole through whiuh auy class of woolen goods can enter fraudulently. 
I am led thus to apeakj because I have bad complaints preferred against 
the change in the tanft' which makes woolens liable to an ad valorem 
■duty and also a varying specific duty per pound weight accordiug to 
the value per yard. While, as a matter of course, there ia here objec- 
tion to auy aud ei'ery sort of duty levied by any other nation than Great 
Britaiu, still merchants aud manufacturers in a large way of business 
could, with a cousiderable amount of explanation, understand a simple 
oA valorem and specific duty imposed by a foreign nation; yet it passes 
their understanding that a foreign country should impose a duty of 35 
per cent, ad valorem and also a specific duty of 35 cents per pound on 
cloth value<l at less than 80 cents per yard, aud yet a higher ad valorem 
duty on cloth worth above SO cents per pound. Reputable shippers 
proiessnot to understand so complicated a schedule of duties, and I have 
been importuned to explain it and the effect it will have on certain kiads 
of cloth ; but naturally I have said if persons in the trade do not under- 
stand it I cannot be reasonably ex^iected to enlighten them, although I 
have gone so far as to intimate t« one firm which pressed for an answer 
that I supposed it was the intention of the framers of the law to leave 
no room for fraudulent practices. From my knowledge of the trade 
here, its exigencies and straits, it is well that so mnch forethought was 
displayed. Indeed, the gratitude of every laborer, artisan, aud capital- 
ist connected in any manner with the woolen industry of the United 
States, as also of the nation at large, on account of the protection to 
revenue, is due to those who had the wisdom to frame the t-ariff on 
woolens. Thus far thlere is a considerable falling off in the export of 
wooleus from this consular district to the United States j and as this has 
not been caused by the tariff change which only comes into effect on the 
1st of next month, there is everj' reason to believe that the shipments 
wilt continue to decrease, and that by the end of the current year I 
shall be able to show a very serious falling off in the total amount of 
ex]>orta to the United States. 

The woolen trade of the district is in a very depressed condition. It 
baa been so for a long while. There is no money to be made in it now, 
nor has any been made for the past ten years. If one asks how is it they 
have gone on so long, and are still standing up against adversity, I have 
only to answei' that it is. when once fairly started here, just about as 
easy to run an insolveut ousiness and live ostentatiously (a requisite) 
out of it for many years, as it is to carry on a perfectly sound business. 
Of course, if the happy, lucky moment of prosperity does not come, 
eventually the crisis does, and down goes business with heavy liabil- 
ities, and only assets enough left to pay for a few letters written by solic- 
itors and the other expenses of the accountant or solicitor who undertakes 
to bury the affair out of reach of the creditors. I am told nearly every 
day by respectable men as to the condition of the woolen trade. I was 
told this day as to the serious state of affairs at Dewabury, where the 
mills used to run half their time to supply the American demand alone, 
subsequently for the continental trade, but are now reduced to nnproflt- 
able competition with others in the home trade, with the luweat scale 
of Uvibg wages, and consequently work people leaving ia large numbers 
for America ana Canada, loss of money to owners, warehouses unlet, and 
property decreasing in value at au alarming rat«. Some capitalists nave 
also recently gone from there to the United States to start iu the manu- 
facture of woolen goods. The tariff of first one country and then an- 
other having been raised has produced this unwholesome effect upon the 



C~.(Kit^[^ 



OUR NEW TARIFF AND BRITISH MANUFACTURES. 193 

woolen trade which foiiaerly hod a hold in Qermany, Aastria, Spain, 
France, and Italy, whereas now there is a very poor trade with those 
countries. Still the shippere manage to keep going on, losing money 
for a long while, and of course much of the money lost is not their own. 
Only a few da.vs ago a cloth flrm in Leeds suspended, and I have now 
heard that they attribute their suspension to the change in the Italian 
tariff, which occurred about eight years ago. In fact 35 cents in the 
dollar is reckoned a pretty fair dividend now to creditors, unless they 
should be able to wind up the estate without the aid of a solicitor. Bnt 
it is not only in the cloth trade that failures take place where the par- 
ties hare been bankrupt for years. A little while ago a large oil mer- 
chant in Yorkshire failed, who had been bankrupt for several years, 
but still kept going on and living at the rate of thousands a year, ex- 
pecting the millennium of particular if not universal prosperity. 

Under this awful stagnancy there exists a tendency to become bellig- 
erent, for, with all the social and other attractions, the one great ideal of 
every Englishman is irade. If he cannot trade he will not be happy. I 
do not speak of trade in a narrow sense, for no one looks with so much 
scorn upon people engaged in trade as those Englishmen do whoso 
fathers made their fortunes in it, or even those who themselves have 
done so and qnitted it ; but I refer to trade in its wider sense, that of 
coaxing big nations into firee- trade ideas, conquering insignificant tribes, 
annexing cannibal islands and parts of uncivilized continents, and fur- 
nishing all with a governor and body guard and a few dozen Manches- 
ter merchants j the latter, of course, clothe the savages with a string of 
beads and an iron ankle-band, and perhaps a strip of cotton doth, but 
when they have realized their thousand per cent, several times they 
come back to England to spend their wealth. 

This belligerent interest is marshaled by those otherwise not very 
pnissaut bodies, the Chambers of Commerce, whose not famous achieve- 
ments so much as their extravagant conceits are enough to alarm all 
the clannish trades from eugiueer to tanner, thereby causing such action 
as to disturb distant nations. Egypt has been subjected, after a most 
fearful though painless struggle, beginning with a second Trafalgar 
and ending with another Waterloo, to the dominion of Manchester. 

Now, apparently. New Guinea, in order, of course, that grievances 
should be redressed, injuries removed, abuses corrected, and free trade 
established, is to be annexed to Englaud, and Manchester is to have 
the first turn at supplying the aborigines of that big country with girdle 
cloths. The commercial progress of the United States in Mexico, as 
well as the French expetlition to Tonquin and the bombardment of a 
mud fort in Madagascar, is at the same time viewed with great concent 
by the commercial chambers in England. 

THE FLAX AND LINEIf TRADE. 

The flax trade of this district will also be adversely affected by the 
new tariff. A large Leeds manufacturer of linen yarns told me a few 
days ago that he had made his last shipment to the Uuited States, be- 
cause the framers of the new tariff, in affecting to lower the duty, bad 
really increased it, at least so far as his wares were concerned, to such 
an extent as to stop further shipments. The usual price of the yarns 
shipped by said fli-m is sixpence i)er pound, and the dnty in the old 
tariff was 33^ per cent., whereas in the new tariff it is 40 per cent, ad 
vaJorem. Therefore the increase in the duty auionnts at the foregoing 
valuation to 1 cent per pound, and when it is known that this addi- 



194 OUK KEW TAHIFF AKD BRITISH MAKUFACTrRES 

tional cent stops exportation, it will be seen what a small margin has 
hitlierto been available for profit in this trade. I am told that should 
makers be enabled through any cause -to turn out linen yarns at say od, 
l>er pound, they would then again ship their goods to the United States. 
This seems to me to have some bearing uiion free trade, wbich was a 
debatable sTibject uearly forty jears ago, but it is needless to pursue 
it now further tliau to remark that the only apparent way in which the 
manufacturer is to again combat the American tariff is to reduce the 
price of his ware. Of course snch rednctiou means less wages, work- 
ing on smalt and therefore dangerous margins, and with cheap money. 
It is obvious the scale of wages cannot be reduced ; the raw material is 
already very cheap; all waste is put to the very best use, and the very 
fact of working on small margins would cause mouey to become dear 
for the purpose of such indttstiies. Therefore, I do not expect to see a 
revival in the exportation of linen. I am given to understand that the 
flax and linen trade generally has beeu in a very unsatisfactorj' condi- 
tion for several years, and that parties so engagetl would gladly get out 
if it were possible to do so without incurring very serious losses in 
realizing npou plant, &c. As an illustrationof this, I may saj' that the 
machinery of a large Leeds flax spinning concern was sold by auction 
for only £7,01)0, while it was valued in the company's books for insar- 
auce purposes at jCdO.UOO. 

The manufacture of linen cloths is regarded as the best part of the 
flax industry, but even this is anything but a remunerative business at 
present. 

Of patent linen threads, &c., I have to say that while the exportation 
of the same to the United States continues to be on as large a scale as 
formerly, the trade has undergone such a radical change since my arrival 
here, six years ago, in the shape of increased discounts and an almost 
total cessation of absolute sales by the substitution of consignments, that 
I do not feel justified in speaking here at all of such a peculiarly con- 
ditioned trade. Regarding this change, however, I expect in the course 
of a few days to make a special report to the Department. 

THE IRON INDUSTRY OF LEEDS. 

The iron industry of Leeds will not be affected to any appreciable 
extent either w jy by the new tariff. This industry apiwars to be in a 
healthy state, and while it may not be in a particularly flourishing con- 
dition, yet it is recognized as composed of souuder elements than most 
other industries. 

TAKKESS, BREWERS, AND BUTCHERS. 

I understand the tanners of this district have been doing a very bad 
business for a year or ao ; in fact, losing much of the mouey they so sud- 
denly found themselves possessed of a few years ago when tlieir trade 
was so good. Tliis state of affairs regarding tanners somewhat sur- 
prises me, because of their close aflSuity to brewers and butchers, who 
I am snre are still doing a thriving business. The former class are, 
what with brewing beer, owning or otherwise controlling many public 
dram.8hoi>s. peddling tobacco, cigars, snuff, &c., fast becoming an infla- 
ential quantity politically in' England, besides amassing for themselves 
estensive fortunes and an illimitable audacity, while the latter possess 
full as much egotism, somewhat less education, but thorough honesty, 
except regarding American beef, which they will not sell at all as such. 



TRADE BETWEEN BARBANQUILLA AKD ITSTIED STATES. 195 

THE LIMITED-LIABILITV ACT. 
The limited-liability act lias militated agaiust hoaeat trade in Eng- 
land and done very serious injnry thereto by placing in the hands of a 
few men, known as directors, who are cUietiy concerned in drawing 
their salaries, the power to wreck by hazardous enterprise businesses 
hitherto perfectly Bonud. The directors, in the keen competition which 
exists in all branches of commerce, not only frequently bring their own 
oompanies to grief, but, nnfortunately, other more honest traders whose 
liabilities are not limited to the capital employed. Directors ha^e a 
oooiparatively easy task to i>erf<>rm, that of drawing their salaries and 
paying dividends, which latter operation may be done for some years 
out of capital without arousing from their sluggish sleep credulous 
shareholders; but, alas, the dismal day of reckoning does eventually 
arrive, and although the directors ascribe the calamity to bad trade, 
&e,, and they escape scot-i^ee, their position is envied by no honest 
person. 

A. V. DOOKERY, 

United States Consulate, 

Leeds, June 19, 1883. 



TRADE KETWESV BAKRAHftTniLA AND THE UNIT£D STATEa 

BEFOBTBT COSSTTL DAWSOS. 

I have the honor to state that Barranqnilla is the chief city of com- 
mercial importance within the United States of Colombia, and is the 
residence of many of the principal merchants of the Be]>ublic. It is a 
lowing city, and, irora a few houses twenty years ago, It now ]iaa a 
population of upwards of 115,000. Situated as it is, so near the outlet 
of the great Magdnlena River, it is destined to increase in size and com- 
merce, and become to Colombia what New York is to the United States, 
the great commercial emporium of the Republic, Colon and Panama, 
free ports, being more a highway of nations than a part of this country. 
To this end Barranquilla has many things in its favor. The custom- 
faoQse is located here. All the river steamers and sailing vessels on 
the Magdalena, conveying from the vast back-lying interior to the coast ' 
the multitudinous products of the country, start f^m and return to this 
place. The imports from foreign countries come here to be conveyed 
□p the Magdalena to the population of the interior. This, also, is a 
- comparatively healthy city. The people look healthful, and show as 
much vital energy and activity as are often seen in a mtich cooler cli- 
mate. From November to April there is a prevailing breeze, which 
modifies the heat and makes thiit a not uncomfortable place of residence. 

AMERICAN steamships WANTED. 

In a word, Barranquilla is just now one of the most important places 
whose trade the United States ought to secure, and the way to do this is 
for some of our enterprising citizens to start a line of steamers to run 
direct between this port and New York. The steamers should not be of 
more than ten or twelve hundred tons register, and should not draw more 
than fourteen feet of water on account of the bar at the entrance to the 
river. Such a line shoald at Qrst make monthly trips, and thereafter 
mn more frequently according to the demands of trade. There are 
merchants in this city ready to come forward and almost guarantee a 



196 TRADE BETWEEN BARRANQUILLA AND UNITED STATES. 

monthly cargo to a regular line of steamers. And I heard one K^atle- 
mao say today that he could secure a cargo both ways, Withiu six- 
teen days after my arrival here, at three shipments made by sach con- 
veyancea as came along, I certified one hundred and t^o invoices at 
an estimated valne in United States gold coin of $182,128.34, since 
vbicb time, April 6, there has been nothing here to take any cargo 
to Sew ^ork, and it has been accumulating for whatever may come 
along bound for that port. 

It may be said en passant that an effort lias been made the past two 
years by a certain Bteamship line to divert commerce from this port by 
means of a dique or escavated wat«r way between Uarthagena and Gala- 
mar, a place oti the Magdaleua over ninetymiles from Carthagena. Tbns 
far the enterprise has been a failure, and, so far as I can ascertain from 
the best informed merchants here, it is at>oiit as likely to be snccessfni 
as would be an enterprise to turn back the waters of the Magdalena 
iuto the mountaine. I may say further that it is projected to extend 
' the present railway here three miles farther, from Salgar to Puerta 
Bolio, in which case ships of the greatest draught can discharge and 
take in cargo alongside the wharf, but eighteen miles from this city. 

EXP0BT8 OP BABBANQUILLA. 

The principal exports are hides, coffee, quinia, fustic, india-rubber, 
balsam, and limited quantities of cigars, tobacco, goatskins, minerals, 
plants, &c., as may be seen by referring to the subjoined table, marked A. 
And if some enterprising firm would come here from the United States 
and take hold of the alligator business, a thriving tride might be car- 
ried on in the bide and oil of that creature, which abounds along the 
Magdalena. A friend of mine alleges that be has seen the alligators 
lying along the sandy shore so thick that he could have stepped from 
the back of one to another for a distance of two miles. 

IMPOaTS FBOU THE TJHITED STATES. 

The principal imports from the United States, mostly from New York, 
are tlonr, kerosene oil, lard, and ])rovisions, such as salt beef, canned 
meats and fruit's, hams, matches, lumber, timber, shingles, tar, pitch, 
rosin, rope, flue hardware, such as knives, scissors, &c., and clocks, bot 
not watches. I'he imports in dry-goods amount to almost absolutely 
nothing. Boots and shoes either come from Europe or are manufactured 
here, 

PRICES OF IHPOaxED ARTICLES. 

The prices of things here are extravagantly high, canned meats re- 
tailiug at $1 a tin, and other things in like proportion. Beer wholesales . 
at $8 per case, containing three dozens of half bottles, or at the rate of 
37J cents per bottle, United States currency, or for nearly double what 
it sells for at wbosesale iufar-away Samoa, or for six times what it costs 
in Washington. Wines worth 75 cents per bottle in France sell for 
double that amount here. The subjoined extract from the Shipping 
List, marked B, will give some idea of the prevailing prices ; but it mnst 
always be borne in mind that these prices are in Colombian money, w^hich, 
according to the standard established by the United States Govern- 
ment, is worth but 82.3 cents ou the dollar. The money principally in 
use, however, is worth much less. Flour, therefore, rat«d at $20 per 
barrel is really selling at $16.46 per barrel, United States coin, or less, 
but at about two and one-third times as much as in the United States ; 
and the rate of exchange between here and New York is 25 and 27 per 
cent. In regard to the flour traffic see the subjoined extract C. Fora 



THADE BETWEEN BARRANQUILLA AND UMITED STATES. 197 

fall exhibit of tfae valneu of the imports and exports at this port last 
year see I^ble D. For the navigation of the port see Table B. For 
some valuable iofonnatioa abont the conntry see Table F. 

THOMAS M. DAWaON, 

Consul. 
United States Consulate, 

BarranquilUi, April 16, 1883. 



A. — Articlrt exported tlirougk tluetuUrm-iiotueat B<irranquilJa /rem Jaimtiryl (o l^tetmber 



ArtlclM. 


^- 


Ponndt 1 




w 
i* 

350,334 

M 

MS 

ta 

J 
■! 

ss 

I 

W 

I 

30 
10 

W,«0 

1 

"■& 

■i 
■.^ 

w 

B.M1 

id 

so 

a 

M 
TO 


17. S« 

'■& 

**! 

1.R37 

Tl.gU 

ll,S70.m 

'■•S 

«5 
MI. lis 

1,8!7 




































D^Tildy^-rtiiff) , 








"'7:<M,<W 


























Ml 1 

837 
3,»B7,MS 

ISO 

•as 




























31, MS 

8.804 




























































SXiiii:::::::::::::::"::::::::::::::::.:.:::::::::::::::: 


s!d05 



US.OC« 4«,4]^0« 



198 TBADE BEl-WEEN' BAEEANQUILLA AND UNITED STATES. 

B. — Extraot* from the thl^ping U»t, February, liOS. 

It ie HOmethiug remarkable, that wliile evKiy export nbich Colombia seuda to the 
United States enters dulg frre, every article which the United States seods to Colom- 
bia in retitm, excepting corti, rice, green vegBtables, and lumber, is graded at onerous 

Let UB take, for instance, Sour, grain, salt meats, fish, kerosene, &c.— absolate necoa- 
Bitiea — and see the result. To-day, flour pays a national dnty of {.5 per barrel, to 
vbich is added a state duty of $:!. Under these circumstances, flour costing in New 
York oi New Orleans (7 per barrel, sells here for (liO. Kerosene oil pays a duty of 80 
cents per kilogram gross weight. It costs, more or less, in the United States. 10 cents 
per gallon, while here, we bumonrlamps to thetnueof S1.30. In Colon and Panama, 
nee ports, it sells at g2.e0 per case, or ^B cents per gallon. Salt beef, pork, and Ifab 
are beyond the reach of the poor; «. p., a barr«l of beef weighing tJOO pounds, costing 
In New York (Irj, pays a duty on gross weight of 5 cents per kilogram, i. e., 95, wbicb 
^th other expenses makes it sell here more or less at )J0. No protection iuteieeta 
wonlil be injured by a reduction of duties on these articles, for, save In the far interior, 
no wheat is grown, and while petroleum exists near us, in the higher country, none 
is produced. 

During the plagne of the locasts, the government remitted the dnty on salt, flonr, 
lard, sugar, salt meats, Sec, but has now resumed it, although the com and rice fields 
have not yet recuperated from the devastation, and thousands of people are in abso- 
lat« poverty. And this touches oar very tables. Owing to the high price of com, 
the raising of poultry has almost ceased to exist. Chickens and turkeys, vrbJclt a 
few years ago went '' becging " at 40 and 80 cents, respectively, now range from 70 
cents to IS, and frequently cannot be had in the market at those prices. Eggs, like 
those in the " magician's show," have become "invisible." 

D. — /mporfi at BarraHqutllt from Januari/ 1 to Steotmher 31, 18di. 





ConntPlBfc 


PMkll)t«l. i 


PODIldl. 


V»lai* 


United StMej 




















































































«>.£<>. tee 








1 





Dettinaiion ofacportefrom B«rranq»m<ifrom Jaauarn 1 to Decembrr 31, 1 



Coimtiles. 




P..^.. 


V«|UM. 




1!:S 

'1- 


ia.T«i!se 

III 

2,' no 
















































SS3,006! 


48.415, oes 









[i.„i,=db,Googlc 



TRADE BETWEEK BAHRANQUILLA AND UNITED STATES. 199 
Flag! Hiuier vMcti the export* vi 



Conntrie.. 


P»ck.g«. 


Ponnd*. 


Tsluea. 


VultedSlMM 


. is.i«e 

2.1W 


(l.S«2,<»61 

"'IS' 






«,Bt3 

'S 

2 
















Dulih 


SS^}? 


Tottb 


553, MM 


4a.415,M8| 


]0,»Tt 


S35 88 



£. — Stattmnti ihomiiig the narigafUn 





1 
1 
1 rrom- 






- Entwiid. 






FUg. 




SalHDK-TMKla. 


ToUl. 




Ko. 


Toiu. 


No. 1 lona. 


So. 


Tod*. 


Sft— 


S4 

47 


M71 

II 


33' «,SSS 
»! «,T33 


40 

SI 


i:.5S4 










s; gS4 

Jl J 

17' liw 


s:m 


































2 


1.0M 












SO) 


BW.1W 


im, ig,2ss 


~3m" 






^..w,. 






32 
» 


IT. MS 
54. IBS 

ta.wa 

.70S 


-ii-r-ii- 

6 1.818 


30 
13 












iiT,«m 














, Th. Uofied'Statoi 





















ir«tlwrb^''I 



'.' (Manbia... 
.' FnnCB 

. TbrUnfliid 

.. XniUnd — 



SleamoT*. i 3allliig-T«aMlB. I 



118 . 150.^5 I 



I TODt. I Vs. . I>niB, 



S| S4S i 143 103. 200 



I M4 388,»n 



180,302 
6t.IM ,. 
33,^14 I. 

80. 2M I 



200 AMERICAN TRADE IN MAURITIUfi. 

F.—SISTOBY, GOVERSMEKT, 4c., OF COLOMBIA. 

{Eitnot ^m the Shipping List] 

The Unitec) States of Colombia waa formerly a province of Spain, fWim nhicb, witb 
Venezuela aud Ecuador, it achieved its indepeDdence in 1621. A confederation wu 
formed between tbeite three jiioviDceB, nnder the name of Colombia. It lasted only 
nntil 1830, when it was ditwolved, this conntry taking the name of New Granada. 
In IBGO, tinder President Mosquera, it waa changed to its present name. 

The city of Bogota ia the capital of the nation, as of the State of Candinamarcs. 
It is eitoated 4° 36' 06" north latitude, longitude 74° 13' 59" west, with a tempero- 
tnre froio VIP la \b° centigrade, and is S.BDO feet above the level of the eea. Its 
cliraat« in deliKbtf^l, its nlaius fertile, and abonnda in an intinite variety of flowers 
and fraits at afi BeasoDS or the year. 

The form of government of Colombia is to a sreat extent modeled after that of 
the United States, and consists of a lezislalive bi^y, divided into two houses ; one of 
senators elected by the States, itach of whirh la entitled to three; the other of rep- 
resentatives, elected by tbe people and apportioned one to every 50,000 soula ; of one 
president, cbarged with execntive power, elected by the States every two yeMs; of 
one supreme court composed of five miniatcra, elected by the asBemblies of tue Statea 
for the term of four years. 

ConforniiDg to the theory of the Federal Conatitntinn, the States are sovereign, or 
to uay, bave ample power t<i govern theniselves; bnt Joined in maintaining foreign 
relations and in branchee of material progress. The Ciovernment of the Union doea 
not exceed the functions deloKat«d to it by the States. 

The system of univursal snnrage exists. Slavery was abolished by gradual eman- 
cipation, the last slave becoming free in 1B49. There ia np recognized religion ; all 
aecte arc tolerated and reepected. Capital punishment does not exist, the limit of 
punishment for anv crime being ten years' imprisonment. 

The French decimal system of weights, measures, and money has been adopted 



by the Government of Colombia. Local weights and measures are sometimes used; 
t£e most common being the caTga, 250 pounds * ; tbe arroba, 95 pounds ; the fanega 



of salt, 18 arrobai, or 450 pounds; fanega of com, 1,000 ears. Tlie eara equals ^[ 
inches, In money, the gold coins ate the double cwirfor (g20), condor (JIO), half- 
condor (85), and two and one dollar pieces. The silver coins are dollars, half-dollara, 
twenty, ten, and five cent pieces. A nickel cuartilUi \>ae been issued by the Govern- 
ment, 08 also amilad, but this latter is almost entirely out of circulation. The dollar 
is called in local phraseology "hard" or soft ; tbe former being of (en dimes and the 
latter of eigit. The terras lO-lOths aud 8-lOths are also used. The Government only 
recognizes the dollar of 10-lOths. The rm!, or dime, is halved into medici; half of a 
medio is a cnarliUo ; half a cttarljllo, a mitad. 

The waters of the rivers are entirely free to oommetce, and there are at present 
seventeen steameni navigating the Ha^dalena. 

Colombia entered into the Postal Union in 1882, 

The standing army of Colombia, or National Guard, numbers about 3,000 men. 

The State of Bolivia lies on the Atlantic coaat between the Stales of Panama and 
Magdalena. It contains 6,SA0 siinare miles and a population of about 217,000. 

It« ports of entry ar« Carthagena and Sabauilla. The former is tbe capital of the 
State. The latter is cmbrHced within the boundaries of the city of Barranqnilla, the 
capital of the province of Barranqnitla, which ia composed of the following districts : 
Barranqnllla, Soleilad, Matambo, Sabanagrande, Santo Thomas, Palmar de Varela, 
Galapa, and TubarlL 



AHERZCAS TRADE IN HAVBITIVS. 

SEFOXX BT COSSVL FRESTI8. OF POST LOUIS. 

Since writing my la«t report, I have to note the arrival of a vessel 
ftom BoBton with a scneral cargo, tbe first one for many years. This 
carfEo was imported by the firm of Messrs. Alexander Duff & Co., ooe 
of the most substantial Bouses of tliis place. I ahonld also mention that 

*Steamet freights up the Magdalena, are ealctilated by carpus. Penous designing 
to make jonmeys to the interior, beyond water coranunication, should put tbeir 
effects in packages of not more than 125 puuuds each, suitable for mule tranaporta- 



XuKlt^lc 



AMEBICAN TfiADE IN MAUB1T1U3. 201 

this same euterprising firm are coutiuaally receiving American goods 
via England, wtiich arrive here from the latter country by sailing-vessels 
and steamers, and I am pleased to note that business by this route is 
steadily iucreaaiuff. 

Mr. T. P. Bobiuson, a native of Boston, and the only American doing 
business here, is connected with tbis firm and ba& special charge of this 
branch of their trade. And I will here mention, for the guidance of all 
exporters who may wish to extend their foreign trade to this market, 
that any business confided to these gentlemen will be in safe hands 
and receive careful attention. 

The cargo referred to above consisted principally of shingles, lumber, 
flour, pitch, tar, turpentine, petroleum, fish, and fertilizers. 

This market of late years has been supplied with pine lumber from 
Sweden either coming direct or via England or France, and consists of 
planka 3 inches thick, some being received whole, others with one cnt 
(not quite to the end), making two boards of about an inch and a half 
in thickness ; others with two cuts, making three boards of about 1 
iuch ; others with three or four cuts. 

These planks are very evenly cut in Europe, and importers, believing 
that boards could be sawed equally well in America, ordered lumber 
from there to be cut in a similar way to suit this market ; but I was 
much astonished at the shameful manner iu which the work was done 
there, considering the perfection which we claim for our wood-working 
macbinery. 

Attempts hare been made to import American floor and wheat into 
this island, but without much success, as it appears it is not prepared 
properly to stand a long sea voyage, as the same products from other 
couDtries are, or at least this is the opinion of Mauritius dealers, based 
upon their experience. They say that the American wheat which has 
been senthere has not been sufficiently dried before shipment, and they 
suggest a similar reasou for the musty condition in which American fiour 
often arrives, i. e., that the wheat from which it was made was not sufS- 
cieutly dry. It is reported that a similar difficulty has been experienced 
in the neighboring island of Reunion. 

Petrolmim continues to be a staple article of import and I have to 
note the arrival of two lots recently, aggregating 9,000 cases. The con- 
Bomption amounts to about 18,000 cases per year, and has almost en- 
tirely taken the place of thecocoanut oil, which is made extensively in the 
adjacent islands, and which was formerly universally used for illumin- 
at^g purposes. 

Through the enterprise of the gentlemen before meutioued, many 
other AjnericaD manufactures have been imported and are gaining 
groand here, competing successfully with those from other countries, viz : 
tobacco, Fairbank's scales — which are standard iu this island — woven- 
wire mattresses, White's sewing machines, lawu mowers, locks, imita- 
tion leather, filters, chairs, cl^ks, canned goods, asbestos goods, harness, 
fllesi&o. 

I think that many more articles might be taken by this market if 
brought to the notice of importers by the traveling agents of our manu- 
facturers, who should, of course, be prepared to ^ow samples of their 
goods. 

The agent of Messrs Fairbanks & Co., who receutly visited this island 
for the purpose of introdnciug more extensively among the planters 
macbinea for weighing their canes, was particularly well received, and 
as tiieir manufactures are already well known here, it is prolmble that an 
increaaed business will result in this particular kind of scale, as without 



202 TRADE OF THE BAHAMAS. 

donbt all estates that buy canes will adopt the system of buying by 
veight, and many planters have acknowletlged the importance of weigh- 
ing canes before they are crushed on estates which ase only their owa 
canes. 

THOMAS J. PHENTIS, 

United States Consul. 
United States Consvlate, 

Port Louis, Mauritius, March 30, 1883. 



TBADE OF THE BATTAKA ISLANDS. 

BEPOBT BY OOysUL WLAIX, OF XASSAV. 

The report ou the commerce and navigation of the Bahamas for the 
year ended December 31, 1882, shows a satisfactory increase in the vol- 
nme of trade of this colony, both in a general way and especially with 
the United States, as will apx)ear from the subjoined statements : 

GENEBAL TRADE. 

Total imports for 1**2 $1,016,837 44 

Total imports for lei^l 811,582 64 

Increase ia)5.d44 80 

Total exports for 18*i 760,336 77 

Total eipftrts (or 1(<81 556,910 1& 

Increase 303,436 6* 

It is well nnderstood, however, by those who are acquainted with the 
peculiar condition of trade in this colony that this large increase is not 
altogether due to the legitimate operations of trade, but that it arises 
in part from the favt that into these gross amounts of exports and im- 
ports enter a large portion of the cargoes of vessels which have been 
wrecked in these waters, or which, meeting a stress of weather, have 
sought Kassiku Hs a port of safety and for repairs. The value of goods 
brought into the colony during 1882 by wrecks and distressed vessels 
was in round numbers $188,000, all of which appears in the returns as 
imports. Of this sum about $50,000 worth was aold here, leaving a 
balance of, say, $138,000, which was forwarded to its original destination, 
and which appears as exports, being made up as follows, viz, coffee, 
$38,000 ; unrefined sugar, $83,000 ; sundries, $17,000. After these de- 
ductions have been made, however, there still remains enough surplus 
to show a fair increase of legitimate business during the year. 

Imports. — There has been a falling off in the importations of apples, 
brandy, beans, live cattle, metal, corn, com meal and hominy, ice, 
petroleum, 'and tea. A moderate increase is noted in the importations 
of all liquors, except brandy, in biscuit and bread, candles, cheese, 
cigars, coffee, dried and pickled fish, lumber, lard, salted meats, nails, 
rice, shingles, and tobacco. The increase in woolen goods, cottons, 
silks, linens, hardware, and such goods paying an ad valorem duty of 
20 per cent, has been quite marked, amounting to $140,000, or about 
seven- tenths of the total increase of imports. 

Exports. — In these we tiud an increase in coral, cocoa nuts, old metal, 
pineapples, tomatoes, preserved fruits, guano or cave earth, rawhides, 



C~.(iot^[c 



TRADE OP THE BAHAMAS. 203 

sfaells, spouges, and sarsaparilla bark. We note a decrease in lumber, 
orange.'*, salt, specie, tartle shell, and woods. The increase in spoage, 
pineapples, and preserved fmite is quite larg^e. A considerable quan- 
tity of cotton was export«d to England, the production being gradually 
on the increase. 

TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

The condition of trade between this colony and the United States 
which, as mentioned in my former reports, has tieen very gratitying for 
several years past, shows a steady and healthy increase during the year 
just closed, the United States famishing about 65 per centv of the legiti- 
mate iniimrts and receiving in return about the same proportion of 
colonial exports : 

ImportH from the L'uiteil States in ie« $554,349 62 

ImportHf^m tike United Slates in IfWl 523,147 34 

Increase 31,103 38 

Exports tutbe Uaiteil Stntea in ISfS 578,6fi3 16 

Exports to the United Stutes in ISSl 401,092 46 

iDcresse 177,569 70 

The above increase in importations flrom the United States is in the' 
way of legitimate trade. The large increase in exports, however, is in 
part to be attributed to the fact that goods from wrecks and vessels in 
distress, which came into the colony from West Indiafi ports, were for- 
warded to tbeir original destination in the United States, amounting in 
valae to4l31,000, divided as follows, viz, cofiee, *38,000 ; sugar, $83,000; 
sundries, $17,000. Deducting this item, we still have an increase in ex- ^ 
ports to the United States of about $46,000. 

Imports. — There was an increase in importations from the United 
States in bread and biscnit, butter, candles, salted fish, gin, whisky, 
hay, lard, lumber, salted meat, nails,' oat% and bran, rice, shingles, 
specie, refined sugar, tobacco, wines, wodlen goods, silks, cottons, linens, 
and hardware. 

The amount of rice consumed by the natives has largely increased, 
the importations from the United States for 1882 being 470,000 pounds 
as against 310,000 pounds in 1881; and from Qreat Britain 650,000 
poun<ls as against 505,000 pounds in 1881, the increase of 275,000 pounds 
being about equally divided between the two countries. The quHutity 
of woolen goods, silks, cottons, linens, hardware, and sucb goods, pay- 
ing an ad valorem duty of 20 per cent., brought from the United States, 
is steadily increasing, as is shown by the fact that the valne of these 
goods imiKtrted from the United States in 1882 is $153,913 as against 
$123,321 in 1881. These goods have obtained a firm footing in the col- 
ony, which they will undoubtedly maintain. Two years ago it was 
almost impossible to obtain American whisky in tbis market, Scotch 
and Irish being exclusively sold. It has lately been introduced by two 
firms, und an increasing demand is already noticed. Jamaica rum and 
Holland gin are the liquors mainly consumed by the black population. 
An eSurt was made to introduce American malt liquors, but the fact 
that the importations in 1882 are 50 per cent, less than In 1881 shows 
that the tropical Englishmiiu is slow to forego his liking for Bass ale 
and London porleiv Beans, pease, live cattle, cheese, ice, petroleum, 
DoreUne*! sugar, and tea sbow a, slight falliug off. 

The decrease in raw sugar is accounted lor by the fact that native 



204 TRADE OF THE BAHAMAS. 

eugnr is being made in increasing qnantities, tli« mills, rata, and plant 
generally all being imported from the TJnited States. I am informed, 
however, by a large manufacturer of sngar that nnrefinud sugar can be 
made in Cuba, carried to the United States, and exported thence to the 
Bahamas, in bond, and landed here almost as cheaply as the native 
sogar can be manufactured iu these islands, thus leaving so small a 
margin of profit that it scarcely pays to establish SHgar-mills in the col- 
ony. It is hoped, however, that when larger areas of cane are cultivated 
the business cau be made more proUtable. 

The decrease in importations of corn- meal andliominy is very marked, 
and is understood *to arise from the fact that more corn is raised than 
formerly, and because rioe is being substituted therefor to quite an 
extent. In 18SI the number of barrels of corn-meal and hominyim- 
ported was 14,250, valued at (67,618, against 8,847 barrels, valued at 
•37,462, in 1882. Of wheaten flour there were importeti in 1881, 
24,541 barrels ; in 1882, 22,716 barrels; also showing a small decrease. 

Eii^orU. — In items of exports there has been an increase in cave 
earth or guano, 1,100 tons, worth J4,928, being exported to the United 
States in 1881, and 1,987 tons, worth $20,380, in ISSa. It is thought, 
however, that the supply of this fertilizer, which is found exclusively iu 
oaves, is very limited, and will soon be exhausted. The export of ba^ 
uanas has increased about 20 per cent., and cocoanuts at least 200 per 
cent. During the season of 1882 the pin^pple trade was very brisk 
and was reasonably profitable. The crop was large, was marketed in 
f^ir condition, aud brought remnnerative prices. There was shipped to 
the United States in 1882 something over one hundred cargoes, mostly 
la American bottoms, amounting to 462,000 dozen, worth, at declared 
invoice values, |141,000. The shipments in 1881 were 323,0'H> dozen, 
worth $109,000. There was also a marked increase in the shipments of 
preserved pineapples, put up in sugar in cans, the factories here being 
briskly employed during the season, and shipping 364,000 cans, worth 
$43,000, invoice value, as against 264,000 cans in 18S1, worth 832,800. 
The preserving of other fruits^ tomatoes, aud of conchs has increased, 
ihe shipments being 26,000 cans iu 1882 against 7,000 eausiu 1881. Fresh 
tomatoes also show au increase, 6,700 crates being exported, as against 
4,517 in 1881. In oranges there was a very large decrease owing to the 
ravages of the scale insect, which destroved many trees ; the ex}jorta- * 
tion being only 2,565,000 oranges in 1882, m against 4,116,000 iu 1881, 
causing a serious loss to many small growers. 

In the item of sponges the increase has been very marked, a brisk trade 
continuing all through the year, prices being well maintained. In 1881 
there were shipped to the United States 234,529 pounds of sponges ; 
declared valae, $113,643. Dunugl882 the amount shipped was 464,748 
pounds, valued at $190,752. Kever but once before (viz, in 1880, when 
the value of the sponge shipped to the United States reached $102,428) 
have the yearly shipments to that country exceeded $70,000 — all of 
which shows a rapid development of the traffic in sponges, which now 
ranks as the most valuable industry of the Bahamas. As I have iu 
former reports elaborately presented the sponge and pineapple indus- 
tries of this colony, I will forbear saying more upon these topics. 

THE HEW TAaiFF. 

Considerable interest has been felt iu this coloay over the changes 
made in the United States tariff, which took place on July 1, espe- 
cially as some of the modifications a^ct the exports of the Bahamaa. 



TB4DE OF THE BAHAMAS. 205- 

Tlie placing on the &ee list of bananas, pineapples, aod aandry otber 
fruits which have heretofore paid from 10 to 20 per cent, daty was 
hailed witb pleasare, and hoB given mach encouragement to planters 
and shippers to increase the production, and has imparted a fresh stim- 
ulne to the industry. The teduction of the duty on fruit preserved iik 
its own Jaiee was also acceptable. It is believed that an impetos wilL 
tbns be given to the pineapple trade that will prove highly beDeficiaL 
both to this colony and to the United States where the fruit will be 
shipped and the proceeds spent. 

In former years the salt industry of the Bahamas, including Turk's 
islands, which then belonged to tbis colony, was one of much impor- 
tance, but the duty in the United Stales on foreign salt has of late been 
greatly detrimental to the salt interest here. The concession under tbo 
revised tariff by which the duty of imported salt will be remitted when 
the same has been used for curing Osh or packed or smoked meats for 
export, has given much satisfaction to the salt mana&ctnreis of this 
colony, who claim that their salt has special excellences for caring pur- 
poses, and that it will now be in demand in the United States, the 
removal of the duty of 6 cents per bushel enabling American packers to 
use it profitably. If their theory be correct we may look for a revival 
of the salt industry of these islands, which will be of benefit to both 
countries. These changes and concessions under the revised tariff have 
increased the kindly feeling which has long obtained in the colony for 
the United States, and has strengthened the desire of the people for 
closer trade connections with that coootry. 

NATIQATION. 

The navigation of the Bahamas for 1882 shows a decrease in the uonr- 
ber of vessels arriving and departing as compared with 1881, but ao 
increase in the registered tonnage as follows : 



Steamert. — The number of steamers arriving at the diflfereut ports of 
the colony in 1882 was 78, with a tonnage of 99,639 tons, as against 72 
in 1881 ; tonnage, 76,746. Of those in 1882, 33 were under the Ameri- 
can Rag; tonnage, 45,917; in 1881, the number was 3o; tonnage, 40,251. 
Under the Britiidi flag the arrivals in 1882 were 41 ; tonnage, 60,636 ; 
in 1881, 37 steamers; tonnage, 36,495. 

This colony is connected with the enter world by five lines of steam- 
ships. The Hallory line of Xew York, American, performs 18 trips per 
annum between New York and Matanzas, Unba, calling both ways at- 
^assan, and carrying the British and American mails, for an annual 
subsidy of about #26,000, paid by the colony. Their contract expires- 
in May, 1883, when the service will be continued by the New York and 
Cuba Hail Steamship Company of New York, also an American line. 
The Atlas line of steamers, British, plying between New York and West 
IndiaD ports, makes weekly calls both ways at Inagua, one of the oat 
islands. The North and South American and the Pacific Company's 
steamers (both British] trading between New York and Webt lodian 
and South American ports, also make regular stops at Fortune Island, 
. one of the Bahamas. The principal object for which these three lines 
stop in the Bahamas is to ship laborers and return them, to aid in load 
ing and discharging cargo at foreign ports. They, however, carry pas- 
sengers and freight, but no mails for the colony. 

37a ACQ 83 2 iizjdb GoO'^lc 



206 TBADE OF THE BAHAMAS. 

The London line of ateamers, British, cooDecta the colony directly 
with Qreat Britain, making: re^lar trips between London and British 
Honduras, touctainK at ]^aseau, and at Kingston, Jamaica. TheyarriTe 
about once in six weeks and serve to keep up a moderate trade between 
the mother country and her colony. The line was established in ISSO, 
and ori^nally plied between London and l^assau, via Bermuda. The 
bnciineM fomi^ed by these two colonies was too limited to be profit- 
able, and so Belize and Jamaica were added, and I think the enterprise 
is now ft fairly remunerative one. The exports to England by this Hue, 
from the Bahamas, cousist mainly of sponges, shells, dye and cabinet 
woods, and cotton. This line has also developed some trade between 
this colony and British Honduras, which promises to increase and to be 
beneficial to these islands. The curious feature of the trade is that the 
articles which this colony exports to its sister colony are first imported 
into the Bahamas Irom the United States, such as liquors, bntter, can- 
diea, cheese, cotton goods, hardware, salted meat, nails, oils, soap, and 
rice. Imports in return are received of specie, raw hides, and sarsapa- 
rilla bark — 50,000 pounds of which latter was received in 1882 and sent 
to the United States. 

Bailing veaseU.— The number of sailing vessels arriving in 1882 was 
36S, tonnage, 34,065, as against 411 in 1861, tonnage, 37,237. Under 
the American flag there arrived in 1882, 119 vessels; tonnage, 14,838, 
as against 133 in 1881, tonnage, 19,8M. This decline in Anerican ton- 
UBge is due to the fkct that steam communication between the Unite*) 
States and the Bahamas is now exuelleut, and the fact that several 
large sailing vessels, built and owned in this colony, are engaged in 
making regular trips between the islands and the United States. The 
arrivals under the British flag in 1882 were 227, tonnage, 18,015, as 
against 233 in 18S1, tonnage, 14,687. Of the 119 vessels arriving in 
1882, ander the American flag, about four-flftha were for fmit, the carry- 
ing of which will necessarily largely remain in the hands of American 
shipowners. 

A WINTER RESORT. 

The fact that the Bahamas furnish a very desirable winter sanitarium 
for invalids, as well aa a pleasant resort for those who wish to avoid 
"the rigor of a northern climate from December to April, is too well 
known to require even confirmation At my liauds. 

The winter of ]882-'82 was a fairly prosperous one in this regard, 
.about 300 Americans visiting the city of Kassau during tlie season. The 
abandonment of the southern service between Kassau and Floriitn 
decreased the number of strangers who came, but as those who came 
remained longer, the winter was a profitable one to the colonists. The 
infrequency of mail communication and the absence of a cable, are 
drawbacks which will, until these wants are supplied, prove iusur- 
monntablo barriers in the way of the Bahamas becoming a general win- 
ter resort, uotwithatandtng their salubrious climate and many other 
advantages. 

TBOS. J. McLAIN, Jr., 
Conavl 

United States Consulate, 

Nataau, K P., May 14, 1383. 



^dbyGoogle 



TBADB BETWEEN POBT STANLEY AKD UNITED STATES. 207 



TEASE BETWEEE POE T STAW LEY AED ST. TH0ICA8 AES THE 
UNITED STATES. 

S£POBT BT COUVgSOIAL AOEXT OARBOLL. 

Ill my laat report ou the trade of the dUtrict, vliich is embraced io 
^o. 21 of the Gotumemial Reports, publisbed ia Jaly, L882, 1 gave a 
detailed statemeiit of tUe imports tbereiuto during tlieyear 1881, shov- 
ing the character aud quantity of each article, together with the duty 
thereon spedflcally and in the aggregate, and, in view of which, 1 have 
deemed it inexpedient to traverse the same ground in the preparatioa 
of the present statements, especially as the character of the importa- 
tions and the duties thereon are substantially the same as those of 1881. 

Such changes as have taken place in the Canadian tarifif were subse- 
quent to the close of the year ISS2, and those I submitted in my No. 95, 
so that it does not appear necessary to allude to them here, other than 
to say that they did not affect the importatious of 1882. 

As will be observed, the imports £rom the United States, duriug the 
year 1882, augmented steadily, quarter by quarter, making an aggregate 
increase over 1881 of lt59,'O0o, and over ISSO, $7d,652, this, too, DOtwith- 
atanding that no apparent efforts have been made hy Americans to ex- 
tend their trade in this district, although I suggested in the report pre- 
viously adverted to that an opening in that conuectiou evidently existed. 

The exports from the district have largely increased over those of 
former years, those for 1882 amouuting iu value to t804,937.52; the 
fourth quarter of 1882 showing an increase over the correspoDdiug 
quarter of 1881, of $39,114.90. 

The exports are composed principally of wheat, clover seed, barley 
horses, luml>er, staves, cattle, sheep and lambs, household etfeots, &e. 
For a few years these are likely to increase, after which, it is believed, 
they will diminish; especially will this be so as to lumber; taking into 
consideration the rapid consumption and shipment thereof, this part of 
Canada will soon be denudetl of its forests. 

Since submitting my reiiort for 1381, St. Thomas has increased largely 
Id population aud Industries; but as I am now collecting data iu con- 
uectiou therewith upon which to base a separate report, £ only refer 
thereto iu passing. 

With reference to the four great railroads centering in this city, it 
may be of interest to state, that three thereof have been merged as 
follows, viz : 

The Great Western and LoadoD and Port Stanley with the U-rand 
Tmnk Bailroad, aud the Canada Southern with Michigan Central Bail- 
Toad. 

The result of this amalgamation, so far as St. Thomas is coacemed, 
has not been definitely determined, some thinking it will benefit it, and 
others, that it will be injurious thereto. 

In conclusion, it may be proper to say, that I am indebted to Ibe Oa- 
iiadian ofiBcials from time to time for courtesies, to whom, through the 
Itepartment, I beg to express my acknowledgements. 

PHILIP CARROLL. 

Commercial Agent. 

Ubited States Cosemeboial Ao-ency, 

I'ort atanleg and St. ThomM, Canada, April 28, 1883. 

• OOglQ 



208 TEADB BETWEEN PORT STANLEY AND UNITED STATES. 

StAtement aluntiag t^e value and character of (*« anxwto from tke emifufor dUMel of Fori 
Stanley and £1. nontax, Canada, to the United Slate*, exclueiTe of the agmes at Coart- 
taright, during tke oalendar ^tar ended DecewiierSl, IS83, rir: 

WhMt 1175,875 60 

CloVM»*ed ; 119,529 57 

Horses 59,753 5» 

Barley 56,530 00 

Lumber Bjid railroftd ties 54,775 43 

Cattle 45,667 25 

Stoves 54,764 97 

Sbeep and lambH 32,951 95 

Hoopi 32,093 M 

HonjehoWeffihcts 36,299 45 

PotatoeB 80.439 98 

Egin 20,616 80 

BoHs 12,6ffl 14 

Bcana 12,854 3fi 

Malt 11. JOB 16 

Data 8,734 16 

Flax a, 173 4-i 

Bnediog aDimaU 10,408 OO 

Sotapiron 6,135 75 

Battan 3,680 00 

Floor 2,038 75 

Oak bark 1,975 00 

Bran 1,764 00 

Hogs , 688 00 

Tan bark 800 00 

Split pease 2,803 00 

■riiniips 1,674 4ft 

Old machinery 300 OO 

Tobaooo catlings....: ^ 281 96 

jUbea 866 00 

Battot 781 00 

HisceUaneons 2,273 28 

Total - 804,937 5a 

Stalttitmt aliourivg the aggrtgalt valat of importt from, the UniUd State* into St. Thoma* 
Canada, togetlKr with tke gro*t amovnt of dulg collected thereon, bg gaarl«r*, dnring tke 
calendar gear ended Dtcember 31, 18^, til; : 

Value. Daty. 

First qnarter f72,441 »12,304 59 

Second quarter 73,294 12,950 21 

Third quarter 99,849 19,273 4» 

Fourth quarter 104,977 19,908 95> 

Total 350,561 64.431 W 

RECAPITULATION. 

Ezporta from St. Thomas, Canada, into the United Stateadnring the year 

188S 1804,937 58 

Imports from the United States into St. Thomas during the year 1668 .. . 350, 561 00 



le in favor of the exports 454,376 5S 

Imports ftom the United States into St. Thomas, Canada, dniing the year 

mi 991,553 00 

Increase of the impoTiB of 1683 over those of 1881 60,008 00 

Dnty italised by the Dominion OoTeromeut on goods imported into St. 

Thomai dotiDg the year 1888 64,431 18 

IncTCoH of the duty lealised over 1881 13,643 IS 

,iz.db Google 



COIfDrnOlT OF TBADE in ONTJlBIO. 



CONSITIOV OP TRACE IH OVTAKIO. 

SSPOMT BY COXMESCIAL XQElfT BUFFIKOTOK. OF CBATBAM. 

The calendar year ending December 31, 1SS2, -wob one of remarkable 
prosperity for the province of Ontario. Labor waa abnndant and vages 
remnneratiTe. The crops were exceptionally good. 

The November report of the Barean of Statistics gives the area nnder 
grain crops for the year at 5,002,067 acres, or 48 per cent, of all the 
cleared land. The acreage and prodnction of each crop are given as 
follows: Fall wheat, 1,188,520 acres, 31,256,402 bushels; spring wheat, 
686,817 acres, 9,665,999 bashels; barlev, 848,017 acres, 24,^84,407 bush- 
els; oats, 1,375,116 acres, 60,097,997 bushels; rye, 189,031 acres, 
3,549,898 bushels: pease, 557,167 acres, 10,943,357 bushels; com, 206,924 
acres, 13,420,984 bashels (in the ear) ; buckwheat, 49,686 acres, 1,24^,943 
bushels. The total of spring and fall wheat is 1,775,337 acres, yield- 
ing 40,921,401 bushels, or an average of 23.05 bushels per acre. The 
total produce of beans is compnted to be 409,910 bushels; of potatoes, 
18,432,146 bashels. 

EXPORTS TO THE UNITED 8TATSS. 

As a consequence of this prosperous condition, the exports to the 
United States for the year ending December 31, 1382, show a large in- 
crease in valne, amoautiug to 9621,615.(10, against $455,459,24 the pre- 
ceding year, being an increase of 9166,156.66. 

All appearances now indicate that this increase will not be maintained 
for the year ending December 31, 1883, There is ouly about half the 
quantity of cordwood and not more than two-thirds as many elm bolts 
ready for shipment as there were at this time last year. 

Malt, which has heretofore been a heavy article of export, after Jane 
30, unless the Dominion Government shall grant the request of the 
Maltsters' Association to remove the excise duty now levied upon it, and 
place a tax stamp on beer, will virtually oease to be an article of export, 
as the disadvantageous position in which Canadian maltsters have been 
placed by the recent changes in the American tariff renders snccessfnl 
competition with American malt8t«rs impossible. 

THE TBADE IN ELM TIUBEB. 

There are large tracts of low-lands in this district covered principally 
vith elm, and of late years, owing to the demand for hoops and staves 
in the American markets, a large number of staves and hoop mills have 
been started along the lines of railway, affording employment to hun- 
dreds of men and requiring a considerable amount of oapital. Similar 
establishments have sprung up on the American side of the border, the 
elm being obtained &om Canfula in its natural state. 

CANADIAN EBCIPEOCITT. 

The Canadian manufacturers have shown a disposition to monopolize 
this trade, and for a year past have zealously endeavored to indnce 
their Government to impose an export duty on elm logs and bolts, with 
a view of retaining the supply for themselves and shutting out the 
American buyers of raw material. 

They have not yet succeeded in securing the imposition of such an 
obnozionB tax, but should their efforiis ultimately be successfiil, some 



210 CONDITION OF TBADB IN ONTARIO. 

change in our tariff wonlil be necessary to place tbe American mann- 
facturer in at least as good a position to snpply the Amencao market 
a» his Canadian rival. 

HOW TO INCBEASB AMERICAN TRADE IN CANADA. 

While the ezpOTt-s to the United States from this district have con- 
tinued to increase year by year, chiefly of the products of the forest and 
farm, there has been no corresponding increase in the direct importation 
of American mannfactares, a state of things which, considering the 
proximity of American markets and the general preference for Ameri- 
can goods, seems to be anomalous. 

The duty on English and American goods is precisely the same, aod 
tbe lower freights ought to give our mauufacturers an advantage over 
their more distant rivals. I think a great improvement in reciprocal 
tradg might be effected by the reduction of the United States duties on 
Canadian produce, a step which could not injure the American prodacer, 
as both conn tries are exporters of the same articles to a common market. 

This would enable oar shippers to enter the Canadian market and 
export its produce throngh American channels. Trade relations would 
thus be developed, and with the strong feeling which prevails in this 
district in favor of closer baainess relations, I feel confident Canadian 
trade would soon become a very important one to our manufacturers 
and wholesale dealers. 



It is too early to speak intelligently of the crop prospects in this sec- 
tion with the exception of winter wheat. 

This has been a staple crop in Western Ontario, and for many years 
in succession has yielded large returns. The past winter has not been 
favorable, however, and a large proportion of the wheat has been winter- 
hilled. 

The prospect is that the crop will not exceed one-half the usual aver- 
age. Indeed a great many acres have been plowed up to be replaced 
by spring grain. 

Tbe corn area will be largely iocreasetl in conseqnence and the loss to 
the conntry will not be bo great should the season be favorable, as the 
Government returns show that corn is almost as profitable a crop as 
that in tbe western districts of this province, the average being only 
one dollar less per acre. 

EMIGKATION TO THE UNITED STATES. 

Notwithstanding the general prosperity existing in this section of 
Ontario, the emigration from here to the United States for the past 
year has been larger than the year previous, and seems still to be on 
the Increase. A int^jority of those emigrating are men in the prime of 
manhood, most of them possessing sufficient means for starting fairly 
in the battle of life in the new homes they have chosen. 

As a class they are a desirable acquisition to the popntation of the 
United States. 

H. C. BUFFINGTON, 

Commeroiai Agent. 
United States CoMamBciAL Agency, 

Chatham, Canada, May 5, 1883. .-. , 



AMERICAN PBOPBIETARY MEDICINES IN BELOIUM. 



AKERICAir FBOFBIETAET KSDICDTES IN B£I,OIUK. 

KEPORT BT COySUL TJ.X1TBK, OF LtS&E AKD YERVlEEa. 

My dispatch No. 37, published In So. 25 of Consular EeporU, has at- 
tracted some attention from those who deal in patent medicines botli 
in the United States and in England. I iiave in consequence received 
many letters of inqairy from both countries. I have answered promptly 
all those coming from the United States. In ortlerto be as precise and 
j)ra<:tical as possible, I herewith inclose an attrertisement of Hop Bitters, 
which may give our dealers in patent medicines a more thorough insight 
into what is required to introduce their goods than anyplan I contd de- 
vise. 

Hop Bitters are here in full force, and have come to stay, byjost 
such a method as the simple iuclosure is a key to, and which is so well 
known with ns. The inclosed advertisement* ib distributed throaghoat 
the city, and handed to every passer-by. In the United States seventy- 
five persons ont of a hundred now refuse sach advertisements when 
offered them on the streets. X have never seen one reused here, nor 
have I ever seen one cast aside without being read. 

There is no countrj- therefore where printer's ink is more potent. In 
each shop where Hop Bitters are sold, there is also a larger card than 
the one inclosed, on the same style, iudicatiug that this article is dealt 
in. Since my dispatch "So. 27, 1 am glad to see other familiar medi- 
cines in the inwiudows here, among them Allen's Hair Vigor; wherever 
one of these medicines is seen there also is seen the introducing 
agency, the card, gay and attractive enough to catch the eye of the 
passer-by and call attention to the article. 

The same thing is true also of our tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes. 
The Belgians and Frencli take much pride in their show windows, and 
arrange them in a style bordering on the artistic ; and when they can 
find a chromo like that wliich is given to dealers iu Richmond Gem To- 
bacco, or an attractive car<l like that which is ^iven by the Chicago 
cigarette exporters, in many iustaucea the article is bought so that the 
show-window may be embellished by the advertisement. It will be 
seen by the inclosed advertisement that Hop Bitters retains its English 
name, and I would recommend this plan to all others. An idea per- 
vades people that things that are foreign possess superior virtues to 
those found at home, and this is as much the case in Belgium as in the 
United States; therefor© the foreign name is a recommendation. Dis- 
patch Ko. 21j in addition to the letters written to this consulate, occa- 
sioned a visit from Mr. Charles Delacre, a well-known pharmacist of 
Brussels, who deals extensively in patent medicines, both American 
and English. He had a plan to mention by which American medicinea 
might be introduced, which I asked him to write oiit for me and I 
would submit to the Department, which I herewith inclose. I shall 
offer no comments thereon, preferring that the American dealer should 
follow his own judgment in the matter. 

Mr. Delacre I am satisfied possesses all the energy and other reqni- 



riz.db Google 



'312 AMEBICAN PfiOPfilETARY UEDICINES IN BELGIUM. 

«ite8 for an intermediarysUoaldtheAmericaudealer approve liisplaus. 
I beg to take thia occasiou to say to American dealers, that, while it 
affords me pleasure to be of the slightest service to them, that a consal 
who performs strictly his duties should be spared as maoh as possible 
unnecessary inquiry, that takes ap his time, and which requires for aa 
answer a repetition of what he has already writteu. I hare no doubt 
that parties in most instances who make these inquiries do so ftt)m hav- 
ing seen short and impwfect extracts in some jonrnal of the reiwrt, when, 
■were they to see it in full, everything would be clear to them. 

GEO. C. TANNEE, 
, Consul. 

United States Consulate at LifisE and Vehtieks, 

June 5, 1883. 



Mr. DeUtore to Co-iiul Tanner. 

BHlginm is a rich coantif, ftad any good article of reklntJUtTii sore to meet a pro* 
portioDal deiuand, if properly worked. If I were to iatrodnce an article into Belginm 
I woald proceed aa follows: 

First of aU, be iutrodaced to a firm that has a large counectiou aoioogst tbe public, 
00 as t« give authority to my products by its patroaage, and also a large couneotion 
in the trade. It shoold be, of course, reliable, honest, well acquainted with tbe hab- 
its of the people and the medinns of advertUiog, ralue of papers, their circola- 
(iou, &.C. 

Having chosen such a firm, make with it a coatract of standiog, so as to allow it to 
derive prodtsfrom trade. a« well as for its belp, advice, and gnidance, and thesuccnsafDl 
iotrodnetionof the article into pablic ooe. Then stndja plan of advertising, as there 
are for the same a good many shapes. Proprietary ortiales may address tbe medical 
body exolmively, and so do Loctopeptine, Haltiue, Dr. Fellow's Rypophosphitee, 
Ac; some other ones may address the public, viz : HopBitteta, Mother fiiegel's Sirup, 
Perrv Davia's Pain Killer, Holman's Pad, &c. 

When the mode has beeu decided npon, it is easy to calculat« the amount to spend 
in advertising. In the Hrst cose, medical papers, samples, letters, and circnlus to 
medical men, to chemists, drugBists, midwives, veterinory surgeons, &c. lu fact, it 
entirely depends upon the article. In the second case, I may mention political papere 
and proBpectnses or pamphlets, to be widely distributed. Besides these there are a 
great many various shajjes of advartiaiag — show cards, chromos, almanacs, albums, 
fans, easels, &c. lufact, icistheagent'sduty tosend hisfriend his snagestiona, advice, 
bints, so as to challenge attention with sometUiug new. Another sluipe of advertis- 
ing coDsists in posters and boards on the walls, in the railway carriages, on the trams, 
Aa. When the tine hue been well studied and agreed upon, a consixn mentis necessary, 
m> that the agent may send a small supply, on sale or return, to all his friends, and this is 
generally done this way : A letter ig sent to the profession telling them anoh or such 
preparation is going to be advertised, and that the agent would be pleased to send 
them a small consignmi^nt order, on sale or return. Ask them whether they wish for 
liandbills and show cards, aud propose to them besides the nanal discount, a premium 
At the end of the year, if their purchases reach certain amounrs. The agent should 
send a monthly statement of safes and remittances for the same. He ought, besides 
this, keep account of the sales in the various towns and at the principal chemisM' so 
HB to see where his efforts are to be made or increased or given np. Then after tbe 
first year's trial it is wise to proportion the advertising budget to the sales eft'ected. 
Jt is easy to understand the importance of the agent's acquaintance with the newspa- 
pers and the populations of the various towns i^erein he must have representatives 
to call upon every one connected with the sales. One must not lose sight of the fact 
that Belgium is not so large a country as the States, and consequently does not pre 



idb,Google 



FOBEIQK COUHBBCK OF BELOICU. 



FOBEIOV OOMHXBGE OF BELOIIW. 



1. — OENBBAI. IBABE. 

From tables of statistics, just issued from the miuistry of finance for 
Selgium, giving the commercial movement of the kingdom with foreigu 
«ountrie«) for the mouth of March, 1883, and also a comparative state- 
ment of the same for the first quarter of the years 1883, 1882, and 1881, 
we find the result to be unfavorable for the first tbiee months of the 
present year, aa foliowe : 

The amount of importations for the month of March, 1383, was about 
the same as that for March, 1882, bnt the amonnt of exportations for 
the same time show a decrease of seven per cent. 

During the first three months of 18S3, as compared with 1882, there 
was a decrease of 6 per cent, in the amount of importations into Bel- 
gium, and a decrease of 10 i>er cent, in the amount of exportations fix>m 
BelgiuoL 

The foUowiag tables will give the increase and decrease by values of 
(he principal articles of esport and import for the first quarter of 1883, 
arranged according to their importance : 

Table thoKiaj tka incrtate and dtertatt of ralat nf importaliont into Btlgiii»i for tkt fint 
quarter of MSA ai txmjiared irilh ltja2. 

IKCRKABB. 

Coffee 7.919,000 

Floor and meat 2,650,000 

Tobacco leaf 3,559,000 

Cfaemicak : 

6o<Ia 2,«0,000 

Others 1,4»«,000 

Copi>ei and Dickel 2,172,000 

Potatoei l,45fi,000 

Wood for building 1,177,000 

Hides, rough 941,000 

Iron 86»,000 

Coal 756,000 

Beiiu and bitumes 749,000 

KoaoB and peaae 6S3,000 

.AjDimala: 

Honwa 640,000 

Cattle 337,000 

Hye 491,000 

«flk 344,000 

DECBBA8B. 

Wheat 15,169,000 

«nuno 4.688,000 

OatB 3,156,000 

Tallow 2,775,000 

Barley 1,956,000 

Oil seeds 1.6BO,000 

Meat 1,603,000 

Wood: Oak and Walnut 1,587,000 

Fetroleum 1,427,000 

ManniisctoreaofsUk 967,000 



214 FOBEION COMMEBCE OF BELGIUM. 

Linen thread •- 9SJ,000 

MMnfactnrMofwool Tuy.OOO 

Wine 435,000 

AnimaU: Ho^s 377,000 

Clothing - 351,000 

Ban 344,000 

Lace 3111,000 

Caat iron 304,000 

Fancy goode and hardware 301,000 

TaiU ihojoiiig ths I 

jirsi giianer oj 

IXCREASE. 

Oil 1,573,000 

Meat 1,461,000 

Rice 1,296,000 

Zinc, nnworked 914,000 

Window glaM 895,000 

Window glass, worked 707,000 

Coiil S14,00O 

Wool 807,000 

Stones 765,000 

Arms 751,000 

Hideu, tanned 6fil,0UO 

Oilseeds 5«;3,000 

Flour 614.000 

Chemicals: Boda 331,000 

decHeabe. 

Wheat 19,468,000 

Linen thread 3, WO, 000 

MacUiner? 3,139,000 

Uannfacturee : 

Wool 2,579,000 

Others 890,000 

Oats 2.301,000 

ManofautureB of linen 1,538,000 

Woolen thread 1,504,000 

Tallow I,ai9,000 

Steel, worked 1,263,000 

Eggs l.ldi.OOO 

Siicar 1, 11S,UOO 

Hides, tanned l,06e,00O 

Guano 960,000 

Eye ■, B5e,00O 

Candles 790.000 

Worked 747,000 

Hails 3i(i,00O 

Old *. 343,000 

Others C19.00O 

Cast &13,00O 

Petrolenm 694,000 

Ragi 601,000 

Copper and nickel 543,000 

Paper other than banging 5l'i,000 

Lead 417,000 

Starch 394, GOO 

II. TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 



Looking at the articles Id which ire are most directly interested we 
^ud tLe following results: First and most important ou the list is 



FOBEION COMHESC£ OF BELOIUH. 215 

tekeat. The total amoant of importation from all coantries daring the 
qnarter was 141,270 tons, being a decrease of 52,000 tons from the cor- 
Tespoading qnarterof the precediDg rear ; the decrease waa as follows : 
From India, 43,000 tons ; from the United States, 1,600 tons ; and 7,000 
tond firom Bassta. There was an increase of 0,000 tons from Bouaiauia 
and 7,000 tons from Germany. The amoant received from the United 
States in Mai«h, 1863, was 17,736 tons. 

In rge there was an increase in the total importations of 2,160 lons^ 
but there was a decrease of about 180 tons in the qnantity coming from 
the United States. The amount received from the United States during 
the month of March was 1,145 tons. 

The decrease in receipt of corn and oats for the quarter was 16,000 
tons; the decrease from the United States was 0,300 tons, and the 
amount received from there in March was 3,362 tons. 

Coffee shows an increase of 5,290 tons for the quarter as follows : 
Increase from Brazil, 1,600 toDSj France, 2,900 tons; from Holland, 
650 tons; and the United States, 140 tons. The amount received from 
the United States in France was 157 tone. 

Flour and meal. — The total increase in the importation for the quarter 
was 4,800 tons. The increase from the United States was 3,600 tona 
and the amount received in March was 877 tons. 

Meat mast necessarily show a continued fallintr off. The decrease 
for the quarter was 1,100 tons, as compared with"l883, and 6,600 tons 
as compared with ISSl. The amount imported from the United States 
daring March was only 077 tons. A ff w more prohibition decrees and 
the article will be lost from our table of exports- 
Dried fruit was received from the United States during the quarter 
to the amount of 28,178 francs, being an iocrease of 23,000 francs. The 
amount received in March was 20,609 francs. 

Vegetable oils show a decrease in the amount coming fh)m the United 
States for the quarter of 360 tons. The quantity imported from there 
daring March was 69 tons. 

Quano shows a decrease of 14,200 tops for the quarter. The total 
receipt for the first three months of 1883 was only 2,250 tons, and this 
came from England, France, and Holland. 

The quality of lard coming from the United States during the quarter 
was 1,162 tons, being 3,400 tons less than the amount received daring 
the corresponding quarter of 1882, and the amoant imported during 
Alarcb, 1883, was 658 tuns. 

Fetrolevm. — The quantity received for the quarter was 19,395 tons 
against 26,632 tons in 18S2, being a decrease of 7,237 tons. The amount 
received in March was 5,886 tons. 

The decrease in rosin and bitumen from the United States for the 
qnarter was 1,600 tons. 

Leaf tobacco shows an increase of 1,500 tons. The increase from the 
United States was 9S0 tons and the amounts received during Mai-cb 
vaa 604 tons. 

Exports. 

During the month of March, 1883, there was exported to the United 
States from Belgium merchandise as follows: Arms, 83,460 francs; 
clothing, 26,209 francs; laces, 3,000 francs; 242 tons of rags; 125 tons 
of machinery; 604tonsof steel; 1,672 tons steei rails; 422 tons wrought 
steel other than rails; 160 tons iron wire; 200 tons iron nails; 1,160 
tons mannfactared iron; 44 tons zinc; 36 tons paper; 188 tons of raw 
Bkins; 5 tons of stones ; 51 tons of soda; 36 tons cotton goods ; 3 tons 
voolen goods ; 23 tons of linen goods ; 6 tons of glass bottles; 07 tons 



216 



FOBEION COUMEBCE OF BELOIUH. 



of mirrors ; 3,000 tous of window glass, and 28 tons of fine cut-glaaa 
ware. 

The amount of cnstoms duties collected during tbe first quarter of 
1881 was 6,253,549 francs ; for tbe first quarter of 1882 was 6,854,705 
francs, and for 1883 it was 7,627,188 francs. 

The following tables give the direct trade, the importations and ex- 
portations between the United States and Belgiam for the first quarters 
of 1881, 1882, and 18S3: 



Articl 


,. 


1888. 


1882. 


laai. 






108,811 
28,178 

IS 

!,Mt 

■i:g 

•1 

•iS 

m 

88 

18 


138. B« 
















W<wi,torbuUdh.g 


cubic mrtera.. 


2,188 

1 

Is 

4 

*'«8 

4«» 

a 


1,M1 
S*,1M 




















14, IM 

B,MO 

i:4w 




















































a 









Table *yi>wing tht exportation* from Belgiuti 



Artlclw. 


1888. 


18SI. 


im. 


^ 




sa 
•'2 


18E.1S8 


, 


















18, OM 












8, DM 


















«'«W'""""' 




'■2 

1,S15 
















3M 




^■y. . . ,.-.. 














'IS 

I, AM 

m 

13S 
11 








S3 
M 

78 










































































1 

4<n 




WoDlenEDodl 












'-fSSU 











■ It b md; atace ths ut jBDiurr, 1883. that Ui 



ID nodetsd Mpintidj-. 



THE PEOTECnVB POUCT IN CANADA. 217 

The prices inliog to-day on the Antwerp market, for the following 
AmeritsaQ products, is as follows : 

American red wheat 26 francs, and California white wheat 25^ ft'ancs^ 
per 100 kilometers. American Honr in Backs 32 francs, and Saint Lonis 
flour 38 franca, per 100 kilometers. 

Petroleum, 19 francs per 100 kilometers. Stock, abont 100,000 barrels. 

Lard. — The Wilcox brand, 140J francs ; Fairbanks and Fowler, 140 
fhuics ; Chamberlain and McFarlane, 139J francs, per 100 kilometers ; 
estimated stock 3,000 to 4,000 tierces and about 2,000 buckets. 

Mtat. — Long middles, 130 iVancs ; short middles, 138 francs ; shool- 
ders, 109 francs, and smoked hams 170 francs, per 100 kilometers. Stock 
on the market, abont 1,000 boxes. 

JOHK H. 8TEUART, 

Consul. 

Consulate United States of America, 

Antwerp, May 14, 1683. 



THE PROTECTIVE POUCT ZV CAVASA. 

SBPOST BT COSBUL CRAVFORD. OF COillCOOK. 

The question is often asked, "What has been the effect of the Dstional 
policy upon the businessof the Dominion 1" Toanswer this, it would only 
be necessary for any one who was at all familiar with this country three 
years ago to visit any part of Canada now, to become convinced that 
it is doing much to build up and develop her manufactories, mines, 
agriculture; and above all this, its effects are felt by the laboring masses. 

It has increased greatly the demand for both skilled and unskilled 
labor, and all are now employed at wages from 20 to 50 per cent, higher 
^ao before its adoption. 

As the wages of the laboring men and women have increased, the 
people have been able to live better, dress better, and surround them- 
selves with many of the comforts of life that before tbey were forced 
to dispense with. 

There are those who say "the national policy has not done for the 
Dominion what its friends expected," and point to the fact that at the 
close of the first year after its adoption the balance of trade was found 
to be against them. 

It should not be forgotten that previous to the time the taw was 
passed increasing largely the rates of duties Canada was buying most 
of her manafactur»d goods from foreign nations, and her exports were 
mostly the products of the soil. Tbe value of their exports feU Car short 
at her imports. Although she is now buying less of some classes of 
foreign goods the value of her imports has increased, as is evident 
f^m the increase of revenue tiova customs for the five months ending 
November 30, 1S82, as compared with a like period for the year 1881. 



^dbyGoogle 



THE PKOTECTIVE POLICY IN CANADA. 



Deuriptian. 


■»» 


JMl. 


Increwe, 




»l,t>M.SI« IB 
SM.MS H 
621.637 08 


11,710,109 15 
002.020 U 
SB8.21SS4 


1101.207 01 












3,097,072 08 


2.8M,344 J2 


I». 727 80 





»/ rtrennefor the fine monlht ending Xovember 30, 1882. 





D«.ripa»n. 


isra. 


1S81. 


laCRMO. 






- 


*«.01t,5U90 
2.281,300 so 


W.SI* 03 




















Tof.l».... 


1 1S,S83,83J22 


13,801.842 U 


l,7e2,«0 3S 



Tbe increased demand for machinery and iron for her nev mauofact- 
uriiif; industries, for whicti she is iu a great degree dependent upon for- 
eign nations, has more tlian counterbalanced the falling off of the manu- 
factured articles now furnished from her own factoriea ; bo, where she has 
eaved on the one hand she has lost on the other. 

The products of her farms, her forests, and her mines, are about all 
she has to send abroad. She has uot yet arrived at that point as a 
manufacturing nation when she has many manufactured articles to dis- 
pose of other than to her own people, and the home demand is at pres- 
ent, and will be for some time to come, greater than she can supply. 

The people being able to save more necessarily spend more; this, 
-with the increasing population — it being over 80,000 the past year — cre- 
ates a greater home market for her products aud a greater demand for 
a class of goods not yet maaufactnred iu the Dominion, or, if manufhct- 
ured, is not sufficient to supply the demand. Uutil that time arrives, 
when competition shall reduce prices, or there is a production of goods 
beyond what is required for home consumption, the manufacturer has a 
monopoly, and prices will be kept tip. The effect of this monopoly is 
seen in the value of stocks, especially cottou stocks, which are selling 
from 50 to 70 per cent, premium. 

Semi-annual dividends of 10 per cent, are declared, and the surplus 
savings, which in many cases are as much more, are being tised to enlarge 
their factories. 

The large pro&ts derived from the investment of capital in the general 
industries of the Dominion have not escaped the attention of the Ameri- 
can capitalist, and many from the United States are iavesting their 
money in Canada. 

The field for investment is yet wide; there are many industries yet 
anileveloped. Scores of the smaller, though do less important, ones are 
yet wholly neglected, and with ample protection and a good home mar- 
ket an investment in them would be sure to pay a large profit to the 
iuvestor. 

There seems to be a desire on the part of Oanadian capitalists to ob- 
tain iDvestment« fW>m people in the United States, not so much for the 
money they may pat in, as it is to hare, as they term it, '■'a little of th« 
Yankee energy emploj/ed," which wiH insure success in developing new 



AMERICAS SALTED HEATS IN FRANCE. 21 U 

industiieB. They are not Mnteot to plod ou at the elov pace of the 
GnKlishmao. The field of operation now o\>eu is so wide and the pro&ta 
BO large that they feel the necessity of an immediate occupaDcy, and for 
that reason they are anxious to have more interested who will ''push 
tkingg." 

We have in all parts of the United States yonng men who are looking 
about tbem to find some opening where they can start out in life for 
themselTes, clear-headed, honest hearts, and determined wills, txperts in 
the basiness in which they are engaged ; with little or no capital, they 
are forced by circumstances to occuity some subordinate iK>aition when 
they are fitted for something better. If they attempt to step out lor 
themselves they find the ground already occupied^ ajid capital concen- 
trated drives them in many cases from any enterpWee in which they 
would engage. 

To such, it seems to me, there ia a field open in the Dominion of 
Canada. There is capital here seeking iaveetment, industries undevel- 
oped, and all that is wanted is experienced men of brains and integrity 
to join their skill with this capital, and in this way many of our young 
men could occupy the position of managers and share in the profits of 
these industries. 

J. G. CBAWFOED, 



Ukited States Consulate, Coatieook. 



Oonsvl. 



AFRICAN 8ALIEXI XEAT8 IS FRANCE. 

TSAXSLATED FROU LA QIBOSDE. OF BORDBATTS. BT C0S8VL 

We extract Stom a note communicated to us by the Chamber of Com- 
merce of Bordeaux, and which had been handed to the minister of 
commerce by the delegates of the Chambers of Paris, Marseilles, Bor- 
deaux, and Havre united, the following observations concerning the 
prejudices caused to the merchant marine, as well as to commerce and 
public feeding, by the prohibition pronounced against American pork 
(decree of February 18, X881) : 

ir merchant 

„„ _.. „_ , prcBentijiK about 40,000,000 kiloarams neat < ' 

» Talne of 50,000.000 francs. 

Tlw probitritioa canaed the eoantr; to lose yearly by nay of freights, dutiea, haad- 
liDg, expcuaes for cartJDg, &c., an amouot of 15.000,000 franc*, which v» the dlflereuee 
of aboDt 30 p«r cent, between the price paid at the United States Mid that paid by 
the conaiinier to the retail dealer. 

* * * The aanitary question ieema to na to have been definitively aettled by Uie 
daciaiona of the consultative committee of public hyeiene, taken in the aittin^ of 
Anftuat 4, 187», Seiitember 6, IBSO, and January 4, 1^ all which deeirious being 
Mdyerae to the prohibition, and r^ectins at the »ame time themicrogtaphic iOHmcUoDa, 
tot this n>ason, that onr country'* cuUnary habit* shelter the conaomer from aay 
d«pg«r. * • - 

The qiMation remalo*, then, to-day what it was jeaterday, i. e., a proteotiooist 
rather than a eauitaiy queatiou. A* a proof, by exatniuing Uie votes given in onr 
deliberatlDg •*a«ublie*, one may notice that all protect! on lata voted Cor Che prohibi- 
tion, and all ftee-traders for common right. 

Yoa are not unaware, Ur. Kinister, that prohibition i^aa applied after the emotion 
oauaed in the political world by the campaign smilfullj and energetically oondooted 
Vy tho dry-aait«ra of Nanta*, which oantpa^ wa* euppotted by agricultiursl papers 
and by the Society of the Afcricnltnrera of France, 

This laat aoclety, compoaed for the mo*t part of large proprietors, thought it waa 



220 THE TALLEY OF MONTBEBy. 

defendiog the interegts wbich it repreaenla, tritbont cousideriDg that it did a gntTo 
injnrj to a not Ims respectable intereat — tliat of public feeding. 

To-day, that the light ia made, it aeeniH to us imposaible that the GovemmeDt 
•bonld maintain Bnoh a meaaure. 

Tbere ii, besides, Mr. HinisMi, a point on which we conld not call your attention 
too itrongly ; that is, that the question of American pork is connected at large with 
the economical welfare of the country, and that in conditions which present a very 
aerious character. 

The piobibition, indeed, by depriving the working classes of a cheap food, bas 
resulted in the increase of the price of food, and in bringing forth, by wfty of codM' 
qnences, a oorresponding increase in the ra(« of salaries. By the same act on increase 
was produced in the rate of workmanship, and the relations between the masters 
and workmen have become more difficult. 

What is moat grievons is tbat snch matters spring forth at a time when foreign 
iudastry makes tbe utmost efforts to supplant ours on all foreign markets where we 
had our principal outlets. 

It is quite evident that our export trade bas been on the decline for several yeara 
past, whilst the importation of manufactured articles increases constantly. The ri»e 
in the prioe of workmanship it not calcalated to remedy this sad situation. 

Tbe Am erlcaus consider the prohibitive measures taken by^e French Government 
as veiatioas. A reduction of the importation duties in the United States on French 
products IB extremely desirable for us, as well for the products of our soil as for those 
of onr industry, ^ow, as long as that prohibition lasts, wa,must expect, not a 
re<lnation of tariffs, bnt retaliation. • • • 

To resume, we claim, Mr. Minister, that the American pork trade sbonld agftin 
become free, as it was before February 18, 18S1 ; that we should, in one word, retnm 
to common right, as the only means of allowing that trade to resume all Ita aotivityi 
and procuring cheap food to the working classes, 

To reach that double aim it is sufficient : 

1. To withdraw tbe bill laid before the Chamber of Deputies. 

S. To merely and simply cancel tbe decree of prohibition. 



THE TALLET OF KOITCE&ET. 

REFOKT BT COySVL CAMPBELL. 
THE CITY OF MOHTEHET. 

I have the honor to Bubmit the following notes bearing upon this 
rapidly improving city and the growing interests of this state, Naeyo 
Leon. 

Monterey is becoming a city of considerable interest to American 
citizens. Since the 23d day of February last there have been 2,01S 
American citizens registered at tbe principal botelB; three-fonrthjs of 
this nnmber were lookiog for investments either in mines, maonibc- 
tories, agricaltnral or grazing lands. 

The city bas a population of aboat 60,000 inhabitants; is built after 
the Spanish style, as are all the cities of Mexico, narrow streets and 
spacions plazas. 

The houses are all bnilt of masiuve stone masonry, tbe widls being- 
from 30 to 60 inches in thickness, flat roots, the floors aod roo& made 
of cement. 

Each house incloses an open patio or court, which is nsnally orna- 
mented with flowers and shrubbery; fonr-flflhs of the boildiugs are not 
more than one story in height^ and each house is entered from the street 
by a single coach door; the windows fhjnting on the street are all grated 
with iron bars. 

Hoasee for residence rent for amounts ranging from $20 to $76 per 
month; business bouses from $iO to $200 per month. There are no 



XuKlt^lc 



THE VALLEY OF MONTEEEY. 221 

vacant houses in the city at present, though conaiderahle improTements 
are going on. 

Since the completion of the Mexican National Bailroad to this point 
and the large uomber of Americans coming here, both rents and labor 
have nearly doubled in prices. 

Ordinary day laborers receive 75 cents per day, first class labor •!. 
Two years ago ordinary laborers only received from 26 cents t» 37J 

cents per day. Good house servants can be had from t5 to #B per 
month. 

The market is well snpplied vrith meats and vegetables all the year 
rountl. The raling prices are as follows: 

AVERAGB B£TAIL PRICES. 

Fwih beef per pound.. |0 06 

Choiea cuts clo 12^ 

Fresh mntton do 8 

Fresh real do 12i 

Freab pork do ISJJ 

Dried beef do 181 

Lard ! do.... 30 

Kid eacb... (0 50 to 75 

TurkejB do 1 00 to 3 00 

Chickens do 25 to 50 

Fith, none in the market 
Uilk: 

Goats' ...pet gallon.. 50 

Cons', none in muket. 

Batter, American ,,. per ponud.. 75 

Cheese, American .,, do..,. 50 

Cheese, Hexicaii do.... 371 

Mexican pelonolllo perponnd.. 04 to 06 

Mexican refined do 15 to 18 

New Orleans oat loaf, United State* do 22 

CofSae, Cordova do.... 20 

Tea, best quality .' do.... 2 00 

Chocolate, beat qaality, Uezicsn do 50 

Kiee do 10 

Floor: 

Mexican per pound.. 05 

American do 07 

Com mea), Hexican perbnsbel.. 1 50 

Dried beans per pound.. 06 

Dried apples, American do 26 

Dried qumces, Mexican do IK{ 

Bait, Mexican do.... 05 

Chili, Mexican red pepper per gallon.. 1 25 

Black pepper per pound.. 25 

Kerosene oil, per ease of 6 gallons (United States) 3 50 

Caudles : 

Amerioaa spermaceti perponnd.. 37^ 

Mexican tallov do 15 

Matches, wax per dozen boxes.. 37^ 

Beans, snap per quart.. laj 

Pema,Engfieli do.... 12* 

Cabbage each.. 12* to 25 

Beets per peck.. 50 

Onions per pound.. 07 

PoUtoea! 

Iriah do 08 

Sweet do.... 03 

Carrots pet peck.. 37^ 

Tomatoes do.... 371 

Lettace, rei; clteap. 

Eggs per doEen.. 1^ to 

37a AUG 8" " '' - - 



l^to SS 

Coogic 



222 THE TALLET OF HONTEBBT. 

AQEICCLTUBE. 

Monterey is situated at the foot of the Sierra Madre range of mount- 
ains, aud in one of the moat beautiful and productive valleya in the 
republic, growing in great abundance corn, Bugar-cane, and all the 
cereals, with fine ftaita, such as peaches, figs, pears, qaincee, and grapes, 
together vith the finest pecan trees, bearing nnts that cannot be sur- 
passed in any country. The valley is suppli^ with snflQcient water for 
irrigation. 

Two crops are raised every year, and the rain never fails to fall 
in ample quantities to make one of the two crops without irrigation. 
Sugar-cane is growing to-day within 3 miles of Monterey that was 
planted twenty-three years ago, and so prolific that replanting waa and 
is now unnecessary. 

The Mexican farmers have but few modem appliances in the way of 
improved agricultural implements. Wooden plows are so extensively 
nsed that iron or steel plows are the excs^ption. Wonderful changes, 
though, will take place in the next few years, and instead of the crooked 
stick for a plow aud a brush heap for a harrow, they will be using the 
best improved implements. 

Stock raising is one of the principal pursuits of the State, cattle rais- 
ing especially. Even in dry seasons, when the grass is parched, there 
is generally along the banks of the arroyos a thick undergrowth of 
shrubs which will sustain life until a fall of rain. The prickly pear, 
which grows so plentiful in this country, is an excellent food for the 
cattle. The plant is cut down and thrown on a hot fire until the thorns 
are bnmed off. The plants also afford a very succulent and wholesome 
food for sheep and goats. 

Within the past year, and more especially the last three months, 
many thousand head of both cattle and horses have been bought in 
this State for export to the United States. 

The justly celebrated maguey plant {Agave Americatui] grows prolific 
in this State. When the maguey is about to bloom an incision is made 
into the heart of the plant and the leaves are tied over it. The sap, 
which flows freely from the incision, is fermented aud called pulque, 
which is the favorite beverage of the Mexicans. Besides the pulque, 
they also distill a fine alcoholic drink called mescal. After the sap is 
exhausted the plant dies, aud from the pnlp of the leaves a good paper 
is made, the fibrous pari of the leaf producing a sort of hemp, called 
istle, which is worth here 12J cents per pound. 

Another plant, called lechuguilla, grows in great abundance in this 
State, and produces an istle which is easier to work, but is not of as fine 
quality as the maguey, selling for about five cents per pound. All the 
roi>e and bagging used in this country are manufactured from the fibers 
of the lechuguilla. 

josma. 

The mining interests of this State have also made wonderfnl strides 
within the past year. Old mines are being reopened aud successfully 
worked by American capital. Amongst the ores found in the State are, 
principally, argentiferous lead ores, such as galena and carbonates, 
the amount of silver contained varying from S to 75 ouuces to the too, 
and in some cases the veins open into pockets which run as high as 300 
ounces to the ton. Besides the lead ores, there are found outcroppings 
of sUver-bearing and in some cases gold, bearing copper ores, whioh, how- 



...ik. Google 



COLOMBIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 223 

ever, have not as yet been thoronghly prospected. The copper ores 
are fonnd in the primitive fonnations, which formatlona, though BCarce, 
are to be seen in several parts of the State. 

AMBBICAif INTERESTS. 

This consulate is conBtantly dooded with Americans seeking informa- 
tion in regard to the mining and other resources of the State. There 
are abont 360 Americans residing in the city, besides a large nnmber 
employed on railroad constmction between this place and Saltillo. Very 
few are engaged in mercantile pnrsnit«. 

EGBERT C. CAMPBELL, 

United States Consul, 
UNrTBD States Consdlate, 

Monterey, Mexico, May 27, 1883. 



COLOMBIA AVS ITS PEOPLE." 

SBPOar BT MIXISTEB ecnVQQB, OF BOGOTA. 
THE PLAIN OF BOGOTA. 

Perhaps a brief recorrenec to the physical and climatic peculiarities 
of this portion of the Colombian Eepublic, in continuation of the 
sobject of my previous reports, may not be uninteresting to the De- 
partment; and I am the more inclined to crave indulgence on this 
point since a recent commercial enterprise of an international character 
has drawn general attention to this country, hitherto comparatively 
little known even to the people of the TTnited States. It is, however, a 
country of singular beanty and of inexhaustible resources. Such is its 
remarkable formation that, althongh not exceeding in area three of the 
larger States of onr Union, it presents every variety of climate, and is 
capable of yielding every species of product found in the three zones of 
the earth, whilst for boldness and grandeur of natural scenery it is 
probably without a rival on the globe. 

But perhaps the most unigne display of Andean scenery is found a 
few miles north of the Ecuadorian boundary. Here the Cordilleras 
combine into one dizzy ridge before spreading out into three distinct 
ranges. One of these, bending to the northwest, and lowering it« crest 
as it passes the narrow isthmus, loses its grandenr only in the icy plains 
of Alaska. The central range, running northward, calminates in Mount 
Tolima (the highest peak north of the equator], aud soon disappears in 
the blue waters of the Caribbean ; while the thirdoreastem chain, turn- 
ing to the right and dipping gracefally towards the rising sun, holds in 
its lap, at an altitade of nearly 2 miles above the sea level, the magnifi- 
cent plain on which is situated the Colombian capital. 

This plain, in its general outline and conformation, may be said to 
FMemble an oval-shaped dish, slightly inclined southeastward, but 
otherwise perfectly level. The high circular wall of treeless mountains 
would correspond to the outer rim of the dish, while the inner globe or 
rim is represented by the foothills or "benches." Its extent is about 
25 leagues from nori:h to south by abont 11 &om east to west, and 
* Oontinned bom No*. 30 and 31. ^^ . 

r.,izedbyCjOOgle 



224 COLOUBIA. AKD ITS PEOPLE. 

therefore contains an area of about 2,500 square miles. It is veil 
watered by uumeroua creeks and small £raah-water lakes, besides the 
river Fauza and its immediate tributaries. All these streams have their 
several sources in the surrouodiQg Sierra, and run in general direction 
Bouthwestward to the limit of the plain, where they are united and pre- 
cipitated over the noted Falls of Teqiiendama, the only visible ontlet of 
the waters of this immense basin. 

Tbe inner rim or wall of this great aerial valley is an undulating 
ridge of rich loam, underlaid with saudatone. Ttiis terminates in a kind 
of bench or terrace before breaking off into the rugged and barren sierra 
which rises to a height of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet above the level of the 
plain. 

There is an aboriginal tradition that this entire basin was once tbe 
bed of a great fresh-water lake, and there is probably no one fact more 
clearly indicated by modern geological research than that this tradition 
had its origin in tbe existence of a veritable lake, covering the whole 
area, possibly as late as the eleventh century. 

At the time of tbe Spanish conquest, in 1537, the inhabitantH of this 
region were tbe Chibchas, >vho, accordiog to Queaada, numbered about 
three-quarters of a million. Their form of government was essentially 
patriarchal, and their habits were those of an agricultural people given 
to the arts of peaceful industry. Their religion contained much to re- 
mind lis of the ancient Buddhists. It imposed none of those revolting 
sacrifices of human victims which marked the rituals of TJie Aztecs. 
They had their divine Mediata in Bohica, or Deity of Merey. Their 
Chibchacum corresponded to the Buddhist God of A^^riculture. Their 
God of Silence, as represented by earthen images which I have examined, 
was almost idontica Iwith the Buddhist God of Wisdom, as represented 
by the images in some of the Chinese temples. They had also a tradi- 
tional Spirit of Evil, corresponding to Neawatha of the ancient Mexi- 
cans, and to the Satan of the Hebrews. And connected with their 
flood myth was a character corresponding to the Hebrew ^oab, the 
Greek Ducalaine, and the Mexican Cojcoj. 

The capital of the Ohibchan Empire was Bocat&, of which Bogota is 
manifestly a mere corruption. It was situated near the site of the pres- 
ent Colombian capital. But their most ancient political capital was 
Mangu^ta, near the site of the present village of Fuuza, on tbe opposite 
side of the plain. Kear the site of tbe present grand cathedral, in the 
beart of the present city of Bogota, was a temple consecrated to the god 
of Agriculture. Here the emperor and his cacique, accompanied by the 
chiefmeD of the country, were wont to assemble twice a year and oflTer 
oblations to the deity who was supposed to preside over the harvests — 
a ceremqny not unlike the "moon feasts" celebrated to-day in many of 
tbe interior districts of China. 

The altitude of the plain above theaea-Ievel is 8,750 feet, and its mean 
temperature is about 59" Fahr. The atmosphere is thin, pure, and ex- 
hilarating, but it is perhaps not conducive either to longevity or great 
mental and physical activity. Auian, for instance, accustomed to eight 
honre daily mental labor in N^ew York or Washington will here find it 
impossible to apply himself closely for more than five hours each day. 
If he exceeds that limit ominous symptoms of nervous prostration wUI 
be almost sure to follow. 

The climate is an abnormal one. Tt is not exactly a temperate zone 
beneath the equator, as is sometimes represented, and yet, barriug its 
tendency to develop uervoos complaints, it is not uahealthful. There is 
no malaria; yellow fever, cholera, pulmonary coDsumption, and agues 



COLOMBU AND ITS PEOPLE. 225 

are nnbnovm. SuDstrokes are never heard of, and nobody ever aaffers 
trmn ftost-bitten extremities. 

The planting and the harvest season is in each mODth of the year, and 
two annual crops may without diffienlty be grown on the same soil. I 
have seen farmers harveating and sowing in adjoining fields in Decem- 
ber, and likewise in Jnly. 

I have never fonnd respiration at this altitnde either painfhl or diffi- 
cnlt, as many have represented. It is, however, necessarily both deep 
and rapid, forcing the blood through the veins at a rate of ffom 80 to 85 
strokes per minate. A man, for instance, whose nonnal pulse is 75 at 
the coast, will find npon his arrival here that it has reached 80. 

July and Angnst are considered the most inclement and disagreeable 
months of the year. Thns midsnmmer is known here as the inverano or 
paramo season ; that is, winter, when the dense miets rising irom the 
torrid plains and valleys below are blown over the bleak sierras and 
settled overthe plain, renderingtheairexceedinglydamp and chilly. The 
*' rainy season" proper begins about thelast of September and continurs 
at inten'-als nntil about the first of December. From that time to about 
the middle of Febmary the climate is almost perfect. The atmosphere is 
of transparent clearness, pure, crisp, and balmy. The sky is of a dark 
indigo color, and at night the stars shine oat with nncommon brilliance. 
A moonlight night is something indescribably beantiful. The stars of 
both hemispheres are distinctly visible, and the " Milky Way," viewed 
ftom this altitnde, is one of the most gorgeous sights in the tropical 
heavens. At this season Urta Major, the Magellanic nebula, and the 
Soathem Cross are at once visible in all their splendor. There is very 
little twilight. The boundary line between dayaud night is well defined. 
But if the twilight is marvelonsly short it is surpassingly beautiful, and 
a December sunset in Bogota never fails to arrest the attention of 
strangers. 

The lakes and water courses of the plain abound in fish, but only of 
a single species. These are a kind of slimy eel, not unlike those ex- 
posed for sale in the market places of Oentral China, certainly not very 
prepossessing in appearance, though qait« palataole when properly 
cooked. 

There is also an abundance of water fowl, especially the teal duck, so 
highly prized in Europe. I believe no effort has ever been made to 
introduce the shad or other species of fish in the waters of the plain, 
tbongh there is really no reason why snch an effort shonld not prove 
both snccesafnl and profitable. 

The soil of this valley, as I have intimated in another dispatch, seems 
to be of almost inexhanstible fertility. 

The staple product is " Irish potatoes" — a native of the Andes by the 
way. Maize and a degenerate species of Indian com grow well, bat 
mature slowly and imperfectly. 

Wheat and rye do much better, and ore gixjwn in considerable quan- 
tities. The strawberries are delicious, and grow without mnch attention. 
Bice will not mature in this coot, thin atmosphere. The peaches and 
apples are almost worthless. 

The cabbage and cauliflower are extensively cnltivated ; but the cab- 
bage never " heads," and is eaten green, as in Florida and Texas. Bed- 
clover Is a recent innovation^ but has proven quite a snccess. Here, as 
elsewhere, in Spanish Amenca, the mule is a necessary appendance 
of the civilization. But the hog is almost an exotic; nobody ever eats 
pork or bacon in Bogota. The beef and mutton are excellent, bat both 
are nsnaHy spoilt by the butcher. 



C~.(iot^[c 



226 ELECTRIC LOCOHOTITE HEADLIGHTS. 

Bitaminons coal of an exoelleDt quality abounds in the foot bills all 
aionad the plain, and there is an abundance of iron ore just beyond. 
But neither is ever serionsly molested. The inhabitants continue to 
uBe charcoal, prepared many leagues distant and brought hither on pack 
mnles at great expense. Coal oil has been discovered vithin one day's 
rideftx>m the national capital; yet people here import petroleum from 
the United States, at an averse total cost of $1.20 a gallon. Those who 
cannot afford this luxury continue to burn tallow candles. 

Some years ago an American company attempted to establish gas works 
here, bnt owing to the difficulty and great expense of transporting me- 
tallic pipes over the mountains wooden ones were substituted, and the 
result was almost a complete foilnre. It is probable that the electric 
light, a« recently perfected in the United States, would under all the 
circumstances, be cheaper and more practicable in a city like this. 

Of course the one great need of this country, paramount to all others, 
13 stable Government and a condition of assured peace. Secondary to 
this, its greatest need is some means of cheap and rapid inland trans- 
portation. Perhaps, however, it is not too much to say that, with the 
first of these wants supplied, the second would indue time legitimately 
follow; and therefore that the only really essential condition to the 
prosperity and future affluence of a country so favored by nature is 
good govemmeut. Perhaps, however, the same may be said, with al- 
most equal trnth, of most of the other Spanish American States. 
, WILLIAM S. SOEUGGS, 
Minuter. 
TJniTED States Lbqa'Tioh, 

Bogota, December 20, 1882. 



ELECTRIC LOOOMOTITE HBASLZOHTS. 

REPOST BY OONSVL-aSNERiL WEAVER, OF VIESSA. 

Becent exx>eriments with Sedlaczek's electric locomotive lieadlight 
on the Western Bailway have been pronounced by the public prints so 
successful that I beg to transmit herewith a few items in regard there- 
"to, which may prove of interest to our American specialists. 

The conception of illuminating the railroad track by means of an 
electric light attached to the head of the locomotive has long since 
ceased to be a novelty in railway engineering, while the advantages to 
be derived tfaere&om, if successfully accomplished, have furnished sof- 
flcient spur to urge inventors to the greatest possible researches and 



Success, however, has been rendered very difflcolt firom the fact that 
the oscillations and jars of the engine while In motion soon destroyed 
the delicate apparatus of the best electric lights known, and that a 
cheap and convenient method of generating the electric current not im- 
mediately dependent on the continuous movement of the locomotive 
proved difficult to obtain. In 1881 Mr, Sedlaczek, chief of the tele- 
graphic service at Leoben, in Austria, aided by Mr. Schackert, of Nu- 
remberg, after six years of trial succeeded in obtaining, it is affirmed, 
these two great desiderata, first by adopting as generator a Gramme 
machine with a Brotherhood motor furnished with an automatic regu- 
lator, having likewise attached thereto a Schackert dynamo-electric 
machine. To obtain sufficient current required from 700 to SOU revola- 



ELECTKIC LOCOMOTITB HEADLIGHTS. 227 

tions of the electric motor, demanding about 3 horse-power, being less 
than 2 per cent, of the force of the looomotire ; and, second, the light 
vaa procared by a Sedlaczek lamp, invented specially for the parpose, 
having a force of 500 carcel jets. The electric machine was placed on 
the boiler, juat behind the smokestack, and brought under the immediate 
ooDtrol of the engineer. 

The first experiments took place in September of 1881, between Leo- 
ben and Jndenburg, on the " Kronpriaz-Bndolf Bahn," a distance of 50 
kilometers, with ^reat success, it is affirmed ; to the end that the road 
for a kilometer before the locomotive was rendered light as day. The 
white signals were marveloasly bronght out upon the black backgronnd, 
and the lami>s and lights appeared like yellowish points. The same 
experiments tried last October between Munich and Dieseuhofen, of the 
Munich -Salzburg line, resulted in even greater success, as may be seen 
from the official certiflcat« of the president and secretary of the com- 
mission of experts named by the Munich Electric Exhibition, a copy of 
whose translation accompanies this communication. 

Another opportunity of examination and experimentation will be 
afforded, doubtless, at the coming International Electric Exhibition 
which opens at Vienna on the Ist of September next. 

JAMES BILEY WEAVER, 

Consul- General. 

United States Consulate-Gemeral, 

Vienna, May 19, 1883. 



ud DunpfKhi&rtli," 



(Certificate for Mr. Hemnan Sedlaczek, engineer, of Vienna.) 

In the eveDing of October 4, 1882, between six and nine o'clock, a trial was madeon 
the part of the railroad Mnnich-Deisenhofcn (line from Munich to Salzhurg) of the 
locomotive head-light ejhihited by Schnckert, on the Bystem Sedlaczek. 

The aky doriDg the time the trial took place waa completely overoaat with clouds 
in such manner that the light of the lamp received no support from the moon or the 
Btarg; on the contrary, it ih to be aappoHeil that the raiu which [set in during the 
trial somenhat leaoencd the effect of brilliaucj'. 

The locomotive lamp homed with perfect nniformilj ; distiirbanceH caused by the 
svayiog to and fro of the locomotive could not he noticed. When on a curve the 
lamp turned of ita own accord, thereby lighting the ti-nck juat aa effectually aa on a 
etratxht line. 

Objects in immediate proximity to the roail, as well aa the different colors and 
fbrms of the aignaU, conld be plainly distinguiebed ftom the locomotive at a distance 
of 250 meters ; at a distance above 250 meters the road was still sufficiently illumin- 
ated to lecoguixe greatar objects on the road. 

On pawing stations the position of the switches could be eoaily seen. At a dis- 
tance of 260 meters from the lamp small print could be read without difBcnIty ; at 
that distance, about 15 meters along side both tracks of the.roB(l were yet lighted. 

At a distance of 1,500 meters from the locomotive head-Kght a drawing on white 



paper conld still be seen, while without that light there was perfect darkni 
The electric light o:r the lamp is vivible at a distance of at least four kilomeiers. 
The board of examiners for electro-technical trials at the Royal Crystal Palace in 



Unntch: 
The secretary : 

Obkar v. Mbeller. 
The preaident : DB. v. BEETZ. 



,„i,z.d by Google 



8TKAW 000D8 IN ITALY. 



sHipBuiLXiuire in leith. 

SEPOST BT aOJfSUL LEONARD. 



The shipbuilding industry in this district, correspoudingly with trade 
In generaljhas made satisfactory progress daring the past twelve mouths. 

In the course of the year 1882 thirteeu iron vessels, mostly of large 
touuage, have been launched at Leith. Nine of these vessels were built 
by Messrs. Bamage & Ferguson, consisting of four screw st«amers, one 
sailing bark, and four steam yachts, with a total tonnage of 12,100, 

In the engineering works recently erected by that firm there are at 
present six sets of compound engines being made. 

Three screw-steamers, aggregating 4,050 tons, were launched by 
Messrs. Morton & Go. 

Morton & Co. also fitted engines and boilers of 150 horse-power, nom- 
inal, on board the steamship Zakynthos, built at Sunderland, and they 
overhauled and repaired a number of vessels. 

The iron shipbuilding trade generally is assoming greater proportions 
year by year, and at the present time the two Arms above named have 
contracts which will keep them busy for more than twelve months to 
come. 

Hawthorn & Go. have hitherto confined their attention cbiefiy to en- 
gine and boiler making and to the repairing of vessels, but they have 
occasionally launched a small steamer or lighter, and have now made 
arrangements for increasing their shipbuilding business. That firm 
launched one steamer lately of about 100 tons for the coasting trade, 
and they have two iron steam trawlers in course of construction for the 
Forth Steam Fishing Company. 

A steam trawler was also launched by Messrs. Oifford & Co. in fJie 
past year. 

Since this branch of the shipbuilding industry was commenced, a few 
years ago, upwards of fifteen st«am trawlers have been built in Leith. 
The most of these were built by D. Allen & Co., who have now removed 
to Granton, a port in this district situated about one mile and a half 
west from Leitb. 

Several steam launches have been constructed by John Cran & Co., 
of Leith, and other boat-building firms have built smaller craft. 
J. A. LEONARD, 

Ootuid. 

United States ConstrLAiE, 

L<Aih, March 13, 1883. 



8T&AW GKK)S8 TB-AOE OF ITAIT. 

BaPOBT BY OONSUL VIIL8H, OF FLOXSSOB. 

I have the honor to submit herewith a report on the straw goods' trade 
between this consular district and the United States. 

Places of production. — In the city of Florence there ia a market for 
straw goods made by hand by female residents of surrounding places, 
such as Fiesole, Brozzi, Sigua, Frato, &c. Most of the straw mei«hantB 



STRAW GOODS IN ITALY. 229 

are establUlied at Florence, but workshops are not to \te found ia the 
city, n'itb tlie exception of those for preparing, casing, and baling goods 
to be shipped. Ancona -and Carpi are likeffise places of production, 
bat such productions are under the control of Florentine merchants. 

Price of goods. — The price of straw hats and braids depends mnch npou 
the fashion and the season of the year, winter being the marketable sea- 
sun ; also, upon the number of straw threads used in making ap, and if 
they are bleached or anbleached, colored or not, &c. 

Straw goods are all invoiced at the actual market value, they being sU 
on consignment for sale. It is to be anderstood, however, that there is 
not a proper market in which prices for the vanous kinds of braids on 
hats are quoted, and consequently not even the local Koyal Chamber of 
Commerce, which superintenda the trade of this province, can keep any 
record whatever of the straw trade. The prices are subject principally 
to the quotations of the Xew York market and the importance of orders 
received. 

It is utterly impossible to give the exaot market value at which straw 
hata and braids are invoiced, owing to the fluctuation of prices and the 
difference of quotations among the various places. Moreover the no- 
menclature of goods varies so much that every week merchants bring in 
a new name for braids and hats, which may differ but very slighUy bom 
the kinds made for years. 

Qoods are generally ordered by cable or letter merely by a number, 
each namber indicating the style of straw or hat wished for — each 
number having a corresponding one iu the sample book of the merchant- 
Straw braids are made in pieces and measure sometimes from 15 to 48 
meters, and in other instances from 48 to S2 yards. 

Packing. — Straw braids and common or unfinished hats are baled 
and the bales cost about the sum of $l.fiO. Straw hats, finished, are 
put in cases containing several hundred dozens, the cases costing from 
91.75 to $2 each. Fashionable hats for ladies are carefully packed in 
boxes, which cost from 50 to 75 cents. 

Folding, t&e. — Prior to the packing of braids and hats, they are care- 
fally selected and folded, for which operation merchants usually charge 
ODC-flfth of a cent per each piece of braid or one cent per dozen of hats. 

These charges are regularly detailed in the invoices after the descrip- 
tion of goods, although a few merchants make their invoices in sum 
total and then write over: "In the above prices are included all 
charges." 

Placet of ihipment. — Straw goods are generally shipped by rail to 
Havre, by slow or fast conveyance according to orders. One or two 
firms only have their ^oods forwarded for shipment at Antwerp. Those 
mercbants who ship via Leghorn avail themselves of the "Anchor Line" 
of steamers, which is the cheapest route. Straw goods are not now 
sblpped in sailing vessels. , 

IVeight. — Via Leghorn straw goods are charged 20a. to 2is. and 15 per 
cent, primage per ton of 40 cubic feet. 

From Havre to 'Sew York freight charges vary from 10«. to 15«. per 
cabic meter, whilst from Florence to Havre by rail the freight is levied 
on weight at the rate of about t5 per 100 kilograms (220 pounds] b; 
slow conveyance, and of about (9 by fast conveyance, plus 60 per cent. 
on osual freight charges for merchandise declared to be volnminous, 
viz, not exceeding 150 kilograms (330 pounds) in the volumeof a cabic 
meter. 

Shipmenta made by way of Leghorn are always invoiced &«e on 



280 



8THAW GOODS IH ITALY. 



board of steamers, but for any foreiffu port charges are forwarded from 
the Florence depot. 

Commwium. — No commisBion is. charged apon goods sent for sale in 
the general way, bnt npon orders received and for articles purchased 
ont of their own production. Tuscan merchants charge a commission 
ranging from 2^ to 5 per cent., which former is the most usual rate. 

Diseount. — Sometimes invoices are made out with a disoount averag- 
ing {Tom 2 to 2i per cent. That discount refers only to goods prodaced 
and shipped as stock, or to goods of inferior qoality. 

Discount and commiesioua are, however, exceptional, and charged but 
by a limited number of firms. 

Bills of sale or exchange. — In a few cases straw merchants draw through 
local bankers against consular invoice and bill of lading, one-third of 
amount of invoice being advanced them in cash ; but this custom, having 
been productive of loss to bankers, is l)eing gradually discontinued. 

The m^ority have an account with their consignees, who make re- 
mittances to them by drafts at 60 days' sight on Paris or London, accord- 
ing to the amount of sales, commissions, &c., being previoaely deducted. 

Conai^eet. — Shipments of straw goods are made to the following 
firms, viz: Weekly to Nos. 1, 2, 3; every fortnight to Nos. 4, 5, 6j and 
monthly to the others. 

1. I. S. Plummer & Co. 

2. Latimer, Bailey & Co. 

3. AUi^d Beman. 

4. H. Weckherlin. 

5. J. Zimmerman & Co. 

6. Kurtz, atuboeck & Co. 

7. Eowe & Bro. 

8. Ladstatter & Menkhoff. 

9. J. B. Glogguez. 
10. I. W. Stephenson. 

Manufacturers and shippers. — ^The following is the list of leading own- 
era and manufacturers of straw goods who correspond directly or are 
to some extent interested with New York firms, viz: 



J 


o. Nune. 


HaUanility. 


LoettUt]-. 






Hwin 


FlowmcB. 






s^« !";:;: 




















HiUan 

ItMlM 

IS;;;;::;; 

air:::::: 

Itallui 

lUltan 




















S^ 



























































Straw merchants keep their own counsel, and are exceedingly jealous 
of their fellows in business transactions. 

The largest exporters are producers themselves, and have therefore 
one price ; others who do not keep workshops, and buy from tbefattorini 
(agents who supply the straw to work -women, and afterwards the made- 
up goods to shippers), charge somewhat higher prices. 



8PAHIBH L4W ON BOTTOMBT BONDS. 231 

Should mercliantB be compelled to produce at the oonsulate, with 
every invoice, samples of goods shipped, a coiitrol could hardly be es- 
tablished in regard to qnality and prices without inapectlog the entire 
shipment. 

ThR trade is in the hands of a few, and I may add that, altboagfa the 
exports of straw from the district to the United States steadily increase, 
the nianbar of invoices are decreasing, owiag to the larger merchants 
controlling ^e exports of the smaller ones. This of course decreases 
the income of the oonsalate, but increases the receipts at the port of 
entry, 

I think there is less attention given to the mann&ctnre of hata than 
in former times, as the home manufacturers prefer to import braids and 
make their bats as fashion may indicate a ready sale. 

I beg to add that very &ne bats, which are the admiration of all visit- 
ing Tuscany, meet with a very difBcalt sale, owing to their high prices. 

Since ray arrival in Florence I felt it my doty to make myself fully 
acquainted with the various kinds <^ goods which constitute the trade 
of this district with the United States, and straw being almost the only 
important branch of trade between Tuacany and the United States, I 
beg to forward thjs report. 

WM. L. WELSH, 
OonmiL 

UiTiTBD States Cohsulatb, 

Florence, Itaiy, March 21, 18S3. 



flPAinSH LAW OV BOTTOHBT BOITBB. 

SXPORT BT aOSSUL MARSTOS, OF KAZAQA. 

I have the honor to communicate with the Department of State upon 
the interesting subject of the Spanish law reganliog the collection of a 
bottomry bond made by the captain of a foreign vessel in foreign ter- 
ritory made payable in a Spauiuh port. 

Tbe German bark Emilie arrived in Malaga last mouth under the 
following cironmstauccfi : 

The vessel sailed from Newcastle, Gngland, with a cargo of coals 
for Malaga, Spain, but, through stress of weather, she was forced into 
Grimsby for repairs ; the captain, beiug compelled to raise money on bot- 
tomry, received about 20,000 francs from a French firm ; the bond was 
made payable three days after the vessel's safe arrival at this port. 
Accordingly the papers were forwarded here for collection. On their 
arrival at Malaga tbe captain simply said he had no money, bat they 
oould proceed legally against tbe vessel; this they learned, according 
to Spanish law, could not be done. 

[Extract from Spenlih Commercial Code, Article No. (109.— Truulitloa.] 



Thus the owners of this bond are compelled to negotiate for a com 
promise, the Spanish law revising to permit the collection of ajnst 
debt, incurred by a captain of a distressed vessel, who finds himself 
in a foieign port, and who ap^iea for ftinds on bottomry to oiable him 
to reach his destination to which his cargo has hem shipped and for 
which the vessel cleared. 



2vI2 CBOPS AKD FLOOR HILLS OF HUMOABT. 

I report npon this sabject, aa I conaider it rather a Dovel law — I 
believe particularly Spanish — and do not think its existence is generally 
IcDOwo; farther, it isalawlikel; to prove a hardship to those iniiooent of 
itH exinteuce, who lend their money in bottomry to vessels bonnd to 
SjfauiHh ports. 

Tlie compromise npon this bond has Anally been adjusted between 
the represeiitative of the owners of the bond, who is now in Mal^s, 
and the captain of the vessel, for the amonnt of 7,500 francs, one half 
to be paid in cash, the balance to be secored upon the outward cai^ 
of a charter she has obtained in Malaga; thus the holders of the tx>t- 
tomry bond lose about 12,500 francs on the transaction. 

H. 0. MARSTON, 

ContuL 

United Stateh Consulate, 

Malaga, i^in, June 16, 1883. 



CHOPS AVD 7L0US HIIX8 0? HTOOAST. 

SEPOST BT CONSUL BTESXE. OF BVDX-PE8TH. 

In noticing the fact that tbe export of American flour is yearly assum- 
ing larger proportions, it will be of interest to that particular branch of 
trade in tlie United States to know that also here in Hungary the mill- 
ing business is gradually eximnding, last year's production of dour being 
the largest on record; the exceptionally large crop of 1882 being, of 
course, a main factor to that oesult. As a oonsequence the millf>, nearly 
all of which are stock companies, have lately paid very good dividends, 
and at present there is every prospect that 1883 vill also become a very 
profitable year to them ; for notwithstanding the many rumors of dam- 
age to the growing crops, I am convinced that the result of the coming 
harvest will be very satisfactory to Hungary. Indeed, at one time this 
spring the prospects warranted hopes for even a larger yield than 1882, 
bat the cold and wet month of May has no doubt caused some damage 
and reduced the prospect. 

It is very difficult here to obtain practical statistics as a basis for crop 
reports, for the official estimates are not made by the government as in 
the United States, and private information mast be taken with great cau- 
tion, since here the producer of and dealer in grain are more closely con- 
nected than elsewhere, many of the largest fanners being also dealers, 
who frequency circulate false rumors for purposes of specalation, and 
nearly always in the interest of hausse or advancing prices. 

The following is a statistical report by the Chamber of Oommerce on 
the quantity of flour produced by the eleven mills of Bada-Festh duiiog 
tbe years indicated : 

OwL 

two 5,000,000 

1871 5,700,000 

18JD 4,900,000 

18T3 4,850,000 

1874 4,500,000 

l-HO 6,370,000 

18HI 6,««,000 

KM* , 8.000,000 

The years ttma 1874-1880 ore not reported, bnt Uie prodoct in said 
years u said to have gradually increased again. . , 



CUTLBBT INDD8TRY OP SHEFFIELD. 233 

These mills bave consnmed 13,700,000, 15,330,000 and 17,700,000 
bnshelB of various kinds of grain daring the years 1880, 1881-) and 1882 
respectively. 

During the same years 1,700,000, 2,000,000, and 2,300,000 cwt. of bran 
was prodaced. 

Boamania is the only foreign state which fnmiahes any part of the 
raw material used here, the conTeuient water-route of the Danube mat- 
ing such import practicable ; all the remainder of the grain (and some to 
spare) is prodnced at home. 

There are other large mills scattered over the state, but I have 
especially mentioned those of Buda-Pesth because they are more excla- 
sii'ely working for the export trade, and are therefore of more direct 
imporuuce to their competitors in the United States. 

It is claimed that the good resalt of the past year is largely due to 
the completion of an arrangement amongst the mills which does sway 
with the unreasonable and killing competition formerly practiced in 
grain buying ; and it must be admitted that in a technical way also these 
establishments leave nothing undone to enable them to maintain their 
reputation lor a superior quality of flour. Several mills are introduce 
ing the electric light as a safeguard against dust explosions and fire. 

This industry is further considered of such importance to the State 
that, as such, it grants these establishments every facility iu its power, 
the most eflective being cheap freights on those railroads which are 
owned or controlled by the State. 

Kearly all of the flour exported goes via the southern railroad to 
Fiame, and by this means this Hungarian port is also helped greatly 
in its developmeat. 

To close, I will say that about 25 percent, of the product is exported, the 
principal customers being, first of all, England, which takes specially 
the finer grades, then ^France, Germany, Switzerland, Belgiom, Hol- 
land, and B^il. Also the mannfactnriug districts of the neigbboring 
Bohemia are customers, mostly of the more common sort. 

HEBEY STERBE, 

Consul. 

Cnited States Consulate. 

Buda-Peath, June 14, 1883. 



CUTLERY nraUSTRY OF SHXtVISLD. 

BSPOBT BT CONSUL WBB8TEB. 

I have the honor to snbmit herewith a snpplement to my report of 
Septetnbra 26, 1882, npon the Sheffield catlery industry." 



That report related especially to ivory as, next to steel, the most im- 
portant material used in the mannfoctare of cutlery. It mentioned the 
scarcity of ivory and the greatly advanced prices. Since that date 
ivory has arrived iu larger quantities, bat the high prices continue. At 
the first Liverpool sale this year, 50 tons were disposed of, the largest 
quantity ever offered at one sale. 



■ Pnbliabfld In No. 86, November, 18(8. 

CnlzedbyCOOgle 



234 



CUTLEBT INDU8TBT OF SHEFFIELD. 



The best qaalities of West Afiican bronght at the rate of (5,350 per 
ton. The same coald have been boaght three years ago for one-half 
that price. 

It is said that much ivory that formerly came to this oonntry is DOW 
going direct to the Continent and to the United States. 

'When once the carrent of trade is tamed, England vill not be so ex- 
clusively the market for this valaable material, and others, as she has 
been for so many years. 

HOBH. 

Next to ivory in valne to the cntlery mannfacturer is horn, in its 
many varieties. Indeed, considering the mntdi greater quantity nsed 
and its snperiority for many purposes, horn may almost be said to 
stand before even ivory in importance to the cutler. This is trae es- 
pecially of stag and buck horn. It is more durable and supplies a want 
to vastly greater numbers of people than ivory, which is an article of 
luxury. 

The varieties are stag and buck bom, East Indian buffalo, cow, ox, 
and ram's horn. The horns of the American bison come occasionally 
in small quantities to this market. (What becomes of all the bison 
horns f) The whole world is ransacked to supply Sheffield with this 
nsefnl material. Tlie following table shows the quantities of horns and 
hoofs imporied into Great Britain during the year 1880, their values, 
and the countries &om which they come: 



When**. 


Q.UDIIV. 


V«lB». 




188 

Itffi 

ii 


tin, 033 























































B,7M 



To the above may be added the quantity gathered from all parts of 
Great Britain. There is no means of learning this with ezaotfiess, as 
it is not given in the Government returns. Good judges, tiose exten- 
sively engaged io the trade, estimate it at 600 tons, valued at 998,000, 
making the total valne, in round numbers, (1,080,268 for the year 1880, 
The native horns and bones are considered t» be far inferior to the im- 
ported. 

Sales are held every three months at London and Liverpool, and are 
attended, like tJioee of ivory, by fordgn bnyere. Mnoh the greater part 
of alt horns imported into tJiis countiyare used in ShefBeld. Prices are 
advanoing. 

By comparing values in the foregoing table it will be aeen that horns 
from Franoe are of more tiian double the value per ton of home from 
the United States. This great difference may be explained by the fMt 
that French boms, so called, are imported into Prance from South 
America, and the French buyers, after cutting off the hollow portion of 



CUTLBKT INDUSTBY OF SHEFFIELD. 235 

the hom, to be OBed in the manufactare of combs, eend the tjpa, the 
solid and most valuable portion, to England, where tbey bring much 
higher pricea than the whole horns would do. Tb6se tips come almost 
exclusively to Sheffield. 

The Anstralian and the Cape horns, the latter so called because they 
are shipped from the Cape of Good -Hope, are the most valuable of all 
horoB of neat cattle. Their value consists in their greater size and 
solidity, both owing to the fact that the cattle are allowed to attain a 
more mature age before being slaughtered. The Cape boms are val. 
uable also for their beautiful mottled color when polished. The boms 
of neat cattle rank in value in tbe following order: Cape, Austrtdian, 
culled also Sidney, South American. 

The Australian are more laminate, and consequently well adapted to 
the manufacture of combs. Comb-making was formerly a very flour- 
ishing SbefBeld industry that required large qoantitiesof both bom and 
tortoise shell. The trade has of late greatly declined, tfae makers not 
being able to compete with Sootch and Continental manufacturers. 

The buffalo horn ftom the East Indies is of two colors, black and 
gray. Tbe black is most valuable. Its price is much higher than that 
of any other variety of horn, being now from 9225 to $325 per tun. It 
is shipped to England from Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras. Tbe 
largest are from Siam. Tbe animal is becoming more scarce, and the 
price is also enhanced by the use of tbe largest varieties in France and 
Germany in the manufacture of a substitute for whalebone. 

Betndeer horns are brought from Lapland and Siberia in large quan- 
titiea. The largest stag horns come from the East Indies and China. 
Many specimens of these antlers, are so noble and beautiful that it 
causes a pang to see them given to the saw of the cutter, tbe more so 
because tbey are becoming annually more scarce. The best are now 
selling for $600 per ton. Time was when they could be bought for $50 
totlQO. 

Though hom is principally used in tilie manufactare of cutlery, it is 
also employed in the production of a great variety of other articles, 
being turned or pressed into handles for walking-sticks, ambrellas, and 
parasols, tea and coffee pots, bicycles, sewing-machines, cork-screws, and 
machetes; for whistles, combs, lantern sides, buttous, brooches, brace- 
lets, fancy buckles, clasps, drawer and door knobs, finger plates, drink- 
ing cuiM, spoons, and "pearls." Pearls are the small pieces inserted 
into metal bandies of tea and coffee pots as non-conductors of beat. 
Machetes are large, heavy knives for cutting sugar-cane. 

The articles for personal ornaments are dyed black, and the best 
qualities almost rival the Whitby jet. 

Of the t-otij amount imported under tbe head of horns and hoofs, not 
more than one-quarter are hoofs. These are mostly oonsumed in tbe 
making of fertilizers, but considerable quantities are used for making 
a cheap grride of razor and buife scales and brooches, being dyed and 
pressed in hot molds. Tbe sawdust, shavings, and other waste is sold 
for fertilizing purposes, and for making prussiate of potash for fixing 
(lyes. It is worth from $30 to $50 per ton. 



Of this material, so very useful in the cutlerj' industry, there were im- 
ported into Qreat Britain, during the year 1880, 80,419 tons from the 
same countries that supply t^e world wiUi horns, with the additum of 
Italy, Turkey, and Morocco. 



2S6 CUTLERY IKDP8TET OP SHEFFIELD. 

Sooth America contributes a large proportion, Brazil sending 9,589 
tons, Umguay 8,778, and tlie Argentine Republic 23,641. None are set 
down in the British returns as coming from Mexico, althongh "other 
eoantries" not named are credited with 13,140 tons. 

The total amonnt of bones, horns, and hoofs imported into Great 
Britain ftx>m South America during the year 1880 was 43,349 tons, at a 
value of $l,2i6,987. The question arises whether, with increased facil- 
ities for tFansi>ortatioQ between South and North America, a large por- 
tion of this material might not Hod its way to the United States, and 
thus New York become the chief distiibutiug center. 

The United States furnishes Great Britain annually with about $10i>,- 
000 woi^h of bonea, horns, and hoofa. A portion of this is returned to 
the United States in scales for the American cutlers, and more than 
the remainder in the finished cutlery from Sheffield. 

Of the whole importation of bones into Great Britain in 1880, 78,138 
tons were made into fertilizers, and 11,311 tons were used for mannfact> 
uring purposes, chiefly by Sheffield cutlers. 

The shank bones of oxen are almost exclusively used for this purpose, 
2,000,000 being required annually by the cutlery trade. The best, both 
for size and fine quality, are the Australian, for the reason, as with horns, 
that in that country the animals attain greater age. The beat qualities 
are so good as to be mistaken for ivory by the inexperienced eye. 

The United States bones, which here are called Boston bones, have 
a good reputation as having been well cared for. 

The South American are said to be often injured by blood-stains and 
exposure, and by having been cleaned with lime. 

A shipment of bone scales and handles has recently arrived in Shef- 
field &om the United States, a very unuanal occurrence, as the course 
of this trade has always been in the opposite direction. I hear that 
they were not sold at a good profit ; their qnallty was not the objection 
to them, but the manner in which they were cat. It would seem that 
the time would soon come when none of the above-named materials 
could be spared from the expauding manufactures of our own country. 
This opinion is expressed by a member of a large, and perhaps the old- 
est firm, of horn and bone merubauta in Sheffield, who has recently 
made a business tour in the United States. The firm is that of Will- 
iam Fisher & Sous, which has occupied its present premises for two 
hundred years. 

MOTHER-OF-PEARL. 

This valuable material is very largely in demand by Sheffield cutlers. 
From this center it is distributed over the world in articles of Inxury 
and beauty, principally in the form of scales, and solid handles for ex- 
pensive sets of dessert, tea, and dining knives. The cutting of pearl 
shell and the ornamental carving is a business by itself, and is in few 
bands. Manufacturers of cutlery do not purchase and cut their own 
pearl as they sometimes do with ivory. They order from the pearl- 
cutters as they may require. This necessitates the keei>ing of large 
stocks on hand. A large dealer may often have in his warehouse pearl 
in the rough and finished state to the value of t50,000. The sources of 
supply are Manila, Singapore, Australia, Bombay, and Ceylon. Ceylon 
and the Coromandel coast are among the must famous of the pearl-fiah- 
eries. The Manila is the most valuable, as it possesses most of the opal- 
escence that gives to pearl its peculiar beauty. The Bombay and Aus- 
tralian varieties are whiter, and are chiefly used by button -makers. 

London is the port to which this shell is brought. Auction sales tire 



CUTLERY INDD8TEY OP SHEFFIELD. 237 

fa«I(I there as often aa every two mouths, and are attended by buyers 
from France and Germany. Tlie amonnta tbua sold diiriiiK the last five 
years are as follows: 

1S82 a?, nii 

IBPl 31.1JB 

leso -ii.atis 

1879 aOpTST 

iwa ar..-8i> 

A verj' large proportioD, and of the best quality, comes to ShefEelil. 
Prices have advanced aboot one- third dnring the last twelve months. 

Gowl qualitiea now command $12.50 per ton. The beat and thickest 
pieces, 4 inches long, snitable for dining knives, are worth iu the rough 
$15 to $^Oper dozen; for dessert handles, $12 to $15. Handles of extra 
size will cost $2 to $4 each. The shaping, carving, and polishing will 
add $2 to $5, or more, to the cost per dozen, according to the amount of 
carving. Only one handle, the best, cau be cut fl'omaRingle shell, and 
not more than one shell in thirty will yield even one. Shells of large 
size, 16 inches across, are sometimes found, bnt they are becoming rare. 
Very small shells are called "chickens," Poor qnalities of shell are de- 
noted by the terms "grubby," "dead," and "blistered." Tlie grubby 
shell is perforated by inunmerable small holes, the work of a grub or 
borer. It is nearly useless for any manufacturing purpose. These 
shells areusually old, large, and strongly marked. They are of late turned 
to accouut 6y artists, who disguise their imperfections and skillfully use 
the oatural marks of the shell to heighten the beauty of the picture they 
paint upon it. The I'listered shell is rendered almost worthless by 
black blisters. These blisters, the work also of the grub, are sometimes 
the nests of precious pearls. I have seeu a large i>earl recently found 
by a ShefQekt shell-cutter, for which he has refused an ofler of 60 guiueas. 
It is divisible into three, the largest pear-shaped, seven-eighths of an 
inch long, the other being of the size of very large peas. Another for- 
tnnate pearl-catter here found, a few years siuce, a pearl that was de- 
scribed to me by the son of the finder as of the size of a large-sized canary 
egg. It was iddden in a black blister, and was itself covered with a 
hsad, black coat; this being removed, a pearl of great beauty was re- 
vealed. It was sold for 65 guineas, which was probably much less than 
its value. It is now iu the necklace of the Princess Boyal of Prussia. 
Such discoveries are very rare. It is seldom that precious ]>e.irls of any 
value escape the close scrutiny of the practiced eyes of the owners who 
receive the shells when brought up by the divers. * 

Nearly 50 per cent, of the shell that is cut in Sheffield is sent abroad 
to foreign cntlery-makers. A cntter informs me that he is now execut- 
ing an order for 16,430 dozen scales for Germany, an indication that Ger- 
many is competing with Sheffield in the cntlery trade. After the cut- 
ler has taken fh>m the shell all that can serve his pnqwse, about 40 per 
cent, remains. This is sold to buttou-makers for $10 to $20 per hun- 
dred-weight. The cutting is done by saws running in water, to pre- 
vent beating and cracking the shell. 

TOETOISE-SHELL. 

The sources of supply are the East and We-^t Indies. It is shipped 

to Loudon from Singapore, Manila, Bombay, Zanzibar, Sydney, Hon- 

dtiras. and Nassau. The Manila shell is the most beautiful in color 

and is most sought by the Sheffield cutlers. The West Indian has the 

37a- — AUG 83 4 



238 CUTLEBY IKDU8TKY OF SHEFFIELD. 

greatest ttiickuess, aad is bought by comb makers. Sales are lield ex- 
clusively in LoDdoD every two mouths. 
The following table gives the amoants sold during the last five years : 

c«u. 
18Bi 7I» 

IBSl 647 

18B0 468 

1879 530 

1378 MO 

ShefBeld takes about two-thirds of the whole amount. The price 
niDges fh>iu $4.60 to (7 a pouod. Esceptiooally fine shell, selected 
from a large amount, will sometimes bring $20 a pound. The impoit 
trade is in the hands of a few persons, principally Jews, The price is 
determined by the beauty of the color and by the thickness. The very 
tbiu shell is used for veneering wood scales for pocket knifes, boxes, 
hairbrushes, tea-caddies, and other ornamental work. The waste is 
sold for similar purposes, tlie pieces being softened by heat and run 
together. 

THE CUTLEBY IHDTJSTBY OP THE PUTDBE. 

Besides the materials above described there are used in the cutlery 
trade, for knife-handles, various foreign woods and compound substan- 
ces that bear the names vulcanite, xylonite, ebonite, &c. On account 
of the high prices of ivory, horn, and other material, these patent 
substances are assuming importance and are coming more and more 
into use.' The quality of this class of material made here is inferior to 
that made iu the United States. It would seem that it is to the im- 
provement of this kind of material that the cutlery industry is to look 
in the future for a substitute for ivory and certain varieties of horn that 
are so rapidly becoming scarce and expensive. 

England ha« for centuries controlled the great ivory, horn, and shell 
trade of the world. ShefBeld with her superior steel and these valuable 
materials has held in her hand the immense cutlery industry. A change 
is going on. England does not control so exclusively as she once did 
these great branches of trade. 

ShefBeld has now, besidesonr own country, a competitor in Germany. 
Every year thousands of dozens of ra&rs are sent from ShefBeld to Oer- 
many to be hollow-ground, returned to Sheffield to be completed, and 
then sent to the United States. Large quantities are also sent to the 
Uuited States to be ground there. That the German grinding has a 
reputati«n for excellence is proved by the fact that Sheffi^d makers 
stamp upon their razors the legend, "Ground in Hamburg," " Ground as 
iu Ham burg." 

A razor manufacturer who is in the American trade tells me that ho 
could take orders for six times the amount of hoUow-ground razors that 
be now does if be could get the grinding done. Others make similar 
statements. Why is it that in this, the very home of the cutlery indus- 
try, maunfacturers are thus placed at a disadvantage and made depend- 
ent apon foreign workmen 1 Here are the men capable of doing the 
work — men who can easily earn their 420 a week by working only three 
or four days, and who could earn a proportionately larger amount it 
they would. Here is the work pressing to be done. Here are the em- 
ployers who would be glad to pay for it. Sheffield grinders will never 
confers that they do not jwssess the requisite skill. Indeed, several ot 
the largest manufacturers employ only Sheffield grinders, and tlieir 
work commends itself to customers all the world over. What, then, is 



DAISY EZPKBIHENTS IN DENMARK. 239 

tbu troable I It ia largely, perhaps not wholly, the loss of power, time, 
and Bkill coDseqaent apon the drinking habits of the workmen. Shef- 
field grinders are no worse in this particnlar than other classes of work- 
ing men. They all keep too faithfully Saint Monday's and Saint Tues- 
day's at the beer houses that tempt them on every corner. Herein lies 
the danger to Sheffield trades that require any but the roughest labor. 
The process of razor-grinding requires great care, delicacy of touch, and 
steady nerves. These are qualities that do not flourish in connection 
with hard drinking. There are signs of hope for the future in the great 
advance in the last ten years of temperance sentiment and practice, not 
only among the working people but the influential classes of England. 

Ill these days of advancing iotelligeDce, of new methods and inven- 
tions, and severe competition, the best will win. That country that has 
not only the best machinery but the steadiest nerves behind it, the clear- 
est headed and the most temperateworkmen, will take the A^nt rank in 
the world's rapidly expanding industries. In no other way can ancient 
supremacy be maintained or a new advance be made. 

0. B. WEBSTEB, 

Catuul. 

Consulate of the United States, 

Sheffield^ March 8, 1883. 



DAIRY EZPESIHEHTS IH DEHHASK. 

BBPORT BT OOSSUL RIDSB. OF OOrBSHAOEIt. 

I have the honor to transmit subjoined a report of a lecture on exper- 
iments in dairy thrift delivered at the Boyal Banish Agricultural So- 
ciety, by Professor Fjord, on the 18th instant. It is to be observed 
that the experiments were made by experienced Government officers 
and are entirely new. I am therefore of opinion that they will benefit 
and interest our dairj' people. 

The lecture in question ia a continuation of my reports on the same 
subject for the past five years, and treats upon the renewed experi- 
ments over the yield of butter from the various dairy systems, as also 
on experiments of corresponding nature made with several centrifuges 
and the different modes of working these. 

The first part of the lecture referred to the corresponding exjieri- 
ments in the followingdifi'erent modes of treatmentofthemilk: Ice, ten 
hours ; tubs, thirty-four hours ; water, 1(PG. and thirty-four hours ; tuba, 
thirty-four liours, centrifuge and churned milk ; all of which were car- 
ried out at Ourup farm from April, 18t»l, to March, 1882, by Inspector 
Lunde. To all of these experiments there were daily used 609 iwunda 
of sweet milk. AH the milk was carefully mixed, and thereafter 60 
pounds were served out to each of the ice, water, and tub systems : 9 
jiouuds were put aaide for soaring for aubaequent churning, and 400 
lK>uu<ls were centrifuged in one of the large Danish centrifuges. 

There were carried out two lists of experiments, namely, in part with 
milk from the farm stock and in part with milk bought fix)m the smaller 
farms. The tub milk all the time was preser\-ed dmring the thirty-four 
lionr.x, inasmuch as the floor of the milk chamber even in the hottest 
summer days was unusually cool, owing to the largo quantities of ice 
used in the dairy at Gump. In the four summer months the tub milk 
on an average was 0° C. colder than it had been at Rosenfeldt in the cor- 



240 DAIRY EXPEHIMENTS IN DENMA8K. 

responding looatbB of 1879, and the result was thns far more favorable 
than it woald be in a normal tub dairy. It was shown that when the 
tab milk can be kept perfectly fresh daring thirty-foar boars the ice 
system will not yield a larger batter product. Inthemonthsof Xovem- 
ber and December the milk from the farm was very heavy, which cor- 
responded with previous experiments from older cows' milk, while on 
the other hand the " purchased milk" did not show any great sign of 
heaviness. 

In a list of very interesting tables, the resnlts were shown for each 
month, both for the milk ftom the fann as well as for the " bought 
milk" for all the six systems: namely, how mucli batter was obtained 
fh)m one hundred ponnds' milk, or how many ponnds' milk went to 1 
ponnd of butter, and how much larger percentage of batter the cen- 
trifuge gave than the other systems. 

I cannot here give all these tables,but confine myself to the following 
one, showing the average yield of the five systems. The result from the 
tub system is omitted, owing to the conditions, as above stated, having 
been more favorable than in an ordinary normal tab dairy : 

Pouudt of titllk to ont pound of hnXter. 





i ^ 


\ 


1 
i 

£1! 

29.2 ; 

BS.0 


■5 


z 
s 


1 
1 






3fi.2 


2V.2 


ai.7 

2(.7 


V. 































Whilst the average consumption of 27.5 pounds' milk to 1 pound of 
butter may be considered favorable for an ice dairy, the consamption 
with the centrifuge is nevertheless 3.1 pounds less. The difference is 
least in the month of August (2.2 jKinnds), and greatest \a the month 
of October (3.9 pounds). In the bought niitk the proportion is stUl 
somewhat more in favor of the centrifuge, namely, 3.7 pounds. 

Of special interest was a graphic illustration of the butter yield with 
the three systems, namely, " centrifuge," milk churning, and ice thir^- 
foar hours (nine months, with tabs the three autumn months). It was 
there seen that the curving line for milk churning was all the time 
above the curved lines for ice tubs ; but was steadily considerably below 
that for the centrifuge, and it does not appear as heavy milk or other 
conditions had at any time of the year interposed any difttculty in the 
way of producing a good butter yield by milk churning. 

The chemical investigations have been carried on in the same manner 
as on previons occasions. 

The lecturer, by means of tables, gave an oversight of these analyses, 
as well as a comparison of the different special conditions. Thns, one 
table demonstrated how many pounds were to be found in churned milk, 
thus showing how thoroughly it had been churned. 

When no attention is paid to any occasional day where a proportion- 
ally large quantity of fat might be found in the buttermilk from the 



DAIBY EXPERIMENTS IN DENMARK. 241 

water and tub samples, which is sapposed to be owing either to 
chance, mishap ia cbaming, or to commencement of sickness in the 
cream, it is seen that in the buttermilk from the cream of 100 pounds 
. sweet milk were to be foand iu the different systems an average of 0.6 
of fat ; and iu 100 pounds of buttermilk Irom thirty-four hours' ice, 
centrifuge, nod churned mtlk, relatively, 0.42, 0.38, 0.39, that ia to say, 
an astonishing uniformity in the amount of fat; and there is not the 
slightest reason why the centrifuged cream cannot be ehumed equally 
as clean as the other cream samples. But when the buttermilk iii 
Htich wanner has been similarly fat in all the systems, then the greater 
or less yield of butter from the churuiug of milk than from the churn- 
ing of cream in one of the other systems must arise either from a dif- 
fereuce in tlie comixtsitiou of the butter or because the skimming has 
not been equally perfect in all the systems. In order to elucidate 
this matter the lecturer produced a table showing how much water and 
liow much of other substances were to be found iu the six different sys- 
tems iu 3 pounds of butter. The result was that on an average there 
were found 46,4S quints of water uad 4.5 quinta of other substances, 
that is to say, a general liarniouy ; that from this cause no grounds 
could be fouud for the difference in the butter yield. The assertion 
which one sometimes hears, that a favorable butter yield irom milk 
churuiug can be attributed to the amount of cheese matter going over 
to the butter, is, however, not coufirmed by these experiments. 

The main cause of the dififereuce in the pelds of butter, from the vari- 
ous systems, can, therefore, only be that there has been left behind in 
tlie scummed milk a difl'tffence in the amount of fatty matter, which is 
corroborated by the analysis of the fatty substance in scummed milk. 
Iu a comparison between "ice thirty four hours "and centrifuge an 
average of eight analyses is obtained relatively of 0.53 and O.Il per 
cent, of fat, a difference of 0.42, which as nearly as possible answers 
to a like difference iu butter from 100 pounds of milk. i 

In two experiments made in the months of Ifovember and December 
with milk from older cows there were with "ice thirty-four hours" and 
with " tubs" retained, respectively, 2.75 and 1,05 per cent, fatin the scum- 
med milk, whilst the centrifuge bad only left behind 0.47 per cent. fat. 
As chief results from the exiieriments hitherto made the lecturer noticed: 
(a) The Danish large centrifuge had scummed the milk better sod still 
gave a corresponding larger yield of butter than Lehfeldt^s self-scumming 
bat non-continuous centrifuge at Hosenfetdt in 1879-18SU: (6) Milk cbam- 
ing has given a somewhat larger butter yield than the ice and tub sys- 
tems, but at the same time unmistakably smaller than the centrifuge 
system : (c) Water cooling (water to 10'^ C) throughout the whole year 
has given a bad yield, notably small, when the cows were in stable. In 
an onlioaty water dairy, the water, however, daring winter, will be colder 
than 10° O, and the butter yield would, therefore, become favorable. 



^dbyGoogle 



242 DAIRY EXPERIMENTS IN DENMARK. 

The sncceediD^ part of the lecture had reference to ceutrifuge experi- 
ments carried on in April-September, 1882, at Ournp farm. Theee ex- 
periments 'were carried ou with the foar following centrifages : 







Content.. 


per 


iT 




Pixmit. 

S 

10 


















. 





The Danish centrifuges are nearly of one and the same constrnctioii, 
and that of De Lural of the new form and with the alterations which 
are known from the Malmo (Sweden) Exhibition of last year. All the 
centrifuges are provided with tell tales. Notwithstanding that 206 sepa- 
rate centrifugiugB and 251 churniogs have been made, as well as 18? 
analyses, the lecturer considers it to be necessary that these experi- 
ments shonid still be pursued for some time longer, before the results 
could be considered sufficiently faithful, and specially that experiments 
should be continued with older cows' milk. Whilst the lecturer, in 
consideration of the large number of dairies that have gone over to 
the centrifuge system, has been induced already to make known the 
most impoilant ascertained results, he must at the same time caution 
them against drawing snre conclusions from th6 experiments, for he re- 
serves to himself the right of amending the opinions here expres-sed, 
so far as future experiments might give occasion thereto. 

The experiments, first of all, are intended to ascertain how purely the 
scumming can be efrecte<l in the different dairy systems. The sweet 
milk's fatty amount varies in general between 3 and 4 per cent., and in 
round numbers can be put at 3.50 per cent, of the milk's weight. In the 
ice and tub dairies, it may be said to be clean scummed when in the 
scummed milk there is only to be found 0.5 per cent., or one-seventh 
thereof, of fatty enbstance; and with the large Danish ceutaifnge at 
Ourup it has reached up to 0.11 ]>er cent., or about one thirty -second of 
fatty amount in sweet milk. 

During the summer several experiments have t>een made ^vitb the 
small and large Danish centrifuges aud here has been obtained an aver- 
age for both of 0.7 per cent., a minimam respectively of 0.5 and 0.4 per 
cent ; a maximum, respectively, of 0.12 and 0.15 per cent. In some ex- 
periments which were carried on in a special manner with a small 
amount of milk, in November and December, 1881, with milk from old 
cows, it was shown that the samples only coutaiued 0.05 and 0.02 per 
cent, fat, and il would therefore appear to be possible to clean scum old 
con-s'milk equally as well as that&om young cows, when a proper method 
is u.sed. The result from these experiments has been that the centri- 
fuges are now become so ]>erfect that there is little probability of their 
being able to scum more cleanly than has been performed by the two be- 
fore-mentioned ceutril'uges. 

Prot'easor Fjord's next list of experiments had reference to ordinary 
scuniniing, by which is to be nuderstood a working system wherewith 
the milk is scummetl two to three hours alter milking time, and with 
that heat temperature which it then possesses and then gives 18 to 20 
percent, cream. 

That which it was desired to prove was how much milk each of the 



DAIRY EXPEBIHENTB IN DENUARK. 



243 



fonr centrifnges can work up in the hoar, wben it is required that they 
shoald 8cam equally clean. Id a larger table the individnal analyses 
were given and in the following table a review of the different results is 
given: 




1882. 

a. Smill DmnUb I iTcrue rapidity, 3.410; l.JWponDdiinllk Id Ibebooi... 

b. De LsTil'i ; mTenea npidltj of four trlila, S.IISO-. 

1,300 pooDda milk in t£e hour 

2,*SOponod»BiilliinthBlionr 

c. LarEB Ilulih ; areraEe rapidity, l,tM : 

1,-wOponiida milk In th«boar......... 

2,810 poondt milk Is the boor 

d. iMrmTfastith ; aTaran npldlty, 1,t50: 

MlDpoDDdamllklnthehaDi 

2,J«0poDnainullkliitlieh«iir 

StFTIHBIB. ISn. 

a. Snull Dasltb ; aTerage npldlty, 2,110: 

l,2»0poiuid»inl]klnlhB£onr 

I.I35ponDda milk Id ths boar 

a,sea poonda milk in tbe boat 

*.7a<»m)nnd* milk la the hour 

b. LalKS Baiiiah ; average rapidity, 1,800 : 

1.780 poDDd* milk is Ibe hoor 

2,158 ponndi milk In Ihehonr , 



0.10 

0.18 


H. 


{J? 


Si! 


0,12 

0,41 

0,71 


0.08 
O-JI 


oIto 


0.10 



In the experimeatfi carried on in September it was the wish to obtaia 
so large a flow of sweet milk that the scummed milk could be about 
equally fat as in an ordinary dairy of the old systems. As it had 
shown itself to be difficult to keep np an aTerage rapidity with the large 
Danish centrifage above 1,900 revolutions, it was reduced to 1,800, and 
the flow of milk redaued from 870 to 780 pounds. It will be seen that 
accidental changes either in the milk's power of throwing off cream, or 
else in the carrying on of the work, has had considerable influence on 
the clean scumming, according to the flow of sweet milk being greater 
nr lesser. For the three centrifuges for the lowest flow of milk the dif- 
ference between the minimum and maximum of fat in the scummed 
milk is but 0.06, 0.05, 0.06, 0.01, and 0.03; that is to say, so slight a 
variation that it may be atlribated to some unnoticed chance, and thus 
the centrifuges have here worked with great accuracy. 

When, however, greater demands are asked of their working powers, 
great variations are immediately to be noticetl in ttie fat amount, and 
especially when there takes plac« a reduction in the rapidity. The 
small Danish thus gives, with 43> pounds stream as minimum, 0.13 per 
cent, of fat, but when the rapidity from 2,410 was reduced to 2,2fi7 ot 
2,287, it gave 0.39 and 0.35, relatively, of fat The large centrifuge, with 
a stream of 1,280 pounds, gave a minimum of 0.21 fat, but when the 
rapidity fell from 1,950 to 1,841, or 1,772, it gave, respectively, 0.39 and 
0^ per cent. fat. Another large Danish centrifuge, with a stream of 
1,000 pounds and 1,348 instead of 1,490 revolutions, gave as maximum 
0.44 per cent. fat. According to exiierimeots, until July the centrifuges 
have scummed cleaueat in the following order : 



,i;.db Google 



DAIBY USPEBIMENTS IN DENIUEK. 



D»crtplloB. 


1 
I 

1 


1 


1 
I 

1 


I 

i' 
1 




SmI 0.1! 


'•"TS- 


"TS- 

























111 September tbe lowest rate of Sow with the large aud small cen- 
itrifuges showed 0.12 and 0.17 jter cent, fat, whilst a double stream gave 
respectively 0.41 and 0.70 per cent, fat, and thus approached to that 
which, with " ice-cooling of 10 hours," can be reckoned as ordinary for 
non-heavy milk (0.70 per cent.). The lecturer remarked that the De 
Laval's centrifuge had not worked ho well a» had been e][i)ected, inas- 
inach as whilst in two trials made with it last year at Ericksholm it had 
only left O.XS and 0.21 per cent, fat, at Ourupfarm, with the same stream 
of inilk, it had left 0,31 per cent. fat. By a telltale fastened to the cen- 
trifuge it was shown that on an average 6,350 were made instead of 
6,000, which may be acooniited for in the different belt used, which was 
of leather ; whereas the oue nsed at Ericksholm was of cotton. 

The general opinion of the dairies would appear to be less favorable 
for tbe newer than for the older form of construction of the De Laval. 
The manufacturer seems to think that the cause may be attributed to 
the small opening through which the cream is forced; and which may 
be stopped up without its being noticed, and he has, therefore, again 
altered its construction. The lecturer has not yet had an opportanjty 
of trying this new form, but is more inclined to think that the cause of 
the less favorable result may be oning to the oentriiuge falling behind 
6,000 revolutions, the least it should have. It has also been obs^ved 
that one of tbe large Danish centrifuges has not been able to scum 1,280 
lK)unds fully as clean as another with 810 pounds in the hour, although 
aooordiug to theoretic calculation it should have done so equally aa 
well ; but whether this is due to accident or that the theoretical calco- 
lation does not hold good, he could not express any decided opinion. 

The next exi^eriments related to the influence of the rapidity on the 
centrifuge's working powers in a given time to clean scum a more or less 
milk quantity. In the trials carried on in 1879 at Bosenfeldt's wiUi 
Lehfeldt's self-scumming but non-coottnuoas centrifuge, it was fonnd 
that the working j-ield inorease*! in tbe same proportion as tbe centri- 
fuge's power, and thus bore itself as the quadrate of rapidity, but tbe 
experiments had now to demonstrate if this rule held good for the fall 
conlinnouH centrifuges, which work with considerably greater rapidity 
and havo about five times as large a flow of sweet milk. In June and 
July there were, therefore, carried ont three lists of exi>eriments with 
the small Danish, each embtttcing three days, with 1,430 iwnnds milk 
daily, divided in the three trials into 300, 4d0, and 700 iwunds, and with 
a rapidity of respectively 1,950, 2,400, and 3,000 revolutions per miuut«. 
If the before-mentioned rule be correct, then the butter yield should be 
one and the same, and the scummed milk, equally fat, just the satue. 
whether 450 iwnnds milk i>er hour were scammed with a velocity of 
2,400, or if 297 pounds were scummed with a velocity of 1,950, or, again, 



DAIBY EXPEBIMBNTa IN DENUIRK. 246 

if 703 pouudB milk were Bcammed with a velocity of 3,000. From tlie 
tables produced, it was shown that in the experiments a butter weight 
waH obtained from 100 pounds milk, i-espectively, of 3.76, 3.74, and 3.70 
pounds, and that in the scummed milk In the experiments in June 
(when the analyses were made of all the milk) were found respectively 
0.21, 0.32, and 0.28 per cent, fat, and in the experiments of July were 
fonud respectively 0.23, 0.23, and 0.22 per cent, of fat. These flgares 
BO nearly agree that they confirm the calcalatiou that the centrifuge's 
power of separating the cream from the milk, at least very ctosely, 
increases or diminishes in the same proportion as the quadrate of 
vclocit^'. The experiments have also shown that with greater velocity 
an accidental loss of velocity more easily occurs, and that such fallin^^s 
off can operate disturbingly on the average results, as the increase in 
the fat of the scnmmed milk, which manifests itself with smaller velocity, 
is not made up by the decrease which is produced in another with in- 
creased velocity. 

Experiments have likewise been made with milk which has been al- 
lowed to stand over night. In many centrifuge dairies it is not an an- 
common thing that the evening's milk stands over night in water and is 
ceutrifuged tLe following morning, partly without and partly after hav- 
ing been warmed up. 

l>nriiig previona experiments it was shown that milk after a prior 
cooling was less liable to throw off its cream and become "cold-heavy," 
bnt that on being heated up U^4fy 0. it again recovered its original 
iwwers for throwing off the cream. The former experiments, with the 
milk again warmed up, were made only ^rith that from ice cooling, and 
the lecturer has made some fresh experiments, in which the small Dan- 
ish centrifuge was employed. On the 19-22 of June, '1,350 pounds even- 
ing's milk were mixed, which were divided into three equal parts of 450 
pounds, of which the fiow should be of 450 pounds per hour for all the 
trials. One of the samples was centrifuged immediately and the two 
others which remained over night in water of al>out 11° 0. were centri- 
faged the following morning, the one cold, the other having been lire- 
viously warmed up 40° C 

The separated cream was collected in tin pans of 50 pounds, which 
were placed in ice for several hours until the cream was again warmed 
for soaring. The 26-28 of Jnne the experiments were renewed; but 
only with 300 pounds in each trial and with a flow of about 300 pounds 
per hour, and in addition the cream from the warmed-up samples was 
immediately cooled by being at once put into a pan placed in ice. 

From the tables over these experiments, it appears that from 100 
pounds milk were obtaineil with the first experiments (with a stream 
of 450 pounds from immediately churned milk) 3.72 pounds of butter, 
and 6t>m the following morning's cold chnrued milk 3.41 pounds, and 
from the warmed up milk 3.51 pounds. In the next experiment (with a 
stream of 300 pounds) the figures show an average respectively of 3.72, 
3.57, and 3.67 pounds butter. 

In the Honmmed milk there was found in the first experiment with 
the immediately centrifnged milk 0.20 per cent, fat; with the following 
mohiing's centrifnged cold milk 0.49 per cent., and with the warmed up 
milk 0.20 percent-, fat; whilst the figares in the other lists of experi- 
ments were respectively 0.09, 0.23, and 0.10 per cent. fat. 

From the flgnres for fat in scummed milk it is thus manifest that the 
sample "immediately" and the sample of "warmed up" are scummed 
eqnally clean, whereas the sample of "cold " is not so deanlj' scummed, 



246 DAIBT EXPBRIHEN-i'8 IN DENMARK. 

inasmiich as compared with the immediately centrifuged sample in the 
first experiments it has given 0.31 pounds less butter, and its scummed 
milk contained 0.29 per cent, more fat. 

These figures answer to each other and thus show that the cause of 
the smaller yield of batter is owing to the cold sample having been 
scummed less thoroughly. In making a comparison between the sam- 
ple "immediately" and of the next morning's warmed up milk it is seen 
that they were scummed equally clean, but nevertheless in the experi- 
ment with a flow of 450 pounds there is a difference of 0.21 pounds 
butter, the cause of which may perhaps be due to the cream from the 
warmed up milk not having been sufficiently cleanly churned. *There 
was found on all the three days "cheese in the cream" in the warmed 
np, but not in the other samples, and thus the warming op not only 
did not produce the expected batter yield, but was the cause of another 
failing which can reduce the quality of the butter very considerably. 

In the second list of experiments, where the cream from the warmed 
up sample was immediately cooled, it did not show any sign of " cheese 
in the cream ", and the only difference in the butter yield of the sample 
"immediately" was but of five quints. This is in accordance with pre- 
vious observationsi and it would therefore appear that the warming ap 
of milk which has laid stored over night can be unfavorable, and that 
a speedy cooling of the cretim after centrifuging can in many cases be 
of consequence, 

In the experiments of the 20th JunCrwith a flow of 300 pounds, there 
wa8 0.23 per oent.in the scummed milk tromthecold sample, which about 
answers to what there usually is when the flow of newly milked milk 
ie 450 ]K>unds. It would therefore appear that when the flo\r is reduced 
by one-tbird, the cold heavy milk may be scummed equally as clean as 
the newly milked. In order to investigate this more closely, as also to 
ascertain if it was of any importance that the cream from the milk 
which has been allowed to lay the over nigbt ought to be scummed 
previous to centrifuging, the following experiments were made in Sep- 
tember : 450 pounds sweet milk were centrifiiged in the evening with a 
flow of 450 pounds, whilst two other samples, each of 300 pounds lay 
stored over night in water and were oentrifnged next morning with a flow 
of 300 pounds per honr, the one after having been previously hand- 
scummed. The result was that both the bntter yield and the fat in the 
scummed milk was almost tbe same for all the three samples, and there 
is therefore good ground for concluding that the milk cooled in water In 
the night to 10-ll°O. can be centrifuged nearly as well in its cold state, 
as the same milk immediately after milking when the flow in the morn- 
ing is one-third less than in the evening. 

From the before mentioned experiments the lecturer produced the 
following table, by which the flow of sweet milk to the two centrifuges 
can be approximately regulated when the velocity is ascertained ; but 
he at the same time distinctly remarked that the figures must not be 
looked upon as absolutely faithful ; and that he would not raise the 
correctness of these figures above the practical experiences others might 
have obtained. 



^dbyGoOgle 



DAIRT EXPERIMENTS IN DENMARK. 
ITorHag poieert 0/ two Daniik cenlrifttgti. 



Fit iD scnnmied milk pei 




The table as well as tlie experiment on the whole apeak in ,favor of 
centrifuges of great velocity, but it must not be forgotten that the 
strain iacreases with the velocity and also the danger of the centrifuges 
heatiug and getting fast in the mts likewise increases with its velocity 
and weight. The lecturer is however of the opinion that there is no 
great fear of a small centrifuge with a velocity of 2,400-2,600 revolu- 
tions per minnte becoming heated, so long as ordinary care is taken in 
the working. The danger of a large centrifuge with a velocity of 1 ,800 
and above becoming heated is certainly greater, but nevertheless need 
not frighten one from going over to the centrifuge system, although it 
may perhaps influence the decision as to whether one should have large 
or small centrifuges. Two small centrifuges are supposed to demand 
less dragging power than one large, but with the latter there are on 
the other hand fewer parts to keep clean and attend to than with two 
small ones. 

The last part of the lecture had reference to sundry experiments with 
centrifuge portions, with power meters, &c., carried on at Onrnp farm 
and Vestervigscloister. 

The older Danish centrifuge was provided with a cream-run, or gut- 
ter, which prevents the cream, during the motion occasioned in its re- 
moval, from being carried further, whilst the newer constructed centri- 
fuges have not this gutter. From the experiments at Vestervig^s cloister 
it would not appear as though this cream-run was of any conse<]uence. 

With the De Laval centrifuge the sweet milk is carried through a 
pipe right into the milk layer in the centrifuge, thus behind the cream ; 
whilst in the Danish it flows down into th^ centrifuge's empty compart- 
ment before the milk and cream, and is thus thrown against the cream 
layer, and xwnetrates through it into the milk. As the disturbances 
caused thereby can probably act unfavorably in the cream separation, 
a special stream apparatus was constructed for the small centrifuge, 
by which the sweet milk is carried direct into the milk layer at the verj- 
bottom of the centrifuge, thus somewhat behind the cream, and there 
were thereafler arranged exi>eriment8 for a comparison between the 
two centrifuges. The result, however, was that out of nine trials four 
were in favor of a flow in front of, and five in favor of a Bow behind, 



248 VA.IRY EXPERIMENTS IN DENHAEK. 

the cream: and the average dififereDce oa the whole was only 0.02 
pounds of butter fh»n 100 poaads milk, that is to say entirely without 
importance, 
lu former experimeuts it was made manifest that the ceutrilUges' 

{>owers for separating the cream are the same, whether it be driren by 
lorse or steam power, when the velocity is the same. A trial was also 
made to ascertain bow much power had been empl();ved with the small 
centrifuge at difi'erent rates of velocity, ai^d also the limit to which it 
could be drawn by an ordinary horse. The result will be seen by the 
following table : 





1 Be 


2!]M 08 

i.m 1 120 

Z.'«0 ' 120 

1,.7«1 04 
1,987 80 
2,258. M 
2,341 , 118 

t^\ 1« 


velocity. 

FhL 

2.87 
2.83 

2 40 

a. 00 

2.82 

a. 00 


"if 




Is 


b. A iioi.-i,i«rtously uMd centrifuKB. September, 1882 


1 


39* 
ISO 

240 

283 

s 



As the cmjiloyed iiower-meter is not a very minutely marking one, 
some of the figures may possibly not be quite accurate, but on the whole 
the experimeuts may be considered fully reliable. 

The several experimeuta were carried on with a middling strong horse 
which is accustomed to draw in this horse-work. Even with the 2,900 
revolutions it seemed to draw like two horses before the plow in ordi- 
nary plowing, still it was doubtless hard work to draw at this velocity 
for two to three hours. Atthe lowest velocity, the horse went commonlj* 
with slack traces, and with a velocity of 2,2U0 it has frequently at the 
same time drawn the centrifuge and a chuni with 60 to 80 pounds cream 
without being ovei-loaded. 

For the small centrifuge one may about calculate that the power rate 
for 2,000, 2,400, and 2,800 revolutions per minute to be respectively one- 
half, three-fourths, and one horsepower, with which, acconJing to a pre- 
vious given table, can be scummed cleau, respectively, 200, 300, and 400 
pounds, at 100 jwunds per one-fourth horse. As it is difficult to obtain 
cleau scumming of the centrifnge^s first and last contents, the lecturer 
gave the following instructions for a practical mode of working these 
twoceiitrifugps: The centrifuge to be filled with sweetmilk, either before 
it is to work, or as soon as possible, whilst in motion it is working up 
to full power. As there will at once take place a separation of much 
fat cream, this taken away when the cream and milk have reached 
up to the scum-pipe in nn ordinary way. One then permits gradually 
or by fits and starts a moderate stream of sweet milk to flow dowu 
into the centrifuge, so that, in about ten minutes after the ceutrifbge 
is set ill motion and filled, there can be introduced as much sweet 
milk as will answer to the separated milk ; that is to say, about one- 
fifth of the centrifuge's contents. During this period ^e milk-pipe 
is only used by starts a couple of times for the purpose of carrying 
ofi' the cream, which is se^tarated iu the chamber for clean scummed 



DAISY EXPERIHENT8 IN DENMARK. 249 

milk. Thereafter it is worke«l as usual, with a ftall flow of sweet milk, 
but intemipr«d taking away of cream and scumioed milk, so that there 
is obtained 18 to 20 iier cent, cream nntil the centrifnge is filled with 
sweet milk. lu order that the last contents mny be clean scummed, ' 
the scummed milk is thrown into the flow vessel, about one-fifth of the 
centrifuge's contents, and the milk-pipe is screwed oB', so that cream 
only can he taken away. As soon as the first fat cream is separated, 
the Bkimme<l milk is allowed for at least a quarter of an hour to flow in 
by flts and starts, and the cream is also remoTe<l by fits and startJi. 

With one of the Danish and with Lehfeldt's new centrifuge there 
often occurs a milk waste, arising from the milk's penetrating through 
the covering which encircles the centrifnge. To prevent this mishap 
the opening in the lid of the Danish centrifnge has been provided, at 
the suggestion of the lectnrer, with a one-inch bent border, which is in 
the same direction with the lid cover. The escape of milk will thns be 
counteracted, unless it should be squirted ont with such force that the 
jets are thrown right ont of the centrifuge; when the points at the time 
have a correct position and shape the squirting will either cease or be 
of no imi>ortance. Kothing is gained by changing the round form of 
the points, but the opening should be larger than it has usually been, 
ODe-eigbth to onefonrth, according to the greatness of the flow. The 
points should further be provided with sharp borders ; they should have 
a horizontal position, and form an angle of 45° with the tangent-plane 
to the cream and the surface of the milk to the point of contact. The 
points are of steel, and should be able to be screwed in to the brass 
pipe, so that they could easily be replaced ; but the shape of the i>oints 
would *not appear to be of any consequence. 

In condnsion the lecturer exhibited and explaine<l some new appa- 
ratuses, which will doubtless be of great practical importance in centri- 
fnge dairies. With the aid of a newly-constructed stream funnel one 
can vary the flow and maintain a constant stream. This iron-twined 
constructed fttnnel will hold 10 to 12 pounds milk, is flat bottomed, 3 
to 4 inches high, and can be screwed fast to the covering over the cen- 
trifnge in such a manner that it goes in a little over the opening therein. 
From the bottom of the funnel go two pipes of ball form right down to 
the bottom of the centriftage, and through each pipe is placed a cylinder 
bar, which exactly fills np the lowermost opening, and can thus close 
it. By drawing the bar higher np, the opening between it and the 
pipe's compass becomes larger and the flow increases. In the funnel 
can be placed one or more of Wagner's side strainers, the one within 
the other, so that the milk can be strained very slowly and very care- 
fully withont the leaafc trouble just before it flows down into the centri- 
fnge, wtiich tends to prevent any stoppage in the scumming points. 
As it lessens the dairy labor greatly, when the skimmed milk can flow 
at once f^m the centrifnge to the cheese tnb, a bending has been ap- 
plied to the scom-pipe, to which can be screwed soldered pipes of va- 
rious lengths. The power by which the milk is forced into the scum- 
pipe has shown itself to be insufficient to raise the milk 1 to 5 teet per- 
pendicularly, so that it can flow with ease through the tube to the cheese 
tab, even when this is 10 to 30 ells from the centrifuge. With a simi- 
lar raising tube the cream can also be carried to a cooling apparatus, 
which consists of a tin pail with an intermediate space of 3 to 4 inches, 
which is kept filled with ice. With this apparatus one has succeeded in 
less than a minute to cool the cream from 29° C. to 10.5° C, inasmnch as 
tbe cream, with the aid of a moveable funnel, is equally distributed over 



250 DAIRY EXP£KIH£NTS IN DENMABK. 

tbe cooling surface aDd tlieu rua off again through au opeuing in the 
bottom. This method of cooling cream is at the same time economical 
as regards the consumption of ice. 

At the close of the lecture, Counselor Testdorf returned thanks to 
Professor Fjord and his assistants for these experiments, which had been 
carried on with such great care and had led to such great results. It is 
owing to these experiments that the centrifuge has already made such 
advances in Denmark, and the information given in this report will no 
doubt be-of great importance for our numerous union dairies, as well 
as of great service to the small land-owners. In Hotstein, where there 
has not been any one like Professor Fjord to lead such experiments, the 
centrifuge has in a great measure been a failure, and has been given 
np; only in the towns is it partially used, but scarcely at all in the dai- 
ries themselves. The quality of the butter centrifuged at Ourup farm 
has shown itself to be very good, especially after Uie introduction of 
the cooling apparatus, by which the cream can at once be brought down 
to 7<^ C, the butter has shown itself to be both good and preservable. 
At the request of Professor FjonI some elucidations were given as to the 
butter yield from a dairy and compared with the proceeds from the ice and 
centrifuge systems. During thelast five years, when thvire has been made 
sweet butter at said farm, the average yearly consumption per pound 
of fresh-weighed butter in 1877-'78 was 29.11 pounds milk ; in 1878-'79, 
31.31 pounds; in 1880-'81, 30.89 pounds; and in 1881-'82, 30.73 pounds 
milk. When 28 pounds milk to 1 pound of butter is reckoned as the 
normal consumption in a good ice dairy, and that from 16 pounds milk is 
obtained 1 pound of cheese, so will 100 pounds in au ice dairy yield ^ 
pounds butter and 6^ pounds cheese. In a centrifuge dairy 2d^und8 
milk, on the other hand, may be reckoned to I pound butter; and 100 
pounds milk by this system will therefore yield 4 pounds butter and 6^ 
pounds cheese. Th^ cheese ljx>m the ice dairy cau he reckoned at 8.04 
cents per pouud, but centrifuge cheese is less sought after and has to 
bo sold cheaper — 5.38 cents per pound. Placing the butter at the same 
price for both systems, at 26.80 cents per pouud, the proceeds of 100 
pounds milk will be as follows : 



Cont*. 

3^ poands butter 95.67 

Sipoands cheeM 60.11 

Tutal 145.78 

CKKTBIFUOK eVSTEH. ^ 

4 ponndii butter 107.91 

e^ponnds cbeeao 36.7 

Total H3.ai 

It will thus be seen that the ice dairy has given as fully as good re- 
turn as the centrifuge dairy, and I would therefore caution against too 
great eagerness in abandoning the ice dairies and replacing them with 
centrifuge dairies. 

Agriculturists will find sufficient employment for centrifuges in their 
ice dairies without abandoning these at the same time. 

The question being asked as to the quantity of fat to be found in the 
centrifuged cheese which was sold at 5.90 cents per pound, it was an- 



^dbyGoOgle 



VALUE OF ITALIAN IMP0UT8 AKD EXPOBT8. 251 

Hwered that it contained about 0.6 per cent. &t. It waa also stated by 
Professor Fjord that he bad commeQced upon some cheese experiments, 
vbich at present were promising well, so that there were good prospects 
of being able to gire answers to serera) questions relating to centrifuged 
cheese. In reply to a question whetlier there was any difference in the 
resnlta with regard to the butter when the centrifuge was worked by 
horse or steam power, Professor Fjord replied by r^erring to his pre- 
vious experiments, which showed that there was no difference when the 
velocity was the same. 

Reference was made to the before-mentioned results, namely, that 
the centrifuge system gave 1.88 cents less per 100 pounds milk than the 
tee system. Supposiag one could introduce another fat substance into 
the millc, would the result be then differeutf With the present prices 
would margarine thus be able to give tlie centrifuge system a surplus of 
I.8S ceotsf Professor Fjonl at present was not in the position to an- 
swer, bat was collecting materials for the purpose of elucidating it. 
HENRY B. EYDEB, 

Consul. 

U:siTED States Consulate, 

C(^enhagen, Denmark. 



AVEKAQE VAItTE OF ITAIIAir IMFOBTS AHS EXPORTS. 

REPORT ar OOSHVL WBL8S, OF FLOBSNCS. 

The knowledge of the actnal average value of goods in this country 
as calculated from ofBcial statistics should be valuable information to 
American exporters, and having been able to secure such data from a 
reliable source, I have the honor to submit the same. 

The report will also serve as an illustration ofthe tariff laws and rates 
of daty requested by circular under date of December 1st, 1881. 

Every year about this time the Italian ministerof agriculture, industry, 
and commerce requires from all chambers of commerce and the custom 
houses the standard prices of articles described in the tariif, both ex- 
ports and imports. These prices are then given to the minister of 
finance as the key for the compilation of annual returns. 

The following table will show the average value of goods delivered at 
Italian ports on the frontier. 

The duties, import or export, are not included. From latest informa- 
tion I may add that the following articles will be subject to a decrease 
of about one-fifth in value: 

1st. jOwing to increased native production: Oil, oxide of iron, car- 
bonate of lead, varnish prepared with spirits, silk umbrellas. 

2<1. Owing to depreciation in value of sUver: Nitrate of silver, sal- 
phtiret of mercurj-. 

3d. Owing to fluctuations in prices : Coffee, saffron, indigo, cochineal. 

4th. Owing to increased imports from Australia: Yarns of wool. 

5th. Owing to production of coarser and heavier qualities : Straw- 
braids and snble furs. 

An increase of one-flflh or thereabouts will probably be found in the 
value of pepper, spirits, yellow and white wax, and bheached cotton, 
owing to increased consumption; aud on pianos and on all musical in- 
struments owing to iucreased demand. 



.Google 



252 VALUE OF ITALIAN IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

The following are the currency weights and measares used in the 
tablQ and reduced to United States Rtandard, viz : 

Lire JO. 193 

Hectogram .HHLti pountla, avoirdnpoiii. 

Kilosrsm . . . . * 2.304 pounds, avoirdupois. , 

Metrical quiatol 330.463 pouuda, avoirdtipok 

Ton 3204.(^ pODDds. avoinlnpui;. 

Hectoliter 36.43 khIIods. 

Meter 39.:J70 iDches. 

WM. L. WELSH, 
Consul, 
United States Consulate, 

Fhrmce, Italy, Ihcember 12, 1882, 



Statfneiit tlioiving the average value of goodt imporlei and txporUA into and from Ilatg, 



ATenge fMliiiaM gf 









• 


Import.. 


E^ 


I.— Spibits. Winm. Oils, *c. 

W>t«rB, mlncnl. nttaral. ortifloial. Indndlug aenit«d . . . 
Wfne: 


p« qolIlUl- 


Lin. 
70. m 

4S.00 

2S.O0 

40.00 
80.00 

•S.00 

ISO. 00 


10. W 












""i?^k...jb.™i. 






....p« beetolltet.. 


a.» 






















Splriu: 


»«k»orl) 








•tieU 




mt* 






zsaoo 

115.00 




«%„„., .'...: 




























iw.oo 

10.00 
20.00 

1.800.00 

».oo 

20.00 
IMLOO 
























EuBsnco olLi': 






....perkH-™-. 


















II.-GKO. 


..,„,. 


»'—- 






Chicory and otbiT subulances s 




forfOffM: 









DK.ro 


rhonoy 


do.... 


sirup.: 
















&^;^v:v:;:::::::;. "" 






-In..-. 



1U.W 

woo 



..Google 



VALUE OF ITALIAK lUPOBTS AND EXPOBTS. 253 

Slal«m«Kt *lowi«f like awagt valnt of gooii, 4^. — Continned. 



AitbOi*. 




'*"*?^n«. ' ." 




Importa. 


Iiporta. 


II.— OBOdBm ao 1N)bacco — CoBtliraed. 


Lin. 

in. DO 

190. M 

aoaoo 
•a DO 

S.80 

>0.<M 

80.00 
MM 

mo 

SO-M 
19.00 
400. M 
3BO.0O 
100. M 

».to 
«t.oa 

tU.00 

«a.oo 

10.00 
1M.N 
80. 0» 
18.00 
MM. 00 
U.O0 
IT. 00 

lOO.OO 
00.00 
U.O0 
100.00 
100.00 
IT. 00 

B.00 
10.00 

' 8.00 
11.00 
181.00 
700.00 
W.00 
90.00 

UO.0O 
zas.00 

is! 00 

MO. 00 
M.OO 
440.00 
9U.00 

10.00 

5!! 


Lira. 














t" 








^"°™'.'";:::;::;:::::;:::::::;:::::;::;: 




00. ft 










T^bDcco: 












ClKsniofothBrkiiid.* : 

nL— CHiiniuL FBODUcn, UiDicmi, Bnis, asd 
•■•'H^:^ 


do... 


8.40 


























































P«"l-<™-- 


400.00 








Aoldof ■lamliik.iren.Ao 


::"".r:.r!^:: 


80.00 














































■■"-^'^" 


SJS 




















Sulp^le.: 
















































Other chenlskl pnidiuta 


do... 


so. 00 












*JSSS 




















































Aloe juloe.«id other. 







,, Google 



254 VALUE OP ITAUAN IHPOBTS AMD EXPORTS. 

Slattmmt rittneiug tkt anraga mIm of gvoit, ^— Conttnoed. 



Ill— CiiiHlCAi. PnODUCn. UediCihis, Kim, tC—Contianti. 
notapaelflsd perqnlnlal. 




Ground..'. do. 



DHhI 

pMtO_. 



itnuMor evBTT kiaA... 



Colon in... 



FbdoII) with ihea 



T.—Hiui', Flax, Jl-cr. i 



OUHir Tp|ietabl« Blwra, nv 

H«Dp, fliiijDl«,(wi))b«d 

FlK atul bsmp, oonlaga ud el 



« Vbsbubu FiBsia. ixcmft ConoH. 
parqalnttl. 



FUi ud hemp, ifknu of, rair .. 



Tarn*. ininU, (Toy, inabsd sr bl 
TvtUa.d,vsd 

TlHUM at Max isd bsnip i 



TI--<:ortoii. 

GoUoD Is flodn. Ac do. 

Cotton nddidga do.. 



TmpoTta. I Exports, - 



Forp*cklB|i do I 

Djed , do 

Prlntfil , do....' 

Kubnldand ,... to 

nalHr; and (rlmiDlDK* of Jat« t do 

BntloniMid ribboot of lot* do 

Ijim* parkUomn.. 

Sewn vtlclH per quota).. 























000. 00 












































re. 00 


32.00 


























M«.M 


280.00 




M 00 










mdlDO 





























!.«»-« 





soiloo rm.o( 

3,150.00 ^.tsoioc 



VALUR OF ITAI.IAN mPOETB AKD EXP0ET8. 255 

StatrmeMl tibfi^f the avtrate tatmt of goodt, fc. — Couttnned. 



Artlcln. 




ImporU. 1 BtporU. 






Lira. Zin. 


















































miSl ^-.Z 



i"ffi:. 



iDd blanfeta do.. 



Sewinr ailk . 
Caidlnr -"•- 



,|i«r IdloiEruii. 

.'."^}..io..'. 
. .pn kilognm. 



dlDE aUk 



UloMy . 



DDibed uddjad 

iiMi"y^l"'.'.'."'.'.'.'.'.'. 

[hiiMkV^y.'".'."'.'.'.'.'.. 
Mid floMiOk. mixed... 

a goldaad ilInT 



SciTDiirtlclt*.- 



ramaMrlBle 

IX,— Wooii Atm Straw. 



Finvaoil • 

Tbubar br obbM-maUiig : 
Sot Mvn 

Tlnbar, In ^uts or inl^ •qoam. for fli»rta». . 



rfaBbcr, DommOD, inlbemngh, wwn, ■qoare^Ao psTcnbia meter. 

inall board* and hoop* parqninMt. 

Baml* p«r hBotollWr. 



FamltDn, noHnibd. ofbsot WMd 

Olhw arUcliH ol (anutore, luntnfftd... 

Qailted fiiraltora 

OiiblDet fnTDitnn 

Oar*. Makes, nudpolu 



WmIiI. commoo, ntenilU, Ac — . do... 

tCuod. attlclMof tnde do... 

'WacdiiB for Eommao roads Donber. 

Ship*. bi>«ti"io"""V."i;'I^!liy.!lir.!i;!Iir-'.!'lI-""I!l^iim'oTiliYclon! 

Ones, mnhea. and lirtga per quintal. 

BaakK't-nialien' irork*: 

Coanw do... 

Straw bnld* do ., 

Bratda ofbuk. bmam do... 

C-'TdDeeor broomi and tree(lb«ni do... 

Str»wTi«W .'...per hundred. 































2,MW.W 




















































ao.w 


30. m 










2«aN 


IMLW 




IS. 00 






t«a*D 


190.00 






18.00 


18,00 


























I«0.00 


a. 00 

170.00 



i.x)o.oo 

M.0O 

180. go 



256 VALUE OF ITALIAN IUP0BT8 AND EXP0BT8. 

Statement ikouiiits lk« averagt vdlM 0/ good; ^.— CoEitianed. 







Avenge utimste of 




InporU. 


KiporU. 


X-PxriB un> Books. 




Zt.00 

w.oa 

33.00 

moo 

ML 00 
1,000.00 


"^0. 
















do.... 




110.00 




::;:;;;:::;;:::::::;£:;: 


180.00 


















1,400.00 








WO. 00 

000.00 

760.00 

8,800.00 

ISO. 00 

800,00 
500.00 

2U.oa 
sso.oo 

8,000.00 
800.00 

GHl.OO 
1,000.00 

700.00 

'is 
'as 








soooo 




















iSSdtahiJ^oiV^^ii^"™* :::;;;;:::::: ::: 


s:- 
















XI.-Huai Asa Ssaa. 
OthetthuiforftirTy 


perqalntal.. 


180.00 


Hide* drMKdVith hit: 




8.000 00 










£00.00 
MO. 00 




::::::::::::::::::::dE;:::: 


Di««d Witt hilt Midfliitalied 


:::::::::::::::::::iS:::: 


2. km; 00 




UaSt: 


30.00 




















I^SE!^,"«1lole.<>(. 


ji^-- 


100.00 

700.00 

'11 

790.00 

i 

BtOO 

31 00 
70i00 

is 

ZT.OO 

82.00 

uoo 

1H.O0 


100.00 












■■ss 








Xn.— MliriiUL*, MIT4M, UD THKIH 


perqolnUl.. 


7M.00 




















8.00 














110.00 






IconudttMl: 




70.00 






8S.00 
























B^fwrtiUwmy* 


per ton- 





riXUE OF ITALIAN lUPOSTS AND EXP0BT8. 



Stattmwt iluming tlu, artragt talot of good,. ^.-Contioned. 




Artiil™. 




Avengg MtlmaU oT 




Import.. 


BxporU. 


xn^MiKUiLB, MrrAia, *»D TBXIB PKODUCTJoa*.— Coiitlno^d. 


■1.. BS.M 

KI.IM 

9S.M 

BO-Oft 
S9.(W 
1W.00 
MO.OO 

;;; is 

sio.oo 


ii™. 








"■5!:ri^« 


■ ^ 








MM 

IIB-OO 
M.00 

izo.oo 
ifoo,oo 
110.00 


In ■prinKiM^^WTklnd 

a,Sf!SSarA'::::::;::;;::::--;;-.;-.;:;-.;-: 


do 

.. .. 




Coppar M>d btmiM'. 
































aoo,oo 

«(M.(» 










Nickel udltailtoTi: 










taato 

... 1,0M.«) 
50.00 

iu.oa 

I70.W 

zTaoo 

MlOO 








1.060.00 

40.00 
45.00 
S20.00 
50.00 








^,^3S!^==^r:= 


::::;::::::::;::d; 

do 






IS:SS 




InpjP|_»»a.tm4j^. 


:::::::::;:::;;:3; 










ADUmonjudarwlo 


;;:;:;;::::::::2 


CTLOO 
1TS.00 

::; SSS 
2:: ''Iffil! 

>d.. 1.8M.M 
>].. WO. Ml 

100.00 








do 




^^-^pW. 


f ooaoo 






PlMak anil rerolran : 


pwhrarfn 


i,soo.oo 


'^'^^'^ 




100.00 










;:: 'aS 

STO.OO 

::: tJSS 




























80.00 

"■; lis 

::: *S!:S 

... MW.W 

;;■: isH 

M,00 

m.. 400.00 

m.. iso.V) 

£60.00 

m.. 100.00 

>&..' M.0O 

...; M.00 

40.00 
».00 


W.0* 










2. moo 


















1. 100.00 






























PWhWtofTM 


400.00 










ffi^ga^:^::::::;;;;:::::::;;:;;;:;:"::::: 


P""0PS 


100, 00 


















ukoa 



ttdH VALim OF IIALUH IMPOBT8 AND EXPORTS. 

Bktltm*mt (towiaf Ue avtragt voIm of gooit, 4*- — Coalinned. 









^™n- 


■ttute et 




IdipotU. 


Kiporle. 


MuTOmeitirorkj: 


""HEi- 


■,IM.OD 
B0O.M 

£,000.00 


1*11. 
10.00 










McMrUli for wktobMud dock! do... 

XITL — Stoma. CiJin. Platu, Olubu, utd Cbtbtau. 


1,000.00 






















Ss5;iiiF------v------- 




:::.;:.iSt*"i:: 


1,000.00 


,0 00 




























M.DD 

10.00 

BO. 00 
40.00 

iia.00 
as. 00 

IS. to 
10.00 

M.OO 

40.00 

""■- 












SSM*^■■•^:■ 




;;;;;;;"S^F 


40.00 


























Vi|rU tqiiRrM tor^.viiiK. ruDLthid « 














HitNlcBwockl: 




* 












QIItedoToniuiosUd 

Parr«].lii..rtlalMof. 




do... 


»«. 




Camba - 

PliitaolilA DOU. with or wlthnit hstk. 
Alnon(U.irlllHnilbii ' 
AlmoBda, wttb hmk. 

Walonu uid lint* 

OlHUliKn* ItnlU. not •poclBad. 
IMsd ttfn 



VALUE OF ITALIAN lUPOSTa AITD EXP0BT8. 269 







ATenge uUm^ of 




I«P»ru. 


IiporU. 


ZIT.— Ckbrai^ Floui, Fabts, aud TiomiLB PKODDCn, Ao.-<:aBtlii»d. 


529. 00 

ti)a.w 

100.00 


Lirm. 








Tuiiiiu and bninea 




. m.i» 






















a°" ■■ 


"■M 






10.00 

I.100.W 
IHM.M 

is 

aMLOO 

UO.OD 
15.00 

M.00 
ISO. 00 
159.00 
2W.00 

waoo 

300.00 
WO.M 

90.00 
12V 00 

UlOD 

1W.00 

3M.00 

370.00 
37G.00 
IW.00 

130.00 

190. M 
130.00 
81.00 

MM. 00 

380.00 

M0.00 
M.OO 

aaoo 

05.00 
880.00 

100. DO 
880.00 
1.00 
00.00 
100.00 

teo.00 

i, 500. 00 

W.00 

710.00 

■•Sfi! 




arv,— A:<mii. PmobUcre Ajro BroiW Of AKIMiu, in 
canooBiu. 
















































C«tle.ot the go*t kind 


ao-.. 


15.00 




























































































ssr-"'* ■-• • 


...p«t quintal.. 


130.00 
















































^"'S^t'^.d 








































rS&™ 




































































M.oe 



TEA TRADE OP JAPAN. 

Btmlatent »k<nelng ik« avetti^^ vdlu* of gooit, ^— Conthin«d. 







ATens< otlouM of 
Tklne. 




Import*. 


E.p^. 


XTL— SUMPBtn. 




700.00 

4.UILO0 

«0.«0 

700.00 

so. 00 

4.000.00 
700.00 

1,600.00 

BM.00 
^ B00.00 

1.200.00 

000.00 

'■StU! 

01.00 

6.00 

000.00 
W).oo 

600.00 
S. 000, 00 


ifm. 








Tutt: 
















































""'S^rSTuoti-a^ 


POTqofBlal.. 


4.000.00 




do.... 


1.S00.00 








Hktl: 




















ISO. 00 




























Pencili,wlthor«llbOQt.t«(r 




a,ooo,i» 









TEA TBASB OF JAPAK. 

JtBPOMT BY COS8TJL aTABBL, OF BIOQO. . 

Iq my (Uspatcli of December 31, 1880, 1 bad tbe bonor to offer' to the 
Department some obeervationB oq the tea trade of Japan, which is 
almost exclneively confined, aa far as export is concerned, to tbe Amer- 
ican markets. 

Since then this trade bas gone from bad to vorse, nntil it has nov 
become unsatisfactory both to tbe Japanese producer and the foreign 
exporter. Whether as a result of oversupply, or of sndi deterioration 
in the quality of tbe teas shipped as tends to check consamption, the 
prices to which tea has fallen in the United States are rmnooBly low, 
and if some improvement be not effected, this important commerce will 
be sbnnued by all who have anything to lose. 

The Japanese Government, recognizing the gravity of the sitnation, 
is urging producers in this country to reform their methods of preparing 
the leaf, so as to furnish a better article for export, and thereby reduce 
the excessive supply. One argument employed towards thie eud ie 
that the law lately enacted by Congreaa against adnlterated teas will^ 
if strictly executed, exclade much of tbe inferior stuff which has of late 
years passed in the United States as Jai>anese tea. It is highly desir- 
able in the interest of all concerned that this law shonld so work, and 
its operation will certainly be watched from Japan with keen interest. 
If it excludes not merely that wbich is not at all tea-leaf, bat also al) teas 



TEA TRADE OF JAPAN. 261 

faliifled by artificial coloriog, it will affoid powerftil aid to all, whether 
exporters or producers, who how deplore the decay of hooest commerce 
through the snccesa of such impostures on the ignorance of the con- 
fiumer. 

In addition to what the Oovemment la doing to restore health to the 
tea trade, individual efforts are being made. Some remarkable articles 
on the subject have recently been pnblitihed in the local jonrnals, some 
of which I inclose herewith, and beg to commend to the attention of the 
Department. 

If the facts therein set forth could be made public in the United States, 
American consumers of teas would probably exercise more discrimina- 
tion in what they buy, and demand something better than tbe impure 
mixtures which they now get. It will be difficnlt to effect any reform 
in Japan while consumers in America seem to prefer sophisticated tea 
of a wholly unnatural color. 

Some movement is now taking place among the growers of tea here 
against the production of the inferior leaf which gives the exporter his 
excuse for coloring the article to conceal that inferiority, and probably 
a larger proxwrtion than usual of pure uncolored tea will this year be 
shipped to the United States. But this movement will tail of success 
aoless tea-driukers in the United Stiites can somehow be awakened to 
the fact that bluish-gray and broken leaf is not the natural and proper 
form of tbia precious commodity, and that colored teas are neither clean 
nor wholesome, whereas the natural leaf of Japan is both good and de- 
licious. If the American demand could be redirected towards these 
sound and pure teas, it is probable that the use of the flue and fragrant 
leaf produced in Japan wonld so increase as to restore vitality to a trade 
now vitiated by manipulations which naturally disgust alt who become 
aware of them, and are perhaps the principal cause of the paralysis now 
prevailii:^ in the tea business. The new season has opened in the tea 
districts of Japan. A cool spring has retarded the tlrst pickings some 
twenty days, but no serious damage has been done to the plants, and an 
average crop is expected. 

Prices are, however, so low that much discouragement exists among 
all engaged in the trade. At the e4]nivalent of last If ew York quotations 
production is unprofitable even in this country of cheap labor, and it 
will probably be considerably reduced if the market long continues in 
its present nnsatisfiictory condition. 

J. STAHEL, 

Consul. 

United States Consdlatb, 

Osaka and Hioao, Japan, 

Hiogo, May 26, 1883. 



[Fram th« Japui WmUf Mall of Uncb 10, IBSa.] 

In oQi reoent retnwpect of the tea trade of IflSS we tai<l that, to maintain the vitolit; 
of this important branch of the commerce of Japan, eome new condicione of its exer- 
cise seemea indispensable. We ehall presently state what, in out view, these oew 
conations should he. Bnt flTs^ it may lie well to consider the character and rolnme 
of the demand for teas in America, which ia the only foreign market for the Japanese 
leaf. 

On referring to inch statistics as we have at hand, we find that abont twenty years 
ago, when the export from Japan had Juat begnn, the United States consumed annn- 
ally abont 40,000,000 ponnds of all sorts of tea ; that of this qnantity one-half con- 



262 I'EA. TRADE Of JAPAN. 

aistod of greou t«aa uid tlie other half of blaoke ; that of the blaoks the greator put 
were OoloDgn — ft blockish leaf with % flaTor and iDfueioD reeembling greca tea ; and 
that almoet all thU anpnlf then came ttcm China alone. 

At that time the qnallt; of Chinese greea teas was generally good, and liberal prices 
aeem to have been paid for it both in China and in America. Soon after I67!i, how- 
ever, Jaiianeae tea sprang Into favor, and, itsqaalitiesbeins like, hot better than, tboae 
of Cbineee green tea, the tatter soon began to lose ground both in consumption and in 
value. As a eonseqtience, the eix>ort of green teas from China declined, and low 
prieea led the Chineae gradnally to lower the qnality of their prodnot, until at the 
present time oomparatiTel; few really good green teas go from China to America, 
while the total export is hardly as great as it was in lUGi. In the mean time, too, For- 
inoea has supplied a new Oolong tea of rich and fragrant quality, which contribnt«d 
to tnm the American taste away fipm Chinese green teas. This new supply did not, 
however, retard the growth of the demand far Japanese tea. For the latter, being 
carefally prepared by the producers, and being iiioely packed and shipped in its nat- 
ural state by the foreign exporter, had taken nrm hold of the American taate. 

Not even the superior attractions of Japanese natural leaf Kteens and Formosa 
Oolongs could, however, persuade American tea-drinkers greatly to increase their 
annual rate of consumption. About one and a quarter pounds per head of the popu- 
lation was the rate of consmnption twenty years ago, and thwt rate seems atill to 
govern the trade. In England low price* have raised the annual rate to four or five 
pounds per head; but in America price Boenis to have no influence. Tea is used only 
at the evening meal, and it has mattered little what it cost. For during these twenty 
years the price in America has fluctuated enormously. In 186*.i a duty of SO cents per 

Sound brongbt the eelliug price of medium quality Japanese tea to 6S cents. In liiTil 
uty wHB removed, and the price was i'i cents. In 1882 the price fell to 20 cents. 
Yet all through tlicse great changes therat« of consumption remained about the same. 
It is true that since twenty vears the pcipulation of theUnit«d Stat«shas risen from 
30,000,000 to 50,000,000, and, consequently, ujore tea tsconsumednowthan then. Hut 
the rate of consumption is still only about one and a quarter pounds per head, al- 
though the price noiv is less than a third of what it was in 186^. It is evident, there- 
fore, that low prices have h tile effect on the consumptive rate of tea. 

This controUiug rule of the trade is what exporters from China and Japan appear 
t« have overlooked in their recent operations. For wo And that shipments to the 
United States in the soaaon IBSl-'iS wereasfoUows: 

PtlOpdA. 

l"roui China, green teas 20,700,000 

From China, black teas 24,200, OOu 

From Japan, green teas 31,600,000 

' Total 79,500,000 

Mid that this tol^l was, aeoording to the last New York reports, from 10,000,000 to 
15,000,0(10 ponnds more than the oonntry required. 

It ought not to surprise anv oae that ruinously lowpricesresulted ftemsaeh asar- 
plusof a perishable article, the annual crop of which is so sure as that of tea is ad- 
mitted to be. 

It is hardly to be doubled, then, that exceaaive supplies have been the chief oaoae 
of the preaent var; low prioM, and that, to raise the prioe, the first thing to be done 
is to rednce sbipmeuts A^m the Bast to America ta about one and a quarter pouuda 
per head of the popalation. 

It seems likely that China will shortly do her part in this reduction, as it is hardly 
possible for the Chinese to produce graeu t«as proBtahly at present prloea, and the 
production of good Oolongs in Formosa appears to be now less easy thou it was for- 
merly. We may, then, reasonably expect a decline in the shipments fiom China to 
America. 

As to the production of Japan, one cannot make the same calculation. It has 
slightly fallen off of late; but as the effort to tap uew markets by converting part of 
the crop into black tea hashod little success, while the culture of the shrub has not 
diminisbed, it Is probable that a full supply of Japanese tea will be always obtaina- 
ble, and that America will continue the only foreign market where this tea is wanlod. 

To ameliorate the trade in Japanaae tea, there seems to be only one coarse open, 
which is to improve the character of the crop in such manner that a better quality, 
andfAnWoraa tnialler oMaafity, shall be brongnt to market. If such an improvemeat 
is possible it onght to bo begun without delay. 

It is nndeniable that the avemee quality of the tea exported from Japan has of 
late years greatly deteriorated. Wheu the tnule first began, and for some years af- 
terwards, Japanese teas were generally of ver^ line quality. They were not asatrong 
in the cup as Chinese teas, but they were so nicely prepared and of such delicate fra- 
grance that consuuets in America took a great liking to them. 



,iz.db Google 



T£A TBADE OF JAPAN 263 

In'tkese earlier ;eara of the trade, however, only the fluer grades of tea were ex- 
ported ftnd all the teas were shipped in their natoral condition. The foreign nier- 
ohaut was obliged to reflre them (owiag to the imperfeot ouriiiK sod packing of the 
producers), but he merely tucured and repacked tbeca, leBvin^ the long aod wir; leaf 
with its natural olive color. It was ohienr on account of their beins m this natural 
<Mindition that Japaaese teas bacame popular in America; and that tne saute teas are 
still wanted there, isHhownby the eager demand and ftill prices eveiy year obtained' 
for ftner products of the early pickings. 

But as the trade grew, both native producer aud foreign bnyer began to disregard 
this distiuguishing merit of the Japanese leaf. For the sake of greater or quicker 
profit the prodnoer no longer couBoed his pickings to the delicate spring leaves, but 
tore from nis shrubs all through the leaBOn evorythiiig that oould be mannfaotnred 
into the semblance of tea, andredncedbis mauipalation to a minimum. On the other 
hand, the foreign buyer, flnctiug that the greater part of the teaa offered to him uo 
lou((erpoMessea the fine color andhandsome appearance of former times, resorted to 
foctitious methods of making this poor atiiff seem bettor than it was, and by ruth- 
lewly mixing the pmdacls of different localities, by breakinc up the leaves into 
aiuall pieces, and by covering the whole with an artiiicial color, he sought to cou- 
c«al the ioreriority of his purchases and to impose on the unsuspecting consumer in 
America. Both Duties thus did their utmost to spoil a valuable trade, and they were 
beartilf aecondea in their wretched work by the New York broken^ who found in 
these garbled teas a means of preserving their own importance as experts, since it 
was impomble for any unskilled person todetermine the value of an article so utterly 
denaturalized. 

By these various means Japanese gruen teas have gradually lost their former dis- 
tinctive characteristics aud value, and the American market is now surfeited with 
traah which is no lietter Chan the average Chinese fpeon tea, and has little advan- 
tage ovtr it in the eyesof any consumer. And this is unfortunately true, not merely 
of the lower grades of tea,' but, to a great extent, of th? higher grades also. For the 
coloring process once begun was soon extended to all grades, and to-day nearly every 
ponnd of Japanese ttia shipped to America is subjected to the disguslinz o)>e rations - 
which one may any day see in the tea-firing houses of Yokohama and Kobe. 

It is not surprisiuz that American consumers should revolt from an article so ina- 
iiipulat«d, and should prefer coffee or any other beveroKe to the infusion of teateaves 
oouTcrted from a dirty brown or yellow into a dingy oloo or greasy gray color by 
means of nltramartne or iudign, mingled with gypsum or eoapstone, and the whole 
mass flavored with the perspiration which drops abundantly into it from the filthy and 
oftentimes diseased work people who, for honrs together, in a high temperature, turn 
the tea in tbp pans. Nor is It marvelous that thej^ will uot pay good prices for teas 
BO treated . What is astonishingis that the Americana, who are generally supposed 
to be rather fastidious as to their food, should ever swallow an iufnsion of such foul 
and iudigcstible ingredients, and one can only account for their so doing to the ex- 
tent of one and a qnarter pounds per head per annum, by supposing tnat the con- 
anmem of tea are in lamentable ignorance about it, and are easily deceived by the 
dealers in it. 

Bnt it appears now that the public attention is being dravfn lo this subject, and 
that Mome perception of the foul frauds practiced upon consumers of tea is having its 
effect ou prices, and upon the use of tea in Ameriuu. An article which we recently 
nspriut«a from theNew York Current plainly points in this direction, and it is note- 
worthy that, although the total ei|>orta of tea from China aud Japan have this season 
been considerably less than usual, the price of tea in New York is lower than ever. 

Kow, the Amaiican people are probably under the impression that it is only " the 
tricky Japanese" who, to quote the article we have mentioned, " foist this trash" 
upon thorn under the guise of tea, and are far from imagining that the foreign mer- 
chants in Japan have any hand in the fraud. It is fall time, however, that the truth 
in this matter should be clearly proclaimed. Tbe Japanese producer is no doubt the 
original sinner^ io bringing bod tea instead of good to market; but he, at least, de- 
livers his rubbish to the foreign merchant tn its natural state ; and it is to their for- 
eign agauta alone that the American people are indebted for tbe conglomerate of tea 
leaves and pigments, saturated with the sweat of undean laborers, which is thrust 
npon them under every attractive titlf unscrnpulonsness can suggest, and is sold in 
New Yoi^ na " pore Japanese tea." 

It may be, and we are assured it is, Che case that some of the foreign ehippere of 
tea have protested againat this maltreatment of a leaf whLch is one of the most pre- 
cious of Nature's trills to man, and have only adopted it nuder the stem compulsion of 
recUeas oompetitmn. But whatever extenuation their relnotance may afford to the 
character of their proceedings, it is none tbe less true that it is the foreign shipper, 
tatber than the Japanese producer, who b directly responsible for tbe Hl^mefhl im- 
poetnre we have described. 

AVe adroit, however, that any reform in;the bnsiness most begin where the first de- 



264 TEA TBADB OF JAPAfl. 



partnre from honest dealing began, that is to say, on the Japanwe aide, and that the 
foreign merchants, having once embraced this Tioions syBtem, and haring now either 
to obey the orders of their principaJs in AmeHca or to abandon, their business, cannot 
be expected to sacrifice their livelihood for the lieneflt of the t«a>growers or for any 
senti mental reason. 
The Japanese are fortunately in a bettor position for dealins with the subject, s 



) only do they control the prodnction, hut it is unqnestionably for their advantage 
that all this fraudulent nonsense which baa demoralized the trade shonld tie ewept 
away, and that the teas of this country shonld be restored to their former purity and 
escelleace, in order to be also restored to their former value. 

We have already said that, in onr view, the only tray to ameliorate this trade is ho 
to improve the character of the crop that a higher average of quality, and therefore a 
amaller quantity, of tea shall be olfered for sale to foreigners; and we have intimated 
that, as the .lapanese alone control prodnction, it is also in their power to put an end 
to the absurd, filthy, and falsifying processes throngh which tea passes in the reilrlng 
eatatilisbmeuts of Yokohama and Kobe. 

That either reform is easy we will not pretend to say; bnt we are persuaded that 
both are possible to any earnest and atroug effort, and thnt neither can be neglected 
without further Ions to nil concerned. 

Alrea<1y there is some discussion among; the tea growers about improving their 
product, and it ia to be hoped that it may nave greater praeticai results than similar 
discutisions have had in former years. If it does not, prod ucem are bnt too likely next 
aeaaon to suffer in price for their procrastination. On tlio contrary, if it leads to 
action the gain nay posaiblvhe iniiuediate. For the reduction which has this season 
taken place in the total shipmente of tea from China and Japan to the American 
market will dispose that market to respond favorably to any healthy movement here. 

With regard to the preparation of the leaf the Keizai Zasahi (in an article lately 
translated by the Japau Herald) strikes a true note In suggesting that all that is now 
done at the foreign establishmeots in reonring and repacking tea could be done as 
thoroughly and more ijh«aplj at the seats of production in the interior; and that 
proper and complete curing and packing there would be greatly to the advantage of 
the tea itself, which too of^u now reaches this market in poor coudition. 

We have often wondered that Japanese tea growers should preter to half core their 
tea when they must know that for transportation over sea it needs to be thoroughly 
dried: that t bey should persist in packing even fine tea in each flimsy aod badly- 
closed boxes that it must deteriorate on ite way to market and while kept in the 
humid air of the porte; and that they should, one and all, be so completely indiffer- 
ent to their individual reputations as to be content to see their names or trade-marks 
ignored by buyers, and their teas bulked, and mixed, and wholly changed in appear- 
ance in the foreign godowns. 

The Chinese have -always shown, in this respect, far more shrewdneas and intelli- 
gence. For they not only fully cure their teae in the country, but also there prepare 
and pack them for export, and see that the particular "chop" of the manufacturer is 
on every box, so that any special skil] or care he may have bestowed on his tea shall 
tell in iU favor, and indnve a special demand for bis "chop" year after year. 

In Japan this means of enhancing the value of tea has apparentlv been quite neg- 
lected, and, In consequence, producers who perform their work well and creditably 
are no better. known to foreign buyers than those who do it badly and dishonestly, 
while the benefits of honorable emulation among them are wholly lost. Were the 
teae packed in the country ready for shipment thiscould not be the case, as the buyer 
wonld theu be obliged, in'bis own interest, to take notice of brands wbioh turned out 
well, and to give such brands a preference. 

Now all that foreigners at the port« do towards any real improvement of the condi- 
tion of the tea conld be better and more cheaply done by tne Japaneee producer. 
There la no mystery about the operation. It consfate maioly in equalizing quality by 
bulking the tea ; in thoroughly expelling alt moisture fVom it by roasting it in iron 
pana; and finally in packing it, while still warm- and dry, in lead-lined air-tight 
chest* of suitable size. Anyone of ordinary intelligence can easily perform all the«e 
proceases. Good faith in regard to uniformity of quality aud regularity of weight ia 
the only special condition necessary. That essential loyally observed, tea packed in 
the country wonld be equal, and posaibly superior, to tea packed at the ports, and 
could not fail to find ready sale as soon as buyers learned to trust it. Some bny«i« 
would even i>refer to have their teas thns brought to market ready for shipment, and 
those who might at fint oppose so reasonable a change wonld finally be compelled tn 
accept it. 

We say that all that foreignera i 

t do towardssophisticatiugana debaaiugit could equally well bedone by the oatiTC 
manufacturer, and, if be is not maligned, this latter operation would not be wholly 
Mpngnant to his habits, albeit he has not heretoforeprscticedjaat that form of deceit. 



TEA TBADE OF JAPAH. 265 

We an stioogl; of opiplon, boweTer, that be would do far better, and altimatelf 

SaJD much moie, by letting tluB put of the boBioeH slooe^ refUsliig to imitate the 
ilsiff iuK pTw:tioe« of the foreign merohiuit, and endMTonng, by cuefnl oonaerra- 
tinii of the natural color and character of the fragrant- leaf, to rettore to the teaa of 
Japau the good name the; formerlj and jastly enjoyed in the American market*. 

At TiTBt the native packer of honest tea wonld no donbt encounter some oppoaitiou. 
The veiled intereata of foteignera in their coetlv eHtabliHhiBenta nonld natnrally array 
mun; of thrm againit him, and the brokers of New Yoik and ChioMO might try to 
discourage hira by inuieting Ibat the American consumer could only he satisfied with 
ton colored with indigo or nltraroarine, loaded with soapatone orgypsum, and flavored 
with the transpirations of the firing women of Yokohama and Kobe. 

We venture to assert, however, that if the Amorinan consumer were fully apprised 
of tbe facts of the matter, and frankly offered a choioe between the objectionable 
componud now sold t-o him ds Japanese tea and the natural leaf nicely prepared and 
packed, he would soon decide in iavor of the latter. It ia only because be is ignorant 
of tbe uatnre of what he drinks under the nffme of tes, and beoauae be is eo misled 
by so-called experts, that he accepts the adulterated article. We have shown that he 
ia not unwiUing to pay a good price for good tea. Let him now learn how to set 
aomething pitre and wholesouie, inatead of tbe colored stuff which he has hereto^re 
bad to swallow, and he may be depended on to give his hearty support to a reform in 
the business. 

it may take some time and demand muohajatematic efibrt to etfect this reform; but 
that it can be effected, and that it is clearly in the iuterestof both producers and con- 
Bomers of tea to have it effected, we bave uo doubt whatever. 

The bill now before the American Congress to prevent the adulteration of ariiioles 
of food, should, if passed, work in favor of pure teas. But law alone wilt not suffice 
to produce the reform desired. Public iutereat must be enliatcd in the matter, and 
tbe tea growers of Japan, whoso iudnatry ia menaced by the malpractices which have 
crrpt into it, should exert themaetves to awaken that piibiio interest, to save their 
trade, and to correct the abaaea which are now bringing it to ruin. 

If they can mnster courage, energy and unanimity enough for this nndertakiug we 
believe they will entirely aucceed in it. If they remaiu supine about it, we shall 
es[ieot ueit year to have to chronicle a still worse condition of the trade thsu that 
vhich gloomily closes the season of 1882-'H3. 



JAPAKESB TEAS. 

(Frmn lbs Japan Ouelta of May 3, 1863.] 

The prospects of the coming tea season are gloomy enough. Bad business In all 
directions is reactiDg, oa is natural and inevitable, on domestic iudnatriee. Tea iu 
particular is feeling the depression conaequent upon yeara of diahoneat dealing, ai * 

the outturn. ' ' - 

of tbe Mai I< 



that the prices which ruled at the c^wning of last anaaon were, owing to competition, 
&OIU (44 to t4d per picnl according to quality ; but thla year there Is an absence of 
competition, with the result that ao far no foreign merchant has made an offer for the 



_- c crop, nut even for one catty ; and the pricea spoken of are betweeu | . ,. 

at the l>est. To still further reduce the home value of this low price In comparison 
with that of last season, the exchange for dollars has fallen and the anticipated loss 
of tea producers is very heavy. If the total quantity of t«a produced throoghout 
the coniitry be estimated at 40,000,000 ponnda the aggregate lose will probably exceed 
6,000,000 yen cnrreucy. 

Some nseful calculations are then given respecting the cost of production of tea and 
tbe margin left to producers. One Ian of land (,=:0.'i4S acre) produces about 195 
kiroiime ( = 1,035 pounds) of green leaves. The cost of gathering this quantity is 
yen Ti. FreparinK the leaves, oust of charcoal used, &,c., yen Is. Maouriug and 
preparing the land yen 15. In all yen 40.50. The result is 35 kwaume (^ 307 pounds) 
of salable tea, costing for onltivatiun and preparation yen l.t)2 per kwanme. At |30 
per picul and with exchange at 130 the proceeda amount to yen 3.437 per kwanme, 
from which must be deducted commission, carrying expenaes, &.C., about 34 aen, 
leaving net reenlt of aaleyen^.lQperkwanme, andlesscostofproduotion yen 0.57 per 
kwanme. This la what remains for the reimbursement of the landowner, and assum- 
ing the value of one tan of land to be 150 yen, the return falls short of 10 per cent. 



PATENT LAWS OP UBXICO. 



and IGO exchange gave 46 per cent. Japanese producers nf t^a and silk will have 
aooDer or later to realize the stem tAut that the ilays of high prices and large proflta 
are over. The competition which need to mle here among foreignerM is fast coming 
to all end ; and the feoltng is growing that, as in the purrhase of imports Japouese 
combine to prevent (ho foreign merchant from realizing anything but continnad 
louses, it has become necessary to insnre a profit on the export trade or discoutinne 
hnsiness with Japan altogether. This is the conclniiioD to which respectable mer- 
chants have come ; we do not refer to tlie hangers on of merchants and the second 
class of foreign tradera, content with such peddling bDHinees as Japanese may give 
them, bnthoosesof standingand capital. They are convinced at l^nst that the heavy 
losses on tea and silk of the past few years hare not arisen from the abnormallj low 
prices oo the consnnilng markets abroad, but are dne entirely to the escesaively exor- 
bitant prices paid to the proilncers here. Those days we hope and trust are over, 
and a more prudent policy will prevail. There mar be large demands as of yore and 
prices may receive a snddeu Impetns; bnt these will only be transient. Acalmerers 
of business will sncceed the heavy losses which have fallen upon many honorable 
men and rendered the best years of their lives fniitJesS. 

In the midst of the gloom which snrronnds the nnhappy t^a producers, we may be 
pardoned for sncgesting that an avenue of escape is jet open to them. Now that 
combinations and monopolies have brohen down, as they ntust always eventually do, 
and the greedy foreiKnor (who has for years deprived Japan of her commercial right 
and appropriated all the losiM which shonld otherwise have fallen npon Japanese) 
Is emancipated from a species of dictation as contemptible as offensive, the remedy- 
so long held in lerrorem over the resident merchants, to whom Japan owes every par- 
ticle of such commerce as she possesses, may bo again applied. Direct eqjwt is the 
remedy. Sell the toa to official and semi-official companies, or ship it away directly 
to the United States, and submit your idle vaunting aboat direct trade to a practical 
test. The time is not far distant when Japanese will begin to reap some of tno fmita 
of their treatment of foreigners ; of their na«;liag and scheming for huge profits on 
a petty and stagnant trade; of their general incapacity, distrust and conceit. It 
is right there rtiould lie a little nnderstaudlng on these point*. Officious and med- 
dlesome interference with trade by persons whose association with it is fatal has done 
the mischief most txt be dreaded; and now Japan will find herself left in the lurch 
with nothing to tmst to but a forced resort to the fnlftllmouC of her oft- repeated threat 
of direct export. 



FATEHT LAWS OF K£XICO. 

RBFORT OF CONSJTL SJJTFOS, OF MATAliOEOS. 

I have the hwior to inoloee herewith a trauslatioa of the laws of 
Mexico, relating to the isBaing of patents, and comments thereon. 

I have thought that Buch infomiation might be of interest to a con- 
siderable class of Americans. 

I had much difficulty in finding tbi» law and am indebted to the 8ig. 
Adalberto Torres for the loan of books to make a written copy of the 
Spanish original. Sot having any printed copy, I only mail yon the 
translation. 

WARNER P. SUTTON, 

Contul. 
UsiTED States Ooksulatk, 

MaUaiwrot, March 13, 1883. 



THE PATENT LAWS OF MEXICO. 

ITrBniitaledaiirlforwariieil by Consul StittOD. nf Matamnroe.J 

Summary. 
3 are based npon tlic law of May 7, l?ii2, modified hr the 

n de<>.rec of Seini'Miber 2fi, 1P4H. / - r 



PATENT LAWS OF MEXICO. 267 

_. t«a y«ut, of iinprOTMneiitthcretiiBix Tears. The clnrationof 

a paleut of introdnotion is limited by the oonoessinn granted b; CangreM. 

The time for beniaiiiug the workiDg of tbe patent and time of forfeitnre in defanlt 
thereof is to be fixed in each patent. 

Docnmenti muBt be in Spanfah and ate: 

1. Petition. 

2. Designs or models in (lnplical«e, and what is Judged neoessary for explanntioo of 
vhat is proponed. 

(hrverunieot will not inqatre aa t« nsefulneee of any invention. 
Extensionii only given by CougreM. 
ExpensoB from 91 (^ to $310. 

Patent of introduction is obtained by petition to the Government and act of Con- 
grees. 

Law of 1852. 

Rtgulaliopi for the better obttrvance of Ihe law of Maj 7, 1H3^. 

ABTICLK 1. The inventororporfeotorof anyindnstry tomuke use of the right given 
by article 3 of the law of May 7, l&Si, sbnll present to any of the authorities named 
by the said article, bis petition (tolieituS) accompanied by iluplicates of hia designs 
(or models) and what is jndged necessary for explanation of what is proposed. 

Art. 2. Every petition made acconliug to the pravione article shall pass immedi- 
ately after it-s first publication ibr the information of the directing committee of in- ' 
dnstry which shall exiend that which it may deem prupcr within the term specified 
by article 4 of said law. 

Atrr. 3, The directory shall eivo infoimation upon those points which are com- 
prehended under article S of said law. 

Art. 4. If before tbe term specified in article 4 of said law expiree there should be 
any opposition, the directing committee shall hear verbally tbe iutereated parties and 
consult with experts on doubtful poiuts according to right, and shall obtain an agree- 
ment between tDepuitiea, provided that it does not prejudice the public intereata 
nor conflict with the laws. If the partiea should agree, an act shall bo made signed 
b^ the president and secretary of the committee tAowine the agreement made. The 
directire committee shall aeud it to the Government with the proper information. 

Art. 5. If DO agreemeut be arrived at, tbe directive committee shall aend the papers 
in the case to the Government, giving its opinion upon the controverted point. 

Art. 6. Providing that the opposer stall found his objection upou an alleged better 
right to the privilege which is asked, because personally it may have been conceded 
to him and gnaranteed by the issue of the respective patent, the Government shall 
examine the opposition and within thiity days grant or deny the patent which is 
■solicited, the rights of the party who considera himself ii^nred remaining in full 
force, in order that he may use them before the competent federal oonrts according 

A.KT. 7. Should the dispute tnrn upon the poaaession or ownership of the privilege, 
01 this should be impugued for the reaaoDa expreaaed in the 16th article of said law, 
the jndicial notice ahall be paased to the competent federal tribunal, inorder that, the 
parties being heard according to law. it may deaide the contest. The party gaining 
the case afasll present testimony of the sentence given, that it may, passing to the 
directing committee of industry, inform it with reference to the oonceealon of the 
decision, if the judicial decision shal! have been favorable to him who asks it. 

Art. 8. Jf the oppneitiou should be foanded in that tbe privilege cannot be con- 
ceded according to what is provided in article 6, or that the innovation or perfection 
is not a matter of privilege on account of being comprehended in article 10 of aaid 
law, the Government shall decide upon the conceasiun, and from the decision made 



there shal! be no opportunity for judicial reconrae ; provided, that the oppos 
fonnded upon the mentioofd article 6. But if it aliould turn upon the applict 
article 10 and the Governmental decision should concede thepatent, there wilt remain 
in force the judicial recourse to him who may consider himself prejudiced. 

Art. 9. Tne competent federal tribunals upon the petition of the attorney-general, 
in defanit of a party who should make the decision, ehalt declare the nullity of the 
privileges comprehended in articles 10 and 16 of the law of May 7, 18S2. The attor- 
ney-general cannot take this public action uoleea directed by the Government. rT. 

Art. 10. The Oovernment, upon issuing the patent mentioned in article h of said 
law, ahall return one exemplar of the designs, models, and deacriptions, which, ac- 
cording to article 1 of this law, must accompany the petition in duplicate; this 
exemplar, if it be desigi) or description, will go signed bj- the chief cLerk of the 
ministry of relations ; if it he a model, which cannot be wnttcn upon, there shall be 
placed a suitable mark or sign, making written note of this fact on tbe patent, as 
also of the nitum of the duplicates. In the cases comprehended in the article 18 



268 PATENT LAWS OF MEXICO. 

of tbe law of May 7, 1934, the signatures and aigni Bholl be placed on the corei of 
the box that contains the deaths, plans, Ac. 

Art. II. Tbepateut of which the previous article of the said law speaks forms 
tlie title of prirflege, and when orodnced to establish or defend a ri((ht, shall be ex- 
hibited therewith the designs, aescriptious, or models authonied in the form pro- 
vided in theprevious article. 

Art. VI. Tne ooDceesioD of a pat«nt does notgiiarantee the utility of theinvention 



Lua of Mag 7, 1^32, /or Ihe obiervaHce iff tehiok U intutdHitpreotding late. 

EXCLL'BIVR PRIVILEGB8 IM THK BRAKCHKS OF INDUSTRY. 

Article 1. To protect the right of property of inTcntors or i)erfect«ra of any 
branch of indnstry, ezclnsive right is giTon them that they may use it in all of the 
states of the federation for the time and nnder the conditions that are expressed in 
this law. 

Art. 3. He that inreuts or perfects any industry in the Mexican Bepnblic, if be 
'wishes the Qovemniont to secure him the possession thereof shall present to it or 
to the city council of the place in which he desires to estahlish his project, or to that 
of his residence, or to the governor of tbe State or territory to which that place per- 
tains, the exact dessriptiou, accompanied by the designs, models, and as much more as 
it is Judged necesBary for the explanatioD of the oliject that is proposed ; and these 
authorities are obligated to give bim a legal instrument after the form of model nnnt- 

Art. S. The local aathority, in case the undertaker {nttprmario) should not have 
pcesented himself directly to the governor of the State, is obliged to remit to the lat- 
ter the papers in the case with all the documents, and the governor shall decide, and 
in case the undertaker (empretario) may not concur therewith, shall forward it by the 
first regular mail to the ministry of relations. 

Art. 4. Being before the Qeneral Oovemment a petition to obtain a patent, its pnb- 
lication shall be ordered for three times in the newspapers, and a term of two months 



conceded, connting from the first day of pablieation, that opposition may be made by 
any who may desire to allege right of preference. 

ART. 5. Tbe Qeneral Gkivemment by means of the secretair of relations will iwne 
to the perfeotor or inventora patent acoordine to model number two.* 

Art, G. For the concession of the patent of^which the previous article speaks, the 
Oovemment shonld not examine whether or not the invention or perfection is usefnl, 
but only if they are contrary to security and public health, to the good customs of tbe 
laws, or to the orders and regulations, and not being so,it cannot deny the protection 
that should have been solicited. 

Art. T. Patents of invention shall have force and vigor during ten years, and tboee 
of imtiroveiueot during six, counting from tbe date when the privileged project should 
have tteen established in any part of the republic, 

. .. . .. . .- 7. . . . ■ ivement is understood as established from 



the SI 

Art. 10. When any one has obtained privilege for an invention or improvement 
that is already established without patent to anybody, the privilege shall be lost, 
although it be not claimed by the party owning the invention or perfection. 

Art. 11. When the invention or perfection be of such nature that it may be main- 
tained in secret, and tbe inventor or perfector has asked tbe privilege, the term of the 
privilege being expired, he must make it public. 

Art. 12. A patent being Issued in favor of an invention, if privilege of perfecting it 
be solicited, the privilege given to the improver will not affect the rights of tbe in- 
ventor without preludioe to tbe arraQgements which both mav make. 

Art. 13. When tue inventors or peifectors desire the privilege for a longer time 
than that expressed in article 7, they will apply to the Government, whicD in its 
report will eive aoconnt to Congress. 

Art. 14. The inventors or perfectors shall not use their respective industries as 

'Model not given. Bee decree. 

,i:.db Google 



FOBEION COMUEBCB OF ODATEMALi. 



SBtkbli^ea their title. 

Aht. 15. la caaa of diepnt« over the posaewiou of au ioTentioD or improvement, it ' 
will be decided by tbe twnnmoD laws. 

Art. 16. Wben it is proven that the privilegea have been obtalaed in bad fttitli, . 
makioff pau I'ur invention or ImpTovemeiit that which is no more than intnidnetion, 
the patent nhich b*« beeo eoiicited shaU lapse. 

Art. 17. The Ooveriuueiit shall moke pablic in the Gazette the eonceuion of eaah- 

Cut lmmediat«l; as they are iiaued, and designate a convenient place where thO' 
gat, plane, and models named in article S may be opened to pnblic inspetition. 

Art. IB. When the invention or perfection mast remain secret, the designs, plans,. 
Ac, BJtiall not be pnblished until the eipiration of the term of privilege. 

AST. IB. The fees of a pnleni will be &om ten Ut three hnndrvd dollars. 

Abt. 80. At leaat one-half of the peiaons that are employed by the workers of tbe 
patent in the mechanical lahoia must be actually natives of the United Mexican Statu, 
if it b« posailite. 

Art. XI. The intiodncerof any branch of indnstrr that in the jadginentof theOen- 
eral Government is of great importance will be able to obtain exclnsive privilege, 
applying throngh the General Cfovemment to the General Congress. 

Issned throngh the ministry of relations this day and proclauned the Uth. 

a the collection of d«creefl. 
Deerte a/ Stptembtr 28, 1M3. 

TALCNTtSE CaNAUZO, &D., &c., J^O.: 

B« it known : That to avoid the serions damage that may resnlt from au inventioD 
or improvement not being pnt in operation in an indetlnite t«rm, after having obtained 
the exclusive privilege, and the resnlting damage to another individual who might 
establish the same invention, IntrodnotHin, or improvement in leas time ; and using 
tbe powers wi^ which the supreme execntive power is invested hy the bsAis agreed 
npon in Taanbaya and sanctioned by the nation, I have deemed fit to decree in cabi- 
net meeting the following : 

In everv patent of exclnsive privilege which is issned a vmdentterm shall be fixed 
within whiob the use of the ]>Tivilegea object shall be established or commenced, and 
if not aci;ompliehed in said time tbe privilege will be held to have expired, and free 
action granted to any other individnol to apply for it again. 

(This decree is not included in the collection of the same class formed by Lara.) 



FOBXIOV COHIIBECE OF OVATEMALA. 

XEFOSIBT COSBVL TITVS, OF eVATEUALA CITT. 

From the report of tbe secretary of the treasary of this repabliv to 
the National Assembly which has jnst closed its sessions, I extract the 
prinnipal portion of the following itUDSof possible iotereat concerning the 
foreign tradeof O^oatemala daring tbe year 1882. The total value of the 
exports of this year is 13,719,209.97, showing a decrease of $365,138.88 
u compared with 1881. In fact there has been a steady decrease in the 
Tftlne of eiportB for the lost foar years, as will appear from a statement 
for semal years, viz: 
wre *3,»i8,9i2 aa 

ISra 4,606,633 77 

IDM .1. 4,425,356 67 

IBBl 4,084,»48 86 

isaa" 3,7la,209 97 

The whole of this falling off, however, tthonld not be attribated to a 
diminntioD in the actnfll amoant of exports, aa the progressive decline 
which has taten place daring the last few years in the value of coffee, 
which is the prinoipal article exported, is sufficient to account for a con- 
siderable portion of it. ,-~ , 
37i AU083 6 ■ ...iit.DOglc 



270 FOBEIQN COHHEBCE OF OUATEMALA. 

The principal articles exported dnring tbe year, and their values, ore 
aa follows : 

Coffe* $3,132,715 60, 

Indi» rubber 224,880 36 

Bngw 82,485 06 

Woolen cloths 22,935 00 

Timber 24.5X :>£ 

Hides and deer-skiD* 129,S6fi 10 

8arMV*rilI» 12,806 86 

Cochineal ' 11,868 50 

The imports for the same year amoaot to $2,254,573.86. Subtracting 
the specie included in this amount leaves $1,843,262.30 as the net imports 
of merchandise. 

Subtracting also the specie included in the exports leaves the sum of 
$3,674,454.53 as net exports. This gives a balance of trade in favor of 
Guatemala of $1^831,192.28, from which it appears that the country sold 
just abont double the amount it purchased. 

This state of af&iirs, of course, causes exchange to be generally at a 
di8count,'and accounts for the heavy " losses by exchange" sometjmes 
in the sale of drafts here, and of which our treasury officials seem at 
times inclined to complain. 

Ou these $1,843,262.30 of net imports, duties were collected to the 
amount of $1,679,047.93, or o^'er 91 per cent, of the original value. 

I inclose a tabulated statement of imports from England, the United 
States, France, aud Germany, a slight examination of which will dis- 
close some not very flattering facts concerning our trade with this re- 
public as compared with that of other conutrles. 

This statement shows the total of import &om the United States to 
be $380,542.94, or subetracting $136,725.37 in specie leaves $243,817.57 
■ of imports, against $1,116,321.94 sold to us, leaving a balance against 
-us of $872,514.27. 

The amount of exports to the United Stated is taken from the records 
. ^f this consulate. 

<3ompariug our trade with that of the three countries mentioned, omit- 
ting the specie iu each case, and further deducting from the imports 
from the United States the amount for wheat, flour, and kerosene oil, 
iu which, from the necessities of the case, we have no competition what- 
ever, the trade as regards articles with which competition is possible 
. stands as follows : 

United States, $64,507.11 ; Germany, $297,469.76 ; England, $901,216. 

Here we make a very poor showing. As to the causes of this state 
' of affairs, they are sufficiently detailed iu my No. 47, whidh was pub- 
' lished in the " Commercial Beports " of November, 1881, No. 13. I know 
vOf nothing to add except that our merchants do not advtrtiae sufficiently. 

It seems to me that with a littlejndicious advertising, in spite of the 
'disadvantages enumerated in the above-mentioned dispatch, we might 
do better, in the item of cotton goods, for example, than $4,000--a8 
coinpar«d with $12,000 from Germany, $28,000 from France, aud $725,000 
from England. 

FKANK H. TITUS, 

Conml. 

United States Coksulate, 

Guatemala, May 25, 1883. 



^dbyGoOgle 



UINES OF VEITEZUELA, 



ArtlclM. 


Prom- 


JtoStani 


UDlt«dSI>U*. 


Fr«oe. 


0«m«y. 


■ 




10,BM1B 
132,014 48 


B.S3STS 






4;n8M 
















18, 324 M 
9,458 34 




H"iSE^-^----"- 


TlMSttB 


12.748 60 




lt.BZT8« 


8.flWS7 




















ass 


«."■«» 




ulistw 








8.(67 49 

s,m» 








«.i8J6T 




iTMM 












ST, 488 H 

""l4,'82i 78' 
3,3fi«IW 
4, 128 81 


gffiS 




SO. 388 M 


18«. 725 87 












••^IIIS 












U,T3«t3 






iliieM 


1854 W 
















aai 


5,488 08 






































43,748 88 










60,783 55 






it'sTs si 














Mi,m») 


380.5*2 94 


29T,4«»7S 









THE HIKSS OF TENEZITELA. 



Br OOKBUL BB±CB. OF FUBSTO CABBLLO. 

The domain of Venezuela has never been thoroughly explored, and 
even the approlimate extent of its mineral resources has never been 
ascertained. However, sufficient has been learned to establish ground 
for belief that it containe great mineral wealth. The predomiuating 
rocka of the monntains are of the shale order, each formation of diver- 
sified colors, and all darkish, except thin layers of flint. The softness 
of the rocks has led to their decomposition on the surface, one result 
being that nearly all the mountain surfoces are composed of a soil sas< 
tainiog a vegetation more or less luxuriant, while the valleys are ex- 
ceedingly fertile. The explorations as made for minerals show that 
nearly every kind abounds in some degree, and several kinds in quan- 
tities that pay for mining. I will consider them in the order of their 
valae ao for as facts have been ascertained relating to production. 

1. Gold prodaced to the extent of about $500,000 per year. Some 
of that prodnced is the richest ft'ee gold in the world. 

2. Copper, 32,000 tons of ore prodnced in 1S82, which was shipped 
to England. Oq an average the ore contains about 30 per cwt. of 
copper. 

3. Silver, prodooed on the Orinoco Biver, near Bolivar, and at Cam- 
paoo, 200 nulea east of La Guaira. The mining is conuncted by citi- 



272 . MEXICAN EXPORTS. 

zens of the United States. Operations at Canipano are to be extended 
the present year. 

i. Lead has been foand at several places, and iu quantities for profit- 
able mining. 

6. AJamincni is found in considerable qtiaotities in connection with 
other metals. 

Iron is found combined with other metals, and doubtless exists in a 
Beparnte condition. There have been found in small quantities antimonr, 
Eincblende, nickel, mica, and vanadium. Bituminous coal abounds in 
sufficient quantities to make its mining proiitable, though as yet it bos 
not been proseooted. From near Maracaibo a considerable quantity of 
aephaltum has been produced and shipped abroad, and it is known to 
abound at other plaoes, but whether in quality and quautity to make 
its mining profitable, is to be determined by experiments now being 
made. 

Ouano to the extent of about 26^000 tons was shipped fhun the 
Orchilla islands in 1882, and all to the United States. New guano fields 
are reported, but their working value has not been determined. 

The Venezuelan government maintains a right to all minerals foaod 
within the national domain, and all atioes are worked by the payment 
of a royalty to the Government, the percentage being a matter of agree- 
ment-. The mineral product for 1882 is estimated at $1,000,000, which 
I judge is not far out of the way. The amount and value of production 
is likely to be somewhat increased during the present year, chiefly 
through outside enterprise. 

HORATIO y. BEACH, 

, Contmt, 

Uhited States OoHStiLATE, 

Pvertn Cabello, February 8, 1883. ' 



VESICAS EXPO&TB. 

SFPOST 3T miflSTES UOROAS. 

I forward herewith copy and translation of the report of the Depart- 
ment of Hacienda and Public Credit of the exportations ftom the Mexi- 
can Republic during the second quarter of the fiscal year 18S2-'83, 
which has just been transmitted to me. 

P. H. MORGAN, 

E. £. and M. F. 
Legation of the United States, 

Mexico, June 29, 1883. 



Eamrtaiiom front lAs Mtxiean Rtv<Mio iitring ihe ttconi queritr of tht fiital f»ar 

ieei»-'e3. 

Heuenqen : 

Hammocks (33,600 00 

CortaKfi 16,073 00 

Bftw matwisl 643,806 8« 

1689,788 K8 

T*nL«dhi<l«i 9,0IH 31 

Goat hides 186,020 35 

BeevM'Udea 301,781 34 

Deer hid™ 30,516 20 

Otber uiimala' hides 1,160 49 

T-TTcHWr^ 

, O 



HBZIC4N EXPOBTS. 273 

BnildiDg material 22,929 00 

Commoii wood 284 60 

Fine wood 62,166 15 

MnlbMJy wood «, 190 61 

Byawood 184,884 16 

314,554 42 

Coffee 209,514 46 

Mftguey fiber; 

Hunmooka |90 00 

Cotd&ge 1,167 50 

Rftw material 162,580 89 

183,338 39 

Uve animala : 

Amm 38 00 

Horoes 24,416 00 

Swine 604 00 

Bheep 3,968 00 

Unlea : 1,323 00 

C«w« 81,143 00 

Taiioiu 50 00 

111,542 00 

I^bMCo: 

Worked 47,B»8 50 

Leaf 10,973 W 

58,796 M 

Tanilla 50,1!(7(» 

Archil 40,410 00 

C»oDtehoac 38,974 9a 

Sngar 36,488 08 

Pearl ihells 31,S40 00 

Pmlt 83,884 37 

Lead 19,069 00 

Maize 17,813 00 

Herb roots .■ 16,419 08 

Shearee of maiie 14,387 30 

Beee-lionej 14,021 25 

SsTMparilla 13,042 17 

Istle 1 11.931 35 

Pearli 11,000 00 

Mexican beane CJW>>I) 10,679 OS 

Flonr made from wheat 7,400 00 

Loafin^ar 5,605 47 

Cftthartic medicine 5,259 00 

Pepper 3,777 45 

Kaanfactoriee 3,717 00 

Paper moner 3,184 00 

CoEDinoo marble.... S2,405 00 

Tecali marble 340 00 

2,745 00 

nber of stucco 1,820 00 

Dtnga 1,717 CO 

Bone* , 1,674 25 

Chick-pea 1,506 00 

Uoaalaole merchandise retomed 1,395 00 

Horns 1,383 00 

Medicinal dmgs 1,342 68 

Barley 1,270 70 

Eqoipages 1,302 00 

Grain 1,200 00 

VegeUblea 1,073 62 

Bronze 984,00 

Barthenware 867 13 

Copper 186 00 

Copper ore 780 00 

866 00 

Fnmitore 710 00 

LiTepUwte 580 00 

Pitch 023 53 



...Cooi^le 



274 UEXICAN EXPORTS. 

Spirlto : 

From the sugar-cane $35 00 

Mwoal 396 00 

Grape 90 00 

631 00 

Hftto 519 00 

SngaT-cane 503 60 

NoontBheUB 600 00 

Baga 469 20 

Caicarinabark 368 00 

Comfllures 3RT 50 

Flonr made from malce 352 00 

LenUlo 300 00 

OmamentR 300 00 

Empty barnilB 300 00 

Machinery 290 00 

Cocoa 2K75 

Rad<Ue« 24« 00 

Partnre 234 00 

Objects of natural history 1(21 00 

Cominon paintings 199 00 

Wheat 166 aO 

Soap 184 00 

Cloth fignrea 175 00 

Cheese 164 00 

Straw mats 150 00 

Feathers 142 00 

Chocolate 128 00 

Tortoise shells :,,. 120 00 

Whiting 110 00 

Shrimpe '. 103 00 

Beaas 96 00 

Printed books 91 13 

Cotton 90 00 

Lime , 74 00 

H^M 65 00 

Salt meats 58 00 

PioTiaioDB : 57 00 

Lemons 45 50 

Seeds 43 00 

Indigo 35 00 

Petroleum 20 00 

Medicinal herbs 16 60 

Damiana 15 00 

Chia 10 00 

Photographs : 10 00 

Bran e 6 60 

Rice 3 50 

Various articles 1,311 65 

Total merchandise 2,398,123 66 

Coined silver f7, 662, 489 89 

Bareilver l,254,51.'i 08 

BllTeroie 147,942 32 

Bilver (milphnric ore) 44.001 88 

SmaU ore 22,008 68 

9, 130, 957 n 

Coined gold 124,009 00 

Bar gold 122,614 87 

246,623 87 

Foreign coined silTei 33,280 3» 

Foreign coined gold 55,136 54 

Total preoione metals 9,466,906 6» 

DiclzedbyGoOgle 



MEXICAN EXP0BT8. 
Amemnl exported from each cutirmi'lmiuit. 



Port. 


^S2j" 




Total 

«porUllon. 


_ 


86,748.800 04 

1.338,«6S11 

■1^^894 00 

244,687 00 

214; 901 80 

78|S78 00 
123,788 32 

121:404 78 


t5M,87a«9 
34, MM 85 
712.884 18 

'i«;b7boo 

15.780 00 
84.988 13 

^'sf 07 
9; 332 CO 

47.828 89 

40. 188 00 
18,787 80 

31.189 80 
33,842 00 

23,089 80 


»7.«6,07J7! 
1, 871, 221 78 
7*5,778 18 
446,892 28 
884,44147 
281, 577 M 
180,432 00 
108, S«2 18 
182. 818 83 
152,752 07 
ISO, 837 13 

Ills 

23.080 60 


























H, !»8 28 
10,188 00 








10,080 00 
12,809 8! 
8,817 56 










8,849 00 






150 00 

9,796 00 
2,800 00 




19, 728 3« 
10. 049 20 
8,(27 80 

SSSIS 

'mhoo 




19:B7B88 
19,844 M 

8,670 08 














400 00 






















S.4a5,«8g5» 


2.896.128 85 


11, 8«, 122 24 





CoMxIriea to vikich iha «ipor(iiflo>ii rr 



Englud... 
UalledBM 



85.140,70137 M3T,47I2» , 15,877.382 68 
2,574,860 02 , l,a2R,33« 33 4,304,196 05 
1,3OT,337 78 ; B5,S2«88 1,403.154 46 



Exporiationa daring (kejint and second quarters ofthejUea} i/ear 1682-'B3. 





Precions 
meUla. 


MerthandU.. 


ToUl 






88, 004, 827 14 
9. 489, 998 SB 


•2.348,130 23 
2. 398. 138 BS 


(8,850.956 37 
11.884.132 34 








15,470,835 73 


4.744,252 88 


20.215.078 61 





Section 7. Mexico, Mb; 31, 11 



J. M. OARMENDIA. 



^dbyGoOgle 



TBE PBECI0U8 METALS IN FBAMCE. 



THE PBECIOVS 1QTAI.8 IV FBAVCB. 

BXPOBT BT MINISTER UORTON. OF PARIS. Oy THE COI.VAaE. PRODVCTIOJT OOS- 



Beferring to yoar dispatch of Febmary 2, 1833, marked " Separate," 
MkiDg, at the request of the Secretary of the Treasury, to be fnruishm 
vith ul information obtainable touching the coinage, production, oon- 
amnption, imports, and exports of the precious metals, also the amonut 
of paper and metallic circulation in ¥rance during the calendar year 
18^, and submitting for thiii purpose certain interrogatories, I hare 
the honor to send herewith a statemeot giving the informatioo desired, 
which has been kindly furnished by Mr. Tirard, the minister of finances. 
LEVI P. MOETOIJ, 

E. E. and it. P. 
LxaATIOH OF THE UNITED STA.TES, 

Parii, May 24, 1883. 



t\» eoinage, paper, and mtatlio oiraiiUlion in Franea dxring the $Mr Ib^. 

1. What WM the amoQut of gold ooined, in deaominations and valut 
Answer. 3,749,000 fraucs in ooin* of 100 francs. 

2. The same for silvecT 
Answer. 1,159,859.50 francs in coins of 50 centimes. 

3. What was the import and eiport of gold coin and gold bullion T 
Answer. Regarding the imports, 354,K7,942 francs in coin, 330,8; 

30,734,474 francs in bullion, lOT,2i4 hectogTams. Regarding the exports, 176,6 . 
francs in coins, 591,056 hectograms ; 15,870,149 francs in bullioii, 64,146 hectograms. 

4. The same for sUverT 

Answer. For tbe imports, 93,133,887 francs in coin, 6,657,411 hectograms ; 33,860.531 
ftancs ft) bnllion, 3,0(^,520 hectograms. Poi the exports, 131,419,705 francs in coin, 
8,554,742 hectograms; 25,874,227 francs in bullion, 1.664,187 hectograms. 
5 and 6, What amount of gold and silver was prodoced by the mines f 
Answer. Tbe amonnt of the prodnotlon of the mines dniing tbe ;ear ISiii will not 
tM known before some months. 

7. What was the estimated amount of gold ooln in tbe treasury, in tbe banks aod 
In oircnlation, respectively, at the close oi tbe year 188!f 

8. Tbe same for silvert 

Answer. Tbe metallic circulation belonging to tbe treasury is deposited in tbe Bank 
of Fcuioe, and is not distinguished from the cash of the bank itself. 

The balance sheet of December 28, 1882, of the bank shows that on that day the 
«ash on hand was: 

Gold 964,481.335.16 

Silver 1,091,875,664.97 

Total 2,055,756.998.13 

As for the amount of metallic currency held by other banka, the finance depart- 
ment has no information, 

9. What amonnt of paper currency, Oovemmeut and others, respectively, was out- 
standing at the close of the year 18821 

Answer. lu France the Bank of France alone can Issue paper cnrrency. On Decem- 
ber 28, 1882, the amount outHtanding was 3,790,357,475 francs. 

10. Were any laws passed during the year 1882 affecting the coinage Issue or Ic^al- 
tender character of the metallic and paper circulation T 

Answer. There were none. 



idb,Googlc 



THE PSECtOUS METALS OF MEXICO. 



THE PKECI0V8 KXTALS Of MEXICO. 

RMFOET FXOJl THE DEPARTMSfTT Of BACIESDA TO THE DBPiRTHENT OF FOB- 
Mteif AfFilEa. IF iXSWER TO A NOTE FXOU UR. MOEQAK. TBE MIKISTEX OF 
THE TTtflTED STATEB. 

TAe Minister of Hacienda to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

Dbpastmbnt of State; and Office op the Treasuby and Pf b- 
£.10 Cbedit, Mexico. 

B«£eiTiDg to the uote of yonr Department of tie 28tfa March laat, and 
to tiie note which was addressed to joa under the same date by the 
TJoited States toinister, asking for all the information obtainable con- 
oeroing the coinage, production, consumption, importation, and exporta- 
tioii of preciooH metals, paper, and metallic currency in circulation, and 
other information relative to the financial condition of Mexico in the 
year 1882, and on whose behalf yon transmitted the interrogatories pro- 
pounded by the said minister, we proceed to give the fullest iofbrmo- 
tion possible, and to which end we copy categorically the questions indi- 
cated, placing in yonr pOBsession the corresponding answers thereto. 

2. What was the amount of silver coined, in denomination and valaet 







lKnmb.r.( 
1 ■*^- 


Value. 






' laiev 


Toww 

3,340 00 


n«oMofu<T*iui!or*i( 




::-:::::::::::::! "-S! 















.' 24,SS0.S1(I K!4.S£0,«I 



PlaeM cf tha Tains or 29 cenla I 1,101.084 400,371 00 

rtooM or tbt *Um of 10 centa i M8.0IS W. SOI 00 

PlsMiuTtlwnliiearSMntii .] 480.708 [ M.ONtt 

Total ■ ! 28,14«,!«0 00 

3. What was the import and export of gold coin and of gold buUionf 

4. What was the import and export of silver coin and of silver bnllionf 
Iq the oflScial data there appears to have been no import of gold or 

silver, either coined or in bullion. 

In respect of the exportation, there appears in the fiscal year already 
named, which endnl June 30, 1S82, the following: 



CtHoed Meiican (told J5M,3« 16 

Coined fore>B ' " '"" """ "" 

BallioD guld 



Coined fore>Kn gold 199, 3«7 P 



: 11,341.413 15 

Uraiean ftllrer ll,607,H8e 13 

Foreign BllTM 121.643 29 

BalhoD •ilvor 3,540,993 99 

Workwl diver 1,279 36 

BUYBTore 636,715 62 

SmaUore 10,028 62 

BnlpfaaTic ore 3,8C0 19 

15,822,348 18 

Total BXport of prectoasmetali 17,063,767 33 



278 THE PEECI0U8 METALS OF MEXICO. 

5. What amoaut of gold vas produced by the miuesl 

6. What amoaut of silver was produced, by the miuest 

It is regretted that there are no retams giveu by the different mliiiDf 
companieB, but from the official data of the miuts and cusIom-Lonsee we 
form the following calcnIatioD : 

Oold coined b; the mints $453,590 00 

Gold ballion exported 4S3,6^3 M 

1936,223 04 

Silver coined l9f the tniata 35,I46,SiW 00 

Silrer ballion exported a, 540, 993 99 

Silver ore exported 536,7ir. 80 

Small ore exported 10,02? 62 

Salphario ore exported 3,800 00 

29,237,798 41 

Total 30,174,031 4& 

It should be Temembered that the nijtieral prodaction is greater, cod- 
sidering the amount of silver and gold bnllioD which le reserved by 
private individnals in their safes, and also the amonnt which is em* 
ployed in the arts. 

7. What was the estimated ambunt of golil coin in the treasury, in 
banks, and in circulation, respectively, at the close of the year 18821 

8. What was the estimated amount of silver coin in said departments 
at the end of the year T 

On the 30th of June, 1882, which is the date referred to above, there 
was no balance of coined gold in the treasury, and of silver there was 
J97,877.48. As regards the banks, we can only give information con- 
cerning the Mexican National Bank, which amount was $4,306,-195.4€. 

In regard to the amoant in circulation we have no reliable information. 

9. What amount of paper currency, Government and other, respect- 
ively, was outstanding at the close of the year 1883 ! 

There was no paper currency of the Government outstanding. The 
Mexican National Bank had in circulation bills to the amount of 
$2,062,520. 

In respect of bills outstauding of other banks, viz : The Mercantil, 
the Bank of South America, and the Montepio, we have no information 
concerning them. 

10. Were any laws passed during the year 1882 affecting the coinage, 
. issue, or legal-tender character of the metallic and paper circulation f 

The law which was passed on the 16th of December, 1881, required 
the cessation of the coinage of silver pieces of five cents and of one cent 
copper pieces, and prohibiting the circulation of copper money after a 
lapse of two years, authorizing the coinage of a fractional currency witbi 
an alloy of 75 to 80 per cent, of copper and 20 to 25 per cent, of nickel, 
without, however, exceeding the amount of four millions of dollars. 

With the above I have the honor to answer vour note cited, of the 
28th March last. 

Liberty and Constitution. Mexico, April 30, 1883. 

JESDS FUENTES Y MUNlZ. 



,„i,z.d by Google 



MINEBAL A»D METAL INDDSTKIES OF FBANCE. 



KDTSRAL AJBD XETAI ZVSnSTKIES OF FRAHCE. 

KBPOBT OF CO^BUL FSIXOTTO. OF LTOSF. 

A Domber of the deportments embraced under my consnlar jarisdic- 
tion, each as the Rhone, Allier, Ain, Ard^he, Drdme, Is^re, Odted'Or, 
Ni^vre, Pny-de-Dome, Haute- Sadne, Sadne et Loire, &c., are mioeral- 
prodacihe and iron and steel manufoctnring districts. 

My attention has natnrally been directed to this subject, and I have 
in former reports given snch statistics as to production as I hare been 
able to derive from personal and official souroea such as I have believed 
ironld he of general interest at home. 

I beg now to submit a brief report on the same subject with reference 
to the whole of France. 

COAL. 

The yield of anthracite and pit coal for 1882 was 20,251,531 tons, being 
an increase over 1881 of 1.039,568 tons. If to this product be added that 
of lignites (of which there was a slight diminution) the total product of 
combnstible minerals was 20,803,332 tons, or an increase over 1881 of 
1,037,319 tons. 

In' totalizing the results of the year and grouping together the pro- 
duction of the departments belonging to the same coal basins, I find 
that the annual yield has increased in nearly all the groaps. 

The largest yielding districts have been as follows : 

PudeCalaia 9.5W,942 

JjiAit, 3,619,012 

G»rd 1.951,857 

IRON AND STEEL HANUFACTUBES. 

There was a larger production in iron and a decreased manuftioture 
of steel in France in 1882. The price of steel rails has fallen so greaUy 
that there is now very little difiei'ence in the cost between those and 
iron rails. 

Naturally the demand has been more important for the former, as 
their resisting power and durability are incontestably superior. 

In comparing the flgares of production I find that the decrease in 
Bteel has been for articles of merchandise, while there has been an ang- 
mentation in the manufacture of steel rails. 

The decrease in merchandise steel has, however, been insignificant, 
only 193 tons, while the increase in the manufacture of steel raits has 
been 28,899 tons and for sheet-iron 2,931 tons. 

The increase in iron manufactures has amounted to 52,994 tons, while 
for iron rails there was a decrease of 1,452 tons and for sheet-iron of 
3,778 tons, which must be therefore deducted in making a comparative 
review between the two years. 

In totalizing the results of 1882 and comparing the production with 
that of 1861, the following facts are shown : 

CMt-iron iDBnnfacturM 2,033,101 

Iron m»anfactnre8 1,074,064 

Bteel man nfftctnres 454,053 

' Increftsed production mer 1681 : 

C»tiron 116,764 

Iron 47,764 

Bteel 31,637 



280 



IBON AKD STEEL TBADE OF NEW ZEALAND. 



The nameroiu pablic works in coarse of constmctioa aid rery mate- 
rially the coDtioned development of French metallur^c interests, the 
native indDBtries benefltin); by the preferenoe extended to them by the 
Government over foreign European and American competition. 
BENJAMIN F. PEIXOTTO, 

Ukitbd States Conbulatb, 

Lyons, March 13, 1883. 



nU)V AVS STEEL TEASE OF HEW ZEALAKS. 

BBPOBT ST COySJTL Oa/rWST, OF AUOKLATfD. 

Very few persons outside of New Zealand are aware of the vast extent 
of the iron and steel trade of this colony. Indeed, the demand for all 
binds of iron and st«el is so great that the valne of their imports, excla- 
sive of machinery, steam eogtoee, and ironmongery (hardware) during 
the year 1881, reached the aain of $2,204,400, agaioHt tl,604,820 for 
1880; showing an increase of 1993,875 for 1881. 

The valae of the imports of machinery, steam engines, and ironmon- 
geiy during the same period also showed a oorresponding inerease, and 
reached the anm of 11,866,200, thus swelling the total value of iron im* 
porta to the bfrndsome sum of #4,060,650. 

The following tables give the qnantity and value of the imports of the 
various kinds of iron and steel into the colony of New Zealand for each 
of the years 1880 and 1881 inclusive. 





'■fS 

3.SJV 


00 

00 ; 
00 ■ 
00 1 


»'iS 
















3^«U 






4n 

m 
2.aM 

MM7 

301 
128 


00 1 

Si 

» 
00 

M 

Si 

00 

M . 




































































1 













idb,Googlc 



IBON AND STEEL TB1I>E OF HEW ZEALAND. 



Ancle Iran 
Bar. boles 
BtllMtaiB 

GalT^Ud 

GalTubed (plain 
OMMwdpinta-. 

Pipe*; 






B^wnbeli 
aikeettran.. 



Wire: 

T«1egnph]iijE 

Fn re^Mn and Madcn . . . 



r«>w.o«i 




























































w 


W,E1SM 






&S% 
























SB, NO 00 


cm 


17 


m.*MW 
















• 







The retarns for 1683 hare not yet been printed, bat I am informed 
by the secretary aud inspector of ccatoms at Welliugton that the quan- 
tity of bar iron imported during that year iras 8,122 tons, hoop iron 
757 tons, sheet iron 543 tons, plate iron 705 tons, feucing wire 9,212, 
maldug a total of 19,342 tons. 

PBICE8 OF IRON. 

The cost of iron here Tories according to the supply and demand. 
The price of bar and rod is from $45 to 165 per ton, according to qoal- 
ity. Castings are $70 per ton; staples from (100 to $140, standards 
irom $60 to $70 ; galvanized iron from $115 to $135 ; plate iron from 
$60 to $65 ; steel rails irom $40 to $50 per ton. >^early all the iron 
used here, with the exception of a small quantity of American castings, 
bolt and rod iron nuts, and hoop iron, comes from England, where, on 
account of the low price of labor, the proximity of the mountain lime- 
atone used as a flux aud the interstratiflcstion of coal and iron, it can 
be produced cheaper than iu the United States. Moreover, it is said 
that the coal deposit of Great Britain is about one-tenth of the whole 
area of the kingdom, while that of the United States is only one-seren- 
teeath of her territory. Of cosrse the percentage is larger in some of 
the States, for instance, Pennsylvania, where there is nearly 16,000 
sqoare miles of anthracite, bnt instead of being interstratifled with iron 
as in England, it usually lies at a considerable distance therefrom. En- 

gland, however, may be said to have reached the acme of her irou pro- 
aottODB, while iu the United States the indnstry is comparatiTCly a 
new one: bnt it is an industry that is reaching vaster proportions every 

Sear. The castings brought here from the United States are admitted 
y every one to be much neater and iu every way better adapted to the 
trade than those brought from England. 

IBOn ABD STEEL BAILB. 

By reference to the preceding tables of the quantity and valae of the 
various kinds of irou and steel imported into New Zealand, it will be 



281! UtON AND STEEL TEADE OF NEW ZEAI.UID. 

seen that there ia a large increase in the imports of the quantity and 
valne of steel rails. The reason of this is that iron rails are going oat 
of use in the vonstmction of railways here as well as in the United 
States. In fact, all the ii-on rails in ^^ew Zealand are gradually being 
replaced by Bessemer steel ones. The price of the latter is very low 
bere. There also appears to be a steady decline in the cost of steel 
rails in the United States. The last quotations there were as low as 
$40 per ton, although some manufacturers oonteuded that the price was 
only a temporary one; tbat these rails were put down by one of the man- 
afaotnring companies at » fictitions price in order to secure a readjust- 
ment of ^e cost and values on a solid basis. 

The demand for Bessemer steel rails, it is reasouable to believe, will 
steadily increase for some years to come, not only in ffew Zealand bat 
in all the Australasian colonies. There are now 1,258 miles of railway 
open in Xew Zealand and 200 more in course of coustruotioQ. In Vic- 
toria there are 1,199 miles of railway open, while Kew South Wales baa 
S49 miles and is constructing 456 more. The total number of miles of 
railway open in all the Australasian colonies is 4,851, and in construc- 
tion 1,189. Moreover, new railways are being projected in every one 
of the colonies. 

DUTIE8 ON IHON. 

The datiee charged on iron imported into New Zealand are moderate, 
and many articles, snch as bar, rod, bolt iron, screws, castings, iroa 
bridges, iron and steel rails, and all material for the construction of 
bridges, w&arves,jetties, or paten t slips, are admitted ft-ee, as are all kinds 
ofmachinery,steam-eDgine8, boilers, &c. Wirefencing, however, is taxed 
at 1 shilling (24 cents) per 1 cwt., and so are standards, straining posts, 
and apparatus. States and gate posts are taxed at 4 shillings (96 cents) 
pefcwt. Corrugated sheets, guttering ridges, spouting, &c., are 2 shil- 
lings (48 cents) per cwt; nails are 2 shillings (48 cents) per cwt; tanks 
are 5 shillings ($1.20) each, if of 200 gallons and over the duty is 2 
shillings and 6 pence (60 cents) each. The duty on ironmongery or 
hardware is 16 per cent, ad valorem. Iron safes are also taxed 15 per 
cent, ad valorem. 

COST OF PBEIOHX. 

The cost of freight on iron from New York by sailing vessels is about 
$7.50 per ton measurement, and from San Francisco via Pacific Uail 
Steamship Company it is $16. 

Ironmongery or hardware, including iron safes, ia $18 per touj the 
ton being either 40 cubic feet or 2,240 pounds. 

IRON AND BBA38 FOUNDEIBa. 

There are thirty-five iron and brass foundries in New Zealand, all of 
which are doing a prosperous business. Of these ten are located in 
Auckland, six in Wellington, one in Kelson, one in Westland, five in 
Canterbury, one at Hawkes Bay, one at Marlborongh, and tea in Otago. 
Over one thousand hands are constantly employed in these foundries. 
The total value of the ground and buildings connected therewith is 
$417,905. The total value of the machinery and plant is $358,430. 

The average wages of the engine and boiler makers employed in these 
foundries is from $2.50 to $3.00 per day. 

These foundries, and especially those in the large cities, are capable 



ISON AND STEEL TKADE OF SEW ZEALAND. 283 

of repairing and mauufacturiiig all kinds of boilers and enginea, and of 
patting together iron ships of any size. 



The minerftl resoarces of 'Sew Zetiland are so vast and varied that 
tbey cannot be easily overestimated. 

The snpply of coal is boundless, and vast deposits of iron ores are 
scattered throughout both the north and sooth islands. The following 
are some of the most important forms of iron found in the colony : He- 
mitic, f^m veins in the schistose and crystalline rocks ; magnetic iron 
oxide, from the schistose rocks and from various igneous rocks of recent 
origin. Ai^laceoas iron ores ftxim the various ceal-bearing formations 
are found in great abundance. Hematite occurs in large quantities in 
the serpentine locka near Kelson. At Parapara, Nelson, according to 
the colonial geologist, vast quantities of brown hematite ore occor on 
the surface of the ground. Some of this was recently converted into 
iron at Melbourne and gave the following analysis : 

Iron 97.668 

aiftDganeM 369 

Cfttbon, combined 642 

Carbon, ft«e ((trophite) > SOS 

'Silicon with titanium traces l.OH 

Pbosphorns ]40 

Snlphor ', 26a 

100.000 

Its color IS uniform, approaching, white ; structure homogeneous and 
finely grauular, hard, and brittle. On the west side of Mount Peel a 
deposit has been traced for a distance of three miles, aud beyond that 
point it is said by diggers to swell out mora than a mile in width. 

Specular iron ore is found at Dun Mountain, Nelson, aud at Maori 
Point, Shotover, Otago, both veins being verj- rich. At Dun Mountain 
there is also a vein 16 feet of magnetic iron ore in serpentine slates. 
At Lake Wakatipn there is a rich vein of the same ore and another at 
JMaramarn, Frith of Thames ; that at Maramaru contains oxides of tita- 
"nium and manganese. 

Spathic iron ore occurs in large quantities in the district of Collings- 
wood, more or less oxidized. One form of this ore, known as the bl^k 
"band, alternates with the coal seams of that district. Iron band 
ore, containing 70 per cent, of iron, is found at Wyrdam Biver, Otago, 
■and at the Mauukau harbor, Auckland, formed by the blak layers 
becoming cemented with hematite. 

The following is an analysis of hematite ore &om Raglan, in the prov- 
ince of Auckland : 

Sesqniozide of iron 73.89 

Oxide of manganeM . .31 

AluDiina S.02 

Uasneeia 69 

Lime 58 

'Sulphide of iron H 

HfgroBoopia water .,..,.,. ., ., 4.61 

CoMtitabDaal water tJ.OS 

SUicatea undercompoaed by acids 5.97 

100.00 



^dbyGoOgle 



28 i 



IBON AMD STEEL TBADE Or NEW 2EALAMP. 



I am indebted to Dr. James Hector, the colonial geologist, for ths 
foUowiog valaable tables, showing in detail the varioaa kinds of inm 
ores of New Zealand, together with their centesmlal composition, the 
districtB where foand, &c. : 

Mtuaivt iron oru, oxida, and lilaniltt. 





Lootlitj. 








Vuictf. 




i 


1 

1 


1 
1 


i 


J 


BcDuik^ 




KuDkULAuoklud 

DuDiilui Oorm, OtBgo 




i 


r^;^- 


1.M 
13.68 

3.W 
7.M 


i;;:;; 


rftot 
n.22 

Is 

%00 








Boslroune 


Mirnmanu, Anckluid. . . . 


iii' 


ss 








ftSljUS 












gUHM. 


1 






[ 1 





'ConUliu * llUle m 



£Ja«l: baiidt or spathic iron ora. 



Tiriety. 


LoMiiir- 


Ii 




1 


1 


^1 

1 




^^ V.I 




B.2S 


S1:P 


S.M 
10. «8 













































There are large deposits of iron ores on the Bridgewater estate in the 
Waikato district, amongst which are the following : Hematite, with cla^ 
bands attached ; blue Hata, iron ore ; Onbbins atone ore and diamond 
stone ore. The hematite is of a veiy hard nature and is from 8 to 10 
inches in bands, and estimated to be 3 feet C inches to 4 feet in the 
aggregate. The blue flats ore is very rich and of a softer nature than 
the hematite, and is very abundant. 

William J. Dalton, a prominent civil engineer of Auckland, in a valna- 
ble paper on the Bridgewater estate, says that there is about 100 acres of 
the property where the blast has apparently burst oat and formed lu-ge 
ridges with masses of nearly pure iron, From the quantity of the ore fdid 
the facilities for working it, he predicts that the ])eople of Auckland 
wilt not long be dependent on foreign markets for this metal. 

G. W. tiitlPFDT, 

Onml. 

Uhitkd States Consulate, 

Avcldand, February 2a, 1883. 



ciiz^dbvCoOgle 



SEW ZEALAND IB0N-8AND AND AUEBICAN 8EPABATOB8. 285 
NEW ZEALAHD IB0H-8AHI> ASS AHEKICAIT BEFA2AT0BS. 

SSFOST ST COirSDL BSItFilf, OF AtTCKLASD. 
NEW ZEALAND IBON-8AND. 

Althongh no syBtematic effort has ever been made to develop the 
iron mines of the colony, vast snnis of money have been expended in 
energetic and persistent efforts to atilize the extensile deposits of iron 
sand scattered tliroughont the west coast of the north island and the 
etMt coast of the south island. 

This sand is also found in vast quantities along the ooas^ of Stewart's 
Island and in nearly all the creeks and rivers of the colony. 

At ^ew Plymouth, in the province of Taranaki, the supply is abao- 
Intely unlimited and can be counted by millions of tons. It fringes the 
entire western coast of the north island for a distance of several hun- 
dred miles, indeed all the way &om Mount Kgmout to Ahipara, nortJi 
of Hokianga. 

It is formed doubtless by the action of the waves of the sea on the 
volcanic rocks, which are largely charjired with iron. The rocka are 
gradually worn away by the continued trituration of the water, and the 
heavy iron sandis separated from the lighter material and heaped up 
along the coast. The sand in the rivers and creeks has been washed 
there from the clifl's by the rain. In many parts of the islands after 
heavy showers, it is no uncommon thing to find this sand glisteuiug 
along the roads. 

A few years ago a small qnantity of this magnetic sand was sent to 
England, where it was manufactured into steel cutlery. It consists of 
peroxide and protoxide of iron mixed, and yields from 50 to 70 per cent, 
of the finest quality of the metal, 

The existence of this sand was known to traders and maatera of aail- 
ing vessels long before the establiahment of a responsible government 
in New Zealand. On approaching the shore the masters of vessels that 
first visited these islands noticed a great deflection of the mariner's com- 
pass, for which they were wholly unable to give a satisfactory expla- 
nation. 

At that time Maoris or aboriginal inhabitants were so fierce and war- 
like that it was not safe for Europeans to leave their ships for the pur- 
pose of examining the shore. 

Some of the officers of the ships expressed the opinion that the deflec- 
tion of the compass was caused by large deposits of loadstone along 
the beach. When the interconrse between the Europeans nnd natives 
became more frequent this idea was abandoned, and a satisfactory reason 
was found in the discovery of the fine particles of iron mixed with sand 
along the shore. 

That the reader may form something like a fair idea of the magnitude 
of these iron sand deposits, I will mention that on aome parts of the 
beach, for instance in the neighborhood of Waniku, in the province of 
Auckland, the area of this sand ia so great that it appears to stretch 
cot to illimitable space, often extending miles in width toward the inte- 
rior of the island, sabmerging rocka and trees and shrubs, in fact every, 
thing within ita reach, covering even the tops of the most diatant hills. 

The vast extent of space which it occupies, its peculiar floating ap. 

pearance, forming itself here and there in wavy or undulating ridges 

37i iuosa 7 , C'.CKlgIc ' 



286 NEW ZEALAND IB0N-8AND AND AUERICAN 8EPABAT0BS. 

and its nnmistalcable bluish color, make it look as if it were indeed a 
part of tlie great ocean itself. 

The sand from the Upper Biiller Eiver, in the province of iN^elson, is 
found to contain the largest percentage of iron. The next largest is 
that found OTi the Tarauuki beach, then follows the sand in Mouatain 
Stream, jiroviuce of Canterbury, and that of the Upper Molyueauz 
Biver in Otago. All of it is more or less iin]>crvions. That at the Lower 
Molyoeaus Kiver in auriferous, with 12 per ceut. of glanconite. The 
Baod at West BluGf, Foveanx Straits, is charged with gold and platinnm. 
The following table shows the component parts of the iron sand of this 
colony: 



111 



UpparBallsiKlTer.Ni 
Lower BuUer River, Ni 
CppetMolyniikiix RIti 
Lower MoljEMuaKivi 

OtaRQ. 

Hauntaln Btreun, Cb 

UaiiDUin'strFim, UIB| 

Tnapeka, OiAge. 

Wakatipu, OlacD 

Itftuurft RlTsr (Uppei 

smnriiiitBi'".'.'.'.'.'. 



I iciilit udlertlMy 



Do... 



tl of EoMUka.) 



Walrmu River, M^rlbor- 

coiih. 
Wanzuinl River, TTelnon . 

Swldre Bill, OUgo 

Oreen blimd, OUco 

Hooper Inlet 

Weet Blair, SooUilsnd, 

FoirBDi Stnita. 
D'UrviUe I»Und, NoliOD. 



TkonngB Beach .. 



Sea aand drift... 



Orjinlte an 
Bawltlc.. 



ilCic or tea beach. 
Uiorlteorsek'beaoh'.! 



at. 


5 


4S. 


t 


















1 


W.B 















S8.7 Anrlferoua ud with 13 



Anrlfarona, with gar 
ueta, lopaE, dietbene. 

AoHftrous. 



Anrireioiu and platine- 

Cfanniie Iron. 

Olivloe and honblendo. 



AUBBICAN ELECTRIC ORE 8GFABAT0BS. 

The cause of the repeated failures in the attempts to make iron and 
steel out of the magnetic sand in New Zealand is doubtless owing to 
the old-fashioned mode of working it. Various experiments have been 
made with the blast furnace by mixing the iron sand with calcareons 
clay, and making it into bricks, but the molten iron could not be made 
to ran. After these failures those interested in the work looked to 
America for advice and assistance. Upon inquiry throngh tlais consu- 
late it was found that the United States Government had granted as 
many as 38 difterent patents for electric ore separators, including two 
patents granted to T. A. Edison, the celebrated inventor. It was also 
1 earned that iron and steel were manufactured on a large scale by D, 



FIDELITY GUABAHTEE POLICIES IN AUSTRALIA. 287 

C. McArthar from the iron sand obtaiued at Block Island, Bbode 
Island, and that McArtbnr was able to clean a handred and twenty 
tons of sand per day, the separation being doue by means of a magnet. 

The ore is placed iu bags and shipped to Kahway, N. J., where it 
U mixed with tinely-ground charcoal and put into Uie furnace. Ten 
tons are heated at a time to a red heat, and kept at a red heat until let 
down into the puddling furnace and worked into blooms, and hammered 
into square and oblong blocks. 

A furnace on the American plan has been successfully established at 
Onehunga, a few miles from Auckland. It was first opened to the gen- 
eral public on the 8tb instant. The furnace nsed is the invention of 
Joel Wilson, of New Jersey. It was first patented in the United States, 
but patents have been secared for it in all the Australasian colonies. 

The managers claim that they can manufactnre iron in Auckland 
much cheaper than itcan be brought from England. Indeed, Mr. Jones, 
of Pbiladdphia, who is working the furnace at Onehunga, is of tbe 
opinion that he can obtain the same results from the iron sand as from 
pig iron, thus avoiding the extra expense of making the latter. He has 
recently made a series of experiments of the various kinds of New Zea- 
land coal for tbe purpose of finding a substitute for charooa] for mixing 
with the iron sand before putting it into the furnace. These experi- 
ments. it is said have resulted in the discovery that the Taupiri slacked 
coal of the Waikato district answers the purpose better than any other, 
and ill some ieapeet« it is even better than charcoal, as it is very much 
chea)>er and does not require to be ground, and bums at a steady red 
heat and leaves a pure, clean white ash. 

The managers expect to have as many as ten furnaces in operation at 
Onehunga in the course of a few months. 

The Government of New Zealand has taken great interest in the de- 
velopment of the iron mines, andofTeraabonusof^l.OOOtoany one who 
will make in this colony the first 300 tons of iron blooms out of New 
Zealand ore. 

G. W. GRIFFIN, 
Consul. 

United States Consulate, 

AttekUtnd, Hew Zealand, February 20, 1883. 



TISELITT OUA&AHTEE POLICIES IN AUSTBAIIA. 

SEPOST BY COSaVL-BENERAL BFESOER. OF UELBOVJtKE. 

The issue of fidelity guarantee policies, by insurance companies, sup- 
plies a det^ideratum that Las long been deeply felt, not only in ofticial 
but in commercial life, whilst it furnishes one of tbe most striking illus- 
trations of the cooperative tendencies of the complex civilization of the 
present age. 

Tbe advantages of the system are so obvious, and the objections to 
private guarantee are so many and so great, that it is surprising that 
the latter has not long since been superseded by that of public com- 
panies. To a man of refined and delicate sensibilities, occupying a posi- 
tion of tmst and responsibility, nothing could be more embarrasining 
than to l>e uuder the necessity of soliciting his personal friends to be- 
come pecuniarily responsible for his fidelity and good behavior. 



,i:.db Google 



288 FtDELITY QUABAHTEB POLICIES IN AUSTRALIA. 

Kot to speak of the g^in iu self-respect and peraoDal independence on 
the part of the guarantee, the system relieves the gnarantor from the 
embarassing alteruatire of either being compelled to refnse a personal 
favor, or of incnrring without any valnable consideration a greater or 
less degree of pecuniary liability. 

'^&. clerk in a bank, a new official in the Oovernment service, or a 
tDtinicipal officer," says the Anstralasian Insnrauce and Banking Rec- 
ord, "need not go hat in Land to any one. With good character at his 
back he can bay the commodity he wants. Guarantee is an article pur- 
chasable in the market from companies which make it their business to 
sell it, and which do so, not as a benevolence, bat as a profitable source 
of revenue." 

There appears to be no good reason why one should ask a ft-iend to 
insure his honesty any more than his life or his dwelling house. In 
either case it is, or should be, a purely business transaction in which the 
applicant should be expected to furnish a quid pro quo. This becomes 
the more obvious in view of the fact that during a given period and 
under certain prescribed conditions, the number of cases of dishonesty 
or breaches of trust may be calculated and tabulated with the same 
approximate accuracy as the number of deaths, or fires, or shipwrecks. 
Besides, there is this groat moral advantage, that, as the character of 
the applicant for honesty and fidelity is subjected to a searching ordeal, 
and the examination is conducted on business principles, nnbiased by 
personal or political consideralions, the system has a tendency to ele- 
vate the moral status of the great body of officials occupying positions 
of trust and responsibility. 

Tlie system of fidelity gnarantee by companies appears to have met 
with great success in Victoria, where it has been established for nearly 
a quarter of a century. It is stated on good authority that there is one 
company in Melbourne doing business in the several departments of 
firo, marine, life, and fidelity guarantee, in which the profits in the last^ 
named branch during a period of twenty years were equal to 10 per 
cent, per annum on the entire capital employed in all the branches. In 
fact, no company has failed to pay handsome dividends that has lieen 
able to secure a fair proportion of the risks arising out of the Govern- 
ment service: 

The following are the current rates of premium for fidelity guaran- 
tees: 

Government clerks, 2s. M. per cent, per annum. 

Bank clerks, 10«. per cent, per annum. 

Municipal oncers, ISs. per cent, per annum. 

Collectors, 308. per cent, per annum. 

It will be observed that the rates of premium are fixed on the differ- 
ent classes of occupation, and not on individnal risks, and that they 
take a wide range, varying according to the several kinds of employ- 
ment. To account for this difference, based, no doubt, upon the results 
of a large experience, would prove, perhaps, a difficult task. It may 
be suggested, however, that the probable reason of the low rate of pre- 
mium in the case of Government clerks is principally to be found in 
the fact that the Government invariably prosecutes. On the other 
band, all claims arising f^om breaches of trust in the public service are 
practically paid by the company without demur or recourse to litiga- 
tion. 

In the Oiise of Government officials the Australian Alliance Assurance 
Company offers additional advantages, at materially reduced rates, by 



PIDELITT GUAHAKTBE POLICIES IN AUBTBJlLIA. 289" 

a conibinatioD of fidelity guarantee Tith life assurance. When, .for ex- 
ample, a Government guarantee ia accepted at 2s: 6d. per cent, aud a life 
assurancefortwice the amount of the guarantee is combined, the whole 
of the guarantee premium is practically foregone, nearly the whole 
amount being applied to the reduction of the premium otherwise paya- 
ble on the life assurance policy. 

The same company has entered into an arrangement with the Victo- 
rian Government by virtue of which a general policy, embracing one or 
more departments of public service, may be taken out by simply mak- 
ing a declaration similar to that under a general policy of marine iuBnr- 
auce. 

The following or similar questions are usually addressed to Oorem- 
ment officials on application for a policy of fidelity guarantee: 

1. What is your name in fall t 

2. Where do you reside 1 What is your aget Where were you 
bom! 

3. Are you married or single, and what family have yon dependent 
on you for support) 

4. Have you any relatives in this colony 1 If so, name two or three, 
and their places of abode. 

5. What is your present occupation 1 

6. What situations have yon held during the last teu years, and who 
■was your last employer! 

7. Have you been in Her Majesty's sernce before t And if so, how 
longT 

8. Have you ever been deprived of your appointment ! If so, why t 
d. Have you any source of income beyond the appointment with which 

this application is connected t 

10, Who are your referees 1 Name two or three, with full address, 
Shonid the answers to these questions b*: regarded as satisfactory, 
the bead of the department in which the applicant is about to be em- 
ployed is requeste^i to furnish replies to the following interrogatories, 
which, when answered, constitute the basis of the contract between Her 
Majesty and the insurance company: 

1. In- what department is applicant to be employed T 

2. What is the name of the office which he is to hold T 

3. What amount of money will be intrusted to him during the day t 

4. What sal^rj' is he to receive, and how is he to be paid T 

5. How often, and to whom, will applicant have to render an account 
of bis monetary proceedings 1 What checks will there be on bis 
accounts 1 

6. Have you ever heard anything about his character or proceedings 
which would render him an unsafe person for the company to guarantee t 

7. Is this gnarautee the only one yon will require for the applicant t 
If it is notj state what further amonnt, and in what office. 

Transmitted herewith, and marked respectively A, B, G, D, and E, 
will be found blank forms of guarantee proposals, referee's circular, 
agent's report, and guarantee policies, botb ordinary and official, 
O. M. SPENCEE, 

CoHiul-Oeneral. 
TJkitbd States Cohbulatb-Gbnebal, 

Melbourne, March 12, 1883. 



^dbyGoOgle 



290 FIDELITY GUAEANTBB POUCIES IN AUSTRALIA, 

E. 
AUaTKALIAN ALLIANCE AS8UKANCE COMPANY. 

f Vignette. J 
Amonnt gnarauteed, £. . Annnal premium, £, . 

CUTiKU £290,000 9riiiiJNa. 

Whereas , of ,liereinafter8tyledtbeemploy£, isemploj'edin tbat 

department or branch of the QovemmeDt eerrice of the 001013; of Victoria knonD 
as the , in the eapaclty of , at , upon conilition of the eniplo]-^ pro- 
curing a snfflcient surety to gnarantee Hor Migeaty, ber h«its, and successors, hereio- 

after called the asaured, to the amount of pounds agsiiiet loss occasioned by 

the want of integrity, honesty, or fidelity of the employ^ in giich empEo;ujeut, or in 
whatever sitnation or office he may be employed in the service of the assured ; 

And whereas, in performance of the said condition, the employ^, with the concur- 
rence of the asanred, hath agreed with the "the Australian Alliance Assnrance Com- 
pany" for the grant by them to the assured of this policy of guarantee. And as the 
baais of the contract for a uch guarantee, the assured hath deposited at the office of the 

said company a statement or document in writinjf, dated 'htj day of , 18 — , 

and containing (among other things] a declaration signed on behalf of the assured 

by , being authorized by the member of the executive council of the 

colouy of Victoria in whose department of the service the employ* is for the present 
employed [to act for him in this behalf] of the truth of the answers thereby given to 
the questions therein coutained ; 

And whereas the employ* hath paid to the said company the sum of pounds 

shiilingB and pence as the premium or ooneideratiuu for such gnarantee as 

hereinafter expressed up to the first day of January, ttj — , and afterwards until no- 
tice of the termination of this gnarautee shall have been given to the treasurer or 
minister of finance for the time being of the said colony: 

Now this policy witnesseth that "the Australian Alliance Assurance Com pa ut," rely- 
ing on the truth of the said declaration, do hereby agree and declare that duirtDg the 
space of time aforesaid, and until such notice as aforesaid has been given, and after- 
wards during every succeedinic year in respect of which the said company shall con- 
sent to receive, and the assured or employ*, or one of them, shall, before or upon the 
lirst day of January, iu the same year, pay to the said company the annual premium 

or sum of pounds shillings ajid pence, the BUbBOril>ed capital and the 

funds and other property of the said company remaining unapplied and undisposed of 
at the time when the proof hereinafter mentioned is furnished to the said company, 
shall be liable to reimburse and make good to the assured or her heirs and successom, 
within three calendar monllis next after proof shall be given to the reasonable satis- 
faction of the directors of the said company of the occnrreuce of suoh next men- 
tioned loss, everj- loss whatsoever, batuot exceeding in the whole the saidsnm of 

pounds, which, during the continuance of the liability of the said company under 
this policy, shall be sustained by the assured by reason of any fraud, deceit, or oulp^ 
ble negligence of the employ* in ti— employment by the assured, or which may 
happen bv h — conniving at or aanctioning any unlawful act contrary to h — duty a 



such rmploy*. or by reason of h— omission to perform and fulfill with fidelity and 
care all the dntiee of and pertaining t« h — said employment, or by reason of h — 
-mission to duly and legally pay, apply, dispose of, and deliver all moneys, chattels 
- " — -i.ties for njoney which shall at' any time con ■ ■■ . . i 



ir money which shall at' any time come to the possession or contml of 
the omployfi or be intrusted to h— care by reason or virtue of h— office, service, or 
employment by 01 on behalf of the assnred or any officer in the service of the assured, 
or by reaaou or in consequence of the want of integrity, honesty, or fidelity in any 
other respect of the employ* in h^ employment as aforesaid. 

Provided, always, that this policy snd the guarantee hereby given shall be subject 
to the t«rms and conditions hereupon indorsed in the same manner as if all the said 
terms and conditions were herein incorporated at length. 

Provided, also, that this policy is granted upon the express condition that every 
person at any time making any claim hereunder shall, at the costs of the said company, 
whenever required so to do by the directors or the chairman of the directors or other 
duly authorized agents or agent thereof, afford every description of aid or assistance 
capable of being afforded by such person for the purpose of enabling the said com- 
pany or the chairman of the directors to prosecute or bring to justice the employ6for 
any criminal offense committed by h — while employed as aforesaid, or to procnrc the 
reimbursement of tlie said company by the employ* or b — estate of moueyii paid by 
the said company under this policy. 



idb,Googlc 



FIDELITT OUABANTEE POLICIES IN AUSTBALIA. 291 



individual cftpacity Ijeyond tbe amonnt lemaiDing unpaid in respect uf bia or her 
shares iu the capital of Ihe said company at the timo of snob proof as aforesaid being 
fumiBhed, and that no person having been and having ceased to be a member of the 



shares in the capital of Ibe said company at the timo ofsnob proof as aforesaid being 
'" — '"'"'"' ~~"' •*--• ■ — -- ; been and having ceased to be a member of thr 

1 proof being furnished as aforesaid shall be ii 

1 of this polioy. 
Id witness whereof tbe undersigned directors of the oaid o 



any manner liable under or by virtue of this poliov. 

Id witness whereof tbe nndersigned directors of the oaid oompany on hehsl 
said company have hereunto set their bands and seals this day of , i 



jrear of oar Lord one thousand eight hundred and 

fSBAl..'' 



Signed in the presence of— 



Examined, . 

Entered, . 

Qovemment gnarant«e policy. 



TERMS AND CONDITIONS KEFRRRED TO BT TBK WITHIN POUCY OF OUARAKTBB. 

1. That any &andnlent misstatement or snpprosslon in tbe declaration within re- 
ferred to, and in consequence of and with eiptess reference to which this policy of 
snarantee is granted by the company, renders such policy void fWiui tbe beglniring; 
bnt if the policy faaH been issued upon toy other deolaratiou than that of a metutwr 
of the executive council or his duly appointed deputy, then it shall not be avoided 
by tbe falsity of such declaration. 

S. That the annual preniinm payable upon this polioy of guarantee must be paid 
within tkirlu days from the day on which it tint aocraes due, snd that if paid within 
eucb JAlrljidaye tbe policy does not become void; but if not so paid, then, suhjeot to a 
discretionary power for the directors to remit the forfeiture, tbe policy will be abso- 
lutely void ; provided, nevertheless, that the liability of the company under this 
policy will continue nntil notice of the contrary !"■ been duly given to the bonorabl* 
the tj«asnrer of Victoria. 

3. That the right to make a claim under this potioy of guarantee ceases tltrtt 
months atter the death of tbe pafty whose honesty Is gnarant«ed. 

4. That (subject (o a discretionary power exercisable in certain cases by the direct- 
ors of remittinK tbe forfeiture) this polioy of guarantee becomes void at to fvttirt 
olaiM* upon its becoming known to the said directors that the person whose honesty 
is gnoranteed has committed any act which gives tbe right to make a claim under 
the policy' i and that employers are lionud, immediately upon discovering or having 



notice of the commission of any snob act, to forward a written intimation of the si . ., 
and so far as circumstances will permit of all partionlars attending tbe commission 
thereof, to tbe said diiectois, and that by willfuDy and knowingly omitting or neglect- 
ing so to do for tKirln days after such discovery or notice the policy becomes abso- 
Intely void, iotk at to erUtiug and future ctainu. 

5. That in ca«e this policy be or become subject to any trust, tbe receipt of the trus- 
tees for the time being for the money which may become pay&ble thereon shall, not- 
withstaDdlDK any equitable claim or demand whatever of the person or persona hene- 
flcially entitled thereto, ho an effectual discharge to tbe oompany. 

6. no receipts for renewal premiumB on policies of guarantee except those printed 
and iasued from tbe principal office will he admitted as valid. 

7. No alteration of duties or employment of the said employ^ shall invalidate this 
policvM long as he be continued in the employment of Her Hajesty. 

8. Tbe company will pay the amount of loss for which this policy is guaranteed 
within three calendar months next after proof as within mentioned, suchproof to In- 
clnde, If tbe directors shall so require, a statntoiy declaration hy some Government 
'" 'o the effect that such loss nas been sustained to the full amount claimed, 

~ ' lb shall have lapsed by reason of notice to the treasnrer or mtn- 
□-payment of premium shall be revived hy notice being given to 
It minister of ^ance that payment of the premium has been aooepted 
ty the company. 

10. This polioy shall extend to cover any loss whiob shall be sustained hy third 
persons throiiBh the aforesaid a(.ts or defaults of tbe employ^ whom the govemor in 
connoil may deem it necessary to reimburse. 



z.db Google 



292 SETTLEMENT OF THE NATIONAL DEBT OP MEXICO. 



6ETTLEXENT OF THE VATIOHAL DEBT OF MEXICO. 

REPORT SY irlSISTES MOSQAlf. 

I transmit herewith a traoslation of the law lately passed by the Mex- 
ican Congress anthorizing a settlement of the national debt. 

P. H. MOEGAN, 

E. E. and M. P. 
Legation op the United States, 

Mexico, June 19, 1883. 



[Frain the Qlarlo Offlcial. TnnaUUon.] 

DsPAitTMENT or State for HiLcibnda akd 

Public Credit, Mbxico, Srctiok 6, 

Monday, June 18, 1883. 
The President of Mexico h&8 sent me the following decree : 

Manuel GonzaleE, couititational PreaideDt of the United States of Meiioo : To the 
lufaftbitontB thereof. 
Know ye : 

Tbftt the Co^ieu of the TJnlted^tfttee of Mexico has sent to me the following decree : 
Article 1, Tbe Ezeootive is antborized to settle the national debt upon the fol- 

lowing basis: 

I. Establish the form, couditiotia, and place for the examination, reoognition, liqui- 
dation, and conversion of the debt. 

II. Consolidate tbe entire debt nnder new titles, which shall bear interest at th« 
rate of 3 per cent, net annnm. 

III. No matter what may have been the origin of the debtor the nationality of the 
holders thereof, the whole debt shall preserve its Hexioan character, to whtcfi DO in- 
ternational character can be given, nor can the pajtnent of the interest thereon be 
exacted out of anj special fund. 

IV. Fix the term of the amortization, and malie with the creditors the beat tenna 
which he can obtain Irom them in the interest of the Republic. 

V. He cannot recognise, and for this reason are not to enter into the conversion, the 
debts which emanated from Governments which preteuded to exist; in Mexico from the 
17th of December, 18!)T, to the 34th of December, 1860, and from the 1st of Jtine, 1863, 
to the 21st of June, 1867. Neither can the claims which have heretofore been rejected 
be recognized. 

VI. New bonds shull be issued by the general treasury of the nation focthe consoli- 
dated debt, and shall exchange them for the old ones, at their face value, and, these 
last shall become null in virtue of tbe conversion. 

VII. Are to be rehabilitated, and to enter Into the conversion, those debts which 
have been deferred and those which have been prejudiced, if their origin wa« legiti- 
mate and the authenticity of their emission is established. 

Those (holders of bondsT) who are prejudiced for having adhered to the Empire 
shall be rehabilitated, with a rednctiou of 4 per cent, upon the value of their debt, 
eqoivalent to the reparation imposed upon them by tbe Ittw of the 19lh of November, 
1867. 

Till. AH reclamations pending in the department« or before theoonrts, where tbey 
shall have been admitted {dtpuroilot) haA aoknowJed^^ in oonformity with the laws, 
shall enter in the aonversion for the amounts recognized to be ilae to the claimants. 

IX. The balance of estimates due since the Both of Joue, 1888, whioh are not com- 
prehended in Article? of tbe law of the lOth of October, 1870, will enter into tbe conver- 
sion after they shall have been liquidated in conformity with the laws, reserving to 
the Execntive the right to establish an equitable basis upon which to temitnate pend- 
ing liquidations in cases which are not susceptible of a strictly legal determination, 
in consequence of irregularity in the archives, the death of the parties responsible 
for the presentation of the documents, tbe distribution of payments, and other ciroum- 
■tancea of the same nature which prejudice, and without their fanit, the rights of 
cried itois, 

X. The conversion of the debt shall be voluntary; consequently, those creditors who 
do not agree to the terms which tbe Executive shall Ax for the registry, examination, 



BANKS AND BANKINQ IN COLOUBU. ZVd 

or liquidation of tiieir debts, preserre their aotaftl rights to the oapHal ; bnt the debt 
-which tbey repreiieDt shall be deferred aud ahatl not bear iDtereet after the espiratiou 
of the term Qxed for the ragistr; thereof, after which, the convenioa having beea 
made, the mode of their payment shall be determined. 

Akt. S. Besides the benefit to be detived from the proposed amortization of bonds 
of the consolidated debt, these (the bonds) and their interest ooapous shall be received 
»t the federal treasuiy iu payment of the following: 

I. In payment of ierrenoe baldioi belonf^ng to the federation. 

IT. In paymeut of debts or nationalized estates (church property), without prr J u- 
dice to the rights of those vho have denounced thera in, specie. 
III. Costs ror patents of inventions. 

Art. 3. Sneh coupons of the consolidated debt as may remain unpaid at the end of 
any fiscal year shall be paid in the folio triog year, and shall be received, to the ex- 
tent of 5 per cent, thereof, in-]>ayment of the federal imposts therein levied. 

Art. 4. This law does not apply to the debts in course of payment in virtue of the 
convention with the United States of the North on the 4th July, 18(i8, nor to those 
due for subventions to railroads, which are to be paid in conformity with their re- 
spective contracts. 

Art. 5. The Execative shall order, at the end of each fiscal year, after the acconots 
of the general treasury have been adjusted, that certificates of indebtedness issne to 
creditors for salaries, pensions, or services the term fur whose payment has not been 
designated or fixed by law or by express contract. 

Art. 6. In the annaal estimates special consideration shall be given to the omort- 
liation oF the certlBcates for balances due; and those which are not amortised within 
five yenrs fVom the date of their emission shall from the sixth year bear interest at 
the rate of 3 per cent, per annum, and shall he upon the same footing with the oon- 
aolidated bonds issued under the present law, for which they shall be exchanged. 
I. M. VIQEL, 
Pretidmt of the Ckambtr of Depuiiei. 
P. I.ANDAZAN, 

PrmdeHt of the Senalt. 
EMBTERIO DE LA OARZA, 
Seortlaru oflhe CkarKberof Depuiiee. 
' D. BALANDRANO, 

Seeretars of Ihe Senat*. 

Wherefore I order it to be printed, published, ■ 
Tbos done in the palace of the executive pow. 
Jane, let's. 

MANUEL GONZALEZ. 
To the seoretary of stat« for hacienda and public credit, Jesus Fubntbz r Huniz. 



BAHK8 ASH USEIsa IN COLOKBIA. 

REPORT BT OOSaUL DAWBOS. OF BARRASqUlLLi. 

I have the honor to farniah the foUotring statement ia regard to the 
banks of this country. This ntatement, prepared for this office over a 
year ago, was, for some UDexplaiaed reason, detained in the post-office 
at Bogota nearly one year. 

It woald appear that bank stock is a pretty good investment in Bogota, 
aotil an examination of the small resoarces the bank has to meet a sud- 
den mo. The item "cash" donbtless consists of bank notes of other 
banks to a large extent, and a sadden and simaltaneoos ran woold of 
coarse prove disastrous to most of them. 

The Bank of Bogota in ten years haa paid a little over 100 per cent, 
in dividends. The Bank of Oolombia, in five years, has paid 83 per 
cent. The Bank Popnlar, in three years, has paid over 55 per cent. 
The national Government has no supervision over any of the banks ex- 
cept the National Bank, which is nothing more than an iustitution 



294 



BANKS AND BANKINO IN COLOMBIA, 



eatablished for the purpose of disooanting the GoTemment's own obli- 
gations. As an example, the dovemment foils to pay the pensions for 
five or six months ; those who should receive them are suffering from 
want, and the National Bank steps in and offers to discount them. In 
this way the Government makes a large profit. . N^oarly if not all the 
stock of the National Bank is owned by the Ck>vernment. All the other 
banks derive Uieir powers from the State 'governments, and are never 
taxed, except in case of a revolution, when they are all liable to be 
visited by the various chiefs. The only security for the circalation of 
the banks is the individual liability of the stockholders. A new system 
of banking has recently been introduced here. To illustrate it,let us 
suppose that you own a house and want to raise some money on it. 
You ask two or three of yonr friends to appraise it for you, which they 
do, and furnish you with a certificate that it is worth so much. You 
then have printed notes of five, ten, &c., dollars, to the amount stated 
by the appraisers to be the value of the house ; on their face the notes 
state that they are a lien on the property, bat that in case of public dis- 
turbance, and it becomes impossible to pay the notes, then they shall 
draw interest, which shall be paid when the note is paid. These notes 
have circulated very fi-eely during the last year. 

I have to add to the foregoing that there are four banks doing busi- 
ness in BarranqniUa. Three of them have a combined capital of 
$1,060,000, the other being a branch of the National Bank at Bogota. 
The private banks are organized under the laws of the State of Bolivar, 
which are much the same as were those of the State of New York 
twenty-five years ago. The majority of the capital of the American 
bank here belongs to citizens of the United States, being divided as 
follows: Citizens of the United States, «295,000; British subjects, 
t2(iO,000; Colombians, «10,000. Theratesof discountare: Ninetydays, 
8 per cent.; one hundred and eighty days, per cent.; rates of interest, 
3 per cent, and i per cent, for one hundred and eighty and ninety days; 
rates of exchange on New York, 27 per cent., and 28 per cent, for sight 
drafts, and 25 per cent, and liG per cent, for sixty and ninety days' 
drafts ; on London, 2i per cent, and 25 per cent. For status of banks, 
see enclosed tabulated statements A, B, and C. 

THOMAS M. DAWSON, 

Conaul. 

United States Consulate, 

Barranquilla, June 14, 1883. 





A.-P»Hio banl* 










NmnieoftlMibHik. 


1 : 


i 


i 

•$ao.su 


1^ 


i 

§ 

i 


•3, 

1 


_ . - 


1 tmn» 


•sa 


»n\sa- 


MU,10S 


1871 


SSSIScSCbii: :::'::::::: 


iSiS 
























^:ia 


•7.807 


S8L8M 


ffl 


Bhwo N»«loii»l 


1,100.1100 


211SS 



log^ioe i.Mo,«i i,soG,(Ma 



Lunst dlvMend paid in tke yeM 1881 irni (bat 
ToW dlTidsuda paid U Uay jl, 1881, tOK.Om. 



El Banco Popnlar," which 



CuKlt^lc 



COMHEBCE AND FINANCES OF ABOENTINE BEPUBLIC. 
B. — Private banlci. 



KMatofthtbuk. 


i 

I 

3 


1 


!;} 


1 
f 

J 


■sl 




SI.MN) 


tU,ODOIW 


•as 

187, *» 


I1B.M1T0 


|M.7«M 
12*. BID 60 








BSSIdtSA!^!*;-::::;::::: 












4a^Goa 


s3,aM« 


577,760 


2^ZM«B 


Ug.B4IW 





Bank of BamoqulllK pdj'* 4boat S per e«nl- In dlTldendi. 

C.—Hm bank*. 

The foUowinp: an new banks that bare b«eu lecently organix«d in rarioss parts of 
tbecountvf : 

Capltkl paid up. 

Banco ds Cipaqnira,8tateof Cundinamarca $35,000 

BoDCo de Teqnendama, State of CnndiDamOrca S5,000 

Baaoo de Boyaca, State of Boyaca 25,000 

Banco del Norte, State of Saotander 25,000 

Banco del Octidente, State of Ciiodinaniarcii 25,000 

Banco iDdQBtrial, State of Antioqoia 60,300 

Banco de Uedellin, State of Antioqaia 



BBPORT BY 



OP SVSSOS ATRB8. 



The aauual session of the Argentioe Congress was opened to-daj, 
the 4th instant, with the accustomed formalities, President Roca read- 
ing his message, a copy of which is herewith sent, to both houses, assem- 
bled in the Senate Chamber, and after which the President gave a re- 
ception. 

The President opened his message by saying that no other Preaident 
has had the satis^tion of opening Congress in an epoch of greater 
national happiness and prosperity. 

The message is lengthy, but contains a plain statement of facts and 
official figures, and sets forth the real and true vitality of the nation, 
and the remarkable progress resulting from one year of peace and quiet 
and the temperate administration of public affairs. 

Under the head of revenue, the President states that their trade and 
credit are in the ascendant with the general progress of the country. 
The sum collected in 1882 was 126,763,985, dr an increase of 7.68 per 
cent, over 1881. 

The revenue of the first quarter of the present year shows a propor- 
tionate increase over 1882, and is equal to 16.34 per cent, over 1881. 
The Government had expended for the ordinary concerns of the admiii- 
istration only 426,354,096.76, leaving a surplus of 91,408,988. 

The total value of imports is 456,581,290, and of exports, (60,389,062, 
showing an increase of 12,460,866 over 1881. Up to the 31st of March 
of the present year the mint has placed in circulation 6,765,237 gold, 
silver, and copper coins, representing in all $4,154,619.16, 



296 INDUSTRIAL PROQBE88 OF CANADA. 

In the chapter of railways the President informs Congress that there 
are at work, ou the ten railways now building and extending through- 
out the republic, fourteen thousand five hundred men ; that the Andine 
line has been extended beyond the province of San Luis, having sor- 
mounted the greatest difficulties it had to encounter, and that at the 
end of this year the locomotive will hare reached the foot of the 



In speaking of the service in the postal and telegraphic communica- 
tions, the President states that last year 17,757,610 letters and papers 
were dispatched, one-flfth of which were foreign, showing an increase 
of 2t) per cent, over the year previous, and that the minister of foreign 
affairs had signed a convention with tlie Uruguayan Bepnblic, as well as 
with Bolivia, to join telegraph lines, and that the Argentine and Bra- 
zilian had been joined at Uruguayana, thus openiog another line of com- 
munication with Bio and Europe. 

The President recommends a bill for abolishing postal and telegraph 
franking. 

Under the head of foreign relations it is stated that the relations with 
nations of Europe are maintained without any alterations, and the 
Argentine Government is on tHendly terms with all the American 
nations. 

The President says he has devoted special attention to the subject of 
public instruction, which continues to awaken a lively interest through- 
out the republic, and that all the provinces have cheerfully conformed 
to the anbventious. There are 1,505 schools supported by the nation, 
withont counting the normal and application schools and those sunexed 
to the national colleges, and 112,400 pupils attend. 

The President concludes his message by expreBsing his intention, in 
view of the general prosperity of the country and its perfect order and 
tranquillity, of submitting to Congress a project for the reinstallraent 
in their former places in the army all the officers who are living sepa- 
rated from the army on account of political dissensions, and says that 
we must forget that these officers forgot their duty to their countrj- in 
order that we may remember that they have grown old in the service, 
and contributed not a little to its glory and prosperity. 

TH09. O. OSBOEX. 

Legation of the tTMiTBD States, 

Suenos Ayres, May 4, 1883. 



THE IHSUSTBIAL PBOOBESS 07 CANADA. 

REPORT BT 00U3lERaiAL AGENT ROBBISE. OF OTTAWA. 

The industrial progress of the Dominion of Canada aa shown in the 
census reports of 1881 (just published] and compared with 1871 is as 
follows : 

Jfiimber Qf oMmfxi of Foad anil acres oionMl. 



Yuni 


No-ofownen. 


Ho. of UK* 

owned. 




BBS. STB 
Not given, 


01, MS, 183 
4B,388,0» 












lB,!T7.m 







INDUSTRIAL PB0QKE8S OF CANADi.. 
Nimbtr of JLotMN, warehovtet, factoritt, iU>re$, (^ju, bantt, and *labUi, 



Teut. 


No. 


otlMuatt. 


hoo°w«. tlt 
toriM, io. 


■S 


or bun* 
■Ublu. 






'Si!! 




S«0.S8G 

«as.sc4 










m.m 


*1.2M 




iflS,Bai 


. 



JTomfrar of Mhipi and li«ir tonnafe. 



Y«M.. 


StMm. 


TODI.«««. 


S«U. 


ToDiuge. 


1M1 


SW 


2«I,(I23 
61,87* 


8,908 
8)264 














413 


USpMB 


an 


7.200,010 





5la(M»M( «A<>wi<i$ th« 




tea. 


Prortooefc 


Ytmn. 


invrnted. 


lIo.orper. 


AmpKUtof 


Vftloe of 


Yalne of 
prodiioU. 




1«8I.... 
1B81... 

iggi:::: 
i88i:": 

1871":" 


teO,»M,M7 
BT, 884, 010 

ass 

^Mliwo 
i, 08^ 770 


iiB-atB 

8^073 
18!3B2 

"^1 


•30,e(H,13I 

18] 33a, isa 
,80*. on 

, 870, 390 
..098. *B5 

,i7a,!«e 


»Bl,184,16B 
SB. IK, 804 

m! 555: 025 

loiokoao 


•15T,fl88.»70 
m, 700, 790 












18,675.325 
12. 8BS, 105 


r"ii".r."*.::::::;- 




1,B21 


7M,6IH 


1, KM, 821 


S.41B,0KB 




Prince Eilvstd Island . . . 


£3 


807,308 


I.8!»,aiO 

™,'7si 


S,40«.Z08 




i(H»e 














RECA.PITULA.TION'. 1881. 



SfatemMti ikowing ilte progrtu of man^facU^i^lg indiiilriet in the principal eitiet of Canada 

from 1871 to 1881. 



ClUee. 


T«rB. 


"VS.-- 


■"SST' 




Viloeofniw 
mMerlal. 


V«loe of 




183 '.'.'.'. 
W .... 

ita .... 

1B7 .... 

liE 

i8»i;::" 

IS::: 

in ... 

138 ... 

m... 


f2. 408. 470 

4;8m;[»o 

■as 

i 434, 784 
2, 870, (38 

JSSS 


3. MS 

.is 

IS 


t074,88I 

843.521 

2,240.127 

1,320, 712 
1, !00, 589 
587:473 

2:No:g8a 
8, sao, 500 

1,606,990 

'■as 

732.161 


•2,909,808 
3,6M,«64 
4:303:093 
2, 800,999 
8 888^702 
1,956,803 

. !:S:S 
!i:!S:SS 

6,001,688 
«, Til, 459 
2.407,126 

tsillOTO 


•4.740,090 
7 1^900 


Do 




5,471,494 


SS;v;-:^^^;:;:;:; 


r^'^ 
«"»« 


qi;i«?':::::::::;i:::::: 


8t.JotaD,)rsvBniB*wlek. 


S;!*3S;3y 




Dq 


1,817.480 



298 HATTIAN TARIFF CHANGES. 

Statement of tkenumberof thniettie animali In Canada in 1831. 

Horeea 957,855 

ColM 301,503 

Working oxen J3a,593 

Milch cowB 1,595,800 

Otber homed aDimals 1,7H6,5!»6 

Sheoi, 3,048,fiTS' 

Swine 1,207,619 

Slaiement ihoieing the amount of rarinu prodvcli of Canada for the year 1661, aifoUovt. 
nELO PRODUCTS. 

Apples bnahelH.. 13.377,655 

Barley do,... 16,841,663 

Bnckwhe*t do.... 4,901, 1« 

Butter pounds.. 102,545,1139 

Cheeie do.... 3,164,996 

Corn liDBhoIfl.. 9,025,142 

FUx and hemp pounds.. 3,056,:t53 

Flu wed bushels.. lOH.oai 

Grape* pouniis.. 3,696,508 

OrBw and clover seed bnsbelg.. 324,317 

Hay touB.. 5,051,610 

Hops ponndH.. 905,!J07 

Maple snjtar do 20,5S6,049 

Oats --- bnshels.. 70,493,131 

Potatoes do.... 55,26e,iM7 

Bye do.... 2,097,160 

Tobacco pounds.. 2,527,000 

Turmpa bnshel.. 39,059,094 

Spring wheat do.... 12,102,817 

Winter wheat do.... 20,247,752 

FI8H8R1RB. 

Cod quintala.. 1,130,771 

Haddock and hake do 192,359 

Canned lobster ponDds.. ll,983,64rt 

Vaiions sorts of fish barrels.. 1,254,025 

Oysters do.... 169,127 

Fish oil gallons.. 670,323 

HiyERAL.S. 

Gold onnooB.. 70,015 

Silver do.... 67,024 

Iron ore tons.. 223,057 

Coal do-.. 1,307,824 

QypHum , do..,. 163,076 

, Phosphate rock .' d>..... 14,747 

Mica ponuds.. 16,076 

Petrolenm gallons.. 15,490,622 

Salt , ., barreUi.. 472,074 

E. B. EOBBINS, 

Commercial Agent. 
United States Commekcial Agekct, 

Ottawa, May 23, 1883. 



HATTIAH TABIF7 CHAKaES. 

BEPORTBT COXSVL OOVTIEB,. OF CAFE SATTIEX. 

The Ha.vtian legislature at tbeir extraordinary seBsion enacted a law 
diminislilDfi; the export duties on coffee 33^ percent. Astbecofl^ecrop 
is 60,000,000 pounds, and the duties $3 per 100 pounds, this makes 



HATTIAN TARIFF CHANGES. 2^9 

$1,800,000, one-third of wbioh ia $600,000, revenue which the Govern- 
meot relinquishes ; but tA equilibrate thia 33^ per ceot. has been added 
to all importations. 

Inclosure No. 1 will show the mode o& calculating the duties, with the 
3^ per ceut. additional. 

No. 2 sho>v8 the heavy port charges. 

I have selected, pro/orma, a vessel of 400 tons. Omitting the charges 
for throwing away the ballast, at 25 cents per ton of ballast, the port 
charges amoantt^ $1,141, andsfaould, assomeof our merchants suppose, 
the ^^ per ceut. be added to the tonnage dues of vessels it will aug- 
ment this sum, $133.34, making a total of $1,274.34. 

I called this morniug on the mioiater of war, and told him that 
although I know that it regards the minister of flnauces, still 1 desired 
to spi-ak to hill), inf'orDinlly, concerning the 33^ i^er cent, on vessels, 
which, I thought, would be a heavy additional tax should the new Ian 
on importations be so construed as to include them. 

He replied that he did not think that the new law affects vessels j 
still I should bear in mind that he only expressed a personal opinion. 
STANISLAS GOUTIBR, 

Consul. 

United States Consulate, 

Cape Haytim, March a», 1883. 



No. I.— Mode of eoatpiilhtg Ike import dutie* in Hayli on and aftrr ApHl I, 1883, vihen ike 
new tariff ifIuoK adi» 3^ per ctni.onall iniportalions mil become tffeoUre (vis, 'J3 per 
ctnt. onfirtt <jh(^). 

One burel of pork : 

First dnty on 1 bturel pork (1 50 

Wharfftge per barrel IS 

Total Bret iluty - 1 63 

50 per cunt, additional 81 

33^ per cent, additional on |1.62 54 

DntioBonl barrel pork 2 97 

One linndred pounds of lard : ' 

First duty ou 100 pounds lard %1 00 

Wharfage on I boiL lard 12 

Weighing 100 ponuds 5 

Total tiret dnty 1 17 

50 per ceut. additional t)9 

33i per cent, additional on (1.17 39 

Duties on 100 pounds lard, 3.15 cents i>er pound 'Z 1& 

One bale ofdenims,5<0 yards = 400 ells: 

First duty ou 400 ells denims, at 24 cents 10 00 

Wharfage ou 1 bale deniuis, at 3 j cents 25 

Total flrstdnty .* 10 85 

GO per cent, additional 5 13 

3»i per cent, additional on |10.25 3 42 

Duties oo 400 ells denims, 4.70 ceuts per ell IS 60 



^dbyGoogle 



300 COMMEHCB AND PRODUCTS OP GBEECE. 

No. 2.~Porl eiarget on a vetMl of 400 toni at Capt JTajflif*. 

Firat duty, viz, fl per ton |W0 00 

50 per cent, additional ■, 200 00 

600 00 

III ward pilotage (pilot's aliare) fS tO 

Look-out man (man'a sliare) 1 00 

Inward pilotage (Ooremment's share) $8 00 

IiOok'OQt man (Government's abare) I 00 

9 00 
SO pec cent, additional I 80 

10 80 

Outward pilotage (pilot's abare) 5 00 

Outward pilotage (Ooverument'a ehare) 6 00 

SO per cent, additional 1 00 

6 00 

30 80 

Interpreter 2 00 

Stamp paper 10 60 

Health offloer (doctor's shore) 8 00 

Health ofiloer (Qovemment's share) B 00 

50 percent, additional 4 00 

- — - 12 00 

2000 

Cnstom-honse clerk to seal hatches 5 00 

Fonntain (when there is water running) 10 00 

Clearance at the custom-house 5 00 

ClearsDoe at the Administration of Finances 6 00 

Clearance at the Bureau da Port and at Bureau de la Place 2 70 

12 :o 

691 00 
N. B.— The vessel pays 25 cents per ton to the captain of the port for dis- 
charging her ballast. ' 

The vessel paying hsr own port charees pays for lighters t<i convoy the loff- 
wood at the rate of 50 cents per l.OOu pounds French weight; conseqnently 
a vessel of 400 tone loading 900,000 pounds pays for lighters 450 00 

1,141 00 
Tbenew tariff which odds 33( pec cent, on all importations on and after April 
1 proximo will be added to the firat duty of tl per ton, vis, 33^ per cent, 
on 1400 133 34 

Total port charges according to the new tariff 1,274 34 



COHHERCE AVS PB0DDCT8 OF GREECE. 

BEFOBT BT OOSSVIraESERAI, BOBJJTLER. OF ATBSlfS. 

While, in additioQ to our otrn consular reports, valuable accounts of 
the special trade of Patras, the Pirfeua, Syra, and other Greek ports, by 
British and Belgian consuls, have been published, I have been able to find 
no view of the foreign commerce of Greece aa a whole since the report of 
Mr. Wyndham, secretary of the British legation at Athens, dated Decem- 
ber if 1876. Ko Greek ofBcial statistics have been published since that 
time, althoQgh data from the Government offices. have been kindly com- 
municated to me. The information which follows is, therefore, some- 
what frafnaentary and scanty. 



:dbv Google 



COUMERCE AND PH0DUCT3 OF UBBECE. 301 

According to Oreek official statistics the foreiga trade of Greece, ex- 
clusive of tbe transit trade, has been siuce 186L as folloWs. I go thus 
far back for tbe parpoae of comparison. For tbe years 1875 aud 1876 
I liave been anable to procure returns : 





t™. 


Import.. 

*t:w?;si7 

7, 22ft! 236 
^032.608 

wS 

13.433,060 


E.,™*.. 






t4,S8S,IBI 














i«lS 










iSS 














n,2U,8S2 









































By this it will be seen that both imports and exports have doubled 
in the last twenty years. 

Taking the mean of the imports and exports for the last five yean 
they were as follows ; 



ImporU. 


Faromt 


BiporU. 


IP«<«nt. 


IVomE d d ' 


M.9 

20,0 

14! 1 
1L3 


To Eofilud ^ 

»u.trl».H(u»iry 




































B«Woin 
















100.0 









"TThe chief potfs for the foreign trade of Greece nre the Pirsens finclnd- 
ing Athens), Syra, Patraa, and Corfu. Then come Oephalonia, Kanplia, 
Kalamata, Ghalcia, and Yolo. The trade at Missolonghi and Katakolo 
is rapidly increasing, and the latter port, which is now connected by a 
small railway with Pyrgos, bids fair to become the principal port on the 
western side of tbe Penoponnessns and to rival Patras. 
37a Aua 83 8 



^dbyGoogle 



COMMERCE AND PBODUCTS OF GBEECE. 



The cbier articles of export from Oreeoe in 1881 and the first half of 
1882 were the following : 



L— Axnuu Ain> X 



head. 



IL— UDIEBAI4 AND n 



Itdh ud other dim... 
HulDxin «uth 



III.— TROmBLU Al 



CotloD ynFD kod Uhdb 



Tinea do....i 18, 2M.' 

TeeeUblM do ... 1.2B?.1M4 

Smp do...,l a.lM.068 




The exports of Greece, couaisting chiefly of raw materials, are more 
easily considered if we classify them according to their origin. 

Animals atid products. — Beginning with animals and animal products^ 
we fliid that few cattle are exported from Greece, and this only to neigh- 
boriug countries, far more being imported in return for the food of ihe 
inhabitants. 

Hides, skins, and leather are exported chiefly to Austria, Hungary, 
and ID much smaller quantities to France, Turkey, and Russia. There 
are well-monnted tanneries at Syra and Fhaleron. which consume most 
of the raw bides and skins. 

The importation of these articles amoanta to nearly $1,500,000. There 
is an iucreasing exportation of cheese, while butter is imported from 
Turkey and Russia, as well as irom Italy, England, and Denmark, to 
the value of $100,000 yearly. 

Honey. — The honey of Mount Hymettus, which is celebrated for its 
aromatic taste, is exported in small quantities to Russia and Western 
Europe, it is, however, chiefly mixed with the comb, and does nob 
fetch as high a price as itwonldif more pains were taken in itsproduc- 



COMMERCE AND PEODOCTS OF OEEECE. 303 

tion. The bees are coosidered ^ood, being inucb like Cj'pnis bees, and 
specimens bave recently been sent to the United States by an agent of 
some bee assoviations. As yet almost no one in Greece has obsen'ed 
soieutiflc methods in the case of bees. •«■(•• 

Were more attention given to ai>icaltare, the production of houey of 
prime quality could be largely increaaed- 

Spongea. — The export of sponj^es is chiefly to France, althongh a con- 
siderable quautity is sent to England and Turkey. The center of the 
trade is at Syra. The value exported is about S6U,0(K> aunually. 

Silk is produced chiefly in the district of Kalamata, and at one time 
this industry was very important. Of late years, however, it has greatly 
fallen off, and the silk apinning establishment at Kalamata finds scarcely 
enough to support itself. 

Wool, — Sheep and goats being raised in very large quantities in 
Greece, the production of wool is comparatively great, but it is chiefly 
used in the country for making the rough doth and felt of the peasantry. 

Minerals. — Oreece is rich in miues and quarries, some of which have 
long been worked, and others are now being investigated for the first 
time. The mines at Lauriumand along the coast to Sunium ^ive argen- 
tiferous lead and calamine. The Hellenic Company of Laurium pro- 
duces annually about 10,000 tons of lead containing on uu averge 6^ 
oancee of silver. The French Company of Laurium produces little lead, 
bat exports about 30,000 tons of calamine. 

Three companies— French, English, and Greek — at Antiparos are 
also working calamine, and produced last year about 4,000 tons, 

MilUtonea are produced at Milos, where the quarry belonging to the 
Government has recently been let at $5,000 a year. Emery nomes 
chiefly from the island of Nayos, though existing in other islands, and 
is worked by the Government. There are excellent beds of magnenite, 
especially in Eubcea, which it is the intention to work. Lignite is also 
found in'Euboea although it produces only about 10,000 tons annually. 

Iron. — The iron mines of Seripbos give an iron ore containing mao- 
ganese. They are worked by a French company. ' 

Marble. — ^The marble quarrtea of Mount Pentelicus, near Athens, are 
rudely worked and furnish asupply only for Athens and the Pireeus. In 
the island of Faros, a Greek [formerly a Belgian) company has under- 
taken to work the marble quarries on a large scale. It has a capital of 
(360,000, and has adopted the latest Belgian methods. 

SulpkMr is being refined to some extent in the islaud of Milo. 

An excellent account of the mines of Greece up to that time will be 
found in the report sent by Mr. Francis, June 14, 1873, No. 129, pub- 
lisfaedfin the Commercial Belationa for 1873. 

Cerealt. — Kot enough cereals are produced for the consumption of 
Greece, but still a certain amount of wheat and barley is exported from 
Thessaiy, the wheat there being very hard and firm and excellent for the 
manufacture of macaroni. In all about 15,000 acres are planted with 
wheat and barley. The import of cereals averages over 30,000,000 bushels 
yearly. The harvests for this year, 1883, are exceptionally good so far. 

There is a small exportation of madder, which is raised in Thessaiy, 
but little cultivated since the introduction of mineral colors; kemp seed 
and anite teed, which are cultivated near Thebes and in Peloponnesus. 

VaUmia. — The crop of valonia is more important; it is raised chiefly 
in ^tolia, Aearnania, and the Peloponnesus. It is chiefly taken up by 
tanneries of Syra and Fhaleron, but a certain quantity is exported to 
Austria-Hungary, England, and Italy. Both in 1881 and 1882 the crop 
was very short, being estimated in 1881 at 10,600 tons, and in 1882 at 



304 COMMEECE AND PRODUCTS OF GHEECE. 

4,952 tons. Nevertheless the exports for the first half of 1882 were 
nearly three times as great as during the whole of the year 1881, 

Tobacco. — The best Utbacco is that from Agrinion, which is more 
aromatic and stroDger than other Greek tobacco. Choice leaves sell 
for 140 francs per 100 kilograms. Vrakhori, another choice tobacco, 
sells uii the spot at about the same rate. 

The tobaccos of Eubcea aud Annyro in Thessaly are of good quality 
and are exported on a large scale to the East and to Bussia, the average 
price being about 1.35 francs per kilogram. 

The tobacco of Argos is of an inferior quality, Selling in the country 
and in the East for about 85 centimes a kilogram, while that of Lamia 
and of Volo, of fair average quality, briugs about 1 franc per kilogram. 

Cotton is produced in large quantities in Thessaly as well as near 
Thebes and Livadia. It sells generally at 1.30 francs per kilogram, and 
is chiefly absorbed by the factories at the Piraeus, 

Fmit. — The great export of Greece connists of fruity especially of 
CDiranta, raisins, oranges, and lemons. Figs and almonds, although 
produced everywhere, are not exported to auy large extent. The ex- 
portation of olives in 1881 was 591,648 poands, and that of olive oil 
23,055,386 pounds, worth 41,168,284. The oil went chiefly to Italy, Eng- 
land, and Bussla. The product of this oil in 1882 was very good, 
and is estimated at 10,000 tons. The number of lemom aud oranget 
exported in 1881, chiefly to Turkey, waa uearly six millions. The ex- 
port of citrous was about 6,000 pounds. 

* The lemou culture was greatly injured a few years ago by. very cold 
weather, and by a disease which appeared in Poros and the neigh- 
bonug regions, where the best orchards are situated, and destroyed 
Tery many trees. 

THE OUBBAKT EXPORT. 

According to the statements of the English consul at Patras, the crop 
of (mrm'nfg,aa the small raisins coming originally from Zante are known 
in commerce, was' in 1878 100,004 tons ; in 1879, 92,000 tous; in 1880, 
92,337 tons, worth «7,773,0O0 ; in 1881, 122,000 tons, worth $11,372,000} 
and in 1882, 107,000 tflus, worth 410,400,000. 

The crop of 1882 would have been as mnch as 130,000 tons had it not 
been for the bad weather. 

The crop for 1883 is estimated at 140,000 tons if the rains come at 
the proper time. Everything now points to a very good crop. 

Up to the last few years the currants were chiefly disposed of in Eng- 
land and the United States ; England taking 50,000 tons or more, at^ 
the United States from 5,000 to 14,000 tons. But the constant increase 
in consumption, and therefore in price, led to the planting of a large 
nnmber of new vineyards. The merchants at Patras, which is the oenter 
of this trade, shook their heads at this, and predicted a fall in prioes and 
disaster to the coantry. Fortunately their predictions were falsified by 
a sudden demand for large quantities of currants for France iu oonse- 
qneuoe of the failure of the grape crop, it beirig found that excellent 
wine and brandy could be made from currants. 

It is thought that the high daty recently imposed upon them in Buasia 
will prevent the export to that country, where people also began to 
distill them. On the other band a very large Australian trade is ex- 
pected by Brindisi and the Peninsular Mid Oriental steamers. 



^dbyGoOgle 



COMMEBCE AMD PRObUCTS OF QBEECE. 305 

The ahipments of carraats daring 1881 and 1882 were aa follows: 



To- 


1881. 


IBSZ. 




IT.TM 

'iS 

2.m 
1,I« 


51, ms 































Wine. — The annual prodnction of wine is estimated at abont 33,000,000 
gallons. The export of wine for 1881 amounted in value to |424,000 and 
in the first half of 1882 to $356,000. More than half of this qnantity 
was sent to Frauce, much smaller quantities heing exported to Austria- 
Hungary, Russia, Turkey, and Italy. Wines generally throughout 
Greece are very badly made and are mixed with alum aud resin in 
order to keep tbem. Where they are made with more care, aa near 
Athens, Corinth, Patras, aud in some portions of Enbcea and the islands 
they are of good quality aud pleasant flavor, though rather strong. 
They are now chiefly exported to mix with weaker French wines for the 
manufacture of claret. In the island of Santorini a white wine called 
Ifino Santo is produced, whicti somewhat resembles Gonstautia, and the 
average value of which is 75 francs per hectoliter. A Muscat wine ia 
made in Eubcea to a very limited extent, selling at 86 iraucs per hec- 
toliter free on board. Malvoisie wine from Monembasia in the Pelopon- 
nesus, the reputation of which dates back for centnries, sells at 75 to 
80 francs per hectoliter. 

SpiriU-raki, a kind of brandy flavored with resin, mastic, and anise- 
seed, is very largely made in Greece and very largely consamed. 

The exportation of spirits ia uaw increasing. 

T&ADB BBTWSBN aBEECB AND THE umiED STATES. 

According to the Greek official statistics, which apeak of the direot 
trade only, the exports to and the imports from the Uuited States were 
ae follows: 



Yttn. 


ImpotU. 


Bqwru. 














1.41B,«>S 













According to information ftiruiahed me by Mr. Hancock, our consul 
at Patras, the trade with the United States for the last three years has 
been as follows: 



EieportB. — In these there was a falling off owing to the crop of ourrantB 
having been seriously damaged by rain. 



^dbyGoogle 



306 COMMERCE AND PE0DDCT8 OF GRBECB. 

According to the iQToices certified during that year the ezporte to 
the Uaited States consisted of — 

Vila*- 

5,972 tona cnrranto $468,eoe 79 

Wine 202 62 

Soap, 37,650 poiin<ls 1,514 88 

Oil, 5,778 ponads 400 36 

GoBt skins 937 50 

Tobacco 143 00 

Total exports 472,004 IB 

Imports (direct), 18,878 eases petroleum, valued at alxtut (22,882. . 

1881. 

Exports, — These consisted solely of carrants, and were as follows : 
10,343 tons, valued at 9912,470. 
Imports, 190,103 cases petroleum, valued at about 1230,465. 



CnirantB, 13,917 tons Jl, 180,644 00 

Olive oil foots 781 68 

Olive oil soap 511 83 

Tfltal 1.181,937 51 

JmyortJ.— 63,351 cases petrolenm 181,308 30 

It will be seen that the chief exports to the United States are cur 
rants. A considerable quantity of these that go to the United States 
are sent via London or Liverpool. 

The direct shipments of currants to the United States f^m 1805 to 
1882 inclusive were : 
United States import duty 5 cents per pound : 

1865 ■ -. 1,411 

1«6 2.6:17 

1867 2,188 

1868 1,808 

1869 1,143 

United States impart daty 2^ cents per pound : 

1870 3,356 

1871 5,020 

United States import dnty 1 cent per pound ; 

ISra 4,458 

1873 6,280 

1874 6,129 

1875 8,379 

1876 - 7,804 

1877 «,3a& 

1878 : 9,146 

1879 9,112 

11^ 5,972 

1881 10,343 

1882 13,917 

Almost the sole import is petroleum. I have heard that large qaanti- 
ties of petroleum coming originally from the United States are smug- 
gled into Greece from Turkey, where the import duty is far lower. It 
is landed in small lots ftom small vessels on the rooky coasts of the 
Greek islands. 

It might be possible to send dried cod-fish and salted flslyhere, whioli 



COMMBBCE AND PK0DUCT8 OF OBEECB. 307 

is largeljosed. About tifteeu cargoes yearly come from Newfoaudland, 
in all from 45,000 to 50,000 quintals. 

The vesseU which arrived at Fatras, Corfu, and Zante from and 
sailed to the United States in the last three years, were as follows: 

In the year 1880: Arrived, at Patraa, 1 sailer; at Corfu, 1 sailer, and 
2 steamers; total, 4. bailed, irom Patras, 8 steamers; from Zante, 3 
steamers; total, 11. 

In the year 1881: Arrived, at Patras, 1 sailer; at Corfu, i sailers; 
total, 5, Sailed, from Patras, 4 steamers; from Zante, 3 steamers! 
total, 7. 

In the year 1882: Arrived at Patras, 2 sailers; at Corfu, 2 sailers; 
total, 4. Sailed from PatraSfll steamers, Isailer; from Zante, 4 steam- 
ers; total, 16. 

For importations from the United States the chief ports are the 
Pirieus, Patras, and Corfu. 

For ordinary freight there is direct commanication between New York 
and the Pireeus by the Florio (Italian) steamers, with only one trans- 
shipment. Steam freight from Patras to the United States is from 32s. 
6d. to 40«. and 10 per cent, per ton of goods. 

Owing t4> tbe defects in the Greelc statistics, and their distaoction be- 
tween general and special commerce, it is impossible to trust implicitly 
the statistics already given, which are probably too small rather than 
too large, or to aat:ertain the amonnt of transit trade. This may be 
estimated at between (3,000,000 and (4,000,000 each way. 

B&TSNUE AMD FUTANCE. 

' The customs revenues of Greece are as follows. Certain years, owing 
to insufBcieut returns, are given from the budget estimates : 

1871 11,731,937 

1672 1,819,737 

IHTJ 1,838,855 

1H74 1,7^1,764 

1875 (budget estimate*) 3,139,033 

1876 (budget eMimfttM) 2,000,000 

18T7 (budget Mtiruatrs) 2,3:W,430 

1878 (bndget estimates) 2,152,584 

1879 (budget iMtimates) 2,751,306 

ief!0(budgete8tiii.ates) 2,947,t(95 

1881 (budget estimawe) 4,051,664 

1882 4,882,59» 

In the year 1881 there came from the newly annexed provinces of 
Thessaly «147,837, and in 1S82 (360,783. 

Among the reasons which prevent the still greater development of 
commerce iu Greece, and in general tbe well-being of the people, are 
bad government, bad finances, including heavy tAsea, and the want of 
internal improvenieuts and the means of communicatiou. 

These are now being remedied. 

The present ministry is one of the purest that has ever been in office, 
and is conscientionsly endeavoring to promote honesty among the oEB- 
cials, the proper execation of the laws, and the exact administration of 
j,U8tice. 

Fitr the first time since 1862, in the estimates of the bndget, the reve- 
nue equals the expenditure. 

Heretofore there hava been heavy deficits. The old system of tithes 
on the ]irudnce of tbe land, by which the cultivators of the soil paid one- 
tenth of the produce in kind to the Government, which bad come down 



308 COHMEBCE AND PRODUCTS OF OBEECE. 

from Tnrkieh time, and which was most burdensome on the peasants, 
has been abolished. 

The tithe was especially oppressive because it was collected by farm- 
ers of the reveune, who, from fear lest they might lose, took always 
more than they shoald, aud the peasant was prevented from selling hia 
grain or even thrashing it until the tithe was paid. It was, therefore, 
exposed to the chances of the weather. For this tithe a tax on cattle 
and land has been snbstituted. 

This change was made two years ago, and the good eflect is already 
apparent. 

For some time past the paper currency of the Greek banks has beea 
about 12.3 per cent, below par, and another complication has been caused 
by the fact that, while the money actually used is in new drachmas or 
francs, the moni'y of account has been old drachmas, 10.7 per cent, less 
than the new, and for which there is no corresponding coin. 

By a law passed last November the new drachma, or franc, is in all 
cases substituted for the old drachma, and one of the troubles has been 
obviated. 

It is hoped that with two or three years of prosperity and a balanced 
budget it will be possible to repay to the banks the money advanced by 
them (about $14,000,000), and that a return can be made to specie pay- 
ments. 

HIOHWATS AND BAILBOADB. 

The want of roads has long been a reproach to Greece. The present 
ministry has taken up tbis subject warmly, and, in addition to other 
projects, has called a commission of French engineers to decide upon 
roads and to survey for railways. It is proposed to make several net- 
works of roads, and to intrust their building t« contractors taken from 
various countries, so as to entice foreign capital into Greece. Up to the 
present year but one railway has existed in Greece — from Athens to the 
Pineus, a distance of 5| miles. A few months ago another short rail- 
way was opened on the western coast of Peloponnesus, from the port 
of Katakolo to the town of Pyrgos,'8 miles. A railway is now in course 
of construction from the Pireeus and Athens to Patras by the way of 
Corinth, about 136 miles, and it is expected that it will be opened from 
here to Eleusis in the autumn. Another railway is projected from 
Athens to the mines of Lanrium, 36 miles. The concession has, been 
given, but no work has yet been done. 

Work is being actively pushed on the Thessalian railways fbjm Volo, 
the chief port, to Larissa, the capitalof the province, with a branch from 
Yelestina to Kalabakij in all, 128 miles. This is to be part of the great 
railway line which is to connect Athens with the rest of Europe. A 
connecting link will be made f^m Athens through Lamia to the Thes- 
salian railway. It is expected that the same company will build a rail- 
way on the Turkish side of the frontier, connecting Thessaly with Sa- 
lonica and the railway which now runs from that point northwards, aud 
is shortly to be prolonged to Belgrade and Vienna. 

Two lines of tramway have been laid down in Athens, as well as a 
steam tramway from Athens to Phaleron. 

WATER OOMMUmOATION. 

Work is being done on the canal across the Isthmus of Corinth, and 
it is hoped to floisb it in four years. Not much progress has yet been 
made, and the engineers of the work, which is a private enterprise nu- 



AGBICULTUBB IN THE ABGENTINE REPUBLIC. 309 

dertaken by foreign capital, clHitn that they are waitiog for certain 
machines onlered in France and Belginm, which will not be delivered 
nntil December. This canal will greatly ahorten the distance between 
the Adriatic and the Dardauelles, and it is thought that the tolls received 
from the AaBtriaQ Lloyd and the Italian Bteamabip companies alone will 
be sufficient to pay the interest on the investment. Lake Gopais, a 
pestilential marsh in Bceotia, is being drained, and it is estimated that 
by this over 60,000 acres of excellent land will be of ose for agricolture. 
Works are also in progressfor the improvement of the ports of Patras, 
Katakolo, Kalamata, Andros, Syra, and the Pirteus. 

STEAM COlffUimiCATION. 

Greece is now in easy commnnication by sea with the rest of the 
world. The French companies of the Messageries Maritimes and Fra- 
issinet, the Italian company Florio-Enbattino, the Austro-Hnngarian 
Lloyd, and the Egyptian Khedivi^ stop regularly every week at the 
Pirseas, besides the freight steamers which run more or less irregularly 
from England and other countries from Patras and Syra. 

Three Greek companies, owning about 300 steamers, make a regnlar, 
frequent service between the isles and the various ports of the Greek 
mainland. 

The sailing fleet of Greece is estimated at 6,700 coaetera and 5,200 
Hea-going vessels, manned by about 28,000 sailors. 

In 1881 the namber of foreign steam vessels which entered and cleared 
from the port of the Pineus was 871, with a tonnage of 900,469. 

EUGENE SCHUYLEB. 

United States Gonsulate-Genekal, 

Athent, April 28, 1883. 



AOBI0in,TUaAI PE0ORE8S IH THE ABfiElTmra BEFVBLIC. 

EXPORT BY CONSUL BASER. OF BUENOS AYBES. 

Gonsidering the interest which the United States, as a great graio- 
producing country, baa in the question of the Aiture food supply of 
the world, I have deemed it of some interest to consider the present 
condition and prospects of agriculture in the Argentine Republic ; and 
the result of my inveHtigatious, after many difficulties in obtaining 
reliable information in the general absence of statistics, is the n-port 
which I now inclose. It attempts lo give a glance at the early history 
of terraculture in this country, the difUcuIties it has had to coutead 
with, the efforts made of late years for its promotion, the approximate 
breadth of land now in cultivation, the different crops which are grown, 
the imports and exports of cereals for the last twelve years, and the 
general agricultural outlook of the country. 

Our agriculturists may not be aware of the fact that the Argeutiue 
Bepublic ia looking forward to a time when it will successfully compete 
with the United 9tat«s in furnishing food to the people of England and 
the European continent. I do not thiuk that such an event will happeo 
in the very near fature; but it is a fact that the Argentine Republic is 
making gigantic strides in the development of its agricultural resourese, 
and shows an annually increasing Surplus of breadstuffs for exporta- 
tion. /- r 



310 AGBICOLTURB IN THE AttOBSTIWB KEPUBUC. 

OLD THBOBT THAT THE PAHPAB OOULD NOT BE CULTIVATED. 

This development is all the more marvelous for the reason that from 
the time of the Spanisb conquest until within the last t<ew years the 
apper portions of the country have beeu too remote and ioa<H^e8siblo to 
market to make agriculture an object among the people, while it has 
beeu the general belief that the pampa provinces were not suitable for 
agricultural purposes. Even Dr. Burmeister, the celebrated German 
scientist, now in charge of the Argentine National Museum, has only 
recently expressed a similaropiniou, insisting that the principal occupa- 
tion of the country, in view of the disposition of the soil, must continue 
to be the breeding of cattle and sheep, although he admits that "small 
portions of it maybe changed into cultivated fields, and in others abuD- 
dant orchards may be created." • 

It is true, however, that the business of cattle and sheep breeding has 
these many years been so lucrative and so easy that the indolent gauchos, 
much less the owners of these immense Qocks and herds, could have no 
object in changing it for an occupation so exacting and laborious as the 
cultivation of the soil; and it is only since the recent impetus which 
agriculture has received by the advent of European immigration that 
the plow may be really said to have commenced its civilizing work in the 
Argentine Bepublic. The French and Spanish Basques, and especially 
the Italians, who are now seeking new homes in the Biver Plate coautry, 
are, however, quite upsetting all the old, preconceived ideas about the 
pampas, and wherever they can obtain a foothold upon them they are 
gradually wresting them irom the dominion of the cattle eataiuHero. 

ANALYSIS OF THE SOIL, 

Our own experience with reference to the great western plains of the 
United States, which iu all their essential particulars correspond to the 
Argentine pampas, has long since not only exploded the theory that a 
soil without trees is necessarily unfit for general cultivation, hut it has 
done more, and proved that our most important grain-producing regions 
are the States of Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas, all of 
which were primitively in great part devoid of timber. The same fact, 
in my opinion, will yet be made plain with reference to the immense 
pampas Qf this republic. There is no doubt that they possess all the 
primary conditions for the successful prosecution of agriculture. While 
the climate is in the highest degree favorable for the cultivation of the 
soil, the soil itself is astonishingly fertile; Professor Oirsebach, the 
celebrated phytogeographer, says " excessively " fertile and hardly to 
be surpassed anywhere, "offering at least as favorable a field to agri> 



"Dr. Burtneiitor, loan evplanntory not>e, voL I,pa|iel90,ofhlBgreal work, "DtteHp- 
Uon I'huiique de la R^abliqae Argentine," »Ayi: "ItiBan old mux im, bMed iipoD ex- 
perience, that to uodertaLe aj^iculture upon a, new soil ie not advantageoaii, except 
where a iialurall; existing vegetation can be out down to put anotbir in its place; 
this last is always the inferior in the point of view of the organization of vegetablea, 
and that which has disappearfHl is superior. It is thus that coSeo is caltivated Id 
Brazil by destroying the magnificeDt virgin forest, and suiistituting it by the feeble 
boslcat of the coffee plant. But the pampa, even in ite fertile parts, only produces % 
misurahle herbaceous vegetation, with less than a spear of wheat, with which it is 
desired to replace it. That will not do ; moreover, it will never do. The pampa ought 
to remain the laud of pasturage ; it aduiite of formal working in certain favorite 
places, but it will never form in general a caUiv«ble noil ; only that which the earth 
contains, or somethiug similar lo it which it has actittciallj appropriated, can be 
withdrawn from it, but yon cannot give it that which it cannot produce. This Is a cer- 
tain result, as Leibig, for the rest, nas demonstrated in hie work, ''Chemistr^T applied 
to agriculture." 



AOBICUI.TUBE IH THE ABeBNTINB REPUBLIC. 



311 



«altare as the Far West of the United States of Kortli America." Pro- 
fessor Doering, of Cor'Ioba Uuiversit.v, who has made a careful chemical 
aaal^'sis of the soil of the pampa, says : 

Except in thoxe parta where au accumnlation of aolable rbHb is tbe llqnids of the 
«artb has ocoDired, and which are limited tu oertain lucnlities, the lands, whereTer 
natnralor artiKci&l nisouTces of water are sufficient to guard agaiimt the pn favorable 
effects of drought, are fouud to produce satisfactory harvests, thus justify in c tbe 
bopes founded on their coioponitiou, which is in the view of agricultural chemistry 
■o fa vol able.' 

PsnolTITE AOBiqULTUBB OF THE NA1IVB8. 

It most not be nnderatood, however, that antil the impulse it received 
firom immif^ration, agriculture was an unknown or an unattempted 
occupation iu the Argentine Republic. White thin is almost true in 
regard to the pampa regions, in the upper iaterior provinces it has a 
history which dates back beyond the settlement of the North AmericaD 
colonies, and daring all the long years which have elapsed since the 
Spanish conqnest that portion of the conatry has continued to raise 
sufficient breadstaffs for the consumption of tbe sparse popalatioa 
which inhabits there. This is especially true of thd provinces of Hen- 
doza, San Juan, Bioja, Gatamarca, Salta, and Jujuy. 

In those early days, however, the ttllerii of the soil were not the Span- 
ish conquerors of the country, bat the very Indians whom they had 
subdned, and who were reduced to a kind of slavery an4 compelled to 
do this work. The various tribes, long before the discovery of America, 
had adopted many'of the ways and means of civilized life. Their knowl- 
edge of agriculture they had acquired from the primitive inhabitants of 
Peru, who, it will be remembered, had attained nnder the Incas to no 
mean coudition of civilizatiou. Mr. Presoott in bis history of the con- 
quest of that country f tells as that the anuient Peruvians not only sar- 
psMsed every other American race in their dominion over the earth, bat 
that tbey pursued husbandry on principles that may be truly called 



•Dr. Docring 





VII- ™nd isftithfiwa 
Ptremt. '■ Feremt 

l.Mj 2.8S2 

2.n i.Kt 
ia.i» W.H1 

(-) 0.517 
0. K 1 VeattgM. 


Soluble. 


Insoluble. 


ComposiUon. 


ViUmnfl Earth from 


K„.... 


BsrtbbwD 
TillftUulL 

Ptrcent. 




Pfl-wnt. Per ant 
1.m' 0.611 

o.xs i.a3£ 
iM i:e4i 

4.80 liew 
i'^''. VMtiic*. 

ft 08 1 Do. 


Per ami. 










se*qSioii1teirr in^ "::::; : 


l.« 
i.37 


0.830 

























■ Not deslRnitf^. 
If, nntwithstaDdio^ tbis, the no highly fuvored soil of the pampas only p 
iDgignificant reKetatinn, tbe reason mnat be nnught for in the fact that as yet it hna 
not been ahle tn produce n suHiciPotly thick atralum of Xurnui, or on account of the 
Biuf^nlar condition iindfrr which tbe soil of the pampa is found, to wit, a want of sat- 
isfactory drainage and of abundant meteoric precipitations. ( ' , n^olr' 



t Prcscott's Conquest of Per 



312 AORICULTUBB IN THE AttGENTIHE REPUBLIC. 

acientific. It was the basis of their political institutions, and, as they 
had DO foreign commerce, it was agricnltnre that famished them with 
the means of their interual exchanges, their subsistence, and their rev- 
enues, every man being required to assist ia the cultivation of the land. 
Aud for tbis purpose, in the ab^encu of ruin, the; not only brought 
water for irrigating purposes down from the mountain slopes in aque- 
ducts, bnt they cultivated the precipitous sides of the sierras, cutting 
them into terraces faced with rough stones. They were likewise well 
acquainted with the different kinds of manures, and made large use of 
them, especially of the guanfi, which existed in snch immense quantities 
on the adjacent islands — a condition of intelligent labor which was not 
elsewhere to be found among the primitive tribes of America, it is 
true th ey bad no knowledge of the plow, using instead a sort of wooden 
spade, but under their patient aud discriminating culture we are told that 
every inch of goo<l soil was tested to its utmost capacity of production, 
while the mo8tuni)romi8ingspot8 were compelled to contribute something 
tothesubsistence of the people. In his celebrated march over the Andes 
to the sacred city of Pachecarra, even Pizarro was surprised at the cul- 
tivated appearance of the country." It is not strange, if, nnder these 
circumstances, the indigenous tril)es, who occupied those portions of 
what is now the Argentine Republic, lying almost adjacent on the 
eastern slopes of the Andes, learned many of the mysteries of agricnlt- 
nre from their Peruvian neighbors. It is known that they were well 
acquainted with many of their usages, and were quite experienced in 
the cultivalioa of the soil. So that really the Spaniards, who subse- 
quently occupied and colonized those portions of the country, for alt the 
upper Argentine provinces were originally colonized from Fern, and 
were at one time a portion of that vice royalty, t only adopted what 
was already established, and succeeded in giving to agriculture aa 
importance which those provinces have, very feebly perhaps, continued 
to sustain, the flour surplus of Ban Juan, Mendoza, and other places in 
the far interior, until very recently, fladiug an outlet and market in 
Buenos Ayres in times of great Bearcity,J 

'The lable-laiid Bud ite declivilitiD neru thickly sprinkled with hamlew and towna, 
Mme of thuni of couBiderable Bize; and the uoiincry, in every direction, boru the 
marks of a thrifty huHbandry, Fluids of Indian corn' were to be s«ea in all tta ditfur- 
eut Btauea, from the green tender ear t-o'the yellow rlpHnugs of hitrveHt time. Aa they 
deocendtid into the valleys Hud deep ravines that divided the crests of the Cordil- 
leras, they were Hurroiinded by the vegetation of a waruipr oliinate which delighted 
the ej e with the gay livery of'^a thouaaud bright calm's aud intoxicated the aensea 
with its perfumes. Everywhere the natural capacities el the soil were stimulated 
by a miiiute system uf irrigation, which drew the fertilizing meistiire from every 
Htieam nud rivulet that rolled down the declivities of the Audea, while the terraced 
sides of the niountuins were clothed with gardens and orchards that teemed with 
fruits of various latitudes. The Spaniards cuuld not sufficiently admire the industry 
with which the nutivOB bad availed themselves of tile bounty of nature, or had sup^ 

Slied the deficit- Bcy where she had dealt witli a more pBrsirnouious hand. (Preeoott'a 
!oiique«t of Peru, vol. 1, page 446.) 

tEWmiiiguei la his History of the Argentine Republic, page 54, says: "The oolo- 
nization of the conntry was made from two different directiims : the littoral or that 
pori ion adjacent to the lira gnay and forananvert by expeditions directly from Spain, 
while the interior was settled from Peru. This fact for some time caused a division 
of the Government. Subsequently, however, all the territory was attached to the 
vice- royalty of Pern." 

I There has cert-alnty been a sad degeneratinn iu most of the Indian tribes of the 
Argentine Kepublie since those early times; yet It is stated oa a historical fact that 
the language spoken liy the ancient pHrnvians, or at least these who inhabited the an- 
cient city of Cuzco, is the identical Quichua langna^ which is at the present day 
almost nniversally spoken by the lower classes, including Indians and Matixot, of the 
upper interior provinces of the Argentine Republic, very few Indeed even undei- 
Btanding the Spanish language.— (See Antiquities of Ethnology of South Ameriua, by 
WilUani Boliaert, F. R. Q. 8., Triibner & Co., Lottdon, 1860, page 166.) 



AGRICULTURE IN THE ARQENTISE REPUBLIC. 313 

PRODDCTION8 OP THE UPPER PBOTINCES. 

Before tbe Coaqaest, the productions of t)ie upper provinces were the 
casBArara, tlie baaaoa, the ma^e.v, rice, potatoes, and maize or lodiau 
com. The latter, however, waa the most im[>ortaDt crop of the early 
inhabitaots. With the advent of the Spaniards other products indi- 
genouH to Europe were s|>eedily introduced, producing even more bounti- 
fully ihiin on their native soil, auch as the grape, the apple, the olive, the 
pear, the )ieach, the fig, the orange, the augar-cane, and especially tbe 
various cereals, such as wheat," oats, barley, rye, Hie. Daring all the 
years, however, that this country was a dej>endence of Spain but little 
interest was felt in the advancement of agriculture, from tbe fact that 
ander the exclnsive policy which actuatfd the mother country tbe ex- 
portation of tbe products of husbandry was strictly prohibited. The 
result waa that the i>eople more and more directed their attention to 
mining for gold and silver, or to the less laborious ociuipation of sheep 
and cattle breeding,f and Anally even in tbe upper interior portions of 
the country, where the cultivation of the soil received its first impulse, 
only enough breadstuff's were produced to supply a very sparse popnJa- 
tiott} while in the provinces of the littoral, i. «., those bordering on the 
Uruguay and Parana Bivers, the supply was in great part obtained 
from abroad — rather a meager supply indeed, since op to a very recent 
period meat was almost the exclusive food of the inhabitants of tbe 
pampas. What fiour was consumed came principally ftom Chili and 
the United States ; and this portion of the conntry, even within tbe last 
few yearS) in seasons of drought or universal scarcity, has still been 
dependent to some extent upon those countries for its Bnpplies.t 

■ The flrat wheat wu introdaced into the conntry by s Spaolab lady of Trojilln, who 
took great paina to disseniinala it among the coloQists, of which the GoveroDieiit, to it* 
OT«dit, was not unmiudfal. iler name was Maria de Escobar. History, which is bo 
much occapied with celebratiDK the scoargea of honiaQi^, should take pleasure in 

commemorating one of its real oenef actors (Preacott'a History of the Conqneat of 

Pern, vol. I, note on page 142.) 

i The sheep and goats from which the conntry was first alooked wen introduced 
by way of Peru. This was accomplished by Domingo Harllocz de Irala, the goTemoc 
of Paragnay, in the year 1550. The Inca Qarcilnao aays that in 1556 he saw sold in 
Cnsco iheep at |50 and $60, gold, each. In 1569 tbev bad increased so that they were 
worth but |4. Qoata that in 1554 were worth as high aa $140 each had at the end of 
the oentnry mnltiplied so much that no one took notice of them. — (See Garcilaso, 
Royal Commentariea, b. 9, chap. R) 

Thechrunicler Zarate mikes mention thqt when the Viceroy Blanco Nnnez prepared 
to attack the rebel GonEalei Pizam> he paid 13,000 gold diiUan for 35 molea. This 
was in 1549. — (See Itomingnex's Hisioria de la Keptibllca Argentina.) 

In regard to homed cattle it is stated that the original stock, consisting of elKht 
cows and one ball, were hronght by two Portugese brothers, Ouea, fhiin St. Catae- 
rine's, Brazil, to Faragnay ; yet as early as 1590 we are informed tbat homed cattle in 
Fern were worth only $5 a head, and their introduction from that snnrce wonid have 
seemed most natural. When D. Juan de Uaray came down from Asuncion to re- 
cstabliah the colony of Buenos Ayres (1558) he bronght with him the cattle wbiob 
have since spread over the Argentine pampas and developed intA twenty millions, 
Ihongli their propagation was greatly aBsisted sabseqaently by Governor Ortiz de 
Zarate, who, in 1566, bronght from Charcaa 4,000 cows, ewes, maT«a, and goata. 

t In regard to this eiolnsive policy, which prevented all trade except with the 
mother conntry, and which so serionaly retarded the development of tbe Soath Amer- 
ican colonies, it appeara that all tbe Spanish poaseoeiona were claimed a« Bnta of the 
Crown. In Ita name a ministry or tribnoal resident at the court exercised supreme 
government -under the title of Council oF Ibe ludee ; and tbe commerce of tbe colony 



m held by a company of merohanls which was called the Contract Hnnseof Seville, 
ID which place it held ita seat and ei^joyed the monopoly of the commerce of the New 
World. All oommercial tiansaottona were made through this contract house or bv 
private partlea wbo held special lioensea, paying to the IciDg a oertaio portion of their 
ffains. HotUng wm allowed to be exported ITom the oonntry but gold and othar 



314 AGBICULTUBB IK THE ABOBHTIKE REPDBUC. 

It ia hardly oecessary to Bay tbat Id some of the upper proviiiues, eveu 
at the preseut diiy, the most primitive methods yet exist for the opera- 
tioua of agricaltare. When I visited that porrion of the uoootry only 
a short time ago, I was aorprised to see that the fields were prepared 
for planting vith plows made of wood ; that the wheat w»b cut with 
knives or sickles, and that it was threshed oat by meaus of a drove of 
horses driven over the sheaves spread out on the ground inside of a 
eorral. Jt is not aurprising that n great part of the harvest was lost 
through this manner of gathering aud threshing the graiu. Yet this 
had been the method practiced by their fatbers'since time immemorial ; 
and though they probably were fully aware of the fact that the inveut- 
ive genius of man had discovered more suitable agricultural appliauces, 
yet they were perfectly content with what they iiiid. 

AORICTTLTUBE AFTEB THE BEPABATION FROM SPAIN. 

It will be seen from this historical episode that agriculture in the 
Biver Plate has not in the past been an occupation in which the Argen- 
tines very greatly interested themselves. It was easier and involved 
less maiioal labor (the gaucho has an abhorrence of all work which cwi- 
not be done on horseback) for them to make fortunes in herding cattle 
and corraliDg sheep, aad leave their breadstu&'s to be brought to them 
Atom other countries. And yet there was some excuse atnoug the labor- 
ing classes for this. Agriculture is one of the arts of peace. It abhors 
"wars and rumors of wars." It flourishes best in those countries where 
"every mau can sit under his ownviueand fig tree with none to molest 
or make him afraid." This was something which uutil very recently 
the Argentine tiller of the soil was unable to do. The early history of 
the variona provinces, after their political separation from Spain, is an 
enumeration of civil commotions and petty revolutions. There was no 
permanent goverument, bnl the administration of affairs in each one of 
them passed to the hands of the chief who could muster the largest 
iMHly of armed retainers; aud these levies or musterings of the "pro- 
vincial guard," as the body of the people in each province was called, 
were made on the smallest pretenses, and without a moment's warning 
took men from the cultivation of their fields for one side or the other 
who were entirely ignorant of what they were to fight fur. 

In many cases their crops were taken by foraging pai'ties, and no 
remuneration was made for them. The laboring classes under these 
circumstances, unwilling to sow where they were not permitted to reap 
the fruits of their toil, abaudoned their fields altogether aud trusted to 
the fortunes of war for their support. It is a fact that after their sepa- 
ration from the ijpanish Grown, owing to the wars of the patriots among 
themselves, many of the provinces actually declined in population and 
wealth.* There was a state bordering on anarchy all over the conutry. 
While the cities which were the centers of law aud order were strag- 
gling to establish a constitutional general government, the rural popu- 
lation, representing the gaucho or lawless elemeot, was lighting to defeat 

m«tala ; but a« the Argentine proviucoB of Bdiuioh Ayres did not produue metata, no 
ooinmerce whatever was permitted, and Buunoa Ayrea Traa aupaiiit«d bj the king \a 
be the port which should gnard the treosnres of Peru from being amuggled. With the 
kcccMion of Philip II, the Unt governor of Bnenoe A;roa was allowed U> open the 
oommerce of thst port with those of Brazil ; and il it a aingaiM' oamnumlary en tke 
agrunnUnrai deoay ahich ennted that tke fint exportt JroM Buantu Ayrm otHuitled of 
fiour, tkt frtntt of CA« iabort of the Itdiaiu alia had been ooitqttitdaKdnatloei to tlMtrj/. — 
(See Domlngnez'B History of the Arsentine Bepublic. ) 
* Barbarie v Clvilttaoion, por D. F. Barmlento, pue 9i. r~' I 



AOBICULTDRE IN THE ABQENTlIfE REPUBUC. 315 

such a consnnimAtioti. There was not a city that did DOt feel tbe de- 
vastating effects of the contest. Baenos Ayres (province and city) vas 
especially unfortunate. Here the gavcho dictator, Rosas, ruled from 
1S29 to 18S0 with an iron tyraoDy aud despotic cruelty that kept the 
people in a state of the most abject fear and terror, making agriculture 
impossible and the possesBion of cattle a political danger. And wheD 
finally his pofrer was broken, it was not until 1869 that the fourteen 
Argentine provinces formally in general delegate .convention ratified 
the conRtitutJon which now binds them together as a nation, 

PROGRESS SINCE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIO 

Since then the national power has been more firmly established, and 
has occupied itself in building up and strengthening that republican 
inflnence and sentiment among the people, which is the basis of popu- 
lar government. The country since then has had its vicissitudes of 
attempted revolution, but the national authority has become too strong 
for the malcontents ; and a feeling of general security, which was never 
experienced before, is gradually taking possession of all portions of the 
republic Railroads and telegraphs are binding together with common 
interests and common aspirations the people of the different provinces^ 
and making those acquainted with each other who were formerly ene- 
mies and strangers. It is only since the last twenty years that the Ar- 
gentine Republic, as such, has had a conatitntional existence ; and the 
work it has accoraplished in laying the foundations of a stable govern- 
ment, and the progress it has made during that period in all the arts of 
peace (Considering the material it has had to work with), may well chal- 
lenge the admiration of the worid. General Bartolom4 Mitre, the hero 
of the decisive battle of Pavon, and the flrat President of the Argen- 
tine Republic, upon assnming the duties of his high office in 1862, 
seemed fully to understand that agriculture must be the basis, in great 
part, of the material prosperity and future progress of the country, and 
that the first need of rbe new nation was an active agricultural popn- 
lation to settle up the illimitable wastes of Argentine pampas. Through 
Dr. tinillermo Rawsou, the chief of his cabinet and an American by 
descent, a memoir was presented to the national congress,' calling the 
attention of that body to these important questions and nrging it to 
adopt measures to divide the abundance of cheap and fertile soil which 
the republic possesses and so make it accessible to the settler by its price 
and condition, thus giving the immigrant the perspective of an irrevo- 
cable property and easy acquisition, which is, after all, the most power- 
ful attraction to induce him to settle in the country. The Paraguayan 
war, however, broke ont a short time after, and deterred European emi- 
gration Irom seeking the River Plate iu such numbers as was at first 
anticipated. 

In 1868 Col. Domingo F. Sarmiento, who had for the previous six 
years been acting as Argentine minister plenipotentiary at Wash- 
ington, and whose able and discriminating mind had carefully noted 
the sources and causes of the mat«rial development of the United 
States, was elected U> succeed General Mitre in the presidency. Fully 
appreciating the dignity of labor from the early necessities and priva- 
ti'-ns of bis own family, be brought the whole of his official and personal 
influence at once to bear upon the adoption of methods to populate the 

* "H«moria presentado al Congreao NBaioaal par Dr. GuUleimo Rawson, Mlnlitra 
d«l lDt«ri0T dels BepllbUc& Argentina, 1IJ63." ,- [ , 



316 AOBICQLTCBE IN THE AROENTINE BEPUBLIC. 

country and to edavate the ]>eople. Possessing the active, progressive 
spirit which characterizes our own iustitutioDS, his three ^reat schemes 
were the establish tuent of the system of free public schools, the foster- 
ing of iniiuigration from abroad, and the advancumeiit of the a^rricul- 
tural interests of the nation. With the latter enil iu view, he inauga- 
rated the National Exposition at Cordoba, the first of the kind which 
bad ever been held in the republic. Be also couceived the idea of 
redeeming, for the purposes of agriculture, the-islands of the delta of 
the Parang Biver — islands whose beauty and whose harvests of fruits 
are now the marvel of all who visit them. But there lint:ered in the 
opinion of the public a grave doubt as to the possibility of opening 
farms for the production of grain on the treeless pampas, and, with that 
practical turnof mind which has ever characterized all his public labors, 
he matured the plan of testing the matter by actual experiment ; and 
he had the Goveruraent survey and lay out into small farms a large 
tract of wild pampa laud in the very heart of the Province of Bnenos 
Ayres.* These were disposed of to actual settlers wh • would devote 
their attention to at;ricultui-e, and especially the production of cereal 
crops. The whole country thereabout is now like an oasis in the desert- 
It has been literally made to " blossom like the rose." Chivilcoy t<i-day 
is one of the most charming spots in the Argentine Republic, displaying 
in allits environs asuccession of highly cultivated farms (chacras), &ad & 
wealth of timber belts, all the work of patient planting, which forever 
puts to rest the idea that the pampas are ouly suitable for pastoral pur- 
suits. 

Dr. Kicolas Avollaneda, who succeeded to the presidency in 1874, 
manifested throughout his administration a thorough devotion to the 
internal advancement of the republic, and labored zealously in the same 
direction as his predecessor, increaitiug the number of immigration 
agents in Europe and suggesting amendments in the laws with refer- 
ence to colonization and the sale of the public lands to settlers. Being 
a native of the rich agricultural province of Tncumau and a statesman 
who appreciates the viilue to the nation of this civiliziag industry, he 
took special interest in all movements looking to its development, among 
other things visiting and inspecting the agricultural settlements in the 
province of Santa F6, and encouraging those engaged in titling the 
soil by his presence and by his valuable suggestions. 

General Boca, the present iucnmbent iu the presidential chair, has, 
since he commenced his official career, exhibited an equal anxiety to 
foster and strengthen these growing iudustries of the country; and he 
has already acted as padrino or godfather to two agricultnral or indos- 

' In every form thiH Tar-Beeing patriot haa wHired against the nomadii life of the 
oattle-grower, which was an innnriooimtable barrier Ui the improvament of the rnral 
diBtricta. After tiro years' discusaiou be succeeded in gettiug Dermisaioo from the 
Govemmeat to survey aod lay out small farms, iu the North Amerieau mode, an eiten- 
aive tract, which was ia the possession of squatters ; and thane farma he sold cheaply, 
in part to the squatters themselves, and in part to the omigrants from other lands. 
He personally snpariateuded tha laying out of the squares with broad streets and 
plauting them with troas, which grew aa if by magic in the rioh pampas land that 
feeds countless herds of cattle without any labor to the owners. 

Od the occasion of opening the railroad recently completed to Chi vil coy from Buenos 
Ayres, many persons aooompanied the governor to witness the oeremony, and all were 
amazed beyond expression to see the spectacle. It was Chicago in the desert, as Col- 
onel Sarmieato has expressed it. For tha Brat time within the life of one man was a 
region in South America BO transformed. <• • • Where the indualrial movement 
ia most ouugpicuous at this railroad station the only square oslled fur a living man 
1>eare thenameof Sarmiento. — (Biographical aketoh of Domingo F.8armient«, b;Ur& 
Horace Mann, 1868.) 



AGBICULTUBE IN THE ARQENTINE BEFUBLIC. 317 

trial ezpositious, organized for the express purpose of displaying tlie 
manufactures of the Argentine people and the agricultural productions 
of the several provinces. Under his fostering influeuce and the nesur- 
ance which his administration offers for the continuance of internal 
peace and quiet, a greatly increased interest is now being manifested 
for agricultural pursuits and the opening of new farms — the fact that 
with the gradually increasiug development of the country the Argen- 
tine Republic has at leaat to some extent become an exporter of bread- 
staffs being an incentive to renewed efforts on the part of the people. 
The agricultural department, organized under President Sarmieato, has 
become a busy focns of the movement, collecting aud diffusing informa- 
tion in regard to the cultivation of the soil, distributing seeds aud use- 
ful plants to the different T>ortions of the republic, and scattering 
broadcast among the people theoretical and practical treatises on agri- 
culture. It is now engaged in preparing statistics to show the progress 
which has been made in this important department of national labor. 

PRESENT COKDITIOK OP IGBICULTUBE IK THE PBOTINCES. 

The public will await the publication of these reports with consider- 
able interest. Meanwhile, in the absence of official data, I can only 
give such general statements in regard to the actual condition of agri- 
culture and agricultural pursuits in the republic, and the agricultural 
possibilities of the different provinces and their adaptability for pmr- 
ticular crops, as is a£forded by the limited sources of information at hand. 
These are meager enough, though the following r4sum4* may not be 
aninteresting. 

PBOTINCB OF BUENOS ATBES. 

This is the most important, the most populous, and the most devel- 
oped of all the fonrteen provinces or states comprising the Argentine 
Republic. Within the old Indian fitmtier it contained about 2,500 
leagues of land, to say nothing of the vast territory attached to it lying 
in the neighborhood of Bahia Blanca on the south. But within the 
last few years the firontier has been greatly advanced, aud it is sup- 
posed to contain now about 7,^50 square leagues, though the total area 
Is not definitely known. Until last year its principal city was Buenos 
Ayres, but that has now been ceded to the general government as a 
capital, and it is henceforth to be, like Washington, under the control 
of the national congress. The new provincial capital htis been located 
at Ensenada, where, under the name of La Plata, an embryo city has 
been projected on paper. The province contains, however, a number of 
important towns, of which I may mention San Xicolas, Luj4n, Mercedes, 
Ghivilcoy, Lobos, Chascorrins, Dolores, Las Flores, Azul, Tandil, Per- 
gamino, Bragado, Bahia Blanca, &c, as also more than a huudretl 
smaller villages. 

The principal occupation of the inhabitants has heretofore been the 
raising of horses, horned cattle, and ^eep, aud the preparing the prod- 
uct for exportation, but considerable attention has lately been given to 
agriculture. In the immediate vicinity of Buenos Ayres and other 
large centers of population the land has become too valuable to be 
longer profitably used for pastond purposes, and, as in these localities 
agricultural pursuits pay so much better to the acre, there is now a wide 

* I am iuilebted to tbe reports of the agricultural departPieDt and of Mr. Richsnl 
Happ, formerly of tbe Dationol alatiaticalolBoe, for mucb of this informatiun. — E. L. B. 
37 A AUG 83 9 



318 AQBICULTUBB IN THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

extent of most promising farcia for leagaes in all directions, nortb, 
south, Knd west of Baeiios Ayres. Along the lines of the several rail- 
ways, and wherever there are growing towns, the tendency to convert 
cattle and sheep estan<n(u into farming lands Is every day becoming 
more general, while the flocks and herds are being farther removed ont 
towards the frontiers. It is only a short time ago that the province did 
not produce breadstnffs enough for its own consumption, but the sur- 
plus which now finds its way to a market in this city begins to consti- 
tute a large item in the freight trafBc of the railways. Every year 
shows an increasing breath of land devoted to the growing of wheat 
and Indian com, but the crops are not cooflned to these cereals. Bar- 
ley, oats, lucerne (alfalfa), potatoes, beans, sweet potatoes, pease, hemp, 
vines, vegetables, and fruits of all kinds are raised without any extra 
labor and produce most abundantly. 

There seems to be no doubt that the low islands in the delta of the 
Paran4 Biver, which are intersected in all directions by arroyos or small 
creeks, And flooded when the river is high, would make magnificent rice 
fields, but no effort has ever beeo made to try such a crop. CToder 
President Sarmiento's ioterventioD, a species of osier for basket mak- 
ing was several years ago introduced from Chili, and has spread over 
other picturesqne islands like magic, and it is now the source of an im- 
portant industry and considerable wealth. 

PROVINCE OF SANTA Ffi. 

This province, which a^oins that of Buenos Ayres on the north, ex- 
tends in a narrow strip along the Paran&< Biver and is bounded on the 
north by the territory of the Gran Chaco, an immense body of nusettled 
country extendiog to the confines of Bolivia on the west. The area of 
this province is stated to be 120,000 square kilometers. Itcontains bat 
twoimportantcities — Santa F4, which isthe capital, founded in 1627, and 
Bosario, which is the second commercial port in the republic and well 
kuown for its foreign commerce. This is the most Important agricult- 
ural province of the nation, and a very large proportion of the Euro- 
pean immigration finds a home there. While the southern portion is, 
like Buenos Ayres, an open pampa, the northern portion is covered 
with forests. Cattle breeding was formerly the important industry; 
and while this is still the occupation of many of the native inhabitants, 
the great wealtb of the province consists in the agricultural settle- 
ments, or " colonies" as they are called. These are becoming more and 
more prosperous, and every year a larger breadth of country, wrested 
from the eatancierog, is broken up and put under tillage. Last year the 
number of acres under cultivation was stated to be about 2,000,000. but 
since then many uew farms have been opened. All kinds of cereals, 
vegetables, and fruits notonly do well, bat in some oases produce two 
crops a year, thus furnishing a large surplus for export. 

PEOTIHCB .OF SNTBG BIOS. 

Bounded on two sides by the two great rivers, Uruguay and Paranfi, 
and ramified by innumerable water-courses, with rolling prairies of mar- 
velous fertility and stretches of superb forests, this is probably better 
adapted for agricultural pnr)>08es than any other portion of the republic. 
In its soil all the products of the temperate zone prosper magnificently, 
and the best results are sure to follow the labors of the husbandman; 
but, owing to the constant political disturbances, emeutes, and revolu- 



AGRICULTURE IN THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 319 

tiong which have for years lieen the curse of this province, it as yet 
makes but an insignificant showing in an agricultural point of view. It 
has an area of about 115,000 square kilometers, and possesses a number 
of promisintf towns, viz : Concepcion del ijruguay, which is the capital j 
Concordia, Villa Colon, San Jos^, Gualeguay, Qualeguay-Chei, Victoria, 
La Paz, Parang, &o., all of which, being located on t^e rivers, have more 
or less comoierce. The priDcipal occapation of the people, however, ia 
pastoral, and must eontiuae to be until more confidence can be placed 
in the stability of the provincial government, which thna far, instead of 
inviting agricultural immigrants, had rather placed stumbling-blocks in 
tbeir way. Ultimately, however, it will enjoy a better order of things, 
and then we may expect to see it the great grain-producing center of 
the republic. 

PBOVINCB OF C0RRIENTB8. 

This province, lying to the north of Entre Bios, and also between the 
two great rivers of the country, is a continuation of the Argentine 
Mesopotamia. It is equally endowed by nature with a fertile and well- 
watered soil, and with a climate which ia almost tropical it rivala Par- 
aguay in the exuberance of its vegetation. Its area ia about 135,000 
square kilometers, mostly devot«d to pastoral pursuits, in comparison 
with which agricultural interests are of bat small consideration. 

While no wheat ia grown, it produces maize, or Indian com, tobacco, 
cotton, peannts, &c., but one of its most important crops is mandeoea, 
from the root of which a very highly esteemed article of bread is made. 
Fruit culture, especially that of the orange, is quite important, and the 
exports of this delicious fruit to Buenos Ayres and Montevideo amoaut 
to many thousands of dollars aunnally. 

Its most important city ia that of Corrientes, fonuded in. 1588, which, 
besides being the capital, has a large commerce with the Republic of 
Paraguay and the territory of the Missiones. 

Other considerable towns are Goya, Bella Vista, Empredado, Monte 
Caseros, Mercedes, Poso de los Libres, &g., but tliey are mostly inhab- 
ited by natives and half breeds, who have no aptitude for tUe maoual 
labor of agricultural pursuits. 

PROVINCB OF CORDOBA. 

This is the most important of the interior provinces, possessing an 
area of 217,000 square kilometers, aud exhibiting a great diversity in 
the configuration of the soil. 

On the south it is " pampa,*^ and on the north and west begin the 
Sierrns of Andes, in which are found inexhaustible mines of silver, 
copper, and other minerals. There is accordingly more diversity in the 
occupations of the inhabitants — not only cattle breeding but mining 
being favorite pursuits. Agriculture flourishes on the mountain slopes, 
which, being exposed to the sun and well watered, invite the cultivation 
of the vine on a large scale, while the valleys, owing to their constant 
climate, are admirably adaptetl to the raising of the silk-worm. The 
climate, however, is so dry that resort must be made to artificial irri- 
gation; and this is yet accomplished in so rude and unsatisfactory a 
manner that agricultural pursuits, especially iu the cultivatiou ot 
cereals, are not attractive to the people. The capital of the province 
is the city of the same name, founded in 1673, and is the seat of the 



320 AQBICULTUBE IN THE ABOENTTNE REPUBLIC. 

celebrated TTniversity of Cordoba, tbe second in ago in either Mortb or 
South America. There also is located the National Astronomical Ob- 
8er\ator,v, noder the charge of Dr. Gould, the distinguished savant of 
Harvard College. The province does not lack small towns and villages, 
in the immediate vicioity of which considerable wheat, Indian com, 
lucern, &c., are raised, the latter crop being used for forage for fatten- 
ing cattle. In no other province, perhaps, is this artificial cultivation 
required, the natural grasses, which grow spontaneously, being suffl- 
cieut for such purpose the year round. 

PBOTINCB OP SANTIAGO DEL ESTEEO. 

ThiB province has a siiperAcial area of alraut 108,000 square kilome- 
ters ; a large portion of it, however, is covered with salines, which are 
entirely nnproducttve. The capital and chief city ia Santiago, founded 
in 1553; indeed it is about the only center of population in the province, 
much of which is still wild and unsettled. The principal occupation of the 
inhabitants is cattle-raising, agriculture having as yet scarcely a respect- 
able foothold there. In the last few years, however, considerable atten- 
tion has been paid to the cultivation of ihe sngar-cane, and I believe 
it promises good results. Very little wheat or Indian corn are pro- 
duced, a good portion of the food of the iuhabitants of the countrj' de- 
partments being prepared from the fruit of the atgarroba tree, which 
in different forms serves as nourishment for both man and beast. The 
province is somewhat isolated, aud is at present anything but pros- 
perous. 

PEOVINOE OP SAN LUIS. 

This province, which lies west of that of Cordoba, has a small city 
of the same name for its capital. Its superficial area is 126,000 sqnare 
kilometers, the greatest part of which is devoted to cattle-raising. 
Some little attention is also paid to the cultivation of lucern, for the 
purpose of fattening the cattle destined for export to the Pacific coast. 
The soil, however, is suitable for the cnltivation of all the productions 
of the temperate zone, though much more attention is just uow paid to 
mining pursuits, the adjacent sierras being rich in gold ana other min- 
erals. 

PROVINCE OF HENDOZA. 

This is the most westerly of the Argentine provinces, it being bounded 
on the west by the Cordilleras, which separate it from the Republic of 
Chili. It contains an area of 160,000 square kilometers, and its capi- 
tal is Mendoza, founded in 1669, and destroyed by an earthquake in 
1861. Considerable attention has, ftvm time immemorial, been paid 
to agriculture, the want of rain being compensated for by the coustrnc- 
tlon of aqueducts for artificial irrigfttion, which is provided by the Innu- 
merable streams which come down from the mountains. All produc- 
tions of the temperate zone do well in this province, though, except for 
supplying the local consumption, the principal crop is lucern, which 

Sasturage is in great demand for the cattle destined for the market of 
faili. As all cattle on the way to Chili must be driven through Men- 
doza by the pass of the ITspallata, which is the easiest communication 
with the Paciilc coast, and more than 50,000 horned cattle, without 



AORICm.TnSE IN THE ABQENTINE BEPUBLIC. 321 

coanting horses and mules, cross the province ever; year, it is evident 
that the amount of forage produced must be do inconsiderable item. 

Bnt the most important industry in Mendoza is its viticulture. The 
vine is cnltirated expressly for the purpose of making wine; and the 
article is compared by connoiaaeurs to the best claases of Burgundy. 

Large quantdtiea of raisins are also prepared for market, as likewise 
figs, olives, &e. These iudustriea are expected to assume greatly in- 
creased proportions, so soon as the Trans- Andine Bailway, now in coarse 
of construction, shall give outlets to market, either by tJbe Pacific or the 
Atlantic coast. 

PKOVIKCE OP SAN JUAN. 

This province, which has an area of about 100,000 square kilometers, 
and a capital of the same name founded in 1561, is situated to the north 
of Mendoza, which it very much resembles except that its mountainous 
features are more pronounced. Mining in gold and silver veins is its 
leading industry, thongh agriculture has always been a favorite occu- 
pation of the inhabitants, tbroagh a similar system of irrigation as that 
which prevails in Mendoza. All cereals and vegetable crops produce 
abundantiy, thongh that of lucem occupies about one-half of the ground 
under cnltivation. Excellent wine ie likewise produced, as also large 
quantities of raisins, fige, &c. It has recently been reported that bita- 
minons coal has been discovered in the province, though whether in work- 
ing quantities remains to be seen. 

PHOVINCE OF BIOJA. 

The area of this province is about 110,000 square kilometers, and it 
is famous for its mining industries ; also for Its cnltivation of the vine, 
which it grows in large quantities, and fVom which it produces a most 
excellent and generous wine. Very little attention is paid to the pro- 
duction of cereal crops, not nearly so much as nnder the Spanish rule — 
only enough breadstoffs being raised to meet the local demand. 

PBOVINCB OP CATAMABCA. 

Like the lB8^named province, the great industry of Catamarca is its 
mines. Its area is stated at 240,000 square kilometers, a large propor- 
tion of which is underlaid with rich ores of silver, copper, and iron, 
though there is a want of capital to exploit them, the province being too 
remote and too isolated to make it profitable at present. There is but 
a limited number of acres in cultivation, and hardly enough breadstnfb 
are produced to meet the requirements of the people. 

PBOVINOE OF TUCUMAK. 

This province lies to the south and west of Catamarca, and owing to 
its natural beauties and innumerable farms, is called not inappropri- 
ately the " garden " of the Argentine Itepubllc. Its superficial area does 
not exceed 70,000 square kilometers, a large portion of which is rela* 
tlvely well cultivated. There is but one city in the province, which has 
the same name and is the capital, its foundation dating back to 1565. 
Lying under the high ranges of the Andes, it has an excellent climate, 
well adapted to the production not only of the cereal crops of the tem- 



XuKlt^lc 



322 AGRICULTTIKB IN THE ABGEHTINE REPUBLIC. 

perate zone, bat those of the Bubtropieal regions. The fine pasturage 
on the moaotaiu spura feed immense herds of horned cattle, aod there 
are namerouB dairy farms, where is prodnced the celebrated cheese 
called Taf6, so popular among the native population. 

Consideraljle attention is paid to the tanning of hides, the dietillatioD 
of mm, and the planting of rice, tobacco, and latterly, of coffee: but the 
great and important industry of the people has, of lat« years, oeen the 
growing of sugar-cane, the breadth of land put down in this crop gradn- 
ally increasing every year. A nnmber of sugar establishments with the 
most approved machinery from England and France are now in success- 
ful operation ; and it is predicted that the province will soon l>e in a 
condition to supply the whole country with all the sugar it consumes. 

PROVINCE OF BALTi.. 

This province is north of Tucuman, and on the west adjoins the Re- 
public of Bolivia. It has but one center of population of any size, and 
that is its capital, bearing the same name as the province. While it 
ia richly endowed by nature and has a benign climate, with abundant 
irrigation, the hand of man has as yet done but little towards the devel- 
opment of this portion of the republic. 

While all cereal crops do well, the country seems especially adapted 
to the growing of coffee; and this will probably be its great industry, 
80 soon as the province has an outlet t« market through the extension 
of the Eosaria, Cordova and Tucuman Railroads, on the opening of the 
Vermijo River to navigation. 

PROVINCE OF JUJUY. 

Owing to its isolation and the sterility of its western portion, this 
province is the least populous and least capable of sustaining a popula- 
tion of any in the republic. Its surface which contains 90,000 square 
kilometers of area, is to a great extent a series of precipitous mountains, 
whOFo heights and abysses make it difficult of access, to say nothing of 
extensive cultivation. Jujuy, it^ capital, is but an inconsiderable place, 
founded in 1592 ; thongh in its immediate vicinity, as also that of 
Ledesma, another small city, there are numerous well-cared-for farms, 
the climate permitting the production of the crops of every zone. 

THE GEAN CH ACQ— PATAGONIA AND MISSIONES. 

These fourteen provinces compose pretty much all the inhabited por- 
tions of the Argentine Republic. The territories of the Gran Chaco, 
whose area is 5,400 s<;[nare leagues ; of the Missiones, whose area is 700 
square leagues; and of the Patagonia, whose area is 8,000 square leagues, 
are all, to a great extent, mere howling wilderness, where the plow of 
the husbandman has not yet broken the primitive sod. Of course none 
of them bos any agricultural development. Missiones was once the seat 
of the Jesuit power in South America, and portions of it were in a high 
state of agricultural prosperity, but upon their expulsion from thecoun try, 
that region went back to a state of primeval desolation, where nothing 
DOW remains to tell of what once was but the overgrown ruins of inhab- 
ited towns, whose crumbling churches, built in the highest style of 
mediaeval art, have come to bo the solitary abode of wild animals. The 
Gran Chaco has never been explored, and its wealth of agricultural 



^dbyGoogle 



AGBICDLTUHB IN THE ABOESTINE REPUBLIC. 323 

poaaibilities most remain a sealed book, which will be opened only in 
the fullness of time, when it shall be required for the needs of popula- 
tion. Patagonia, heretofore the most unpromising of all the early 
Spanish discoveries, at \B»i begins to show some signs of vitality. Along 
the Atlantic coast several settlements have of late years been made, 
and the wheat which comes from Chuput, Carmen de Patagones, aad 
the valley of the Bio Negro is already aii earnest of what the near 
fn tnre is to develop J while the recent explorations of the nultnown regions 
lying under the shadow of the Andes prove them to be made up of mea- 
dows and rich valleys, whose exuberant vegetation is capable of sustain- 
ing countless millions of cattJe and sheep; and whose fertility, one of 
these days, will make of that portion of Patagonia the granary and garden 
spot of tLe Argentine Republic. 

But all this will not happen in the life-time of the present generation. 
It will not happen until the population of tbeconntry, which now scarcely 
exceeds two and a half millions of souls, shall have increased, by the 
process of natural generation and by immigration from abroad, into 
ten or twenty times its present numbers. This may seem like a wild 
dream; but even I can remember when the great Stafes of Illinois, 
Missouri, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were the homes and hunt- 
ing-grounds of wild Indian tribes; when Kansas and Nebraska were 
outlying deserts which it was thought could never be inhabited; and 
when all the golden coast of our Pacific States slept unconscious of the 
marvelous destiny which it has since achieved. 

THE WANT OF POPULATION. 

The great want of the Argentine Republic is population — men, pro- 
ducers, tillers of the soil. It has everything else in abundance. It has 
mineral resources whose extent and value cannot now be adequately 
estimated. It has agricultural possibilities which are exceeded by no 
country in the world. It has a climate which ranges from the sub-trop- 
ical to that of Northern Canada, and is capable of maturing every variety 
of cereal, crop, fruit, or vegetable which is known to the earth. All 
this country needs is peopUs to come in and take possession of these 
abounding giils of nature so valueless in their undeveloped state, and, 
touching them with the magic wand of intelligent labor, turn them into 
wealth. 

IMMIOEATIOTf OF EUEOPEAN AGEICULTUEISTS. 

In this work, as I have said before, but little can be expected ttom 
. the native inhabitants. They are not by nature an agricultural people. 

The Spanish race, whatever have been its conquests in the field of 
Mars, has never been celebrated for its achievements in that of Ceres. 
It does not take kindly to that kind of manual labor which extracts 
wealth out of the soil. For three hundred years the descendants of the 
Spanish conquerors have been satisfied with the easy, unlaborious life 
of watching flocks and herds, which, in the midst of the exuberance 
of wild pasturage, did not even require to be fed ; and for three hun- 
dred more they would be satisfied with the same indolent occupation. 
For three hundred years they have ncRlected the greater riches which 
the teeming soil affords, and for three hundred years more, except they 
be quickened by the new life which comes to the country from abroa<l, 
they would continue this neglect. Fortunately for the Argentine Be- 



izedbyGoOgle 



324 AORICULTUBE IN THE ABGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

public, this new life ia beg:inmng to seek these shores and to stimulate 
the agricaltural stagnation which has bo long existed here, with its 
strong and vigorous blood. This immigration is from Europe, and of 
late years especially it has heeii composed of men whb were not only 
not ashamed of work, but who knew how to work — of men who have 
brought their lares and penates with them, and have come not with the 
expectation of accumulating a sndden fortune and then retiring (tom 
the country, but with the intention of remaining here and making this 
their home and the home of their children. This s!^ream is yet bat a 
small one. It is, however, setting in with a steady, persistent current, 
and as the internal peace of the nation becomes more and more assured, 
it ia certain to increase and develop. In 1S57, the first year of the 
Argentine Bepublic under its present federal constitution, it was only 
4,931; in 1876 it was 17,046; in 1877 it was 28,798j and for the year 
1882, just closed, it was 41,700. Since the year 1857 the total nnmber 
of European immigranta arriving in the Argentine Republic by sea 
amounts to 711,165, or about one-quartor of the present estimated pop- 
ulation of th^ country, and of this number it is estimated that about 
three-flfths came from the porta of the Mediterranean, mostly from 
Italy, Until Iateyears.thegreater portion of these newly-arrived immi- 
grants preferred to remain in Buenos Ayres and other cities and ports, 
devoting themselves to the commerce and navigation of the rivers, and 
to-day nearly all the coasting trade and lighterage is in the hands of 
Italians. Others engaged in handicraft and mechanical pursuits, and 
to-day they have the control of almost all the departments of skilled 
labor in the republic. But only a few of them thought of cultivating 
the soil. To a great extent this is now changed, nearly all the arrivals 
coming from the agricultural districts of Europe, and npon reaching 
these shores they have gone forth, laborious and courageous, into the 
Argentine wilderness to subdue and civilize it. 

Already, where they have been properly settled in the diCTerent 
"colonies," they have achieved results which never entered into the 
imaginations of the native gaiickos, who stood looking on incredulously. 
Of all these agricultural centers, the province of Santa F6, as I have 
said before, shows the greatest advancement, though the ckacrcu or 
small farms which are under cultivation in the province of Buenos 
Ayres are beginning to occupy a large breadth of land. Efforta are 
also being m^e to attract them to the province of Entre Rios, where 
several agricultural settlements have already been formed, and to the 
province of Corrientea and the territory of the Gran Chaco, For 
years to come, however, these far interior districts cannot expect to re- 
ceive much of this immigration; or at least, not until they shall he 
unable to secare suitable farming lands in this and the adjoining prov- 
inces. 

DBAWBACS TO AGEICULTUEAL PEOGHESS. 

The great drawback to agriculture in this province (Buenos Ayrea) 
has been that the land ia in great part held in immense tracts by wealthy 
estancieros, who persistently devote it to pastoral purposes. Of late, 
however, there has been manifested a disposition, especially in the dis- 
tricts nearest to the large towns, to divide np these large estates into 
convenient farming lots; and, if not to sell, at least to rent them. 

Such tracts, suitable for agricultural purposes, conveniently located 
along the lines of existing railways are, however, genemlly held at sach 
exorbituDt figures that but few of those seeking locations have the 



AOBICULTURB IN THE ABGENTUIE REPUBLIC. 325 

means to purchase; aud of coarse it is not to their advantage to rent, 
break the land, and erect valoable improveiuentB unless they can soenre 
long leases, which it ie not always easy to do. 

The tendency, howeTer, in all new oonntries is towMds the dividing 
ap of large estates ; and it cimnot be a great while before there will be 
a partition of the landed property of the country to a greater or less 
ext«nt among the heira of the present holders. It aeema strange, mean- 
while, that the Argentine Gk>vemmBnt, which knows the value of agri- 
oaltnral immigration, does not make provision for ftimiabing cheap 
&rms to intending settlers. If this were done and liberal homestead 
and pre-emption laws were enacted by which all shonld be enabled to 
obtain public lands in convenient unbdivisious and on easy terms, there 
would be more hope of speedily filling np the pampas with a thrifty 
population; but until such provision is made, it cannot be expected 
that there will be any such impetus to immigration to the Argentine 
BepubliQ as we have seen mnniag in the direction of the United States. 
President Boca lays the blame upon the national Congress. He has in 
his messages represented to that body the importance of making ade- 
quate Borveys of the national domain with a view to its sabdivisioo 
and sale or pre-emption, bat no attention has yet been paid to his sug- 
gestions. 

The propriety, however, of such action is so obvious that it cannot 
certainly be much longer neglected, 

AMOUNT OF LAND IN CULTIVATION AT THE LAST CENSUS. 

In regard to the amount of land now under actual cultivation in the 
Argentine Bepablic, it is impossible to give more than mere estimates. 
The last official retuma were made in 1875, and though the figures were 
stated at the time to be too low^ they will at least give some idea of 
what was t^e agricultural condition of the several provinces at that 
date: 



^dbyGoogle 



S26 



i.QBICDIiTnBE IN THE ASQBNTIKE BEPUBUC. 



■t| rapma jojaqamii 



ni (upni JO jM|iini>i 



lit ■upna JO nqran ji 






:SS|- 



»sSi 



iti njpvns ]o jsqamtj 



I[|t«.ip«n3 JO J»4ani|i 



D) (upma JO iMiDm^ 



HI mpuno jo j jqmtix 



SiS 



sSsi 



SS2SS 



mi 



iUK 



ISi 



S|3Sg383 



Sc|gE!B|3s 






ll-SSIsIil 



I 1 

! i! 
■^ PI 

i^ if lis 

lliilrlf 

= SSSSSSt 



: i : -si 


il,!i 



n^Suulils^>3uH^'i 



iz^dbvCoogle 



AQBICULTUBE IN THE ABGENTIHE REPUBLIC. 327 

Kedaciug the fibres of the above to acres, it appears that the total 
amoaiit of land reported to be under cultivation in 1875 in the entire 
Argentine Bepuhlio was only 825,492 acres, of which 271,436 were in 
wheat, 249,396 in Indian corn, 209,572 in alfalfa, and the balance in other 
crops. As these returns, however, are known to have been very care- 
lessly taken, it is not too much to add 20 per cent, to the above, which 
would give the whole aniouut of land devoted to crops in the republic 
at the date mentioned at about 1,000,000 of acres. 

But this was nearly ten years ago. Since then, while there has pro- 
bably been but little change iu any of the far int^ior provinces except 
perhaps Mendoza, Tucuman, and Santiago del Estero, there has been a 
very notable increase in the number of acres which have been placed 
under cultivation in the provinces of Buenos Ayres and Santa F^. 

In Tocumau and Sautiago del Estero, within the last few years, a 
large additional breadth of land has been planted Id sngar-cane, but I 
am unable to give the figures. 

THE AGBICULTDRAL PROVINCE OP SANTA V±. 

In regard to Santa F6, the especial seat of the agricultural colonies,* 
the government of that province takes great paina to keep the public in- 
formed of their progress and condition. The following table embraces 
the statistics for the six years ending with 18SI : 

Conditiou of the Colons of Santa FUn 1881. 



lit, 2U5 Hi, 493 

tO.Dlsl 108, SSO 

IS, HI I i*,71t 

a, KS I 4. 821 

3,Mfi I 0,483 

3.10? 3.(63 

14. MB , IS. 533 



Nnmberof feet of 

«" . 

Infuegu I ^13.121 



21,248 45, ear I 9S.343 73,030 

t,B8S,S4a I 2,24S.MT 2,519, 7M 2.S02.5TB 

40,030 { 36.103 1 40.402 < 8T,MD 

2M,«45 338.311 473^301 | 4M,BS5 



By reducing the squares iu the above table into acres, it will be seen 
tUat in 1881 the total breadth of laud under cultivation in the province 
of Santa F6 was 649,980 acres, of which 435,320 were in wheat, 97,104 
in Indian corn, and the balance in other crops; while the wheat crop was 
494,886 fanega8,t or about 3,093,031 English bushels, an average of 
about 7 bushels to the acre — owing to drought, the yield being short. 

Comparing the breadth of land under cultivation in the province of 
Sauta F6 in 1875 with that under cultivation in 1881, it will be seen that 
there has been an increase of about 500,000 acres in six years, with a 
corresponding increase in all the appliances of agriculture. The fol- 
lowing table, also compiled from official statistics, shows the assessed 



* This JB the term applied hy the Argentine Govemmeiit to the agriculture set 



tlemeot* or ceuten, peopled priDolpall; by foreigneF 
t A faDflffa is 3.6936 bushehi, or 137.^0 liters ; bnt : 
eoDal to ls> aiTobfts of 2? """"-'» ^i. ai.Aiit m. i^.. 



idb,Googlc 



326 AGRICULTUBE IK THE AKOEHTINE REPUBLIC. 

value of the propertiea pertaining- to the Santa F6 colonies for the year 
1881: 

8AHTA Ti AORICUI-TimAL COLOMIBa. 

VBlne. 

Fanning iMidfl 17,663,639 

Fencing uidoorraU 1,738,615 

Houaee 4,992,560 

Workoien ...- 1,2«7,004 

Workhonea 655,608 

Mules 31,868 

Cow» 4,991,099 

Uttroa 349,397 

Shwp , 244,364 

Hogs 161,470 

Thrashing machinM withatcam power 341,050 

Thraahing machines with horse power 19,5G0 

Stoam flour milla 1,497,500 

Horse floor milla 46,900 

Beaptng maohines L 1, i67,7ffi 

Spring carta 130,640 

Pour-wheeied wagono 916,665 

Other vehicles 156,704 

Other agricultoral implemesta 633,636 

Total * 26,948,054 

The above figares show a very gratifying progress, and cannot be 
regarded otherwise than as moat satisfactory. 

AGEICULTUBB IM THE PaOTIIfCB OF BUENOS AYKE3. 

In regard to the province of Buenos Ayres, in which since 1875 there 
bas also been great agricultural development, I am not so fortunate in 
obtaining statistics. I lately addressed a note to the provinciai statis- 
tical office, asking informatioa aa to the number of acres in cultivation 
and the breadth of land planted in difi'erent crops, bnt the director was 
not able to give me a single figure ou the subject. As n census of the 
province was taken last year, I supposed the information I requested 
would be readily accessible, but it seems not; and 1 shall have to wait 
until the census is published, which will probably be some time during 
the present year. I can only meanwhile make a rough estimate of the 
present condition of agriculture in this province, and assume, if there 
were 33,000 squares in cultivation in 1875, and the industry here has 
kept equal pace with the development in the adjoining province of 
•Santa F^, that the number of squares under cultivation in 1881 would 
be about 115,000, or say 460,000 acres. These figures correspond very 
nearly with calculations made by persons engaged in tbe grain trade, 
who, as the season was a good one, estimated tbe yield of wheat for 
1881 in this province at 3,000,000, or an average of 12 bushels to the 
acre on 200,000 acres planted in that grain. 

BREADTH OF LAND IN CULTIVATION IN 1881. 

So that on the basis of the above calculations for the provinces of 
Buenos Ayrea and Santa F^, and assHiniug that in the other twelve 
interior provinces there was no greater breadth of land planted than in 
1876 (which is probably considerably understating the fact), the follow- 



. Google 



AGKICULTUEE IN THE AUGEKTINE KEP17BLIC. 329 

JDg table will a])proximatel,r sbow the agricullural condition of the Ar- 
geiitiue Kepablie in 1881, to wit : 



^^ 


|liieoltlv»tioB.[ 


lu VhMt. 

Aertt. 
*3S,S2I 

132, IM 






»torop. 




[ J™. 1 


3.0*3,011 

■as 


















ei7.S2S 




.. 




B.B18,Ult 




; 1 



That is to saj^in the fourteeiiprovincesof ^he Argentine Repnblic, with 
an area of about 2,000,000 sqaare kilometers — say 800,000,000 acres — 
there was under cultivation in 1881 only 1,<>)2,392 acres, all the rest 
being more or less devoted to grazing purposes. The showing is a very 
small one, but compared with Uiat of 1875, it will be seen that Ihe num- 
ber of acres of land devoted to agriculture has more than doubled in 
the short space of six j-ears. 

ATURAGE YIELD OF OBB&ALS. 

In regard to the average yield to the acre which is assumed in the 
above table, It is proper to state that it is not tbe true average, hut the 
years mentioned were exceptional in that the crops were very seriously 
injured either by reason of continued drought or by tlie ravages of 
locnsts. In good years the average yield of wheat in the province of 
Santa F^ is about IjSOO kilograms per cnadra (16 bushels per acre), and 
in the province of Buenos Ayres it is 2,500 kilograms per cuadra (23 
bushels per acre), or about double the production of 1881. Owing to 
the causes mentioned, the crop has not hitherto been considered as a 
certain one, the hopes of the husbandman frequently being blasted by 
the advent of an army of devouring locusts when his fields were almost 
ready for the harvest, or earlier In tbe season a drought has set in and 
burned np the first promises of a crop. Good care and attention, im- 
proved methods or times of planting, and above that Providence which 
not only overrules bat " gives the earlierand the latter rains," may in time 
remedy these drawbacks t« the prosecutiou'vf this industry. 

TABLE SHOWING THE STEADY PE0OBE88 OF AGBICULTT7RE. 

Kotwithatanding the vicissitudes of agriculture in the Argentine Re- 
public, owing to good or bad seasons, the steady progress which the 
production of cereal crops is making in this country, in spite of all draw- 
backs, will be seen firom the following table of imports and exports, 
which, beginning with the year 1870, I have carefully compiled from 
official sonrees. These figures tell the history of the agricultural move- 
ment in the Argentine Bepublic daring the last twelve years better than 
any words I could make use of. The quantities are stated in kilograms, 
the Argentine Bepablic having adopted the metrical system for custom- 



id bvGoOgIc 



330 AGBICULTUBE IN THE AROEKTIITE BBFUBLIC. 

lioase purposes, so that to reduce them to English pounds it will be 
necessary to multiply by 2.2: 





T«„. 












WliMt. Flonr. 


..^ 


^ 




1,424, era 2,1*0,802 

1.054,706 1,017,481 
2,560.807 ( 7,417,808 
4,847,451 10,02!, 7811 

sjs! '■as 

«,8C0 8,255 

18,88^178 l,ll!;717 


S5S,W8 
107, 008 
713,708 






























































"WBW 
































Teui. 


^... 


"""■ 


Indiu p„,,,„j^ 


Baled 


"■'"-'■ 


^. 
















,5ffi 

4.BS0 




is 

S53,'U1 

218,124 

1,918,887 




2:241.383 
8:722:845 

8:417: 1S7 

0,231,310 








1.848.280 45.278 

KS.1l iS 

IT, 004. 044 IE , 181 

!!;SSK i;,;ffi 

25,052,180' T3.S05 
88,363,885, 1 






















S:ffi 

2,547,488 
24si44S 
















,SS 






s&ee;;;: 


"B.'ii»i,'eiB 

is; 614: 472 






OT,ns 




sOirldgtotlMloon 

bTkaeagantlDT 


lU, there «> 
882 only ino 


aafollanof thewhei 
ode the port ofBnenoi 


1 0^.188 


0, Had B putlll ttaan 




!«,. 



Leaving outof tbe count the years 1880 and 1881, in which, owing to 
the depredations of the locusts, the wheat crop was almost a failure, 
it is interesting to note the gradual but persistent reduction in the 
amount of imports, and the corresponding increase in the amount of 
exports of wheat and breadstuffs. The crop of 1879 shows from the 
export figure what a good harvest means to the republic. The year 
1882, just closed, was not a good average in wheat, though iu Indiau 
corn the crop was the largest ever harvested iu the couutry, the surplus 
for export being over 88,000,000 kilograms, or, at 56 poands to the 
bushel, over 3,400,000 bashels (nearly 100,000 tons), from the port of 
Buenos Ayres atone, while linseed was also added to the list of ex- 
ports. 

PHOSPECTS OP THE PKBSENT HA.BTE8T. 

So much for the crops of former years. In regard to the harvest of 
the present year (1883), now in process of being secnred, all reports 
coincide in saying that it will be a full average yield, not only in wheat, 
but in all other cereals, and from the breadth of laud which has been 
I>lanted it may be assumed that there will be an unprecedented surplus 
for export. ,- - r - 



AGBICDLTURE IN THE ABOENTINE BEPUBLIO. 331 

WHEAT. 

From parties who have carefally stndied the snbject 1 have obtained 
a statement, which I give almoet in their own vords, of the amoant of 
laod pat down in wheat : 

Id tbe province of Buenoa Ayrra, 120,000 squarea 4^7000 

Id the province of 8»dU Fd, 140,000 aquBTM 560,000 

Total in th«M two proTtnoM 1,040, OOo 

TSov, assaming that the yield in the province of Buenoe Ayrea will 
be 18 bnsbela to the acre, and in the province of Santa F6 16 bnshele 
to the acre, we will have the following prodnct: 

Btuhelap 

FoT the province of Buenos Attcs 8,640,000 

For the province of Santa F6 8,900,000 

And, Mty, for the other proviDces 3,000,000 

Total yield of wheat, li«3 18,600,000 

±8aaming that the oonsnmption in the Argentine Republic ie foar 
bushels to each inhabitant, and that the population is 2,500,000, there 
will be at least 10,000,000 of bushels in excess of the home demand for 
export, either in gr^n or in floor. 

INDIAN COBN. 

In regard to the crop of Indian com, I have seen no estimate of the 
breadth of land which is now iu cultivation; but it is believed to be 
nearly a third more than it was last year, and the yield will be a good 
one, so that it may be safely predicted that there will be a surplus for 
export of at least a,000,000 bushels. 

LmSEED. 

For the last two or three years qaite an interest has been manifested 
in the production of linseed for export. The yield of linseed is from 30 
to 40 for one, and the country seems well adapted for its production. 
As we have seen, the amount of the export in 1881 was about 7,000 
tons, while in 1882 it was over 21,500 tons. This does not include the 
fiber, which heretofore has been neglected; but the art of preparing 
it for use has been introduced into the country, and hereafter it is prob- 
able that hemp fiber will become also a valuable article of export. I 
may add that several oil mills have also recently been erected in the 
country for the coming year, and great hopea are entertained that the 
production of linseed oils will hereafter be added to the national indus- 
tries. It is anticipated that the crop this year will largely exceed that 
of 1883. 

OTHEE CBOPS. 

The same may be said of the harvest of barley, oats, rye, potatoes, 
beans, some of these crops until now not having to any great extent 
been cultivated in the country. Barley especially, owing to the greatly 
increased demand for it in the manufacture of beer, has this year re- 
ceived more attention than ever before. 

PEANUT PEODUCTION. 

I would also refer to the growing of peanuts, which, especially in the 
province of Santa F^, is a most prolific crop. There is a large demand, 



332 MEXICO INVITING IMHIQRATIOK. 

not only abroad but liere in the country, for tliis crop, which is used in 
the manufacture of olive oila, as also, mixed with flour (half and half), 
in the prodactiOQ of a most excellent variety of bread. The amount 
raised during the last year in Santa F^ is stated to have been 300,000 
arrobas, or nearly 150,000 bushels. This year it is estimated that the 
crop will be double that gnantity. The amount exported to France last 
year was 114,792 kilograms. 

THE GBNBHAL AQRICULTUBAL OUTLOOK, 

I hare tfaae rapidly sketched the history of agricnlture in the Argen- 
tine Republic from the beginning, and have, fW>m such meager statis- 
tics I have been able to find, attempted to show its progress and its 
present condition. While, as I have said, the showing is not remarkable, 
either in the present breadth of laud in cultivation, or in the amount of 
the crops, It at least iudicates a steady forward movement, while the 
impetus that terra culture is now receiving from European immigrants 
promises much more for the future. The great point thus far gained, 
however, is the positive fact that the pampas of the republic ai%, in 
every essential, all that could be desired for the production of grain 
crops. 

Heuceforth, in my opinion, the agricultural development of the coun- 
try is perfectly assured. The amount at present produced iu excess of 
the home demand may seem small and trivial; but, when we remember 
that only forty years ago, even the United States had in part to import 
its breadstuffs, and consider the marvelous advance we have made in 
the production of grain crops since that time, we may to some extent 
appreciate the prophecy that it will not be many years before the Ar- 
gentine Republic, which already has a yearly surplus for exportation, will 
be contesting with us for a division of tlie food supply for Europe. In 
beginning this report, I said that this event would probably not happen 
in the very near future. It may, however, be nearer at hand than some 
of us may imagine. For many years to come the leading industry of 
the Argentine Bei)ublio will probably continue to be the growing of 
cattle and ^eep; but it is evident to my mind that the Argentine Re- 
public is to have a grand future, as one of the great grain-producing 
oountries of the world. 

B. L. BAKER, 
Consul. 

United States Consulate, 

Buenos Ayres, January 23, 1883. 



KEXICO IWITINO IHHIOItATION. 



I think I shall better comply with the wishes expressed in your dis- 
patch No. 369, 15th February, 1883, by replying, as far as I am able to 
do so, to the questions propounded by Mr. W. B. Gibbs in his letter to 
the Hon. G. G. Bibrell, ol the House of Representatives, which accom- 
panied it. 

1st. "Reliable information as to the desire of Mexico to have immi- 
grants t" 

Laws intended to attract immigration to the country' were passed at 
least as far back as 1845. 



UEZIUO mVITINQ UfHIQBATION. 633 

The \aw of the 27th of Xoveinber of that year, which was published 
on the 27th of November, 1846, provided for the appointmeDt of a coun- 
cil of immiKratioD to act under the supervision of the department for 
foreign affairn. 

The law of the 4th December, 1846, attempted to regulate the duties 
of the immigration commisBions, and to determine the rights and obliga- 
tions of the immigrants. I believe that the effort of this legislatiou was 
uot successful. m im 

Within a comparatively recent date the attention of the Ooverament 
has beeu again directed to the question, and, by meausof contracts with 
private Lodividuals and corporations, efforts are being made to' supply 
what is considered the greatest need of the country. 

I have not been able to procure a copy of all the contracts entered 
into upon this subjects 3till I have seeu a sufficient number of them 
to enable me to place before you a general view of the qaeetion and how 
it is being handled, and which will give to parties interested, or who 
propose to interest themselves in the matter, some basis upon which to 
form their operations. 

1*. On the 3l8t Aagnst, 1881, a contract was entered into with Ed- 
mund Clay Wise, a citizen of the United States, and his associates, for 
the colonization of lands in the State of Chiapas. 

The lands were to be such as might be acquired by the company, 
which he should form and represent, by contract, and "Terrenos Biu- 
dio3." Of these lands I shall speak further on. 

The nationality of the colouist^ is not prescribed in this contxact. At 
least three hundred families and two hnndred colonists are to be estab- 
lished within six years from the date thereof. 

■J". One was entered into with the -'Meridional Mexican Bailway 
Company" on the 16th of Jaunary, 1881, for the oolonizatiou of lands 
situated along the line of that road, ruauing through the States of 
Vera Cruz, Puel)la,Oaxaca, and Chiapas. The nationality of the colo- 
nists is not alluded to in this contrftct, 

3°. On the 2 1st of January, 1881, one was entered into with Robert B. 
Symon, a citizen of the United States, and his associates, for the colo- 
nization of "Terrenos Baldios" in the frontier State of Sonora. 

The colonists are to be Europeans of the Latin race, and native-born 
Mexicans. 

i". On the 17th of January, 1882, one was entered into with the Mex- 
ican Colonization and Industrial Company for colonizing the islands of 
*' Tiburon " and "Angel de la Gnarda," in the Gulf of Cortez, Lower 
California, to which was afterwards added the island of" San EstebaD," 
with one hundred families, of whom two-thirds are to be Europeans and 
one-third Mexicans. 

'5". One was entered into on the 21st of February, 1882, with vaiioos 
parties (names not published) for the colonization of lands in the State 
of Morelos, district of Cuernavaoa. Nationalii^ of colonists not men- 
tioned. 

6°. One was entered into, on the 6th of June, 1882, with Baf^I Por- 
tas Martinez, for colonizing lands in the States of Yucatan and Oam- 
peachy. The colonista are to be taken from the Canary Islands. 

7*. On the 4th of December, 1882, one was entered into with General 
Jesua Alonzo Flores and Castielo Zenteno, for the cultivation of "Ter- 
renos Baldios," in the State of Tamanlipas ; nationality of the colonists 
not specified. 

8^. On the 18tb of December, 1882, one was entered into witii Hr, 
37 i iTO83 10 , Ccwglc 



334 MEXICO IHVITISG IHMIOSATION. 

Daniel Levy, for tbe colonization of lands in tlie State of Vera Craz, 
canton of Zangolia, witb Europeans, Canary Islanders, and Egyptians. 

d*. On the 6th of Janaary, 1883, one wa« entered into with Daniel 
Xievy, by which he was aathorized to form a j,^eneral colonization com- 
pany, with a capital of 94,000,000. By this contract it ia agreed that 
5,000 families, to comprise 20,000 persons, are to be colonized ; of these 
80 per cent, are to be Europeans, the rest Mexicans. 

10°. On tlie 10th of January, 18S3, one was eut«red into with Mr. Isa- 
dore Epstein, for introdncing into the country German agriculttiriBts. 

To this end he has agreed to go to Germany and Switzerland, there 
to lectnre and publish pamphlets upon the advantages which Mexico 
offers to agricultariats. 

11'. On the 17th of Janaary, 1883, one was entered into with Salva- 
dor Halo, to establish a colonization agency, embracing Europe and the 
American continent. 

The agency is to bring, within the term of ten years, from 20,000 to 
{(0,000 European and American colonists, 75 per cent, of whom are to be 
Europeans. 

12». On the 2eth of Janaary, 1883, a contract was entered Into with 
Lonis "Veidier, by which he was to go to Europe with the view of induc- 
ing Irish, German, and French to migrate to Mexico. 

13*. On the 3d of April, 1883, one was entered into with Ramon 
Fernandez, with the view oi colonizing lands in the State of San Lnis 
Potosi. The nationality of the colonists is not stipulated. 

Other contracts have been made; one, notably, with a Mr. Fnlcheri. 

I regret that I cannot give yoa any of the details of these, as they are 
the most important ones, seeing that they have been carried into efi'ect. 

One was also made with Mr. David Ferguson for the colonization of 
Lower Oalifoniia, but it has been declared forfeited. 

I ^so understand that one was made with Iklr. Satnnel Branuon, an 
American, for the colonization of lands on the northern frontier, 

I do not famish you with a copy and translation of all these contracts. 

I do, however, send yon a copy and translation of one of them, which, 
theoretically at least, appears to me one of the most important, inas- 
mach as it gives, in detail, the obligations of the Government to the 
contractorsj the obligations of the contractors to tbe Government and 
to the colonists ; towards the contractors, and their status in the country. 

It may not be uninteresting to you to have a general view of these 
respective obligations. 

First, as to the obligations assumed by the Government towards the 
contractors. 

In the "Wise" contract the GoTemmeuC agrees to pay 960 for each 
iminigrant above the age of fourteen years, and $30 for those between 
three and fourteen. For each head of a family (husband and wife, with 
or without children) a bonus of 930 ; payment to be made one month 
after the arrival of the immigrants in the State of Chiapas. 

TOie contract with the Meridional Railway Company provides tor the 
payment of 935 for each immigrant landed, of upwards of seven years, 
and a bonns of $30 for each family when established ; payment to be 
made one month after the arrival of the colonists in the States of Vera 
Oruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, and Chipias, or at the place where they are to 
be definitely located. 

The Symon contract does not stipulate for the payment of any price 
for immigrants. A grant is made of S0,000 hectares of terrenos baldios 
in ^e immediate neighborhood of the Arizona mountains. 



.t>oglc 



MEXICO INVITING IMMIGRATION. 335 

The contract with Andrade gives $35 for each immifrraDt above the 
age of seven years, to be paid one month aft«r their arrival. 

The Martinez contract allows 436 for each immigrant above the age 
of twelve years, and $15 each for those between three and twelve. To 
each head of a family shall be advanced, for the period of one year, (6 
per month for each person of over twelve years of age, and $'i for those 
between three and twelve. 

The property assigned by the company to the immigrants to be njort- 
gaged by him in favor of the Government, to secure the advances made 
as above; these advances to be paid in ten equal installments, to com- 
mence two years after the immigrant has been established. 

By the Flores-Zenteno contract, the Government is compromised to 
pay i6« for each immigrant above the age of fourteen years, and 430 
each for those between three and fonrteen years. In addition a pre* 
mium of 930 to be given to each family when established. These pay- 
ments are to made one month after the immigmnte have been settled in 
Tamanlipas. 

By the Levy contract theGovernmentU topay to the company 9315,000 
annually for thirty years. 

Under the Malo contract the Government agrees to pay the company 
9700 for each head of a European family of agricolturists; 9350 for each 
member of his family of seven years of age and upwards; 9700 for each 
agriculturist ; 9500 for the head of each family of Mexican agricoltnrists : 
9250 for every Mexican family of seven years of age and upwards ; 9100 
for each foreign laborer or mechanic ; 950 for each member of a family 
of the above of seven years of age and upwards. For each one who 
comes oat as an agricnltnrist, but who is not one, his passage and 
transportation. For each member of a family of the above of seven 
years of age and upwards, his passage and transportation. The same 
with those who come out and cannot agree with the company after their 
arrival. These payments are to made by the government within thirty 
years. 

By the Verdier contract the Government agrees to pay 95,000 for his 
expenses ; 930 for each immigrant of fourteen years of age and upwards, 
and 915 to those between six and fonrteen. 

By the Femandea contract the Government is to pay for each immi- 
grant above fonrteen years of age 9G0, aud 930 for those between three 
and fourteen ; besides a bonus of 930 for each family located. The pay- 
ment to be made one month after the colonists shall have arrived. 

Assume that he will bring in one thousand. Say that one- half of 
them will be under fourteen years of age: For one 500 he will receive 
930,000; forthe second 500, 915.000. Say a family averages four per> 
sons ; for each family he is entitled to 930 ; two hundred and fifty fam- 
ilies, 97,500; total to be received in money, $52,500. 

The Meridional contract calls for two thousand families. Asaame a 
family to consist of four persons, the number of immigrants will be 
eight thousand. I may assume as a basis for the calculation that they 
will all be above the age of seven years, inasmuch as the families wilt 
average largely over four persons. For each immigrant, therefore, the 
OoTemmentwillpay935. Eight thonsand immigrants, at935=$290,000. 
Besides 930toeach head of family, of which there will be2,000, $60,000; 
in atl the Meridional contract, 9340,000, 

There is no money stipulation in the Symon contract. 

In the Andrade contract the number of families is not limited. The 
number, however, cannot be lesd than one hundred; say two hundred 



336 MEXICO INTITINa IHUIOEATION. 

Cbmities of foar hundred immigranta. Foar haudred immigrauta, at $35 
«ach, $14,000. 

The Martinez coDtract calls for one thousand fomiliea, or four thou- 
sand immjgaiits, at (35 each, 1140,000. 

Id the Flores-Zenteno contract the number of immigraats ib not liu- 
ited. Assume that the number will be one thousand above the age of 
fourteen years. For these be ia to receive $60 each; total, $60,0()0. 

The Daniel Levy contract provides for the introduction of iive thoa- 
>«atid families, to amount to twenty thousand persons. The money obli- 
gation on the part of the (xovemment to Mr. Levy is to pay him anna- 
ally $315,000 during thirty years, or $9,450,000. 

The Male contract provides for the Introduction of from twenty thou- 
«aDd to fifty thousand immigrants. For each bead of a family of 
■agriculturists he is to receive $700, and $350 for each member of his 
family above the age of seven years. For every farmer, $700. There 
are other gradations which it ia not necessary for me to recapitulate 
here. Assume that Mr, Malo will bring into the country under this 
contract twenty thousand adults. The amount which he will receive 
will be $14,000,000. 

The Yerdier contract provides for the introduction of one hundred 
f^Uiea, for which he is to receive about $3,000. 

There is no limit fixed to the number of immigrants to be introduc«d 
under the Ramon Fernandez contract; anppose that he brings one thou- 
sand adults into the country, as he is entitled to $70 for each of these, 
lie will receive $70,000. 

The foregoing figures are, of course, in a great measitre only approxi- 
mative, but I believe that I have rather under than overstated them. 
They aggregate, as will be seen, about $24,000,000 of obligations which 
have been assumed by the Mexican Government, the two largest and 
.altogether the most important of which are to be paid within thirty 
jyears. They make an average of over $800,000 per annum for that 
^period. 

Other obligations have been assumed by the Government in favor of 
•the contractors, but they relate principally to assuring the possession 
of " terrenes baldios," which in my opinion are of little importance, for 
reasons which, when I come to the third of Mr. Gibl^s questions, I shall 
develop. 

In the Levy contract, however, this obligation is a serious one, ioas- 
mnch as the Government has agreed to sell to the company as much as 
eight hundred thousand hectares of " terrenos baldios," or other national 
.jproi>erty which has not been destined to the public service. 

Obligations have also been imposed upon the contractors in favor of 
'the immigrants whom they may introduce into the country. These ob- 
ligations differ in the several contracts, and are matters of agreement. 

I give you a synopsis of those contained in one of them, which will, 
X suppose, suffice. 

in the Levy contract the company is obliged to erect for the use of 
«ach colouy which it may establish, and without any compensation 
Iherefor, one forge, one carpenter's shop, a telegraph or telephone office 
vitii the furniture necessary thereto. It is obliged to furnish, and with- 
out any compensation, fonr lots of fi:om four to five hundred square 
meters each, centrally located, for the erection of warehouses {qfidnaa). 

It is obliged to establiab, and to support for two years, two primary 
schools, one for boys and the other for girls, under the direction of Mex- 
ican professors. 

It is obliged to give to each colonist of ui>wards of seven years of age 



MEXICO mviTlHO IMMIGRATION. S37 

fonr bectares of land in the table laod (tierrafria) or three hectares 
in the lowlands {tierra catUnte), and la no case shall a family of agri- 
cnltaristti reeeire less than twelve hectares on the table land or nine iif 
the lowlands. 

It is obliged to famish each head of a family, on arrival at the colony^ 
a good hoase, snfflcieut for the necessities of the family which is to in- 
habit it, erected on a lot of fonr hundred square meters, each house to- 
consist of three apartments, one of which shall be at least twenty 
meters square and the others sixteen meters square. 

Besides, the company is obliged to give to each head of a family of 
agriculturists one pair of ozeu or mules, one cow, one mare or she male,, 
one hog, one she Iamb, two pairs of fowls or doves, two plows, one of 
iron and the other of wood, with their accessories; one ax, one larg&. 
knife (machete), one wooden mallet, one paring chisel, and safflcient 
seed for the two first plantings, snitabte to the land to be coltirated, to 
the value of *2() each. 

The obligations to the company are : 

They are to pay for the lands which shall have been allotted to them^ 
and for the animals, utensils, and perdiem which they shall have received z 
each head of a family |700; each member of a foreign family abovfr 
the age of 7 years (350. 

Thus a family of four x>ersouB would pay for a house and lot and th» 
animals and implements above named, together with about 9300 ad- 
vanced for their support and about 35 acres of land, $1,050. Theyhav» 
ten years to pay this in, dating from the second year of their posses- 
sion. 

The obligations of the company to the Government are: 

Tlie colonies are to be established within five years Avm the date oT 
the contract. They are to bring no colonists into the country who hava 
been sentenced to punishment for the commission of a crime; they ar» 
to be agricultaristB and artisans. 

The company are to deposit in the Monte de Piedad, six months after 
the signing of the contract, $50,000 to secure the performance thereof. 
These $50,000, as soon as the first colony shall hare been established, 
is ceded to the Department of Pomento for the development of agri- 
cnltnre. Upon the referment of the $60,000 mentioned, the Govera- 
mentwill reserve $100,000 out of the moneys to be paid to thecompany- 
to secure the performance of the contract. They are to pay to the Got- 
emment — 

For each head of n faiuily of foreignera.. ■ (3SP 

For euch member of n family nf foreigners above the age of 7 yean.. 175 

For each head of a Meiican family .. 9S0 

For each member of a Mexican family above the age of T years.... ...... .... ■ 1S& 

Total OOtf 

With these suggestions and the contract in view, any person inter- 
ested in the question may form an approximate estimation of the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of the contract. 

The status of the colonists is that they are Mexicans in the sense that 
whatever difficulties they may find themselves in are to be decided by 
the tribnnals of the Bepublic and they are without any rights as for- 
eigners. 

' 2d. "How long does it require to become a naturalized citizen of 
Mexicot" 

No time is specified by the law. Naturalization in Mexico takes placo 
in several ways 

,iz.db Google 



338 MEXICO IKTITIKO lUMIQBATION. 

lat By the act of the President, upon application of the party, made 
before the judge of the place of his residence, from which it muet appear 
that the applicaut is a persou of good character and has an honest 
mode of livelihood. 

2d. When the sod of a foreifni^r horn iu Mexico, and who has been 
emancipated during his minority, allows a year to pass after baring 
attained the age of majority, without having declared his iuteutioo to 
retain the nationality of his father. 

3d. When in the act of emancipation of the son of a foreigner it is 
not declared that he retains the nationality of his father. 

itb. If he accepts a public employment which is reserved to Mexicans. 

5th. Marrying a Mexican woman, coupled with the declaration of in- 
tention to establish himself in Mexico, with the qualities of a Mexican, 
which declaration must be made within one month from the celcbratiou 
of the marriage if it took place wilhiu the Kepublic; within one year 
thereafter if it was celebrated ontside of it. 

6th. Coming iuio the country as a colonist under the pvotectioD of the 
laws which specially regulate colonizatioa. 

7tJi. When a foreigner purchases real estate in Mexico without reserv- 
ing, at the time of purchase, hia nationality. 

8th. When a son is born to him in Mexico, of a Mexican woman, unless 
he reserves his nationality. 

Naturalization confers upon the party naturalized all the rights and 
imposes upon him all the obligations which belong to and devolve upon 
Mexicans, except those which are especially reserved. For ioatanoe, 
naturalization does not entitle a person of foreign origin to become 
President of the Kepublic, a magistrate, attorney -general, governor in 
many of the States, public writer (notary public), &c. ifeither can they 
enter upon public lands in the States or Territories adjoining the country 
of their birth or in which they were naturalized. 

3d. " Are any inducements in the way of homesteads or land grants 
offered by the Government to actual settlers who become citizens ; and 
if so, what"! 

I believe the Mexican Government has no ascertained national do- 
main. 

I understand that ail effort is now being made in that direction on 
the Pacific coast iu the neighborhood of Acapulco, as well as on the 
northern frontier, but without any published result so f^. 

There is no national land office, and so the Government does not know 
what, if any, lands it possesses. 

There is, however, supposed to be a great quantity of land known as 
"terrenes baldios." 

The literal translation of this term is, I believe, *' uncultivated lands." 
In law it signifies lands which have no known owners. 

Article XXIVof theConstttution of 1847 recognized the existence of 
such lands, and authorized Congress to assume control over them and 
establish rules governing their occupation and the price at which they 
might be sold. Congress exercised this right by couferriug upon the 
President of the Republic, for the time being, the power to regulate the 
matter. This successive Presidents have done. The first time by Presi- 
dent Juarez, then by President Diaz, and last by President Gonzalez. 

The price at which these lands may be acquired is fixed by the Presi- 
dent every two yeai-s, and it is a notable fact that the prices fixed by 
President Gonzalez is less than those fixed by either of his predecessors, 
ttoat which it may, I think, be assumed that the attempts of the Go%'- 
ernmeut to get them ocenpied has not been successful. 

,iz.db Google 



MEXICO INVITING lUHIOB^TION. 339 

One great difacalty in the way is tbat the party who wiahea to occapy 
theae lands mast first And them ; when he thinks be has fonnd them he 
denonncea thetn to tie judge witliia whose territorial jurisdiction they 
ate. The judge then issues a proclamation, in the nature of a monition, 
calling upon all persons claiiniog title to them to appear and defend 
the rights within a certain time. The time elapsed and no one ap- 
pearing to content, the party denouncing them is ordered to he put in 
possession. But, as you are aware, the lands in this country have been 
largely granted, some of the grants extending, as I may say, from sun- 
rise to sunset, and the difficulty is in fluding good lands which have no 

In all of the contracts to which I have directed your attention the 
Government has conceded rights to these "terrenos baldios" and to 
other pnblic lands, but the fact is, as I have before stated, the Oovera- 
ment has no lauds which it can dispose of. 

The best evidence of which is that it was obliged to purchase those 
upon which the immigrants under the Fulcheri contract were located. 
And it is well to observe in this connection that whereas Americana 
may obtain permission from the Government to acquire lands within 
twenty leagues of the northern frontier, they cannot do so under the 
law in respect of the " terrenos baldios." I do not go into auy further 
details upon this point, because I think that no man in his senses (no 
American at least), who wishes to establish a colony in Mexico, would 
go in search of these lands. He would naturally first become the nn- 
diapnted owner of a property which he desired to colonize Ijefore he 
entered upon the speculation. 

4th. "Are immigrants trom the United States received without pr^u- 
dice, or are they regarded with suspicion by the Government or by the 
people!" 

I cannot answer this question authoritatively, for the reason that 
there is nothing that I can call an American immigration into the 
country. 

There is a large inveatmentof American capital here in railroads and 
in mines, but the number of our citizens who come here is small. 

Those who do, come in search of employment on the railroads, or in 
the mines, or as clerks, and if I may judge by the number of those who 
apply to this legation and to the American benevolent association for 
assistance to enable them to return home I should say that coming to 
Mexico had not bettered their fortunes. 

Doubtless this is due, in great measure at least, to a want of knowl- 
edge on their part of the language of the country^ to a difference la 
the habits oftbe people here from those they have been reared amongst: 
to a difference in the methods of business, and to the fact that men fail 
here as they fail elsewhere. 

Upon principle, I see no reason why the Government or people should' 
feel suspicious of or be unfriendly to Americans who come to Mexico 
with the sole purpose of bettering their fortunes at the same time tbat 
they are assisting to develop theresouiccs of the couutry, thereby adding 
to its wealth and increasing its i>opulation. i 

But this can only be ascertained, iu so tar as the Government is con* 
earned, by actual experiment. The experiment would be primarily 
t«stedby some citizenof the United States proposing to make a contract 
similar in terms with one of those I have referred to. Its solution could 
only be obtained after the contract with the Government had Iieen 
granted, and after Americans had been colonized thereundw. 

I do not very well see bow the Mexican Government could object to 



S40 . MEXICO INTITING IHUIGRATIOH. 

enter into ench contract with an American in riew of the contracts 
which it haa made for obtaining a large immigration from other coan- 
triea, for Mexico would, I should suppose, be alow to shut her doors in 
the face of Americans after having opened them so wide, and at each 
cost to herself, to other nationalities. Even should the application &om 
any cause be refused (and I have no reason for saying that it would be), 
immigration of peacefal Americans into the conntiy could not be legally 
denied. The refusal on the part of the Mexican Government to make a 
contract for American immigrants would only affect any snbsidy which 
might be asked to assist in the colonization, for the laws of the conn- 
tiy not only anthorize bitt invite immigration, without respect to the 
nationality of the immigrants. 

By the laws as they now exist, foreigners are permitted to purchase 
lauds anywhere within the limits of the Republic except, in so far as 
Americans are concerned, they be situated twenty leagues ftom the 
boandary thereof. I do not see, therefore, what could prevent a citizen 
of the United States from porcbasing a tract of land in the country 
within the limits prescribed by law and colonizing it with Americans, 
if he sees fit, and has the means to do so. Nor do I doubt that in such 
a case, if the settlers were attempted to be interfered with unlawfully, 
the Mexican Government would attempt at least to protect them in 
their rights. 

It will not, however, have eacaped your observation as regards the 
acts of the Government, that with two or three exceptions the contracts 
I have referred you to stipulate that the colonists from abroad are to 
come from countries other than the United States ; and, as regards the 
■views of the peojile upon the subject, it would not be at all surprising 
if they should prefer, for a time at least, to have immigrants come among 
them who are more akin to them in race than Americans are, and who, 
as a mle, are of the same religions faith as themselves. 

It is qnite imposaible for me to state what steps have been taken by 
the parties in interest to carry out the greater number of the contracts 
to which I have referred you. 8till less can I venture an opinion as to 
what they will result in. Neither can I express any opinion as to 
■whether the Government is or will be in a condition to comply with the 
obligations it has assumed towards the contractors in case they shonld 
in good faith comply with