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Aseistani F/igskiait to, and Leclwrer on Physiology in, St. Marij's Hospital. 




• t . » • l« 


ra?-X.U';?.yiaci--'!^c-pcal A'lrr^al July 1 IB74- 

. L-Ji 


^-»-^-'1-^ THE 


JULY 1, 1874. 

—Synopsis of the Principal Facts elicited from a series of 
MieroBcopieal ifesearcAes upon the Nervous Tissues. 
By Dr. H. I>. ScHMiDr, of New Orleans, La. 
(^Rmil before the Koyal Mickoscofical Society, Jirne 3, 1874.) 

1. The ganglionia bodies of the spinal mairow and brain repre- 
sent plexuses of nervous fibriUiB, wliich are continuons witli the 
fibrillaa of the procesees and axia cylinders arising from them. 
Each plesns, thus formed, embraces a mieleus which is distinguished 
by a double contour repreaenting its wall ; it contains a large 
nucleolus and a great number of small granules. The nucleolus is 
also distingnished by a fine, sharply-defined doable contour, and 
filled up by granules. In the large ganglionic bodies of the spinal 
marrow, it contains besides the granules two clear bodies of a 
reddish lustre; the one of these is never wanting, and is distin- 
guished by ita size, amounting to jrajs """ ■ in diameter, and also by 
ite brightness. It appeara in the form of a veaiele with a dark 
granule in its centre. The other is usually somewhat smaller, and 
frequently absent. In many cases, in addition to the nucleolus, a 
few smaller ones are observed, which, however, contain no glimmer- 
ing vesicles, but are only filled with granules. 

2. The Cortical Layer of the GerArwm.' — The nervous portion 
of this consists of numerous ganglionic bodies of different form and 
size, and of vertically or horizontally-ranning nerve fibres arising 
from them ; ftirther, of a fine granular substance, lodging a netimrk 
of fine granular fbrillm, and also a considerable number of free 
nuclei. The typical form of the greater portion of the ganglionic 
bodies in this portion of the brain resembles a more or less spindle- 
shaped tuber, from the sides of which a number of greater or 
smaller conical processes arise ; the whole body appears, therefore, 
in a thin section in the form of a triangle or pyramid. The average 
number of the processes is four or five. One of themj the pyramidal 
or pointed process, takes a vertical course toward the surface of the 
cerebrum ; another, sometimes two, the lateral processes, pass in a 
more or less horizontal direction ; ajid the rest, the basal processes, 

* The descriptioii relates mainly to the convolutiona of the convoiilj iif tlio 
hemiapboroa of Ibo ccrobrmn of mau. 


2 Transactions of the 

pass vertically toward the white substance. The pointed process 
attains, according to the size of its ganglionic body, a length of 
fix>m xVff to tVcf nam. In its more or less serpentine course it 
gives off a number of small lateral branches, which soon terminate 
in the above-mentioned fibrillous nervous network of the granular 
substance. I have never seen this process terminate in a dark- 
bordered nerve fibre. From the lateral process, a dark-bordered 
nerve fibre always arises ; it attains a considerable length, and its 
course is more or less horizontal. A direct communication between 
two ganghonic bodies by means of these fibres I have never seen ; 
in some cases, however, I have observed them dividing into two 
branches, the ramifications of which ended in the terminal network. 
From the basal processes, the nerve fibres of the white substance 
arise. On ganglionic bodies of medium size, two of these processes 
are ordinarily seen, one of which is converted into a nerve fibre, 
while the other divides dichotomously. One of the branches result- 
ing from this division forms also the axis cylinder of a nerve fibre, 
while the other subdivides into finer branches, which terminate in 
the network. In the larger ganghonic bodies, even the first basal 
process divides and gives lise to two axis cylinders. 

In the upper strata of the cortical layer a considerable number 
of smaller ganghonic bodies of a more triangular or quadrilateral 
form are met with. Their deUcate processes run about in the 
same direction, and terminate in the same manner as those of the 
larger bodies just mentioned. 

The nerve fibres of the white substance, arising from the basal 
processes, leave the grey matter in the form of bundles, composed 
of about eight to ten, or even more nerve fibres of different thick- 
ness. Generally, two or three of the fibres, of from -^ to ^hs nim. 
in diameter are met with in each bundle ; the rest are finer fibres, 
of about -chf to ttttt nam. in diameter. One portion of the finer 
fibres appears to arise from the smaller ganglionic bodies of the 
upper strata, but another arises directly from the terminal nervous 
network. At first, the bundles of nerve fibres are separated from 
each other by considerable interspaces ; but as others arise from 
the ganghonic bodies situated below, the interspaces become more 
narrow, until, at the border of the white substance, they are 
entirely lost, so that the bundles come to lay contiguous to each 

In tracing the different nervous elements, imbedded in the 
granular substance of the cortical layer qf the cerebrum, from the 
surface toward the white substance, we first meet with the exceed- 
ingly fine, felt-like, fibrillous neurogha, covering the surface and 
extending throughout the whole cortical layer to the white sub- 
stance. Directly under the neuroglia, in . the uppermost stratum 
of the cortical layer, a considerable number of nne dark-bordered 

Royal Mieroscopical Socidt/. 3 

nerve fibres are seen crossing in various directions ; the terminal 
ramifications of which form an imperfect network. The meshes 
of this network, measuring about -^ mm. in vndth, extend into 
the granular substance to a depth of ^V mm., and are gradually- 
lost in the fine terminal nervous network, already mentioned. A 
considerable number of free nuclei, surrounded by pigment granules, 
are distributed throughout the stratum to a depth of r^jy mm. 
Advancing farther, we now meet with the first ganglionic bodies, 
forming a layer of about ^nnr nim. in depth. The direction of the 
processes of these bodies is various and indefinite, as some pursue a 
vertical and obUque course, while others run in an opposite direc- 
tion. Their further connection is difficult to discover, as they can 
only exceptionally be traced to a greater distance than xw ^^' 
From certain observations, I suppose that those fine dark-bordered 
nerve fibres on the surface, above mentioned, as well as others of 
the same kind, running horizontally in the interior, are derived 
from them. I doubt not but that these small ganglionic bodies also 
send a nerve fibre to the white substance. The transition of the 
ramifications of some of their processes into the terminal network 
can always be seen. 

About Tinr Dam- from the surface of the cortical layer, the 
gangUonic bodies commence to change their form by the lengthening 
of their pointed process, and thus approach the above - described 
pyramidal type. Gradually mcreasing in size, they attain, about 
^nr Dam. deeper, their maximum, with a length of from t-Jxt to 
y^ mm. These bodies, the most perfectly developed, and repre- 
senting the type, form a layer of about -rfinr ^am. in thickness. 
Advancing still deeper, they diminish again in size, and become, to 
a certain degree, though not without exception, more spindle- 
shaped, in which form tney extend to the white substance. At the 
same time they decrease in number, so that in the lowermost layer 
of the cortical substance the fibrous element already predominates. 
The decrease in size of the gangHonic bodies in approaching the 
white substance, however, is not so considerable as might be sup- 
posed, for they still attain a length of about t^tt nun. or more; 
their pointed process, however, is proportionately thinner. 

3. The Cortical Layer of the CereheUum, — This consists of 
the true cortex or so-called grey layer, and of the reddish-grey 
mbcleated layer. In the latter, the transition of the grey matter 
into the white, composed of nerve fibres, takes place. 

The grey layer is about -^ mm. thick, and consists of gan- 
glionic bodies and free nuclei, imbedded in a fine granular substance 
through which a terminal nervous network extends. The principal 
gangUonic bodies are those of Ptirkinje, well known by their pecu- 
Ear form. They are found at the inferior margin of the grey layer, 
whence they extend their enormous antler-shaped processes with 

B 2 

Tranaadions of the 


their extensive ramifications throngliont the whole grey kyra-, to 
terminate in its terminal network. Another mnch smaller procesa, 

arising from a point opposite to the large process, passes into the 
nucleated layer, and is transformed into a dark-hordered nerve 
fibre. Distributed thronghout the granular snbstance betweea the 
extensive ramifications of the targe ganglionic bodies of Purkinje, 
a number of smaller ones of a triangular form is observed. From 
their acutely projecting angles fine processes arise, which, however, 
even in the most favourable cases, can be traced only to a very 
short distance. Single free nuclei are also distributed throughont 
the whole layer. In addition to the elements of the grey layer just 
mentioned, there are a considerable number of fine nervous fibrillsB, 
which, arising directly from the terminal network, pass over to the 
nucleated layer, either sbgly or in the form of anastomoses. They 
arise in all parls of the grey layer, and approach in a vertical direo- 
tion its inner border. At the summit of the convolution they 
penetrate in this direction into the neighbouring nucleated layer, 
more or less parallel to the axis of the convolution. At the sides of 
the latter, however, they make a greater or smaller curve, before they 
leave the grey layer, in order to pursue a course parallel to the axis. 
The nucleated layer is a continuation of the grey layer. Its 
examination is rendered difficult by a large number of nuclei 
densely distributed through it, and preventing one from obtaining 
.a clear view of the relative arrangement of me axis cylinders and 
nerve fibres passing through the interspaces. In examming a very 
thin section at the summit of a convolution, it will be observed that 
the granular Bubstance of the grey layer extends through the whole 
nucleated layer and even farther, and fills up the interspaces left 
between the nuclei, fibrillfe, and dark-borderea nerve fibres. There 
will also be observed a number of fine nervous fibrillie, which, 
singly crossing or anastomosing with each other, pass over from 
the former to the latter. The greater portion of these fibriilse are 
most probably derived from tie terminal network of the grey 
layer ; a small part of them, however, may arise from the smaller 
ganglionic bodies, a conjecture which I have not been able to con- 
firm by direct observation. But it is certain that a large part 
o£ them originate in the network, not only in the grey but also in 
the nucleated layer. In extremely thin, somewhat torn sections, 
especially at the border of the nucleated layer, the fibrillous 
terminal network, passing through the granular substance, can 
be distinctly recognized, as well as fine and short fibriUee arising 
from it, which, al'ter onflstomoaiug with each other here and there, 
finally unite to ioqa fine axis cylinders. These are soon trans- 
formed into dark-bordered UMTt) fibres, and after passing through 
the nucleated layer, more or less parallel with the axis of the con- 
volution, at last disappear m tho wliito siibatauco. 

Royal MieroscopicaT Soaeii/, 

At the sides of the convolution, a part of the fibril Iffi, originating 

tjn tho network of the grey layer, take aaother ixiuras, by making 

\ itefore leaving the grey layer a turn toward the base of the convo- 

I hition ; then they enter the nucleated layer, and, after being 

I «mverted into dark-bordered nerre fibres, run along ita border 

F v^jnnd the bottom of the anlcufl, to pass over into the neighbouring 

I sonvolution. These fibres connect, therefore, the grey layer of two 

eonvolutions. Nevertheless, other fibres, leaving ite grey layer 

, around the bottom of the aniens, ore also observed, which cross 

those connecting fibres obliquely and pass through the nncleated 

iayer into the white substance. 

I The ganglionio bodies of Purkinje are found, aa wo know, near 

I itlie inner border of the grey layer ; many of them project even 

I ;with a part of their body into the nucleated layer ; their basal 

1,'^Dcess belongs therefore to the latter. When we meet with this 

MocesB entirely isolated, it is generally partly torn off, and there- 

OTe seldom longer than ^V ^^ . Neverthele^, 1 saw it paisa into 

I K dark-bordered nerve fibre, which I was able to pursue, while 

I jaaeing along between the nuclei, to u considerable distance, and in 

> direction toward the white aubatauce. Its diametor near its origin 

is jIt! mm., diminishing. at a distance of about ^'q mm. from the 

^body to -BTTB nun- 

The dark-bordered nerve fibres, iBsuing from the nucleated 

Rlayer, form the white substanc«^. The transition from the former 

bto the latter, however, is only gradual, and it is therefore ditfi- 

ult to draw a distinct limit between them. The difficulty consists 

[1 the extension into the white anlistance, not only of the nuclei, 

ying now farther distant from each other, but also of the granular 

mbatance, which here still appean in the form of small isolated 

EiRToupB of granules, though without terminal network. The fine 

■ifibrillous neurogha, extending itself between the nervo fibres, from 

Vihe white substance below upward, contributes also to lend to the 

iwhole structure a confused appearance. As fej as I have been 

^ble to ascertain, there exists no communication between the indi- 

Elidnal nerve fibres of the white Bubstance of a group or leaf of 

^convolutions of the cerebellum." In examining these fibres in a 

thin section, or in a fine bundle, spHt off from the white substance 

at a point where they leave a group of convolutions, a considerable 

difference is found to exist in their diameter. While this, namely, 

. jneasares in the greater number of fibres from ^^-^ to ^^ mm., 

thers are met with of only ^^ mm., and, again, some even as thick 

* irio mm. We might venture to presume, thereibre, that while the 

orger nerve fibres of the white snbstance be a continuation of the 

■itua^ process of the ganglionic bodies of Purkinje, the axis cyhn- 

• TliQ i.Tmvo diseriptiou relates to llie Jong couvolutious of ILo LumiBiiheici 
vof (he cerebellum of maD. 

8 Transadions of the 

dera of the finer nerve fibres are probably formed by tbe jihrillx 
onginating in tbe ierminal nduvrk ; eoiiic of tbein may also arise 
from the »mall triangular ganglionic bodies of the giey layer. 

4. The Ganglionic Bodies of the Sympaihdic Ganglia,. — Theao 
ore especially distingnisbed from iLhose of the spinal marrow and 
brain by being encloaed in a membranitbrm capsule with which they 
are in a certain manner connected. From the body, encloaed within 
thfi capsule, a number of larger and smaller proceBses arise, consist- 
ing, like those proceeding from the ganglionic bodies of the spinal 
marrow and brain, of fine granular fibrillfe. These, however, 
cannot be distinctly traced over tbe body from one process into the 
other as in the former case ; on the contrary, tbe whole body 
appears more as a maas of grannies surrounding the nucleus. 

lu selecting a sympathetic ganglionic body of the gangliaied 
cords of man as a type, we observe from two to four of the larger 
processes, directly after arising from the body, piercing the capsule 
and disappearing, at a distance of about tow ™ii'- or more, in tbe 
form of naked axis cylinders among the neighbouring bundles of 
sympathetic nerve fibres. The two largest processes frequently 
arise from opposite points of the body ; in some cases, tbe larger 
one of these, again, divides already dichotomously within the capsule, 
so that the axis cylinders arising from this division subsequently 
pierce the capsule. The axis cylinders arising from the processes 
possess a sheath manifesting itself by a double contour, and which, 
in many instances, may be traced back over the body ; the diameter 
of the axis cylinders measures about ^^ mm. 

The smaller processes, arising from the body, are more numerous 
than those just mentioned, and consist mostly of only two or even 
one fibril. After a course of 5^ to j^o mm. alongside of tho 
body, they enter the capsule at its inner surface, and form, by 
means of ramification and reciprocal connection, a networh extend- 
ing throughout this membrane; the interspaces of the network 
are filled up by small granules. The capsule of the sympathetic 
ganglionic bodies, therefore, represents convplicated, memhrani/orm, 
tiervous structure, derived from and connected with the body which 
it encloses. On the surface of the capsule, formed in this manner, 
a number of fine fibrillse arise from the network, a ] art of which 
pass, in the fctm of a finely relicukted plexus, over into the 
capsules of neighbouring ganglionic bodies, and thus establish a 
reciprocal communication; the rest surroimds the axis cylinders 
arismg from the Isjger processes which have pierced the capsule, 
and, nmniug with these m the same dfrection, unite among them- 
selves to Ibrm finally the so-called sympathetic nerve fibres. 

Scattered over the inner as well as the outer surface of the 
capsule, a considerable number of ronnd or oval nuclei are observed. 
They are especially numerous in the reticulated fibrillous plexus 


Boyal Mieroseopieal Socidt). 7 

ft«Dimecting the ganglionic boiUes witii eacli other, whence they 
fftend, while assnining a more oblong form, botween the sympathetic 
rve fibres. 
The destination of those axis cylinders, arising from the processes 
f'jiercing the capanle, I hayo nerer been able to determine satisfac- 
torily. Several times I have seen them isolated to a length of 
s\ mm., and frequently I have traced them in thin transparent 
sections to a considerable distance, without noticing any change in 
' their structure or even their diameter ; they always disappeared 
U between the bundles of sympathetic nerve fibres. Although these 
■ axis cjhnders run mostly, as already mentioned, parallel with the 
^mpathetic fibres, they nevertheless are observed to pass here and 
there through the latter in au obhque direction, and aa it appears, 
toward the dark-bordered nerve i5bres. In consequence of this 
fact, I presume that, after a shorter or longer course, they are 
surrounded by a covering and transformed into dark-bordered 
nerve fibres. If this conjecture slould prove to be true, as we 
shall see farther on, the sympathetic gangfionic bodies would then 
give rise to both kinila of nerve fibres, each of which might transmit 
a nervous current of its own. 

The ganghonic bodies of the spinal ganglia show, with some 
deviations, the same structure as those of the gangliated cords. 
There are certain dlffleulties, however, in the way of esamining 
them accurately, produced by their more considerable size and a 
greater thickness of their capsule, as well aa by ii number of dark- 
bordered nerve fibres running between them. From the body 
within the capsule, as in the former case, a nnmber of processes of 
diflerent diameters arise ; some of ttem seem to pierce the capsule, 
while the rest contribute to tho formation of the capsule. The con- 
struction of the latter, as also the reciprocal connection with the 
noighbouring capsnlea, are the same as those of the ganghonic bodies 
of the gangliated cords, with this difference, that the meshea of the 
network are, in proportion to the greater size of the whole body, 
somewhat larger. The moat e^enlial difference, however, consists 
in a dark-hordered nerve fibre, originating directly in the spinal 
ganghonic body. The asis cylinder of this nerve fibre arises, as 
usnal, from the body, and pierces the capsule, while the tubular 
memhrane seems to terminate in the latter. Whether this dark- 
bordered nerve fibre connects the sympathetic ganghonic body with 
the spinal marrow, or whether it runs in an opposite direction 
toward the periphery, ia difficult to determine, especially, as it first 
vrinds il^ way along for some distance between the neighbouring 
ganghonic bodies before it joins tho bundle of nerve fibres. Bnt 
judging &om certain observations I made, I am inclined to think 
that it belongs to the spinal marrow. A part of the fibrilhe arising 
&om the network on the outer surfiu^ of the capsule go to contri- 

Traasaeim)ts of the 

Eof the finer nerve fibres are pToVably formed by the fbrillse 
Dating in the terminal nd-work ; some of them may abo ariae 
from the small triangular gaugliotiic bodies of the grey layer. 

4. The Ganglionie Bodies of the Sympathetic Ganglia. — These 
are especially distinguished from those of the spinal marrow and 
brain by being enclosed in a membranifonn capsule with which they 
are in a certain manner connected. From the body, enclosed within 
the capsule, a number of larger and smaller processes arise, consist^ 
ing, like those proceeding from the ganglionic bodies of the spinal 
marrow and brain, of fine grannlar fibrillaj. These, however, 
cannot be distinctly traced over the body from one process into the 
other as in the former case ; on the contrary, the whole body 
appears more as a mass of granules surrounding the nucleus. 

In selecting a sympathetic ganglionic body of the gangliaied 
corda of man as a type, we observe from two to four of the larger 
jyrocesses, directly after arising from the body, piercing the capsule 
and disappearing, at a distance of about ^gg mm. or more, in the 
form of naked asis cylinders among the neighbouring bundles of 
sympathetic nerve fibres. The two largest processes frequently 
arise from opposite pointe of the body ; in some cases, the larger 
one of these, again, divides already dichotopionsly within the capsule, 
so that the axis cylinders arising from this division subsequently 
pierce the capsule. The axis cyiinderB arising from the procesges 
possess a sheath manifesting itself by a double contour, and which, 
in many instances, may be traced back over the body ; the diameter 
of the asis cyhnders measures about 5^5 mm. 

The smaller processes, arising from the body, are more numeroua 
than those just mentioned, and consist mostly of only two or even 
one fibril. After a course of fjn to ^%ts mm. alongside of the 
body, they enter the capsule at its inner suriace, and form, by 
means of ramification and reciprocal connection, a tteticork extend- 
ing throughout this membrane ; the interspaces of the network 
are filled up by small granules. The capsule of the sympathetic 
ganghonic bodies, therefore, represents complicated, memhranifarm, 
}tervou8 etruciure, derived Irom and connected with the body which 
it encloses. On tlie surface of the capsule, formed in this manner, 
a number of fine fibrillie arise from the network, a }.art of which 
pass, in the form of a finely reticulated plexus, over into the 
capsules of neighbouring ganglionic bodies, and thus establish a 
reciprocal communication; the rest surrounds the axis cylinders 
arising from the larger processes which have pierced the capsule, 
and, running with these m the same direction, unite among them- 
selves to form finally the so-called sympathetic nerve fibres. 

Scattered over the inner as well as the outer surface of the 
capsule, a considerable number of round or oval nuclei are observed. 
They are especially numerous in the reticnlated fibrillQUfl plexus 

Boi/al Mioroacopical Socidij. 7 

t'ODiiiiecting the ganglionic bodies witii each other, whence they 
l«teii(l, while asBuming a more oblong I'onn, between the sympathetic 
\ nerve fibres. 

The destination of those axis cylinders, arising from the processes 

I'l-percing the capsule, I have never been able to determine eatiflfcc- 

■ lorily. Several times I have seen them isolated to a length of 

1,^ mm., and frequently I have traced them in thin transparent 

Vfiections to a considerable distance, without noticing any change in 

* their structure or even their diameter; they always disappeared 

between the bondlea of sympathetic nerve fibres. Although these 

axis cylinders run mostly, as already mentioned, parallel with the 

sympathetic fibres, they nevertheless are observed to pass hare and 

there through the latter m an oblique direction, and aa it appears, 

toward the dark-borilered nerve fibres. In consequence of this 

fact, I presume that, after a shoct«r or longer course, they are 

surrounded by a coveting and transformed into dark-homered 

nerve fibres. If this conjecture should prove to be true, as we 

shall see farther on, the sympathetic ganglionic bodi^ would then 

give rise to both kinds of nerve fibres, each of which might transmit 

a nervous current of its own. 

The ganglionic bodies of the apinal ganglia show, with some 
deviations, the same structure as those of the gangiiated cords. 
There are certain difficulties, however, in the way of examining 
them accurately, produced by their more considerable size and a 
greater thickness of their capsule, aa well as by a number of dark- 
bordered nerve fibres runmng between them. From the body 
within the capsule, as in the tbrmer case, a number of processes of 
different diameters arise ; some of them seem to pierce the capsule, 
while the rest contribute to the formation of the capsule. The con- 
struction of the latter, as also the reciprocal connection with the 
neighbouring capsnlea, are the same as those of the ganglionic bodies 
of the gangiiated cords, with this difference, that the meshes of the 
network are, in proportion to the groat^tr size of the whole body, 
somewhat larger. The most essential difference, however, consists 
in a darh-hordered nerve fibre, originating directly in the spinal 
ganghonic body. The axis cylinder of this nerve fibre arises, aa 
usual, from the body, and pierces the capsule, while the tubular 
membrane seems to terminate in the latter, Whether this dark- 
bordered nerve fibre connects the sympathetic ganglionic body with 
the spinal marrow, or whether it runs in an opposite direction 
toward the periphery, is difficult to determine, especially, as it first 
winds its way along for some distance between the neighboui'ing 
gauglionie bodies before it joins the bundle of nerve fibres. But 
judging from certain observations I made, I am inclined to think 
that it belongs to the spinal marrow. A part of the fibrillse arising 
from the network on tne onter surface of the capsule go to contri- 


biito to tbc fonnatiou of tho sympathetic nervo librcs of Uie nearest 

The construction of the sympatfaetic ^mghonic botliea is most 
ilistiiietly Been in those of the p/satiia gangliformis of the pnenmo- 
gttatric iierre. Still larger in circumference than those of the 
spinal ganglia, their capsule shows a coarser and unmistakable net- 
work, the meahee of which attain a diameter of about ysir mm. or 
more. The ganglionic bodies "which lie, mostly in fjio form of 
oblong groups, between the dark-bordered fibres of the nerve, are 
here also connected with each other by the reticulated plexus of 
their capsules. Thus tar I have not succeeded in discovering on 
thcee bodies more than one process piercing the capsule. This 
arises generally in tho long axis of the nerve, and ia, after a course 
of about iV mm, or more, transformed into a dark-bordered nerve 
fibre. As in the sympathetic ganglionic bodies before described, a 
oousiderable unmber of fine fibrillte arise here also from the net- 
work on the outer surface of tho capsule, a portion of which sor- 
nunid the axis cylinder, and unite finally to form sympathetic 
Morvo fibres, while the rest, in the form of a plexus, estublishes a 
i-omniunication with the adjoinmg capsules. 

In reviovring the above-described constrnction of the sympa- 
thetic ganglionic bodies, it will at first appear more complicated 
tium that of those of the central organa. By a closer examina- 
tion, however, this seeming complication disappeors, and a certain 
uualogy of their component parts, especially with those of the 
oortinu layer of the brain, may be recognized. The gangUonic 
Imdies of the cortical layer of the cerebrum, namely, send out some 
pnieeasoa, the lateral and basal, the axis cylinders of which ore 
tnuisformesl into dark-bordered nerve fibres, while the ramifications 
of niioUier. the pointed process, terminate diredly in the terminal 
fibrinous network, the meshes of which are filled up by small 
«l<?iueutAry grauoks. Directly from thU network, as I have shown 
HboTV, another set of very fine nerve fibres arises, which also pursue 
tbtur course toward the periphery. In the cortex of the cerebellum 
m meet the same arrangement ; the ramifications of the enormous 
proo«era of the ganghonic bodies of Purkinje, namely, torminate 
m tlw network of the grey layer, while their small haaal processes 
wo tnuisformiid into dark-bordered nerve fibres, which finally 
form A part of tlie white substance. From the terminal network of 
Uio gn\v laver, the same oa in th« cerebriun. a wnsiderable numbei' 
of lino fibrillai arise, which subsequently form thu axis cylinders of 
d»rk-bt>t*lerwl nerve fibres, a part of which pass around the sulcus 
to a u<>igfabouriug convolution, in order to foiiu a communicution 
bt>tm>on tho ner>-ous elcmeutfi of two adjoining convolutions, while 
tlie n«t j>tvceod tu the white suhstano.'. 

Boy (d Microscopical Society. 9 

In the sympathetic ganglionic bodies, finally, we may compare 
the hody, enclosed within the capsule, to a ganglionic body of the 
cortical layer of the cerebrum, while the capsule itself — ^representing 
a fine fibnllous network, the meshes of which are filled with small 
granules — is analogous to the terminal network in the granular 
substance. From the body, enclosing its nucleus as all other 
gangUonic bodies, we observe some processes arise, which, after 
having pierced the capsule, giye rise to axis cylinders vrhich are 
finally transformed into dark-bordered nerve fibres, while the ramifi- 
cations of a number of smaller processes, also arising from the body, 
terminate in the network of the capsule. From the outer sur&ce 
of the latter, lastly, a number of fine fibrillaB arise, a part of which 
estabUsh a communication with the adjoining capsules, while the 
rest unite to form the ultimate sympathetic nerve fibres, going to 
the periphery. 

5. The Nerve Fibres and Oanglionie Bodies of Insects, — The 
nerve fibres of insects .consist of fine granular fibrillsB, about 
y^Vrr iiun. in diameter, enclosed within a structureless sheath, and 
thus representing the entire nerve. In the nerve fibre of an insect, 
therefore, we behold the conducting anatomical element of the nervous 
tissues in its primitive form, that is, as a simple axis-cylinder fibre. 
The history of the development of these tissues in the human embryo 
justifies this view. The fibriUaB running parallel to each other in 
the sheath of the nerve are not divided into subordinate bundlea 
They are surrounded by a semi-liquid substance, resembling in 
character the nerve-medulla of the dark-bordered nerve fibre of the 
higher animals.^ 

The ganglionic todies of insects are round or slightly oval 
bodies, from each of which a large process, composed of fine fibrillae, 
arises. They consist of a mass of granules, surrounding a large, 
clear nucleus. The latter, about 77 mm. in diameter, shows a 
fine double contour, and contains a greenish shining nucleolus of 
■^ mm., composed of several granules. From the surfece of the 
granular mass surrounding the nucleus a great number of fine short 
fibrillae arise, which slightly anastomose' with each other. From 
these anastomoses others arise, the greater portion of which join in 
forming the large process, while the rest pass over to the adjoining 
ganglionic bodies to establish a'reciprocal communication. A sheath, 
enclosing the whole body, seems not to exist. The ganglionic 
bodies of a ganglion are, like those of the sympathetic nervous 
system of the higher animals, divided into groups. The processes 
arising from the bodies of a group, unite to form nerve-fibre bundles, 
and i£ese, again, unite with those of other groups, forming still 
larger bundles, from which, finally, the larger nervous trunks, 
leaving the gangUon, arise. The whole ganglion itself is sur- 

10 Transactions of the Boyal Microscopical Society. 

ronnded by a structureless membrane, which extends, in the form 
of the above-mentioned sheath, over the nerves. The interspaces of 
the ganglionic bodies, and the bundles of nerve fibres within the 
ganghon, are filled up by a semi-fluid substance containing in- 
numerable granules. 

[Errata, — ^In my paper on the development of the Wood corpnscles, in 
No. LXIL, February, 1874, p. 49, line 10 from top, for •* blood," read *• brood"; 
and 18 lines from top, for ** blood/' read ** brood." Also the words '* nat. size '' on 
Plate LI. is, of course, an error.] 

( '-., k 

T) /) 



\/7^'n ^^ 

Lfi/ -- 

// ^ 


( 11 ) 

11. — On Bog Mosses, By R. Brafthwaitb, M.D., F.L.S. 

Plates LXVII. and LXVIU. 

14. Sphagnum squarrosum Persoon in lit. 

Weber and Mohr, Beise durch Sohweden, p. 29, Tab. II, fig. la,b (1804). 

Plate LXVII. 

Syn. — Smith Eng. Bot. t. 1498 (1804). — ^P. db Beauvois Prodromns p. 88 
(1805).— La Marok et Oand. F1. Fianc. I, p. 443 (1805).— Sohultz FL Stargard. 
p. 276 (1806).— Bbidel Sp. Mu80. I, p. 14 (1806). Mantissa p. 2 (1819). Bry. 
Univ. I, p. 5 (1826).— Web. & Mohr Bot. Tasch. p. 73 (1807).— Bchkuhb Deutsoli. 
Moose p. 14, t. 6 (1810).— Schwagb Supp. I, P. I, p. 13, tab. IV (1811).— 
RdHLiNG Ann. Wetter. Geaells. I, p. 197 (1809). Deutsok. Fl. Ill, p. 36 (1813).— 
VoiT Muse. Herbip. p. 12 (1812).— Hook. & Tayl. Muse. Brit. p. 4, tab* IV 
(1818).— FuNCK Taschenh. t. 2 (1821). Zenk. & Dietb. Muse. Thuring. Fasc. I, 
No. 21 (1821).— Nees Hsch. & &r. Bryol. Germ. I, p. 9, 1. 1, fig. 3 (1823).— 
HObenek Muso. Germ. p. 23 (1883).— De Notabis SvU. Muse. Ital. p. 295 (1838). 
—0. Mull. Synop. I, p. 94 (1849).— Wilson Bry. Brit.p. 23, tab. IV (1855).— 
Habtm. Skand. Fl. ed. 6, p. 435 (1854).— Schimpeb Torfm. p. 63. tab. XXIC 
(1858).— Synop. p. 677 (I860).— Lindbebo Torfm. No. 7 (1862).— Bebkel. Bandb. 
Br. Mosses p. 308, PI. 2, fig. 4 (1863).— Bussow Torfm. p. 62 (1865).— Milde 
Bry. Siles. p. 387 (1869).— Hobkirk Synop. Br. Mosses p. 26 (1873). Sph, Aconiense 
De Notabis MSS. Sph, patuium Mitten MSS. 

Monoicous, in loose deep glaucous grem, tufts. Stems robust, 
6-15 inches high, generaQy^dichotomous, ri^d, reddish brown. 
Cortical cells small, non^orosej in two strata^ the woody zone 
rufous brown. Caviine leaves large, erect or reflexed. Ungulate, 
not bordered, minutely auricled at base, apex rounded, slightly 
fimbriate; hyaline cells elongated hexagono-rhomboid below. 


Plate LXVIL 

Sphagnum squarrosum. 
n, — Fertile plant. 

1. — Part of stem with a branch fascicle and male inflorescence. 
3. — ^Perichaetium and fruit. 4.— Upper bract from same. 
5. — Stem leaves. 5 a a, — Areolation of apex of same. 
6. — Leaves from a divergent branch. 6x. — Section. 6 p. — Point of game. 

6 c.— Cells from middle, x 200. 
7. — Basal intermediate leaf. 9 x. — Part of section of stem. 10. — Part of a branch 

denuded of leaves. 

Plate LXVIU. 

Sphagnum teres. 

a, — Female plant, a *o, — Male plant. 

1. — Part of stem and a branch fascicle. 

2. — Male inflorescence. 26. — Bract from same with anthcridium. 

8. — PerichsBtium and fruit. 4. — Upper bract from same. 

.5. — Stem leaf. 5 a a.— Areolation of apex of same. 

6. — Leaves from a divergent brancli. 6a?. — Section. 6 p. — Point of same. 

6 c.— Cells from middle, x 200. 
7. — Basal intermediate leaf. 8. —Leaf from a pendent branch. 
9 X, — Part of section of stem. 
10. — Part of a branch denuded of leaves. 

12 On Bog Mosses. 

rhombic above, without fibres or pores, but here and there with a 
transverse partition. 

Bamtdt 4-5 in a fascicle, of which 2-8 are divergent , tumid 
attenuated toward the points, with the leaves on the lower two- 
thirds squarrose and recurved from the middle, those of the upper 
third imbricated and elongated ; the other branches pendulous and 
appressed, slender, terete, with all the leaves imbricated; cortical 
cells elongated, in two strata, the retort-cells perforated but scarcely 
prominent at apex. Branch leaves from a very concave hose, 
broadly ovate, suddenly becoming lanceolate above, the margin 
invdvie in the upper third, the apex minutdy 3-4 toothed, 
bordered by 2-3 rows of very narrow cells ; hyahne cells with 
numerous annular fibres and two rows of large pores, chlorophyll 
cells compressed entirely enclosed by the hyaline. 

Male ameniula terete, clavate, yellowishrgreen ; the bracts 
slightly squarrose, oblong-lanceolate, the basal cells without fibres 
and pores, the upper shorter, with annular fibres and small pores. 
Fruit seated in the coma or in the axils of the Tipper fascicles, 
moderately elevated ; the bracts somewhat distant, concave convolute, 
the lower oblongo-elliptic, the upper very broad, obovate emar- 
ginate and slightly fimbriate at apex, laxly areolate, without fibres 
or pores. Spores yellow. 

Var. y8, squarrosvlum, 8ph. squarrosulum Lesquereux. 

Plants smaller, more slender, deep green above, pale below. 
Stem pale green. Leaves small, more distant. 

Hab. — ^About boggy springs and the sides of moorland streams. 
^, in more shady alpine places. Fruits in July. Not uncommon, 
and found throughout Europe and the middle and northern states 
of North America. This nne species sometimes attains a great 
size, becoming proportionately robust, and thus may be looked 
upon as the grandest European representative of the genus. It 
may be readily recognized by its squarrose leaves, and often bears 
fruit abundantly. Lindberg considers squarrosulum Lesq. to be 
rather a starved or undeveloped form than a distinct variety, yet it 
is widely distributed, but does not appear to have been ever found 
with fruit. 

15. Sphagnum teres Angstrom. 

Hartm. Skand. Fl. ed. 8, p. 417 (1861). 

Plate LXVIH. 

Syn.— LiNDB. Torfm. No. 6 (1862).— Mildb Bryol. Siles. p. 388 (1869). Sph. 
porosum Lmi)B. MSS. 

Sph. squarrosum var. y teres Schpb. Torfm. p. 64 (1858). Synop. p. 677 (1860). 
— Russow Torfm. p. 64 (1865). 

Dioicous, in small tufts or intermixed with other species, soft, 
pale yellowish green often with a ferruginous tint. Stems slender. 

The Optical Quality of Mr. ToUes' ^ Objective, 13 

4-8 inehes high, pale rufous red ; the cortical ceUs non-porose, in 
three strata, the woody zone red, Cauline leaves precisely like 
those of 8. squarrosum. Bamuli distant, 4-5 in a fascicle, 2-3 
divergent, terete; the leaves imbricated throughout, and only 
having the apices slightly recurved ; broadly ovate, pointed, three 
toothed, in structure agreeing with those of 8. squarrosum. Cor- 
tical cells of branches in a single stratum. 

Male amentula elongated, brownish, fertile and thickened in 
the lower part, and beyond this extended into a slender sterile 
branch ; the brads broadly ovato-lanceolate, pointed, agreeing in 
structure with the branch leaves. 

Fruit seated in the coma, or in the upper fascicles ; the bracts 
resembling those of 8. squarrosum. 

Hab. — About the edges of bogs and springs in subalpine dis- 
tricts ; sparingly distributed. In this country it has been found 
by Mr. Wilson at Knutsford Moor, Wybunbury Bog and New- 
church Bog in Cheshire; by McKinlay at Doune; and by 
Mr. Stabler at Staveley, Westmoreland. 

This plant has usually been regarded as a variety of 8. squa/r- 
rosum, and Professor Lindberg has recently expressed to me his 
coincidence with this view; structurally there is absolutely no 
distinction between them, but in external aspect 8. teres closely 
resembles 8. strictum. The beautiful and instructive specimens ' 
collected by Limpricht at Bunzlau, and distributed under No. 1153 
of Eabenhorst's Bryotheca, combine the characters of both, the 
upper part having the imbricated leaves of 8. teres, the lower part 
the squarrose leaves of typical 8. squarrosum. There is thus left 
to us only the dioicous position of the inflorescence, and the slight 
difference in the male amentula. 

m. — The Optical Quality of Mr. Tclles' \ Objective. 


Further but brief discussion of the well-whipped subject of 
angular aperture is> here offered on my part, being again sum- 
moned to the front after repeated dismissals by Mr. Wenham, while 
he imparts " further information " as to optical law concerned. I 


Fig. 1. — m, Front surface of middle. 

R, R, Outside rays of pencil from middle 60°. 
R' R', Pencil traced from Focus of 82°. 
Outside pencil at Focus of 90°. 
„ 2. — Anglo reduced by closing the lenses. 


The Optical Quality of Mr. ToUes' jt Objective. 15 

Let the linea marked II, H in Fig. 1 represent the extreme marginal 
rays of a pencil of 60^ angle proceeding from the iimet ayatems, 
viz. the hack and middle combinations acting as one. Angular 
apettute of mieh limited extent, 60°, certainly involvea no difficulty 
as to meaanrement, and hoping no objection from any critic on 
that score, I will assume the angle and focus-distance A of the 
pencil emergent from tlie front siir&ce of the middle, m, to be 
accepted on trnst. In support of the case, I will state here that I 
can easily give more available angle to back-and-middle. 

When the front, which is a hemisphere, is in position, as shown 
in Fig. 1, the cone of hght bounded by 11, E is intercepted by it at 
its convex sur&ce, and brought to a. focus at F directly, the frimt 
being of common-crown glass, and " immersed " in balsam of the 
same refractive-index, asaomed to be 1-525 for the case. The 
focal-point F is obtained by projection, and Mr, Wenham is expected 
to admit its correctness or show the contrary. The angle at F 

And now to discuss the case of maximom air-angle under the 
same circumstances. 

The inner linea K' K', Fig, 1 , are drawo at an angle of 82°, or 
41" vrith the axis. As this pencil of smaller angle cmanatea from 
the same focal-point F in balsam, the rays R' It' must meet the 
convex surface of the front at a lesa distance from the axis tlian 
the larger pencil, as may be seen in the figure. But as this 
reduced aperture of the lena at the front, and at the conves; 
Btirfaces, is all that can possibly be used "dry," its limits being 
shown by tracing the course of extreme rays for the equivalent 
balsam pencil of the largest possible pencil transmissible to or from 
sir; it follows that that portion of the front-snrfece between the 
lines R' R must be nnoaed aperture, when the objeetivo is ased 
dry, though the practical angle be infinitely near to 180°. 

To illustrate a little further : Let the light be considei-ed as 
proceeding down the tube from the eye-piece, and- the objective 
being dry at the surface, s. Obvion^ the extreme ray of the 
pencil of 82", and of balsam-focus at F, would meet the interior 
plane and dry surface of the front at an incidence of 41°, and 
necessarily have its course on emergence with a nearness to coinci- 
dence with the front plane surface, involving only an inappreciablo 
difference from a direction parallel, or 180^ of angle. ■ 

Mr. Wenham's small caps may perhaps properly enough apply 

B to express his sensations, but tos fad becomes clear and india- 

Dry, the surplus aperture from R' to R, i.e. beyond 41" of 
'incidence, gives a silvery ring by total reflexion from the plane 
surface as should' be expected. It trims the aperture tike a 

The Optical Qualiiy of Mr. Toilet' h Ohjeetive. 

^^Pnear-coiitact approach to middle. The samo back-and-middle and 
angular pencil are concerned, and nothing changed except relative 
position effected by closing the adjuatment. The clear opening of 
the front being the same as before for 90°, its boundary is reached 

1\}y the pencil indicated by the linea R" It" proceeding from the 
fiddle. Projecting the course of tiiese rays their focus is found 
it F, and shows a reduction of angle from 90° to 72°, or ahght 
taction more. Although closed not the maximum balsam- 
t H 

Sj)herieal Aberration. 



Having shown that the closed point is not necessarily the 
adjustment for maximum angle, I wish to call attention to tho 
enormous aberration under which angle is taken ordinarily, without 
" cover," and, 1 will assume, the systems closed. 

With a diy front 8ur6u;e the same extreme rays it" K", Fig. 2, 
will have, when proceeding from within to air, refractioa to the 
corretponding air-angle ; but not any ray nearer to the axis than 

3e, can have the same focns in air. 

Take the case of Hght radiating from a small point in the axis 
the microscope at the place of the eye-piece, or, which is the 
ne, the longer conjugate focus. The focal point at the front 
florfaca will move to a point of gradoally irwremeA distance, aa the 
rays from the 10 inches distant radiant point are incident at the 
convex-surface of the front at a gradually decreased angular distance 
from the axis. 

This enormous spherical aberration arises at the &ont plane 
snr&ce, and for compensation, or corrsction rather, needs a covering 
glass of suitable thicknees ; with a technically '" dry " objective this 
would be sufficient. But with an immersion objective having 
immersion contact with " cover " to a dry-moant, the dry fi-ont 
surface of the ol;jective is in effect removed to the surface of the 
covering glass next the object ; and tho focns of the earfreine mar- 
ginal rays will then be very near to the focua of the viean and 
nearly central rays, because all the rays of the cone emerge withm 
a comparatively very small area about the axis. This is all very 
welt blown and, though the demonstration is easy, that may be 

I do not care to comment on Mr. Wenham's precautions in 
taking angles, as described in his jiccount of the j-inch. I will 
only say that the whole seems to nae qnito nnneeesaary." What 
I Mve said of interposition of " cover " is suggestive of the true 

* Hr. Wenhnm, in bis diagrnm at p. 1 1 i, the lower one, dntira the ray d for 
170° oF nperlure at an iniposiiibls emergence from, the convex surfsf e. It fails 
outui<le of the perpHndimlu' and must be bent auttaard, the aurroce acting aa a 
cunuavo, Peihnpn Mr. WddIibiu tbiakB this of no couBeqaeuoe luii! — so ilo 1 1 



18 The Opiioai QuaiUy of Mr. ToOes' f Gbjeetive. 

metJiod I judge, and it ia this — for a strict ied of angle let the 
objective be measnred in position, as used on tlie object. 

Mr. Wenham having adopted the semi-cylinder, I will remark 
that this can bo very easily done with that, in all caaes ; but as 
an effectual means to dismiss any anspiciou of false itght, " not 
going to fonn images," let this, which he has well approved, bo 
done, viss. put light down through the tube of tJie microaeope. 
Then if a low eye-piece lie put in place in the body, and a beam of 
sunlight be the light nsed and directed through the eye-piece down 
the body along the axis, it will have emergence at the cyhndrical 
snrface, and, if intercepted by a band of thin moist paper adhering 
to the same snrface, the circular boundary of the emergent pencil 
will be sharply defined, and the angle can be accurately and 
instantly read there. 

Of course, if a dry mount ia nsed, only 82° can appear emergent 
at the suriace when the air-angle of the objective is infinitely near 
to 180^, and reference index of cylindrical piece being 1 '525, as 
Mr. Wenham nsed to stipulate ^r balsam, with a view, it is under- 
stood, to simplily the argument, ite indes varying slightly from that. 

"Whatever the angle read at the cyhndrical surfeice, the corre- 
sponding air-angle is readily known or deduced from it ; for surely 
it will not be claimed that other than " image-forming raya " vriU 
have emergence from the objective-front when derived from a beam 
of unmodified sunlight entering the eye-piece. 

And now, though claiming- for that method that it is safa 
against ialse light, yet I admit (or claim) that sunlight through the 
eye-piece and thence through the objective is not necessary for 
accurate results ; not at all ; for I have always found the results of 
the reverse method to nicely correspond — without any diaphragming 
of the field, such aa Mr. "Wenham describee in the ' Monthly ' iar 
March last, it will be found that the limits of angle are the same, 
■whether the light be put down through the body, or reverJay, the 
Ught has direction from a radiant in front, and angC-liinita 
observed at the eye-piece. I 

There is especial convenience, however, in the latter method, 
and having happily Mr. "Wenham'a endorsement of the semi- 
cylinder for ancb purpose, I will particularize. Thus if the 
cylindrical piece, balsam-mounted-object thereon, and objective be 
in positioD, and the observer having the object in plain view 
through the microscope, then, "with lamp in hand, while moving 
the screw-ojllar forward or ba^k for the hmit of angle aa the 
radiant is moved out from the asis, the focal adjustment being 
maintained consentaneously, the real maximum angle will bo 
ascertained by working for the greatest obhquity of the illu- 
minating ray that bisects the field. When that greatest obliquity 
of incidence is gained, measuring the angle can be attended to. 

On ike Slrveture of Diatoma. 


My test measurements of angle were made according to this 
metliod. An exact Bemi-cylindcr in use, carefolly in proper posi- 
tion, and an object mounted in balsam under covering gli^ imme- 
diately on the plane surfiice of tie semi-cyhnder iliseli It was 
«8Gd where a halsam-angle of 110° was shown, the method de- 
scribed, and with the result published.* The method has not 
been,' and will not be, impeached. The results were verified by 
putting the light (sunlight) down through the tube. 

When the maximum angle limits have been ascertained, then 
the angle can be measured ia the way Mr, Wenham points out, 
♦K. by rotating the microscope. Or, if the semi-cylinder be pro- 
Tided with divisions to degrees, adjacent, a shutter shding over tho 
I cylmdrical surface from the central parts outward will, under 
' observation at the eye-piece, mark exactly the limits of angle on 
I either side, and the corrraponding degree can be noted. According 
to Mr. Wenham, only 82 can be seen there with an object-glass 
I properly so called, with air or water or balsam contact at plane 
I Snrfeices. Now, note the fact that in my hands in June last f this 
I occurred — fis. when 81° closely was shown on the screen as the 
I aperture of an objective "dry," then, by simply making the 
I medium of contact at the plane surfaces water, or balsam, instead 
|,0f air, the pencil-hmits on the screen were found at about 110^, 
* the object in focus in both instances. 

And then, to show that this additional pencil consisted of 
" image-forming rays," the moist-paper screen was removed, and a 
I fihutter, covering 82°, substituted, and on illuminating the object 
Lthrough this outside portion only, behold, with the objective at 
[-xaaximnm angle adjustment and itsed dry, total darkness was the 
P rffect of course to the eye at the eye-piece, while if balsam or 
L water contact was given, the light had access beyond 82^, and the 
t object became in clear view well defined. 

Thos fact and " theory " continue (!) consistent. 
Jacksdntillb, FLoaroA, May H, 1871. 

^V. — On (he Struciare of Diatoms. By Gr. W. MonEHOtrsB, U.S.A. 

3.1 is hoped that the publication of the following memoranda will 
iBTve the double purpose of elucidating the structure of the tests, 
lad at tho same time demonstrating the utihty of microscopical 
ctives of exceptionally high powers. The uncertainty of the 
ing in this unstable and contested ground will necessitate many 
ra, Mid may serve as an excuse for them. So many competent 

• See ' M. M. J.' for June and Aiigiiat, 1873. 
t See ' M, M. J.' for August, 1873. 

On the Strvetiav of Diatoms. 

microscopists kaye written upon this sabject, that the writer would 
fain be Mlent were it not for a firm belief in the soperiority of the 
instrument he used, for this kind of inveatigation. In tact this 
excellent glass gives advanced work ou almost every teat tried, and 
fully justifiea the confidence reposed in it. The observations re- 
corded below, unless where otherwise stated, were made with a 
Tolles' 3^0 immersion objective of 1 65° angle of aperturo, and gene- 
rally a Tolles' 2-inch eye-piece, giving an amplification of 2500 

Eiipodisous Argus. — My attention waa especially called to thia 
shell by having noticed the wide difference between the views of 
Mr. Henry J. Slack, Mr. Samuel Wells, and Mr. Charles Stodder. 
My observations are corroborative of the idea of two plates, as 
asserted by Messrs. Stodder and Wells. Using a % objective with 
power of 340 times obtained by high eye-piece and extending draw- 
tube, and using a Lieberkiilm, the outside or coarser markings on 
epecimeos mounted convex side uppermost are white with white 
cloud illumination. An erased space on one shell and the holes or 
depressions through which Slack's four large " epherules " are seen, 
are now black. They, then, are not covered by the external 
" crusts" 

The slide was then turned over and the inside of the same 
specimen examined by the same method, and on the more favour- 
able portions of it the finer network of the inner plaie is also seen 
in white, the " spherules " being perfectly black. By this reflected 
light the " four spherules " are plainly seen to be dark openings in 
the white plate, and the network is clearly traced across the areoltB 
in the outside plate. The diatom looks like a piece of coarse white 
netting laid over a finer piece. 

Under the Tolles' -^ and with transmitted light, whether central 
or obHque, it matters not, all portions of the surface of both the 
upper and the lower plates are found to be covered with, or com- 

3d of, a still finer network with irregular oval meshes like the 
two coarser ones. 

The place in the shell above referred to, where the layers are 
erased, denuding an interior stractnrcless " vail," gives an oppor- 
tunity to observe the edges of the fractured layers. The broken 
edges of both plates bordering on the erasure show the jagging of 
this finest net structure. The arrangement of the finest areol© is 
more regular near the margin of the diatom, or appears so by 
reason of the simpler character of the structure in that part. They 
are easily setoi with the Vtr on any part of every specimen studied, 
but are unusually distinct between the " four spherules " on the inner 
plate looking through the largest openings in the outer plate ; at 
may be rendered still more distinct on ehells with the concave side 
up. Hiey are more difficult to be seen on the outeide crust with 

On ihe Structure of Diatoms, 21 

1 powers used, because of its greater opacity. Deductions 
from focal changes with reference to the various markings lyin" in 
different focal planes corroborate the conclnatons above expressed. 

The disks esamiDed are on MoUer'a Probo-Platte, and on a slide 
prepared by Mr. Wells. 

Hyalodiacus subiilis Bailey.— On this beautiful little shell the 
"engine ruHngs" are readily seen with almost any illumination, 
and the inevitable concomitant of intersecting lines, whether real or 
illusory beading is displayed. When wo use monochromatic light 
the whole scene ia changed. The hyaline portion of the disk is in- 
stantly resolved into perfectly well defined hexagons, radiating from 
the central nucleus. The central part, because of ifa greater depth 
and complexity, is only reaolved into irregularly shaped apaccs of a 
more or leas hexagonal form. Every one of the five beads usually 
seen represents the centre of an hexagonal plane exactly as in 
Pleurostgma angulatum. 

The hexagons are well defined with a power of 7000 diameters. 
They may also bo seen with lamp or daybght. 

Truxratiuni favus. — The two seta of markings on this fasci- 
nating object certainly lie in ditlerent focal planes,* and probably 
" belong to two distinct layers." The coarse hexagonal ridges axe 
found to project from the outer or convex surlace, and the inner 
plate bears the minute markinga. This is proved by the fact that 
the fine markinga show decidedly the plainest on valves that are 
mounted with the interior surface uppermost. 

Under this superior objective the finer markings, like the larger, 

I »re distinctly foveolate. Their hexagonal structure ia easily seen 

V aven with lamp illumination. When examining comparatively thick 

"^~"'" "xiBsessing a complex stmctnre, like the one in question, tbe 

y for avoiding errors caused by too intense or by excessively 

■ ohlique li^bt becomes at once apparent Tbe uueqnal refraction of 

'he ught m passing through the external silicioua layer produces a 

storted image upon and of the interior surface. In this manner 

btorted small hexagons may be seen along the hnes of the larger 

letwork by a lens incapable of clearly displaying the minute bexa- 

p)nal markings above described. 

The best results are obtained on the T, favits with a moderate 
^bt nearly central. 

StirireUa gemma. — This beautiful form has been subjected to 

1 the different conditions of illumination in my possession. Like 

iher relatively thick shells, the appearancea presented by tbe mark- 

iga vary greatly with the changing; conditions of observation. No 

roable is experienced in bringing out the longitudinal striae, nor in 

tlnaking the little beauty seem "to " wear heads." At times the beads 

^ve place to rectangles, and again after careful manipulation to 

• Pee CurrBnter. ■ The J/lktOBCope,' 4th c*WioE, p. 282 and note. 

On tke Sirveture of Diatoma. 

sharply-defined elongated hexagona.* Hartnack'a besagoas as 
figured are too much elongatixl ; although eometimes such an ap- 
pearance is presented when the illuminating pencil ia at right angles 
with the median line, the tranaverse lines being lees distinctly per- 
ceptible. When the hght ia so arranged aa to show every aide with 
equal perfection, the form of the markings is nearer that of regular 

The Amici prism is found to work excellently on the Surirdla, 
and when it is used with the eV objective and the blue cell the 
slightly elongated hexagons are easily exhibited on an average 

Aulaeodiaeus KUtonii. — This splendid diak is traced with easy 
angular figures evidently elevations, and the spaces between the 
lines are undoubtedly depressions. Some of the markings are cir- 
cnlar, others square, some pentagonal, some hexagonal, and others 
heptagonaL Broken specimens of Bnglitwdlia Johnsonii with like 
surface markings show the line of fracture running through the 

Nameula rkoviboides. — Individual frustalea of this species vary 
considerably in degree of difficulty of resolution. Some of the 
smallest valves when mounted in balsam tax the powers of excellent 
instruments. The writer has foond all specimens, whether mounted 
dry or in balsam, to yield readily transverse striaj with obhque illu- 
mination direct firom the lamp. Under the same conditions an 
average valve exhibits well-defined longitudinal striffi. With the 
ammoni-sulphate cell it is instantly and clearly shown covered in 
every part with squares, like Pleurosignia Ballicum, 

Navicida erassinervis. — The specimens of this variety, in my 
possession, are more difficult than Frustulia Saxonica, and even 
rival A. ^dlucida under lamp illumination ; but any clean frustule 
is satisfactorily resolved. 

TJaing monochromatic hght with plain mirror and Wenham'a 
paraboloid, longiivdinal hnes are discovered. After careful mani- 
pulation both sets of hues are seen at the same time, and an appear- 
ance of beading resnlta. 

Navicula cmptdata.-~Soth sets of lines are easy, but the 
lon^tudinal are much closer together than the transverse. Conse- 
quently the light interlinear spaces are elongated and no semblanee 
of beading is to be seen. In diatoms where the intersecting strice 

I are of nearly equal fineness the little square spaces, when not well 
defined, seem circular ; and if the illummation by transmitted light 
ia intense, they present a raised appearance due to refraction. 
Mr. Charles Btodder called my attention to this diatom with the 
view of ascertaining with the ^ whether or not the two seta of 
lines he in diilerent focal pknes. My observations, many times 
* ■ The MioiDSCopB,' Cwpunter, iiago 11>2. 


On iJte Structure of Diatoms. 

■ repeated, Lave couvinced me that they are never both in focus at 
the same time, and further that the longitudiual lines are on the 
external suriace, and the tranaverae on the internal plate. If there 
are not two plates, the lines may be on opposite Burlaces of the 
same plate. 

white cloud illumination is found to be much better than other 
and more brilliant light for demonstrating these slight differences 
in focal distances. Many errors of interpretation are avoided by 
using an approximately central pencil when the inatrnment used 
is capable of elucidating all the detaiJs of structure without greater 

Fr-uslulia Saxoniea. — In addition to my observation of longitu- 
dinal lines upon this test and resolution into dots,* it may be 
■worth noting that even with lamp illumination the bV has displayed 
the transversQ much clearer than they appear in Dr. Woodward's 
photo-print.t With obUque hght du'ect from a small German 
student's lamp, without mirror, prism, or condenser of a^iy kind, 
a person entirdy unaccustomed to the microscope could distinctly 
see them with Beck No. 3 eye-piece, power 7000 times. Witb 
the ammoni-sulphate of copper cell the longitudinal lines and dots 
are displayed with ease. 

This is one of the most difficult test diatoms thus far studied, 
ranking but little easier than A. pdlucida, N. crassinervis, and 
Niizaehia cunmla. 

Amphipleura peiludda. — Many times the writer has been able 
to confirm the observations of longitudinal lines on this most 
difficult test shell, but never has succeeded in seeing the dots except 
with the blue cell and Wenham's paraboloid, and only then under 
favourable circumstances-t When resolution is eifected, tie dots 
are exceedingly minute and uniform in size, showing as mere points 
of light whai magnified 2500 times. On one occasion the writer 
has seen tme dark lines crossing betvreen the transverse strife like 
the steps of a ladder, the dots or spaces plainly longest in direction 
parallel with the median line, proving the longitudinal to be finer 
than the transverse lines. 

One obstacle in the way of resolution of the longitudinal stride 
is the presence of diffraction linea The valves being so narrow 
inereaeefl this difficulty. Only after much time is wasted, and 
after many discouraging failures, will the patient observer receive 
the reward of success. 

Nitzschia curvula Sm. — The nnusnal number of spurious 
appearances in thia object leads me to suspect that it possesses a 

* ' AmoricMi NattinJiat,' July, J873, p. 413. 
t ' Lens,' vol. !., p. li)7. 

t Sael. KBinilb, ID the- I«UB,' April, 1873, 1>.JJ5. Seo als-j the -AmBriiau 
NaUinklist; May, UHS, p. 316. 


Gompticated etrnctare, us yet beyond tlie rcacli of tbe iDstmmenti. 
The extreme finenesB of the longitudinal linea, as compared with 
the transverse, reminds one of the Navimla cusjndaia, and as 
is the case with the coarser shell, no efforts avail to develop a 
semblance of beading, 

Striaiella, unipuneiata.- — Two sets of §ne lines, and as tho 
direction of the light ie changed, may be made to exhibit either 
beads or squarea. In point of valne aa a teat, will be fotmd to 
approach Surirella gemma. 

Qraimnaiophora. — Of thia genna the writer has examined the 
G. marina, G. suhtilissima, and G. serpentina ; all of which are 
resolved into hexagons. Broken specimens of Q. marina ahow the 
line of fractnre mnniog through the hexagonal planes and leaving 
pointa of the network projecting. The markings continue com- 
pletely illustrated as the stage is revolved, in whatever direction 
the beam of light may fall. 

iSaMrone-ia.— Some of the larger varieties of S. phcenicenleron 
are covered with hexagonal areohe, easily exhibited with central 
dajhght. The projecting points of the fractured partitions between 
the hexagons may be observed. 

Pleurosigvia angulaium. — Hexagona. The line of fracture 
generally running around them, but quite often through them, 

Plmroiigma, Balimim. — A (b-op of water slowly advancing by 
capillary attraction shows thia shell to be covered with squares, 
and proves that both aets of lines forming the boundaries of the 
squares are on the aame aurface of the valve ; and the appearance 
presented by an air bubble on the other side proves that aurface 
to be smooth. 

Pleurosigma formosum. — Near the ends of the fmstule it is 
easy under certain adjustments of the light to make it appear like 
a checker-board with alternate bright red and green squares. 
Double rows of green and red beada altematmg may be seen on 
this as well as on other apecies of the same genua." When we 
resort to central hght from a white cloud, and thus lessen the 
liabihties to err caused by refiaction, diffraction, decomposition of 
light, and oblique projection of shadows, the conclusion is arrived 
at that these various appearances are caused by two sets of inter- 
secting diagonal ridgea, the finer ridges running np and down, over 
and between the coarser, and aubject to considerable variation even 
on the same fruatnle. This theory would also account for the 
" beads " (?) being of different colours, and the same " beada " 
chtmging colonr when the focns is changed. We see in many of 
the mollusks shell-markings of a similar character. 

Concluding remarks.— It would seem that the perfect box-like 
&rm of the shells of the Diatomaceffi and their elaborate orna- 
' I1r.Figntt,m'M.M.J.' 

On the Btrudv/re of Diatoms. 25 

mentation would exclude the -idea of a blind process of chemical 
crystallization. Anajogy should teach that they are secreted tat a 

Erotective covering for the tender animal-like plant, as among 
igher forms. If this is true, the surface markings ought to be so 
distributed as to give additional strength to the shell without 
greatly adding to ite weight. It would also be expected that some 
of the larger shells would be perforated with holes. This idea, 
of course, would have to admit into the discussion considerations of 
habits of growth^ and environments. Those contained in gelatinoua 
envelopes should be less developed in strength of sheU and bracmg. 
Those growing on algse, and m exposed localities, should be strong 
to resist fracture. On those moving free the bracing would be 
in proportion to the weakness of ihe shell; larger shells being 
relatively more liable to be broken. Here as elsewhere nature, 
without waste of material, combines utiUty with beauty.— TAe 
American Naturalist^ May. 


I7ie MuKidar TV^soe of Goreihra plumicomis. — Ttis is very folly 
described iii an article in a lato mtmbor of Mas Scliultze's ' Archiv,' • 
by Herr G. R. Wagoner. He enters npon the aubject of ite develop- 
luent, and bo poiots out many fcicts nhicli show that it is in its 
deyelopmont not unlike the ordinary striated moecle of Tertebrata 
animals, A couple of eicellent plates, done in the ' Archiv'a ' best 
style, accompany the paper. 

T^e Bevelnpmenl of the Ovtim in Anodonta. — Thia is a siibject 
which is partly worked ont by Herr W. Flemming, who is Professor 
of Anatomy in Fraguo. Ho shows among other things the peculiar 
form of the zoosperms and tho mode in which they enter tlirongh the 
micropyle. This paper, which extends over more than thirty-fiTa 
pages, is illustrated by a good plate,')' 

Hag Ihe so-called Microsporon Audounii any Existence f — This 
question is very well disoiWed in the ' Archives de Phyaielogie ' 
(May, 187 i), by M. Malasaez, who, having debated the question very 
fully, arrives at the conclusion that it is present, but diScra 1 1 some 
extent from the conclusions already laid down by M. Gruby. M. 
Malassez says that it is constituted of minute spores, of wlucb he 
describes three type3:~(l) Those which measure from 4 to 5 nam. 
have a doable contour and may possess buds : these are the large 
spores. (2) Those measuring &om 2 to 2'5 nun. have no double con- 
tour, and may have buds : these are the small spores. (3) Those have 
an inferior diameter about 2 mm., have a single contour and no bads : 
these are the spomlcs. He says that tho ovoid spores that one some- 
times sees do not belong to this fungus, but most probably to some 
other one. There ore no tubes, hot sometimes little chains of five vtc 
six or even more spores. These results difl'er from those of M. Grnby 
chiefly in the absence which they record of branches and stems, ■whidi 
are described by M, Gruby to ba present. 

The Zoological Position of the Hypopus is very clearly defined in a 
memoir by M. Megnin in the ' Journal do TAnatomio ' (No. 3, May, 
1871). These animals belong to the acari class of beings, and Orre 
parasitic (so-called) on nearly every animal, from the common house- 
fly upward. M, Mognin discusses their relations to each other, their 
anatomy and their habits, and comes to some interesting conclusions ; 
among others, that these animals are not truly parasitic ; for he says 
that the animal on which they are situated merely acts as a " dia~ 
seminalor and preserver of their species." This paper is accompanied 
by four good phites, in which sovoral species are figured in their 
mature and immature conditions. 

Tlie Structure of the Skin. 
survey of the recent work i: 

-Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith gives an excellent 
this direction, which has been dune fay 


Professor Tomea, of Kiev, in Eufisia. Dr. Pye-Smitb says (' Medical 
Becord') that the author, starting from the zones recently sketched 
by Langera, deseribes the felted arrangement of the fibrUlro in the 
papillary layer of the eorium, and tba looser texture of the deeper or 
roticninr layer, where the great bundles of fibrous tissue form rhombic 
and polygonal spaces by their intersection, which make on section a 
kind of lattice-work. There is also a distinct, though not uniform, 
arrangement of this tissue in auccesaire layers, parallel to the anrface. 
All this struoturo the author finds equally in the zones, which more 
or loss perfectly encircle the limbs and trunk, and in the spaces 
between them. He then shows the arrangement of the hair-folUcles, 
which are connected, not by their blind extremities, but by their edges, 
with four bundles of fibres running obliquely up from the reticular 
layer of outis, and crossing each other obliijaely before tboy expand in 
the papillary layer so as to surroimd the mouth of the follicle. This 
applies chiefly to the white fibres, as seen in tanned specimens of 
haman skin. The elastic tissue is more irregularly disposed, while 
the inter-fibrillar cement {KiUmbgtans) pervades all parts alike. 

The author doea not find any contianons layer of endothelium 
lining the spaces into which the cntaneons lymphatics open. 

The arrangement of the muscles of the skin is next described wij,h 
great minuteness, and illustrated by figures of a mechanical model 
constrooted for the purpose. 

The second- part of this paper deals with the blood-vessels of the 
integuments. Tha plan omployed by the anthor was to iujeet firat 
the veins and then the arteries with difierent coloured fiuida, so that 
the place of meeting in the capillaries could be afterwards recognized. 
Professor Ludwig's apparatua was naed ; the injections consisted of 
size, coloured with eolation of Berlin blue, watery solution of hydrated 
oiide of iron, dialyzed and afterwards concentrated by evaporation, or 
forrocyanide of copper dissolved with oxalate of ammonia. Carmine 
injections did not succeed ; the colours stained the surrounding tissues 
in spite of all precautions. Pieces of skin in which the injection had 
mn well, from the &ce, arm, foot, hand, acrotum, trunk, &c., were 
hardened in alcohol : sections were made in various directions, and 
cleared with acetic acid and glycerine, or with turpentine. 

The most important residts of these observationa, which ore 
illustrated by numerous well-executed ooloitred drawings, are as 
follows :^ 

1. There is no direct communication between the cntaneoue arteries 
and veins, as supposed by M. Sucquet; the capillary network is 
complete throughout. 

2. There is no special capillary aystom for the fibrous and elastic 
tissue of the skin. Fine injections show that the capillaries aro 
arranged as follows : (a) in the papillio, where their function is 
supposed by the author to be the formation of epidermis ; (b) around 
tlie convolated part of the sweat-glands, and the sacs of the sebaceous 
and hair-follicles ; (c) among the arroctores pilorum and the muscular 
fibres of the dartos ; (d) aurronnding tbo aervo fibres and the minuto 
ganglioniform enlargements which have been described by the author ; 


(e) forming a somewhat loose and scanty network around the arteries 
— external, yasa vasomm ; (/) supplying the lobules of adipose tissue. 
Two points in the description of fiiese capillary systems are worthy of 
special notice : one, that the sweat-glands are quite unconnected in 
their blood-supply with the papill», so that there is no second capil- 
lary network in the skin, as in tiie kidney ; the other, that the special 
capillaries of the adipose tissue can be recognized in the foetal 
integument before any fiett-cells hove been formedL 

3. Three vascular layers may be distinguished in the human skin : 
a deep one, supplying the subcutaneous &t and deepest part of the 
corium, a mid-layer for the sweat-glands, and a superficial papillary 
network. The last discharges its blood into a yenous plexus, which is 
almost erectile in character. The three corresponding sets of yeins 
finally open into common collecting branches, visible to the naked 

4. The author confirms the observations of those histologists who 
have frequently met with papillae which bi6 at once nervous and 

A New Sponge is described by Professor A. E. Yerrili as having 
been obtained in the course of his recent dredgings on the coast of 
New England. He says* it is a large species, of which several fine 
specimens were obtained* This in general appearance and form some- 
what resembles a Teihya, and in the character of the snicula it agrees 
with DorviUta Kent. This sponge consists of a broad, convex, often 
nearly hemispherical, upper portion, two to four inches in diameter, 
supported on a broad, stout, but short, peduncle, usually two or three 
inches broad in large specimens, and somewhat less in height, the 
peduncle usually forming about one-half of the total height which 
may be three or four inches. The peduncle is composed of very long, 
slender, irregularly aggregated, mostly setiform' spicula, more or less 
appressed to the surfSeMse^ but with the upper ends mostly free; together 
with a few small dependent fascicles. The '' head " or upper portion 
of the sponge mass is firm and rather dense, composed chiefly of 
radiating bundles of large and long slender spicula, often more than 
half an inch long, many of which, at the external layer, divide into 
three horizontal or recurved branches or prongs, each of which usually 
forks near the end into two acute divergent branches, serving to 
support the cortical layer, which is more or less irregular and uneven, 
but firm ; some of thejspicula referred to project beyond the surface, 
and nearly the whole exterior is rudely and densely hispid, with long, 
ibetiform, acute spicules, which project unequally from the surface, the 
free ends of many of them being half an inch or more in length. 
Among the projecting spicula, and supported by them, are small, 
elongated oval, or fusiform, masses of soft; sarcode, which are probably 
to be regarded as external gemm«e. Scattered irregularly over the 
upper surface, and especially around the periphery, are large, often 
very elongated, rounded, or angular, sunken areas or pits, often half 
an inch across, surrounded by a more or less prominent margin sup- 

* Silliman's Journal, May, 1874. 



ported by stiff projectmg spicula. Tbe bottom of these pita ia formed 
hy a tliin membrane or diapbragm, perforated by very numerous small 
round or oval openings, which are qaite variable in size, even in the 
same area, and in many cases are so nnmerons and largo in the central 
part aa to bo separated only by a mere network, when they become 
polygonal. This perforated membrane is filled with minute, many- 
rayed doiiblo-Btellate spicula, with a small number of much larger 
ones having fonr or five acute raye. Beneath the diaphr^m the pits 
become more or lesa funnel-shaped, and communicate with large round 
anastomosing channels, which ramify through the sponge-moss. 

It seems necessary to refer this remarkable form to the genus 
DorviUia, and therefore be proposes to consider it a new species under 
the name of DorviUia echinala. 

Striated Mttecular Fibre. — At a recent meeting of the Bostou 
Society of Natural History, Dr. Thomas Dwight read a paper on the 
" Structure and Action of Striated Mueoular Fibre." His studies had 
been made un the muscles of the legs of the small wator-bootlo Gyrtmig. 
Their covering is q_uite transparent, njid after the leg has been out off 
and put into a drop of water under a covering glass, the conti'actiona 
can often be observed for over an hour. He found that the fibre, at 
rest, consisted of narrow granular transverse stripes, with brood light- 
coloured bands between them. Close to the black stripe there was a 
glaring white reflexion, but midway between two stripes the fibre was 
grey. When the fibre contracted the block bonds cameneorer together, 
and tbeir granular strncture became more obscuro; the grey band 
disappeared, so that there wos merely on alternation of blaok and 
white stripes. The ends of the white stripes bulged out during cou- 
traction. As the wave of contraction moved along, it was easy to see 
that there was no interchange of poBition between the black and the 
light substances, and no homogeneous transition stage, as is maintained 
by Merkel. When one port of the £bre is in contraction, the part 
£rom which the wave is running is put upon the stretch ; the black 

"are divided into two rows of grannies, and there is less distiuc- 
between the white and grey substances. 

The CafxAility of the Microscope. — According to the researches of 
Professor Abbe, published in a. late number of Mas Schultze's 'Arcliiv,' 
and abstracted by one of our contemporaries, it ie made to appear that 
tlie limit of capability of the microscope is almost reached by our best 
microscopes, and thatnl! li.ipe i.f ri.lpptK^r Tipoptrfttion into the material 
Gonatitntion of things. '"" ■ ■ '■■■'" Tiiiist be dis- 

missed, [1 1] Eiperinii . tliecbanges 

wrought by diffraeti'iii ■ ■ hires, whose 




ftppe&raticos as of morpbologicAl eigniGc4incc, but merely as physical 
phenomena, from which nothing further can certainly be inferred than. 
the pressnce of each structural conditions as are capable of producing 
the diSractien effects obtained. The remark has notable applicationB 
to many of the mtcrosoopical researches on markings of diatoms, and 
on striated muscular fibre. And it affects not merely the morpholo- 
gical relations of the objects, but the deductions, mado from microsco- 
pical obseryation, as to properties (such as differences of transparence, 
colours, polarization, &c,). The author lays down the following prin- 
ciple aa basis for determination of a limit ; — By no microscope can parts 
be distinguished (or the marks (MerkmaJe) of a really present structure 
perceived), if they are so near to each other that the first bnudle of 
light rays produced by diffraction can no longer outer the objecUvfl 
simultaneously with the ludifiracted cone of light. Professor Abbe 
has also recently described a new illumiuatiog apparatus for the 
microsoopo, formed of a condensing system of twonnaehromatic lenses, 
which are fised in the stage of the microscope, and transmit the rays 
from the mirror below ; the purpose being that the object (inunediatdy 
above the upper lens) may be illaminated by light from a great many 
different directions, 

la Eozoon Oanademe a Fwaminifer or not ? — This important qnes- 
tion which was long ago discnaHed by Dr. Carpenter and Professors 
King and Eowney, has recently been teken up by no less an authority 
than Mr. H. J, Carter, F.It.8., who alleges that it presents none of the 
features of an animal ; bo has been roplied to in a very able paper 
by Dr. Carpenter, in the last number of the ' Annals of Natural His- 
tory.' We propose to lay the former view of Mr. Carter before onr 
readers in the present number, aad Dr. Carpenter's in the nest number 
of this Journal. After giving the structure of certain fossil specimens 
of NummnliteB and Orliitoides, he goes on to say, that " in vain do we 
Beck in the so-called Eozoon Canadenge for the unvarying perpendi- 
cular tubuli, sine qua non of for&miniferous structure. In vain do we 
look for that regularity of chamber-formation which, in the amorphons 
growth assigned to the so-called Eoaoon, might be equally well as- 
sumed to bo identical with tho heterogeneous mass of chambers on each 
side of tho central plane of Orbitoides dtspansa, accompanied by tho 
transverse bars of stoloniferous structure uniting one chamber to the 
other. In short, in vain do we look for the casts of trno foramini- 
ferous chambers at all, in the grains of serpentine ; they, for the most 
part, are not subglobular, but subprismatic. With such deficiencies, 1 
am at a loss to conceive how the so-called Eozoon Canodeme can be 
identified with the foraminiferous structure, except by the wildest con- 
jecture ; and then such identification no longer becomes of any scien- 
tific value. Having examined the slice of Laurentien limestone 
which has been so courteously submitted to me, in thick and thin 
polished sectioi^, monntcd in Canada balsam, by transmitted and also 
refiected light, also the surface of tho ' decalcified' slice as it camo 
from you, in all directions, with ono-quartor and one-inch focus com- 
pound powers respectively, I must unhesitatingly declare that it pre- 
sents no foraminiferous structure anywhere. Nor does its stmcture 


bear so much resemblance to that of a foraminiferbiis test as the legs 
of a table to those of a quadruped ; while, if such be the grounds on 
which geological inferences are established, the sooner they are aban- 
doned the better for geology, the worse for sensationalism ! The con- 
tents of this letter are open to no controversy. My knowledge of 
foraminiferous structure has been obtained step by step, beginning 
with the rec^it and then going to the fossilized forms, making and 
mounting my own sections, from which afterward my illustrations and 
descriptions have been taken. If others who have pursued a similar 
course of instruction differ from me in what I have above stated, the 
question can only be decided by a third party, not on verbal arguments 
fJone, but on a comparison of the actual specimens, as prolonged dis- 
putation, in matters of opinion, soon disgusts everybody but tibe com- 
batants, and can end in nothing but a fearfal waste of time that might 
be better employed." 

The Air-cells in Limnanthemum, — Dr. T. G. Hunt contributes a 
short account of the above to a recent number of the ' American 
Naturalist.' He says that in the leaf of Limnanthemum lacwnoaum, or 
floating-heart, may be demonstrated multitudes of peculiar stellate 
bodies, apparently like those found in the stem of Nuphar, The 
whole interior of the leaf is studded with them. There are no ordi- 
nary large air-spaces so often found -in other floating-leaves, but all 
through the parenchyma these curious bodies are irregularly scattered. 
They vary in size and also in the number of rays given off by each. 
These rays are smooth and not echinulate like those in Nuphar. In 
the field of a f lens he has counted hundreds at one view. Under 
the polarizing binocular microscope, properly illuminated, they are 
revealed with startling distinctness and beauty. It is nearest the 
under epidermis that they are located, and the best view therefore is 
obtained from beneath. Their true physiological significance is not 
doubtful. In the natural condition they contain air, and the floating-^ 
heart rides securely on the surfEice of the lake, buoyed up by innume- 
rable life-preservers which are not likely to shift out of place. The 
veins in the leaf ai*e present, of course, but are comparatively rudi- 
mentary. The vascular bundles are faintly marked, and only a few 
delicate supporting cells line their margins; thus giving another 
example of nature*s economy, for where strongly developed organs are 
not necessary there we do not find them. 

Mr, W. Archer on the so-called Ague-plant, — It seems that the 
editor of * Grevillea ' sent some of this plaiit to Mr. Ardier, of Dublin, 
who. has explained its nature very distinctly by showing that it is 
simply Hydrogastrum. He says (in ' Grevillea,' M&y), ^' On reading over 
the more recent description of me ' Ague-plant,' comnmnicated by Dr. 
Bartlett to the ^ Chicago Society of Physicians and Surgeons,'* one sees 
how fairly it tallies with the known characters of Hydrogastrum,t but 
it is undoubtedly surprising how he and the American observers of 
the Society referred to (loc. cit.) failed to perceive the identity of the 

♦ See * Grevillea,' No. 21, March, 1874, p. 142. 

t See also Parfitt in » Grevillea,' No. 7, January, 1873, p. 103. 

VOL. xn. D 


organism in qnestion, one which finds a place in so many botanical text- 
books, boih by figure and description, as well as on lectnre-diagramB, as 
a noteworthy example of a single-celled independent plant, and at the 
same time endowed with the power to become copionsly ramified, so 
to speak, * root,' ' stem,' and aerial portion combined in one ' cell ' only. 
I venture to think it hardly less surprising to find this seemingly bo 
passive and inert little chlorophyllaceous alga, met with, in suitable 
situations, all over Europe, gravely tried and found guilty^ on so 
slender evidence, of being the atrocioas ' cause of the ague.' 

" In the mud-samples so kindly forwarded by the Editor, there 
occurred some fragmentary examples of a plant wholly different from 
the foregoing — so small in quantity as to be quite invisible to the 
unassisted eye — but which disclosed itself amongst the dSbfis taken 
up along with the Hydrogastrum. This was a Chthonoblastus, Kutz. 
(Microcoleus, Harvey), and was most probably the same as CK. cerugi- 
neu8, Kiitz. Just where one of these algsB would be found it woindd 
not be very surprising to meet with the other. Can this latter be 
chargeable with being the 'cause of the ague'? It is wholly a 
different kind of alga from Hydrogastrum, without any point of homo- 
logy or afi^ty therewith, except, perhaps, their common love for the 
damp clayey substratum afforded by the partial drying of the swamps, 
near which, unfortunately, from some occult cause, the ' ague ' is prone 
to hover." 

The Mucous Membrane of the Larynx. — Dr. W. Stirling contribntes 
a note on this to a recent number of the * Medical Eecord.' He states 
that Mr. P. Coyne has arrived at the following conclusions upon this 
subject. The mucous membrane of the larynx is formed in a layer 
subjacent to the epithelium, by a reticulated tissue analogous to 
lymphatic tissue; it thus approaches the structure of the mucous 
membrane of the small intestine. Lymphatic organs, analogous to 
the closed sacs of the small intestine, exist in the superficial layers 
of the mucous membrane. The author is of opinion that the presence 
of these glands may account for the development of certain ulcerations 
in the larynx during fever, as in typhoid. On the free border of the 
inferior vocal cord certain vascular, and probably nervous papiUsd, are 
to be found. These papillsB are specially developed on the anterior 
half of the vocal cords. From the preparation of more than twenty* 
five human larynges, the author has satisfied himself that the sub- 
mucous serous sac, admitted by Foumi6, does not exist. 

The Nerve of the Digestive Canal, — ^A paper on this subject which, 
though short, is not devoid of interest, appears in the ' Medical 
Eecord,' April 29th. It is really an abstract of Professor Amstein's 
communication of the results obtained by Professor Gonjaens. It is 
to the following effect : — 

1. Ganglion cells occur in considerable quantities in the walls of 
the oesophagus of the frog. 

2. The nerve-stems of the mucous membrane of the oesophagus of 
the frog lie generally in lymph-spaces. The fine nerve-fibres, devoid 
of the white substance of Schwann, which branch from these nerve- 


stems, nm within the SaftcanaU between the bundles of connectiye 

3. A thick net of non-tnedullated nuclei containing nerve-fibres is 
distributed in the mucous membrane of the oesophagus of the &og. 
From this net, fine nerve-fibres branch off and ascend vertically in the 
direction of the epithelium, and can be followed to the interstices 
between the epithelial cells, 

4. The nerve-fibres of the mucous membrane of the stomach and 
intestine of the frog arise from nerve bundles, which often pierce the 
muscular coat in company with small arteries. In their further 
course, two principal directions are to be made out. Part of the fibres 
ascend vertically from the deeper layers of the mucous membrane and 
reach the epithelium of the mucous layer. In this course, they give 
fine threads to the gastric and intestinal glands. A connection 
between the nerve-threads and the epithelial structures could nowhere 
be made out. The other part of the nerve-fibres of the mucous mem- 
brane ascend at first in the form of an arch, and later have a direction 
parallel to the surface of the mucous membrane. In that the above- 
named bondings occur at different heights, so that on a vertical section 
there appear tibree or four parallel rows of nerve-fibres. These nerve- 
fibres are destined for the capillary vessels of the mucous membrane, 
and form, on making sections parallel to the surface, long drawn-out 
nets around the blood-vessels; single nerve-threads touch in a 
radiating manner the walls of the capillaries. 

la Dichcena rugosa a Lichen or Fungus f — This subject is very well 
discussed in a paper by Mr. F. C. S. Boper, F.L.S., which was lately 
read before the Eastbourne Natural History Society. After some 
introductory remarks, the author said the whole surface of the patch 
when viewed with a low power is granular or minutely tubercular, of 
a dull brownish-black colour, and in some cases tinged here and there 
with green. On making a section, it is found that these granular 
bodies arise from below the cuticle of the bark, but without any trace 
of mycelium penetrating the bark itself, as is commonly the case with 
Fungi ; they are of irregular outline, and enclose a cavity, opening by 
a pore, or rather slit, at the summit. This cavity is more or less 
filled with asci, or small sac-like bodies, which contain spores, sur- 
rounded with a mass of filaments called paraphyses, which are septate 
or jointed, and curiously bent or hooked at the summit. The number 
of spores in each ascus is variable, generally from two to six, though 
as the spores are large, it is not improbable that the normal number is 
eight. The spores are oval, and the largest about TTrtnr^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ 
in length ; they are filled with granular matter, of a pale brownish 
tinge, variegated by a mixture of bluish green. These spores, when 
mature, escape through the aperture at tibe summit of the granules. 
Scattered over the edges, and at times imbedded between the plants, 
we find masses of green bodies (Gronidia), which are very minute, 
varying in shape from distinct circles to ovals or oblougs, encircled 
by a hyaline or transparent border with a double-cell wall. The green 
matter in the smaller of these bodies (which is probably chlorophyll) 
is homogeneous. In the larger we find segmentation commenced, ana 

P 2 


they are divided into two, four, or eight masses, separated by a dis- 
tinct partition, but still enclosed in the hyaline cell walL It must be 
remembered that each of these granular brownish-black bodies is a 
separate plant, and it is only by their rapid increase and aggregation 
into masses that the patch we see on the tree is produced. It is a 
matter of considerable dif&culty to convey in writing a clear descrip- 
tion of these minute forms of life; but I trust, by the help of the 
specimens and drawings on the table, I have made sufficiently clear 
all the data we have to enable us to find out its position in the vege- 
table kingdom. I may, however, mention that no reaction is found on 
the contents of the perithccium either by potash or iodine. 

The question first arises, after having ascertained its stmctore, 
Whore arc we to look for it ? The general appearance is certainly 
that of a Lichen, and the black oblong or ovoid perithecia have mneb 
the appearance of some of the Graphidea). The spores and asci give 
us no help, as they may belong eitlicr to a Lichen or a Fungus. The 
great difficulty arises £rom the presence of the green particles, termed 
gonidia, which are identical with some of the AlgsB, and have been 
figured and described under various names by Eiitzing, Hassal, and 
others, as separate and distinct plants ; but similar bodies are also 
found in Lichens; and we find the Bev. M. J. Berkeley, one of our 
greatest authorities, in his introduction to Cryptogamic Botany, 
defines Fungi as *' plants Hysterophytal (that is, Hving upon dead or 
living organic matter) or Epiphytal (that is, growing upon another 
plant), nourished by the matrix, never producing gonidia ;" whilst his 
definition of Lichens is '' Aerial, nourished by air, and not by the 
matrix, producing gonidia" Of course, with these definitions, anyone 
would naturally expect to find our plant amongst Lichens ; but a most 
careful examination of Leighton's ' Lichen Flora,' the latest and best 
work on this tribe, together with Mudd's IJ/Eanual and other works, 
failed to show me any description that would agree in all respects with 
the appearance shown by the plant I have described. I then asked 
Mr. Muller to examine it, and ascertain if it could be a Fungus. The 
mixture of distinguishing characters was as great a puzzle to him as 
it had been to me, and he was unable to make out from Cooke's Hand- 
book its exact position ; but on carefully going through the ascomy- 
cetes Fungi in Hooker's ' English Flora,' he found Hysterium rugogum 
described as " Stroma, crust-like, innate, brown-black, perithecia elliptic 
bursting through the living bark, at length running together into irre- 
gular spots." This is said to be extremely conmion on the smooth 
branches of birch and oak. And Mr. Berkeley, who prepared this 
portion of the British Flora, states also that it is usually referred to 
the order Lichenes, from which, however, Messrs. Borrer and Hooker, 
in accordance with the views of Chevalier, Wallroth, and Fries, con- 
sider it extraneous. Sir James Smith long since perceived its affinity 
with Hysterium, from which it differs in the presence of a stroma, and 
in its being produced on living bark. Beference is made to ' English 
Botany/ t. 2282, and on loolang at the figure and description there 
given, as well as to the works of Fries, Acharius, and other authors, it 
was evident this was undoubtedly the plant we were in search of. The 


STnonymy is carious, and well exemplifies the difficulty cryptogamio 
botanists find in clearly defining the limits of these lowly-organized 
plants ; for I find that ten well-known authors describe it as a Lichen, 
and six, equally well known, place it amongst the Fungi ; whilst it is 
rejected by both our latest authors on these plants, Mr. Cooke, in his 
^ Handbook on British Fungi,' 1871, merely mentioning the name of 
DichcBna rugosa, with the remark, *' I think it should be included with 
Lichens," and the Bev. W. A. Leighton, in his * Lichen Flora,' pub- 
lished the same year, taking no notice of it whatever. 

Pseudo-Muscular Hypertrophy. — The 'Philadelphia Medical 
Times ' contains a translation of an article on this subject. After 
describing the usual symptoms and course of the disease, and the 
microscopic appearance as being simply an atrophy of the muscular 
fibre, accompanied by an enormous increase of the interstitial fatty 
and connective tissue, the writer passes on to the consideration of four 
cases, which, though presenting some points of similarity, were in 
others markedly different from &e ordinary course of the disease. In 
each of these cases the disease was consequent upon an injury. The 
functional derangements were not so marked as in typical cases : in 
place of being totally lost, the power of motion was only diminished. 
The microscope revealed, in each case, what appeared to be a true 
hypertrophy of the muscular fibres, without excessive growth of the 
interstitial connective tissue. From this it would seem that the 
hypertrophy spreads from the muscle to the connective tissue, and 
the hypertr6phied connective tissue, pressing on the muscle, causes 
atrophy afterwards. Schlesinger, however, reports a case of a man 
with mental disease, in whom some of the muscles were hypertrophied. 
The microscope showed the muscular tissue much diseased, but in 
them there was no hypertrophy of the muscular fibre. Whether the 
process is a simple inflammation, or what is its nature, is not known. 
— See also the ' Medical Examiner,' Chicago, May 1. 

The Microscopy of Gum Production has been fully explained in a 
paper before the French AcadeiAy by M. Prilling. The writer divides 
the subject into three heads, as follows : — 

1. Production in vessels, — Li the wood of a tree so diseased as to 
produce gum, a large number of vessels are more or less filled with it 
either through their entire length or forming a coating more or less 
thick around them, or on one side. The most recent observers have 
admitted that the gum results from the disorganization and transform- 
ation of the inside of the walls of the vessels, but an attentive study 
of the production of gum in the vessels has led me to a different con-> 
viction. The gum shows itself first in very fine drops, which increase 
in size, touch each other, become confluent and form irregular masses, 
with sinuate edges. This mode of origin of gum contained in vessels 
appears irreconcilable with the opinion professed by German ob- 
servers. The examination of large masses of gum taken from the 
vessels of the apricot has led to the same conclusion. These vessels 
are marked with areolar cavities and a spiral projection formed by a 
thickening of the cell-walls on the interior, and the masses of gum 


present on their surface furrows corresponding to the spiral lines 
which jut out from the walls of the vessel, and even little projectioiis 
corresponding to the cavities. It is then very certain that, in this 
case, tiie gum is deposited in the interior of the vessels, and has taken 
the impression of the interior. This gum is of the same nature with 
that M. Trecul calls c^aaone, 

2. Production in Cells, — TransformaJtion of Starch, — Gum is often 
seen in the medullary rays and there offers particular interest, 
because its appearance is connected with the disappearance of the 
starch originally contained in the cells. The change of starch into 
gum has been noted by former observers, but never to my notion 
precisely described. On the first appearance of gum in the cell, the 
grains of starch, still entire, are gathered into little groups, around 
which appears a thin layer of gum, also small portions of which majr 
be seen deposited in other parts of the cell. The masses of starch 
enveloped by gum diminish continually as the layer of gum increases 
in thic^ess, but when treated by iodine the two substances preserve 
their special properties without modification till the starch finally 
disappears, usually leaving a small cavity in the centre of the little 
mass of gum. When the production of gum commences in the tissnes, 
an increased amount of starch is observable in the neighbouring cells 
which seems absorbed, and inmiediately changed into gum, but ordi- 
narily the gum in this case does not appear to be deposited in the 
cells, but passes into the neighbouring reservoirs, where it accnmn- 
lates in considerable quantity. * 

3. It is neither in vessels nor cells, but rather in the lacunsd formed 
in the interior of young tissues, the voluminous masses of gum accu- 
mulate, which we often observe. These lacunaB are most frequently 
found in the cambial zone, but may be seen at different depths in the 
wood, disposed concentrically like successive annual layers. They 
are formed in the germinal layer, and then occupy the interval between 
the medullary rays. ^When not too largely developed, a new woody 
layer forms outside (h them, and the growth is not sensibly altered. 
On the contrary, if growth cease at this point, a flow of gum is caused, 
the woody tissue necroses and cannot be covered except by the extension 
of lateral portions where the germinal layer is uninjured. 

The tissues next to these lacunsB suffer an important modification of 
development ; the cambium, instead of forming woody tissue, produces 
cells in which an abundance of starch is deposited. There arises then,' 
wherever gum is developed, a particular tissue (woody parenchyma) 
which does not exist in healthy stems, and whose appearance is so 
intimately connected with the morbid formation of gum, that it may 
be considered as a pathologic tissue. The starch, which accumulates in 
this special woody parenchyma, is used, as in the medullary rays, to 
form gum, which accumulates in large quantities in the lacunse. These 
lacunsB increase at the expense of the neighbouring tissue, which is 
disorganized; nevertheless, the cells which border the lacunas often 
manifest extreme vital activity, and give birth to true pathologic 
formations. They develop, multiply and ramify in the interior of the 
lacunte, even when separated from the rest of the tissue, and absolutely 
isolated in the middle of the gum. 


What is the exact Definition of Leucocyte and PtLs-corpuscle?^ 
The following is an account of an amusing discussion which took 
place at a late meeting of the Philadelphia Pathological Society. 
'* Dr. Bertolet said he had not a clear idea of what was comprised by 
the term * leucocytes,' and desired much to know its limitations. 
Dr. Tyson replied that, after other better-known histologists, he had 
always used the word leucocyte in a generic sense, as including all 
that class of small, round, variously granular cells which, according 
to the situations in which they were found, were variously called 
white blood-corpuscles, mucus-corpuscles, young pus-corpuscles, or 
the round cells of connective tissue, — in other words, dead amoeboid 
cells. Dr. Bertolet said he thought this was an error in theory which 
had been allowed to supplant practice ; that the white corpuscle and 
pus-corpuscle were not 1^e same. Dr. Eichardson said the word leu- 
cocyte had been originally.introduced by Charles Bobin, who applied 
it to the class of bodies named by Dr. Tyson, whether alive or dead, 
as well as to exudation-corpuscles, and he believed also, provisionally, 
salivary corpuscles. He thought that if anyone would treat white 
corpuscles contained in a drop of blood from his finger, first with 
water by introducing a small quantity at the edge of the thin glass 
cover, and then with weak aniline solution, in the manner described 
in his report on the white blood-corpuscle,* he would have no difficulty 
in finding many globules which exhibited two or three, and occasion- 
ally those which displayed four or five, well-formed and strongly-tinted 
nuclei, and which manifested a precise identity, in that respect at 
least, with the leucocytes of pus, as described by older pathologists. 
By this experiment it was easily demonstrated that the characteristic 
formerly so much relied upon for the recognition of the pus-cell, and 
quoted by Dr. Bertolet, — ^namely, that it possessed two, three, or more 
nuclei, — was valueless as a means for its discrimination from the 
leucocytes of blood. Dr. Tyson admitted that pus-corpuscles soon 
became very granular from fatty degeneration, and then presented 
objects which did not so closely resemble the white blood-corpuscle ; 
but in their young state he did not think they could be distinguished, 
and to acetic acid and water both responded identically. Dr. Bichard- 
son said that about one white corpuscle out of thirty is ordinarily 
more granular than its companions, and he was strongly inclined to 
think that these white corpuscles were also the seat of fatty degenera- 
tion. The President said it was very important to have clear ideas as 
to the exact application of terms. He presumed, of course, that this 
discussion referred simply to the morphology, and not the vital 
properties or developmental tendencies, of the cells in question. He 
said that he himself had been called upon to study cases where in- 
flammation had obliterated the trunks of vessels, — a matter which 
brought up directly the question of being able to distinguish between 
the corpuscles in the surrounding inflamed tissue and the white cor- 
puscles which remained in the softened clots. By no means which 
were available could he distinguish between the two. Dr. Eichardson 
thought the more he studied the subject in connection with Cohn- 
heim*s observations, the more he was led to conclude that living len- 

♦ * Amer. Med. Assoc. Trans.,' 1872. 


eocytes of pus and blood were identical physiologically as well as 

The Mintde Structure of a Peculiar Fern, — At one of this year's 
meetings of the Philadelphia Academy, Dr. J. G. Hunt remarked that 
the structure of the Schizcea jpusilla differed widely from that of our 
other indigenous schizsBceous ferns, viz., Lygodium palmatum, and its 
morphological elements are imlike those of our ferns in general. Tho 
barren frond of Schizcea pusiUa is marked on its epidermal surface 
with a double line of stomata, and these organs extend the entire 
length of the frond. The cells which make up the interior of this 
delicate fern are cylindrical and vary in size, but their distinctive 
characters lie in minute projections or outgrowths from all sides of the 
cells, and these projections meet and are articulated with correspond- 
ing outgrowth from adjoining cells, so that the cells of Schizcea have 
penetrating between them in every direction intercellular spaces and 
channels of"remarkahle regularity and beauty, and so characteristic is 
this plan of cell-union that the botanist need find no difficulty in 
identifying the smallest fragment of the plant. This morphological 
peculiarity has not been noticed before. 

Microscopic Crystcds, — These have formed the subject of a couple 
of papers by Dr. Lea in the * Proceedings of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Science.' They are illustrated by a plate. The 
minerals examined were garnets, asteriated sapphire, labradorite, a 
black feldspar, barito, amethyst, ruby. 


Photograplis of Microscopic Writing. — Tho following account is 
given by Colonel Woodward in a letter to Mr. Ingpen, F.R.M.S., 
file Secretary of the Quekett Club, and is published by him in the 
Journal of that Society: — "Two samples of Mr. Webb's fine writing 
on glass have been received at the Museum since my communica- 
tion of August 18th. Each consists of the Lord's Prayer, written 
with a diamond, according to the label, in a space ^i?- X rhr ^^ *^ 
inch. In one of the slides the writing is blackened, and mounted 
in Canada balsam ; in the other it is not blackened, and is mounted 
dry. I send photographs of both herewith — the one magnified 
650 diameters, the other 826. I find Mr. Webb's statement of the 
dimensions in which this writing is executed to be substantially 
correct, and he has certainly produced a most curious and interesting 
object for microscopical study. To compare his work with the 
coarser bands of Nobert's plate, I took a photograph of the first seven 
bands of the Ninetcen-band plate with 650 diameters, which I also for- 
ward herewith. This photograph, and that of the blackened writing, 
were taken on the same day with the same objective, Powell and Lealand's 
immersion ^th, at the same distance, and under identical conditions. 


The photograph of the writing was made first, and is the best of a 
nnmber of trials. I then inserted the Nobert's plate, not even 
changing the cover correction, as I shonld have done to secnre the 
best definition, because this would have changed the power. The 
picture sent was the result. A comparison of the two pictures will 
render any remarks on the relative delicacy of Mr. Webb*s work and 
that of Nobert unnecessary. It is evident that the point used by the 
former is very much coarser than that used by the latter. The 
picture of the Prayer, mounted dry, was taken on a subsequent occa- 
sion, and is also the best of a number of trials. It is taken with the 
same objective as the other pictures, but with a different cover correc- 
tion, and somewhat greater distance. Both the samples sent me by 
Mr. Webb are inscribed on such thick covers that they are seen under 
a disadvantage, and my highest powers cannot be used on them. The 
writing is, however, comparatively so coarse that it can hardly be 
considered as a serious test for high powers. Either plate is easily 
read with a good half -inch objective and central light. I am curious 
to learn how this writing of Mr. Webb's compares with that of 
Mr. Peters, described by the late Mr. Farrants in his address as 
President of the Eoyal Microscopical Society. He stated that it was 
executed at the rate of twenty- two Bibles to the inch. I would 
greatly like to see such a specimen, and give it a photographic trial. 
Will you kindly read this note to the Club, and present the photo- 
graphs? I send also a full set of my last photographic analysis of 
Nobert's plate for the Club, and a package for Mr. Webb, which I 
beg you to hand him." 

A Spherical Diaphragm is thus described in the 'American 
Naturalist ' by Mr. F. B. Kimbal. He says : — " Wishing to use tubular 
diaphragms with my microscope, and. knowing how clumsy the 
ordinary ones are, I set to work, and endeavoured to devise a 
substitute. I made a globe 1^ inch in diameter, and drilled holes 
through it of the proper grade of sizes, and adjusted it so that 
by a spring stop the holes will correspond to the axis of the micro- 
scope when the ball is revolved on its axis by a milled head at the 
right of the stage. The fittings are so arranged that the dia- 
phragm may approach or recede from the stage so as to touch the 
slide or be far from it. The globe may be made hollow and the 
lower part cut off if the tubular wells are not desired. I think this 
form of diaphragm offers many advantages over the ordinary piece of 

A New Microscopical Society has been formed at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, XJ.S.A., which meets the first and third Thursdays of each month. 
The following are the names of the officers for the ensuing year : — 
President^ J. Lawrence Smith; Vice-Presidents, Noble Butler, Chas. 
F. Carpenter ; Treasurer, C. T. F. Allen ; Cor. Secretary, E. S. Crosier ; 
Secretary, John Williamson ; Eocecutive Committee, Thos. E. Jenkins, 
James Knapp, W. T. Beach, E. R. Palmer, R. C. Gwathmey. 

( 40 ) 


Who Sbnt Mb. Tollbs' Objectivb to Mb, Cbisp? 

To the Editor of the * Monthly Microscopical JournaV 

Boston, May 19, 1874. 

Mb. Editob,— I find in the May nmnber of this Journal that the 
Bev. Mr. Brakey has indulged again in his fayoorite pastime of 
describing the impossible, viz, the thoughts and motives of persons 
three thousand miles * distant across the Atlantic Ocean. One wonders 
if his clairvoyant medium is reliable ? 

He writes, ** Mr. Tolles had constructed an objective which he 
labelled with the astonishing angle of 180^, and not only constructed 
it, but in an evil hour sold it to Mr. Crisp, little thinking that in bo 
doing he was selling himself into the hands of the Philistines, to be 
shown and made sport of." 

The truth is that Mr. Tolles had little to do with the sending of 
, that objective to England. It was sent by myself of my own motion, 
expecting that some of the Philistines would break their heads against 
it in their " sport"; and with a special request that it might be seen by 
the most unbelieving Philistine of the Philistines — Mr. Brakey him- 
self I Mr. Brakey should be acquainted with the history of the 
Philistines, and may take warning by their fate after they aroused 

I may add that the objective was not purchased by Mr. Crisp 
until after he had seen it. 

In the future Mr. Brakey should be more cautious of writing what 
he cannot possibly know, and then he may not so often be put into 
such " ludicrous " positions. 

Chables Stoddeb. 

Mb. Pillisgheb's Beply to Mb. Bbooke. 

To the Editor of the ^Monthly Microscopical Journal,^ 

8, Lower Hook Gardens, Bbiohtox, June 19, 1874. 

Sib, — ^Having been indisposed and away from home, Mr. Charles 
Brooke's letter in the April number of this Journal, in reply to mine 
in the March number, has only just come to my notice. 

Being still far from well, I should willingly allow Mr. Brooke's 
letter to pass unnoticed, but for the glaring misrepresentation it con- 
tains, which in order to refute, I have once more to ask your favour of 
inserting this in the next issue of your valuable Journal, after which 
I shall consider, as far as I am concerned, this matter at an end. 

Mr. Brooke is astonished at the tone of my letter, and says : " First, 
as to nationality : my authority was a juror at Vienna," and regrets 

* Mr. Brakey says 2000 miles. His readers may wonder if his knowledge of 
optics is any more accurate than his knowledge of geography. 



having erroaeously repeated it. I assure Mr. Brooke that beyond the 
questionable propriety of introducing my nationality at all in his 
address to the members of the Eoyal Microscopical Society, to whom 
I am by no means a stranger, I care not a button whether he believed 
that I was a Prussian or a Turk. 

With regard to Mr. Brooke's argument that native British optical 
goods were wholly unrepresented at the Vienna Exhibition, I think 
any schoolboy, if asked, will tell him that goods manufactured in 
England, of English materials, by English workmen, under the super- 
intendence of an English foreman, are to all intents and purposes 
native British products. 

As to deep objectives : somehow it pleases Mr. Brooke to remember 
my telling him at the Exhibition that I had no higher power than 
a ^inch, but I expected some, and he attributes to me extreme care- 
lessness for not informing him personally of their subsequent arrival. 
I emphatically deny in the most positive terms having had any con- 
versation whatsoever with Mr. Brooke on the above subject, except 
on the day when my microscopes and objectives were before the jury ; 
it was there, I repeat, that he asked me what objectives I had to show, 
and when telling him that a series ranging from 4-inch to ^^inch 
were on the table, he replied, " I do not care for high powers," and left 
it to me to show him what I liked. The day having been dark and 
gloomy, and no artifici^ light provided, and convinced that under such 
circumstances it would be vain to attempt to show a high power; 
moreover, perceiving that the only test the jury had at their disposal 
was a coarse angulcUum intermixed with* a specimen or two of 
SurireUa gemma, I contented myself with showing the angulatum under 
a ^-inch and Kellner's D eye-piece, evidently to the satisfaction of the 
three jurors present 

Apologizing for trespassing on your valuable space, 

I remain, Sir, your obedient servant, 


[Out of a desire to exhibit fair play we have inserted Mr. Pillischer's letter. 
Laving removed the more objectiouable passages. At the same time we camiot 
but deprecate the tone of his observations. On oommunicating with Mr. Brooke, 
he has informed us that his ** recollections ef Vienna are entirely at variance with 
those of Mr. Pillischer."— Ed. • M. M. J.'] 

Immersion v. Dby Objectives. 

To the Editor of the ^Monthly Microscopical JournalJ* 

1, Bedford Square, June 20, 1874. 
Sib, — I have no intention of asking you to devote more of your 
valuable space to *' The battle of the Lenses," nor am I at all inclined 
to enter into a controversy with the Rev. S. L. Brakey, "On the 
Theory of Immersion," but if Mr. Brakey's practical experience of 
the immersion system is too limited to enable him to say whether or 
not " the immersion lenses do actually possess the superiority of defi- 
nition which has lately been ascribed to them," I venture to think 


he will do well to visit some of our Metropolitan Medical Schools, or 
the Medical Microscopical Society, where I know he would haye 
ample opportmiities afforded him of hoth seeing and learning that the 
immersion system has much simplified the whole process of obtaining 
high-power definition ; and that students are now able to examine for 
themselves with a magnification of a thousand diameters, where for^ 
merly such magnification was scarcely practical, or only known as of 
difficult achievement. 

Doubtless, if Mr. Brakey could see a fedr comparison made be- 
tween immersion objectiyes, as those of Hartnack, or some other 
equally well-known maker, and the old or even modem dry objeotiYeB, 
he would at once admit that there is not much room for a play of 
fancy, ^* as in judging the merits of wine," and he might '' exactly say 
how much of the difference is really due to the immersion system," 
both as to practical results obtained, economy of time (probably also 
of money), and what is due to a previously settled " conviction." 

I have the honour to remain, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Jabbz Hoqg. 

On Immebsiok Lenses. 

To t?ie Editor of the * Monthly Microscopical Journal,* 

Sib, — As an Immersion of some years' standing I should like to 
say a few words on behalf of myself and of certain of my fellow- 

Your contributor on the Theory of Immersion suggests that we 
have received undue praise for our merits, which he says are so in- 
definite that he does not care to pledge himself either for or against 
us ; he evidently inclines to the belief that the qualities claimed 
for us, and on which we pride ourselves, are mainly imaginary. 

I think your contributor might well admit that not everyone, 
save himself, who has seen and examined, is still imconvinced of our 
high qualities of clearness and definition. In this I would ask him to 
believe it possible that others besides himself and Mr. Wenham have 
given serious attention to the subject of Immersion, and that some 
have had quite as much and possibly more varied experience than 
either of them in the use of Immersion lenses. I venture to say that 
neither of them would presume to be of greater authority on the 
Theory of Optics than Sir David Brewster or Amici, both of whom 
declared in favour of the Immersion principle. Sir David (then Dr.) 
Brewster, indeed, claimed to be the inventor of the first compound 
microscope involving the Immersion principle : he describes it in his 
* Treatise on New Philosophical Instruments,' published at Edinburgh 
in 1813 : while Amici not only spoke in favour of the principle, but 
exhibited Immersion lenses made by himself, which he openly stated 
would show minute structure that was invisible to the Dry Objective. 
Since then, certain Paris opticians and others have given special 
attention to the Immersion principle, and have not boon sparing of 


their criticism of the way in which the Eoglish Jurors passed over their 
work at the l^aris International Exhibition. I well remember being 
there myself, but because the Test-object I was exhibiting was un- 
known to the said Jurors, I was scarcely noticed by thenu I heard 
too, that an English optician criticised us with some acrimony in the 
' AthensBum *; he went so far as to say that the Test-object, which I was 
exhibiting with a magnification of about twelve hundred diameters, was 
altogether too coarse to use as a test even for a low power ; — but he 
was beside the mark. 

Very soon after this, myself and other Immersions were pitted 
against some of the then best Dry Objectives in England, and we more 
than held our own. The merits of our principle of construction being 
thus brought prominently to the notice of English amateurs and opti- 
cians, some of the latter were not slow in taking the matter up. Then 
came the announcement that Dr. Woodward had made a series of 
photographs of Nobert*s new Nineteen-band Test-Plate with Messrs. 
Powell and Lealand*s -^th Immersion. This was immediately 
followed by copies of the photographs which were exhibited at the 
Boyal Microscopical Society. On comparison with the photographs 
of the same Test-plate made with some of the finest and most power- 
M Dry Objectives it was abundantly evident that the Immersion 
principle would now take the lead. Dr. Woodward, with a zeal and 
perseverance that were truly admirable, followed up tibese photographs 
by others of the Podura, Amphipleura peHuctda, Frusttdia saaxmica, 
Bhombotdes, &c., &c., produced by various Immersion lenses ; and 
these photographs can be referred to in the collection of the Eoyal 
Microscopical Society by any one interested in the subject. 

So far as I am concerned personally I shall be glad to have our 
merite judged by our works. On the p^ of many of my fellow Im- 
mersion lenses and myself I accept Dr. Woodwaid's photographs as 
fairly representing our capabilities up to the date of their produc- 
tion ; and I venture to believe that in them we show results idiead of 
anything that has hitherto been done of a similar kind by any Dry 

Since that date, and notably as exhibited at the Vienna Exhibition, 
improvements have been made in our construction; our younger 
brethren have had a fourth combination added ; that is, have a single 
front (which the oldest of us have had — aye, even that made by 
Dr. Brewster in the beginning of the century ; — I hope Mr. Wenham 
will pardon this slur on his claim to be the inventor of single fronts I) 
and three doublet achromatics progressively increasing in diameter. 
In this construction a zone of peripheral rays is gained and made 
available in the formation of the image; — which we believe will be 
an advantage in high powers. 

The close study of M. Pouillet's experiments to determine the 
conditions of the production of difiEraction in the passage of light 
through various forms and parts of prisms has led one of the most 
learned of the Paris opticians to aim at extending as much as prac- 
ticable the introduction of marginal rays into the formation of the 
image : the new objectives of four combinations that were shown at the 
Vienna Exhibition were practical examples in this direction. 

44 * PROOEEDmas of booieties. 

In the meantime your contributor has touched on an important 
point in stating that our excellence (which he grudgingly says may be 
assumed for the present) is partly due to the greater intensity of the 
rays of light we transmit. He may now forestall the Paris aoranly 
in whose conversation the statement and demonstration of these in- 
vestigations has formed an integral element during ten years to my 
knowledge, and show experimentally and mathematicidly that the 
theory of the production of the minutest ontical images requires the 
greatest possible preponderance of peripheral over central rays in the 
objective : that the immersion principle greatly assists in the attain- 
ment of this condition : that we thus inherently possess greater freedom 
from errors of diffraction that necessarily exist in the Dry ObjectiTeB. 

At this date, with lenses already made on the Immersion principle 
of focal lengths varying from i& to ^th of an inch, we do not Mk 
to have our merits assumed ; we point to our series of Dr. Woodward's 
photographs as conclusively proving that we possess photometric 
powers and other qualities most higMy valued in microscopic defini- 
tion, in a degree quite beyond those of Dry Objectives. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant. 

Immersion Lens. 


KoYAL Microscopical Society. 

King's College, June 3, 1874. 

Charles Brooke, Esq., F.K.S., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

A list of donations to the Society since the last meeting was read 
by the Secretary, and the thanks of the meeting were voted to the 

The President announced that the reading room and library of 
the Society would be closed during the mondi of August. He also 
regretted to inform them that a paper* which it was expected would 
have been read before the meeting that evening, had unfortunately 
been lost in transmission through the post, and they were consequently 
unable to read it. 

The Secretary called attention to a slide exhibited by Mr. Baker, 
just received from Herr MoUer, and a very remarkable specimen of 
his extraordinary skill. In a square, with sides only -j^^th of an inch, 
were 80 clear circular spaces in a dark framework of photography, 
and in each space a fine specimen of a diatom, with its name, and the 
authority for the name, plainly photographed below it. The whole 
series could be well seen at one glance under a l^inch objective, and 
the names read, though very small with that power unless a B eye- 
piece was employed. Beck's ^th had a considerably larger field than 
one of the spaces, and Powell and Lealand's knmersion ^th just took 
one in, and showed in one view a name as long as " Triceratium for-^ 
mosum" the letters being beautifully sharp with that magnification. 


It was stated that Herr Moller prepared slides with 100 as well as 
those with 80 specimenSy and was about to introduce similar slides of 
Echinoidea, Holothnridsd, &o. With difficult objects like diatoms, the 
advantage of having a well-assorted series in one slide with the names 
attached was obviously great, and would no doubt be appreciated by 
all students as well as by collectors of microscopical curiosities. 

Mr. Slack also said tiiat he was asked at the last meeting if he had 
seen silica solution in the milky condition described by Mr. Bead.* 
Since that meeting he had received from Mr. Bead a specimen, the 
whole of which was milky, and the question was whether the particles 
could be seen. He had examined some of the fluid with various 
powers and under different illuminations, but had not succeeded in 
seeing the particles. If a drop or a thick film were put upon a glass 
slide and evaporated, the result was a film of the silica with the cracks 
in it; but if a thin smear only were put on the glass, then they got 
thousands of spherical particles. The deposit was probably a hydrate 
of silica, and he thought it possible that particles ought to be seen if 
the power employed was good enough. He had sent some of the 
solution to Dr. Aiithony, and it appeared that he did see numerous 
aprticles with a ^-inch objective by Boss, in a dark room with a beam of 
light let in through a hole in a shutter, but he was unable to see 
them with a higher power. This reminded him of some remarks by 
Professor Tyndall, who had stated that if a little mastic dissolved in 
alcohol was added to water in sufficient quantity to produce a sky-blue 
effect, the particles could not be seen by any known microscopical 
powers ; but if a small drop of it were taken and put into a little 
water, then they could be seen. Why was it that they could be seen 
in the small quantity, and yet not in the large? He had not yet 
material enough to write a paper on the subject, but thought he 
might mention it as being one of interest. 

The President believed that it was entirely a matter of molecular 
aggregation. He remembered that some years ago the late Professor 
Faraday gave him a bottle of liquid containing gold in a minute state 
of subdivision, so that the fluid appeared of a rose colour. He sub- 
mitted it to examination with the highest powers, and illimiinated it 
in all ways, but was not able to trace any sign of the particles. It 
remained so for many years, and at the present time there was a 
quantity of the minute particles of gold at ^e bottom of the bottle as 
a sediment; but if shs^en up, they remained merely mechanically 
suspended in the liquid, and could be seen as molecules, which settled 
again to the bottom in the course of a short time. In dissolving a 
substance it might be that its molecules were so widely separated that 
they passed beyond each other's sphere of attraction, and that if placed 
in a small quantity of fluid they might be brought nearer, and thus 
within the sphere of mutual attraction. He believed another instance 
was famished by the preparation of chromate of lead which was used 
for injections* These injections it was found could only be made 
with a solution of the precipitate which was freshly prepared ; if it 
were allowed to remain a long time, the molecules became larger, and 
the finest capillaries could not any longer be injected with them. 

♦ * Monthly Microeoopical Journal,' June, 1874, p. 272. 



Mr. Chas. Stewart commanicfttod to tho mooting a short note upon 
the poBition of the toiich-corpnsclea in the human akin. His uttontion 
had been drawn to the eubjeot hy a paper written by Dr. Thin, and 
though he agreed generally with the writer ae to their stmctore, he 
could not do so altogether as to their position. Mr. Stewart then 
proceeded to osplain by meana of drawings upon the black-board the 
atnicturo of the palmar skin of the liand and the plantar skin of the foot, 
as distingmahed from that of the other parte of the body, and showed 
the peculiar position in the Bkin of the finger of the tonch-corpaeclos. 
The resulta of many observations showed that they were invariably 
situated in those papillse which were nearest to the farrows of the 
skin, and never in those nearest to the sndoriferous ducts. He did 
not yet see why thoy should be so placed, but their position there he 
had found to Iw invariable. 

Mr. Stewart alao called attention to some prepared sections of an 
oscidian (Botryllua) which he exhibited in the room. Hia method of 
killi ng them was to place them first in a glass of water until they 
opened out and were in full action, and then to plnnge them imme- 
diately into strong methylated spirit. The change was so sudden 
that thoy opened thoir mouths in tho now element, and immediately 
died the death of tho drunkard. If weaker spirit were used, tJiey 
took some of it in, but inuuodiately closed up, and would have uo 
more to do with it. The mounted section exhibited had been killed 
in this way, and was stained slightly with hixnatoxylin. Mr. Stowort 
then drew upon tho blnck-board the section referred to, and osplatnod 
tho Btructuro and action of the various ports as ho proceeded. He 
thought that it might be of interest to some persons to know that 
many moat beautiful forma of these creatures could be easily prepared 
and preserved. 

On the motion of the President, votes of thanks to Mr. Stewart for 
his interesting communications were unanimously passed. 

Dr. Matthews said he should like to hear Mr. Stewart's opinion as 
to the Pacinian bodies of the mesentery. 

Mr. Stewart thought there woa rcaUy very little rcaemblnnce, but 
the preparation was perhaps worth mentioning. He had found a good 
way was to cut out a piece of mesentery, put it into Muller's fluid for 
three weeks. After that dissect off one half, and place it in a little 
weak spirit and water; then traosfor it to absolute alcohol for the 
purpose of hardening, and afterwards into a very weak solntion of 
hematoxylin to stain it. On taking it out of the staining fluid it 
should be put to harden again iu spirit, and afterwards mounted in 
balsam in the usual way. 

Dr. Braithwaite said he should like to observe that in the first 

diagram drawn by Mr. Stewart (that of the section of skin of human 

finger), olUiough ho had every respect for Mr. Daiwin, it seemed to 

that those little tncti were really placed in just the very best 

or the purpose tor which they were intended, and that they 

as not to interfere with the sweat-gland appeared to 

ptive of design. He thought the mooting was very 

Mr. Stewart for the very lucid manner in which he 

c very interesting bodies. 


Mr. Stewart was hardly prepared to say why the corpuscles were 
placed as above described ; they might, for instance, have been placed 
upon the top of the ridge and nearest to the surface which first came 
in contact with the objects touched. In their actual position the dis- 
tance was greater from the surface of contact than it otherwise might 
have been. He confessed that he could not quite as yet see why they 
were placed in that particular position. 

Mr. Slack thought that, as a mechanical question, the top of the 
ridge being thicker than the intermediate space, these little bodies 
might be really in the position of greatest impression. 

Mr. Sanders asked Mr. Stewart how the ascidian was hardened. 

Mr. Stewart said that at the time of killing them he put them into 
strong methylated spirit 80° over proof, and then afterwards put them 
into absolute alcohol. 

Dr. Matthews said that in killing these creatures suddenly he had 
adopted the plan of introducing the spirit through a tube put down to 
the bottom of the vessel, and thus displacing the sea water. 

Mr. Stewart had adopted this plan sometimes in killing zoophytes, 
adding the spirit very carefully drop by drop ; but with the ascidians 
he found that any plans of this sort did not answer so well as putting 
them suddenly into strong spirit, and letting them get a good mouthfid 
of it before they knew where they were. 

Dr. Matthews said part of his plan was to cork the end of the 
funnel, and to let the spirit go in with a rush : the difference in the 
specific gravity of the two fluids rendered this necessary. 

The President wished the Fellows of the Society a pleasant vaca- 
tion and many opportunities of increasing their stock of objects ; and 
the meeting was then adjourned to October 7th. 

Donations to the Library since May 6th, 1874 : — 


Nature. Weekly The Editor, 

Athensemn. Weekly Ditto. 

Society of Arts JoumaL Weekly Society. 

Sixteenth Report of the East Kent Natural History Society 

for 1873 Ditto. 

Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society. New 

Series. Vol. I. Part I Ditto. 

Journal of the Quekett Club. No. 26 Club. 

The President's Address, &c., of West Kent Natural History 

Society for 1873 Society. 

The Canadian Journal. No. 80 Canadian Institution, 

Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France Society, 

The following gentlemen were elected Fellows of the Society : — 

Frederick William Hembry, Esq. 
Dr. Arthur Jukes Johnson. 
William James Lancaster, Esq. 
Samuel Petty Leather, Esq. 
Dr. William Kadford. 
Roland Dunn Smith, Esq. 

Walter W. Eeeyes, 

J 8sist. 'Secretary, 

^^f48 proceedinqs of societies. ^^^^ 

^P Medical Miciioscopical Society, ■! 

The twelfth meeting of Hub Society was held on Friday, Marcli 
20th, at the Boyol Westminster Ophthalinic Hospital, Jabez Kogg, 
Esq-, Preeidont, in the chair. 

I'he minutes of the last meeting having been read awl confirmed, 
Mr. George Giles read a paper " On Staining with Aniline Dyea for 
Balsam Mounting." 

The author of the paper was first led to study this aabjoct from 
reading the following passage in Frei's 'Technology'; — 

" It is very unfortunate that oleohol soon extracts tho colour [of 
aniline-red], so that it is impossible to preserve tho specimen in 
Canada balsam." 

To obviate this inconvonienoo lo tried a 2 per cent, solution of 
aniline in spirit, and then found that by staining sections that had 
been in spirit with this solution for three or four minutes, rinsing in 
spirit and placing subsequently in oil of cloves, the colour was per- 
fectly preserved when the specimen was mountad in Canada balsam. 
Oil of cloves was preferable to turpentine, the latter at times pre- 
cipitating the colouring matter ; but should this occur, brushing with 
a camel's hair pencil would removo tho deposit. Mr. Giles claimed 
three advantages for this method : 1st, Its cleanliness ; 2ad, That one 
has the most perfect control over the depth of colour obtained by re- 
gulating the time of the subsequent washing in spirit ; 3rd, That the ' 
colour is less trying to the eyes than that of carmine. Its selective ,i 
power was greater than that of Frei's aqueous solution of aniline. Tho ' 
nerve fibres of the spinal cord, as well aa the nuclei of cells, being 
vividly brought oirt. 

The Secretary then read a paper by Mr. E. 0. Eabor— who was 
unavoidably absent — upon " Sta.ining with Pioro - Carminato of 

PnEa-AHiTiON OF Pioro-Cabminb. 

Pure Cftrmine 1 grme. U 

Liq. AmmouiiB 4 c. ceutrea. I 

Water 200 grmes. | 

Uiz ; and then add H 

F[cric Hoiil 5 grmea. 

Agitato from tune to time dnriag two days : allow riaiduQ to settio ; decant nnd 
evapoiBto decnnted liquor at the temperature of the air ; rodiBsolTe the crjBlala in 
"■ iter (strength, 2 p. c.) ; and filter if Deceaaary. 

In tho discussion that followed, — 

Dr. Matthews remarked that some tissues attract rod rather than 
purple colours : thus, nuclei generally were more easily stained by tho 
former. Judson's dyes he had found useful. Referred to Frei's 
methods of employing picro-carmine ; had obtained good results from 
first staining in carmine, and subsequently in a solution of picric acid. 
He had found Stevens' writing fluid a ready and useful stain for 

Mr. White had found a section of epithelioma, stained with log- 


wood, and then with pioric acid, showed the yellow centres of the 
<< birds' nests/' described by Mr. Baber, while the surrounding parts 
were tinted by the hsematoxylin. Had only used carmine and picrio 
acid as separate solutions, but by this means had seen yellow channels 
of communication from one '^ bird's nest " to another. 

Mr. Eesteven asked if aniline dyes were permanent. 

Mr. Atkinson found that crystallized magenta, when first used for 
staining sections, became blue, and then after a time disappeared; 
but mounting in ^ per cent, of corrosive sublimate prevented this. 

Mr. Schafer had given up carmine because of its too brilliant 
colour, and always used logwood, which he found selective in pro- 
perty. Thought osmic acid better than picro-carmine for nerve 
tissues ; and remarked that Dr. Sharpey had long ago used magenta 
for staming the axis cylinders of nerves. 

Mr. Miller had found a solution of carmine and a 4 per cent, 
solution of picric, and in alcohol and water especially, good for spleen 
and unstriped muscular fibres. He preferred carmine to logwood. 

Mr. Groves, except in the case of nerve structures, preferred 
logwood to carmine. The double staining of logwood and gold 
chloride was good for nerves and nuclei, and especially, for such 
structures as firog's bladder. 

Mr. Golding Bird mentioned Dr. Moxon's use of Stevens* writing 
fluid for staining nerve structures, and mentioned a fact communi- 
cated to him by Dr. Malassez of Paris, that aniline dissolved in spirit 
was especially good for studying ossification of cartilage ; for it stained 
the cartilage, but not the newly-formed bone ; while an aqueous solu- 
tion of aniline stained the cavaliculi and not the bone substance, but 
was not permanent like the alcoholic solution. 

The President, in proposing a vote of thanks to the authors of the 
papers, and which was duly accorded, remarked that more investiga- 
tion was required on the subject of staining fluids, and recommended 
it as an object of special study, that would certainly be productive of 
useful results. 

Mr. W. B. Eesteven then read a paper upon " Miliary Sclerosis." 
The subject of this paper was a form of grey degeneration occurring 
in the brain and spinal cord, and designated by Drs. Batty, Tuke, and 
Butherford, " Miliary Sclerosis." The author showed examples of this 
lesion by sections and drawings. The change, he stated, is associated 
with a wide range of diseases of the nervous centres. He enumerated 
as many as twenty morbid conditions in which he had met with the 
so-called miliary sclerosis. The essential characters of this lesion 
Mr. Kesteven showed to consist in the absence, in circumscribed 
patches of the normal nerve tissue, and its replacement by an altered 
and degenerate state of the neuroglia. The spots vary in size from 
3^th inch to 3^|fth inch in diameter. Their physical characters 
were described in detail, and the author then proceeded to discuss the 
question of how this change was connected with previous symptoms, 
and whether it is possible that they could be the result of mere post- 
mortem changes. These questions, he submitted, were as yet im- 
answered. Judging from the great diversity of pathological con« 

E 2 

VKOczEDisas ov soonmzs. 

in which this dogeneration is met with, he deemed the solution 
S the prohlom impoBsiblo with our present amount of knowledge in 

Dr. Payne asked whether Mr. Kosteven had found miliaiy Bcle- 
1818 in a spinal cord or brain, otherwise quite healthy, and discusBed 
the question a8 to whether the changes described might not bo tho 
(X)mmoncemeut of secondary degenerations of nerves, as is seen to 
result from inactivity of a nerve arising from any caueo ; or of the 
wasting of certain nerve fibres, that might go on to worse changes, 

Mr. Schafer toot exception to tho name, aa giving the idea of 
fibrous or cecatrioial tissue, whereas what had been described ^as 
rather colloid in nature ; for at times it could be stained intensely. 
He had seen " miliary sclerosis " in the brain of a supposed healthy 
dog, that had boon hardonod in chromic acid ; and from tiiis he con- 
cluded that the alcohol used to preparo the specimens could not bo 
the causa of the " sclerosis," as had been alleged, seeing that ho had 
nsod none. Aa the disease followed no special tracts, he considered 
St could not b© simply degeneration of nerve fibres. 

■ Dr, Matthews asked wJieflier coiocident disease — as atheroma — of 
ft the vessels of the brain had boon noticed. 

Tho President had seen miliary sclerosis accompanied by calca- 
reous change in the vessels, and in a case where death resulted &om 
cerebral hemorrhage ; also in preparations of brain made by Dr. Orisp 
from the lower animals, and hardened in chromic acid. 

Mr. Keateven, in reply, considered the term " Bclerosia " more 
applicable to the cases where the disease occurs en pJaqueg. There 
was nothing of fibrous nature in the condition he had been describing ; 
still, Dr, Tidce bad given the name originally. He did not consider 
the alteration colloid, though at first sight resembling it ; nor hod ho 
noticed the change in oonneotioa with atheromatous vessels, though at 
times the bodies described were calcareous and gritty {" brain sand "). 
Agreed with Mr. Schiifer in not considering the condition as one of 
neive fibre degeneration, and was in fact still seeking an explanation. 

With a vote of thanks to Mr. Keateven, by the President, tho 
election of new members, and an announcement of a gift of slides to 
the Society's cabinet, the proceedings terminated. 

The principal specimens exhibited under microscopes during the 

■ tokening were in illustration of tho papers read. 

At the meeting of this Society, on April 18th, Jabez Hogg, 
Esq., President, in the chair, Dr, Greenfield rend a paper upon 
" Diphtheria." 

In this paper, which was founded upon the microscopical exami- 
nation of specimens from five cases of diphtheria, which was illu^ 
trated by preparations, the author, in remarking upon the obscurity 
and doubt which still seemed to exist upon the origin and structure of 
the diphtheritic false membrane, stated his belief that this aroso in 
part from the confusion in the nomenclature in common use, eajw- 
cioUy the fact that " croupous" and " diphtheritic" were terms used 
in different senses, clinically and histologically. 

An examination of his cases showed in all, in the larynx and 


irachea the mucous membrane and usually the deeper tissues in a 
state of more or less intense inflammation of ordinary character; 
whilst the false membrane consisted for the most part of a stratified 
network of a substance giving the reactions of fibrin, in the meshes 
of which were contained altered epithelial cells and corpuscles. 

The amount of adhesion to the mucous membrane was various, 
but in no case did the exudation actually pass into its substance; 
although in some cases it appeared adherent by fibrinous bands to the 

After describing the views of Wagner and of other German patho- 
logists, the author stated his belief that the false membrane consisted 
in part of a catarrhal process, with modifications in the epithelium ; 
and in part of a true fibrinous exudation. These views were sup- 
ported by the comparative examination of specimens taken from cases 
in various stages. 

In the pharynx the inflammatory process was stated to extend 
much deeper than in the trachea, and to be accompanied by a more 
rapid destruction of tissue. The false membrane was believed to 
consist in a larger measure of altered cells. 

The question of the occurrence and importance of fungous growth 
in the mucous membrane was then discussed, and the author showed 
specimens from the pharynx containing numbers of minute fungous 
spores and a delicate mycelium deeply penetrating the inflamed 
mucous membrane. He had not, however, been able to find a similar 
appearance in the larynx and trachea of the same or other cases ; and 
he considered it therefore still an open question how far the fungus 
was an accidental occurrence and what was its relation to the disease. 

The President, after proposing a vote of thanks to the author 
of the paper, stated his belief that fungous growths might be always 
found in the mucous membranes in certain low states of health, and 
considered a fungus in diphtheria an accidental rather than an essential 
occurrence. He could not agree with Dr. Oscar Giacchi, who held that 
the disease was owing to the presence of a fungus. He had examined 
more than one case of diphtheritic conjunctivitis, in which disease the 
exudation forms very rapidly, but had never found any fungus. The 
position of a vegetable parasite upon the body had much to do with 
its influence upon the disease it accompanied, or of which it was the 
cause. Hence some importance might be attached to the specimen 
shown, where the fungus was deep in the inflamed mucous membrane. 

Dr. Bruce remarked that croup is generally defined as owing to a 
false membrane, on the removal of which healthy mucous membrane 
is left ; this, however, the paper would disprove, since Dr. Greenfield 
had shown that not only the mucous and submucous tissues were at 
times reached in croup, but that even the tracheal rings might be in 
part destroyed. He had also noticed the small cavities or vacuoles 
described in the false membranes, and thought them owing to the 
exudation from the ducts of mucous glands; indeed, these spaces at 
times were filled with exudation cells. The mucous epithelium is not 
necessarily destroyed by the false membrane; it may sometimes be 
seen covered by the latter. Exudation of fibrin would fully account 




A>T the jalse membrane upoa the mncoua membraue, witliout inter- 
foring with the epithelium covering the Intter, tli rough nhioh wandering 
cells might easily pass : aud a precedent for fibrinous exudation on a 
macoaa sni'faco might be found in ctonpouB pueumonia. 

Mr.-Needhftm thought tliat as pus could come from a serous, Sbriu 
might from a mucong memhraue. 

Dr. Couplond thought the different layers iu the false membrane 
ehowed a mixed origin ; thus the surface of it was more coarsely 
fibrillated thaD the deeper parts, which were much finer, as though 
there had been first a catarih, destroying the epithelium, and then 
fibrinous exudation last of all. 

Mr. Stowers asked for a Terificatiou of tho observation made, that 
tho histological appearances in the angina form of scarlatiEa and in a 
blistered surface were those of diphtheria. 

Mr. Miller referred to Bindfioisch's remark that the exudation in 
pharyngeal afiections was more cellular and less fihrillated than in 
laryngeal ; as well as to the existence of apertures in the basement 
noemhrane of the affected parts. 

The -President thought the non-bomogeneity of the false membrane 
might be explained by the different agea of its component parts, and 
suggested that the fungus found in throat diphtheria might owe ita 
presence to the open-mouthed mode of respiration in diphtheritic 
patients. In the two cases of diphtheritic conjunctivitis already 
mentioned, the eyes had been kept bandaged, and, as stated, no fungus 
had beeiL found. 

Dr. Greenfield, in reply, quoted German authority for the constant 
presence of fungus in diphtheria ; and since fungi in the kidney had 
also been described, they might serve to explain the renal complica- 
tion so constantly present. The only way to get at a life history of a 
felso membrane was to examine in tlie same subject the patches in all 
etages of growth. He had done this, hut hod only found at first a 
catarrhal state, and later on pus - globules and fibrillation on the 
deeper sur&ce of the membrane. The fibrinous exudation in pneu- 
monia was no precedent for the sanne process in diphtheria, since th^ 
air-cells might bo proved, and were by some thought to he, part of 
the lymphatic system. Epithelium in place would not allow fibrin to 
exude; but once destroy the former, and then exudation was easy. 
Two theories existed with regard to the part played by fungi in 
diphtheria ; one, that they were its cause, tho other only the cause of 
the rapid disintegration of the membrane : it was a subject still svb 

Numerous specimens in illuEtration of Dr. Greenfield's paper wero 
exhibited, as well as others of now growths, and of the glandular 
stomach of the crow, 

Friday, May 15, 1874,— Jabez Hogg, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Mollutcum fibrosK'm {? Chelmd). — Dr? Prif chard mentioned the casa 
of a negro, who for twenty years h»d been subject to a growth, ori- 
ginating behind one ear, and gradufllly extending over nearly all the 
body. Aft«r death, a portion of th& skin, with growth, was forwarded 
to lii'm (&om America) as illustrating " Cheloid simulating mollnscum 


" Bbrosum." Mioroscopically the cutifi vera waa found hypertrop5iied ; 
Iierc and there maBsea of cells butween tho fibres of the areolar tiBsue. 
Epidermis much thickened — Lair-fullicles normal. FapillEB had 
grown irregularly and sidowaya, and not vertically na normal. Ho 
considered it simply a case of mollnecum fibroauin, not of Cheloid. 
EngraringB of the patient, with specimens of the disease, were exhi- 
bited. The President inquired if any fungus had been noticed ; it 
was by some bolievcd to exist in moUuscum. Mi. Needham thought 
this condition of the pnpillte normal in the negro. Dr. Pritchard, in 
reply, had observed ao fungus. 

Perivaecular Spaces in the Brain. — Mr. Kesteven read a paper on this 
Hnbject, illustrated by drawings and specimens. These spnces had been 
considered normal structures, intended to relieve intracranial blood 
pressure ; but Mr. Kestoven had never seen them in a really healthy 
brain : bad often noticed them asaooiated with chronic cerebral 
mischief, and hence concluded they were owing to absorption of 
brain substance by the irregular circulation that goes on in chronic 
disease : the vessels being at one time full, at another nearly empty. 
Thougb the mode of preparation in chromic acid might render these 
spaces more evident by the shrinking of the blood-vessel, he did not 
think it sufficient to account entirely for them. He could find in the 
perivascular spaces no resemblance to normal lymphatic structure, 
whUe Dr. Batty Tuke had now abandoned tho idea that they denoted 
a healtby condition of brain. Dr. Pritchard considered them entirely 
owing to the mode of preparntion in chromic acid ; he had never found 
them in sections made by freezing the brain. Mr. Needham argued 
tboir belonging to the lymphatic system, tbongh not strictly speaking 
" lymphatics." The President explained them in some cases by the 
giving way of the capillaries around which tliey were found : he had 
Been the brain aubatonce stained with hoeniatin io their vicinity ; 
hence an explanation, perhaps, for sume of the anomalous convolaions 
of childhood : thought proof was wanting of tbeir connection with 
the lymphatic system. Mr. Tirrard asked if, in injected brains, these 
spaces were seen, or were obliterated by tho distension of the vessel. 
£1 reply, Mr. Golding Bird stated that he bad never seen tbem in 
injected specimens. Mr, Groves asked if Mr. Eestoven bad ever 
examined the spaces by staining witb nitrate of silver. Mr. Kesteven, 
quoting Dr. Batty Tuke, stated that the spaces had boon found in the 
lower animals (e. g. cats) after Btrtvngulation ; and that, thougb the 
vessels thus remained full, a space could be seen beyond. Ue had 
never seen anything to warrant the supjioeition that they were owing 
to hemorrhage. He knew of no anatomist having tracod these spaces 
into lymphatics ; they had beon injected by Hia by the puncture 

Multiple Cystic Tumour of Heart. — A specimen of this, exhibited 
by Mr. Needham, seemed to show, from the excess of epithelium 
in the mammary tubules, and tlie epithelial infiltratiou of but* 
rounding parts, at once a cystic, an adenomatous, and cancerous nature. 
Mr. Needham founded bis idea of cancer on the arrangement, and not 
a the intrinsic form of the oells composing it. 


Beiohton and Sdssex Natukal History Society. 

April 23Td. — Microscopical Hooting. Mr. HuBclwood, Preeident, 
in the chair, 

Tho receipt of eleven micro-photographs, by Dr. Hallifas, for the 
Society's album, was announced, and a vote of thanks given to Dr. 
HaUifax for tho same. 

Mr. Wonfor on " Plant CryatalB.'" 

In moat of the mannals on botany or tho miuroBOOpe, certain crys- 
talliuG bodies found within the cells -of plants were designated by the 
name Bapk'idea, or needle-shaped bodies, a term inapplicable to some, 
becanse they were not needle-ehaped, and on the whole misloading, 
beuiLuao in the lists of plants generally given as containing thorn, it 
would seem as though their appearance was an accidental cironin- 
stance in the economy of tho plant, instead of a constant quiuitity, not 
confined to one period of the plant's growth, but fonnd in all stages 
of its existcnco. 

The first to rednce to aomothlng like order and to indicate tbo 
value of plant crystals in determining the differences between plants 
of otherwise cloeely-alUed families was Professor G, Gulliver, by 
whom they had been arranged into the three groups — BajiAides, 
Sphreraphides and Crystal Pritias. 

Rapkides were transparent colotirless crystals, needle-shaped, 
and tapering to a fine point at each end, loosely connecteil in bundles 
of twenty or more in oval or oblong cells of slightly latter dimen- 
sions than thcmsclTea. The slightest pressure on the tissues of a 
portion of a plant, when under exotnination, caused them to escape 
from their cells. Examples could easily be obtained either by 
making thin aections or simply tearing with needles a portion of 
the tisanes of any member of the balsams, woodruffs, evening prim- 
rose, arum, orchis, and some of tho iris family. 

Spkaraphideg were moro or less rounded, often spherical bodies, 
mado up of white or opaqno crystals or cryatalline matter. In some 
tho ends of tho component crystals projected and gave them a star-shaped 
appearance. They were much smaller than their cells, and, in some 
casea, were thickly studded throughout the cellular tissue. This was 
tho case with many of tho cactus family, some of which, when aged, 
had their tissues so filled with them, as to render the plants very 
brittle. It was mentioned that plants of C. senilit, reported over a 
thousand years old, when sent to Kew Gardens, had to be packed in 
cotton as carefully as if they were delicate glass or jewellery. The 
&uit of the prickly pear was full of sphtBrapkidee, esamplea of which 
were easily seen in tho crane'a -bills, elni, beet, spinach, or violets. 

Crystnl prisms were found either singly, or two, three, or, at moat, 
four together, in combination in tho same cell. Wliilo under a low 
power rapliide* did not present angles or £ices, crystal prisms pre- 
sented both ; instoad, too, of tapering to a point at both ends, they 
were wedge-shaped or angular. Some were tlireo or four sided, while 
othoTH wore oetuhedrons. They woro larger than raphideg, and were 
nut, as a rule, easily separated from the tissues in which they v 


seated. Examples might be found in the green-pea shell, the garlic, 
green fig stem, gladiolus, &c., and very abundantly in the soap tree of 
South America, used in Peru as a substitute for soap in the cleansing 
wool or hair, or in washing. 

Chemically, plant crystals were chiefly composed of oxalates of 
lime and magnesia, or phosphate of lime. 

Professor Gulliver's researches showed that so persistent were 
raphides in certain families of plants, and so absent in others, that it 
was possible to differentiate, at all stages of their growth, between 
plants otherwise apparently allied. Thus OnagracecB and GalliacecB 
abounded in raphides, while none of their near neighbours contained 
them. So likewise the red berries of black bryony and cuckoo-pint 
could be distinguished from those of red bryony and guelder-rose, by 
the presence in the first two and the absence in the last two of 

To the botanical student characters such as those indicated were 
of very great value, and to the microscopist a wide field of research 
was opened, for not only would he find plants containing one or other 
of the plant crystals described, but great difierences in their shape 
and size ; many of them, too, under polarized light were very beau- 
tiful; while a lesson was to be learnt by all, that they were not 
accidents of decay or disease, but part of the economy of life in the 
plants in which they were found. 

After a discussion, in which Drs. Hallifax, Corfe, the President, 
Mr. Glaisyer, and others took part, Mr. Henry Lee, who had been 
recently elected an honorary member, presented for distribution spe- 
cimens of the skin of the rough-hound, and explained the mode of 
mounting and also of separating the spine-like scales, by dissolving 
away the animal matter by means of liquor potasses ; by this method 
the spines with their socket attachments were well shown. Ho 
hoped in time to bring down from the aquarium skins of all the dog- 
fishes, so that the members might each Lave a perfect series in their 

A vote of thanks was given to Mr. Lee. 

EEADiNa Microscopical Society.* 

March 3. — Mr. Tatem exhibited an ant-like insect, from Ceylon, 
belonging to the order Heterogyna, sub-order Mutilla, insects of solitary 
habits, each species being composed of winged males and apterous 
females ; the latter always armed with a powerful sting. The insertion 
of the antennsB near the mouth would indicate the affinity of the speci- 
men with the genera Dorylus and Lahidus, Indian, African, and South 
American insects, found in dry sandy districts, running with great 
speed and actively predaceous. The large eyes, long legs, and stout 
anterior tarsi, with claws developed into powerful chehe, show epiinent 
fitness for the pursuit and apprehension of living insect prey, so far 
agreeing with the genera referred to. There are, however, some points 

* Roport furuisbotl by Mr. B. J. Austin. 





of divergence wliicli render it queetiouablo wLotlicr the Bpecimen can 
be correctij referred to either ; e. g. tho head is not BmaU, nor ie the 
abdomen ejlindric. 

The Bpecimen is to be Bnbmltted to competent authority to 
determine whether it may not be generically or epecifically new. 

Captain Lang exhibited an arranged elide of Stamimeis acuta is 
filaments and both aepecta, from a gathering near Warwick (sent by 
Mr. Staunton) ; also diatoms from a gathering by Captain Perry, on 
the west coast of South America, the most noteworthy being what 
Beemed a perfectly now epocios of Auliscaa, and a group of Aiilaa>discua 
formosae ; one buing evidently a newly-formed inner valve of a dividing 
frustule. He alBo showed 6 and 8-rayed Bpeoimene of Aulacodiscaa 

Majiqatb Mickoscopical Clob.* 

The members of the Margate MieroBcopical Cluh gave their first 
public soiree at the Koyal Asaembly Eooms on Thnreday, March 26th. 

Owing to Uluess Prof. Gnlliver waB unable to attend and give his 
lecture "On Eaphides and other Plant CrystalB." However, Col. 
Cos, of the East Kent Natnral History Society, discoursed on 
" Agates," and explained the gnthcring and polishing of his beau- 
tiful collection of British agates, many of wJiich, although very 
valuable, were found on Hastings and Dover beaches, being prin- 
cipally derived from the lower chalk formation, 

Mr. Henry Lee detailed the observations made at the Brighton 
Aquarium upon the "Ova of the Dog-Fish," including the habits 
of the fiah, the mode of deposition of eggs, duration of hatching, and 
the nature of the studies now being undertaken by Prof. Huxley and 
Dr. Kitchen Parker on the nervous development and skull formation. 

The speciality of the evening was the display of living marine 
organisms, which were very Bueeessfully exhibited, and, whilst they 
charmed and fascinated the eye, nothing could exceed the interest 
taken by all the large company present in watching the beautiful 
movements and ciliary action of life. 

It is by no means an easy task to prepare and exhibit to advantage 
a living object for a soirfie, but the following were sncceesfully dis- 
played ; — Mombranipora, Bowcrbanlda, Pedecejlina, barnacles, nume- 
rous egga of annelids, doris spawn, young whelks and periwinkles 
I the point of hatching, fish and crab spawn, entomostraca, small 

The Margate Club has only been established three years, and 
nnmbers forty members. 

Its principal aim is to study the marine life of the Thanet coast, 
and, whilst it entertains its folio w-rosid cuts with successful gatherings 
like the present, it also trains men to observe and be acquainted with 
the various forms of marine life, so that, if the proposed aquarium, 
designed upon the Brighton scale (although less oraate in appearance), 
and by the same engineers, be successfully established, few clubs can 
be more favourably situated for valuable and scientific observation, 
• Report fumialicd by Mi. F. B. Kyngdon, Hon, Sac 



April 24tli. — Ordinary Meeting. Dr. Eobert Braithwaite, F.L.S., 
President, in the chair. 

After the formal business was concluded, a paper by Mr. G. J. 
Burch, " How to make Thin Covering-glass," was read. 

The mode adopted was to seal up the end of a glass tube of about 
^-inch bore with tiie blowpipe, soften it in the flame, then remove it, 
and blow through it as strongly as possible, so as to form a large 
and very thin bubble ; this was to be broken and the pieces cut to 
shape with a writing diamond. If required flat, a piece could be 
placed on a perfectly flat piece of platinum foil, and depressed for a 
moment into the Bunsen flame. In this way Mr. Burch produced 
glass TTTHF^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ thickness. 

Mr. Ingpen read a paper " On a False-light Excluder for Micro- 
scopical Objectives." This consisted of a cap, having a perforation 
a little larger than the field of view of the objective ; when this was 
slipped on close up to the front lens, it diminished the angle of aper- 
ture ; but when brought into contact with the covering glass, it allowed 
the ^1 angle to be used ; while in either case no rays but '< image- 
forming rays" were admitted, and the milkiness caused by stray light 
was completely got rid of. This method occurred to Mr. Ingpen upon 
reading Mr. Wenham's letter in the March number of the ' Monthly 
Microscopical Journal,' describing his mode of measuring the true 
angle of a Tolles' ^th objective. 

A paper by Mr. James FuUagar, " On the Development of Hydra 
vulgaris from Ova," was read, and illustrated with several beautifully 
executed drawings of Hydra in its various stages. Hydra wlgaria 
differed in several respects from Hydra tnridis ; the egg being larger, 
and studded with what appeared to be short spines, and surrounded 
with a gelatinous envelope, which it retained to the time of hatching. 
The development of a single ovum was traced from the time of its 
extrusion. After about flfty-flve days a protuberance appeared, a 
slight rupture was seen in the shell, and a portion of the Hydra 
slowly emerged. In about two hours rudiments of tentacles appeared 
as rounded lumps, and in twelve hours the Hydra was fully developed, 
with seven tentacles, being however still attached to the inside of the 
shell by the suctorial disk at the posterior end of the body. After a 
time, varying from twelve to sixty hours, the Hydra finally quitted 
^0 ogg, and fixed itself to the weed or the side of the aquarium. 
The growth of the Hydra was very slow, and it could not be observed 
to feed. After a month, some small entomostraca were put into the 
cell, which were seized, but not absorbed ; these, however, died from 
the effects of the stinging power of the tentacles. The ova were not 
easily found, after extrusion, their gelatinous envelope speedily be- 
coming covered with extraneous particles. After the extrusion of the 
ovum, the parent Hydra gradually diminished, and in about twenty- 
one days the whole body dissolved. The sperm cells continued to dis- 
charge spermatozoa into the water for some days after the separation 
of the ovum. The ovisac and sperm cells were generally found on the 


same Hydra, but sometimes there wore sperm colls only, wlien the whole 
body was seen, to be qtudtled with them. The dirunoter of tho ovum was 
abont j^th of an inch, that of Hifdrn viridiis aboat ^tb. Hydra vulgaria 
is reprodnced &om ova in tho aotnmn. Hydra viridig in tbe spring. 

Mr. ^gpen exbibitod and described an aehromatio bull's-eye con- 
donser, forinod out of the objectives of a binocular opora-glasa. One 
of the lenses was reversed in its coll, and the two screwed into the 
opposite ends of a short piece of tube, bo that tho flat sido of one 
nearly touched tho convex eido of the other. The light thrown by 
this condenser was very pure, and those who possessed a biuocnlttr 
opera or fiold-glaes conld construct one at a small expense, while the 
lenses wore not spoilt for their original purpose. 

Tbe President announced that at tho next moeting lie would read 
the fifth of his series of papers " On tho Histology of Plants." 

Tho mooting concluded witli the naiial conversazione, at which 
several interesting objects were exhibited. 

May 22. — Dr. Robert Braithwaito, F.L.S., President, in tho 

Twonty-throe mombere were duly elected. 

The death was annonnced of Mr. T. W. Burr, F.B.A.S., F.R.M.8., 
an old and valued member and a Vico-Presidont of the club. 

Dr. George Hoggan read » pajier " On a New Section-cntting 
Machine." This instrument differed in many respects from any of 
those in ordinary use, and was designed by him for cutting both bard 
and soft substances. Two of these instruments were exSibitedj and 
minntely described, A stout plate of brass, sliding in a double dove- 
tailed groove, waa moved backwards and forwards by a micrometer 
screw. TJpou this plate tho substance to be cnt, if hard, was fixed by 
one or more clamps ; if soft, it was inserted in a cub© of carrot, cat to 
fit a brass trongh, which conld be similarly clamped to the plate or 
" table," so as to move with it. Hard substanceB were cnt with a very 
fine-toothed spring saw, which was guided between strong supports, so 
as to be capable of cutting a series of perfectly parallel sections. In 
one of the instruments shown, there were three of such sections from 
a tooth, cut very nearly through, but BtUl attached to the rest, from 
which many more sections could be made. These sections were 
ready for mounting, the saw mEtrks being scarcely, if at all visible. 
Stress was laid upon using the saw with the teeth reversed, so as to 
cut while pulling, and not while pushing it. Soft substances, after 
being imbedded in the cube of carrot, and wedged up, if required, 
with pieces of elder-pitb, were fixed to the plate by means of the 
trough, and the knife or razor was guided by two parallel bars of 
steel, instead of sliding over a plate, by which method tho edge was 
less liable to injury, and sections of largo masses of nnequal con- 
sistence could be cut with great facility, from the possibility of 
making a number of short cuts, instead of single sweeps only. The 
blade of the knife was straight, tho under side fiat, and the upper side 
deeply hollowed, so as to contain enongh fluid to float off the section 
OB soon as it was cut. The moclilne was rather complicated, but this 
was necessory, from the desire that success should depend as little as 
possible upon the skill of the operator. 

The thanka of the meeting were nnaiiiinonBly voted to Dr. Hoggan, 
and a Bhort diBcosBion followed. A number of beautiful Bpecimens, 
both of hard and soft Bubstances, cut by the machine, were exhibited, 
and much interest was shown in them. 

A paper by Dr. Braithwaite, " On the Histology of Plants," being 
the fifth of a series written for the club, was taken as read ; and it 
was annonnoed that the demonstration of it, by the eihibition of a 
Dumber of mioroscopioal preparations of pith, bark, cuticle, &c., would 
take plaoe at the next conversational meeting, on the 12th of Juno. 

AnnonucementB of meetings, excursions, &o., were made, uid the 
meeting oontdnded with the usual conversazione. 

MioBosoopicAL Section of the Aoadeux of Katubal Sciences 


Jannory 6, 1874. — Director W. S. W. Roschenberger, M.D., in the 
ohair. — Mr. Holman's " siphon slide " for the microscope was exhibited 
in operation by Dr. Joseph G. Eichardson, who remarked that the 
apparatus was composed essentially of a strip of plate glass, of the 
ordinary length and width (namely, three inches long by one inch 
wide), but donble the nsual thickness, in the upper snrface of which 
had been ground a shallow groove, elliptical in both its transverse and 

longitudinal section, and deeper toward one extremity. The excava- 
tion was so arranged as to receive a small fish, tadpole, or triton, and 
retain it without, on the one hand, injury from undue pressure, bnt 
without, on the other, permitting any troublcBOmo gymnastics beneath 
the thin glass cover, which, when applied, formed tho ceiling of the cell. 
The great improvement of this slide consisted, however, in the imbed- 
ding of a small metallic tnbe (communicating with each extremity of 
the groove), in either end of the slide, and the adaptation to these two 
tnbes of pieces of slender caoutchouc pipe, about eighteen inches in 
length, one of these being intended for the entrance and the other for 
the exit of any fluid, cold or hot, which it might be desirable to employ. 




For cxaminntioa of larger reptiles, aud for demonstTatioDB with the 
gaB toicruscope, a glide four isclies loug, with two oval concavities, and 
a narrow grooTe more deeply cut for the body of the creature, as 
shown in the figure, has been devised. With such an apparatus, 
through which a current of ice-water con bo passed, the injurious 
heating effect which ordinarily attends the use of calcium or clectrio 
light to illnminate living specim^is is entirely counteracted. 

When in use it is only necessary to place the animal (in the case 
before us a little triton) with some water in the groove of the slide, 
cover him with a ebcct of thin glass, inunerse the end of one of the 
caoutchouc tubes in a jar of water, and then, applying the mouth to 
the extremity of the other rubber pipe, make sufficient suction to set 
up a flow of the liquid through the apparatiu. The stream of fluid 
(of course bathing the animal in the cell during its passage) can readily 
be kept np as in any other sipboa for hours or days, and its rapidity 
exactly regulated by graduated pressure upon the entrance pii>e, bo 
that in thia way a triton may be oxaminod continuously {as stated by 
Dr. J. Gibbons Hunt, who had kindly furnished and prepared the slide 
and specimen) for a whole week without material injury. 

Among the great advantages of this very ingenious contrivance 
may ho enumerated, — first, its security— the animal being prevented 
from escaping, and the joints of the apparatus being kejit tightly closed 
by the pressure of the atmosphere ; second, its portability, — the whole 
preparation, for example, one for showing the circulation of the blood, 
being made at home,— as was done in this instance, — carried to h lec- 
ture'room in the pocket, and exhibited to an audience hours after- 
wards; and third, its convenience, — this arrangement permitting the 
removal of the slide at any time from the microscope stage, to make 
way for other experiments, and its instant readjustment when desired. 

Dr. Eichardson invited the attontion of members to the remarkably 
clear and distinct view of the circulation displayed by tlie aid of this 
apparatus in the caudal extremity of a triton, beneath one of the micro- - 
Bcopea upon the table, and pointed out as especially worthy of note 
the marked prominence of nuclei in epithelial cells covering a portion 
of the tail, where blood-stasis had occurred, in consequence of a minute 
puncture, purposely made before incarcerating the reptile ; snggesting 
that this change was doubtless the visible exponent of that patholo- 
gical alteration of the circumjacent cellular elements, which conatitntes 
such an important, although as yet but imperfectly understood, iactor 
in the inflammatory process. 

The Lottisville MiCEOscoPiciL SocmTY. 
The Louisville Microscopical Society was organized on Thursday, 
January 15, 1874. The following are the ofiiccrs for the ensuing 
year : — FTesident, Prof. J. Lawance Smith ; Vice-PresidenU, Noble 
Butler, Dr. C. F. Carpenter ; Treasurer, C. J. F. Allen ; Secretary, 
John Williamson ; Corresponding Secretary, Dr. E. S. Crosier ; Exeat' 
tive Commiliee, K. C. Gwathmey, Dr. E. E. Palmer, Dr. James Knapp, 
W. F. Beach, D. T. E. Jonkins. 

ThfiMunOilyMicroscopical Journal . Au§ . 1. 1874' 


^._MV. crd, not df? 

W. West Ad irrqo. 





AUGUST 1, 1874. 

I. — The Presence of BalbianCs Nucleus in the Ovum of 
Osseous Fishes, By Dr. Van Bambeke. 

We know that according to M. Balbiani the ovule is not so simple a 
structure as is generally believed ;* by a series of researches extended 
over nearly every class of animals the distinguished French em- 
•bryologist is assured that besides the germinal vesicle considered 
as the nucleus of the egg-cell, one fin(£ a second nucleus whose 
function " consists essentially in bringing about the separation of 
the elements, till then indifferent, of the protoplasm of the young 
ovule into a germinal part, and a nutritive part, grouping around 
the one the materials destined to form the plastic part or the germ 
whence is later formed the embryo, while the other or simply 
nutritive material remains around the germinal vesicle."t Hence 
the name vesicule embryogene given by M. Milne-JJdwards to 
Balbiani's vesicle. 

We know then generally the great importance from the point of 
view of embryology of Balbiani's discovery. But, as he says himself 
in his last work, " his conclusions have been combated by various 
authors." And in a very recent memoir upon the egg and its 
development in osseous fishes, published by one of the first embry- 
ologiste in Germany — Herr W. His — there is no mention whatever 
of Balbiani's vesicle.^ This it. is which leads me to communicate 
the present paper to the Society of Medicine at Gund. 

In studymg the ovarian egg of osseous fishes I am certain that one 
finds in ovules of a certain age, besides the germinal vesicle, another 
nuclear mass, viz. le noyau de Balbiani.^ Without stopping for a 

♦ ** On the Constitution of the Germ in the Animal Ovum before Fecimdation " 
(•Oomptes Bendus,* 1864, t. Iviii., pp. 584-588, 621-625). A short expose of 
Balbiani*s mode of view, accompanied by three figures (after the author), has 
been inserted in the form of a note by Dr. Banvier in his translation of fVey's 
'Treatise on Histology/ p. 103. 

t Balbiani, ** M^moire sur le Developpement des ALran^ides " (' Annales des 
Sciences l^atureUes/ 5® S^rie, tom. xviii., p. 33). 

X Wilhelm His, ' Untersuohungen iiber das ei und die Eientwiokelung bid 
Enocken-fischen,* mit 4 Tafeln, Leipzig, 1873. We think we recognize Balbiani's 
yesicle in the egg of the Barbel, Fig. Id of Plate II. of His' essay. 

§ I have rarely found the vesicular form, but generally that of a more or less 
ffranular mass. For this reason, and not to prejudge the function of the organ, I 
nave replaced here the expressions vesicule de Balbiani and v^sictUe embryogene by 
that of noyau de Balbiani, 

VOL. xn. F 

62 Olservaiions on ike Tolles' ^ih. 

^V 62 

^^B moment) to speak of the intimate structure of this s^t, and being 
^^V still reserved oo iis geneais and function, the following is what 
^^V I have found :— 

^^1 (1) Genemlly Balbiani's nucleuf; is not readily distingnishable 

^^B in ova esamined in the fresh state, or in indifferent hquids. Bat 
^^B it soon appears under the influence of certain reagents, such as 
^^M chloride of gold, picro-carmine, and, above all, acetic acid, 
^^p (2) It exists m even the smallest ovules. 

^" (3) It is always eccentric as regards the germinal vesicle, and 

it is generally very close to the periphery of the egg. 

(4) Its volume, which is generally inferior to that of the germinal 
vesicle, increases with the age of the ovnle. 

(5) It disappears with the maturity of the ovum, conseqoently 
its disappearance precedes that of the germinal vesicle. Neverthe- 
less, I admit this last proposition provisionally and with some doubt. 


II. — Observations on ike ToUes ^tk. 

By E. B. Tolles, Boston, U.S.A. 

This paper is written as a supplement to what was sent the 
Journal from Florida last month. I offer items of proof and 
illustration not available there, the record of the -J-inch traversed by 
Mr. Wenham in the March issue of the ' M. M. Journal ' being in 
Boston. Of course I desired to speak accnrately from the record, 
rather than trust to recollection in any important particular. 

First, I wiU speak of the proof I have to offer of the claimed 
balsam angle beyond 82^ as pertaining to the K-inch named. 

With a view to doing what I could not wait to do on the eve 
of my departure South, I have had a ^-inch made closely to the 
formula of the ^-inch concerned. My plan for proof of outside 
angle was to cutoff or intercept all the (cone of) light entering the 
objective — d7y, by means of a central stop placed upon the posterior 
surface of the back system. A stop of 0-39" diameter accomplished 
this, while the clear aperture of the back system being ■ 44" a 
ring of clear aperture remained, of appreciable breadth, beyond 
the opaque circular stop. And now, observe, — with air as the 
front external mediom it is afaet no light came through the objec- 
tive to the eye at the eye-piece. 

With no matter what obliqnity, the light could not be made to 
pass the stop to the eye. With balsamed alike with dry object 
darkness was the effect. To test the question of admissibility of 

Oheeruations on ths ToSes' ^th. 63 

more than 82° of pencil with a balsam-mounted object, something 
more has to be done, as obviously only 180^ could enter the front 
surface of the slide. 

To give access of more pencil to the object I used the semi- 
cjlinder. This simple piece of apparatus applied to the liront 
surface of the slide dri/, should, if the objective have 180'' of air 
aperture, show 81° (-j-) of pencil on the cylindrical surface thereof. 
Without the stop on the back such was the feet, viz. 81° at the 
cyhndrical surfece, and that being the internal angle of ISO" of air 
angle (or infinitely near that) at the plane dry sur&ce of the shde, 
aa also at the plane front surface of the objective, when dry. Ke- 
placing the "stop" on the back enrfece, again no light passed to 
the eye. A perfect eclipse existed. And next, to teat the qneation 
of more than equivalent pencil for ISC external angle when the 
object is immersed in balsam or other preservative medium, — air 
was replaced with water above and below the slide containing the 
object mounted in balsam. And now, darkness no longer, but a flood 
of light illuminating the object with good definition of its features. 

The object actually usal was a fine Rhomboidea, of which the 
cross-lines were sharply defined, using an eye-piece abont one inch 
equivalent focus. Image-forming rays, evidently and certainly out- 
side of the interior or balsam pencil of 180° external, and prac- 
tically utilizing decidedly more than that. The balaam pencil 
obtained was more than 9B^. I might rest here and leave 
Mr, Wenham to appropriate reflections over (bo it appears to me) 
his very hasty edict against my innovating J-mch objective. 

But, aa it seems rather necessary, I will state, aa explanatory, 
that I used ^s" covering glass (rather lees), and the systems were 
but slightly closed from the extreme open-point. 

Very Afferent indeed from the forced ease he made of it. In 
ihia matter a singnlar precipitating tendency to be either at one 
extreme or the other extreme, fully " open" or fully closed, seems, 
with my critic, a dire necessity when he assumes the judicial. 
Mr. Weiiham had not adjusted for maximum angle at all, nor 
tried to. Just and merely " closed" to avoid "after (inibbles." This 
is verily amazing. HowaboutjiWo)' "qnibbles," Mr. Wenham? Who 
M at fault ? Bnt to the point again. The suggestion that ■ 013 
focal diy«nce as in thefiguremakiugnecessarylimit of angle toll8° 
falls to the ground in view of the recited experiments. As already 
stated, the objective (in the experiments described) was adjusted nearly 
entirely open. This of itself anuihilated the ■ 013" distance, sending 
hia figure to the realms of fancy. Not "abstruse," this teacher 
encouragingly says. It is less than that, sir, and worse, — it is 
tpurioua. There is no such thing in the case. With a dry object 
aounted on the cover there is no distance involved (very possibljr 
'" leed, and as will occur in every such dry-mount). As there is 

F '1 


64 (Aoervattom on the Tollea' \ih, 

no distance, you are invited to "plain measurement" of whatever 
triaugle ill tlie case. Cony if you can. 

1; urtliermore, anyone having under such covering glass a, dry 
object in view with this (London) ^-inch, when it ia adjusted to 
good definition of the object by eikremest obliqnity of the mdiant- 
light, and using this light directly, i.e. without intervening con- 
denser of any sort, — then, it vfill be found, that the extremegi 
obliquity that can be made incident npon the bottom snr&ce of the 
slide will enter the objectiTe, an.d it will be manifest enough that 
the onl^ limit of obliquity of incidence of illuminating pencil ia 
parallelism with the aurfeee of the slide. 

Prove (do not fail to do that) that the most obhque rays actaally 
traverse the object and constitute an image of it at the eye-piece. 
How ? — by eimply passing a cord, or hke thinnjdged body, upward 
toward the slide untU the very thinnest wedge of light passes between 
the edge of it and the slide, or the stage, as the case may be. (Plainly 
for ihis purpose a shde-holder below the stage ia necessary to reach 
the estremest angle.) 

On my way South last Ifaich, the Journal for that month 
came into my hands, and I read Mr. Wenham's article with no 
little surprise, and I determined that on my return I would imme- 
diately subject the ^-inch to the " atop" proof, which I knew right 
well would be conclusive. Meantime I could only send the illus- 
tration and seemingly necessary tnsirtidion how to make mazimTim 
angle at open point, while diminishing it with elosurs of the 
systems. Mot new in my practice by any means. 

And in this connection I vrill gladly assure Mr. Wenham that 
he is not being " hoist of his own pttard." Not so bad as that. 
The bitter reflection may be dismissed. He has had nothing to do 
with the machinery of the hoisting, if that operation is going on ; 
has not furnished ammunition, nor plan, in any particular. I have not 
even read his " writings " referred to. 

I invite Mr. Wenham's plainest comments, without considers 
tions of any sort other than to settle the point at isane, viz, practical 
objective angle over 82° for objects mounted in balsam or other 
preservative media. 

Business, business relations, " income," absence, or absent 
health, need not stand in the way or affect the discossion. 

Since writing the above, I have noted more particularly Mr. 
Wenham's remarks about " getting no further than the iront lens" 
with a diagram. 

Now, in the paper sent yon last month, the back and middle 
systems nd given are assumed to be of angular aperture = 6U°. I 
did not mention, what is true, viz, the "Museum" yo-inch to 
which Dr. Woodward ascribes 87"^ hard-balsam angle, has, inner 
systems, back and middle Now this is good as a 

On the Nervous System of Actinia. 65 

diagram for the argument. It is a matter oi fad. Focus, clear 
= • 10", angle 60° + . Obviously the outside rays of this cone can 
be traced from behind the front to its inevitable focus in front. But, 
if considered requisite, a back and middle appropriate shall be given. 

P.S. — I have rigged two semicircles divided for degrees to the 
bottom of my zinc stage, with a shutter between^ movable through 
180° of arc. The object-slide is also held and moved against the 
lower surface of the stage. The very least and last light admitted 
by the shutter to impinge on the face of the slide gives an image of 
the object, — with the choked, and smothered, and scouted ^inch 

[It appears to us that a simple question is now involved in a needless mass of 

Ebiaseolugy. Mr. Tolles objects to the measurement described by Mr. Wenham 
aving b^n taken at the closed point, always considered that of greatest aperture. 
If this is a mistake it may surely be tested. We have no doubt that Mr. Crisp 
will permit the apertures of the ^th to be measured at any other position of the 
adjusting collar that Mr. Tolles may suggest. — ^Ed. * M. M. J.'] 

III. — On the Nervous System of Actinia. 
By Professor P. Martin Duncan, M.B. Lend., F.B.S., &c. 

Plates LXIX. and LXX. 

I. A Notice of the Investigations ofHomardy Haime, Schneider, 
and BotteJceUy and others on the subject 

MM. Milnb-Edwards and Jules Haime* wrote as follows in 1857 
concerning the nervous attributes of the group of Coelenterata 
called Zoantharia : — " They (les Coralliaires) enjoy a highly deve- 


Plate LXIX. 

Fig. 1, which is an outline of a chromatophore, with two small ones close to it, is 
magnified 10 diameters ; aU the rest are drawn fix)m nature under 
the magnifying power of a ^inch immersion lens and a medium eye- 

„ 2.— Bacilli. 

„ 3. — Granular and cellular protoplasm between bacilli. 

„ 4. — Large refractile cells. Uaimean bodies. 

„ 5. — Type o of a Rotteken body. 

» 7.— " 7 " !» with a thread. 

^ 8. — Granular and cellular tissue between the Haimean bodies. 

„ 9. — Same kind of tissue in contact with a Rotteken body. 

,j 10. — Some cells with refractile nuclei in the tissue. 

,, 11. — Portion of tissue from amongst the Rotteken bodies. 

„ 14.— The same, with a forked end. [Fig. 12. 

* * Hist. Nat. des CoraUiaires,' vol. i., p. 11. 

On &» Nervova Stfttem of AeitTiia. 

loped sensibility ; not only do they contract forcibly upon the slightest 
touch, but they are, moreover, not iusenaible lo the influence of 
light. Nevertheless, neither a nervona Hystem nor organs of special 
seose have been discovered in them. It is true that Spix described 
and fished ganglions and nervous cords in the pedal disk of 
ActinisB ; bat the observations of this naturalist, so far as the polypes 
are concerned, are not entitled to the least confidence. 

" Some naturalists have supposed that the ' bourses cahciuales ' 
of the Actinite are eyes, and M. Buschke beheves that certain 
capsules in the trunk of Verdilfa, which contain calcareous bodies, 
are the organs of hearing. But these hypotheses do not rest npon 
any proved fiicts." 

In 18fj4 Husley noticed that, with regard to the Coelenterata, 
" a nervona system has at present been clearly made out only in 
the Ctenophora." " 

Homard, f an admirable observer, contributed to the histology of 
the Actinozoa in* 1851. He corrected Erdl's mistake concerning 
the supposed striation of the muacular fibrillse of the tentacles, and 
also Quatrefages and Leuckart's notion concerning the rupture of 
the tentacular ends previously to the passage of water from them. 
Giving very good illuatrationa, he proved himself to be a very 
reliable investigator. 

Amongst other parts of the Actinozoa, he paid especial attention 
to the minute anatomy of the " bourses cahcinales." These bead-like 
appendages, situated just without the tentacles in some genera, but 

Fio. 12. — Three portiiina of iTiterme-lisle tisaoe oiidinR ia the lajer of granular 
cells which unilerliea the B<>tttkeii bndiea. 
— HftiLoean and Rottaken bodies and the intermediate tiaaue in position. 
—A diagrajn, hnb very close to nutnre, of tliD relative position of tho biato- 

logicnl olouents of the cliromntupliona. 
— BainieaD and Kiitt«I:en bodies iDfurmiiigled. 
— Haimeon hodii^g Barronnded by pigment c«lla, and nitli bsuilli Sot upon 

them, owing lo preseure. 
aod 19. — Fusiform nerve cells. 
-A nerve cell. 

—Nerve eells oonnected and with fibres. 
—A apherteal nerve cell with proceeses joining the plextu. 
— Bamiflealiona of tha plezifotni uord. 
— Merve cell acd fibres. 

Plate I.XX. 
, — Nerve in relation to the small cnUBOnlur fibrils of the base, 
^Norve ramifyins and auppljing wide muscular fibro. 
,— A loop of nervoua fibre. 

— ^Terininat ends of the plexna pasaing over muscular fibre, 
iiid BO. — The name, mort; highly magnified. 
-The plexus under the endotlielium. 

♦ Hoiluy,' Elements of Comparative Aaatomy,' p. 82. See Dr. Grant, FJB5-, 
io., on Beralpileia, 'Zool. Trans.,' vol, i., -p. 10. See also 'A Manual of the Snb- 
kingdom CcelBnterato,' by J. H. Greene, B.A., 3861, p. 165. 

f "Snr leE Actiniie," 'Ann. des Sciences Nat.,' 1851. 

TkeMontblyMcroscopical Journal Ai^l 1874 




Xy^ fty-^ 

On the NervoOB System of Adinia. 67 

not in all, are also called cbromatophorea and " bourses marginales " ; 
and their beautifal turquoise colour had rendered them attractive 
to previona anatomists, who had, as haa already been noticed, guessed 
concerning their function. 

Homard determined that they were folded elements of the skin 
in which the capaaka (nematocysts) were enormously developed. 
He stated that the thread of these gigantic nematocysts waa seen 
with difficulty. He noticed the transparency of some large cells in 
the bourses, and stated that, in his opinion, there was " some 
physiological relation between theas httle organs and the light." 

.Tales Haime (probably in 1855) examined the minute anatomy 
oi Actinia meanvArijanthemum, and his colleague, Milne-Edwards, 
quotes him in the ' Hist. Nat, des Coraliiaires,' vol. i., p. 240, The 
lamented young naturalist found out that the chromatophores bore, 
BO far as their number is concerned, a decided numerical relation 
with the number of the tentacles. He decided that they contained 
bnt few muscular fibres, and had navicular-shaped nematocysts, 
"diversement contournes," with indistinct threads within them. 
However, he recognized large transparent cells and pigmentary 
granules in them. The nematocysts of the chromatophores are 
larger than those of the tentacles. He was evidently not aatisfied 
with the data upon which these coloured masses were decided to be 
of importance as organs of special sense. In ail probability Haime 
was aware of Homard's work, 

KoUiker and the German histologista added about this time, 
and later, to the exact knowledge respecting the histology of the 
muscles, skin, endothelium, and tentacular apparatus, bnt no advance 
was made towards the discovery of a nervous system in the Actinia 
for many yeara. 

In 1871 the popular idea of the extent of the nervous system in 
Actinia was expressed by Ales. Agassiz,* who wrote : — " Notwith- 
standing its extraordinary sensitiveness, the organs of the senses in 
the Adinia are very inferior, eonsistbg only of a few pigment cells 
accumulated at the base of the tentacles." 

But in this year a great advance was made towards discovery by 
Profe. A. Schneider and Kotteken.t The first-named naturahst paid 
especial attention to the development of the lamellie and septa in 
Corals and Actiniie, and his coUeaguo laboured in the histology o" 
Adinia especially. 

Working at a very great disadvantage, with specimens which 
had been preserved in alcohol, Rotteken produced a series of 
researches which added greatly to the knowledge already granted to 

68 On the Nervous System of Actinia. 

science by Homard and Haime. So &r as they bear on the 
nerrons system, the result of his researches may be stated as 
follows: — "The bourses marginales" (chromatophores) are nn- 
doubtedly organs of sense, and, indeed, compound eyes. They are 
pyriform diverticula of the body- wall, standing between the tentacles 
and the outer margin of the peristome ; they are constructed after 
the fashion of a retina, and the following layers of structure may be 
distinguished in them : — 1, externally a cuticular layer broken up 
into ** bacilli" by numerous pore-canals; 2, a layer of strongly 
refractile spherules, which may be regarded as lenses ; 3, cones — 
hollow, strongly refractile, transversely striated cylinders or prisms 
roundeid at tbe ends; these have hitherto been confounded with 
urticating capsules (nematocysts) : at the exterior end of each cone 
there is generally one lens, and sometimes two or three may stand 
in the interspaces; 4, a granular fibrous layer occupying the 
interspaces between the cones ; 5, a layer which is deeply stained 
by carmine, and contains numerous extremely fine fibres and spindle- 
shaped cells, probably nerve fibres and cells ; 6, the muscular layer ; 
7, the endothehum, which bounds the perigasiaic cavity. 

Actinia mesembryanthemum was the species examined, and tke 
diagram (PL LXIX., Fig. 15) will explain the relative position of 
the layers. 

Botteken could not determine the position of the pigment of the 
chromatophores &om the alcohoHzed specimens. An examination of 
the minute anatomy of the tentacles of Actinia cerevs, Ellis and 
Solander, determined that the re&actile spherules and large cones 
were to be found on the tips of these organs. 

Dana,* in his popular work on Corals and C!oral Islands, appears 
to accept the statements quoted above. He states that " they some- 
times possess rudimentary eyes"; and elsewhere, '*they have 
crystalline lenses and a short optic nerve." He then observes : — 
** 1 et Actinias are not known to have a proper nervous system ; 
their optic nerves, where they exist, are apparently isolated, and 
not connected with a nervous ring such as exists in the higher 
Badiate animals." 

II. A Description of the Morphology of the Chromatophores. 

During the summer of 1871 the author of this communication 
was examining into the minute anatomy of Actinia mesemhry^ 
anthemum, and had the advantage of possessing Uving specimens. 
Having satisfied himself of the general correctness of Eotteken s 
admirable work, he relinquished the inquiry until 1873, when he 
resumed it. 

Everyone who has endeavoured to anatomize one of the ActiniaB 

'*' ' CoTola and Coral Islands/ by James D. Dana, LL.D., 1872, pp. 39, 41. 

On the Nervous System of Actinia. 69 

must acknowledge the excessive difficulties which accompany the 
attempt. The irritabihty of the muscular tissues, their persistent 
contraction during manipulation, the confusion caused by the 
abundance of different cellular histological elements, and the general 
sliminess of the whole, render the minute examination very trouble- 
some and usually very unsatis&ctory. Beagents are useful for 
rough examinations ; but when the most deUcate of the tissues are 
to be examined they must be iSoated under sea-water, and this must 
be the medium in which they must be examined under the 
microscope. Carmine solution, osmic acid, and spirits of wine in 
weak solutions are useful after the natural appearances have been 
determined, but they exaggerate some histological elements and 
destroy others. 

Great care must be taken in making the thin sections, and no 
tearing must be allowed ; for it is of paramount importance, in 
endeavouring to trace the nervous system, that the relative position 
of parts should be retained. 

It is useless to rely on any observation made with object-glasses 
lower than rff-inch focus (immersive). 

In examining the chromatophores, Actinies with very bright- 
coloured ones, and other specimens with these organs dull in tint, 
should be selected. Fresh subjects should be obtained, and it is not 
necessary to kill them first of all. The blades of very delicate 
scissors should be allowed to touch the desired ohromatophore dose 
to its base, and then as the Actinia commences to contract, they 
should be brought together gently and without wrenching the 
tissues. By this method the chromafcophore will remain on the 
blades. Two or three chromatophores may be removed, with their 
intermediate tissues, without injury to the animal ; but, of course, 
the excision must not be too deep, or the endotheUum will be cut 

A dropping tube should be used to wash the ohromatophore oflf 
the blades on to a glass slide, where a drop of sea-water awaits it. 

Sections are by no means easy to make, but they are best 
performed under a power of 10 diameters with fine scalpels. The 
lorceps must not be employed, as it crushes the tissues. If possible, 
very shght pressure should be exercised on the thin glass, which is 
to be placed very carefully and wet over the object. After the 
examination, carmine should be added, or osmic-acid solution, 1 per 
cent, in strength ; but no results can be relied on which are derived 
from the examination under the influence of reagents alone, as they 
modify the natural appearance greatly. 

So far as the chromatophores are concerned, my investigations 
took the following course : — 1. Kotteken's researches on the alco- 
holized Actinia were followed in recent specimens. 2. The tissues 
of the chromatophores, of their margins, and of the spaces between 

70 On the Nervoua 8ydam of Admia, 

them were examined in a large specimen of a living pale-gref'n 
Tariety of Actinia meseinbri/antkemum from the Mediterranean. 
3. The tissues of the clu-omatophores of the Actinia mesembryan- 
ihemum were again examined with a view to explain tlie differences 
between M. Eotteken's and my own results. 

The ronnded, free, coloured, external layer of a cbromatophote 
was carefully disengaged from the gi'auular tissue beneath it, bo 
that the bacilli of Kdttekeo, the refractile corpuscles, and his so- 
called cones were separated from the rest. This turquoise-coloured 
film was floated and carefully placed on a glass slide, the bacillary 
layer being inferior and on the glass, whilst the proximal ends of 
the cones were free in the water. No thin glass was placed over 
the film, and an object-glass of ^-inch focus was used. The appear- 
ance presented under tiiis low power {by transmitted light) was 
very remarkable, for a great number of brilliant points of light 
were seen surrounded and separated by dark opaqne tissue. When 
a J-inch object-glass was used, tlie appearance was leas striking, for 
the points of light were more diffused. No trace of an object could 
be seen through the refractile tissues. 

The transparent and refractile tissues were the so-called bacilli, 
the globular bodies and the " cones " already noticed ; and the tissue, 
wlii(3i was impermeable by light, consisted of the colouring matter 
in small dull granules, cells small and round in outline and granular, 
and also the cell-walls of the cones. 

Sections through a cbromafcophore were made at right angles to 
the point of the greatest convexity of the surface, and thin shcea 
were floated off carefully from the line of section on to glass sHdea. 
The slices included (a) the coloured outside of the chromatophore, 
(t) the tissue beneath it, and (e) some musenlar fibres which limi t 
the endothelium. Sea-water was used as the medium, and a thin 
glass cover was applied after the specimens had been examined with 
a low power. 

Externally was the bacillary layer (PI. LXIS., Pig. 15). Eotteken 
describes this as a cuticular layer broken up into baciUi by numer- 
ous pore-canals. Examined, however, in the fresh subject, this 
external layer consisted of a vast multitude of small rod-shaped 
bodies, sharply rounded but conical at both ends, very transparent, 
and resemblmg the smallest nematoeysts of the tentacles without the 
internal thread (PI. LXIX., Fig. 2). These are placed side by side, 
and the external rounded end of each is separated by a small space 
from the terminations of its neighbours. These ends are free and 
are in contact with the water iu which the Actinia lives. The rods 
are cylinders, and are separated from each other by a very delicate 
fibu of protoplasm, in which are numerous dark opaque granules and 
a few flat simple colourless rounded cells (PI. LXIX., Fig. 3), The 
inner ends are shaped like the e^-*- ^ and are imbedded in the 

On (ke Nervoaa Sysiem of Actinia. 71 

__ ai layer of tisane. Eacli of these bodies ia a simple ceil filled 
Tfith a transparent fluid. When a thin film of the surface of a 
chromatophore is removed and examined under a 75-inch, the bacilli 
may be observed to crowd fogethor over a layer of large refractile 
cells. The thin glass cover is generally sufficient to crush down 
the bacilli, so that their sides may be seen as they rest in all kinds 
of poaitionfl on the deeper cellular layer (PI. LXIX., Fig. 17), 

The bacilli are not found universally over the cbromatophores, 
nor do they invariably cover the layer of large refractile globular 

It will be noticed, on examining excised portions which include 
two or three cbromatophores and tbeir intermediate tksue, that not 
only are they marked on their surface by foldings of their super- 
ficial tissue, but that between them there axe others which are 
microscopic. These last rarely have bacilli. Moreover, in some 
parts of the margins of the chromatophore, other pigments are 
visible than the turquoise, and the red often predominates ; the 
bacilh are not usually present there. 

Beneath the superficial layer of bacilli and their separating 
protoplasm, which is faintly granular, there ia some granular 
tiesne with a few small spherical cells containing granules, and the 
inner ends of the bacilh are imbedded therein (PI. LXIX., Fig. 3). 

This granular tissue is very thin, but it covers and dips down 
between the large refractile cells, which form the next layer 
(PI. LXIS., Figs. 4, 13, 15, 16, 17). 

These cells are more or less spherical ; the cell-wall ia very thin, 
and the contents are transparent, colourless, and refractile. Some 
have a pale grey tint, and one or more extremely faint nuclei are 
attached to the inner surface of the cell-wall. The ovoid shape is 

These large cells, which transmit light so readily, are univ< 
found on" the chromatophores; and when there are bacilh upon them, 
the spherical shape is common. 

At the margms of the chromatophores, and where the red pig- 
ment commences, these refractile cells assume much larger dimen- 
sions and more irregular shapes. These refractile cells are, as baa 
already been noticed, imbedded in a tissue of granular and shghtly 
cellular protoplasm, and this occasionally is dilferentiated into some 
pecuhar structures. 

Where there are no bacilh this granular tissue is increased in 
thickness and becomes superficial ; moreover the granules then con- 
tribute to the colour of the chromatophore, and probably they 
always do so to a certain degree. 

The refractile cells are not invariably confined to the layer above 
the so-called cones of Eotteken, although they are often thus limited 
in their position, especially if there are baciUi covering them. In 

On GteNervoaa System of Aetmia. 

parte of the same chroinatophore, where thia apparently normal 
Brrangement is seen, and especially on the microBcopic chromato- 
phorea hetween the larger kinds, the krge reliracHle ephernlea 
are fonnd between and in the midst of groups of the cones 
(PL LXIX., Fig. 16), 

In the chromatophores there is considerable variety in the size 
of the refractiie ceUs ; they appear to be developed from the small 
cells with a circnlar outline, which contain a few dark grannies, and 
which are found in considerable abundance amidst the enveloping 
grannlar tissue (PI. LXIX., Fig. 8). 

The most striking of all the histological elements of the chroma- 
tophores are the cones of Rotteten, or the nematocysts with imper- 
fectly visible threads of Homard. They are divisible into three 
series: — 

a. Elongated simple cells, cylindrical in shape, vrith rounded and 
somewhat pointed extemities, bonaisting of a tough cell-wall which 
ia capable of being bent without being broken or ruptured, and of 
colourless trausjiarent contents which are rather viscid (PI. LXIX., 
Fig. 5). They are fotir or five times the length of the bacilli, and 
three times their width. The cell-wall is faintly tinted vrith the 
peculiar colour of the cbi'omatophore. These elongated cells are not 
conical, nor can they be really termed cones vriUi any propriety ; 
when observed through their greatest length, or when the light 
traverses their long axis, the cell-wall appears dark and the centre 
very refractiie. They exist in vast multitudes over most parts of 
the chromafophore, and also in the intermediate tissue and its 
microscopic chromatophores. 

0. Cells of the same shape as " a," but the cell-wall is feintly 
striated, the appearance being very distinct under a power of 2000 
diameters (PI. LXIX., Fig. 6). These cells are very numerous, and 
were noticed by Riitteken ; they appear in the same position, and 
often amongst the cells with simple walls. 

7. Cells of the same shape and sine as " a and 0," with a well- 
deveJoped thread within them, which usually has no barb (PL LXIX, 
Fig. 7). 

These cells are common where there are no bacilli, but they 
occur here and there in all parts of the chromatophore circle. 

In some rare instances the " Rotteken bodies " (for thus I would 
name these remarkable cells) are closely approximated, side by side, 
without the intervention of any structure ; but, nsnally, there is a 
very thin layer of grannlar proioplasm, containing small cells, 
between them. 

As the bodies are cylindrical and more or leas closely applied by 
their sides, there is more space between them in some places than 
in othera ; and it is in these spots, where the bodies cannot come 
in direct contact, that their intermediate structures are elongated 

On the Nervous System of Actinia, 73 

and filiform (PI. LXIX., Figs. 9-14). The filiform arrangement 
of the granulo-cellular protoplasm is often branched, and a set of 
elongated masses may unite above or below the bodies. The cells of 
this intermediate tissue are small and usually spherical ; in one kind 
there is a large refractile nucleus, but in the commonest varieties 
the cells simply contain granules. It is necessary to study this 
tissue, because of its close agreement to what I presume to be the 
nerve structure, in some, but not in the essential, points. This 
tissue is clearly continuous with that which has already been 
noticed as separating and bounding the larger refractile cells outside 
the Eotteken bodies, and it is continued amongst the small closely- 
set granular cells which underlie these interesting histological 
elements (PL LXIX., Fig. 13). 

The intermediate tissue binds together the bacilli, for it is con- 
tinued upwards and between them, the large refractile cells (which 
I propose to term " Haimean bodies "), and the " Eotteken bodies," 
and it becomes lost in the cells upon which the proximal ends of 
these last rest 

It contains the granular structures which give, in the mass, the 
colour to the chromatophore, and it is evident that the Haimean 
bodies are developed from it 

The proximal ends of the Eotteken bodies retain their sharp 
and rounded contour amidst the dense layers of small granular cells 
which everywhere underlie them. 

Those granular cells form a tissue through which light passes 
with difficulty under the microscope. They are regularly placed 
in series near the Eotteken bodies ; but deeper they become less so, 
and then other anatomical elements may be observed between them 
and the muscular fibres upon which the whole chromatophore 
rests, and which in their turn limit externally the endothelium. 

III. A Notice of Botteken's discovery of Fusiform Cells and of the 
different appearances of the Nervous Elements now first 
observed in the ^^Pleodform Tissue.*' 

Eotteken describes these nervous elements as extremely fine 
fibres and spindle-shaped cells, and asserts that they are probably 
nerve fibres and cells. But he has not traced them in conjunc- 
tion, nor have the fibres been seen of sufficient length to anasto* 

I have found the fusiform bodies and their long ends — the fine 
fibres mentioned above. Moreover the connection of these irregular- 
shaped cells has been determined in these investigations, and the 
anastomosis of their processes and their connection with parts of a 
plexiform nervous tissue also. 

These structures are in the midst of a mass of viscous proto- 


On the Nervous System of AdtnvL. 


plasm, gmnaleB, and f^anular cells, wbich merge gradually into the 
close layers of granular cells under tlie Eotteken bodies, and they 
tranagreas here and there on those layers. 

The fusiform cells are numerous (PI. LXIX., Figs. 18-24), and 
maybe divided into two kinds: — (a) Those with irregolar shape-a 
and short terminal processes, which are prolongations of the cell- 
wall and are rounded off. These cells contain either highly refrac- 
tile nuclei, or several nuclei with granular niicIeoU. The fusiform 
shape is not invariable, and in Plate LXIX., Fig. 20, a large cell 
twice the diameter of a Eotteken body is seon amidst the granular 
plasm. It has a tail-shaped prolongation and some highly refrac- 
tile nuclei. 

/3. Those which are rounded in outline, and whose projections 
are long and continuous with those of others. The outlines of these 
cells are soft, and without definite and sharp margins, and the 
colour is a very pale blue-grey. They contain one or more very 
distinct nuclei Our type, illustrated in Plate LXIX., Pig. 21, has 
its cells rather wider than a Bdtteken body, and they we connected 
by a process with sharply-defined wells — the cell, with many nuclei, 
having a long caudal fibril of a pale grey colour and rather sharp 
margmal lines which had suffered disruption. 

A second type has large spherical or elliptical cells, which do 
not have proeeaaea paaain}:; out in opposite directions, but they are 
restricted to one part, tisually the cells have only one procesa, 
but Bometunra t^vo eiist close together (Fig. 22). 

These cells are granular within and have very indistinct nuclei ; 
the cell-wall is extremely dehcate, and the whole is of a pale grey 
colour. The fibrils of these aells are particularly connected with 
the plesiform tissue. In Plate LXIX, Fig, 22, there is a cell with 
two fibrils — one is short, for it dips down and is foreshortened, 
and the other is very long; it bU'urcates, and one end joins a 
rounded mass of the plexus, and the other the rugged fibrillar 

In Plate LXIX., Fig. 24, a, cell with one fibril is shown. The 
fibril swells slightly, and then passes down to join a transverse 
fibre belonging to the plexus. 

The plexiform tissue is probably continnons around the Actinia 
beneath the chromatophores, for it is found between the circular 
band of muscular fibres and every chromatophore. It consists of 
an irregnlai" main structure and of lateral prolongations, which 
either anastomose with the filirila from the fusiform and mora 
spherical cells, or are directly continuous with the cells (Fig, 23), 

The main structure resembles, in its indistinctness of outhne 
and its pale grey colour and indefinite marginal arrangement, the 
fibre of the sympathetic of mammals, but it is less coherent and 
smaller. The usual appearance (PI LXIX, Fig. 23) is that of s 

On the Nervous System of Actinia. 75 

grey film with definite branches, and the whole has few grannies 
here and there and a very few nuclei. It is intimately associated 
with the surrounding cell structui-es, but they may be separated by 
accident or compression. Here and there the structure enlarges 
and a ganglion-like cell is seen (PL LXIX., Fig. 22). 

I have traced this structure almost across the whole field of 
the microscope in some sections. 

It appears that this portion of the nervous system of Actinia 

i namely^ the fusiform and spherical cells with fibrils and the plexi- 
brm structure) is distinct histologically from the fibrillar and 
cellular structures amidst the Haimean and Botteken bodies. These 
structures are connective and developing ; but it must be remem- 
bered that it is possible for both series to come in contact in the 
midst of the layers of granular cells which underUe the Eotteken 

IV. Examination into the Physiological Relation between the 
ChromatophoreSy the Nerves, and Light 

The question arises, Are these nerves of special sense ? MM. 
Schneider and Botteken answer that the small portion of the 
nervous arrangement they described, I e. the fusiform bodies and 
their fibrils, are optic nerves. They are satisfied with the physical 
arrangement of the bacilli, Haimean and Botteken bodies, and 
the nature of the colouring matter imitating that of an organ of 

The discovery of the anastomosing fibrils and the plexiform 
arrangement favour this theory ; but there are reasons to be con- 
sidered which throw much doubt on the views of the distinguished 
investigators. All Actinia have not chromatophores, and closely 
aUied genera may or may not have them. Thus, amongst the 
Actinia with smooth tentacles, there is a group with non-retractile 
and another with retractile tentacles: amongst those with non- 
retractile arms are the genera Anemonia and Eumenides without 
chromatophores, and Comactis and Geratadis with them ; amongst 
the Actinia with retractile tentacles are Actinia with, and Paractis 
without, chromatophores. 

Amongst the tubercular division, the genus Phymactis has 
chromatophores, but its close ally Gereus has them not. 

Whatever may be the value of this classification of the Actinia, 
it is quite evident that to group together those with and without 
chromatophores in separate divisions would be the reverse of pro- 
ducing a natural arrangement. It is therefore difficult to believe 
that these ornaments, with something resembling an optical arrange- 
ment, can be the seat of special sensation. 

MM. Botteken and Schneider have observed the large refractile 

VOL. xu. a 

76 On the Nervous 8t/siem of Aeiinta. 

Htumean bodies in the teutacles, and, as will be noticed farther on, 
I have found them of enormous size in the peristome. 

They are aurronnded in those places, Imt not covered, with 
pigment cells and granules, and are situated just beneath the nema- 
tocyst layer in the tentacle, and beneath a corresponding layer, or 
one of l«cilh, in the peristome. I hare failed to recognize any 
nervous elements in the tentacles save the fusiform bodies, and there 
are none in the peristome except these irregular cells. 

Again, the Haimean bodies are found in the chromatophorea, in 
some places, amidst the Rotteken bodies, separating them. 

Nevertheless it is trae that light fidling on the snrface of an 
Actinia will reach farther into its structures where there are 
Haimean bodies, and farther still if the Rotteken cells underlie 
them. Where there is no pigment intervening between the bodies 
when placed side by side, or between the Eotteken cells, a diffused 
glare of light would impinge on the grannlo-cellular layer below 
them, in which the nerves ramify and the nerve cells exist. But 
when the pigment granules and cells exist, they break up the 
general illumination and confine it to a series of separate bright 
rays. Each of them is brighter than the corresponding space of 
diffused Kght ; and it would appear that the bacilli, the Haimean 
bodies, and the Botteken cells in combinatioD, concentrate light. 

Two or three bacilli are placed side by side and behind each 
other over a small Haimean refractile spherical cell, and perhaps 
twenty or more cover a large cell (PL LXIX, Fig. 15). Usually a 
Haimean body is placed immediately over a Eotteken body ; bat, as 
Botteken has pointed out, this is not an invariable arrangement, for 
some cover the spaces between and over them. The reftactibility 
of the Suid contents of the Hahnean bodies and Ilotteken cel& 
appears to be the same ; but the elongated form of the last-mentioned 
stnicturea may act upon light aa if their internal fluid were more 

In every instance there is a more or less opaque tissue between 
the pioxiEual end of the Botteken body and the nerve cells ; and, 
moreover, the delicate protoplasmic layer, which is slightly impervious 
to light, sarroandB the Haimean bodies. 

In my opinion the Haimean bodies, wherever they exist, cany 
light more deeply into the tissues than the ordinary epithelial 
structures. This is also the case with the bacilh and Botteken 
bodies, even when they exist separately and with or without the 
Haimean bodies. There are three ordinary constituents of the skin, 
and through their individual gifts and structural peculiarity they 
place the Actinia in relation with Ught. When they are brou^t 
together in this primitive form of eye, they concentrate and convey 
light with greater power, so as to enable it to act more generally on 
the nervous system — probably not to enable the distinction of objects, 

On the Nervous Sifstem of Actinia. 77 

I but to cauflo the light to stimulate a rndimentary nervoua system to 
I »ct in a reflex mmmer on the nnifiCTilar system, which is highly 
[ 'developed. The Actinia, therefore, may feel the light by means of 
I the transparent histological elements when they are separate and 
B^oonstitnte integral portions of the ectoderm ; but this sensation 
T will be intensified when the three kinds of cells are placed in such 
I order as has been observed in the chromatophores. 

The evolution of an eye, which can distinguish outlines, shadows, 
and colours, prohably took the path which is thus faintly indicated 
in the AcUnta, which doubtless has an appreciation of the difference 
between light and darkness. 

V. On the Nerves of the base of Actinia mesembryanthemnm. 

A large specimen of a pale green variety from the Mediterranean 
was examined. 

The baae being free and expanded, a rapid incision cut out a 
triangular piece comprehending the ectothelium, the muscular layers, 
and the mucous endothelinm. The apex of the triangle reached the 
centre of the base of the Actinia, and the base of the triangle, which 
was covered, corresponded with the basal margin of the animal. 

Sections were made parallel with the original aspect of the base 
of the Actinia, and then some others at right angles. 

The histological elements were Btudied separately and compared, 
BO that the following tissues could be distinguished readily : — 

1. A fibrous-looking tissue like ordinary white fibrous tissue 
with dark nuclei, to which the muscular fibres are attaehod and 
from which they originato, 

2. A dense layer of muscular fibres, or rather fibrils, which 
originates at right angles to the fibre of the fibrous tisane. Each 
fibril is refractile and nucleated. Each is separate from its neigh- 
bours, and lies in the midst of grannies and small cells which 
contain granules, all being highly xefractile. In some places the 
fibrils are gathered together in masses, so as to leave areolse between 

3. Large mnscular fibres in contact laterally, so as to form a 
thin layer. Each fibre is long, broad, haa several pale elongate 
nuclei and a distinct lateral dark line. There are no strise. 

4. The elements of the endothelium and ectothehum, which, as 
they do not bear on the immediate snbject, will be described in a 

L 'fiitnre memoir. 

'_ The object of the investigation being to discover some trace of 
a nervous system, which waa presupposed to resemble somewhat 
the traces observed below the chromatophores, the necessity of 
becoming famihar with the fibrous and muscular tissues, so as to 
decide miat was not muscle and fibre, is apparent. 

78 On the Nervous 8y«tem of Actinia. 

I have not found any isolated fasiform cells amongst the tissues 
of the base ; but under the endotheUum, and also between the layers 
of muscular fibres, there are structures which I feel disposed to 
believe must belong to the nervous system. 1. They are in the 
position of nerves. 2. Their structure is not that of muscle or fibre. 
3. Their structure resembles, in some instances, the plexiform 
tissues beneath the chromatophores. 

The nervous structures are found to present three characteristic 
shapes: — 

1. A thin layer of muscular fibrils of the small and separate 
(see 2 above) kind, with well-defined dark nuclei in them, was 
examined. The whole was very transparent and well defined under 
the -iV-iiich objective. 

Underlying this layer, and extending on either side beyond it, 
so as to appear in one of the meshes between groups of these fibrils, 
was a ramified pale grey tissue, which was less pervious to light 
than the muscular fibrils (PI. LXX., Fig. 25). Swollen in one part 
and faintly granular throughout, it had its margins very fidntly 
visible. It was flat, and had a definite resemblance to the widest 
portion of the plexus already mentioned. 

2. A large section of muscular tissue was examined. It consisted 
of one layer of large muscular fibres (see 3 above) in close lateral 
contact. Eunning obUquely over the layer was an irregular but 
continuous cord ramifying here and there, the branches breaking up 
into fibrils. In one part the cord was swollen (PL LXX., Pigs. 26 
and 27). A second ramification passed from the opposite end of 
the field of the microscope and broke up into ultimate fibrils, and 
in this structure there was a fasiform ceU. 

Careful manipulation separated a portion of the upper cord 
from the musculo: fibres, but a part of it evidently dropped down 
amongst them. 

3. A layer of muscular fibres of the same kind as those just 
mentioned was examined. It was marked, a^ usual, with the lateral 
dark Hues and pale elongated nuclei. 

Three long and irregular fibres passed more or less obliquely 
over the muscular tissue (PL LXX., Figs. 28-30). They had 
distinct lateral or marginal lines, were swollen out in several places, 
and their texture was faintly granular. 

I believe that these fibres were continuous with the fine 
ramifications of the plexiforin arrangement just described. 

4. Above the muscular layers, and under the folds of the 
endotheHum, I found an inosculating series of ramifications arising 
&om a common cord. It was situated upon the layer of muscular 
tissue, with small and separate long fibrils. 

The structure was faintly granular, pale grey in colour, with 
faint outlines, and was swollen in a^rno places : it covered a con- 

On Diapedesia. 79 

siderable portion of the field of the microscope ; and portions pf it 
had a close resemblance to the ramifying stmctnre mentioned as 
having been observed below the mnscular layer (PL LXX., Pig. 31 ). 

The multiplication, if it be justifiable, of ^ese structural elements 
in the other segments of the base which were not examined would 
give a fidr notion of the plexiform arrangement of the basal nervous 
tissue. I presume that it consists of a reticulate structure beneath 
the endotheUum, which sends large branches between the vacuities 
of the most delicate muscular layer, and which communicates with 
a ramifying tissue in contact with the other muscular layers, and 
that this ends in long fibres which supply the wide fibres of this 
last-mentioned layer. 

The diffused nature of this nervous tissue is what might be 
anticipated would be found in animals possessing such general 
irritability of tissue, and probably its function is to assist in the 
reflex movements of the animal, and to produce expansion of the 
disk on the stimulus of Ught. — Proceedings of the Boyal Society, 
vol. xxii., No. 151. 

IV. — On Dtapedesis : or tfie Passage of Blood^orpuscles through 
the Walls of the Bhod-vesselSy and how to observe it. 

By Joseph Nbedham, P.K.M.S. 

The importance of the subject of diapedesis cannot be overrated, 
for one can scarcely attend a course of lectures on physiology, 
pathology, surgery, or medicine, without hearing, over and over 
again, a description of, or a reference to, this process ; surely, then, 
you will not regard tiie time spent in verifying for yourselves so 
important a fact as wasted, ^before proceeding to the substance 

S roper of my discourse, 1 wish to observe that, although I may 
raw now and again on physical facts, or encroach too much on 
the domain of pathology, yet those digressions will only be made 
to render the explanation of the subject more lucid, or to testify to 
the importance of a right conception of it. 

We will, for convenience, consider our matter under four 

1. Mode of demonstration. 

2. Description of process. 

3. Explanation of phenomena. 

4. Concluding remarks. 

I. As to the modes of demonstration, various observers have 
made use of difierent animals. The material has been drawn 
chiefly from the Batrachians and their tadpoles. Fish have occa- 
sionally been -employed ; recently warm-blooded animals have been 


80 On Diapedesia. 

used ; bnt the study of the capillary circulation of mammalia is 
attended with Bach great diffictilty that they are seldom employed. 

We will dismiss the fish and mammalia in a few words. An 
oblong box of gutta-percha, with glass top and bottom, is generally 
employed for studying the circulation in fiah. A constant supply of 
fresh water is conveyed to, and the deoxygenated water from, 
the box, by means of two pipes. As regards mammalia, there is 
but one external part — viz. the wing of the bat (used by Paget) — 
sufficiently transparent for oba«rvation ; hence it is necessary to 
employ some internal structure. The meaentfiries of small rodents 
have been used by Strieker ; but the«e are not to be compared with 
the omentum, and particularly with that of the guinea-pig. It 
differs from that of man in consisting of only two layers of peri- 
toneum, in being much more delicate in structiu'e, and containing 
very Uttlo fat. The observations on these serous membranes have 
been productive of no good results, for the injurious effects of 
exposure are much greater than those which occur in Batrachians. 

Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, it is necessary to have 
recourse to complicated appliances and expensive apparatus, and 
even then so vulnerable a tissue as that of the peritoneum cannot 
be exposed even for a few minutes without injury, so that, although 
the greatest care is taken in demonstration, only a momentary 
glimpBe can be obtained. 

Batrachians and their larvie. Four parts of these itnimftlq may 
be used, as follows: — (1) The web of the frog's foot. (2) The 
mesentery of the frogor toad — preferably of the toad, whose mesen- 
tery is longer. (3) The tongue of the toad or frog. (4) Tadpole's 
tail. These animals may or may not be curarized. If curara be 
employed, one drop of one-sixth per cent, solution is injected under 
the skin of the back with an ordinary hypodermic syringe. If not 
curarized, the brass frog-plate sold by opticians, or a large flat piece 
of cork with a hole at one end, must be employed; but these 
arrangements are only fitted for examining the. web. 

1. The web of the foot must be extended over the glass in the 
brass plate, or the hole in the cork, by means of thread tied to the 
toes and fastened to the plate, or by means of pins to the cork ; but 
the web is not well fitted for observing diapedesis. The epithelium 
soon becomes dulled by the action of reagents, and often the 
extension of the web impedes or entirely prevents tiie circulation, 

2. The mesentery. Although the preparation of the mesentery 
is not so simple as one might anticipate, yet it is well suited for our 
purpose. The animal must be under the influence of curara, and 
the use of a stage frog-plate is necessitated, the construction of 
which is as follows : — A piece of cork, having a circular hole in the 
middle, is lastoned to one end of a plate of glass or cork with a 
corresponding hole; a circular piece of thin glass is fixed to the 


On Dittpedesis. 81 

projeotiiig cork, above the hole, partly covering its snrface. An 
inirisifin is made parallel to the median line on the right side of the 
belly. Care mnat be taken not to sever any large veasela. A 
Bimikr incision ia then made in the exposed muscles, still avoiding 
the blood-vessels. Should there be any bleeding from a large vessel 
it mnst be restrained by torsion or hgatare. All traces of blood 
having been removed with bibulons paper, the intestines and 
mesentery are drawn out carefnUy and placed on the projecting 
cork. The animal must lie supine. The intestine is covered with 
bibulous paper, and a thin "cover " glass placed on the mesentery. 
Tlie whole ia kept moist by the frequent addition of a few drops of 
a ^ per cent, solution of chloride of sodium. The mesentery should 
be exposed for two or three hours before required for observation. 

3. The tongue was first used by Cohnheim. The animal in 
this esperiment must also be curarized. A plate, similar to that 
last described, is used. The tongue is drawn out and ligatured 
near its root. Forty-eight hours after, the ligature ia removed, and 
the circulation generally recovers in a short time. Dr. Mitchell 
Bruce aaggests interposing a piece of leather between the ligature 
and the tongue, to prevent injury to the organ. The animal ia 
placed on its back, the tongue dra-wu forwards, spread over the thin 
glass, and secured in position by meana of small pins. The dorsum 
of the orgaa will be directed apwarde. 

4. The tail of the tadpole can be arranged with great iiacihty, 
and affords a most interesting object. Dr. Klein recommends 
cnrariziug the animal hy placing it in a moderately strong solution 
of curara until motionless. It is then placed on an ordinary glass 
Blip, the tail covered with a thin glass, and kept moist by the 
addition of salt solution when necessary. 

II. The examination should be commenced with a low power, 
80 that a moderate-aized vein can lie easily selected. The low 
power is changed for a No. 7 Hartnack, corresponding to an 
English quarter inch. The chosen vessel muat now be closely 

In every vessel, so long aa the parts are natural, the central 
part of the current ia occupied by coloured, and the periphery by 
colourless, corpuacles. The coloured pass along with their long 
axes pardlel to the long axis of the vessel, whilst the colourless 
assume a spheroidal fonn, and move more slowly, or, as Dr. Burden 
Sanderson nas aptly Ukened them, to " ronnd pebblea in a shallow 
but rapid stream." 

A column of fluid may be supposed to consist of several strata, 
and the friction of the fluid against the wall of the vessel causes 
the external layer to move more slowly ; hence the slow onward 
progress of the colourless, and the quicker transit of the coloured. 
Aft^ a while the relation will be seen to he altered ; the vessel 


w t 

Oh IHapedesis. 



becomes filled with coloured corpoaclee, which have a tendency to 
reach the estemal layers of the fluid, whilst the colourless are 
adhering to the walls of the vessel. Frequently they are loosened 
and swept onwards by the current, but many remain stationary, and 
in a short time elevataona will be observed on the outer aide of the 
wall of the vessel These gradually increase in size at the expense 
of the corpuscles on the interior, nntd at last the perfect corpuscles 
are seen wandering away from tie vessel into the tissues by means 
of their delicate hyaline processes or pseudopodia. 

III. We will BOW consider the fallacies, and the various 
explanations, of these phenomena. 

Fallacies. — One great 8om-c« of error is the rupture of some 
vessel accidentally or Irom operation. The blood-corpuscles spread 
over the field of the microscope, and a ialse impression is conveyed 
to the mind of a superficial observer, viz. that they have escaped 
fiom the vessel under observation; but careful focussing will soon 
reveal the mistake. Very often a small vessel may partly corer, or 
be concealed by, a corpuscle. Again, the observer imagines he sees 
a corpuscle emerging from the vessel ; but no errors of this descrip- 
tion can ever be committed if the following simple rule be rigidly 
observed, viz. that all corpuscles on their passage through the 
capillary walls consist of three distinct portions — one on the 
exterior, another on the interior, and a third or neck uniting 
them ; in fact, a distinct constriction should be seen. 

Explanaiions. — Observers do not agree on the manner in 
which the corpuscles escape from the unruptured vesseb. 

Cobnheim considers that by virtue of the amoeboid motion 
they possess, their exit ia readily effected through the false stomata 
between the endothelial elements of the vessel. He also states that 
the molecular arrangement of the conatituente of the endotheUum 
ifl altered ; hence it becomes sticky or viscid, and the onward course 
of corpuscles is retarded. Billroth behevea that it is due to some 
chemical or some molecular changes producing softening of the 
vascular walls. 

Cohnheim stated that pressure assisted materially in the process ; 
but if the atteria-media of a rabbit's ear be exposed, the corre- 
sponding vein opened, and distilled water injected through the 
artery at a lower pressure than that of the blood, it will produce 
inflammation, although no fluid has been expressed irom the vessels. 

The introduction into the circulation of a small quantity of 
2 per cent, solution of common salt will also produce an abundant 

Strieker and Prussak conaiiler the process due to an " active 
state " of the walls of the vessels, which consist of a homogeneous 
extensile protoplaam, and adduco aa proo& that all colloid sub- 
stances allow other colloid substances to pass through without their 

Om IMipifrwff 


integrity bong broken, » jvmd lijGialiini, and hait^ fifcofeed tW 
piooesB to tiie pnaBige of bog's blood-corpogdes throogli die mifecli 
smaller inteistioeB of a fine filla: Ericfasm thinks that the nemos 
and other tissues ha^e an important infinence. 

In silver stained pgepaniions the ooipnscles alirays lie in the 
inter-endotheiial fines. 

The coloured oofpnadeSy which can also be obeerved to migrate, 
are either taken np by the colonilesB corpuscles, or are disint^rated, 
producing pigmentatian. .. 

ly. Intimately connected with this subject is the origin of pus. 
We now know that migrated Uood-corpnscles form the chief 
source; but, if we carefully review the subject, we shall agree 
with Dr. Payne's remarks on the subject before the Medical Micro- 
scopical Society, yiz. that **Virchow's idea of the origm of 
pus, though now old-feshioned, is fer from being overturned by 
tlohnheim," for the observations of Strieker and Becklinghausen 
go directly to prove origin, in part at least, by proliferation of 
connective-tissue corpuscles. 

( 84 ) 

On Spectrum Anali/ei* as applied to Microecopical OhnervatioaK : 
the subject of a Lecture delieered at Ike South Ijondon Microscopical 
Oliih. By W. T. Suffolk, F.R.M.8. London: John Browning, 
Strand, 1873. — It will etrite the reader with souio aBtouiahment that 
this book has not been noticed before, but the fact is that it was sent 
to the Editor's former address, and was there detained. Hence the 
delay. There is not of course very much to bo fluid in critique, for 
the work is extremely elementary in character ; still, in the absence 
of any cheap essay on apectroscopie operations, IJie microscopist 
will find in it all that he requires to make hiin understand the 
construction and principles of action of the epectroscope, and to 
enable him to perform a number of osperimeuts with accuracy. 
Besides this, it really contains in the series of plates that accompaay 
it, the spectra of most of the substances that have been examined op to 
the data of its publication. It \a of course to be regretted that the 
colours of the spectrum were not in all cases given, but this is a 
trifling fault to find, the more so when the cheapness of the little 
volume is concerned. Besides, the frontiapiece consists of well- 
onlonred spectra of the sun, of ten. of the elements, of one of coal-gas, 
of one of Siriua, and of one of th« nebula. The author first gives a 
popular account of the peculiarities of spectroscopy, and explains, we 
thuik very eatisfiictorily, what is a puzzle to some people, viz, the 
peculiarity of the bright lines becoming black ones under certain 
conditions. Hia explanation of the apparatus is clear also, and is of 
course confined to mioro-spoctroeoopy; and his account of the different 
spectra is lucid and to the point. Lastly, ho gives a useful list of the 
several papers which have been contributed on the subject of micro- 
spectral work to English journals. We have no feult to find with, 
but a good deal of praise to award to, Mr. Suffolk fur his useful little 

On Uie Origin and Metamorphosis of Insects. By Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., MJ*., F.B.S., with numerous illustrations. London : MacmilLm 
and Co. 187i. — Of the many workers on the subject of entomology 
which we possess in this country, thero is none who has a greater 
right to come forward as one thoroughly qualified to speak on the 
complex questions relating to the development of insects than Sir John 
Lubbock. We fancy that many people, even among those witli 
zoological taatea, are not aware how thoroughly qualified is the author 
of the present treatise for the work he has taken in hand. We ttiinlr, 
therefore, that he was quite wise in publishing a list of Lis papers on 
this subject. And from this list we sec that ho has written no less 
than thirty-five valuable memoirs on this subject, many of them being 
contributions to the Boyal Society of London, and all extending over a 
period of twenty years. It may be said, then, that wliatever the views 
he expresses, they have not been hastily formed; and from the nature 
of hia writings, having to do chiefly with the structure and development 
of insects, they are entitled to every confidence. For ourselves, we 
must say that wo have road the work with a great deal of pleasure, 


li from the tnarkod clcamcB^ of tLe writei' as an instructor, and 
1 the exoellent aeries of illustrations which, it presents. But it 
would indeed be very poor criticism which confined ita observationB 
by such limits as these. There is a philosophical tone about the 
Tolame which is its highest quality, ajid it is this, we thinfa, which will 
be mast highly valued by the thinking reader, more especially if his 
tendencies be Darwinian. In fact, the author has tried the very 
difficult task of atteniptiug a Eyetem of classification which will show 
the force of the theory of evolution us it applies to the class lusecta. 
He hna endeavoured to show how the class was originally developed, 
and then to trace out ita several raodifications, and its relation to the 
neighbouring claeaea. And this he does, it appears to the writer, in a 
very successful fashion. Indeed, Sir J. Lubbock's appears to be un- 
questionably the most successful attempt that has been made in the 
application of Darwinism to the group he has taken in hand. He 
attempts to do for this group what Fritz MiiUer has so splendidly 
performed for the class Crustacea. Bat besides this geneml feature of 
the work, it is interesting from the number of remarkable passages it 
contains referring to the more peculiar habits of certain of the group. 
We aboil quote one or two remarkable casea, and not the least 
important is that relating to the aolitory hf menoptcra. " The solitary 
bee or wasp," he says, " forms a cell generally in the ground, places 
in it a sufGciont amount of food, lays an egg, and doses the cell. In 
the case of bees the food consists of honey ; in that of wasps, the 
larra requires aniinal food, and the mother therefore places a certain 
L.Bumber of insects in the cell, each species having its own especial 
r^ey, some selecting small caterpillars, some beetles, some spiders. 
F Cereeris Oajiretticida, as its name denotes, attacks beetles belonging to 
the genus Bnprestis. Now, if the Cerceris were to kill the beetle 
before placing it in the cell, it would decay, and the young lai'va 
when hatched would find only a mass of corruption. On the other 
hand, if the beetle were buried nninjurod, in its struggle to escape it 
would be almost certain to destroy the egg. The wasp has, however, 
the instinct of slinging il» prey in llie centre of the nervoug tyatem, 
thus depriving it of motion, and let us hope of Buffering, but not of 
life ; consequently when the young larva leaves the egg it finds a 
sufficient store of wholesome food." A not less remarkable, though 
more questionable fact, is that relating to the habits of Clavigera and 
Ants ; but this we may pass over. And indeed, many other equally 
remarkable instances might be quoted if our space was illimitable. 
We shall therefore pasa on to what we consider the important part of 
Hie little book before us. It is that relating to the origin of the 
Insecta ; and this is of course a most difficult problem for the naturalist. 
As the author shows, Palteont^logy supplies Tory little evidence 
indeed. As for ae it goes, however, it supports the idea that " the 
Orthoptera and Neuroptcra are tho most ancient orders," though it 
affords small testimony as to which is the older of these two groups ; 
and beyond this it is valueless as a means of research. It is, then, 
upon embryology and development that the author rests his several 
ciraeliisions ; for he points out that very many cases occur where 
iusocts ore related in early life which have no connection whatever ii 



^V S6 

^^M the mature condition. Sir J, Lnbbock gives a plate wliich illustrates 
^^B this in the samo manner as Eaeckel doee ivith regard tu Cruetocea ; 
^^H Bud thia Tory circumstance will sliovs' how difficult it is to place before 
^^1 our readers any fair explanation uf the views of the author; for in 
^^B many cases he simply points to the woodcut as bearing out bis view of 
^^M the close relatiuBBhip, and in these pages of course we cannot follow 
^^B him. He says that the stag-beetle, the dragon-fly, the moth, the bee, 
^^U the ant, the gnat, and the grasshopper, although they differ much from 
^^K each other, being dissimilar in size, form, colour, and in habits of life, 
^^H have been proved by those naturalists who have followed Savigny's 
^^H method to be "constructed on ono common plan." And further, our 
^^H author shows that other groups, as, for instance, Crustacea and 
^^V Arachnida, are " fundamentally similar." In the author's words, " wo 
^^^ find in many of the principal groups of insects, that greatly as they 
differ from one another in their mitture condition, when they leave 
the egg they more nearly resemble the typical insect type, consisting 
of a head, a three-segmented thorax, with three pairs of legs, and 
a many-jointed abdomen, often with anal appendages. Now, is there 
any mature animal which answers to this description ? We need not 
have been surprised if thia type, through which it wuuld appear that 
insects must have passed so many ages since (for winged Neuroptera 
had been found in the carboniferous strata), had long ago become 
cstinct. Tet it is not so. Tha interesting genus Campodea still 
lives ; it inhabits damp earth, and closely resembles the larva of 
Oliloeon, constituting, indeed, a. type which occuia in many orders of 
lecte. It is true that the month-parts of Campodea do not resemble 
either the strongly mandibulate form which prevails among the larvre 
of Colooptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Xiepidoptera, or 
the suctorial type of the Homoptera and Keteroptera. It is, however, 
not the leas interesting or significant on that account, since, as I have 
elBewhere* pointed out, its mouth-parts arc intermediate between the 
indibulate and haustellate types, a fact which seems to me moat 
ggestive." From these observations we gather that the author sup- 
poses the group of insects, both mandibulate and haustoUate, to have 
arisen from ancestors somewhat resembling the Campodea type ; and 
hence this form is, as he states, of " remarkable interest, since it is 
the living representative of a primeval type, from which not only the 
Collembola and Thysanura, but the other great orders of insects have 
derived their origin," We think that in regard to the minor question 
of which particular form the class sprang from — always admitting 
that they did spring &om some one form^the author's ideas have 
■re in them than those of Professor Haockel, though of course every 
weight must he given to the distinguished German's opinions. We 
may Gum up the author's opiuions expressed fully and clearly in this 
interesting and well-illustrated little volume, by stating that he 
believes the insects generally are descended &om forms lilie the present 
existing genus Campodea ; and finally, that tbe^o in their turn have 
been derived from a typo rosombling the living genus Lindia. 

' 'Liuniean Joiunnl,' vnl, xi. 

( 87 ) 


Pie American Hydrce, — A note has been read before the Society 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia by Professor Leidy on the two 
species of Hydra common in tie neighbourhood of Philadelphia. 
One is of a light brownish hue and is found on the imder side of 
stones and on aquatic plants in the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, 
and in ditches conmiunicating with the same. Preserved in an aqua- 
rium, after some days the animals will often elongate the tentacula 
for several inches in length. The green Hydra is foimd in ponds and 
springs, attached to aquatic plants. It has from six to eight tentacles, 
which never elongate to the extent they do in the brown Hydra, In 
winter this animal is frequently observed with the male organs de- 
veloped just below the head as a mammal-like process on each side of 
the body. He had not been able to satisfy himself that these Hydros 
were dfiffierent from H. fusca and H viridis of Europe. Professor 
Agassiz had indicated similar coloured forms in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, under the names of H, camea and H gracilis. Of the 
former he remarks that it has very short tentacles, and if this is correct 
under all circumstances, it must be different from our brown Hydra, 
which can elongate its arms for three inches or more. 

BemarJcs on Adinophrys Sol, — Some observations made by Professor 
Leidy at one of the recent meetings of the Society of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia are not without interest. 

Professor Leidy, after describing the structure and habits of this 
curious rhizopod, said that he had recently observed it in a condition 
which he had not seen described. He had accidentally foimd two 
individuals including between them a finely-granular rayless sphere 
nearly as large as the animals themselves. These measured, indepen- 
dently of the rays, 0*064 mm. in diameter; the included sphere 
* 06 mm. He supposed that he had been so fortunate as to find 
two individuals of Actinophrys in conjunction with the production of 
an ovum. 

Preserving the animals for observation, on returning after an 
absence of tliee hours, the animals were observed connected by a 
broad isthmus including the granular sphere reduced to haK its 
original diameter. Two hours later the granular sphere had melted 
in the isthmus, leaving behind what appeared to be a large oil globule 
and half-a-dozen smaller ones. The isthmus in the former time 
measured ^^3^ mm., at the later time -^^ mm. Shortly afterwards, the 
isthmus elongated and contracted to 3V ^^^^^* ^^ ^^ ^^^) while the 
right half, retaining the oil globules, remained as thick as before. 
At the same time the animals became flattened at the opposite poles. 
The latter subsequently became depressed, so that the animals assiuned 
a reniform outline. The isthmus, now more rapidly narrowed and 
elongated, became a mere thread, and finally separated about one hour 
from the last two hours indicated. The oil globules were retained in 



the right-hflnd indiviilual, which, with the remaining projection of the 
isthmus, appealed broadly coniforra in outline. In the left-hand indi- 
vidual all remains of the isthmus at once disappeared, and the animal 
appeared reniform in outline, but now coutraotiDg on the same side it 
oasumed the biscuit form. The constriction rapidly increased, and in 
thirty minntes from the time of twparation fi-om the right-hand indi- 
vidual it divided into two separate animals presenting Ihe ordinary 
appearance of A. Sol. Thus this second division took place in an 
opposite direction from the first. The right-hand individual, retaining 
the oil gliibnles apparently unchanged, more slowly assumed the reni- 
form outline, and then became constricted all around. The cnnatriction 
elongated to an isthmOB, in the centre of which were the oil globules. 
Three hours after the separation of the right-hand animal, the isthmus 
was narrowed to about half the diameter of the two new individnals 
which were abont to be formed. At this moment other engagements 
obliged me to leave the examination of the animals. 8ii hours after, 
in the onimalonle cage, I observed only half-a-dozen individuals of 
the A. Sol. 

The Fresh-water Algce of Nortli ^menVd.— Students of our fresh- 
water alga) will find in the beautiful and interesting work of Dr. H. C, 
Wood, jun., says the ' American Naturalist,' ' A Contribution to the 
History of the Frosh-watcr A]g» of North America,' a ready means of 
identifying their specimens. It is a large quarto volume, with many 
cDlonred plates, and ia taken from the Smithsonian GontribationB to 

Develc^Tnent of Ferns teithmt Fertiluation. — At a Inte meeting of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Prof, Gray communicated 
a paper by his former pupil. Dr. W. G, Forlow, now in Germany, on 
the development of ferns from the prothallium irrespective of fertili- 
zation, by a sort of parthenogenesis. The growUi observed took 
place, not from an archegonium, but from some other port of the 

Migration of White Blood Corpuscles. — Dr. Thomas read, before 
the (Jerman Association of Naturalisls at Wiesbaden, a paper on the 
migration of the white corpuscles into the lymphatics of the tongue of 
a frog, which is thus abstracted by the 'Lancet': — He injected the 
lymphatics of the living animal with an extremely dilute solution, not 
containing more than n^^th to gfl'^o th part of nitrate of silver, and 
found that, with certain precautions, this did not lead to stasis of the 
blood in blood-vessels, but only to a lively eiodus of the white cor- 
puscles from their interior. AAer the lapse of some time, when the 
parts had begun to recover from the injorious effect of the injection, 
he was enabled to observe the re-entrance of the eorpuacles into the 
lymphatic vessels, through certain stomata in their walls, now marked 
and rendered distinct by a precipitate of the silver salt. In a second 
Beries of researches the lymphatice were injected with a dilute emulsion 
of cinnabar, in a J per cent, solution of common salt. The cinnabar 
was in part deposited in the stomata of the lymphatics, and partly 
passed through thero, and was deposited in the tissues in tlie form of 


lall, round, cloucly patches. The evidcuco of the identity of the 
■'Btomntn, brought into view by means of the cinnabiir, with those 
rendered evident by the nitrate of Bilvor, is obtained by observing 
their peculiar grouping, and by the subsequent isjectiou of nitrate 
of silver into the some vessels. The injection of the cinuabar 
CBuaea very little distuibanco of tho oirculation. If a lively exodus of 
the white corpuacles from the blood-Tesaela bo produced by making an 
nbrosion of the surface, the migrating cells quickly make their appear- 
ance in the stomata of the lymphatics marked out by the cinnabar. 
They theu take up the particles of the cinnabar into their interior, 
which, causes them to lose their activity and accumulate in tho stomata. 
They then appear in the form of cauliflower excrescences, projecting 
into the interior of the lymphiitics, which gradually break up into 
their constituent cisnabar-holding cells. These may be traced into 
the larger vessels, and Irom them into the blood. In these researches, 
a remaj'kable regularity, or uniformity, in tho track pursued by the 
white corpuscles, was observed. They pass away from the blood- 
vessels nearly at right angles into the tissue, their course, however, 
being in a series of short zigzags. They all appear to travel about 
the same pace. 

Persistence of Sens&ility in the Peripheric Ends of Cut Nerves. — - 
A paper on this by MM. Arloiug and Tripier, is thus abstracted in 
the ' Medical Eecord,* Junfi 17th, by Dr. B. MacDowal :— 1. The facial 
and the spinal nerves of solipeda and rodents possess recurrent sensi- 
bility OS well as those of camivora. 

2. To find recnrrent sensibility most readily, one must go to the 

3. The peripheric end of the branches of the trigeminus nervo ie 
sensible. This sensibility is somewhat difQcuIt to demonstrate; still 
it exists. 

4. The peripheric end of the nerves of limbs is also sensible. The 
sensibility may, however, disappear towards the nerve trunks, 

6. In any cose, the sensibility of the peripheric end is due to the 
presence of nervo tubes, the relations of which with the trophic and 
perceptive centres have not been interrupted by the section. 

6. The absence of these tubes implies sensibility of the peripheric 

7. These tubes proceed from tho fifth pair, for the facial ; from 
neighbouring nerves, and occasionBlly from nerves of tho opposite 
side, for sensitive nerves ; from neighbouring and homologous nerves, 
for tho miied nerves. 

8. These recurrent nerves rise more or less high in the trunk of 
the nerve to which they are connected; their number diminishes from 
the periphery to the centre. 

t). The return of these fibres may take place before the termination 
of the nerves, but tho termination is the part where it is made by 

^^^ 10. For several reasons, MM. Arloing and Tripier think that the 
^^KWneibility of the perijihorie end belongs to all nerves ; and that it 


The Condition of Heart and Kidney in an obscure form of Disease^ 
which lately occurred in America, is thns described by Dr. L. Curtis : 
— ^ The piece of heart presented on the outside simple atheromatous 
and calcareous degeneration. The muscular fibres appeared healthy. 
The kidney presented a mottled appearance, part being of a cream- 
colour, other portions being of a natural colour, except much paler. I 
took two small pieces of this kidney and placed them in a weak solu- 
tion of chromic acid, te harden. After a day or two, I cut some thin 
sections, both in a longitudinal and a transverse direction, and stained 
them in an alkaline solution of carmine. On examining the sections 
with the microscope, the whole field appeared confused, and it was only 
after repeated and prolonged examination that I was enabled to make 
out anything at all satisfactory. This was particularly the ease over 
the greyer portions. The cauL of this indistinctness was the infiltr^ 
tion of the organ with a granular substance. In some pkces this gra- 
nular substance was replaced by round bodies resembling, in sise and 
appearance, pus corpuscles ; in other places there were collections of 
round bodies from one-third te one-half the diameter of the former ; 
neither of these collections had well-defined boundaries. The edges 
of some of the sections, which were extremely thin, showed, where the 
granular material had been washed out, that the connectiye tissue of 
the kidney was somewhat thickened, and contained many more mus- 
cular points than in health. The Malpighian tufks were, in many 
places, contracted down inte little compact knots, of cicatricial-like 
tissue. The uriniferous tubules were filled with a granular material ; 
the cells lining them had lost their distinctive characteristics, and were 
cloudy and opaque. Most of the straight tubules were wasted to mere 
irregular, nodulated cords. These appearances do not correspond 
altogether with any specimen that I have met before, or with anjr de- 
scription that I have seen published. I should dislike, at present, te 
give a decided* opinion as to their nature ; they correspond, however, 
more closely with what Eindfleisch calls ceUuIar hypertrophy of the 
connective tissue, than anything else with which I am acquainted." 

On Tube-huilding Amphipoda, — ^In * Silliman's American Journal ' 
for June, 1874, Mr. S. I. Smith gives the foDowing account He 
says, " In examining recently an alcoholic specimen of a species of 
Xenoclea, I noticed a peculiar opaque glandular structure filling a 
large portion of the third and fourth pairs of thoracic legs, which 
in most, if not all, the non-tube -building Amphipoda are wholly oc- 
cupied by muscles. A further examination shows that the terminal 
segment (dactylus) in these legs is not acute and claw-like, but trun- 
cated at the tip, and apparently tubular. In this species, a large 
cylindrical portion of the gland lies along each side of the long basal 
segment, and these two portions uniting at the distal end pass through 
the ischial and along the posteriojr side of the moral and carpal seg- 
ments, and doubtless connect with the tubular dactylus. There can be 
no doubt that these are the glands which secrete the cement with which 
the tubes are built, and that these two pairs of legs are specialized for 
that purpose. A hasty examination revealed a similar structure of the 
corresponding legs in Amphithoe maculata, PtUocheirus pinguis, Cera- 


pu8 rubricomis, Byhlis Gaimardi, and a species of Ampelisca. In all 
these except the last two a very large proportion of the gland is in the 
basal segment. In the Amphithoe this segment is thickened and the 
gland is in the middla In the Cerapus it is very broad and almost 
entirely filled by the gland, with only very slender muscles through 
the middle, and the orifice in the dactylns is not at the very tip, but 
sub- terminal on the posterior side. In the Ptilocheirm the gland forms 
three longitudinal masses in the basal segment and is also largely 
developed in the moral and carpal segments. The dactylus is long 
and slender and the orifice sub-terminal. In Ampelisca and Byhlis 
(which, like Haploops, are tube-building genera) the meral segments 
of the specialized legs are nearly as large as the basal, and contain a 
proportionally large part of the gland. In these genera the remark- 
able elongation of the two distal segments in the third and fourth 
pairs of legs is perhaps a special adaptation to enable them to reach 
back over the deep epimera, 

Betrogression of the Graafian Follicle. — M. Slavjansky has re- 
cently written a paper in the 'Archives do Physiologic,' which is 
thus abstracted in the 'Medical Eecord/ June 15th: — "1. The 
Graafian follicles are developed from the primordial follicles, and 
acquire a greater or less degree of maturity during the whole of life, 
from the first month after birth till about the age of 40. 2. The 
greater part of the follicles are not ripe, do not burst, and do not 
discharge their contents, but undergo atresia, presenting an almost 
complete analogy with that of the formation of the corpora lutea. 
8. The development and maturation of the Graafian follicles are not 
produced periodically in a regular manner, and no connection exists 
between them and menstruation. 4. Menstruation constitutes a 
physiological phenomenon, quite independent of the development and 
maturation of the follicles. 5. The rupture of follicles more or less 
mature always bears a certain relation to congestions of tho genital 
organs, produced by any cause whatever. 6. There exist certain 
maladies (ague, poisonings, &c.) 'which produce atresia of the follicles 
at different periods of their developments, after a parenchymatous 
inflammation of the ovary." 

The Termination of Nerves in the Lips. — Dr. Pallidino (Bull. delV 
Assoc, dei Natural di Napoli) states that in the lips of the horse, which 
are richly supplied with nerves, many isolated, non-medullated fibres 
run from the subcutaneous connective tissue into the deeper layers of 
the epithelium, when they have a straight course and terminate by 
free extremities after they have traversed the deepest layer of the 
pavement epithelium, occasionally exhibiting a terminal dilatation or 
enlargement. Pallidino has not been able to discover any connection 
of the nerve fibres with peculiar stellate cells of the rete Malpighii, as 
described a year or two ago by Langerhaus. 

Distinction between Mammalian and Beptilian Blood. — The * Ame- 
rican Journal of Medical Sciences ' says that Dr. B. M. Bertolet, M.D., 
Microscopist to the Philadelphia Hospital, refers to the great difficulty 



which is experienced in determining the kind of blood, by the ordinary 
methods of examination in medico-legal cases. 

If examined with the microscope, as it is ordinarily found in the 
dried state, the corpuscles are shrivelled and deformed. The addition 
of water extracts the colouring matter, and though it causes them to 
swell up, does not restore them to their original condition. It causes 
the red corpuscles to lose their bi-concave shape and approach the 
spherical. The oval disks of reptiles, birds, &c., lose something of 
their peculiar shape, and become more like mammalian blood. 

In moistening such blood he uses a solution of sulphate of soda, 
or, better still, slightly acidulated pure glycerine. This preparation 
'" is carefully irrigated with a properly prepared alcoholic solution of 
guaiacum resin: then, when a very small quantity of the ethereal 
solution of the peroxide of hydrogen (ozonic ether) is introduced 
beneath the glass coyer," the red corpuscles are changed to an uniform 
colour, which varies in the different corpuscles, '' from a light sapphire 
to a deep indigo blue." 

In the nucleated corpuscles of birds, reptiles, &c., however, " the 
nucleus is seen as a sharply-defined, dark blue body, while the protoplasm 
surrounding it assumes a more delicate violet hue.*^ The distinction 
between the two kinds of blood, by this means, is so plain as to be 
evident even to an ordinary gentleman of the jury. 

What Pvs is noL — The following interesting paper is contributed 
to the * Medical Examiner ' (Chicago, U.S A.) for April, by Dr. Lester 
Curtis, M.D. : — 

'' A few years ago Conheim published some observations on the 
white blood corpuscle, which confirmed the older observations of 
Waller and Beale, and called attention to them ; for previous to tiiis 
time they had attracted little notice, especially on the continent of 
Europe. These observations showed that, in inflammation, many of 
the whit^ blood corpuscles pass through the walls of the capillaries, 
and appear outside of them. The corpuscles outside the vessels 
continue their amoebiform movements, and possessing the power of 
locomotion, were called * wandering cells.* (?) 

'* At the time of these observations it was well known that the 
fresh pus corpuscle also had an amoebiform movement similar to 
that of the white blood corpuscle. Pus occurs as the result of inflam- 
mation ; and where there is inflammation there are large numbers of 
wandering cells. Conheim concluded, therefore, that pus corpuscles 
came from the wandering cells, and, as the wandering cells came from 
the white blood corpuscles, therefore that a pus corpuscle was a white 
blood corpuscle. He rejected as erroneous the previous opinion that 
pus could be derived from any other source l3ian the white blood 

" Conheim's conclusion, that the pus corpuscle and the white blood 
corpuscle are identical, has been widely accepted. It is due partly to 
the acceptation of this theory that the name * leucocyte ' has arisen — a 
name wluch is applied indiscriminately to the white blood corpuscle, 
the lymph corpuscle, the wandering cell, and the pus corpuscle. 
Some, in publishing their acceptation of the theory, have added the 


saving epithet * morphologically ' to the * identical* evidently implying 
some donl^t, after all, as to its correctness. 

" In spite, however, of the general acceptation of the opinion, it 
appears to me to be inconsistent with certain well-known facts. It is 
my purpose to present some of these facts, and show wherein they are 
inconsistent with the theory. I shall consider the subject from 
Conheim's standpoint : supposing that all pus originates from white 
blood corpuscles, although I consider the proof of such sole origin as 
far from complete. 

'^ In the first place, it by no means follows that, because a pus 
corpuscle is derived from a white blood corpuscle, it is identical with 
a white blood corpuscle. The white blood corpuscles are mere stages 
of growth, just as a chrysalis, or a tadpole, is a stage of growth. 
They have no particular function of their own, as, for instance, the 
red corpuscles have ; they only exist in order that they may be deve- 
loped into something else. If this is the case, it is not only supposable 
that, under the changed conditions of nutrition to which the wandering 
cells are subjected outside the vessels, they should undergo a change ; 
but it is di£&cult to understand how they should continue to be the 
same that they were within the vessels. 

*^ Mere similarity of form and appearance is, as we all know, one 
of the least reliable of resemblances ; and the fact that a pus cor- 
puscle appears to be like a white blood corpuscle can surely go but a 
short way towards establishing their identity. The sporulcs of fungi 
can often be crushed, and l£e softer, central portion can be freed 
from the envelope. When this is done, the central portion of the 
sporule may resemble a white blood corpuscle so closely in every 
particular, except, perhaps, in size, that even an experienced observer 
would be unable to distinguish them apart. Would anyone, on this 
account, consider them to be identical ? There must be other resem- 
blances between two bodies besides form and appearance merely, to 
render them identical. They must correspond in all essential parti- 
culars ; and if they differ in any essential particular, they plainly are 
not identical. Now let us see if pus corpuscles correspond in all essen- 
tial particulars with white blood corpuscles. 

" The white blood corpuscles of every healthy person correspond 
in every particular with which we are acquainted, with the white 
blood corpuscles of every other person ; and while there may be, and 
probably are, points in which the corpuscles of every individual differ 
fromi those of eveiy other individual, these differences are so slight 
that the corpuscles of one person may be substituted for those of 
another, by transfusion of blood, without disturbance of function. 
If, then, pus corpuscles are the same thing as white blood corpuscles, 
all pus which has not a specific origin should be similar. I need 
hardly say, however, that this is notably not the case. Mo one would 
suppose for an instant that the pus from an ordinary abscess, and 
that from a purulent ophthalmia were the same. Yet the bland 
and unirritating pus from the abscess, and the highly contagious pus 
j&om the purulent ophthalmia, may have had their origin in a simple, 
and perhaps similar irritation ; and the white blood corpuscles of tho 

H 2 


two indiyidnals may preserve their similarity at the same time that 
the pus shows snch great differences. Can things which differ &om 
each other both be similar to the same thing ? 

" Again, the physiological action of pus differs from that of a white 
blood corpuscle. White blood corpuscles may easily, and with safety, 
be transferred from the vessels of one individual to those of another ; 
but if pus is injected into the vessels, the result is a serious disturb- 
ance. The experiment has been tried of injecting pus into the veins 
of an animal ; a febrile action, dangerous to the l3e of the animal, is 
the result ; and if some of the blood of this animal is injected into the 
veins of a second animal, a still severer disturbance than in the first 
animal is set up. If the blood of the second is injected into the veins 
of a third, a similar disturbance is set up ; and so of a fourth, and so 
on. The introduction of pus into the veins of the animal has given 
rise to profound changes in its blood — an effect differing widely from 
the harmless result of the introduction of the blood corpuscle. 

^^ Again, the white blood corpuscles can become organized, aad 
form tissue ; or, at least, the wandering cells outside the vessels can 
become organized; and it is a well-known fact, that from these 
wandering cells all inflammatory new formations arise. Some, indeed, 
maintain that &om such wandering cells are produced all the new 
growth of connective tissue, and all the new formations in the body. 
Pus, however, cannot become organized, as anyone who has observed 
the mischief done by a small quantity of pus beneath the periosteum 
of a finger can well appreciate. 

'* If pus, then, originated from a white blood corpuscle, it has lost 
the power of organizing ; and who can tell how great is the difference 
which has resulted from that loss ? 

*^ Again, if the pus from our purulent ophthalmia, which may have 
arisen from a simple irritation, be introduced beneath the lid of a well 
person, it will, in all probability, set up a disease similar to that in 
the eye from which it was taken. If a white blood corpuscle had the 
property of setting up disease, what surgeon would be skilful enough 
to avoid purulent ophthalmia? The pus from purulent ophthalmia, 
then, has not only lost the power of organizing, but has acquired 
noxious properties, which render it hurtful to the person in whom it 
originated, and dangerous to those with whom it may come in contact. 
Can any two things differ more widely than the blood corpuscle and 
this pus — the one a useful and necessary part of the body, and the 
other a breeder of disease, and an object to be dreaded ? 

*' In what I have said, granting what I do not believe, that all pus 
originates from white blood corpuscles, I have tried to show : — 

** 1st. That white blood corpuscles, being in a transition stage, we 
have no right to expect that, in the changed condition of nutrition to 
which they are subjected, outside the vessels, they would continue to 
be the same that they were within the vessels. 

" 2nd. That mere similarity of appearance was insufficient evidence 
of identity. 

" 3rd. That different samples of pus are unlike each other ; which 
they would not be if they were white blood corpuscles. 


'' 4th. That pus differs from white blood corpuscles. 

<' a. — In the disturbance which it sets up when introduced in these 

" 6. — In the loss of the power of organizing. 

" c. — In the frequent acquisition of contagious properties. 

"These are some, though by no means all, the reasons why I 
consider that pus is not the same thing as a white blood corpuscle. 
If I have established the point, it will be something gained; if I 
have failed, I would esteem it a favour to be shown my error." 

Structure of Boehmeria nivea. — The structure of the aerial stem of 
Bcehmeria niveau a plant belonging to the nettle family, yielding the 
well-known China grass or Ehea fibre, was described by Mr. H. 
Pocklington, at a late meeting of the Leeds Naturalists' Field Club, 
as follows : — The central pith is peculiarly white and glistening to 
the naked eye. This is doubtless due to the excessive tenuity of the 
walls of the cells composing the medulla, to their being devoid of all 
proteinaceous contents, and to their inclusion of nothing but air when 
in the dry state. Most of the light incident upon them when viewed 
in situ will be totally reflected from the surfaces of the air within the 
cells, and thus give them the appearance of being illuminated by a 
clear lunar light from within. The medullary sheath is well 
developed, and consists, excluding the ordinary woody fibre, of large 
triple-spiral vessels, boldly -barred hothrenchyma and long cylindi'ical 
ceils containing a yellowish fluid soluble in alcohol. The fibre of the 
spiral vessels is strong, and easily separates from the primal wall of 
the cell, and the " barred " vessels are somewhat remarkable for their 
coarseness when contrasted with the vessels of the woody zone. The 
yellowish oil has not been investigated as yet, but appears to be a 
chlorophylloid product. The woody zone is well developed, and is 
remarkable for the nature of the cells of which it is composed. The 
normal spindle-shaped inactive much-thickened wood fibres are here 
replaced by thin- walled prosenchymatous cells containing, beside pro- 
teinaceous matter, large quantities of starch granules, and by less 
obviously wood- cells, minutely porous and also containing starch. 
Starch-bearing wood-cells have been described by Hassall* and myself f 
as occurring in certain roots and rhizomes, but they have not, so far as I 
know, been hitherto described as occurring in aerial stems. The occur- 
rence of them in roots is entirely unnoticed in our text-books, and is 
unknown to many botanists of extensive knowledge. The medullary 
rays are not evident in transverse section, but may be easily recognized 
in longitudinal sections. They are very much longer than broad, 
sometimes thickened, and contain little beside sap and starch. The 
bothrenchyma is interesting. The pits are oval, sometimes complete 
pores, and in the centre of a discoid, rhomboidal, or polygonal ternary 
deposit, with an irregular spiral of secondary deposit running between 
them. These are in fact very good examples of what are known as 
bordered pits, but must not be confused with the glandular pleuren- 
chyma of conifers. The starch granules are varied in shape. The 

♦ * Adulteration DetecteJ.' t ' Pharmaceutical Joiurnal/ 1872-3. 



larger number are round or civuiil, sgme are semi-muasel ahaped, a 
few &lmoet bocilliform ; many are compunnds of two, most are single 
granules. All give a black cross with considerable distinotoess by 
polarized light. The cortical Injere are chiefly remarkable for the 
libor fibres which conBtitute the China grass oi commerce, and the 
Hmall ephteraphides that accompany these linearly. The liber eella 
are, as shown long since by Quekett, very much stouter than those of 
flax, and are easily to be distinguished from them by means of a power 
of 300 or 400 diameters, the traDsverse markings in the two fibres 
being very difierent. The China grass fibres are very tnugb, their 
walls are considerably thickened, hut they have a large central cavity 
filled with a mixture of gummy and proteinaceons matter. The lesnlt 
of this is that when tlie fibres ore exposed to moistui'e after being dried 
then the contents absorb moisture, the fibres expand laterally and 
contract longitudinally, so that if they he woven into a fabric the 
chances are the fabric puckers in a very disagreeable fashion. Thia 
is certain to be the case if the fibres he mised with wool as in certaiu 
Bradford manufactures. China grass fibres, however, will doubtless 
come into use provided a machine can he invented by which they can 
he economically removed from the hard woody stem. This lattOT will 
probably be utilized in the paper mannfacture, and some mechanico- 
chemical moans that will preserve the fibres uninjured whilst preparing 
the pleurenchyma for the paper-maker will probably be discovered one 
of these days. The other cortical cells do not require any notice. 
Their contents are chiefly what Mr. Sotby calls etidochrome, granulat 
mutters of uncertain composition, and the small sphieraphides already 
referred to. These latter ai^ almost certainly an impure oxalate of 
lime. The radochrome chiefly consists of yellow xanthophylL Blue 
chlorophyll and, probably, small quantities of licbno-xanthiue, passing 
by deoxidation into a pinkish-brown chromule, colouring iho bark 

Tlie Etiology of Madv.rO'fooL—ThQ ' Indian Medical Gazette ' 
says it has recently received a pamphlet on this subject from Di. H. 
Vandyke Carter,* but after careful study of its contents has not been 
able to alter its opinion in the slightest degree. '■ This pamphlet and 
its accompanying plate may, we presume, he taken as an epitome of 
the author's previous writings and drawings in connection with this 
malady, doubtless embodying also the experience gained during the 
dozen years or so which have transpii'ed since bis views were first 
placed before the profession. 

" These views are so well known that it is scarcely necessary to 
refer to them at any groat length. SiifRce it to say that Dr. Carter 
believes that he has shown that the disease is cansed by a distinct 
fungus — a peculiar red moulii, which has not been seen except In 
connection with Madura-foot, This mould was first observed h^ Dp. 
Vandyke Carter in May, 1861, ' upon part of a diseased foot which had 
been placed in water for maceration The next occasion of its 


occurrence was during the following year, in the month of April, in 
connection with a specimen of mycetoma preserved in spirits, and 
again, also about the same date, the mould was seen on some rice 
paste in which some fresh black fungus particles had been placed in 
order to ascertain if they could be made to grow artificially.' 

" It will be observed that the mould referred to as having developed 
nnder these varying conditions was identified as one and the same 
kind of fungus — a fact which per se contains a sufficient refutation of 
the whole theory; for it is a physical impossibility that spores of 
fungi which had been preserved in spirits should retain their vitality, 
consequently the mould which grew on the spirit-preserved specimen 
must have been of extraneous origin ; not only having germinated after 
the evaporation of the alcohol, but which must have originated from 
some source other than the interstices of the macerated tissue. We 
are therefore compelled to infer that the red mould, of various shades, 
described as having spread over portions of these three and other 
Madura-foot specimens, was but some developmental form of our 
ordinary pink-tinted moulds, bearing no relation whatever to the 
black, yellow, or orange-coloured particles frequently found in diseased 
tissues of this nature — ^no closer relationship, in fact, than a crop of 
various tinted mould on the surface of rice paste does to any coloured 
particles which may chance to be in its substance. 

"No monld with which we are acquainted, however, presents' the 
slightest resemblance to the pink-coloured objects figured in the plate, 
purporting to represent ' the structure of the red mould found in con- 
nection with mycetoma (JJhionyphe Carteri)* — figures, by the way, 
differing materially from those appended to the original text in the 
* Bombay Transactions,' or any ofiiers which we have seen elsewhere, 
and which, we presume, must be considered as representing the 
Chionyphe Cartert more accurately than the early figures. So long as 
the forms here delineated are associated in the mind with the idea of 
moulds, one is certainly puzzled to account for their presence ; fortu- 
nately, however, a sentence in the descriptive text, attached to the plate, 
snppHes ns with a key : the objects depicted are referred to as repre- 
senting * a fragment of the new growth as this appeared upon a 
specimen of the foot-disease placed in water to macerate/ and a very 
good representation it is of ' fragments ' which may very frequently be 
obtained in some specimens of tank water in which, however, no 
diseased foot need necessarily have been macerated. 

" Looking at the drawing, without reference to the text, we should 
describe the objects as being, probably, some confervoid growths, and 
the * spore capsule,* filled with pink-coloured globules, as the encysted 
gonidium of some Alga, not very unlike the gonidia of Pandorina, 
as figured in late editions of the * Micrographic Dictionary,' or 
Pritchard's ' Infusoria.' To the Alga articles and plates of either of 
these volumes, or, better still, to some neighbouring tank at certain 
seasons of the year, we refer our readers for further explanation con- 
cerning the objects figured in this plate. 

« It is with mucji regret that we write in this manner concerning 
any of the labours of so industrious and accomplished an observer as 


Dr. Carter is known to be; but when we find a doctrine, which we 
believe to be altogether erroneous — the result of a misinterpretation of 
microscopic appearances — ^nsed by men of eminence (who themselves 
may not have the opportunity or possess the special training necessary 
for this particular branch of study) as a basis upon which to found the 
etiology of other diseases, we feel that the time has arrived for giving 
free expression to our opinion regarding it." 

On the Smallpox of Sheep, — Dr. E. Klein, Assistant Professor at the 
Laboratory of the Brown Institution, in a paper read before the Eoyal 
Society in June, 1874, says that Variola ovina, or smallpox of sheep, 
is a disease which, although it is not communicable to man, and 
possesses a specific contagium of its own, very closely resembles human 
smallpox, both as regards the development of the morbid process and 
the anatomical lesions which accompany it. This correspondence is 
so complete, that it cannot bo doubted that the pathogeny of the two 
diseases is the same. The present investigation was iierefore under- 
taken in the confidence that the application of the experimental method 
to the investigation of the ovine disease would not only yield results 
of value, as contributory to our knowledge of the infective process in 
general, but would throw special light on the pathology of smallpox. 

The paper consists of four sections. In the first, the author gives 
an Account of his experimental method, which consisted in communi- 
cating the disease by inoculation to a sufficient number of sheep, and 
in investigating anatomically (1) the pustules produced at the seat of 
inoculation, and (2) those constituting the general eruption. The 
lymph employed was obtained by the kindness of Prof. Chauveau, of 
Lyons, and Prof. Cohn, of Breslau. 

In the second section, the organisms contained in fresh lymph, and 
the organic fonns derivk from them by cnltivation. are ^de^ribecL 
The author finds that fresh lymph contains spheroidal bodies of 
extreme minuteness, which correspond to the micrococcus of Hallier 
and to the spheroids described by Cohn and Sanderson in vaccine 
lymph. It also contains other forms, not previously described, which 
in their development are in organic continuity with the micrococci. 

The third section contains a complete anatomical description of 
the skin of the sheep with special reference to those particulars in 
which it differs from that of man. "^ 

The remainder of the paper is occupied with the investigation of 
the changes which occur in the integument at the seat of the inocula- 
tion, and with the anatomical characters of the secondary pustules. 

The most important results are the following : — 

1. The development of the primary pock may be divided into 
three stages, of which the first is characterized by progressive thicken- 
ing of the integument over a rapidly increasing but well-defined area ; 
the second, by the formation of vesicular cavities containing clear 
liquid (the " cells " of older authors) in the rete Malpighii ; the third, 
by the impletion of these cavities with pus corpuscles and other 
structures. It is to be noted that the division into stages is less 
marked than in "human smallpox. 

2. The process commences in the rete Malpighii and in the sub- 


jacent papillary layer of the corium ; in the former, by the enlarge- 
ment and increased distinctness of outline of the cells, and by 
corresponding germinatiye changes in their nuclei ; in the latter, by 
the increase of size of the papillsB, and by germination of the epithelial 
elements of the capillary blood-vessels. 

3. It is next seen that the interfascicular channels (lymphatic 
canaliculi) of the corium are dilated and more distinct ; that the lining 
cells of these channels are enlarged and more easily recognized than 
in the natural state; and that, in the more vascular parts of the 
corium, the channels are more or less filled with migratory, or lymph, 
corpuscles. At the same time, the lymphatic vessels, of which the 
canaliculi are tributaries, can be readily traced, in consequence of their 
being distended with a material which resembles coagulated plasma. 

4. About the third day after the appearance of the pock, the 
contents of the dilated lymphatics begin to exhibit characters which 
are not met with in ordinary exudative processes. These consist in 
the appearance, in the granular material already mentioned, of 
organized bodies, which neither belong to the tissue nor are referable 
to any anatomical type — viz. of spheroidal, or ovoid, bodies having the 
characters of micrococci and of branched filaments. These last may 
be either sufficiently sparse to be easily distinguished from each other, 
er closely interlaced so as to form a felt-like mass. 

5. The process, thus commenced, makes rapid progress. After 
one or two days, the greater number of the lymphatics of the affected 
part of the corium become filled with the vegetation above described ; 
and on careful examination of the masses, it is seen that they present 
the characters of a mycelium, from which necklace-like terminal 
filaments spring, each of which breaks off, at its free end, into conidia. 
In most of the filaments, a jointed structure can be made out, and, in 
the larger ones, the contents can be distinguished from the enclosing 
membrane by their yellowish-green colour. 

6. At the same time that these appearances present themselves in 
the corium, those changes are beginning in the now much thickened 
rete Malpighii which are preparatory to the formation of the vesicular 
cavities already mentioned. By a process which the author designates 
homy transformation, having its seat in the epithelial cells of the 
middle layer of the rete Malpighii, a homy expansion, or stratum, 
appears, lying in a plane parallel to the surface, by which the rete 
Malpighii is divided into two parts, of which one is more superficial, 
the other deeper than the homy layer. Simultaneously with the 
formation of the homy layer the cells of the rete nearest the surface 
of the corium undergo very active germination, in consequence of 
which the interpapillary processes not only enlarge, but intrude in an 
irregular manner into the subjacent corium. At the same time, the 
cells immediately below the horny stratum begin to take part in the 
formation of the vesicular cavities, some of them enlarging into 
vesicles, while others become flattened and scaly, so as to form the 
septa by which the vesicular cavities are separated from each other. 

7. The vesicles, once foimed, increase in form and number. 
Originally separate, and containing only clear liquid, they coalesce, 


as they get larger, into irregular sinuses, and are then seen to contain 
masses of vegetation similar to those which have been already de- 
scribed in the lymphatic system of the corimn — with this difference, 
that the filaments of which the masses are composed are of snch 
extreme tenuity, and the conidia are so small and numerous, that the 
whole possesses the characters of zooglsea rather than of mycelium. 
However, the author has no doubt that these aggregations are produced 
in the same way as the others, viz. by the detachment of conidia from 
the ends of filaments. In the earlier stages of the prooees the cavities 
contain scarcely any young oells. Sooner or later, however, so much 
of the rete Malpighii as lies between the homy stratum and the papillaB 
becomes infiltrate with migratory lymph-corpuscles. The process can 
be plainly traced in the sections. At ihe period of vesiculation, i. e. at 
a time corresponding to the commencement of the development of the 
vesicles in IJie rete Malpighii, the cutis (particularly towards the 
periphery of the pock) is infiltrated with these bodies. No sooner 
has the coalescence of the vesicles made such progress as to give rise 
to the formation of a system of intercommunicating sinuses, than it is 
seen that the whole of the deep layers of the rete Malpighii become 
inundated (so to speak) with migratory cells, which soon find their 
way towards the cavities, and convert them into microscopical col- 
lections of pus corpuscles, the formation of which is proved to be due 
to migration from the corium, not only by the actual observation of 
numerous amoeboid cells in transitu, but by the fact that the corium 
itself, before so crowded with these bodies, becomes as the pustulation 
advances entirely free from them. 

8. The concluding section of the paper is occupied with the 
description of the secondary eruption, the anatomical characters of 
which closely resemble those already detailed. 

On the Morbid Anatomy of Progressive Muscular Atrophy. — In a 
very valuable pathological contribution,* Dr. Lockhart Clarke has 
described the microscopical appearances observed in a case of muscular 
atrophy, accompanied by muscular rigidity and contraction of the 
joints. The parts received for examination were a slice of one of the 
cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum, pons Varolii, medulla oblongata, 
and spinal cord. The white substance of the brain was rather thickly 
interspersed with corpora amylacea, from about twice the diameter of 
a blood disk to fourteen times that size. In the grey substance only a 
few of these bodies were present, and they were confined chiefly to the 
deeper layers. These are thus detailed by Mr. W. B. Kesteven in the 
* Medical Eecord,' June 24th : — 

It is here worthy of note that in chronic disease of the brain and 
spinal cord the presence of bodies, of varying size and far from uniform 
aspect, to which the name of amyloid bodies is generally given, is by 
no means uncommon. At the same time there are forms of degenera- 
tion of the neuroglia which give rise to appearances so closely re- 
sembling the so-caUed corpora amylacea that it is an extremely difiOLcult 
thing to distinguish between them. Minute spots of miliary sclerosis, 

* • Medico- Chirurgical Transactions,* vol. Ivi. 1873. 


and of colloid, are often to be seen in the same sections with the 
supposed amyloid bodies. Tlie chromic acid, or other means employed 
to harden the nerve substance, so far alters its condition that the 
reactions of iodine or other tests for cellulose are controlled or 

Dr. Clarke notes a dilated condition of tiie Tessels, and in some 
parts a disintegration of these to the extent of causing their entire 
disappearance, with a consequent production of large, empty, and 
smooth-walled tubular spaces, which, according as they were cut 
transversely or obliquely, presented an appearance of round or oval 
▼acuities. This appearance was first described by the author in a case 
of general paralysis of the insane,* and has since been noticed also by 
other observers. It formed the most prominent feature of the lesions 
described by Dr. Dickinson in the medulla oblongata from several 
cases of diabetes. Dr. Clarke also refers to the dilated condition of 
the vessels, in connection with those spaces around them which have 
been spoken of as '^ lymphatic spaces," or ^^ perivascular sheaths "; but 
which, the reporter has endeavoured to show, are the results of patho- 
logicid, or even of merely post mortem changes. 

The cells of the cerebral grey substances in this case were not 
altogether healthy. Some of them had lost their natural sharpness of 
outline; others contained rather more pigment than usual, or were 
somewhat granular at their surfaces. The pigmentation of cells was 
still more observable in the medulla oblongata. This change is con- 
sidered by Dr. Clarke to constitute the first stage in the degeneration 
and subsequent disintegration of nerve cells. The medulla oblongata 
was one-fifth below the average size, and the diameter of the spinal 
cord was reduced by at least one-fourth ; so much was it reduced that 
when first seen by Dr. Clarke, without any explanation, he thought it 
was the cord of a child of fourteen years of age. 

The grey matter of the cord presented a variety of lesions. Con- 
gestion of the white columns was present. Hypertrophy of the con- 
nective tissue, with proliferation of its corpuscles, and aggregation of 
these in masses at the angles of junction in the network, are described 
by the author, and illustrated in an engraving. Several patches of 
disintegration were observed. One of large size consisted of small 
remnants of partly disintegrated grey substance, irregularly connected 
with each other, and forming together a kind of reticular or honey- 
comb structure. Several large areas of disintegration and haemorrhagic 
clots existed, involving large portions of the cord in destruction. In 
all regions of the cord, the nerve cells had undergone degeneration 
and disintegration. Some were completely, others only partially, 
fiOLled with dark-brown pigment granules, which in many instances 
enveloped and concealed their nuclei. All the remaining cells were 
reduced in size ; many seemed to have been lost by gradual atrophy, 
and numbers had wholly disappeared by complete disintegration, or 
fallen into granules. The several stages of the process could be 

We have very imperfectly followed Dr. Clarke in the details of 

* ' Journal of Mental Science/ January, 1870. 


the changes he records. They are well and clearly shown in the 
drawings by which the paper is accompanied. As the author remarks: 
'' The symptoms in this case are very clearly explained by the morbid 
changes that were formed in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. 
Lesions were traced in the nuclei of the facial, hypoglossal, vagus, 
and spinal accessory nerves, and explained the symptoms of glosso- 
pharyngeal paralysis. The extensive loss of substance in the anterior 
and lateral grey substance of the cervical and dorsal regions, more 
especially of the tractus intermedio-lateralisy explained feebleness of 
respiratory movements, while progressive changes of similar character 
in the lumbar and dorsal regions of course explained the paralysis of 
the upper and lower extremities." 

Bone-Ahsorption by means of Giant- Cells, — ^Mr. Alexander Morison,* 
taking up the researches of EoUiker on absorption of bone by means 
of giant-cells, finds, says Mr. Klein, in * Medical Record,* July 8th, 
1874, on examination of sections through the jaw prior to the forma- 
tion of the tooth-sac, that many giant-cells contain clear round or oval 
holes of various sizes. The larger and more distinctly defined ones, 
in the centre of which a debris resembling fatty particles is sometimes 
to be detected, appear to be originated by a disintegration of minute 
portions of the protoplasm of the giant-cell. Froln this the author 
takes it as possible that the giant-cells, after having ceased to exer- 
cise their destructive, i. e. absorbing function, become disintegrated. 
Morison takes it also as probable that sequestra are separated from 
living bone by means of giant-cells, for, on examining a fresh seques- 
trum, from a case of necrosis of the tibia, there were found Howship's 
lacunae covering all aspects of the sequestrum, and the blood and pus 
around the preparation containing multinuclear giant-cells floating 

As regards the origin of giant-cells, Morison agrees with KoUiker 
and others that many of them are in genetical connection with the 
osteoblasts, but that others probably develop from embryonic con- 
nective tissue ; for there occur bone spaces with here and there a giant- 
cell entirely destitute of osteoblasts, but containing the nuclei of 
embryonic connective tissue. These nuclei, generally scattered, are 
here and there closely aggregated and show an intemuclear opacity, 
which, however, has not the distinctly granular appearance of the 
opaque cell-substance of a fully developed giant-cell ; but this appear- 
ance is in variable degree, even in fully formed cells. It is possible 
that the aggregation of nuclei may be the first stage in the formation 
of a giant-cell ; one has only to imagine that these nuclei prepare a 
cell material each around itself, which, coalescing with that round its 
neighbours, produces the multinuclear giant-cell. 

Morphology of the Saprolegniei, — The ' American Naturalist,' June, 
1874, says that this doubtful family, that seems now finally deposited 
in the Algae, has considerable economic interest from the destructive 
efiects produced upon fish eggs in the hatching trays, supposed to be 
caused by Achlya proUfera, The following summary is translated 

* • Ediuburgh MedicaJ ' ' - October, 1873. 


from advance sheets of '^ Contributions to the Morphology and Sys- 
tematic Eolations of the Saprolegniei," by N. Pringsheim.* 

The results of my investigations on the Saprolegniei may be con- 
densed as follows : — 

1. In all the Saprolegniei the male organs of generation develop 
from the well-known antheridia, that are formed near or grow toward 
the oogonia. 

2. Those in which antheridia or their equivalents are wanting, 
are not, as has been supposed, distinct species, with modified organs, 
but paiihenogenetic forms, whose sporangia ripen and bud witiiout 

8. In the Saprolegniei there is but one kind of sporangia ; those 
which develop parthenogenetically, and those which are fertilized are 
identical, and show no difference originally. The unfertilized zoospores 
grow sooner and more readily than those which are fertilized. 

4. Several peculiarities in the formation of zoospores, which have 
been considered sufficient specific distinctions, are not important as 
such, but are merely evidences of a greater or less tendency to di- 
morphism, representing various stages of development in the zoospores. 

5. Also various sexual forms of growth may appear in the same 
species, which are not reliable as specific distinctions. 

The Histology of the Brain in the Insane. — Very many physi- 
cians who have given attention to this subject are of opinion that the 
structure of the brain is not materially, if at all, altered in disease. 
Now, however, a different view is expressed in a paper read before the 
Chicago Society of Physicians and Surgeons, and reported in the 
'Medical Examiner' (a Chicago paper) for June 15, The paper in 
question was prepared by Dr. Walter Kempster, of the Northern 
Asylum for the Insane, at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, formerly of the New 
Tork State Lunatic Asylum, at XJtica, and he -had made microscopical 
examinations in forty-nine cases. Numerous slides were exhibited of 
Bections, made mosdy through the third left anterior cerebral con- 
volution, illustrating the lesions of acute mania; the large sclerous 
patches in chronic mania ; the dementia of syphilitic paralysis ; one 
section through the olivary body, and one through the pons Varolii — 
each illustrative of acute mania. 

Numerous micro-photographs were likewise shown, illustrating the 
lesions of cerebro-spinal meningitis ; of numerous colloid masses in 
the medulla oblongata, and large degenerated masses with dense 
fibrous investing membrane in the spinal cord, opposite second cervi- 
cal vertebra — each illustrative of acute mania. Also, a section through 
the olivary bodies, in a case of puerperal mania, showing fibres and 
connective tissue in degenerated masses. 

After acknowledging the great abilities and researches of Lockhart 
Clarke, Virchow, Meynert, Schultze, Deiters, and others, in the study 
of the nervous system, Dr. Kempster remarks that, so far as he is 
aware, none of them have directed especial attention to the abnor- 
malities found in the brains of those who die while insane. 

* ^ Jahrbuch fur wissenschaftlicher Botunik,* ix, Bd. 2tr. Heft 



Eaforenoe was mnde to an article in tlio ' Edinbiirgh Medical 
Journal' for September, 1868, by Dr. J. B, Tuko, as being the only 
esception which Dr. Kerapeter was able to finii. 

The stmlent ia met with the stereotyped phrase that there' are 
no discernible leaions peculiar to insanity. For a number of years 
Dr. Kempstcr has been making systematic microscopical study of the 
brain, and lias examined the lesions of all forms of insanity, from 
acute mania to dementia. Including puerperal and epileptic insanity. 

In each and all forms he has found a marked lesion — so that certain 
lesions may be grouped together ae common to certain forms of in- 
sanity, and to which lesions any particular type of insanity is palpably 
due. There is a wide difference between the lesions of acute and 
chronic mania, 

I. In certain forms of insanity, and notably in dementia, the finer 
capillaries showmarked indications of disease, the perlToecuIar sheath 
surrounding the vessel is distended, so much so, that sometimes the 
vessel itself appears to lay in a tnnnol, its calibre being much less 
than the sheath, doubtless dae to rex>eated capillary congestions of the 
vessels often diseased — irregular in calibre, suggesting the idea of 
anenrismal dilatations, but entirely distinct from the miliary aneu- 
risms so ably described by Charcot. 

n. Nest, there ia a degeneration, best studied in cases of dementia 
of syphilitic origin, and in the medulla oblonguta, in the wall of the 
capillary, presenting dark red patches at various poiuts outside its 
walls, whicli gradntJly thicken, and appear to bo duo to a fatty meta- 
morphosis or atheroma. The description by Meynert, though accurate, 
is by no means so complete as could be desired. 

UI. In 1871, while examining a section taken from the grey 
and white matter of the third left anterior convolution, there was a 
peculiar appearance of the tissue. Situated in the white substance, but 
very closely to the grey matter, there were a number of small tahUe 
spots, some round, some ovoid, clearly defined, in sharp contrast with 
the nerve tissue, varying in size, from 1-50 to 1-200 of an inch in 
diameter — these appeared to be of a gronular consistence, and much 
more dense in structure than the surrounding brain substance ; each 
disconnected from the other, and normal white matter intervening. 
They did not absorb carmine, and were not connected with tho capil- 
laries. On the surface of some of tbo spots are fibres of connective 
tissne and crystals of margarine. To determine the true characl<3r of 
■ e spots and the degeneration, certain very elaborate and extensive 
'o-cbemical manipulations were made, not here necessary to be 
stated. On allowing a section to dry, either with or without tho nitric 
acid treatment, these spots appear to project above the surface of the 
section. By teasing, fliey may with difficulty be removed. None of 
these spots have been observed in tho grey matter. They are most 
numerous in the modnlla oblongata, and may be found in tho white 
matter of tho spinal cord. 

IV. There ia another form of degeneracy, one which was found in 
cases of acate mania. Tho spots are less in size ; are for mure nu- 
merouB than in the other variety (3j ; te^' ' 'e staining ; do not 


possess the granular characteristic ; there are no spindle-shaped fibres 
of connective tissues about them ; they behave very differently under 
the micro-chemical tests applied to the other variety of spots. The 
points of resemblance are mainly in colour and apparent density. 
Neither of them have any investing membrane. 

Y. A fifth variety, as large in size as the third, possesses a dense 
investing membrane, which resists carmine staining and is less gra* 
nnlar than the third and fourth. It exists in the same brain with the 
fourth variety. These spots or masses of the fifth variety are called 
" c611oid," because of their resemblance to such growth, and are found 
in the medulla oblongata and pons Varolii. The last three varieties 
of degenerated masses, or spots, have one feature in common — a well- 
defined edge, a clean-cut margin, easily made out. 

VI. A sixth variety, common in cases of dementia, and where the 
atheromatous capillary is found, is one in which the mass passes in- 
sensibly into the surrounding normal tissues. This form is larger 
and less distinct than the others. It more nearly resembles normal 
brain tissues. Sometimes these masses are lobulated. They are 
granular and dense, loss numerous than in the other varieties, and do 
not appear in clusters. They appear to destroy or transform the 
tissues, and if surrounding a capillary, destroy its walls. A point 
of resemblance in common with the third variety is, that connective- 
tissue fibre appears in both. 

The condition of the cellular structures of the brain, of the nerve 
fibres and so-called lymph spaces, are all fields rich in results not 
here spoken of. 

The Development of Bone, — ^Perhaps the first authority on this 
subject at the present moment is M. Kanvier, who lately read a paper 
on it before the French Academy of Sciences. This* paper forms the 
subject of the following note, which is communicated by Mr. E. Klein 
to tiie * Medical and Surgical Recorder ' for July 15th. To study the 
growth and development of bone tissue, Ranvier uses the bones of the 
embryo, which are placed in absolute alcohol for twenty-four hours, 
having previously been freed of the surrounding soft parts (except the 
periosteum). After that, they are transferred to a saturated solution of 
picric acid, in which fluid they are kept until they become soft enough 
to be fit for sections. In order to make thin and successful sections, 
the softened bone is plunged into a thick solution of gum-arabic for 
forty-eight hours, and then into alcohol of forty degrees. Now it is 
easy to obtain very uniform sections through all parts of the bone, i.e. 
bone matrix, medulla, and periosteum. The sections having been 
washed in distilled water for twenty-four hours or more, in order to 
dissolve the gum, they are stained with picro-carminate of ammonia, 
and finally mounted in glycerine. In a longitudinal section through 
a long bone of an embryo of a manunalian animal, passing from the 
periosteum towards the axis, it is easy to see a well-marked boundary 
between the periosteal bone and the cartilaginous bone. The latter 
occupies the centre, and has an hour-glass shape in the longitudinal 
section, whereas the periosteal bone forms on each side a semilunar 
mass. The long bone at this stage of development may be correctly 


compared to the following scheme : an hour-glass shaped cartilaginoas 
bone is suspended in a cylindrical tube — the periosteum ; that part of 
the space of the tube wMch is not occupied by the former is filled out 
by periosteal bone. This arrangement, although not found in all 
stages, is always present in a certain stage of the development of the 
bone. If one examine in a longitudinal section above mentioned the 
line of ossification, which represents at the same time the boundary 
between the cartilage and bone, there is found at the extremities of 
that lino a notch penetrating into the cartilage. It is very easily 
understood that this notch represents the transverse section tlurough a 
circular groove. From the convexity of this notch (" encoche d'ossifi- 
cation "), fibres take their origin, which, at their basis being identical 
with the matrix of the cartilage, bend round to the side of the 
embryonal bone and penetrate into the latter. These fibres, which 
Eanvier calls ** fibres arciformes," become in time identical with those 
fibres known as Sharpey's fibres. Amongst the mammalian animals, 
the embryonal bones of sheep are best suited for the study of those 
fibres. As soon as these fibres have left the cartilage, they appear to 
be separated by rows of spherical or slightly pplyhedral cells, which 
Eanvier believes to be derived from cartilage cells after their capsules 
have become opened. These cells gradually assume the characters of 
osteoblasts, and they lie all along the arched fibres, the latter becoming 
covered with bone substance, and thus representing the first traces of 
subperiosteal bone. The arched fibres represent the directing fibres 
of the ossification ; they can be recognized in the interior of the bone 
in transverse sections, where they appear as small dotted circles in 
the systems of the intermediary lamellae. 

On the external surface of that part of the cartilage belonging to 
the " encoche d'ossification," a primary osseous lamella is formed, which 
Eanvier calls the perichondral bone-crust ; it forms later on the 
boundary between the cartilaginous and the periosteal bone. 

Variation in the Condition of the External Sense Organs in Fcetal Pigs 
of the same Litter, Mr. Burt G. Wilder, of Ithaca, N. Y., says that in 
comparing foetal mammals of unknown age, it is natural to estimate 
their relative age, partly according to the degree of closure of the lids 
and the direction of the pinnae ; since it is &own that the former are 
at first mere folds above and below the uncovered balls, which are 
gradually covered by them ; and that the pinnae are first formed as 
little triangular folds behind the meatus, which at first project directly 
forward, and then, as they increase in size, gradually rise to the erect 
position, and only later are retroverted upon the neck. 

While forming a collection of foetal pigs at the large abattoir of 
J. P. Squiers in East Cambridge, Mass., during the summer of 1872, 
I compared the individuals of the same litter, carefully avoiding any 
artificial displacement of the parts. 

In the five pigs of the same litter * having an average length from 
vertex to anus of '067, mm., and an average weight of ,017*5 grams, 

♦ Marked 296 to 300 on the Catalogue of Neuroloffv and Embryology of Domesti- 
cated Animals at the Museum of Comparat' Cambridge, Mass. 


e direotion of the pinna ranges from n. alight bnt decided aiUev^tlon, 
■ to an aJmoBt complete retrovemion. 

In, the BGven pigs of another litter* averaging '040, in length, 
the lids rango from folds ooyering slightly the upper and lower 
margins of the hall, to complete closure. The sizes and degrees of 
closure do not exactly coincide. It would be interesting in both these 
eases to know the relative position of the individuals in the mother's 
uterine comua ; but these facts indicate the need of far more extended 
oomparisons than have been made. 

I have also observed some striking changes in the form of the 
nostril in fcetal pigs ; it is in its eai'liest condition a notch, whoso 
lower margins then como together forming a hole ; this elongates 
laterally and is indented above so as to become more and more cres- 
centic ; but at or before birth the circular form is regained and 
retained through life. 

To what Choup ia Peripatug rekUed f — In the very last number of 
the ' Proceedings of the Royal Society ' is an admirable paper on this 
subject by Mr. H. N. Moseley, M.A., of the 'Challenger' expedition, 
Mr. Moseley enters into details concemi)ig certain points in anatomy 
which appear to have been wrongly or imperfectly described before. 
Thus he describes fully the Intestinal, Tracheal, and Reproductive 
systems, and gives an outlinear sketch of the development. Then he 
goes on to say that " in tho present state of our knowledge concerning 
the Btrncture of Peripatus, the most remarkable fact in its structure ia 
the wide divarication of the ventral nerve cords. The fact was con- 
sidered remarkable, and dwelt upon in all accounts of Peripatus 
before the existence of trachea in the animal was known, and when 
it was thought to be hermaphrodite, but it is doubly remarkable now. 
The fact shuts off at once all idea of Peripatus being a degenerate 
Mjriopod, the evidence against which possibility is overwhelming. 
The bilateral symmetry and duplicity of the organs of the body, the 
absence of striation in the muBcles, of periodical moults of the larval 
skin in development, and of any trace of a primitive three-legged 
condition, taken in conjunction wilih tho divarication of the nerve 
cords, are conclusive. The parts of the mouth are not to be regarded 
as degraded to any great degree ; and homologies for some of them, 
at least, may perhapB be found amongst the higher Annelids. The 
structure of the skin is not at all unlike that in some worms, especially 
in its cliitinons epidermic layer, which occasionally strips off in large 
pieces as a thin transparent pellicle. The many pointe of resemblance 
of Pvripalug to Annelids need not be dwelt upon; they led to its 
former placing in classification ; but it is difBcult to understand how 
the very nnannelid-like structure of the foot-clawa did not lead 
others, beside De Quatrefages, to draw a line between Peripatut 
and the Annelids. In being unisexnal, Peripatus is like the higher 
Annelids, as well as the whole of the higher Tracheata. To Insects 
Peripatus shows affinities in the form of the spermatozoa, and the 
elaboration, structure, and bilateral symmetry of the generative organs, 
* Mark<!<l 30^ to 309 In tho earns oatalogitc 


though there ie a very eliglit tcndoncj towards the unilaterulity of 
Mjriopods in the mnlo orgtiiiB. 

"To Inseota, again, it ia ulLied hj the fiTO-jointiug of the feet and 
oral papUlffi and the form and nomber of its claws. It Bhoold be 
remembered that spiders' feet are two-clawed, as are those of soma 
Tardigrades, and that some of theee latter forms have ttvo-clawed 
feet in the early condition even when they possess more claws in the 
adult state. In Newport's well-known figure of the yonng lulus 
with three pairs of limbs, the tips of these latter are drawn with 
tmo hair-like claws ; these aro not mentioned in the test. To the 
ordinary lepidopteroua larva the resomblances of Peripatus are striking 
— as, for example, the gait, the glands (so like in their function and 
position to silk'^landa), the form of the intestine, and the less perfect 
concentration of the nervous organs, as in larval insects. To Myrio- 
podfi Peripatu* ia allied by the great variety in number of segments in 
the varions species, in its habits, and in those cspocially to luliu. 
The parts of the mouth perhaps show a form out of whioh those of 
Scolopendra were derived by inodifi.catioQ ; but the resemblance may 
be superficiaL Our knowledge is not yet sufficient to determine such 
points. The usual difficulties occur in the matter. Segments may 
have dropped out or fused, and their original condition may not be 
represented at all in the process of development. In Btmctnre Pert' 
patm is more like Scolopendra than lutus, viz. in the many jointe to 
the antennfti (in Chiloguaths never more than fourteen), in the form 
of spenuatozoa, and in being viviporouB, as are some Scolopendrm ; 
further, in the position of the orifices of the generative glands and in 
the less perfect concentration mosially of the nerve coida in Scoto- 

" Peripoiua thus shows affinities, in some points, to all the main 
branches of the family tree of Tracheata ; bnt a gulf is fixed between 
it and them by the divarication of the nerve cords : tending in the 
same direction arc such &cts as the non-striatiou of the muscles, the 
great power of oitonsion of the body, the arrangement of the digestive 
tract in the early stage, the persistence of metamorphosis, and the 
nature of the parts of the mouth, the full history of the manner of 
origin of these being reserved. 

" There are many speculations as to the mode of origin of the 
trachcffl themselves in the Tracheata. Professor Hiickel • follows 
Gegenbanr, whose opinion is espressed in his ' Grundziige der verglei- 
chenden Anatomie,' p. 441. Gegenbanr concludes that trachete were 
developed from originally closed tracheal systems, through the inter- 
vention of the tracheal gills of piimieval aquatic insects now repre- 
sented as larvs. If PeripaiuM he as ancient in origin as is here 
supposed, the condition of the tracheal system in it throws a very 
different light on the matter. Peripalns is the only Tracheate vriQi 
tracheal stems opening diffosely all over the body. The Pro- 
trachoata probably had their trachea) thus diffused, and the separate 
small systems afterwards became concentrated along especial lines' 
and formed into wide main branching trunks. In some forma the 
* ' Biulogiacht Studien,' p. 191. 


spiracular openings concentrated towards a more ventral line {Itdus) ' 
in others they took a more lateral position (Lepidopterons laryaB, &c.)« 
A concentration along two lines of the body, ventral and lateral, has 
already commenced in Peripatus, The original Protracheate being 
supposed to have had numerous small trachese difPused all over its 
body, the question as to their mode of origin again presents itself. 
The peculiar form of the tracheal bundles in Peripatus^ which consists 
of a number of fine tubes opening into the extremity of a single short 
common duct leading to the exterior of the body, seems to give a clue. 
The tracheaB are, very probably, modified cutaneous glands, the homo- 
logues of those so abundant all over the body in such forms as Bipalium 
or Hirudo» The pumping extension and contraction of the body may 
weU have drawn a very little air, to begin with, into the mouths of 
the ducts ; and this having been foimd beneficial by the ancestor of the 
Protracheate, farther development is easy to imagine. The exact mode 
of development of the trachesB in the present form must be carefully 
studied ; there was no trace of these organs in the most perfect state 
of Peripa;^ which I obtained. 

"^ftofessor G^genbaur's opinion on the position of Peripatus* is, 
that its place among the worms is not certain, but that, at any rate, it 
connects ringed worms with Arthropods and flat worms. The general 
result of the present inquiry is to bear out Professor Gegenbaur's 
opinion; but it points to the connection of the ringed and flat worms, by 
means of this intermediate step, with three classes only of the Arthro- 
pods — the Myriopods, Spiders, and Insects, i. e. the Tracheata. From 
the primitive condition of the trachece in lulusy and the many relations 
between Peripaius and Scolopendra, it would seem that the Myriopods 
may be most nearly allied to Peripatus, and form a distinct branch 
arising from it and not passing through Insects. The early three-legged 
stage may turn out as of not so much significance as supposed. If these 
speculations be correct, the Crustacea have a different origin from the 
Tracheata. Peripaius itself may well be placed amongst Professor 
Hackel's Protracheata ; Grube's term, Onychophora, becomes no more 
significant than De Blainville's Malacopoda. Some notions of the 
actual history of the origin of Peripatus itself may be gathered from 
its development. 

'' In conclusion I would beg indulgence for the many defects in this 
paper, due to the hurry with which it was written (all available time, 
almost up to the last moment of our sailing for the Antarctic regions, 
having been consumed in actual examination of the structure of 
Peripatus), and due, farther, to the impossibility of referring to original 
papers in any scientific library. At all events it is hoped that Peripatus 
has been shown to be of very great zoological interest, as lying near 
one of the main stems of the great zoological family tree, and that 
farther examination of the most minute character into the structure of 
this animal will be well repaid." 

Lesions of the Brain in General Paralysis, — Dr. J. Batty Tuke 
gives the following instructive account of recent researches on this 

♦ * Grundzuge der vergleichenden Anatomie,' p. 199, 

I 2 


fiabject. He says that LnbimofT'e paper, pnblisbod in Yircbow'e 
'Arohiv,' toI. Ivii., 1873, is founded on fourteen carefally reported 
cases of general paralysis, which presented themBelveB in Meynert's 
' Psychiatric Cliniqne.' The full bistory of each case is given, along 
with the pogl mortem appearances, naked eye and microscopic. Thin 
sections were made from specimens hardened in a 2 per cent, solution 
of bichromate of potaaa; they were colonred with carmine, and set np 
in gum Damar. The cortical aubatance of the frontal lobes was 
usually examined, and in some CEises that of the parietal, occipital, and 
insular lobea, the cornu Ammonis, and other portiona of the ence- 
phalon. Lubimoff reports one caee in which a sort of cicatris, or 
wedge-shaped induration, was found on the right hemisphere of the 
cerebellum, implicating two lobules which were glued together by a 
sobHtance which unmistakably consisted of connective tissue. Tha 
molecular and nucleated Inyers were thinned, and Purkinje's cells 
almost obliterated. For the normal structure a dense "felt-like" 
substance was substituted, in which nuclei were imbedded, and which 
was intimately connected with the walla of the blnod-vesHela. Aronnd 
it the nndestroyed cells of Pui'kinje appeared plainly scleroBed. 
Lubimoff supports Meynert'a obsoi'vationa aa to the intimate relations 
of brain lesiona with bypenemia, that they never occur apart from it, 
and may be regarded as a consequence. In some cases the vessels 
showed indications of obstruction during life by means of thrombi, 
due to mctamorphoaia of blood-corpuacles into molecular maaaea, with 
here and there distenaions filled with corpuscles, and in extreme cases 
actual rupture of the vascular walls and diffusion of the periphery 
(Zeretreaung im Umkreis) in the parenchyma of the organ. There were 
also found, in all the fourteen uasea, on and around the vascular walls, 
pigment deposits of various sizes, and sometimes of very considerable 
extent, which ore taken to be evidences of previoualy esisting con- 
gestions. Apart from these consequences of hypenemia, the walls of 
the vessels presented themaelvea altered and thickened ; their normaj 
coats and muscular strim being destroyed, and the thickened walls 
appearing to consist of a homogeneoua mass, wasy in appearance. On 
this Lubimoff bases his term of " waxy degeneration " of the vascular 
walls. The nuclei, especially at the bifurcationa, appeared proliferated. 
Lnbimoff cannot determine whether in general paralysis the vessels 
thicken themselves by an absolutely new growth. 

The special oharacteriatic of paralytic dementia presents itself in. 
the changes of the nuclei of the neuroglia, which show themselves in 
the brains of ench subjects wonderfully increased in quantity, to n 
degree which, according to Lubimoff, must he accepted as a patho- 
logical product, as preparations of healthy brains and of those taken 
from the subjects of other neuroaea (e.g. extreme melancholy and 
mania), abow but a alight amount of neuroglia corpuscles in the cortical 
substance. (Tn the opinion of Boll, who has inspected LubimofTB 
preparations, this observation is of the highest pathological value). 

What Lubimoff deacrihes &b nuclei of neuroglia are very fine 
Deiters' cells, which are well to" " ^ngh the works of Golgi, 



. Taatrowitz, and BoU ; his description is entirely in consonance with 
'that of these writers, and he arrives independently of tliem at the 
result, that a. peenlinr intimate connection exists between the vuBciilar 
walls and the Deiters' cellfi, aa in these cases their processes are 
peculiarly well pronounced. 

Lnbimoff found the Doitera' cells moat abundant in the inner 
layers of the grey matter bordering on the medullary auhatance, and 
on the outer layer contiguous to tho pia mater ; in which position 
they were ao numerous, that the normal appearances of the stmuturea 
were loat, and their place taken by the felt-like network, which, as in 
the case of the cerebellum previously described, can only be aacribed 
to the interlacement in varioua directiona of the processes of the 
Deiters' cells. 

The morbid changes of the norvo cells are placed under two beads ; 
ley are liable either to a degree of swelling and subsequent collapse, 
'or to a tendency to sclerosis. In the first case, the changes of the 
nndei consist in dilatation of the nucleus and diminution of the 
qnantifn^ of the " eurrounding protoplasm " ; occasionally the nuclens 
subdivides so that two are found in one cell, and are not readily 
amenable to carmine, which Hofhnaik already has shown to be charac- 
teristic of the morbid ganglion- cell. Meynert considers that the 
protoplasm of such cells shows different dogreos of molecular degene- 
ration. The sclerosis of the cells changes them into a homogeneous 
wai-like mass, in which the nucleus is no longer to be distinguished, 
but occasionally the nucleolus. The protoplasm of each cells loses its 
normally fine granular appearance, the cells appear strongly refracting, 
with sharply defined dark contours. The changes in the asis-cylinders 
found by Lnbimoff consist in thickening and hypertrophy. 

It is dednced from these anatomical facts that as regards the 
pathological processes in general paralysis, the origin of the physical 
disturbances is to be sought for in tho anomalies of blood- distribution 
and its consequences. With the incidence of hypertemia begin the 
changes in the nutrition of the nuclei of neuroglia, which leads to an 
increased development of their elements, which, in their turn, take on 
morbid action. This is proved by the modification of the morbid 
appearances, aeoording to tho length of time during which the case 
has lasted. The treatise concludes with deductions as to how the 
clinical symptoms of the individnal cases are explicable by their 
special anatomical conditions. Lnbimoff agrees with Westpbal that 
disease of the cord is a constant accompaniment of general paralysis ; 
but he differs &om him and Simon in holding that the disease can exist 
without pathological changes in the brain. On the contrary, ho 
endeavours to establish a chronic inffammatory condition of the con- 
nective tissue of the cortical substance as tho anatomical lesion of 
general paralysis. — See also 'Medical Eecord.' 

Hay-fever, Us Microecopy and Treatment, — This has been very well 
^aonssed by Professor Binz of Bonn in a letter recently addressed to 
"Kftture.' He says, " Prom what I have observed of recent English 
tblieationa on the subject of hay-fever, I am led to suppose that 


pEngliah onthoritieB are innccumtcly acquainted with the discovery of 
ProfosHor Helmholtz, as far back as 1 868, of the csiatenco of Tmcoimnon 
low orgaiiiamB in the iiaeal secretioUB in this complaint, and of the 
possibility of arresting their action by the local employment of quinine. 
I therefore parpoae to republish the letter in which he originally 
annonncod these facts to myael^ and to odd some further observations 
on this topic. The letter is as follows;* — 

" ' I have suffered, as well aa I can remcmher, since the year 1647, 
from the peculiar catarrh called by the English " hay-fever," the 
speciality of which consists in its attacking its fictim regularly in 
the hay soaaon (myself between May 20 and the end of June), that it 
ceases in the cooler weather, but on the otljer hand quickly reaches 
a great intensity if the patients expose themselves to heat and sunshine. 
An estraordinarily voilent sneezing then sets in, and a strongly 
corrosive thin discharge, with wliich much epithelium is thrown off. 
This increases, after a few honrs, to a painful inflammation of the 
mucous membrane and of the outside of the nose, and escitea fever 
with severe headache and great depression, if the patient cannot 
withdraw himself from the heat and the sunshine. In a cold room, 
however, these symptoms vanish as quickly as thoy come on, and there 
then only remains for a few days a lessened discharge and soreness, as 
if caused by the loss of epithelium. I remark, by the way, that in all 
my other years I had very little tendency to catarrh or catching cold, 
while the hay-fever has never failed during the twenty-one years of 
which I have spoken, and has never attacked me earlier or later in the 
year than the times named. The condition is extremely troublesome, 
and increases, if one is obliged to be much exposed to the sun, to an 
excessively severe malndy. 

" ' The curious dependence of the disease on the season of the 
year suggested to me the thought that organisms might he the origia 
of the mischief. In examining the secretions I regularly foimd, in 
the Iflst five years, certain vibrio-like bodies in it, whidi at other 
times I could not observe in my nasal secretion. . . , They are very 
small, and can only be recognized with the immersion-lens of a vei^y 
good Hartnack's microscope. It is characteristic of the common 
isolated single joints that they contstin four nuclei in a row, of which 
two pairs are more closely zmited. The length of the joints is 0'004 
tnillimetre. Upon the warm objoctive-stnge they move with moderate 
activity, partly in mere vibration, partly shooting backwards and 
forwards in the direction of their long axis ; in lower temporatores 
they are very inactive. Occasionally one finds them arranged in rows 
upon each other, or in branching series. Observed some daya in the 
moist chamber, they vegetated again, and appeared somewhat larger 
and more conspicuous than immediately after their excretion. It is 
to he noted that only that kind of secretion contains them which is 
expelled by violent sneezings ; that which drops slowly does not 

t contain any. They stiek tenaciously enough in the lower cavities 
iknd recesaes of the nose. 
" ' When I saw your first notice respecting the poisonous action of 
* See Virchow's ' Arehiv,' vol. ilvi. 
L . • 



qniniDe upon infuBoria, 1 determined at once to make an experiment 
with that Bubstance, thinking that these vibrionic bodies, even if they 
did not cause the whole illness, still conld render it much more un- 
pleasant through their movements and the decompositions caused by 
them. For that reason 1 made a neutral solution of sulphate of 
quinine, which did not contain much of the salt (1 * 800), but still was 
effective enough, and caused moderate irritation of the mucous mem- 
brane of the nose. 1 then lay flat upon my back, keeping my head 
very low, and poured with a pipette about four cubic centimtoes into 
both nostrils. Then 1 turned my head about in order to let the liquid 
flow in all directions. 

^' ' The desired effect was obtained immediately, and remained for 
some hours ; 1 could expose myself to the sun without fits of sneezing 
and the other disagreeable symptoms coming on. It was sufficient to 
repeat the treatment three times a day, even under the most unfavour- 
able circumstances, in order to keep myself quite free. There were 
then no such vibrios in the secretion. If I only go out in the evening, 
it suf&ces to inject the quinine once a day, just before going. After 
continuing this treatment for some days the symptoms disappear com- 
pletely, but if I leave off they return till towards the end of June. 

" * My first experiments with quinine date from the summer of 
1867; this year (1868) I began at once as soon as the first traces 
of the illness appeared, and I have thus been able to stop its develop- 
ment completely.' " 


Precions Stones in the Construction of the Microscope. — 
M. H. Brachet addressed a note to the French Academy (June 22nd) 
on the employment of artificial precious stones in the compound 
microscope. This paper, which has not yet been published, was sent 
to the * Commission du Prix Tremont.' 

A Eemedy for Phylloxera. — At a meeting of the French Aca- 
demy of Sciences, June 29th, a paper, forming a Beport, was read on 
the administrative measures to be taken for the preservation of terri- 
tories threatened by Phylloxera^ by the Commissioners. It is sug- 
gested to the Academy that a special law should be made compelling 
proprietors to declare the first appearance of the scourge, that experts 
should then be appointed to examine into the state of the infested vines, 
and that these should be destroyed when thought necessary by minis- 
terial decision, the proprietor receiving adequate compensation. It is 
further suggested to destroy the vines surrounding the districts ac- 
tually invaded, to disinfect the soil by chemical methods, and to bum 
the cuttings, leaves, and roots of the diseased plants as well as the 
plants themselves in the same district where the uprooting has taken 
place, and finally to prohibit with the utmost rigour the exportation 


How to make Sections of the Potato showing Stmctnie. — Mr. 
Taylor has given tJio following method in 'Science Gossip' for July. 
He hue recently shown that the vascular bnndlee in a potato may of 
course he easily seen by cutting K potato in two through its axis (the 
section also passing through some of its "eyes"), and coating the cut 
Burface, first with a solution of hichromate of potash, and afterwards 
several times with a strong tincture of iodine, which will stain the 
atarcli blue, but leaves the vaBciUar bundles yellow. The air-ducts 
wUl then be seen to eitend invariably to the eyes. For microscopical 
study these sections are to be mnde and treated with a strong acid or 
caustic alkaline solution, which will dissolve the starch, but leave the 
bundles unaltered. The sections may then be mounted us usnal. To 
isolate the vascular bimdles, place a potato, skinned without wounding 
the " eyes," in a solution of sugar and water (two onnces to the pint) 
and keep it at a temperature of 72^ F. for nearly a fortnight. The 
fungus of fermentation will reduce the potato t<) a pulp, eicept the vas- 
culai- bundles, which may he monnted in gum or balsam, and studied 
with a power of one hundred diameters. 


Immeksion Apertuee on Objects is Balsam. 
To the Editor of the 'Monthly Micioscopiad Journal,' 

Sm, — Further discnasion with Mr. Tollcs on tliis question is 
needless, because by his own worlc he has settled it to my satisfaction. 
Ho has probably secured some believers in his triumph and demon- 
strations, and to their congrattilations I now leave him. So long 
as imaginary diagrams are used evading the true form of an object- 
glass, with wrong dimensions and focal distbuces, futile and endless 
nrgumeuts may be advanced. Including Mr. Tolles' last illnstia- 
tions in tbis category, I do not care to be at the trouble of translating 
his text to arrive at his probable meaning, though I jKirceive that 
he is now struggling for a fein degrees only. He long ago stated that 
in practice he had actually secun^ the disputed extra theoretical im- 
mersion apertures on balsam-mounted objects, with glasses of his own 
construction. His recent production having been placed in my hands 
by Mr. Crisp, I have shown by actual measurement, and by cutting 
off all false rays by a suitable stop, that such apertures had not been 
produced, so that " the fact becomes clear and indisputable." 

It is very easy for Mr. Tolles to remark that this stop is " a mere 
contrivance to express my sensations," and "that the whole seems to 
him quite unnecessary." This I might have expected. But this stop 
alKayt is the focal plane of the object, and admitting all rays up to 180° 
from that point, will serve as a salutary check against any optician 
who nmy choose to vauut his glasses on the questionable merits of 


extravagant apertures.* This point might still give rise to long 
disputes, but confined to the subject of Mr. Tolles' last communication 
on "the optical quality of his (Mr. Tolles') ^th objective," there remains 
the singular fact, that the diameter of the front lens compared with 
the focal length proves the aperture endorsed on the mount to be 
jnmjply iinposatble. There "can be no reasoning against this but to 
assert that my dimensions of diameter of front lens, position, and focal 
distance are imtrue. Then I have no doubt that the challenge will be 
accepted, the measurements repeated, and comparisons made by other 
hands than mine. 

I do not wish to shirk the discussion of the aperture if any further 
improvement can result from it, but if I am to be at liberty to select 
my antagonist, it will not be one that af&rms that 180° is possible, or 
that even 179° is practicable. 

In justice to Mr. Tolles I will say that throughout all the argu- 
ment he has comported himself with exemplary good humour, not even 
resenting the chaff that he has endured during the discussion. A con- 
trast to the conduct of his acting agent, who, without a ray of science 
to enlighten the subject, or to justly his authority, has done nothing 
but throw dirt at all opponents, of such an odour, as to cause them to 
hurry past on his windward side rather than stop to argue with him. 

I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

F. H. Wknham. 

Bkduction of Aperture in Object-glasses of Telescopes. 

To the Editor of the ^Monthly Microscopical Journal,* 

Boston, U.S.A., June 19, 1874. 
Sir, — While, substantially, declaring it unlikely that any intelli- 
gent reader of the Monthly would confound contraction of field in an 
eye-piece with reduction of aperture in the object-glass (and with 
which I fully agree, but must suggest the irrelevance of the allu- 
sion to beneficial reduction of aperture in ohject-glasses of telescopes 1[ 
as of some sort of parity to this case of the microscopic objective). 
Dr. Pigott in concluding his note (your Journal for June, p. 268) 
says, '^ that in a limited field of view the definition ... is superb ; 
beyond the central area the definition is very indistinct. This seems 
to indicate that the very oblique pencils are not as free from aberra- 
tion as the central." While thanking Dr. Pigott heartily for having 
discovered that " very oblique pencils " were concerned at all in form- 
ing the image with that objective (!) 1 am bound to suggest that 
when we contract the field-bar of llie eye-piece, the " central area " 
continues to have all the rays, " very oblique pencils " included, that 
reached that central area before contraction. This does not '' seem to 

indicate," &c. V . j. „ 

' Yours respectfully, 


♦ In my diagram, p. 114 of Journal (March, 1874), I had " drawn** ray d cor- 
rectly, but the final deviation without the normal appeared so small on the 
reduced scale that the wood engraver failed to notice it, and continued the line 

t " This everybody knows well enough ! " 

116 aomLBBPosDmick. 


^H Mb. Tolleb' VjTH a.nd j^th Objectives. 

^^H To the Editor of the 'Monthly Microscopical Journal.' 

^^m BoBroK, Jmie 23, 1S74. 

^^r Sir,— The paragraph on p, 264 of the Jonrnol for June, current, 

and copied from the Boston 'Journal of Chemistry,' in reference to 
7^5 and -g\j inch objectives is erroneous, in one particular I hiote, viz. in 
implying that only one ^th of 165° angle was constructed, whereas 
three were made eimuttaneouBly or carried along together to com- 

In the next place, it is not litely that any comparison with 
Englisli objectives of like powers or power bad been made, and tho 

I statement implying such compariHon was made under nuBapprchenston. 
Bat reported rcaults of separate trial are available, of couTBe, for 
Tours respectfully, 

Dr. Pigott's (?) Intektions. 

To the Editor of the 'Monthly Microsc^ical JourvaV 

4, MVLNB Btbeet, E.g., Jane 25, 1S74. 
SiE, — The invention which Dr. R, Pigott claims as his own in the 

Joumid for this month, has been public property since Jnly, 1870. 
At that time I read a paper on, and exhibited, an apparatus, at a 
meeting of the Q. M. C, in every respect but one identical with that 
described by Dr. Pigott. Moreover, I then expressly stated that tbo 
plan in qaestion had been foreshadowed by Mr. Sollitt and others. 

But I think that I am correct in afBrming that no one before my- 
self has over publicly described or used it. Tho employment of an 
achromatic objective as a condenser, set obliquely to tiis axis of the 
microscope, at angles varying with the nature of the object to be ex- 
amined, is what I claim. But I am of opinion that my method of 
using it is better than that of Dr. Pigott — inasmuch as I added a 
graduated circle to the carriage of the objective, in order to measure 
the angles of use, so aa to repeat them exactly in future observations. 
Dr. Pigott may have privately used this apparatus before my time, 
but then it was scarcely possible for those who, like myself, had not 
the advantage of intimacy with him, to be aware of the fact. More- 
over, I venture to think that Dr. Pigott does but sctinty justice to the 
labours of others in the same field, when he bestows upon thorn such 
faint notice as he has done in my case — even after he had his atten- 
tion called to them by Mr, Frank Crisp when his pap^ was read. 

I, Sir, yours obediently, 

John Maithxwb. 

correspondence. 117 

Mr. Brooke's Beply to Mr. Pillisoher. 

To the Editor qf the ' Monthly Microscopical Journal^ 

16, FiTZROT Square, W., July 8, 1874. 

Snt, — ^I shonld have treated Mr. Pillischer's last letter with the 
silent contempt that its " schoolboy" tone justly merits, but that my 
silence might have been taken as an admission of its misstatements. 

" Mr. Brooke's argument that native British optical goods were 
wholly unrepresented at the Yienna Exhibition," is not Mr. Brooke's 
argument at all, but a pure and simple development of Mr. P.'s 
inner consciousness. Mr. Brooke's argument was (see May number 
of Journal, p. 231), that native British optical Uuent was unrepre- 
sented ; and I think the proverbial " schoolboy " will tell Mr. P. that 
" goods " and " talent " are by no means synonymous terms. 

It is very likely I might have said to Mr. P., " I do not care for 
your high powers," and the reason of my saying so is obvious ; but 
my recollections of what passed between us are utterly at variance 
with his. After all, the question is not what A said to B, or B to A, 
twelve months since, but whether Mr. Pillischer exhibited at Vienna as 
his own manufacture objectives that were not so. We know very well 
when, where, and by whom his \ objectives were made ; but if he will 
satisfy any trustworthy third person (for example yourself, or one of 
our Secretaries) when, where, and by whose hands he has ever manu- 
factured any power deeper than a ^, I shall be happy to apologise to 
him for having entertained any doubt on the subject. 

I remain, yours faithfully, 

Chas. Brooke. 

A Eeply to Mr. Stoddbr. 

To the Editor of the * Monthly Microscopical JournaV 

Sib, — The purpose of my paper on Immersion is not to establish 
the superiority of the method, but to determine the cause of it assumed 
as already established. I am sorry to find it has been taken up at the 
wrong end, and by the wrong class of persons. As in making my 
assumption I go chiefly on the testimony of others allowed to be 
authorities, from myself asserting only a desire to be cautious of over- 
stating,. I should have thought that in this there was nothing in which 
the most diligent seeker could find a pretext for controversy. That 
whatever its degree the difference is real and to be relied on is all I 
asked to be granted; an assumption, indeed, necessarily involved, and 
without which my work would have no meaning. But I cannot go 
into controversies about what is not my subject. My paper is on a 
question of Theory, and was meant for those who are competent to 
follow investigations of that kind. 

Mr. Stoddor, I observe, has written to charge me with having 


fallen into a great error, — an error so great as to be even called 
ludicrous. When commenting on the angle of a now celebrated glass 
I referred to it as one which had been sold by Mr. ToUes to an 
English purchaser. Mr. Stodder writes a special letter to take me 
to task ; for it is he who sends out the glasses not Mr. ToUes. And to 
have written in ignorance of this makes the writer, in Mr. Stodder's 
opinion, ludicrous. 

Now that the correction has been made it may perhaps be asked 
how is the question affected by it ? How many degrees of the 180° 
will it account for ? And is there any just reason for introducing into 
the scientific part of a scientific journal a thing which is not scientific 
or of public interest but only private and commercial ? No fault had 
been found with the sale ; nothing was made to turn upon it ; no 
reference was made to its terms about which nothing was Ibiown ; the 
question concerned not the terms of the sale but the width of the 
angle ; and the expression used is the common form always employed 
and never misunderstood. Other opticians do not, any more than 
Mr. ToUes, make use of their own hands or pens in sending off their 
glasses; but no distinction is drawn — it is always understood and 
spoken off as coming to the same thing. An English optician's book- 
keeper would no more think of writing to explain that it is he who 
sends off the glasses than of writing to explain how the books are 
kept. Such details have no interest except for the persons immediately 
concerned ; and no other firm, English or foreign, puts them forward 
as an element in scientific discussions. 

This perhaps was plain enough to require no answer for its own 
sake. I have noticed it because it is a typical case ; illustrative of a 
practice more common that it ought to be, which may be called 
frivolous objecting ; — that is to say the making of objections which do 
not in any view of the case or on any supposition touch the question 
in hand. Such making of objections for the sake of making them is 
much to be deprecated. It is wearisome and can serve no purpose 
except obstructing the progress of knowledge. 

Yours obediently, 

S. L. Brakxy. 


Medical Mioboscopioal Society. 

Friday, June 19, 1874.— W. B. Kesteven, Esq., F.E.C.S., Vice- 
President, in the chair. 

Osteo Sarcoma. — Mr. Needham read a paper upon this subject, 
taking as a foundation the case of a young man who entered one 
of the metropolitan hospitals with what appeared to be an osteo 
sarcoma of the head of the tibia. Hard tumours, small in size, were 


felt in ihe groin, as well as deeply beneath the muscles of the thigh. 
The patient eventually died from chest complication, frequent haemop- 
tysis being a leading symptom at the post mortem. The growth on 
the leg was found, as diagnosed, to be osteo sarcoma, while similar 
growths were found on various parts of the body, and especially in 
the lungs. Microscopically, the growth on the tibia, which was sub- 
periosteal, had the characters of true osteo sarcoma ; but elsewhere only 
calcareous material was found instead of bone with lacunsB. 

Specimens and drawings illustrative of the case were exhibited. 
The case will be published fully elsewhere. 

Mr. Golding Bird objected to the term osteo sarcoma, since cal- 
careous deposit in lieu of bone was found except in one place. He 
considered the earthy deposit as accidental rather than essential to 
the growth, and as indicatiag degeneration. 

Dr. Fritchard did not consider calcification in all cases a degene- 
ration : from its early appearance at times in morbid tissues, he con- 
sidered it as much a part of the growth in which it occurred as was 
true bone in an osteo sarcoma. 

Mr. Needham, in reply, agreed with Dr. Prilchard in not consider- 
ing the calcification as degenerative ; and was willing to confine the 
term osteo sarcoma to the parts of the growth only where osseous 
tissue with lacunae could be found. 

Imbedding in Elder Pith. — Mr. Grolding Bird read a paper on the 
method adopted abroad of cutting sections of tissues imbedded in elder 
pith and packed in a microtome especially adapted for the purpose. 
The various steps in the operation were exhibited and explained at 
the same time. The principle on which the process depends is the 
expansion of the dried elder pith on the addition of water, so that if 
packed in the tube of the microtome in the dried state, and then 
allowed to imbibe moisture, anything previously imbedded in it is 
firmly gripped. 

In file discussion that followed, — 

Mr. Needham thought the pith would not give su£&cient support 
on all sides. 

Mr. Groves approved of the combined use of pith and wax in the 
way that had been shown as overcoming many difficulties in the use of 
wax for imbedding in a microtome, and as rendering the pith more 
efficient in some cases. Did not prefer a microtome that had to be 
held in the hand. 

Mr. Giles thought the small size of the bore of the instrument 
might be at times objectionable. Suggested the use of dried carrot if 
pitib could not be obtained : it would swell and soften, on the addition 
of water, like pith. 

The Chairman objected to the pith packing in the case of diseased 
spinal cord, though in a healthy specimen the pressure exerted might 
not be deleterious. On the whole he thought the method described 
simple, quick, and one giving comparatively no trouble ; while the 
microtome being held in the hand was for some reasons an advantage. 
He should certainly adopt the pith process in future. 

Mr. Grolding Bird, in reply, stated, that if properly arranged equal 


support could be giyen to the specimen on all sides of the pith, or 
even the combined use of wax with pith would overcome every diffi- 
culty on that point Thought that carrot on swelling would be too 
hard to cut conveniently, or would exert too much pressure. The only 
reason for using a microtome with small bore was to save pith ; and 
large specimens he did not as a rule imbed, but cut by luuid. Had 
never used pith with diseased, and therefore softened, spinal cord, but 
for fresh nerve tissue had seen it used with the very best results : a 
proper degree of hardening in some fluid first was aU that was 


Ordinary Meeting, June 26, 1874. — ^Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S., 
President, in the chair. 

Eight members were elected. 

The President announced that Dr. Matthews, F.E.M.S., had been 
nominated by the Committee as the President for the ensuing year. 

The nominations then took place of gentlemen proposed to fill the 
vacancies on the Committee. 

A promised paper, by Mr. S. Holmes, " On Binocular Microscopes," 
was not forthcoming, and Mr. T. Charters White, in place of it, made 
some interesting remarks upon some slides which he exhibited, show- 
ing the gritty tissue of pear in a very beautiful manner. 

Mr. Ingpen described a form of achromatic prism, designed to 
replace the plane, as well as the concave mirror. In this form, the 
lens for condensing the light was separate, instead of being cemented 
to the prism, and consisted of a plano-convex achromatic doublet, the 
flat side of which could be placed close to one of the sides of a plane 
right-angled prism, or removed at pleasure, thus getting rid of the only 
objection to the ordinary form, viz. that it could not be used in place 
of the flat mirror; while its performance in other respects was 

Various announcements of excursions, meetings, &c., were made, 
and several interesting objects were afterwards exhibited. 




SEPTEMBER 1, 1874. 

I. — On the Morbid Growths from a case of Osteoid Cancer 

of the Left Femur. 

By Joseph Nbbdham, F.R.M.S., London Hospital. 

{A Paper read hefwe the Medical Microscopical Society, Jtme 19, 1874.) 

Plates LXXI. and LXXII. 

The case from which these growths were obtained is described fully 
by Mr. W. J. Smith in the * Medical Press,' July 8th, 1874. 

The specimens presented for examination were : — 

1st. Portions of the tumour surrounding the lower third of the 
left femur. 

2nd. Portions of diseased popliteal lymphatic glands. 

3rd. Part of mass representing the lumbar lymphatic glands. 

4th. Several pieces of lung tissue, in which were imbedded 
several morbid deposits varying in size from a millet-seed to a 


All X 200. 

Fio. I. — ^From tumour around femur, matrix of dense uncalcified portion in 
transverse section — cellular elements partly brushed out, 

a, Radiating fibres. 

&, Irregular branching fibres. 

c, Blood-vessel partly blocked up. 
,, II. — Similar preparation in longitudinal section. 

a, Kadiating fibres. 

hj Irregular bramohing fibres. 
„ m. — ^From tumour around femur. 

a. Zone of calcified fibres surrounding 

6, a vessel whose walls are formed of 

c, fibres and cells. 
„ IV. — ^From tumour around femur. 

a, A large peripheral space filled with 

hy masses of celb in difierent stages of disintegration. 
„ V. — Secondary deposit in lung. 

a. Growth invading and distending 

6, air-cells of lung. 
„ VI. — Secondary deposit in lung. 

a, Soft stroma resembling hyaline cartUage. 

6, Preserved hyaline cartilage of bronchus. 

122 Oil the Morbid Growths from a case of 

1st. The consistence of this mass varies considerably ; the 
greater part immediately snrrounding the bone is very hard, whilst 
the external portions are soft, the density increasing from without 
inwards. The matrix of the dense portions consists of large 
irregular fibres varying in size from r^^nr to ^^Vir of an inch in 
diameter, arranged in parallel bundles, radiating from the surface 
of the femur to the periphery of the tumour, but also presenting in 
some parts a dense irregular network, due to those radiating fibres 
crossing each other and uniting at various angles ; each of these 
fibres gives ofi* at irregulaif intervals branches, which radiate in 
various directions and join other fibres and their branches. The 
elements of the matrix in the central portions are so closely im- 
pacted that few interspaces can be discerned ; but proceeding from 
this position to the circumference the fibres become more and more 
separated, so that they form large irregular alveoli varying in size, 
in which the cell elements are enclosed. In the softer parts of the 
tumour, more especially at the periphery, the bundles of large fibres 
are separated by wide intervals ; the large spaces thus formed are 
filled by masses of the softer elements. Externally the tumour is 
covered by a dense layer of connective tissue, from which processes 
representing trabeculae can be traced even into the dense central 
calcareous parts ; but these processes are distinct from the fibres 
proper of the matrix, and in no place are they observed united. 
Tracing the fibres from without inwards, their structure is seen to 
be — first, apparently homogeneous, then faintly fibrous, and finally, 
calcareous ; but, although this is the predominant arrangement of 
their structural peculiarities, yet all the blood-vessels are surrounded 
by a zone of calcified fibres. No true lacunaB nor canaliculi are to 
be seen, objectives up to tjV ii^ch revealing nothing in the so-called 
" osseous tissues," but minute calcareous granules and a few small 
badly-formed cavities. The soft elements consist of spheroidal or 
elongated oval cells, from ^Tr^^nr to ^3^17 of an inch in diameter, each 
containing one or two well-defined nuclei. These cells are best 
seen in the large alveoli situated in the peripheral portions of the 
tumour; advancing to the centre, the cells become gradually 
smaller and more elongated, and are firmly attached to the fibres. 
Tracing them still further, their nuclei only are to be seen, whilst 
in the central calcified portions nothing approaching the character 
of either cell or nucleus is visible: but the cells are scattered 
throughout the calcareous zones surrounding the blood-vessels; 
closely attached to the wall, and projecting into the lumen of some 
of the blood-vessels, are small collections of such cells. The large 
peripheral spaces already described are filled with large masses of 
cells in different stages of disintegration; some spaces contain 
nothing but granular debris, in which minute oil-globules occupy 
a prominent position, while in other spaces the cells are very 

Osteoid Cancer of tlie Left Femur, 123 

granular, but little altered in shape. The tumour is not very 
Yascular^ the blood-vessels being few in number and rather large 
in size ; their walls are very thin, and are composed of fine fibrous 
tissue surrounded by round and fusiform cells corresponding to 
those found in other parts of the growth. 

2nd. Not even a trace of glandular arrangement remains to 
indicate the original nature of the mass; it is extremely dense, 
much more so than the primary growth, and consists of numerous 
calcareous spicules radiating from the centre to the circumference, 
forming long, narrow meshes, wherein are to be seen, closely 
packed, numberless round cells, agreeing in character with — but 
rather larger than — those of the primary deposit. In no situation 
do they show signs of fatty degeneration. The glands are fused 
together and surrounded by a capsule composed of loose connective 
tissue which is firmly adherent to the mass. The blood-vessels are 
more numerous than in the first specimen, and their walls are 

3rd. In structure these glands are identical with No. 2. 

4th. The structure of these masses, small and large, corresponds 
to that above described. The calcareous matter is deposited prin- 
cipally in the fibres surrounding the vessels, which are here (as in 
Nos. 2 and 3) more numerous than in the growth from the femur. 
The stroma is more loosely arranged, and in some parts it is soft, and 
dimly granular, resembling the matrix of hyaline cartilage ; multi- 
tudes of cells are seen filling up the alveoli of the growth and 
distending the adjoining air-cells of the lungs; the growth thus 
seen invading the pulmonary alveoli consists of round nucleated 
cells without stroma. All that can be discerned in these morbid 
masses, of the normal structure of the part, is a beautifully preserved 
plate of hyahne cartilage, here and there the only landmark of an 
obliterated bronchua The lung tissue and the morbid deposits 
therein are much pigmented. 

The appearance of these growths (with the single exception of 
the absence of true lacuiim) agrees with those usually described 
under the name of peripheral osteo-sarcoma, or osteoid cancer of 
Miiller, and as such I should regard them. 

K *J 

IT. — Diaeusaion of the Formula of an Immergton Ol^'edtve oj 
greater Aperture than corresponds to the Maximmn poss^le 
for Dry Objectives. By Mr. li. Keith. 

Plats LXXUI. (Lower portion). 
Dit. WooDWARp having received from Mr. ToUea, and placed in my 
huods, the etementa necessary for the coniputatioii of the aDgnlar 
aperture of the iV-inch objective, described by him iu the number 
of this Journal for November, 1873, p. 214, 1 have made the com- 
putation with five figure logarithms. A computation of this kind 
ifi much more satisfactory to mathematieiana and more easily re- 
viewed than an enlarged drn\¥ing. 

The objective ia composed of seven lenses. The first four, com- 
mencing at the back, are united by balsam into one combmation, the 
next two into a middle combination, and the seventh is a hemi- 
sphere of crown glass. I give below the elements in a tebnlar form, 
and annex a figure accurately drawn to a scale. Where dietancea 
are given, the unit is in all caaes an inch. 




s. 1 




RefrftcCiTo index .. 




I-B20 1 



Ratlins of let tiurfaae 




„ 3»d „ 






TliiokneaaBt centra 




0-047 1 




rHameter .. .. 








The distance between the first combination and the middle one 
ie D'008, and the radiant is aBsnmed 10, from the first surface. 

From these elements I find that the extreme ray enters the first 
combination ■ 09250 from the axis, at an angle with the axis of 
0^ 31' 45" ; and enters the middle 0-U7391 from the axis at an 
angle of —11° 1' 3", the negative sign indicating convergence of the 
light. Adjusting the collar so that the distance of the front lena 
firam the middle ia - 00528, I find that the same ray enters this 
lena " 033 from the axis, at an angle of — 29° 44' 7", and makes, 
after refraction, an angle of — 55" 17' 35" vfith the axis. 

Thus the extreme aperture, in fluid balsam, no allowance being 
made for the setting of the snaall front lens, is 110° 35' 10". By 
computation the spherical aberration for tbia position of the collar 
is practically nothing. If an allowance of only 0-00162 be made 
for the setting of the front lens, the aperture is reduced to 87", and 
this is doubtless a proper allowance, 

1 append a Table giving the distances from the axis (A) at wHoh 
the hght crosses each surface, numbered in order, and also the 

^H SDgl 

Final Bemarhs on Immersion Apertm 


BDglea (E) which the ray, before crossing, makes with the axia, 
nntubered in the same order. 

Throngh the kindness of Dr. "Woodward I am enabled to send, 
to the eare of the Editor,* several photographic copiea of the whole 
compatation for the inspection and review of those having sofScient 
interest in the matter. 


*. 1 K 

...^.\ . , K. 




■ 4th 


0- 08742 

+ 31 45 

- 6 51 51 
-4 37 23 

- 4 51 42 

- 2 57 30 


0- 07391 

-U I 3 

- 21 37 5 
-20 8 
-29 44 7 

- 55 17 35 

[" Any gentleman who ia deairoaa of possessing one of these 
I niay do so on communicating with the Editor. — Ed. ' M, M. J.'J 

Geoboetown, D.C, Ju/y 9, 1874. 

III. — Final Remarks on Immersion A-periurei. 
By J. J. Woodward, Aseistant-Sargeou U. S. Army. 
In hia reply to my article " On Immersion Objectives of greater 
Aperture than corresponds to the Maximum possible for Dry Objec- 
tives," t Mr. Wenham aska me : " Can he show us the passage of the 
rays through one of the object-glasses such as he advocates in a 
diagram of correctly enlarged dimensions? I shall then have 
tangible material before me, and will enter upon the consideration 
with enthnaiflflm."t To this demand I replied: "If Mr. Tolles 
thinks proper to deviate from the ordinary practice of those who 
make objectives for sale, and to communicate for pubhcation the 
details of the construction of either or both the objectivea described 
in my November paper, it will be an easy matter for me to gratify 
Mr. Wenham, and 1 will endeavour to do so. Not that I think 
this additional testimony needed to show the accuracy of my mea- 
surements of the immersed apertures of these objectives, but be(ause, 
beaidea the value of the information to objective makers, I should 
be happy to be the means of adding to the scanty store of facts 
which the objective makers have placed at the disposal of science." 
The paper in which I made these remarks § having been communi- 
cated to Mr. Tollea before its publication in England, he generously 


t Tliia Jonrrnl, November, 1873, p. 210. 
i Ibii., DecHmber, 1873, p. 257. 
S Ibiil., Murch, 1874, p. 121. 

126 Final Beniarhs on Immersion Apertures. 

placed at my disposal, in a letter dated January 22nd, 1874, the 
details of the construction of both the objectives described in my 
paper in the November number of this Journal, with permismon to 
publish so much with regard to either or both of them as might 
in my opinion be essential to the demonstration of the matter in 

Of the two I have selected the -nyth belonging to the Museum,* 
both on account of its superb definition (see, for example, the 
photographs of Amphipleura pejlucida sent with my November 
paper), and because, as this lens has a simple hemispherical front, 
it is an excellent example of the class of objectives with regard to 
which the possibiUty of a balsam aperture of more than 82° has 
been most strenuously denied. The data with regard to this objec- 
tive I placed in the hands of my friend Professor E. Keith, of 
Georgetown, with the request that he would trace the course of 
the rays through the combination by the trigonometrical method, 
which is of course more rigidly exact than Mr. Wenham's plan of 
making an enlarged diagram, and tracing the rays through geome- 
trically, and not so much more diflScult as he seems to suppose, t 
Mr. Keith's engagements did not permit him to undertake the task 
at once, and after he commenced the discussion some delay was 
caused by lack of information with regard to one or two points, 
which could only be suppUed by Mr. Tolles, who was absent from 
home on account of sicfaiess. But for these unavcidable circum- 
stances the results of this discussion would have been ready some 
time since. As it is, Mr. Keith has prepared a paper which 
accompanies this, and which gives the elements of the objective, 
and lus results in detail, together vrith a figure reduced photo- 
graphically from an enlarged diagram accurately constructed in 
accordance vrith the computed results. 

It will be seen that Mr. Keith obtains in the position of the 
screw-collar which gives the maximum aperture, a calculated 
balsam angle of 110° 35' 10". Now, it will be remembered, that 
in my account of this objective I stated its balsam angle at the 
point of maximum, as measured by my method,^ to be only 87°, or 
twenty-three degrees and a half less than the calculated angle. A 
moment's examination of Mr. Keith's diagram will show the reason 
of this, for it will be seen at once that very trifling encroachments 
on the diameter of the hemispherical front by its setting, will 
produce a considerable reduction of the angle. In feet, Mr. Keith 
states that he has found by actual computation an encroachment 
of '00162 of an inch (^^rth very nearly) on the periphery of the 
front will reduce the calculated to the observed angle. . 

I desire also to call attention in this place to the fact, that the 

♦ This Journal, November, 1873, p. 214. 

t Ibid., April, 1873, p. 164. 

X Ibid., June, 1873, p. 268, for the method referred to. 

Final Remarks on Immersion Apertures, 127 

front discussed in my November paper * was not a complete hemi- 
sphere posteriorly, but the curve ceased at 78° from the optical axis, 
or 12° less than the posterior curve of the front lens of the com- 
bination discussed by Mr. Keith ; as a consequence the rays pro- 
ceeding backwards, after having passed through the front, will 
diverge less from the optical axis for any given balsam angle, in 
the case of the latter lens, than they do in the case of that figured 
in my diagram. 

Mr. Keith further states that he has computed the spherical 
aberration of the combination, adjusted as above, and finds it prac- 
tically nil. This being the case the objective ought to perform well 
when adjusted to the point of maximum aperture, if balsam be used 
as the immersion fluid in lieu of water, and the thick cover ordina- 
rily employed at this position of the screw-collar. Accordingly, in 
company with Mr. Keith, I tested the objective in this way on 
Orammatophora suhtilissima by lampUght, and we both thought 
the definition unmistakably better than with water immersion. 

Mr. Keith has not considered it important to discuss the slight 
chromatic aberration which this combination is admitted to possess, 
because it was constructed with special reference to freedom from 
spherical aberration when used with monochromatic sunlight. I 
may say, however, that this residual chromatic aberration is not so 
great as to interfere in the least with the definition of the objective 
when used with white-cloud illumination or lamp. 

I have also to record of this objective, that although it was con- 
structed for use as an immersion lens only,t yet I have recently 
found by trial, that if the screw-collar be turned nearly to the open 
point, it performs admirably when used as a dry lens, on objects 
mounted dry, as well as on those mounted in balsam, provided the 
covers select^ are of suitable thickness.^ 

Let me now remind my friend Mr. Wenham of his recent 
promise on the subject of this controversy. " I should have been 
glad if Col. Woodward had given us an illustrative figure, having 
some relationship to a reality with the rays carried to their final 
destination. The passage of all his rays should have careful con- 
sideration, and if I saw no error I could not state that there is one, 
and trust that I have the candour to admit accuracy." § 

With this I dismiss the subject ; nor can I be expected to pay 
attention hereafter to the assertions of anyone who may continue to 
hold that it is " theoretically impossible " to construct immersion 
objectives with a balsam aperture greater than 82° " of image-form- 
ing rays," unless he can show some material error in Mr. Keith's 
computations. Before I conclude this paper, however, I feel called 

♦ This Journal, November, 1873, p. 211. 

t Ibid., p. 214. 

X See Mr. Wenham*s remarks, ibid., March, 1874, p. 119. 

§ This Journal, April, 1874, p. 171. 



128 Final Reviarka on Immersion Jip^vtra. 

upon to Bay a wort! or two with regard to certain matters which 
have been publiahed in this Journal during the last few months. 

And firat, as fo the following pnaaage in Mr. Wenham's letter 
in the April number (p. 171). " The immersion focus ia therefore 
the outer one, and the dry focus the nearest to the lens : now CoL 
Woodward has dra\vn the reveree of this, and In his diagram made 
the angle for immersion rays the inner one, or closest to the lens." 
To this I reply, that the focal point F* of the balsam angle 82°, 
corresponds necessarily to a dry angle only a differential less th^n 
180°, m which the radiant must be at a point infinitely near W on 
the front of the objective, and that therefore in my drawing the 
" immersion focos is," in point of fact, " the outer one, and the dry 
focus the nearest to the lens," as Mr. Wenham says it ought to be, 
notwithstanding the circumatanee that the fod of the correspond- 
ing baLiam angles occupy precisely the opposite relations. 

The next point to which I desire to refer briefly, is Mr. Wen- 
ham's new method of measuring apertures t by placing a vertical 
slit in the locus of the objective. This method might perhaps be 
used without giving rise to material inaccuracy when the objective 
ia adjusted for uncovered objects ; but when it is closed to the point 
of masimom aperture, that is in the very position about which 
alone there ia any dilute, its spherical aberration is of course no 
longer corrected for uncovered objecta, and if the attempt be made 
to focus upon them, as for instantw upon the glass between the jaws 
of Mr. Wenham'a slit, it is quite possible to make such errors in 
endeavouring to approximate the correct focal distance as to destroy 
the accuracy of the result, and lead to the unintentional cutting off 
of more or lees of the actual angle of aperture. 

Lastly, I feel compelled to refer to the paper by Mr. Brakey in 
the May number of this Journal (p. 221). TMb writer, whose 
peculiar style of wit owes whatever poignancy it may possess to the 
ready miscrupulousness with which he misrepresents the views of 
those whom he attacks for the purpose of trying to mate them 
appear ridiculovis, devotee four pages to a comic presentation of my 
opinions, and of the part I have taken in this discussion, which is 
characteristically inaccnrate. If I could suppose that he had mis- 
understood my former articles, I should feel called upon to explain, 
but OS it is evident that the misrepresentations are intentional, I 
flhnll accord to the article no further notice than this brief para- 

IV. — Refracting Priam for Binocular Microseapes. 
By P. H. Wenham, V.P.B.M.S. 
On June 13th, 1860, before the Microscopical Suciety, I described 
a Binocular Microscope with an achromatic prism of the form of 
Fig. 1. My commuQication 
was published in the ' Trans- 
actions ' at the time. The 
mdy prism made on this plan 
was tne one exhibited on that 

I remarked in my paper 
that the drawback ia this pnsm 
wiB " the great diffica% at- 
tendant upon its construc- 
tion," for it will be seen that , 
the upper or erown-glaas prism I 
hfia four facets, which have to 
be worked separately with all 
the angles exactly parallel to 
each other. Having made i 
this prism myself, I liad no 
desire to construct another of 
this form, and therefore in 
order to simplify the arrange- 
ment I transposed the compooente as repreacnted by Fig. 2, in 
which the flint prisms are the uppermost. The angles of this 
diagram are drawn on the original steel templates. 

Messrs, Smith and Beck fitted about a dozen microscopes with 
these prisms. The first was for the late Mr. Lutwidge, and the 
next for Mr. Jan^on, of Exeter, The original one, worked by my- 
self^ is now in the hands of Mr. Crisp, who has made a collection 
of the different forms of binoculars. Immediately afterwards the 
present form of rejle&ting prism was devised, which entirely super- 
seded the last. Ihis was described before the Microscopical Society 
December l'2th, 1860, In that paper I state, with reference to the 
late refracting prism, as follows : — " Having still further advanced 
the definition, by a modification in the construction of the (refract- 
ing) prism, the performance was bo superior to anything preceding 
it tiiat several were made for parties who had seen the results, 
and which instruments proved satisfactory to their owners." 

I find that this was the only allusion made to what I considered 
at the time an obsolete contriyance, and not having given a par- 
ticular description, it appears to have been twice reinvented ; and as 
in a late arrangement of erecting binocular I have only recently de- 


^" 1 

130 Oil {he Value of Bii/h Powers 

scribed the prism,* I seem to have incurred the charge of plagiarism. 
The prism last employed of tliis form was made fourteen years ago, 
as I found that it could be conveniently edged down, so as to be placed 
deep in the setting, close behind the \mik lena of the object-glass. 

I have no wish to disparage or criticise forms of binocular 
microscopes designed by others, as refracting prisms perform excel- 
lently, and perhaps the only condition that haa made the now 
nniversal form so popular, is that it leaves the single body of the 
microscope intact, not in any way requiring a difference in the con- 
Btrnction, or interfering with its ordinary use. 

Other known constructions are aJl more complicated, and as theone 

Erinciple appears to be the divisioTi or bisection of the object-glaas 
y usmg half for each eye, and if in the main tube the direct 
image is straightway obtained, I do not see how definition can. be 
improved by any intervening contrivance. The only question ia 
whether the image in the incHned tube can he brought to the eya 
bjr fmj. more simple means than tbe present refiecting prism. 


V. — On the Value of High Powers in ihe Diagnosis of Blood 
Stains. By Joseph G. Eichakdson, M.D., Lecturer on Pa- 
thological Anatomy in the UniverBity of Pennajlvania, and 
Mioroscopist to the Pennsylvania Hospital. 

(Haul be/ore the Bif)i.osicAi, Asn MicnoscaricAi, Rectios ot the Amebican 
Aladeuv >.f Natuiial ^cjesceb.) 

Plate LXXIII. (Upper portiou). 
In the pages of the ' American Journal of the Medical Sciences ' 
for July, 1869, apijeared an article on the detection by the micro- 
scope, of red and white corpuscles in blood stains, in which I advo- 
cated the employment of high jKiwers in such esamination, and 
asserted that by their aid I had been able to demonstrate that tha 
residunm of a dried blood-clot, left after the action of pure water, 
BO long mistaken by Virchow, Kobin, and their followers, for "pure 
fibrin,' was composed chiefly of the cell-walls of tie red bfood- 
corpusclea, and tnat by proper management these capsules of the 
led disks could be brought clearly enough into view to enable mo 
to measure thorn accurately, and eo distinguish the dried blood of 
jnan from that of an ox, pig, or sheep, with a certainty disputed by 
Caspar, Wyman, Fleming, and other previous observers. 

This possibility of recognizing blood -globules when dried en 
iiiasse, is of course closely associated with, if not actually dependent 
upon, thfflr possession of a cell-wall, as maintained in my paper on 
the cellular structure of the red blood-corpuscle, in the ' Trans, of 
the Am, Med. Assoc.' for 1870 (tbe theory being mainly deduced. 
• ' M, M. J.,' SI«.v, 1S7S, ji. 2IS. 



in /he Diagnosis of Blood Stains. 133 

■&om exporimenta upon the gigantic blood-disks of the Menobran- 
chns, in which crystals of htemato-cryatallin were seen to prop 
out a visible membranona capsnle). Indeed, as I have elsewhere 
remarked, if the red blood-globulea are simply homogeneoua lumps 
of jelly-like matter, the chance of discovering any individual cor- 
puscles in a Bsasa of dry blood-clot, however moistened, seems 
almost as hopeless as the search after individual rain drops in a 
cake of melting ice. 

Notwithstanding this, however, we find in the third edition of 
'rof. A. S. Taylor's work on Medical Jurisprudence,* figures of red 
ilood-corpuscles of ten different ammals, as they appear under a 
low power, with the statement (strictly accurate in r^ard to blood- 
disks thus fedily magnified) that "there are no certain methods of 
distinguishiig, microscopically or cTiemically, the blood of a human 
being from that of an auimoj, veh^n it has been once dried on an 
article of clothing." This declaration seems to show that more 
complete and conclnaive proof is still needed of the superior advan- 
tage derivable fixim the application of high objeetivea to the diagnosis 
of blood stains. 

The a priori arguments against the value of this microscopic 
for distingmshing human blood from that of the os, pig, horse, 
p, and goat, may be grouped under three heads, viz. : — 1st. It 
objected, as by Taylor, Caspar, and others, that the difference 
the red blood-corpuscles of man and of these domestic 
is too minute to render their positive discrimination 
le, and too insignificant to admit of its being used as the 
means of condemning a fellow-creature to death. 2nd. That even 
if the average diameters of these various corpuscles were shown to 
be so different that we might sometimes by this means distingmsh 
them, yet the variations above and below the mean diameter are so 
frequent and irregular, that they must render the determination of 
any such averages by mere micrometric measurement umeliable ; 
and yrd, many investigators beheve, with Virchow and J3rucke, that 
no microacopist can " hold himself justified in putting in question a 
man's Hfe on the uncertain calculation of a blood-corpuscle's ratio 
of contraction by drying." 

In reply to the first of these objections, it may be urged that 
the blood-corpuscles are just as much characteristics of the different 
kinds of living beings in which they occur, as are the coverings of 
the body, the shape of the legs, or the number of joints in the 
antenna, so that exactly as we may tell, for example, a bird's skin 
from an animal's, by the former being covered with feathers, whilst 
the latter is furnished with hair, so wo may distinguish a bird's or 
« camel's blood from that of a man, by the former having oval cor- 
puscles, whilst those of the latter aie rounded in their outline, 
• Vol. i., p. 5i8, 

134 On the VaJve ofBitfh Prmvrs 

Further, in regnrd to the red blood-diskB of animals with 

rounded rarpuscles, I can perhaps beat illuatrate the principles that 
guide as in their diflcrimiiintion by snggeetinf; that these bodies 
may be aptly compared to different sizes of shot. Thus, for 
insiance, the red glohnlea of man's blood are nearly twice the size 
of the sheep's, and aliout four tinaea that of the inuak deer's, just as 
No. 1 shot is perhaps double the magnitude of No. 5 and quadruple 
that of No. 8. 

It is obvious, too, that a shot dealer in the latter case, or a 
skilful microscopist in the former, woald more quickly and surely 
distinguiih two analogous sizes of red blood, or of leaden globules, 
from each other, than could an inexperienced apprentice in either 

Hence it follows, that whilst we might be in doubt whether the 
shot dissected out of the body of a wounded man wiis a No. 1 or a 
No. 2, we could have no hesitation, after me-aanring it with a gauge, 
in declaring it was too large for a No. 5 and a fortiori for a No. 8, 
precisely as the corpuscles of man's blood might be confounded with 
those of a monkey's, but on measurement are seen at once to he too 
large for those of an ox or sheep. Nor can it be disputed that 
mere measurement in either instance, when practically correct, is 
quite sufficient to decide a doubtful case, as, for example, if I 
was to shoot myself in the hand, and then assert that it bad been 
done by some one else, whose pun was known to be loaded with 
Na 8 shot, whilst the grains in my flesh were actually of the size 
of No. 1. 

It must be remembered, too, that whilst the relative differences 
between corpuscles of human, os, and sheep's blood remain the 
same, the absolute difference becomes more perceptible in proportion 
as the disks are magnified above, for example, those represented iu 
Dr. Taylor's work, so that when the former corpuscles appear f of 
an inch and the latter ^ of an inch across (as they do under 
the bV), they can hardly be mistaken for another, any more than a 
12-inch shell could be mistaken for a 6-inch shell, even by a 
careless person, who would call a No. 1 a No. 5 shot. 

Ordinarily in criminal cases the microscopist is called upon to 
determine, not whether a particular specimen is human, as distin- 
guished from all other kinds of blood, but to discriminate simply 
between the blood-corpuscles of a man and an os, a man and a 
liorsc, or a man and a t^hecp, and so establish or disprove the 
defendant's story as to how hia clothing or other articles became 
stained with blood. Sometimes the much easier task is imposed 
(as in a recent case wherein I was engaged) of diagnosing between 
the blood of a human being and that of a bird.* In this instance 

^^V in the Diagnosis of Blood Stains. 135 I 

^^H many of the saBpected stains occurred on the prisoner's boots, and I 

^^r proved npon that article of clothing singularly easy of detection. I 

Finally, I would remind those who demur at the idea of allowing 1 


Finally, I would remind those who demur at the idea of allowing 
a man's life to hang upon such seemingly insignificant circuniBtancea 
as a difference in size of blood-corpnscles, how often the reactionfl 
of arsenic, afforded by a quantity of the metal too excessively trivial 
to he accurately estimated by tlie most delicate halahce, have 
snfficed to bring out the crime of murder, and to aid in securing 
that just punishment for violation of law in which we all have so 
deep an interest, beeanse on it all our enjoyment of life and property 

To the second objection, viz. that the variations above and 
below the standard size of coi-puscles from any particular animal 
are too great and irregular to permit us to obtain an accurate result 
by measurement, I would answer, that this difference in size is 
more eBpecially observable in corpuscles dried in a thin film upon a 
glass shde, and is then probably in part a pathological change due 
to external violence in spreading and drying. These variations are 
comparatively sbght in fresh blood, as is proved by the following 
experiments, made with my ^th inch objective, which gives with 
the micrometer eye-piece an amplification of 3700 diameters. 
When thus magnified the human red blood-disks appear about one 
inch and one-eighth in diameter, bo that even slight differences in 
their size can be accurately measured. Among one hundred red 
corpuscles freshly drawn from five different persona, the maximum, 

mean diameters were 

as follows 





ft white male aged 30 






„ female „ 41 




nnAMcan „ „ 50 




a white male „ S 




Average of meana 


The measurement of twenty corpuscles from part of tlie first of 
these specimens dried in a thin film upon a shde gave a maximum 
of THTnr. * minimum of mnrr. ^^^ ^ mean diameter of stV? of an 

Moreover, if it can be abovm that the smallest red disks of 
man, as usually met with in mechanically unaltered blood, whether 
dry or moist, are larger than the largest corpuscles of an ox, and 
a fortiori of a sheep, such an objection, as regards these particular 
animals at least, becomes valueless, and that this is the case I pro- 
pose to presently demonstrate. 

As illustrating the accuracy which some practical experience in 
measuring minute objects, Hke the red blood-disks, with the cobweb 
micrometer enables us to attain, I may instance the following fact, 

VOL. xn. L 


On the Value of Eigh Powers 

wluch my friend, Prof. Theodore G. Wormley, M.D., of Colnmbna, 
Ohio, kindly permits me to mention here, but which may appear 
more in detail in his appendix on blood stains to the nest edition 
of hie splendid -work on ' Micro-Chemistry of roisons.' During a 
recent visit to Philadelphia Prof. Wormley brought with him a 
ahde of human blood, upon which wexe seven corpuscles (designated 
by nombera on an accompanying drawing), which he had meaaured 
under several different objectives and forms of apparatus. These 
corpuscles Dr. W. requested mo to measure under my ^g immersion 
lens, and after doing so I fonnd that my results agreed very closely 
with his own, and that in two or three instances they were precisely 
identical. The mean diameter of the seven disks, according to m^ 
computation, was ^st-b against ^5^ of an inch, the average of his 
measurements. There was thus a total deviation from the true size 
of only tisbVtii of ^° inch in my results, which were those of an 
independent observer, seeing the objects for the Erst time, and 
determining their magnitude under a magnifying power, and by 
the aid of apparatus entirely different from those Prof, Wormley 
had employed. 

Thirdly, the assertion of Tirchow, that a man's hfe should not 
bo put in question on the uncertain calculation of a hlood-corpuscle'a 
ratio of contraction by drying, does not seem to me a fair statement 
of the point at issue ; because since the red blood-corpuscles of 
oxen, horses, piga, sheep, deer, and goats are all much smaller than 
those of man, no degree of contvaciwn which they could undergo 
would render the stains in which they occur more liable to be 
mistaken for man's blood ; and if, as is rarely, if ever, the case, 
human red blood-corpuscles in a stain were by any means contracted 
BO afl to resemble those of an 01, for instance, in size, the evidence 
from microscopic examination would only midead ns into assisting 
in the acquittal of a criminal, and could not betray us into aiding 
to convict an innocont person. 

Had Prof. Yirchow worded hia statement so as to read, " the 
uncertain 'calculation of a blood-corpuscle's ratio of contraction or 
expansion by drying," his objection would have been strictly logical, 
alfliougb, as I believe, it would not have been founded upon fect^ 
because if a corpuscle of ox blood could expand during the process 
of desiccation or of moistening so as to even approximate to the 
human red disk in magnitude, it might mislead us into testifying 
erroneously to the presence of man's blood, when beef blood idone 
had been shed, and thereby endangering the life of an individual 
who was entirely guiltless. 

Bat my observations, made upon many different kinds of blood, 

and under a great variety of conditions, clearly indicate that the cell- 

i wall of a red blood-globule is nearly or quite inelastic, and incapable 

i of any marked espansion by the process of drying or moistening 


m fh^ DiagnoBis of Blood Stains. 137 

with the fluids I recommend for the esamiaation of blood stains. 
The flhght increase of size previoasly mentioned as occurring in the 
desiccation of a thin filni of blood, forms, I believe, only an 
apparent exception, and is probably due to a change of shape taking 
place during the complete flattening out of the disks as they lose 
their contained water. The experience of Prof. Leidy and Prof. 
Wormley accords with mine, in that they have never seen the drying 
or remoistening of red blood- corpuscles cause them to expand, and 
I therefore conclude we may affirm that when the corpuscles remain 
uncontracted, their indications are perfectly reliable, and if they 
shrink (as I beheve they rarely do), that being tho only serious 
modification which they can undergo, the sole danger ia that by a | 
possible, but not probable, mistake in diagnosis of the origin of a 
blood stain through contiaction of its corpuscles, we might contri- 
bute to a criminal's escape, never to the punishment of an innocent 

But all these theoretical considerations are of very secondary 
importance in comparison with the positive fact, as to whether 
practically we cau or cannot discriminate the stains of human blood 
from those made by the blood of oxen and sheep. I have therefore 
endeavoured to work out a conclusive answer to this question, 
obtaining it by a method which will, I trnst, carry conviction to 
the miud of every honest aeeier a.fter trnth. 

On the 16th of May, 1874, my friends, Prof. J. J. Reese and 
Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, each kindly prepared for me three packages 
of dried blood from stains made by sprinkling the fresh fluid from 
an ox, a man, and a sheep, upon white paper. The two series were 
simply nvunbered 1, 2, and 3, and a memorandum preserved by each 
gentleman, specifying which kind of blood composed each sample. 
By this plan it is obvious that I was prevented from having any 
cine to the origin of the specimens save that afi'orded by the 
microscope, and my examinations and measurements were therefore 
entirely tree from bias. 

Some small particles from specimen No. 1, handed me by Prof, 
Eeese, were broken np into a fine dust, with a sharp knife upon a 
shde, and covered with a film of thin ghiss. A few drops of the 
ordinary three-quarter of 1 per cent, common salt solution were 
then successively introduced at one margin of the cover, and 
removed from the opposite edge, as they penetrated thither, by a 
little slip of blotting-paper, thus washing away the colonnng 
matter from the tiny maasES of dried dot. When those particles 

were nearly decolourized, a drop of anihne solution was allowed I 

to flow in beneath the cover, and, after remaining about half a J 

^M minute, was in its turn washed away, and ita place suppUed by a J 

^H forther portion of weak salt solution. ■ 

^^1 On adjusting the specimen as thus prepared, under a gV immer- I 


On the Value of High Potoers 


flion lens (giving (in ampUfication, with the A eye-piece, of 12j)0 
diameteiH), a fragment of the blood stain waa soon discovered, which 
displayed the deliciite cell-walls of its component red and white 
corpoaclea, as fignred in my 'Handbook of Medical Microscopy,' 
p. 284. Ten consecutive red cliska from these, selected simply as 
among those which had become bat little distorted, were found to 
measure as noted bt;low in the first column. The second and third 
figures show the result of similar experiments, performed 

on samples 2 and 3, 

all the magnitudes being given in 

English inch. 

Bpedmen No. 1. 

Spodm-n No. a. 

BpB:lra«. No. 3 




1-3572 (minimum) 




1-4878 (minimum) 

1-5405 (m 






1-6666 (m 

1-4444 (maximum) 













1-3407 (mi 

1-1694 (m 

18 Cm. 


Since the red corpuscles of human, ox, and sheep's blood 
meftanre, according to Gulliver, ^Vmfi Ta'sr. aa^ Worr oi an inch 
respectively, and previous experiments of my own had demonstrated 
a disposition to sligM contraction in the corpuscles of blood stains 
which have been dried and moistened again, I of course concluded 
that sample No. 1 waa human blood. No. 2 waa os blood, and 
No. 3 was sheep's blood. On reporting these diagnoses to Prof. 
Reese, I had the satisfaction of learning that they were " entirely 

Oarefiil examination of the three specimens furnished me hy 
Dr. Mitchell, and prepared in a manner similar to that detailed 
above (except that diluted liq. iodinii comp. was used instead of 
aniline liquid for tinting the cellular elements), led me to analogous 
conclusions, as will bo seen from the following table of measure- 







) 1-6060 

1-3175 (maximum) 

1-4347 (mniimun 

) 1-6450 (miQimum) 












1-5406 (maximum) 







in the Diagnosis of Blood Slain 

From these results, I of course decided that No. 1 was ox blood. 
No. 2 was sheep's blood, and No. 3 waa hiimftn blood, and on 
reporting my coaclusiona to Pr. Mitchell, I was again very much 
gratified to receire a reply informing me that they were perfectly 

It is interestiug and important to observe, that in no instance 
do the minimum diameters of the human blood-corpuscles closely ) 
approach the maximum diameter of even those from ox blood. It 
is true that corpuscles are occ-oflionally to be met with both in fresh 
blood and in dry clot, which fall much below the general average 
of the specimen, but these are comparatively rare (not amounting 
to over one in a hundred), and they so generally in fresE^blood i 
'Bear 8iicG"nia?ks"^f tmimatie injury or paUioIogical change, that it 
is only fiiir to disregard them in making up our estimates. If my 
views are correct respecting the osmotic processes constantly going 
on through the cell-wall of both the red and the white corpuscles," 
alterations in the specific gravity of the hqnor sanguinis, surround- 
ing the corpuscles, produced by desiccation at the margin of the 
thin glass cover, must cause slight changes in the diameter of the 

Nevertheless, as these variations necessarily lie between . 
their normal size (^As ?)> "■Q^ their magnitude when dried upon i 
a slide (siVs ?), they can never lead to confusion in diagnosis even i 
from ox blood. 

In regard to the practical minutiio of the examination of 
blood stains, I have little to add to the description given a page 
or two back, except concerning the menstrua advistd by various 

The saturated solution of sulphate of soda recommended by 
Prof, Charles Robin, and endorsed by numerous authorities, has the 
disadvantage of rapidly crystallizing around the specimen, and 
must, I think, owe its popularity chiefly to the fact that it often 
contains large quantities of a pecnliar fungus, the spores of which 
closely resemble red blood-corpuscles both in size and general 
appearance, and have, I doubt not, frequently been mistaken ibr 
blood-cells. Diluted albumen and solution of hypophosphite of 
soda have not in my hands seemed to possess any peculiar ad- 
vantages, and the method of Erpenbeck. quoted by Prof. Taylor, 
of gently breathing on the fragments of blood-clot mitil they are 
sufficiently moistened to liquefy, will not, I beheve, in general 

Ktmable us to demonstrate any corposcles except the leucocytes of the 
eoagulum. These leucocytes have probably often been mistaken by 
observers for " decolourized red disks." 
The highly refractive properties of glycerin and its solutions 
advised by Dr. Taylor and others, render it in my judgment less 




140 Vcdiie of High Powers in the Diagnosis of Blood Stains. 

applicable as a liquid for moistening blood stains and bringing into 
Yiew the delicate oell-walls of their constituent corpuscles thaii the 
75 per cent, salt solution. I can, however, folly agree with my 
friend, Dr. E. M. Bertolet, that for preservation and prolonged 
study of specimens of blood stains, glycerin forms the best medium 
at our disposal, although it seems to me that his suggestion, that 
we should before mounting them tint the cell-walls and nuclei 
of oviparous blood-corpuscles with the reagents employed in the 
admirable guaiacum t^ for blood, will be found in practice less 
advantageous than my own plan of using aniline solution. And 
this in ?^ on accoJt of th^ difficulty o? procuring tiie etiiereal 
proportion of peroxide of hydrogen, and of applying it to micro- 
scopic specimens, and partly because it will prove so much harder 
to convince the average juryman that a bright blue material (instead 
of a crimson-red substance) is actually clotted blood. 

In examining spots of blood more than one-tenth of an inch in 
diameter, I would advise that fragments should be scraped from the 
edges or thinnest parts of the stain, because specimens from the 
central portions sometimes exhibit numerous fibrm filaments which 
have appeared before the desiccation of the drop. These of course 
interfere with the investigation by forming a more or less complete 
meshwork around the cell-walls, and so confosing the delicate 
outlines which the latter present when the view is uninterrupted. 

As a contribution towards answering the question of how long 
after their deposit upon objects blood stains may be detected by 
microscopic investigation, I may mention that a fragment from one 
of the twenty blood spots used in May 1869 "for estimating the 
delicacy of the microscopic test for blood "^ (determined at r^hru of 
a grain, as stated in my paper in vol. Iviii., N. S., of the ' American 
Journal of the Medical Sciences,' p. 57) was recently examined as 
above described, and found still at the end of five years to exhibit 
multitudes of corpuscles, which could be clearly distinguished from 
those of the ox or sheep, as will be seen by the followmg record of 
measurements made May 23, 1874 1 — 

1-3572 of an inch. 


1-3278 „ 

1-3125 ,, maximum. 





1-3572 ,, minimum. 





1-3425 „ mean of ten corpuscles. 

The corresponding average of my measurements five years ago 
was ^-iTi of an inch, so that no further contraction seems to result 

An Account of certain Organisms in the Liquor Sanguinis. 141 

firom age, and as the ontUnes of the corpuscles appear ^uite as 
distinct now as they did soon affier the blood was d^wn, it seems 
probable that this microscopic evidence of human bloodshed will be 
equally unmistakable twenty or even fifty years hence, provided due 
care continues to be exercised in its preservation from moisture and 
external violence. 

In conclusion, I submit, that the results of my experiments 
above narrated prove that, since the red blood-globtdes of the pig 
Crhir), the ox (irsW)> the red deer (tAt), the cat (tAt)* the horse 
(t^), the sheep (y^), and the goat (^^ of an inch), are all so 
much smaller than even the ordinary minimum size of the human 
red disk, as measured in my investigations, we are now able hy the 
aid of high powers of the microscope, and under favourable circum- 
stances, to positively distinguish stains produced by human blood 
from those caused by the blood of any of the animals just enume- 
rated, and this even after the lapse of five years from the date of 
their primary production. 

No. 1620, Ghestvut Stbeet, Phtladelphta. 

yi. — An Accovmi of certain Organisms occw&ing in the Liquor 

Sanguinis. By William Osler, M.D. 

Plate LXXTV. 

In many diseased conditions of the body, occasionally also in per- 
fectly h^thy individuals and in many of the lower animals, careful 
investigation of the blood proves that, in addition to the usual 
elements, there exist pale granular masses, which on closer inspec- 


Fia. 1. — Common forms of the masses from healthy blood. (Ocular 3, Objec- 
tive 5.) 
„ 2. — ^A mass from healthy blood, in saline solution, showing stages of deve- 
lopment; a, at 10 A.M.; 6, at 10.30 A.M.; c, at 11 a.m. (Ocular 3, 
Objective 7.) 
„ 3.— Mass from blood of young rat (in serum) in full development, after two 

hours* warming. (Oculiir 3, Objective 7.) 
„ 4. — Mass (young rat) with blood-corpuscles about it, to show the relative 

sizes. (Ocular 3, Objective 5.) 
^^ 5. — Some of the developed forms as seen with No. 11 Hartnack. (See text.) 
„ 6.— Form watched for four hours. (Ocular 3, Objective 9.) 
„ 7. — Form watched for five hours. (Ocular 3, Objective 9.) 
^^ 8. — Small vein in connective tissue from the back of a young rat, showing 

the corpuscles free among the red ones. (Ocular 3, Objective 7.) 
^^ 9. — Small vein from the counective tissue of a rat (in serum), showing oor- 
pusoles and developed forms. (Ocular 3, Objective 9.) 


142 Xii Aceouni of ceriain Organisms 

tion present a corpuscular appearance (PI. LXXI V., Fig. 1), There 
are probably few observers in the habit of examining blood who 
have not, at Bome time or other, met with these strnctuies, and 
have been puzzled for an esplanation of their presence and nature. 

In size they vary greatly, from half or quarter that of a white 
blood-corpuacle, to euormoua massea occupying a large area of the 
fieldj or even stretching completely across it. They usually assume 
a somewhat round or oval form, but may be elongated and narrow, 
or, from the existence of numeroua projections, oflcr a very irregular 
outline. They bave a compact solid look, and by focussing are 
seen to possess considerable depth ; white in specimens examined 
without any reagents the filaments of fibrin adhere to them, and, 
entangled in their interior, white corpuscles are not unfrequently 
met with. 

It ia not from every mass that a judgment can be formed of 
their true nature, aa the larger, more closely arranged ones have 
rather the appearance of a granular body, and it is with difficulty 
that the individual elements can be focussed. When, however, tlie 
more loosely composed ones are chosen, their intimate composition 
can be studied to advantage, especially at the borders, where only a 
single layer of corpuscles may exist; and when examined with a 
high power (9 or 10 Hartnack) these corpuscles are seen to be pale 
round disks, devoid of granules and with well-defined contours. 
Some of the corpuscles generally float free in the fluid about the 
mass ; and if they turn half over, their profile view has the appear- 
ance of a sharp dark line (Fig. 5, a and b). In water the indi- 
vidual corpuscles composing the mass swell greatly; dilute acetic 
acid renders them more distinct, while dilute potash solutions 
quickly dissolve them. Measurements give, for the large propor- 
tion of the corpuscles, a diameter riinging from gajrcth to jriiiTrth 
of an inch ; tne largest are as much as EnViith, and the smallest 
from Triouth to ^^-uimth of an inch ; so that they may be said to 
be from ^th to 5 the size of a red corpuscle. In the blood of cats, 
rabbits, dogs, guinea-pigs, and rats, the masses are to be found in 
variable nombers. New-born rats are specially to be recommended 
as objects of study, as in their blood the massea are commonly 
both numerous and large. They occur also in the blood of fcetal 

Considering their prevalence in disease and among some of the 
lower animals, they have attracted but little notice, and possess a 
comparatively scanty literature. The late Professor Max Scbultze * 
was the first, as far as I can ascertain, to describe and figure the 
masses in qaeetion. He speaks of them as constant constituents of 
the blood of healthy individuals, but concludes that we know 
nothing of their origin or destiny, suggesting, however, at the same 
* Archiv f. tnik. Aiiaf., Bil. i. 


r , 11 14 tl.nXBT. 


o o 
o o 


o 'J . P 

o'n'\^ o'i'n' ir. ; >> vVw> 

I ri'^.iii.^.iiijiiitlj.v liLfi_i'3<;-ii.;\xvm.-- - V^'! 

occurring in the Liquor Sanguinis. 143 

time that they may arise from the degeneration of granular white 
corpuscles. Schultze's observations were confined to the blood of 
healthy persons, and he seemed of the opinion that no pathological 
significance was to be attributed to them. 

By fer the most systematic account is given by Dr. Eiess,* in an 
article in which he records the results of a long series of observa- 
tions on their presence in various acute and chronic diseases. His 
investigations of the blood of patients, which were much more 
extensive than any I have been able to undertake, show that, in all 
exanthems and chronic affections of whatever sort, indeed, in almost 
all cases attended with disturbance of function and debility, these 
masses are to be found. He concludes that their number is in no 
proportion to the severity of the disease, and that they are more 
numerous in the latter stages of an affection, after the acute 
symptoms have subsided. The former of these propositions is 
undoubtedly true, as I have rarely found masses larger or more 
abundant than I, at one time, obtained from my own blood when in 
a condition of perfect health. These two accounts may be said to 
comprise everything of any importance that has been written con- 
cerning these bodies. The following observers refer to them 
cursorily : — Erb,t in a paper on the development of the red cor- 
puscles, speaks of their presence under both healthy and diseased 
conditions : he had hoped, in the beginning of his research, that 
they might stand, as Zimmerman supposes (see below), in some 
connection with the origin and development of the red corpuscles ; 
but, as he proceeded, the fallacy of this view became evident to him. 
BettelheimJ seems to refer to these corpuscles when he speaks of 
finding in the blood of persons, healthy as well as diseased, small 
punctiform, or rod-shaped, corpuscles of various sizes. Christol 
and Kiener§ describe in blood small round corpuscles, whose 
measurements agree with the ones under consideration ; and they also 
speak of their exhibiting slight movements. Eiess, || in a criticism 
on a work of the next-mentioned author, again refers to these 
masses, and reiterates his statements concerning them. Birsch- 
HirschfeldlT had noticed them and the similarity the corpuscles 
bore to micrococci, and suggests that under some conditions 
Bacteria might develop from them. Zimmerman ** has described 
corpuscular elements m the blood, which, with reference to the 
bodies in question, demand a notice here. He let blood flow 
directly into a solution of a neutral salt, and, after the subsidence 

♦ Reichert u. Dn Bois-Reymond's Archiv, 1872. 

t Virchow*s * Archiv,' Bd. xxziy. 

X * Wiener med. Presse,' 1868, No. 13. 

§ 'Cmnptes Rendus.' Ixvii., 1054. Quoted in * Centralblatt,* 1869, p. 96. 

II * Centralblatt,' 1873, No. 34. 

t * Ibid., 1873, No. 39. 

** Virchow's ' Aroliiv,* Bd. xviii. 

144 An Account of certain Organisms 

of the coloured elements, examined the snpernatant sernm, in which 
he found, in extraordinary numbers, small, round, colourless oor- 
puscles with weak contours, to which he gave the name of ** elemen- 
tary corpuscles." These he met with in human blood both in 
health and disease, and in the blood of the lower animals ; and he 
found gradations between the smaller (always colourless) forma 
and full-sized red corpuscles. He gives measurements (for the 
smaller ones, from nAnrth to ^ii^th of a line ; the largest, T^th to 
^^th of a line), and speaks of them also as occurring in clumps 
and groups of globules. It is clear, on reading his account, that m 
part, at any rate, he refers to the corpuscles above described. 
Gradations such as he noticed between these and the coloured 
elements I have never met with, and undoubtedly he was dealing 
with the latter in a [partially decolourized condition. Lostorfer's * 
corpuscles, which attracted such attention a few years ago, from the 
assertion of the discoverer that they were peculiar to the blood of 
syphilitic patients, require for their production an artificial culture 
in the moist chamber, extending over several days. They appear 
first after two or three days, or even sooner, as small bright cor- 
pnscles, partly at rest, partly in motion, which continue toLreaae 
m size, till oy the sixth or seventh day they have obtained the 
diameter of a red corpuscle, and may possess numerous processes or 
contain vacuoles in their interior. Blood from healthy individuals, 
as well as from diseases other than syphilis, has been shown to yield 
these corpuscles ; and the general opinion at present held of them is. 
that they are of an albuminoid nature. 

The question at once most naturally arose. How is it possible 
for such masses, some measuring even ^^th of an inch, to pass 
through the capillaries, unless supposed to possess a degree of 
extensibiUty and elasticity, such as their composition hardly 
warranted attributing to them ? Neither Max Schultze nor Biess 
offer any suggestion on this point, though the latter thinks that 
they might, under some conditions, produce embolism. 

During the examination of a portion of loose connective tissue 
from the back of a young rat, in a large vein which happened to be 
in the specimen, these same corpuscles were seen, not, however, 
aggregated together, but isolated and single among the blood-cor- 
puscles (Fig. 8) ; and repeated observations demonstrated the fact 
that in a drop of blood taken from one of these young animals, the 
corpuscles were always to be found accumulated together ; while on 
the other hand, in the vessels (whether veins, arteries, or capil- 
laries) of the same rat they were always present as separate elements 
showing no tendency to adhere to one another. The masses, then, 

♦ * Wiener med. Presse/ 1872, p. 93. * Wiener med. Wochenschrift,' 1872, 
No. 8. Article in Archiv f. Dermatolog., 1872. 


oeourringi in ihe Liquor Sanguinis. 

Me formed at the moment of the withdrawal of the blood, from eor- 
piiBcles preyionsly circulating free in it. 

To proceed now to the main Btibject of my communication. If 
a drop of blood containing thrae masaea is mised on a shde with an 
equal quantity of saline aolntion, g to | per cent., or, better still, 
perfectly fresh serum, covered, sorrounded with oil, and kept at a 
temperature of about 37° C, a remarkable change begins in tbe 
masses. If one of the latter is chosen for observation, and ite out- 
line carefully noted, it is seen, at first, that tbe edge presents a 
tolerably uniform appearance, a few filaments of fibrin perhaps 
adhering to it, or a few small corpuscles lying free in the vicinity. 
These latter stiU exhibit apparent Brownian movements, frequently 
'tuming half over, and showing their dark rod-like border (Fig. 5, 
o, h). After a short time an alteration is "noticed in the presence 
of fine projections from the margins of the mass, which may be 
either perfectly straight, or each may present an oval swelling at 
the free or attached end or else in tne middle (Fig. 2, h). It is 
further seen that tbe edges of the mass are now less dense, more 
loosely arranged, or, if small, it may have a radiant aspect. Some- 
times, before any filaments are seen, a loosening takes place in the 
Seripbery of tbe mass, and among these semi-free corpuscles the first 
Bvelopment occurs. The projecting filaments above-mentioned 
eoon begin a wavy motion, sua finally break off from the mass, 
moving away free in the fluid. This process, at first limited, sooq 
becomes more general ; the number of filaments which project 
from the mass increases, and they may be seen not only at the 
lateral borders, but also, by altering the focus, on tbe surface of 
the mass, as dark, sharply-defined objects. The detachment of the 
filaments proceeds rapidly, and in a short time the whole area for 
some distance irom tbe margins ia ahve with moving forma (Fig. 2, 
0, and Fig. 3), which spread themselves more and more peripherally 
as the development continues in the centre. In addition to the 
various filaments, swarming granules are present in abundance, and 
give to the circumference a cloudy aspect, making it difficult to 
define tbe uidividual forms. The mass baa now become perceptibly 
smaller, more granular, its borders indistinct and merged in the 
swarming cloud about them ; but corpuscles are still to be seen in 
it, as well as free in the field. A. variable time is taken to arrive 
at this stage ; usually, however, it takes place within an hour and 
a half, or even much less. The variety of the forms increases as 
the development goes on ; and whereas, at first, spermatozoon-like 
or spindle-shaped corpuscles were almost exclusively to be seen, 
later roore irregular forms appear, possessing two, three, or even 
more, tail-like processes of esk'eme delicacy (Fig. 5, k). The more 
active ones wander towards the periphery, pass out of the field. 

146 An Account of certain Organisms 

and become lost among (he blood-corpuscles. The process reaches 
its height within 2^ hours, and from this time begins almost imper- 
ceptibly to decline ; the area about the mass is less densely occu- 
pied by the moving forms, and by degrees becomes clearer, till at 
last, after six or seven hours (often less), scarcely an element is to 
be seen in the field, and a granular body, in v\rhich a few corpuscles 
yet exist, is all that remains of the mass. The above represents 
a typical development from a large mass in serum, such as that seen 
in Fig. 3.* 

We have next to study more in detail the process of development 
and the resulting forms. Commonly, the first appearance of activity 
is displayed by the small free corpuscles at the margins, which, 
previously quiescent, begin a species of jerky irregular movement, 
at one time with Jtheir pale disk-surfaces uppermost, at another 
presenting their dark hnear profiles (Fig. 5, a and b). Not 
unfrequently some of these are seen with a larger or smaller 
segment of their circumference thicker and darker than the other 
(Fig. 5, c). 

Earhest, and perhaps the most plentiful, of the forms are those 
of a spermatozoon-like shape (Fig. 5, d), attached to the mass 
either by the head or tail ; while, simultaneously, long bow-shaped 
filaments appear (Fig. 5, e), having an enlargement in the centre. 
Straight hair-like filaments (Fig. 5, f) may also be seen, but they 
are not very numerous. The time which elapses before they begin 
the wavy movement is very variable, as is also the time when they 
break away after once beginning it. Filaments may be seen per- 
fectly quiescent for more than half an hour before they move, and 
others may be observed quite as long in motion before they succeed 
in breaking away from the mass. Commonly it is in the smaller 
masses, and where the development is feeble, that filaments remain 
for any time adherent. The spermatozoon-like forms appear, at the 
head, on one view flattened and pale, on the other dark and linear 
(Fig. 5, d) ; consequently the head is discoid, not spheroidal. The 
bow-shaped filaments also present a dark straight aspect when they 
turn over (Fig. 5, e), and are by far the longest of the forms, some 
measuring as much as ^xyth of an inch. Many intermediate forms 
between me round discoid corpuscles and those with long tails are 
met with in the field, and are figured at Fig. 5, g. 

Small rod-shaped forms are very numerous, most of which, 
however, on one aspect look corpuscular ; but in others this cannot 
be detected, or only with the greatest difficulty ; slight enlarge- 
ments at each end may also be seen occasionally in these forms 
(Fig. 5, h). 

Usually late to appear, and more often seen in the profuse 

♦ The mass from which this sketch was taken was seen in full development 
by several of the foreign visitors to the British Medical Association last year. 

oceurring in the Liquor Sanguinis. 147 

ivelopmente from large maseeB, are the forms with three ot more 
tail-like processes attached to a Bmall central body (Fig. 5, h). 
Among the granules it is extremely difficult to determine accurately 
tho number of these proceasea, the apparent number of which may 
also vary iu the different positions assumed by the element. As to 
the ultimate destiny of the individual forma, I have not much to 
offer; I have watched single ones, with this view, for several 
consecutive hoars without noticing any material alteration in them. 
The one represented at Fig. 6 waa watched for four hoara, that at 
Fig. 7 for five, and the changes sketched. The difficulty of 
following up individual filament* in. this way ia very great, not only 
from the ensuing weariness, but from the obstacle the red corpuscles 
offer to it. 

With regard to the movement of tho filaments, this, at first 
eight, bears some resemhkuce to that known as the Brownian, 
exhibited by granules iu the field, or sometimes by the red 
corpuscles ; but an evident difference is soon noticed in the (act that, 
while the former (also the small corpuscles) undergo a change of 
place, the latter remain constant in one position, or vary but little. 

Movements like those of the ordinary rod-shaped Bacteria ore 
not exhibited by them. 

(Hrcumsiancea which influence the development. — In blood, 
without the addition of saline solution or serum, no change takes 
place in the masses even after prolonged warming. A temperature 
of about 37^ C. ia necessary for the process ; none occurs at the 
ordinary temperature, with or without the addition of fluid. Fresh 
serum is the medium most fiivonrable to the process, added in 
quantity equaJ to the amount of blood. Not everr m^s develops 
when placed under conditions apparently favourable ; but for this 
no good reason can, at present, be offered. 

Fig. 8 represents tne corpuscles among the red ones while in 
the vessel; and, as is there seen, they appear somewhat more 
elliptical on the profile view, and more elongated, than in blood 
after withdrawal, but present the same disk-like sur&cea when they 
roll over. On adding sahne solution or serum, and warming the 
preparation, development proceeds, but not to such an extent aa 
from the masBes. The individual corpuscles become elongated, some 
fjuled, and they move about in the vessel. At Fig. 9 they are seen 
in the vessel after three hours on the warm stage : the remarkable 
form seen at a was Ts'inrth of an inch in length, and had moved up 
from the opposite ejid of the vessel. 

It must still be confessed, with Mas Sclmltze, that we know 
nothing of the origin or destiny of these corpuscles ; and once admit 
their existence as individual elemonts circulating in the blood, his 
suggestion, and Bier's asaprtinn "' ' r. Ttusaee arise from the 
diaintegmtion of dile. We 

148 An Aecotmt of eertain Organisms in the Liquor Sanguinis. 

mnst also confess the same ignorance of the reasons of their increase 
in disease ; nor do we know at all what influence they may exert 
in the course of chronic affections. 

Finally, as there is no evidence that these bodies are in organic 
continuity with any other recognized animal or vegetable form, or 
possess tne power of reproduction, nothing can at present be said of 
their nature or of their relation to Bacteria. 

These observations were carried on in the Physiological 
Laboratory of University College, and my thanks are due to Prof. 
Sanderson and Mr. Schafer for advice and valuable assistance. — A 
Paper read at the last meeting of the Royal Society. 

( 149 

The MicTographic Dictionary. A Guide to the Ex:aminfition and 
Invatigalion of the Structure and Nature of Microeeopie Objects. Bj 
J. W. Griffith, M.D., M.E.O.P., and Arthur Henfrey, F.E.8., F.L.S. 
Third Edition. Edited by J. W. Griffith, M.D., M.R.O.P., and Pro- 
fessor Martin Duncan, M.B. Lond., F.R.9., F.G.S. Assiatod by the 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.L.8., and T. Rupert Jones, F.E.S., 
F.G.8. PftTts XI., XII., Xni., and XIV. London : Van Tooret, 1874. 
— Of the four parts of this Dictionary now upon our table, those 
numbeted XI. and XII. have not been issued under the editorship of 
Dr. Martin Duncan, who has DOt appeared among the editorial staff 
till No, XIII. made ita appearance about three montha since. He 
must therefore not be held responaiblo for the earlier issue, though 
we believe he will boar almost entirely the weight of editorship for 
all the numbers which complete the work from and inclusive of the 
thirteenth part. Of the four parts now under nottoe it may be ob- 
served that but ono of them possesses plates. This is the eleventh, 
which contiduB four pages of iUustrations, many of them coloured, 
and most of them of the Infusoria. We have to observe, however, 
that these are, if we mistake not, exactly the same as those issued m«ay 
years ainco, and they are therefore very far behind-hand. We not 
only refer to the size of the figures, which is on vastly too small a 
scale, but to the fact that out increased knowledge of the structure, 
due to the observations of Claporede and Laclmiann, and of several 
English workers, especially Mr. E. Ray Lonkoster, is not portrayed as 
it certainly ought to be. But if these objections be accepted, it must bo 
admitted that the numbers are in other respeots very well executed. 

It is, however, when we come to consider the matter in these four 
numbers that wo perceive the great difference in many respects 
between Nob. XI. and XU., on the one hand, and Nob. XIII, and 
XIV. on the other. In the fii'st place, wo may remark that in the 
first two numbeiB the articles alone which have to do with either 
fungi or fossitB are unqueBtionably good ; most of the others are 
undeniably behind the time, having been left pretty nearly as they 
were when the last edition of the Dictionary made its appearance. 
Let us take two or three examples of the part of which wo complain. 
The paragraph on the eye is by no means sufficiently full, even in re- 
gard to the microscopio subjects which the writer proposes to discuss. 
Tho question of the ciliary muscle, for instance, is almost untouched 
upon ; and OS to the question of the norvo supply of the cornea, which 
has been so fully deolt-with even in these pages, the writer appears to 
have no knowledge of it whatever. And many other points might be 
alluded to. Tho article Fermentation, i^ain, is vastly too brief; no 
allusion whatever is made to Pasteur's researches, though his name 
is mentioned in the bibliography appended to tho paper ; yet of 
course chemical readers aro aware of the immense extent of Pasteur's 
researoheB, and of their bearing on eome of Pouchet's inqairies in the 
some direction. Under the heading of Spontaneous Generation also 


we obeerve a lamentnblo deficiency of information. This qucRtion has 
of lato yearg had an amount of attention paid to it by Bostian, Sander- 
eon, and others, which has given it a considerable interest to the micro- 
ecopic observer. Therefore it is a subject which ought not to be dealt 
with as it was in the old edition, with merely the title of the " Begin- 
nings of Life" added. Again, under the heading of Glands, some re- 
ference should have been made to the esBayB in the splendid treatise of 
Dr. Strieker, and for this absence the less escuse ia to be ofibred, aB 
the book has been for some years in an English dress. There are other 
articles of less importance, which, however, we shall not refer to. 

Of the better parts of these two numbers we may particnlarly refer 
to the botanical portions, and ospecially to those of the numerous in- 
stances of fungi. These arc, as we might have imagined, invariably 
lucid, to the point, and as advanced as possible. There are articles 
too of a geological character which are particularly well done. We 
may refer to the article roraminifera, as one which is thoroughly 
well written and arranged. In this the author enters upon their 
general history, describes very fully their minute structure, tells 
where the recent and fossil forms are each to bo found, and finally gives 
. an ample synoptical list of the genera and sub-genera, with references 

^^_ to the figures of nearly all those enumerated. Finally, he appends 
^^^ an admirable bibliographical list of the various works necessary for 
^^H consultation, from that of D'OrbJgny in 1826, to those of Parker, Jones, 
^^V and Brady, in the ' Transactions of the Linnean Society,' 1870. 

Now, having said so much about tho older aumbere, lot us osamine 
what has boon dono for us in the two latest issues which have been 
brought out under the supervision of Dr. M. Duncan, F.K.S. We find 
in the first place the conclusion of the article Hydra, which is not 
quite as full as it might be, having taken little or no notice of the 
more recent Austrian inquiries. This article, too, seems somewhat 
hastily written, as the following sentence will show. " On placing tho 
plants subsequently in a glass jar containing water, they will be found 

I at the end of some hours with the tentacles fully ostended in search of 
prey, when they are easily recognized." Of course we have no doubt 
that the author means the Hydra, but it is the plant to which he refers. 
The article on Hydrodyction is good, as is also the paper on Hypho- 
mycelm, which is capitally illustrated. The section devoted to Illumi- 
nation is extremely short, and though the editors may make np for it ~ 
by increasing tho length of Polarization and Teat^bjects, yet we think 
the subject of illumination should have been in itself more fully written ; 
indeed, we think the writer would have done well not merely to have 
referred to one of Mr. Wenham's papers in this Journal, but to have 
gone fully into the whole subject, aad to have given the results to hia 
readers. Tbe paper on Inflammation is, we are bound to say, in 
every respect worthy of its position. It is a condensed account of the 
entire subject, giving even the latest researches, and stating as much 
as possible facts to the osclnsion of useless hypotheses ; indeed, it is 
one of tho best contributions to tho present edition. Next in order 
come the Infusoria, and as these arc perhaps the most important groups 
with which the Dictionary has to deal, no less than ten pages are 



' devoted to them. And certainly we think the work is very cscellently 
done. Donhtlesa some will any it ia not snfficiently minute, bnt we 
venture to think that nn nrticle which doale with the entire subject 
ehonld avoid Bpecialitios and deal more with generalizations. And 
this is what we find in this contribution. The author first gives a 
general account, and then proceeda to deal with the integument iu 
which the tmler aUiele, the carapace, the cortical layer, and its peculiar 
thread-cells are minutely described ; then the locomotive organs, under 
which heading are detailed the various forms, Ruch an cilia, flagdliform 
jilammds, retracting cilia, tetm, slyles, and uacini ; then the nervous 
system, under which are related the various indications of a nervous 
MTangement, although no traces of it have been yet distinguished ; 
and likewise the circulating, the digestive, and the reproductive 
syetems, especially the last, are minutely described. In the next 
place their diffusion is spoken of, and a very full account of the syetG- 
matic classification is given. Under this latter head tho two syBtoms, 
those of M, Dujardin on the one hand, and of MM. Claparedc and 
liachnmnn on the other, are given, and finally tho bibliography which 
concludes the paper is as full as needs be. 

The next subject that we may refer to is that of Injection, which ia 
by no means so novel as we should have anticij>ated. The part devoted 
to tho opaque injection fluids is of course very good, but that which 
describes tho different transparent liquids whieh are now almost 
exclusively used for preparations, is meagre and short ; and in the ro- 
ferenoea to books on the subjeet, one of the very best, as well as the 
cheapest books, viz. thatof Davies, is, wo observe, omitted. Thedescrijv- 
tion of the method of performing the operation ia extremely fully given, 
and this is a point of some importance, for there is no subject in which 
tho young micrOBCopist is more liable to fall into errors. We observe 
that the authors have described an apparatus for injection which per- 
forms its own work, thus leaving tlie hands &eo for the purpose of 
stopping any escape of the fluid, &c. This may doubUcss prove 
useful in some eases, and it can be readily put up by any ingenious 
person in the course of half-an-hoiir. Nest in order we come to tho 
Intestinal Canal, which has not be«n very much brought up to the 
time, although it ia very good, and well illustrated. The bibliograjihy, 
BO far as it refers to Yorson and E. Kloin, is good, but the succeeding 
reference we do not quite understand, the moio so, as tlio title given is 
really tliat which should have followed JUTVI. Verson and Klein. Tho 
~ Iber papers in thi' 1' ,■■.' ■ ■ .m! would call attention 

1 those on Igoein-. • n Lar, which is a little 

) brief, and on J.- ilic importance of tho 

fhysauora t^.i the jj- ■,- uivvn- 

IntliL-lii. . . ■.i.mbtcdly those 

I Lichi,r ;l,ly well and 

lilly wtci ■ I . i L-iiict account 


152 ssw soose, with shobt kotiobs. 

of the lft8t-mentioned two groups, is verj eliort and imperfect. In tlie 
paper on the liver the text is indeed ver;^ g<3od, and is amply UIub- 
trated by woodcuts. Still we think that hod the author dwt^t a little 
oa the distinction between HandliBld Jones's views and Botile's, and on 
the recent foreign development of the former's notions, ho would have 
given additioaal interest to the subject. The lunga too ara not badly 
done, but had there boon more space given to the lymphatics we think 
it would have been better. Hotvever, this ia more than made up for 
by the way in which the lymphatic system is described. In this 
article the author has dealt briefly, hut yet cloarly, with the entire 
subject, and be has entered on a discussion of tho views recently pat 
forward by Dr. Elein. Measuroment, too, is not badly done, as Iik&' 
wise are " Micro-Spectroscope," " Migration of Cells," " Monera," 
"Motion of Cells," and lastly, "Mosses," which are given at some 
length, and with numerous illustrations. The bibliography of mosaes 
is, however, insufficient, and is erroneous in the fact that the only 
reference to Dr. Braithwaite'e numerous papers in these pages is to 
the ' Quarterly Microscopical Journal.' This should be corrected. 

But it will be judged from what we have already stated that the 
last two numbers of the Dictionary exhibit a marked superiority of 
matter over those previously issued, and we doubt not that the parts 
which are yet to be published will be even better. In this way wo 
may hope that the work will, as a whole, be worth purchasing ; and if 
the publisher proposes adding to the plates and improving figures 
which require alteration, while the editors continne to Bupply new 
material, we have no doubt that a capital companion to tho microscopiat 
will be supplied. E. H. 8. 

Microscopie Examinations of Air. By D. Douglas Cunningham, 
M.B., attached to Sanitary ComraisRioner with Government of India. 
Calcutta : Superintendent of Government Printing, 1874. — In the work 
which Dr. Cunningham has published with the aid of the Government 
printer, we have a copious summary of the different views pro and am 
which have been held by those who have already considered the 
questions concerning atmospheric germs. This constitutes at least 
one-half of the volume, and as it is nuiterial already before our readers 
we need aot do more than advert to it. The latter portion of the work 
contains the author's own observations, and is illustrated by fourteen 
nearly folio plates, exhibiting coloured illustrations of the different 
results obtained, magnified iOO diameters. Tho book is, of course, 
altogether most elaborately executed, and would have been nttorly im- 
possible to produce save as a Government matter, from the very great 
expense it must have involved. And, indeed, here we would blame 
Dr. Cunningham for estravagance, for it is perfectly clear to anyone 
who understands the matter that a single folio page of illustrations 
would have been ample, inasmnch as there is no possible difference 
between many of his drawings. With this, however, we have nothing 
to do. But of the actual value of the results achieved we cannot say 
much. In point of fact, the author has not been able to prove that any 
season of illness in Hindostan has had anything whatever to do with 
the preseuoo of microscopic vegetable matters. Indeed, he has half 


shown that one or two instances of cholera were connected with the 
presence of certain organisms in the air ; but on going into the matter 
he has been assured that this has not been the case. 

Dr. Cunningham has been at considerable pains in carrying out 
his experiments, and indeed on this subject we must say that he has 
taken every precaution to avoid failure. Especially would we refer to 
the excellent modification of Dr. Maddox's apparatus which he has 
employed in his experiments, for this is an instrument which may be 
used with excellent results in some future inquiries. We must also 
award very high praise to the author for the care and discretion which 
he has shown in conducting his experiments, and for the accuracy with 
which he has stated the results. Beyond this, however, we have little 
to say in his praise ; for it seems to us that he has gone over ground 
that ought to have been pregnant with valuable results if the experi- 
menter had employed the proper means of research, and those we 
think Dr. Cunningham failed to apply. Why, for instance, should he 
have used such low powers in his observations ? Surely he did not 
expect to find many organisms with objectives magnifying 400 dia- 
meters; the microscopist of the present day would not be so well 
employed with such a magnifying power as Leiiwenhoek was with his 
lens. And so far as we can see, the author, save in one or two instances, 
used no higher object-glass. How he could expect to see everything 
that was present with such amplification is to us perfectly unintel- 
ligible. If Mr. Dallinger had had Dr. Cunningham's opportunities, we 
doubt not he would have found many organisms, as we may judge by 
his published papers. So far as he has gone, Dr. Cunningham has 
nothing to tell. But may we not say to him, look again ? With a 
T5" ^^ Tir> ^^^ proper arrangements for light, we may expect much 
better results than those he has laid before us in his present by no 
means uninteresting volume. J. D. 


Dr. Carpenter's Views on the Subject of Eozoon, — In our last 
number but one we gave ample space toward an explanation of 
Mr. Carter's opinions on the subject of Eozoon ; and it will be 
remembered that he takes the same view of this structure as that 
held by Messrs. King and Eowney. We have now the opportunity of 
laying Dr. Carpenter's views forward, accompanied by an excellent 
woodcut of one of the calcareous lamellsB of Eozo(Hi, which the editor 
of ' Nature ' has kindly placed at our disposal. In Dr. Carpenter's 
recent paper in the * Aimals of Natural History' for June (1874), 
the subject is very fully gone into, and to that we must refer those 
of our readers who are interested in this question. However, with the 
aid of the woodcut we may extract some of the author's remarks 
which bear on the point of controversy. Dr. Carpenter says — 

" My true * nummuline wall ' is the representative of that which, 

M 2 


in reoeot Foraminifera, immediately Burrounde the chambora (see 
Fig. a o). ^ It is noJ B layer of cIiTysotilo aciculic, as asserted by Pro- 
fessors Eing and Eowney, but ia a caletireous lamelln, perforated by 

ThlB represents a vertiool flection of a portion of one of the calcareous laraellin 
of Eoioon canadense, showing the tubular ''nummnline layer" ua, the " intar- 
meiliRto skeleton" s c, and the lelatioiiB of the origin of the oanala Ab to the 
tnbuli of the nammaline layer, the fleiurea of which are seen along the line 
u' a' : lOD diameters. 

minute tubnli, which usually lie straight and parallel, but are often 
more or less curved. These tubuli, like the chambers and canal- system, 
are usually filled with serpentine, which has passed into them from 
the chambers in which they originate ; and thus it happens that the 
original tubulation is generally obscured, being only represented 
microscopioally by the difference in refractive indes between the 
calcareous shelly layer and the serpentine which has filled its tubes, — 
just as in a specimen of fi-egh bone or dentine mounted in Canada 
balsam, the tubuli are only reprfaented by the different refractive 
indices of the matris and the balsam. But in the specimen of Eotooa 
figured above, many of the tubuli remain empty ; and tkey can be dig- 
tingaithed as tubuli under any ma^v,ifying power that ihe thickness of the 
covering glass allows to be used. Further, they have the somewhat 
Binuoas conree of the tubuli of organic structures ; and they present, 
at what was probably a plane of interrupted growth (a' a'), the sharp 
flexures which Professor Owen first pointed out in the tubuli of den- 
tine, and which I described and figured twenty-seven years ago in the 
hard dentine-lite substance of the end of the Crab's claw."* 

And after some further remarks a propos of the histological 
powers of his opponents, Dr. Carpenter says :— 

"I now pass on to a second probative fact of at least equal 
cogency, — the relation exhibittd in the samo sjxicimcn between tho 
' and the tubuli of the ' nummulino layer.' 
• Eeport of the Britisli Association for 1817, pi xx., flg- SI. 

^B iccrards thi 


la my original description of OalcaHna* — tho typo to which, eib 
regards the general distribution of its eanal-sjatem anil its relation 
to the intermediate skeleton, Eozoon has the closest resemhlance^ — I 
gave the following account of that relation (p. B64J : ' The proper 
walls of the chambers are imiformly perforated, bke thoso of the 
chambers of Rotalim, hj foramina of considerable size (averaging 
above ai^th of an inch in diameter) ; with these the canals of the 
supplemental [or intermediate] skeleton do not seem to be directly- 
oontiuuouB, for they are of about double the diameter and lie further 
apart from one another ; but immediately round the proper walls of 
the chambers there seem to be irregular lacunar spaces, into which the 
foramina open estomally, and from which the passages of the canal- 
system originate.* Now, ia my ' Supplemental Notes on the Structure 
and Affinities of Eozoon canademe 'f I stated that precisely the same 
relation ia shown to exist in decalcified specimens of Eozoon, by the 
implantation of the dendritic models of the chamber-costs in plates 
formed by the coalescence of the aciculra that occupied the tubules of 
the ' proper wall.' Haviug now been fortunate enough to meet with a 
transparent gection which exhibits this relation most unmistakably 
(see Fig, 6 6), I fearlessly ask the verdict of any Biologist &miliar 
with microscopic structure, whether auy more exact realization ctmld 
be presented of the structure I had described in Calearina, — allowance 
being of course made for the difl'erent scale of the tuhulation of the 
'proper wall,' which is hcre^^ne 'uummuline' not coorse 'rotaline.' " 
We think the verdict of moet niicroBcopistB will be to the effect 
that the structure is unquestiooably one of organic origin. 

Betrogreisive Changes in (he Serous Layer of the Bahhift Oi-um.— 
Dr. Stirling says that Herr K. SlavjanakyJ describes the degenera- 
I tion, called by him reticular (" reticulare degeneration"), which the 
' epithelial cells of the serous layer of the ovum undergo ia their phy- 
' Biological development. During the development of the ovum, the 
I epithelial cells of the part of tho serous layer lying close to the um- 
bilical sac become thin and flat, and in the cells themselves some 
' transparent spots are to bo obsorvod. By-and-by the protoplasm dis- 
ftppoars, and holes are observed in the cells. These boles gradually 
imlarge, so that, at last, in place of the epithelial membrane there is 
to be seen a reticulum of the remains of the protoplasm of the epithe- 
lial cells, containing in some places the nuclei. There is thus esta- 
blished a physiological prototype far the pathological degeneration of 
I the epithelium, descrilK'd by Wagner under tho name of fibrinous 
degeneration, in cases of croup and diphtheiia.^See also ' Medical 

The Microacopio Bhod'Vesaels of the Intestine. — In a note in the 

•JHedical Record,' by Dr. Stirling, the writer says that Here A, 

F Heller§ arrives at the following rosults : — 1. Every villus contains an 

I' utery which runs, as a general rule, to the point of the villus without 

T branching. In man only does it begiu fi'om the middle of the villus 


to lose itself in a capillary network. 2. The vein begins either in 
the point of the villus (rabbit, man) or near to the same (rat), and 
generally goes directly into the snbmacons tissnes without receiving 
any lateral branches ; or it rises near the base of the villus and re- 
ceives more or less numerous lateral branches from the glandular layer 
(dog, cat, pig, hedgehog). 3. In none of the animals examined was 
there to be found the often cited arrangement of an arterial stem 
going to the point of the villus, and of a descending venous stem with 
a simple connecting capillary network between both stems. This is 
of importance with regard to the erection of the villus. 

Microscopic Structure of the Cortical and Corky Tissue of Plants, — 
Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S., is now publishing, in the ' Journal of tho 
Quekett Club,' a series of lectures on vegetable histology, which are 
'of great interest. From a proof sheet of tho last number of that 
Journal which he has sent to us, we abstract the following account of 
the structure of cortical tissue and cork, which are two of the group 
of homogeneous or purely cellular tissues. He says of the first, that 
it includes that portion of the stem lying between the fibro-vascular 
bundles and tho epidermis or cork, and in leaves between the cuticle 
and vascular bundles of the nerves ; it is therefore most distinct in 
parts exposed to the air and light. The primary bark proceeds directly 
ffrom the primordial tissue of the growing point, and rapidly increases 
by cell division. In annual plants it is completed simply by extension 
of these cells, as it is also in perennial plants which cast off their bark 
by cork tissue arising under it ; but in those like the holly and the 
mistletoe, which do not do so, certain portions of the cortical tissue, 
by mother cells, continue to reproduce new tissue of the same kind. 

Cortical tissue consists entirely of parenchym cells, which in leaves 
usually remain with thin walls, but in the stem are variously modified 
and may be divided into an inner and outer rind. 

The inner rind is formed of layers of thin-walled spheroidal cells, 
with their surfaces only slightly in contact, and thus interrupted by 
apertures of various sizes. Lignification of the cellulose case very 
rarely occurs, but in a few instances groups of strongly thickened cells 
are seen, distinguishable by their size and colourless contents; the 
ash, beech, laburnum, and Hoya afford examples. The contents of the 
cells of this layer are starch, with the addition of chlorophyll in the more 
external, and in some instances crystals are also present. Again in 
milky- juiced plants bast vessels occur, which are connected with similar 
vessels of the bast bundle, and single and grouped bast cells are seen 
in the inner cortical layer of the leaf-stalk of cycads and the bark of 
many palms. Within this layer also occur the resin, oil, and gum 
canals peculiar to many plants. 

The outer rind, Collenchyma, — The outer layer consists of rounded 
parenchyma cells with little or no thickening, but often more or less 
elongated, or the cells have all irregular strong thickening of their 
walls or angles, and then constitute collenchyma. When the outer layer 
of this sub-epidermal tissue consists of thin-walled parenchyma and 
coUenchym cells, the latter are in groups overlying the bast part of 
the vascular bundle, while the thin-waUed cells reach the epidermis, 


and are opposite the medullary rays ; in these cases the collenchyma is 
often greatly elongated. The collenchyma has no intercellular spaces, 
and may take the form of longitudinal strings of cells lying under the 
epidermis, as in the stem of Equisetum and leaves of Pinus ; or it may 
be seen as a connected layer, only perforated by the stomata, in the 
stems and petioles of many plants, and also in many leaves as a well- 
developed layer, e. g. in the vine, elder, and begonia. The cellulose 
case is usually soft, but in a few instances lignified, as in Angelica 
sylvestris, and in others shows porose, netted and spiral thickening, e. g. 
Samhuctis, Hellehorus. The contents are clear or red sap, and also 
starch and chldtophyll. 

Of the second, or Cork Tissue, he says, that it is of much more 
frequent occurrence in plants than may be generally supposed, and 
moreover it is Dame Nature's plaster with which she heals up the 
wounds left by fallen leaves, or if any soft organ be injured, a firm 
skin of new cork cells rapidly protects the sound tissues from the 
outer damaged structures. The walls of this tissue are highly resistent 
to the various reagents, behaving in this respect like the cuticle, being 
also elastic and with difficulty permeated by air or water ; the cells 
are rectangular without intercellular spaces, are arranged in rows at 
right angles to the surface, and mostly lose their contents and become 
filled wiQi air ; the cell membrane is but moderately thickened, and is 
soon altered into cork. Primary cork tissue arises later than the other 
elements, and the altered parenchym cells, which become the mother 
cells of cork, may be either cells of the cuticle, of the collenchyma, of 
the inner rind, or of the parenchyma of the bast part of the vascular 
bundle; these mother cells repeatedly divide, and of these newly- 
arising cells in each radial series, the inner one remains thin-walled, 
filled with protoplasm, and constantly forming new cells by division, 
and this is termed the cork — cambium or ^hellogen layer, while the 
outer becomes suberified and permanent. Generally the cork first 
commences at single points, but these gradually coalesce, and tlie phel- 
logen forms a continuous layer, from which constantly new cork layers 
are being pushed outward and constitute the periderm. Sometimes the 
cork cells become altered in form, and the periderm consists of alter- 
nate laminaa of different shaped cells ; this is seen in the cork of the 
cork-oak, and of birch. As examples of cuticular development of cork 
we may mention the apple tree, oleander, mountain-ash and Viburnum 
Lantana ; here the epidermal cells divide into two daughter cells, the 
upper of which with the cuticular layers and tertiary cellulose case 
become suberified, and the lower becomes the mother cell of the next 
cork formation. In the greater part of our trees, as in the maple, 
beech, oak, elm, plum, horse-chestnut, elder, &c., the coUenchym cells 
lying next under the cuticle become the mother cells of cork ; and 
among the number of plants in which the cork tissue arises deeper 
below the cuticle, but yet within the outer rind, Ficus elastica and 
Bobinia paeudacada are well suited for observation; here the cells 
of the second or third row of collenchyma become the mother 
cells of the cork. In the bramble and currant bushes the cork tissue 
arises in the inner rind, and indeed it is the cells next to the vascular 


liimille which become the mother cells, bo that ali the young curtical 
tiesoo becomes poshed off by tbe eork tissue. 

In many oases it is not solely cork cells proceeding from tho pbel- 
logen whidi give the thickness to the periderm, but porenchym cells 
containing clilorophyll ore also formed ; these, huweyer, are always 
the danghtor cells of the phollogen lying on the inner side which, 
become thus metamorphoeed, and constitute what Sanio terms the 
FheUodfmia, very well seen in the currant tree. 

Bwrh. — After production of moie or less numerous cork lamell«, 
the phellogen dies or loses its vital activity, but a development of 
Booondary cork tissue takes place within the bast part of the vascular 
bundle, in the form of tangential rows of tabular cork colls, which 
loosen &om tho growing outer part of the vascular bundle. The cork 
lamellfB, as it were, cut out and force off from the rind, flat pieces in 
form of scales or rings ; all this outer part is dead, and the process 
oft repeated from the circumference of the stem, causes the new cork 
lamellie to become gradually imbedded more deeply in tho growing 
cortical tissue, and we get a coostantly thickening peripheral layer of 
dry tissue separating from ths living part of the rind ; this is the 
bark. The condition is very avidont in the large scales of bark in. 
Plalatmg orienialie or sycamore, and in old stems of the Finiis syheglria 
or Scotch pine, and in the ring-like bands of the cherry tree. In the 
oak, lime, poplar, elder, and horse- chestnut, similar plates of thia- 
walled cells arise in the interior of the bi^t bundles, but the old dried 
scales do not fall oS, but tear only at the margins in a longitudinal 
direction, so that the stem becomes clothed with bark consisting of 
several dead scales lying under each other, presenting internally all 
tbe elements of bast, and estoraally primary cork tissue. In tho pine 
and larch we have a Assured periderm, like that of the horee-chestuut, 
and in the pino consisting partly of thin-walled and thickened cells in 
alternate layers, but the conifers are specially remarkable for the pre- 
sence of a spurious large-celled porenchym tissue, which appears 
between the periderm layers and separates the elements of the bast 
bundle into smaller or larger groups. 

Lenticeh. — These are duo to a peculiar local cork formation, and 
appear as little roundish spots on the annual shoots of trees, while the 
epidermis continues uninjured, and before tho periderm is formed. 
In the second summer the epidermis splits longitudinally over tho 
lenticols, and they form more or less prominent warts, which by a 
median furrow &e(][ncntly become bilabiate ; their surface is mostly 
brown, and their substance to a certain depth dry and corky. By 
growth in thickness of tho shoot, tho lenticels become expanded into 
transverse Btriie, then cork or bark forms and splits tho rind beneath 
them, the bark scnles off, and so they disappear. These and other 
structures are very well illustrated in a plate which accompanies the 


( 159 ) 

Resolntion of Amphipleara pelluoida by the -^ of Sr. Tolles.— 

The 'American Soturalist' for July, 1874, coutams a noto by Mr- 
G. W. Morebouse ou the abc- subject. A j^^ objective was made for 
him by ToUea, aud fiuiubed oa the 12th of March, 1873. The angle 
of aperture afl invoiced by Mr. Stodder ia 165^. From hia own 
measuremeuts ho thinks the objective ie correctly named by the 
maker. At the extreme opaa point it ie a good ^'uth dry. The 
Bcrew-oollar has twelve divifiions ; by turning it eight divisions it ie 
fldjusted for uncovered wet, and four divisions remain to adjust for 
cover for immersion work. It works through oovering glass of about 
3^th of an inch, but it is better to use thinner glass, or mica, to 
enable the observer to focus through specimens. With lamplight 
and the j'^th the resolution of Amphipleura pellacida is better than he 
has before seen. Using ordinary daylight, vihriones, bacteria, &x., 
are well defined, eepeeially when a Keluer eye-piece is nscd as a 
condenser. With sunlight and the ammonia-sulphate of copper cell, 
Surirelta gemma yields longitudinal stris, and, as the direction of the 
light is changed, rows of " hemispherical bosses " as described by Dr. 
"Woodward. With the same illumination specimens of AmpKipleura 
peUudda, mounted dry, by Norman, were resolved and counted with 
perfect ease and remarkable plainness, tha stria being atill dietinctly 
Tiaiblo with No, 3 eye-piece, draw-tube extended ax inches, and 
power upw&rd of 10,000 times. It is with hesitation that he remarks 
farther that the -g^th has resolved the lines of Amphipleara pellueida 
into rows of do^, for the " beaded " structure of the easier test, 
Surirella gemma, is still doubted by some experienced microscopists. 
But " facts are stubborn things," and the facta are that with Wenham's 
parabola as an illuminator the dots are seen, and with either the para- 
boloid or the Amici prism longitudinal lines much finer than the 
transverse ones are brought out. These lines, which he considers 
genuine, count not far from 120,000 to the inch. With a slight 
change of the adjustment their place is occupied by spurious lines 
I c»imtiug generally about 60,000 to the inch. The longitudinal lines 
[ can only be seen when the focus is best adjusted for the transverse 
Btriffi. When the transverse lines are examined, they may be shown 
smooth and shining, similar to the photograph by Dr. Woodward in 
the 'American Naturalist,' but much better. If the mirror is thou 
carefully touched, a sinuate appearance of the margins of the lines 
suggestive of beading is seen. This appearance can be brought out 
readily. And finally, ofter the most painstaking manipulation, and 
when without doubt the best work is being done, the separated dots 
or beads appear. 

A Semoir on the Cyamus or Whale-louse has been published 
in the 'Memoirs of the Scientific Society of Copenhagen,' by Dr. 
LUtkon. Wo boliovo it is an interesting i>aper, but we have not yet 



Diatoms on the Surface of the Sea, from Java and also from the 
Arctic Sea, have been very admirably figured and described in English 
by M. P. T. Cleve, in a couple of papers, which were originally pre- 
sented to the Swedish Academy of Sciences last year. With them 
has come to ui^ a paper in Swedish, also read before the Swedish 
Academy of Sciences about the same time, by M. N. G. W. Lagerstedt, 
on the " Diatoms of Spitzbergen." This is illustrated by two good 
plates, and though the general observations are in Swedish, the 
description of the species found is in Latin. 


An Error in Mr. Morehouse's Paper. 

To tJie Editor of the * Monthly Microscopical Journal.* 

Ashtabula, Ohio, U.S. A., July 17, 1874. 

Siiu— In the article on the ** Structure of Diatoms," by Mr. Geo. W. 
Morehouse, reprinted in your June number, 1 notice an error which 
occurred in the original text. 

The last footnote, p. 23, should read " J. E. Smith," &c. 

As many of your readers may not have access to the * Lens,' I 
desire to say that the observations referred to were made by me in 
January, 1873 ; the objective used was a superb Tolles' immersion 
one-tenth (xV*^) — amplification about 4000 diameters. 

These observations were very shortly afterwards confirmed by 
Mr. Morehouse. 

I remain, Sir, your obedient servant, 

J. Edwards Smith. 

The Pathological Anatomy of the Brain and Dr. Eempbter. 

To the Editor of the * Monthly Microscopical JournaU 

Royal College or Physicians, Edinbubgh, August 18, 1874. 
Sir, — I have this moment seen your notice of Dr. Kempster's 
observations on the pathological anatomy of the brain in the insane ; 
in it, it is said that Dr. Kempster has only been able to find one 
exception to the silence which physicians have maintained on this sub- 
ject, and that one paper by me is the exception. Were Dr. Kempster 
to search with anything like care, he would find that there have been 
many workers in the field both in Great Britain and the Continent, 
that my contributions are numerous, and that his own observations 
have been anticipated by many men and many years. 

I am,lSir, yours truly, 

J. Batty^ TuKB, M.D., r.E.S.E. 

( 161 ) 


Medical Migbosgopigal Sogiety. 

Friday, July 17, 1874. — Jabez Hogg, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Skin Grafting, — Mr. Golding Bird read a paper on the mode of 
growth of the new epithelium after skin-grafting, or at the edge of a 
skinning ulcer. Specimens illustrative of the subject were exhibited. 
A summary of the changes observed is as follows : — A prolongation of 
the epithelium forming the rete mucosum of the adjoining sMn, in a 
horizontal direction over the surface of the neighbouring granulation 
tissue, the vertically placed cells of the rete mucosum losing their 
upright position and becoming more and more inclined till quite 
horizontal ; the epithelial scales placed more superficially taking no 
part in the process, but becoming shed; so that the new epidermis 
was only one-third the thickness of that of the skin from which it 
had sprung. He ascribed the adhesion of the new epidermis to the 
underlying granulation tissue to the insertion of the former into the 
most superficial layer of the latter, the intercellular material of which 
may be seen becoming fibriUated (like the fibrin of blood clot), 
coincidently with the growth onwards of the epithelium, the granula- 
tion cells disappearing in great numbers at the same time. He had 
never yet been able to find the granulation cells becoming developed 
into epithelium ; but he had seen a few of them lying between the 
cells of the new epidermis. The granulation tissue beneath the 
earliest formed epithelium was the first to become developed into 
fibrous tissue. 

Mr. Coupland thought the disappearance to the naked eye at times 
of a graft, and the subsequent growth of epidermis at the spot grafted 
some time after, was a proof of the development of epithelium from 

Mr. Schafer referred to the observed transformation of white 
blood-corpuscles on the recently blistered surface in the frog. 

Mr. Golding Bird, in reply, denied that a graft that reappeared as- 
stated had ever in reality disappeared. He believed that the deepest 
layer of epithelial cells was always left, though not visible to the 
naked eye. 

Paccinian Corpiiscles, — Mr. Schafer gave an account; of these bodies, 
discussing generally the various opinions held regarding them. He 
explained the various component parts, and held that the " core " was 
the layer of protoplasm described by Eanvier as covering the medullary 
sheath of the nerves. He has seen a nerve pass from one Paccinian 
body to another. 

Dr. Pritchard asked if the Paccinian bodies in the cat's mesentery 
were the same as in the skin ? In reply, Mr. Schafer stated he con- 
sidered them identical. 

Mycetoma, — Microscopic specimens of the " Fungus-foot of India " 
were exhibited by the President. 

PBOOEBDnros or Bocmras. 

MicKOScopioAL Society op Vicioeia, Australia. 

The monthly meeting of the Mieroacopical Society of Victoria was 
held May 28th, 1874, at the coroner's office, Prince's Bridge. The 
chair was occupied by Mr. Balph, and there was a moderate attendance 
of members. Tlie minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Mr. A. W, Howitt was presented as a visitor. Mr. Robert Hobertson, 
the hoQ, secretary, annonnced the receipt of an ' Extract from .the 
Proceedings of the Academy of i^'atnral Science of Philadolpliia,' from 
Mr. Isaac Lea. Dr. Sturt presented ' Baker's Catalogue,' and a 
German copy of a list, by B. Stiirtz, of foesils and minerals obtainable 
at Mr. Strong's, Queen Street, Melbonme. Dr. Bone, of Castlemaine, 
a country member, attended, bringing with him an excellent 
microscope — one of Nogrotti and Zambra's, of London, with B 
Boss's powers, and a choice and varied collection of objects. The 
chairman also called attention to a neat and useful Instrument — one 
of Swift's make — which could bo put in a small case and carried 
the pocket, so as to make exaosinations, at the patient's bed-side or 
when travelling. 

Dr. Start road a paper, on a pearlash deposit at Sebastopol, 
Ballarat. This substance was of a light texture, very porous, and 
splitting somewhat easilyinto horizontal layers of a greyish colour. A 
sample of it had been given to him by Mr. Lyons, and he intimated that 
the Society would be pleased to Toceive and report upon any specimens 
of a rare nature. Mr. Lyons had been using it as an ingredient of 
his artificial mannros on account of the amount of potash it contained, 
The surface of some of the layers is more or lees covered with narrow 
linear vegetable workings, and whea its substance is broken np under 
water those can often be found floating. Under the microscope theeo 
are found to consist of vegetable cells almost coated by a layer of 
small oval navicula, and are evidently the remains of narrow filing 
&CBh-water algie. About ten different diatoms aro found in the 
deposit, together with spicules of a sponge. The latter was interesting, 
as he was not aware of any fresh-water sponge having yet been 
discovered in Victoria. So appearance of vascular tissue was ob- 
servable, and be had no doubt, from the nature of the sheUs, that it 
was formed in freati water, prubably a pond or lake. Among the 
specimens found were one surirella, a few gallionelhe, synedra (often 
in bundles), gomphonema, and navicula. 

Dr. Sturt also read an account of microscopic examinations of 
made by Dr. Dongloa Cunningham, of Calcutta. It was as follows: — 
Distinct infusorial onimalcnlos, their germs or ova, aro almost entirely 
absent from atmospheric dust, and even from many specimens of dnst 
collected from exposed surfaces. The cercomonnds and amoabte 
appearing in certain specimens of rain-water, appear to be zoospores 
developed from the mycelial filaments arising from common atmo- 
spheric air. Distinct bacteriffi can hardly over be detected among the 
constituents of atmospheric dust, but fine molecules of uncertain nature 
are almost always present in abundance. They frequently appear in 
specimens of rain-water, cullected with all precautions to secuie 

purity, ftiid nppear in many cases to ariso fi'om. the myceliam 
developed from atmospheric spores. Distinct bacteria are firequently 
found amongst matter deposited foom the moist air of sewors, though 
almost entirely absent as constituents of eommon atmoapheric dust. 
The addition of dry dust which has been exposed to tropical heat, to 
putrescible fluids, is followed by a rapid development of fungi and 
bacteria, although recognizable apecimena of the latter are very rarely 
to be found in it while dry. Sporca and other vegetable cells are 
certainly present in atmospheric dnst, and usually in considerable * 
numbers. The mftjority of them are living and capable of growth and 
development. The amount of them, present in the air appears to be 
independent of conditions of velocity and direction of wind, and their 
numbers are not diminished by moisture. No condition can be traoed 
between the numbers of bacteria and aporea, &c,, present in the air, 
and the oocurrence of diarrhcea, cholera, ague, or dengue, nor between 
the presence or abundance of any special form or forms of cells and 
the prevalence of any of these discaees. The amount of inorganic and 
amorphous particles and other ddiria auspended in the atmosphere is 
directly dependent en conditions of moisture and of velocity of wind. 
Dust irashed from exposed surfaces, or collected by gravitation or dew, 
cannot be depended on. The reanlts of the present experiments are 
nut opposed to the belief in the trausmission of these organisms, or 
other, by means of the atmosphere ; they only refer to bodies 
diatiuguishable from one another while in the air; nothing has been 
worked out as to their dovelopraeEt or action. " What bBcomes of 
them," said Dr. Sturt, " when respired ? Is their vitality destroyed ? 
If BO, how are they got rid of? Do they develop within the 
organism? Do they then exert any prejudicial influences on the 
organism ? " These points were not touched upon by the author cited, 
but he (Dr. Sturt) thought any part of the body they could oome into 
contact with was a secreting or excreting surface, and he could himself 
see but little chance of their development. 

Dr. Bone, in reply, stated that he had been examining the water in 
Caatlemaine, and that ho found orgtiuiii forms in his own rain-water 
tank underground, and cemented, and from a clean roof, which he 
ehould have thought perfectly pure. He had, however, found in it 
myriads of bacteria, vibrionea, and amcebce, with other minute forma 
that he did not tnow, and which presented the appearances of white 
corpuaclea of blood. These, he noticed, whUe under inspection, aplit 
np and divide, having amcehiform movementa. He thought that if 
these organisms passed directly into the air-cells of the Inngs they 
mnet generate and become a source of poisoning. 

Mr. Sydney Gibbons referred to a paj^er read at a previous meeting, 
in which ho described these organisms as monadic. 

The Chairman thought these organisms must bo taken directly 
into the system, and in large tiuantities to cause jmisoning effecta, 

Mr. Sydney Gibbons gave an autline sketch of the organisms 
found by him on the bottom of the ' Cerberus,' when docked, besides 
numerous oysters of a large size, serving to show what could be grown 
in Hobson'a Bay if they were only allowed time for development : 


there were mussels, a large number of the common barnacle and 
balanus, but none of the Lejpas anatifera (the object of ancient fable). 
But the animals most abounding were ascidians, singular creatures, 
interesting to microscopists on account of the contents of the stomachs. 
Besides these were actiniad, tubicolar worms, the laryaB of cephalopods, 
with various zoophytes, but few algie. He had some of them now 
under the instrument, and hoped to find in them material for a future 
paper. He afterwards described the structure of some new and curious 
^ngi, and the characters by which it was proposed to classify them, 
and he exhibited specimens under a powerful monocular microscope. 
He also communicated some notes on the rye-grass fungus, on which 
Mr. Ealph and himself had reported at a previous meeting, both 
agreeing in the view that it was deficient of some of the characters 
required to constitute it a clavaria. He intimated that its place had 
now been settled by Mr. Bentham and Baron Von Mueller among the 
Isariad, with the name of Isarioe graminiperdce. 

The Chairman remarked that the subject was a very interesting 

Mr. Sydney Gibbons next exhibited a section of the tooth of a rare 
animal, the orycteropus, a burrowing animal of the anteater family, 
whose dentition differed from that of all other known animals. The 
creature is devoid of canines and incisors, but has a double set of 
molars, one of which it sheds every year. To add to this anomaly, 
the structure of the teeth is unique, being composed of a cluster of 
pentagonal prisms, instead of the usual enamel with a bony foun- 

The meeting afterwards spent some time in examining the several 
specimens brought by members. 










OCTOBER 1, 1874. 

\.—Tiie Hairs of Caterpillars. By T. W. Wonpor (Hon. Sec. 
Brighton and Snssex Natural Hiatory Society). 

Plate LXXV. 
It either works on the microscope or on entomology be consulted, 
very little, if any, information can be obtained on the hairs of cater- 
piUara or larvte ather as regards their structure or the variety and 
beanty of their forms, but here and there a few words may be 
found upon the urticating or stinging properties of the hairs of 
some caterpillars. 

This urticating property was noticed in very early days, for, 
according to Pliny,* the OoraeUan law, De Sicariis, was extended 
to those persons who administered the hairs of the fir moth, 
Cn. PUyocarnpa, and which were supposed to be a very deleterious 
poison. Even when applied extenully they occasioned a very 
intense degree of pain, itc^g, fever, and restlessness. 

Occasionally allusion is made to other members of the same 
family as possessing similar disagreeable effects, viz. Cn. pmivora, 
stone pine moth, and Cn. processionea, the processionary moth, the 
last named so called on account of the habits of the larvce, when 
moving in the evening in search of their food. One caterpillar 
leads the way, followed for some two feet by single caterpillars in 
Indian file, then come ranks in twos, succeeded, at about the 

Fia. 1.— Gwden tiger. C. caja. x 120. 
„ 2.— Hop dog. 0. padibvnda. x 120. 
„ S.—Oak eggar. B. gturcus. x 120. 
„ 1.— Lappet, i. giurcifolia. X 120. 
„ 5.— Satin. L. laliaa. x 120. 
„ 6.— Dtinker. O.potaloria. x 120. 
„ 7. — Btowu tail, £. Ohryiorrlvta. 
a— Ti» " - 

1G<) Tlie Hairs of CaterjnUurs, 

same distance, by threes, fours, fives, &c., until the main body ad- 
vances twenty abreast, in so orderly and compact a manner, that 
no human army could move with greater regularity or be more 
obedient to the word of command. As soon as the leading cater- 
pillar stops, the whole army halts; when he advances, they 
advance, until a fresh pasturage has been found, then they all 
disperse, until some signal calls them all together again. 

Woe betide the luckless individual who approaches them while 
on the march, or incautiously handles them, for the tufts of short 
hairs, with which they are covered, possess the power of producing 
an inflammatory irritation, worse even than the sting of a nettle. 
It is reported that in some cases, where persons have been stung 
severely, serious and sometimes fatal illnesses have resulted. 

Not only when living, but even when dead, the hairs of this 
caterpillar possess the same urticating properties. Thus Eeamur, 
who has written a monograph on this moth, states that he suffered, 
after handUng the dead caterpillar, for days with an itching, in conse- 
quence of some of the short stiff hairs sticking in his skin, and being, 
at first, ignorant of the cause, and rubbing his eyes with his hands, 
he brought on such a swelling of the eyelids that he could scarcely 
open them. Bonnet, too, who lifted some of these caterpillars 
from water in which they had been drowned, felt a numbness of 
the fingers, followed by an itching and burning sensation. 

Fortunately or unfortunately, I have not come across this cater- 
pillar, which abounds in Prance, and in 1865 was the cause of so 
much annoyance to promenaders in the neighbourhood of Paris 
that parts of the Bois de Boulogne were closed to prevent discom- 
fort to those who incautiously approached the trees, where the 
larvaB were, so that I only know the hairs from published drawings 
of them. 

We have in this country several caterpillars whose hairs pro- 
duce the same or similar effects with some people, and as these 
hairs present microscopically diversity of form I will specially 
direct attention to them. Among the most notable are L, querd- 
folia, the lappet ; 0. potatoria, the drinker ; B. neustria, the 
lackey ; B. quercus, oak eggar ; E» lanestris, smalLeggar ; 0. pudi- 
himda, hop dog; 0, antiqua, vapourer; L, dispar, the gipsy; 
L» salids, the satin; L, aurijlua and L. chrysorrhasa, gold and 
brown tails; together with C. caja, and C. villica,, the garden and 
the cream spot tiger. All these with some persons produce, when 
handled, either in the living or dead state, itching, inflammation, 
and swelling of the parts affected for days; 

There is one very extraordinary fact connected with these hairs, 
viz. that while some are affected even if only the fingers touch the 
hairs, others can handle some with impunity, and cannot come near 
others without experiencing discomfort. I have known cases where 

The Hairs of Caterpillars. 167 

even the most careful handling of the brown tail has caused pain, 
and the person so aflfected, incautiously like Keamur, rubbing the 
face, could scarcely see out of his eyes for days after. When the 
hairs of this caterpillar are examined under the microscope the 
wonder ceases, as it will be seen they are admirably adapted to 
penetrate, whichever end touches the skin, while the jagged portion, 
barbed like an arrow, remains firmly fixed in the wound. 

The typical form of hair among caterpillars is cylindrical and 
terminating in a sharp point ; the hair itself being composed of 
the same chitonous substance as the skin of the animal, generally 
hollow and lined with a substance, which seems to resemble cutis. 
Many, if not all, hairs, in the living state, contain fluid matter, 

fossibly of the same nature as the circulatory fluid of the animal, 
nstead of springing from a bulb, as in mammals, the base of the 
hair is inserted in a socket, a ring-shaped projection, from which 
the hair easily parts company. Examples of simple hairs of this 
character may be obtained from the larvae of the oak eggar and 
lappet, both of which irritate some persons. The larvae in each 
case utilize their hairs in forming their cocoons, as is often pain- 
fully evident to some, when handling them. A member of my 
family cannot touch a cocoon of the oak eggar, however old it may 
be, without annoyance, while I can handle them with impunity. 

In the case of the garden tiger, hop dog, and some others, 
the hairs are deeply spinous from point to base. In the satin, 
sycamore tussock, and some others, the spines are thickly studded 
along the whole hair. In the case of the gipsy, the drinker, and 
the lackey, all of which, and especially the last named, punish some 
very severely, the hairs are very fine and beset throughout their 
length by very minute spines. In the brown tail, among longer 
spinous hairs, are immense numbers of very minute ones jointed 
throughout their length, and readily separating into barbs sharply 
pointed at one end and trifid at the other. These hairs part from 
the caterpillar so readily that persons looking at them, while they 
were feeding, have felt annoyance, as though the mere movement of 
the caterpillar separated the hairs, which, Uke those of the pro- 
cessionary moth, were wafted by the wind. Some very peculiar 
hairs are found on the vapourer, knobbed and plumed at the end ; 
a similar, but more extensive knob is seen on wie hairs of a South 
American caterpillar. The hairs on the tortoiseshell and other 
Vanessidae are very stout and jointed, while those from the white- 
plume moth caterpillar are imbricated and have somewhat the 
appearance of wool: suflScient has been said to show there is so 
great variety and beauty among caterpillar hairs as to recommend 
them to the notice of microscopists, who have simply studied, 
as far as I can gather, those from the larvae of Dermestes and the 
pencil tail, which are well known as test objects of great beauty. 

N 2 

A quoation may arise, Whence tho urticiiting power? In the 
hair alone, or Bome irritating antstaiice within the hair? I am 
inclined to the former, because hail's from cast ekine kept for years, 
and from cocoona two or three years old, are equally nrticatiag 
with those from a living caterpillar, as are also tho hairs mingled 
witli the webs spun by some of the sociable larvat. I look upon it 
-88 a merely mechanical action, similar to that produced by the 
hairs of the prickly pear, those from the interior of tho fruit of 
the wild rose or Cowhage, Dolichas urens, all of which are equally 
productive of irritation, inflammation, and feveriahnees. 

To make out their structure caterpillar hairs should be mounted 
dry, in floid and in balaam. Anyone turning his attention to 
them and not minding the risk of an occasional annoyance will be 
well rewarded for his paitis, and possibly wonder why more atten- 
tion has not been paid by microscopiflta to so interesting and 
instructiye a class of objects. I can only account for the apparent 
neglect on the gronnd that few entomologists work with the 
microscope, and that microscopisla gsnernlly have thought the haire 
of all caterpillars alike, whereas, as with the scales of the lepidoptera, 
so with the hairs of their larvse, there is great variety of form and 

Finding so little said about them, and having moreover worked 
at them for some years, I considered the subject of sufficient 
interest to bring before the Society, with the hope that some 
members may be induced to carry it further than I have done at 
present, and to show to our lepidopterists that there is much in tho 
economy and philosophy of their branch of study worthy of being 
critically examined. 

II, — On Bog Mosses. By R. Biuitowaite, M.D., F.L.8. 
Plates LXXVI. and LXSVII. 

16. Sphagnum Lindbergii Schimper. 

Torflnorae, p. 67, Tab. SST. (1858). 

Plate LXXVI. 

Syn.— BcHiMPEB Sjnoii. p. 679 (1860).— Limubebu Torfnj. No. 2 CSGS).— 

Habtm. Bkand. Fl. p. Sl (1864).— Eibsow loifra. p. 54" (1864).— Miujb Biyol. 

8Jles. p. 3SS (1869),-— ArsTiN Muec. AiipBlach. No. 40 (1870). 

Sph. c'Sfn'daium B fiitmna and Spb. fnlram Sebdtbeb Mbs. Sfih, ctispidatum 
liHDBBBG ill Bot. Notieer 1856, p. 122. 

Monoicous, in laige dense tufts 6-12 in. high, glossy ycUouisk 
I green, imged with ferruginous or purplish brown. Stem solid, dark 
I oroMJM, with 3-4 eortical siraia formed of irregular sized cells 
, without pores. CauJine leaves crowded, refleaxd, broadly lingidate, 
[ awriclea, the ajiex Iroad, hvncaie and fringed ; basal cells 
► hexagonal, in four rows, pale brown, then becoming narrow and 

•hglfoiffiiyTfterBstopteM JngmalBeta.1674-, Tl,i; 


On Bog Mosses. 169 

elongated, with a few imperfect fibres in the lateral cells, these 
bound a central triangle, the b^se of which is formed by the apical 
margin, and this space is occupied by large loose rhombic cells, 
broader and 2-3 partite at the apex of leaf; both fibres and pores 
occur sparingly in the auricles. 

Fascicles of 4-5 hrancheSy of which 2-3 are arcuate and 
divergerdy the others pendent^ elongated and closely appressed to 
stem. Eetort cells of the branches larger, recurved at apex. 

Branch leaves numerous, in five rows, not undulated, firm, 
brownish or ferruginous green., rather glossy, ovate at base 
becoming lanceolate above, toothed and involute ai apex ; hyaline 
cells elongated, with numerous annular and spiral fibres, and 
many minute pores at margin ; chlorophyll cells narrow, elliptic in 
section, quite enclosed but nearest to the back of leaf; border widest 
at base, formed of 3-4 rows of very narrow cells, 

Male inflorescence consisting of few antheridia which are borne 
on the pendent branches. 

Capsules numerous, seated in the capitulum, moderately elevated ; 
perichastium large, inflated, the bracts yellowish green, lower 
elongated oblong, upper broadly obovate — oblong, convolute, trun- 
cate and fimbriate at apex, transversely undulate at base, without 
fibres or pores. Spores yellow. 

Hab. — Deep bogs in the northern region of Europe. Discovered 
by Lindberg in 1856 near Lakes Betsetjaur, Skutijaur and Stora- 
vaviken in Pitean Lapland, and since found to be pretty generally 
distributed in other parts of Lapland as well as in Finland and 
the north of Sweden; Dovrefjeld, Norway (Berggren); in the 
Eiesengebirge, Silesia (Milde) ; Alps of Salzburg (Sauter).. In 
this country it was found in 1867 by McKinlay on Ben Wyvis in 
Koss-shire, and in America it has been met with in Canada, 
Newfoundland, and Greenland. Fr. July. 

This fine species closely resembles Sph. intermedium, but is 
readily known by the difierent form of the stem leaves, and the 
non-undulated branch leaves unaltered by drying, as well as by the 
glossy reddish brown colour. The species also appears to be 
subject to hardly any variation, and will doubtless be found in 
other localities in the north of Scotland. 


Sphagnum Lindbergii. 
a. — Fertile plant. 

1. — Part of stem and branch fascicle. 
3. — Fruit and perichsetium. 4.— Bract from same. 
5. — Stem leaves. 5 a a. — Areolation of apex of same x 60. 5 a 6. — Ditto of 

basal wing. 
6. — Leaves from middle of a divergent branch. Gp. — Point of same. 6x,^^ 

Transverse section. 6 c— Cell from middle x 200, 
7. — Basal intermediate leaf. 
9 J?. — Part of section of stem. 
10. — Part of a brandi denuded of leaves. 

On So</ Moaies. 

17. Sphagnnm Wnlfii G-irgensohn, 

Archiy fur NaturliunJo Liv — , EbI — ■ nnd KurlnndB, Sot. 2, BhoiI 11^ ' 

p. 173 C18«0). 

Plate LXXTII. 

iyn.—Sph. Wuljianum GnKjENBOUN i.e.— Bot. Zeit. 1862, p. 247.— KuB« 

Tiirfm. p. 66 (1864).— MiLDH Bryoi. Silea. p. 383 (1869). 

AnnTH Unac. App&lacb. No. 32 (I8T0). Sph. jiycnocfuiium AKoeTBCOi Msa. 
Babesil Bryoth. Enr. fa»c. XV, Ho. 709. 

MonoicouB. Plants robust, 5-10 in. high, yellowish or brownish 
green or Bometimes deep green, in loosely cohering tuftB. Sievi 
simjile, or aometimeB divided, Haekish hroum, straight, solid, densely 
ramulo&e, with two cortical strata of small non-porose cells, the 
woody zone purple, of 5-6 rows of strongly thickened cells. 
Bamuli 7-12 in each fascicle, of which 3-5 are divergent, short, 
tiightly arched, becoming clavate upward and then suddenly 
pointed ; the rest deflesed and closely, appressed to stem, very long 
and slender, lax-leflved, usuflUy of a pale rose colour ; the porose 
cortical cells short and scarcely differing from the rest. Branches 
of the coma short, thick, numerous, forming a large dense 

Caaline leaves very small, from a broad base lingnlate- 
' triangular, reflexed; the hyaline cells repeatedly diyided, without 
fibres or pores, those in the middle rhomboidal, becoming narrower 
towards the margin, where they form a border of 3-0 rows. 

Bamuline leaves imbricated, erecio-paieni, recurved in their 
upper half or subsquarrose, all with a border of two rows of very 
narrow cells ; the basal minute oTato-lanceolate, the median ovate, 
elongato-lancedate, with the margin involute a^\d shoiily 3-4 
toothed at apex, the uppermost narrowly lanceolate, scarcely 
toothed. Hyaline cells with annular fibres, upper with numeroiM 
small pores on each side of cell, lower lateral with large pores which 
become fewer in those at the middle of leaf. Chlorophyll cells 
compressed, enclosed by the hyali-ne in the upper part <f leaf, but 
in the lower pari free both on the inner and outer surface, and 
rectangular in section, 

Male inflorescence purple, at the apex of the divergent branches. 

Fruits clustered in the capitulum, but moderately exserted ; 
perichffitium straw-coloured or pink, lower bracts ovate acuminate, 
concave, recurved at apex, upper elongate oblong, shghtly emargi- 
nate and somewhat recurved at point, convolute, without fibres or 
pores. Caffflule small globose, b^kish brown, spores pale yellow. 

Yar. |8, squarrosulum Eussow. 

Leavra of the longer divergent branches squarroae, with more 
numerous pores. 

Hab. — Wet pine-woods, rEtre, Techelfer woods near Dorpat, 
Sequent (Girgensohn 1847); Kaddak near Reval, AUentacken 

"ielfcr.lhly rji&rij^oo-p-.csl Jo-um.alOcl:l.lS^;4. PIL^ 

The Pebrine Corpuscles in the Silkworm. 171 

and Appelsee (Kussow) ; Jamni — Les near Permeskiill (Gruner). 

Bergfnnda near Lyeksele, Lapland (J. Angstrom 1864). Belle- 
ville, Canada (Macoun, Fowler). Near New York (Howe, Peck, 
Austin). Fr. July. 

This rare and beautiful species may be readily known by its 
clavate divergent branches and the large number of them in each 
fascicle, as well as by the small stem leaves and the dense globose 
capitulum ; in all other points its afl^ity lies clearly with 8ph. 


Sphagnum Wulfii. 
a. — Fertile plant. 

1. — Part of stem and branch fascicle. 
3. — Fruit and perichsBtium. 4. — Bract from same. 

5. — Stem leaves. 5 a a. — Areolation of apex of same. 5 a b. — Ditto of basal wing. 
6. — Leaves from middle of a divergent branch. 6p. — Point of same. 6x. — 

Transverse sections, ' from upper part, " from lower part. 6 c— Cells ' from 

upper part, " from lower lateral part x 200. 
7. — Basal intermediate leaf. 
8. — Lciif from a pendent branch. 
9 X. — Part of section of stem. 
10. — Part of a branch denuded of leaves. 

III. — The Pebrine Corpuscles in the Silkworm, and wliat thejj 

are analogous to. 

In the year 1865, Pasteur was instructed by the French Miiiister 
of Agriculture to specially investigate and report upon the diseases 
incident to silkworms. During the interval between the years 1853 
and 1865, these disorders had reduced the annual production of 
cocoons in France from sixty-five to ten millions of pounds. In 
the admirable work which resulted from his laborious researches,* 
the author remarks : " Certain disorders of the human race are ac- 
companied by spots upon the skin, which originate in consequence 
of various alterations of the intestinal canal. This is not the sole 
observation apphcable to human pathology which the experiments 
detailed in this work will suggest to the intelligent reader." 

Diseases of the higher and lower orders of the animal kingdom 
are undoubtedly subject to similar conditions, in their genesis, 
resolution, or fatal issue. It is more logical as well as more con* 
sonant with scientific method, to observe the uniformity of a patho- 
logical law in the caries of an elephant's dentine, and the gangrene 

* * £tade snr la Maladie des Vers-k-soie, moyen pratique assure de la com- 
battre et d'en pr^venir le retour,' par M. L. Pasteur, Membre de Tlnstitut Imperial 
de France, et de la SocicJt^ Eoyale de Londres. Paris : 1870. This work is the 
source from which have been obtained all the facts relative to the contagious 
disease of the silkworm, to which reference is made in this paper. 

172 The Pd/rine Corpuscles in the Silkworm, 

of a spider's foot, than to seek with Huxley for a community of 
protoplasm between the finner whale and the fungus upon 'a fly. 
The ciUas of the vorticella and of the human bronchi are not 
identical in structure, but they move in obedience to a similar 

A medical friend once remarked to the writer of these pages, 
that the periodical visitations and ravages of insects presented a 
striking analogy to the recurrence and devastation of epidemic 
diseases. It is well worth the investigation to inquire if they be 
not alike dependent upon similar hygrometric and thermometric 
conditions of the soil and atmosphere. 

It is proposed here to point out the analogies which exist be- 
tween the pebrine of the silkworm and syphilis in man, not because 
these analogies might be so interpreted as to indicate that the two 
disorders have, in common, a parasitic origin. It is because the 
knowledge we at present possess relative to contagion is so scanty, 
that it mav be said every new observation of its phenomena 
stimulates the belief that that which is unknown and yet knowable 
is largely in excess of that which is known regarding it. 

Bumstead, referring to this subject in a recent paper,* says : 

" The fact is, that a new field for investigation and experiment 
has been opened, which no one has as yet fully explored, and no 
one can pretend to understand. The exploration of this field 
promises to throw light, not only upon syphilis, but upon other 
contagious diseases, and even to add to our knowledge of the 
nature of specific poisons in general ; but the work is yet undone, 
and any conclusions at this time are only premature." 

It is preferable to select syphilis for the study of the analogies 
referred to above, first, because it is a disease produced by a tangible 
virus ; and, second, because of the multiformity of its results. It 
is possible to secure upon the point of the lancet a drop of matter 
wmch we can prove to be capable of producing all the complications 
of the disease. This is also true of pebrine. While we have, 
however, an equal opportunity of isolating the maferies morM in 
vaccinia, variola, maugnant pustule, and certain other maladies, the 
polymorphism of the results produced is not equally marked as a 
basis for comparison. 

It is, perhaps, proper to admit, at the outset, that the investi- 
gations of Professors Strieker and Kobner have completely exploded 
the theories of Lostorfer, Salisbury, and others, as to the existence 
and causality of crypta syphilitica. We have no additional informa- 
tion which would warrant us in reviving such dead issues. That 
is not the purpose of this paper. It is here intended merely to 
exhibit a general agreement between the origin and evolution of 
two contagious diseases, existing in two widely-separated orders 

♦ * Ain. Jour, of the Medical Sciences/ April, 1873. 

The P^mne Corpuscles in tke Silkworm. ' 173 

of aDimals, in or^er tbat Uig classical featnro of contagion in an 
extended area may Iw better appreciated. 

The silkworm, as is well knowD, is the larve of the Bomhjx 
mori, which deposits an OYum, from which, in turn, the caterpillar 
is produced. The latter, after undergoing foor {in some races 
three) distinct changes of integument, becomes a pupa or chrysaiis, 
and surrounds itaell' with the silk eocoon. From this, lastly, the 
perfect moth — imago of natoralista — cflects its escape. When it 
IS considered that, in a period of between thirty and thirty-five 
days, the caterpillar increases in size till it becomes eight or ten 
thousand times larger than the newly-escaped Inrvo, it will bo 
seen that organic life is displayed with tinequallod activity in 
its development. Diseases, tlierefore, cannot but progress, pari 
passu, wim an intensity proportioned to the -energy of the vital 

In tho human economy, of what paramount importauee to its 
conservation are the critical phases of the lirgt and second denti- 
tion, the arrival of puberty, and the change of the menopause ! In 
tho silkworm no less than seven equally important crises occur, 
during a comparatively short interval — the cycle of a brief existence, 
whose momentous stages oiler nnuBual facilities for the encroach- 
ment of disease. 

It is to he remarked, if we begin with the earliest phases of the 
two disorders, that, 

1, Pebrme and syphilis are alike producible hy arHfieial 
inoculation. Pasteur produced a liquid capable of inoculation, by 
bruising a diseased worm and mixing the mass with a small quantity 
of water, A number of worms were selected, careftilly esamined 
in order to ensure their soundness, and thoroughly cleansed by 
washing, so that no germs might remain in contact with the skin. 
He then made a small puncture in one of the posterior rings of the 
body of each, and inoculated the wound by inserting into it a needle 
dipped in the infecting liquid. The wounds readily cicatrized, and 
iiotuing but a black or dark-colonred spot was soon visible in the 
site of the puncture. Of twenty worms inoculated in this manner, 
on one occasion, seven became diseased to such an extent as to 
exhibit from fifty to two hundred of the corpuscles characteristic 
of pebrine, in one microscopic field. The experimenter explains 
why no larger proportion of successful inoculations was made: 
"The blood which escapes from tlie wound does not invariably 
permit of penetration by the corpuscles which are intended to pro- 
dnce infection." Audoin is said to have observed the same fact in 
his inoculations. Many an experienced physician has failed of snc- 
cessfol vaccination for a similar reason. 

It should be Etat«d, however, that most frequently pebrine is 
produced by the ingestion of corpuscular germs when the worm is 


174 The Pebrine Cor^uaeha in tlie Silkioorm. 

feeding upon the mulberry leaf. The corpuaclts are thon fouud 
distributed over the sntiace of the leaf in debria ; and a singla 
repast is said to be sufficient to occoBion the diseoae. It is worthy 
ofnote that an intestinal lesion is then produced. 

It cannot be doubted that chancres would in like manner result, 
if, by any natural process, the secretion from similar sores conld be 
apphed to the mucous surface of the intestines. But it may well 
be doubted if tbia species of infection of the primre yias ever occuzs 
in the human subject. A vaccinicultorist of this city, however, 
once informed the writer that he was in receipt of numerous orden^ 
from practitioners of the homceopathie delusion, who desired tq 
secure an infinitesimal quantity of Taccine vims, rubbed up wilih 
sugar of milt for internal administration ! 

2. Pehrine and aifphilis are alike communicabh hy aendeniai 
inoeviation. Past«ur discorered numerous cicatrices in healthj 
worms, which resulted from wounds. These wounds were inflicted 
by booklets attached to the ajiterior organs of locomotion, in tbosa 
caterpillare with which they had come into frequent contact.- 
These were never seen in isolated individuals. He remai'ks that 
not infrequently these sharp booklets, by which the caterpillar i9 
enabled to cling to the leaf upon which it feeds, are inserted into 
the fseces or integument of diseased worms, and sulfflequently into 
the bodies of those that are sound, thns serving to propagate the 
disease by accidental inoculation. It is evident that there is herJ 
also the possibility of the production of mediate contamination, th( 
porte-viruB (if it be allowable to coin a suggestiTe word) beina 
exempt from infection. 

3. Pebrine and syphilis alike require a period if inatbcUiotij 
before the pJienomena of i/eneral disease appear, Pasteur di» 
covered that after accidental or artificial inoculation, and nlso afta 
the ingestion of disease germa, a period of from t«n to twelve dsyl( 
elapsed before external manifestations of pebrine appeared, BJ 
feeding a namber of larves with the solution which has been already 
referred to, and by killing and carefully examining a fixed number 
of bodies at consecutive dateB, he was enabled to follow the evolit 
tion of the disease, and to trace its natural history. In everj 
instance the period of incubation was noted. This is such a con* 
stant concomitant of contagions diseases, that it may well b^; 
considered essential to their liiU development." 

4. The first general indications of constiiutional disease t'lj 
pehrine and syphilis appear as integumentary lesions. In thi 
course of the experiments conducted by Pasteur, whenever a nnmbet 
of larves were selected for inocidation or infection, a similar numboE 
of the same age and habitat were set aside in a healthy conditumt 
in order to serve the purposes of comparison. At the expiration o 

* See ' Nonv. Diet do Med. et do Chi. Jaocoud' nrt. ''Contagion." 

The Pebrine Corpuscles in the Sffkworm. 

^^KtVbn period of incnbation previooaly refeiTod to, a very sensiblo in- 
^ equality waa noticeable in these two olasaes. Those which were left 
uninfected, displayed unmistakable evidence of greater well-being ; 
while the diseased worms, when examined by the aid of a lens, 
exhibited namerons exceesiTely anmtl spots or macnlsB, Idtherto 
Tuinotieeable, about the head and rings. These lesions did not at 
first indicate tho presence of the characteristic corpuscles in the 
skin. The " extension of the latter from centre to circumference 
had not yet affected the external organs. These surface spots," 
says Pasteur, "only occur when tlie internal skin, if I may be 
allowed the expr^sion, is affected to sach a degree as to seriously 
interfere with the functions of digestion and assimilation." 

Subsequently, howorer, integumentary lesions were produced 
which, upon careful examination, were found to contain the pebrine 
corpuscles. It is difficult to recognize tho distinction ber6 esta- 
blialied, and not recall the difference between those superficial 
syphilides, whicb disappear readily under appropriate tr^tment, 
and those which contfon a specific morbid product. One instinc- 
tively recurs to the theory of Jonathan Hutchinson and others, that 
the lesions of secondary syphilis are febrile phenomena. These 
precede the deposits of tertiary forma, in which the " still-born " 
product of Lancereaux is to be distinguished. 

The patches upon tho integmnent in pebrine are generally of a 
(lark colour, sometimes black (whence the name), some more and 
some less clearly defined. The petechial character of this stage of 
the disease has giveu it the name by which it is known among the 
Italians (Petechia of the Silkworma). When completely developod, 
these stams are surrounded by a yellowish areola, which exhibits 
various gradations in colour. Sometimes they constituto tlie sole 
symptoms of the diseaae. 

M. Quatre&ges, with whose opinions Pasteur is not in com- 
plete accord, declares that the alterations, described above, are 
best studied in the skin of the young larves. In these be could 
occasionally descry nothing more than a yellowish tint, slightly 
obscuring the hyaline trauaparency of the tissues. Somewhat 
later, a darker stain became viaiblo, shading gradually iuto 
brown, imtil the tranalucence of the epidermis waa lost. Finally, 
a brownish-black stigma remained, which was accompanied by a 
disappearance of all traces of organization. About this, as a 
nucleus, a yellowish areola extended, which, in his opinion, 
marked the incision of the surrounding tissaee. This process 
generally continued until arrested, either by the death of the 
worm, or by the regular replacement of the old by a new integu- 
ment. In the course of two or three days, however, the new 
cuticle, which at first appeared entirely normal, waa in ite tui'n 
aftected by the disease, " proving," says Quatrefagee, " that tho 

I7G The P^-ine Corp\ 

leaioiia wore not local [lUenompaa, bat signs of a constitntioQ^ 
malady, dependent upon a profound cause." 

Piisteur has noted that the dQ7elopmeat of the pebrina cor- 
pnsoles proceeds with an nnesampled rapidity daring these periods. 
of metamorphosis — a circumstance which our knowledge of the 
laws of pathology woakl lead m to expect. He disagrees with.' 
Qnatrefages in the sapposition that the integnmentary lesions are' 
locahzed foci, from which a qnasi-gangrenons process extends ta- 
the invasion of adjacent tissue; but considers each stigma to ba' 
a resultant of corpuscular development, and the changes in th« 
ap{)earance of the maenlie not due to molecular death, bnt tm 
neoplastic hyperplasia. 

In addition to the syrnptoma noted above, certain other indica^ 
tions of disease are described in the adult moth, as, for exranple^* 
vflsieles, varices, and bullra filled with a sanguinolent fluid, under 
or near the wings. Some of these were observed to burst, and 
their contents, escaping and drying, were found to form adherent 
crusts, black and viscous, of the size of a pea. 

5, Pebrine and syphilia are alike productive of a specifie 
adenopaiky. The secretion of the silk-glands of the pupa ha3 
solely conbributed to the value placed upon the insect by the com- 
mercial world. In a pathological point of view, these glanda 
poasess Gspeeial importance from the feet that they are rapidl; 
affected in pebrine. The large pentagonal cells which surrouui 
the canal where the silk is secreted in a viscous state, exhibit in a 
diseased condition numbers of oval corpuscles, crowded together, 
and sometimefl collected in such masses that they lend an appear- 
ance of hypertrophy to the glandular tissue. Viewed with a low 
power, they exhibit whitish projections brilliant in colour, of oval 
form, and very clear definition. They are, without doubt, eridenca 
of the extension of the disease to the visceral organs of the worms : 
and the total incapacity of the larvee to produce cocoons — those of 
them, at least, which are profoundly affected — ia a proof of tha 
destructive agency exerted by the glandular neoplasms. 

In syphil^, not only are those glands affected which are in the 
chain of the great system of lymphatics, but those which are 
actively concerned in hrematopoesis. There is strong reason to 
believe that, aade from the development of hepatic- gummata, 
iisually found in the tertiary stage, one of the earliest symptoms 
of constitutional syphilis is dependent upon some disturbance of 
the glycogenic function of the liver. Dr. Charlea Murchison 
has recently concluded," after reviewing the discoveries of Hoppe 
Ssyler, Bernard, Lehmann, McDonnell, Hirt, of Zittan, Weber, 
and Kolliker, that " the glycogen secreted in the liver cell com- 
bines with nitrogen and forma an azotised protoplasm which main- 
* 'Lttutut,' June, lB7i. 


The Purine Corpuscles in the Silkworm. 177 

bins the nutrition of the blood auJ tissnea." In this light the 
K«hloroaiiiEniia of early syphiHa is most readily explained— a con- 
mdition which is constaat in all but benign casoa, and which conati- 
fctntea an important indication for saecesafnl treatment. 

G. Pebrine and syphUis are, alike, diseases of the hlood. In 
a healthy state the blood of the larve is a transparent albuminous 
J'flnid — colourless in the ease of those races which produco white 
"k; and golden yellow in those which produce yellow silk. Under 
1 microscope, innumerable spherical bodies appear, of varioua 
sa, the largest of which does not in ita greatest diameter exceed 
, '0039 of an inch. They seem endowed with individual vitality, 
^d continually reproduce themselves during the life of the insect. 
I When the latter is infected with pebrine, the number of the blood- 
Iglobules decreasM — thus inducing n species of chloroansBmia^ — and 
W.&e albuminous fluid becomes charged with an immense number of 

■ minute animated corpuscles '01 of an inch in diameter, increasing 
( in proportion to the disappearance of ita normal ingredients. These 
[ are the pebrine corpuscles ali-eady described, which Pasteur is dis- 
I posed to regard as the parasitic germs of a species of psorosperm. 
j.They are oval or reniform in contonr, destitute of cihte, and move 
Y tapidly, apparently at will, sometimes advancing and sometimes 

■ Teceding in the vascular ehauncl. 

The genia " psorosperm " was first established by Jean Mullcr, 
after his observation of certain anomalous organisms- in different 
varieties of fishes, and especially in the freah-water pike. But 
certain later expressions of Pasteur seem to imply that his mind is 
not perfectly clear as to the parasitic character of the germs de- 
scribed by him. In some of his communications to the Academy 
of iSciencea, for example, he wea language &om which it might be 
inferred that the disease originated in generations of the ancestora 
of these worms, whose connective tissue had undergone a pecuhar 

It is well known that Beale * adduces very strong grounds for 
the belief that contagious disease germs are not parasites, and his 
opinions are largely the result of researches upon the subject of the 
cattle-plague. Let it be supposed, ill accordance with his views, 
that the corpuscles dracribed by Pasteur are bioplasts — contagious 
living disease germs— that they are the descendants of blood or 
tissue bioplasts; that subsequently, either by hyper-nutrition or 
retrogression, they have undergone a conversion of energy, and 
become powerful to self-mnltiply indefinitely, and powerless to 
build up new and normal structures. This would explain the 
amoebiform movement of the pebrine corpnaclra, their contagious- 
ness, their virulence, and their destructiveness. Not only so, but it 
nild do away with tlie need of resorting to a novel species of 
Disease Gtrma; Ih^ir Nnture and Origin,' LioiibI S, Bcale, I/mdon: 1873. 

17S TJte Pebrine Cor^iecles in tite Silkworm. 

pamsite, ia ordor to explain the phenomena. It shonld be atatod 
in thia connection, that Baale considers the obaervationa of both 
Pouchot and Pagtenr open to objections upon the ground of their 
employment of very low powerg. Many of the germs figured by 
Beale were viewed with an objective of one-fiftieth of an inch focal 
^stance, enlarging the dimensions of these organisms 2800 dia- 

In sncb a field as thb, speculation is illusory, and scientific 
deductions are alone to be desired. Still the general trend of the 
exposed strata is in one direction. Thej to whom the conservation 
and transmutation of forces is an unalterable fiict of physics, have 
no difliculty in believing that there is a similar law to wliicli the 
vital forces are subject. Heat, light, and electricity are shown to 
be modes of motion — interchangeable and intercurrent. The day 
is, perhaps, not for distant, when it will be clear that contagious 
and other diseases, which betray themselves by structural lesions, 
depend upon the mode of motion of the bioplast. This motion is 
known to be the measure of its energy. Can we not even declare 
that it is tbe essential condition of its vitality ? Motionless bio- 
plasm is dead. The transmutation of a normal to an abnormal 
energy should, therefore, produce disease and ultimate death. If 
this can be shown, it will be apparent that by an inversion of this 
proc«B8 restoration from disease occnrs. 

Guerin-Meneville, in a report to the French Agricnltnral 
Society in 1849 — mark the date! — gives eipresaion to the same 
general thought. " It seems clear fo me," said he, " that these 
grannies (pebrine corpuscles) are tbe elements of new blood- 
globules, normally produced and launched into the vascular cur- 
rents of healthy worms ; but in pathological conditions they lack 
certain essential elements, and are therefore arrested in the pro- 
gress of development." 

Pasteur descrilies the mature corpuscles as brilhant of refrac- 
tion and ovoid in shape. They subsequently become pyriform, 
sarronnd themselvea with a double envelope, and exhibit a slight 
flattening at the narrower extremity. They contain granules, 
either fi-ce or adherent to the cell-wall, and these, he beheves, after 
their exit by rapture of the cell-envelope, serve as new centres for 
the development of new corpnscles, and thus extend the disease. 
The tissue of these organisms was supposed to contain sarcode. 

7. PebriTie and sifphilk are hereditary disorders. The 
transmission of the disease of the silkworm from one generation 
to another, has been the most fruitful source of evil in the pro- 
pf^tiou of the species. Unfortunately, before the microscope had 
been employed iu the study of the malady, sericultarists could not 
be persuaded to beheye that apparently healthy ova fi'om parents 

^ The Pdirine Oorpva^s in (he SUknoorm. 179 

^^1 of eqtmt apparent health, coDtaliied the seeds of the devastatioQ 
^^B which had blasted their hopes of profit for the preceding year. 
^^B Such, however, has been too fireqaently the case ; and the saccess 
^^H of Pasteur in totally eliminating the disease from those nurseries in 
^^V which his method was pnrsned, was due to his recognition of this 
^^H &ct. It is not a little remarkable in this connection, to observe 
^H that, 

^^H 8. In Purine, as in sypkUia, when one 'parent only is affected 
^^H veith the disease, healthy offspring may he produced. This general 
^^B &ct was demonstrated by a great number of experiments upon the 
^^M coupling of moths, in which there was nndoubted evidence of cor- 
^^H pnscular disease either of the male or the female. It appeared 
^^H also from these experiments, that ova entirely sound were gene- 
^^H rated occasionally by males who axLibitcd very extensive ti'ac^ of 
^^H the malady, when assorted with females who, while they were indu- 
^^H bitably infected, yet exhibited very few of the pathognomonic lesions 
^^H of pebrine. The experimenter explained these circumstances by 
^^H the conditions incidental to the chrysalis. If the latter became 
^^H infected with pebrine so as to exhibit corpuscles very soon after the 
^^H formation of the cocoon, the moth, and its ova were almost certain 
^^B to be similaj-ly diseased. But if this development did not occur 
^^H imtil near the time tor the escape of the imago, then the ova of the 
^^H moth uight be entirely sound. lb the case of the syphilitic ovum, 
^^H similar results are said to be declared, according as infection occurs 
^^H eBjIy or late in utero-gestation. 

^^H Other analogies between these diseases obviously exist which 
^^H might be in turn the subject of comment. Such, for example, are 
^^H the involvement of the nervous system and centres in each — the 
^^H infecnndity of infected females who are liable to sterihty and the 
^^H production of blighted germs ; the non-inocukbility of the infec- 
^^B iious matter obtained during the later stages of each disease, and 
^^K the liability of each to complication by the advent of other 
^^~ maladies. 

It should be stated that Pasteur himseK is disposed to regard 
pebrine as analogous to pulmonary phthisis. But he is careful 
to announce that in establishing a resemblance between the facts 

i which he has observed and those relative to diseases of the 
Ituman race, he does not speak as an expert.* The hereditary 
influence of phthisis seems to have attracted his attention to this 
But there are many objections to this view founded upon the 
clinical history of tuberculosis. This latter disease is neither 

• " Je desire toutefoia que roc 
j'itiiblia dea aMimildtiina eutre 

VOL, xn. 

eache bieu iiue ja pnrla en profane, lorsqiiB 
Bfl fuits que j'ai ..bservra Bt Im malaiicB 




infectioua, contagions, nor inociilable.* Nor does it prodnce a 
pathognomonic cntaneons lesion. 

It is tme, as stated by Pasteur, that children bora of phthisical 
parents may, in some instances, merely become more or less sickly, 
while in omers tnbercie may be developed in different degrees at 
various agee. But one has not to consult the statistics of con- 
sumption in order to establish this diversity in the evolation of 
herwlitary disease. Congenital syphilis may infect the ovum, the 
fcetus at term, and the intaut newly born or which has survived for 
weeks and months. But this is not the limit of its efi'ect. Massa 
narrates cases in which the disease was developed between three 
and eleven years of ago ; BaUing, similar instances at the age of 
sixteen ; Eosen, at eleven ; Baumes, at four ; Cazenave, at eighteen ; 
Fournier, at twenty-five ; Zambaco, at twenty-aJx-t Other authors 
cite cases which illustrate the same point. In the face of these 
observations who will venture to say, " Thus Cir doth it come, and 
no farther" ? 

In concluding the consideration of the general subject here dis- 
cussed, few will refuse to concur with the opinions expressed by 
Dr. William Aitken. " The diseases of the lower animals," says 
this author, " rarely form any part of the study of the student of 
medicine. ITie diseases of plants are almost entirely neglected. 
Yet it is clear that until all theae have been studied, and some 
steps taken to generalize the resnlta, every conclusion in pathology 
regarding the nature of diseases must be the result of a limited 
experience from a limited field of observation." — The Medical 
Examiner, Chicago, July 15tb, 1874. 

IV. — On the Microscopical Characters of the Spvlum in PMhiBts. 

By John Denis Maodonald, M.D., F.E.S., Staff-Surgeon R.N., 

Assistant Professor of Naval Hygiene, Netley Medical School. 

Plateb LXXVin. AND LXXIX. 

It is a question whether, with all our progress in pathology, we 

can satisfactorily diagnose incipient phthisis by the microscopical 

characters of the sputum alone. Critically similar appearances are 

presented in the sputum of chronic hsemorrhagic catarrh, and in a 

very frequent sequel of ordinary pneumonia. Indeed there can be 

* BouiUaad atatus that " the lubeECDloua vims is an hypothesis vhich up to 
the pieaent time rests upon no esact nor trustworthy obserratiiin ; and there doeB 
not exist B. single inalauce of lubBrculoaia of the lungs, or of any part of the body, 
heing produoed in tlie Luiuan apeciea hj nisiinB of spwifio (viralent) inoculation." 
Aa to oootngion, the eiperimouta of Krdt, Villemiu, Simon, Herard, and Clarke 
have been ahowu bjLehert, Nysa, Sanderson, and Pox, Id demonstrate merely tha 
initative character of sahciitaneoua injections of putrid matter. 

t Lancoteauz, 'Troitf do ta Syplulis,' Paris: 1866. 



of the Spvium in PhiMsis. 181 

bnfc littlo doubt that under the designation of PhthiHis, at least 
several distinct maladies are commonly included ; and some of 
Hiese even tend to tha destructioa of the lung tissue in a manner 
Boarcely to be distinguished from the process of ulceration occurring 
in connection with softened tubercle. Nevertheless, the detection 
of this tissue in the expectoration is perhaps the clearest diagnostic 
mark of phthisis that the sputa can afford. Professor Bennett's 
case of the discovery of elastic lung tissue under the microscope, 

Erior to the development of true phthisical symptoms, appears to 
ave been followed by few, if any, other good examples of the kind. 
There is, however, great promise that with improved methods of 
examination, as, for instance, the process recommended and so suc- 
cessfiilly practised by Dr. Fenwick,' much may yet be done to 
elucidate this important point. It nsually happens that at the 
time we are able to trace such anatomical elements in the sputa, 
the disease haa sufficiently manifested its real nature by other 
attending signs and symptoms. It aeems to be generally admitted 
that the charactera of the elastic tissue of the airH3ells are so dis- 
tinctive, that there is little likelihood of anything else being mistaken 
for it, and it is qnite true that an experienced microscopist may not 
confound other fibrous tissues with it. But the tyro must be made 
aware that many things of an extraneous nature will he sure to 
deceive him, unless he makes himself acquainted with the minute 
anatomy of the air-cells, more especially with the microscopical 
appearance and mode of distribution of their supporting fibrous tissue. 
"The accompanying Figs, 1 anil 2, Plate LSXVIII., are selected 
for the guidance of those who may not be fiimiliar with the structura 
of the air-cella. The first represents a portion of inBated and dried 
lung, showing the comparative size and general disposition of the 
air-cellfl, as seen with a half-inch power. The second was drawn 
from a small portion of recent lung divested of its epithelium, and 
treated with acetic acid to render the investing tissues more trans- 
parent, and thus to display the fibrous basis more distinctly (mag- 
nified about 300 diameters). 

Should tubercular matter be deposited in the cells themselves, 
or between the layers of the basement membrane in contact with 
the fibrous tissue, the irritation thus induced will sooner or later 
lead to inflammatory action and the development of its products, 
Wmph and pus. "With the central softening and ultimate breaking 
down of the tubercle, an ulcerative process is set up, by which frag- 
menta of pulmonary tissue become detached and are expectoratetl 
with the surrounding pus and mucus from the bronchial membrane. 
Such fragments are therefore commonly to be found in the sputa 
of persons affected with phthisis, and the credit of having first 
discovered them by the aid of the microscope belongs to Professor 
■ gee ' Lancet,' December 5th, 186B, 



182 On the MieroBeopvxd Charaders 

Schroeder Van der Kolk, who in 1816 first published hia obser- 
vations on the subject, and gava a fresh impetus to the labours of • 
Dr. Andrew Clarke and otnera in this country. How soon after 
the accession of the malady, portions of lung tissue may be detected 
in the sputa, is yet a question to which no definite answer can be 
given, but at an advanced stage there is often very Uttle difficulty 
m finding them. Thus Fig. 3 represents some fragments of fibrous 
tissue taken from a small quantity of greenish purulent mucus 
brought away with a single effort, but supposed by the patient, who 
bad himself been a nurse, to be of some import, judging from his own 
sensations when it was expectorated. Patients frequently direct atten- 
tion to particular portions of their sputa under a similar impression. 

As to the various modes of discovering the presence of lung tissue 
in large or small masses of spatnm, some remarks may be made here. 

First of all, some difficulty may be experienced in removing 
suggestive morsels from the mass, on account of the viscid and ropy 
nature of the surrounding mucus, more or less imbued with pus. 
For this purpose Mr. Sansom lias invented sharp spoon-blade 
forceps, which will be found most effective and useful ; with this 
instrument small portions may be easily taken from different parts 
of the sputum, and separately examined. By careful compression 
the mucus and pus corpuscles, young and old epithelial cells, may 
be reduced to a thin film having a homogeneously granular appear- 
ance, in the midst of which any lung tissue present may be distin- 
guished by its continuity and high refractive power as compared 
with that of the ground. The addition of a Utile acetic acid, how- 
ever, will, on the principle previously explained, bring it out still 
more clearly. 

When the quantity of expectoration is large it may not be easy 
to make a selection of suitable portions for examination, but by 
boiling the whole mass in caustic alkali the ropy plasticity of the 
mucus is reduced to a Hmpid fluidity, with the total destruction of 
the mucus and pus corpuscles. Any indestructible tissue present, 
such as cotton and linen fibre, the elastic tissue of beef or mutton 
used as food, or, what concerns us most, the fibrous tissue, &c., of 
the patient's lungs, will be deposited at the bottom of the ve^el, 
from whence they may be readily removed with a pipette, and placed 
under the microscope. Besidi the elastic tissue, which exhibits 
some sUgbt change in its appearance by this treatment, we often 
find portions of the basement membrane of the air-cells and smaller 
bronchi, and even fragments of the bronchial radicles themselves, 
with unequivocal though &int!y marked rings, (Fig, 3 a.) By 
pouring the sputum thus reduced into tall conical glasses such as 
are used for urinary deposits, all the solid matters will quickly settle 
at the bottom, so that some Httle discrimination may be required 
to distinguish true lung tissue from other subatancea with which it 

■fcM!iitHylfcroscirp3i!alJraraia.Oofl.l874. H.LXXMII. 

,^v i 

WY/e^tU" iUk: 

Sputumm PlitKms- 

/ ,N,;. 




Sputum, m Phthisis. 

wyfiiti^c hik.. 

of the SpUvan in FMhieie. 

ia often entangled. Moreover, the sooner the depoBit ia examined 
tbe better, for by long standing, eepecially if there has been blood 
in the spatum, light cloudy films, which first occupy the upper part 
of the fluid, finally gravitate upon the tissue, and obscure it to a 
considerable extent when removed with a pipette and placed under 
the glass. The remedy for this, however, is shaking and reprecipi- 
tation. For the operation here alluded to, a email beaker adapted 
to the ring of a retort stand, a glass rod for stirring, a spirit lamp, 
a bottle with solution of soda, a tall champagne glass, and a pipette, 
are all the apparatoa required. 

When the case is complicated with much bronchitis, the first 
part of the expectoration with a fit of coaghing usually conaiste of 
frothy mucus, after which it gradually becomes more dense and 
purulent, and better suited for e^tamination. By receiving the 
sputum directly into the beaker at this period, much trouble may 
he saved, and there will be lesa chance of contracting impurities 
from without. 

The more ordinary components of the sputa in phthisis are re- 
presented in Fig. 4, and are particularly noticed in the explanation 
of the Figures. — Transactions of the St Andrew's Medical 
Qraduaies' Association, vol. vi. 

Plate LXXVIH. 
Fio. 1. — A portion of lung, inflated and dried, io order to sliow the general 
nrmngemeiit and compaiatiVB size of tbe nir-oells, as seen with a 
half-inch puwer. 
„ 2. — A portion of reoent Inng, diveatad of tta epithelium »nd treated with 
ttoetio acid, su aa tu Btioir the jellow elastic element and the nuclei 
□f tbe white fibrona tiasne more diBtiactl;. 
Flats LXXIX. 
^, 3, — (ii) Lung tisBiie obtained from the s[)Dtnm of a phthisical patient, b; 
boUing in caustic aoda, as dcacrilied in tbe text. At * are one or 
two portions of minuta branchial tubes, with the rings faintl; but 
unequivocally visible. 
(6) Aaotlior Hpeciinea fzoia. the some sputum, with a atrip of btODchial 
boBemi^it membrane and. subjactnt elastic tissue. 
4. — The more oniiiiEiry nnnjioneJitH of phthisical sputa : — 

(a) Bo«iillc<l exudation oeiU, filled with fiitty granules, and occaaianally 

speckled with pigmeat. 
(6) The liberated contents of <'i)i the globules in some instances running 

(c) Mucoa-corpuBoleB. 
((() PuB-oorpusolea, 
(() Blood-cOTBUsoles. 

(f) Epithelial scales. 

(g) All the foregoing tnalerialfl, with a basis of ptire gt^ry mucus, ex- 
hibitine b striiited appeumnce: and an alteration in the figure of 
acme of the ooipusclea bj- pressure and traction, showing the plastio 
nature of their onb^nts. The mucus, pus, exudation, and epithelial 
cells are but moiliiieatJonB of the same eatntial organism. 

y.—Blue a7id Violet Stainings for YegdiiUe Tissues. 
By Chbistopher Johnston, M.D., Baltimore, U.S.A. 

Without qnestioniag the advantage of viewing vegetable tisBnes, 
isolated or in section, in glycerine or water when freshly obtained, I 
proceed at once to point out methods by which very usefal and 
beautiful tinted objecta of this claas may be prepared and mounted 
IB balsam. 

As in the Bessemer process, iron must be thoroughly decarbonized 
and afterwards regularly doeed with carbon for the making of steel, 
so all colour must be destroyed in or mthdrawu irom vegetable 
structures before a good staining material can be successfully em- 
ployed. Alcohol docolorizea, but its prolonged action crisps the 
tender material ; and although the latter might take the dye, it 
would not always be possible to display the vegetable web, or, in 
many instances, to render it distinctly transparent. But alcohol is 
extremely important, indeed, I should rather say indispensable, in 
the preparation of the class of objects under consideration. For 
whatever may have been the early steps of several processes, alcoholic 
saturation must precede balsamic embalming. 

With our present intention recent plant structurra may be studied 
in two conditions, first, in that requiring the section-cutter, and, 
secondly, in their natural form. And this, without taking into 
account the ultimate dissection accomplished by the knife, by needles, 
by acids, or by alkaUea. As a preliminary to the first it is only 
necessary to keep fresh specimens of plants or parts of plants in 
strong alcohol, in which, after the lapse of a mouth or two, colour 
will oftentimes entirely disappear. Whereupon the desired sections 
may be made, tinted if they be sufficiently blanched, and mounted 
at once. 

For tinting such sections I have used the hiac fluid of Thiersch 
as given in Frey, a double strength hlac fluid, a dilution of the 
hfematoxylin staining fluid of Dr. J. W. S. Arnold of New ¥ork, 
as published in the ' Lens ' of July 1S72, and aqueous solution of 
BniEne blue which I obtained ready made and labelled Blue ink of 
F. 6. Bower and Co., New York. I much prefer the two latter' 
because distinct carmine stainings fatigue the eye when stadied at 
night, while the lilac of logwood, but especially the delicate blue 
purple of the aniline, are most agreeable and not fatiguing at all. 

Arnold's fluid is prepared as follows : — " The ordinary logwood 
estract is finely pulverized in a mortar, and abont three times its 
bulk of alum (in powder) added ; the two ingredients are well rubbed 
np together, and mixed with a small quantity of distilled water. 
The complete admixture of the aJum and hsematoxylin is necessary, 
and this will require fifteen or twenty minuttss' vigorous, tritnration. 


Blu6 and Violet SicUnmffBfor Veg^tMe jTinues. 185 

More water may now be poured on, Eind the solution, after filtration, 
sbonld preeent a clear, somewliat dark violet colour. If a dirty red 
be obtained more alom must be incorporated and the mixture again 
filtered. After standing several days add 75 per cent, alcohol in 
the proportion of two drachma to one ounce of the fluid. Should B 
Bcum form on the suifece of the liquid at any lime, a few drops of 
alcohol and careful filtering will be all that is required. 

Thia fluid colours very rapidly, requiring but a few minutes, 
wbereaB, if a slower tinting be desired, the fiuid may be diluted with 
a mixture of one part al&^ol and three parts water.* 

Aniline blue, of which there are several shades, may be 
disaoived in distilled water. A 1 per cent, solution, to which a 
small qimntity of alcohol and a trace of oxalic acid have been added, 
answers admirably. For convenience I use '■ Bower's Blue Ink," 
slightly acidulate with oxaUc acid. The tint is exactly that of 
Eoberfc Dale and Go.'a Soluble Blue, No. 3. 

The hfematoxyhn colour will not wash out, but the aniline 
bloe will do so unless precaution be taken. 

Having prepared suitable sections of parts having been kept in 
alcohol, place them in a very weak dilution of Arnold's fluid, and 
watching the result, transfer the morsel to dilute alcohol for wash- 
ing, and afterwards to strong alcohol in anticipation of mounting. 

Or immerse the sections in the aniline fluid for five or ten 
minutos, or longer; watch the result; wash in strong alcohol, and 
drop them into absolute alcohol. 

The logwood stainings may be mounted at pleasure ; but the 
aniline dyeings ought to be rendered transparent in oil colours 
as soon as possible, and mounted speedily in a moderately thin 
solution of old hard balsam. If it be intended to display the 
general atmcture let the tint be decided ; but if it be wished to 
give prominence to the veaaeb, for instance, a laint blue only 
should suggest the other parts. 

A weight of a fourth or half-ounce ought to be placed on the 
cover for a week. 

The treatment of thin leaves, or of fresh green sections, is 
entirely different. Colour must first be removed, or else staining 

I would be of little service. The bleaching is to be accomplished 
through the agency of Labarraque's solution of chlorinated soda, in 
which the objects ought to be macerated, and suffered to remain 
until perfectly achromatic and transparent. Immediately thereatter 
others must be transferred to distilled water for an hour or two, 
and then to a 3 per cent, solution of oxalic acid in 50 per cent, 
alcohol, wbicb neutralizes the soda and disposes the tissue to accept 
the aniline dye. 


At the operator's pleasure tho chlorinateil leaves may be soaked 
in pure water for au nour, and afterwards in a 3 per cent. ac[ueonfl 
solution of alnm, in preparation for tlie logwood staining. 

If tlie aniline blue dye be chosen, let tbe acidulate! leaves be 
immersed in the blue fluid, and soaked for twenty or thirty 
minutes. Upon being withdrawn their colour will be foand to be 
■very intense, but washing in 90 per cent, alcohol for half a minnte 
will remove superflnous aniline, and a final bath in absolute alcohol 
will in a few minutes prepare the object for being soaked in oil 
of cloves. With a bent pktinnm spatula the transparent prepara- 
tions must be laid upon a shde, receive a liberal quantity of a 
solution of old balsam in chloroform poured upon it, and be coTered 
with thin glass, on which a small weight ia to be placed. 

In the course of a month or two the excess of balsam may be 
cleaned off, but the shde should bear a provisional label before the 
specimen is mounted. 

The hfematoxyhn staining is, perhaps, rather more successful 
than the aniline, and its violet tinge is very beautiful indeed. Let the 
transparent leaves or sections be transferred from tbe alum solution, 
after a short residence, to Arnold's fluid undiluted. At the end of 
five minutes remove one olyect and wash it in the alum solution ; 
if not decidedly or sufGciently tinted return to the fluid and examine 
it again at the end of another five minutes ; and when, finally, the 
whole of the object shall have been evenly and distinctly coloured, 
it must be dropped into tbe alum solution for a minute or two, and 
then into 75 per cent, alcohol, in which tbe former dull red colour 
will change to a lovely violet. In many cases the fluid, diluted 
with 25 per cent, alcohol, will make a better staining, but, of course, 
the object must have a longer espoanre. 

For mounting immerse in absolute alcohol, then in oil of cloves, 
and finally embalm in the chloriform solution of old Oanada balsam. 

If the foregoing directions be strictly followed there will be no 
difficulty with the logwood stainings ; but to secure good aniline 
preparations all the steps of the process must be done completely 
but with all possible dispatch, therein hee a secret of success. 

It is, perhaps, somewhat out of place in this paper to speak of 
stainings of animal tissues ; bub I beg to say that my resulta have 
not, hitherto, been very satisfactory as regards anihne colours; 
while, on the contrary, carmine has always succeeded perfectly, 
and Arnold's fluid most beautifully, with sections of the nervous 


^^m St 

( 187 ) 

VI, — A Phj/sicist on Evoluiion ; being a part of PROPEsaoB 
TrNDALL's Address to the Britisli Association at Belfast. 

Bisnop BnTLER accepted with uowavcring tmst the chronology 
of the Old Testament, describing it aa "confirmed hy the natural 
and civil history of the world, collected from common historians, 
from the state of the earth, and from the late inveutions of arts 
and aciencea." These words mark progress ; they mnst seem 
somewhat lioary to the Bishop's auccessora of to-day,* It is 
hardly necessary to inform yon that since his time the domain of 
the naturalist has been immensely estended — the whole science 
of geology, with its astoanding revelations regarding the life of 
the ancient earth, having been created. The rigidity of old con- 
ceptions has been relaxed, the public mind being rendered gradu- 
ally tolerant of the idea that not for six thousand, nor for sixty 
thousand, nor for six thousand thousand, bat Jor Beonfl embracing 
untold millions of years, this earth has been the theatre of Ufe 
and death. The riddle of the rocks has been read by the geolo- 
gist and palieontologjst, from sub-cambrian depths to the deposits 
thickening over the sea-bottoms of to-day. And upon the leaves 
of that stone book are, as yon know, stamped the characters, 
plainer and sorer than those formed by the int of history, which 
carry the mind back into abjsaea of past time, compared with 
which the periods which satisfied Bishop Butler cease tfl have a 
visual angle. Everybody now knows this ; all men admit it ; 
still, when they were first broached, these verities of science found 
loud-tongued dennneiators, who proclaimed, not only their baae- 
lessness considered scientifically, lint their immorality considered 
as questions of ethics and religion : the Book of Genesis had. 
stated the question in a different fashion; and science mnst 
necessarily go to pieces when it clashed with this authority. And 
as the seed of the thistle produces a thistle, and nothing else, so 
these objectors scatter their germs abroad, and reprodnce their 
kind, ready to play again the part of their intellectual progenitorSj 
to show the same virulence, the same ignorance, to achieve for 
a time the same success, and finally to siifTer the same inexorable 
defeat. Sure the time mnst come at last when human nature in 
its entirety, whose legitimate demands it is admitted science alone 
cannot satisfy, will &id interpreters and expositors of a different 
stamp from those rash and ill-iiiformed persons who have been 
hitherto eo ready to hurl themselves against every now scientific 

Oaij to aolne ; for thpre are dignittirica who evdn now speak of the irsrlb's 
toekj criutt oa to miicli building mnleriitl tireparcJ for man at tbo Creation. 
Snrtdj it ie time Uiat Ihis loora langiis^ should cunse. 


188 A Phyaiciii on Evolution. 

rerelatioD, lest it Bhoald endanger what they are plea^ to con- 
aider theiis. 

The lode of discovery once struck, those petrified forms in 
which lite was at one time active, increased to multitudeB and 
demanded classification. The general tact soon became evident 
that none but the simplest forma of Hfe lie lowest down, that aa 
we climb higher and higher among the snperimpoaed strata more 
perfect forma appear. The change, however, from form to form 
was not continuoT^ — but by steps, some email, some great. " A 
section," says Mr. Huxley, " a hundred feet thick will exhibit at 
different heights a dozen species of ammonite, nono of which 
passes beyond its particular zone of hmeatone, or clay, into the 
zone below it or mto that above it." In the presence of auch 
facte it was not possible to avoid the question. Have these forms, 
showing, though in broken stages and with many irregularities, 
this unmistakable general advance, been subjected to no continuous 
law of growth or variation ? Had our education been purely scien- 
tific, or had it been sufficiently detached from influences which, how- 
ever ennobling in another domain, have always proved hindrances 
and delusions when introduced as &ctot8 into the domain of physics, 
the scientific mind never could have swerved from the search for a 
law of growth, or allowed itself to accept the anthropomorphism 
which regarded each successive stratum aa a kind of mechanic's 
bench for the manufacture of the new species out of all relation to 
the old. 

Biassed, however, by their previous education, the great majority 
of naturalists invoked a special creative act to account for the ap- 
pearance of each new group of organisms. Doubtless there were 
numbers who were cleEir-headed enough to see that this was no 
explanation at all, that in point of fact it was an attempt, by the 
introduction of a greater difficulty, to account for a less. Bat 
having nothing to ofi'er in the way of explanation, they for the 
most part held their peace. Still the thoughts of reflecting men 
naturally and necessarily simmered round the question. De Maillet, 
a contemporary of Newton, has been brought into notice by Prof. 
Huxley as one who " had a notion of the modifiability of living 
forms." In my frequent conversations with him, the late Sir Ben- 
jamin Brodie, a man of highly philosophical mind, often drew my 
attention to the fact that, aa early as 1794, CJiarles Darwin s 
grandfather was the pioneer of Charles Darwin. In 1801, and in 
suhsequent years, the celebrated Lamarck, who produced so pro- 
found an impression on the public mind through the vigorous 
exposition of his views by the author of ' Vestiges of Creation,' 
endeavoured to show the development of species out of changes of 
habit and external condition. In 1813, Dr. Wells, the founder of 
our present theoiy of dew, read before the Et)yal Society a paper in 


'hymetst a 

which, fo oae the words of Mr, Darwin, " he distinctly recognizee 
the principle of natural selection ; and this is the £rst recognitioii 
that has been indicated." The thoroughness and skill with which 
"Wells pursued his work, and the ohviona independence of hia 
character, rendered him long ago a favourito with me ; and it gave 
me the hvelieat pleasiire to alight upon this additional teBtimony to 
lis penetration. Prof. Griat, Mr, Patrick Matthew, Von Buch, 
the author of the ' Vestiges,' D'Halloy, and others," hy the enun- 
ciation of views more or less clear and correct, showed that the 
question had been fermenting long prior to the year 1858, when 
Mr. Darwin and Mr. Wallace simultaneously bat independently 
placed their closely concurrent views upcm the subject ibefore the 
Linnean Society, 

These papers were followed in 1859 by the publication of the 
first edition of ' The Origin of Species.' AH great things come 
slowly to the birth. Copernicus, as I informed yon, pondered his 
great work for thirty-three years, Newton for nearly twenty years 
kept the idea of Gravitation before his mind ; for twenty years also 
he dwelt upon his discovery of Fluxions, and doubtless would Lave 
continued to make it the object of bis private thought had he not 
found that Leibnitz was upon his track. Darwin for two-and- 
twenty years pondered the problom of the origin of species, and 
douhtlesB he would have continued to do eo had he not found 
"Wallace upon his track.f A concentrated but full and powerful 
epitome of his labours was the consequence. The hook was by no 
means an easy one ; and probably not one in every score of ttose 
who then attacked it had read its pages through, or were competent 
to grasp their significance if they had. I do not say this merely 
to discredit them ; for there were in those days some really eminent 
scientific men, entirely raised above the heat of popular prejudice, 
willing to accept any conclusion that scieoce had to offer, provided 
it was duly bacKed by &ct and argument, and who entirely mistook 
Mr. Darwin's views. In fact the work needed an espoiuidor ; and 
it found one in Mr. Huxley. I know nothing more admirable in 
the way of smentific exposition than those early articles of hia on the 
origin of species. He swept the curve of discussion through the 
really significant points of tne subject, enriched his exposition with 
profound original remarks and reflections, often su mmin g up in 
& single pithy sentence an argument which a less compact mind 
■would have spread over pages. But there is one impression made 
by the hook itself which no exposition of it, however luminous, can 

• In 1853 Mr. Herbert Spencer (Trinciples of POTclioIogy,' 2nd edit, vol. i., 

E. 465) aipreesed " the belief that life under all itn lormB Cba arken by an un- 
roken c^vulution, end thronijli the instmnientalitj of wliat are t-nlled luitaral 


ISO A Ph^aieist on Ewlviioa. 

conTey ; and that is the impression of the va^t amount of lahoar, 
both of obeervatioa and of thought, implied in its prodnction. Let 
us glance at its principles. 

It is conceded on all hands that what are called varieties arc 
continually produced. The rale ia probably without exception. 
No chick and no child ia in all respects and particulars the coun- 
terpart of its brother or sister; and in such differences we have 
" variety " incipient. No naturalist could tell how far this variation 
could be carried ; hut the great mass of them held that never by 
any amount of internal or external change, nor hy the mixture of 
both, could the offepring of the same progenitor so far deviate from 
each other aa to constitute different species. The function of the 
experimental philosopher is to combine the conditions of natnre and 
to produce her reaulte ; and this was the method of Darwin.* He 
made himself acquainted with what could, without aiw matter of 
doubt, be done in the way of producing variation. He associated 
himself with pigeon-fanciers^xinght, begged, kept, and observed 
every breed that be could obtain. Though derived from a common 
stock, the diversities of these pigeons were such that " a score of 
them might be chosen which, if shown to an ornithologist, and he 
were t«ld that they were wild birds, would certainly be ranked by 
him aa well-defined species," The simple principle which guides 
the pigeon-fancier, aa it doea the cattle-brewer, is the selection of 
some variety that strikes his fancy, and the propagation of this 
variety by inheritance. With Lis eye stitl ujxin the particntar 
appearance which he wishes t« exaggerate, he selects it as it 
reappears in successive broods, and thus adds increment to incre- 
ment until an astonishing amount of divergence from the parent 
type is effected. Man in this case does not produce the elements of 
the variation. He simply observes them, and by selection adds 
tbem together until the required result has been obtained. "No 
man," says Mr. Darwin, '" wonld ever try to make a fantail till he 
saw a pigeon with a tail developed in some slight degree in an 
unusual manner, or a ponter until he saw a pigeon with a crop of 
unusual size." Thus nature gives the hint, man acts upon it, and 
by the law of inheritaoee exaggerates the deviation. 

Having thus satisfied himself hy indubitable facts that the 
organization of an animal or of a plant (for precisely the same 
treatment appHes to plants) ia to some extent plastic, he passes 
from variation under domestication to variation under nature. 
Hitherto we have dealt with the adding together of small- changes 
by the conscious selection of man. Can Nature thus select? 
Mr. Darwin's answer is, "Aaauredly she can." The number of 

• The first step only towards eiperiimsntal dejnonstmtion lina Leen taken. 
Elperimonta now begnn might, a coupLe of relilimcB hence, fiimiflli data of incal- 
culuble value, whieb ought to be enppljad to the Bcieace of the future. 


^^ actin 

no do 
^^ repos 

A Phtjiieid on, Evdtwfion. 

living things produced is fiir in excess of the number that can be 
supported; hence at some period or other of their hves there 
must bo a struggle for existence ; and what is the infallible result ? 
If one organism were a perfect copy of the other ia regard to 
strength, skill, and agiHty, external conditiona would decide. But 
this is not the cose. Here we have the feet of variety offering 
itseU to nature, as in the former instance it oS'ered itself to man ; 
and those varieties which are least competent to cope with sur- 
rounding conditions will infallibly give way to those that are com- 
petent. To use a familiar proverb, the weakest comes to the wall. 
Bat the triumphant fraction again breeds to over-production, trana- 
mitting the qualities which secured its maintenance, bnt transmitting 
them in different degrees. The struggle for food again supervenes, 
and those to whom the favourable tonality has been tmnsmittfid in 
excess will assuredly triumph. It is easy to see that we have here 
the addition of increments lavourable to the individual still more 
rigorously carried out than in the case of domestication; for not 
only are unfavourable spenmens not selected by nature, but they 
are destroyed. This is what Mr. Darwin calls " natural selection," 
which " acta by the preservation and accumulation of small inherited 
modifications, each profitable to the preserved being." With this 
idea he interpenetrates and leavens the vast store of tacts that he 
and others have collected. We cannot, without shutting our eyes 
through fear or prejudice, fail to see that Darwin is here dealing, 
not with imaginary, hut with trae causes; nor can we fail to 
discern what vast modifications may be produced by natural selec- 
tion in periods sufficiently long. Each individual increment may 
resemble what mathematicians call a "differential" (a quantity 
indefinitely small) ; but definite and great changes may obviously be 
|ffoduced by the integration of these infinitesimal quantities through 
'"" jtically infinite time. 

If Darwin, Uke Bruno, rejects the notion of creative power 
actmg after hnman feshion, it certainly is not because he is un- 
acquainted with the numberless exq^uisit^ adaptations on which this 
notion of a supernatnral artificer was founded. His book is a 
repository of the most startling tacts of this description. Take the 
arvellons observation which he cites from Dr. Criiger, where 
bucket with an aperture, serving as a spout, is formed in an 
chid. Beea visit tne flower : in e^er search of material for their 
combs they push each other into the backet, the drenched ones 
escaping from their involuntary bath by the spout. Hero they rub 
their backs against the viscid stigma of the flower and obtain glue ; 
then agtunst the pollen-masses, which are thus stnck to the back of the 
bee and carried away. " When the bee, thus provided, flies to another 
flower, or to the same flower a second time, and ia pushed by its 
comrades into the bucket, and then crawls out by the passage, the 

192 A PhysiGist on Evolution, 

poUen-mass upon its back necessarily ocmea first into contact with 
the yisdd stigma," which takes np the pollen ; and this is how that 
orchid is fertilized. Or take this other case of the Gatasetum, '^ Bees 
visit these flowers in order to gnaw the labellum ; on doing this they 
inevitably touch a long, tapering, sensitive projection. This, when 
touched, transmits a sensation or vibration to a certain membrane, 
which is instantly ruptured, setting free a spring by which the 
poUen-mass is shot forth like an arrow in the right direction, and 
adheres by its viscid extremity to the back of the bee." In this 
way the fertilizing pollen is spread abroad. 

It is the mind thus stored with the choicest materials of the 
teleologist that rqects teleology, seeking to refer these wonders to 
natural causes. They illustrate, according to him, the method dT 
nature, not the ** technic " of a man-like artificer. The beauty of 
flowers is due to natural selection. Those that distinguish them* 
selves by vividly contrasting colours from the surrounding green 
leaves are most readily seen, most frequently visited by insects, 
most often fertilized, and hen^ most &voured by natural selection! 
Coloured berries also readily attract the attention of birds and 
beasts, which feed upon them, spread their manured seeds abroad, 
thus giving trees and shrubs possessing such berries a greater 
chance in the struggle for existence. 

With profound analytic and synthetic skill, Mr. Darwin invefr- 
tigates the cell-making instinct of the hive-bee. His method of 
deaUng with it is representative. He falls back from the more 
perfectly to the less perfectly developed instinct — from the hive-bee 
to the humble-bee, which uses its own cocoon as a comb, and to 
classes of bees of intermediate skill, endeavouring to show how the 
passage might be gradually made from the lowest to the highest. 
The saving of wax is the most important point in the economy of 
bees. Twelve to fifteen pounds of dry sugar are said to be needed 
for the secretion of a single pound of wax. The quantities of nectar 
necessary for the wax must therefore be vast ; and every improve- 
ment of constructive instinct which results in the saving of wax is 
a direct profit to the insect's life. The time that would otherwise 
be devoted to the making of wax is now devoted to the gathering 
and storing of honey for winter food. He passes from the humble- 
bee with its rude cells, through the Melipona with its more artistic 
cells, to the hive-bee with its astonishing architecture. The bees 
place themselves at equal distances apart upon the wax, sweep and 
excavate equal spheres round the selected points. The spheres 
intersect, and the planes of intersection are built up with thin 
laminae. Hexagonal cells are thus formed. This mode of treating 
such questions is, as I have said, representative. He habitually 
retires from the more perfect and complex, to the less perfect and 
simplei and carries you with him through stages of perfectinff, adds 

A Phydeisi on Evolution. 


P increment to increment of infinitcaimal change, and in this way 
gradually breaks down your reluctance to admit that the exquisite 
climax of the whole could be a result of natural selection. 

Mr. Darwin shirks no difficulty ; and, saturated as the subject 
was with his own thought, he mast have known, better than hia 
critics, the weakness aa well as the strength of his theory. This 
of course would be of little avail were hia object a temporary 
dialectic victory instead of the establishment of a tnith which he 
means to be everlasting. But he takes no pains to disguise the 
weakness he baa discerned ; nay, he takes every pains to bring it 
into the strongest hght. His vast resonrcea enable him to cope 
with objections started by himself and others, so as to leave the 
final impression npon the reader's mind that if they be not com- 
pletely answered they certainly are not fataL Their negative force 
being thus destroyed, you are free to be influenced by the vast 
positiye mass of evidence he is able to bring before you. This 
largeness of knowledge and readiness of resource render Mr. 
Darwin the most terrible of antagonists. Accomplished naturaJista 
have levelled heavy and sustained criticisms againat him — not 
always with the view of fairly weighing his theory, hnt with the 
express intention of exposing its weak points only. This does not 
irritate him. He treats every objection with a soberness and 
thoroughness which even Bishop Butler might be proud to imitate, 
surrounding each fact with its appropriate detail, placing it in its 
proper relations, and usually giving it a significance which, as long 
as it was kept isobled, tailed to appear. This is done without a 
trace of ill-temper. He moves over tJie subject with the passionless 
strength of a glacier ; and the grinding of the rocks is not always 
witliout a counterpart in the logical polverizatiou of the objector. 
But though in handling this mighty theme alt passion has been 
stilled, there is an emotion of the intellect incident to the discern- 
ment of new truth which often coloars and warms the pages of 
Mr, Darwin. His success has been great ; and this imphes not 
only the solidity of his work, but the preparedness of the public 
mind for such a revelation. On this head a remark of Agassiz 
impressed me more than anything else. Sprung from a race of 
theologians, this celebrated man combated to the last the theory 
of natural selection. One of the many times I had the pleasure of 
meeting him in the Unif«d States was at Mr. Winthrop'a beautiful 
I residence at Broofcline, near Boston. Rising from luncheon, we all 
I halted as if by a common impulse in front of a window, and con- 
|tinued there a discussion wmch Lad been started at table. The 
laple was in its autumn glory ; and the exquisite beanty of the 
I'IKene outside seemed, in my case, to. igtwMHB Ijate without dis- 
irbance the inteilectnal action. £iKHHIIHHj|l9(|dlyi Agassiz 
ned and eaid to the gcutltBHiB^^dH^^^I^BMA^ ^-^ 


A P^/sieist on 1 


it has been by 
greater than I could 

1 waa not prepared to see this theory r 
the best intellects of our time. Ita suce 
have thought possible." 

In our day great generalizations have been reached. The theory 
of the origin of species is but one of them. Another, of etill wider 
grasp and more radical significance, is the doctrine of the Oonserva- 
tion of Energy, the ultimate philoeophieal issues of which are as 
yet but dimly seen — that doctrine which "hinds nature fiist in 
fate " to an extent not hitherto recognized, exacting from every 
antecedent its equivalent consequent, from every consequent ita 
equivalent antecedent, and bringing vital as well as physical pheno- 
mena under the dominion of that law of causal connection which, as 
iar as the human understanding has jet pierced, asserts itself 
everywhere in nature. Long in advance of all definite experiment 
npon the subject, the constancy and indestroctibility of mattar had 
been affirmed ; and all Bubaequent experience justified the affirma- 
tion. Later researches extended the attribute of indestructibility to 
force. This idea, applied in the first instance to inorganic, rapidly 
embraced organic nature. The vegetable world, though drawing 
almost all its nutriment from invisible sources, was proved incom- 
petent to generate auew either matter or force. Its matter is for 
the mast part transmuted air; its force transformed solar force. 
The animal world was proved to be equally unercative, all its 
motive energies being referred to the combustion of its food. The 
activity of each animal as a whole was proved to be the transferred 
activities of its molecules. The muscles were shown to be stores of 
mechanical force, potential until imlocked by the nerves, and then 
resulting in muscular contractions. The speed at which messages 
fly to and Iro along the nerves wna determined, and found to be, 
not as had been previously supposed, equal to that of light or - 
electricity, but less than the speed of a flying eagle. 

This was the work of the physicist : then came the conquests 
of the comparative anatomist and physiologist, revealing the 
structure of every animal, and the fuuction of every organ in the 
whole biological series, from the lowest zoophyte up to man. The 
nervous system had been made the object of profound and continued 
study, the wonderful and, at bottom, entirely mysterious controlling 
power which it exercises over the whole organism, physical and 
mental, being recognized more and more. Thought could not be 
kept back from a subject so profoundly suggestive. Besides the 
physical life dealt with by Mr. Darwin, there is a psychical life 
presenting similar gradations, and asking equally for a solution. 
How are the different grades and orders of mind to be accounted 
for ? What is the principle of growth of that mysterious power 
which on our planet culrainatea in Reason ? These are questions 
which, though not thrusting themselves so forcibly npon the atten- 

A Physidei on EvotmonT 



tion of the general public, bad aot only occnpied many reflecting 
minds, but had been formally broached by one of them before the 
• Origm of Species ' appeared. 

The origination of life is a point lightly touelied upon, if at 
all, by Mr. Darwin and Mr, Hpencer. Diminishing gradually the 
number of jirogenitors, Mr. Darwin eomea at length to one " pri- 
mordial form " ; but he does not aay, as far as I remember, hoW be 
supposes this form to have been introduced. He quotes with aatiefac- 
tion the words of a celebrated aatbor and divine who had " gradually 
learnt to see that it is juat as nuble a conception of the Deity to 
beheve Ho created a few original forms, capable of self-development 
into other and needful forma, as to believe that He required a fresh 
act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of Hia laws." 
"What Mr. Darwin tmnka of this view of the introduction of life I 
do not know. Whether he does or does not introduce his " primor- 
dial form " by a creative act, I do not know. But the question 
will inevitably be asked, " How came tho form there ? " With 
regard to the diminution of the number of created forms, one does 
not see that much advantage ia gained by it. The anthropo- 
morphism, which it seemed the object of Mr. Darwin to eet aside, 
is as firmly associated with the creation of a few forms as with 
the creation of a multitude. We need clearness and thoroughness 
here. Two courses, and two only, are possible. Either let us 
open our doors freely to the conception of creative acts, or abandon- 
ing them, let us radically change our notions of matter. If we 
look at matter as pictured by Democritus, and as defined for gene- 
rations in our scientific text-books, the absolute iinpossibiUty of any 
form of life coming out of it would be Bufflcient to render any other 
hypothesis preferable ; but the definitions uf matter given in oar 
text-books were intended to cover its purely physical and mechanical 
properties. And taught as we have been to regard these definitions 
aa complete, we naturally and rightly reject the nionstrons notion 
that out of such matter any form of life could possibly arise. But 
are the defin'tions complete? Everything depends on the answer 
to be given to thia (juestion. Trace the line of life backwards, and 
see it approaching more and more to what we call the purely phy- 
sical condition. We reach at length those organisms wnieh I have 
compared to drops of oil suspended in a mixture of alcohol and 
water. We reach the proiogeaes of Haeckel, in which we have " a 
type distinguishable from a fragment of albumen only by ite finely 
granular character." Can we pause here? We break a magnet 
and find two poles in each of its fragments. We continue the pro- 
cess of breaking, bnt however small the parts, each carries with it, 
though enfeebled, the polarity of the whole. And when we can 
break no longer, we prolong the intellectual vision to the polar 
molecules. Are we not urged to do something similar in the coae 
VOL. sn. E 


A Physicist on Evolution. 

of life ? Is tlicre not a temptation to close to some oxteut nith 
Lueretitia, when ho affirms that " Nature is seen to do all things 
spontaneoualy of herself without the meddling of the gods"? or 
with Bruno, when he declares that matter is not " that mere emptjr 
capacity which philosophers have pictured her to be, hut the uni- 
versal mother who hringa tbrth all things as the fruit of her own 
womb " ? The questiona here raised are inevitable. They are 
approaching Tie with accelerated speed, and it is not a matter of 
indifference whether they are introduced with reverence or irreve- 
rence. Abandoning all disguise, the confession that I feel bound 
to make before you is that I prolong the vision backward acroFB 
the boundary of the experimental evidence, and discern in that 
matter, which we in our ignorance, and notwithstanding our 
professed reverence for ite Creator, Lave hitherto covered with 
opprobrium, the promise and potency of every form and quality 
of life. 

Tho " materialism " here enunciated may he different from what 
you suppose, and I therefore crave your gracious patience to tho 
end. "The question of an external world," says Mr, J. 8. Mill, 
"is the great hattla-giound of metaphysics,'" Mr. Jrill himself 
reduces external phenomena to " possibihties of sensation." Xant, 
as we have seen, made time and space "forms" of our own in- 
tuitions. Fichte, hftTing first by the inexorable logic of his nuder- 
standing proved himself to be a mere link in that chain of eternal 
causation which holds so rigidly in nature, violently broke the chain 
by making nature, and all that it inherits, an apparition of his own 
mind.t And it is by no means easy to combat such notions. For 
when I say I aoe you, and that I have not the least doubt about it, 
the reply is, that what I am really conscious of is an affection of my 
own retina. And if I urge that I can check my sight of you by 
touching you, the retort would be that I am equally transgressing 
the limits of feet ; for what 1 am really conscious of is, not that yon 
are there, but that the nerves of my l^nd have undergone a change. 
All we hear, and see, and touch, and taste, and smell, are, it would 
be urged, mere variations of our own condition, beyond which, even 
to the extent of a hair's breadth, we cannot go. That anything 
answering to our impressions exists outside of ourselves is not a 
fact, but an inference, to which all vahdity would be denied by an 
idealist like Berkeley, or by a sceptic like Hume. Mr. Spencer 
takes another line. With him, as with the uneducated man, there 
is no doubt or question as to the existence of an external world. 
But he differs from the uneducated, who think that the world really 
IS what consciousnesa represents it to be. Our states of conscions- 
ness are mere symbols of an outside entity which produces them 
and determines the order of their succession, hut the real nature of 
' ' EmmiofltioD of Hamiltoii,' p, 154. f ' Be«timinut]g den Menaehen,' 

A PhfsiMsl on Svolviim. 197 

I which we can never know* In fact the whole prowae of evolution 
1 fe the manifestition of a Power absolutely inBcrutable to the iiitellsct 
I of man. As httle in onr day aa in the daya of Job can man by 
I flearching find this Power ont. Considered fundamentally, it ie by 
f the operation of an insoluble mystery that life is evolved, species 
, difierentiated, and mind unfolded from their prepotent elements in 
it. There is, you will observe, no very rank 


The strength of tho doctrine of evolution consists, not in an 
experimental demonstration (for the subject is hardly accessible to 
this mode of proof), but in its general hMTnony with the method of 
nature as hitherto known. From contrast, moreover, it derives 
enormous relative strength. On the one side we have a theory (if 
it could with any propriety he so called) derived, as were the 
theories referred to at the beginning of this address, not from tho 
Btady of nature, but from the observation of men — a theory which 
converts the Power whose garment is seen in the visible universe 
info aa Artificer, fashioned after the human model, and acting by 
broken . efforts as man is seen to act. On the other side we have 
the conception that all we see around us, and all we feel within us 
the phenomena of physical nature as well as those of the human 
mind — have their unsearchable roots in a cosmiciil hfe, if I dare 
ftpply the term, an infinitesimal span of which only is offered to 
me investigation of man. And even this span is only knowable in 
part. We can trace the development of a nervous system, and 
'eorrelate with it the parallel phenomena of sensation and thought. 
"We see with undoubting certainty that they go hand in hand. But 
we try to soar in a vacunm the moment we seek to comprehend the 
connection between them. An Archimedean fulcrnm is here reqnired 
which the human mind cannot command; and the effort to solve 
the problem, to borrow an illustration from an illustrious friend of 
mine, is like the effort of a man trying to lift himself by his own 
waistband. All that has been here said is to be taken in connection 
with this fandamental truth. When " nascent senses " are spoken 
rf, when " the differentiation of a tissue at first vaguely sensitive all 

' In B paper, at oni'^ popult 

Hieory of VieioD," contained in 

[lOngmans, thia ByniboliBm ot o 

■IbiLpreaBionB of enoite ore Uie mt 

rkofta contends Btrongl; against 

r t!ad he evidently doabtB the 

J and profuund, entitled " Recent Progrcas in the 
tlie Tolame of letters by HclniholtE, published by 
HI Bt&tea of coiiBcioaaness is also dwtlt npon. The 
re signs of oxternal thiagj. In thia paper Hetm- 
tlie view that the cunacionsiieaa of apiico is inborn ; 
of the ebick lo pick up graioa of corn withoat 

niciary lessons. On this point, be says, further eipeiii 
3zperiiuenU have been since iiiaile by Mr. SpaldiDg. aided, I believe, in some 
is observations by tho aceomplishud Rtiil deeply-lamented Lady Auibertey : and 
they ateia to prove ooncliunvely tlmt the chiok docs not need a aingk' mo:nent'B 
tuition ta teudi it to stand, run, gDVcm the musclea of il£ eyes, and perJr. Helm- 
lioltB, iiowevor, is contending against tiio uotiou of pro-oatabliahcd ha/mony; 

1 I a 

or breed. 

u tho organizatio 

of experiences of race 

r a 


A PhynetstonEvolution. 



over " ifl spoken oi^ and when these processeB are aeaociated with 
" the modification of an organism by ita environment," the same 
TOrallelism, without contact, or eveu approach to contact, is implied. 
There is no fusion possible between Ine two classes of facta — no 
motor energy in the intellect of man to carry it without logical 
rupture from the one to the other. 

Further, the doctrine of evolution derives man, in hia totality, 
from the interaction of organiutii and environment through oonnt- 
less ages past. The human nnderstanding, for example— the faculty 
which Mr. Spencer has turned so skilfully round upon its own 
antecedents— is itself a result of the play between organism and 
environment through cosmic /anges of tim& Never surely did pre- 
scription plead so irresistible a claim. But then it comes to pass 
that, over and above his miderstanding, there are many other things 
appertaining to man whose prescriptive rights are quite as strong 
03 that of l^e underatandiug itself. It is a resalt, for example, of 
the play of organism and environment that sugar is sweet and that 
aloes are bitter, that the smell of henbane differs from the per- 
fume of a rosa Such focta of consciousness (for which, by the way, 
no adequate reason has ever yet been rendered) are quite as old as 
the understanding itseh'; and many other things can boast an 
equally ancifnt origin, Mr. Spencer at one place refers to that 
most powerful of paasions — the amatory passion — as one which, 
when it first occm's, is antecedent to all relative experience what- 
ever; and we may pass its claim as being at least as ancient and as 
valid as that of the understanding itself. Ihen there are Buch 
things woven into the texture of man as the feeling of awe, 
reverence, wonderland not alone the sexual love juat referred to, 
but the love of the beautiful, physical, and moral, in nature, poetry, 
and art. There is also that deep-set feeling which, since the earhest 
dawn of history, and probably for ages prior to all history, incor- 
Ijorated itself in the religions of the world. You who have escaped 
from these religions in the high-and-dry light of the understanding 
may deride them ; but in so doing yon deride accidents of form 
merely, and tail to touch the immovable basis of the religions senti- 
ment in the emotional nature of man. To yield this sentiment 
reasonable satisfaction is the problem of problems at the present 
hour. And grotesque in relation to scientific culture as many of 
the religions of the world have been and are— dangerous, nay, de- 
structive, to the dearest privileges of freemen as some of them nn- 
donbtedly have been, ancf would, if they could, be again — it will be 
wise to recognize them aa the forms of force, mischievous, if per- 
mitted to intrude on the region of knowledge, over which it holds 
no command, but capable of being gnided by liberal thought to 
noble issues in the region of emotion, which is its proper sphere. 
It is vain to oppose this force with a view to its extirpation. What 

A Physicist on Evolution, 199 

we should oppose, to the death if necessary, is every attempt to 
found upon this elemental bias of man's natare a system which 
should exercise despotic sway over his intellect. I do not fear any 
such consummation. Science has already to some extent leavened 
the world, and it will leaven it more and more. I should look 
upon the mild hght of science breaking in upon the minds of the 
youth of Ireland, and strengthening gradually to the perfect day, 
as a surer check to any intellectual or spiritual tyranny which might 
threaten this island, than the laws of princes or the swords of 
emperors. Where is the cause of fear ? We fought and won our 
battle even in the Middle Ages : why should we doubt the issue of 
a conflict now ? 

( 200 ) 



The HittiHoijy of Leacorylha^nia, — Id VircIiow'B 'AroMv'* 
occurs on ndiuirable paper by Professor Ballingcr, of Zurich, whlak 
lifts beeii fully trauslated by the ' Medical Becord ' (June 3rd}, and 
wHcli wo give hero in part. Ho says that in the spleens of dogs 
there occur with anusual frequency — according to lus olBervations, 
juado alike on healthy and on disoosed animals, in at least 10 per 
cent, of all dogs — true lymphonuita. It is extremely probable that 
these form the starting point of leucocytlifemia : in the case already 
related the splenic nodules were uertainly present at tho beginning of 
the disease. In confirmation of this assiunption, he can bring forward 
a caae observed in a dog, affording an instance of loucocythfemia in 
the incipient stage, which rarely comes under observation. 

A Tery large old male dog was brought to the veterinary school in 
this place to be killed- It did not show any special signs of disease, 
and shortly before death ate abnudautly with good appetito. The 
body was examined on May C, 1871. 

There were splenic lencocythiemia, and a large lymphoma of the 
spleen. The relation of the white to the red blood-corpuscles in tho 
general circulation was 1 to 30 or iO ; in the blood of the splenic 
vein, 1 to 10 or 15. 

The animal waa rather thin. Tho lungs were of normal extent, 
rather emphysematous, and strongly pigmented. On the left aide 
were some suhpleural hard bodies as large as pins' heads, which ou 
microscopic osamination were found to be bony dejiosits. The air- 
passages wei'e normal. There was no remarkable change in the heart. 
Above the aortic valves, near the mouth of tho coronary arteries, 
there waa a prominence of the size of a lentil, with a rongh stirfaoe, 
and mostly calcified : around it was distinct atheromatous thickening 
of the inner coat. On opening tho abdominal cavity, a tumour nearly 
as largo as a child's haoA was observed ; it waa covered by tho great 
omentum, lay iu front of the left kidney, and proceeded from the 
posterior surface of tho upper part of the spleen. While the spleen 
itself was in other parts normal, containing little blood, of a pale 
flosh-red colour, and moderntely firm, the. tumour was of soft elastic 
consistence, of a shining dark-violot aspect, with the poritoneal invest- 
ment much distended and at scvoral points closely adherent to the 
omentum. On section, tho tiunour was found to consist of a sploni- 
form dark brown-red tissue of alight consistence, having imbedded in 
it numerous deposits, mostly miliary, partly whitish, partly grey and 
diaphanous ; they differed in no rospeot from the normal M^pighian 
bodies. In some parta towards the interior, these greyish-white de- 
posits predominated so much over the remaining tissue as to become 
confluent. On microscopic examination, the whole tumour showed all 
the elements of the normal spleen ; but in place of tho fine Malpighian 
* Baud lix., Ucl'le 3 and i. 


f bodioa, thcra were largo maseea of lymfiLoid siibtitttuce of similai' 
I Btructare. The eplocn itself was remarkable for its great riuhness in 
' gntmilar blood-coloiiring matter and cells coutaining bloud-uarpiiaclos, 
I as well as for a great amount of small and large fat^drops. The bloml 
r of the splenic vein was fluid,- and of a clear red colour, and contained 
I about one white corposcle to ten or fifteen rod ones. There was a 
slighter increase of the white corpuscles in the blood of tho coronary 
I veins of the heart, where the proportion was about 1 to 30 or 40, 
The liver was of a pale coffee colour, of normal size, and rathor 
' aatemic. The kidneys wore of uectil size ; the capsule was oaeily 
removed, and oa tho surface beneath it wore some eieatricial contrac- 
tions. The substance of tho kidneys was of a dear brown colour, 
and fragile. On mieroscopio esamination, there was found to be 
t marked fatty degeneration of the opithelinm of the ui'inary tubules. 
C The bladder was full of clear yellow urine, having a neutral reaction, 
I and throwing down a flooculent deposit of albumen on being heated. 
I On microscopic examination, instead of tho cylinders that wei^o ex- 
I pected, there were found nnmerous round nucleated cells, having tho 
I appearance of colourless blood-eot-pusclee, and a few spermatozoa. 
The mucous membrane of the bladder and urethra was normal. The 
1 stomach and intestine did not present any remarkable change. There 
9S no onlArgemeut of the lymphatic glauds anywhere. 
This case of simple splenic leucocythiemia, in which, besides the 
I large lymphadcnoma of tho spleen, there was only a moderate iucroase 
I of tho colourless blood-corpuscles, can, without doubt, bo applied in 
I the direction indicated above. The disease was seized in its early 
[ stage, before it had gone on to metastasis, and to leucxwy thymic 
[ disease of other organs. The remarkable amount of colourless hlood- 
r corpuscles in the urine, while the urinary passages were in a normal 
I state, may perhaps bo attributed to escape of the too abundantly 
r formed cells into the diseased renal tissue ; yet tho simultaneous 
I occurrence of spermatozoida in the urine indicates that there might 
I possibly hare been another source for those cells.. 
y A further case of lieno-lymphatie leucocythiemia in the dog has 
I been observetl by SiodamgrotKky, of Dresden;* so that, in all, three 
I cases of lenoocythfemia in the dog have been fully described. Tho 
\ eseenttal features of the cose referred to were the following : — 

A fonr-year old spaniel, which had suffered for seme time from 
' loea of appetite and from diarrhosa, died four days after admission 
into the veterinary hospital, A largo firm tnraonr had been detected 
m the abdomen by palpation. At tlie necropsy, the spleen was found 
to weigh about 2^ lbs. ; it was much enlarged, and was covered with 
flat projections on the surface. AH the lymphatic glands, especially 

I tho mesenterio, were remarkably enlarged; as were also the tonsils. 
Tlie proportion of white to red corpuscles in the blood was 1 to 16. 
There were sanguineous cfbsions in tlie spleen, on tho pericardium, 
in the mucous membrane of the tonsils, mid on the gums. 
Siedamgrotzky also describes a slight degree of lieao4ymphatio 
leucooy thocmia as having been found in a cat which had died of internal 
* Ucriclit liber daa VotoritulTwuacn in ELiinigniich SachHon fUi daa Jahr ItlTl. 

Lromorrhftge. Tlioro wtia reinarkflble hyperplas 
glande, and tbo splran was douUod is bIzo. 

With regard to other ftnimalB, there are obMrvationa oe the occur- 
renoe of leuoocythiemia in pigs and horsew, to which he briefly refers. 

In the pig, the following three oasos'have been described. 

LeiBeriiig* relates a, case of loncocythajniia in a pig, whose spleen, 
liver, mesonterio glands and blood, showed corresponding changes. 
Further details are wanting respecting this case, which was the first 
observed, and was cvideutljr one of lieno-lymphatic leDcocythteiaift. 
E^stonbergt describes a case of lenco^ty thromia in a pig, with enlarge- 
ment of all the lymphRtic glands, the s])leen, and the liver. The 
spleen was more than 2 lbs. in weight ; the liver, which was studded 
with lencocythiemic doposits, weighed more than 8 lbs. There w«» 
deposition of white corpuscles iii the marrow of the bones. The 
blood was of a clear chocolate colour ; the white oori)uscleB wfflw 
enormously increased, their proportion to tho red being 2 to 1. 

In the case of splenic leucocythremia in the pig to which he referred 
at the beginning of this article, the spleen was much enlarged, weigh- 
ing 3^ lbs. There was remarkable enlai'gement of tho kidneys, 
with leacocythicinic infiltration and extensive htemon-hagcB- Leuco- 
ojithranie deposits were found in tho liver and lungs. There was 
increase of the white blood -corpuscles, their proportion to the red 
being 1 to 5. The blood was of a clear red colour and watery. 
"Whether tho lymphatic glands were affected could not be ascertained. 
Microscopic eiamination of the hardoned organs ^ve the following 
result. The spleen was in a state of hyperplasia, and its tisBue 
presented exactly tho some characters as in splenic leuencythnmia in 
man. Desides the abundant deposit of lymph-cells, there were great 
increase and thickening of the normal elements of the spleen. In the 
lungs, the chief seat of the leucocytbeemia proliferations was the con- 
nective-tissue sheaths of the arteries and bronchial tubes. The liver 
not only showed a remarkable lymphoid deposit in the connective 
tissue between the amni, but also in die acini themselves there was bo 
^«at a deposit of lymphoid colls, that their number exceeded that of 
the liver-cells. Finally, the kidneys were enlarged to more than 
double the nomial size, and wore studded with htomorrhages ; they 
contained eo many lymph-cells that, nnder the microscope, the organ 
presented the appearance of a lymphatic gland, the remains of the 
normal kidney being disooverahle at points only in the form of 
tirinary tubules and Malpighian bodies. 

A number of cases of leucocythannia in the horse are recorded in 
literature ; but I pass them over, as I have not been able to convince 
myself that they were cases of idiopathic lencocythremia. In the 
meantime, they all might, with greater justice, be classed among those 
ff^ptomatic and transient forms of leucocythtBmia which, following 
Tirdow, we designate loncooytosis. Considering the known irri- 
tability of the lymphatic system in the horse, and the corresponding 
liability in this animal to inflammatory affections of the lymphatic 

• Betiflit iibcr iLia Vetei-inar»eseii iin Kouigrdi'h SachaOQ, 18(35. 
t Berliner KlbiochQ WockcnBcrift, ISTO. 


veBsole and glaoda, it may bo sapposcd that eucli lenoocytoses, which 
ooneiRt in a temporary incroaee of the colnarlcGS blood-ccirpuBcles, are 
of frequent occTurence ; aud this is indeed observed in a host of 
iii£itmiiiatory and other diBeases afiiactiug the horse, snch as glanders, 
fiircy, &c. After largo blood-Iettiags, the iucroase of white blood- 
corpnficloB in the horse may go ao far, that the coloured and colourleaa 
corpoBclea appear nearly equal in number. 

Counting Ihe Blood - eorpagdes in cases of Trans/usio:i. — 

M. Brouardel givea, according to the ' Medical Record,' an interesting 

report on a case of transfusion of blood in an individual dying of 

prostration from incoorcible vonuting after swallowing sulphuric 

acid. 150 grammes of blood not deiibrinizcd, taken irum his honse- 

Burgeon, M. Landunzy, were injected into the vein of the arm. The 

immediate consequences were fe,vonrflble, but in twonty-eis hours a 

relapse occurred, and the patient died with hepatization of the lower 

lobes of the lung. The necropsy showed ulceration of the pylorus. 

This obserTation. showed this impoxtant point, that the application of 

M. Malasaez's new method of numeration of the blood-corpuscles • 

has allowed it to be ascertained that a rapid destruction of the 

elomenta of the blood occurs when the individual cannot repair the 

incessant losses of the economy ; while, in an individual in good 

I health, repair is rapidly effected. Thus the patient had 3,200,000 red 

I corpuscles in the cubic millimetre of blood ; after the injection of 

1 150 grammes of blood the figure was raised ; but thirty hours 

afterwards it was again ftt the previous figure of 3,200,000 ; while in 

I M. Landunzy, who bad lost 300 grammes of blood, the number of 

[ blood-corpuscles before tlie bleeding was 4,300,000, immediately after 

I it 4,000,000, and twelve houTB afterwards 4,100,000. M. Dujardia- 

T Boaumetz related a cobo of obstinate auBemia, in which transfusion 

r produced a temporary benefit, as in the above case, and was twice 

I xepeatod when tliat ofibct had posscdoff; the amelioration after the 

I third transfusion was, however, of very brief duration, and the patient 

[ flied on the following day. The results of the ennraeration of the 

I' oorpusclea mentioned above, give & key to the transitory effects of 

' transfuBion in these cases. 

The Deeelopmenl of the Lobster. — A very good paper, which 

originally appeared in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy 

(vol. vii.), is abstracted in the 'American Naturalist' for July, 

1874. It is by Mr. S. I. Smith, Assistant in the Sheffield School, New 

^ Haven, U.S.A. It seems that the season at which the female lobsters 

Fssrry eggs varies much on differeut parts of the coast. Mr, Smith 

CWates that lobsters from New Lomlan and Stonington, Conn., are with 

' 1 April and May, while at Halifax he found them with eggs, in 

F'irhich the embryos were just beginning to develop, early in September. 
• The writer says that he has seen them in Salem with the embryos 
I <ieady to hatch in the middle of May, and has been told by Mr. J. H. 
r Emerton that they also brood here in November. It is not impossible 
I that they breed at intervals throughout the year. This Is on impor~ 
• "Lonilon MedicaJ Bucurd,' January 8, 1873. 



tant point. At any rate there elioiild Iju n clone time on the ooaet of 
New England, iluriug April dual May, aud October nnd Novembor. 
Persons should also be fined heavily for Belling lobsters witli ogge 

Ho divides the larval condition of the lubeter into tliree stages. 
The first is a little under a third of an inch long, and was found earl; 
in July at Wood's Holo, Mass. In the second stage, the animal has 
increased in size, and rndiuicntnry appeudagcs have appeared npou 
the second to the fifth segmoats of the abdomen. In the third stage 
the animal is abomt half an inch Jong, and has begun to lose its Uysia- 
Uke (Schizopodalj appeai-onco, and to assimie somo of tho features of 
the ftdult. 

There are probably two succeeding stages before tho adult form is 
attained ; one is described by «nr author, whilo the first of tho two he 
supposes to have existed, bat Las not yet discovered. After this the 
animal ceases to swim on tho sarfaco, and late in sommer seeks the 
bottom. They feed on the young of various animals, the larvte of 
their Crustacea, and when muoh crowded in captivity, on one another, 
tho stronger devouring the wonier. In the firKt stage of the adult 
form, when the auiiuol is about three-fifths of au inch long, it still 
difici'B from the adult so much that it would ho regarded as a distinct 
genus. " III this stage, the young lobsters swim veiy rapidly by 
means uf the abdominal legs, and dart backwards, when disturbed, wiu 
tho caudal appendages, frequently jnmping ont of tho water in this 
way like Bhrimp, which their mOTements in the water much resQmbLe. 
Thoy appear to live a large part of the time at the surface, as in the 
earlier stages, and were often seen swimming about among other 
surface animals. They were frequently taken from tho Sth to the 
2Sth of July, and very likely occur much later." Mr. Smith thinks 
the young pass tlirough all the stages he describes in tho course of a 
single season. Those in the last stage mentioned be believes hod not 
beon hatched firom tho eggs more than six weeks, and very likely a 
shorter time. How long the young retain their free swimming hahit 
after arriving at the lobstoi'-like form, was not ascertained. 

Specimens three inches in length have acquii-ed nearly all the 
characters of the adult. The doscriptions of the different stages are 
very detailed, and accompanied by ndmii'able figures. 

" Of all tho larval stages of other genera of Crustacea of which 
I have seen figures or descriptions, there are none which are closely 
allied to the early stages of the lobster. Astacus, according to Bathke, 
leaves the egg in a form closely resembling the adult, the cephalo- 
thorocic legR having no osopodal branches, and the abdominal Icga 
being already developed. Of the early stages of the numerous other 
genera of Astacidea and Thalassinidoa scoi'cely anything is known, 
but as far as is known, none of them appear to approach the larvte of 
the lobster. Most of the species of Crangonidie and Palffimonidsa 
(among tho most typical of Macrourans), of which the development is 
known, are hatched from the egg iii tho zera stage, in which the five 
posterior pairs of cophalothoiacic appoiidngus, or deeapodal legs, are 
whoUy wanting, as are also tho abdominal legs, while the two imtorior 


pftirs of BuudUipeds, or all of tkom, ore developed into locomotiTe 
organB. In bo period of their development do they have &U the 
decapodal legs furaiahed with natatory oiopodal branclies. Tlioro are 
imdoTibtedly larval forms closely allied to those of Homonis in some of 
the groups of MaeronraQB, although Ihey appear to be as yet unknown. 
" Notwithstanding these larval forme of the lobster seem to have 
no close afOnities with the known larvffi of other genera of Macrourans, 
they do ehow in many charaoters a very remarkable and iatercsting 
approach to the adult Schizopoda, particularly to the Mysidra, This 
api)earB to me to furnish additional evidence that the SiThizopods are 
only degraded Macrourana much mcire closely allied tu tliu Sorgestidce 
than to the Sijuilloidca." 

WJtat is a Sponge f —Thia seemfl a more difficult question than 
ever it has been. Hacokel has recently confirmed in great measure 
Mr. Carter's view, that it is a oolloction of Amcehra-like infusoria, 
living among a framework of ailicioUB or limestone spicules. A little 
later than Carter, the lamented Professor H. J, Clark, of America, 
published, in 1866, a paper in which he maintained that the sponge 
was an aggregation of flagellate infusoria, like monads of the genera 
MoTioa, Anthopki/sa, Codoeiga, &c. The sponge, then, in his view was a 
compoimd protozoan animal. Now Haeckel contends that tlieso 
monads of Clark are simply coUe lining the general stomach-cavity of 
the sponge, each bearing a cilium or thread, and that the sponge is 
not a compound infueorian, but a much more highly organized animal 
related to the radiates, BUch aa tho Polyps {Hydra, &o.). He dia- 
' iinguishes in them a general cavity or stomach, tho walla of which 
, eonsist, as in tho Acalephs, of two layers (entoderm and oxoderm) of 
[ ocUb. He regards the sponges and Acalephie qb having been evolved 
" om a common ancestor, which he terms Prolascug. 

Quite recently the editor of the ' American Naturalist' has 
ftxeoeivod a paper by Metschnikoff oa the development of a. calcareous 
KHponge {Sycon eiliatitm). Ho clearly proves that Hoeckel's view of the 
B'Btructuro of the sponges was correct, but shows that there is no real 
k relationship between the sponges and radiates. 

Tvielau Bingworm and ita Fungus. — Dr. T. Fox has given in tho 
L^Lancet' (Aug. 29) an interesting paper on the above subject. He 
■fs that there is a form of erujition which appears to be very common 
it Samoa, the hitherto unknown cause of which ho has recently been 
r aUe to discover ; and he seeks this opportunity of placing the main 
fects in regard to it before the profession. The Hev. Dr. Turner, M.D., 
refers to tho disease, in his First Annual Report of tho Somoan 
Medical Mission, under the term " Tokelan Eingworm," or " Lafa 
Tokelau"; so named from ita having recently been introduced to 
Samoa from Tokelau or Bowditch Island. Dr. Turner says, " It is a 
scaly disease, much more like ichthyosis in ita general appearance 
than any other disease with which I am acquainted. The scales, how- 
ever, differ from those of ichthyosis, in that they ore not disposed in 
sqaares. Thoy run in concentric circles, and may be well represented 
by taking a sheet of stout cardboard and shaving tho iip2>er layer of it 





in Buch n way aB to make it coil up in circles. Tlio rings of the 
desquamatod cuticle are about b, quarter of an inch apart. . . , M7 , 
impression is that it is a parasitic disoaeo, bnt as yet I have not 
succeeded in discovering any pai-asite ; nor can I speak definitely of 
any treatment which has proved successful. " It seenis that the exist- 
ence of the disease was noticed by the o£Gcers attached to the United 
States' exploring expedition, under the command of Captain "Wilkee, in 
1811, who noticed it in the Eingcmill group, and spoke of it undar 
the designation of " Qone," and an, at some of its stages, retemUing the 

" Dr. Mullen, of H.M.8. ' Onmeleon,' has," says Dr. Fox, ' 
good enough to forward me some facts about the disease, throngL the 
courtesy of the Director- Genern.1 of the Navy Metlical Department. 
He remarks that Dr. Tumor has noticed, about three hours after the 
application of sulphur ointment to the skin, some winged insects 
bursting through the ointment and flying away. ' On scraping the 
skin there were perceived dipterous insects, somewhat smaller than 
midges, others still smaller, and what appeared to be the dipterous 
insects iu the pupa stage. Now these aro not accidental accompani- 
monte, for they have been found iu all cases about three hours after 
the ointment has been applied ; and the Eev. Dr. Turner has procured 
" scrapings " from niissiouaries of other islands, who, by his advice, 
have used the ointment, and has always found the same insects. It is 
strange,' Dr. Mullen eontinnes, ' that before applying tho ointment no 
trace of these ineecte, nor nuy pustulos, papuloH, &c., indicating the 
presence of such large parasites, can be discovered. PoBsibly they 
may exist as ova in tho under surface of the scales, which become 
developed on the application of the ointment ; but is not this develop- 
ment too rapid even for the inseota?' 

" I have received ' scrapings ' from the akin and a muuber of the 
dipterous insects referred to in tbo above paragraph from Dr. Turner ; 
and I now proceed very briefly to summarize the conolusions to which 
I have come after a careful examination of them. 

" The disease is clearly a form of ringworm (tinea), dependent 
upon the growth, amongst the cuticle cells, of a vegetable fungus. 
The general features of the disease, in its mode of onset, its progress, 
symptoniB, and nokod-cyo characters, are those of an exaggerated tinea 
unquestionably. There ate points of difiereuce, I admit ; but I will 
refer to these in a moment. In the 'scrapings' of cuticle I find 
abtrndant evidence of a vegetable fungus of a most luxuriant kind. 
This fungus exists in great abuTidaTKe; but, though so plentiful, its 
presence may readUy be overlooJced, unless a very thin layer of the 
^scrapings' is escamined. Of the accompanying illustrations, one of 
tho figures [which we regret we do not possess] represents the fungus 
magnrfled under a power of 500 diameters, and as drawn with the 
camera. It will be noticed that the fungus elements ore very largo. 
They bear, indeed, a resemblance to the parasite of the so-called 
Eczema marginaiuTn of the Qenaans. I am not at present prepared 
to say whether the fungus is a modification of tlic trichophyton, or a 
new and special one. I await further experiments, and do not propose 


therefore to give the fangns or the disease a new name. The second 
figure shows the fangus as seen under a power of 1500 diameters, and 
conveys a very good idea of the structure of the cell-wall of the 
conidia, and the mode in which these conidia are developed within 
the cell-wall of the mycelial threads. But I purposely omit entering 
into any further account of the microscopic history and relationship of 
the fungus, as my object is a practical one. Suffice it, that I have 
discovered the fungus and figured its main features. 

" I have been unable to detect any dipterous insects — of which I 
have specimens — in the ' scrapings ' which I have examined ; and it is 
clear to me that their presence is accidental^ and that they are 
attracted to the skin, in Tokelau ringworm, by the ointments applied 
to it, and in which they become imb^ded. They are not, so far as the 
microscope enables me to judge, present in the diseased skin until 
after ointments have been appli^. Further, dipterous insects could 
not, I take it, possibly cause such an eruption as Tokelau ringworm ; 
and it is impossible to suppose that, in or upon a skin in which not a 
trace whatever of their presence exists, the application of a strong 
parasiticide would cause tiie rapid development, in the space of three 
hours, of a host of these dipterous insects from ova supposedly existing 
in the skin, and undiscoverable by accurate means of detection. I 
presume it is the fact of the non-discovery of the fungus which led to 
the supposition that the diptera may be the cause of flie disease. But, 
now that I have demonstrated the presence of the fungus, and having 
regard to the general features of the eruption in LafiEi Tokelau, the 
aspect of the question of the relationship of the diptera to the disease, 
in the light of cause and effect, is altogether altered. I have said that, 
as compared with exaggerated tinea circinata, Tokelau ringworm offers 
some points of difference. I think these do not refer to essential 
.features of the eruption, but rather to those which are accidental — 
viz. to the infiltration and the scaliness ; and these differences are to 
be explained, I think, by the greater luxuriance and amount of fungus 
present, which necessarily cause a greater degree of inflammation. It 
is not necessary to suppose that the fungus is a special one; tho 
differences referred to will be equally accounted for if it should turn 
out that the parasite is a modification — a more luxuriojit form than 
usual —of the trichophyton." 


Gundlach's i AND Beni^xuk H No. 7. 

To the EdU</r of tJie * Monthly M icroHCi/jnc/xl Jonrital,* 

DlSNH'J'c>NK C<)LLKfiKf Amjutt 24, 1874. 

Sib, — With our brother microscopintH and optjciarm in (Icrmany a 
favourite method of testing a J-iuch objective iw U) try if it will show 
the lines on P. angulatum with |>erfectly straight suidight, using, of 


conrao, as tiio German faEhion is, both mirror nnd diaplirngm ; and 
tboir conclofdonB ne to the quality of tLo objective niider examination 
are formed accordingly. 

For my own part, I havo for some time adopted a proceeding eome- 
what similar, but infinitely more trying. InetMvd of straight Gunlight, 
I employ the etraight light of a common composite candle, and 
discard both mirror and diaphragm. 

My J inch {one of GundlMjli'e earliest issues) will in this way not 
only do all that I have seen Gcnnou eighths do, with the help of sun- 
light, mirrnr and dinphragm, but do it with greater sharpneRs and dis- 
tinctness. I may mention that, when in the summer of 1872 I visited 
Messrs. Seihert and Kraft's establishment at Charlottenhnrg, and 
Horr Seibeit showed mo the abovc'mentioiied feat with sunlight, as a 
grand tour de force, I took my own ^ inch ont of my pocket, and 
requested Hcrr Gnndlnch, who chanced to enter the room at that 
moment, to try it against Hcrr Seibert'B. He did fo ; and the remdt 
was a complete victory for my glass, to Gnndlach's great delight, 
when I informed him tiiat the glass was one of his own manufacture. 

So much for eighths. 

Well, on Saturday last, L. Beneche of Berlin sent me, as I had 
requested him, a specimen of his newly improved No. 7, which 
corresponds to a weak English \ inch, 

I t^ed it the same evening, using straight candlelight and a B eye- 
piece, but without mirror or diaphragm. The test applied was one of 
Holler's slides of P. aitgnlatun. 

Under theae cojiditiona it showed the markings on P. an^ulaitim 
with the utmost distinctness, leaving nothing to bo desired on that 
score. Indeed, I preferred its performance to that of my ^ inch, with 
which I compared it. 

I then took out the eye-piece, and used as an eye-piece a very 
indifferent 1-inch ohjoetivo. This method, though resulting in a per- 
ceptible loss of light, left the definition as sharp as ever. My J inch, 
on the other hand, broke down completely under this last test. 

Then I proceeded to try Beneche's glass on a variety of other 
testa, from P. lalticam up to S. (femma, and in all cases with excellent 
results. Its performance on S. gemma I shall leave unrecorded, as 
the truth here would seem incredible. Meanwhile, its performance on 
P. angiiJalum is a pretty " big thing " for a ^ inch ; and I shall be 
glad to hear if any of your Teaders can do the same with their 

I om yours, &c., 

W. J. HlOKIK. 


jral jiXlcI ii-j.i'.iJj.i -.--i 



NOVEMBER 1, 1874. 

I. — Supplementary Remarks on Appendicularia. 
By Alfred Sandebs, M.E.C.S. 

{Read before the Royal Microscopical Society, October 7, 1874.) 

Plate LXXX. 

At the beginning of this year I had the honour of laying before 
this Society some remarks on two apparently new species of Ap- 
pendicularia, belonging respectively to the genera Oikopleura and 
Frittillaria ; a much larger number of specimens of the fcrmer, and 
a longer time for examination, have enabled me, during the course 
of thjs summer, not only to correct some misinterpretations of 
structure, but also to add several details to my former paper. 

*I have, unfortunately, not been able to meet with further 
specimens of the s|>ecies of Frittillaria which I then described, so 
that my remarks will be entirely confuied to the genus Oikopleura 
on the pi:esent occasion. 

The species of this genus, the description of which I am now 
about to complete, abounds on the south coast of England ; I have 
found specimens in large quantities at Weymouth, Gowes, and 
Newhaven, and it is to be presumed that they occur also in the sea 
between those places. 

They are best caught in a muslin net left for a short time in 
the tideway a little before high water, at about the period of the 
spring tides ; the plan suggested by Dr. Fol, of bailing them out 


Pig. 1. — ^Neural view of Oikopleura. 
„ 2. — ^HsBmal „ „ 

The tail is not represented, and is supposed to be cut off. 

A, Anus. I, 1 ; I, 2 ; Intestine. 

B, Ae, External branchial aperture. In, Integument. 
B, Ai, Internal „ „ M, Mouth. 

E, Endostyle. N, Nerve. 

G, Ganglion. O, Otolithe. 

G, Ey denerative gland. (E, (Esophagus. 
Gl, Glandular bodies attached to the 01, Olfactory organ. 

endostyle. R, Rectum. 

H, Heart. St, Rl, Right lobe of stomach. 

H, G, "Hans'* gland. St, LI, Left „ 

VOL. xn. . (i 


f 210 TrattsaetiotiB of the 

into a Ifttge glass vessel without lifting the not entirely out of the 
water, aiiswera very well. 

There appears to be aomo confusion with rpganl lo the nomeu- 
! dature of the position of the body ; Dr. Fol * and ^Jao Vogt t 
term the side on which the nervons system occurs, the doraal, and 
tlie side to which the tail is attached, the Tentral. This would be 
■correct in regard to the development of the Ascidia in reference to the 
vertebrate type of structure. In Professor Huxley'sJ paper, on the 
other hand, the nervous system is descrihed as being on the ventral 
Bide. In order to avoid this confusion, perhaps it would be better 
to call the side on which the ganglion is situated the neural, and 
that to which the tail is attached the hiemal ; and in speaking of 
the dureefcion of any part, whethei towards the neural or htemal 
Bide, the corresponding terms § would be neurad or hcemad. Bnt 
there still remains the necessity, when referring to the right or left 
side of the aoimal, to determine whether the neural side is to be 
considered ventral or dorsal ; but as in my last paper I followed Pro- 
fessor Huxley's nomenclature in reference to this aspect, I think it 
will be preferable still to do so, and in order to distinguish the right 
from the left side, to speak aa if the nervous system were situated 
on the ventral side of the body. This discussion may appear trivial, 
but it will be found that the present paper would he unintelligible 
without some definite rule on the auhjeet. 

It is comparatively easy to obtain a side view of these animals, 
because, being narrower in that direction than from the nenral to 
the hfemal side, they naturally fall into that position when they are 
slightly confined by the covering glass. But to get a haemal or 
neural view is much more difBcult ; in this case it is neceasaiy so to 
arrange the covering glass that it does not touch any part of their 
body, and being thus free to move about as they please, a good 
view is a matter of chance and patience. The plan that I have 
found to answer heat, is to support both ends of the cover by a 
sufficient thickness of paper, to put the animal into a very small 
drop of water, and by means of a horsehair to draw this drop of 
water into a point ; when this ia done they sometimes drive them- 
selves into the inlet thus formed, and revolve with great rapidity 
round their long axis; bnt after a time they become tired, and 
remain quiet for a few seconds, when it is posaible to gain a view of 
them in either the hsemal or neural position. The specimens that 
I examined varied in length of body from 0'24 mm. to 0-72 mm, 

Integum&nt. — The whole body, with the exception of the extreme 
posterior end, ia surrounded by a hyaline membrane ; that this is 

Mem. de la Sociit^ de Pbjs. et de I'Histoire Nnturelle de Geneve,* lorn, ii., 
la™ partie. 

t ' Mem. de I'lnalitut National GeneTDis,' toin. ii. 
j ■ QuBT. Jonc. Mic. Science," vol. iv., I85fi, 
§ Derived from Vertebrate Asatoiny. 


Boyal Miero3coj)ieaI Society. 

not the commencement of the stmcture known as the " Hans " I 
am convinced, hecanae, although I have only met with thia stmc- 
ture in a fully formed condition once or twice, I have frequently 
seen what appears to be its beginning, and in each case it was 
separate from and covered hy the hyaline substance ; be that as 
it may, all the specimens that I have examined possessed thia 
glassy covering. 

Beneath this, tlie body is enclosed in thick granular porietoa, 
which extend from each side of the generative gland forward to the 
entrance of the pharynx ; the deficiency of this granular wall at the 
posterior end of the body is filled up by a thin membrane, to 
which the genexating gland adheres. The interior of the pariet^ is 
lined by what appears to be an epithelial layer, which presents the 
appearance of variously shaped cells at different portions of the 
body, hut I am not decided whether this layer is a separate 
straeture, or whether it is onlj the optical expression of the 
elementa composing the thickened parietes, for when an optical 
section of the wall is obtained a distinct and separate layer of 
epitheUum cannot be made out ; surrounding the entrance to the 
pharynx, however, these quasi cells have a four-sided appearance; 
as seen from the hiemal side there are four rows of them, here 
tliey approach the form of a square ; but on the nearal side they 
reaembla layers of bricks, each element forming a parallelogram 
with the angles rounded ; behind these, in that part of the walls 
covering the endostyle on the hsmal side and the nervous 
ganglion on the neural side, they are circular in outline, being 
arranged in rows in such a maimer that those of the second row 
occur opposite the interspaces of the first row, those of the third in 
like manner opposite the interspaces of the second, and so on In 
some few cases theee cells appeox to be hexagonal in shape ; when 
this occurs each hexagon is separated from its neighbour by a cleai' 
line when the focus is properly adjusted. 

As soon as the process of dying begins to set in, these cell-like 
appearances are more distinct, the divisions between them become 
more marked, they swell out, and on a profile view project as 
rounded eminences into the somatic cavity ; it is thia appearance 
which perhaps gave Dr. Fol' the idea that the somatic parietas 
were composed of a single cellular layer, which he terms the 
eetothehum or epidermis ; but in healthy specimens the walls of the 
body, as seen in on optical section, present only the appearance of 
indistinct molecules mibedded in a granular substance, with the 
above-mentioned cells forming an apparent lining membrane. 

Belonging to the integumentary system is a large gland, which 
Dr. Fol declares to secrete the gelatinous material fiarming the 
BO-callod " Haus," which interpretation I am inclined to confirm 


212 Transactions of (he 

from my own observations. This gland consists of two parts; 
ftnteriorly there are a pair of oval swellings of the inner surface of 
the integnment, one being sitnated on each side of the ganglion 
and otolithic vesicle ; these swellings gradually subside to the level 
of the int^timent towards the middle line ia front, but more 
suddenly behind ; they project nearly half-way across the body, and 
are composed of circular molecules imbedded in a matrix which 
appears to be composed of 'sarcode. When deterioration first 
begins to set in, a few rows of large hexagonal cells moke their 
appearance on each side of the central nervous system, which, as 
the animal progresses towards dissolution, become more and more 
of a rounded form until they represent rows of hemispherical 
projections ; it is in this state that Dr. Fol has given a flgwe of 
these glands. That this appearance is abnormal, and the result of 
commencing decomposition, is demonstrated by the fact, that it is 
not seen in perfectly fresh specimens, that it comes on gradually, 
passing first through the he^gonal stage, and that subsequently 
other parts of the integument show hemispherical projections 
resembling these, but of varying sizes, according to the position 
they occupy as mentioned above ; during the larther progress of 
diaaolntion they develop into globules of a highly refracting ap- 
pearance, which obscure all view of the interior of the body ; in 
extreme cases a like process goee on in the walla of the viscera 

The posterior portion of these glands presents quite a different 
appearance from the anterior ; this part consists of three transverse 
rows of square corpnscles terminated anteriorly by a sharp edge ; 
each of these corpuscles is divided from its neighbour by a clear 
line; this band la finished off posteriorly by a border of finely 
granular material, which is obsctirely filled in some cases by cor- 
puscles of an oval form, with tho long asis placed transversely ; it 
was this bond of squai'e corpuscles that I rashly concluded, in my 
last paper, were rows of stigmata, but that they are not openings, 
and have nothing to do with such struetm'ee, is eaaily shown by 
feeding these animals with indigo. 

There ia no excretory duct to these glands, but the gelatinous 
material of the " Haus " appears to be exuded through the finely 
granular portion which is situated between the two in the mid Hue 
on the neural side of the body. 

The endostyle, and the glandular body on each side of it, may 
he considered as appendages of the integument. The endostyle, 
which was briefly described in my last paper, appears on the dorsal 
view to be a soHd body very nearly divided longitudinally into two 
halves by a fissure, which is sUghtly expanded at its anterior end ; 
its posterior extremity projects for a short distance beyond or 
poskirior to the anus. A mmiitc examination of its substance 



Royal Microscopical Socidy. 213 

discloBoa indiBtinct molecales; ie many cases, the addition of aceti 
acid, besiclea giving it a coarsely granular appearance, canaea a feM 
tranaTerse lines to become visible, as if it were about to divide into 

According to Dr. Fol, this body secretes a glairy mucua, wliicb 
mixes witb the food aa it passes down the pharynx, and, therefore, 
belongs to the digestive system, I have not observed this secretion, 
nHither have I seen the pair of styles with which the some authority 
remarks that the endostyle is provided. 

There are two apparently glandular bodies, one on each side of 
the endostyle, instead of only one, as I supposed in my last paper, 
for reasons which will appear presently ; in structure they so fiir 
resemble the endostyle as to shov? obscure indications of molecules 
in their substance ; it is noticeable that in small specimens these 
bodies are larger in proportion to the size of the endostyle than in 
large specimens ; perhaps they have some function in the economy 
of fiiese animals analogous to certain foetal structures in the verte- 
brata, e. g, the thymus ; their position, also, it may be remarted, ia 

Four openings pierce the integmnent, but only two need bo 
noticed at present ; these are the ciliated branchial openings. In 
my last paper I mentioned that there existed only one of tliese 
openinga; thia miatake arose from the circnmstance that all the 
Bpecimena were examined on the aide, this being the position which 
the animal invariably assumes when slightly held by the covering 
glass, and when this is the ciiae, one branchial opening conceals the 
other (the same thing occurs in the case of the glanda just men- 
tioned). It so happened, in my investigations last year, that 
when the creature bad been sufficiently examined in this position, 
it was out of my power to procure any further specimens, so that I 
was unable at the time to correct misapprehensions caused by want 
of variety in position. The branchial openings are situated on the 
hsemat side of the pharynx ; they are rather long tubes, having a 
direction backwards, htemad, and slightly towards the middle line. 
The internal openings are larger than the external ; the foi-mer are 
circular in outline, and are provided with a circlet of strong cilia, 
which, when in action, gives a figure resembling the engine-turning 
on the back of a watch, or the drops of water from a revolving 
wheel 'J'he circumference of these openings is enclosed by two or 
three strong circular fibres, outside of which a circlet of pentt^onal 
cells occurs ; each of these cells is provided with a clear spot 
resembling a nucleus ; five of them can be counted on tlie anterior 
part of the circnmference of the openings, which is alJ that ia visible 
on the htemal view of the animal. 

t'ha external opeuings are quite plain, and unprovided with cilia j 
they arc smaller thnn the internal, somewhat oval in shnpe, and are 



Transactions of the 


^^H Bitnated one on each aidu of and iu close juxtaposition to tlte com- 
^^K mencemeiit of the rectum. Thoee tubes are more visible in tbe 
^^f largest specimens ; indeed, in the smaller ones they are scarcely per- 
^^B ceptible : this might account for my having missed seeing tl^m in 
^^f my former observations. 

^^ I tried feeding some vigorous specimens with indigo, and found 

that the particles entered the pharynx through the branchial aper- 
tures in a regular stream ; the greater part went out again through 
the month, but the part which struck against the neural wall of the 
pharynx turned back, and vrere carried by tbe ciliary current into 
the tesophagUB and thence into the stomach, and eventually into the 
remainder of tbe intestine ; the indigo followed this course iu every 

I instance in which the expeiimenb was tried. 
Digestive System. — This species of Oikopleura is distinguished 
by the high development of its alimentary canal. 
The general description of this tract was given iu the former 
paper; I will content myself, therefore, in this place with adding 
some further details to that acconnt. 
The mouth looks towards the neural sui'face ; it is heart-shaped, 
being provided with a rounded anterior lip. 
The stomach is a comphcated organ ; it consists of two flattened 
disk-like lobes, one of which lies parallel to tbe right side of the 
body, the other lobe is situated at right angles to this on the neural 
side ; it is this latter port that I termed the flist portion of the 
intestine, from the fact that fteces begin to be observable therein ; but 
as most authorities appear to consider it to be a lobe of tbe stomach, 
I shall adopt that view in future. The two lobes in A.jtabellum are 
described by Professor Huxley" as being parallel, and not at right 
angles, as in this specimen. The ri^t lobe of the stomach, which 
^^ corresponds to the left lobe in Dr. Pol's nomenclature, is provided 

with two different species of & 

a the lining membrane; one sort 


are large, and form hemispherical projections into the cavity of the 
stomach ; these are arranged in a crescentic form, and occupy that 
part (abont half) of the mucous membrane which is situated towards 
the heemal side of tbe body ; the space between the right and left 
walls on this side is occupied by four or five cells much larger than 
the remainder. 

The other portion of the mucous membrane of the right lobe of 
tbe stomach is formed of flat irregularly polygonal cells, which 
occupy the spaces between the above-mentioned rounded cells, and 
also spr^ over that wall of this lobe which is directed towards the 
neural side ; these flat cells vary in shape and size ; they line the 
whole of the right lobe not occupied by the rounded cells. The 
transition between the right and left lobes is marked by a longi- 
tudinal ridge at the angle which they form together, but the 

Bot/al Mioroscopiedl Society. 215 

neural wall of tlie two parts ia continuous, without any mark of 

The left lobe ia also Kned by flattened cells, wbioli form a 
tceselated or pavement epithelium. These cells are polygonal in 
shape, like the flat cells of the right lobe, but difier m each con- 
taining a clear round spot resembling a nucleus, the rest of the cell 
contents being coarsely granular. The shape of these cells varies 
in difierent specimens; in some the prevalent form ia elongated, 
pointed at one end and broad at the other, at which part the clear 
spot is present; but in the greater number they are irregularly 
polygonal, with the clear spot at or near the centre. 

A profile view of this part of the stomach shows that these 
cells are sUgbtiy elevated above the level of the walls of tliia viaeus, 
so that the separation between them is formed by a series of 
channels, whicn are indicated in a front view by clear lines of 

The colour of these cells is generally darker than iu those of the 
right lobe and of the intestine ; in a few specimens they were of an 
orange tint, and in one only of a deep purple, the second part of 

»ihe intestine being of a lighter shade of the same colour. 
The pylorus is placed at the posterior wall of the left lobe, 
oloee to the angle between it and the right lobe, so that the greater 
part of thia left lobe forms a evi de eac^ which perhapa might be 
considered as a rudimentary livei; if so, this animal presents 
another pomfc of resemblance to the amphiosns, inasmuch as it pos- 
sesses a hver constructed in the form of a blind sac. 

The last-mentioned organ being considered as belonging to the 
stomach, there only remain two chambera and the rectum as form- 
ing the intestine ; the first and second of these (which I termed 
second and third portions of the intestine in my last paper) are oval 
chambera, which present no apertures except when the iieces are 
passing ; both of them are lined by an epitheUimi formed of flatr 
tened cells, like that of the left lobe of tne stomach ; the cells of 
this epithelium difler, however, in not containing a clear spot in 
the centre, or when this is present, as happens in a few cases, 
it is BO indistinct that it is easily overlooked and soon disappears 

The rectum continues forwards from the second chamber and 

ends in the anus, which ia situated on a distinct papilla in front of 

' the insertion of the tail. Thia part of the intestine is lined by 

Ijound cells which project into the cavity. 
That part of Uie right lobe of the stomach which is lined by 
flattened epithehum is ciliated, as aJso is the whole of the left lobe, 
tt^etber with all the intestinal canul except the rectum. 
Nervom Sys/eni.—Ihe nervous system of these auimals is very 
highly developed, more so even than in their allies the ascidia. 

Transaciiona of the 

II, — New Diatonia. By F. Kitton, Norwicli, 

^liead hf/ore the JlovAL Micboscopical Sixirtv, October 7, 1874.) 


Thboooh the kindness of my friend Captain Verty, of Liverpoolj 
I am enabled to introduce to the notice of the Fellowa of thia 
Society eome new and rare forms of Diatomaceie which I Imvd 
detected in a dredging made by him ofl' Navy Bay, Colon, Faoama. 

This gathering is one of the most interesting it hoa over been 
my fottime to examine : in addition to the many hue forms of 
Diatomacese, Foraminifera and Polycystina are not of unfreqnent 
occorrence. Siiicified casta of the borings of some species of Oliona, 
the chambers of Foraminifera (often with the psendopodal apertures), 
fragments of Echinus spines, and Bryozoa may be tbai^ among 
the heavier debris after tne calcareous matter has bean destroyed by 

The species of Diatomacese are numeroufl and fine ; those which 
I am about to describe are, I believe, new. 

Perrya, N. G., mihi, 

Free, elongated, fra'?tulcs comjjre^ed, sometimes slightly con- 
stricted, extremities rounded, strife transverse moniiilbrm. Marine. 

This genus is distinguished from Nitzacliia, its nearest aily, by 
the absence of a keel, and also by its very much compressed valve. 

P. puhherrima, F, K, — Valve in f. v. linear, inner or ventral 
margin straight or very slightly concave, outer or dorsal margin 
straight, suddenly rounded at the apices, markings, distant monili- 
form dots, in transverse series, not reaching ventral margin, between 
which are fine moniliform striie, a, v, narrow, linear, suddenly tajier- 
ing towards the acnte extremities, a central line of large monili&rm 
dots dividing the valve. Length ■ 0090" to ■ 0200", bi^adth " 0015". 
Navy Bay, Colon, Panama ; Campeche Bay. = Nitzsehza puleher- 
■ 1 Grunow, m. s. Herr Weissflog, in litt. PI. LSSXI., Fig. 1, 
valve £ v.; 2, frustule ; 3, ideal section of ditto. 

This form somewhat resembles Nitzschia, but the compressed 
valve and absence of keel indicate that the resemblance is only 

FiO. 1. — Perrya pulcherrims, valsa. 
„ 2. — „ „ friiatule. 

„ 3 — ,, ,, ideal aectiou of ditto. 

„ 4,— 8urirc?fa amlorla, valve. 
,, H.— ififisoAva grandis. 
„ 6.— „ „ outline of frustule. 

„ 7. — E-iceraHum /aim, var. sept'imgulatum, 
„ S. — Portion of iaaet BWface Hhowing the punctate film. 
All X 400 ilinmeterB. 

TheMontUy MimseopicdJouraal Nov' 1.1874 


\ % O-^&xsi^t'^ 

H ThB J&ntiily merosoopi^^ 

scopical ^ouTnaKHov"! IWi. 

Boyal Microscopical Society. 219 

superficial. It resembles Amphiprora in the f. v., but the absence of 
the sigmoid keel and central nodule distinguishes it from that genus. 

I have detected two or three other species in the Colon and 
Campeche dredgings, which I hope to describe in a future paper. 

Nitzschia grandis^ n. sp., F. K. — Frustule linear, ends rounded, 
valye linear, suddenly tapering to the acute and incurved extremi- 
ties, keel subcentral, costate punctate between the costsB, remainder 
of valve marked with distinct moniliform striae in transverse series. 
CostsB 10 in •001,strige 25 in -001 ; length from -0100" to -0200". 
Navy Bay, Colon, Panama. PL LXXXII., Fig. 5, valve ; 6, outline 
of frustule, shaded portion the cingulum; the dotted line shows 
ventral margin of lower valve. 

This form is perhaps one of the finest of the genus, and I know 
of no species with which it is likely to be confounded. N, Bright- 
weRii equals it in size, but differs in the position of the keel and 
also in the striation. 

Triceratium favus, var. sept-angulatum, F. K. — Valve large 
with seven sUghtly concave margins, processes produced, cells hexa- 
gonal somewhat irregular in size, centre of valve turgid, marginal 
cells elongated, margin with large moniliform granules, inner surface 
of valve punctato-striate, radiant, about 20 in • 001 ; extreme breadth 
of valve • 0200". PI. LXXXII., Figs. 7 and 8. Navy Bay, Colon, 

I have Httle hesitation in referring this magnificent form to 
the above-named species, the number of sides, like the number of 
nodules on Eupodiscus or Aulacodiscus, being of no specific value. 

All forms of Triceratia with conspicuous hexagonal cells are, I 
beheve, only varieties of T.favvA, The radiating punctse on the 
inner surfaice are not always present, and are really not on the 
inner surface of the valve ; they indicate the presence of a thin 
silicious film, possibly the rudiment of a new valve ; if a valve is 
crushed between the shde and cover, fragments of the film are 

In the first volume of the 'Lens,' a good Woodbury-type 
of T.' firnbriatum (from a photograph of Dr. J. J. Woodward^) 
will be found, in which the puncte are very distinctly shown. 
T. fimlriatum is rightly referred by Ealfe to T.favus. 

Dr. M. Edwards (* Lens,' vol. ii., p. 105) mentions a six-sided 
form which agrees very well with my seven-angled variety, and 
which he calls T. ponderosum, but from the absence of any spe- 
cific characters I am unable to decide upon their identity with 
certainty.* I have given the breadth of my largest specimen, the 
smallest I have seen measured about • 0120" ; size is, however, of 
little or no value, even if this form had occurred in sufficient quan- 

* His speoiiuens were found in the Monterey deposit, in which he said a three- 
sided valve was also detected. 

220 Transactions of the Boyai Microscopical Society. 

tity to have afforded means of estimating its variation ; in the type 
form this variation is considerable. In a gathering from Sierra 
Leone I found a frustule of the type form scarcely exceeding 
• 0020" from angle to angle. 

SurireUa contorta, n. sp., P. K. — ^Valve eUiptically or slightly 
ovate, canaliculi fine, nmnerous, alae inconspicaous, narrow median 
elevation terminating in short spines, surface of valve obscurely 
striate, valve in f. v. contorted. Sub-peat deposit, Mannawata, 
Wellington, and Wangarei, Auckland, New Zeakad. PL LXXXI., 
Fig. 4. This fine species of Surirella is undoubtedly distinct from 
any form of this genus with which I am acquainted. The valves 
in the Wangarei are more robust than those in the Mannawata 
deposit, and of a yeUovrish brown colour, whilst those in the Man- 
nawata material are hyaline, but differing in no other respect ; the 
surface of the valve is blistered or puckered. The spines with 
which the elevated ends of the median space terminate form a very 
acute angle with the surface of the valve, and point in opposite 

I may here remark that the forms associated with the above are 
those usually found in sub-peat deposits, viz. Epithemia, Navicula, 
Himantidium, Cocconeis, Stauroneis, &o. Navicuia ( = Pinnularia) 
cardindlis is very fine in the Wangarei deposit, and differs from the 
typical form in the greater distance of the costse and the broadly 
cuneate ends. 

8tav/r(meis acuta is rare but fine in the above-named material. 

( 221 ) 

llL — Final Jtemarlcs on Immersed Aferturei. 

By F. H. Wekham, T.P.R.M.S. 

r closing this discussion I have to thank Col. Woodward for 
iobligingly furnishing a diagram. When I requested this I did not 
Iflipect the forthcoming tangible proof by direct meaanrement of the 
'angles of the ^th belonging to Mr. Crisp, made by Mr. ToUea ; this 
having decided against the alleged extra aperture, the argument 
may also end with him. Some, however, still follow and uphold 
these ultra rays ou theoretical grounds, and call for a notice which 
may be biief. 
L Me. Keith's illustration in the September number of this Journal 
[ refers to a T^th. I need not raise any question of iia accuracy as a 
mere dit^ram, as I doubt the &rat position taken, and the direction of 
the rays that follow. I could give in diagram a dry lens admitting 
the largest pencil possible, that when immersed would fall within the 
theoretical limit, and so argument might bo continned ad infini- 
tum, and quite uselessly, as we have the objectrglasa reten'ed to in 
this controversy to settle the point by measurement. 

It will be seen in the diagram that while the back lenses may 
assimilate for a rsth, the front is of small I'adius and diameter, 
magnilying sufficiently for a i^j or tV- This is very different in size 
from the " unfortunate " tenth previously sent also to prove the extra 
immersion rays. I am not prepared to allow the front to be correct 
in size or position with its radiant point "assumed" as stated,* If 
it were moved into the position necessary for a dry object the focus 
would fell on or within the front aur&ce, and in any position there 
will be no air focus. If the diagram is made up of uncertain 
measurements, what is the use of it ? Mr. ToUes, from whom all 
dimensions come, has repeatedly supplied diagrams to suit his 
theory. On page 14 of this Journal lor July last he assumes that 
in all conditions of the combined lenses an angle of 6U° can be 
obtained from the back systems. He there places the hemispherical 
front in this angle just where it fills it beat, and at an exceedingly 
long distance from the middle. On the other hand, in Mr. Keith's 
illustration it is brought very close ; a contrast indeed to the former 
case, where the increase of aperture is to be obtained by actually 
separaling the lenses.T 

Of course Messrs. Woodward and Keith are not responsible for 
data, but the former gentleman tells us it is " a diagram aceuraiely 
condruded in accordance with the computed reaults":^ having, 


therefore, been drawn to suit the proposition, it may be dismissed. 
Eeferring hack to Mr. Keith^ correspondence, I find he first 


Final Hemarka on Immersed Apertures. 


figuroa an arrangement for obtaining full apertures in bitlaam — the 
same in principle as that described and carried ont by myself more 
than twenty years ago, and yet " wonders that I cannot see it," 
He next appears as an advocate of the correctness of Col. Wood- 
ward's diagram,* wherein he assumes his immersion radiant points 
close, and yet closer, in order to show that rays of any degree 
of obliquity can be got through a hemisphere, regardless of the 
destination of all of them to the focus at the eye-piece, thus carry- 
ing the argument round agaio to its commencement. On this 
Mr. Keith gives his verdict that Col, Woodward is right and I am 
wrong ; and I may state, in reference to hia last communication, 
that I do not think that it is po^ible to discriminate and decide in 
such a complicated optical arrangement as a microscope object-glass, 
that the spherical aberration is " practically nothing by compata- 
tion " t and — on paper. It would be a great boon to the makere of 
object-glasses if iJiis could be done. 

It is still a matter of surprise to me that these gentlemen 
cannot see or will not admit that if an objeet-glasa, whetiier made 
by Mr. Tollea or anyone else, be set at the immersion atljustment, 
and the angle considered as near Mr. Tollea' 180^^ as anyone may 
have the temerity to venture, till it occupiea the whole of the front 
lens (for in dry lenses of larj^e aperture the rays nearly fill the 
hemisphere), and with the focua ela^e to the glass, that on dipping 
it into balsam, whatever the including aperture may have previposly 
been, the cone immediately falls within 82° by the first law of 
refraction, the back focna remaining the same in both cases. But 
the bias of the discussion has been to show myself wrong by Mr. 
Tollai presumably getting some extra immersion rays, if only to 
the extent of 10^, 5°, yea, even half a degree. For the decision of a 
scientific fiict, glasses besides Mr. Tolies' might be referred to in 
support, as immersions are mojle in other countries quite unsor- 
passed ; but it is a triumph for him only.| 

Finally, a few words concerning the sUt in focus of object-glass, 
for cutting off all these disputed or felse rays. It is difficult to anni- 
hilate this by theory. Having given the death-blow to Mr. Toiles' 
extra apertures, it may be treated with but little notice, but cannot 
be got rid of as a thing of no account or a mere sensational affair. 
Col. "Woodward says, " This method might be used without giving 
rise to material iuaccuracy when the objective is adjusted for an- 
coTered objects ; but when it is closed to the point of maximum 

• 'M.M. J.,' Nov., 1873, p. 212. 

t Ibid., Bejit., 1874, p. 121, 
' j " One maker hoviiis made a uyXh of tlie limit, it ih probnble that the rest 
will toon fblloir. But Mr. Tollea richly deserves bigli praiee from all who naa 
microBCDpes, aad all tc/io maie theui, far perfieverence in the mechanical cxpraBsioD 
of hiB eorrfd ptrc^tion of the rase, in c^po^tion b> high theorotical authority." — 
R. Keith, ' M. M. J.,' June, 187i. 

Final Bemarhs on Immersed Apertures. 223 

aperture its spherical aberration is of course no longer corrected for 
uncovered objects." In measuring varying angles of aperture by 
the usual method, we take them at all points of the adjusting collar, 
and do not place in front a thickness of glass suitable for that cor- 
rection, because with a parallel plate of glass there is no perceptible 
difference. The angle at the crossing point of the rays is the same 
whether it is there or not. I stipulate that the edges of the stop 
shall be in the crossing point. If anyone thinks proper to intro- 
duce an intervening plate of glass, serving no purpose, he must 
focus through it, so as still to get the stop in the focal plane. 
Further, if the collar is set for an object immersed in balsam, for 
the purpose of testing its reduced aperture therein by the means I 
have described, the sUt must be set in focus, whether air, water, or 
balsam is the intermedium. In Mr. Tolles' ^th the immersed aper- 
ture was found to be the same with all three, simply because they 
are parallel plates. 

The question has now been so well ventilated that there is no 
use m wearying readers with further theories and counter-theories, 
perhaps only noticed by those engaged in the controversy, which 
few care now to read. Anyone free from prejudice, and recognizing 
the importance of cutting off all false rays within the focal point, 
would use a suitable stop for the purpose, and throw all controversial 
papers aside in favour of the practical proof in which the whole 
question must culminate at last. AU this voluminous correspond- 
ence has arisen from a very small beginning, in which I pointed 
out an optical error of Mr. ToUes in the direction of rays, and 
which he unwisely chose to deny. In his last production of 180*^ 
he has gone ahead of all others ; no one has surpassed him in that, 
and perhaps argument will not be wanting to prove by diagrams 
that ne is right. 

There I leave him, not without some amusement at the gro- 
tesque fatuity that induced his colleague to select the chaste and 
Christianlike motto, " A blunder is worse than a crime !" * 

♦ See * M. M. J.,* May, 1874, p. 228. 

VOL. xn. K 


( 224 ) 

IV. — The Filaria immitis. Amended Anatomical Details. 
By F. H. Welch, F-R-CS., Aaaiatant to Professor of Pathology, 

Army Medical School, Netley. 
In my paper" descriptive of the thread-worm, F. immitis, the Ganina 
Hfemntozoon, nmong other anatomical details of the parasite Wo 
conclusions are arrived at which subsequent dissections have proven 
to require modificatioD ; I refer (a) to the assomed coecal termmation 
of the intestuie aad consequent absence of anal aperture,! and (b) to 
the merging of the two uterine channels diverging from the vagina 
into one membranous tube continuous with the convoluted ovarian 
tubes at the tail end of the female worm. J 

Further examination of mora recent specimens has shown me 
that these details do not correspond with the facts since brought to 
light, and as they are important points in the anatomy of the worm 
I hastfin to correct them. 

Termiiiaiion of the AliTnentary Canal. — Plate XXX, Fig. 2, 
female worm, and Plate XXXII., Fig. 16, male worm, illustrate a 
coecal termination of the canal. However, on getting rid of tha 
cutaneous envelope of the tail end of the parasite by maceration and 
dissection, and tating away most of the muscular parietes with the 
contained ovariftn coils, I have traced the intestinal canal, contracted 
from the average ^iifth inch to rfrVoth inch in diameter, from 
beyond the assmned cceeal termination of the delicate tube to within 
TTirth inch of the terminal end of the worm, and when tension was 
brought to bear on this short unexplored portion the canal separated 
invariably from the inside of the muwular tip with a ruptured end 
and dimpling in of the external surface. The walla of the intestine 
are so thin that when collapsed it is easy to overlook the ftibe, 
which is mainly indicated by its dark contents ; and when these stop 
abruptly, accompanied by a reduction in calibre of the canal, it is 
not difficult to be misled in favour of a coecal termination. The 
presence of much dark granular material in the peri-visceral cavity 
at the tail end prevented the tracing of the dehcate tube through it 
with absolute certainty, yet considering that up to within Twth inch 
from the tail end it could be unquestionably followed, and that a 
ruptured end invariably ensued on tension being apphed to this 
short obscared portion with indrawing of the outer surface, I think 
that a bUnd ending to the alimentary canal may be fairly negatived. 
Hence I conclude that an anal aperture is present in this blood 
parasite, and to make the sketches in accordance with these details 
it becomes necessary to extend the tubes, marked a and p respec- 
tively in Plate XXX., Fig. 2, and Plate XXXII., Fig. 16, to the 
extreme tip of the tail. 


How to prepare Specimens of Diaiomacew. 225 

I will also add here that careful esamination of the guinea- 
worm (F. medinensia) has led me to coiielude that in this congener 
worm also the intestine terminates in an anal orifice a httle within 
the concavity of the curled tail, and so in thia anatomical point the 
worms are in imison. 

Merging of the (wo Uterine Channels or Soma into one common 
Ti^B.—li is quite clear that thia is incorrect. The two canals, 
diverging from the vagina, do nob coalesce, but continue separate 
throughout, though placed in close apposition and bound one to the 
other by nnmerous fibres. When within a distance of the tail 
varying from 3 to IJ inches, each uterine horn merges into an 
ovarian tube, as detailed at p. 1 61 and illustrated in Plate SXXI., 
Fig. 7. The ovarian tube is coiled npon itself, but when extended 
averages 5 inches in length ; it is continuoua from one nterine horn 
to the other, and varies in diameter from j^gth inch at its junction 
with the nterine channels to rirrtli inch midway, becoming again 
reduced to the smaUer measurement at the extreme loop. The 
remarkably close binding of the one horn of the uterus to the 
' other in their course from the vagina to the ovarian tube, and 
I the difficulty of unravelling them without tearing thefr dehcat© walls 
I Kid 80 obscuring accuracy of observation, led me to regard these 
tnbea f>a one, but the tracing of the ovarian coila upwards haa ren- 
dered clear these amended details of the generative system. 

With these modifications I behove that the anatomy of the 
Filaria immitis, b& detailed in my former paper, is substantially 

I v. — Row to prepare Specimens o/ Diatomacea^ for Examinaiio?t 

and Study by means of the Microscope. 

By A. Mead Edwards, M.D., Newark, New Jersey, U.8. 

rHiviNO accumulated a nnmber of gatherings of rough materia!, 
f which, a cursory esamination has shown, contain specimens of 
I Diatomaceie, and which, it is judged, it will answer to clean and 
I otherwise arrange and put up, or, as it is technically termed, 
I '« mount, " for future study, the intending diatomist recfuires to be 
|informed how he may best set abont preparing his specimens in the 
I most advantageous manner. The author of the present sketch has 
I imblLahed, in the seventh volume of the ' Proceedings of the Boston 
f (Mass.) Society of Natural History," certain directions for collecting, 
reparing, and mounting Diatomacese for the microscope ; and as 
lat paper contains a large part of the information he desires to 

s 2 

226 How to prepare Specimens of Diatomacese for 

impart at the present time, he will draw upon it pretty freely, 
supplementing it to such a degree as later investigations warrant, 
or as may seem desirable. 

Although most of the published treatises on the use of the 
microscope in general profess to give directions for mounting objects 
in such a manner as to preserve them for almost any length of 
time, and at the same time exhibit their characters to the best 
advantage, and although we have in the English language at least 
three books treating specially of this subject of the preparation of 
microscopic objects, yet hardly any one of these volumes gives 
any concise, practical, and at the same time reUable descriptions of 
'the best methods of collecting, preparing, and mounting specimens 
of Diatomaceae. In books, generally, when the preparation of these 
organisms is treated of, it is usually the fossil deposits which are con- 
sidered, and even such directions as relate to these are for the most 
part meagre and unsatisfactory ; and, when the specific and special 
directions are, as is often the case, copied from one book into the 
other without having been tested by the copyist, any faults they 
may have possessed, as originally written, are merely repeated and 
not ehminated. To prepare and mount specimens of DiatomaceaB, 
for the purpose of sale alone, is one thing, and to prepare and mount 
them, so as to preserve and exhibit their natural characters and fit 
them as objects of scientific study, is another and very different 
thing. The latter can only be attained after considerable practice, 
and to do it properly a considerable amount of knowledge of their 
natural history is plainly necessary. 

The Diatomacese should always be prepared and put up for a 
special purpose, — that of exhibiting characters peculiar to genera 
and species; and to do this those characters must of course be 
known. Muds, guanos, dredgings, and gatherings of that descrip- 
tion can seldom be used for the purpose of exhibiting such charac- 
ters, and when they can, in exceptional cases, be so employed, it is 
when the forms they contain are selected out in the manner to be 
described hereafter. Gatherings, Ukewise, which contain many 
species in a mixed condition, should, as a general thing, be rejected, 
unless there be present something of special importance, such as 
rare species, or some large and fine or distorted forms of common 
species. But even in such cases it will be found best not to mount 
the gatherings as collected, but to select out the forms desired and 
place them upon slides by themselves, and in such media as will 
exhibit their peculiarities to the best advantage. Of course it may 
be desirable to study the geographical distribution of the Diatomaceae ; 
and then mixed gatherings become of value as exhibiting the 
number of forms occurring at a particular station. Then, again, 
the fossil as well as the semi-fossil deposits and guanos may be 
cleaned and mounted as obtained ; but even then it may become 

r Examination and Study hy means of the Miaroseope, 227 
desirable, if space can be spared in tlie cabinet, to have the Tarioua 
species found in each gathering separately mounted, so that they 
may be at any time studied in compai'ison with similar forms from 
other localities. 
General directions for collecting Diatomacea? have been already 
given in part seventh ; but it v^ill be desbable to again allude to a 
few points in connection with this portion of our subject. Some 
years since, an article entitled " Hunting for Diatoms" was pub- 
lished in a London journal called ' The Intellectual Observer.' The 
author's name was not given, but internal evidence would seem to 
indicate that it was penned by a deceased botanist of note, who was 
I a decided authority on tbia branch of biology. This paper contains 

^^^ some valuable hints respecting the places in which to look for 
^^H diatoms, and some of the suggestions contained tlierein I have 
^^V ventured to transfer to these pag«s, as they will be found of value 
^^ to the intending diatoraist. Thus, the exquisite Arachnoidiscus, 
Triceratium Wilksii, and Aulacodiems Oregonemis, may be looked 
for on logs of wood which have been floating in the sea, and imported 
from New Zealand, or Vancouver's Island. So, on logs from Mexico 
and Honduras may be found the curious TerpsiniB mimoa. The 
nets of fishermen , especially from deep water, may yield algffi bearing 
such forna aa Bluibdonema areuaium oi Adrtatium, Gramm^ophora 
serpenti^ia and marina, various Synedras, and other fine Ibrms. 
On oyster shells may be found algas bearing upon their fronds 
Biddulphia regina, Baileyii or aurUa. Mhizosotenia styliformis 
_ is aaid to be almost sure to be there likewise. After a ship is 
inloaded, and as it flotita higher in the water, its sides may be 
i for treasures of the diatom world, and Achnantheg longipes 
. brevipes found, or even Diaioma hyalinum and Hyalosira 
felicatitla. The sea-grass, or Zostera marina, growing along our 
list, often bears upon its waving ribbons fine foiToa of diatoms, 
1 tliat used for stuffing chairs, and loimges or mattresses, and 
bport«d from abroad, will yield foreign species to the collector. 
mere is a plant known in England as " Dutch rushes," which is 
frxnltA into tliat country from Holland, and which is used for 
l»>ll«iiiH, TlipHP plfLota glow in tho brackish water of the 
' ■ ki be found the delicate Cosciiio- 

\ii Tfkemtiumfavus. Both of 
iL- commonly on our Atlantic 
- i' /i.Tnl Wilmington, Ga., have 
'if bones, which present 
. .iter for some time, are 
■ I'aro, as coming from 
iiire has not yet been 
\liat the characteristic 
mlaries are, but yet we 

How to 'prepare Specimens o 

may safely predict that tlie lakes, ponds, streams, and sea-coast of 
tliat state will yield to tho aeatdier ample material of beautiful 

If the microBcopist wishes to mount a few slides of recent 
diatoms just to show what diatoms are, nothing is easier. It ia 
only necessary to boil a small msss of them in strong nitric acid in 
a test-tnbe over a spirit lamp, and, when the acid has ceased to 
emit red or yellowish fumes, wash them thoroughly with clean 
water, aUowing them to settle completely. Then a little of the 
clean sediment, conaiating almost entirdy of the shells of the 
diatoms, is taken up by means of a " dip-tube," and placed upon 
the central portion of a glass ahde. Here it ia dried, and the slide 
warmed over a lamp ; then a drop of Canada balsam is permitted to 
fall upon the diatoms. As soon as all bubbles have cleared oft' from 
the balsam, a warm cover of thin glass is carefully laid upon it and 
permitted to settle into place. When cool, it is ready for examina- 
tion hy means of the microscope, any balsam which has exuded 
aroimd the cover being washed off with alcohol. In this way rough 
and tolerably clean specimens may be obtained ; but such would not, 
or, at all events, should not, satisfy the student of the Diatomaceae. 
For him more elaborate methods are necessary, and these we vrill 
now proceed to consider. 

Apparatus and Chemieah necessary. — A chemiat'a retort-Btand, 
which is a heavy iron plate with an upright rod projecting from 
one side of it. Eunuing on this rod, and so arranged that they 
may be fixed by set-acrews at any height, are a series of ring* of 
various diameters, which are to be used to hold the vessels in which 
the specimens are to be manipulated over the source of heat used. 
Mr, C. G. Bush, late of Boston, Mass., who has had considerable 
experience in cleaning Diatomaoeie, tells me that he uses a lamp 
burning petroleum oil, as cheaper than a spirit lamp, and, to 
support the veasela he employa, has a little metal arrangement on 
the top of the chimney, such as ia aup^ed for the purpose of 
holding a small tea-kettle and the like. The only objection to the 
oil lamp is, that, unless the wick be well turned down, we are liable 
to have our vessels blackened. However, the heat given off by burn- 
ing petroleum is very great, and I have often used such a lamp 
with advantage. If desired, of course, the source of heat uaed may 
be gas, burned in a Bunaen'a burner, ot a spirit lamp ; and this 
last, especially if it be supplied with a metal chimney to cut off 
draughte, is, all things considered, the best, as it is very cleanly, not 
being liable to smoke the bottom of the glass or porcelain vessels 
used. If we are going to work with large quantities of material, 
we shall require a small sand-bath to heat the glass veasela upon. 
In small quantities, the diatoms may be boiled in test-tubes, -mien 
some sort of holder will be required. The metal ones, sold by 


^" fc 


Examination and Study hy means of the Microscope. 229 

dealers in chemiBta' apparatus, are extremely handy ; but I have 
fonud that we can make very good onea out of old paper collars. 
One of the kind called " cloth-lined " may be cut into stripe about 
three-quarters of an inch wide and three inches long. Such a strip 
is folded around the test-tube near the top, and the ends, brought 
together, are held between the forefinger and thumb. In this way 
the tube is firmly grasped, and can be held over the lamp without 
much danger of burning the hand, as the paper eollar strip is a 
bad conductor of heat ; or the paper atrip may be grasped in an 
"American clothee-peg," which has a spring to force its parts 
together. Large quontitiee of diatoms are best boiled in porcelain 
evaporating dishes, glass flasks, or beaker glasses. The kat-mou- 
tioned vessels are also by tar the best things for washing them in. 
A few, say three or four, glass stirring-rods will be found useful ; and 
one or two American clothes-pegs to take hold of hot evaporating 
dishes with. Then there will be required a few dip-tubes, made of 
small glass tube, drawn out over a flame, so that the opening is con- 
siderably diminished. The mode of making these caimot be given 
here, but will be found in books on chemical manipulation ; and it 
will be well for the student to learn to make his own dip-tubes, as a 
number will be required first and last, and they are easily broken. 
Of course there will be required a nmnber of glass shdes of the 
usual dimeiaions of three inches by one. These should be of as 
white glass as possible, and it will be found beat to procure those 
with ground edges, as they are the neatest in appearance. Only such 
as are free from scratches or other blemishes in the central square 
inch should be used ; and although even such m have bubbles or 
scratches near the ends only will not look ornamental in a cabinet, 
we should remember that microscopic objects are not generally 
mounted to look well in a cabinet, but to be useful out of it ; so that 
if the centra! and useful portion of the shda be perfect it need not 
be rejected. Some persons make their own glass slides, but I have 
never found it answer to do so, as it is difficult to get the right 
iind of glass, not at all easy to cut it or grind the edges, and it is 
liable to be scratched while cutting or grinding. Thin glass, such 
as is made on purpose for microsoopie use, will bo required ; and 
this, also, it will be found best to bay ready cut than attempt to cut 
it for one's self. The thin glaaa uaol for covers may be of difl'erent 
thicknesses, bat the thickest made will not do for diatoms, and a 
certain amoant of the very thinnest will be required for small and 
delicately marked forms, on which very high power objectives will 
have to be used. The covers must be perfectly clean, which may 
be ensnred by soaking in caustic potaasa solution, and then washing 
thoroughly in clean water. The thinner kinds of glass are rather 
difficult to clean ; but with a little eitra caution it may be accom- 
plished, the last polish being given to it by a piece of an old and 

230 How to prepare Specimens of IHaiomaceai for 

well-worn cambric handkerchief. The covers, always round, 
should be separated into sizes and thickaeeaes, so that the exact 
kind of cover required can be found without having to search for it 
by turning over a number, scratcliing or breaking them, and losing 
much valnable time. We shall also require a pair of forcers for 
holding the slides over the lamp ; and such as are sold at nouae- 
fttmiahing stores and by grocers, under the name of American 
clothes-pega, and whiclt have been already mentioned, are by fer 
the best I have ever seen or heard of. A small pair of brass forceps 
which close with a spring will he needed, and they are best set in a 
wooden hajidle so as to protect the fingers from the heat; and 
another pair, which spring open and may be closed by means of 
the finger and thumb, will he wanted for taking hold of and adjust- 
ing the thin covers. I do not advocate the use of paper covers for 
slides, but labels of some kind will, of coarse, be required, and I 
have found the plain circular white ones to look the best. There 
are very pretty square labels sold by dealers in these things that I 
have used and hked. For making ceils to bold specunens put up in 
a fluid, a turn-tahle and brushes and some cement will he necessary. 
The cement I use and prefer above all others is good old gold size 
nsed warm. 

The chemicals required are nitric acid, sulphuric acid, hydro- 
chloric acid, bicliromaffi of pot-ash, caustic potash, alcohol, and, 
above all, a plentiful supply of clean, filtered water. The water 
should be such as leaves hardly any residuum when a quart 
of it k evaporated to dryness ; and it must be filtered just before 
use, to remove any minute organisms, diatoms especially, whidi it 
may contain, A certain amount of washing soda will be wanted, 
if guanos are to he cleaned. 

We will now proceed to consider the manipulations necessary 
to prepare the various kinds of gatherings, always remembering 
that these methods will have to be modified to a certain extent ior 
each specimen. 

Recent Gaiherinffs. — If there be sand in the gathering, it will 
be well to remove it before using aeid, by shaking it in clean water 
and pouring off before the diatoms, which are lighter than the 
sand, settle. The water holding the diatoms in suspension may be 
poured into a test-tuhe, or beaker, the diatoms aUowed to settle, 
and as much of the water poured off as possible. Tho diatoms are 
now covered with nitric acid to about the height of half an inch, 
and allowed to stand for a few minutes. Usually some chemical 
action takes place, and it will be well to wait until it subsides. The 
test-tube or beaker is then held over the lamp and carefully heated 
until the reaction of tho aeid upon the organic matter of the 
diatoms ceases. Thereafter, and while the liquid is still hot, I have 
found it often advantageous to drop in one or two fragmente of 

I Examination and Study hy tiieans of the Mieroacope. 231 
bidiromate of potash. The orgEtnic matter ia more thorongUy 
destroyed in this way than when the acid ia used alone. Thereafter 
it is well t<) pour the acid and diatoms into a capacious heaker of 
clean water, washing the tube or smaller beaker out with a little 
crater, and adding this to the other. After the diatoms have all 
settled, which will often require hours, the supernatant fluid is 
carefully poured off, and a fresh supply added ; and this must be 
repeated several times until all of the acid and coloured chromium 

•compound has been removed. When this point is arrived at can 
jjuly be ascertained from experience. In this way the valves and con- 
iiecting membranes of the diatoms are nsually separated and cleaned 
ieady for mounting, which pioceaa will be described hereafter. 

Muda will hare to he treated in a somewhat different manner 

from recent gatherings. If the mud ia dry, it will have to be 

broken down by boiling for a few minutes in a solution of caustic 

^^_ potaesa, the strength of which mast be apportioned to the particular 

^^L specimen under treatment. After it has been broken down into a 

^^■i^ft mad, ail of the potash is thoroughly washed off by means of 

^^f dean water, and replaced by nitric acid, as in the case of recent 

gatherings This is boiled, and a little bichromate of potash added 

as before, and the whole washed. It very seldom happens that the 

diatoms occurring in mud will be sufficiently cleaned by this process, 

ISO that it has to be aapplemented by another. The sediment ia 
jtherefore washed into one of the evaporating dishes and allowed to 
iSettle, and as much of the water poured off as possible. Then 
flulphnric acid, in quantity to a little more than cover them, is 
ipoured in, and the vessel gradually and carefully heated. Ab soon 
as the liquid shows signs of boiling, bichroma,te of potash is added, 
a very little at a time, until the green colour first formed by its 
leaction upon the organic matter begins to assume a yellowish tint, 
■when no more is dropped in ; but a lew drops of hydrochloric acid 
are permitted to fall in, and the liquid ia allowed to cool. Of course 
it will be best if the person undertaking to clean diatoms is some- 
iWhat versed in the use of chemicala ; but at any rate care must be 
■taken not to drop any of the acids upon the clothes or skin, and 
great caution must be exercised in not inhaling any of the vapours 
given off. Those evolved after the addition of the hydrochloric acid 
(tte especially irritating and dangei'ous, and must be avoided. Aa 
60on as the hquid has cooled a little, water should be added 
cautiously, as great heat will be generated thereby, and there will 
«aJ)e danger of its boUiag over. Thereafter it may be poured into a 
■Jargo beaker-gUss of water and thoroughly washed as in the former 
KfiBse. If it be found that the precipitate is not quite white, it will 
l^rjje necessary to boil it again in sulphuric acid, with bichromate of 
^.^tash and hydrochloric acid, until it is quite clean. If, onesamina- 
■lion by means of the microscope, it is found that there is much 

232 How lo prepare Specimen* of Diatomaceie for 

^^H 6occuleDt matter present besides the diatomB and sand, tbie can be 
^^H removed by boiling for a few eeconda in a weak solution of canatic 
^^1 potash, and waeliing quickly and thoroughly with plenty of clean 
^^^ water. "ttTien we have recent gatherings of filamentous or etipitate 
^^H fornu of Diatomaceffi, which we desire to preserve in the natnral 
^^B condition, they should bo immersed for about twenty-four hoara in 
^^M alcohol to dissolve out the endochrome. If this does not answer, it 
^^M will be well to aoak the mass of diatoms or plants upon which they 
^^m are adherent in a solution of hypochlorite of soda, an impure variety 
^^M of which ie sold in the shops under the name of Labarracgue's disiu- 
^^m fectant, for about the same length of time. This will generally 
^^M destroy all colour, and leave the specimens transparent. It is best, 
^^M however, in many cases not to remove the endochrome, but leave it, 
^^M and mount the specimona in such a way as to show them in ss 
^^^ natural a condition es possible. How this may be done will be 
^^1 described hereafter. 

^^B Guanos. — The preparation of these substances, so as to obtain 

^^H the microscopic organisms they may contain, is rather dif&cult, 

^^H tedious, and dirty, and should only be undertaken by a person 

^^M somewhat versed in chemical manipulations, and in a proper room 

^^M as a laboratory, where there is no danger of harm resulting from 

^^B the fames evolved. As the ammoniacal guanos are those which 

^* contain the most diatoms, and coDBequently which answer best to 

clean, we will begin with them, and take as a type that which comes 

from the islands on the coast of Peru. As it comes into commerce 

this guano is a moist powder of a hght iron-rust colour, smelling 

I strongly of ammonia, and having scattered throughout its mass 
lumps of ammoniacal salts of a more or less solid consistency. The 
guano should he thinly spread- out upon a stiff piece of paper and 
exposed to the air, and, preferably, to a moderate heat for several 
days or even weeks. In this way most of the moisture and much 
of the ammonia will evaporate, and less acid will be required to 
clean the gnano. It will now have become much hghter in colour, 
and crumble to a dry powder. A tin pan is now about half filled 
with a solution of common washing soda in clean filtered water, 
and placed over some source of heat, as on a stove. The strength 

I of tms solution is not a matter of any great moment, and must vary 
with the guano manipulated, Aa soon as it begins to boil, the 
guano is dropped gradually in, a httle at a time, while the hquid is 
stirred with a glass rod or stick of wood. Considerable effervescence 
takes place, anamonia being given off, and therefore it must be kept 
continually stirred, and care exercised to prevent its boihng over- 
After a while it is poured into a plentiful supply of clean water and 
washed therewith several times, care being taken to permit all of 
the diatoms to settle. As soon aa the wash-water is only slightly 
coloured, the guano is transfen-ed to a good-sized evaporating dish, 

[Examinaiion and Study by means of the Miei-oseo^e. 233 
i covered with nitric acid, and boiled. While it is boiling, a few 
— ystala of bichromate of potash are dropped in, and the material 
washed as in the case of muds. Thereafter the diatoma are boiled 
in sulphuric acid with bichromate of potash and hydrochloric acid, 
as before described. 

Phosphatic gnanoa, as that from Brazil, are somewhat more 
difficnlt to treat. They are generally drier than the ammoniacal 
kind, and mnat be boiled in a krge quantity of hydrochloric acid as 

Pmany as three timea, and the acid mast be poured off while atUl hoi. 
Thereafter nitric acid and sulphuric acid and bichromate of potash 
BitiBt be employed, as in the other caae. 
Lacustrine Sedimentary Deposits. — For the most part these 
are pulverulent, and easy to clean. Some, as found in nature, are 
80 pure that thej require no cleanin g except washing in clean water. 
Burning on a plate of platinum or mica will often serve to clean 
some specimens ; but it will, in general, be found beat to boil in nitric 
acid with a httle bichromate of potash, and subsequently in sulphuric 
acid and bichromate of potash, with the after addition of hydro- 
chloric acid. Occasionally a certain amount of flocculent matter 
' will be left, which it will be necessary t« remove with very careful 
' siting, not boiling, in a weak solution of caustic potash, and 
amediately pouring into a large quantity of clean water and 
loronghly waehing. 

Marina Fossil aiid Svh-Fluionie Deposits, being stony, and 
ossessed of very much the aame physical characters, are manipu- 
lated in the same manner. A smatl lump of the deposit is placed 
in a test-tube, and covered vrith a strong solution of caustic potash. 
It is then boiled for a few minutes, and usually it immediately begins 
to break up and fall dovm in the shape of a soft mnd-hke material. 
At once the hquid, with the sUBpended fine powder, is poured off 
into a large quantity of clean hot water, and if the whole of the 
lump has not broken down into a powder, what remains has a little 
water poured over it in the test-tube, and it is again boiled. It will 
be found that a httle more will now crumble off. This is added to 
the rest in the large vessel, and if the lump has not now broken 
down, it is again boiled in the alkaline solution and in water alter- 
nately, until it has all been disintegrated. It is then all permitted 
to settle for at least three hours, when it ia thoroughly washed and 
boiled in hydrochloric acid for about half an hour. There is then 
added an equal amount of nitric acid, and the boiling continued for 
a short time. It is then washed and heated in sulphuric acid^ with 
the addition of bichromate of potaah and hydrochloric acid. 

All mixed gatherings of Diatomaceie, and particularly all muds 
and deposits, should be separated into densities, so that for the moat 
part the larger forms are collected together, Iree from sand, and 
separate from the smaller species and broken specimens. This is 



234 Hoxv to prepare Specimem of Biatomacem for 

done by tismg a number of beaker glaBses, of various sizes, in tbe 
following manner : — Into a 1 -ounce beaker the cleaned diatomB 
are placed, and the vessel filled with water. It is theu well etirred 
up % means of a glass rod, and, after resting about five seconds, 
poured ofi* carefully into a 6-OTmce vessel so as not to disturb the 
sand which has settled. Again the vessel is filled up with water, 
etirred, allowed to settle for the same length of time, and poured 
into the same vessel. This is repeated until it has been done at 
least six times, wheu we shall find all of the Baud, free from diatoms, 
in the small beaker. This can be thrown away, and as soon as the 
material in the large beaker has settled it is returned to the small 
one, and the same process goue through with, only extending the 
time of settling now to about ten seconds. The next density is 
that which settles in twenty seconds ; and so od, five or six denaitiea 
may be obtained, and if carefully prepared they will be found to 
contain forms varj-ing very much one from the other. The large 
species of Triceraiium, Aulacodiscus, and the hke, will be found in 
the coatsest density, and the broken diatoms in (jie lightest. 

Preserving and Mounting Specimem so as to have them in a 
condition for slndt/ at any future time. — Of coarse, when possible, 
Diatomaceae should be etndied in the living condition. But there 
are many forms which have not been as yet found living, and these 
can only be studied aa dead skeletons; and, in feet, it is in the dead 
skeletons of the Diatomac(?ffi that many of the most marked charac- 
teristics are to be tbund; and on such characteristics species have 
been founded. Besides, the most beautiful sculpturing of the valves 
is only to be seen after everything has been removed but the 
silicious cell-wall I have termed the skeleton. Therefore I advocate 
the cleaning of a portion at least of every gathering in the manner 
described, so that nothing will be left but the clean silicious cell- wall. 

If we desire to keep specimens in a state as near that they 
present when Uving as possible, we have to put them in some 
preservative fluid in which they will not decay, and in which the 
softer parts vrill be preserved. Unfortunately these soft parts do 
not keep well ; but tne fluid which I have found to be the best for 
the purpose is distilled water, which has to every fluid onnce two 
or three drops of wood creosote added, and thereafter a sufScient 
number of drops of alcohol, which will be about double the number 
of the drops of creosote, to mate the creosote soluble in the water, 
which it is ouly to a very slight degree under ordinary conditions. 
I do not advocate any fluid containing glycerine, or, in fact, any of 
the preservative fluitk described in the books treating of the pre- 
paration of microscopic objects. The vessels in which the fresh 
specimens of Diatomaceje are put up are what are known to micro- 
acopists as " cells," but how these are made cannot be gone into 
here, as the deacription would occupy too much sijace and time. 

^ npo 

Suffice it to aay that I prefer cells made of old japan gold-size, 
which can be procured of dealers in microgcopic materials. Within 
BTich a cdl, of sufficient depth and immersed in the preseryative 
fluid, a few of the diatoms, or a scrap of the phmt upon which they 
are growing, is placed, and the glass cover fixed over it in the 
manner described in the books upon manipulation. The fllamen- 
toag forma are thna preserved almost in their natural condition; 
but, on account of the presence of the endochrome, the sculpturing 
of the silicions cell-wall is almost invisible. To show this 
character, while the filamentona form ia preserved, another method 
of mounting is employed. A thin, clean covering glass is selected, 
and laid upon a clean piece of paper, A large drop of distilled 
water is then allowed to MX upon it, and in this drop the filamen- 
tous diatom is thinly spread out. Then the cover ia taken up by 
means of a pair of tbrceps and held over the flame of a spirit lamp, 
which has been turned down so as to ho quite small and steady. 
The cover is held some distance above the flame, and judiciously 
manipulated, so that the heat is evenly distributed oyer it, and it 
dops not crack. As soon aa all the water has been driven off with- 
out the formation of bubbles, the glass is brought gradually down 
almost in contact with the flame, and held at that point for a few 
minutes. Then the diatoms will be seen to turn black, on account 
of the chaning of the organic matter contained in them. Aft«r a 
while this black carbonaceous matter will burn off, and they will 
become quite white. If, however, there seems to be any difficulty 
in burning off the last portion of carbon, the cover is lowered once 
or twice to come in contact with the top of the flame, and then 
raised again. In this way it will become red hot for a moment ; 
and everything will be burned off except the silieioua portJona of 
the diatoms. Now the cover ia removed slowly from over the 
flame, and held hi the forceps until it is cold, but by no means kid 
down upon any surface until it is quite cold, otherwise it will fly 
into pieces. Then it can be laid upon an ordinary glass slide, and 
examined to see if it is worth preserving, which may be done in 
one or two waya: first, the glass cover is warmed, and a drop of 
good spirits of turpentine let fell upon it, covering the diatoms. 
Just before the spirits evaporate, a small drop of thin Canada 
balsam is added, and a sHde taken, warmed, and a drop of balsam 
placed upon the centre part of it. Then the cover ia brought down 
upon the slide, the two balsam-covered sides together, in such a 
,y, by tilting the cover shghtly, that no air is allowed to come 
tween them, and the cover permitted to fiJl gradually into place, 
iving a wave of balsam before it. In this way we have the 
filamentous diatoms arranged as they grow, but with lendochiome 
removed which would obscure the marSngs, and in balsam, which 
rendera them transparent. Boms forms, as some of the 



How to prepare Speeimem q 

FragUlarUe, become too tranaparent if put up in this way, and 
therefore another method of mounting must be adopted with tliem, 
They are burned upon the cover, aa just described, but mounted 
dry in air ; that ie to say, a cell of gold size is made, the glass 
cover Bliehtly warmed, and then placed upon the cell, with the side 
upon which the diatoms are fixed, downwards. The warmth 
slightly softens the gold size, and the cover becomes fixed. 

Other forma besides the filamentous speciea may be mounted in 
fluid, or burned upon the cover and subsequently put up in balsam, 
or dry. But the commonest way of treating such forms is to clean 
them by means of chemicals, as already described, and then, 
previous to monnting them, divide the clean gathering, consisting of 
a white sediment of large and small diatoms along with fine sand, 
all mixed up together into densities. Of course, if some of thia 
sediment were to be moanted in this condition, extremely unsightly 
slides would be procured ; so it ia best to separate the finer from 
the coarser diatoms, and these in turn from the sand. This is 
accomplished by what is known as elatriation, or, separating into 
densities after the manner already described. Then slides may be 
mounted from each of the denaitiea in the following manner. A 
slide is thoroughly cleaned, and a good-sized drop of water placed 
npon the centre portion. A httlo of the diatom sediment ia then 
taken np in a dip-tube, and the point of the tube brought just into 
contact with the drop. As soon as a few diatoms have run out of 
the dip-tube, it is removed. Then a small splinter of wood or stiff 
bristle is naed to disseminate the diatoms through the drop of water 
in such a way that they will be pretty evenly distributed and not 
overlie each other. The water ia then driven off by heat, a drop of 
thin Canada balsam placed upon the dry diatoms, and a cover 
placed on them in the usual manner. In many cases, especially 
when dealing with the smaller forms, it will be found desirable to 
mount them upon the cover in this same way, instead of upon the 
ahde, as they will then be brought as near as possible to the 
objective of the microscope. Single or remarkabre specimens of 
diatoms may be picked out and mounted by themselves ; but the 
manner of accomplishing thia would occupy more space than it has 
been thought deanable to devote to thia portion of our Bubject, and 
the reader is referred to the hooka on mounting microscopic objecta 
for the particulars of the process. 

The main principles of preparing and mounting DiatomaceiB 
for preservation and study haTe been given, and the intending 
student will be able to devise modifications and improvements for 
himself, so that he will be able to put up specimens in aa finished 
a manner as any to be procured from the dealers. — From the 
He^ort of (he Geological Survey of New Hampshire, vol. i. 

( 237 ) 

The Anatomy of the Lymphatic System, By E. Kleiu, M.D., 

t^LfifiietaBt FrofeesoF at the Laboratory of the Brown Institution, 

T liondon. I. The Serous Membriuies. London ; Smith, Elder, and Co., 

|,J873. — -Some of the reanltB of the observationB described in this 

oir were published in 1872, in the JanuATy numbers of the ' Cen- 

tralblatt fiir die MediciniGchen Wissonschafteu.' Dr. Klein has since 

that time carried his obBervations farther, and is of opinion that the 

anatomy of the aeroua membranes, so far at lenst aa their lymphatic 

system is concerned, may bo regarded as complete. The present 

work deals with the minute stracture of the omentum, the centrum 

tendincum of the diaphragm, and the mediastinal pleura, both in their 

normal and pathological conditions. 

It ia almost impossible to criticize a book of this nature. The 
Teutonic carcfulnosB, which insists on a knowledge of all contemporary 
work on a given subject, precludes almost any farther inquiry into 
fiicta and arguments adduced on one aide or the other, where the only 
possible proof ia a repetition of the writer's work and esperiments. 
And it is only the careful histologist who can verify or pull to pieeea 
such work as Dr. Klein's. Merc bibliographical research, with the 
addition of one or more presTtmably new facts, not necessarily sup- 
porting, or even antagonistic to, some etatod test, ia certainly too 
common a characteristio of authors in Gennan " Archive " and " Zeit- 
sehriften." But no such fault is viaihle here. The facts observed are 
stated plainly and severely ; the opinions of others put forward with 
fairness, whether they agree or differ with those of the writer ; the 
conclnaions of the observer himself offered modestly, though with no 
lack of firmness. 

In his first chapter he points out that on the serous membranes 

fin certain regions there is normally to be seen a germmating endo- 
thelium. For instance, the fenestrated portion of the omentum in 
Tarious animals shows numbers of cells which are raised from the 
general surface by means of a stalk, and which possess in their peri- 
pheral spherical portion two nuclei or a nucleus in a state of division ; 
and besides tho appearance of eonstriction, and division of these poly- 
hedral or club-shaped endothelial cells, there are always numbers of 
smaller spherical lymphoid elements which are detached from the 
surface, that is to say, which have bccomo perfectly separated. The 
same character is possossed by the endothelium of the surface of 
certain nodular or cord-like structures, which arc either isolated or 
in connection with tho chief trabeciilfO of the fenestrated part of 
the omentum, in which larger blood-vessels or fat are contained. In tho 
second chapter, in which he discusees the cellular elements of tho 
ground-substance (matrix, basis-substance), ho shows that the knots 
and cords are not exactly to be regarded as pro-oiisting adenoid 
tissue, nor' as collections of lymph- corpuscles, but that they are 
developed for the most part out of the ordinary branched cells of tho 


^^L the mt> 
^^H oettain 

^^H rabbits 


tiBBae — in fact, as " peri-lympbiLngial nodulos and tracts;" and that 
the briber the ileTelopment is advanced the more nnraeroufi are the 
lymph-oorpuBcles at the spot — tbo more does the cellular network 
aesame the character of an adenoid network. From their topo- 
graphical arrangement they are analogues of the fat tifisne of the 
omentum; and the writer considers at length their conversion into &t 
nodalca and tracts. In the third chapter ho describes the Ijmphatio 
Ycsscis of the serous membranes, their relation to the enrface of the 
latter, and the development of lymphatic capillaries. He distingoiehee 
two kinds of stomata on the surface of the serous membranes, stonutta 
vera and stomata spuria or pseiido-stomata, the former representing 
cither the mouth of a vertical lymphatic channel, or a discontinuity of 
the ondotheliam of the Burfaco. Ho points out also that normaUy 
in tbo omentum and the mediastinal pleura, knots and cords originate 
by the outgrowth of the endothelium of the lymphatic capiUariee as a 
network of branched cells from which young cells spring. The fourth 
chapter is taken up with the clistribution of blood-vessels in tha 
Ijonphangial nodnles and cords, and the development of blood capil- 
laries. The principle according to which the latter takes place he 
finds to be similar to that which was first pointed out by Strieker in 
the new formation of blood-vessels in the tadpole and in inflammation, 
and confirmed in every prticulai by Arnold afterwards. In a patch 
in which there is a considerable number of young vessels one capillary 
may easily be found which ends coscally. At the coical end the proto- 
plaismio character of the wall may be recognized very clearly; the 
lumen becomes mote or less suddenly narrowed, the wall finally 
becomes solid, and passes into a perfectly ordinary nucleated brancbra 
cell of the matrix. In the second section he sketches hriefiy the views 
of different writers on inflammation and artificial tuberculosis, and 
shows that they are all, more or less, borne out by bis own description 
of the normal serous membranes. For instance, Eanvicr and Kundrat 
confirm the germination of the endothelium in inflammation of these 
tissues, and the latter considers the miliary nodules on the serotia 
membranes in tuberculosis to be derived irom the same source. 
Sanderson holds that there is a pre-existing adenoid tissue in tdie 
omentum, in the form of nodules and cords, which increases to an. 
extraordinary extent in chronic Inflanunation, so that tbo nodules and 
cords of tubercle found in artificial tuberculosis are nothing bot 
hyperplastic adenoid tissue, Kiiauff's views on the some subject are 
precisely similar ; while Elebs declares that in the same aflcction tlio 
lymphatic vessels play a most important part, their endothelium pro- 
liferating, and thus composing the tubercle-knot. The book closes 
with the observations of the author himself on the changes found in 
these serous membranes in acute and chronic peritonitis; and in an 
interesting, though somi^bat abrupt tailpiece to a most interesting 
volume, a fact is mentioned which has bearings somewhat different to 
the intended scope of the book, the occurrence, namely, of the ova of 
certain entozoa in the lymphatics of the omentum and mesentery of 
rabbits and cats, 

For reasons stated at the commencement of this article, we have 


rpOBoly contontod ourselveB with abstracting, as far ns possible in 
e words of the author, the matter of this work. The Govemmeiit 
rant Committee of the Boyal Sociotj are able to congratulate 
emselves on having furnished the means for the eiecution of the 
psnmerouq plates, which to our eyes are better, as being less hard, 
flian the engravings attached to ' The Handbook f()r the Physiological 
Laboratory.' It seeme almost a pity — though it may be caviUing 
about a minor matter — that eo handsome a volume as that under 
notice ahonld be somewhat spoiled by certain faults of idiomatic 
style, which no one, we are sure, would more willingly have overcome 
than the writer himself. To the same absence of caiefnl supervision 
on the part of a friend arc probably due one or two obvious misprints, 
perhaps scarcely worth mentioning. Bnt the work adds one more to 
the numerous causes of self-congratnlation with wliich the English 
scientific world rejoices over the connection of Dr. Klein with tho 
Brown Institution. 



The Egg-peduneles of certain TTotTiw. — Professor Mocbius figures 
ftnd describes a new genus of chtctopod worms with external ovarieH 
from the eighteenth segment onwards ; tboy ore situated below the 
branchiie, and at the boundary between tho two segments. Within the 
body-wall in the same segments are also eggs. The worm is named 
ietpocems uviferitm. Moobius has discovered that another worm 
{Scolecolepia drrata Sars) carries its eggs in pouches like a swallow's 
neet, along the hinder segments of the body. Many Polychetoua 
worms bear their eggs in sacs attached to the ventral surface of tho 
body (o. g. Aulolgcug prollfer Miill.). One (SyUis puUigera Krohn) 
carries them in the shorter dorsal filaments of its foet, while in 
Spirorbis gpirillum the eggs are carried in folds of the skin, developed 
in the peduncle of the operculum, with which it closes its tahe. 

To>%aria, the young of a Worm, — It is stated in the 'American Na- 
tmiilist ' for July, that Mr. Alexander Agassiz has discovered that the 
Tornaria, an iuunature microscopic floating auimal, which he in common 
with other naturalists had thought to be a young starfisb, is really 
a young worm, The parent is a remarkable worm, found at difiereut 
points on the American coast and thnt of Europe, burrowing in sand, 
and described by the celebrated Italinn zoologist Delle Ghiaje. The 
history of Balanoglossua as given by Agasaiz " while showing great 
analogy between the development of Eehinoderms and the Nemertian 
worms, by no means proves the identity of type of tho Echinoderras 
and Annnloids. It is undoubtedly tho strongest case known which 
could bo taken to prove their identity. Bnt when we come carefully 
to analyze the anatomy of true Echinnderm larvte, and compare it with 
that of Tornaria, we find that we leave as wide a golf as ever between 


the Btmctnra of the EclmiodermB ami tlint of tlio Annuloicls." Now 
the young of certain EchinodemiB have a form very similar to larval 
worms. " On thia chiefly Professor Husley, mislod by tbo names given 
by J. Muller to Bome of these larvffi, has revived the old opinion 
of Oken, and aesooiatod the Euliinoderma with the Articulates 
he based his opinion entirely upon the figures of Miiller, and not 
npon original investigations, his conohisiona, which have been adopted 
by the majority of English naturalists, do not appear to Mr. Agassiz 
OS tenable. The hypothetical form to which iHuxley reduces these 
larvie, to mako his compariGons and to draw his inferences, ia one 
which has never been observed, and as far as we now know does not 
exist" Mr. Agassiz's paper, with many beautiful figures, appeals 
the ' Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.' 

The Stmclure of the Cornea. — This has been very well investigated 
1:^ Dr. Thin, who haa oonimunicated a paper on the subject, through 
I^fessor Huxley, to the Royal Society. The paper appears 
last number but one of the ' Proceedings of the lloyal Society,' The 
author says, referring to his former paper,* that in " order to 
oorroboratQ the results yielded mo by the nitrate of silver, 
KTSiled myself of the well-known property which hromatosylin p 
Bosses of specially staining th« nuclei of cells. I allow the cor 
to remain in the solution until it is perfectly saturated. Subsequent 
maceration in acetic Bcid removes the hiematosylin from the flbrillary 
substance before it bleaches the nuclei. On comparing a cornea so 
treated with Buceessful preparations of the comea-corpusclea as 
obtained by chloride of gold, it is found that the number of cells 
demonstrated by the hematoxylin exceeds by several times that found 
in the gold preparation, affording direct proof of the existence of other 
cells in tho cornea than those known as the coruea-corpuHclo 
vertical section of the cornea is so treated by hromatoxylin and acetio 
Bcid, in many of tho clefts of the fibrillary substance, in which, 
well known, the eornea-corpusclea are situated, several nuclei arc 
proving in another way the existence of a greater number of cells than 
those hitherto ooceptod by anatomists. But in addition to the proof 
afforded by staining the anclei of the cells, I have, by the application 
of a new method, been able to isolate (and thus demonstrate beyond 
all further possibility of doubt their existence in the cornea) a large 
number of cellular elements, the varied size and shape of which 
distinguish them not only from the cornea-corpuscles, but irom any 
anatomical structures that have been as yet described. If a cornea is 
placed in a saturated solution of caustic potash, at a temperature 
between 105° and 115° Fahrenheit, it is reduced in a few minutes 1' 
B white granulated mass of about a fourth of its previous bulk. In _ 
small piece of the diminished twmea, broken down with a needle an( 
examined imder the microscope in the same fluid, it is found that t 
only visible elements ore a great number of cells. If the oonjunctiT 
epithelium of the cornea has not been previously removed, the oeUa 
that stmctiire can be recognized amongst the others ; and if the nu 
under examination has not been too much bi-oken up in monipnlatu 
♦ ' Lfitteet.' Feliriimy H. 

groups of thoio may bo scon in diroct anatomioal continuity with long 
narrow flat coUa, which belong to the olomoEta that Imvo been for tho 
first time brought to light by the .potaeh solntion. But the cclle of 
the ftnttirior or surface epithelium form a very small proportion of tho 
nnmbor. The smallest pioco that can be removed by the neodlo from 
a cornea which, before being pnt into the Bolutioo, Las had this 
epithelium scraped off and Deecemet's membrane removed, shows - 
under the microscope a multitude of cells. Of the branched cor< 
puscles, the fibrillary substance, and nerves, not a trace is visible. 
The form of those colls is so various that it would be difficult to con- 
struct a series of types under whioh every individual coll could bo 
brought. They seem in their development to have asaumod any modi- 
fication of form that is nccesaary to enable them to fit aconratoly the 
cavities and fibrillary bundles to which they are applied. Those 
whoso outlines do not permit tbair being accwately described as 
belonging to a strictly defined type, are many of them somewhat 
quadrangular or triangular in form, or club-shaped, with a short or 
long projecting process. Of fised and definite typos are long narrow 
roils, ending obliqaely at the point, and oblong cells interseotM at one 
end by a notch, which receives the estromitiea of two of the long cells 
that lie parallel to each other. I do not attempt to give an oxhaustivo 
account of tho various forms assumed by these cells. A bettor idea 
than can bo given by any description will be got by on examination of 
figs. I, 2, 3, plate viii., in which many of them ore represented; but 
an examination of tho first^prepared cornoa will show that there are 
L many forms and modifications which have not been drawn. The cells 
WKe granular in appearance, with shftrp clear outlines. Tho terminal 
r nu'faces of the long cells can often l>e seen to be finoly serrated ; and 
BO closely do they fit each other at these points, that sometimes a high 
magnifying power is necessary to discover the suture'liko line by 
which the junction is indicated. The nuclei of all the cells have 
nearly the tuune length, but in the narrower cells the nucleus is often 
much compressed transversely. The long cells ore many of them 
O'O'J inillim. long, and from 0'006-0*003 millim. broad ; the shorter 
cells are broader. Those O'Ofi millim. long are generally about 
0'009 millim. brood. A length of 0'S6 millim. with a breadth of 
about 0-015 millim. is common; others are 0-03 millim. long and 
0-012 millim. broad. I have chiefly examined the cells in the cornea 
of the ox, sheep, and frog, and have found no important differenceB 
_ either in sliape or arrangement. In "examining portions of the cornea 
pbich have biion as little disturborl as is consistent with the maiu- 
mauee of trunsporeucy, groups of cells are found massed together 
■ ^n(%a8 thoy havo heiax loft by the dissolving out of the GbriUary 
* ■' ' ' " iro fonnd chiefly in two forms. 

epithelium are found sutured to 
me« seem U> join them at an angle. tingle layer of oolls are found 
Mite sides tho external 
r oells, to which 
i^Meli otlier. Those 
s 2 



from ench Bide rospeotively meet in tlio centre, whore they join. Tbe 
remaining aides of tUe qnadrangle are formed by a side view of these 
various celle, where they have been detached from the adjoining ones 
in the breaking down of the cornea mass. The coincidence between 
the breadth of the long narrow colls and the fibrill&ry bundles of tho 
oomoa-aubatanee, as seen when prepared by the ordinary methods, ie 
evident, the coutinuons planes formed by their junction indicating 
that they form layers between which it is enclosed. According to this 
view, the groand~Bnbstance is everywhere encased in a sheath of 
cellular elements. Bowman's corneal tubes I believe to include both 
the straight canals described in the paper above referred to and the 
spaces between the long celle widened by injection, chiefly the latter. 
Although I have nothing to add to the description of the mode of pre- 
paration which I have already given, I must state that there are con- 
ditions of snccoBS, as to the nature of wbich I have not yet come to a 
definito conclueion. Sometimes the same solution, applied at the same 
temperature to different comeie, succeeds in one and fails in another, 
and sometimes a solution prepared with every precaution has failed to 
afford me any result. The two essential conditions to snccess are 
complete saturation and temperature. 1 have never succeeded with a 
temperature above 120°, nor with one below 102°; and so sensitive is 
the solution to moisture, that preparations sealed in it with asphalte 
seldom keep longer than one or two days, except in very dry weather. 
On a damp day I have known a sncceasful preparation left on tbo 
object-glass disappear in sii hours. The corneal moss may be kept 
unaltered for at least some weeks in the solution by running ecaling- 
wai round the stopper of the bottle. A perfectly successful prepara- 
tion shows nothing but the cells. TJnsTiecossfnl preparations, especially 
those prepared with too hot solution, show globular masses nnlike 
any anatomical element ; others, especially those prepared at too low 
a temperature, or with imperfect eaturation, show masses of hexagonal 
crystals like those of cystin. To sum np, I believe that there eiisfa 
in the cornea : — I,, the fibrillary ground-substance, which is pierced 
by straight canals and honeycombed with cavities ; II., flat cells, 
which everywhere cover the fibrillary bundles of the former and lino 
the entire system of the latter ; III., the cornea -corpuscles of Toynbee 
and Virchow; and IV., the nerve-structures of the tisane. The 
comeo-oorpuscles and the nervee lie free in the canals and cavities, 
and between them and the epithelium there is a fluid-filled space 
■which permits the passage of lym'ph-corpuscles. It is therefore proper 
to regard the canals, cavities, and interfibrillary spaces as forming a 
continnouB and integral part of the lymphatic system, the latter 
having to the former the same relation that blood-capillaries have to 
the veins. The junction of the flat cells of the fibrillary substance 
with the epithelium of the surface justifies the inference that the 
intercellular spaces in the anterior epithelium of the cornea oommu- 
nioate with the lymph-spaces in the ground-substance, and that the 
position of nerve-fibrillte between the epithelium is a continuation of 
the similar relation that has been demonstrated in the substance of the 


A Special Mode of Development in ButToehia.-^la a lato numbCT of 
tho ' Academy' appeared a notice of some importance on tliis eiibjeat. 
It saya that in a letter printed ia the ' Eovne Scientificiue,' M. JnlOB 
Onmier comniimicates Bome remarkable observationB that have bcoa 
made by M. Baray on certain Hylodea which esist in largo numbera 
in tho ifiland of Guadaloupe. These animals arc widely distribated 
over the island, being found, not only near the aoa, but in the higher 
lands of the interior, and after rain tlieir croalf miikes the air TeBonant. 
The physical features of Guadalonpe, a volcanic ielanil, tho soil of 
which ia composed of t\if&, pozzuolaua, and similar material, are so 
pecnliar and so very imfavourahlo for the maintenance of tadpole life, 
which IB cBBentially piscine, that M, Eaniy was led to expect tho 
eiiBtence of some peculiarities of development. The ova were easily 
procured, as they were everywhere present under moist leaves. No 
tadpoles could be discovered, but many of the frogs were of an extra- 
ordinarily minute size. The eggs were spherical, with a diameter of 
from 3 to 4 millimetres, and were each provided with a small spheroidal 
expansion resembling a hernia of the gelatioous mass through a pore 
in the envelope. In the centre of the sphere the embryo was visible, 
lying on a vitelline mass of a dirty white colour, and having a thin 
body, a largo head and four atyliform members with a recurved tail, 
[ When the egg was touched the embryo moved rapidly and changed 
I its position, A day later the embryo was perfect, with a tail as long 
as tho body, translucent and like that of a tadpole. The limbs 
I imroeiiatoly formed, and at the expiration of a few days little frogs of 
I -a dark greyish brown colour, and without a vestige of a tail, escaped 
I ftom the egg. M. Baray's observations have established the following 
fccts :— (1) That this Sylodes Martinieensis commences Ufe by a 
1 ttjtatory movement of the future embryo. (2) The folly formed 
I embryo performs the rotatory movements more rapidly, but in a 
I faoi'izontal plane. (3) The branclua) make their appeamnce, and 
again vanish sometime afterwards, (i) The larva in the ovum is 
i provided with a tail and limbs. (6) The tail of the larva not only 
&cilitates the movements of the imprisoned animal, but also aids 
I Tespiitttion by the numerous and minute vessels which ramify in this 
highly developed appendago. (6) The animal issues from the ^g in 
tho form which it preaerves throughout life. As M. Gamier observes, 
these observations seem to constitute a starting-point for a special 
invcBtigation of great importance, and have a close relation to the 

Iqnestion of the adaptability of speciea to surrounding conditions. It 
may be asked in this case whether the frog has been created with 
special modifications adapting it to live in an island destitute of 
jnarshes, or has it in coarse of time acquired a new mode of dovolop- 
ment enabling it to Burvive under tho exceptional conditions under 
which it has been placed. 
IHscovery of the Pogition of the Bee't Sling. — Mr. A. S. Packard, Jan., 
makes the fellowing obsorvations in a late nnmher of the ' American 
Naturalist,' and as theyhiiveanimportiintclaim to priority of discovery, 
tlioy deserve a placo here. Ho saya that in '■ Siebold and Kolliker'S 
' Journal of Scientific Zoology ' for July, 1872, contaimug an account 




of tho Proceedings of tbo Zuological DiviBion of tlio tliird meeting of 
tlie RaBsiaa ABstKiatiou of Naturalists, at Kicw, is an alietract of a 
paper by Onljanin on the development of tho ating of the boe. Tho 
anthor deaoribes but tiro pairs of imaginal disks, while threo were 
diMiovei'ed and described by the undersigned in 18C6. Tbo author 
homologizee the elements of the sting with tbo feet, as had already 
been done by me in 1871. Soon afterwards Dr. 0. Kraepelin pub- 
lished an elaborate article on the structure, mechanism and develop- 
mental history of the sting of the bee. In speaking of the origin of 
tho ating,* he only refers to Ganiu'a observations made in vol, sis. of 
the same Journal (1869). Dr. Kraopolin sooms to have overlooked the 
writer's papers I on the origin of tbo ating of the bee and ovipoaitor of 
other insects (jEBokaa. and Agrion) published in 1866 and 1868, the 
observations and drawings having been made in 18G3." 

TTte Mouili of the Dragon-fly. — Mr. Packard has also the following 
note in the same number of the ' American Naturalist ' as the above 
|)nragrapli is taken &om : — " An imporiant article on the mouth parts 
of the ctftgon-fly, Perlse and allied forms (Orlhoptera amphibiotica), is 
published by Di'. Gerstaecker, in the memorial volume of the Cen- 
tennial Celebration of the Society of the Friends of Science in Berlin, 
1873. Tbo author describes and figures the palpi of the dragon-flies. 
They poBsees a one-jointed masillary palpas, and 2-jointod labial 
pidpua, which are not however in the masillie palpiform, bat con- 
atitute a simple lobo (galea of Burmeister, Erichson and Eatzbui^). 
In llagen's ' Synopsis of Nouroptora of North America ' (1861) it is 
stated ' mouth not furnished with palpi.' This statement, which is ' 
morphologically inexact, was copied in the ' Guide to the Study of 
Insects.' It will bo corrected in the flfth edition of the latter, as it 
was unfortunately too lato to correct the statement in the fourth 
edition, now passing through the press, except in a few words in the 

Tli6 Plan of Descent of Ihe Animal ^^iiiydom.— The following is 
given as a rude outline of the plan sketched out by Professor Haeckel. 
Regarding the sponges as consisting of two layers of cells, surround- 
ing a body cavity, sumowhot as in the Hydra, Haeckel compares the 
sponge to the embryos of the higher animals, both vertebrate and 
invertebrate. In bis view the germ of all aniiuals, and the adult of 
such a simple form as Hydra, may bo reduced to the simple form of 
tbo young of a calcareous sponge which ho calls OoBlnila. " The 

• P. 3! 

., 1873. 
■ t " ObaecvationB on the DovBlopment and Position of tho Hymenopfera, with 
notes on the MorpholoCT of InBecta," 'Proceedings Boston Sooiety, N. H,' 
pabliBhed May, 1866. ''On the Strncture of the Ovipoaitor and Homologous 
Patta in the Male Insect," ' Proceedings BoBton Sooiety, N. H.,' voL xi., puliti^ed 
in 1868. 'Goidc la the Btady of Infloctn,' 18C9, pp. H, 536. " Binbryologiral 
Sfndies on Diplax, PBcithemiB, and the Thysamirons genua Isotoma,'" 'MemrarB 
Peahody Aondemy of BcienoB," 1871, p. 20. Here the spring of the Poduiidw Ib 
homologized with a pair of hlades of the ovipiieitor of the bee, &o., and tho 
ovipositor regnrded m homologous with tlio apmucroia of spiderB and abdominal 
ti.'et of niyriapiidfl. 

Y Qaslmla I coneidor as the biieet and most eignificoat embryonal form 
of tlie animal kingdom." It leads in his view to the eponges, to the 
Acalepha;, to the worms, to the ech-inodcnoB, to the molluBka, end to 
the vertebrates, through AmphioxuB. Embryonal forma which may 
easily be traced from Qaetrula, occur among the Arthropods (Crustacea 
as well as Insects). In all these representatives of diflbieat stocks of 
animals, the Qasirula always maintains the same Bttncture. From 
this identity ia fonn of the Gastr}da with the representatives of the 
different aninml stocks (or sab-kingdome), from the sponges up to the 
Tertebrates, he imagines an unknown stem-form of animals, typified 
I by Gaatmla, which he calls Gaalrcea. 

I Becenl Seep-gea Dredgings hy the ' CJiallenger,' ^The following 

extremely interesting letter which was sent from Professor Wyville 

Thomson to Admiral Richards, has been published by the latter in a 

late number of the ' Proceedings of the Koyal Society.' The Professor 

says :~" I have the pleasure of informing you that, during our voyage 

from the Cape of Good Hope to Anstralia, all the necessary ohserva- 

. tions in matters bearing upon ray department have been made most 

snccesafully at nineteen principal stations, suitably distributed over 

the track, and including Marion Island, the neighbourhood of the 

I Crozots, Kerguelen Island, and the Heard group. 

I " After leaving the Cape several dredginga were taken a little to 

I the southward, at depths from 100 to 150 fathoms. AniTtinl life was 

' very abundant; and the result was remarkable in this respect, that 

I the general character of the faana was very similar to that of the 

North Atlantic, many of the gpeeies even being identical with those on 

I the coasts of Great Britain and Norway. The first day's dredging was 

1 1900 fathoms, 125 miles to the Bouth-wostword of Cape Agulhas; 

I it was not very successfnl. 

L " Marion Island was visited for a few hours, and a considerable 
L oolloetion of plante, including nine flowering species, waa made by 
I Ur. Moseley, These, along with collections from Kerguelen Island 
[ snd from Yong Island, of the Heard gronji, are sent home with 

Mr, Moseley'a notes, for Dr. Hooker's information. 
I " A shallow-water dredging n*ar Marion Island gave a large 

I number of species, again representing many of the northern types, but 
\ with a mixture of southern forms, such as many of the characteristic 
I southero Bryozoa and the curious genus Serolis among Crustaceans. 
] Off Prince Edward's Island the dredge brought up many large and 
I striking specimens of one or two Bpecies of Alcyonarian zoophytes, 
I allied to Mopaea and Isie. 

I " The trawl was put down in 1375 fathoms on the 29th December, 
I and in 1600 fathoms on the 30th, between Prince Edward's Island 
1 and the Crozeta. Tho number of species taken in those two hauls waa 
I very large; many of them belonged to espoeially interesting genera, 
I Knd many were new to acience. I may mention that there occurred, 
I with others, the well-known genera Euphcfella, Hyalonema, TJmhell»- 
I laria, and FlabcUum ; two entirely new genera of stalked Crinoids 
I belonging to tho Apiocrtnidie ; Pottrtakiia ; several Spatangoids now 




246 PEOGitias OP mcnoacopicAi. bciencb. 

to science (allied to the o^ttinc.t gcnne Ananchyleg) ; Salenia; eevcral 
remarkable GTuetaceniiE ; nsd a few fish, 

" We nero uBfoitunately unable to land on PoBsession Island on 
account of the weather; but we dredged in 210 fathoms and 550 
fathoms, about 18 milos to the S.'W. of the island, with a satisfactory 
result. We reached Kcrgnelen Island on the 7th of January, and 
remained there until the Ist of February. During that time Dr. y. 
Willemoes-Suhm was chiefly occupied in working out the land fauna, 
Mr. Moseley collected the plants, Mr. Buchanan mode observations 
on the geology of those parts of the island which we visited, and 
Mr. Murray and I ctorieii on the shallow-water dredging in the 
steam-'pinnoce- Hony observations were made, and large collectionB 
were stored in the different departments. We detected at Kerguelen 
Island some peculiarities in tho reproduction of several groups of 
marine invertebrates, and particularly in the Echinodennata, wluch I 
have briefly described in a separate paper. 

" Two days before leaving Kerguelen Island, we trawled off the 
entrance of Christmas Harbour ; and the trawl-act came up, on one 
occasion, nearly filled with large cup-sponges belonging to the genus 
Bog»eUa of Cai'ter, and probably tho species dredged by Sir James 
Clark Eoss near the ice-barrier, JtoMella antaTctica. 

'' On the 2nd of February we dredged in 150 fathoms, 140 miles 
Bonth of Kerguelen, and on Qie 7th of Fobruoiy off Yong Island, in 
both cases with succees. 

" We reached Corinthian Bay, in Yong Island, on the evening of 
tho 6th, and had made all arrangements for examining it, as far as 
possible, on the following day; but, to our great disappointment, a 
sudden change of weather obliged us to put to sea, Fortnnately 
■Mr. Moseley and Mr. Buchanan accompanied Captain Naros on shore 
for an hour or two on the evening of our arrival, and took the oppor- 
tunity of collecting the plants and minerals within their reach. A 
east of the trawl taken in lat. 60° 52' 8., long. 80° 20' E., at 1260 
fathoms, was not very produetivCj only a few of the ordinary deep-8ea 
forms having been procured. 

" Our most southerly station was on the 14th of February, lat. 
65° 42' 8., long. 79° 49' E. The trawl brought up, &om a depth of 
1676 fathoms, a considerable number of animals, including Sponges, 
Alcyouarians, Echinids, Bryozon, and Crustacea, all much of the 
usual deep-sea character, although some of the species had not been 
previously observed. On February 26th, in 1975 fiithoms, Umbdlu- 
larice, Holothuria, and many examples of several species of the 
4nancAy/id(E were procured; and we found very much the same gronp 
of forms at 1900 fathoms on the 3rd of March. On the 7th of 
March, in 1800 fathoms, there were many animal forms, particularly 
some remarkable starfishes, of a large size, of the genns H'jm&vater ; 
and on the 13th of March, at a depth of 2600 fathoms, with a 
bottom temperature of 0''-2 C. Rohlhurim were abundant, there were 
several starlisheG and Actinia, and a very el^ant little Brachiopod 
occurred attached to peouliar concretions of mauganeae which come 
numbers in tho trawl. 

Decspoda Uacniin . . 
„ Brachyura 
Teleostei .. .. 

th the books 

AntliDzoe Octactini 
„ PoijEictiD 
Holothuridea . 
Tnuioata . 

" It ie of course impossible to deteimine the speciee t 
of reference at our comiuimd ; but inaaj of them i 
and some are of great iatcreet fi'om their relstioD to groups supposed 
to be extinct. This is particularly the case with tho Echiiiodermata, 
which are hero, as in the deep water in the north, a very prominent 

" During tho present cruise special attention has been paid to the 
nntuxo of the bottom, and to tmj facts which might throw light upon 
the source of its materials. 

" This department has been chieSy in tLe hands of Mr. Munny ; 
and I have pleasure in referring to the constant industry and care 
which he has devoted to the preparation, examination, and storing of 
samples. I ostract from Mr. Murray's notes : — 

" ' In tho soundings about the Agulhaa bank, in 100 to 150 fathoms, 
file bottom was of a greenish colour, and contained many crystalline 
particles (some dark-coloured and some clear) of Foraminifera, sjKcies 
of Orbulina, GlohigeritM, and Palvimdiiia, a pretty species of Uvigerina, 
PlanoThulina, Miliolina, Bulinaiia, and NummuUna. There were very 
few Diatoms. 

" * In the deep soundings and drctlgings before reaching the 
Crozets, in 1900, 1670, and 1375 fathoms, the bottom was composed 
entirely of OrbvitTM, Globigerina, ond Pulvinalina, the same species which 
we get on the enrface, but aU of a white colour and dead. Of Forami- 
nifera, which we have not got on the surfece, I noticed one Rotalia 
and one PolysUymeUa, both dead. Somo Coccoliths and Bhabdoliths 
were also found in the samples &oin these soundings. On the whole, 
these bottoms were, I thini, the purest carbonate of lime we have ever 
obtained. When the soundings were placed in a bottle and shaken up 
^^_ with water, the whole looked like a quantity of sago. The Pulvinvlina 
^^K were smaller than in the dredginge in the Atlantic We had no 
^^H soundings between the Crozeta and Eergnelen. 

^^H " ' The specimens of the bottom about Kerguelen were all from 

^^^^ depths from 120 to 20 fathoms, and consisted usuotly of dark mud, 
^^^B with au offensive sulphurous smell. Those obtained farthest &om 
^^H land wore made up almost entirely of matted epongo-spicules. In 



tlieae soundiugs one speciea of Botalina and one othei' Furamimfor 
. occurred. 

'''At 150 futboms, between Eerguolcn and Heard It^lnnd, tbe 
bottom was composed of basaltic peJiblos, Tbo bottom at Heard 
lalaud was mucb tbo same as at Kerguoleu. 

" ' Tbe sample obtained from a deptL of 1260 fathoms, south of 
Hoard Island, was quite different from anything we bad previunaly 
obtained. It was one mass of Diatoms, of many species ; and, mixed 
with those, a few small GMjigerinfB and Radiolarians, and a very few 
crystalline particlesi 

" ' The soundings and drodginga while we were among tbe ice in 
1675, 1800, 1300, and 1975 fathoms, gave another t«tally distinct 
deposit of yellowish clay, with pebbles and small stonoe, and a con- 
siderable admixture of Diatoms, Radiolarians, and QUSiigeriiuv. Tbe 
clay and pebbles were evidently a sodimont from the melting icebergs, 
and the Diatoms, Itadiolarians, and Foraminifera were from tbe 

" ' The bottom from 1960 fathoms, on our way to Australia frcon 
tbo Antarotio, was again exactly similar to that obtained in the 
1260-fatboms soundings south of Heard Island. Tbe bottom at 1800 
fathoms, a little farther to tbe north (lat. 50^ 1' S., long. 123^ 4' E.), 
was again pm^e " GWnjerina-ooze," composed of OrhaUme, Gloingefince, 
and PalfinuUnis. 

" ' Tbe bottom at 2150 fathoms (hit. 47° 25' S., long. 130° 32' E.) 
was similar to tbe last, with a reddish tinge ; and that at 2600 fathoms 
(lat i2= 42' S., long. 134° 10' E.) was reddish cloy, the same which 
we got at lilce depths in the Atlantic, and contained manganese 
nodules and much decomposed Foraminifera.' 

"Mr. Murray has been induced, by tbe observations which have 
been made in the Atlantic, to combine tbo use of the towing net, at 
various depths from the surfiioe to 150 fathoms, with tbe examination 
of the samples from tbe soundings. And this double work has led 
him to a conclusion (in which I am now forced entirely to eonenr, 
altbongb it is certainly contrary to my former opinion) diat the bulk 
of the material of tbe bottom in deep water is, in all cases, derived 
from the surface. 

" Mr. Murray has demonstrated the presence of GUMgerinm, 
PulvirtuUrue, and OrbuliTKe throughout all the upper layers of the sea 
over the whole of tbe area where tbe bottom consists of ' Globigerina- 
ooze ' or of the red clay produced by the decomposition of tbe shells 
of Foraminifera ; and their appearance when living on the surface is 
BO totally different from that of the shells at the bottom, that it ia 
impossible to doubt that tbe latter, even although they frequently 
contain organic matter, are all dead. I mean this to refer only to the 
genera mentioned above, which practically form the ooze. Many other 
Foraminifera undoubtedly live in 4»)mparatively small numbers, along 
with animals of higher groups, on the bottom. 

" In the extreme south the couditions were so severe as greatly to 
interfere with all work. We had no aiTangeniont for boating the 
work-rooms ; and at a temperature wliich avuriigod for somo days 


25° F., tho inetrumenta became bo cold tliat it was impleasant to 
handle them, aud the vapour of the breath condenaed and &oze at once 
upon glass and bragB-work. Dredging at tho coneidoTable deptbs 
which wo fonnd near the Antarctic Circle became a severe and some- 
what critical operation, the gear being stiffened and otherwigo affected 
by the cold, and we could not repeat it often. 

" The evening of the 23rd of Febmary was remarkably fine and 
calm, and it waa arranged to dredge on the following morning. The 
weather changed soniewhat during the night, and the wind rose. 
Captain Karee was, however, most aniiona to carry out our object, 
and the dredge was put over at 6 ajk. We were eurrounded by iee- 
LergB, the wind oontinned to rise, and a thick snow-storm came on 
from the south-east. After a time of some anxiety the dredge was got 
in all right ; but, to our great disappointment, it wa8 empty impro- 
bably the drift of the ship and the motion hod prevented its reaching 
the bottom. In the meantime tho wind had risen to a whole gale 
(force = 10 in tho actualls), the thermometer fell to 21°'5F., tho enow 
drove in a dry blinding cloud of esquifiito star-like crystals, which 
burned the skin as if they had beeu ced hot, and we were not sorry to 
be able to retire from tho di'odging bridge. 

" Careful observations on temperature are already in your hands, 
reported by Captain Nates. The specific gravity of the water haa 
been token daily by Hr, Buchanan ; and, during the trip, Mr. Bnohauan 
has determined the amount of carbonic acid in 2i different samples — 
15 from the Burface, 7 from tho bottom, and 2 from intermediate 
depths. The smallcat amount of carbonic acid was found in siu^ace- 
wator on the 27th January, near Korgueleu; it amounted to 0'0373 
gramme per litre. The largest amount, 0'0829 gramme per litre, 
was fonnd in bottom-water on the 14th February, when close to 
the Antarctic ice. About the same latitude the amount of car- 
bonic acid in Hurfoce-water rose to the unusual amount of 0*0G56 
gramme per litre ; in all other latitudes it ranged between 0' 044 and 
0'054 gramme per litre. From the greater number of those samples 
tho oxygen and nitrogen were extracted, and sealed up in tubes. 

" The considerations connected -with the distribution of tempe- 
rature and specific gravity in these southern waters are so very com- 
plicated, that I prefer postponing any general rimttie of tho results 
until there has been time for fall consideration. 

" While we were among the ice all possible observations were 
made on the structure and composition of icebergs. We only regretted 
greatly that we had no opportunity of watching their birth, or of 
observing tho continuous ice-barrier from which most of them have 
the appearance of Laving been detached. The berg- and floe-ice was 
examined with the microsoope, and fonnd to contain the osnol Diatoms. 
Careful drawings of the different forms of icebergs, of the positions 
wlticb they assnrao in melting, and of their intimate structure, ^vere 
made by Mr, Wild, and instantaneous photographs of several were 
taken &om the ship. 

" Upwanls of 15,000 obfiorvations in meteorology have boon 
recorded diu-ing the trip to the south. Most of these have already 


been tabulated and reduced to curves, and otherwise arranged for 
reference in considering the questions of climate on which they bear. 

« Many specimens in natural history have been stored in about 
seventy p^ldng-cases and casks, contai^g, besides dried specimens, 
upwards of 500 store-bottles and jars of specimens in spirit. 

*' I need only further add that, so far as I am able to judge, the 
expedition is fulfilling the object for which it was sent out. The 
naval and the civilian staff seem actuated by one wish to do the utmost 
in their power, and certainly a large amount of material is being 

'* The experiences of the last three months have of course been 
somewhat trying to those of us who were not accustomed to a sea-life ; 
but the health of the whole party has been excellent. There has been 
so much to do that there has been little time for weariness ; and the 
arrangements continue to work in a pleasant and satisfactory way." 

The Enemies of Difflugia, — Professor Leidy remarks * that in the 
relationship of Difflugia and Amoeba we would suppose that the 
former had been evolved &om the latter, and that its stone house 
would protect it from enemies to which the Amoeba would be most 
e xposed. The Difflugia has many enemies. " I have repeatedly ob- 
served an Amoeba wiiJi a swallowed ArceUa, but never with a Difflugia, 
Worms destroy many of the latter, and I have frequently observed 
them within the intestine of Naia, Pristina, Chcetogaster, and JEaoh' 
soma. I was surprised to find that Stentor polymorphus was also fond 
of Difflugia, and I have frequently observed this animalcule containing 
them. On one occasion I accidentally fixed a Stentor by pressing 
down the cover of an animalcule cage on a Difflugia, which it had 
swallowed. The Stentor contracted, and suddenly elongated, and 
repeated these movements until it had split three-fourths the length of 
its body through, and had torn itself loose from the fastened Difflugia, 
Nor did the Stentor suffer from this laceration of its body, for in the 
course of several hours each half became separated as a distinct 

On the Bevivificaiion of Botifer vulgaris, — In a paper before the 
Academy at Philadelphia, Professor Leidy observes that during the 
search for Bhizopods, having noticed among the dirt adhering to 
the mosses in the crevices of our pavements many individuals of the 
common wheel-animalcule, Botifer vulgaris, he had made some obser- 
vations relating to the assertion that they might be revivified on 
moistening them after they had been dried up. Two glass slides, 
containing beneath cover glasses some dirt, exhibited each about a 
dozen active living Eotifers. The glass slides were placed on a 
window ledge of my study, the thermometer standing at 80°. In the 
course of half an hour the water on the slides was dried up, and the 
dirt collected in ridges. The next morning, about twelve hours after 
drying the slides, they were placed beneatib the microscope. Water 
was applied and the materials on the slides closely examined. On 
each slide a number of apparently dried Eotifers were observed^ 

♦ *Proc. of Acad, of Sci., Philadelphia,' p. 75, 1874. 


^^^B These imbibed water and expanded, and some of them in the conrso J 

^^^r of half an honr revived and oshibited their usual movements, hut J 

others remained motionless to tho hist. The same slides were again 

Bubmittad to drying, and from one of them the cover glass was 

removed. They were eitamined the nest day, bnt several hours after 

^^^ moistening them only two Rotifers wore noticed moving on each slide. 

^^^L He nest prepared a slide on which there were upwards of twenty actively 

^^^H moving Rotifers, and exposed it to the hot sun during the afternoon. 

^^^P On examination of the sUde the following morning, after moistening 

^^^ the material, all the Rotifers continued motionless, and remained so 

to the last moment. From these observations it would appear that 

the Rotifers and their associates became inactive in comparatively dry 

positions and may be revived by supplying them with more moistnre, 

but when the animals are actually dried they are incapable of being 

revivified. Moisture adheres tenaciously to earth, and Rotifers may 

rest in tho earth, liie the Lepidoairen, until returning waters restore 

them to activity.— See also ' Silliman's Amer. Journal,' Sept. 

New Fretk'Water Shizopods have been recently observed by Pro- 
fessor Leidy, who, in a paper before the Philadelphia Academy, 
remarked that besides the ordinary species of Amceba, which ho had 
observed in the vicinity of Philadelphia, he had discovered what 
he suspected to be a new generic form. It has all the essential 
characters of Amaha, but in addition is provided with tufts of tail- 
like appendages or rays, from which he proposed to name tho genus 
Ourajii(F6(i. The rays project from what may be regarded as the back 
part of the body, as the animal always moves or progresses in advance 
of tho position of those appendages. " The rays are quite different 
&om pseudopode, or the delicate rays of the Actinophryens. They 

■ are not used in securing food, nor is their function obvious. Tho 
Ouramceba moves like an ordinary Amceba, and obtains its food in 
the same manner. The tail-liko rays are not retractile, and they are 
rigid and coarse compared with those of Actinophryens. They are 
simple or unbranched, except at their origin, and they are cylindrical, 
of uniform breadth, and less unifnrm length. When torn from the 
body thoy are observed to originate from a common stock attached to 
a rounded eminence. Several forms of the Ourammba were observed, 
but it is uncertain whether thoy pertain to one or to several species. 
One of the forms had an oblong ovoid body about Jth of a line long 
. and -jJ^th of a line brood. The tail-lite rays formed half-a-dozea 

•' tutts, measuring in length about the width of the body. The latter 

was so gorged with large diatoms, such as Navictda viridh, together 
with desmids and confervte, that the existence of a nucleus could not 
bo OBcertained. Tho species may be distingnished with the name of 
Ouramceba vorax, A second form, perhaps of a different species, 
moved actively and extended its broad pseudopods like Amaha prin- 
eeps. When first viewed beneath the microscope it appeared irregu- 
larly globular and about iVt^" "^^ 1'°^ '« diameter. It elongated to 
the ^th of a line, and moved with its tail-like appendages in the rear. 
These appendages formed five tufts about ^^th of a line long. The 
interior of tho body exhibited a largo contractile vesicle and a discoid 

I 1« 




nncleiiB. Tliia Bocond form may bo difltrnguielied witli tho name of 
OvraauBha lapsa. Another Ourawc^a had two comparatively eliort 
tnfta of rays, ood n fourth, of smaller size than the others, had a 
single tuft of throe monilifbrm rays. It is poasible that OuramCBba is 
the same as the Plagioplirys of Olaparjide, thoagh the deBcriptlon of 
thia does not apply to that. Plivjiopliyijs ia eaid to be an Actino- 
phryou, fumishod with a himdle of rays emanating from a eingle 
point of tho hody, but the rays are described ae of the same kind 
and use as those of Aclinophrijg. Plagiophryg ia further stated to ho 
provided with a distinct tegument lite Corycia of Dujardin, or Pam- 
phagiia of Bailey, bnt the hody of Ouramceba is as free from any 
investment as an ordinary Amosba, and the rays are fixed tail-like 
appendages, with no power of elongation or contraction. The species 
of Owanie^ were found among desmida and diatoms, on the surface 
of the mud at the bottom of a pond, near Darby Creek, on tho Phila- 
delphia and West Ohestor Eailroail. Two of tho commonest spoeieB 
of Bijjlugia of our neighhourUood I had until recently confounded 
together aa D. jrrotei/ormU, and, perhaps, the two forms may bo 
included under the latter nama in Europe. In one the month is 
deeply trilohed, and tho animal ia usually green with chlorophyll 
globules. In the other the mouth is crenulate, usually with six 
shallow cronulationa, and the animal is devoid of chlorophyll. The 
former is usually the smaller, and may he distinguished with the 
name of D. lobostoma ; the latter may be named D. crenulata. In 
an old brick pond, on the grounds of Swarthmore College, Delaware 
County, among Difflitgia pijriformis, D. gpiralis, D. corona, H. aeumi- 
itala, and others not yet determined, there occurs an abundance of 
a large species, apparently undcscrihed. It is sometimes tho fourth 
of a line in length, and is compressed pyriforra, but is quite variable 
in its relation of length to breadth, and in the shapo of the fundus 
of tho shell. This is often trilobate, but from tho non-production 
of one or more or all the lobea, differs in appearance in different 
individuals. The animal is filled with chlorophyll grains, from 
which it might be named D. entocklorh. Another large Difflwjiii, 
allied to D. lageniformk, is not unfrequent about Philadelphia. 
The shell is beautifully vase-like in shape. It has an oval or suh- 
apherical body with a constricted neck, and a recurved lip to the 
mouth. The body of the shell opposito the month is aoute and often 
acuminate. Tho animal coctains no chlotophyll. One shell measured 
^th of a line long by Jth of a line broad; another measured ^th of a 
line-long by ^^th of a line broad. The species may ho named D. amphora. 
A DifBugian, found in a spring on Darby Creek, is interesting, from 
its transparency, which allows the structure of the animal to be seen 
in all its details. The investment is membranous aud apparently 
structureless. The aoft granular contents occupy about one-half of 
the investment, and are connected with this hy long threads. The 
pseudopoda ore protruded in finger-like processes. The form of the 
animal is compressed ovoid, with the narrow pole truncate and 
forming the transversely oval inouth. It ia probably the species 
Diffiugia ligata, described by Mr. Tatem, of England. Its length is 
about 3'grd of a line. The character of the investment in so different 


&am tliat of ordmn.ry DifHugians tbat tlio species may he regarded as 
pertaining to another gonus, for whicli the name of Calharia would 
be appropriate." 

The Analomieiil Okangas m HydrophMa Oimina.^h. good paper 
on this sabjeot appears in a late nnmber of tho ' Medical Record ' 
(Sept. 30), which says that the long-continued epidenxic of last winter 
has, through the assistance of his colleagues of the Imperial Yetori- 
nary School in Vienna, furnished Dr. Benedikt* with numerous 
preparations from the brain and spinal cord of different animals that 
had been attacked with rabies. Before desorihiag these, the author 
discuBses tho difForence presented by the disease as seen in man and 
in dogs, which has also a special aigntficance with reference to the 
anatomical appearances. In both the disease begins with a restless 
melancholia. In the dog this passes into raring madness, while in 
man this form of mental affeotioQ is wanting, In man illusions and 
hallucinations take but small share in the symptoms, while in doge 
they are plainly a prominent feature. In man there is the greatest 
degree of hypenesthesia, with highost possible susceptibility for con- 
Tulsions ; in dogs, diffused paralysis and aphonia are among the 
earliest and charocteristio symptoms. In the human being thoro is 
the most extreme reflex excitability in tho moToments of deglutition, 
so that not only the raising a glass to the month, but oven the sight of 
fluids, will induce violent spasmodic action in those organs ; whereas 
in dogs there is a paralysis of deglntition for fl.uida. In man the 
Bevereet epaaraa of tho roapiratory musclos are present, so severe as 
semetimes to cause asphyxia. Such spasms are not obaervcd in doge, 
which die generally from exhanstion. 

Dr. Benediit has studied the pathological changes by making 
seven separate vertical sections through tho hemispheres in dogs, and 
has observed such plain and striking pathological changes as could, ho 
observes, only have boon previously overlooked by reason of an imper- 
fection of the methods of investigation. 

In the first place, there is noted an abnormal distentioii of tho 

meningeal vessels, and the accumidation around them, and in tho 

meshes of the pia mater, of inflammation corpuscles, together with a 

nncleolated exudation. Thia cxuda,tion is strongly refractive of light, 

is colourless, and under high magnifying powers is seen to consist of 

pnnctiform unclear Hubatance (granular disintegration). Striking 

changes are observed in the grey matter of the convolutions, and in 

various parts of the nervous centres. One of the eoareer changes 

observed was tho presence of nnmerous holes, or spaces, which, when 

magnified eighty or ninety diameters, were seen to be filled with a 

material which also refracted light. This mass, under the high 

^^K . powers of the microscope, consisted of a granular or unclear substance, ■ 

^^^L in which were single hyaloid and colourless corpuscles, of the size of fl 

^^^1 a distended nucleus of a blood-corpnscle. Inflammatory corpnacloa H 

^^B were to be seen in both these masses. In the larger spaces, nerve- H 

^^V cells also were found. Dr. Benedikt fnrthot describes what ho calls a H 

^^H pcciiliarconditionof the hardened brain, especially in the finer sections. H 

^^K The slightest prossoro forced out upon ibe surlaco shining masses, H 

^^^^ * 'Wiener Mcdiz, Presfic,* June, 1KT4. ^| 




whioh under the microscope proved to bo myelin (colloid? Sep.). 
These masses were often found lying detocliod on tte surface of tto 
scotion, aud prcsonted a greomsh liistro. The aathur states that he 
has seen the sarao in the episal cord of a horse that had Bu&rod &om 
rheumatic tetonue, and that he had regordod it as a softeuiBg aud 
chemical alteration of the substance of the spinal cord. 

The signs of inflammation aro not presented everywhere in the pia 
mater, hut only in certain parte. The distribution of these in the 
grey matter and in the central v^hite substance throws a new light, 
according to Dr. Benedict, upon the nature ef the " granular disinte- 
gmtion." (A diagram intended to illustrate this point is given.) From 
what he has noted, it is concluded that the pathological process in 
this disease consists in ooate exadative indommation, with hyaloid 
dogonoiatiou, which doubtless arises from the exudative infiltration of 
the connective tissue. It is characteristic with reference to these 
inflammatory products that the attack, in man at least, is nshered in 
with rigors. The hypenemia and nuclear proliferation is concurrent 
with that form of difiused indaimuation which Lockhart Clarke has 
designated as "granular disintegration," and so far, the author con- 
siders, the anatomical obscurity of this disease is dispelled. The 
morbid process, in man, is doubtless essentially the same. The usual 
post mortem appearance is congestion and softening, which may have 
no especial value except as following asphyxia. 

Dr. Benedikt states that there are in literature only two trustworthy 
reports, viz. by Meynert, who found much the same appearances as the 
author. The spaces, or holes, are regarded by Meynert as being the 
result of the hardening of the brain-substance. In two other cases 
Meynert found hypertrophy of the connective tissuo in the posterior 
columns, with molecular and amyloid degeneration in the anterior 
columns. The nerve-cells of the cortical matter had also undergone 
-^partly molecular and partly sclerotic change. 


The Method of Heasnriiig Angular Aperture,— The 'American 
Naturalist ' (August) states that Mr. Wenhum, in order to gain accu- 
racy in measuring the angular ajierturo of dry objectives, would like 
to cut off all stroy light that might enter the lens without being 
capable of forming an image, by-placing over the objective a conical 
nozzle having a small aperture in its apex. This aperture would 
correspond to the focus of the lens, and the nozzle would just include 
the cone of rays capable of forming an image, and would exclude all 
&lse rays of any considerable angle. This method would be inconve- 
nient, however, and as the angle is measured by a horizontal move- 
ment, a vertical slit will be a satisfactory substitute. For high powers 
the slit must have thin edges; and it must be capable of adjustment 
to the width of focus of the lens. His arrangement is essily nutde and 

A plate three innbes long and oue inch wide has a central 
I apertnro nearly one-half inch wide, the edges of this opening being 
b«TeIled away below bo as to admit a large angle of light. Upon this 
plate lies a glass alip about 2 in. x 4 in., proseod against at one end 
by a spring, and at the other end by -a screw, eo that it can be easily 
slid backwards and forwards under the two staples (one inch apart) 
which hold it upon the surface of the plate. The slip is formed by 
the edges of two slips of platinum foil ('001 thick) one of which is 
cemented with Canada balsam upon the glass slip, while the other ia 
fastonod nnder one of tho staples so as to lie on the glass slip but not 
move with it. These platinum slips never overlap ; but their edges 
may be brought in contort, or may be separated as widely as desired 
by means of the set-screw pressing against one end of the glass slip 
which carries one of them. In measuring angles the usual method of 
rotating the instmment horizontally ie employed ; only this apparatus 
lies npon the stage with its slit in focus of tho objective, and adjusteii 
in width so as Iwrely to include the whole breadth of tho focus. If 
the stage of the microscope is too thick to admit full angle of light, 
the apparatus may be arranged below the stage, and the objective 
focnssed down to it. 

A New Hicroscopioal Society has, we are glad to perceive, been 
established at Memphis, Tenn., U.S.A. Its bye-laws bear "date 
August 28, IST'i, and are torse and to the point. It numbers about 
twenty-sis members, Dr. Cutler being its President, and Mr. S. F. Dod 
its Secretary and TreaBnrer. Wo wish it every sneceas, and hops to 
have some contributions to onr Society from its members. 

The Leeds Public Library.— We have much pleasure in acceding 
to the Librarian's wishes — making known to those of our readers who 
may reside in the neighbonrhood of Leeds the fact that the Leeds 
Public Library contains an admirable and considerably large selection 
of Natural History and Microscopic works. It is a public, and there- 
fore a free, library, and its catalogues are published in separate 
sections ; that which we have seen being devoted to natural history, 
or biology in its widest type. We notice in it some fow crvata, which 
we hope to see removed as soon as possible, Wbo, for instance, ia 
E. Lambert, who is stated to be one of the Editors of the ' Quarterly 
Jonriutl of Microscopical Science ' ? 


Beheohb'8 No, 7 Objbctitb. 

fNOBWIOW, Ocloher 8, 1874. 
Sib, — Having recently obtained one of Beneche's No, 7 objectives 
and submitted it to one or two sharp trials, I am able to confirm Mr. 
Hickie's report of tlio performance of those glasses, Mr, Hickie says 
the one he tried was equal to a " weak English i-" Mine I should call 
VOL, xn. T 


a Btrong English qnnrter ; on comparing it? magnifying power with a 
^ inch made in 1843 by A. Roes (of 75^ angular ajicrturo only, but A 
most eicolloiit glass), and using a B. ocular, I found tho ^J^ diTieioa 
on the micrometer (when x ^OO diameters) was exactly I of an. inch 
longer when magnified by the No. 7 than when the quarter was used. 
The angular aperture of Benecho's lens is certainly not Iobh than 9S°. 
And now for what I have been able to do with it, 

Pteurotigma angjilalum mounted by Miiller (which by tho way ia 
much more robust than the species we find in Englaud), strice resolved 
by direct light ; with oblique light and D, ocular, the peculiar arrange- 
ment of tho terminal 8tri» were well shown. 

P. intermedium, striffi easily eeeu by oblique illumination, 

Niiztehia gigmoidea, transverse strice very fairly distinct. 

Cymbdla Ehrenhergii, tho coatee woro easily resolved into com- 
pressed beads, as were also tho transverse markings on Synedra 
robuBta. Pinnularia jperegrina, the fine transverse lines on the costto 
were plainly visible (the last three specimens were in balsam). This 
glass also performs well with the binocular, both tubes being well 

The admirable performance of these glasses is remarkable, Eks they 
have no adjustment, and the price in Berlin is 10 thalers 1 1 ! 
Yours truly, 

Fbbd. Kitton. 




To lie Editor of the ' ATonthly Microscopical Joiirjial' 

YoBK, October 7, 1874. 

Sir, — Tour correspondent, Mr, Hickie, desires to know if any of 
your readers can do with their ^th objectives what he can do with His, 
that is, whether they can resolve tho markings on " Pleurogigma 
anguialum " in a perfectly satisfiictory manner under certain severe 
restrictions which he roentions. If, therefore, you will allow me, I 
will briefly state how a ^th in my possession iuis behaved under theso 

But since he speaks of tho performance of his Gandlaeh's ^th, it 
may bo as well to inform you first how a similar power, likewise in 
my possession, fared under the ordeal to which both were subjected. 
My glasses were obtained from Messrs. Powell and Lealand, tho eminent 
London makers. 

The slide of " P. angnlalum " selected was one covered dry for 
jVA iiich. This I placed upon the stage, and then brought tho flam.- 
of a composite candle to an eiaet level with it, and precisely in a line 
with the tail of the compound body, mirror and diaphragm being both 
discarded. The first irustule that appeared now stood out with such 
cleomeea, and was go boautifullj defined, that the whole proceeding, 
when viewed as a testiug operation, looked to mo to be little better 
than child's play. 


Afterwards I brought the ith to bear upon the same object, ilia* 
mination and everything else remaining precisely as before, except 
that the B eye-piece now became almost a necessity. On proper 
focassing the resolution of the stri® quite surpassed my expectations : 
the definition was crisp and little short of brilliant. 

As Mr. Hickie does not state what his Berlin j^th has done with 
^^S. gemma" comparison is of course impossible; but if he means 
that it has detected the longitudinal lines of that diatom, it would be 
a real favour to microscopists to tell them of the feat. He is doubt- 
less too experienced an observer to be misled by the deceits of 

I am, Sir, your faithful servant, 

E. CoBBET Singleton. 



King's College, October 7, 1874. 

Charles Brooke, Esq., F.RS., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

A list of donations to the Society since the last meeting in June 
was read by the Secretary, and the thanks of the Fellows were voted 
to the donors. 

Mr. H. J. Slack called special attention to some of these donations, 
consisting of some curious old microscopes and optical apparatus 
presented to the Society by Dr. John Gray ; amongst which were an 
ancient microscope of unknown date, and an elaborately made instrument 
by TuUy, for Eobert Brown, also some spectacles, with a series of 
lenses of different powers, which were used by the great botanist in his 

Mr. Hembry, introduced by Dr. Braithwaite, was presented to the 
President and formally admitted as a Fellow of the Society. 

A paper by Mr. AUred Sanders, entitled *' Supplementary Eemarks 
on the Appendicularia," was read by the Secretary, The paper was 
illustrated by drawings, and appears at p. 209 in the present number 
of the Journal. 

Mr. Slack said that a few months ago Mr. H. B. Webb of Lyttleton, 
N.Z., one of the Fellows of their Society, sent over some samples of earth 
containing diatoms, &c. These were placed in the hands of Mr. Kitton, 
and that gentleman had discovered amongst them a new species of 
Surirdla^ which he had described as S. corUorta, A paper by Mr. 
Eitton, descriptive of the forms found in these deposits, and also 
amongst some dredgings sent by Capt. Parry from Colon, Panama, was 
then read by the Soorotary, and the illustrative drawings were hakded 

T 2 


PBOOHEDtHeB (Of BOoatajB. 

roiiDd for the inflpection of the PellowB. Tlie paper is printed at 
p. 218. 

Votes of thanfcB to Hfx. Sunders and to Mr. Kitton fur their cotn- 
nnnications were nnammouelj passod. 

Mr. Slock remarked that the danger of nanilitg objects apon insuffi- 
cient information rooeived fresh illustration from the paper, in which 
mention was made of a species of Tniceratinm linTing seven points. 

Mr. Sloek said he had brought to the meeting some films of silica 
prepared from a solution containing a mixture of one part of water and 
four parts of glycerine. Some of them were eiceedingly delicate, and 
it was not possible to get good definition of them with high power 
objectives of lai^ angles. When seen with a glass of largo angular 
aperturo there were so many false images that the tme effect of what 
ought to Ik) seen was entirely loet. He had, however, been able to 
obtain some good definitions with an object-glass, ^th, 60^ aperture, need 
in conjunction with Mr. Wenhani's dark-ground illuminator. It was 
of interest to know that in searching for minute particles of a highly 
refractive nature they could not always bo detected with a high-angled 
lens. Moat microacopists would still persist in using these objectives 
for all purposes, in spite of what had been pointed out by Dr. Carpenter, 
Mr. Brooke, and others. By osing a Gmatl-aogled gUiss they would 
often see much more, and when Mr. Wonham's illuminator waa also 
used, effects would be obtained which seemed to be unattainable in any 
other way. 

Mr. {JharlcH Stewart called the attention of tho meeting to a very 
curious living organism which was exhibited in the room by Mr. 
Badcock. He then drew it upon the hiack'board, and gave a general 
description of its appearance, expressing a hope that all who wore 
present would avail themselves of the opportunity of seeing it. He 
was quite unable to say what it was, but from its general appearance 
he thought it was something like an entozoon. 

Mr. Badcock, in reply to a question from the President, said that 
the creature was developed in his aquarium in the month of June last. 
He thongbt at first that it must be the larval condition of some other 
form, but it did not seem to have undergone any change in the course 
of four months. Tho only suspicious thing in the aquarium was a 
fresh-water mussel, he did not know whether that had anything to do 
with it. He had brought some sketches of it, which were placed upon 
the table for inspection. 

The President invited information upon the subject from tho 
Fellows present, who be hoped would examine it and say if they 
thought it to be a larval condition, or a perfect animal, or what ? 

Mr. Slack said that in its extraordinary power of changing its 
shape it resembled Bucephalus polymorphtis,* an entozoon found in ' 
fresh water, but then it was unlik* it in oth« respects. 

The President directed the attention of the Fellows to a remarkable 
collection of photographs of animal tissues and morbid conditions of 
the same, n*hich bad been presented to the Society by the Army 
Medical Itepartment, Washington. 
* Piof. Rvrtj G rceiie ha« since Eeen th.c aniiDal, nnd couaidcrti it a Bncephalos. 


The proceedings then tenninated, and the meeting was adjourned 
to November. 

Donations to the Library, &c., since June 8, 1874 : — 


Nature. Weekly The Editor. 

Athenseum. Weekly Ditto, 

Society of Arts Journal Society, 

Transactions of the Linnean Society. Two parts . . . . Ditto. 

Journal of the Linnean Society, No. 76 Ditto, 

Popular Science Beview, Nos. 52 and 53 Editor, 

Journal of the Geological Society, No. 119 Society. 

Smithsonian Beport for 1872 Institution, 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ Botanique de France. Three parts Society. 

The Toner Lectures. By Dr. J. J. Woodward. Illustrated^ The Surgeon-General, 

with seventy-four Photographs / Uj3.A, 

A simple microscope and set of powers by Tully 

A single microscope by Dolland 

An ancient microscope and some spectacles that were used'^^ Dr. John E. Gray, 

by the late Mr. Bobert Brown / F.R.S., ^c. 

One slide of silica film ff. J. Slack, Esq. 

Walter W. Ebevbs, 


QuEKETT Microscopical Club. 

Annual Meeting, July 24. — Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S., President, in 
the chair. 

The Ninth Annual Report of the Committee was read, giving 
details of the work accomplished by the club during the past year, and 
testifying to the continuance of its prosperity, and successful progress 
in the course marked out by its founders. The President read the 
Annual Address, in the course of which he made some interesting 
remarks upon the function of the various organs of plants, tracing the 
chemical and physiological changes which took place during the 
germination of the seed and the development of the plant, thus adding 
a supplement to the valuable and interesting series of papers *' On the 
Histology of Plants," written by him for the club. 

Officers for the ensuing year were elected, the President being Dr. 
John Matthews, r.R.M.S., who was duly inducted by the retiring 

Dr. W. Sharpey, F.R.S., &c., was unanimously elected an honorary 
member of the club, and four ordinary members were also elected. 

Ordinary Meeting, August 28. — Dr. Matthews, r.R.M.S., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

Three members were elected. 

Extracts were read from a letter writt^ by Mr. S. Green, of 
Colombo, to Mr. T. Curties, giving further details of his methods of 
mounting insects without pressure, so as to preserve their natural 
appearance, and a further communication on the subject was promised. 

There being no paper, Mr. Ingpen made some remarks upon two 
gatherings of Volvox^ both obtained on the 1st of January last, one of 


vhich famished good epecimeDB as lato as the beginning of April. 
The other gathering was slightly frozen in February, shortly after 
which StatosporeB were found in most of the eouditions deeoribed by 
Dr. J. Braxton Hioks, in the ' Quoi't. Journ. Mic, Scionce,' 7ol, i., N.S., 
p. 281. 

The President announced the excarsionB and meetings for the en- 
suing month, and the meeting closed with the usual oouversazioue. 

Sept. 25.— Ordinary Meeting. Dr. Matthews, F.E.M.S., President, 

The Preeident brought to the meeting for distribution a quantity 
of infusorial earth from Ecvoral localities in Barbados, which promised 
to ho rich in Polycystina. 

Mr. T, Charters White read a paper " On the Salivary Glunds of the 
Cockroach," illustrating the subject by coloured diagrams and beauti- 
fully prepared spccimons. He first spoke of the strnctiire and functions 
of glands in general, and then showed the method of dissecting the 
salivary glands from the cockroach, which he very minutely described, 
and added the reasons which confirmed him in his opinion as to their pos- 
sessing the nature and functions of true salivary glands. Mr. T. Curties 
read a letter which ho had received from Mr. J. ti. Tatem, accompany- 
ing a slide of the some object for presentation to the club. In this 
letter Mr. Tatem adopted the opinion advanced by Mr. Hollis in a 
receut number of ' Nature ' that the sacs arc not reservoirs for saliva, 
but air-sacs only, and probably capable of inflation as an aid to flight. 
He could not exactly comprehend in what way the sacs could be filled 
with air from without, but thought that they might possibly be inflated 
from time to time with " geereted air" OrS in the case of the bladders, 
having no ducts, of some fishes, 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. Lowne supported Mr. White's 
view, and suggested staining the preparations ndth chloride of gold, 
for the better demonstration of the network of nerves. He spoke at 
length on the different kinds of salivary glands in vertebrate and 
invertebrate animals, and stated that there was no evidence of the 
sacs being tracheal tubes, or of their ever being filled with air. The 
President read Dr. Hollis's letter in ' Nature,' and said that he did not 
regard the presence of trachea as conclusive of the argument, and 
thought that on the whole tho reasoniug was inconclusive. 

Mr. Loy felt quite euro that tho tubes wore not tracheal, and 
thought that tho sacs were reservoirs in which tho saliva was stored 
until pumped by the tube into the stomach. He had never found any 
evidence of air in any insect's salivary glands. In answer to a qnestion 
from tho President, Mr. Loy mode some remarks upon the irritating 
nature of the saliva of some insects, and ofterwards suggested difierent 
woys of killing the cockroaches, which Mr. White proposed to dissect 
at the nest couversational mcetuig for the instruction of the members. 
After the meeting, several beautiful preparations of the disputed organ 

e shown, as well as other objects of interest, by various members. 

ihel^j:'th}y}.£Gro£coficaIJra.'iialE<icl " 4- 

CU J->r-i(vi.;hAtJ. ';y'S 



DECEMBEE 1, 1874. 

I. — Continued Besearches into the Life History of the Monads. 
By W. H. Dallingeb, F.E.M.S., and J. Drysdalb, M.D., 

(^Bead before the Royal Microscopical Society, Nov, 4, 1874.) 

The prosecution of oux inquiries as to the developmental history 
of the minute monad-forms found in macerations of fish was con- 
tinued during the past summer. Our methods were precisely the 
same as those previously described ; so also was our mode of work, 
everything being mutually accepted as a correct interpretation. 
Prolonged work with infusions has led us to make observations 


Fig. 1. — ^Typical specimen of the monad described. 
„ 2. — Shows the different positions taken by th'e enlarged bases of the flagella 

when the latter are in motion. 
„ 3. — The peculiar structure a, 6, intimately connected with the bases of the 

flagella c, indicates a probable organ of locomotion ; of which b may 

be muscular. 
„ 4. — The earliest condition of change of state, showing hyaline investment 

more clearly. 
„ 5. — First constriction within the hyaline. 
„ 6. — Constriction more developed. 
„ 7. — The first division into two complete; but the forms are still within 

the hyaline. 
„ 8. — Transverse constriction ensues in each of the preceding. 
„ 9. — Division into four has taken place, and the flagella of some of the 

enclosed ones are protruding. 
„ 10. — ^Further multiplication has ensued, and the first of the new forms is 

escaping from the hyaline investment. 
„ 1 1. — The hyaline envelope after all have escaped. 
„ 12.— The same when one or more has aborted. 
„ 13. — A specimen of the granular form from which parthenogenetic elements 

are emitted. 
„ 14 and 15. — The emission of the above. 
„ 16, 17, and 18. — ^The condition of the monad after emission. 
„ 19 and 20. — The germinal points seen in the granules of sarcode emitted, as 

discovered in the process of development, x 10,000 dium. 
„ 21. — Sexual contact. 
„ 22. — The earliest result of the blending. 
„ 23.— The still condition which follows. 

„ 24 and 25.— The cyst bursting and emitting a cloudy mass containing germs, 
„ 26 and 27. — Represent the " clubbed " condition. 




262 Transactiotis of the 

concerning them wliict, althougt withont explanation or apparent 
fcearing at present, seem to na of snfScient importance for note. 
Our first maceration was a cod's head; it was freely exposed to 
the air, but excluded from the light. For two raontha uothing 
at all remarkable presented itseK. Abundane« of Bacteria termo, 
B. Uneola, and AmoebiB were found. But at the expiration of the 
twelfth week the form to be described in this paper gradnally 
appeared — survived for throe months and two weeks, to the almost 
complete exclusion eventually of other forms — and then was sup- 
planted by other monads, some of which have been described by ns 
in former papers. 

This maceration was made from ordinary water supplied by the 
company on the Cheshire side of the Mersey. The same year, in 
the same place, another cod'a head, and the head of a salmon were 
macerated in separate vessels. It was later in the year, and the 
production of vital foi-ras was slower ; yet in the course of four 
months the same phenomena as those described above took placo ; 
the only difference being that the form that we are about to describe 
did not persist so long. 

In the autumn of the same year another cod's head maceration 
was made in Liverpool from the ordinary water supplied to the 
town. This up to the spring of the following year showed no 
trace of the tbrm in question, nor indeed of any monad, bnt 
swarmed persistently with gigantic specimens of the SpirUlum, 
volitians. After tim several otlier macM^tions were made, in the 
same place, and the form we desired appeared, but no spirilla could 
be discovered. While a maceration of salmon's head made in April, 
1873, under the same circumstaJices at the same place (viz. on the 
lancashire side of the Mersey), was found in April, 1874, to swarm 
with the peculiar monad form in question ; but another infusion of 
herring made at Bock Ferry (on the Cheshire side) late in the 
snmmer of 1873 has not yet shown the monad we hoped for. 
What determines their appearance or non-appearance we have no 
data even to surmise; but it is a subject which ia securing our 

Another incident in our last summer's wort may be mentioned. 
We always work from a small qnantity of the largo vessel of 
decaying matter which we can keep at hand, Durbg the early 
summer the intense and continued heat evaporated all the fluid 
from the salmon's bead infusion without om; knowledge. The form 
at which wa were working had been in it in great profusion. It 
was growing less abundant in oar small working tank, and we 
feared that we must wait another year to finish our inquiries. But 
we led a forlorn hope, and took the hard, porous, dried, papiet- 
mach^-hke mass which formed the dry residuum of the infusion, 
and determined to pat it into an exhausted maceration of the same 

1 j-« US - 



„-l '874 


"- ( 



Bayal Microscopical Society. 263 

kind at Bock Ferry, which at the time showed only very feehle 
signs of any life, and certainly no monads. We watched the 
i^nlt; and, to onr great surprise, in three days the required 
monad appeared in remarkable yigonr and daily increasing abun- 
dance, enabling ns to complete our researches into its cycle of 
development. Whilst at the same time another, and remarkable 
jform, whose history we haye since completed, and which had only 
very feebly shown itself before the drying up of our infusion, now 
showed great vigour, and eventually survived and predominated, 
evidently very much at the expense of the former. 

This may be accounted for in two ways at least First, the 
germs — ^whidi we have proved to exist in flie development of this 
form — gave origin to new monads when the caked mass was 
broken up by solution and set them free in normal conditions ; and 
second, we are strongly inclined to believe that hundreds of millions 
of the adult forms were only desiccated by the drying up, and 
were resuscitated when the fluid was restored; an opinion. which 
subs^uent experiment has done much to confirm. 

With reference to the immediately asserted, and eventually 
absolutely secured ascendency of the new form above referred to, 
after the remoistening of the dried maceration, it is evident that 
some new conditions had arisen in consequence of the drying up 
of the pabulum, and its subsequent remoistening, which in the 
struggle for existence made it the fittest to survive. 

The form we now describe has occupied our attention for at 
least three years, but some points of difficulty each year presented 
themselves, and we have delayed any reference to it until we had 
learned as much concerning it as we deemed possible. It is in fact 
the form incidentally referred to in our first paper,* and drawn, in 
various positions, at a, a, &c., Fig. 1, PI. XKLY., vol. x., of the 
' Monthly Microscopical Journal.' 

It is a form possessed of more distinctive and distinguishable 
structure than any other so low in the scale of life with which we 
are acquainted. Its most marked peculiarities may be summarized 
with the aid of Fig. 1. The sarcode is invested with a distinct 
hyaline envelope, perfectly structureless to our best aplpliances, and 
sharply distinguishable from the protoplasm of the body ; two flagella, 
inserted into what appears like a special organ of locomotion ; a 
large central disk or nucleus-like body, a ; numerous protoplasmic 
granules, 6, the function of which we shall shortly explain ; a pair 
of "snapping" eye-spots, c;t and occasionally some remarkable 
club-like appendages to the anterior part of the body, the nature of 
which we have failed to ascertain ; and to which we shall again refer. 

The body is oval, the pair of flagella with which it is famidied 

* * M. M. J./ vol. X., p. 53. 
t Ibid., vol. xi, p. 8. 

U 2 

264 Transactions of the 

beiog placed anteriorly. The average length of the long diameter 
of the body is the 1100th of an inch. The flagella are aboat twice 
the length of the body, very fine, and intensely rapid and graceful 
in their movements- They are inserted into a couple of pear-shaped 
bodies, -with their thickest ends in contact with the investing mem- 
brane. They are shown as they generally present themselves in 
Fig. 1, d, but they also assume the conditions drawn in Fig. 2, 
being intimately connected with the motion of the flagella ; this 
may be distinctly seen when the motion of the monad becomes 
slower, a, I, c, and d show some of the positions assumed, and their 
relations to the movements of the flagella. 

The motion of this monad when in complete activity is ex- 
tremely graceful, almost swallow-like ; but there is no question left 
upon our minds that it is wholly accomplished by means of the 
flagella. They are usually thrown out in the manner of a swim- 
mer's arms, and made to meet at the posterior end of tiie monad ; 
but they can also be used in all directions, either singly or together, 
giving' either a rolling forward motion, or a gyrating horizontal 
motion, or even a longitudinal revolution. They can also move 
backwards, by uniting Uie flagella and making a sculling motion. 

To attempt to give anatomical explanation of their movements 
as produced by what appears to be a mere mass of structureless 
Barcode would be waste of space. But we are constrained to indi- 
cate what was seen twice by both of us, and three times by one, as 
indicating something that suggests structure. We were observing 
once with the Ath, and once with the ^Vth, when we perceived by 
careful focussing what is drawn in Fig. 3, where the rod a seemed 
to run longitudinally through the monad as if for support ; the 
bulbous part h was closely connected with the knobs c, which give 
actual support to the flagella. 

The posterior part of the sarcode is always filled with granular 
masses of protoplasm to nearly the extent of half the body, as seen 
in Fig. 1. These, as we shall subsequently see, play an important 
part in the life history of the creature. Immediately above this 
granular mass is situated a nucleus-like body ; it is without struc- 
ture, and large in proportion to the size of the monad, always 
occupying the same position, a, Fig. 1. Beside these peculiar 
features this creature possessed almost constantly the snappmg eye- 
spots which we have shown to belong to other monads, and have 
fully described in earlier communications,* but the function of 
which we have failed to discover. 

We may now consider the phenomena attending the develop- 
mental history of this form, which is divisible into three chief 
features. ' 

(1.) By continuous observation on the normal form, with a 

♦ ' M. M. J./ Tol. xi., p. 8. 



Eoyal Microscopical Society. 265 

■"power of from 1200 to 10,000 diameters, the fine hyaline invest- 

lanent in tlie initial stages of development ia perceived more clearly, 

tfinveloping the monad, but no change of shape or motion ensues, 

1 Fig. 4. In about forty minutes to an hour a line suddenly appeare 

\ across the short diameter of the oval, which soon develops into a 

very marked constriction, as seen in Fig. 5. This constriction 

ContinueB rapidly to increase within the hyaline membrane, which 

throughont the process preserves its normal form, until it reaches 

I the condition drawn in lig. 6. During the whole of this time the 
motion of the monad is unaffected ; and in about two hours from 
the first* a total division takes place. Just before division, howpver, 
in some way not made out, two short cilia appear in the place of the 
future flagella, as seen in a, Fig. 6 ; but directly actual division tabes 
^ilace the separated monad tarns over, and occupies the position 
Been in a. Fig. 7. After swimming freely in this conditiim for not 
iesa than ten minutes an indentation may be observed in tlie long 
axis of the divided bodies within the hyaline, and in from seven to 
twenty minutes a constriction longwise ensaea,^ as "seen in Fig. 8, 
where a and b show the lines of constriction. After this the divided 
bodies remain within the hyaline envelope, sometimes dividing into 
eight and even into sixteen, although rarely, and swim about with 
an elegance and ease certainly not surpassed by the pregnant Volvox 
glolator. Generally this compnand mass la dependent for motion 
on the original flagella of the original monad, which persist through- 
out; bnt at times, determined by conditions we have not discovered, 
the flagella of each new form protrude beyond the hyaUne envelo]je, 
as seen in Fig. 9, bnt these always move in concert, and apparently 
obey a common impulse. After swimming in this way for a length 
of time, varying from ten to one hundred minutes, or more, one of 
the forms within the hyaline investment protrudes itself, as seen in 
Fig. 10, and shortly escapes a perfect monad like its parent. This 
is repeated in each case nntil in the majority of instances all escape, 
leaving the fragment of a pellicle or sac behind with the old flagella 
I -attached, as drawn in Fig. 11, Bnt in many caaes there appears to 
j be incapacity to throw off the laat one or two, and it remains 
apparently dead, as seen in Fig. 12. This is the usual method 
of increase, and goes on with great rapidity ; the multiple forms 
in a fresh field, always bearing a large proportion to the other 
forms. This process does not terminate with the first generation 

ISO produced, but may be continued for many generations in 
succession with no congress of any kind and no visible modifica- 
(2.) But the attentive and patient observer will soon find 



266 Tranaadions of (he 

hiiiiself OTi'ested by another kind of phenomenon. Some of the 
normal forms become entremdy granular at their posterior or non- 
flugellete end, so that the granules give the protruding effect 
of an acorn cup. These Bwim -with great freedom, and are gene- 
rally larger than the other forms. One of them is represented 
at Fig. 13. Suddenly, and without warning, these swiftly moTing 
bodies shoot out almost the whole mass of granules, and deposit 
them, as seen in Figs. 14 and 15, leaving the monad almost entirely 
destitute of granules, and with the hyaline membrane still retaining 
its shape, but the sarcode within much altered in form and 
position. This is shown in Fig, 15 ; but also other modifications 
attending the emission are drawn at Figs. 16, 17, and 18. At 
certain stages of development thousands of these granular forms 
are visible in every " dip " of the fluid. At first the extraded 
granules seem to have no significance ; and they vrere for a long 
time a source of great perplexity to ns. But we confined our 
attention at length wholly to these for some time, and by the nsa 
of our best MpHances were enabled to discover their nature. 
When deposited, the granules are amorphous, moro or less agglo- 
merated, and perfectly transparent. Watching them attentively 
with the highest available powere of the ^ we at length saw epota, 
or minute points or dots, appear in the grannies, as seen in 
Fig. 19. These under constant observation increased, and in one 
of them, as many as seventeen were counted. In this condition 
they are drawn at Fig. 20. They remained like this for from two 
to three hours, only sUghtly increasing in size. At the expiration 
of this time a vibratory motion of the internal points was per- 
ceived, which very rapidly increased, and in the course of forty 
minutes intense internal activity was visible, the minute dots within 
the sarcode moving upon each other in all directions. This lasted 
from ten to fifty minutes, when they all escaped and at once swam 
freely as minute hacterial-hke bodies, but no trace of any organs of 
locomotion could be discovered. After they began to move they 
rapidly increased in size, so that in from tour and a haK to five 
hours they were of normal size, and endowed with all the powers 
of the original monad. This was seen again and again, in all its 
stages, and the new forms were foUowed up to the condition of 
multiple fission, as before described. 

Other phenomena presented themselves, hut nothing that we 
could explam or correlate ; and we were for two years inclined to 
think that this must be the entire process of development. But 
commencing again with fresh working power, we were this lost 
aummer enabled to find what gives completeness to this history. 

(3.) We had occasionally seen during the whole period of our 
researches on this form a coming together of two of the monads ; 
but from its infeeiiuency and occasional abortiveness, as well as 

Eoyal Microscopical Society. 267 

rom the prominence of other phenomena, we did not with any 
Jcontinned intemity follow it up. This past summer we made it a 
•specific object, and by dint of close application found that, in 
loompariBon with other phenomena, very occasionally two of the 
f monads, at times in no way distinguishable from each other, met 
and touched each other at their anterior ends, swimming freely 
together, as setn in Fig. 21. The normal flagella rapidly dis- 
appeared, and the bodies melted into each other ; another stalked 
double flagellum appearing at one end in a manner never in any 
way understood by us. The nuclear bodies a, h, Fig. 21, blended 
also into one ; the whole thing in this stags being shown at Fig. 22, 
where also an intensely granular state peculiar to this condition is 
shown. This body preserved its freedom of motion for a long time 
— occasionally for ten or twelve honrs — but during this time it lost 
slowly the line of juncture, and became oblong and then rounded ; 
after which its motion was more sluggish, and it eventually 
became quits still. Fig. 23 represents it in this condition. It 
remained in this state sometimes as long as twenty-four hours ; bnt 
generally, from four to six honrs was the time occupied before any 
changed ensued. The uncertainty, however, made constant watch- 
ing absolutely necessary. The whole sac showed as the first 
symptom of change a slight vibration or wave-like motion, and 
then, with no further premonition, its edges broke ap and a clondy 
mass poured out, in which with competent powers it was compara- 
tively easy to detect myriads of minute points. Fig. 24 depicts 
this ; and by following up rigorously these emitted points, we found 
that after a short period of inactivity they became motile, and 
rapidly grew, acquiring flagella, and becoming perfect monads of the 
parent type. Not only so, but these very forms were persistently 
followed, and were seen to increase by multiple fission, and to 
deposit granules as before described. At times the globular con- 
dition was not taken, but the emission took place in the condition 
shown at Fig. 25. It will he seen that iJiis, and another form 
_ which we hope to describe in a subsequent number, gave us more 
I trouble and perplexity than any we had worked at. But after 
F working the whole Hfe cycle out it now appears to us that this 
monad primarily multiplies sexually by the congress of the genetic 
elements. This, however, is comparatively a very rare occurrence, 
and serves for many (probably) hnndreds of generations. Bnt a 
kbd of parthenogenesis, or internal budding, follows — resulting in 
Lthe emission of the sarcodic granules which contain minute monad- 
tgfirms — this being by far the mote frequent and rapid mode of 
r increase ; while at the same time multiple fission is taking place in 
all directions. 

Thus we have the minui« germ sesnally produced; the bud 
produced in large quantities within the unfertilized form, both 

268 Transactiona of the 

of which grow to the parent size ; and the perfect series of monads 
produced directly by multiple fission. 

From the peculiar manner in which the parthenogenetic pro- 
ducts are deposited — in a clear investing sarcode —the capacity for 
desiccation so remarkably shown by this monad may be understood 
on the principle pointed out by Mr. Henry Davis.* 

There is one condition of this monad which, in spite of most 
constant and assiduous research, has defied all our attempts to 
discover its meaning. We have called it the " clubbed " stage, for 
in this special condition the monad was vested with one or two 
peculiar knobbed stalks either supplanting or associated with 
the flagella. The ordinary clubbed condition is shown at B, 
Fig. 26, where t, c appear to have taken the place of the ordinary 
'flagella. Almost as frequently the condition seen at A is assumed 
where there is one flagellum and one knob,'; but instances have often 
occurred in which both flagella and two knobs exist together as at c. 

We have endeavoured for three years to find the meaning of 
this, but have entirely failed. We persisted in our eflforts, because, 
so far as we could discover, this anatomical phase seemed to coincide 
with certain stages of development. But wider and closer observa- 
tion has enabled us to abandon this idea. Our first impression was 
that this phenomenon had a sexual significance, and this arose from 
the fact that we had frequently observed copulating forms, as at c, 
Fig. 21, in which one of the monads was clubbed. But from the 
large number of cases subsequently watched with all conceivable 
care, in which no such a phenomenon presented itself, we are obliged 
to abandon this also. That it is without significance in the creature's 
development we are unwilling to think; the more because of its 
occurrence each year, and with greater or less persistence throughout, 
as well as on account of the occasionally observed method of its 
production. In Fig. 27 the mode of origin is shown. At first 
two disks were seen within the sarcode, as in a, t, A ; these would 
slowly push out, as in c, d, B, and the stalks would appear, and 
eventually they would be wholly and permanently thrown out, as in 

But in spite of this we have failed to correlate it with any step 
in the developmental history, which appears complete without 
it; and we can only record the facts, and hope that some more 
fortunate workers may be able to interpret them. 

In the course of our work on this and other forms we have 
been more than ever strongly impressed with the danger of hasty 
conclusions. It animates our diaries to comment from time to time 
on the probable meaning of certain observed phenomena — to specu- 
late on their relation to what we had fully ascertained and what 
we had yet to discover. At times, indeed, our inferences, when 

* * M. M. J.,' vol. ix., pp. 206-209. . 

Royal Microscopical Society, 269 

made, seemed inevitable. But nothing is more interesting to us 
than to see how facts slowly and unceasingly pursued and ascer- 
tained and collated, showed the inutility of our surmises. In 
investigations of this kind we are convinced that sequences must be 
made iy the facts themselves. Inference, however plausible, may 
vitiate a whole train of observation ; and, amongst other things, we 
are bound to perceive the liability there must be to infer heterogeny 
if observations be not long continued, and every transitional step 
in the process be not demonstrated with the severest accuracy. 

To complete our work on this f6rm we conducted a series of 
heating experiments in precisely the same way as before. It will 
suffice, therefore, to give the results of one series, which may be 
taken as typical. 

Six sUdes were taken : a drop of the fluid put on and covered 
with a thin cover. This was carefully examined, and if found to 
contain what was needed was allowed slowly to evaporate. The 
whole selec^ six were next slowly heated up to 250 Fahr., kept 
at this heat for ten minutes, and then allowed slowly to cool. When 
cold, they were carefully remoistened with distilled water — the 
water flowing readily under the cover by capillarity — ^and they were 
again examined and reported upon. 

Before they were put into the heating apparatus in each case 
it was discovered that the elements required were there. 

On examination after heating, and immediately after fresh 
moistening, nothing was visible but a baked amorphous mass. Two 
hours after this no motion of any sort was visible, save in two, 
where, with ^^i\ excessively minute points were seen to be in a 
state of activity, which was translatory and not Brownian. 

Twelve hours after minute bodies — almost certainly known to 
us as the very earhest motile form of the monad above described 
after development from the germ — were seen in four of the fields. 
These in two of the instances were traced up to full-sized monads 
of the form and with the developmental history of the form at 
which we were working ; whilst the other two on the second day 
had many of the same in full maturity and complete action. The 
other two were wanting in this form. 

From this it is clear that whilst in one condition this^ monad 
can survive desiccation, in another — the true sexual-germ-state — it 
can survive a temperature of 250° Fahr. 

We now heated another set of six under precisely similar con- 
ditions up to 300°, Fahr. But in this whilst some forms with 
which we were acquainted survived by means of their germs, this 
•form was wholly destroyed, and not the trace of one in any form 
could be discovered in any of the slides. 


Transaoiions of the 

JL — Oil some Microscopic Leaf Fungi from the Himalayaa. 

By Joseph Flemino, M.D., F.R.C,8., Surgeon Army 

Aledical Department, 

(_Iltad before tlte Royal Microscopical Society, Nuv. i, 1874.) 

Plitb LXJtXYL 

Sous years ago, 'when the supposed fungoid origin of disease drew 
the attention and observation of many practical physiciana and 
scientitic men to that subject, more so perhaps than at the present 
time, I was led — no doubt as many otlier observers were — in the 
course of certain special investigations in India to make tha 
acquaintance, though slight ani for the first time, of that inter- 
esting and DOt generally known department of cryptogamic botany. 
Though not at any time successful in associating for certainty the 
presence of undoubted fungi witt constitutional or epidemic tiisease. 
It frequently happened, as other observers both at home and abroad 
have noted, that certain forms were seen both in the human subject; 
and in some of the lower animals while in perfect health. 

However, in the present state of the question I would not 
pretend to afOnu that many specific and constitutional diseases in 
man and animals are not caused by the presence of fungi or their 
B|>oridia in the body ; and I cannot but beUeve that as our know- 
ledge of them increases, and with the assistance of the higher 
magnifying powers, in conjunction with a careful co-relative 
analyses of symptoms, aecretiona, excretions, &c., we ultimately 
shall be able to say to what extent certain diseases may be owing 
to the lower forma of animal or vegetable life, I know the subject 
is a difficult one, and nowadays it must be confessed there are few 
men qualified for such investigations, simply because there are leas 
mateiial inducements than there oi^ht to be, and hence men specu- 
late and invent new theories, which are often more convenient and 


FiQB. 1 dnd 2.^ PramE/eas omMms, on leaf of Himalayaa boi. 
FiO. 3.— TncAofeasis sp. 

„ 4. — Lower corner of leaf. 
FiOB. 6 and 6. — Probably Uredo dsraatidis. 
FiO. 7. — Part of leat with Undo jrunctaidea, 

„ S- — Bpoies of Ureda panct-oidea. 

„ 9. — Cislia q{ Septutrkh'ain, 

„ 10,— Probftbly Votutella or Vermiadarla. 

„ 11. — Spotee of Coleosporiani piagrie [?]. 
Figs. 12 and 13.— Part of leaf, with spores of Pnixn 

„ 14 and 15, — Part of leaf, wLih Bpores of Piiccb. 
PiQ, 16.— Bpores of P. vmbellife 

„ 17, — Eiineum [deformed i 

TteMonthlyMicroscopicaiJir^iQ-i .^^ 

rSiineClB.-;ja3i"?'vrti-^ ■ 

Royal Mieroseopieal Sodeiy. 271 

Batisfactory, rather than putting their shoulders to the wheel, and 
by experimeiit and observation trying to eliminate the truth. 

It happened that for a period of two months in the autumn of 
1870 I obtained leave to visit the Himalayas north of Deyrah 
Dhoon, and employed moat of my time there m shooting game and 
large animals, especially bears, which are very plentiful in many 
parts of those truly magnificent mountains. In my search for 
sport, sometimes in places most difficult of access, I frequently 
observed fungi on the leaves or stems of living plants, and as 
opportunities permitted I made collections of the affected leaves, 
and preserved them for esamination, which I regret k> say haa 
never been done nntil the present time.- 

During the space of four years many have changed their colour, 
and others cannot now be detected on the leaves, and some, indeed, 
have been lost ; nevertheless I have endeavoured to coUect a few, 
some of which no doubt are rare or CTen tmkuown in this country, 
I am not aware of the existence of any work on the fungi of the 
Himalayas, otherwise I should have consulted it prior to writing 
the present paper, and thus have saved myself from useless repe- 
tition and a httle anxiety lest I should be imperfectly performing a 
labour which has already been well done by another. Since my 
return to England I have had the advantage of Mr. M. C. Cooke'a 
opinion of the objects figured in Plate LXSXVI,, which he haa 
kindly named. Jndging from what I observed in September and 
October, 1870, 1 should say that fungi are very common throughout 
the whole range of the Himalayas, and it is probable that all the 
English species, and maybe many new ones, are to be found with 
little trouble to any energetic and adventurous mycologist who may 
be fortunate enough to traverse those regions. 

On some banks and simny slopes of the liillf:^ the wild straw- 
berry and raspberry are to be fonnd in. abundance, and on the under 
Borface of the leaves of many will be noticed black spots, which on 
microscopical examination are proved to be the Aregma (Phrag- 
midium) dituswn and Aregvia (P.) gradle respectively, and differ- 
ing in no way from the English species. 

On the under surfiice of the leaves of the thistla {Cardv/at 
lanceolatvs) the Puccinia sgngenesiarum was frequently noticed, 
and so was the Pticcinia variabiUs on the npper and under sur&ce 
of the leaves of the dandelion. 

The blackberry brand, the Aregma (Phragmidium) huU>osum, 
was quite common on the under surfaces of the leaves of the black- 
berry bushes, and occasionally a white, tough, cotton-like fungus was 
met with, growing either from the under surfece of the venation of 
the leaf or from tiie petiole, or both. This fungus will be referred 
to farther on. 

The Aregma (Phrugmidinm) mueronatum waa found on Um 

272 TranBodions of the 

under surface of the leaves of the wild rose, and another form which 
was also common on oak leaves, laurels, and other species, and 
which will bo referred to presently. 

Pertdermium pini was plentifol on the leaves of the silver fir 
and other pines, which grew in abundance in every direction, and a 
similar fungus was commonly noticed on the pine leaves about 
Dalhousie, more than a hundred miles from the hills north of 
Deyrah Dhoon. 

The various grasses as well as the leaves of Mudwa (a species of 
millet) and the leaves of the rice plant, which is cultivated m many 
of the valleys, appeared to possess their share of fungi. 

In the accompanying Plate the portions of leaves have been 
drawn the natural size from the actual specimens, and the spores 
are magnified about 320 diameters. 

In a valley about twenty miles from the mihtary station of 
Landour, between Deyrah Dhoon and Dunooltie, but close to and 
behind a high hill at the latter place, there is a considerable 
extent of forest, principally compose of a species of boxwood tree 
(Buxus), from zO to 30 feet high, and with wide-spreading 
branches and with stems averaging from a few inches to 1^ feet in 
diameter. During my travels of many hundred miles through the 
Himalayas I never happened to come across a single specimen of 
box tree except in the place mentioned, and in which they appeared 
to grow well. 

The under surface of most of the leaves contained a dark-brown 
fungus, resembling in outward appearance an ^cidium, varying 
in diameter from ^ to more than a :|: of an inch, and frequently 
two or three of these orbicular patches may be found on one leaf. 

The peridium bursts regularly in circular patches and the 
margins become irregular and recurved, exposing the dark-brown 
spherical spores. The spores appear to be peculiar and to belong 
to the cenus C/romyces, naving short peduncles, a thick cell- wall, 
and a hght amber-coloured endochrome, which communicates exter- 
nally by a funnel-shaped orifice on the side opposite the attachment 
of the peduncle, i. e. the upper part of the spore. This description 
will be better understood by referring to Fig. 1, which represents 
a box leaf with the fungus in situ, and Fig. 2, which shows three 
of the spores magnified. [TJromyces amhtens, Cooke.] 

Fig. 3 represents spores from the under surface of the leaf 
of a plant which I fidl to recognize, and which exhibits small Ught- 
brown spots made up of an aggregate collection of oval yellowish 
spores attached by short peduncles to the epidermis of the leaf 
(Trichdbasis). The plant apparently belongs to the order Convol- 
vulacea, is herbaceous, about 2 feet in height, and the stem, &c., 
contains a milky juice as well as the roots, which are used by 
the natives as a purgative. A species of dematis (probably the 

Boyal Microdcopioal Society. 273 

Traveller's Joy) is common on the hills and in the valleys, and 
sometimes a beautiful orange-red fungus may be observed on the 
under surface of the leaves. This fungus on thQ fresh leaf emitted 
an odious smell — the smell of a recently killed bug — and was 
quite unbearable, but now both the red colour and the smell have 
disappeared. When the leaf is examined with a low power the 
spores are found to be arranged in little button-hke clusters 
(Fig. 5) iBrmly packed side by side and of yellow colour (Fig. 6), 
and growing from the cellular dermis of the leaf almost at right 
angles. [ Uredo clematidis* Berk.] 

Fig. 7 shows the appearance of the leaf of a species of mimosa 
with a fungus on the under surface, and Fig. 8 the spores with 
three sporidia above. [Uredo pundoidea, Cooke.] 

I found also a leaf of an unknown shrub with rust spots irregu- 
larly distributed on the under surface. The spores are many-celled, 
irregular, elongated, yellowish, and easily separate as a yellowish- 
brown dust without any traces of mycelium, vide Fig. 9. [This is 
a Septotrichum formerly included with fungi, but now discarded 
as a diseased condition of the tissues. — M. C. C.l 

On the leaf of a species of willow, I observed on the upper and 
under surface a number of black spots, which were easily scraped 
off. On microscopical examination, these black spots were found to 
be made up of a number of bodies Uke that depicted in Fig. 10. 
They consist of a circular, yellow-coloured matrix, with an interior 
dark-brown-coloured nucleus, made up of fine mycelium, and inter- 
spersed throughout the latter there are numerous small cells. 
Outside the central nucleus, and arranged in a radiating manner, 
there is a number of jet black spine-shaped processes, apparently 
very brittle, as they are easily broken by pressure under the covering 
glass. [No fruit : probably a VoliUella.'\ 

Fig. 12 represents the appearance of a portion of the under 
surface of a leaf resembling the Bumex acetosa, on which raised 
circular reddish-brown spots of fungi are observed. The spores 
(Puccinia) are shown in Fig. 13, magnified, the cells being nearly 
separate, and attached to long, tapering peduncles. [Pucdnia 
dissiliena, Cooke.] 

On the leaf of the common dock, which differs in no way from 
that seen in this country, the upper and lower surfaces were studded 
with rusty minute fungoid spots, which appear to belong to the 
order -fficidiacei. The spores are circular, tuberculated, and of a 
yellowish colour, [j^cidium rvhellum, P.] 

Fig. 14 represents the appearance oi a piece of the under 
surface of the leaf of a cruciferous plant, very common in the 

* On the leaf I find Uredo clematidis, but not the structure indicated in the 
drawing. If this is manifest in its fresh state, then the Uredo would be a 
Coleosporium, — [M. C. 0.] 


274 Transaeiions o/Oie Rotfol Mi«roeeoj>ieal Soeiettf. 

Himalayas, and which is freqaently fonnd covered with dark-brown 
spots of fon^. The spores are septate, with short peduncles 
(which are liable to bo easily detached), oval in shape, and with a 
comparatively transparent, nipple-hke projection on tne upper part, 
vide Fig. 15. [Ptmcinia cmciferaram, Cooke.] 

Fig. 16 shows the appearance of the apores of a Puceinia found 
on the "pper and lower surfaces of the leaves of an ambelliferons 
plant. [Puccima umbelli/eranim, D, C] 

Fig, 17 reprcsenfe the magnified appearance of bodies which 
form patches on the iinder surfaces of the leaves of the oak, species 
of laoiel, wild rose, &c. They resemble the agarics in shape, are 
hollow, or filled with a pink fluid, which, when pressure of the 
covering glass is used, exudes throagh the lower part of the stipe 
or stalk. [An Erineum, not a fungus, but diseased tissue. — M. C. C.] 

Fig, 11 illustrates two of the sporangia which form the tough, 
ootton-like fungus met with on the under surface of the briar leaves, 
or on the petiole. The coneeptacles which contain the sporea are 
hi- and tri-partite, and terminate in long filiform appendages. Two 
of the nearly colourless tubereulated spores are depicted to tba 
right of the sporangia. [I have seen no specimen of this. The 
figures might belong to Cohosporium pingue, but the description 
is rather that of some Erineum. — M. C. C] 

I feel that an apology is necessary for writing on a subject with 
which I am so little acquainted ; but as I had collected the 
materials many years ago, I considered it better that they should 
be made public at once, rather than be lost. Perhaps others more 
competent may be induced to pursue the subject more fiiUy than I 
have been able to do, as it is one of great interest, and not without 
some advantage, and indeed, at all evente, the small collection of 
leaves now before me recalls to my memory many pleasant days 

rt amidst most beautiful scenery in one of the finest climatee of 

in the cnrrent n 

Hbtlzv, 8fptend)er, 1874. 

-The Sphmra^hides in British UrtieaceiB and in Leonurua. 

By Professor Gkobqk Guii-iveb, F.E.S. 

The BpliBeraphides in the leaf-blade of some Urticaceffi are well 
known, and imve been described on the Continent fts " crystal 
glanda " and " cyatoKths." But tkere ia another kind of aphiera- 
pbides in these plants which has hitherto eacaped notice; and 
though Mr. Roper, in a late number of ' Science Groasip,' has made 
Bome good observations on the apli£eraphido8 in the leaf of the 
wall-pelletory, the chemical compcaition of the two kinds of them 
in all the British Urticacere requires investigation. Nor have 
we yet any description of such crystals in Leonurus and other 

In JJrIiea dioica, U. urejis, and Parieiaria diffusa, the leaf- 
hlades are studded with sphBeraphidea, each about s^sod of an inch 
in diameter, globose, smoothish or granular on the suriace, and all 
compoBed mainly of carbonate of lime. In the fibro- vascular 
handles of the leaf are chains of mnch smaller sphieraphidea, each 
about lo'ob th of an inch in diameter, rough from projecting crystal- 
line points on the surfece, and composed of oxalate of lime ; and in 
the pith these small rough sphsraphides are stiJl more abundant. 
Both the leaf and pith of HumuluB lu^ulus abound in like manner 
with the two kinds of sphaeraphidea. In the leaf-blade thase are 
crystalline concretions, made up of glassy granules, consisting of 
carbonate of lime. In the leaf-nerves, and in the pith of the stem, 
are thickly-set strings of rough sphasraphidea, in shape and che- 
mical composition like those in the same parts of the nettles and 

The sphteraphidea in Leonurus cardiaea seem to have escaped 
notice, though tbey are very distinct. In other Labiatie 1 have 
not yet met with similar crystals, much less raphides. The leaf- 
blade of this plant is thickly dotted with globrae granules, each 
about jsfftli of an inch in diameter, rounded in form, and contained 
in a closely fitting cell, which ia often tipped with a short uni- 
cellular hair ; the globose crystalline matter consists chiefly of 
carbonate of lime. In the fibro-vascnlar bundles of the leaf are a 
few much smaller rough sphteraphides, each about T^'mith of an 
inch in diameter, and composed of carbonate of lime ; but the pith 
of this plant contains no sphsraphidea. 

In all these examples the value of boiling the parts in a solution 
of canatic potass is bo great, that the crystals ai^e exposed more clearly 
than they appear before such treatment ; and aometin)es, when not 
eaaily found at first, the potass discloses them admirably, as may 
be proved in the leaf of Ficus carica. Though this species is so 

■ VOL. XS. X 

276 The Enetf$tmeni of Bucephalus HaimeanuB. 

nearly allied to the hop and nettles, the crystab in its leaf-blade 
are composed chiefly of oxalate of lime, without any appreciable 
trace of the carbonate, and the pith is devoid of sphaeraphides. 

Some practical applications of these tacts appear obvious. They 
afford good examples of two kinds of crystalline concretions, differ- 
ing as well in form as in chemical composition, existing in one and 
the same plant ; that one use of the pith may be as a repository 
and laboratory of saline crystals, ready to be restored as manure 
to the soil ; and that nettles and hop-bines should be thus utilized. 
Besides, the sphaeraphides are so very beautiful, so easily examined 
and preserved, as to afford an abundwce of excellent materials, ever 
at hand, for the employment of the microscope, and for preparations 
to enrich the microscopic cabinet. 

Ca\tebbubt, Nov, 12, 1874. 

IV. — The Encystment of Bucephalus Eaimeanus. 

By M, Alp. Giabd. 

Von Baeb pointed out long ago (1826) a peculiar parasite of the 
Anodon, which he called Bucephalus polymorphus. This parasite 
was later more fully described by Steenstrup and by Siebold, who 
gave it its true place in classification. 

In 1854 M. Lacaze-Duthiers made known another species of the 
same genus, the BiLcephdlus Eaimeanus, which he had found in 
the Mediterranean, and which lived parasitic in the genital glands 
of the oyster (Ostrea edulis), and also on the cockle (Gardium 
rusticum), which it renders sterile. The sporocysis and the ^er- 
caria form of this Trematode have been very carefiiUy figured in an 
excellent paper in the * Annales des Sciences Naturelles.' 

Claparede has since found this curious Trematode at Saint- Vaast- 
k-Hogue, on the coast of Normandy.* It was in fishing in the 
open sea with a very fine meshed net that he caught the Btt" 
cephalus very frequently. The specimens drawn by Claparede differ 
a little from those represented by M. Lacaze-Duthiers ; but this 
difference, which bears principally on the form of the lamellar 
appendages, did not appear important enough to the Genevese 
savant to necessitate the creation of a new species. Claparede no 
more than his predecessor has been able, in spite of his active 
researches, to succeed in making known the final destiny of Cer- 
caria Haimeana. 

♦ Claparbde, Beobachtungen uber Anatomie u. 8. w. an der Kuzte von Nor- 
mandie, 1863. 

The Eneystment of Bucephalus Haimeanus. 


The Bucephalns of Haime is to be found both ,it Maples and 
in the neighbourhoixl of Boulogne-sur-Mer. Goided by certain 
theoretic views, the result of researchea followed out upon the para- 
sitic Crustacea, I have been more fortunate than iny two skilful 
predecessors, for I have proved the encystment of tho Bucephalns. 

It is upon the gartiah (Belone vidgaris) tba,t I have made 
this observation. This fish (at Boulogne the maquereau d'elS, at 
Abbeville the heeassine de mer) occurs commonly in the market of 
Boulogne during the months of May, June, and the beginning of 
July. The viscera of this fish, especially the liver, the genital 
glands, and the peritoneum are frequently filled with minate cysts 
having the form of cylinders, terminated at one of their extremities 
by a bulb lightly drawn to a point, like a thermometer in construc- 
tion. By opening cautiously a certain number of these cysts, one 
finds in some one of them the Bucephalus as yet nntransformed. 

My anatomical researches, interrupted in July, were not pushed 
BO far as I should desire. However, I should say, in accordance 
with Claparede, that it is impossible to arrive at the opinion of 
M. Lacaze-Duthiers, when he says, in speaking of Bucephalus, 
" One observes in it a general cavity, tmt may be considered a 
digestive cavity." The position of the openings and their phy- 
siological purposes appear to me to be worthy of being studied 

\ What becomes of the encysted Bucephalus ? Does it arrive at 
* maturity in the body of the garfish, or does it undergo another 
migration ? In this latter case, which is the more probable, is this 
' migration active or purely passive ? This it is which remains for 
discovery. Claparede has many times found the Cerearia Maimeana 
fixed upon the Sarsia and the Oceania. On one occasion the 
cerearia had lost its two long appendages, but it still wanted the repro- 
ductive organs. Claparede concludes that this fact was accidental, 
and that the medusae were bnt momentary hosta of the Bucephalus. 
I myself have met an adult Trematode in the ccelenteric cavity of 
I Cydifpe pileitt, which in spring is sometimes cast up in abundance 
P on the shore of Wimereux ; but I have no serious reason for sup- 
■ posing a genetic relation between this Trematode and Bueephalua 

According to Siebold, BueephaJus polj/morphus is transformed 
into Gaeteroitomv/m Jimhriatum in the digestive tube of Perea 
fiuviaiilia and P. luctojierca. We also find it encysted in the Cypri- 
nidse. It seems, then, very probable to suppose that Bucephalus 
HaimeanuB, encysted in Belone vxdgaris, is metamorphosed into a 
species of the genus Qatterostamum in the intestine of some largo 
fish which the garfish is the prey of. In fact, Lacepede assures us 
that when the garfish quits the deep maters to go to spawn near the 
shore it often becomes the prey of sharks and large species of 

X 2 

278 The Encydment of Bucephalus Haimeanus. 

Gadus, or other voracious and well-armed fish. Finallj, as one 
has mot Bucephalus in the liver of PaludinsB and Giusterostomse, 
in the intestines of the pike, the eel, and of other fish, and even in 
the duck, I am compelled to think that the fresh-water species of 
this group of Trematodes are more numerous than is at present 
belicvt'd. The differences already pointed out between the marine 
Bucephalus of the ocean and that of the Mediterranean Sea will 
prol)ably liave a greater importance when we shall have made a 
more complete and comparative study of these animals. — Compfes 
liendus, p. 485, August 17, 1874. 

^K dii 

( 279 ) 


of Egg». — In a paper lately read before the 
Brit i eh Agsociation at Belfast, Mr. William Thomson said that 
researches on this eubjeet were commenced by the late Dr. Crace Cal- 
vert aad himself about the beginning of October, 1870, and extended 
over the following year and a half. From numerous experiments ho 
drew the CDnclnsion that whole egge could only be attacked by one, 
two, or all, of three different agencies of decomposition. The first, 
which he termed putrid cell, is ca,pable of being developed within 
some eggs, no matter Low effectually their shells be protected by var- 
nished coverings from the spores Eoating iu the atmosphere. It is 
generated from the yolk. In some cases the yolk begins to swell and 
absorbs most of the white ; in otbexs the yolk bursts, and its whole 
BubstancB becomes thoroughly mixed up with the white; and in others 
again it begins to change slightly, and then gives off minute cells 
into the white, rendering the white turbid ; but in all cases where this 
takes thorougb hold of the contents of the egg, true putrefaction com- 
mences, and the albumen emits a putrid smell. The minute granules 
or cells of the healthy yolk, when this decomposition commences, 
assume a morbid vitality ; they grow large, and become filled with 
small cells ; each large cell then bursts, and the smaller cells take 
independent existence. These cells are the bioplasm of the yolk, 
which, had the egg developed into a chicken, would baVe gone to form 
its flesh, bone, and tissues. These cells, under their morbid vitality, 
itbeorb oxygen, and liberate carbonic acid gas. Two eggs had their 
shells well varnished over with shellac, and were set aside on a shelf 
for one year, and both then opened. One appeared as fresh as on 
the day when it was set aside, but when the other was struck with the 
point of a knife to open it, the pressure of gas contained within the 
shell burst out, and scattered part of its contents in all directions. 
The next germ of decomposition— the vibrio— appears under the micro- 
scope like a small rigid worm which swims about. These animalcules 
are constantly found floating about in the atmosphere, but never pene- 
trate into the contents of an egg if the shell be kept dry, but if the 
shell be moistened or wet, the dried bodies of these animalcules 
develop in that water, assume much vitality, and then penetrate the 
shell and set up putrefaction. Egga were placed in fluids swarming 
with different animalcules, some like corkscrews, which swam by 
quickly turning round ; otbers which appeared under the microscope 
like flukes, but which really had the foi^n of an egg ; some with one, 
some with two feelers, which swam by switching those feelers into a 
quick serpentine motion in front of them. Those, however, were not 
able to penetrate the shell of the egg. The third is the fungus decom- 
position. The spores of this fungus are found everywhere floating in 
the atmosphere. They settle on the shells of egga placed in stagnant 
atmospheres, and send myriads of lilaments through the shell in all 
directions, sometimes binding all sides of the shell together, in all 

za\} PBoaBESs of hioroboofioal sonoroE. 

cases converting the white into the congistency of a strong jelly, and 
often the filaments grow in such immense numbers as to make the 
whole eentente appear like a hard-boiled egg. This fungus acts on 
the air exaetly like animalcules, absorbing oxygen and liberating 
carbonic acid gas.— TAe Medical Jtecord, Sept. 9th. 

Effects of Section of MoIot Nerves on Muscle.- — Eizzozero and 
Grolgi* give an account of an experiment they made upon a rabbit 
when six months old. On the 10th January they cnt out a con- 
Uderable piece of the sciatic nerve. The tibio-tarsal juint of the aide 
» operated on became thiekened, and an nicer formed upon the surface 
jurse of a month. The lymphatic glands swelled. The 
oimal, however, retained tolerable health till ^e 20th August, when 
) portion of the crui-al nerve was excised on the same side. The 
hibbit remained pretty well till the 9th November, when the ulcer 
pegan to increase and assuinc an imhealthy aspect, and in December 
K died, having previously become exceedingly thin. On post-mortem 
uamination the connective tissue of the whole lower exb^mity was 
jbimd to be infiltrated with serum, ulcers bad formed at various 
i, and beneath these were cheosy deposits, each of which was 
rrounded by a dense capsule of connective tissue. The stmnps of 
the divided nerves were separated from each other by a considerable 
interval. The supei'ficial muscles of the thigh presented a pale-rose 
colour, whilst the deeper ones were of a yellowish red. The super- 
ficial muscles of the lower leg were in general greyish red, but in 
parts yellowish ; they felt hard and were easily torn. The deep 
muscles had undergone some thickening, and had a uniform yellowish 
colour ; on section they appeared smooth and uniform, the surface of 
the section resembling bacon-fat. Microscopical esamination showed 
that in the superficial muscles of the thigh there were scattered 
groups of fat-cells arranged in linear series, which apparently corre- 
sponded with the course of the nerve-fibres. The muscular fibres of 
the deep muscles of the thigh wore thinned, the transverse strite 
scarcely visible, and between the museular fasciculi of the first and 
second order were numerous and very well defined fat-cells. In other 
parts the muscular substance of the several fibres was partly torn into 
fragments and partly replaced by fat'-cells. The superficial muscles 
of the lower leg presented in a very marked manner the usual con- 
sequences of nerve section — namely, proliferation of nuclei in the 
muscle-corpuscles, atrophy of the muscular fibres themselves, increase 
of the interstitial connective tissue, and numerous fat-cells between 
the muscular fibres. Lastly, in the deep muscles of the lower 
extremity, where the muscles were yellowish and like bacon on 
section, no trace of muscular fibre was visible ; the tissue appeared 
to be altogether converted into adipose tissue, comparable to the 
pannicuIiLS adiposus. In transverse sections the fat-cells were 
rounded or polyhedric, and formed a kind of mosaic. In longi- 
tadinal sections they were serially arranged in correspondenca with 
the direction of the fasciculi. — The Lancet, Aug. 30th, 

» Strieker's 'Jahrb,,' 1S73, Htft 1. 



The Original Distinction of the Testicle and Ovary,* — This paper 
is of the utmost importance, as it bears so thoroughly upon Haeckers 
theory. It is by M. Van Beneden, of Liege, and we quote the 
following translation of part of it from the 'American Naturalist' 
of November, 1874 : — 

" Huxley was the first who demonstrated that the entire organi- 
zation of the zoophytes, medussB, and polypes, hydroids and Siphon- 
ophoreSj can be reduced to a sac formed of two adjacent cellular 
layers, the ectoderm and endoderm (Allman), and who considered 
this proposition as expressing the general law of structure in the 
zoophytes, f Although one did not dream at this period of seeking 
homologies between the vertebrates and lower animals, Huxley took 
in all the bearings of his discovery. He recognized and formulated 
in clear and precise language his opinion on the homology which he 
believed exists between the ectoderm and endoderm of the Coelen- 
terata, and the two primordial cellular layers of vertebrates. See in 
what terms he expresses this idea : — * The peculiarity in the structure 
of the body-walls of the Hydrozoa, to which I have just referred, 
possesses a singular interest in its bearings upon the truth that there 
is a certain similarity between the adult state of the lower animals 
and the embryonic conditions of higher organizations. 

" * For it is well known that, in a very early state, the germ, even 
of the highest animals, is a more or less complete sac, whose thin 
wall is divisible into two membranes, an inner and an outer ; the 
latter, turned toward the external world ; the former, in relation 

with the nutritive liquid, the yolk "The various organs are 

produced by a process of budding from one, or other, or both of 
these primary layers of the germ.' 

'* He seeks likewise to establish a parallelism, from a histological 
point of view, between the ectoderm of zoophytes and the external 
layer of the embryo of vertebrates on one hand, and the endoderm 
and internal layer on the other. He concludes by saying, *thus 
there is a very real and genuine analogy between the adult Hydrozoon 
and the embryonic vertebrate animal.' All the embryological researches 
made in late years, in the first phases of the embryonic development 
of animals of all branches, have tended to confirm, extending it to 
the whole animal kingdom, the opinion of the illustrious English 
naturalist. And in the first rank of work done in this direction may, 
without fear of contradiction, be cited that of Kowalevsky ; in showing 
the identity of development of Amphioxus and of the Ascidians, he 
closed with a single stroke the abyss, thought to be impassable, which 
separates the branch of vertebrates from all the lower organisms. The 
important publications of the same author on the other types of 
organization, added to those of Gegenbaur, Haeckel, Eay Lankester, 

♦ * De la Distinction originelle du Testicnle et de TOvaire ; Caract^re sexuel 
des deux Feuillfcis primordiaux : de TEmbryon ; Hermaphrodisme morpholo- 
gique de toute Individualite animale ; Essai d*une Theorie de la Fe'condation.' 
Bruxelles, 1874. 8vo, pp. 68. 

t " Observations upon the Anatomy of the DiphydsB and the Unity of Organi- 
zation of the DiphydsB and Siphonophorse." ' Proceedings of Royal Society,' 1849. 



* Kleinenborg, and somo others, have resulted in estendiag to the entire 
aaimal kiiigdom this grand conception that all the parts of tlio animal 
organiBm ore formed from the two primordial coUulai layers, and 
everywhere horaologima. 

" These ideaa have just been developed in detail and brilliantly 
defended in two essays of a high philosophic impoit. Uaeckel has 
proposed in his brochure ' Die Gaetraa theorie, die phylogenetiache 
Classification des Thierrcichee und die Homologie dor EoimblStter,' 
a theory which he had first annouDoed in his monogragh on the cal- 
careous sponges. Some analogous ideas, and in several respects 
almost identical, Lave been publiah'ed iti England in the Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, under the title, " OB the Primitive 
Cell-layers of the Embryo as the Basis of tlio Genealogical Classifica- 
tion of Animals," by my friend E. Ray Lankcster. 

" All the plnricelliilar animals, in which the development begins 
, ty the segmentation of the cell-egg, pass through in the course of 
, their evolution a similar embryonic form, that of a sac whose thin 
I walla are constituted of two adjacent layers, the endoderm and ecto- 
I detm. The first surrounds a cavity which is the primordial digestive 
' tabe ; the second limits exteriorly the body of the embryo ; it alone 
can be impressed by external causes. The digestive cavity commu- 
nicates with the exterior by a single orifieo which serves both as 
mouth and anus. The embryo is reduced to a digestive cavity, which 
is but a simple stomach ; Haeckel has proposed to give to this 
primordial form the name of Gasimla. As this embryonic form 
occurs in the vertebrates as well as the mollusks, arthropods, echino- 
derms, worms and polypes, it is clear that the ectoderm is homologous 
in the different types of organization ; that the endoderm has in all 
the eame morphological value ; that the primoi-dial digestive cavity of 
vertebrates and that of all other types of organization have the same 
anatomical signification. The existence of this eouunon form in the 

» course of evolution of all the mebazoal animals allows ns to refer 
them to a common source ; there is a convergence of the great 
^pes of organization and not a parallelism as had been urged by 
Ouvier and Ton Baer. Finally, we can infer the existence at a 
geological epoch for back, of organisms like the Gaatrula form; 
these organisms, probably varied in a thousand ways in their form and 
in their external characters, have been the common source of verte- 
brates, arthropods, moilusks, eehiiiodoims, worms, and zuophytes ; 
I they constitute the very numerous group of Gastrfeadea (Haeckcl). if 
the endoderm and ectoderm are hopiologoua in all the Metazoa [i.e. 
all animals except Protozoa], we tLen have a right to suppose that 
these two cellular layers have in all the same histological value, and 
that the same systems of organs are developed in the different types 
of organization from tho same primitive layers. This induction 
has been already freely confirmed in that which eonceras the cen- 
tral nervous system, which is developed in all animals &om the 
" Consequently, it makes no difference if we should wish to know 
the origin of an organ, whether we seek for it in one or another type 


of organization ; the results can be extended to the whole animal 
kingdom, and receive a general signification. 

" However, of all the types of organization, that which serves best 
for research on this capital question of the origin of organic systems, 
is that of the polypes, still called zoophytes or Coelenterates. In 
them, in short, the ectoderm and endoderm persist with their embry- 
onic characters during their entire life ; all the organs of the zoophytes 
are only a dependence of one or the other of these layers, sometimes 
of the two layers united. 

" The polype form may be traced back with the greatest facility 
to the Grastrula, all the parts of which are preserved without under- 
going any great modifications during all the course of existence. 

*' Conclusions. — In the Hydractinias, 1. The eggs are developed 
exclusively from the epithelial cellules of the endoderm. They remain, 
up to the time of their maturity, surrounded by the elements of the 

" 2. The testicles and spermatozoa are developed from the ecto- 
derm; this organ results from the progressive transformation of a 
primitive cellular fold formed by invagination. 

" 3. There exists in the female sporosacs a rudiment of the tes- 
ticular organ ; in the male sporosacs a rudiment of an ovary. The 
sporosacs are then morphologically hermaphrodites Fecunda- 
tion consists in the union of an egg, a product of the endoderm, with 
a certain number of spermatozoa, products of the ectoderm. This act 
has no other end than to unite chemical elements of opposite polarity, 
which after having been united an instant in the egg, separate again ; 
for in most animals those in which the division of the vitellus into two 
occurs, the elements from which the ectoderm are formed are already 
separated from those which are to form the internal layer of the 

" The new individuality is realized at the instant when the union 
between the elements of opposed polarity has taken place, as abso- 
lutely as a molecule of water is formed by the union of atoms of 
hydrogen and oxygen." 

The Origin of Typhoid Fever, — In the beginning of the month of 
November a yery important letter of some length on this subject 
appeared, from the pen of Dr. Tyndall, F.E.S., in * The Times ' news- 
paper. We would commend the letter to the attention of those of our 
readers who are interested in the subject. We differ from one of our 
contemporaries in the view we take of this letter ; for, unquestionably, 
although its facts are not novel to the scientifically educated medical 
man, still, to the mass of surgeons, and to the whole of the non- 
medical community, it is absolutely and completely novel. And it 
seems to us that a certain amount of credit is due to Professor Tyndall 
for thus manfully coming forward to discuss, in a purely popular form, 
facts which he, of course, knew were well enough known to certain 
professional minds. He has at once spread throughout the country 
views which, had he not come forward, might have remained where 
they had been till the next half century. 




■ n 


The South African Diamotuh. — Mr. G. C. Cooper, who m&y be said 
to be "to the manner bora," as he comes from the African dianion<1- 
fields, has an iuterestiag paper in the laet volume of the ' Proceedings 
of (he Geologists' Associatioa' (Oct., 1874^), on this Btibject. £«Bides 
other matters of noa-microecopical interest, he says: — "1 have 
recently received a piece of what is termed ' chalk ' by the diggers, 
wliich, from microBcopio observations, I would infer to be in all 
essential points the some as the tnfu that is eo abundant, with this 
exception, that this has hoan broken up, disintegrated, as on a beach, 
and thus made into a softer form, after its doposition as tufa. It gives 
the same white streak as ordinary chalk. It has imbedded iu its 
Burfaco some sand gran ales, j and Mack crystals, resembling, and, as 
I think, the same aa occurs m a sample of stuff lately given to me, 
from 80 feet depth. Its component particles are cryHtaUino and trans- 
lucent, and fi^m ^^^^nr *<> tAtt °^ "" ""i'' ™ diameter. Dissolves in 
dilute muriatic acid, with somo floccnlent deposit. Upon evaporation, 
star-like masses of crystals form, I look upon this specimen as of 
importance in helping to snbstantiate what I advance in relation to 
water and ice in producing the diamond deposit." 

3^ Structure of the Tetlide. — A good paper on this subject is that 
done by Dr. Victor v. MiLalkovics, and the results of his researches 
appear in the last part of the 'Arbeiten,' or "work done" in the 
Physiology Laboratory of Ludwig, at Leipzic, in 1873. The conclu- 
sions at which Dr. Mihalkovics has arrived, which partly agree with 
and in part differ from those of previous observers, are given in the 
following manner by the ' Lancet ' (Oct. 10) : — In the first place, he 
finds, in opposition to the greater number of authors, as Miiller, 
Krause, Beale, Bappey, Kolliker, v, Luschka, and Lavalette St. George, 
that the tortTioiis terminal or peripheric portion of the tubuli semi- 
niferi forms a plexus by the anastomoBes of their numerous dichotonous 
divisions. The ultimate branches appear to be connected by loops. 
In man, the canals in the cortical layer present smaU. bead-like pro- 
jections of the wall, and never begin, as most of the above-named 
authors contend, by closed free extremities. In regard to the structure 
of the walls, he believes Henle is most exact in stating that it consists 
of a series of laminte, or membranes with flat nuclei. The size of the 
tubuli bears no relation to that of the testis, since in the guinea-pig 
it is 0-10; the cat, O-ll; in the cock, 0-12; mouse, 0-15; rabbit, 
0-20; goat,0-20; nian,0-21; dog,0-25; bulI,0-26; and rat, which 
is the largest of all, O'iO of a millimetre. Secondly, the straight 
portions of the tubes, or vasa recta, are not direct continuations of the 
tortuous portions, but are of very much smaller diaineter, and are 
lined by a much shorter columnar epithelium. They run in the con- 
nective tissue of the corpus Highmorianum or in the lowest parts of 
the septa. Thirdly, the supporting cells, described by v. Merkel, and 
germ plexus are, he thinks, artificial products, which owe their exist- 
ence to the coagulation of a tenacions albuminous substance occupying 
the interspaces between the seminal cells. Fourthly, certain inter- 
stitial cells are constituents of the testis, the analogues of which aro 
discoverable in many other orgauB, as the supra-renal capsules, the 


sacral and carotidean glands, the corpus Inteum, and pituitary body. 
Fifthly, the connective tissue of the testis consists of various-sized 
trabecules of connective tissue, which form a network, and are covered 
by an endothelial layer of cells, which last is continued from them on 
to the seminal tubules and blood-vessels. Sixthly, the lymphatics 
commence in the interspaces of the fasciculi of connective tissue 
invested by endothelium, and partly in the lacunas of the lamella of 
the walls of the seminal tubules. No true tubular lymphatics with 
defined walls exist in the testis at all. Lastly, the tubuli seminiferi 
are closely surrounded by a layer of capillary blood-vessels, intimately 
connected with the membrana propria. 


Cell-cnltiire in the Study of Fungi. — Ph. Van Tieghem and 
G. LeMonnier in their published researches on the Mucorini give 
a good working account of their method of cell-culture which is 
applicable not only to the smaller fungi but to many other plants. 
The- method is as follows, according to the ' American Naturalist,' 
Nov., 1874 : — A glass cell ^ or ^ inch is cemented upon a glass 
slide, and a suitable cover glass is kept in place by three minute drops 
of oil placed on the edge of the ring. The contained air is kept moist, 
by a few drops of water placed in the bottom of the cell, while a very 
small drop of the nutritive fluid is placed on the lower surface of the 
cover glass, and in this drop the spore to be cultivated is sown. The 
whole drop, and indeed the entire contents of the cell, can now be 
examined with suitable powers, and the germination and development 
of the plant traced hour after hour from any given spore, with the 
greatest certainty and ease. Extraneous spores will sometimes be 
introduced, but they are easily detected. 

American Opinion on Angular Apertures. — An anonymous writer 
in the last number of the * American Naturalist ' makes the following 
remarks on this subject : — " It is not yet forgotten that at the London 
examination of the ^-inch lens sent to demonstrate the possibility of 
obtaining an excessive angular aperture in immersion work on balsam 
objects, the lens was measured at an adjustment of which nothing to 
the point was known except that it was not a position of immersion 
work at all, nor a recognized maximum position for any kind of work ; 
the plain fact being that the accomplished committee were so bent 
upon teaching us the familiar fact of reduced angle that they seem to 
have forgotten to look for any other possibility in the case. Nor is it 
likely to be forgotten as long as Mr. Wenham so far forgets his usual 
and admirable caution as to allude to the correction of this palpable 
mistake as an * after quibble,* nor while the eminent President of the 
Boyal Microscopical Society utters in his formal Address such on 


Bfltomidiag etfttemeat as the fullowing : — ' The leim in thie i 
was properly corrected as a dr; lens, ttnd then after nioasurement in 
air it was measured, in ivator and then in veiy flnid Canada balsam 
without alteration of the adjustment. It may be quite possible 
that if the lens had been readjusted eo as to give the best image for 
immersion in balsam, a slightly greater angle might have been ob- 
tained ; but this would not have been a fair way of making a com- 
parison, as it is not the mode in which the glass would ever be employed 
in actual practice.' By not saying squarely, /( is prohabhj true that 
if the Una had been readjusted so as to give the best image for i'mynersion 
in vsaler, a greater tmgle would have heen obtained ; and Otis wotdd have 
beea Ike fair way of making the measurement, as it is Ike mode in which 
the glass would be emplmjed t'n actual practice, Mr. Brooke lost a rare 
opportunity to do a noblo if not a generous act. As ho is well known 
to be incapable of an intentional sophistry which by odmitly worded 
phrase should suggest a doubt where none is felt, belittle the conces- 
eions which are colled for by manifest truth, and Bay one thing which 
is true but has no relation to the case at issue, and at the same timo 
imply another thing which does not relate to the case but is nn- 
qualihedly incorrect,' there is no choice but to conclude that his extra- 
ordinary statement, notwithBtondIng its tone of judicial coolness, was 
made without that deliberation which the official character of the 
Address demanded. 

" On*the other hand, a still more recent lens by the same maker, 
claiming still more excessive aperture, has been examined by Mr. Wen- 
ham by his method of cutting oS &1bu light. By this method, which 
would seem incapable of excluding any image-forming rays, he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a clear and distinctly limited angle for the lens 
whose light, when not thus protected, was vague and uncertain ; the 
angular aperture at the same time being reduced from '180°' to 
'112'',' which corresponded within a. few degrees with the aperture 
computed trigouo metrically &om the width of the front lens and the 
length of the working focus. To tliis it is answered, that with a dry 
object on the cover there is no distance involved and the triangle is 
impracticable : while accurate focnssing upon a stop which is feasible 
at ' uncovered ' adjustment, is liable to error from spherical aberration 
when adjusted for maximum angle. Mr. Tolles' method of demon- 
strating the utilization of cxtra-limital rays is by placing a central 
stop upon the posterior surface of the bock system of lenses, so large 
as to cut off all light when the objc'Ctive is used dry; so that by no 
trick of illumination con the light be made to pass through the narrow 
ling of clear aperture remaining arouud the stop ; but if water be 
flowed in both above and below the balsam-mounted object, convert- 
ing both the objective and the illuminating semi-cylinder into immer- 
eion arrangements, a well lighted artd defined image is immediately 
produced. With regard to extreme angles in connection with dry 
objects, Mr. Tolles claims that his much-disputed ^ inch does actnally 
form an image with the most oblique rays that can impinge upon the 
slide, all other rays being cut off by a card or shutter which can be 
moved up close to the bottom of the elide." 


The Microscopic Strnctnre of Ancient and Modem Volcanic 
Rocks is the title of a most valuable paper read before the meeting 
of the Geological Society, on Nov. 4th, by Mr. J. Clifton Ward, F.G.S. 
Unfortunately we have not space for a sufficiently long abstract in 
the present number, but we nevertheless call the attention of our 
readers to the subject. We shall give a full account of it in our next 

How to Make exceedingly Thin Glass Covers. — The following 
exceedingly interesting paper we quote in full from the * Quarterly 
Journal of the Quekett Club,' Oct. Mr. G. J. Burch, who is the 
author, says: — " Take a piece of glass tube of about ^ inch bore, seal 
up the end with the blow-pipe, and continue the heat until the glass 
is so soft that it will fall out of shape, unless you keep turning it 
round; remove it from the flame, and blow into it with all your 
strength. It will be seen to swell, at first slowly, and then suddenly 
to a large bubble of very thin glass. Supposing the tube to have 
been sealed up with as little glass as possible, it may be blown 
out to about 4 inches diameter. When cold, break it up, and cut 
the pieces to shape with a * writing diamond.' The glass in this 
state is of course convexo-concave ; practically this is of little con- 
sequence unless the objects are to be mounted dry, when it is liable 
to be broken. In order to flatten it, place a piece of the thin glass on 
a perfectly flat piece of platinum foil, and depress it for a moment into 
the Bunsen flame ; as soon as it is red hot, it will sink down to the 
flat foil. This also has the effect of annealing it. On measuring a 
piece of this glass with the micrometer, I found it to be = ^^^ inch 
= '0004 inch. In the * Monthly Microscopical Journal,' vol. viii., 
page 270, Dr. Eoyston-Pigott says: — *The thinnest glass in my 
possession measures 2^ thousandths.' Now 2^ thousandths = * 0022, 
and :^^f =5*5. So that his thinnest glass is 5^ times the thickness 
of mine." 


To the Editor of the * Monthly Microscopical Journal,' 

MmsTEB Court, York, November 7, 1874. 

Sir, — Until of late years England stood unquestionably at the head 
of all other nations in the production of object-glasses for the micro- 
scope, but now Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Munich, and Boston dispute the 
palm with London; and there is no denying that they are very 
formidable rivals. 

There are, of course, great diflSiculties in the way of estimating 
the relative merits of objectives so long as they are handled by 



L different persons ; difforences ia tlio skill and eyesight of the obaervers, 
differences in the modoe of illumination, differeuces in the same 
nominal subject of examination, differenceB of angular aperture, and 
BO on. ThtiHO, it is plain, aro mure or lesB unavoidable; but there ia one 
source of embarrassmeut, which, though it has often been mentioned 
before, can never he mentioned often enough, for erils are never 
remedied unless a loud outcry is raised against them. I allu'le to the 
total absence of any standard of magnifyiiig power from which w6 
are now suifering. I knuw of Jthe wliich amplify much more than 
Jths, of Jths which exceed y^ths, of ^ths which are equivalent to 
-yl^tii^. In fact, matters have now come to such a pass, that an inex- 
perienced purchaser can seldom know much more about what he is 
baying than that it is an object-glass. It would be a great boon to 
the world of microscopista if the Koyal Microscopical Society could 
put forward a standard measure of linear dimensions for a given focns, 
and that onr great makers would at least try to approximate to it ; 
for the present system is an afiront to common sense and common 

But, notwithstanding these difficulties, comparison between English 
and foreign objectives is going on, slowly but surely, sometimes 
noisily, oftener silently, yot still going on, searching for facts, and 
awaiting a final verdict. As yot our country does not appear to 
Lave been worsted in the trial, although Mr. Mayall would probably 
think that the case has already gone against her, and that foreigners 
are of liis mind.* There is one circumstance, however, that English 
opticians would do well to keep continually before them, that Europe 
has secured an immense advantage over her in the matter of price, and 
that nothing hut quality can ever make head against cheapness. 

As bearini! upon this question, and with a full sense of the 
i which surround it, I would venture to make a few 

^^ a connection with the interesting note from Mr. Kitton in 

^H your last number. 

As far as X am able to judge, I should say that Ross and Co.'s 
patent ^th ia about a match for his Bonecho's No. 7 in magnifying 
power, though it may exceed it in angolar aperture. On applying this 

t objective to the examination of tbe diatoms which he has named, I 
found that with perfectly direct candle-light, mirror and diaphragm 
being both excluded, the B eye-piece revealed the striB on P. auja- 
lattim most beautifully, and without the smallest change of the condi- 
tions brought out the arrangement of the terminal striaa perfectly well. 
With the help of lamp and condenser, and using the C eye-piece, 
the checker-work of P. intermedium was exhibited most distinctly, and 
the costBB of Cymbdla Ehrenhergii plainly seen to be composed of 
^^f flattened beads, 

^H Pinnularia ^leregrina is a more difficult object than Cymhella Ehrea- 

^^t bergii, but in one frastule the transverse lines upon the costts were 
^H shown almost vividly ; while those on Nitziehia sigmoidea stood out 
^^1 quite distinctly for all their closeness. 

^^1 The transverse markings of Synedra robusla were distinctly re- 

^H ' 6ee 'M. M. J.,' Feb. 1869, p. 90. 


solved into beads, but apparently not so compressed as those of 
Cymbclla Ehrenbergii, 

In all the above observations the adjusting collar of the glass 
remained unaltered, just midway between " covered" and " uncovered." 
May I add that this objective contains in itself an adaptation for 
immersion use, and while it performs so well on lined objects, it gives 
a superb figure of Lejpidocyrtus curvicollis, 

I am, Sir, your faithful servant, 

E. CoBBET Singleton. 

On Mb. Singleton's Obsebvations. 

To the Editor of the * Monthly Microscopical Journal,'* 

Denstonb, November 9, 1874. 

Sib,— While I am much obliged to the Rev. R. Singleton for his 
readiness to ventilate the question of straight candle-light illumina- 
tion, I must confess I am disappointed at the general tone of his 
letter, and the covert vein of sarcasm which runs through it. This 
has been the more surprising to me, as I am conscious of having 
taken unusual pains to avoid giving offence, and to write nothing that 
might rouse up any of the genus irritabile microscopicorum. 

Indeed, it would be well for all of us, when we have to remark 
upon the performances of another, of which we have before us only a 
brief printed account, to exercise a certain amount of caution, lest, 
while criticising, we ourselves fall into mistakes. With nothing but 
an abstract to guide us, and in the absence of the writer himself, we 
are not always certain what is the strength of the point we would 
attack ; nor do we know but that our opponent may have an awkward 
trick of keeping back his strongest troops in the reserve. 

Mr. Singleton must himself by this time regret the peculiar turn 
he gave to his last sentence. 

" If he means that it has detected the longitudinal lines of that 
diatom, it would be a real boon to microscopists to tell them of the 

Indifferent persons who take up his letter will read between the 
lines something of this sort : — 

" S. gemma is a test * of prodigious difficulty. Mr. Hickie seems 
to hint that he has resolved it with a \ inch. Either he has so 
resolved it, or he has not ; he declines to say which. I will force 

* The Grermans, in spite of the Grundlichheit we are in the habit of ascribing 
to them, are in these matters pretty much as we are ourselves, and quite as much 
given to copying one from another. See Dr. Hager's *Das Mikroskop,' p. 36. 
An exception may be made in favour of Dr. E. Hartnack, of Potsdam, as his 
blunders are usually original. But the Herrschaft zu Waisenstrasse, though great 
opticians, are by no means great manipulators, as I know by experience. Some- 
thing of the same kind appeared also in an early number of this Jolimal ; but the 
writer has since, in my liearing, candidly retracted his error. To those who have 
no opportunity of judging otherwise, I would recommend a glance at Dr. Wood- 
ward's photograph of this diatom. 

him to spenk out plainly ; and if be eajB he hns, I nm prepared 
beforehand to disbelieve him." 

I have no right to aBanme — what certainly does not appear from 
Mr. Singleton's letter — that he has given any special attention to 
diatoms as te»U ; bnt those who have done so know well that, when 
once they have fully succeoded in mastering such a test with a 
moderate power — aay a -^ inch — a little practice and perseverance 
Boon enable thom to overcome it with a weaker objective, and that a 
little further practice generally reBolves it with a weaker power still. 
Resolution turns not SO much upon ubjectivos as upon the manipn- 
lator's own fingers. 

My use of the words " up to S. gemma " was an intentional con- 
cession to the frailty of human nature, in order not to oSend the 
prejudices of those who persist in classmg that diatom as a very high 

In my own practice, I know only four firfit-class fosta : (1) Anvpki- 
pleura peltucida, (2j Staaroneig spicula, (3) Nttpicula cragstnenig, 
(4) FrueluUa Saxontea, as it is found in Eastern Prnaeift. In sorao 
of these latter, especially in those mounted by C. Kodig, of Hamburg, 
the lines are so amazingly fine, as to render this kind of Frnstulia a 
more difGcult test even than the acus. The second mentioned may be 
foaud on almost any slide of P. macmm. It is a small lanceolate 
species of Staurvneig, somewhat like two dagger-blodos placed hilt to 
hilt. I recommend it to the notice of the readers of this JonmaL 

But with regard to S. ijemtiut itself, I attach no sort of valna to 
this diatom ; and I have often wondered how such a thing ever got 
voted into a test. 

Its deficiencies are obvious. It almost never presents an even 
surface; there is no uniformity in the same gathering in respect of 
difSculty, some specimens, espoeially those of a whitey-brown colour 
with almost black ribs, being troublesome enough, while many of 
those with a greenish tinge ore scarcely a tost for an ordinary ^ inch. 
For instance, I have one snch slido so easy of resolution, that I can 
resolve six ont of every seven of those that lie perpendicularly, 
taking them just as they come. In some the interspaces between the 
ribs are twice or three times as wide at one end as they are at the 
other. In others, again, some of the ribs run only half-way, leaving 
a wide space ; and though the longitudinal lines almost invariably, 
instead of forming straight vertical lines, elope somewhat from right 
to left, I have sometimes met with instances to the contrary. 

In short, 8. gemma seems made for the express purpose of 
upsetting all our theories as to the uniformity of etrncture and 
regularity of marking of Diatnmaceie, and, like many Christian men 
and women, is consistent only in its inconsistency. I think, therefore, 
I am justified in discarding it as a standard test. 

Now, if I can produce satisfactory evidence that I have shown, 
clearly and distinctly, the longitudinal lines with an antiquated 
J inch, it will, I suppose, render it somewhat probable that I might 
" detect " them with a remarkably good ^ inch of latest date, espe- 
cially if the latter have the advantage of iUuminatioii so helpful as. 


according to Mr. Singleton, to render testing thereby " little better 
than child's play," to say nothing of the peculiar arrangement I used 
instead of an eye-piece, which Mr. S. somehow overlooks. 

" Sandioroft. 
" I certify that I saw the longitudinal stripes on Surirella gemma 
with Mr. Hickie's ^-inch objective, with the utmost distinctness. 
This was on the evening of the 23rd day of November, 1871. 

" H. P. Stbadman." 

This gentleman could not possibly make any mistake about the 
lines he speaks of; for I had just previously let him see the very 
same lines on the very same shell with a ^ immersion. I showed 
them also to Dr. Eales, of Dresden, who made a drawing of them then 
and there. 

I am sorry 1 cannot in the same way quote chapter and verse for 
what 1 have seen with Beneche's No. 7 ; so the following must pass 
for what it is worth. 

In a private letter to my friend, Mr. Kitton, of Norwich, in which 
I gave him a detailed account of the performance of Beneche's No. 7 
on a variety of tests, the following passage occurs, which Mr. Kitton's 
kindness in returning me my letter has enabled me to extract : — 

" I then put on S, gemmM, I was able fairly to bring into view 
the longitudinal lines." 

But after all, I am not the only person who has seen these 
longitudinal lines with a ^ inch. Mr. Jabez Hogg, who is the fortu- 
nate possessor of a Beneche's No. 7 of rare excellence, has done the 
same with Ma glass ; and did so in my presence, though I do not 
recollect the illumination he employed. 

Unfortunately the microscope is a solitary instrument; and 
Mr. Brown finds it hard to believe that Mr. Smith has seen anything 
which he (Mr. Brown) cannot see. Hence come strife and debate. 
Headers of this Journal will be at no loss for instances. I have also 
to thank Mr. Singleton for his caution about " difl&*action." In return 
let me caution him against a much more besetting sin of these 
times — " slowness of heart to believe." 

Yours faithfully, 

W. J. HlOKIB. 

Kepobt of Qubkett Micboscopical Club, Sept. 25th. 

To the Editor of the * Monthly Microscopical JoumaV 

Gabbiok Chambers, November 17, 1874. 
Sib, — Will you kindly allow me to correct a slight inaccuracy 
that appeared in the November number containing the above report? 
I am there made to say I never found evidence of air in any insect's 
salivary glands. It should read — 

'* In a large number of insects examined he had never found any 
evidence of tracheal or air sacs forming part of their salivary glands." 

I remain yours very truly, 

William T. Lot. 


( 292 ) 


RoTAi Microscopical Society. 

King's College, November 4, 1874. 

Charles Brooke, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

A number of donations to the Society were announced, and the 
thanks of the meeting were voted to the donors. 

The Secretary said that Mr. Suffolk, a Fellow of the Society, had 
presented them with an ingenious little apparatus, known as me- 
chanical fingers, and which had been modelled after the plan of 
Professor Smith. 

The President observed that it was for the purpose of picking up 
minute objects, such as diatoms, by means of a bristle held by some 
forceps. It was a very ingenious contrivance, and was worikh the 
examination of the Fellows. 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Suffolk was unanimously passed. 

The President announced that the Council purposed holding 
another scientific evening on Wednesday, December 9 ; this arrange- 
ment was of course subject to the consent of the authorities of King's 
College,* and due notice would be sent to all the Fellows of tibe 
Society in the usual way. 

The Secretary said they had received a paper " On Microscopical 
Leaf Fungi from the Himalayas," by Dr. Joseph Fleming. The paper 
and the drawings which accompanied it had been shown to Mr. Cooke, 
who had found amongst them a number of genera and species which 
were apparently identical with European species. The paper was one 
which he thought would be more interesting to Fellows when they 
could read it for themselves ; he would therefore only mention the 
fungi discovered. It would be printed in full in the Journal, with 
the drawings and the remarks of Mr. Cooke upon them. The paper 
will be found at p. 270. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Dr. Fleming and 
Mr. Cooke. 

The Secretary then read a paper by Dr. Drysdale and the Rev. 
W. H. Dallinger, entitled " Continued Researches into the Life His- 
tory of the Monads." The paper was illustrated by numerous 
drawings, which were enlarged upon the black-board by Mr. Charles 
Stewart. The paper will be found at p. 261. 

The President, in proposing a vote of thanks to the authors of the 
paper, remarked that there were several points in it which were 

* Since obtained. 


matters of great interest. Tho twofolil mode of reproduction men- 
tioned — ^flsaion and impregnation — was remftrkablo. One of tho pro- 
cesses migbt prove to be the same as parthenogenesis, which was 
known to exist in the case of the aphis. Another great point was tho 
bearing of some of the obaervationa upon the important question of 
spontaneous generation ; because if the germs alluded to had been 
found by eKporim.ent to survive after exposure to a temperaturo of 
250° or 300''' Fabr,, it was quite clear to him that tho observations of 
Dr. Bftstian must be looked upon as wholly inconoIuBive. 

Mr. H. J. Slack said he would juet call attention to the excessive 
minuteness of some of these " moving points," as tliey were called in 
tho paper; for if a skilled observer, using a power bo high as ^tj inch, 
can only describe them as moving points, the actual objects themselves 
must be almost infinitely small, und it could only be Irom the differ- 
ence of their refractive power that they could bo seen at all. The 
impression given was, that if they were only a little smaller or were 
nearer in refractive index to that of the fluid in which they moved, 
though there might bo myriads of them there, they would be utterly 
invisible. They also found from the paper that they nmst not conclude 
that even a high temperature would destroy life. They had usually 
supposed that the process of heating organisms produced similar effects 
to the coagulation of tho albumen in & boiled ben's-egg ; but it was pro- 
bable that a proteine snbstanco which was not cl^ged in that way 
might survive any temperaturo wliicb failed to actually disintegrate 
it, and in the case of a hydro-carbonaceous compound it could not be 
destroyed by anything short of actual burning. If carbon had only 
been known to them in its combustible forms it would have been 
received with much duabt that there might bo conditions nnder which 
it was difficult to burn it, but they knew that a piece of grapliite could 
not be burnt in a candle, or a diamond with a lucifer match. These 
things showed them how very careful they should be not to rely 
upon any merely negative evidenco as to organisms and germs being 
destroyed by heat. 

A vote of thanks to the authors of the paper was carried 

Mr. Charles Stewart called attention to some living organisms 
exhibited in tho room by Mr. Wood, and which bore a very strong 
resemblance to the one shown there at the Inst meeting, and which ho 
thought to be allied to JBnccphalua polymorphis. 

Mr. Wood said that one of the Fellows of the Society bad men- 
tioned to him that an object had been exhibited at the last meeting 
very much like tho one which be now exhibited, and ho had therefoi'e 
endeavoureil to bring his specimens there for inspection, Tho objects 
were, he believed, the larvfe of tho cockle. He also exhibited some 
drawings taken from his notebook showing the other stages of its 
development. He at first bod supposedthat these organisms did not 
belong to tho cockle at all, but further observation showed that they 
wore really the larvte, and he had traced them up tbrongh ell their 

T 2 

. 294 


Tho thanks of tlio meetmg were voted to Mr. Wood for his 
iotcicBtiiig cummiuiicatiou. 

Mr. GhorleB Stewart said lie Iind LeoD afibrded an opportnnity of 
looking at tbie anppoaod larva, and, so close was its resemblance to 
tho Bueephalag eidiibitod at the lost meetiog, that ho could not help 
thiuking if that was on entozoon this must nleo be Eontotbing of the 
BOine kind. It was bo unlike the larval forms of the lamellibranchiate 
muUusca that he thoagbt it might after b11 turn out to bo really a 
parasite, and its position in tho ovary would not negative this notion. 
The roeemblance between the two was really ao very close that he 
could not help thinking that the pasition of both in the animal kingdom 
would prove to be the same, though, of course, he did not say that it 
was not the young of tho cockle. Mr. Stewart then drow upon the 
black-board the object oiLibited. by Mr. Badcock at tho previous 
meeting, and also a copy of Mr. Wood's drawing of the one he had 
brought that evening, and pointed out the similarity between them. 

Mr. Wood said that he hod never found anything else than these 
creatures in the ovary of the cockle. 

Mr. Stewart thought it might be worth while to institute some 
further comparisons between the two objects in their earlier stages ; 
ho did not say, of course, that the two were really tho same thing, 
but bo was quite disposed to bracket them togothor as being of the 
same genus. 

X)t. Moore said that ho hod been for some time examining both the 
cockle and the mussel, and had traced out tie dovelopmeui of the cockle 
in the same way. He believed that these objects were the larval forma 
of the cockle, and in the marine mussel he had also traced out the 
development. Ho found that these long arms consisted of striated 
mnscular tissue. 

Mr. Stewart said he had osamincd tho arms under -fi^, but had 
found no trace of striated muscle — it might, however, perhaps require 

I a higher power. 
The President observed that the fact of such analogous organisms 
having been found in so many inetances as described would lead one 
to suppose that they might be the young of the cockle instead of 
Dr. Moore inquired what proof there was ihat the Bucephalus was 

aid it n 

3 considered i 

I by some who were thought 
troce the rudimentary shell 

Mr. Stewart si 
to bo authorities. 

Dr. Moore said he had been able ti 
both in the cockle and in the mnssel. 

Mr, Stewart mentioned that in the lost number of the 'Annals of 
Natural History' there were a number of references UtBucephalm, and 
perhaps they might throw some light upon it. He must say also that 
when he first saw a drawing of Sucephalug -polymorphue he fancied that 
it might possibly he the young of some lamellibranchiate, but did not 
think so after eiamining the creature itself, 

Perrya puleherrima (Kitton) and some other new species of 
diatoms were exhibited under one of the Society's instruments. 


DoniitioiiB to tlis Library und Cabinet since Oct. 7, 1874 : — 

I Nature, Weekly Frcm The Editor. 

AtheDJEum. Weekly „ Ditto. 

Boeiety of Arts Jnurnnl. Weekly „ Society, 

Journal of the Linneau Society. No. 77 „ Dilta. 

Jourual of the Qaekett Olub. No. 27 „ Club. 

IBulletm de la SooiCte Botaniqiie de Frauco „ Society, 
Man-els of Poud Life. By H. J. Black. 2ud Edition .. „ Aal/ior. 
TbeFrotopliiBinicTlieorjof Life. ByJoIin Dryndalo,M.D. „ Ditto. 
MeobaDioal Finger „ W. T. Suffolh, Esq. 
l"oar Slides of Diatoms „ F. Xilton, Esq. 
The following gentlemen were elected Fellows of the Society : — 
■John Eailton WilUamB, Esq, ; JanieB Wallinger Goodinge, Esq. 
WAtTBa W. RbEVEB, Assist-SeorcUri/. 
Medical Mioeoscopioal Societi'. 
October 16, 1874.— Jabez Hogg, Esq., President, in the chair. 
At the first meeting of this Society, for the aesaion 1874^5, a 
paper oommunicated by John GJorhain, Esq., of Tnnbridge, " On a Now 
and Expeditions Method of Micrometry," was read by the President. 
The principle of the instrument described, depended upon the 
meaeuroment of lines drawn parallel to the base of an isosceles 
triangle — the base of the latter being given — by means of the aides, 
which are divided into a known number of parts. The triangle is 
obtained by dividing through the centre a disk of brase, about 1^ inch 
in diameter and half on inch thick, and bevelled at the edge, so as to 
allow of its being embraced by a stout india-rubber ring, by which 
means the two portions are held in perfect apposition at the edges 
of the section. The line of section, for the distance of 1 inch from 
the circumference, is marked out into fractions of an inch — at least, 
into 33 parts — a less number being insafSoient to obtain accnrate 
results. A piece of paper of known thickness is now inserted between 
the halves of the disk, and moved along till its edge touches the 
commencement of the marked inch, the elastic band retaining it in its 
place, and thus an isosceles triangle, or gap, is left, with a boao the 
tiiickness of the Klip of paper, and with on edge of 1 inch, divided, as 

» stated, into 32 equal parts. If a hair or cobweb be passed along the 
:slit from base to apex, it will bo arrested somewhere, and by reading 
(^ the number opposite which it stops, a simple matter of mnltiplica- 
tion, the base of the triangle being known, will givo the diameter 
required. For microscopic purposes tlie instrument is phtced on the 
stage, and the object to be measured, placed on a thin glass cover, is 
slid over the aperture till it exactly at one point spans it. The 
diameter ia then read off. To <jbtain still greater accuracy, Mr. 

» Browning has added a screw of known vaJuo, to separate the holvea of 
iSiB micrometer in lien of the slip of paper. 
In answer to some qnestiona by members of the Society, the Presi- 
dent replied that the instrument was specially designed for unmounted 
objects, the thickness of an ordinary glass slide being rather an objec- 
tion in the cose of mounted ones. A thin glass cover might be in all 
cases employed for placing the specimen, e. g. blood, or pus, upon. 

October 13. — Csptaia Lung exhibited monnta of ivobB of three 
kiude of spider ; the first that of Speira dtadema ; the eecond of 
an undetermined Bpociee, ne unfortunately he could never find the 
r at Lome (though the woh was renewed each night, after being 
destroyed) ; and the third also unknown, being an old bought elide. 

All three were furnished with the viscid beads so well hnown on 
the concentric threads of Epeira ; but those on the third slide were 
much larger, and the threads apiteared to ho not spiral or concentric ; 
whilst the arrangement of beads on the second was very different and 
peculiar. This web was not geometrical. 

Till lately it was generally considered that the spider, after form- 
ing its web, went orer it again, adding the viscid drops or beads ; but 
the Inte Iticbard Beck eiplodeai that fallacy, by simply watching 
(nndcr a microscope) an Epeira making its web, when he saw that the 
thread, after emission, ran into beads by molecular attraction. 

Captain Lang, however, though accepting this general fact, con- 
siders that two of the three pairs of spinnerets ore employed in the 
formation of the thread; the simple line issuing from one pair whilst 
the other pair vamisht.'S it with a ^scid secretion running into heads \fj 
molecular attraction, as saliva will on a hair passed between the lips. 
The second slide seemed to prove this; for, whereas in the Epeira web 
the beads were seen to be arranged singly along the line, and might, 
therefore, bo produced according to Mr. Beck'a theory, in that par- 
ticuUir slide the heads are grouped in grape-like bunches on a firm 
thread. The threads of both sjiccies aro perfectly dry, and not viscid 
between the beads. If the web of an Epeira is caught on a slip of 
glass its form is entirely destroyed ; the fluid viscid drops being as it 
were blotted ont, whilst in the second kind of wob the threads, with 
their harder grape-like bunches, will remain distinct and uninjured. 

In Epeira the four" eiternal spinnerets arc arranged in two pairs, 
each pair containing tubuli differing from those of the other, so that 
though the glands of these two pairs of spinnerets are similar, it 
seems reasonable to suppose that they are used for different purposes. 

Captain Long thinks that bnt one pair of these exterior spinnerets 
is employed in forming the eoneentric line, which is varnished over, 
as it runs oat, by the third interior pair of spinnerets, furnished with 
a viscid secretion from a totally different set of glands. There are 
other offices for which the other pair of exterior spinnerets with thoir 
different tubuli may be needed, and also where no viscidity of thread 
may be required, as in the fonnation of the radial lines, which are 
thicker and more elastic ; or for that of the wob with which the insect 
victim is swathed in a mummy-like shroud. 

From slides showing the attachments of the Epcira's radial thread 
it would appear that the spider nses its spinnerets as a painter does 
hia brush ; the very delicate threads issuing from each tubule being 
dashed against the surface, formed into an entangled mass of loops, and 
then drawn out into one compoutid, though practically simple thread. 
• Report supplied bj Mr. B, J. AuBtio. 

phocbbdisob or sooietibs. 297 

Further proof of tho rcnaonablcnosa of Captain Long's explanatioii 
was nffunlcii by the fact that when the web ia tightly Btretched with- 
out touching the ghiae the thread mny be seen, with a -j*^ objcct-glofis, 
rHnning through the viscid beads, which appear as if transparent and 
etning on a thread. This would not be the case in a single viBcid line 
running by vwlendar allraclion into beads or drops. The conclofiion, 
therefore, seems inevitable that as it is only the spiral or coucentrio 
linos which ore Btrnng with these beodB, they muBt be furnished jrom 
the secretion proceeding from the single inner pair of spinnerets ; 
the glands differing ho materially from those of the two outer pairs 
whioh have so much more work to perform, 


Ordinary Meeting, October 23.~Dr. Matthews, F.R.M.S., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

Mr. R. Packenham "Williams read a paper " On Cutting Sections 
of the Eyes of Insects, and on a New Instrument for that purpose." 
The method of preparing tho head for cutting was first described ; the 
most successful plan being first to shako tho insect gently in a phial 
of benzino^ — then to Boak it in alcohol 60° over proof for a time vary- 
ing from four to forty-eight hours — this was conBiderod to bo the most 
difficult part of the operation, some spedmena becoming hard sooner 
than others; and it was suggested that the best preparations might 
possibly be made from insBcts just on the point of emergence from the 
ohrysaliB. The head, after being hardened, was to be imbedded in a 
miEtnre of butter of cocoa and bleached beeswas, with the addition 
of a little new Canada balsam. This compound melted at about 120". 
The head was to bo placed in the wax so that the cut should be at 
right angles to the chord of the segment forming the outline of the 
eye, the most satisfactory section being that in such a direction as to 
ebow the stmcturo of both eyes. The cnttcr was to be wetted with 
[spirit of turpentine, and one cut having been made, a littlo was of a 
Plower melting point was applied to the cut Buifaco, so that the next 
I flection might be supported by a thin film of was, and the cavities of 
r the Lead were also to be filled with was so as to give more effectual 
support. For the same purpose a piece of tisBQe paper laid on tho 
face of the section was often advantageous. The wax was to bo re- 
moved by warming gently in turpentine, and the specimen could then 
.' be mounted in new twlsam, 

U The instrument used was then minutely deseribod. This con- 
■ JDBted essentially of a rotating circular cutter, and a contrivance 
Fflimilar to the slide-rest of a lathe, by means of which tho thickness 
and direction of the sections could bo adjusted, and the object advanced 
against the cutter white rotating. The cutter was extremely thin, 
and moved with great accuracy in an exact plane. This tvas poBBJble, 
because it could bo ground, polished, and sharpened on the pivots and 
in tlio position which it would permanently oeeupy. The slide regu- 
lating the thickness of the section could be adjusted to tho Tufftru 
of an inch, while that which advanced tho object against tho cutter 



mOTsd -^ of an incli to three reToIations of the cutter, anii, ub the 
latter woa nearly ^ of an inch in diameter, this was equivalent to a 
straight draw of throe inches for ovoiy ^ of an inch cat : this relation 
was attained mocbanically. Great speed wus not roconimcnded. The 
object was supported on a little ebonite block capable of motion round 
an axis for the adjustment of the object to be cut in a vertical plane. 
The machine was of very diminutive size and delicate construction. 

A paper was read by Dr. D. Moore " On the Generatiyo Processes 
of the Cockle (CardiaTit edule), Mnssel (Mi/filiis edulit), and the Oyster 
(^Oilrea eduli»)." He first drew attention to the difference of opinion 
on the subject, by contrasting Professor Owen's statement of twenty 
years ago with Professor Eolleston's more recent statement in 1870 ; 
Professor Owen asserting that all Lamellibranchs bad the sexes in 
distinct indiridaals. Professor Eulleeton excluding Oelrea and Cydaa, 
which had the sexes united in one individoal. He stated that his 
observations had led him to the conclusion that the cockle and the 
mussel were also truly hermaphrodite, having the sexes united in one 
individual. He then proeooded to givo an outline of the minute 
anatomy and general distribution of the genorative gland in the 
cockle, mussel, and oyster, stating that nil the steps from a gland 
containing immature sperm cells to one containing perfect eggs in the 
oyster, and eggs and young in the cockle and mussel, eonld be 
clearly traced — tbe glands containing epermatozoa being only a stage 
in the history of the gland containing oggs or young. He then drew 
attention to some diagrams enlargod from camera-lncida drawings, 
showing three principal stages in the history of the gland : — 1st, 
when the gland contained imperfect spennatozoa ; 2nd, when it con- 
tained poifcct spermatozoa and clear cells, the entrance of the sper- 
matozoa into the clear cells, which ho had observed in the cockle, 
constituting the impregnation, which led to the 3rd stage of well- 
formed and easily recognizable eggs. In the case of the cockle and 
mussel, the eggs were hatched inside tbe animal, and tbe yonng were 
brought to maturity in a system of tubes, which were much more 
developed in the cockle than in the mussel. In these tubes the 
young were found in all stages of growth, with a number of yelk 
balls which doubtless supplied them with nourishment. The young 
were figured in the diagrams, special attention being directed to 
the stage at which they were extruded from tbe parent, when they 
constituted a true larval form, and possessed a rudimentary shell. In 
the oyster the eggs were extruded from the generative gland into the 
buccal pouch, between the palpi and the layers of the brancbias, 
where they remained surrounded by a gelatinous subBtanco, until they 
were devtSoped into freely moving ciliated young, when they were 
puffed out from the parent shell a small number at a time. Dr. Moore 
concluded by stating some general considerations which ho thought 
pointed in the same direction as his observations on the generatiyo 
cesses in these animals. 

This paper was further illnstrated by various preparations, which 
were exhibited at the close of the meeting. 


I This 
were exhi 

( 299 ) 



Abbe, Professor, on the Capability of 
the Microscope, 29. 

Actinia, on the Nervous System of. By 
Professor P. Martin Duncan, 65. 

Actinophrys Sol, Remarks on, 87. 

Ague-plant, Mr. W. Archer on the 
so-called, 31. 

Algae of North America, the Fresh- 
water, 88. 

Amphipleura pellucida, Resolution of, 
by the -^ of Mr. ToUes, 159. 

Amphipoda, on Tube-building, 90. 

Animal Kingdom, the Plan of Descent 
of the, 244. 

Anodonta, the Development of the 
Ovum in, 26. 

Aperture, the Method of Measuring 
Angular, 254. 

Apertures, Final Remarks on Immer- 
sion. By Dr. J. J. Woodward, 125. 

Final Remarks on Immersed. By 

F. H. Wenham, 221. 

American Opinion on Angular, 


Appendicularia, Supplementary Re- 
marks on. By Alfred Sanders, 209. 

Archer, Mr. W., on the so-called Ague- 
plant, 31. 

Arloing, M., and M. Tripier, on the 
Persistence of Sensibility in the 
Peripheric Ends of Cut Nerves. Ab- 
stracted by Dr. B. MacDowal, 89. 

Atrophy, on the Morbid Anatomy of 
Progressive Muscular, 100. 


Balbianfs Nucleus, the Presence of, in 
the Ovum of Osseous Fishes. By 
Dr. Van Bambeke, 61. 

Bambeke, Dr. Van, on the Presence of 
Balbiani*s Nucleus in the Ovum of 
Osseous Fishes, 61. 

Batrachia, a Special Mode of Develop- 
ment in, 243. 

Beneden, M. Van, The Original Dis- 
tinction of the Testicle and Ovary, 

Blood-corpuscles, Migration of White. 
By Dr. Thomas, 88. 

Blood-corpuscles, Counting of, in cases 

of Transfusion, 203. 
Blood, Distinction between Mammalian 

and Reptilian, 91. 
Stains, on the Value of High 

Powers in the Diagnosis of. By 

Joseph G. Richardson, M.D., 130. 
Boehmeria nivea, the Structure of. By 


Bog Mosses, Dr. Braithwaite on, 11, 

Bollinger, Professor, on the His- 
tology of Leucocythsemia, 200. 

Bone, the Development of. By M. 
Ranvier, 105. 

Brain in the Insane, the Histology of 
the, 103. 

Lesions of the, in General Para- 
lysis. By Dr. Tuke, 109. 

Braithwah'e, Robert, M.D., on Bog 
Mosses : a Monograph of the Euro- 
pean Species Sphagnum squarrosum, 11; 
Sphagnum teres, 12; Sphagnum Lind- 
bergiij 168 ; Sphagnum WiUfit\ 170. 

on the Microscopic Struc- 
ture of the Cortical and Corky 
Tissue of Plants, 156. 

Bucephalus Hairaeanus, the Encyst- 
ment of. By M. Alp. Giard, 276. 


Canal, the Nerve of the Digestive, 32. 
Cancer of the Left Femur, on the 

Morbid Growths, from a case of 

Osteoid. By Joseph Needham, 121. 
Carpenter, Dr., on the subject of 

Eozoon, 153. 
Carter, Mr., on Eozoon Canadense, 30. 
Dr. H. v., on the Etiology of the 

Madura-foot, 96. 
Caterpillars, the Hairs ot By T. W. 

WONFOR, 165. 
Cells, Bone Absorption by means of 

Giant-, 102. 
* Challenger,' Recent Deep-sea Dredg- 

ings by the, 245. 
Clarke, Dr. Lookhart, on the Morbid 

Anatomy of Progressive Muscular 

Atrophy, 100. 
Corethra plumicomis, the Muscular 

Tissue of, 26. 



Cornea, the Stractore of the. By Dr. 

Thin. 240. 
Gorrespondenoe : — 

Brakey, S. L., 117. 

Brooke, Charles, 117. 

HicKiE, W. J., 207, 289. 

Hogg, Jabez, 41. 

KiTTON, F., 255. 

Lens, Immersion, 42. 

LoY, William T., 291. 

Matthews, John, 116. 

PiLLISCHER, M., 40. 

Singleton, R. Corbet, 256, 287. 

Smith, J. E., 160. 

Stodder, Charles, 40. 

ToLLEs, R. B., 115, 116. 

TuKE, Dr. J. B., 160. 

Wenham, F. H., 1 14. 
Covers, How to make exceedingly 

Thin Glass, 287. 
Crystals, Microscopic, 38. 
Curtis, Dr. Lester, What Pus is not, 92. 
Cyamus or Whale-louse, a Memoir on 

the, 159. 


Dallingeb, W. H., and J. Drysdale* 
M.D., Continued Researches into the 
Life History of the Monads, 261. 

Diamonds, the South African, 284. 

Diapedesis: or the Pfissage of Blood- 
corpuscles through the Walls of the 
Blood-vessels, and how to observe it. 
By Joseph Needham, 79. 

Diaphragm, a Spherical, 39. 

Diatomacese, How to Prepare Specimens 
of the. By A. Mead Edwards, M.D., 

Diatoms, on the Structure of. By G. W. 
Morehouse, U.S.A., 19. 

New Species of. By F. Kitton, 


DichsBua rugosa, Is it a Lichen or a 
Fungus? By Mr. F. C. S. Roper, 33. 

Difflugia, the Enemies of, 250. 

Dragon-fly, the Mouth of the, 244. 

Dredgings, Deep-sea, by the * Chal- 
lenger,* 245. 

Duncan, Professor Martin, on the 
Nervous System of Actinia, 65. 

DwiGHT, Dr., on Striated Muscular 
Fibre, 29. 


Edwards, A. Mead, M.D., How to Pre- 
pare Specimens of Diatomaceae for 
Examination and Study, 225. 

Eggs, the Decomposition of, 279. 

Euzoon Canadense, Is it a Foraminifer 
or not ? By Mr. Carter, 30. 

Dr. Carpenter, 153. 

Evolution, Professor Tyndall on, 187. 


Fern, the Minute Structure of a pecu- 
liar, 38. 

Ferns, the Development of, without 
Fertilization, 88. 

Filar ia immitis, Amended Anatomical 
Details of the. By F. H. Welch, 224. 

Fleming, Dr. Joseph, on some Micro- 
scopic Leaf Fungi from the Hima- 
layas, 270. 

Follicle, Retrogression of the Graafian, 

Fox, Dr. T., on Tokelau Ringworm, 

Fungi on some Microscopic Leaf from 
the Himalayas. By Dr. J. Fleming, 

Cell-culture in the Study of, 285. 


Giard, M. Alf., on the Encystment of 
Bucephalus Haimeanus, 276 

Gulliver, Professor G., on the Sph8&- 
raphides in British UrticacefiB and in 
Leonurus, 275. 

Gum Production, the Microscopy of, 35. 


Haeceel, Professor, The Plan of Des- 
cent of the Animal Kingdom, 244. 

Hay-fever: its Microscopy and Treat- 
ment, 111. 

Heart and Kidney, the Condition of, in 
an obscure form of Disease, 90. 

Hydrse, the Americiin Species of, 87. 

Hydrophobia Canina, the Anatomical 
Changes in, 253. 

Hypertropliy, Pseudo-muscular, 35. 

Hypopus, the Zoological Position of, 26. 


Insects, on the Origin and Metamor- 
phosis of. By Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., 
M.P., &c., 84. 

Intcdtine, the Microscopic Blood-vessels 
of the, 155. 


Johnston, Dr. C, on Blue and Violet 
Stainings for Vegetable Tissues, 184. 


Keith, Mr. R., Discussion on the For- 
mula of an Immersion Objective of 
greater Aperture than corresponds 



to the Maximum possible for Dry 

Objectives, 124. 
KiTTON, F., New Diatoms, 218. 
Klein, Dr., on the Smallpox of Sheep, 


Larynx, the Mucous Membrane of the. 

By Dr. W. Stirling, 32. 
Leidy, Professor, Bemarks on Acti- 

nophrys Sol, 87. 
Leucocyte and Pus-corpuscle, What is 

the exact Definition of ? 37. 
Leucocythsemia, the Histology of. By 

Professor Bollinger, 200. 
Library, the Leeds Public, 255. 
Limnanthemum, the Air-cells in. By 

Dr. T. G. Hunt, 31. 
Liquor Sanguinis, an Accoimt of cer- 
tain Organisms occurring in. By 

Dr. W. Osler, 141. 
Lobster, the Development of the. By 

Mr. S. J. Smith, 203. 


Macdonald, Dr. J. D., on the Micro- 
scopical Characters of Sputum in 
Phthisis, 180. 

Madura-foot, the Etiology of. By Dr. 
H. V. Carter, 96. 

Microscope, the Capability of the. By 
Professor Abbe, 29. 

Microscopic Writing, Photographs of, 

Microsporon Audounii, Has the so- 
called any Existence? By M. Ma- 
lassez, 26. 

Monads, Continued Researches into the 
Life History of the. By W. H. 
Dalunger and Dr. Drtsdale, 261. 

Morehouse, G. W., on the Structure 
of Diatoms, 19. 

Moseley, Mr. H. N., To what Group 
is Peripatus related ? 107. 

Muscle, Effects of Section of Motor 
Nerves on, 280. 

Muscular Fibre, Striated. By Dr. 
Dwight, 29. 


Needham, Joseph, on Diapedesis : or 
the Passage of Blood - corpuscles 
through the Walls of the Blood- 
vessels, and how to observe it, 79. 

on the Morbid Growths, from 

a case of Osteoid Cancer of the Left 
Femur, 121. 

Nerves, Persistence of Sensibility in 

the Peripheric Ends of Cut. By MM. 

Arloing and Tripier, 89. 
Nerves in the Lips, the Termination of, 

New Books, with Short Notices: — 

Anatomy of the Lymphatic System. 
By E. KxEiN, M.D., 237. 

Microscopical Examinations of Air. 
By D. D. Cunningham, M.B., 152. 

On Spectrum Analysis as applied to 
Microscopical Observations : the 
subject of a Lecture delivered at 
the South London Microscopical 
Club. By W. T. Suffolk, 84. 

On the Origin and Metamorphosis of 
Insects. By Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., M.P., 84. 

The Micrographic Dictionary, 149. 


Objective, the Optical Quality of Mr. 

ToUes* i. By Bobert B. Tolles, 

13, 62. 
Objectives, Discussion of the Formula 

of an Immersion of greater Aperture 

than corresponds to the Maximum 

possible for Dry Objectives. By Mr. 

B. Keith, 124. 
Osler, Wiluam, M.D., An Account of 

certain Organisms occurring in the 

Liquor Sanguinis, 141. 
Ovary, the Original Distinction of the 

Testicle and. By M. Van Beneden, 

Ovum of the Rabbit, Retrogressive 

Changes in the Serous Layer of, 1,55. 


Pasteur, M., The Pebrine Corpuscles 

in the Silkworm, and what they are 

analogous to, 171. 
Peripatus, To what Group is it related ? 

Phylloxera, a Remedy for, 113. 
Pigs, Variation in the Condition of the 

External Sense Organs in Foetal, of 

the same Litter, 106. 
Plants, the Microscopic Structure of 

the Cortical and Corky Tissue of. 

By Dr. Braithwaite, 156. 
Potato, How to miike Sections of, 

showing Structure, 114. 
Precious Stones in the Construction of 

the Microscope, 113. 
Prilling, M., on the Microscopy of 

Gum Productipn, 35. 
Prism, Refracting, for Binocular Micro- 
scopes. By F. H. Wenham, 129. 



Proceedings op Societies: — 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, 59. 
Brighton and Sussex Natural History 

Society, 54. 
Louisville Microscopical Society, 60. 
Margate Microscopical Society, 56. 
Medical Microscopical Society, 48, 

118, 161, 295. 
Quekett Microscopical Club, 57, 120, 

259, 297. 
Beading Microscopical Society, 55, 

Royal Microscopical Society, 44, 257, 

Victoria, Australia, Microscopical 

Society, 162. 
Pus, What it is not. By Dr. Curtis, 


Ranvier, M., on the Development of 

Bone, 105. 
Rhizopods, New Fresh-water, 251. 
Ringworm of Tokelau, and its Fungus, 

Rocks, the Microscopic Structure of 

Ancient and Modem Volcanic, 287* 
Roper, Mr. F. C. S., on Dichsena rugosa, 

Rotifer vulgaris, on the Revivification 

of, 250. 


Sanders, Alfred, Supplementary Re- 
marks on Appendicularia, 209. 

Saprolegniei, the Morphology of, 102. 

Schizsea pusilla. Dr. J. Hunt on the 
Minute Structure of, 38. 

Schmidt, Dr. H. D., Synopsis of the 
principal Facts elicited &om a Series 
of Microscopical Researches upon the 
Nervous Tissues, 1. 

Sheep, on the Smallpox of. By Dr. 
Klein, 98. 

Silkworm, the Pebrine Corpuscles in 
the, and what they are analogous 
to. By M. Pasteur, 171. 

Skin, the Structure of the. By Dr. Pye- 
Smith, 26. 

Smith, Dr. Pte-, on the Structure of 
the Skin, 26. 

Mr. S. I., on the Development of 

the Lobster, 203. 

Society, a New Microscopical, 39, 255. 

Spectrum Analysis as applied to Micro- 
scopical Observations. By W. T. 
Suffolk, 84. 

Sphseraphides in British UrticaceaB 
and in Leonurus. By Professor G. 
Gulliver, 275. 

Sphagnum squarrosum, 1 1. 

teres, 12. 

Lindbergii, 168. 

Wulfii, 170. • 

Sponge, a New. By Professor A. E. 
Verrill, 28. 

What is a ? 205. 

Sputum in Phthisis, on the Microsco- 
pical Characters of the. By Dr. 
J. D. Macdonald, 180. 

Stainings for Vegetable Tissues, 184. 

Sting of the Bee, Discovery of the Posi- 
tion of. By Mr. A. S. Packard, 243. 


Testicle, the Structure of the, 284. 

Thin, Dr., on the Structure of the 
Cornea, 240. 

Tissues, Synopsis of the principal Facts 
elicited from a Series of Microsco- 
pical Researches upon the Nervous. 
By Dr. H. D. Schmidt; 1. 

Blue and Violet Stainings for 

Vegetable. By Dr. Johnston, 184. 

ToLLES, Robert B., the Optical Quality 
of Mr. Tolles' ^ Objective, 13, 62. 

Tornaria, the Young of a Worm, 239. 

TuKE, Dr. J. B., on Lesions of the 
Brain in General Paralysis, 109. 

Ttndall, Professor, on Evolution, 

on the Origin of Typhoid 

Fever 283 

Typhoid Fever, the Origin of, 283. 


Verrill, Professor, on a New Sponge, 


Welch, F. H., the Filaria immitis : 
Amended Anatomical Details, 224. 

Wenham, F. H., Refracting Prism for 
Binocular Microscopes, 129. 

Final Remarks on Immersed Aper- 
tures, 221. 

WoNPOR, T. W., on the Hairs of Cater- 
pillars, 165. 

Woodward, Dr. J. J., Final Remarks 
on Immersion Apertures, 125. 

Worm, Tornaria the Young of a, 239. 

Worms, the Egg-peduncle of certain,