Skip to main content

Full text of "The Monthly Review"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 










O R» 



N 1> 

rPdated ic 




O R, 




Of AN 

•« * 


Priiitcd for R. Griffiths, in the Strand* 




T A B L E 

T O T H E 

TiTLfis, Authors Names?, &c* of the Books 
and Pamphlets contained in this Voluow, 


at the End of the Volume* 

A DDress to the Cocoa *Treer 

-f\ 470 

Al L £N*s great Importance of the 

Havinnaht 589 

Akalysis^ political, of the 

War, 3 [ 2 

All ^«oTATIONs on Hornc't Icr- 

mon at Oxford, 317 

AATi-Canidia, ^2 

AiiOEN of Fcvcrfliam, 473 

Abs Medcndi, 441 

AsciEPiADEf^ Li£e of» 337 


BAnETTi^s Julkn Grammary 

Ba£n-£;'s Tranflation of Cicero's 

compleat Orator * 3 1 4 

Bat r IE jlph^rifmi Je Cegmf<tn4*$ 

Battle of Lora, 157 

Eeerow on the pre-exiilmt 
Lap/eof theSouIf 78 

BiCKERSTArr's Love m a W\h 
Lige, 458 

Biacn's Colleton of Lord Ba- 
con** Letters^ Speeches, &c. 

BaADBvarVSefinofii, 4^6 
Bit oM ley's Way to ibe SaWith 
of Kcft, 234 

nooKBi's Trial of the Rovnan 
CarKo1ic», 508 

BufFON'i Natural HUtory of ihe 

Horfe, Ac, 41 

Buhm's DigeA of tlie Militia- 

LaiVs, 7 a 

BviE» Earl of» Realbns for his 

Refignation, 22 1 

— , Epillle to, 22a 

, P^nquiry how far he naemt 

the cxaJted charader given him 
by the Briton^ 3 1 1 

"■ — , Reaforis for making him a 
public Example^ 46a 

•^AtAS, John, hjj seeding 
V^ Cafe, 38iJ 

Ca YLi Y 'f feraphical youngShep- 
herd, 25 j 

Chaiholeii, Dt. Letter to, from 
the Writer of the HiHory of 
the iVIan after GodV oviffi Heartj 
■■ ' .-^-^ ^ Remarks on hxj 
Diicourfe on the Sabbath, 316 
Chivalry, Huid^s Letters on. 

Si V 

CHaifTiAHjTY trucpeifm, 33 

Cm « f $T^$ TempudoQi real Fa^s« 

i n a n fwc rtoFarmer, 78 

CMtiaemLL's Gho(l« FartlJJ. 


CiCERo OB the compkat Orator, 

tranilatcd by Barnes, 314 

CoLOHi^ Aag^caua lUnftrat'^^ 


CoM?AlATivi Importance of ouf 

A a Ac^uintion>t 


i Acqaifidons, $07 

Considerations on the ap- 
proaching Peace, 222 

■ on the Dcfign ' 
of the A61 for rcgiftcring poor 
Infants, , ib. 

""CouMTRv-Scat, aCoUcftion of 

Novels, 71 

Coyte's Sermons, 80 

.Cunningham, T. his Pradlice 

of a Juftice of Peace, 1 53 

■ ■■■■>■ , J. his Contcm- 
platift, a Poem, 333 


BAlrymple's Collcftion of 
Memorials and Letters in 
the Reign of James I. 492 
Daniel's 70 Weeks, DiiTerta- 
tionon, by Parry, 318 

•Deification of the Fair Sex, 

• • 3*7 
Derbyshire Gentleman's An- 

fwcr to the Cocoa- tree, 471 

' Db R r ick's Battle of Lora, 157 

m Colledion of IVavcls, 

* 510 

■JftscRiPTioN of the Spanifh 

• '^'Settlements in theWcft-lndics, 

, 387 

— — of Millenium 

Hall, 389 

.'De.«.voeux'8 EfTay on Eccleii- 

aftes, 479 

Devout Medications, by a Gen- 
tleman ib. 

Dialogues of tho Dead, new, 

■ I of the Livmg, 154. 

EDwaudi Hnlt^omena in A/- 
brcs Feieris h/iamenti Poe- 
ft cos, ^ 23 J 

Edwards's Trcatife on religious 
AfFedions, 318 

Enquiry into the i'Vee- 

• dom of Will, 434 

. Elements of Criticifm; by Lord 

Kaimes, 13 . 

»> " ■ Concluded, 



Elocution, Leftares- tm, hy 
Sheridan, 2c i 

Emi L E \' ou dt l^ EJucatiOfi, par 
Roufleau, 152 

Em iLi us and Sophia, or anew 
Syflcm of Education, by RouT- 
feau, 212, 2$8, ^4S. 

English's Obfervatioiu on She- 
ridan's DiiTertation,' 3 1 3 

Enquiry into the Nature of Li- 
terary Property. 73 

into the Spirit and 

Tendency of Leuers on Thc- 
ron and Aipafio, 235 

how far Lord Bute me- 

rits the exalted Character given 

him, 311 

• into the Merits of the 

Preliminaries, 386 

— into modern Notices 

of Freedom of Will, 434 
into the Right to the 

Territory Wett of the Mifli- 

Epistle to the D. of N- 

' to Lord Bute, 

■ ■ to the King, 
Essay on Happineft, 

on the ufual Diicafes in 

Voyages to the Well Indies, 

■ on Accent and Quantity 

in Prirnunciation, 308 

Essays and Meditations, by a 
PhyCcian, 314 

Examination of the Commer- 
cial Principles of the Negocia- 
tionin 1761, 382 

————Anfwcr to Ditto, 507 

Expediency of a Peace, ;io 

Farmer's Enquiry anfwercd, 
Far vEwoR Til's Tranflation of 
Machiavel's Works 161 

Favourite, a political Epiille, 
Fk\f ALE Pilgrim, 219 

FiELBiNG, Henry, his Works, 


4to. and 8vo, Editions, 49 

J Sir John, his Uia- 

vcj^fal Mentor, 475 

Sarah, her TrarJla* 

tion of Xcnophon's Wcmora- 
biJia, 17 1 

Fl^mvkg on Adheiions of liie 
Longs to the Hcura, 230 

Fo Ji M iL r , Frind/tJ di Mcr^ilt^ &c* 

FoiTER, Judge, his Reports, 140 
- y iVir. kis Efiay on the 
^different Nature of accent ani 
Quantity r 308 

FtKe* Pr, his Pedtion to liic 
King, &c. 236 

Fifc*wuy'i Chronological ta- 
bles. 473 

«AiiKOR*s Remarks on the 
^ Monthly Kevicw, 5S7 
Cr£»»ERATioK» new Theory ot. 

Gesker^s Rural Pocdis, 127 

Ghost, a rocm, by Churchill, 

Part the J 1 1<1 . 316 

GiJJBON^'s i>t»rmon5, 517 

GiAsa«tf on the Credibility of 

Scripture Hiilory, 79 

GiRAEp'» new Guiuc t9 I^io- 

qoeOve^ 217 

GufiikLf an llyperborciu] lale, 


GLcjVERi Col F/t)CCc4ings on 

htsTrialp 154 

iosFjTL Mcihod of being Righ- 

icou?, 255 

G u V '-S fapplcfncni J Gbfcrvatioai 

on C^iitccn, 457 


I Arwo;^ on deathbed Rp- 

— — fcntance, 45) 

Ha^ annah. Jgurnal of ihc Siege 

■ ■ , Account of Ditfo, 


*^^^— -^ — t Alien 's Account of 

iHai Place, 3H9 

K« A 1 1 i 1 , 3vo'c? for the Prefcrva- 

iiQu of, 457 

Hbathcote^s Letter to the Lotd 

Mayor, 3 84 

' — — Rej^ly to Ditto, iiJj 

HfL M£*s Specimen of McihoJiil- 
preaching, tf^ 

HtLp to the Study of the Scrip- 
tures, 7S 
FIemllcjc, fccSrotcKt. 
He54allt*s Chronolog'tal HjT' 
tor y of France, 70 
Hitt'a VcgciAblc Syftcnt* VoJk. 

ir— IV. 41J 

HnxoiMr of Cajaufioi Eoipcr^r 
cl BritaiD, 219 

Horn^'h ^e:mon at Oxford, Aet- 
notations an, 3*7 

HoR » E, and other domcf^ic Ani- 
mals. Natural Hiliory of, bf 
Baifo;i, 41 

HoRbEM^Mt Rule^for, 315 

H u D i o X *s f'cra An^His^ 4 76 

HuKTEK/i Medical Commcnta* 
ne>, Part I* 319 

Hturj's Letters on Chivaliy 
ani Romance, ^1 

HvDROC£ t£j Pott's Trcadie 01^, 

ILTas&o* 155 

I^vi (SiCiALE Reafons for Lord 
Bute's Rcfjgnation, 221 

Job ^ son's Rtvicvv uf the Pre- 
bcodaiy of Litch£cld*a Ser- 
mon, 78 
JoNE$*s firfl Prmdples of Njitii- 
ral Phdolophy, I iZ 
Italian Grammar, by Baretti, 

Justice of Peace, by Cunning- 
ham. 1 5 j 

KAiMFf, Lnrdj his Elements 
of CriticifTi, ij 

^^— Concluded, 105 

Ki^ENi, Mrs. hcrPocmH 75 

LA K c :; M R K E '& Vifwns of Fan- 
La TAR a on the Bite of a Mad- 
CitrtkOX, Mrs, hfit^C^Vvva^ \-;\ 



I LtTTit to Dr. Ciandlcr^ from 
the Hiilorian of the Man after 
God's own Hearty ;6 

. to tKe E. of E 1, bi 

■ concerning Literary Pro- 
periy* 73 

« from Paul Gilckrift, Elq; 

at Fetcribnrgh, 1 ? 5 

m to 3»e Awihor of the E- 

piltle to Lord Bute, jzj 

- 10 ihet' » D r 

OfW— , 2 24 

■- - - ' to a Member of the Houfc 
of Commons 310 

• to the Lord Mayor, H i 

> to Mr. PitT, 3?t3 

k to ika Earl of H— ^-x, 


■ - from Mr, Heathcote 10 

the Lord Mayor, &c, 384 
one niore, to the People 

of England, 462 

• from Jonathan's to the 

Treafury, 465 

m aiidielTed to the Lord 

Mayor, 465 

m ■ from the Cocoa -Tree, 


— to the Whigs, 469 
m from Arthur's to tlie Co. 

coa-Trec, 47 1 

to a Fritnd, »gainfl mar- 

ryrog a Roman LatholiC Lady, 

m to a Merchant at Briilof, 

Letter from a Member of Far- 

Iramcnt to his Friend, 507 

Li^TTCR* to two great Men^ 156 

< ■ ■ from Sophia 10 Mifa, 

LiBtuTT of the Prcfs, 222 

LfLLo's Arden. a Trajfedy, 473 
LtrERAaY Property, Letter con- 

cerning> 7 3 

m — Enquiry into the Na 

tiue of, lb. 

^ • Vim] leaf ton 6f, 176 

L .vE in a Village, a ccwic Ope- 

w* 4i^ 

LowthV Introdudion to Gfam*- 
mar, 37 

Lynch. Capt. his Trial at a 
Court-martial, 389 

MAcHrAVEL*s Works, tnui- 
ilated by Fameworrfi, 

M A so N*s Elegies, 4^] 

Ma5$i£'s Account of tKe nara 
Power of France, 461 

Mead, Dr. his Works in 410, 

Medical QbfervatJons and En- 
quiries, by a Society of PI?) fi- 
cians in London, Vol.lL 98 

•— ^— Concluded. 1 9a 

Meditatiuws and Effays, by a 
Phyfician. 3 '4'! 

MEMruRsof the Bedford Co^r| 
fee houfc, 47^1 

McT H 00 1 s T • Preachiflgf Sped^* j 
men oC 23} j 

Millennium Hall. Defciiptioji 
of» 389 

MiNtsria of State^ a Satire* 

Mirror for the Critics 393 

MfTt?ERN Univcrfal Hiftorv, Vol. 
XXXIL XXXflL ' 35* 


xxxvn. 410 

MoLLoy, J>ar»h, Narrative of 
her (fuppofcd) batbaro\i& tteat* 
merti, 5 1 5 

Monchy's EHay on the ufuaJ 
Difcafea in Voyages to the 
WclMndies, 293 

MoR F hCs Thtfautut Qn^itf t^^ 

M.'Zb£N*s Miicelbnles, 160 

MuRHHY% Account of the Lirfe 
of FicMing, 4^ 


NAsH, Be.iu, Life of, 389 
New Dialogues <^i the 
Dead, 24 

Nlcent*5 Tranflation of He- 
nault*s Chronological Hirtory 
of France, *^0\ 








OCCASIONAL Thoughts on 
the Study of claflic Au- 
thors, I3S 
Ode to the Earl of Lincolo, 75 
- to Mr. Pitt, 3 1 6 

to Lord B«»% 460 

Ogdbn on poetical CoznpoEtion, 


^^ ■ - on the Cruci£xlon And 

Refurredion, ib. 

OoiLvi£*i Poems, Sec. 159 

On £ more Letter to the People 

of Engliodt 462 

PAtt ADiuM of Great Britam 
and Jreland» 429 

Parhy's DiiFciution on DaniepA 
70 Weeks, 518 

pMiLiP&*s Poems, new Edit. 227 
Philosophical Tranfa^ions, 
VoLLlI PaitL 327 

■ ■ Concluded, 

PjCKAftD^s three Difcouncs on 
Family Religion, So 

Po£M on new beautifying theSta- 
tne of K. Charles U. in the 
RoyaJ Exchange, 224 

Fob Ml, the Chimney * fweeper 
and Laandrefs, &rc« 22c 

■ Colledioa of, by Scotch 
Gendemen, VoL U, a 26 

FoRTicAL MifecUany, 390 

Polite Lady, 477 

Political Analyfls of the War, 


— ^— *-- Coniideradons, 384 
PoOK£*iAddrcl5tQtheKiAg, 158 
Pott on the Hydrocele, 1 1 7 
Pottbr's Obfervations on the 
prefent State of Mufic, *Scc, 224 
PasLiMiNAaiBs of Peace, En- 
quiry into, 3S6 

■ full and clear Dif- 

CoffioQ of, 465 

PaBLiMfNAftT Aitlclet of Peace, 

PaESTON» Gui)d-Mcrdiant,3i6 
Prophesy of Metlin, 383 

PaoviOiifC0^ afocm, 394 

Pravuioks made by the Treaty 
of Utrecht, &c. 464 

PunchV Polidct, 465 


RAp?elach Gardens, Dc- 
fc/iption of, 154 

RiA$OM$ for ferious Candour* 


why Lord B*»^ Ihotdd 

be made a public Example, 


Reflect ions on the domeiUc 

Policy proper to be obicrvcd at 

a Peace, 3St 

■ on the Peace, ^6z 

RiLiGious Affcdions, Trcatifc 

on, by Edwards, 318 

Remarks on Chandlcr^s Dif* 

courfe on the Sabbath. 31^ 

' on the Proceedings of 

two Court* Martial, 510 

Retly to Heathcote*s Letter, 

Request, a Poem, 458 

Reverie, a Novel, 471 

Review of the Evils in the Li- 
nen Mtiijufa^lory of Ireland, 


of Mr. Pitt*s Adminillra- 

liOn, 474 

Rilano^s Inftruftions for receiv- 
ing the Word of God, 23 j 
Roe's Obftrvationt on Tythc5, 
confide red, 506 

Romaics of a Nighti 386 

Ro u s s E A u 's EmiUi 1^3 

' — ■ Tran{latcd,2 1 2 

— ^-^^— Conirai Stcimif 449 

■ Concluded, 


Roval Favourite, a Poem, 460 

Rules for bad Horfemen, 315 

— for the Prefervation of 

Health, 457 

Rutmerfo«th*5 fecond Letter 

to ICennicott, 79 


SChomberg*s Abridgment of 
Vaa SwiWfi*f Conunenia- 
rics, 367 

Scgrx's Hymn to Repentance, 

StLrcT Poems fioroGefaer, 30^ 

^fc.NTiM&N'Ts of mi imparti;il 

Mctnber of Parliament, 464 

S£ftA]»NigAL young bhcphcrd, 

SritMON^, by Pickard, 80 

^^—^^ — by Coyte, it>. 

— i>y Shirley, 23 1 

. — , by Gibbons, 317 

by Weft, 363 

■ ' by Badbury^ 456 
SERMONS, Single, So 


^ 3'S 


Sharpf,, Gfcgory, his fccond 
Arg,umcnt in Oelimce of QhrlC- 
tiantty, I 

', John, his Jntroduflion 
to Anihrnedc, 154. 

ShvUidan on the Difficutdcs of 
die EngltfH Laiiguagc, 69 

<-J -*, hii Lcdurcs dn Elo- 
cution, 201 
_ . -■' Concluded, 

Shipwreck, a Poem, 192 

Sh I R I, Et*s twelve Sermons, z^i 

ilocRATCs, Xcaophon'i Memoirs 

o^ iranllatcd by Mfi. Fielding, 

SoFHiA, a Novel, by Mrs, Len- 
nox, ^ 37 
Sf AMI SH Settlements in the Weil- 
Indies, Dtfcriptiod of, 3S7 
Speech wkhouc Doors, 5^4 
iJpKiNC, a Psftornl. 395 
St. Pierre'* poJuical Annals, 

Storcke's rapplcmcntal Treaiife 
on Hemlock, 395 

Swift, two ailditional Volumes 
of his Works, Jt; i 

'ABLETt orPidurc of hu- 
man Life, 75 

A TABLE, Ice, 

Ta\loi*s Scheme of Scripture 

Diviniry, 2^4 

TnouoHTs, fome cooU on the 

preftnt State of Aftairt^ 385 
T< lAL of tfie Roman Catholics 

of Ifcknd, ^08 

T fc u £ - b( rn EngUfliman's «n- 

malkcd Battery, 465 

TtuEBriion, 213 

True Whi^ difpUiycd, jol 

TuR billy's D.'fc'outfc ott the 

Culture of wailc L^nd?;, 21& 

VAN Swietcn's Commenta^ 
rics abrid^CLJ, 367 

VAUi-Hali Gardens, Defcriptioa 
of, 154 

VaNCRONi's complcat Jlaban 
Mailer improved* 477 

VicE*Roy» a Poem, 75 

View of the prefent State of pub* 
lie AtFairs, 464 

Voltaire, his Remarlci on the 
aitl-aing Cafe of Mr* Joha Ca- 
bs, 38S 

Vulgar Dccifioni, 312 


^rZALEs's Ode to Mr. Pitt» 

Wandsworth Epiftlc in Metfe^ 


WAT£R-Baptifn, NccefHtyof, 80 
Watkin son's Effdy on Econo- 
my, 3d Edition, 21^ 
Warbuiton's Do^rine of 
Grace, 369 

Concluded, 399 

Wedding D^y, a Poem, 591 

Welle Rs, Capt. his method of 

converling at a DhUnce, 221 

West's Mathcnutics* 65 

Sermons, 565 

Whi te's Account of the Appli. 
cation of Sponge in curing 
H,T2morrhagC5, 77 

"H Narr.itivc tclarinf^ to 3l 

Paper in the PhilofopUical 

Tjanfa^ion?, 22B 

V/ i I V 1 T *s p h ) jiologi cat EITayt , 

new iidition^ 23a 

T n E 



For JUL Y, 1762, 

Csnclijim of Dr. Sharpens ftcsnd Argument in Difcnce of Chrif* 
tiantty. See Review for Apjil laft. 

TH E Argument from Pnpbesy^ ta prove that Jefus js the 
Chrift, h certainly of great importance, and ought to 
be treated with the moft cxacS attention to its genuine evi- 
dchce, and the moft impartial ;;nd unbiaflld difpoiltion to fub- 
mit to its weight and influence. When any predi '^lion relat- 
ing to perfons, or other events in very dift:int penods^ which 
are evidently contingent, appears to be lirerally fulfilled, the 
objeflors to the autliority of the revelation in which the af- 
furance 15 exhibited, muft be filenced if ihey arc not con- 
vinced; and, though they may ilill pcrfift in their infults and 
mifreprefcntations, muft become the objeds of pity or conttm;>t 
with all competent judgjts of the Argument *, How far Dn 

• The fentimcnts of the celebratrd Mr. Anthony Collins upon 
thlf topic may, mth propriety, \>c rrfcrred to upon »hts occaiiort: 
'*• II ;be proof* of Chriiliaiiity from ihc Old Tcl!.: valid 

proofs. t^L-n it C'liftiaiitty ftron^Tv and i'lvinciWy ci: nn \x\ 

uii Bccaufea jroti i>muaiNv i 

pcii _ ^ ;: anil pr^^rh :cJ \\\ a^ 1 ::, 

are, wlicn iul. * lure aiid licmoiiilra* 

live proofi.— , proptr of all i^rgn- 

mcnrs C9 evince ilu ifuin of a fe/ciaii''>n* win-.ti H d'Tign^.l to be 
univc n.*!v or' aiLi!g.itcd 10 men. For ,1 man» f r c^tampic who has 
tbf put into his hand'., v.hich canbiins pr phccics, and 

the . ,,,. ...- r, uhiui conuins t! eir con^f^'lctii'n?^ :dd is once 

jans^ed* as he may be with the grc^^terl* fa*V, that the Old T« iKtmcnt 
exified beToft the New, may have a com p. etc, internal. diw^je-Jtmon- 
(Iration or Jhe truth of LhriJlunity* without long aTid Jiib rirus in* 
^uuic^.'* Diiijur/i tf IgXitcutdi atrd htefm ^f tht LtrijiuH iiiit* 
tic^, E-Iit, 1-74, p. 26» 27, 29, 30* 
' Voj., XXVII. A Sharpc 

% Sh AKVt'sfnifsd Ar^mtf^m Difinu of Chriflianttj. 

Sharpciiath fuccccJctl In the ' of thislubject, wc leave 

io the juilgnient of fuch js^^^^i^ ^^^,^...^xs^ liccidc ujmmi ic ;^nd 
iha.l now proceed to j^iyc ^iTanlicr accuuKt of die w uric • 

In the ftxth Cha^rfr he Ccnfidemhe difli native chairaidcTB of 
the two J, cffQrtgiiU'inMabchi iii. i.ihcMdrcr -- ti^i 

prepare thjt'^wiiy, and the LortI, even the M^ \r 

covenant. '-The milTicm «ind character of Jo!,u i 
the forerunner of the Lord of I afe, are rdprotcir cd 
j:^'li>ratl*cntion, bccaufc hist hiftgry is a proprr introiiucnon to 
••fliirof Jtfiis i his office was pr^pantory to (hat cjf our LorJ\ 
*-»^ind he bare record that Jcfits w^^the i5un of God, Tlic time 
*/ Qf J6hn'5 appcar^incc, ai diftin^iflied fcy the name of Ehjah> 
the7'isHBiTE,ortheCoNVERTER»orREii uRt-rt . and ot the 
Lord^ the Mctiongcr of the Covcnant> in whom the Jt:ws, m 
the days of Malachi, dcilj,hted» was to precede the final ddir ac- 
tion or Jcrufalcm. MaLchi prcpheficd under the fecond tem- 
ple, after the return ot the Jews from tlieir captivity; hence 
it is evident, that his prcdtdion of the corriing of a great 
perfon cannot be interpreted of Ztrubbabtl, or any of the 
Leaders of Ifrael out of their captivity : and a variety of cir- 
cumAances fix the time for the completion of the prophecy to 
the time when John the Baptill and our Lord appeared— The 
Delight of the Jews, the Meffengcr, tlie Covenant, and the 
great and dreadful Day of the Lord^ arc circumUanccs which 
afccrtain the time to be prior to the ficge of Jerufalcm, an J 
the confequent fubvcrfion of the civil and religious conftitu- 
rion of the Jews, The birth of John was extraordinaryi anj 
dJftinguiihcd, like that of Jcfus, by miracles ; which con- 
tributed to the great end of his miilion, fctting a luftrc upon 
hirOt and exciting a fuitable expcdtation concerning him z 
which was the more neccffary, becaufe he was to prqiarc the 
way of the Lord, and to make him raajiifeft unto Ifrael. John 
hath the name of two Prophets given him, — Mv Messekger : 
The original word is Malachi, the name of the Prophet, who 
dcfcrlbes him as the fore-runner, as one fent to prepare the 
way of the Lord, He is alfo called by the name of Elijah 
the Prophet ; and both appellations are expreflive of the cha- 
racter and office of him who was to he fent. Elijah fignifie^ 
the power of God, which was as remarkably fhcwn "in the 
pt^rfon, appearance, life, and character of John, as of that 
other prophet who lived in the days of Ahab. The firft 
and fecond Eli as were very much alike in aufteriry and fuffcr- 
ings, and calling men to repentance i both led abflemious 
and auftere lives, and dwelt in defcrts. John, though he did 



S H All ft'ffic:nJ jlrgtment in D/fina of ChrtJUan'ity* 3 

no miracle^ was filled with the Holy Spirit, zn^ inftruclcd from 
above how to difcrm the MelTiah. He knew from the gld 
Prophets th:;t t!, -cr of the Covenant, the Lord whom 

he had madeni.^ Ifracl, Wi* to do many extraordinary 

things ; and as he W35 in prifon^ and could not be aji eye-wit- 
fiefsofthe miracle$of our Lord, to give hisdifciples the fiilleft 
coDvidion, he fent two of them to ufk of Jefu^ himfdf, ** Art 
thou he that (hould come, or do we look for another ?*' Our 
Lord, who well imdc-rftood the defign of this meilagc, refers 
John to thcmir*iclei of which they had authentic evidence, — 
which our Saviour juftly calls a greater witncfs than that of 
John. John had been witnefs to the detent of the Spirit 
upon Jcfus, but the residence of that Spirit was to be 
proved by the miracles which Jefus continued to work, and 
of which John, when in prifon, could not be an evidence. 
Though he had heard a voice from heaven, proclaiming Jefus 
to be the beloved Son of God ; yet, to complete the charac- 
ter of the MeiTiuh, it was nccefTary thathefhodd accompliOi 
fdl that had been faid of him by the Prophets. And nothing 
could be more naturml than for John, who found himfclf de- 
CREAfiSG, to enquire whether Jefus encreasedj whether 
fhefpiritREMAiKED upon him, and enabled him to accomphOi 
the glorious works foretold of MeOiah in tlic Old Scriptures ? 
And if we carefully examine Luke iv, i, 14. Dr, Sharpens 
obfervations upon this ciicumftance, the continued rclidence 
of the Spirit, will receive fome additional lUuftrations. If We 
Tefie^^t upon the number of the people who followed John, and 
were baptized by him, and the regard they exprcfled for him 
both before and after his death, and yet no feih^ produced m 
ci>nfcqucnce of fiich belief and baptifm, it will, as Dn Shame 
apprehends, afford a very good argument in favour of tne 
fuperior power, dignity, chara^Ser, and office of Jefus. 
And Jahn*s excellent ch;ira<^er, even amongft the Jews them- 
felvcs, 15 fuch an argument m proof of his integrity, as wril 
make it more rcafonable to admit than reject the leftimony he 
gave, that j£st;s is the Son of Goo. 

Dr. Sharpc, in the feventh Chapter, enters into an accurate 
difcufTio*! of the prediiitions relating to the birth and charac- 
ter, life and death of the Meffiah, as given by Ifaiah, Chap. 
lii, 13 — 15. iiii* which he juftly ftylcs a moll celebrated 
oracle^ exhibiting to us, as in a mirror, his humiliation, fuf- 
fcrings, interccfiion, death, and glorious exaltation. In the 
various circumftancts of his life an cx.implc to his follower;?, 
ind to all the world, of every virtue, every precept which he de- 

A 2 livered j 

livcrcd i being the onJv pcrftd character that ever a|)pcar6(I 
in a human form, and the only Icgillator who fct the firtl 
example to all his lawr?. Having made fomc obfervations on 
the evident relation thii prophtcy hears to Jifns^ by com- 
paring events with die prcdicHoa> and how incxplicabk* it 

'muft have been before the completion of it in him, he pro- 
perly remarks, that the captious ought to fufpend their 

ccnfurcs of fomc dirk — *^--"' in the Prophet* at prcfcnt, 

•fincc one of the moft t d perplexed is by the events, 
in the due difpcnfiuicn ol Trovidcnce, made fo clear and in- 
telligible, that he that run** may read ^ni underftand it. 

'^rom hence he takes occafton to recommend to their fecond 
boughts thl^ very evidence, once fo perplexed and ohfcure, 
iiovv fo manifefti which on the one hand has not been weak- 

^encd by rdt that the Jew,^ have been able to brhi^ a^ainfl ir, 
and hath been piiwcrful eiiotjeh, on the other, to make fomc 
extraordinary converts. 

Who, indeed, can read this oratle, anti not allow Ifalah 
have been, what he i^ fumctimts called, the evangelical 
Pruphetf For the prophecy in every part is as appliLahle to 
Jcfus, as the account given of him by the holy tvan;^e!ilb. 
It is undeniable thj:t this predidion was extant ia our Sa- 
viour's time, becjufe he refcrsi exprcf^ly to it, as foretcllirjg 
what was to happen to luni ; and it was impofTible for him or 
his difciples, by any contrivance whatever, to have made hi* 
birth and life, his chara£ler and office, hU death and burial, 
SL.i\d the glorious confcijueiiccs of his fufferings and dciith, fo 
cxa£Uy to correfpond with the oracle delivered by Ifaiah. — 
That he (hould be numbered with the tranfgreirors ; and, 
though pcrtl-ctly innocent, die as a criminal on thefput where 
the moft wicked ofycnden fuffered ; that hn fhould be laid in 
the monument or f<:;pulchrc of a certaiji rich man, were cir- 
cumftances that could not be forefeen by any not cnducJ 
with the fpirit of prophecy ; — but hii fubfequent rcfurrcitioo 
and exalted dominion, arc circumllanccs ft; peculiar to Jcfus 
the Chrift, that they cannot be aj^jilicJ to any other being, — 
And this Writer's critical obfervations and reafonings upon 
the whole ferics of predicted incidents, and its exaft corre- 
fpondcnce to the fafls recorded in the Gofpel Hiftory, are fo 
pertinent and judicious, that we chufe rather to refer our 
Readers to a careful examination of w^hat he hath offered at 
lar[»e in thb Chapter, than detain his attention here with any 
dcfetlivc reprefentaiiun. 




Sh AILF e'j fiOind Argument in Drftna of Chrijliamty* $ 

The Doiflor having obfcrved^ ih.-it as much flrcfs aught to 
be hiJ on futh prophcrical parts of the Old Scriptuics, as 
have a manifcft rdauon to the McfTi^Ji, very jullly adds, 
that much c^re Ihould be tLikm not to injure the taufcof 
truth, by improper and fallacious applications. 

That the CXth Plalm is applicable to none but him, is 
generally aUowcd j i;nd the evidence of fuch an a'criprion is 
attempted upon fuch principles, as a literal verfion and ge- 
nuine unpfrvcrtcd rrirtcirm will fully fupport* Father Hou- 
btgant, he obferves, harh tjken very ccnfurablc liberties with 
the text, in order to adapt fuch a conftiudion of it as is 
moft favourable to an arbitrary and precarious hypothcfis. 
But Dr- Sharpc freely difclalms r.nd explodes ever}' alteration 
of the original text in tho^e oracles, which are produced by 
way of cviJcncc, l^hc Author of Nizzachon, or \ i-tory* the 
Jfcwifh Champion, applies this Pfalm to Abraham ; butAben 
Ezra truly remarks, that it could never be find of him, that 
God fiiall (end. the fceptre of thy ilrength out of Sion, Tlie 
Chaldee Paraphrafe, and Abcn Ezra indeed apply It to Da- 
vid, but with great impropriety j -for David cannot properly 
be called Cohek, or Prielf, much kfs zi\ lternal Piieft: 
Nor could David hy of himfelf, The Lord faid unto my Lord, 
fit thou on my right hand. If \vc compare the declaraiions 
of this Pfalm with IC\\,\\\ lii, liii. it will appear that the 
fame perfon is referred to, and that Jefus is the Mc/liah* In 
both he is dcfcribcd as one extolled, and exalted, anH very 
high, — is faid to have Icings and nations again li him, whom 

he is to fubdue and convert ; tht^y are to bccrmc filent 

through aftonifhment, and fliut their mouths before \\\m. — 
He is to- rule in the midll of hi^ enemies ; he fhall judge 
among the Heathen ; he ihall fhalce r.nd convert the hvads 
over muny countrifs. Mb feed is to increafr j his p;'Op!c to 
exceed the drops of the dew of the mornjn<^ : yet it pleafcd 
the Lord to bruife him* He is to drink of troubled waters ; 
and therefore, becaufe he hath poured out hi? foul uiiio death, 
ftall he be exalted or lift up the head. That we mav obfaia 
the full meaning of the cxprcit;ons ufcd in this Pfaim our 
Author thinks it neceflary that it ffiould becon.p-*r. d with the 
Oriental dialcdts, particularly the Arabic — becauf: the gram- 
majr of the Hebrew dialect was certainly taken from the Ara- 
bians, and the book of Job was written in old Arabic i and 
they who arc fldllcd in that copious lani^uagc, wi4 alh>w, trac 
v/ithout a competent knowlege ' i;v paffagcs in the 

Hebrew Scriptures will remain ir. u. 

A 3 TUe 

The Prophet David, in this Pfalm, proclaims the dignity of 
the Mefliah, as fitting at the right hand of Jehovah, witl^ 
Bowcr to rule in the midft of his enemies. In the third verfe he 
defcribes his attendants and followers : Thy people fliaH 
be egregious for worth and readinefs, eminently zealous in 

the day of thy army ; the clouds of witncflcs, the apoftles 

and their difciplcs which conftitute thy army, (hall fliine forth 
with refplendent fanftity, or in beautiful arrav of holinefs;— 
they ftiall exceed in multitude the drops of the dew from the 
womb of the morning : thefe are thy progeny, they who are 

born unto thee. Ifaiah liii. Thy feed (hall increafc, be 

numerous and fertile as are the early drops of dew from hea- 
ven. Kimchi apprehends that the beauty of holincfs refers 

to the temple. Should this be admitted, it is evident that 

Jcfus was found there, as himfelf fays^ ** I fat daily witl\ 
you, teaching in the ttmplc, Matth. xxvi. 55. If with others 
we fuppofc an allufion made to thc^ beautiful and holy city 
of Jerufalem, in this fenfe, the rod of his power came from 
thence; and the Gofpel, which is the " Power of God un- 
to falvation,'* was firft preached there. The word rendered 
thy progeny, is derived from a verb in the Oriental dialefts, 
which exprcflcs this character and relation ; and Aben Ezra 
refers to thefe words in the beginning of the verfe, by the 
perfonal pronoun, " Thou (halt fee them, (illum^ populum 
iuum) and they (hall come to thee like dev/." Concern- 
ing this metaphor of dew, the Chaldee Paraphrafe, in com- 
ipenting upon this Pfalm, explains it by thefe words : They 

fliall haften unto thee like defcending dew. Aben Ezra, 

whom Dr. Sharpe applauds as an excellent Grammarian, re- 
fers to Pfal. Ixviii. 9. " Thy people fliall come unto thee 
like A PLENTIFUL Rain." Dew is not only an image for 
fertility and multitude, but rcadinefs, as may be feen in Mi- 
Cah V. 7. "• And the remnant of Jacob fliall be in the midft of 
many people, as a dew fiom the Lord, as the ftiowers upon 
the grafs that tarricth not for man, nor waiteth for the fons 
of men." 

Verfe 4. Jehovah hath fworn and will not repent, thou 
art a pricft for ever after the order of iVIelchizedeck ; a nlme 
that imports a righteous King, the Pnnce of Salem, or of 
Peace. Jerom thmks that this alludes to the laft Supper of 
our Lord, becaufe Melchizedeck, King of Salem, brought 
forth bread and wine, and he was the Pricfl: of the moll high 
God. Gen. xiv. 18. Heb. V. 6, 10. vii. 1,2,3, &c. This 
Divine Being, both King and Pricft, was to be a Pricft for 







Sh A R TB,*sfcconfl Aritmmt in Bepme cf Chrijlianily, 7 

ever, zni not of the Lf vntical order, which was confined ta 
the fervicc ^f the temple ; and therefore to perilh with it. 

Verfes 5, 6, dcfciibe what ftall be done by tliis Prince and 
Pritft, and Lead'^r- forth of the army of the ^zinis, : The Lord 
on thy right hand, O Jehovah^ fhail Aitlcc^ not without reibrm- 
ing. Kings in the day of his indignation ; hcfhall execute judg- 
ment in the nations, furrounded with his army ; he fhull 
ihake, io as alio to convert, the chief ovci^ many countries, or 
n>ach land. The gtczitik difficulty in the interpretation of 
this Piaim, the Doctor thinks, is to give the fcnfe of the 
W6fds; which, in our Englifh Bible, arc rendered, He ihall 
fill the places whh dead bodies : and which he hath tranflated, 
3$ if, in the executi' n of his judgment, he vvas furrounded 
with his hoft or army. In the original no word is to be 
found for the PLaCFs; it is fupplied bvourTranflators: and 
if by ch;inging a letter, the word valleys may be introduced 
by Houbigant, the dead bodies difappcar indeed, and all fenfe 
with them* If wc derive the word which is tranflatcd hy 
•* dead bodtesi" from a firailar word in the Arabic, it may 
then fii;nify tents or armies i and our Author takes notice 

that Aben Ezra explains it by fabbaoth, or hofts. His 

words are, " Being thou art a juft King, as we find it writ- 
ten, and David was doing judgment and juftice to all bis 
people/' The fenfe is, You mall fight valiantly, for Jehovah 
will flrcngthen thy right hand, and bruifc in the day of his 
wrath. Kings by thy hand. The word who is wanting, as 
we find, 2 Chron, xvi. g* [wh05K] heart is pcrfciit.** And 
fa it 13 here : ** He will judge in the nations, he who is full of 
bodies J that is, To him is a great asimy : he will execute 
judgment in the nations upon much (orthcgrc;it) land, Ifraei, 
and Media, and Perfta, or upon Rabhah (the fons of Am- 
nion) of the Ammonites.'* — If this interpretation of the word 
BODIES, given by the moft learned Grammarian of the Jews, 
be right, the Pfalm is more applicable to Jefus, as^ the Chrift 
or Mcfliah, than in the fenfe given it hy Mr. Green, who 
fpeaks of ** the Youth 4>f thjr army" pd of '* filling the field 
OF battle with dead bodies." 

* The late Dr. Sylce?, as our Author here obferves, was mif- 
take^n in his interpretation of this Pfalm^ taking ihe dead bo* 
dies to have been thofe of the Saints and Mai tyrs i which con- 
ftruaion feems forced, and does not fuit with the context. To 

fv^ht with an armv 

of dcsid b(5dtc5, is very ftrange language i 

aud if to drink of the brook in the way is, as fomc have iru 

A 4 terprctt^. 

8 SuAfLTt^s/mnJ Argununt in Dtfenct of Chrijliamty. 

terprcted ii, to drink of a torrent of blood *, it is a ftraiigc^ 
cup. '* 1 df> not deny (fays the Do<ftor) the propriety- of 
this exprcHion* .ax army of Martyrs, meaning iht^ blL-fled 
Spirit .s nf thoic vv^ho l.n-l down their lives for CHaisr -, but 
the Hebrew word GuioTH, is not fuppofcd to fignify Spi- 
rits ; it fignifies here, we are told, dead Bodies* A^d 
the authority o. that great Rabbi, Aben Ezra, for the mean- 
ing of an Hirbrew wnrd, is not to be flighted ; and he inter- 
prets FULL OF Bodies, by a great Army, And we may 
afk. Where is the difference between many Bodies of 
MtN, and an Army of Men ? In Nehcm. ix» 37* and 
Ezck. i, II, 23. the wordGuiOTH fignifica Bodies, living 
Bodies, not carcaflTes* And from the Latin word Corpus 
we have two worJs, the one Corpse, i^gnifying a di- ad 
Bodv; the other. Corps, a Body* or company or regiment 
of men. An 1 Guioth not only fignifies Bodies, but ihc 
MiDDiEof things; which latter fignification may be fre- 
quency found in the Syriac. 

The Prcrorian Band among the Romans, like the Janizaries 
among the Turks, formed the centre or middle of the army, 
MEDIUM ACMEN. And if GuioTH bodies and the 
middle, it might well be m^ide ufc of to cxprcfs the hofls which 
furruund the Lord* In the common Translation we arc forced 
to fupp'y VALLEYS, or PLACES, to make room for the car- 
caflls of the flain; whereas, in Jcrcm. xxxi. 40, a valley of 
dead bodies is exprclTcd in very different terms, as it alfo is 
in xxxiii, 5. 

The laft vcrfe in the Pfalm, which in the Englifii Tranfla- 
tion is^ He ilnJl drink of the Brook in the way, fhould, 
agreeable to all tlie ancient vcrfions f, be rendered, " Of 
the Torrent in the way (hall he drtnk,^* — furely not of 
blood ; for that cannot be faid of Jefus the Chrift, neither 
can his way or life be compared with the calm Hate of him 

• Fufidetur tatitum fanguinis, ut ctirim llceat vlflori bihere c tor* 
rente fanguJnis caiforum, tium pcrfequetur boiles* — Rek iitephan^ in 
P/aimci Ui.fvidiu 

Cruorcm tantum occifoniin, quafi torrenccmf per vias emanaturum 
\ ciTc. ut dc CO bibere Cbdiiu* traulcuado, ct vifloriam profequendo 
jpollll, — AnHQtat^ BriuanL 

f I obfcrve they render tHJ^ ^ ^ wort! that fignifies a torrk^t^ 

|#ir x«*^*^"fwf'^^Thc Syriac word, Frpenius rendcn TonuBNSt Tro- 

Plliy? VALLis. Jt may therefore fignify fuch flocids as are formed ia 

the valleys, by die rains that rufti down ihehilU in winter; and wiU, 

conicquciuly, convey a ibrong image pf diflrcfs, 



SuAKFE*sfcci^nd Argument in Deffnce of Chrtjiiamty^ 9 

who drinks of ihe peaceful brook ; for, on the contrary^ he 
was to drink of riipid waters that toW in a deep channel^ and 
arc turbulent and (wift. The cup he was to drink of wa* a 
of bitter affiictions ; and therefore, becaufe he fuffered, 
id became obedient to many fufterings, fliall he be exalted, 
or his head ihall be lifted up. Compare Ifaiah liii. with 
Philip, ii. ^, 9* If ihefe critical and conjcdlural obfervatlonj 
arc right, the entire pfalm will appear as follows : 

Psalm CX. A Pfalm of Daviij, 

The tranflation of the Lngliih 

I. The Lord faid unto my 
^Ixird, fit thou at my right 
hand« until 1 iruikc thy ene- 
^mics ih) toofcftooL 

9. The Lord fhall fend the 
rod of thy ftrcngth out of 
Zion : rule thou in the midft 
|:cf thy enemies* 

3. Thy people Jhull be wil- 
ling in the day of thy power, 
in the beauty of hulinA from 
the womb of the morning : 
ihou haft the dew of thy 

4* The Lord hath fworn, 
^ and will not repent. Thou art 
1 a pricft foe ever, after ihc or- 
der of Melchizcdeck* 

5. The Lord at thy right 
hand (hall ftrike ihrou^-h 
kings in the day of his wrath. 

The new tranflation by Dr# 

Jehovah faid unto my Lordp 
fit thou at my right hand, 
until 1 make thy enemies thy 

Jehovah (hall fend the rod 
of thy Itrcfigth from Zion ; 
that thou mayeft rule in the 
midft of thy enemies. 

Thy people (ftall be) emi- 
nently zealous in the day of 
thy army, (ihall fljine) in the 
beauties of holincfs : more 
than from the womb of the 
morning to thee (ili;dl be) the 
dew of thy progeny. 

Jehovah hath fworn, and 
will not repent, Thau art a 
prieft for ever, after the order 
of Melchiiedeck. 

The Lord on thy right hand 

(O Jehovah!) hath fliakcn 

(fliall*fli ike and reform) kings 

in the day of his indignation. 

6. He 


' In theEo^Ji/h Bible and lire Vulsj^ie, the v<;rb« in thij pf^Im 
arc nrndcttd as if ibty w-crr in the future icoks hcciufe tlic events 
[jiKcy refer to arc futile. . I leave the reader to bb own choice, by 
inftfrtinji i\\zu whkh Uradirr a paraphrafc dian a uapflatioti, in a pa- 
tiJy 1 take the liberty to obfervc» that ninoy inftanccs m3,y 
'" ' rfDfcFiMTE u(c of the 

be prod&ocd of the prcmifcaous, or rather 

Itf ShaKI^eV ficnTtd Argument in Defefm df Chrfjframif, 

6. He fhall jiidge among 
the heatheo, he Ihall fill the 
pl(fcff with dead bodies : he 
fbAll wfitftM* the heads over 
many coumdesi. 

7, He fliari drink of the 
brook in the way: therefore 
(hall he lift up the head* 

He (the Lord) fhall exe- 
cute judgment in the nntron^ 
with a grentarmy: He (th 
Lord) hath fhakcn, (fha 
Ihakc fo as to convert) the 
chief over the great land (the 
Roman empire.) 

He (the Lord) fhall drink 
of the torrent (of afHiclions] 
in the way: therefore Iha 
his head be exalted. 

This I aft verfc is admlraWy well explained hy Jcrom ; 
aody to fticw that the ancient ecclefiaftical writers do fomc- 
times deler\x our infpeftion. Dr. Sharpe hath fet down his 
comment in the notes, and then adds, that if the Greek or 
Latin copies are to be followed raiher than the modern He- 
brew copies, nothing can exceed the intrrc comment of Jc- 
rom upon this pfalm. What the collation of manufcripts 
undertaken by the learned Dr. Kcnnicott may produce, time 
will difcover j enough hath been faid in this chapter to fhcw 
the ncceflity of fuch a work ; and without the authority of 
manufcripts, our Author fays, he will not prefume to a^ter 
the prefent Hebrew copies, nor indulge conjedture, while he 
is delivering ancient records, produced as evidence. How- 
ever, he thinks it is worthy of obfervation, that if the Greek 
verffon is to be followed in the third verfe, it will not be pof- 
fiblo to apply this pfalm to any other than J«.fus the Son of 
God, of whom alone it can properly be faid, ** Before the 
morning- ftar did I beget thcc/' — U^» Ewtf-fojou iymii<rpi (ri» 

The great and extraordinary cffufion of the Spirit forctolj 
by the prophet Joel, and poured out upon the apoillcs and 
difcipks of Jefus on the day of Pentccoit, is the fubjcct of 
the ninth chapter of this valuable work. The Author 
obfcrves, that the day of the Lord generally means the dc- 
ftru£lton of Jerufalem i but that the great Day of the 
Lord always fignifies the dedrudion of Jcrufalcm, cither by 
Nebuchadnezzar, or under Titus. 

Hence it is moft evident, that the prophet Joel, by the 
found of the firft trumpet, proclaims the diftrefs ajid ddtruc- 

preterite and future times, without the conveHjve Fan ; hefidcs, it h 
a well' known obfervation of the ChrilVian and Jewilh Doflors, that 
the prophet, feeing in his mind*s eye the events lip foretells, often 
fpcaks of ihcm as ahcady path 




Shakv^^s fe^ond Argununt in Defence of Cbriftlamiy. ft 

tion of Jcrufalem under Nebuchadnezzar ; and by the (ouni 
'<jf the fccond trumpet, its final dcftriiSion under Titus. 
He defcribcs, firft, the diftrefs of the Jewi by drought and 
famine, and their deftrutSlIon in the great day of the Lord i 
fhen the trumpet founds again^ and pioclamailon is made of 
the great things the Lord will do for his people and his land : 
he will remove from them the nor' hern armv, and reflorc 
the years they had loft by the great army which be had font 
among them. After this, the ufual trsnfition is made to the 
gofpel-age under the fccond temple j the, extraordinary cffii- 
Hon of the Holy Spirit, which then, and at ilo other time 
whatever, was poured out upon all Flesh, is next foretold 
in the clearcft and ftrongeft teiTns ; the other great day of 
the Lord, the laft deftrudion of Jcrufalem, ha^j then itt' 
place ; and this part of the propliccy clofcs with thcfe re- 
markable words, which may be confidercd as a fliort and 
comprehenfive view of the gracious declarations in the new 
irovenant : ** And it fliall coifxc to pafs, that whofocver fhall 
call on the name of the Lord fliall be delivered ; for in mount 
Sion, znd in Jcrufnlem Ihall be deliverance, as the Lord hadi 
faid, and in the remnant whom the Lord fliall call." 

There are various paiTages which, though cited from the 
Old Scriptures in the New, are not fuppofed to foretell the 
events they are applied to and faid to fulfill, but are only 
ACCOMMciDATi-D to thcm, and thcfc Dr. Sharpe confidcrs 
in the tenth and laft chapter, The Scriptures of the old and 
new covenant, he obferves, are to be confiJcred as one work, 
written by different pcrfons, at diiferent times, but didbited 
t»y the fame Spirit. They r^^late the uniform conduct of Qod 
to his pcoplo i and the divine proceedings, under the i:cw 
difpenfation, bear a ftrift conformity to thofc under the old* 
There is alfonot only a conformity of events, and an unity of 
defign, under the conduct of the fame Spirit in both Scrip- 
tures, the Oldas v/ell as New, but the promifcs contained m 
the former are accomplifhed by the latter, and ihcy both Je- 
fcribe the fume MeiTiah an invifible condui5lor of the people 
of God under the old difpcnHition, and a vifiblc guide to 
them in the new And Dr* Sharpe recommends it as a nc- 
ccflary Icey in the interpretation of the Scriptures of the new 
covenant, that many things applied to our Lord in thofe 
writings are his own word^, delivered under the char*i£ler of 
the Lord, the L'^^sr^ or Word, or Michael, and therefore 
not to be confitlcred merely as accommodattons of phnifcs 
taken from the Old Scriptures, and applied to difilrcnt pur- 
8 ^ufe% 

I3t SuARP^^sficend ^rgumetti in Drfence of Chriftanltj. 

pofes and pcrfons in the New* The fiiephf rd, c^Icd th^ 
ibllow of God, Zcch. xiiL 7, S, 9, was to be fm'tten, the, 
iecp were to be fcaitcrcj, I'hv liice events h;ippcneJ under 
hthegofpct ; the flicphcrd was finittcn^ the flicep were fcattcrcd ; 
kthcy were to endure fcverc trials a^nd their faith wa** to be 
more precious th:m gold tried with fire. To th? Jews otiTJ 
Saviour faid, ** Behold, your houfc is left unto you Jefolatc: 
\ and verily I fjy unto you, ye fhall not fee mc \uitil the time 
, come when ye flidl fay, Blefled is he that coineth in the 
{name of the Lord/' Our Saviour here forctellerh the defo- 
plation or dcftru6tion of Jenifalem ; and isiftcad of comforting* 
the Jews with the profpe£l oF a third temple, and the reftora " 
tion of bloody f;^crifices, in fome future age or advent of tho! 
Jllefliah, he ex prcWy declares, they fhall fee him no more till 
^ they acknowlcdec him, by faying, J31c(ll'd is he that romcth 
in th'j name oi the Lord. The inference which Dr. Sharpc 
f draws from thefc pafTages in rhe Old and New Scriptures com- 
pared, and which he confide rs as parallel, ii, that it h corn* 
mon for the Mcfiiah, the Word, to repeat under the new dif- 
penfation what he had before faid by the mouths of his pro- 
rphets in the old. Thus, ns to the pafTagc of Ifaiah, chap. 
Jx* cited by St. Paul, Rom* xi» 25 — 27, if wc fuppofc the 
prophet fj^eaks of fhc redemption of the Jews from capti- 
I vity by C)Tus, it is as evident that the MclHah was the lovi- 
[Cblc redeemer, as that Zcrubbal^el was the vifible leader of* 
1 Jcw5 ; and though St. Paul interprets the words in Ilaiah 
■ thrift, and not of Cyrus or Zerubbabcl, yet they arc- 
ptrucof him, that is, of Jcfus, not in a fccondary, or accom- 
modated meaning, but in their primary fenfc, as he com- 
manded in chief, and fupcrinterjded all in the care of God's 
people. The f;imc adtions arc fometimcs afcribed to the 
\ commander in chief, and the officer who ads under him, not' 
* that thefc paffa2:fs afford a double meaning, though they im* 
ply a fuperior and fubordinatc command. 

•^Thc Doflbr concludes, that ^hc hath endeavoured to. 
^manifeft the whole fchemc, or fyftem of the Old and 
I New Scriptures, to bt a f^ftem worthy of the facred cbaracr 
► ter impreffed upon it, what no believer ought to be afhamed! j 
■cif, or at a Iof:» to defend againft any attack; and this de- 
fence, we think, he has maintained with diflinjuiihcd learn- ^ 
ing, candor, and critical f.iracity. 


Ehminis of Criildfnu 

[ '3 ] 

Continued from p. 42S of loll Month** 

^B Ehmint 

^B TTTAVING* m our hft number, attended the noble 
" J I Writer through the theoretic and moft abftrufe part 
of this in^eninus work, we now with plcafai-e refume the 
fu^^jrtil, and proceed to the fitbrc{]tient volumes, which con^- 
* taia mattrr of gf^ster variety and cntertarnmcnt. In cxcm- 
plifyjri^ the parttcuhrs which fcnT to unfold thp principles of 
the fine arts, the Author difpJays very cxtenfivc and various 
erudition j and the mmy nice and acute crittcifms inttrfperfci 
throughout, fhew with what clofc attention and refined tafte 
he has perufed the moft admired authors, both antit-nt ai>d 
modern. He has opened many beauties, and dote 
ral hlcmi/lics in the bcft writers j and, from the v T- 

feds rcfulung from the illullrations referred to, he has en- 
deavoured to clbblJfh the rules o\' ^aik criticifm. But though 
the applicaiion of thcf? rules m:xY^ in fome mcafure, enable 
a reader to difcover blcmiftics, yet ihey will never teach him 
to rclifh beauties, which produce no efF^dt, unkfi the fuf- 
ccp^ibility of the reader :s con^mial with that of the Writer. 
It is well known, that the poetic excellence of our incompa- 
rable Miltin was, for a long time, hid under the veil of 
obfcnrity, till Mr. Addifon unfolded Ms beauties to the pub- 
lic eye; yet, even now, we may venture to affirm, that 
they who nftlct to admire him moft, build tlieir admiration 
on authority inftead of fentiment. In Ciorr, to recur to the 
diftinifHon v.*hich we endeavoured to eftabliih in the preceding 
articlr, the principles of criricifm, fo far as they regard the 
fenfitive part of our nature, are not to be acqufred by rule, 
Ncverthelefs, this W'ork niuft afford a moft elegant entertain- 
ment to readers of fine taftc, who will here perceive what an 
intricate combinatinn of caufes, perhaps hitherto unnoticed, 
have contributed to produce tho!c Itriking effects which they 
have fo fiTquently experienced. 

In the opening of the fecond vcjIui ^ 'jrdHitp treats 

of cQH^ruity and profit ieiy^ which co^ sU might have 

afforded matter fcr t larger fcopc than our Author has 
thought proper to aflign them* A certain fuitablcnef* or 
corrcfpundcncc among t]ii«t?s connc<5lcd by ;iny rclatioii, i^ he calU 45^wi</>v • " ' ^1, he obfcrvcs; ar^ 

coinmonly reckoned T : He endeavours, 

however, to eflablilhthe following ditluidfcion between them. 


%4 Lard Kaims'x EUnum: of Cntidfm. 

Congruity, fays he, is the genus, of which propriety is tTttf 
fpecie^. For we call nothing propriety^ but that cungruity 
or fuitablcnefs which ought to fubfttt between fcnfiblc beings^ 
and their thoughts, words, and a£t:ons. 

But is not this running the circle ? Might wc not as wc\\ 
£s.y\ thit ue can call nothing congruity, but that propriety 
or fuicablenefs, which ought to fubfill between fenfible be* 
ingft, and their i . words, and anions ? If it is necef- 

try to raifc adi. lv.*tv%'een them, would it not be bet- 

ter to fay, that die iuitablciurs of a^iy thought, word, or 
aflion, uhcn coniidcrcd with regard to a fmgle relation, h 
ftruftly termed Propriety : but when viewed with rcfpedl ta 
various relations, is more properly termed Congruity ? 

In explaining the final caufe of propriety he takes notice^ 
tfiat the fcnfe of propriety cannot juftly be confidered in any 
other light than as the natural law that regulates our condu6t 
with rclpe^t to ourfelves ; as the fenfc of juftice is the natural 
law that rcgulatis our coadui't with rcfpecl to others. His 
reflections on this head give intire fiitisfaction, and fpeak the 
genuine principles of unaffc(5led virtue and manly devotion- 
Dignity and Meannefs are the fubjetSs of the eleventh 
chapter* '* Man, fays our Author, is cnJucd wiih afenfeof 
the worth and excellence of his nature. To exprefs thia 
fenfe the teim Dignity is appropriated. Farther, to behave 
with dignity, and to refrain from all mean actions, is felt ta 
be not a virtue only, but a duty." On this occafion, his 
Lordfhip enquires how It comes, that gcncrofity and courage 
arc tnore valued, and beftow more dignity than good-n;itiire 
Of even juftice, though the latter contribute more than the 
former to private as well as to public happinefs? The an- 
fwer, in our judgment is clear and obvious : Juftice ^nd 
good-nature are a fort of negative virtues, that make no fi- 
gure luilefs they are tranfgreftcd. Courage and gcnerofity^ 
producing elevated cmotfbiis, enliven greatly the fenfc of a 
man's dit^nity, both in htmfelf and others i and for that rea- 
fon, courage and generofity are in higher regard than the 
other virtues mentioned. This leads our author to examine 
more dircAly the emotions and paffions with refpecl to thefe 
heads \ on which his reflexions are too copious for abridg- 

The next chapter treats of Ridlcvh^ a fubjcft which has 
been much controverted by the Critics. He firft eftablilhes a 
diftinftion between rifible and ridiculous objcfts. A rifiblc 
objcft piocuccth merely an emotion of laughter i a ridiculous 


Lird K aims'* EUnunts »f Gritidfm. 


dhjed i3 improper as well as rifible, and pro4uce:h a mixed 
emouon, which is Vjented by a hugh of derifion or Team. 
In the eoiyrre of this enquiry, his Lordfliip enters upon the 
difcuiriQw of that celebrated queftion. Whether Ridipile be 
or be not the teft of Truth ? 

** The queftion, according to his Lordfliip, ftated in ac* 
curate terms^ is. Whether the fenfe of ridicule be the proper 
teft for diilingui filing ridiculous objects from thofe that are 
^lot fo ? To anfwer this queftion with precifion, I muft pre- 
mifc, that ridicule is not a fubjcft of reafoning, but of fenfe 
or t^ifte, 1 his being taken for granted, I proceed thus. No 
perfon doubts that our fcnic of beauty i^ the true teft of what 
is beautiful, and our fcnfe of grandeur, of what is great or 
fubiiine. Is ft more doubtful whether our fcnfe of ridictifc 
be the true teft of what is ridiculous ? It is not only the true 
teft, but indtred the only teft. For this is a fubjeft that 
comes not, more than beauty or grandeur, under the province 
of reafon. If any fubjcd, by the influence of faftion or 
cuftom, have acquired a degree of veneration or eftcem to 
•which naturally it is not intitled, wliat are the proper means 
for w^iping otF the artificial colouring, and difplaying the 
fubjeiR in its true light ? Rcafontng, as obferved, cannot 
be applied. And therefore the on!y means is to judge bjr 
tafte, The teft of ridicule which feparates it from its artifi- 
cial connexions, expofcs it naked with all its native impro- 

*' But it ts urged, that the gravefl and moft fcrious mat- 
ters may be fet in a ridiculous light. Hardly fo; for where 
an o^jecl is neither rifiblc nor improper. It lies not open in 
any quarter to an attack from ridicule. But fuppofing the 
fat!t, I forcfee not any harmful confequence. By the fame 
fort of reafoning, a talent for wit ought to be condemned, 
bccaufc it miy be en^ployed to burlcfque a great or lofty fub- 
jeft. Such irrej^ubr ufe made of a talent for wit or ridicule 
cannot long impcle upon mankind. It cannot ftand tlie teft 
of correct and delicate taftc j and trwth will at laft prevail 
even with »hc vulgar. To ccrvJemn :t talent for ridicule be- 
caufe it oiay be perverted to wronjj purpofes, js not a little 
ridiculous. Could one forbear to fmile, if a talent far rc^** 
foning were condemned becaufc it alfo may be perverted ? 
And yet the conclufion in the latter cafe, would be not k& 
juft than in the former; perhaps more juft, for no talent is fo 
often |>ervcrtcd as that of reafon.'* 


f6 Lmrd Kaims'x EUmtnts 6f Criiidfm* 

This, it muft be confcflcd^ is the bcft deft'nct which hi 
been hithtTtu offered ia vindication ol^' Lord Shaftciburyl|| 
propofiiion, yet wc ciinne»t but fufpetf^t that there is fom« fal- 
lacy in the foregoing arguments. Ridicule, it is faid, ii^not 
a fubje£l of rcafoning, but of fenfe or taftc. But \% there 
not a juft tafte and a falfe tafte ? And by what criterion. are 
we to diliinguifh one from the other ? Is not rcaibn given 
us to corrc^^t the errors of fcnfc ? Does not every man's re- 
collection convince him, that obje£tshave appeared beautiful, 
fublime, or ridiculous, which upon reflection have prefented 
thcmfelvcs in a very different light \ Docs not that appear 
abfurd and ridiculpus to one man, which to another fccms 
proper and congruous ? Do not the folcmn formi of juilice^ 
and the gravity of a coiffcd head, ilrikc one with a feiifc of 
ridicuie, and make an impreffion of awe on another ? In 
thcfe cafes, which man*s fcnfe ftiall be preferred ? If the 
one fays, thi^ obje£l mud be ndtculous, bccaufc it moves in 
mc a fenfe of ridicule ^ has not the other as good a right to 
anfwcr,— this objedt cannot he ridiculous, becaufe it docs 
not affect my fenfe of ritlicule I How then can ridicule be 
the left of truth, which itfe If requires fome criterion, where- 
by to determine whether it be juft or falfe ? It may be ub- 
jeiScd indeed, that rcafon itfclf is fallible j but ncverthclef:* it 
is the luperior faculty of human beings, and is lefs prone ta 
error than fenfe, which is often affected by a fingle and f 
ingly fantaftic relation that frequently changes iti appear, 
when reafon takes its turn to operate, and to weigh the whole 
combination of circumftanc!cs. 

Neverthelefs, we agree with our Author, that an attempt 
utterly to fu pprcfs ridicule, would be higiily improper and in- 
jurious. It is frequently an entertaining, and, on many oc- 
cafions, a very ufeful taknt. At the fame time, we inilrely 
coincide with his Lordfliip, when he obf«.rves, that a tjlcnt 
for ridicule is leldom united with a tafte for delicate and re- 
fined beauties. 

The fybjc£i of the next chapter is Ctiftom; which» a,s his 
Lordfliip remarks with great accuracy, refpe£ls the action : Ha- 
bit the a<3or. Things, he obfervcs, which at firft are but mo- 
derately agreeable, are the aptcll to become h..b)tual. No 
man conttaiSts a habit of taking fugar, honey, or fwcc tomcats, 
as he doth of tobacco. 

Thtfe valcnt lieli^hu have violctkt ends, 
And iu liicir riinTi; h d*i. The fwcctefl honey 
Is I« ;itKfoii e iij i k o^vu d<'t)CtouiVicf<^, 
And m the (alle cunfoutid^ the appetite i 


Lard K aims'/ Eknh-riti tf Crltuifm. 

Tijererore fove modVattly, long love d- th fo; 
Too fwif: arrives as Urdy ^s too fl > , . 

The fame holds in the caufes of '' nt pleafurcs : great 

spaiTions, fuddenly raifed, are inci^ with a habit of any 


Cuftom augments moderate p1c*ifurcs, and diminifhes 
'4hofe that are iinenfe. It has a different effect with refpeft 
" lo pain ; for it blunt^s the edge of every fort of pain and di- 
ilrefs, great and fmall. Moderate plcafurcs are not long fta- 
tionary, for when they arc at their height they gradually de- 
cay till they vanifh altogether. The pain occahoncd by the 
want of gratification runa a very different courfe. This pain 
. incrcafes uniformly ; and at laft becomes extreme, when the 
pleafure of gratificatioji is reduced to nothings 

It fo ^v^ out, 

That what we have we prize not to the worth. 
Whiles we tnjoy it ; bat being lacked and lofl. 
Why then vvc rack the value ; then uc find 
The virtue that poiTcfiion wouM not fhew us, 
Whtift it was purs. 

With refpect to the efficient caufc of the power of cuftam^ 
his Lordftiip owns that it has unhappily evaded his keeneft 
fearch. But with refpc<^ to the final caufe, he thus accounts 
for it* Exquifite pleafure prod uceth fat i cry ; moderate plea- 
fure becomes ftronger by cuftom. Bufincfs \^ our province, 
and pleafure our relaxation only. Hence fatiety is necedary 
to check exquifite pleafures, which othervvife would engrofs 
the mind, and unqualify us for builnefsi. On the other hand, 
habitual increafe of moderate pleafure, and even convcrfion 
.of pain into pleafure, are admirably contrived for difappoint- 
jng the malice of fortune, and fof reconciling us to whatever 
courfe of life may be our lot* 

How ufc doth breed a habit in a man 1 

This fhAdowy defcrt, unfrequented* woods 
1 better brook than flour iihing peopled tawns. 
Here 1 can fit nlone, nnfeen of any. 
And to ihe nightingale'* compluining notes, 
Tuoe my diftrefrcs, and record iny woes* 

In the clofe of tins chapter, his LoruP What 

authority cuftom ought to have over our i itf arts ? 

But for this curious and critical difcuiTion, we rautt refer the 
Reader to the work itfclf. 

Rev, 7«rJ^, 176a. 


l8 Lerd Kaims*j Elements of Cntkifm. 

In the next chapter, which treats of the external figns of 
emotions and pafTions, his I^ordDiip obfcrvcs, that the foul 
and body are lb intimately connefted, that there is not a 
finglc agitation in the former, but what produceth a vifiblc 
cftc(5t upon the latter. We perceive difplaycd ex tern ally , 
hope, fear, joy, grief: we can read the character of a man ill 
his face j and beauty, which makes fo ftrong an impreffion, 
is knbwn to rcfult not fo much from regular features and si 
(mc complexion, as from good-nature, gocd*fenfe, fprightli- 
nefs, fwcftJicfi, or other mental quality, expreflcd fome way 
upon the countenance* 

T be external figns of pafiion are of two kinds, voluntary 
ind involuntary. The voluntary figns alfo are of two kinds : 
fome arc arbitrary and fome naturaK Words are arbitrary 
figns, but the manner of employing them is not ahogethur 
fo ; for each paflion has by nature peculiar cxpreifions and 
tones fuitcd to it. ** The other kind of voluntary figns 
comprehends certain attitudes and gcftures that naturally ac* 
company certain emotions with a furprifing uniformity. *' 

Ht^ Lordfhip's refle£lions on the involuntary pafTions fhew 
with what a keen and difcerning eye he has penetrated into 
the receflcs of the human heart. The involuntary figns, h^ 
remarks, which arc all of them natural, are either peculiar to 
one paifion, or common to many. Every violent paiTion hath 
an external exprcHion peculiar to Ufelf, not excepting pleii- 
fant paflions : witncfs admiration and mirth. The involmi- 
tary figns, fuch as are difplaycd ypon the countenance, are 
of two kinds. Some make their appearance occafionally, 
with the emotions that produce themj and vanifti with the 
emotions : others are farmed gradually by fome violent paf- 
fion often recurring ; and, becoming perfnanait figns of this 
prevailing paflion, ferve to denote the difpofition or temper. 
The face of an infant indit^atcs no particular difpofition, be- 
caufe it cannot be marked with any chaia6ler to which tira« 
is neccifary His Lordfliip, in the next 'place, examines the 
cffe£ls produced upon a fpeclator by external Ugnsi of paflion, 
of which none are beheld with indifference. They arc pro* 
dudtivc of various emotions lending all of ihem to ends wife 
and good. Of thtfe the ingenious writer gives an accurate 
enumeration, and proceeds, laftly, in a more particular 
manner, to unfold the final caufes, 


Though we cannot but admire the acutenefs, and, in ge- 
nciJkl, the propriety of his Lor Jilitp's obfcrvatiQns on thefc 

Lcrd KaiMsV Ehmtnts of Crttidfm^' 

external figns, yet we wifh» that he had examined the fubjeil 
ftill more minutely, and taken intoconfideration fame excep- 
tions to the general principles he endeavours to eftablifli, 
Wc agree with him, that ** Man is provided by nature with 
a fenfc or faculty which lays open to him every paflion by 
means of its external expreffions.** But with refpedt to 
** the firmanmt figns which fcrvc to denote the difpofition or 
temper,'* how frequently do they miAead us ? How often do 
rigid features and a fullen brow indicate a character to beau* 
fttrc and morofe^ which, upon more intimate acquaintance, we 
find to be placid and benevolent ? On the contrary, bow 
frequently docs a natural opcnnefs and benignity of afptft ferve 
to difgutle a rancorous and malevolent difpolition \ In Oiort, 
the fttrmanetit figns, indicative of character, frequently deceive 
the niceft phyfiognomift. 

In treating of fcntimcnts, in the enfuing chapter, his 
LofdOilp obfcrves, that the knowl-dge of the fentimcnts pc* 
culiar to each paflion, confidercd abrtr^<SedIv, will not alone 
enable an artirt to make a juft reprcfcruat:on of nature. Hfe 
ought alfo to be acquainted with the vtrious appearances of 
the iiime palTion in diffeicnt pcrfun». A paifion therefore 
fhould be adjufted to the character, the fentixncjits to the paf- 
fion, and the language to the fcntiments* The learned Wri- 
ter obferves, that an ordinary genius, inftead of exprefling a 
paflion like one who is under its power, contents himfelf with 
defer: bing it like a fpedtator : and he»gives e^ample^ of fenti- 
inents that appear the legitimate offspring of palTioii 5 to 
which he pppofes others that arc defcriptive only, and ille- 
gitimate* Fur the firft, he quotes Shakefptare's King Lear j 
and cites Corneille*s Cinna to illudratc the latter, lie then 
proceeds to ^ more particular and curious analyfis. ** Paf- 
lions, he obfen^es, are fcldom uniform far any confidcrablc 
time ; they genci-:»lly fluLluate, fwelling and fubfiding by 
turns, often in a quick fucceflion. A climax therefore never 
Ihews better than in cxpreiTing a fwelling paflion," 

AJmtiA. * How hafl thou chaim*d 

The wil-dnf r^ of tlie waves ard rocks to ihin* 
Thai tha* reVnring, they have given thee back 
To cai th, 10 light *ifid life, to love and me } 

^5 things arc bctl illuftrated by their contraries, his Lord- 
bip proceeds to collect f.^ulty lentiments of various kinds, 
. ,Tom claiTicaJ authors. And the firft iiijt^nce he produces, h^ 
of fuch aa arc faulty by being above the tone of the paf- 




Ltrd Kaims'/ EUffmtts $f Critmfm* 


O my (bur* joy 

If after even' tcmpcffl come fuch calm*, 

fsiXy the wu.ds blow lill they have wal;cn*d death 

Ant^ let ihc 1 ibourirt^ barkcitmb hill* of fcaa 

C lyfitpu^ high, ;tnd duck again a^ low 

As hcir$ ffom heaven I 

^ *♦ This rentiment, fays our Author, *s too ilrong to h€^ 
fuggcftcd by (o flight a joy as that of meeting after a ftorm at 
fca/' Here his Lordfliip will pardon us if we cannot fub- 
fcribe to the jufticc of his criticifm. For we cannot conceive 
that a meeting after a ftorm at fca, even between indiffererrt 
pcrfons, can, with any propriety, be termed a flight joy. 
But hi^ Lordftiip's ccnlure appears the more exceptionable^ 
when wc confidcr the vehemence and enthufiafm of OtheJlo's 
character ; and thai the meeting was between him and his 
beloved Dcfdcmona, his new-married bride, who had efcapcd 
a dreadful tcmpeft^ and whom he did not cxpedl to find 
on fhore ; for in the opening of the fpeech he fays. 

It gives me wottdcr, grcit as my content. 

To ftc you here before roe. My fours joy, Sec, 

Surely if fiich high-flown exprcfTion as Shakcfpearc has put in 
his mouth, is at any timcjullifiablcj it truft be on fuch an 
occafion ! 

The fecond inftance his Lordfhip produces Is of fentimcjits 
below the tone of p-.^ilIon. The ntxt^ of fuch as agree not 
with that tone ; as, where the fcntiments are tpo gay for a 
fcrious paflion 

Heaf 'o hrft taught letter? for feme wretch's aid, 

Some hauiihM lover, or fomc capiive maid ; 

They I ve, tht y fpcak, they breathe what love icfpircs. 

Warm Ircm the fju!, and faidiful to iti fir^s ; 

The virgin*s wifli without her fears impart, 

Kxcuff the bitjfli, ani pf^ur fo»th all the heart; 

Speed tlie foft interccniffc ftom foul to foul. 

And vvafc a fij^h troin Indus to die pclc. 

«« Thefc thoughts, our Author reiTTarks, are pretty; they 
fuit Pope extremely ; hut not Elolfa/* It may be a quefliont 
however, whether his Loi'dfliip's criuclfm is not ratiicr toa 
refined. Perhaps thefe amorous ^iid glowing fentiments are 
not altogether unfuit,iMe to ihc warm imagination and ex- 
quifitc fenfibllity of Kloifa, who, deprived of all intercourfe 
between her and the objcdt of her love, but by cpiflolary cor- 
refpondcncc, dwells ;tiid expaLiaCc:3 on that only comfort. 

1 The 


Ztff^K aims'/ Elements &f Crhidfm, 21 

The next inftance, is, of fenilments too artificial for a fc- 
riotis paflion. Fanciful or finical fcntimcnts, which degene- 
rate into point or conceit, are cenCured in the next place* 

Give jnc yourdmpj, yefoft-dcfccnJing rains. 
Q'\\*t iiic your flrcamj, yc never 'rafing fpnngs, 
That my fad cye^ may i\\\\ Jupj ^ my duly, 
Aud feed an everlalhng 6ood at ibrrow. 

His Lordfhtp proceeds to point out other inftanccs of faul- 
ty fentimcnts in the beft writers. His remarks are frequently 
keen and fagacious ; and even where he midalces, his errors 
are the errors of genius. 

The chapter concerning the language of palHon is curious 
and entertaining. Shakefpcare, our Author obfcrves, is fu- 
pcrior to all Qthcr writers in delineating palTion, He impofes 
not upon his reader, general declamation, and the fallc coin 
of unmeaning words, which the bulk of writers deal in. 
His fentimcnts are adjufted with the greatcft propriety to the 
peculiar character and circumftaHCes of the fpcaker j and the 
propriety is not lefs perfe£t betwixt hi^ fcntiments and his 
diiSion. Corneille, he remarks, is faulty in paflS^ng upon 
us his own thoughts as a fpe£lator, indead of the genuine 
fcntiments of palHon. Racine, according to him, is lefs in- 
correct than Corneille, though many degrees inferior to the 
Engli(h Author. Hts Lordfhip particularly takes notice of 
Shakefpearc's fuperiority with regard to his foliloquies, which 
are accurate copies of nature. He exhibits twa beautiful 
models from the tragedy of Hamlet and the comedy of the 
Merry VVives of Windfor ; arnJ then fele£b inftances, where- 
in the French writers, Corneille and Racine, are faulty in 
this refpccl. This chapter concludes with examples taken 
from the beft writers, wherein the language is not adapted to 
the tone of fejitimcnt- 

Laftly, his LordlhJp treats of the beauty of language, 
which he conGders, 1. With refpe£t to found. 2. With 
Tcfpe£i to figniJication^ 3. From the rcfcmblancc between 
found and fignification : and the fourth fcclion treats of ver- 
fification. Under the ftrft head, he confiders the founds 6f 
the diflFerent letters.— Thcfe founds a,s united in fyllables.— 
Syllables united in words — Words united in a period.— And, 
in the laft place, periods united in a difcourfc. This feaion, 
though to many it will appear abftrufc and dry, is replete with 
curious obfcrvations* 

B 1 Uadcc 


2% Lord KaiM3'^ Elements of Crituijtn, 

■ Under the fecond bead, the learned Writer obferves, that 
where, a refemblance betwixt two objects is defcribed, the 
writer ought to ftudy a refemblance betwixt the two members 
of the period, that exprefs thefe objefts : and, amongft others, 
Jie gives the ollowing exaipples ot deviations from this rule. 

•* I have obur/cd of h e, the ftylc of fr in? great minijiers very 
much to exceed that ol any other prcdnSlicn^y 

Litter to ti$ Lord H'gb Treafurer» S<w'/t, 

This, inftead of ftudying the refemblance of words in a pe- 
riod that exprcH'es a comparifon, is going out of one's road 
^o avoid it. inftead oi pradnSiionSy which reL-mbles not mi- 
nifters great or fmall, the proper word is writers or authors. 

'" If men of eminence are c^pofcd to cenfure on the one hand, 
they are as much liable to flaticry on the other. If thf y receive re- 
proaches which are not due to them, they likcwife receive praifes 
which they do not dcierve.'* Sje^la or. 

Here the fubjcft plainly demands uniformity in expreffion in-- 
ftcad of variety ; and therefore it is fubmittcd whether the 
period would not do better in the following manner : 

" If men of eminence be expofed to cenfure on the one hand, they 
arc aa much expofed to flairery on the other. Jf <hcy receive re- 
proaches which arc hot due, they likcwife receive praifes which are 
not due." 

As to his LordQiip's cmer^dation of the paflage citfed from 
Swift, it i unexceptionable : but we arc far from thinking that 
he has improved the paragraph taken from the Spectator. 
The period, as turned by his Lordfhip, is quite flat, 
and the refemblance is too aflFe£^ed to be pleaiing. As it 
ftands in the Spe£tatar, the period is full and round, without 
offending the ear by a difagreeable re-iteration ; and the re- 
femblance is as entire as if it had been extended even to the 
' words. In fhort, wherever the refemblaiKc between the 
obje£ls can be preferved without extending it to the words, it 
is beft, in our judgment, to avoid it; bccaufe it favours of af- 
feftation, which is alwatys difguftful. 

We agree with his Lordfhip, however, that, in many cafes, 
uniformity is preferably to variety ; as in the following in- 
. ftance : 

The wife man is happy when he gains hli own approbation ; the 
fool, when he recoin mends himfelf to the applaufe of thofe about 
^Uk Sfc^a/or, Numh y^, 


Lord Kaims'j Eleminls tf Crkul/m. 
Better thus : 


The wife nun is happy when he gains his own approbation ; the 
i<HA when he gains that of otheis. 

It fccms difficult, however, to eftaT:ilifh any certain rule in 
this refpef^. Perhaps ihc nature of the iuDJc<5t is the bcft 
guide to dircd us whether uniformity or wTifi^Vf ought to b« 
confultcd. In oratory, for inibncc, and all weighty compo- 
fitions, uniformity feenis moil fuitable, zs it renders the pe- 
riods more clofe, pointed, and nervous : but in familiar cflays^ ' 
and {lighter compoCtions, variety maybe thought preferable^ 
as it gives a more eafy, loofe, ajid unafFctUcd turn to the 

In the third fe£lion, his Lord/hip feleiEls inftances of the 

refcmblance between the found and fignification of certitin 
words } 25thefmnd of pt ting trcn in a wo 2d. 

Load founds ihe ax, redoubling ftrokcs on ftrokcs ; 
On all fides round the foreft hurli her o:iks 
Headlong. Decp-cchoing gruan the tliickcts brown, 
'X\[tTi ryjllirfg^ craikhngp crajUrgt thunder down. 

No pcrfon can be at a lofs about the caufe of this beauty. 
It is obvioufly that of imitation. The ingenious Writer very 
icutely obferves, that, to complete the refemblance betwixt 
found and fenfc« artful pronunciation contributes not a little; 
and he clofes this fe<?lion with fame ver)* fhrewd and pertinent 
obfervations on this branch of the fubjed. 

In the laft fcSion concerning verfification, his Lordfhip 
obfeives, that the diftindion between vcrfe and profe depends 
not on modulation merely, but arifcs from the difference of 
modulation. The diflFerence between verfe and profe rcf^m- 
bles the difference in mufic, properly fo called, between the 
fong and the recitative, A recitative, in its movements, ap- 
proaches fometimes to the livclincfs of a fong, which, on the 
other hand, degenerates fometimes toward a plain recitative* 
Nothing is more diftjnguiihablc from profe than the bulk of 
Virgirs hexameters ; many of thofe compofcd by Horace are 
very little removed from profe, Sapphic verfc has a very fen- 
fible modulation ; that, on the other liand, of an Iambic, is 
extremely faint. Hence his Lordfhip takes occafion to make 
fome very ingenious remarks on Latin or Greek hexa- 
meters, which are the fame, and which he confidcrs under 
the heads of number, arrangement, paufc, and accent* What 
he obfen^cs concerning the paufe is too curious to be omitted ; 
** At the end of every hexameter line, no car, fajs he, but 

B 4 muft 

24 A'l'if D'lLii'.guci cf the Dead, 

piuft be fenfibleof a complete clofc or full paufc. This ef- 
fcGt is produced by the following means : every line invariably is 
fini{hed with two long fyllabjes, preceded by twofhort ; a nne ' 
preparation for a full clofc. Syllables pronounced flow rcfem- 
ble a flow and languid motion leading to reft. The mind, put 
in the fame tone l»y the pronunciation/ is naturally difpoled 
to a paufe. And to this difpofition the two preceding fhort 
fyllables contribute ; for thefe, by contraft, make the flow 
pronunciation of the final fyllables the more confpicuous. 
Befide this complete clofc or full paufe at the end, others are 
alfo requifite for the fake of melody. I difcovcr two cliarly, 
and perhaps there may be more. The longcft and mcft re- 
markable fuccceJs the fifth portion, according to the fore- 
going meafKrc. The other, which being more faint, may 
be called the feml-paufe^ fucceeds the eighth portion ; fo 
ftriking is the pauf:; firft mentioned, as to be diflingiiiflied 
even by the rudeft ear. l^he Monkifli rhymes arc evidently 
built upon it. In thefe, it is an invariable rule, to make 
the final word chime with that which 'immediately precedes 
the paufe : 

De plan^u cudo || mitrum cum carmine nudo 
Mingere cum bumbis || res ell faluberrima lambis.^ 

His Lordfhip then proceeds to make fome very curious and 
juft remarks on Englifli rhyme, which he illuftrates by in- 
ftanccs from the moil admired poets : and towards the con- 
clufion of this fc6lion, he afTigns feveral reafons, in our opi- 
nion unanfwerable, why blaiik verfc is preferable to rhyme, 
where force and elevation of language is requifite. But we 
muft not forget that other articles claim a place ; and though 
it is with reluftancc that we quit a fubjefl, which, of all 
ethers within the circle of literature is moft intcrefting and 
entertaining, yet we muft poftponc the remainder of this ar- 
ticle to our next number, in which wc (hall take the third 
volume into confideration, and clofe the whole with fome ge- 
neral obfervations on the execution of this ingenious work. 

New Dialogues of the Dead. 8vo. 3s. fewed. Dodfley. 

THE grand defeft of modern produ£Uons, written 
in the form of dialogue, is, that the circum- 
ftance, in which their eflential difference from other literary 
performances Ihould confift, is too oftcli mere matter of form. 



l^tw Diakgues of the Dtad* 25 

*rKe many unfuccefsful attempts that have been made in this 
ipecics of writing, fufficiently indicate the difficulty of fuf-** 
taining the variety of characters introduced, of mnlcing them 
exprefs themfclvcs on all occafions confidently, and of giving' 
the wliole coaverfation that eafe and fpirit, which are requi- 
fitc to the perfeiSlion of dialogue. 

With refpefl to particular fpecics of this compofttion, 
which introduces the imaginary perfonage? of the dead, Lu- 
cian, the father of it, ftill bears away the palm from his fuc- 
ccJTors, many of whom have voluntarily laid thcmfelves under 
confiderable difadvantages, by profefledly imitating him- It 
is hardly pofllble for any one, who endeavours to tread in the 
ffeps, or even loofely to follow the track of another, to walk: 
with that native eafe and gracefulnefs of mcin, which may be 
othcrwifc peculiar to him, A certain ftiffncfs or conilxaint 
will always appear, even in the affcded eafe of an imitator^ 
who is never at full liberty to exert the ftrength and vivacity 
of his own genius. Otlier reafons might be i^iven, to ac- 
count for the manifcft fupcriority of Lucian in this refpck^t^ 
without recurring to that of natural abilities j the ilyle rxnd 
fubjeds of his dialogues were more various and ftrilcing, and 
confequently more intercfting and entertaining, thaji thofc of 
moft of his fucccffot s. In the attempts of the moderns, in- 

Ideed, want of variety in the ftyle, and imporiajice in the 
fubje*3, have been remarkably confpicuous. Fontenelle, it 
is true, has not unfuccefsrully imitated the ' .s Greek 

in his fprightlinefs and raillery* This ingei. nchman, 

liowever, is, like moll of his countrymen, often fprighily to 
cxccfs ; his wit is frequently forced, and the ttnn of his re- 
far tec quaint and affcclcd : the manly ftrength, unaffoirtej 
caft\ and ingenious fimplicity of Lucian^ arc what none of 
his imitators could arrive at. 
The profcfled Intention of the prefent writer is ** to revere 
at a great diftance the inimitable Lucian, and to ftcer directly 
between the unadorned gravity of Cambr3y,.and the relinefi 
(prightlincfs of Fontenelle." 

As to the celebrated Archbifliop of Cambray, he can 
kaxdly be cftcemed, in any degree, sn imitator of Luci*m, 
though be may fcrve as a contrail to Fontenelle, having ta xa 
a different route, more agreeable to his turn and Jifpofit-on. 

I If Fontenelle was thought to have too much levity, Fcnefon 
was judged too grave j if one was too whimCcul ajid fpri zhtly, 
the other was too formal and even dull : neither of them had re- 
tained to that happy combination of fpirit and fubftance that 
: : 

26 New DiahgUiS of the Dead* 

fo eminently diAinguifh the inimitable Greek, How evenlj 
©ar author has ftcered his intended courfe between them, 
will, in fomc mcalurc, appear from the following fpecimcns 
of his (lylc and manner. 

In his fourteenth dialogue, he introd\ice5 aStoic philofophcr 
and the Mogul, arguing the point, whether it be better for 
man to put off the evil hour as long as he can, by expelling 
and avoiding difagrccablc reflc(5lions and images of diltrefs, or 
to prepare <or misfortune and death, by familiarizing our- 
(clves to the ideas and images of pain and mortality ? After 
having cxpofcd fome of the idle culloms pradlfed by the mo- 
uarchs of the eaft, the Stoic proceeds. 

** Stvtc. As to the prohibition of the name of death in your 
prcfence, did you llkcwife prohibit it in the public and private 
hiftorics of your kingdom ? were the writings of your fub- 
jcdls as complaifant to you as their converfation ? or» if ihey 
were, could you expect the fame fubfcrvicnGy in the moral i(b 
of other n.itions ? and, above all, would the free-born fpirit 
of our phiiofophy crouch to you, lilce that of the wretches 
you commanded ? 

** MoguL I did not cxpe£l this* 

" Suk. If you did» had you guarded Hkcwtfe againit the 
thoughts of all the approaches to diffolution, as well as diJIcM 
lution itfelf ? did you forbid, with the name of death, the 

name of all things connc<5ted with 
inftruments, and means I 

it, its various miniftcrs. 

** MsguL No. 

♦* StQk* Were the flavcs that ftood before the cowardly 
monarch as careful of pronouncing the word mtfery as death ? 
did they never fay any thing of famine, pcftilencc, or fword ? 
were the numberlefs train of difeafcs unmentioned or un- 
known ? were, in ftiort, all the various accidents that deftroy 
the human fpccics utterly concealed and kept from view ? 

** MoguL This was impofliblc, 

** Stm, Then it was likewifc impofTiMc that you ftiould 
te free from this fear ; fincc, of the infinite variety of avenues 
that lead ta this formidable evil, you had, according to your 
own confciTion, fhut up only two. 

** M^guL Well, this was however fomething. 


NiW Dlahp^uei of thg Dead, tj 

•* S/wV- No; direflly contrary : and I may affcrt farther^ 
that if you had fliut up not only two but a miUion^ your caG; 
would have only been the more deplorable, 

** MoguL Though your feS has been always famous for 
para4oxes, yet furcly this is a ftranger one than has ever yet. 
been maintained. 

** Smu As ftrangc as it is, I make no doubt but that if 
you had attended, like other mortals, to the feeling of your 
own heart, and the view of human misfortunes, you would 
have feen it verified a thoufand times. For, as exalted as 
your ftation was, I fuppofe it was not always free from danger 
^nd vexation. 

" Ma^L Probably. 

*' 4J/0/V, Then this danger and vexation, whenever it hap • 
pencd, was always doubled to you above the reft of your fel- 
low-creatures, iut if it was not free from vexation, fo 
neither was it free from diieafc, 

*< M^gul No. 

** 5/tfiV. Then this difeafc like wife had not only ev^rypor- 
fiblc aggravation that iilnefs itfclf could have, but was alfo 
incrcafed an hundred-fold, by the dreadful apprehenfions it 
brought along with it of an evil that was fo terrible, that 
you durft not hear it mentioned* 

** Mogul, But why muft all this be augmented to me, 
more th;in to any other man ? 

*^ Stoic, Bccaufe it was fuddcn and unlooked-for i and be> 
caufe it happened to one who had neither been ufed to bear 
misfortunes, nor reflect on them. I will explain what I 
mean to you by a very celebrated example, which yet pro- 
bably may not have come to your knowlcge, becaufe the 

word death is in the ftory. When the news of his fon's 

^ . death was brought to Athenagoras, his only lamentation was, 

H *' 1 knew that 1 begot him mortal.** But now the frantic 

and unmanly grief of a Mogul on this occafion, his wild 

afpeft, and Indecent eruptions, his rent purple, his ravings 

^ . and dcfpair^ 

V «* MoguL Hold ! who told you of all this ? 

I ** Stoic, Experience, as well a? reafon ; from both which 

P^ I am aflTufcd, that men of your complexion are the revcrfc of 

ihc philofopherjutf mentioned i £.nd on the death of tlieir fa- 




28 New Dlakguis tf th T^fatL 

vouritc chi1d« afl as if they thought they had begot him «ii- 
mortal* And now on comparifon of thefe two forts of men, 
it IS eafy todifcovcr who has taken the beft way to happinefu, 

** MoguL So eafy, that I fee you have already determined 
how I wouJd have adlcd in diftrefs, and that It ts impofiible 
for one of my caft to be as cafy under affliction as your philo-^ 

" Suic. True ; for let us depend upon it, that all fudden 
evils are the moft terrible ; that they always Icffcn in propor- 
tion as they arc reflefted on » and that every man who is 
prepared for a misfortune has half overcome it; that this is 
not ouly a doftrine of the Grecian fchogi, but that it is 
equally true both in the eaft and the wjcft ; and that the mart* 
-who nc^lcfts it is equally unhappy, whether he be Stoic or 

Wc could wifti that the charaSers our author hath intro- 
duced wcre> in general^ better known ; and that the fubjci5la 
of their converfaiion were Icfs trite, and more uni\xrully 
interelling. In giving this intimation, however, it is but 
juft to mention the limited extent of our author's dcfrgn. 
♦* If, in the execution of this work* fays he, I can felci^ 
fome critical and important parts in the lives of fome re-* 
inarkable perfons i if I can make them fpc-ik in a m^mner 
fuitablc to their chttra<5ler and dignity ; if I can draw the 
reader's attention by a certain fpirit and embelllfliment proper 
to the narration ; and if, in the concluiion, I can coltecl 
fome ufeful point of doflrinc for the condu^S of human life ^ 
I ftiaU then have done all that my prefcnt plan admits of/* 
It Is certain wc have no right to cxpc£l more than is pro- 
mifcd; but though this may be futTicieni to juftify the author 
Jn the eyes of a candid critic, wc arc apprchenfive fomething 
farther may be required of him, if he experts to engage, 
in any confiderablc degree, the attention aJid applaufe of the 

In the following cxtra£l from the fourteenth dialogue, our 
author makes Lucian plead againft the furious zealot, Mct- 
linius *, on the impropiiet\- of engaging pcrfccution, defa- 
mation, or calumny on the fide of Chnflianity/ 

• Mtir.nms was a Catholic Writer of the tenth century, who wrofc 
a book, on purpofe to collcdl all ihe p gnn cahtmnic* thrown upon 
Chritliatjity ; but wrote it in fo angry «ns^ pcevifha manner* ihat/by 
a f4te noc uncomuKm to fnch furioas bi^^ou, he Said himlcif opcp la 
sXi ihc ceo (arc he had call upon the Heathens, and became hlmi^f 
jf^^'ld^CiW a caluQiuaior as any mentioned In hl^ work. 

** Ludoftp 

Nnv Dliihguis of the Dead. 

** Luctan. The defaming cither particular pcrfons or com- 
munities, by fuch groundlefs and ridiculous ftorles as thofe 
i' "lifl: now mentioned, !s, you fay, one of the blackcft and 
^ rioft complicated crimes that can be thought of, 

** Millinluu True. 

** Luctan, And yet, of all parties of men, none have been 
I jnore guilty of this crime than the Chriftians. 

*< Miltimus, What is that to me ? 

** Luaan, Somediing ; becaufc you arc of that feft. But 
^more; bccaufe of all Chriftians, none have been more guilty 
iiof it than Mcllinius.— You remember your famous work dt 
Diftnildtorihus Pagams^ &c, 

** Melltnius, I fliould hardly forget a thing which I hope 
Joes honour to my mcmoryj and is the princip:il action of my 

** Ludan. You will recollect then, that I have there the 
Jhonour to be diftJngutflied as the capital obje<5t of your fplcen^ 

and am finglcd out from much more illuftnous Heathens with 
[this remarkable teftimony in my favour : (viz,) ** God, the 
f revenger of wickednefs, punifiied the blafphemy of Lucian 
Cby a moft cruel an J fhameful di-ath j for he caufed him to %e 
T^torn in pieces by dogs ; wherefore let us leave him in this 
Linanglcd condition here, not at all doubting, but he will be 

cternallv mangled hereafter-" But becaufe no words can be 
Uo exprcflive as your own, I have always reckoned them in 

the number of thofc few things that are more particularly 
vorthy to be remembered j take them as follows ; Dtm tfh- 
\^ex fcdtrum Luciani rsttifTTi msriis ferttaU iff f ' cmtpea- 

Javit. Feat mim ut ziius a canihus dilacerat- an iUum 

, at qui in aterxum aUter dilacifaHduifi^ enkioH' 

** MflSnitiS* You arc very'* fair and pundual in the cka- 
^ tion i I wifli you prove {o in your comment upon it, Pio- 

<* Luaan, My comment I think is not fevere, when I fay, 
that thej^c feems to be no poffible aggravation of die crime 
you mentioned which does not belong to this. For, in the 
jirft place, vou have propagatfd an idle and ridiculous ftory, and 
for which there b not the kail foundation in all antiquit)'. 
Then you have rafhly made God the author of an imagmary 
ptini&meat, which required not his agency, if it had been 



,. 3^ -^^'^"-^ iJiaiogucs cj tijc Jjeaa. 

real. And to finifli all, vdu have mofi: charitably confignec 
I nic to eternal torments, ar.d that too with a certain grace and 

i manner, which one can never fulftciently admire. 

^' Mellinius. I muft own there feems to bt fomething pj 
warmth and indifcretion in this charge, but which may b< 
perhaps owing rather to my temper, than defigri. 

** Luctan. Indeed, from the fpecimeii now given of youi 
temper, there is fcarce any thing of this nature but may bi 
imputed to it. Yet your own charge againft the heathem 
might have taught you to folve it better : as amongft them^ 
fo amongft youj it was a common and prevalent fdhion tc 
blacken an enemy ; and not only Mellinius, but his whole 
fraternity, ' had encouraged it, as a thing expedient and ufeful 
to the common caufc.—You fee yonder, at a fmatt diftance, 
in as deep difpute as ourfclves, and not improbably on the 
fame fubjcft, the emperor Julian, and a zealous fatnerof the 
church. That father has aflurcd pofterity, that Julian, ir 
his laft moments, took the blood from his wound, and threv 
it up againft heaven, with this impious defiance, (viz/ 
** Galilean, thou haft conquered." And yet we know 
from one who attended that emperor in his laft unfortu^a^ 
expedition, and who has freely recorded his faults, that hi 
died in the moft calm and pliilofophic manner, without airj 

marks of refentment, cither againft God or man. Go now 

and boaft for what crime nature formed the choler ! and con' 
fidcr whether it be yet time to receive fuccours from iniide 
lity ! 

*' Mellinius . So, I perceive you are refolvcd to let me fe 
that you are fenfiblc of your fuperiority, and that the mere 
once mentioned, is not now to be cxpedled. 

" Ludart. No; for that is due not to the proud, but t 
the humble, of which number Mellinius certainly never ViZ 
one. I muft now then-fore infift, that the excufe whici 
might be urged in favour of fouie other men, can never b 
granted to you. 

" Mellinius. And fo, becaufe I am not a proper objcfl c 
this indulgence, you will now change its nature, and, in th 
true fpirit of Lucian, endeavour to convert it into gall. 

'' Lucian, You will not accufe me of that, though I ca 
you^ when you hear farther what I am going to fay : for 
comes from your own fcripture and your own comments, 

<« MdllfHu 

tNtiv DialogUis of the Dead. jf 

** MfHimus. Yet this would not have been the firft time 
hat both our own fcripturc and our own comments have beea 
polluted, in pafiing through fuch hands as yours. 

** Luaan, You will judge from what follows, whether it 
be fo again. — *— The poor Heathens, left to the dim twilight 
fe.of reafon, thought it right to hate their enemies ; and in 
confequcnce of that, did them frequently as much mifchief a« 
]iey could. 

** Millimus. True. 

** Lucian, But ye Chriftians, ennobled by a fublimer prin- 
ciple, think it right to love your enemies, and return good 

MMmus. Certainly no two truths can be more unqucf- 
lionable than thefe. 

Lkcian, \( tui therefore abufed and calumniated your 
&y it was in fome meafure excufable upon our principles, 
when we thought your doctrines fubverfive of our religion, 
and deftrudtive to the community. But when y&Uy on the 
ntrary, abufed and calumniated us, it was a fort of apoftacy 
ifrom your faith, and a defertion of that great principle for 
which your mafter died. And yet how in all ages you have 
contended with us in the vile arts of detradlion, I fuppofe I 

ilieed not any longer infift on." 
The author of thefc dialogues acquaints us, that they have 
lain by him in manufcript feveral years ; a circumftance which, 
though it fpeaks favourably as to the writer's modefty, we 
cannot help thinking imfavourable to the reception of hii 
work. Performances, that are fo long in making their ap- 
pearance, are expedcd to be particul.iriy important, elegant, 
and correct. The motive alfo which he afligns for publiftiing 
«»thcm now *, is fuch a one as, we fhould naturally think, 
^bhould have iiiclined him to fupprefs them \ as it cannot be 
Hdoubted but they lie under very great difad vantages, by hav- 
^P'ing been fo recently preceJcd by the ingenious and elegant 
dialogues of Lord Lyttclton and Mr* Hurd f* 

^^ • This motive ii the favoorablc reception of I ord LytitIton*s Dii^ 
T^logucsi for our accouot of which, fee Review^ Vol. XXU. p. 409, 
I Strc Review^ \ oL XX\ 1, p, jv 






TH AT the difbclicf of ;i religious fyftcm, jn a coisntsy 
where it is publicly profcllbd, fliould expofe a raan to 
popular oi^lium, is not ;it all to be wondered at* To call in 
qucftion the public rclig^ion ha:?, in all ages and nations, bccji 
attended with the f;mic, often with a fc\ercrfate5 even where 
the moft corrupt and barbarous fupcrftftions have happened to 
be edablifhed by law. The wifdom and exceHcncy of the 
iChri(ii:in tnJUtuuon, its happy iiiHucncc upon the beft in- 
tenefts of focicty and human nature, the able and judicious 
Apologies which have becii wio;c in its defence, and the ma- 
ny great name^ in the learned and philofophicaJ world, who 
have not been aftiamcd to profefs, nor refufed to become ad- 
vocates for it J art circumllanccs which greatly, and may wc 
not fay juftly* tnercafc the general odium which has been 
thrown upon infidelity. Whcre\-cr the marks of uniaimeis 
^and i' ' appear, they will not fall to excite 

^icd ^n>od men ; ;:nd the enemies of our 

d\y reiigion mull not pronounce the w*orld uncharitable, in 
enfuriiig every thing of this kind. 

But whatever kind or degree of crime the diCbclicf of 
[iChriftianity may involve in it ; and however it may be aa 
» evidence of defect in the moral difpofitioni of the nund, (as 
in too many inftances it certainly is) we cannot hdp think- 
ing 4t a ftran^e abufc of words, not to hv an extremely dan- 
gaous and pernicious one, to diftineuiih an invidious cha- 
racter by the name of Df est ; an appdbtton, in its primary 
and original mcaning»-of moft honourable import ; and which 
ought never to be connefted with any thing which 4nay juftly 
i>e efteemed impious or immon»L And though it may be 
rlruly faid,' that the uib of words is arbitrary j and that 
^where a word has obtained a gcnenil acceptadon, aiid«it 
^univerfaily underftood in the fame fcnle, no ill C0i0fci{ueiioes 
can arifc from it; w^e arc ne\erthclcr!* of opinion, thai thi^ 
abufe of the tenn Deist is particuUrJy calculated to miflead 
unwary rfitnds ^ to confound their judgments in things of the 
highcft importance ; and to lead them into conclufions which 
may be of the wortl confequ^ncc. 

To ufc the words which a noble writer and phttofopher has 
introduced into one of his convcrfation-pieces ; ** Averfe 



C}jriJ!iamty truf Da/fm 


fa Wc are to the caufe of Theifin^ or nsmc of Deist, >vhca 
taken ift a fcnfc cxclufivc of Revelation ; wi> confider fiill, 
that in ftriftnefs, the root of all is Theism » and cl^x to ba 
z fettled Chriftian, it « necdTary to be ftrit of all a gaoa 
Theist ; for Thtifm can onJy be oppofed to P^iyrhapn or 
Jthajm, Nor have we patience to hear the name of De isT 
(the highcft of all names) decried, and izt in oppoftiion to 
ChrtjUanity : as if our religion was a kind of jVJagk^ which 
depended not on the belief of a fingle Supreme Being : or as 
if the firm and rational belief of fuch a Being, on philofo- 
phical grounds, was an improper qualification for believing 
Enjr thing further. Excellent prcfumption forthofc who na- 
turally incline to the difbelicf of Revelation ; or who, thio* 
vanity, nffed a freedom of this kind*/' 

The judicious author of the little trcatlfc now before ws, 
^ which he has very properly called CukisTiANity 'iftug 

Deism, feems to be fenfiblc of the great abuf* and impro- 
'pricty, of which the above celebrated WTitcr complains; 

and has very well contributed his part to the recovery of the 
'word Detfl^ from its unnatural and perverted, to its original, 
j juft, and honourable fignihcaiion- 

His plan is, Firfi^ to ftate the true notion of Dtifm\ and^ 
.SiC0nM)^ to give a general %'icw of Chriftianity, as contained 

in the Scriptures i frxmi the dlfcufTion of which two points 
, he hopes it will appear, that the Dejjly however he may be 

vilified and afpcrkd, is not farfrnm the kingdom of Han*rn ; 
[that he Is not, nor can be, a bad man, or an tnnny t9 ChriJ" 
\iianity : and moreover, that no man can be a trtde Chrijfian^ 

Unlefs he be well-grounded in the principles of Deifm* 

** The DiiJI^ fays our Author, firmly believes that a Be- 
ing, all-wife, powerful, and good, muft have iiril made the 
world ; and that the fame power, wifdom> and goodnefs fHU 
prefcrve and govern it." Dajm is here directly oppofed ta 
Mhtifm only, which fuppofes that the world was made by 
' chance, and that it is left to chance to prefervc and govern 
it. It in evident, upon the firft view of this fubject, that 
upon the principle of Atheifm, there can be no fuch thing 
%& religion at all \ and that it is a fchemc of philolbphy^ 
which, if it docs not totally deftrgy, rauilr of neceffiiy have 
an extremely bad influence upon the interefts of virtue and 
morality j as it takes away the moft powerful motives to vir- 
tue; and fcts afide all idea of obligation, duty, and law* 


• Sh-ifielbury** Mi;>ralill3, part i, fcft. 2. 
Rev. July 1762. C Aihiifm 



Chrijilanity trui Dajht* 

Jtheifm dierefore is not only an irreligious, but an immor 
fcheme. On the contrary, Deifm^ or the belief of an inde-^ 
pendent, intelligent Being, who created and prcfides over th<l 
univerfe he h;is made, lays a foundation for religious regard J 
and if it fnould further appear, that this independent Bcin| 
is wife and benevolent ; that he is continually cxcrcifing a 
wife, juft, and gracious government ovct his creatures ; com-j™ 
municating happinefs to them according to their fcveral na^H 
tures and capacities ; and, by the immutable counfels of hi» 
providence, over- ruling and conducing all things to the uni- 
rcrfa! good ; then is th;?rc a foundation for religion of a moft 
amiable and liberal kind, and fuch as will have a moft pow^ 
crful and extenGve influence in favour of Virtue and goo 
manners. DetJ'm therefore muil be confidcrcd as the grca 
bafis of all religion; and it is, at icaft, prr>bable, thnt a Detji 
will be a gootl man : and if Chritl^anity be a fcheme of re 
figion which fuppofcs the exigence of GOD; aflcrts hJi 
uniTcrf;*! righteous providence > and is, in its confliiUtion 
and genius, friendly to the intcrcfts of virtue, it is Ukewife 
probable, that ^ Jlufid Deifl will be no enemy to Chriftlanityj 
and confcquenrly, as our Saviour faya^ h mi far from th 

Ihtgdim rf HarltrtJ* 

There is another pom t of light in wliich we'^SouU h2M 
wiflied our author to have confidcred D/j/m^ v'Vz. as the bclid 
oi OsEfupifW^ imdiigtttt Cfjyf^ m nppofition to Prjjth^rfrfn 
or the belief of txvo^ thr^^ or more Supreme Ecings. Dm 
is not more dlfiiiict from Athtifm^ than it is from Pdythdpn^ 
and though the latter does not, like the former, deft oy a| 
religion, ycc fo much docs it diftrart and confound the mind 
of men, and (o \\x Ic an avenue does it opetj to a variety 
tdol.itrics and iupcriHtlons, that it moft certainly iiTJuies pur 
religion ; and w;iS, in fa^S, the fource nf thofe numepoa 
evils and corruptions, of which our Author fo much cc 
plains, in the heathen world. Admitting that the grca 
multitude of tl\e piigan deitiesf were not confidcred in the fan 
point oT ' a!id authority with th? Supreme Deity, bii 

as inbt^ ;cnrs andminiftcra ; ihll • hey were rcprtfer 

cd to the generality of the pfople as the proper objefts ^ 
worfliip, and cfivinc honauii ; whi h naturally withdreV 
the attention of mrm mlndii from him tchs is sver aiiy and 
who, OS the fokircc of all good, is the folc objoft of fuprec 
worfliip ; and ;:s thefv* inferior dcititji were Irequcntly r pr< 
fc{)tci to be revengeful, crueU hifctvious, abominably v/ickcd 
and addicred to t:»e word of human vicc^ ; the runfi ici inj 
tlicfc as wor:hy objects of rJIgious homage luiturally ltd 



Cyifttanky irui Dtifnti 3J 

ti«em to a corrupt and barbarous method of worfliip ; che- 
riihcd the moit favage difpofitions in their brcafh \ darkened 
their natural fciifc; of good and evil ; funk them into the low- 
eli ftate of vice and ignorance; and only prepared them to 
be more pcrfe<£Hy enflaved by their priefts and leaders, who 
found their account in fuch a fyftem of religion. Delfm 
therefore, as oppofcd to Polyt!?€:fm^ and affcrting the exiftence 
and providence of only One eternal, powerful, \vifc> and be- 
nev^olcnt Mind, is a fcheme highly favourable to true religion 
and virtue j and mofV perfectly confiftent with the inftitution 
of Chriftianity, whofe fundamental principle is, nen is but 
One God. 

That there Were Deists of this fort in the heathen 
world, who believed the unity of God, who emancipated 
Ihemfclves from the groffer cvtor^ of paganifm, who enter- 
tained very pure apprehcnfions of the divine perfcdtions, and^ 
gave many wife and excellent inftruclions for the conduft of 
human life, may be ackjiowledged : but, notwithftanding aJl 
this, they outwardly conformed to the rites cf paganifm ; 
and gave the fandion of their example to thoft^ follies and 
fuperftitions of their countrymen, which in their hearts they 
dcfpifcd, and knew to be attended with the worft eifedts. 
Our Author thinks, ** that In this they were very juftifiable 
on the fcorc of prudence and felf-prefervation ; and that 
it was no more than a prudent compliance, which conciliated 
fhc tempers of men towards them, and obtained a more fa- 
vourable hearing to fuch things as were of real importance.'! . 
But in this wc differ from him ; and think wc cannot help 
perceiving, in his inftance, the ill effect of a religious efta- 
blilhment on a mind, upon the whole, enlarged and open, 
fenftble and honcft. Cumpliance, obedience, accommoda* 
tion, and fuch-likc prudent, felf-prcfcrving virtues, are well 
taught, and generally well-praclifed, in moft religious efta* 
bliftiments : biit we will be free to fay, tliat one inftance of 
ijyiritcd oppofition to the errors of the times, and the corrupt 
lions of true religion, even from a ftw wife and good mcn^ 
would be attended with more folid advantages to the beft in- 
terciis of mankind, than a whole life of compliance and 
timc-ferving prudence. Such paffive principles are of all 
others the grcateft enemies to reformation. If our worthy 
and venerable anceftors had afted upon fuch views, we (bould 
have been ftill in darknefs : and till the time comes, when 
fpirit and honefty ft ill get the better of timidity and com* 
ptiance, all h^^pes of farther reformation mull be at a diRancc, 

C 3 



Chrljiiamty true Deifm, 


Our worthy Author cxcufing us in this digrefilon, wc 
with plcafurc recommend our readers to attend him through 
the latter part of his plan v wherein, hantng already ftated 
the notion of Dei/my and prcfenttid the iiate of ft in the hea- 
then world ; he confiders Deijm under dvine rcvelniktty and 

ivcs 9 general view of Chrijlt entity^ 35 contained m the 
Scriptures* This part of the treat i,e is introdiiced with nn 
account of the ftatc of rtligion bcfoic the publifliing of 
Chriilianity. It is obferved, tliat the Jnvijh dtjpenjnu&n^ 
though a very ceremonious one, was inftituted to prcferve thc^ 
doArines of pure De'tjm from being entirely loft in the Pc^- 
thiifm of the neighbouring nations ; that the lucceeding prs-- 
pheti among the Jtws^ were eminent D/iJh^ of fupcrior rank^ 
^id higher authority to thofe in the heathen vioildi and 
who, not by complying with, but by exclaiming againft the 
corruptions of their countrymen, explaining the nature of 
Uiie religion, and recommending the practice of virtue and 
IP* ' tinef^, were the inllrumcnts uf Providence in prc- 
fc] knowledge and wodhip of the true God among 

that people, in oppofttion to idolatry : and in>lecd it might 
Have been faid, that the great defign of the iiupreme Being, 
id the whole ceconomy of his providence amongil mankind^ 
from the beginning, was to accomplifli this great end j and 
to prepare men for that more perfect ftate of pure and im- 
jwoved Deism, which was to be introduced by the infti tu- 
ti.on ol s Christ, The Author now proceeds to his 
gei^eral vi^w oi Chriilianit)' ; in which he confiders, 

1. The Author of Chriftianity, his fpirit and chara^cr: 

2. His chief employment, or the principal objeft of hjs 
preaching and mijiiftry. 

3. The liberty he aflerted, and the advantages accruing 
from it. 

The fentiments throughout the whole of this part arc fcn- 
0)k and rational : the view that is given of the gofpel and 
its firft founder ; of its conititution 7in6, genius ; of its mora^ 
lity i of its peculiar doctrines ; of the proper manner ia 
which it ought to be iludicd snd examined; and the fpirit of 
true moderation and freedom in which it is wrote, will, wc 
are perfuaded, be generally acceptable to thinking and in- 
quifuive men. From the whole, we are ourfelves convinced, 
that ChrijUamty is tru£ Deifm ; that it is the purett fyficm of 
the knowledge and worflxip of GW ; and that therefore a ra*- 
tional belief in G^d is the bctl preparation for receiving 




A fim-t Introdu^ion to Eftglijh Grammar. 37 

Chiiftianity. Jn a ftate of natural religion, as g99d Detjfs^ uc 
ascknou! 1 worfhlp the ^ne eniy true Gou; wherein we 

Gpafeto I h nr Pdythetfis : as Chritllans, wc are ftill 

D^iJIsy with this dtiJcrcncc> that wc not only acknowledge 
God, but Jesus Christ, whom God has Vent. 

Wc Jifmlfs this Article ivitb acquainting our Readers, that 
this little pamphlet is introduced with a very fcnfiblc preface, 
a.nd a dedication to the younger clergy of the church of Eng- 
land, in which are many things that defervc their attention^ 

jl fi^m lntr$du^ion t$ E- 
8vo. 3 ^ 

mmar : With critu&l Notcu 
. Miliar, 

TH E public is indebted for this judicious performance 
to the ingenious and ieiirned Dr. Lowth. It was ori- 
ginally intended merely for a private and domcftic ufe ; and 
the chief defign of it, 15, to explain the general principles of 
grammar, in as clear and intelligible a manner as poflible. 
y^ccordingly the Author avoids all difquifitions, which have 
more of fubtilty than of ufefulnefs in them; in his deiinitions 

he {- -^ prefers cafe and perfpicuity to logical cxa^fHiefs; 

coiT.f h the common divifions, as far as truth and reafon 

permit » and retains the known and received terms, except 
in one or two inftanccs, where others offered themfclves, 
%vhich feemed much more fignificant* In a word, his Intro- 
duciim is calculated for the ufe of the learner, not excluding 
€vcn the Joweft clafs. Thofe, who would enter more deeply 
Into the fubjcdt, will find it treated, as Dr. Lowth iuftly 
obfcrves, with the gr«ratcft acutcnefs of invefligation, per*- 
fpicuity of explication, and elegance of method, in a treatife 
entitled Hermes, by James Harris, Efq; the moft beau- 
tiful and perfeft example of aiulyfis that has been exhibited 
fmcc the days of Aristotle : — Of this worlc wc had the 
|vleafurc of giving an ample account in the Vlih volume of " 
©ur Review, p. 129. 

<< The following ftiort fyftem, fays Dr. Lowth, is propofeJ 
only as an ellav upon a fubjc^l, though of little cfteem, yet 

■ C»f no fmall importance ; and in which the want of fome- 
thing better adapted to rcai ufe and pra£licc, than what we 
have at prcfcnt*, feems to be generally acknowleged. l£ 

• When this was written, the ingenJous Mr, Prjdlly*s traft on this 
fiibj^^t which we iccommended in oar Review for January lait» b«4 

C 3 livQCc^ 


AJh$rt hiroduHhn u E^gVp Grammar* 


rhofe, who arc qualified to judge of fuch matters, and do ndt 
look upon them as beneath tncir notice, ihall fo far approve 
of it, as to think it worth a revifal, and capable of being 
improved into fomtnhing really uftful j their remarks and af- 
fiftance ftiaJl be received with all proper dcterence and ac- 
knowledge en t/' 

Such arc the modeft terms in which our Author expreflcs 
himfolf in regard to his peiformaiicc. In his preface there 
are fomc very fcnfiblc and pcrincnt obfervations on the 
Engiifh language, which^ during the laft two hundred years» 
has been much cultivated, confiderably polifhcd and refined, 
and greatly enlarged in extent and compafis : its force and 
energy, its variety, richntfs, and elrgnticc, have been tried 
with good fuccefs, in vcric and in profc, upon ail fubjects^ 
and in erery kind of ftyle; but whatever other improvements 
it may have received, it hath made no advances in gramma- 
tical accuracy* 

" It is now about fifty years fince Dr. Swift made a public 
rcmonftfance> addrc/kd to the earl of Oxford, of the impcfw 
fc£t lUic of our language! allegijig» in particular, that in 
iFwny it Jl (if, as it tffcndd tmiiKji every part cf grammdv. The; 
juHners oi this cc mpLint \\:^ never been queflioned j and yet 
poefFcwIual n*cihcd' has hitherto been taken to rcdrcfs the 
Grievance of which he complains. 

Dr. Lowth, in confiJering this charge, olfcrvcs, if it 
means thiit the En^liih language, ,is it is ipoken by the po- 
lite^ part cf the nation, and as it Itand:^ in the writings of our 
moft a%provcd autliors, oftentimes offlndii agaiull every par^ 
of grammar, the charge ^ he is afraid, is true. If it farther 
implies, thiit our language is in its niturc irregular and ca-* 
priciousi cot fuiijefl, or not eailly reducible to a fyflem of 
rules ; in this rcipect, he is perfuadcdj the charge is v/holly 
without fotind^vtion. The Iljic;! fb larszuagc^ we are tuld, is 
perhaps, of all the prcfent Eu:ope,m languages, by much the 
mofl iimple in Is form and conilrulion ; accordingly, 0115 
gramn^anans have thought it hardiv" worth while to ^ivc ua 
any .hmglike a r/gular and fyftcmatical fyntax. 

■ It is not owing thca to any pcculinr irregularity or difEcuU 
ty of our iangungc, that the general practice both of fpcaking 
and wr^Ltng it, is chargi^blc witli biaccuracy. It is not ti\^ 
language, our Author obfcrves, but ihc pra£>ice that is in 
fault. The truth is, grammar is vtry mucii neglected among 
US \ and it Is not the difficulty of tic language^ but, on the 


JJhort Intradunhn io Eftgif/h Grammar^ 39 

, ihe fimpiicity and facility of ic, that occafions this 
ncgle^* Were the language lefs cafy and fimple, wc fhou!J 
fijW uurfclvcs under a ncceiuty of ftud) ing it with more care and 
attention. But as it is, wc take it for granted, that wc liavea 
competent knowkge and fkill, ?\m\ are able toacquk ourlcivcs 
propcrl) in our own native tongue : a faculty folely acquired 
by wicy conducted by habit, and tried by the ear, carries us ort 
without reflection J wc meet with no rubs or difficulties .lit 
our way, or we do not perceive them ; wc find ouifelvcs able 
to go on without rules, and we do not (o much as Atlpefl that 
wc ft and in n^ed of them. 

A grammatical ftudy of our own language makes no part 
nf the ordinary method of inftruclion which we pafs through 
inour chi'dhood i and it is very fdJom that wc apply our- 
selves to it afterward. And yet the want of it will not be 
cfFcdiually ftipplicd by any other advantage whatsoever* 
• Much prafllcc in the polite world, and a general ac4uaintr 
ancc with fhe bt ft authors, are good helps, but, alone, will 
hardly be fuiBcient : we have writers w^ho have enjoyed thefc 
advantages in thdr full exteur, and yet cannot be recom- 
naendsd as models of an accurate ftyle. Much lefs then will 
what is commonly called learning icrve the purpofci that is, 
a critical knowledge of ancient langt:ages, and much reading 
of ancient authors : the greatcft critic and moft able gram- 
marian of the laft age, wc are told, when he came to apply 
liis learning and his criticifm to an Englifli author, wa:* fre- 
quently at a lof$ in maitcrs of ordinary ufe and common 
conftruflion in his own vamnuli^r idimh 

** The principal defigii of 91 grammar 6f any language, 
fevs our Author, is, to teach us to cxprefs ourfclves with pro- 
priety in that l^icguage, and to be able to judge of every 
phr^ife and form of conllrudtion, whether it be right or not. 
The plain way of doing this, h to lay down rules, and to il- 
luftrate dum by examples. But befid^s fticwing what is 
ight, the matter may be farther explained by pointing out 
Vhat is wrong. I will not take upon mc to fay, whether we 
have any grammar that fufficiently performs the fird part : but 
l^the latter method here called in, as fubfervient to the former, 
nay perhaps be found in this cufc to be, of the two, the 
^more ufcful ajxd effect ud manner of inftrudion* 

** Bcfidcs this principal dcfign of grammar in our own 
language, there is a fccondary ufe to which it may he ai>- 
plicd, and which, I think, i* not attf nded to as it dcfcrvct. 
jyod foundation in the general principles of grammar is, in 

C 4 , the 


Ajlc^i Jmndu^hn U EagSfi Gr 


ic firft place, neccfl^ry for all thofc who arc initiat':d in a 
learned cd mention ; and for sill othcra likewifc, who (hall 
;ive occ^ifion to furniih thcmfdvcs with the knowlcgc of mo- 
cni biigua^QS. Uiiivcrfal grnmmar cannot be taught ab- 
Jradcdiy : it muft be done with re/crencc to fomc Un* 
guagc already known, in which the terms are to be explain- 
«pd^ MXd the rules cxcmplihed. The learner is foppofed to b«? 
jinacquainted with all but his own native tongue; and m 
l^hat othcrj confidently with rcafon and common-fcnfe, 
|i*o;ild you go about to cxnbiii it to him ? When he has a 
pompctcnt knowlegc of the main principles, the common 
terms, the general rule^, the whole fubjcct and bufinefs of 
I " I in his own hnguage, he then wdl 

i _ ^ ^^t advantage to any foreign Ian;uage^ 

Whether ancient or modern* To enter at once upon the 
fcicnce of grammar, and the ftudy of a foreign language, is 
fo ctKOuntcr two difficulties together, each of which would 
"fcmtich Iclfcncd by being taken feparatcly, and in lU proper 
fcrdcr. For rhcfc plain reafons, a comp«;Jent grammatical 
Icnowlcj'C of our own language is the true foundation upon 
vWch ail literature, properly fo called, ought to be railed. 
*tf this ttiethod w^rc adopted !n our fchools j If children were 
tfirft taught thtf common principles of grammar by fome fhort 
ind clear fyflcm of Ertgitjh grammar, which happily, bv its 
iimplicity and facHity, is perhaps of all others the fitteft for 
iijch a piifpofc, they wcvutd have fomc notion of what they 
were going about, when they (hciuld enter into the Latin 
^mmniar ; and would hardly be engaged fo many years, as 
fhcy now arc, in that moft irkfomc and difficuh pisrt of lite- 
rature, with fo much labour of tl-e memory, and with fo little 
iijliitancc of the underftanding. — A defjgn fomewhat of this 
Jtind [TJive occalion to the ft 1 lowing little fyftem, intended 
tntrsly fur a private and domcflic ufe/' 

What our Author bss here advanced, with fo much mo- 
i3cft)^ and good fcnfe, v/HU we are p^rfuadcd^ be readily afi- 
fcnted to by every candid and unprejudiced reader \ qlxxA yet, 
Tuch is the amazing force of influence and cull:om, that little 
•or no attention is given to the ftudy of the Englifli Ian;;uagc, 
^\\\ this country, either in public or private places of educa- 
^iotr. It is, indeed, aftonijlilng, that, in l^ enlightened an 
age, and in a country eminently diftinguFflied by the noblcft 
privilege?, the plain di(5^atcs of rcafon and common fenfe 
• ilioiild Vc over-ruled and biTnc down by cuftom, in a point 
fsf fuch importance to public welfare, as that of education. 


BtTFraK*f NaUtral Htjicrf. 41 

kf^hcn f>nc confiders that our yoiith^ m general* arc employed 
^Hbr fo many years in the du!) drudgery of learning the (Jrcek 
^B|ncJ Larin languages, v/hilc the ftudy of our dwn, nay, 
^Krhat is ilill worfe^ white the ftvidy of almoft evrrj* thing elfc 
|Hiiat can contribute to form a gentleman, a good citizen^ or 
■"*5i Chriftian, If entirely ncglcftcd. It is JtnpoHil Ic not to be 

filled with the decpcft concern, and carndlly to wifli for a 


We fliall conclude this article wltli ol>fcrving, that our 
Author'^ mikat Notes clearly pruvc the charge of inaccuracy- 
brought againit our l:r s it fubfifts in pra«^ice, and 
fliew the nccciTity of i; jiig the principles of it, and 
ftudy ing it grammaticaily, if we would attaiii to a due dc» 
rec of fivill in it. It evidently appears from them^ that our 

ft authoirs have been guilty of palpable errors in point of 
grammar- The examples, which the Doctor gives, arc 
fuch as occurred in reading, without any very curious or me- 
thodical examinations ; and, he juftly obferves, they might 
cafily have been mu^h increafed in number by any one, wha 
had Icifurc or phlegm enough to have gone through a regular 
courfe of reading with this particular view. They are fuffi- 
cient, however, to anfwcr the purpofe intended, t/jz. to 
evince the neceffity of the ftudy of grammar in our own lan^ 
guage, and to admonifh tho fc who fet up for Authors among 
us, that they would do well to confider this part of learning 
as an object not altogether beneath their regard* 

%h£ natural Htjhry of the Horfc, 7q which h aide J ^ that of the 
AJi^ Buiiy Osw^ Ox^ Shtif^ Gc£tt^ and Swine^ ^§^ih mcu^ 
rait Defer iptkm of thar feveral Park* And full Diri£fiom 
for hredittg^ ffding^ STid improving /- ' / Creatures 

Trarijlotid from thi French of the <tf/t'/v ^ i. dc Buffon. 

Svo. 5s, m boards. Griffiths. 

NATURAL Hiftory has always bccri conftdercd a« t 
ufeful and inftru<^ive fciencc, ta k enlarges our idt?a% 
by making us acquainted with the nature and properties of 
^the marly objcfts that furround us; and accordingly many 
^authors, indifferent parts of Europe, have exerted their u- 
Icnts in elucidating a fubjcft fo beneficial tofocicty. Among 
^—thefe the famous M. de BufFon» and his coadjutor M. D»u- 
^Hlcnton, have diitinguifhed themfdves, and blended the cu- 
Hf' rious 

^Z Buffon's Ndtttrai Hijhry^ 

riou^ with the ufcful Parts of this fcicnce ; and as they have 
formed no fyltcm, but lol lowed nature clofely in every parti- 
cular, they have explodfd a multkude of errors commitrcd by 
other authors, in tupport of a fa.vourite hvpothefis, and fufii- 
cicntly ihcwn, that it b not by contracting the fphirc of na» 
ture within a narrow circle, but by extending it to immen- 
fits^, that we can obtain a true knowledge of her proceedings. 
*' The views of the illuUrious * author of nature," fays M* 
Je BuiFon, " are not to be fathomed, by attributing to him 
t)ur ideas: infte;*d of curtailing the limits of his pov/cr, they muft 
fee widened, und extended to immenfity, Wc are to confi- 
der nothing impofliblc ; we arc to imagine every thing, and 
to fuppofe that whatever can does exift. Ambiguous fpecies, 
irregular produ<itions,anonia]ous beings, will then c^afctoftag- 
^ T us, anJd^vill be found, in the ir^finhc order of things, as ne- 
ct jVary as others. They fill up the intervals of the chain ; they 
form the links the intermediaiepotnts,and alfo indicate the ex- 
rcmines, l^h^fe beings arc, to the human mind, valuable and 
iguJar copies, in which nature, though apparently lefs con- 
lilt vnt with her iifual method, thews herfclf more openly ; in 
^hich we may perceive marks and charaitcrs, denoting her 
td.^ to be miich more general rh?n our views j and thru, as 
T^z. tio-s nothing in vain, 4he atfo does nothing with the 
4cfigns wc impute to bcr," 

On ("ch cxtenfive prrncipjcs, unbi^i^fTcd by fyftcm, or the 
kuthoritv of any other writer, the natural hiftory of M, df 
Bi'^on IS executed ; and, at the fame time, all the particulars 
r lating to each fpecies of animals, that have the Icail ten- 
dency tu improve its qualities, or difplay its chara£lcr, are 
<;^efully enumerated. 

As a fpccimen of this large work, the piece before us, con- 
taining the na*ural hidories of fomc of the molt ufcful ani- 
muU ia nature, is puWilhcd, and contains complete treatii'cs 
on the horfe, afs, horned cattle, fhecp, goats, ,;nd fwine, 
in whicn the manner of breeding, fattening, and improving 
ihcfe valuable creatures is particularly explained, and a great 
yajicty of curious qucftions relative to their nature and pro- 
perties, are difcuflcdj and fjtisfachjrjJy anfwered* 

' The degeneracy of horfes has been long known, and fcvc- 
ral methods hax^c been taken to prevent it. It is apparent, 
that thefc drfferenccs proceed from the air and food ; but tht 

• Wc do not remember ever to have (cen t)m inadequntc epithet 
applied to the Supxcmc i^quctadof. 

4. only 






BuffonV Natural Hijlsry, 4 J 

fioly method of preventing it is by crofTmg the breed. Out 
Author *s rcafoning wiil throw conllderable light upon this 

** Nature," he obfcrves, " has, in every fpecies, a gene- 
,ral prototype, after which each individual is formed: this, 
"in the realization, degenerates or improves from circum- 

ftances : fo that with regard to certain qualities, there is ap- 
' parently a capricious variation in the fucceflion of individuals, 
I and, at the fame rime, a remarlcablc fability in the whole 
t fpecies* The rtrrt horfc, for inilance, was the external mo- 

W, and internal mould, by which all horfes that have ever 
tiftcd have been formed : but this model, of which we only 
lit now the copies, may, by the communication of form, and 

by its increafc, have undergone fome difadvantageous changes, 

or, on the other hand, received improvement. The original 

fonn wholly fubfifts in each individual. But though there 
;i»re millions of thcfc individuals, not two of them are, in 
irery particular, exactly alike, nor confequently any one of 
[ them the fame with the model from whence it received its 
iform. This difference, which at once demonftrates how hr 
I nature is from fixing any thing abfolutely, and the infinite 

variations fhe fprcads through her works, is feen in the hu- 
^ inan race, in every fpecies of animals and vegetables, and, 

j^i a v/ord, in every fcrics of beings. But what deferves at- 
Stention is, that the model of beauty and goodnefs feems di* 
jUributed throughout the whole earth, every climate affording 
Lonly a portion ; and this continually degenerating, unleft 
rie-united with another portion from fome diftant country : 
tifo that to have good grain, beautiful flowers, &c. the fced< 

inuft be changed, and never fown in the foil that produced 

them. In the fame manner, to have fine horfes, See. fo* 
^jcign ftallions muft be given to native mares, or fo- 
^ reign mares to native ftaliions : for otherwif?, the mother 

will fo powerfully influence the form, m^ to caufe an apparent 
^degeneracy : the fonn remains, but diiligurcd by many diffi- 
Lfnilar lineaments. Whereas, let the breed be mixed, and 
[•tonftantly renewed by foreign fpecies, and the form will ad- 
vance towards perfc*5tion, and recruited nature difplay her 

phoiccft produdions, 

«* The general reafon for thcfe effedis does not belong to 

lis place i yet we may be permitted to mention the conjec- 

[|ures which at firll ofter thcmfclves. Experience {hews, that 

animals> or vegetables, tranfportcd from a remote climate, 

pitcn degenerate, and fomctiincs greatly improve, in a fmall 

i time i 

^' Bcf roFiV Natural Hiprj. 

tJ|tlc ; I nw?iin within a XKrty ic^* generations. TKat this ft 
flit tffitft of a difference of climate and alimcnt> is ca^jr to 

conceive: JJiid, in length of time, the influence of thcf^»iw» 
caufes muil render iuch animals ex.mpt from« or fuTcemible 
of " ' ^.> and diftcmpexs. Their tcr nt 

IV, 'j tl^c formaaon, which parti ids 

on ti>c aiimvnt, and partly on the qualitr pf the jjJices, mull 
alfo undergo a change in die faccciijon of a few gene rations. 
l*hi& charge in the iirfl generation is almoft io^pcrcepuble^ 
a^^ ihe two at' ^ ' r-ale and fcmJc, wbith vve fup- 
poft' to be th of the fpeclci, h;.J obtaincJ 

their fuU fhs^c ^u coiiUitution rcfore thc) \vl lit 

irosn ibcir n;itive country f and that however a u .i;c 

and food may chiwi^c their temperament, ther canaot act oa 
the folid i^i nrarini-al ii*irLs^ 1(> as to alter ihcir ih: ' *^ "^'>', 
CAfilly if they had attained their ful] growth :. co r^ 

ill the fill" I, there wiiJ be no *' lif 

^hangq; n a the firllprodudiioii t>i .^^ 

tjK imprciiion i^i tlit t^odcl will be cxa*:L At the iaii^mt of 
lluirbinh) there will be no radical dufed \ but the joting ani* 
imiii during its weak and tender fiatc, wilKccl tlie InHucnces 
of tlie climate. They will nmlte other different impurfliucis. 
o^ him, than they did on his full-grown and d»m. Thofc 
of the alhnent will be much greater, and ad on the organic a! 
parti during ihcirgrow*th, fo ^s to vitiate a Hide the original 
tQnn» and produce germs of imperfedions, which wiJl very fcii- 
^biy appear in a feccnd generation, when the parent, befidcs itt 
pwn dcfi-'ds, I mean thofe it derives from its growfh, has alfo 
th * , of the fecond 'in, which will be then more 

iV iarked : ;inda; generation, the dcfedscf the 

iacond and third Auck, c^uicd by the influence of the climate 
and aliment, being again combined with thok- of tlic nrcfcnt 
in^ucnce in the growth, v.iil become fo palpable, 114 

t^.r- ■' -1' -f the original ilock ; fo that th(.ic .uijiiaIs 

I II wrli have nothing f<u reign in them, but 

h Jm:il«r to the natives. Spanifli or Barb-Horfes, 

A\ - t.Ld arc thus managed in France, very often at the 

fecorid, iind always at the third, become fo entirely French 
hnrfcn, that, inflcad of preferving the brccd^ there is a ne- 
cclTity of croiTing and renewing it at every gcncratJan, by 
importing BarVand Sprmifh horlc^ for the ufc of native mares. 
And it 15 very rcm.irkabic, that this manner of renewing the 
breed, w^hich is only in part, or as it were by halves, has a 
much better tfR iTl than if the renovation was total. A horfe 
and marc of Spain wiH cor, in Frimcei prcwiuce fuch line 




Buffon'j Natm-ai.Hr/hry* 


>rfe8 as a Spanifti ftallion with a mair of the country* 
"his, however, will be cafily comprehended, if wc confuitT^ 
Nat when a ftalHon and marc of different countries are put 
Itogether, the defers of both arc < '^red. Kv 

Ifnzitc, by its own influences, and t) he food, i 

la certain conformation, which is faulty through fomc exccf^i 
\6r defcfl. But in a hot climate there will be an excefs of tire, 
I in a cold climate there will be a defeft, 2nd zw vtrfj. So 

that, by joining animals of thefe oppofite climates^ the cxcds 
lof the one fupplies the defe£ls of the other. And a> that 

reaches nearcft to perfection in nature> which hjs the feweft 
Ifeults, and the moft perfect forms being only fuch a^ have 
[the fcwcft deformities, the produgc of two aninaalii^ whofo 
Vdcfedls arc exaAly balanced, will be the moft perfc^a produc- 
[tion of that kind. And this equaUty is ihe moft Siccuratdy 
ladjuftcd, the more diftant the countries are, or rather the 

more oppofite the cJiroatea natural to the two animals arc ta 

each other. The compound refult is the more pcrfcd*, as the 
'^oefles or defects of the fta!lion*s conftitution are more op- 

poi^e to the cxcefTes and defeats of the marc." 

Thefe obfcrvat ions of our author fufficientlyfticw, that the 
long pedigrees of horfes, difplayed with fo much oftentation, 
prove thevcry rcverfe of what they arc intended to prove ; for ic 
is evident, that the farther any horfc is removed frc»m the firft 
production between a foreign ftallion and a native msrc, fa 
much greater its dcfe»9s will be i and confecjuently, a horfe 
will be better in proportion to the ftiortnefs of his pedigree. 
A great variety of other remarks, equally ufcful and enter- 
taining, arc interfperfed in the natural hiftorv of the horfc, 
and which are therefore recommended to the perufal of every 
lover of that generous animal. 

In the natural hiftory of the Afs, M. deBuffon has difcufleJ 
bnc of the moft curious queftions in natural h if lory, namely, 
the degeneration of animals. He a(ks, whether the horfe 
and the afe arc originated from the fame ftock, or whether 
they arc not and have not ever been different animals ? This 
curious qucftion he has anfwered, by confidering nature in z 
new point of view. He very juftly obfcrves, that ihofcani-^ 
mals which produce together individuals capable of producing 
others, are of the fame fpecies, while thofe that produce to- 
gether onfy fuch individuals as are defedlive and barren, arc 
of different fpecies. And as the mule, produced between the 
horfc and the afs, is not capable of propagation, thei'e tw© 
Aiumab arc of different fpecies, 

3 la 

^ BOFPON*/ Natural Hijhry* 

In the natural hiftory of the Ox^ M, de Buffbn has ad* 
vanced a phUofophical hypothcfts, which feems to defcrve 
attention, as \i tends to elucidate the courf: of nature with 
regard to the food of different animals ; and as the thou^t is 
]iew> wc ihall inlcrt it for the fatisfatStion of the reader. 

-* The furfacc of the earth," fays this ingenious naturalift, 
decked in its verdure, is the incxhauftiblc .ind common 
'Ibu ret- from whence man and b^aft derive their fubfift. nee: 
whatcv r hvcs in n.iture^ lives on. what vegetates j and vcgc- 
tabl s, in their turn, live on whatever has lived and vege- 
tated. Ir is impollible to live without dcftroying ; and in- 
deed it is only by the deftruftion of beings that animals can 
futfift ihcmfclvcs, and propagate their fpecies. God, in 
creating the firft individual of each fpecies of animal ajid ve- 
getable, has not only given a form to the duft of the earth, 
but has rendered it living and animated, by inclofmg in each 
individual a greater or leifer quantity of acHve principles, of 
organical molcculae, living, indiflructible, and common to 
all organifed beings. Thcfc molecular pafs from bod^to 
body, and equally contribute to prcfent life, and the conti- 
nuation of life, to the nutrition and growth of each indivi- 
dual i and after the diflblotion of the body, alter it is reduced 
to afhes, thefe organicii molecular, on which dcata has no 
power, funive, circulate in the unjverfe, and pafs into other 
beings, bringing with them nouriflimcht and life. Thuf 
every produciion, every renovation, eVL^y increment by ge- 
11 by nutiitioui by dc\clopnunt, fuppo'cs a preceding 

fl t, .*! cnnverfit*n of fubilajier, an accfuon of thofc 

orgaiucai molrcuLT, which do not-nuiluplvf but ever fub- 
filHng in an equal number, render nature always equally full 
of life, the e.irth cqti.illy peopled, and equally ftiining in the 
original glory conferred on it by its Creator, 

* ConfiJcTingthcrcun-e beings in f^cneral, the total of tht 
Huancity oi* life is perpetually tht- fame; and however death 
'may appear to dcilroy every thing, itdcftroys no part of that 
primitive life wliich is common to all organized beings: 
dcathi like all cither uibardinare and fitbakern powers, attacks 
only individuals, ftrikcs only the furface, defrroys only the 
form } he makes no impreflion on the fubilajicc, and, inftead 
of injuring nature, caufcs it to ihine with greater luftrc by hi* 
iJepredati<^*ns, If nature permits death lo cut down indivi- 
rUuils, and, \\\ pnrjcefs of ijme, to dtfttoy them, in order to 
Jlv vv lur fuperiority to death atid Time* to cxcrcife her ever* 
active pt>wcr, niaiufcff h:r fujncft by her fccundi%y, and to 





inake of the univcrfe, by the reprodudlion and renewal d 
beings, a theatre ever crowded, a fpes^acle ever iiew : yet 
flic never permits death to annihilate the fpecles, 

** That beings may fucceed each other, it is ncceflary 
[that there be a dcftruclion among them; in order to the 
liouriilimcnt and fubfiftence of animals, they dcflroy vcgcta- 
. bles or other animals, and the quantity of life continuing 
ever the fame, after as well as before the deftrudtion, it 
I fecms to be InJifFerent to nature, how much fuch or fuch a 
> fpecies is dcltroyed ; yet, like a provident mother, in the 
Ifnidft of her incxhauftible abundance, (he has limited thcr 
I expence, and prevented any wade, by implanting the carni- 
[vorous iniHni5t in very few animals ; and even thife voraciouj 
fpecles fhe has reduced to a fmaJl number of individuals, 
I multiplying, at the fame time, both the fpecies and indivi- 
duals of thofe which feed on herbage \ and, in vegetables, 
file feems to have been profufe, both with regard to the num- 
ber and fertility of the fpecies* Perhaps man has not a little 
[contributed to fecond her views, with regard to maintaining, 
and even cftablifhing, this order upon earth ; for in the fea 
that indifference, we fuppofcd above, is confpicuous ; all 
fpeoies there being more or lefs voracious, living on them- 
fclvc5 or others. They are perpetually preying on, withouc 
ever deftroying, each other \ bccaufe the fecundity is equal 
to the depredation, and the whole con fump iron incrcafes the 
' reproduftibn- 

** Man is known to cxercifc his power over the creatures 
iJi a lord -like maaner ; thofe, whole flefli pi cafes his tafte, he 
has fclefled, made them domeflic flave , multiplied them be- 
yond what nature would hcrfclf have d .ne, formed of them 
numerous herds and flocks, and, by his care to brin^ them 
into being, he feems to be entitled to the power of (laying 
them for his kS^\ but this power, this fight, he extends far 
beyond his wants ; for, cxclufivc of thofe fpecies which he 
ha:> tamed, and difpofvS of at plcafure, he slfo makes war on 
the wild creatures, biids, and fifhes, Inft-ad of confining 
hioifclf to thofe of the climate in which he lives, he travelt 
iiv from home, he even vifits the Teas for njw dainties, and 
all nature fcems h;irJlv fufficisnt to fati^fy his intemperance, 
and the inconftaiit variety of hfs appetitesp Man confumes, 
I he alone fwallows, more flefh than all the be:^fh together de* 
Vour ; thus is he the greatcft dcftroyer, and even more from 
.wantohncfs than necclTity. Inftead of enjoying, with mode- 
ration, the ^ood things within his power ; inftcad of Hbe- 
lalJy ciifliibuiing them, inllead of repairing when he deilropr^ 


4S^nV /.:.V... / Hihr^. 

ar.l r-r:\vi"!a: wh'.n '■. .':-:;i-^'^ .1 . ^, i!ic ip.iii of fubfrance 
place: . li wii'jic glory in Cv-r.i aiiiig ; he piiucs himfclf in 
deftroyip^ mor^ ii; Cj.c (ipy, at \\\\ table, than would alFord a 
comfortabh iub:i -Mite 10 'ca rA riiir.ilics, I'hus he exercifes 
his tyrannical po^vcr ct|ual:y over animals and men ; others 
pining wit:: hrngcr n:.c^ toil, cr.]y to fatisfv the immcile^te 
appetite, and the tti'^ ly.or? inf.'.'inble Vi^nity of this man; 
wlio, while he ij dci'ioyinj otlicrs by want, is dcftroying 
himfclf by his cxcL-iLi. 

*' Yet njan, !;I:i: the bcafts, m■^^ht live on vegetables ; for 
flefh, however an. lagous it may be to flefh, does not ai&rd 
better nourlflir.icnt than grain, piilfc, or bread. True nou- 
xifhmenu, that which contributes to the nutrition, the growth, 
and the fubfiLhmce, is n<.t ti;;;t inanimate matter which 
fccms to conftitut;: the texture of the flcfli or the huh, but 
the organical molcciilje contained in the one or the other; 
as the ox, which feds on grafs, acquires as much ile/h as 
man, or any other carnAorous animal. The only real dif- 
ference between aliments is this, that an equal quantity of 
ileih, corn, and grain, contains many more organical mole- 
cuK-e than grafs, the leaves, roots, and other parts of vegc^ 
tables, as we have afccrtained from infuiions made with the& 
different fublrances : fo that man, and thofc bcafts whofii 
llomachs and intLitincs are not of a capacity to receive a very 
large quantity of ailments, could not hold a fufficiency of 
grais to furnilh the quantity of organical molcculae neceflary 
to their nutrition. And it is on this account, that man and 
the o-hcr animals, which have but one ftamach, can only 
fubfift on flcih or corn, which contain, in a fmall volume, 
a verv large quantity of the nutritious organical molecule; 
but the ox, and other ruminating animals, which have fcvc- 
ral ftomachs, particularly one very large, and which will con* 
fcquently contain a large volume of grafs, find it fuffi- 
cient to lurnilh the neccilary quantity of organical molcculae 
fbv their nouriftiment, growth, and iiiultiplication. Here the 
quantity compenfates for the quality of the nouriihment, 
which, in cftciSt, is the fame ; it is the fjme fubllance, the- 
famt organical molecula?, by which the ox, man, and all ani- 
mals a.e iiourifhed." 

It would extci^d this article far beyond the bounds allotted 
it, to enumerate the many curious remarks contained in 
thi$ trcatife ; we are therefore perfuadcd that the reader, if 
he has any tallc for natural hiftory, or any regard for, or in- 
tercft in, the animals defcribed in this work, will thank us 
jEor.recaoiciendiug it to his pcrufal. 



t 49 ] 

^^ndnJUn cf the Amount if ibi Life and fFritm^s tf Hint J 
fiftdin^^ EJqi See OUT tail Appendix, publifb^rd ihit 

WE irc Aow arrived at the fccond grand epoch of Mf, 
Fielding's genius, whcn^ as Mr. Murphy remarks, all 
his (aculiles were in perA!£l unifoii, and confpircd to r i 

complete work , " 1 1, fays he, wc confider Tzm fsmi i ri ^ 

light in which the ableft ethics have examined the Jixcd^ the 
Mneid^ and the Par^dlfi Lo/i^ namely> with a view to the 
fable, the manners, the fcntiments, and the ftyle, we ihajj 
find it ibriding the tcft of the fcveieli criticifm* In die firit 
place, the ad^ion has that unity, which is the boall of the 
great models of coitipofition ; it turns upon a finr' 
attended with many circumftances, and many fu: ; 

Jncidenta, which fecm, in the progrcfs of the work, to per* 
plex, to entangle, ahd to involve the whole in diSicuhics, 
and lead on the reader's imagination, with an cabernets of 
curioIUy, through fccncs of prodigious variety, till at kngih 
the different intricacies and complications of the fable ara 
explained after the fame gradual manner in which they had 
been worked up to a crifis : incident arifes out of incident : 
the feeds of every thing that ftioots up are laid [fovl^n] witK 
a judicious hand, and whatever occurs in the latter part of 
the ftory, fecms naturally to grow out, of thofe paflages 
which preceded i fo that, upon the whole, the bufinefs with 
great propriety and probability works Itfclf up into various 
tnibarafimcnts, and then afterwards, by a regular ferics of 
events^ clears itfelf from all impeoiments, and brings Itfclf 
inevitably to a conclufion ; like a river, winch, in its pro- 
grcfs, foams amongft fragments of rocks, and for a \\h\\6 
fecms pent up by unfurmountablc oppoliiions ; then angrily 
daflies for a while, then phjnges under ground Into caverni, 
and runs a fubterraneous courfc, till at length it breaks out 
again, meanders round the country, and w ith a clear placid 
llrcam flows gently iiUo the ocean. By this artful man^igc- 
racnt^ our j^uthor has gi;^cn us the peffciSlion of fable | 
which, as the writers upon the fubjeft have juftiy obfervcdf 
confjfts in fuch obftades lO retard the final iflucof the wholC| 
as fhall at icaft, in their confequences, accelerate the citaf* 
tropbe, and bring it evidently and necciTarily to that period 
only, which, in the nature of things, could arlfc from k ; 
fo that the a£Han could not remain in fufpcnfe any loagc^i 
but mull naturally clofc ajid determine itftlf#-*^- 

tltr, Juf^^ i;6ai 1^ 


T7v ^orh ef HlNRY FlELDIKfJ, Efii 

** In the exfecution of this plan, thus regular and unifarm^ 
what a variety of humorous fceiics, dcfcripttofis, and cha- 
TZ&tTi has our Author found means to incorporate with the 
principal a£lion ; and this too, without diftrat^^in^ the rea- 
der's attention with objects foreign to his fubjt;<^, or weak- 
ening the gencnil intcreft by a mukipltdty of cpifodical 
events* Siill ohfcrving the gmnd cffcntial rule of unity in 
the dcfign, I believe no Author has introduced a greater di- 
verfity of chara«5tcrs, or difplayed them more fully, or in 
more various athtudes. Mworthy is the moft amiable picture 
of a man who doc^ honour to hi^i fpccirs : in his own heart 
he finds conftant propentlttcs to the mfjft benevolent and ge- 
nerous a^tions^ and his underftanding conduifts him with dif- 
crction in the performance of whatever his goodncfs fuggcft* 
to him. And though it h apparent that the Author laboured 
thifs portrait c9Jt ^more^ ijtnd meant to offer it to mankind as a 
juft objcd of imitation, he has fobcrly reftrained himfelf 
within the bounds of probability, nay, it may be faid, of 
ftricl truth j as in the general opitjion, he is fuppofed to 
have copied here the features of a v^orthy charafter ftill in 
^eing. Nothing can be more entertaining; than Western \ 
his ruftic manners, his natural undifciplined honefty, his half- 
cnlfghtcned underftanding, with the felf-plcafmg fhrewdnefo 
which accompanies it, and the biafs of his mind to miftaken 
politics, are all dL-lincated with prccifion and fine humour. 
The fillers of thole two gentlemen are apdy introduced^ and 
give rife to many agreeable fccncs. Tom yone$ will at all 
times be a fine Icflun to ynung men of good tendencies to 
viiCue, who yet fuffcr the inipctuofity of their paffions la 
hurry them away. Thwmium and Square are excellently op- 
nofed to each other ; the former is a well-drawn pi^ilure of ft 
Sivinc^ who is neglc£lful of the moral part of his chara£^er, 
and oftentaTiouOy tilks of religion and grace ; the latter h % 
ftrong ridicule of thofe, whej have high ideas of the dignity of 
<>ur n tnre, and of d^c native beauty of virtue, without own- 
ing any obligations of cnndiuft from religion. In fhort, ad 
the chara<I:lers down to P^rfrir/gr^ and even to a maid or ail 
h« ftler at an inn, arc drawn with troth and humour: and 
Indeed they abound fo much, and arc fo often brought for- 
ward in a dramatic manner, that every thing may be faid to 
be here in action ; every thing has Maj^ner? ; and the very 
manners which belong to it in human life. They look, th«^ 
ii\j they fpeak to cur imaginations juft as they apjicar to es 
in the world. *rhc Sentiments which they uttcr^ are pe- 
culi'tly itnfttXcd to their hsAnts, paffions, and ideas i vrUch 



IVith th£ Lift of the jfuthr. 51 

fg wn!it poetical propriety requires ; and, to the honour of 
the authcjr It mud be Tia, that, whenever he addrefies us in 
peifon, he is always in the intercfts of vinuc and religion, and 
iai'pirc:^ in a fttain of ingral reflection, a true ]ovc of gt>od- 
ncfs, and honour, with a jyft detcftation of impofture, hypo- 
crify, and all fpecious pretences to uprightiiefs." 

Mr. Murphy now enters on a difquilition concerning that 
fpccies of writing ciiled the mock epic \ and into an enquiry 
relating to the genius and writings of Monf. de Marivaux ; 
whom he compares with Mr. Fielding, and juftly gives the 
preference and the palm to the 1 alter j from whofc eminence 
in all the great eficntiaU of compofition, in fable, charaftcr, 
fentinrient, and elocution, united with a rich invention, a fine 
imagination, an enlightened judgment, and a lively wit> 
our Author ventures to decide his charaftcr, and to pro- 
nounce him the Englijh Cervaktes. 

** Thus we have traced our author in his progrcfi to the 
^time when the vigour of his mind was in its full growth of 
perfe<fti VI » from this period it funk, but by flow degrees, 
into a decline ; Jmclta^ which fuccceded Tom Jqiks in about 
four years, has indeed the marks of genius, but of a genius 
beginning to fall into its decay. The author's invention in 
-this performance does not appear to have loft Its fertility j his 
judgment too feems as ftrong as ever ; but the warmth of 
Imagination is abated 5 and in his landfkips or his fcenes of 
Hie, Mr. Fielding is no !ong?r the colourift he was before. 
The perfonages of the piece delight too much in narrative, 
aj^d their charadlcrs have not thofe touches of finguJaritv, 
thofe fpecific difft^rcnces, which are fo beautifully marked in 
our Author's former works: of courfc the humoL^r, whidi 
confifts in happy delineations of the caprices and predomi- 
nant foibles of the human mind, Iofe5 here its high flavour 
and rclifh. And yet Amelia holds the fame proportion to 
Tcm Jones, that the Odyffey of Homer bears, ii> the eftlmation 
of L<mgi/jusy to the ///W. A fine vein of morality Tuns thro' 
the whole; piany of the fituarions arc afFc^SlIng and itnder j 
the fcntiments are delicate ; and upon the whole, it is tha 
Qdyjpyy the moral and pathetic work of Henry Fielding. 

" While he was planning and executing this piece, it 
fhould be remembered, that he wa-s diflra^fted by that multi- 
plicity of avocations, which ftirround a public magiftratc ; 
and his conftitutton, now greatly impaired and enfeebled, 
was labouring under attacks of the gout, which were, of 
courfe, fevcrcr than ever. However, the aflivity of his 

D 2 mltid 


^2 The Works of titSRY FlEtDlNG, E/q; 

mind was not to be fubdued. One literary purfait was nJ> 
fooner over, than frefh game arofc, A periodical paper, un- 
der the title of The Covent Gardni Journal^ by Sir Atetcander 
Drawcanjir^ Kmghty and Cenfor General of Great Britain^ was 
>inmediacely fet on foot. It was publifticd twice in c\*cry 
week, vi%. on Tuefday and Saturdayy and conduced fo much 
-to the entertainment of the public, for a twclvemontb toge- 
ther, that it was at length felt with a general regret that the 
author's hc^^lth did not enable him to perfift in the under- 
taking any longef. Soon after this work was diopt, oiw 
. Author's whole frame of body was fo entirely (hattered by 
continual inroads of complicated difordcrs, and the inceflant 
fatigue of bufmefs in his office, that, by the advice of hb 
phyhcians, he was obliged to fet out for Li(bon, to try if 
there was any reftorative quality in the more genial air of 
that climate. Even in this diftrefsful condition, his imagi- 
nation ftill continued making its ftrongeft efforts to difplay 
icfelf J and the laft gleams of his wit and humour faintly 
liparkled in the account he left behind him of his voyage to 
that place. About two months after his arrival art Lifton, 
he yieWed his laft breath, in the year 1754, and in the forty- 
eighth year of hi» age. 

" He left behind liim (for he married a fccond time) a 
wife, and four children^ three of which arc ftill living, and 
a* e now training up under the care of their uncle, wich the 
aid of a very generous donation, given annually by Ralph 
Allen, Efq;- for that purpofe." 

Thus was clofed a courfe of difappointment, diftreft, 
texation, infirmity, and ftudy : for with each of thefe his life 
was varioufly chequered, and, perhaps, in ftronger propor- 
tions than has been the lot of many. *' Shall we now, fays 
our biographer, after tl^ manner of the Egyptian ritual, 
framj a public accufation agarnft his memory, or (hall we 
rather fuft'er him to pal's by quietly, and reft in peace 
among the departed ? The former method would gratify 
malevolence, more efj^ccially if we dated fa its with aggrar- 

. vat ion, or difcoloiircd them a little by mifreprermtat^on, 
and then, fron> premfe injurioufly cfl.tbliflicd, drew, with 

. a pretenued reluftaivcc, a few conclufions to the utter de- 
ftrudl^n oi his moral charadlcr. But the candid reader 
will recoUeft that the charge of venality never ccafes to be 
exhibited againft abilities in diftrcfs, which was our au- 
thor's lot in t|ie f{\{i part of his life, and that the firft mi- 
gillrate for Wcftminfter is ever liable to imputations j for 


IFtih thi Lift of ihi jfuthr. $^ 

iLjy anfwrcr to which wc refer ta a prJTagc in the l\yagt (& 
Lijhofiy and ^ note annexed to it» P^£^ 4^31 ^*^'* I V , of 
the prcfent Edition/' 

The indignation with which he there throws the difho- 
nour from him will plead in Ws behalf witli every candid 
mind J more particularly when it Is confidcred as the declara- 
tion ot 4 dying man. ,*' It will thfreforc^ adds Mr. Mufphy, 
be the moic humane and generous oflRce, ic fet down to the 
;ircount of ftmdcr and defalcation a great part of that ahufe 
v-hich was difLhargrd againft hjin by his enemies, in his 
life- time; deducings however, iVom the whole this ytefu! 
kflbn. That quick and warm paflirins fliould be carJy con- 
iroulcd, and that dijfipation arid extravagant pJcafures arc 
the moft dangerous palliatives that can be foiind for difap* 
pointmcnts and vexations in the firft ftages of life, Wc 
have fccn \iOw Mr. Fielding very foon fquandcred away ht$ 
iniall patrimony, which, with cecoromy> m!;;hc have pro- 
cured hirn independence; wc h^ve feen lv>w iie ruined, hw 
to the bargain, a conftitution, which, in its original tex- 
ture, fccmcd formed to fail much longer. When lUnefs and 
indigence were once let jn upon him, he no longer re- 
mained the in^fler of his own actions \ and that nice deli- 
cacy of condu£t, which alone confUtutes and prcr.rves a 
^haracicr, was occiifionally obliged to give way. When 
he was liOt under tbe immediate urgency of want, thev, 
who were intimate with him, are ready to aver, that he 
lud a mind greatly' fuperior lo any thuig mean or liulc j 
when his finances were exhautlcd, he was not the rnofi 
elegant in his choice o/ the means to rcdrcfs himfclf, and 
be would iniiantJy exhibit a farce or a puppet -flic w in the 
Haynjafket thcatxc, which was wholly intonfiftent wi;h 
ihf profeiTion he had tmbarked in. But his iaumatcs cin 
witnefs how much his pride fiiifcred, when he was forced 
;mu .me^fures of this kind; no man having a jufterfcnfe of 
propriety, or more honourable ideas of the employment of 
an author and a fcholar/* 

Our biographer now gives us the following very brief de* 
fcription of Mr. Fielding's perfon. *' He was in ftature ra- 
ther rifing above fix feet; his frame of body large, and rc^ 
markably robuft, till the gout had broke the vigour of his 
conftitution. Confidcring the eileem he was in with all the 
artiiis, it is fomewhat cxtraordinarj' that no portrait of him 
had ever been made. He had often promifed to fit to his 
friend Hogarth, for w^hofe good qiuilitics and occcllent ge- 
nius he always entertained fa high an eftceai» that he has iWit 

54 Tbi JForks tff Hekry Fielding, Efq\ ^H 

us in his writings many beautiful memorials of his affecllon'l 
unluckily, however^ it fo fell out that no picture of him wafl 
ever drawn j but yet, as if it was intended that fome tnca 
of his counttnance fliould be [)crpetu,ited^ and that too \m 
the very artift whom our author preferred to aJl others^ afta 
Mr. Hog^nh bad lon[r laboured to try if he could bring oufl 
any likencf-j of him from images cxirtinj; in hii own fancy J 
and j«ft »s he was dcfpairing of fucccfs, for want of fome 
rule to go by in thydimcnfions and outlines of tlic face* for 
tunc threw the grand Ajld^ratmn m the way. A lady, wi " 
a pair of fcilTars, had cut a profile^ which ^ave thediftanccJ 
and proportions of his ^acc fiiiTicicmly to rcftore his !o/l rdeaa 
of him. Glad of an opportunity of paying his !a(l tribute 
the memory of an author whom he admired, Mr. Hoga 
caught at this out-linc witli plcifurc, and worked with 
the attachment of friendship, till he finifhcd that exccllei 
drawing, which ftands at the bead of this work, and recall 
to all, who have fecn the original, a corrcfponding image 
the man/* 

To the foreg^oiqg anecdote, our biographer adds a fketch of 
his admii-cd authot^s mind, of which the folio wliig extra ^ 
will, with propriety, clofe c»\n abdraft o^ this ingenious ra^ 
^oir. " Thcpaffions of Henry Mciiiing were, as the pc 
^xprefTes it, tremblhighf aUvt aU oW : whatever he defired, 
deiired ardently I he was alike impatient of difappointmeij 
or ill-ufage, and the fame quiclcncfv of fenfibnity render 
bim elate in profpcrity, and overflowing with gratitude 
ever)M'nflance of friendlhip or gcnerofity : fteady in hispc 
Vatc attachments, his afir^iion was warm, fmcerc, and vc' 
mcnt ; in his rcfentmcnts he was manly, but temperate, : 
dom breaking out in his writings into gratifications of ill 
liumour, or pcrfonal facirc* It ii to the honour of thofe 
whom he loaned, that he had too much penetration to be de- 
ceived in their charaiSttrs ; and it is to the advantage of hh 
enemies, that he \ras abcAre paiHonate attacks upon them. 
Open, unbounded, ajid fecial in his temper, he knew no !o\j 
of money j but inclining to ijxctfs even [n bi^ very viftna 
he puflicd his contempt of avarice into the o^^ofue cxtre 
of imprudence and prodigality. Wlitrn youni^ in life he] 
A moderate clUtc^ hv (oau C " to devour 

imd when in the latter end - ;(j an income^^ 

IbuT or five hundred a y&ar, he knew no ufc of moneys 
to keep hi$ table open to thafc who had been his friends ' 
young, and had impaired their own fortunes, A feufej 
m^nour he had a$ lively and delicate m mqft men, buttf«iii 

With the Ltfi. tf ihi Autt)^. 

S« paffions were too turbulent for it, or rather his ne- 
ccffities were too prcffing ; in all ca'cf where dtlicaty was de- 
parted from, his friends know how his own fe clings repri*- 
inancled him. The interefts of virtue and religion he never 
betni)^d; the former is amiahly enforced in his works ; and- 
for the defence of the latter, he had projcfkcd a laborious an- 
fwcr to the pofthtimous phiiofophy of Bolingbfokc j and the 
preparation he had made for it of long cN;tra£ls and argur- 
ments from the fanhcrs and rhe moft eminent writers of con- 
trovcrfy, is ft ill extajit in the hands of his brother. la 
fhort, our author was uiih^ippy, but not vicious in his na- 
ture ; m his undeiftanding lively, yet folid ; rich in inven- 
tion, yet a loVcr of real fcicnce ; an obfen^er of mar^kincf, 
yet a fcholar of enlarged reading ; a fpirited cnemy^ yet an 
indcfi^ti gable friend ; a f;itirift of vice and evil manners, yet 
a lover of mankijid ; an ufeful citizeji, a polifhed and in- 
ftru£live wit; and a magiftrate zealous for the order and 
welfare of the community which he fcrved." 

We arc now arrived at the clofe of Mr, Murphy*s Criti- 
cal Effay on the life and genius of Henry Fielding ; in whicji 
the ingcniou-s biographer has not deviated from tliecuftom of 
thofe who write the life of a favourite authorj in difplaying 
his good qualities to the beft advantage, and drawing a 
frienjly veil over his failings. In truth, there is a fort of 
jufticc as well as gcncrofity in this oonduft ; for furely the 
fmalleft return we can nuke for the pleafure or pront wc 
have received from the labours of an excellent writer^ is a 
candid and grateful reiped for his memory. The public is 
very little concerned in the private vices of a private indivi- 
dual ; which therefore ought rather to be buried in eternal 
obliviont than to be prcferved in the records of malice, in pre- 
judice to that fair fame, which is the prize of genius, and 
the natural reward of merit* 

Wc ihall ccncTude this anicle with a brief mention of the 
fevcra] pieces which arc reprinted in this edition. 

The firft volume, of the quarto fize, contains part of Mr, 
Fielding*s dramatic writings j among which the Mtftj\ the 
Littity^ the Moik'DoB&r^ the yirgm Unmajkedy and T^m 
Thumbs are ftill favourite entertainments with the Public. 

In the fccond volume, we have the remainder of the 
dramatic pieces, the Life of fmathan TVtid the Grtai^ a 
^9untfy fr^m thit ff^prid to thi nrxt^ the admirable Joseph 

D 4 K^ti^^Hl%v 


A Lttier t& thi Rev, Dr. Chaniltf, 


Andrews, the preface to Daoid SimfU^ aad the preface t^ 
the familiar Ldttn bttw^tn the prmiipal iharathrs in David 


Vo!amc the third comprehends thnt moft excellent and i 
perfect of all our Author*s writlni^s, the hiftory of T&m 
Jcncs ; together with a few detached papers ; with the nq 
pers of th€ TfU^ Patrict^ and the Ji^abtt/s *Jourftal^ 

The fourth volume contains Amtlia^ the Fcyagi t& i/j 
the Qavmt Garden *J;urnah^ the Enquiry intQ tht ittcnaj 
Rohberi^ &c, and fome fmall pieces of inferior note, 
povcl entitled Amelia^ \sy in this edition, printed fro 
copy correScd by the Auihor*s own hand j the exceptionable 

eiflages which inadv^crtcncy had thrown out, are here fj 
enched ; and the work, upon the whole (fays the Edi 
will be found nearer to perfc^^Ion than it was in its origr 

We have already obfenrcd, in the firft part of this^ardW 
(fee Review for Mav, p. 365.) that the contents of the flf- 

;ifft?i edition of Mr, Fielding's works arc the fame with thoie 
oi the edition in quarto : and that both are embclUflied 

^fth the ingenious Mr. Hogarth's flcctch of the Author*^— 

• The AdveniurrB of David Sim pie, and the Familiar LetdR 
were the produ^ion of c^^ur Author s fiilcr* ^'llJ. Sjfah Ficldin 
&ee Review tor May, p. 366, 



*jf Lifter to thi Rev* Dr. Samuel ChandUry fn^m the JVriter 61 

the Hijlory of the Man after Gcd^s ezm heart, 
Uvo* IS* 6d, Frecmnn. 




T Iterary difputes are gencraHy continued till all, bpt 
|_^ <Jifputants themfelvcs^arc heartily tired of thecontrovi 



Men arc naturally To tenacious of their opinions, th:it 
,-are feldom convincc4, even wiicn they bavc been confute 
and if in the rage of conteft, tlie ftiil fmall voice of eandSj 
fliould chance to be beard, it is Toon loft izi the clamours of 
ovef- bearing pride, and arrogant (elf-fufficicncy. ^M 

We will not fay that this is altogether the cafe with re- 
fpt& to the late revived controverfy concerning the moral 
diaraAcr of David king of Iftacl j but it appears to us, that 

A LiiUr to tht Rnu Dr* Cbandltr, 


^ Author of the Hiftory of t\\^ Man after God's own 

Heart, is rather over- tenacious id thus prolonEing an ex* 

) haufted debate ; in which, as is too often the cafe, the fub- 

[jcdt in agitation gives way to private alicrcaiipo^ aii4 p^r* 

ibnal animufity» 

Dr. Chandler had replied at large |o all the objecStons 

trought by this aiionymous w*riter againll the condiiil of 
dicing Daviil i and if he failed to vindicate his hero in every 
Particle of the irapcaclwncnt, he had, however, fitfitcicntly 

cleared him from many of them. But the Doer's opponent 

appears very little dif}>ofed to allow the valifHty of any thing 
[advanced by the learned advocate on the other lide tliequof* 
ktion. He ftill endeavours to fupport his charge againlt the 

fon of l^Vi^^ in every point ; fo that the conteft between 
[thefc violent antagonifts feems to be, ivbc JhdU run th^ gr^&t^ 
Vg/i Itngiln of 9pp&fitmi : and perhaps the fdireft inference to. 
^bc drawn from this extremity of contention, h the conclu- 
'lion ufuaily made on fuch occafions, by judicious by-ftand- 
(ers, thai the truib Uis httwnn thtm. And we may venture 

to ad J, that if both pariic!* would leciprocally make a few 
' honcfl conceffions, moft of this kind of controvcrfie^ (wc 
^Vnight perhaps have faid all kinds) might be brought to a 
[•fpeedy conclufion j much to the fatisfadion of the moderate 
["and tne impartial, of all parties and perfu^fions. 

As the Doftor had, it muft be confefled, rudely attacked 
Uhe Hiilorian, in his review of that writer's performance, 
Uhc latter fecms refolved to balance accounts with him ; and, 
^accordingly, he has, in this letter, treated the Doiftor very 

cavalierly: frequently affc£iing to laugh at him; to retort 
^tipon him his own farcafms ; and even to turn his abilities, 

his fupcrior learning, bis Greek and his Hebrew, into ri- 
'diculc. He fcts out with fomc rough ftriclurcs on the Doc* 
■iter's manner of waging literary war; hints fomcthing about 

fcoldin^ and fifh-wcmen ; and derides the bulk of his an*. 
U agon i ft 'i* performance, which he compares with his own; 
^a Uttlc David, oppofcd by an enormous Goliah. 

, The RMiwer of the Ifiji sty (for by this title wc fliall 
bfometimcs diftinguifh the reverend Writer) having inti* 
-mated a fuppofuion that the Hiftorian had borrowed his 
k principal objcetions againft David, from Bayle and Mor- 
Lgan, the objector here replies, ** that tho' he does not ex- 
|pe<5l to be credited by a man whofc zeal hath eaten him 
b<tip4 he hopes the moderate part of mankind will believe his 


A Litter H thg Rev. Br. ChmJIit* 

jblemn declarations, that he knows no mort of Mdr^ 
th«n the name — and that he entertalnod a diflike to till 
conduct of king David, before he bad an opporfuntty if 
feeing Baylc, whoCs criticifms, adds be, if the expreSoa 
may be allowed, he In great meafare anticipated/' 

Wc fhall pafc ovm our Author's creed, whJch he gives 
us, p. 19 — 21 t and which he has carcfuJly wrapped up in 
the language of facrcd fcripture ; — and come to the arga* 
mentativc parts of his letter : ot which we (hall mly col- 
Jcft fome of thofc which we apprehend to be the moft con- 
fiderable, either in regard to the fubje^hl, or to the manner 
in which the points are treated by the Letter-writer, 

The Reviewer had expatiated on the generofity of Ik» 

^vid"^ views in refcuing the town r.r from the Phitlf- 

inc invaders. This exploit, the J thought, * might 

fjjavc drawn one word of commendation from the very can- 
jid hiftorianj' — ' It O14IU' faya the Hiflurian, * havc'all the 
commendation to which it is entitled from your own repre- 
[itation of the action. 

** DifTatisfied with the writer's faying that David hoped 19 
[YnaVe it a garrifon for htmfelf, you auti, * I believe David 
7Vms in hopes to have dwelt in fafety there, after the dcli- 
'vcrancc he had obtained for the citizens, as he had thereby 

f)urchafed their ff icndfl\tp and prote£t!on. But he could not 
lajK to make it a garrifon» bccaufc he knew he had not 
men enough for that purpoi'e, ai appears Irom his conduct ; 
.becaufe when he had furc information of the treachery they 
intcntk'd him, he abandoned the city^ as not able to curb 
the inhabitants ; and retired to the wildernefs/ 

** This p'lflagc alone is amply fullicicnt to confirm the rca-^ 
lity of David^s rebellious intentiom ; it is therefore wortl^ 
amalyfmg. That he delivered this city from the depreda^ 
tions of the Fhiliftincs is granted; that he by this a£lion 
thought to purchafc the friend (h*p of the inhabitants, you 
acknowlegc : the ufe he i men Jed to convert this friend 
ibip to, \% the point to be afccrtained. Saul was advanctn 
to fupprefs him. You, Sir, fay^ that he hoped to havi 
dwelt in fafety at Keibda : but that, not having men fui 
ticnt to awe the inhabitants, their concurrence was necef- 
iary. Had he fcduccd them from their all and ob 

taiaed the cxpeiSItd protPLtion, he would h v^d Saul 

nf this city » which city the ^uithor humbly imagined mii>hi 


A LitUr to the Rtv, Dr. Chandler, 55 

Kave tieen confiJered as a garrlfon. You will undoubtedly 
again urge the old plea of his providing only for Jiis perfonal 
f^ety^ agalnft his malignant pcrfccutor. But, Sir, his iii- 
tehjNid retemion of a city 10 fecure that Tafety, was a flk- 
grant rebellious intention. Had he gahiej this one city, as 
his ftrength incrcaft-J, he would have concluded a,s many 
more as he could have procured » nccefTary for his prefcrva- 
tion ; until he had monopolized th« whole country* agree- 
able to the grant of Samuel, which would then hivcjufti- 
fied the ufujfpntion. But baulked in the firlt ftep by the 
loyalty, mifcalled treachery, of the Keilites, he evacuated 
the town, having loft the recompenfe of his labour, and 
^ith his men went wlnthfrfiever ihty cQuld goJ' 

There is fomc appearance of acutcnefs in this reafoning, 
^d alio in the Lcttcr-writer*s fuggc (lions concern in^^ the 
ventures at Engedi and Maon. *^ On what account Saul 
tered the cave, fays our Author, is not worth much Hebrew : 
tour expofition may ftand undifturbed by the writer, if you 
jifaink the dlfcourfe between David and his men in fo quiet a re-< 
fs, and the cutting off a piece of Saul's robe, ( hardly perform- 
f(l with the neatnefs of a taylor's fhears) might not difturb a 
an with all his fcnfes awake. To invalidate the motive 
ttfged by the writer for David's not killing Saul, founded 
n the ui/ ' ' ;d of the Jews accepting for their king a 
an who .nbrue his hands i[i the blood of the Lord s 

intcd, you reply, "^ but furely if ibis be a good reafon, it 
, ill hold as ftrongly againft his rebelling againil Saul, ^nd 
why force of arms diiputing the crown with him ^ for what 
afonable hopes could he entertain, that the Jews would 
I'cccive for their king, a man who ihould dare to rife up in 
I 1 againft the Lord's anointtrd, and with a company 

i^ (li and ruffians, by difputing the crown with, him, 

Itndeavour to fnatch it impioufly from his head? dpedally 
I a rebellion agalnft a prince u an actual attempt u^>on his 
^fe, and when fuccef^ful, generally iilues in his dcftruC'** 
ion.' There is on? confideration which will ubviate this 
plca^ which is, that though fuccefsful rebellion, which then 
changes its name, generally terminates in the dcftruttion of 
}\t vanquifhed ; yet that dcftru6tion is greatly altered in ap- 
pearance, when a prince Ealb in the common diftrCJTei of 
^tn watf^irc, and when by private ailaiii nation. This, 
Sir ! you inUft on, in a notable manner, in the cafe of 


A LttiiT to iLi Rrj. Di\ ChndUr* 

** There may be yet another motive hinted for h\% hot kS- 

ling SauL You will npt allow the fuppofUton that Saul 
ifraycd far fVom hts men when he entered the cave: think 
thai, Sir, what chance for cfcape David and his fmall corps 
would have had, if Saul had been miffing ! if he had been 
obfen*ed to cjitcr the cave without coming out again ! anil 
if apon fcarch he had been there found murdered !'* 

The affair of Nabal and his beautiful wife, comes tvan 
upon the carpet; but* as what has been advanced on.ejiber 
fide, concerning this notable adventure, U chiefly tonjeiflu- 
ral, and inconclufive, wc /hail pafs from thin point, to what 
is heie faid relating to the two inllanccs of David *5 geiicx- 
oufly fparing the life of Said ; and which the Hiitoriaji had 
fuppofed to be only different relations of the fame fa4ih This 
notion was fmartly encountered by the Reviewer, who ac- 
curately dated the jtriking oppomion of cirCumftances in 
the two relations. Thtfc different circumftanccs, however, 

ays the Letter- writer, though not altogether reconcile- 
kbic, arc not altogether fo variable as you intend they 
3ald appear. To inftancc the firft in your contrail, adds 
ac; *'you oppofe David's being in the wildcrnefs ofKngcdi 
one relation^ to his bang in the wildernefs of Ziph in 

iie other. While wc remain faiisfied with names, to be 

lure Ziph and En^[?cdi are not the famc^ nothing can be 

clearer. But it ux>uid be of advantage to your -argument 

give the diftancc of t hefc two places 5 for in die maps 

id accounti of fudea, Zi; h, Hachilah, Maorii CarmcU 

id Engcdi, appear to have bten in the iVeid^boufhood of 

ach other. Now in England, where any forcft or heath 
common to fcveral bordering towns, it wilt have feveral 
local names at each, refpedivclyr It is therefore more than 
'probable, that the -Aildernefs between Ziph and tngcdi, 

rtight at each place obtain each name 5 and be generally 
cnown by cither. Though David, therefore, is reprcfcnted 
^t this period, as making fe\'er2l movrmcnts, in the ftrong 
tiolds in the wood, A:c they appear to h " n within thd 

ompaft of this wilderuefs of Ztph, or f 

Your third reafon, in the Engedi column^ of Saul^s being 
Lionc, and flrayed from his men, had been previouily de- 
filed by you, and termed a * filly fuppoCtion i Jt therefore 
annot now be very wife. The Author does not pretend to 
.armo^iiZrC any more of them; the identity of place; the 
jcacral fimilitudcof the actions \ diflcring only In relative cir- 
^curtiftanccs ; the fmall interval of time that muft have been 
between Llicra, occupied only by the ftory of Nabal ; the 
y abrupt 



A LtiHrU the Rev, Dr. Chandler . 


jpl mtrodudion of the fecond relation, after this ftor\!» 
without proper connexion ; and the total lilence in it of all 
mftrcnce or allufion to a recent adventure fo llrikingly fiim* 
lar ! ftill fcem to argue a ftrangc repetition 1" 

The condu^l of David, while he lived under the protec- 
tion of Achifli king of Garth, will, we apprehend, for ever 
remain extremely prohlcmatic;tI, We intimated fome doubt 
that our brother reviewer hiid notcltarly vindicated his herOy 
in regard to this part of hts hiftory ; and the Letter-writer 
has not omitted to avail himfclf of the infuiEciency of the 
Docior's defence of David's ambi^iuous purpofe in accompa- 
nying the Philiftines in their expedition againft the He*- 
brew^. Had it not fortmauly happened, as Dr. Chandler 
obfcrvcs, that the jealoti fy of th^ Philiftlncs prevented his 
proceeding with them, his pruiiincc^ gratitudt^ and intrgrity^ 
j^ould, indeed, have been put to tl fiver a and dlff cult trial! 
K appears he muft, in that cafe, have adled as an enemy to hifs 
Hlliuntry, or as the betrayer of his benefa^or : but what his 
fkl intentions were, is impoflible for us to determine \ and 
candor will lead our conjectures towards the moft favourable 

In remarking on the Reviewer's vindication of David's 
flaughter of the Amalekites, who, taking advantage of his 
abfence, had ravaged and plundered Ziklag, our Hiftorian 
feems to have loft fight of the moderation he eifewherc af- 
fumes J and defcends, in the bitterncfs of fpirtt, to the fol- 
lowing unwarrantable pcrfonality; for which we think he 
^ioifeif defervcs an equal fe verity of reprchcnfian. *^ The 
Kuthor \% unwilling,*' fays he, addreifrng himfetf to the 
Dodtor, ** to afcribc your apologies for Jewifli cruelties, to 
J natural barbarity uf difpofition in you ; it is rather de- 
Hbcible from another fource : you have reud thefe annals un-' 
HI blood is familiar to you; and your ideas of right and 

Hrrong are abfolutcly confounded/* This is luch an 

nfperhon of the fpirit and tendency of the Old Teftament- 
writings, and fuch an uncharitable imputation upon the 
chara(Ser of the learned Reviewer, as no provocation (rom 
his antagonift can warrant. Here, we are pcrfaaded, even 
the boldeftof our Hiftorian's partizans will at leaft join with 
us in allowing, thztindfid hi has gom Iqo far^^ to give it 


• Nor does this bitter refledioo fcem altogether coafiilcnt with 
what ibc writer declarer, p* loi. (hat notwuhtboding Dr. Chan- 


A Letter ta tie Rev. Dr. Chancer. 




the mildcft cxpreflion. But we leave him in good haficl$ 
If the Do&or chufes to take any farther notice of him. 

In an Twer to the Rcviewer*s palliation of hts hero's pro- 
cedture in the unhappy affair of Upah^ which wc cannoi h 
but look upon as one of the moft unadvrfed parts of hisS 
elaborate performance, h>& opponent has the following ob* 

** Adiiltcrcrs, as you fay, were to be tmniflicd wtth death 
Truc» Will a holy pcrfon then» deliberately, influcnci 
another with him to incur this penalty ? Deliberation it 
infiftcd on : fince had David and Bathfheba been cafually 
together, a fudden guil of paiTiun might, as you fay it cio, 
hurry him away without allowing him time for delJbcratioB, 
But this wa5 not the cafe. The temptation was diftant, fo, 

*that, though his paflion was fired with ihc fight, he had not: 
only time for rccolleflion, but was al fo amply provided 
with the means of cooling it again, at home. But neith 

" did he make ufc of either of ihcfe opportunities ! he fcni 

and enquired after this woman whotn he faw bathing ; - - 

found flic was the wife of one of his oiEceis, but never- 

thclcfs caufcd her to be brought to him, as every one know& ! 
Let any impartial pcrfon decide what right David has to the' 
excufc *>f being hurried into a precipitate gratification of his 
palBon ! and whether this was not .a crime peculiarly •g-^ 
gravaicd by previous ik liberate ftepi» ? H 

** Even after all that you have hitherto urged in jvjftiGcation 
of David's character, it was thought hardly poJliblc, Sir, fgr 
you to extrafl a comph'mcnt to it, out of this grcafeft ac-" 
knowlcdgcd crime he ever comn;iticd ! Yet have you addrcfe 
enough to perftrm it ! You truce the ncccility cf Uri^^i 
death, as the only meuns to favc the other panics \ and 
then iifk, * but how was Uriah to be got rid of? Poifon, tf- 
faflination, or a falfe charge of trcafon, or ft>mc fecrci wayj 
of dcflruflion, were the methoJs that the enllcrn princefl 
were v til acquainted with* David was above them all^ ajidj 
had a kind of geiierollty even In hi^ very crimes. He caufcil 
him to fall in the bed of honour, i^lorioufly fighting againfti 

I* dlcr has dmh /** p:^fh by him, yci he rn^im mi the knji irpct 9/. 
f*Jy.\ttii*H O'f t*Mtt *ic{QUHt, In fliort, our Author nu^ht have Q>areJ| 
tfrr rt4^i*t\ioo which he has immidiatcly fubjoincd to the abdi'c— •! ** he is too udl aiquainied witli the tialure of religious 7>eal|| 
rot to m*ike allcnvance^ Un the ^viohnce rftts «?^^fru'f*ffj"— ^for» iftl 
jft prrtfy tppr^rnt that ih ere Ore other khids of zeal, as wHJ n& re»| 
Kgmi»> ^<ach are Lkcwiiir fofiie>%Kac ^vwUni in i 


I iheir •ffrmvms. 


A Letttr u thi RiV. Dr. Chandlit. 63 

e enemies cf his king and country/ Generous David ! 
comparable apologiil ! 

Jnd he wrote hi the letier^ fis^^Zt ^^ J^ llruth in thepri- 
frortt ef the bsttrjl haitU^ Gnd ntirr ye from him^ that he may bi 
'mitten and die. What an amiable quality is generofity !" 

We look upon the ironical farcafms^ in the clofc of thefe 
rii^ores, as fome of the fmarteft ftrokcs in the Lcctcr- 
fWriter*s performance. His antagonift might have been left 
"eciualljr refuted by asmany pages of argumentation as there 
^Arc words in thefe t^o very expreffive notes of admiraiion.^ 
[The Do<5^or's colouring fecms, indeed, a little too high in 
is place. , 

The Hiftorl^n then goes on to animadvert on what 
the Reviewer has oiFercd ia relation to the following 
points in the prefent concrovcriy, viz. David's giving up 
'yen of Saul's poftcrity to be hanged by the Gibconitcs— 
is fm in numbering the people — The conduS of Nathan 
he prophet, \n refpec^ to the rebellion of Adonijah — The 
Imprecations in the pfalms — and Ehivid*s dying charge to So- 
lomon, in regard to the puniflimcnt of Shimci and Joab. 

Among the Lctter-writer^s remarks on thefe fubjei^s^ arc 
fome that appear to merit his opponent's attention j while 
others, which breathe more of the fpirit of cavilling than of 
argument, deserve little notice : fuch, for infcnce, as the 
Iheers in p. 8q at our common tranllation of the bible, and 
"at the Dolor's admitting its ufe and authority in fome parts 

this controverfy, while he rejects tt in others. — This is i'o 
iijxfair, and fo impertinent, that barely to mention the cir- 
cumftance is enough, we apprehend, to fhew its impropriety. 

As the Reviewer, and probably others, have drawn harfli 
)i\ the Hillorian'fi principles in refpe<9: to 
< .1 the acrimony of his attack upon the charac- 

ter of king David, and of the Jewifli prophets, we find fome 
fr0ft]^>fn concerning this matter toward the conclufion of 
the preftnt performance, an extract of which may gratify the 
fity of our readers. 

You have been plcafcd, bir, fays our Author, t0 

attribute to the writer a latent intention of fubvcrtirtg the 

Gofpcl c '^ iT'n : and have indeed framed an ingcnioun 

i chain o^ jns for that ptsrpofe ; which however 'will 

not be cmpiaytd, unlds b :, The Lord Jcfus Chriil, 

i it 15 true, is frequently tei fm 9f Daniid : but with 

, i*hat degree of propriety yourtelf ftialJ judg«. You eftabliili, 


iriiat — * the feed is always reckoned by the male; > a/id tVf ^ 
the females of a family, and (that) tlic name in a father V 
bouCe could only be prefcrvcd by the male dcfccndanty/-^--* 
|it which rcfpcdt Jcfus Chrift was mt a foil of David ; ihcrc- 
cire this connexion is dedroycd. ; 

** The dotElrines of chriftianity, efpccially the prcccptire 
* :ies» taken from hJs own mouth, cannot ta all appcaiaiico j 

affected by iiifdKag on the character of David, wbcthoij 
|ood or bad ; ri^ht forry wduld this author be it' they tefted 
j^n ^hy fuch dcpcndancc. The divine tendency of thtfe Uoc- 
incs is fo manifeft ^ they are fo refined in their own lurure^ | 
liat they will ever claim the moft exalted reverexicc froonj 
mankind, to ihem and to their glorious publirticr, indcpcn- j 
at oft all foreign cdtitinjj^ndesj; on alP farmer narrow- 
rnets> ard fapcf lUttous rites ; which he ha5 \o totJtlly fiipier- 
fedcd an'f>ii* hJs profcilbrs : and tha! they ever may is tht 
fmccre prayer of this abufed writer. He therefore h^pcs aii 
tcqiiirtal from this paiT of his indidment/* 

How far thcfc profefllons are fmccre. It would not become 
i to determine; but we cannot help diiTcnting from this 
mtcr*s opinion, that chriilianity cahnot be affeded by fuch 
^tontrovcrfieS as this, concerning the charafter of king Da- 
vid ; as we afe firmly perfuadrd, that the connectfon b<*cween 
the Old and New *l cfhiment is fo infeparable, xh vet 

tend? to ^veakcn the authority of the one, muft ii im- 

pair the foundatfcn of the other. However, on his owji 
ftippofitiun, we fliall take leave t)f this writer with a hint of 
advice, viz, that as we have no mean opinion of his abilitiii 
(whatever may be thought of hfs learning) wc fliould be fflad 
to fee them more yfefully employed. 

We are not forry^ therefore, to find him coficluding with 
the following fcnfible. dcchiration, viz. ** Religious cunteft 
is moft difa^reeabie of ai! other : fince it has ever been Icalt 
dccifive J and moft incentive of thofc propenfitiei which the? 
genuine dictates of purti religion direftiy tend to fuppref^. 
The writer, therefore, at the fame time that he drop<i thii 
controverfy, has no prtfcnt intention ever more to engage in 
any of the like nature/' 

Before wc entirek clofe this article, it may not be inipfci^. 
per to mcnticrn the Author's p^Jifcripf^ in which he has trtacai 
Dr. Patten*s miferablc vindication of David with becoming 
fpirit and contempt } at the fame time that he docs julttce td 
ihe candour of Mr. Harwood, author of th^ Com/ir/wn jfa Dajl : 
in the appendix to which, Mr, Harwf^od had infertcd fbme Re- 
marks on the Hiftory of the Man after God*s Own Heart* 


t 6s 1 


Mr. William Weft of Excicr. Revifcd by John Kewc^ 
3$. ia boards^ Richaidfottr 

HIS fiuall DianuaJ, of which ct^crjf page flicws the hand 

_ of a maftcr, is a pofthumoys work ; and is publUhed 

for the benefit of the Author^s widow, by the mgenlous Mr. 

Jiowc, who (om^ years fincc obliged the world with 4n htre* 

h^m t9 th€ Dd^frim cf Fluxims *- The Editor informs us^ 

at the prcfeiit publication was fel&9cd from fevcral mafhc-' 

iiutical papers, writtcji at different times, few of which wcr^ 

^inifhed, and none perhaps crcr intended for public infpcc- 


The firft five pages contain a fliort fntrodtuftion to the 

Juxionary calculus \ the folio wihg thirty-cjght, rcfpetS^ng 

lie application of that do^rine td the folution of problem* 

\de niaxmti et trtinmis \ in which Mr, Weft has rendered that 

lifcful and difficult branch of the mathematics plainer, ai^4 

nore eafy to be uftdcrftood, than we remember to have (^tn 

done by any other Writer ; and, at the fame time, has 

j dcmonftratcd, in a very elegant manner, the common me- 

ithod of makitig the fluxion of a maximum or minimum 

The other part of this fmall performance ' ' cf twcn* 
Jty-foifr hiifcellaneoui qucftions, with their 1 ; feycral 

i^t)f ibefe are very curioa*, and the folutions neat ajid elegant- 
;But the twentieth proportion, which, from a note at thd 
foot of the page, appears to have bceii written in the year 
1746, is of fo interefting a nature, that ic dcfcrves paniculai' 
.iioticc- It Is a new method of conflrufling a fca-chart^ Iti 
?>^hich the meridians, parallels of latitude, and rhtunbS| a^e 
^all truly and geometrically projedhrd \n ftrait fines- 
It is well kno^'fi, that every projeflion of the fphcre will 
give true folutions to all nautical problems^ but that only is 
properly adapted to the mariner's ufe, where tlte rhumb, or 
Ihe path a (hip dcfcrJbcs in farling^ according to the direction 
of the compaiV, is rcprcfcnted by a ftrait line, becaufe there 
will then be no difficulty in determining exaiStlj fhe bearing 
of any two places, or the true courfc that a (hip muft &1I 
from one to the oiher^ 

• See Review, VoLXrX. p. 528. 
Kev. July, 1759. E 


66 We^tV Almhtmaua, 

This refill Inearity of the rhumb-line is the chief propert]^ 
of Mercator's projedida ; and, to accomplifli this very things,' 
employed the attention of the moft celebrated navigators after 
the invention of the compab ; but v^'as never brought to any 
degree of perft£lion» till performej by our ingenious coun* 
trj^man, Mn Edward Wright ; virhofe invention will ren- 
der his name famous to al! pofteri ty. 

This projedlion Mr* Weft has now perfeflcd by the foU 
lowing propofitjon, which we fhall give in his own words, 

** If a reiftangular piece of paper be turned into the form 
of a right cylindrical tube, and a fphcrc be infcribeJ thcreiaj 
fo as that the axei of the fphere .and cylinder coincide, 
or, that the equator he the line of contaS between the faid 
tube and fphere, and all the points of the fpheric furfacc be 
proic£tcd or tranfcrred to the concave furface of the tube, by 
right lines proceeding from the center of the fphere, and tcr- 
minaiing in the faij concave furface of the tube : and then* if 
the paper be opened and llretched upon a plane, it will pre- 
fent a charts in which the meridians, parallels of latitude, 
and rhumbs are all truly and geometrically projeilcd in right 
Jines. Qiwerc the Demonftration ? 


«* With regard to the meridians, it is evident, that they 
arc all thrown into right lines in the tube, being all paraJlel 
to its nxis: and as the parallels of latitude are a!l projefted 
in circles perpendicubrtothc faid meridians j fo, upon open- 
ing the tube, &c. as aforefaid, they muft neccflarily become 
right lines alfo. The only thing therefore that requires a 
dejnonftration is, that the rhumbs or loxorfromics become 
right lines, when the paper tube is extended as abovT. In 
order to this, let the eye be fuppofed to be placed in the center 
of the fphere when infcribed in the tube, then every rhumb 
will appear to run round the concave tube in the manner of a 
bottle fcrcw in injiuitum \ and the only thing to be proved is, 
that it keeps a parallel direction to kfelf cvery-wherc j or, 
that it makes the fame ^iv^c with all the meridians ; or, that 
the projefled rhumb makes the fame angle with the projected 
meridian, as the true rhumb makes with the true meridian 
on the furface of the fphere. Theft: two angles do apparently 
coincide, with regard to the eye placed as aforefaid \ that is, 
they are apparently equal to the eye in that fituation ; and 
that they are alfu really equal isevidait from this lemma, viz^ 
That the r€al and apparent bignefs of any angle are the (ame, 
\irticn the eye i^ placed perpendicularly oVcr either of its fides, 








Web t V ^i^thmstiet. ft f 

<>r VI hen 3 perpcndkriilar, dropt from tlie eye to d;c plane of 
the angle, Tails upon either of its fides. Now this is th^ 
vcr}" cafe with regard to both the. angles in qucilion ; for the 
perpendicular from the eye falli on iKe axtgular point oF thu 
angle on the fphere \ and a pcrpcodicular trora ihe eye fall? 
on the meridian, which is ojic iide of the angle on tlie tube : 
confcquently, the real and appareiit bignefs of eaqh of thofe 
ang'lts is the. fame i and therefore, a* tbey appoax ei;uai, they 
are really fo. Q^ E, D, 

S C O L I U M. 

• *f It docy not appear, that Mercator^ or Wiight* cve^ 
thought of this proiCtttion ; for the meridian line here is tna- 
nifcllly a line of langents ; wKerciis, in their nrokcHon, it ib* 
acolledion of fccants. It maybe added, that Mcrcator's^ or 
XVrieht's chart is very faulty in the bearing <rf pi a<JC$; Vut in 
this it is as' true and correa as upon the globe itfelf. ' Ifhall 
-therefore prcfumc to fay, that this navat planifphere, o» 
iea-chart^ is the moft uicful for the purpofes of Navigation 
ever invented j it being better than Mercator's in pnc . imr 
portant refpe^i and equal to it in all others* 

** There arc three projections of the fphcrc, the ortho- 
graphic, the flereographic, ajid the nautical ; the two firft of 
thele are well known to mathematicians : the laft v/as in- 
vented for the purpofcs of navigation, though hitherto a very 
^irfipeffeft and defcdive invention* The crors of th< pllk^ 
chart are corre»!;ted, in a great meai'ure, by Mercator's or 
Wright's chart ; ihowch this htter is not a true projection of 
the fphcre in any fliape ; nor indeed is it pretended to be 
fuch by Mr. Wright, one of its inveatois, who reprcfcnts it 
rather to be an cxtenfion of the fphtrical fLrfacc upon the 
inner iide of the concave cylinder in, which \i\ is i;icJofed^- 
Suppofe f^- I^J the globe to be ij Jnfcribed in a cyhr:f- - ^-^ 
as to touch It every-whcrc In ilwi equator, and cu !y 

the a:ce3 of the globe and cylinder to coin.idt! j tlw-r* iuppofe 
the tube to be of hard and unvieldliig fubllance, ;i3 of mdarblfe 
or the Ii)ce, and the globe ro be of a foft fubflanLC^ «tsablad' 
dcr, and to enlarge itfelf as that docs when MciWii, .until the 
globular furface becomes a cylindrical pnc, b)"applying itfelf 
to the internal or concave furface of the t yllndcr, both ways 
to%vard3 vach poic; Mr* Wright fuppofcs all the parts of the 
fpherical furface to increafe unifonnly m thfb cxtenfci^n ; or, fo 
as that the degrees of longitude and litit\fde ev?ry -where 
/hall ftill continue to bear the fame juft prof»ortion to each 
other, /. r. as radius to fccantof thelatitude^-^-Whcre&LS, thfft 
iruc projeclion (and which, I apprehend, will much better 

H 2 anfwcr 

tT A LO G U ^, 

atifwer the purpofcs of nangatjon than cither the plain chartj 
dr Mt. Wright's) is this> vi-z. Let the fphcre be infcrib 
in a cyliiidric tuhe^ as above ; and let all the parts of th 
fpheric furfacc be transferred to the concave cylinJric furfacc 
by right linei drawn from the center of the fpherc : the con-* 
Sequence of which i^, that, when the c^'lindcr h opened nni 
fprcad upon a plane, the tncridiam, parallels, tind loxodro- 
mic?^ will be all pro}c£ted in right lines, as in Mcrcator*s c 
Wright*s chart, but in different proportions- And I tal< 
upon mc to afTert, that this is the firll chart, or rcprcfcnta-^ 
tion of the terraqueous globe, ever yet invented, in whicl 
the meridians, parallels, and rhumbs, arc juftly and tru' 
pr<^cftcd in right lines ; for the latter cannot be (o projef 
ift Mercator," 

, This fpecimen of Mr- Weft's * Icnowlcgc of mathematical 

filbjcfis, and of his manner of treating them, will, we doubt 
not, excite the curious to a pcruCil of the whole performancQ- 

^ It is lo this gentleman ihc world is indebted for feveral fcnfibfl 
and pious Diicourfcf, published fome time ago, on the Lord's Prayc 
See Review, Vol. XIX. p4 227* 


For JUL r, 1762. 

P O L I T t C A Lr 

Art. T. A Leti€r io the Right Hanouratk the Earl 
£*♦****/, tf» the pnf^^t cntical Situatim of iht 



J s. 


OFFERS fomc reafonabJc coiiJe^urc*> rebiing to the fatal wa 
in Germany, the unpiomifing war in, the monftrou 
ineTreafe of the natiflnal tfcbt, and the importance of our behaving 
with a proper firmticTs, whenever wc come to fctik the terms \ot\ 
future pciicc. * If you would be great and glorious in your admi* 
niilraiion, fays hc^ to Lord R— t. fly the ilcps of the btc M^^r,] 
and a£l aeoonding to your confciencc. If our arms are attend 
wfth the grciiteJl fucccfs without the natton'a reaping die bcncJil of 
h at a peace, your reputation, like his, will blaze like a meteor 
a time, and then vaiuih for ever. In (hon, my Lord, Mr. P — *\ 
Atfixiif in his iiego<ia:ioni was^ to refitni let yours be» 19 rutaih* 



Alt. a. A Dijferiatton en the Caufa pf the Dlfftculties whkh oc^'i 
iur In learning the Engltjh Tfffiguf* Jf'^tth a Scheme fsr pub^ ' ' 
lijhhig an EngHJh Grammar and Di^hf^atv^ itpdn a Plan #fi- 
tinly new, Jddr^ed ts a cerUiin ftJtfble Lord* By Thomas^ 1 
Sheridan^ A»M* 410* is, 6d. X)odfley* * . ^' 

It is wuhrjileafurc we obrerve, iltit the cultivation of our Latir' 
^aagc U novv bcc6me an objc^l of general aticntion, and we tKink' 
the public indebted to the iugcnious Auihof of this DiUcrt^^doii for 
the ftiarc he hat had in exciting this'attcntion. He haJ ftudied 
the EngliHi Language, for many years, with great diligence ; and 
there !&» perhaps, no pcrfon better (jualificd for cariyine into execa* 
tion the truly ufcful defjgn in which he is engaged^ and in the pro* 
fccution of which, we moil finccrcly wlfh hfm aU imajinablc fucccft. 
We are for from thinking, however, that die execution of his plan, 
even in its utmoll extent, will be attended with all ihofc advantaged 
which he fo carefully enumerates; that it will, for inlhncc, htotljh the 
Giant Corrupt hn^ ^'jtib his hundred hands -* from thh feafrft &f frnehmt 
or make pr^f^ng Chriftians reul ones. If Oratory is capable of pro- 
dudng fuch effcds, it is capable of doing more than our Saviour 
ind his Apofllci were able to do, tho* endowed with the power of 
working miracle* ; nay morc^ we will venture to fay, than Ounipo- 
T£NC£ itfelf is capable of effbding, while men are continued ih their 
prefcnt fituadon and circdmllanees. The extravagant and cnthu/iallic 
manner, indeed* in which Mr. Sheridan exprelfcs liimfelf on thh 
head, muildrawafmlle from cverj' fenfible and unprejudiced Reader, 
who well knows, that the citadel of Corruption is not to be ftonucd 
by the ^r^/^rmyi/Zw/ j» of Eloquence, nor the condufl of the libertine 
or hypocrite to be reformed by the noblcft ftrains of facnrd Oratory, 
Some indulgence, however, we acknowlegc, ought to be Ihcwn to 
the fond exprelHons of a parent, iti regard to a favourite child. 

Mr. SherUan obfervcs, that when a foreigner arrives in I^ndon, 
jitKl enquires for a matter to teach him the language of the country , 
tfMcre is no jTucb perfon to be found, nor any method open to him, 
% which he may be alhlled, in attaining a jull manner o/fpeaking 
£ngtifh ; that the great difficfttty of the Engliih tongqc \m in ihc 
pronunciation, an examine A in ^hich, aft^T all the.paiitfi the/ can 
take, is found to be unattainable, not only by foreigners^ but bj pro* 

The talk in which he Is employed, is to re(!ore the firft and no- 
bieft part of grammar, (^^ix Orthoepy, or the jull manner of pro- 
jiouncingL) to its juil rank and power; and to reduce Orthography tp 
its due iUte of fubordination \ to nnake the fpoken language, as it 
«oiighi 10 be, the archetype ; of which, the written language iho«i^ 
ht conlidcred only as the type. . « 

In order to thii, he lirll traces ^h^ diiSculties which lie in the wa(y 
of fuch an undertaking, to their fottrcf ; and theo, by jewing ho>v 
mil obltacles may be removed, points out a way to tne ac4ompli£b- 
ment of the defign. The fcbeme he tpropofe^ pubb0i a die* 
fbtuiry, in which the true pronauciation of all the wQtds^n our 




cgngor^ ^11 be potn«fd ruit, by ^iiibje and accurate mtrks. To cf* 
fed this, one colamn 0i all exhibit the words in alphabetical ^rder m» 
they 3r<^ wriptco or Tpelt j and' »o iinothcr colunin, opprfite to each 
V be marked its juft pronancuiion The princtple upon 

\ is pcrforuic f, wc arc tftid, is the fimp left that can he 

conceived. Axiyontof moderMe ciipactiv, may, in an haur's tiine, 
make bimfeTf intAer of the marlcj* ^nd ihen he can no more millakc 
the r '^^f than they who are acquainted wjth the noTes, 

on Ml reading To ufij:, or with the points in reading Hebrew, J 

To tbii Dictionary /hall be pre^xed, a rheiorical Grammar, for thc| I 
plan of which \vc muft refer otr Readers to the DiiTcrtaiion itfcjf,' J 
which the Author conclyde* in the fo]\o*K\ng manner, | 

** !*no., r^e whole, fays he, if Tuch a Grammar and Di^^ionary^l 
were \ ihcy moilfooo be adopted into ufc by all fihool* prof,C 

feiEn^, .. iw-.b Rngljfh, The coni'e(|ucnce of teaching children by; 
9ne fijeihod, and one uniform fyilcm of lulcst would be an unifor- 
r^-'- -^ rtonunciarion in all Ip inllniftcd. Thus might the rifmg I 
n boTfi and bf^d in differcnc countries, and counties no^j 
longer q^ve a variety of di4le^s but as fubjeds of one king, likej 
ibna of one father, have one common tongue. All natives of thefej 
I ' M bf rcAored to their birthright In common langiiagejl 

':: too long fenced in, and made the property of a fc*w,'i 
iina l-ortftgn era would no longer be inhospitably fhat out, from a[ I 
communic^don with us in an article, fo euentially neceflary to ih©i 
IcccpiJ^pp afpcial iotercourfc vyith us," ., , ,. 1 

Whether fuch an uniformity^ of pronunciation cati poflihly hii 
jcf^3bli(hed» we much quenioh ; be this however as it may, fuch i] 
Gr*unmar^^rid I^if^tionary 2js Mr. Sheridan prt>po(e5 to publiflT, wilH 
be att^fi^cd with vcr^ conridoiM!>tc public lavaiitagcs. 

Art. 3ljf w/ f^wc' :> Jbridgmitii sf ihf Hj/^Qfy of Franal 

^\*^»'§i^aimttg ihi punn X funfiKlims (f that Kin^Jsmfrsm CJsvti 
. v|^ L'mh XiK their U^ars^ BaitUs^ *^*Vjrx, (^£* ihtk 
L^ioi^ jlf^ftrr^ Cwflomi^ tfc. Written in French by 
M* Heii;iults Prffidtnt of the Court of Inquefts and Re- 
qiiefls in the Parliament of Paris; and tranflated into 
Engliffi, with additional Notcs» relative chiefly to the 
Hifto'ry ofEngland, by Mr, Nugent. 2 VoL 8vo. 12! ~ 

It is obferved, by a very celebrated writer, that the incre* 
ing mtiUfpIicity of fafts, relative to the hilory of great kingdoms 
will fooo reduce us to the necciSty of n^ading only abltracts and die*- ' 
tjonarici* Forttinatc will i^. be, both for ihe history and the reader^ 
jf, in that c^ifc, il;c i»jce and difiicu't laflc of abridgment fl^oald fall 
into the hands of writer* of et]y^ abilitic's wirh thofe of the author 
of the work before its. TNi« performance is, indeed, Td extremely 
well known, in the original, and has been ib well received by the 
litera/y world, that it wcu!d be fuperfluous to tajce any farther no* 
tice of hi mcHts than joft to give the fingliih Reader an idea of jfs 
elan and txccution. 



Ml 9 ^^ Lh/LK B0U9i 


TTic ^ncrality . of chronological abriJgmcnts conftlo littU more 
than the dare^ of births fnamagcs, bartle** and dcuhi* as if intrud- 
ed only to excrcifc the memoiy of chiUJrcn. Our aaihor en^Ttged 
ill a far more cxienfivc plan j his work being ncirhcr a compJeie hif- 
tory, nor a mere chr'xiolo^k^l tabic of cve?>n» but a judicious mix- 
ture of both. So that», while if is caJcuIated to gratify the curiofity 
of chofc who encjuire for the d.cte^ and lucccfGon of f;*<;u, \% points 
out, at the iamc time, the foundation and proj^irfs of th<r French 
mnnarcby, the various rcvolurion? in their form of got^crntnefit, the 
fundamental maxims of the Ihte, ihr fonrce of lUeir public Uw» the 
origin of their cqllonw, the rife and progrefs of the crown offices, 
the inftitution of the different courts of jullice^ tHe fucceiTion of the 
chief magiftrates, wfiji the name^ of the minillers^ generals, and 
learned men, who flourifhcd in that countrj', 

Stich h the prefident llenaulc'^ plan ; in tf^c execution of which* 
the attentive Reader will perceive that the inquiries of the hiilorian 
have been dircflird by the niaE»i(lrarc and the ilatcfman. He will 
alfo be agreeably itillru^cd ancJ entertained, by the many ingenious 
remarks, carious ccclairciirc merits, and well -drawn charade rs, that 
are interfperfcd throughout this work. Ai to its form, and the Au- 
thor's manner of writing, we have only to lay that they have both 
been generally admired, and liavc obtained the fan£tion of the bed 
critics ; The King of Pruflia, in particular, fpeaks highly of thia 
work» in his Prc^Sce to the Memoirs of th? Houfc of Brandenburg. 
** It may be confidcred, f^y, hc» as the fubflance of every thing re- 
markable and ivorthy of notice in th^ French billory ; h that, who- 
ever i? once marter of this performance, may be fuld to be perfeAly do^ 
q^ainted with the hifbry of Fiance.'' 'i he Luno royal critic takes 
notice alfo, of the jtidlcitms uuthor's happy taient at cnabc«l'!>iinj» the 
dry fludy of chronology ; notwithilandin;; he i?, to l.i> gre*it iioiiour 
as a writer, univeriaJly i-liowed to convey a^ mucli mtlrudionj in th^ 
fpacc of a few Unct, a* others in extenfjve di/Tert^itioas. 

Art, 4. The CQuntry-Scat j or Summrr-EviTit/ig Entfriatnmenti* 
Traftjlated fr§m tht French, 2 Vols, i^mu. 5 s. bound. 

This publication conHfls of a coltcflion of amufjng and romantic 
tales ; to which h addci. a (hort pidcc, entitled VUc Rmploymitot 
of Souls after fepa aiion from the Body, a Dream ; by M^-Rab^ncr^ 
of Drcfden. The foUonin'' '^-^^■^^s may ferve to (hev*' rm.iMi'tng 
of the humour of this btti ti>re. The A-ihor is 

dead, and that h-^ *>■ V '^ >:.,-- .1 ^- '^ ^v with a^ rmr.',, u^., de- 
fence as a maicji' , ^^ hich :t i 
contempbtiflff, w m n iruly paternal ionorv i 
offsprings of Tiis gentu5» left behind htm; 
fays he, was interrupted by the csvii" 
lyho threw themfehes as eagerly 
prey. And h he really dead f C'-ted the; 
Here, y:?u^ Harry, run Quickly to ihe u 

OAOufide, arbufy in 

'■, the ma*>u&ripfs, thofc 
*' I'his co.tcmplatiodi 

jf my imp. 

■■ l^fV 

J. B5"ra 


-■4 — ^ 
: afte of 



}Aoi3i T Htr Catalogue, 

iny nifcci, who made hcrfclf fare of inheriting from mc, ihofe graeef 
ancl talcius whjfh nature had denied her, and of finding in niy Fqr- 
tunc, beauty, merit, arid foirofi^ ThU tender nicte of mti>c dlf* 
folvtd in tc^rs ; and, witl^ uplifted handi, cried, Ah f my pbot, 
dear uncle 1 how kind 1 how aifc^onate was he tq us all I Ccj^taml/ 
he h gQtie to heaven, if ever man did.— ^Bui it doc$ not become 
lis \o envy his happmefs.*— ^'Thi* lyas ^hc fignal for plundering ; 
^hc fi/rt afuiili was made on my Wrong box ; then viol^jnt hands wcic 

laid on piy cloaths and furniture. With perfei^l indiifcrcncc i 

beheld the clutter, tiU I fyw my papers wpre going iq be cxaniined^ 
which put me into a terrible conllernatlon. Evwy little fajp w^ 
prefulJy Jooked laiq; all tho(e on which was written, /^fiw^u//^^ ' 
mftlf indehad <» M, RaBtmr th$ fum •fj i5i* Or ^hne ^sn/hs afttr 
dfkti^ J pr(^mi/i($ pay U M* Rahener^ Ot fum 9f% l^c. all thefe, I fay, 
\ve?e laid bye \yith a reverent jal fedulity ; but terrible long faces 
iverc made at Ibme memoranduins of a coritriry tcnour. Next came 
forth my manufcripts, for the fate of which J was extremely anxious ; 
but fortunately my nepbcvy^, tHoggh he had takcii,fa»5 degree of 
Maflcr of Ar'u, could make nothing of them ; fo that they wej*c 
fhfown by, as no better than wailc paper.*' Our Author^ dream has 
n;t, in this particular, turned out true; for poor Mr. Rabencfs 
j^aimfcripts aye ail gone before himy We gave fomc account in our 
Kevjew for May, of the untimely fate of ihofc pieces, in an ex- 
traft frs>ip one of his letters to M. Gcllcrt. 

^rt, 5, AntUCantita: off Super/? ithn deteifed and e^spofci ^ In 
a Cgnjutatlon qf the vulgar Opinicn of JFifches^ Spirits^ Di-r 
mms^ Uc. ^€, &WQ* IS, Dodlley, 

Wc owe thif icrious performance 10 the ridiculous (lory of iht 
late Ghofl rp Cock-lane* The Author earneflly endeavours 10 ex- 
plode th<; common notions of the reality of Speflres, and ihfc power 
pf Sorcery; and in order to this, he underrakts to fhcw that the 
Scripture no where countenances fiich nqtionb ; notwithlbnding the 
Mofaical profcription of the Black Art, the itory of the Witch of 
Endor, &c Hi* obfervaiions are judicious, and might be Jcr- 
viceal^le to the CQinn^on peoptct were his treatife to fall in their way ; 
which is not to be cxpeAed, for they feldom purchafe twdlvc- 
penny pamphlets. He has alfo attacked the whole army of Magkk, 
Divination, Omens, Prognoflics Dreams^ Ch^u'tn^* Ai^rolog\'| 
ILc. ^x. and pi^t them entirely to the rout* 

Art. 6. A Digefl of the new Militia Law^ vfhlch received the 
R^yal Afpniy Apr. 8, l*jbt. By Richard Burn> L* L, D, 
i2mo. IS. Millar. 

It is fufficicnt to fay, that this ufcful Di^eft !s *?hc work of th^ 
ymivcrfjlv approved Author of the treatife c^^tltzd, Ibt Juflitt 9/ 




Art* 7* A Lttier frtm an Author U a Monitr aj^ Parliament^ 
c^narnirtg literary Property, Svo* 6il, Knapton. 

This little trcatife, which was printed in the Year i ^47^ is wnttcn 
ip favour of the right of property iu authors to their works; and is 
peoacd with luch peculiar tUcngth and fpirit as evidently di/^Iays the 
hand of a m after. \\> judged it proper to take notice of it at this 
time, HOC only on account of its real meiit, but hccaufe the right here 
defended h under litigation in a court of law, and fmm thence ha$ 
become the object of ^qeral attention among the Uwyer$ and 11^^ 

A^t. 8, Jfi Enquiry into tbf Naiun and Origin tfjit^ary Pr4^ 
fcrty, 8vo, IS* Flcxney. 

The intent of this ingenious and well-penned pamphlet h ofa ten- 
dency quite oppoiTte from that of the letter mentioned in thelai! ar-* 
tide. Thii Writer endeavours to prove, that a Jiterary copy is not 
fufccptible of property ; that if it wa*^ it ts not capable of a perpetual 
exclusive pofTcfiion ; and that fuch a right would be prejudicial to the 
advancement of letters, and of ill confequcncc to authors ihcmfclves. 
In treating of theft heads, he enters very deeply Into matter of la w^ 
and difcovecs grtai acutenefs and controvcrfial (kill throughout the 
whole of the argument As to the principlet of law, we leave them 
to be controverted by the learned in the profeflinti, but as far a^ rea- 
ibn is concerned, %ve cannot help differing in opinion from the writer; 
and though wc admire his very ftrewd and logical method of reafon- 
ing» yet \Ve can by no means adopt his concTufioni, which fecm iz^ 
pugnant lo natural reaton and common juiEice. 

^rt, 9. The Tahiti^ 9r PiiJure tf real Lift. Jnflfy rrpreftni- 
ing^ m in a Lnhing-gUfi^ \h€ Virtuei and Vnei^ Pofptriet 
and PooUrles^ Majks and Mummerla of the Age* ff'lth the 
true Chara/ftrs 9/ the IPlfi and Good, in a filial Sit of EJJays^ 
firkus andjoC^fe^ upon the m^Jl mttrtjling Suhje^s, Addnjfed 
tQ thofe who dare to think for thcmfthuh^ and attempt in earne/i 
to improve Mankind. 8vo. 5s. Longmati. 

A new title to a work pobliftied in the yeaj- 1750, and recom- 
mended in the zd vol. of our Review, p, 451. It wa* then cntitle4 
^ke R'fltBotf Ti^rfftHting^ human ajairs ai tbej an, and may hi im" 

Att. 10* Sophia. Ey Mrs* Charlotte Lennox. i2mo. 2 Vols, 
6s. bound. Fletcher. 

\, ' It is 9 common error* with fuch adventurers as meet with any dc* 
gfCc of fuct^fs, either in brandilhing the goofe^quill or the truncheon, 
%o pufh their good luck too (at, and tiflc a rcvcrfc of fortune by keep* 
f Qg the field too long. Next to the diiliculty of making an honour* 




ahle retreat, after a battle loft> is that of knowing bow far to pur" 
/iie the good fortune of conqocfl, atvd when to rcrirc fccurdy, t^. 
enjoy the fpoils of vi£lory. The petty acqaifition, that mi^ht do ho- ' 
nour to 3 novice iti litcrajurc or in arms, would rather dimimfh than 
increaie the repLuation of a vcceran pradifcd in great atchie^*cmenUp _ 
and repeatpdly crowned with laurels* Hence it is expc^ed of a^ j 
writer, who hath aCf^uired an v^ portion of literary faroc, that evcryiJ 
new work he producei Ihraild be fupcnor to the laft ; a-^d if it prow J 
otherwifc, it detrafli from his general charafter, by jiift i'o much ai'i 
its merit falls Ihort of expeftaaon. The current of a living Au« 
ihor's reputation i» thus ever on the ebb or Eow, To tlHti it may* 
be added, that even novelty in the author, as well in the perform* 
ance, h^ in this nQvelty*Ioving age, become requifite to make a 
work of entertainment compleatly tfjki/ig. However new the dc^ 
fign» incidents, or model of the cooipoiltion, yet, if the author 
hath been long known, the prc-conceivcd notion of the Aylc and 
danncr, gives the whole an oId'fa(hioned air, atid it is nor quire ^i 
mt^ thfv^t at lc*ift with the ladies ; for whofc ufe and amuicnientj 
works of tiiis kind are chiefly calculated. The difpofirion of thtfj 
public muY be imagined, in this rcf^'e^, Hkc that of a froward 
child, equally capricious and unaccountable. But, fo it is, Mrs.' 
Lenox, therefore, (hould pot be difap pointed if her S^^phta docs no|^i 
tncet with fo warm a reception as ^t female ^ixsfe, Fi^rieffa, antll 
fomc other of her pieces, have been honoured with. Indeed^ w&l 
jnuft confefa, that this performance, c6i\Cifk\ng of a love-flory, ncitl 
wnintcrcfling in point of inciJent, nor inelegantly written, wants/ 
tievt'rthelefs, much of that fpirit and variety which this ipccies of 
compofjtion peculiarly requiics, and which are more confptcuous in 
fome of her fortrttr works. 

y^rt. II, jf Gr/imm&r of the Italian Lartgua^i^ with a atphi 
Praxis of moral Sintenca , To which u addid^ an Etiglij 
Grammar for the Ufe of the Italians, By Joieph Barctti 
8vo. ^s. Hitch, &c. 

If Mr* Paretti*s Italian gram^rtar has any thing to recommend 
It, more ^^Ja^ thofc th^t have been already pubiifiicd, it is thi 
brevity with which tlic principal rules arc hid down : Put b' 
confultin^ this bredty too muci), he has fDmetiines left the learn 
in the dark» In point of pronunciaiion, panicularly, we can by m 
means recommend this work; nor can we approve of the Au- 
tkor's determination to fay nothing on poinds where he could not la; 
down any unexceptionable rule. If he intended to give his grami 
mar any fupcnor utility, it faoald have conveyed more light lo ihe 
learner, and not Icfs than otheri . in this rcrpe£k, however^ 
thofc of jMticri, Vcoeroni* ^. ^rc mucl^ preferable to Baretti's. 
lu fa£t, ^hi? grammar is only a copy of that prefixed to his d(^i- 
onary. with tnc addition of jn oral fcntence^, Italian and EngliOi^ 
The Author bonJls that this performance is \hv beft of its kind that 
ever appeared in public ; bu: Jic had crer a favotirablo opinion «f 


Poet i c a t. 


Ki$ own produ^licns. fn truth, its defeats are many. He fhould 
have given a more ample ocpUnation of the pronoans and adivc 
vcrbfi ufed intpcrfonaUy in Icalian ; the moil perpicAing and diigcxitt 
part of the language. It is alfb irer/ delete tive io regai^ to the con* 

The verbs are conjugated at length (the order and diviiion of the 
tcnfcs arc an inFention of Hh own) but no Engli{h ii given to the 
ItaHan ; which is contrary to the pra^Hce of others who pretend to 
leach a Ungtiage : For to what purpofe can a jhjdent learn by rote 
a verb in tiie language he would acquire, if he is nnt informed to 
what word it anlwcrs in his own. Mr. Barrccd may fgppofc the 
Audenci previous knowledge of gnunniar; but that is fddom the 
cafe, even with adults^ and hardly ever with younger pupils ; wha« 
for the tnotl part, begin to apply thetnieliees to the iludyof the 
French or Italian, without any foundation in grammar. 

But though Mr. Barretti has not acqmtced Juni(elf much to our 
fatiifjdion as a gramnaarian, he has certainly afted the part of a 
good cidzen, by making the fcrvlcei of hi* * tongue teaching coua* 
trymen ' ftill more nec«it*ry and importance 

P O t T I C A L. 

Art. la. Tbi Viceroy, A Poem. 4to* i s. Payne, & Co. 

An elc;:ant and truly poetical panegyric on Lord Halifax^ the pre- 
fcnt worthy Lord Lieacenaxit of Ireland, 

Art. 1 3, Jif Ode U the Right HmouralU iht Earl of LincJn, 
4to* 6 d. Kent. 

A compliment to the Duke of Newcaflle, on his rctiremetit, 

A dry potidcian at the Smynta* on feeing this ingenious Jfttic poem, 
exclaimed* * Oh ! that it had but come out twenty years ago/ 

Art, 14. AEJielfamous Pscms, By Elizabeth Carolina Keenc. 
8vo* 5 s, fswc^. Hooper* 

Many clrcunjftanccs intitlr the fofter fcx to a more delicate treat- 
Tfient than our own, and therefore it is ;ilw3y& with tendcrnefs we 
Jnok upon the produftions of a fetnele pen. Jf Mrs. Keene'i poems 
Ihall be thought to merit the public favour from ihe following cx- 
tra^v may Aey enjoy it. 

The Fa my in Love, 

Fairefl of the virgin l^ain. 
That trip it oVr this jr^ap-ic plain, 
( ome and dance, and fing with me. 
Under yonder aged tree. 

There Pll tell you many a t Je 

Of mouot^Af rock, of hdl 2nd dalef 




Which will make yoa laugK with mt 
Under yonder aged tree. 

Who M that, that I cfpy 
JufI <kfceT>ding from the flty t 
Fai^hp 'tis Cupid come to fee 
FlirtiU* beneath yon aged ttcc. 

, A little rogue ! but he fhall fmart, 
I'll takeaway hb bow ar»d dart ; 
^nd give ihetn Tore hu face to thee» 
Under yondcs^ aged tree* 

There well dance, and play^ md fing, 
Celebrating Pan our King ; 
Atid Til always live with tbce 
Under )T)ndcr aged tree. 

Fli r t 1 l l a V Anfwcr. 

Were I like the Paphiaji queen^ 
In beauty and majeftic mien, 
Fiirtiila e'en would dance with tboe 
Under yonder aged tree. 

Then Fd liflcn to yotjr tnle 
Of mountain high, or lowly vale? 
Such fwect difcoutfc would me delight^ 
To be with thee from morn to night. 

Ah i but Cynthia then I ^ear, 
htil Ihe Ihould chule you lor bcr dear ; 
Ldl you too Ihoitid iaconilantprave. 
And thus repay Flirttila'a Love. 

Not C^id with his keenell dart 
Should ever pierce my conilant heart; 
Por ah ! already *th too true, 
'flirtilla thinks of none but you. 

Not Jove himfelf fhould rival thee, 
"Nor ever fnatch one kifs from mci 
iFrom n\c no favour 0>otild he meet. 
Though he were dying at my feet. 

Though he defcendcd from the fey. 
In all the blaze of niajcliy, 
My love within thy bofom lies. 
With thee it lives, with thee it dies. 

If then thefe trrms you do approve, 
To pafs our time in mutual love, 
Flirtilia gives her hand lo thee, 
WitEt'fs, yon<i'*r aged tree. 




£ D t C A L. 


Art. .15 An Acc&unt of t/jf topical AppHcafim of the Spimge^ in 
the Stoppage of Hemorrhages, Read before the Royal Society, 
By Charles White, F. R. S. one of the Corporation of 
Surgeons in London, arwi Surgeon to the Monchcftcr In- 
firmary, 8vo. IS, Johnflon. 

This (itiall pamphlet, which may prove of confiderablc utility, 
gives thirteen cafes in furgcry* of which nine %vere amputations, in 
evidence of the fuccefs of this application. The taking op and 
making ligatures on the brger vefTcIs aftfr amputations, beirt^, ac- 
cording to the report of thofe who have fufFered them, the moil 
painful part of foch operations, having been fometime^ attended with 
convulfive fymptoms, the locked j.iw, and even death ; and the agaric 
of the oak having proved lefs i n fall i hie tn the rubfequent hemorrhages 
than was at firll expeded» befidcs the frequent difticuhy of procuring 
the befl fort. Mr. White has thought it his dot>', he fays, to Jay t<ii» 
remedy before the public. The fpungc fliould be of the belt and 
dofefl kind, or the ftne male fpunge, and is to be cut into dices, 
not horizontally, according to the Itrata or layers of which it n com^ 
pofcd, but perpendicularly and through them, (b that each flice is to 
conft^ of feveral ^ata. After the apphcation of fuch ilicej (o the 
wounded velfels, a gentle compreHion Oiouid be made upon them* 
either with a linen roller, or with crofs flips of good (licklug-p'aii^ 
ter But as the pi ice of this fraall yet imporrant pamphlet, (which 
contains ail neceflary directions for the proper applicatioit of this oiec* 
tuai and, a^ it may be called, anodyne remedy) Is fo trifHngi that 
we cannot fuppofc any decent operator wilt be without it, we (hail 
only add^ that it is cxprcffed and conducted in the clear manner of a 
fcnfiblc writer ; and that feveral phyficians, furgeons, and pupils aC 
blanch elier arc mentioned as prefcnt at the operations, who may be 
fuppofcd fo many evidences to the efficacy of this happy application*^ 
Belides which, our Author fays, p. 48. "The fpungc has never yet 
failed me, though I have applied it within thcfc iixtecn months 10 
'upwards of fifty padents ; and have conflantly ufed it ijnce laft^Mi^ 
chaelmas, without ever having had recourfe to the needle aod liga- 
ture, except in two cafes." Admitting this* wc muft alfo admit, that 
araputationi mull not only prove Icfs painful, but Icfs fatal tian they 
have often bcca bcfose this new apphcacioo. 


Religious mtd CoKTROvrRsiAt. 

Art, 16* Divsut Meditations : Or a fekil Coilc£}}r,n ofOhfinra-' 
ti^ns^ divtnt arJ moral, JbflraSled frctn the ^Pritrngt 9f the 
fmfi ^ffrofvtd Authuru By a Gentleman, 8vo. is. 

This devout, medley can only be commended lor the piety of ihc 
4e6giu The author appeari to be hut CuperkLtiJy auiiiainud with 


Mo r; T a t V C a t a l o g u e. 

the doflrmcs of chriftimiiy, which yet he veniures to write aboiif^ 
although it be only co tdj ui the oM flory, that we nrc crmmanded 

to believe ynhki ^vc neither do, nor can underlbncL ~Wli«n wil 

this wretched tafte for JEmgta^^, AaoHics^ i^nagmns^ and RcbaHo 
wear out ? 

Art, 17. A Hdp to she Study cf tin Scrtpiuu> j ut a nnv atia 
compUat Hljhry af the BthU. iimo. 2s. 6d- Hinxmaii. 

A pretty book for children \ adorned with pretty pi^hiici^ 

Art. 18. Ch'iJVi Ttmptdtiom r^ai Fails: 6r a Dtfewr af thf 

Kvangdk Ihjhry \ jhewing^ that cur L 'latiom nwy 

ife/airfy £irid raffofiMy midtr/h^d, as a 2\ ■fwhairva$ 

really tranj'a&cd. Bcittg an Attfuyer to Air. Farmer^ i Inquf^ 
ry *, t?V. 8vo. is- 6d. Piety, 

Much Learning mi fem ployed. We do not ihirtk Mr, Farmer ar-- 
fwercd yet. 

• Se» an aiccoant of this Ing«nioiij performance in Review, Vol. XXV* 

p. no, 

Alt. 19* An umfianQl Revifw of the Prebendary of Litchfleld^i 
Serrmn^ and Addrcfs to the FeopU' called fakirs. By John 
Jolinlbn. Svo. gd. Johnfon. 

We arc determined to have nothing to i^y. In regard to tHi5 un- 
profitable cootroverfy, farther than barely inforniing onr R<?ader« 
that there arc fuch publications — by rcpcatirg their tide- pa^cs, a^s 

Art. 20* A pre-extflent Latfe of human S&ub detnwjlrated from 
Riajm \ jhcwn ta be th&VphnQn QftL tm^Jl emhienl If^rhen of 
Aiitiquityy faired and prof am : prsveJ ts he the Ground-wort 
liknvife of tl/e Gojpel Dt/peffuilm ^ mui the Maiium through 
whieh many m42icrii2l iopiiSy niatlve thereto ^ are ft in a deaf ^ 
ratiofjaly and eonjijhnt Light, By Capcl Borrow, A. M- 
Reflor of Frnninglcy, Nottinghamlhire. 8vo. 23* 6«i- 
fewed. Whifton, &c. 

Though the Opinion of the pre-cxiftence of hmnm) foub i* juilly 
given pp, in the present ^e, as a fennment eithrr whoUy founded on 
'imaginaiijii, or upon very precailous reafmung?, yet it hash 
formerly been embraced by fuch a number of emiatnt perfons, thar it 
feems to claim fomc degree of refpeill, On tin^ account, notM/ith* 
(landing the awkward uefs of the title, we took up Mr. Bcnow'» 
t>ook, with an intention of layincr before our readers a dillintl view 
of his fchcme, provided it />«ouU be foui^d 10 contain any thitig 
plaufible Of in^enioui. But %^e are fofry iq fay> (is ihc Author is. 




RE1.IG10US and Co^TKOfBKStAt. 

we doobt not* a pir^us and worthy man^ that his pcrforroancc h altg- 
geiher undcferving of the public attention ; it is ^ crude and irregular 
prodaclion. neither to be commended for its matter or its Style, 
Tlie alterations from fcnptttrc ar(? weak and unmtfcal ; the juuu- 
inen s. drawn fiom the depravity of the mind, are declamatory and 
falle, and fcveral of the authontics arc mifreprcfcntcd, and a: bcH 
nothing to the purpolc- 

If Mr, Berrow had, in the firfl place^ fat down clofely ^nd impar^ 
tially to e)(amine whether the iis^te of human nature be (o bad und fo 
difficult 10 account tor, as he has iCj-^rcftcittd it, aud whether ionic of 
lh« docliincs he is folk-ttooi la cApUiu arc rcaily to be met wjth m 
the fcnptures, he would have had nd occalion to fly to tl^ hyv 
,pothciJ» of a pre-cxjltence, and would have avoided the error 
of taking opinions for granled, wiihouc a previous enquir)^; an^rror, 
which ha6 contiibuicd to load the world witS) a multitude of ufciefs 
and infignificant writiifgs. Aooihcr grc;jt fa^l^hf has ftdlcn into, i» 
his imagining that ^. hrjilianity U incxphcabic, and thiit Jt canno^ rtand 
againll the attacks of Infidelity , unleis its fcheme be admitted. Buz 
we will venture to tell chrs doughty chnnipion. that tiiecau c of our 
holy religion doth not reU upon the prowcis of ins arm ; and {hat it 
13 capable of being defended by much bet er we^ipon^ than thoib 
with which /jt hath thought proper to furuilh Ixi mfcif. 

The Author promilej a fecond volume upon rhe fubje^l ; but we 
heartily wifh he may defer the publication of it, till he has made foafc 
con&derablc improvements in reafooing, method, and language. 

Art. 21. J fecond Lttier tc thi Rrj. Dr. Kifinicoit. In whhb 
his Diftnci cf hh famd Dijftriaim Is examified. By T, 
Ruthetforth, D, D. F. R. S. the King's Profeflbr of Di- 
vinin* in Cambridge, and Chapkln to her Royal Highnefs 
the Princcfs Dowager of Wales. 8vo. i s* Miliar, ^c. 

As the controvcrfy between the Dociorj RutherFoith and Kcnii- 
cott, cannot be be fuppofcd to be intcreiHnjj to the ^jcner^li^y of 
Readers, it will not be expei^ted chat we ihouid be parnc«i^ in our 
accounts of what ii advanced upoa it. In rCi^ard lo thi* fcaind let- 
ter, therefore, we iliali oaXf f-iy* d*at we are forry to obierve mdter 
marks cf that iliibcmi fpiiit» which we h;id occsiion to complain of 
in the 6rlt. Sec our lall Volume, p 395 » 

Art. aa. Olfcrvatimt on th Cndiittllf and Importance of Scrhp^ 
tui'i^Hifijiy \ the Sub/iance u^ber^sf wat detivertd in a Dif- 
enurje at the Opening zf the Synod of Perth and Stirling^ at 
Pirth^ OJ?. 20 j 1 76 1, whiih they defired t& he publtjhed. 
By John Gibfon, Mirtiftcr of iit, Ninians. 8va, 2s. 
Edinburgh, Sold by Millar in London. 

W«? have here a (hort and cornprchenGvc ;!CCOimt of the evidence, 
and whidly oftb<? txtemal evidence of revealed relrgion. The >lu* 



thor, with grcai pcxrpicuityt both of ll>*Ie and reafoning, has hroo^ht 
together under ooe point of view, ihc principal arguments that 
chriiUans have to urge in defence of their faith ; and ihc funfimary 
he has olTered lo the public may be very ufeful to ihofc who have 
Dcidjer Icifurc opr oppprtuiiity for pcrufmg larger work** 

Art* 23. The reUghys G&wrmftmt cf a Family \ fafticnlarfy thf 
Ohiigathn and Importance of Family'WffrJhip, In thrift Dif- 
tmrjeu Preached at Carter-Lane. By Edward Pickard^ 
8vo* 15. Buckland, &cc. 

We have here three very ufeful and jadiciotis difcoprfes upon t 
duty of great importance, tho' generally difrcgardcd. The worthy 
Author treats htj fubjcCt with great plainnefs, perfpicuity, and 

Art* 24- Fifieen Sermons^ by the late Rev. Tobias Covte^ 
B. D- Reaor of Stratford, in Suffolk. Publifbcd for'thc 
Benefit of his Widow. 1 zmo. 2 Vols* 5s. Brgthcrtom 

Thcfc Sermons were not originally defigned for p%AA¥i view : the 
benevolent defign of affiiling a cleigyman*» widow is th« kcJt rcji* 
ion that can be given kn printing them. 

Art. 25. The Nufjftty &f U'^iter-Baptifm : Oaafi^ned hy et Pam^ 
phUt lately publtjbed by A Jr. S* Fotfmgtll 0/ JVatrington^ in De- 
Jifice of the ^uahr^i NatiQn of Bapitjm* 8vo- j fi- Field. 

A 5 we wiflv to fee an end of this debate, we muft not give it 
sonfequcnce, by entenng into particulars concerniDg the prefcuC 

Single Sermoiis. 

1. ^^T^HE Chripan Mvapgelijl. By Robert Henry, A, M. Hen- 
X derlbn, kz. 
t* *rhe Sins of yi'ws itnd Chnfliam undtr the L^^w^ and urdtr the 
Q^ffth fnftfi'Jtrtd, — At Bejticy in Rent, March ia» 1762; on the 
GcncMJ Fail, By Henry Pier?, M. A. Vicar. Lewis* 

5. The Vjt and Authority of the faftctai Office t an J the l^ite rf h- 
nifhture 'with it, cfiftJenJ, — In his Majefly's Chapel at Whilehall, 
at the Ccnfecrarton o.*' the Bifhop of Cailifle* By WlIHam Parker, 
p. 0* Chaplain m ordinary to his Majeily. Baldwin. 

4, Before the ^son's of the Clergy, *t St* Paul's, May ^, 176.% 
By George Home, B* D. PVUow of Magdaicn-Coticge, Oxon* 

5 On the Death of the Rct. Mr. Thomas Hall, Jane 13* 1 762. 
By Richard Winter. Buckhtid. 

6. A rtmarkahU Jtccmfii/tment ef a ftoted Serf pi are Pr^phecy^ as 
applied to the Hillory of England during the hit and prcfcnt Lenlu- 
xies, in a Thankfgiving Sermon By Ridurd Dobbs, D, D. of Lil* 

burn in Ireland, Nov, jg^ 1759. Wilcox. 


C 81 J 



For A U G U S T, 1762. 

LeitiTs en Chivalry and Romance, 1 2 mo. 2 »• MiUar* 

WHILE the generality of writers are cautioufly creep- 
ing in the track of their prcdcccflbrs, without daring 
to think for thcmfclves^ and to venture far from the bcati-a 
paths, the ingenious author of thefe Letters, trufting to hia 
own powers, opens a new vein of criticifm, and entertains 
his readers, in a moft agreeable manner, with a variety of 
remarks on a very curious fubje£t. The Orthodox in Poe- 
try wiU^ no doubty look upon him as a daring HeretiCi 
Jlnd, as fuch, thunder dut their cxcommunicatiohs agalnft 
him; be thi«, however, a*; it may, he will, we arc pcrfuad- 
ed| meet with a favoumbtc reception from every rt^adftr of 

He fets out with obferving, that the ages which wt call 
barbarous, prcfent us with many a fubjc6^ of curious fpccu- 
larion ; that nothing in human nature h without its reaibns ; 
and that, though the modes ^sid fafhions of difFcrtnt timet 
may appear, at firft fight, fantaftic and unaccountable, yet 
fomc latent caufc of their production may be difcovercd by 
thofe who look nearly into them. Sometimes, wc arc toldg 
a dofe attention to the workings of the human mind, is fuf« 
iicient to lead us to this knowle^e ; and fomctimes the dili- 
gent obfervation of what palles without us, is necdTary. 

Would we know, from what caufes the inftttution of Chi- 
valry was derived } the time of its birth, the fituation of the 
Barbarians amongft whom it arofc, mulV be coafidered : 
their wants, defigns, and policies mull be explored : wc mul! 

Vol. XXVII, F enquire 


iz L'.iic'-i C'J Chtvalr) 

enquire when, and where, and how, it came to pafs, that 
the weftern world became familiarized to this prodigy^ which 
vre now fhut at. 

^' Another thing, fays our author, is full as remarkable, 
aM^d concerns us more nearly. The fpirit of Chivalry, was a 
fire which foon fpent jtfelf ; but that of Romance^ which was 
kindled at it, burnt long, and continued its light and heat 
even to the politer ages. 

*' The greateft gcniufes of our own and foreign countries, 
fuch as Ariofto and Taflb in Italy, and Spenfer and Milton 
in England, were feduccd by thele barbarities of their forefa- 
thers ; were even charmed hy the Gothic Romances. Was 
this caprice and abfurdity m them ? or, may there not be 
fomething in the Gothic Romance peculiarly fuited to the 
views of a Genius, and to the ends of poetry ? And may 
may not the philofophic Moderns have gone too far, in their 
perpetual ridicule and contempt of it ? 

• *^ To form a judgment in the cafe, the rife, progrefs, and 
genius of Gothic Chivalry muft be explained. The circum- 
ftances in the Gothic fi£lions and manners, which are proper 
to the ends of poetry, (if any fuch there be) muft be pointed 
<Jut. Reafons for the decline and rcjedtion of the Gothic 
tefte in later times muft be given." 

Chivalry, properly fo called, and under the idea of a 
diftinc^ military order, conferred in the way of inveftiture, 
and accompanied with the folemnity of an oath and other ce- 
remonies, as dcfcribcd in the old Hiftorians and Romancers, 
fprung, our author thinks/ immediately out of the Feudal • 

The firft and moft fcnfiblc effefl: of this conftitution, which 
brought about fo mighty a change in the policies of Europe, 
was the eredtion of a prodigious number of petty tyrannies. 
For, though the great Barons were clofely tied to the fervice 
of their prince by the conditions of their tenure, yet the power 
which was given them by it over their own numerous vaflals 
was fo great, that, in efteS, they all fet up for themfclves ; 
afFefted an indcpendancy, and were, in truth, gL fort of ab- 
folutefovereigns, at leaft with regard to one another. Hence 
their mutual aims and interefts often interfering, the feudal 
ftate was, in a good degree, a ftate of war : the feudal Chiefs 
were in frequent enmity with each other : tlie feveral combi- 
nations of feudal tenants were fo many fcparate armies under 
^ "' ' their 

their Head or Chief: and their cafiles were fo many fortrcflcs, 
«s well 1L5 palaces, of thefe puny princes. 

In this ftateof things, all imaginable encouragement \ 
to be given to the ufc of arms, under every different form of 
attack and defence, according as the fafety of thcfe different 1 
communities, or the ambition of their leaders, might re- 
quire. And this condition of the times, our author ima-^ ' 
gincs, gave rife to that military inftitution which we know 
by the name of Chivalry. 

Hc obfcrves farther, that there being little or no fccurity 1 

to be had amidft fo many reftlefs fpirirs, and the clafhing] 
licws of a neighbouring numerous and independent nobility^] 
the military difcipline of their followers, even in the inter-] 
vals of peace, was not to be relaxed, or their ardour fuffer- 
cd to grow cool by a total difufc of martial excrcifes. And 
hence the proper origin of Jufts and Tournaments ; thofe| 
images of war, which were kept up in the caftles of the Ba- 
rons, and, by an ufeful policy, converted into the amufc-*| 
ment of the Knights, when their arms were employed on naf 
feriou^ oceafion. — Our author calls this the proper origin o^\ 
Jufts and Tournaments ; for the date of them, he fays, isf 
carried no higher, even in France, (where unqueftionablj 
they made their firft appearance) than the year 1066; whici 
wa$ not till after the introdatSion of the feudal government 
into that country. 

Thus we fee that Chivalry, in our Letter^writcr's optnion^I 
was no abfurd and freakifli inltitutlon, but the natural and! 
even (bber effect of the feudal 'polic)* ; whofe turbulent ge- 1 
fiius breathed nothing but war, and which was fierce and] 
military even in its amufements. 

If our Author's conjecture concerning the rife of Chivalry 1 
be thought rcafonablc, it will be cafy, he fays, to account! 
for the fcveral charQil£r[fl:a of thii fiugular profeffion. The 
paflion for arms j the fpirit of enterprise j the honour ofj 
knighthood J the rewards uf valour i the fplendor of equi-f 
pages ; in fhort, every thing that raifes our i Jcas of thtej 
prowels, gallantry, and magnificence cf thefe fons of MarsJ 
is naturally and eafily explained on this fuppofition. Ambi-T 
tlon, intereft, glory, all concurred, unJer fuch circum(hnccs,l 
fo produce thefe effe<£ls. The feudal principles could t*rmi-*l 
nate in nothing elfe. And when, by the ncceflary opcratioaj 
of that policy, this turn was given to the thouehts and paf-' 
fioni of ment ufe and fafhion would do the r^j and carry 

F 2 them 


$4 LftUn on Chkulry V^B^^^^I 

ibcm to all the excciles of milhjry fanatic*fiti7which^H 
pniiucd fo ftrongl}% but fcarccly cxaggeraudi in the old mV^ 

For inllancc, one ef the ftrahgcft circuinft.inccs in thof« 
bcolcs, and which looks moll like .^ mere extravagance of the 
imagination, h that of the wsmtn^ivarrhn^ with which tlicy 
all abound, Butltrr, tJi hlii Hudibras, who faw it in this lights 
ridicules it, as a moil uiinaturai idea, with great fpirit. Yet 
in this re pre fen tat ion they did but copy from the manners o-f 
the times, Anna Ccmncna tells Ui^, in the life of her father, 
that the wife of Robert the Norman» fought fide by fide with 
her hufband, in his battles ; that flic would rally the flying 
ibldiers, and lead them back to the charge: and Nicetus ob- 
fervcs, that in the time of iManucl Comncna, there were in 
one Crufade many women, armed Jikc men, and on horfc* 

The courtcfy» afFability, and gallantrvi' for which the 
Knights errant were fo famous, arc but the natural effc<5ls, 
we are told, and confcquenccs of their fituation. For the 
caftlc3 of the Barons were the courts of ihefc little fovereigns, 
as well as their fortrcffcs ; and the refort of their vaflals thi- 
ther, in honour of their chiefs, and for their own proper Ic- 
curity, would make the civility and politcnefs, which are fccn 
in courts, and nifcnfibiy prevail there, a predominant part 
in the character of thefe affcmblics. 

Befides, the free commerce of the ladies, in thofc knots 
and circles of the great, would operate fo far on the fturdicft 
Knights, as to give binh to the attentions of gallantry. But 
this gallantry would take a refined turn| not only from thf 
neccllity there was of maintaining the ftrid^ forms of dccc^- 
rum, amidft apromifcuous convcHation under the eye of the 
prince, and in his own family, but alio from the inflamed 
Jcnfe they mutt needs have oi thf frequent outrages commit- 
ted by tlicir neighbouring dans of ndvcrfarics, oti the honour 
of the* fex, when by rhahceof war they had talhn into thcfr 
hands. Violations of chalKty being the moft atrocious crime*^ 
Jhey had to charge on their enemies, they would pride them- 
ichxs in tJic gK»ry of being its protedofi ; ai\d as thi^ virtue 
Vj'as^ ol ^ill uibci^, the faircft and slrongcft claim of the k% 
itfdf lo inch prote<Sion, it is no wonder that the notions of 
k were, in time, carried ro fo platonie an elevation. 

Our in^civcus Author i>ow procc-tds to account for that 

gtarj/f*f nf rt^i7\.n which was fg deeply imprinted on tlar 

md Romanci* tf 

tn5nds of all Knights^ and was cffentia! to their Jnfthution. 
The D.vt of God and of the Ladies^ we are tol J, went hand in 
hand, in the duties and ritual of Chivalry. 

For this fingularity two reafons may be afligncd, Flrft, 
the fuperlHtion of the times in which Chivalry arofc ; which 
was fo great, that no inftimtioii of a public nature could have 
found credit in the world, that was not confccrated by the 
Churchmen, and clofely interwoven with religion. Second- 
ly, the condition of the Chriftian world i which had been 
harralFcd by long wars, and had but jull recovered a breath- 
ing-time from the brutal ravages of the Saracen anpies. The 
remembrance of what they had lately fuffcrcd from thefe 
grand enemies of the faith, made it natural, and even neccf- 
lary, to engage a new military order on the fide of religion, 

• <* And how warmly this principle, a %eal for ihtfakh^ fays 
our Author, was adted upoji by the profelTors of Chivalry, 
and how deeply it entered into their ideas of the military cha- 
rafter, wc fee from the term fo conftandy ufcd by the old 
Romancers, of Recreant Knight; by which they meant 
lo exprefs, with the utmoft force, their difdain of a daiWd 
or vanquifhed Knight. For many of this order falling into 
the hands of the Saracens, fuch ot them as had not imbibed 
the full fpirit of their profcflion, were induced to renounce 
their faith, in order to regain their liberty. Thefe men, as 
finning againft the great fundamental lawii of Chivklry, they 
branded with this name ; a name of complicated reproach, 
which implied a want of the two moll efleiitial qualities of % 
Knight, COURAGE and faith. 

** And here, by the way, the reafon appears why the Spa* 
niards, of all the Europeans, were farthcfl gone in every 
chara^eriftic madnefs of true Chivalry, To all the other 
confide rations here mentioned, their fiinaticifm in every way 
was efpecially inftigated and kept aliv^ by the memory and 
neighbourhood of ^cir old infidel invaders. 

** And thus wc fccm to have a fair account of that Prow* 
efi, Gcncrofity, Gallantry, and Religion, which were tho 
peculiar aod vaunted charaderiiUcs of the purer ages of Chi* 

** Such was the ftatcof things in the weftern world, when 
the Crufjdes to the Holy Land were fet on foot, Whcnc^ 
wc fee how well prepared the minds of men were for cnti;ag- 
*|l»j in tbat enterprixc. tvcry objeft that had entered into 

f 3 <JW 


LetUn on Chivalry 

the views of the Inftitutors of Chivalryj and haj bfcn foU 

lowed by its profeflbrs^ was now at hand to inflame the mili- 
tary and religious ardour of the Knights to the utmoft. And 
hcre» in fa6t» wc find the ftrongeft and boldeft features of 
tbdr genuine charaifter; ^/(C7r/n^ to madnefs^ in entcrprizcs of 
hazard : burning with zeal for the delivery of the oppr/J/idi^ 
,^d, which ws^s deemed the height of nUgioki merit, for th^' 
rcfcue of the holy city oat of the hands of the infidels ; and, 
laftly, exalting dieir honour of cbajhty fo high, as to profefij 
C^elibacy \ as they conftantly did, in the feveral orders 
Knighthood created on that extravagant occafion.*' 

Having thus endeavoured to account for the rife and genius 
of Knight-errantry, our Author refers us to a learned and 
very elaborate memoir of a French Writer, in the twentieth 
volume of the Memoirs of the Academy of Infcriptions and 
Belles Lcttres, for an idea of what Chivalry was in itfelf, H<5 
goes on to obferve, that there is a remarkable correfpondcncfJ 
hetwcen the manners of the old heroic times, as painted bjjf 
their great Romancer, Homer, and thofe which are repre^^ 
fcntcd to us in the books of modern Knight-errantry. A^ 
fa^ of which no good account, he thinks, can be given but 
by the afUftance of another, not lefs certain, — that the poli- 
tical ftate of Greece, in the earlier periods of its flory, was 
fimilar, in many refpefts, to that of Europe, when broken by 
the feudal fyftem, jnto a great number of petty independent 

H^ acknowlcges himfelf indebted for this hint to the Au- 
thor of the memoir above-mentioned, who hath undertaken 
at his leifurc to enlarge upon it,-^^' It is nor my defign, fays 
our Letter-writer, to encroach on the province of the learned 
pcrfon to whom I owe this hint ; but ibmc few circumftanccs 
of agreement between the kiroic and gcthic majiiiers, fi|ch as 
^re nioft obvious, and occur to my memory while I am writ- 
tngi may be worth putting down, by way of fpecimen only 
of what may be cxpeiScd from a profcflcd CTiquiry huo this 
fliilpus fubjcpt" 

He obfcrves, that the military enthufiafm of the Barons is 
but pf ^ piece ivi^h the fanaticifm of the Heroes, — that tha 
Grecian Bacchus, Hercules, and Thefeus, are nothing but 
Kni^hti-errant, the exadl counter-pan^ of Sir Lancelot and 
i\madis dc Gaule - that robbery and pyracy were honoumhlf 
\i\ both— that baftardy was in credit with both— that the m^Cr 
V\^ l^'^^^^l wl}ich J^n^icii; Greece delighted to cclci)ratc vOQ 

and Remanct* 



reat and rolemn ocxaflon^, bad the fame origin, and the fame 
tirpofeS) as the tourrnnwnti of the Gothic Warriors, ^c. 

«' I am aware, continues he, that in the affair of nlt^k 
and gallantry^ the rcfcmblance between the Hero and FCnighf 
Is not fo ftriking. But the religious chara&cr of thr Knij^htl 
was an accident of the times, and no proper effeQ of his tiviC 
condirion. And that his devotion for the fex iTiould fo 
furpafs that of the Hero, is a frcfh confirmation of my fyf* 
tern, For^ tho' much, no doubt, might be owing to the J 
different humour and genius of the Eaft and Weft, antccc* 
dent to any cuftom and forms of government, and indepcn^ 
dent of them, yet the confideration h;id of the females in the 
feudal coiiftituiion will, of itfelf, account for this difference. [ 
It made them capable of fucceetiing to iicfs as well as the! 
men. And docs not one fee, on ihe inftant, what rcfpeft 
and dependence this privilege would draw upon them ? 

** It was of mighty confcquenre who fliould obtain the 

Sracc of a rich heirefs. And tho' in the ftri*i:> fcu^ial time%j 
le was fuppofed to be in the power and difpofal of her f^pe- 
rior Lord, yf t fhis rigid ftate of things did not lall: lon^ % I 
and> while it did laft, could not aba e much of the horragej 
that would be paid to the fair feudatory. Thus, when imc- 
refl had bcgim the habit, the language of Jove and flattery] 
would foon do the reft* And to what that langtiae^e tended ] 
you may fee by the conftant drain of the Romances them-j 
lelves. Some dillreffcd damfd was the fpring and mover of I 
every Knighc^s adventure. She was to be rclcucd by his I 
arms, or won by the fame and admiration of his proweis. 

** The plain meaning of all which was tlils : that, as \f%\ 
jHaf«^ turbulent feudal time? a protector was neceffiify to the] 
weaknefs of the fex » fo the courteous and valorous Knight i 
was to approve himMf fully qualified for that office. And) 
we find, he had other motives to fet him on work than the 
mere charms and graces, tho' ever fo bewitching, of the per- 
fon addreflld. 

** Hence then, as I fuppofe, the cuftom introduced:! 
and, when mtruduced, you will hardly wonder it ftouldj 
operate ipuch Iong< r and fartlier th:in the rcafrn may feem taj 
rci^uifc. Oil which it was founded. In conclufion of this 
topic I muft juft obfcrve to you, that the n^o poems of Ho- 
jnei exprefs in tlio llvelieft manner, *ind were intendc*} tocx- 
*pofe, the capftal mTfchtefi and inconvenieneies arirmgfromj 
the folitlcaijiate of old Greece : the Iliad, the diffent ions that 

F 4 naturally 


Litfcfs m Ojiz^Irj 

naturally fpring up amoncft a ntmiber of independent Chiefs % 
and ihc Odyifcy, the mfolcncc of their greater fubjeda, 
more efpcciilly when unrcdtramcd by the prcfcncc of their 


'* Thefc were the fulj cSs of his pen. And can any thing 
more exajflly refcmblc the condition of the feudal times, 
when, on occafion of any great enter prizts, as rhat of the 
CruiadeSy the defigns of the confederate Chriftian States 
were perpetually fruftratcd^ or inteirupted at leaft, by th^ 
diile lit ions of their Leaders j and their aflfairs at home a^ 
perpetually dillrefled and difordered by il^c rcbellioMS ufurpa- 
ironi of their greater valTals ? — So that KTufalpm w^s to the 
European, what Troy had been to the Grecian^ princes. 
-And fou wiii now, I believe, qot be furprizcd to hnd that 
Taffo's immortal poem was planned after the model of ib^p 

Out ingreninus Author now leads his Readers from this for- 
gotten Chivalry to a more amufmg fubjc£t» vtz» tb^ Poetry 
we ftitl read, and which was founded upon it. He obfervcs^ 
tl)at fo far as the Heroic and Gothic manners aie the fame, 
the piiBures of each, if well taken, muft be equally enter- 
tainittg. But he goes farther, and maiatains, that the cir- 
cumftcnccs in w^hich they differ, arc cleat ly to the advantage 
of the Gothic Defigncrs, Had Homer feen the manners of 
the feudnJ ages, he makef no doubt but he would have pre- 
ferred them to thole of Greece ; and the grounds of this pre- 
fcicncc, he fuppofcs, would have been — tht impvovid ^alluntry 
of the feudal tinus ; and thi fuf trior ftdcmnity </ thtir juptr* 
jhthrtu It is but looking into any of the old Romancers, we 
arp told, to be convinced that the ^d/a^iry which infpirited the 
feudal i:me3, wa^ of a nature to furnifli the Poet with finer 
ftrcnrii ai>d fubjefls of defcriptlon In every view, than the fim- 
pie aj^d uncoatroulcd barbarity of the Grecian, 

Nothing, hcobferves, flicws the difference of the two fyf- 
Ums under coufideration more plainly, than the effect they 
fcally had on the two ^reateft cf our Poets ; at Icaft the two 
which an E'^^lith reader h moft fond to compare with Ho- 
mer, viz! opcnfer and Milton. It is not to be doubted, he j 
fays, bat that each of thcfc Bards had kindled his poetic fire-j 
from d^^T^ fables. * Sotliat, of courfe, their prt-judices would "^ 
lie that way* Ytt they both appear, when mnft in6amcd, i 
to have bc>n more parJcuIarJy rapt with the Gothic fables of 


€nitd Rstiumcfm 


Bpenfer, tho* he had been long nourilhcd with the fpiac 
and lublbince of Homer imd V irgil, chol'c the times of (Jhi- 
walrjr far his theme, and Fairy land for the fctne of his £c- 
tionf. He could have pla^nedi no doubt, sui hrroic dcfiga 
on the cxaJl cliifTtc model : or, he might have trimmed be- 
tween t' iHc, as his contemporary TatJV* did. 
But the ; . prevailed. And if any think, he 
was frduccd by Arooito into this choice, they Ihould Cuniidcr 
|hat it could be only for the fake of his fubicd ; for the ge- 
nius and char^iflcr of theft: Foets were widely different. 

Under this idea then of a g othic^ not a claiGcal poem, the 
Fairy Queen, we arc told, is to be read and criticiied; and 
on thefe principles^ our Author fays, it would not be tiilEcalt 
to uafold its merit m a way different from what hm been 
hitherto attempted. 

Milton, indeed, preferred the cbflic model to the gothic* 
But it was after leng hefitation ; and his favourite f bjc£l was 
Arthur and his Kf tig his ef the R^und TaUt, On this he had 
fixed for the greater part of his life. What led him to change 
his mind was, partly, our Author /^^^y^r, his growing yir- 
naudfm\ partly, his ambiqon to take a different rout from 
^Spenfer ; but chiefly, perhaps, the difcredit into which the 
ftories of Chivalry had now fallen by the immortal fatire of 
Cervantes. Yet we fee, thro* all his poetry, where his en- 
thuiufm flames out moil, a certain prcdil edition for the Ic- 
gendg of Chivalry before the fables of Greece.— The conJuft 
then of thefe two Poets may incline us to think with more 
rcfpeft than is common, of the Gothic manners, as adapted 
to the ufcs of the greater Poetry. 

Our Author now endeavours to explain and juftify the ge- 
neral plan and cmdufi of the Fairy Queen, confidered not as 
a claffical but as a gothic compofition. He introduces what 
he fav!» upon this fubjeifl with obferving, that when an Ar- 
chi:e£^ examines a Gothic ftrufture by Grecian rules, he 
findj nothing but deformity. But the Gothic architedturc 
has its own rules, by which, when it comes to be examined, 
jt h fccn to have its merit, as well as the Grecian. The 
qucAion is not, which of the two is c^indu^ed in the (vnX'^ 
plcft or trueft taftc : but, whether there be not i'enfe and dc- 
fign in both, when fcruiinized by the laws on which each is 

The fame obfcrvatton holds, it is obfervod, of the two 
forts of poetry. Ju<i£^e of the tairy Queeo by the ckiTic 


CO ^ itiTS en Chivai-y 

models, and you are fhocked with its diibrdcr : confider it 
iirith an eye to its Gothic original, and you find it regular. 
The unity and fimplicity of the former are more compleat : 
but the latter has that fort of unity and fimplicit^s which re- 
fults from its nature. — ^Thc Fairy Queen then,' as a Gothic 
poem, derives its method, as well as the other charaders of 
its compofition, from the eftablifhed modes and ideas of 

It was ufual, we are told, in the days of Knight-errantry, 
at the holding of any great feaft, for knights to appear be- 
fore the Prince, who prciided at it, and claim the privilege 
<of beine fent on any adventure, to which the folemnity 
might gnre occafion. For it was fuppofcd that, when fuch 
a throng of Knighfts and Barons hold,, as Milton fpeaks of, were 
got together, the diftrcfTed would flock in from all quarters, 
as to a place where they knew they mi^ht find, and claim, re- 
drcfs for all their grievances. — This feafl continued for 
iCwelve days ^ and each day was diflinguiihcd by the claim 
and allowance of fome adventure. 

<^ Now laying down this pradbce, fays our Author, as a 
foundation for the Poet's defign, you will fee how properly 
the Faery ^een is condu£ied. 

*< -—I devife, fays the Poet himfelf, in his letter to Sir 
«* W, Raleigh, that the Faery Queen kept her annual feafle 
*f twelve days j. upon which twelye fcveral days, .the occa- 
y fiLonS:<^f the twelve feveral. adventures happened; which 
f ' beipg undertaken by twelve feveral Knighis, are in thefe 
•* twelve books feverally handled." 

** Here you have the Poet delivering his own method, and 
the rcafon of it. It arofe .out of the order, of his fubied. 
And would you defire a better reafon for his choice ? Yes ; 
you will fay, a Poet'si method is not that of his fubjedi. I 
•g:rant you, as t;o the. order of //W, in which thj& recital is 
.made ;. for here, as Spenfer obfcrves, (an4 his own .pra&icc 
.agrees to the rule) lies the main dLftercnce between the 
Poet hiftartc^K and the Hijioriograpbir : the reafon of which is 
drawn from the nature of epic cooxpofition itfelf,.and holds 
equally, let the fubjedl be what it will, and whatever the 
fyftem of manners be, on which it is conduced. Gothic or 
claffic makes no difference in this refpe^ft. 

<< But the cafe is not the fame with regard to the general 
plan of a work, or what may be called the order of dt/irihw 


end Rsmcna* 

fhfty which 15 and muft be governed by the fubje^l matter tu 
I fctf. It was as requifitc for the Faery Queen to confift of die 
adventufcs of twelve Knights* as for the Odyffcy to be con- 
fined 10 the adventures of one Hero : juilice had other wife 
^^liot been done to his fubje£t* 

^P ** So that if you will fay ^ny thing a^ainft the Poet's me- 
' fhod, you muft fay that he fhould not have chofen this fub- 
jecL But this objection arifes from your claflic ideas of 
unttj^, which have no place here j and are> in every view^ 
^»fore(gn to the purpofe, if the Poet has found means to give 
^■lis work* tho' confiding of many parts, the advantage of 
^Kinicy. For in fomc rcafonable fenfe or gther, it is agreed, 
^^evcry work of art muft be «?;;<3 iha vGiy idea of a work rc- 
r quiring it.** 

^m If it be afked, what is this Unhy of Spenfcr's poem ? Our 
^1 Author anfwcrs, it confifts in the relation of its feveral ad- 
^Kycntures to one common crhinal^ the appointment of the 
^™ Faery Queen i and to one common rW, the completion of 
the t aery Queen's injunftions. The Knights ilTued forth on 
their adventures on the breaking up of this annual fcaft ; ^nA 
the next annual fcaft, we are to fuppofe, is to bring them 
together again from the atchtevcment of their fevcral charges. 
This, it is true, is not the claiHc Unity, which confifts in 
the reprefenlalion of one entire a£tion : but it is an Unity of 
another fort, an Unity refulting from the refpeft which 2 
number of rcUtcd adtions have to one common purpofe. In 
ochrr words, it is an Unity of deftly ,and not of aftion. 

This Gothic method of defign in poetry, our ingenipus 
Author i)luftr^tes by what Is called the Gothic method of de- 
fign in Gardening. A wood or grove cut out into many fc* 
parate avenues or glades was amongft the moft favourite of 
the works of art, which our fathers attempted in this fpecics- 
of cuhivatbn. Thete walks were diftin^ from each other, 
had their fevcral deftinations, and tcrrninated on their 
own proper objects. Yet the whole was brought together 
and confidered under one view, by the rcliitiQ/i wdiich thefe 
various openings had, not t9 each other, but to their com- 
fnon center. 

Thus far Spenfer drew from Gothic ideasi but as he knew 
what belonged to claffic compofition, he was tempted to tie 
his fubjeft ftil! clofcr together, by om expedient uf his own, 
tnd by miotb^ pkcn from his claflic models. 

^^^^^^^^ Littirs on Cbivakj ^^^^^^^^^H 

** His $wn^ continues oitr Author, was to Interrupt the 
proper ftory of each book, by difpcrfing it into fcvcral; in-, 
vohiig by this means, and as it were intertwifttng the fcvc- 
xsiX atlions together, in order to give fomcthing like the ap- 
pearance of one aftion to his twelve adventures. And for 
this conduft, as tbfurd as it fecms, he had fomc great exam« 
pies, in the Italian Poets, tho* I believe they were led into it 
by dif&rcnt motives. 

*^ The siher expedient, which he borrowed from the Claf- 
licst was by adopting one fuperior chara^er, which (hould 
%€ fiecn thrunghoui. Prince Arthur, who had a feprate ad-' 
venture of hisown, was to have his part in each of the other ; 
sod thus fcvcral a£t ions were to be embodied by the intercft 
which one principal Hero had in them all. It is even obfer>'- 
abk, thai Spcnfcr gives this aivcnture of Prince Arthur^ in 
c|tieft of Gloriana, as the proper fubject of his poem. And 
upon this i*tea the late learned Editor of the Faery Queen has 
attempted, but I think without fuccefc, to defend the unity 
and ftmpVjcity of Us fable. The truth was* the violence of 
daflic prejudices forced the Poet to affcft this appearance of 
unity » tho' in contradiction to his Gothic fyftem. And, as 
far as we can judge of the tcnour of the whole work from 
the finlihed half of it, the adventure of Prince Arthur^ 
whatever the Author pretended, and his Critic too eafily be* 
licvcd, was but an after-thought ; and at leaft with regard to 
the hiJlmUal fable^ which we are now confidering, was only 
one of the expedients by which be would conceal the difordet 
of his Gothic plan* 

** I am of opinion, confidering the Faery Queen as an 
epic o^ narrative ^ticva conftruited on Gothic ideas, that tha 
poet had done well to aSe£l no other unity than that of dit 
y^^> by wh ch his fubjCfSi was connected* But his poem ii 
not fimply narrative ^ it is throughout allegorical ; he calls it 
apiffitual tiUegQry or ^ark conceit : and this chara^er was even 
predominant in the Faery Q^jecn, His narration is fubfcrvi- 
cnt to his moral, and but fcfves to colour it. This he tells 
us himfelf at felting out^ 

Fierce wars and faithful loves (hall mpralw my (bng ; 

that is, {hall fervc for a vehicle, or inftrunrent, to convey 
chc moral. 

t -^ Now under this idea, the untty of the Faery Queen i| 
more apparent, Hi| twelve Knights are to exemplify as 


end Rsmcmee. 


Hidnjr Ttrtues, out of which one illuftrious charaflcr is to be 
compofed \ and in this view the part of Prince Arthur in 
each book becomes effmtid^ and y«t not princtfai ; cxa£Uy, 
as the Poet has contrived it. They who reft in the liter J 
ftory, that is, who criticife it on the footing of a naTrativc 
poem, have conftantly objected to this management. They 
fiiy, it nccellariJy breaks the unky of dcfign. Prince Arthur, 
they affirm, fhould either have had no part in the other ad- 
ventures, or he (hould have had the chief part. He AouJd 
cither have done nothing, or more : and the obje6tion is tin- 
;4nfwt;rabk ; at Icaft I know of nothing that can be faid to 
remove it, but what I have fuppofcd above might be the pur- 
pofe of the Poet, and which X mytelf have rcjedted as infuf* 

** But how faulty focver this condu£l be in the literal ftoryy 
it is perfe£tly right in the msral ; and that fox an obvious 
teafon, tho* his Critics fecm not to have been aware of it. 
His chief Hero was not to have the twelve virtues in the ^- 
grie in which the Knights had, each of them, their ownj 
(fuch a character would be a monfter) but he was to have (m 
much of each as was requifitc to form his fupcrior cham&er. 
Each virtue, in its pcrfcflion, in cxemplihcd in its own 
Knight ; they arc all, in a due degree, concentered in Prince 

** This was thePoet*siwfra/: and what way of cxpreffing 
this moral in the hijlory-, but by making Prince Arthur appear 
each adventure) and in a manner fubordlnare to its proper 
Icro ? Thus, tho' inferior to each in hi> own fpecihc vir- 
|ue, he is fupcrior to all by uniting the whole circle of their 
Virtues in hi mfelf: and thus he arrives, at length, at the pof- 
pflion of that bright form of ghrj^ whofc ravifhing beauty^ 
; feen in a dream or vifion, had led him out into thefe minin 
tubus adventures in the land of Faery* 

'* The conclufion h^ that, as an alkgmcal poem, the tne^ 
[lod of the faery Queen Is governed by the juftncfs of the 
norat: as a narrative poem, it is conducted on the ideas and 
lifagcs of Chivalry, In either view, if taken by itfelf, the 
]>lan is dcfcnfiblc. But from the union of the two defigns 
there ari fes a perplexity and confufion, which U the proper, 
and only confiderablc, defeat of this extraordinary poem.** 

Spenfcr, our Author goes on to obfervc, might, no doubt* 
have taken one fingle adventure, of the twelve, for the 
fubjcd of his poem ; or he aiTght hare given the principal 



^ Leittn m Chivalry 

part in every aulventure to Prince Arthur. By this miosis hh 
fable would have been of the claillc kind, and its unity 
ftri*ft as that of Homer and Virgil, All this he knew very 
well, but his purpofe w^as not to write a claflic poem. He 
chofe to adorn a Gothic (lory ; and, to be confiftent through* 
out, he chofe that the form of his work lliould be of a piece 
with bis fubjeft ; whether he did right in this or not, our in- 
genious Critic does not take upon him to determine ; but 
ttU* us, if we compare his work wich that of Taffo, he fees 
no reafon to be peremptory in condemning him. 

This leads him to confider the example of the Italian Poet* 
It will afford^ he (ays, a frefh confirmation of the point, he 
principally infifts upon, vt«. i//f pre-cmimna of the Gothti 
wanmn and ]}6ltQm^ as adapted to tha etidi of P&^trv^ above the 

Tafib, coming into the world a little of the latcft for the 
fuccefs of the pure Gothic manner, thought fit, we are told, 
10 trim between that and the ckfiic model. It was lucky for fl 
his fame, perhaps, that he did fo. For the Gothic fables " 
falling every day more and more into contempt, and the 
learning of the times, throught)ut all Europe, taking a clafHc 
turn, the reputation of his work has been chiefly founded on 
the ftrong refemblance it has to the ancient epic poems* His 
fable is condu<5tcd inthefpirit of the Iliad, and with a ftrift 
regard to that unity of a^im which we admire in Homer and 
Virgil. - 

But this is not all j there is a ftudied and clofe imitation of ■ 
thofe Poet«, in many of the fmaller parts, in the minuter, in- 
.ttdemSy and even inthedefcriptions and fnnilies of his poem. 
The claOic reader waspleafcd with this deference to the pub-* 
lie taile ; he faw with delight the favourite beauties of Ho- 
mtr and Virgil reflefted in the Italian Poet: and wasaJmoft 
ready to cxcufe, for the lake of thefc, his magic talcs and 
fiiiry inchantmentij. 

By this means the GierufaUmmi Liherata made its fortune 
imongft the French Wits, who have conflantly cried it up 
above tticOrlanda Furtofcy and principally for this reafon, that 
Taflb was more claiScal in his fable, and more (paring in the 
Wonders of Gothic fiflion, than his predecenTor,— This dex- 
terous people have found means to lead the taftc, as well 
as fet the faflitons of their neighbours : and Ari«»ito ranks but 
little higher than the rudeft Romancer, in the opinion of ihofe^ _ 
Hvho take their notions of thefe thine^ from th^ir Writers- ■ 
-4^ ^ , But " 

end Romance* 


♦ 'But the fame principle^ our Author fays, which made them 
give Taffb the preference to Arioilo, had led them, by de- 
grees, ro think very unfavourably of Taflb himfclf. The 
mixture of the Gothic manner in his work has not been for- 
given. It has funk the credit of all the reft ; and fome in- 
ibnces of falfe taftc in the exprelTion of his ientimcnts^ de- 
tected, by their nicer Critics, have brought martcrs to that 
pafs, that TaiFo himfelf i;^ now given up^ and likely to fliarc 
the fate of Ariofto. 

A lirtle national envy mixed itfclf, perhaps, with their 
other reafons for undervaluing this great Poet. They afpircd 
to a fort of fisprcmacy in letters ; and finding the ItaJian lan- 
guage and its bcft Writers ftanding in their way, they have 
iparcd no paijis to lower the cftiraation of both. 

Whatever their inducements were, they fucceeded but too 
well in their attempt. Our obfcquious and ovcrmodeft Cri- 
tics, it is faid, were run down by their authority. Their 
tafte of letters, with fonie worfe things, wjis brought amongft 
us at tlic Relloration. Their language, their manners, nay 
their verj' prejudices were adopted by our Frenchifyed King 
and W\i> Koyalifc. And the more faftiionable Wits, of courfc, 
fet their fancies, as Lord Molefworth tells us the pcojile of 
Copenhagen in his time did their clocki^, by the Court- 

Sir W. Davcnant, our Author obferves, opened the way to 
this new fort of critictfm, in a very elaborate preface to Gon- 
dibert ; and his philofophic friend, Mr. Hobbcs, lent hisbeft 
afTiftancc towards eftablifhing the credit of it. Thefe two 
finQ letters contain the fubftancc of whatever has been fincc 
written on the fubje*5t. Succeeding Wits and Critics did n<^ 
more than echo their language. It grew into a fort of cant, 
with which Rymer, and the reft of iliat Ichool, filled their 
flimfy ellays and rambling prefaces. 

*' Such, continues our Author, was the addreft of ihz 
French Writers, and fuch their triumphs over the poor Ita- 
lians. It muft be owned, indeed, they had every advantage 
on their fide, in this conteft with their Maftcrs* The taitc 
and learning of Italy had been long on the decline, and the 
fine Writers under Lewis XIV, were every day advancing 
the French language, fuch as it is, (fimple, clear, citzSt^ 
that is, fit for bufm fs and convcrfation j but for that rcafoa, 
befidcs its total want of numbers, abfolutely unfuited to the 
genius of th© greater poetry) tow^L'Js its laft perfcftioit# 


Urs m Chivatfj 

The purity of the ancient manner became well undcrficKid^ 
and it was the pride of their beil Critics, to expofc eve^ iji- 
ftancc of falfc raftc in the modern Writers* The Italiaiu it 
is certain, could not ftand fa fcvcre a fcrutiny. But they had 
dcapcd better, if the nitjft faftvionablc of the French Poets 
Imd not, at the fame time, been their heft Critic, 

** A lucky word in a vcrfe, which founds well, Riid every 
body gets by heart, goes farther than a volume of juft criti- 
cifm. In Ihort, the cxaS, but cold Boileau, hnppened to 
fay foniediing; of the cHnquant of Taflb ; and the magic of 
this word, like the report of Aitolfo*s horn in Ariofto, over- 
turned at once the fo!id and well-built reputation of the Ita- 
lian poetry. 

^* It is not, perhaps fo amaiting that this potent word 
Ihould do its buimefii in France. It put us into *i fright on 
ihis fide the water* Mr. Addifon, who gave the law in taftc 
here, took it up, and fcnt it about the kingdom in his polite 
and popular cflays. It became a fort of watch-word among 
the Critics i and, on the fudden, nothing was heard, on all 
lideSj but the clinquant of Taflb*" 

This brief hiftory of the Italian poctrv is followed by a 
Jhort apology for the Italian Poets. CJur Author affirms, 
perhaps fomewhat too boldly, that there are more in fiances 
of natural fentiment, and of that divine fmiplicity we ad- 
airrcin the anticnts, even in Guarini's Paftor Fido, than in 
the bcft of the French Poets, 

He obfcrvcs juftly, that the fource of bad criticifm, as of 
bad phUofophy, is the abufe of terras* A Poet, they fay» 
inurt follow Niiture ; and by Nature wc are to fuppole can 
only be meant the known and experienced cotirfe of afFairs in 
this world. Whereas the Poet has a world of his own, where 
experience has Icfs to do, than confident imagination. — He 
bas, beftdcs, a fupernatural world to range in. He has Gods, 
and Faeries, and Witches at his command. In the Pocrs 
world, all is marvellous and extraordinary ; yet not unnatural 
in one fenfc, as it agrees to the conceptions that are readily 
entertained of thcfc magical and wonder-working natures. 

This trite maxim o( folkivlng Natun is farther miftaken, 
wc arc told, in applying it indifcriminattly to all fort^ of poe- 
try. In thofe fpecies which have men ;md m; nncrs profclVcJ* 
ly for their theme, a {kick conformity with human nature is 
r^afonably demat ded. Still farther, in thofc fpecies that ad- 


^rtd Aofnam^^ ^ 


ilrcfs thcmfelves to the heart, and would obtain tKeir end, not 
ihro' the imagination, but thrn* the pojjiom^ there the liberty 
of tranfgrelTuig nature, i, e, the real powers and properties 
of human nature, is infinitely rcftraineJ -, and p<5etkal tt\ixb 
is, under thefe drcumftances, almoft as fevere a thing as hif- 
urica!^ The reafon is, mt muft firil bdieve^ before we caa 
be affiled. 

But the cafe, our Author fays, is JifFerent with the morv 
fuWimc and creative poetry. This fpecies, addreHing itfelf 
folely or principally to the imagination^ a young and credu- • 
lous faculty, which loves to admire and to be deceived, has 
no need to>obferve thofe cautious r^iles of credibility fo ne* 
ceflary to be followed by him who would touch theaiTeflions^ 
and intexcft the heart. 

Critics, we are told, may talk what they will of truth and 
naiuTi^ and abufe the Italian Poets for tranfgrcfTmg both in 
their incredible ficl ions* But thcfe fictions with which they 
have ftudied to delude the world, are of that kind of credible 
deceits, of which a wife Antlent pronounces with afTurancc, 
that thfy^ who dccewey are hmtjur than they wha do mt dtcnvi | 
&nd they who are deceived^ wtfcr than they ivbo are mt deceived* 

Our Author now enquires, whence it comes to pa&, thit 

theclaHical manners arc ftill admired and imitated hy the Po- 
ets, when the Gothic have lon(^ tmce fallen into difufci.— . 
One great re:ifon, he fays^ of t' ncc is, that the ay eft 

Writers of Greece ennobled li.- : :: of heroic manners, 
while it was frelh and flo'irifhing; and their works^ being 
m^ifter- pieces of compofition, fo fixed the credit of it in the 
Opinif^n of f*^<* %Vi>rld, that no revolutions of time or taft^ 
i "lake it. Whereas die Gothic, hav 

r infancy by bad Wriierr, and a nev 

manners fpringing up before there were any better to do them 
jufyce, they could never be brought into vogue by the at- 
tempts of later Poets; who, in fpite of prejudice, and for 
the genuine charm of thcfe highly poetical manners, did cheir - 
utmoft to recommend them. 

But the principal reafon of all, we arc told, Was, that ihjc 

Gothic manners of Chivalry, as' T i ■ out of the feudal 

fyftcm, were as Angular as that fyj .; fo that, vhcn 

that political Conflitution viinifhed out of Europe, t! 

ncrs that belonged to it, were no longer fecn or un-^-. :* 

There was no example of any fuch manners remainhjg on the 

h^: of the earth j and a$ they never did fubfift but once, 

Rev. Aug. 1762* G ^ 


gS MeiUal OhferootUm 

and arc never likely to fubfift again, people would be led i . 
courfe to think and fpeak of them, as romantic, and unna^ 
turaL The confequencc of this was, a total contempt and 
rejeflion of them j while the claflic manners, as arifing outj 
of the cuftomary and ufual fituations of humanity, would 
have many archetypes, and appear natural even to thofe who"^ 
faw nothing fimilar to them aftually fubfifting before their 

Thus, tho* the manners of Homer are, perhaps, as dif- 
ferent from ours, as thofe of Chivalry itfelf, yet as wc know 
that fuch manners always belong to rude and fimpje agcs,n 
fuch as Homer paints, and a£liially fubftft at this day in coun^l 
tries that arc under the like circumftances of barbarity; wd 
Tcadily agree to call them natural y and even take a fond plca-*^ 
furc in the furvey of them. 

tVehave now given aprett)' full view of thcfe truly inge- 
nious Letters; and as it is but leldom that wc have an oppor- 
tunity of entertaining our Readers fo agreeably, we make no 
apology for the length of the article. 

Medical OhfenmfUm ani Inqutr'us, By a Society of Phyfi- 
cians m London. Vol* IL 8vo. 6 s. Johnfton, 

AS wc had, with all proper regard to this laudable aflb- 
ciation of many eminent phyficiajis, givtn no very 
fliort detail of their hrft volume*, we proceed, without fur- 
ther introJuAion, to prcfcnt our readers a more brief ac- 
count of the fecond ; which, not being of inferior merjt» 
muft induce moft praftitioners in phyfic and furgery to pe- 
rufe it at large, and fufficiently apologize for our fummary 
account of it. 

The firft article, from Mr. Travis, Surgeon at Scarbo- 
rough, in a letter to Dr. Fothergill, endeavours to fliew,. 
thai the ufe of copper- boilers in the navy, is one principal | 
caufc of the fea-fcurvy. The moft confideraWe proof he 

fives of this is, *' That the number of flvlps fent to fea from 
carborough is about two hundred faiJ \ and we employ, fays 
he, about three thoufand men and boys: onboard of thcie, 
iron pots are in general ufcd, and we have no inftance of 
anyone having the fymptoms called highly fcorbutic, except 
in fomc few of the larger ihips, in which coppers arc ufed." 

• SccRcvicwj voLXVL p. 541. 

2 A let- 

a^d Inqulrhs* q^ 

A letter of fixtccn pages on this fubjcit, mi^ht be fuppofed 
fomewhat prolix, yet whatever may fccni digreffive, ap- 
pears pertinent at the fame time. Wc can recoiled, that 
within a year or two fince, a refohrtion was taken in Sweden, 
to change their copper boilers for iron pots, in order to pre- 
fcrve the health of the men ; but wc do not remember, whe- 
ther the former were fuppofed to conduce to the fcurvy ornot* 

l*he fccond, is the hiftory of an Emphyfema^ or windy 
Tumour, of an enormous lize, by Dr. Hunter, The cafe, 
which terminated happily, is very circumftantially and accu- 
rately dcfcribed, together with the treatment of it, in fix or 
fcven pages.. The remarks ann'^xed to it, on the cellular 
membrane, are trul y curious, and muft be fatisfaSory to his 
anatomical and phyfiological readers. They employ about 
forty-four pages, and we arc not inclined to wtfli them 

The third, contains fomc farther obfervations upon the 
Ufc of Corrofivc Sublimate, This implies a reference to 
what had been affirmed of this antivenereal remedy in the 
firft volume. It contains four letters from three reputable 
Surgeons, attefting the great fucccfs of it in many cafes. 
The fourth, is a letter fiom Dr. Alexander Ruflel on the 
fame fubject. It contains eight cafes of patients recovered 
bv the fame medicine; whofe cures had flood at the lime of 
the Doctor's writing it, from four months to upwards of 

three vcars* 


The fifth, IS a happy ReduQion of that extraordinary and 
unufual Diilocation, viz. of the Thigh-bone, by Mr. Tra- - 
vis, the writer of the firft. 

The fixth, contains two medical cafes, whicfi terminated 
in death, from Dr, Johnftone of Kidderminftcr, The firft 
was a dilbrdcr oT the Stomach and Fifcera^ in a pcrfon of 
fixty. The fecond was the cafe of an Epileptic, of ten years 
old, dying in the paroxyfm. The diffcdion of both the bo- 
dies is annexed ; and by a refleSion on the extraordinary 
fulncfs of the artcnes (thofc in the fubiUnce of the brain 
being vifibly diftcnded with blood) and the large finulTes of' 
the brain, which may be confiJered as veins, being entirely 

empty. Dr. Johnftone ftarts this very rational query— ^ • 

Whether in fuch epileptic infalts, as bleeding is recommend- 
ed for, arteriotomy ftiould not be preferred to venefeiSion I 

The ft venth is a curious cafe, rommmiicatcd by Dr. Pye, 
©f the cflFeft of an accidental vomiting, confequctvt >^^tv it 

G 2 Pari 

^oo Mfdlail OhfitvatUnf 

Paraceniefiiy or tapping. Thj^ moft fmgular appcaram 
this cafe was the Ihangc confd^cnce of the fluid dilcharged^ 
riiich, the Doclor fii ys, congealed on the floor to fuch a dc- 
that the fervanc took up, by ihovel-fulls, what was 
ifcharged by the wound of the trocar- The fupervening 
jfomiting, however, had given fomc hopes of the patientV 
ecovcry (the cafe being dated March i, 1 758) jjut the Doflor 
that after taking fundry quack medicines, and being; 
twice more, (he died in Hampfhire the ift of No- 
xcmbcr following. ' 

The eighth, is the cure of a I*ocked Jaw, commmiicated 
by Dr. Macau!ay* I'he cafe is circumftantially related in a 
kind of medical diary ; and the cure is afcribcd to opium, 
afiifted by the warm bath. This convulfive difeafc did not 
arifc, as ufual, from any wound of a tendinous or ligament- 
ous part. 

The ninth article, is a letter from Mr, Rarafay, furgeon,. 
on the Ufc of Copper Veflels at Sea. It contains fome cafes 
related at length, ami feveral in a fummary way, of nervous 
and convvilfive fymptoms occuning in fhips of war, which, 
thq writer afcribes to the verdigreafe contraflcd by the foul 
coppers. It may be confidered as an inforcement of the firft 
article, except with regard to the fea fcur^^, which Mr. Ram- 
fay docs not attribute to the ufe of copper veflels, hut to 
other caufcs happennigat fea. 

The tenth, gives the Amput.uion of a Leg without any 
attending Hxmorrhage, by Mr. Antrubus, Surgeon at Li* 
_yerpoo]. This amputation was in confequencc of a mortifi- 
cation of the left foot : but as a feparation of the gangrened 
part, and a good fuppuration was effeded by topical applica- 
tions and the Bark, in a few days, we think it were to be 
wifhed, the amputation had been deferred, if the bones of 
the fuot had itot been found carious j to fee whether Nature-,, 
properly afTifted, might not have favcd the limb* The want 
of a harmorrhagc, howev er, was an extraordinary circuni- 
ftancc, and Ihewed an extreme ktngmr of the circt:Udon. 
Nevcrthelefs, the patient recovered, having a digeftion on. 
the ftump the fourth day from the operation. 

In the eleventh, Mr. Baijie, Apothecary, gives his owit: 
cafe in near fcventecn pages : but as it commences in 173O, 
when he wa-s thirteen years old, is continued to 1757, and 
may be called the annals of his fickntf?, it might \>\c?A for 
lomc extent. The cafe wa$ an obftinatc pain in the kidneys^ 





and Irtqutrief.^-*^ JOl 

lOrhich was cured, after fevera! remrfEcjfts and intervals of ic» 
by the Bath- water, boiling hot, arrf copied to it^ natural 
heat at the pump, by the addition or-pyr/nont %^rzter : but 
he foon found that common water boih'a-i-laot, with the lilcc 
addition of Pyrmont, had an equally fallii^y cfFe(£l The 
cafe, upon the whole, is pretty well detaikeh,; and there is 
no fmall honefty and candour in an Apothcctfj;^^? acknnw* 
Icging the general incfficacy T»f his g:n)l3 pots;*/'JIvvo other 
cafes are annexed to this article, confirming thfc, iucceli of 
the fame remedy in two of Mr. Baine's patients. 

The twelfth, contains the procefe of making Atlj^f. (a 
kind of dulcified fpiritof vitriol) by Dr. R'lorris, witV'fei^e 
remarks, {hewing the preference of his method to ihiV.'flf 
fome French chcmifts. A few very fummary cafes are annetejj^. • 
fhcwing iis efficacy, by external application, in one rheumati(!f\ 
and one gouty initance. It hns been ufcd internally, hcfays^V 
with fucccfi, in the hooping cough, by Dr. Conyers, at the 
Foundling Hofpital ; and he docii not recollc£l one cafe out of 
twenty, in which it failed of curing the tooth ach, by ap- 
pipng a tea-fpoonful to the affe<5led jaw, an J repeating it 
till the pain ceafes, which generally happens on the fecond 
application* This is the medicine and method by which the 
late Dr. Ward frequently removed the head-ach. 

The thirteenth, is a very accurate and Judicious account 
of an epidemical diftempcr at Edinburgh, and other pait:? in 
the fouth of Scotland, in the autumn of 1758, by Dr. VVnytt, 
It fecmed to have fome ref.mblance to our laic epidemic 
Colds, as they were called. The learned author mentions^ 
by the way, a bad fpecies of the fmall-pox, which dcftroycd 
eight out of twenty-eight in Fife ; while three or four died 
in fome parts of Teviotdale, for one that recovered. To this 
article is annexed a letter to Dr. Whytt, on this epidemic, 
by Dr, Alvcs of Invcrncfs : another from Dr. Millar at Kclfo 
to Dr. Pringle : another to the fame gentleman from Dr* Sim- 
fon, Chandos Profeflbr at St. Andrews, who calls it an epi- 
demic Cold, and cured it chiefly by confinement to a warm 
room, and encouraging a plentiful perfpi ration. He fap, he 
loft none, but knew federal old people who died, as he thinks, 
for want of care* He avoided bleeding, thinking it hurtful 
in this difeafe, tho' ncccflary in fome fubfequcnt flight inflam- 
matory diforders in 1759. T he account of this epidemic U 
concluded by a letter to Dr. Pringle, from Dr. Stcdman of 
Dumferline. This gentleman bled ia it (prudently enough) 
only where particular conOitutions and fymptoms appri'-d to 

G 3 indicatf 


102 Aii'di'al Olfervatioiu 

indicate it, obiervin^, K :^'as not mortal near him ; but add- 
ing, that many died Vr^pme miles dillancc ; and he imagines, 
in fome meafure, fl|tOit^h plentiful and repeated bleed bgs, 
from a conclufio/iV<<^ it was highly inflammatory. He gives 
a very remarkiJjJWnftance of this miftakc, in Ac cafe t)f a 
young gcntlpipan' of the age of eighteen ; to whom he wai 
called on t|)e.f jghih day, when he had been bled fix times. 
He lookedF.^Wd, with a p'^opeiofity to rave, a ftarting of the 
tendons,;* *aoa a wavering pulfe, with a fomewhat ftiff, but 
unfi^y, ftSte of the Crajfamentum. More bleeding, however, 
yft2& infused on, which Dr. Stedman (as the event plainly 
lhjij^fci4**P^^^"^^y oppof^ 5 ^nd calling in another Phyfician, 
ffakf[*.<die patient feme wine as a cordial, which, agreeing 
wflf, was gradually incrcafed, until he drank two bottles of 
**J^kdeira in three days ; after which he perfpircd freely, and 
' .•..*TCCovered. This fecms, indeed, to have been the natural 
•. •\**outlet of this epidemic, and this cordial was a judicious ex- 
• •*•. pedient for unbleeding the patient, as far as it was poffible. 

The fourteenth, gives extra£b of fcveral letters from Dr. 
Whytt, (including others to himfelf ) addrcflcd to Dr. Prin- 
gle, and containing the cures of feveral inveterate cafes by the 
Sublimate Solution, It extends to nineteen pages, including 
further extrafts from Dr. Whytt's letters, printed in the man- 
ner of notes. 

The fifteenth, is a Latin Letter from Baron Van Swieten 
to Dr. Sylvefter, on the efficacy of the fame remedy in curing 
an Opacity of the Eyes. It relates, in fubftance, that having 
known a venereal patient cured of an Opacity of the Cormay 
joined to other pocky fymptoms,. by the folution, he ordered 
it to a noble youth who was blind, from an entire opacity of 
the Conwa in both eyes; not from the leaft venereal taint, 
but in confcquencc of an Ophthalmia improperly treated. 
As the Corneas became pellucid from the u!e of this remedy, 
the Baron could difcern, tfiat both the cryftalline Icnfes, or 
humours, were ftill more opake : but this obftacle alfo was 
removed at the end of eighteen months. He was obliged, 
however, fomctimes, to fufnend the ufe of it for a week or 
two, tooppofe the Ophthaimy, (into which his patient be- 
gan now and then to relapfe) by bleeding, bathing, and purg- 
ing. His eyes were continually wafhed with a mixture of 
fpirit of fal ammoniac and diftilled vinegar, united to a per- 
fect faturation, and diluted with rofe or elder-flower water. 
Dr. Van Swieten adds, his noble patient now enjoys perfefl: 


and Inquirus. 


The fixteetith, contains an account of the Oleum Riani^ or 
Caftor Oil, and its eftc<£ls in bilious diforders, by Dr. Fra- 
%er of Antigua, This oil is expreflcd from the large feed of 
an annual plant growing in the Weft Indies, and the warmer 
parts of North- America, One of its technical names is 
Paima ChriJlU its very large leaf being divided into five deep 
fegments, exhibiting a rude HJcene fs of a hand, with the fingers 
at their greaieft diftance from each other. It has been cor- 
ruptly called the Agnui Cajius (whence Caftor Oil perhaps) 
but js commonly called the Oil-leaf, applied fometimes for 
thehead-ach, and often ufed in drdfmg bliilers ; Dr» Frazer 
particularly recommends it in the dry bcliy-ach, and fays, 
infants may take a tea-fpoonful fafeiy, ibr an cffedual expul- 
fion of the Mumlum^ 

The fevcnteenth, contains a violent fcorbutic cafe, by Mr. 
Pugh furgeon at Chelmsford, It was attended with a great 
fwelling, and Ncgroe Wacknefs (as he terms it) of the legs^ 
thighs, and inftde of the arms. He fays, the edges of the 
tongue and gums were alfo black, all which appearances were 
greatly ajleviated by fomentation, with the alBftance of the 
Bark and elixir of vitriol \ but the lamencfs continued with 
an incrcafing hardjicfii, &c which wiire final*y cured with 
a pint of mUk turned into whey^ by four ounces of the juice 
of Water-creflcs, half taken daily night and morning, and 
eating daily two Seville, and three or tour fwect oranges. 

The eighteenth, by Dr. Pye, exhibits fome fuccefsful in- 
ftances of the external ufcof the grofsly powdered Bark, qiiilt- 
cd into a waiftcoat. This waUlcoat is to be without fleeves, 
to be lined with a thin open-lbrt of callico, and to be applied 
immediately to the naked body. The cafes in which it fuc- 
cceded were eleven out of twelve. The ift, an Intermit- 
tent attended with a cough ; the ad, perltxlical convulfioni ; 
the 3d, a remitting fever; the 4th, 5th, 6th, *th, 8th, and 
9lh, Intermittents. In the icih, wiiich wc fuppofe to have 
been an Intermittent^ tho' it is not fpecified, it failed. The 
ijth was a Quartan fucc ceding a Tertian. February the 22d^ 
the fit was very violent. A waiftcoat w^as applied the 23d, 
A flight paroxyfm of but two hours, inftead of eight or nine, 
came on the 25th. On ihe 28th the Patient was perfectly 
well. March ill, the waiilc oat was renewed : he continued 
perfectly well the lOth : but upon enquiry, Juaie 13, he had 
had three or four flight returns, but now is very well. The 
1 2th inftancc was in a remitting fever after the meaflcs, with 
peripncuoionic f) mptonu ; in which the waillcoat faccceded 1 

G 4 the 

104 Medical Ohftrvaiiciis 

the child recovering perfcdly, though flowly. — There is cer- 
tainly no efFediual rcafoning ag^inft fafts ; but wc confcfs 
wc mould not have expe^ed much Bark to have got inward- 
ly bv this outward application of the grofs powder, which 
mould feem to aft chiefly by its fnftion, and might corrugate 
or brace a little, when thus applied. We fhould imagine a 
general fomentation, with a ftrong decodion of the Bark, 
might have imparted more of it : and as a good deal of its 
efGcacy has been thought to refult from its conftringing the 
fibres like a ftyptic, perhaps it might prove no bad alterna- 
tive, in this age of ufeful experiments, to foufe an adult pa- 
tient, under an ague, into a good tan vat. An unexpe^ed 
plunge into the cold bath, is faid to l^ave fucccedcd in fuch 

The nineteenth, by Dr. Macaulay, may he added to many 
other powerful efFe£^s of the Sublimate ; and be alfo extend- 
"id-to its fafety, the Do£lor having cured two pregnant women 
pf fome high venere^ fymptoms by it. 

The twentieth, is a letter from Dr. Bond of Philadelphia, 
%o Dr. Fothergill, giving two inftances of the fuccefs of the 
Bark in fcrophulous cafes. In' the firft it was compleat, by 
the lady's taking half a drachm thrice a day, for near four 
inonths, after which fhe carried an hundred dofes with her 

; into the country, where fhe continues well. In the fecond 

f It was lefs perfeft, the tumours being only almofl diflblved, 
after the girl had taken an hundred and fifty dofes, joined to 

' fome fleel. An omiffion of the Bark for fome weeks caufed 
the fwellings to increafe to near their former fize ; but Dr. 

, Bond fays, they have again yielded to the Bark and Steel, 
by which we do not fuppofe, they have been entirely fub- 
dued, as he calls this a lefs extraordinary inflance than die 
lirfl. Suppofe he had. added a Bark-quilted flomachcr or 
ftays, (not to infifl on fuch a quilted petticoat) on this ob- 
l^inate occafion ? 

^ We fhall give an abfbaft of the remaining articles in our 


i' ' 


^Uments of Crltulfm* Concluded frotn page 24th of lal| 
Month's Review, 

IT may be prefumed, from the account given in the pre- 
ceding articles, that our Readers arc become acquainted 
with the nature and fcopc of this ingenious work : therefore, 
without farther preface, we (hall proceed to the third Vo- 
lume, which opens with fome very accurate and judicious 
Reniarks on the fubjedt of Com pari Ions. 

ComparifonS) fays his Lordfhip, ferve two different pur- 
pofes. When addrefled to the underftanding, their purpofe 
is to inftnift ; when to the heart, their aim is to give plea- 
fure. An objeiS of one fcnfe cannot be compared to an ob- 
je<£i of another ; for fuch objeds are totally fcparated from 
"each other, and have no circumilance in common to admit 
cither refemblance or contraft. — It has no good effeft to com- 
pare things, by way of fimile, that are of the fame kind ; 

nor to contraft things of different kinds, Abftra6t terms 

can never be the fubjeft of comparifony otherwifc than by 
being perfonified. 

His Lordfhip then proceeds to illuftrate, by particular in- 
ftances, the different means by which comparifon can afford 
pleafure, beginning with thofc inftanccs which are agreeable 
by fuggcfting fome unufua] refemblance or contrail : 

Sweet are the ufes of Adverfity, 

Which, like th? toad, ugly ;md venemouf^ 

Wears yet a precious jewel in her head* 

The next cffcft of a comparifon, is to place an objefl in 4 
ftrong point o( view* 

She never told her love, 

Bat let conceal ment, like a worm i* th* bud, 
Feed on her damaflt cheek ; fhe pin*d in thought ; 
And with a i^rccn and ydlow^ melancholy, 
She fat like Patience on a moaument, 
Smiling at Grief 

*" As words convey but a faint and obfcune notion of great 
flumbers, a Poet to give a high notion of the objedl he dc- 
fcribes with regard to number, does well to comj^are it to 
what is familiar and commonly known. Thus Homer com- 
pares the Grecian army, in point of number, to a fwarm 
pf bees. 



I06 Z:n/ Kaims'j Eu?7:ints cf Critic':] m, 

Comparifons which aggrandize or elevate, make ftronger 
impreflions than any other. 

Meihinks, King Richard and xnyfelf fliould meet 
With no lefs terror than the elements 
Of fire and water, when their thundVing (hock 
At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heav'n. 

It is difficult, his Lordfhip remarks, to lay down rules in 
^hzt circumftances comparifons may be introduced, and in 
what circumftanccs they arc out of place. — A man in his 
cool and fedate moments, is not difpofed to poetical flights ; 
nor to facrifice truth and reality to the delufivc operations of 
the imagination : far lefs is he fo difpofed, when opprcflcci 
with cares, or interefted in fome important tranfaftion that 
occupies him totally. In general, when any animating paf- 
fion, whether pleafant or painful, an impulie is given to the 
imagination, we arc in that condition wonderfully difpofed to 
' every fort of figurative expreffion, and in particular to com- . 
parifon^ |>ove, for example, in its infancy, roufing the ima- 
gination, prompts the heart to difplay itfelf in figurative lan- 
guage, and in umitcs. 

Come, gentle Night : come, loving black browM Night ! 

Give me my Romco ; and, when he ihall die. 

Take him, and cat him out in little (lars. 

And he will make the hctof heav'n fo fire. 

That all the world (hall be in love with Night, 

And pay no worihip to the garifh Sun. 

His Lordfhip, in the next place, proceeds to give exam- 
ples where comparifons are improperly introduced : and very 
jufUy obferves, that the fertility of bhakefpear's vein betrays 
iiim frequently into this error. Rooted grief, deep anguifh, 
terror, rcmorfe, defpair, and all the fevcre difpiriting pa(- 
fions, are declared enemies, perhaps not to figurative lan- 
guage in general, but undoubtedly to the pomp and folem • 
nity of comparifon. Upon this account, the fimile' pro- 
nounced by young Rutland under terror of death from an in- 
veterate enemy, and praying mercy, is unnatural. 

So looks the pent up Hon o'er the wretch 
That trembles under his devouring paws ; 
And io he walks infulting o'er his prey. 
And fo he comes to rend his limb.-, afjnder. 
Ah, gentle CliiFord, kill me with thy fword. 
And not with fuch a cruel threat'ninglook. 

We may add. Chat this fimile is not only faulty by being, im- 

Lord KaimsV Eknunti nf Crlthlfm* 107 

properly introduced, bin is, in itfelf, far from being appodte 
or well fupportcd. 

Nothing can be more erroneous thun to inftitute a compa- 
rifon too faint : 

T$rk, My undes both arc flain in refeuing me : 
And all my followers, to the cagtr foe 
Turn back^ and flv like iUps before the tvindt 
Or Iambs pui fu'd by hunger Harvcd wolves. 

The latter of the two fimilcs is good. The former, becaufe 
of the faintnefs of the refemblancc, produces no good cffct^ 
and crowds the narration with an ufelefs image. 

In an epic poem, or any elevated fubjeS, a Writer ought 
to avoid railing a fimile upon a low image, which never fails 
to bring down the principal fubjeiSl. An error oppofite to the 
former is, the introducing a refembling image, fo elevated or 
great, as to bear no proportion to the principal fubjeft. The 
ftrongcft objedion that can be againft a comparifon, is, that 
it confifts in words only, and not m fenfc. 

The noble filler of Poplicola, 
The moon of Rome ; chai!c as rhc ifide 
That's c irled by the froll from piireft fnow. 
And hanj^'son Diaa's temple. 

There is evidently, his Lordfliip remarks, no rcfemblanee 
betwixt an ificle and a woman, chafte or unchailc. But 
chadity is cold in a metaphorical fcnfe^ and an iiicle is cold 
in a proper fcnfe ; and this verbal refemblance, in the hurry 
and glow of compofing, has been thought a fufficient foun- 
dation for the fimile. Where the fubje<ft is burlefque or lu- 
dicrous, fuch fimilcs are far from being improper. 

We confels, however, that we cannot be difpleafed with 
the foregoing fimile : and, indeed, if we attend to the phy- 
fical caufcsof chafti:y, the refemblance, with great deference 
to his Lordfhip, will appear to be more than verbal. 

In the fuccecding chapter his Lordfhip makes fomc very 
judicious remarks on the ufe and effcA of figures, beginning 
with Perfonification, which, by a bold delufion> gives life to 
things inanimate, where that violent effca is ncccfl'ary to gra- 
tify paiTion. 

Antcnj, O pardon me thou bleeding piece of earth* 

That I am meek and gentle with thefe butchers, 
ThoQ art die ruins of tue noblell man 
That rvcf lived in the udc of times. 



* Crhkifm, 

The example here cited by Lord Kaims^ is hy no mejini 
Jh-ong Ulullration. For it was no *' bold delufion" of mind 
in Antony, to bcftow fenfibility on the dead body of Caefarl 
bleeding before him with reccrit wounds. The next exam- 
ple, indeed, is fully applicable to his Lordfhip's purpofe, 
where Almeria beftows fenfibility on the very ground on 
which (he kneels. 

jf,mf. O Earth, behold I kneel upon thy bofom, 
And brnd my flowing eyes to ftream upon 
Thy face, imploring thee that chou wilt yield i 
Open thy bowels of compaffion, take 
Into thy womb the lall and moll forlorn 
Of all thy race. 

Plaintive paflions are extremely follcltous for vent. A Soli- 
loquy commonly anfwers the purpofe. But when a paflion 
fvvclh high, it is not fatisfied with fo flight a giatificaliom 
Among the many principles that connect individuals in fociety, 
one is remaikabic : it is that principle which makes us ear- 
neftly wifli, that others fbould enter into our concerns, and 
think and feel as we do. This focial paflion, when inflamed 
by a plaintive pailion, will, for want of a more complcat 
gratification, prompt the mind to give life even to things in- 

Earl Rivers, carried to execution, fays^ 

O Pom fret* Pomfrct! O thou bloody prifoD, 
Fatal and ominous to noble Peers ! 
Within the guiky dofure of thy walls 
Richard thefccond, here, washack'd to death ; 
And, for more flander to thy dtfmal feat. 
We give to ihee our guiltlcfi blood to drink. 

Terror produccth the fame effc£l. 

— -^- As when old Ocean roars. 

And heaves huge furgcs to the trembling fhorcs, 

Joy, likewifc, is naturally communicated to all objefls around, 
ant mate or inanimate. 

Our Author obferves, that Pcrfonification is not always fo 
ccmpleat as in the foregoing inftances. In the following ex- 
ample, it does not come up to a cmviBion^ even momentary, 
i>f life and intelligence. 

But look* the mooni in ruflei mantle clad, 
Wallis o'er the dew of yon high caflward hilL 


Lerd KaxmsV Ehmmts af Critlctfm. 


Hb Lordftiip points out the reafon of thefe different effecls. 
In the foimcr inJlances^ the PerfoniEcation U fa£wnau \ in 
the latter it is dijcriftivi. 

Abftrafl terms, which of themfclvcs prefcxit no image to 
the mind, arc frequently pcrfonified* Thus Slander is ima- 
gined to be a voluntary agent. 

No, *tb Slander ; 

Whofc edge is fharptr than the fword ; whofc tongue 
Oucvcnoms all the worms of Ntlc ; whole breath 
Hides ou the pofting mnd5> and doth belie 
All corners of the world, Kings, Queens, and States, 
Maid?, Matrons ; luy, the fecreb of the Grave 
1 hi viperoQS blander enters. 

His Lordihip next proceeds to afcertaln the proper province 
©f Pcrfonification, All difpiriting paflions, he obfcrvcs, arc 
averfe to it. Remorfv, in particular, is too ferious and fc- 
vere, to be gratified by a phantom of the mind. With re- 
gard to defcriptive Pcrfonification, he remarks, that it ought 
to be cautioufly ufcd. In plain narrative, the mbd, ferious 
and fedatc, reie£ts Pcrfonification altogether. The Perfonifi* 
cation of mean obj efts is ridiculous; and his Lordfhip ccii*' 
fures feveral Poets for improprieties of this kind. 

How now ? VVhat noife? That fpirit's po/refs'd W'ith haAe^ 
That woonds th* unreJiitiDg poi^ern with thcfe (trokes, 

; Thomfon^ he obfcrvcs, i$ licentious in this article : 

Then iatcd Hungfr bid* hb brother Tifirji 
Produce the mighty bowl. 

The Apoftrophe, which beftows a momentary prefencc upr- 

on a fenfiblc Being who is abfciit ; and the Hyperbole, which 
magnifies or diminifhes oVa^s, come next under confidcra- 
lion. The firft, like ull uthcr fit>urcs, requires an agitation- 
of mind. The latter i^ generally more fuccefsful in magnify- 
ing than in dinunjiking. 

The ne: taken notice of, is that whereby the means 

or inltrum- nccived to be the agent- 

For Neleiw* fons Alddes* ragi had flain. 

The cnfuing fot^on treats of a figure not dignified by any 
prop,i name: and which, amot^g related objeds^ extends the 
||ropLi :tLi* of one to another* GidJy Brinks joviai WiMiy dur- 
mg tuinndj are examples of thit figure. A i^rM- U tenned 
iiddy^ from producing that e&£t oa thofc who Cbmi on it* 


no Lcrd l^AtMs*/ Elements of Crithifntn 

In the fame manner a wound is faid to b« daring, not with 
rcfpc(3 to itfcif, but with rcfpec^ to* the boldncfsof the pcrfon 
%ho tnfl)6h it : and wiue i^ faid to be jovial^ as inlpiring 
mirth and jollity* 

In the next fefllon, which treats of Metaphors and Alle- 
gories, It is very accurately remarked, that a Metaphor dif- 
fers from a Simile in form onl\ , not in rubflancc. in a Si- 
mile, the two diiFerent fubjefts are kept diftinft in thought 
only, not in exprcflion. An Allegory, hisLordOiip obferves, 
differs from a Metaphor, for it requires no operation of the 
imagination, nor is one thing figured to be anothci : it con- 
fifts in chufmg a fubjcft having properties or circumftances 
rcfcmbling thofe of the principal fubje£t : and the former is 
defcribcd in fuch a manner as to reprelent the latter. 

With due deference to the learned Writer, we are of opi- 
nion, that his fcntimem^ here arc too fubtle and refined. 
Wc cannot agree wirh him that an Allego.y requires no 
operation of the imagination: the famous Allegory of the 
Ship in Horace, which is mentioned by Qiiintilian, is an In- 
ftance to the contrary : for, unlefs the imagination operates, 
we can never conceive, that by the Ship is to be undcrflood 
the Republic^ and that by the Port is meant Peace and CiJB- 

His Lordfhip exhibits fevcral inftances of drained and in- 
ngruous Metaphors from the bell Writers ; and proceeds in 
'^he next fc^^ton to treat of Figurative S,>eech, which is de- 
fin-^d to be^ ^* Employing a word in a fenie different from 
what is proper to it/* Many words, he acutely remarks, 
originally figurative, having, by long and conftant ufe, foil 
their figurative power, arc degraded to the infeiior rank of 
terms-- -^ as a Jo ft nature, jarring tempers, &c. Several 
improprieties in hgurativc fpcech are pointed out and cen* 
fared. As thusi 

Stfcpitumqae Extcrritus h^ufii, 
^— Write, my Queen, 

And with mine eyes I'll drink the words you fend* 

The twenty-firfl chapter, roncerning Narration and Dc- 
jfcription, contains many excellent rules for fine Writing and 
Ijuft Cruicifm, and i^ divi cd into two parts : the firft rcfpcifi- 
png Thought % the next IVotds. Ths thoughts, his Lordfliip 
lobfcrves, which embcllifh a na- ration, ought to be chaftc 
land folid. Poetical images in a crave hiftory are intolerrblc i 
and Suada's Belgic Hiftory is efpeciajly cenfufed in this re* 


L9rd KaimsV Elitnmu of Cruitlfm. ju 

fpeft, bein^ (luffed with poetical Halhcs, which, c\'en Itying 
afidc the impropriety, arc mere tinieL 

Agatn, it is judicioufly obfcrvcd, that a man, who, 
at his firft appearance, endeavours to exhibit all his talents, 
is never reliOied : the fiift periods of a work therefore ought 
tq be (hort, natural, and fimplc. Cicero, in his oratioa 
prf Arabia Pofta^ errs againil this rule : his Reader is out of 
breath at the very firft period, which fcems never to end. Se- 
veral examples aitcwife of inconfiftencics, in point of thought, 
are quoted from the beft Writers. 

He Red, but Hying left his life behind* 


FjII ihraugh his neck the weighty faulchton fped : 
Aljng the pavnncnt roll'd the muttering head. 

Improprieties in Language come next under conftderation. 
A Poet of any genius will not readily drcfs a high fubjc^ii in 
Ik^w words i as thus, 

Not or>e looks backward, Oftward Hill he goe«, 
Yet neVr looks forward farther than hit nofe. 

On the other hand, to raife the cxpreflion above the tone 

of the fubject, is a very common fault: 

■ la the inner room 

1 fpy a rt inking lamp, that weakly flrikes 
The ambient air, fcarcc kindling into light. 

In the following chapter, concerning Epic and Dramatic 
Compofitions, it is remarked, that Tragedy differs from the 
Epic more in form than in fubftance. The ends propofcd by 
euch, are indruclion and amufement ; and each of them copy 
human ai£lions as means to bring about thefc ends : they dif- 
fer in the manner only of copying. Epic poetry deals innar* 
ration : Tragedy reprefents its facts as tranlaficd n\ our fight. 
The cffc*3s of this difference, however, arc very material : 
what we fee, makes a ftrongcr imprcffion than what we learn 
from others. A narrative poem is a ftory told by another : 
fa£b and incidents paffmg upon the ftage, come under our 
own obfervation ; and are befide, much enlivened by a^ion 
and gefturc, cxpreff;ve of many feniim^nts, bej'ond the reach 
of language* 

A poem, the learned Writer obferves, whether dramatic 
Of epic, that hath no tendency beyond moving the pilfions^ 


tit Lord Kaims*s Elmmts 9f Critictfm* 

and exhibiting pidures of virtue and vice, may be diftinguii)l« 
cd by the name of pathetu. But where a ftory is purpofely 
contrived, to ill u Urate fome important IciTon of morality, by 
(hewing the natural connexion betwixt difcjrderly paffions and 
external misfortunes, fuch compofitions may be denominated 
moral. The good cffcds of fuch compofitions are admirably 
dcfcribed ; and it is fhewn, that they ttnd to a habit ot vir- 
tue, by exciting emotions that produce good actions, and a- 
Vcrt us from thofc that arc vicious and irregular. 

In the clofe of this chapter, his Lordihip treats of th€ 
circumftanccs peculiar to each kind of compofition. In a 
theatrical cntcrtafpiment, he obfervcs, which employs botfi 
the eye and the car, it would be a monftrous nbfurdtty to in- 
troduce upon the ftage invifible Beings in a vifiblc fhape* 
But it lia:i been much difputed, whether fuch Beings may not 
be properly introduced in an epic poem* His Lordlbip de- 
clares on the negative fide. Bccaufc machinery gives an ^ir 
of lidtion to the whole, and prevents that imprciTion of re- 
ality which is requifilc to intereft our affe<^ions, and to move 
our paflions. Were it pafEble to di%uifc the fiilion, an in- 
fnpcr;di1c objeflion would remain, which is, that the aim or 
end of ixt\ epic poem can never be accompliflied in any pcf- 
fe<9:mn, wheix machinery is introduced. Virtuous emotions 
cannot be raifcd fucccfsfully, but by the adions of thofe who 
are endued with pafTiorLr and afteftions like our own, that is, 
by human actions. 

With rcfpc^ to a dramatic poem, his Lordflijp cenfurc* 
double plots. An under -plot in a tragedy has feldom a g'xwl 
dfc6t ; becaurc a paflionate piece cannot be toofimplc- Vio- 
lent a^Hons Jikcwife, fuch as murder, ought to be excluded 
from the (lage ; becaufe it louies the fpetlator from a pkaf- 
tng dream, and, « ' - liis fenfes about him, he finds all 

to be a fiction, h ions on this fubjcift arc ingenious, 

and unqutflfonably kniiidcd in nature* 

The three uniiies, form the fubjecl of the iKxt chapter. 
Mis Lordibip admits that unity of aflion is equally cfTentlal to 
epic and dramatic compofitions ; and proceeds to inquire how' 
far the unities of time and place arc effential. He declare* 
himfelf fcnfVble that the drama differs fo far from the epic, as 
to admit dilFeiTrnt rules : and on this head he facctioufly ral-« 
lies Boffy, who, " after obfcrving, that winter is an impro- 
per fcafon for an epic poem, and nl;;ht not'lefs improper for 
iragedy, admits, huwevcr, that an epic poura may be fprea4 

4 tbrougb 






Lcrd Kaims*! EUmintt 9/ Crhlajm^ tt^ 

through the whole fa mmcr months, and a tragedy through 
the whole fun-iliine hoirrs of the longcft Jummcr day/' At 
this rate. Lord Kaims humouroully obferves, an Englifh tra- 
gedy may be longer than a French tragedy ; and In Nova 
Zembla, the^time of a tragedy and of an epic poem may be 
the fame. 

His Lordfhip, in a comparifon between the Grecian drama 
and our own, very juftly takes notice, that the former is a 
continued rcprcfcntation, without any interruption. — The 
unities of time and place, were, in Greece, a matter of ne- 
ceflity, not of choice. In our drama, by dropping the cho- 
rus, an opporttinity is afForded to IpHt it into parts or afts^ 
which in the rep refen lotion arc diftinguiQied by intervals of 
time J and during thefe inteii^al^, the ftage is totally evacu- 
ated, and the bufinefi fufpcnded. — To admit an interrup- 
tion, without relaxing from the ftrii^ unities of place and ' 
time, is in tffcd to k^ad us with all the inconveniencits of 
the ancient drama, and at the fame time to w^thold from us 
Its advantages. Therefore, he continues, the only proper 
qucftion is. Whether our model be cr bt mt a real improve- 
ment? In the difcuirion of this query^, he makes many acute 
and judicious cricicifjn* on the Grecian and modern drama- 
ti{}s i and upon the whole concludes in favour of the modern 

The cnfuing chapter, which come? in as rt were by fur- 
prize, treats of Gardening and Architedlure. Gardeningi 
he very properly obferves, was at firft: an ufjful art. The 
garden of Alcinous, as defcribcd by Homer, was, in mo- 
dern language, but a kitchen garden. Arcbitcclurc has run 
the fame courfe. It continued, many ages, merely an ufe- 
fiiJ art, before it afpired 10 be clafled with the fine arts. Ar- 
chitecture and gardening therefore muft be confidcrcd, as 
being ufeful arts as well as fine arts : and hence aiifes that 
difference and wavering of tafte, which is more remarkable 
here than in any art that has but a frngle deflination. 

In the concluding chapter, his Lordfhip enters into a cu-» 
rious difquifition concerning the Siandard cf Tq/ie, The 
proverb,, he obfcrvcs, ** That there is no difpuiing about 
tafte," may be admitted fo far as it regards individuals. Na- 
ture, he remarks, in her fcaje of pleafures, has been fparing 
of divifions : (he hath wifely and benevolently filled every di* 
viiion with many pleafures, in order that individuals may be 
contented with their own lot> without envying the happinefs 
of others. In our prefent condition, happy it is that the plu- 

Rev. Aug. 1761. H rality 


IJ4 Lsiri KaimsV EUments tf CritUifm* 

rality arc not delicate in their choice. But if we apply ihh 
proverb, in general, to every fubj^-tSl of taftc, the difficukies 
to be encountered are infuperable. Independent altogether 
of experience, men have a Icnfc or conviction of a common 
nature or ftandard, not only in their own fpecies, but in 
every fpecles of animals. — This conviftion of a common na^ 
ture or ftandurd^ and of its pcrfeiftion, is the foundation of 
jtioraJity ; and accounts clearly for the remarkable conception 
we have, of a right and a wrong tafte in morals. It accounts 
not lefs clearly for the conception we have, of a right and a 
wrong tafte in the fine arts. A perfon who rejeits obje*5ts 
generally agreeable, and delights in obj.6ls generally difa* 
greeable, is condemned as a monfter ; we difapprove his tafte 
as bad or wrong ; and wc have a clear conception that he de- 
viates from the common ftandard. 

Having endeavoured to eftablifli this ftan^lard, his Lord- 
fhip enquires by what means we ftiai! p ev^nt miftaking a 
talfc ftandard for that of nature. He admits, that if we en- 
deavour toafccrtain the ftandard of nature from opinion and 
pradlicc, wc are betrayed in'o endlef^ perplexities. He 
agrees, that viewing the ma'ter hiftoically, nothing is more 
various than tafle in the fine arts. — The iame contradiftion*, 
he allows, occur with relpeiSt to morals. But he folves the 
difficulty, by obferving, that, " In neither can we fafcly r^ 
ly on a local or tranfitury tafte; but what is the muft univer- 
fal and the moft lalUng among polite nations. 

Jn tins very manner, he continues, a 
has hcfn cft^ibHfhcd, with a good < 

Ibndard of tafte in the fine arts is nnt yet brought to fuch 
perfection* — They who arc qualified to be judges in the fine 
arts arc reduced within a narrow compafs. Many circum- 
ftanccs are neceflary to form a \^^g^ of this fort. There 
muft be a good natural tafte. This tafte muft be improved 
by education, reficdlion, and experience : it mijfl be prefcrv- 
cd alive by a regular courfe of life^ by ufing the goods of 
fortune with moderation, and by following the di^lates of 
improved nature, which give welcome to every rational plca- 
fure, without deviating into excels, Laftly, his Lordftiip 
obferves, that by means of the principles that conflitute the 
fcnfiiive part of our nature, a wonderful uniformity iii; preferved 
^[imong the emotions and feelings of different individuals ; the 
iiimc object making upon every perfon the fame imprcHton ; the 
fiinie ill kind, at Icaft, if not in degree. The uniformity of 
taitc, here »icaunted for, is the very thing that in other words 
ii* wnnVd the conimon ftiilV ^ majiidnd. 



ftandard for morals 
of accuracy; — The 



Lsrd KaimsV EUments ef Crhtdfin^ uc 

As the dedared purpofe of thefc volumes is to lay a foun^ 
dation for forming a Standard of Tujie^ wc could vvifli that 
his Lordfhip had been more partlcuJar and prcctfc on this 
head ; for, after all that has been foid, the Standard of Tafte 
ftill remains extremely vague and unfcttied. Wc arc told 
that it muft be regulated by what \% moft unJvcrfd, and the 
moft lafting among polite nations : and, even among fuch> 
the judges are reduced within a narrow compafs. If we ap- 
peal to what is molt univerfal among polite nations, what 
ihail we fay to the cuftom in France, where, ** deipifmg the 
modcft colouring of nature, women of faihion daub their 
cheelcs with a red powder V* In fliorr, if we appeal to this 
iVandard, wc fliail find a number of prevailing practices 
among the politeft nations, which are totally inconfiftent 
with all ideas of refined Tafte. 

Perhaps the Standard of Taflc, in the fine Arts at leaft, is 
founded more on authority, cuftom or fafhion, than on prin- 
ciples of nature* Men readily contrad^ a relift for tbofc 
objeds and pleafures which accident fii'ft threw in their way. 
Wc have known the rules of Taftc to undergo *fucci:flive va-* 
nations among the polrteft nations, tnA yet, at each period^ 
the reigning fafhion has been appealed to as the only true 
Standard. Among nations liLewifc equally polifhed, the 
JTules of Tafte are extremely difFerent, A French air \% 
grating to an Italian ear j an Italian cantata is grave and infi- 
pid to a fprightly Parifian ; and an Englifti tune Is the ridi- 
cule of both* The fame maybe fald with rcfpe^l to other 
fine arts* Bcfides what is called the Taftt* of a nation, if 
iiiccly traced to Its origin, is perhaps nothing more than the 
^price of one man, who by means of extraordinary talents 
and capacity, has acquired fuch reputation and influence, as 
to make a peculiarity of his own become by degrees a reign- 
ing principle,— To tell us that the Standard of Tafte is to be 
found among judges of a good natural tafle, improved by 
education, &c. is, with deference to his Lord(bip, faying no 
more than that, ** Tafte is to be found among people of 
tafte." It is expl.*ining the difficulty by the term to be de- 
fined : for we arc ftill at a lofs to dercrrranc what are the ef- 
fentia] properties which confljtHte what is called Tafte : and 
till they arc known, it is in vain to reafon about a commoa 
ihmdard, which, in truth, is much eafipr conceived than ex- 
prefled. That men are born unth different degrees of fenfi- 
bility* cannot be denied : but the impreftions ihey receive, 
and their affefCons and averfions which are derived from thofc 

H a jispreflionst 

Il6 Z.:;v/IC\IM5V Ll.nicnli ^ CritiJjr!. 

impreflions, are, for the mod part, perhaps, owing to acci- 
dent. Nay, it fometimes happens, that men of the fame 
natural endowments, with the fame benefit of education,. and 
in all refpedls equal, as far as human difcernment can judge, 
do neverthelefs differ, with refpeft to fubjed^s of tafte, not 
only from each other, but at fuccefTivc periods from them- 

Therefore, though it cannot, without abfurdity, be con- 
tcndejl, that every man's tafte is, to himfelf, an ultimate 
ftandard without appeal ; and though there are fome circum- 
ftances by which all men will be alike affcftcd, in kind, if 
not in degree, yet when we come to eftablifh an univerfal 
ftandard of Tafte, we are involved in endlefs contradictions 
and perplexities : and nothing: can be a ftronger proof of the 
intricacy of this inquiry, than that even Lord Kaims has 
not been able to afcertain the ftandard in queftion, in a clear 
^nd fatisfadtory manner. 

Neverthelefs, his Lordftiip has given abundant proofs of 
extraordinary talents, and has difplaycd a rich and valuable 
fund of acquired knowlegc. His very errors, are moftly the 
errors of genius, as we have already obfcrved, and proceed 
from an over-nice refinement, v/hich, in too many inftances, 
renders his arguments rather fubtle than folid. Impartiality, 
however, obliges us farther to confcfs, that his Lordfhip is 
not fo accurate in the divifion of his matter, as might be ex- 
pefted. The chapter concerning Gardening and Architeflurc^ 
which comes in as it were per faltum after tlic three JJnt.iei^ 
might Certainly have been better arranged, and the whole, 
perhaps, might have been more accurately difpofcd. With 
tefpeil to the language, we muft. obfervc, that though it is 
correft and nervous, yet it wants that eafe and harmony 
which feem requifite in fo liberal a difquifition. There is one 
fault, however, which runs throughout thcfe volumes, and 
which we are amazed to difcover in a Writer of his Lord- 
•fliip^s delicate feeling : we mean that eternal egotifm which 
occurs with no fmall dictatorial pomp, m almpft every para- 

But, with all Its defects, this is a moft valuable acceffion 
to the ftock of Literature. And as the authority of Lord 
Kaims will ever be refpeded, we thought it incumbent on 
us, to point out the blemiflics in thefe volumts^ not merely 

% with 

Pott ch the HyJroceU, 


iHnth a view to find fault, but to warn future Writers, who 
may riot be able to attain his Lordfhip's cxcelJencics, to be 
careful left they ihould copy his impcrfcftiom. 

Pi Ci^ical Rcmarh m tin HydractUj cr luatry Rupture^ and Joint 
Gthff Difcajh cf the TijlicU^ id Coats ^ and P'fjpliy (Hiujh 
rated with Cajs) beln^ a Supplement tQ a general Treat ife oH 
' ^itptureSy fubl'ijhed in the year 1 756. By Pcrciv;iU Pott, 
Senior Surgeon to St, Burtholome.v*a HafpitaL Svo» 3s* 6d« 
bounJ. Uitch* 

/nr^ HIS experienced Surgeon and accurate writer pre- 
\^ mifcs, ** That he was prompted to the prcfent Trea- 
tifc, by an objciStion matic to his former work, viz. that it 
ou<rht to have comprehended the falfc Hernia as well as the 

It is divided iiito ten fc£iions, the firft of which is employ- 
ed m fhcuriag the cfrentiaf diIKn<3ion between true and falfe 
>Ruptores, and f^^ecifying the different kinds of the laft, which 
arc naxed cither from tlieir real or imaginary contents, or 
from the alteration made by the difeafe in the natural ftruc- 
ture of tiie aSected parts* 

That which nuHes call a JVind-rupturiy and furgeonf a 
Pmumfit^eiity Mr. Pott affirms, '* does not cxift in a living 
fiibjcO, and is either a true inteftinal Rupture, or a fpecies,of 
Hydrocele, from a quantity of water retained in the tunica 
vaginalis, or outer membrane of the tcfticle, after its com* 
niunication with the belly is clofed, which very commonly 
is the cafe a fliort term alter the birth/* 

The fccond fc£lion, in treating of the Hydrocele in gene- 
mi, juftly diftinguilhcs between a watry fcrotum (which oft- 
en depends on a hydropic difpofition of the whole habit) from 
A colle^ion of water within the vajinal coat, or (heath of 
the tefticle, which he Juftly affirms to be a diforder ftriftly 
and abfolutcly local. Nor is it at all improbable, that the 
want of fo maieriui a diftin<^llon, may fomctrmes have occa- 
fioned thofe errors In practice, which nc fpecifies. 

The third gives a clear relation of the anatomical ftruclurc 
of the parts concern cd, aJid a proper dcte*^ion of that too 
general error, which fuppofcs the ring, through which the 

H J fpermatic 

s x a. ' 



loits in dM) 


dnm. In die fctood, de'pacieflCAed tiedevoiili di^ 
tfcr fiscifi^-n^ wifh M mm iV& t i kimma aad pom. The tfiinl 
i« (be temMe flio«]^ not fttrf cde, of ooewhp i rc t wF cr cJ ii 
Ib^enl weckA J&cr cbe iacifioii« itoai m moniScaliQo of dhe 
frf^cmn Jiixi die iiucgttaieiiCft of die pems; and tt condodcs 
wrh /-nr auibof^i difipproriiig lai^ iodfiDoi of die fcfDCum 
i ;tl cafci *, ifirmifigt lie iicrcr met widx die like di-^ 

L,, ., ,, >m limple piff)6hjrei of diis part. 

The fifth fedion diftmguiflics tf»c three forts of Hydro- 
Cvtef ll^e fijft Win:: z coUe^ion of waiter in the cclliilaf 
fnrmKf ifir, cnvlo^in-^ and connetling the fpcrmatic Trcffelsi 
r ^ kn cxir4varited fluid m the fam^co&c^ but con* 

|tm j i'^ » fmgle cavity or cyft of it j and the third, an accu* 
ftiulntiort of water within the vigmal meonbrariie of the tcf- 
Ikle. 7'f*rcr cafti are 2U0 annexed to this fcclion. Mr, 
l*o\t wai eonfuUcd in the firA» M^hich was a feverc and fm* 
giiUr ofic, that had been of five or fix vears ftanding* The 
I^iuif rit ilicJ ifi about fix weeks from tnc incilion. TTie fc- 
1 iA r«fc wai palliated by aconninon fufpcnfory bag ; and thf 
piTtt'nt dying (ti d pcnpncumoiy three years after* our author 
UmnA, M»ar whAl he had inifbkcn in it for a portion of the 
« I or caw), WAS a colledlion of water in the cellular 

I I" of the cord. This very honcft acknowlegcmcnt 


Pott w the HyJrcaU* 115 

docs hinv great honour, and may be ufeful to other praiflitton- 
crs* The third cafe was perfedly cured. 

Se£lion the fixth treats of the fecond fpecies of Hyd^oceJe, 
mentioned in the preceding one, vtx. the encyftcd fort* 
Three hiftories of it are annexed. The fubjedt of ihe firft, a 
lad of fixtcen years, was perfc<Slly cured, after a third dif- 
charge, and a fecond incifion through the cyft, twelve 
months after the fir ft. The fecond was a perfect cure of the 
cncyfted Hydrocele, but not of one of the, vriih 
which it was combined, and which had been repeatedly emp- 
tied and tilled again. The third was a perfeft cure of the 
fame fort of Hydrocele, effected by a thorough incifion of the 
cyft, which he calls the radical cure. 

The fcvcnth fet^ion treats of the Hydrocele of the olitward 
membrane, or Ihcath, as it may be called, of the tcfticle» 
The radical cure of this i^ efFeited, our author fjys, by ex- 
citing fuch a degree of inflammation in it, as, after fuppura- 
tion, may efface the fmall cavity between this and the imme- 
diate coat of the tefticlc, in confequence of their cohering by 
an incarnation of the fore. The many different ways of ew 
feilLn^ thfs arc reduced to two in modern practice; t/ic. by 
tfhe cauftic, or by an incifion of the vaginal coat throughout 
its length ; and of tlicfe Mr. Pott prefers the hit, tho* mapy 
praftiiioners decline it. He affirms, however, ** that having 
performed it fcores of times, he never f»w the patients life in 
danger, nor that it proved fatal, but twice." He fpecifies the 
various temperaments and circumftances, which only ought 
to deter a Wilful operator from it. Two hiftories of this dif- 
€afe are prefixed to his account of the operation, both of 
which were radically cured by difperfion, or diflipation, as 
he fometimes terms it. One was cffe£ted by nature, in con- 
fequencc of the firft fit of the gout, in a gentleman of fortv- 
five, which confined him to his bed for fix weeks \ and wliicb 
mere decumbiturc might probably conduce to his cure, The 
other tumour was of two years growth, which the patient 
had confcnted to have tapped • but happening to hurt the 
fcroium by a fall, he altered his mind j and Mr. Pott having 
recourfe then to fomentation, pultice, &c. the whole tumour 
difappeared in about three weeks, and there has been no re- 
lapfe. He ingenuoufly conftfles at the fame time, he was 
never able to luccecd by the fame means in many fubfequent 

The eighth fcfiion treats of the Hafmatocele, which, he 
6ys^ is either a tumour of the fcrotum, or of the fpermatjc 

H 4 proccfsi 

110 Pott en the H^dfauli^ 

proccfs, from cxtravafated blood. Two kinds of it he fup- 
pofcs the effefts of a chirurgic operation, chi',*fly from tap{>ing 
^c tMmcair juft above mentioned. The thijd he fuppofcs to 
be a Rupture of a branch of the fpermat'ic vein. Of eleven 
inftanccs of it annexed to this fe^ion, eight were confrqucn- 
ccs of a Hydrocele vaginalis : a ninth was from ex tra-.'a fated 
blood in the membrane of the fpermatic cord. This laft, and 
feven of the former recovered, one dy'mg on the ninth day, 
having the fcrotum mortified, and ft. me fphacela:cd fpots on 
fomc of the intcftincs. One of the eight was obliged to fiib- 
mit to the extirpation of one teftlcle. The two remaining 
cafes appended to this fc£tion were not Hxmaroccles, but 
Hydroceles, combined wlib the collection of a fluid in the 
fac of a congenial hernia. Both theie fubjcdls recovered. 

. The ninth fcflion treats of a Varicocele, ordiLitation tJfthji 
veflels of the fcrotum, and of the Circoccle, which is a ^'ari- 
cous enlargement of the fpermatic vein. Two cafes of this 
laft are annexed, (the firft being fcarcefy confidcred as a dif- 
^fe) from which no fatality enfued, but a very perceivable 
diminution or wafting of the tcfticlc on the affcdled fide. 

Scdlion the tenth and laft treats of the Saxcocclc, under which 
term this writer comprehends all fchinofities of the tefticlcs, 
of whatever fize or duration. He is very difFufc and accurate 
in his difcuiuon of this frequently mortal difeafe, through*out 
thirty -two pages. It comprizes twelve cafes. Of thefe iho 
three firft recovered perfccll) by caftration. A fourth under- 
went the operation, and died about fcvcn months after, with 
violent pains about the kidneys* fpafmodic affections of the 
breaft, and all the fy nip toms of a pcripncumo ny ; rtie renal 
gland being found, upon difleftion, as big as a large Seville 
orange, and truly fchtrrous, The fifth patient died, being 
ftrongly avcrfe to caftratlon, and h^iving taken krge quanti- 
ties of the extrad of hemlock, for a confiderablc time, tq 
no purpofe ; and at laft entered upon a courle of the fublimait 
folution, v^^hich Mr. Pott thinks contributed to (hortcn a ve- 
ry miferable exiftence. The fixth died fomc months after 
caftration, not having admitted it early enough. A feyenth 
ilied eight pr nine months after the operation (being difmifled 
well in two months) of a Lirge cancerous fungus in his groin. 
The eighth died the third day after caftration performed by 
the late Mr. Freke, and, as it fecriis, without the hearty 
concurrence of all his hofpltal colleagues. The ninth cafe 
was a hard tumour, about the middle of the fpermatic pro- 
ffffl, the tefticW being perfeAly fpund, Some rupture doaor 




Pott ^« tht H/Jr^ali* I2j 

tfcruft a lancet into it ; blood only followed, and fiieh a can- 
ecxous Ibre cnfued, as left no hopes of fuccccding by extir- 
psition. The patient died after hn^^uilhing miftrably feveral 
months. The tenth patient b1(q died at the end of twa 
years, under a fchirrous teftjclc, having protel^ed aj^ind ca* 
ftration, and being indeed no promifin^ iubjcit for it. The 
cafe of the eleventh patient was a large tumour of the tcf- 
ticle, of three years ftanding, which, like that of the ntnth^ 
was plunged into by a rupture dofior: a horrid fun^s, with 
great pain, hemorrhage, Sec, were the confequence, which 
Jjpeediiy delivered the patient from a torturing exiftencc* 
The lall cafe is a fcirrhou^ tcfticle, about which our author 
was confultcd, but his advice was not purfucd. it really 
feem5 to have been injudicioufly treated^ Caft ration does 
not appear tQ have been propoied, and the pattent died foon 
after his arrival in London* He concludes this trcatife, how- 
ever, v/ith giving his judgment, ^* That when the tefticle i* 
poiTciTcd by a true fchirrhus or cancer, it ought to be clcaiiy 
extirpated, or not meddled with at all, by way of opera- 

Such Is the fubftance of this pradic^l Treatlfe, containing 

iaj pages ; of which the chlrurgical hiftories employ ninety- 
fix. This may be thought a large proportion by thofe readers 
of the fame profeflion^ who are apt to confidcr the exhibition 
of many cafes as a matter of oftentation and parade ; but if wc 
recoiled the number of the prefent cafes, which either termi- 
nated fatally, or were only palliated, we think candour muft 
acquit Mr. Pott iu this refpc^- It is certain indeed, if 
gentlemen largely employed in phyfic or furgery, v^^cre to in- 
dulge a habit of publiOiing the greater part of their experi- 
ence, which might naturally prove the moll (uccefsful part oF 
it, doubtlefs it might have an odious, empirical, and fordid 
appearance. But on the other hand, if men of knowlege 
and opportunity will acquaint us with their failures, and 
very poifible errors, as well as with their fucceffcs ; and pu- 
bUfh only fuch cafrs, whatever be their event, as are curious 
or fingular, and may very probably be inftrudlive, fuch com- 
munications would be truly liberal, and muft be founded in 
philanthropy: efpccially if we refled, that perfons very much 
engaged in pr^flice have the leaft leifure for writing and pub- 
^tfhtng, in v/hlch they cannot employ their time fo lucra^ 
rively. From fiich confidcrations, we conceive ihii perform- 
ance is well entitled to a favourable reception from the pub- 
IfCi the large intervals between the hiftories being employed 

12Z JoNEs'j BJJay m thi jirfi 

m clear and accurate dcrcriptions of the fcvcral kinds of tbi 
^ireafe \ \\\ reciting the antiet-t and modern methods of oper- 
ating in them ; and in feme new ajid pradtica! difculTions of the 
Author's own, either in the text or the notes, with frequent 
jetercnccj. to the beft writers ia furger)% HiS preface affcfti 
to cifdaira any prct.-nfion to elegant writing: this might as 
well have been .rritied, fince {^>xsmc may fuppofc it a bait for a 
comp*imenr ; for as hi* exprelfion is very geneially corrc<ft^ 
and always proper and perfpicuous, it fcems to imply as much 
elegance as his fubjeti would pertinent y admit of. 

An Effay tm tht firfl PnncipUs ef Natural Phikfiphy : IVhenin 
the Ufi of natural Ateam^ or ffcond CaufeSj in the Oecsmmf 
cf ths material H'^orld is demonflrQ*ed from R^afon^ Experi^ 
fftenti 9f various Kinds ^ and the Tejiimany of Antiqutty. 11- 
bijhatedwitb Cspper-platis. By the Rev* William Joaes, 
lie of Unircrfity College in Oxford ; and Author of the 
Catholic Dodrinc of the Trinity** 4to. gs. fcwcd. Ri- 

THERE is nothing prejudices the candid Reader fo 
much againft the chara£ter and pretenfions of a Writer^ 
as his arrogance^ in prefuming on hh own judgment, while 
he is pettilantly treating with contempt the authority of others. 
The A uthor of the work before us is often culpable in this 

His EfTay is divided into four books. In the firf?, he treats 
of the mcchanifm of Nature in general, and combats the 
Newtonian doctrine of a P'acuum^ and the vis inertite of mat- 
ter. There are in this book many flirewd and very juft ob- 
fcrvations on the mathematical piincipfcs of Natural Phrlo- 
fophy, and on the infufficiency of iome geometrical argu- 
ments, made ufc of to afcertain the nature of phyfical ele- 
ments. They would have had more weight,, however, had 
our Author given us a better proof of the fufficiency of phy- 
fical realoning. 

In the fccond book, he confidcrs Attra£^ion and Gravity at 
Targe; and expofes the inaccurate and contradidlory manner 
in which the Newtonia ns^ and ev en Sir Ifaac Newton him- 
felf, have fpoken otjj/j^^^^/ff^ The fame objeflions, 




PrlndpUs bf Katurat PlnUfipirf. 


however^ have been often made, and the jufticc of them ad* 
mitted, fo far as they fervc to fhew the want of logicxl pre* 
cifion \\\ the phyfical terms and expreffions of geometrical 
Writers. It is very obvious, nevertheless, that they have 
been alvk^ajs very well ojiderflood \ and that, >vhether they 
fpoke of artraction as a caufe or as an cffedl, it never aftcctel 
the truth uf any argument they made ufc of to illuftrate 
any demonftration founded on that principle. 

The contempt, indeed, is juft> which our Author fticwi 
for the prefumptuous conduit of, what he calls, mere Englifli 
Mathematicians, who declare it as their opinion, that *^ ne- 
ver a PhiJofopher before Newton ever took the method that 
he did ; that it is a mere joke to talk of a new philofophy \ 
and that in thefc unhappy days of ignorance and avarice^ 
Minerva has given place to PluiOy [meaning Fluttts].^** 
Wc agree, with Mr. Jones, that, however fkilled fuch Wri- 
ters as thefe may be in the theory, or expert in the prMflice, 
of mechanics, yet, when they cake upon them magifterially 
to decide upon philofophy in general, they fhould be checked 
with a tte futor ultra cnpidam. Our Author cannot fuppofe, 
however, that all Newtonians are of this ftamp, Mr* Mac- 
laurin confcfles that Geometry can be of little ufe in natural 
philofophy, till data arc colleaed to build upon : now it can- 
not be fuppufed he conceived the data themfclves were to be 
collefled by Geometry, Newton alfo, when he talks of at- 
tra£^ion as a phyfical principle, exprcffes himfclf in very plain 
terms concerning his opinion of its being a mechanical effect* 
It is not improbable that, in the latter p.irt of hislifeatleaft, 
he entertained fome fuch notion too of the vis Inertia^ and 
other general properties of palpable bodies, notwithftanding 
whit he has laid down in his Regula Pbilofophajidi. The de- 
fign of this eminent Philofopher was, to give a mechanicat 
explication of the greater phenomena of Nature ; deduced, 
on mathematical principles, from fome certain and indifput* 
able phyfical di2ta* It was therefore neceflary for him to be- 
gin fomewhere, and to aiTume fuch data as could be experi- 
menU^lly demonftrated to exift. In the vague and flmSuating 
ftarc in which he found the fyllems of Natural Philofophy; 
he might be very juflly afraid of bewildering himfelf and fol- 
lowers, by recurring to elements too profound and far-fetch- 
ed. Indeed, notwithftanding this precaution, he was at iird 

• A pafljge quoted from the preface to the ingenious Mr. Emcr* 
fon't treatrfeon Mechanic*; on which wc ihall only obfcrve, mn om^ 


124 JoNEs'i Effay on the firj 

loudly attacked in the general outcry agamft adopting occult 
caufest The laws of Nature, therefore, as laid down by Sir 
Ifaac, fhould he rather confidered a$ the elements of a fci- 
ence than as the elements of things. It is no impeachment 
of the truth of his fyftem, that lus firft principle is not cor- 
rcfpondcnt with the firft phyfical caufe. I'he firft element in 
a fyftcm of philofophy may accord with th« fccond, third, 
fourth, or the four hu;idrcdth in the fyftem of nature. TDl 
we arrive at fomcthing univerfaJ, we mull: confider what \% 
general as fuch. It would be abfurd, however, to deny whac 
J9 general to be falfe, merely bccaufe it is not univerfal* 

It was fufHcient for Sir Ifaac Newton, that the data he af- 
fumed were confirmed by phyfical experiment, whether they 
arc merely phyfical caufcs or mechanical effe^Sts, Is the 
bufinefs of future enquirers to determine ; nor doth the in- 
fuiHcicncy of the Newtonian fyftem to determine this, at all 
afte£i its own truth or importance. Inftead, therefore, of 
endeavouring to difprove, as our Author has attempted, the 
dodrine of attraftion, and the theory of central forces, he 
bad better have endeavoured to illuftrate and confirm both| 
a prim ; by deducing them mathematically from more gene* 
T^ laws. It would have been taking a ftep toward the real 
improvement of natur*il knowlegc, to have given a geome- 
trical explication of the mechanical caufe of gravitation, the 
^evolutions of the planets, and the cohefion of the parts of 
bodies 9 whereas, in what our Author has here done, he 
has impotently cavilled at notorious truths ; as if a new fyf- 
tem of philofophy muft neceflarily be made to overturn the 
Newtonian * ? 

Wc readily agree, with Mr. Jones, that Geometricians^ 
in general, have reafoned very w^eakly in matters merely phy- 
fical. We will not fcruple to fay. Sir Ifaac Newton himfelf 
has done fo on fcvcral occafions ; fo weakly, indeed, that it 
is for this reafon we cannot help thinking, he muft have been 
fenfiblc how inconclufive and fupcrficial fuch arguments were : 
nay, he tacitly confcflcs as much by frequently giving up the 
point, as not the immediate objed of his purfuit. 

• Taking Mr, Emerlbn's words, as above quoted^ in rhis fcnfe^ ft 
ii» indeed, « jok» ts talk %f & ftftv phtlfiphf, A ucW fyftem mi^ 
difprove feme conjedurca concerning ihc Jata on which the New- 
tonian CfiXtm is founded ; but if n docs not tend to confirm the bails 
ltreir« as well as ail the materiat parts of the fapeifbru^ure, we aiay 
^edare before-hand, it I^uIl be ialf^* 




Pfinci^Iis of N(iturifl Pbikfophy. 


Our Amhar has, wc confds, pointed out fomc remarkable 
defe^of this kind, in the Advocates for the Newtonian fyf- 
tcra : there is nothing more como^on, however, in fcientific 
difqiiifitions, than for Writers to fhcw fome acutenefs, in dc- 
tCiTling the miftakes and overfights of their prcdecelFors, and 
yet to run the mfe Ives into blunders equally abfurd and ridi- 
culous. How far Mr. Jones is more correit and precifc, in 
phyfical argument, than the Geometricians he cenfures, our 
Readers may judge from die following inftance. 

In fpcaking of Fire, the agent he makes choice of to explain 
the mechanifm of Nature, he aifct5ts to ridicule a famous 
<|uery of Sir Ifaac Newton*s on that head, ** He aflcs, (fay» 
Mr, T'*'^^) Is not fire a body heated fo hot as to emit lignt 
copiouily ? fer what clfe is a red-hot iron than fire ? Let us 
anfwcr this (continues our Author) by putting a like quef^ 
lion concerning the element of Water, Is not water a body 
wetted fo much, as to wet every thing elfe copioufly ? for 
what clfe \% a wet fpongc than water ? In this latter ex- 
ample every perfon will allow the fpongc to be a dillinfl body 
from the water, containing that clement in its vacuities. Now 
fire is as truly an obje£l of fenfc as water; and hath as maiij^ 
properties to diflinguilh it as a fluid." 

Specious as this plea may appear to fome at fird view, he 
mull be a very fupcrficinl Reafoncr who docs not fee its fal- 
lacy on a fccond. Fire, he fays, is as truly an objcft of 
fenfc as water. Surely it i^ not fo in the cafe he exemplifies ! 
The water mav be fquee-zed out of the fpongc into a bowl or 
bafon t and will thus e\ idently appear to have an cxiftence in- 
i! ' : of the fpon nre or any other body. Can our Author 
c rae with the firef which way will he (hew the fire 

to bt as truly an object of fenfc, and to cxift independent of 
the iron or fomc other body ? Wc can take a piece of cold 
iron, axKl, without letting it ^^pproach any warm body, caa 
even in a cold, dark room, bv mere hammering, make it 
red hot; even io hot, that it rfiall warm and enlighten the 
r ' ?• By what mechanic operation cajj 

i^ ■ pty fpongc, and, in a dry room, with- 

out letting it apprcich any humid body, fill it with water t 
W.v r U t-v I !ently a body, fire is not. He may quote Dr, 
an, or whom he pleifcs, to prove that " fixe is 
i J, \ J jijie and obvious to the touch," wc (hall, for our 

' , tiCv'er be afraid of burning our fingers with it, unle(^ 
u Come in the Aiape of foine nutcnal body. 

^^^*™ Jones'/ Ejfaf^ i^c. ^^"n i^ 

As to the cxiftcnce of an ^thcr, or an claftic fluid, con- 
ducive to thofe cfFcfts exemplified by Dr. Shaw and other 
Chemifts, we conceive it mcoiitcftibly proved ; but we muft 
join againft our Author, in the opinion of Meflrs, Hoadly 
;ind Wilfonj that it is improper to caJI this fire : we hold aI(o 
the argument thefe Gentlemen made ufe of, and which Mr, 
Jones treats as fallacious, to be very logical and fatisfa<£iory. 
Indeed, we may fafely range ourfelvcs with them> on tfie fide 
of Sir Ifaac Newton, .ind boldly defy all the Chemiftij and 
Ele£lridans in the world, to bring one good proof, that pure 
ekmen^ary fire is any thing more than motion in the above- 
mentioned vEther; or that palpable or culinery fire is any 
thing diftinfl from, and independent of, gravitating bodies. 

The do3rinc. inculcated by the paJTagc above quoted from 
Sir Ifaac Newton *s Optics, of fire being only the violent mo- 
tion of the agitated parts of bodies, has been greatly contro* 
verted. Nothings however, can be more inconclufive than 
the experiments made ufe of by Boerhaave and others, to 
prove the materiality of fire ; nor can any thing be more ab- 
furd than for a man, contending for the mechanical folution 
of natural phenomena, to adopt fo vague and unintclliyble a 
principle as that of fire» 

In the third book, our Author recurs to the doflrlne of a 
Vacuum^ as exifting in the heavens, and between the parts of 
bodies ; the truth of which he denies ; entering into an ex- 
perimental enquiry concerning the phyfical cau fes of cohefion 
and repuKion, In the firft chapter of this book, hefhcws, very 
fatisfa^orily, the infufficiency of fome rcafons that have been 
given, in fupport of the opinion of a vacuum between the 
heavenly bodies ; particularly that of Sir Ifaac Newton, 
drawn from the diredtion of the tails of comets j which is 
plainly a paraloglfm. We think him very deficient, however,! 
in cftabltfliing his^/fffttMj nor do we judge the authority ofJ 
either Virgil or Plato of any great weight in phyfics, Inj 
Ihort, after all we have faid againft our Author's notions of 1 
fire, we can hardly find out what he himfelf means, when he I 
comes to make ufe of it. ** I ufe the term fircy fays he, iit^ 
its largeft fenfe, either for fire, light, or aether. We may, | 
indeed, call it by any of thefe nameS, becaufe the fame fluid 
muft be underftood by every one of them ; though, if we were 
toftand upon ftri<Stncfs and propriety of cxpreflion*, it would 

• And why not ftand upon flriftnefs and propriety } Is th^re any 
ibbje^ in treating which they nre more necclTaiyf Clear expref- 
iiona will uatiually follow clear id^ai. 


GesnerV Rural Pormu •iiy 

be neceflary, 6n fomc occafions, to ufe the firft of thefe \ oa 
mhers onTy the fecond or third.*' When this fluid is cold 
and invifible, he fays, he would call it aether : when k be* 
comes lucid, it is to be called light ; and when it gives heat, 
it is fire. That is, he would call cold fire aether; himinous 
fire, light; and hot fire« fimply firef* Luminous and hot, 
indeed, are epithets applicable to fire; but furely w/t/ fire is 
a very new and extraordinary term in phyfics ! Who is there 
that will be very ready to credit our Author, or will not at 
lead think he fadly millakes himfelt', when he tells us, as he 
does in the very fame page, that *^ the^employment mofl: 
agreeable to him, is to fearch after things^ and tvy to render 
them intelligible ?'* . 

In the fourth and laft book we have an entertaining collec- 
tion of obfervations, chiefly from the anticnts, relative to the 
fyftem of nature. As this Writer, however, from the be- 
ginning of his work pays fo little regard to the authority of 
Sir Ifaac Newton, the oracle of mathematical Readers, he 
cannot expert they will pay much to the dogmatical opinieuu 
crf the Philofophers which he has here collected together, 

+ Our Author, and perhaps fome of hisl^eader^, may underftant! 
what he means, by telling us m>t to imagine heat and cold to be things 
diilereiil in their nature, and mn it is the iamc dement, Jirt, that 
boils water and freezes it : but farely ihii i% not the accurate language 
of aPhilofcpher! 

Rural P&ims : TranfiaUd frmt the original German of M* Gcf* 
xier. Small 8vo. as, Becket and Co* 

AS thefe performances arc not conceived in poetic num- 
bers in the original, wc fee no reafon why they 
ftiould be called Poems. Poetical imagery without tne cer- 
tain diftin£Hons of meafure, can no more entitle any work to 
the appellation of a poem, than a number of features, feat- 
tcrcd without order or compofition, can be called a pic- 
ture. Neither, in our opinion, can the Author of fuch pieces 
have any more right to the title of a Poet, than the Deftgncr 
of fuch features hath to the chara^cr of a Painter- As the 
one has afForded us no proof that he underltandi the propor- 
tions of compofition, neither has the other given us reafon 
to believe^ thai he knows any thing of the \skimQny of num- 



GesNErV Rural Poms* 

fccrsi yet thcfc arc eflential properties of their rcfpecliv^ 

To tafte thcfc rural and paftoral compofitions, it rs neccf-^ 
lary to refer to the manners of the Golden Age, for adopting 
which, rather than thofe of modern times^ the Author has 
l^ivcn us the following fatisfa^^ory realbns, in his preface, 

*^ It 15 the peculiar privilege of paftora] to recur to the firft 
mgcs of mankind ; and hence it rccnves grtat advantage ; as 
by that mear»3 the fccnes acquire a degree of probability, 
which they would not carry with them, if fuppofed to exift 
in modern times y wherein the unhappy Pcafmt, fubjed^ed to 
the hardcft labour, in order to procure for his Prince, or the 
inhabitants of large cities^ a fuperfluous abundance, groans, 
hintfelf, under the weight of mifery and opprcflion ; and is 
thereby rendered mean, cunning, and brutal* Not that I 
pretend a Poet, who amufes himielf in this kind of writings 
may not ftrike into fomc new path?, and difcover new beau- 
ties, in obfcrving the manners and fentrmcnts of our modem 
Peaiants. But it requires the niceft talk to be able to dif- 
linguifh and to polifh them, without entirely divcftjng them of 
their chaiacicr of rullicity^'* 

We arc entirely of Mr. Gefiier's opinion, that paftoral poe^ 
try fliou Id always refer to that Jivx of fimplicity which wc call 
tbe Golden Age, and can by no means approve the Chanfons 
des Birga-i fur Us Riva^es dt* Loire^ nor the Shepherd's 6oy 
finging his poliflied lay on the banks of the Thames. 

TheAuthorof thefe paftoral Eflays tells us alfo in his pre- 
fece, that he took Theocritus for his model ; and we agree 
with him in the following charader which he has given us of 
that Poet, 

*' I have always efteemed Theocritus as the beft model in 
this kind of writing ; this Poet having cxprcffcd, with the 
greateft exa£tnefs, the ingenuous fimplicity of paftoral fcnti- 
ments and manners. His Idyllions contain a great deal more 
than mere rofcs and lillicji, Hts defcriptions are not the vague 
eiFeft of an imagination confined to the moft obvious and 
common objefis* They appear to be always copied imme- 
diately from Nature, the marks of whofe amiable ilmplicity 
they bear. He has given his Shepherds the higheft degree of 
innocent fincerity, making thtix lips ever exprefs the honeft 
dfdates of their hearts. The poetical ornaments of their 
converfatign are, all of them> taken from their rural occu- 



GeskerV Rural pQ(ms. 


patjons, or from fcenes of nature very little embclliflird by 
art. T'hcy have nothing of an epigrammatic turn, or fcho- 
laftic affet^ation of period. Theocritus polTcllcd the difficult 
art of giving his vcrfes that amiable eafcand negligence which 
(hould characterize the infant ftatc of poetry. He knew 
how to give his poems an agreeable air of innocence, adapt- 
ed to thofe early ages, wherein the ingenuous fcntimcnts of 
the heart aflifted to warm the imagination, already excited 
by the moll irichanting fccncs of nature. It muft be confef- 
fed, indeed, that the limpllcity of manners prevailing in his 
own times, and the efleem in which agriculture was ftill held^ 
facilitated his endeavours herein. T'he tiirn fur epigrarfi and 
quaintnefs ofphrafe had not made any way, nor had good 
fenfe, and a taflc for the truly beauttful^ as yet given place 
to wit." 

We havt^ quoted this character of Theocritus, bccaufe it 
accounts extremely well for that fimplicity we hiid in his 
writings. But whatever fimplkity we may allow the age of 
Theocritus, it is pretty evident that he chofe to iittroJuce, in 
his paftorals,. Shepherds of former times. His mention of the 
Sybarites, 14"* 5* and of Mylo's carrying otF a Herdfman in 
the fourth Idyllion, is a proof of this. Theocritus was con- 
temporary uiih Ptolemy Phrladtlphus, and wrote about A. a. 
t. 260, and we find that Milo with a hundred thouf^nd Cro- 
tonians, overcame three hundred thoufand Sybarit-S, and de- 
ftroycd their town, A. A, C. 509. 

How well Mr. Gefncr has fdtloitf'ed his original, and how 
fuccefafuUy he has accommodated thefe Eflayis to the jcra of 
ancient fimplicity; we niuft now enquire. 

The fccond EiTay, entitled Mllo, muft be allowed to>e a 
Very h;ippy imitation of Theocritus, both in ftylc and fentU 
ment. As it is trandatcd entirely in a kind of blank vcrfe^ 
mid is not, like mofl of the others, a mixture of verfe ani 
profc, wc fball quote it at large. 

O Thou, who lovelier an than dewy mom, 
How bright thy fine black eyes 1 thy nUt-brown locks^ 
AdomM with nosers, and fponing with the wind! 
How iovciv fwcct thy rol'y ImiSing lip< ! 
Butfweetcr far w^icn rai$ d thy vokc to fing, 
1 heard ihce, Lhloc. but the other day, 
Tranfportcd heard thee, fitting by the fpring. 
Between thofe bimchiog oaks ; difpka^M I ch!J 
The feathered fon^fler* and the babbling flream 
That inix*d their founds with thy cnch*inting byi* 
R£v. Aug. 1761^ 1 



G E s :c E R 'i Rural Pcems. 

Full nineteen harvcfts, Chloe, have I fccn ; 
My (heeis are nuiJy^ and my fa,i is fair: 
"the Shepherds all are hufli'd whene'er nuy fong^ - 
In th*> echoing vale are heard ; and not a fli»te 
Is better tun*d to Chloe*8 vdce than mine. 

Give me thy heart, fair Chloe, for 'tis fwect 
Beiide this hill, within my grot, to dwell : 
See how the dark-green ivy, creeping on. 
Spreads iu thick net work o'er the floping rock, 
nhofe top with briars and prickly hawthorn's crown'd. 

Hang with (oft ikins is my convenient grot. 
And round its entrance have I planted vines. 
That fpreading fhade me from the noon-day fun. 
See how the foaming wave defcends the rock. 
Watering the cre^, fldwcrs, and bcnty grafs. 
As on it flows into the lake below, 
O'cr-hung by wiUqws, and thick-grown with reeds^ 
By filent moonfhine here the fportive nymphs 
Dance to my €ate, while ikipping fauns around. 
Clapping their clattering caftanets, keep thne. 
See now the hazles, forming alleys green, 
In flencier ftems furronnd my fimded cot \ 
How the ripe black-berries, with their glo^y hue, 
Mixt with the lively red of fweet- briar glow. 
See how the apple-trees, fluck round with vines. 
Bend down with fruit. Thefc, Chloe, ail are mine: 
Thefe all the heart can wi(h. But ah .' fair Maid, 
Should'ft thou not love me, what a difsnal gloom 
Would overfpread this now-enchanting fccne ! 
Take theie then, Chloe, and give me thy heart.* 
Here on the tufted grais we'll Jtt us dounn. 
And fee the wild goats climb the llccp above. 
While (hcep and heifers tamely graze below. 
Here at a djlUncc wil] we view Ste fea ; 
On whofe bright furfacc playful tritons fport. 
And Phabus lights from his defcending car. 
Here will we fine, the rude rocks echomg rounds 
And nymphs and fatyrs liftening tD our ftrains. 

Thus Milo fung, the Shepherd of the Grot, 
While Chloe heard him from the green wood fhadc. 
Smiling (he came, and took the Shepherd's hand. 
Milo, ftie faid, dear Shepherd of the Grot, 
I love thee more than ewes the three-leav'd grafs. 
Better ^%vijtnging birds their morning fong. 
Lead me into thy grot ■ ■ 
For fwect thy kifs as honey to my lips 
Lcfe fweet therivulct-s murmur to mine ear. 


GesrerV Rural Pcmh. 


This is not only a general imiuiion of the ftyle and fentl- 
ment of the Greek Paftonl Poet, but i'cveral of his particu-^ 
lar beauties are as clofely copied by our Author as they were 
by VirgiL This will appear by comparing the following 

Hung with Mi (kms is ray convenient grotp 
And roiuid ]tsentr2Dce have 1 planted vine5» 
That fpjcading (hade itic from the noon-dav fun* 
See how the foaming wave defceoda the rock. 


Ttf^t SfpiK pp(^avl«f iyy W^eir ^Xi^<»i»A; ■ 

e^T a^iriXcf « yXtfJti^^a^o;* 

How the ripe blackberries, with their glcfty hue» 
Mixt with the lively red of fvveet Wiar, glow I 
See how the apple trees (luck louad with vines 
Bend down with fruit 1 

■ Bat ah * Hr Maid, 

Shouldft thou not love me, what a difmal gloom 
Woald overfpread this now enchanting fccne ! 

Here on the tufted grafs we'll fit us downi 
And fee the wild go^Jts climb the fleep above. 
While {hcep and heifers tamely graze bcIow« 
Here at a dillancc will we view the fea, 

'AAX 9tr> Iff Til^a Tal* mffofjkai aytta^ %y^ ^f 

Idyl 9: 
R ti. 

Idyh 7* 

IdyL 8. 

Idyl, «. 

The clofc imitation of the laft quoted beautiful paflage, Is 
a ftriking teftimony of the Author's good talle ; but it is 4 
proof alfo, among many others, that he has aiFedled orna* 
ment much more than his original. The Sicilian Poet fays 
fimply, ** but to fit under this rock and fing, with thee^ my 
girl, in my arms ; with a profpect of my ihecp feeding toge- 
ther, and of the fca of Sicily." — His German Imitator is not 
content with giving his Shepherd merely a profpedl of thefea, 
but aJda the fporting uitons and the fetting fun. ThcocrJ- 

I 2 tus 

T32 G E s K E R *5 Rural Pcnus. 

tushas a ftream, a vine, and an apple tree bending with fruit 
near his cottage. Gcfner has the fame j but his ftream foams 
over a rock, waters the crcffes and flowers in its courfe, arid 
at laft falls into a lake, whofc fides are over-hung with wil- 
■ lows ; his vine forms a (hade to defend him from the noon- 
day fun ; and his apple tree is ftuck round wiih vines. 

♦ Imagery is the very foul of poetry, but it may be too complex 
and ornate. When images are multiplied, every particular 
objeft lofes the cffecS it would have had when coiifidcrcd fim- 
ply. Our modern Poets feem to be unapprizcd of this truth ; 
feeing they are at fo much pains to croud their works with 

Mr. Gefncr profefles to adapt his paftoral Eflays to the 
Golden Age ; but he has fometimcs introduced objefts un- 
known, and fcntiments ill accommodated, to that xra. 
Thus, in the paftoral we have quoted, fatyrs are introduced, 
** clapping their clattering caftanets ;" which, however well 
the found may be adapted to the fentiment in the Englifh tran- 
flation, we muft not pafs over without cenfure ; the caftanet 
being an inftrumcnt peculiar to the German dance, and alto- 
gether unknown to the Golden Age. 

The reward which Thyrfis offers Myrtilljs for his fong, is 
a Dutch toy of a verycurious conftrucHon. *' Come Myr- 
tillis, as the fotitudeof the night, and ^it/i// bi ightncfs of the 
moon to folcmn fongs invite us, hear my propofal. This 
fine earthen lamp, fo curioufly conftrufted, will I give thee. 
My father made it in a dragon's form, with wings and feet ; 
in its open mouth the lighted candle burns ; while, fee its 
tail turned up, is jtwiftcd round to form a handle. This will 
I give thee, if the moving tale of Daphnis and Cbloc thou 
wilt fing." 

In this tale Ghloe is reprefented ftanding on the bank of 
a river. 

Impatient for th* arrival of the boat, 

In which her Daphnis fhould have crois'd the flood. 

This blunder is near akin to that of the picture, in which 
Abraham is prefenting a piftol at Ifaac, for it is well known 
tiiat in the Golden Age boats were not in being. 

Nondum — — ■. 

— In liquidas Pinus dcfccndcrat Undas, Cvid. 

. In the Soliloquy of old Palcmon there arc fome fine ftrokes 
<rf fency, and beautiful figures of cxprcfiion. ** When I rc- 

5 view 

G E s'N E R *x ' Rural PGms* 1 33 

view the paft fcenes of my life, (fays he) I feSm to have 
lived a long, long fummer's day ; my gloomy moments, but 
as tranfient ftiowers, that chear the plants, and fertilize the 
plains." It is the beauty of comparative imagery, to admit 
a variety of fimilar circumftajiccs. Had Palemon cbmpared 
his life to a fummer's day, only on account of its length, the 
image would have had nothing ftriking in it ; but when he 
puriucs the chain of fimilitude, and adds, that his gloomy 
moments had been like thofe tranfient fliowers that chear the 
plants, and fertilize the plains, implying, in that image, the 
moral utility of afflidtioh, the comparif6n then becomes ex- 
tremely ftriking and beautiful. 

When the aged Shepherd mentions how long his wife 
Myrta had been dead, he thus happily expreffes himfclf: 
*' Twelve tin\es the Spring hath ftrewn thy grave with flow- 
ers." The beauty of the expreflion confills in this, that what 
at the firft glance appeared to be fidtion, is, upon refledlion, 
difcovered to be truth. When fimple imagery can afTume a 
iretaphorical air, without lofmg any thing of its original 
propriety, it has always a happy eiFe6i. 

It is feldom, however, that this felicity of expreffion can 
be hit upon ; for as there are no rules to direft us in the fcarch 
of it, it muft be merely the refult of chance and accident. 

None of thcfe rural Efiays has afforded us more pleafure 
than that entitled Lycas, or the Invention of Gardens. No- 
thing can be more ample than the thought, or more poetical 
than the expreffion. 

** Shut up at home by the rude Winter's cold, and ftormy 
winds that whirl the flakes of fnow in furious blafts ; my ac- 
tive fancy (hall from memory draw the lively images of flowe- 
ry May, of fultry Summer, or the beauteous fcenes of golden 
Autumn. From the bcft I'll chufe, and thence for Daphne 
will compofe a fong. Thus for his Miftrefs doth the Shep- 
herd chufe the choiceft flowers, to form a chaplet to adorn 
her hair. O, may I plcafe my Daphne, as I fing, how, 
when the world was young, a Shepherd Swain invented 

" This is the fpot the Shepherd Lycas faid, beneath this 
elm at yefter fetting-fun, the charming Chloe gave me firft a 
kifs. Here didft thou ftand, fair Chloe, when, emboldened 
by a figh, I threv/ my arms around thy lovely waift ; mean- 
while my fluttering heart, my tearful eyes, the broken ac- 
cents fwm my ftammcring tongue, all fpoke my love. Then 

J 34 G E s N E R 'j Plural Poems, 

drbpt the fliecphoolc from my trembling hand, whilft thoti 
reclining on my troubles! breaft, in broken accents told me 

thou didft love. O Lycas ! faidft thou, Lycas ! I 1 love 

the^ ! witnefs ye peaceful groves and folitary fountains ; for 
eft you have heard the fofc complaints I made \ and you, ye 
flowers that I have bedewed with tears. O Chloe! how 
enraptured is thy fwain ! yes, love's a bleiiing words cannot 
cxprcfs. This fpot be confecrated then to love. 1*11 plant 
young rofe trees round about this elm. Around its trunk 
the fcammony (hall grow, adorned with flowers of purple- 
spotted white. Here I will gather all the fweets of fpring ; 
the piony and lily here (hall blow. I'll go and cull in mead* 
and verdant fields the purple violet, and fweet-fcented pink, 
and all the fweeteft Ihrubs and plants that grow. Of thefc 
m form a little grove of flowers, breathing perfumes ; and 
round it will I turn the nighbouring flream, to form an Ifle, 
to which a fence of thorns F 11 raife befide, to keep the goats 
and fheep from browzing here. 

• *' Come then ye plaintive turtles, hither come, who live in 
love, and coo beneath my elm. Hither ye little birds, too, 
come away, and count your mates beneath the rofe-tree's 
thorn. And you, ye vagrant butterflies, fo gay, here fport 
on beds of flowers, embrace, and vent your transports. 

'^ Then fhall the fliephcrd, as he pafTcs by, and fcents 
the fweet perfumes that nil the air, cry out, ** What goddefs 
*' claims this confecrated place ? Is it to Venus facred ? or 
•^ hath Diana decked it out fo fine, to flumber here when 
•' wearied with the chace ?" 

In the above piece Mr. Gefner has made near approaches to 
the beautiful fimplicity of Theocritus. The invention of 
gardens, a fubje<a which we do not remember to have feen 
treated before, is accounted for very naturally; and the 
images of paftoral love and innocence are happily conceived. 
The author has made the invention of thelyre, and of finging, 
the fubjedl of another of thefe cfTays. The firft hint for the 
lyre he obferves, with more than poetical probability, was 
caught from the twang of a bowftring, and the art of finging; 
was firft derived from the imitation of birds. Both thefe 
events are very poetically introduced, and love and innocent 
cnthufiafm are made the principal agents. 

We doubt not that this little account of thefe juvenile 
performances of Mr. Gefher will excite in our readers a cu-p 
riofity to fee the whole. Of the tranflation we have Ukewife 
^}ycn fufKcient fpectaens, 

C '35 ) 

Oiidfioftal thoughts en the Jlujy and chara^cT of clafftcal auth^rt^ 
6n thi €Qurp Utirattmy md the pnfini plan f>f a Uarntd edu^ 
caihn with fome incidental amparif&m httwien Hvmcr 
Ojftan, 8vo. 2 s. Richardfoii. 

TH E author of thefe thoughts is a litcraty fccptic of th«l 
fame fbmp with the author of the Rejie/^icm en learn-* 
ings but his fccptic ifm is of :i icfs danj^crous tendency. He J 
combats received opinions with the eagernefs of Baker, bui 
with unequal force. He is always wordy, but feldom clear, 

Sometimes, however, his opinions are well founded. Th<5 
infuificiency of that fyftcm orcduc;ition which is followed in 
our fchools muft bs obvious to all who have got clear of pe- 
dantic prejudices. 

There is fomcthing, Hkcwife, in his pbfervations on aal 
age of ornamtrnt. Then, f^ys he, *^ the aim of every onel 
will be rather to exhibit the little he knows with {hew and'l 
oftentation, than to examine into the principles on which i 
it is founded. For x\\h purpoft the grand objedl of hij at- 
tention will be language. The men of learning, at fuch a 
time, will be, fhicUy fpeaking, men of Utters \ inftead ofi 
laying in a llock of ufeful knowledge, they will fill tht 
ftorehoufcs of fcicnce wirh i>othing but iJioms and phrafcs % , 
iind in workiJXg upon thefe fiimfy materials, will the chief in- 
genuity of thcfe artifts be ftiewn. Words will be derived < 
from words, and books will be made from books — Men will] 
write upon Homer and Ariftotle \ but they will not write 
nor think upon nature. It is here then that we may expct^ 
to be entertained with every trick which can be played with j 
words — we ihaJl fee them cut and moulded into a ihoufanj 
different (hapes, exhibiting to pur view a hatchet or a hand- 
faw, an eeg or a pyramid. And this not by any intrinfic | 
meanings bu: m plain outward form \ as if people thought < 
(his way the only way in which a combination of letters j 
could poifibly reprefent a material object/' 

*' In fa5l, whatever reference to real exigence the firft inr.l 
vcntors of letters or charadtcrs might have, and whatever*] 
^cfcmblance to natural or?}ee^5 the fyn^boh they devifed might 
bear, fo as to be an eafy means of brinoiiig the appearame $f\ 
things to 9Ur vleiju^ inftead of things themfdves; this in tim*' 
gradually wears off, and as lanfjua^ is refined, words ctafeH 
to be regarded ^a the reprcfcntativcs of things j and arcfg far' 
fifom c?.: :: mind on to any farther contemplation, that 

ftKV la ; it 10 f^op at tliem alone ^ forming, as 

1 4 were 

1 3^ OcL-aJ.ojial thoughts en the 

were, a iVycious kind of ll:rccn between us and nature; whicl^ 
we mull either throw down, or turn our eyes fome other way 
if we would obtain a true view of things. And the more 
cxquifite the painting on this (kreen appears, the more it will 
attract our regard, and thelefs likely flidl we be to divorce 
purfelvcs from it to look on the rougher and lefs polilhed fece 
of nature. They top whpfe bvifmcfs it is to beautify this 
fplendid piece of patchwork ; to difpofe their gaudy purple 
c<^ouiing in the mpft ftrikipg poit{t of view^ muft be fo in- 
tircJy taken up with this employment, that it is not to befup- 
pofed, they can have much opportunity, if they had incli- 
nation, to beftpw their attention on more ufeful purpofcs." 

The author, whether he might intend it or not, has given 
us an inftance in the above paflage of that, kind of writing 
which he condemns. What a multitude of words has he 
employed to tell us that too much ornament makes us lofe 
light of nature ! 

There is fome humour in the following paragraph, and 
poffibly there may be alfo in it fome truth. 

*^ I have often amufed myfclf with confidering the won- 
derful analogy which I am confident might be difcovered to 
obtain in thcl'c matters ; fo that the fame age which gives into 
ornament in drefs and architecture; which tortures natuic 
into quaint fliapes in their gardens ; (hould uniformly be found 
to play the fame pranks with thdir food, both of body and 
mind : and I have not the leaft doubt with myfelf, but that 
fyllogijhs and mince-pics, pradicaments and folomon gundy, 
forced meat and fchooi-div'niity would appear, qn due inquirv, 
to be exa<5lly coaeval," 

As moft of thefe qccafional thoughts feen> to depreciate the 
ancient claffic writers, ai>d were ultimately intended, as we 
iliali foon have occafion to obfervc, to raife one name on the 
i:uinj of anothef, wc fliall confidcr thofe arguments that more 
immediately tend to that purpofe. The following obferva- 
tiops on the defeats of ancient languages muft not pafs un- 

" Whoever examines them with any a^cur^cy wiU fi^d 
that ?ill ancient languages are extremely defedtive in this re- 
i'pe^S, that their words are only figns of yery general and in- 
derminatc ideas. In Hebrew this perhaps might be extended 
even to veibs aijd noun§ ; but in Greek and Latin it is oh- 
lervablc chiefly in epithets, or the names of qualities. On 
|hi« account apcient p^fy^ and indeed all o^er ancient 
■ * ." / writings 

Jiud"^ and char aBer nfclajJicQl Authon^ X^c, 137 

writings whatever (if we cxcq>t only a few trifling diftinftions 
in logic) are and neceflarily muft be conveyed in very in- 
diftin^lt an j indefinite terms : fo that the fize and fliape of 
finy objedt, or at leaft its peculiar marks and features miiA in 
all fuch defcriptions be fet before us in a very vague and 
confufcd manner. Their writing like their painting at fuch 
times, is either a!) of one colour with only fomc general 
variations of white and black, light and fhadc ; or the colours 
and figures, through a want ofaccuracy, run into each other, 
and are fo blended together, that all diftindion of the dif- 
ferent parts and bounds is ejitircly loft. 

*' This necefTiry Impcrfedlon, though it may not be fo 
fenfibly felt in th^fuhUmf,^ to which it fs not perhaps altogether 
unfuitablc, in all the fofter fpecies of poetry, where a more 
delicate penciling is required, where certain minute ftrokes 
and touches are the leading charafters, muft be an elTential 

The author would have done well to inform us to what aera 
he would have chcfe obfcrvations on the dcfcfts of ancient lan- 
guages confined. If he would impute them to the cLiJpca! z^s^ 
te muft, notwnthftanding his pretenfions to the contrary, have 
-^ very fuperficial knowledge of the exprefiive power of the an* 
cienr lajiguages* '* In all the fofter fpecies of poetry, where 
a delicate penciling is required, where certain minute (Irokcs 
and touches arc ilie leading chara£lers/* in all the nice difr 
criminations of paflipn, fentiment, character and defcription 
the works of the illuftrlous ancients are eminently fine ; their 
languages therefore could not in this refpcft be deficient* 
Pcrh&ps a palEige or two from their writings may be moro 
Satisfactory : obfervc then the following, 

MfXay 0|tAjt*ift y^oyQ'i frw, 


Vaiivrtv J*, oir«ia ftifAflv, 

EPTGHM A i' tli^ AIjlOTS 
Auvjt<rjti ^xMiV^ i7*ji)7ew 

To Jf ;^£*fAflf, dn it oiSx 
Tim fAO* TAon-'j) itroincrftf. 
AHAAON, miON AE, nEieo^TS* 

138 Occafntifil thoughts on the 

To AEAHeOTXl£ o-uvo^f ut 

Are ^ the marks and features in thefe defcriptions fet before 
us in a very vague and confufed manner" ? It ^^ the painting 
^either all of one colour, with only fome general variations of 
"white and blacky light and (hade*' ? Are ^' the colours and 
figures, through a want of accuracy, run into each other*' ? 
and are they ^^ fo blended together, that all diftin6iion of the 
dftfierent parts and bounds is intirely loft*' ? Who does not 
fee the injuftice of thefe aflertions ?— But it is a fine thing to 
have a few terms ready to draw ofF upon occafioa ! How 
IVnoothly runs the declamatory ftream ! how eafily the words 
fall into their order ; where if they ftand full and fair, their 
truth is never difputed ! 

However, as we have produced paflages from an ancient 
writer that make againft this occafional and, let us add, fiiper^ 
ficial thinker's objeSdons to the ancient languages, we muft^ in 
jnftice to him, give admiffion to what he has quoted in favour 
of his opinion. 

** Perhaps (fays he) an inftance which juft now occurs to . 
me may more fully explain my meaning. It is one, which, 
I am fure« will not be thought difadvantageous to ancient 
poetry: I know not, indeed, whether a more favourable 
one could be felefted. In the eleventh book of the iEneid, 
where Virgil is defcribing the funeral-obiiequies of the young 
unhappy Pallas ; amongft other circumftances, all finelv ima- 
gined, he tlirows in that moft ftriking one of the dead war- 
rior's horfe ; whofe part, in this mournful fcene, is fet before 
us in the two following beautiful lines, 

** Poft belhtor cquus, pofitis infignlbus, -^thon, 
*' It lachrymans, guttifque homcdtat grandibus ora." 

This, if ought ever was, muft undoubtedly be reckoned true 
poetry, and juft painting. The poet is not contented with 
barely telling us that Mihon wept, or, as the hiftorian fays 
of Cxfar's horfcs, " quod uheriim fleret i" but with an enu- 
meration of particulars, adds 

guttifque humeftat grandibus ora ! 

I am far from meaning to infinuate that there is the leaft 
dcfeft in tliis pafi'age : perhaps any thing more f/iinute f night have 
funk the dignity of the circumjfan::. But if the reader will only 

Jiudy mi charaBif ^f thffual Authors. 139 

juft caft an ej^c upon the weeping flag as defcribcd by Shake- 
Jpear^ he will eafily pcrceWe all I aim at 

To the which pkcc a poor fcqucftered ftig, that from the 
hunters aim had ta'en a hurt, tlid come to languiih ; and, 
indeed, my lord, the wretched animiil heaved forth fucb 
groans, that their difcharge did ftrctch his leathern coat al- 
moft to burfting -, and the hig round ttan iourfcM one amtbcr 
dswrt his innocent mjt in piUws ibact*** 

Shakefpear, As pu Uki iu 

IVhat i Would obfcrve then is that ihe very afl of weepings 
not its effc£ls, is brought direftly tu our view by a farucu- 
larity in the difcrtptimi of %vbuh tlx Latin language ti uttertj 
sncapaile. In rcfpecl of what is here cxp relied, the words 
grandes^ humeilat and ora^ in the other inftance arc only 
geiieral terms. Grandes may be conllrued large or higy but 
iiot big round; which gives the very ftiape of the drop. //</- 
me^ai is expreflivc enough of the effe^^s of te.irs ; but the 
wetting or moiftening of the face or cheeks does not re- 
prefent the very a£l of their flowing as the correfpondent 
fcntence in the EngliOi docs ; where we fee them *' courfc 
one imother down his innocent nofe^ and the piteous chau 
reaches to the very heart of the reader.** 

Now what docs the comparifon of thefc two paffiiges prove? 
It muft be remembered, that ir was introduced to ibew the 
dcfe6b of the Latin language, and the fuperiorky oi otir own* 
But has it done that ? all the preference which Shakefperirs de- 
fcription can boaft is confeifedly owing to its minutenefs. 
This minutenefs, according to our author's own acicnow- 
ledgment, mighty in Virgil, hm.^ funk the dignity of the cir^ 
tumjfiince. How, therefore, in tbe name of candour, could 
he take upon him to fay that cf the particularity in Shakz-- 
SVEAK*S thfcnpfi^n the Lafin h/ngnage is utterly incapnhU? Is 
there one word in this paffage of the EngliQi poet for which 
there is no correfpondent word in the Latin ? every boy in 
Weftminiier School knows tiiere is not. 

We meet with many other obje<!lions to the Janguatre and 
writings of the ancients equally trifling and inconclufive ; 
fuch as that they v/ere contrary to nature, &c, &c, all which 
are below our notice, us thev are partially intended to exalt 
the immortal Cjfmn above the poor blind bard of Greece, 
Offian, you muft know, always paints from n;iture : Homcr^ 
fcldom or never ! 

A report 

[ 140 ] 

A ripart cffime pracicdlijgs on the commijjion of Oyer and Terminer^ 
4mdgoal delivery for the trial of the rebels in the year 1746, in 
thrtounfy of Sttrryj and of other crown cafes. To which art 
added drfccurfes upon a fezi/ branches of the crown law. Folia 
iL 'I s. in fliects. Withers. 

AMONG other circumftances which have contributed 
to render the law confufed, intricate, and uncertain, 
vc may reckon -the want of corrcSnefs, perfpecuity, and 
prccifion in the report books, as one of the principal caufes. 
The reports of adjudged cafes have, for the moft part, been 
jiubliCicd after their authors were dead ; and the folc view of 
the editors, feems to have been to fwell the volume for their 
own profit. They appear to have had no regard to the re- 
patation of the deccalcd, or any concern for the benefit of the 
purchafcrs, having indifcriminately collcfted cafes, of which 
many perhaps were taken while therr authors were young in 
the profeflion, and others haftily (ketched out, in the hurry^ 
of bufincfe, for private ufe only ; the writer himfclf being 
able to fupply the deficiencies and reflify the inaccuracies 
with which they abound, by the help of his memory. They 
who have had occafion to compare the printed cafes wrth thi 
records ihemfelves, heft know how erroneoufly and impcrfcftly 
they arc reported, even in' books of acknowJeged authority. 
It is to be wiflied indeed, that the imprimatur of the judges, 
ta books of thiis nature, had always been given with that 
caution and referve, fo efpecially requifite on fuch occauons : 
hut it is to be feared, that they have fometimcs yielded to 
Importirnatc folicitations, and from a miftaken tcnderncfs and 
rofni^lalLance, have vouched for the learning and abilities of the 
author, without having examined how far cither have been 
diiplayed, in the collection to which they have given the folema 
ianction of their names. 

The learned judge * however, who has obliged the public 
vrith the Fcports now under confideration, ftands in need of 
no fuch tcitimony to recommend his works. His learning 
and abilities in his profcflion, have been long fmce known and 
approved ; and, what is more to his honour, his worth and 
iiiteeritv as a man have been univerfally applauded. We 
could v/ifh that his health and leifure had permitted him to 
calarge this colleftion, more efpecially as the few cafes here 
publiihed, are reported in the moft full, clear, and accurate 
niajmcr, and are occafionaUy illuftratcd with very pertinent 
and iudicious obfervations. 

» Sir Mich icl Foflcr. 

ProarSnp on the Tritil of the Rd:!f, &c. f Jl 

The author, in his prcftcc, vtry properly obfcrves^ {and 
ftttfif iatf unhappy in/iancts ico tvldintty provf iht jujhrfi of his rt- 
fii^km) that '* no rank, no cki'ation in Jifi?, no condmit 
*' how drcumfpcft foevcr, ou^ht to t^i^pt a reafcnaWc man 
•* to conclude that thcfc inquiries do not, nor pofTihly can^ 
** concern him." He therefore rccommentis the difcourfe* 
In thcfc fubje£ts, in preference to every other branch of the 
law, to i/?^/r attention, whofe birth or fortunes have h^ppilv 
placed them above the fludy of the law m o froffffmi^ As 
there are many niceties nevcrthelefs in thcfe cafes, which can 
be of fcrvice only to the profcflbrs of the law, wc fhaU there- 
fore confine ouf extra^^ts and animadvcrfions to fuch mattera 
%% appear to be of moft general concernment : and the firfl 
of this nature, is the cafe of jEncas Macdonnid, who was 
indiwki K^n account of the (hare he had in the late rebellion. 

The council for the prtfoncr, Infifted that he was born in the 
flominions of tht! Frtmh King, and on this point they relied 
his defence. Btit apprehending that the weight of the evi- 
licncc might he againft tbcm, as indeed it was, with regaix! 
to the prifoner's birth, they endeavoured to influence the yxty 
and byOandcrs, by reprelcnting the great hardfhipof a pro- 
iecuuon of this kind againtt a pcrfon, who, admitting him to 
be a native of Gn'at Briiain^ had tecctved his education, from 
bis carfy inftncy, in France \ had fpcnthis riper years in a pro- 
fitable employment in that kingdom, where all his hopes cen- 
tered : and, fpeaking of the dovlrine of natural allegiance, 
they rcprcfcnied it as a fla^ifh principle, not likely to prevail 
in thcfc limes ; efpccially as it fcemed to deFogate from the 
principles of the revolution. 

Here the court intcrpofed and declared, that the mentioning 
the cafe of the revolution, as a cafe any way fimiLir to that of 
ihe prifoner, fuppofing him to have been horn in Great Britain^ 
could ferve no purpofe but to bring an odium on that great 
and glorious event. It never was doubted that a fubje^t 
born, taking a commiiTion from a foreign prince, and com- 
mitting high treafon may be punifticd as a fubjeiEt for that 
ti-cafon, notwithftanding his foreign commiflion. It is not In 
the power of any private fubjcdl to fliakc off his allegiance, 
and to tretmfer it U a f&reign prince. Nor is it in the power 
of any foreign prince by naturalizing or employing a fubjeft 
of Great Britain, to dillblve the bond of allegiance between 
that fubjci^t and the crown. 

He was found guilty, but pardoned on condition of retiring 
Qut of his Majefty's dominions, and continuing abroad during 


tit Pr$ceidingi on the CdumuJfiQn for ^^BH 

life- Terms, we may sdd, which, even rebels themfclvcs m\iil 

acknowledge, to have been mild sni i>u>». >■ 

Among other curious cafes, we lik d that of Alcxande|| 

L Broadfoot, which hath been in print, but never was publtfhc^ 

before, Broadfoot Vas indicted for the murder of Cornelius 

Calahan, a failor belonging lo his Majcfty's fhip the Mortar 

Sloop, The cafe was thus- Captain Hai^way of the Alartftr 

Slcf>p^ had a warrant from the lords of the admiralty, grounded 

I on an order of his Majeily in council, impowering him to 

\ imprefs feamen : and the warrant exprtf^ly dire£ted* *' That 

I '" the captain ihall not entruft any perfon with the executioa 

I •* of it but a commiffioned officer i and fliall mfert the name 

I ** and office of the perfon cntrufted on the back of the war- 

«* rant." The captain deputed the lieutenant, according to 

the tenor of the warrant : and being at anchor in Kmgrcad^ 

\ ordered the fhip's boat down the channel in order to prcfs, 

I But the UeuUnant Jiaid in Kikgroao on hard with the captain* 

\ The boat came up with the Bremen Fa^^r homeward bound 

ind fome of the crew went on board in order to prefs ; wh<3 

being informed that one or two of the Bremen^a men wcr 

concealed in the hold, Calahan^ with three others of the boat'i 

I crew, went thither in fcarch of them* Whereupon Broadfo 

I one of the Bremen's crew, called out aiidafked what they cam^ 

[ for : he was anfwered by fome of the prefs gang, *' Wc con 

I •* for you zxA your comrades/* Whereupon he cried outj 

I •' Keep back, 1 have a blunderbufs loaded with fwan fliot/" 

I Upon this, the others flopped, but^id not retire. He then 

I cried out, *' Where is your lieutenant ?'* and being anfwercdg 

** He is not far off,'* immediately fired among them. By this 

Ihot, Calahan was killed on the fpot, and one or two more of 

the prefs gang wounded. 

. The cafe being thus, the recorder, then Mr, Serjeant Fofler^ 
I was of opinion, that the boat's crew haying been fcnt out witltj 
V^ general order to imprefi^ and having boarded the veflcl ex 
rprefsly againft the terms of the captain's warrant, every thing;; 
f tlicy did was to be looked upon as an attempt upon tlie 11- 
[lerty of the perfons concerned, without any legal warrant ;< 
amd accordingly he directed the jury to kn& Broadfoot guilty 
lof manflaughctr* But this being a cafe of great expcftationti 
land uncommon pains having been taken to poflcfs people with 
I sail opinion that preiling for the fea fervice is a violation ofi" 
LjWr7^/;/7 cbarta^ and a very high invaGon of the liberty of the* 
lfubjc£l, the recorder thought proper to deliver his opinion 
houchixig the legality of prelCnff for the fea fervice. 


theTrialoftheRibelsj &c. 143 

He freely confcffcth, that he has not met with one adjudged 
cafe, wherein the legality of preffing'hath dire^ly come in 
judgment. Neverthelefe he labours to prove that the right of 
iniprcffing mariners for the public fervice is a perogative in- 
herent in the crown, grounded upon common law^ and recogmze4 
by many aSis of parliament. 

He obferves that a general immemorial ufage, not incon- 
fiftent with any ftatute, is part of the common law of Eng- 
land : and as to the point of ufage, he cites a number of 
commiffions, conceived in various forms, for the purpofe of 
imprefling. As to Magna Charta, the learned judge remarks, 
*• It is not pretended that the praftice of preffing mariners for 
*' the public fervice, is condemned by exprefs words in that 
•* ftatute : and if it be warranted by common law, it cannot 
** be fliewn to be illegal by any confequences drawn from 

•* Magna Charta Sefides, we know that Magna Charta 

•• hath been exprefsly confirmed by m^ny vl&s of parlia- 
*' ment : and yet the pra<ftice of preifing mariners ftill con- 
•• tiaucd through all ages, and was never once mentioned in 
*' any of thofc adls as illegal, or a violation of the great 
** charter." 

Neverthelefs the learned judge admits, that the legality of 
this pradlice was doubted of, in the time of Charles the lirft, 
a temporary a& being made in the i6th and 17th of that reign, 
authorizing an imprefs by admiralty warrants for a limitted 
time : and the writer acknowledges, that, had temporary a£ts 
of that kind been frequelft, or had the pra£lice of preffing 
been difcontinued from the time of Charles the firft, unlefs 
when revived by fubfequent tertpOrsCry aSs, what has been 
faid upon the foot of antient precedents could, after all, have 
had very little weight. For, he freely declares that, ** antient 
*« precedents alone, unlefs fupported by modem practice, 
** weigh very little with him in queftions touching the pre-* 
*' rogative.** 

For the fincerity of this declaration, the uniform tenor of 
the worthy judge's condud, is the heft voucher : and as he 
has ever been the friend and patron of liberty, his judgment 
on this occafion will have the greater weight with all wife and 
good men. Neverthelefs we may prcfume, under corcedHqn, 
to offer fome animadvcrfions on the foregoing argunients. 

It capnot be difputed but that *' immemorial ufage, not /r- 
•* conjijlent with any Jlatuie^ is part of the common law of* 
*' England ;'* and of the ufage, there can be no doubt. It 
therefore remains to be determined whether this ufage be in- 
con fiftent 

144 PrQUidings en the C^mmijim for 

canfiftent Witl* Mapia Charta. That ftatule^ it 15 truC| doc<r 
not condemn iMc pradlice of prdTmg in cxprefs tcmi^, but it 
.fay»j that " no man fiial* be taken, but by the judgment of 
•* his j>eers of hy ihe law &/ the land. Now, by thcfc words 
the LiW of the latJ^ is to be underftoad without due pncffi of 
hw J as may be colIeScd from the expofition of a fubfcquent 
fiamtc, and of the abicft commentators. If this therefore be 
ihc true interpretation of thofe words, it will be difHcult to 
prove that the pra^icc of prcfling^ i& coniiflent with the clatjfc 
in qucilion. 

At the fame-time^ k muft be admitted, that, Jn cafes of 

neceiRty, the public has a right to the fcrvicc of mariners. 
But whenever the falus p^puli^ the lupreme law, requires this 
xifcfiil body of men, to be, by force, put under hatdfiiips {o 
inconfiftent with the temper and genius of ^ free govt rnmentj 
this ncceffity may be provided for by a temporary ftatute, as 
it was in the reign of Charles the jft, and as ha5 been prac- 
lifed with refpcd fo marines : for it is not ct\{y to aiH^n a 
valid rcafon, why the liberty of a mariner, fliould not be as 
fecure as that of a marine. 

It will be unnecciTary to dwell longer on the fubjefl of 
ihefe reports. We will only obferyc, that, among other re- 
markable cafes, is that of iht thief takers^ which is very fully 
reported with the arguments of the jud^res ^ and which is a 
remarkable infiance of the great caution and tcndernefs of our 
law; The reader will likewifc (\nd the cafe of the earl of 
Ferrers, on which the two follo^ng qucilions were put to 
the judges, 

!• Whether a peer indi£ied of felony and murder, and 
tried and convifted thereof before the lords in parliaments 
ought to receive judgment for the fame according lo the* 
provifions of the a<S of parliament of the 25th year of hit 
iiiajefty*& reign ? 

2. Suppofing a peer fo indited and convr(aed ought by 

law to receive fucK judgment as aforer.ifd, ^ih^ the day np- 

**-nnttd by the judgnienf for execution ftlould Jnpfe before 

ascution done, whether a new time may be appointed 

cxcciitlony and by whom? 

IT opinion with regard to thcfirfl point, is well known- 
Se event nf the iC^irrs rxnuiion* As to the fccond, 

• day appointed by the 

. \ bclorc iuch cx«cuiinrt 





thi Trial of th lUhih^ &c# f^f 

(which however the h,yt will not prcfumc) we are all of opi^ 
liion, that a new time may be appointed for the exccudonj 
*//Afr Uy the high Court of Parliaments htfore which Juch pfgr 
/ha/i have ban attainttil^ or ^y the Cdurt of King's Bcitchi 
the parliament not then fitting ; the record of the attatndei 
being properly removed into that court.** 

7'he reafons given In fupport of their opinion concernmg 
the fccond qucftion, are curioiis : and wc muft not omit to 
take notice of a diftindlion; little known, which is here 
made between a proceeding m the court of the High Stew- 
ard, and that before the King tn Parliament. The name^ 
ftilc and title of olEce is the lame in both cafes i but the of- 
fice, the powers and preheriiinences anne?(ed to it differ very 
widely. In the court of the High Stevj^ard, he ailorie is iudg« 
In all points of law arid pra^ice* The peers triers are mere- 
ly judges of fftdl, — Bui in a trial of a peer in full parliament, 
or, to fpcak with legal precifion, before the king iii parlia- 
tnent, for a capital offence, the cafe Is quite otlierwifc. 
JEvery peer prcfcnt at the trial, voteth upon every queffion of 
law and faft ; and the qucftion is carried by the major vote ^ 
the high iieward bimfelf voting rhcrely as a peer, and mem- 
ber of that court| in common with tlie reft of the pecrS| and 
in no other light- 
In fllort, it may be concluded from the rcaforts here ^gn- 
cd, that the High Steward is only as chairman, or fpcaker, 
pro ttrmpere^ during tHe trial, and until judgment, for the fake 
of regularity and order: many inftances being cited, where 
the court hath done various a^s, plainly judicial, before tb^ 
appointment of an High Steward^ and evet# after the com* 
miflion diffolved. 

Hhhcrto the learned Judg^ has appeufcd ifi tlte light of t 
reporter, but it is from the fdur difcourfcs annexed to there- 
|K>rt, that he will derive moft honour, and that his readers 
fv'ill reap moil benefit. The firft relates to the fubjeft of 
High Treafon, on which head, he cakes occafioo to cenfure 
■the unbecoming part which king Jsmies took in a profecu* 
"lion for High Treafon, by condefcending to inftri*^!! the at- 
tornev general (Bacon) who fubmittcd to the drudgery of 
(bunding the opihidns of the judges upon the point of lavtr^ 
before it was thought advifeable to rilk it at an open trial. 
>* li it pofEble," the writer thus nobly exprpfles himfelf, 
•^ that a gentleman of Bacon's great talents could fubmtt to 
•• fervrce fa much below his rank and charaifter ? But he 
libbmimid to it, and acquitted bimfiilf notably .in it«>' Av#» 
^ JBlEV* Aug. 17624 K ^S<=^i 

^lurfgi on the Cutnm:jji:n for 

f think, was not hts ruling pafllon» But whenever ai 
fiilTe an^bliion, c\'er rcftlcfs in the puriuit of the honour 
which the crown alone can confer, bappcneih to iHmulate 
heart otherwife formt^d for great ind noble purfuits, it hatn 
frequently hct rayed it into mcafurra full as n\ean as avarice 
itfi-lf could have lui^gelW* to the wrctchcJ animals who live 
and ^it unJer her dominion. Foi* theie patuons* hoNvever 
they may fcena to be at variance, have oiUinaiily produce" 
the fame effects. Both degiadc the man, hoih contraft hij 
vt'jwjt into the little point of felf-interclil, and etjuaHy ftce 
the heart ag.iinft the rebukes of < onfeiencc, or the fcnfe ' 
trt4c Ikonour/* Every reader of fcnft^iiiity muft applaud the 
good fenfc, fpirit and dignity <>f thefe reflections i and if any, 
thing can add force to thefe In^igitant fentiments, it is th^ 
circumftance of their proci eding from one of the Judges of i 
court, generally thought tcx) much inclined to favour tli 

The two following dilcourics treat of homicide, andofac-*^ 
tompliccs. In the laft, the learned Judge animadvens oi] 
fonie paflages in the wrijng^ of the lord chref-julVice Hale 
relative to the princi|)Jes of the revolution, fris LordfliiS 
condutlcs^ from die judgment againft Mortimer, that Edr 
watdlL in the opinion of thofe rimes, was* Sf itf A KincJI 
thvagh d*p^}vtd of the arlual ^ilihimjiraUm 4f t*il J^ittgdom/*] 
This notion Judge Follt;r rxsfytcs in die mou ckar and fati&J 
factory manner* 

' "Edward IL" he obfenxs^ ** in the interval between hijj 
* ' n anJ his death, was moft commonly ftiled^ aa hei, 
: ginning of' tWs record, DTfmmi Rdwardus nuper R/x\ 
JngltiCy PciUr Dcmir/l Rfgii nf^nc. But I W^ould not bci 
.thought to infer* from this record, What ^ay, I think, beJ 
r^afotiahly intcrrjed fcom thofe worded in the fame maimer ii 
the lite tifiK* of the k^ng. For this being a proceeding afterl 
hi 5 death, he was, with ftri<5t propriety Hi led Nttper RexA 
wluitevor opini^^n the parliament might entertain concerningi 
iiiji, or vhe proceedings againft him. What I would obfervi 
4f« chttt ;4fi the words nuper rex impo« no more than that hi 
^tel "' > King, and do by ;io means imply that he c<7ntimi€m\ 
yi f: \ \i cannot be inferred from any thing in this re-f 

uit in %hc opinion of that parliament he did continue] 
:hc regal character after his dcpofition. Jhis, I fay,] 
<unnoi h^ inferred from the w<^Fds nuptr rtx. And the words J 
-up^^^jvhich hs? Locdfliip groundeih ihis opinion, Ipjtm d9r 
Mum, rt^gihr-pfidufiilmiftiregis^ 5cc. ficc. have in diis rccani] 
•* # 7 a plaia 

the Trial of the Reheh, kc. ' 147 

a piatn reference to the perfon named sit the beginning under 
Uti^&WtoiNuperRcx:' - ^ 

He proves from other inconteftible arguments, that the 
treafon with which Mortimer was charged was confidercd as 
a treafon againft the Jcing on the throne, and him alone. — 
Such as the charge of accr caching royal power, which could 
never be confidered in any other light, than as an offence 
againft the cr9wn and dignity of him, who, for the time be- 
ing, was aftually invcftcd with the regal power. 

The learned Judge then proceeds to refute other notions 
of Lord Kale, wliich are injurious, to the principles of tne 
Revolution : and he obferves, that the radical miftake of the 
advocates for hereditary right, arifes from this, '* T hey 
feem not to have fu&cicntly attended. to the nature and ends 
of civil power, whereof the regal dignity is a principal 
branch. They feem to have cohlidered ihe crown and royal 
dignity merely as a dcfgendable Property ; as an eftate or 
intereft vcftea in the poflcflbr, for the emolument and grand- 
eur of himfeli and hcir3, in a regular invariable courfe of de^ 
fcent. And therefore in quertions touching the fucceilion, - 
they conftantly refort to the fame narrow rufee and maxims of 
law andjuftice, by which queftions of meer. property, the tide 
to a pigftye, ox a lay-ftall, arc governed. And thence con-^ 
dude, that the legiflature itfclf cannot, withnut manifeft 
ihjuftice, interrupt the ancient, legal, eftaWiflied order of. 
fucceffion. It cannot, fay they, without injuftice, give to 
one branch of the Royal Family, what by right of blood 
belongcth to another. » 

*' Thus they argue. And if I could conceive of the crown, 
as of an inheritance oi nuer property^.! Ihould be tempted to 
argue in the fame manner. But had they confidered the 
crown and royal dignity, as a dcfcendabic Office, as a 
Trust for millions, an*! extending its influence to genera- 
tions yet unborn ; had they confidered it in that light, they 
wojuld foon have discovered the principle upon which the 
^ght of the legiflature to interpofe in cafes of neceiTity is ma- 
nifeftly founded : and that is the falus pTpuli, already men- 
tioned upon a li)ce occafion. 

** There is, and for many ages paft hath been, a certain or- 
der of hereditary fucceffion eftablifli^ among us. But it was 
for the fake of the.^vhole, and to avoid the many inconveni- 
ences to which an uncertain fucceffion is fubjed, that this 
order of hereditary fucceffion ever took place. For xK>body 

K 2 ' can 

^%x\ fav, that this or any other particular mode of govcriv 
ment is founded in natuml right. Nature difcovcrcd the uc- 
ccflity of civil government, but the fcveral modes of it are 
ejthcr matters of choice, or rcfultmg frym mecr ncceflity or 
accident. Therefore," he concludes^ *' whenever the iafc- 
ty of the whole requrrcth \% they rauft, like aH rules of pofi- 
livc inftHution, be fubjeft to the coimjouI of the fuprcmc 
power ii> every itate," 

Upon the whole, tbts able dtfeiider of the rrghts of civil 
Kberty, has clearly expofcd the fallacy and abfurdity of that 
flavtin dodrinc, which militates againft the principles of the 
Revolution,— Principles, which every good citizeu is boun^ 
in duty to fupport ; and which every man of fenfe and fpirit 
will maintain, from a conviftion of their direft tendency to 
preferve the freedom of the Brkilh conftitutioa, and coafc- 
ijuently to promote the happindi of ks members* 

An EJIhy sn thi BUi of it Mad Dff^> By Dankl Peter Lay- 
art^ M, D. Member of the College of Phyficians, and of 
the Rojal Society. 8vo. 2 s^ 6 d* Rivington. 

IN this Writer^ Preface, which gires a kind of afiaKrfis o4 
bis pamphlet, he juSWy acknowlcdGes the whole 0/ it ta 
be chiefly a compilation, with a moacft z'ix ea mJlraVQco^ 
adding, *^ he has only illuflratcd and attempted to reconcile 
the various Opinions of others, and to fix upon the moft ra- 
tional method of cure, from a full convhftioja, that fuch cure 
M in reality a pra6lkable thing/' This circumftance of its 
Ampliation (tho* not without frequent infertions, reflections, 
amd even feme cafes from oiir atkthor) makes it imneceffary to 
pfcfcnt aRv formal abftra<3, from the much greater part of it, 
to our medical readers^ whom we nvay generally fuppofe pro- 
vided wkh the originals Dr, Layard has quoted or referred to. 
PidTing over therefore the Introdufiion, and the three firft 
Seftions, (but not wkhout having read tlicm) we come t* 
the fourth, entitled Ohfcrvatism, 

This feflfon contains feven cafes; four* of patients bit by 
mad dogs ; two, of peribns bit hy a mad cow after the bke 
of a mad dog \ and one of a woman, who tailed, or imagin- 
ed fhe had taftcd, the flavcr of this cow, who is faid to have 
died mad, Ofthefe fev err cafes, only one, to our recollec- 
t^D^ h^s been already printed : and all the patients are af^ 
^ — ' firmcil 



ffe Bin ff a mad J>ng^ 145 

linned to have recovered. The two firft had been plunged m 
fea water, which did not prevent a Hy^ofhohie, The third 
and fourth, bit by the mad cow« ^s\A the fifths fuppofed to 
have tafted her flavcr, were not immcrgcd at all, aad had no 
HjJr9photia, The fixth is }iot mentioned to have been dip* 
ped, nor to have had the great fymptotn : and the feventh, 
who was dipped, and never had the Hydrophehwy is affinncd 
to have died two years afcenrard^ of a putrid fever, without 
the leaft manifeftation of any rabioos fymptom at his death. 
Some of them were created with a variety of medicines ; but dif- 
ferent mercuriab, internalty and externally, fi^em to have been 
chiefly elFcdual in the cure. In the lecond cafe, indeed* a 
coniiderable quantity of opium was ufed, and lecms to have 
conduced to it. This valuable extenfion oX the ufe of mav 
cury was difcovered by Default* an3 revived by Dr, James. 

So many fuccefsful efcapes, however cootradtiSied by a 
much greater number of fatal confequences from this furpriz- 
ing poifon, a^irmed by reputable Writers, may afford fomc 
cornfort to perfons who have received it : and undoubtedly a 
c^m and hopeful ftatc of the mind, muft be a circumftancc 
that can neither prevent nor retard the cure. To hazard a pre- 
fcription or expedient oa fuch an alarming occafion — Suppofc 
thcaftual cauterj, fire, applied immediately on the bite ; or, 
where the Patient might be too irrefolute to fubmit to it, an 
a«Stve potenti2J cautery, of a moderate ftze, to be fixed upon^ 
and* round the orifice of the bite ; might not a radical cure 
l>c reafonably expelled from the fudden conftri^ion of all the 
flefliy, vafcular, and ncn^ous fibres ; and from the incircu- 
lable, uncommuntcating ftate of the fluids, in the poifoned 
part ? even if we could fuppofe the poifon itfelf not to be 
deftroyed, nor effeSually altered in its pernicious quality^ 
from fo powerful an application. As the frequently morcJ 
operation of this vitiated canine faViva fcems conftantly ta 
commence, at whatever period, with a pain in and near the 
fpot through which it was injefled ; the early deftnuSlion and 
reparation of that, and of its immediately contiguous fibres 
and fluids, has fo rational and promifmg an afped, that it 
feems to be worth elTaying at leaft, in a difeafe, where the 
fuccefs of many other mftruments has certainly been often 
fallible. — But this by the way. 

Wc Ihall conclude this Article, after obferving that our 
Author is rather a dili|cnt reader, than a very accurate wri- 
ter, with prefenting fuch practitioners, as may be remote 
from the beft aififtance on fuch an unhappy occafion, with 

K 3 <tv^ 

15^ IvAYARd'j Ff}iy en 

the mod recent aiUice and prcfciiptions of this gentleman, 
ytYio has LboureJ to much en ihe tubjeft. 

•• The part bitten {ho.iU immediately be cleaned from the 
JuUva o'^ i\z mjd dog, and the wounis encourag:*d to bleed, 
car^fuily cleiring the bloud away ; tht*n hilf a d:am of the 
rir\uriul o':Htmtnt^ knou'n by the name of ufwuentum cosrultum 
J-rtiLS^ or the Jirj-igcr blue cintwe /, ihuuld be rubbed in, and 
rv.'pca:ed t:i^ht and morning, increafing or leflcning the quan- 
t :y, as i: may pro\e neccifary. Sanguine conflitu:ions will 
rovjuivc M.^c.'ir.;^; Icucophlcgmatic, relaxed, and bilious ones, 
lhv.u:!d b-v vv:vi:ci\ cither with ip*c:huonha wine, wiih or 
MirhvHK i v-r;./ cfjjulis^ which will ckanfe the ftumaoh and 
bowols fio!n the i u.riJ bile, and ac;id yC///z;^, that has beca 
di>rd iiuo ihi^n ; and in the advanced fta^e, when U- 
<|uijN bo'iin to jv.U with difficulty, if it be rei|uiiiie to e i |>ty 
thr lloma.h and bnwls, afccr plentiful bleedings fome g.aiiis 
of :p:x\2c:i,:r.fu and write kelUb^re root m.iv be given in a 
hohis, made up with the oxynid of (quUU. Th'le vomi-s wlU 
be lofs apt to irritate the prhna v:ar^ than either turtith mi- 
ntfi^U or any ivitimcnial preparatic n. 

** Dof^or Mead's tuhis avtilyjjus may then be taken every 
niornin-;, in warm milk, to procure the urinary diichargt-s, 
while the mercm'iril fiiclions iue contiiiucd; aPid \i thcfe arc 
inclin^'d to falivate, an emol i.nt ciyfter, or a purge, with 
l«'.»»^/i7, cc'iifij fu'iSy and r/"/ '':?»/, m.jy be given, lihuharhy 
litlior in powvlcr, or the fyrup, will be b'.ft ad.iptcd ro chil- 
dren. CIvIUts arc recommended, in all fta^es, by Dodtdr 
DrsAVLT, p'Ofeflbr BoFRHAAVK, and Dodor Mlad ; and 
aro to be comporw!d of fuch ingredients as the cafe may re- 
quire, whether emollient, or coolers. Ailcr the m.*rcurial 
ointment has been ufed four or five days, and the patient 
putgid with fome of the abovcmentioned mrdicines, or, if 
nccelVary, with crude rura^^y^ divided with turt^entiufy and 
mixed with r^.v^.'/r//, or by mn'curius dulcis^ well fub'im.d, and 
mixed wiih rhubivb\ then it may be proper, in Tome cafes, 
cfpecirdly where the fpafms a:c frequent, to give the wmabarsy 
cither with or v/ithout w/^/J, as pt^rfumes njirce or dif^gree with 
the patltnt : indeed there are inftances v\ herein ?fiufi has not 
been difagrecable to the ftomach, al:houo;h the pjrfon could 
not ufuaiiy bear the fmell of it. The annahar p. Avdcrs are 
to be taken every fix or. eight hours, with a julep of rue 
watery p£t:t:yrcy(d watery tincture of cajiory and fome common 
fyrup, or in a glais oi arrack alone, or with water. 

. "In 

, . tlye Bite 9f'Q mad \Dog. *; 15 1. 

«^ In tender conftitutions, antifpafmodic and antihyfteric me- 
dicines' may be ufed, towards the end of the cure ; but nature. 
In this difeafe, no more than in any acute diforder, is not to 
be overcharged with mediants : for^ as Dodior Mqrton ob- 
ferves, *' an officious overloading fcldom goes oflF unpunifiied.'*. 
And care muft be taken, left, inftead of ftr-engthening the 
nerves, they fufFer not by too much irritation. 

•* Such patients as can, without fear," be prevailed upon to- 
go into the cold bath, willingly and of themfelves, may com-* 
plete their cure by that immerhon ; but ibrce,_QL_top earneft 
perfuafion, arc cautioufly to be avoided. 

" The diet to be kept, during the mercurial fri£ti6ns, which, 
as hath been faid, are to be repeated according to the cafe, 
and intirely depended upon, is to be li^ht and nourifliing, 
neither high feafoncd, nor acrid : in the worft ftages, a mo- 
derate quantity of wine may increafe the inflammation ; 
whereas wine may be of ufe in the beginning, and in a 
dej.ded ftate. White meats will fuit tha ftomach beft; and 
milk pottage, water gruel, polenta^ that is, a decoSion of tftf/- 
brcad toafted, and toajl and water ^ may be drank: as likev^fe 
an infufion of black curranti ft<ilks and leaves, or haum tea' 
fweetned with black currant jelly : thefe two laft will better 
fuit in the inflammatory ftagc. 

*^ So far from confining the patients to their room, or houfe ; 
cxercife, company, and diverfions, are to be encouraged : 
for the mind being as much affefted- as the body, the cure 
will be much forwarded by a proper application to the paf- 
fions, avoiding all converfation relating to madnefs, or mad 
dogs. Dodtor Desault relates the fucccfs which attended 
thefe direftions which he gave to a Jady of Bourdeaux^ who, 
under the courfe of mercurial fri<2ions, conftantly vifited her 
friends, went to concerts, and other public places. 

** Thus far the cure is only preventive of the hydrophobia^ and 
defigned for the milder progrefs of the difeafe, and alfo when 
it is complicated with hypochondriac or hyflrical fymptoms ; 
but in the confirmed ftate, when the hydroph'>bia appears, the 
adtual cure is to be performed by copious and repeated bleed- 
ings, cooling clyfters, often adminiftred, of barley watery 
nitre, honey^ and wiegar ; and, after thefe evacuations, it 
may be allowable, in cafe of a confiderablc flow of the fallva^ 
to apply a bliftcr round the neck, to take off part of the 
difcharge, as fuccecded in Do£lor Hele's remarkable obfer- 
vation : this is the only time , wherein bliftcrs can be fafely 

K 4 applied. — 

FapplieJ,— But the medicine chiefly to be depended upon if l 
[the mircurial ointment^ which j^ to be rubbed in three tim«l 
fa day, and continued till the fymptoms dei^reafe, and the dif-*j 
>om the glands of the mouth fliew it is proper to IeIIcn«i 

itity of the ointment/* • <!J 

N. B. To this Gentleman the Pu{)lic is alfo obliged fo^ 
kin Effay on the contagious diftemper' among the Cattle. Sce^ 
l|lcview, Vo!. XVn. p. 36. ' * 


lEm I LE J 0udi V Eduentton, Par J, J. Roujpau^ Cltoym df 
* Ginivf: Or, 

[ £MiLitr^ J a Trcatifp on Education. 4 vols* lamo. Am- 
fterdam. " Imported by the London Boolcfcller^. 

TH E extraordinary notice which hath been taken of 
this pobli cation abroad, and the fevcre treatment if 
I bath met with in France^ and elfewhtre, have already been 
Ifcommunicated to the public by means of the NeWs papcrsi 
[If to thcfe circymftinccs, therefore, we add the well-knowji^ 
• charadlcr of the Writer» and the importance of the fubject, 
ino one will wonder that fo general a curiofuv and attentiojl 
[liave been excited thrdughout" Europe, in regard to fo inte- 
,^yefting a performance, ' 

In the plan and condud of this work, which is calculated 
rfbr the information of all ranks and degrei^ of people, 
|1he very ingenious Author foppofes himfelf the Tutor of 
"ayouiigOenticman, whom he takes the charge of, and con- 
[•dudt* from the carlieft term 5f infancy, to the age of man- 
(hood. ^ Applicable to the feveral periods of this interval, he 
. giyc^, Vgry minute and circumftantial dire€lidns fbra gencr 
I courfc of education ; niuftrating thofe which particular I ]^]| 
L/egard the nple part of our fpcciesj by the'e^^ampic of Emi- 
|t tL's, and fuch as refpedl the fair ftx, by that of Sophia i\ 
I an happy riprriage being at length defignedly effected bctwceiij 
flhcfc amiable' parties : a circumllancc which, added to thy^ 
cntcrtainiriiR: candud of the whole piece, gives this very in-%1 
tlruflive treatifc the air ind manner of the molt agrccabld] 

Mr. RouiTcaa has been frequently charged with an un-< 

♦ rcafonable 

MoNTHi-v Cataloguit. 


reafboaUe attachment to peculiarity and paradox; it can 
hardly be cxpeded, therefore, he fhould be free from this 
imputation in his manner of treating fo delicate afubj&£t as 
that of Education. He is able, however, to apologize for 
himfelf ; and, indeed, were all the Qxceptionable parts of 
bis book extnwSed and thrown afide, there would he a fuffi- 
ciency of original matter, and ftnking obfervation, to enable 
a do^cn ordinary Authors to divide the remainder among th^m, 
and figure away on the fubjeft. A more minute and fagad- 
OU8 Obfcrver, perhaps, never cxifted ; his hints and fuggef* 
lions alfo, for the improvement of our fpccTes, and of Ib- 
ciety, arc, in general, extremely acute and ingenious : his 
views, heverthekfs, are frequently too confined, and bis ar- 
guments fometimcs v^antlng jn folidity. 

But we (hal! not proceed to a farther account of this work 
at prcfent, as we learn, with pleafure, that the Gentlemen 
Who obliged the public with a tranflation of £Uifa^ have nn* 
dcrtaken alfo to give a tranflatioa of Emiitm, 


For AUGUST, 1762. 


Art* I. T!hi Prague cf a ^ujiice of Peace : Containing the Sta^ 
iutii which give Jimfdidfion to that Map/hate. With a 
greater Variety of Precedenis formed upon the IVords of th^ 
Aiii of Parliament^ than in any other Book extant^ CompiUd 
and publijhed under the Dirt£iioifi of the Right Hon, Lord 
IVard. By T. Cunmnghanii £fq» 9vo« % vob. 149^ 
bound. Owen. 

WE have formerly had oceailon to commend the bboars of thoie 
jnduftrious Compilers, who have taken tbc pains to reduce 
the confaled mafs of Law into a digefted form» and to clafs the fcat- 
tcrcd materials under ihcir proper heads of divifion : and we Jhould 
for thcfe reafons have applauded the Author of thefe volumes, had 
tiot the learned and accurate Mr. Burn foreAalicd the fubjed» and 
rendered this publicatbn unoecenkry. 

Mr« Cunningham acquainci hit Readers^ that " the furnifliing 
] unices of the Peace with a fufficicnt variety of precedenu^ formed 
upon the words of the Adls of Parliaments was the fo/e motive for 
Compiling the following (hcets ; fo tJiat they may be a^uned^ that no 


154- Monthly Catalogue, 

forms arc publilhcd, but fur-has appear to the Compik'r to he accu* 
latc." His motive, no doubt, was good; but we can by no means 
j^prove of his plan of execution : fince it is manifeftfy notorious, 
tbit the far greater pait of the precedents in thefe volumes art copied 
irom Burn*s Juftice, without any. acknowlegement v, hatever. 

Mr- Cunningham is to learn, that there i& fome difFprcnce Jjctweea 
a Compiler and a Plagiary. 

Axt. 2. Dialogues of the Living. i2mo. 2s. fewcd. Cook. 

Dialogues of the lining! Palpably falfe and^^bfurd! No men 
ifivi ever talked like thefe men — Ah ! Mr. Cook, you have hc:re 
cook'd up a mi(erable hafh indeed i 

Art*. 3. J Defcrtption of Ranelagb Rdtundo and Gar^ns. Be- 
ing a proper Ccmpanion for thofe who vijit that Place^ as it ex- 
plains every Beauty and Curiojity therein to be found. i2mo.' 
6 d. Hooper. 

Art. 4* J Defcrtption of Faux- Hall Gardens, Being a proper 
Companion and- Guide for all who viftt that Place. ' i2nio. 
6d. Hooper. 
• Thcfe Defcript'ons are embellifhcd with copper- plates ; and they 
tre, as the Author intimates, no im}>ropcr Companion for th fe who 
viftt thefe elegJtnt fcenes of public amuiiemfnt. S;ich as have never 
Iben Vnux hall Hnd Ranelagh, will alio iind their curiofity excited 
by a {.erufal of thcfe little tradi» 

Art. 5. Youth's Injlru^or ; or an Introduifion to Arithmeticy 
Vulgar and Dtc'imaL By John Sharpe, Schoolmaftcr at 
• ' Coggefhall in Eflirx. i2mo. 2 b. 6d. Owen. 

' Th s differs only from other modern trcatffs of Ari hmetic, by the 
$ocratic form of quellion arid anfver, in which the Author has thought 
proper to convey his inltruftions. 

Art.- 6. Proce^ings of a general Court Martial upon the Trial of 
Lieut. 'CoL Glover^ of the South Battalion of the LincolnftAre 
Militia. 8vo. is. 6d. Wilfon. 

Relates to lome exceptionable expreffions that pafled between Co- 
lonel Glover and Captain Gardiner, in the warmth of a difpute con- 
cerning a Dcfertcr. 

Art. 7. Political Annals. By the late celebrated M. Charles 
Ircncc Caftel, Abbot of St. Pierre, and Member of the 

'. French Academy. • Tranflated from the laft correcft and 
enlarged Ediii(?n of the French. 8vo. 2 vols. 10 s. 
1>ouiid. Woodgate. 


MxicilIaksovs. * ti5$ 

Thefe Annals were fufficientl^ noticed at their firft poblication ia 
tlie original French, in the XVIIlth volameof oiur Review, page 391? 
where the Author and his work were briefly cKaraAeriied. it will 
be the lefs necedary therefore to fpeak now to the merit of a perf^no- 
ance which will not &il to gratify the judicious Po itician : the Aucbor 
being a very accura:e Oblen'er of the traniadtons of £uropeu 
The Introiindion contains many (hrewd obiervations, and notable 
hints, which fufiiciendy (hew the abilities of the Abbot for the ta(k he 
bas compleatcd. The tranilation is t Jeiable. 


Art. 8. A genuine Letter fnm Paul Gikhrift^ Efn\ MercbmH 
at Peterjhurgh^ to Mr, Saunders in Lmdon, Giving a partt' 
cvlar Acc:unt cf the great Revoluticn in RuJJiaj and the Death 
of Peter III. the late Emperor. In which that very extraar)^ 
dtnai-y J£air is fet in a true Light. To which is aeldid^ S 
Jk.rt Account of the Government^ Religion ^ A^f^h ^^^ Jnta^ 
bitants of that Nation. 8vo. I s. Williams. 

Either Mr. Saunders has alieady fumiflied us with all the accounts 
of this memorable Revolution which have appeared in the News- 
papers by previcufly ri> aiing bis fritnd* letter in them ; or, the 
fevcrai paiagraphs cent .ined in the faid papers, have been conneftecf, 
with a few expic fvcd. to coirpofe Mr. Gilchrill's letter, i he Reaccr 
is left to determine which ot thefe metficds is moft probable. >pmt 
of the books of Geography have fumi(hed a few paragraphs to which 
the latter part of the tiile alludes. ' > 

Art. 9. // Tajfoy a Dialogue ; the Speakers John Milton, and 
Torquato Taffo. In which new Light is thrown on their 
poetical and moral Characters, 8vo. 6 d, Baldwin. 

No new light a*^ all have we been able to difcover : fo, gentle Au- 
thor, in your own wordi^, our '* YalediiUon attends you '* 

Art. 1 0. J Review f the Evils that have pre^iailed in the Limn 
Manufaclure of Ireland. Arifmg from a NcgleSi of the ori- 
ginal Laws. Part I. alfo Pari II. Being a Narrative of 
what has been done^ or attempted^ to enforce the Laws^ and to 
bring about a general Reformation. Ivith an attempt to point 
out the Caufes of the Oppojiticn that is fill kept up ; and the 
pre per Means to be ufed^ Jor carrying the Laws fully into Exi^ 
cution. 8vo. Printed at Dublin and at Belfeft. 

The inj^cnuous and public fpirited Authof of the pamphlets before 
us, hath heie traced t > their fource, andexpofcd, the various frauds, 
which have of late ytars prevailed in the Linen-mauufaclures of Ire- 
land : frauds fo notorious, and fo deftruftive to the very exiftence of 
that important branch of trade ; that it is with the greateft aftonifli- 
ment we hear, there are any perfons, except the Offenders, fo wick- 

MoNTHtY Catalogue, 

cd, or in&tqated, as to oppofe the application of ihofc ttmtdtcs 
which the Legillaturc hath provided againft fudi c;iptul evils. We 
could with oar plan would permit- us to give a particular account of 
the various matters rdaiive to this incereib'ng fubje€t ; but \\t are 
afraid left any abllra^, fo confined as we ftiould be under a neccfHty 
of making it, fiiould in any refpc<^t miilcad the Reader. Wc muft 
content ourfdves* therefore, with recommending the perufal of thcfe 
tra£l« to every one who is a friend to trade, and a lover of his 
tountry i not doubting^ ikat every diiimcrcitcd pcrfon will be fully 
convinced of the juftkc of the meafures now takii.g by the Lincn- 
Boaid, and other friends to this manufaflurc* to c^dfo nectiTary a 
Tcfornution. At the fame time it 1$ to be hoped, that every Magt- 
ilrate in that part of the Britifh dominions, will be ready, on c\^ry 
occafion, to Inew his zeal for the good of the community, by aitivcly 
cx*!rting himrelf to fupprefs thofe tumults uhich» we hear, arc 
formed, in order to prevent the mojl faluLaxy laws ffom being 
catried into execution. Our fnencJs ia Irehind have, on fome occa- 
iSons, fgfpcAed their national iQterelU to have fuffcred from the ca- 
bals of their fecrct enemies on this iide the vvatcr ; ii ii to be hoped, 
therefore, they will not, on the prefcnt, be fucli open and declared 
enemies to themrdvci, ab to perlilt, to their own ruin, in the de- 
^fu^ion cf a manufadure to which England has given lb much en* 


Aft. II, CtJhaU on Hypt-rhrean Tale: Tranjlatsd fr&m tht 
Fragmiuts of OJJinn^ the Son of FingaL 8vo. i s. rridden. 

This Hyperborean Talc, as it is called, conillls chiefly of fcanda- . 
loob inucndocs, and impudent abufe; which are here very inde* 
ccntly thrown out againlV the moft refpctlable perlbnages, and aic 
conveyed to ii& in a wretched tmiLation of the fcripture llyle. 

Art. 12. Lttttrs to two gr^at Mtn» The firji to the Earl §f 
E^^^t : TIh ficond to the Earl ef B — e. In which is a 
beautiful Jfucdofe conceming his Majtfly King George IIL 
8vo. I s. A. Henderlon, 

Two rambling, incoherent letters, about the war and the peace, 
and the Poitugucfe, and the Spaniards, and the French, cum multtt 
alJiJt Sec* Never forcly did irony appear fo barefaced, or panegyric 
fo grofs* as in the encomiums laviihcd on ihc latter of the noble 
Peers addrcfled in this pablicadon : whether fatite or eulogy be in- 
tended, is bell known to the Writer. 


Art. i^, Jtt Epiftle to his Grrne the Dnh of N ^ mi hh 

Reji^naustft^ JByaiiljidepeiidcnt Whig, 4tQ, 6d- Corbet, 




This Epidlc IS % compHment to the Duke of Newcaftlc ' Pane* 
gyric, however, is not the only bufincfs of it i the Wnc<rr, while h0 i 
praifcs his Patro(r» for his exemplary oieiit in ofiice» and dilinterclled 
refignation, aiming fome very feverc ftrokci at his Grace's Aicccffor,-; 
m well u% at aDOther populaf Facrior, who» he couceives^ did c 
retire from pyblic employment with the fame dignity aad fpirit. Of J 
the merit of the Poct, and the delicacy and finceriiy of the Panegy- 
fjfk, the Reader may form sl jad^xncnt from the following lines £a( 1 
dole the piece. ' 

Through each grtrat fceoc* your firmer mind ptufaed. 
Your Monarches glory, and your country** good* 
No little paflion lured your foul altray 
To other paihs than Honour's public way : 
No little complai fa nee to party rage, 
No Jhnffiiftg with the humours of the age, 
Fix*d at the helm full forty years, your place, 
Twas worn bj worth, and rais'd on Virtuc*s bafe* 
If ought was deemed flill wanting to compteat 
Your race of glory, 'twas your late retreat : 
No P€f*Jhn*s purchafc, but the FatrUtH choice, 
'Twas Reafin^ dictates, and 'twas HiiiKsiri voice. 
This COURSE, this en»>, thus firmly to purfue. 
Is worthy Biitish Vihtuej worthy ton. 

Art. i+. Thi BmU af Lcra^ a P&im: With jme Frcgmmtf 
written in tht Erji ar Irijh Languagt^ by Offian the Son of 
Fingal* Tranflatcd into Engliih Verfc by Mr. Derrick* < 
4to» IS. 6d, Dodfley* 

The Battle of I-»ora is an excellent fuhjcjfl for a poem. There is 
[Ibmething very magnificent and interelting in all us circumDanccSi 
I f* Fingalt King of Morvea, returning h^mt victorious from the ex* 
' pedition in Ireland, which is celebrated in the epic poem bearing hit. 
I name, made afcad to whith all his Chiefs, Maronnan and Aldo ex- 
r^eptttd, w«e invited. The neglcft feems to have been accidental ^ i 
I however they refcntcd iifo ftrongly, as to abandon their native coun- 
|tryt and enter into the fcrvioe of Erragon King of ^ora^ a name 
gi^en to ibme part of Scandinavia, In this country——^ 

Brave Aldo once, returning from the fight. 
Was fccB by Lorma, Erragou's delight. 
His beauteous wife, — and then in JucklcG hour. 
She firfl acknowlcg'd Love's imperious pouxr, 
Aldo ftie iawi but like an evening fan 
dxncing an upward beam, bis race now run ; 
Her head ihc Uand on her right arm rttUndi 
Her dark-brown locks loofc-iioated io the wind ; 
Still as fhc looked, high heav'd her breads of fnow, 
Quick throbbM her heart, aivd te»rs unbidden fiow. 

15^ MoHTiri-Y CJITALl^CUt. 

Hm«» p'^ lArrv^ h#i<iif>rt Wforc rtlda. IJ^e M«uJicf Paris, aurled her 

And uid, fluU I defend thee ho» thy lo:s f 
Htt of fcrblc Jiand* <ttiKiti»c bf«4vc£ 

T^ c4 ia ibiDc dciertMd cxi^r. 

Rt ?V mein lime Erra^on* in pa Halt of AjJo» invades Morv^,^ 

t iminA 10 the rnr-tgcd J.i.-idvr. to mv'^itc him* c6 

a cj.r, *i!u ^15^' «"• i, IS 1 rccompeoce icir cnv- -"''v hr h:*d rccdv* 

'*"rh\ r ^ alcck; 

•' Fo* ihcc tbc k4ii M iprcii*.i by Moivcn 5 King ; 

•* V\\ be thy guide^ proviv cd peace vcm bring. 

*• 7 hi: wealth of tting* wc oflrr, if* you chufe, 

*' Nor you to hear what A I Jo fays reinic. 

** An hundred Uccds he gives that own the rein, 

•• Never -^ fvViAcr race dcvour'd the phin. 

•• All hundred mkids from diJlant htid^ be gives, 

•* Betieaih the flty uci brighter beauty Iive5 : 

"An hundred haaki, all well mu^'J to game, 

** Of which none haggar*d ever miG'd their aim* 

**.An hundred ^ir*-ilc, Jfu i>iall b; thine, 

** Such, when they loiind high^bofum*J ^vomen t^ ine, 

•* (f<avi fodden tfiife to tnvairs ficrcfi* ihroiV5» 

*■ Aivd theii' vail virtue evtrv matron knows. 

*• Tcrt fh«jlb with grinA ir*Iiilil, whkh ours wccall* 

** bhiii lullrc beam, ihio' bgiii's [oily hall. 

All ^hJ^ and trvcn the iifTcr of tiOrma was rnfufiident. Erragoti 
would not be appcafed, iitilcts Firtgal fhould do him hom;ige> kud 
ddiver up hi* trophies of war. 

Never lb low fhall ftrIorven*s Monarch fall,'* faid the noble Virt 
gin. Both fides fH>w prcpire for the war* The battle brgtni, and 
Aldo fall* by the hngle iiand of Erragon. 

•* Alicr this ihe forrcws of l_orm.i arc ddcribed, who dies of grief 
for the death of AldOi^'. But tvc (haW nut trouble our Readers with 
fartlier quouttonj^ as the veifiOQ is in mnuy places very indifferent. 

Art. 15. ^n Addrefi to I'i nwj! ^radons Mojeffy King Gccrge III, 
on ihi moft happy JniVii'^ at LQmh?:^ qJ her Snem H ghncfi 
Princefs Charktte rf AleckUnhur^b'Stnlitx^ who wai that 
Day niadc tmr moji gradsus ^een. By George Pooke. 
8vo. 6 d. Keith, 

Our Readers have already had a fufiicicnt fpecimen of Mr Pookc*i 
rAre talents lor poetical compofjtioD, in the fliojl account we gave of 
hii Q„€i: fee Review, vol* XVU. page iSi* Wc were in hopes 


Poetical. ijy 

tbis Writer had taken his leave of the prefs lofig ago; .havinjr 
heard nothing of him for fome time pad : but now he threaten^ 
the world with mOre publications. How 'much are Kiagt and Rt^ 
vii'iuers to be pitied ! 

Did not Mr. Pooke aHure ds that be is quite difinterefled in the 
entertainment he occafionally affords the Public, and that the thoughts 
of gain // the Jcaft motive of his writing, we ihould be apt Co 
fufpe^ he had a diftaht view pf being fome time or other promoced 
at court ; of obtaniirtg a penfion ; or of being made, pephaps, Poet- 
Laurcat to the Queen : this latter, indeed, may poflibly be tne' height 
of his ambition. 1 here is one piece 6f advice, however^ we would 
give him ; and that is, not only to make a proper choice of his iub- 
je£U, but to time his perfonnanoes with the Cune proprietary Jiif ctm-s. 
du6l in the former point i.>, indeed unexceptionable. An Eiegy oa 
the old King, a Panegyric on the new one, now an Aid* /fs on the 
Queen's arnvalt and we aA promifed ibon an Bp*fhoia>*,ikm on dteir, 
Majeilies Alarriagt^ together with a Pc^negyric on the Coronati^m^ 
All thcfe are notable fubje£is, and fo far to the parpole; but. Sir, 
they come the Cay after the Fair. Inftead of oeing behind-hand 
with your pieces for the Marriage and Coronation, you ought to 
have fet forth a Lyric Ode on the Birth of the Prince^ a week 
ago, and a Pindaric qq tlie Chrt/iming ready cut and dried in your 
pocket. What do you think, man, to make of your poetry at this 
rate ? AH the places will be filled op» and the pehlions given away^^ 
before you have fufficiently difplayed your talenu, .to be taken notice 
of. Or ihould you be fo lucky as to focceed* in obtaining the Laa- 
reat, only think what a figure, you. will make, coming rout with a 
New-Year'» Ode at Midfummer ; or a Birth- day Compliment on her 
Majelivt when, the good Queen beine doum in the ftraw, your MuCt 
ihould have celebrated the birth of an Heir to BrumjfkunA'i tvfoi 
Line, ' 7 hink on thefe things and fpur your tardy Pegafus,. or dc» 
pend on it, he will be beat aJI hollow, by the o^her galloway Nags 
and ambling Jades of Parna/Tcis. 

But, to give onr Readers iome idea of the quaUfications Mr. Pooke 
po/Tefles, for the pod of which we have been fpeaking. The. fol- 
lowing is his delcription of the fleet fent to condud her MajeAy | 
with a rebdon of. its voyage, and the arrival of the noble Peers at 
Mecklenburg, See, 

Soon weie the yachts new deck'd in rich array. 
To hail the Confort of our holiday ; 
And (he who was great Caroline's of fame. 
Is chriil'ned after Charlotte's royal name : 
Stock'd with collations, fweatmeats of the bed, 
Madeira found ; but French wines none in cheil : 
Plate, a fine fide- board, and a foft down bed 
For ow fair Queen, whereon to lay her head ; 
Hung all around with crimfbn velvet rich. 
By our own hands compleaied evVy Hitch ; 


jSo MoNTHty CATAioGU^* 

Wddng cquip'd, to enter cm th« Mala, 
While number! viewM her in ^ picafant firatn. 
Then join'd the fquadron of her convoyed gvkudi 
Few motncnts did the windi her couHe retard ; 
ATi(on foon fleered her to the German fhofe i 
Where Hclm-a-leci with cheaifUl fhbuts did roir. 
Quick did the news at Mccklenburgh arrive, 
And quicker our Nobler to their Court dtd drive: 
Hajtiourc did then the facred buflnel* tic. 
By his right leg, the Court's bound by pTtW)% 

firf* / magne Poita ! Thert^ a Poet for yoo ! 

Art* 164 A C^iUlIien tf Mifalkmimt Effort, Bjr Thorfial 
Mozecn, 8vo. js. Briftow, Sec. 

Mr. Mosecn is a tolerable haad at a long for Sadler*s WelJs, or i 
ballad for Vaux-Hall ; and may do very well in the capacity of Poet 
Lattreat of Covent Gardens 

Single SKRiidotcs; 

1. "O BtlGlON 4*W harmftg cafAhk %f hftng rniirt.l mufadtf 
Xv> finfueahli^ sr mufaf&Uf prt judicial 19 rofh orktr^ — Before th« 

UnivcHity of Oxford, at St* Mary's^ on A£l.Sanday« ]uly 1 1, 176a. 

By Thomaa Fothergilli D. D. fdlow of Quccii'i College, Rl- 


2. Tin auty ef a PiPplii rtmimhtfittg ihiir draa/eJ Pa/fors^ — Occa* 

ftODcd by ihc Funcrai of the late Rev, Mr, Thomas Hill, By Johii 

Conder. Dilly. 

5. A Spittal Scmioo, bfcfofe ttie lord Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Governors of the fcvcral HofpitaU of ihe City of London, at Sl 
Bridget, on Wednefday in Eancr Wcek^ 1762* By Lewis Bruce; 
Frcachcr at Somcrfet-hoafc, and Chaplain to die Lord Mayor; 


4- Tht ^Uffiinifi ef living and dyittg In the l»rd^ proved in a S^ 
men prtticbtd upon tht Death ef thi Rtv. Mr^ 7komai Jonest CJ^/aii 
cf Si* Haviotar^i^ S^uth^warkf ^t^hw dtfaritd this ti/i^ J^ne 6, 1762^ 
and printid pr the Bentfit 9f hit H'id^w* By W. Romallte, M, A- 
Lcauncr of St Dunftans in the Weil. Woffal. 

The religion of Chriftians has not fufiercd fo moth from any ex- 
ternal injuries aa from the folly and the treachery of its profcflbrs. 
When they lofe light of reifon, and give into the abfiirdities iff fii- 
hadcifmt well may they expofe it to the attack* of ridkule* T6 read 
the fenfelefs Ser«ion before 03 wei-e cnoifgh indeed i6 gtvc the 
Reader a furfeit of all religion. Bet it is really not mo^«n objc^ 
of ridkole than of indigratioB y and tlic author of it Ja nocfcfs pro- 
fp&e ikan Ilapid when he talks trf binding up Mr, Jones's Seui in tJbt 
Bundii ff lift ^ish thi Lord hu God, 



. V . . ■ ' ' ^ '* " • ' . ^— ' — * • - 



For SE P.T EMBER, 1762, 

The fyorks rf Nicholds Machlavel^ Secretary of State to the Re4 
public of FlaretKe. Newly tranjlated from the Originals ; //- 
lufirated with Notes, Jnecdoies, Dijfertationsy and the Life of 
Machiavely never before publifl)ed\ and froeral nfjt) Plans oH 
the Art of War^ By Ellis Farneworth, M. A. Vicar of 
Rofthern in Chefhire, Tranflator of the Life of Pope Six- 
tus the Vth*, and Daviia's Hiftory of the Civil Wars of 
Franoef^ 4to« 2 vols. il. 168. bound.- Davies^ 

IT happens unfortunately for the intcreft of Civil Societyj 
that thefcience of Politics' has generally been treated ra- 
ther with the narrow view of fupporting, or overthrowing^ 
fome particular form of government, than with the noble 
and generous defign of eftablifhing a fyftcm for the public 
good of the community. Writers of this clafs have, for the 
nloft part, been influenced by private pique or rcfentmejit 
a^ainft the Governors, or elfe have been biafled by the allur- 
ing profpcft of thofe preferments, which the ruling powers 
alonehave the privilege of difpenfing. 

In the number of political Writers, however, we Would 
not be thought to include the fcurrilous advocates of con- 
tending parties, in whofe writings there is not a fingle idea 
which can be properly termed political, or which bears the 
leaft relation to the Art of Government. We fpcak of thofc 
only who have been Oppofcrs or Defenders of Syftcms, not 
of temporary Adminiftrations : and even among fuch, how 
few are there, who have confidercd Government as an Art 
which has the fccurity and happinefs of mankind fpr its end ! 

• Sec Review, vol, XI. p. 268. f Ibid* vol. XVIII. p. 6zj. 
^ Vol. XXVII. L PV^. 


•AftyEWoRtH'i Tranjlaiien 

Plato, Sir Thomas More, and others, who may 
vjfionary Projectors, feem indeed to have had this Ultimate 
in view, but alas ! their zeal has overleaped the bounds of 
difcretion, and before their fchemes can b« adopted, hu- 
man nature muft undergo a total revolution. Some of our 
countrymen, however, have made a confpicuous appearance 
in the political circle ; and we may venture to fay, that the 
world b indebted for the bcfl treatiles on Government to the 
Englrih Writers of the laft ccntury. 

To counterbahnce, in fome mcafure, the cruel calamities 
which arc infcparaWe from civil commotions, they are gene- 
rally attended with this advantage, that they call forth men 
of bold fpirits, and ftxong talents, into a£l:ion. Times 
of trouble neceflarily draw the attention to folid and fcrious 
confederations, and leave no room for idle gallantries, and 
trivial amufemcnts, which diilipate, and enervate the rnind^ 
It was the unhappy divifions which proved fatal to the mif- 
guided Charle3, and their confcqucnccs, which gave occafion 
to the writings of Hobbes, Harrington, Sydney, Ncvil, and 
others, whofe talents wc muft refpc£V, even where we cannot 
embrace their tenets. If the three laft muft yield to Hobbes 
tn depth and fubiilty of argument, yet they have the merit of 
having bell explained, and defended, the principles of poli- 
tical Liberty ; though it muft be conftiTcd, that thev have 
fometimes puOied their rcafoning too far; which cannot be 
wondered at, when wc confider the times in which they 
lived, and the inft^nccs of oppreffion which ihcy had fcen 
and felt. 

But of all the Authors who hare treated of the Art of Go- 
vernment, Machiavcl ihews the leaft regard to the general 
welfare of human fociety : and though his writings, like 
thofe of Hobbes, fcern, with fome, to be growing out of re- 
putation, yet too many o£ his maxims are ftill adopted and 
defended, by inftdious enemies to the civil rights of man- 

Machiavcl alw^ays confiders Government as an inflitu- 
ti'n calculated merely to fwell the pride, and gratify the 
p!eafure of ambitious and voluptuous Rulers, He fpeaks of 
kingdoms, as of territorial fubje£ts of property^ i and of fub- 
ic£b, as fo many cattle grazing on the Sovereign's deme fnes. 
He is very copious in his inftrudions how to acquire king- 
doms, and to keep pofleilion of them ; but wholly omits the 
more uftml precepts, how to improve them, for the mutual 
benefit of Prince and People. 



Machiaveri fforts, (^c. 163 

(Ii$ flaviih and horrid doctrines, have not efbaped the cen-* 
Fure they dcfcrve ; though, at the fame time, - he has not 
Wanted Apologifts, who have endeavoured to juftify or pal- 
liate his principles. . Many would p^rTuade us, that he does 
not deliver the real diiSlate^ of his heart ; but that his reflec- 
tions are penned in a vein of farcaftic irony': that while he Is 
laying down t-itles for eftablifliing and confirming ufurpation 
and tyranny, he only meaHs to fneer at Tyrants : in {hort, 
that he only tella us, what Princes do, not what they ought 
to do. 

With refoefi to this apology, we are ready to admit, that 
Machiavel does not always exprefs his real fentiments, which 
may be fafdy inferred from the glaring contradiftions which 
fo frequently occur in his writings, fiut, at the fame time, 
we think it evident from the whole tcnour of his works, an4 
from the charafters of the feveral perfons to whom they arc 
addrefled, that he never intended they fhould be taken ironi- 
cally, dr conftrUed as a fat! re upon Princes. In order, how- 
ever, to Comprehend Machiavel's defign as a Politician, we 
need only examine his treatife entitled ihePrincey in which he 
has reduced all the kicked aiid abominable reflections, inter- 
fperfed through the feveral parts of his works, into one re- 
gular fyftem. To this treatife the Tranflator has annexed 
an Examen^ generally afcribed to the King of Pruf&a ; and . 
which proves his Pruffian Majefty to be (in theory at Icaft) 
what a wife and good Prince ought to be. 

If MachiaVcl meant to be ironical, he certainly was not 
fo little acquaihted with Ariftotle, as not to know, that the 
irony ought to be fupported, if not through the whole work, 
at leaft through a finglc fcntence. Now let us apply this rule 
bf judging to the following obfervations. 

Speaking of mixed principalities, heobfcrvcs, that *' Do- 
minioiis newly acquired and annexed to the ancient territories . 
of the conqueror, are either provinces of the fame nation and 
language with his own fubjcdts, or they are not. When it 
'happens that they really are fo, they are very eafily maintain- 
ed, efpecially if the people have not been too much accuftom- 
cd to liberty. For, to fecure the poffcflion of them, little 
more is required than to extirpate the family of the Prince 
who Iftft reigned over them : after which, the natives will 
live quietly enough, provided they are fuffered to enjoy their 
former privileges, and there docs not happen to be any re- 
markable and material dillimilitudc in the xtianncrs and cuf- 

L 2 VliYDA 

164 Farnf.worthV Tranjlaiion of 

ton^s of the two States. And pf this we have fufficient prodf 
in the examples of Burgundy, B^etagne, Gafcony, and Nor- " 
mandy, which provinces have continued fo long united with 
France: for though indeed there is fome little difference in 
their refpediive languages, yet their manners and cuftoms arc 
nearly alike, and of confequence eafily adjufted betwixt them* 
Whofoever therefore would keep pofleflion of a new acquift- 
tion, muft have a panicular regard to two points. In the firft 
place, he muft take care to extinguifh the whole family of 
the laft reigning Prince: and in the next, he muft neither 
•alter its laws, nor augment the taxes : by which manner of 
proceeding, that State will foon become firmly confolidated 
with his other dominions." 

Machiavel is certainly ferious in recommending ^' the ut- 
ter extirpation and.extinftion of the whole family of the laft 
reigning Prince," as may be concluded from the words imme- 
diately following, which exprefs that the Conqueror ** muft 
neither alter the laws, nor augment the taxes." This laft 
' js, moft prudent, wholefome, and generous advice ; which 
p^not, without the highcft abfurdity, be coupled with an 
ironical recommendation, to murder ihe whole family of the, 
conquered Prince. 

As there is no doubt, but that Machiavel was ferious in this 
cnael propofition, we may venture to add, that there is as 
littk true policy as humanity in this horrible expedient. For, 
as the royal Examiner very juftly remarks, ** Suppofe an ambi- 
tious Prince (ho,ulJ forcibly and unjuftly deprive another of 
hjs dominions, has he thv^refore a right to poifon and aflafli- 
naitc him and his whole family ? A Conqueror by fuch a 
ii?anner of proceeding, is fure to introduce a pradice that 
will at laft turn to his own deftruftion. Another, equally- 
^ibitious, and more powerful than himfelf, may invade his 
tcrntories, and retaliate his barbarity, by extinguilhing him 
s^nd his family, with the fame unrelenting rigour that he mur- 
A^red his predeceflbrs. Of which Machiavel's own times, 
will aflGjrd us too many c:(;amples*. 


• • In the courfe of his animadvcrfions on this chapter,^ the royal 
Bjornikiervery juftly obferves, that " the dominions which a Roman 
etij0y€ii before^ are not enriched by new conqucfts; his fubjeds are 
not all the better for them ; and he is much deceived, himfelf, if he 
i(nmgines tbcy will make him any happier than he was/* Thefe 
2tt judicious and noble (entimeuts ; aud. may (brve a^ a le/Ton to. 


MachlavclV JVorh^ (ft. 


That Machlavel was a fincere Apologift for tyranny and 
inhumanity, in order to obtain or fecure dominion, nrjly b'» 
farther concluJed from his panegyric on Csfar Borgia. Lvery 
one knows, that this fon of Pope Alexander the fixth, was ^ 
prodigy of wickcdnefs. He ailiflinatcd his own brother, be- 
caufe he was his rival in glory and love ; and that too aJmoft 1 
under the eyes of their fitter* He cay fed the Pope's Swifs 
guards to be maffacred, to revenge himrdf upon fome of that 
nation who had affronted his mother. He violently deprived 
feveral of the Cardinals of all they had, to fatiate his avarice- 
He depofcd the Duke of Urbino, the lawful pofleiTor of Ro- 
magna, and put Renrno d*Orco, his own bloody Sub- tyrant, 
to a barbarouij and unexampled kind of death. He miirdcrcj 
feveral Lords of the Urfini family, whom he had looki^d upon < 
as obftacles to his greatnefs, after he had decoyed them in ttie \ 
moft perfidious manner to an interview at Sinigaglia, He' 
caufcd a Venetian Lady of quality, whom he had raviflied, 
to be throv/n into the Tiber, and drowned. In fhort, there 4 
is no kind of cruelty and iniquity of which he was not guil- 
ty J and yet Machiavel commends this monllcr in the follow- 
ing terms, 

** Upon a thorough review of the Du^'s's c6ndu£l and ac- 
tionir, I fee nothing worthy of reprehenfion in them i on the 
contrary, I have propofed them, ind here propofe them again^ j 
as a pattern for the imitation of all fuch, as arrive at domi- 
nion by the arms or fortune of others. For as he had a gie*it 1 
fpirit, and vaft defigns, he could not well have arfted other* 
wife in his circumftances : and if he mifcarried in them, it 
was entirely owing to the fudden death of his father, and the 
defperate condition in which he happened to be himfelf at that 
critical juncture/* — If this is intended as fatirical irony, it 
IS difficult to determine when the Writer utters ferious truths ; 
and, indeed, fuch a fuppofition is the moregroundlefs, when 
we confidcr that Machiavel was a kind of faniiliar and confi- 
dant of Caefar Borgia's, It is probable, however, that Ma- 
chiavel, who lived in thofe horrid times when murders arid 
aCaffinations were frequent, did not fee thefe bloody crimes 
in the fame light in which we regard them; at leaft he .did J 
not think them fo heinous, when they were conunitted to ac-- 
quir^ dominion : — and the bell apology which can be made for ] 

leach Princes hereafter fo be cootcftt with fach tcTrltorics as !hcy re* 
ceive at thtir accefthn to ftnffrtfin'y, without fcekipg to enlarge th- HI ' 
by new claims, os by reviving i,id prtiinfi&ku 



i66 Farneworth J TrcuiJIaikn of 

him, is, that he reafons upon this unjuft and nefarious prin- 

Si yiolandum eft Jus^ Jtegngndi gratia viohmdum eft. 

A good man, however, and a wife Politician, inftead of 
laying down rules for acquiring and maintaining unjuft domi- 
nion, would apply himfelf to cxpofe the wickednefs and folly 
of attempting fuch acquifitions ; and to prove, that it is no 
|efs the intereft of Princes than of private men, to be mo- 
derate, humane, andjuft. l^he truth is, that Machiavcly 
who was a man of buhnefs and intrigue, had adopted 2, max- 
im, which has unhappily fwayed moft Statefmen, except 
Sully, and a very few more. The fubtle Italian thought th;;t 
the end fandtiiied the means : though it n^uft b.e confeiTed) 
that there are fome paflages in his works, w-hich may lead us 
to a different conclufion. But, as we have already obferved, 
Machiavel is fometimes inconfiftent and contfadiflpry : as in 
the following inftance. 

Speaking of Agathoclcs, who, from a low condition, made 
bimfclf King of Syracufe, he fays, — " When I rfefleft on 
the intrepidity and addrefs of Agathoclcs, both in encoun- 
tring and extricating himfelf out of all dangers, as well as 
*his invincible magnanimity in adverfity, I fee no reafon w^^v 
he may not be ranked among the gr^atcft Captains : but if 
we confider the horrid barbarities, and innumerable other 
crimes he was guiltv oif, he certainly does not dcferve to be 
numbered with truly virtuous or excellent men. We muft 
not then attribute to Virtue or good Fortune, what he ac- 
complilhed without the afTilla^cc either of one or the other," 

Thefe are the fentiments of an honcft man, and fuch fen- 
timcnts as no one would expert from the panegyrjftpf Capfar 
Borgia. But the fentiments of juftice and hi;manity are fo 
firmly rooted even in the moft depraved minds, that however 
they may be fubducd by unnatural refinement, they will 
fometimes rife involuntarily, and the native principles of the 
man, will contntdiS the artificial maxims of the Politician. 

It is faid, however, that Machiavel was a zealous and dq- 
termrned Republican, and a great admirer of Bjutus and 
paflius: therefore it has been thought impofRble tliat he 
fllould deliver, as his own real principles, a fet of maxims 

fb contradiflory to his charader, and profefled regard for the 
ibcrties of his country j in the government of which his 
family had born fome mare. 


MachJavclV Worhy tSc. 


This, ty th€ way, is but a bad apology for his writings j for 
if he did not Jifclofe his real fentiments, as we are perfuaded 
he did not conflantly, he is ftill the more culpiible, fmce he 
Jias delivtred them in ftich a manner, that they cannot, with- 
out the moft flagrant inconfiftence and abfurdity, be confl- 
JereJ otherwife than as ferious precepts. At the fame time 
we can eafily conceive that a man, who profeflls republican 
principles, may, from particular views and confiderations, 
iloop to the bafe office of being an advocate for tyranny and 
ufurpation. In truth, if we make a kxtrc icrutiny into the 
human heart, we fliall find that many of thofe who are, or at 
leaft who fancy thcmfelvcs to be Republicans, adoj^t thofe 
principles rather from a fpirit of pride, than of equality, Whca 
they talk Joud in behalf of public freedom, they arc ouly con- 
tending for their own independence and pre-eminence. Place 
^hcm in office j let tJicni be deputy Tyrants, and xhcy wiJl 
prove the moft zealous partizans for lawleis and arbitrary do- 
minion*. We may form a good judgment of the temper of 
thcfe men, from their conduct during the troubles of the laft 
century. As to Macliiavel, therefore, admitting him to have 
incHned to republican principles, yet it was his intcrcft to Ir- 
culcate a different dodtrine ; and to be an advocate for the 
principles of arbitrary power, in the adminiftratjoo of which 
lie took fomepart himfclf* 

Madriavel is fikewifc fometimes weajc, as wxH &^ in- 
xronfiftent, in his reafoning. In the feventcenth chapter, he 
difcuffes the following query, viz, Uljetbrr it /j hetter to hi 
loved 07' fear id? which he anfwers thus, *' One would wifli 
to be both* But fincc that is a very hard matter to accom- 
plilh, it is fafer to be feared than bdoved^ if one fide or other 
of the qucftion muft neceflarily be taken. For it may be 
truly affirmed of mankind in general, that they arc ungrate- 
ful, inconftant, hypocritical, felf-interefted^ and ready to fly 

• Experience affords abundant proofs, that they who are mofl 
TcdkA and turbulent under a government in which they have noHiare 
of ittfluence, are always the moil fervile tdols of prcroontivc, and 
4^1ie grcateft oppreifors oP Liberty, whs« they arc adniitied into the 
adminiftration. We could point out a certain grtmt and Udrncd bydy^ 
who, for many years, llood in oppofivion to government, and treat- 
ed thdi Sovereign wiih unparalleled infolence ; but whrn aj: length 
,their party prevailed, and they had hopes of creeping into power, 
thfy were tnc firll to fet a pattern of dread ferviliiy, and to cxprerif 
(hemfelves in fuch abject terms, as are beneath the digniiy o[ hu* 
nian nature^ 

L 4 from 

l68 ParkiWorth'j Tranfiailo^ &)* ^P^^| 

from any appearance of danger : whilft you arc Secure, artd ilM 
a capacity of doing them anygootf, theirlivesan'cf fortunes^ 
and children (if you l»ciicvc them) arc all at your ierviceSN| 
but if fortune turns her back upon you, they will foon follow 
her example, as 1 faid before. The Prince then who has no 
other foundation to rely upon hut their profeiTion^, will cer- 
tainly be ruined : for though, indeed, he may ihmic he has 
rcafon to depend upon the affe^lion af thofe who follow him, 
(if not from motives of generofity and difinterertednefs, og 
regard to his ptffanai merit) at \t:\{i from a fcnfc of the fai^ 
Vours and bcnef^ictions ihcy have received ; yet he will find 
himfclf deceived when he has occafion for their afliilance* 
Befides, people arc apt to be lefs cautious of offending thofe 
who take pains lo make themfelves beloved, than thofc who 
endeavour to make themfelves Scared, as love of that fort ge- 
nerally proceeds from obligations, which mankind, out of 
the depravity ^ind corruption of their hearts, ufually take th6 
firft opportunity of breaking, %Vhenever felf-intcrcft inter- 
feres : but fear being caufcd by an apprehenfion of puniihK| 
prient and fuffv rings, is fcldonn or never to be fhaken off.** ^S 

Here, it is evident, that his conclufions arc not f^irln 
drawn from the prcmifcs. He telb us, that " a Prince wb3 
has no other foundation to rely upon, but his fubjcils pr^m 
fiffwm^ will be ruined.*' — Who doubts it ? But the true ftatc 
of the quedion Is, whether a Prince who enjoys the real af- 
fiM'tmi of his people, is in any fuch danger ? And it requires 
nofltill in Cafuiftry, to pronounce, that fuch an one will nc^* 
ver be ruined, while tliey can prevent his deftrudtion. 

The moft pernicious and cxcciMble doftrinc, however, to be 
met with throughout Machiavel's woiks, is contained in the 
eighteenth chapter of hl^ Prince ; where heobfervcs, that there 
are two ways of dccidin:: a contcft; the one by Laws, the 
Other by Force j the former being proper to men, the latter to 
beafts* ** But as laws are not always fufficient to end the 
difFcrcncCt it becomes nL*ceiTary fometimes to make ufe of 
force, A Prince, therefore, ought to know how to refembic 
a beaft as well aS a man, upon occafion : and this is obfcure* 
ly hinted to us by ancient Writers, who relate that Achilles, 
and feveral other Princes in former times, were fcnt to be 
educated by Chiron the Centaur ; that as their Preceptor was 
half-man and half-bcaft, they might be taught to imitate both 
natures, fince one cr.nnot long fupport itfelf without the 
other, Now, bccatifc it is fo ncceffary for a Prince to learn 
. How to aft the part of a be^^/t fometimes* he fiiould make thp 


lion and the fox his patterjis : for the lion has not cunning 
enough of hlmftlf to keep out of fn^es and tolls ; nor th^ 
fox alone fufficient ftrength to cope with a wolf: fo that he 
Tnuft be a fox to enable him to find out the fnares, and a lion 
in order to terrify the wolves; and he that copies th^; Uo^ 
onfy is wanting to himfclf — A wife Prince, thercforts, o«ghr 
not to regard his word, when the keeping it will be to his 
prejudice ,and the caufes no longer fubfift which obliged him 
to give it. This is a maxim, indeed, which fliould* not b^ 
inculcated, if the generality of mankind were good ; but as 
they are far otherwifc, and will not perform their engage- 
ments to you, you arc not obliged to keep any mcafures witli 
them. A Prince will ne\ncr want culourable pre:cncts to var- 
ni(h the breach of his faith : of which we might bring nuna^ 
berlcfs examples of no very ancient date, and ihew how ma- 
ny treaties, how many fblemn promifes, have been peifidi* 
oufly violated by Princes ; and that thofe who have aded the 
fox, have always fuccceded beft in their aHairs. Howevci*^ 
it i^ highly necefiiry to dirt^uifc this craft, and to he :i tho- 
rough maltcr both of fimulaiion and difiimuiationr Forfoiwc 
men are fo fimple, and others fo eager to get out of any^re^ 
fent difiiculty, that whoever knows how to aft this part, will 
always find dupes to his hypocrify* Amougft many other re- 
cent examples of this fort, I cannot forbear quoting that of 
J^ope Alexander Vh whole whole life was cnc continued linpo- 
fition upon mankind : he neither did nor thought of any thm^ 
elfe but how to deceive others : no man ever made flronger 
proteflations of fincerity^ or took more Iblemn oaths loconfinii 
them ^ no man ever fhewed lefs regard to fuch engagements : 
yet he was fo well acquainted viriththe credulity of the-world| 
that he always found freih people to work upoui and Succeed- 
ed in all his dcfigns, ^ 

" It is not at all neceflary, theref«>re, that a Prince (hould 
be actually poffcfl'td of all the good qualities abovemention- 
ed i but highly fo, that he fliould have the appearance of 
them : on the contrary, I will venture to affirm, that to be 
pofllfTed of them In reality, and to put them in pra&icc up- 
on all occaftons, will be of prejudice 5 but that the fhew oF .1 
them will be of fervice to him. It is honourable to feem 
merciful, courteous, rcli^Jous, punft*ual, and finccre, and, 
indeed, t j be fo : but it is neccifary, at the fame time, that 
he ftould have his mind fo mo Jelled, and be fo much mafter 
of himfelf) that he may Hnow how to alter bi& conduct upoji 

770 Farneworth'j TranPdUm^ l^c. ^^HM 

The royal Exammcr has attacked ihefc horrible maxitna 
wth great fpirit and judgment. Princes, he observes, caju 
no more conceal their vices than chc fun can hide its fporsJ 
The ma(k of diiKm illation may, perhaps, hide the naturafl 
deformities of a Prince: for a wliile ; but he cannot wear thaM 
mafk continually : it mufi: be taken oft, or :*t Icaft lifted upfl 
* now and then, if it be only to hrcathe \ .iiid one i;lijnpJc is 
fufficient to fatisfy men of penetration. Artifice will then be 
of no farther fervicc to that Prince: »7ien will not judge of 
him by his profeflions alone, they will naturally lay his ac^ 
tions together, and then compare hU decdi with his words. 

But, perhaps, the beft antidote againft MachiavePs poifon, 
IS to be colle«^ed from his own works : and they who read 
wtli attention, will be under no danger of being feduced by 
a Writer who contradifts his own principles ; of which, 
among others, there is a flagrant inftance in this chapter. He 
tells us, that *' as the generality of mankind arc far iv^m. 
good, and will not perform their engagements to you, yon 
arc not obliged to keep any meafures with them ;*' — ^which iiJ 
agreeable to his fentimentsin the foregoing chapter, where hM 
affirms, that ** mankind, in general, arc ungrateful, incontl 
flant, hypocritical^ and felf-intercfted," — Ncverthclcfs, with- 
in the dillance of a few pages, he docs not fcruplc to fay, 
that ** men are not yet arrived to that height of ingtatitude, 
as to ruin thofe to whom they are under obligations." Be- 
fide, as the royal Examiner remaxk j, he aiJumH m the very 
feme chapter, that ** fuch as know how to diflemble, will 
always find fimple people to praftifc uporu** Therefore aW 
cannot be knaves. 

But notwithftanding we difupprove the principles of Ma- 
chiavcl's Prince, yet, upon the whole, we cannot but admire 
the acutcncfe and fubtlety of this extraordinary trcatife; and 
though it would be iniquitous and injurious to ^dopt the max*- 
ims he there inculcate**, y^t no man, who iidefirous of acqui- 
ring a proper fliarc of political knowlcge, ought to he unac^ 
quaintcd with them. They will help us to dete<5t the dark 
v/iles of thofe who tread in the paths of diiTunulation ; and, 
by infufing a due fiortion of fufpiclon into our minds, they 
will fccurc us from being the dupes of plaufible and ardnl 

Were this treahfe of the Prince, however, to be entirely 

left out of the collef^ion of Machiavers works, yet there is 
fufficient merit m the reft of his writings, to recommend them 
IP every curious and intelligent Reader, They are, in gene- 

Xtnophofts Mtmmrs af SscrafnS 171 

ral, nfeful andcnttrtatning. His Hlftory of Florence is dc-» 
lervcdly eftcemed : and his political Difcourfes on Livy, may, 
with proper allowances, be read with great advantage. As 
%o his Art of War, though it is moftly obfolcte, yet it con- 
tains fomc ufefal obfervations. Nor muft wc omit the Life of 
Caftruccio, and the facetious novel of Belphegor, 

We muft not conclude, without taking notice of the tran- 
Jlation ; which, with fomc few exceptions, is rendered in a 
manly, perfpicuous, and corrcdl llyJe. Wc cannot « how- 
ever, approve of the following cxpreinons — *' Aitrabilair 
Writer — Little Princes are a fort of HermaphroditeSy partly 
Sovereigns, and partly private men — Writings decorated with 
merctrimus :kTX.2,** The public, however, is indebted to the 
Tranflator for having enriched thefe volumes with the King 
of PruHia's Examen of Machiavers Prince ; which will fervc 
as an antidote agalnft any evil cffe^^s refulting from the 
perufal of that piece. The IVanflator likcwife has added 
feveral pieces never before piibljftied ; and has given fomc cti^- 
rious DifTertations on various parts of Machiavcl's works : 
he has alfo illufirated many pafTagcs by very pertinent and in- 
gcnious Notes ; and has enlivened the whole with intcrcfting 
and entertaining anecdotes. 


XenophonU Memoirs of Socrates^ Tf^th the Defence tf Surata 
hefire his Jvdges. TranJIated fnm the original Greeks Bjr 
Sarah Fielding, 8vo» 6s. fewed. Millar. 

THOSE who arc bcft acquainted with Xenophon's 
writings, are mod fcnfible of the difficulty of pieferv- 
jng^ in a tranilation, that elegant fimplicity which is his dif- 
tinguifliing excellence ; and, confequently, will be moft dif- 
pokd to make candid and favourable allowances for a Tran- 
flator, In regard to Mrs. Fielding, however, the Reader will 
have feldom occafion for the exercife of his candour : flie hav- 
ing extrcuted her tafk in a manner that docs her honour. To 
point out any trivial miftakes might be deemed invidious 
and illiberal ; and to commend is unnecefTary, when the 
merit of the work may he more cafily and effectually fhcwn 
l)y exhibiting a fpecimen. Our Readers may judge from the 
following palTage, wherein Socrates difcourfes with Ariftode- 
fnus, concerning the Deity. 

" Tell me, Ariftodcmus,— is there any man whom you 
admire on account of his merit r** 

" Ariftodcmus having anfwered,'' " Many ;' *— '^ name 
(ome of thcm^ I pray ypu.*' ^^ V^\- 

^7^ J4ri-FiELDrNG*j Tranjlatlmsf 

*' J almirc, faid Ariftodcmus, Homer for bis epic poftfyv; 
"Melanippidcs for his Dythrambics j Sophocles fortrage4yi 
Polycletcs for ftatuary ; and Zcuxis for painting.** 

**- But which frems to you moft worthy of admiratiori^J 
Anft'^dcmus 5 — the Anifl who forms images void of moiioiil 
and intelligence; or one who liath the fkill to produce mU 
mals that arc endued, not ottly wiih activity, but under- 
ftjjiding V 

** The Lnter^ there can be no doubt, replied Ariftodemus 
provided the produftion was not the cScdl of Chance \ but of ' 
wifdom and contrivance/' 

*' But fince there are many things,— fomc of which wcj 
can eafiiy fee the ufe of, while we cannot fay of others, * 
what purpofc thc)^ were produced ; — which of thefe, Ariftc 
(icmus^ do you fuppofe the work of wilUom ?*' 

. ** It (hould feem the moft rcafonahle to affirm it of thofip 
whofc fitnefs, and utility, is fo evidently apparent." 

" But it is evidently apparent,— that he who at the begin- 
'ning made man, endued him with fcnfes becuufi they wcr&j 
^G6d for him ; — eyes, wherewith to behold, whatever was vi-I 
fible ; and ears, to hear, whatever was to be heard. For 
Jay, Ariftodemus, — fo what purpofe Ihould odours be pre- 
pared, if the fcnfc of fmeliing had been denied ? Or why 
the dillintitions of bitter and fweet ; of favoury and unfa* 
voury, uiilefs a palate had been Ukewife given, conveniently 
placed, to arbitrate between them ; and declare the differ- 
ence? Is not that Providence, Ariftodemus, in a moft em!*! 
nent manner confpicuous ; which, becaufe the eye of man 
is fo delicate in its contexture, hath therefore prepared eye- 
lids like doors, whereby to fecurc it ; which extend of them.- 
fchxs whenever it is needful ; and again dole, when fleep 
approaches ? — Are not thefe eye- lids provided, as it were. 
With a fence on tlie edge of them, to keep off the wiiid, and 
guard the eye ? Even the eye-brow, itfelf, is not without 
its oiRce ; but, as a pent-houfe, is prepared, to turn off the 
fwtai, which, falling from tlic forehead, might enter and an- 
noy, that no lefs tendtr, than pjhni/bing part of us ! Is it 
not to be admired, that the ears {hould take in ibunds of 
every fort; and yet, are not too much filled by them? — 
That, the fare-lecth of the animal fliould be formed in fuch 
a manner, as is evidently bcft fuited for the cutting of its 
'food ; ae thofe on the fide for grinding it in pieces? —That 
the mouths through which this food h convc) ed, Ihould be 


XiHoplmts Minmrs if Socrates. l f | ^ 

pladed To near the nofe, and the eyes, as to prevent the paflV 
ing, unnoticed^ whatever is unfit for nouriihment ; while Na-* * 
ture, on the contrary, hath fet at a diftance, and concealed ' 
from the fenfes, all that might difguft,- or any way offend ' 
them ? — And canft thou ftill doubt, Ariftodemus ! whether 
a difpofition of parts like this^ (hould be the work of Chance y, > 
■ of Wifdom, and Contrivance ?" 

/^ I have no longer any doubt, replied Ariftodemus ;-*- 
and, indeed, the morel confider it, the more evident it ap-t 
pears to me, that man muft be the mafter-plece of fome great'; 
Artificer; carrying along with it infinite marks of the love 
and fevour of him, who hath thus formed it." 

' ** And what thinkeft thou, Ariftodemus, of that defiri ia, 
the individual, which leads to the continuance of the fpccics,? 
Of that tendernefs and affection in the female towards her 
young ; fo neceffary for its prefervation ! — Of that unremit- * 
ted love of life, and dread of diffolution, which take fuch 
ftrong poffeffion of us from the moment we begin to Be ?" 

' *' I think of them, anfwered Ariftodemus, as fo many re-* 
gular operations of the fame great and wife Artift; delibe-. 
rately determining, to prtfirve whzt he hath once made," 

. ** But, farther, — unlefs thou defireft to alk me queftions f 
-^—Seeing, Ariftodemus, thou thyfelf art confcious of Rea- 
fon and Intelligence ; fuppofcft thou there is no Intelligence • 
elfewhere ? — Thou knowcft thy body to be a fmall part of 
that wide-extended earth which thou ever)'- where beholdeft : 
themoifture contained in it, thou alfo knoweft to be a fmall ' 
portion of that mighty mafs of waters whereof feas them- 
£ilves are but a part ; while the reft of the elements contri- . 
bate, out of their abundance, to thy formation : — It is the 
Soul then alone ; — that intelle£lual part of us ! which is come' 
to, thee by fome lucky Chance ; — from I know not where ^.if 
Jo he^ there ii, indeed, no Intelligence elfewhere : and wc 
muft be forced to confcfs, that this ftupendous univerie, with 
all the various bodies contained therein ; — equally aniazing,. 
whether we confider their magnitude, or number;: — what- 
ever their ufe ; whatever their order, — all have been produ-' 
ced, not by Intelligence y \\it Chance /" 

** It Ls with difficulty that I can fuppofe otherwife, return-* 
ed Ariftodemus; for I behold none of thofe Gods, whom- 
yf»u fpeak of, as making and governing all things ; whereas I- 
fee. the Artifts. ^yhen at their work here among us." » 

«* Neither^ 

t74 ^^^^* FiEtDiNG*! Tranjlation of ^^^Bl 

" Neither, yet, fceft thou thy Soul, Afiflodcmus ; wWcli, 1 

however^ moft afTu redly governs thy body : — although it may ] 

well feem, by thy manner of talking, that it is Chamiy and I 

not Riajon^ which governs thee." 1 

*' I do not defpife the Gods, faid Ariftodcmus ; on the 1 
contrary, I conceive fo highly of therr excellence, as to fup^ ] 
pofe they ftand in no need cither of mc or of my fcrvices." 

** Thou mijiales the matter, Ariftodemus ;— the greater 
magnificence they have fhewn in their carc of thfr, fo much 
the more honour and fcrvice fhou oWcftthem/* j 

^* Be arturcd, fa!d Arlftodemus, if I once could be per- 
fuaded the Gods took carc ot men, I fbould want no Monitor 
to remind me of my duty/* , 

*' Andcanft thou doubt, Ariftodcmus, if the Gods take 
care of men ! Hath not the glorious privilege of w.ilkiag 
upright, been akrte beftowed on him, whereby he may, with 
the better advantage, furvcy what is around him ; — contem- 
plate, with more eafc, thofe fplendid obje£ls which are above ; 
and avoid the numerous ills and inconvcniencies which would 
othcrwifc befal him ? Other animals, indeed, they have 1 
provided with feet, by which they may remove from one placd j 
to another ; but to man they have alfo given hands ^ with which 
he can form many things for his ufc ; and make himfelf hap- 
pier than creatures of any other kind* A tongue hath been 

beflowed on every other animal i but what animal, except 

man, hath the power of forming words with it ; whereby to 
explain his thoughts, and make them inteliigible to others ? I 
And to fliew that the Godi* have had regard to his very pita- 
Jura i they have not limited them hke thofe of other ani- 
mals, to timis and finfom \ but man is left to indulge in them» 
whenever not hurtful to him, 

•*" But it is not with refpe*!! to the body alone that the Gods J 
have fliewii themfelves thus bountiful to man ! Their moll.l 
excellent gift is that Sml they have infufcd into hitn ; — which 1 
fo far furpafles what h clfewhcre to be found. f*or by what I 
atiima!, except man, is, even the extjhnce of thofe Gods dif-. 
covered, who have produced^ and ftill uphdd^ in fuch regular J 
order, this beautiful and flupendous frame of the univcrfe?— J 
What other fpecics of creatures are to be found, that can 1 
ferve '— that can adore them! — what other animal is able,! 
like man, to provide againft the afTaults of heat and cold ; — 
<»f thiril and hunger ! — that can lay up remedies for the time ' 
8 .of 

Xauplsn's ALmiirs ef SacraUs, i*$ 

of fickads ; — and Improve ths ftrcngth nature hafh given^ bj 
a well-proportioned exerdfe ! — that can receive, Uke lum^ 
inforintion and inftnuSion ; or (o happily keep in memoffy 
what he hath feen, and heard, and learnt ? Thefe diings be- 
ing fo ; — ^who fceth not that man is, as it were, a GU^ in 
the midft of this vifible creation ; fo far doth he fiirpai&, 
whedier in the endowments of foul or body, M a^mtm^ 
whatfeerer, diat have been pnxluced therein ! For, if tlia 
hdjf of die AT, had been joined to die mirtJ of marty the acute- 
neis of the latter would haveflood him in final! (bad ; while 
unaUe tQ execute the well-deiigned plan.* nor would the 
ttamm form have been of more ufe to the brute, fo long as it 
remained deftitute of underftanding. But in thee ! Ariflo- 
dfmus, hath been joined to a wonderful SnJj a body no le& 
wondcxfiil ; — and fiiyefb thou after tbi^j — ^^ the Gods take no 
thought for me !" — what wouldeft thou then more, to con- 
vince thee of their care." 

^ I would they fliould fend and inform me, (aid Ariftodc* 
mus, what things I n^^ or w^bt nsf, to do ; in like man- 
ner as thou layell, they fluently do to thee.** 

*< And what then, Ariftodemus ! fuppofeft thoi:, that when 
the Gods give out lome oracle to«ff the Atkrni;:ns, th^mean 
it not for dfee? — ^If, by their prodigies, they declare aloud to 
all Greece, — to all mankind, — the things which (ball be&l 
them i — are they dumb to /£// alone ? — And art tcsM the only 
perfon whom diey have placed beypnd "their care ? Believeft 
thou, they vrould have wrought, into the micd of man, a 
perfiudion of their being alle to nuke him happy or miierAIe, 
^f9 he they had no fuch pswfr ? — or would not even maa 
himfelf, — long ere this, — have (een through the grols delu- 
fion r — How is i^, Arlftodcmu?, thou rcmenibcrcft, or i©- 
markeft not,~th2t the kingdoms and common -wealths, moft 
renowned as well for their uiftum as antiquity, are diole 
whofe piety and devotion hath been the m^ cbfervable ? — 
and, that even nuaiy himfelf, is never fo well diipolcd to 
ferve die Deity, as in that part of life whrn reafon bears die 
greateft fway, and his judgment fuppofbd in its full ib-ength 
and maturi^. Confider, my Aiillodemus ! that the Soul 
which refides in thy bodv, can go%-em it at plealure ; why 
then may not the Soul of the univerfe, vdiich pervades and 
ppimat<»^ every part of iu gn^em it in like manner ? — If thine 
eye hath the power to take in marif o^^e.^, and theie placed 
at no finall diibmce from it ; marvel not if the eye of the 
Deity can, at one glance, comprehend /^r ^.vbck ' — And Jtt 


1 76 A VindicQitm of thi cxdujtve Rtgf^t pf 

thou percciveft it not beyond thy ability to extend thy caic zt 
the fame time to the concerns of Athens, — Eg)'pt» — Sicily i— *] 
I ^hy thinkcft iliou, my Ariftodemus ! that the Providence o^ 
God may notcjfily extend jtfcJf throughout ihe whole uni- 
: Verfe ? — As, therefore, among men, \vc make beft trial 
; the affection and gratitude of oor neighbour, by {hewing hiraj 
tkindjiefsj and diicoverhis wifdom, by confulting him inourJ 
Idiftrefsj — Do thou, in like manner, behave towards the^J 
[Gods: .ind, if thou wouldft experience what their wifdonit^' 
land what their love, — render thyfclf deft^rving the communi- 
[cation of fome of thofe divine fecrets which may not be pe- j 
lUctrated by man; and are imparted to thofe alone, who con- 
jfult, who adore, who obey the Deity. Then flialt thou, my'J 
I Ariftodemus ! underlland there is a Being, vvhofe eye pierc- 
«th throughout all nature; and whofe ear is open to cvc^vy, 
[found : — extended to all ^\zqq \ — exUnding tli rough all time ;— t^ 
[and whofe bounty and care can know no other bounds, than 
[thofe fixed by hii own creation !" 

** By this difcourfe, and others of the like nature, Socra- 
tes taught his friends, that they were not only to forbear what- 
ever was impious, unjuft, or unbecoming before mm \ ^ut 
even when alone, they ought to have a regard to all theii* 
anions ; fmce the Gods have their eyes continually upon us j 
and none of our dcfigns can be concealed from them." 

We ih;dl clofe this article with acquainting our Readers, 
that they will find in this work fome judicious Notes, by the 
learned and ingenious Mr. Harris of Salifbury* : Author of 
Hermes*, and other much cfteemcd performances. 

A PlndUaiion af tht txduftvc Right ef Autbsrs U their own 
IVorh : A Suhje^ now under Conjideration before the Twehe 
Judges of England, 8vo, i s. GrifHths. 

TH E ingenious Author of this Vindication fcts out with 
obferving, that *' it will, perhaps, be matter of fur- 
prize to thofe who are not accuftomed to the ufe of artificial 
rcafon, that a queilion fliould be made — Whether at Common 
Law, an Author hath a perpetual and exclufive right to fell 
his own works ?'* Doubtlefs it will j but it will he no mat- 
ter of furprizc to thofe who know how far fuch artificial rca- 
fon may, by k ridiculous aifedlation of technical terms ami 
phrafcs, by making imaginary diftindioas, and adopting 

• See Review, vol. VL page 129, 
4 equivocal 

Jutbirs t$ tbiir nvn Tf&rh. ijj 

^Uivocal definitions, perplex the moft fimplc and obvious of 
all queftions. Not that we can prcfume the prcfcnt to be 
fuch, after being told, that it *' hath excrcifcJ the talents of 
fome of our ableft advocates ; and hnth been found of fuch 
diflicuity and importance, as to be referred to the confiJcra- 
tion of the twelve Judges -, before whom, after repeated ar- 
guments, the fubje£^ (HU lieth open for farther difcufllon." 
A very acute and fubtle Cafuift, indeed, has taken upon him, 
and that in a very (hrewd and able manner, to conti overt the 
right in qucftion. The prefcnt Writer enters the lifts on the 
oppofite fide, and Ihews himfelf, if not a greater Cafuift, at 
leaft as intelligent a Lawyer as his adverfary. In fpcaking of 
the pamphlet* of the former, we mentioned our dcfign of 
leaving this matter to be controverted by the Learned in the 
Law; but it having been intimated to us, that our Readers 
would naturally expeft a more circumflnntial accoimt of an 
affair fo intcrefting to literature ; and as the piece before us 
is probably the laft that may appear on this fubjcdt, bcfjrc tl:c 
jT^atter is finally determined; we {hall endeavour to fct the 
whole in a fair point of view, by giving a fumnv.iry of the 
principal arguments advanced on both fides the q'leftion. 

It is maintained, by thofe who oppofe the right con:cfted, 

ift. That a literary copy is notfufceptible of property. 

2. That, if it were, it is incapable of perpetual, exclufivc 

3. That a right in fuch copy cannot be protcdlcd by law, 
and that it never has been protected by ilic common law of 

4. That the cftablifhment of fugh a ri^ht v/ould be preju- 
dicial to the advancement of letters, and even of ill confc- 
qucnces to Authors tliemfelves. 

The advocates for this right undertake to prove the con- 
trary of every particular : their feveral arguments will be con- 
fidcred in due order. 

To prove that a literary copy is not fufceptible of property, 
the Author ef the Enquiry, to which pamphlet th* prefcnc 
is a reply, confiders this property as exifting partly in the 
ideas contained in the book, and partly in the form and com- 
pofition, by which it is moft eafily diilinguifhed and afccrtain- 

• An Enquiry into :he" Nature and Orioln of Liierar\' Pr )perty. 
Sec Review for laft July, pr.gc 73. 
Rev. Sep. 1762. H ^^^ 

i;8 A rind'cat'iGii of the exduhvc RiJ.^t :f 

cd. The former, he fays, is ideal, therefore incorporea>, 
and yet totally different to every other incorporeal right ac- 
knowleged by law. Hence, he declares, the Author's right 
to his copy to be not real, but ideal and chimerical. To this, 
the prefent Writer replies'; it is true, this property is not 
real, <* in the technical fenfe of the word. But here lieth 
the error. He [the Author of the Enquirj^] ufes the word 
real ambiguoufly, not only as oppofed to cbwierical^ but as 
contra-diftinguiftied from prfonal property. Thus, when he 
faith, the children cannot inherit, or the wife be dowable of 
a literary copy, his conclufions are jutt, in the technical fenfe 
of thofe words. For an inhejitance^ and even a freehold can- 
not fpring but out of lands, tenements, or hereditaments : 
or, as the old Lawyers would phrafc it, fomething which 
founds in the realty. But tho' this property is not inherit- 
iaBIe, it is tranfmillible ; that is, it may be transferred by the 
proprietor in his life -time i it may be bequeathed by will 5 
or it may be divided according tQ the dircdtions of law, in 
cafe of inteftacy. Again, it is true, that a wife is not dow- 
able of this property, becaufc dower muft iffue out of lands 
or tenements : but a wife will be entitled, under the Statute 
of Diftribution, to her fhare or portion of the profits arif- 
ing from the falc of this property." 

A farther argument is, however, made ufe of by the Au- 
thor of the Enquiry, which the prefent Writer feems to have 
overlooked, refpedling the difference between this and alJ 
other incorporeal rights. ** Every incorporeal right, fays the 
Enquirer, acknowleged by law, is capable of difleiffin. Grantee 
of a rent-feck at common law may be difTcilTcd by a Refcous. 
An advcwfon may be ufurped. In ihe fame manner, rights 

• of common, eflovers may be forcibly divefted from their fe- 
veral owners. But how can the proprietor of a copy be put 
out of pofl'offion ? Other men felling impreffions will not 
prevent him doing the fame," — Surely this Gentleman 
inufl be if:norant of the manner in" v/hich a profit ariCes from 
the fale of books ! The more Venders there are of any book, 
the fewer inipicIlionG mufl each bt^ capable of felling. Who- 
ever fells the books offered to fale by another, prevents the' 

• latter, in cftccl, from difpofing of what he offers to fale. 
To maintain the- contrary, would be the fame thing as to 
maintain,* that if an hundred people had a right of common, ' 
the ciaim of a thoufand others would be no infringement of 
the of t"ie former. 'I'liis Writer, indeed, fays, " if 
fcvcral perfons claim ellovcrs in a wood, if there be ilifficicnt 


' jtuthors to their own JVorhi ' 1^9 

for all, thefe rights interfere not one with another .'*• Very 

true; but, fuppofe there be not fufficient for all ?-i- — 

If Authors and Bookfellers could all find immediate cuftomers 
for as many editions as they could print, the right contended 
for would not be worth difputing. But the fale of a book is« 
in a great meafure*, confined to a certain* number; .and if 
that number be fold by one perfon, no other perfon can fell 
any : the profits, therefore, of an Author or Proprietor may 
hence be evidently diminifhed, and his right invaded. Our 
Lawyer will probably objeft, that this is not properly^ and 
abfolutely a difTeiffin ; it may amount, however, in many 
cafes, to much the fame thing, and in fome to much worfc ; 
as when the proprietor of a book prints an edition of it, and 
is foreftalled, in the publication, by fome other Bobkfeller; 
in which cafe he is not pniy prevented from reaping the pro- 
fits he expelled from the fale of his impreffion, but is frequent-^ 
ly obliged to fit down with a great lofs. Setting this latter 
confideration, however, afide, it muft furely be thought a 
ftrange kind of law that does not allow a pofleflbr a property 
in a thing becaufe he cannot be totally divefted of it, orftrip-^ 
ped of it at once. If a man be not turned out of his houfe, 
it may be faid, he is not put out of pofTeifion ; but, if <twen-4 
ty or thirty people are allowed to enter it, and take up free 
quarters with his family, he might almofl as well, and fome-^ 
times better^ be fairly kicked out of doors. 

With refpeft to what the Author of the Enquiry hath ad- 
vanced, concerning the right of property in Ideas, the pre- 
fent Writer does not think it neceflary to give his arguments 
a ferious refutation, ** as the principles themfelves from 
whence they are deduced, appear indefenfible." He might 
have rallied him, however, very fuccefsfully on a point which 
the latter feems to make of fuch mighty importance ; and^ 
particularly, on the following flrokes of metaphyfical cafu- 
iflry. *' Simple ideas, being obvious to all, cannot be ex- 

• We fay, in a great meafure. It is a maxim, indeed, in fome 
commercial countries, that Traders generate Trade, and that the con- 
fumption of a commodity depends on the number of Venders. Thus 
it may be faid, if an Author has an exclufive right to his works» he 
will print no more copies than he can. difpofc of through his own 
channel, and by his own induftry : whereas, if tjie right of printing 
were laid open, more people wou'd print and be interclled in pufli- 
Ing off copies : which circumftancs would be advantageous to trade. 
This, however, is n political conHderation, that does not a^e^ the 
|>re(ent points 

1^^^"^ A J^.rlkaiim af tie txcJu/tve Right 3f^^^^^^^ 

cluGvcly poiTrfTed by an jr. Perhaps it may be faid, that thr j 
Author claims a property in the knowlegc, fentimcnt, and! 
doftrine contained In his book* All thdc arc compofed ofj 
fimplc idcis, and arifc from our perception of their agree-] 
ment or drfagreemcnt. Perception h a power or quality of] 
the mimi I'o poflefs this power exclufivcly* is to reftraia j 
all men from cxercifmg their faculties on their own ideas^j 
Percepiion is an accident, the mind is the fubftance* Per- ' 
ception is an acceflbry, the mind is the principal. It is ab* 
furd to claim a property in the acceflory or accident, when 
the fubftance or principal is incapable of it. Therefore we 
cannot pretend to limit mankind in their faculties, till we 
have proved ourfelvcs intitled to a fpccial property in their 
minds." Is it not furprixing that fo fubtle a Reafoncr ihould j 
not fee the paralogifm he is guilty of, in confounding an cx» 
cIufiYC right to niuke a certain ufe of particular fentiments^ 
and an cxclufive light of forming thofc fcntiments in the 
mind ? Again, he fap, ^* if a fcntiment, thought, or doc- 
trine is capable of property, it is neccflkry that the proprie* 
lor Oiou!d fignify to all men his intention of converting it ta 
his own ufe/* Now it is not to the intellectual or private 
ufe of fuch fcntiments, that a right is pretended *, but to a 
corporeal and public ufe of them ; i* e. to the publifliing 
for profit, or the vending written or printed copies of fuch 
fentiments. The Author alfo, in vending fuch copies, for a 
ftipulated price, gives a fufficient indication, as the prefent 
Writer juftly obfervcs, of his intention to appropriate fuch 
publication to himfclf. 

The Author of the Enquiry iffefls to think it a ftranj^e | 
phenomenon, that an incorporeal right ftiould partake of the 
nature and qualities of a corporeal property. For our parts, 
we mull own, we do not fee the great propriety of making 
uCc of this technical diftindtion in the prefent cafe ; and ftill j 
Icfs that of the Enquirer's; rcafoning on it* In fettling the iia-» 
tural foundations of property^ he talks aS if the firftof a!l na- J 
tural rights were corporeal, and obtained by occupancy- ** If I 
two perfons, in a ftate of nature, fays he, (hould have been \ 
willing to poflcfs themfch^es of the fame fruit or animal, the I 
difpute muft have been decided by the ftrcngth and courage 
of the part if s. To prevent hatred, anrmolity, and blood- 1 
fhcd, mankind tacitly agreed, that what could not be enjoy- j 
cd by all, fhould become the property of the firft-taker. This * 
IS the origin of property/* Now^ fo far from thinking this I 
the true origin of property , we conceive the firil natural 


Authcfs to their ozin JVorku 


right to be incorporeal. The firft, and moft inJilpuutle^ 
right of every man that comtfs into the worlJ, is a right ot 
exiftence. Self-prefer vation is Nature's firft law; in fuch a 
Hate, therefore^ every man had an equal right to the means 
of fubfiftcnce, even before he knew in what tho(e means 
fionfifted. He bad a right to provide for himfel€> and his 
property in fuch ^rovifion commenced the moment he had 
made it. Each man having this right it became unjuft in 
every other, either to deprive htm of thofe means of fubfift- 
cnce which he had been at the trouble of providing, or t^ 
prevent his making fuch provifion. In cafes, therefore^ 
where the meai>s of fubfilience were fo far pofieflcd in qua* 
Uty, or accumulated in quantity by forre, ai to prevent others 
&om making the equ:dly neceffary provilion ii^x tbemfelves, 
the poiTcflbrs had evidently infringed the rights if they had 
not invaded the a<5tu J property, of the reft. It became requi- 
site, therefore, that the firft-taker ftiould defift from making 
fuch ample provifion for himfelf. MankinJ cannot be fup- 
pofed ever to have tacitly agreed to any thing inconfiftent 
with their own fubfiflence and prefervation* Every man who 
fits down at Nature's table, has a right to elbow-room. 

Hence, alfo, we may fee, that fuch a right of occupancy, 
as belongs to him who firft takes pofieilion, and fets up his 
land-mark, is neither fo valid, nor fo well founded, as that of 
him who firit bellows his labour on th^ cultivation of the foil. 
In a ftate of nature, the right of a firft poflejTor is condlrional, 
and his pofleflion ufufruAsary. A lime might come when he, 
who had before a juft claim to a certain portion of land, or 
the fruits of the earth, may lofe that right by the increafe of 
his fpccies : but no time could ever happen, in a ftate of na- 
ture, when one man covdd deprive another of his right of ex- 
iftence, orW a juft claim to the produce of his ingenuity or 
indultry. That natural, incorporeal right, therefore, which 
an Author has to hi? works, as the inventor of the fcheme 
invented, or the maker of the thing made, is more indifput- 
able than any corporeal right which may be claimed by occu- 
pancy to the things of nature. 

But, fuppofmg an Author^s property in his copy to be no 
better founded than that arifmg from occupancy. In the En- 
quirer's fenfe of the word i yet, furely a Writer's having 
made a difcovery of an intclledual fpot, or cultivating one 
that has been hitherto barren and fruitlefs, is fufficient to give 
Jjim a right to it, or at leaft to the produce of his labour ! 

M 3 As 

iSz y/ ri:id:cati::2 cf the cxclujivc Right of 

As to the other part of the property which depends on the 
form and compofition of the book, the Author of the Enquiry 
advances nothing better than that ^^ it is an accident whicn 
never can be the fubjc^ of property, of which the fubftance 
is incapable." This, however, is juft fuch a logical quibble 
as we have above inftanced ; a mere playing with the words, 
lubftance and accident : It might as well be maintained, that 
the form and compofition of the moft labdurcd complicated 
machine, is no othcrwife fufceptible of property than on ac- 
count of the worthlefs materials of which it may be compofed. 
Nay, we fee little difference between this and the well-known, 
abuirdity which the fame Writer inftances and explodes. 
^ If Titius compofes a poem, a hiftory, or oration, on your 
paper, you are dill the proprietor, and not Titius, for the 
writing is but accelFory." 

The Author of the pamphlet before us, confiders the Pro- 
prietor's right to a literary copy in another point of view, and 
{hews, that it has all the qualities of property, and is eafily 
governed by the known and eftablifhed rules of law : but 
what he advances on this head, will be, with more propriety, 
taken notice of under our third divifion. Before we difmifs 
the firft, however, we muft go on to take notice of a diftinc- 
tion or two, which the Lawyers have admitted as eifential to 

The Author of a Letter to a Member of Parlianicnt*, on 
this fubjecl, had obferved, that things fufceptible of property 
muft have thefe two eflcntial conditions ; that they be ufeful 
to mankind ; and that they be capable of having their poflef- 
fion afcertained. For without the firft, adds he very judici- 
oufly, fociety will not be obliged to take the right under its 
protedion ; and without the fecoi^d, it will never venture on 
the trpuble. Npw, it is aifirmed, a literary copy, has both 
thefe conditions. The Enquirer maintains the contrary. An 
Author': property in a book, he fays, cannot be afcertained, 
bccaiife if fuch property cxift at all, itexifts in the fentiment 
aiul douirinc contained in it, ?.nd not in the form and compo- 
fition. Ke obferves, that " whoever reflech on the niim- 
hor of excellent books that have been written on every fub- 
;cc^, and compares with them the productions of modern 
Authors, will hnd very few of the latter whofe fentiments are 
new or original. Authors who feck redrefs for invafion of 
their pi o|'crty, muil prove the originality of their fentiments. 

• 5cc Review for Jul; lall, page 73, 


jfidhon to their twn TVorks, 

This, as afdift, muftbe fubmittcd to the difcretron of a Jury* 
It may* perhaps, be difficult to determine, whether an Au- 
thor would be more enibaraffed in proving his cafe, or the 
Jury in giving their vcrdi<^, efpccially if the fubjeiSl of the 
compofition be an abilrad fciencc. If an improvement is 
made on the difcoveries of another, may a fuit be inftitutcd 
for a literary trefpafs ? Admitting, in favour of learnings 
that a reafoiuble improvement might in tide us to a property 
in the ideas of anr>thcr, how fhall the juft degrees be afccr- 
tained ? By the law of England, the Judges can alone de- 
termine what is reafonabie, and what unreafonable. Learned 
as they are, they muft be unequal to fuch a tafk, which re- 
quires univcrfal reading and knowlegc. The Courts of 
Weftminfter would be filled with fuits hitherto unheard of. 
Poet would commence his aSion againft Poet, Hiftorian 
againft Hiftorian, complaining of literary trefpafles. Juries 
would be puzzled, what damage to give for the pilfering an 
anecdote, or purloining the fable of a play. What ftrange 
changes would neccfiarily enfue !— In order to afccrtain the 
true meafure of damai^cs, it muft firfl be difcov^ercd wherein 
the property lies/* Doubrlei's it muft ; and we cannot help 
thinking, that fome of the advocates for literary property have 
made a blunder, in granting that **^ the ds^lyines contained in 
a book conftitutc its true -^wA peculiar propcrtj%*' For not- 
withftanding ail the Enquirer has advanced about the fubftan- 
tiality of ideas, we cannot help thinking, fuch property <fon- 
fifts chiefly in the form and compofition : at lealV, this being 
all that can be in any good degree afceitained, it is all the 
property capable of being legally fccured. We may expofc 
a Plagiary ; but we are afraid, that even in fuch a court of 
literary judicature as the Enquirer would eftablifti, it would 
be very di^cult to profccute htm as a ihicf. A book which is 
not cflentially diftinguiflied by its form an4 compofition, hath 
hardly any title to the name of a book, or liter ar^" cop^% at 
•^IL It is eiUemed a venial plagi;;rifm, to rob a Di<3ionary ; 
fo that in fuch works the proprietors pofl*cfs in fa<ft no cxclu- 
five right to the publication of any thing but the title-page. 

It is very juftly obferved by the prcfcnt Writer, that he 
who obtaiucth the copy of a book, may appropriate the flock 
of ideas contained therein, and, by oppofing fuch fuuimcnts, 
may give birth to a new dodtrinc j or, fays he, fpeakiag iti 
the perfon of an Author, ** he may coincide with my notions, 
and, by employing different i II ullra lions, may place my doc- 
trine ia another point of view : and in cither cafe he acquir- 

M 4 cUi 


184 y^ /'.'?;.:^,vr;/;;;; cf th^ erch'fire Ri-ht of 

eth an exclufivc xn\^\ to his copy, without invading my pro- 
perty : for thoifgh he may bq faid to build on my foundation, 
yet. he rears a different fuperftruftiire. An inconJUerable acidi* 
tion or improvement, however, will not fupport his claim : 
^hc fupplying literal or verbal omiflicns, or the correfting of 
literal or verbal errors, for inftancc, will not be fufficient to 
found a new right in him : and a Jury endowed with the (li;;ht- 
cil degree of common underftanding, may, be the fubjeft 
what it will, diftinguiih, or be taught to diftinguifli, where 
the difference is efl'ential, and where it is evafive." 

If this be not thought a fufficient anfwer to what the En- 
quirer advances, about perplexing the courts with caufcs of 
this' kind, wc may venture to fay, that an exclufive right tp 
the title, form, and compofition of the piece, will be liable 
to no fuch perplexity ; and that fuch a right is all that cither 
Authors or Bookfellers expeft the law can fecure to them. 

As to what has been advanced on either fide the queftion, 
about Utsiiiy as the bsifis of property in this fubjed^, it has 
' been to little purpofe. Mere pleafure, fays the Enquirer, is 
not the objed of the Legiflgture ; and therefore books of 
entertainment, wjb fuppofe^ are not fufceptiblc of property. 
The term. Utility^ however, is here made ufe of in a vague 
and indeterminate fenfe. DoCvS it mean a phyfical or political 
utility ? Is it that of individuals or of fociety ? There arc 
many inventions and difcoveries that have been adopted and 
encouraged, as ufeful to fociety, which have been neverthc- 
left evidently dcftruSive to 6ur fpecies. Mere amufemcnts 
and i(jle diffipations have alfo their political ufe. And there 
are fome governments that would think the exhibitions of a 

I>opular adtor or buffoon more ufeful than thedifcovery of the 
ongitude. It is idle, therefore, to talk of utility as the bafis 
of property, before wc afcertain what that utility is. Wc 
do not deny that the utility of a book is problematical ; but 
wc would be glad to know what new invention or defign is 
pot fo. 

The fccond affertion of the opponents of literary property 
is, that fuppofing a literary copy fufceptibje of property, it i$ 
Jncapable of perpetual exclufive pofleffion. 

If, indeed, this property be fuppofed to exifl: only in the 
fcii.iir.;:: " \\ or do<a:rinal part of the book, we fee no poffibi- 
lity ot ici.ring fuch perpetual exclufive pofleffion. But if 
we fuppv..' riat property placed where it really exifts, the dif- 
ficulty »Miiixhes, By its being incapable of fuch pofleffion, 


Juthors to their own JVorh^ 


however, is farther imderftood that it is inconCilent with the^ 
principles and pra£Hce of the common- I3W, fo to eAahlilll 
and proteft this p^opert)^ This matter wc flidl coniidej-, 
therefore, under the next divifion of our fubjea. 

What we have faid above, rcfpefiing the nature of this 
poperty* may kxyt as an anfwcr to what has been advanced, 
concerning that proteftion which the law is capable of afford* 
ing it. How far it has been protected by the commou-law of 
England, therefore, becomes the next obje<ft of conCdcra* 

Both the Author of the Ern^uiry^ and of the prcfcnt Fittdi^ 
cuii&n^ have, jn order to dear up this point, Gndeavourcd td 
trace back the claim in queftion to its fource, and to deduce. 
thence an argument in favour of their different opinions* 
Their method is ingenious, but we think no argument drawn*' 
from thence can be con^lufivc. Thf eftimation in which % 
property might be held when fuch property was of no value, 
is little to the purpofc. The ftrongcft hold, fays the pre^ 
fent writer, wherein the opponents of literary property have 
entrenched themfelves, h in the fimUitude between a literarjr 
copy and a mathematical or mechanical machine. 

It is admitted by all parties that at common-law, the in-. 
vcntor hath no property in the form of his machine i and 
hence it is queried ho>y the Author can claim any in hij 
copy ? 

The Author of a Letter to a Member of Parliament, en- 
deavoured to eftabliUi an elFcntial difference betw^cen a copy 
and a machine. His principal arguments were, That the 
chief exprnce of a machine is in the materials employed, 
whereas in that of a book it lies in the compoiltlon or inven- 
tion. That the imitator of a machine muft work with the 
ideas of the inventor, but that a book may be copied by the 
moft ignorant and illiterate fcribler ; That the inventor of a 
machine hath plainly no regard to any one's benefit but bis 
own, whereas the author writes for public ufe. Thefe argu- 
ments the Enquirer engages to refute. He obfcrvcs, in par- 
ticular, that it tu not always true that the chief expcnce of a 
machine lies in the materials employed : That the claim of 
an ignorant imitator of a machine is equally good with that 
of the illiterate tranfcriber of a book ; and that there arem^y 
ufeful machines invented, which are of no other benefit to 
the cDnftruflor than w*hat accrues from the fale of them. 
** Where then, fays he, is the juftice that the profit of the 


iS^^^^^f VhiS cation of the exdufwi Right ^^^^^^^^ 

Inventor Ihould terminate in the individual machine, which ■ 

EoiTibly might coft him (ome years in inventing, and might 4 
c imitated by another in a few days ? The end of the inven- I 
tor is not more fully obtained in the firft individual machine, J 
than the cjxd of the author, in the firft individual book/'l 
Jience he concludes that if the inventor has, at common- 1 
law, no excluTive right in his machine, it muft ncceirarilf I 
follow that the autl^or hath none in his copy. 1 

On the other hand, the prefent Vindicator takes upon him ^ 
to fecond and enforce the arguments before. advanced in fup- 
port of the eiTtntial difference in queftion. To this end, he 
makes two diftin6lions in a literary copy ; confidering it, 
1. as an ideal or doctrinal compofition ; and IL as a ma- 
nual or mechanical compofition. In the latter fenfe only he 
conceives it to refemble a machine, and to be cftcemcd an 
objeQ of trade- ** Therefore, fuys he, if the queftion was, 
whether a printer (hould have a perpetual exclufive right of 
printing, the argument which places a book on the fame J 
footing with a machine, might apply with fome force. ButI 
an author's right to a literary compofition depends on dif-l 
fcreut principles. It is a compleat compofition, before it is^ 
printed, and before it becomes an objeft of trade/* Wc 
might here afk our author, however, what he means by an ob- J 
je5 of trade ? He owns that a Writer may fell his original j 
manufcript abfolutely for a grof^ fum, before it be printed at4 
all. Is it not then an obje<5t of trade ? If he has ever beeM 
at a bookfeller's fale, he might know that copies and Shares I 
uf copies are equally objeds of trade with printed or bounjl 
books *. How then can he maintain a literary copy to bw 
only an objc6t of trade, quatenui its mechanical compofition fl 
that is, fays he, the printingy ts^c F Again, he fays, 1 

'^ A maJ 

• SuppofiTig, howc%*er, that the trans fermg of copies from boolc3| 
fcllcfs to each other, as they are not the uldmntc contumtrs, fhoa!d be 
objected to, as a trade ; yet a machine may be a» ju'Uy faid to hs 
*.omplcated. when the dcfign of it is fully and compleatly pcrfcftcJ 
ujid a draught of it made, as a book when the m^ nuicnpt is finifh- 
cd. New invented defi^ns, and diawiugs of machines, mny be fold 
to njcchanics a^ well as copies of books to b6okkUers ; and one is irv 
every cafe Jtift ns mu«.h an object o' trade as the othtr. If iheie he 
fometiine^ more difficu ty in coi»lbuclitig a mechanical engine from a 
draught or drJi^n, thin la printing a book from a manadnpt, there 
h at other timci much Icfs. 1 hat defjgn alfa which is not reducible 
td pradicc is no more a perfc:! dcfign, than an illegible maauftript 
ba pcrfcft copy ofa bgoL* . 

Juthon ta their own ff^orh* 


^ A machme^ if exhibited to vie\^, may be copied or 

jniicatcd without the leave of the inventor — but an author may 
produce his copy, may ufe it in public^ and fuffer it to be 
rnfpedlcd, and yet nooNe without his confcnt can make them- 
fdves maftcrs of the contents.'* Now we may fafely venture 
to deny the truth of the airertions here advanced both in the 
one cafe and the other, as they thus ftand exprefled in gene- 
ral and indefinite terms. It muft be a very fimple machine 
indeed that, being exhibited to view, may be copied or imi- 
tated without leave of the inventor. An engine of a compli-. 
cated ftruiflure could not be thus imitated. Again, what 
copy can be produced, made ufc of in public, be infpc6led, 
and yet no one, without the confent of the author, be able 
to make himfelf mafter of the contejits ? If by infpeSlir>h^ 
indeed, our author means a bare, fuperficial view of the 
printed book, and not a perufal of it, we deny that fuch copy 
is publickly exhibited in the fame manner as a mechanical 
invention or machine whofe component parts are laid open to 
the eye of the fpedator j without which it canriot be Imitated. 
Suppofe, for inftancc, fo complicated a piece of mechanifm 
as a watch, had been invented at once, and by one man ; 
would any body have known how to imitate fuch a machine 
by looking on the cafe or the dial plate ? If you fay the watch 
is not exh'tbiiid to view unlefe it be opened and its movement 
expofed and fubjeited to -examination ; fo we fay muft the 
book too, and be fubmitted to as long and as curious a perufal ; 
in which cafe it muft be a very voluminous and extraordinary 
book indeed that might not be fooner imitated than the me- 
chanifm of a watch. It may be faid a man mufl have a 
prodigious memory to retain all the fentenccs in a book : 
but we know not that it is eflential to a book to be too vo- 
luminous for the memory ; nor that all, which may be 
original and worth imitating m a book, may not be ftolen 
fjrom it without our being under the neceffity of remembering 
the words of a finglc period. 

To this we may add, that a machine may, with as mueh 
propriety, be divided into a do(5trinal and mechajiical com- 
pofition as a book ; and that fo far is the imitator of the 
former from being under the neceftity of working with the 
ideas of the inventor, that he has no more to do with thofc 
ideas than an amanuenfti has to do with the ideas of his author. 
The inventor of a machine muft know and confider the na- 
t)jre of mechanic powers, the friction and other reftftance^ of 
^>odies, and muft form not only a theoretical fyftem of his 



A Vlnikatkn dfiht ixcJufivi Rt^b: if 

defign, but muft (ketch out its fcveral parts fo fiir in Mca ffcac 
he may lay them down when he pleafes on p^per. A nui- 
chine may be invemcd and defigned long hcforr it be con-. 
ILrudcd, The conftruflion is frequently the cufiefl part, and 
merely a manual operation. An imitator needs no know- 
ledge of all this ; he has only to follow his draught or mo- 
del. There arc to he found numbers of excellent workmen 
in London, who, fo far from*knowing the theory of the ma- 
chines they conftru^, know not even their ufe when they 
have made them. 

In a word, we think the advocates for literary pri>perty a 
little unfortunate, in their infiiling fo tenacioufly, and laying 
fo ^cat a ftrcfs, nn this pretended difFerencc- It is with 
much greater fuccefs the prcfcnt writer hath undertaken to 
confute what thr Enquirer had advanced, rcfpc^ir^ tlbe 
right in quclVIon having been recognized at commoa law. 

«* Let us fuppofc, fays he, a literary copy to be, a pcr- 
fonal thing, and it will be found to have every quality, by 
which the common Jaw of England hath denned and del- 
cribed this fpecies of property- For it may be acquired* i* 
By the King*s PrengiUive. %. By Gj/r, 3. By SaU, 4., By 
theft* 5. By teftament. 6* By adminiftration.^ 

** If may likewifc be recovered in the fame manner as any 
other pcrfnnal property : for if any one wrongfully poffcffeth 
htmfelf of an author's copy, he may fue what the law calls a 
mixed a£%ion againft him ; that is an a£iion to recover as well 
the thing demanded, as damages againft the WTX>ng doer for 
the unjuft detention : and we may challenge the oppofcrs of 
literary property to produce an mftance where it cannot be 
governed by the eftablifhcd rules of law," 

• The divilion of property into corporeal and incorpcrral f&v* 
this writer) makes no diffkiiliy in this cafe. For though the fcnti- 
mervl or doiftrinc, conHdcred abilradeHly, is incofporcal and idcil, 
yet, being imprcflcd in vifiblc chajaflcrs on the paper, ihc manu* 
icript copy is a corporeal fabje^l. 

The argunjcnt drawn by the writer of the En^ui'y fioro ilie pro- 
pofition that ** ideas are not fufccptiblc of property,** may be grant- 
ed without admitting his concluCons. For though idc;i5 confidercd 
abftrafledly, arc not fafccptabic of property, yet when JinprcfTed k 
vifiblc permanent charaders on paper, chcy then become as it were 
incorporated, and a litcnuy copy is thereby made the property of the 



Authors to their own Works. 189 

Our author then proceeds to the examinaiiion of levertl 
particular cafes, wherein literary property has come under 
legal confideration j in which he makes it appear very clearly 
that the arguments of the moft eminent lawyers, and the 
fenfe even of the legiflature itfelf, are all in favour of the 
author's cxclufive right *. We (hould extend this article, 
however, to too great a length,' (hould we entenupon thcfe 
cafes ; we muft, therefore, refer the curious reader to the 
pamphlet itfelf \ and proceed to the fourth article under con- 
fideration ; vi%. how far the eftabli&ment of the right in 
queftion would be prejudicial to the advancement of lettcn, 
and of ill confcquence to authors. 

With regard to the latter, the author of the Enquiry in- 
dulges himfelf in the following piece of declamation and rail- 
lery. /* If one was to take into confidcration, fays he, all 
the inconveniencies refulting to authors themfelves from the 
cftablifhment of this property, they would be found very nu-. 
merous. The profefiion of an author is of all others the 
leaft profitable f. By the (hidy of anticnt poets and philofo- 
phers, they eafily contract a contempt for riches. Hence en- 
fue a negleft of domeftic concerns, and diftrefled circum- 
ftanccs. If their works were to become a property, they 
might be taken in execution for debt. Creditors would ra- 
vifli from dramatic writers their half-formed tragedies, from 
Clergymen their pious difcourfes, the fpiritual food of their 
refpeSive flocks. A moral eflfay might go in difchargcof a 
debt contracted in a bagnio. Philofophy, poetry, metaphy- 
fics, hiftory and divinity, would be taken in fatisfadion for 
ilay-tape, *Duckram and canvas, or legs of mutton, calfshead^ 
and other articles, which ufually comppfc a taylor's and a 
bjutcher's bill.*' All this is doubtlefs very fpirited and pretty ; 

• The arguments which the author of the Enquiry advances on 
this head arc io general vague, declamatory and inconclufive. Hij 
propofal for ere^ng a literary court of judicature is evidently un- 
neceHary, and the practice of foreign nadons in this refpcdl little t^ 
the purpofe. 

t How is this confiftent with the writer's fuppofition that a rich 
irritated author, might be as profitable a client, as a rich litigious 
widow ? However tenacious he might be of his literary credit, hr 
would certainly care little about this kind of property unlefs he might 
b? fuppofcd to draw fome part 2t leaft of his wealth from that foiircc. 
When the poverty of authors was a truer jeft than at prefent, their 
property was not Woith contending for. The prefent difpute if a 
proof that their profcffion is grown more lucrative. 


150 A Vlndimihn of the excUtfivi Ri^t of ^^^ 

but furely the Enquirer forgot that he was here enunleratln^ 
grievances. Is It then a grie^'ance for a man to be enabled tb 
pay his debts, with a thing of no value ? If he has i»o 
property in his works, of what ufe can they be to him ? He 
would make but a poor dinner, as Jeremy fays in the play, 
on the maxims of Epifketus, or his own comments on them. 
If his taylor, his butcher, and his landlord, will take his 
writings for meat, cloths, and lodging, fo far from thinking 
this an inconvenience, we believe there is many a well-mean- 
ing author will be glad to quit fcores with them. The pro- 
felTion of an author might not alfo be fo unprofitable as the 
Enquirer now fuppofes it. It is, however, a very drole man- 
ner of efpoufing the caufe of poor authors, by endeavouring 
to prove they have no property in their own works, becaufe 
if they had they might pay their debts with them. But, per- 
haps, this writer thinks it inconvenient for men of fuch a 
philofophical turn to be out of jail. Be tlys as it may, it is 
clear that this writer inlftakes the cafe ; he fays, " If an au- 
thor had been willing to have taken the benefit of the infol- 
vem a<St, he w^ould have been guilty of perjury (on the fup- 
pofitionof his having an cxclufive right to (M his own works) 
if he had not difcovcred his manufcripts. His creditors 
might infift on publifliing bis familiar letters : for that fpccics 
of compofition is as much a property as any other/' If Mr. 
Enquinr hath not mi (Ted the mark here, either an author, by 
publilhing a book, gives up all the rights he before enjoyed 
in common with the reft of mankind, or elfe aJl mankind 
xnuft be fct down for authors. If the familiar letters of one 
mr,n are literary com pofit ions, fo are thofc of another ; and 
every man, as well as an author by piofeffion, on becoming 
a bankrupt or taking the benefit of an infolvent ad, may be 
faid to be perjured in the fame manner, for not giving up 
what fometimcs might hang him if he did. But fuch kind 
of arguments arc not indeed worth a fcrious refutation. _j 
With refpe<5l to the prejudice, which it is pretended the eftaj 
blifliment of this contelied right would be of, to the cuufc oH 
letters in general, nothing of nny weight has been offered J 
On the contrary, however, what is advanced by the prefentl 
writer in behalf of authors and book fillers is well worthy! 
conftderation. I 

** What a prejudice, fays he, would the caufc of Litcratu rtfl 
fuftain, were Writers deprived of the cxcluftve right to ihcirl 
own produdions, and of the priviJegc of transferring them }\ 
Should this determination ever take place, the public rnuft 
Q never 

Authors to their own IForJts. 


never more expeft works of great length and difficulty, the 
execution of which demand the united contribution of» per- 
haps, more than twenty opulent Bookfellers, who hazard a | 
certain fum on the profpe^ of uncertain gain. 

'* If an Author cannot maintain an exclufivc right to his 
copy, the powers of genius muft langiiifli, and few will have 
an opportunity of producing thofe excellent talents with 
which Nature hath enriched them. Scarce any produftions 
will iflTue from the prefs, but hafty fugitive pieces, calculated 
to fcrve the run of the day, and which will excite as little 
temptation, as they afford opportunity, for piracy. 

** It were to be wifhed, indeed, that Authors could re- 
ceive the whole profits, orfuftain the whole !ofs, arifing front 
the publication of their works 5 and that fiookfellers were,. 
what the word importcth, mere venders of copies. But this, 
however natural and reafonable In fpeculation, cannot, for 
the reafons above affigned, be reduced to pra*3ice. Few Au* 
thors can advance money for a work of any expcnce, and 
wait their rcimburfement by flow returns. Neither have 
they, as formerly, the means of procuring the patronage of ' 
the Great, but muft approach them through the channel of 
the public. Therefore, if they have not an exclufive pro- 
perty in their works, and confequently a power of transfer- 
ring fuch right, learning will (bon be loft among us; the' 
gloom of Gothic ig^norance will foon darken the age, and ex-' 
linguifli every beam of fcience."' 

Having thus endeavoured to give our Readers an impartial 
view of this intereiiing difpute ; it may be gathered from the 
whole, that the exclufive right contended for, is clearly to$ 
be afcertained, has been recognized, and may be governed, ' 
by the known and eftablirtied rules of law : that i: will pro-, 
ducc no intoavenience cither with regard to the Author or I 
the public; but that, on the contrary, to deprive Authors of 
this right, will be injurious both to the public and them-, 
felvcs, and in the end, deftrudive of literature. We have, | 
only ta hope, therefore, with the prefcnt ingenious Writer, 
that this right may be judicially ellablilhcd, and prcferved 
inviolable to lateft pofterity. 


[ '9^ ] 

Csnds^m'cf thi Mimical Ohfervattons ana inquiru:^ See oO 
laft, page J04* 

THE twcnty-firft aiticle, is a ftK^rt acc6unt of a mortal 
Fcirer at Senega]^ from Mr, Vage, communicured by 
Dr. Brocklclby. The principal obfcn'^auon is, the ill con- 
fequencc of bleeding in it. One oi two men^ nearly of the 
fame habit, and fickcning of it at the f»ime time, loft (m 
ounces of blood ; the other was not bled i in other refpeSf 
they were created cxaftly alike ; yet the recovery of the firft 
was protracted to double the term of the other. 7" he expt^ri- 
ment was repeated with the fame event in two others. This 
fever fcems to differ eflentially from moft of our ftationSiry 
or even epidemic ones, in this illand. All who were coma- 
tofe, with a dry furface, died. 

The twenty-fecond, gives the account and cure of a Fiftula 
in each Tefticle^ The cafe is really curious ; fmce after 
a fuppuration in both the con tu fed tdlicles, the feed ouzed 
from eachj the patient, however, thinking himfelf cured at 
the end of fix months, married ; but found no fpermatic 
cmiflion thro' the ordinary paiJage in coition, though a great 
increafe of the former difchargc through the fcrotum, and 
attended with pain. The Relator, Mr. Ingham, after tha 
ufc of emollient cataplafms for three weeks, opened both lif-* 
fulas^ diflc£led off all the indurated parts j extirpated a large 
portion of the lower part of the EpididymUy and then heal- 
ing the incifion5, the natural funflions of the tcftes were per* 
fcaiy reilored^ 

The twenty-third, fent by Mr, Kirkland, Surgeon at Aflr- 
bydc ta Zoiich, to Dr. Hunter, contains a curious cafe, the 
fuccefs of which may ferve to introduce an ufcful improvji^"" 
ment in furgcry, by the application of thin pieces of fpung 
after amputation* Both the caft; and the method are fenfiblj 
and properly exhibited ; but as they employ above eight pages J 
we muft refer our readers to the whole ; and (hall only oh- 
fcrvc, that thin flices of fpungc were applied, as foon as di- 
gcftion was complcat, over thin layers of dry lint immedi«i 
atcly covering the wound : by which contrivance, the fpuno^ 
imbibing the thinner part of the difchargcd humour, the re- 
mainder proved too thick to be abforbed into the blood, 
ufual ; and confcqucntly prevented the purulent, colliquative 
fevers, or profufe haemorrhages, v/hich fometimcs fucce 
large amputations. In the prcfent cafe, the manifcfily puru- 

2 ' Icat, 

eni hquiriih 

Icntftools, artd ftill more purulent urine, were entirely alter- 
ed hy this application \ and all the other very unpromifing 
f)inptoms vanifbingf the patient was cured. 

The twenty-fourth, exhibits an iiivetcratc dropfical cafe, 
communicated by Dr. Alexander Mackenzie. This was 
cured, after feveral incffeftual medicines, and three tappings, 
chiefly by a fpontaneous vomiting of above fifty pints of fe- 
tid dirty water, with extraordinary cxplofions of wind al- 
moft every minute, for twenty-four hours. The patient is 
affirmed to have recovered his health, and his natural plight 
entirely ; and to have died fifteen months after of a frenzy, 
from a violent fit of paiTion, and a finall contufion of the 

The twenty- fifth relates a moft remarkable reparation of a 
large part of the thigh-bone, which was fent to the Society, 
with the account, by Dr. Mackenzie. It was (tvcn inches 
and a half in length, and feparatcd folely by the ©economy 
of Nature, in about three years after a blow received on 
the thigh ; Nature alfo fubitituiing a caJlus fo equivalent, 
that this thigh is as firm as the other, and the halt in the 
man's walking, fo little as to be fcarcely perceptible. Di", 
Mackenzie's refledlion on the whole, including another, 
fomcwhat fimilar, cafe, is fo fenfibJe, and fo very humane, 
that we could not prevail on ourfelves to omit it* 

** On the whole, fays he, it is obvious the cure was all the 
work of n^iture and time \ -^nd m^y not it ferve as acaudon to 
Surgeons, not to be too precipitate in amputating limbs ? I 
have myielf, by beftowing time and care, favcd many limbs 
that were condemned, particularly in the year 1740; I then 
living in Virginia, was called by Chriftopher Robinfon, Efq; 
of Middlefex county, to amputate, or be prefent at the 
amputation of a leg above the knee, of a Ncgroe boy of 
twelve years old : upon dilating a fmall gleeting hole about 
three inches above the knee, on the outfide of the thigh ; 
and introducing a jointed or fcrcw probe, I found the 
bone carious to fuch a height, and withai the patient fo ema- 
ciated with the tedious difcharge, and a hc£tic fever, that I 
difluaded attempting the operation, but had the Negroe fcnt 
to Colonel Samuel Buckner's houfc in Glouccfter county^ 
where 1 lodged ; and by different methods of exfoliating ; 
proper internal medicines, but, above all, by a nourilhing 
good diet, and eighteen months adlduou^ care, I faved the 
" R£v. Sep. 1762. N leg 

174 Jfr-iicai Of'it'f idtlojs 

Jqg and life of my patient, fcnt him home fouiid and wclf^ 
and left bim eight years after, a very ftout ftrong man, with- 
out any dcjgree of Jaroenefe." 

An account of a difeafed T7i/>, by Dr. Hunter, is annexed 
to the preceding article ; and good engravings of the bones in 
both cafes, and of the Callus in the lalf, are added at the end 
of the volume. In this laft the middle part of the native ori- 
ginal Tihia^ being deprived of all circulation, loft its connec- 
tion with the Periofleumy and was gradually loofened from 
both its living extremities, which produced slCgHus^ extend- 
ing from one to the other, giving firmnefs and inflexibility 
to the part, and (hooting in form of a tube, fo inclofed the 
exfoliated, or loofened, part, that though quite loofe, it 
could not be fcparated. Dr. Hunter fubfcribing here, in gc- 
Bcrad, to the precept which Dr. Mackenzie drew from the 
fiormer inftance, thinks the prefcnt one feems alfo to prove^ 
that Art may (ometimes cure a difeafe which would get the 
l|etter of Nature ; whence, in Surgery, as in Phyfic, there 
will always be a field for the exercife of Judgment, 

The twer>ty-fixth article is a letter from Mr. Matthew Tur- 
ner, Surgeon, to Dr. Fothergill, on the cure of J/carides by 
tobacco fumes in form of glyfter. This laft expreftion is ra- 
ther improper, as glyjjer implies the injedlion of a manifeft- 
nquid : but the application or immiflion of any vapour, h 
termed a fumigation, this being fo immitted thro* the anus bv 
means of a tube dircfted by Heifter. The Afcarides were dif- 
charged in great numbers ; and there v^ no doubt but it may 
♦ften prove a remedy in fuch cafes, in ftrong fubjefts, fuch ag 
the prefent feems to have been. Thefe fumes have often been 
received in America, in obftinate conftipations from the Mxk 
Belly-ach, and not without effe£l ; though fome tender fub- 
jcds have fuffered a temporary convulfion from them. 

The twenty-fcventh is an account of the great benefit of 
Blifters, applied to the region of the Os Sanum^ in inconti- 
nence of Urine, and Palfics of the lower extremities : by Dr. 
Dlckfon. The Doftor was confidcrably induced to this appli- 
cation from rcflefting, that moftof the nerves that go t6 the 
bladder, pafs through the Foramhia or perforations of the os 
. facrufn. He gives the. Society three ihftances of its fuccefs in 
1ms own patients, and a fourth rn a letter to himfelf, from 
Mr. Woll"ey> Surgeon ?.nd Man-midwife. 

The twentv -eighth exhibits an uncommon cafe of the fcpa- 
ration of the OJJa pubis : by a Phyfician in the country^ commu- 

nicated by Dn Hunter. All the compfamts of this Pa- 
tient^ who ilied about the eleventh daj' after delivery^ arc cx- 
acHy detailed in about twelve pages : to which fomc curious 
anatoinicd remark* on the Symphsjii^ or dole uaion of thcfc 
hones, commonly conJidered as one, are fubjuint.d by Dr. 

The twcrjty-nmth ts employed in fcvcral obrcrvations on 
a diilocatcd Shoulder, which could not be reduced ; fhew- 
big the obftacles to trs reduftlon, together with fome ge- 
neral remarks on the diflocations of this parr : by Mn 
Henry Thompfon, Surgeon to the London Hofpffiil. The 
appearances in this cafe, on dhTeSion, and on a fubfequcnt 
one included in this article, are accurately defcribed ; and 
it appears, that in both of them there was fome fra<Sture 
of the bone and its capfula^ the capfular Hgament being 
complcatly torn off in the firft. The whole concludes with 
fome pra^ical remarks, to which we refer our chirurgical 

The thirtieth, inculcates a new method of treating an Aneu- 
rifm, m an cxcraft of a letter from Mr, Lambert, Surgeon 
at Ncwcaftle upon Tjme, to Dr* Hunter. This well con- 
ceived and'ingcnioufly applied method was happily executed, 
by pafling a ftce! pin, one 4th of an inch long, through the lips 
of the wounded artery, and then fecuring it, as in the operation 
for a hare-lip, by twirting a thread round it. The operation 
Was performed June 15, and the Patient difir.iflcd pcrfeftjy 
well July 19 following; the pulfc of that arm remaining 
jiearly as ftrong as in the former. The method is related 
with perfpicuicy and concifenefi ; and the article is con- 
cluded by a proper query on the further extending of this 
operation, fo as to prevent fome, othcrwife inevitable, am* 
pu rations. 

The next article, U from Mr. Triquct, Surgeon of 
the Guards, and may be confidcred as if it had been an- 
nexed to many preceding ones, on the great efficacy of the 
Sublimate Solution, and of the Sarfaparilla. I he phage- 
denic ulcer cured by them, is attributed to ^ fcorbutic habit 
of body. 

In the thirty- fecond, Mr, Bard a Surgeon at New- York, 
informs us of an extraordinary extra-uitrrinc Foetus ; in a letter 
to Dr. Fothcritill. It was extni<^ed in the mother's life time, 
who has fuckled a healthy child fmcc the o[i rhe tu- 

mour, and the healing of the wound throu^U i a was 

N 2 cxtra^' 



196 J^edkal Olfervations and Enqurna* 

extraded. Extra-uterine F<r*ufcs are much oftener extracted 
from dead than living bodies ; a fimilar cafe occured to Mr. 
Marihal of Louth in Lincolnfliire, about twenty years ago. 

The thirty-third gives an account of a new method of re- 
ducing [diflocatcd] Shoulders : communirated to Dr. Hunter, 
by Mr. Charles XVhite, Surgeon to the Mancheftcr Infirmary. 
It may dcfcrvc the pcrufal of Surgeons, as it contains three 
fuccefsful inftanccs of this manner of reducing this difloca- 
tion ; which was chiefly cffctEted by drawing the Patient up 
by the diflocatcd arm, and letting the extenfion be made, in 
ii great mcafurc, by the weight of his depending body. The 
moft recent diflocation yrm of a fortnight s ftanding, the old- 
eft, of three months* 

The thirty-fourth relates the fuccefsful treatment of a Lock- 
ed Jaw, fuppofcd to have been occafioned by a wound in the 
finger. It comes from the Surgeon juft named. After an 
amputation of the firft joint of the finger, the cure was ctfeft- 
cJ chiefly by Opium and the warm Bath ; the Patient having 
taken in about five weeks, three hundred and fcventeen grain* 
of Opium, bcAdes fcvcral draughts with liquid Laudanum, 
and Svrup of Poppies. Mr. White candidly acknow'cgcj, it 
W35 tfie recital of two cafes in the firft volume of this work, 
which dire^lcd him to purfue this efficacious method : feveral 
cafes of locked jaws have occurred in that town and irs vici- 
nage, within twenty years paft ; all which proved fatal* 
This finglc circumftance evinces the great utility of the pre- 
ftnt Medical Society. 

The thirty-fifth, !s another (hort cafe, communicated by 
Dr. Dickfon, and confirming the efficacy of a Blifter to the re- 
gion of the 0/ 5i7t7'//w. This happened to a man of twenty-fix^ 
after a drain ; and in all thefc fucccfsiful cafes the Blifter did 
not only cover all the region of the bone, but was extended 
from fide to fide. 

The tliirty*fixth and laft article, contains (mother Obferva- 
tion-s on a particular fpcctcs of Ancurf fm, by Dr. Hunter, Thi* 
refers to what he had published in the firft volume, on the fame 
Ipetics of it, which he does not recoil edi to have been men* 
tinned by any Author, vi7.. that fpecres of it, in which ther< 
jsa dircdt and immediate communicati'm between the wound- 
ed vein and artery j and which, he judiaoufly infers, (hould 
not be fubjcclcd to chivurgical operation. Two vcr)* rcmirk* 
able cafes are given In fupport of this judgment, the fubjeft 
of the laft being a Serviint oow belonging to the Middiefex 



Tbi Shipwrtck. A Poem, 1^7 

Horpital* The article is very curious and critical on the oc- 
caGoni and concludes with three pertinent queries, on the 
caufes of the various appearances in thcfe Aneurifms, and 
the Do*5ior*s very probable rationale of them. 

Thus have we given the moft comprchcnfivc fyn^pfis 
of the fubje^s of this valuable work, the continuation 
of which ihe preface encourages us to hope for. We 
had prcinifed, that Gentlemen of the medical profellions 
cpuld fcarcely acquiefce in the largeft abftract^ which our at- 
tention to many other performances would allow us to make. 
But w^e imagine our Readers in general would be difiatisfied 
with a lets circumftantia! information of the fubftance of the 
different articles than this we have prefented them. 

Wc muft not ornit^ that three good plates, containing 
fcveral figures^ are annexed to this volume ; and that the 
preface informs us, the authors do not chufc to condemn 
the ciiuta^ fo highly recommended by Dr. Storck, imtil it has 
been tried here under tv^ry pofTibJe advantage. 

The Shipwnck^ A PoetfU In th ree Canm, 
5 s, Millar. 

By a Sailor, 410- 

IT has been frequently obferved, that true genius will fur- 
mount every obftaclc which oppofes its exertion* The 
very poetical and intcrcfting performance before us, is a ftrik- 
ing proof of this obfervation. How unfavourable foever the 
fituation of a Staman may be thought to the Paet^ certain it 
is the two charafters are not incompatible : for none but an 
able Sailor could give fo diJadic an account, and fo accurate 
a defcription of the voyage and cataftrophe here related ; and 
none but a particular favourite of the Mufes could have cm- 

^ bcllifhed both with equal harmony of numbers and ftrength 

* of imagery. 

Unlcfs we are to attribute alfo a variety of aSe^ling cir- 
cumftances to the power of imagination, our nautical Poet 
appears to have been poflelTed of no inconfiderable fliare of 
fortitude, to poflefs, under fuch circumftances, fo tenacious 
a memory, if, as we conclude from fomc parts of the poem, 
and particularly from his motto*, he w:.s pcrfonally aboard, 
and ftiipwreckol by the ftorm he fo poetically defcriocs. 

• quxque ipie fniferrima vidi 

Et (^aorum pr» magna fui.- 


The rraiia fubjccl of the poem is the lofs of the fliip Bri- 
tannia, a merchant-man, bound from Alexandria to Venice, 
which touched at the ifland of Candia, whence proceeding 
on her voyage, fhe met with a violent ftorm, that drove her 
on the coafts of Greece, where fhe fufFered fhipwreck near 
Cape Cblonnc ; three only of the crew being left alive. 

After a proper, and not unpoetical, introduflion, the Au- 
thor begins his relation with a general intimation of his fub- 
jeA, and a comparative defcription of the ifland of Candia, 
wherein he expatiates on the difference bctw^een its prefeiit 
Aatc and that of ancient Crete. 

Thefe eyes have fcca, while famifh*d babes complain. 
The barren foil a fcv'ntb year till'd io vain ; 
Ivo lovely Htlens grace the w/etched (horc, 
Or Cythereas rival Gods adore : 
No fair Penelopes attrji^l the eye, 
Fpr whom contending Kings were proud to die : 
No blooming civceks, that fhame tne rofy morn, 
Or TnQwy brcaft thcJtanjU nymphs adorn. 
Dim would thofe charms, fo famM in Grecian lore, 
Appear* tranfported to Britannia's (hore. 

The {hip, putting to fea from the port of Candia, the Poet 
takes an opportunity of niaking feveral beautiful marine de- 
fcriptions, fuch as the profpc<ft of the fliore, a fhoal of dol- 
pbins> a water-fpout, the method of taking an azimuth, 
working the (hip, &c. 

In the fecond canto, the fhip having cleared the land, the 
ftorm begins, and with it the confultations of the pilots, and 
operations of the feamen ; all which the Poet has defcribed 
with an amazing minutenefs, and has found means to reduce 
the feveral technical terms of the marine into fmooth and 
harmoilioua numbers. Homer has been admired, by fome, 
for reducing a catalogue of fliips into tolerably flowing verfe ; 
but who, except a poetical Sailor, the nurfling of Apollo, 
educated by Neptune, would evci have thought of verfifying 
his own fea-lariguage ? what other Poet would ever have 
dreamt of reef- tackles, hall-yards, clue-garnets, bunt -lines,, 
lafcingfi, lannyards, and fifty other terms equally obnoxious^ 
to the foft fing-fong of modern Poetafters ? 

The following Jincs, taken from among many others of 
the fame kind, may fervc to {hew how fucceftfiiHy our Poet 
has veitttited out of the commoi^ road, to excel in his own : 

The main fail, by the f(^M fi> lately renb 
In (beaming pendants flyiog, is unbent : 


!%€ Shipwrixk, A Pom. 


Whh brails rcfix*d, another foon prepared, 
Afccnding fprcads along beneath ihc yard : 
*J^o each }:itd arm, the head- rope ihey extend, 
And fooii the carlngi and ihcrobnnds bend. 
That talk difpatch*d, they £rft the bracks flack, 
7 hen, to the chrfTtree, bring aboard the iack ; 
Aud, *vhilc the Ice clyc garnet's lowerM away, 
Taught aft the (hcet, they taUy, and bclay- 

If fomc of oyr Readers fliould find in this defcription toa 
much of the Sailor^ they cannot fail of being pleafed with 
the following, wherein they will find no \c(s of the Poet. 
After taking a curfory notice of the moll remarkable coun*- 
tries of Greece, he proceeds to the folJowiiig defcription of 

Contiguous here, with h allowed woods o>rfprctd 
Renown d ParnafTus rears rts honoured h^d ; 
There rofcs bloflbm in eternal fpnng, 
And drains cclelhal, feathered warblers fing ; 
Apollo, here, bellows th* unfading wreath. 
Here Zephyrs aromatic odours breathe ; 
They o*er t^aflalian plains diiFufe perfume, 
Where o'er the vales perennial laurels bloom. 
Here with immortal harps the facrcd nine 
Exalt to cxiacy their fongs divine ; 
In vocal melody their notes decay, 
And mch, to foftell love, the dying lay. 
Their numbers every mental ftorm controulj 
And luH to harmony th* atEided foal ; 
With heavenly balm, the tortur'd brcaft compofe* 
And iboth the agony of latent wocs. 
The verdant Oiades that Helicoo farroundp 
On rofy gales, feraphic tunes re found : , 
Perpetual fummers crown the happy hours. 
Sweet as the breath that fens Elyfian flower* ; 
Here picafure dances in an endlefs round, 
And love and joy incfTablc abound. 
Adieu, ye flow Yy vales, and fragrant fccnes. 
Delightful bow'rs, and ever vernal greens ! 
Ye winds that o'er Aonian v a Hies blow. 
Ye lucid ftreums that round Pieria flow : 
Ye virgindaoghters of the Sun, who dwell 
In blell Bceodan realms, a long farcwcl ! 
From happy realms reluAant now I go. 
To raging elements, and fcenes of woe, 

^^. Our Poet wi{hes for the powers of a Maro> to defcribe the 
iiorror:> of the raging feas> and the fate of thofc^ 



200 tlif Shlpwrfck, A Pom. ^^^^^1^ 

WI)o, on the "wtfgt of death, in fain deplore 
Impervious dangers on a lee-ward fhorc. 

Yet many of his dcfcriptions arc,» in our opinion, not at 
all in trior to any thing of the kind we meet wkh in the 
^neid ; many paflages in the third and fifth books of which, 
we conceive, neverrhelefs, our Author has had in view* They 
have not fuffered, however, by his imitation ; zn^ his Pilot 
appears to much greater advantage than the Palinurus of 

The fplitting of the Ship on the Rocks is thus rcprefcntcd 
in glowing and lively cotours. 

Lifted on path ring billows, up Oie flicsr 
Her lhattcr*d top half- bur iird in tlie (kksi 
Uornc ocr a latent reef, the hull impends, 
Then tKundVing o« the marble cr.igs dclccnds ; | 

Down on the vale of death, wiih h^-rrid eric*. i 

The fated wretches* trembling, call their eyw* I 

Loft 10 ail hope, when \o ! a Tccoiid Ihock I 

. Eil;:cs the fplitting vcfTcl on ihe rock ; 

IritT groaning bulk the dire concuffion feels, | 

An 1 with up heaving Hood3 ihe nod& and red^ ; 
Kepe^teii itrokes her craQung rib» divider 
Sheioofens, parts, and fpreadt in ruins o*er the tide. 

Nor is the Poet's talent confined to the dcfcrrption of ina- 
iiimate fccnes ; he relates and bewails the untimely fate of his 
companions, in the moft animated and pathetic drains. The 
clofc of the Pilot's addrcfs to the fca-mcn, in the time of their 
grcateft danger, is noble and philofophicaJ. After having 
given them fuch orders as were ncceltary in their difttefiful 
Iituation, he proceeds ; 

Tho* gieat the danger, and the taOL fcvere, ] 

Yei bdvv not to the tyranny of ftar ; 

If nnce that fla^fjfh yoke your fnuli fobdue, 

Adici cp hope 1 to life kfclf adieu I | 

Jsfo more I cm a ins, but now prepare to veer, ' 

Two Ikilful helm s men on the poop to ftcer 

And thou Etekkal P w*k I whofc fovcreign ftvay. 

The r ging llorms, and roaiing fcas obey I 

On thy fuprcinc afiiHancc wc rely, 

1 by mercy fupplicate. if doomM todie; 

To thy unf*,ring will fubmiffive tfuft. 

With whom, <* Whatever is, is ever juft/* 

It is impoflibic to read the circumftantial account of the 
^infortunate end of the ftiip's crew, without being deeply af- 


Sheridan*j LeBuns on Ehaaian, 


fcfted by the tale, and charmed with the manner of the rela- 
tion. But we have not room for ali the quotations with 
which we could entertain our Readers. We cannot rcfift 
the temptation, however, of copying the following lines, 
which end the poem. 

RoQs'd by the tcmpeft, and the bluR'rjng night, 
A troop of Grecians mount Coloone's height j 
When, gazing down with horrour on the flood. 
Full to their view, a fcenc of ruin ftood ; 
The f«rf with mangled bodies coverM o'er» 
And thofe yet breathing on the fea-bcat fhotc; 
Tho* loll to (ciencc and the nobler arts. 
Yet Nature's lore informed ihcir Gmple hearts : 
Strait down the vale their haftenmg flcps they bend« 
The wretched foiTcrcrs^ helpful to attend- 
Three fttll alive, in mournful plight* they find^ 
BenumbM and ihiv'ring, on a rock reclin'd : 
Th* affiefled natives, touch *d wiih gen'rous pain. 
The feeble fcamen in their arms fultain ; 
With pitying iighs, their helplefs lot deplore* 
And lead them trembling, from the fatal (hore. 

We have only to add, that the ingenious Author of thi^ 

ferformance, whofe name is Falconer, has infcribed It to the 
)uke of York, and has prefiKcd a Chart of the Ship's way, 
and a rc£tion of the Ship itfelf, in order to render this curious 
poem compleatly intelligible. 

j( Courfi of LiHures m Elocution : Together with Two Dijprta^ 
tions on Language \ and fomc other Tra^s relative to thofe 
SuhjeSfs* By Thomas Sheridan, A, M, 4to. los* 6d. 
fewed. Dodrtey, Henderfon, &c. 

HAVING, more than once, had occafton to declare our 
fentimcnts concerning the writings ot Mr, Sheridan, 
and the ufcfulnefs of that plan which he prufecutes with fo 
much aHidytty j we fhall, without any farther introduction, 
proceed to liy before our Readers an account of what is con- 
tained in the Lectures now before us. The general fatisfac- 
tion they gave when they were delivered, is a Itrong prefump- 
tion that they will meet with a favourable reception from the 
public ; the fub^eds of them are both ufcful and entertaining, 
and the Author's abilities well known* 


Wc are fcrry, howevcr» to find Mr* Sheridan ftill ^3cpre(l 
jng h'nafclf in the moft extravagant terms concerning 
powers of On A TORY* A very moderate acquaintance with 
mankind, we imigUie, would be iuiHcicnt to convince any 
pcrfon^ that fuch lomantic ftralns only lerve to e;cpoA: ao 
Author td the ridicule of difccrning Readers. 

In his int ' ^ v DifcOurfe, our Lc^urcr, fet3 out with 
obferving, \\ has been no maxim more frequently m- 

culcatcd, or more general ly a flrn ted to, than that human Na- 
ture, ought to be the chief ftudy of human kind ; and yct» 
of all fubj?d5, about which the bufy mind of man has been 
emplojed, it Is that^ he fays, which has been leaft attended 
to ; or with regard to which^ the fcwefl: difcovcrlcs have been 
jnadC) founded upon any certain knowlcgc. 

** Is It not amazing to reflcft, continues he, that from the 
creation of the world, there was no part of the human mind 
clearly delineated, till within the laft fixty years ? When 
Mr, Locke arofe, to give us a juft view of one part of ouj 
internal frame, th JJndifflandtng^ upon principles of philofo- 
phy founded on reafon and experience." 

He obfcrve«, that little or no benefit in point of pra*2icc^ 
has rcfultt-d from a difphy in theory, of the only part of th' 
human mind which has hitherto been laid open with accuracy,^ 
upon principles of true phtlofopby. The reafon he aiTigns 
for this is, the neglect of ftudpng our mother-tongue; and 
nothing dFcitua!, he fays, can be done in this ftudy, with- 
out making it a diftinfl branch of education, and encourag- 
ing proper iMafters to follow it as their fole employment, ia 
the fame way as the fcvcral Mafters in the other branches do** 

" But ftill, continues he, there are two other parts of the 
human mind, with regard to which the world 15 at thi5 day 
as much in the dark, as they were with rcfpciSt to the whole, 
previous to the publication of Mr. Locke's Effay : the one, 
the feat of the paflions \ for which we have no name as ex- 
iting in the mind, unphilofophically referring it to the organ 
of tcnfation, the heart : the other, the feat of the fancy ; 
which is called the imagination. 

*' Upon a right regulation of thefe parts of the mind, and 
the faculties bekm Mtur h\ them, all that is noble and pmife- 
worthy, ntl'that rand dclfghtful, in man, conildcred 

as a focial ficlng, ciucny depends. Yet fo far are wc froin 
having any juft view pfefenfefl td its of thofe importtrnt parts 
of our internal frame j or any well-founded knowlege of the 


Sheridan *i Licla-t's on ELxution, ' 20} 

principles by which the faculties bclon^ijig to thc(n.ou^t to 
be regulated ; that every day y^^ Tee lome new hypothdis ad* 
vanccd upon that fubje^, defigned to overturn all that went 
before, and laying in the fame claim, which all that preceded 
it had done, that of being the only right one. 

'' It will be allowed by all perfons of refleflion, that 

there is no fpcculative point more ardently to be wifhed for, 
than to have it in our power to contemplate thofc parts of the 
human mind which are ftUl concealed from us, or fiilfly view- 
ed through the mifts of error, with the fame clear fatisfacHon 
that we find in examining Mr. Locke's view of the Under- 
flanding. Bot, at the fame time, if the means were pointed 
out, of rendering both thcfe views pradically ufeful, by 
fhewing bow a general fpirit of good fenfe, and clearnefs ot 
reafon, might be propagated thro' the natives of this coun- 
try ; by fhewing how the paflions hurtful or dangerous to 
fociety may be fuppreflcd, and thofe of the nobler and focial 
kind, calculated to promote the general good, may be brought 
forward, invigorated, and carried into due exertion ; by 
fhewing how the powers of the imagination may be fo regu- 
lated as to diiFufe a general good tafte thjK>' the nation i ai 
point'eiTentially neceflary to promote fome of the nobleft ends 
that can be anfwered by the two other powers, thofe I meaa 
of a refined underdanding, and delicate fenfibility : it muft be 
allowed, that the execution of fuch a plan would tend more 
to the real benefit of this realm, than all the uninfpircd booka 
that have been written from the creation of the world to this 

Undoubtedly ; nay, Mr. Sheridan might have faid, more 
than all the inspired books that have been written from the 
creation of the world to this hour. — It is difficult to deter- 
mine, whether vanity or abfurdity is moft confpicuous in 
what he advances on this head. To fuppofe, that the paf- 
fions hurtful or dangerous to fociety may be fupprefjed^ and that 
thofe of the nobler and foetal kind may be brought forwardy in^' 
vigoratedy and carried into due exertion^ by any thmg that lan- 
guage or Oratory can perform, while human nature continues 
in its prefent circumftances, is, certainly, one of the wildeft 
notions that can poffibly enter into the thoughts of the wildeft 

What he fays concerning ,thofc two other important parts 
of our internal frame, with regard to which the world is at 
this day, as much 10 th^ dark, ^ they were with refped to 



SheridanV LtSfures en Ebcutldn, 

the whole, previous to the publication of Mr* Locke*s Effay,: ■ 
is, to U3, pcrfe^ftly unintelligible* It is natural to afk — has I 
Mr. Sheridan difcovercd any new faculties in the human mind ? ■ 
Is a right regulation of the feat of the pai!ions, of more im- I 
portancc than a right regulation of the paiHons themfelves? \ 
Are there any peculiar faculties belonging to the ilat of the 
paflions, and the feat of t!ic tancy ? Have the writings of 
Butler, Hutchefon, Smiih, Hume, &c, left us a^ much ia>J 
the dark, with regard to the pajftom and Imaginatt&n^ 33 man-'* 
kind were with regard to the umUrJland'ttig^ before the publi- 
cation of Mr, Locke's Effay ? 

" But it will be faid, continues our Author, hnw, or from 
whom is this to be expcdlcd ? Are not thefe the very points 
about which thcmoft eminent of our Writers h.«ve employed J 
their labours, hitherto to little purpofe ? Have not thcfc be.'ii^l 
the chief obje<5\s in the works of our moft celebrated Divines J 
Moral ifis, and Metaphyficians, Critics, Writers of Ellays J 
&c. and have we any reafon to believe that this age will pfo-^ 
ducc writings in thofe feveral ways fuperior to what hath hiJ« 
therto apj>eared ? Such are the queftiuns likely to be afkcd bjjl 
thofe whofe minds have been narrowed by an early falfe biaM 
given to us in our fyftcm of education^ and afterwards contt*^ 
nued through life ? I mean that extravagant idea entertained 
of the power of writing, far beyond what in itsna ure it can 
ever attain. But fuppofe it be aflirted, that this is the very 
canfe of the failure^ in the attempts madu* by fo many men of 
difltnguifhed abilities to reform mankind. Suppote it be af- 
fcrted, that they have all ufcd an intlrument, which in its 
very conftru6tion was incapable of accomplilhing the wofk 
they were about. In {horc» that fome of our greateft men 
have been trying to do that with the pen, which can only be 
performed by the tongue ; to produce cffccls by the dead 
letter, which can never be produced but by the living voice, 
with its accompaniments. This is no longer a mere alter- 
tion ; it is no longer proMcmatlcal. It has been demon - 
fttatctlto the entire fausfaclion of fome of the wifcft heads 
in thefc realms : and Readers of but modtrate dilcernmcnt, 
will find It fully proved in the fixth and feventh Lc£turcs, on 
Tones and Geftures ; and in tnc two following Diirertions 
on Language. 

** But that the bulk of my Readers may not enter upon the 
jiifcuflion of this point, with all their prejudices about them, 
they arc dcfired to reflc£l, that language is the great inftru- 
ment by which all the faculties of the mind arc brought for- 
ward » 

ShERTDAN'i Li^urei m Elocutwn. 


ward, moulded, polifhed, and exerted : and that wc have ia 
ufe two kinds ot language ; the fpokcn^ and the written. 
The one, the gift of God ; the other, the invention of man. 
Which of thcfe two is moft likely to be adapted to its end, 
that of giving the human mind its proper ihape, and enabling 
it to difplay all its faculties in pp rfeftion f 

** If they want to judge by effeifls prodtjccd in our owa 
times, how far the one language has the advantage over rhs 
other, let them only rtflct^^ on a recent inftancc of a late mi- 
ni fter, who by the mere force of cultivating the language 
beftowcd by the Deity on human kind» as far as he could 
carry it by his own pains, railed himfclf to the fole dircdion • 
of affairs in this country : and not only fo, but the powers 
of his living voice (hook dlftant thrones, and made the ex- 
tremities of the earth to tremble. When it is well known 
that had the fame feniiments been delivered in the language 
of men ; had they been fent out into the world in a pam- 
phlet ; they would probably have produced Icfs ct!c<5ls u^rv 
the minds of a few rcadcnj than tho'e of fomc hireling 
writers. And we have many flagrant inftanccs in our Me- 
thodic preachers, of the power which words acquire, even 
the words of fools and mad men, when forcibly uttered by 
the living voice. And if the Imguagc of nature be pofleircd 
of fuch power, in Itsprercnt neglected and uncultivated ftate, 
liow immenfc mufi be its force, were it carried to the fame 
degree of perfe£tion, that it was amongft the antieat Greeks 
and Romans ?" 

How immenfe indeed ! it mufl certainly ftiakc the foun- 
dations of the earth, and make the very pillars of Heaven 
to tremble. 

Had the Greeks or Romans been Weft with the light of < 
revelation ; hsd they been poflenred of fuch a religion, and 
fuch a cnnllitution as ours, together v/ith Tome difcovcric^" 
which time has produced ; they would, Mr. Sheridan fays^ f 
have carried all the powers belonging to human nature to tliq 
utmoft degree of perfeAion \ and the ftate of fociety amongft 
them would have approached as nearly to that blifbful ftaie, 
to which we are taught to look forwards^ a fellowftiip with 
angels, as the boundaries of the two worlds would permit. 
And would not this neceffarily be our cafe, were wc pofTeircJ 
ot thofe articles, in which the Greeks and Romans confcf- 
kdl/ excelled us ? We want only their Arts added to our 
- cicnccs. Now they had no arts whatfoever, wc arc told, iai 
6 ^hich 

7c6 Shfridan-'j Lt\'?urs en Ekcution, 

which they excelled us, that did not take their rife, either 
immediately^ or confequcntially, from the pains beftowed 
upon the culture of the language of nature, the living 
fpccch. — What is there wanting then amongft us, but to 
apply ourfclves with induftry to the fame means, in order to 
attain the fame ends. 

'' I know there are few, continues our Author, capable 
of tracing a fpeculation of this fort, thro* all its fteps, fo as 
to perceive the juftncfs of the dedudion. But I am now 
little fulicitous about what judgment fhall be paft upon the 
theory, Cnce the lime is approaching of trying it experimen- 
tally. A few I'enfible efteds produced from pra(5tice, will 
carry more convidion to the bulk of mankind, than a thou- 
{ond fpcculativc arguments. It is with true fatisfadion of 
beart I hail the approaching day, when all that I have ad- 
vanced upon this fubjcdl, will be put to that tcft.'* 

Happy, thrice happy Britain ! what a glorious day begins 
to dawn upon thee ! All thy fons are to have their under- 
ftandings enlightened, their taftes refined, their hurtful paf- 
fions fuppreffed, and all the nobler principles of their nature 
invigorated, and carried into due exertion. The giant Cor- 
ruption, with his hundred hands, is to be banifhed from 
this realm of freedom, the fetters of that tyrant Custom to 
be broken, and the bonds of prejudice to be fnapped aAinder : 
thy Senators, happy country ! thy Minifters of religion too, 
are all to become Orators ; the ambiguity and obfcurity 
of thy laws is to give way to clearncfs and precifion ; thy 
language is to be refined, and eftabliflied on fo folid a foun- 
dation, that time (hall no more prevail againft it, than it has 
againft the languages of Greece and Rome ; thy Miltons 
and thy Shakcfpcais (hall not pcrifli, but with Homer and 
Virgil, in the general diflblui ion of the world ; in a word, 
thou art to be raifed to fuch heights of knowledge, virtue, 
and happinefs, at; no other country ever reached, and thy 
condition is to approach as nearly to that blifsful ftate, to 
which w« arc taught to look forwards, as the boundaries of 
the two worlds will permit. 

. What honours are due to that godlike man, from whom 
{uch imporunt bleilings arc to flow upon us ! How little, and 
infignificant, do all the Legiilators and Orators, nay, we 
bad almoft faid, the Prophets and Apoftlcs of former days, 
appear, when compared with him ! But our language, m 
Its prcfcnt neglcitcd and uncultivated fratf ^ is not worthy to 
• 5 be 

SheridanV Lt^ures m El^cutim* 


be employed in celebrating his |>raifes ; wc muft therefore 
content ourl'dx cs with lilcnt admiration, 

Wc now procecJ to the Leiflures thcmfclves, which ar 
really ingenious, inftnj<Stive and entertaining. — In the firll 
Leisure, Mr. Sheridan fcts out with obfcrving, chat a ge- 
neral inability to read, or fpeak, with propriety and grace iti j 
public, runs thro* the natives of the BritiJh dominions \ that 
it (hews itielf in our Senates and Churches, on the bench? 
and at the bar. 

There cannot be a better clue, we arc told, to guide us. 
to the fource of this general deficiency, than a due attention 
to the following obfervation, viz. that there are few pcrfoiis/ 
who, in private company, do not deliver their fentimcntifj 
with propriety and force in their manner, whenever thcy^ 1 
fpeak in earneft. — Here, therefore, is a fure ftandard fixetf^ 
for propriety and force in public fpcaking, which is, onlj 
to make ufc of the fame manner in the onc^ as in the other,' 
And [his, men certainly would do, if left to themfelves \ and 
if early pains were not taken, to fubftitutc an artificial me- 
thod, in the room of that which is natural. 

" Here then, caniinues our Author, is to be found thai 
true fource of the bad manner of reading and i'peaking i» ] 
public, that fo generally prevails ; which \^^ tJiat wc ai'dj 
tciught to read in a diiferent way, with different tones an^i 
cadences, from th:»fe which we ufc in fpeuking \ and this 
artificial manner is ufcd inftcad of the natui-al one, in all 
recitals and repetitions at fchool> as well as in reading, 

** Till therefore a way (hall be found out to countcradt fot** 
the prefent, and dcltroy hereafter, the bad cuftom which ha» 
given rife to this unnatural manner of reading and fpcaking^* < 
wc (hall in vain hope, for the many excellent effcA, whicl*-^ 
might be produced by good elocution, in a country, wKer^j 
there is fuch an abfojuteneccflity for it, to the fupportof oui 
conilitution, both in church and ilace. 

-^ I fliall therefore confider, in the firft place, how th# 1 
power of this cuftom may be countcracled, for the imm-t^iats 
relief of fuch as are labouring under the effects ef its lad in<^ I 
fiuencc ; and aftepA^ards ihew how it may be wholly fu liver-* 
ted ; fo that the riimg, and future generations may no looj-* 
er be tainted by rt. As the firit of thefe is the point io whftli 
my hearers arc more immediately concerned, I fhali chiefly 
in the prefent courfc dwell upon that.*' ' - * 



Sheridan'x Le^ures on Ehcutioif, 

The purpofcs which may be anfwered by readings Mr, 
Sheridan obfcrves, are chiefly three; viz. the acquilition of 
knowledge -, the affifting the memory to trcafure up this 
knowledge ; and the cammunicaung it toothers. The firftj 
two may be done by filent reading ; the lafl» requires reading^ 
aloud. This leads him to examine how far the art of writing, 
(under which head he includes printing) is in ;ts prefcnt;J 
ftate fitted to anfwer the feveral purpofes, and how f^ir, and* 
in what refpeds it is deficient. 

To prove that our written language is by no means calcu- 
lated to anfwer the third purpofe, of reading aloud to others, 
he fhews, that it contains no vifible marks, of articles, 
which are the moft important of all others, to a juft delivery. 
A juft delivery, he tells us, confifts in a diftindt articulation^ 
of words, pronounced in proper tones, fuitably varied to the 
fcnfe, and the emotions of the mind ; with due oblcrvation 
of accent ; of emphafis, in its fcvcral gradations ; of rcfts 
or paufes of the voice, iri proper places and well meafured j 
degrees of time ; and the whole accompanied with expreHivci 
looks, and fignificant gefture^ Now of all thefe ingredients^ 
not one of which can be fpsred from a good delivery, there' 
arc but two, he obfcrves, that are at all regarded in the art 
of wnting J and thofc are, articulate founds or words, which 
are marked by letters ; and ftops, or paufcs of the voice, 
which arc marked by little figures or tittles* 

But with rcfpcfl to the other articles of tones, accent, em- 
phafis .ind gefiurc, there .ire no vifibic marks to ferve 
guides in thefe. And as thefe latter muft be allowed to b« 
the fourccs, of every thing which is pleafurahle, or forcible^ 
in delivery ; and to contain in them, all the powers of 
ftrongly imprefling rho mind, captivating the fancy, roufing 
the pallions, and delighting the ear ; it muil alfo be allowtd, 
we are told, that the mofl efiential articles to a good delivery, 
have been wholly left out of the graphic art* 

'« That the great difficulty, fays our Author, of reading 
with propriety, and in fuitably varied*H tones and cadence?, 
arifcs from the Wiint of fuificient figns and marks, in the art 
of writing* to point them out ; and were there but a fuffici-i 
ctit number of thofe marks, reading jullly at fight, mtgbi 
be rendered a! moft as cafyand as certain, as fmging at figritf 
Is a matter which might anqucftionably be proved, were it 
be attended by any advantage. But as that would be mereli 
a fpecutative point, inafmuch as there i:^ little likelihood tha 

Sheridan'j Letlura en £hatttch» J07 

any change will be made in the art of writing, it will be 
more immediately to the purpofe, to enquire how the art of 
residing uiTiy be imprcvtd^ whLlil th^t of wriung conimues in 
its prJfint ikte/' 

^r. Sheridan now proceeds to l:iy open the more general 
iburcc of that impropriety and badnefs of reading which is fo 
prevalent ; and obfcrvcs that, befidc ihc ignorance of mailers, 
who teach the firft rudiments of reading, and the want of 
ikill, or the negligence in that article, of thofe who teach 
the Karned languages, &c. there h one fundamental error, 
in the method univerfally ufed in teaching to read, which at 
firft gives a wrong bia-v, and leads us ever after blindfold 
from the right path, under the conduct of a falfe guide. 

He obferves, that Mafters, in order to give what they call 
proper tones to their pupils in reading, have annexed artificial 
tones to the ftops, which no way correfpond to thofe which 
are ufed in difcourfe ; and w^hicH may juftly be called the 
reading tones, in oppcfiHon to thofe of thefpcalcingkind. 

*' Of thcfc tones, fays he, In general there are but two 
ufed J one, which marks that the i'tnfc is not compleatcd ; 
another, which fliews that the fcnfe is clofed. For they have 
not even invented fo many tones, as there are vifible marks 
of paufes. The comma, femicolon, and colon, arc pro- 
nounced in the fame tone ; and only differ in point of time^ 
as two or three to one ; whilft the full flop is marked by a 
different tone. As the one con fills in a uniform elevation, 
and the other in a uniform depreffjon of the voice, we need 
no longer be at a lofs, to account for that difagrecable mono- 
tony, which fo generally prevails in reading i and which 
neccffarily defeats every purpofe of book- delivery, as the at- 
tention of all Auditors mull, not only foon be wearied and 
dedroyed by it, but in fuch as have any taJle^ it mull occafi- 
on the higheft difguft," 

This then, it is faid, is the chief fource of that unnatural 
manner of reading which fo univerfally prevails -, and unlefs 
a perfon knows this, he can never amend his error j for the 
fight of the ilops, as naturally excites the tones which he 
was eatly taught to alTociaie with them, as the figbt of the 
words excites that pronunciation ; and thus the habit of 
readings will only ferve to conJirm him, in the faulty man- 
ner which he has acquired. 

The moft cfFeftual method of introducing a ^'^neral good 
manner of reading, Mr. Sheridan fay^, would be the giving-' 

O due 

loS BattieV Aphstifm^ in PljyJUk. 

due encouragement, to a fnfRcicnt number of fkttful fnail«r% 
\o teach that .ir(, by a well dfgefted fyltcm of rules, Jurcord- 
Ing to tho pradicc of the antknts. 

** But as a fchcme of this kind> continues he, would be of 
benefit only to the rifing generation, and as my prefect oil- 
jcdl is, the improvement of fuch as arc rhore advanced in 
Jjfe, I ftinll in the prngrcfs of this courfe, endeavour to point 
out a method, by which the adult may get the better of bad 
habits, and at the fame time lay down fuch rules to guide 
them in acqulrrng a juil and natural delivery, as will enable 
them to compafs their end, provided they take fuitable pams ; 
and afterwards proceed in order, to pronunciation, accent, 
emphafis, paufes or flops, pitch and management of Hie 
Voice, tones and gefture ; which will comprehend tlie whole 
6f what I have to offer on that lubjeft." 

In his fecond Lefturc,. Mr. Sheridan treats of crticuhtkn 
and pfdrMPhiation ; but of thefe in our next number* 

Jfphf}rifmt di cognofccndh tt airandis mwhh mnnullis ad primifim 
GutmaUft Gcccmmodati, A Gulielmo Battic, M. D, CoU^gii 

4to* 10^* f>d. Whifton* 

rcgalis Medicorum Socio. 

T7^ ROM referring to our * accounts of the firft and fecond 
t/ parts of the Principia ammalia^ it will appear, thai if our 
learned medical author has a peculiar attachment to any ot 
the antient feits in Phyftck, it is to that of the f Methodiftf> 
who were for afcribing moft Difcafes, either to ft morbid cx- 
ceft of ftriclure, or relaxation, of the folid^ : for as to their 
fuppofed combination of thefe oppofitc caufcs in the fame dif* 
tafe and ftibjettt at the fame time, we had mentioned his con* 
dcmning it as abfurd. Perhaps it h in confequcnce of thii 
tenet, that we find thefe aphorifms extended only tofomt dif- 
cafes, nonnulUs morhis^ tho' not a few indeed, and thofe ia 
which Ur, Battle may fuppofc cither of thefe caufes chiefly to 

With this view alfo he fecms to have premifed his fliort 
treatifc, df hflammaihne^ from the hint of Hoffrnan, whidi 
affirms, ** That it is not the inflammation itfcif which kiUsi 

• Kevie^r V*o} v. p. 405, and vii, p. 372, 

f M^thodicii fpfis mcliora poUiceri vifi«— Aphorifflu p. 2j. 

BattieV Aphenfms in Phyfid* 209 

but rather the fpafoi that occafions it/* Hence in the dtfcul- 
Xion of ihii^ fahjcci, Dr- B.judkioufly remaxks, howpernicioiis 
that piaAicc mult prove, which, merely from th<: name'* of 
lttflainni:ition, propofcs, by a very large bleedini^, by other 
evacuations, or by any iinglc unvaried method to conquer 
fuch different evils j as he afSrrns, the fpafm is very likely to 
be incrciifed, by the means ufi:d to cure the inflammation ; 
and obferves, that fuch Phyficians are operating only againft 
the vifible effcdts, without having any regard to the caufc. 
He acknowleges hovt^ever, that fuch a treatment as rcfpecb 
the caufe oaly, writhout a proper attention alfo to the highcft 
fymptoms, may be equally pernicious^. With regatxl to the 
caufe of inflammation, he fays, whatever remedies reftrain, 
in '^ iid duly rcguhite mufcuhir motion, are certainly the 
M. V to alby the offending To fecond fuch 

intcntioiis he chiedy recommends the bark and opixim \ the 
former, as it ihoidd (cam^ to increafe mufcular adton, the 
latter to regulate or even to abate it. But havhig obfcrved 
thcprincrpalcircumftanccs, that fliould cautiort us againft a 
free ufc of thefc potent drugs, whofe operation indeed 
cannot well be indifferent, he aiks, are there tlien no 
remedies that may be exhibited againft an inflammition 
with lefs difficulty and hazard ? adding, if that were the 
oifc, it would probably be eligible to commit the patien'V to 
the medical occonomy and efforts of nature, rather tlian to 
hazard the conftxjuenccs of fuch medicines as might be more 
grievous than the difeafe againft which they .were applied. 
In anfwer to this query, when he has obferved, chat it is on- 
ly againft the unguarded and indeliberate ufe of the bark and 
of opium that he cautions young Phyficians ,(for whofe in- 
fti'u£iion folcly the preface informs us this book is defigncd) 
he adds, that the neutral falts, and mild fapornceous medi- 
cines, may fafcly be exhibited to abate the refiftancc of the 
vcffels, and to refojve the morbific denfity or fpiffitude [^ftf/Jjf] 
of the blood. Th^ bliUcrs alfa may be applied to divert the 
^fm from a vital to a lefs noble part ; befides dry cuppings 

• Of a remarkable error of this kind» which had nearly proved htTL% 
we have htcly given a rtrong JtkiUncc» in our account t»f the iccond 
^Q\\xme o^MtJkiii Ol/ifvationt ein:i EnquifUjt Vol. XXVjI. p, Joz. 
-f- We imaj^Iuc tliis word, being hterally Greek, {houldraiHer hjivft 
been primed in Grrck characU'rs ; Cnrc wedo nwt recollect any truly 
daiTrcjl auihi jity for "^ia^^, a? a lA^u\ v^ord. Nevcr»hfkT> it fctros 
allocable in a ' % being as obvioufl/'dcrivable^ by 

Anah^v, IxQn: .km.'-i or frrui 

O2 the 

^ITO Battt£*j jfphrtjms in Fhjjkh ■ 

I the fuclion of which he thinks may remove or abate an exifl«H 
I ing fpafm, without exciting another in any pan, and mayM 
L irec the obftrudled velTcIs without any evacuation whatfoever«H 
[ This diiVertation» (upon which we have been the more partt<^| 
L cular, from confidcring the many and acute difeafes, rcfultin^W 
I from, or accompanied with, inflammation) concludes witaH 
I Dr. Battle's difipprobation of thofe Phyficians, who pradlifoB 
I upon any one fylbm or hypothefis ; and with an elcgantH 
E compliment to fuch rational and accompliflied ones, as diily^B 
t confidcr every pertinent circumllance of the patient and the 
I difeaJc, and vary their condui5t judicioufly in relation to them. 
[ It is very natural to fuppofc, that our Author might glance 
k here, among other gentlemen, particularly at one, whom he 
I could not wifh to exclude from fuch gooa company : and in 
I this pallagc we find him co-inciding with the dogmaiifls or 
[ rationalilb inphyfic, who founded their prafticc on the mutual 
I aid of rcafon and experience, which were firft combined in it 
I by the great Hippocrates, This however does not neceflari- 
I \y contradiil his inclining to that particular tenet of the Me- 
r thodifts in phyfics^ which is fo vifibly prevalent throughout 
I his work ; and which has probably its material confcqucnccs 
r in many difeafcs. fl 

E The Doflor's brief introdui5llon premifcs, that the art of 
L medicine is conftruftcd, cither upon ccrt^n and mechanical 
t principles \ upon fuch as are aiialogical and highly probable | 
tor upon Empiricifmy which, in a good fenfe, means Exptrl* 
I €'*.T/. In his fedions concerning the various diftfaftrs, he con- 
i fiders on which of thefe the cure of each malady is chiefly or 
\ folcly to be conducted ; and concludes, that the beft praftiti- 
I oners excrcife their art, as the cafe of the patient may require, 
k on one, more, or all of thefe foundations. 

P As it cannot be expe<Slcd, nor perhaps dcfired, that we 
Ffhould abftraft, or give any formal citation from, the fubfe- 
Pquent part of a worlc of this nature, which is propofcd, as in- 
r0itutioa3r, to the rtudy of young Phyficlans, — ^w e ftiall briefly M 
robfcrve, that thefe aphorifms are divided into near fifty heads ^ 
Vm fcclions of a diflcrent extent, each diftinguiflicd by the 
I name of the difeafc or difeafcs, of which it treats. Some- ^ 
itimes indeed the fcwlion is denominated by a title, that feems B 
ll>ftener a fymptom of another difeafe, than one itfelf, as a, 
vTntefmus^ vulgarly called a Kitnn^ ; as 5////, or thirft ; tho* 
l;^ are fenfible fomc praftical Writers have confidcred the 
Uaft ^a Jillinct difcafe, and treated of it under the appellation 
tmi S:Usm4Fh/j. Ahcr confide: ing the caufe or caufes of each 
[ diitempcf. 

BattieV Aphsrifms m PhyftcL in 

dirtempcr, many of the immediate ones being acknowlcged 
as unknown ; (efpecially fuch as depend on afFe£tions of 
cither a nervous or flefhy fibre, whofe intrinfic nature and 
fubftance, he continually repeats, are prorfus mc>jgnha) the 
nioft general event, or various termination of the dillemper 
follows ; and to this fucceeds the treatment or cure, accor- 
ding to the prevailing caufc of it. Proper care is alio taken 
to diftinguifh, in what charatSeriftical points difcafes of con- 
fidcrablc likent^fs or affinity, as a fyncope, apoplexy, palfy 
and epilepfy differ, and fometimes to fpecify the phaenomcna 
in which they agree. The fymptoms from which the prog- 
noftics are taken arc often annexed. The different fpecies 
of the fame difcafe» as proceeding from a different, or op- 
pofite caufe, viz> the fanguinc, or the pituitous apoplexy, 
arc not omitted. Several notes, refetenccs and citations are 
annexed to the bottoms of above two hundred pages out of 
three hundred, which, if printed in the fame type with the 
text, would confiderably exceed it in extent. Many of them 
include remarks, cal'cs, or p re fc options, from different and 
creditable Writers in Latin and Englifli, and make, in our 
opinion, not the leaft agreeable^ intelligible, nor the Icaft 
ufeful part of the work. 

With regard to the execution of this performance, the 
language is generally as pure and claflical as th? fub* 
jecl will admit ; and rifes fometimes into a more ftudied 
elegance than a merely diJjctic rreatifc requires ; whofe moil 
cflential ornament fccm^ to conftft in an obvious and fimplc , 
perfpicuity. To avoid any obfcurity to young Students, Dr» 
B. has marked his ablative cafes which terminate in a : this 
was certainly right, and it would have correfponded very 
well with the fame good purpofe, if much more care had 
been taken in a proper punctuation of the text j efpecially 
where the periods are of a confidcrable length* We confefs, 
that for want of this, and of this only, we were obliged to 
read a few of ihem a fecond time : and as the arrangement 
and fucceffion of words in Latin difier greatly from thofc in 
our own language, this circumllance renders a jull pujuSua- 
tion of the Latin indifpenftble. 

As to any apparent utility of the prefcnt work, we confefs 
ourapprehenfion, that it is in a great meafure anticipated by* 
the labours of Boerhaave, Van Swieten, Halier and others^ 
who have treated the fame fubje£ts, in a fuJler majiner ; whicii 
apprehenfion concurred withothcrciicumftancesand avocations 
lo prevent a more early review of it. Whether our learned Au- 

O 3 thor 

212 Ilc;i:;-:/r:AT_*j ^Jl-vi .c/ Emcji::''. 

thor means by his motto — l^;^u.r aiuri ficiiio projlr/, — that hir. 
performance may prove ulcful (or in falhion) when theirs 
\yill be obfoletc ; or whether he referred by, it to th«|t opers^ti- 
on of envy, which often renders Fame rather a pofthumou^, 
than a living attainment, we do not pretend to determine* 
Wc think, however,- that unexperienced Frautitioners may 
read it with emolument, as the method and order of it is well 
conducbed and logical ; and as it may prefent in ab(lra<St,- a 
good deal of what the former have given more in detail. But 
that our ingenious Author's profclTed intention in this work, 
is very laudable, can admit of no doubt ; fmce he afiUres us, 
he was prompted to it by his continual difpofition to cultivate 
and improve the knowleeie of phyfic ; which, if candidly in- 
terpreted, may imply Fhilanthrophy, or, in Mr. Pope's 
phrafe, * make fclf-lovo and focial be the fam.e,' 

EMiLTUStf«</ Sophia : or anew S^ent of Education, Tranf- 
lated from the French of J. J. Roufleau, Citizen of Ge* 
neva, By the Tranflator of Eloisa. 2 Vols. 58. fewed, 
Bccket, &c. 

WHEN we mentioned the original of this work, 
among our foreign articles, and hinted the general 
defign of the Author, we little imagined we (hould \o foon 
have an opportunity of giving a more particular account of it^ 
from the tranflation. We have ha3 frequent occafion, in- 
deed, to regret the precipitancy with which many valuable 
produftions have been rendered out of other languages into 
Englifh. An eager defirc of gratifying the public curiofity, 
very often defeats its oWn purpofe ; and, ambitious as writers 
may be, of having their works tranflated, it would be often 
more to their credit never to have that honour conferred on 
them at all, than to have their performances fo haftily and 
flovenly metamorphofcd as they generally are. The great 
reputation of a writer is, in this refpecft, frequently fatal 
to the tranflation of his pieces ; and recent inftances might 
be given, wherein very celebrated productions have fallen a 
facrifice to the popularity of their Authors, and the avarice 
^f bookfellers. Thcfc circumftanccs confidered, it muft b^' 
allowed, no writer could run a greater rifle of fufFering by ft 
tranflation than Mr. Roufleau. as well on account of the pe- 
culiarity of his ftyle, as of the Angular turn of his fentiments-. 
5 He 

RoussEAu'j S)Jl^'m of Educamiu 2t j 

He has had an adv^tntage, however^ over many of his co- 
temporary writers ; and has been fortunate enough, as well 
on this as un a former occafion, to fall into good hands- 
Thc Englifh reader, therefore, need not much regret his ig- 
norance of the F'rench language, on account of this work j 
nor be under apprchcnfions of being miflcd, or difguftedj 
by a wretched niifrcprefentation of a beautiful origmal. Not 
that he muft expect to find a laboured copy, wherein the mi- 
riutite of finiilitude are prcfervcd^ with all the ftudied cor- 
red^nefs of mediocrity. Such a tafk muft neccfTarily have 
taken up a much longer time, as well as have been too ferviJe 
for any ariill, who was fo far maftcr of the fubjcd and of 
his pen* as to do juftice to the original. It is not a minute 
refemblancc in the manner of pencilling, but the bolder 
touches and animated ftrokcs of the piece that conftitatcthc? 
merit of a copy : And in this, we have only to fxy, that the 
EngliQi verfion before us, has fully anfwcred the favourable 
cxpsdbtions wc had conceived of it. 

In regard to the work itfclf, its merit, on the whole, is In 
fome degree problematical. *As a literary compofition it cer- 
tainly has little more than that arilingfrom an animated ftyle, 
agreeable charadlers, and entertaining though unconnefted 
narratives ; being deficient in point ol regular plan or fable, 
as a work of the hiilorical or epic kind, and wanting all the 
advantages of connexion, order and method, requifite to a 
fyftematica! treatife. The Author, indeed, fee ms very fenfi- 
ble of this defect and apologizes for it accordingly. '* My 
firil defjgn, fays he, was confined to a tra<5t of a few pages | 
but my lubjcct proving fcdu(5tive, this intended tract fwelled 
infenfibfy into a kind of large work, too large, doubtlefs, 
iForwhat is contained in it, tho' too little for the matter of 
which i: treats. I have hefitateJ long about its publication; 
and, indeed, in cnmpofmg it received frequent intimaiioni 
from my labour, of the difFcrence, between having written 
a few pamphlets and being ctjual to the compofition of a 
book* After many fruitlcfs efforts to do better, however, 
1 thought It my duty to give it the public as it isj conceiving 
it of confequencc to excite thi ir attention to an important ob- 
ject ; concerning which, though my notions fbou!d be wjong, 
yet if they fhoii'd happen to (uggeft right ones to others, my 
time will not be entirely thrown away, 

** We arc not fufiicicntly acquainted with a ftate of infaa- 
cy : the farther we proceed on our prefent miftakcn ideas^ 
the farther we wander from the point. Even the jnoll fagar 

O 4 cious 

214 RoussEAuV of Education. 

cious inftruftors apply thcmfelves to thofe things which man 
13 required to know, without confidering what it is children 
are capacitated to learn. They are always expe&ing the man 
in the childy without rcflcfting what he is before he can be a 
man. It is to this branch of education I have applied myfelf ; 
Ip that, fhould my praflical fchemc be found ufelefs and chi- 
merical, my obfervations will alv/ays turn to account. I may 
poflibly have taken a very bad view of what ought to be done, 
but I conceive I have taken a good one of the fubjeft to be 
wrought upon. Begin then, ye Preceptors, by ftudying firft 
your Pupils ; for moft afTuredly you are at prefcnt unacquaint- 
ed with them. If you read this book with that view, alfo, 
I flatter myfelf there are none of you but may find its perufal 
of ufc. 

^^ With regard to what may be called the fyftematical part of 
this treatife, whloh is nothing more than the progreilive fyftcm 
of Nature, this will probably moft perplex the Reader ; on 
this, therefore, I (ball doubtlefs be attacked, and, perhaps,, 
with feafon. It may be objeSed to me, that my book con-? 
taii)s rather a heap of reveries than a treatife. But what muft 
be done ^ I do not compofe a diffcrtation from the ideas of 
Others i but write immediately from my own, I do not fee 
thing? altogether in the fame manner as other people j and 
have been frequently reproached on this account. But docs 
it depend on me to give myfelf new eyes, or to be afFeftcd by 
ether ide^s i No. It is my fault, indeed, if I am too vaii^ 
of my own manner of conception, if I believe myfelf aloqe 
to be wifcr than all the reft of the world. It is not in my 
power to change my fentiments;, but to diftruft them : this i% 
all I can do, and this I have done. If I fometimcs aflume 
gn affirmative tone, therefore, it is not with a view to4mpofc 
my rK>tions on the Reader ; but only to tell him what I really 
think. Why fliould I propofe any thing to him in the forn^ 
pf a doubt, of which I harbour not the Icaft doubt myfelf? 
I pnly fay precifely what pafTes in my own mind. 

** In fpeaking my fentiments with freedom, I am ib far 
from giving them as an authority, that I always fubjoin my 
reafons ; to the end that the Reader may weigh them, and 
judge for himfelf. Though I am not obftinate In the defence 
of my own notions, however, I think myfelf not the lefs ob- 
liged to propofe them : as the maxims, concerning which I 
am of a very different opinion from other people, are far from 
l>eing unimportant. They are fuch whofe pruth or falfhood 

RotJSSEAu'j S^iftitn of Edutathn* 215 

It is of confequencc for us to know ; and on which depends 
the happinefs or mifcry of mankind*" 

The principal objc^iions which have been made to this 
treatifc, however, refpedl rather the matter than the manner 
of it : the grand demerits which it has been charged with, and 
for which it hath undergone the feverefl of public cenfures, 
relate to the many new and uncommon fentiments which the 
Writer entertains concerning the moil popular and intereft- 
' ing topics in politics, religion ♦, and morals. It might ill be- 
come us to undertake magiftenally to decide in all the con- 
tefted points between our Author and his opponents. To 
enable our Readers, however, to judge for themfclves, and 
give them a fatisfadtory idea, of this extraordinary perform- 
ance, we purpofe to make a conctfc abftra£t of the whole; 
in the courfe of which we (hall occafionally take into con- 
ftderation fuch points as are moft remarkable for their novelty 
or fmgularity. 

It w*ould break in too much on the plan of our Review, 

however, to execute this taik. In one article ; we mull, there- 
fore, defer the profecution of it for the prcfcnr, and refume 
it in the facceeding numbers of our work. In the meantime 
we leave the following juft and fpirlted apology, which the 
Tranilator makes for his Author, to fpeak fufficlently in his 

** The vague and general objeftion to this work is, that it 
contains a variety of fantalHcal notions, on a trite and beaten 
fubjeil. How far our Author's advice is good, or his ichcmes 

• In jufllce to Mr. RoofTcau, however, we muft obfcrve. that 
inany of t!mfe reflections, wtiich milbkcn Blguis have, on this oc- 
cafion, thrown out againft him, as an enemy to Chrifliflnir>% are falfe 
and tnjurious. Our Aut'ior is, indeed, the moll zealous Advocate 
Hir Toleration ; and if he fomctimcs bsars hard on the mere forms of 
yrligion, he (ells us plainly, it is becaufc they are dcilruftivc to the 
fpirit or it. His notions of the dodrinet of Chnftianity, and ihe 
LcreJ charai^tT of Its h oundcr, may be gathered from the Parallel 
he draws, in the third vo!unic of this work, between Jcfus Chrii! 
^nd Socrates; whcreiji he holds the latter infinitely cheap in the 
romparifon. Is it poflible for us to conclude the Author of the fol- 
lowing paflagf to bca difbe ievcrof, or an enemy to, Chriftbntty* 

Oui, ii la vie et la mort de Socrate font d'un Tage, la vie et la mort 
de Jcfu* font d'un Dicu. Dlrons nous quel' hilloire de V fiva t^tle 
eft inventce i plai/ir? Moa aroip ce n'eft pas ainfi qa' on invcnte, 
et [es faits de Socrate* dont pcrfoiute ne dQUte, ibat moins atteilti 
gqe ceujc de Jefut Chrift. 


2l6 RoussEAu'5 S^lem of Education. 

prafElicable^ experience will beft ,ihew ^ but that hi« fUbjcvEl 
was ever treated before, cw be faid only by fuch as have ne* 
yer read bis book. Numerous differtations have, indeed, ap- 
peared on the general head of Education ; our Author makes 
it evident, however, by what he himfelf hath done, that, 
how much'ibevtr may have been wilttcn on f^ducation, the 
immediate ohjcdls of it were never ftuJicd or undcrftood be- 

*« That the Reader will be frequently ft ruck with the no- 
velty of the remarks, and the fmgularity of the obl'ervations, 
to be met with in this work, is, hence, very certain ; nor 
can it poiiibly be otherwife. We have fo long plodded on in 
the track of our progenitors, and implicitly adopted the moft 
tbfurd cuftoms, that our furprize is very natural, at feeing 
hl&bits fo deeply rooted, expofed as idle and ridiculous. It 
is equally a matter of courfe that a Writer who attempts, ov\ 
every occafion, to diftinguiih between nature and habit, 
fhould frequently be forced to maintain notorious paradoxes. 
Thofe who are capable, or defirous, of thinking for them-, 
felves, however, on fo interefting a fubjeft, will enquire 
whence thcfe apparent contradi£Hons arife, and will foon find 
them artificial, and not real : in the mean time, no one 
ihouid be either furprized or offended, that a man, who pror 
fefledly differs from the opinions of the generality of man- 
kind, fliould be fingular in his own, 

*' There are, it is true, many well-meaning people, who 
Jiold received opinions as too facred to be attacked or ridicul- 
ed. A Writer fliould, doubtlefs, on all occafions, pay a pro- 
per deference to the nature of his fubject : but, if the matter 
in queftion be merely matter of opinion, it may be falfc, 
abfurd, or deftrudive. Ought the fubje£b, therefore, to which 
it belongs, and on whjch account, perhaps, it fliould he the 
fooner expofed, to proteft fuch falfchood or deftru(ftive ab- 
furdity from being deteded ? What would have been the 
confcquence, if this principle, of paying an implicit regard 
to opinion, had univcrfally prevailed for a thoiir.;nd years 
paft ? Where would have been all the improvcmcjits in mat- 
ters of fcience, politics, and religion, that have been made 
fmce thofc days of ignorance and barbarifm ? Is the human 
fpecies arrived to its utmoft degree of perfe£lion ? Hath fo- 
cicty reached the fubmit of political happinefs ? Are there 
no farther improvements to be made in the fcience of go*- 
vernmcnt? No rank weeds to be ftill rooted up from the 
once overgrown and luxuriant foil of artificial religion ? 

« All 

Monthly CATALoput. ai^ 

** All human pcrfcflion is relative : let us cheriffa, there- 
fore, the principle on which our paft imprcvements have been 
effeded, and to which even the prefent ftate of our civil and 
religious liberties is fo truly owing. Ixt us encourage, let us 
cfteem, every one who, like gur Author, ventures, with a 
manly freedom, to controvert the general opinions and cus- 
toms of a mifguided or miftaken world. Right or wrong, 
indeed, he has not only a claim to be heard, but it is the in- 
tereft, as it i^ould be the pride, of a free people to give him 
a candid hearing. The worft of flavery is the fubjedtion of 
the mind. The man who dares not think, is the moft abje<3k 
flave in nature j and he who dares not publifli his fentiments 
with decency and freedom, is th^ vileft flave of fociety. 

*' It has been reported, that this performance has been diP- 
countenanced, where a ftatue fhould have been erected to the 
honour of its Author, even in his native country, Geneva. 
The Proteftant Republics owe their exifteiice to a very difFcr- 
ent kind of policy; and it may be fafely affirmed, that a, fo- 
ciety muft be in a .tottering fituation, indeed, whofe pillars 
reft on fuch rotten foundations as thofe Qur Author endeavours 
to expofe. Be this as it may ; it is to be hoped, that Eng- 
land will be the laft country in the wprld, wherein the friends 
of truth and liberty will be reftrained from thus exercifi^g 
their talents for the fervice and improvement o( mankind/' 

We have only to add, that the two volumes now publiflicd, 
contain but half the work ; the third and fourth, we are told> 
are now in the prefs, and will fpeedilv make their appearance* 


For S E P T E M B E R, 1762. 


Art. I. Jtnew Guide to Eloquence : Beitig a Treatife of the pro-' 
per DiJiinSiions to be obferved between Words reckoned fynoni^ 
mous ; or their different Significations y and the Choice which 
Jhould he made of them^ in order to exprefs ourfche^ JHfth* 
The fynonimous Words chjfed alpbabeticalljy upon the Plan of 


2i8 Monthly Catalogue, 

a French Work of the fame Nature^ by the Abbot Girard. 
8vo.' IS. Pritchard. 

THIS publication is part of a work which, we are told, is to be 
continued, if found acceptable to the public. Wc jirc forty, 
•therefore, to find (b ufeful a defign likely to be fruftrated for want of 
competent abilities in the Undertaker. What is here publiOied n 
Cranflated from the French, on which account the alphabetical order 
of the words is already broken ; and yet we do not find that this 
|>amphlet is publiihed merely as a fpectmen. Our Readers will rea- 
oily conceive, that a work of this kind, calculated to adjull and de- 
termine the niceft punftilios of language, cannot admit of tranfla- 
tkm : the utility, however, of fuch an original work, in every lan- 
guage, is fufHciently difplayed in the Abbe Girards excellent pre- 
lact, which is tranflated, and prefixed to this perfocmance. 

After having explained the nature and defign of his. work, in 
treating of words ufually efleemed fynonimous, and (hewn the nec«f- 
iity of making a choice adapted to every occafion in writing and dif. 
ceoric, this ingenious Writer proceeds to enforce what he advances 
by the following beautiful illuftration. 

** I wUl not abfolutely deny, that there are fome occafions on 
which fuch a very nice choice as this may be difpenfed with ; but 
furely there are innumerable more in common difcourfe ; where fuch 
'words cannot tolerably pafs one for another ; efpecially if the fpeaker 
pretends to any fcholaribip, or knowlege of compofition.. To illuf- 
•fratc this dodlrine by a comparifon. — If a Lady wants merely a yej- 
.low ribband for her hcad-drefs, it is no great matter whether (h^ 
chufcs the hue of the daffodil or the jonquil ; but if fhe means to 
fhew a rich and elegant variety in that colour of her attire, fhe niuft 
undoubtedly chuie it, fet off with different tints and fhades ; aiKl in 
Jlow few circumflances, either of compofition or converfation, do we 
find ourfelves, in which we ought not to ufe the fame various degrees 
or fhades, as we may call them, of didionl" 

While we recommend, however, tjie execution of this defign to 
(omc abler hand, we mud obferve, that it is impofTible to make fuch 
•a work coropleat ; the meaning of words is not fo permanent but that 
the lights and fhades of the more delicate modes of cxprefHon are 
perpetually changing. 

Art. 2. A Difc9urfe on the Cultivation of wafle and barren Lands. 
Tranjlated from the French of the Marqids de Turbilfyj for 
the Benefit of the Farmers of Great Britain and Ireland^ where 
thefe uncultivated Lands too much abound. Parti. 2S. 6d. 
fewed. Dodfley. 

Having already given an account of the original of this work 
among our foreign articles *, we fhall here only ob^rve, that the tran* 

• Under the title of Memoirc fur Ics dcfrichcmcns, See Renjienv, 
vol, XXIII. /. 507. 



Saiion, whkh is infcribcd to ihe Hpn. Thomas Cliolmondcley, Efq; of ] 

Vale Royal tn Cheiliire , and Is faid to be Uie performance of a Che- 

I ft ire Farmer, bczrs genuine marks of iti having been executed by a 

I pi^rfon {killed in matten of huJbandry, ard is not unfaithfjl to ihe 

original. The Tranflator liath alfo prefixed a fketch of Tome of ths 

principal implements rcquifitc for the purpofes hid down in thli uTe- 

[ Tul and commeudablc tra£t. 

^Art, J, Thifdurus Graca pQeftils ; five Lexicon Grac^-Pro 
fidiacumi verjui^ H fynonyma^ {turn ad expUtatiamm %ma^ 
buhrumy quam ad i^mp§/ition^m poetuam pirUmntia) (pitlulaf 
phraffSy defer ipti ones y ^c, [ad modum Latim gradus ad Pat' 
najjttm) c^rnpUdlem. Ofus^ in Jhdkfa^ juventutis gratiam 
if utiliiatem^ ex eptimis quilufque Poet arum Gracotum monu^ 
mentii^ que adhuc prodlerunf^ nunc primum c&nflmtJum. Cui 
pr^figitm\ de Pocfi^Jeu Profsdia Gracorum TraSlatut, An- 
toreT. Morell, S. T. P. 410, il. is. in boards. Potc. 

In our Review for September, 1757, we gave an account of that 
part of this work which was publiihed as a fpecimen. Ihe whole 
is now compleated; and wc fhall only add» that the learned Author 
has executed his laborious talk with great judgment and accuracy ^^ 
Jt 15 but juiHce to add, that the work h handibmely and corre^Iy 
printed, fo that we hope it will meet with that favourable reception 
from the public which itfo Jullly dcferves* 

Art. 4. T})e Female Pilgrim ; dr, the Travels of Hephztlah^ 
under the Similitude ef a Dream* lilujlrattd with Copper- 
plates* 8vo, 7 s. bound. Johnfon. 

An unequal imitation of ihc celebrated PilgritJ^t Progreft^ which 
19, perhaps, inimitable. 

Art. 5. Jn Effitf en Oec&nomy* The third Edition* By Ed- 
ward Watkin Ton, M. D. ReSor of Little Chart in Kent. 
8vo. Printed for the Author, by MefT. Oliver in Bar- 
tholomew Clofc, 

Dr. W-'atkinfon having corrc^cd and enlarged the prefcnt cditiofr, 
from no pecuniary motives, is entitled to the thanks of the public, 
for his truly benevolent defign. Sec Review for May lall^ page 587. 
\i^ti alfo the Note on the Cover of our Review for June* 

Art. 6. The Htftory of Caraufus : Or, an Examinattm of what 
has been advanced upon that Subjetl by Genebrier and Stukihy^ 
Jn which the many Erron and Inaccuracies of b'Ah IVriters art 
pointed out and cQrreiled, With an Appendix j containing Ob' 
fenrntiom en thtir Method of explaining Midttb* 4to. 3 8« 
Bcckct and De Hondt. 


220 Monthly Catalogue, 

This elaborate diiquificion is introdaccd with the following adver- 

"The fcicncc of Antiquities has been involved in the (yftcmatic 
fatality of the age. Every re(earch after truth has degenerated into 
conteli for an hypothcfis. Of all inquirers after it. Antiquarians, to 
whofe difcoveries fome deference is prcfumed to be due, ihould quar- 
rel lertft. Much lefs fhould they fubftitute fancy and invention to 
thatficlion and obfcurity they labour to baniOi. 

** Every one knows what degree of credit U due to our monkifh 
Hiftoriaus, who, though they fumiih os with many new fads, do 
not give us many more true ones. The caufe under confideration 
lias not been at all fer^'ed by them. Caraufius has been acknowleged 
as a lawful, or even as a good, Prince, by no party iince the Roman 
legion, and fome mercenaries whom be attached to his interefls upon 
principles like his own, and the inhabitants of our ifle^ whom he 
av^'cd into fubmiilion. But ample amends have been made him in 
this century ; when a war, as inveterate as that himfelf waged with 
Rome, has been carried on between learned Writers, not fo much 
about his aftions and chara^er, as about the proofs of them. 'Tis 
troe, in the examination of the latter, the former have been brought 
into view, I wiih 1 could (ay, canvaiTed. This is the de£gn of the 
preient work. There may be ibme vanity in facceeding in it. . How- 
ever, there is no refentment or partiality in undertaidng it." 

We (hall only add, that the work appears to be learnedly and cri- 
tically conduced ; and may a£ord much fatisfadion to thofe who 
hare a talle for the fubjcft. . 

Art. 7. CcknliS AngUcana^ lUa/irata : Or^ ibe Acqueft of Do- 
minion^ .and the Plantation of Colcnus made by tht Englijh in 
America ; v;iih the . Rights of the Cohnijls examined^ Jiated^ 
and illuftrated. Part I. Contairv.ngy I. T^he Plan of the 
whole tVork^ including the Propofttiov^ afferting the Rights of 
the Cclor.iftSy intended to be ejlabiijhed. II. A brief Hijlory of 
the fVarSy Revolutions^ and Events winch gave Kife to all the 
marine Difcoveries ^ and foreign Acquijitions inade by the mo* 
dern Europeans. III. A Siirvey of the Knowlege and Opinions 
which the Europeans had of the Earth in Tinies preceding thefe 
Difcoveries ; with ether Aiatters relating to this Subject, I V. 
The Particulars of the Progrefs made by the Portuguefe^ from 
their beginning thefe Difcoveries to the Death of King "John II. 
and an Account of the Grants made to the King of Portugal of 
the Countries that were or might' be difco^'eredy by the Bulls of 
f'veral PapcSy with one of them fet forth at large. 4to, 8 s. 
in boards. Baker. 

This fpccimen promiics a work formed on a very extenfive plan, 
and executed, fo far as this firft part extends, with great •erudition, 
iho' not written ia a pleafmg liyle. The learned Author inlbnns us, 



by a previoos Adverlifement, that ** although he has colledled many 
materials ncccflary for his proceeding in mis work, the ftatc of hU 
health and sL&'sdn renders the time of his intended progrefs in it un- 
certain.** ' 

Art. 8. J rational Account bow Capt. WelUr's cwiverjitig at a 
Dijiance^ affe^ls the Fancy and animal Spirits. Publifhed by 
the Author, from Experience in feme Seditions. 8vd. 
6d. Briftow. 

What is here called a rational Account, is a more incoherent com- 
poAtion than we ever remember to have ken ; except a former pam- 
phlet by the fame hand, which is referred to in this ^ and which k» 
CO be found in Review, vol. V. page 521, intitled, ^Ihe Exptrimeatt 
u/id by a Captain tf a Man $f War 9 &c. 


Art. 9. Invincible Reafons for the Earl of ^Bute's immediate 
- Reftgnation of the Minijiry, In a Letter to a Nobleman. 8 vo. 
is. Mariner. 

A wretched attempt at Irony* The Aathor is by »o means quali- 
fied to handle the keen weapons of ridicule, or to difplay the talents 
of a Rhetorician, in the management of that beautiful figure, under 
which he afFefts to convey his thoughts to (he public. He adopts 
many q^ thofe common- place refle£lions that have been fo frequently 
made on the condud of Mr Pitt and his Partizans ; and is fo ex- 
tremely grof , in treating of thofe allufions and inuendos which he 
fuppofes fadion hath thrown out againft the mod refpedable peribn- 
ages, that we imagine the latter will thiak themselves little obliged to 
this their obfcure and incompetent advocate. They laight, indeed, 
"with no little propriety cry out to fuch Defenders, Poly me occidtfiis 

Art. 10. The Favourite. A political Epijlle. Humbly addref[ci 
to all Monarchs^ Fcruourita^ aniMinijlers in the known JVorU. 
By an ancient Briton. 8vo. I s. Burd. 

What fund of politics the Author of this political Epiflle may be 
pofleffed of we know not ; certain it is, he has obliged us with very 
little knowlege of this kind in his pamphlet. The whole is, indeed, 
nothing more than a ramb1fng<ieclamation againll vicious :: averexga's 
and their Favourites ; or, to ofe this very familiar Writer's owa 
phrafes, P'rmpsy Sialliansy znd r a/:ai/f Procure' s, that are exclufively 
counienanccd by the nAfrong^heaef ef M > y For whar good f ur- 
pofe this publication was calculated, wc cannot preienJ to fay j nor 
is it clear to us whom or what the Author aims at. The folbwing, 
however, is the concluiion he draws fioffli what he CiJis, the anec- 
dotes contained in his pefformaQCc 


Ill MowtHLY Catalogue, 


^ It is mcoaTideiit with the good of a Sovereign, and the welfare 
of a people, for a royal bofom to harbour a Favourite of any kind/' 
^^urclyt Surely^ Mr. ancient Briton, you will except a Queen- 
confort, the wife of that bofom ! — But he goes on. " The nation 
has the greateft right to th^ aiftction of its Sovereign ; and as he it 
bat a mere dependent upon the (tdeh'ty, ftrengtln and opulence of 
the people* he ought not to confer the highcft polls of honour and 
pofit on any particular man, without the approbation and con- 
lent of his fubjefls." How Erangcly times arc altered lincc the 45r'- 
*uine ri^ht of Kings was made the fubjetl of political epiJllcs ! The 
'oox p^puli *uex iiei would, we find » beour Author's cry. We would, 
however, remind him of the old proverb, tfi m^dus i» tehttSi or, there 
is reafbn in roalling eggs. It is true, that we pay all proper de* 
fcrcncc to the facred pcrfon of the m^h^ but we cannot forget that 
thofe arc the terms alfii applied to Majcfty : and, tho' we have the 
grcatcil opinion of the ciiies and corporations of Great Britain, ai 
the nurfing fathers or nwthera of our conftitution, we fhould be v^ry 
forry to fee the greatcft Monarch in the world fo far degraded, as to 
be led about tvtiy where in the leading-Hiings of the multitude* 

Art. II. Jtn Epifile to Lord Bute^ an the prefeni happy PraJpiSf 
tfaPeaa, 410- 6d, Rawlings. 

Another wretched attempt at irony. A Sarcafm on his Lord (hip.— 
But whether taken in an ironical or literal fenfe« it ii eijually ddliiute 
of meaning. 

Art, 12- Tin Liberty of the Prtfs. 8vov i s. NicolL 

Any other tide might have fuited thia pamphlet as well: for we 
find very little relative 10 the profcflcd fubjed ; ar.d that little, no* 
thing to the purpofe. We will difmifs this fcrvile advocate for power, 
with allUring him, that he has not fenfe enough to cor red the licea- 
tioufncfs, nor fpirit enough to fupport the liberty, of the Frefs* 

Art. 13, Ccnfuicraihm 6n the approaching Peace. 8vo. is* 

A tame and fpiritlefs endeavour to inflame the? puMic, and render 
ihem avcrfe ta peace. This inconfidcratc Conliderer docs not fcru- 
plc to favt that " a Peace at diis inflaut v.i>i» iu all probability, brand 
the limes with epithets that will be ever difgraceful in our Hiilory.** 
We have always thought, that a ^o<id Peace was dcfirable at a/I if ma ; 
and wc cannot pronounce the expelled Peace a had one, becaufe we 
are ftrangers to the terms. It is to be wifhcd, that thefePctb of the 
Fief^A had never learned the ufe cf pcu and ink* 
,r« • « 

Art, 14. Serxcus CmJiderattQm $n ihi falutary Diftgn of the Asi 
0f PmliamenS f&r n regular y urn form Rigi/ier cf we Parijh' 
pcor^ hfantSy in all ih Parches within the Bills 9/ Mortality. 
6 In. 


Ih two Letters^ eddrtjfcd ta a Church-Wardtn. 


Wcowethefc fcafonable and im porta ri t Obfervations to the public 
fpirited atul benevolent Mr. H:inway, whofc indefatigable pen is fo 
frequently employed for the advantage of hi? cnunrrv. In ^hc pre- 
fent well' intended tia^l, the worchy Autho; endeavours to point OdC 
tlie hunianity, as well as the utility which will attend the due execu- 
tion of the Ad above-mentioned ; the incfficacy of paft att^•mf.ts rc- 
\ax\Ti^ to fuch infants; the neccility of ft-nding them to nurie at a 
proper dillancc from London ; the pecuniary value of a life to the 
liummunii/ ; and the impottaiice of iiurtaiin^j our numbers at home 
and abro£Ld| as the trucll means o/ fupporting our independency as ^ 
nation. He hai alfo added, tome thoughts on the ufcrutncfs oi Ven- 
tilators; the pernicious efTcdsof bad air, narrow flrcc£i» and ruined 
houfcs ; the advantages of cle^inlinefs, and decent cloathingin Woric- 
houfes ; and the honourable eilccm in which Parilh oliicers ought ta 
beheld, while they diichargc their duty. In an Appendix, he haa 
likcAifc fome very fcnfibh reflc£liom, occalioned by reading Mr. 
KouiTeau's hints to Motherst in his new trcatiic of Education, en- 
titled Bmdiui, 

Art. 15. The True Briton. J Litter addrejpd to the Right Ho* 
murable Sir Samuel Fludyer^ Bart* Lord Alapr^ b*vo. 6 d» 

This Utile pamphlet contains Tome fcnfible, iho' trite, remarks 60 
the prefenc (late of aifairs, and (he fpirii of our Party- writers ; among 
whom I he Author of the Mritox is pretty ft* ve rely handled, on ac- 
count tjf his hanng advanced the fi>nowing kntimcnts rciativc to the 
fiiith of treaties. *• No State can be bound by any trtaty, which 
Ihall mm out manifefUy prejadidal to its sntcrells ; bcciufe It ii a!- 
ways fappofed, that every engvigcment of this nr>turi is coii traced 
with a view to feif-prefervaiion or public advantage.'* Thi» p.fDge 
our Trut^Bnten treats as iidamous* and ufi worthy the pen of an 
Eoglilhman. It is, fays hc» reminding the French of ; lir old max- 
ims, of agreeing to any thing to ferve the prdient pur^ofc, and of 
breaking their engagements when it fuits them. 

This Writer harh alfo fomc other pertinent remarks on the prefent 
general topic? of converfation ; a greater deferencr, however, might 
have been paid him, had not his pamphlet appeared in the difingtnu- 
0U5 light of a catch-penny performance, by hi^ jiiTiiininc: the ramc 
of a wclUknown Writer, [ChurchillJ who ccrtairdy had no hand Ja 
its pfodo^ion. 

Art. 16. J Litter t& the jtuthsr of the Eptflle to Lord Bute ^ on 

the preftnt happy Profpdl of a Peaee* Folio^ 6d, NiCijU. 

This Letter-Writer ts an enemy to peace. He very fagely re- 
marks, that " thert aw too many jn ihc worldj who, if th^ *crve 
B^LV. Sep. 1762. I* tlu J* 

224 Monthly Catalogue, 

their own private aims and purpofes, care not a ruQi for the commu- 
nity. What BritiQi principles are thefe ! For fuch men, is in f 4ir- 
iarus, by the Furies prepared, the baneful cup of reiUbot uijm^^ 
Bravo ! This is the very quinteifence of Bombaft : this is NoiUrenTo 
foblimated with a vengeance \ 

Art. 17. A Letter to her R / H j the P— — /D-w- 

-^-r of IV-^ — , on the approaching Peace, IFitb a few 

Wordi concerning the Right Honourable the Earl of B , and 

the general Taii of the iPor Id. 8vo. i s. 6d« Williams. 

Front i nulla fidts. The title-page of this pamphlet, in which M 
inierted alio two or three very Angular mottoes, is evidently calcu- 
lated to catch the eye of the incautious Reader, and deceive him into 
the purchafe of a Very different performance from what he might rea- 
fonably expcdl. At lead, we luppofe that few pcrfons, unacquaint- 
tA with the various illiberal tricks and impofitions of literary Sharp- 
ers, would expcdl, from feeing the title or advertifcment of this 
piece, to find it a dull recapitulation of hackneyed common-place 
Obfervations on the prefenc muation of public affairs. Yet fuch it 
is ; and, as fuch, unworthy our farther nodce. 


Art. 18. Ohffrvations on the prefent State of Muftc and Mufi" 
dam, fVith general Rules for Jludying Mujicy in a newj 
eajy^ and familiar Manner ; in order to promote the further 
Cultivation and Improvement of this di£icult Science. The 
whole illujlrated with many ufefuland entertaining Remarks^ in^ 
tended for the Service of its PraSfitioners in general. With 
the Chara^ers of fome of the mojl eminent Majlers of Mufic. 
To which is addedy a Scheme for ere£iing and fupporting a 
Mufical Academy in this Kingdom. By John Potter. 8vo. 
IS. 6d. Henderfon. 

Thefe Obfervations, which, we are told, were ipterfperfcd in fbme 
late Le£lures read at Grcfham-coUcge, are too incoherent and crude 
to yield any improvement to the Pradlitioncrs of MuAc, or to en- 
gage the publ c attention toward the objedt which the Writer has in 
view. His fcheme alio, of which be has only given a very light 
Iketch, is, by no means, fufficiently digelled. 'I'he fubjeft. how- 
ever, is worthy an abler hand, and the dcfign truly defervint; the 
patronage of a liberal and polite nation. As to the ftyle 0/ this 
pamphlet, it is beneath criticifm. 

P O E T I CA L. 

Art. ig. A Poem en the Merchants new beautifying the Statue of 
King Charles II. in the Royal- Exchange. fVith many ti^orir 


eat Remarks to George I 
the True Briton, 410. 


In two Parts. 
I s. Hope, 

By the Author of 

The trivial ctrcumflances mentioned in the tiilc^ appears to have 
ammatcd this triic Britifh Mufe to Ung the 'Vfr/u^tu und /?ero/c adioni 
of the unfortunate family of the Stuarts, Fifed with the imaginary 
iojuilicc heretofore done ihem, the Psct cries out ; 

Duteous to truth, we'll tell ihofe deeds alone; 

Which we in ihtm^ and they for u$ have done : 

i\nd Ihall their fame be buried in the dull ; 

From Jemes pacific down to Jama the jufi ? 

On at! their race immortal fcandals fly f' 

And all their gracious afts unnoiic'd die ? 

Forbid it HeaV'n — (ome generous Genius raife. 

To (hew ihcir worth — till then accept this praife. 

Such humble verfe, as may be thought to How. 

From length of years, opprefs'd witli length of woe. 
Indeed, thefe verfcs found much like the lalfe dying groans of ex- 
piring J a chit fm^ which fecms juH to have opened its eyes, at the 
glimmering of a rufli light, to clofe them in darkncfi for cver,^— . 
Peace to its Manss ! 

Art, 20* Poems : The Chimney Swetper and Laundrefs, Tl^e 
PraaUe of Ph^te, The Poet at Guild' ffalL j^to. 6d. 

The Mufcs are by no means paniiil in the diflribdtion of their fa- 
vours. At the fame time that they have drawn the Statcfraan from 
the Balance of Europe to mcafurc a coaplct, and have taken the fine 
Gentleman from the embellilhment of his perfun to poHlh a Ilanza, 
they have been no liTs benevolently employed to footh the labours of 
the anvil and the flaiU Hence, perhaps, it is that our Poet, who, for 
blight we knowi may beaChimney-fwecpcr, has defcended from his 
Obfcrvatory on the houfc top, to climb the more arduous heights of 
Parnaflus, and to woo the daughters of jove to bis footy embrace. 
Whether he braf^dilhes the pen or the brufh with more dexterity* we 
know not ; but the Reader will be able to judge of his poetical talents 
from the following Epithalamion on the nuptials of one of his fta- 

The CHihivttt'Swf.iTt% and Lavvdre%9* 

Ridet BcCf in^uam, Ftnm* Hon. 


" To win I hope 
** Fair Maid of foap^ 
A Chimney -fweeper lovci I 
The Quellion's put^ 
The man of foot 
f .?ro river nimbly movci. 


His friend attends, 

(The beft of friends) 
With plain but clean ;^parc!, 

A weddmg-fuit; 

He were a brute 
With fuch a iriend to quarrel- 
F 2 Qpick 

ifff MON THtT C 


Quick he*s undrcd, 

His negro- veil, 
Shirt* hofc, arc thrown afidc ; 

Rid of his cloaih$» 

Plump in he goei* 
Refolr d to Tcour Uty hide. 


The £(h that's near 

Leap out for fear. 
He fright* the diftant crow ; 

1 he Nabd*s fled. 

And hides her head 
Where willows thickeil grow. 



l^t her peep HW, 
Long as ihe will. 

To hinder would be hard : 
Try, Sweeper, iry^ 
Though drcp the dyc^ 

Love will tby toil reward. 


Now is his hue 
The colours two 

Between, of Fiend and Fuller, 
Nor black nor white, 
*Tis nothing right, 

A filthy mungrel colour. 


Try, Sweeper, tryf 
He's clean and dry. 
And drefl in halle to wed : 
The kifs Is fwcet, 
AVhen Lovers meet ; 
Good nighty they're gone lo bed- 
There is fomething of the hamour and manner of Sir John Suck* 
ling In cbis odd peHonnance i and the other two poems arc in a fimi- 
lar ftrain. 

Was it a •voice? 

A fccret choice 
From hira a key who kcept ! 

'Tis true as odd. 

The Delphic God 
Tells me the Naiad pufi* 

Autihis ? am m* /nMf umahitit 
In/mnia f Amdirt it *vidf»r pm^ l^e. 


Mxt. 21 


A CoUcSfion of original Potms, By Scotch Gentl&- 
„-,.„ Vol. IL IS. 6d. fewed. Edinbitrgh printed by 
Donald fon, and fold by Richardfoiij &c. in London. 

In the Appendix to the twenty-fifth volume of our Review, we 
made fowe mention of the Hrft part of this Northern Collcdbn i and 
then exprelTcd our apprehenfion that, from the fpccimcn then given, 
it would never equal that made by Mr. Dodlley. 

This apprehcnfion is not in any degree lelTcned by the contents of 
the prefcnt volume : in which, among a number of paiTable, and 
at few ekgant pieces, are many iniipid triBes, which diihoneur the 

The Fditor has prefixed an Advertjfement, in which he declares 
his rc'folution to add only one other volume, as intimated in his fitf^ 
Advertilcmcnt i and he affecls to laugh at the Reviewers for pro- 
phcfying, that hb Collc^Uon would aevar equal Dodfley's, ** How 




ike P (houtd it, quo' he, whirn the one h in ^« antl the other 
will make but thrte volumci ?' 

Cry your mercy, Brother I we IhoulJ never have thought of Co 
ouccr a comrtarifon. But if you judge of merit only by quantity^ 
Icjvipc togcthcf itufi* cmHigh for tiuee volumes more, by alJ mean^g 
and the Edinburgh poems wl)l then certainly, in one view, be upon 
a fooimg with the rival CoiletUon cf Fall-mail. 

Art. 2Z 

PhiJips : 
1 2mo. z s 

Po€ms^ attempud in the Siyhof Milhn. By Mr. John 
With a new Account of his Life and Writings. 
6d. bound. Tonfon, &c» 

There h an imitative as well as an original genius, by mean j of 
^hich many have acquired the reputation of Potts. John Philips 
mud be ranked in this claft : his Splendid Shilling may challenge all 
the praiCe that can be due to a burlefque imitation : but his Blenheim 
ia a turj>id and unnatural work, in which the chief pr^i fc he bellows 
on his Hero, Churchill, is that of pcrfonal prowefs. — He gives him 
enough of that; for the General, according TO the Poet* bys about 
hi.* mott ftahotidy, and ^^yihh thoufard^ and ten thouHinds. TJie 
iame want of ikiH U difcernable in hii CkiJ'^r, which^ iho* abound- 
ir: cellcnt oblervaiionst is full of abfurd iltniles, and imper- 

ii lHons. 

i he Ac*:ouni of Mr. Philipi's Life^ which is prefixed to this edi- 
tion of his Poems, and by means of which they come under our re- 
view, contains few particulars befidc what arc to be found in the 
Lives of the Poets. 1 he Author of it has not fo much as taken no* 
ticeof that remarkable Tory fpirit fo noted in his life, and lb vifibfe 
in his works, that he calls tlie dcfnicable James 1. the favauntt ^f 
Hiai/en, and Charles his fon, the trjf cf Kings* Such expreflions, 
Jiowc^cr, Slight have been paHed over, had he not, from a political 
i)iaip, mfuJ ed the memory of his glorious mailer, Milton ; an of- 
Icnce which no party attachment can palliate. 

For the rcii, wc have only to obferve, that the admirers of thtf 
Band wi.l be plea fed to fee fo handfome an edition of his works ; to 
U'hich the Proprietors have added a fet of pretty Cuts, as f ronltf- 
pieces to the fevcral poems. 

Art. 23i An EplflU m pGitUal Compcfth&n,«. IS. Hinxman* 

By James Ogden, 

Alt, 24. On tht Crtuifijeim and Refurr^kn. A PuMn ^^ 
James Ogden. 410, 1 s, Hinxman, 

Both the lart articles being the produtUon of the extraordinary 
Author of tbi Bntt/h Li'on rotfjV, (fcc Review, vol. XXVI, p. 516) 
it will be fufiicient 10 refer our Readers to the fpecimcn wc have al-» 
fcady given of Mr. Ogden'3 genms: from \%hencet without tn u. 

? 3 bUa» 


Monthly Catalooui. 

bUng ihem with any pariiculars concerning the prcfcnt pair of pam^ 
ph!ets, they w 11 be able to form a tolerable judgment of his qualU 
£catiuns for writiiig on cither of the foregoing fabjedls* 

Art, 25. An Effkf on Hnppinifs, In Fcur B^cks^ 410, as* 6d. 


Wc cannot too much commend the apparent gooduefs of hearty 
^ndunaffe^ed ptety, that reign throughout this performance. Nei- 
ther a love tD virtue, nor the trueft fenfc of religion, however, nc- 
celfafily confer literary talents nor have a ruling influence over the 
powers of poetry. Genius is an a';comp!i(hraent of another Idnd^ 
And 15, inderd, too often attended with lef^ amiable qualities. 

HappinefV is afubje^il which has frequently engaged the pens both 
of Philofphera and Divines. Our Author ticats it rather in the 
manner of the latter than of the former ; nor can vvc think he haih 
difplayed ii to any advantage, by cbuiing to doath his fentuneats i|i 
a p^^cuca! drefs. 

Art. a6- The fyandfuj&rth Epiftk. In Metre. By Ofw^Jd 
Fttz-Jame5, Efq; 410^ 6d> Finmorc. 

Mr. ?iit*s Leticr to his Friend in the Ciry, having been verfjfied 
with good fticcefs, this Poctafter has endeavoured to ridicule a late 
very extr.-ordin.iry Epiille, induftrioufly dilVributed and dirc^ed to 
every body and no body, by turning it into rhyme. But this imiia- 
live piece, if not totally deiliiute of humour^ i& yet by no means 
<H|ual to the original, which it follows hand pnffthui ttquis* 


M « 

D I C A L, 


Art. 27. A partkukr Narrative of what has happened relative 1 

to a Paper pMljhd in the fifty firjl Folume of the Phihfiphi^ 
' cfl/ TranfalHom^ entitled^ An Account of a r£markabii Opera- 
tion on a broken Arm^ i^c^ in tvhich the principal Fa5f$ are 
prtrved by Evidence. By Charles White, F. R. S* Member 
of the Corporation of Surgeons in London, and Surgeoji 
to the MaiichdUr Infirmary. 8vo. 1 s. Hitch, fl 

Of the rcmarkible Cafe, occafioning this Naira:ive, we Have 
jriven fomc account, in our Review of the fecond part of t)ie fifty 
frll volume of the I fanfiflion?, vol XXV, p» 10, the prefent pam*H 
phiet haviuj^ ari fen chiefly from the manner in which Mr* White had fl 
intnkd thnt cafe, and which. , indeed, might induce a Reader of 
the title cff/t, to conclude the Communi^afor of it had alfo been the 
Operator m it : iho\ in the dedudion of the cafe, the OpcPAtioo \%l 
ttfcribcd to Another unnamed Hoipita I Surgeon at Manchelter, wichl 
a compliment to him. This anonymous compliment, howcv*er, \vi 
tiot fatisfadory enough to the real Operntor, Mr. Burcbal, to ^ 
Vent his appealing to the public ag^UYit the title of that cafe, and 

again ^ 


D I C A L, 




a^inft Mr, Wlijte's frequent egotifms in the detail nf it, in an Ad-' 
vcrtifement fubfcribcd by him, and publiihed in Lloyd*5 Evening Poll, 
Sept, 7, 1761. Mr. White anfwcrcd ihia in the fame paper of the 
1 8ch ; to which Mr* Burchal replied Oft. 2 1 : that cd"c, and all thefe 
altercations rcfulting from it, being prefixed to the prefent Narfative. 

Without entering much, however, into the particulars of the de- 
bate, it fecms probable to us, after reading the aJErmations and at- 
tcibtions on both fides, that Mr, WTiitc was the Inventor or Propo* 
fer of the expedient by which the amputation of the Paticnt*s arm 
wa* prevented. At the fame time, as his Maftcr, and himfclf toa 
wefuppofe, were pofinvcly determined againil parting with the limb; 
and we really cannot imagmc by what other means it was polfible ta 
prcferve it and the ufc of it, we ihould not be in the leaft furprized, 
if the very famt thought had offered itfelf to any good Surgeon con* 
cerncd about it. How was fuch a purpofe to be obtained, but by 
removing all fplinters and afperities of the fra^ured bone, and dif- 
pofing the ieparated ends of it, by a proper fitnation and retention, 
to be united by the callus which the divine GEconomy of Nature con- 
llantly fupplies for that purpofe ? In our review of the fecoad vo- 
lume of Medical Inquiries, inferted this month, we htve ab^rafted 
a cafe» m which a callus above feven inches long was formed, and 
effcdlually fupplicd the place of as much of the larger bone of the 
leg, which Nature had feparatcd, after fomc accident, about the 
middle of it. In that cafe, did ihe not dearly indicate, what might 
be attempted in a fimilar or relative one ? 

We think, however, that as the Lad, the fa'^jefl of this caie, wai 
Mr, Burchcl's Patient, it wa<i not entirely decent* to tranfmit the 
hi (lory of it to the Royal Society without his con fen t or privity 1 
cfpecially as Mr. White acknowlcgcs hii Collegue's great ability ia 
his proftlFion, and profeflcs much regard for him : neither do we 
think Mr. Whites great hurry and want of leiftire, a futile ent apo* 
logy for this omiflion* But we imagine Mr, B. ihouid rather have 
Contented himfclf with infifting on this unkindnefs and indecorum, 
than have affumed the invention of the expedient, which he faintly 
hints the probability of Mr. W'safTaniing frt^ni him. All he himfelf 
%s, with the declarations of Mr. Wright and Mr, AfhwooJ in his 
favour, do not prove his ri^ht to the invention, much Icfs his Col- 
league's furrcptition of it from him. Our Author feems. by the atlcf- 
tatk)n of Mr. Bent and others fufitcienily to have ellablifljcd this 
c'aim, of which he is abundantly retentive, as he may have both a 
legal and moral right to be ; for fince reputation in fuch a profelFion 
•lay be fuppofed eventually tantamou#it to money, it were unfafliion- 
ablc to find it lefs infixed on, by cither of thele Genilcmcn, It lA 
afRrmed, indeed, that Sir Jfaac Newton was, with great dilHcultyt 
peifuaded, for the honour of his country, to affert hi* right to fome 
mathematical difcovcry, which Leibnitz very dffingenuouily publifti- 
cd as his own; it having been communicated 10 him by :rir Ifaac 
many years before, in the courfc of their correfpondencc : our great 
Thilofopher aftirmtng, ** he thought it of very little confcquence, 
who made the difcovcry, if mankind were the wife/ q jbettcr for it.'* 


So very ^ r Ulimeft pretcnrin ' '^F 

• iiicd vvk I about it I T of 

very diFi:f*ii*t cifniplexic-ri ; tho' ihcjid ittofthej 

wiit^lp, 10 ihc pablJct may be, the pri ^ . ^' amputa- 

liaa rora^JJines, and favmg a lunb, and jiernaps a hie m coiifctjucncC 
of it. i bis good purpQic >\'c hAVc had a very btc occafion to rc» 
commend in oui review of 4 vala«Ue wofk already referred lo ia 
this Aiticlc. 

Art* 28. Phfiokgkal Epyf. By Robert Wbytt, M. D, 
F, R. S. Phyfician to his Majcity. The fecond Edition j 
corrcdcd and eplarged. timo, 2s. 6d, Wilfoi;, 

Our ^scaJers will find a pretty full account of tbe iiift edition ci 
thefe EfTays in the iotincenth volume «f the Review. The prcfcn 
edition 15 now incntifjncd on account of the new Obfervations, Notes^ 
and Cofrc<fttons» which arc confidei^iiblp ; efpedally the addition of 
the App^dix^ which contains a Review of the whole controvert 
with Dr. Hallcr. concerning the fci^fibility and moving po^cr 
men and other ani'iial^ ; in which Dr. Whytt appears in have cat 
tircly refuted his learned Advcrlary. This ^^ppcnclix is alfo pubUfh- 
ed f*paraicly, for the cc v of thole wl»o have purchAl'cJ ihcl 

fir 11 edition of the ?hy i -flays; which vvd have agdin peJ 

ruied, widi additional f iti.Udiun i and find in them m^ny thin^j 
that well defcrvc the attention of every Prattitioner in the mcdi^ 

Art. 29. Jdhfftons or JccrttLQni sf the Lmgi U the Pkura^ and 
their Effids on Rifpiratton conJiiUrfdy bath with refptti /* 
theory and ProSfice^ in a Lett4r to Dr* George Baker, &c. 
&c, 8vo. IS* Bcclfet. 

. This letter ii drbfcribcd by Dr. Malcolm Fleming, a mcdicai 
Writer, whom we have hitd occafioii to introduce mor^ than <>oce _ 
Oor K ciders,- — :If hts prefcnt traCt has not been wrote merely toT' 
indulge a cuftom ^f writiiig, it has been, we cancivc, more for the 
iake of Amufing hlmfclf, and the ingeninus Phyfidtin to whom h^ 1 
addrefTes it. than frum a expeflation of incrcafing the common 
ftock of m-'di al knovvjri/c and impro^^cmcnt Hiivin^r prcmtil 
^ilh rrg4rd 10 his futijcd* th.'it he ftill not ptefume to be Umpire 
bttwceu two fuch preat names a^ Bocrh^iivr* and Hallcr, he tclts us^ 
** the former maintained, that broad acciciions :;nd adhdions of titj 
Lun^^s !i> the PA'ura, \indcT certain circumlUnce^s create 
or ^ hma\ and that Haller denies from experience and 
that fuch can, in the ]e»il» contnbuu to impnir rcpifauoa '*j 

He next l ni reprints fome of clic arguments on both fides |l 

10 which there c;in l>e vtry litde new to his learned medical brethren. ; 
When we come, however, to his own pradica! iricfcnces. \\ i^ 
ious he r>»iher inclines to the opinion of Boerhaavc ; in imiia* 
if whofc prjLulIcet in the cafe pf a foreign Noblemin ^hp dicd| ' 


Religious ^nd Controversiai* 


he recommends a continual application of warm emoUi(*nc Fomcii(a- 
lions : but thinking iheic roiohtonly palliate now (as they did then) 
he {iJ2^gefts the ufc of the cxtj^d of Hemlock* on the credit ai Dr. 
Storck's htllorics, to 4iilcilvc the adhering iubflancc or humour ce- 
menting thcfc,acc*etions. This leads our Author to give his jutlg- 
ment of the proper time and method of preparing that extract to 
the want of which he afcribef, with y^ry iitils her»ian«>u, its very 
frequent inefficacy here. He direds the plant not to be gathered till 
the end of May at the fooncO, telling us the manner in which he 
then made an ounce of it, for his own ffttislaclioo ; dnd which tn*. 
tircly rcfembled the appt^aiances and fmell that Dr. iitorr -' ' - to 
his own eYtr:j^l. It would have given us, however. Hi lif-^ 

faction, if P ' ing could have aiTurcd us, it had the 1 i^-- 

iri^iy good e» which the German Dottpr fo vr Wy 

aurjbutcs to it. iSui Dr. f. docs not a£irm his having given a lingle 
grain of \K, 

The extent of this pamphlet, containinj5 thirty-fix \^^^^f g'vet 
our Author an opportunity of ihcwiiig a pretty deal of his readings 
bitd fome of hi^ Ic rr«^/ *^f agreeably enough, c^ept m 

thofc places whe . ^ars to infiit on a tranf^rcihon a^^ainil the 

idiom of our language, by frequently omirtin<^ the prepoiidve Par- 
ticic» or the Sign of the Cafe, to his ijubiUutivt'S. Of ths wa 
hoped » we had fufficiently admouillied him* vol XXL page 463,' 
to which we refer him; aduring him at thefime time, thai ** adhe*. 
fions of luogs,' page 20,^*-** create or itivieafe hy/mra or Af(h/»<a/* 
page 21, — ** ab/ence of coogh^*' page 26,-—*' caufe of Dyfpn!ea,'*i 
29 50, kt, &C,- arc by no means Englifli, and^ we think, not 
even Britifh, idiom. Had they occurred but once or twice* we might 
have overlooked them, as typographical oniiilions. '^nd a» they arc 
^Jlo often joined properly v^ith ttie Particle, perh^^ps this Gcntlffr.aii 
fiippofes fuch an Elhpfis indifferent ; which is certainly not the cnfe 
in our Uugua^^c, when a thing is mentioned dcfiiiltely. Wc hai-e 
attempted to oonjcdure the occafioo of Dr. F'jfingulancy in thij» rc- 
fpcilt, in the volume and page already referred to. 

Religious mtd Controversial, 

Art. 30. Tiutlve StrmsnSt preacht^d upon fvral Occa^Qm, By 
the Hon* and Rev, Walter Shirley, A, B. Rcclgr of 
Loughrea in the County of Galv^ay. Dublin printed) 
London re-printed, lamo, 2s. Johnfon. » 

The fubje^ls of thef<; Djfcour<c5 are-^C^r/ ftptntanri \ the Mim* 
fin ''/the Go/i!% fhe g'^at Imfarionce sf 'Jtmi\ the If^ay /p f'*r^tfl 
Life I Stt/'Vfirnn ky Chijl foi Jcixn and Gtrtila ; Mun hqI to he J inj^ 
iui Gad\ M'ln^i Salvation (ompuat Ij the Death of Cbrfl\ tht hej^r' 
rtflion of Chrifi ; fujiifvation ly Faith ; the »rty Btnh \ en rtghi 

Hearing. If the Reader of^^thcfe Sermons litj down with an 

expe^ation of being enteuaincd with elegance of compofitioi, Ane 
jilting* new fcntimcnts, great extent and refinement of iho"--*'- 


MoNTHty Catalogue, 

or with a view to enlarge his acquaintance with critical and theological 
kfiowlcge, it is probab!e he may be difappointed, Inftcad of the 
above- mentioned cjualities, we can encourage him to cxpeft a good 
deal ofOrihodoxy ; but together with this, many marks of a grave, 
ferioui. and honcft mind, devoted to the important duties of his fta- 
tion, and dcfirous of fulfilling the worthy ends of his profefllon. 
In hfsfccond Sermon, dcfcribing the duty of every Gofpcl Mimfter, 
he cxprdreth hitnfclf in the following plain and honcft manner. 

*• I come now to the fecond general head propofed, namuly, to 
enquire, What if my duty and the duty of e^xry Gofpel Mini Her, And 
I the more cheArfully enter upon this head, my hnoured Htartfs^ bc- 
caofc I would have every one of you informed what he has a right t% 
fxpidfnm mi\ and that wherever I am known to fail, the meancft here 
may nr/rtfi/# w/, with a free, generous, and noble ChrilVian Liberty.** 

This ftiould be the language of an humble and modcd mind* by 
no means elated with the (elffuffidency of prieftly pride j and is an 
infbnce too uncommon in Gentlemen of that order, to be paiTed by 

•• He goes on — // is my duty then, in the iirft place, conlfantly » 
preach t^ic Gofpel of ChrifV; that is to make known to you, the 
ipirituality of the Gofpel Covenant; to reprefent to you the Fall of 
Man, with its inconceivably awful confequences, in the ruin of the 
whole human race ; and from thence to fhew the great myftery and 
abfoluic neceflity of our Redemption, &c.— : — In the next place, it it 
my duty diligently to attend the Sick ; and endeavour to awaken, 

comfort, and exhort, a^ rcfpcftivc occafions may require. — 

** Further, it is wk dufy to be compailionate, merciful, and cha- 
ritable. Jf the poorcll objed, therefore, in my pdrifli fli ill ever find 
mt indulging myfcJf in ettfe^ in ind^ttncct and affiutna^ whtlll he, 
aUil ii groaning in the bittcmei'^ of wane, he may with jutlice up- 
braid mc as a falfc Steward of God^s good^; as a Robber and a 
Thief, whti cruelly detained from him what he has as much right to, 
from the law of God, as I have to the emoluments of my MiniHry, 
from the laws of the land/* 

Would to God ! for the honour of Chriftjanity, and the happinef* 
of mankind, that the fame worthy fentiinent5 poifefTcd the heart of 
every C lergyman, and efpecially tkofe whq enjoy a large (hare of the 
good ihfngi of this world. 

Our Author concludes this paragraph with a pafTage which is, at 
the fame time, an evidence of no mean undcrflanding, and of a good 

*• If ever there Ihc>u3d come an age (twt ^xj^^uli gladly h$pg thtprt' 
pnt ii mt that age ) when the Minilkrs of God*s word are found not 
to be holy perfon*, and entirely given up to God; if, on the con- 
tfary, they fhould be found worldly, proud, covctoiis, felf feeking, 
indolent. Tipplers, given to company, full of obfccne und profane 
converfHtion, Liars, Pcrfecutors of the Truth, and Oppofers of God's 
holy fpirit ; 1 fay, if ever there ihould come fuch an age, I will vcn* 
-* re to foretd, wUhout the f^^irit of propheiy, ih^sLi in ihat age 



Religious and Controversiau 


Chriflianity will be treated as Pricftcraft, and men will endeavour to 
trample it onder tjicir feet/* 

With thefc Sermons are bound up two divine Odes, the one en- 
titled LiBtHTv* the other, The Judgment, which are not with* 
out Tome (hare of merit. 

Art. y* A Trcatifs conamifig the Gofpfl Mtthod tf tang Righ^ 
tidus. 8vo. IS. Longman. 

This, as the Author himfclf informs us, is the fubflance of /t^erat 
Sermons ; the dcfign of which was, to cjthibit a view of the peinrai 
hfMdi of that Rightttiufftt/t which theGofpel indifpenfibly requires. 

According to this fenllblc Writer's opinion, barely to profefs the 
Cofpel of our Lord Jefus Chriit j to be a zealous Member of this or 
that Church, or party of Chnftians ; to be a firm Believer, and warm 
Advocate for the doflrines of any particular C^rfii!/, or CenftJ^omi 
to be a conllant Attendcr upon the rites and ceremonies of the 
Church, are by no means fufficient to form the chara^cr of a rigbu^ 
fui man, in the Gofpd fenfe of that word : by G^/pt! righu^u/fuft^ 
he apprehends, is meant, a conilant and habitual courfc of univerfal 
goodnefs and virtue ; that it comprehends a conflant regular diP 
charge of our whole duty to God, our neighbour, and ourfelves ; 
that it b attended ^ ith a Anccre and fpecdy return to our duty upon 
every inftance of failure or mifcarriage ; and that whoever fhall af- 
fume to himfelf the (harcEltr^ or flatter himfelf with the bopt of the 
future reward of a rrghtovj maut from any other falfe and counicifcic 
fpecies of rightcoufnefs, molt unhappily and wickedly deceiveth 

In thefe fentimcnts the Author thinks himfelf abundantly confirm- 
ed by a variety of rcafonings deduced from the moral charader and 
perfedions of God i and the plain declarations of the Gofpel of Je« 
fus Chrift, 

There are many who have put on the charaflcr of public Infbuc- 
tors of mankind, and Miniilcrs of religion, who (ludioufly cndea* 
vour to conceal thefe great and important maxims from the minds of 
the people ; and arc perpetually turning their attention to things of 
infinitely inferior confcqucnce, which fcrvc only to perplex their un- 
dcrflandings, to puiF up their minds with pride and conceit, and %o 
make theoi unmindful of the great and unchangeable obfigations of 
piety andgoodnefs, which arc the life and lubllance of true religion. 
*— To our Author, and to all, who from the prefs or the pulpit, en- 
deavour thus to explain the nature of true religion, and enforce the 
obedience of the commandments of God, we wifli the greateil fuc^ 
cefs ; and think ourfelves and the public highly obliged to them. 

Art. 32 • InJfruSfkm for the profitable neewing the Word^fGai. 
By John Riland^ M. A. Curate of Sutton-Coldheld in 
Warwickfliire. %>tQ^ 6d. Baldwin. 

Thcfc Inilruftions of Mr, RiJand**, arc a collc&on of Tcxu from 



MofirH$^Y Catai^oguEj 

[the Bi^le, and of pamcuUr pa^&gcs from the ?tzjen and Hbrnilt^ 

* aCliarch, under difTc rent heads. A» far as W£ t * n abl0- 
e« ibcy arc not ;ic ail calculated to explain tbc crip- 

which Uje unlearned Reader is left u> dad out a^ wcii ii^ Jae] 
f'c^n t to whom, ihcreforp, we will take tbc liSerty la leave ihii 
f nj the Bible arc both quoted 

i in this Ihtje b<x>k, yet that ' 

iii coaiii oot be M^ RiU m up ai of ti^ua! antU^ 

ritj m thccftim.uinti <rr v ■ :e is the only fafc Guide, 

Tie BihU ^onlaJm the tiii^w» «/ proiejimM^i^ 

[>Vrt. 33, Thi W&^ u th ^ahhcth 9/ R/J}^ fef^ By ThoiMi 
Bromley, lamo. 2s. 6d. Dilly, &c. 

The book now hdort m c^rts^m t{>ret r?p.-iratt Dieccs : the firll 
f^ff'a Iq i fi in i^ Ktnxi i 

Vjl!rth - tliif, U _, ^ / ^ - *-^- --^il printed ftbo*/.e 

a;>o, cai;ic» not within our notice; cor. indeed, fiooiil 
.w,.,,v.4>£l and cnthuUallical manner in ivhkh it i^ written, have we 
he Icalt icmptHUon to tjouble ourfeUc?, or our R cade* 5, wxi^k k»\ 
ic fj^'in is a r*' v '^'^.Ic, intelligible fuhjeil, us c\*crv r' - 
np^rtjince Xv en and hippincfs of man jnufl be 

► ac: th 'fe, L*<t: ^.i^w^, who depart from the fimplicitv of t^iu \jq\* 
rl» atid liibo^^r to iavolvc the duty and obligitions of men in dark* 
efs and vs^yiitryt ho^-evtr good their imciitioni may be^ do greatly 
bur: the intcrcllft of Uac xeiigion* 
The iecond of riu-fc pieces is, ths Jcurnr^s 6/ the Childrtn cft/roiU 
\th€\ art ft orde^^ Nun^bcrs* ch. xvxiii. 

Tlie Reader is fiot to e,\pcd any th nghilorical o^ lea! 

this treniifci the fcheioe of the Author being ro .. lijc 

hilloiyof ih<; Ifr;icliic; ; and, as he fays » to^lve the Jfir.ik*^l,i mo- 
rai Jf /- nititifg^ to the HAj^rk tif Rtgtntratien, That the method of 
inftrudtmn by paiaWe, and the conveying great atid impo't;i;u uutKs 
under the cover of f<ihlc and Jlegory, n an ancient and ufcfaj ptaii^ 
tice, we readily ackuowlcgc; we have many inilanccs of it in the 
l>cll VVritrrs, :ind particularly an the facrcd vviitings. But to Indulge 
this fpirit too far, to convert hillory into allegory, and under every 
pUin and fimplc narrative to fearch afccr a concealed and hiddett 
r:-L*.^nin£» gives fuch an unbounded licence to ehc roving and cxtra- 
vr t^ant iaucics of vifionary men, and introduces fuch ilraoge coofu- 
fti n ioio fabjc£ls of the grcateA importance, that the ill coni'cqucnces 
of It ^rr without number. 

Suppc/fe the hiilcry of the Life and Miracles of Jcfus, and the 
AAs \ hii ApolUcs, Ihould be treated in this mrnncr, as in ibme 
luiunocs we believe has Uen attempted, ivhat a tendency would 
jt ha"c to udlfoy the credibility of the Goipcl Hillory ; and to fmlc 
the ^jcat UtU o« which Whiiilianity rclh, into the utmoll uncertain* 
ty, and then into the lowcll contempt! If Gendcmen of this turn 
tnurt p^tatify this fanciful difpofition. let them take the Com mem nes 
9!jf Cadiu't the Conrpirac^ of Caiaiine^ or the Atiaals of i a^ttis^ 


Reiigioos emi Coktroversi Al. 


and indulge their genius id the atmoU ; but Jet them ^^icFt fkuTd 

w/ftin]^ which contain the hifiory of the progrcfs of true Kcli^ion» 
and are intended for the information and improvement of iwanldad 
ii) all ages. 

The third of theft pieces is, an Accotmt of the vartOQ« Wnys of 
God's manlfcfting himfclfto Man : but in this there is fo much darlc- 
ncfs and obfcurity, and fo little is it calculated for information and 
improvement, that we iLall take no farther notice of it. 

Itfecms this Mr Brr^mlcy has jbcen dead upwardsoffcvcnty years s 
we hope he is in poflelBon of that rejl provided for good men : and 
if his too partial friends had fuffcred iiis works to rtjl like wife, wc 
are of opinion* that nciLher this Author*s memory, nor the mtsreiii 
of Truth and Religion would have fcffcrcd by it. 

Aft. 34- An Enquiry tnU the Spirit and Tendency of Letters m 
Thiicn and Afpafui. 22mo. 2S, Dilly. 

In the Editor's preface to this piece, we are in formed , that it was 
wrirten by an eminent Mitdflcr of the Church of Scotland, with a dc- 
fign to obviate the many grofs nii (lakes of the Letter Writer } and to 
prevent the influence, that his fublle abufe of the facred Writings 
may have on fome of thofc into whofe hands his books may have 

Art. 35- Prolegomena in Lihris Veierli Trjlaimnti Poeiicoi ; fmi 
Dijfertatioy m qua Firi erudittjftmi Francifci Harii nufier EpiJ^ 
copi Cicejlrienjti dpantiqua Htbrttorum Pa ft Hypsthejin taiunt 
it veritate niti^ fufe o/ienditur^ atque ad oLje^a quttdam re^ 
fpondttur a Thoma £dwards, A. M. Au!» Clan Cantab, 
nuper focio. Subjicitur metricie Lowthianae confutation 
cum Indicibus Ncccffariis. 8v£j. 3s. 6d. Millar, 

Our opinion concerning Bifliop Hare's hypothefii of Hebrew poc- 
try, has already been intimated in the Review ; fee voL XII. page 
^^5 : and we have not difcovcred in the Prolegomena on the poeti- 
cal books of the Old Teftameni, written by thii learned AulHot, 
any reafon fufficient to indure 119 to alter our fcRtimencs One Ur* 
cumllaoce we cannot overlook ; he fays in htr. title-page, fukjidtur 
M(tri€t£ Lowthi^fj^ tenfitt-iiie : biit the ingenious and cJeg.uit Df» 
Lowth denies the metre of the poetical books 1 The world, we 
hear, is foon to be favoured with a new edition of his Pr^UtJicMt ^ 
when we hope he will give full farisfacVion ivith regard to certain 
doubts which may have ajifen iirom fomc remarks liunie on Im work& 
both ai home and abroad. 

Art* 36. T/je fcrapkical young Shepherd* Being a very rfrrmri* 
Me Account of a Shepherd in France, about eighteen Years of 
Age I whof ivi(/}cut any other ALans than thi Scriptures^ and 
ihi teathings of Gwi's holy Spirit^ attained U a Vfiy tmcommon 



Monthly CATAtocuE^ 

and ivan^eUcal KnowUge of th,* trui G<id^ and Jefus ChriJ^ 
whcm hr hath ftnt. IranJlaUd from the Frtnch^ with N^s^ 
by Cornelius Cay ley, Jan. lamo. as. Lewis, 

Wc remember to have met wiih this Mr, Cay ley before : he h the 
perfoD whom we had the honour of inlroducing to the rou'cc of our 
keadcrs, in the Appendix to our mneteenth volume; in which we 
gave fomc exirads from his curious account of himfcif, in a traft en» 
deled tht Ri<h*i ff Ctud't Frfr^Grnct^' To that artide wc miy now 
refet for an idea of thi Author and his wrirjogs; only adding, that 
his fcraphical French ShL'phcfd .nppcMrs to have been juH fuch aoCthei" 
Gctiius a5 himfelf : t^ujtc hand 4«d glove with the Almighty : as fa^ 
miliar with hia Maker as a Mclliodiil Preacher with the ears of his 

•* lie difcourfed one whole morning upon the different degrees of 
the SouPs intimate union with God; of the communications of the 
UeM Trtnltyi dijftr^ly to be c^tpericnced j and of the /jir(7jvm<v* 
#M ySMii/«tf r//y that GcmJ ufcth with thofe whofe heam arepuri£ed 
fcy Faith." 

1 he cnthufiaftic Editor of thti hare brain'd ftuC has prefixed ta 
it, an impudent I.pilUe dedicatory, to Jefos Chtiil» in vafe, and ta 
the free and cafy drain of, 

1 pray thcc, Lord» this Shepherd takc^— 

ad Jinfj» u i;n inducement for the L — to grant his petition, that he, 
in rvtum* may exped, in due tjme» the honour and favour of a 
ffiriKlly vifit trom Mr. Caylcy, 

Dear Lord, butgnmt mc this requeft. 
To thy fweei care I le^ive the rett ; 
And tc thy wounded, pierced feec« 
With Msfjt i^ili tAkt «jr fejin 

Who ihh Mn* Mary is» that is to bear Mr, Ctyley compan? on 
*^' -^ '^^on aboY« tnttmaied, we are not informed ; but, doubckC 

r fbme fjiroariie female Saint, from the purlieus of Mo 
Rc.jjor ractenham Coart Aye' aye! let thetc \:ethodiib alone^ 
Ibr a tift m $iH ^ ith the Lftdtcs f fly rogues ! whcrcrer they taloe up 
^t6tipMxWrh^ti^vt6Mommt^ b6 for good accoaunodttkitts I 

Art. 37. J^mm$/ PtimASif^ » prmOyid 4Bmf/l iie Fi§* 

Awamhut of \mi^ indecent, asd aUord exprdfionsi, fiid to 1 
hmm mt^ «lr of by tbe Meiiiodalls m dkir ficeacking* are hdlT 
dttowm iMO ibe Ibrai of aSeMioa« oollKlbOowaKlexti iUm/Ui 

c wthta iht lcliiRS» mdt etbcr Ewfiiriei of fkt Vhas<k of I 

I ilMiknani of ilkofe feheaca of nadede tad deMoa, bf 

tte« • part of tiie wob m ia^onceiL aad d^Mr« away 

fkhliiKd CWffci, Uoimcr tkk biv cenatti it ia» cbat 

the na^aer im mikk ISr Fwaiki tatfii Hfoa^lbesi to ti«3l tJbe ^ 


Single Sermons. 


bUme trmJis of Chriflianiry, cannot fail lo Ibock boA the ear and 
the andeHLmdiog of all ihofe who make any good prcteniions dlhcr 
to religion or common-fcnfc. 

Addition to the Miscellaneous, 

Art- 38. A genuine Petition to the King\ and likewifea Letter f9 
the Right Hon. the Earl of Bute j concerning the very hard 
lafe of an eminent Divine of the Church of England. Pub- 
imecf from the Originals, by the Rev. Dr. Free, 8vo, 6 d. 
Primed for the Editor. 

The cafe here laid before the public (tho' we arc tiot ckat that the 
pablic have any thing to do with it) is certainly 3 very hard cafe, m-^ 
deed ! It is no le fs than that of a Doftor of Divinity, whofc fsmily 
having fafFcred in their intcrefts from their attachment to thofc of 
Church and State, he finds himfelf under the djfagreeablc nccciHty 
of appealing to the world, againlt the fuppofed injuilice and ingrati* 
tude of tbofct in whofe caule fo emintrtt a Dtvine hath fo eminently 
fuffcred. *♦ The Lord, we are told, hath ordained, that thofc who 
preach the Gofpel, Ihould live of the Gofpel ;** and yet, what with 
the combination of Bifhnps, Archbiihops, Treafurers, and Secreta- 
ries of State, the Petitioner complains, he jsftilJ flar<uini hy the al- 
tar. Poor, Dr. Free? if this be true, we are, indeed, forryforit. 
But the ingratitude of Kings and Miniilers, is an old fubje>fl of com- 
plaint: tho* we think the Right Reverend Fathers of the Church 
might have paid a greater regard to the above-mentioned ordinance, 
than to have fuffered forefpcdabic a member of their body, to be re- 
duced to fo woeful a plight. It is, however, poiTible, that thefe 
^reat perfonages faw noi the Doctor's fervices in the fame light as he 
does himfdf : and, perhaps, he may think too, that the loofers 
have, in any cafe, a right to rail. We muft be bold to fay, never- 
thelefs, that* in our opinion. Dr. Free has, on this occafion, been 
rather too free (forgive us the pun) wkh the names and cha- 
ra£lers of fome of the 6rft perfonages in the kingdom. At leaft, we 
cannot help thinking, his relentments have carried him a little too 
far, in his endeavours to prove, by dint of logic, that a certain great 
man was euilty of high-treafon in procuring a penfion for another 
perfon, WNoile he neglected the Doitor. The Lord have mercy upoa 
all Favourites and Minitlers, if they are liable to be impeached for 
high ifcalbn, for not procuring places or pcnfions for all tliat wane 

Single Sermons, 
I. A T the Vifiution of ihe Archbifhop of Canterbury, at Sand- 
XV ^ich, June 18, 3762- By William Larighornc, M. A* 
Rcdor of Hawkinge, and Miniftcr of Folktlonc in Kent. Hitch, ^x» 

7, Faith in Chnfi and Life E'veria/iiftz^ — 00 the death of the Rev* 
Mr. Jolin Auther, who departed this life July 10^ 1761, in the fe- 
vcnty-fourih year of his age. By Benjamin SValliu, Keith, A:c. 

3» ifo* 

%^% Monthly CATAtotOE, 

3. Inotulathn Jhr the Small^p^x conjiienj^ ^n^ prvutd ty the ^^^M 
0f CQd t9 hi finfttU In a Sermon preacbed at Borwcll in Cjimbiridg 
{h?rc, February 28, 176^. By Joieph Mauldcn* Keith. 

1j this ftrangc bcrmon^ being rcpleniflied with many incoherent .intf 
horrible mi Tap plication a of Scnpio re againft the practice in qucltiD:], 
docs «iot pr6cyre tlic Preacher the Ca^mmfn of Conjurer, which, 
doubtlcfs he detens, the Preface wilt gain him the reputation of « 
true Prophet, which he mult approve, ft will alfo demon Urate, that 
he hn$ feme intcivals, however ihort, of fenfc and rcflt^dion^ at it 
aiHnns, p. v. ^cprcfsly — ** I am very fcnfible of the meanneb of 
this performance, I have not the vanity to think it will be :ipplaod- 
ed by iinv h dy. I have roore rcafon to Unnk it will be ridicutcd by 
many, diiku tii imagine it will be applauded by any/' There h not 
only (cure ami leuilin, but ferioui prediction in this. And as Mft 
IV?aulaen, atier all thisprcfcience, ha^ publrfbcd ihcScrnioQ, he miyt 
have doDC tt^ perhaps, ai an exercifc of mortification, as a MooH 
cnibrSfcC<:t his oivn lathing. A different mcti'e, indeed, is proirifetl 
for it, p. vi viz. ** that it has been mifreprcfentcd as a motl blaA 
phemous dilcourfe. which made him think tc ncccflby to /*/*/# itt** 
as he cxpreiles hfmfclf wiji much propriety. 

We heartily aci]uit this Preacher of iniending to b^^J" ^''-•^r^ ; but 
when a man who kno«.s not what fpirit he is of, ppeari 

never to have coniidercd the fubjed he is preaching ^l, jticjutiits al« 
moil to perfonate his Creator, and patshi^ own raging deliriums and 
damnations, as it were, into the mouth of the Deity, we tbink it 
appioachcB too near blai'pliemy, in effec^l, Thas he pron ounce? 1 
withcjut the leall fcrupie, doubt, or hefiiation, page iS, " Thtk 
ftrcnuous Contender* for Inoculation lliall one day know, thtt llie 
practice thereof i^ a real and (Iiamcful defpidng the divine wiflom of 
Almighty God» which will not be numbered among the leaft of theif 
iins« Nor {ball they that ufe this method for ehcir own bencdc (au 
they think) be ever able to make their condition better thereby. 
But, on ihc contrary, upon the whole it will be a great deal the 
worfe, — Neverthelef«» it will be one day fouml a daring and pi«» 
fumptuons fm [adding, with a horrid adjuration, indeed] or there if 
no God in heavm. And it is to be karcd, it will be found a fin thai 
will tcad to harden [by its st;cc£ss he muil mean] the heart agvni 
God, Atvd it will be weJ» if they do not commence trt^mthcDCV 
greater A tlieiils than they were before. P. 20, 21. 

This fpccimen moHcf our Readers mull think vcfy fuificicnt. He 
lefcrs the Approvers of Inoculation, (for their eternal con vi<Elion, no 
doubt) to Ifaiah v. 20, 21. which is jail as flrong and pertinent 
as all his other perveriioDS of Scripture on this occaflon. But brieHyt 
we would recommend it to our Author, to read a little of what fome 
Divines, of his own Communion, have faid, with ih^ grealeit reve- 
rence and gratitude to God, and love of man, in vindication of thb 
practice, befurc he preaches and publifhes the fequcl of this extrior- 
dinaiy Sermon. VVc fmcercly wifh him, in the mean time, fuch a 
degree of iilumi nation, as may transform fomc of his gracelefs zeal 
ir.tuChrifban charity^ and recommend the hccmiafian tf £9ad S0»ji 
(0 bis attentive perulal, * 



C 239 J 



For OCTOBER, 1762. 



Pofms Oft feiftral SuhjiUs* To which is pnfixfd^ An Effhy on 
the Lytic Poetry of the Jnticnts^ in two Letters infcrihed to the 
Right Honourable James Lord DcHcfoord. By John 
Ogilvie, M, A. 4to. los. 6d* Keith* 

OU R readers are no fl rangers to the name or to the merit 
of Mr. Ogilvie. The ample accopnt we gave of his 
Day of Judgment (fecvoL xx. p* 141,) and fome extracts from 
the odes that were printed with the fecoiid edition of that 
poem (vol, xxi, p. 467) were fufficient proofs of his abilities 
both in Heroic and Lyric poetry. Thinking it enough, 
therefore, to inform our readers that iji this elt;gant ajid gen- 
teel edition of Mr, Ogi!vie*s works there are feveral original 
poems, we fhall confine our ftritStures to his effay on the Ly- 
ric poetfy of the antients ; in the courfe of which, however^ 
we ftiall take occafion to introduce fome extra^b from fuch 
odes, in this collection, as have not before been publilhed. 

The cflay on Lyric poetry, addreflb^ to Lord Deficfoord, 

begins with iomc wcll-tiiiied ftri£tures on genius ; which the 
Author defines lo be ^^ The offspring of reafon J4nd imti^lnation 
properly moderated, and co operating with united influence 
to promote the difcovery or the illuftration of truth." Ac- 
cording to this definition, Gemus muft neceflarily imply 
^Judgment \ and perhaps this is rij^ht : iho* fome have con- 
tended that they are very different faculties, and that a pcr- 
fon may be polfefTed of the one without having much of the 
other. '* Genius, fay they, is the offsprin^i^ of imagination 
aionc, and is ftronger or weaker in proportion to the richncf$ 
Vol. XXVIL Q. an4 

240 Ogilvie*! Pmm. 

and fufceptibility, or the poverty and Incapacity of ihat fa 
cvilty : Judgmt-nt is the ofFspring of reafon alone, and paflb» 
It's cenfure on the prody£lions of genius with the dccifivc 
authority of a different power. It is true that both thcfc la- 
rulties are alike nccclTary 10 the poct» but it is as true that 
they arc diftind faculties.'* — This point we leave to be fct- 
Ucd by the advocate?* on both fides the qucftion. 

We agree with Mr, Ogilvie, that a perfeft poife of thefc 
powers is necelTary to conftitute conlummate excellence | 
and we arc fuUy aware, that where either of them is predonii- 
n>mt, fuch produSions will, confequently, be regularly infipid^ 
or extravagantly ornate i And it is true that '* the poet who 
attempts to combine diftant ideas, to catch remote alluGoiis» 
to form vivid and agreeable piclurcs, is more apt, from Ae 
very nature of his profeffion, to fct up a fulfc Jiandard ef ix^ 
ttlknct^ than the cool and difpaflionate phildlopher who pro- 
ceeds deliberately from pofition to argument, and who em- 
ploys imagination only as the handmaid of a fuperior fa- 

** The Lyric poet, adds he, is expofcd to thl^ hazard 
more than any other. 

**- Plato, continues Mr. Ogilvie, fays that poetry wa^ 

origmally^i^^flc /wfir^-;? or an infpired imitation of thofc objedU 
which produce either pleasure or admiration. To paint 
rhofe objects which produce plcafure was the bufincfs oif the 
pailoral, and to difplay thofe which raife admiration was the 
tafk coiiilgned to the Lyric Poet. To excite this riv> 

methfxl wus fo cffedlual as that of celebrating the ^ iu 

Af the powers who were fuppofed to prcfide over nature* 
The ode therefore in it*s firft formation was a Song in Im*- 
jiour of thefe powers, cither fung at folcmn feftivals, or, after 
|he days oi Antphlon^ who was the inventor of the Lvrc, ac- 
companied with the mufic of that inftrument. Thus Horatqe 
tells us» 

Muja de£t Ftdibus Dh&s^ Puersft(U': Deprum* 

** In this infancy of the arts, when it waa the bufinef$ Qf 
the Mafc, as the fame Poet informs us, 

Publica prlvatis fearmrty facta pre fan 1 1 ; 
Ct^ricubiiu prohibcri vago^ dan Jurd marith* 
Oppida msliti^ i*f£^s imluden Ligt::. 

Your Lofdfhip, fny^ ohx Aurhor, will immediately conclui 
tihat ilic ijJLxicii of pQcuy vrhich wa^ liril cultivatsd (clpecially 




\»hen Its end was to excite admiration) muft for that rcafon 
have been the loofijl and the moft undeUrmimd, 

** The Poet, in this branch of liis art, propofcd, as his prin- 
cipal aim, to excite admiration ; and his mind, without the 
afiiftanceof critical fkill, was left to the unequal talk of pre- 
fcniing fuccccding ages with the rudiments of fciencc, Het 
was at liberty indeed to range through ihc ideal world, and 
to collect images from e\Try quarter ; hut in this refearch he 
proceeded without a guide, and his imagination, like a fiery 
coarfcr, with loofc reins, was left to purfue that pith into 
which it deviated by accident, or was enticed by tempta- 

** Paftoral poetry, he proceeds, takes in only a few ob- 
je<as, and is characterized by that fimplicity, tendernef*, and r 
delicacy which were happily and eafily united in the work of 
an anrietit flicpherd. He had little ufe tor the rules of criti- 
cifm, becauiebe was not much expofcd to the danger of in- 
fringing them. The Lyric Poet, on ths other hand, took a 
more diverfincd and cxtenfive range, and his imagination re- 
quired a ftrong and fteady rein to corredl it's vehemence, artd 
reft rain it*s rapidity. Though, therefore, \vc can conceive 
without difficulty that the fhepherd in his poetic efTufions 
might contemplate only the txtttnal ^Ifjicfi that wifre prcfentcd 
to him, yet we cannot fo readily believe that the mind m 
fiaminga Thcogonv% or in afUgiiing dilltnct provinces to the 
powers who were fuppnfed to pr*:fide over nature, could in 
it*s firft eflays, proceed with fo calm and deliberate a pace 
over the fields of invention, as that its work fhould be th«^ 
pcrfcS pattern of jull and corrected compofttion. 

** From thefe obfervations laid together, your Lordfhip 
will judge of the lUte of Lyric poetry, when it was fiitt in- 
troduced, and will perhaps be inclined to adent to a part of 
the propofition laid down \i\ the beginnmg, * that as Poets iji 

* aeneral arc mor:j apt to fet up a falfc Itandard of excellence 

* than philofuphcrs are, fo the Lyric Poet was expofed to 

* this danger more immediately than any other member of 

* the fame profcffion/ Whether or not the preceding can 
be jufUy applied to the works of the firft Lyric Poets, and 
how far the ode continued to be charaiiicrixed by it In the 
more improved ftatc of antient learning, arc queftions which 
can only he anfwcred by taking a (hort view of both/' 

After having taken feme little notice of the baibarous ftatc 
of Greece, and mentioned the origin of fcienca in that 

0,2 fo 


.Ocihvit's Poems, 


famous region, Mr. Ogilvic hazards a conjeSure, to which 
we readily fubfcribe ; vit, thut notwithftanding the teftU 
niony of Laertius lo the contrary, the Greek philofophy 
came originally from Egypt. Their fyftem of thcogony, tic. 
wss certainly too complex, too cxtcnfive to be hid down 
cither by Linus or Orpheus. 

hulc mater quamvisy at que kuic Pater adfstj 

Orphci CaWi^pea^ Lim formofm Apdk 

<^ Orpheus and Mufa^us, continues he, travelled into 
Egypt, and infufed the tr.iJItiotury learning of a cultivated 
people into the minds of their ill iterate countrymen. To di> 
this the more crfcdtually they compofcd hymns, or fliort 
fonnets, in which their meaning was couched under the veil 
^i beautiful Allegory, that their Icflons might at once arreft 
the imagination, and be imprcff^d upon the memory. This 
we are informed u the firft drefs in which poetry made its ap- 

*' Of Orpheus, fays our Author, we know little more 
with certainty, than that the fubjccts of his nocms were the 
formation of the world, the offspring of Saturn, the birth of 
the giants* and the oiigin of man. Thefe were favourite 
lopicii among the firft Poet^, and the difcuffion of them tend- 
ed at once to enlarge the imagiiiatian and to give the rcafon- 
ing faculty a proper degree of cxercife. This Poet, howe- 
ver, though he obtained the higheft honours from his contem- 
poraries, yet fccms to have managed his fubjecb in fo loofc 
u manner, that fucccediag writers will not allow him to have 
been a philofophcr. At prefcnt we are not fufEciently qu^- 
h'fied to determine his charaiSter, as moft of the pieces which 
pafs under his name arc afcribed to one Onomacritus, an 
Athenian who flouriflied about the time of Pififtratus. That 
the writings of Orpheus were highly and extcnfively ufefu! 
is a truth confirmed by the moft convincing evidence. The 
extraordinary effe^ls which his poetry and mufic are faid to 
have produced, however abfurd and incredible in themfelve5, 
are yet unqucftioned proofs that he was confidered as a fu- 
perior genius, and that his countrymen thought themfelves 
highly indebted to him. Horace gives an excellent account 
of this matter in a very few words. 

SyhfJIrei Hoimnn facer Intiffrefque Deorum 
CtrJihus €t viBu fiEfk dctirridt (hphiUSy 
Dt^ui vi hoc Unin Tigtes^ rabiik/qye Lemti* 



OgIL VIE*J P;/W/. 


Such is the charaftcr which Mr. Ogilvic has given us of 
Orpheus ; and this probiibly rs all that, keeping clear of con- 
jcdure, caji be colIe<ite(l conccriiiug him. However it moil 
be owned that the fubjcilt of Lytic poctiy has received very 
Httle light from this account of one oHt^ii principal Authors, 
Let us hear what our Author has to fiy of Mufcus. 

** Muficiis, the Pupil of Orpheus, U as little known to 
pofteilly as his niaftcn His only genuine proJuiaion which 
has reached the prefent times is aji OJe to Ceres, a piece in- 
deed full of exuberance and variety. The nnticnts in general 
fcemcd to have entertained a very liigh opinion of his genius 
and writings, as he is faid to have been the firft perfon wha 
compofed a regular Theogonv, and is likewi e celebrated as the 
inventor of the Sphere. His principle was that all things 
would finally refolvc into the fame materials of which they 
were originally compounded, Virgil alTigns him a place of 
diftingulflied eminence in the plains of Elyfuim. 

^ —Sh ej} affata SyhUla 

Mufaitm ami omncs^ medium nam plurima Turha 
Hum habit ^ atqui Humtrh cxtanUm fufpLit altis. 

Of Mufaeus We have remaining, entire, an Ode to Ceres — 
but Mr, Ogllvie has only mentioned this curious piece in a 
curfory way^ as being full of exuberance and variety ; al- 
though we fhould have thought It extremely confiftcnt with 
his defign to have dtfcuflcd every part of this performance* 
He next gives us fome account of Amphion. 

** It is generally allowed that Amphion, who was a native 
of Boeotia^ brought mufic into Greece, from Lydia, and in- 
vented that inftrument (the Lyre) from which Lyric postry 
took its i^ame, ♦ Before his time they had no regular know-^ 

0.3 le^ig^ 

• It may not b^ amifs here lo give llie reader fomc idea of the 
Exodurc of the anticiit LyrCr whofe mufic i^ fald to have produced 
fuch wonderful effeOs, 1 his inftrument was compofcd of an hollow 
h2.m^^ over which feveral firings were thrown, probably in fome 
fuch manner as we fee thtm on an Harp, or a Dulcimer* It did nol 
fo much refemblc a Viol, as the neck of that inllrumcnt gives it peculiar 
advantages, of which ihe anttents ft^epi to have been wholly ignorant, 
1 he muficlan ftood with a ihort bow in his right hand* nnd a couple 
of fmall thimbles upon the fingers of his left : with theft he held one 
end oUhc Jtring, from which an :*cute found w^s lo be drawn, and 
then (truck It immediately vvi:h the bow. In iht: other partA he 
fwrpt over every firing alternately^ and alSowed e^^ch of them to 
have its full (bund, i^his pra^icc bcc^tqc i^nuc^cAlury ofterwardf 

%j^ OciLviE*^ Pdms. 

ledge of this divine art, though we muft believe that they 
^ere acquainted with it in fome meafure, as dancing is an art 
in which we are informed that the earliefl; Poets were confi- 
derable proficients." 

From thcfe feveral obfervations on the early ftate of Ljrric 
Foctry and Poets, Mr. Ogilvie concludes that the Greek 
H3rmn was originally a loofc allegorical Poem, in which 
imagination was permitted to take its full career, and fenti- 
ment was rendered at once obfcure and agreeable, by being 
ftrcencd behind ^ veil of the richeft poetic imagery. But 
then he exprefles fome furprife, that the fpecies of compofi- 
tion which derived its origin from, and owed its peculiarities 
to the circumftances above mentioned, could have been con- 
iidered in an happier ^ra as a pattern worthy the imitation 
of cultivated genius, and the perufal of a polifhed and civi* 
lized people ^^ one is indeed ready to conclude at the firft 
view, continues he, that a mode of writing which was 
ailiimed for a particular purpoTe, and was .adapted to the 
manners of an illiterate age, might at leaft have undergone 
confiderable alterations 'in fucceeding periods, and might 
have received improvements proportioned to thofc which ar^ 
made in other branches of the fame art. But the fa£l is, that 
while the ochcr branches qf Poetry have been gradually 
modelled by the rules of criticifm, the Ode hath only been 
changed in a few external circumftances, and the enthufiafm, 
dbfcurity and exuberance which charailerized it when firft 
introduced, continue to be ranked among its capital and dif- 
criminating excellencies." 

Now under favour of fo elegant a judge of Poetry as Mr, 
Ogilvie, we muft here take the liberty to a(k whether Enthu- 
Jiajm and Exuberance^ of Fancy at leaft, are not really capital 
excellencies of the Ode ? Obfcurity we take to be altogether 

when the inflrument was improved by the addition of new firings to 
which the founds correfponded. Horace tells us that in his time the 
Lyre had fevcn ftrings, and that it was much more muiica! than it 
liad been originally. Addrefling himfelf to Mercury, He fays. 

Te doc His ^iftgi/ir^ 

Mo*vit Amphion Lapidei canendo , 

Tujui Te/iudOy rr/inare fepum • 

caliida nervis : 
Kcc L^fuax elim^ nee Gra/a, y*f . 

For a fkrthcr account of thisinftramcnt we fcfcr the reader to Qui n* 
tPian's Inttituiions;^ 1. xii. ^.9* 


OciLvii'j Poims. 


out of the qucftion, for tbougK it may be charged on fome 
of our modern Lyric performances, we take it for granted 
that even the authors were far from intending that obfcuriry 
to be a capital excellence of their produilions* We appeal 
to Mr. Ogilvie himfelf whether the following Stanzas in his 
Ode to the genius of Shakefpear do not derive their principal 
excellence from Enthuftafm ? and we call the public to wit- 
ncfs that their beauties, which are wholly owing to that En- 
thurufmi arc Very fti iking, 

I I. 

Rapt from the glance of mortal eye, 

Say. buHls ihy genius to the world of light ? 

Seeks it yon Aar-befpangled flty ? 

Or ikims its fields with rapid flight f 

Or mid yon plains where Fancy llrayj, 

Courts it the balmy breathing gale } 

Or where the v lolet pale 

Droops o'er the green embroidered flream ; 

Or where young Zephyr llirs tlic ruiHing fprays. 

Lyes all dilToIv d in fairy-dream ? 

O'er yon bleak dcfart's unfrequented round, 

Se*eft thou where Nature treads the deepening gloom. 

Sits on yon hoary towV with ivy crown'd. 

Or wildfy wails o'er thy lamented tomb; 

Hear*il thou the fofemn ntufic wind alon^? 

Or thrills the warbling note in thy meHiftuoos fjng? 

I. 2. 

Oft^ while on earth, 'twas thine to rove 

Where e'er the wild ey*d Goddcis lov*d to roam. 

To trace fc rcne the gloomy grove. 

Or haunt meek Qijiet*s fimple dome ; 

Still hovering round the Nine appear* 

That pour the foul-tranfporting ibain ; 

JoinM to the Love's gay train. 

The loofc-rob'd Graces crown'd with flowers. 

The light wing'd gales that lead the vernal year* 

And wake the rofy-featur'd hours. 

O'er all bright Fancy's beamy radiance fhone. 

How flam'd thy bofom as her charms rfueal! 

Her Ere- clad eye fublime, her Harr)* zone. 

Her trefles loofe that waoton'd on the gale. 

It muft be confefled, that this Enthufiafm will, if too much 
indulged, unavoidably produce obfcurity. .The highly pri- 
vileged imagination of the Poet may foar into r:;gions that 
are impervious to common undcrftandings ; and what an or^ 
<liiiary Reader cannot cafdy apprehend, he will naturally 

CL+ be 


OciLVi E'i Poemt. 

\t fo complaifant to his own penetration, as to pronounce 
iminrdli^Lible. It is for congenial fj>ifits alone to purfuc tha^^ 
eagle-pinioned Bard, whofoarSj and kaps his /ir/}<snt wavy and 
v/ith the praile of fuch only he muft be fatisfied. But yet it is 
poffible, that poeiical Enthufiafm may be kt-pt within the fa* 
miliar bounds of Nature, and not aiwaySy Leviathan like 
take its pajlijni in thi deep i or 

Soar thro' the iricklcfs bounds of Space. 

When it infpirits the Poet in thcdcfcription of known objc£ls,J 
and ibays not beyond the limits of obvious Nature, t^cn it \% I 
cdenttally ufeful. The exuberance of Fancy too, is a capital 
excellence of the Lyric Mufc. 

ir. I 
Say whence the magic of ihy n Jnd ? 
^hy thrUi thy mufic on the fprings of Thought.* 
Why, at thy pencil's touch reftft*d. 
Starts into life the g^lowing draught } 
On yonder fairy carpet Uid, 
Where beauty pours eternal bloom, 
^nd Zephyr breaths perfume ; 
There nightly to the tranced eye 
PrDfufe the radiant Goddds flood dirp*ay*d, 
With ail her fmiling offspring nigh. 
Sudden the mantling clift, the arching wood, 
Ti^e brnider'd me^d, the landfkip, and ihc %^o^t^ 
Hills, vales, &f)6 Jiy-di^e fcas. and torrtnii ruJe, 
Grots, rilis, and ihade% and bowers that brcatU*d of love, 
All burft to fight ! — while glancinj^ on the view, 
Titaaia's fpoiting train bruih*d lightly o'er the dew. 

The quotations we have here made, though they are the 
moft to our purpofe, arc by no means the moft beautiful parts 
of the inchanting Ode to die Genius of Shakcfpcar, v^^htch 
is fraught with imagery, fpirited, fublime, and harmonious 

The next charafter that our Author prcfents u$ with* in- 
his Account of the ancient Lyric Poets, i*. that of Anacreon, 
This Poet, fays he* flourifhcd between the fixtieth and the 
feventieth Olympiad, .*' FJis pieces arc the offipring of Ge- 
nius and Indolence. Swectnefs and natural elpgancc charac- 
terifc tht writings of this Poet, as much a5 cartleflhefs an4. 
eafc diftingiufhed his mannexs. In fome of his pieces there 
is exuberance, and even wildncfs of imagination, as in that 
pariicularly which is addrcifcd to a Young Girl, v^hcrc h^ 


ivifhcs alternately to be tr^sformed into a Mirror, a Coat, 
a Stream, a Bracelet, and a pair of Shoes, for the ditFercnt 
purpofes which he recites. This is mere fport and want n- 
nefs, and the Poet would probably have excufed himfelf for 
it, by aUcdginp:, that h^ took no greater liberties in his own 
fpjicre, tban his prcdeceflbrs of the fame profcflion had done 
in another. His indolence and love of eafe U often [xiintei 
with great fimpltcitv and elegance ; and his writings abound 
with thofe beautiful and unexpected turns which arc charac- 
teriftic of every fpecies of the Ode." 

Thefe ftriSures on the charafter of Anacrcon arc juftj 
but they are inadequate. Anacreon was poflcflcd of power* 
of which Mr. Ogilvie has made no mention. He was re- 
markably happy in his defcriptions, and in juftnefs and pro- 
priety or imagery, his writings were never excelled. He had 
alfo an uncommon felicity in expreffing thofe minute delicacies 
which can only be caught by the pencil of the happicft Genius. 
For feme inftances of this kind, we refer the Reader to thofe 
paflages quoted from him in our Review for laft Auguft, 

Of Sappho we find very little account, and nothing new. 

** We are at a lofs (fays our Author) to judge of the 
chanuSler of Alcseus, the countryman and rival of Sappho; 
becaufe fcarce any fragment of his writings has reached the 
prefent times. He is celebrated by the anticnts as a fpirited 
Writer, whofe poems abounded with examples of thcfublime 
and vehement. Thus Horace fays, when comparing; him to 
Sappho, that he fung fo forcibly of wars, difaftcrs, and fliip- 
wrecks, that the Ghofls flood lUll to hear him, in filent ado- 
nifliment. The fame Poet informs us, that he likewife Tung 
of Bacchus, Venus, -the Mufes, and Cupid. From thcfc 
(ketches of his charafter we may conclude, that his pieces 
were diilinguifbed by thofe marks of rapid and uncontroulcd 
imat^ination, which we have found to charafterifc the woiks 
of the firft Lyric Poets." 

From Mr. Ogilvie's faying, that fcarce any fragment of 
Alcseus has reached the prefent times, we prefumc he has not 
met with thofe pieces of his that were publiihcd together with 
the remains of Anacreon and Sappho, in the Year 1751, 
by Foulis, at Glafgow : the edition is remarkably fmall. 

There is enough in thofe Fragments to chara£lerife their 
Author ; and in feveral of them you hear the Poet, in the 
Unguage of Horace, PUHro fonantem plenius Jureo. 


OcrtVIE'/ P$ifm, 

Tfl ftif yst^ tiBa i£vpt,st nvKtiiirm^ 
To it^it' «tfAf*t^ dftf re /M#o» Mi» 

XilfAAfM p»of^&v7i( fM^yat^. 

TTicrc is one piece remaining nitirc. It is a Hjrmn if 
praife of Hannodius and Ariilogiton, who delivered Athens*" 
from flavcry, by killing the Tyrant Hipparchus, There is 
in this little Ode a remarkable foftnefs and delicacy ; and it 
is a proof that Alcx^is did not only excel in the fublimity and I 
vehemence, but in the cafe and harmony, of the Lyric Mufc, 

T M N o r. 

IcrOtOftt^ T A0I9NK fn^Ot)J<72t7l)f 

^itX^d' AffKiht mr»t n^tjiftac 
Tt^4^p Ti ^offi Ton i^Iaoi Atv^ii^es* 

Or AiifiKttr,i iir $t/ff^|£XiC» 

All «r^*'i' aXio^ ■ffirilai **T«>«]'i 

H V M N 


My fword I'll bang upon tbc my i tie hoiigh ; 

Ariflogiton and Harmodius brave, 
All hail I for fincc the Tyrant fdl by yoo, 

A Man of Adiem is no more a Slave, 

* Bclov*d Karmodius ! but thon an iioi dead ; 

To thee thofc blcft ifles yield a happier (cat. 
Where the great Soul of fwiA Achilles Hcd> , 

And brave Tydides found a lall retreat. 

My fword 1*11 hang upon the myrdc bough, 
Ajid once* viajc more my Coutury*^ Hcroct liall; 



Ogilvie'j Fotms. 

PicrcM in the public facrifice by you. 

The Tyrant bled, the bafc Hippardius flL 

O live your Fame thro' each revolving age! 

• Ariftogiton and Harmodius brave 1 
Ypu funic in death the ruthlcfs Tyrant's rage, 

-'Twas youns your Country's fafFcring Rights to favc. 

Our Author's obfervations on the Lyric Poetry of Horace, 
come next in order. Mr. Ogilvie tells us, that Horace took 
Anacreon and Pindar for his models : he might more pro- 
perly have faid, Alcaeus and Pindar : for he has not only pro- 
fefTcdly imuatcd the former, in the greateft part of his Odes, 
but has alfo borrowed and tranflatcd as freely from him^ as 
Virgil, in his Eclogues, did from Theocritus. 

The Author, in his fccond Letter, proceeds to enquire 
what part Imagination naturally claims in the compofuioa of 
the Ode. 

** It muft immediate^ occur, fays he, to any Reader wha 
pcrufeth the Hymn of Callimachus to Jupiter, that the fub- 
jefl was too great to be properly managed by the corrc<^ and 
elcn;ant genius of that Writer* Inftead of enlarging (as wc 
fliould have naturally cxpe<5tcd) on any particular perfcdiou 
of this fuprcme Deity, or even of enumerating, in a poetical 
manner, the attributes which are commonly afcribed to him, 
he entertains us coldly with traditionary ftones concerning his 
birth and education ; and the fubltme part of his ftory is ci- 
ther wholly omitted, or fuperficially paffed over. Thus fpeak^* 
^ing of the Bird of Jove, he fays only, 

Thy Bird, celcilial McHengcr, who bears 
Thy mandate thro* the (ky 1 O be his flight 
Propitious to my Friends ; 

** Pindar introduceth this King of the feathered race in a 
much nobler and more animated manner. He exhibits with 
true poetic enthufiafm, as an inflance of the power of Har* 
mony, the following vivid pldurc. 

The Bird's fierce Monarch drops his vengeful ire; 

Perch 'd on the fccptre of th' olympian King, 

The thrilling darts of harmony he fccIs, 

And indolently hangs his rapid wing, 

While gentle Sleep his clofmg eye lids feal. ; 

And o'er hts heaving limbs in lootc array. 

To every balmy gale the ruflling feathers play. West, 

** Homer never touches this fublime fubjcil without employ- 


OGiLViE*i Pffims. 

ing the utmoft reach of his invention, to excite admiration in 
his Reader. 

■ ^ The THandcrcr meditates Ms flight 
From Ida** fummits to th* olympian height. 
Swifter than Thought the wheeb inftinittivc fly. 
Flame thro* the va(t of atr, and reach the iky. 
Tvvas Neptune's charge his courrerj» to unbrdce, 
And dx the car on its immortal bafc ; 

He whofe all'Conici^us eyes the world behold, 
Th' eternal Thunderer fat thron'd in gold. 
High Heaven ihc /o^/J?cb/ «/ hu fut lie m^kei. 
And wide beneath him all Olympus fhakes. 


«* I have mentioned thefe examples as they fliew the light 
in which a great object will be contemplated by a man of ge- 
nius; and as the Reader will obfervc, that our admiration ' 
not merely excited by the dignity of the theme, but that it! 
rcfults from the great and uncommon circumftanccs which* 
arc happily thrown into the dcfcription, Pindar, no doubt, 
found it a much eafier tafk to raife this paflion in favour of 
Theron, whom he artfully introduccth to the Reader's atten- 
tion, after enquiring of his Mufe, what God, or what dif- 
tinguiflicd Hcroe, he {hould aaempt to celebrate ? 

*' It is, however, obvious, from what hath been advunced 
on this fubje<£t, that whatever may be the nature of the Theme 
on which the Poet infifts, it is the bufmefs of Fancy to enli- 
ven the whole piece with thofe natural and animating grac 
which lead us to furvcy it with admiration. From the whole, 
therefore, it appears, that this faculty of the mind claims a 
higher fharc of merit in the compofition of the Ode, than in 
any other fpecies of Poetry j bccaufc, in the other branches 
of this art, difFerent ends may be obtained, and diffeirent ex- 
pedients may be fallen upon to gain them ; but the moft per- 
fedl kind of Lyric Poetrj^ admits only pf that erid, to the at- 
tainment of which fertility of Imagination is indifpenfably 

To illuftratc thislaftobfcrvation, and to fticw our Readers 
jn what an uncommon degree Mr, Ogilvie is poflejTed of that 
fertility of imagination which is fo elTential to Lyric Poctr)% 
we ftiall quote the following ftanzas from his Odt ta pven^ 

Ol when the cowflip-fccnted g;*Ie, 
Shakes thu light dew-drop o*cr the dale, 
A^'hcn on heramber-droppjng bed, 
Loofe Eafc recjine* her downy head ; 


How b!cft I by Fai'ry-haunted ftrram 
To melt in wild extatic dream ! 
Die CO the pidor'd u^ilh, or hear 
(Breathed (oh on Fancy's trembling car) 
iuch lays by acgcl-harps fcfin*d, 
As half unchiim the flaUering mind. 
When on Itfe^s edge it eyes the (horei 
And all its piniom ilrctch to foar. 

On the airy mount reclin'd» 
What wl(hcs footh the mufrng mind ! 
How foft the velvet lap of Spring ! 
How fwect the Zephir's violet wing i j 

Goddcfs of the plaintive fong. 
That leads the melting heart along ; 
O bid thy voice of genial power 
Reach Coktemplation's lonely bower; 

Hail Sire fublimc ! whofc hallow*d cave 
Howh to the hoarfe Deep's dalhtng wave; 
Tbce Solitude to Phoebus bore 
Far on the lone defcrted ihoir. 
Where Orellano^s ruDiingTidc 
Roars on the rock's projcdled fide. 
Hence, buifting o'er thy fipen'd mind. 
Beams all the Father's thought rcfin d : 
Hence oft in filent vales unfecn. 
Thy footftcps print the fairy-green ; 
Or thy foul melts to ftrains of woe. 
That fiom the willows quivcriig brow, 
Sweet warbling breathe -, the Zephyrs round 
0*er Dec's fmooth current waft the found. 
When foft on bending ofiers kid. 
The broad fun trcmbfing thro' the bed; 
All- wild thy heaven- rapt Fancy flrays. 
Led thro* ihe fouWinolvine maze, 
•Till Slumber downy-pinioivd, near 
Plants her (Irong fetlocks on thy car ; 
The foul unfettered burfts away, 
And balks at large in beamy day. 

Our Autli*^r now recurs to a pofuton laid dowrji in the be- 

[^inning of this ElTay; — that ** When Imagination is per- 

[mittcd to beftow the graces of ornament indifcximinately ; 

icntiments are either luperficial and thinly fcattered through 

a work, or we are obliged to fearch for them beneath a 

I Joad of fuperfluous colouring," The truth of this refle<5tion 

^ he endeavours to evince, by enquiring more particularly what 

are the faults into which the Lyrig Poet is moll ready to be 



Ocijuvifi'i Pimf*. 

betrayed, by giving zloofc rein to that faculty which colours 
and talivens his compofuioii I 

** It 1$ ncceflary^ that the Poet fliould take cars in the 
higher rpccics of the Ode, to aflign to every objcdl that pre- 
citc degree of colour, as well as that importance m the ar^ 
rangcment of fcntimcnts, which it fecms peculiady to de- 
mand* The fame images which would be confidcrcd as ca* 
pitai ftrokcsin feme pieces, can be admitted only as fecondary 
beauties in others ; and wc might call in qucftiori both the 
judgment and the imagination of that Poet» who aitempts to 
render a faint illuOratton adequate to the object, by clothing 
it with profufion of ornament. A defedi likcwifc cither in 
the choice, or in the difpofition of images, is conrpicuous in 
proportion to the importance of the fubjedi, as well as to the 
nature of thofe fcntimcnts with which it ftands in more imme- 
diate connci5Hon, It is, therefore, the bufinel's of the Lyric 
Poet, who would avoid the cenfure of compofmg with inequa- 
lity, to confidcr the colouring of which particular ideas are 
naturally fufceptible, and to dii'criminatc properly betwixt 
fcntiments, whofc native fublimtty requires but little affift- 
ancc from the pencil of art, and a train of thought which 
(that it may correfpond to the former} demands the heighten- 
ing of poetic painting, 

'* The aftoniftiing inequalities which wc meet with, even 
m the produdtions of unqucRioned Genius, are originally to 
he deduced from the carclefl'nefs of the Poet, who permitted 
his Imagination to be hurried from one objedl to another, 
dwelling wiih .plt-afure upon a favourite idea, and paffing 
nightly over intermediate iteps, that he may catch that beau- 
ty which fluihiates on the gaze of expedlation. 

" I fhall only obferyc further on this fubjeifl, that nothing 
is more contrary to the cud of Lyric Poetry, than that habit 
of fpinning out a ntetaphor, which a Poet fometimes falls in- 
to, by indulging the (allies of Imaginatioji. This will be 
obvious, when wc rcflecf, that every branch of the Ode is 
chamctcTifcd by a peculiar degree of vivacity, and even vchc- 
menrc, both of fcjuiment and exprdEon, It is impoffiWe to 
prderve this diftinguifliing chiirafter, unlefs the thoughts arc 
iliverllfied, and the diction is coiicifc. When a Metaphor h 
hnxittd down, (if I may ufe that exprellion, and a defcrip* 
bed ovi r 1 t'nergy are gradually leflcncd^ 

itit ehrr. ]y new, becomes familiar, oni 

ttic iraoii vE Istnitedy i bcin; inflamed. 

X it Wc 

OgilvieV pQitnt. 


*« We miift not think that this method of extending an il- 
luftration, difcovcrs ^ways a defeft or fterility of the inven- 
tive faculty. It is, in truth, the conlcqucace of that pro- 
pen fity we naturally feel, to confider a favourite idea in every 
point of light, and to render its excellence as confpicuous to 
others as it is toourfelves. By this means fentiments become 
fuperfida!^ becaufc the mind is more intent upon their external 
dnfs^ than their real Impcrtmct, They are Hkewifc thinly 
fc&ttercd thnugh a wori^ bccaufe each of them receives a high- 
er proportion of ornament than juftly belongs to it," 

After thefe obfervations our poetical Critic confiders hovr 
far tranfitions arc allowable in the Ode. Tranfitions, heob- 
fcrves, arc rendered by cuftom almoft inCeparable from Lyric 
Poetry; and they may be allowed while they feem at all Ca 
arife from, or bear any remote fimilarity to, the fubjccl: 
t»ut where digrcfllon fticceods digreifiont fo as to make us lofc 
fight of the original theme, there the liberty of trajifiiion is 
abufed, and always produces a bad effed. For the illu(b:ft- 
tion of thefe remarks, the Reader is referred to different Od« 
of Pindar* 

The next circumftapce mentioned as characteriftic of the 
Ode, is a certain picturcfcjue vivacity of dcfcription, ** In 
this, fays our Author^ we permit the Lyric Poet to indulge 
himfelf ^»ith greater freedom than any other ; becaufe beaa- 
ties of this kind are ncceflkry to the end of exciting admira- 
tion* It is the peculiar province of imagination, toi^ivcthat 
life and expreffion to the ideas of the mtnd, by which Nature 
15 moft happily and judicioufiy imitated* By thehelpof this 
poetical magic, the coldcft fentiments become inierefting, and 
the moft comTnon occurrences arreft our attention. A man 
of genius, indeed of laying down a feries of dry precepts for 
the conduft of life, exhibits his fentiments in the moil ani- 
mating manner, by moulding them into fyrametrv, and fii- 
pcradding the external beauties of drapery and colour. His 
Reader, by this expedient, is led through an Eiyfium, in 
which his fancy is alternately foothed and tranfported with a 
delightful fucceffion of the moft agreeable obje^ls whofc com- 
bination at laft fuggefts an important moral to be impreHed 
upon the memgry*'* 

This Uft obfervation cannot be more agreeably or cffeau- 
ally iliuftrated, than by the following paflage from our Au- 
thor's Ode to Evening, 


254 TaylorV Sch^rfif &/ Scnpiun Divinity. 

Oft (hcltcred by ihe rambling fprays. 
Lead o'er the fcirc fl's winding maze ; 
Where thrd* the mantling banghs, afar 
GHmrflef«5 t^i? filvcr^Ibrkming Ibr ; 
A* m every ruffling blade, 

1 i uur* along the Ihadc ; 

$o hovcruig *j cr the human fccne 
Gay Plcafure t'ports with brow fercnc; 
By F^ncy bt;,im'd, the glancing ray 
Shouts, flutters, glcatiis* aiid fleets away : 
Utifciik'd, dubiouj, rcHlefs, blind. 
Floats all the bufv, buflling Mind ; 
While Mcniorj''5 ttt:ftain*d leaves retain 
No trace from all tU^ idc^d train. 



arc r*:vcral more curioua remarks, and jiigenimif 

in this feccnd Lettff', but they are too coin* 

plex and cxtcnfive, to be detailed in thi^ article. Be it 

uificient to fay, that our opinion of Mr* Ogitvie's critical 

abilities, arofc greatly upon the pcrufal of the latter part of 

his EiFay* It is with pleafurc, therefore, wc refer our Rcad- 

rs 10 the work itfcif, from which we can promifc them much 

fdcgant entertainmenu 

J Schme of Scripture Dhitiityfcrmtd appn thi plan ofthi divim 
Difpi'nfatiQtts^ with a Vindication of the Sabred ff6- it in^s* By 
John Taylor, D. O. late Profcflbr of Divinity and Mo- 
rality at the Academy in Warrington. 8vo. 6s. Waugb. 

HEN the learned Author of this work entered upon 
the important fervicc of direding the Studies df 
young peifons *, deftgncd for the miniilry, he thought k 
requifitc to draw up the beft plan for their ufe and inftrudlion, 
which his long obfervation and experience, as well as careful 
ftudy of the holy Scriptures, could furnifh ] with a view ta 
the leading his pupils to a juil and rational acquaintance with 
the principles of religion, founded upon an accurate kjiswle^ 
of the ScripturcSi 

After the ftrifteft m^ifal, the principles here advancc<]| 
app'-ared to his own judgment juft and fcriptural, but as the 
editor obfcr\*cs, he did not therefore prefumc they were ab* 
folutely free from error ; much Icfs did he think himfelf 


At the Warrington Academy. 






Tay toRV Scheme if Smpture t>!vimff. 5 Jj 

authorized, as a public Tutor, to impofc his fcntimcnts on 
young mintis with an overbeiring hand. That he might do 
juftice to his popils and himfelf, he always prefaced his Lec- 
tures with the following folenfin Charge^ which, in the 
]aiatn, is no improper precedent far feminaries of learning. 

I. " I do folemnly charge you, in the name of theGod of 
Truth, and of our Lord Jcfus Chrift, who Is the way, the 
truth, and the lifc, and before whofe judgment -feat you 
muft in no long time appear, that in all your ftudics and 
inquiries of a religious nature, prefent or future, you do 
conftantly, carefully, impartially^ an J confcicntiouny attend 
to evidence, as it lits in the holy Scriptures, or in the naturo 
of things, and the didiatcs of reafon i cautiously guarding 
againft the failles of imagination, and the fallacy of ill- 
grounded conjecture, 

2t ** That you admit, embrace, or aflejit to no principle^ 
or fentimcnt, by mc taught or advanced, but only (o far aa 
it fliall appear to you to be fupportcd and juftified by proper 
evidence from revelation or the reafon of things. 

3. *' That, if at any time hereafter, any principal or fcn- 
timent by mc taught, or advanced, or by you admitted and 
embraced, Ihall, upon impartial and faithful examination, 
appear to you, to be dubious or falfe, you either fufpcvSor to- 
tally rejeft fuch principle or fentiment. 

4. *' That you keep your mind alu^ays open to evidence 
—that you labour to banim from your brcaft all prejudtce, 
prepoffeflion, and party zeal — that you tt^dy to live in peace 
and love with all your fclloW'Chriftiana i and that v> ' "V 
aflert for your fclf, and freely allow to othtrs, the u j 
rights of judgment and confdencep'* 

The Do£lor*s whole life was devoted to an impartial ftujy 
of the Scripture^ ; not by way of fpcculatlon and amufcmenti 
but for the moft v^iluable purpofei; to himfelf and to others. 
His fchcme of Scripture Divinity cenfifts of thirty- fcven 
chapters. He juftly remarks, that chriftran Theology is 
the fcience, which, from revelation, teacheth the knowlegc 
of God, his nature, and perfections, his relations to us, his 
ways and difpenfations, his will with refpeft to our a£lions, 
and his purpofes with refpc6t to our being, that we may form 
in our minds right principles for our diredion and comfoirt^ 
and in our converfation right praHice for fccuring his fat^ouf ' 
and bldiing ; he thca makes ibme judicious obfervatioiw 
Rev. 0&, ijbii £. i»poii 

256 TavlohV Scheme of Scripiure Divimfj* 

upon the expediency, dcfign and ufefulncf^ of divine Re- 

vclaiion in general, and upon the different dvinc dirpenfa-' 
tion.-f, which are in fcrrpture called the ways and works of 
God, He rcprcfcnts the fcripturc doflrine relating to the 
creation of the world, and particularly the creation of mzn^ 
in a juft and beautiful light; and then offers fome excellent re- 
marks upon the inftitution of ihe Sabbath, and that ftatc of 
moral difciplmc or trial which is adapted to the prcfent fccoc 
of exiilence. He next confiders the law or religious difpen- 
fation under which the fidl parents of mankind were placed ; 
the inftitution of marriage \ the nature of the temptation 
which feduced tjiem from the paths of innocence \ tSc confe- 
qucnccs of the firft tranfgrefrioii \ the origin of facrificcs ; the 
nature of the church, and divine appearances, and the glory 
of the Lord as having relation to thefc. 

The fcripturc chronology from the creation to the dc^ 
luge, and the dcfign and confcquenccs of that cataflroplie^ 
are his next fubjCiSls : after which, he treats of the fa- 
crijice of Noah, and the difpeifion at the Towxr of Ba- 
bel, which he attempts to account for upon the fcripturc 
plan; and reprefcnts more largely the patriarchal reJigion, 
the cafe and chara<5lcr of Job, and the dodrines of the patri- 
archal age. The Jewifli ritual or ceremonial law, the fcjip- 
turc chronology from the Deluge to the Exodus, from 
thence to the building of the Temple and the dcftru6lion 01 
it at tlie Babylonifh captivity are properly treated ; the moral 
caufes of that captivity affigned, and the propriety of that 
difpenfation ftiewn ; the characlers and writings cf the 
Jcwifli Prophets are judiciously fct forth in a well digeftcd 
fyftcm ; and then are annexed many iartrudtive obfervations 
upon the nature, defign, hiftory and advantages of divine 
revelation, the w^holeconftltuting a moft ufeful fchcme, judi- 
cioufiy fitted for regulating the ftudics and forming the 
mind:; of thofc whofe intention it is to engage in the fundions 
of thechriftian minillry, and equally adapted to promote the 
religious knowlege and virtue of every chriftian family, who 
Ivltl carefully apply the inllructions it imparts for the educati* 
on of their children in the principles and praclicc of revealed 

What the Doftor hath obferved in the fifteenth chapter, 

on the Shechinah and th divine appearnnccs mentioned it 

0e fcripture-htllory, is worthy a particular attention. Hi 

I; propofcs th'? qurftion, who v^as the perfon that appeared anfl 

I fpukc ? For example £xod. ill. 14, God faid unto Mofes^ 

... I AM 


Taylor'* Schmt ofScripiurt Dlvimly. 


I AM THAT I AM ; And he faid, thus fhaJt thou fay unto the 
dilldren of Ilrad, I am hath fent mc unto you. Who was 
it that fpoke to Mofcs ? or what notion arc we to form of 
that Being, who pronounced thefc words, IamthatIam? 
It is certain that it was the Angd of the Lord, that appeared 
to Mofcs in the bu(h, and from thence pronounced thofc 
words* It was the Angel who faid I am the God of thy fa- 
ther ; I AM that I AM. But the Angel of the Lord God 
is not the Lord God» whofc Angei he is. The folution of 
the dilRculty hence arifing, is, as he fays, very obvious and 
clear. For the folid and inconteflible foundation of the 
ibiutlon is laid by our Lord himfe!f, in John v. 37, * And 

* the father himfclf, who hdth fent mc, hath born witnefs of 

* mc. Ye hsLVc neither heard his voice at any time, nor fccn 

* hh Ihapc' — that is, the Lord God never fpake or appeared ia 
pcrfon, but always by a proxy, nuncius, or meflengcr, who 
reprefented him, and therefore fpakc in his name and autho- 
rity, faying, I am God all fuflicicnt, I am the God of Abra- 
ham, I AM THAT I AM. Which words were pronounced 
by an Angel, but arc true not of the Angel, but of God, 
whom he reprefented, and upon whofc errand he came. So 
a Herald reads a procUmation in the King's name and words^ 
as if the King himfclf were fpeaking. 

It hath been commonly fiippofed, that Jefus Chrift, before 
his incarnation, was the Angel or Mclfenger that appeared 
in the Shechinah, and fpake to the Patriarchs, to Mofes, and 
the Prophets, and is called the Angel of his prefencc, 
Ifai. Ixiii. 9. In all their aEiitiou he wa^i afHiclcd, and the 
Angel of his prefcnce faved them* — To thii. Dr. Taylor ob- 
ferves, it may be obje»5lrd, that our Lord in this cafe will be 
fyppofed to publifh the law, and to prefide over ihe Jewifli 
Difpcnfation, as well as over the Gofpel ; which fccms to 
be quite inconfiftent with John i. 17. The law w^s given by 
Mofes, but grace and truth came by Jefus Chrift ; and Hcb. i. i , 
2, ii, 2. But to obviate thefe objections, he inquires — ** May 
we not diftinguifh betwc«n the Loeos, as a Proxy of Dcit\% 
eras perfonating the glorious. Majefty of God in the Shechi- 
nah, and in that capacity by the holy Spirit, inlpij-ing the 
Prophets^ and prcfiding over the Angels, at the giving of 
the law, and the fame Logos adding and fpeaking to us, in 
his incarnate ftatc, in the capacity of a Proplict ? In the 
former cap tcity- he may be confidercd in relation to God 
9S perfonating God, or as in the form of God, whofc Agent 

R2 he 

158 RoussEAU*i S^em of EAicafton^ 

he was under every difpenfation which God ereflcd* ; anJ 
therefore as doing nothing in his own perfon. For thus his 
perfon would coincide with that of thb fiipseme God, and is 
ttot to be confidered as different fiom him, but as a£ltng ia 
kis name and authority. In the latter capacity he may 
be conftdered in relation to us, and to our falvation by the 
gofpel ; for the accompliihment of which, he ftooped fo rar as 
to take upon him our nature, and not as perfonating God> 
but in quality of a Pfophet fent from God, to publiih among 
US) in his. owir peribn and name, the promife of eternsJ 

We cannot conclude wfthout hinting, that the Author's 
Key to the apoftoh'c writings, publiJhed fome years fince, may 
^ord much additional light and improvement to fuch £n* 

Juirers as defire a thorough acquaintance with this excellent 
:heme of Scripture Divinity. 

Of this learned Writer's other works we have mad^ fre- 
quent mention in our Review ; particufarly o& his valuable 
'Hebrew Concordance : for which fee Review, vol.. XV. p^ 
aau and vol. XVI. p. 235, 

£milius and Soph in : Or^. a new Syflem of Education. By- 
Mr. Roufieau. Tranflated for Becket, &c. Continued 
from Page 217^ 

OU R ingenious Author, having divideJ his work into 
five parts^ agreeable to the feveral periods by which he 
dtftinguifhes the progrefs of his Pupil's J^ducation, confines 
himfclf, in his firft book, chiefly to what relates to the ma- 
nagement of children till they are able to t^lk and run about. 
Before a child arrives at this term, he is little better, fays 
Mr. Roufleau, than he was in the womb of his mother, with-* 
#ut fentiments or ideas, and aJmoft without fenfations. 

^ Vivity et ejl vita nefcias ipfe fua. 

The obfervations contained in this part of the work, arc, 
«f courfe, moftly phyfical : indeed, our Tutor thinks it not 
enough to take charge of his Pupil at the ufual time when 
children are difmifled from the NuEfery;.as the manner of 
treating them, even in their earlicft infancy, appear to him. 
of the higheft importance to their future welfare. Agreeable 
tathis notion, he fcts out with remarking the miflakert me-- 
thgJs of Education, in general, and the ueceility of improvc- 


RoTTSSEAU^i Svftem ff EJucathfu ^j^ 

mcnt* He then proceeds to the means of fuch improvement, 
by earneftly recommending to parents a ft rift difcharge of that 
indifpenfihlc duty of iiurfmg and educating their ourn chfl- 

. ** A fatlier, fays fee^ in begetting and proWdLngfuftenancc 
for his offspring, hath in that difchargcd but a third part o^ 
ills obligations* He owes a Being to his fpecics, focjal Be- 
ings to Society, and Citizens to the State. I>ery man, whd 
is capable of paying this triple debt, and refufcs, is, in that 
iefpeft, criminal, and, perhaps, is more (o when he pays it 
by halves* He who is incapable of performing ihe duties of 
a father, has no right to be one Neither poverty nor bufi- 
■nefs, nor perfonal importance, can difpenfe with parents nurf- 
iog and educating their children. Readers, you may believe 
me, coiitinues he, when I take upon me to aflure every pa- 
rent who is endued with fenfibility, and ncgleiSs thefe facrei 
obngations, that he will long live to repent it intbebitternefft 
oi his forrow, and never be comforted."* 

Our Author is, perhaps, too fevere on the fair fex, in the 
article of fuckling their children; and has fuffered his ^eal 
for the human fpecies in general, to carry him ftrange (and 
WG hope unwarrantable) lengths againft the moft amiable 
part of it. He may be thought, however, to make them 
ibme amende, by the great influence which, he conceives, a 
change in ihdr behaviour will have over the prcfcnt depravity 
of manners, 

*' Should mothers, fayshej again condelcend tonurfc their 
children, manners would form chemfelves, ihc fcittiments of 
nature would revive in our hearts ; the State would be re- 
peopled ; this principal pc*int, this alone would re- unite eve- 
ry thing. A tafte for the charms of a domeftic life, is the 
bed antidote againft corruption of manners* The noife and 
luiille of children, which is generally thought troublefome^ 
become hence agreeable ; it is thefe that render parents more 
neceflary, more dear, to each other, and ftrengthen the ties 
of conjugal afFciflion. When a family is all lively and ani- 
mated, domeftic concerns afford the moft delightful occupa- 
lion to a woman, and the moft agreeable amufemcot to amaiu 
Hence, from the corre£tinn of this one abufc, will prefentiv 
refult a general reformation ; nature will foon re-aiTumc all 
its rights. Let wives but once again become mothers, and 
the men will prefcatly again become fatharj and hulbaads/* 

R 3 • With 

26^ Rors5EAU*i Sji/ifm cf Education, 

With regard to the cloathing, diet, cxcrcife, and medical 
treatment of infant?^ many judicious rules are here laid dc^wn^ 
and meihods prcfcribcd, for the ufc of moihcrs and nurfcs, 
on ihcfe heads. As to the fidt, our Author decries fw^iddling 
clothes, with tight ligaments and bandaged of all kinds ; rc« 
commending a thin, loofe drcfs, in all fcafons. With rcfpedl 
to diet, he advifes chiefly milk -meats, and thofe prepared 
with the greateft fimplicity. Under the ai ticte of Excrcife, 
we may rank the many pertinent obfcrvations, and fenfible 
inftrudions, occafionally interfpcrfed throughout this hook, 
and tending to fortify the conftitution, and pcrfcft the organs 
of children* But we have the Icfs need to particularize thefe, 
as many of them are better calculated for a milder climate, 
and as others are well known, and already pretty generally 
adopted in this ifland. As to Medicines, Mr, RoufTeau would 
have few, or none, adminirtered in almoft any cafe. ** The 
fagacioiis Mr. Locke, fays he, w^ho had fpcnt moft of his life 
in the ftudy of medicine, earneftly advifes us never to give 
' children phyfic by way of precaution, or for flight indifpofi- 
lions. I will go farther, and declare, as I never call in the 
Phyfician for myfelf, fo I will never trouble him on account 
of tmilius ; unlefs, indeed, his life be in imminent danger : 
and then the Dodlor cannot do more than kill him* I know 
vejy well the Phyfician will not fail to take advantage of that 
delay. If the child dies, he was called in too late; had he 
been fent for fooner- if he recovers, it is then the Phyfi- 
cian that faved him. Be it fo* I am content the Do^ior 
fhould triumph, on condition he is never fciit for till the pa- 
tient be at the laft extremity/* 

Nor is our Author Icfs fcvere on the art itfelf than on its , 
ProfefTors, He affirms Phyfic to be more deftruftlvc to mar 
kind than all the evils it pretends to cure. ^* I knr>w not^ 
continues he, for my part, of what malady we are cured b 
the Phyficians j but I know many fatal ones which they in- 
flift upon us J fuch arc cowardice, pufillanimity, credulity, 
and the fear of death : if they cure the body of pain, th 
deprive the foul of fortitude. What end doth it anfwer t( 
fociety, that they keep a parcel of rotten carcafes on thei 
legs? It is men the community wants, and thofe we neve 
fee come out of their hands, 

<* It is, however, the prefcntmode to take phyfic; and it 
(liould be fo. It is a pretty amufcment for idle people that' 
have nothing to do, and not knowing how to beftow their 
time othcrwife, throw it aw^y in felf-prefervation* Had they 



RoussBAu'i S^iflem of Educatim. a6l 

been fo unfortunate as to have been born immortal, they would 
have been the moft miferable of Beings. A life, which they 
would not be under the continual apprchenfions of lofing, 
would be to them of no value. Phyficians pay their court 
to fuch perfons, by frightening them, and anording them 
daily the only pleafure they are fufceptiblc of; that of hear- 
ing they are in danger, and yet not quite dead. 

** I have no defign to enlarge here on the futility of phy- 
fic ; my prefent purpofc being only to confider it in a moral 
light. I cannot, however, forbear obferving, that mankind 
ufe the fame fophiftry, in regard to the ufe of medicine, as 
they do with refpeft to their fcarch after truth. They fup- 
pofe always, that when a Phyfician treats a Patient who re- 
covers, he has cured him ; and that when they have gone 
through a difquifition concerning the truth, they have found 
it. They do not fee that we ought to put in the balance 
againft one -cure efFefted by phyfic, the deaths of an hundred 
Patients it has killed ; or that we ftould oppofe to the utility 
of oneboafted truth, the mifchief of a thortfand errors fallen 
into by making the difcovery. The fcience which enlightens, 
and the phyfic that cures, are doubtlefs very ufeful : but the 
pretended fcience that mifleads, and the phyfic that kills, are 
as certainly deftruftive. Teach us therefore to diftinguifti 
between them. This is precifely the point in queftion. 
Could we teach our vain curiofity not to.thirft after informa-. 
tion, we fhould never be the dupes of falfhood ; could we be 
fatisfied to bear the maladies to which nature denies 2i cure, 
we (hould never die by the hands of the Phyfician. Self-de- 
nial in thefe two inffances is prudent ; men would be evi- . 
dently gainers by fuch abftinence and fubmiflion. I do not 
pretend to deny that phyfic may be ufeful to fome few parti- 
cular perfons, but I affirm it to be dcftru£live to the human 
race in general." 

The tender parent, anxious for the welfare of a beloved 
child, will, no doubt, be curious to know what ftep our 
Author would advife to be taken, inftead of calling in the 
Phyficihn. We Ihall, therefore, infert "the method he pro- 
pofes, tho' wc imagine there are few fond mothers who will 
fo far aficnt to its expediency, as to put it in practice. 

** For want of knowing the way to get cured, a child 
fhould learn to know how to be fick ; this art will fupply the 
want of the other, and often fuccecd a great deal better : 
this is one of the arts of nature. When a brute animal is 

R 4 fick. 

^6t _ ^ovssZAv's S^itn of EJucaikn, 

fick, it fuffers in filcnce, and keeps itfelf ftill : and yet #^ i 
do not fee t!ur brutes arc more ficlcly than men. How many 
perfons have impatience, difquictudc, apprchenfion> and par- 
ticu!;?rly medicines, deftroyed, whom their difeafes would 
have fpared, and whom time alone would have cured ? Will 
|t be objected, that brute animals, living in a manner con- 
formable to nature, ought to be lefs fubjed: to difeafes ? This 
is the very point I aim at, I would bring up my Pupil pre- 
cifely in the fame manner ; from which he would doubtlcfe 
deduce the fame advantages. 

** The only ufcful part of Medicine is the Hygeine, 
This, however, is rather a virtue than a fciencc. Temper- 
ance and cxercifc arc the two beft Phyficians in the world, 
Excrcife whets the uppetite, and temperance prevents the 
^bufe of it. 

** To know what kind of ^ regimen is the moft falutary, 
we need only enquire, what is that of thofe people who en-^ 
joy the grcatcfl (hare of health, arc the moft robuft, and live 
thclongcft ? If the arts of Medicine arc found, from gene- 
ral ohfer ration, not to confer better health, or longer life^ 
the very proof of their being ufclcfs fliews them to oe hurt- 
fid ; as fo much time, fo many perfons and things arc taken 
up thereby to no purpoi'c. Not only the time, mifpent in iho 
prcfervation of life, ts loft from its enjoyment, it fliould be 
dcdufl:cd alfo from its duratioji : but when that time is cm- 
ployed io tormenting us, it is ftill worfc than the mere anni* 
hilation of it; it gives a negative quantity, a^d if wccalcu-^ 
late juftly, fliould be taken from the future duration of our 
lives. A man who lives Hx years without Phyficians, livest 
mpre fgr himfelf and othrrs, than he who furvivcs, as their 
Patient, for thirty* Having experienced both, I conceive 
IPyfelf pecMliarly author! fed to determioe this point,** 

The Gentlemen of the Faculty will probably think thcm- 
fclves little obliged to our Author, for the freedom he hath 
here taken wjth their characters and profeffion ; we leave 
|hem, therefore, if they think it neceffary^ to ftand on their 
own defence. At the fame time, we cannot help fufp€£^ing, 
pevcrihclcfs, that the circumftances on which Mr, RouHeau , 
fotjnd5; his right to treat them fo cavalierly, may have had fom© 
influence on his impartiality* 

Singular, however, tX'S our Tutor's opinion may be ^' 
on this head, as well as on fomc few others, his obfei 
^t) fcflcaiom both on the fnoil^ and phyfi^l management 

Pousse Au'j SyJIemof Education* ^S^ 

cf infants, are^ m general, extremely proper and judicious. 
It is too common, not to be a juft, obfcrvation, that both the 
temper and conftitution of children are, too often, fpoiledby 
cxceffive tendernefs and Indulgence : at the fame time, there* 
.fore, that Mr. Roufleau exclaims againft the brutality of 
thofe parents, who give up the care of their oiFspring to mer- 
cenar)' hirelings he pertinently obferves, that ** the obvious 
paths of nature arc alfo forfaken, in a different manner, 
when, inftead of ncgle£Hng the duties of a mother, awomatr I 
carries them to excefs j when flie makes an idol of her child, 
incrrafcs its weaknefs, by preventing its fenfe of it, and as 
if (he could emancipate him from the laws of nature, pre- 
vents every approach of pain or dlftrefs ; without thinking 
that, for the fake of preferving him af prcfent from a few 
trifling inconvcniencics, Ihe is accumulating on his head a 
dfftant load of anxieties and misfortunes j without thinking 
that it is a barbarous precaution to enervate and indulge the 
child at the expence of the man» Thetis, fays the feble, in 
order to render her fon invulnerable, plunged him into the 
waters of Styx, This is an exprcflive and beautiful allegory. 
Hf^hc cruel mothers I am fpeaking of, aiSt diredlly contrary ; 
by plunging their children in foftnefs and effeminacy, they 
render tliem more tender and vulnerable; they lay open, as 
it were, their nerves to every fpecics of afflicting fcnfations, 
to which they will certainly fall a prey as they grow up. 

** Obferve naturci and follow the track fhe has delineated. 
She continually exercifes her children, and fortifies their con- 
ftitiition by experiments of every kind ^ inuring them by- 
times to grief and pain. In cutting their teeth, they experi- 
ence the fever ; griping cholics throw them into convulfions ; 
the hooping-cough fuffocatcs, and wtTms torment, them ; 
furfcits corrupt their blood ; and the various fermentations, 
their humours are fubje6t to, cover them with dangerous 
eruptions; Almoft the whole period of childhood Is fickncfs 
and danger J half the children that arc bo:n, dving beforo.] 
tbey are eight years old- In paifing thro' this courfe oft] 
expcrimentii, the child gathers ft r en gth and foititude, and,, 
as foon as he is capable of Jiving, the principles of life bc-^ 
come Icfs precarious. 

*^ This is the rule of nature. Why fliould you act con- 
trary to it ? Don't you fee, that by endeavouring to correft 
Iicr work, you fpoil it, and prevent the execution of her dc- 
ilgns ? h^ you from without as (he does within ; ihis, ac- 
Cfnrding to you, would ijicrcafc the danger ^ pn the contrary^ 


Rou^SEAu'j Sj^Iim &/ Educatim^ 

yl will create a diverfion, and leflcn it. Exporience fti«wf^ i 

ildren delicately educated, <ii€ in a greater proportion thamj 

[ethers. , Provided you do not make them exert thtrmfelv 

J txjyond their powers, Icfs rifle is r^n by excrcifing^ than * 

i dulgtng thf m in ea/e. Inure ihcm, therefore, by degrees, 

' thofc inconvcnicnctes they niuft one day ruffer. Harden the* 

todic5 to the intemperance of the feafons, climates, and clc- 

tnrnrs ; to huugcr, thirft, aiul fatigue ; in a word^ dip th^ 

rn the waters of Styx. Before the body hath acquired a fct- 

fled habit, we oiay give it any Wc plcafc, without danger 

hut when it i"* once arnVed to its full growth and confidence, 

every alteration is hazardous. A child will bear thofe vicif-* 

fuudft'S which to a man would be infupportable : the foft ;in 

plinnt fibres of the former, readily yield to imprcflion ^ thoft 

of the latter arc more rigid, and arc reduced only by violrn 

to recede from tlie forms* they have afTumcd* Wp may, ther 

fore, bring up a child robuft and hearty, without endanger' 

ing cither us life or heahh ; and tho* even fome rifk were ru 

in this refpcwl, it would not afTord fufRcicnt caufc of hcfua 

rion. Since they are hOcs infcparable from human life, cai 

we do better than to run them during that period of it, where- 

^ in we take chem at the leafl difadvantage i 

** The life of a child becomes the more valuable as 
advances in years. To the value of his perfon muft be add- 
ed, the coft and pains attending bis education: to the lofs 
life, al fo, may be annexed his own fenfe and apprehenftonal 
of death. We (hould, therefore, particularly dire<ii our viev 
to the future in his prcfent prcfervation ; wc ought to arm Kiii|| 
againft the evils of youth, before he arrives at that period: 
for if the value of his life increafes till he attain the age r 
which it is ufeful, what a folly is it to protcft him from 
few evils in his infancy, to multiply his fufFerings when he 
comes to years of difcrcuon !" 

With refpe^t to the temper and difpofition of children, o 
Author very juftly obfervcs, chat the common methods 
caprictoufly humouring or contradi<5ling them, are, to thfl 
highed degree, dellrudtive and abfurd. ** We always, fa) 
he, cither do that which is pleafmg to the child, or exadi ol 
it what pleafcs ourfclves; either fubmitting to its humour^;' 
L or obliging it to fubmic to ours- There is no medium, it 
muft either command or obey* Hence the firft ideas it ac- 
quires, arc ihofc of tyranny 2ind fervitudc. Before it ca 
ipealc, it learns to command ; and before It can aft, it is 
taught obedience j nay, fomctimcs it is punilbcd before it " 


RoVssEAuV S^iM cf EduiatUn, 265] 

^onfclous of a faxik, at Icaft befarc it can commit one. Thus 
it is we early inftil into their tender minds thofe paffions 
which we afterwards impute to nature; and, after having 
taken the pains 10 make them vicious, complain that wc 
found them fo, 

** In this manner, a child paflcs fix or feven years, under 
the care of the women ; the conftant vitUm of their caprices 
and his own. After he has learnt of them what they ufualJy 
teach, that is, after they Have burthcned \\u memory with 
words without meaning, and things of no confVqucncc ; af- 
ter they have corrupted his natural difpofition, by the paiHons 
they have implanted, this fattiiif*us Being is turned over to 
the care of a Preceptor, who proceeds in the developement 
of thofe artificial buds already formed ; teaching him every 
thing except the knowlegc of himfcif, the bufmela of humaa 
life, and the attainment of happinefs. So that when this II3- 
vifh and tyrannical infant, replete with fciencc, and dcpriv^ci 
of fcnfe, equally debilitated both in body and mind, comes 
at length to enter on the world, it i:i no wonder that the dif-, 
play he makes of his folly, vanity, and vice, fhouid cauie u% 
to lament the mifery and pervcrfencfs of human nature."' 

Mr, RouflTeau very prudently advifes, that the pafHorus in 
young children fliould be neither fomented by needlefs con- 
tradicHon ; nor caprtciovts habits inftilled, by fruitlefs endea- 
vours to footh them under their unavoidable fufierings* *« Be 
careful, fays he, therefore, to keep them from fervants, who 
are continually tcizing, and provoking them; fuch fervants 
are infinitely more fatal to children than the in temperature of 
the air or the feafons. While infants are crofled only by the 
rcfiftarice of things, and not by pcrfons, they will never grovir 
fra^lious nor paflionate. This is one reafon why the children 
of common people, being more free and independent, are, 
for the moft part, lefs infirm and delicate in their conftitu- 
tions, and more robuft than thofe of others, who, by pre- 
tending to educate them better, are perpetually con trad i<5ting 
them. It mufl, however, be remembered, that there is a Vl rr 
wide difference between adling always in obedience to, cor 
humouring, a child, and not contradiding it. 

** Tears are the petitions of young children ; if they be 
not looked on as fuch, they will foon become commands : 
infiints would begin by praying our alBftance, and go on ta 
command our fervice. Thus from their own weakncfs, 
whence ^t firit arifcs ibe fenfe of their dependence^ foUows 



'RovBSWAv^s Sf/fim of Ediuoftm^ 

the notion of domincenitgand command. This idea, how-* 
ever, is iefs excited by ihcir wants than by our ailidutties ; 
and here w^ begin to perceive thofe mora! cffeSs, %vhofe im- 
tnedlatc caufe doth not cxift in nature. At the fame time, 
wc fee how ncccflary it is, to difcover the fecrct motives of 
the cries of children, c%'cn ia their earlicft infajicy. 

** When a child fomctimes holds out it5 hand, without 
3ny other emotion^ it thinks to reach the object, becaufe it 
cannot cftimatc the diftance of it : it is here only miftaken : 
bat when in reaching out its hand, it ciies, or manifcfts other 
£gBS of impatience, it is not deceived in the diilancc of the 
o^e£t, but is either commanding it to approach, or you to 
fetch it. In the firft cafe, therefore, it is proper to undeceive 
the child, by carrying it gently toward the objeft ; and in the 
bft, not to appear to mind it; but the louder it cries, the 
kfs notice to take of it. It h of confequence to check chil- 
drejt betimes, in ufurping the cotntnand over perfons who arc 
Bot in their power j or over things which they are not fuffi- 
ciently acquainted with* 

*< For the latter rcafon, it is better when a child Jittitf^ 
any thfttg: that maybe proper to give him, to carry him ta 
the objc£t, than to bring theobje^ to the child ; as, by this 
means, he deduces a conclufion adapted to his tender years, 
and which there is no other way of fuggcfting to him/* 

*' The child, (ays our Author, who is liable to fuffcrnone 
but natural inconveniencics, will cry only when it feels pain ; 
which is a great advantage in it^ Education ; fot then we are 
rrrtarn to know when it (lands in real want of affiilance, and 
this Ihould be afForded it, if pofEble, immediately. But if 
it be out of our power to relieve it, we (hould take no notice, 
nrtr mnlc*^ any fruitlcfs attempts to quiet h, Kifles and ca- 
I not cure its cholic ; yet it will remember the me- 
: 'jn to footh it ; and when it once knows how to em- 

ploy you at its plcafurc, it is become your maftcr, and all is 
over. Being Icfs reftralncd in their efforts to move, children 
would cry leTs ; if we were lefs importuned with their tears, 
it would require 'left trouble to quiet them; threatncd aud 
foothcd more feldom^ they would become lefs timid and ob- 
ftfnate, and would retain more of their natural temper and 
difpofiiion* It is lefs from letting children cry unnoticed i 
than from driving to appeaf? them, that they get falls ; my 

Pf of this is, that thofe which are moft neglefted, are thtr 
fubjedto thofe accident*, I am far, however iVom re* 


^ousstAtf J Sjiflim tif Education* 


commending, that children ftiould, for this realbn, be nc- 
gk3ed : on the contrary, J would have (o much care taken 
of them as to prevent accidents of this kipd, and not that] 
their cries fbould give the firft notice of them. Neither woi J4 i 
I, at the fame time, have a Nurfe be over foliciious abou^ 
trifles. Why fliould flic think it fo great a hardflilp on ihql 
child, to let it cry a little, when flie fees on hovsr maiiy ocean j 
fions rts tears arc ufcful and falutary ? When children comcii 
to be fenfible of the great value you fet on their fdcnce, thej^ j 
will take carq you fliall aot have too much of it. They wiH,J 
at length, fet fo great a value on it themfelves, as to prcvenM 
your being able to obtain any ; when, by dint of continual 
crying vi'tthout fuCQei$^ they llrain, exhauft^ and fometime^l 
deftroy themfelves, 

*' The long fits of crymg in a child, who is neither cotm 
fined, fick, nor in real want of any thing, are only fus 
habit and obftinacy. They arc not to be attributed to nature^ 
but to the Nurfe ; who, from not knowing how to bear fuch 
importunity, only incrcafcs it, without r€fle4^ing, that m 
making the child quiet to-day, flie is oiily encouraging it ta 
cry the more to-morrow* 

** The only way to cure, or prevent, this habit, is, to tak« 
jio notice of a child in fuch ctrcumftances. Nobody carc%1 
not even chiWren, to take fruitlcfs pains. They may, for ; 
while, perfeverc in their trials j but, if ydu have more pa-i 
tience than they have obftinacy, they will be difgafted at 
experiment, and repeat it no more* This is the method tc 
prevent their tears, and to ufe them to cry 0€i\y when tb 
are really In pain. 

** When thej arc pofleded of thefc fits of caprice and ol 

flinacy, a certain way to quiet them is, to divert their atten,*^ 
lion by fome agreeable and ftriking obje<5t, that may mak^ 
them forget their motive for crying. Moft Nurfes excel iv^ 
pra£tifing this expedient ; and, if artfully managed, it is vert 
ufcful : but it is of the utmoft confequence that the child 
ihould not perceive this intention of diverting him, but tha 
he (hould imagine we arc amufmg ourfclves without thinkini 
cf him : in this refpeft, however, all Nurfes arc very inex- 
pert, and perverfcly do a right thing the wrong way/' 

Among the various objefts of concern that enter into th 
good mat^agement of infants, that of teaching them to ipea 
h undoubtedly one of the grcateli importance : confidering it' 
a^ iiich^ therefore, Mr. R^^ufleau lap down fev^;J fenfible 


%6S RoDSSBAir*/ Sj/fim cf Education* 

icmarks on this head* The following, being the moft gene- 
ral, may probably be acceptable to our Readers* 

** A child who would learn to fpcak, fliould be accuftomed 
only to hear words whofe meaning he might be cafily mudc 
to comprehend, and to fpealc thofc only which he is in a ca- 
pacity to pronounce articulately. The efforts he makes to 
do this, will induce him frequently to repeat the fame fylla** 
We, as it were to exercife himfdf in the dillincl pronuncia- 
tion t>f it. When he begins to flutter, however, never give 
yourfcif the trouble to guefs what he would fay. To pre* 
fume even to be always attended to, is exerciilng a fort of 
command ; and in thi^i, be ic of what kind focver, a child 
fiiould never be indulged. Let it be thought fufEcient with 
you, to provide him, very carefully, with what is nccciTary ; 
it is his province to endeavour to make you underftand what 
is not fo* Much lefs fliould you be fo precipitate, to oblige 
him to fpeak ; he will karn to talk well enough of himfelf as 
he comes to perceive the utility of it- 

** It has been remarked, indeed, that fuch children as are 
backward in learning to talk, never fpeak fo diftinflly as 
ethers* It is not, however, from their being backward to 
fpeak that their organs contraft any impediment j but, on 
the contrary, it is fome natural impediment which mikes 
them fo late before they fpeak. Were not this the cafe, why 
jQiould they be the lefs forward in this refpeiSt than others ? 
Have they lefs need of fpeech, or are they lefs excited to it ? 
This is not the cafe, but the direct contrary j for the great 
concern arifmg from this delay, when it comes to be known, 
occafions the poor child to be much more eagerly folicited 
and tormented to fpeak than arc thofe who begin earlier : 
now thofe folicitations to repeated efforts, greatly contribute 
to render its fpeech confufed and flammecingj whereas, if 
treated lefs precipitately it would have had more time and lei- 
furc to have acquired abetter pronunciation. 

*' Children who are prefled too much to fpeak have nei- 
ther time allowed them to learn to pronounce dillincUy what 
they fay, nor to comprehend perfectly what they hear ; where- 
as, if left to thcmfclves, they would begin to praflife upon 
words of the moft eafy pronunciation, annexing to them fome 
fignification, which they would make underftood by their 
gelhircs ; they would give you their own words before they 
received yours, and make ufcof the latter only as they fliould 
underftand them ; for not being prefled to it, they wouU 
% firft 

RoussEAu'j S^m of Education, 269 

firft obferve the fenfe you yourfelf fhould give tliem, which, 
when they were certain of, they would adopt them accord- 

** But the greatcft evil attending this precipitation, is not tjiat 
our firft difcourfe to children, and the firft language they fpcak, 
arc to them, void of meaning; but that, with. relp<r(3 to 
them, they convey a meaning dilFercnt from ours, without 
our knowing it, or being able to find it out ; fo that, in fome-i 
times appearing to anlwer us very pertinently, they fpeak 
without having underftood us, and without our underftanding. 
them. It is at fuch equivocal eixprefHons we are fometimes- 
fo much furprized, when we annex ideas to their words to 
which they themfelves arc ftrangers. This inattention, on 
our part, to . the true fenfe that words convey to chQdren, 
appears to be the grand caufc of the firft errors they fidl intOy 
and which,' even after they are undeceived, contmue to in- 
fluence their turn of mind during the reft of their lives." 

The above extra£h will abundantly ferve to fliew how mi- 
nutely our Author has confidered, and enters into, his fubje£fc $ 
we ftiall difmifs his firft book, therefore, with the following 
Maxims ; the obfervance of which be ftrongly recommeojds 
to all who have the care of infants. 

I Maxim. It is requifite to leave children at full libertv 
to employ the abilities nature hath given them, and whica 
they cannot abufe. 

2d Maxim. It is our duty Xm aiSft them, and fupply their 
deficiencies, whether of Body or mind, in every circumflance 
of phyiical neceffity. 

3d Maxim. Every afliftance afforded them ihould be con- 
fined to real utility, without adminiftering any thing to the 
indulgence of their caprice, or unreafonable humours. 

4th Maxim. The meaning of their language and figns 
ought to be carefully ftudied, inorder to be able to diftinguifh, 
at an age when they know ^ot how to diffemble, between 
thofe inclinations that arifc from nature, and what are only 

We flijiU enter on the account of the fecond part of this 
work in our next Review. 

t Vo ] 

Tfu medical IVorh af Richard Mead, M* D. Phyjidan U hit 
late Majefly King George IL Feibw of the Royal College of 
Phyftdam at London and Edinburgh^ and of the Royal Society^ 
4io. i8s. bound. Hitchj &c. 

MUCH the g:rcatcr number of the Works of this learn- 
cJ and juftly celebrated Phyfician, having been pub- 
Hlhcd before the commencement of our Review, this article 
muft, of courfc, relate to. the prcfcnt edition, rather than to 
the works therafclves. It is well printed, upon a very good 
and large paper, which admits of a handfome margin, tho' 
with a fair and honeft page. The body of the work extends to 
662 pages, exclufive of the Memoirs prefixed, concerning 
hiF Life and Writings, the various Prefaces^ Advert ifements, 
IndcK and Contents. 

The onjv Latin pieces here publifhed, are, tile DoiVor's 
Harvcian Oration, and an Epiftlc to the late learned Dr. 
Friendj about piirging in the Secondary Fever of the Small- 
Pox. Now as all hb pieces, except his Trcatife on Poifons, 
on the Plague, his Difcourfe on the Scurvy* his Account of 
the Method of cxt rafting foul Air out of Ships, were, to the 
bcft of our recollcftion, published originally in Latin, it 
might have been cxpe£lcd that the Editors would have pre- 
mifcd fomethtng briefly, with refped to the tranllations they* 
Kiive given u^ of all thercft^: but of this there is no mention. 
We are fenfible fome of thefe tranflations were publifhetf i 
during the Author's Ktfe, by Dr. Stack, who truly afHrmeJ 
them to have been made by the Author's allowance, and un- 
der his infpeftion : however irreconcilable this wa$ with Dr^ 
Mead's expre&Iy guarding, as much as his injunctions could 
do, particularly againft a tranflation of his Treatife de moriis 
Bibiicu : but very probably his defpairing of the efficacy of 
fuch injun^ions, reduced him to thL^expedient of looking 
over the tranflation of a Gentleman who rcfided with him. 
We can alfo recolJctt an anonymous tranfiation of his Trea- 
tife^ FarioliS ct Morhillisy by a dilFerent Hand, 

On comparing fome parts of this edition with a few of the 
fame Treatifes publifhed fingly, we find them, for the inoft 
part, exa£lly the fame: but in the Effay on thcPoifon of the 
Mad Dog, we obfcrve a very horrid cataftrophe from it^ 
faid to have occurred in Scotland, fupprefled in this 5 and, 
indeed, judiciouJly enough, sis there was fomething too inde- 
licately, and even fljockinsly, dreadful in it, to be publiflved. 


Two additional VQlumes^ i^, 47 X 

This particular, we alfo imagine, was fupprefled in the laft 
edition previous to this, tho* we find it retained in Brindley's, 
of 1745. 

An elegant Metzotinto of the Do£tor, engraved by Houf- 
ton, from a pifture by Ramfay, is prefixed to this edition, 
and feems to have been a striking likenefs of his agree- 
able afpet^ and good prefence, before his very advanced and 
decrepid age. 

Though we had formerly avowed * our great regard to the 
truly dignified charader of the learned Dr. Mead, who was 
juilfy obferved to have attained that rare happinefs of having 
conquered. Envy, even before his death ; yet it is difficult for 
any, who have intimately known him, to tranfcribe his name, 
without repeatedly expreffing their regard for his memory. 
To his real qualifications, and unafTedled endeavours for attain- 
ing the valuable purpofes of hi^ profeifion, he joined that ex- 
tent and elegance of Literature, which agreeably engaged 
younger Phyficians to perufe and retain his ufeful works* 
He had facrificed fufficiently to the Graces ; and yet his claffi- 
cal ornaments are introduced with an eafe and aptitude, 
which difcovered no . oftentation, but a generous defire to 
gratify his Readers, with fuch references and citations as 
had delighted himfelf. Without the leaft detradion from 
the living, we think his candour has been exceeded by none; 
and equalled by very few, indeed. This great virtue was 
not only evidenced oy the general tenor of his life, but 
the fpirit of it breathes uniformly throughout his writings. 
Hence we imagine this edition of all his works in Engiijb 
(except of two fhort pieces, which may ferve as inftances of 
his ftriftly pure and elegant Latinity) may prove very accept- 
able to a greater number of Readers, than before ; while 
his many virtues may be contemplated as humbly conducive 
to his prefent beatitude, in the company of Spirits as ex* 
panded and as beneficent as his own. 

• Review, vol. XIL p. 253. XIV. p. 577. XVL p. 261, 264. 

Two ^additional Volumes y being the Xlllth and XlVth of the 
Works of Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, Dub- 
lin. Small odlavo. 6 s. Dodfley, &c. 


T was the joint complaint of Dean Swift and Mr. Pope, 
in the preface to the firft edition of their M\Cc^\\^iC\^^ \x\-ax 
Rev. Oa. 1762. S V^ 

272 Two additional Vcbmus of 

in the levity of youth, and the gaiety of their minds, at ccr* 
tain junftures common to all men, according to the dif- 
pofitions they were then in, they had written fome things 
which, [afterwards] they might wifli never to have thought 
on-j and that the publijbing of thcfe occafional fallies which 
they could not difown, and without their confent, was a 
greater injury than that of afcribing to them the moft ftupid 
productions, which they could wholly deny. 

If this was the misfortune of thefe excellent Writers, in 
their life-time, it has alfo been the hard fate of one of them, 
even after death ; a circumftance which reminds us lijcewife 
of another paflagc, in the above-cited preface, viz. ** Thofe 
very Bookfellers who have fupported themfelves upon an Au- 
thor's fame while he lived, have done their utmoft after his 
descth, by fuch praftices." This fe9ms to have 
been in fome meafure prophetical, with regard to Swift, whofe 
fame, we apprehend, cannot receive the fmalleft addition 
from the contents, (tho* admitted to be genuine) of thefc 
pofthumous volumes ; but, on the contrary, may be greatly 
injured, by the appearance of fome trivial pieces, which, in 
his bagatelle hours, and magotty humours, he might conde- 
(cend to fcribble, for the temporary diverfion of himfelf or his 
friends, but which he would have been aflitimed^to fee inferted 
in any edition of his works. We have now in view moft of 
the poetical fcraps in the prcfcnt colledlion j and as to the 
profe pieces, they arc not of much fuperior merit ; tho* fome 
of them are undoubtedly better worth preferving than many 
of the verfes. The Letters* are, in general, fufficiently cha- 
radleriftic of the Writer ; but few of them were written on 
very important occafions ; and fome are mere billets^ on pri- 
vate bufinefs, not worth the leaft (hare of public notice, be- 
insr, in truth, fuch as the very ingenious Dean could never 

fu?{)ecl: would have found their way to the Prefs. But it 

will be moft agreeable to method, to mention the feveral 
pieces, according to tlie order in which they ftand arranged 
in the prefent edition. 

T. We have four fliort Sermons. The firft, onfalfeJVtt^ 
refsy relates to the ftate of public affairs in Ireland, when 
Parties were violently enflamed againft each other, and many 
perfons, as is always the cafe, ready to offer their fervice to 

♦ Thcfe feem to have been ill put together by the Editor; and 
fome of them if we mifhike not» addreiTed to wrong perfoni . 

4 the 

2)«2« SWlFT*5 fForJts, 27 J 

the prevailing fide, and become accufers of their brethren, 
without any regard to truth or charity. 

In the (econd Sermon^ the Dean fhews, that the Poor en- 
joy many temporal blefliitgs, which are not common to the 
Rich and Great j and that the Rich and the Great are fubjeft ' 
to many temporal evils, Which are not common to the Poor. 
By the Poor, he means the honeft, induftrious Artificer, the 
meaner fort of Tradefmen^ and the labouring man, who 
gets his bread by the fweat of his brows. 

In the, third Sermon, which is an excellent Difcourfe, he 
enquires into the chief caufes of the wretched condition of 

Thefubjefi of the fourth Difcourfe is. Sleeping in Charch^ 
and here he produces feveral inftances to (hew the prevailing . 
negled of preaching ; reckons up fome of the ufual objec- 
tions againft this mode of inftrudion ; fets forth the great 
evil of thb negle£l, and offers fome remedies againft it. 

There are many, he obferves, who place abundance of 
merit in going to church, although it be with no othei* prof- 
pcSt but that of being well entertained $ wherein if they happen 
to fail, they return wholly difappointed. 

** Hence, fays he, it is become an impertinent vein among 
people of all forts, to hunt after what thev call a good Ser- 
mon, as if it were a matter of paftime and diverfion. Our 
bufinefs, alas ? is quite another thing, either to learn, or, 
at leaft, be reminded of our duty ; to apply the do^^rines de- 
livered, compare the rules we hear, with our lives and adti- 
ons, and find wherein we have tranfgrefled. Thefe are the 
difpofitions men fhould bring into the Houfe of God, and 
then they will be little concerned about the Preacher's wit or 
eloquence ; nor be curious to enquire out his faults or infir- 
mities, but confider how to correct their own. 

** The Scorners of preaching would do well to confider, 
that this talent of ridicule, they value fo mnch, is a perfec- 
tion very eafily acquired, and applied to all things whatfo- 
ever ; neither is it any thing at all the worfe, becaufe it is 
capable of being perverted to burlefque : perhaps it may be 
the more perfeft upon that fcore ; fince we know, the moft 
celebrated pieces have been thus treated with greateft fuccefs. 
It is in any man's power to fuppofe a fool's cap on the wifeft 
head, and then laugh at his own fuppofition. I think there 
are not many things cheaper than fuppofing and laugJKia%\ 

Si ^^^ 

Ij6 Two additional Volumes of 

with it in print before, we (hall here mention it no farther.-— 
Wc come now to the Poetry, viz. 

1. BallyfpeUin. By Dr. Sheridan. This was printed and 
hackneyed about, many years ago, in the Magazines, &c. 

2. The Dean's Anfwtr to the above, — in the fame fort of 

3. Several RidMeSj and their Anfwers^ by Drs. Swift, She- 
ridan, and Delany. 

4. The Logicians refuted-^gtntxHL inveSive againft man- 

5. Ode to Science^z burlefque on modern Ode- writing : 
conceived in the fpirit of the Author's famous Love-fpng, 
beginning with Fluttering fpread thy purple pinions. 

6. The Puppet Shew : an improvement on l^e old thought 
of comparing the world to a theatre, 

7. Ferfif to Mrs. Sicanj a Grocer's wife, of DuUin. 

8. . to Mrs. Houghton^ en her praiftng her buf* 
hand This is fo delicate a compKment, that we dare fay 
our Readers will be pleafed with it : the rather too, as deli- 
cacy is not always to be expe^ed from the pen of this witty, 
but licentious. Writer. 

To Mrj^ Houghton. 

YOU always are making a God of your fpoa(e. 

But this neither reafon nor confdence allows ; 
Perhaps you will fay, \\s in gratitude due, 
And you adore him» becaufe he adores you. 
Your argument's weak, and fo you will find. 
For you, by this rule, muft adore all mankind. 

9. J left-handed Letter to Dr. Sheridan. The Editor 
tells us, that " that all the humour of this poem is loft, by 
the impoffibility of printing it left-handed, as it was wrote." 
The Dean was fometimes mighty fond of odd conceits j and 
would occafionally defcend even to boyifhnefs. Capacious 
minds, like large rooms, will contain a great deal of furni- 
ture ; and fome veflels, we know, are made to honour, and 
fome to diflionour. 

10. On Jiealing a Cr§wn when the Dean was ajleep. By 
Dr. Sheridan. Witty. 

II. The 

Dim Swirr^s ff^ifris. 277 

1 1 . The Dean's Jn/iver ;— droll. 

12. On the llttU Houfi hy the Church-yard at CaJileknocL 
Printed before, in the London' edition, reviled by Hawkef- 

13. Probatur alita. A mere Conundrum. 

14. On Noify Timu Very abufive of the late Sir Tho- 
mas Pr — der — t. 

15. The Ferfes tKcafimed h the fudden drying up of St. 
Patrick* s JVell^ near Trinity-College, Dublin, in 1726, if 
they really were written by the Dean, afford a remarkable 
inftance of his zeal for Ireland, and refentment of her fub- 
jedion to England* . 

St. Patrick fufpefedto /peak. 

By holy zeal infph^d, and led by fame. 
To thee, once fav'rite iilc, with joy 1 came ; 
What time the Goth, the Vandal, and the Hun, 
Had my own native Italy o'er- run. 
lerne, to the world's remote^ parts, 
Renown'd for valour, policy, and arts. 

Hither from Colchos, with the fleecy ore, 
Jafon arriv'd two thoufand years before. 
Thee, happv ifland, Pallas call'd het own. 
When haughty Bntain was a land unknown. 
From thee, with pride, the Caledonians trace 
The glorious founder of dieir kingly race : 
Thy martial (bus, whom now they dare defpife. 
Did dnoe their land fubdue and civilize : 
Their drefs, their language, and the Scottifli name, 
Confefs the foil from-wbence the vidtors came. 
Well may they boaft that ancient blood, which runs 
Within their veins, who are thy younger (bns, 
A conqueil and a colony from thee, 
The mother- kingdom left her children free ; 
From thee no mark of flavery they felt : 
Not fo with thee thy ba(ej Invaders dealt ; 
Invited here to 'vengeful Morrough's aid, 
Thofe whom they could not conquer, they betray'd. 
Britain, by diee we fell, ungrateful ifle ! 
Not by thy valour, but fuperior guile : 
Britain, with fhame confeu* this land of mine 
Firft taught thee human knowlege and divine; 
My Prelates and my Students, ient from hence. 
Made your fons converts both to God and fenfe : 
Not like the Paftors of thy rav'nous breed. 
Who come to fleece the flocks, and not to feed. 

S 4 Wretched 

fji Two additional Volume: of 

Wretched lerne ! with what grief I fee 
The fatal changes time hath made in thee. 
The Chridian rites I introdac'd in viin : 
Lo ! Infidelity retum'd again. 
/ Freedom and virtue in thy Tons I found. 

Who now in vice and flavery are drown'd. . 

By faith and pray'r, this crofier in my hand, 
I drove the vcnom'd ferpent from thy land ; 
The Ihcphcrd in his bower might flecp or fing, ' 

Nor dread the adder'tf tooth, nor fcorpion's flin^. 

With omens oft I iht)vc to warn thy fwains. 
Omens, the types of thy impending chains. 
I Cent the magpye frOiii the firitifh foil. 
With fcftlefs beak thy blooming fruit to fpoil ; 
To din thine ears with onhavmonious cladc. 
And haunt thy holy walls in white and black. 
What clfe arc thofe thou fecft in Biihop*a gccr. 
Who crop the nurferies of learning here I 
Afpiring, greedy, full of fcnfelefs prate, 
Devour the church, and chatter to the ftate. 

As yon grew more degenerate and baie, 
I fcnt you millions of the aoaking race ; 
Emblems of infers vile, who fpread their fpawn 
Through all thy land, in armour, fur, and lawn ; 
A nauieous brood, (hat fills your fenate walls. 
And in the chambers of your Viceroy crawls. 

See, where the new-devouring vermin runs. 
Sent in my anger from the land of Huns ; 
With harpy claws it undermines the ground. 
And fudden fpreads a humerous offspring roond ; 
Th' amphibious tyrant, with^his rav'nous band. 
Drains all thy lakes of fifli, of fruits thy land. 

Where is the facred well, that bore my name ? 
Fled to the fountain back, from whence it came ! 
Fair Freedom's emblem once, which fmoothiy flows. 
And bleflings equally on all beflows. 
Here, from the neighbouring nurfery of arts*. 
The Students drinking, rais'd their wit and parts ; 
Here, for an age and more, improv'd their vein. 
Their Phoebus 1, my fpring their Hippocrcnc. 
Difcourag'd youths, now all their hopes muft fail, 
Condemn'd to country cottages and ale; 
To foreign Prelates make a Savifli court. 
And by their fweat procure a mean fupport ; 
Or, for the claflics read th' Attorney's Guide; 
CoUcftexcife, or wait upon the tide. 

• Trinity College, 


Dem Swift'/ W&rks. 

01 liad I been Apoillc to the Swifs, 
Or hardy Scot, or any land but this ; 
Comhin'din arms, they had iheir fo« dcfy'd, 
Ard kept ihnr ltl>erty, or bravely dy*d. 
Thou ftill with tyrants in fuccfffion caril. 
The lail invaders trampling on the firft : 
Nor fondly hope for fomc rcverfe of fate. 
Virtue herfelf would now reiorn too late. 
Not half thecourfcof miferyis run. 
Thy greateil evils yet are fcarce begun, 
Soonihall thy fons, the time is jurfat hand. 
Be all made captives in their native land ; 
When, for the nfe of no Hibernian born. 
Shall rife one blade of grafs, one ear of corn ; 
When fhelb and leather ihall for money pai's. 
Nor thy opprcffing Lords a/ford the brais*. 
But all turn Icafers to that mongril f breed. 
Who from thee rprung» yet on ihy vitals feed; 
Who to yon rav'nous ifle thy treafurcs bear, 
And wafle in luxarjr thy bar veils there ; 
For pride and ignoram:e a proverb grown 
The jcXl of Wits, and to the Court unknown. 

1 fcorn thy fpurious and degenerate line. 
And from this hour my Patronage refign. 

1 6. To the Rev. Mr. Dankl Jack fin* Facetious. 

17, V^rfis hy Dr. Sheridan i the words arc all abreviat 
by Elifions. Very odd. 

i8* Anjwer'd^ with more wit than the fubjefl: was worth, 

19, Dialogue hetwem an eminent Lmvyer mid Dn Swi/K] 
Alluding to the i Sat, of Ffor. b. ii. Sunt quibus inSatyra^ &c# 

20. Paulus> By Mr* Lyndfay, 

21- Anfwer, By Dr. Swift. A fatirc on the Lawyers. 

22. On Dr. Rtmdie. Occafioned by his being made Bifbop ^ 
of Derry. In this compliment to that worthy Prcl;ite^ the \ 
Dean ihews an unufual freedom of fentiment, particularly ia 
the following lines. 

Make Rundle Bi/hop ; fyc for fliamc ! 
An Arian to ufurp the nanne! 
A Bifhop in the tile of Saints I 
How will his brethren make complaints^ 
Dare any of the mkrcd hoft. 
Confer on him the Holy Ghost ; 

• Wood's half^pcnce. f The Abfcntees, who fpcnd the m- 

* come of thw fnlh eftatcs and ptnfions in England, 

283 Two additional Volumes^ (^c. 

In mother Church to breed a Tariance^ 
By coupling Ortkodox with Ariansf 

Yet/ w*re fcc Heathco, Turk, or Jew, 
What is there in it ftraoge, or new ? 
For, let us hear the weaik pretence. 
His brethrea£nd to take offence ; 
Of whom there are but four at moft* 
Who know there is an Holy Ghost : 
The reft, who boaft they have conferred it. 
Like Paul's Ephefians, never heaPd it; 
And, when they gave it, well *tis known. 
They gave what never was their own. 

Rundle a Bifliop ! well he may ; 
He's ilill a ChrilHan more than diey. 

We know the fubjedt of their quarrels ; 
The man has learning, fenfe, and morab. ■ - 

23. The fable of the Bitches — ridiculing the attempt to 
repeal the Teft Aft. 

24. Birth-day Verfes en Mr. Ford — ^vcry ptctty. 

25. Dean SmedUfs Petition to the Duke of Grafton. 

2^. His Gr2ce*s Jnfwer. By Dn Swift. 

27. Dean Swift 4it Sir Arthur Atehefon'sy in the North of 
Ireland. Thcfe are the fame verfes, bleginning 

The Dean would vifit Market-Hill 

which have often been printed ; ' but whether in any fonner 
edition of the Mifcellanies, we remember not, Wc have 
heard great complaints of the liberties taken by the Dean in 
Sir Arthur's family ; — ^which are faid to have produced very 
difagrecable confequences between that Qentjeman and his 

Lady : but the Dean WQuld have his humour. 

I ■ 

.28. The Storm 5 AfmervaU Pitition. A moft fevcre la- 
^re on Bifliop H — t. 

The volume concludes with a copious Index to all the 
Works ; which is, indeed, not the leaft valuable part of the 
prefent publication. There is one article in it whicK will not 
fail to prove acceptable to eVery Reader s and of which the 
Editor fpeaks in tne following terms. 

" We have added, in die laft volume, an Index to all the 
Works; wherein we have ranged the Bons Mots fcattored 
throughout them undef.^c aurtidt Swifjiaka, by which 


SheridakV LiMurn m Ekmllon. %%i 

their brightnefs is colleiled, as it were, into 2. focus^ and 
they are placed in fudi open day» that the)' are fecurcd, for 
the future, from the petty larceny of mealier Wiu/' 

This character would have been more juft, however, had 
the Speculum bten much larger, fo as to have collected all 
the rays of wit fcattered thro' the Dean's inimitable Writings ; 
for wc conceive, that only a fmall part of them arc here 
brought to view. 

Conclufion oftht Accmnt of Mr. Sheridan's Lfilures, See Rc\'iew 
for September, page 208. 


M da 

to the fee 

AVING given an account of Mr. Sherldan*s intro- 
&Q7y Difcourfe, and firft Le^turcj we now proceed 
fecond, which treats of Artkuiaihn and PronunJatUn* 

A good Articulation confifls, we arc told, in giving every 
letter in a f) liable Its due proportion of found, according to 
the moft approved cuftom of pronouncing it 5 2tnd in making 
fuch a diftrnfllon between the fyllables of which words arc 
compofcd, that the ear (hall, without uifHcult)', acknowlege 
their number ; and perceive at once to wjikh fyllablc each 
letter belongs. Where thcfe points are not obfervcd, the 
Articulation is proportionably defeftive. 

Of the many inftances which offer of a vitiated Articula- 
tion, ** there is not one in a thoufand," Mr. Sheridan ob- 
fcrves, which proceeds from any natural defedt or Impedi- 
ment. " Of this point he had many proofs," he fays, in 
the fchool where he received his firft rudiments of learning; 
and '* where the MafVcr made Pronunciation a chief object 
of his attention ;*' in which he ** never knew a fmgic in- 
ilance of his failing to cure fuch boys as came to him with 
any dcfe^Sl of that kind ; tho' there were numbers who Jifped 
or fluttered to a great degree, on their firft entrance into the 
fchool i or who were utterly unable to pronounce fome let- 
ters, and others very iRdiftin£lly." 

What he deems the firft and moft cfTentia! point In Articu- 
lation, is, Diftinftnefs; and, therefore, we are told, its op- 
pofite is the greateft fault. Indittiuftnefs, to a certain de- 
gree, renders the Speaker unintelligible ; or demands a more 
than ordinary attention, which is always painful to the Hearer. 




SheridanV LiSurti m Ehcutm^ 

The chief fourcc t)^ indiftlnclncTs^ is too great precipi- 
tancy of fpecch ; and this takes \is, rife in EnglanJ, chiefly \ 
from a bad method of teaching to read. *' As the principal ' 
objcdl of the M after ifj, to make his Scholars peit'pdiy ac*j 
quainted with wiirten words, fo as to acknowlcgc them at' 
fight, and give them a ready utterance j the boy, who at' 
iirft iK flow in knowing the wordsj is flow in uttering them ; 
but as he advances in knowlege, he mends his pace ; and not 
being taught the true beauty and propriety of" reading, he 
thinks all excellence lies in the quicknefs and rapidity with 
which he is able to do it. — This habtt of reading is often 
transferred into thdr difcourfc ; and is but too frequently 
confirmed at the Latin fchools^ where the M afters, in gene- 
jal, having no points in view, but to make their Scholars re- 
peat their kilons by heart, or conftrue them in fuch a way as 
to ftiew they undcrftand them, care not how h.-jftily thefe ex- 
ercifes are done; or, rather, indeed, are obliged to urge them 
to a fpcedy manner of doing them, othcrwile it would be im- 
pofllble to get through the number of boys they have to 

To cure any imperfeflions in fpecch, arifing origin^ ly 
from too quick an utterance, the moft eiFed^ual method will 
be, Mr* Sheridan fays, to fct apart an hour every morning 
to be employed in the praiSticc of reading aloud, in a very 
flow manner. This fiinuld be done in the hearing of a friend, 
€jT fome perfon whofe ofEce it fbould be, to remind the Reader, 
if at anytime he ftioulH perceive him mending his pace,, and 
falling into his habit of a quick utterance^ Let him found 
all his fyllables full, and have that point only in view, with- 
out reference to the fcnfe of the words ; for if he is attentive 
to that, he will unwr.rilv fall into his old habit : on which 
;iccount, that he may not be under any temptation of that 
fort, Mr. Sheridan would have him, for fome time, rend tha 
words of a Vocabulary, in the alphabetical order. In this 
way, he will foon find out, what fetters and fyllables he is 
apt to found too faintly, and flur over. Let him make a Hft 
of thofe words ; and be fure to pronounce them over diftinfl- 
]y, every morning, before he proceeds to others. Let hhn 
accuftom himfclf alfo, when alone, to fneak his thoughts 
aloud, in the fame flow manner, and with the fame view. 
Otherwife, tho* he may get a habit of reading more flowly, 
he will fall into his ufual manner in difcourfc : and this habit 
of fpeaking aloud, when alone, will not only bring him to a 


RHERiDAN'i Lc^un$ m Elocution. 


more JiftinS utterance, but produce a facility of expreffioti> 
in which filent Thinkers are generally defedivc. 

Mr. Sheridan tells us, there is dnc caufe of indiftinf^ Ar- 
ticulatioHi vv^iich is aJmoll univerfaU and which ariies from 
the very genius of our tongue; fo that unlefe great care bc.j 
taken, it is fcarcely poflible, but that every one ihould be af- 
fci^ed by it, in feme degree* Every word compofed of niorc\ 
(yllables tlian one in our language, has one fyllable accented, 
and peculiarly diftinguifhcd from the reft; either by a fmart;,i 
percuiTion of the voice, or hy dwelling longer upon it. If^ 
this accented f)'llable be properly diftinguiflied, the word wi!l. 
often be fufficicntly known, even thoVthe others are founded, 
very confufcdly. This produces a negligence with regard ta 
the Articulation of the other fyllables ; which, tho' it may^ 
not render the fcnfe obfcurc, yet deftroys all meafurc and pro- '^ 
portion, and confequcntly all harmony in delivery. This-^ 
fault is fo general, that our Author ftrongly recommends atl 
firil, the pr*iciicc of pronotJncing the unaceehted fyllables more ' 
fuily, and dtvtlHfjg longer upon them than is mc^Jmy [our Au- 
thor's word^j as the only means of bringing thofe whofe ut- 
terance is too rapid, to a due medium. 

The next article which our Author treats of is^ Pronun^t 
cimim. He obfcrves, that the difficulti::s with refpefl to thofc 
vMo endeavour to cure thcmfelves of a provincial or vicious. 
Pronunciation, arc chiefly three : ifl, the w^nt of knowingj 
exactly where the fault lies j 2dly, want of method in re ^^ 
moving it, and of due application; 3d!y, want of confci- , 
oufncfs of iheir defeats in this point. The way of fuimount-/, 
ing thefe difHculties he endeavours to point out \ and then!^ 
go's on to treat of Ainent: which is thcfubjc^^.of bis tl^iid/ 

And here he fcts out with fomc jtift obfeA'ations on the 
meaning and ufe of Accent amongft the antients, that fuch.' 
as have cajly iaibibtd confuicd notions of the term in the an- 
cient languages, may banifh them from their minds, and only , 
be prepared to confidcr what the ufe of it is an^ongft us.- 
The tern), amongll the antients, fays he, fignificd certain j 
inflexions of the voice, or notes annexed to certain fyllables, 
in fuch proportions as probably contributed to miike their , 
fpccch mufical* Of thefe they had chiefly three in general J 
u^z^ which WTre denominiited Accents ; and the term ufcd^ 
in the plural number — The term with us has no reference ta\ 
inflexions of the voice j or mufical notes, but only means a 



SrtERiDAK*! Liiluitn on Ebcutkn, 

peculiar manner of diftinguilhing one f)'Ibble of a word front ;1 
the reft, denominated by us Accent ; and the term for that 
rcafon uCed by us jn the iiugulat nurhber* 

This diftinftlon Is made by us in two ways j either by 
dwelling longer upon one fyDable than the reft, or by giv- 
B irtg it a fmartcr pcrcuflibn of the voice in utterance. So that 
^ Accent with us, is not referred to tune, but to timet to 
quantity, not quality; to the more equable or precipitate 
motion of the voice, not to the variation of notes or inflexi- 
ons. 1 hefe have nothing to do with words feparately taken, 
artd are only made ufc of to enforce or adorn them, when 
they are ranged in fentcnccs, 

** It is by the Accent chiefly, continues Mr. Sheridan^ ' 

that the quantity of our fyllables is regulated ; but not ac- 
cording to the milVaken rule laid down by all who have writ- 
ten on the fubj'e^r, that the Accent always nnakes the fyllablc • 
long; than which there cannot be any thing more falfe. 
For the two ways of diftinguiftiing fyllables by Accent, as 
mentioned before, are dircdily opponte, and produce quite 
contrary cfFcfts \ the one, by dwelling on the fy liable, ne- 
ceflarily ;nakes it long ; the other, by the fmart percuffion 
of the voice, ^s neccllarily makes It fliort. Thus, the firft 
fyDables in glory, father, holy, are long; wbilft thofc iji 

I battle, habit, bSrrow, are ihort. Tht. quantity depends up- 
on the feat of the Accent, whether it be on the vowel or con- 
fonanrj if on the vowels the fyllable is neccflarily long ; as 
it make5 the vowel long: if on the confojiant, it may be ci- 
ther long or (hort, according to the nature of the confonant, 
or the time taken up in dwelling upon it. If the confonant 
be in its nature a fhort one, the fyllable Is neccifarily ihort. 
If it be a long one, that is^ one whofe found is capable of 
being lengthened, it may be long or Ihurt at the will of the 
" By a fliort confonant I mean, one whofe found cannot 
be continued after a vowel, fuch as c or k p t, as ac, ap» at 
— whilft that of long confonants can, as el em en cr cv, htA 
If yfQ change the feat of the Accent in the inftances before 
[mentioned, we fliould change their quantity j were we in- 
ftead of glo-ry to fay glor'-y— inftead of father, father— 
jnftead of holy, hoFy — the firft fyllable^ would become (hort 
— as t)n the other hand, were we to dwell on the vowels iji-ni 
ftcad of the confonants m the laft inftances they would changflJ 
from fliort to long — fliould we, for inftance, liiftead of bat*t!©l 

SheridanV Li^uns on Ehcuthn, 


fay battlc^for ha- bit, habit — and for borrow burrow. Thisd 
is one of the chief fources of the difference between the ^ j 
Scotch and EngliCh Gentlemen In the pronunciation of Eng-, 
lifti \ I mean, the laying the Accent oa the vowel inftead of rj 
the confonant, by which means they make fyllablcs long, that ^ 
are fhort with us. 

*' And here I can not help taking notice of a circumftance 
which fliews, in the ftrongeft light, the amazing def^«'ien<*\F 
€>f thofe who have hitherto employed their i 
fubjeft, in pomt of knowlege of the tt*ue gr 
tution oi our tongue. Several of the Compilers ot* Dictio- 
naries, Vocabularies, and Spelling fiooks, have undertaken 
to mark the Accents of our words j but fo little acquainted 
were they with the nature of our Accentv that they thought 
it necefTary only to mark the fyllablc on which the ft re fi? \s t<Sf 
belaid^ without marking the particular letter of the fylbbleia^- 
which the Accent belongs* They have therefore Tnarkett' 
them by one uniform rule, thit of placing the Accent ahl' ay* 
over the vowel of the diftinguiflaed fylbble. By which mtzn% 
they have done worfe than if they had not iiointed out fucJt'^ 
fyliablcs at all ; for this rule, inftead of guiding Strangers to 
a true pronunciation, infallibly leads them to a wrong one* 
whenever the Accent (houlJ be placed -on thtJ confonant-* 
Thus all foreigners and provincials muft for ever be miflcd^ 
by confulting fuch Di<5lionaries- For inftance, if they look 
for the word emka^ut^ finding the Accent upon the vowel e, 
they will of courfe found it endea-v^our. In the fame man- 
ner ded'icare will be called de-dicatc, prscip'itate preci-pitatc 
— habit, ha-bit — and fo on. Now had they only attended 
to the plain rule of placing ths Accent always over the con- 
fonant, whenever the llrefs is upon th^t^ they would have 
afforded the beft and moft general guide to ju(l pronuncia- 
tion, thatccMild be found with regard to our tongue. For it 
is an unerring rule throughout the wholc> tliat whenever the 
Accent is on the cunfonant, the preceding vowel has a ihort 
found. As there is alfo another infallible rule in our tongutv 
that no vowel ever has a long found In an unaccented fyltable^ 
i£ this article of Accent were properly adjullcd, it would pro' 
a mafter-key to the pronunciation of our whole tongue, 

** When we fee fuch a palpable and grofs miftakc as tills 
in our Compilers of Dictionaries, we {hnuM be at a lofs w^ 
account for it, if we did not rcflcS, that they, as well a& our 
Grammarians, have never examined the ft^ite of the living 
tongue^ but wholly confined their labours to the dead written 

language ; 


SheridanV LeBures m Ehcuttm* 

language ; their chief objed therefore has been to alTiftfilcnt 
Readers, in comprehending the meaning of the words j not 
thofc who arc to read aloud, in a proper delivery j to teach 
men how to write, not how to fpeak correclly. In this view, 
the marking the fyllable alone on which the Accent h laid, 
without attending to the particular letter, would anfwcr their 
purpofc, as it would enable Writers to arrange their words 
properly in metre, according to the rules of Englllh verfifica- 
tion* Every word in our language of more fyliables than one 
has an accented fyllable. The longer polyf/Jlables have fre- 
quently two Accents, but one is fo much Wronger than the 
other, as to (hew that it ts but one word ; and the inferior 
Accent is always lefi> forcible than any Accent that is the fin- . 
gle one in a word. Thu3 in the word expos tuJator'y — the 
ftrongeft Accent is on the fccond fyllable pos , but there is a 
fayiter Accent on the laft fyllable but. one, founded tut', ex- 
pos' tulatur-rj^, as a fucceilion of four un" ' T 'V , 
would not be agreeable to the esr, and m\p 
articulation. All monofyllables in our languat;c are alio ac- 
cented, the particles alone excepted # which are always with- ^ 
out accent, when not emphatical ; and they arc long or fhore 
in the fame manner as before meutioned, according as the 
feat of tli« Accent is on the vowel or confonant. Thus ad'dy 
Ud\ lid\ rod'f €uby are all (liort, the voice pafling quickly 
over the vowel to the confonant ; but for the contrary rea- 
fon tJie words all, laid, bide, ruad, cube, are long, the 
Accent being on the vowels, on which the voice dwells fome 
time before it founds theconfonants,'* 

Mr. Sheridan now proceeds to lay before his Readers fomc 
very ingenious remarks in regard to the diffejent ways of dif- 
tinguifting words; and concludes this Lecture with a few 
praAical rules for the ftii*Sl obfervation of the Ijiws of Ac- 

In the fourth Lcdure, which treats of E^nphafif^ he fet* 
out with remarking, that Emphafis dilcharges, in fcntcnccSf'*^ 
the fame kind of othcc that accent does in words. As accent* i 
is the link which" joins fyliables together, and forms them 
into words, fo Emphafis unites words, and forms them into 
fentcnces, or members of fentences. As accent dignifies the 
fyllable on which it is laid, and makes it more dif!; "" I 
by the ear than the red, f** Emphafis ennobles th^ * 

which it belongs, and prefents it ia a ftronger light to ihc 
undcrftanding. Actent h the mark which dluingiiffitif s word* 
ficm each o^icr, as limplc types of our id^as, wilhqttf refer- 

2 oicc 



«ncc to their agreement or dirAgreemcnt : Emphafts i^ thf 
maik which points out their fevcraj degrees of rekcionniip, 
and the rank which they hold in th^ mind. Accent addrefles 
itfclf to the car only ; kmph«ifis, thro* th^ ear» tp the underT 

As there is no pointing out the meaning of words by read- 
ing, without a proper ol fervation of Emphafis, it has been a 
great i!idcQ. in rhe art of wi iung, Mr, Sheridan obfcrves, *' that 
there have been no marks invented for fo necclHiry a purpofc ; 
as it requires, at all nnnes, a painful attention^ in the Reader, 
to the context^ in order to be able to do it at all ; and in many 
cafes, the moft fevcre attention will not anfwer the end ; for 
the Emphafis is often to be regulated, not by the preceding 
part of the fen tc nee, but by the fubfequent one ; which fre- 
quently is fo long, that the motion of the eye cannot precede 
the voice with fu:fficjent celerity, to take in the meaning in 
due time." 

The want of fuch marks, he obferves, is no where fo 
ftrongly perceived as in the general manner of reading the 
Church fervice ; which is often fa ill performed, that not 
only the beauty and fpirtt of the fervice is lofl, but the very 
meaning is obfcurcd, concealed, or wholly perverted. There 
is no compofition in the Englifti tongue, he fays, which is at 
all attended to, fo little underftood, in general, as the Church 
fervice. Accordingly he produces tcveral ftriking inftances 
fA impropriety in fome of the verfei* from Scripture, that are 
read before the Exhortation, remarking, that had there been 
proper marks invented for Emphafis, fuch grofs errors could 
not have been committed, 

Wc readily agree with Mr, ShcrldliTi, that mod: of the im- 
proprieties he has pointed out in the reading thefe verfes, arc 
Tciliy fuch : but we cannot altogether fubfcribe to his own 
manner of reading the fame paf&ges* Indeed, we were greatly 
furprized to find our Author fo deficient in the apphVation of - 
his own rules. The ufual manner of reading the following 
tc^t, he fays, is this, 

*• Enter iio'^t jnto judgn^ent wldi thy fcrVant, Q Lordy 
for in thy slight, fiiall no man living be jus'tified, 

*' Here the words r^o't, fcr v^m, eHght, jus'lified, between 
ivhich it is iinfH>ffible to find out ayay <:onnet3jon, or depcii*, 
dence of one on theptha** are principally marked. By the(e*'^ 
iaifc Emphafes rhe mind is ^yrped wholly frp^i 4^^ ^RW '^^-''J 

Riv. 0^,1762, T ^wT 

2S8 Sheridan'j Leclures sn Elocution, 

port and drift of the verfc. Upon hearing suv Emphafis on 
the particle no't, it expe£ls quite another conclufion to make 
the meaning confittent ;. and inftead of the particle /^r, which 
begins the latter part of the fcritcnce, it would expect a Imt ; 
■as, enter no^t into judgment with thy fervant, O Lord, but 
regard me with an cy-e of mercy. When it hears the Em- 
phafis on fer vant, it expefis another conclufion ; as, enter 
ndt into judgment with thy fcrVant, O Lord, but enter into 
judgment with thofe who are not thy fervants. l^he fame 
alfo 'will be found in the Emphafis on the words fight ^ and 
juftified, .So that the fcntence will feem to point at fcvcral 
different meanings, and to have no confiflcncy. But if it be 
read in the following manner, the meaning and connedion 
will be obvious. Enter not into ju^dgement with thy fervant 
"O Lord" for in thy^ fight, Ihall no man liv^ing be juftificd. 
Here we fee the whole meaning is obvious, and that there is 
2 great deal more implied than the mere words could exprefs, 
without the aid of proper Emphafe^. Enter not into judg- 
ment with thy fervant, O Lord — That is, enter not, O Lord, 
mtothe feverrry of judgment with thy creature,— For in thy^ 
fight, — ^which is all-piercing, aiKl can fpy the fmalleft blemifh 
— fhall no man liv'ing be juftificd — No man on earth, no not 
the beft fliall be found perfed, or fufficiently pure, to ftand 
the examination, of the eye of purity itfelf. — ^For in th^ fight 
Ihall no man liv'ing be juftificd." 

Now, to copy Mr. Sheridan's manner of criticifm, might 
wc not afk him, if his laying the Emphafis on the word Uv^ 

.ing in this paftage, does not feem to intimate that dead men 
may be juftificd tho' the living fhall not. Yet this, furcly, 
cannot be the fenfe of the paflage. The word living is here 
ufed as a phrafeologi^al and Unmeaning term ; and had the 
verfe ran thus, For in t/jy fig'ht Jhall no" man he juftificd^ thie 
fisnfeof it would have been the fame; and can Mr. Sheri- 
dan pretend that the Emphafis, which only, according to 
him, gives fenfe and meaning to the whole fcntence, fhould 

' be laid upon a- word merely expletive ? 

Our Author exemplifies alfo the following verfe, which, 
^he fays, is generally pronounced in a manner equally faulty, 

If l¥e we fay^ that we have no sin, we deceive ourfclvcs, 

and the truth is not in^ us : but if we confefsT>lirTin^s, he is 

' faithful and juft to forgive us our fin^s, and to clcanfe us from 

"all unrig'htcoufnefsc Mr. Sheridan makes feveral remarks 

. .-.. . to 

Shekid Ai^*s L'e^ures dn'Ebcuim. d^g 

to prove the abfurdity of reading this text as above accented : 
we could not forbear fmiling, however, at fome of them, as- 
very uncommon inftancesor critical fagacity. His obferva- 
tions on the word fay in particular, are very quaint and pue- 
rile ; this word is here evidently enough confined to ourfcl ves-; 
as, if we fay to ourfeheSj ox JiatUr ourfelves that lue have no 
fin^ &c. His removing the Emphafis from jay to //i there- 
fore, in this fentencc, is, in our opinion, wrong; and the 
reafons he gives for it far-fctthcd and grouijdlefs. Mr. She- 
ridan's manner of reading the whole vcrfe, is this— -If we' 
fay that we have no sin we deceive ourYelves, and the truch 
is not in us : but'', if we confefs our fins, "Hi' is faithful 
and jiift to forgive us our fins, and to cleanYe us from all un- 
righteoufnefs. — ^The critical Reader will not fail here to 
obferve, that, altho' our Author has made fome emendation on 
the whole, yet he hath fallen into fome blunders equally ab- 
furd with thofe he cenfures* For inftance, if we allow what 
he fuppofes, that, for the reafons he alledges, the Emphafis 
ihould be placed on the particle if^ in the firft member of the 
fentence, it fliould certainly, for fimilar reafons, be laid on 
the fecond /^, in the fecond part of it. The motive f;r his 
laying the Emphafis- on confefs in the fecond oart, alfo, (hould 
have induced him to lay it on fay in the hrft. Again, Mr. 
Sheridan omits laying any Emphafis on the word deceive^ 
where it ought to lie, and where he had the fame reafon for 
placing it, as for his laying it on truth ; he only fhifts the 
falfely-placed Emphafis on f lives to our\ r^-xA'mg ourfelves In- 
ftead of ourfalves ; an infignificant and ridiculous alteration. 
We would read this former part of the fentence thus — If we 
fay we have no^ sin we deceive ourfelves, and the truth is not 
in us. ' ■ ' 

Our Author proceeds next to give fome inftances of im- 
proper Emphafis in theatrical declamation, with remarks 
thereon ; in moft of which we think him equally miftaken. 
There is a paflage, fays he, in Macbeth, which, as it has 
been generally fpoken on the ftage, and read by moft people, 
is downright nonfenfe ; which yet,- in itfdf, is a very fine 
one, and conveys an idea truly fublime. Thb is the follow- 
ing expreffion of Macbeth's, after his having coinmitted the 

Will all great Neptune's ocean wa(h this blood 
Clean fiom my hands ? No — tliefe my bandi will rather 
The maltitudinous iea incarnardide^ 
Making the green one, red. 


SKiitll>AKV Li^ufii an Ekcutim^ 

•* Now the taft line, p'onouneed in thtt manner, cal!r 
the fea, the grfeh one, Mr. Sheridan latys, makes fcit non 
fcnfc of ir. But if wc read ic with proper Emphafis an<i ik>p, 
and fay, makirtg the green— one red^ here is a moft fobttm 
idea conveyed/* Poor Shakefpear \ how has it been thy fei 
to have thy immortal labours mangled and mifrepTcfemed Ifjl' 
ignorant Players and bunghng Cocrmcntators ! Thofe vs 
ah urdities which either thou diJft not commit, or waft ceT-*l 
tainly afliamed of, are rendered ten times more abfurd, tm 
admired for their iublimity. For our own parts, wc muAFJ 
corifeHi, that wc have always looked upon this p^fiage to bi 
(o hyperbolical, as to border a little upon the bombait ; buff] 
fuppofing Mr. Sheridan to have cleared it from the charge 
cxceflive hyperbole, the impropriety of calling the fea a gfee* 
one, or even the earth a round one, is not ib great as to talk 
ttirning grtm^ in the abftr^^, into nd* It is poflible to cht! 
the colour of nfi objed, by taking awiy its prcfent hue, 
giving it another; but to talk of changing one colour in 
another, is the height of abfurdity^ ^d is an inftance ratH^t 
of ihz profound than fiiblimc. 

Our Author*s next pretended correftion, of an impropc 
manner of repeating that famous line of Othdlo, 

Pot out the light* iiid then, put out the light j 

is extremely puerile, and had come with greater propriety 
from an illiterate member of the fpQuting cluh^ than from a 
celebrated Profcllbr of Elocution. 1 o the beft of our r©-j 
ftiembrance, we have heard Mr. Quih do juftjcc to Sh; 
IJlear in that pafiage, by reciting it thus ; 

Put out the litjHl, and then Put out the light ! 

To fuppofe, with Mr, Sheridan, that the allufiort between 
the light of the candle and that of life, prcfcnted itfclf tothc 
mind of Othello before he began the line, is to fuppofe his 
mind fufliciently cahn and uitembarrafled, to talk h\ meta^ 
phor and conceit ; whereas it is not fo unnatural for that al- 
lufion to ftrike him after he had mentioned putting out the 
candle J in which cafe nothing can be more natural than for 
him to paufe, and, repeating his words by way of recolle£l- 
ing w^hat he had faid, to addrcfs the taper in the moralizing 
{train that follows. 

If I quench thfCi thou flatning mlniiltr» Stc* 

Again^ in the fulloWihg !uie Mr. Sheridaii fliews himfelf 



SheridanV Lectins en Ekculisn. 


to be bu| a vcjy i^iperfeft cprj-eQoj of cxroncous dcclama- 

rerditioa oucb my foul but J do 16 ve rhee. 

** This, fiiys our LeAurcr, Is ehe ufual way of prancnwic* 
ing that line ; by which its peculiar beauty and force is loft 
B^Ji wWn i| 15 repeated thus, 

Per^icKm catch wy foul bwc I do lov€ thee 

Xhe Emphafis on da^ marks the vehemence of his afFefilon 
much better than any Emphafis on the verb lovr could. Fof 
when the Emphafis is laid on the verb hvr^ ds becomes a 
.mere expletive, being an unncceflary fign of the prcfent tcnfe. 
But when an Emphafis is placed on do^ it becomes an auxi- 
liary verb, fignifying an z& of the ftrongeft nffinnaiion/* 

We agree with Mr, Sb«iridan, that an Emph^fu^ (hould bei 
laid on ^ ; but not that it Ihould therefore be quite takeiiJ 
away from hvf : the auxiliary verb has no meaning without/ 
ohe princi^l, wilefe ihe principal had been before mentioned, 1 
^nd wei^ tfa^tc qnly undcriiopd ; vvhich is not the cafe.i 
Mr. Stieridfin, its well as many other theatrical Dcclaimcrst j 
Xi>ems to be not fufliciently ^ware that the Emphiifjs is frc- 
^M<Jtt^y /<?4Vured to be continued, with a little variatioiu oal 
two, and forrietimes three wo^ds togirther. We are, indccdfl 
conftantly offended, at our theatres, by the immoderate Em^l 
phafis laid on epithets to the prejudice of thetr fuccccdingj 

• Ciibftantivcs, oo which their meaning in the fentencc chLirclyj 

* depends. 

tOur X»cAurcr*s want of judgment in this particular* ap-j 
l^eafs farther in his tWowin^ away his remarks on the manner I 
^€>f reading fom^ paflages which were never fo written as to be 
•j?end with propriety or grace* Nothing can he well read that 
is not well written ; ^nd this confidcj^auon may fcrve to fticw 
the necellity of ftudying Elocution, tho'with no other view 
than to be able to write what ni ay be gracefully and empha^" 
Cically read. No Writer, who was able to rcad» would hav6 
given Mr. Sheridan the trouble to ftand up for the proprict 
^of laying an Epiphafis uponchc particle and. 

After all, wetipuft.own thefo^ecf Emphafis fo great, and' 

the meaning of written language (o equivocal, that it is no 
wonder pertbns, who do nncpronounce their own fentimcnts, 
(hould differ in their manner of repeating after other people. 
Our Lefturer, indec4, appears very fenfible of the neccflity 
of making the fcntimcnt and language our own, in order ta 

T 3 re^^ 

2()t SheridanV Le^ures on Elocution. 

read or repeat properly. His farther remarks on the fimpl^ 
;and complex Emphafis kre, therefore, very pertinent. He has 
^$his defcdl, however, in common With moft didaftic Writers, 

that after having fet forth in general terms the utility of his 
.art, his Pupils are left to themfelves, to proceed Jecurtdum 

^ In the fifth LeSure, Mr. Sheridan treats of Paufes or 
Stops ; and gives fomc directions for the projper management of 
the voice : in the two remaining Lcdures he attempts to lay 
. open the principles that may ferve as guides to the public 
Speaker, in res^arJ to Tones and Gefture ^ upon which, he 
f4ys, all that is pleafurable or aiFedling in Elocution, chiefly 
depend. What he advances upon thefe fubjefts is ingenious, 
and defervea the attentive perufal of every one who either 
is, or intends to be, a public Speaker. 

The fixth Lefture treats of Tones, and the feventh of 


, . The Leftures are followed by two Diflertations ; in the 
firft of which Mr. Sheridan traces the rife and progrefs of 
Elocution, in the country ♦ where it firft had its birth, and ar- 
rived at its maturity ; that we may be enabled to judge whe- 
ther, if we apply to the fame methods ufed there, we may not • 
hope to attain equal peifection. 

The fccond Diflertai.ion, which treats of the State of Lan^ 
gnage in other countries, but more particularly our own, is 
intended as an Introdufiion to a courfe of Lectures on the 
Englifli language, not yet delivered. — In both thefe Difler- 
tations the ingenious Reader, tho' he will probably differ 
from Mr. Sheridan on feveral points, will yet find much en- 
tertainment, and many uncommon obfervaiions, which ftiew 
that the Aut'uor has thought much upon h:s fubjeft, and is, 
in many refpeds, well qualified for the talk he has under- 

The Reader is likewife prcfcnted with the heads of a Plan 
for the Improvement of Elocution ; and for prompting the 
Study oF the Englifh Language ; in order to the refining, 
afcertaining, and reducing it to a Standard ; together with 
fom^ argument* to enforce the neceffity of carrying fuch a 
plan into execution. ^ 

We fliall conclude this article with our fmcerc wiflies th^t 
^ Mr, Sheridan may meet with all due encouragement in the 
'profccution of the ufcful defign in which he is engaged. 

♦ Greece. 

An • 

[ 293 ] 

An EJfay on the Caufei and Cure of the ufual Difeafes in Voyages . 
to the JVeJi'InSeSy together with the Prefervatives againjl them. ^ 
In Anfxver to the ^e/lions propofed by the Society of Sciences in 
Holland — IfOjat are the Caufes of the ufuai Difeafes' ai^iong ^ 
Seamen inFoyagei to the IVeJi- Indies ? andJVI)at are the Means 
tf preventing^ and of curing them. By Solomon de MohAy,. 
City Phyfician at Rotterdam. Tranflated from the Dutch 
Philofophical TranfaSions. 8vo. 3 s. fewed. Beckct- 
and De Hondt. 

THIS fenfible and ingenuous Phyfician infonns us, Iti 
his preface, that he was induced to hazard hi? fenti- 
ments on thefc intcrefting Queries, from the confideraiion, 
*' that very few of his medical brethren in Holland, i^w^re 
qualified for it, from their not being acquainted wick .th<£ 
dirges and cfFeds which living at fea, and failing into dif- 
ferent climates, produce in the human conftitution : andfroni' 
his farther reflecting, that very few of the Dutch .^ea^Sur* 
gcons have applied themfclves to acquire any fundamental and 
folid knowlege of medicine." Thefe fame confidera^ions alfo 
occafioned his own delaying to anfwer thefe queilions the 
firft year, for want of .expennlents of his own making ))n the 
fubjedt V ^nd he acknowlcgcs he was determined to hazfaifd it 
at laft, from his fuppoQng, there was a confiderable rcfem- 
blancc betwecri the diftempers of the Torrid Zone and the 
autumnal difeafes in Holland ; as well as from his perufing 
the writings of fuch Englifli Phyficians and Surgeons ?is have 
made the fea diftcmpers a coYihderable objeft of theii' ffiidy, 
and have written on them from their own experience. 'Thelc, 
he informs us, were chiefly Mead, Pringle, Huxham, Lind, 
Watfon, Biffet, and Hillary. Befldes which, he faysf, a 
Lord of the Englifh Admiralty had condefcendingly procured 
him, from the bick and Wounded Office here, an anfwer to 
fome quetHons he had been encouraged to lay before .him. 
Thefe certainly being the beft fubftitutes to his p^rfonal in- 
experience of the TorridZone^ Dr. Monchy, who had been 
Phyfician to the Dutch forces In Germany during four years, 
when Dr. Pringle was Phyfician to the Bricifh forces m the 
Confederate army, has, from fuch reiburces, produced this 
ufeful and well-^igcfted treatife. . 

We judge it wholly needlefs to give any citation from his 
firft and fecond chapters. Of the Situation of the Weft-In- 
dies, and of the Temperature of the Torrid 2onc. From 

T 4 the 

Itbe thirds Of the Diet of Seamen, we fhaJJ only obfcnc 
[that inftead of Irifh beef (which the Dutch Admiralty have 
jrejcfled as hard, dry, and faJt) Bacon is fefved in a fmaller 

quantity, and that Jhcy ufe hogs-lard, two days in the week, 

%f> their dinners of peas and bacon. 

In his fourth chapter, entitled. Definitions of the tifu§f\ 
f)ifeafcs, alluding to the term in the Society's firft queilionp 
be reftricls them to the putrid fcver^ the malignant fever, aiid 
the kuTvy* 

In his fifth chapter — Of the proximate Caufc— he fufpofc|4 
th^fc d ftempen to have one common caufe, Putrcfa^Stion j 
his brief dennition of which is as follows, 

** I ihal! content myfeff to fay, in general, that by putrc- 
faflion, with regard to the human body, I underftand ^ cer- 
tain degeneracy or corruption of our juices, whence they ( 
contract a peculiar acridity or iharpfiefti, ifepte or lefs injuri- 
ous to the foJids \ and thue impeding their fundions, and al* 
taring their natural tone and qualities, they produce fymptomt j 
more or left violent and malignant, and occafion a great re- 
kxatipi^ both of the confiftence of the fluids, and the vibra- 
tion of the fr »lids. I'hc firft pcl-cetveablc alterations ¥<irtiiclj 
putrefa£tiafi caufes in our habit, areacolljqualion or attenua- 
tion of the jtiices; and, in the folids, fuch a diffolution of i 
their fimmtfs and connec^ioa* as correfpon4 with our nptioil 
pf atony, qr relaxation*" 

Ip bis fifXth chapter — Of the preceding or remote CaufeSs— 

he fuppr-fes a hot, moift^ and Ijght air, the fetid vapours whic}|. 
the great heat exhales from thut confined in the hold, and 
ttom the mai flvy coafts of the W^ft-Indies, to be fome of the ^ 
preceding caufes, The verminous and f utrefcent ftate of i ' 
faiior'i food, a» J a natural propt^nfity to f^ch difeafes a!J rcful 
ffon , and a weak iiicompafi blood, arealfti] 

pofi. . j-iingcaufcs. 

1h ^hh Ifevcnth chapter— ^f ^hp'Curc— Wing propofed L_ 
follo^ihtr indicdticos'to be ftnflfjy obfer^'ed ty the furgcon— ^i 
^'1. That rtie peccant acrimony and putrid fubftanccs, arei 
to be frparitcd ';fnd dlfcliarged, 2, Or clfe that they V co^- 
refted, or miugrjed : and 3. That the vital powers be cor- J 
jr^hprat^ or rt'fl'»rt»d.'* And having ^mentioned illl rtie rva-^ 
cuaiicr 7<?r Ac Jirft |ndkfttio«J, he dbfenrc^,' 

t^ to bic ^ ^ ^ J ♦ 

f* With 

cj V&yagei to Oh tV^^hSrS* ^5 

*« With regttrd to phlebocomy^ however, it is gtncratly 
ftMBd to be Ids necel&Ty tsi hot countries and iea£c»ni^ tbam 
in the ooU ; find its betiefic in putrid diAemper% i$ probabljf 

very limited, being proper anly in the firft llages of putrid 
fevers, dyfenteries, und malignant fevers caught by contii- 
gion : and even then, if the patient fliould be of « &nguioe» 
vigorous conftvtution, whh a full and fttong pulle; from 
grbich ctrcumftances the difeafe will appear more or \t& to 
liaAaike of an inflammatory nature ; even then in tbe cvvo lirft 
difhmipers, this operation n generally performed only once | 
dnd« m the laft, the quantity of blogd ukon away is ^ftrj 

** In ardent and putrid fevers, the acccfij and increife of 
which are fydden, and attaidcd m'ith violt nt head-achs, im- 
mediatcly followed by itrong deliriumsr, the lancet has becii 
|ound indifpenfibly neceflary, 

^ In doubtful fymptoms, u is a food method to fee) llit 
jiulfe whilft the vein i£ opened ; and to regulate itic i]u;in|j|y 
fq be taken away by the variation in the force or It-ciilL'Tirf* of 
its vibrations. 

** With regard to the timing of vcnefeflioi, whether in 
|he height, or in the remi nk>n of the paroxyfm, tiirs teems 
tefs material^ than the neceirary ^O'OiifMftance of Vloeding verj 
0arly in the difeaf!^. 

** It muft, however, be acknowlcged, that, U4>on the 

^ho!e, the pernicious efF^'ils of bkcdiiiji in putrid revert it 
attefted by a great number of the moft celebrated i^hyficiani, 
^Hippocrates, Aretacus, Celfus^ Ali;\andcr» Feraelius, Dc 
Gortcr, Glals, Bianchi, Junker, Huxham, and many oihofi* 
DnTiflbt, particularly, has l.iUrly dcmonftr;ir<'d this brvond 
2tll manner of doubt, not only trom the authorities alreatly 
mentioned, and thofc of fome eminent Writer* btrfidcg, but 
principally from the expericnt-iC of 4>rhors^ and hm own, rf| 
^enany curious and conviiKring ohfirvations, lupj orted by the 
tnoft foKd argumentfi : aUtluH, ImayiiflTirm, perfc.Jly agrees 
with my own umform m;inncr of treating the like levers, 
which have occurred to mc in the courlc of my pra<5^^icc 
*Dr. Ppinglc calk the hacmorrhatre in the d) fernery, a deceit- 
i^\ indication^ if fuppofed to demand repeated bleedings : 
•fmce, on the conerary, he warns Practitioners agajnft fuch % 
fraiStice, and plainly fignifi*'^, that if it be not ufed with 
•great caution, it tends more to augment than to cure the 

♦< Laftly, 


Mot^CHr'x EJJ!^ mfhe ufunlDifeafes 

** Laflly, It is accounted, in general, pernicious* to the 
iigheft degree, in ni2irgn2jK fevers, when arrived to theirs 
ftate, oj frcond ttage, and alio in aconhrmcd icurvy/' 

In i^Bij it is not improbable, that* the common praaice Iif 1 
thcfe fevers and climates, has often very injudidoully cncourij 
aged profufe and unfeafonable bleeding. 

Dr, Monchy ha*; juftly a better opinion of vomrts in fuchj 
fevers, on the invafvon of the difeafe ; and think*, that inj 
cafe of confiderable coftivcncfsj " the body ihouid be care- 
fully kept open ; as the difchargc of bilioui^ matter, or ex- 
crements, towards the lart ftage of the difeafei» is accounted 
a very prorrdhng appearance/' Forthi* purpofe he propofcs 
manna and cream of t^irtar^ but above all tamarinds, in fuch 
a quantit)^, as to prefcrve a motlcrate laxity of the bdly. He 
jo^ns in opinion with thofe phyficians who forbid the ufc of j 
hot and f^rong fudorifiwS ; byi.obferves, that a very free per- 
^iration fecms the bcft evacuation for fcorbutics. As to cor- 
liftlves, particularly with refpeft to ihefc laft pntients, be rc- 
Isbmmcnds " the vegr table acids, w^heth^T un crmentcd, as for- j 
rcl, orange and lemon juice, tamarinds, all kinds of fruits :in(l 
acid cfculciits | or fermented, as Rhcniih or MofcMe wines, cy- 1 
ilcr, vinegar, or alegar, oxymel, tartar, and i!>€ cream of tartar^ ^ 
vinegar-whcy, buctcr-milk : acids from minerals, as fpirit and J 
elixir of vi riol, fpirit of fea-falt, of fakpctre, are Hkewifef 
he fays, paflionatcly coveted by fuch patients -, and their fa^ 
lutary cffQCks have been demonftrated by fretjuent experiencci ' 
both in putrid fevers and in the fcurvy, NLVtithclcfs (hej 
adds) 10 thofe patients, whofe bowels are weak and tender^ 
fuch remedies are to be adminiftcred with caution,** He' 
juftly ' prefers, among many other corrcfting antiputrcf- 
cents, (which he enumerates] the Peruvian baik, and ora 

On the article of Food, wi be iappofrd to anfwcri 

to his third indication of ccj o,— he tinnks, *^ thatj 

in a malignant fever which h*u> cujitinucd fomc time, thcJ 
jjulfe being not over- quick, the tongue moift, with a (low-l 
ipeech, and very little or no thirft, fome wineihould he add- 
ed to the panada, and winc-whey may be ufed (ot drink f 
adding, that '* In fuch circumftances wine is highly com- 
jnended by fcveral pcrfons of diflinguiflied characler in phy- 
Cc, as a moft excellent corrobornnt/* The general allow- 
ance for jiattL'nts, he fays, is half a pint a day. His treat-^ 
mcnt of the frc^^uently fupcrvcning dyfentery, as a moii dan* 



In V&y&gn to the WJl-Indm* ^^j 

gerous fymptoiri in thefe feven, is pretty much in the com- 
mon pra£kicc. With rclped to blitlcrs^ he rationally obfcrvcs^ 
*' that thsry are too orttin uicd unfeaibnably and prematurcjy; 
partit ulariy in the firlt itage of a dtfeafe,. and wHen the rapid 
ferment or ihe blood iccms confiderably to interdict all Simu- 
lation ; but afterwards^, and fabfequent to proper evacuations, 
they have fometimes been recurred to with remarkable good 

His I aft chapter treats of Prefcrvatlves from thefe diftcm- 
pcrs *, which prcfervation reg^ds either fuch as have not been 
fick, or preventing the reii:.pfcs of iuch as have recovered, 
Thefe ends he judges are moft cffe£tually to be obtained by 
procuring the urmoft polHble purification of the air, and by 
prcfei-ving it in fuch a ftate ; for which purpofcs he re- 
commends Mr. Sutton's pipes, the only expedient he had pro- 
bably heard of, but which feems very properly fuperfeded by 
the iiiU truly worthy ^nd ingenious Dr. Hales's ventilators. 
He enjoins, ** that the fhip be always kept clean and Jight- 
fomc between' deck? ; as dry as poihble in rainy or ilormy 
Weather j and that in fair weather the ports be opened. That 

.the (hip's crew be obliged to keep their cluaths and theii prt^ 
fons clean. That they Ihould fufpend all labour as much as 
pofBblc, about noon, during the moft violent heat; and that 
there fhould be^ fupernumerary watch-coats to change in rainy 
weather^ and on their nightly duty." The remainder of this 
chapter is chiefly employed in dire^Sing a proper ftrengthcntng 
and antifeptic diet for the Convalefcents, (a gr^at part of 
^ which is taken from Writers of our own countryj and in fe- 
veral propofals for curing fout water, or convening falt-wa- 

*tcr ijito frcflij by diftillaiion, or other means. 

Wc have cited the Icfs from this judicious and laborious 
performance, not fulely on account of our being ftraitened by 
other articles, but alfo as it abounds with extratis from many 
of our moft eminent Writers on the like fubjecls. Dr. Mon- 
chy has demonftri;tcci his good fenfe in collecting the bcft ma- 
terials for a proper f;»l*ition of the Society's queries ; and his 
Judgment in methodizing and digefting them with order and 
perfpscuity; whilft he connet^s them with many judjcioui 
aud medical rcflc<ftions from his own experience. Perhaps he 
might have agreeably retrenched a little of the tautology 
which occurs in the performance : but his intention feetns 
'Viither to have been a little redundant, than the Icaft de- 
fc<!livc, on a fubjedl fo greatly interefting to his country, and 
fo worthy of himfclfi as a good citizen. 


Wifi Reitjim for a Riprmtnlm of 

Upon the whol^, wt; think it may f^trly be recommended 
05 a good manuml Compendium for medical and chirurgkal 
Gentlemen employed in the navy and army, in ipng voyage* j 
to ihe Eaft-Imlies, and wherever the fcurvy prcvailb ; a drf- 
temper which, with fome diverfit)- of appearances, feems fa»| 
«niliary at leaft m long voyages^ to many dtfFerent climate** 

Vhi Lfiur^ 4f iht C/juTfh tf Englsnd^ in its erdinmj Stt-viti^ 
Tiiuc^d fjtarer to the Siandrnd ef Siriptur^ : Ts xjuhtJj 4ir^\ 
pnfiuid^ R^ftns far thf prcpcJtU Jlteratiims^ humbly r£Com~\ 
PHnded ic fubjk ConfideruSim^ and ttwn partuuiitriy to thofi | 
JSkht^men and G^ntkmen who hevi Chapih appropriated for di-* 
vtnf SiTvici. Revijid end puhltjhtd by the Aurbor of the] 
Appeal to the Common Scnfe of aU Chrifliaii People, &c. J 
I2I110. li. 6<L Alillar. 

WE frnoently congratulate all the friends of true rc1j-«i 
gion, (and thofe efpccially u^ho wifti well to the far-1 
^^Kff improvement of the Liturgy of our national church)! 
upon fhc piiblic appearance which the worthy Editor of this-j 
fpecimcn is again making in favour of reformation ; \a\ 
vrhtch important caufe he has already diilingtilfhed himfdl 
with io much honour ; and to which we find hjm flrll adher- 
ing with fteadincfs »nd conllancy, thraugi} good rtpori^ Qmi\ 
ihrmgh ill rtport* 

It is from fuch a fpirtt as this that we can alone hope for 
Tuccefs, -in what has fo long been the earned dcfire of wife,,] 
Jioneft, and good men, both among the clergy and laity; 
and pity it is, that fuch repeated attempts as thefe, in adefign 
wherein the progrefs of true religion, the credit of Chriftia- 
jiity, the honour of *the eftablifhed church, and the genera) 
improvement of mankind, are fo much iniereftcd, fhould not 
meet with that public countenance and encouragement which 
thoy fo well dcfervc ! Happy, happy, indeed, fhould 
think ourfclves, if, by any thing we can offer in our 1 
pamphlet, we might hope to awaken the attention of man- 
kind, convince them ot the nccciTity, and facilitate thcpro- 
\grefs of this good wofsk* 

Before we give an account of the alterations prqpofcd in 
.this Spicirruji qJ a reformed Liturgy^ we (hall take the liberty 
(o oircr a few things rtUting to the pc^eflity of a farther re- 

the Liiiifiy af the Church if En^and^ 29^ 

formation in general, freely rubmttting them to the jtidgment 
of our candid and impartial Readers. 

There are two points of Itght in which this fubje^l offers 
itfelf to our confidcration^ which wc do not remember to have 
Teen nUK^h noticed in dlfquiltdons of this kind. 

The firft is, the Cafi af thi CUrfy themplvis. That the 
church of England is at this time remarkably happy in a great 
number of fentlble and learned Clergymen, will, we appre* 
hend, be readily acknowleged by all parties. It is probable* 
there h no one country in the ChrifHan world upon an equal 
footing with us in this rcfpc«5t. The Minifters of religion 
have largely enjoyed the advantages of the prcfent improved 
ftate of fcience and literature \ they have themielvcs, in a 
very confiderablc degree, contributed to improvements of this 
kind i many of them at this time appear in the firft rank in *| 
the republic of letters j they have particularly diftinguifhcJ 
themfeUes in critical and theological knowlege, in Chriftian 
antiquitie*, and in an acquaintance with the Scriptures; the 
confequence of which has been, that in this age of freedom 
and enquiry, fo friendly to the progrcfs of religious know- 
lege, they have learned to entertain opinions, and to form 
judgments, very differcn: from ihofe that were received bjr 
our anceftors in former ages ; :md particularly in the timc^ 
when the public fervices of the church were compiled. It 
m.iy be prcfumed too, that it has not been without very good 
reafon, that the Clergy of this age have departed, in their 
judgments, from the prefcribed creeds and articles of former 
times ; and are very well ab!e to fupport their prefcnt fenti- 
ttients, in a rational and judicious manner. Many of them 
^^t publi<:Iy done this, with great fpirit, and yet with great 

Buf, how extremely painful and irkfome muft it be,fora nunv 
berof Gehtlemcn of thii refpc^ftablc character ; men of educa- 
tion and learning ; men of folid fenfe and fober judgment ; and 
may we not add, men of liberal and ingenuous minds ; of great 
virtue and piety,— to be obliged to ftand up in our churches, 
and from time to time to read a fervice, fome of the leading 
fcntiments of which are inconfiftent with the fenfe and judg- 
ment of their own minds ; and in their apprehenfions contrary 
to the genuine doctrines of the Chnilian religion ? What 
good-natured mind can forbear pitying them under fo difa- 
greeable a circumftance ? Who does *noi wifti to fee them 
relrafrd from what mud be fo uneafy to them, and to which 
aothiug but time and cuftom could^ in any tolerable d^^ree^ 

2©0 Resfons fur a Rtfurmatmi of 

. icconcUc thcra ?— --The public offices nr relrgion^ confiiBiig 
of humble ads of praife, adorati.^n, and gratitude, aic feme 
of the nobleft exerciles of the h ^man mind, and the fources 
of its pureft and moft rehned pleaiures : but upon fuch occa- 
fions as th jfe, in a dire£^ addrefs to the Supreme Beings anJ^^ 
in the prelence of great numbers of our fellow creatures, to1 
be obliged to belle ilieir own judgment, and with a fo-^ 
Icmn C()untenance to aci the groflelt hypocrity, mail bcii 

I highly ofFtnfive to every perfon of common fenfc and feeling* 
— But how much mure mull it be fo, to a pious ami / 

Clergyman, whofe office it is to conduct i he dcv* ,f 

a Chriftian allcmbly ; and whofe earneft defire it is to pcrtorm-j 
his duty in a maimer becoming its dignity and importance ! 

But there is fomethtng in this of ftill more painful and dil^ 
agreeable confequencc : the charadcr uf a worthy Clergy- 
man becomes fufptfted by his Parifliioncrs i his integrity is I 
arraigned ; and, being thought to act with deceit and falCioodj 
in difcharging the duties of his oflice, and to be guilty Ot 
hypocrify in the moft folemn a£ts of religion and; divine wor-^i 
fliip, he lofes all dignity of character amongft his people j| 
and has no longer any influence over their minds, while 
is dilTuading them from the various fpecics of vice and diiho- 
' nefty ; or exciting them to every inftancc of integrity anJ 
virtue. The influence of his own example dellroys the efficacj 
of hi> better inftruclions; the moft unhappy prejudiceji ar<fl 
formed in the minds of his hearers ; and they arc at lengt" 
ready to conclude, that their Minifter is an infmccre diCbon- 
cft man ; that he is governed by views of avarice or ambitioni^ 
that he IS, perhaps, an infidel ; and that religion is no marc 
than a ftate bu fmefs, which muft be carried on, merely to 
ferve the purpofes of civil policy. 

Now If fucli confcquences as thefc arifc firom the prc- 
fcnt circumftances of things ; (and that they do, we have 
but too manv evidences in almuft every part of the kingdom) 
it is furcly the ftrongcft argument in the world for a fjrthcr 
reformation : and we may reafonahly hope, that the friends 
of virtue and true religion will unite in every wife and pru- 
d;:nt meafure, to put an end to thefc evils, which threaten 
very deftrudlive confcquences to the moft valuable intercfts of 

It may, indeed, be fatd ; it has been faid with great i^i^XL^ 

laijcy, and not with that boncft fpirit which (hovild alway:* prc- 

«>aiLou occafioui} gf thij kindj that the belt w»y to put an 



the Liturgy cf the Church of "EnglafiJ. jort 

end to thefc ^vils, is, for thofc who arc diflatisiied' wkh the* 
do£lrines and articles of the church of England^ and cannot 
perform her public offices with a good confcience, to leave 
their cures, refign their preferments, and. become Diffentars. 
But this is to cut the knot, inftead of untying it. There 
is but little humanity, lefs good fenfe, and ftill Jefs policy, 
in fuch propofals as thefe : and we truft in Ood, tlar 
the happy time will come, when the wife Rulers of our land 
will provide a remedy for thefe evils, without b^niihing from 
the public fervice the moft learned and moft valuable part oF 
our Clergy ; and leaving our churches in the hands of zeakmr 
and ignorant enthufiafts, who, however well-meaning thejr ' 
may be, are, at this day, the reproach of Chriflianity, and 
the greateft enemies of genuine religion. 

The other point of light in which this fubjeft may be con- 
fidered, is the manner in which the laity are affeded by the con- 
tinuance of things in their prefent ftate. — It has been frequently 
faid, that the Clergy alone are zSt&tA by it ; and that the peo- 
ple, in general, have little or no concern in it. But this, wo 
apprehend, will, upon examination, be f<»ind a.great miftakei 
It 1v^, furely, jiot merely for the Cj-ERG y, it was Hkewife for 
the improvement of the Laity, and to hnprefs and prefervn 
upon their minds a fenfe of God and true religion, that the 
offices of public worlhip were appointed. Now the Laity 
themfelvcs have like wife partaken of the general improve- 
ments of knowlege and fcience ; they have learned to think 
and judge for themfelves j they have many of them examin- 
ed into the eftabliflied do^ines of religion ; they are, in fe* 
vera! refpedb, diflatisfied with them ; and the confequenc^c 
is, when they come to attend upon the fervice of the church, 
they there meet with many things which their iudgment dotH 
not approve^ which the;y think neither confilient with the 
dofl:rines of natural or revealed religion ; and in which, there- 
fore, they cannot join, fo as to makerfhem the ad of their 
underftandings, and the fincere language of their hearts^ 
The firft ill confequence is, that in thefe parts of the fervice^ 
they withdraw their attention, and refufe to aflent to what 
they either do not underftand, or entirely diiapprove-: 
next, they conceive a general difguft to the fervice itfclf ; th^ 
holy rites of religion are no longer matter of pleafure and de- 
light to them; they at length abient themfelves from church 
altogether ; and. the lail of thefe unhappy confequences \s^ 
that without uncommon care and attention to tlie private cx- 
crcifes of devotion, they grow indifferent to religion itfcl&; 

3 ^ 

gDl Mfafim fir a Refsrmatian ef 

tvcthemfelTcsup to a life of plcafurt ; ilicy become m(ideU«^ 
pffid they become profligaces* it is impoilible to have a gc-» 
uieral acquaiataiice with the world, md purticularly with the 
[ixianners of this greac city, from the highel^ clafles of lilt^ 
Idown to the common ranks of the peopk, and not to have ob- 
[fcrved many inftanccs» which but too well confirm ihcfc rc- 
[marks. And h )w fhould it poffibly be otbcrwife I Unld^ the 
[improvements in our offices of religion bear fomc proportion ta 
[the real progrcfs of knowlcge in the world ; they will, tbcj' muft# 
[fink into contempt} and, from defpifing its fsxcernal oilioet^ j 
' men will readily proceed to dcf-:ife religion ttfelf ; which cajt 
tiever happen without the worft eiFe£ts upon the p ace and 
I good order of foe iety,— without dcflroying all virtue and good 
' jnsnners amono^ft us. 


In oppofition to all this it may be faid, that were any alter-- 
ations to be made, in order to fatisfy the minds of thoA 
we have been fpeaking of, the effcdt would only be, the diift* 
tisfadion of fuch as retain different fentimcnts ; who arc pro- 
bably fuperior in number, and to whom, thereforct ^ propcf 
regard ought to be had. 

To this difficulty we reply, in a manner very happily 
ftiggcfted by our Editor, in his preface. ^ — ** If ofRci- 
atmg miniftcrs were but indtjlged the liberty of uftng or lay* 
ing afide any particular parts of the fcrvice, fuch an indul- 
gence granted by our condefcending Governors, would not 
occafion the Icaft difiurbance. Thofc minifters and congre- 
gations who were atLiched to the old forms, could make no. 
complaints, as being left to their full liberty to condud their \ 
Ivorfhip in the manner they moft approved : and though the 
lufinefs of unifirmky* vm^i be a little broken in upon, peace 
Smd charity might flill be maintaitied ; and the public worfhip 
€»f Chriftiaos would be more the fincere and genuine worfliip ] 
of the heart ; which is a point of infinitely greater momeni 
than the moft prccife uniformity in any one particular external , 
tnodeof worfhip/* 

Having thus, in the integrity of our hearts, sndfrooi ade» 
lire to contribute our mite to the facilitating this noble and < 
Chrii^ian work, ventured to offer thcfe few things to the con- 
fidcimion of our Readers, we proceed to by before dicm altj 
tfeGBORt of the SpecinuH ef a rtformtd Ltiur^'^ which is m 
jttTtAt public* 

This fpccimcn, upon a general view, bears a very oear re-^ 
fcmblancc to the oldfer^via ; and the Author of it appears t* 
' * 2 • have 

the Liturgy 9f thi Church of England. if^ 

Aave made it bis great obje£^, to depart from it p little as 
poflAle r 'and* intliia^ we thuik*, lie iias Judged "wrf^yj as 
peopre in gehera! mu(l be fuppo^d to'haye a'ftfong attach- 
rneftt to V/hat hath received the fanftiofi of "time, and what 
tfaey^aVcfiv loVig bfeeri accuftomed tor'and* as the propof- 
-cA form is fo very fimilSir to that which We have fo long 
ufcd, the trahfition would be more eafir '^tind natural. jSTo^ 
■W// would, perhaps^ be the greateft objedUon to.the intro-^ 
dudtion of any Liturgy which differs very materially from the 
prefent. . " 

The Jiyle^ tansuage^ and manner of the Com??ion Prayer arc 
perfeftly. retained. in this Specimen : and, indeed, thefe are, 
for IKc moft part, fo trulv" excellent ih their kind, have fo 
much plainnefs and fimplicity, fo much decency and gravity, 
are fo improved by age, and fo generally removed from every 
thing vulgar^ that it vf'iW never he eafy to fall upon any thing 
ihctre happily adapted ttj the nature of pnlycr, arid the capa- 
cities of mankind. 

There i^ one thing in which our Author has e\^idently im- 
proved upon the prefent practice of the church, and thatia, 
by. preferving the unity of the fervice. The manner in which 
tne m^rnfngfervite^ the Litany^ and the eonrntunton fervice are 
now read in par?fh churches, occafion's a great deal of corifu- 
ficni, and' has frequently been- dbmif Ifeiiied of : the Author of 
the Specimen before "us has avoided 'this incoiltenience, and 
givcrtus oneunTfdhn, fim{>le fervice, wherein all the part's 
* are perfeftly diffinft"; and the whole is of a pi'oper lengthy 
tvithout fatiguing the attention. 

The great and capital alteration which . the Reader will 
meet with in this reformed Liturgy is, that the Aihanafum dcci- 
trine is totally excluded from it. The Athanaftan and Nicene 
Creedsy the Gloria Patri^- the thirrf verficle'of the Litany, O 
holy blejfed ^aTid glorious Trinity^ the CoUeSi for Trinity Sunday j 
and all particular forms of expreifion founded upon the ^itba-f 
nafian dotlrine^ are entirefy omitted. 

In the room of the two excluded creeds, our Author re- 
tains the Apoftle's Creeds omitting however the article of OOT 
Saviour's defect^ into hell^ as being mifunderftood by the vulgar 
^d illiterate: he, perhaps, thought it too great a deparmre 
from his original^ to drop the ufe of creeds in public worfljip 
altogether ; this would, probably, have expofed him to fom# 
Cettfure, and rendered his attempt more Unpopular \ at the 
fame time he cannot but know, that there are great numberii 

Rev. Oa. 1762. U < 


304- Riafini fir a RfjlrmatUn of 

'of intelligent Chi iftUns, who would heartily have approri 
his fo doing. To worfhip the one true God through Jefus 
Chrift, is a conflant declaration of our faitfa. fl 

After the Readiug-Pfalms^ and in other paj^s of the fer- 
vice, where the Glcria Patrl h ufcd, in thi^ Specimen arc 

introduced other fcriptural doxohpes^ fucb as thefe j fl 

To the mfy wife God our Servhttr he ^kry and majeflyy dsminisn 
und prtvefj hth now and far ever^ 

Blefpng andhamur wtd glory ^nd power be untobim that futeth 
Mponthi throne f and unto the Lamh^ for ever and cvtr^ ^H 

Chry hg to the Father^ through the Son^ in the Hcly Gho/l, ^* 

^j it was in the beginnings is n&Wy and ever fhall he^ wn!d ^ 
without end. Amen, JH 

Inftead of the prcfent colleft for Trinity Sunday^ many of 
our Readers will be plcafcd with the two following^ appoint- 
ed in the Specimen for that fcftival ;. and will be enabled ta 
judge of our Author's abilities and taftc, in this difEcuVt fpc- 
cies of compofition. 

** O God, who by thy dear Son, Jcfus Chriil our Lord, 

and by ihy blefled Spirit, the Comforter, haft united us unto 
thy holy church, and who haft appointed baptifm into the 
name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghoft, grant that 
we may live agreeably to our Chriftian profeiSon, and that 
we may pay the higheft praifcs, and humblcft adoration, ta 
thy divine Maielly j the mofl fincere obedience to the facred 
laws of thy bon, and the moft ready compliance with the 
holy motions of thy good Spirit, till we at length arrive fafcly 
at the haven of eternal life, through our Lord and Saviour 
' Jefus Chrift. Amen. 

« Or, this, 

*' Almighty and evcrJafting Father, who .haft itj the rpoft 
folemn manner revealed thyfelf to be the only trucGoD, and 
haft commanded us to acknowlegethy dear Son, Jefus Chrift, 
as our Lord and Saviour, and thy holy Spirit as our Support 
and Comforter, we befeech thee, that thou wouldft keep us 
ftcdfaft in this faith, and evermore defend us from all advcr- 
ficles, who liveft and reigacft one God, world without end. 

We did not expe£l in a form of Divine Service, profefled- 
ly drawn up on Anti-tjinitarUm principleSf^ .th;>t wc fliould 
have found an inilance of divim homage immediately addreHed 



the LUurgy &f the Church df England. 365 

to the Sn of God: and yet in this rrformfd Liturgy^ all the 
Ifltter part of the Te Deum j th^ fecond verficle of the Litam^^m 

O Son of God Redeemer of the vjorld^ ^c, and, O Lamk ^f Goi^^ 
thai tai^ eiway the fim of the w&rld^ Ifc. are retained. It is 
true, there arc not many inftances of the kind, in the whole 
fervice i at the fame time we cannot help being of opinfon, 
that there would have heen a greater confiftcncy, if nothing 
of this kind had occurred- The great principle of the Chrif^ 
tian religion Teems to be, that there is but one God ; that 
he only is to be worihippcd as the fupremc objcft of all reli- 
gious homage ; and that all ads of Chriftian worfliip arc to 
be oiFered up to him, in the name of Jcfus Chrift ; that is, 
as his difciples, and with thofc difpofitions which are recom- 
mended in his gofpcL — That the charadcr of our S;r/lour is 
the worthy objedl of honour and veneration, is moil readily 
admitted j that the high offices he is appointed to fuftain in 
the government of this world, and prvrticularly his regal office 
and charatSter, do juHly demand our devout attention ^nd 
obedience, will likewife be allowed : and the memorable de- 
clarations he, upon fomc extraordinary occafions, made con- 
cerning himfelf, allprnjoer is given to meb^tk in heaven and earth ; 
thi Father judgeth m man^ but hath ccmmittedall judgment to the 
Son ; as the father hath life in himfelf fo he hath given to, the fl 
Son to have life in himftlf and to giije it to ijuhcmfcl/ir he will ; ™ 
do befpcak a moft fignificant charafter, and could only be 
fpoken by one who filled up the moft important ftaricn in the h 
government of God, But notwithftanding this, that jESUst fl 
is not equally, and in the fame manner the object of worfhip 
as the Supreme Being is, muft alfo be granted. And, there- 
fore, as all our Saviour's jnftruftions relating to tl^ worftxip 
of the Deity, are fo entirely filent upon this head ; as nothing 
of this kind is mentioned in any part of the Gofpch ; as the 
Inftances of its being praiflifcd in the firft age of Chriftfanity 
are fo few ; and as the feicing up two diftin^^ objects of wor- 
ship is a departure from the fimplicity of relif>ion, and may 
tend to diftradt the minds of men ; it fhould fccm dcfirable, 
that the Worftitp of Chriftians, and efpccially in all public af- 
fcmhlies, fhould be dire^Sled to the one Supreme God, in the h 
name of his Son, Jefus ChrUh H 

Inftead of the Ahfslution^ as it at prefent ftands In the Morn- 
ing and Evening Service, the Author of this Specimen hath h 
introduced in the fame place, a Dtelaratisn to be made by the H 
Minifter alone* He frems to like the word Dcclaratfoti, as 
more decent and modeft than Abfolution, aiyl hath expreiTed 

U 2 kvsi^^ 


3o6 Retifom fir a RifannatUn af 

himfclf with great caution, without ilepartlng much fromtbe 
eld form, 

*' Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jcfus Chrift, 
having in bis holy woid coramiu^dcd his Minifters to declare 
to all people, that he dcfireth not the death of a finner, but 
i"a:hcrthat he may turn from his wickediiefs and live} and 
that he is ready a ad willing to pardon 2j[iA abfblvc all them 
who trjly iei>ci\t» and imfeignedfy believe his holy Gofpcl ; 
Ic: us thc.clorc bc'bech him to grant u^ true repentance and 
hii holy Spirit^ that thnfc things maj pleafe him which wc 
do at this prcfcnr, and that the reft ot our life hereafter may 
be pujc and holy^ fo that at the laft wc may come to his' eter- 
nal joy, through Jcfus Chrill our Lord. Amen.'* 

Thcfe are the principal alterations which the Reader will 
*fneetwrth in this Sptcimen : there arc a few others of a ver- 
bal kind, which will be generally thought for the better. 
The Author has alfo added, a new TahU of Lfjjins for each 
^ *^^y in the ye^r 5 and a Tahb of jela^ed PfaJms for every day 
' of the month* Thcfc were ncccflary improvements ; and 
they firem to be di^cllcd here in a judicious and pro^icr man- 

Upon the whole^ ai tbc pious and Judicious Edflor fays, 
in liiii prcfiicc, ^^ Thii attempt, as wcU as (bme other Speci- 
mens that have appeared in confequcnce of the Free and can ^ 
did DifqiiiJtUms^ pLinly fhcw this at Icaft, how cafily our 
Liturgy might be altered for the better^ and what great im- 
provcnicnts it is capable of, if our worthy Governors were 
difJiofLd to fet about this iiobJe and Chriflian work, and which 
haii bc'jn fo long and fo orncftlv wiflicd for by the moft ra- 
tional members of the Qiurch of Eii|;land, it would be a 
glorious event, indeed, if tht^ public fervice was reduced to 
ihc iVandard cf the New I'cftament, fo that nothing was 
found in the former, but what was warranted by, or not in- 
confiftent with the latter. This would prove an extraordi- 
nary blcifing, not only to this national cluirch, but Hlcewife 
to other Prctcftant churches, at home and abroad, by fetting 
theni a noblt; cNamplc of the ncccifity of another Reforma- 
tion, Above all, by this Chrit^fan work, England might 
become the hsppy occafiOAi of en lightning every part of the 
globe with the pure Gofpel of Jefus Chrift ; nothing being 
more conducive to this godlike purpofe, than to tcfonn thofc 
corruptions in the Chriflian church which have hindered the 
convcr/jon of JcwSf Heathens, and MitvQm^i'akii^J* 



the "Lhwgy of the Church of England. 307 

It Is not eafy for pcrfons in common life to forcfee when 
the Governors of the Church will think it a convcnknt iia* 
fon to cnt^r upon this great work of Reformation : or, pcr- 
hapSj their varUm Jean may for ever prevent them froni vi- 
goroufly engaging in it, Noiwithflaading ihi:*, if Rcfgrina- 
tion be neceflary ; if the fatisfattion of ihc muft fenJiblc and 
valuable part of the clerg)^ ; if the progrcfs of kiiowlege ; if 
the interefts of true religion amongft the Jaity ; if the growth 
of infidelity and immoraiity, all cry out for reformation j in 
the name of God, let it be attempted by thofe u'ho are ctjually 
interefteJ in it, and wUofe minds are not fub^eCl to the Jaun 

A time of public war, and cfpcciatly when the dividing 
voice of faction hath ajjain gone forth amongft all ranks of 
men, may feem to be unleafonable for fuch a tempts as 
thcfe : Refermation in religion may, perhaps, be better ex- 
pected amongft the arts and improveinents of peace ;-<— when 
that happy event comes, may it bring along with it to iha 
Englifli church and nation thi^ great and dcfired blcffitigj 
and amongft the many unequalJctl honours of the reign of 
George IIL may it in future ages be faid, that under his 
wife and aufpiciouj* govcniment this good work \ifA$ com- 
pleated ! 

In che mean time, cVery thing which tHe prcfent circum- 
flances of affairs will admit of, ought to be done, in order 
to prepare the minds of men, and to facilitate the e^xccuiion 
of this important defign, when it Ihall in carnclt be attcjnpt- 
cd : and, to this end^ nothing could have a better tendency, 
or a more powerful effciSt, than for thofe Noblemen and Gen* 
tlemen who have divine fcrvice performed in their own do- 
meftic chapels, to introduce the ufc of fome fuch Specimen 
as is now pubUftied, We Ihould apprehend they might do it 
without giving otfcnce to public authority, and cfp;:cialJy if 
the officiating ClergviTian had not any other cure in the 
church. This would be giving fanftion to the important de- 
fign ; the countenance of their example would have the great- 
eft efFe£l upon the minds of their tenants and neighbours; 
were one Inftance of this kind to take place, it v/ould probably 
foon be followed by many more 5 and we will take the liberty 
to fay, that amidft the various public fervices in which pcrfons 
of rank arc engaged, either in the fcnarc, or in the adouAi* 
ftratton of jufticc and the laws, they could not rt 1 - nnrc - 
important iervice to their country, than by con- 1 in ^ 

this manner, to the reformation of religion. 

U 3 " Thr 



Foster^ Ejfay on thi 

The Diflentcrs have frequently been called upon to jotn^ 
their influence towards the accomplifliment of this defign ^ 
»nd as far as we are able to judge, many of the moft rationa ^ 
and fenfible part of that body of people are very well affe^fVecP 
to it, aud have repeatedly dedarcd their readinefs to JQin in 
the communion of the national church upon fuch a tdotm^r 
tion as hath been propofed. There is, we arc told, a vcr^ 
rerpe<flalBle fociety already formed in one of the northern 
counties, who have agreed to introduce fuch form* of wor-v , 
fliip into their public fcrvice, as they can all confciencioufljfri 
join in : and how far this may pave the 'way for thi frfomtaiiem 
4f the naihnal churchy {which our Editor fecms to cxpc<S from 
fuch a pra^icc becoming general) time only can difcover. 
This one thing, however, we would beg to fu^rgcft to thcn?^ 
as a thought not unworthy their confidcration { whether it 
might not be prudent to make ufe of the fpecimen we havQ 
now had under our review, as far as they approve of it, in 
preference to another fervicc which may bej^reparcd for thejn § 
which, however juft and phjlofophlcal it may be in its fenti^ 
jncnts, and wc doubt not is fo, will, however, have the^r^^ 
tibjietion of mv^hy againft it; aud, probably, may not be if^ 
'^haftc and fimplc in its language. 

We defirc by no means robe undcrftood afidi<^ating to thofc 

vho have the molt pcrfcft right to judge and chufc for them* 

elves, and, wi! prcfyme, are well able to determine what 

»ay be the niort prudent nicafure in their peculiar circtim- 

:^antes : but We hope to be excufed in our earned wifties^ ^ 

that every evefit may confpire, and every method be purfucdi 

iv^ich may tend to bring about a goi^d Rrformaihn\ that 

the public fen' ice of religion may be performed in finarity an4 

truth ; and that true and genuine Chrijfianit^ may prevail ag^inf| 

^«ill Juperjiitim and falTe religion whatfoevcr, 

f/r Fj/jy en the dtfftrejit Kaiuje of Aasnt arJ ^ijantt^y^ iv^t& 
their Ufe and Application in ihj Pronundaiisn cf the Evglijh^ 
i^atin^ andGreik L^r^guQgeii containing an Account and £x~ 
pimmtim of the ancient Tones j and a Defence t>f thi prefdnf 
Syfiein cf Greek accentual Alarh^ cgain/i the Olje^wm af ifu^f 
Yoffim^ Henniniuj^ Sarpedr,jim^ Dr. G» and ether's, B/ 
John Foftcr, M. A* late Fellow of Khig*s College, Can^- 
tridgP* Syo. 3 s, 6d. in ^r4s. Pot6, J:c. 


Sffcrint Nature of Autnt and ^antify. 

rry H E fubjed of thla EflTay will, probably, be looked np- 

3J^ on by itiariy Read<;rs as ciifious, rather than ufeiul, grj 
of lany confidcrable importance. Others there arc, who will^j 
nb doubtj look upOn it in a different light. For our parti^t 
We fliall only obfcrve, that Mr, Fofter is an able advocatef 
for that fide of the qucftion which he cxpoufcj j and thatt . 
there arc fome curious and pertinent remai'ks to be met witht 
ift his Effay,— He endeavours, in oppofition to a fprcading 
opinion, to vindicate, from the imputatian of ignorance, ab- 
furdity, and barbarifm, the character of tliofe learned Greeks 
oPthcr- lower Einptre, to whonrt Europe,- lie fays, is greathr 
indebted for much of that found knowlegc it now has : whoA; 
exile and misfortunes are to be pitied jwhofe abl! jJ 

genius are to be honoured ; whole induftry is to be : 
whofe labours arc to be thankfully rcceivad j ;^nd of whom 
every true lover of Greek learning fliould, with plcafure and 
gratitude, acknowlege -Himlelf a follower and admirer. 

In the courfe of his attempt to vindicate our prcfcn? fyflem 
of accenttml marks, he an argument a pmri^ in proof 
of the exiftence of ancient Tones diflln£t from Q^jantity. 
For as vocal founds arc formed by organs of fpeech which are 
eflential and imirititable parts of our nnture, they muft have 
been, he fays, in all ages //' ' and forfmlfy the fanic^ 

tlio' variouAy tmdtjicd in their _ ion : and If height and 
length are different and diftind qualities of human found at 
prefent, they muft have been fo in the time' of .Homer at 
Ariftotlep ' " 'T ^.^ T^ 

\Vlien the Greek language became, what it was for fcveral 
ages, the favourite of foreigners then thofc peHbn?, iwi 
are told, who pinicularly ftudFeJ it with a vicv/*bf itluftrat- 
ing and makin^^'it more geiTerally' known, did, in crrdcr to 
fecilitHte the inOru«Slion of others, wifely and properly enotglv 
invent marks of dircclion for that purpoiei wh^ithcT cxadly 
in the fame form with thofe wenow have, or no, i3 very iii+ 
fignificant, Marks thcmfelves are quite arbitrary : and if 
they are but faithful, arc good. But whatever ft^m or cha^ 
rasters QrarnVnarians dcvifed and ufcd on that oocafion, the 
thin^ fighificd by theth, i. <e. the [Particular rife and full of 
the voice, Mr. Foikr fays, wjs the lame, not iiijvcnttd by 
them, bitt exifliiig always before them* (as much as fiicecli 
was before any chara^itrs were formed) and oiUv f)ointed out 
by them in a certain dcterniiimte manner* 

XJ 4 Vv^. 

esn prefixk^ to AKIiis'5 c>{iuon of P!ato> atki addicdbd to L«o 
the Xxkt for wkkh that nude him an ArchhiflMp* 
His icaibfis KIT annexioc this pi.>cfii, of which he has given a 
YtTf good Lmn YCfioQ^ are theic ; — ift« Becaufc it is iiv^t 
in Serranus^s eui:ion of Plato^ ai:J« conu\)aca:I\\ not ll> 
much known as ic detcrnes i 2dly^ l^o (hew th^ great merit 
oi thot'e \Vr::^r$, vrho, by maay of the umiujL^ are ucatcJ 
with great contempt. 

For OCTOBER, 1762. ^ 


Art. I. 7J/ Expediency sf i: Pm.y, dtiuctJ from a c^ndij CU4K^ 
paripn if the refpeclrve Siuta cf Gn^t Britain wui l^r Em^ 
plies. i\o. IS. Cooke. 

AKIidil the wretched tinfli daily difgorgcd from the pre&» it it 
fomething to meet with a pamplilet of ecmtiion fcoJe and de» 
cency. fuch as this now before us, wherrin we find a toleiabl^- juft 
repre&xitation of the relative (late of Great Britain and her Enemies : 
and if the Author dees not difplay all the powtrs of an able Rheto. 
ridar, he, neverihelefs, approves hiniiclf a good Citizen and a dil^ 
preet man. 

' Tliat Peace is neceiiary for this kingdom, no moderate and dif* 
paffionaie man can doubt ; but as it is, at Icail, equally ncccflary 
K)r our enemies, it behoves us not to accede to any terms but iuch as 
are adequate to qur fuccelTes ; always temembcring. that it i$ neither 
juft or prudent to iniiit on retaining any acquifitions but fuch n.s are 
re0jbnahly expedient for the purpofes of fecuriiy and indemnity. I'he 
Writers, therefore, who contend for and againll Peace, are prema- 
ture: the queilion, among unprejudiced people, is not whether 
Peape is expedient, but what kind of Peace is expedient ? 

Art. 2. Jt Letter to a Alember of the HonourabU Iloufe of Cotn^ 
^ons^ en theprefent importapt Crifis of national Affmn^ 8vo, 
IS. 6d. Morgari. 

This is one of thofe felf-delcgatcd Dhf^ators, who, on this imfor* 
ia^ CfiJ^s.^^p forth to ring the changes on the tiite topics which iiave, 
long fincc, been hackneyed by every antiminillerinl Sciibler. Thy 
fum of hi^ ;<dvice is, ihac \\c ihould unHilr.hue oui enemies ; nnd thht 
mch acquilitions as wc cannot kc^p, we fliould //tuv uf. Tbi.s in% 
'*• . deed, 

9 O L 1 T I C A t. 


ilf«J, if a ftiort rot4 co ooivcc&l dajniflioo* B^it Cucb fiiriQQs PpJit»* ^ 

ciini »re filter for li^e camp tb«ji ih^ cabinet : nnd if we may jmdf 

from ihci(yk »ncl manrj^-r * : " '/ ' l r ' ' 

lifirri to bar^dlc * mofltet 

VrrCr let thrm undergo Ui^ d/udf Ln;( ihruugU upvv4idi^| 

|4f/'/f/^r#dullfiiiikpiige3, and ibiJ. Jiufthcytac, 

A/t. 3* 5^wT# Rjafim f^r fmms Candour in nlatiwn tg vulgar^ 
Dedjiont conarning Peaa or IVar* In a LaUf H a Frumt* J 
8vo. 6d. Hcndcrfon. 

*• I obr<?rvc, Etyi thi* Wrifrr. t!ir nicrs groani undci a load of So 
MCIT AUu/Ms N' Wa t ; 'h'' rin to bf no Jlht ren/dning hf 

it/* — If «J'' ^'' "^'T flHjfci tu ;.L ..J with fober reafonin^. tbat if* 
wuh thiit ' / which prbcec^^ from coi\tlinitioijal plHej^, 

rather \h^u ..--.( ^ .. i I* .] 'f«^»'f^ri*tlont %^crccojmiiend ihis fopo 

( iiic dofc to l^tiTi) iti I Tmd a great dcii of fobcr i-ca^oo^ 

ing, without any ViiMjivu. I, i^*-^M,4Uon. 

Art. 4. An r ' r ;.•*♦ /?*»• , ^ '. exafud 

iitlii (ff thi Hrtion ami Auditor ixp&fid and routed. ^VQ, if ^^ 

A fiamiftg yen!, nnd n pf tulant Tpirlt, run through the whole of 
tliii Knijuiry* ing the abufcs of othenj 

ht% very ccufui terms of inelegance and* 

fcuTfility. Wt Niuoii, thm ihc imJignation of this Writer*] 

will do hift IiO> I / iulc prc5judlcc as ihc culogiutns of mott of 
h\$ Advocj^tct wiU do liixn fertrice* 

Art, 5 

ALitUrU th§ Right Hm. ibe l,9fd Muy^r^ At^nmt^^ 
CNtfucvYv 0md Ciflzfnt ^f Lmd^ny comtrning th P^act 
m0W in iigiMkn htwtfn UrMt Britain and Frmct. 8yo. . 
6tl, Hinxman, 

U» - ^^ "ritannicuj t ^ ^ - > j.^^ _ thiipoor defcoct of die* | 

ptfti s to the t d in hit n' tie page » we 

art •( a \ou t^ gqefi i unk-Lt k wmj vvicn ^ iiew to the fale of a copy 
10 each mei|btf of i^ aoineroui a body-politk : that were an allow- 
ftUcii I* ' .i ' rntn would bkme him for it* 

But i [o be doubted ; a» the majo* 

lity ol \hc 1ju4 Ciciulciiu lat^h competent iudges »ot only 

ff the value of money nv .;t of the lubje£l like^fe« as »oc 

rmf readity to fuhmit ta ^ u\ u^ lU-pence a l^ead. lor tlie &kc ^ 
mmii^ our Author*! frntimeni» flKjut ^d about it .-^€4)cdally as 
^kiy may come at ihcm 6fty pcrCtAl. cbeafer^ tn every ak ho«fe 
|M|ii the BtDi of MoruUt}% 



MoKTHiLJr XiA4TAi.0GUfi> 



A«t 6- Ap4^tUal Analjif\i sf.j^ JFftr; ThtPrmafht ef the ^ 
pufmi p^litml Piirius ix^^nidi and a jufiy natural^ Gni\\ 
ptrfe^ Caalitim propsfed HfwteK fw» Gnat Mtft^ wh^€,C^ J 
di4^ is pariictdarly cm/tdered. / 8vQ, i^.. T. PayAe. 

The Coalmon propoW by tbt« moderate and fenfiblc Wriccr* fi 
fogh as.we bdicve will be more readily airejited;o by the public in 
general, than by the, parties Here nieant, vh! the Earl of Bute and ^ 
Mi^Ptti. ' ' 

In delineating the priQciples on which both thefe great men havjc ad- 
cd iatheirxerpeftiveadminidrations, our Author fees nothing b^jt what 
Uajoiablei paitaotip^ and national,- — -** Their ultimate oDJe£l» lays 
he, U one acid th(^ fame, the glpry^ honour, and fellqiy of Great' 
Britain* The means of obtaining this objedl is Peace, in which they ' 
arc likewife both agreedi bm have differed with rcfpeft to the means 
by which it Ou)u]4l>e brought about* Mr PIc^ wotild accompli^ it^ 
by a vifforoas unrelenting profccution of the War; Lord bate, by 
the gcnile, equitable, and candid difcullions of negociation, — L— 
B — f while he continues opeo to the jnethod of negpci^tion, has* 
during the courfc of his miniftry, employed the Wlide force '6f 
the nation in djftrefl^g the enemy, and enlarging its cQnquelU.-^-^^ 
Mr. F — I iince his reugnatioo> has fteadily apd invariably exerted 
Jtimfclf as a member of the Icgiilature, in recommending litcfttpp^rt 
of our Allies, the faithful accompjifhment and cor^dnuance of our 
plan of conn&£lions on the Continent ; the pufhing the enemy on al) 
ids%, and die liberal fupply of whatever fums may be rrqulfire for 
enabling his Majefty and his Minillers to c0e<5l all tkefe purpofcfs. — ' 
i^t^t acids our ingenious White-vvaiher, %ve fee, not only the point 
wherein thefe two great men differ , but we {c£ each of them in Ms' 
own proper charaftcr, not only blamckfs, but abounding in merit,' 
and the flrongcil. public affections,; ^ ddiring. intend ing» and advan* 
c!ng tjic in terefl and good of their country,*' 

Ml-. P. at the time of hts refignatjon, conceived a Waf with Spain 
to be unavoidable; but the iarno degree of cbnvi£boii» we arc told, 
bad not then appeared to L, B. - Soon after, however,, in fonfe- 
<)tieJKe of Lord Bnftors diijgatches from Madrid, L. B — , and the 
^^dtnmilUa^ticin, became convincciT of the Impra^icabihty of avoid- 
i(]g a Spaniih war, and immediately began, with vigour, to prepare 
fox the event. HatI this, fays our Moderator, been conceived a fhort 
tijpc before, ;tere had been no caufe for Mr. P*s refigaation ; and 
^^'^ - -rrjiendcd now, (here remaias no longer; between them any 
T x-f of fcntiment upoo'tbis matter. And he ihinkj, that 

:ii irn; pQint of honour couccrnlng the advances to be made on ih© 
tone Gdc Of the o^her, feems to be the only obHruftion to a perfell 
reconciliation ^ and as the difcontents which haye been raifcd in the 
miudi of the people arc rifen to a height that renders it nccciTary to 
difpcnfe with pun£liIio5, it fcems reqmfitc to rcinftate Mr. P, in the 
Umc department and management of the war which he occupied bc-» 
fofc hii refignationi— -Such a Coalition, he take* it for granted* 




would prod|ice the happielT df Hence nught wfc Tc^ *wtr', 

Ihoul^ It be lyn neceflary to cunnnut u, crtiwtietl with vi^fknry and 
conqtjclt, exteridingi; cntichbe, and fccuring the grc^uiefs of a free 
and happy people, under the bold and cntcrprizm^ getiious of P^ ; 
and the national fmajices applied, with the highctt inte^ty, oeco- 
fiomy, and Judgn^eac, to thdr true and national ujes; virtue, gc- 
niys, and the polite arts, encouraged and diffurcd among the pcopk | 
and a Britiih Parliament, in all its genuine and conHitutional height 
of glofv, unfolicitcd, unpenfioncd, and unbiafled in its operation*, 
undet the candid ^ honeft, and difccrning ipirit oi B— ." 

Our worthy aad well oieaning Author indulges himfelf not a little 
is this plgaiiitg Fi/gah figl^t of Bncait\*5 future happracf^, in con(b* 
^yence of this fappofed Coalition ; but. on the other hand, (hoold 
this prooiifinp; event not take place, he turns ihe flattering p^, pcffive, 
reverfcs tlic (cene, and prcfenti a mcKiiKholy view, indeed : '* the 
laurch under one adnpi .1 under ano- 

ther; a ^-..._, fuccefs fill, and ;__ ^, _- _, — id up inanin- 
gtonous^ unprofitable, anti dithdvantageouspcaee : aftended with Iflch 
a national di(cgrd and ferment of fpirits as will enfeeble atid weakcft 
the government, and reduce It to the fame p! add* timid, teniporiz^ 
ing conduft, that rendered the Walpolcan fyftcm fo cdious at homc^ 

and ridiculoua abroad.' ^Which God of his infinite mercy 



Alt. 7. OhftrvatiGns m Mr. Sheridan s DiJlrtaUdn concernwg 
the £ngljjh Tongue : Shewhtg the Infufficttncy of the Caufn af- 
Jtgned therein for the Difficutiies w o^r rronuHchfton^ and 
peinijfig out ihe real Cavfes thereof \ to^eth^r wUh the nmfUreu\ 
Btrors df the Author retati^t to our Lan^age, Part I, By 
J. Engulh. 8vo. 6df Kingmaii, 

Mr. Sheridan* in his Diflertniion concerning the Englifli Tongue, 
(See Rcvic V for |ul'i::fl, p, 6g.] oblcrves that the pcrp!cxcd flatr 
pf oar 
bfo [iVi^ 
for this ill. 
itt jelled to t I 
' /f/if ihe Jtri'vattan &f zvQKii 
Jingllfh enter" into n full 

tojhcw, fi :»ai 

In it5 own ti«»«.w »....-. ...^ — ..-^..^ ',i u...... ..^...m, .^^ w.,..,,. i.vMP^j co- 

wardi fegularitv tjian from it; cfpccially that it did fo in Fraiicc, !*y 
confpifing with the univerfal voice '* '^■'■' ----- -- - mg ihttr 

tongue by fonie (landard rules, and iior? h 

due time and place. He goes fartjstr, ;iiio ntnrm*, iti oppolitit*»i 

|o Mr, Sheridan^ that the fadl which he (Mr. S.) ailcgei, h not true, 

^therc bein;^ fcarceany traces of pedantry in oar rongae, He i> Ai; 

^utc and Icnfibic Writer, and many of hif obftrvations arc not un- 
yfCtihy Mr. Sheridan's attention. 



hy the pronandatibn of ^ 

One of the caufei win -ni 

jng, is, ibar a f^int ef fMarffr^ 

-. mnrJir to furt it t$ oat ftatr/", 

5 i-^affjrr.*— Mr. J. 


MoNTHty Catalogue, 

Aft, 8* CiW*B m the lompleat OraUr^ in thru Booh er Dia- 
icguffj infiribedi^ his B7 ' ^^antus. Tranflattd into Eng- 
lijh^ tvith Niftff and Iti': By George Barnts, Bar- 

lifter of the Inner Temple, bvo, 6 s. Rivington. 

The f rpccimens may fcrvc to give the Reader a rufticieni 

y^.-i q( , , vcrboie, and inaccur^tt u^nflation. 

Nam me ^mdem fsitor ftmfer a 
gfuer^ he iot9 ftrmems rtfugijje^ 
tt itki tufienti ft hji^^li fHrpiJfime 
neg&jfe% «' tute fauii ante dixifii i 
^tiOif e^0 nan fupwhia mfue inhtt- 
manitate feuitham. 

'Jam ffr9 if a Conditioner dam 
fttihi Itciat negare pofTe, que.t rtvit 
f9ttrH et jAttri nrjiirt^ quod mtf 
tmm, iicett i^fttii Crafm, *i'e/}t'o 
ae^ilratu prcunilemim. 

Dkam eqmtdem, ^tmniam inffi* 
/#/> petamqut a *v$i'tJt ivquitp nc 
has meas ineptias efTeracis. 

For as 10 nie» you have juil 
dccinrcdy that 1 have even avoids 
edail thi$ kind of dircouric» and 
have often denied it to your ear- 
neil inllanceand defire ; which I 
neither did from haughtincfs nor 
'want 9/ humatiity. 

Now then, on this condition, 
that I may have liberty to deny 
what is beyond my capacity, and 
confefs my ignorance of what I 
really do not nndetiland, you 
may, fays CralTuSj make any in- 
quiries you think proper. 

1 will recount them, fays he, 
futcc 1 have undertaken it, but 
muft heg y^u not t^ Mah mj foiiiit 

Indeed. Mr. Barnei, your cxerclfc h very feulty : you mull go 
into % lower form. 

Art* 9. EJap^ and Medltatiom on various Stdjeifs. By a 
Phyfician. Edinburgh printed by Gordon, jimo. 2s. 

Wij acknowledge ourfclves not very fond of exhibi'nng before the 
public the private R^feSfkm and Meaiiaticns of the clofct : thefe arc 
generally fo ii.ucb of a per<^»nal nature, and fo much conn "ded wiih 
liie peculiar circuralUncc5 of the Writer, that they are not often well 
adapted to public ufe : when not intended to be made public, they 
may be very good iudication5 of the difpoltcion and temper of the 
pcrfon from whom they came ; and ihcy may ferve to fhew in what 
manner he employed the hours of his retirement ; it u in very few 
in(tance» that ihcy arc of great or general utility. 

^rhc Eflays upon Ketinment and OU 4ge^ will generally be read 
l^ilh plcafure: the qualities which render the former agreeable, and 
ihc latter refpe^table, arc well reprefcnicd, Jn the third Eflay, the 
Author lead* us, by means of a dnafn^ or ^iJloHnry reprr/tntatioftt to 
a view of \)\c S^i/l'j employment *jur 4tath \ in which we are in ilru^- 
(d, t^t j; i£ only by an improved undcrftanding, and pious and good 



I : ^ N J 

t. * 



ifjctt ^ -s^^. :i? E^iiv-j Vcv*^ ** isi*c hm'*' 3*ju1C"* of ft f" 

ET^ij w^ici t»»£i%=L:e JL ircc^ URcVc.? cf <u:K;;S4r«; .vul rM \^4 

Art- i3, Rjtus /ir }sJ HHhux. Jax>. *^\t tf iV S^Vv{v /> 

Eiq} i2mo. is/6d» Robloiu 

Tbc Aathcr of this piece ^mrnJ$ tt^ nv> other merit, thin xhM (4 
defirtng to dKabliih common Ica^c in the ixh^ia oi uiiexttiniitrsi miutlit** 
which generally raiflead. The 0('<^^ ^« ^*y^ il'wn^ <imi wKu h Mp|H'«ir 
to be very good one5» are not deJien<\l ti>i thofr \\h\i tidr ^mt/A Uit 
for tkofe only who are liable to clitrcitltic» nuJ ncxidrnN. K^r wiint «4 
tcrnxsem caut'Ons ; and v\o know pot, th,it Im Ioiiv)ii|> a ht^Wd Mt ^\P 
libe.-t)', and avoiding to give him pAiu l^v a l^d inan(it*«*mrnt Of I ho 
bridle, he ^Ul go better and inoie <|uirt'Y inu)er « (wid hoilrmiiia 
who lays all the weight of his ani)» tn \\h \\\>tW\ inouthi himI hv (11 
ting awkwardly, not only bi'cntnrs an iinrflly buithrii lo hunlrir lud 
his hvrfc, but rides in contintial ihingcr of a fall.- V\> i#«imiiiiiMid 
this little fenfiblc t^alt^ ns one oC thole ruru |Hililii«tlonii whah aio 
likely to be of fome tjl- to the woild. 

Art. II. Jn authentic Journal ef thf Slirjff rf th It^YfutHmt, 
By an Officer. To which is prrfixc*!, m rhin, (li(*wlii|f ihr 
Landing, Encampment, Apimiuchc^, Htiil Hitttnlri} nf ihr- 
Englifli Armv ; witJi the Attack*! and Stallonv of ihr Mi 1 1 . 
8vo. IS, 6ci. JcfiVryH, ^<', 

Anticipated by thcpiipcr^ publi/hrd by aullioiil)* 

Art. 12. An authentic A f aunt f>l the Knluni§n nf th llttvntih,t^ 
k^c. b^c» Hvo. i», 6(1. liiiiNihiiii. 

Jnduftry fcrm-i to hayclvrn hrjr nf h»-r «»M iv/iil: 1 MUA Jiy \l$. 
news- papers, and i'>A\ini»\%\ ( irtt^t A\Aut ii\ (iiDituiuni 

Art, 13. A Nartatior hf thf m''/f tt uri nhfl lun hm nm^l 1 0tfifff^f,f 
of MiJ% Sarah M'llUy^ nunit in ihr llttjjitlnhl hhtiftthltt^ in 
the Ctty y Duhltn \ wht, ttitt hpi tfin/infii hf hef I*i49$flh% H^ 
Jlarved in a fh^tkiny Mannrr^ fthm lh» t^ni |74'/| /♦Y 
l-jtli-^-'^wth ail the iti/fefenl l,fllefi tm4 ^JjUmiH 

• mtkatOccafi^jn* %v», hi\, KMfMy/ 

Tmt horrid ttit fc44 kv«A M^:yM,\\\ iN4*M«i \ 


MouTHLY CArahOcutf 


Art. l^. An Ac0mt (*fjhi Guili-Mercbam efPriflm^ i^t^ 
With a Lift of the Nobllityand Gentry who appiond at thi Batljj 
t^c, &^. 1762. 8vo* i»* Stuart* ' 

This fQlemnity fccms ro be fomewhat like that of riilUg ihf TrcM- 
rfi^j in Dublin, buf icntly celebrated, an4 of longer C6nti- 

nuance. The Preiic ; is obfcrveJ once in evcrjr twenty years«, 

and lalls two weeks ; the Dublm Franchifes return' every iErcc yciirsf 
but continue only one day. This pampWe^ affords but a very flight 
account of the LaacaQitrc feflival, and was fufficicniJy anticipated bjr 
the news'papcn. ^ 

Poetical. V 

Art. i5< Tbt Ghoji, Bjr C. Churchill- Book IIL* 410* 

as* Flexney. ■ 

Poetry, wit, humour, ridicule, fatirc-^ill-nainre, groCs abuic^ 
and low (£urrility« are the chaia^leniUcs of the digre^ire^ incoherent 
produdion noyv before us ; which may not improperly be termed a 
kind of Trifir&m Shandy in 'ver/e^ 

This undifciplined, irregular Bard> this Pjndour in Poetry, may, 
at the rambling rate in which he has hitherto proceeded, extend his 
tt9 plan to the cotnpafs of the Iliad, and give U5 as many boolw oisS 
the Impolture of Cock-lane, as Homer employed to Ung the dir^ V 
cficfts of the wrath of Achilles. 

With a flight alteration^ and Tome latitude, the Ibltowiog lloes^ 

om the jatter part of the prcfent performancef* mity be applied to 
he JDgcnioiis Author himft If. 

AW rough ungovern'd ibul. 

Here C 

Difdaining Decency's controuU 
Defpiiing Frencl}^ defpiiing £ij\ 
Pours forth the p/atfi cU Englijh f»*y/f 
And bears ak)fi with terrors hung. 
The honours of the vulgar tsttgut, 

• For th( Jir/t *tnd fccoitd Bcoh (h cm fmbUcatu*) fa Riw'^9^ 
W-XXVLp. 313, ^ 

*f AHudiftg to the NAiqds ftf Biilin^fgate* 

Art., 16. Odi to fhe Right Hgh. IPWtam Pht^ Effi By Wi 
• Ham Wales. Folio, i s. If^ealHly. ^ 

A p^mpQuq nothing. 


Art. 17, Remarks on Dr. Chandler'* s Original and Reaftn of th 
Inftitution of the SMatb, By the Author of Riligk Stati£a* 
SvOf 6d. Hinxtnat^. 


Wc ihall give our account of this little pamphlet in the Author's 
own words, taken fkom Kf^ preface | in^icnhe h^as dear a4 in 
almoU an/ other part of his work. 

** My opinion is/ that the Sabbath was at fM fiin^fted by the 
^^Cfcatioti of Adam on the feyenth day, and not on the fixth, a& is gc- 
Brieralfy fuppofed ; and that the morality of immorality of time dc- 
V^pend^ whollj^ upon the' adion," di thing done, by n. liihrat igenty^ia 
H^any given fpacc or point of tfme/* 

^P If the Reader does not fee clearly, f>om this Parage, what oar 

^^Xuthor intends, \vt cannot help it ^ and fh all be obliged to fay of 

him as he fays of Dr. Chandier, No*w I hhvt gj^t him^ I'^wiH htp him 

if I ean^^Here *wi have htm again ; — httft ftrangi as h is^ — tf^re is m§ 

hdi£ng htm.^^ht ittmidUtifyftiii t>ff\ 

Art 18. Sei^mom m varhus SuhJtUrr H^tth an Hymn^ 4id^udi9 
wuch SubjiSi* Dejigned to ajftft the Devotions of the Family and 
Ckfet, By Thomas Gibbons, M. A/ 8vo, 4s. Boards* 
Field, &c. 

** To preacli grace priftfcally, and duty cvangciically, fjiyi Mr. 
Gibbons in his preface, according to the example of the ap^lHci tni 

Ifirft minifters of the Word, is, I iruft, my governing aira in all my 
miniftrations ; and pethap? there is fcarcely a fingtc icrmon 1 ever de- 
livered, but what has contained an union of privikge and precept, o£ 
-faith and pra^ice. 

*' According to this model are formed the Difcourfes here ofFered 
to the public view j and whoever perufcs them, will £nd that I have 

I neither omitted tht grcaf^ajid glorious doftrines of chriAiaoScy^ nor 
been negligent in ih^ improvement of them* for the moil valuable 
important purpofes of an holy temper and cotiduft in the hearts fend 
lives of their profclTors, faith as the feed, and holinefsas the fruit, I 
K find united fn the faacd Writings ; r^nd a prevailing re;>nrd to both 
F will, I think, evidently appear thrbogh the fevcrtl pages of ih;^ 

To this account, which the Atither him(«lf givci of hw -fcniionf, 
«re need only add, that they are plain and practical difcourfes; and 
thatafpirit of ferioafnefi and piety breathes through the whole of 


Art. ig^ Anmtation$ ofi a Sirmcn preachid hef<^e thi Unhirfuy 
6f Oxford^ on Sunday fme 7, 1761, by Gieorge Home, 
B, D. Fellow of Magdalen-CoIlcge, and publiftied at the 
Requeft af Mr. Vice-Chancellor. 8vo. isj FuUcr* 


Mr» Home fays, that ivcrks *iir^yght thr^ faith ere a mcefarf 
condition of our Jyfl/fc/Ttiert ; this Aunotator tell US, that rf *worJtt 
ure condtUcm of the Gf^d Caveftani^ it it no Gf^l ni alf, ive are /!i»f 
mndone^ fare^el Sal*vaiiyn! mo Sttmcr ^v^ili ezir sn'er int^ lyft. — •^^x'c- 
well Ankotator ! 



MoNTHtY Catalogue; 

Art. 20. jf Tnatife cencerning nligkui Afft&Unu By the \%te 
Rev, Jonathan Edwards, A. M* and Prefident of the Col- 
lege of New Jer ley. i2mo. 2s» 6d, bound* Field. 

The deiign of this treauYc u, to ihew what arc the SftmguiJLit^ 
figns of truly graihut and Jl/o/v afftifi^m \ and what aic not fo. The 
defxgn IS ufeful ; In many refpcfts it i& wcrll executed \ tt woald have 
been much more f<v, had there been Icfi trj/tia/m^ and a greater at- 
tention to that plain, but fubllantial, maxim of our Saviour In the 
Goipelp iythiir fruttM ji JtalJ knd^ thtm. 

Art. 21. A Dijfertatkn m DanuV% Pnphecy of the Sevmty 
Wetks, By Richard Parry, D, D. Author of the Defence 
of the Biihop of London ♦* 8vo, i s, Whifton. 

We have fome learned and ingenious conjcflures ta this perform* 
ance ; which having been publiihed a confiderable lime, tho' it did 
not happen to fall in our way liJl very lately, it naay. therefore be now 
thought too late for us to etilarge upon it ; othcrwifc it u not lui' 
worthy our more particular notice. 

• SeeRcricw, vol. XXIJL page 256, 



I . for the 

ByR.Eliio, A.F* 

1 . 'TT^ fi ^ Bflifirn Triumph ; or the Sthg cf Dr 
X On the death oi Mr, Joihaa Reyner, and 
encouragement of weak and tempted ChriHians, 
forjncfly of Ben net college, Cambridge, DiHy. 

3 Go^ Men Sfmijtd in Peace — ^On the death of the late Rev. 
David Jennings D* 0* Sept. 26, 1762. By Samuel Morton Sa- 
vage- To which fs added, an Oration at his interment; by Willkm 
Fcjfrd^ Janr, Buckland, kc, 

3, T^e tri/Jom and Gocdneff of God in the Vegefahlt Crealhn far'- 
iher* confidered at St. Ann*s, Black Friars, 0£l. ad, 176a, be- 
fore the Company of Apothecaries. By William Dodd, M* A. Clmp* 
Ub to tlie Biihop of St. Davids- Briltow. 

" This is the Author's third Seimon on ihc fobje^. 



C 319 ] 



For NOVEMBER, 1762. 


Medical CommintartiSy Part f* Contaimng ^ plain and dire^ 
Anfwer to Pr&fe£or Manro^ Junhr, hit erf per Jhl with ILmarki 
en th€ StruSfurc^ Fun^ionSy arjd Difeafts 9/ fimral Parti of 
the human Body. By Wiiliam Huiucr, M. D. 410* 4s, 
fewecl. Millar, 

THOUGH we have feldom entered deeply intothecon- 
trovcrfies of Phyficians or AnatomirtS| yet, as there 
appears fn thefe Commentaries IbmL'thing (o decifive of a 
former anatomical difpute, (which wc hid cunorily reviewed) 
between our prefent Author and another Gentleman, of the 
fame profe/Hon, we think we ftiall need no apology to our 
medical Readers, for prcfenting th-m a bncT fummary 
of this fcnfible and welNdigeited perforiiance, which 
feems, to us, to preclude aH farther pertinent debate oo the 
fubjc£t. The two principu) points, the difcovery or property 
of which are litigated between i>r. Hunter ^indDr^ Alexander 
Monro, junior, (whofe father became, in fome mcafurc, a 
party in the dilputc^ by a Letter, re-printed in thefe Commen- 
raries) regard the prior inje^ticii of the Epididymis^ and of the 
convoluted Tubuii of the Tr/^/r with mctcMvy \ and of ihe 
prior difcovery of the lymphatic vefll-ls being a fyftcm of ab- 
lorbing ones: with the publiflling, ngf thi priiiUngy of that 

After a concifclntroduflion, Dr. Hunter affcrts, and con- 
firms hi. nflertion by fix reputable witneffci, that in his au* 
tumn Lectures, 1752, he produccii a prepararion of the hu- 
man 7V///X, in which he had complcatly filled the Epldidymii 
and the tubes compofing the body of the Tc/Vn with njercury, 



O20 HuNTER'i medical Coitmentartes, 

by injcfting the vas defer em. The Dodtor fays, this occurred 
early in November, and it is natural to fuppofe him more at- 
tentive to the date than moft of his friends or auditors. Mr. 
Watfon of Marlborough- ftreet, Reader of Anatomy, fays, 
it was in the beginning of the autumn Courfe 1752. The 
five other Gentlemen are not fo exaft as to the month, but 
are all very clear, that it occurred, and that the, preparation 
was fatisfaclorily exhibited at the public Lectures fome time in 
that Courfe, which concluded in December 1752. 

Dr. Don;ild Monro affirms, in his Letter here rc-printcd> 
** that his brother. Dr. A. Monro, injefted the feminal tubes 
with quickfilver January 9, 1753, and that in autumn 1754, 
he publiflied an account, and figures of them, which were 
fent to Dr. Shaw, and feen by Dr. Hunter : and as Dr* 
D. Monro fays, " If Dr. Hunter can produce one well-vouched 
evidence of his having filled the feminal tubes of the TeJIis . 
before the 9th of January 1 753, Dr. A. Monro will freely give 
up all claim to the honour of the difcovery;" and the young 
Profcflbr himfelf having alfo '' defired* Dr. Hunter to pro- 
duce the teftimony of fome few of the number who had (ten 
the preparation in queftion in autumn >I752," our Author 
concludes the firft chapter, in which he has produced fiJt, 
by faying, " the Dodormay obferve, he has beendifpofed to 
oblige him." Could this plain and pregnant evidence need 
the lead corroboration, it might be obferved, that Dr. D, 
Monro fays, in his Letter to Dr. Garrow at Barnet, dated 
December 14, 1752. " Dr. H's preparation is a common 
one ; he will get the mercury no further than the Epididymis^* 
p. 107, bccaufe, as he aflcrts, 104, " neither his father nor 
himfelf could get it further." Indeed Profeffor Monro, fen. 
has exprefsly admitted this, faying t> " he never could make 
it pafs above half the body of the Epidiefymis :" having pre- 
vioufly " fuppofed the fibres J of which the Te/lis is compof- 
cd, to be vcflels, but he could not determine of what kind, 
never having made a coloured liquor [nor any fluid of whicli 
we are informed] to enter them." Suppofing our medical 
Readers a Court and Jury of Anatomifts, on this point of the 
caufe, we think the evidence concerning it, may properly be- 
refted here. 

The evidence, with regard to thedifcovery of the Lympha- 
tics being abforbing vcflels, ftands briefly this. In a Letter,- 

• Obfrrvations anatomical and phyliological, page 16. 
t Medical Effjys, vol. V. page 217. 
X Ibid. p. 2i6. 


Hu>?TJprV medical Commefitaria. 

32 r 

M?hich myft have been dated rometime in 1757, and which 
Dr. A. MonrOj junior, acknowlegcs to have been wrote by 
his father, this kft Gentleman affirms, " that more than 
four years ago [fuppofL' it the year 17 52 J he and many othcri 
faw the preparationij which led him to the general Jo<^nne of 
the Lymphatics being a fyftem of abforbcnts. On the other 
hand, in page 101 of the prcfent work, wc are informed, 
that ever fmcethc year 1746, when Dn Hunter firft read ana-^ 
tomical Lcdtures here, he, Dr. Hunter^ has advuncrcd the 
fame doflnne. For this he apperils to thf^ MS. Syllabus of 
his Leftures, ufcd in public from the beginning, and to fcve- 
ral MSS. of his Le<5tures in the poffeiTion ol hiij Pupils. But 
what is clofer, and has an appearance of being conclufive, is, 
that he appeals to the teftimony of two living, or lately living, . 
public Profeflbrs of Anatomy \ to the three Readers of Ana- 
tofliy at London, Glafco^v, and Dublin; and to the anato- 
mical Demonftrator or DiiTedtor for the Profeflbr at Cam- 
bridge, for his having taught this phyfiological doftrine for a 
number of years, and fupported it by fevcral arguments at 
his public Leftures. Bcfidci llrong and clear extrads from 
thcfe Gentlemens letters on this head, he has added the con- 
curring teftimonies of five others, fome of whom were his 
Pupils as early as 1746, Now if Profeflbr Monro's aifertion 
already cited, of his having been led to this doiSlrinc more 
than four years before 57^ were extended to feven years, it 
would {till manifeftly conclude the difcovery to have been 
previoufly made by Dr* Hunter, 

The third chapter, thi Hijhry of the Dtf^tdt^ enforces all 
this circumftantially, and contains two Letters from Dr. 
Black, Profeflbr of Medicine at Glafcow, to Dr, Hunter, 
They were occafioned by this anatomical Controverfy, arc 
very well written, ancl feem extorted from the Profedbr, 
through his prevalent attachment to truth rather than from 
friendftiip. The fa£ts unavoidably bear hard upon one of 
thcfe Competitors, while the exprefUons attempt to apolo- 
gize for his temerity, and imprcfs a favourable idea of his 

The fourth chapter (which Dr. Hunter alfo employs 
in remarks on fome extraordinary paragniphs, as he calls 
them, in Dr. Monro*s pamphlet) relates to an appear- 
ance near the EpUHdmisy which Dr. Monro fuppofcd to 
be a veflcl coming from it; but which Dr. Hunter, and 
his brother Mr. John Hunter (who avers, he unravelled a 
great part of the preparation by diflcftion before ^jro-j^t -^vx- 

X 1 \!iSi&A 


Hunter'/ medical Cmnmeiitar'us. 


rieflcs) affirm, to have been a very fmall procefs, or minute 

projection, from the Epididymh itfclf, from one part of which 
it came out, and returned again Into another. However, as 
Dr. Monro took it for fome remarkable vefTcl or du(St, going 
off from the Ephlidymh^ and fays. Dr. Hunter has fince dc* 
monftratcd it to be fuch, without naming him as the Difco- 
vcrer» he confidcrs it as a great want of candour in him. Dr. ^ 
Hunter affirms in fed, that he never demonitrated any fuch<f 
detached vclTe! (except Lymphatics) really thinking none 
fuch exift. If he may be credited in this^ it was certainly 
fufiicient to prevent his demonflrating it; and, at alj events^ 
his Antagoiiiftt who is left in the fole pofleilion of it, has 
fufficiently obviated his demonflrating it hereafter. For 
confirmation that he afterwards fpoke thus of this imaginary 
duct of Dr. Monro's, for which he fuppofcs this Gentleman*. 
might miftakc fome common Lymphatic, he appeals to the 
Auditors of his autumn Courfe in 1758, (when Dr, Mon;t> 
was gone to Berlin) and who then attefted, that Dr. Hunter 
had always menuoncd fuch fuppofed tube or veflel, in the iame 

The fecond anatomical topic in this chapter, relates to the 
filling the lymphatic Glands, and the Lymphatics ifluing from 
their cells, by inflating them, or by pouring mercury into 
their cavities, which Dn Hunter afHrms his brother had dtf- 
covcred a method of dt*ing in 1753* or — 54, by pufhing a 
blow- pipe into their fubftance. On this account Dr. Monro 
ha'v termed Dr. Hunter the Eccho of Nuck and Cowper j byt 
very unfortunately, as the Author of thefe Commentaries po* 
fitively affirms, that neither of thefe Anatomifts had liilect 
them in that maimtr, but by injeiSting fome lymphatic veflcl 
communicating with their cavity. Now we verily think, that 
no Reader who has a competent notion of Dr. Hunter's great 
afliduity and accuracy, and of his retnarkablc caution, will 
ever fuppofe, he would have alTerted this of thefe two Anato- 
mifc, without having afiured himfelf of its certainty. 

In the chapter -^,Of Abforption by the Veins — of which 
faculty of the red veins Dr. Hunter entertains fome doubly 
we are prcfentcd with feveral experiments on five living ani- 
mals, in order to drfco\ er whether they abforb or not ; a * 
queftion not fully determined by Phyfiologifts ; tho' their ab- 
forption is the opinion more generally received. Ncvcrthelefs, 
it muft be acknowlegcd, that the feveral experiments made 
herc^ in prefcnceof many competent fpcdators, incline con- 
fidcrably to the negative of their abforption j while they a* 



Hunter*/ medlial Comnuntmla, 


bundantly efl2bJl{h the abforption of the Ladeals, if that 
iieetJcd any proof. Previous^ however^ to tht:r- expcnment5» 
Dr. Himtcr modeftly and diffidently fays, ** Authors of 
the bcft credit bad given fuch arguments and experiments \n 
favour of abforption by veins, that I dared not, even in my 
own mind, determine the qucttion.'* The triumph alTumctl 
by Dr. Monro, on his afcribing to Dr. Hunter, a printed, 
public, and pofiiive denial of abfofption by the veins, is en- 
tirely diifipatcd, by the lattcr's difavowing the writing fuch a 
printed paper, or knowing of it dtrei^tly or indirectly, before 
it was printed) and his being authorized to difclaim it by 
the real Writers, 

The fliort chapter concerning the VefTels of the Cartilages, 
and of the DuR of the lachrymal Gland, affords Dr. Hunter 
an opportunity of correal ng a miftake he was led into, whea 
a young Anatomift, from feme appearances with rcfpedl to 
thofe vcfTels. It alfo gives him an opportunity of convincing 
his Readers, that he had dcmonllrated the fame dudts of the 
lachrymal gland in 1747, which Dr. Monro difcovered In 
1753* For the truth of this, he appeals to two Gentlemen, 
whom he names j and that he hud demonftrated them many 
years before 1753, we are fatisfied he might fafcly appeal ta 
a few hundred. 

The chapter contaimng^An Examination of what Pro- 

feffor Monro fenior, publifhed as a Defence of his Son — is fen- 
ftble andexpoftLilutor)% without acrimony. Great all o\frances 
fhoLild undoubtedly be made for any fallies of paternal xeal 
for the reputation of a fon j who, polTibly, if he had colledl- 
ed any information of the points in conteft, might not have 
acknowleged fuch circumftances to his neareft friends. It 
recites, by the way, a remarkable cafe in proof and illullralion 
of the doctrine of Abforption by the Lymphatics; which 
evinces, that Time will fubfcribe to a prognodic, founded 
upon an intimate acquaintance with the interior animal ftruc- 
ture and ceconomy. 

The chapter — Of the Difcoverv of the Memhrana pupUlarn^ 
and of the Infcnfibility of the 7*endons, &c. — is compofcd, 
in a gteat meafure, from Dr. Hunter's anatonncal Lec- 
ture, It has been partly occafioncd by Dr, Monro, fenior, 
having rcproiiched him " with quarrelling with other great 
Anatomffts, which, he ventured to predtcl, would rt^dound lit- 
ile to h!"* honour/' This has induced Dr. Hunter to print 
thcfc paffagcs, in order to fpccify the fubjects and particulars 

X 3 (.ji 

324 HuNTER*j medical Commentaries. 

on which he might dlfTcnt a little from Baron Hallcr ; with the 
terms in which he might exprefs that diflbnt : and in neither 
of th<'fe can we difcern any thing either illiberal or acrimoni- 
ous. If fuch philofophical liberties were not allowable, it 
I i would be difficult to cftabliih any new difcovery in any branch 

! of phyfics : and if this diverfity of opinion (hould be deemed 

a difhonourable difpuie, Anatomifts, as our Author juftly 
Ijl obfcrves. mufl be ver)- cautious in their improvements and 

ir cpmn.unications. But there was fo little rcafon to appre- 

I ; heiid, from the real merit and abilities of the illuftrious Hal- 
■' . ler, that he would be difgufted with a decent freedom 4n this 
1. way, th?.t we are not furprized to find Dr. Hunter con- 
;. elude- thi:, chapter, by referring to a paffage in a treatife* of 
I Hallcr's on the very fubjedl about which they differed, and in 

i whic;i he has fpokcn by no means di(honourably of our Au- 

' I thor ; whofe delicacy chufes rather to refer to the paflage, than 

I I to cite the words of it. 

;| The ninth and 'laft chapter, concerning Ruptures, &c. is 

; the only difpute Dr. Hunter admits he ever had with Mr. Pott. 

Ij To fubmit what dilhonour may redound to him from this, to 

,! the decihon of the public, he avers his difFering with Mr. 

jj Pott in regard to the fituation of the tejies of a foetus in the 

abdomen^ till the birth. He alfofuppofes he has fome right to 
I complain of Mr. Pott's publifliing his treatife on the congenial 

ill Hernia^ in which the tcjlis and intefiine are contiguous, with- 

out mentioning either his name, or his brother's in it^ 
this laft Gentleman having fhcwn Mr. Pott a preparation, 
that pcrfefily illuflrated this curious, unborn, or pranatalitiai 
Rupture, as. it may be called y and which this chapter inti- 
mates, Mr. Pott did not fully comprehend before. Thougl) 
there is fome little afpcrity in this difcuffion, yet it does not 
degenerate into fcurrility, but avows *< a difpofition to make 
, Mr. Pott all juft rcdrcls, if he fliall candidly convince the 

Do(Sor, of his having mifunderftood or mifinterpreted any 
part of his conduft." 

We muft not omit, that this chapter includes — Obferva- 
tions on the State of the Tejiis in the Foetus, and on th^ 
Hetnia Congenita^ by Mr. John Hunter — They employ about 
fourteen pages, and contain a very full and elaborate account 
of the ftate of thofe parts in the Foetus j and of their vaiious 
Ete and circumftances in fome of iis different months. It 
certainly required an experienced Anatomift, and very expert 

• Mem, fur Ics Part, feufib. ct infcnfib. torn. IV. p. 37- 


Hunter'/ meScal Commintarla, 


DKTcftor, to exhibit fuch aii accurate difplay of thefe, and 
many of the contiguous parts, as was previoufly ncceffary to 
proiiucc the four elegant plates of them, which arc aantrxcd 
to thefe obfervations. 

Such is the fubftance of the polemic part of thefe Commen- 

tajics ; from which it is fufficjenily apparent, that Dr. 
Monro will find it iriipolUb'.e to dlfprovc fuch teftimonies, 
with refpe<5t to the three contcfted points, as his Ancagi>niA 
has produced* 7 o view this matter, however, in the faireft 
light ; as Dr. Hunter exprefsly afcribes the happy injei^tioii 
to his brother J — in which Dr. Monro fucceeded e»^ua!Iy two 
months after ; the latter may, in candour, bj fuppoicd an 
equal Injector, tho', in this particular, a later one. That 
the fubftance of this part has long been concluded won- 
derfully extenfive and tubular, is certain : but Mr* Hun- 
ter's compleat injection of it, has ferved as a very curious 
and fatisfactory demonftration of its truth, and is the firft 
that has come to our knowlege. Had Dr. Monro cojuenteJ 
himfelf with averring, that independent of the leaft hint or 
information of this preparation, or of the new d^xSlrin* of 
the Lymphatics, he had as compleatly filled the pnrt, and as 
inGonfcioufly maintained that doftrine, folcly from his perfon^ 
inveftigat'ion and deductions, fuch averment had been confider- 
ably more defcnfible ; notwithftanding the glaring; impr »babi- 
lity oi thefe anatomical novelties being long a fecret at Edin- 
burgh, after their publication to m.iny Pupils, and other Ait- 
ditors, at London. For Dr, Hunter has juftly allowed, 
** that two pcrfons engaged in the fame ftudies may, not im- 
probably, light on the fame difcovery ;'* and hss elfewhere 
acknowleged his former opinion, ** that he had made fome 
difcovcries himfelf, in which, he was afterwards convinced, 
he had been anticipated by Albinus and Halkr/* He feems, 
neverthelefs, to have contracted no acrimony, nor ill lan- 
guage, from fuch anticipations ; in which refpec^ he certainly 
nr.erits imitation. On the other hand, it feem. likely, that a 
Gentleman who had not been robbed of a difcovery, but only 
anticipated in it, would have fairly acquiefccd in his confci- 
ous co-incidcncc with the penetration of another, whQ> ftom 
a variety of accidents, mi^ht have firft ftarted the* diicovcry. 
But this circumftance of ayhv; mil firft^ with little temper 
and decency, looks like confidcring human flclh and- ho»fe 
flefh, on the fame footing ; and iuppol- 3 joi^kcyinpj in in 
anatomical Courfe, as fair as it was formerly fuppofctl at a 

X 4 horfc- 

3^6 HcKTER*! midical Cmmeniarm. 

anatomical Courfe, as f^ir as it was formerly fuppofedata 
horfe-race* Real honour, however, that high and exquifite 
honefty, which Chould be expeded among men of fcicntific 
and liberal purfuits, is a very delicate uniform virtue, and 
will no more permit our invading the property of another*! 
mind, than the wife of his bofom, or the money in his purfc: 
and fomc unfair purfuits are commonly in view, when wc 
prefer the applaufe of others, or any of its lucrative confc- 
cjucnccs, to the well-founded approbation of our own hearts. 

After all, however, there is no being certain, how long k 
is fincc this Gentleman may have intended to have atchicvcd 
thefe difcoveries, in which, perhaps, he has only been pre- 
vented by the officious hurry and impatience of others. He 
has indifputably been much enamoured of them all, 'and ^cat 
love will plead for great allowances. It may be ai>prehcndcd 
neverthelcfs, if this precipitate ardor for findhg out flmll ftill 
prevail, that its confcqucnces may foTictimes approach too 
near to finding more than was loft : and, at the very worft^ 
a little generous truth may often turn out as reputably as too 
much invention. 

With regard to the Author of thefc Commentaries, his fu- 
pcriority in the prefi:nt debate, is too palpable for any, who 
con fide r writings abilrad^^ed from their Writers, to difiem- 
hlc their conviction of it. This litigation will naturally 
cftablifh his prctcnluvns the more cxtcnfivcly, and morefpcedi- 
ly, perhaps, than might have been effected by publifhing his 
difcoveries without it. The origin of the conttft, with the 
illiberal manner in which it begun, muft have a natural tenden- 
cy to confirm him in that candour with which he treats all his 
other anatomical cotcmporaries whom he names : for we may 
reafcmably conclude, no man ever fecU the excellence of any 
virtue fo aftetlinnly, as when he has been fenftbly hurt by the 
want of it in another. Confummate candour is probably one 
of the rareft attainments of human nature ; and iho* to rejoice 
in the equal or even fuperior worth and happincfs of others^ 
founds romantic, and may be thought rather one of the bea- 
titudes in a flatc exclufive cjf dt^ubt and difcord ; yet it is very 
conceivable, that moh exceJIeiu pe^rfoits, as have (ubducd all 
^r\\'Y in thcmfclves, may huvc fume foretafte of fo refined a 
fiTjition in this. 

Since the great and complcat difcovery of the Circulaiiori, 
;f1l fubfequent anatomical ones have bren thought reputable^ 
in propr^nion to the light und importanLC attending themi 
and it were truly unjuft to exclude men fjom fame, who (q 



Philofipkical Tranfa^hns. 


pamfijUy, fo difagreeably, and even fometlmes C) dangcroufly, 
employ thcmfclves in the purluit of it. It b nn wonder then, 
if one Anatomift, who hus invcftigatcd an ufefyi, or were it 
only a very curious difcovery, Ihould allcrt an Imnour he haJ 
dearly earned ; and prove tenacious, or even vindidive of it> 
from the invafion or rapacity of another ; efpccially in the 
prefent cafe, where there wa* no medium : ;ij» Dr, Kuntcr 
muft ckhcr have iJTcrtcd his prior difcovery of the contcftcd 
points, or have fat down under the charge of that plagiarilhi^ 
which he has (o efFtdtually repel* ed, and, with (q much pro- 
bability, retorted* This confideration will fulHciemly qtialify 
that poignancy of rcfcntment, and keen nefs of raillery, which 
abound in fome parts of this work ; while thofe detached froiu 
the controvcrfy, and publilhed for the information of Stu- 
dents in Anatomy, difcover the accuracy and precifion of ai 


%ikfcphical Tranfs/!kn$^ ^^W fi^^^ Accrwit cf the pnffnt Vrt- 
dtrtctkings^ Sfudiis^ and Labours of the Ingeniom^ in nmn^f 
iortfuicnible Parts of tbi JVorid. V'ol, LI I. Pi^rt I. Ffir 
the Year 1701, 4to* las. in Sheets. Davb and Rey- 

WHILE the publication of the Philofophica] Tranf- 
a»iKons was entruftcd foJcIy to the Secrerajics of th? 
Society, it wai? no great wonder that a number ofummpott- 
ant papct i fiiould render fuch publication fudlcic/uly volumi- 
nous, or that partial iiy fhould fametimes give a plapc to others* 
redounding little to the credit of fo learned and difcvrnin^ a 
body. iVom the regulations, however, which were made a 
few years ago, when a Committee was firfl appointed ip re- 
conddwr the papers read before them, and fekct out of them 
fuch as they fljould judge moft proper lor jjublication, wc were 
in hopes that the future col led tons would b • more curious and 
important^ or, at kail, that if they could not be Tendered more 
intcrcfl^ing, they would be lefs voluminous ; cfpccially as the 
grounds of the preference given to the pieces laid before 
them were to be confefTcdly, the importance or fm^ularitv of 
the fubjcfl?, or the improved manner of treating them. \Vc 
arc in fome degree mortified, however, to fee the Cqmpilers 
flill proceeding fo much in their old flrain, magm ctimfu mag^ 
nt»i nugas Sare \ and to find their publications anfwer much 
the f.imc end as formerly, viz. to fati:^fy the public, that ihc 


33l Phil^i^aiTraMfkSiMait 

MirtiBp of chc Rojil Socictjr atre < 

Tnuimioti» ^ ^StmA dull fcictfasiai 

EmAqmkn^ £ni|itMMii, Hunkmetf 

Jsdc olaatbonM, wUcfa have bcco lecoided in the Nc 

papers and Magazines (o loog before, and in a maocr to th- 

dc worth reoiemberiBg^ as to have beeji almoft fargottcn. 

Not that we mean to infinuate, that the mifcellany beibfe 
us extending thro* a quarto volume of ^.i^pazcs, coniauu is^ 
thing fingufar and tmportam : but we mulf avow our con- 
cern to Ice the PhUof^hical Tranfa^ions, publUhed by 2a. 
Englijh Royal Society, reduced almoft to a mere Journal 
pra^ical, and often confeflcdljr blundering, experiments 

If we had the honour of this learned body and of 
country Icfa at heart, we poffibjy might not have fpoken 
minds thus freely ; but, as we know the great and diftiii* 
guilhed abilities of many of the Members of the Sodcty, wc 
Weill J exhort them, if they have the fame regard for the cha- 
raflcr and credit of their body, not to juftify, by their indo* 
lencc or ncglcft, the rcfledion recently caft on all eftablifti* 
mcnts of this nature ; que chacun de ccux qui In mnpftm iwirf 
Uujmn mitux Jtul qu avic U corps*. But to proceed to give 
our Readers (omc account of the rcfpeifiive papers contained 
in ihh volume, agreeable to our plan. 

Natural HifixoRy and Physics. 

Art, I* An 4iamnt of the uft of Furze in fencing the Banks rf 
Rivers, In a letter from the Rev. Mr. David JVark, 

In this paper is recommended a method to raife locks and 
dam- heads, at one tenth of the ordinary expence, by means 
of furxe, ajid a perpendicular wall of ftone, or of deal- 

Art. 1. An account of a rcmarkabk Halo. In a letter from Th^ 
mas Barker^ Efq\ 

Mr* Barker introduces this account with fome obfervations 
notdircflly applicable to the fub|e£l, intimating his defirc of 
hciiring that fame impartial pcrfon had examined into his opt- 
nicni, concerning the change of colour in Slrius, fometime 
fince prefcntcd to the Society f. The phenomenon here 
^H4cn of, was obfcrved fo long ago as May 20, 1737- 

• Enii!e. Par J. J. RoufTcau, vol IIL 
f Sec Review* vol. XX V". p. y. 


Vah LH. Part h far the Ym 1761. 


Art. 3* An mcQunt of a Metear fim in New- England 'j andef 
a if^ml'Wind fdt in thai country. In a Iclttr frcm Mr, John 
Winthrof^ Prufiffor ^f phihfffp/jy at Cambridge iyt Niw-Etig^ 

A fimple relation of two phenomena, not very uncommon 
in moft countries, and much lefs extraordinary in New Eng- 

8. An account af an Eruption af Mount Fifuvius, In a Uttir 
from Sir Francis Hajkim Eylcs SttUs, Burt. F. R. S. 

g. Another account if the fame Eruption of Mount Vefuvius* By 

the fame. 

The public are here reminded, that an eruption of Vefu- 
vius happened in December 1760 ; that two Engliflj Gentle- 
men, with their guides, were obliged to run away from it» 
and that the Neapolitans were, as ufual on fuch occaftons, 
very much frightncd, 

J 2. Experiments on checking the too luxuriant Growth of Frust 
Trees ^ tending to difpofe th^tn to produce Fruit* In a letter fnm 
Keane Fitzgerald^ Efq-, F. R, S. 

The Author of this paper tells us, that by cuuing off the 
bark of fruit-trees, and puttirjg it on again, he made the 
branches fo circumcifed, products fruit very plentifully^ 

13. An account of the Urtica Marina, In a Utter from fofepb 

Gaertner^ AL D. 

In this paper are dcfcribed fevcral fpecics of the Urttca 
Marinw^ called by Mr. Hughes* animal f^wcrs \ Dr. Gaert- 
ner claffing them under the hmt genus as the Hydra of Lin- 
naeus, commonly called the Polype, Their figures arc given, 
neatly engraved. 

14. ^ Catalogue of the fifty Plants from Chelfea Garden^ pre^ 
fented to the Royal Society by the Company of J^AhwiUtes^ for 
the year ijbo. 

15. An account of the Cuuta^ reammmded by Dr* Storiei by 

miliam U'atfon, M, D, F. R. i. 

The defign of this paper is to afcertain the fpcciei of the 
Ciatta recommended by Dn Storke, fo that medical Prafti- 

• See Review^ voU III. p. 197. 


Hughcs'j Naoral tH^ory of 


Philofiphkal TranfaSfims^ 

tioncrs, who arc not con ver fan t In botany, and are neverthc- 
lefs defirousof trying the cfFc£!s of this plant, may with cer- 
tainty know what it is, Dr, Watfon had, indeed, endea- 
voured, in a fprmer paper, to prove this plant to be the com- 
mon Hemlock, and not the Cicuta aquaiica^ as had been fug^ 
geftcd by fame. Dr. Storke, however, has, it feems, put 
this matter out of doubt, by tranfmitting from Vienna fome 
leaves of the plant he ufed, which appears to be of the fame 
fpecies as the common Hemlock. 

16, An account of an Ant hell an ohftrved mar Oxfsrd* Jn alefifr 
from the Rru, John Swinton^ B, D. of Clmji Churchy Oxon^ 

F. R. S. 

This is a particular and well- narrated account of a phe- 
nomenon, obfcrved from Shotover Hill, July a^, 176a. 
Anthelia, or mock funs, have appeared too feldom to afibrd 
fufficfent grounds for a phyfiological explication of their 
caufc J the Author, however, drops fcveral fenfible hints 
tending to confirm the received opinion, refpecting the fbrm^ 
tion of this kind of meteors- 

17, An account of a produ^kn of Nature at Dunbar in Scot hi 
like that of the Giant5-Caufeway in Ireland* By the Bijhop 

18. An account tf a rtmarkahU Meteer fecn at Oxford* Im 

letter from the Rrj, John Swinton^ F. R. S, 

This phenomenon was a very uncommon one ; rcfembling 
an iris, except that its colours were very different. The Ob- 
fen- er conceives it to have been a kind of a watcr-fpout: 
nn extraordinary appearance^ indeed, fo far from the fea as 
Oxford ! 

19. An account of fome produ^ions of Nature in Scotland^ rr^ 
ffmbling the Gtants^caufcway in Inumd, By Embnuet M£Hd€% 

daCoJla^ F.R.S. 

The Bifhop of Oflbry's account, juft mentioned, of the 
rocks at the entrance of the harbour of Dunbar, gave rjfe ta 
the communication of the prefent, of fome fimilar produc- 
tions in other parts of Scotland, particularly in Cana iHand^ 
near the iflc of Sky* 

21' D/JJirtatio de Xoopf*ytiiy p/am RffJ^p Societafi Sclent i arum 
A^igUts hgendtun c^t judiiandam prMnt Job Baflcr^ A4. i>. 
Acad. C^f Reg, Sec* AngL et Holland, Soc* 




Vel LII. Part I. for thtYtar 1761. 




To this ctiflertation is annexed a copper-plate, with figures 
to illuftrate the verbal defcription, 

%2* An account of an uncommon Ph^mmimn in Dorfetjbire. In a 
letter from folm Stephens^ M* A, 

The phenomenon here defcribed is that of a fmolce, and 
fomedmes of a vifible flame, iffuingfrom the cliffs near Char- 
mouth in the weftern part of Dorfetfliire ; firft obferved in 
Auguft 1751, and continued at intervals ever fince. The 
Writer makes fcveral pertinent remarks on the appearances he 
obferved, with their caufe and confequences, not unworthy 
the confideration of thcNaturalift. 

24* A defcrlption of tbi Cephus, In a letter from D» LvfifiSj 

The Cephus is a fea-bird, of which we have here a very 
minute account. 

26. An account of the Earthquake at Lifion^ the ^ijl of March^ 
1 761 • In a letter from thence to Jofeph Salvador^ Ejq^ F,R.S, 

27. Amther account of the fame Earthquake* In a letter from 

Mr, MoUoy. 

This is faid to have been the moft feverc (hock felt at Lif- 
bon, fince the dreadful overthrow of that city in 1 755. No 
great damage, however, was occafioncd by it. 

30. An account of an Earthquake felt in thf tjland of Afadelra^ 
March 31, 1761. By 77jomar Hcherd^n, M. D. R R. AV 
Communicated by IVilliam Heberden^ M, X>. F. R» S. 

Dr. Hebe rd en remarks, that tho' it be a common obfcrva- 
tion, that a calm always atttnds an Earthquake^ no fuch thing 
happened in this ; but a fine gale of wind before and after, as 
well al during the time of the (hock. He obferves alfo, that 
the fun, which (hone very bright, was furroundcd immcdi- * 
ately after the earthquake by a very large halo, which I ailed 
about an hour, and then gradually difappearcd. 

31. An account of a treats fc in iMtin, prefinted ta the R^al 5.i- 
cietyy entitled^ De admirando frigore urtifidaU^ quo mercurtm 
ijl congelattts^ dtjfertatio^ l^fc, a % A* Brntmii^ Acad^ Scten* 
Membro^ tSc. By miUam IP'aifin^ AL D. R. S. S. 

This account contains a minute and circumftanriaf detail 
of Mr. Braun*s difcovery and experiments rJarin^^ to the con- 
gelation of mercury. Amon^ many other curious particu- 

j j^ Phikfiphkal Tranfaitimip 

lars, we are here informed, that although many fluids will 
produce artificial cold> the nitrous acid is the moil powerful \ 
that the degree of heat, in which mercury begins to boil. Is 
not at 600 of Fahrenheit's fcale, as is generally imagined j 
but at lead at 709 : that the interval between the greatellj 
contraftion to the greatcft dilatation of the mercury, confif 
of 1237 degrees of the faid fcale ; its x'ofume, and confc- 
qucntly its fpecific gravity, varying a tenth part. Wt are 
told alfo, that Mr. Braun never was able, by the mixtufc of 
fnow and fpirit of nitre, which froze the mercury, to freeze 
fpirit of wine ; whence it appears, fays Dn Watfon, that 
fpirit thermometers arc the moft fit to determine the degree of 
coldnefs in frigorific mixtures, until we are in a fituation to 
conftrud folid metallic thermometers with fuficient accu* 

56, An acctfunt of an Encrinus^ or Star- fifty ^ with a jointed flfm^ 
taken on thi cmji cf Barbadoes j which explains ts what kind af 
animal thafe f^Jples belongs called Star-Jfones^ Afleria^ a$%d 
Jjhopodwy which have hem found in many parti of this iing^ 
dsm. By John Ellis, Efq\ F.R.S. 

This is a curious paper, and is illuftratcd by two very ele- 
gant plates* 

Papers relative to Astronomical Observations, 

Art, 5, Extra£! of a Utter from the AUe de la Cuille^ ^ *^ 
Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris ^ and F, R, S* to Jf^Uiam 
Watfon^ M. Z>. F. R* S* recommending to the Rev, Mr, JVi- 
vii Majkelyne^ F, R. S. to maki\at St. Helena a feries of O*- 
fervations for difiovenng the Parallax of the Moon* 

6. A letter from the Rev, NrM Mafkehne, to li^tUiam fPhifm^ 

M,D. ^ 

Both thefe letters relate to the fame fubjefl. 

The articles 32 to 48 inclufive, as alfo 59, 60, 61, 62, 
and 63, contain various obfervations made in different parts 
of the world, on the late Tranfit of Venus over the Sun ; with 
other aftronomical obfervations made on tliat occafion. Of 
thefe, therefore, our Readers will expert of us no farther 

Antiquities and Polite Arts. 

Art* 7- A Dijfertation upon e> Samnit^ DenarruSf ntu& lefort 
puhlifl>cd. In a tetter fram Mr, Swinton, F, R, S. 


Thi CehtempkittJ. 333 

This itieditcd filver coin, y/t are told^ is adorned with 
two Etrufcan infcriptions^ which very well merit the attention 
of the learned. It is of the fixe of the larger confular Dena- 
rii, difcovers much of the Romim tafte, and is in the iineil 

10. Extras ^f a Utter from Mr, Robert Mackinlay, ta the Earl 
6f Morion^ concerning the lau Erufthn ef Vefuvim^ and the 
dyiovery cf an ancient Jhtue ^f y^nm at Rome* 

The eruption of Veiuvius, here curforily mentioned^ is the 
fame with that above noticed in articles 8 and g. The ftatue 
of Venus is f^id to be of moft exqulftte workmanlhip > full 
fix feet high i and \n the fame attitude with the Venus of Mc- 
dicis : with this difference, that her right hand is extended be- 
fore her breaft, and her left fupports a light drapery below. 
This ftatuc, we are told, was dug up in the Aions Callus^ and 
is now in the pofreifion of the Marquis Carnavallia. 

23. Additional ohfirvatims upon f^me tlates of white glafsfcund 
at Herculaneutn, In a letter from j, Nixon y M. A. F*R. S, 

Thcfe obfen^ations are a fupplement to a paper on the fame 
fubje<5t inferted in the flcond part of the fiftieth volume of 
the Tranfa6lions, Mr* Nixon, who traces back the anti- 
quity of glafs windows to the third century, has here made 
feveral judicious critical remarks on what Authors have writ- 
ten on this matter: they are not, howe^er^ of a nature to be 

The medicinal^ mathematicaly and other articleSy will be 
taken notice of in a future Review, 

The Contemplati/l , A Nighi Piece* By J. Cunningham, 
4to, 6d. Payne. 

IN beftowing our approbation on a former little piece of 
Mr. Canninshum*s, %ve rcmitrked fomc inft^nces of quaint* 
nefs and affect? non, into which we prefumed he had fallen 
bv too clife an imit:it!Cn of Mr, Gray's celebrated Elegy. 
Fron^ the perufal of t\v: p^normance before us, however, we 
cannot help fuipLciijig i nii; habituil qiiaintnefs in our Au- 
thor's manner of lunking and writing in general. 

Next to the plcalure we rcGcirc from the Mtive efforts of 
true genius, is that of find^^ig the fentiments and im .g«*s it 

33+ TT>^ C^ntemplatlJ}. 

exhibits, attended with an elegant fimpltcitjr 'of expreiHoii 
as nothings however, is more agreeable than fuch aji ai&lli< 
blagr, fo nothing \s more dilgufting to a Reader of true tailcp 
than the formality of exhibiting trite and infipid trifles in thi 
afteifled garb of an infignificant delicacy* There is a wide dif- 
ference between c^uaintnefs and elegance, prettinefs and beau- 
ty, childilhnefs und fimplicity ; we arc forr)', therefore, to 
fee a Writer of Mr. Cunningham's talent* for poetry, mif- 
take himfclf fo far in thcufe of them, as to juftify us in fay- 
ing of his performance, as he does of his fubjcit, jfb q u^^ 
turn eft in rebus inane t 

It may be objcfled, however, that we do not fufficietttlf 
enter into the Poet's manner, and that 

A Critic ihould perufe a work of wit, I 

With the fame fpirit that iia Author writ. 

For our parts, indeed, we dcfpair of effefling this on 
, prcfent occafion I we can imagine, however, that a Critic 
our Author*s quaint and delicate turn, mijj^ht proceed topotr 
out the beauties of his poem in the manner following. 

AuTHOH. The Nwrfe of Contemplation Ni^ht^ 
Begins Wi brilmy rci^n ; 
Advancin;^, \\\ their varied hght, 
Her fikcr- veiled train. 

Critic. How beautifully dcfcriptive ! mcthinks, 
Miftrefs Nujfe leading the pretty creatuits between the- clouds 
each in a filvcr vcft, with a broad blue fillc back-ftjing ' 

Author. 'Tis ftrnnflje, the many marftiard liars, 
That ride yon facr<d round 
Should 'icepi among ihctr rapid cars» 
A nicncc fo profound \ 

Critic. Strange, indeed, to the unphtlofophic v*'orMl 
hut our ingenious Contemplatill ts Aftronomcr enough 
know, that the fydere;d cars have broad wheels, and tha 
ihe celcflial roads are paved with the fineft Wilton carpets. 

Avmom. A kind, a philofophic calm, 
T he conl cremation wears I 
And what c't ay drsink of dewy balm. 
The gcniJe olght repairs* 




Critic, Pretty conceit ! and as prettily expre/Tcd ! 


different from the grofs and vulgir cxpreffions of fomc pre- 
tended Philofophcrs ! to inftancc only the following of an ;iJ- 
inlred Writer. 

Nature no atom throws away : 

Whatever is, is right: 
The dew the Tun drinks up by day 

The clouds p-{5 down ai night. 

Foh ! what a beaftly creature ! what an indelicate Image 
IS here prcfented ! I vow and proteft, the eye bf a modeft 
imas^ination can hardly look upwards, without putting the 
beholder to the blufli. 

IV. ^ 
Author. Bthmd their leafy curtains hfd. 
The fcatittr d race how ilill ! 
How quiet, now, the garnifome kJj 
That gamhoird round the hill I 


The fweets, that bending o'er thdr banks^ 

From fultry day declin'd. 
Revive in little velvet rank*, 

And iccnt the wcftcrn wind. 

Critic, Gentle creatures ! fwect things ! Leafy turiMns f 
vilv€t ranks / What elegance, what delicacy of cxptiiEon 
and fcntiment ! 

AuTHOFi. Where Time, upon the witherM tree 
Halh carv'd the moral cthlrj 
I fit, from bufy paflinns frcr^ 
And breath the /i-m/ir^Vair. 

Critic, What a beautiful perfonificatlon, to make TJmtf 
the Sculptor to carve a feat for th;; Contemplatifl ! And whut 
a feat! Not merely a material, but a rnoral, fear. Howdc* 
cent alfo is his attitude on this occafion, and how very dirt^r- 
cnt to the inelegant poltures allumrd by others* tven the 
poliihed and harmonious Gray has been fo ftrangcly unpolitCj 
as to draw the following pifture of hjmlcIF, 

There at the foot of yondc** nodding bf cch. 
That wTtathes its old F*iiiJ:i!lic rnotf (o high, 
ills liftlcfs length at noon :^relch# 

And pore upon ihc bro') 

What a filthy brutCj to lie dowh and contemplate in the dirt f 
How much more like a Gem! ,nd a Philofophcr doth 

ibis Author place himfirlf in 1. ■ chair I The Reader 

Rev. Nov- lyda* ' Y m>a?^ 




-,;]j' n,u(l not imagine alfo, from the equivocal mode of expp 

fion here uClS^ by the Poet, that he aTcended this withei 
ircc% and fat there like King Charles in a flourifhiog oa 
L.fiJcs, a delicate man wo*.: Id be as careful to avoid teari: 
hi'; brccch'js as daubing his coat. No, Reader! Time w 
.a complcat An id, and had commodioufly formed a feat in I 
hallowed trunk ; and had ^lilt its edges in tafte, with the i 
vcr-fnining, lambeiit-fiaming, to-duft-mouldering, touc 
i'l wood. 

■^ XVI. 

Author. H^w fmooih that rapid river Aides, 
ProgrciTive to the deep r 
L" The i-oppicj. pcnJtn: o'er its fides 

y\- J-iuvc charm'd the wzves to flecp. 

lit " 

j •!;. Critic. It is obfcrvable, that in this exquifite little poei 

; ■' the Author (hews himfclf perfccHy acquainted with the whc 

,.';, Citi.c of :hr Sciences'*. To taftc the true beauty of this pa 

/V . fagc, the Reader ought to be (killed in the Materia Medic 

I and to know, that poppies, havin;i: a foporiferous quality, 

■| , i% with the utmoft propriety the Poet fuppofcs them to ha 

" . < < h . i r : I . (.• J t 'n -J rapid x'w^x to fiide fo fmc:thly, I cannot he 

ill ! J :4.;!ii..g, however, that the Author is indebted for the beai 

y tif'ul iillitcration, in the third line of this ftanza, to the fia 

•? luwini"^ fimilar one of a celebrated Poet. 

Proud psf pies pendent ^ primly frank its ftdis, 


Al'Tiioji. Sleep, and her filler, Silence, reign 

'J'hjy lock the (hepherds fold ! 
Biit harl: — I hcnr a lamb complain, 
* i ij loic upoii the wold ! 

Critic. Poor little lamb ! how do I pity thcc ! It is tc 
to one bur thou fallcft into the hands of feme naughty flieej 
laalino butcher; and then, fure enough, the owner will y5> 
that iliou art /c//, indeed ! 


A L' T n R. FannM bv the httie lenient breeze. 
My limbs rcfK-ftimcnt find ; 
And moral rhapfodics, like tlivfc. 
Give vigour to my mmd. 

Critic O, mafculinc vigour! Vigorous as the blaj 
of tin* pretty little Icnimt breeze! I cannot takd Icav 
of thib elegant Contemplatift, however, without givixi 

• Sold by Mr. Ncwbcry. 
•^ hir 


Coccm^s Ll/f of Afclcpfades. 3 37 

him a caution always to wrap himrelf up warm whcrw 
ever he feats him-icU by, night in his moral chair ; as the 
ddMip of the e veiling air, horwevcr temper d^ is very dcitruc- 
tjve lo pcrfons of a dciic;ite confttturion. He wouid do 
well alfo. Oil f«ch occaitous, not to approfmdt matters too 
deeply ; as imenlc ftudy is very pernicious to the nerves, and 
i& an ijweteratc enemy to cxquifitc fenfibiliiy. 

Tl^i Life of Afiifphjihs, the cfhhraieJ Fdundtr &f the Afhpiitdic 
Si£f in Phyftc, Compiled frmt the T'f/fimomau of twenh-f^^tn 
ancient Authonx undc- le /mjl anihertt;: /. 

curable f>fhn Name, >:s of Auilmi, il, t. 

Age. Placet of NtUivity and Haiitaimi Sulittiom and D:- 
fendants. Cmftttion and Fcntune. Hialth\ perfmul ^/aiitleSf 
and Form, Genius and If^if, Studies^ Educatioflf and Ma* 
jhrs. Authors by him fdbivfd* Spirit and Afiinfiers. Dr^Js 
find Sayififs» Pf^riiings, Friindi and Enemies. DifcHles and F J- 
leiotrs, ' -IS from ^' ' " , 

derns. Fi talian of . ^ . e 

ProfelTor of Fhylic in Florence, tfvo, is, ©d* L>avict. 

IF the extraordinflry tftlc, ot rather Jyllahvu cf this pT- 
formance^ appears very proHx to the Readier, If will only 
corrcfptftid in that rcfpecfc to the work itfejf, which, Jn <>ttr 
opinion^ might be moa- properly enritled, the . 
than the Life, of Afclepiades ; notwithftanJing thi 
currcnces of his life, which are abunduntly inflated and de- 
taitled in it'; all the miniKe circumftanccs regarding Afclcpia- 
des, feeming of the 1 all importance to his Icarnul Biographer. 

By the time we arrive at the 1 7 th page We find rt fetrled, that 
he was born at Pfufa in Bithynia; and when wc qct *i little far- 
ther, that he bad lived at Fartum in the Propcmtis, at Athens, 
and finally at Rome. Tho- .^'' ' ' 't 

his parenrnrc, he vtfHv ob! .w 

proftiund :i he had trsveiled much, he reafon- 

ably fuppciL. .... ... . ....^cs to have been commodious at 

Icau, which muft be f^r hi^ Honour in our day, whatever it might 
have been in fviii own. Among his perkmal qml:t'ti'iy Dr* Cor- 
chi> or his Tranflator, reckons W%p&ori he<dih: and his 
flatue, which it ittm^ was if 1 about li 

pad, near the Porta Capcna, wit .lUsoF I. o- 

fcflbr Coccbi gives him a comely, maj«:itic, ctad cUar-ih^^cA 

Y 2 pcrlonagc. 


338 CocCHi*i Life (f Afdcpiadcs* 

perfonage^ [Perhaps clear (hould have been f/z-^w.] 
when he comes to mention thofe extraordinary mental pow* 
ers, which he confiders :is the rcfult of good health and vigfl 
ous organs {whatever inftances to the contrary M, PakjH| 
and many thoufand more may have been) cither our Author, 01 
his Tranflator, foars into a ftrain of fuch metaphyfical bom- 
baft, as eludes common Icnfe, and our moderaie penctxation. 
We can juft conceive from it, that the fiibjedt of this Bio- 
graphy was a great phenomenon in his day, and wc refer cbe 
curious Reader to make what farther dedu£i:ion he plcafe* 
from a paragraph beginning with — It appears, &c, p. ^ 
and ending in the fubfcquent page. fl 

Our learned Biographer is fo zealous an Enthufiaft 10 \&\ 
Author's fiivour, that he is frequently reduced to alTume man) 
fuppofjtions, gratis^ in order to deduce fo many inferences tc 
\\u advantage. The following fpecimen, out of a multituilc^ 

is taken from page 37 — 38, 

** From the good difpoftthn of the Lady^ from the clearneli 
of undcrftanding, from the education and learning of Af' 
clepiades, and even from the philofophical fe£l* to which he 
adhered, there are reafonable grounds of concluding, thai 
there cxifted in him all the virtues of the mind, with inqo| 
cence of manners. — In the tcftimonies of the twenty- fe^fl 
Authors who have mentioned him, we find no cflT^^ntia] ^P 
proach made to his atftions or morals; on the contraty, upon 
combining and putting together the minute^ fcattercd, tho' 
imficrfcct particularities that are to be found concerning htm| 
there can be no reafon for denying him the chara^Stcr of faga- 
city, of fpirit, of temperance, of niildntrfs, and 'of a Jo^ 
of truth and juftice.*' 9 

Thus from an earneftncfs to credit Afclepiades with all 
poflible virtues, our Author is repeatedly drove to this feeble 
negative argument, of fuch or fuch vices not having been re- 
corded againft him. All Writers who fpeak to his advan^ 
tage, are fully credited in that refpe£t ; but the verv fame arc 
fyppofed detradive or invidious, whenever they affirm any 
thing cenfurablc in him. Now with regard to Pliny, to Ga- 
len, andCcHus Aurclianus, who have all commended and ceo- 
fured him, the former was no Phyfician, and none of them 
were his cotemporarics, which muft have prevented ar 
pc^rfonal envy. Our Author fuppofes, but improbabh 

• This was the fed of Epicurus, Lucretius, &c. 


CocCHl'i Life rf Afclcpiadcs. 339 

it fccms' to us^ ** that Afclcpladcs never read one of the many 
libels which ufed to come out on the publication of any of his 
works ; but nobly defpifcd Envy*s want of power tu bite." 
He judges, but without any competent rcafon that we can dlf- 
cover, fomc of the moft approveablc doctrines of Cell us to 
have been derived from Afclepiades, whofe *' name he un- 
candidly concludes the former to have fuppreffed.** 

We would not, however, be fuppofed to deny, that fame 
ancient medical Writers, and others, do not warrant a con- 
fidcrable proportion of what Profeflfjr Cocchi has advanced in 
favour of this Bithynian Phyfician, who praclifcd with gene- 
ral reputation at Rome, until his violent death, in a very ad- 
vanced age. That h^ was a learned Rhetorician, a very 
perfuafive Orator, and a confulcrable natural Philofopher, as 
natural phiiofophy ftood in his day, feems inconteftabie. But 
does It ncceflarily follow from this, that he muft have been 
that confummatc Phyfician and Philofopher, and in hci^ that 
*' faultlefs monftcr which the world ne'er faw,*' — ^but vvhirh 
hia Pancgyrift would make him ? Candor is undoubtedly 
due to the illuftrious- dead ; but when this debt is paid the 
living Readers have furely a right to truth, with refpc£l to 
the ivhli of a charafter propofed to them j fincc an improper 
eflimation of their abilities, may conduce to a culpable imi- 
tation of cheir errors : whence it becomes the duty of re- 
nuinc Erudition and Criticifm, to prtfent the entitc charader 
juflly to them. 

Tho' we h3vc not the leaft difpofition to fink the real merit 
of thid Phyfician, it feems but fair to add a few jull and natu- 
ral fhades to all this glare of excellence, or rather perfecllon, 
in which the Florentine Profeflbr, or his TranOator, exhibits 
him. For if the fame Authors who are applauded for all their 
commendations of him, are of equal authority -^ with rcfpcift 
to his blemi(hes, at leaft; ilicre was not the Icail: w^nt of 
confidence, or in fa£^ effrontery, in his conduct ; nor haJ he 
much regard to candor or decency in his demeanour to In^ 
medical brethren. He denied the great principle of attrac- 
tion, allcrtcd by Hippocrates, &c. (fo thoroughly eftablifhed 
in our day ) and even attraflion between the magnet and iron* 
He made a jefl of Nature, and all the vital and c^xonomical 
powers and opfration^ afcribed to the animal mechanifm by 
Hippocrates, with hfs notif»ns of a crifis ; in all which he cer- 
tainly attempted to ridicule a modcfter, wifer, and better man 
than himfclf. He rejected purges in every cal5r, except that 

V 3 ^ 


CoccHl'f Lifi ^ Afdcpiades. 

of a palf/, and a catalepfis ; and If he cTcr dirc6ied a rtmh 
it was after fuppcr. He bled in a pleurify* only in ct>nf€ 
quence of thu p:iin ; but omitted it in a penpncumony, 
inflammation of the lungs, as feldom attended wkh any, 
never bled in a fever, nor even in a phrenzy. He gave wtr 
the former,, after the fever was a little abated ; and order- 
it in phrcnfies^ even to inebriation^ to.fet the paticnrs 
:ep* Neverthelcfs, he gave it' in lethar»:lcs to keep them 
awake, and roufe their fenles. His pradice might poffibll 
have been the fourcc of af^rt of medical proverb about fa£9[ 
nJd^ fmce in that cafe he ordered his patients to drink twic 
pr thrice as much as they ordinarily did ; and to add^ at Ic 
an equal quantity of wine to their Water, which was a muc 
greater proportion than the anttents commonly ufed. Wit 
many other fuch particularities and contradidlions^ it has bee 
allowed that he had conlldcrable talents; and Dr, Lc Clcr 
udicioufly obfcrves, that if his writings had been preferred 
ttho*hc would fcarceJy have been confidered as a good model i 
[prafticc, yet his works might be plcafine to read, as the 
rJnuft have been agreeably writte^i \ and tho*Jittlc ufefij to Phj 
'ficiajis, they might prove fo to Philofophers, by rcflc^iji 
fome light on the remains of Epicurus and Dcmocritus, wh 
I principles he efpoufed, but with fome variation* about 
l.jiature of the atoms, which he fo ppo fed yr^r^/V/, and not £f 
XvifilU^ asthcirname imports \ naming them rather ayx^i^ ui 
little lumps or mailcs. 

The moil advantageous point of view in which the orac 
tlce of Afclcpiadcs appears to us, b his attention to the AliA 
fina dUtd'ua^ and fparing his patients the load and naufeou^ 
nefs of much phyfic/ This might have been candidly at^ 
f ributed to his vigilant obfervance of the conduct of Nature ifl 
the proccfs and cure of difeafcs, if he had not profeflcd a iota 
contempt of her oeconomy, a% a chimera j and invcftcd th 
Phyfician folcly with the power of curing, by the contra 
and regulation of the corporeal motions : a tenet that tntph 
cafily difpofe him fo much to friJllons^ unguents, fw 
' fwinglng beds, and even p^nfile baths for the lick* 

It is confefled that I^ Clcrc and others* from Avhom thefi^ 
tcftimonies concerning Afclcpiadcs arc chiefly takcHt arc oca^H 
lured by Sig. Cocchi, as prejudiced, in afcribir^ fcntimenti 
to him which he never entertained. But as Lc Clerc, Boer- 
liaave^ Hatlcr, and others^ who have mcntioacd him, had 

CoccHi'i Lift of Afdcpiades. 341 

the fjme medical* Authorities relating to him with our Au- 
thor, wc think it is not the lc?ft dctra»5tion from his abih*;ics 
to fuppofc that fuch Writers Riighr, from the fame materials, 
be ecjually capable with himfclf, of mukini^ a right eftlmatiofi 
of Atclcpiadcs. Lc Clerc particularly treats him with great 
ipgenuoulnets, in endeavouring to aflign a better moti^'c for 
his behaviour, in the cafe of a phrenecic patient, to whom 
another Phyfician had prcvioufly been called, than that mo* 
tivc which Celitis Aurelianus plainly infirmatcs. Indeetf, it 
feems clear to us, that every intelligent medical Reader will 
col!c£t from Lc Clerc*s feveijteen pages (wherein he h;is 
prefcnted the entire portrait of Afclcpi:tdes) a more natu- 
ral and probable re femb lance of his charadtr, than from 
Siz, Cocchi*s feventy-feven pages, which, however learned, 
are vetbofc atul declamatory, and do not contain an equal 
quantity of clear, folid, and pertinent di{c]uilttion ; but a 
great number of this Bithynian's irojoi or vuid^s [vaci^ums] 
as Lc Clef c tranflates them. 

As wc have not fccn the Italian original, of which this is a 
profdTed t ran flat ion, wc are of courfe to fupp'^Me, that no- 
thing has been interpolated by the Tranflatir, which is n^t 
warranted by ths! text. Our ftri£tures on it can only rega d 
what has appeared to us. We recolbdt with ple;\fa e, that 
[\lhc publiciition of the ancient Greek Surg^-om, by fuienor 
Cocchi, in 1754, from the collcLLlioa of Nicetas in ihc Im- 
perial Library ^t Florence, introduced with a proper 
and elegant Liitm preface, ^ud that the work w;is written in 
a fpirit and manner wholly different from thofe of the pre- 
fcTit work. This circumrfance fug^cftcd to u:i the poflibility 
of this performance having been iranfljted with fomc lati- 
tude; cfpecially when we obfervcd a ftrong reicmbbncc.of 
ftylc between it and ih^ % hjHtuta of Health -^ of which 
it were cafy to give fome difagreeablc fpecimens. Another 
motive which fuggeOcd this to us, was our rccolJeCtiag, 
that thi» fam:! Afclepiades, who rarely prohibited the itfe of 
wine» was alfo in the higheft repute with that anonymoui In- 
ftitutor of Health j a circurnftance which probably tnduccj 

• Except Sig. Cocchi has met with fame ancVnt Vl$* Tthmg to 
Af'rlepi'^dc*, i'l the Lautcntian Libmry at Fbrcncc; but wh^ch he 
doc^k not fucfuion. 

t Review, voh XVL page 259, foq» 
I Ihii vah XXIV. p* 193, feq. 

h m 

34^ Rous§EAU*i Sjfim §f EMtcsnknM 

him t0 gnrc the Vtntocrs pretty good qtianer, afiej- hJs dread- 
ful ma&crc of the Grocers, die Confefiioners^ ^^d OtW 
ineru — In the Review referred to, for a fofmer amclc froot 
Signior Cocchi^ our Readers wiU find a (hon, bat cticifCt 
fragment from this Afdepiadrst who made much noiie m \m 
profcffion» as Innmators and \Vranglcr$ generally do ; in the 
tr^mfl^tion of which Fragment, page 264^ we ihould have 
wrote tragic Pui (rj jtyyJcnr^n.?) rather ihio Tr^edian^ which 
our language feems to reftrain to an Ador in tra^gcdy. 

Etmlius and S^pUa : Or, a nrtv Sjflim of Educaiism* By 
Mr. Rouffcau- Tnmflated for Becket, &c» Cosidntied 
from P^ge 269 • 

IN hi3 pcondhock.^ our ingenious Author proceeds to give 
us farther indances of the abfurdities wc fall into, by a-» 
dopting the common methods of Education, and negleding 
thofe which arc pointed out by Nature. Mothers, he ob* 
fcrves, arc, in general, abfurdly folicitous to prcTent their 
childicit from hurting thcmfelves, by thofe various accidents 
to which they arc conftantly liable ; it being at this cariir age 
that wc acquire our Brft principles of courage ; and, by bdn^ 
inured to flight inconveniences, learn by degrees to ru{>p0rt 
greater* •• 

The fif ft thing wc ought to | am, and that which is of the 
grcateft confequcncc for us to know, he n:marks, h to fufffr\ 
children bying formed little and feeble, apparently for no other 
reafon than to learn this important leflbn, without dinger* 
I never knew an inftancc, (ays Mr. Roufleau, of a child's 
having killed, maimed, or done itfelf any confidcrable mif- 
chicf, when left alone, and at liberty, except in cjfcs where 
it has been imprudently expofcd to tumble from fomc high 
place, fall into the Src, or left within the reach of fomc danger- 
«)us weapon. How ufeiefs and pernicious, therefore, fays he^ 
is that magazine of implements from which a child is armed 
at all poiiu-v ;igainft pain ; and is by fuch means expofcd to it 
when he grows up, without experience, and without courage ! 

This remark is well worth the confideration of fuch fomj 
parents as arc fo extremely tender of their children ; and i& 
vtr)' agreeably illuftratcd by the examples cited by our Author. 
At the ^zm^ time, however, it is to be obfcrtcd, that Mr. 
Rouflcau is, by no means, an advocate for fubjecling the 





RoussEAu'i S^tm 9f Edticaihff* 343 

hairnlefs innocents to the evils of wtlful ncgleft, and much' 

Icfs to the cruel bondag:c of unnecdTary reltraint* He would 
have thtfm indulged in the full enjoyment of all the happinefs 
of which they arc fufccptible; and this cfpectalty from the 
confidcration of the precarious duration of tlicir lives. What 
can we think, fays he, of that barbarous method of Educa- 
tion, by which thf: prt/tnt is fjcrificed to an unccrtain/z^i^r^; 
by which a child is laid under every kind of rdtraint, and is 
made miferabie, by way of preparing him for, wc know not 
what, pretended happinefs, which there is rcafon to believe he 
will never live to enjoy? But fuppofing it not unreafonablc 
in its defign, how can wc fee, without indignation, the un- 
happy litdc creatur-es fuhjectcd to a yoke of infupportablc ri- 
gour, :md cundcmned, like g^illcy-flaves, to continuallabour, 
without our being affured that their mortification and rellric- 
tions will ever be of fervice to them \ Hence the age of 
chearfulncfi and gaiety is fpent in the midft of tears, puniih- 
ment, rebuke, and flavery. We torment the poor innocents 
for their future good ; and perceive not that cteath is at hand« 
and ready to fcize them amidft all this forrowful preparation 
for life 1 Who can tell how many children have thus fallen 
viftims to the extravagant fagacity of their Parents and 
Guardians I 

As to the happinefs of which children, as well as grown 
perfons, may be capable, our Author throws out fome obicrva- 
tirns^ no Icfs remarkable for their novelty than ingehuity. 
They arc not, however, altogether fo precifc and fati^fadonf 
as we could wifti. He obierves, that our mifcry confills in 
the difpioportion, between our dcfires and our abilities ; and 
m.iintains, that a fenfible Being, whofe abilities ftould he 
equal tp its dcfires, would be pofitivcly happy. In what then, 
he afk*;, confifts human wtfdom, or the means of acquiring 
happinefs ? To diminifh our dcfires is certainly not the me- 
thod ; for if thefe were lefs than our abilities, part of our fa* 
ctdties would remain ufclefs and inadllve. Nor is it, on the 
other blind, to extend our natural capacity for enjoyment: 
for, if Our defires Ihould, at the fame time, be extended in a 
greater proportion, we fhould only become the more mifer- 
able. He concludes, therefore, it muft confift in leflening 
the difproportion between oar abilities and our defircs, and in 
reducing our inclinations and faculties to an eqnilibrium: as 
it is in fuch a fituation, and in fuch only, that the whole 
iTian is employed. It Is thus, we are told, Nature, which 
formed every thing in the beft manner, originally coailituicd 



Qi4 RoussF.Au'i 5j/?«?w of Education. 

ws ; man, in his infancy, being poflcflTcd only of fuch dcfirw 
as tend to his prefervation, and the faculties neceffary to their 
^tificatiojn ; fo that it is in this primitive ftate only, that 
our defires and faculties are counterpoifed by cacH other, and 
that man is not unhappy. 

Suppofing this to be a true ftate of the cafe, and that our 
Author is not miftaken in his philofophy, it is certainly w.ith 
as much juftice as humanity that he advifcs parents to indulge 
children in thofe harmlefs plcafures which their nature prompts 
them to purfue. Who is there, fays he among us, that has 
not, at times, looked back with regret on that period of our 
lives, when it was natural for the countenance to be always 
fmiling, and the heart* to be as conftantly at cafe? Why 
then will vou deprive your children of the enjoyment of a 
feafon fo mort and tranhent ? of time fo precious which they 
cannot abufe ? Why will you clog, with bitternefs and for- 
row, thofe rapid moments which will no more return ? Do 
you know, ye fathers ! when the ftroke of death (hall fall on 
your oiFspring ? Lay not up in (lore then for your own for- 
row, by depriying them of the enjoyment of the few mo- 
ments Nature hath allotted them. As foon as they become 
fcnfible of the pleafures of exiflence, let them enjoy it, fo that 
whenever it may pJcafe God to take them hence, they may 
not die without having taftcd of life. 

Our humane and diftinguifliing Author goes on to expa- 
tiate pretty largely on this head ; tnking great pains to efta- 
bJifh a due medium between the two cxti ernes of indulgence 
;ind fovcrity ; and to fliew the diff rence between a child that 
IS rpoiled by an ill-judged licentioufne^s, and one that is made 
happy in the realbnable enjoyment of its liberty. 

Mr. Rouffeau proceeds next to confider the influence of mo- 
ral precepts and maxims on the minds of children ; advifing 
them to be utterly rejected in the earlier part of Education. 
Mr. Locke's method, fays he, " was to educate children by rea- 
foning witn them ; and it is that which is now moft in vogue. 
The fuccefs of ir, however, doth not appear to recommend 
'^ it ; for my own part ; I meet with no children fo filly and 

hf ridiculous as thofe with whom fo much argument hath been 

", held. Of all the faculties of man, that of reafon, which is 

I-J in fact only a compound of all the rell, unfolds itfclf the 

' ' lateft, and with the grcatcft difficulty : and yet this is what 

tj we would make ufe of to devclope the firft and eafieft of them. 

1^ The great end of a good Education is, to form a reafonable 

|| man^ 

Rousseau*/ Sy/lein &f Etiutathn. 


inan ; and wc pretend to educate a child by the means of rea* 
[-Ibn ! This is beginning where we (hould leave off, and mak- 
mg an implcmeni of the work we arc about* 

** If children were capable of reafoning, they would (land 
[in no need of Education : but, in talking to them, foearly, a 
language they do not underftand, we wfe thetn to content 
^fhcmfelvcs with words, to cavil at every thing that is faid to 
jthcm, to think themfelves as wife as their Mafters, and to btv 
l^oate petulant and captious : at the fame time^ whatever wq 
Itiope to obtain of them by reafonable motivoj, is efFe^td 
nly by thoTe of covctoufnefs, fear, or vajijty, always an- 

** We may reduce almoft all the Icflons of morality that 
}i3ve^ or can be, fornncd for the ufc of children, to the foK 
lowing formula, 

Maflir* You muft not do fo. 

ChiU. And why muft not I do fo» 

Adiijhr* Becaufe it is naughty. 

Ofsld* Naughty f what is that being naughty ? 

MaJiiT* Doing what you are forbid* 

Ckild* And what harm is there in doing what one is forbid F 

Mafler, The harm is, you will be whipped for disobedience. 

Chili. Then I will do it fo that nobody fliall know any 

thing of the matter. 

Mafltr. O, but you will be watched* 

ChihL Ah ! but then I will hiJc myfdf, 

Miijhr, Then you will be examined, 

ChllL Then 1 will tell a fib. 

Mitflcr. But you muft not tell fibs. 

Child. Why muft not I ? 

Majhr. Becaufe it is naughty^ &c. 

*' Thus wc go round the circle ; and yet if wc go oit of if, 
the child underftands us no longer* Are not thefc very ufcful 
" iftrudiions, think vou ? I iliould be vcr\' cujious to know 
ihat could be fubliituted in the place of this fine dialogue. 
Ice himfelf would have certainly been cmbarralTed had he 
afked fo puzzling a qucftion. To dlflinguifii between 
r>od and evil, to perceive the reafons on which our moral ob- 
lations are founded^ is not the buGnefs, as it is not withii) 
Kecapacit)s of a child. 

** Nature requires children to be children before they are 
men. By endeavouring to pervert this grd^r, wc produce 



RoussEAlj'j Syflim of Kducatim. 

forward fruits, that have neither maturity nor tafte, and will 
^ot fail ibon to wither or corrupt. Hence it is wc have fa 
Emany young Profeflbrs and old children- Childhood hath its 
linanncV oi iceing, perceiving, and thinking, peculiar to it- 
nclf; nor is there any thing more abfurd than our being ;uixi- 
l©us to fubftitutc our own in its (lead. I would as foon rc- 
^quirc an infant to be five foot high, as a boy to have judg* 

mcnt ai ten years of age/' 

I The judicious Reader will probably allow that our Author 
lliath fome fhew of argument on his fide, refpcd^ing the inca* 
ipacity of a child, for entering into the nature of moral obli- 
f gallons, — We are apprehenfive, however, that few ^thei " 
I will very readily give into his opinion concerning the imprc 
Ipricty of exafting obedience of their fons ; which hath bcej 
f too long cfteemed an eflential point in the education of chiI-1 
^xtn^ to be eafily given up. Mr, Roulfcau is, neverthelcfe, 
for confining it folely to the girls. Boys, he fays, Ihould not 
be made too docile and tradlable, as bv fuch means they ac- 
[ quire an cafe and pliability of difpofition incompatible witlij 
P that rcfolution and fpirit of independence which it becomes* 
them to entertain, as Beings formed to judge, and a£t, for 
ihcmfelvcs. For this reafon it is, that he direfls the Precep- 
tor, never to command his Pupil to do any thing, 

^ Let him (fays he) not even imagine you pretend to havf 
any authority over him* Let him only be made fcnfible that 
he is weak, and you are ftrong ; that, from your ittuation 
and his, he lies neccflarily at your mercy ; let him know, let 
him learn to perceive this circumftance j let him early feel 
€n his afpiring creft the hard yoke Nature hath im[)ofed on 
man, the heavy yoke of neceffity, under which ^very finite 

• Being muft bow : let him fee that neceffity in the nature and 
conftitution of things, and not in the caprices of mankind* 
The bridle of hisreftraint (hould be force, and not authority. 
As to doing thofe things from which he ought to abfain, for- 
bid him not, but prevent him, without explanation or argu- 
ment: whatever you indulge him in, grant it to his firft re- 
queft, without fohcitation or entreaty, and particularly with- 
out making any conditions. Grant with plcafure, and refute 
with rcludancc ; but, I fay again, let all your denials be ir- 
revocable ; let no importunity overcome your rcfolution ; let 
the lid! once pronounced, be as a brazen wall, againil which 
when a child hath fome few times exhaufted his ftrength^ 

r without making any impreflion, he will never attempt ta 

I oveithrow it 3 j.iin* 

P €* By 

RoussEAu'f ^v/itm' tf Educatm. 


** By this method you will render his difpofition patient^ I 
«qua], rcfigned^ and peaceable, even when he is not iodulgcti * 
m the purfuit of his own inclinations : for it is in the nature 
of man to endure patiently the abfolute ncceflity of his cir- | 
cumftanceS) but not the capricious and evil difpofition of his | 
fellow-creatures. // is all gone ^ is an anfwer againft which a j 
child never objeiSls, at leaft if it believes it true. After all^ ^ 
it muft be obferved, there is no mean to be prefcrvcd in our 
conduft in this particular : we muft either exaft nothing of 
children at all, or fubjeifl them, at once, to the moll perfeft 
obedience. The wodl education in the world is that which 
keq)s a child wavering between the will of the Tutor and its 
own J and eternally difpufing which of the two fhall be Ma- 
fter : I had an hundred times rather mine Ihould be always 
maftcr." . I 

As our Author, by this apparent conccffion, feems to giv« 
up the point he contends for, it may be thought needlejs lo 
flart any objeiiion to it : a very ftriking and convincing ar- 
gument might otherwife be brought in fupport of a father's 
exaifting obedience of his fon, if not 35 a moral duty, at leaft 
^ a rule of behaviour \ in following which the child might 
eafily be made to fee its own intcreft : the plea of age and 
experience is fo obvious, and fo good a fubftitute for the phy- 
fical neceffity contended for, that if a child be to take mf 
ihing on truft, it certainly may be very naturally required tci 
obey the di£lates of its father* . 

The moft important and moft ufeful rule of Education, 
Mr. Rouflcau tells us, is not to gain time, but to lofe it : 
the firft part of it^ therefore, ought to be purely negative; 
that is, it Hiould not confift in teaching either virtue or truth ; 
but in guarding the heart from vice, and the mind from er- 
ror. We fhould not tamper with the mind, he fays, till it 
hath acquired all its faculties; for it is impolHble it fliould 
perceive the light we hold out to it, while it is blind ; but if 
we could bring up a robuft and healthy boy to the age of 
twelve years, without his being able to dli^inguifti his right 
hand from his left, the eyes of his underftaniiing woufj bo 
open to reafon, at our firft teflon ; and he mi^Kt b:rconicf> 
under proper inftruftions, the wifeft of men. Wc muft here 
take the liberty alio, to fay we differ entirely from our ing^^ 
nious Author ; being rather apt to conceive^ that a hoy, wnia 
might be brought up without knowing his right hand from 
his left, till he fttould be twelve years old, would nAcr be 
capable of knowing it as long as be livt*d* 



348 tioVB&EAv's^jft^m sf EdtfidttM* 

What can our Author mean by inftnuatingt that the mij 
acquires facuhlcfs, or even that lis flKulties are perfctlwly 
merely by time ? If the mind be, as he fuppoTcs it» fomp* 
thing of a diftind and diiereiit nature from the hoiy^ JU 
perfe(31on cannot be effected by that of the corporeal organs ; 
it my ft have fpmc kind of growth or progrcf^ peculiar to h- 
felf. And why (hould he fuppofc the mind capable of being 
perfe£lcd merely by time^ any more than the body. Exer- 
clfe^ fays hc^ the corporeal organs, fenfes, anil faculties as 
much a6 you ple<ife j but l^ecp the intellediual ones inactive 
as long as poffible. Now, we will vemure to fay* that the 
intclkc^ual f^icuities arc as likely to reap the ratiie brnciiit 
from the proper exercife of them, as the corporeal, from the 
like exercife of theirs j and we fee no reafon why a boy fhould 
be rcftrained from making ufe of his ynderftanding, tiU he 
be twelve years old^ any more than from making ufe of his 

As we cannot reafon but from what wc know, and m9 our 
knowlege is acquired immediately throiigh the corporeal of- 
gans, there is doubtleft» an abfurdity in bewilder ing the ufW 
derftandln^ with objeiSs that are beyond tb^ capacity or rx- 
pericnce or the fenfes \ and in 04ir endeavi»urkig to aocekrifie 
the progrcfs of the mind beyond that of the body : hot no- 
thing appears more evident to us, than that the cultivaiion df 
both fhould be undertaken at the Jame time; ar^*^ Ii^'Ucd, 
the life of reafon, or the exertion of the under! , it 

abfolulely neceilary to the exercife of the corporcai lacuiuc^ 
in any tolerable degree of perfci^fon. 

Our Author tells ns^ indeed, clftwherc, th;u1ie is hi (mm 
thinking children capable of no kind of reafoningi bat thac 
he hath obferved> on the contrary, tlicy reaf<*n very wtU as 
to things they are acquainted with, and which regurd their 
prefent and obvious rntereil : that it is nniy in the depth of 
their knowlege we deceive ourfclvcs, in atcnbutiag lo them fl 
Virhat they do not poflcfs ; and fcttiug them to rcafoa about " 
things they cannot comprehend, This being the cafc, we 
can fee no good cauk: for neglcding to culiiviite the ratiofial 
faculties ki children » Mr. Roulleau's iiupanant injunciioii 
amounting to no more, than that we ought not to perplex 
them with reafoning about things above their knowlege or 
capacity : an injunfiion that holds equally good refp^ng 
perfons of every age, fex, or condition. The fame mav be 
faid aJfo of his dircSions to engage their attention by fubje£b 
that are immediately interelling. There can be no dowltt, 



that the reafon of a chilJ fhould be exercifed on topics dUFer- 
cnt from fuch as we (hoixld prefer for grown perfom. If they 
are not rendered interefting alfo, it iy in vain that we expcdi 
to engage the attention of either the one or the other. 

The only kflon of morality proper for children, favfi our 
Author, is never to do an injury to any one. Even tjie pofi^ 
tive precept of doing good, if not made fubordmatc to this^ 
is dangerous, fiilfe, and contradictory. ** Who is there, 
continues he, that doth not do good f All the world, evc*^ 
the vicious man, does good to one party or the other: be 
will often make one perfon happy, at the ex pence of an hun- 
dred that he renders miferable : hence arite all our calamities. » 
The moft fublime virtues are negative* O, how much good 
muft that man neccffarily have done his fellow- creatures, if 
fuch a man there be, who never did any of them any harm !" 

In coofequcjicc of thefe negative maxims, it is, that Mr* 
Roufleau advifes us to be very fparing inlaying on children 
any pofitive injun£tions to virtue. By preaching up virtue, 
fays he, we make them iii love with vice \ and encourage 
them to pradice, by forbidding, it. In order to render thera 
pious, we tire out their patience at church i and by making 
them mutter their prayers perpetually, compel them to figh 
for the liberty of praying no longer : while to teuch thcin 
charity, we make them give alms, as if we were above doing 
it ourftlves. 

The- obfervations our Author goes on to make ort the fub- 
jedof giving alms, and the liberality of children^ arcflirewd 
ajid pertinent, 

*' To give alms is the a451ion of a man, who m^y be fy^ 
pofed to know the value of whit he beftows, and the wint 
his fellow-creature has of it, A child, who iejiaivs nothing 
of either, can have no merit in giving alms :;^ give what lie 
will, it is without charity or beneficence i indeed, he will be 
alnrjoft afhamcd to givc% when, judging from your examplr» 
he muft think it is the bufincJii of children, and that he ikiU 
do fo no more vv4ien he grows up. 

** It is to he obfervcd alfo, that we generally ufc children 
to give thofc things only of vvhich they knovV not the v;i!u?. 
What are to them the round piccti of metal they cairy in their 
pockets, and which f?rvc to no other purpofe but to give 
away ? A child would f^^ c a beggar an bumWod gui- 

neas than a c^e ; but r^^ liidepcpdigil t0||Miei: imiif 

3Sa RoussEAU'i Sjfl^m $f EJuatttm* 

bis plajr-thlngs, his fwe^-meaits^ and other trifles be is feoct 
c^, and we fhalJ prdently fee whether or not jtiu b^vc cfiade 
him truly liberal. 

*^ An expedient^ however^ is readily fotind tn this cafe j 
which is» by returning to children immediately whatever tlicy 
give us ; fo that they are ready enough to give what tbc^ 
know will be fpeedily returned to them again. I have never 
fccn any generofity in children but what was one of thcie cwa 
kinds i that is^ they either gave away that which m^as of oo 
uic to them, or what they were certain of having af^in. 
Mr. Locke advifcs us to manage this matter fp, as to convince 
children by experience, that the moll liberal b alway^s the 
bell provided for. This^ however, is to render a child ocdf 
liberal in appearance, and covetous in fad^. He adds^ that 
children would thus acquire an habit cf liberality : yes, ihc 
liberality of ;in Ufurer, who would give a penny for a pound* 
But when they came to the point of giving things awajr in 
good carneft, adieu to habit : when they found things did not 
come back again, they would foon ccafe to give them awajr. 
We Ihould regard the habit of the mind, and not that oT 
the hand^. All the other virtues which are taught children^ 
rcfcroblc this of their liberality ; and it is by preaching than 
up to no purpofc, thatwc load their early years with vexation 
and forrow/* 

Take the method directly oppofitc'to that which is in ufcg 
fays our Author, and you will almoft always do right. — Ab- 
furd and inconfiftent* however^ as the common methods of 
Education m ly be, we cannot help thinking, that this rule 
would lead us into equal inconfiftency and abfurdity. Mr, 
RoufTeau, indeed, is not the firft Writer s^ ' ' ' .nuity 
hath been made the dupe of his palfion for fu)_ Ex- 

ceptionable, neverthclefs, as hts plan may appear in fomc 
particulars refpeding the moral inttruclion of children, wc 
cannot but admire the fhrewdriefe of his obfervations con* 
ccrning the a£tual progrefs of their faculties, and the abfurd 
means ufually employed in their cukivatioiu He remarks^ 
that parents arc too often fondly nur^aken in the natural ca- 
pacity of their children ; tliinking them prodigies of genius 
and undcrftanding, when the lively fallie>, or fubttc obferva- 
tions that fall from their lips, arc only charaftcriftic of their 

Forward, prating boyst, Mr. ^uCcau obfcrvcs, feldom 
turn out ingenious and fcnfiblc mtn i wiillc, on the other 




RoussEAu'i ^^tm of Education. 35 f 

hahd, nothing is more dliHcult than to diflinguifii In children* 
between real ftupiditv and that apparent dulncfy, which is rhe 
ufual indication of ftrong intcJle^s. The reafons on which 
he grounds xKn latter obkrvation, are not incurious* It may 
appear ftrange, fays he, at firft fight, that two fuch oppofiCv: 
extremes fhould be indicated by the ramefrgns ; and yet it is, 
ncverthelefs, what we ought to cxpctSl : tor, at an age when 
wc have acquired no true idcas^ all the difference between a 
child of genius and one that liath none, is, that the latter 
entertains on*y falfe ideas of things ; while the former, meet* 
ing wirii none but fuch, refufes to entertain any : both, 
therefore, appear equally dull ; the one, becaufe he hath na 
capacity for the comprehenfion of things ; andtheother^ be* 
caufe the rcprcfcntatioris of thini^s are not adapted to his ca- 
pacity. Such is our Author's explication of this phenome- 
non : it feems odd, however, to fuppofc that a child, at an 
age when he is conceived. to have litile or no judgment* 
fhould be capable of difccrning the falfehood or incongruity 
ot the images prefented to him, 

Mr. RoulTcau proceeds next to examine Into the proprie- 
ty of the ufual methods cf inflru»fling boys ia literature, 
and in the fclcnccs. As ic is the imncdiat^* intercft of 
Preceptors, he fays, to teach their Pupils fjmcthing which 
may enable them fpcedily to make a figure in the eyes of 
their parents, they take particular care not to engage ihcm in 
the ftudy of fuch f« icnces as are ufclul ; becauft: thcfc would 
require them to be inftru<5^ed in the nature of things. For 
this rcafon, they only teach them fuch as appear to be under-* 
fcod whrn their terms arc once got by ro:e ; fuch as G:ro- 
graphy, Chronology, the Langu,iges, and the hke ; all rflu- 
die*i fo forcii^n to the p^u^poies of vfynn^ and particularly to 
ihofe of a child, thiit It is a wonder if ever he may have occa-* 
fi'jit fbr thcni as lung as he lives. 

** It mny fc?in furprizlng, continues our Author, rha: I 
reckon the rtudy of languages among the ufelef^ branches of 
Kducation ; but it fliould be remcmbcrcJ, that I am here 
iakinsr of the ciirly part of childhood : and, whatever may 
find 10 the contr.Ji y, I very much doib: whether iiny child, ' 
prodigieji excepted, is ca^\abl« of learning two langujgcs till 
it ariivc at the age of twelve or thirteen. 

** I agree, that if the ftuJy of lunp;vtages confrfted oATy in 
tbjtof words, that is to fay, of the figures and 'bunds thxt 
tAjTcfled them, i: wouli be a prr-pjr ^.\v\*: far chiidun ; t\ut 

351 RoussEAu'j S^tm of Educatkn^ 

languages, in varying the figns, divcrfify alfo the mcKfiikrap-j 
tion of the ideas they reprcfent. The memory charges iUcl 
with two languages ; but our thoughts take a tiii^ure uf the] 
different Idioms, The judgment only is common to both,»] 
the imagination takes a particular form from every language;] 
which ditfL^ence may probably be in part the caufc or effciS j 
of natiojial charai5iLTif!ics : what appears alfo to confirm this] 
conjecture, is, th;it among all the nations in the world, their! 
lanL^u;ige changes with their manners, or remains unaltered 
with them. 

*' Of thcfe various forms of thinking and fpeaking, a child 
becomes habituated to one ; and that is the only one he fliould 
make ufe of, till he comes to years of rcafon. In order to 
acquire two, it is neccfl'ary he fhoiild be able to compare his 
ideas \ and how fhould he compare thcfe when he is hardly 
in a fituation to conceive them ? To every obje£t he might 
learn to give a thoufand difterent names ; but every idea muft 
have one dctcrmin;tte form i he cannot therefore learn tofpeak 
more than one language. Will it be told mc, that children 
do a<flualiy learn fevcral ? I deny the fadt* I have, indeed^ 
(een little wonderful prattlers, who were imagined to talk 
five or fix diflcrcnt languages. I have heard them fucceffivc- 
ly talk CJerman, in Latin, French, and Italian words. They 
made ufe, it is true, of the different terms of tive or {ix dic- 
tionaries ; but they ftill fpoke nothing but German, In z 
word, fill a chiid'^ head with as many fynonimous terms aa 
you pleafe, you will change his words only, but not his lan- 
guage, for he can know but one, 

** It is to conceal the incapacity of children in this rcfpc£^> 
that Preceptors prefer the ufe of the dead languages, in which 
there are no proper Judges to find fault with them. The fa- 
miliar ufe of thofe languages being long fince loft, they arc 
content to imitate, as well as they can, what they find writ- 
ten in books ; and this they call fpeaking. If fuch be the 
Greek aj\d Latin of the IVj afters, it is eafy to judge what 
maft be that of their Scholars." 

Mr, Rouflfeati obje£ts farther to the ftudy of Hiftory, as 
being above the capacity of children. The common roe- 
thod of inftrudting them oy fables, he thinks alfo abfurd and 
inconvenient ; iOuftrating his arguments on this head, by m 
particular examination of one of the fables of Fontaine. Fa- 
bles, he fays, fliould be written for men i the fimptc truth 
Ihould be always cxpofcdto children. But, perhaps, the in^ 




rtsnvenience our A\ithor exemplifies, is owing to this very 
clrcymft;incc» that the fables wc put into the hands of chil- 
dren, are calculated for grown n\ti\\\ whereas, if the Fabu- 
lift fhould properly adapt his wntings to ihc capacity of chil- 
drcn, they might not be liable to the ceiifore here palled on 

On the whole, Mr. Roufleau is, by no means, for having 
children prcfTed to learn any thin^. I araalmoft certain, fays 
he, ih^t Kmitius will know perfedly well how to read and 
write before he is ten years old, becaufc I give myfcif h'ttle 
trouble whether he lea^n it or not before he is fifteen : but 
1 had much rather he fhouM never learn to read at all, th:in 
that he fhoukl acquire fuch knowlegc at the expence of what 
would render it ufcful to him : and of what ufe would be 
his knowing how to read, if fo difgufted with learning it, 
that he flii>yld hate to look in a book for ever afterwards \ hi 
in prwm (avert apforublty m Jiudhi^ qui amsre mndum poterit^ 
9dirlt^ €t amarltukinem femtl ptrctptam etiam ultra rudti anms 

Our Author proceeds, however, ftrongly to enforce the 
expediency of exercifing the corporeal faculti«*s, and teaching 
children the vd^ of their fenfiblc organs. '* Of all our fa- 
culties, the fenfes are pcrfcded the firft : thefc, therefore^ 
are the lirft wc fliould cultivate : they are, nevcrthelefs, the 
only ones that arc ufually forgotten, or the moft neglcded. 

** To cxercifc the fenfes, is not merely to make ufe of 
them J It is to learn rightly to judge by them ; to learn, if 
I may fo cxprels myfelf, tb perceive j for we know how to 
touch, to fee, to hear, only as wc have learned* 

** Some cxcrcift's are purely natural and mechanical, and 
ferve to make the body ftrong and robuft, without taking the 
Icaft hold on the judgment : fuch are thofe of fwimmingt 
running, leaping, whipping a top, throwing ilones, &c. All 
thcfe are very well : but have we only arms and legs ? Have 
wc not alfo eyes and ears ; and are not thefe organs neceflar/ 
to the expert ufe of the former ? Do not only excrcife your 
ftrength, therefore, but all the fenfes that diredt it ; make the 
bcft pofTible ufe of each ; and let the impreiBons of one con- 
firm thofe of another. Meafurc, reckon, weigh, and com- 
|>are. Exert not your force till you have efti mated tiic refill- 
Jincc you are going to encounter j always fo conttrving it, 
that an cftlmation of the effcd may precede the ufe of the means. 
Let your Pupil fee his intcreft in never making fuperfluous oc 

Z 2 Infuificient 

RoussEAu'i S^em f>f Education* 

By thus ufing him to forefee the efFc^ 



of all ti us, and to corrc<5l his errors by experience, is 

it no^ clear, that the more extenfive and various his excrcife, 
the more judicious he will grow? 

*' Let us fuppofe him going to move an heavy body by 
means of a lever*, if he takes one too long, he will find it 
iinman'agcable with his fliort arms ; if too Ihort, he will not 
have fufficient force : experience will teach him to chufc one 
one of the proper length. This kind of knowlege is not 
above his age. Does the matter in queftion regard the lift- 
ing a burthen I If he would take up one as heavy as he couU 
carry, and not makea fruitlefs endeavour to raife one he could 
not lift, is he not under a neceflity of ellimating the weight 
by ht^ eye ? When he knows how to make a comparifon 
between maffcs of the fame matter, but of different bulk* 
let him learn to do the fame between mafTes of the fame bulk, 
but of different matter ; he will then experience the differ- 
ence of their fpeclfic gravity. I remember a young man, ve- 
ry well educated, who could not be perfuaded, till he had 
made the experiment, that a tub full of cleft wood^ was 
lighter than ihe fame tub filled with water. • 

*« We are not all equally expert in the ufe of our fenfes. 
There ts enc, to wit, the touch, whofc aflion is never fuf* 
'jjended while we arc awake, and which is extended over the 
whole furface of the body, as a continual guard to give us 
notice of every thing that may be oftcnfive. It is by means 
cif tiie coininui*! and involuniary exercife of this fcnfe, that 
we acquire our earlicft experience, whic h makes it the lefs 
needful for us? to give it any particular cu! tivation. We fijid^ 
however, that blind people have a much lironger and more 
delicate fcnfe of feeling than we; becaufc, having no in- 
formation from the fight, they are obliged to deduce the fame 
conclufjous from the former fcnfe only, which we are fur- 
nifhcd with by the latter. Why then rtiould v/c not learn to 
v/alk, like them, in the dark ; to know bodies by the touch» 
to judge of the obje£ls that furround us ; to do, in {hort, by 
Jlight without candles, all they do by day without eyes ? 
While the fim is above the horiJ^on, we have the advantage 
oT them, ar,d lead them about ; but in the dark, they arc our 
guides, and take the lead in turn. We are blind as they dur- 
ing one half of our fives, with this difference^ that thole who 
51 re really blind, csii at all limes find their way about ; where*- 
5t5, we riiat have e)xs hardly dare to ilir a fxjot in the nigbt. 
Will it be faid, we may call for candles and torches ? We 





■^ RoussiAUV S^em of Educatsm* J55 

r^ may fo : but this is to be always rccurrmg to machines : who 
can aflurc us th^y wtJi always be at hand? For my own 
part, I had much rather Emilfus ftiould h;ive eyes at his <i»- 
gcrsi ends than at the tallow-chandlers. 

- ** Should you be fittit up in a houfe in the middle of the 
night, c!ap your hands, and you may perceive* by the echo, 
whether the room you nre in be large or fmall ; whether you 
are in the middle or \\\ one corner. Within fix inches of the 
wall, the very air will give a different fenfation ro your face 
to what it docs in the middle of the room. Turn yourfelf 
round fucccflivcly, facing every part of the room, and if there 
be a door open, you will p::rceivc it by a gentle draught of 
air. Arc you in a veflcl upon the water, you may know by 
the manner in which the air ftnkcs againft your face, not only 
which way you are going, but whether you go fall or flow. 
Thcfc obfervations, and a thoufand others of a fimilar kind, 
can be made only in the night; for, whatever attention we 
bcftow 0:1 them in the day-time, we are always fo far either 
ajfliftcd or prevented by the fight, that the experiment efcapes 
us,' We here make ufe neither of hands nor flicks ; in- 
deed, we might acquire a confidcrable fharc of ocular informa- 
tton by the touch, even without touching any of the objcds 
in quellion.** 

In this manner Mr. RoufTcau goes on to give a number of 
pertinent and ufcful inflru£lions rejrarding the cultivation of 
the fcnfible, ^w^ thereby of the intellcdual, faculties of youth. 
This part of our Author's work 15 not Icfs ingenious than in- 
ftrudive j and is well worthy the perufal of all thofe who are 
concerned in the Education of youih. The manner in which 
he would have boys initiated in the feveral arts and fcicnces, 
s^nd induced 10 purfue thofc manly exerciiesi which are edcn- 
tial to the perfe^Stion of their itx. and fpecics, is extremely 
fenfiblc, and appears to be the evident cffi-il of acute obfcrva- 
tjon, and much rcflijLlion, on the fubjeJl. Indeed, we can- 
not bellow too great encomiums on the various inftances here 
given of our Author*s good fenfe and ingenuity. 

In entering on his third book, Mr. RoufTcau fiippofes his 
Pupil to have arrived at the age of twelve or thirteen years, 
at which time he thinks it neccffary to vary his mcrhod of in- 
ftrudlion. During the firft term of childhood, fays he, wo 
endeavoured only to lofc time, in order to avoid the ill tm- 
ftloyment of it- The cafe is now altered^ and nnc Wn^w.^v 
lime fufficinn \qx every thinj that m\7>\t \z uklvA. 't \\^ ^"a^V 





Rou'JSEAU*/ Syftt-m of Education, 

fions advance upon us apace ; and the moment they give n«>» 
ticeof their arrival, our Pupil will give ear to no other mo- 
fiitor. The interval between this term and his fifteenth 
year, hethink*iis the proper time, thcrcforej to fix hfs atten- 
tion on fcicnti fie objects ; this interval of difpaiEonaie intel- 
ligence, however, is (a (hort and tranfitory, and is bciide$ 
employed on fo many fubje£ts of prcfcnt utility^ that our Au- 
thor thJnits it a folly to judge it fufficlently long for a child lo 
acquire much learning or wifdom. It is not, therefore* our 
bufinefs, fays he, at prefent to make him an adept in the fcU 
cnces ; but to give him a taftc for them, and point out the 
method of improving it- 
Mr. Roufieau goes on to fppclfy in what manner he thinks 
this may bcft be eiFetted, iUuflratmg hi,s precepts by a num- 
ber of pertinent examples ; of all which we cannot fuffici- 
ently tclHfy our approbation. At the fame time^ we muft 
equally admire the accuracy wi!h which he appears to have 
ftudied fhc connexion between thefevtral fjcuftres of the hu- 
man conflitution, and the means of improving them by each 
other. Among other objefts of materia] concern, our Au- 
thor expatiates prcity largely on the expediency of preparing 
a youth againft any change of fituation, to which the vfci/fi- 
tudes of fortune may fubject him. By bringing him up, fays 
he, only to fill one (fation in life, we make him unfit for every 
other ; fo that mere accident may render all the pains wc have 
taken, ufelefs or dcftruftjve 

There is an abfurdity, continues he, in making a depcn^ 
dance on the actual order of fociety, without reflcding, that 
fach order is fybje£t to unavoidable revolutions, and that it is 
impoffible to forefee or prevent that which may aiTedt our chil- 
dren* For this rcafon it is, that our Author would have boys 
of whatever rank or fortune, learn fome mechanic art, or 
trade. To this propofal Mr. Roufleau imagines a fine Lady 
will objefl, and exclaim, *' My child ^earn a trade ! make 
** my fon a mechanic! confider, Sir, what you advifc ' * — 
** I do. Madam, 1 confider this matter better than you, who 
would reduce your child to the neceifity of beint; a Lord, a 
Marquis, or a Prince, or perhaps one day or other to be Jcft 
than nothing. I am defirous of invefting him with a title 
that cannot be taken from him, that will in all times and 
places command refpe^ j and, 1 can tell you, whatever you 
may think of it, he will have fewer equals in this rank thaa 
in ihat he may derive firom yuu. 



RoussEAoV Syjiem of Educathn^ 357 

** Not that I would have him learn arrade, merely for the 
fake of knowing how to excrcife it, bat tnat he may over- 
come the prejudices ufually conceived againlt it. You will 
never be reduced, you fay, to work for your bread. So much 
the worfc for you ; I fay, fo much the worfe. But, no mat- 
ter i if you labour not through neccllity, do it fur reputation. 
Stoop to the fituattonof an Artifan, that you may raife your- 
fcif above your own. To make fortune fubftrvient 10 your 
will, youmuft begin by rendering yourfelf inJtrpendtnt. T« 
triumph tn tke opinion of the world, you mult begin by dc- 
fpifing that opinion, 

** Remember, I do not advife you to acquire a talent, but 
a trade; a mechanical art, in the cxercifc of which the hands 
are more employed than the head ; an art by which you will 
never get a fortune, but may be enabled to live without one. 
I have often obf^rved, and that in families fiir csiough remov- 
ed from all appearance of wanting bread, a provident father 
very anxious to furnifh his children with various kinds of 
knowlege, that, at all events, they might be capacitated to 
earn a fubCftejice. In doing this alfo, fuch parents conceived 
they did a great deal in the way oi making provifion for their 
offspring, m cafe of the worft accidents. In this, however, 
they did nothir^g ; becaiife the refources with which they thus 
provided their ciiildren, depend on the fame good fortune of 
which they wanted to rejidcr them independent. So that a 
man poileflcd of the fineft talents, unlcfs he find himfelf in 
favourable circumflances to difplay them, is as liable toperifli 
for want, as he that hath none. 

** But, continues our Author, if, inftead of recurring to 

thefcfublime profcffions, which are rather calculated to nou- 
rifti the mind than the body, you :ipp^y yourfelf, when occa- 
lion requires, to the ufe of your hands, all thefc diiHcuIties 
will difappcar ; the arts of femlity are needlcf^j ; your re- 
fources arc at hand the moment you want to profit by them : 
probity and honour are no obftacles to your fubfiftcncc ; you 
have no need to fear or flatter the great, to creep or cringe to 
knaves, to be complaifant to the world, or to he either a bor- 
rower or a thief, which is much the fame thing, when a man 
fees no profpct^ of paying what he borrows. The opinion of 
others will not afFeil you ; you will be under no nccdfity of 
paying your court to any one, you will have no idiot 10 hu- 
mour, or Swifs tofoothe, no Courtezan to bribe, nor what is 
worfc, to flatter. Let knaves joftle each other, and thruit 
themfelves into preferment} it is nothing to you : this will 

Z 4 noc 

358 Thf Modern Fart &f an 

not hinder you in your obfcure Htuation, from being mi ho- 
reft man, or gaining a livelihood. Yo^ have o»ly to ^r* itir 
to the firft (hop cf the trade you have lcarned> aiid dcfiie em- 
ployment*, and it will be readily given you. Before nooo 
you will have earned your dinner; and^ if you arc fobcr and 
induftrious, before the week is out you will have camicd 
enough to fiibfift on a fortnight ; thus may you live free, 
healthy, fmccre, diligent, and hontfft : a man's time is not 
thrown away in learning to make this provifion/' 

With regard to the choice of a trade, our Author maket 
exceptions to the more frivolous and ufclcfs ; he would ncir» 
for inllancc* have his Pupil learn to bo an Embroiderer, a 
CJilder, or Varniflier, like the of Mr. Locke; 
Jie would neither have him a Fidler, a Player, or a Pamphle- 
teer ; had rather h^ ftould be a Pavior than an Enamellcrj 
myi a Coblcr than a Poet, We wiU not dtfputc with our 
Author the preferable util ty of ihrfe feveral profcflions ; bu^ 
we apprehcntl the pretenders to the buftin, a^ well as the tor- 
mentors of the goofc-quiU and car-gv,t, will object to the im- 
propriety of levelling their liberal and fublime occupations 
with the mechanic arts. 

But having attended this ingenious Writer to the end of 
hii third book, wc fhall here take leave of him^ tUl the ptib- 
lication of the other two i-olumes of his very llngalar per* 


fhi msdern Part ef Oft Upuv< r/ai Htflory^ fr^m the tarUtfl At- 
cmfit of Time \ comPihi fruti t^rtginai !r titers. By the Au- 
thors bf the ancient Pari. Vols, XXXIL and XXXIIU* 
8vo. 10s. in boards. Ofbornc, &c. 

HEROD I AN Jsiflly lamenting the little regard paid to 
TRUTH, by Hif^orians obfrrves, That the IVrUer tff 
JliJI ry if ftwre carefiii to tmbeViJli hh IVarh uilb pr&pruiy pf 
phrafcy and harmony (if JlyU^ than with truth : rrJUt'img thai rt^ 
fr.ote pvjierity will be mere likely to admire the two fornur i^cellen^ 
ties J than to deteSt his want of the lajl, 

This.accufation, wc apprehend, will not be broudu a^'ainil 
the Authors of the prcfent Compilation-^ \ who fccm to have 
paid no great attention to any other requifttcs of hiiloikal 

• fee our account of the preceding vo'umcs of this workt in the 
tivcnty-third and fubfcf^ucni vulumci of our Hcview, 


UnhcrfallSJiory, ^Wf. XXXIL tfWXXXni. 359 

writing, th:in a proper regard to matter of fact : for here arc 
few of thofe embelliChments af compofttion for which ihc 
moft celebrated Hiftorians have bet^n admired \ from Thucy- 
didcs and Livy, down to Robert (on and Hume, Here wc 
have no great parade of learning, no profound enquiries, no 
critical difquifitions, no pathos of cxpreflion, to cx:itc the 
paffions of the Reader ; no rhetorical fiowers to adorn the nur- 
raticn, »nd difplay the abilities of the Writer. A bare and 
bri-f recital of events, and chronological cxa6tncfs, chiefly 
conftitutc the merit of thcfc volumes ;— which contain aa 
epitome of the Hiftorics of Denmark and Sweden : an entire 
%'olumc to each kingdom. The Authors appear to have con- 
fultcd the beil authorities, and to have digelied their maicriab^ 
as well as can be expedtcr^, in a work carried on by dlfFerciit 
hands ; and th^fe points, it muft be confefled, are of madi 
more confcqiience, in works of this nature, than the pomp of 
dielion, or the graces of ftyle ; which, after all, arc by no 
means eflentially neceffary, and fomctimes highly improper in 
hiilorica! compoficion. Plainnefs and perfpicuity, are the prin- 
cip.ii requifue**; — and from thelc^ under the guidance of an 
hone ft impartiality, and a manly freedom oi mind, arife the 
true dignity of the Hiflorian. 

A$ fcveral volumes of this work are publiflitd, fubfc- 
quent to thofe which are now before us, wc (ball be 
fparing of our extracts from the prefent or future articles^ 
until we have difcharged our at rear, with rcfpcft to this Hif- 
torv» and have overtaken the Authors, in the courfe of ihcir 
periodical publication. We cannot, however, in a Bri- 

tifli Journr.l, deny onrfelves the fatisfa^lion of communicat- 
ing to Britilh Readers, the following fmgular conccflion made 
in favour of Liberty, by John King of Denmark^ in hix 
dying charge to his fon and fucceflbr, anno 1513. It w*aA 
folemnly delivered, in the prcfence of a great nvunber of Se- 
nators and Noblemen. 

' My fon,' faid the expiring Monarchi * I exhort jou m 

* woriliip God, and pray to the King of King-; to infpireyou 

• with.wirJom adequate to the heavy [weighty] charge I am 

* %i^^^^^o devolve^ on you. I recommend it 10 you, to go- 

♦ vcrn your people with equity, and, above all things, to be 
t tender of their privileges. fFbat gi&ry ii thire in hring the 

♦ Such hour Hidorian's tranOation, ai we apprehend, from Mn* 
frttus: bat we have not tK-it Author at hand to cOnfuIt; he is here 
i>hcn quoted, tho* notpaiijcularly for this fpecch. 

71}f Aiodtrn Part 9/ an 

* King ^Slaves ? Let it be your ambition to be thought 

* worthy to gO'Vtf'n Freemen. Do nothin g by v jolcncc ; con* 

* fult your faithful fubjcdls ; and attach them as wclf by 

* fricndfhipas'by duty. Adminifter juflice in pcrfon, and let 

* your ears be ever optn to the complaints of the opprefltd, 

* and to the groans of the injured and indigent. Fill all 

* |rtaces of truft and profit wiih your natural fubjc(£b : God 

* has given you charge of their intcrcft; they called you to 

* the throne, and gratitude requires a return frumyou. R6* 

* ward my faltbfiil fenmnts^ and attach them to you, rhey 

* will then nave a double tie to icrve you with fidelity; love 

* of my memory, and a fenfe of their obligations 10 you : and 

* now, my deareft fon, I pray God to b!efs you, to direA 

* you, and grant you a long reign, profperous to you, and 

* happy to your people* 

With thefe words, di(Sated ,by true wifdom, and un- 
feigned goodncfs, expired this great and excellent Prince, 
irniverfatly reverenced, beloved, and regretted ; — what effc^ 
they h^d, or rather had not, on his fucceflbr, will, with hor- 
ror, be feen, in the life of Chriftian the fecond, one of the 
moll arbitrary and inhuman Princes that ever reigned ; in a 
word, iIk Nero of the North, — '* He fecmed, indeed, fay 
our Authors, to be one of thofe Princes which Heaven in 
wrath fets over a nation, as a puniflimcnt for the fins of the 
people, and a trial of their p^Ttience ;" It is^ however, the 
fault of the people themfclvcs, if ever they fulfer fuch wicked 
Governors to make a very hn^ trial of their patience. The 
lianes endured the t)Tanny of this fame Chriftian* as long 
as human nature could fupport fuch outrages and cruelties as 
he was perpetually committing. At length, howe\xf, after 
thus ruling them with a rod of iron, for about ten years, they 
recolied'^ed that they were men i they roufed themfclvc5, and 
droi^e the t)'rant from his throne |. 

This Hiftory of Denmark commences with the reign of 
Dan^ the Founder of the kingdom, from him named Den- 

• It was in oppofition to thii bloody tyrant, that the jrreat Gus- 
TAVU& Vasa arofe, die Deliverer of his country, Sweden^ then ia 
fflbje6ion to the Crown of Denmark. 

f ^y what means the Danes have fincc unfortunately loft their Li- 
berty ; how the Crown from being clcdivc became hereditAry ; and 
the power ef the Kitig rendered abfolute, may be ktn toward the 
cloft of the prcfcnt volume. It is ceriairii however* ihil the rigor 
of defpotic government^ has been greatly fofccned by the mild and 
prudent admini(lrauoii of the Princcj who have fincc rclgncd, 

mark I 



Vmverfa} Wiftiry, Vsh. XXXII. avd XXXIH. 


mark ; he is fuppofed to have lived about a thoufand years 
before Chrift. The work concludes with an culogiam on the 
prcfent Monarch* Frederick the fifth \ of whom our Author 5 
give a more advantageous character, than will probably b^ 
fubfcribed to by the Hamburghers J, Candour, however, 
my ft acknowlcge the wifdom and prudence of this Prince's 
^mitiiftration j by which the Court of Copenhagen has ac- 
quired an influence in the affairs of the North, unknown to 
former ages, except in the fifteenth century, when Dcpmart, 
Sweden, ^nd Norway, were united under the illuiVriuus 
Queen Margaret, funiamed the Northern Semiramis, 

In the Hiftory of Sweden, we have the following extraor- 
dinary inftance of the heroic and romantic fpiiit of the times, 
when the feudal fyftem prevailed. 

About eight hundred years before the birth of Chrift, a def- 

erate wur fubfifted between Hading King of Denmark, an4 
unding King of Sweden, which o^cafioned fo enormous an 
expence of blood and treafure on both fides, that at length 
mutually agreeing to put a ftop to the unavailmg f|aughtcr 
of their fubjcds, and defolation of their kingdoms, ihcy con- 
cluded a peace, as cordial and fincere as their former ani- 
cnofity was bitter. ** They fwore a perpetual alliance, and 
entered into a very extraordinary agreement, That as foon as 
the one fliould be informed of tne other*s death, the furvivor 

ftiould immediately lay violent hands on himfelf* After 

reigning with great felicity for fomc years, the news came 
that Hading was no more. It was falfc;— but Hunding had 
not patience to wait for a confirmation of it* He refolvcd to 
die; and immediately prepared a magnificent entertainment, 
aflembled all his Officers round hfm, plied them with wine, 
and» at the clofc of the fcaft, flung himfelf into a vefiel full 
of hydromel, where he pcriihed. The Danifh Monarch [a^ 
well he might] received the news with the utmoft grief; 
and that he might equal his friend in generofit}% hanged 
himfelf in fight of the whole Court/* 

If we admit the truth of this anecdote, it was^ indeed, a 
moft extraordinary inftance of friendlhip and fidelity. Our 
Authors have related the ftory without cxprefhng the leaft 
doubt of its authenticity; notwithftanding they hitve, in 
their hiftory of Denmark, given a different account of the 

X We find, however, that it Is no new thin^ for the Kiflgs of 
Denmark to levy contributicini on the city of Hamburgh. Chrif- 
tian V. in parucular, Qx^igd a great fiim from them ia the year i68r. 

matter : 



36a The Modern Part of an Unherfa! HiJIory. 

matter : as they have, indeed, of other events, as well as fome 
charadcrs, refpe<^ing the two nations, according as they have 
followed the Danifli or Swcdifh Hiftorians, from whom their 
materials are drawn. They here tell us, without taking the 
leart notice of the above-mentioned fatal compaft, that 
*^ Hading laid violent hands on himfelf, probably in difgufi 
at the unnatur^d conduH of his favourite daughter y who had 
made repeated attempts upon her father's life,'* 

They have infcrted, however, the following Note, p<3irtty 
taken from Suaningius's Chronology of the Dani/h Kings. 
** We find in fome Hiftorian?, that Hading, after his rerum 
from Britain, [which he had fucccfs fully invaded] hanged him- 
felf in prefence of his whole Court. Ic was I'eportcd, that he 
died in that illand, and Handing King of Sweden, cclcbratin'^ 
his funeral rites> w^as drowned in a caldron of wort, Hading's 
death is attributed to his grief for this misfortune/* 

Confidering the general uncertainty of hiflorical Evidence, 
wc are on many occafions incilned to conclude, that much 
kfs credit is due to the faith of Hiftorians, than is ufually 
yielded to it, by the credulity of manltind. Writers being 
fubjeit to the fame pafllons and prejudices, ignoranec and dtf- 
honefty, with other men, hearfay, mifrcprefcntation, or down- 
right invention, arc therefore but too often the materials of 
which the Hiftories of Kings and Kingdoms are compofcd, 
and from which the greateft charaders are drawn. A fmglc 
volume of government -papers, and other authentic docu- 
ments drawn from public records, and the great offices of 
ilate, will, perhaps, contain more truth than moft of the 
fine, florid, elegant, and elaborate compofitions of ancient 
and modern times ; m:iny of which, on a ftrict fcrutiny^ 
will be found little better than Romances : but rtot afways fo 
innocent. By the invention of printing, however, great ad- 
vr.nt age hath accrued to modern Hilloi-y; which hath there- 
by juilly obtained the preference in this refpect over the anci- 
ent. Numerous authorities daily ilTue from ihc preft \ which 
being taithfuUy col levied, or judicioully referred to, by the 
Hiftorian, add a greater weight to his compilations, than could 
he claimed by the V/riters of antiquity, who fe Retails reflt' 
folely on thetr perfonal veracity. * 

This Hiftory of Sweden, which forma tho thirty-third vo^- 
lume of the prtfcnt undertaking, concludes with the accef- 
fion of the prcfcnt royal family, and a brief flcetch of the 
conduit of rficSwedesi iji refpcci to the part they have fo re- 

. ccptljf 

WestV Sermmu 363 

^ntly aclcd in Ae grand alliance formed againft the invinci- 
ble Hero of Brandenburgh. 

Some account of the fubfcquent volumes of the Modern 
Univcrfal Hiftory, will be given in our next. 


Sirrmm m varimi important Suhjtils, By the late Reverend 
Mn William Weft. Publiflied from the Author's Manu- 
fcript, for the Benefit of his Family, 8vo. 5 s. Hen- 
derfoii, ,&c* 

THE fubje^Eh of thefc Sermons arc are as follows^— — 
the Goodnefs of God — the Wifdom oi God — the Har- 
mony of the Divine Perfe^ions — Maii^s inadequate Concep- 
tions of the Deity — the Pricfthood of Chrlft — pure and un- 
defiled Religion — the Folly and Danger of being afliamed of 
the Gofpcl of Chrift — the Condemnation of thofe who rejodt 
the Gofpel — St* Paul's charader vindicated — the Nature of 
true and falfc Religion — Self-denial — the vanity of human 
^ Inftitutiona in Religion — the Charafler of Pontius Pilate — 
the Progrefs of Superftition — the Spirit and Temper qf the 
Gofpel — and Conformity to this World* 

Thefe fubjefts are treated with great perfpicuity and judg- 
ment ; with candor and freedom, The Author appears to have 
thought for himfclf ; to have had no blind or bigotted attach- 
ment to party-notions in religion j to have beeUj in a word» 
a fincere Lnciuii'er after Truth. His fcntiments arc juft and 
manly ; his reflections pertinent and judicious j his ftyle ner- 
vous, clear, and eafy. 

In his firft Sermon, he candidly acknowlegcs, that it is, 
perhaps, impodible in the prefent ftate, to give a full and fi- 
tisfaftory anfwer to all the difiiLuhics and objcilions that may 
be raifed, by fpcculativc Minds, againll the divine Goodnels, 
from the fylhmof the world, and what continually palTes in 
it. He mentions one proof, however, in its favour, v^WiJi 
the impnrtial, he prefumcs, will allow to be of more force 
tlun all the objections that have been ever ralfcd againft it, 
vix, the connection that viiibly Tubl ft . between virtue and hap* 
pinefs, on the one hand, and vice urid mifcry on the other. 

*' This is a conneiSlion, fays he, which every man may 
fee, in fa<ft, verified In hlh tb^ufand inftances around ui> ; and 


^§4 West'j Serfiwns* 

though there are, and have been cafe^ in which the cviCnt 
feems to turn out quite othenwife, yet thcfe are by no meam 
fuf&cient to dtftroy the faith of the fobcr and thinking part 
of manlciud \ whole charadleriftic it has been to be firmly per* 
{^}2i^td that virtue tends to happincfs, vice to mifery* in their 
vifiblc and general efFefls^ Taking this then for a matter of 
fadl, which cannot reafonably be denied^ or difputed, — what^ 
caji it be rcfohed into ? what can it originallv proceed from, 
but the goodncfs of the great Creator and Governor of the 
world? — This difpenfation or conilitution of things, \s evi- 
dently calculated to advance the general and univerfal happ?' 
ncfs. For, according to this, the more good a man docs to 
others, by a good example, or friendly office* of any kind, 
the more effectually he promotes his own happinefs and en* 
joymenr. So that public and private happincfs are here uni- 
ted i felf-love and focial are the fame in the final rcfult rf 

Our Author*s Sermon on the Folly and Danger of bei^g 
afiiamed of the Gofpel of Chrift, is, in our opinion, an ex- 
cellent one, and dcferves the attentive perufal of every consi- 
derate Reader, He obfcrves^ that the paJHon of (hame, tW 
originally intended to keep men from wandering out of the 
paths of virtue and happinefs, into thofe of vice and Hitfery* 
may yet by perverfion lead them into thofe very paths from 
which it was intended to reftrain them. Accordingly wc 
often fee perfons^ who have not the rcfolution to be fingular 
in any affair, however important, but are in a manner wholly 
governed by the general vote, aftiamed to own whut would 
do them great honour to affert and maiutain in the moft public 
manner — and even afliamcd to aflert their liberty of dtiTenf, 
when a compliance with the majority deeply involves them ijf 
fm and guilt. Nay, fo far has the perverfion of this princi* 
pie prevailed over fome, and fo much have they been afraid of* 
incurring the difefteem of the many, and the great, that they 
have publicly difowned and denied, what they have fccrctly 
avowed, in the flrongeft terms, and falfified ihemfelvcs in the 
moft grofs and fhocking manner. 

After producing Come inftances of this unmanly condud, 
our Author proceeds to confider the cafe of thofe who arc 
alhamcd openly to efpoufe the caufc of Chriflian liberty,^— 
** This h a fybje£t, fays he, that deferves to be confidered 
very largely and diftlnflJy •, and in order to a right view of il^ 
le^ it be obferved, that among the many important privileges 
wliich the great Founder of ^ur religion has annexed to the 





profeffion of it, this is one, — ^that as members of the Chriftian 
church, we arc all independent of each other in point of au- 
thority i that we are to call no man Mafter on earth j but tlut 
every individual manber is to examine, try, and judge tor 
htmfclf, and to be fully perfuadcd in his own mind with re- 
j, gard to all his religious fcntimcnts, and practices : — and this 

■ has been juftly cftccmcd, by all that have rightly confidered 
it, as a glorious privilege of the Chriftan religion. — The Gof- 
pel, in this view of ii, may be regarded as a fpecial interpofal 

ft of the evcr-blcd'cd God, in behalf of the moft facred rights 

■ and liberties of mankind ; in oppofition to the haughty and 
I impious claims of covetous and proud men, that would lord 

■ it over God's heritage, and alfumc to thcmfelves to be Go- 
I vernors and Judges in affairs that are too important to be rc- 
m fcrred to fuch weak arbitrators. 

I " It fliould be further obfcrvcd, that notwithftanding the 

I religious liberties of mankind have been thus Iblemnly ratified 

■ and confirmed by a div ine revelation ; yet under cover of thi^ 
H very revelation, and a pretence of patronizing and defending 
B it, men have eftablifhed a worfe uliirpation over the confcj- 
M cnces of their fellow fubje^ts, than perhaps ever prevailed m 
H the world before. Thus the Priefthood firft of all affumed, 
W and afterwards feized upon, whar is called ecclcfiaftical au* 
H thority in the Chriftian church ; in confequence of which, 
B civil cftabliftiments of religion have taken place in all the 
B kingdoms of Europe; in which it is particularly defined by 
B human laws, in what manner Chriftians (hall profcfs their 
B religion, and in what terms, and with what ceremonies, they 
B (hall publicly woribip God* 

B ** Againft thefe impofitions of human authority, fomehavc 

B arifen in almoft all ages, and borne their public teftimony* by 

B ftanding faft in that liberty wherewith Chrift made them free : 

B and, in confequence, have been obliged to fubmit, fome to 

B cruel tortures and deaths* others to penalties and difcourage- 

B ments, greater or Icfs, according to thefeverity of the refpec- 

B tivc governments under which they lived, — but universal ly 

B they have been branded with the names of Heretics, and 

B Schifmatics, by thofe eftablifhed churches from which they 

B have taken the liberty to diflent, — ^And as they conftantly 

B have, and probably always will have, a majority againft them, 

B who, in appearance at leaft, do fubmit to human authority in 

B religious matters, fo their hardOiips muft be the greater in 

B proportion to the fmallnefs of their number, Now among 

B thofe who publicly conform to civil eftabliftiments of religion, 

■ aad 

366 WestV Sermons^ 

and join in public worfhip with thofe who take upon them to 
appoint new terras of communion, or Ajch as were not ap 
pointed by our Lord and his Apoftles, it is certain there i 
many who in their hearts approve of that Chriftian libcrr][J 
which, in appearance^ they dcfcrt ; — who openly avow, 
contribute to countenance and fupport that authority which, 
in their real rentiments, and their private converfation, they 
give up ;is an ufyr|jation not to b:; juftificd upon the principles 
of Chriftlamtyt which they allow clearly on the fide of 
liberty, and oppofue to all human authority in matters that 
are purely religious. — The conduct of fuch as thefc looks 1 ~ 
much like being afhamed of our Lord and his words, as tbc_ 
have not thetefolution to a*St openly upon the Gofpel plan, 
when they fwC great numbers and powers appearing againft it— 
anJxhat which grcdtly aggravates this unjuftifiablc behaviour 
js, that the peace and well-being of mankind arc fo nearly 
affefted by it. 

^* That the ngUts of confcicnce, or of private judgment 
in religion, (hould be prelerved iJi their utmoft cxttnt, is : 
matter of the gre;Ueft importance to mankind, Cncc thU/ 
the only cffsdiial bar s^ainft perfecutlon, which has intj 
duced fo much dlforder and confufton into the world, and 
made fuch havock among the fons of men, as it \s Vcryw- 
fliocking to reflect upon, much more to thofe that have fc-^ 
vercly felt the eftc<5ts of it. It is true, the fpirit of perfccu- 
tion does not run fo high at prefent as it has in former agcaf*^ 
but if the principles from which it received llrcngth and cr 
coiiragtment are f!I!l efpoufed, and vindicated* it is ccrtainl 
the' duty of all Chriftian ProfcITors efpecijlly, to give tHci? 
public tc^ftimony 4igainft them, that, if poffiblc, there may 
not be the leail foundation left to raifc any future perfecutloii 
upon ; that no diftitrbance may evermore be given t^ th 
peace of thofe who are detcrnuned to abide by tht 
privileges, and to maintain their right of ditfcnting : 
man authority, :jnd judging for tnemfeives m aU religious 

•< That this is reajly a privilege, and an eflential part of 
the Gofpd difpenfiuon^ has notbtcn fo generally and fully 
confidcred as it ought to have bern. The Gofpcl, Indead of 
fupporting the claims; of human authority, advanced fcy co- 
vetuus and ambiunus men, ii dlitclly levelled agat nil then 
and tends, to the Urongcll manner, to difappoint and dcfp^ 
them. — So much the more fhamuful and diflionour 
IS iheccnJui^l of thofL vvhv ^rc fcufiblv? of lliii^j aiiJ yt 


Van Swiiiif?s Cmmentarlis alrid^gj^ 


dffert' thofc principles of the Gofpel, which have fo gene-- 
rous and friendly an afpe<2; upon the liberties of mankind i— 
^hich were intended to refcue men out of the hands of their 
religious opprcflbrs, to difcountcnance the views of worldly 
amoition^ and to eftabliOi thefpirit of iadependency and free- 
dom, which 13 the life and foul of religion. In what light 
then can we regard tbofe who are afhamed of our Lord and 
hts words, when wc confiJcr him as aflerting, in the ftrong* 
ctt terms, the principles of religious liberty ? — Is it not an 
incxcufable cowardice, to difown fo worthy and important 4 
caufe, and w^iich, from the great original of it, wc are aiTur- 
cd muft finally prevail ?** 

Our Author enlarges a good deal on this fubjciii but ftich 
Readers as are defirous cf feeing what he has farther advanced 
upon it, we r^iti tp the Sermons thcmlelvcs. 

Van SfvUhns C^mmintarm ahridgt^d, By Dr. Schomberg of 
Bath, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 8vo. 6s. 

THE ftiort preface to this abridgment obfcrvcs, ** That 
the- prolixity of Van Swictcn's Commentaries upon the 
Aphori&ns of Boerhaave may be tedious to the experienced 
Prajftitioncr> and frequently dlfgufting to the young Student, 
who is eafdy frightened at the fight of voluminous writings j" 
adding, *' that inllruftion is moft impreilive, where it is Icaft 
incumbered/' This, indeed, is the fenfe of the following 
appofitc motto to this abridgment^ 

^icpaJ practptfs^ eflobrevh\ utdtidiiia 
Percipiani animi dociles^ tene&ntque fideUt. 

Our medical Epitomi fer, however, might have attempered 
' this precept, by remembering, the fame excellent Critic alfo 
fays — Biivls tjjfe laboro^ obfcurus fio — and have farther confi- 
dered, that, cfpecially in didactic treatifcs, obfcurity is by 
all means to be avoided. In this fmgle volume Dr. Schom^ 
berg had propofed to abridge the three of Van Swieten al- 
ready publiflied in Latin, which we find were tranflatcd 
and printed here at different \imes, from the year 1744 to 
1758, in eleven volumes 8vo* This at firft may fuppofc the 
different extent of the original and the abridgment to be as 
one to eleven j but on a muck better aikulatton of chcir con- 
Re v- Nov, 1 762, A a xsw^vi.^ 


Fan Swhtin^s Cammmtarm ahriditim 


tcnU, the former is above thirty times as much as the latter. 
Nw» as the rca<«>n for Van Swicten's Commentaries on Bo- 
crjiaave's Aphorifms, was the great concifcncfs of that clofe 
and pregnant work, (whence, perhaps^ fuinc unavoidable ob- 
fcuriiy) wc Ihould not expe<£t the Abridgment of fuch a Com- 
mcntarj^ to be reduced to liitic more than the fixe of the Apho- 
rifms tliemfelvcs, which are alio cDouincd in the Commen- 
tary, as far as it h pablilhed'. 

Thcgtrncial heads or titles of the Commentary are eighty-. 
three ; thofe of the Aphoriims thirty-feven. Dr. Schorr-^'" - 
however, has contrircd to begin vi\xhr Difnafa of a Jtmj 
Fil'r^j and to end with the Hmpyema^ which make the 
afrtklcof tJlc firil, and the fmal one of the eleventh volume^ 
But it muft bt ohl'ervcd, that the tranibtiDn at large fomc- 
times treats of one difcafe under as many titles as there mrc 
fpecics of that gcncrical difcafe, for inftance, of the Quincy 
p^kFlkuIarly. Ncverthelefs, if the-Baron haf not been great- 
ly, and very unnecefTarily, prolix* Dr. Schomberg muft have 
been too cioncifc and laconic. If the latter has retained ait 
that is eflentis|ily materiaj, it muit imply the aiiginal to be 
much more generally diffufe than pertinent. 

It fhoiild have been c^oofidcred, however, for whofc fer- 
vk*e thefc CommentaTics y^rcvQ prmcipally calculated ? The 
obvious anhrcr to this fecms to be, — for thofe capaci- 
ties, to which the Aphorifms feemcd too obfcure, too nnticii 
comp^refled, as it wcix;* This would confequcntly incline 
Baron Van Swre^en rather to expatiate, than to be too con* 
cife and aphortllical himfclf : and fuppofing this the cafe, Dr, 
Schomberg \h very bfief epitome has interfered with his Au- 
thor's capital Intention, if the Do^or dcfigncd it forPhyfi- 
ctans of experit^ice and erudition, doubtlefs there are majiy 
fuch, who need no explanation of, no Commentary on» the 
Aphorifms. Such, therefore, may be willing, at their letiure^ 
rather to perufc the Commentaries in the oridnal ; as the 
rtiany cafes, the phyfical experiments, the phynological rca- 
fonings and ftiggcfti nns, which he has intcrfpcrfed throughout 
them, ami cmbclliflied %vith \m general eruditioni prevent 
him from appearing ot>en dry or tedious. 

It fccms, nevertheleCE, upon the whole, as if fome happy 
ipcdtum might be found betweeti Van Swietcn's voluminous ^ 
cjttent> and Dr, Schomberg*s diminutive, not to fay, difp^^ 
raging, brevity: and doubtlefs, in general, if a good A u* 
ti^or bad equal jt;ifure and Jifpofuivn for it, he muil f^rave the 



^//^if/ tf G\maJi<T^i Dcefrme of Grati. 36$ 

Wft Ahbrcviatcr of his own work^ of which the lieerary world 
has fcen iom^ acceptable iiiftanccs. The produdlimi of thc 
prelent booic needed little more trouble than to mark in the 
mafL^in the paragraphs which the Printer ftiould compofe j and 
here and there to change a word or particle, in order to con* 
ndl them- 

Dr, Schomberg, howevef, having been modeft enough ort 
this atchievement of his Svnopfis, with his — mti kiudtm meruit 
it were fciirccly Jiberal crlticifm to extend thefe ftridlurcs far- 
ther. As he promifes to abridge thc pan yet unpubliihed by 
Van Swieten, foon after it appears, it will give him an oppor- 
riinity of re-confidcring what he has already done. On com* 
paring fomc part of his Abridgment with the EngTifh Tran- 
iladoa, we find it verbally thefame^ except the difference al- 
ready mentioned. Hence it is manifeft> we have nothing to 
remark on thc ftyle or manner of this performance, which arc 
not Dr, Scliomberg's, but are taken from thc Tranilator of 
Van Swieten, whofe performance does not lie properly be- 
fore us. All that fs ftriaiy the Abridger's, !s his Preface, 
Which is fliort and decent. As he muft be fuppofcd t6 have 
perufed this valuable and learned Author with more than or- 
dinary attention, in order to this Abftra6t of his Commen- 
taries, it viras certainly a very pertinent employment for % 
pradical Phyfician \ of which, we hope, hts Patients and 
himfdf will perceive thc good confequences* 

TA^ Doilrine of Graa : Or^ the office and optt attorn cf the Hofy 
Spirit vindicated from the ittfulfs of infidelity^ and the ahufcs of 
fanatitifm : Comkiding with fome thoughts (humbly offered U 
the tm/ideratimi of sbe established clergy) with regard 
to tie right method of defending religion again/I the attaeks of 
tither party* By VViJliam Lord Biihop of Gloucefter, 
Small Svo. 2 vols» 3 s. 6 d. in boardjj. Miliar^ &c. 

SUCH Readers as art; acquainted with the writings of the 
ingenious and learned Author of this performance, will 
cxpedt to find many Oifewd and pertinent obfcrvations, an 
original and lively turn of thought, atid a confidcrablc por- 
tion 6f critical fagaclty, in whatever comes from his pen; 
nol* wHI they be difappolnted in the work now before \xs. It 
abounds in digreffions, according to the new-fafhioned mode 
j^ Writing \ m^y important and curious fubjeds ar« touched 
^ * A a 2. >ft:^\^\ 

2'JO Eijfjcp cf Ghuccjlers DoSfrinc zf Grace. 

Hpon ; and though precifion and accuracy of difcuffion are 
often wanting, yet there are many judicious reflexions, and 
lively fallies of wit and fancy ; fo that almoft every claft of 
readers will find fomething to entertain them. As to his 
Lordfliip's main Subje£^, v\%, the doElrine of GRACE, fome 
licentious Readers will poffiUy be tempted to think, that be 
has made of it^ what Sir Richard Blackmore is liiid tahave made 
pf REDEMPTION ; bc this, however, as it may, there is 
Irttlc difpcnfation of 6rac£ in his treatment of poor y^&sr 
Wcpy^ whom he mauls without mercy. How this celebrated 
.Saint may edify under his corredion^ wc know not ; for 
our part, we can fcarcc conceive that he ever fuiFered more 
fevcrely from the buftctings of Satan himfelf, than from thofc 
of his Lordfhip. 

The fif ft thing wc meet with in thcfe little Shandean Vo- 
Jumei;, is a very curious Advertifement, which has been fuf- 
iiciently re-publifhed and criticifed in the Newspapers. 

The Advertifcment is followed by a Preface^ whei"^n the 
Author explains the advantages ariung from the obiervancc 
of the two following precepts of Solomon, viz. Anfwer not a 

fool according to his foUy^ Uji thou alfo bc like unto him ; rand 

anjvjcr a fool according to bis folly y Icfi he he wife in his awn 

toticat, What his Lord (hip has advanced on this fubje^i, 

'dcfcrves the ferious attention of every Advocate for religion 5 
and it were to be wiflicd, that he himfelf had, on every oc- 
cafion, fet an example of the conduit which he recommends* 

We come now to the difcourfc concerning the Office and 
Operations of the Holy Spirit^ which is introduced in the fol- 
lowing Manner : ■ *' The bleffed Jefus" fays our Au- 
thor, ** came into the world on the part of God, to 
.declare pardon and falvation to the forfeited pofterity of Adam. 
He teftiHcd the truth of his milBon by amasung miracles, and 
fealed man's redemption in his Blood, by the more amazing 
.fachfice of himfelf upon the crofs. 

" But as the" REDEMPtiON, fo procured, could only 
unorate on each Individual under certain conditions of Faith 
and Obedience, very repugnant to our corrupt nature, the 
bleffed Redeemer, on leaving the world, promifed to his fol- 
lowers his intcrccfEon with the Father, to fend amongft them 
another divine Perfo^i on the Part of Man, namely the 
Holy Ghost, called the Spirit of Truths and the Comforter -, 
who, agreeably to the import of thefc appellations, (hould 
co-operate witk man iu eftablifhing- his Faith, and in per- 




BiJhTp of GkuceJUri Do^rine tf Graa* 37f 

c£liiig his Obedience : or, in other words^ Bxauld fan^ify 
him tQ ndemptiofu 

** This is a fiiccinfl account of the CEconomy of Grace ^ 
entirely confonant to our moft approved conceptions of the 
divine nature and of the hum«n condition. For if man wsuj 
xo be reinftated in a free-gift which had been juftJy forfeited, 
we cannot but confefs, that as, on the one hand, the reflOra- 
tion might be made on what xronditions beft pleafcd the 
giver ; fo, on the other, that God would graciouily provide 
that it {faould not be made in vain. 

*« An atonement, therefore, for the offended myefty «f 
the Father, was firft to be procured; and this was th* 
worlc of the Son \ and then areracdv was to be provided iok 
that helplcfs condition of Man, which hindered the atone* 
mcnt from producing its effect, and this was the office of the 
Holy Ghost ; fo that both were joint-workers in the great 
' bttfinefs of reconciling God to maji. 

*« What therefore I propofe to confider is, the eff!££ and 
tperaticfts of the Holy Spirit^ as they are delivered to us in fa- 
cred Scripture, 

*' His Office in gener;ilis, as hath been obfervcd, to eflaUifli 
I <>Mt faiths and to peffe£l our Gbcdience : and this he doth by 

FYING THE Will. All this is ncccfTarily colleded from 
llhe words of Jefus, which contain this important Promise, 
J / will pray tht Father^ (fays he) and l?e Jball give ptt another 
[Comforter, that he may abide with you fcr ever i even the 

|5ptRlT OF Truth He dwelLth with ynu and Jhail be 

|i7f y^tt ivhich is the HoLY Ghost, whom the Father 

^ all fend in my mme. He jhall TEACH YOU ALL Things. 

*' By teaching ui all thinp^ under the joint charaflers of 

ic Spirit cf Truth and of the Comfsrtf7\ we are ncceflartly 

underfland all things whkh coticera Faith and Obedi- 


Thefc two difliniS branches of the Holy Spirit's o^ce hi« 
!/0rd{hip confidcrs in their order. The method employed 
l>y divine wifdom in manifcfling the operations of the Holy 
"^iHOST, as the Spirit and Guide ef Truthy comes iixft under 
^18 obfervatton. 

The firft extraordinarily atteftation of his- dcfccnt was at 
be day of Pentecoft, in 'the gift of tongues. Befides 
le great and almoft indifpenfiblc ufe of ibis cndowiAciit oa 
Aa 3 the 

372 Bljhop of Gloucejler's DoSinne of Grace* 

the firft difciples of Chrift, who were to convey tfic dac^ 
^tidings of the gofpcl throughout the whole earth j the^lcr 

Slice and propriety in the choice of this miracle, (his LoM- 
ip's own words) to atteft the real defcent of tYizx'Sfhit 
who waff to teach us all things^ can never, we are told, be fii& 
ficiently admired ; for worJs being the human yehicli? fof 
our knowledge, thi^ gift was the fittcft pr^curfor of t}ie S^hrk 
ef truth* 

Bnt this firft opening fc^^e of wonders, which wai-to p*e» 
pare r.nd influence all the fubfequent a£b of man*! redetap^ 
tion, Dr. Afi Meton wouUy from ^ Jign^ rtdncelo zJhadon> % 
or. wliicb he fccms to think, fancy fet itfelf to work, to pro- 
duce a prodigy. The gift of tongues, according tq the opir 
nion * of this learned writer, uas not lajiing^ but inflantaneous 
and t:\7n/itory ; not heftowed for the conftant work of the mi- 
niftry ; but as an occafwnal ftgn only^ that the pcrfon endowed 
with it was a chofcn minillcr of the. gofpcl : which fign, as 
i'oon as it had fenced that particular purpofe, appears to th^ 
Doftor, to have ceaied, and totally to have vani(hed. 

As this interpretation may be applied to purpofes Dr. MlAr 
dlcton never intended, our Learned Author enters into a di-? 
ftindl and careful examination of it, and (hews it to be dero- 
gatory to the operation of the Holy Spirit. He conclude^ 
this part of his fubjc^ft with the following words: — *' Thu^ 
far with regard to this extraordinary defcent of the Holy 
Ghoft, as the guide of truth. And this being as well 
the FIRST-FRUITS as the type and seal of all infpired 
knowledge, the facrcd hiftorian thought proper to give us a 
circuqiAantial relation of the faft. The other endowments 
of the Uphit df truth he hath mentioned only occafionally. 
So that had not the fubjeft of one of St. Paul's cpifilcs led 
the writer to enumerate thcfe various gifts, as they were af- 
terwards di(lribu(ed amongft the faithful, we ihould have had 
a very imperfc£l knowledge of them/* 

His Lordfliip now proceeds to explain briefly the naturt 
of thofe gifts, which St.. Paul tells us, were fever^Ily diftri-- 
buted amongft the faithful, viz, the word of wifaom^ the 
^ord of knowledge^ the gifts of healing j prophecy^ working vf 

miracles^ difceming of fpiriu^ &c. I'he Apoftles them- 

ielves, we arc told, had all thcfe gifts in conjundkion \ qcer- 
cifed them in fuller meafure ; fupported them by additional 
revelations ; and poffeffed them by a more lafting title, 

* See Dr. Middkton's May on the Gift of Tongues. 


Sul for k fuller account of thctr mftire^ and their tf/r^ vre arc 
referred to Scripture itfelf, which contains the hiftory of rbcir 
various fruits. As the richcft nf ihcfc fruits U the infit^ 
fkiiiopi of fcripture itfclf» our Author fclcfls this for the fub- 
jc£kof what he has farther to fay of the primitive operauon* 
of the Holy Spirit ; efpccially as this hatli, in thefe our lau 
Ur ttmesj been called ui queft ion- 
He obferves, that the Miniftry of the firft Preachers of t hi 
Gofpel confiftcd in thefc two parts ;' ly?, the tempomry 
and occafional inftruclions of thofe Chrillians whom they 
had brought to the knowledge of, and faith in, Jefus, the 
Meiliah ; "idly^ the care of compofing a 'written rule for the 
diredion of the church in all ages. Now it being allowed 
that they were divinely infpired iti the difcharge of the tem- 
porary part ; it muft be very ftrong evidence indeed, we arr 
told, which can induce an unprejudiced man to fufpcct, that 
tbcy wtie left to ihcrardves in the ejtccution of the other. 
Their preaching could only profit their Contemporaries : lor 
I nftrudions conveyed to future agt^s by tradition are liable to 
be loft and forgotten ; or, what is worfe, polluted and cor- 
rupted with fable. It is rcafonable, therefore, to think, that 
the Church was provided with a written rule* 

' His Lord{hip goes on to prove, that aU the firiptures of tl^ 
Nrw Tfjiammt were given by wjplr^ti&n cf Gad \ he cxpofcs the 
extravagance of certain opinions concerning fcripture if fpira^ 
iion ; and endeavours to fettle the true notion of it. His 
opinion is, that the Holy Spirit fc dirc*^ted the pens of tht' 
divine writers, that no confiderable error fhould fall from 
them; — — by enlightening them wfth his immediate influ- 
ence in all fuch matters as were neccffary for the inllrudlian 
of the Church, and which, either thro* ignorance or preju- 
dice, they would othcrwifc have represented imperfe*5^1y, 
partially^ or falfely ; and by prcfei^ing them, in the more 
ordinary ways of providence^ from any miihkcfi of confe- 
quence, concerning thofe thing? whereof they hud acquired 
a competent knowledge by the ordinary way of information* 
In a word, by watching over thcin InCL-flantly ; but with fo 
fiifpeiided a hand, as permitted the ufe, and left them to the 
guidance of their owm faculties, while they kept clear of er- 
ror ; and then only interpofmg when, without this divine 
afliftancc, they would have been in danger of falling. 

This our Author thinks thi^ pnly idea of JirifitT^re tH/pira- 

ti^n which agrees with all 

and which will full,* 
A a 4 anfwc; 

wcS'Cstx the purpofe of an infpiicd wrtting» v/x. lo tSbfl 
an mFAtLi£L£ rvle for the dirciSion of the C^tholit 

Church. He proceeds to examine what Dr. MUiUtm bat 
advanced, in thcEflay above mentioned, concerning thelsn- 
guige of fcripturc- 

«* We fhould naturally expcS, the Doaor fays, to find in 
infpircd language to be uich as is worthy of God ; that li, 
pure, clear* noble and affecling, even beyond the force of 
common fpcech ; fincc nothing can come from God but what 
is perfcit in its kind ; in fliort, the purity of Plato, and the 
eloquence of Oicero. Now, continues he, if we try the 
aportolic language by this rule^ we Oiall be fo far from afcrib^ 
ii)g it to God, that wc ftiall fcaicc think it worthy of man, 
that is, of the liberal and polite i it being utterly rude and 
barbarous, and abounding with every fault that can poilibly^ 
deform a language, 

•* Thefe triumphant obfervations arc founded, our Aurhor 
fays, on two propofitions, both of which the Doflor takes 
for granted, and yet neither of them are true. The one is, 
that an infpircd language muft needs be a language of per- 
fect eloquence \ the other, that eloquence is fomething coa- 
genial and cfrcrttia] to human fpcech. His Lord (hi p endea- 
vours tofliew the f^Uhood of both ; and as what he has ad- 
vanced on this fubjeft will, wc are perfuaded, be deemed the 
moft valuable part of his work, wc Ihall make no apology for* 
giving our Readers afiiU view of it. 

" With regard to the firft propofttion/* faya he, *< I will 
be bold to aflBrm, that were the Style of the New Tcfta- 
ment cxatStly fuch as hts very exaggerated account of it 
Wtjuld perfuade ub to believe, namely, that it y utUrly rude 
0nd barhnroutf and ahaufidwg with every fault that ran pcjTihty' 
deform a language ^ this is fo far from proving fuch lann^uagc 
not divinely infpircd, that it is one certain mark of this ori- 

" 1 will not pretend to point out which books of the New 
Tcftamcnt were or were not compofed by thgfe who had 
the Greek tpnguc thus miraculoufly infufed into them; but 
this 1 will venture to fay, that the flylc of a writer fo in- 
fpifcJ, who had not (as thefe writers had not) afterwards 
cultivated his knowledge of the language on the principles of 
Crfrcian eloquence, would be precifcly fuch as live find it in 
th^ btx)k5 of the New Teftam»«t. 

*• For 






*•* For, if this only be allowed^ which tic onvl thinks 
will conteft, tb^t a flrange language axxiuired. by il literate 
men, in the ordinary way, T«oiIld be full of the idioms rf 
thdr native tongue, juft as the Scripture- Greek is obfcrvcd 
to be full of Syriafms and *Hebraifms ; huw can it be prcr 
tended by thote who reflect upon the nature of Unguage^ that 
a ftninse tongue divinely infufcd into iJliccrate men, liice thait 
^t the day of Pcntecoft, could have any other properttes or 
conditions ? 

** Let us weigh thefe cafes impartially. Every language 
ronfifts of two diitin£t parts ; the iingle terms » and the phra* 
f(K and idioms. The fir ft, as far as concerns appellatives ^K^^-^ 
dally, is of mere arbitrary impofirion, iho' on artificial 
principles common to al) men : The fecond arifes infcnfibly, 
but conftantly, from the manners, cuftoms, and tempers o? 
thofc to whom the language is vernacular ; and fo becomes, 
tho' much Icfd arbitrary, as what the Grammarians call cm^ 
gruity is more concerned in this part than in the other, yet 
various and different as'thefeveral tribes and nations of Man* 
kind. The firft therefore is unrelated to every thing but to 
the genius of language in general ; the fecond hath an inti- 
mate connexion with the fafhions, notions, and opinions of 
that people only, to whom the l:inguage is native* 

Let us confider then the conftant way which ilJ iterate men 
take to acquire the knowlcge of a foreign tongue. Do they 
not make it their principal, and, at .firft, their only ftudy, 
to treafureup, in their memory the figniftcation of the terms? 
Hence, when they come to talk or write in the fpeech thus 
acquired, their language is found to be full of their own na- 
tive idioms* And thus it will continue, till by long ufe of 
the ftrangc tongue, and efpccially by long acquaintance with 
the ewncrs of it, they have imbibed the particular genius of 
the language* 

Suppofe then this foreign tongue, inftead of being thus 
gradually introduced into the minds of thefe illiterate men, 
was inftantaneoufiy infufed into them ; the operation, tho* 
not the vefy mode of operating, being the fame, muft not 
the eflfcflr be the fame, let the caufc be never fo different f 
Without queftion. The divine imprelTion muft be made ei- 
ther by fixing the terms or fingie words only and their figni- 
ficatioft in the memory ; ti for infiance, Greek terms cor- 
*cfponding to the Syriac or Hebrew 5 or clfc, together with 
that fimplc impremon, another muft be made to enrich the 



Bifisp rf Glou€?flfrs DiffrifU d/ Qroii, 

fllM with all the ideas which go to^^i^ards cofnpoTifYg lbe 
f^rafes and idoms of the language fo inspired ; But this lat* 
Wf imprciHon feems to tequirc, or rather indeed implies a 
preYioud one, of the tempers, fa{h»ans» and opinions of tbtf 
peopk to whom the language is ii.^tive, uf^T\ the miiidj of 
them to whom the Unguagc is thus imparted ; becaufe tbc 
liinire and idiom ^rrif^f troni and is dependent on thofe fiUD- 
wcrs : and therefwe the force of expreiJion can be undcrflood 
#nly in proportipii to the knowledge of the manners : and 
trndcrftood they were to be i the Recipients of their fptrituai 

trfts being not organical canals, but rational Difpcjifen^ 
that this would be a tvtsfli of miracles without a fulB- 
ciCTit caufe i the Svriac cr Hebrew idiom, to which the Dif^ 
ciples were enabled of themfelves to adapt the words of the 
Greek or any other language, abundantly fcrving cytrf 
tfcful purpofe, all which centered in the giving clear IN- 
Tellicence* We conclude, therefore, that what was 
thus infpired was the terms, and that grammatic congruinf 
fe the ufe of them, which is dependent thereon. In a word» 
fo fuppofe fuch kind of infpired knowledge o( ftrangt tmgun 
la includes all the native peculiarities, which, if you will, 
you may call their eUgancies j (for the more a language h 
coloured by the charaftcr and manners of the native ufirt^ 
the more elegant it is efteemed) to fuppofe this, is, as I 
baiKe faid, an ignorant fancy, and repugnant to reafoa aihl 

*' Now, from what hath been obfervcd, it follow^s^ that 
If the ft)'Ie of the New Tcftament were indeed derived from 
a language divinely infufcd on the day of Pcntecoti, it muft 
be juft fuch, as to its ftyle, which, in fa£t> we find ittob<^| 
that IS to fay, Greek words very frequently delivered ix^ 
Syriac and Hebrew idiom," * 

But Do£tor Middleton is fo perfeflly fatisHed tbaf thfe Ajgr- 
harity of ftyle which claims the title of infpiredi H a fure mark 
oif iinpofture, that he alnioft ventures to foretel, it will p^ove 
the dciVudUoii of thof^ prctcnfions, as it did to the Dtlpbic 
pr^clts* Our Author points out the cITential JifFerenccs be- 
tween the pretenfions of thcfe oracles to infpi ration, and the 
preicafions of the Chiiilian EvangeliAi, all of which, he 

« Hence fame may iafer» that if his Lordftiip*"^ conceiEons in tliis 
caic are to be admitted, we need not much wonder that the proicfa^ . 
ing of the Apoftles, was /^ the Jr%vs a pHmhliHg hink an J u tht Grtth 
j§ti*'rjhKefi. -^Bat we underiland the pafTagc in a dii&reiit fenfcr ' * 


^tjhop ef Ghucijier'i Do^rine of Gnuf, 377 

^%Pf the Doflor thought proper to overlook ; and he ob- 
f crves that any one of them is lufficient to fhew, that, tho* 
the obic£tion may hold good againft thcfe heathen oracles^ yef 
it has not the leaft force againft fcripture infpiration. — He 
goes on to examine, as he propofcd, the Do£tor*s feeoml pro- 
pofition, viz* " that eloquence is fomething congenial amj 
elTential to human fpeech ; and inherent in the conftitu- 
tion of things." 

** This fuppofes, that there is fome certain Archetype 

^}n nature, to which that quality refers, and on which it is to 
be formed and modeled. And, indeed, admitting this to be- 
the cafe, one fliould be apt enough to conclude, that when 
the Author of nature condefccnded to infpire one of thcf^ 
plaftic performances of human art, he would make it by the 
exailcrt pattern of the Jrchetypg/^ But the propofitio/i, his 
Lordfl^ip fays, is falfe and groundlcfs. Eloquence is not con- 
genial or cflential to human fpeech, nor is there any Arche- 
type in ijature to which that quality refers. Iris accidental 
iind arbitrary, and depends on cuftom and fafhion : it is a 
mode of human communication which varies with the varying 
climates of the Earth ; ajid is as inconftant as the genius^ 
temper and manners of its much diverfified inhabitants^ 

** For what is Purity^ fays hc^ but the ufe of fuch terms, 
with their multiplied combinations, as the intereft, the rem* 
per^ or the caprice of a Writer or Speaker of authority hatJi 
preferred to its equals? What is Elegance but fuch a turn of 
idiom as a fafhionable fancy hath brought Into repute? And 
what is Siihliwify but the application of fuch images, as arbi*-'l 
trary or cafual connexions, rather than their own native gran* 
deur, have dignified and enobleJ ? Now Eloquence is a com- 
pound of thefc three qualities of fpeech, and confequently 
muH be as nominal and unfubftantial as its conftitucnt parts* 
So that that mode of compofition, which is a model of />/*- 
ptlTfioqucHce to one nation or people, muft appear extravagant 
or mean to another. And thus in ht\ it was« Indian and 
^fiaiic eloquence were efteemed hyperbolic, unnatural, abrupt. 1 
and puerile to the more phlegmatic inhabitants of Rome and 
Athens, And the wcftcrn Eloquence in its tarn^ appeared 
iiervclefs and effeminate, frigid or in lipid, to the hardy and in- 
flamed imaginations of the Eaft- Nay, what is more, each 
fpecies, even of approved eloquence, changed its nature with J 
the change of clime and language ; and the fame exprelTion, 
which, in one place, had the utmoft fmpluitj had, in ano^ 
thcr^ the utmoft fubthnc^ 

** Applv all this to the books of the New Tc/Umeiit, am 
. author! led colledion profcfledly dcfigncd for the rule and <li- 
r^ion of all majikind. Kow fuch a rule ruqulred thatjc 
(hould be tnrpired of God. But infpiVcd vvrlting, the Ob- 
jt(Sors fay, implies the mofl: pe?feSl ^hokenci, ^Vhat hum^ 
model then was the Holy Ghoft to follow I And a human 
model, of arbkrary conUruflion, it muft need* be, beci^ufe 
there was no other : or if there were another, it would never 
f'uit the purpofe^ whfch was to make an imprefljon ort the 
ftiinds OAd afFei^ions ; and this impreflion, fuch an el^uciK?e 
only as that which had gained the popular car, couM effe&. 
Should therefore the tajltrn eloquence he cmplo^^ed f BiJt 
this would be too inflated and gigantic for the WtjL Should 
it be the Wffttrn ¥ But this would be too cold and torpid fdr 
the E^ift, Or fuppofe the gemrk eloquence of the more \o* 
Hfhed nacions was to be preferred, which fptcits of it was lo 
be employed ? The rich exuberance of the Afiatic Greekt, 
or the dry concifenefs of the Spartans ? The pure and poig- 
nant eafe and flowing fweetnefs of the Attic modulafion, or 
the ftrength and grave feverity of the Rom;tn tone \ Or fboulil 
,all give way to that African torfent, which arofe froiri thfe 
fermented miitturc of the dreggs of Greece and Italy, ani 
foon after overflowed the Church with theoli^cal conceitf in 
a fparkling luxuruncy of thought, and a fombrous ranknefs 
of exprcffioI^i Thu.*; various were the fpecies \ all as much 
decried by a diffefcnt Genus, and each as much difliked by t 
difFv rent fpecies, as the eloquence of the remoteft Eaft aaJ 
Weft, by one another. 

*' But it will be faid, Are there ndt fome miwre general 
pftrtciples of eloquence, common to all? — Without do«l 
thefe are. — Why then fhould not thcfe have been empk 
to do credit to the apoftMic infpiration ? For gGod reafona i 
refpci5>ing both the Speakers and the Hearers. ^f\f what'f 
eloquence but a perfuafive turn given to the elocution, to fitp- 
ply that inward, that confcious perfuatfon of the Speaker, 
neceflary to gain a fair hearing? But the firft Preachers < 
the Gofpel did not need a fuccedaneum to that inWard con4 
fciouii prrfwafion ^ And what is the mi of eloquence, cveH| 
of fhefe ^^Tif-ral principies, btit to ftifle re^fon, and infla 
the paffions ? But the propagation of Chriitian truflr^ indif 
pcnfaWy requires the aid of Fcafon, and re^mrei no dther bt 
man aid. And rcafon can never be fairly and ri --- n^ av- 
erted, but in that iavouraWe interval which pri .ap- 
peal to the pafEom. Thefc were the caufcs which fc>rccd thd 


^BiJI^ap of GbuaJlirU Vonrlm af Gam, 379 

\fafteni of eloquence to confefs, that the iitmoft pcrf(,'fljpi> 
pi thdr art confrfts in keeping it concealed \ for that the q^- 
temation of it fecmeJ to indicate the abfencc of trutb»— r 
UhJcuHfuf an ojimdatur^ fays the moft candiJ luid able of them 
ull, veriws ahfjjevideaiur'^. Hence fo many various prec^pt^i 
to make their moft artrficial peno<l r artJcfs. Now 

furdy that was a very fufpicious iiM for Heavcn-<U- 

rc£tcd men/ which, to preferve its credit, muft prccchd it- 
fcnccj and labour to keep out of fijht, 

•t' What, therefore, do our ideas of fit and right fell 115 b 
required in the jlyU of an umverfaj law ? Certainly no nvotc 
than thi^ — To em^oy thofe aids which van: cpjpTiion to aJ 
language a^ fuch ; and to rejeft what ispcctjlbr to eachy as 
they are cafually circumftanccd. And what are thefe aJJi. 
but CLHARJ^BSS and MtEcisiON? By ihefc rhe mind ana 
fentiments of the Compofer are yed to the 

Reader* Thefe qualities are eii ^ ^e, as it is 

tliftinguiftied from jargon i they are eternally rhe fame, aiicl 

independent on cuftom or fafkion. To gtv^ ? *^' ^ ■ ^ 

ntp was the oSce of Philofophy ; to^ grvc it ; 
office of Granimaf. Definition perforiTi^ the ttrlt krv:cc, by 
a refolutron of the ideas which make uf the terms ; Syntax^ 
performs the fecond by a coinbinatlon of the fcvcrol parts of 
fpeech into a fyftematic congmity : thefe -rt- t^h- very thingi> 
in language which are kaO poHtive, as ;iduclcfd o^ 

the principles of Logic. Whereas, all btiia^. , troin theverj^ 
power of the element?, and fi^nificatton of the terms, to the 
tropes and figures of cempofition, are , ; and what ii 

more, asthefe arc a deviation from iU ^ iplcs of Logic, 
they are frequently viciouf, Thfs, the great M after quoted 
above, freely confeficth, where fpeaking of that oniamemei 
fpeech which hecalb j^i^^atla X^iwrj he makc^ the foUowin^ 
confeffion and apobgy— *** effet erjim omnc Schema viriuM, 
** fi nort peterctar, fed accTderef . Verum atiftoritatc* vctu^ 
** tate, co6fiietitdine,*pleTumquedefenditiir, l;epc ctiam ra- 
*< ^lONE Qt^ADAM. ldeot|ue cutti fit a fimpHci re^Stoquc lo- 
*< quendi genere defiexi, viriui c0, fi habet proba3IXE ALI-* 
** QUID quod fequaturf- 

. ** Now thefc qu4kiis of (karmfi and pncifim^ fo of ccfiary 
tQ thQ C!0jaffwnicat;QO ^j qujc idea*, emioentiy diftiMguifli the 
Ayriiets jof the New T^etowcnt \ infomuch that it oiight be 
W^^ (bcwiip that wlMteya difficulut^ occui m (he faacd 

Q^vL r «/ c* ^. 

t Ibid. 


3S0 iStJ!jOp of Ghutejki^i D&^rine of GracS l^ftBBM 

Volumes, they do not^rifc from any imperfcftion in the moJ<! 
4^( conveying their Ideas, occafioned by this local or nominat 
karbarity ofJ}yte\ but cither from the fublime or obfcure na- J 
furc of the things conveyed to the Reader by words ; Or from 7I 
lYiQ purpofed concifenefs of die Writer; who, in the occa*. . 
fional mention of any matter unrelated* or not efiVntial lo, 
the Dirpenfation, always afTefts a ftudJed brevity, 

** But further, Suppofc that, in fome cafes, an authentic 1 
Scripture, dettgned for a religious rule, demanded this qua- j 
lity of local eloquence ; (for that, in genera!, it is not re- ' 1 
quired I have fully ihewn above) let this, I fay, be fup-* J 
pofcd, yet ftill it would not afFc£l the cafe in hand, fince it I 
would be altogether unfuitable to the peculiar genius of th^ ] 
Gospel. It might eafily be known to have been the purpofe | 
of Providence, (tho* fuch purpofe had not been exprefsly ' 
declared) that the Gofpel (hould bear all the fubftantial marks 
of it*s divine Original ; as well in the circumftances of it'5 
promulgation, as in the courfc of it's progrefs# To this end, 
^hc appointed Minifters of it's coiwcyancc were per fons, j 
*tnean and illiterate, and chofen from amongft the loweft of J 
the people : that when Sceptics and Unbelievers faw the j 
World conrerted by t\ic fucUJhmfs of preachings as the learned \ 
Apoftle, in great humility, thinks fit to call it, they might j 
have no pretence to afcribe the fuccefs, to the parts, the ] 
llation, or the authority of the preachers. Now had the 
language, infufed into thefe illiterate meh, been the fublime 
of Plato, or the eloquence of Tully, Providence would have 
appeared to counteract it's own meafures, and defeat the ] 
purpofe bed calculated to advance it*s glory* ^ But G&d hi 
tvfe^ tho* nmn*s a fooL And the courfc of his wifdom was 1 
here, as every where elfc, uniform and conftant. It not 2 
Only chofe the weakeft Minifters of his Will, but kept out 1 
of their hands that powerful weapon of cont(n^iid wordiy which 
their Adverfaries might fo eafily have wrcfted to the diftio- ^ 
nour of the Gof^pel, So much w^ Dn Middleton mif- 
taken, whtn befides clfarmfi^ (which he might be allowed 
to cxpe£l} he fuppofes purity^ mhlctiffi^ and pathetic affi^ton^ 
to be qualities infcparable from an infpired writing, St, Paul 
who, amongft thefe (implc Inftrumcnts, was, for the fame - 
wife purpofes, made an exception to the general choice, yet j 
induftriourty profccuted that fublime view, for the fake of] 
^l^hlch, the choice was made ; by rcjj^fting all other weapon^ I 
but tbcfe of th$ Spirit, tv fpread abrM the C^nquefts pf the 1 

Bljhp of GhtiteflerU Dififrine tif Grace. 5&1 

Son of Goi. My fpcffh {izyt he) and rry pnaching Was jbbT 
with tntidng words of man^s wlfdom^ but in she dirmn/}r€itioi$ 
^f the Spirit end cf Potver, A* much zs to fay, ** My fiic- 
cefs W2S not owing to the fophiftical eloquence of Rheto- ' 
ricians, but to the fupernatural powers, with which I wjij 
endowed, of interpreting Prophecies and working Miracles/' 
He fubjoins the reafon of his ufe of thcfc means— /^ thejr 
faith JhouLl mt Jiand in the IVifdsm of men^ hut in ti}e fewer ef 
God, i. c. Be converted not by force of PhtJofophy and elo- 
quence, but of the fupematuml gifts of the Spirit : There-* 
fore [faith he again) God hath chofen the foolijh things of t&t 
If'^orfd to confound the wife ; and the weak things of the IVorld ta 
eonfQund the mighty , Aod left it ihould be fcid, that thi^ 
was an affedlation of defpifing advantages which they tbem- 
fclves could not reach, it pleafed Providence that this decU<- 
ration Ibould be made, not by one of the more fordid ami 
idiotic of the number \ but by Him, to whom both nature 
and difcipline had given powers to equal even the heights of 
Greek and Roman elocution. For we fee, by what now anjj 
then accidentally flames out in the fervor of his rcafoning, tha^ 
he had a ftrong and clear difcernment, a quick and lively ima- 
gination, and an extenfive and mtimate acquaintance with 
thole Mafters in moral painting, the Greek Sophifts and Phi- 
lofophers : all which he proudly facrificed to the glory of the J 
iVirlajling Gofpch Nor docs he appear to have been confciooi, 
of any incoiififtency between an infptred language and it's kc^ fl 
harharity of f}y!e : For having had occafion, in this very 
Epiftlc, to remind the Corinthians of the abundance of fpi* 
ritual grace beftowcd upon him, he fays, / than}: my Gdd^ f 
fpenk with tongue i more than you ally and yet he tells them thai 
he is rude in fpeech. Which apparent inconfiftency th^ 
Reader may accept, if he plcafcs, for a further proof of th^ 
truth of what has been above delivered, concerning the wa*f, 
lural condition of an infpired language." 

The learned Prelate ctofes this firft part of his difcourfy 
with a fhort examination of what the noble Author of tbe 
Characteristics has advanced ia dilcredit of the infpi-. 
ration of holy Scriptttre. 

[Ta be comluded in our ne^t,^ 



For N Q V E M B E R, 


Politic Atp 

Art* I* Rtfi^^hns m ihs Am^U Policy proper to h ohferuti i 
tin C^nclu/ion $f a Pe^c£^ 8vg. is* 6d. MtUar* 


^HE contcnu of thj? fcnfiblc pamphlet, are too wiOif 

anl diSftifive for abridgment, witUio the limits of a C^car 
loguc iiriicki ,ind therefore we can only obferve, in few word^ 
that the chief drfign of the Writer, is to recommend a fuirable j»^ 
viiion for the Sotdiers, Sailors^ &c, who will be difcharged oa ihc 
ratificatioTi of Peace. For thi* porpofc, he propofes to Icttle the 
men fo 1, whom he calculates to amount to ibrtr thou^uid* 

intvvcm iim^nts of two thou fand men esch, in different ptrh 

of Britain* upon lakes or navigable riverij, or places adjoining 10 iJie 
feat each man having an houfe and an acre of land tfij^ncd him, free 
from taxe* for icn years, and v^ be \ipo*i the Chelfea Out-pen^ion fat 
the £rll year aficr the iotmwig of thecftabltihrnent : and he ftevsf 
that upon a re^iionable calculation^ the whole charge of the fuppoied 
fettlem^fSy would not amount to more than two-thirdi of iVe cji* 
pences of the Colony of N^ova Scotia. He does not propofe, Iiow- 
ever, that the Sctrlcn ftioold draw all their fabfiftencc from the 
groimd, or from the bount}' of the Government ; but that ibej 
^ould derive \\ in port from their application to fome trade or hit&di' 
craft. The Writer likcwife make* many judicious reile^lions with 
regard toTrsde, PopuTationt and the Poor of this Country: and 
fillb with r^pe<5l to the Revenues of the kingdom^ In /hort^ though 
%ve make no doubt but that many who have been nurfcd in prepor* 
fejTiOD, and wedded to prejudice, will cenfure our Authox as a vtiio- 
nary Proje^or, yet we are (:ut5iicd t^at his propofals merit th« 
moll ferious attention ; and though it may not be expedient to exc* 
cute them in every refp«?^, yet they may ferve as an excellent ground 
wopk^ to frame a fyjtctn of doinefUc improvement and national 

Ajt, 2* An EKaminQtlom of ih^ Commtrcid PrintlpUs af tbt htf 
Nigodatign htwt^^n Giiat Britmn and France in I7<?i-. Jm 
ivhick the S^em of that NigsdaUQn^ with regard /a our Csb" 
nus and Commerce^ are conjidered. 8vo. is, 6d. Dodflcj^ , 

This pamphlet, confidened merely as a matter of compofition, hit 
undoubted merit, being penned in a fpirired and mafterly ftyle. Bttt 
with rcfpcft to the true date of the qu eft ion, it is by no means cmn* 
did and fattsfadory. The Writer takes unwearied pains to prome, 
what we believe fcNV ^vill venture to difpure, that the returns firom 
Cuadaloup^ far exceed the produce from Canada. But he hurries 
* «rcr 







' the argument, with regard to the value of the latter in poij 

future fecurity. Aod what he advances on this heati, is rather fpe- 

ciom than folid* He ha?, with great add re 5, availed hiinfelf of 

Ifomc inaccuracies and incojiHitencies in the writings of the Advocates 
for the North 'American Colonics ; but he offers nothing fatisfaftory 
to (hew chat Canada is not cHencial to iecure us from the Savages^ 
Slid to prevent another war in thofe part^ : on the contrary, he fccms 
to admit the plea of danger, and only argues in extenuation of the 
degree. Our Readers^ we are perfuaded, wll ejccufe our entering 
more minutely into this fubje«^, as the point is now probably decidci 
by the Preliminniies lately iigned : and the Government have been Qt 
thoroaglrly apprifed of the merits of the cjueftion, that thcrs is rea- 
fon to conclude, they have judged fyt the belK 


Art. 2* ^ t^tUtr i9 the Right Hon. JVilllam Pitt, E/q} on the 


prijent Negociatkm fir a Ptact iXfith Frana and Spain. 8yq^ 
IS. 6d. Cootc* 

There is a fpint in this pamphlet which borders too nearly on pe* 
tulance ; neverthclcfs» the refleftions arc in general jufV, though not 
always perfedly decent. The Writer, with good reafon, inveighs 
againd the rage of conqucfl ; endeavours to (hk^w, thut our acquifi- 
lions have been purchafed too dear ; an J that the difference between 
|hc fuppofcd terms of the expelled treaty and thofe of Mr. Piit*s nc- 

fociation, are quite inconHderable, when put in ballance with ths 
cneHts of ^eace. 

hxU ^ APr&phefy.ef M^ifUn* 8vo. 6d. Nicoll. 

Thofe who are \^y fond of political fcandal, may poflibly think 
[this ftrange reiteration of ftale fcurrilit)', a mii^hty njcntorious per* 
llbrmancei yet we can difcern nothing in it but rancour^ mif/e- 
rprefentationi and bad language^ 'X he quintefcence of ill ttie hack- 
riicy'd abafe» fo plentifully thrown upon i^r, Pitt for fome years pall» 
Pis hc^e coUci^led \ together with other noxioui an4 filthy matter^ 
['Tuough to inf«i£l the minds of half the underling Politicians in the 
rCity ; who generally frame their opinions on what they Jpili and put 
\ togethr in the G*izet!etr^ and in the 'vafih cleaver pamphJets fct forth 
hy the Sh *5, the C *s, and the B \ of the age. 


Art. 5. A Letter to the Right Hon. the Earl of H jr, c^n- 

timing a Parliameniary Peaci, 8vo, is. A, Hendcrfon. 

We find abundance of great nanes, and great things too, in this 
EpilUc; Grotias and Paffendorf, and Gnllavus Adolphus, and Magna 
CWta, and the HavaiiBa, and Oliver Cromwcl, and Admiial Po- 
co:4ce» and Canada, ind the King of ^ruiHa, and Aitakullakulla the 
little Carpenter, and the A lehouie- keepers » and the Houie of Com- 
monr, and the $p.iniardsf and ibc Scotch, and the Duke dc Niver- 
Wi\% tavem*bill, and CbutciiiU ibe Poet, and the Lord Mayor's feaf^, 

Rjiv,Nov*i7^i. Bb wilA 

37+ £i/*tf^ ^ Ghuetfte/s Doilrini :f GfSa^ 

anTwer the purpofe of an inipired writrng, «/m. lo tllbnl 
an iKFALLiBLE nutE fof the dtre^on of the Cftthdii 
Church. He proceeds to examine what Dr. AfidJUim Iv 
advanced, in the Effay above mentioned, concerning th© bm^ 

guage of fcripturc 

*' Wc Oiould naturally expert the Doaor fays, to find tti 
infpircd language to be fuch as is worthy of God ;, that ii, 
pure, clear, noble and affe6iing, even beyond the force of 
coromon rpeech ; fince nothing can come from God but what 
is perfe£t in its kind ; in fhort, the purity of Plato, aad th« 
doquence of <^iccro. Now, continues he, if we try the 
apollolic language by this rule, we fliall be fo far from afcrib* 
ing it to God, that wc fliall fcarcc think it worthy of man^ 
that is> of the liberal and polite; it being utterly rude and 
barbarous, and abounding with every fault that can poflibJy 
deform a language. 

'* Thefe triumphant obfervations are founded, our Author 
fays, on two propofiiions, both of which the DoAor takct 
for granted, and yet neither of them arc true* The one i$» 
that an infpired language muft needs be a language of per* 
fed eloquence ; the other, that eloquence is fomcthing con- 
genial and efTcntial to human fpccch* His Lordihip cndeft* 
vours tp flievv the falfhood of both ; and as what he has id* 
vanced on this fubje^t will, we are pcrfuaded, be deemed the 
mod valuable part of his work, we ihali make no apology for. 
giving our Readers a full view of it* 

" With regard to the firft propofition," fays he, ** I mrill 
be bold to affirm, that were the Style of the New Tefe- 
ment exatSlly fuch as his very exaggerated account of k 
would perfuade ub to believe, namely, that it if utUrfy rudt 
md barbarous^ and ahundifig tvith every fault thai cem fcffih^ 
deform a language ^ this \% fo far from proving fuch language 
not divinely infpircd, that it is one certain mark of this ori- 

'* T will not pretend to point out which books of the New 
Ttftamcnt were or were not compofed by thofe who had 
the Greek tongue thus miraculoufly Infufed into thentj birt 
this T will venture to fay, that the ftyle of a writer fo in- 
fpifcJ, who had not (as thefe writers had not) afterwards 
cultivated his knowledge of the language on the principles of 
(trftian eloquence, would be precifely fuch as we fijid it in 
th« book^s of the Ncv^' Tcftam^t. 

*» For 

P O t I T I C A U 




)rc woiili have permittcJ rhcm for the fbturc, to brew or to bake aa 

thti old ^c'vnnt, hmrrver/ rrth^r ci:t cf h'- frrrmer 



but what 

Fcga^fd, nr bccaofe he cr 
*bcilr m think of aPeacc b 
in tb^ pyc: 

httWctj, this extra tirdinary inflance of Iiis zeal* tit a tlm^ of Kfd 
; in hen htJ niigfht have been fappofed fuScre^tly taken up with ** the 
' 1niV fjr\ r of his journey 10 the other worl'3» * pxu^ ni 1^ mmt! of a 
/en, and a brother Poll 13 cian, about i: ho, 

..^ ,w:LLled all his worldly affairs, artd rccdmr 1 fof 

iuc lad time to heaven, turned his head, iifter a 
c jnda, towards his weeping child r^v -^"^ -1^- 
all the luticitudc of a true-bi'ed Po' 

tlrj y«>U think of the State of the i ..r.: Ji: r r.n 

too much affected by fuch an unexpefted qucftion, to make an im- 
mediate anfwer, and if he had not been fo affedcd, ft would have 
been too bite to reply to it ; for the vfords were hnrdl)r out of h-s 
rnf^ilth before the old mm expired. So tnic it Is, thut the ruling 
wctkncfs, or pafiioii» never leaves us on this fide the grave* 

^0 ftmtl tfl imiula rtifMSg fer^aUt tdsrem 

As to the objedl of the prcfcnt pamphlet* the Writcru by no rorant 
(of having the Miniflry conclude r. ' " f peace on fucbJ 

UroiAas have been fct forth in thr ir< r from thd] 

manner of his treating this lubjetl a.lit,v 11 . ^ changed I 

his opinion but little m favortrof mankind : ; ro Mp^, ' 

however, that the nation hath not fo mach u> 
ignorance or treachery of thofc who have the dm 
|b this acalou^ Veteran would have u$ imajiiic. 

Art: 9, A Rtpfy H Mr. Heathen's Letter^ from r I 

Man. In which t^e Jrgumt^nts ijTf proved f- !'■: • ■ , ^^r^di 
the Faffs untrue, 8vo. J ^. Morgaji* 

A felling pamphlet muft of courfe have a fccond p,irt, by the ^ma 
ILind, or an AiUwcr by fomc other ; nay, fomeutnti a iticcrfsful 
performance of this kind will give rife' to half a kmt, and drcu^ 
late about the town, as Trappolin runs nbour the fla^c, with Mi9\ 
Eo^ and Jrto lUcking cjofc to htf caiL W- imjt^mc, hf»wever, tha 
• ' '^"^ Mr. Heatltcote nor any of h ' ' " >- ^' - » 'nd ofl 
.^hletVk^th bis Letter; th 1 th:; 

tui /inLu^onil^ ; whom he attacks, pf: :Lu 1- 

1^, Jtty, forliiscaufe orabilirk*. Muiii, J 

touch more Hill remains to be iaid, pa bwU liJci. 

Art. 10, Some cmlThu^ht tan the prefen! State tf Aif alts', with 
Q IVerd ta the old Servant. 8vo. is, Cooke. 

We have here a number of IhrevvJ and fenfiblc remarks on t^a 
prcfcut Hate of Parties^ with fume ^cuiut^x 9;^^V\tv \a ^\»vir^^- 


Monthly Catalogue, 

cote's Qutries. Of ihc Aaihor's manner our Readers rouy judg 
from the foSlo\vIng paflage, ** You fltaJl frequcatly hear, fays he 
ihc Pajtizans of the bicgrcat Man» j^ravcly and decalivcly pronounce 
thai ihe prelent Minillry cannot pollibly lall. Some of thofc Gende- 
nicn arc employed to (hake their heads in proper companies: to 
doubt where all ihib wiU end ; to be in mighty pain for the nation ; 
to Ihew how impoifible it is public credit Chould be fupported ; to 
pray that all may do well, in whatever hands j but very much to 
doubt that the Pretender h at the bottom. 1 know not any thing (o 
nearly rcfcmhllng this behaviour, as what is often fecn among the 
friends of a fjck man, whofe interell it is that he iliould dve : ihe 
Phyficians protdl tlicy fee no danj^cr ; the iymptoms iire good; the 
medicines operate kindly*, yet 11 111 they are not to be comforted; 
they whifper, he is a dead man ; it is not poffiblc he (hould holdout* 
he hath perfect licath in his fuce ; tliey never liked this Do^or : at 
lail the Patient recover?, and their joy is asfaifc as their grief.'* 

If this pidur be not a very juli Itkencfs, it ij a Jlriking one ; we 
iliall know better what to think of li, howcvei> when the Patient is 
aduaily quite out of danger. 

Art* II. Jtt Enquiry inis the Aicrhi of tbe fuppofcd PnUmU 
mrits of PauCi fsgned on the ^d Injhnt, 8vo. 6d. Bird. 

Irit not pity that the impatience of our Politicians would not per- 
mit them to viait the pablicadonof the nai Prciiminaric$ } or, rather, 
|)crh;)ps, it Jx a pty lor them it ihould. In the former eafc, it is true, 
if the terms ihould dilier from ^vliat they are at prcfent conceived, 
*vc might a Ik liieni, wttii Mr, baye^ what becomes of ihcir fmp' 
pufi^ They will have the fatii^f^idlioD, however, to think a new 
• pamphlet ncceflary; and may fit down to difplay their profound 
talents on a real f^bjcft, as they have done on an imagining one. If 
lliere (hould be no marcrial diHercnce, ae have the comfort to lesam 
Tfrbm this Enquirer, that ** the whole txcAty taken together^ gives us 
every commercial Jidv^antagc w^ever claimed, and (ccures to o» every 
commercial objedl which our enemies ever withcd to deprive us ot/* 
if thi&^be true, certiinly every wiih of every Briton mull be to have 
k laii ^ ever and ever* 


Art. 1 2. 27*^ R'smanci of a Nt^ht ^ pr a C^went^Gardcn Advm* 
turc^ l2mo. IS* Nicoll* 

The little novel now before us, conftlls of a plcalsng tale ; tn whicb 
there is \^{^ of incident and variety, than of limplicity and nature. 
It i& obvioudy hchtiuus, as the lUle honellly profcfles ; but the mat^ 
icr effa^ is of finall import, where the writing is good, and the 
mc:ai uucxorpllonabU Jn refped to the Author's nannir of recit- 
ing th's adventure* wc fliould not KcruMc to pronounce it clej^ant, 
wcfi? h nit for the airc;Lat;on of delicate phrafe, and the lingular 
coiiiaj^c of new w.rrds, whiciiruns through almolt c^ery page. Thii < 
9 » 





Is evidently lofendcd for a Companion to ^he Romance cf a Day^ 
mentioned in Review, vol XXUI* page 327 ; and appears to be writ{en 
by the fame hand : whom we are forry to have fo many occjfions of 
reprehending for his aiF<tflstion of ftyle ; which i'onictimcs miUcads 
him to the very borders of broken English. 

Art. 13* TAf Deificaitmofihi Fair Six. 1 s. Williams* 

An impotent attempt at obfcenity. It appears to have been oru 
ginally the work of lome fribbling French Scribbler^ of Uiciviom 
incUnadon, but feeble powers. 

Art. 14. Fra^ions Anatomi[id% cr^ the Da£irim of Pom ma/U 
plain and eafy to the meanejl C/ipadtyy on a Plan etitirdy nnu, 
7I9 which is added ^ a conafe Explanation of Dug decimal Arith- 
metic. By Richard Ramfbottom, Officer ia the Excife. 
8vo. 2s. Longman. 

We cannot recoiled any thing more rational and fenfible of the 
kind, than this produOion; to which the Author has added fome 
judicious rules for the inOruflion of young Excifemcni in the exa- 
mination of their own books. 

Art, t$* Critjcal Remarkf en the Monthly Revletv^ for Auguft^ 
1761. By J. Garnor, M* D, 8vo. 6d. Sandby* 


Many errors of the prefs, and inadvcrfent flips of the pen, muH 
unavo'dahiy happen in a periodical work which fcarccly allowa 
lime for a revifal of theproof-iheets* A few eicapcs of this fort ap- 
pearing in the Review for Auguft laft, one Dr. Garner (wc know- 
not whether it be a real or a A^itious name, having never heard of 
fuch a Doctor before) has made a friendly coUedion of them ; for 
which our Index maker heartily thanks him t and would think hini- 
fclf farther obliged to him for a like pamphlet every month, as fuch 
publications might be of fome ufc to him, the faid Index maker^ in 
drawing up the table of Errata to be printed at the end of each vo- 
lume ot the Review. The fuppofed Do*5lor, however, has overlooked 
fome errors, of greater importance than any of thofc kc has mention- 
ed, and which, had he apprifed us of his intention to appear in print, 
we could have pointed out to him : his kind intention mull« nrvc:rthe* 
lefe, be acknowlcgcdt as (however incapable of inveftigating the vari- 
ous fubjeds that lay before him) he really ftems to \k2St dcjti bii heft^ 

Art. 16. A Defriptim of the Spanijl) IJIands and Settlements on 
the Coajf of the ff^eji- Indies ; compiled from authentic Alemoirs^ 
revifed hy Gentlemen who have rejtded many y*ears in the Spanijh 
Settlements \ and illuJhateA with thirty^two Maps and Plans, 
ehirfy fr^m original Drawings^ taken from the Spaniards in 
the lajl fP^ary and engraved by Thomai Jcffcrys, Geogra- 
pher to his Majcfty, 4to. lOs. 6d. fcwcd. JcScry^. 

B b 3 Mf . 


guilty. What then ifhall we fay of. thofe rath Judges^ who, in con* . 
iraditEiroh to the dit^atcs of common fcnfe, julHcc, uud humanity, 
thus facnficcd a wretched old man lo the fury of pcrfccuiing zeal, 
and the abfurJicy of blind ftiTpk ion ? What, iadccJ) but rhit un- ' 
jufl Judges and tW OpprcITof s of the Widow and chc fathcrleii, 'God ' 
will judge. 

Art. j8L A Copy of th£ Prctetdhgs cf a Giticral Court -martial^ \ 
held fft ^Land-Guard Fcrt^ Scptanbtr i^^ 1761. 410. is, 
R. Davis. 

Relates to the trial of W illmm LyhcTi, F.fq; Captain of the Eartem 
Banalionof the 3M|Folk Mjliiia,, far quitting h s duty, contraiy 10 - 
the orders of Lie utensjit Governor Thitkncllc. Thi? Captain wai " 
honourably acaiii'ted ; but there b'.'lTn> k^mc things irregular in the 
proceed; ^ Courc, his ^' I not thuik proper to con* 

iirih tht. _..: : : *alfho' be w:u ^ . ... _ : to order the Pnfoncr to be 

rcleafcd from his arreft, — as it appeared that the Captain was led into 
thi^ br^ch of orders by inadvertency, rather than any defigned con- 
tempt of difciplinei ^^c. 

Art* 19. Thf Lifi 'of Richard Na/?, Efq\ of Bath. ExtraSled 

prindfaHy frtim%is original Papirs, 8vo. 49. * Ncwbery. 

A triv'-i /-,{;,.i> r. ,.,.«! forthemnftpariiaalivifly, ingenious, and 
cntpna: imucl Johnu)n*5 admirable Lite of Savage, 

fccms iQ n*iVL- u«:t:ii cnuicu as the model of this performance. 

Art. 20, The Grc^t hnpartanu of the /' ' ' ' in an 

EJfay on the NiHure and Afethods of i to the 

South' Sea and the Spanijh IVeft-Indieu By Robert Allen, 

£fq; who refided fomc Years in the Kingdom of Peru, 
1v6;f is; Hinxmnn. 

An old tra£l revived i from aa edition printed in the year I7fi# 
dedicated to Robert Earl of Oxford and Mortimer. The prefent 
Editor, who figns hit^/elf Samuel jemcnac, inlcnbes this edition t^ ^. 
Mr^ Alderman Hurley, ope of the keprcfentatives in Parlmmcnt 
for the city of Lond«3n. It appears to contain a genuine ac- 
count of fomc. pa^pculari^ rdaring to the i?outh Sea trade, &c. a? it 
was circumflanced in the beginning of the prefcnt century. 

Aft. 11* ^A l^fcripiion of MiUennitm HaJl^ and the. Country ad- 
jaant: Together with th ^" ~\rioftbefnhah:tanfs^artJfuch' 
hijhrical Jvecfktrs and R as Tn^y excite in the R^cader pro- 

ber S f Humanity^ and lead the Mind to the Love ofVir^ 

\jiue, i^j -- -^,»ulcmau on hlsTravels. i2mo. 3s. Newbery* * 

!il!ennium Hall is a name given to the rural ani elegant abode of a 
E>py ibcicty cf Ladies, which the Author tells us he met wiih in the 

B b 4 V\ dt 


390 Monthly CATAi^tcuB^ 

Weft of England. Thercfpc^ltvchlftoricsof thcTcaccomplirtwdf 
Woithics, with their motives for relinng from the world, and forming 
thh delightful connexion ; together with a particular dcfcription of thcir 
rcTidencc ; an jiccountof the rules* and orders of the fociety ; and l 
view cf ihevcr)' laudable manner in which the amiable Rcclufes cm* 
ployed their time and their fortunes ; — tbefe are the outlines of 4 
work well calculated, as the title jullly profefles, to infpire the Reader 
wiUi proper femiments of humanity, and the love of virtue. Wc 
liave fierufed it with pleafurc ; and heartily recommend it^ as a