(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Monthly Review"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



] 



» t 






MONTHLY REVIEW; 



LITERARY JOURNAL, 

ENLARGED: 

From SlPTEUBBR to December, iiKlujivr. 
M.occc.v. 

■With an APPENDIX. 






Depmlbaia. 



7«lNM(A 



VOLUME XLyill. 



( "7. 



tiz-av-Yv)^^ 



L OND 01 

Sold b; T. Bbccbt* Bpokseller, in Fall Mall. 

lil,DCCC,T. 






Strahflii an<f Trtt^nm^ 
Prinuii-Sticciy LoaauHf 



i^mmmam 



^m*m 



TABLE 

OP THE W' 

Titles, Authors' Names, &c of the Pub- 
lications reviewed in this Volume. 

N. B. For JLEMARKABLB PASSAGES in the Criticisms and 
Extracts^ see the I N D £ X, at the End of the Volume, 



^ For the Namet, alto, of the Anthors of new Ditperutiont* 
or other carious Papers^ published in the MEMoiat aod 
Trahsactions ,of the Scientific Acadbmibs at Home or 
on the Continent, and also for the Titles of those Dissertationst 
&c. of which Accounts are given in the Review^ s ec the 
ImdiXt printed at the End of eadi Volome. 



■paifa 



ACCOtJNt of Dr. Johaaon's Early 

Life Page 351 

AitmCt A«w Hittoiy of Great Biitain 

207 
-*iy Dr. Aaiwcr to Objcctioni 

3*7 
437 
53* 
531 

»55 

108 

ait 

93 

flO) 

389 
♦*5 



agwntt Cow-iPoz 

JhJn£% History of Sctencet, 
\immtk of the Frcach Empirci 
^KiifitiiUaf Architectural, 
Jj^t^Gt Wf itiBg*, Key to, 
^cbiittiural Sketches, 

— Antiquitict, 



nV, Introdaccion to, 
Jtmiitt Europeao, Character of, 
Jlrtb»r'% Ditcounet, 
JktUUry Cosnpajiji History of^ 



^rflnmf Military^ i\cco«Bt of, 3|a 
jLk$f Geneta], 91 



B 



Saceo In Toscttfuif J% 

Bmitkt Tour rounJ, 133 
Bank^ See fn>ite, 

Bsrnakf^ Four Jouroeys, lo* 

Baronetage of BogUo4, 105 

Barry, Mr. Poetical Epistle to, 9! 
Bartdr% Hints for Pictateiqae Cottages, 

Baidrf% Funeral Oiatioo on the Doke of 
Gloucester, 325 

Baiii% Tracts aod ObscrTadoot, 410 
Baitlt of Trafalgar, 43$ 

Btattit, Du Account of 3cn 

Aft Bimnnt^ 



iv 



CONTENTS. 



Stfiunolr and Dampmartiw^Anotl^ of 
the French Empire, 533 

Beif<fur*i Fables from the Spanitb, 97 
BfisbetntSe- mod, 44^ 

jffirtsford** TrMilatioii of KoUebue*! 



iiaosc remarkable Ypar. 

.*c Song of the Sun, 



•*$ Baitle of I'rafalgar, 



Besettval, Baron de. Memoirs of, 

Hetbam'h Baronetage, 

hihU, fuvenile. 

Biblical Researchet, 

Birtgtam\ Dis^er ations, tec, 

Bingley'% North Walea, 

Birch'i Speech, 

Blakev»^^% ThanksgWing Sermoo> 446 

Bla/tcbsrd* Ycuth*a Treasorey 94 

Bfifio^rteant$ MM 

Bor.pland, See Humbcldt^ 

Botaty, Tracts AaUtiiig 10^ 

, Elementary View of, 



75 

438 

495 
105 

94 
209 

369 

185 

3*0 



S5° 

5«5 
443 

43S 

30t 



Botanical Oictlcnary, 

^tunden'h f 4Ul OyrioMtVy 

Sower^s Atfcotint of Beatie, 

Brutax't Axchicf ctaral Antiqditjef » 1^55 

Bryan. See K I'hck, 

Border, (Mr ) Letter to, ill 

Burrougbs** PotC'ca) Ep:stie ro Batry, 98 

BurtoHi Hiblical ReMlrch**, S09 

Butlei*t £»rci«ei on <Jic Globet, 94 



Corrnp9Kdtnct of Ronlieaay 3 }# 

■ » interceptedy from India, 

*«* Corrispondena wkk the Rtmtwtrt^ 
112.223.336. 447,449* 
Cottages, Picturetque, Hints for, 211 
— ~-, Dettgna for, ib, 

CottleU Alfred, a Poem, 4.37 

CMv.pox. SttAdami,GMt9ti,HiU. 
Owimbeni ^--CammentMrj inttrm slPIs* 
tona della Poetia hsfianaf 13 

Currtncy, ^ee Parmll, 



D 



Dallas^ Eltmentt of Self Knowledge, 

DamfmmttiiCt Aamli of the French Ea- 

-,P*f'» ^ S33 

Davui 8 Sermoni, 446 

DeuriptioH of St. Helena, 31 • 

Dictionary of Natural Sciencef, Vol. UJ. 

— , See Pji* See iMS&ie. 

Doiut/% Treat ite of Modern Geography, 

2tl 

Dottnman^i la fancy, a Poem, 217 

Drmnktm 04rna^y*e Fpvr J^jurMfV, fc^i 
DuncMmh'*% History of Hetefocdibinp^ 337 



CampbelPt Grain p'ans detelatf, 87 

d-irof nn Equilibrium, 470 

Qgrr^ Northern Summer, 133 

Castle of ilie Tuilerics, ' 330 

Catechising, Exhonatiun to,. 95 

'^fus, (i'ouut} B.e«plleftJof» of, 5^0 
Chambtrsi Sir W.* rteroip EpiaiJp to, 
Works of the Author of, 10*5 

ChaptaVt Repoit, Remarks on, ^xi 

CZvjrrer of the European Armies, 203 
Cheita Ho.pitai tftd A9>ium9 Account 



Cbtmisiry, Anioia), History of, 
— — , Dictionaty of. 



192 

43^ 
Cbnstlm Theol'^gy, {9 

C^lans, Skrtcte^ of the Lives of, ^1% 

Cissos^ Amusirg St/ 11^9, 92 

Qcchrane'% Two Tracts, 9 1 

Coins of th: Seleucif!^, 175 

fomponlmenfi Lirici, 1 3 

Cooper* s Strm f>n s, 9 ; 

Cflrnwii//, Hi>toi;y Q^y * ' ^5 

Ctnmandel, Plants o^ $ e Rotfbstrgb, 

tCorrespondente bf^wcco JUdipt |f^rtfard 

tLO^Pemttctf 275 



«^5 
47* 



Fcoftemv^ Political, Essay Od, 
Etfuiiibriumj Pfinciplesofy 
Essays. See Gilpin, 
Tvans^i (J.) Thanfagiriitg S epie n , 44$ 
D.) Ditto, ibt 



CD). 
PSii'M 



Eurot>e, PSii'ical State of, 2x3 

Exchange, Sec Foster. See PameU. 
Eytvn's Sermon on ttc Na%uU Victory, 

S35 



Fu/>!i J <rom th^ Spanish, 97 

/^arm^r's Calendar, 283 

F<ira/Curiosity, a Poem. 435 

Febrile Dire^aes. See fniso9» 

Fn/er, Yellow, Account of the, 329 

Fig- Leaf, a Poem, tSQ 

PitxgeraUl'i Nelson's Ton b, 4*1 

F/tf^r. Neutral, Frauds of, 417 

Florian^% Rurh, an Eclogue, 103 

Foster on Commercial Exchanger, 399 

Frauds of Neutral Flags, 417 

Fund, Patriotic. See Rtpott, 

Arff/rvrr, Detigoaffi. Sf2 

Cghrlo, 



>» 



CONTENTS. 



CtfftrsiaikdNtriiu, xio 

Ctlimtf"$ Pmfh^ttc HjaUffj of the 
Chunk of Rone, 444 

GtMdf't Deiigns f» CoCta|ei, ft 1 1 . 

C^tvdtoa Light aod Shado, ft 16 

Gtop^ifhf, Aodenr, Dictionarj of, ft 10 
, Modem, Tiettite of, lit 
Ger«r£»*i Efenenury View of BoUoy, 

515 
CUfihrt Two EtMfty 239 

CAfo. Soe B9tia^. Ste Crc^. 
^4«tfafcryDukeof,Foiieral Oration on, 

GMtnf* Catct of Sfflall-Pox, 316 

6Mmift*a Acconoc o# fiampilead Wa.» 

ten, 434 • 

Qmgb Oft cht Coins of iJUt ScJeucidsv 

*7S 
Grmftams DeM>bte^ S7 

GramiU Acconnt of the Yellow Fever, 

Grmt Britain, HjKCpy of, 907 

Crsth, Superiority of in Arti, Eiiay 00, 

490 
^rtene'9 Relation of Ciroimscancet in 
Nomandy, 33S 

Cra^t Introdnoiioft to the Globes, 93 
> » \ IfttfcdMtioo 10 Ariihaccic, i^« 
Qnfitbe% Triveis .325 



Htmtmgfird't (Bp.) TJieogbti oa the 
Trinity, 154 



JanfJ 

^Mifi the Sefttb,HIttoi2t of, 427 

j€kfB*% Viodication, giy 

india^ Disterution 00 cWiiising it, 109 
— — y inteicepted Correspondeoce ffom^ 

33» 

Jmftney^ a Poem, a 17 

Imfomttf Tracts and Obtenratioaa oo» 

Jumsf General r. Trial oi^ ^1% 

Intpirat'wfiy Ducoorie 00, ^%^ 

Luiiuttej Natioaal, Mcmoirt of. Vol* V» 

449 

JiNWtifa, or the Da^ of every Bricoo, 

319 

Jsb9m*t History of Animal Chemistry. 

2Sft 

' ^ 9 (Dr.) Account of his early 
Life, 33 c 

J»yci9 Analysis of Psiey's NatttralThe* 
ologv, 445 

ynvflii/r Bifair, 9^ 



ILiii^f;fM4WaCtfs,A<COootqf, 434 
Btrtfird, QottftCftSS of» htr CorioipoiKl* 
tocts. »7S 

ibv<MtfMftmo» a3 

fUmtt^^t Guide to licovtft, 9$ 

"BtyUf^ Triumph of Muiic, 936 

HMmVt Oftide to, 95 

HatftrJshire, History of, '337 

^iismds, EsenrMon to, 365 

ffi^ibw ry^i History of the Artillery Com- 
pany, 4*5 
Biff's Expctiaeftts aa Vacciolacion, $%§ 
mumk of James th« Sejitb, 417 
fba^ryf See Pthobelt, Joinnoii, jUams, 

B^mmegg^* Trawelsin ^'ortugsl, $17 
Baw/s Abridgment of Tajplor^s Key, 

BmbM ftttd HmifUmd oa Equinoctial 
Plants, 5*' 

^, Oft Zoolftgy, 510 



■^™»< 



Aattr's Sketch of the Political State 
of £asopc» ftl3 

*• (Dr.) Sermons, 291 

>*• flirt.) SpoiCi of the Genii, 

3*3 



Killiek and Bryan, Two Masonic Ad* 

drsiser, j 10 

King* Dtscoone on Ipipiration^ 311 

Uti^wUdgt, Self, Elemcntt of, %6j 

Kotsiehme'% most rrmiffcible Year, 7| 

— *8 Travda to Parii, %m 



tamoiint Mshhe^H ^^ ef, i||t 
Im Place^ M. on Celestial Mechanics, 

Vol. IV. 44jt 

Lsfi>om*$ Translation of the Castle of 

the Tuileries,. 3311 

Mjivater*s Letters of St Paul, 3$^ 

Letter to Rev* G. Burder,' m 

LtuPtette on the Superiority of the Greeks, 

490 
l0if$ of Napoleon, jji^ 

■ II' of Lord NdsoRf 429 

Lrf^,and Shade, Essay qa, ft]^ 

Lisfftfisiff Society, Transact, of, Vol.VIII, 
Little* % Two Sermons, ^g 

Lleyd'^ Christian Theology, <^ 

Zror/s Supper, Two Sermons 00, '96 
tugiirU Architectural Sketchn, %i% 

M^Greg9r*9 



tonttuts. 



M 

MfGrfg»r*9 Medical Skstchti, 9 9$ 

MaJoe^ a Hornn, 113 

Miahou' tHUioiy of Clinical Medicine, 

• • 46s 

MfaiesbtrbeSf Life of, 159 

Mangiu'% 1 raniiatton of Mal^sherbfR^t 
Lite, 159 

MSanti-^La K'woltnerone Fran:ese, 1 j 
Mfanaaf of fht French Mu:eum» 544 
MiarmonteV^ Mcmoiriy 142« 35)^ 

Matonic A<tdf esses, IJO 

Materia Medicd, El^entt ^f, 47 

JWifffitfax's Itilian Trac(8f 1 3 

Mawue^ M. on S/philit'c Complaintt, 

46s 
AISNMMiv^t Excnfaion to the Hishlafida, 

36s 
Maxef% Trantlatioii of Ftotiah^t Roth, 

103 
MUxwelTi Reportt ob Naral In^tiirj'^ 

3»7 
JI2«(i&tfiifa,Cdcttial,Treatiieoo,VoUIV. 

447 
Mtdkal Goide, 4^1 

•■ Sketches, 385 

Mfedic'me, Clinical, History of, 465 

MemM^ of Proceedings amoo^ the Qua^ 

kers, ^ 179 

idtmort of the National Institute, 

Vol. V. 440 

■ of Baron de Beaenval, 495 

Mimtrial, Top graphical and Military, 

480 
Mfeitxim'^rarte fmtica Italian*^ 1 3 

Jlfr/fM*8 Botanies I Dictionary, ' 443 
Mifiltoti* $ee Mortimer, 
Miniature^ a periodical Paper, 306 

i/tticrilmunf Literary, Vol. V. 537 

Modern » ariip 439 

Mofvmetitt of Antiquity in the Napoleon 

Museum, 5*2 

Mfortimer^t MeiDoir on Milton*! Political 

Lie, ^30 

Mmroft Eiemeais of the Muttria Me* 

diea, 47 

Mmiomp French, Manual of, 544 

MiMiie, Iriuipphof, 936 

N 

Ifapoiton. Life of, 330 

. ■ Mofeuin,,Monuinentt <B, 5ni 
^arratk/t of Evtnti among the Q;^aker5, 

179 
jr«v«/ Inquiry, Reports of> 317 

Vtirmf Rulea for the Maq»g*iiicnt of, 

%)% 



relt9». Lord, Life-of, 44| 

*s Tomb, a Poem, 441 

KuheCi Medical Guide, ^ 43 tf 

— — '• Dictionary of Chcwisr^, 43 y 
HtrfUk^ View of the Agrtcohore tff 49 
Normsndy. See Grtene* 
tCitrtb Wales, 185 

NertbvH SdmrnCr, 233 



Ohtenuaticiu on thd West India Dock Sa- 

■ lartea, tir 

■ ■■- on the 'Character of Dasid 
Sands, str 

(7y#. Greek. See Prym, Rnnell, 9«n-> 

Ortolaint Translation of A ndrea*s History 
of the Science** 531 



Pdky'% Natural Theology, Analysis o^, 

Patity Traf els to, %o 

— ., Modern, a Satire, 43^ 

Pameil on Currency and Exehangf , 309 
Patttriw\ General Atlati ^t 

PearsM*t Exhortation to CatechisinfE, 95 
Fbilw^bicml Transactions of the Royal 

Society, Part I. fhr 1S05, 15S 

Flatitt oi Coromandel, IC7 

■ , l^uinoctial, Account of| $%t 

Fhwdtit on the Constitvtion, aS6 

Plumptrt*9 Sermons,' 443 

Ftm, See Campbell, Bmrmgbt, Ssarr^y, 

DofomMis, Hsyfey^ £erafirdf BrntuUn^ 

Csttie* 
Ftesh, JtalUuM, See Crniimbem, TirS* 

botrb'p BienvM^ 
Foitical Works of the Aothor of the 

Heroic Epistle to Sir W. Cnambcrs^ 

F^hobil^t History of Corawall, 6$ 

Fmnfret, Countess of, her Coiroipond'* 
enee, nyj 

Fvfb^t Descriptlen of Prince of Wales 
' Island, ftif 

FeirtM^U Travels in^ 517 

Fr4tt*» Harvest Home* ^3 

Frhic* tf ffsttt blandf Deiertption of, 

ni9 
Pnner*u Consecration SeraMO, 447 
Frywu*% Greek Ode, ji 

Fyt'% Dictionary of Anticnt Geography, 



CONTENTS. 



tlt- 



I^Mften. See R^tkhtu. Sec Ssndt, 



RatiUmtU NarratMCy 
•*t MtiDoir, 



i'»9 
510 
3« 



Jtcn/WHIfMs o< Cnont Caylutf 

lUdi'^Bacnm T^seana, 

Remmeirt Grec k 0<ir, 

Ref^of ihe Patnoiic Fond, si 5 

Richdrdwnt EdicUn of Aithar*t Dis- 

itrfirrfiry «v Frstfute^ 1 3 

it«a», Chuich of, Prophetic H'.ttory of> 

Foftiadf f oviif, » Poeoif -3^0 

RmtsemM'5 Cojrrespondeoce, 3 30 

X«3r^«r|^o't Defcriptioo of Coromtndel 

Planu, VoJ. li. F»tck. IV. ipy 

f «^«/ Socieryi Pbilofopliicat Transacttoni 

«fy Part ). for 180$ . ft$8 

Raks for the Maoagement of the Ne* 

|iroet» a7A 

Rmu€ff*9 Accoaot of Indian Serpentt, 

Vol. II. pait II. 106 

Smth, an Eci« goe, 103 

fiMft and Wain^ri|kCr-'Mj^Otft of 

Wakeaeld^ 141 



S^^ed Hoortf ^^ 

^s'mi He!f na, Dr| ri^tioB of, 3 149 

' Paol, Lcctcra of^, 324 

S^tj David, Oiucryationa on the 
Character of, a 1 f 

Sctnat, Natuial, Pictiooary of^ Vol.I]I. 

r , Hitforyof, 5351 

fctsft Sir Trittrrm, a Romance, 196 
ieftnt'd^t, Coi aof, . 'J75 

Bffyei to Bingham*! Memntrv, 569 
SttmmSf CoUrciiyr. See Cod/^r, Littig, 
^pliikeftr, ilbn.-fr, Arthur ^ flitmpttf. 

r »$'«*»'» , 315-445-447 

5«r frutretft, a Metrical Romance, 196 
Skftfhfg ut the j«ivc9 of C»»iliao», 

3*9 
SmalUfoXf Cateto'^f 396 

£«■///>*• De«i|ns for Furniture, a 19 

^Wf^ Renurka 90 ^hapt^^'i Report, 



Swi[ of the S«n, 
Sonnets and oth^r Poetnty 
S§i0tbfj*§ M?tl«C, a Poerrtg 
**s Meciical TaJe;^ 



Sport9 of the Gffliif 

S torus, amutinp, 

Stvtotr'% Typographical Martct, 

^tfrJ*s Literary Mitcellaa«t/ Voi.^V. 



4^1 

32| 

iia 



7«/flr. Sec Hnue, 

T^rt/oijr, Chr itian, 'J 

_' > N^iuial, Aoalj(uof« aa.c 

'itmgs aa rhev v^cre, ,S 

Ttralasehi-^Sfria delU fgu'm ItatmS. 

r^mUtu^ Piiio Pp^ni, i5 

Topke^ Tranuaiion of Zollik«fer*e S«r- 
mom, j^ 

Tevtfjr'a rhir>gi as tJiey were, la* 

7r«/i, two, ^J 

-;- — Relative to Bptany, ««o 

rr*/-ttfr. Battle of, ' \% 

Transacthiti of the Linneaa SocieCy. 

Vol. Vil. 'II 

Trawii ia £urope, Aaia, ao4 Arabia, 

• — — . Sfte Kctzthucf Csrr, ^wj/^, 

Griffiths, Ma<W0Uin, Hoffmttiut££», 
Vrid/or Gtneral l..i)e«, «|f 

Triniry, Th ughts 00, j,^ 

'Trtumpb o\ Mt.fir, ,j^ 



lyfogra^bicaJ Marjipi 



yaeddatkn^ CxDfr'mentf on, 
FiHdU^l.it cf Capt«o Jekyll, 



3*7 



W 



H^atnnsfr'tgbt. See J?»//. 

^"kefitld:% Wemfjira, 141 

— — • (D,) on Political Economy, 

Warxxi D!»ga:se, ^,^ 

^i/ India L'ockf. See Oharvs^ 

tuns* 
Wkjf% Appeal to the Bank DiffMron, 






CONTENTS. 



JTihon on Febrile Diseaws, Vd. IV. 

378 

iTrtfu^Aon^t DiMcrUtion on cifilisisg 

Inata, 109 

JFrigbt^% InttrocdoA for Youth^ 9» 



Toun£% Farmer*! Calendar^ 
Toutbp Instruction for» 
— 's Trcaaofey 



94 



Toung Roidady a Po€m» 310 

Tung on the Agriculture of Norfolk* 

40 



• 

ZolTtkofn^t Sermont on theErils of the 

World, i6t 

ZMibfv, Obtcrfatbtts on« See Hmi- 



ERRATA k Volome XLVIII. 



Page S. I, 5. for « plan,' r. fUM, 

30. !• 19* from bott, for ' foUowSttg piece/ r« fowHog piece. 

178. L io» from bott. for < nigbt»* r. nuy ; and 1. 8. fr. bott. for 'isajr* r« ai/f &f. 

179. 1. so. for 11^; r. M^K* 

ft6i. !• 14* from butt, for ^^ compotion* r« emKfcsUiai, 

300. I. 13. dele • tpitb* after * in* 

318. I. 8. for < hepatic/ r» berftiie, 

336. 1. 8. insert the word better before < chance.* 

373. I. 7t from bott. for o^;, luuo^imv r. oyoj KiPM^iMr^ 

593* It 3* for < consequence,* r. sipumtt. 



» 



THE 



MONTHLY REVIEW, 

For SEPTEMBER, 1805; 



Art. I. Tie Transactions of the Linnean SoeSly of London^ Vol. VII« 
4to. pp.355. 1L118. 6d. Boards. White. 1804. ' 

t 

"Cew naturalists will perase. these communications without 
^ expressing a wish) that the learned body froni whom they 
proceed may be long enabled to persevere, in their labours of 
diligence and zeal. The liberal terms of their royal charter^ 
and the considerate spirit* of their bye-la w8» (copies of which 
are prefixed to the present volmhey) certainly augur well to the 
permanence and prosperity of the institution ; and a still more 
flattering presage of laudable exertion may be deduced from 
the highly respectable character of the meoioirs already pub* 
lished. 

Of the twenty-two additional papers now before us, the first 
is intitled^ A new Arrangement if the genus Alocy with a chro-^ 
notogical Sketch of tie progressive Knowledge of that Genus ^ ondof 
9ther succulent Gefiera, by Adrian Hardy H4 worth, Esq,, F.jL.S. 
^-So far as the extrication of this hitherto neglected atid con- 
fused genus is concerned, Mr. Ha worth ' has the ' strongest 
claims to the gratitude of every intelligent. t>otanist; His sy.« 
noptical view includes not fewer than fiity'9ne distinct species, 
independently of varieties, and of nine species described oh 
the authority of Muntingius, Plukcnet, Petivcr, Commeline, 
and Till]. When we reflect that scarcely any one of thcle 
sixty species can be tolerably preserved in aii' herbarium,— that 
only fourteen are particularized in the ehtarged and improved 
edition of Millar's Dictionary, now publishing by Martyn,*^ 
that Mr. Hawerth has, during these iifteeh years; assiduou^fy 
collected and cultiyated all the sorts of atges and $ucculefit 
plants which he was able to procure,-^and tLat forty-one of 
the species which he descpbe's are still alive in his possession ,«-.- 
we may form some notion of the importance and extent of this 
.gentlemaa's ixivc8tigati9ns. . - ^ 

« Ih«vr gtteo,-(s«ys.he,) ^mong oilier wkcjsyuo'nyma, a jcfercn^e 

Ao every ^gfifcd £^ii ip O^y po6seasioa.:,s^ far ^a^ (e^t as they belong 

VO^XLVIII* ^B* .V. ' t» 






a Transactiotis o/thi Linnean Society^ Vol. VIL 

to the plants I have described. This is more than I intended^ m the 
outset of the business, to have done ; but finding the very involved 
mnd intricate state of the whole genus absolutely required it, I re* 
doubled my exertions and new.modelled the whole ; and» with the as* 
aistance of the h'ving plants themselves (which I found indispensably 
necessary to have always before me), have given to mytfeclfitd differ <^ 
itttug that decisive kind of perapicutty which they could not possibly 
have received in any other way. I elaim no merit on this account, 
because any other person, of equal diligence, mirht have done as 
much, perhaps morei had he beta in poa^ession of the same advan- 
tageous materials/ 

Where do we find persons of equal diligence, and possessed 
of the same advantageous materials ? Or, if both could be 
easily procured, we might srill lament the absence of those dis* 
criminating talents which are so conspicuously manifested by 
the writer of the present paper. As, however, to avoid pro* 
lixity, he has suppressed the detailed descriptions, and selected 
merely some of the best references, we trust that we may re- 
gard his new arrangement as only the prelude of a more ex- 
tended and finished monography. 

On tie Germination of the Seeds ofOrchidea. By Richard An* 
thony Salisbury, Erq, F.R.S. and L.S.«*-Mr. Salisbury's ob» 
aervations prove that the seeds of several of these tribes both 
germinate and vegetate ; and that, therefore, the received opi« 
nion concerning their sterility is a mere prejudice. The experi- 
ment succeeded with him upwards of a hundred times on Or^ 
chis tnorioy '^mascula, — Iatifolia^'^maculata^''-^apifera^ Ophrys spi» 
raliSf all the Limodora which happened to be in the garden^ 
. and Bpidendron cochleatum* 

Account of the Tusseh and Arrindy Sill -worms of Bengal* By 
William Roxburgh, M.D. F.L.S, — As these insects have been 
already described by naturalists, we shall not follow Dr. Rox- 
burgh in all the particulars which he mentiqns relative to their 
scientific characters and habits. It may suffice to observe of 
the Tusseh insect, that it has been found in Bengal and the 
neighbouring provinces, from time immemorial, in such abun* 
dance as to have afforded the natives a large quantity of very 
durable coarse silk, which forms a cheap,'light, and cool dress; 
that, when its larva approaches to its full size, it is too heavy 
to crawl in search of its food with its back up, and therefore 
traverses, suspended by the feet ; and th^t, in its perfect state, 
it is destitute of a pouth, or any channel hj which food can be 
received. 

The Arrindy, or Pbaleena Cynthia^ occurs in two of t|ie in« 
terior districts of Bengal, and is cultivated in houses asthe 
common tilk-worm. As it feeds ivt the leaves of tbe Palnm 

Chriai^ 



n. -'. 



Trtmsaetkns of the Liftman S$cUty^ Vol. VIL 3 

CBrijtiy Sir Won. Jones mentions it under the denomination o£ 
PhaUna ricinii zn appf Hation which Dr. Roxburgh is unwil« 
ling to retain, lest it should be confounded with Bombjx ricini 
ci Fabricius, which is a different insect. In its larva state^ it 
is extremely yoracious, devouring many times its own weight 
in the course of a single day. So very delicate is the silk 
which is obtained from this insect, that it cannot be winded off 
the cocoons, but is spun like cotton. It is then manufactured 
into a sort of coarse white cloth, which is extremely durable* 

Description cf the British Lizards s and of a new British species 
rf Viper. By Rcvctt Sheppard, A,B..F.L S.—To the three 
species of British Lizards so imperfectly described by Pcnnantf 
Mr. Sheppard has added three morCi two of which are non- 
descripts. The first of thf se he denominates Lacerta OEdura^ 
or sailed tailed Lizard; the second he presumes to be the L. 
etngttiformis of Ray; and to be often mistaken for a viper; and 
the third, he caHs Z. maculatOi or spotted Lizard. The author's 
strictures on Mr. Pennant's remarks on the larvse of Lizards 
are pertinent and ingenious. 

Mr. S. next describes a beavtiful species of Coluber^ to 
which he gives the name of cdruleus^ from the azure blue of its 
belly. ' This certainly deserves (he says) to be r^mk^-d as a 
distinct species full as much as C. Prester. When I killed the 
animal, I took down an account of the scuta and squamae, which 
I have since lost. They differed in number from those both 
of C. Berus and C. Prester ; but among the great number of 
snakes and vipers that I have killed and examined, I scarcely 
ever found two of the same species that had a like number oiJE 
scuta and squamx : a sufficient indication how imperfect a part 
of the specific character these form.' 

Mr. S. is unaccountably silent concerning ,the particular 
places in which be found bis additions to British zoology* 

Description of Bos Fronialisy a nenv Species^ from India. By 
«Ayimer Bourke Lambert, Esq.^ F.R.S. V.P.L.S. —This non- 
descript species is a native of the mountainous tract of country 
which separates the province of Chittagong in bengal from 
Anracan. Soon after the drawing was taken, the animal, which 
had been sent by the Marquis Wcllesley to David Scott, Esq., 
died, to all appearance owing to the change of climate* A 
cow of the same species died on the passage. 

Description of the Esox Saurus. By the Rev. Thomas Rackett^ 
M.A. F.R.S. and Z..S.— -This laconic communication is chiefly 
valuable on account of the accurate figure which accompanies 
it, and which represents the fish in its natural size. 

B a Description 



4 . Tramactkns of the Linn fan Society ^ VoL VIL 

\ Dfscription of several Marine Ammafs found on the South coast 
of Devonshire. By George Montagu, -^V » -f-^.S.— In the 
prosecution of his testaceological inquirie$| this indefatigable 
naturalist discovered a variety of animal productions which had 
escaped the observation of preceding faunists. Those which he 
has selected for the subject of the present paper he designates 
Cancer rhomboidalts^ C ntaxilldris^ C. phasma^ C paimatuSf 
C. scorpioides^ C. articuhsus^ Oniscus hirsutus, 0, cylindraceuSf 
Gordittj marinuSf C jinulatus^ Sipuncu/us strombus^ Lap/ysia 
viridiSf Doris pinnatifiJa^ D, carutea^ D, flava^ D. margin 
nata, D. macuiata^ Amphitriie volutacornisy Nereis tricolor^ 
N» margarita, N. lineaia, N> ocientaculata^ and Asterias 
brachiata. 

According to the best oFMr.M/s observations, Cancer linearis 
and atomos of Linne are the same^ and, most probably, syno- 
nymous with phasma here described. 

Of Gbrdius marinusy it is observed that It is not uncommon 
on several parts of the south coast of Devonshire. 

' It is of 80 prodigious a length, that it is impossible to fix any 
bounds ; some of the fishermen say thirty yards,^but perhaps as many 
feet is the utmost : those specimens which have come under our in- 
spection did not appear to exceed twenty feet, and more commonly 
from eight to fourteen or fifteen/ — • If the animal be wounded, or 
the body divided, small threads of milky appearance issue from the 
wound, and do not myi with the water without agitation/ — * The 
expansion and contraction are so unlimited, that it is scarcely possible 
to ascertain the- utmost length of this worm : one, which was esteemed 
to be about eight feet lung, was put alive, into spirits, and instantly 
contracted to about one foot, at the same time increasing double the 
bulk, which originally was about the diameter of a crow's quill. In 
the vast exertion of the muscles, the animal is generally divided at 
those parts which had been twined into knots. 

* This worm is very difficult to preserve perfect without contraction ; 
for, if suffered to die in its natural element, one part will decay, while 
the other is alive ; and the addition of any thing o^ensive produces 
contraction ; even fresh water.' 

Sipunculus strombus is supposed to be peculiar to Strombus 
pes pelecanif which is rejected by the hermit crab^ as an in- 
commodious dwelling. 

Laplysia viridis^ though destitute of any membranaceous plate 
or shield under the skin, on the back, approaches so nearly to 
L, depilans in its external form, that Mr. M. hesitates sot to 
class it with that animal. He adds, 

* While we are on the subject of the Lap^pia dcpUant^ we cannot 
help remarking how strange it is that the poisonous touch and ofF<::n- 
sive smell which appear to have been the origin of its name, should 
be without reasou hanjed dowa to posterity, and that such an op* 

probriua 



transactions of the Linnean Society^ Vol. VIL '"$ 

> «> 

pmbrram sbould have so long been fixed upon one of tbe most harm- 
Kss and inoffensive of creatures. 

• On the coast of Devonshire," we have bad frequent opportunities 
of handling these animals with impunity : for they neither affect the 
hand nor the olfactory nerves, but arc as destitute of smell as of «ny 
depilatory power.' 

No method has jet been devised, for fixing tbe beautiful 
purple dye which is abundantly discharged from this animals. 

The author's description of Amphitrite vclutacornis is well 
worthy of quotation : 

* The length of this singular and beautiful animal is about five in- 
ches, and the breadth half an inch ; near the head a little depressed, 
and somewhat smaller towards the posterior end, where it is mote flat- 
tened, and terminates in a tongue-shaped point : the tentacula are 
more than an inch long, elegantly plumose and contoluted : the stem 
is furnis>hed with long ciliated fibres on one side ; and as it makes 
about three spiral turns, the fibres become equally extended in a 
spiral direction ; the plumes on the lower part of the tentacula meet 
near the ipouth, which is very little protruded ; these arc of a b§^t 
yellow brown, banded and mottled with chcsnut : behind the head a 
ruff or scalloped membranaceous reflectea margin, composed of four 

Cans or petals, which almost meet underneath, of a dark purple co- 
)ur in the front, edged with white ; pale beneath : scutellum com- 
ned of ten joints, with three rows of plates ; those of the middle 
jest, and of a yellow colour 5 the sides purplish : the other part of 
the body above is formed of four series of plates or scales, with a 
slight sulcus down the middle of the back ; the segments of this part 
are about eighty, of a dark purple brown colour; on each side is a 
row of tubercles, one at each ai.imlation, and a small pencil of re- 
tractile bristles ; those on the $>ides of the scuttllum are most copspi* 
cuous : the plates or segments beneath are single. 

* This elegant species of Amphlirite was taken by dredging for oys- 
ters, and was brought to us alive in sea water. In this situation an 
opportunity offered of examining the curious structuie of its beauti« 
ful tentacula, which far exceeds the pencil of the artibt. These are 
pot in the least retractile, but are capable of more or less extension, 
by more or less contortion, and may possibly at times be thrown 
out at full length ; but the animal never showed any such inclination 
pfter it was taken, though kept alive for several days, and when dead 
was more contorted than before. The (ibres are sometimes laid close, 
at other times e:(panded at right angles, showing the columella or 
•talk, 

* The animals of this genus are usually of a soft nature, and ge- 
perally protect their tender bodies by a tubular case, into which 
they can wholly recede : this, on the contrary, by the firmn-ss of its 
skin, seems to require np sucK artificial covciing, and probably never 
prepares such a case *.* • res* 

« ■ This, though somewhat similar to the Amphitrite that irhabits 
Sa^cBa pemcUlut, the CoralAna Tubularia MelUcnsis of Ellis, must not 

Bj be 



4 TrantuiioHS rfthi Linnean Sccietjf Vd. FIT. 

The fossil productions called pentacrinites^ st^f^liUes^ &€#» 
which hare so much puzzled mineralogists, are probably the 
remains of this sDtcies> or of sbme of its congeners. 

Descriptions of four new British Lichens. By Dawson Turner, 
Esq % MA. F.L.S» — The lichens hcrr delineated in a very 
masterly style are named, ehryocephaluSf fusceilus^ luteoalbus^ 
and porriginosus. The particulars, which discriminate each, are 
not susceptible of abridgment. 

Descriptions of some species of Carex from North America* By 
Edward Rudge, Esq-j F.L>S,-^Mt^ Rudge remarks that there 
is a striking dissimilarity between the American species of this 
genus and those of European growth. The six which he de- 
scribes are, ovataf tenuis^ intumescens^ foiliculata^ fltxilisj and 
gigantea* Except /oi/icuiatir, they are all non-descripts. It is 
to be r<*gretted that the accounts' are taken only from the 
dried plants. 

Remarks upon the Dillenian Herbarium* By Dawson Turner, 
JE/f.« F*R.S. A.S a L.S. — ^These remarks afford an excellent 
specimen of candid and acute botanical criticism. Mr. Tur« 
Xier's object was to unravel the confusion of synonymy which 
has arisen from differences of opinion as to the plants really 
designed by Diilenius. Though the author, and his ffiend Mr. 
Woods, have performed the task partially^ they have done 
snuch, considering their limited opportunity, and have enabled 
future examioators to do more. < Independent (he observes) 
of the inadequacy of our own abilities to the task, it would re- 
quire at least a week of uninterrupted leisure to examine pro* 
perly the Dillenian herbarium, and it was in our power to 
bestow but one day upon the investigation : this day Dr. Wil- 
liams obligingly allowed to be both long and unbroken, but still 
it served us only to look through the Conferva, UIv£, Lichens, 
and Hypna, with some attention, and to take a hasty view of 
the remaining genera of Mosses, but not to open a single 
sheet of the Jungermanniit,* 

it is obvious that a long list of individual references and 
remarks, however creditable to the commentators, can neither 
be admitted into our extracts, nor reduced to a condensed 
form. 

Description of some fossil Shells found in Hampshire. By 
William Pilkington, Esq., F.A.S, and X.S.-^The species de^ 

be confounded with k ; the convoluted tentacula» doubly ciliated fibres, 
and very superior magnitude, are sufficient marks of distinction ; be« 
sides which, the knots or joints in the long fibres of the tentaculaof thia 
ire not to be found in the other.' 

scribed 



Transactions 9fiht Linnean Smdjy Vol. VIL , 5 * 

scnbed are Valuta jtsiglica^ Buccinum defossum^ Murex puncta* 
tnSf M, asperi (Brander) varietasj M. interruptuSf Af. sccpub* 
mm^ At. parrecti (Brander) varUtas, M. mtidus, Turbo suica* 
tust and Nerita Hantontensis. 

An historical Account of Testaceolo^cal Writers. By William 
George Maton, M.D. F.R.S. if L.S. and the Rev. Thomas 
Rackett, MA. F.R.S. ^ L.S. — A Bibliotheca Testaeeohj^iea has. 
long been a desideratum in Natural History. The present article^ 
though shortly sketched, evinces an extensive and discrimi- 
nating acqu lintance with the subject, and may, in course, be 
consulted with advantage. The first part exhibits an historical 
catalogue of authors in the order of chronology, with brief 
notices of their systems, or partial descriptions $ and the se- 
cond gives a methodical arrangement of their names and writ- 
ings» according^to the subjects of which they treat. The 
names of publishers of mere catalogues, or of such authors 
have touched on testaceous animals only incidentally, are pur 
posely omitted* * If several authors of a higher order have no 
been inserted, it is either because they are not accessible to 
the generality of our countrymen^ or because they have copied 
others too nearly to be allowed the merit of originality.* 

We are happy to learn that the writers of this paper have . 
been engaged for some yeairs on the study of the Testacea^ and 
in preparing a systematic catalogue and descriptions of such 
species as inhabit the British islands. 

An Illustration^ of the Grass called by Linnaus Cornucopia alope* 
iuroides. By James Edward Smith, M.D. F.R.S. jP.Zi.S.— 
The learned President here furnishes the Society with a con« 
dse^ but interesting, statement of the particulars which led him 
to the discovery, that the Grass in question is the Pbalaris 
niriculata of Linne, which is itself a real Alopecums. 

Description of such ipecics ofChironiaasgrow ivildat the Cape of 
Good Hope. By Sir Charles Peter Thunbcrg, Knight of the Order 
of Wasa^ Professor of Botany at Upsal^ F.M. L.S. — ^These spe- 
cies are thttetragona^ nudi-caulis^JruteJcenStjasminoideSflychnotdes^ 
EnoidiSf if bacctfera. 

Remarks on the generic characters of Mosses ^ and particularly of 
the genus Mnium. By James Edward Smith* M.D. iffc.-^ln the 
coarse of this elaborate investigation. Dr. Smith canvasses with 
singular acuteness the principles on which Dillenius instituted 
the Genus Mmum^ the strange aberrations to which those prin* 
ciples and subsequent discoveries gave rise, and then the confir- 
mation of the judgment of Dillenius, though on principles to 
vhich he was a stranger. The merits and defects of the Hed- 

B 4 vigtaQ 



8 Transacilonr of the Linnean Society, Voh TIL 

vigian school are nicely appreciated ; and we perceive with 
what mature deliberation the writer has proceeded in construct* 
xng his arrangement of the British musci. 

Observations on the Zizania aquatica. By Aylmer Bourke 
Lambert, Esq. — The seed of this plan, obtained from America^ 
never grew, till Dr. Nooth, at the desire of Sir Joseph-Banks» 
sent them from the lakes of Canada, put up in jars of water. 
Owing to this precaution, they produced healthy plants, which 
ripened their seeds in autumn. < In a pond at Spring-Grove, 
. Sir Joseph Banks has a great quantity of this plant, growing anr 
xmally, ripening its seeds, and sowing itself round the edges ; 
and I am persuaded that it might be sown with some advantage 
where no other grain will grow, in many shallow pieces of wa^ 
ter in Great Britain and Ireland, especially in the latter country, 
where I have seen several extensive lakes which appear well 
^ suited for the purpose.' 

Observations on the Durion^ Durio Zibethinus of Linnaeus. By 
Mr. Charles Konig, F.L.S, The mis-statements and omissions 
of Rumphius and Linne, relative to this plant, are here cor- 
rected and supplied. 

Observations on some species of British ^adrupedsy Birds f antf 
Fishes. By George Montagu, Esq. jF.Z..S.— The subjects o£ 
these observations are, Mus messorius of Shaw, Sorex fodiens^ 
Bmberiza Cirlus^ Motacilla provincialisy Charadrius hiaticula^ 
Larus ridibundus^ Cepola rubescens^ Sparus niger, and Cyclopterux 
Umaculatus. 

It appears that Mr. M. was acquainted with the harvest 
mouse, before it was indicated by Mr. White of Selborn ; and 
that he has since found it in Gloucestershire, and in the south 
of Devonshire. The want of an opening in the nest is not pe-« 
culiar to this species, since most others of the genus close the 

. aperture every dme they leave their young. Attempts to keep 
the harvest mouse alive, in confinement, have hitherto proved 

. unsuccessful. It burrows in the ground during the cold sea-* 
son : but hundreds, taken out of oat-ricks in winter, have ex«^ 
hibited no symptoms of torpor. 

A recently killed specimen of the water shrew was found In 
Devonshire, remote from water, and in one of the highest and 
ttiosc arid situations in the country. 

Thediscoveryof a. nest of the Ctrl Bunting, and the care of 
rearing the young in confinement, enabled the author to make 
som? interesting additions to his remarks on this species, con« 
tained in his Ornithological Dictionary. The young are fond 
of insect food^ particularly of grasshoppers, and prefer white 

oat& 



Transadwns of the Linnean Society^ fol. VIL 9 

oats aBd caaary-seed to hard boiled egg and rice. The male 
GQiTived the female some months, would take insects from the 
haody and catch flies in the windows, but^ was excessively ti* 
mid and shy of strangers. < It particularly' shewed more than 
osoal abhorrence to any thing black, not suffering even those out 
of whose hand it would otherwise feed to approach its cage 
with a hat on, without violent efforts to avoid the displeasing 
object, by fluttering about in an extraordinary manner ; and in 
this way it lost its life.' Its shrill and piercing song was so mo« 
notonous and incessant, as to be extremely disagreeable. The 
female uttered only a simple plaintive note. 

Dartford warblers were observed in the southern pSrts of 
Pevonshire from the 8th of September, 1802, till the latter end 
of January of the following year. Mr. M. presumes that they 
may breed in this country as they do in Provence, since it is 
difficult to reconcile their migration northwards in winter with 
the other parts of their history. 

Additional reasons are here alleged in confirmation of this qpi* 
nion, that the Alexandrian Plover of Linne, and the Kent'nb 
of |jewin, are only varieties of the ringed species. 

In a critical discussion, which we cannot stay to detail, the 
author endeavours to shew, (and, we think, satisfactorily,) that 
the hlacl'beaded Gull, the red-legged j the brown -headed y and the 
hrvwn Gull of the second Supplement to Latham's General Sy- 
nopsis, are one and the same species ; and that the brown Tern 
|ias been confounded with it. Much of the obscurity on this 
subject appears to have arisen from overlooking the changes of ~ 
plumage to which these birds arc liable, and which the author 
has watched with uncommon assiduity. 

The specimen of Cepola rubescens^ from which the descriptioa 
and figure were taken, was caught in Salcomb bay, on the 25tti 
of February, 1803. Another was taken on the 25th of March. 

The very rare Sparus niger^ or toothed gilt-head, was takea 
alive in November 1799, in the inlet that runs up to King's 
bridge, on the south coast of Devon. 

The bi maculated Sucker has been frequently taken by deep 
dredging at Torcross, in Devonshire. , 

Biographical Memoirs of several Norwich Botanists ^ in a letter i§ 
Alexander MacLeay, Esq^ Sec. L,S, i?y James Edward Smithy 
M.D.&c, — These minutes, though much shorter than we could 
desire, are full of interest, and penned with affection and delica- 
cy of feeling. It is justly conjectured that the taste for the cul* 
tivation of flowers, which still prevails in Norwich, was intro* 
duced from Flanders, along with the worsted manufacture^ 
goring the persecutions of Philip the Second. < Such an inno- 
cent 



to 'TramoitioKf vfthe Linmati Society ^ Vol. Vlf^ 

ttnt luxury^ ^a^d Id pure a taste, were not unworthy of mindf 
which had tunytf ^ith disgust from the tyranny and foul cor* 
mption of their native country. Truth, virtuous liberty, and 
disinterested sciendlf, are congenial, and flourish under the in- 
fluence of similar^circumeunces/ A few exdellenf practical 
botanists> mostly in the more*humbIe walks of life, aremofitioa- 
cd with commendation : but their numbers have always been 
very inconsiderable, compared wijji the florists, who still abound 
among the journeymen weavers, and other persons employed 
in the manufactures. Among the gentlemen botanists of this 
busy city, we find Sir Thomas Brownjr, who Arst observed Sal^ 
vda fruticosay on the. Norfolk coast, *the Rev. Henry Bryant^ 
Mr. Hugh Rose, and Mr. Pitch forfl.— The rest of the letter wc 
ftbaH give in the writer's own words : 

* I can never foi^et the kind assistance I received fr«m this worthy 
man [Mr. Rose | when, havin^r always had a passion for plants, I. became 
desirous, at the age of i8, of studying botany as a science. The only 
book I could then procure was Berl^nhout^ Huron's Flora having 
become extremely scarce. I received Bcrkcnhout on the 9th of Ja- 
viiary 17 7B, and on the 1 ith began, with {(finite delight, to examine 
tkc Ulex Europeutf the only plant then' 10 flower. 'I then first con^* 
prehcndcd the nature of systematic arrangement and the Linnzan 
principles, little aware that at that instaat-the world was losing the 
great genius who was to be my future guide, for Linnzus died in tho 
night of January 1 1 th 1778. With Berkenhout, and. a parcel of wild 
flowers in my hands, I bad often recoujrBe to Mr. Rose daring the 
ensuing summer. But, alas ! in the following year a gutta sereiia de- 
prived him of his sight. Thts affliction, so* peculiarly levere to a 
naturalist, he bore with exemplary patience ; for though with the loss 
•f his external visual organs he lost his darling amusement, none could 
ever derive more consolation than himself from looking within. Do* 
ring the few remaining years of Mr. Rose's life, his delight was to assist 
young people in their classical or botanical studies, and he was always 
attended by some one or other, eager to profit of his conversation* 
He had long fomxcd the plan of a popular work on the uses of plants ; 
and though unable to execute his intention altogether himself, he sug- 

. gested the scheme to Mr. Charles Bryant, brother to the gentleman 
above mentioned, an excellent and industrious practical botanist. This 
was the origin of the Flora DieUtica^ published in 1 783. It was 
dedicated to Mr. Crowe, who had for some years, as well as severd 
other gentlemen of Norwich, embraced with ardour the study of 
Bntish botany. The Rev. Mr. Bryant was by this time settled at 
bis living of Heydon ; from whence ne afterwards removed to Colby in 
Norfolk, where he died at an advanced aee in 1799, having never ex- 
perienced any diminution of his fondness tor botanical pursuits* Mr. 
Hudson and Mr. Lightfoot were, as long as they lived, his constant 
<3orrespondents. Mr. Charles Bryant died before his brother. 

* Mr. Pitchford, therefore, was the only survivor of the original 
Linnzan school of Non^'ich. He had also been a frequent correal 

pondcttt 



w 

Transactions sfthe Linman Society, Vol. Fit* \ ii 

Mndcnt of the authors of the Flora AngUca and flor^^Seotica. ^ Bui 
UioQgb an admirer of Linnscus, he was always pe^i^rly partial to 
Ray ; and though ever so well ajcquamted* wijh a plant by its Lin* 
naeui name, he could never rest while any obscnipty enveloped it in 
the works of Ray. The Carkes and A^mha more particularly en- 
gaged Mr. Pitchford's attention ; and it must be confessed the study 
of ihetrr on his plan, of scrutinizing synonyms without access to any , 
old English herfoariufn» was not soon to be exhausted. No wonder, 
thei^ore, that his conversation n^nd epistolary correspondence on 
the^ subjects found no endg Nothing, however, could be more 
candid and amicable than his discussions. In the last interview I 
had with htm^ he was particularly strenuous with me to separate the 
Mentha hirtula, with capitat? flowers, from the verticillate, M> saHva^ 
I think it but just to record tlie opinion of so indefatigable a prac- 
tical observer, though my own remains unshaken. As some years 
have now elapsed smce the Linnaean Society published my paper oa 
Mints, I take this opportunity of observing, that subsequent experi- 
ence has strongly confirmed the solidity of the characters taken from 
the pubescence of the calyx and flower-stalk, and I find botanists in 
general can now, fasily ejiough,^ make out any mint that comes in 
their way. On this point', indeed, my late friend was sufficiently dis- 
posed to be partial to jne^as he always was in every instance in whicbi 
he could give me cTedit> or do me any service* A very few days 
after the abpve conversation, , 

, ■■' •• ' « he gave 

His blessed part to Heaven, and slept in peace. 

So may he rest ! his faults lie gently on him !" 

Jt further dccounVof the Bos Frontalis, by Aylmer Bourkc Lam« 
belt, Esq.y-ThU species of cow, the Gyall of India, is peculiar 
to thecastern confines of the province of Chittagong, where it 
delights to run wild on the mountains, and browse in the deepese 
jangles. ' It is also reared as a domestic attimal by the natives. 
in appearance, it somewhat resembles the wild bufl^alo. I( 
lives to the age of from fi[fteen to twenty years, and loses its 
tight as it grows old. — The ingenious method of catching the 
wild Gyalis by decoy balls, composed of a particular kind of 
earth, salt,- and cottQn, is here detailed at length. 




is not peculiar to the coast of Malabar, and is the largest knowa 
species of the genus, Capt. H. prefers the specific denomina- 
tion of giganteus. The female here described and figured weigh- 
ed two pounds eleven ounces and a half : its total length, 26^ 
inches. The male is larger, and weighs upwards of three 
pounds. It is very mischievous and predacious. ' The bite of 
this animal is considered dangerous, and an instance of its ef- 
fc£U came undet my notice while at the military station of 

Futtehgurgh, 



12 Transactlom of the Linnean Society^ FoL VIL 

Futtehgurgh, in the Dooab^ where an European in the Indis 
Company's artillery died under a confirmed hydrophobia ia 
about twelve days, after having been bitten by a rat* This 
Dpinion I rest upon the judgment of the medical gentleman who 
attended the unfortunate man subsequently to the accident.' 

Extracts from the Minute-Book of the Linnean Society Mf« 
Lambert presented some specimens of the Agrsstis linearis of 
Koenig, Retains, and Wildenow, the Durva of the Hindoos^ 
and celebrated by the late Sir William Jones for the beauty of 
itsfi.'wers, and its sweetness as pasture. On comparing it with 
aimllar specimens in the Banksian Herbarium, Mr. L. found it 
to be Panicum Dactylon^ Lin. As it grows only sparingly and im- 
perfectly in Cornwallji he conjectures that it is not originally a 
native of England. 

Mr. Tcmpleton mentions that Loxia faldrostra^ X^vii. wa« 
ahot near Belfast in the month of January 1802 ; that it was 
a fc;male, and perfectly resembled the figure in Dixon's voyage 
jto tlie north-west coast of America. 

•Sir Joseph Banks has presented to the Society the whole of hia 
Tery valuable collection of insects* 

* Read a letter from the President, stating a carious observation' 
relative to the musical intervals ia the notes of the Cuckoo, com- 
municated by an eminent professor at Norwich. This gentleman 
has invariably found the Cuckoo to begin early in the season with the 
interval of a minor third. The bird then proceeds to a major third, 
next to ?fourthi then zffth ; after which his voice breaks, without hi^ 

ever attaining a minor sixth,* 

» 

Mr. Sowerby presented a sketch of the head of a new specie^ 
of Cachclot, stranded in the county of £]gin. The whole ani* 
mat was sixteen feet long. Mr, S. proposes that it may be 
named Physeter bidens. 

A continuation of the catalogue of the Library of the Society^ 
and a list of the donors of books, close this interesting volume. 
The whole is embellished with eighteen platcsj illustrative o^ 
various objects described* 



Art. 



( »3 ) 

AnT. IT. Ccmpommenti Lhrici de* fiu Uliutri foiti iPliaKa scelit Ja 
T. J. Mathia8« 3 Vols. Crown 8vo. il. iis. 6d. Boards. 
B<ckct« 

Art. hi. Comrnentarj infomo all* Isioria dtlla Poetta Italianaf nf 
^aaii si ragiona ifqgni genere e specie iTt qtUlla^ scritti da Gio* Mari9 
Creschmbeni, Ripuhltcati da T. J. Mathias. 3 V^Is. Crown 8vo» 
iL 4t. Boards. Bcckct. 

Art. IV. Storia delta Poena ItaRanaj scritta da Glf-ofamo Ttrahoschtf 
fratta daila sua grand* opera IntUolata Storia Generate della Lettera" 
tura Itaiianm. Jdp^Rcata da T. J. Mathias. 3 Vols. Crown 8vo. 
In Four Parts. iL lis. 64. Boards. Becket. 

Art. V. Bacco in Toscana. Ditiramho di Francesco Redi; eon note hrevi 
scdu dtW autort* Crown 8to. pp. 124. 58. Boards. B<\:kct. 

Art. VI. UArtt Poetica ItaUana^ in cinque cantlt da Benedetto Men* 
xai. Crown Svo. pp. 150. 58. Boards. Becket. 

Art. VII- JLd Riwtlu%ione Franceses visione alia Dantesca in quattr§ 
canii^ da Vsncenxo Monti ; Panno 1 793 » in occasione-della morte di Ugo 
Bass^li. Crowo 8to. pp. 104. 53. Boards. Becket. 

^HE friends of polite literature need not to be informed iivith 
^ what enthusiasm and success Mr. Mathias has cultivated 
the study of the Italian language. We some time a{;o gave a 
short notice of his republication of Crescimbeni's nistory of 
the Arcadian Academy^ ^ as a specimen of the neat nnd hand- 
tome volumes which he has edited with so much diligence of 
revision, and elegance of taste. We shall now briefly advert, 
to others of the series, in the order in which they stand in the 
preceding titles. 

I. Of all the departments of Italian poetry, none is more 
voluminous than that which, by a loose application of the 
term, has been dcnomitated lyric. Besides Daiite, Petrarch, 
Tasso, and Ariosto, who all occasionally essayed their talents 
in this species of composition, multitudes, less known to fame, 
have limited their efforts to canzons, sonntts, and kindred 
forms of poetical effusion. These ].i'tter forms, however, 
such as the ode, hymn, canzonet, cantata, madrig;i], &c. are 
not included in the present collection. For the sake of con- 
sistency, we could have wished, either that tlje title had ,been 
more qualified, or that the specimens had beca of a more diverr 
siGed complexion. 

The Canzones^ which are about one hundred in number, and 
which occupy nearly two volumes and a half, are extracted from 
the writings of Dante, Cino, Petrarch, Lorenzo de Medici, 

» ■ - . - ■■■ I • ^- . ^. r 

' • Sec^Ucv. for January last. 

rohziano, 



14 MatBiasV Italian Tracts* 

Poliziano, AriostOj Bembo, Sannazzaro, Amalteo, della Ci^ 
Pate rnoy Vittoria Colonna, Molza, Tansillo, Martelli, Tasso 
(Bernardo and Torquato), Celio Magno, Lemene, Maggi, Cotta^ 
Casaregiy Manfredi» Rinaldi, Chiabrera, Filtcaja, Testii Ve« 
jdcroai, Bedori, Gozzt, Rossiy Zappi, BruguereSy Fragoni^ 
JMenziniy and Guidi. 

The sonnctS) which amount to upwards of two hundred^ 
are from chepenS'Of DantCy Cino, Petrarchi Perottii Buona- 
corsi, Boiardu, Conti, Lorenzo d« IMedici, Colonna^ Sannaz- 
2:aroy Bembo, Ariosto, Fracastoro, Tebaldeo»« da L'Aquila^ 
Cariteo, Amanio, Capelio» GaAibara, Tolomei, Alamaoni, 
Guidiccionci Stampa, Raiuieri, Molza, Bussi, Buooarotti^ 
Varchii dtrlla Casa, Caro, Castlgllone^ Tomitanoj SalvagOi the 
two Tassos, Paterno, Amalteo, Rota, Costanzo, Tarsia, Fiam- 
ma, Tansillo, Marino, Giuettniano, Marino, Baldi, Mozzarello^ 
Lorenzini, Redi, Filicaja, Testi, Maggi, Menzini, Guidt, Zap- 

?i, Crescimbeni, Minfredt* BarufFaldi, Cotta, Spinola, Perotti, 
Veti, Passeriniy MafFei> Morando, Ongaro, Petrocchi, Fcugoni, 
Lazzarini, Casaregi, Morei, Stampiglia, Venerosii Algarotti, 
and Metastaslo. 

From this enumeration, it will be obvious that the present 
collection is more curious and novel, than composed with much 
regard to the intrinsic merit of the contents.' The quotations 
from Petrarch are purposely limited, because a selection of his 
Canzons and Sonnets were previously printed in a separate vo- 
lume, under the title of Rime Svelte di Francesco Petrarca *. 
Tasso and Ariosto are more advantageously known by their 
epic than by their lyric productions; and such particulars 
of their li^es, as have been ascertained, have, on various occa^ 
sions, been communicated te the public. Of most of the other 
poets, however, whose names we have mentioned, the history 
has been little diffused on the northern side of the Alps ; and 
some short biographical and critical notices would, therefore^ 
have formed a very desirable appendage to the specimens. We 
have likewise to remark that, from an extreme parsimony of 
marginal notes, many of the allusions must be wholly unintcl* 
ligible to the bulk of readers. 

In his introductory remarks, the editor has briefly appreciated 
the characters of Petrarch and Guidi, as lyric poets, and marked 
the discriminating style of each. Guidi is, moreover, honoured 
with a portrait, and a 3hort biographical sketch — ^Mr. MathiaS 
has not confined his exertions to Italian prose. His dedication 
to Dr. Mansel, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, is com« 
posed, with apparent facility, in the form of an elegant can- 

* See Rev. Vol. xxxvL^ N. S. p. 96. 

ZOn{ 



MathiasV Italian Trcwts^ ^ 25 

zoD ;— the Sonnets are introduced by one of his own ;— and 
we find Gray's beautiful lines oa the death of the Hon. XL 
West| rendered thus : 

* In van per mi ride il nauente gitrn9% 
E*l Sole inualza i rQsseggianti rai, 
Sciolgon gli augelli in van pietosi iai, 
£*i jjffi/ rin'oerde in Ueto manto ado^no : 

Altri oggetti i' desio di giorno in giornt^ 
Ed altre note, ahi / nott no, ma guai ; 
//on giunge il mi» tnaritr tra* spirti gat f 
Jdacr la gioja imptrfetta a me d* intorno, 

Sorge l^ Aurora infanto annunxiatrice 
Di no-vi ujixj a* piufdici cori ; 
Sparge i suoi beni il suol con larga mano ^ 

D est an gli augelli lor lezzosi amori ; 
io cbiamo lui cui piu sentir non lice, 
E piango ptu perche Io piango in vano^* 

Our limits preclude all critical examination of the canzont 
and sennets with which we are here presented. Among the 
former, thofe of Chiabrcra, Filic;»ja, Testi, Cclio Magno, and, 
aboYe allf of Guidi, will chiefly attract the admiration of com- 
petent judges ; vhilc am on g^ the latter, Petrarch, Costanzo, 
Castiglione, Ltzzarini, Rota» Passcrini, Frugoni, &c. will^ 
probably, claim a preference. We cannot, however, refraia 
from observing that many pieces of first rate merit have 'been 
overlooked or rejected, and several admitted that discover no 
pretensions to pre-eminence. At the same time, we are igno- 
rant of any one selection which comprises so much of the 
lyric poetry of Italy within the compass of three pocket vo- 
lumes. 

IL The world is much indebted to the editor for superin- 
tending the publication of the second article, and rendering it 
accessible to the British scholar. The whole range of Italian 
criticism scarcely presents us with a more interesting historical 
treatise than CrescimbenVs Isioria della volgor Poesia, including 
the Commentaries, which are not the least valuable portion of 
the author's writine[S. Mr. Mathias acquaints us that he hac 
made use of the Venice edition of 1731. Brtsidcs an intro- 
ductory sonnet, and an address to the poctic^^ii and learned 
English reader, he has prefixed a jrcneral table of contents, the 
life of the author by the Abate Morei, and a catalogue o( 
Crescimbeni*s works. 

It may humble the pride of learning to remark, that of thii 
celebrated man little is now known that Can interest or amuse 
the lovers of literary anecdote, or reward the curiosity of those 
who delight to contemplate the v^iried gradations of life and 
diaractcr. Wc only learn that Giovanni Mario Crcscimbeni 

14 was 



1 6 MathiasV Italian Tract f, 

was born of a noble family at Macerata, on the 9th of Octobef 
1663 ; that he studied for some time under the Jesuits ; that 
he afterward applied, thoug|^ with little steadiness or success^ 
to the profession of law, under the direction of his uncle at 
Rome ; that he finally gave his undivided attention to the 
belles lettres and the muses ; that he contracted an intimate 
correspondence with several of the learned of his daf ; that he 
obtained ecclesiastio preferment from Clement XI. ; that he 
was the founder and director of the Roman Society of Arcadia ; 
that he published many works ; that he had many friends, and 
some enemies ; that his person was slender, his voice uncouth, 
and his temper, naturally irritable, subdued into gentleness b/ 
the virtue of self government ; — and lastly, that he died, very 
generally regretted, on the 8th of March, i^iS. 

III. This account of Italian poetry is extracted from various 
parts of the large and popular work of Tiraboschi, jntitled a 
General History of Italian Literature* The editor has fol- 
lowed the last Modena edition, begun in 1787, and completed 
in 1794, 

The first volume opens with a handsome canzone^ by 
way of dedication, to Mr. Roscoe : which truly classical effu- 
sion is followed, as in the preceding instance, by an address to 
the learned and poetical English reader. On this occasion, 
Mr. Mathias pleads the cause of his favourite language and 
poetry with as much zeal as discretion. It is not, however, 
without sincere concern that we are informed of the failure of 
a plan for publishing in London, in a neat and correct form, 
a series of the most celebrated Italian historians. Since the 
execution of such a scheme would have redounded to the na« 
tional honour and advantage, we hope that, under more favour- 
able circumstances, it may still be accomplished. 

As a suitable introduction to these historical extracts, the 
learned editor has prefixed some account of the author's lifp 
apd writings, in a letter published by the Abate Ciocchi $ and 
from this narrative we have selected the particulars most worthy 
of notice. 

Girolamo Tiraboschi was born of a respectable family at Ber- 
gamo, on the 28th December^ 173^* Before he had completed 
his fifteenth year, he was admitted into the society of the Je- 
suits, to which he remained faithfully attached till the abolicion 
of the order. The year of his appointment to the Professorship 
of Eloquence in the college of Brera, at Milan, is not men* 
tioncd : but it appears that he enjoyed this situation when he 
was promoted to the place of chief Librarian to the Duke of 
Modena. In 1766, he i^\x\yY\Aitd\i\% Memorie degli Umiliati^ 
which stamped his character as a learned and ingenious critic* 

7 Havini^ 



1 



I 

Madiias^x balian Tracts* S 7 

HaYing removed to Modena, in June 1770, he was formally 
installed ib hU office ; and, aj: the opening of the new univer^ 
sity of that place, he was, at the express desire of the sovereign| 
enrolled in the list of honorary professors. 

During the first year of his residence in Modena, Tirabos- 
chi compiled the first volume of his History of Italian Litera^ 
ture» a work of immense extent and research, which be comi* 
pieced in the course of eleven years. In these years, he like- 
wise composed and published the life of St. Olympia, a letter 
concerning the essay of Lampillas, the life of FulvioTesti, the 
first two volames of the Modencse Library, and a great many 
fu^itire articles inserted in the first twenty-three volumes of th^ 
Modena Journal. As a testimony of distinguished regard^ 
Duk/Hercules III. conferred on him the honoqrs of knighthoodi 
nominated him superintendant of the ducal library and gal- 
lery of medals \ and, that he might prosecute his studies without 
interruption, -exempted him from the personal attendance at« 
tached to his office. The city of Modena gratited him, at the 
tzmt time; a diploma of nobility, and accompanied this ex- 
pression of their high respect with a handsome jpresent of silve^ 
plate. 

These rewards of persevering industry and eminent literary 
acquirements were not bestowed in vain ; for the remaining 
/eleven years of Tiraboschi's life gave birth to various writings. 
Among these we may mention the concluding five volumes of 
the Modenese Library, three volumes of the Historical Me- 
moirs of Modena, various articles in the twenty additional vot- 
lames of the Mod.ena Journal, a great many additions and cor^ 
fection^ for the Encyclopaedia printed at Padua, &c. During 
the execution of these multiplied performances, he revised the 

fress and prepared the particular indexes with his own handf 
lis literary correspondence was also voluminous and exten^ 
sive. Tet, in the midst of this accumi^latipn of active and in- 
cessant pursuits^ he found leisure to provide the library and 
collection enirusted to his care with the re(j[uisite additions, an4 
to render them truly yseful to the interests of learning ^n^ 
^ience. 

On the 30th of May 1794, he was attacked by a violent dis- 
prder^ which terminated fatally on the 3d of June, in the sam^ 
year. His surviving friends and countrymen still revere, an^ 
deplore the loss of, so much application and talent, united t9 
.modest, gentle, and obliging mannerf, benevolence of heart, 
and unaflPected piety. 

Of the seven chapters of thjc present publication, the firsf 

greats of the origin of Proven9ai and Italian Poetry 5 the second. 

pf Proven9al Poetry from the year 1183* ^® ^i^^\ ^c third, 

Rgy. Sept. 1805. ' C ' ^j 



V8 Mathiaslr SaHan Tractr. 

of the early periods of Italian Poetry ; and the remaining tomtf. 
of thesame subject cHiring the I4thy 15th, i6th, and T7th cen^ 
turtes. The author's accuracy and diligence of investigation 
are conspicuous throughout : but some of the most invitin||r 
parts of his subject are frequently frittered down into partial 
and minute details ; and the spirit of heaviness Becme some- 
times to Have crept over his bulky lucubrations. A connected 
view of Italian Literature, sketched with a due regard to liberal 
criticism, and deducing the subject to the present times, is still 
m desideratum in the commonwealth of letters. 

IV. In Francesco Retti we find the rare combination of the sober 
experimentalist, and the enthusiastic poet. He was born of a re- 
spectable family at Arezzo, on the i8th of February 1626. He 
^studied grammar and rhetoric in the schools of the Jesuits at 
Florence, and the other sciences in the university of Pisa, where 
he took the degree of doctor in philosophy and physic. Ferdi- 
nand II , then Grand Duke of Tuscany, and a liberal patron of 
learning and the arts, appointed him his first physician ; an office 
which Redi discharged to the entire satisfaction of all the Ducal 
family. Indeed, the striking indications which he exhibited, even 
at an early age, of talent, genius, and observation, the suavity 
of his manners, and the correctness of his deportment^ power- 
fully recommended him to the notice and protection of a court,, 
which delighted to reward meiit, and to deserve the esteem oF 
the public. It appears that Redi, in his ' youth, composed 
many arriorous and moral poems -, which, in maturer a^e, he 
committed to the flames. His leisure hours were chiefly di- 
vided between natural philosophy and the study of his native 
language. Wliile he supplied Menage with a large portion 'of 
kis Italian etymologies, he cherished the eflForts of the cele- 
brated Menzini, cultivated a literary correspondence with some 
of the first scholars in Europe, and attained to unexampled 
purity and elegance of style. His observations on vipers, 
and on the generation of insects, ate obviously penned by the 
hand of a master; and, when we reflect on the imperfect state 
of nMural knowlege at the period at which he lived, they be^ 
speak much originality of thought, accompanied by a degree of 
moderation and politeness which seldom characterized the con- 
trover^sial writings of the I7ch century* His observations on 
several curious productions of India, and of animals which 
live within other animals, contain many interesting discoveries^ 
His letters at the same time shew that he was not inattentive 
to the duties of his profession ; for they exhibit various, cases^ 
of diseases and' modes of treatment. For some time previous 
to his decease^ this eminent philosopher and amiable man had 

14 been: 



MathiaeV Italian Tracts^ X^i 

been subject to attacks of epSepsy, the last of which proved 
fatal on the morning of the first of March 1698. 

To the poem with which we are here presented, the editor 
has prefixed a life of the author by Salvini. He has likewise 
extracted from Menzini's jirte Poetica, that animated passage 
which relates to dithyrambic poetry^ and Cava's short disser* 
tation on the same subject. 

The Bmcco in Toseana is still the most perfect specimen of 
this sort of poetical composition which modern Italy can 
boast ; and it is a wonderful example of the ease and correctness 
to which its author had arrived in the structure and vaiicd 
harmony of verse. It begins thus : 

< Dell* Indico Oriente 
Domatmr glormo il Dio del Vino 
Femtato anea I* allegro suo toggiorno 
jii coHs Etruscbi intarno ; 
E cola dove Imperial Palagio 
JJ augusta fronte iwver le nulfi iaalzOf 
Su verdeggiante prato 
Con la vaga Arianna un di sedea, 
E be'veitdo e cantando^ 
Al help idoio sao coil dicea •*' * 

The poem then proceeds in a more animated and fervent 
style, till the bard's brain, heated by generous wines and noble 
phrenzy, begins to turn : 

' ^uaJH strain cafogirt 
jy impromisoiinfim guerraf 
Farmi proprio cbe la terra 
Sott9 i pa mi si raggiri. 
Ma u fa terra comimcia a tremare^ 
E trahdiaiido minaccia disasfri, 
Latcio la terra, m salvo nel mare, 
Fara vara qtuUa gondola 
Fiis capacBt e henfomita 
Cb* } la nostra /avorita. 
Su questa navOy 
Cbe temfre ba di eriitalloi 
E psar seen pave 
Del mar craccioso il iallOf 
lo gir men voglio 
Per mio gentildiportOt 
Conforme to soglio 
Di Brindisi nil porta, 
Furcbe sia carca 
Di brisulisevol mirfi 
^nesia mia barca, 
Sa «vogbiastfOp 
Navigbimno, 



io MathiasV Italian Tracts^ 

• ■ Navigbiamo infino a Brindiii i 

Ar'tanna^ brindis^ brindiiL 

Ob bill* andare • 

Pit barca- in man 
: Fir so la tera 

- ^ Di prin^vtra ! 

^ VenticeUif efrescbe aurettt 

Dispiegando alt d*argento, 

Sull* az,zurro pwuinunto 

Tesson danxe amorosettep 

£ al mormorio de tremuli cristalU 

Sfidano agnora i naviganti a i balls. 

Su vogbiamOf 

Navigbiamo^ 

Narz/igbiamo infino a Brindiji : 

Arianna» briniii^ brindiii,* 

These short extracts may convey some idea of the spirit and 
execution of the whole. Mr. Mathias has retained as many of. 
the notes as are requisite to explain the meaning of the text. 

V. Benedetto Menzinl was more favoured by the Muses, than 
by fortune. From the accoi^nt of his life prefixed to the edi- 
tion of his poems,* published at Nice in 1782, it appears that 
he was born at Florence, on the I9ch March 1646. In the 
course of his early studies, he was much indebted to the gene- 
rous patronage oFthe Marquis Salvlati and the celebrated Redi. 
The first publication which he acknowleged was that of his 
poems, printed in 1680. Being disappointed of college pre- 
ferment at Pisa, he foolishly indulged in severe and personal 
satire. At Rome, his talents were recognized and honoured 
by the Cardinals Pignatelli and Azzolino, and by^that excen- 
»tric and illustrious patroness of genius, Christina of Sweden ; 
but on her demise, he was again doomed to struggle with po- 
verty. For a short time, he oSiciated as secretary to Cardinal 
Rugioski, primate of Poland. In i6(;5, he wa« nominated 
one of the canons of the church of St. Angelo in Peschiera^ 
and afterward professor of rhetoric in the Sapienza of Rome. 
Evident symptoms of declining health induced him to retire to 
Albano, where he composed his Lamentations of Jeremiah, 
and his Tusculan Academy,— the latter somewhat in the style 
of Sannazzaro's Arcadia. On the 7th of September 17049 he 
died of a dropsy, in the 59th year of his age. His books and 
manuscripts were the only property which he had to bequeath. 
He was naturally cheerful, social, and generous : but vain, irri- 
table, and addicted to gaming. 

Of Menzini's various performances, that which is here se- 
lected displays considerable poetic merit, and a mind enriched 
with the elegant learning of Greece and Rome. It is composed 
-' . II ' in 



MathiasV Ifulian Tratfs. ^i 

in the ien&a rima, and consists of fire cantos* "The priacipAl 
subjects of the first are, the difficulty of the poetic art^ the 
necessity of an intimate and idiomatic acquaintance with the 
bnguage in which the poet writes, an imitation of the best mo- 
dels, grandeur and perspicuity of style, facility of versification, 
and the critical censure of friends. — In the second, we are pre- 
sented with a comparison between Tasse and Ariosto, as epic 
poets ; with considerations on unity of design, and expression of 
costume ; and with the author's sentiments relative t6 dramatic 
poetry* In general, we admit the justness of his criticisms : 
but we cannot join with him in preferring versified to prose 
comedy. — The third canto commences with a spirited descrip- 
tion of dithyrambic poetry ; and it then passes to satire^ ^^^EYf 
and the pastoral and piscatovial eclogue. The fourth is devoted 
to sacred poetry and the sonnet , and the fifth comnjiemofates 
poetic enthusiasm, with the advantages of correct jadgtsent 
and harmonf of numbers. 

In this arrangement, it is easy to perceive a want of that 
lucidus ordof and due connexion of parts, for which we especially 
look in a work essentially didactic, and involving some of the 
first principles of fine writing. In other respects, the poem 
will be found worthy of its author, and intitled to rank with 
the similar treatises of Aristotle and Horace, of Vida and 
Boileau. , . 

We shall extract a few stamzas from the beginning of the 
fonrth Canto : 

* Jl risonaf dtJla celeste lirii 
Lieto riiponde in armoma concordt ^ 

"Ogni pianeta^ e iniomo al sol s'aggira. • 

jitj, menti umane ! se nonfoste sordi • ' • 

Al dolce SBcn ch'ha di tapir costuffte, "• . . • ^ 

Nofi sttria V 'U9stro oprar dal citl diuwudt ; 

Ne in questo basso e paludos^Jiumi . ■ > > 

V^ imnurgerestet nut sareste in gutsa > • 

JD' aquila cbe alle sfere il volo assume* . * • 

Guar date il cielo ; ivi Pistoria e incisa 
Delle stupende maraviglte eterne^ 
Dlo le segna in quel libro, e le di'uisa ; 

E se tanta 'bellesMa ha nell* esterne 
Semhiamci il ciil, quanic piu grande i 'ustga * 

^uilla sara cb* occbi$ mortal non same ?* r 

% 
« 

Mr« Mathias has subjoined an elegant Italian critique 0» 
Lorenzo da Ponte's canzon on the death of the £mpere^ 
Joseph II. and the accession of Leopold IL The original, a> 
copy of which accompanies the remarks, is certainly not des^ 
timte of merits though we cannot praise it wiih aU the warotf h. 

C 3 ' <? 



M MatfantV iaSan Tracts* 

•f itt ptrtitl English critic. The following lines are> perhaps, 
tint nest beaati^l in the whole piece : 

' Un itaJt novtlla 
$cendm si vafra ml mondo tutto, 
£ i Midicti tornar anni giocondi, 
hictfttca a Die ruBiUap 
£ /9rsetMdt§ jfrdir sara distrutto^ 
Chi a senmo sua, vorria U Uggi e i mendi ; 
Spirti liggiadri $ di wrtu fecondi 
Fioriranmo ia toga^ a Parmi^ td tretu ; 
S se Uusu t4d suotto, 
Sf la lUta no*viUa ancor /*/ imttsa. 
La gran Tertsa si ralUgrat 9 dice : 
U Austria ma tara fwr Bella tfelicu^ 

VI. The nnmt of Ni^laf Hugues de BassevilU may probably 
ht t« the recollection of several of our readers. He was the 
son of a dyer in Abbeville, and originally bred to the churchy 
but afterward renounced all professional views^ and went to 
Paris in quest of literary adventures. There. he engage4 
to accompany two American young gentlemen of fortune on a 
tour through Germany, and obtained from them an annuity of 
3000 litres* He next repaired to Holland, for the purpose of 
stttd ying the principles of trade. Whether he prosecuted this 
laudable design with steadiness, and according to systemi we 
kave not ascertained : but the only public result of his in- 
quiries was a poem on Commerce, ne then published his Ele- 
ments of Mythology, and a volume of miscellaneous poetry, 
both of which were favourably received. His History of the 
French Revolution, a work which be dedicated to his intimate 
friend the Marquis de h Fayette, breathes the sentiments of a 
Staunch royalist : but it is probable that his subsequent inti- 
macy #ith Biron, Brissor, and General Dumouriez, had pro • 
duced a change in his political creed. It is at least known that, 
through the influence of Dumouriez, he was appointed secretary 
to the Freneh legation at the court of Naples, and that his 
ttiuion to Rome was not of the purest description. He found, 
however, that this venerable city no longer verified the saying 
of Jugurtha, or, to adopt his own expression, that she was tn- 
ilevaUe^ Yet, instigated by the intemperate zeal of unprinci- 
pled demagogues, he dared openly to insult the majesty of the 
Prince and the dignity of the people, until, as h^ co;ifes$ed 
with bis departing breath, ht died the victim of a fooL — ^Thia 
event, whieh happened on the 14th January, 1793, y^aye occa- 
stOR to Monti's poem, which Mr. Mathias has republished. It 
doubtless displays fancy, and no ordinary acquaintance with the 
graces of ilaJtan poetry. It cxhibi(S| however, rather the mea- 
sure 



Pratt'/ Harvest* Homi. a) 

wre than the genius and spirit of Dat)t^. Several of thtf 
passages approach nearer to the tnanner of Tassip-^-^The fol» 
lowing is at once spirited apd elegant : 

' Gia di sua *ueste rugiaJesa e scura 
Ccpria la Kotte il mondo ; atlor ehe Mi4r9 
^mii dmo le spallt alh Romulee mura ; 
E ml liiforsi a volo, ecco di Pitro 
SuU* altiisime iempio alia lor vista 
Un Cberuhino minacciojo e fitro : 

Vn di qyei sette che in argentea lists 
Miro/ra i se/ie camiilabri ardenti 
II rafito di Pat mo Evangelist a : 

Roti Sfiamme gli occhj rilucentit ' 
E cometa che mtfrbt e sangue adduce 
Farcan It cbiome ahhandonatt ai I'inti ; 

Di luguhre 'uermiglia orrida luce 
Uaa spada hrandia, che da lontano 
Rompea la mtte^ e la *vendea piu truce ; 

E scudo eostenea la manca mono 
Grande cost^ che da nemica offesa 
TuSto copria coll* ombra il Koticano .•* 

i^c. 

Tfats» like the preceding article, is accompanied by exp1ana« 
torf notes ; in one of wbicl^we observe a beautiful little ode, 
by the same hand, intitled ^ Invito d* un Solitario ad un Cittadino^ 
which is now given in a correct form, 

Iq taking leave of Mr. Mathias, we have only to remark 
that his admiration of Italian poetry occasionally outsteps dis- 
cretion ; and that he seems not to be aware that, in the very 
finest pieces which can be quoted, much of the charm may be 
analysed into the euphony of the language. We mean not, 
however, to detract from tlie utility of his labours, nor to weak<;n 
the sense of obligation which the public, we trust, will long 
entertaia of his editorial diligence and selection. 



Art. VIII. Horven-Hom: consistiog of Supptemtfotary Gleans 
ines. Original Dramas and Poems, Contributions of X*itera^ 
Friends, and select Re publications, including Sympathy, a Poem* 
rCTised, corrected, and enlarged, from the eighth Edition. By 
Mr. Pratt. 3 Vok. 8vo. il. ii8« 6d. Boards. K. Pbilbps. 1805. 

NOTWITHSTANDING Mr. Fratt's endeavours to reconcile us 
to his singula! titlcj we must beg leave to demur to its 
propriety. " The cart is put before the horse," when the 
housing of the crop is mentioned subsequently to the gleaner's 
operations. It is indeed a fact that Mr. Pratt's Gleanings pre* 
ceded his harvest \ aqd «uch bein^ the case, w: ccngTatuiate 

. C 4 him 



ti^ trattV Harvist'Homh _ 

him dn naving'safely hoased the produce of his labours : but ^f 
still think that he might have given a better title to these sup« 
(>lementary volumes. We koew a learned gentleman, whd 
called his common-place book his Barn / and considering the 
nature of the publication before usj if a title allusive to rural 
affairs must be adopted, we should have advised it to have beeri 
denominated the Barn. Here the gleaner, with the fruits of 
his own genius and observation, has associated the contribu- 
tions of friends ; and, to fill up the repository, he has added 
select republications. Thus the amount of the whole hatf 
swelled to a bulk sufficient to fill a literary store-house : but 
we question whether the magnitude of this second harvest 
iirill in every point of view be reputable to the gleaner. He 
will probably be accused of yielding too roiich to the spirit of 
book-making, and of being more solicitous to give quantity 
and ponderosity to his collection, than to minnow ftnd com- 
J)ress it. Mr. Pratt is certainly too diffuse. In his harrativc- 
canter, as the jockies would 6ay, he docs not sufficiently get 
ever the ground \ his topics are sometimes quite wire-drawn ; 
and the laboured attempt to lengthen out the interest produces 
fnnuu Occasionally, too, we encounter expressions which are 
ttovel, if not affected ; and words (such as inffrttOhture and 
vbliviated) which there is no authority to Sanction. Nothing, 
however, of this kind, obscures from us Mr. Pratt's intrinsic 
and substantial merit. Hid heart is benevolent, and his efforts 
'lEire unifoi'mly directed to promote loving-kindness and virtue 
among men; His pages may instruct, but they cannot corrupt > 
they may soften, but they will not seduce ; they mdy warn^ 
but they will not mislead. "Whatever be his roiite, he id eni- 
ployed in collecting something of * heart and soui}' something 
for use or happiness in general society ; or for wise, interest- 
ing, and tender contemplation in the sweet hours of solitude ; 
and though he does not always write in the very best manned, 
he has the satisfaction of knowing that he has not written in 
tain* 

• These additional gleanings refer to what Mr. Pratt raither 
JSbmpoutiy terms the Hampshire and Warwickshire Stations s 
and they exhibit pictures Which stand strongly contrasted to 
t^ch other, viz. of the scenery and state of society in the Nevv 
Torest^ and of Birmingham and its manufacturers. Differing 
froitithe practice of the brdinaty tourist, he often turns aside from 
the broad beaten path, to note the condition and to develope 
the virtues of humble life. With the inmates of the cottage, he 
Solicits acquaintance ; and in one of his rambles, he wandered, 
k* heaven-directed,'* to the door of a poor family, who have 
ireasoti^ to rejoice at his feeling heart aad descriptive pen. The 

account . 



t^ratt^j Uarvest'Homt. IJ 

* 
fiCcoAnt which he has given in a letter dated Woodlands, Oct* 
^> 1804, of the Fordcr • faoiily, and of their little cottage^ 
Situated in a vale in the New Forest, called Jflorgan's Bottom^ 
will be perused with interest by mo^t readers \ and it has given 
Vis peculiar gratification to hear that a lady of tank and fortunti 
was so much affected by the natrative, that she employed the 
Gleaner to rescue honest Forder from his difficulties, and to make 
his pretty cottage the scene of contents By a small siim in the 
contemplation of opulence, a desetving family has thus been 
saved from misery and ruin \ and by a slight sacrifice, perhaps, 
of fleeting pleasure, a source of substantial self congratulation 
l^s been opeoed. We haVe reason to believe that many of 
the industrious labourers are in the exact situation of this forest 
cottager, and, by a gradual accumulation of debt, (unavoidable 
with the poor in these trying times,) are on the brink of being 
torn from the humble dwellings which their own hands have 
built and detolrated^ to become bUrdens to the paridh and to 
themselyes ; yet who^ by the interference of timely benevo- 
lence, might be rendered comparatively independent and 
happy. We highly applaud that getlerosity which is employed* 
• in propping the falling cottage,* in preserving to virtuous in^ 
digence its home, and in continuing ro poverty its well-earned 
comforts. For wh<it a trifle can this effect be produced ! Of- 
ten, for * half the sum which a man of fortune gives for a horse^ 
or a woman of fashion for a trinket/ a labourer and all his 
little household might be saved from total ruin I — After having 
tnade these remarks, we feci it a kind of duty to yield to the 
curiosity which we may have excited in the reader, though we 
tnust confess that we began them with the wish of preventing 
the necessity of an extract : 

' About three ibiles short of Downton, we arrive at Rudbridge* 
Common, midway on which your eye is attracted by a little nest of 
cois to the left, of which you only s^c the tliatched roofi), and these are 
so cncaoopicd by orchard and garden trees, that you have rather stolen 
glances than full views. Sonne discover themselves half covered by 
foliage, others shew only the gable end, anu one or two are surroun^ 
ded by verdure almost to the chimney tops. 

* I had been nearly exhausted by tlie extent of heath -ground, which^ 
to use my beloved Goldsmith's express ons, ever the happiest and the 
best, seemed. 

" Immeasurably spread," 

&nd lengthened as I rode. I had more than once honestly confessed 
to my friend that I began to flag, and that my love and admiration of 
Nature was more powerful in me than the strength she allowed toexplore 
her beauties. But the sudden prospect of these si ngularlv* placed cot- 
tages, which Qse on your view without the leabt preparation, gave me 

^ Mis-printed Fonder in the book. 

new 



ifi PratttV Harvffi'Homr. 

0€w life, jrnd I willingly follAwtd the lead of my fricnd> who 
wmding his vtray down the slope, that, in a few minuten, brought 
«» to a nearer vie\^ of the spot : it increased in interest as we ap* 
pfDached. The knot of building consisted pf about twenty cottages^ 
Ic each of which was attached a garden iand orchard ; but so absolutely 
pkeed in a verdant nook, out of the bttstle of town, and even of th« 
co»i>try, that nothing but a curious and inqut^itive traveller would 
bave deemed it worth while to tiun his hoise's head or his own to- 
wards Morgan's Vale or Bottom * ; at leaatt tiU attention wa^com- 
Ryauded by one particular building, situated on the brow of the 
slope. This, my friend joined me in pronouncing the very model of 
a true cottage, giving the full meaning of that n)ode8t word, and no 
Siore. It is equally distinct, on the one hand, from an air of mean- 
iressand proverty, and on the less pardonable one, of affected sin^^ 
plicity and pride abasing itself only to be exalted on the Other. Sim- 
ph'city seems to have been its architect, and Content its inmate : such, 
at least, were my ideas, on a first sight of the premises. 

*• j^ut I am sure you feel yourself sufficiently interested to take a 
ipeafer view. Imagine yourself^ then, on the green sununit, where it is 
placed, as it ought to be, ftom its superior beauty, above its fellows i 
■ yet, though it overlooks, (t seems to smile on tl^cm all. Verdure, of 
^ffTerent kind, and of unfading character, encompasses it round about. 
£ach side is covered with laurels, that fluur^h even to the roof; and 
that roof is so weU thatched, that not an irregular straw deforms its 
juiviling softiieds. The centre is rounded into an arch of ytw, which 
■fibrv'js at once a porch and an alcove. I'he casements are of the true 
cottage size and construction : the body of the building is of the true 
cottage clay, of which, however, you only see «mall patches a^ if by 
stealib, through the intertwisture of the laurels, au trovers. A little 
gatden decorates the front ; a fertile slip of orchard-ground runs to 
som^ length on one side ; there is a screen of mixed laurel and yevf 
round the well, and a neatly compactrd quickset is its fence. The 
whole has been j;radually and almost imperceptibly borrowed, or, 
tncrc irae to speak, purloined from the common ; as, indeed, has the 
rnttre cottagcry, bit by bit, insomuch that we might fairly say, the 
peasants and the proprietors, like opposed armies, have disputed and 
maintained their ground inch by inch ; and when any new territory, 
which they added to their castles, (cot and castle are the same things 
^n ILngland,) has been reclaimed by one parly, the other has watched 
his opportunity to get it back with some advantages ; till the right of 
possession, no longer contended for, is considered as a good, at least 
a sufficient title, and on such tcinire enjoyed, if not admitted. 

..* Iiut042r furiosity on the outside txcited a no less degree of ciirio. 
shy within. The inhabitants of the cottage now xame mto the gtt- 
deu. A\i females, and of ail ages, from the grandam to the latest 
born. The minster of the mausrou was at his labours in the fbrcsi* 
Accept what remains, in dialogue. 

** A vtry pleasant cottage you have here, m^ friends.'* 

* In forest-language. Vales arc called Bottoms.' 

" Yes, 



Pratt'/ Harvtst-Htmi, 



a? 



* Yes, we have. Sir ; it stands so in the deRgbt^** answered the no* 
tfacr of the group, whose name is Forder, 

'* Rather bleak in the winter, I should fear.** 

** Cold wkhout,and warm within ; andy^'standingso in the delight*' 
we can, id goodly weather, get peeps at folk j^oing to Downton, and 
ao seeing company, in wintry time we can spy them passing as we 
lit in the cottage. The girls here run about the plain, and down in-^ 
to the bottom : but, for my part, I sometimes do not pats the wicket 
for half a year togethcf ." 

" A sign of being happy at home^ Mrs. Fordcr." 

** A true sign. Sir, for I am. James Forder, my husband, did all 
of this green work with bis own hands ; and, indeed, with helping of 
neighbours below, now and then» made the whole cottage what you 
see it. Twenty- four years, ajid upwards, have we Kvcd under its 
thatch ; iuid, by giving us good seemings of substance, and where- 
withal to get on, has got us credit, at a piuch, oftimes. And many a 
day would these children have gone with next to nothing for their 
dinner, and with nothing altogether as to supper, but for the g^d-iooi* 
it^s we )»avc about us : for goodly seeming, in this way, Sir, geta 
trust. We croachf to be sure, a little on the common, and put fence 
a little forwarder ; then every now and then His pulled down : but John 
Fonder 9^ with it again, so that the people grew tired at last : the 
hedge stands, and thus, by little and liitle, we get on." ' 

** That's a good hearing, Mrs. Forder ; and I dare say you are all 
of you living in a fnendly way, in that nice nest of cottages below.'* 

** Nothing to complain of, as to that ; as neighbourly and ready to 
do for one another as any set of bodies any wheie. Fallings out, now 
and then, to be sure ; but soon made up again ; and that, I suppose, is 
the case every where, as well as in ^florga^'s Bottom. Things go 
cross and wrong all the world over, and why should not we have 
our share." 

* Thia little gossip lasted long enough to bring many of the dwel* 
Jers in the valley to their several peeping places, in their orchard* or 
gardena, to see what could be passing on the hill. Two stranger g<rn- 
tkmen on horse back, in long parley at a cottage-gate, in such a place, 
is always a subject of wonderment ; and, as country people, in seclu- 
ded places, generally talk much louder than is necessary for mere 
hearing and nnderstanding, fcarcely any thing said at the threshold of 
one hut is a secret at another. Having, therefore, roused the spirit of 
the little neighbourhood, and gratified our own curiosity, we left the 
comfortable'looking people to go over again the subject with each 
other. 

• On my return, however, from the fair, my fellow-traveller met my 
wish more than half way, to stop as we passed the plain, at the gate 
of the interesting cottage. The evening sun gave a softer gloss to 
the laurels, and made the deep verdure of the yew, twined round the 
casement, look less sombrous, while every pane in the windows sparkled 
in the western ray. The cottage-cai sat ruminating on the edge of 
the well; but the cpttage-door, which 1 tried to open, was made fast. 
Presently, a man of athletic form, but somewhat bent by time and 
l^ur, came fivn ihc or^rd-past ^f the premi«cs, luid respectfully 

bowed 



ii PrattV HarvesuHmi. 

t)Owed -as he advanced to the gsite. I related the adventure of the" 
inoming, of which I found him ignorant ; and he informed usy that his 
dame and family, old and young, were eone to the fair. We repeated 
our admiration' of bis cottage* and oihis ingenuity in giving it so 
many attractions. 

* It may be best again to have reddurse to the colloquial style. 

'< Yes, I did it up mostly after work-hours. WiU you be pleased^ 
gentlemen, to look within V* 

" Strong and good, master Forder ; warm and snug." 

*' V^rji Sir; and dry as a bone.'* 

*• And full of comforts, I see, both above and below. A good 
Hampshire flitch or two> and some well- looking barrels on their sup-' 
porters.'* 

** Yes, thank God, Sir, not artiiss now, A good wife as ever si 
man had; and children likewise, and not much taxing. B,ut I doubt I 
must let my cottage go, after all. Some hard ycars,-^children grow- 
ing up, and who want more thin they did.** 

*' Sell your cottage 1" 

** It is a little in mortgage already. T could not help it. The 
gentleman at the red house lent ti^'enty pounds on it, and very kindly 
gave hopes 1 might keej) it in my own hands. The miller let me have 
another ten. So I kept rubbing on ; but I was forced to go to my 
friends and tell them, it did not signify trying, for I found I could 
not pay ; therefore thought I had better give up. But the miller 
was against this ; bid me not be down* hearted^ but consider I had 
children who might, by and bv, help me out, as I had helped them, 
and would not hea^r of my selhng my cottage outright. But I doubt 
I must, after all. I shall feel sad and strange upon it ; for I built and 
smartned it myself; we have all got used to it \ and I can't expect, at 
liny time, ever to gijt such another.'* 

* That, thought I, you never can, poor ffllow, for I do not believe 
there is, at all points, such another in England. I hastily put into 
the lold man's hands the trifling fairings I had purchased for the " 
younger children ; my friend gave something more worthy of hts ac- 
ceptance : and We left the spot with less cheerful feelings than we had 
fiought it. 

* Just as'We were losing sight of the cottage, and its connecting 
huts, 1 turned my head involuntarily. The evening continued lovcly> 
beyond the power of describing its variety of charms. There was 
certainly nothing in the imagery oT^he heavens above, or of the earth 
below, to 'render the prospect le^s e^chilaratinp. The parting beama 
of the sun were yet playing on the cottage of laurels and yew ; and 
the summits of the roofs of the delightful habitations beneath were 
burnished with a ray yet more golden ; the surrounding foliage par- 
took of the tinge ; and the intermediate heath -ground was rich in 
those colourings which, when the -most magnificent orb of heaven !• 
about to set, paints every object so exquisitely. With all this, how- 
ever, there was an interceptingheavy cloud cast between the corporeal ' 
and the mental eye, which made the whole scene appear the reverie" 
«f what it had bcen% ~ . . . 

*_ • ^ 



' Pratt'j Harvest-Home* 

•'We recrosscd the barren part of the way with unusual speed, and 
fa nnwonted silence. At length, I could not help observing to my 
frieody that the idea of the poor woodnaan^s neceBsity to sell his little 
paradise absolutely haunted me ! Yieldinj^ myself to this emotion,. I 
jexdaimed, '' How many hundreds will this very night throw away, 
}u one \idleness or another, partly for want of better objects being 
within view, more than enough to redeem that honest creature's morsel 
of property, — for an honest creature I find he is,-r-and thereby place 
his cottage, and all it inherits, on the most solid foundatton, Navy 
how many arc there who, if they were made acquainted with the cir- 
cametances, and were convinced of the great good which might be 
done with a very little, would be happy to direct the streams of their 
bouncy into so proper a channel. But, I will admit that tlie account 
has an air of romance ; and, therefore, many will conclitde that points 
not naturally attached to the objects have been strained into servii^, 
purposely to increase the interest of the narrative. Of making such 
events, however unductile, bend to the purpose predetermined on, 
^ certain readers are too apt to accuse authors ; and nothiug is more 
eommon than to discredit what we are resolved to think exaggerated. 
In what a variety of instances could I exemplify this opinion, and 
prove its fallacy. But, keeping to the objects just delineated, I have a 
- atroDger motive than my own justification for wishing such as are going 
into this tract of country to make a visit to John Fonder and his fa- 
jnjUy ; and if they find him and his, as they undoubtedly will do,Vhat 
I have painted them, O what soul-exhilarating opportunity wjll they 
have to save the labourer and all his little household, by appropria- 
ting to his redemption half the sum a man of fortune gives for a horse, 
or a woman of fashion for a trinket. And if, on the contrary, they 
do not find the people, whose cause I advocate, deserving rescue, — 
deserving a prop to the falling cottage, they will^ at any rate, be 
gratified by seeiag a most exquisite groupe of the best and sweetest 
objects nature has to produce ; and, inasmuch as the facts fall short 
of the description, will have sufficient reason to accuse the describer.' 

Those who have not an opportgnity of following the 
gleaner's map to Morgan's Bottom may learn, from this pic- 
ture, that there is a quantity of modest misery whiich muse be 
sought in order to be found: and that the indolent bounty of 
many well-meaniiag Christians, which is fruitlessly besoo«vcd 
on wandering mendicants, would be more judiciously applied 
if it were given to those poor who struggle hard to li?e at 
home. 

We mast pass oyer Mr. Pratt's particulars respecting Soutji- 
hampton, his t:ketche3 of the landscape and history of the Ncv^ 
Forest, 'as well as his picture of the Game- keeper of Crafi- 
bourne-chace, with three ^/or/V/, viz. his wife, his dog Bouncer, 
and his horse Maggot, and shift the scene from the wilds of 
nature to the populous town ; exchanging wood nymphs for the 
** Queen of the sounding Anvil,'* and following nranufacturers m- 
s^%a oi be«(sLspf 4^c i^^ace. |a other word^, we must tprn to the 

account 



JO PfattV Harvesi^Hcme. 

account of fitrmrngham, which is the prominent figure on the 
canras repfeeenting the Warwickshire Station. In his deline* 
ations of this department, the gleaner has been assisted by the 
comAtnnicationis of a sensible correspondent, Mr. Mor€tt : but 
be has not been so much seduced by his flattering representa* 
tions, as to omit to derelope the petntcious influence of ma- 
nufactures on the habits and morals of the people. Birming- 
ham, as the •* grand toy-shop of Europe,'* (as Mr. Burke 
termed it,) aflfords numerous . objects highly amusing to the 
traveller ; and, as far as the effects of human contrivance and 
skill are concerned, extremely gratifying to the philosopher : 
but, in the eye of the ethical inquirer, the splendid toys of 
Birmingham will lose much of their attractive lustre. It is 
perhaps a fact that, <on the surface of the globe, a spot does 
not exist of equal dimensions, which exhibits so much inge** 
nuity both of-design and execution, as the town of Birming- 
ham ; and it is for the benefit of the public to know that many 
articles which are sold in London as town-made, are truly of 
Birmingham manufacture/ Our country readers, in the 
month of September, will naturally think of their fowling^ 
pieces : but after having ^iven a high price for them as t^wft^ 
made, they may not be best pleased with the light which is 
here pasted on the subject : 

' It may be proper to dissipate the public pre|udices respecting guns, 
especially fbwlingnpieces. Those who make fire-arms for government 
of the best quality, may be rationally supposed to excel in guns of 
all descriptions ; and this is really the case, though many people ima- 
gine that a Birmingham following- piece will not shoot, and there* 
lore it will not sell as well as one made in London. But what will 
these wise- acres say to the established fact, that the barrels and locks 
of most of the guns, and very many of the guns themselves that bear 
the London mark, are made in Birmingham ? Disregarding the com« 
mon adage, that ** practice makes perfect," and seduced by "the whist* 
ling of a namc>*' they fondly fancy the best things to be those which 
fetch the best price, and are fabricated in the greatest town. Be 
it known unto all men, by these presents, that guns, with the best stub 
and twisted banels, eclipsing the fbrmerly.famous barrels of Spain« 
the best skeleton locks, the best patent breeches, gold touch*holes> 
&c. are made here for one-half, nay, one- third of the price which they 
hnng in the metropolis ; and yet a person unacquainted with the se-*> 
eret would suppose that Birmingham never produced a single fowling- 
piece ; for our gun- makers have the policy to use the superscription 
of London.' 

To this hint to sportsmen, is subjoined an account of a 
cheap manufacture of guns, which are designed not to kill 
^irdsy but (o be exchanged for men 4 

.« You 



PrattV Harvett-Homt, 3, 

• Yon win smfle when I inform yon that guns, ay*, mi «,««. 
IiK*Hie on« too, are made here at 7/. &/. each. These, thoueh for- 
mrfable m appearance, have two .W/ defect. ; the first is, that «« 
being bored, except about an inch or two from the muzzle, they ca«- 
not be supposed to dioot Tery true ; and the second is. that not be 

undergo some sort of proof, but not by fo^kr, (for that would fei 
too rough usage. ) but by w/«., which, if they are cpabte of hol«hc 
mtbont P«™.tnng ,t to ooae through their po,^,. they are sus! 
IfJ^^ S«l'««<» »« dwcharge th«r duty ; which is not to shed tbe 
Wood of «an or beast, but to decorate the habitation of «>me «««,-• 

S™ ; J"i uT* '"«™™*^«»' ''»<'"g'» harmless and innoc<it. 
(except to the luckless wtght who should load and fire them.) wo.rfi 
beconsidered as guilty by the fnends of humanity, as they are indi*. 

The catalogue of the Birmingham manufactttres induJes. 
taking them alphabetically, * 

' AwrMade-makers, beUows-makers, brass and cock fotmders. 
brush-makers, buckle-makers, button make™, candlestick makws. 
chafe-makers, cutlers, hle-makeis, gimblet makers, gun and pistol 
makers, lapanners. jewellers, iron-founders, lock makers, opticians and 
«pectacle-n«kers, platers, pocket-book makers, saw and edee-tool- 
T!^"**/^- "*' *}l^^-y»^^'^^^e<^»Joiiing,„!dt, as they are called 
«m,and white smiths elsewhere— a busincs* of vast biportance wich 
a pdtrr name, as they make engines and tools foi the manirfact.'irers • 
sauBcr-oaakers, spoon-makers, spur-makers, thimble-makers, ihreai 
and wick-yard makers, turners, watchchain and toy makeis steel 

man-trap-makers,fox-traps,«t-ti'aps,and wooden mouse- trap- m'akei-s- 
«e. 4c. r •-■"» 

Mr. Pratt's display of the wonders of art, m which the Soho 
Manufactory obtains ample notice, is closed by a sketch of the 
moral, personal, and domestic state of the artisans of Birming- 
ham. Mr. P. has entered fully into this part of his subiecr. 
and his reflections are too judicious to be entirely omitted: 

J.J*'** ■^?^ *^i purchaser of a Birmingham toy suppose how " 
«och o^ virtue and of vice is attached to its production; before it 
coTOs^into^his possession*. Nor, in the aggregate, does it seem at 

• • On this occasion. I am forced, by a stem di»ty. <o fw^^ 

AjHh. 0/ darkness. I shall be constrained, in some instances, t^ 
took at a vast proportion of the people of Birmingham, in their per- 
aoMl and domestic situation, with a different eye from that with 
which they have been viewed by my candid and liberal correspondent 
Mr. Morfitt - I think." «h,erve. another contributingT^nd: 
-when the Gleaner is compelled to look at Human Faluns', un. 
landiom. /ig, as de^rAcd in Franklin's Apologue, her cloven foot 
ma« come our ; e.pfdally when he entet.ou^t he moral Md a«i* 
stale of. artisans." -v^im 



3a PrattV Hardest' Home^ 

9II necessary for him to be apprised of this. It is, individually speakinj|^ 
j^nough for hitn to be attracted by the article, to praise its workman* 
ahip» and to place it amongst the curiosities of his cabinet. The 
aamc remark applies to the purchaser of a suit of ribands^ at Coven* 
^ry ; a set of China, at Worcester ; and a piece of cotton or muslin^ 
at Manchester. 

* Parties visiting a manufactory, at cither of the above towns, arc so- 
enagaged in particular inquiry or inspection, or so absorbed in general 
admirationi that they have neither power nor inclination toeo into the 
detail of political or moral effects. They observe every eye intent, atwj 
every hand busy, on its appropriate object : they see the most exac( 
order, and a simplicity of arrangement in the most complex employ* 
ments : and they view the wonderful proccssess of a pin, a button, a 

. skein of thread or of silk, from its dark and rude »tate of the raw 
material to its pltimate polish and perfection : they loo):;, with almost 
a religious wonder, at the progressions of these different pieces of 
workmanship, softening and reining, as they are passed from one set 
of artificers to another, till they behold shape, symmetry, order, 
beauty, and use: the magic increases, and. the charm strengthens at 
every step, till, in the end a new and fair creation stands displayed be- 
fore their eyes. Having gained this point, they retire well gratified ; 
jiod the impression left on their minds is very Seldom diminished by 
any of those less pleasing researches, which lip remote from these 
shew-shops, or warehouses. 

* It is reserved for oth^r examiners to follow the artisan, froni 
the spindle, the wheel, and the shuttle ; from the anvil, the 
hammer, and the forge ; from the compass and the rule ; the var- 
nish and the painting ppt, to his places of retireinent and vacation, 
to his house, his lodging, his public meetings, and his private haunts* 
It ia the business of a philosophical observer to leave the scene of art 
with the artisan, and with silent but with serious steps, whatever he 
(he age, or the sex, to pursue the artisan to his last retreats, so far 
as they can be penetrated, or explored, thence to look at hl;n as ^ 
citizen, a neighbour, a friend, a servant, or a wife ; a husband, child» 
parent, and hum^n being. The accessible manufactory is but a pub- 
lic exhibition 6f its local mhabitants, where laws and duties are obeyed 
or enforced. But, to obtain an estimate of conduct, chanicter, hap- 
piness, or misery, of those inhabitants, must be exhibited at their 
several homes, or in their desertions from home. * 

< And, alas] dear friend* it is then that the talisman is so often dis- 
solved, the spell broken, and the well ordered artificial creation, which 
discipline, policy, and necessity, have raised around a character, are 
thrown again into anarchy. Then, too, it is, not only in the work- 
shop of the artisan apd toy-shop of the tradesman, but in the parlour 
and the drawing room of thejnpre splendid children of fortune, that 
the fair and polished fabrics of art and imagination fall down, and 
leave nothing but a wreck behind* 

* The author of the •' History of VVhalley" has pronounced with 
dreadful energy, *< That in great manufactories, human corruption, 
accumulated in large masses, seems to undergo a kind of fermeutaf 
tion, which sublimes it to 9 d^zrce of maligiuity not to be exceeded 
ottt of HeU/' ^ .«>/.. 



Pf att^/ Harvest Home. 



33 



The second vplume contains three dramas^ the first in<- 
liricd Hail Fellow ! Well mety in fi?c acta, intended to expose 
the absurdity and impossibility of the French system, and said 
to have been performed some years ago on the Continent witl^ 
universal applause: but we are not told on what part of the Con« 
tinent. We conclude that it must have been curtailed in the 
npresentation, for it now occupj^es more than 200 pages. — 
The next piece is iplitled Lovers Tf^^h «r ^^ Triutnph of 
Constancy^ a Comic Opersi, the chief plot of which if formed 
oa the antient ballad .of the f* Nut-brown Maid »*' with which 
is interwoven an under*plot taken from the balUd of *< Argen- 
lilc and Curan," published in the «.« Relics of Antie^t Poetry/^ 
The third drama is called Fire and Frosty and ip said to be 
f written partly on the model of the laugh*and-J>e-merryi hurry* 
Kurry, slap-dash, and, it might properly enough be added| 
helter-skelter, harum-scarum kind of tarce-and-pantomime 
comedy, which has btrjen ^o mjuch t^e ragf (perhvips RAyiNG 
would be a more appropriate word), and partly in ^he style oJE 
the old Khool of the English theatre/ We ^hall o6Fer nq 
strictures on any of these productions, but must hasten tp 
die Third Volume, in which the gleaficr amasses the contrihu- 
tioosof numerous poetical friends ; preceded by Original Poems^ 
and followed by some productions of his muse^ which, though 
not original, are given with revjs^njs and i.mproyements. Ajt 
the head of this ponderous collection, ;s a poem by Mr. Pratt^ 
iQtitled the Physician \ a subject which may ^e in ^me measure 
xitjf to poetry, but which has not inspired him with any new 
poetic glow. The verse, though it celebrates Apollo's art, wantf 
Apollo's strr nj^th and fire \ and we suspect chat the pbysicians 
who are enumerated in the following passage will not be sp 
grateful for Mr, Pratt's /:ompliment, as they ^oujd h^ye been 
]f his numbers h^d been finished with i^ore ca^e : 

< Say, who like him, (i. e. the Physician}, when at the bc^ 
-Where anguish Jays the proud one's head, 
X}an urge him to unlock hu breast, 
And make Humility a gue^f 
Or bid the sinner, as he lies, 
Woo sweet Repentance e'er he ^dies ? 
Pt teach the miser, robb'd of health. 
The idle in^pbtence of wealth ? 
Qr the half-ruih'd spendthrift shoy 
He still is rlph, whp will bestoiy 
On pleasure less, on virtue more, 
And gain the blessing of the po'o^; 
^ere TuiiTOir's maxims, J^iLLMAjg'^ ^}4Fh 
Optpreack the wisdoqa of the school^ ; 

i^Ey..§wr.l^5. J) And 



34 PrattV Harvest" Homf. 

And FAtc^iTHAR, when the hai>d he holds^ 
And ihtr dread line of life unfolds. 
The hist'ry of the pulse records 
In a few glad or mournful wr>r6»; 
And Lettsom whispering in the car^ 
Reviving hope or fixing fear — 
The fear that bids the mind prepare 
The pang of partkig life to bear ! 
And Reynolds, when his eyes foretell 
The knolling of the funeral bell. . . ► 
And Bree, while the obstructed breath 
Seems labVing at the gasp of deaths 
And the deep heavinj* of the sigh 
Denotes the fierce convulsion nigh ; 
When Bree exerts his magic power 
O'er Asthma dire at such an hour ; 
The renovating" breath to give, 
And the Hfc-weary wretch relieve . . • 
Tlfefe stronger morals can im party 
And fix them deeper m the heart. 
Than judge or bishop e'er attain^ 
Or from the bar or pulpit's sttain.* 

' Medic' is used more than once for medical ;^ and sat and 
Jhie^ and phrase and pnce^ are en^ployed as rhimes* 

It would occupy considerate space even to transcribe the 
titles of the poems of the Gleaner in this collection ; and wc 
must restrict our farther notice * to Mum^s Cotf written while 
on a visit to Mr* and Mrs. Brimyard * at Woodlands, in the 
New Forest, on the author's beginning to recover from a se- 
vere indisposition/ Here Mr. Pratt, inspired by the hospita- 
lity of his kind host and hostess, and exhilirated by the refresh- 
ing; gales of the Forest, so pleasantly describes his visit to 
Woodlands, that we should not be displeased if Mr. and Mrs. 
Brimyard would open the door of Mum's Cot not only to Bards 
but to Reviewers ; who are sometimes much in want of fresh 
air and wholesome exercise, and would gladly exchange a score 
of dull books for a trot on a forest poney. The poet here ap- 
preciates matters with reawn, as well as rhime, and scema to 
know *' what's what ;" 

* Now, as to Helicon's proud Mount, 
Of which the Poets make account. 
And their far-fam'd Castallan siream. 
They're both skim-mllk to Forest cream ; 
Yet glassy brook and purling rill 
I wish of my acquaintance still; 
And, when well mix'd with malt and hop, 
My Wmsc bhall celebrate each drop ; 

'■■■i , _„ -- - —.111 — _i 

* Who lately kept the Dj^j)/jins at Southampton. 

And 



- y 



' 



PrattV Harvest Home. 35 

And for their jray Parnassian StKcd^ 
Give me a pad of Forest breed, 
Just sucli a nag as here I stride. 
When for an appetite I ride, 
/ye, and the thinjj 1 ride for geif 
For both of us return sharp set ; 
And as he nimbly trots along, 
Shows me the theme and aids the song, 
Where yellow furze and purple heath, 
And many a flow'rct peeps benedth* 
Or tnkcs me to the bower or cot, 
And lets me draw them on the spot. 

9 . * So, in few words, my Lady Muse, 
If lo assist me you refuse, 
Or think to keep me poor and pale, 
Henceforth my Nectar j*hall be Ale ; 
My Inspiration shall be Wine, 
One Forest Brimmer's worth the Nine ! 
And if 1 needs must run the course, t 

It shall be on — mt Hobuy Horse !* 

Thf contnbutions arc from H. J, Pye, Esq., Miss Pye, the 
Rev. Dr. Mavor, Charles James, Esq , Rev. Dr. ••*•*, Joha 
Taylor, Esq., R C. Dallas, Esq., A Sybil, Dr. Wolcot, Mr. 
Hatton, An Intisiblc, A Lady, Mr. Meyler, J. Morfitt. Esq., 
Rcr. Philip Parsons, John BuUar, jun. &c. In this collection, 
many pleasing efFusiond will be found : but we must abstain 
from copying a single poem. 

An examination of Mr. Pratt's select republications will not 
be required of us. The poem on Sympathy is not only im- 
proved, but is now, for the first time, printed with notes and 
illustrations. 

Some laughable literal errors occur in the first volume ; as 
Siite Veatony for Viator ; aheste profacie^ for prof am ; and ^i- 
vilis querus for quercus \ which are imputable (we are assured) 
to the compositor. 

Whatever may be the judgment of severe critics respecting 
the merit of Mr. Pratt as an author, he appears by his bene- 
volent and well intentioned writings to have procured a host of 
friends \ and, as the reading of the < Poet's Cottage' procured 
him from a generous stranger the ofFer of a piece of ground, oa 
which he might build the cottage which he has described, we 
shall take our leave with hoping that his former Gleanings, 
with the produce of his literary Barn^ will afford him ample 
means of realizing his views \ and that, for the remainder of 
life, he may sing *< Content in a Cottage, and envy to no man.'' 



D z Art. 



( 36 ) 

AnT* IX- Ode Graca Pnemio dignataf quod Jonavit AcaJemta Cam*^ 
Irigiensi Fir Reverendtu Claudius Buchanan^ ji. B, Coll. Regin* 
Caniai. et Vlce-Pr^pouitu Colhgil Bengalemis in India OrientaR. 
jiuctore Georgio Pryme, j1,B. Trin» Coll. Cantabr. 410. is. 
Cadell and Davies. 1804. 

Art. X. Ode pramio h Reverendo FirOf Claudio Buchanan, ^.71P* 
Eionensihus prafoitto^ dignata, jfuctore T. Rcnnell» CoIL Reg. 
Etonjilumna. 410. is. Fayne and Mackiulay. 1 804- 

B place these two odes together, on account of the simi- 
larity of their nature, and of the circumstances in which 
they have originated. They will not, however, detain us long 
in making our report of them ; and we shall speak of them 
separateljTi in the order which we have assigned to their titles* 



W 



Pry MB. 
The ode, which is the production of this gentleman, contains 
several spirited stanzas ; and though there are passages to 
which we could object, arid others which are obscure, it is 
on the whole a creditable performance*— It is not allowed' us 
to know who were Mr. Pryme's opponents, nor what were the 
productions which were judged inferior to the Ode before us : 
but its general merit induces us to think that it might not be 
undeserving of Mn Buchanan's Prize, whoever were the com- 
petitors* It is written in the common Greek Sapphic measure; 
which has not been happily selected for such a subject, — ^cS^ 
yivitri^. Whether Mr* Buchanan meant that the ode should 
allude to Creation,, and describe the moment in which 

« Light 
Ethereal, first things, quintescence pure, 
Sprung from the deep ;— and from her native East 
To journey through the airy gloom began," 

is to us doubtful. We should have supposed that he intended 
the prominent topic to be mental ** lightfiess from darkness — 
divided,'' by the foundation and establishment of a College at 
Bengal. 

Rennbll. 

The subject of Mr. Rennell's Ode, and the metre^ are the 
tame with those of Mr. Pryme's composition, . It was also 
produced in consequence of the prize which Mr. Buchanan 
offered to the younger Students at our Universities, and to the 
senior Boys at Eton College. 

JPtom a scholar of I>r. Goodall, and a son of the Master of 
the Temple, much must be expected^ even at an early age. 

On 



TomlincV Prize Poem. 37 

On the present occasion, the hopes of friends were sanguine, 
as we have been informed ; and those who peruse young 
RennelPs Ode will not find that they were cherished in vain. It 
must be mentioned, however, that there are some obscuriciesy 
which ought co have been avoided. 

We have heard it observed in conversation, that the able 
pen of the Parent had been employed in the service of the 
youthful Bard. The charge was very malevolent, and was 
not proved i and though it is natural and proper, that a fa- 
ther should point out what he might see wrong in the compo* 
sirion of a son, yet a wise man would not readily trick out his 
oflspring in borrowed plumage ; which could only in future be* 
come the cause of disappointment and disgrace to both parties. 
The true scholar, however,^and it is not said to lessen the repu- 
tation of the author, — needs only read the present verses, to feel 
persuaded that the composition received little correction from 
the pen of the learned Dr. Rennelj. 

We close this short article with recommending the author 
to avoid, in future, the gaping Hiatus^ which he has so fre* 
queotly allowed to destroy the terseness and beauty of his 
verses. 



Art. XI. Poema, NumUmate tmttuo dignaium^ et in Curia CaittaM* 
giaui recitaiumj A.D. 1805. jfuctt^re Q\x\. Edv. Pretyman Tom* 
line, 7r/n. ColL Printed at Cambridge. 

HThis ode has a higher claim to the praise of perspicuity, than 
^ either Mr. Pryme's or Mr. Rennell's composition, on which 
our sentence has just been passed. In point of correctness^ 
also, it is not inferior ; and when it is considered as z poetical 
production, it rises much above them. The subject is the death 
of the lamented Duke d'Enghien ; and the plaintive strains of 
the young Poet * are weil adapted to the lyre of Sappho. It 
was written to gain one of the three prizes which were left to 
the University of Cambridge, about thirty years ago, by the 
late Sir W. Browne, formerly President of the College of rhy- 
sicians. The first premium is for the best Ode in Greek Sap- 
phics : the second, for the best Latin Ode ; and the third, for 
the best Epigrams. The candidates must be Under-Graduates^ 

\ * The author, Mr. Tomline, we understand to be the son of that 

( able mathematiciaix and erudite prelate, the Bishop of Lincoln.—- 
With respect to compositions from the learned Sons of learned Fa- 
thers, it is unnecessary to repeat what was observed in the^ review 
•f Mr. Rennell's Ode. 

D3 and 



38 TomlineV Prize Poem, 

and the subject is to be proposed anaualiy by the Vice-Chan- 
ccllor. 

There seems a strange impropriety in thus fixinjj the metre 
of the Greek composition^ without regarding the subjecty in the 
slightest decree. Is every possible topic suited to Sappho's 
hendecasyllahics ; or must the Vicc-ChancelJor select fcr the 
young Academicians such as may be proper for this plaintive 
and amatory measure i Such Sappho appears to have deemed 
it : Sappho, who invented it, or at least was the first who used 
it to any great extent. 

Rhes. 

■ Sir William might possess physical skill, and certainly had 
great good humour : but for his learning and literary jutlg- 
}nent| wc shall not stand forwards as champions. Wiien the 
Devil on two Stiiks first appeared at the Liitle Theatre in the 
Haymarker, Mr. Foote mimicked, with great success, this very 
identical knight, as the Prases in his mock Warwick L^ne 
council.— The imitation was striking : but there was a defi- 
ciency, which the true President was the first in discovering. 
Sir William always wore a mufF, and Mr. Foote appeared iles- 
titute of this decoration. The President therefore immediately 
sent his own mufF to our English Aristophanes, in order that, 
vhen he next played the part, his dress might be complete ! 

Sir William's knowlege of Grerk Poetry w-is not great, 
though he was fond of writing English doggrel verses 5 and 
Im taste was more limited than his reading. — As to the Latin 
Odr, the youthful Bard is merely confin<:d to the Lyric metre 
of Horace* This restriction m^y be tolerated ; though it i$ 
an unuecesaary if not a hard restriction. Every' writer ought 
.to know hia own powers b^st ; and, when a subject is proposed, 
if he has read to solid purpose, he will soon adopt a metre 
w^ich may fXOYt, his good taste, and will be commensurate to 
Us abilities»*-*But to the Oiie before us. 

The author of it, Mr. Tomlinc, if our memory fails us not^ 
gained "^ir William Browne's Prize last year, by hib Greek ode. 
TJftat composition we recollect to have seen : but, as critics, 
even out of their magisterial chair, cannot close their eyes, nor 
shut their ears, — fuch a Syren is th^ art which they follow, — - 
we abscrvcd aome mistakes in it, which rendered it very in- 
ferior to the present Ode. In both, however, we remark a de- 
gree of perspicuity and a facility of style, which are in general 
hopelessly sought in compositions of this nature. 

It is- now incumbent on us to mention that in all these O/des, 
the metrical cauon> which was first laid down and originallv 
' ■ .' ' establibhed 



r 



TomlineV Prrze Pum. 39 

vstablisbed in the Monthly Review for January * 1 798, has not 
been infringed. This rule stated that» in' Greek or Latin Sap* 
phics, there could be no div'uio was, except at the end of the 
third line of the stanza ; and there one part of the word might 
close the third» and the remainder begin the fourth yersei or 
<idonic. — To this canon, may not a slight addition with pro- 
priety be added ? 

** The syllable of the divided word, which (syllable) closes 
the third verse of the Sapphic stanza, may be long or sbort.^ 

In Mr. Tomline's Ode, we find one instance of a short syl« 
lable, and two of a long syllable, in this pbce. 

In Mr. RcnnelPs poem, six short, and one long ; and in Mr. 
Pryme's, five short, and two long syllables.* 

This minotencss arises from the propriety of a short syllable 
in this place having been doubted : yet by those who are well 
versed in the Lyric poetry of the Greeks, such a aoubt could 
not have been started. To those who hesitate, let Sappho 
fpeak: 

As to the Romans, Catullus ruggedly, indeed, writes, xi. 1 1. 

Gallicum Rhenumy horrihilesque et uiti — 

mosque Britannos. 

The former of these two examples may defend these young 
authors from the lash of intemperate criticism. At the same 
time, we readily allow that, to English hearers and readers, 
the long syllable must appear preferable ; and Mr. Tomline's 
attention to this point shews taste and discretion. 

It is to be regretted that our Poet has introduced the Hiatus 
of Homer into the Sapphic stanza. This licence should have 
been avoided. 

We have abstained from a minute examination of these 
Odes ; and we shall continue to abstain. These youthful au- 
thors deserve all possible encouragement ; and their dawning 
merits more than counterbalance their errors. 

It has frequently occurred to our minds that Sir William 
Browne's Will might be followed, and his wsh better accom- 
plished, than it can be at present, if a different interpretation 
of the ttxtti Sapphic Measure were adopted, — ^Why mast, the 
name Sapphic be referred only to the Epichoriambic, or HeiVo 
decasyllabic metre, in which the Odes preserved by the two 
DxoNYSii, Halicarnensis and Longinus, are composed? The 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ » II II I I ^ II ^ <• >m 

* A&T. Sam. Butler's M. Musurus, viih some Academic Ex- 
ercises. 

P 4 term 



4b ¥oungV Vievf rfthe AgrleuHure ^f Norfolk* 

term Sinr^ o^V beloQfrs with equal propriety to the *£i0MUoaMf« 
^K^ovf or Antispastic Tetramrter : 

l^ufAfaif rat; Aie( s^ ftiFioxa) faA rsTuyixtYxi^: 

Apud Hephseit. p. 3;^ 
i}i ne qiuetittUt itite nefas, qunn mihi^ quern tibi.^^ 

Horau I. XI. <. 
The tii^t Idrftlt^p wai al^b applied bj the antient Grant- 
ihanans to the Ant'upastic dimeter hypercatmleciic trer8e» or 'Enetr 
tfP^KaCov, which is an Hipponactean metre : 

Apud Hephaest. p* 33. 

There is also an Heroic Dactylic termed ZotVf ixov. 

The former, a sixteen sylUbic antispastic, might be adopted^ 
6n many ^casions, with great propriety^ by the Scholiast on 
Hephi^stlo. 

It dppearsi therefore^ to our judgment^ that the 6rst of these 
tnetcrsi the Antispastic Tetrameter ^ might be employed 10 inanjr 
instances} with great sutcess i and Without setting aside the 
last will and testament of the hte President of the College of 
Physicians.—- How pleasantly does the dcortiFul Sappho siiig: 

Kotliamoa H ma"** iviivoKx fMo/jLoaiiva oiiiv 

ibotl''ffet^i TTcJ* ajuux«/pa,y vsxuuy Ix'jrefTolxfJLiva, 

Apud Stob. Grot. IIII. p. 28. 

Non Fama memorss post ohitum penna supentitem 
Te sublime vehet^ Pieriis cui caput est rosis 
Intactum : sed iners in Stygio nunc quoque carcere 
Vmlra ignota lates^ vilia nee deseris agmina. 

Grotius, 



Art XII. General View of the Agriculture of the County of Norfolk^ 
drawn up for the Consideration of the Board of Agriculture and 
internal Inaprovcment. By the Secretary of the Board. 8vd» 
pp. 532. 88. sewed. Nicol. 1804. 

'tlirfc did not expect, after Mr. Kent's Report^ of which i*re 
^y took Some notice in M. R. Vol. xxxi. N.S. p. ay* to 
Irecfcive a second publication on the same subject : but, as the 
old adage says^ *' two heads are better than one,** especially 
two good heads, we shall not grumble because, on the present 
bccasion, we have more information than we counted on re- 
tHving; Mr. Young, however, makes some apology for offer- 
tng a second Report of the County of Norfolk, since it ^eml 

ii to 




TouDgV Fiiw of the Agriculturi ^NorfilL 41 

to lower the edrimation of the first, and to thtOw it into the 
\nc\i grodnd; tie assures iis that the present ^ork does not 
appear (o the ezclusron l:5f Mr. Kent's View, but merely ill as* 
slstanci of it ; ahd that a supplementary Report was demand* 
ed^ in consequence of the * introdiictton of a new brieed of sheep^ 
and the rapidity with which the practice of Drilling spted in 
the county : by which circumstances so great a change has been 
effected in the Norfolk Husbandry, as to render all former 
works on the agriculture of that county deficient! howerer ex* 
cellent in other respects.' 

A glance of the eye at the unequal bulk of the two volumeft 
will sbffice k6 shew that the Secretary of the Board has gone 
ihore into detail than Mr. Kent, and must have furnished other 
additions besides those lo which he adverts in the Introduction. 
On the question of geographical extent, noticed in the first 
page, Mr. Young differs from the preceding Reporter. Hav 
ing had the area of the county, on the new and accurate map 
of Norfolk, carefully measured by the map^engraver to the 
Board, he states the extent of the county, according to that 
measurement, to be J830 square miles, or 1,171,200 acres; 
while Mr. K. makes the superficies of the county to contain 
only 1 7 10 square miles, or 1,094,400 acres. Mr. Kent rates 
the population at 2oo,eoo : but, according to the table at the 
end of the present report, which contains the results of the in- 
quiry made in ronsequence of the Act 4 1 Geo. ilL it appears 
to be only 160,313. Facing the title^ is a map of the soil of 
Norfolk, and the relative contents of the different kinds are 
gtren in the annexed table t 

Acres. 

* Light sand, - • 140,800 

Good sand, • • 268,800 

Marshland clay, ^ - 38,400 

VariouB loams, • • 576,000 

Rich loam, • • 949720 

Peat, ^ ^ - 52,480 

1,171,200* 

Observations, in the torm of notes, are subjoined, on the 
fertility and locality of some of these soils. The chapter on the 
ttate of Property shews the gr^at advance which has occurred 
ifl the value of land, in consequence of agricultural improve- 
ments ; and as it is concise, we shall transcribe it : 

' Estates are of all sizes in Norfolk, from nearly the largest scale 
to the little freehold : one of ? 5,000!. a year ; one of i4,cool. ; one 
bf 'St'^ool.; two of lOjOOcl.; many of about 5000I ; and an increasing 
ttudier of all smaller proportions. When the larger properties are 

deducted^ 



^ 



4*2 Young V Tlew of thi Agriaihure of Norfolk. 



deducted, the remainder of the county will be found divided fnto 
moderate estates, and in tlje hands of gentlemen who pay a consider- 
able attention to the practice of agticulturc. 

* Seventy years ago, there was not, I believe, a great rental in the 
county, so that these con iderable properties have been accumulated, 
first by the most excellent of all causes, agricultural improvements, 
and, secondly, by additional purchases. 

* Estates sell now (1802) pretty currently at thirty years purchase* 
' In the Ovingtou and Sayham enclosure, the land sold by the 

compfiissioners to defray the eicpense of th? measure, brought 4^1- per 
acre, as it was assigned, waste and unenclosed. 1 be average of all 
tales near Wat ton, 40L an acre. 

* An estate lately sold at Fishley, near Yarmouth, contained 

Arable land, good, - - - 250 acres. 

Cars and marshes, worth 128. an acre, - loo 

Marsh, worth 20s. an acre, - • - 50 



Rent, 400I. a year worth 5C0I fairly, but 600I. a year offered for it ; 
sold for i7,5cx>l. to Sir £i>mond Lacon, and 1500I. offered for tlic 
bargain. 

* Price of the estates sold at and near Happsborough, 30, 40, and 
50I. an acre ; much sold lately ; and at this time, the best land would 
all sell at from 40I. to 50I. an acre. 

* Land worth not above 20s. an acre, between Coltishal and Nor- 
1«^ich, has been sold at 50I. an acre. 

* In iVJarshland Smeeth, newly enclosed, at 50, 60. and 70I. an acre* 

* In Downham Wcstside, Denver, Welney, &c. fen farms, lol. to 
izl. an acre : to the east of Dowuham, at 24 years purchase. 

* In Upwcll, some, not fen", to 50I an acre, but the average 2^« 

* Mr. Bagoe, of Lynn, has land in Marshland which would now 
tell at 70I. an acre, which Mr. Dixon bought 60 years ago at 12I. 



JOS.' 



Mr. Young speaks of the farm-houses in Norfolk as possess- 
ing comforts superior to those which are usually found id 
houses appropriated to the occupation of tenants : but he was 
not enabled to report the; existence of one good fi^rm-yard in 
the county, * manifesting contrivance, and in which no building 
could be moved to any other site without doing mischief.* 
The Norfolk farmers, however, stand very hijrh in the Secre- 
tary's estimation ; and his warm praise of Mr. Coke, as an 
agriculturist and promoter of agriculture, is not more distin- 
guishing than it is merited. As the spirite'd manner in which 
improvements h:ive been prosecuted by Norfolk farmers, ac- 
» cording to Mr. Young, has not been sufiicienrly detailed, we 
shall indulge this Re^)orter with an extract relative to this sub- 
ject, though. we cannot pive all the names of these persons 
Whom he consid<(« as iniiilcd to agricultural fame. 

•The 



ToungV Vitw of the Agriculture of Nor foil. 4 j 

• The Norfolk farmers arc famous for tlieir great improvements, 
the excellency of their management, and the hospitable maimer in 
which they hVc and receive tiieir friends, and all strangers that visit 
the county. I have on various occasions found how well they merit 
their repuiatioa. 

• Id respect to their husbandry, the farming mind in this county 
has ttodergone two pretty considerable revolutions. For 30 years, 
from 1730 to 1760, the great improvements in the not th- western 
part of the county took place, and which rendered the county in 
g'cneral famous. For the next 30 years, to about 1 790, I think th^y 
Bc^rly stood still ; they reposed upon their laurels* About that period 
a second revolution was working : they seemed then to awaken to new 
ideas : an experimental spirit began to spread, much owing, it is said» 
to the introduction of drilling ; and as so new a practice set men to 
thinking. It is not unlikely : nothing can be done till men think, and 
they certainly had not thought for 30 years preceding. About that 
tjxnc also, Mr. Coke (who has done more for the husbandry of this 
county than any man since the turnip Lord Town sh end, or any other 
man io any other county) began his sheepshearing meetings. These 
causes combined (for whati know, the former sprung partly from the 
Jatter) to raise a spirit which has not subsided. The scarcities, and 
consequent high prices, brought immense sums into the county, and 
enabled the farmers to exert themselves with uncommon vigour. Ex- 
pcrioaeiits ia drilling shewed that farmers might step out of the com* 
moo road, without any danger of a gaol. South Down sheep came in 
about the same time. Folding was by many gradually given up. 
These new practices operated upon the farming mind : ideas took a 
larger range ; a disposition was establiblicd, that would not readily 
reject a proposal merely because it was new — the sleep of so many 
couutries. Every thing is to be expected from this spirit. In igation 
is gaining ground, in spite of the dreams that have been ventured 
against it. And if the men who occupy, or rather disgrace so large a 
part of the light sand district, by steadily adhering to those good old 
naxitni which have preserved it so long in a desart state, shall once im- 
bibe a portion of this ardour, we shall see new plants iatroduied, and 
new pmctrces pursued, to carry the county in general to the perfection 
of which its husbandry is capable. 

• Those who have vi8it^d Holkham as farmers, will not accuse me 
of flattery, if I assert of Mr. Coke, that he i^ fairest where many are 

ftnr. To name particulars^ would be to detail the whole farm'. 

' Mr. PuRpts, of Eggmofc, is in the first class of excellent culti- 
rators : bis farm has many unequivocal signs of spirited exertion : 303 
acres of tares ; 30x^0 South Down sheep \ and a watered meadow, are 
objects that speuk for themselves. 

• The late Mr. Mallet, of Dunton, having, on coming to his 
farm of 2500 acres, nothing more than the stock, valued at 7000I., in 
thirty- four yeans acquired a fortune of 70,000!. 

• Mr. 6ALTfeR, ut Winborough, U one of the most spirited im- 
provers in the county : he hired 800 acres, in a state not far removed 
from a waste : and by ditching, draining, marling, and good husr- 

bandry 



44 ToungV View of the Jgricuttun ofNoffili. 

bmdry ofTariom kinds, has brought it to be one of the most produc- 
tive brms in Norfolk. 

* The Rev. Mr. MuNNiNits» near Dereham, invented a method 
of pirescfving turnips, which he described in a late pubh'catioo of 
merit* He driUs successfully, and has various and useful imple- 
ments. 

' Mrs. Colli SON, of De^ehath, has made considerable improve- 
ments at East Bilney ; drills successfully, and has built a capital bam. 
Ice. 

* Mf. MolVEYiriLL keeps a farm of near 1300 acres, wrth a degree 
of neatness and attention ^hich classes him among the first farmers of 
the county : the whole drilled. Fine South Down Sheep/ 

At the conclusion of the chapter on Implements, Mr. Young 
mentions a Mr. Jex, a young blacksmith at Billingford, who 
at 16 years of age displayed most extraordinary mechanical 
talents ; and who, by the account here given of him, will pro- 
bably meet with encouragement and elevation^ since tti addi- 
tion to genius he possesses an excellent moral character. 

Copious details are exhibited of the parliamentary incto- 
s»res which have been made of late years in Norfolk, alphabe- 
tically arranged under the names of the places at which they 
kiave occurredi and with such additional noticea as U) the Re« 
porter seemed worthy of remark. 

A k>ng chapter succeeds <m Arabk Land, the manajeement of 
wktck ia the grand object of Norfolk husbandry, and which Mr. 
Young promises minutely to discuss. Under the heads of 
TiUage,, Fallowing, Course of Crops, Turnips "•» Barley f^ 
Seeds (including Clover, Ray-gtass, Burnet, Cocksfoot, and 
Chicory )» Wheat, (the notes on which are arranged in twenty* 
ooe divisions,} Rye, Oats, Pease, Beans, Buck*wheat, Tares^ 
Cabbages, Cole-seed, Carrots, Mustard, Hemp and Flax, Sain<^ 
foin. Lucerne, Mangle-Wurztrl, and Potatoes, the Norfolk prac- 
tice is largely displayed ) and the chapter finishes with thia 
report on the Norfolk arable system : 

• For 

* As in Norfolk the turnip crop is made the basis of all others, 
Mr. Y. subdivides the section on Turnips m the following manner ; 
1. Course ; 2. Soil ; 3. Tillage ; 4. Manuring ; 5. Sort ; 6. Seed ; 
7. Steeping; 8. Hoeing; 9. Distempers ; 10. Drilling; 11. Con- 
bumption; 12. Preservation; 13. Saving seed; 14. Is the land tired 
of turnips .^ 15 . Swedish Turnips ; 16. Turnip Cabbages. Thisenu- 
aoeration concludes with remarks on the importance of the culture, and 
uith cautions against pushing it too far. 

t At the end of the section on Barley, we have a curious note re- 
specting Malting^ which we shall copy, because it may serve to re* 
concik farmers to a shower or two in Har^ricst i 

• Mr. 



Toung'j View of the Agriculture %f Uorfotl . 45 

* For the last fiiur or five and thirty years that I have examined 
West Norfolk with the eye of a farmery the change m the tillage sys- 
tem has not been great. At that period the coarse was, i. Turnips; 
3. Barley ; 3. Gf asses for two, or, in a few cases, three years ; 4. 
\7hite-com ; on the better soHs wheat ; on others, rye, &c. The only 
cbange that has occurred has been in the grasses : the variation, whick 
i believe first took place from forty to fifty years ago, was shortening 
the dnration, from three years to two : in both cases giving what may- 
be called a bastard fallow the last year, by a half ploughing, soon af- 
ter Midsammer. Above thirty years ago, I contended, both in pTint 
and in conversation, against it, bat was held cheap for entertaining any 
doubts of the propriety of the practice. I have lived, however, t<s 
•ec this change also in a great measure take place amongst the best 
^mers, who now give omy one ploughing for the winter corn, whe» 
ther wheat or tares ; or in the spring for pease. Th^t it is an ini^ 
provement, cannot be questioned. The argument for it, founded on th« 
invention of the drill-roller, and on the introduction of the dnII-plottgh» 
is good, but not singular, as the practice of dibbling is likewise. far 
mooe adapted to a whole than to a broken fUrrow : and for broad -cast 
eooinaon sowing, if we are able to cover the seed by harrowing on 
stiff soils, once ploughed, assuredly the same practice might be better 
followed on sand. The other reason for the former system, spearw 
grass eettinga-head in a layer, is quite inadmissible : for I must agree 
entirely with Mr. Overman, that no weeds, the seeds of which are not 
carried by the wiad, will be fetmd in a layer, if they were not left 
there. 

< The vanations which have taken place in the crop out in upon 
layers, are neither great, nor are they peculiar to NorfolK : the prin* 
cipal one is taking pease on the flag, and then the wheat, &c. an ad* 
mtrable system, which has long been practised by good farmers ia 
Suffolk, and 1 believe, earlier stul in Kent. Mr. Purdis's substitntioa 
of tares, holds on the same principle. Considennsr the very great 
value of white- pea straw, well got as sheep food (no where better 
■nderstood than in Kent), there is no husbandry better adapted 
to a sheep-farmj than this of pease or tares preceding the wheat 
crop. 

' A great and a very important change has, however, taken place in 
the application of crops to sheep intead of bullocks and cows. For* 

* Mr. Gilpin, of Heacham, a considerable maltster, bought some 
heautiful barley that had not received a drop of rain, and trying a 
small parcel of it, found it malted badly : he tried a most uncommon 
ei^penqient, and founded upon an idea very contrary to all common 
ones OQ the subject : he kiln-dried it by a gentle heat» watering it 
lightly with a watering-pot twice or thrice, six hours intervenfng ; 
dried it : after which operation it malted well, every grain sprouting, 
^d no malt could be finer. Hence, observes the very intelligent 
gentleman from whom I had this account, it \% evident that a good 
lEbower of rain in harvest, or a sweat in the stack, is beneficial to the 
Ouduter/ 

merly 



n 



46 YoungV View of the Jgriculiuri efNorfoIh. 

merly the farmers consumed much of their straw by cattle : now the 

best tread it all into dung. 

* Sheep are the main grazing stock, and no more cattle kept than 
for treading^ not eating straw, while feeding on oil-cake, &c. This is 
an important change^ which has had considerable effec^^ and has de- 
pended not a little on the tntroductioo of South Down sheep. 

* The grand object in the whole system, is the singular ateadiness 
with which the farmers of West Norfolk have adhered to the well- 
grounded antipathy to taking two crops of whitc-corn in succession : 
x\\h is talked of elsewhere, but no where so steadily adhered to as 
in this district. It is this maxim which has preserved the effect of 
their marie, on thin-skinned wheat lands, in such a jnanner that the 
district continues highly productive, under an almost regularly in- 
creasing rent for more than 60 years, or three leases, each of 21 ; and 
by means of which great tracts nave been marled a second^ and even a 
third time, with much advantage. 

* This system has been that to which the title of A^or/b/i husbandry 
has been long, and is now p>eculiarly appropriated ; and by no means 
the manaoremcnt of the very rich district of East Norfolk, Where the 
soil is naturally among the fmest in the kingdom, and consequently 
where the merit of the farmer must be of an inferior stamp : barley 
there very generally follows wheat ; an incorrect husbandry, descrying 
110 praise. The celebrity of the county in general was not heard of> 
till the vast improvements of heaths,, wastes, sheep walks, and war- 
rens, by enclosure, and marling took place from the exertions of Mr. 
Allen, of Lyng House, Lord Townshend. and Mr. Morley, which 
were in the iir^t thirty years of the preceding century. They were 
happily imitated by many others ; an excellent system of management 
introduced) and such improvements wrought, that estates which were 
heretofore \oo iisignificant to be known, became objects of public 
attention in the capital. The fame of Not folk gradually expanded. 
and the hu-^uandry of the county celebrated, before East Norfolk 
was I»eard of beyond the conversation of Norwich and Yarmouth. 

* Without a continuance of cautious management and perseveringf 
exertions, West Norfolk would again become the residence of poverty 
and rabbits. Let the meadows be improved ; irrigation practised 
wherever it is applicable ; the remaining wastes cultivated, and this 
diotrict will become a garden.' 

We shall pass over the chapter on Grass, since Mr. Youngs 
80 far from finding matter worthy of record, observes that 
Meadows and Pastures are uo where worse managed than in 
Norfolk. 

Rcepectincj Woods and Plantations, Mr. Young refers to 
Mr. Ketu's Report, admitting that he has treated this subject 
in a satisfactory minner. A list, however, is added, of trees 
planted at Ilolkham frocn the year 1781 to i8o]> amounting 
in ail to 2,129,690. 

In the chapter on Live Stock, the Secretary enumerates the 
advantages derived from the new breed uf shcep^ which he has 

beea 



fAviTTzfs Elements of Matiria Mediceu 47 

been Instrumental in introducing : but we must refer to the 
Report itself for the details. 

As Mr. Yoang is known to have an extensive acquaintance 
with every branch of rural economy, and to be endowed with 
an active spirit of research, we need not observe that he has 
collected in this volume many particulars which are interesting 
to the county of Norfolk, and which merit the attention of a 
Board established for the purpose of promoting internal Im- 
provement. Tables arc annexed, giving a comparison of timeSt 
made in consequence of a requisition to the Board of Agriculture 
from the Corn Committee of the House of Commons (1804) to 
procure returns from the several counties, of the cxpences on 
arable land in 1790 and in 1803. The object, it is observed, 
is incompletely ascertained : but, from the returns given in these 
tables, it appears that the average rise of expence in the culti- 
vation of arable land, including ail particulars', is about 45 per 
cent 



A»T. XII r. Elements of Materia Medtca and Pharmacy, By J. 
Murray, Lecturer on Chemistry, and on Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy. 8vo. 2 Vols. 143. Boards. Ediuburgh, Creech, 
&c ; London> Longman and Co. 1804. 

'The changes which have taken place within a few years, in 
"* the theory and practice of m.edicine, and in cliemistry, have 
produced corresponding alterations in the Materia Medica and in 
Pharmacy. It is therefore desirable that we shoufd possess a 
work which may contain a correct view of the modern disco- 
veries on these stibjects, and may exhibit a just idea of the hy- 
potheses at present most generally adopted. These advantages 
Mr. Murray claims for the publication before us ; and from the 
proofs which he has already manifested of his talents, we felt 
disposed, before we entered on our examination, to augur that 
he was in every respect qualified for the task. We must now 
tcport the mode in which he has executed it. 

Mr. M. arranges his materials under the three heads of Phar- 
marceutic Chemistry, Materia Medica^ and Pharmacy, a division 
into which the subject seems naturally to distribute itself; and 
on which we have only to remark that perhaps he might with 
more propriety have altered the situation of the parts, and have 
plaped them in the order oi Materia Medica^ Pharmaceutic Che- 
mistry, and Pharmacy. 

The utility of a thorough knowlege of chemistry, in its state 
of modern improvenient, is too obviou5 to nc»td illustration. 
Though the analysis of the substances ust*<l in niirdirine can sel- 
dom afford any insight into the nature of ihcir op -ration on the 

9 animal 



1 

4^ . Murray V EUtnents if Materia Medica. | 

animal frame, we are frequently enabled to ascertain on what 
particular part of the drjug its saluiary virtues depend, to separate 
thi&from the rest, to exhibit it in the roost pure state, and in 
the form most favorable for its medical operation. These objects 
are principally applicable to the vegetable substances that are 
losed in medicine. They generally consist of a combination of 
different principles, some of which arie inert, or even noxious^ 
but which, by the operation of the appropriate re*agents, may be 
completely separated from the active ingredients. In the miner 
ral kingdom, the advantage which we derive from chemistry is 
atiU more direct: since the articles in this department, which are . 
employed in medicine, are the immediate products of chemical 
operations, and can only be procured in a perfect state by an 
intimate acquaintance with the process, and an accurate know- 
legc of the scientific principles on which it is conducted, 

Mr-Murray defines pharmaceutic cheniii^try to be < that depart* 
ment of chemical science which investigates the composition and 
chemical relations of bodies with a y ie w ^to f heir qnedicinal pro* 
pefties, and explains those operations by which they are fitted 
to act with more eiHcacy or safety as remedies against disease/ 
The definition appears to us suiBciently correct and restricted : 
but the author, in the detail on which he enters, does not con- 
fine himself strictly to the consideration of this part of the 
acience, digressing into different branches of chemistry, which 
have little o,r no connection with pharmacy. We acknowlege, 
indeed, that it would not have been ea^y to state every circum* 
tance that was necessary to a complete yiew of the subject, 
without at the same time incroaching somewhat on the neigh- 
bouring departmepts ; and the error of redundancy^ into which 
he has falleoi is certainly less objectionable than the fault of 
deficiency. 

The account of pharmaceutic chemistry is divided into twp 
sections, < pharmaceutic operations,' and < general chemical 
analysis of the articles pf the materia medica.' The first sec- 
tion commences with a description of that peculiar quality ifi 
bodies, by which the particles of different l^inds of matter have a 
teqdency tocQmbine together ; to which the appropriate title of 
chemical attjraccion or affinity has been applied, * It is exerted 
only between the minute partichs of different kinds of matter, and 
between these only at insensible dtbtances. The substances 
which it combines never separate spontaneously, nor are they 
capable of being separated by any mechanical means ; and they 
form a compound possessing properties more or less different 
from those of its component parts.' The effect of what is styled 
.el£;ctive attraction, and the consequent phenomena of deoom- 
positionj are explained jn the usual manner \ ^nd on this prin- 



Murray'/ EUtmnts ofMatrria Me£c4n 4f 

ciple, aided or tnodtfied by the effects of caloric, it i5 sopposed 
that all chemical optratioDS ultimately depend. Before bodies 
are subjected to the different re-agents, there are some processes 
of a mechanical nature, that are frequently employed in order to 
promote the action of the chemical attractions which subsist be* 
tween them, such as pulverization, trituration, &c* These are 
briefly described, and afterward such as are more strictly of a 
chemical nature ; for example, solution and distillation* Wc 
are presented with an account of these several processes ; which^ 
as far as it extends, is sufficiently correct and perspicuous : but^ 
considering how intimately they are connected with the im« 
mediate object of Mr. Murray's work, we think that more mi« 
nuteoess would have been desirable. He gives only a very ge* 
neral account of the apparatus employed in the processes of 
pharmacy ; unaccompanied with plates, and without even re^* 
ference to other works in which this deficiency might be sup* 
plied* This circumstance must materially diminish the value of 
Mr. Murray's publication as a practical treatise ; and in every 
point of view, it must be considered as an unpardonable omis* 
aion. The account of the weights and measures employed in 
pharmacy is also not sufficiently minute, and contams one in- 
accuracy of considerable importance. . After having stated that 
Troy weight is that which is prescribed ^by the different phar« 
tnacopsetas, and that the Troy pound * is divided into 1 2 ounces i 
the ounce int9 8 drachms^' &c. the author informs us that the 
measures * arc subdivided in a similar manner.' The fact, how* 
ever, is that the pound measure employed in pharmacy is the 
wine pint, which is supposed to be divided'into i6 ounces* 

The second section, intitled ^ chemical analysis of the ar- 
ticles of the Materia Medico^* is more properly an epitome of 
general chemistry, than a description of those particular sub'^ 
stances which are employed in medicine. It commences with 
those which, in the present state of chemical science, are consi- 
dered as simple or elementary bodies ; of these the author first 
treats of such as are only obtained pure in the gaseous state, 
cxygcne, azote, and hydrogeue; and he briefly enumerates their 
characteristic properties, and the nature of the most important 
compounds, of which they form the principal or essential in- 
gredient. We have next a description of the simple infidmmable 
substances, carbone, sulphur, and phosphorus j afterward of the 
different metallic bodies } and lastly the earths and alkalies past 
under our review. These different substances are in course 
treated in a very general way, the intention of the author being 
only to exhibit a mere outline of this part of chemical science ^ 
but it appears to be for the most part correct, and is con* 
veyed in an easy and perspicuous stylCt We have^ however, ob- 
RsT* SfiFT. 1805. £ served 



^O'* MttrrayV Elements of Materia MedUa^ 

senred one poskton which is evidently erroneous. Whenr speal^ 
in^ of the metalsi Mr. M. says that * in general they are more 
active the more oxygene they containi and they are a/ways ren» 
ieted more powerful ^ when the o'xyde is farther combined with 
an acid:' but we have a fact directly in opposition to this in the 
case of mercury, the red oxyde of which is certainly a more 
active preparation than when combined with muriatic acid, uih* 
der the form of what he calls the sub-muriate. We have some 
doubfy also, how far Mr.Murray will be found to be correct in hit 
opinion respecting the increased activity of the oxydes, by the 
increased proportions of oxygene ; it does not appear to be very 
clearly ascertained in any instance, except in that of the black 
and red oxydes of mercur y.«-^A descriptionof the method of ana- 
lysing vegetable substances, and of the principles which enter 
into their composition, drawn up in the same concise manner 
with the former part, concludes the account of pharmaceutic 
chemistry. 

Mr. Murray's second division of the subject, on Materia Afe*» 
'dica, is the most original part of the whole performance; and ia 
evidently that on which he has more particularly exercised hia 
abilities. The articles of the Materia Medica have been arranged 
by different writers in a variety of modes ; sometimes their 
aensible quantities^and sometimes their chemical composition, or 
their place in the system of natural history, have been adopted 
as the basis of classification. These characters, however, are 
thought by Mr. Murray to be inapplicable to a work on 
Materia Medica ; the prime object of which is to acquire a 
knowlege of their medicinal properties : on which account, he 
concludes * that the method of arranging them, as they agree 
in producing effiects on the living system, is the one best calcu* 
lated to fulfil all its objects/ 

The writer acknowleges that the modus opfrandi of medi« 
cines is often extremely obscure r but he conceives that this ob* 
jection to an arrangement founded on their medicinal propertiea 
tnay be obviated^ by classing them according to certain deter* 
tninate eflects which they operate on the body, and not from 
any hypothetical notion concerning the manner in which 
these effects are produced. The distinction is not without 
foundation : but we apprehend that even in ascertaining the sen- 
iible effects of different medicines, so large a portion of theory 
tningles itself with our ideas and language, that we are un- 
avoidably plunged into all the obscurity which attaches to me- 
dical hypothesis. Mr. M. has indeed given his* own system 
icarcely a fair chance of success ; for he sets out by adopting, 
to a very considerable extent, the sweeping doctrine of the Bru- 
nonian theory, that * medicines in general operate by stimulating 

the 



Murray V Mkdi/mts ofMaUria MeJica. j^ 

the Kriiig fibre, or exciting it to iDotion*' He finds it, however, 
necessary to iotroduce certain modificatiboa into the dogrpa, 
which waa ao pertinacioualy maintained by the original follow- 
ers of this syatemi that the apparent difference in the operations 
of medicines depends solely on the quantity of their stimulating 
power ; and to confess that a difference in degree only cannot 
account for the observed phaenome na. *They differ in kind so far, 
(he says) that even in the greater number of cases, one remedy 
cannot by any management o£ dose or administration be made 
to produce the effects which result, from the action of another.' 

The modifications which this author admits are three : < ist. 
an important difference exists between atimuUnts, as they are 
more or less diffusible and permanent in their action/ A st^ 
aulus is termed diffusible, which in a short time < extends its 
action over the whole system, and quickly produces its full eli- 
citing effect/ On the other hand, there are stimulants, tli^ 
ultimate effects of which are equally powerful with the foi^ 
mer, and more permanent, but which operate in a . slower, 
or even in an insensible manner. This difference of effect lays 
f he foundation for our author's classes of narcotics and tonics. 
«-The ad. modification here allowed in the action of stimu- 
lautt depends on their operation bein^ exercised either on the 
system at large, or on particular parts of it only ; hence are 
derived the subdivisions of cathartics, diuretics, &c.— In the 3d 
place, it is admitted that < medicines, besides their acting as 
stimuli, sometimes occasion mechanical or chemical changes in 
the state of the fluids or solids, by which their action is more 
or less diversified.' Hence, therefore, arise four great divisions, 
general stimulants, local stimulants, chemical remedies, and 
mechanical remedies ; the medicines, however, which are ar- 
ranged under the last iwo heads, are not numerous, and for the 
most part their operation is obscure, and their efficacy doubt* 
fuL 

A reflection obviously suggested by these limitations is, that 
they, in a very considerable degree, subvert the doctrine which 
they are intended to support. If, in the first place, we grant 
that there is a difference m the mode of stimulation, and adly, 
suppose that the parts of the body are differently affected by the 
operation of stimuli, we cannot refuse to allow of the specific 
action of medicines ; a supposition which was strenuously con- 
troverted by the original adherents of the Brunonian hypothesis : 
•—but we shall be able to enter more fully into the views of the 
author, as we follow him through the respective classes into 
which the articles of the Materia Medico are distributed. 

jGeneral stimulants are divided into diffusible and permanent; 
the difffusibk are again subdivided into narcotics and antispas- 

E St modics | 



$2 Mftnfay'/ Elemmig ^ Maims 

modies ; thie permanent into tonies and atiringents* Hie ckm 
»{ nareotieiy according to the authoi^s account, comprizes those 
•timuIantSy the action of which is general over the system, highly 
diffusiblei but at the same time transient in their operation } k 
corresponds^ as we are told, with that class pf medicines usu* 
ally denominated sedatives, which have been conceived to di- 
minish, by a direct operation, the action or powers of the 
system. It appears somewhat singular that efiects, seemingly 
of so opposite a nature, could ever have been attributed to the 
same substances ; and it might be imagined that the controversy 
.would be immediatelv decided by an appeal to fact :•— but thete 
are circumstances wnich have hitherto prevented this coinci- 
dence of opinion^ Perhaps the principal cause of uncertainty 
exists in the imperfect meaning affixed to the terms which we 
employ, and particularly with respect to the word stimulus it« 
vself. To stimulate the body, in its natural and obvious signifi- 
•cation, is to excite it to action : but what are the indications by 
which we judge of this effect ? The state of the pulse is infiuea- 
ced by too great a variety of circumstances ; and we are not 
sufficienty acquainted with the causes which immediately aflvct 
its condition, to permit us to consider this as an unerring guide. 
Still more obscure are the marks by which we can appreciate the 
state of 'the nervous system; and there are some reasoov 
which would induce us to conclude, that the excitement of the 
nervous energy is not always proportionate to that of the san* 
guiferous system. Hence it has arisen that the word stimubuhzt 
been employed in the most loose and indeterminate manner \ so 
that, if it has any meaning, it seems to indicate little more than 
the capacity of producing some effect on the system. The position that 
all medicines must act by stimulating the body was probably a 
deduction from this opinion ; —a position which we are so far 
from thinking tobeself-evident, that wecan scarcely conceive any 
truth more obvious than the very contrary doctrine^ which adk 
mits the possiUlity of the existence of a direct sedative. The de« 
cision of this question must no doubt ultimately depend on an 
appeal to experiment and observation ;— an appeal of which we 
are perfectly prepared to meet the result. 

It is time for us to return to Mr. Murray *s class of narcotics. 
At the head of the list is placed alcohol i then succeed ether^ 
camphor and opium \ afterward are arranged those vege- 
tables which are more particularly styled narcotics in popular 
language, beginning with hyoscyamus, including hemlock and 
<fox-glove, and finishing with the lauro cerasus. The inspection 
of this multifarious list of substances, in our opinion, affords a 
-striking illustration of the perversion of judgment which may 
.be pr<^uccd by an attachment to a bold and imposing hypo- 

1 hcsif. 



Mnmff EUmmts ofAtaierta Mtika. S3 

thesis. Every one knows that itlcoho), the obvious operation of 
which is certainly stimulant^ may be given in such a manner as 
to produce a state of stupor ; and it i$ asserted that this stu* 
por is the direct effect of the previous excitement. Digitalis^ 
ttokss it be administered with the ppreatest caution, brings on a 
cessation of all the vital powers, which has been hastily assumed 
to be similar to the stupor induced by excessive quantities of 
alcohoL Hence it is concluded that these substances must act 
on the system in a similar manner; though it is scarcely pos- 
sible to imagine that any one can be so wedded to theory, as to 
conceive that the stimulating efiects of alcohol can ever be pro- 
duced by digitalis, or the sedative effects of digitalis by aico« 
liol, so that it would be practicable, by any management, to sub- 
stitute rhem for each other in the cure of diseases. Evident and 
indisputable as are the stimulant effects of alcohol, not less ob- 
vicus appear to us the directly sedative powers of some of the 
medicines which are placed in the same class with it $ and this 
in a work which professes to arrange the articles of the Materia 
AUdica^ <as they agree in producing effects on the living system/ 
After having passed this censure on the author's undue attach- 
ineor to a systematic hypothesis, we must injustice state a most 
Temarkahle example of his candor. Although he has placed the 
fos-glove among the diffusible stimuli, and has characterized 
them in the manner noticed above, he begins his account of 
the medical properties of that substance in these words : * Of 
all the narcotics, digitalis is that which diminishes most pow- 
erfully the actions of the system ; and it does so without occa- 
sioning any previous excitement/ It is unnecessary to make any 
farther observations on an arnuigement wbieh involves so glar- 
ing an inconsistency. 

Class 2. contains the antispasmodics. < From the name given 
to thb class, their effects may be easily understood. Spasm is 
an irregular contraction of a muscle \ sometimes the contrac- 
tion is permanent, at other times it alternates with relaxation^ 
bat is aciU ivregular. Such medicines as obviate and remove such 
affections, are termed Antispasmodics.' He confesses the dif- 
ficulty of ascertaining the difference between their operation^ 
and that of the narcotics on the one hand^ and the tonics on 
the other ; in so much, that many of our most powerful anti- 
spasmodics are included in one or another of these classes. The 
mature of spasm itself is so extremely obscure, and, as far as we 
can judge, it seems to originate in such a variety of causes^ 
that we can scarcely expect to be able to lay down any charac- 
teristic marks that may be applicable to ail the substances em- 
'ployed to remove it. Certainly, however, the most striking 
dksx of tb^ substances is their power of diminishing rather 

£ J than 



54 . Vxxfzfs EUtmnts pf Materia AMica. 

than of iocrearing accioQ \ so that^ in whatever other class we 
might be disposed to place them, we should undoubtedly be 
inclined to ren>ove them from that of the stimulants. 

We now enter on the permanent stimulants, beginning with 
, the class of tpnics. * By tonics, are understood those substan- 
ces whose primary operation is to give strength to the system/ 
This definitioi) accords with the idea which is usually attsckod 
to the term tonic \ and it will be found to embrace an extensive 
class of medicines, which seem connected together by a na- 
tural resemblance. We have, however, considcrtUe jdoubts 
whether they ^re fully entitled to the denominatbri of stimu- 
lants. Strength ^nd action, so far from being always propor- 
tionate, are sometimes, as it appe^f s, even opposed to eadi 
•other ; that which increases action seems to diminish strength» 
and that which augments strength- Seems to decrease action. 
The effect of those substances whichsrc the most decidedly sti- 
mulating is certainly not toutc \ if . therefore tonics in son^e 
instances appear to stimulate, is it not more reasonable to con- 
jecture that this depends on some incidental circumstance, 
than on their possessing a direct poweriof producing action ? 
Were yit to indulge o.u.rselvesiti:Specul9ting on this point, wc 
should.be disposed to attribute the virtues of tonics principally 
to..their pperation on the organs of digestion. In what way 
they affect this function we are* unable to explain, umil we are 
better acquainted with the nature of the function itself : but 
they seem to render the stomach capable of converting thesub- 
jStances which it receives, into the most proper state for the 
nourishment of the system, and htnce to repair the waste 
which is it all times going forwards in every part of the animal 
fabric. With respect to the substances which Mm* Murray 
places in the class of tonics,. we feel somediiiiculty.onevei'yjhy- 
jjothesis, of admitting the claims of several of those which are do* 
rived from the mineral kingdom. Mercury gives strength to the 
system, we allow, by curing a disease which produces debiUty : 
)but it does this by an immediate action on the disease^ and 
therefore is not, from this circumstance, intitled to the denomi^ 
nation of tonic. The same remarks will apply to copper and 
arsenic *, the former of which improves the strength of the 
system when it cures epilepsy, and the latter wbon it removes 
ague : but it does not follow in either case that the primary 
operation is tonic. — The author has omitted to introduce sil- 
ver, which certainly has a claim to be placed in the same rank 
With copper \ the internal use of the argintum miratum does not 
appear to be noticed in any part of the work* 

If we found ic diiRcultto admit tonics into the class of stimu^ 
lantSj wchave still stxongerobjection againstairangingttttringents 

under 



Murray*/ £tements of Materia Medico^ 55 

binder this title. Before, however, we form any opinion re- 
specting the nature of these medicinesi we must determine 
what substances we propose to consider as astringents^ If we 
refer to their supposed modus operandi, we sh'4ll include thos'o 
only which condense the animal fibre : but, if we take into 
account the ultimate effect produced, we must receive .all 
those which restrain profuse or morbid ev^icuatiohs Mr* 
Murray appears to have been principally guided by the (irsj^ 
consideration, though he has introduced into his list some 6ub« 
Stances of the latttr description. Thus chalk is placed among 
the astringents, in consequence of its use in diarrhcsa ; yet he 
confesses that its action in this disease depends on the removal 
of acidity. It is certainly more scientific to place in this class 
those substances only which h<we a sensible effect in condens- 
ing or approximating the animal fibres ; though the other me- 
thod would have been more consistent with a system whicn 
Erofesses to arrange substances according to their effects on the 
ody. 
Employing the term astringent, as the present author ha$ 
^one, in the restricted sense, although we observe aii evidepf 
analogy between the operation of the different substances, inj* 
eluded in it« we confess ourselves to be much indoubt respecting 
the nature of their action. We agree with Mr.' Murray in 
thinking that it cannot be satisfactorily explained by their effect 
on dead animal matter : 

* Increased evacuations cannot be aqcribed to inere mccbanici|]l 
laxity of tHe solids ; and their removal cannot be referred tp 
simple condensation of the^^t? solids. Nc^lther can it be admitted that 
active substances ma^ be applied to fhe system without occasioDing 
changes in the state of the Kving powers. Many Rubstancds afrang^ 
as istringents occasion very considerable alterations in several of the 
functions ; they produce effects too which cannot be solely referted tb 
a coodcnaiDg powcr» and cheret(»re« in all the changes they prodtlcSy 
pait at least of their operattoa auist he referred to tbeiractJDg oashc 
yowers peculiarly hfe.' . . :.l 

One thing, howcvcri wc conceive is sufficif»ntly ^evident; iifh 
they do not act as srimAilantsi aod both their immediate atttt 
ultimate effect seems to be that of diminishing action* ^ 

We now arrive at the second great divisioa af the articles 
of tbc Materia Mediea, the locad stimalaivta* These are Sub- 
divided into emetics^ cathartics, emcneiiagogties, diureficSt 
diaphoretics^ expectc^rant^, sialogogues, ermines, and epispsrs- 
tics* The author here seems to proceed on the idea that the ef- 
fect of all medicines must necessajrily be stimulant i oif {n 
other words that to stimulate is to produce an effect. Emetics 
are said to Caust vomitingy because they stimalate the stp- 

£ 4 omhi 



5^ Murray*/ Elements of Materia Me£ca. 

inach ; but is it probable that the increase of the action of a part 
ahould produce an effect directly the reverse of its natural action? 
Vomitingi like many other operations of the animal body, may 
be produced by very different and seemingly opposite causes \ 
inechanical compression of the brain, a blow on a very sensible 

J tart of the body, the impression of a disgusting object^ bodily 
atigi^e, fainting, local irritation of the throat, all produce the 
fame effect with a dosr of ipecacuanha or tartar emetic ; yet it 
cannot be imagined that these causes all operate in the same 
manner ; and still less can we conclude that they all operate by 
stimulating the stomach* We may ^pply the same kind of ob« 
servations to some other of the classes of local stimulants* 
Tlie medicines that are arranged under the title of diuretics are 
said to be such as stimulate the kidneys, and thus produce an in- 
crease in the flow of urine : but, on referring to the list of sub*- 
ftances which are said to possess that power in the most emi^ 
nent degree, we cannot for a moment imagine that their effectp 
on the system depend on the same kind of action. If we admit 
that the saline diuretics stimulate the kidneys, can we suppose 
that squills or digitalis operate in this way ? Does vomitings or 
ilo those omental affections which are known to pcodMCc a diu- 
iretic effect, increase the action of the kidneys ? 

Wc have already extended our remarks on the classification 

of Hbt Materia Medica to such a length, that we must pass over 

the remainder of the work with more brevity. The account given 

of the individual articles of the Materia Medica is, we btlieve', in 

^general correct, though perhaps not alwayis sufficiently minut^« 

though the arrangement is, in many respects* so objectionable^ 

jet, in stating the medical virtues of the different substances, Mc 

.j^Iurxay has discarded much of his ;tttachment to theory, an4 

(lias exercised a considerable share of candor and judgment* We 

«liave before noticed one instance of this kind with respect totbe 

-digitalis, and others of a similar nature might bd pointed out. 

In order to enable our readers to form their own opbiion on the 

^mjurits of this part of the publication, we shall quote the articlea 

JDI caipphor and hemlock; which, we think» may be f QQlidered 

as fair specimens of the execution of the whole ; 

.•»f Camphor A* .Camphor* X^urus Campbora^ Lin. Ck Bnntandria* 
.^ 0^4^ Monogytdq, Nat* Ord, Oleraec0. Habitat Jaf^an^ Indies 

, < Cilpaphor is a proximate principle of vegptables» contained: in many 
. plant », cspepally those pf the aromatic kind- For the 'purposes of 
i:ommcrce, it is obtaioed from a species of laurpl, the Xautiis Cam* 
phpra, a native pf J^pan. |t e3(is;s io distiact grains in, ^e ^oodof 
the roots and branches of this tree. It is extracted by sublimation ; 
jn Europe, it is purified by a second sublimatiooi with th,e ^dditiox^ &f 
' ^pp.twpntieth of its weight of limc^ **■' 

^ ?«re 



Murray'/ Elements o/Maiina MiJiea. 57^ 

* Pure camphor is colourlets, seTni-transparenty tenactoas, and tome* 
what unctuous to die touch ; its smell is strong and fragrant ( its taste 
pungent and bitter. It is volatile at every natural temperature ; m 
fusible in a heat inferior to 212^ $ is inflammable; scarcely soluble ta 
water, but entirely soluble in alkoho), ether» and oils, essential or ex- 
pressed. It consists of carbon and hydrogen, and differs from the 
essential oils, in containing a larger proportion of carbon, with some 
oxygen. By combustion^ it affords carbonic and camphoric acids. 

* In a moderate dose, camphor produces effects similar to those of 
Other narcotics. Its stimulant operation, however, is not considera- 
abJe« even in a small dose ; and in a large dose it always diminishes 
the ibrcc of the circulation ; induces sleept and sometimes causes de» 
JUuiDt vertigo and convulsions, ending in tbtal insensibility. 

* At a stimulant, camphor has been used in typhus, cynanchc a«> 
lipw, confluent small-poa, and other febn'le affections accompanied 
with debility, in retroccdent gout, and to check the progress of gaa** 
grene. At a sedative, it is used in affectioas of .an ouposite nature, aa 
IB pneumonia, rheumatism, and gooonrhcea, combined with nitre or 
ODtimoniala, or by itself, where evacuations have been made. Iir nuinii^ 
it has sometimes succeeded as an anodyne s as an antispasmodic, it iiaa 
been employed with advantage in asthma, chorea, and epilepsy« 

* The dose of camphor is from 5 to 20 grains. It cannot be given 
with safety in a larger dose than half a drachm ; and Dr. Collen hal 
likewise remarked, that in too small a dose, as that of a few grainy 
it has ^iCTf little effect. In divided doses it may be given to the ex- 
tent of a drachm or more in the day. Its power of checking the- 
progress of gangreue is promoted by combination with musk, or oar- 

"bonate of aihmonia : combined with opium, it forms a powerful ^lia- 
phoretic ; and its efficacy in inflammatory diseases is augmented Vf 
latimonials. 

' Camphor ought generally to be given in a state of mixtwne ta 
some fluid form, as being then less apt to excite nausea* It may be 
diffused in water by tntu ration with sugar, mucilage, or almonds. 
To reduce it previously to powder, a few drops of alkohol must be 
added* Magnesia, by being triturated with it, l)as the effect of 4k 
viding and rendering it smooth, and may be used for its suspeasifla | m 
linmber of the gum-resins also act on it in such a manner, that, mm 
their mixture, a soft uniform mass is formed, and this affords aootlMr 
mode of diffusing it in water. 

* Externally applied, camphor is used as an anodyne in rheumatism 
and muscular pains, and as a discutient in bruises and inflammatory 
affections ; it is dissolved iu alkohol or expressed oil, and applied by 
friction to the part. Added to collyna, or mixed with lard, it is of 
aervice in ophthalmia. Suspended in oil, it ia used as an injection in 
ardor uriose, and as an enema to telieve the uneasy sensations occa- 
sioned by ascarides. The combination of it with opium is useful as a 
k>cal application in toothach. 

* Officinal Pre? akatiohs«— Acid : Acetos : Camph. Emuls t 
Camph. 01 : Camph. Tiiict : Camph. £^.— Mist : Camph. Lin ; 
(^amoh : Comp. Tinct } Opii Camph, Xcim^'— 

^ ComoM 



j8 Murray V EUmtnis tf Mcderta Medicd^ 

* Con I u m m acu l atu m. Cicuta* Hemlock. Pentaud. Digyn. Umhf' 
lata. Folia, Semen. Indigenous • 

*• The stalk of hemlock is laige And spotted ; the leaves are ofii 
^ark green colour, have a faint disagreeable smell, and a nauseoCM 
herbaceous taste. The seeds are inferior in strength. 

' Hemlock is a very powerful narcotic. In a very moderate dose ft 
is apt to occasion sickness and vertigo ; in a larger quantity it inducer 
anxiety^ dilatation of the pupils, delirium, stupor, and convulsions. 

* The free internal use of this plant was introduced by Storck. Ht 
recommended it particularly in scirrhous and in cancerous sovcs; in 
which it recefved a very extensive trial. While its inefficdcy towsrdft 
effecting a radical cure is established, its utility as a palliative is ad<*> 
nitted. Itbas likewise been found serviceable in scrofulous and venefc^ 
ulceratioM, glandular tumors, chronic rfaeumatiim, and seveialotber 
diseases. Tht dose is two or three grains of the powdered leavca, ^ne 
or two grains of the inspissated juice. It requires to*be increased, \% 
general, to a very considerable extent : at the- same time this miut 
be done with caution, as both the dried leaves and inspissated juice ave 
narinble in their strength. The dried .kaves are less liable to injuff|r 
from keeping than the inspissated juice. The drying should be per»- 
formed quickly before a fire, and the powder should be kept in p&iais 
closely stopped and secluded from the light. The proof of the dryiiq^ 
iiaving been properly per&rmed, is the powder retaining the odour 
«f the leaves and the deepness and freshness of their colour. 

« OJu. /'r^— Sttce : spiss : Cooii A^acul. £d^^ 

The basis of the third part of Mr. Murray's work, comprised 
II) the second volume, is a translation of the last edition of the 
Pharmacopeia of the Edinburgh college : but the preparationc 
4)f the Loudon Pharmacopsiai which are not employed by the 
Edinburgh college, as well as those in which there is any import* 
ant alteration in the preparation or composition, are inserted in 
their proper places. To most of the articles, are added utefiai 
and judicious remarks on the nature of the composition, »imI 
the particular purposes for which they are employed ; and the 
"iranslation, as far as we have examined it, appears to be accii- 
jrate« The author has in course adopted the new nomenclature 
|>veii<;ribed by the college : — this it is not our present busine^ 
to criticize in detail ; and it was certainly incumbent on Mn 
Murray to use the terms sanctioned by the highest medical au- 
thority of his country. We cannot, however, forbear remark* 
tng that the alterations appeal^ to us, for the greatest part, un* 
fitcessary ; and that many of the new terms are extremely aub^- 
ward and inconvenient, from their compounded structure, aad 
the number of superfluous words introduced. We regard it as 
nearly impossible that they should be adopted by the older 
practitioners, or by those in the lower branches of the profea- 
6ion ; and hence that confusion, so much to be deprecated' in 
fharmaccutical lan^juage^ must iaevitablj enettc. After all th'e 

sacrifice! 



LloydV Christian TbeoUgj. 59 

tacrifices tbat have been made to scientific nomenclaturei we 
have Doticedy aoiong the chemical terms only, a considerable 
number of positive errors ; besides the introduction of several 
titlea which vest on the authority of doubtful and unconfirmed 
cxperiiBent8» and whichi therefore, it will be necessary agaia 
to alter in a subsequent edition. 

An Appendix, in two parts, is subjoined; the first contaioing 
a short and superficial view of the medical history of the gasesy 
electricity, and galvanism. The second relates to medical pre- 
scriptions \ and the chief value of it consists in tables of the oM 
names of the pharmaceutical preparations, arranged in corre- 
aponding columns with those which were adopted in the ladt 
editions of the London and Edinburgh Pharmacopeias* 



Aar. XIV. €Msiim Theology / or an Inquiry into the Nature 

and general Character of Revelation. By the Rev- Richard 

JLloyd, A.M , Minister of Midhurst, Sussex. 8vo. pp. 382* 

8s. Boards. Hatchard. 1804, 

• • 

ItVENDiMG his treatise chiefly for the. use of the younger 
^ Ckrgy of the Church of EngUnd, and for those Students 
of both Universities who are designed for holy ordersi Mr* 
Uoyd haa formed it on the basis and in support of the tenets 
•f cbe national faith ; and those who espouse different senti- 
ments ar6 thus apprised of the nature and tendency of his view 
of Christian Theology. With learning and talents adequate 
to the undertaking, he combines a conduct both manly and ex- 
plicit, and does not indulge in arrogance and spiritual dog** 
matism. in his preface, he openly disavows all intention of 
giving unnecessary offence by contending, in a pertinaciouf 
manner, for points of a circumstantial nature ^ while he 
delivers himself with that independence of mind which is be- 
coming a Christian Minister, he disclaims the vanity of sup- 
posing that his own opinions, however strenuously he may 
contend for them, ate unmixed with error ; and he owns the 
possibility of being utider the secret influence of prejudice in a 
degree unknown to himself. Such a writer, as Mr. Lloyd 
thus professes himself, must be in a state of mind propiti- 
ous to free inquiry ; and he must be disposed to prefer the 
exercise of honest criticism, which will lead him to review his 
arguments and positions, rather than servile acquiescence and 
general commetidation, ' 

This Inquiry, which is divided into five chapters, treats of 
the Nature, Design, and Importance of Revelation ; — of the 
Unity 6f divine ttuth, as displayed in the Jewish and Christian 
Dispensations i — of the sentiments and dispositions which the 

Chriitiaa Religion ought to produce^ more especially in ita 

ministers » 



'So LloydV Christian Theology. 

ministers \ and of the means most condume to this importailt 
end ; — of that Do<^trine which has a commanding Influence on 
the Christian System ; a^nd of the best method of enforcing 
this and other articles of our Holy religion ;— of the Nature 
and Attributes of God ; the Relation and Dependence of his 
CreatureS} and of the duties resulting from this relation 
and dependence ; of Adam's state before and after the Fall^ 
and the provision made for his Restoration to the Image of his 
Maker ; of the Nature of this Restoration^ with some obaer- 
Tacions connected with it. 

We apprehend that the arrangement of subjects would have 
been improved, had the order been inverted ; and that the 
discussion on the Being and Attributes of God^ instead of oc- 
curring in the last chapter, should have formed a part of, or 
rather have been an introduction to, the first : but Mr. Lloyd^ 
under die impression of that alarm which Kaa been excited 
against Philosophy, and adopting the maxims of some modern 
divines, is unwilling to allow any value to Natural Religion. 
He informs us, in the first note to the first chapter, that 

< The question is not an abstraci question what men mght and owghi to 
know about God and his perfections, upon mere principles of Reason 
improved by consideration and experience,^ nmtkotu thi Anj> •fRe^ddh' 
tion; but a question of ybr/«~What discovencs of this sort did Bses 
actually make ? The law of nature is not to be confounded with the 
imperfect light of nature, as now enjoyed. I firmly believe that &1* 
len man, left to himself, would not bie able to make any discoveries 
relative to the being of a God, the Hnmortality of the soul, or any of 
those first principles of what is called Natural Religion. In the fullest 
tense of the word, he would have *^ lived without God in the world/' 
Whatever, therefore, is found among heathens of these principles, it 
to be attributed to early RttyelaHoru and traSiumal ligk** 

The most enlightened divines of the last age, with Dr. Clarka 
at their head, and the most judicious of the present, with Dn 
Paley as their leader, contended for the reverse of what is Mr* 
Lloyd's firm belief, asserted the existence of Natural Theo- 
logy or Natural Religion, independently of Revelation, and 
explained their connection \ and we may observe that their 
view of the subject exactly comports with the testimony of 
revelation itself. The Apostle Paul represents the Being and 
Attributes of God to be so deducible from the things that are 
seen^ or the visible Creation, that those who did not acknowlege 
the Deity were left without excuse. It will be easier for Mr. 
Lloyd to reconcile his positions in the above note with some of 
the very strong assertions of Bishop Horsley, than with the 
doctrine of the author of the Epistle to the Romans (ch. i. sio.) 
Before our divines manifest so strange a reluctance to do ju8« 
tiee to liatural Religion^ we wish t&m to reflect that Rever 

latioa 



LlyodV Christian Tbeobgy* $t 

Mon in eviery part presupposes the ezistetice of natural reason 
and conscience ; and tdat, if the human mind had not the 
power of deducing the first principles of Natural Religion, the 
appeals of Rerelation to Man could be of no avail. It was for- 
merly a received maxim, Philosophia theokgut ancillatur : and 
we should hope that we are now sufficiently recovered from 
oar panic, to believe that by ^ looking through nature up to 
Nature's God/' we are neither unfitted for :)doring ** the Fa« 
ther of Mercies,'' nor for contemplating with gratitude the 
discoveries of Revelation. 

Dr. Horsley miantainsy and Mr. Lloyd adopts the position 
that *< Revealed Religion stands not on the ground of any an^ 
Ucedent discaveries of natural reason :— -that we must resort to 
Revelation for out Jlrst principles;— and that to lay the founds- 
tion of Revelation on any previous discoveries of reason is^ in 
fact, to make reason the superior teacher." Each of these 
positions, however, we shall presume to controvert. The Bishop 
will not venture to deny the doctrine of the Psalmist that tb$ 
Heavens declare tie glory of God ; and if natural reason perceives 
the divine glory in the visible heavens, here is an antecedent 
Ascovery of natural reason, on which Revelation stands. 
Again, if we must resort to Revelation for t^trj first principle^ 
then the Being of God cannot be deduced from his works^ 
which 18 contrary to the express declaration of the apostle. Be- 
nde8,does not natural conscience, or a principle of moral discem«i 
ment, exist in man independently of supernatural communica- 
tion ; and does notRevelation itscU presuppose, in all her addresses^ 
the existence of this moral principle? How fruitless must its ex« 
hortations prove, were the fact otherwise I If we had no abilit j 
to search the hook of Nature, and no sense to discern between good 
and eviif it would be in vain to require us to Search the Scr^ 
tures, and to call us to Repentance. — In making these remarks^ 
we have no intention of disparaging divine revelation, of the 
infinite value of which we hope that we are as truly sensible as 
Bishop Horsley himself : but we offer them for the purpose of 
calling back our modern clergy to the practice of their most 
learned ancestors, the practice of considering Natural and Re* 
vealed Religion as inseparably connected together, as flowing 
from the same God, and addressed to the same creature. Lastly, 
the precedence of the iotimations, or (if the Bishop pleases,) 
the discoveries of reason, does not constitute reason the superior 
teacher i for if priority established superiority, the dispensation 
of Moses must be superior to that of Christ,-«-which neither the 
Bishop nor we shall admit. 

In describing the Talue and genius of the Gospel, Mr. Lloyd 
shews that, though the last gift of God, it is far superior to all 

former 



6% lioydV Christian fH/e^gfl 

former dif pensations ; and if some expresnons^ proceeding 
from that misconception which we have been controverting^ 
were omitted* the general account would be satisfactorj and 
correct : 

< The Gospel in short is the sovereign good of fallen maoy a renied]f 
commeosurate with all his disorders. Its grand end is, through re* 
pentance, and faith in the Lord Jesus Christy to enthrone the Deity 
in our hearts, and to produce that supreme love of him which is the 
vety essence of holiness, the perfection of our nature, and the hap« 
pin ess and glory of Heaven. 

* It sppears, therefore, that the Christian religion is not to be pa* 
i^Uellcd and compared with any other. It stands alone. It is cxclu* 
sheiy true. It is the only faithful transcript of the divine will, —the 
Magna Chart a of Heaven. When it is said to be only compara- 
tively or transcendently excellent, by such language its divinity is in- 
sulted, its nnajcsty degraded, and its weight and importance in a great 
measure destroyed. For if the religion of the Bible be not true, no 
religion is so, for no other can advance any pretensions that will 
stand a sober scrutiny : but this has such a body of evidence, both in 
kind and degree in proof of its truth -such bright and heavenly sig*^ 
tiaturcs impressed upon it — as must ever satisfy every honest and im- 
partial inquirer with its authenticity. 

• Hence the duty of propagating Christianity by right and paafic 
means through all the kingdoms of the world. It is a duty foondctl 
ppon its divine authority,— on authority paramount to all human in- 
stitutions. Its genius is not to disturb the order of civil society, for 
It inculcates submission to the *' powers that be" for CMtcience sakeu 
it mixes with every ipecles of government, and by its salutary influence 
improves and exalts them all j giving the promise of the life that oovT 
is as well as that which is to come." 

The paramount importance of RcvelatiQ« is thus forciblf 
atated : 

^ If this be the character of Revelation ; if it convey to us a mes- 
sage from God himself, oii which the everlasting interests of the soul 
are dependent i if it be given us as the only standard of truth and error» 
the only rale by which we must regulate our fisith and practice ; what 
must be the guilt of those who either despise or neglect this sacred vo- 
lume ? Of what importance will it be to such that they could '^ speak 
with the tongues of men and of angels," and ^'understandall languages,'' 
when languages shall cease, and the nations themselves which spake 
them shall sink into silence and oblivion ? Of what avail to have known 
this little* globe, and the kingdoms described upon it ; or to have tra- 
versed the blue expanse of Heaven, calculated the revolutions of the 
planets, and ascertained their respective distances, when the earth 
shall be burnt up, the heavens shall pass away, the elements shall melt, 
and the world itself be dissolved ? Such knowledge has its value and 
its place, it is useful, it is ornamental ; but it will not purify the heartt 
tranquillize the tumults of the mind, speak peace to the guilty con- 
4 science, of inspire a ''hope full of immortality and glory." The Bible is 

give* 



Lloyd'/ Christian Theologfm 6} 

ivfeii for tliese important ends ; and, under the inffitenee oftlie spirit^ 
Its oatife tendency to produce them is realized in the heart and l£l« 
of man. Whosoever, therefore, neelects the word of God, it wold 
have been better for him that he had h'ved all his days in the wilds of 
t forest, and heard only the howling winds, instead of the ^oice of 
mercy, and the gracious sounds of salvation. For mercy despised, 
light resisted, privileges abusedyopcn the way, according to the strict 
rules of distributive justice, for the most severe and treroendoas pa<- 
vishment. '* This is the condemnation, that light is come into the 
worid, but men have loved darkness ratlter than itght, because their 
deeds were eviL" 

In the Chapter on the Unity of Divine revealed truth, Mr. 
Lloyd exhorts the student to generalize his ideas $ and to regaid 
Revelation as a complete system, displaying throughout an 
unity of design, and evincing that mutual relation, dependence, 
and coherence of parts, by which the Bible becomes its own in- 
terpreter. if we do not agree with him in his subsequent ex* 
planationty we allow that his rules for studying revelation are 
jodicioas. It is not from detached passages, bat from the general 
scope of the sacred writings, that we are to collect their meaning. 
Had he followed his own advice, would he have stated Adam 
to be * the federal head* of the human race f 

According to Mr. Lloyd, the nature of Christianity was not 
particularly ^n^ fully revealed, till after the death and resurrect 
tioa of Christ ; and he apprehends that our Lord's character i« 
Bot degraded, nor that of his aposties exalted above him, when 
ke affirms'that his ministry was more zpreparatiotriox the Gospel, 
Aan an ^nflicit declaration of it,* which we must seek ia the 
Acts and Epistles, as being * the most dear and 4tecisive part« 
of the sacred writings on doctrinal subjects.* 

Wc have been taught to regard the dispensation of John the 
Baptist as preparative to that of the Son of God : but we are 
obliged to Mr« L. for the discovery that the public ministry and 
preaching of Christ himself was also a preparation for the 
Gospel. Hence, in the four evangelists, we have oo4y the 
twiUgbt of Christianity ; and we are not to look for the rising 
sua and meridian bearo^ till we come to the Acts and Epistles: 
though, towards the conclusion of the Gospels, we are expresslf 
informed that they were " written that we might believe ia 
Christy and that believing we might have hope through fait 
tamt ;** which could scarcely be said of a merely introductory 
document. In making scripture the interpreter of scripturct 
are we to explain the figures aad allegories by the plain doc* 
trine ; or endeavour to swell and dress out the plain doctrine ia 
aU the fantastic decorations which a bold comment^iry on figu- 
ntive aad aUcgorigal language mght furnish ? Surely the^ob* 
^ 14 vious 



64 LloydV Christian 

iFious mode of proceeding, in giving a delineation of Christian 
Theology, is to adopt no dogma for truth which does not 
plainly comport with the declarations made in the Gospels* 
Vie. are induced to believe that learned divines have fallen into 
egregious errors, by bringing into the most prominent ligbt^ as 
the very basis of revealed truth, St. Paul's illustratitms of his 
aubject \ which may be called the drapery of his argununt^ and 
are such as his Jewish education afforded him. These are no 
more to be construed pritnd facie^ as doctrines^ than metaphors 
and parables are to be taken in a literal sense* So far from 
setting the Epistles above the Gospels, we should rather esteem 
the discourses of Christ himself to be the record by which the 
meaning of the Apostle was to be ascertained : for it is not to 
be forgotten that St. Paul was tinctured with the theology of 
the school of Gamaliel ; and his epistles ought to be perused 
under this recollection. 

Though Mr. Lloyd assigns such a preference to the Epistles 
in a doctrinal view> he does not encourage visionary exposi* 
tions» but reprobates those who would give the reins to their 
imagination in discussing siicred subjects \ and he treats with 
becoming contempt some of the wild glosses of the Fathett^ 
vbich more resemble the dreams of old women than the dc« 
dttctions of sensible men : 

^ 1 here are some who seeni to affix no boundaries to their wild ima- 
ginations. Every minute circumtitance in the Jewish ritual overflows 
with evangtlical instruction, and is the foundation of some most impQr<« 
tant doctrine. The plain history is turned into allegory ; the very geo* 
graphy of the Old Testament teems with spiritual allusions ; the com* 
aaen sayings and actions of the Patiiarchs are refined into mysteries ; 
and to the general expressions of Scripture, they annex a deep and re- 
iOttdiu meaning : and this occult and mysterious sense is often not only 
different from, but even opposite to, the obvious and literal sense 
of the words. Thus the Christian religion is too often butlesqued* 
Instead of being clothed with venerable simplicity, and speaktnr the 
^ words of truth and of soberness' ', it is mutilated and deformed, and 
called in only to sanction the reveries of a sickly and distempered 
imaginaiiun. It is no longer a sure and certain light lo guide the 
benighted traveller through the dark mazes of human life, but an 
^h fatutUf an airy phantom, floating at the mercy of the windsy 
without any detetminate end or direction/ 

These just and manly observations shew what an able and 
liberal advocate for the rational interpretation of scripture thia 
author can become, when he ceases to be influenced by syatcno^ 
and prescribed opinion. 

The third chapter is of a more practical nature, and points oat^ 
•specially to individuals of the ministryi the proper dispositiooii 

and 



PolwhcleV History ofComtvaJL 6g 

find Teligious demeanour of a true Christian. It contains many 
Valuable counsels and remarks ; and we recommend it earnestly 
to the attention of the younger divines* 

'Chapter 4. treats at large on the necessity of admitting the 
doctrines of the fall and atonement; and it is argued that, withj* 
out these, the Christian religion becomes only a system of 
ethics, — a mere re6nement on natural religion,— in short 
Christianity paganized. We may be allowed, at present, to 
refrain from inquiring how far this account is correct ; and we 
shall rather copy the author's exhortation to ministers of the 
Gospel, as salutary and important : 

• Under the influence of such a faith, let us deliver our divine mes- 
sage, unincumbered and free from the meretricious ornaments of a 
false rhetoric, and unsophisticated by the subtleties of metaphysics^ 
and the wild theories of a delusive philosophy. Let the Gospel, I 
repeat it, stand upon its own basis, be clothed with its own saec* 
tions, shine in its own native lustre, and be supported by arguments 
arising chiefly out of its own records, and consequently co-txistent 
with itself. Thus armed with the Christian panoply, and particularly 
with the '* sword of the Spirit which is the Word of Goil," we shall 
be able to speak with authority, to confound the adversaries of the 
faith, proving that this same Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified, is 
the very Christ, and is exalted en high to be a Prince add a Sa* 
viour.* 

This chapter terminates with some political reflection.s on 
oar present situation, and a compliment to the spirit and cou* 
rage of the British Lion in the hour of danger. 

The concluding section comprizes a variety of topics, both 
of a speculative and practical nature. Our limits will not al'* 
low us to enter into their respective merits * but we shall ob« 
serve that it contains many valuable observations -, and although^ 
in some parts, systematic in its theology, in others it incul- 
cates the practice and application of religious wisdom. 

Copious notes occur in every chapter, consisting chiefly of 
quotations from other divines, to corroborate the system of the 
author. 



•mm- 



AtT. XV. The History of Cornwall: CivVy Military , Religious ^ 
jtrcbkecluraly Commercial, Biographicaly and Miscellaneous, By the 
Rev. R. Polwhele, of Polwhele, and Vicar of Manaccan. 4to. 
Vols. L II. and III. about pp. 220 in each. 3!. 38. Boards. 
Cadeli and Davies. 

£ shall not detain the reader by an inquiry concerning 

the motive which has induced this respectable writer to 

enter on the history of Cornwall before he has finished that of 

[)evoDshire, long since undertaken^ and which it is still bis pur- , 

Ret. Sept. 1805. F pose 



W 



66 FoIwheleV Hutory of Cornwall, 

p68e to carry down to a regular conclusion *• Whatever tiitf 
reason might be^ it is clear thac these two counties were united 
under the name Danmottiumy and that their inhabitants con- 
sisted principally of a part of the antient Britons, driven thither 
by the Saxons : as others of them were, by the same means^ 
confined to Wales, and others emigrated to Ireland^ to the 
Scotch Highlands, and to Armorica, or Bretagne. The volumes 
now before us apply to the more early times and settlements of 
this people ; an^ they are divided into chapters, according with 
the distribution mentioned in the title-page. The first leads 
us * from Caesar to Vortigern/ It will readily be admitted 
that much obscurity and perplexity attend this as well as the 
yet more distant periods of our history. Mr. Polwhele, in 
considering < its civil and military transactions and constitu- 
tion,' advances objections, as he had before done, to that valu- 
able writer. Dr. borlase, and concludes (apparently, not with- 
out reason,} that * Vespasian was the conqueror of Cornwall.' 
We have little inclination and less leisure to prosecute, with 
exact attention, the antique inquiries to which the reader is here 
directed. The historian has one guide, Richard^ whom he re- 
gards as admirable in all these researches ; < though, (says he^J^ 
unfortunately my Cornish predecessor, Borlase, was little ac- 
quainted with him.* Mr. Whitaker is mentioned as the first 
who duly appreciated this work of a monk at Westminster, 
which was found in Denmark, and there printed in the year. 
1757. — It is, however, at last, only a very imperfect idea that 
we can attain of the state of things, whether military or civil, 
during these years of subjection to the Romans. * To have, 
ascertained,' says Mr. F. < the degree of power, still lodged in 
theDanmonian princes, and to have marked with precision the 
authority assumed by the Romans, would have been curious : 
but as we know not in what manner the government was con- 
ducted, by the natives and their conquerors in other parts of 
Britain, we cannot hope therefore to trace very satisfactorily in 
the obscurer regions of Danmonium, the features of this co- 
operative energy.' 

We proceed, then, to the article of religion ; which, in ^he 
portion of time here occurring, presents in all countries, civi- 
lized or not, a variety of practices and customs ; some of them 
most absurd, ignorant, and superstitious ;*»some pitiable, yet 
perhaps allowable \ — others most deceitful and pernicious ; — 
and a few, simple, plain, and in themselves innocent ; such as 
the Cornish celebration of the opening and advancing Spring, 

* The remaicder of Vol. I. has lately appeared, but we have not 
yet ^tn. it* 



1 



PoIwhcleV History of CornwdL 6f 

by tti€ offerings of flowers^ amid processions, soogs^and choral 
dances. The oblations and sacrifices of the Greeks and Ro*^ 
mans to the Goddess of Spring, remarks Mr. Polwhele, wert 
similar to those of the native Cornish. Indeed there is some, and 
often a great resemblance, in the observances, opinions, and fan* 
ries of different and even distant countries in a state of nature $ 
some, which are here delineated, are amusing, but they naturally 
awaken a recollection of similar descriptions in other parts of 
ODr globe. In the Furry^ or Flora^ or Pair of Helston, on the 
eighth of May, there seem to be remnants of heathen joy, or 
of what might then be termed devotion, on the return of the 
cheerful and enlivening spring, and the rerival of vegetation.---* 
The historian, having mentioned some traces of Druid ism, or 
Roman paganism, still visible in Cornish customs, proceeds to 
speak of Christianity \ a topic which, he justly says, ^ will ad-' 
mit of a very slight discussion, as its admission and prevalence 
in these parts for the first four centuries are so much involved 
in fable, that it would be difficult to distinguish truth from 
falsehood/ — Two observations occur to us on this subject* 
However early might be a partial reception of the Christian 
doctrine in this island, it was stationary for a length of years; 
it might be embraced by some persons of higher and of in- 
ferior ranks, but it made little progress ; and it appears to have 
been at a very low ebb, in various parts, and particularly in 
Danmonium. Moreover, places, times, and objects, which had 
been long held sacred during the darkness of heathenism, were 
still, under the profession of the gospel, appropriated to some 
kind of idohtrous veneration, substituting names and noHons 
more corresponding with our ecclesiastical history. Too often 
did this, among other fraudulent practices, obtain in the ill* 
judged measures employed, — and employed somerimes by well* 
meaning persons, — for the progress of a revelation con- 
fessedly divine. Proofs of the fact have been frequently 
produced ; and they are found in that part of this island 
which these volumes more immediately regard : one instance 
of which probably is, the fanciful custom^ Said to be still pre*' 
served in both these counties, about the season of Christmas^ 
and with a view to another year, of people saluting * the apple* 
trees, pouring libations of cyder, aiid drinking it themselves^ 
while they surround tKe trees in circles. 

Whatever entertainment the foregoing chapters may produce 
to general readers, some parts of that which follows, < on civil 
and religious architecture,' will not furnish a considerable por* 
tion. Inquiries after antient roads, camps, arid castles, whether 



■*«•.• 



• w Here's to thee, old apple tree," 5cc. 

F ^ Roman 



I 



6S Pol whclcV History of ComwalL 

Roman or otherwise, can afford little satisfaction to thoae'ii^^ 
are unacquainted with the spot, or are destitute of leisure and 
opportunity to examine other records or representations, or 
have no particular taste for these researches. It must^ how* 
everi be ackno^A»leged that Mr. Polwhele has exerted his best 
endeavours both in his own narration, and in supplying nume- 
rous quotations, remarks, &c. from other writers. We cannot 
doubt that he bad sufficient reason for saying, as he does, at the 
close of the chapter ; — < Thus have I in some degree executed 
^hat I proposed,* though not without much labour, or rather 
irksomeness, from the various minutise which soiiciled atten* 
tion, and which it was extremely difficult to bring together 
into one connected view. The wearisomeniss of the task was 
great, and the unsotiffactorhtess of having consumed more time 
in examining the vestiges of a castle, than would have been ne- 
cessary for the discussion of the most interesting topic, will 
hardly be repaid by the partial approbation of a few, whose 
minds are turned to this species of research ; whilst the pains^ 

' I have taken, and the value of what I have per formed,** are 
equally beyond the comprehension of many who read, atid 
judge, and, scrupling not to disseminate their ideas, are able to 
influence the public opinion/ We can readily allow that Mr. 
P.'s employment may have often proved very fatiguing i and we 
can perceive that he is hurt by censures which we apprehend 
to have been, in part at least, unmerited. 

The portion of this chapter, which adverts to < the religious 
architecture,' will probably afford more amusement than the 
former.«-Of t^^e churches built in this early time, it is not 
to be expected that any remnants can exist ; or, if such are 
supposed to be traced, they must be of a very dubious nature. 
Heathen temples, it may be concluded with probability, were 
gradually converted into places for christian worship; and 
some meaner structures were also no doubt erected by Britons 
themselves, or private houses were occasionally employed for the 
purpose : but we pass from these to sepulchral relics. Pagan 

. and Christian.— The barrcw^ the kisivaen, or Stone- chesty and 
the cromlech t the plain columnar stone or stones, and the inscribed^ 
all present themselves iu their order : but it is impossible for us 
to accompany the writer in his progress. When treating of 
iarrowsy he proposes a few remarks which, he thinks^ might 
contribute to elucidate that difficult passage of the second book 
of Kings, ch. V. 17. From the custom which is thought in 
some instances to have obtained, that neighbours and friends 
should bring from different parts quantities oC earth to form 
this sort of memorial for a person deceased, who had been 
respected, or was of eminent stationi he proceeds to inquire 

whether 



PoIwhdeV Hiiiory ofCornwdll, 

vbctlxer tlie issociates and dependants en a ^reat man might 
not sometimes present him wiih earth for his sepulchre, pre- 
fioosly to his decease; and whether priests or prophets might 
not deliver to him what might be regar*icd as consecrated earthy 
for the purpose. If any such practice had been left on record, 
or might it be admissible to reason on such a supposition, it 
would, he apprehends, contribute greatly to remove the ob- 
Kurity of the proposal made by the Syrian General, '< Shall 
there not, I pray thee, be given to ikty servant two mules burden 
9f earth T** — ^The words which immediately follow are supposed 
to add strength to the request^ — which to us they seem not to 
do. In the description of Launceston castle, we have a farther 
reference to the history of the Old Testament: — but we hasten 
to other general topics. 

Under the articles, ' agriculture, pasturage, &c.' we observe 
that the small nuittoii, fed on some^ distinguished spots, is ex* 
tolled as peculiarly grateful; and its unusual flavour is by 
many persons attributed ' to snails coming forth from the sands, 
and spreading themselves over the verdure in the morning 
dews .' but this supposition the author can hardly allow him- 
self to admit ; sometimes, he remarks, the superiority of mutton 
is attributed to wild thyme, < but sheep refuse thyme, yet they 
eat soails.' That our early British ancestors were accustomed 
to feed their cattle with turnips through the winter, Mr. PoU 
whele declines not to asset t on the authoiity of the accurate 
Columella. He concludes that the Cornish people had flocks 
and herds, corn and orchards, before the Romans visited their 
•bores \ though that nation, wherever they came, attended so 
much to cultivation, that their visits were followed by re- 
markable amelioration and improvement. On the credit of 
Pliny, we are led to suppose that we are indebted to the Ro« 
mans for timy thyme, rosmari, rosemary, paBiy poppy, and pe8% 
beans, lettuce, bete, radish, and fennel. — Asparagus is reported 
also to have been introduced by them, <but this,' says Mr. P. 
* is by no means so certain as that it grows wild at . the 
Uzard/ 

Minitig is a subject which, in Cornwall, at all periods, must 
have aflforded matter for speculation and remarks,. to which we 
have not room to attend ; nor can we inquire concerning ma- 
nufactures, which, if not wholly introduced, must have been 
greatly and principally improve^! by the Romans* By what 
means Caractacus could have attained the numerous gold chamS) 
said to be taken from him, ir is difficult to pronounce ; the 
present historian con^ders them as aflPording qertain proot that 
the art of working gold and silver existed in Danmonxum in- 
dependent of Rome.— -Concerning commerce^ we doubt whe* 

F 3 thtr 



7« " l^olwhcIcV Hhtory o/Cor/ifvatl. 

ther Pearls made a part of it, although Caesar seems to speak 
of their being found on our coast ; if they were here discorered^ 
txre should apprehend with this writer that they were pearls 6f 
s^o great price.— > As to literature and learned men» in this pe- 
riod, and in, this spot, little indeed can be expected. Some few 
persons of piety and real worth were employed in disseminating 
christian knowlege : but otherwrise, of true learning and pro- 
fitable science, there is scarcely any appearance. The holf- 
lying legends', and famous miracles, which afterward infested 
this corner of our isle, might fill many pages. 

Of che manners and usages of the Danmonii, Diodorus has 
given an outline, which Mr. Polwhele says he has endeavoured 
to fill up in his history of Devonshire : little, therefore, is here 
offered on the subject. Hospitality seems to have been their 
distinguishing virtue ; and we find it reported as a prevailing 
opinion, ' that the whole nation had better perish, than one 
person violate the laws of hospitality.' 

In concluding this part of the history, some observations arc 
made, which appear sufficient to confute the notion, too con- 
fidently suggested by Dr. Musgrave of Exeter, « that the Ro- 
mans never passed the Tamar.' — Dr. Gibson, bishop of London^ 
advanced this position, apparently without due elimination, in 
his edition of Camden's Britannia. Mr. Tonkin*s sensible let- 
ter, here published, overturns the supposition, and the bishop's 
reply clearly abandons it) casting the whole blame on Dr. Mus- 
grave, by whom he was misled. 

We now come to Vol. II. or, as it is here styled, the second 
book of the history of Cornwall ; from Vortigcrn to Edward L 
It is well known that a perplexing intricacy involves .the affairs 
of the Western provinces during the Heptarchy, Ambrosius 
amd Uter Pendragon are prominent names in their annals ; 
but the « Hero of the West* seems to have been the enterprising 
Arthur, said to have been born at Tintagel castle, amid < the 
wildness of a scene that seems the work of a magician/ Mn 
Polwhele has not failed to present us with a curious legend^ 
* such as will, doubtless, amuse the common reader -,'— and 
perhap^, some others,since here and there a part of the narrations 
may be true. It was not till the reign of Athelstan, son of 
Alfred, that the Cornish were reduced to a kind of subjection, 
I'he British spirit was not easily subdued \ as maybe perceived 
by the first and second chapters, treating, as in the former vop 
lume, * of civil and military transactions,' and also * of the civil 
und military constitution.' Under each of these heads, the reader 
may find accounts worthy of remark, and sometimes both amusing 
^nd instructive j though in other respects, and to many readerS| 
dry and ttuintere^ting. In the former rolume^ as he proceeded, 

n Mr, 



Pol whclcV History of ComvfoB. ft 

Mr. Polwhele occasionally furnished as with a sort of glossary, 
which must ever be acceptable to those who read with atteti* 
don ; while at the same time this collection of antient words 
and names tended to throw some light on the state of things 
among the early inhabitants of the country. In the present, 
we meet with, < Names of parishes, chiefly so called from local 
circumstances i* and < P/acei, many of which give name to Corniib 
families .•' among these, * Polwhele^ the pool-work, and Trelavmy^ 
the wool-town by the water;' — to which are added a number 
of genealogical tables, employing more than twenty pages % 
and all will prove amusing to chose whose minds have a 
biass towards etymologies, lineal descents, and such inquiries, 
which are occasionally of some use, and occasionally very de- 
ceitful. We insert a part of some observations on the manor 
of Elerky in the hundred of Pider, a name that signifies four in 
the Cornish language, or rather, perhaps, Poud^r^ the country 
of oaks, or Poudre^ meaning the house of the Province, or thi 
court-house. Concerning this Elerhy^ it is asked, * whence is 
the name derived ?' Mr. Tonkin, it is replied, derives it from 
Elerky a swan, and makes Elerky to signify the swannery; 
adding that * there are. the remains of a large pool under the 
house, which seems to have been designed to that end!' 

* In all that part of antiquarian researches, (proceeds the author,) 
where the eye is to be assisted by the imagination, and the past to be 
collected' from broken appearances of the present; every active and 
liTely mind is apt to cry out against the creative fancies of the atui' 
fuarhtn poet^ and exclaiok in the language of Shakespeare : 

— " As imagination bodies forth 

The form of things unseen, the poet's pen 
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing 
A local habitatioa and a name." 

* But this sptric of exclamation should be checked ; what depends 
in any degree on imagination, may by minds without imagination be 
easily turned into ridicule. What is only to be inferred by the slow 
and painful collation of circumstances «vill be ridiculed at once by 
those who are too brisk to be slow, and too lively to take pains : and 
the very ingeniqusness of antiquarians themselves will at times be a snare 
to them al»o ; by inducing them to cut short the labour of investiga- 
tion, to n'dicule the dull laboriousness of conjecturing industry, and 
to leap over the difficulty which it will not take the trouble to re- 
move. On the whole, therefore, I think Mr. Tonkin's etymology 
of Elerky to be the only one which is easy and natural, and his re- 
ference lo ' the remains of a large pool under the house' to he sufS* 
ciently grounded. There has evidently been something of the kind 
there.' 

The natives who are here mentioned as men of property, or 
loem to have held lands in Cornwall before that tinae^ have 

F 4 been 



■ 



7^ PoIwhclcV History of CornnvalL 

been distinguished under the appellations of Tre (a to^»o), Pol 
(ahead), P^/i (a top) ; and numerous are the names which 
begin, at least, with the first two of these syllables.— 1 he Evirls 
or Princes of Cornwall have formerly resided in that county 
lyith great state, resembling that of the court of Wales; one 
little anecdote concerning which is thus related :— * It is re- 
markable that in Wales, the Penhebogyddy or master of the 
hawks, was the fourth officer in rank and dignity, and sat in 
the fourth place from his sovereign at the royal table ; that he 
was permitted to drink no more than three times, lest, throujjh 
intoxication, he {should neglect his birds } and that when he was 
more than usually successful in his sports, the prince was 
obliged by law and custom, to rise up to receive him as he 
entered the hall, and sometimes to hold his' stirrup, as he 
alighted from his horse.* — We observe not any particular au- 
thority cited for this odd but not unlikely custom. 

The third chapter consists of ecclesiastical history. The 
progress of Christianity was slow ; Theodoric, duke or prince 
of Cornwall, persecuted its professors ; and the Saxons, a na- 
tion of soldiers, were very much indifferent if not adverse to 
It. Arthur is brought forwards as the greatest champion, at 
the beginning of the sixth century, in the Christian cause : but 
its prevalence in Cornwall is attributed chiefly to those who 
are called the saints from Ireland. Of its kind and nature, wc 
have a specimen in a curious epistle of Adhelm, the first bishop 
of Sherborne, relating to the sacerdotal tonsure : 

' It is addressed, *' to my glorious lord Gemntiujf king of the wes- 
tern kingdom, v.hom I, as God the searcher of hearts is my witness, 
do embrace with brotherly charity, and likewise to all God's priests 
inhabiting Danmonium.'* ThcLornish, it seems, shaved only from 
car to ear, while the v^axons, according to the usage of the Romish 
church, shaved all but the hinder part of the head. Such was the 
subject of our good bishop's epistle ; containing, probably, neglected 
blessings and despised remonstrances. The British Geruntius would 
rather have giveu up his country to be deluged by the blood of his 
subjects, tliau have altered his mode of shaving at the instance of 4 
Saxon bishop ! So bigotted and so blind is superstition !' 

Such was the religion of the times ; and we arc pleased to 
Ree the present author marking it with his hearty censure, 
Christianity was then very imperfectly understood ; and though 
many might love the truth, and possess real piety, they were 
Jgnoraiit, unsuspecting, and mi.-led by the artificial and aspi- 
ring,— who tlicn, as at all times, lay in wait to deceive others 
and to exalt themselves. We transcribe a few lines with which 
this chapter conclude9 ; 

« This 



PolwhclcV History (fCcrnivalL 7j 

' Tbit then is an outline of our church hiscory : it is a faithful, but 
a feeble outlin^. In the review of the times before us, we are sur- 
prized at a devotion (if such it might be calltd) the most fcrvrnt,— • 
an enthusiasm almost insuperable by any obstacle in nature : and we 
wonder more when we see them united with unrelenting barbarity 
aad the grossest impurities. Yet to the spirit o^ religiousness must we 
attribute the rapid organization of our ecclesiastical establishment. 
The zeal of our forefathers, i»deed, w s at one time blazing out, like 
a meteor, in romantic adventure ; and, perhaps, like a meteor disap- 
pearing, without one salutary end ; yet was the s^me zeal at other 
tunes exerted, for the good of many a fnture ap;e, in the founding of 
cathedrals and churches, of colleges and hospitals.' 

. Chapter iv. which finishes this 2d volurne, relates to * civil, 
military, and rclij^ious architecture.' Htre the attention of 
the historian is considc^rably occupied by the remains of antient 
castles; and religious structures employ many remaining pages, 
accompanied also by an account of towns, or villages, to which 
they are attached. It seems rather unfortunate for our anti- 
quaries that they have fixed on the term, Gothic^ to denominate 
some antient buildings, since Goths and Vandais knew as little 
of architecture as they did of religion. The knowlege vifhich 
they might obtain, or the improvement which they might 
n^ake, in this or other branches of civilized and polished life* 
after being for many years settled in Spain or other parts, 
where they beheld edifices constructed on the rules of Gre- 
cian or Roman art, is a different point of inquiry ; as is also 
the adTancement of their successors, the Moors and Moham- 
medans. It is, we suppose, in respect to these especially, that 
Mr. Polwhcle employs the, term Saracenic^ when he informs 
us that * In the reign of Henry the Third, the Saracenic or 
Gothic architecture seems to have been established in this 
county; whilst the circular j^ave way to the pointed arch, and the 
missive column yielded to the slender pillar.' As Mr. Folwhele 
observes, * in the course of the present research, we have seen 
matters of a doubtful aspect : — hereafter, we shall seldom take 
refuge in conjecture ; but shall point out with little hesitation, 
the mansion-house, the church, or the town, just rising into 
existence, attend its progiess towards perfection, or trace its 
lapse into decay.* 

Vol. III. completes the second book of this history, and pre- 
Knts the. reader with the remaining chapters relative to the 
period from Vortigern to Edward I. The subjects are agri^ 
culture, gardening, mining, manufactures, commerce, language, 
literature, population, health, manners, diversions, superstitions, 
&c. A perusal of these pages may afford entertainment and 
instruction : but they arc chiefly formed by extracts ; and in 
general we incline to think that the autboi is cartful and exact in 

bit 



74 PolwhelcV History of Cornwall. 

his authorities. — Wc shall specify from this part of the work 
merely two passages, which may perhaps be acceptable to the 
readers of this article. The first relates to the early rate of rents 
for farms, hidesy or plough-lands, an admeasurement ac the present 
time by n^means exactly ascertained : but we find instructions in 
the laws of Ina^ West-Saxon king, that a << farm containing ten 
hides, was to pay ten casks of honey, three hundfed loaves of 
bread, twelve casks of strong ale, two oxen, ten wethers, ten 
geese, twenty hens, ten cheeses, one caskof butter, twenty pounds 
of forage, five salmon, and one hundred etls.'*---^uch was the 
. method of defraying annual rent, by these or other articles, ac- 
cording to the nature of the farm, or custom of the country: 
.«ltfaough payments in money were not, even at that time, altoge* 
ther unknown.— This short passage occurs at the very entrance 
of this part of Mr. P.*s history ; — the other is at its end, and we 
transcribe it because of its relation to the prophecies of Merlin, 
Having mentioned the acts and exploits of Tregagle, of high 
renown in Cornubian annals, Mr. Pol^i^hele thus continues: — 

* Amid a variety of legendary personages crouding around roc, I 
«earccly know where to close ray narrative ; still in the rear -are there 
^devils and saints without number. To draw, therefore, the curtain 
over all, I must conjure up Merlin, the enchanter and the prophet, 
who seems to have possessed a power over devils and saints. As an 
enchanter we have seen him in the story of Arthur : we are now to 
recognize him as a prophet. In the parish of Paul, on the sea-shore, 
is a rock called in Cornish, Merlyn-Carf or Merlin^s rock. There, 
perhaps, he delivered that old prophecy in the Cornish tongue, fore- 
telling the destruction of Paul church, Penzance, and Newly n, long 
before they were in existence. It is as follows— Aga fyth tyer, war 
en meyne Merlyn, i. e. There shall land on the stone MerVtn^ Ara neb 
fyth Leskey, Paul, Penzance, hag Newlyn, — those who shall bum 
Paul J r enhance f and Newlyn * 

A quotation in the notes, from some other writer, observes,-— 
< This prophecy was fulfilled when the Spaniards landed, an 
meyne Merlyn^ in 1595, and burnt those very places; and so 
great was the conflagration at Paul, that the fire consumed the 
atone pillars of the church !' 

The supplement comprehends many more pages than the 
jOther part of this volume : St. Michael's Mount, Penzance, 
the Land's End, the Scilly Isles, Roman castrametation, &c. 
&c. form this addition ; concluding with an account of 
four urns, by the Rev. Malachi Hitchins, an article which has 
a^peai'ed in the last volume of Archxologia *. Various en* 
t^talning particulars are here detailed, and we also meet with 
sevefal repetitions. We observe that Mr. Cough's assertions 

* See RetCew for June latt, p. 197. 



EotzebueV moit remarkable Tear* 75 

^t sometimes called into question.— -The work is accompanied 
by a great namhrr of engravingSf which will materially add to 
the pleasure of the reader. 



Art. XVI. 7he m^st remarhahle Tear In the Life of AurusHu Vmn 
Kohubue ; containing an Account of his Exile into Siberia, and 
other extraordinary Events which happened to hitn in Ruwia« 
Written by himself. Translated from the German, by the Rev. 
Benjamin fiercsford, English Lecturer to the Queen of Prussia. 
3 Vols. lamo. 155. Boards. R.Phillips; 

T^EW novels are more interesting, or display a more dramatic 
eSecf, than the present narrative of facts ; and it is impos- 
sible to peruse it without esteeming the amiable qualities of the 
author. Yet much as we may applaud M. Kotzebue for hife 
strong affections as a husband and a father, we cannot speak 
in high terqis of his fortitude as a man, and must question his 
discr cation in publishing some of his resolutions and sentiments. 
Though the circumstances of his arrest and exile awaken our 
liveliest pity, the treatment which he experienced was on the 
whole Irnient, and we perceive no occasion which afforded 
the smallest pretext for suicide: yet more than once he tells us 
that he had determined on destroying himself, and expresses 
his obligations to Seneca for instructing him in a contempt of 
death. If such instances of pusillanimity actually occurred^ 
ought he to have recorded them \ ought he to hav6 left any sen- 
timent which could be adduced as a justification of the crime of 
suicide ? and ought not rather the events of Uhe most remarkable 
year in his life,' to have been quoted as a proof of the advan- 
rages which often ensue irom a patient endurance of suffering ? 
Afflictive as the circumstances appeared at their commence- 
ment, they must be considered as blessings rather than ills ; or 
to resemble dark clouds, which, while they are passing over 
us, occasion a gloom, but produce consequences which add to 
the future richness and brilliancy of the prospect. — If M. Kot* 
zebue's temporary persecution arose from his being a man of 
letters, his celebrity in that line gave him also consequence, 
and obtained him notice and respect. Like Simonides, he car* 
ried a fortune about him, of which neither robbers nor the 
frowns of an emperor could deprive him, and which procured 
\i\x^ friends even in the heart of Siberia. 

The cause of Paul's displeasure, which led to the writer's 
arrest on his entering Russia, is not fully explained : but it is 
sufficiently clear that something reported to have bjeen written 
by Kotzebue had prejudiced the Emperor against him. What* 
(Crer was the ground of this harsh measure, which he ought not 

to 



f.5 KbtzebueV most remarlable Tear^ 

to have meditated after he bad granted to Kotzebuc a passport 
to enter his dominions, the order for his exile to Siberia was 
marked by no hardships which were not common to persona 
under arrest ; and as soon as Paul had reason to believe thai 
Iiis detention was unjust, he not only hastened to restore bis 
captive to liberty, bat requested to be reconciled to him, and 
ctudeavoured to make him the most ample remuneration. 

Perhaps, the circumstance which will most forcibly strike 
the reflf ctiiig reader, in the course of tins pathetic detail, is the 
tStzt of arbitrary governments on the minds of all who arc 
under their dominion. When the will of the prince is theonlj 
)aw, and when every man is liable, without any reason being 
given, to be arrested, torn from his property and the lo* 
som of his f^^mily, and sent to a dungeon, or to perpetual 
eiile, a debasing fear must oppress the public mind ; the vir- 
tues of the heart are subdued \ and if benevolence towards a 
state sufferer be displayed, it is with an apprehension at least that 
the spies of Government will convert that very act of kindness 
into a plea for persecution. What £ngHshman can read 
this narrative without being thankful for the enviable con- 
st kirrrcn under which he lives, and without considering the 
Habeas Corpus Act alone as a blessing for which he can scarcely 
pay too much ? The most amiable sovereigns are liable to false 
impressions from their courtiers; and when to be suspected 
»nd to be guilty are the same, when trial is precluded, and 
pttnishment precedes conviction, every man is in danger; 
every man holds all that is dear in life on the precarious teuare 
€>f connivance ; and innocence must often be involved in the 
post cruel sufferings.^ Let us rejoice that things are better 
understood and managed in Great Britain ; and may such ac* 
counts as those now before us make us sensible of our real 
privileges, and endear us to our native country. 

We shall endeavour to give the chief outlines of the nar* 
rative. After three years* absence from Russia, M. von Kotzebuc 
requested permission to revisit it, with his wife and family x 
he obtained the desired passport, and entered on his journey, 
leaving Weimar on the loth of April 1 800. Scarcely, however, 
was he within the Russian confines when he was arrested with 
all his papers, by order of the Emperor, separated from his wife, 
and, inrtcaJ of being taken to Petersburgh, ;;s he expected, to 
have his case investigated, was carried under the escort of 
an ofBcer and a Cossack to Siberia. On the road, he made his 
escape, but was retaken, and conducted first to Cusan^and ulti* 
matcly to Tobolsk and Kurgan in Siberia. The mode of tra- 
velling, the events of the journey, the nature of the country, 
the people with whom he meets, and the state of manners 

are 



EotztbueV most nmarhahle Teafm 'jf 

arc described. Drives sdmost to despair by the unexpected separa- 
tion from his wife and children, and uncertain of his fate, he 
took little interest in the surrounding scene ; yet he is suffici* 
CDtly descriptive to carry the reader along with him, and to 
give him a lively idea of himself and his situation in every 
it^ge of the journey. He speaks of the conduct of those to 
whose charge he was committed^ notices with gratitude the 
kindness and the hospitality which he received, and gives vari- 
ous sketches of the character of Russians and Tartars. 

Wheo arrived at Toboibk, he was permitted to take a ser« 
vant; and at Kurgan, to which he was removed by the go- 
vernor of Tobolsk, his living was extremely cheap, and for 
an exile in his circumstances not uncomfortable. For his 
lodging, indeed, he paid a most exorbitant price, considering 
the place : but the cheapness of provsions was more than a coun* 
terbalance ; while his amusement will excite the envy of some 
of our sporting gentlemen, and almost incline them to wish- for 
a short exile to Siberia : 

• 

• My way of living in general was as follows : I rose at six, and 
itudied the Russian language for an hour ; as not a soul in the town 
tpoke any other, it was absolutely necessary to recover that know- 
ledge whi<;h I had lost through disuse. I then took my breakfast, 
and sat down for some hours to the history of my misfortunes. Af- 
ter this fask, which at length became pleasant to me, I usually walked 
on the banks of the Tobol in my bed-gown and slippers. I had mnrk- 

• ed out the extent of two vcrstes, which was my daily exercise, and, 
to make it more convenient, I could go there through the yard door 
nnobserved. At my return 1 usually read Seneca ; I then took 
my plain dinner, after which I indulged myself with an hour's nap, 
and when I awoke, took up Pallas or Gmelin, till SokolofF called on 
me to take the diversion of shooting. On our return he generally 
drank tea with me, over which we repeated the story of our misfor- 
tnnes, imparted to each other our hopes, or combated each other's 
fears. After his departure I again read Seneca, and eat a slice of 
bread and butter for my supper; I then played alone 2iX grande pa* 
liince^ and went ta bed more or less sorrowful (I am almost ashamed 
to own it,) as the gajjne had proved more or less successful.' — 

• The diversion of shoojtiiig wai extremely agreeable to me, though 
we were but ill provided for it. We possessed nothinjr more than two 
miserable guns* which generally missed tire four or hve times before 
they went off. The whole town did not afford a pointer, nor even a 
ipantel to fetch our game out of the water. The neiirhbourhood be- 
ing full of lakes and marshes, our principal sport consisted in shooting 
woodcocks and wild ducks ; we were therefore obliged to perform 
the office of a spaniel ourselves, and wade up to our middle in water 
to look for our prey. My Polish friend was much more expert in this 

£uiguing exercise than 1 was. He would plunge into the deepest. 

* ■ ■ , - - ^ 

' * A kind of fortuac-teUiag game at cards.' 

3 watery 



78 • EotzebueV most remarlahle Tear. 

water8> and wade about for half an hour together, firing among tliC 
ireed6> or looking for those birds which I had shot from' the banks. 
He was equal to the best spanid in every respect but his nose ; and 
indeed a dog was not very necessary to u«, on account of the great 
abundance of game. Never had I seen in Europe so many rooks in 
one flight, as I saw wile ducks of an hnudrcd different 8orts> m fiocka 
in this country, i^ome were very small ; some had round, others 
£at beaks ; some long, and others shore one^. There were some 
with short legs, others with long, and of grey or brown colours, or of 
black, with yellow beaks. Sometimes, though rarely, we met with 
the gp'eat Persian duck, of a rose colour, with black beak and a tuft 
on its head. Every time we shot at this bird, it screamed in a 
most lamentable manner, even when we had missed our aim. 

*■ The species of woodcocks were likewise equally numerous and 
various. Some we saw of about the size of a pigeon, of a brown 
yellow colour, with long legs and a frill of feathers round their necks. 
They build their nests among the reeds, and they always fly about 
the fowler, and make a singular noise ; we seldom shot at tnem, as 
their flesh has a disagreeable taste. Twice I discovered some birds 
as white as snow, and of the size of a goose, with long legs and beaks, 
which were both times seeking their food on the border of a lake ; 
but they were so wild, that they flew away when we advanced within 
two hundred paces of them. I never was able to learn their names* 

* Besides ducks and woodcocks, we found wild pigeons in abun- 
dance, and blackbirds, flying in such immense flocks, that wherever 
they alighted on a tuft of trees, they covered it entirely. Their flesh 
was delicious, but our small stock of powder obliged us to be veij 
sparing of our shots.' 

Thoughyhowever,M.Kotzebue's personal liberty wasnot abridf 
ged, like that of many state prisoners, he could not enjoy himself 
in Siberian wilds ; and his mind was employed, as he tells us, 
in meditating an escape : but he was not under the necessity 
of putting this project in execution. He had not been long at 
Kurgan, before an ukase arrived from Paul, ordering him to be 
released and sent to Petersburgh at the expence of the Em- 
peror. This change in the state of his affairs exhilirated his 
mind ; and with expressions of gratitude for the generosity of 
the Emperor, and for the kin*d interest o£ the inhabitants of 
Kurgan, he hastened his departure. The particulars of his 
journey from Siberia to Pctersburgh occupy many pages ; wc 
participate in his impatience and amiable feelings; and we 
pass over trivial occurrences, to notice his affecting interview 
with his wife, who had been conveyed to the capital to meet 
him: 

« I was conversing with M. Fuchs, when Graumann, with the 
countenance of an angel, burst into the room : ** Your wife is here,*' 
said he. I could not contain myself, but uttered a loud cry of joy. 
M. Fuchs had the delicacy to retire, to avoid disturbing the first 
momeuu of our re-union. Graumann was gone to conduct her to 

SBC* 



KotzebueV most remarkable Tean y^ 

mc. I stood trembling at the window, which was just over the gate- 
way: I saw my wife enter; I staggered towards the door; she 
rushed in, and fainted in my arms. 

« Who can attempt the description of such a scene ! I pity the 
man who cannnot enter into my fceh'ngs on this occasion. Yes, there 
arc moments in h'fe which counterhalance years, that compensate for 
a aeries of years of misery ! I would not at this moment have relin- 
qaished for the world the remembrance of what I had suffered : the 
enjoyment of this one moment over-balanced it all. 

* With the assistance of my friend, I had placed my wife on the 
•nly chair the room afforded. Kneeling down and hiding my face in 
her lap, I wept such tears as I had never wept before, and waited 
till her senses should return. She recovered, and hanging affection-' 
alely owr me, mingled her tears with- mine. My friend walked si- 
lently about the room ; he was much affected ; he was not an indifferent 
spectator of this affecting scene ; he shared in the transports of it. 
Generous man ! This hour has recompensed thee for all thou hast 
done for me and mine : Thou hast enjoyed a scene which is not often 
represented on the great stage of the world, and thou felt that thy 
disinterested friendship had contributed to prepare it. 

* After the first transports of delight had in some degree subsided, 
after we had recovered our speech, what questions we had to ask ! 
What answers ! What broken recitals and narrations ! How often did 
we interrupt each other, and smile and kiss off the tear that bedewed 
our cheeks ! It seemed as if our graves had been opened, as if we were 
risiag from the earth, and had become two celestial substances, en- 
joyed a new union in a better world, and casting a last look upon the 
luiOFerings we had undergone in our terrestrial career/ 

To augment this happiness, says he, *I received on the 1 3 th of 
Avgttst the copy of an ukase, by which the Lmper or bescpwed on 
me, free of service, the estate of Worrokull, situated in Livonia, 
and belonging to the crown. This estate, which contains four 
hundred soulS) and tarings me in four thousand roubles a year 
upon lease, (900/*) together with a commodious mansion-house, 
and advantages of various kinds, was a gift truly Imperial, and 
affords the most unequivocal proof of my innocence.' Now, 
all is prosperity; and, from being an object of displeasure, 
Kotzebue becomes a great favourite with the Empetor, has 
frequent interviews with him, is appointed to manage the Ger- 
man court theatre, to give a full account of the Emperor's new 
palace of Michailof, and is employed by him in drawing up his 
curious challenge to the Sovereigns of Europe. 

M. Kotzebue seems to attribute his release to the favourable 
impression made on Paul's mind by a piece of his compositionj 
intitled " The Emperor's head Coachman." For this drama, the 
Emperor presented a valuable ring to the supposed author : but 
he honourably confessed that he was only a translator, and that 
it was one of M* Kotzebue's productions. Paul then sent for 



So KotzebueV Travels U Parts* 

it, perused it several times, confessed that * he had done the author 
^rongy that he owed him reparation^ that he thought it incumbent 
tn him to make him a present^ equal to that conferred on bis father^ i 
£oachman */ and that very moment he dispatched the courier to 
Siberia. Was it vanity or virtue which urged the Emperor to 
this conduct ? It was at least a solitary instance of repentance $ 
for he did not relent towards the other exiles. 

The death of this emperor is very slightly noticed. M. Kot«- 
zebue merely mentions his last interview, and * the winding 
stair^case,' since become very celebrated. He thus, at the con- 
clusion, depicts his character : 

* Peace to the ashes of a man, whose faults may be ascribed, in ■ 
great measure, to the nature of his education, to the extraordinary 
events that distinguished the period of his reign, and to the charactcrt 
of the people who surrounded him 1 a man, who might often have 
been mistaken with regard to the meant he employed 'to do good, but 
whose invariable aim was to be good and juft ; who scattered innu-- 
^merable benefits around him, yet saw nothing but noxious plants* 
spring up, whose blossoms pleased his eye, while their poisonous va*« 
pour tarnished and destroyed him !' 

Many pages are filled in the last volume with a description 
of the magnificent palace of MichailofF, and with an Appendix 
containing strictures on the *< Secret Memoirs of the Court of 
Russia :" the former, however, makes no essential part of the 
narrative ; and the latter, though a proof of M. Kotzebue's zeal 
in vindication of the Russians against assertions which are 
pronounced to be unfounded, contains so many particulars as to 
preclude our specification. This author is grateful for tKe 
favours which he received : but none of the smiles of fortune 
could make him feel at ease under the Russian Government. 



Akt. XVII. Travels from Berlin through Switzerland to Paris^ in 
the Tear 1804. By Augustus Von Kotzebue, &c. &c. Trans- 
lated ffom the German. 3 Vols. 8vo. 158. Boards. R* 
Phillips. 

SOME of our preceding numbers have exhibited views of the 
French people and capital, taken from publicatiotis which 
might have been suspected to have received a national colour- 
ing, to have been prepared for the meridian of London, and to 
be adapted to the prejudices of the British public ; we may 
now gratify our curiosity by surveying the pictures of the same 
objects drawn by' a German, and we shall not find any ma* 
terial disagreement in the exhibitions. Kotzebue is a keen ob- 



. ^r^y I I !!■■ ^ I ^ 1 1 ■ ' "— »^""^i"«» 



* ' 20,000 roubles. 



server 



Kot2ebue'j Travels to Parisl 8 1 

iCTVcf and pood draftsman. I^ike Holcroft, he pamts from 
the life, and seems to m^ke his charactt^rs I've in the repre- 
sentation. Lfike him, too, he devrlopes with striking; effect the 
moral character of the Parisians, and affords ample traits of 
their frivolity, dissipation, and profligacy. He comments with 
C2se and pleasantry on the scenery and fi^urrs which pass in 
Tcftew. His pi£lures do not betray marks of imitation, and if 
his remarks be cursory, they are however his own. * N *t a 
word/ he tells us, * has been written without his bting per- 
suaded of its truth ; but (he adds) I have written s'^me words 
that the* reader will net find here.' When * the tide of time 
shall alter forms, and the danger of being saluted with a shower 
of stones from a meteor shall be over,* he encourages us to 
look for a more complete developement of his opinions \ and 
by unicing this passage in the advertisement with the last line 
of the work, and its allusions to the shores of Cayenne^ we can 
easily guess to what this enigmatical language ref&rs. 

Before he comm»*nce8 the grand display of the French me- 
tropolis, M. Von K'Uze^^ue amuses us with some preliminary 
sketches taken in his route from Berlin, through Swisserland 
and Lyons. As he enters Zurich, however, he protests 
against picturesque descriptions : but the power of the sur- 
rounding scenery forces him, malgre lui^ to make a pencil of 
his pen : 

* I ara now in Switzerland, you see ; but do not expect any 
picturesque description of its great natuial beauties. Travels ia 
Switzetland are to be had by the do/.en, good, bad, and indifferent ; 
and it is not only arf exhausted suhject to speak of the wonders of 
nature in this country, but it had been better from the beginning, if 
Dothiog at all had been said of them : for, to be candid, has the di* 
jcripiiott of a beautiful district, even froni the hand of a master^ ever 
conveyed a striking image to your mind? To mine it never has. 

' A person may paint a lake on the right, with its shores inter- 
•persed with delightful villas, point out the chain of the Jura on the 
left, place Montblanc in the back ground, c<c. He may use, on this 
occasion, the picturesque language of pot try : yet, in my mind, it 
will produce only a confused image of all these obj.xts -^confused, 
I say* and not even resembling the original : it hovers before me, and 
in vain I try to seize it. 

* I have, therefore, always been an enemy to such descriptions. A 
person ought to see Switzerland with his own eyes, just as he ought 
to hear a concert with his own ears. He who paints countries with 
words does still less than the person who hums a symphony : there- 
fore I neither can nor will say any thing of Swit?erlai)d. but that I 
have here and there seen spots, where the Almighty may perhaps 
hare stood, when he surveyed the world after the creation, and said : 
•at is good." 

* The fall of the Rhine did not exceed my expectation, though I 
was highly gratified b]^ it* Many travellers have endeavoured to re- 

Rfiv. Ssf T* 1805. G present 



82 KotiebucV Travels to Parh, 

present to me the effect of this view as infenor to what I found it id 
reality; It is a grand sight, of which no pen ought to attempt the. 
description. I was much charmed with the environs of Zurich, and 
perhaps more so than with any other place, as my stay was rendered 
additionally interesting by the worth of the people. 

• The perspective from Bugeli across the lake, of the ice- clad moun- 
tains, is extremely captivating ; but the prospect from the apartments 
of the iVin, bearing the eign of the Sword, at which I put up, is more 
attractive, or at lea^ more Variegated. *V\\h perspective has oftetf 
been mentioned en passant. I will more cn-cumstantially— not de- 
scribe (God forbid,) but only mention all that is' to be seen. 

• The room is a corner room. If you open a window to the lefty 
ou see the river Limtnat beK)W you, with a vciy broad bridge over it^ 
incd 'bn both sides with women selling fmit and vegetables, with 

groups of French chasseurs walking among them. The main-guatd 
of these soldiers is on the opposite side of the bridge. 

• You cannot conceive what stir and bustle prevail here. Down- 
wsfrds, to the left, you see, along the river, t^o long streets and at 
part of the town. If yoiTopcn the wimlow on tlw right, you behold, 
at your feet, an open country, and straight before yon the Lake of 
Zurich, surrounded by charming vfllas, and skirted by the Alps^ 
on whose summits the snowy cliffs rear their hoary heads. 

^ This amphitheatre, forming a contrast of polished and rudo natore^ 
together with the bustle of men immediately below, is incomparable. 
The beautiful walks about Zurich would even tempt the gouty to 



I 



exercise.* 



On the road from Geneva to Cerdon, the sublimity of na«* 
ture again conquers his resolution to avoid the style of the 
picturesque travellers, and he is betrayed into a description ; 
for which he indeed mjkes an apology : but which, had he not 
previously foresworn it, would have required ^rom him nothing 
of thi& sort/ What a picture is presented to the knagination 
in this passage \ 

' I was most agreeably surjv'zed on liiy way from Geneva hither. 
I was i;^norant that I should see such districts, as leave every thing i 
$aw'in Switzt-rland far behind them. Every one who traverses that 
conntry ha>* fomething to say concerning it ; thinking he has been 
admiring the most splendid scenes which nature exhibits ; but most 
trjivcllcrs would, like nSe, be amazed, were they but to continue 
their route to Lyons, — winding their way through fort L^Ectute^ 
wlA're, between the rushing Rhone and the towering rocks, tfhe way 
seems clo^icd even to the sliding lizard ; were they to sec the wild, 
th« awfully romantic and' rdgged cliffsi frt)m which, at small dts- 
tances of i^carccly one hundred yards, the water sometimes furiously' 
precipitates itself, sometimes trickier down, but often only obzea 
thn)Mgh the stones, and decks whole mountains utrhh a glistening^ 
biiliinncy. 

♦ Thus yon' proceed as far as the neighbour^iood of Avranche^ J 

constanrly beholding undei* your feet, the thousand meanders of thtf 
koarse Rhoiie, which vainly tries to- dash ks foam over the countlesr 

rincyardsr 







KbtzthvLt*! Travels to Paris. 83 

tmVyardsy till at length it rushes, roaring, into an unfathomable abyss 
of rocks, and vanishes entirely. Three hundred yards farther it breaks 
forth again with impetuosity, and hastens to join its bride, the Saone. 
The space in which it rolls its waves, deep in the bosom of the earth, 
is OTer-arched with excavated rocks. In the rainy season, the tomb 
which swallows up the Rhone and vomits it forth again, is too small 
to receive the whole volume of its waters. They then flow partly 
o?er the surface, and thus two rivers run, side by side, separated only 
by a slight partition of rocks. 

* Proceeding farther, you every nibmcnt expect to behold the end 
of your journey ; but yonder, where the rocks seem to close, the path 
Suddenly winds between them, and a new romantic world opens to 
yoor astonished sight. Here a small lake, there steep shelving rocks, 
with winding foot-paths. Between huge masses of fantastically 
towering stones, you behold a vineyard, -extorted, as it were, from 
natare ; here again are lonely mills, supported by rugp^ed cliffy from 
whith cascades seem to pour on the roofs of the houses beneath. 

' Held in uninterrupted amazement, yoii thus move forwards to 
the environs of Nantua, where you enter a valley, which I feel tempt- 
ed to call thc^Valley of Despair. Any thing so wildly awful I never 
beheld. The Mnely, scattered houses seem to have been built by 
tome Crusoe, who Was wrecked in the great world. Here, as in 
Nora Zembla, the siin is never seen in winter ; the black and naked 
rocks wind into dungeons ; the songs of birds are not mingled with 
the murmur of the sirtams, as they foam down the crags ; but the 
scanty fields, which man with laborious industry has stolen from 
iiroi^niiig nature, are surrounded by cold marshes. 

* The road again winds ; you are presently irt the middle of Nantua, 
' ^7« little town, in spite of the rocks which rear their crags above 
all the houses. No sooner have you parsed this place, than you are 
^gain surrounded by -scenery wildly picturesque. It is no long»r 
tomposed of wavy ridges of mountains, but is formed by Atones of ex« 
Inordinary figures, which stand upright, and which some revolution 
of the earih, in the dark ages of antiquity, has placed in their present 
situation — figures, which you are sometimes ready to swear are gi- 
f^ntic statues, the workmanship of some barbarous period. Beyond 
Nantua to the t-ight, for instance, you see the figune of a giant ort 
» cliff, who, like the king of ihc country, has surveyed, perhaps for 
tbousaods of years, the surrounding districts. 

' You then discover, here and there, ruins of old castles, cliffs^ and 
avcrns ; to reach which it is necessary to be drawn up with ropes ; 
^cply furrowed rocks, plqaghed for centuries by showers of rain, in- 
terspersed with vineyards aiid new crosses, the evidences of industry 
and rtrtnrniiig piety. You at length reach a very narrow, cold valley, 
tiiaded by gloomy pine-trees. It Js closed at the extremity by rug- 
ged h)ck3; and behind this craggy wall, nature, enthroned itl ail her 
najesty, has reserved for you the most Enchanting spectacle. 

* Stepping, as from behind a scene, you suddenly behold a narrow, 
taiiliog dale ; you see on the left cascades, great and small, precipita- 
*iog themselves from highjcr or lower ranges of rocks ; large and small 
krooti murmuring down, and uniting at the bottom,, meander 

G 2 iLrough 



f 



84 ItotiebueV Travels to Paris. 

throiigli the verdant meadows. Behind rFses a decayed castle, on 4 
cliff, almost entirely excavated by the water; and farther on to the, 
left arc the ruins of another castle, to which the watch-tower, on k 
more distant ridge, and still in pfood preservation, no longer affords 
protection. On the right you discover steep detached rocks, resem- 
blintr a wall of freestone, and at top forming a menacing vault, be- 
neath which the traveller sieaU with horror ; for here and there de- 
tached massts of stone which have fallen down, seem 10 warn him of 
the danger. 

* Yet beneath this terrific vault the blue fruit of the vine is still seen 
to sparkle, and close to its brink stands anew house, raised high into 
the ciir by the projecting stones : the back ground of this divinely 
beautiful t^alley is closed by the little town of Ccrdon, and its hospita- 
ble white houses. 

* Pardon me, if, unfaithful to my resolution, I have almost been 
betrayed into a description. Alas ! here it was that I again, for the 
first, time, exptrienctd a sensation of returning serenity. Really the 
beauti'ts of the road from Geneva to Cerdon arc alone worth a jour- 
ney ; and particularly during the vintage, when gay groupes are every- 
where in motion, and every one confesses, laughing, that he has not 
vessels enough to collect the blessings of nature. You Aieet every 
moment large waggons containing open casks full of grapes, or ob- 
serve barrels standing in long rows by the load-side. Both old and 
young are occupied \\\ pressing the fruit. If the sight of it tempt 
you, and you are tli'rsty, you need but to ask. A fair labourer im- 
diatcly appears, a-.id presents you with a basket of picked grapes. 
Prene^ taut que vcus 'voudre%t says the owner of the vineyard, vow tie 
payenv:. rlen. That is, * take as many as you please^ they will cost • 
you nothing.* 

M. Kotzibue takes notice of the rcmark-jblc objects in the city 
of L^jns ; and in passing thence to Paris, he enumerates the 
vexations and impositions to which a traveller is exposed in 
Fr?.ncc, particularly endeavouring to dissuade him from tra- 
velling post : but we must make no more selections from the 
prefatory chapter. ^ 

A proverb introduces this author's description of Paris* con» 
t^ned in four letters to a lady : "Tell me^howyour room looks, 
and I will tell you what kind of man you are." Considering the 
capital as « the room of a nation,* M. Kotzebue takes a survey 
of its various furniti^re ; and from the circumstances which 
3trike his observation, he decides what kind of men the Pari- 
sians are. As he walks along the streets, he observes every 
object which draws the attention and makes the amusement of 
the populace. Lottery prophets, and conjurers privileged by 
the police, trivial exhibitions, mendicants,, mountebanks, port- j 
able booths, book-stalls, restaurateurs, the childish manoeuv- 
ring near the new bridge of the flat-bottomed boats intended 
for thp invasion of England^ music, pi€ture-8tallS| caricatufeSf 
8 toj- 






I 



KotzebueV Travels to Paris. 8j 

toy-shops, jugglers, lopc-dancers, women remarkable for long 
beards, or muscular strength, fire-caters, asbrstos burners, &c, 
&c. &c. are adduced to prove the ignorance and the turn of 
the common people, the facility with which they are amused, 
and the manner in >vhich they fill up their time. 

The first volume concludes with a warm defence of the 
beautiful Madame Recamier against her calumniators ; in 
which her beneficente, modesty, and understanding are highly 
extolled. 

In Vol. 11. we are presented with accounts of the museums 
of the French monuments and of* the Louvre, of the cabinet 
of curiosities, of remarkable edifices, &c. of painters and their 
work-shops, of the dress, meals, and temper of mind of the 
Parisians, and of their societies and amusements. 

Having patiently attended the tribunals of criminal justice, 
this traveller gives it as his opinion that the proceedings in 
them are conducted in such a manner, that he does not know 
how they could be managed better. 

The literary institutions of Paris also extort his praise, and 
he remarks that * there is no place in thf world, even London 
not exccptrd, where so much intellectual food is offered at 
such a chC'ip rate.' 

Volume 111. opens with a delineation of the Palais Royal, 
ofthe Luxemburg, Hotel dcs Invalides, of the Jardin desPIantes, 
gallery of Natural History, and Anatomical Cabinet. M. Kotze- 
bue*s survey of heads and petrified bones in the latter collec- 
tion inclines him to a belief which, for thr sake of humanity, . 
we catmot admit, and against which experience bears a mobt 
decisive protest j for many blacks who have enj:>yed the bene- 
fits of education have shewn no deficiency of intellect. We 
give the passage : 

' A melancholy reflection offers itself here for the defenders of 
the humanity and liberty of the negroes, which is, that the heads of 
those negroes make exactly a mongrel species between men and 
monkeys ; thty are quite as distorted as those uf the apes, and the chin 
like them goes in^iuatds. Thus it is very possible tliat the blacks are 
not our brethren.' 

An amusing narrative of a pretended Dauphin occupies a 
considerable space, but it is ton impiobable to gain credit. 

From Kolzebue, as a dramatic author, a long account of 
the French theatres might be expected : but we shall pass it 
over, to hasten to the Miscellaneous Observytlons and Frag- 
in«rnis with which the work concludes. Here he exhibits va- 
rious sketches of manners and character. He describes the 
hours of dinner, female appetites, the sinj^uhr advertisements 
which appear, the expedients of the cidev^nt Noblesse to ob- 

G 3 taia 



/ 



I 



J 



96 KotzcbueV Travels to Paris. 

tain charity, the afFcctation of the French beaux,- the fashioy*^ 
able parties, the fair sex turned amateurs, the ease with which 
the Paris ladies receive their lovers, and the levity of their de- 
votion, &c. The following passage will serve as a specimen 
of the bold strokes to be found in these unfinished pictures : 

* The youthful fair arc now likewise amaieurt (^ tl^e arts, A girj 
scarcely fifteen years old w?ll stand before David % painting, and, at- 
tentively gazing through her opera glass at the 8tark-naked Sabine* 
will observe, that such a muscle is full of energy, but such a one like 
nothing. As the pretty accomplishment of holding a fan before 
one's eyes was not to be entirely suppressed, but was, however, founc^ 
troublesome, recourtx has bee* liad to the medium oijixlng the opera" 
glass between the fan sticks, which is a complete remedy. 

• Both mother and daughter now dress alike, they thou ontf 
another, and if they wrangle, neith^y will ^^\st way. Both dance la 
gavotte ; they sing, play at cards, ride borne separately, commit follies, 
intrust thtm to one another, they scold each other, and both domineer 
in the famUy. The only thing in which they differ, is, that th^ 
mother wears diamonds » and the da ugh tcr^o w^ri. 

* A young man from the country came on a visit to a young lady 
betrothed to him, he found her t^te-^tete with a young man, haviiijg 
before her un'academiey (a small statue of plaster of Paris) : to learii 
drawing, she took lessons in anatomy* *• We are just now/.' said 
her master, ** upon the muscles of the loins, let us for the present get 
to tli« abdomen." — Her lover asking where her mother was, '* O,'* 
replies she, ** the little fake 1 she was waltzing too much last night." 
-—After this, she requested her intended spouse to accompany her ta 
the riding- house, ^wh ere, on h^r arrival, she jumped upon a brisk 
horse, and, gallopptng away like lightning, left the poor country lout 
staring open-mouthed at the disappearance of his vision. 

' From the riding-house she went to the swinuntng-scbool, {ecole 
de natation) where the gentle bride entered a closet, and soon after ap- 
peared in a large bathing shi«t, v^iich baving dropt, she stood ex- 
posed to view in nankeen waistcoat and pantaloons closely fitting h,er 
body, and with these she jumped into the water. Her bridegroom, 
who never hoped to see all these charms before the wedding day, l^t 
her swim, hastened home, helped himself to put his horses before the 
carriage, and with the utmost precipitancy, nay, even without taking 
leave, returned to the country/ 

The circumstance which afforded M. Kotzebuc the greatest 
pleasure, and on which he comments with enthusiastic admira- 
tion, is the encouragement given to men of talents in Francq; 
with the care ^aken of literary property, by which an author is 
made independent, and the fair fruits of genius secured to hiiix 
against the attempts of pirates. 

This foreigner's estimate of the expence of living in Pari^ 
differs from some which we have lately seen : 

• However much has been said abroad of the dearness of provisions 
in Paris, I did not find it so ; but I am rather convinced that o;>e' 

' • " * ' nna^ 



Campbeir/ Grampians Desolate^ a Poem. 87 

mvf live, ID the same manner, much cheaper here than at Berlin. As 
to Petersbig'gh, it ad^iits of no compartson. I myself for instance, 
lived in one of the best atreeta in that city, in the Hotel d^ Atigleterrcf 
near the Palais Royal^ and in the vicinity of five or six theatres. My 
lodgings consisted of a servant's hall, virith stoves, a drawingrroom, a 
bed room, a j>tudy, a dressing room, a small room for my valet, aD 
fMtresolf and a wood house. The chimneys were of marble, the Doors 
covered with beautiful carpets, silk and tapestry hangings, clocks large 
pier glasses, and elegant papering ; for all which I paid twelve louis- 
d'ois per mointh. In very good but more distant parts of the .t()wn, 
all this may be had for an eighth of this price. Yet I cannot forbear 
observing here, that a banishment of the English from Paris has 
brought on a considerable reduction of the terms : shortly before this 
happened, my lodgings were let fof twenty louis d'ors. With regard 
to eating and drinking, I have already been sufficiently explicit. For 
iwo shillings, or two and eight pence, a person may dine well, and 
drink his pint of wine. Equipages and theatres art dear. A suit of 
the best cloth may be had from five to six pounds, and the best boots 
from sixteen to twenty schillings.' 

On the whole, M. Korzebue endeavours to be a fair reporter^ 
weighing the good and the bad in e<|ual scales. 



A 



Art. XVIII. The Grampians Desolate^ a Poem ; by Alexander 
Campbell. ^"^Q* pp- 330. 10s. 6d. boar43.* Vernor and Hood. 1804* 

PREFATORY notc informs us that, * the profits arising 
from the sale of this edition of the present poem are in- 
tended to lay the foundation of a fund for the aid of industri^ 
ous peasants and tradesmen, who shall hereafter incline to be- 
come settlers, or cultivators of waste land in any part of 
Great Britain.* — ^We regret, then, that we c^nno^ second thi^ 
notable instance of generosity, with all the ^ patriot's ardoury 
and the critic's praise :* — but really our views of political eco- 
nomy are not at variance with the introduction of sheep-farms 
into the Highlands of Scotland ; and Mr. CampbelFs poetry is 
falljr as < desolate^ as the mountains which h^ commiserates. 
Dr. Johnson had insinuated tfaat^ when the Scotch had not 
kale^ they.probably had nothing; and, ^yichout the aid of six 
vailing cantos, we weye always charitably disposed to sympa- 
thize with the natives of their hills, uritil the following bill of 
fare (which, though r^orded in vtrse, has much of the 
femblance of solid matter of fact,) convinced us that they are bf 
|io means very marked objects of compassion : 

' Now groans the social board 'neath viands good, 
(What Scotian swains deem admirable food ! ) 
iiere sbeep-head-broth just reeking from the pot. 
There a capacious ha^i: hissing hot, 



88 CampbcllV Grampians Desolate^ a Pntn. 

Here fat kail-hrose^ ^^ d\s\\ beyond compare. 
There beef znd greens t O most delicious fare ! 
Here smokes a surloin, savoury, brown, and nice. 
For whoso wants an ample, juicy slice. 
There venison (chief of viandij lures thecye, 
(For which the epicure oft heaves a sigh) ; 
Here mutton small, reared on the mountain- waste^ 
Of tender fibre and of luscious taste ; 
There salmon^ of the scaly i ace the pride. 
Firm, fresh, and recent from the water-side. 
— Lo, what a g^eneroua feast, salubriou**, strong! 
How keenly dash the gladsome guests among 
The variouK dishes !— -sated, now they pause, 
And drink a bumper toast to freedom's cause.'— 

Even the Highland bees, we may presume, partake of plen* 
teous and copious cheer ; for they disdain to commit murder, 
except an enemy invade their borders : 

* So thus an apiary well-stored with swarms. 
Who, though possessed of— yet ne'er fly to arms. 
Save when invaded, —then, in self defence 

To combat, fall, or conquer most prepense. 
Enraged, forthwith they pour upon the foe. 
And shafts envenomed lay the spoilers low I' 

The very grass is disposed to be contemplative : 

' Two-thirds or more of hill grass is required. 
From noise and hurry free — serene ^ retired,* 

Nor is it the lenst of public blessings, tliat the Gael may 
laugh at the art and the bills of the apothecary : 

* Thus, wild dnuarf-myrile of the moorish waste, 
(Of odour fragrant, but of acrid taste). 

Its virtue vermifuge is highly prized. 

Nor bitter seems when >kilfully disgruis'd ; 

Th* astringent tormentil that spreads the heath. 

The caubtic spear wort of the lake beneath, 

The kindly groundsel^ meet for healing sores, 

The precious /'jf^.^r/^^/ that lost sight restores. 

The styptic milfoil^ drastic cJuhmoss wild, 

And lavage warm, carminative, yet mild. 

The fragrant rosewort, head-ache's sovereign cure, 

^hcfox'^hve deadly, yet, specific sure 

In bloated dropsies — sometimes in de(;line> 

The gentian bitter, yet stomachic fine, 

The nutrient orchis of the waste and wood. 

And mountain burdocky most salubrious food.' . 

^et not the Scottish Highlander dread death or famine : 

* When murrain rages, or when famine reigns. 
And desolat(;8 the hills, or blighta the pUio^i 

Co 



i 



Campbcirj Grampians Desolate^ a Poem, 89 

Go cheerly tearch for herbs - the wood or waste 
Possess abundance —grateful to the taste, 
Sahibriousy nourishing, when dressed with carC'— 
By hunger seasoned, luscious seems the fare. 
And should thy lot be cast where billows roar. 
Even there, go pick thy food along the shore. 
For mau and beast may satisfy their wants. 
So long as sable rocks rear rkb sea- plants.* 

The mention of orchards on thr Grampians struck us as a| 
pottical Hcence, till we found chat they yield only haws» hazel* 
DttcSy and whortle-berries : 

* There cull the billberry of lustre blue. 
And spreading cranberry of crimson hue, 
With jetty cmw- berries your thirst now slake, 
Bui he aware b(>*iu much ofiboseyou take** 

We believe that Mr. Campbell has read Virgirs Georgics, 
Goldsmith's Deserted Village, and other excellent models: 
but he has not copied from them with much grace and feli- 
city. In the following prosaic lines, we can trace some seai»> 
hianceof the ghost of Maro : 

* If near the sea thy graiige and pastures are. 
Sea ware sprtad o'er iliy rields with llb'ral care9 
And where it is abundant, with due help, 
Convert the precious ware to purest help, 
Thuff every gift of nature turn to use. 

For true economy admits ftot o{ misuse, 

* Those rur^il labours, various to ensure 
Against encroachments that oppress the poor^ 
Let plain and simple salutary laws 
Respecting store farms ^ cleaf in every clause. 
Be framed, and pass'd - and giving full effect 
By sanction senatorial to protect. 
The riglits and pivileges well deEa'd, 
Of rural industry of every kind.' 

Oar poet's lyre, however, sometimes sounds a louder and a 
loftier strain, bordering on the Homeric : 

* As when in ire, contentious kites and crbws. 
High pois'd on wing, from chattering come to blows, 
ISublime they mingling wheel from hill to hill, 

And caw and scream, and whet the beek and bill — 

'Tis horrid uproar all ! while crow meets kite, 

Lo 1 how they tug and thwack, and peck and smite** 

The appearance of the herrings is also announced with a it* 
gree of animation and bustle ptculiarly suited to the subject: 

* They come ! they come ! the scaly hordes appear ! 
Lo there ! — Sec yonder ! now behold them here !' 

Some«* 



fo CampbellV Grampians Desofate^ a Poem^ 

Sometimes, we perceive a noble disdain of the vulgar rulec 
of syntax \ ass 

• To all belong the produce of our lands/ 

• Where luscious herbage in succession rise^* 

• These self same hills and vales *was wont resound.' 

• While round \\\cm^our'uh every object dear.^ 

: — ■' * Nor sun nor moon rclums 

The cheerless vale.' 

The subsequent line^ are^ perhaps, the mo$t tolerable in the 
whole performance : 

• Or should the man of thought, revolving deep. 
Heaven in his eye, hrs wakeful vigils keep, 

In noiseless search mid learning's secret store, 
Retire with Bacon, or with Newton soar. 
When truth and reason hold their mild controul^ 
Thus arts and sciences expand the soul ; 
While peace, abundance, sweet contentment, eascj 
Love, and true friendship, all combined to please. 
Shall le^d to man^s enjoyments, God hath given. 
While bright-ey'd hope triumphant points to heaven.' 

The notes, which are extensive, and in plain prose, display 
sn intimate acquaintanee M'ith Highland custom^ and man-? 
Iters. At page 171, the author gives an affecting refation of 
the distresses of a poor family, who had quitted their native 
mountains, without any fixed plan of settlement : but the pas« 
Mgc is too long for insertion. — The reasons alleged for rearing 
the native shpep, in preference to other races, are sensible, and» 
we think, conclusive. — Some carious notices will also be foun4 
(p. 262*) respecting the different sorts of dances peculiar to the 
Highlands, and the music of the bagpipe. 

To this work is annexed the prospectus of a new agricul- 
tural insitution, or fund of aid for the cultivators of waste 
land. In submitting his thoughts on this important subject to 
the consideration of the public, we doubt not that the author 
16 influenced by the most pure and honourable motives ; anJ 
we trust that his exettions may contribute to the welfare of 
liis country, though we cannot flatter him with the assurance 
that he has * applied with energy, judgment^ and taste^ th«t 
rules of the art of poetry/ 



MONTHLY 



( 9X ) 

MONTHLY CATAL O^G U E, 

For SEPTEMBER, 1805. 

GCOGRAPHT. 

Art. ig. j1 General and Classical Mas :. accomps^nied with a con* 
cise Treatise on the Principles of Geocrraphy, and with a few 
practical Remarks on the Apph'cation of Maps to the Purpose «f 
Instruction. By the Rev. Edward Patteson, M A. of Richmond. 
Surrey. 410. 3I. 138. 63. ; inferior iidition >L 2a. KivingtonSf 
&c. . 1804. 
r\F the present coQection, the special object is the instruction of 
young Students; and, on this account, every map is accom- 
panied with a blank map, or containing only the principal v.ircle8» 
outlines of countries, &c. Notwithstanding the explanations of the 
author, we confess that we do not perceive the utilit) of these blank 
maps Mr Patteson has also prefixed what he calls Principles of 
Qeography ; in which, in a style not the most unambitious and un- 
adorned, he writes emphatically, by writing almost every fifth ward 
in Italics, This custom does not please us ; and in spice of it« 
duiing the perusal of the Principles ofGeogruphy. in which some brief 
and uninstructive history is introduced, lethargy more than onoe 
stole on us unbidden. 

The first part only is now before us, containing all the letter-press^ 
and about half of the maps ; viz. sixteen in number. 

AGRICULTURP, &C. 

^rt. 20. 7tvo Tracts^ first, Thoughts concerning the Uses of Clay 
Marl as Manure i second, Thoughts or ^/eries concerning the Uses 
of ^Agricultural ^alts, in the Manufacture of Manures; and also 
concerning the proper Modes of dccgmpobiug Pit-Coal, Wood, 
]Pcat, Sods, and Weeds, to increase the future Means of making 
Manure. Also an Appendix, containing, first, Tiigui^hts concern- 
ing puncturing Wood for its Preservation; and, secDndly, concern- 
ing the Erection of Kilns at New Malton, in Yojkshne, to ex- 
tract Tar from Tit-Coal, and use the Coke in the Calcination of 
Liimc-stone. By the Hon. and Rev. James Cochrane, Vicar of 
Mansfield, York, 5(c. 8vo. 2s. Mavvman. 
Much 18 here promised, but little is executed to tlie sstisfaction of 
the reader. Mr. Cochrane's manner is rambling and dcbultory ; and, 
as he professes himself to be no chemist, he does iu>t fiecni justified 
in giving a chemical lecture to the agriculturist. The use of marl 
as manure is no novelty, though the directions here given to boil 
peat for that purpose are peifectly new : but we apprehend that 
farmers will require some evidence of the utility of Mr C's specu- 
lations, before they will erect buildings and furnaces on peat-bogs, 
for the purpose of peat-bakin^r and boiling. The specimen of 
thoughts in the two Tracts will justify us in passing over the Ap- 
pendix iu silence, 

SDUCATIOM* 



92 Monthly Catalogue, Educaihn. 

EDUCATION. 

^rt. 7-1. J^cnml irihsiortettes, &c. A Collection of a musinpf Iftdc 
Storic'5 n: n Co'ivcTsaiions: with an t.T^y and progrcsoivc Method 
of construing French into EnghVh. for the Use of young Persons 
learning the French Lanrruagc. By A. Cizos. i2mo. 2 Vols. 
Boards. Trinttd at IJverpool. 

The opinion of a teacher, who can apeak from experience, is tlic 
most debirnble on bocks of instruction in any language: but, as far 
98 we can jndge, the method pursued \i^ thrse volumes is not likely 
to prove beneficial to the pupil. We observe that the English con- 
itn'ction and the pariiv^ are not founded on any just principles of 
|rrammar, and musi continually give erroneous notions of the torcc of 
the language,. and the real meai.jng of the woids. For instance — 
* est ce qvf. — is it betniise ' This gives the sense, it is tiue: but 
not tlic stiict grammiltical sense : for the expression is in reality ellip- 
tical, and que is the accusative singular of qui governed by a verb 
understood. To render it therefore literally, it should be — Is this 
(the «'mise) which (follows^ namely, &c. -Again, in the parsing 
index, to call the expression ' a i^egard de^^ a preposition, is to de- 
ceive a child. It consists of the two preposilions (a and //?,) the 
article {le) ai.d the noun (e ad). These things ought to be taught 
to children simply and truly as they are. 

Art. 22. Itntruct'umjor Toulh^ in a Series of Lectures on moral and 

reli;^'ious Su^jtcrs. Intei.ded for the Use of Schot>ls and FamiliL«. 

Vols. I. nnd II. By Richard Wright. J2mo. 78. Boards. 

V idler, &c. 

persons above the class of youth niay dtrive pleasure and improve- 
ment from thisc lectures, which treat of most important subjects iu 
a very methodical and lucid ir.anner. Animatrd with the commenda-* 
blc desire of estafclibhing the religion of the rising generation on tht 
firmtst baals, of picvcnting the seeds of infidehty from taking root in 
early life, ard of suggtsMiig tho'-e vicv." of the Gospel which are not 
less amiable than jus-t, Mr. Wright prepared and delivered to a num- 
ber of young ptrsons a series of Lectures on the Being, Perfections, 
and Providence ol God, aid on the Evidences, Nature and Design of, 
Christianity. In the liist volume, he endtavou'^s to demonstrate the 
great principles o{ natural ^ and in the second those of revealed reli- 
gion. Throughout ihe whole series, the Lecturer neatly arranges 
his ideas, expresses himself with .perspicuity, and does not tire by 
prolixity. His continual endeavour is to afford to his young friends 
clear apprehensions of religion, to make faith the result of irquiry, 
SJud the profession of Christianity to fpring from a bra? t- felt convic- 
tion of its truth, and an admiration of its divine contents. 1 his is 
the proper method of conducting religious education. AVe should 
first lay the broad foimdation on general principles', before we proceed 
to discuhs the dis^criminating doctrines of particular sects ; and if this 
i:ourse were ad( ptcd, it is very probable ilL-it the church would have 
fcwtr enemies wii bout and fewti Ijigots wiihin. By ptrstveiing in 
that system of religious education which teaches woids viihout ideas, 
jcung persons acquire by dcgiecs a kind of /arro/- devotion i and, as 

Mr. 



Monthly Catalogoi^, Education^ "95 

Mr. Wright observes, 'a man who uses words without ideas is little 
better than a spcakinp^ statue' In the repetition of certain cate- 
chisms, children can be considered as noihirijr better than speaking 
statues; and parents are not sufficiently avVare of the consequences 
of giving their children a habit of using the tongue uncoinucicd with 
the mind. 

We recommend these lectures as calculated to make men religions 
on principle, to cause faith and knowlege to go hand in hand. Mr« 
Wright does not descend to discuss the controverted articles of faith ; 
and so far his observations are adapted to Christians in general : but 
it must not be concealed that his rational and liberal views of the 
Gospel will not be alike acceptable to all partits. 

The first volume contains eiirht lectures, including a preliminary 
address, on the Existence of God— on what can be known of God, 
on his Government and Providence — and answers to the principal ob- 
jections which have been made to his existence and government. 

Volume the second includes an equal number of lectures, on the 
temper of mind in which religious inqniries ought to be pursued — 
on the necessity of revelation— on the historic proofs and credibility 
of theGuspel — on the effects of the Gorpel— -on its nature or distin- 
guishing properties — on its design and purpose — and on the objec- 
tions which have been ur<red against it. 

The design of Christianity is exhibited in ei^iht paiticulirs. i. To 
enlighten the world. 2. To destroy superstition, and to establish the 
doctrine and worship of one God, throughout tlie earth. 3. To 
assure all men of, and to prepare them for, a future state. 4. To 
make all men righteous. 5. To produce universal peace. 6. To 
unite all mankind together as one family. 7. To produce universal 
liberty. 8. To make all mankind happy. 

Such being the design of the rcligi^^n of Jesus, what virtuf>us man 
can be its foe ? or who can help praying for its universal empire ? 

The plan of instruction, which Mr. Wright has contemplated, does 
not appear to be complete ; he will probably, therefore, if he meets 
with cncoarapcment, proceed to a course of moral lectures; which, 
if executed with judgment arid conciseness, will form a valuable addi- 
tion to the present work. 

Art. »3. j^n Introduction to the Use of the Glolesy for T&i/th of loth 
Sfxeii particularly designed for Schools and private Teachers. 
By John Greig. i2mo. 2s. 6d. bound. Crosby and Co. 

This small work will be an useful assistant to young people. 
Some geometrical definitions and constructions are properly prefixed 
to the geographical part, but several of what the author calls his 
0stronomicai paradoxes might, in our opinion, have been advantageously 
omitted. 

Art. 24. J new Introduction to ArUbmetic, By John Greig. 12 mo* 
2s. bound. Crosby and Co. « 

More aoncise, but not, as far as we arc able to discover, m.^rc exact 

or more perspicuous than the generality of books of the same de- 

Kription. 

Art. 



1 

Ip4 MdMTRtT ClTALOGui, Re/igicuh 

Art. 25. Tie TouiVs Treasure ; or, a Treatise on MoralityJ Virtu^; 
and Politeness, enlivened with Anecdotes and Examples. Front 
the French of M. Blanch&rd. i2mo 2s Darton and Harvey. 
These conversations abound In practical instruction for young per- 
sons, and appear to be successfully designed for the purpos^ of inciil- 
tating lessons of humanity, mutual kindness, and a general sense of 
moral and rrligious oblfirah'on. 

* • 

Art. 26. The jfuvenile P'tble : being a brief Concordance of the Holy 
Sciiprure*, in Versf, ice, &c. i2mo. is. 6d. Allen. 
We cannot flatter the antlior of this publication, by stating our 
opinion that his olan is likely to answer his benevolent labours for 
the improvement of young persons in religious kiiowlegC. 

Art. 27. The Tefettope $ or moral Views for Children. 12010. 2f* 

JDarton and Hnrvey. 

The various lessons of virtue, which are inculcated in this little 
Wume, are well adapted to improve the morals, and to cherish the 
benevolent feeling- of young persons. They will find in this collec- 
tion invitations to industry and application, to an open and ingenuods 
conduct, to a taste for simple pleasures, to humanity, and to piety^ 

Art. t%. Exercises on the Globes ; interspersed with some Historical^ 
Biographical, ChronoiogicaK Mythological, and Miscellaneous In- 
formation ; on a new Plan designed for the Use of yo\ing Ladies. 
By William BluIcj. i2mo. 38. 6d. Mawman, &c. 
So many small books, on subjects described in this title-page, are 
tiow submitted to our consideration, that we are not a little puzzled 
in giving an opinion Concerning therti that shall be exactly propor« 
iional to their merits : we Want some scale by which we might at 
once put down (n figures the value of this and of that performance. 
The present work has undoubtedly merit, and contains (if not new) 
Jnuch tf/r/i// information. We prefer a beautiful to a dreary road: 
butj perh<'«p?j the author has too frequently interspersed his clumps of 
Ijuotation, and too frequently interrupted the plam course of instruc- 
tion with the shrubs and flowrets of poetry. 

RELIGI OUS. 

Art 2Q Sacred Hours f or Extracts for private Devotioil and Mc* 
dUation ; coihprehending the Psalms arranged and classed under 
various Heads : together \yiih Prayers, Thanksgivings, Hymns^ 
Stc, &c. principally selected Yrom Scripture : the whole intended 
a3 a Compendium of Divine Authority, and a Companion for the 
Hour of Solitude and Rctlrethent. 2 Vols. i2mo. los. 6d« 
Boards. Ginger. 1 S04. 

This ample title sufficiently indicates the contents of these Vo- 
lumes ; to the publication of which the compiler has been urged hf 
an earnest desire of promoting the habitual exercise of devout con- 
templation. Those passages of Scripture are selected which contaia 
Sublime descriptions of the Almighty, and which are peculiarly cal« 
lafed for devotion and serious meditation. The Psalms are arranged 
iinder tl.e heads of instructive, penitential, supplicatory, thanksgiving, 
prophet icily historic^, and occasional. The Prayers, Hymns, and 

9 pi0ua 



MotTTHLt Catalogue, Religious. ^j 

J)iou« Addresses, extracted from vanoiis modern authors, form no 
improper supplement to the selections from the O. and N. T. ; and 
the whole constitutes an useful manual of scriptural piety, which the 
private Christian may use with advantage, and which may afford to 
the Clergyman .occasional help in suggesting topics for public ex- 
hortation. 

Art. 30. j4 Guide to Heaven c seriously addressed to all who helrere 
the Gospel to be the Word of God. By the Rev. Charles Sleech 
Hawtry, A. B. Vicar of Widston, Monmouthshire. 8vo. pp. 172. 
4s. Boards. Rivingtons. 1805. 

With the truly laudable view of promoting the eternal principles 
of religion, and of inducing Christians to regulate their actions ac- 
cording to the divine standard of the Gospel, this little but important 
Tolume is presented to the public. The reverend author makes no 
attempt to bewilder his readers in the mazes of controversy, but calk 
the attention of those who profess to believe the Gospel to the nu. 
merous and urgent precepts of practical piety which it contains, on 
the subjects of forgiveness, Prayer, Covetousness, Temperance, Hii- 
taility, Justice, Truth, Swearing, Repentance, the Lord's Supper^ 
Charity, Fortitude in Adversity^ Conjugal, Parental, and Filial Love^ 
Masters and Servant Sj Obedience to Governors, and the Conduct of 
the Clergy. 

The passages in the Gospels and £pistleS| which relate to thesb 
topics, are biought together in one view ; to which are subjoined s 
short application and improvement, in the manner observed by Dod- ' 
dridge in his Family Expositor. 

Art. 3 1 . Sermons chiejiy designed to elucidate some of the leading Doc* 
irines of the Gospel. By the Rev. Edward Cooper, Rector of Ham- 
stall Ridwarci Scafiford. 12 mo. pp. 344. 5s. Boards. Cadell 
and Davies. 

This preacher is of opinion that, * of every species of compositioil 
Intruded on the pnblic, Sermon.^ perhaps stand least in need of apo- 
logy.' We, however, must beg leave to differ from Mr. Cooper. Th^ 
pccss has been so inundated with Sermons, that an apology it requisite 
for adding to their number, unless something above mediocrity at 
least be produced. We find passages in the di;,courses before us which 
neatly delineate Christian duty j and Mr. C.'s ardour in supporting 
what he terms * evangelical truth' will be acceptable to orthodox 
readers : but his arguments have often been repeated, and his repre- 
sentations arc not peculiarly striking and impressive. He has given 
one sermon on Christ's yoke, and another on Christ's burden^ as if 
distinct ideas were intended to be conveyed by our Saviour in these; 
two words ; and the volume concludes with a discourse intitlcd 
* Christ the Eieloved, and the friend of his people/ on a texi from the 
'SoDg of Solomon^ chap. v. 16. 

Art. 32. jIn Exhortation to the Duty of Catechising : with Ohscrva- 
V'oQS on the Exccllencj of the Church Catechism. By Edward 
Pearson, B. D Rector of Rempstonc. 1 2mo. /'id. Hatchard. 
We cordially agree with Mr. Pearnon in the fundamentJil principle* 

tf this cxliortation^ and applaud the boldness wiiii which he combats 

thoye 






95 Monthly CatalocJde, Rellgums. 

those wlio may be termed the sectaries of his own church, «. e, thtf 
zealous Calvin istic Clergy ; who, under the self assumed denomination 
o^Evangelkai Ministers, are making a schism in the hody which threat- 
ens serious consequences. Nothing can be clearer than that the Ar- 
ticles and Liturgy of the Church of England are not Calvinistic ; and 
If any farther demonttration of the fact were necessary than that 
which Dr. Kipling has given in his judicious pamphlet on this sub- 
ject* , it will he found in the circumstance mentioned by Mr. Pearson, 
that these Evanjjelical Ministers object to employ the Church Cate- 
chism in the religious education 6f youth. The motive of their ob- 
jection is, as far as it goes, a tecommendation of the Cstcchism to all 
those who wish to have the Deity contemplated as a God of justice 
and mercy, an object of our love and admiration, which he cannot be 
on the high Calvinistic scheme. 

The Church Catechism is but slightly doctrinal, and is chiefly cal- 
culated to impress on the risinc^ generation the practical parts of re- 
ligion, or to make virtuous and amiable members of society. Mr. P. 
wishes that it had noticed the constitution of the Christian Qhurch i^ 
but is this omission any kt-rioiis objection ? If care were taken to in- 
struct the poor in F.ngland, Rimiiarly to the practice in Scotland, 
where every parish ha** its endowed school, (which thi.'? writer recotn- 
mends,) we should no doubt discern the good effects of it in the im- 
proved morals of the poor ; for without previous instruction in the 
iirst principles of religion, preaching mtist be altogether nugatory ; 
and it is instruction which Mr. P. means by catechising. 

Art. 33. The LorrPs Supper considered: in Two Sermons preached 
at Perth, Dec. 2, 180:, on tlie Occasion of the Church assembling 
ill the Tabernacle, commencing the Practice of celebrating that 
Ordinance cvciy Lord's Day. To which is added an Appendix, 
concerning the Sin of eating and drinking unworthily. By Robert 
Little. i2mo. 18. Ogle, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and London. 
Many judicious remarks are made in these discourses, to explain 
the true nature of the Lord's Supper, and to obviate the nfiisconcep- 
tions which prevail respecting it. The preacher's chief object is the* 
enforcement of weekly communion, as the indispensable duty of all 
Christians : but, though supported by the practice of the primitive 
church for a long period, this cannot be said to be expressly enjoined 
in any of the pa8.sagc8 quoted by Mr. Little as containing the scriptural 
history of the origin of the Lord's Supper. The time and mode of 
its celebration seem to be left to the good sense and discretion of 
Christian societies. In the evangelical accounts, no intimation is 
given which could direct the periods of its recurrence ; and in the 
passage quoted from St. Paul's first Epistk to the Corinthians, (ch. 
xi 25.) the word oo-omck, as often^ or <:vhenever, though it intimates a 
something more than an annual communion like the passover. leaves 
Christian churches at liberty on this point. We would therefore pa- 
rody ihe rtpostlc here ; and say, *' Let not him that communicatei 
weekly judge him who communicates less frequently." 



• Sec Rev. Vol. xl. N. S. p. 438. 



POBTRT. 

Art. 34. Fahk$ om Sntficti emrnffded with LiUtakirt. Imilited from 
the Spanish of Don Tomas de Yriarte. J^ Joho Belfour, Etq* 
i2mo. pp. 170. Plat«s. 79. 6d. ia Boards. Richardsons. 
1R04 

If Mr. Belfour be a faithful imitator^ Triarte has obtained more than 
his just praise. Most of these fables are deficient in point and spirit ; 
and the poetnr, in which they are conveyed to the English reader, is 
not mucn calcukted to relieve their intriirsic dulness. That our 
readers, however, may have an opportunity of judging for themselves^ 
we quote the 16th feible, at random : ' 

< THE SPAHaoW AUt) THE NIOHTIKCAIB* 

* Tho' wond'rous great is learning's store^ 
Labour each day adds soniethfng more) 
Science, rejoiced, her hoard may view. 
Yet time to her brings something new % 
Nor is there one whose ample mind, 
Howe'er enUurg'd,— hot*e*er refin*d, — 
Tho' toil and knowledge gifts impart-^ 
Can perfect any wbdL of- an.. 

Yet some, in their own jadgment wlse» . 
As they advavide in life, despise * # 

Those, who th^ir minds pvesame to tea^b^ ' 

Conceiving naught a|3Q.ve their reach t . . .. . ^ 

While they to learning ne'er apply, *^» 

But blockheads live and blockheads die.-* 

* . • • 

' Ye then who pant for useful knowledge^ ' 

la war, on travd, or at coliere. 
Oh ! never, throi^ excess of pride* 
4 Presume instruction to 'deride - 

Children and ibola may teachers spumy 
But wisdom's ne'er tod old to leam.«« 

* As onoe an organ's sprightly sou ad^ 
Del^hted all the village round, 

A Nightingale, that charm'd the plain. 
Folio w'd, well pleas'd, the dulcet st rainy 
** And as the warbler pour'd her throat 
Responsive to the minstrel's note," 
A Sparrow, who had heard the lay. 
Attentive on her osier spray, 
Her rude impervious haunts among, 
Thus critized th' enchantress' song, 

'* It moves my wonder and surprise 
That you, a bird so kam'd and wise. 
Who far mofe qualities can boast 
Than any of the fe ath ered host. 
Should deign a lesson to receive 
From one to wboai you knowledge gitei 
Hit. SivT. 1805. H For 



r. 



'■ 



f Q# Mqhthlt CataloGuk, Potirj% 

o f one of tbe Proctors pf the King ofTrimcCt to cvdtuk the En^tttk 

"om\makmg a Nation in the Council, was received " with a general 
i^urmur as a piece of unjust chicanery /' and when the discission on 
the controversy between the French and the English was undertaken, 
80 far is England from being regarded as an appendage of Ireland, 
that Walts t Scailandy and. Ireland are asserted to belong to England. 
Nothing is said of the. English advocates claiming precedency for 
their monarchs as lords of Ireland onh i but the account cencludet 
with observing that ^* tlie English were maintained in the possession 
of their right, and made a fifth Nation^at tJ^ef had !bn«d the fbtutli 
before the unioi; of the SptuuardtV 

Mr. B. pays a wafoa tribute of comnoendation to the ainiafaJe /Vm, 
/the founder of Pennsylvania^ who established a most tqlerant code of 
laws in this new settlement: but he asserts that the honour of being 
the first to erect a colony composed * of different denominations of 
ehVistians, where the laws respecting IJberty and property, both civil 
and religious, were equally extended to «//, and where no particular 
tect vvas ptrmit^ed to arrogate to itself peculiar advantages/ belongs 
to Czcilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore^ a Catholic. The encomium 
on Lord Baltimore closes with a ^bnce at the condition of his bre- 
thren in Ireland : 

* Cxcilius Calvert, the father of his province, having lived to enjoy, 
^at few men ever possess; the fruits t)f the tree his own hand had 
planted and watered ; died in the beginning of 1676, covered with 
age and reputation, in the firiy-foarti year of his government. On 
his tombstone- ought to be eogravenj * that while fanaticism deluged 
the empire t HE refused his assent to the refeal of a law% 'which^ in the irut 
stirit of Christianity 9 gave Uherly of conscience to allM ! He and hit 
/ather were both Roman Catholics. — Would to God that such a be- 
nevolent code was universal, and that some modern Calvert could 
obtain a^/zn/, to confer peace and happiness on four miliions of my 
distracted country men^ goaded on to rage and rebellion, in the very 
teeth of Christ lanity.' 

Such language is not to be applauded for its discretion. We should 
hence suppose that the Catholics of Ireland were labouring under the 
inost goading restraints ; an<} that their present oppressions justified 
f lebeflion.,* a Statement which we must pointedly reproliate. Ntany 
of the disabiliiicB uudtr which the Catholics lay are now removed; 
and the measures whiih have been adopted in their fjavour have brought 
into general dihcussiQn the question of the impolicy of imposing civil 
disqualifications, on religious pretexts: a discussion which may fairly 
be regarded as a prelude to that equal law which erjoins the same du- 
ties, and confers the same privilegeb, on all the denominations of rtli* 
gious faith. 

Art. 36. The Fig-Leaf, a satincal and. admonitory Foein. ■ Dedi* 
cated without Permission to the Fashionable World. 4to. is. 
. Vernor and Hood. 

Formerly, it was thought that individoals could be ^'touched and 
ihanied by ridicule,'' when tbey were beyond the reach of terions 
cxpostulatioa : but. this period is passed. Now the Fashionable 
Wotld are mdiffcEantto the opinion of the aiukiuide,.«iid are rather 

gratified 



gratified than mortified by satire; The *' Fig -Leaf' will not alarm 
the ladies of the present day ; who will smile at this rhi ning gentle- 
man's interference, and continue to wear as few leaves as their mother 
Eve, till Fashion sliaH command them to be more liberal of their dra*. 
pery. Supposing, howew> that Poetry could plead with the Fair, 
it miust not be such poetry fts that before us $ many parts of which 
require a charitable fig-leaf to be put over them- After having 
taken notice of the pantaloons, the tasselled half boot's, and the 
Spencers of the men, (the last of which are said to foe 'just the 
dandy/ for the purpose, we suppose, of rhiming to * vastly handy,') 
the author proceeds to the dress, or want of dress, of the Ladies : 

' Excuse me. Ladies ! next to you I turn, 
• ' Your dress demands particular coneern ; 

Boldly you with unblushing front proclaim- 
How lost your sex to modesty and shaA^e ! 
And, should the stripping rage much more prevail, 
Decorum's self will ning away her veii ; 
And those restraints, caUM petticoats, discardf 
As LcE her eamphor'bqgi fair virtue's guard ! 
Nay more— 'twill soon be burdensome to bear . 

The pristine leaf which mother Eve did wear ! 
And, since you so much wish t'attract the eye, 

i Pardon, ye fair, the muse's- prophesy !) 
lethinks each buxom damsel wul at last 
Bid bold defiance to the northern blast ; 
And throwing off aU clothing-*-««/^/fx# gear ! 
In furis naturaSbus appear ! 

* No precedent can match your airy dre^ 
Whiqb, while so well contriv'd your limb# tp bless ' 

With rheums and aches, awakens young Desire ; 
Lights m the torch of Lust's unholy fire ; 
And kindles passions not to be supprest, 
Th' unruly tyrants of the human breast ! 
Your want of decency exceeds all bounds. 
And surely to your yrant of sense redounds. 

' But lest the ladies deem me unpoh'te. 
And critics say, devoid of proof I write. 
See yonder fashionable Niide advance. 
As if just landed from licentious France, 
Where modesty, the sex's glorious pride. 
With other virtues, has been laid aside. 
Mark weB her lace and other costly whims ; 
The rich transfarencythtLt shews her limbs I 
Those painted elbows, arms and shoulders bane. 
Which more than tell us that the oymph is lair | 
Her pink silk hose, which, Uusiingf seem to say, 
•* Umore you wieb to inow of ut — you mayP^ 
With all the flimsy pageantry, so comttoQ 
In decking out a fashiapaMf voimui^ . 

H 3 Enougb 



IP^ MoMTRLT CATlLOCtTBy Pnirj. 

i Enough to purchase fifty suits, or more. 

Of plain and useful clothing for the poor.' 

' Wc cannot think that, in such a satirical poem as this, any re- 
ference was requisite to the clothing of Christ and his Apostles ; nor 
that it was necessary to inform us that our Saviour's seamless vest 
was intended to keep his sacred body/rom the cold, and to add in m 
parenthesis, 

* (For subject was he both to cold and heat, 
Which prov'd hiin Man as well as Gob complete.') 

Such mixtures of ludicrous and serious ought not to be tole- 
rated. 

Art. 37. Drunken Bamahfs four Jourmes to the North of Ea^hfui* 
l2mo. pp. 197, '71. boards.. Harding. 1805. 
If an easy command of short doggerel rhymes, in monkish Latin, 
could confer celebrity, this jm d*etprtt might rank among works of 
the firkt reputation. The Latin is manifestly superior to the English 
version : but the world couU} very well dispense with both. At any 
rate, we think that a few select extracts would have been more ac- 
ceptable than an entire edition. The sameness of the incidents, 
which are mostly confined to inebriety and vague amours, soon growa^ 
tiresome, or degenerates into disgust. The adventures of each stage 
are, howeveir, dispatched with becoming breyity | as for example, 

' Vent Leicester ad Camfauamg 
fJbi mentem Isti saaam ; 
Prima nocte milU mo£i 
F!agettaruni me custodesp 
Pel/e tparii sunt Hfwret 
Meat caiiigare mores* 

' Thence I came to the Bell at Leicester, 
Where strong ale my brains did pester } 
First night besure I was admitted , 
By the watchman I was whipped. 
Black anfl blue, hke any tetter, 
Beat I was to make me better.' 

Though we are not such uncourteous critics as to consi^ the pre- 
sent editor to the practical censure of the good town of Leicester, we 
cannot absolve him from the imputation of retaining the coarse and 
offensive passages of the former editions, without extenuation or 
apology. 

Some lines, however, may be cited, which arc ra^er wjtty than 
licentious. Thus, 

* Inprogresiu horeoTt, 

Ut processi ah aurtrali, 

Veni Banbury^ profamMm h 

Vbi vidi Puritanum^ 

Telem farientem furem^ 

Suod Sabiatho, strawt murmn* 



r 



M OinilLT CATALOGUt, Poetry. |03 

* 

• In my progress travelling northward. 

Taking Airewell of the southward, ^ 
To Banbury came 1, O prolane one 1 
Where I saw a Puritane one 
Hanging of hfs cat on Monday, 
For killing of a mouse on Sunday.' 

The half-hanged piper of York is thus oddly commemorated : 

' Iht tihtcen mpprehentut 
Judicoiui et tmpetuus^ 
Plaustro coapUuo fwri^ 
Uhi tthia^ clamant fuert ? 
Nmiquam ludet ampRus BiUte s 
At nescUis^ inquit ilU. 
^od conttgerit memct teste j 
Nam abscissa jugulo restCf 
Uliu fossam furcifer vexit, 
Semi fifortuus resurrcxit: 
Arce reducem ocduMt, 
Uhi vaidi vivitf iusBt*. 

The translation of these lines yields not in merit to the samplet 
already exhibited. 
In page 99, a strange blunder occurs in the translation ; ^ « 

* Fair for beasts at that time fell there. 
But I made my fare (fair) the cellar.* 

Master Barnaby would surely have found the cellar itself a hard 
morsel, not well adapted to bis taste for fluids. 

The gravity with wliich the editor investigates the history of 
Drunken Barnaby is certainly not less ludicrous than the most laugh* 
able parts of the journal. 

Art. 38. Things as they werCf as they are, and as they ought to he, a 
Poem. With an earnest Address to the Land Owners of the 
United Kingdoms. By Thomas Tovcy. 12 mo. 48. sewed. 
Stewart. 

The preface to this volume, which occupies one-half of the work, 
forms a sensible essay on the prebent state of agriculture, and on the 
evils which, result from the monopoly of land in the hands of a few 
rich farmers. The author points out the great advantage of di- 
viding farms into small portions ; and particularly he remarks on the 
obvious utility of allowing some allotment of land to the cottages of 
the Poor. — The Poem, which foUows, first describes ** Things aa they 
were,** or the state of ^he country in earlier timss, when each cctk 
tager had the comfort of plenty around his door ; — and in the second 
part are displayed, on the other hand, the ev3s of ** grinding the 
faces of the poor.''— Of the poetry, we cannot speak in terms of 
high praise. 

Art. 39. Ruth, a sacred Eclogue } and Tolit^ a Poemy mth tvfo se^ 
lect marai Tales ; translated from the Works, and preceded by the 
Life of M. de Florkm, Member of the Academies of France, Ma- 
li 4 drid^ 



IQ4 tlWfll^T GAT4M9Jf ^ Pm^. 

drid» and Florenci;* Bf S. Maxcy. OrBamented vitk Engrav* 
ings. i2ino. cs. bo^rdi. Vernor and Hood. 1S05. 
Instead of translating ^ transhiioi, wc should hate advised Mr. 
Maxey to have followed the example of Dr. B<)oker *, in a poem 00 
the apocryphal story of Tohit*; aad, without being a close copyist 
of the original, so to new ferip and embellish the whole as to produce 
aomethmg of aii epic e.ffect. Had he pursued this course, he would hs^ve 
freed himself from the fetters with which he appears to have been ' 
hampered, and his verse would have acquired more beauty and force. 
We are surprized that he should have followed M. de Florian with 
•uch servility as to put into English the Hnc, 

* Fait tender iwr les yeux un excrement impur* 

The muting anecdote might s&fcly have been spared. Mr. Maxej 
should have dared to mount on the wing of original conception ; and 
then, we hope, for the credit of his muse, such couplets as these 
would never have occurred in his pages : 

* Words cannot their felicity explain, 

Th' angel thought himself in heaven again.* 

* 'Tis him to whom my loVely bride I owe, 
'Tis him who has your sight restoiM to you.' 

The prefixed life of Florian, abridged from the French memoir*, 
will be acceptable to' the English reader : but in this part of the 
work, Mr M. has not been sufficiently attentive to correctness. For 
instance, is the following passage justified by the original ? < The 
labours of the field also occupied p^rt of his time, and varied his plea- 
sures. Whm hay-time, harvest, and the autumnal vintage arrived, 
he associated with the shepherds and shepherdesses in their daily 
toil.* ** Let travGUx de la campagne partageoient aussi tes momeni^ et 
varhient tesplaisirs, ^andri avoit fait une 'bonne action, i/pareouroit 
les prairies ae Florim, en se melant aux jeux innocent dej hergeret de cetie 
/ertilt ionttee," Here no mention is made of the vintage and the bar* 
▼est ; nor is any seasoji of the year assigned for Florian's intercourse 
with the sheperds and shepherdesses : but be is said to have joined 
with them in their innocent sports, whenever his heart was exhiUrated 
by the performance of a good action. 

M. Florian was bom at the castle of Florian, in Lauguedoc, ut 
1755, ^°^ ^>^d ^^ ^ fever, in 1794, in the 39th year of his age. 

Of the select moral tales, subjoined to the poems of Kuth and 
Tobit, the first, intitled the * Spanish Courser,' has a very im* 
probable conclusion ; and the second, called the * French Pullet,' 
n^ay suit the taste of Gallic readers, but we are surprised that Mr, M. 
ahottld think it adapted to English manners. 

Florian; might possibly have degraded the Thames by an epithet- 
eqttivalcot to * foggy;' and a line at p. 106. 

* And those befclde the foggy Thames/ 

induced us to suspect that he had taken this liberty with our beauti- 
ful river : but, on turning to the original, we find that he has only 
ftyled it «/rw^," coU. ' 

f Sec Ren for May last, p. ite. 

Art. 



MtHTHLT CiTALoam> History, (!f^ to; 

▲rt 4^. Thefedkat Works 9fik Auihtfr of tht Heroic Efistk to Sit 
fyUHam ChamAers. Crown 8vo, pp. 133. 4s. 6d. bosrdt. iU 
Phaiips 1805. 

The edkor «f these poemi is Mr. Almon, tfir' ongmal pu!>lnher of 
thcM iodtridaally ; who infovms us that, owing to the difiicahy of 
now procuring complete seti, he has often been solicited Ui reprint 
a nevr aed uniform editioB c£ the wfide. No douht can be cnter^b 
tained that this pablicatioii wiM be generaHy acceptable; and that thoa^ 
who relish the hoxnour and pointed satire, displayed in this author*! 
adatrcd poems, will rejoice in an opportanity of possessing the whofe 
in ooe Tolume. Mr. Almon has hot satisfied the general curiosrty^ bl* 
diaclosinff the name of the author of the Heroic Epistle, tt haa 
been attributed, by many, to Mr. Mason ; but rt k here assorted in 
m note, thmt this report has no foundation ; and the authol- dfsclafma 
tke^'ArduBological Epistle'' ae a production of his pen.-^This col- 
kptioo includes the Heroic Epistle, Heroic Postscnpt, Ode to 
PlAchbeck, Bpittk to Dr. SHebbeare, Ode to Sir Fletcher Norton, 
and the Dcaa and the 'Squire. 

HISTORY^ &c. 

Art. 41. Vhe Baronetage of England , or the history of the English 
Baronets, and such Baronets of Scotland ;is are of English Fa« 
nilies ; with genealogical Tables, and Engravings of their armo- 
rial Bearings ; collected from the present Barouetages, approve4 
Historians, public Records^ authentic Manuscripts,, weil attested 
Pedigrees, and personal Information. By the Rev. Williano Be* 
tham. Editor of the Genealogical Tabled of the Sovereigns of tb<| 
"World. ^ vols. 410. 7K ics. boards. Miller, Lloyd, 3cc4 
1801 — »8o^. 

This copious title-page is a sufficient indication of the nature of 
the undertaking. Of the particular motives to it, Mr. Bet ham thus 
speaks in the preface : ^ Considering that the former compilations of 
this kind are extremely scarce, that numerous changea have taken 
place since the last was published, that several creations have heea 
absorbed in higher titles, several extinct \ and that, since the time 
of 'Wottou's writing, to the end of the year 1800, no less than 26a 
baronets have been added to the list ; th^t of these mdny are the re* 
|»resentatives of anrient families, who have held an important place 
in the commanity ; many the descendants by collateral or female 
lines, of those in whom tides have become extinct ; and many who 
have been raised to- the dignity by the favour of their sovereign, as a 
reward for the honourable discharge of civi) employment, or import- 
ant duties performed in the naval or nnilitary service of the country \ 
I shall not be deemed presumptuous in saying, that a new and cor- 
rect English baronetage is an undertaking highly expediei^t at the 
present moment ; and, if duly executed, worthy the public consi- 
deration and favour.' 

It tt of coarse impracticable for us to judge of the accuralcy of a 
work of this nature: but Mr. Eetham seems to have bestowed great 
pains and aasidoity in c6)kcti?g matetialsj and in fmproving the ar- 
rangement 



1o6 MoNTHLT CATALOCOBy Natural ISstorj. 

ranffemeiit of his predecessors. Biographical particulars ef indm*- 
duals of Dote are so much couuected with general htstoryy that the 
present connpilation is important in this point of view ; and though, 
genealogies and descents constitute not the most attractive reading, 
many events and anecdotes are here intermixed^ which occasionally 
pierce the gloom > and amuse while thev ioform. From many fami- 
liesy Mr. B. has received the fullest raformation ; and in some in* 
stancest perhaps, he has even heen too indulgent in his communica- 
tions. In the article of engravings, also^ the liberality of individuals 
has sometimes decorated the work with ample displays of armorial 
bearings : but, in general, the coats of arms are represented on a di* 
minishcd scalcy one quarto page coDtaining twenty shields. They 
are all very handsomely executed. 

In the preface to Vol. IV. the editor observes that he had then 
completed his original undertaking : but that the augmentations of 
baronets dunng his progress, and the copiousness of his materials, 
induce him to add a fifth volume ; which contains the batx>net8 of 
the united kingdom, down to the latest moment of publication, to« 
gether with a general and comprehensive index, a chronological list 
of baronets, and addenda, \i cotrigenda* 

The immense number of dates, names, and circumstances^ occur- 
ring in a work of this description, must render it impossible to gua- 
rantee its perfect correctness ; and the fluctuating nature of its subject 
must be perpetually creating alterations. Making allawances for 
these considerations, it appears to us that Mr. Betham's Baronetage 
deserves the countenance with which it has been assisted in its pro« 
gress, and the reward of public favour in its state of completion. 

Mr. B. acquaints his readers that he is preparing for the press, 
the histories of the baronets of Ireland and Scotland : the former of 
which he hopes to publish in the spring of 1806, in one volume 
quarto. 

Natural History. 

Art. 42. Account of Indian Serpents f &c. &c. published by order 
of the East India Directors, under the superintendence of Patrick 
Russell, M.D. F.R.S. Imperial folio. VoL II. Part II. iL i6a. 
boards.* Nicol. 

We announced the former parts of this publication, io M. R. voL 
xxvi. N. S. p. 72. and vol. xxxix. p*432. — In the present fasciculus, we 
have th^ce of the Anguu genus, nine of the Coluber, and two of the 
Boat elegantly figured and coloured, with descriptions and re- 
marks. Some of these are venomous, but many of tnem are innoxi- 
ous ; and some are reputed dangerous by the natives, in which Dr. R. 
found no poisonous organs. He observes that the bite of venomous 
serpents of every age is always in some degree dangerous ; and that 
the bite of a young Cfhra de CapeOo^ not more than nine indies long, 
proved fatal to a chicken in a few minutes. 

A venomous Coluber received from Java, without name or mcBio« 
randa, (No. 31.) was found to have large laminae on the head, and 
scales on the trunk not carinated : of the former of which, the cclo'-^ 
hrated French naturalist la Cepede had met with no example, ex. 

pcpt 



r 

I MoMTHtT ClTALOCWf, Natural ITutorf. 107 

) wept 10 the Coiuhef Najaf and the CMfir Hemachate. Dr. Shaw^haf 
marked a third, in the Cohther Pcrjiyrlacus from Neir Holland. 

The Bo^t here described, do not retemble the far-famed Boa Con* 
MrktoTf being small and harmless. 

ft 

Art. 43. PUttis of the Coatt of CorbmandeL By W. Roxburgh, M.D. 

Vol. II. Fasciculus IV *. Folio. 3I. los. coloured. iL is. 

plain. Nicol. 

With equal care and splendour/ this work continues to be offered 
to* the botanical reader ; and a valuable treat it will furnish » to those 
who can afford the purchase. In this fasciculus, we find the subset 
quent pbnta : 

JmtiM Moniana. CyrWa Jquattca. 

— '• Pulcifeila. Hibiscus Canndbintu, 

GraUtda MoHnkria. Dalhergia Volubilis. 

' Grandtfiora* Scandens. 

Uiriatlaria Suuaris. Crotalaria Junaa. 

BoHioel&a Corymhosa* Hidysarum BupIfiurifoTuim. 

Terforata* Indsgofera Linifoia. 



Giidaa Phamaceoidet, X^ntEocymus Pictorius. 

Santeviera ZeyUnica. Termiuaila Cbebula, 

. Damasomum Indkum. —__ ^ BeiUrica% ' 

Syn^horema Involucratum* Mimosa Ebumea. 

Liotrtu Involucrata* ■■ Octandra, 

Airagne Zeyianica* 

The leafcs of the Stmstwra Zeylanka contain a number of fine 
strong kingitudinal white fibres, of which the natives make their bow* 
strings ; and of which Dr. R. thinks the fine line is made which is 
called China grass, used for fishing-lines, fiddle-strings, &c. The pulp 
of the leaves also yields a fine clean flax, and two annual crops of leaves 
nay be obtaivcd in good seasons. Altogethtr, Dr. R. is of opiaioa 
that this plant would be very valaable for culture. 

The Cretaiaria funcea affords hemp to the natives, and very nou* 
fishing food for their milch cows. 

Xanihocymut Fictorius produces apples little inferior in taste to 
many English apples, and, if meliorated by culture, Dr. R. conjee- 
tures, would prova delicious. While green, they copiously yield a 
gum resembling Gumnti GuUSf which makes ' a pretty good water- 
colour, cither by itself as a yellow, or in mixture with other colours, 
to form green^ ^c' 

Timber of considerable size is procured from th^^ TermiHaUa Cbe» 
haUti and the outer coat of the fruit is much used by chintz printers 
and dyers : its astringency serving to fix the colours of the latter, 
and enabling the painters to give better defined outliites co their figures. 
Dr. R. has ako, with this outer coat and salt of steel, made a good 
and durable ink. — Galls are found o» the leaves of tliis tree, with 
which, and alum, the best and most lasting yellow is dyed ; and, in 
conjunction with ferruginous mud, a black is procured from them. 

• . ■ ■ ■ ■ . ^ 

* See Rev. Vol. zxxlv. N.S. p. 310^ and xxxix. p. 211. 

They 



They >re very astringent ; and ike Dr. iipprehrnds tfiat tliey vc thv 
tame with the dru^ intrcxkiced into £nglaad under the name of 
Bengal Beans, FabM BengaUnierf and much recommended for that 
quality — The larva of a coccus, or chcrmes, alto oxcart pxk the 
leaves ; which are replete with a bright nph yellow colour^ J>r. R« 
thinks that, iT these insects could be collected in quantititt, iKe^ 
inight prove as valuable as the cochineal insect. 
A systematical Index lo Voh II. is givea with this Number^ 

MISC^LLlNBOUls. • 

Art. 44. ^ Key to the A^oitoVtc Wrkm^Sy by John Taylor, D.D« 
abridged ; with a preliminary Dissertation on the Scripturet of the 
New Testament. By Thomas Howe. i2mo. 38. 6d* Jbhn- 
fton. 1805. 

From the manner in which St. Peter speaks of the Epistles of lin 
brother apostle St. Paul, wt may fairly infer that they require to be 
perused with attention ; and that, without a key« ordfttary rea<ltrt 
yrtU be liable to misapprehend their meaning. Perceivfng the errors 
vhi«:h prevailed among Christians from a miscfbnception of the terms 
employed in the argumentative parts of Scripture, Dr. Taylor pre* 
fixed to his Puruphruse efU the Epistle to the Rottttins an EiBfiay, in which 
he endeavoured fully ** to explain the Gospel- Scheme, and the prin- 
cipal words and phrases which the Ajpostles have used in de6cr3iiiiff 
it ;" and the very judicious and satisfactory manner, in whid^ this 
learned divine conducted his undertaking, recommended it to the pe- 
yuNil of those who were solicitbu^ of obtsinidg a clear and ratfMal 
¥iew of scripture doctrine. The intelligent mind of the Bishop <»f 
Landaff appreciated its value, and inserted it among the tracia whioh 
he select td for the use of theological students in the University. £x« 
ceptit.g, however, in this inatauce, it has never been published oeptt- 
rately from the paraphrase; and we regard Mr. Howe as having bcesi 
very usefully employed in not only exhibiting it as a detached publi* 
Cfttion, but in freeing it from that perplexity which appertains X/b it 
in its original form, and by which it becomes tiresome to comsiciB 
teaders. His abridgement is indeed executed with care and ability ; 
and the whole is so well concatenated as to afford a complete idea of 
Dr. Tay lot's scheme, and to supersede the necessity of having^ 
Teoour^ to the original essay* Dr. Taylor's mode of explaining the 
words Election^ JustificaiioUf made Smnertf made ngbteousf &c. might 
have led him to a different statement of the doctrine of atonemeac* 
from that which is to be found in the 8th chapter ; in which Mr. 
Howe admits that some obscurity exists, thoi^h he does not consider 
himself as warranted in presenting the subject in another point of 
?icw. 

The preliminary disstrtation iodudes short remarks on the hiAtoriea 
of the N. T., on the doctrines and precepts of Christianity, on the 
prophecies contained in the N. T., and on the apostolic Epistles. It 
forms a suitable introduction to the essay which Mr. Howe hmm 
abridged, is a proof that he has perused the Scriptures with a reflecting 
mind, and will no doubt be very acceptable to many pious readers. 

t8 An. 



VoMTHJLt CataloOuB, MiscellaneBus. 109 

Art. 4r. A Diiserfttthn an the best Miam ofctvirmlng the Stdjecte qf 
the British Empire in InSdy and of diffusing the Light of the Chris- 
tian Religion through the Eastern World. By Francis Wrang- 
ham, M. A. F. R.S. ^tp. 38. Mawman. 18.5. 
Though prophecy teaches us to antidpate the universal extensioA 
of the Go9pel» and though its superior excellence, oompared with eveiy 
ether religious systefliy will induce all benevolent minds to desire the 
iGceleratioii of hs triomphsy it cnust be confessed that at present enor«, 
moQs difficukie* obstract ita progress, and that we cannot as yet pene- 
trate tlie methods by which ^Providence will ultimately accompUsh the 
porposcs of Grace. The good Christian can much more easily praf 
ror the conrersion of the unbtlieving world, than project feasible plans 
for Its accomplishment. We hear and read indeed much on this 
tttbfect, but what has been done ? Eurc^eansy in tlteir idtcrcoursc 
wfth the negroes of Africa, with the savages of America^ and with 
the more ctvrlised yet superstitious natives of populous Asia, have by 
their conduct reflected so little crec^it on the reiigion which they 
pgo fe» cd» that antipathy against rather than veneration for the Chris- 
tian Religion aiust hate beta eKoitcd in the boson^s of the natives. 
Is it likely that the work of proselytism will succeed in our hands ; 
or that a few missionaries, however active and conscientious, will be 
able to counteract the impression made on the inhabitants of the East 
by our general system of conduct ? Providence, it is true, can bring 
good, out of ev3, and turn the interested speculations of commerce^ 
and the bloody nrurches of ambition, to purposes which did not enter 
{ato tlie ooBtemplation of the original actors ; and so far we may hope 
that the Empire, which we have established in India, will be mad< 
luhserviefit to the diffnaion of the Light of the Chnstian Reh'gion 
6ver that part of the world : though, perhaps^ any mcasutes now par* 
tieularly directed to that end will piove abortive. Mr. Wrangham» 
with all hia zeal for the advancement of true religion, is aware that 
the English in India are aukwardly situated for preaching ths Gospeh 
He admits that * in our intercourse with this unhappy country we 
have beea hitherto anxious to increase the nunibec, rather than to pro- 
ante the welfare of our subjects ; that there, are on record numerous 
jnitanrfts of mercantile and military abuse, and of peculators who have 
desolated her streets with famine, and drenched her fields with blood ;^ 
ytthe ventures to hope that we shall make them ample compensation 
ibr the enormous evib which we have occasioned. With poetic 
boldness he predicts thai * from our commerce they will obtain afHu. 
ence, from our manners civilization, from our instruction manliness 
aad independence. A certain portion of our spirit of freedom will be 
difi'used under all the disadvantages of climate, over the plains of 
Hindostan ; and the divine genius of the Gospel will confer eman- 
cipation on millions* who are now groaning under the heavy yoke of 
Brahminical superstition*' If they are not to taste the genius of the 
Gospel till they are enriched by our commerce, we kar that their 
conversion is at a remote distance. 

Among the measures recommended by Mr. W. for the advance- 
flKnt of true religion in Hindostan^ are the destruction of tlie pre- 
dominancy 



tio Monthly Cat ALoGOBi ATuteUtifmut. 

dominancy of the Hindoo priesthood, sod the esuUishment of • 
Christian Cast or tribe. We shall make oo other comment on this 
curious project, than to ask what service has been rendered to Pro« 
sylctism in Ireland by destroying the predominance of the Catholic 
Cfergy, and erecting a Pretesunt Cast \ Is not more seal than dis- 
cretion apparent in such advice \ After having sketched the civil 
and religious wretchedness of Hindostan, Mr. W. might contolc 
himself with the outline of improvement which he has traced, and 
with hailing, in a style of poetic fervour, her dawning glories : bu^ 
we must consider his Disserutioa as displaymg amisU^k caihttsuisfl» 
rather than sound judgment. 

It appears that this essay also, as well as Mr. W.^s poem BOticed 
in our number for May last, was written in competition ioic the 
pnzes lately proposed sn these subjects at Cambridg^, and was like- 
wise unsuccessful. Mr. W. therefore may say that the choice of the 
subject rested not with him : but the ar^ments are his own, and tfC 
the theme itself he is the parent by adopuon. 

Art 46. 7'wo MasMic Addresses ^ delivered in the Lodge of Freedom; 
No. 89, Gravesend, December 27th, i8oj, being the Anniversary; 
of the Festival of St. John the Evangelist, by Brother KilliclC 
R, W. M. ; and Brother John Bryan, I. W. Published at the 
Request of the Lodge. 8vo. is. Aspeme. 1804. 
Of these two addresses, the first, which ts also the shortest, seem* 
to be the best ; and it receives a considerable share of respect horn its 
companion. From each of these harangues, we arc led to conclude that 
Masonry and Virtue are the same ; and that the former toay be styled, 
• if the phrase is allowable, the agriculturist of the human mind, — 
whose anrn is to enrich it with stores of knowlege, both useful and 
ornamental,— between whom and religion there is a close connection.* 
Since such are the spirit and purpose of a Masonic lod^e, we canirc»t 
wonder that Brother Bryan unites with his Superior in earnest cx^ 
hortations to his brethren to appear as champions in its cause, in op- 
position to all profligacy of conduct, and to all infidelity respecting 
divine revelation : — * If that sacred volume, which is most deservedly 
styled, by way of just pre-eminence. The Book, is to be considered as 
a fable, what, I would ask, is to become of all that is dear and valuable 
to Masons > — nay, to tSX mankind?* 

Art. 47. Galerio and Nerisso, including original Correspondence, 
the History of an English Nobleman and Lady ; several poetical 
TlfFusions, and a few domestic Anecdotes. 8vo. 4s. Boards.' 

Jordan and Co. 

It may be doubted whether readers in general will be much inte- 
rested by the subject of this correspondence : but some will be occa- 
sionally affected by the events which occur, and^ will give way to 
emotions of tenderness and compassion. The incidents, the author 
ioforms us, are not the idle fiction of the moment, but a faithful re- 
lation of well-authenticated facts ; and the period, to which they are 
said to belong, is the latter part of the reign of James the Second.^ 
Whether they may be deemed real or fictitious, it is but justice to 
the writer to state that he has not attempted, as is too often the case» 

t7 by 




MOMTHLT CATALOaUB» MisCilUfUms. 1 1 1 

\ff groM improbaUUties orlioentioas descnptiooH to disturb theimi* 
filiations or conupt the hearts of his readers. ^ 

The poems, which are subjoined to the letters, are. in manT in« 
staaoes agreeable and well written compositions of the kind, though 
Tarioua cnors and defects occurred to our notice. 

Art. 48. Ohservailotu art the WestlnSa Dock Sa/ariest in a Letter 
addressed to Handle Jackson , Esq. Barrister at Law. 8vo. is. 
Stockdale* 

This writer contends that the honour and patronage attached to 
the situation ought to satisfy the Directors of the Wen. India Dodts 
for their trouble, without pecuniary remunerations in the form of 
salaries. It is true that the Bank and East-India Directors hare 
sslaries : but the Dock Directors must not, it ir< hinted^ presume 
to quote such high authorities. * Masters only of one solitary mil^i 
Ikm, (says the author of this letter,) it ill behoves us to assimilate 
•arselves to the makers of money and the rulers of men*' 

Art. 49* j1 calm jippealto tie Consciences of the Bank Directors, By 
Henry Wlu'te, seventeen Years a Clerk in the Bank of England. 
Svo. IS. 6d. Morton. 

When appeals are made to the public, complaining of personal in- 
jury, the whole of the case should be most fully stated. Mr. White 
has not explained the supposed ground of his dismission from the ser« 
vice of the Bank Directors ; he only avers his honour and integrity ; 
which perhaps no individual calls in question. We shall not hazard 
the slightest conjecture respecting the nature of this gentleman's of* 
fence, but we feel for him on the score of mortification and pecuniary 
loss ; and we hope that the Bank Directors, whether they be or hie 
not moved by his calm appeal, will attend to the hints of a public 
nature which he has suggested : particularly to that which respects 
the affixing a mark on every person's transfer who is selling stock, if 
any dividend remains due on it ; and that the person be asked whe* 
ther he has received the same ; for it often happens that stock is sold, 
when the dividend due previously to the transfer is never received* 
the individual ignorantly supposing that it belonged to the person to 
whom the stock is transposed. 

Art. 50. A Letter to the Rev, George Burner, occasioned by his Scr* 
mon on Lawful Amusements ) preached at the Thursday Evening 

Lecture, Fetter-Lane, Jan. 10, 1805. 8vo. is. 6d. Symonds. 

/• 

Art. 51. Postscrtft to the Litter to the Rev. George Border f occasioned 
by his Appendix to his Sermon on Lawful Amusements. Svo. 
IS. 6d. Symonds. 1805. 

Temporary relaxation from business being as necessary to maintain 
the vigour of edr faculties, as the unstringing of the bow to preserve 
its elasticity, amusements (abstractedly considered) cannot be pro« 
Bounced either unlawful or immoral. Like many other things, however, 
they are not only capable of being abused, but are in fact greatly per- 
verted. The preacher, when he adverts to this subject, is bound to 
discriminate between the use and the abuse of amusements, and should 
ofier directrons by which oar morals may be protected in the hours of 

relaxations 



ruination s Ikit ho ii no more juitified in loosr ind gioerri'deohlMU 
tioDS against amusementa' than against the ondtnary calliaga of life | 
for iheacy like the former, ^n^e oapoUe of being proaecoted to a ficiooa 
excess. On this ground, the author of the Letter and Postacript 
before us joins issue wkh Mr« Bnnder ( to whom we feeoaimend thm 
COMideration of these* sensible lifnts# Qround for reprehension cer- 
tainly exists in our theatrical exhibitions,, which it should be the 
atudy of those who preside over and control them f o remove : but it 
is- absurd to contend that the pleasures which resuU from the drama 
are incompatible with the duties of a Christian. — The Letter- writer's 
pbject is to expostulate with the preacher on his narrow and gloomy 
views of religion ; to induce him to be more liberal and temperate in 
^ Us. censures; and to convince him that admonition, in order to its 
being really persuasive and useful, ^nust be the result of good sense. 

Aft. 5a* Tyfogrufbual Marls ^ wed. m corfitOa^ Froeft, ^plaimd 
and exempMedf tor the Use of Antlura. By C. Stower, Friatci^ 
8vo. IS. Longman and Co. 

In a concise form, and at a cheap rate, Mr. Stower has given to 
young authors some useful advice on tfie^mode of correctine Proofs, 
4>f- which they are generallv very ignorant, and by which ignorance 
the Printers are often much incommoded : but he should hare also ap- 
prized them that there is such a book as the Printer's Grammar, where 
all the information contained in his pamphlet is to be found. Mr. 
Stower has indeed exemplified the application. of the typographical 
rtarks in an annexed plate, which is a more specific mode than tht 
printer's Grammar exhibits. 

Cork ESPOMDE MCB. 

^ Constant Roader informs us that, in consequence of oui'sugges- 
tion, in the account of the Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles^ ^ prepara* 
tions have for some time been making, roi an extenbive scale, for publish- 
iBg a work in which, though provision is made for other interesting 
natters, the Natural Sciences, and their relations to Arts Sciences, Ma- 
pufactures, 8cc will be primary objects of attention.* He adds that 
no labour wiil be spared in collecting every useful fact of foreign or 
domestic intelligence ; and that the size of the work will be accord- 
ing to our recommendation in reviewing Sonnira's.Dict.'Qf Nat^ Hit* 
tory, namely, 8vo. with 4to platen ---^We have, not yet obtained the 
additioiial^ ftvraUon of the Diet, des Sciences Jiaiiarelks^ nteptiooed.by 
our correspondent* 

We have received a letter froni Professor Leslie, acquainting ua 
ibat he. did not see Count Rnmford's- statenxent respecting his £x» 
perimeats on Heat, inserted in our last month's CorrespondencCf 
tiase enough to enable hini to reply to h in this Review : but that 
bis iatentioB is to prepare an answer for publication in our Octobier 
oMmber. 



It does not occur to us that we have made anypromise on tbesub« 
ject to which o«r correspondent at Manchester rexcrs* 

^^^ The Appbmdiz to Vol. xltii. of the M* R. is pubKaked 
with this Number, 



THE 



MONTHLY REVIEW, 

For OCTOBER, 1805. 



Art. I. Madocy by Robert Southcy. 4to. pp. 560. ll. %€* 
I^ards. Printed at Edinburgh^, for Longman and Co.> London. 
1805. 

Tt has fallen to the lot oC this writer to puzzle our critical 
'- discernment more than once. In the Annual Anthology ^ we 
had reason to complain that it was dii&cult to distinguish his 
jocular from his serious poetry ; and sometimes indeed ta know 
his poetry from prose. He has now contrived to manufacture 
a large quarto, which he has styled a poem, but of what de« 
scription it is no easy matter to decide. The title of epic, 
which he indignantly disclaims, we might have been inclined 
to refuse his production, had it been claimed ; and we suppose 
chat Mr. Southey would sot suffer it to be classed under the 
mock-heroic. The poem of Madoc is not didactic, nor elegiac^ 
nor classical, in any respect. Neither is it MacphersontQ^ nor Klop^ 
stockiany nor Dariuinidn, — we beg pardon, we mean Brookian. 
To conclude, according to a phrase of the last century, which 
was applied to ladies of ambiguous character, it is 'what it is. — 
As Mr. Southey has set the rules of Aristotle at defiance in his' 
preface, we hope that he will feel a due degree of gratitude 
for this appropriate definition of hia work. It is an old say^ 
ixig, thoroughly descriptive of such an old song as this before 
us. 

Mr. Southey, however, l^s not disdained all antient pre- 
cedents in his poem, JFor he introduces it with this advertise- 
ment: 

< Come, listen to a tale of times of old ! , 

Come, for ye know me ! I am he who sung 
The maid of Arc ; and I am he who framed 
Of Tha]aba t}ie wild and wonderous song. 
Come, listen to my lay, and ye shall hear 
How Madoc from the shores of Britain spread 
The adventurous sail, explored the ocean ways, ^ 

And quelled barbarian .power, and overthrew 
^ The .bloody altars of idolatry, 

VouxLTni. I . An4 



114 %io\xiiity*s MaJoCf a Poem* 

And planted in its bnes triumphantly 

The cross of Christ. Come, listen to my lay T 

This modest ostentation was certainly dtrivcd from the rersn 
imputed to Virgil ; 

** lile ego f qui quondam graciU tnodulatm avena 
Carmen \ et egrejfui syivisf wina coegi 
Ut quamvis avido far event arva colonoy 
Gratum opus agricolis : at nunc horrentia Martis^ 8ccJ^ 

In the very first part of the poem, also, we find Mr. Southey 
pursuing the Horatian precept, *^ prontmpere in tnedias res i*^ 
for he commences with the return of Madoc k> his native 
country. It is true that, like the Messenger in-Macklin's tra- 
gedy, he " goes but to return ;" and the critic is tempted to 
say, with Martial, toto carer e possum* — Thus the grand interest 
of the work^ which ought to consist in exploring a new worlds 
is destroyed at once, by the reader at his outset encountering 
the heroes returning " soUnd, wind and limb,'^ to their na- 
tive country. It may be said that Camoens has thrown a 
great part of Da Gama's Voyage into the form of a narrative ^ 
but he has also given much in description ; enough, at I^ast^ 
to have justified Mr. Southey In commencing rather nearer the 
commencement of his tak. 

That he might withdraw himself entirely from the yoke of 
Aristotle, Mr. Southey has divrded his poem into two parts» 
instead of giving it a beginning, a middle, and an end. One 
of these parts is concisely intitled, / Madoc in Wales / the 
other, * Madoc in Aztlan.* A middle mip[ht, however, have 
been easily found, by adding, Madoc on Shipboard. — ^^fhc first 
of these Anti Peripatetic parts contains 18 divisions; the se- 
cond, 27, which include every incident, episode, &c. intro^ 
duced into the poem. This arrangement gives it very much 
the appearance of a journal versified, and effec^uaHy precludes 
any imputation of luxuriance of fancy in the plot. 

Respecting the manners, Mr. Southey appears to havebeea 
more successful than in his choice of the story. He has ad- 
hered to history where he could discover any facts adapted to his 
purpose ; and when*history failed him, he has had recourse to 
probability. Yet we own that the nomenclature of his heroes 
nas shocked what Mr. S. would call our prejudices. G§ervj^ 
and Ririd and Rodri and Llalan may h^ve charms for Cambrian 
ears, but who can feel an interest in Tezozomoc, T/ata/a, or 
Ocelopan ? Or, should 

' ■ * Tyncio, Merini, 

Boda and Brenda and Aelg;yvarch, 
Gwynou and Cclyain ^nd Gvtrynodyl,! (p« 129*) 

« Those 



SoatheyV Madoc^ a Poem. tXj 

" Those ragged names to our like mouths grow sleekf 
That would have made Qujfiuliao stare and gasp */' 

how could we swallow Tuhidthiton^ Coanocot%'m^ and^ above all, 
the yawning jaw-dislocating Aynyaca? — These torturing 
words, particularly the latter, remind us so strongly of the 
odious cacophony of the Nurse and Child, that they really are 
nor to be tolerated. Mr. Southey's defen *e (for he has partially 
anticipated this objection) is that the names are conformable to 
history or analogy, which we are not inchned to dispute : but 
it is not requisite to tread so closely in the traces of barbarity. 
Truth does not constitute the essence of poetry : but it is in« 
dispensably necessary that the lines should be agreeable to the 
ear, as well as to the senst. Sorry, indeed, we are to com- 
plain that Mr. Sottthty, in attempting a new method of writ* 
ing, — in professing to set aside the old models, and to promote 
his own work to a distinguished place in the 1 ■ bra ry,-^has failed 
to interest our feelings, or to excite our admiration. The dull 
tenor of mediocrity, which characterizes his parses, is totally 
unsuitable to heroic poetry, regular^ or irret»ular. Instead o£ 
viewing him on Tijiery Pegasus^ and <^ snatching a grace beyond 
the reach of art,'* we behold the author mounted on a strange 
animal, something between a rough Welsh poney and a Peru* 
vian sheep, whose utmost capriole only tends to land him in 
the mud. We may indeed safely compliment Mr. Southey, by 
assuring him that there is nothing in Homer, Virgil, or Milton^ 
in any degree resembling the beauties of Madoc. 

Whether the expedition of Madoc, and the existence of a 
Welsh tribe in America, be historically true, it is not our pres<fnt 
business to examine. It is obvious, however, that one great 
object of the poem, the destruction of the altars of idolatry, had 
failed ; for it is not pretended that the supposed descendants 
of Madoc remained Christiana. 

We shall now make sonae extracts from this poem, which 
will enable our readeis to judge whether we have spoken too 
ieverely of Mr. Southey's labours . 

' Fair smiled the evening, and the favouring g^ 
Sung merrily, aiid switt the steady bark 
Rushed roaring' through the waves. ' 

The sun goes down. 
Far off his light is on the naked crags 
Of Penmanmawr, and Arvon'a ancient hills ; 
And the ]a^t glory lingers yet awhile, 
Crowning old Snowden's venerable head. 
That rose amid his mountains. Now the ship 

♦ Milton. 

1 J Drew 



1 



ji<J Zonthtj^s MadoCf a Poem* 

Drew nigh where Mona, the dark island, stretched 

Her shore along the ocea&'s b'ghter h'nc. 

There through the mist and twilight, many a fire 

Up flaming, streamed upon the level sea 

Red lines of lengthening light, that, far away 

Rising and falling, flashed athwart the waves. 

At that did many a thought of ill disturb 

Prince Madoc's mind : . . . did some new conqueror seize 

The throne of David ? had the tyrant's guilt 

Awakened vengeance to the deed of death ? 

Or blazed they for a brother's obsequies. 

The sport and mirth of murder ? . . . Like the lights 

Which tliere upon Aberfraw'i royal walls 

Are waving with the wind, the painful doubt 

Fluctuates within him. . • Onward drives the galCf 

On flies the bark, . . and she hath reached at length 

Her haven, safe from her unequalled way ! 

And now in louder and yet louder joy, 

• Ckmoroua, the happy mariners all-hail 
Their native shore, and now they leap to land. 

I 

•'There stood an old man on the beach, to wait 
The comers frort the ocean ; and he asked. 
Is it the Prince ? And Madoc knew his voicey 
And turned to him, and fell upon his neck ; 
For it was Uricn, who had fostered him, 
Had loved him like a child ; and Madoc lored^ 
£ven as a fjather loved he that old man. 

• My sister ? quoth the ptince. . . Oh, she and I 

Have wept together, Madoc, for thy Ipss, . . 
That long and cruel absence ! . . . She and Ij 
Hour after hour, and day by day, have looked 
'Towards the waters, and with achihg.eyes. 
And aching heart, sate watching .every sail. 

•« And David, and our brethren ? cried the prince,^ 
As they moved on. ... But then old Uricn's lip» 
Were slow at answer ; and he spake, and paused 
In the first breath of uttcraoce* as to chuse 
Fit words for uttering some unhappy tale. 
More blood, quoth Madoc, yet I Hath David's fear 
Forced him to still more cruelty ? Alas . • . 
Woe for the house of Owen ! 

* Evil 8tara« 
Replied the old man, ruled o'er thy brethren's birth. 
From Dolwyddelan driven, his peaceful home. 
Poor Yorw^crth sought the church's sanctuary ; 
The murderer followed \ . . Madoc, need I say 
Who sent the sword ?. . . Lleweyln, his brave boy, 
^ " Where wanders he ? in this his rightful realm* 

Housdess and bunted i richly would tde king 

Gift 



Sottthcy V MadoCi a Poem. 1 1 7 - 

CiTt the red hand that rid him of that fear I * ' 

Rind, an outlawed fugitive, as yet 

Eludes his brother's fijry ; Rodri lives, 

A prisoner he, • . I know not in what fit 

Of natural mercy, from the slaughter spared. 

Oh, if my dear old master saw the wreck 

And scattering of his house ! '. . . that princely race ! 

The beautiful band of brethren that they were V 

This long passage contains instances of Mrj Southey's peca- 
liarity of manner, both in his success and failure. The descrip- 
tion is sometimes striking; and even brilliant for a moment: but 
the action and the manners are he^ivy, and we must add, mean. 
We will repeat, at tl^c hazard of being called prcjadired and 
pedantic, that this is not the simplicity of Homer and Milton ; 
and that an historical poem requires elevation in the thought 
and language. If the author cannot support his work with proper 
dignity, he should choose a diflFerent task. 

We shall again try the effect of a rather long quotation from 
another part of the work. . It is the song of Caradoc, the bard : 

* Last of the aspirants, as of greener years. 
Young Caradoc advanced ; UU lip as yet 
Scarce darkened with its down, his flaxen locks 
Wreathed in contracting ringlets waving low ; 
His laree blue eyes were bright, and kindled now 
With that same passion that inflamed his cheek ; 
Yet in his cheek there was the sickliness 
Which thought and feeling leave, wearing away 
The hue of youth. Inclining on his harp. 
He, while his comrades in probation song 
Approved their claim, stood hearkening, as it seemed^ 
And yet lilce unintelligible sounds 
He heard the symphony and voice attuned ; 
Even in such feelings as, all undefined. 
Come with the flow of waters to the soul. 
Or with the motions of the moonlight sky. 
But when his bidding came, he at the call 
Arising from the dreamy mood, advanced. 
Threw back his mantle, and began the lay. 

• Where are the son* of Gavran ? where his tribe. 
The faithfid ? following their bt loved Chief, 
They the Green Islands of the Octan sought. 
Kor human tongue hath told, nor human ear. 
Since from the silvcr-^borca they went their way. 
Hath heard their fortunes. In his crystal Ark, 
W^hither sailed Vlerlin with his band of Bards, 
Old Merlin, master of the mystic lore ? 
Belike his crybtal /\rk, instinct with life. 
Obedient to the mighty Master, reached 

I 3 The 



^l8 SouthcyV Madoe^ a Poem. 

The Land of the Departed ; there, belike. 

They in the clime of immoriality, 

The^l^elve8 immortal, drink the gales of blisSf 

That oVt Fiathinnis breathe eternal spring, 

That blend whatever odours make the gale 

Of tvening sweet, whatever melody 

Charms the wood traveller. In their high roofed hallSf 

There, with the Chiefs t)f other days, feel they 

The mingled joy pervade them ? . Or beneath 

The mid sea waters, did that crystal Ark 

Down to the secret dtpths of Ocean plunge 

Its fated crew ? Dwell they in coral bowers 

With Mermaid love>, teaching their paramours 

The songs that btir the sea, or make the winds 

Hubh, and the waves be still ? In fields of joy 

Have they their home, where central fires maiotaia 

} erpetual summer^ where one emerald light 

Through the green clement for ever flows ? 

* Twice have the sons of Britain left her shores. 
As the fledged eaglets quit t^eir native ntst ; 
1'wice over ocean have her fearlesa nons 
For ever sailed away Again they launch 
Their vessels to the deep. . . Who mounts the bark i 
Tht Son ot Owen, the beloved Prince, 
Who never for injustice reared his arm. 
Re>pect his enterprize, ye Ocean Waves ! 
Ye Winds ot Heaven, waft Madoc on his way ! 
The Waves of Ocean, and the Winds of Heavea 
Became his ministeis, and Madoc found 
The world he sought. 

Who seeks the better land ? 
Who mounts the vessel for the world of peace ? 
He who iiaih ielt the throb of pride, to h^ar 
Our old illubtiious annals ; who waa taught 
To lisp the lame of Arthur, to revere 
Our Caratach's unconqucred soul, and call 
That gallant chief, his countryman, who led 
The wrath oi Britain, from her chalky shores 
To drive the r oman robber. He who loves 
His country, ai.d who tecls hi» country's shamCy 
Whose bones amid a land of btrviiude 
Could never rest in peace ; who, li he saw 
His cliildren slaves, would feci a pang iu heaveOj • • 
He mounts ttie bark, to seek for liberty. 
Who seeks the better laud ? The wretched one. 
Whose joys axe blasted all, whose heart is sick, 
Who hath no hope, to whom all change h gain. 
To whom remembered pleasures strike a pang 
Which on y guilt siiouid know, . .he mounts the bark* 
The 15ard.wiJLL mount the bark of banishment} 

The 



SouthcyV MaAcf a fotnu 1 19 

Tbe harp of Cambria shall, in other lands. 

Remind the Cambrian of his fathers fame ; . • 

The Bard >vill seek the land of liberty. 

The world of peace. . . . O Prince, receive the Bard I 

* He ceased the song. His cheek, now fever-flushed. 
Was turned to Madoc, and his asking eye 
Lingered on 'him in hope ; nor lingered long 

The look expectant ; forward sprung the Prince, 
And stretched to Caradoc the right-hand pledge. 
And for the comrade of his enterprizc. 
With joyful wel'comc, hailed the joyful Bard. 

* Nor needed now the Searcher of the Sea 
Announce hii enterprize, by Caradoc 

In song announced so well ; from man to man 

The busy murmur spiead, while from the Stpne 

Of Covenant the sword was taken up. 

And frona the Circle of the Ceremony 

The Bards went foitK their meeting .ao.w fulfilled* 

The multitude, unheeding all beside. 

Of Madoc and his noble enterprize 

Held stirring converse on their homeward way;. 

And spread abroad the tidings of the Land, ' 

Where Plenty dwelt with Liberty and Peace.' 

It is evidear, on a review vf this jnssage, tliat even the 
touches of better poetry, which may ^e remafked in ;the lay of 
tbe bard, are injured by rusticity aping simplicity. — ^The re- 
^rrence of tlie word * belike' is unhappy, and the meeting is 
dissolved more In the style of a field-preaching, than of the 
august assembly which the author meant to describe. 

Now ior the truth' of Costume : 

* Now the Messenger 
Entered the hall ; Goagan of Powys-land, 
He of Caer-Einion was it, who was charged 
From Gwyneth to Deheubarth ; a brave man, 
Of copious speech. He told the royal son 
Of GryfBdd, the descendant of tlie line 
Of Rys-ab-Tudyr-mawr, that he came there. 
From David, son of Owen, of the stock 
Of kingly Cynan. I am sent, said he. 
With friendly greeting ; and as 1 receive 
Weloeme and honour, so, in David's name. 
Am I to thank the Lord of Dinevawr.* 

This may l>e very delightful on the W^e^ but it does not stir 
OUT hearts on the banks of the Thames. 

It would only fatigue the patience of the readei;, to pursue 
the course of this ponderous work. A greater waste of exer* 
lign we have Seldom witnessed, an^ a more seveic trial of our 

1 4 patience 



SoutheyV JUad&c, a Poem. 

patience we have hardly ever sustained. We shall therefore 
close our extracts with the description of Madoc's single com- 
bat with an Indian, in which the author has all the advantage 
of novelty in describing his infidel : . 

« The King of Aztlan 
Heard and beheld^ and in his noble heart 
Heroic hope arose. Forward he moved. 
And) in the shock of battle^ front to^ fronts 
Encountered Madoc. A strong staturcd man 
Coanocotzin stood, one well who knew 
The ways of war, and never yet^ in fight. 
Had found an equal foe. Adown his back 
Hung the long robe of feathered royalty ; 
Gold fenced his arms and legs ; upon his helm 
A sculptured snake protends the arrowy tongue ; 
Around^ a cpronet of plumes arose, 
Brighter than beam the rainbow hues of light. 
Or than the evening glories, which the sun 
Slants o'er the movmg many-coloured sea. 
Such their surpassing beauty ; bells of gold 
Embossed his glittering helmet, and where'er 
Their sound was heard, there lay the press of war. 
And Death was busiest there. Over the breast. 
And o'er the golden breastplate of the King, 
A feathery cuirass, beautiful to eye, 
Light as the robe of peace, yet strong to save ; 
For the sharp faulchion's baffied edge would glide, 
From its smooth softness. On his arm he held 
'A buckler, overlaid with beaten gold. 
And so he stood, guarding his thighs and legs. 
His breast and shoulders also, with the length 
Of his broad shield. 

* Opposed, in mail complete. 
Stood Madoc in his strength. The flexible chains 
Gave play to his full muscles, and displayed 
How broad his shoulders, and his ample breast* 
Small was his shield, there broadest where it fenced 
The well uf life, and gradual to a point 
Lessening ; steel- strong, and wieldy in his grasp. 
It bore those blazoned eaglets, at whose sight. 
Along the Marches, or where holy Dee 
Through Cestrian pastures rolls his tamer stream. 
So oft the yeoman had, in days of yore, 
Cursing his perilous tenure, wound the horn. 
And warden, from the castle- tower, rung out 
The loud alarum-bell, heard far and wide. 
Upon his helm no sculptured dragon sate. 
Sate no fantastic tenors ; a white plume 
Koddcd above, far-seen, floating like foam 

8 0" 



Sonthey^s Madoc^ a Poem. lat 

Qn the war-tempest* Man to man they stood^ 
The King of Aztlan and the Ocean Chief. 

* Fast, on the intervening buckler, fell 
The Azteca'8 stone faulchion. Who hath watched 
The midnight lightnings of the summer storm. 
That, with their aweful blaze, irradiate heaven, 
Then leave a blacker night ? so quick, so fierce 
Flashed Madoc's sword, which, like the serpent's toogvCy 
Seemed double in its rapid whirl of light. 
Unequal arms ! for on the British shield 
Availed not the stone faulchion's bn'ttle edge» 
And, in the golden buckler, Madoc's sword 
Bit deep. Coaaocotzin saw, and dropt 
The unprofitable weapon, and received 
His ponderous club, • . that cluh, beneath whose force. 
Driven by his father's arm, Tepollomi 
Had fallen subdued, . . . and fast and fierce he drove 
The massy weight on Madoc. From his shield^ 
The deadening force, communicated, ran 
Up his stunned arm * anon, upon his helm. 
Crashing, it came ; • « his eyes shot fire, his brain 
Swam dizzy, . . he recoils, . • he reeb> • . again 
The club descends* 

* That danger to himself 
Recalled the Lord of Ocean. On he sprung. 
Within the falling weapon's curve of death. 
Shunning its fustrate aim, and breast to breast 
He grappled with the King. The pliant mail 
Bent to his straining limbs, while plates of gold, 
The feathery robe, the buckler's amplitude, 
Cumbered the Azteca, and from his arm. 
Clenched in the Briton's mighty grasp, at once 
He dropt the impeding buckler, and let fall 
The unfastened club ; which when 'the Prince beheld,^ 
He thrust him off, and, drawing back, resumed 
The sword which from his wrist suspended hung, 
A nd twice he smote the king ; twice from the quilt 
Of plumes the iron glides ; and lo i the King, 
So well his soldiers watched their monarch's need« 
Shakes in his hand a spear. 

* But now a cry 
Burst on the ear of Madoc, and he saw 
Through opening ranks, where Urien was conveyed 
A captive, to his death. Grief, then, and shame 
And rage inspired him* With a mighty blow 
He cleft Coanocotz ill's helm ; exposed 
The monarch stood ; . • again the thunder stroke 
Came pn him, and he fell. • . The multitude. 
Forgetful of their country ^nd themselves. 
Crowd round their dyiDg King*' 

If 



t tx Johnson'/ History ofAnmal ChtmUtrj^ 

If the perusal of the3e and the preceding verses shoold 
tempt any of our readers to purchase Mr. Southey's volume, 
we can warrant equal entertainment in all its other parts, and 
shall heartily ^ish the gentleman all happiness with his poet.— — 
To us, there appears a thorough pcrveision of taste^ in the 
conception and execution of the whole ; and we are disgusted 
with the tameness of the verse, the vulgarity of the thoughts* 
and the barbarity of the manners. If this style of writing be 
continued, we may expect not only the actions of Vindoma- 
Tus or Ariovistus to be celebrated, but we may perhaps see 
the history of the Cherokees, Choctaw s, and Catabaws, versi- 
fied in quarto. The name of AtakuUa-kulla would be not in* 
harmonious, compared with some of Mr. Southey's heroes* 
Indeed^ a very interesting pciem might be founded on the storjr 
of Focahumas, as it is detailed by Smith, in his History of the 
Settlement of Virginia ; and if Mr« Southey should meditate 
another irruption into the territories of the Muse, we would 
recommend this subject Co his attention. 

It must be remarked that this is a very handsome and ele- 
gantly printed book, ^ith engraved title-pages, vignettes, &c« 
and had the poet equalled the printer, his work might have 
•tood on the same slielf with those of our most admired 
writers. 



Aar. 1 1 • Hht9ry of ibe Progrtu and present Si^Ue of Animal Chemistry * 
By W. B. Johnson, M. B. 8vo. 3 Voli. il. ^t. Boarda. 
Johnson. 

nPHAT part of chemistry, which treats of animal substances^ 
-^ is yet in a much more imperfect state than any other 
branch of the science^ This deficiency arises, in a gieat mea« 
sure, from the peculiar nature of these substances ; their com- 
position is less simple, and the elements of which they are 
composed are less intimately united together, than the ge- 
nerality of either vegetable or mineral bodies \ while the tend- 
ency which the component parts have to enter into new com- 
binations, or to assume the gaseous form, renders the resulta 
of their analysis complicated and uncertain. It is to be attri- 
buted to these causes, rather than to any want of interest in 
the sul^ject, that so little progress has been made in this part 
of chemistry ; for both in our own country and in France, 
some of the most distinguished experimenters have devoted to 
it a large share of their attention. Hence, though experi- 
tiients are daily multiplied, lew general principles are obtained^ 
Awd it becomes continually more difficult to acquire and retain a 
Iknowlege of xhc real advances in animal chemistry, and of the 

14 doubtful 



Johnson^ History of Ammal Chemhtrj^ lij 

A>ubtrul points whjch still Trmain to be investigated. It Is pb- 
vious, from these considerations alone, that a work, which 
«h:iU present a faithful detail of the duccessive discoveries that 
have been made in the chemistry of animal bodies» and a per- 
spicuous view of the picsent state of the science, will be of 
essential service to thos'* who arc interested in its promotion. 

The fit St requisite for the proper accomplishment of this 
task is diligence in the collection of m^terinls : but this is per- 
haps the least difficult part of the undertaking. Owing to the 
peculiar nature of the subject, much discernment must be ex- 
erted in the selection of tho«e circumstances which are justly 
intitled to the r.mk of well authenticated facts, from the large 
m«iss of undigested matter ; in accurately ascertaining the de- 
gree of inipoftaii^c which should be attached to any individual ' 
experiment ; and in dccidmg between opposing, and sometimes 
apparently equal authoTirics. He who undertakes to produce 
a complete system of. anmial chemistry will very frequently 
have bis judgment exercised on all these points. The cause, 
which has tended in a great degree to produce this state of un- 
certainty, is the circumstance that many of the experiments, 
in this department of chemistry, have been performed by phy- 
siologists, for the express purpose of establishing some favou- 
rite theory ; in consequence of which, they have not unfre- 
quently rather obtained the result which they desired, thaa 
that which would have been deduced by an impartial observer^ 
The publication before us embraces a wide range of subjects. 
The author has not confined himstlt to investigating the pro- 
perties of the component parts of the animal body, bur present! 
us with a tull view of those functions which are supposed, ta 
a greater or less proportion, to depend on the operation of che- 
mical principles \ and he has even introduced an account of 
Some of the processes, in which cliemicai agents are employed 
to convert animal substances into articles of manufacture. 

iV'ir. Johnson immediately commences by ciassm^ the com* 
ponenc parts of the animal body under the toliowing heads ; 
fluids, Solids, hard parts, external partf, oils, acids^ poisons* 
aromatrcs, colouring matter, concretions, and excrements* 
We thirik that this plan is in many respects objectionable^ and 
it w« uld^ in our opinion, have much contributed to the perspi- 
cuity ot the work, if the author had begun by giving a general 
account oi the difFcrrent animal substances in their separate 
state, belorr he had entered on the consideration of the com- 
plicated mixtures which actually exist in the different parts of 
the body. Indept ndently, however, o^ this circumstance, the 
arrangement itself appears to us open to many animadversions* 
Perhaps the best priocipU of classified tioo is a similarity of 

chemical 



3?4 Johnson*^ HisUrj cf Animal Cbcmfsirp 

chemical pcoperties; or if the science be not deemed suffi- 
ciently advanced to admit of this division^ the substances might 
Be arranged according to the probable uses which they serve in 
the animal oeconomy : — bot the method pursued by Mr. John- 
son, M'hile it separates the bodies which seem naturally con- 
nected, classes together those which are united only by the 
circumstance of their being hard or soft, being placed in the 
inside or on the outside of the body, or some other equally un- 
essential character. We should have preferred throwing the 
substances into the alphabetical form, to so feeble an attempt 
at arrangement as that which is here adopted. 

The volumes necessarily consist of a succession of subjects, 
not very intimately connected together. We propose, there- 
fore, to select a few sections, and to examine these with some 
degree of minuteness ; as we think that, by this mode, our 
readers will be the best enabled to form a correct ide^ of the 
execution of the work. We shall first select the account of 
the blood ; which is justly intitled to our notice, both fronft^ 
the importance of the subject itself, and because it affords a 
fair idea of the merits of the performance. 

After having described the various appearances which the 
blood assumes, according as it is examined in the diiferent parts 
of the body, or in different states of the constitution, the author 
proceeds to enumerate its sensible and more obvious properties. 
Among other circumstances, he informs us that ' its heat is 
different in the different orders of animals; .human blood, and 
that of quadrupeds and birds, is about 96° of Fahrenheit, or 
32^ of Reaumur, whilst, in oviparous quadrupeds, serpents, and 
lish, it isat the temperature of the medium they inhabit. The 
arterial blood is likewise warmer than the venous.' In this 
paragraph, we believe, several inaccuracies may be pointed cue ; 
the temptfrature of man, and of the more perfect quadrupeds, is 
estimated by the most correct physiologists at 98^ \ that o.i 
birds is still higher, varying from 102" to 104^; and the tem- 
perature of the cold blooded animals is not the same with that 
"of the medium which they inhabit, but is a. little superior to it. 
"With respect to the comparative heat of arterial and venous 
blood, Mr. Coleman, one of the latest and most accurate 
writers on the subject, states, contrary to the statement of 
the present author, that the blood in the right ventricle is a 
degree or two warmer than that in the left. 

In the account of the spontaneous coagulation of the bloody 
we are told that this process is retarded by the exclusion of at* 
mospheric air. Hewson and other respectable physiologists 
have, no doubt, maintained this docrine : but it ought to have 
been mentioned that the directly contrary opinion is supported 

by 



JohnsonV History of Animal Chtmhtrj. I ttj 

fcy it last equal authority, viz. that of Mr. Hunter and of MM. 
Parmentier and Dcycux. The same remark will apply to the 
author's account of the effects of oxygenous g^s ; for though 
it has been asserted by some that it considerably expedites coa- 
gulation, other experimentalists, of acknowieged accuracy^ 
have obtained precisely opposite results. 

Having given an account of the blood in its entire state, Mr. 
Johnson undertakes the examination of the substances into 
which it spontaneously separates itself, viz. the serum and the 
crassamentum. The properties of the serum are enumerated 
with considerable minuteness, but not with perfect accuracy. 
In the figures which denote its specific gravity, there must be 
an error of the press; Jurin (whom we conceive-to be the au- 
thor here quoted) estimates it at ,02^7. No mention is made 
of the effect of the ox y muriate of mctcury, the acetate of lead, 
md some other metallic salts in the coagulation of serum; 
nor IS any notice taken of the action of the tanning' principle 
on it. It is stated, in general terms, that the caustic alkalies 
dissolve concrete serum : but we expected a more particular 
account of the effects of ammoniac, which has been cdnsi- 
dered by Fourcroy as its most perfect solvent, — Mr. J. con- 
cludes by observing that * the serum. of the blood is the albumi- 
nous part of it ; and that it consists of albunrlen, a little gehtine. 
Sulphur, muriate and carbonate of soda, and phosphate of lime/ 
It is, however, universally admitt^d'that the soda exists in the 
blood in the caustic state ; and it may- be ad<1l'd, oh the autho- 
rity of Proust, that the phosphate of soda is also one of the 
constituents of serum. The same dhemist has, more-over, as- 
certained that the sulphur exists in union with ammoniac, in 
the state of a hydrosulphuret. 

Wc next enter on the consideration of the crassaifientum; 
which is stated to consist of two distinct pirts, which may be 
separated by repeated washing in cold water ; by this process, 
A white fibrous substance is left behind, and the colouring 
matter is carried off. The sblution of the cblouting matter is 
said to exhibit all the properties of the serum, except thaf it 
contains a large quantfty of iron ; and it is therefore called by 
Mr. J. the red serum. We liavc s6mc doubts of the accuracy 
of this statement. Wc conceive that the crassamentum, durir.|T 
its coagulation*, retains among its fibres a considerable -portion 
of the serum ; and which, being soluble in water, is carried off 
by the washing along with colouring matter*, and thus a com- 
pound solution of scrum and of the colouring nvutcr is pro* 
duced. — In enumerating the properties of the fibrine, wc are 
informed that ' caustic fixed alkdljesonly dissolve it by the 
acid of cbullitidn^ and caustic amntohia has no effect upon it.' 

Wc 



126 JobnsofiV History of Animal Chemistry^ 

We do not prefers entirely to understand this paragraph : bst 
the fact 'ippears to be that (ibrine is easily clis!>olved' by both 
potash and soda^ and even by ammoniac, at a temperature of 
i7o<>. 

The author 'sums up his observations on the blood by re* 
marking that it is ' capable of being separated into three parts^ 
the VI hite serum, the red serum^ and the fibrine/ To these 
constituents^ should certainly have bern abided the gelatine; 
^'hi( 1) is in every respect a distinct substance, and appears to 
be as much an e<^ctmia] part of the blood, as cither the fibrine 
or thescrum. — We have aheady stucd ouy objections against 
the term red scrum.— If ihcse three < proximate parts/ con- 
tinues Mr. Johnson, ^ be reduced to the utmost analysis of 
which chemistry is capable, the remote component parts con- 
sist of oxygen, azot, hydrogen, carbon,, sulphvr, pbosphrric 
acid, soda, lime, atid iron \ to which may be added the pecu- 
liar aroma of the blood/ In \\m enumeriition of its elements, 
the author has omitted the muriatic acid, vchich is by every 
one considered as present in the blood, comhincd with soda. 

It may perhaps be thought that these criticisms are unneces- 
sarily minute, and that the inaccuracies which have been 
pointed out are not of any considerable moment : but, in a 
work like the present, which professes to give a complete ac- 
count of x\\t subject, and which descends to the most circum- 
Stancial details, we are offended by errors that might have 
passed unnoticed in a production of less magnitude and im- 
portance. 

Mr. J. ' having given a general view of the nature of 
the blood, of its spontaneous separation into its proximate 
component parts, and the effects that the chemical agents have 
upon them/ he next endeavours, by a method contrary to that 
which has been generally ado|>tcd, * to trace the outlines of its 
history, and the chief experiments of the principal authors who 
bave enriched the subject by their discoveries/ This plan ap- 
pears to us neither so natural nor so advantageous as the one 
usually employed. It is on every account more desirable thac 
the facts should be announced in the prder in which they were 
discovered, and that the gradual improvements should be 
traced from the first crude notiotis that were formed on the 
subject, until we arrive at its most perfect state. 

The experiments of the older chemists on the blood, and the 
ideas which they entertained of its nature and properties, are so 
far from the truth, and indeed so totally devoid of foundation, that 
we can receive little interest from their detail. The most curious 
part of their investigations respected the figure and consistence 
cf the red particles.— A long aad apparentlj faithful accouat 



JohnsonV History of Animal Chemisfry^ 12^ 

IS here given of the microscopical observations of Leuwenhoek, 
Torre, and Hewson, and of the judicious remarks that have 
been made on them by Cavallo. This last author has shewn 
that^ in some Instances) the older experimenters were mis-led 
by optical deceptions, and he has clearly detected the source of 
some of their errors : but, at other times, there is too much 
reason to suspect that their observations were materially 
biassed by their previous tiypothcscs. — The discovery of the 
iron in the blood next comes under our review. Its existence 
was first distinctly ascertained by Menghim ; and little real ad- 
dition seems to have been made to his knowlege, until the 
recent experiments of MM. Fourcroy and Vauquclin. 

The improvt?ment that took place in chemical analysis, after 
the introduction of the pneumatic system, was extended in a 
▼cry ample degree to the investigation of the nature and pro- 
perties of the blood. In this career, Fourcroy took the lead ; 
and he enriched this branch of animal chemistry with a variety 
of curious and important discoveries. To him succeeded^ ia 
the same track, MM. Parmentier and Deyeux ; who also eit- 
amtned the blood with peculiar accuracy, and paid particular 
attention to the changes which it experiences in the different 
morbid conditions of the body. Mr. Johnson furnibhes us with 
a very long and minute account of their paper, occupying^ 
nearly 40 pages; and though he does not adopt the exact ex- 
pressions of the original, he mostly follows it, sentence by sen- 
tence, so that his analysis must be considered as lirtle more than 
a translation. Much in the same manner is introduced a report 
of Dr. Wells's experiments on the colour of the blood 5 nearly 
the whole substance of whose paper is quoted, and not in- 
frequently almost in the very words qi the author. — This me- 
thod of compiling a scientific history is more convenient for the 
writer th m the reader. We may indeed hope to gain an ex* 
tensive acquaintance with facts, nearly in the same manner 
as if we perused the original authors themselves : but we ex- 
pect something more than this ; we expetct that the person, who 
undertakes to produce a scientific history, should condense the 
information into as small a compass as may be possible; 
Without detailing experiments at full length, he should state 
the consequences that may be fairly deduced from them j he 
should ascertain^ the respective degrl^es of weight that may be 
attached to varying, and often contrary authorities ; and ht 
should point out, with precisian, those parts of the subject 
which require still farther examination. The author who ne- 
glects these points may he a diligent collector of facts, but he 
cannot aspire to the title of a pliibsuphical historian of 
science. Mr, 



4 28 JohnaotiV Historj ofAmmdl Qhcnutiry* 

Mr. Johnson closes his account of the blood with a long list 
o^ the sources whence he derived his materials. This is certainly a 
valuable document : but it would have been more satisfactory, if^ 
instead of thus placing them together at the end of the section^ 
he had referred to them individually at the foot of the page : 
by which means we mi^ht have known on what authority each 
'separate fact depends, and the reader might have been enabled 
to judge of the credit that ought to be attached to it. The list 
of authors, moreover, though copious, is not complete. With 
respect to the older writers, perhaps Mr. J. might consider it 
suiiicient to give a genrral reference to Haller : though it would 
have given his own work greater completeness, if at least some 
of the more celebrated of them had been distinctly specified : but 
there are deficiences among the modern authors ; to pass over 
the smaller articles, dispersed through the periodical publica- 
tions, we have no reference to the works of Hunter, Fontana^. 
Blumenbach, and Hey. 

The remainder of the first volume, and the whole of the 
second, are occupied with the consideration of the different sub- 
.stances which enter into the composition of the animal body, 
according to the arrangement adopted by the author, to which 
we have already referred. Other subjects, however, are occa- 
sionally introduced \ as, after having treated of the gastric 
juice, he gives a pretty full account of the function of digestion ; 
and under the bead of skin, the author enters minutely into the 
process of tanning, and describes the improvements in this art 
by the French chen^ists. This must be regarded as a valuable 
digression, ^.nd iodeed as one of the best written parts of the 
whole work. 

Vol. II. is tcrn^inated by a general view of the chemical com- 
position of the arimal body. Mr. Johnson remarks that, * be- 
sides water, which is tnorc or less common to all bodies, there 
are four principal subi>tances that predominate in their com- 
position, and it is from these more particularly that the different 
organs have the^r origin. These lour substances are, albumen^ 
gelatine, fibrine, and osseous matter, and the following are their 
characters and properties according to chemical analysis.' We 
think that this catalogue is very deiective. Independently of the 
saline substances, and of the products of the different secreting 
organs, which may perhaps be considered in tlie light of acci- 
dental pr extraneous bodies, certainly mucus, nervous matter^ 
and fat, are in every respect essential parts of the animal fabric, 
and as constantly present as any other of its constituents. — 
The author then proceeds to recapitulate the properties of al- 
bumen : 

• '< Animal 



I 






johnsonV Hisi^ry of Animal Chemsirj. 139 

* Animal Albtmen it' generally found in the form of a transparent 
Hid more or ksa vitcous, and of an aqueous colour, tending to a 

ydlow. 

* Its savour is slightly saline, and if tasted with attention, some* 
what sharp. 

* It changes the syrup of violets green. 

* It is soluble in cold-water* 

* Alkalis dissolve it. 
' Acids coagulate it. 

' Lime water produces a precipitation in the albumen, which is the 
phosphate of lime. It is coagulated by the metallic oxydes, and by 
alcohol. 

' It decomposes, and causes a precipitation in solutions of neutral^ 
calcarepusy and metallic salts. 

' It undergoes the putrid, but not the acetous fermentation. 

' The most distinguishing charactar of thid fluid is. that when ex- 
posed to a degree of heat from 450 to ^8^, (80^ bemg the boiling 
point,) its liquidity and transparency disappeari it becomes opake9 
concrete, and solid.' 

We auspcct, from these propositions, that the author ha* 
confounded the pure albumen with this substance as it exist* 
in the serum of the blood, or the white of the egg. Its sa- 
line taste, and its effect on syrup of violets and lime water, as 
here described, must certainly depend on the presence of al- 
kaline and phosphoric salts.—- We are at a loss to know what 
can be meant by an aqueous colour.— -In enumerating the 
changes which it undergoes by coagulation, it is said that < it 
(coagulated albumen) is insoluble in caustic alkalis :* but this 
assertion is completely erroneous. — No mention is made of the 
effects of tan on the albumen.— In speaking of the cause of its 
ceagulation, too much importance is attached to the opinion of 
Fourcroy, that it depends on the absorption of oxygene \ for 
not only were his own experiments inadequate to prove this 
point, but the hypothesis has been directly controverted by the 
subsequent experiments of Carradori, who found that the ope- 
ration was in no degree retarded, when performed in such a 
manner as absolutely to exclude all access of oxygene. No 
reference is made in this place to the experiments of Carradori^ 
though, in a former part of the work, his objections to Four- 
croy*s hypothesis are fairly stated. 

The contents of Vol. III. are divided into two parts, Under 
the titles of Life and Death. The first section contains re- 
marks on * the vital principle, irritability, respiration, and ani- 
malization.' Respiration being the most important of these 
subjects, and the one to which the author seems to have de« . 
voted the greatest share of attention, we shall exaoiinei at 
some length, the manner in which it is treated« 

Rev. Oct. 1805. K After 



1 



130 JohnsonV Hutory o/AmmsJ Cktmstrj. 

After some observationa Oyn the organs of respiration in dif« 
ferent classes of animals, we are presented with a brief sketch 
of the opinions that were successively entertained by the older 
Writers, respecting the nature and use of this function. No- 
thing worthy of attention occurs in the history of thisscience» 
until the publication of MayoVs tracM; and Mr. Johnson 
gives a good account of his leading discoveries and hypotheses* 
Though we think that he represents them in rather too fa* 
vourable a light, we are disposed to acquiesce in his con- 
clusion : 

* No philosopher, at the end of the last century, had given any 
theory of combustion and respiration, or any account of the analogy 
between these two natural phaenooiena ; of the redprocal infiuen<!« 
between them and the air ; and of the effects produced by this fluid 
compared with those of nitre in combustible bodies, with so much 
detail and sagacious ingenuity as this physician. His works form 
an epoch in the annals of respiration. In giving Mayow all the merit 
dbe to him, it appears, however, that although hr had determined 
with great precision the use of the nitro-aerial spirit of the atmos- 
phere to be' to warm the. blood and give it its brilliant red colour, he 
was Ignorant whence these phenomena arose, and how the air contri- 
buted to it ; and although these nitro-aerial and igueo-aerial particles 
may be looked upon as the vital air or oxygen gas of the modems, he 
knew nothing pf its properties, nor of the change it underwent by 
the aption of flame and respiration. These explanations were te- 
lerv^d for Priestley and Lavoisier.' 

Referring to the writings of Haless Haller, and Cigna, Mr. 
J« details the experiments and discoveries of Di. Priestley oa 
respiration, and then proceeds to those of M. Lavoisier. 

We have next^ rather aukwardly introduced, an account 
of the experiments performed by Jurin, Goodwyn, MenzieSf 
and others, to ascertain the capacity of the lungs, and th^ 
change of bulk which they experience in the process of respi- 
ration. Their operations arc reported at considerable lengtht 
and Will be found to differ very materially 'from each other ; yet 
the author makes no attempts to reconcile them, and offers no 
remarks on. their respective merits, nor on the sources of inac- 
curacy into which some of these physiologists must necessarily 
have fallen. We were much surprized not to meet, in this 
place, with an account of Mr. Davy*s experiments on the sah^ 
jccti which are highly deserving of attention, not merely on 
account of the celebrity of the author, but because, notwith- 
standing the ingenious manner in which they were contrived, 
and the apparent accuracy with which they were performed, 
their results differ very materially from those that were obtain- 
ed by preceding physiologists. Though these are perhaps the 
only experiments that are intitled to any great degree of con- 

sidcraiioBy 



Johnson'/ Historj rf Animal Cbimistfy^ 13 1 



su!eration, yet there are oiher8,«-»a8 those of Jurioe of Grenerti» 
Dc h Metherie, Kite, and Abernethy,— which ought at least to 
hare been mentioned in so extensive a work as the present. 

The change of colour, whkh the blood experiences in respi- 
ration, next cones under notice. The ceal cause of this 
change, though ohscurely intimated by several of the older 
writers, was first clearly developed by Dr. Priestley ; and allow* 
ifl^; for the peculiarity of his phlogistic theory, his explanatiom 
of the pharnomena was nearly that which was afterward adopt* 
ed by M. Lavoisier ; they supposed that, when the blood had 
its colour heightened by passing through the lungs, the effect 
was produced by the oxygenous part of the atmosphere remov* 
iiig from it a portion of its inflammable matter* A subsequent 
theory, and one which is on the whole more consonant to fact^ 
attributes the change of colour to an absortion of oxygen by 
the blood ; an h^rpot'hesis which owes its chief support to the 
experiments of La Grange and Hassenfratz. Neither the ob* 
jections that have been urged against the former theory^ nor 
the arguments that have been brought in support of the latter^ 
are here so clearly stated as we could have wished ; and the 
reader is left, as usual, without any guide to direct his judg* 
meat in the choice of the one or the other of them* 

The curious aud important question respecting the origin of 
«iiimal heat now comes to be considered. After a brief sketch 
of the crude notions that were formed on this subject by the 
older physiologists, Mr. Johnson elucidates at some length the 
ingenious opinions of Dr. Crawford. The account of this cc* 
Icbrated hypothesis is detailed with a considerable degree of 
perspicuity, but still with too much of that prolixity which 
we have already been obliged to condemn. 

Mr. Johnson's method of stating at full length, uud almost ta 
their own words, the experiments and deductions of the differ- 
ent writers whom he consults, not unfrequently leads him into 
erroneous statements. For instance, he introduces a string of 
propositions translated, though without acknowlegement, frooi 
L^foisier, in which it is asserted that the atmosphere consists 
of 27 parts of oxygen, and 73 of axote. This was formerly 
thought to be the correct analysis : but subsequent experi- 
inents* made with more accurate instruments, have established 
the propoltion of oxygen to be about 2 1 par\^ only. An ana« 
logous remark may be applied to the carbonic acid gas. Lavoi* 
fticr bad calculated that carbonic acid was composed of 7a 
parts of oxygen and a8 of carbon, and this estimate is im- 
plicitly assumed by Mr. Johnson. It has, however, been deci« 
lirely proved that charcoal Js not, as Lavoisier conceived, a 
^Qipie substance, but is itself in the state of an oxyd, contain- 
^ .36 of oxygen } so that 18 parts only of pure carbon caa 



132 Johnson'/ History of Animal ChemHrj. 

enter into the composition of carbonic acid. — Another, but 
perhaps still more repreheosible instance of the same kind of 
negligence, occurs in this and other parts of the volumes be^ 
fore us; where the author, in his extracts from the French 
writers, has not even taken the trouble of converting the tber« 
hiometrical degrees of their scale to the corresponding degrees 
of the scale generally adopted in this country. Speaking of the 
Experiments made by Lavoisier^ to determine the quantity of 
heat generated in a given time by the respiration of a guinea- 
pig, he informs us that they vrere performed at the temperature 
of 14 or 15 degrees. 

An ample abstract is inserted, or rather a translation, of the 
memoir of Lavoisier on transpiration \ the -last which this phi- 
losopher lived to complete. Though we cannot but admire 
. the ingenuity manifested in the contrivance, and the perse- 
verance displayed in the execution, of the experiments de- 
tailed in this paper, we confess that there have always appeared 
lo us several strong objecuons against the conclusions deduced 
from them by their celebrated author. We do not perceive 
how his apparatus could keep the effects, of what he calls pul- 
monary transpiration, distinct from those which properly be* 
long to respiration 1 yet, if these be confounded, the grand ob- 
ject of the experiments is destroyed* Indeed, it may be infer- 
red from some expressions in the paper itself, that Lavoisier 
%ras aware of this deficiency ; and that he proposed to remedy 
it in a future set of experiments, which his untimely fate pre- 
vented him from executing. Before his conclusions can be 
fairly established, it would be also necessary that the quan- 
tity of urater actually emitted by the lungs should be collected 
and measured : but it does not appear how this was effected. 
It may be farther remarked that Lavoisier always proceeds on 
an estimate of the composition of carbonic acid, which has 
been since proved to be erroneous*— -We deem it» however, un- 
necessary to enter more at large into the consideration of this 
paper. Mr. Johnson appears to have wholly acquiesced in 
the reasoning employed in it \ and he copies both the experi- 
ments and the iuCerences drawn from them, without any re- 
marks on their merits, or on the confidence which ought to be 
placed in them. 

Mr. J. next furnishes an account of experimenf s on the 
respiration of fish and insects ; and the subject concludes 
with a copious abstract of Mr. Davy's experiments on the re* 
spiration of nitrous oxyd, occupying between 40 and 50 pages, 
and given very nearly in the words of the original, without 
any observations on it. At the end of the section, as in other 
cases, we find a long and certainly valuable list of the sources 
whence the author has derived bia muterials. Again, how- 
ever," 



i 



Calf*/ Kortbem Summerl 133 

ever, wc have to remark that it is very defective. The older 
writers are entirely omitted ; and . though, with respect to 
ino9t of them, we might pardon the oversight, certainly 
such names as those of Lower, Keill, and Boerhaave, should 
have been noticed in a complete history of animal chemistry. 
Among the more recent philosophers, the experiments of 
Jurine, Higgins, and Abemethy, are not noticed \ nor do we 
find any reference to Seguin's valuable essays in the Annalis de 
ChimU, to Mr. Coleman's Dissertation on Respiration, to Dr* 
Beddoes^s work on Factitious Airs, to Dr. Thomson's account 
of respiration in the supplement to the Rncyclopadta Britanntca^ 
and in his System of Chemistry ; and, to pass by all mhior 
errors^ we look in vain iox four of Lavoisier^i most valiu^le dis^ 
sertaHom &n tits subject^ viz. two in the Memoirs of the Acs^^ 
demy of Sciences tor 1777 ; one in the Memoirs of the Me* 
dical Society for 1782 ; and one in the Memoirs of the Aca* 
demy for 1789. We would strongly recommend it to Mv. 
Johpson to peruse these papers, previously to any future at- 
tempts to write on respiration. — Before we close these critir 
cisms on the list of references, we must observe that, besides 
the deficiencies which occur, the works that are enumerated 
are not always correctly designated. Hassenfratz's paper, on 
the combination of oxygen with the bloody is stated as if it 
were to be found in the Memoirs of the Academy for ^79^ : 
but the fact is that no such volume exists ; the paper waa 
indeed read to the Acadeniy in theyesir 1791, but was printed 
in the 9th volume of the Jlnnale^ de Chimie* ' 

In addition to these remarks, it will scarcely be necessary 
to state our opinion more fully on the merits of Mr. Johnson's 
work. It is a* laborious collection of factSj which, thpugh 
not without some errors and deficiencies, are for the most 
part accurately stated : but they are thrown together without 
either an'angement or selection, and we find npt the least 
portion of the philosophy of chemistry. "V^tth respect to the 
style, it may be intitled to the praise of being generally iiu* 
tel]igib{e, and free from affectation : but it is crude and- ine*- 
legant| and not unfrequently defaced by inaccuracies which 
betray either great ignorance, or culpable negligence. 



Art. III. A Northern^ Summer ;- or Travels round .the hsMc 
through Denmark, Sweden , Russia, Briissia, add Rart of Ger* 
manyy in the Year 1804. By John Carr, Esq., Author of the 
Strangef in France *, Sec. &c. 4X0. pp. 480.. and i z Plates. 

. al. zs. Boards. R. Phillips. 1805. 

I T is of th^ nature of man to assimilate his ideaa in some de- 
^ £ree with Uiose of every writer whom be peruaes. Henc^w^ 

• See Rev. Vol. xli. N. S. p. 39$* 

K s have 



134 Carr'tf Northern tutmner. 

have compared our office, at diflFerent timesj to various occih 
pationsy and we may have been sometimes even tempted to 
use vile similitades* After havinjir read the volume before oa^ 
ve could not help likening Reviewers to Excisemen ; who^ 
placed at the barrier of Taste, g^uge and examine the quality 
of any cask imported for the ns/t of the Literary Public, In 
the tlistharge of this doty, we sometimes taste the richest and 
iometimes the basest compounds. Perhaps we may estimate- 
Mr. Carr's production as a kind of Southampton Port ; light, 
and pretty well-flavoured, but possessed of no great body. 
Above all, we recommend a quick draught of it, as it is not 
well calculated for keeping. 

Mr. Carr*s phn is to take his reader with him, and to make 
Um panake both the paios and the pleasures of his jouj(ncy^ 
The prospect of such a jaunt made our old bones ache by anti* 
dpatioii ; and we were not slightly alarmed by the pace at 
which the author set oflF : 

* The angry decrees of renovated war had closed the gates of the 
fioutk ; the north alone lay expanded before me ; tf she it less eiw 
chanting, thought I, perhaps she is the less known, and wherever man 
IB, (woroea of course included.) there must be variety: she haa 
hitherto been contemplated, clad in fur, and gliding with the swift* 
oeas of a Ifght cloud before the wind upon her roads of shining snow. 
I will take a peep it her in her summer garb, and will endeavour to 
form a nosegay of polar flowers.' 

Now. this, instead of being prohgue to an fgg and butter^ 
might have served for an introduction to a new Sficies Plant^^ 
rnntf or a voyage to the North Pole* 

Though ^fa^ tone of the work drops almost immediately to an 
account of the charges of Packei*boats, we are not inclined 
to quarrel with such useful information ; nor with the * Dull 
Matters necessary .to he known,* which soon form a part of 
the running. title, and might have been longer continued if the 
author had chosen.— Was it necessary to travel to Denmark^ 
io order to pi^uce such a paragraph as this ? * On our rc« 
turn. We found a good dinner, inrng long room, painted of a 
kadcn blue colour, having the floor well sanded, three little 
windows decorated with festoons of muslin, an old-fashioned 
chandelier threatening peril to those who passed under it, and 
two ancient portraits of a kiftg.and queen of Denmark, who 
looked very smirkingly upon each other.*-^This description ia 
almost cquMly important with the memorandum of Footers 
Traveller, that •' feathers will swim in the salt sea.** 

At Roskild, the author is more successful in describing the 
monuments of some of the Danish Royal Family j and his ac- 
count of Copenhagen is rpaliy interesting. He gives also a re* 

13 port 



« 

Caxi^/ Nortbem Summer^ 13I 

port (not revealing tny ivew and important facts) of that 
celebrated action, which, next to the battle of Abouktr, tended 
to support the drooping interests of our countrj, during the 
hte war. 

We next follow Mr. Carr into Sw'cden, where we are amusccl 
with the following mistake incp which he was betrayed at 
Nordkoping: 

* We liiade a curious mistake here. On the erening of our arrival 
after tea, as we strolled in the streets, we were surprised to find th«tli 
so silent and apparently deserted, for we otilf saw very few persons 
who were slowly moving homewards : at length eleven distinct strokes 
of the church clock satisSed us that sleep had hushed the populatioti 
of the town. At this time the light was equal to that of a fine day 
in London, which, united to our ' ignorance of the time, and ta 
our having just drank tea when we ought to have supped*, pro- 
duced our error.' 

The account of Stockholm contains nothing new, excepting 
Che history of Sergell the statuary. It is lengthened out .with 
anecdotes of the amicable and unfortunate Gustavus III. and bis 
great ancestor, Gustavus Adolphus, most of which were al- 
ready well known. Of such entertainment Mr. Carr has been 
rather prodigal ; and his love of story-telling is the less fortu.- 
natCf as be does- not tell either his serious or bis jocular storiqs 
with remarkable dexterity. So little is his fanpy under govern^ 
menty at times, that he baa even indulged a speculation that 
we mayaend omx fouHinen* to be^a^ed in Sweden, as if we 
had no cleanliness nor comfort at home I 

On the occasion of mentioning some Swedish gun-boat^ 
Mr. Carr treats the threatened invasion in those vessels with 
great contempt : 

' It Is a matter worthy of observatioi^, particuls^rly at this period, 
that the gun boats used m the naval conflicts between Russia an^ 
Sweden with so much effect, origmally suggested to France the idea 
of using them against this country. In the s<^ven years war they 
were reoommended to- tKe Duo de ChotsenU the minister of. Lbuis 
XV: |yy Captain Kergvagelin, of the Sw^sh sary , and iii. the late 
rtvoltttioB' by Caotttn Musketn, who was abo a lieutenant in the smfe 
service : this smau craft as -capaUe of acting in the Baltic^ • whti^ no 
S:idef ever ifitarfefc wiidi rnkmsttfres ; b«t it/bas eaccited asconraMMAt, 
•not only in Sweden but in every akk^ {iart of ebe ConiineBt which I 
visited (and I mention rt wish more ishame than reluctance, becauscv 
with the imllfons of Englaad, I believed at the time in the rotnantil: 
practicability of the long, very long threatened, invasion), that any 
reflecttng Englishman could believe in the possibility of a flotilla cif 
gun-boats crossing such an expanse of water as divides the Isle of 

J I I — — ^M^Kw^HP— ^— .J<BMi^.^iaM ■« I —11.111 mt't^m m t— A— — .— ^m»^i^— ^— ^fc 



• P. i: 



t 

1 36 Carr*/ Northern Summer. 

Wight &om Boulogne, subject to the tidcst currents, ind wiods^ 
which are with more or less certainty felt thcre^ omitting the proud 
and confident reflections which our gallant cruisers and channel fleet 
naturally suggest We well know, that in the year 1791 Muskeio^ 
without having much to dread from the natural difficulties before 
enumeratcdt on account of the shortness of the distance, attacked that 
dot in the channel, the island of St Marcou, with fifty of his re- 
doubted gun-boats ; that the battery of the little wave- girt fortress 
blew her rash and presumiflg enemies tb atoms ; and that their com- 
mander with difficidty escaped only to be disgraced by the Directory. 
In mere pariotic ardour and entbustasin, independcut of ttdes» cur- 
rents, winds, cruisers, and fleets, the French,, if they reflect at ally 
will regard St. Marcou as a miniature of a greater island*' 

As we proceed in this volume, we are sorry to say that the 
language does not rise in estimation ; thus vft read that the 
author * mounted his volunteer jacket/ (p. 2f6*] which might 
be supposed to imply that he did the duty of a taylor^ but 
vhirh simply means that he put it on ; and in the same pagCj 
we meet with the barbarism ' to lay down,* not the lanvy nor 
his inife andfork^ but to lie down.^^Mt, C.^ however, improves 
"when he arrives at Petersburgh : 

* The sky was cloudless, the Neva of a brilNant blue, clear, and 
nearly as broad as the Thames at Westminster bridge ; it flowed ma- 
jestically along, bearing on its bosom the most picturesque vessels and 
splendid pleasure-barges ; as the eye vapidlj travelled several miles 
up and down this glorious river, adorned with stupendous embank- 
.ments of granite, it beheld its sides lined with palaces, stately build- 
ings, and gardens, whilst at a distance arose green cupolas, and t\^p 
Ipny Sjpires of the Creek churches covered with ducat gol4» and. glit- 
tering in the sun. Iipmediately before us extended the magnificent 
railing of the summer gardens, with its columns and vases ofgranite^ 
a matchless work of imperial taste and splendour.' 

A deacription of the cottage, in which Peter I, reside^, 
during the building of the city, gives occasion to introduce a 
curious anecdote of that monarch : 

■ 

' The house, or rather cottage, in which Peter the Great resided 
during the foundation of Petersburg, a city which is the growth of 
little mof8 than a century, stands on the left of the £aiper^8 bridge 
in the road to the foitrtss. This Uttle building, so sacred to the 
Q.us8ians, was covered over with a bricktbuiUibg o( arcades by th^ 
late Empress, to protect and support it .-against toe ravages of time» 
The rooms are three, all upon the ground ^or, and very low: it 
was in this very cottage that a whiuiskallscehe occurred whilst' the 
forfress was building. A Dutch, skipper,- hearing that Petietsburg 
was building, and that the Emper^'oada great passion for ships 
and commerce, resolved to try his good fortune there, and accordingly 
arrived with the first merchant vessel that* ever sailed upon the Neva, 
and was the bearer of a letter of introduction to the captain of 
the port from a friend of his in Hollaodi requesting him to use his 

* ^ interest 



CarrV N^ribern Summer, 137 

litereat lo procure a freight for him. Peter the Great was working 
like a common labourer m the Admiralty as the galUot passed* and 
saluted with two or three small guns. The Emperor was uncom- 
monly deUghtedy and having been informed of the Dutchman's bu8i« 
nessy he resolved to have some frolic with him, and accordingly com^ 
manded the port captain to see the skipper, as soon as he landed, 
and direct him to the Emperor, as a merchant just settled there, 
whom he intended to personate ; the better to ^ carry on the joke, 
Peter repaired to this cottage with his ^mpreso, whoy tQ humour 
the plaa, dressed herself in a plain bourgeois habit, such as suited 
the wife of a merchant. The Dutchman was introduced to the 
Emperor, who received him with great kindnesS| and they $at and 
Bte bread and cheese* and smoked together for some time, durin? 
which the Dutchman's eye examined the room, and b^gan to think 
that no one who lived in so mean a place, could bp ot any service 
to him 1 presently the Empress entered, when the skipper addressed 
her, by cSbserving that he had brought her a cheese, a much better 
one than she had ever tasted, for which, affecting an awkward ipanner, 
slie thanked him. Being much pleased with her appearan9e, he 
.tQok from his coat a piece of linen, and begged her acceptance of it 
for shifts. '* Oh !'' exclaimed the Emperor, taking the pipe frora 
his mouth, '* Kate, you will now be as nne and as proud as an em- 
press ! there, you are a lucky woman, you never had such shifts as 
you wfll now have, in your life before." This was followed by the 
stranger begging to have a kiss, which she coyl^ indulged him in. 
Ai this moment Prince Mcuzikof, the favourite and minister of 
Peter the Great, who represented him upon matters of state, entered 
with all his orders, aad stood before the Emperor uncovered. The 
sl^ipper begaq to stare with amazement, whilst Peter, by winking and 
making private signs, induced the Prince immediately to retire. 
The astonished Dutchman said, ** Why, you appear to have great 
acquaintance here ?** " Yes,'* replied Peter, «« and so may you, if 
you stay here but ten days ; there are plenty of such needy noble- 
inen as the one jou saw, they are always in debt, and very glad to 
borrow money of any one, and they have even found out me ; but* 
sir, beware of these fellow;, resist their importunity, however flat- 
tering, and do not be dazzled by their stars and garters, and such 
tniippcry.'' This explanatory advice put the stranger a little more 
at his ease, who drank and smoked on very cheerfully, and made 
hii bargain with the Imperial Merchant for a cargo ; just as he had 
settled this point to his wish, the officer of the guard, which had 
been ^han^ed, entered to receive his orders, and stood with profound 
respect uncovered, and before Peter could stop him, addressed him 
()T the title of Iq;)perial Majesty. The Dutchman sprang from his 
chair, fell pn his xnees before the Emperor and Empress, and im* 
plorcd forgiveness for t{ie liberties he had been taking. Peter en- 
joyed the sccnei and laughing heartily, raised up the terrified sup- 
pliant, made him kiss the Empress's hand, presented him with fif- 
^CQ hnndred rubles, gave him a freight, and ordered that his ves- 
fdf as long a9 ^er ^imbera Remained together, should be permititd to 

' •' ente^ 



138 Can*/ Nortbern Summer. 

enter all the Russian ports free of duty. Tins privflege nude the 
rapid fortune of the owner/ 

The author seems to have formed a very favourable opinion 
of the reigning Emperor. From, several anecdotes, which shew 
much affability and goodness of hearty we select the ensuing : 

' One day whilst I was at Petersburg, as the Emperor was retamio|^ 
from Cronstadty when the weather was most oppressively hot, he 
halted at a little viilage about twenty vcrSts from the residence^ ia 
Consequence of the relay of horses not being immedtatcly readyw 
Ah English merchant who had a country house adjoining, with that 
warmth of. heart which forgets and surpasses all etiquettCi raa otit» 
and presented to the Emperor, who appeared to be io great heat 
and covered with dust, a glass of excellent Burton ale> for which 
his Majesty, with his usual affability, thanked his attentive host, and 
drank. Both the Emperor and the merchant foigot that the bevetagc 
was prohibited, or secretly relished it the more on that accotvat. A 
German who was present, and was struck vnth the frank and cordtai 
avidity with which the Emperor emptied the glass, observed, ** that 
had a Frenchman offered it, his Majesty would have made one 6t \m 
horses taste it first.** 

* Upon another occasion the Emperor ekhtbited the native good- 
ness of his heart : some British bottled porter, which n also prohibited^ 
was shipped for an Englishman whose lady was very much indis* 
posed, and to whom it wa3 recommended by her physicians. 
Scarcely had it reached Petersburg from Cronstadt, before it was 
seized by the custom-house officer : upon the Emperor hearing of it, 
he sent to the customs, declaring it to be his own (for such, in truths 
the law of confiscation had ma^ it), and immediately forwarded it, 
with some very kind expressions, to the fisir invalid/ 

In chap. xiT. the work assumes a higher tone, and we are 
presented with a very interesiing account of the late unhappy 
Emperor, Paul. The unktndness of his mother, and the atate 
of depression in which she studiously held him, are said to 
have irremediably injured his mind. The origin of the con* 
spiracy against him is imputed to the dissatisfaction of the Em- 
press's last favourite} who' had been disgraced, notwithstanding 
the zeal which he bad displayed in delivering up the Empress*! 
will, in which Paul was set aside, and the Grand Duke Alex- 
ander destined to the throne. The fatal deed is thus de- 
scribed : 

< It was the custom of the Emperor to sleep in an outer apartment 
next 10 the Empress's, upon a sopha, in his regimentals and boots, 
whilst the Grand Duke and Duchess, and the rest of the Imperial 
family, were lodged at various distances, in apartments below the 
story which he occupied. On the tenth day of March, O. 8. 1801, 
the day preceding the fatal nighty whether Paul's apprehension, or 
anonymous information, suggested the idea, is not known, but con- 
ceiving 



r 



CanV Northern Summer • I3J 

ceiTing that a storm was ready to burst upon htm, he sent to Contit 
F ■ » the jroveraor of the city, one of the noblemen who had resolv- 
ed on bts dcstroetion : *• I am informed, P *', said the Emperor, 

^that there 18 a conspiracy on foot against me ; do yoti think it ne- 
cesaaqr to take any precaution ?" The Colint, without betraying the 
least enaotfofl. replied, ^' Sire, do not suffer snch apprehensions to haunt 
▼our mtnd; if there were any combination<; iorming against your 
Majesty's person, I am sure I should be acquainted with it/* *« Thca 
I am statlsiied." said the Emperor, and the governor withdrew* 
Before Paul retired to rest, he unexpectedly expr<'s»cd the most tender 
aolicttnde for the Emprens and his children, kissed them with all the 
warmth of farewell fondness, and remained with thtm longer than 
usual ; and after he had visited the centineU at their different posts, 
he retired to his chamber, where he had not long remained, before, 
-finder some colourable pretext, that satisfied the men^ the guard was 
changed by the othcers who had the command for the night, and 
arere engaged in the coirfederacy* An hussar, whom the Emperor 
had particularly honoured by his notice and attention, always at night 
slept at his bed room door, in the anti-room It was impossible to 
remoTC tbis faithfnl soldier by any fair means. At this momentous 
period, silence reigned throughout the palace, except where it wasdis* 
tnrbed by the pacing of the cenn'nels. or at a distance by the 
murmurs of the Neva, and only a few h'ghts were to be seen, distantly 
and irregularly gleaming through ths windows of this dark colossal 

abode. * In the dead of the night, Z and his friends, amounting 

to eight or nine persons, passed the draw-bridge, easily ascended the 
stair-case which led to Paul's chamber, and met with no resistance 
till they reached the anti-room, when the faithful hussar, aWakened 
hj the noise, challenged them, and presented his fusee : much as they 
itiust have all admired the brave fidelity of the guard, neither time 
WH circumstances would admit of an act of generosity, which might 

liave endangered the whole plan. Z drew his sabre and cut the 

poor fellow down. Paul, awakened by the noise, sprang from his 
aopha: at this nu>ment the whole party rushed into his room { the 
unhappy Sovereign, anticipating their design, at first endeavoured to 
entrench himself m the chairs and tables, then recovering, he assumed 
a high tone, told them they were his prisoners, and called upon them 
to surrender. Finding that they fixed their eyes steadily and fiercely 
Upon him, and- continued advaaoing towards him, he implored them 
to spave htt life^ declared his consent instantly to relinquish the 
iceptrei and to accept of any terms which they would dictate. In 
kis raving, he offered to make them princes, and to give them estates, 
andtit^ andorders, without end. They now began to press upon 
him, when he made a convulsive effort to reach the window : in the 
attempt he failed, and indeed so high was it from the ground, that 
kad he succeeded, the expedient would only have put a mor^ instan- 
laoeous period to his misery. In the effort he very severely cut his 
^ )iand with the glass ; and as they drew him back he grasped a chair, 
with which he felled one of the assailants, and a desperate resistance 
took place* .80 great was the noise, that notwithstanding the maMy 
trails^ aad tbid^ double tolding-doors^ which divided the apartments, 

the 



I40 Can'/ Northern Summer. 

the Empress was disturbed^ and began to cry for help,* wLen a Toioe 
vhispered tn her car> and imperatively told her to remain quiet, 
otbtTwise» if if she uttered another word, she should be put to instanc 
death. Whilst the Emperor was thus making a last struggle, the 
Prince Y-—~- struck him on one of his temples with his fisc^ aod laid 
him upon the floor ; Paul, recoTering from the blow, again implored 

his life ; at this moment' the heart of P Z reliented, and upon 

being oisserved to tremble and hesiute, a yoiMig Hanoverian resolu- 
lutely exclaimed, <' We have passed the Rubicon : if we spare hts 
life, before the setting of to^; morrow's sun, we shall be his ricttms !'* 
upon which he took off his sasb, turned it twice round the ntkcd neck 

of the Emperor, and giving one end to Z , and holding the 

other himself, they pulled for a considerable time with all >thcir 
force, until their miserable sovereign was no more ; they then retired 
from the palace without the least molestation, and returned to their 
tcspective homes. What occurred after their departure cao be better 
conceived than depicted : medical aid was resorted to, but in Tain, and 
upon the breathless body of the Kmperor fell the tears of his vridowcd 
Empress and children, and domestics; nor was genuine grief ever 
more forcibly or feelingly displayed than by him on wiiose brow tbia 
melancholy event had planted the crown. So passed away this nigbt 
of horror, and thus perished a Prince, to wliom naiute was severehf 
bbontiful. The acuteuess and pungency of his feeling vras jocom- 
patible with happiness : unnatuial prejudice pressed upon the Bbie, too 
£nely spun, and snapped it.' 

In the Tatirida Palace, buih by Potcmkin, the dres^ma of 
Komance and Faery seem to be realized : 

* The ^t room we entered from the garden, was the celebrated 
^11 in which Prince Potemkin gave the most gorgeous and costly e«- 
tertainment ever recorded since the days of Roman voluptuooeneea : 
] am not able to communicate to my readers the ideas which tbia 
enormous room excited. If a pagan were to be transported into it ai 
bis sleep, when he awoke he could not fail of thinking that he haid 
vudergone an apotheosis, and had been conducted to the banqueting- 
room of Jupiter. It was built after the unassisted design of P#- 
teaxkin, and unites, to a sublime conception, all the graces oif fintshad 
taste. This prodigious room is supported by double rowa of colossal 
doric pillars, opening on one side into a va^t pavilioa, composing the 
winiQ-'garden, which I saw prepared for the £inperov, wba resides 
here for a short time every year, just before I left Petersburg. This 
garden is Tcry extensive ; the trees, chiefly orange, of an enomioas 
size, are sunk in the earth in their tubs, and ar^ entirely covered with 
fine mould : the walks are gravelled, wind and undulate in a TCiy de« 
lightful manner, aie neatly turfed, and lined with roses and ^hcr 
flowers : the whole of the pavilion is lighted by kfty windows : from 
the ceiling depend several magnificent lustres of tlie richest cut glass. 

* Here, whilst the polar winter is raging without, covering tike world 
in white, and hardening the earth to marble ; when water tossed ia the 
air drops down in ice ; may be seen the foliag^, and inhaled tkc 
fragraucf 9 of aa Abntbiaii grQ,ve^ ia the soft and benign climate of an 

Italifui^ 



CarrV Nortk€rn Summer. 141 

Italuti iprin^. The novelty and voloptuous luxuriance of this green 
refrethmg spectacle, seen through a colonnade of qnassy white pillars* 
and reduplicated by vast mirror», is matchless. Between the columns, 
now DO longer incumbered with boxes for spectators as they formerly 
were» are a great number of beautiful statues and colossal casts : the 
two celebrated vases of Cartara marble» the largest in the world, oc- 
cupy the centre of the room leading to the winter -garden. The 
Dying Gladiatoir, Cupid and Psyche, a recumbent Hermaphrodite, 
and many othei* exquisite productions of the chisel, afford ample 

fatificatioQ to the man of taste. Amongst the busts, is that of the 
ight Honourable Charles James Fox, by NoUekens ; an admirable 
Ukeness of that distinguished orator. Paul* during his temporary 
aversion to the English, ordered this bust into the j:eIJar .* whether he 
intended that his spleen should carry the marks of some humor, I know 
not. HfS august successor removed it from the region of the 
Tuscan juice, and the depths of darkness, and ordered it to occupy its 
present station, where by the side of Grecian and Roman virtue, the 
sun of heaven shines full upon it. Opposite to the winter garden it 
a beauttful saloon, divided firom the hall only by the colonnade* which 
is filled with rare antiques, principally busts. Amongst them a head 
•f Achilles, and a small Silenus, are jo&tly regarded as the most 
precious. Daring the darkened hours of Paul, he converted this 
palace into a garrison ; and the hall, pavilion* and saloon* into a 
ridtog-school for hk troops I' 

The celebrated flu given to the Empress in this room is 
sfill more astonishing : 

* Nothing could exceed the public sensation which this fete ex- 
cited. At length the evening arrived when the Prince was to appear 
in all his pomp and glory, betore his fond and adored sovereign. The 
walls of these splendid apartments were most richly and be^iutifully 
illuminated, and decorated with various exquisite transparencies ; and 
the stairs, hall, avenues, and sides of the rooms were Nned with 
officers of state* attached to the houseliold of the Prince, and servants* 
in the most cqstly dresses, and magnificent liveries. The orchestra 
exceeded six hundred vocal and instrumental musicians, and announced 
the entrance of the Empress and her court, tichly attired, by a grand 
overture and chorus, which reverberated through the collonnadts and 
saloons. Potemkin conducted his imperial visitor to an elevated chair 
glittering . with gold and diamonds: midway between the columtn 
were -boxes gilt with pale gold, and lined with green silk, filled 
with spectators in gala dresses. The festivity commenced wit!i a dance 
of youths of both sexes, habited in white, and covered wiih pearls 
and jewels* at the head of whom were the present Emperor and the 
grand duke Constantine his brother. After the dance, and the most 
costly refreshments, the party repaired to the theatre, at the other 
end of the palace* where an occasional piece, composed in honour of 
the Empress, was performed, in which all the powers of singing, 
acting* dancing, dress* scenery, and decorations, were displayed. 
Upon the conclusion of the drama* the audience rose, and as i( im- 
Delled by magk, the bcQcheS| touched by springs* moved and formed 

into 



14^ CarlrV Northern Summer^ 

into tables and little seats wlifch were almost mstaDeously covetied witfl 
the richest viands, served up in gold and silver. The curtain ag^in 
ro8e> and discovered a tiall of rnirrors, from which descended globular 
lustres of crystal, and a tabic appeared covtrtd with the rarity of 
tlmost every region, splendi^dly served in gold ; and at the head, upon 
a tbroiie gilded and glittering whh precious ttones, sat the Empress 
surrounded by her court* the moat brilliant in Europe. Such were 
the arrangements in this place, that every one could -see and be seen. 
In the colossal kail were spread tables filled with delicacies and the 
most costly wines* and at the head of it was a prodigious Riassy cis- 
tern of solid stiver, containing sterlet soup^ which is said alone to have 
cost ten thousand rubles. During this splendid repast, in every room 
the softest music was heard, which rather enlivened than restrained 
the current^ of conversation. Universal decorum and hilarity pre* 
Tailed ; every wish was anticipated, every sense was gratified.* 

In his account of the mode by which Catharine checked the 
progress of revolutionary principles in Russia^ the author seems 
to have acquired rather too keen a relish for despotism : 

* Catharine put down a sect still more formidable, and by the foI« 
lowing whimsically wise manner, saved her people from the baneful 
contagion of French principles. During that revolution, which por- 
tended tuin to all the sacred establishments of all nations, when in 
England Pitt trampled out the brightening embers, and saved his 
country from the devouring flames, a group of mischievoud emissaries 
from France arrived at Petersburg, and began, in whispers amongst 
the mob, to persuade the poor droshka driver, and the ambulatory 
vender of honey quass, that thrones were only to be considered as 
stools, and ihat they had as much right to sit upon one of them as 
their empress : Catharine, concealing her real apprehensions, availed 
' herdelf of the powers with which she was clothed, without shedding a 
drop of blox)d. She knew ridicule to be, in able hands, a powerful 
weapon, and resolved to wield it upon the present occasion. One 
evening the police officers weie ordered to seize all these illuminated 
apostles of liberty, and bear them away to the lunatic asylum, where 
the Empress had directed that their heads should be shaved and blis« 
tered, and their bodies well scoured by aperient medicines, and kept 
on meagre diet ; this regimen wa!) continued for fourteen days, when 
their confinement terminated. The common Russians had heard of ^ 
tlteir fate, and really believing that they had been insane, neglected 
atxi dcserttd them upon their re- appearance in the city with shorn 
heads^ hollow eyes, and sunk cheeks, and all the striking indica* 
tions of' a recently bewildered mind. If this mild and ingenious 
project had failed, Catharine would have let loose all the energy of 
power, and for this purpose she rapidly caused to be built that vast 
cdificci now used for the marine barracks^ which she destined for a 
state prison.' 

Mr. Carr has forgotten, apparently, that the best principles 
have been attacked in a similar manner^ but luckily without 
success* 

The 



Can'i Northern Summer* 143 

The InstitQtions for tbe edttcation of Girls are described ^ich 
mvch feeling ; and we were highly pleased with the aubse* 
^enf story : 

* la the inttitiitipii of 8ain't Catharine, under the direction of 
Madame Bredkofff ata elderly lady of dtstingruished talents, and sweet- 
■eas of ditposttion, the flawing little circumstance occurred which 
win profe that the Russiaii mind» whatever may have been said of 
it} is susceptible of feeling and jrenerosity. In thia institution, which* 
it supported by the Empress-dowager, a limited number only of young 
hdies are admitted, free of expence, by ballot ; but others are received 
Bpon paying, as it is* termed, a pension. At the last admission, two 
little gii)s» the ddest not exceeding ten years of age^ the daughter of 
aoa^ eaptaioy who ia this country is noble, the father of a large 
Ciaiily, prcseolcd themselves, mod drew, the one a prize, the other a 
blank. Although so young, they knew that fate had, in this^ man- 
aer, resolved upon their separation ; they felt it and wept* Another 
young lady, to whom the next chance devolved, drew a prize, and 
observing the distress of the sisters, without holding any communica* 
tion with their parents, or with any other person, spontaneously 
ran up to the luckless .little girl, presented her wich the ticket^ 
and leading her up to the directress, said, ** See, Ma^am, I have 
drawn a prize, but my papa can afford to pay the pension, and I 
am sore will pay it for me: pray let one who is less fortunate, enjoy 
the good that has hi4>peDea to me." This charming anecdote was 
immediately reported to the £mpress-4owager, who expressed the 
highest dehght, and paid, out of her own purse, the pension of the 
liUle beiiefiictress.' 

The remaining part of the account of Russia consists of de*> 
tails of public festivals ; at which, according to the French 
phrase, the author assisted. 

At Dantxic, Mr. Carr experienced some disgustSi hardly im- 
portant enough to have been recorded. *^ Travejlersi'' as the 
clown aaysy <* should be content." 

We meet with a laughable anecdote, respecting the cere- 
mony imposed on all strangers, of announcing their names and 
titles on entering garrison-towns ; 

* An English humorist> who had by virtue of his freehold a par- 
liamentary vote in the municipal county, upon being stopped at 
the gate of a town in some part of Germany, throughout which 
empire an elector is considered as a personage only inferior to the 
Emperor, and upon his name being demanded, replied, ** ye luit un 
Eiectiur de MiddUiex ;** upon which the Captain ordered the guard td 
turn out and salute him, and sent a company to follow the carriage 
to the inn, and attend him there, and paid him all the honours due 
to an electoral Prince. The delusion was easily carried on, for 
princes, even crowned heads in Germany, and various other parts 
•f the continent, trouble themselves but little about equipage.' - 

The plates are pleasing additions to thia amusing volume^ 

and arc credtuble to^*Mr. Carr's pencil* 

Aar. 



( 144 ) 

Art* IV. Memoirs of the Life of GShert Wahfieli^ B.A.^ formerly 
Fellow ofjetus College^ Cambrtdge. In two V<^nme8. ^ Vol. I. 
written by himself, a new Edition, with his last CorrtctionSy and 
Notes by the Editors. To which is subjoined an Appendix of 
Original Letters. Vol. II. by the Editors of the ftret Volume, 
with an Appendix consisting chiefly of Original Letters and 
Papers. 8vo. xl. is. Boards. Johnson. 1804* 

TTTb have more than once spoken our sentiments respecting 
^^ the character which is here fully exhibited to our ?iew; 
and we have observed that, if it laid claim to peculiar excel- 
lencies, it also laboured under striking defects* We are inclined^ 
however, to believe from ioformation drawn from other soiirces» 
as well as from the additional volume before us, that the good 
not only far predomtnated, but that the proportion of the alloy 
to the pure metal was every day diminishing. Mr. Wakefield 
himself speaks of a < melioration of the heart/ as having been 
effected during his confinement ; and it was noticed by several 
of his friends that he appeared to be much more moderate, and 
that he seemed to be resolved to devote his whole attention in 
future to liteiary pursuits. In our remarks on his diflFerent 
worksy we have had frequent occasions to animadvert on his 
singularities, and to censure his violence ; and in reviewing 
the .first volume of his memoirs, we remonstrated against tha 
censorious and querulous spirit which it breathed : a spirit in* 
consistent with that elevation of character, and with those 
higher rules of conduct, for which credit is given to an avowed 
reformer. With principles such as he chose to profess, pre- 
ferment Was not to be expected ; and the opinions which he 
zealously promulgated effectually excluded him from the coun* 
tenance and patronage of *< those in authority." Sacrificing, 
therefore, as he did, his prospects to his conscience, we see 
nothing in his fate to justify the loud and frequent complaints 
in which he indulged. His murmurs, and his allusions to the 
advancement of others whose chances, he observed, were origi* 
nally not superior to his own,— if they did not indicate regret 
at the election which he had made,*-bespoke a discontent with 
his lot, a dissatisfaction with the arrangements of Providence, 
and were inconsistent with the piety which beyond all doubt 
he cherished. 

Those who would make conscience the absolute arbiter of 
their conduct, who deem sincerity to be as obligatory in all 
matters of public form, as it undoubtedly must be held in all 
transactions in which such forms do not intervene, should 
previously study well their mental frame, and the degree of 
fortitude and firmness which it possesses ; they should stricdy 
comply with the precept of th^ orade» before thev commit 

15: themselves 



Mifrmrs ff tie Lift ffQjibtrtVrAtBitld, B.J. 145 

themselves in a career which is not exempt from dreariness ; 
they should consider well whether they can stand unmovcid 
under the frowns of power, the scoffs of fashion, and the in- 
cotarentencies of poverty ; they should carefully examine whe- 
ther they have been elected by heaven to read to the world the 
sablime lesson, that to a strict adherence to trath and to 
unswerving rectitude belong consolations and enjoyments more 
gratifying even to imperfect human nature, than the acqaisi- 
tioa of honours and the accumulation of treasures. To all the 
importance, and all the dignity, of this .august mission, we 
believe that the subject of these memoirs was x highly sen- 
sible ; and in order to support it, what sacrifices had he not 
made ? if, then, he sometimes forgot his high vocation, let 
sot those condemn him who never attempted to act a similar 
part. Mr. Wakefield, it should be remembeted, died as it were 
in the prime of life : neither his literary nor his moral character 
had reached maturity; his intentions and aims were ever most 
pure ; and had he lived, he would probably have furnished us 
an eminent pattern of moral rectitude and of literary exertion. 
Let those who would question this conjecture peruse the second 
of these volumes, and contemplate the subject of it in his private 
papers, in his communications with his family and friends, and in 
his acts of benevolence and religion towards his fellow-captives 
in the prison, which are here submitted to their view ; and 
we are persuaded that they will admit that we have not over- 
rated his character. 

The first of these volumes, which now appears in an im- 
proved edition, was written by Mr. Wakefield himself, and 
due notice of it was taken by us. The second Is the produc- 
tiiHi of two friends of the deceased, who have subscribed their 
names to the dedication, John Towill Rutt, and Arnold Waine- 
wright. 'If it be less lively and entertaining than its companion, it 
is free from the many blemishes which disfigure that highly ani- 
mated narrative ; which was composed with prodigious haste, 
and at a moment when the mind of the writer had been made 
sore by disappointment. These gentlemen display a zeal for the 
Baemory of their friend which reflects the highest credit on their 
fccllngs; and their volume presents us with welUjudged selection^ 
from the works and correspondence of the deceased, apt quota* 
tiotts from other authors, interesting circumstances drawn from 
the store of their own recollections, and judicious observations. 
In one respect, however, we conceive that their attachment has 
carried them too far ; when, alluding to the obnoxious publica- 
tions for ' which Mr. Wakefield was prosecuted, they speak in 
loo high a tone, and assume too much the language of justifi- 
cation; scarcely allowing him to hare been chargeable with any 

Rot, Oct, 1805. L blame 



146 Memirs rfthe life j^ Gilbert Wakefieldi B^ J. 

blame or error. This conduct is not less Injudicious than it is 
unwarranted. Had they contented themselves with a mere 
statement of factS} the decisive preponderance of worth and 
excellence, which these volumes prove to have belonged to 
Mr. Wakefield, would have induced dispassionate readers to 
have acquitted his intentions ; and to have regarded his poli- 
tical delinquencies as errors of the head^ with which the heart 
had no concern. 

From the period at which Mr. W/s own account of himself 
breaks off, to that of his imprisonment, he had never changed 
his residence, which was in the vicinity of the metropolis. His 
confinement lasted two years, and he survived it only a few 
months. 

We shall now present to our readers some passages relative 
to Mr. W.'s conduct while in the gaol at Dorchester, which 
illustrate the genuine goodness of his nature, and the pure 
principles by which he was actuated : 

* It excited no commoa interest to observe the kindness and courtesy* 
of his behaviour towards all the prisoners. They, in retui^, were 
eager to seize every opportunity of evincing their gratitude for an at- 
tention to which they were so little accustomed. Of the greater part 
of them it might be truly said, that with the exception of himself^ 
they had 

** No eye to mark their sufferings with a tear, 
No friend to comfort, and no hope lo cheer *" 

< He took great pains to inquire into ihtir fifcuftar cases, and madie 
them the subject of frequent conversation with his friends, who in 
several instances, had the satisfaction of contributing to their relief. 
One instance has been already noticed, and more might be added, 
even from our own personal knowledge. The prisoners frequently 
requested him to draw up petitions in their behalf, for mercy, or for 
mitigation of punishment. These oRiccs of Christian charity, and a 
thousand others^ did he most cheerfully perform f • 

• It 

« • Day's « Dying Negro." 
% ' f The following account of Mr. Wakefield's minute attentions to 
the wants of the prisoners we received from an eye witness in his own 
family. It places him in so amiable a point of view as to require no 
apology for it's insertion. 

** During the high price of bread he bought large quantities of 
mackarel, which he distributed amongst the prisoners : he also occasi- 
onally gave them money for tea ; sixpence to each of the men, and a 
shilling to the women. To such of them, who were desirous of em- 
ploying themselves in reading on Sundays, and after their work, he 
gave Testamenis. In the winter of the year 1799 and 1800 the wea- 
ther was remarkably severe, and he supplied them with potatoes, to- 
bacco, and other things, of which they stood in need, as thjnr portion 

14 of 



Memoirs of the Life g/^ Gilbert Wakefield, B. A. 147 

' It was' indeed a sentiment frequently urged by him, that the nuMt 
I^Laltcd endowments of intellect^ unaccompanied by a disposiuon to 
active benevolence, forfeited all claim to respect. 

^ The following extract from his manuscript papers forcibly in- 
culcates the same doctrine. The recurrence of this sentiment^ in 
various parts of his writingSi proves in a great measure that it was not 
merely a speculative opinion. It was carried into the constant prac- 
tice of bis life, and became the rule by which he estimated his own 
character, with no less impartiality than that of others. 

• He remarks, •* that knowledge only is of value which exalts the 
vixtue, multiplies the comforts, soothes the sorrow, and improves the 
general feb'city of human intercourse ; which accompanies the posses* 
sor in every condition, and through all the vicissitudes of mortality ; 
which exhilarates and ameods society^ which solaces and animates th^ 
retirement of domestic life." 

Mr.W.'fl letter to his daughter, who was then on a visit toDn 
Ciompton of Eton near Liverpool, strongly points to a differ* 
eiKe between the private individual and the author, which has 
been known to exist in many other instances, while it shews 
the degree in which this tender father possessed the kind aSec^ 
tioDS. We copy some parts of it ; 

^ Dorchester Gaol, Oct. 19, 1799* 
*' My very dear child, 

*' I shall occasionally employ myself in giving you a few directions^ 
which may contribute to the perfection otyour conduct and the im« 
]»ovement of your tinderstanding ; but I do not require from you a 
punctual reply to all my letters, and I shall be fully requited by a 
Kw lines either to your mother, your sister, or myself. 1 wish you 
in this, and in every other respect, to consult your own inclination 
and convenience, under the government of conviction, and a just x^ 
gard to propriety and decorum. 

^ It is unnecessary for me, I know, to desire your attention to my 
advice. You must be persuaded that I can be impelled to an occupa- 
tion, most odious in general, and almost inbupportable, from my at^ 
tachment to other pursuits, by no motive but affection for you, and 
that I can propose to myself no object but the advancement of your 
happiness. Few people also have been more accurately observant of 
men and manners than myself i so that my suggestions will not only 

be the offspring of affection, but the deductions of experience." 

— ^^-^-^— ^-^— — ^^-^— ^-^— — — ^— *- — I _ 

of bread was comparatively small, and the quality very inferior. He 
likewise contributed greatly to the comfert of the debtors, by giving 
them his advice, in their affairs, and sending the newspapers to them 
daily. Hq also wrote letters for them to their friends, and was the 
means of procuring the liberation of several. To them likewise he 
gave money for coals and other necessaries. After their release many 
of them sent small presents offish, and other trifling things^ to siiew 
their gratitude for his kindness." 

L 3 * You 



14« Memoirs of the Life tf Gilbert Wakefield, B. A. 

** You have thAt 'Frankness and opctiness of manners and conversa- 
tion, Xvhfch I have always encouraged in you, and which is the 
result, I am persuaded, of an undisguised and uncorrupted heart. 
Brtt let mc entreat you, my dearest love ! to express, on all occastonsy 
your dissent from the opinion of others in the softest manner, and in 
the most conciliating language. Though some people regard mc as 
Violent and self-wiUed, 1 know very well that I owe the extraordinary 
itflR^ct^on of my many friends to no One property so much as a kind 
attention to their sentiments, and a civil manner of disputing (hem* 
Noting so much becomes all mankind as gentleness, condescension ^ 
and an unassuming proposal of our opinions : but this comjplacency of 
deportment is most of all becoming the young and inexperienced, and 
especially your own sex. 

*^ Sir Isaac Newton, the most sublime intelligence among the sons 
of men, was also the most modest, the most numble, and the least 
disputatious person, that has yet existed. I need not mention that 
self-love and pride urge every human bfcing to oppose, repivsa^ and 
disparage the forward and the petulant ; whilst the benevolent^ asd 
polite, and conciliating, secure to themselves the universal homage of 
deference, esteem, and love. So certainly will our own happiness be 
effected by an undeviating assiduity in promoting the happiness of 
others. Adieu ! my dear child, accept the affectionate wishes and re- 
membrances of us iSX, and fail not in communicating our respectful 
acknowledgments to all the family. 

*• Believe me, my dear, 

••Your most loving father, 

'* Gilbert Wakifibld.'* 

Writing on another occasion to his daughter, he tdls her ^ 

** The assizes here ended last week ; and the number of criminals^ 
exceeded that of any former occasion^ Thirteen, I think, were con- 
demned, and four are left for execution, three of whom have never 
been in a gapl before. They are now undergoing the previous tor- 
ture of cold solitary cells, heavy irons, with bread and water to con- 
tinue existence, rather than sustain life.^' — 

• The case of these condemned criminals (add the editors) very 
much interested his feelings, already oppressed by the dangerous, and 
at length fatal illness of his youngest child. On application to the 
magistrates he obtained permii>sion to visit them in their solitary cells, 
and exerted himself to the utmost in preparing their minds for th» 
awful fate which awaited them. 

• Their desponding melancholy, when he first visited them, was 
great beyond expression. "But his intimate knowledge of human 
nature enabled him to enter fully into their situation, and to communi- 
cate such instruction, and open to them such views as their previous 
extreme ignorance would anow. Here he endeavoured to put in 
practice, as far as his situation would permit, those methods of in. 
lucncing the mind by kindness and persuasion^ which he so "strenu- 

outl 



r 



Memtirs of the Life g/" Gilbert Wakefield, B. A. 149 

•mly enforced, as the only rational mode of attempting the reforma- 
tion of criroinala. 

< He was highly gratified by observing the good effects of his at- 
tentioosy and spon had the happiness to perceive, that 

«^-^ << to each cell, a inildi yet mournful guestf 
Contrition came, and still'd the beating breast." 

' Such was the result of his affectionate treatment of these unhappy 
men,, that the^ became at length perfectly composed and resigned to 
their fate, which all of them suffered with the most entire firmness aod 
decent resoli^ion. 

*^ Under the impression of these circumstances, Mr. Wakefield 
•gaia wrote to his daughter. 

'* Dorchester Gaol, March. • , i8or* 
** My dear child, 

" Another melancholy event h^s agitated our feelings during the 
hut week : the execution of four men for robberies. I felt an unusual 
iDterest in their situation ; and as they were extremely ignorant, I was 
desirous that some attentii^u should be paid them beyond the formal 
aod uaimpfissioQe4 duties of the chaplain. 

'' The time was short, but I obtained leave from the magistrates to 
visit them, and was with them five different times. I employed the 
opportunities to the utmost capacity of their attention and under- 
standing ; and I f njoyed the satisfaction of perceiving, as well as 
learning from the reports of their attendants, that their minds, ia 
consequence of my instructions au4 admonitions, from a ran^bling 
aod confuted sens<; uf things, sdon <^ettled into that serenity of re^ 
sigDation, and decency of firmness, which their situation required. 

'' It is universally allowed, that no men ever met death with more 
tnmqail resolution, than the^e poor creatures. Nay, one who had 
l^en uacomfnonly dismayed at Brst, and had expected a reprieve^ de* 
dared himself so resigned to suffer' death, as to feel no desire of dc« 
liverance ; and they welcomed the summons to the execution with a 
readiness, and even cheerfulness, that commanded the admiration of the 
beholders;, whose lamentations and sorrows, and mine among the 
rest, formed a striking contrast to their steadiness, silence, and mag* 

naniqjity.".— r 

* To nave wttnesRed such a scene as he has here described would, 
, under any circumstances, have made a deep impression on Mr. Wake- 
field's mind. His sensibility on this occasion was heightened by a 
doiaestic aAiction, to which we have already alluded, and which 
took place within a few clays of the event just noticed. The state 
of his mind under this calamity discovers itself in his letters, and 
was not a little aggravated by his solitary situation. *' Alas!" saya 
he to •« friend, '* since I wrote to you before, our little fellow has 
been taken from us. Last Sunday morning, about six o'clock, he 
departed from the world, and has occasioned a pressure of affliction to 
his mother, sister, and myself, which it might appear an ostentation 
of ^rrow to describe in correspondence to it's reality. A severe 

L 3 trial! 



1^0 Memoirs of the Life efG\}\ittt'^z\it^t\A^ B.A. 

trial I increased by alternate hopes, and indeed, clear prospecU» of 
recovery.'* — 

* Fiom a deep conviction of the truth of these principles, he often 
lamented that he had not permusion to communicate instruction to hSk 
fellow- prisoners, from time to time, suited to their various capa- 
cities at a season -when entire seclusion from the wot Id, and its temp- 
tations, might well be expected 

" To leave them leisure \o be good." 

* Under the same impressions he observes, ** I attended the Church" 
Serwce^ occasionally, at Dorchester Gaol, though I never attend it 
elsewhere ; being not only willing to countenance the ignorant in the 
iseriousness of devotion, but fond of encouraging the poor and wretche4 
by an equality of association with them, i can truly say that I felt 
a pleasure and pnde in making myself equal to these despised men of 
the earth, beyond what such an association with their superiors could 
have excited in my bosom." 

The following traits we believe to be lofallible indications 
of a kind and good heart : 

* His fondness for young persons has been noticed more than oncCf 
and it was a very observable feature in his disposition. He entered 
with great interest into their innocent amusements, particularly those 
of his own children, not unfrequently laying aside his books, and de- 
voting an hour with them to a game of cricket ; or instructing them 
in the arts of making and flying a kite, in both which he was quite 
an adept. To the levities, and even follies, of youth he was indul- 
gent ; and an enemy to all unnecessary severity and restraint ; aiming 
rather to excite the practice of virtue from a detestation of vice, than 
from that more servile, and generally ineffectual, principle^a dread of 
punishment. 

* Towards the aged and infirm, his behaviour was marked by 
the most kind attention and respect. To inferiors of every de- 
cription he conducted himself with uniform condescension and affa- 
bility ; making it a rule, as he expresses it in one of his private 
papers, •* always to speak with courtesy and civility and respect* 
fulness to the servants, and even to the meanest person in the 
streets." 

• Dr. Parr, in a letter to Mr. Wainewrighti which reflects 
^s much honour on the feelings as on the learning of the 
writer, dots not spare the defects of his deceased friend, but 
at the same time confers on him high praisci which is of the 
more value because it is discriminative : 

* Many of the errors, which occur in his emendations, and many of 
the imperfections which have been imputed to his Latin style, may, I 
^hink, be traced to the following causes. 

* The first, and perhaps the most powerful, which presents itself to 
my memory, is, that he had not received his education in one of our 
great |)ublic schools, where his taste would have been early and cor- 
rectly 



Memoirs of the Life ^Gilbert Wakefield, J?. A. 151 

rectly formed ; where a traditionary stock of principles would have 
been ready for his use in the opinions and compositions of his school* 
ficHoWs; where the conjectures and arguments of commentators, 
unaccompanied by their rude disputes, would have been first conveyed 
to his mind ; and where a judicious instiuctor, by his own ren^rksy 
would not only have assisted the judgment of Mr. Wakefield, but 
would have taught him to smile at the self-importance, and to avoid 
the acrimony} of the most eminent critics. Dr. Warton of Winches- 
ter, and Di*. John Foster of Eton, carried into their writings the 
same candid and liberal spirit which pervaded their oral instructions ; 
and their examples, I am sure, were equally favourable in their 
literary and moral effects on the minds of tfieir scholars. 

' Mr. Wakefield was himself very sensible of the inconveniences to 
which he was exposed from another circumstahce, which I am now 

foing to mention ; and in his letters to me, he has more than once 
imented them most ingenuously and most feelingly. In consequence 
of his habits of retirement, of his separation from the English church, 
and the English universities, of his residence in places far remote from 
the capital, and of his numerous and honourable employments, when 
he came into the neighbourhood of it, he seldom had access to the 
conversation of such among his countrymen, as are most distinguished 
ibr philological learning. But, from my own personal experience, I 
can say with justice of those who take the lead among them, that 
Mr. Wakefield would have derived the greatest advantage from their 
friendly communications ; and would have met, not only with more 
wisdom, but with more candour, than the generality of the world ia 
prone to ascribe to verbal critics. If much intimacy had fortunately 
subsisted between these excellent men and our friend, he might have 
been often contradicted ; he would have been sometimes vanquished ; 
but he would have always been enlightened, and very seldom dis- 
pleased. *' Siquidem vera Amicitia nullam fert E/jcixBUitnajuw^ nullam 
jialevolentiam, nullam Invidiam, Irrisionem nullam.'^ Life of Ruhn- 
ken, page 1^2.* — 

* I suspect that his mind was embarrassed and confused by the muU 
tipiidity of his reading ; that it was not sufficiently stored with those 
principles which a man of his industry and sagacity might have easily 
collected from the great work of Henry Stephens on the Dialects, 
and from the celebrated preface of Pierson to Moeris : that he passed 
with too much rapidity from writers of one age and in one dialect, 
to writers of other ages, and in other dialects i from prose to verse $ 
from epic to dramatic poetry $ from tragedy to comedy ; from epi- 
grammatists to lyric writers : that he had read much, observed much, 
and remembered much ; that he was eager to produce the multifarious 
matter which he had , accumulated ; and that he wanted time or 
patience for that discrimination, which would have made his conjec- 
tures fewer, indeed, but more probable ; and his principles in forming 
or illustrating them inore exact.' — 

* 1 have, therefore, sometimes indulged a wish that Mr. Wakefield, 
instead of pushing on to fresh editions of books, or to frash emen- 
dations of writers, had sitten down to review his own critical works. 
When the first and sudden allurements of emendation had passed 

L 4 away 



-3 



Memirs 9fthi Ufe £/* Gilbert Wakefield, B. A. 



away — whca his mind was at leisure to consider ** the objections which 
xnignt arise against the change which once appeared to him happy'^— 
when correction was the professed and immediate object in which he 
was to be employed, I am persuaded that he would have observed aod 
retracted many of his own nsistakcs ; and that he would have placed 
a proper degree of reliance upon those canons of criticism, which he 
had examined negUgently, and rejected hastily. Some of them have 
hern long establiihtd by the general consent of scholarsj and others^ 
though recent, are decisive and , illustrious proofs of sagacity in the 
peisons who proposed them. Most of his prejudices, indeed^ would 
have been corrected, and most of his deficiencies would have been snp* 
plied, if he had met with opportunities for conversing familtarly with 
the scholars who adorn our capital and our universities. 

< It was once suggested to me that even his arduous and most me« 
ritorious labours in the elucidation the Scriptures, might have no 
very favourable influence upon his judgment, when he directed his 
thoughts, as an editor aiid as a critic, towards the profane writers of 
antiquity. Upon this point, I shall not myself attempt to decide ; 
nor do I think it necessary, upon the present occasion, to enlarge 
upon the very different qualifications for criticism, in those who Qn«. 
undertake to explain the sacred wntings, and those who are employed 
upon the ciasikal writers of antiquity. But in justice to Mr. Wake- 
field, and with frequent and important differences of opinion from him 
upon controversial questions in theology, I must acknowledge Jthe 
success, and commend the judgment with which he applied bis phi« 
lological leartiing to the illustration of the scriptures. 

* The natural vigour of his mind, the great increase of his know* 
lege, and the gradual improvement of his taste, are visible in many of 
his later English productions : for in point of elegance and coirect* 
uess as well as energy, they far surpass the earlier productions of hia 
pen in his own language. 

^ He seems to have composed in Lailu with great ease and rapidity^ 
I mean in his later works, when practice had enabled him to over* 
come the difficuhics of which he complains in his Memoirs. Habit, 
no doubt, was accompanied by improvement, as well as by facility. 
But, in common with many other scholars, he had not attained to any 
eminence in the art of what Wy ttenbach calls '* vel Latine scribendi^ 
vel bene/* Life of lluhnkcn, pag. 227. - In the general structure of 
bis sentences there is something of harshness and .embarrassment. 
His periods arc seldom harmonious ; and none, I fear, of hia Latin 
productions are wholly free from faults, which he would have been 
taught to avoid iu chut best public seminaries, and of which I have 
seen many glaring instances in the works of archbishop Potter, I3r« 
John Taylor, Mr.Toup, and several eminent scholars now living, who 
were brought up in private schools* 

< In thus endeavouring to account for the imperfections of Mr. 
Wakclicld's writings, I would not be understood to depreciate their 
reaU greats and softd merit. Many who, like myself,.discerft those im« 
per Factions, are far below Mr. Wakefield, not only in industry, but in 
acuteness ; not only in extent, but, perhaps, ia accuracy of know 
kdge } not only in the contributions which they have made, or en- 

dcavQured 



r 



Memoirs of the Lift of Gilbert Wakefield^ R.A. 153 

^eaTOored to make, to our general stock of knowledge, but ia 
their capacity to make them so largely or so succesfifully. 

' While, therefore, we state what Mr. Wakefield has not dooe, let 
us bear in mind what he actually did ; and when we enumerate the 
causes, which might liave enabled him to do better, let us remember 
the •lutaclet with which he had to contend, when he Sd to nvell. 

* He had fewer incentives than other "men to exerttonit from secular 
emoluments. He had fewer opportunities for improvement tbaa 
Qthcrsy from access to public librsrics, from the advantages of pub- 
lic edncatioDt and above all fiom the company of persons accurately 
and profoundly learned. But his diligent researches, his extensive 
and various knowledge, his zeal for the diffusion of learning, and his 
aoh'citude for the discovery of truth, will always be remembered with 
respect by unprejudiced judges, who consider the numerous difficul- 
ties with which he had to struggle, and the virtuous motives by which 
he was actuated. 

• For my part, I shall ever think of him as one of the best scho- 
Ian produced by my own country 10 my own age ; and as one of the 
best men who, in any country, or in any age, have examined the evi- 
dences of Christianity seriously, believed them sincerely, defended 
tJiem earnestly, and endeavoured to practise the duties which it ia- 
cbkates, steadfastly and faithfully.' 

In addition to these remarks, a Clergyman of the Church of 
England} whose name is not gireni has drawn a very « neat 
cbaraccer of his lamented friend. 

Dr. Pett, also, who attended Mr. W. in his last illness, has 
furnished a sketcl) of the death-bed scene, and an account of 
the progress of the fatal fever, (a typhus,) which zrt equally 
creditable to his feelings and his judgment. 

The interci^t of this publication has induced us considerably 
to extend this T^ticle, yet we have omitted many passages 
which we had designed to extract. If we have taken a favour- 
able view of the subject, we can assure our readers that it 
has arisen from no partiality for excentricities and questionable 
opinioos, but from the lively impression in favour of Mr. 
Wakefield, made on our minds by the many proofs here 
afforded of his eminent private worth and high mental culture. 
We can never be brought to call in question his sincerity, noT 
to believe that he intended mischief \ and whatever grave autho« 
rity may have ob&erved, there never was a heart moreva stranger 
to hypocrisy than bis. k dots not become us to comment on 
the sentence which a tiibunal of the country pronounced on 
Urn : but we shall venture to observe that, in his case, the 
Forum did not suffer a regard for the Porch and the Grove to 
bias its decrees ^ that the sternness of the laws did not relax 
in favour of the Muses i and that the little success of Mr. 
Wakefiekfj as an advocate in his own ause^ shews that sim* 

8 plicitj 



J 



i54 ^P' 2^ GlouccstcrV Thoughts an the Trinity. 

plicity and ingenuousness are not tbe chdicest weapons of de* 
' fence in our courts. We cannot refrain, also, from expressing 
our surprize and regret that it was deemed unsafe bj the Ma« 
gistrates of the county of Dorset, to allow an eminent scholar 
to have daily intercourse with his family, when the same pri'* 
vikge had been before allowed in London to greater offenders^ 
and to persons of far less consideration. 

That we are not singular in our estimate of Mr. Wakefield'i* 
character appears with weighty evidence, from the highly re* 
spectable patronage which he experienced, when the sentence 
ef the law took him from active life. The first names for rank 
and character, and persons of opinions very opposite to hi$ 
own, graced the list of subscribers to a fund which a few 
friends undertook to raise ; and the sum amounted to 5oooL,i 
notwithstanding that some newspapers denounced all the con** 
tributors as disaffected persons. The testimonies of Dr. Parr, 
of Professors Heyne and Jacobs, the monuments which he 
kas left behind him, and the absence of detractors, leave no 
room for doubt in regard to tbe variety and extent of his learn- 
ing $ and we are informed that, at no period of his past life^ 
was he advancing more rapidly in this career than at the time 
immediately preceding that in which he was removed from al| 
the pursuits of this world. 

A mezzotinto portrait of Mr. Wakefield, prefixed to the first 
volume, exhibits a countenance strongly niarked^ and mucl^ 
ip harmony with the features of his mind. 



Akt. V. Tbcmghit 9n ibe Trimty. By George Isaac Huntingfordf 
D.D. F.R.S,, Warden of Winchester College, and Bishop of 
Gloucester. 8vo. 3s. Cadell and Davies. 

TTiriTH a pertness which it is not easy to restrain, modem 
^^ wit has denominated the Trinity, <^ a Bishop-making and 
Bishop-promoting doctrine." We, however, consider this 
subject as of too awful a nature to be viewed through the me« 
dium of levity, and are not disposed to substitute ludicrous 
insinuations for serious inquiry \ though we cannot but ob^* 
serve with real regret that the dignitaries of the church arc 
attempting to revive this unpropitious controversy* In Dr. 
Huntingford*s pamphlet before us, we perceive the man of 
learning, the calm reasoner, and the liberal Christian ; yet we 
will honestly confess that we perused his ^ Thoughts on the 
Trinity^ with more concern than pleasure ; because he appears 
not to us to have thrown any fresh light on this mysterious 
point, or to have removed any of the difficulties with which 

St 



Bp' ^Gloucester*/ Thoughts on the Trinity. 155 

ft IS enveloped. When we say this, we disclaim all intention 
of entering the lists against him, for we have no wish to re- 
euscitate a dispute which, from the manner in which it has 
hitherto been conducted, promises no beneficial result. At 
the same time, we feel it to be a duty which we owe to our 
theological readers, since tlie subject has been thus recently 
discussed by so respectable a writer as the Bishop of Glou- 
cester, to state our opinion of the true point of view in which 
it ought to be placed ; and to notice the kind of reasoning 
employeed hj this champion, in support of that side of the 
•question which he steps forwards to defend* 

That the nature of the Deity is incomprehensible by us if 
ene of those negative truths^ to which all men readily assents 
but this is no proof of our believing the essence of an incom- 
prehensible proposition. Here our belief goes no farther than 
a belief in our ignorance. Dr. H. observes that < nothing can be 
so mysterious as the existence of God, and yet to believe that 
God exists is the foundation of all religion }' from which he 
infers that Mystery and Religion are inseparable : but if, bj 
Keligion, he means religions belief, he is not perhaps strictly 
correct* The existence of God is a matter of deduction or de« 
monstration, and so far is no mystery, but a rational object 
4>f faith and an intelligible basis of religion; the modi of that 
existence is beyond the discovery of the human tntellecty or it 
a complete mystery, and as such presents no object of faith to 
natural reason ; nor is our comprehension of it in any way ne* 
eessary to natural religion. Revelation may discover to ua 
more of the nature of the Deity, of his perfections, and of his 
purposes* than we can possibly acquire by the utmost efibrtsof 
our intellectual powers i yet still our faith, if it be accurately 
traced, will be found to go no farther than the actual knowlege 
which we attain by virtue of that discovery. When our Saviour 
informs us that *< God is a Spirit," we fully acquiesce in the 
doctrine : but what is the amount of the acquiescence ? We 
only believe, as Dr. H. remarks, that God is < something 
which is not material, or incorporeal. Here we are lost.' Here» 
then, he mighthave added, our faith stops, just where the mystery 
^mmences ; so that it is the negative of corporeality to God, and 
aoc positive notions respecting the nature of the Divine Spirit^ 
which is tlie true amount of our faith. It is the same with re- 
gard to all subjects of a mysterious nature. We believe in the 
union of the soul and body, because we know the fact; of the 
fnode of that union, we know nothing, and consequently be- 
lieve nothing. 

The doctrine of the Trinity, if a doctrine of Revelation, 
D)u«t be reeved as a matter of fact^ on the evidence of Divine 

Testimony ^ 



' 5^ Sp. (f GloitcesferV 7hmghu on tJ^ Trimij. - 

Testimony ; hence, as the Bishop justly obsfirresi ^ on ttie 
ground of scripture the question must ultimately stand.' 1\> 
scripture, then, the appeal should be solely made ; and as, 
from the nature of the subjtct, we can acquire not an atom of 
knowltge beyond what is revealed, it behoves us Vfgidly to 
confine ourselves within the limits of Revelation. Here we 
are enjoined to perform the rite of baptism <* in the name of 
the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit \* and we are 
informed that the Son is *'.the only-begotten of the Father," 
and that the Holy Spirit <^ proceedeth from the Father/' What 
b the fair amount of this testimony ? Are they anywhere €%?» 
pressly said to be ihr€$ ptrsms constituting mi# Godhead ? Are 
not terms forc^ed into this controversy which are not justified 
by §cfipture, and can those terms assist its elucidation ? Can 
the words Per^^on^ Subsiancf^ Subsistenetf and comubstamtiaij fact* 
litate our comprehension ? The Bp. of Glooeestcr tells those 
who object to the use of the expression '* Trinity of the God-* 
head,'^ on the ground of its not occarring in scripture, that 
the same objection may be made to the expression ^ Unity in 
the Godhea4 1'' which is indeed true : but an adversjiry to hie 
hypoi^sis will ask him if there be passages which assert that 
there . ?re tlra Gods, as there are passages which uneqnivo- 
caUy assert jthat tl^ere is om God ? He will reply that a plura^ 
litji of Gods is repeatedly asserted. This brings the matter 
fairly to issue : but what is^ the Bisbop't^ mpde of proof i We 
are concerned to stale that he cont^ods for the word ElMm as 
including the enunciation of this mysterious doctrine, without 
noticing what the learned Selden and others have remarked on 
the imbecility of this argument. When the word Elohim 19 
applied to Moses, can it mean a plurality ? When it is ap* 
plied to the apparition raised by the Witch of Endor to per* 
sonate Samuel, can it mean a plurality ? When it is applied ta 
Baaly can it mean a plurality r When in £xod. xxxii. 4. it it 
applied to the golden calf, can it mean a plurality ? In the 
last of these instances, the case is decisive. « There was (aa 
Br. Geddes remarks) b|it om image, and the plural is pro-» 
bably used only for the sake of more majesty." Moreover, the 
Jews, who nruist be admitted to understand their own language, 
protest against the inference which Chrisuaiis draw from the 
use of the plural term Ehbim. 

If the Trinity be proved, it must be by texts out of the Nsv^ 
and not out of the Old Testament. The antient Jews were 
idolators, but not Trinitarians. There is qiore evidence for 
its being a Christian than for its having been a Jewish or a 
patriarchal doctrine. Evep supposing the tenet to be masked 
or veiled in the use of the vn^d £lohim, it was not displayed 

in 



j^^^Glottcestef^x noughts mi iU TrimUy. 157 

In tnj sacn4 rite, no baptism nor circumciuon having been 
p^formed in three names expressive of Father, Son, and Holf 
Spirit. In short, the question is, whether it makes a part of 
the Revelation of the New Covenant i' — so that we need not 
pass the boundaries of the New Testament. 

When the Bishop of Gloucester observes that, < on the 
principles of reason, no man can prove that the Deity cannot 
reside in Three Spiritual Intelligences/ we allow that his re* 
mark is perfectly just : but it is also perfectly nugatory. The 
point in debate does not respect what cannot be disproved, 
rat what has been actually discovered 6r revealed : the anti- 
trtnitarian does not undertake to prove that three spiritual 
intelligences cannot reside in the Godhead : but he calls on the 
trinitarian to shew what passages of scripture authorize him 
in asserting that they do so reside. The same remark will 
apply to a similar position of Dr. IT. in. a subsequent section. 
* The eternity of Three Spiritual Intelligences in quality of one 
'Godhead, we cannot prove to be a doctrine erroneous ; be- 
cause we have no sufficient knowlege of Spirituality and Essen* 
tially Divine Nature.' To what do such propositions tend ? 
They can only serve to invert . the order in which the subject 
ought to be contemplated. Proof of the affirmative is required 
from the advocate of the doctrine, and not proof of its abso- 
lute impossibility from the opponent. It must rest on positive 
evidence. 

Supposing the doctrine of a Trinity in Unify to be establish* 
ed in scriptttre, the next inqairy will be into the mode of 
worship which the same scripture inculcates. Are we, to use 
the words of the collect for Trinity Sunday, ** to acknowlcge 
ibS Eternal Trinity, and to nvorship the Unity j" or arc we 
left at liberty to worship each person separately as a distinct 
God, or all conjointly as making One only true God ? Some 
directions seem to be necessary in so difficult a case : but we 
look in vain for any such in the N. T. We have not Father^ 
Son, and Holy Spirit mentioned together \ except in the Bap- 
tismal Ordinance, and in a Doxology or benediction at the end 
of one of St. Paufs Epistles, — for i John v. 7. is now abandoned 

by all the learned as spurious ; and it is for the reader to con- 
^der how far they are thus pointed out as distinct objects of 

worship ; or how far, if distinct objects of worship, they can 

be regarded as only one object of worship. 

We deem it proper thus to state the real matter at issue 

between Trinitarians and Unitarians : buty as we purpose 

not to become principals in the controversy, we shall not 

particularly animadvert on the several passages in the N.T. 

#0 which Dr. U« rests hi^ demoastratioa. We must) how * 

ever, 



158 Bp. of GloucesterV TBoughts on the Trmtjfl 

every observe tbat^ on several occasions, he takes weak groaa(f# 
and manages hie argument with little success^ In $ 44 he 
thus reasons : 

• The zeal of the Jews for the name of God is well fenowi*. Hour 
then can we account for St. Thomas's addressing himself on a most 
remarkable occasion in these words to Christ, •• My Lord, and my 
God!" (St. John, xx. 28.) We cannot sufBdently account for it 
«>therwise, than by saying, that even to this Apostk, who was far 
from being credulous, the Resurrection appeared to he, ^s it certainly 
was, an incontestible proof that oar Loid was, what he had asserted 
himself to be, in nature Divine* But if Divine in nature, then God.' 

Here the objector might remark that the Bishop has proved 
too much *y for if a resurrection establishes divinity, we shall all 
at last be proved to be divine, and consequently Goda; since it 
is saidy << God hath raised up the Lord and will raise us up 
also/' To be in nature divine, and absolutely one in essence 
with God, are not synonymous expressions ; for true Christ* 
iana are mentioned as being *^ made partakers of the divine 
Batttfe" {Bttoi f u(rtwc). 

Again, § 59. .affords us this singular comment on a passage 
of scripture^ which we did not expect to see quoted in thia 
argument ; 

** I thank God that I baptized none of you,** says St. Paul to the 
Corinthians (iCor. i. 14). Why should the Apostle manifest so 
great earnestness, and why express himself so very strongly on thia 
occasion ? Because, he thought it would be dishonouring Christ if he 
bad admitted disciples in his own name* And wherefore should he be 
anxious on that account, if he had believed Chiist to have been merely 
human, and to have been still sleeping in the grave ? He could have 
incurred no evil, present or future, had Christ been merely human, r^d 
•till sleeping in the grave. It is clear then he believed Christ to be 
more than human ; to be raised from the grave ; to be the witocss, 
the judge, the rewarder of his actions.' 

Surely Dr. H. cannot call this reasonings St. Paul must 
have believed that Christ was one with the Father ; because 
he thanked God that he had been generally employed in bap- 
tizing the Corinthian converts \ What a strange inference t 
The Apostle was the servant of Christ ; and his thankfulnesa 
on this occasion proves his fidelity to his master, but does not 
shew us what he thought of the person of Christ. 

It is difficult to attempt to expLiin the distinct personality of 
each person^ without running into direct Tritheism ; and 
equally difficult to explain the priority of the Father, without 
destroying the Godship of the Son and Spirit. Dr. H. has 
not been more fortunate than his predecessors in conquering 
this embarrassment. He says that the Father^ as communi- 
cating 



[ 



ManginV TransioHon of tie Life of Malesfaerbes* 1 59 

tadng Godhead, must be the origin of Godhead ; yet he eon- 
tends that there is no priority of timet hut only a priority of 
wrdif. There seems as little ground for this distinction, as for 
his remark on the Apostle's creed, that, < though the wor4 
^ Trinity" is not mentioned in it, the substantial meaning of 
the word is implied/ That man must be a keen dlscerner of 
Mysteries, who can see the Trinity in this creed ; which re- 
spects not the eternal generation of the Son, but merely the 
generation of Jesus Christ in the womb of Mary« 

On the whole, we are persuaded that these Thoughts will 
create for Dr. H. very little reputation as a good logician % 
whatever effect they may have produced on his own mind. From 
a passage in the preface, it might be inferred that the Bishop 
formerly had his doubts at least of this doctrine ; for he says 
that ' he has been long impressed with the force of this so- 
lemn charge, *' when thou art convertedf strengthen thy bre- 
thren i^ but whether he be a convert or an uniform believer, 
he considers himself as having done his duty by this attempt 
to support what he regards as the * antient faith \* and thou^ 
there appeairs little prospect of converting infidels, he may ne* 
vertheless be hailed as a strengthener of the brethren. 

A reply to this pamphlet has been advertized, but we have 
not yet seen it. 



AnT. VI. The Life of C. G. Lamoignou MaUsherhesy formerly first 
President of the Court of Aids, and Minister of State, Member 
of the Academy, &c. Translated from the French by Edward 
Mangia. lama* pp.245. 3 s. sewed. Longman and Co. 

'IPhbse pages exhibit the outlines of a character distinguished 
''- most eminently by purity and worth, and at tl^ same 
time recommended by all the advantages which are conferred 
by family, rank, and accomplishments both elegant and solid. 
Europe, in the eighteenth century, does not furuish an indi- 
vidual of greater interest^ and on whose history the mind 
dwells with more satisfaction and delight.— The narrative has 
little tp boast on the score of method or arrangement : but, as 
it details the most interesting passages in the life of such a 
man, it caimot fail to engage attention, and is intitled to a 
considerable share of our notice. 

M. dc Malesherbes was born at Paris on. the i6th of De- 
cember 1 72 1 $ his grandfather was the President de Lamoig* 
non of the reign of Louis XIV., the patron of Letters and the 
friend of Boileau ; his father, the second son of the President» 
filled the high situation of first President of the court of Aids, 
and was afterward raised to that of Chancellor of France : 

* MalcsherbeSf 



1^0 MangmV Tramlaiim rfthe L^e ^Malesherbes* 

< MilesheTbev, destined for the highest dfficeiTof the state, applied 
bimfielf with enthcsiasm to the studf of^he laws.'-— 

. * Possoising an intense love of application, he could not fail to be- 
nefit by the wise precepts of his father. After studying with great 
advantage under the JesuItSt and obtaining a perfect knowledge of 
equity, ne cmpfoyed his hours upon history and political economr^ 
and evinced a degree of erudition very rare, at a time when all tne 
young men of rank, influenced by a corrupt court*, abandoned them* 
•elves to the pursuit of effeminate pleasures. 

■* His father then could have procured him the post of counseUor 
to the parliament ; but he too well knew the importance of such 
a situation, and would not allow hts son to be confounded with the 
herd of those* who* purchasiog the liberty of deciding on the lives 
and properties of their fellow-citizens, thought themselves exempted 
from the necessity of acquiring that knowledge which would fit 
them to exercise with dignity the most august functions of the 
magistracy. 

< With the intention of preparing his son, he had him appointed de- 
puty Bolicitor-gencnd ; in appearance a place of great inferionty, but 
which gave him an opportunity to try his first steps in the walk of 
politics. 

' In right of his office, Malesherbes frequently addressed the paiiia- 
ment, and there always displayed unerring good sense, a sweet, per- 
suative eloquence, and a profound acquaintance with mankind and 
human affairs : in short, he made himself remarkable in a situation 
wherein others were scarcely noticed. 

^ It was not until he had undergone such a trial as this, that his 
father obtained him the appointment of counsellor to the parliameat 
of Pans ; and he was then only 14 years old, but had more reflectieii 
and more judgmtnt than many of his seniors. 

' Six years after he obtained the reversion of the place of first 
president of the Court of Aids, held by his father whom he ulti- 
mately succeeded December 14. 1750.' 

The ability^ courage, and firmness which he displayed in 
this situationi are known to all Europe. Some very remark- 
able instances are here detailed, which we should quote with 
pleasare, if unrestrained by limits* 

In April 177I9 the unparalleled measure projected by the 
daring and unprincipled Maupou was carried into effect ; 
the supreme courts of the metropolis were all decreed to be 
abolished \ the venerable magistrates were banished ; )ttnd 
new tribunals were erected which were filled by men who Were 
sold to the Court. No civil government which could thus 
conduct itself could be expected to stand. The behavioor of 
the President of the court of Aids on tlie occasion is tempe« 
rate, great, and worthy of himself. 

• • The court pf Lewis XV.' 

The 



r 



MahgtnV Tramlaticn ofthi Life j/^Malcsherbcs. \6l ' 

The court in which M. de Malesherbes presided was suffered 
to exist some time after the others had been annihilated j 
and he adopted the measure of expostulating against its in- 
tended dissolution. We subjoin a part of his address in that * 
juncture^ as it displays his intrepidity^ and his benevolent and 
patriotic views : 

" Terror," said he, *^ has not shaken our firmness : it is notorious 
that sd! manner of access Is denied to truth : our demand to be heard 
wfll doubtless expose us to the effects of powerful hatred — but our 
aiience would insure our being accused by the whole nation of treason 
or cowardice. 

*' Tbc rights of that nation are those alone for which we this day 
contend : in other times, we should have lold you that those of the 
magistracy were violated with every circumstance of inhumanity ; that 
the magistrates themselves are dispersed over thcl^rngdom by your 
orders, and, by an unexampled species of cruelty, caie has been taken' 
to select the most lonely districts, where they might want aill the con- 
veniences, and evtri. the necessaries of life, to aggravate their dis- 
grace. 

" These courts are now the last remaining protectors of the helpless' 
and unfortunate ; all the rest are reduced to mute and passive submis- 
sion : no individual will dare to expose himself to tlie anger of a com*- 
missary, or a commandant ; much less to that of a minister* ^nd, 
although we were not interested to fulfil our functions : — though we 
were deaf to the voice of duty, yet we cannot be so to the. moans of 
a people suffering by the interruption of justice, 

'* Cruelly must the riglitsof the nation have been invaded, and potent 
must the sentiments of virtue and honour be in magistrates who can 
thus lay themselves open to imprisonment, to exile, to the injuring 
of their fortunes, to the loss of health, and even to the loss of life, which 
has been the fate of many amongst those condemned to banishment. 

" By what fatality are they urged thus to force the men of France to 
remind their governor of those laws which Providence hals imposed up- 
on him, together with his crown ? Sire ! You hold it from the Al- 
mighty — but do not refuse us the satisfaction ot. believing thut you 
sAbo owe your power to the voluntary submission of your subjects : 
or rather^^^without agitating questions of this melancholy nature, 
which should find no place under a reign such as yours deign to 
reflect that the dirine power is the origin of all lawful dominion ; 'but 
that the supreme happiness of the people should ever be its end 
and aim ; and that God has put the diadem on the heads of kings, 
only to ensure to mankind security of existence, liberty of person, 
and the tranquil enjoyment of property. 

•* Sovereigns may have more or less power, but their duties are in- 
variably the sanae : should there he any so unfortunate as to preside 
over a people destitute of laws, they ar€ compelled to supply the place 
of these, as well as they can, by their personal love of justice, and n 
prudent choice of those in whom they deposit their authority. But 
^'if there are hwr-^if the people look ^n- them ot the ramparts of their 
fiw(jr — if the^ are nalif ^useful restraint against the abuses of authority 

iBv. Oct. ifk>5. M -^excuso 



1^1 • MangtiiV Trsmla$m vf iU tifi ^ Malethetbev^ 

--^exeuse our mating ii a quet^n^ Sire, vfietbeTf in Mf itai9% a M^itdlgii 
can dUpente with such laws : it it enough for us to tell a prince who is tk 
friend of justice, thai he ought not. 

*' It 18 given out that your majesty meantf to replace those mem^ 
bers of the parliament who have refused to- be the despicable tools of 
your Rkinisters : we must be so bidd as to assure you» Sire, that there 
will be found none to fill their room, but men who, in accepting thaC 
station t wilt sign their Own dishonour i one paert of themf from ambi- 
tipn* win be content to face 'the public odium ; the rest w31 sacrtBce 
themselves with regret, but be forced to it by indigence x- thcforei^ 
consequently t must be already corrupt'-^ tie oiheri Uktlf Man to b«omt$i0 
eesmcM 

*^ Suchy Sire, are the judges yois are abost to gi^ to yoar peopk ; 
and by such as these must be determined' the fortonec — the repota^ 
tions— the existence of Frenchmen ! On the other siiie, the miDialeTi^ 
at their pleasure^ take away the properties and subsistence of the 
citizens — and thear feelings as men of honour are all they have kfe 
---for these cannot wither even heneath the Blight ofarhifnry pomser.^ 

* These expostulations only increased the fury of the mioiatcri 9 
and Malesherbes was banished to hi» owu country seat by a ^ Ictiiw 
4^ cachet/' dated the 8 th of April/ 

We cannot forbear laying before our readers the picture 
ivliich is here giren of the worthy President, when released 
front the carca and toils of his exalted station. This respite 
from acthre life continued for more than three years^r 

< Malesherbes, withdrawn from the stage of psblie aftirt, passed hia. 
days in serenity at his retirement ; dividing his time between his familyy 
his books» and the cultivation of his gardens* 

< He had written a vast number ef valuable remarks on the poCtical 
condition of France, the administration of justice, upon agricukore^ 
and natural history. These obsci^rations, which he designed to ar« 
range, and which were afterwards carried off by the revolutionary 
barbarians, breathed the spirit of an enlarged phikmthropy, an en- 
thusiastic love of his native hmdy. and a lofty and valorous rndepcii>« 
dence. 

< Every hour of his day was marked by benevolnit actions or useful 
discoveries. Rising before the dawn, he walked ont to watch the 
progress of vegetation, and admire, in respectful sflence, the cvci>acvr' 
and various wonders which nature pours forth with a hwh haad, lor 
the benefit of human kind. 

* He encouraged, by his exatnple, the nomcrous labonrcrs whom he 
employed in tillage ; with the spade in his hand, he tools delight m 
digging the ground ; and nevejr forsook his task^ till, eahanstad bf 
fatigue, he would retire to repest hisusclf under the shade of treea 
whi«h his own hand had planted. 

* His mansion was furnished in the most unostentatious style (for he 
found, more pleasure in giving bread to an hundred poor persons, than- 
in squandering immense sums . on costly decorations. His pbee waa- 
Uid out upon the principles of the old ffolhic manner ; aGcordiogly, 
people of tasie advised him ta throw au iomn% aaAcabvild upon ar 

modirar 



Maogm^/ ^roftslafhh 6/ the Life ^Ms^slierbei. 1^3 

ftioiieni plan — but he ha4 inberitod the edifice ; «]1 his anccBtors ha4, 
lived iQ it^ and he preserved it at a family* piece ; a sacred monumeot 
of his attachment and respect to his forefathers. 
. ' Hfs table was economically supplied, and his domestics few, al- 
though his annual expence Ms considerable ; but his wealth tiras em** 
jployed for the gratification and advantage of bis dependentB : canals 
Carefully formed, meadowl reclaiiaed, marthes drained, the roads iti 
bis ncigbourhood skilfully tnade, dykes opposed to the violence of the 
torrent, Uabr^geous walks, and picturesque plantatloiMi were the ob* 
jects on which Malesherbea expended his income. 

* Ti>fat;flitate the commurucation with different paH^ of the c^untry^ 
be Qonstriteted several bridges of solid masonry : the traveller, too» 
shared his benevolence ; a shady walk near the higb-road proucted bioEi 
from the fervor of the sua ; and fof the repose of the bumble fbotpassefi- 
ger, commodious benches were at hand, while a fout^tain of pure watct 
flowed to appease bis thirst.. He also contrived means to lighten the 
fatigues of the weaker and more amiable sex \ and built conreaient 
sneds on tht borders of the liver, where the cares of domestic i^dus^ 
try obliged the women of the village to remain exposed daring the 
most rigorous seasons. 

< Owing to this the inhabitants loved him as a parent ; and undet 
bis influence every one ^joyed a degree of respectable ease : the chil- 
dren received instructlort, the aged were held in honour | and the pea- 
aant who had cultivated his fields with most care, and managed hia 
ilocks or herds to the greatest advantoge, obtained a premium, which 
gave birth to a virtuous emulation, and tended highly to the improve* 
ti)ent of agriculture. 

^ Malesberbes derived his chief pleasure from the pursuit of qatural 
history, and had acquired most extensive knowledge in that science: 
he vvrotc some very curious observations on the larch tree^ and thew^- 
hakh^ or wood of^ St Lucia ; he also composed a treatise on^/W, and 
another on {he varieties of the orchis^ &c. 

* He planted, in his grounds, at Malesberbes, a quantity otshruf^f 
and exotitt / these be had even familiarized to the ciiniate, and mul* 
tiplted them to such a degre^^ that, in straying through bis woods* 
one might fancy himself transported into distant regions, where the 
aeach, the/0/flCf and the trees of Palestime grow. High rocks, magai-> 
ficent water falls, and majestic pines, added still more to the illusion ; 
forming a situation singularly picturesque, and a display of encbantipg 
•ccnery. 

' Whilst this venerable philosopher forgot in the bosom of tranquil- 
lity the shameful manauvres of court intrigue, the disgraceful traffid 
ofcorruptioii, and the arbitrary acts of despotic power, Lewis XV- 
wore out amongist bis mistresses the remnant of a despicable life ; and ' 
bis pcrfidioas cpunsellors continued, day after day, to dig still deeper 
that* abyss which ere long was destined to ingulpb the antique com 
lossua of .the nooaarchy / 

On the accession of Louts XVL the supreme courts wer« 
re$tored» and the President de Malesberbes resumed his func* 
tions| and shortly after ward, hp was appointed Minister by the 

M^ same 



164 ManginV Translation of the Life of Malesherbes. 

same monarch. Among the first acts of hi$ ministry, was ait 
examination of the state of the prisons. He set at liberty the 
victims of oppression, took methods to render the gaols salu- 
brious, and regulated their internal administration : 

' ' The prisons, thronged under the Duke de La Vallienpi soon en- 
closed none hut malefactors, or persons dangerous to the interests of 
social life : all those who, by a long captivity, had expiated some 
trival indiscretion, unguarded remarks, or speeches perhaps a little too' 
free, were restored to society, and to their disconsolate families. 
Thus the name of Malesherbes was in every mouth ; and all FranCe, 
blessed both the sovereign who took counsel of a sage, and him who 
so atnply justified the confidence of his prince. Tne report which 
Malesherbes, on this occasion, laid before the king, afifected hint 
deeply : he could not refrain from tears on leaniing that a vast 
number of the imprisoned, worn out by cruel treatment, had actually 
lost their senses; and that others, from want of proper assistance, 
were a prey to the most deplorable infirmities : he thanked Malesher* 
bcs for affording their wretchedness alt the alleviation in his power, 
and entrusted him with a conaiderable sum of money for their re* • 

Ifef.' 

* 

The abilities and virtues of Turcot and Maleaherbes, aided 
by the good intentions of Louis XVL» were insufEcient to stem 
the corruption of the court \ and in the struggle, these good and 
great men, as might be expected, fell victims to their noble ef- 
forts. Malcsherbts, though he did not cpntinue a whole year in 
power, contrived to render numerous and signal services to his 
feHow-subjectS and his country. One object, on which he 
had laboured much, and in which he failed of success^ was 
the restoration of the Protestants to their civil rights. 

Havm^. resigned his office, Malesherbes again retired to the 
enjoyment of the couniry, and afterward employed some years 
in travelling through France, Swisserland, and Holland* Seve- 
ral interesting particulars, and anecdotes, are recorded in this 
part of the narrative : but we must confine ourselves to the 
more prominent features of the portraiture. 

The subsequent extract, while it shews the consideration in 
which M. de Malesherbes was held, displays at the same time ' 
his patriotism and loyalty : it also manifests the infatuation of • 
the weak monarchy who was not insensible to his worth, but 
who could not appreciate the value of his advice : 

* In 17S6, the king again invited- him to his councils, without ap- 
pointing him any- particular office in the administtation. 

< The reins of government hung loose in the hands of a well-mean- • 
ing but fe.eble monarch ; thfs parliaments had once more set up the 
standard of opposition ; day by day the national debt augmented: Iq 
short, every thing announced the approach of a fatal crisis, when the 
ruling powers implored (he iQDg-rcquircd aid of Malesherbes. 



r 



.Msiogin'/ Tramlotion of the Life g^Malesherbes. i^ 

*. The minist^re, in calling him then to the cabinet, felt the pro- 
priety of sustaining their own measures by the interests of a man of 
spotless reputation, and of popularity to attract the nation's confi- 
dence. But Malesherbes was too clear-sighted not to perceive the 
abyss into which they designed to plun?c their country : he poured 
forth in council the most formidable opinions ; opposed all the vi- 
gour of his intellect to the erroneous advice they gave the king, 
and replied to the fantastic scheqies of ministers^ only by downright 
calculations and stubborn facts. 

* Unfortunately his voice was not beard : his apprehensions they re- 
garded as chimerical, his projects as hazardous, and his system of 
administration as a good man's dream .; they therefore counteracted his 
best e£FortSy and persuaded Lewis XVI. not to listen to him. 

' Malesherbes^ compelled to keep silence, could not behold* with- 
out terror, the calamities they were preparing for their native country. 
He determined to make one more experiment ; and composed two me- 
moirs on the state of affcdrs, in which^ with a bold and steady hand* 
he rent asunder the veil that concealed them. 

* It is here that the mighty views and incorruptible honesty of the 
author are discernible ; he has here compressed, in the ablest manner, 
every striking historical incident, and every idea which the profoundesC 
reason could suggest : a faithful picture of the ills he warned them to 
shun ; a frank and energetic defence of the respective nghtp and duties 
of king and people ; the whole proclaiming the talents of a statesman. 
Ac this era, had his advice prevailed — what benefits would have ac- 
crued ! what woes would have been spared 1 

^ But the king was blinded by perfidious counsellors ; men des- 
titute of experience, who had glided from the toilet of the wanton, 
into the highest situations of the realm, could' liot endure to have 
their infirmities exposed ; and Malesherbes, abhorred by the courtiers, 
the object of their malice and of their sarcasms, determined to quit 
for ever a court, to which, against his inclination, he had returned ; 
and to pass the remnant of his days in the calm of solitude, and in the 
bosom of his family. 

* The two memoirs, composed by Malesherbes before his final re- 
signation, have suffered the fate of most of his other manuscript works, 
and been swallowed up in the bloody archives of the revolutionary 
tribunal. 

* The friends of this eminent man, who knew what they contained, 
declare that they considered them as a p<.rfect introduction to a his- 
tory of the Revolution ; they displayed an abundance of acute and 
philosophic observations, derived from experience, and from the his- 
tonts of other countries ; and exhibited the real situation of affairs and 
persons at the epoch of that memorable convulsion, which led the way 
to the establishment of the republic. 

* Lewis XVI. was so egregiously prepossessed, that he had not even 
read over these two essays : in vain did Malesherbes, at different timer>, 
supplicate him for the indulgence ot a private interview ; he never could 
obtain one, and artifice at length succeeded in estranging the most 
virtuous of counsellors from the weakest of kings. 

* When at last the eyes of Lewis were opened, he examined the 
inemoirs of Malesherbes, and perceived that he alone had dificovered 

M 3 the 



1 



ff 

*j^6 .M^i^i^aV Translation sfthi Life rf Malesberbcs* 

the true rcftiedy for healing the wounds of the state : he thca l9|- 
mented not having listened to hia admonition8«-and» aks ! late an4 
ineffectual repentance ! could not refrain from shedding tears at the 
retrospect. 

' In the recesses of his woods, the news of the Revolution reached 
Msflesherbea ; and hf:.heard of the event without astonishment ; he was 
even^ for an instant, sanguine enough to hope that he should now 
witneas the extirpation of abuses s but he* soon found that they 
reformed ancient institutions, only to fabricate establishtpents for 
new men and factious leaders, cursed with the ambition of be- 
coming great / and fearless of the destruction they might bring oa 
^^heir country, so they could, in the end, but seat themselves upon 
her ruins. 

'He, nevertheless, saw, with concern, wise and nnoderate men for- 
l^e their public statidtis at t)|€ moment when their assistance was 
most requisite.' 

The chief remainder of his days were now employed in di- 
gesting plans for the ifriprovement of agriculture $ and his sche tne 
of a society for the advancement of this branch of political eco* 
nomy sbewg in a strong light the bent of his mind towaids the 
.public welfare. 

We cannot pass over the grand and afTecring passage in 
Malesberbes's life, which elevates him so much above ordi« 
iiary men, and which represents the honest monitor' of tbe 
monarch's prosperous days soliciting leave to share liis dan« 
cers. When we behold him exerting his voice in favour of 
Ills forlorn master, bow grateful is the echo of it amid the un- 
utterable horrors in the midbt of which it was lifted up ! In 
this extract) we contemplate a letter of the veteran hero of 
humanity, which is the crowning-act of a man who spent hift 
life in deeds of virtue ; and it will never be perused without 
awakenifxg the soul to the most delightful and sublime emo- 
tions : 

' Malesherbes, in his solitude, heard the dreadful particulars of 
what happened during the months of June August, and September ; 
■—like the philosopher of old» he folded himself in his mantle, and 
bemoaned the sufferings of his unfortunate country ! 

^ He had now attained tbe age- of seventy years^ and already saw 
approaching the termination of a life every moment of which had 
^ecn consecrated to the happiness of his fellow creatures, when he 
was informed by the public ]>rints that the National Convention had 
passed a decree fqr the trial of Lewis XVI. 

* The great soul of Malebhcrbes was deeply afflicted ; he remembered 
ail the virtues of a king distinguished for hia love of mercy ; the 
best eucrgies of his early years were awakened in his heart -^ and > de- 
parting instantly for Paris, he wrote the following letter to the pre- 
sident of the National Conveptipn. 

M Paiis, 



ManglnV Trauilotian of tie Life cfUzldbtthet. i6j 

** F^ris, Deccoiber ii, 1792. First year of the Republic. 
*• Chxzen President, 

*' I know not if the National Convention will allow Lewis XVI. 
coansel to defend him, or whether he will be permitted to choose 
maj ; if SO9 I desire Lewis may be infonned, that, should he make 
choice of me for that office, I am ready to undertake it. 

*' I do not ask you to disclose my proposal to the G>nvention ; for 
i am far from thinking myself a person of such important as to at* 
tract its notice ; but 1 was twice called to the councils of him wh9 ' 
was my roaster, in times when that station was an object of ambition 
to all ; I owe him the same service, when, in the opinioa of many» 
4he post is one of some danger. 

** Did I possess any possible method of acauainting him with my 
inclioations, I should not take the liberty ox addnrfsing myself to 

'* It occurs to me, that, from tfaa situation you.^]ioM, you may have 
a better opportunity than any one else of givii^ him this informa* 
tloa. 

•' I am, with respect," &c. 

< This letter deserves to occupy the first page in the annals of 
firtue ; it shoilld remain an everlasting monument of courage, of mo* 
desty, and greatness of mind 1 nor can ancient or modern times af» 
ford a brighter instance of exalted generosity. Here we behold Males^ 
herbes ; and history will inscribe amidst its fairest records, this sub* 
Ume act of a man ot seventy, who, at the moment when terror chilled 
the ardour of the bravest, steps forward to solicit, as the most signal 
favour, permission to defend a king, bereft of his crown, and treated 
as the lowest criminal.* 

The event of hia interference, and the consequencea of it to 
himself and bis family, form an indelible biQt on a vast po- 
palatioOf too well known to require any reference to be here 
made to them. We shall close this article with the concluding 
page of this little volume, to the sentiments of which we 
cordially subscribe : 

^ Maleslierbes died ( under the guillotine) aged seventy, twoyears, four 
inonths, and fifteen days. He was, perhaps, the wisest and best man of 
his time ; and his character will descend without a stain to posterity. 

< The inflexible foe of arbitrary power, and the undaunted defender 
of the oppressed, throughout his life he lost no opportunity of dry 
sag up the tears of the afflicted, and never caused one to flow. The 
unassoniinr scholar, the liberal patron of polite letters, he was not 
content with inculcating in his writings the preoepts of virtue, but 
gave the example in hi^ conduct. 

* 3ome foreigners have endeavoured to tarnish his fame, by ac- 
Cttsing him, in a libel printed at Berne, of being a philosopher. This 
is a singular reproach ! If philosophy be the love of wisdom^ Males- 
herbes well deserved the accusation. But the Revolution, while it 
foofbunded ideas of ev^ry kind, also changed the meaning of n^ords : 

W4 Thus, 



i<58 ZdllikofcrV Sermons on the Evils of theWnrlL 

Thus, because some villains have usurped the title of patriots, patriotism 
is called crime; because fitnds, clad in the sacerdotal habit, presided at 
the massacres of St. Bartholomew, piety is termed fanaticism ; and 
because the factious have availed themselvei of the authority of 
philosophers, philosophy and sedition are become synonymous : but 
the balance seems to be again restored ; and this confusion of terms 
vill, doubtless, shortly vanish. 

* The government has conferred honour on itself by ordering the 
bust of Malesheibes to be placed amongst the statues of those great 
men whose names reflect lustre upon their country. 

* All the fiifi arts should combine to perpetuate his memory : Scvl^ 
ture should bid his features live again ; Poetry should celebrate nis 
virtues ; and Eloquence weep over his grave.' 

The second Lord Mansfield, who had resided'loog in France^ 
speaking in his place in the House of Peers of the enormities 
of Robespierre, when he came to the public execution of Males- 
herbes, applied to the conduct of the bloody tyrant on that 
occasion the remarkable words of Tacitus^ virtutetn ipsam ex* 
sctnder£ concupivit. 

We need scarcely add how much we have been gratified by 
the perusal of this little volume ; which is very modestly in- 
troduced by the translator, to whom the English public are 
much obliged for enabling them thus to < contemplate the life 
of a wise and honest man.* What nobler or more instructive 
object can they study ! 



Art. VII. Sermons on the Evils that are in the Worlds and on various 
other topics-; from the German of the Rev. George Joachim Zol- 
likofcr. Minister of the Reformed Congregation at Leipsick. By 

, the Rev. Wm. Tooke> F.R.S. 2 Vols. 8vo. pp. 576. in eack 
Volume^ li.' IS. Boards* Longman aud Co. 

-^ this preacher enters a pointed protest against introducing 
inco the pulpit metaphysical investigations) and ^ doctrines 
which are more fitted to beget doubt than faith/ he is by no 
means disposed to confine public exhortation to a few sub- 
jects : on the contrary^ he contends for the propriety of mak- 
ing every thing, which belongs to the whole range and extent 
of practical wisdom, tributary to the teacher* We have seen^ 
on former occasions^, with what success he avails himself of 
this privilege ; and with what varied and persuasive eloquence 
he excites his hearers to virtue^ and to the advancement of the 
real dignity of man. 



I 



Sc« Rev. Vol. \x. N. S. p, 164, and xL p. 187. 

In 



ZoUikoferV Sermons on the Evils of the World. i6g 

In the present discourses, M. ZoUikofer directs the thoughts 
of his auditors to the difficult subjects of natural and moral 
crii; not, however, by leading them into those discussions, in 
which they will << find no end, in wandering mazes lost :^ 
but he endeavours to furnish them with such conceptions as 
may serve to make them ^ satisfied with the capacities which 
God has given them, with the bounds which he has pre- 
scribed to them, with the place which he has allotted to them 
in his kingdom, with the burthens which he has laid on them^ 
with the tasks which he has assigned to them, and with the 
purposes to which he has appointed them, without accusing 
him of any want of goodness/ In this manner, he endea« 
yours to enlighten them, to make them better, and thus to 
promote their felicity. His fundamental doctrine is that < God 
is supremely good, that he is Love itself, that he governs his 
creatures with the utmost lenity and forbearance, that he judges 
them with the most perfect equity, that he is more inclined 
to bless than to punish, and that in all that he commands or 
forbids, in all that he gives or denies them, he seeks their hap« 
piness alone.' Through this cheerful medium, he recommends 
us to view what are called evils as the only means of becoming 
truly religious, satisfied, and happy. 

Lvils are classed under two general heads, viz. physical, or 
natural, and moral evil ; by the former, we understand such 
evils as depend on our nature and frame, and arise from the 
operation of external circumstances and objects ; by the latter, 
such evils as proceed from sinful dispositions and conduct. 
In this order, the preacher attends to them ; and after having 
given a catalogue of them *, he endeavours to convince us of 
'the troth of his text (if/V work is perfect r for ail his ways ar§ 
judgment^ Deut. xxxii. 4.} by stating and illustrating the fol- 
lowing propositions, ^ 1. That many things which we call evils 
axe merely the necessary limitations of our nature and powers; 
and II. Many others arc salutary cautions against far greater 
evils.' 

We present our readers with the author's mode of illustrating 
the first of these propositions : 

' First then there are many things which we call evils, and yet 
which, whea considered in themselves alone, are no more than the 
necessary limitations of our nature and powers ; and he that com- 
plains of these evils, complains that he is a man, and what is that 

* * Ignorance, error, weakness, pain, variety of wants, toilsome 
labour, bad success of it, unfortunate events, sensibility to hostile 
impressions from without, opposition, obstacles and difficulties in what 
we design ^nd execute, sickness, dissolution, aud death.' 

but 



V 



$ 7P SMlikofer'/ Sermons en the Evils (fthe Wurli. 

l»it complaittipg that man exists ? Man is Qiao; I repeatit, Man is nsaiir 

This, little as it gaay si^em to say, inexpressive of much. Man » therfrr 
ibre, op one hand» not a stone, not a plant, not merely a machine, n&t 
dimply ajnimal ; hnt so likewise is he, on the other hand» not pure 
spirit, not an angtl, no still higher being. As little then as the 
properlica of a stone^ of a plant, of an irrational animal befit him i 
Just so little also are the privileges or tlv? powers of a spirit, a supc- 
tior being, not united with 9 body so organized ^s ours, or with one 
SBore perfect, adapted to him. Man ean therefore not possess uni- 
versal iotcUect, but only the intellect of a man ; not universal sensa^ 
41011, but only the sensation of a man ; not universal sagacity, but only 
ihe sagacity of a man ; not universal knowledge and perception, but 
poly the knowledge and perception of a man ; not universal mecha- 
nical or mental power, but only the powers of a man* To every being, 
suit only ccrtajn anjd 00 other properties, only certain and no other 
capacities, only certain and no other privileges and powers, only a 
certain and no other mode of existence, of Hfe, of happiness. Aa 
the lamb cannot have the strength of the lion, or the ipole the' keen 
and far- piercing eye of the eagle, sinoe the lamb is a lamb, and tht 
inoie a mole \ or smcc among the cresiturss of God, there must be 
Jambs au^ moles : so neither can man have the intellect or the strength 
of a superior being, whiph pirobably can survey the universe entire, 
and set whple worlds in motion, since man is man ; or since among 
fhe innumerable works of God, man)tind must also be. And, were 
there no such creatures as wc, we^e there only more perfect beings \ 
then we should not exist, but other, more perfect creatures, in our 
place ; we therefore should not be at all. And what intelligent man, 
^n calm reflection, could wish that this were the case \ — •^- 

' This one consideration, my pious hearers, will teach us to reear^ 
jnaay things, which yre call evils, in another point of vjew, and anew 
US9 that they are nothing but the consequences of the necessary cir- 
cumscription of our nature and our oapacities ) that they are things 
which cannot but be, if in the world of God there should be ^eu^i 
or beings capable of hitman perfection, and of enjoying human hap« 
piness. To this class belong unimputable ignorance, unavoidable 
error, natural infirmity, want or declension of faculties. All these are 
undoubtedly imperfections ; and if we chuse to call every imperfectioi^ 
an evil, then these are evils : but they are only imperfections and evili^ 
abstractedly considered, and not in regard to us, who are, what as mei^ 
we can and ought to be, and who, as men, cannot be any other. Wha^ 
right have we then to complain of thisy or make it a reproach to di-. 
vine goodness ?' 

M. Zollikofer's metliod of reasooiog pn the second propoal* 
tion 16 exactly in tbc^ same strain ; 

< Bodily pain is positively a disagreeable setibation, a disagreeable 
mode of existence ; it is in this consideration an evil ; and it wontd b^ 
ttdieulous for us to deny it, by maintaining, with some eccentric per- 
sons among the ancients, that we may be as tranquil and happy uit* 
der these sensations as without them, or that pain is not pain. Biit 
this » likewise certain, that paiu is a caution against still greater 

cvils^ 



1 



Kdlilcofer'/ Serm^'s pit the EviU of the Worli. 17 1 

(fSsy ind that, ooi^iiderpd on this side, it is, of may 1)6 an advantage 
to u«.' — 

* So al»9 is it with the dio^greeahley the painful qpnief^aencesi by 
vhfch wrath, ▼oluptuousne^s, every inordinatef violent paftsion is at- 
tended in our body. They ate earnings of still greater evils- Ther 
are powerful incentives to become better and happier. What disor- 
ders, what ravages, would not sucb passions occasion, not only in the 
man vho is addicted to ihcm, but likewise in other persons with 
yrfioni lie is connected, if he himself did not 8q6fcr under them, If 
their impetuosity were not checked by painful sensations, if we were 
not incited by them to guard against their first atUfcks { Long, long 
ago would all social comfort have been destroyed, and society itself 
)uve fallen to the ground, had we been destitute i^f such powerful 
suggestions and restraints.' — 

* What is true of corporeal pain, or suoh as arises from the state 
of the body, boUJs good likewise of mental pain, or such as is found* 
cd merely in the ideas of the mind. Disgust, trouble, vexation, 
grief, shame, disappointment, remorse, is men tal^ pain. They arecer« 
tainly unpleasant, painful sensations chat arise, on our seeing that we 
liave mi^pken the truth and have plunged into error, that we have 
engaged in foolish and prejudicial affairs, or have executed good 
nsdertakings badly. They are unpleasant, painful sensations that 
arise when a man, by or without his bwn fault, fails in his designs, is 
forced to abandon his purposes, is wrong in his suppositions and his ex* 
pectatious ; when a man has allowed himself to be over-reached by 
the cheat, duped by the flatterer, deceived by the false friend; 
when he loies the outward distinctions and goods' in which he made 
the whole of hi^ happiness to consist, or which he reckoned as an es- 
leatial part of it % when a man renders himself and his character 
contemptible by easily avoidable follies and weaknesses. All these, 
and a hundred other things of the aame kind, to a man of a feeling 
heart, may be as painfql and still more so, than the indispositions and 
distempers that arise in his body. But even this pain, how deeply 
soever it may wound us, is not absolutely bad in itself. Even this 
pain is an admonition, a necessary wholesome admonition, to beware 
6f greater evils. Its tendency is, to make us careful in the invest! • 
gatK>n of truth; considerate in our conclusions and undertakings; 
drcomspect in the choice of our friends and familiars, in the prosecu- 
tion of our designs, in the application of the necessary means; atten« 
tive to the whole of our conduct, and even to our minutest actions,; 
modest in our judgments and expectations ; moderate and temperate 
in the enjoyment ot our fortunes. Were it not for these painful sen- 
sations, we should be eVer adding error to error, failing to foiling, 
be deceived by every semblance, beconne the prey and the sport of 
every impostor, be constantly judging and acting with greater rashness 
and foUy, ever be flattered by idle hopes, and never become pru* 
dent and wise.' 

By thus contemplating the evils and afflictions which occur 
in the present world, as means of discipline and ameBdment^ 
we not only obta;o consoling views of the divine administra* 

J tion. 



1^2 ZollikoferV Sermont on the Evils of the World* 

lion, but arc taught to form a true estimate of ourselves and of 
OUT state, as well as the true way of employing our faculties 
and exalting our nature* The preacher pursues the subject in 
several sermons ; and in a strain of natural eloquence, he en 
deavours to reconcile us to Providence, and at the same tiinc 
to rouse us to all pious and Christian duties. He shews that 
<!eath itself is not that enormous evil which it is .supposed to 
be, and introduces the discoveries of revelation to solve all the 
difficulties which may at present oppress us ; 

' Raise your thoughts into the future world* of which, thanks to 
Christianity, we have the most infallibe assurance, and so many 
JHster conceptions than the philosophers of antiquity had ; elevate 
yourselves, I say, into the future world, which alone can completely 
soKe the knotty points that now employ our thoughts, and which 
will certainly hereafter unravel all| and convince us that all things 
arc right and good. The present state of man is not his whole ap* 
pointment, is only the commencement of his life and the infinite pro> 
cess of the expansion of his powers. Eternity can compensate, sup- 
^y, beautify, and regulate all. No faculty, no capadty, can be 
totally lost in the universe of God ; nothing good, though no more 
than physical good, will be unserviceable for ever, or not draw after 
ik otfktr consequences as good. — Indeed punishments, just, severe 
punishments await the wilful sinntfr ; and woe to him, whom the idea 
of these punishments does not deter from sin ! He will suffer what is 
due to his deeds, suffer more, suffer nK) re' horribly, than he can at 
yicscnt conceive in the gloomiest hours of his life. But even these ' 
aufierings, these punishments, are ordained by the Supremely Good, 
who inflicts suffering on no one for the sake of making him suffer^ 
but for producing good thereby. Sooner or later will God manifest 
himself to his whole creation as Love itself. 

*• £ternity, — a thought, which to as is still more word than thought, 
—-eternity comprehends all things ; but we cannot comprehend it 
with our intellect. It unravels all things; but how, we, mortals, 
cannot conceive. It leads and brings all to the goal ; but when and 
whereby, is concealed from us. From eternity to eternity, from one 
.great revolution of these or some other solar and mundane systems 
to another, what kcvolutions may not the living and sensible beings 
that belong to it undergo! What means for bringing light out 
of darkness, for effecting good, infinite good through ill, does it 
Bot contain 1 What results does it not allow to be expected by 
contemplative minds!— —» And shall that which is now disorder, 
or appears to be so ; shall that be eternal^ to appear to be so ? Shall 
it never dissolve into the most beautiful, the most perfect order ? 
And if it ever happen, though according to our mode of measuring 
time, never so late, after the lap;»e of never so many eternities and 
cpochas ; what will this moment of darkness and apparent disorder 
be to the light and harmony, this instant of suffering to the joy and ^ 
Iblrss, that will then continue from eternity to eternity^ as eternal as 
God?' 

These 



Zolltkofei^j Sermons en the E*cnls 0fthe IfirJiL 173 

These considerations are followed by discotirses on the 
coming of the Kingdom of God, — the General Judgment, — ^the 
importance of the Christian Doctrincf, and what we are and 
may become by it, — justification of Divine Providence, in re-! 
ganl to the terrestrial welfare of the impious and the pioQS9 
—sin the primary source of humatt misery, — public diver* 
rions, — the sources of Infidelity, — ^the Chtistiati's prepar^lioQ 
for future suffering, — the advantages which accrue to mankind 
from their being ignorant of the future,«-the triumphs cT 
death and of life,-*->the Spirit of Christianity,— Religion the 
constant friend of Man, — Selfknowlege, — the advantages of 
virtuous industry, and of moderation in the enjoyment of sen- 
soal pleasure, — ^whence it arises that Christianity operates not 
more efficaciously among its professors, «-> who is particularly 
qualified for being a Christian^— -and on the brevity and bur- 
then of Ufe. 

We hare not here enumerated all the subjects : but tlic 
above will serve to shew the nature of the contents of these vo- 
kmeSf which include in all 58 sermons, each introduced by m, 
short appropriate prayer, into which the substance of the dh^- 
course is judiciously compressed. The sermon which explaitis 
the causes of the inefficacy of Christianity, among itsprofessor«^ 
is preceded by this address to the Deity : ^ 

* O God, thou hast called us to Christianity, and in it hast givoi • 
Its a very powerful means to virtue and to happiness. To what 
lengths miglit we not pi oceed in the practice of the former and in the ' 
CDJoyroent of the latter, how much good might we not do and cnjoy^ 
if Christianty were and yielded to us what it is designed and adapted 
to be and to yitrld to us ! Yes, we alone arc to blame, if we experieiioe 
not its power, or experience it only in a smaller proportion . We ' 
coosider and apply it not agreeably to its destination. We content 
ourselves but too often with a barren knowledge of it^ with a blind, . 
dead faith, with outward piety and devotion. Our heart takes not 
sufficient interest in it, we confine it to particular times and places, 
and separate it from tlte greatest part of our lives. Oh teach us to • 
peicdve. this, with conviction to perceive it, and by that perception 
to be awakened to a salutary sentiment of shame, and to a better, a . 
more faithful application of Christianity !' May we henceforward 4o 
our utnwst to remove whatever diminishes or impedes its efficacy ^a 
OS, and open all tlie avenues of our heart to its improving and saving * 
iaflttCQce ! May we always more clearly and rightly understand this 
heavenly doctrine, more firmly believe it, always more cordially revere 
aad love it, always more sedulously use and apply it ! May even the ' 
considerations in which we are about to engage, contribute somewhat 
to that end * Accompany them in this respect with thy blessing, O 
' bountiful God! Let us perceive and feel the truth and importance of 
tbe subject, and impartially apply it to our own situation. These 
•lit sup|)lications we present unto thee with filial boldness as the vo- 
taries 



^74 ZoiXkok/s Strmoni on tit Evib of the Utorla. 

taries ol thy son Jesus, and address thee farthers trusting lo hjp pro^ 
inises, as he vouchsafed to teach us« Our faiKer» SlqJ 

M. ZoUikofer's remarks on Public t^iversions prove lun to 
Ibe a man whose g^enoioe piety is not debased by the imaUeaJ 
portion of puritanical austerity. tVhite he endeaveurs to guard 
his hearers against vicioiw* excess in the pursuit of amusements, 
he assures them that tie is actuated by no principle of morose* 
ness. * Tou know,' he says, ' that I am no enemy to inirth and 
pleasure, that I interdict you no kind of diversion, so long as it 
is innocent and harmless ; and am by no means desirous o^ 
raising you to an imaginary perfect ion, of which the nature of 
man is not capable in its present state. And hoir' coUld I do 
so without forgetting what the human creature is» and what 
spirit prevails in the Christian doctrine V It is observed, more* 
over, that the spirit of Christianity is a spirit of liberty and good 
humour ) and in the introductory prayc!r, he rightly discrimi* 
nates bertween the use and abuse of the pleasurel of the worid. 
We transcribe a part of it : 

* O Gt>d, who art our kind and graefous fether, readily dost thou grant 
maakindthy children every harmless and innocent satisfaction. Thotf 
even gt^cst them the fullness of pleasures ! Sensual pleasures, intellectual 
pleasures } domestic and social pleasures; pleasuies of the present and of 
the future life : all pleasure comes from thee, it is thy special boon ! 
Thou makest us susceptible of it, thou opencst to us the sources, thoti 
sQpplicst us with the means and the faculties for the enjoyment of it. 
Thanks and praise be to thee, the di^ptnser of joy, for every agreea- 
ble and delightful emotion that enters our heait— Who would not 
think on thee with cordial satisfaction, whh alacrity lift up his mind 
aad his heart to thee ! Who would not love thee, the kind and boun- 
tiful parent of men ! Who not make it his most earnest wish to please 
thee and to do thy will! — Oh may then every joy thou granlcst us lead 
us to thee by rendering us more attentive and zealous in the discharge 
of our duty ! Then ^onld we look continually at thee> never with- 
draw firom thee, never exceed the bounds of moderation. Then 
would our amusements be perfectly innocent and well-plcasing unto 
thee. Then would not stA so frequently turn our entertaiomeots is- 
to folly, nor remorse and reproaches embitter their enjoyment. Ah 
Lend have patience with us^ thy frail and feeble children !* 

We need scarcely repeat our favourable opinion of the merit 
of M. ZoUikofer as a divine, uor of Mr. Tooke as a translator* 
If the preacher be occasionally diffuse, his mind is stored with 
thought, and his heart is warm in the cause of religion and 
virtue. He is no common-place declaimer ; and if we do not 
adopt all his sentiments, we cannot help feeling his piety, and 
loving him for his sincerity and benevolence. His discourses^ 
considered ias practical esaaysi deserve our warm recom* 
mendation. 

Art. 



( ^7$ ) 

Art. Vtit. Coins of tbe SeleuciJaj Kings 0/ Syria ; from t^c EsU* 
blishmeot of their Reign under Seleucus Nfcatory to the Deter-i 
fnination of it under Antiockus Asiaticus. With historical Me- 
moirs of each Reign. Illustrated with tv^enty^four Plates of 
Cotnt, from the Cabinet of the late Matthew Duane^ F. R. and 
AS., engraved by F. Bartolozzi. 4to. aL 28. Boards. Nichols^ 
Payne, &c. 

tT 18 well known that the late Mr. Duane had been very 
^ asstdaous in CDllectmg antient coins ; and particularly in 
forining a series of some of the finest of those which issued 
from the mints of the Syrian and Macedonian kings* Thesd 
coins passed from the hands of their collector into those of Dr. 
Hunter, constituting a part of his Museum, and are ultimately 
destined to occupy a place in tbe cabinet of the UniTcrsity oC 
Glasgow. While Mr. Duane possessed this numismatic trea<^ 
surCi he employed' the celebrated BartoIoz2i * in engraving 
fbcm ; with an intention, perhaps of publishing the plates^ ac- 
companied by observations on themy ilhistrative of the history 
of die region and period to which they refer. Tlie editor of the 
present voIume,who, for *no inconsiderable pTicef'(i2o guineas!) 
hiis now possession of the engravings^ and has given plates of them 
to the public, observes that; had the original proprietor of them' 
lived to execute his own design, no doubt can be entertained thac 
he would have performed his task in a manner truly worthy of 
the Subject ; and that, < under present circumstances, all that 
can be done is to accompany these fine plates with a short view 
of the reigns of the respective princes.' 

As we have only scanty materials for the composition of a 
history of the Syrian Kings, and some dissonance appearing in 
(be accounts, it is very properly conjectured by (Mr. Gough) 
the editor, that < an exhibition of these coins will be not only 
pleasing but instructive hj shewing what credit is due to his* 

• We copy with regret the note rehitive to this artist : ' Mr. Bar* 
tolotMi was driven by adverse ctrcumstanceSy at a very advanced pc« 
riod of his life, to seek that comfort and independence on a foreign 
•hore. which his imprudence in suffering himself to be imposed on by 
his countrymen, wko have taken advantage of his easy temper and 
carelessness about his affairs, have deprived him of tbe hope of enjoy- ^ 
ifig here. His reception in Portugal, in November 180a, was most 
fliittering* He has consentod to pass the remainder of his life there on 
what in this country would be deemed a very moderate pension. A 
national academy of arts is to be established at Liebon, under his sck 
perintendance, wilh two .pupils from this country, and a handsome 
suite of apartments, aad a salary of near two hundred pounds, ptr 



sonumJ^ 



tortanst 



t']6 Tie Coins of the Sileucidd* 

torians, and by filling up the deficiencies of succeediog later 

writers/ 

• Petaviiis fcontinues the editor) observes, that it is for the interest of 
•acrtd as well as profane history, that we should have an exact know- 
ledge of ihe order and succession of those kings, who after Alexander 
the Qreat reigned in Syria, exhibiting the events of their teignsin chro- 
nological order, and their connexion with the story of the Maccabees* 
This labt advantap^c is not a little improved by the frequent dates on 
their coins, which ascertain the exact series and succes8tCi)> the number 
of years of thtir reigns, or the beginning or end of them, which had 
been left undetermined or imperfect in ancient historians and annalists: 
and thus the construction of the famous xra of the ^cleucidx may be 
fettled. Various circumstances are recorded on these coins, the names 
of the several kings, and their distinctions from each other : antient 
historians having frequently omitted their surnames and titles, 
i»hich serve not a little to illustrate their history ; some of their ac- 
tions, scarcely known from other means, but from hence more fnlly 
deiired up ; n^mes and situations of celebrated cities of Syria, Phce- 
BiVia, and Palestine, where they were struck : asrs;, religious ritesy 
deities, dignities, privileges, as that of being held tacred^ inviolable^ in- 
Jependenty JEPAS, A2TAOT, AYTOJ^OMOT, all which particulars arc 
frcquenstly expressed on these coina/ 

From Froelich, (who cites in his work the Samaritan coins 
l%f the Maccabean princes, which i& a class omitted by Mr. 
Duane^) is copied, with brief explanations, the table of the 
monograms to be found on the coins represented in these plates; 
and in opposition to Pinkerton, who says that ^' the coina of 
kings very seldom have contractions," it is ren>arked that < more 
of the coins here exhibited have contractjons than are without 
them/ 

The first of these plates contains the coins of Seleucus I. 
called Nicator, the founder of the Syro-Macedonian empire, 
who had the figure of an anchor impressed on his coins ; owing, 
as Appian says, to his having found a small anchor under a 
stone against which he stumbled in his march to Babylon* 
Another reason is assigned by others : but whatever was 
the origin of the anchor the Seleucidse after him always used - 
it on their seals. The plates then continue in series^ through 
the reigns of the other monarchs, to that of Antiochus IV., 
king of Commagene ; of whom this short account is subjoined : 

* This little fertile country, situate en the borders of Syria and Ci- 
h'cia, had for its capital, in its centre, the fortified city ofSamosata. 
It was subject to the king of Syria, and had been left to Antiochus the 
Great, by the treaty with the Romans, after the battle of Magnesia, 
whence, it is probable, that it was seized by some of the princes of the 
Seleucian family, during their intestine wars; for we find no mention 
of a king of Commagene till the time of Pompey, by whom Selcnia, a 
castle Id Mesopotamia, was added to it ; and the names of those who 

afterwarda 



The Coins of the Seleucida. 1 77 

afterwards reigned there are entirety Syrian. The kingdom snbsisted 
£rom the time of Pompey the Great to Vespasian. 

• The first is Antiochus, who, opposing Pompey as he entered Syria 
after the defeat of Tigranes, was repulsed by him ; but afterwards re- 
stored and assisted Pompey in his war with Csesar. 

< Antiochus II. was put to death by order of Augustus, for having 
caused an embassador of his brother Mithridates to be assassinatecL 
Mithridates was excluded from the succession, and another person of 
that name, not related to that family, set up by Augustus, who af- 
ter his death, suffered Antiochus III. son of Antiochus II* to suc» 
cecd. 

' Antiochus III. died in the reign of Tiberius, andCommagene be- 
came a Roman province. Caligula restored it to Antiochus IV. sou 
of Antiochus III. and added to it the maritime parls of Qilicia. He 
assisted Vespasian against Vitellius ; and was with Titus at the siege 
of Jerusalem ; but being suspected of holding a correspondence with 
the Parthiansy he was banished to Lacedxmon, and afterwards sufiered 
to lead a private life at Rome. He left two sons, Antiochus and 
Callinicus, and a daughter lotape. Antiochus IV. surnamed Epi« 
phanes, served under Otho and Vespasian at the siege of Jerusalem, 
teut Vespasian, having reduced Commagene to a Roman province^ 
would not allow any of the sons of Antiochus to succeed him.' 

We cannot think that Mr. Gough has displayed great pene- 
tration and accuracy, in his explanations and illustrations of the 
coins exhibited in the plates. To mention a few instances. 

Plate I. fig. 4. ' The king's head in a lion's skin :' this ia 
an evident mistake, for the head on the coin is that of Hercules 
adorned with the spoils of the lion. In the four following, the 
head of Hercules is also positively assigned to the king ; though 
at p. 1 8. it is doubted whether the heads so habited were those, 
•f the monarch. 

Fig. 9. < Old bearded head, laureate.' This might be uii« 
derstood by the unmitiatcd to signify an old bearded head of a 
poet laureate ; whereas it is the head of Jupiter bearded and. 
lanreated, with no other marks of old age than its beard. Oa 
the reverse of this coin, the Elephants are made five, while 
Froelich makes them only four. 

Fig. It, 12, 13. * Heads laureate without beard.' These are 
all heads of Apollo laureated i^^-^jipollinis stnebarbd. 

Fig. 14. < Old head laureate with a beard, perhaps of Her- 
cules.' This bearded and laureated head belongs to the coins 
of Pergamus, as is evident by the inscription FAMHNON on the 
reverse. Dr. Combe does not call it Hercules; see Plate of 
Cities 45* fig. la. where the whole legend, tiepfamknON, ia 
perfect. Does not the eagle standing on th^ thunderbolt in the 
reverse indicate the head to be that of Jupiter ? This coin is 
probably not of Seleucus the king} but of a magistrate of Perga- 
mus, for it wants f a<ri;^»^. 

Rev. Oct. 1805. N Plate 



•I7« Tlie Coins of the &ikucid£. 

Plate IL fig. 2. * Pallas armed as before. — Before her tlie 
anchor erect, and on each side of the handle the badges of the 
Dioscuri.' The pilei or badges of the Dioscuri are not on this 
coin. In Plate III. 6g. 14. hpwcveri they occur, 

P. 31. * Apollo with a dart reclining on a tripod.* This is 
obscure. It should be Apollo reclining on a tripod, with a 
dart in his right hand. Mr. G. is not uniform in his descrip- 
tions of the same coins* At plate XXII. fig. 3. the description 
is as we have given it. 

Plate mr fig. I . < Apollo sitting on a rock.* It should be» 
Apolio sitting on the cortina. 

In Plate III. fig. 5. Mr. G. subjects himself to the risk of 
confounding the type with the countermark. Here the anchor, 
or countermark, which signifies that this coin was current else- 
where, is in black, while the type is white. See also fig- 3. 
and fig. 19. — Fig. 16. * A laureate head with a wing oyer the 
ear;* it has only a fillet. 

Plate IV. fig. 4, 5, 6, 7. exhibit SeleucusIII. with the type 
of Antiochus II. The true Seleucus III. is in Plate III. fig. 22. 
with a type different from Antiochus II. father of Seleucus II.r 
and his owp ; which is more likely to be that of SeleucusIII. 
than Seleucus II., since^ Seleucus III. reigned but two years» 
and Seleucus II. reigned twenty ; whence it is improbable 
that, in so short a reign, the son should strike four coins with 
the same type, and not differing from those of his father and 
grand^ther. 

Plate VIII. fig. 7. the legend is ANTlOXEnN TOS EHIKAA- 
AIPOHN. Mr. G. inserts n^OZ : but this is not justified. 

UotrUiocf T^o7»<oc is by Mr. G. elegantly translated at p. 91. 
* Neptune the Turner,* as if he had been a workman in wood 
or ivory* Tropoeus Jupiter, and Troptean Juno, mean in Greek 
Jupiter and Juno ; and here, Neptune, because on his aid the^ 
battle turned* 

We know not whether sufficient pains were taken by Mr. 
Duane to guard against mistakes : but we wish that Mr. G. 
had compared his plates with the coins themselves in Dr. 
Hunter^ collection \ since it easily might have happened that» 
in the hurry of professional engagements, when Bartolozai 
called on him, Mr. Duane may suffer the artist to take 
with him some that did not belong to the plate which he was 
engravincf ; and this we suspect to have been the case in a 
variety of instances. 

It is also to be lamented that Mr. G. did not procure some- 
body to assist him in publishing these plates, who had more 
knowlege of the handling than he seems to possess ; as then 
he would not have subjected himself to the mistake of con- 

foaading 



RathboneV Narrativi, and Memcir* 179 

founding the type with the countermark, or vice versa : nor 
Jiave been so indiscreet as to carp at a great improvement in the 
numismatic science, viz. the weight of coins^ because he 
could not procure the originals with as much facility as he 
got possession of the plates* Mn G. is at home on a tomb- 
plate: but 

" ^ie diahle alloit it /aire dans ce galere Ik /" 

The Appendix contains, among other curiositic6« an ac- 
count of the stone of Rosetta, obtained from the French ia 
our conqucrst of Egypt, and in June 1803 deposited with the 
other Egyptian Monuments in the court of the British Museum. 
The triple inscription on this stone does not indeed strictly 
belong to the Seleucidx : but the prince who is the subject of 
it was so connected with Antiochus IV. or Epiphanes, that 
it is not improperly annexed to this work. A copy is given of 
the Greek inscripMon iff modern characters, and a translation 
is subjoined. We shall not discuss its accuracy : but we must 
observe that it is extremely to be regretted that the stone con^ 
taining it had not descended unmutilated : since, as the in- 
scription was given cf^otc xai tyx^'^^^^i ^^ EhAitvixoii yfaftfMavtir^ 
in the sacred or hieroglyphic, in the native, and in the Greek 
characters, it would have aided us more than any other monu- 
meDty had it been perfect, to decypher the hitherto inexpli* 
cable hieroglyphics of the Egyptians. 



Art. IX. ji Narraiive of E^vents that have lately taken place in Ire* 
laadf among tie Society called fakers ; with corresponding Docu- 
ments, and occasional Observations. 8vo. pp. 300. 5s. 6d« 
Boards, Johnson. 

AkT. X. Ji Memoir of the Proceedingt of tie Society called fakers ^ 
belonging to the Monthly Meeting of HarcUhayAr^ in Liancashire* 
in the Case of the Author of a Publicaiion entitled, *^ A Narra^ 
five rf Events wiici iave lately taken place in Ireland j' &c. By 
William Rathbone. 8vo. as. 6d. Jolinson. 

CfANTABNE animis coelestibus ira ? Could we expect to 
-^ find such a temper and spirit existing among the people 
called Quakers, as the facts stated in these publications too 
strongly indicate I To this Society, we have been in the ha-9 
bit of looking with peculiar respect, as to a churchy in which 
the primitive simplicity of the Gospel prevailed ; which che- 
rished brotherly love without bigotry ; and which, in the true 
spirit of Christian liberty, exhibited a sacred regard for truth 
without even the semblance of intolerance and persecution. If, 
howeTCTi we arc to believe these statements (and how can we 

N z refuses 



i6o RathboneV Natrative, and Memoir* 

refuse them our credence ?) the Quaker Church has displayed 
some of the worst features of other churches ; for it has ex- 
ercised a degree of spiritual tyranny over its members, which 
we could not imagine to have existed in a body that disclaims 
a priesthood, and every thing indicating <* dominion over 
Faith ;" and which, without creeds and sacraments, professes 
to confine its solicitude to the promotion of benevolence and the 
r(^ligion of the heart. A complete schism, indeed, has manifested 
itself even among modern Quakers ; and their synods and 
elders, in endeavouring to suppress it, seem to have been 
more liberal of their anathemas than Christian charity and for- 
bearance will warrant. In all religious communities, we arc 
persuaded, connivance is preferable to intolerance ; gentle and 
winning are more eligible than rigid and compulsory methods; 

*^ £/ errai longe^ nostrd quidem sententid^ 

^ui imperlum credat gravius esi^ aut stabillus 
Vi qucd Jitf quam^ illud qmd amicitia jungiturJ* 

Since these peculiar people meet with cordial toleration from 
the society at large, in the profession of tenets and in the adhe- 
rence to observances that depart more widely from the laws of 
the state than those of any other body of Dissenters, are they 
not required to shew forbearance towards the individuals of 
their own communion ? Is it for them who annually record 
^nd circulate among themselves all instances of the compulsory 
payment of tythes, as acts of. persecution ;— who not only re- 
fuse to bear any part in the defence of the state, but who take 
active measures against those of their body who indirectly ad* 
minister to security against foreign foes ; is it for such per- 
sons to oppress those who differ from them ? Allowed thus 
essentially to depart from the creed and usages of the com- 
munity which not only tolerates, but which cherishes and pro* 
tects them, is it not incumbent on them to be patient and for- 
bearing towards their brethren ? Persecution, by whomsoever 
practised, is detestable : but in what instance can it so much 
excite our disgust, as when exercised by those who by way of 
eminence appropriate to themselves the designation oi friends T 

If every lover of virtue and good conduct has been accus- 
tomed to regard this sect with great satisfaction, it was because it 
had in society at large the effect ascribed to religious orders 
at the time of their first institution ; its genuine members were 
so many examples of unfeigned piety, of honest industry^ and 
simple manners : ihey formed as it were the sweeteners and of 
purifiers of the body politic \ and the fine expression of our Sa- 
viour might be applied to them," they ivere ike sail of tie earth!* 
Their estimation and respectability arose out of the practice of 

religion 

IS 



Rathbonc V Nhrrative, an J Memoir. 1 8 1 

> 
religion and virtue : this was their province ; and hence has pro- 
ceeded their excellence. It should be their policy to "keep as ij 
much aloof from spiritual, as it is their practice to abstain 
from physical polemics. Their community is not the field for 
the able controversialist, the subtile disputant, or the acute rea- 
soner $ their polity excludes the learning which this career re- 
qaires ; and the spirit which animates and supports their body is 
adverse to this sort of prowess. A s tothose who are carried away 
by this vulgar ambition, let them yield to their hapless des- 
tiny ; let them be bufFet^() by the storms, and tossed by the 
waves of ordinary human life : but let theth not sacrilegiously dis- 
turb the peace of a brotherhood, whose bond of union is a wise 
and sublime self-denial, the last lesson taught by religion^, by 
philosophy, and by experience, whiph until we learn, we cannot 
be called wise. We recommend it to the one party to desist 
from rigorous proceedings } and we equally urge it on the other 
to abandon speculative innovations. Let them leave these hfiat« 
ters to other denominations; and let them feel that a more ele- 
vated, though in appearance a humbler part, is assigned to 
them. 

An invariable tenet of the professors of this religion has 
been, that the spirit which dictated the sacred scriptures in- 
structs and guides the faithful of alf times, in the same mannerf 
and in as high a degree, as it influenced the authors of those 
holy writings; and it has never been controverted aniong them| 
that this inward light is superior to thatvtrhlch' can be derived 
from the divine records. On these points, b'Qth the advocaites • 
of the antient faith and the reformers are agreed. Some mo* 
dem Doctors of the Qaaker Church, however, as Nvell male as 
female, have not been contented tb maintain the superiority of 
the inward light over that which is supplied by the^ scriptures, in 
which they are supported by the fathers of the same Church, 
Barclay, Pennington, &c. : but they venture to contemplate a 
discordance between them, and presume on the authority of the 
former to judge of, condemn, and reject the latter. One of 
the female Divines confidently maintains that no relation in 
the Old Testament, which represents the Deity as acting in- 
consistently with his moral perfections, according to inward. 
light, is to be regarded as a part of revelation ; and on this prin- 
ciple, she rejects from the canon of scripture the accounts of the 
extirpation of the Canaanites. The same fair theologian hast 
not had it shewn to her by the infallible internal monitor, that 
any miracles have been performed ; she does not controvert them, 
but only states that she has had no revelation cpncerning them. 
As far as we can collect, the antient Doctors, while they mag- 
|iificd the inward light, did not directly disparage the holy 

N 3 scriptures y 



^ 



1 82 Rathbone'j Narrativi^ and Memfif. 

scriptures ; and bv the $uperiority which they asserted for tha 
former, we conceive they meant that it more forcibly struck the 
apprehension, and more effectually influenced the mind and 
conduct. This, however« is merely our conjecture ; and we 
cannot find that either the antients or the modems are 
explicit on this point. Though it be the very hinge on 
which the controversy turns, still the spiritual judges seem 
indisposed to give any explanation of the matter; and they 
Only anathemaMze the rejection of any portion of our sacred 
code. 

It will be clearly seen by the intelligent reader, that the step 
from the antient tenets to the new doctrines is not a very long 
one \ and that it may be no slight task to keep headstrong 
spirits within the accustomed limits. A dextrous polemic^ 
having the superiority of the inward light conceded to him, 
will have much to say in favour of novel tenets ; and it will 
not be for every one to confute him. Wc have no dffliculty, there- 
fore, in forming an idea of the perplexity under which the de«> 
fenders of the antient faith labour. We would recommend it to 
the Fathers, when they next meet in council, in order to sit in 
judgment on the matters in controversy, to imitate the conduct 
of the more wiseof thePopesi and though they will not view with' 
partiality any examples from this quarter, they will recollect 
that fas est ab hoste doceri. Their holinesses, when they did 
not chuse to decide, enjoined silence on the parties. Let the 
venerable synod, .then, issue a circular letter, in which it shall 
be. shewn that controversies and speculative discussions are in- 
consistent with the fundamentals oF Quakerism, and must, if 
continued, subvert the sect \ and let it be enjoined each re- 
former, before he publishes, to weigh well the practical benefit 
that is likely to arise from the discussion wifich he is about to 
conimence, to consider how it will affect the society, and to 
mike a public and sokmn affirmation that he is not actuated 
by any love of distinction, or any motive of vanity, but by the 
sole desire of doing good. 

The di. sensions in the Brotherhood are not confined to points 
of doctiine, but extend to matters of practice of the last im- 
portance, and affect an institution of not less consequence thaa 
that of marriage. The provisions of the marriage-act did not 
extend to the Quakers ; but thry establishc*d rules which were 
observed by their own body, and which were equally effectual 
with the enactments of the statute. Of late, these rules have 
been resisted, on the plea of conscience. This wc consider 
as certainly no light affair. The society cannot be blamed 
for reg?irdlng extra-formal marriages as invalid : but how they 
justify the excommunication of the parties, we arc at a loss to 

perceive* 



RathboneV Narrative, and Memmr. i i^ 

pcrctWc. Regarding marriage to be a civil compact» as they . 
do, how cai#they vindicate proceeding against offenders by ec- 
clesiastical pains r They do not however stop here; they are 
not satisfied with severing from their body the parties them- 
selves, but they exclude from fellowship all who are present 
at the celebration of the wedding \ and there have been in- 
stances of excommunicating six or eight persons of the best 
character for this sole offence. We seriously lament these 
dissentions i and we "^hall be glad to learn that, by wise coun- 
cils, the exercise of Christian forbearance, and a spirit of cha- 
rity, they will b^^speedily healed. 

The account o^ the proceedings of which we have been speak- 
ing, as given in the Narrative of Events^ appears very fair and 
dispassionate ; it displays at once a Christian and a philosophic 
cal spirit ; and we are happy to perceive that the views of the 
intelligent author coincide in a great de^ree with our own. 
Most readers will meet in this volume with considerable infor- 
mation that is new to them, in regard to the polity, the reli- 
gious tenets, and the maxims of this quiet and peaceable sect. 
The author of it proves to be Mr. Rathbone, the writer also 
of the subsequent Memoir, He was one of the members of 
this church, but has been recently disowned by it ; yet he 
seems to be a most serious inquirer after truth, to be thoroughly 
imbued with the genuine principles of religious liberty, and to 
oflFer advice which is of great importance in the present embar« 
rassed state of the Quaker system. We are truly obliged to 
him for affording us so clear a view of its constitution, dis« 
cipline, and rules, which have hitherto been kept secret ; and 
we hesitate not to say that this Society would have acted 
more consistently with its avowed principles of brotherly 
love, and respect for the right of private judgment in the sin- 
cerely conscientious, if, iubtead of being angry with' him for 
the explicit declaration and even ipublication of bis sentiments, 
it had proceeded to consider ^ the connrction of disownment 
with persecution,' and the impolicy of multiplying duties be- 
yond the limits which God and nature have prescribed. Since 
the present Elders are rigid sticklers for old. forms, and are as 
fearful of innovation as the heads of any establishment; and since 
the excluded members cannot be persuaded to coalesce with 
any existing Christian body ; we see no alternative left but 
the formation of a new Quaker church, in which that li- 
berty of conscience, the violation of which they lament, 
shall be less restrained ; in which the ceremony of marriage, 
shall be less fettered ; and in which no regulations shall be* 
admitted beyond what the strict necessity of the cases shall re- 

N 4 quire. 



lt.84 RathboneV Narrative^ and Memoir* 

quire ^. We do not recommend Schism : but the excommu- 
nicated members ought not to be excluded from^e benefit of 
social worship in their own way. 

The monthly- meeting atHardshaw laments, as wellit mtiy, 
that Mr. Rathbonc's Narrative of Events, &c. tended to lower 
the Society in the eyes of the world by exposing its weakness : 
but i^*such has been its harsh and inconsistent conduct, it 
ought not to complain of exposure. It was generous in Mr. 
Rathbone, at the risk of his own expulsion, to publish the 
case of the excommunicated members, for the consideration 
of the nation at large ; since, if they were deprived of the 
comfort and advantages of the religious sect to which they had 
Jbelonged from their birth, the public had a right to inquire 
into the reason of their disgrace among the members of their 
own communion f . To enjoin secrecy in such cases is not 
honourable. Justice to all parties demanded an open state- 
ment o{ facts; and the reflections which Mr. R. has subjoined 
are of so truly temperate and judicious a nature, that both 
parties might derive benefit from them. We require no other 
evidence of the acrimonious leaven which has insinuated itself 
into the deliberations of the Society of Friends, than the expul- 
sion of such a man, so reasonable, so candid, and so well inform- 
ed, as Mr. R. appears to be. He ably vindicates himself against 
the rigorous proceedings of the Hardshaw Meeting, and ac- 
cuses the Society at large of no longer << standing fast in the 
Liberty wherewith Christ has made them free." Of the gene- 
ral' truth and pre-eminent value of the Scriptures, he acknow- 
leges his sincere conviction, though he does not reply to the 
charge which accuses him of believing ^ that they contain some 

* The present dissention respecting Marriage might occasioa 
^ kome qucstiona on the legality of some of their marriages. 

f The folic wiDg testimony is g^ven in behalf of 60 excluded 
xnembers in Ireland : 

: * Whatever supposed delinquency may have been imputed to these 
persons, in other respects, they never, (ao Ear as my information ex- 
tends) swerved from their firm belief in the doctrine of inward and 
immediate revelation ; nor is there a single instance on record of im- 
moral condnct being charged by the Society upon any one of these 
persons, as the ground of their disownment. They dissociated on 
account of their conscientious dissent from much of the then existing 
ministry and conduct of the disgipline^ and from the recent'decisions oF 
the national yearly meeting. These had, in their opinion, a direct 
tendency to abridge liberty of conscience, and to enforce conformity 
and uniformity with respect to unessential tenets and practices, to 
an extent beyond that to which the discipline had before been 
parried.* 

important 



BlnglcyV North Wales. 185 

important errors*' All liberal readers will pronounce that Mr. 
R. has triumphed ; and it is for his opponents to rebut the 
charge of a departure from the obvious dictates of equity, can- 
dour, and benevolence* 

Another tract on this controversy will be noticed in the 
Catalogue part of this Review ; and an additional vo|ume has 
just appeared, which we have not yet had time to peruse. 



Aat* XI. North Wales ; tnehding Us Scenery^ jlnilquitks^ Custom^^ 
and some Sketches ofits Natural History ; delineated from two Ex- 
cursions through all the interesting Parts of that Country, during^ 
the Summers of 1798 and 1801. By the Rev. W. Bingley, A.M.'. 
Fellow of the Linriean Society, and late of Peter-house, Can- 
bridge. Illustrated with a Map, Frontispieces, and Music 
2 Vols* 8vo. il. 18. Boards. Longman and Co. 1804. 

'The growing predilection for Welsh tours gives topublica- 
'*' tions like the present a value beyond tiieir literary estimate, 
communicates to them a higher importance, and raises them 
to the rank of practical performances. Considered in this 
point of view, the Principality has been fortunate, and the 
carious or the fashionable visitant can be at no loss for guided ; 
since persons of excellent taste and considerable information 
Iiave not disdained the useful office of directing the steps of 
the future traveller, and of pointing out the objects which chaU 
knge his attention. Iii this class, with respect to South Wales, 
Mr. Malkin bears the palm *; and, with regard to North Wales, 
Mr. Bingley, though a writer of a different class and character, 
claims to be the best companion which the English visitor cao 
adopt., If the Welsh are prepared coolly to contemplate the 
extinction of their venerable dialect and their antient manners,—— 
if they deem the increase of wealth, and a more entire incor- 
poration and a more complete identity with their luxurious 
fellow-subjects, an adequate compensation for such a change, 
— they will own themselves obliged to the above named Gentle- 
men, who have taken so much pains to facilitate and render 
inviting our excursions into their country. That these peregrina« 
tions should be attractive to persons of fortune and leisure, can 
be no matter of wonder. They might be described as a kind of 
Joreign travel which may be performed ^/ ^^^^ ; for without 
grossing the water^ we are introduced to a country presenting 
singular aspects, a rich variety of scenery, and a state of society 
dissimilar from our own ; inhabited by a people altogether dis- 
tinct from ourselves, speaking a different language, and distin- 



• Sec Rev. Vol. xlvi. N. S. p. 363. andxlvii. p. 41. 

guished 



i86 BinglcyV North Waks. 

guished by peculiar qualities, habits, and manne rs ; — % people 
interesting as a remnant of the antient population of the West 
of Kurope, whose very barbarism was qualified by a refined 
and artificial superstition ; th^ number and excellence of whose 
bards shew a more liberal distribution of creative talents than 
falls to thf^ lot of most other n:)tions ; and who, to this day» are 
characterized by loyalty , bravery, and a proud spirit of inde- 
pendence. 

Mr. Bingley commenced his tour at Chester, of which place 
he gives a very interesting account ; stating, with great coiw 
ciseness, whatever distinguishes it, as well politically as topo- 
graphically. 

A view of Downing, near Holywell, the residence of the 
late Mr. Pennant, on the road from Holywell to St. Asaph^ 
calls from Mr. B. a tribute to its departed owner, which he 
thus concludes : 

' In the writings of Mr. Pennant, we are not to bnk for any of 
those brilliant effusions of genius that mark the pen of some of the 
modern naturnlists and travellers. But if he did not posses their fire, 
he had the more vahiable requisites of ufitarnished principle, and a 
scrupulous adfiereace to truth. Perseverance, industry, and correct- 
ness, are their leading chaiacteristics. His reading was czten&ive, 
particularly in the zoological branches of natural history. He poa- 
sessed a retentive memory, and a considerable rapidity of composi- 
tion, his works being generally printed, with little or no correction, 
ms they flowed from the pen. 

« As to his private character ; he was religious without bigotry, and, 
from principles the most puie and disinterested, firmly attached to 
the established church. He was a steady firiend to our excellent con- 
stitution ; and when the spirit of democracy with which tht matiia of 
9 neighbounng country appeared desirous of overwhelming our 
kingdom, was spreading abroad, he resisted its ciTorts with all hie 
migot* In times of scarcity, he materially alleviated the distresses of 
the neighbouring poor by the importation of grain* If he had foiblcM 
let them be burled in his grave, and let the first who is withou* 
draw them thence to his dispraise. To sum up the general character 
of Mr. Pennant in few words, he was a man of upright conduct and 
the most unshaken integrity, uniting to a good head that valuable 
counterpart so often wanting, an excellent heart.' 

The old adage, ie mortuis, &c, sanctions the sentiment here 
expressed by Mr. Bingley : but, in our opinion, this ts to be 
regarded as a rule of good breeding which was never intended 
to controul the conduct of the historian. If the biographer's 
pencil be assumed, no line of character should be omitted ; 
truth requires, and the public have a right and an interest^ that 
the sketch should be faithful. — We may here 6b$erve that the 
author never passes the birth-place of any dl>tingui6hed cha- 
racter, without paying the same homage to bis memory as in 

the 



Binglcy'j North WaUsi 187 

the present instance ; and it is but justice to add that these 
memoranda are composed with neatness, as. well as with great 
fairness and impartiality; They much enhance the value of the 
work* 

We must not omit the following sketch, .which occurs in the 
author's account of St. Asaph : 

^ The tower of the cathedral commands a most extensive prospect 
of the vale of Clwyd, in every direction ; and it is almost the only- 
situation that I could find for seeing it to advantage. The river 
Clwydy from which the vale takes its name, is a diminutive stream 
that meanders along its bottom, scarcely ^thrce yards over in the widest 
part. Its banks are low, and after sudden rains it is subject to the 
most dreadful overflowings, the torrent at these times frequently 
sweepidg along with it even the very soil of the land' it passes over* 
From this circumstance it is that much of the land near its banks is 
let at very low rents. This vale is perhaps the most extensive of any 
in the kingdom, being near twenty- Four miles in length, and about 
seven in width ; containing the three considerable towns of St. Asaph, 
Denbigh and Ruthin ; and, thouc;h it is impossible to exhibit a more 
beautiful scene of fertility, yet, from its great width and its want of 
water, I believe the painter will prefer to it many of the deep and pic- 
'turcsque glens of Caernarvonshire and Merionethshire/ 

In the above vale stands Rhydlan, now an insi^^nificant viU 
lage, which was created a free borough by Edward I., and ia 
which was passed the famous statute of Wales. 

From the section on Conway river, we extract an account 
of a natural production, which is not generally known to be- 
long to our island : 

* This river was celebrated in former times as a pearl-fishery ; and 
pearls have been found here at different intervals ever since the Roman 
conquest. It was to obtain these that Suetonius alleges as one of the 
principal motives for hib invasion of our inland ; but tliere is reason to 
suppose that he was in a great measure disappointed in his hopes, both 
ify\ respect to their size and quantity. The shell in which they are 
found is called the Pearl Muscle, and is the Mya margaritijera of Lin- 
DSBus. It is peculiar to stoney and rapid rivers, burying itself with 
its open end downwards in the sand ; but it is not often found here at 
present. The pearl is a calcahis, or morbid concretion, supposed to 
be produced by some disease, and is at times found even in the com« 
iDon oyster and muscle. It is sometimes within the body of the ani« 
mal, and sometimes on the inside of the shell ; and one muscle fre- 
quently contains more than a single pearl. The shells that bear the 
bedt pearls are not smooth and equal like the rest, but are crooked and 
vriukled ; and the larger the pearls are the greater is their deformity. 
Linnseus informed Mr. Pennant that he had discovered the art of 
causing the pearl? to form : he however refused to communicate it* and 
It is supposed to have died with him. When there are pearls in the 
shell, the animals, on being squeezed, will eject them, and they even 
.tometimes spontaneously cast tkem on the sand of the river; It is 

reported 



i88 BingleyV NoiUh Wales. 

reported in the country that Sir Richard Wynne of Gwydir presented 
-the queen of Charles II. with a pearl from the river Conwy which waa. 
afterwards placed in' the regal crown. About twenty-five years ago 
the late Sir Robert Vaughan went to court with a button and loop in 
his hat set with pearls from the Conwy. An Irish pearl is mentioned 
by Sir Robert Redding in the Philosophical Transactions, as weighing 
thirty six carrats, and valued at forty pounds. The present ladp 
Newborough has a good collection of the Conwy pearls, and she pur- 
chases all the best that are now to be found. — The fish of the pearl 
muscle is not eaten, being extremely bad and unpalatable/ 

The author bestows high praise on the views which present 
themselves in Conway vale, and along the route from that 
place to Bangor ; which city, and the adjoining seat of Lord 
Penrhyn, seem very much to interest him. At Landygai 
church, near Bangor, Mr. B. saw the monument of Arch- 
bishop Williams, so well known in our history, and who was 
a native of Conway ; which induces him to add a dispassion* 
ate and faithful account of this last of our Statesmen-Prelates. 

We now meet witha passage which, as descriptive of somever]^ 
singular religionists} the pure and exclusive growth of a Welsh 
soil, is intitled to a place in our pages. If the philosopher and 
the statesman cannot view them with complacency, it is per- 
laps the antiquary who has most reason to be displeased with 
them ; inasmuch as they have wrought a change in the national 
character and features* have converted a lively merry ra.ce into 
gloomy fanatics, and have occasioned games, which promoted 
health and activity, and all the cheerful amusements, even tho 
love of musici to give way to a rage for religious austerities. 
This circumstance, more than intercourse with England and 
the progress of society, has invaded the antient manners and 
habits of this interesting people. Never did fanaticism obtain 
a soil more congenial to it^ and never did it reap a richer har- 
vest. 

^ Whilst I was at Caernarvon, I was induced from motives of 
curiosity, more than once to attend the chapel of a singular branch of 
calvinistical methodists, who, from certain enthuaiastical extrava- 
gancies which they exhibit in their religious meetings, are denomina- 
ted Jumpers. Their service here is in the Welsh language, and, at 
among other methodists, commences and concludes with a prayer. 
It is not till the last hymn is sung that any uncommon symptoms are 
exhibited. The tune consists only of a smgle strain, and the hymn, 
having but one ver8e> this verse is, in consequence, repeated over and 
over, sometimes for half an hour, and sometimes, if their spirit of en- 
thusiasm is much excited, for upwards of an hour. With this begin 
their motions. It is sung once or twice over without any apparent 
effect. The first motion to be observed is that of the upper parts of 
their body from right to left. They then raise their hands, and often 
strike one hand violently against the otbc^. ^uch h the effect pro* 



BiDgUyV North Wales » 189 

duced even on strangers, that I confess whenever I have been amoDg 
them at these times, my intellects became greatly confused : the noise 
of their groaning and sinj^ing, or often times rather bellowing, the 
clapping of their hands, the beating of their feet against the ground, 
the excessive heat of the place, anc) the various motions on all sides of 
me, almost stupified my senses. The less enthusiastic move off soon 
after the hymn is begun : among these, every time I attended them. 




mgation to jump by themselves. At intervals the word '* gogoniant** 
(praise or glory ! \ is frequently to be heard. The conclusion of this 
extravagance, which bears much more the appearance of heathen or- 
gies, than of the rational spirit of Christian devotion, has been de* 
scribed by one of their own countrymen with more justice than I am 
able to give to it. ** The phrensy (he says) so far spreads, that to 
any observation made to them, they seem altogether insensible. Men 
and women indiscriminately, cry and laugh, jump and sing, with the 
wildest extravagance imaginable. That their dress becomes deranged^ 
or the hair dishevelled, is no longer an object of attention. And 
their raptures continue, till, spent with fatigue of mind and body, the 
Vomen are frequently carried out in a state of apparent insensibility. 
lo these scenes, indeed, the youthful part of the congregation are prin* 
cipally concerned, the more elderly generally contenting themselves in 
admirinc^, with devout gratitude, what they deem the operations of 
the spint.'' Their exertions on these occasions are so violent, that 
were they often repeated in the week, the health of the people must be 
materially affected. When they leave the place, they often seem so 
much exhausted, as scarcely to be able to support the weight of their 
bodies ; and the hardest labour they could be employed in would not 
10 much waste the animal spirits, or weary their limbs, as an hour 
spent in this religious frenzy.' 

Caernarvon appears to be more connected than any other in 
the North Wales tour^ with interesting perambulations. In 
one of these, some incidents occurredj which, as shewing the 
state of society, deserve to be quoted : 

* There are two cottages in this village where the wearied traveller 
may take such poor refreshments as the place affords. One of these 
belonged, about two years ago to John Close, a grey- headed old 
man, who was bom and brought up in the north of Yorkshire. He 
had occasion to come into Wales with some cattle in his younger days, 
and preferring this to his Yorkshire home, he resided here the rest of 
his life. His son now keeps the house. — The other is kept by the 
parish clerk, who may be employed as a guide over any part of the 
adjacent country. I found him well acquainted with the mountains, 
and a much more intelligent man than guides in general are. He 
does not speak EngUsh well, but his civility and attention are a suffi- 
cient compensation for this defect.— Neither of these places affords a 
bed, nor any thing eatable better than bread and butter, or cheese, 
and perhaps, eggs and bacon. 

^ ' The 



ipo BinglcyV North Walts. 

* The first time that I caine to Llanbcris, bein^ somewhat fit- 
tigued with traversing the adjacent mountains^ I went to the former of 
these houses to rest myself and obtain some refreshment. It was jan 
at the dinner hour, and a scene was exhibited altogether novel to me. 
At one table were seated the family of the house, consisting of the old 
host) his wife and their son and daughter, eating their bread and 
milk, the common food of the labouring people here : a large over- 
l^rown old sow was devouring her dinner, with considerable dissatisfac- 
tion on account of the short allowance, from a pail placed for her by 
the daughter in one Corner ; whilst I waft eating my bread and bat* 
ter, with an appetite steeled agmimt ntcetiea by the keenness of the 
nuHiotain atr» at a table covered with a dirty napkin, in the other 
comer. This scene, howeirer, induced me always afterwards to bring 
with me refreshments from Caernarvon, and enjoy my dinner, in quiet, 
in' the open air.' — 

* I saw, and was introduced to the curate ; he resided in a 
nean looking cottage aot far from the church, which seemed to con- 
sist of but few other rooms than a kitchen and bed-room, the latter 
of which served also for his study. When I entered the room be 
was engaged over an old folio volume of sermons. His dress was 
somewhat singular ; he had on a blue coat that long had been worn 
threadbare, and in various places exhibited marks of the industry •f 
his wife, a pair of antique corderoy breeches, and a black waistcoat, 
and round bis head was tied a blue handkerchief. His library 
might have been the very same that Hurdis has described in tfaic 
village Curate, 

* Yon half a dozen shelves support, vast weight*. 
The curate's library. There marshalled stand. 
Sages and heroes, modern and antique : 
He," their commander, h'ke the vanquished fiend. 
Out-cast of heaven, oft through their armed files. 
Darts an experienced eye, and feels his heart 
Distend with pride, to be their only chief: 
Yet needs he not the tedious muster-roll, 
The title page of each well known, its name, 
And character. 

' From the exterior of the cottage, it seemed but the habitation of 
misery ; but the «miles of the good man were such as would render 
even misery cheerful. His salary was about forty pounds, on whtdi, 
with his little fjarm, he contrived to support himself and his faaaily, 
and with this slender pittance he seemed perfectly contented and con- 
fortable. His wife was absent, but from a wheel which I obsenred ia 
the room, I conjectured, and was afterwards informed, that her Wme 
was principally employed in spinning wool. The account I had from the 
.parishioners of the character of this man was, that he was respected 
and beloved by all, and that his whole time and attention were occu* 
pied in doing such good to his fellow creatures as his very alender 
^rcumstanccs would allow. 

< I venerate the man whose heart .Is warm. 
Whose hands are pure, whose doctrine, and whose life 

Coincideot^ 



Binglcy'j North Waksm I9» 

Coincident* exhibit lucid proof 
That he is honest In the sacred cause. 
To such 1 render more than mere respect, 
Whose actions shew that they respect themselves. 

* This person, after sustaining a severe Illness with the utmost re- 
•ignation and fortitude, died in the beginning of the year 1801, kav- 
iBg a widow and one daughter to stinrive him.' 

In the following description of an Erening-scene at Llanberisy 
the author's pencil appears to advantage : 

< I left my hospitable friends, and etrolled to the end of the lake* 
Scarcely ai>reath of air was to be felt. A white fog was extended, ia 
long dense streaks, low down In the vale. The evening clouds ap- 
peared across the end of the lakes, tinged with various hues of red and 
orange, from the refracted rays of the departing sun. These were 
reficcted in full splendour along the water. The rocks reflected va- 
rious shades of purple, as the prominences were presented to the eye* 
or as the heath or verdure most prevailed. These colours after a while 
became one masd of dark greenish blue. The olouda lost their splen- 
dour $ and the pool began to darken from the shades of the mountains*" 
Scattered clouds new settled on various parts of the rocks, their light 
colours singularly contrasting with the sombre mountain tints. On 
looking from the pool towards the village, I was just able to distia- 
guish it in the gloom, Its place beinff marked by the smoke of the 
peat fires, rislne a few yards perpendicularly from the chimnles, and 
then spreading into a cloud, and hovering directly over It. The rocks 
and precipices softened by degrees in an uniform mass of shade. The 
gcaeral features now became entirely lost, and only the upper outline 
was distinguishable' In the obscurity. The evenin^r fogs soon after 
cane on^ and in a short time so enveloped the whole scene, that not a 
single former trace was visible.' 

The' claim made by Anglesea to the birth of Dafydd ap 
Gwilym occasions Mr. B. to sketch the life of the Welsh Ana- 
creon. To some particulars of this extraordinary man, our 
readers are not strangers. Endowed with a fine genius, which he 
very considerably cultivated, a resident of Wales in the 14th 
century, professing libertinism not less openly than the ama« 
tory poets of Greece and Rome, and in pouring out his shafts 
against the superstition of the times, scarcely sparing religion 
itself, he points to a state of society among the sequestered 
Welsh, of which his works, and the consideration in which he 
Was held, are almost the sole evidence. Mr. B. relates a pleasing 
anecdote with respect to him : 

* Between Dafydd ap Gwilym and Gryffydd Grfig, an Angle- 
sea bard., a man of considerable genius and Icirning, there was a rival' 
ship for fame, which produced many masterly compositions on each 
side. This contention had been carried on for a long time, and, with 
great auimoaiiy, when a Welshman of the Dame of Bola Bauol offered 

a wagtr. 



I 



\. 



ij|2 BInglcyV North Wales. 

a wager, which was immediately accepted, that he would effect their 
leconciliation. He shortly afterwards went into North Wales, and io- 
dustrioasly circulated a report of the death of Dafydd apGwilym. Thia 
so much affected his rivaU that, laying aside every other feeling, in the 
poignancy of his grief, he wrote an elegy bewailing the loss of his 
friend^ in the most affectionate terms. Bola, having in the mean time 
contrived te circulate a story of the same nature in South Wales, of 
the death of Gryffydd Gr{ig, was much pleased, on his return, to find 
that Dafydd had also written a pathetic elegy on his opponent. He 
thus succeeded according to his expectations, for, on discovering to each 
the real sentiments of the other, they forgave the frolic, and ever af. 
tcrwards remained firm friends/ 

Our present recollection of our own examination of thi& 
classical Welsh poet suggests to us no ground for qualifying 
the high praise bestowed by Mr. B. on the easy and flowing 
muse of the lover of Morfudd : 

^ His works possess harmony, invention, elegance, and perspicuity* 
The powers of his mind rose greatly superior to all the disadvantages 
of the period in which he lived. In harmony of versification, his 
works even now stand as a model of perfeq^ion, although at the time 
when he wrote, most of the laws of composition were in a state of 
fluctuation, and others were altogether unknown* It seems, indeed* 
very probable that some of his verses might form the idea for many 
rules which were afterwards settled. He had both feeling and judg- 
ment ; in his love-poems there is a pecuUar softness and melody in all 
their variations ; and this, in a greater or less degree, may be traced 
thrcugh all his works, from the slightest efforts of bis mu^e, to the 
most grand and sublime parts of his imagery.^ 

In the ensuing relation, we have another specimen of the 
powers of Mr. B.'s pencil. The scene is in the vicinity of 
Caernarvon : 

* In my visit to the NantUe Pools, I proceeded along the road 
from Caernarvon to Bcddgelert, till I had passed Llyn Cwellyn, 
when taking a route westward, between Llyn Cader, and Lyln y 
Dywarciicn, I entered a wild mountainous pass, that led roe along a 
•cries of sheep tracts, into Nant Lie, the ^ ale of Lie. The mouu- 
tains rose on each side to an immense height, those towards Ihe 
nt>rth forming a long range of preeipices, singularly marked by 
the innumerable gullies of the mountain storms. The whole scene 
was that of savage wilduess, uf nature in her most dreary attire. It 
is a narrow pass, encompassed by mountains uncultivated, destitute 
altogether of wood, and urshcltered on all sides from the fury of the 
tempests. — /\8 I proceeded, the scene by degrees began to extend its 
limits, and the mountains to attain more varied and elegant forms. 
At length the two Nantlle Pools, called by the Welsh Llyniau NantUe f 
and the whole range of the vale, with the gradually declining moun* I 
taiii9, became visible nearly to the sea. The prospect was exceed- I 
ingly beautiful ; and the number of treef in different parts, and par- 
ticularly about the foreground, added greatly to the effect. — On 

turning 



r 



BirigleyV North Wales. i^ 

turniog round; to look towards the road that I had left, now about 
two miles distant, I observed that Snowdon closed up the end of the 
pass, and terminated the view in that direction : its upper parts wcrc» 
however, so enveloped in clouds, as to render them invisible. — I con- 
tinued my route along a tolerable good horse-path, between hedge- 
rows, among meadows and woodland, on the north side of the pools. 
The trees were chiefly old oaks, that had withstood the fury of near 
a hundred winters ; the limbs shattered, covered with moss, and bared 
of leaves- Several of the small farmers' cottages among these trees pre- 
sented, with the other objects around, scenes peculiarly picturesque. 
By an ancient over- shot mill, between the pools, I remarked a scene 
that exceeded all the rest. The mountain grandeur of the vale was bro- 
ken by the Wooded foreground ; and the water of one of the lakes, from 
the rays of the sun, which shot obliquely upon it, glittered through the 
dark foliage of the trees. The mill, and its rude wooden aqueduct and 
wheel, with an adjacent cottage or two, overgrown with moss and lich- 
ens, and shattered in the walls and roofs, were the other component parts 
of the landscape. This was, however, by no means, the last of the 
dcgancies of the val« ; in almost every pare of my walk, I had some* 
thing to admire, some new object presented to me, that afforded sources 
both of reflection and deh'ght. At some distance beyond the farthest 
lake, the road, which is here wide enough to admit carriages to the 
seigfabounng slate quarries, led me to some little height above the 
wle. I again turned round to look along the vale in the direction I 
had come, and was surprised by a view so elegantly picturesque, that 
even my fancy had scarcely ever led me to imagine one equal to it. 
The dense clouds that had enveloped all the higher regions of Snow^ 
don, were in a great measure driven away, and those that 1 now saw^ 
floated below the pointed summit of the mountain, which was visible 
above. It bounded the end of the vale, and I never before saw thia 
mountain in so much grandeur. A dusky haziness about it, threw it 
to appearance very distant, and added greatly to its effect in height. 
A gleam of sunshine, passing the valley by Llyn Cwellyn, that crossed 
by its foot, and softening upwards, formed a fine light in the middle 
of the scene. The steep black rocks of Mynydd Mawr, on the left, 
and the craggy summits of the elegant and varied range of the Drwa 
y Coed mountains, on the right of the Vale on whose side I stood» and 
appearing even still daiker than usual, from the light on the mountain 
beyond them, formed a truly elegant middle distance. The expanse 
of the water of the two lakes, intersected by a narrow isthmus, ap- 
peared in the bosom of the vale. The rude trunks, and weather-beaten 
limbs of theold oaks around, not only added beauty to the foreground^ 
but vaned, by their intervention, the otherwise too uniform appear- 
ance of the meadows of the vale, and of some parts of the moun- 
tains' sides. This landscape u not exceeded in beauty by any in North 
Wales.* 

Adjacent to the same grand station, is the vale which is next 
depicted : ' • 

* From the village of Ffestiniog we descended into Cwm Maen. 
twrog, T'i&tf Vale €f Matntijorogy (improperly called by tourists the 

R«y. Oct. 1805. rale 



IJ* Binglcy*/ North WaUt. 

Tale of FfestimW,) aod wandered leisurely alon^^ enjoying all tl« 
way the most sublime pleasure In contemplating the beauties of the 
scene before us. There are few vales in this country that afford suck 
lovely prospects as this. Many of the high mountains bounding its 
aides are shaded with lofty oaks ; nnd the silver Dwyryd, 7«m Fordf^ 
terteniua placidly and silently along the bottom, amidst the nchest 
cultivation. The sea, at a distance, closes the view ; and Traeth 
Bachf a wide arm of it, is seen to receive the Dwyryd, a little below 
Taoybwich hall, which is situated on a rising ground, and embowered 
in woods, at the nortli west extremity of the vale. The little villa^ 
of Maentwrog, from whence it takes its name, is seated nearly in 
the middle. , The character of the vale of Ffestiniog is very different 
from that either of Llanberis or Naot Hwynan : the former is ma- 
jestic, grand, and sublime ; Nant Hwynan bean a middle character. 
Its bottom is varied by insulated rocks, and dad with trees; this ia 
simply elegant, and principally affoids charms to the admirer of na« 
turc in her most chaste and delicate attire. The bottom is open, and 
cultivated from end to end, With trees scattered along the walls and 
hedge-rows. The thick woods on the mountains on the north aide 
toften very beautifully what would be otherwise a bleak and dreary 
feature in the seme. *' With the woman one loves, with the friend 
of one's heart, and a good study of books, (says lord Lyctlcton to hii 
friend Mr. Bower,) one might pass an age m this vale, and think it a 
day. If you have a mind to live long, and ren^ your youth, come 
with ^rs. Bower, and settle at Ffestiniog. Not long ago there died 
in that neighbourhood an honest Welsh fanner, who was 105 years 
of affc. By his first wife he had thirty children, ten by his second. yotrr 
by his third, and ttwn by two concubines : his youngest son ymitmghtyr 
0tie years younger than his eldest ; and 800 persons, descended 
from his body, attended his funeral." — I can add another instance of 
age and fecundity in this vale, which, though far shoit of this in 
point of numbers, is still sufficiently great to prove the healthiness of 
the place. Jane Price, who died in the year 1 694, had at the time, 
of her death twelve children, ybr/y-jfvfn grand children^ and tbiriettt 
great grand -children.' 

We have now reached the end of the first volume ; and we 
should find it a pleasant Usk, if our limits allowed, to conduct 
our readers through some of the romaniic scenery which in 
Volume II. 18 so chasfcly, and in appearance so faithfully de- 
scribed. We should gladly also make them acquainted with 
the chapters which cont.un the author^s views ot the character 
and manners of the jjntient W<-l6h, and those of their 
present descendants ; from which they would find that he ctoes 
not regard the one as an imbecile, and the other as a dc'gcne- 
rate race. The anticnt Britons he represents as a nation of 
W'irriors, passionately enamoured of independencei pos^sessed 
of dauntless bravery and infinite enterprize, and noted for 
warlike stratagems. He admits the vast copiousness and end* 
less variety of their language % and he explains and vindicates 

I the 



BlnglcyV Norti Waks* ipS 

tfie structure of their ]>oetry. He does not partake in the least 
liegree of the inveterate antipathy imputed to a Caledonian an« 
tiqaaryi but is the friend and admirer of the original inhabit<* 
ants of our favoured isle, and his accounts represent them at 
amiable and estimable* In descriptions of nations as well as 
of individuals, truth ought doubtless to be our sole object : but 
if we are to err,, we have no scruple in saying that it is more 
creditable, as well as more beneficial, that it should be on the 
favourable side. If we persuade an individual or a people that 
tbej are of an inferior order, we raise a bar to their improve* 
m«nt that is almost insurmountable. — Mr* B/s sketch of tba 
History of the Welsh Bards and Music, and hi» selection, ia 
score, of 1 6 of their favourite airs, will be acceptable to musi« 
cal readers. 

Nothing eludes verbal description more than natural scenery; 
the elements of our pleasure in this walk are too subtile to be 
embodied in language \ and those who most strongly feel it 
are at a loss to express it. In this respect, Mr. Bingley prac- 
tises a reserve which we have more frequently recommended 
tbao witnessed. If the pictures sketched by him are less vivid^ 
and his respresent^itions less animated, than those of some of 
his brother tourists, he has the advantage over them on the 
score of accuracy and fidelity ; and if' he excites less rapture, 
he engages more confidence. Few readers of these volumes 
vill be able to restrain an ardent wish to have attended the 
trateller in his walk from Conway to Bangor over Penmaen- 
mawr; to have taken up their quarters with him at Caernar'* 
von» in order to traverse thr» rapturous vales ofLhnberis, Bcdd- 
gclert, Nantgarmon, and Ffestiniog ; to have ascended with him 
the arduous summits of Snowdon and Cader Idris ; and to have 
marched in his track along Vallecrucis, Llangollen, and £deir* 
nion, in order to witntr<ts the sublime horrors and enchanting 
beauties of the views in North Wales. 

It will perhaps be said that these volumes are too much oc« 
capied by history and antiquities : but it should be remembered 
that it is extremely difficult to observe the proper medium in 
these matters. Until travellers are universally furnished with 
all that relates to the objects which they behold, that is to bo^ 
collected from the works of antiquaries or from the records ' 
of past times, episodes of this nature are indispensible j since, 
without this knowleiic, thither previously stored, or recently 
acquired, almost all that is sentimental in tours will be lost ; 
without it, a ruin is no more than a mouldering edifice ; and 
the spots, which great events have consccr^atcd, are only so 
much space. With regard to Natural History, likewise, Mr. B. 
furnishes many occasional particulars, as also a F/ora Cambrica 

O 2 at 



tg6 ScottV Sir Trlsirem^ a Metrical Romance. 

at the end of the second volume, which will be interesting to 
the lovers of this rational and attractive science- As far as 
we can collect from his writing, Mr. B. is moreover a good- 
humoured traveller ; who bears, without murmur or complaint^ 
the. inconveniences and privations under which tourists labour, 
when their curiosity leads them to sequestered and unbeaten 
tracks. His work is not without faults: but we have judged 
it to be most for the advantage of our readers to dwell on its 
excellencies. It i6 in our opinion the best Fade Mecum that 
has yet appeared, for a North Wales tour. 



AvT. Xn. Sir Trutrem\ a Metrical Romance of the Thirteenth 
Century, by Thomas of Ercildoun^, called the Rhymer. Edited 
from the Auchinleck MS. by Walter Scott, Esq., Advocate. 
Royal 8vo. pp. 500. 2I. 2s. Boards. Longman and Co. 1 ^04* 

A S tradition has almost uniformly ascribed the Scottish ver- 
** sion of Sir Tristrcm to the bard of Ercildoune, our curio- 
sity was naturally excited to know the history of this skilful 
parsonage ; who, in an unlettered age, could execute a long 
poem in quaint Ingiij^ and surmount the difficulties of a very 
compkcated stanza. Mr. Scott, however, with all his erudi- 

on and research, which are confessedly great, and with appro- 
priate opportunities, which few in this part of the island can 
enjoy, has not been able to discover much that can be deemed 
satisfactory. It appears that our poet flourished in the thirteenth 
century, that he possessed some lands at Eicildoune, (now 
Maristoun, a village on the river Leader, in the county of Ber- 
wick,) that he probably lived upward^ of seventy years, and 
that with the vulgar he passed for a prophet. 

Much -ingenious dissertation is here expended on the history 
of the poem. The subject may certainly be traced to the his- 
torical Triads of the Welsh ; and it seems also to have acquired 
popularity among the rehearsers or diseurs of France, who ex- 
panded it into prose narratives : but various arguments are ad- 
duced to prove that Thomas borrowed his materials direct- 
ly from Celtic sources, and clothed them in an Engiijb dress^ 

* If English, (says tl»e editor,) or a mixture of Saxon, Pictish, 
and Norman, became earl)c the language of the Scottish court, to 
which great part oi Northumberland was subjected, the minstrels, 
vrho crowded their camps, must have used it in their eongs. Thus> 
yrhen the language began to gain ground in England, the northem 
minstrels, by whom it had already been long cultivated, were the 
best rehearsers of the poems ah'eady written, and the most apt and 
ready composers of new tales and songs. It is probably owing to 
this circumstance, that almost all the ancient English ministxel bal- 
lads 



ScottV Sir Tristrem, a Metricut Romance, 197 

t 

lads bear marks of a northern oTigin, and are^ in general, common 
to the borderers of both kinedoms. By this system we may also 
account for the superiority of the early Scottish over the early Eng- 
lish poets, excepting always the unrivalled Chaucer. And, finally, to 
this we may ascribe the flow of romantic and poetical tradition, which 
has distinguished the borderers of Scotland almost down to the |>re- 
aeot day.' 

The intricate structure of the verse in this poem, and the 
peculiar character of the style, (which the editor compares to 
the Gihbonism of romance,) are, at least, strong presumptive 
proofs that it was composed by Thomas of Ercildoune. la 
its present form, it is professedly related on the authority of 
the Rhymer : 

* I was at [Erceldoune :] 

With Tomas spak Y tharc ; 
Ther herd Y rede in roune, 

Who Tristrem gat and bare. 
Who was king with croun ; 

And who him forstcrd yarc ; 
And who was bold baroun, 

As thair elders ware, 

Bi ycrc : — — - 

Thomas ttlls in toun, 
This auentours as thai ware.' 

Mr. Scott conjectures that some minstrel, who had access to 
the Rhymer, had learned the story from his recitation ; and, 
that after it had passed through several hands, the compiler of 
the Auchinleck MS. committed it to writing. 

For the sake of the many to whom the original will be 
nearly unintelligible^ we shall sketch an outline of the story. 

Rottland Rise, lord of Ermonie, having conquered the 
Duke Morgan, a great and rival biron, again proves victorious 
10 a tournament at the court of Mark, king of Cornwall, and 
wins the heart of Blanche-flour, sister to that monarch. Sir 
Tristrem owes his birth to a clandestine interview of the two 
lovers.. Rouland, meanwhile, is apprized by a letter from his 
faithful friend Rohand, that Morgan, in violation of the late 
truce, was invading his territories at the head of a powerful 
army. The, lovers forthwith take their departure for Ermonie, 
and are married in the castle of Rohand : but short was the 
term of their union % for Rouland, notwithstanding prodigies of 
nlouri was. finally subdued, and treacherously slain, and his 
consort lived only to learn his untimely fate, and recommend 
her babe to the care of Rohand. The latter educated his 
charge as his own son, under the inverted name of Tramtrist, 
iwtil he became a wonderful proficient in minstrelsy, hunting, 

O 3 hawking. 



'V 



]p8 ScottV Sir TrisSrenif a Metrical Romanum 

hawkingi chess, and all knightly games. In his fifteenth yeafv 
he boldly accepted the challenge of a Norwegian shipm;ister to 
play at chess, and was so successful, that the sly captain put 
ofF with him to sea. As the vessel, however, was terribly tost 
sn a tempest* which the crew imputed to this act of iojusttcet 
the youth was landed in Cornwall, with all his winnings. Ber- 
ing conducted to the court by two palmers, his superior style 
of carving ^ buck, his skill on the harp, and his varied ac- 
complishments, quickly recommended him to the royal notice 
and favour* 

The disconsolate Rohand, who had long roamed in qi^est of 
liis foster-son, at length traced him to Curnwall, and revealed 
to Mark the history of his birth. The king not only acknow^- 
leged him as his nephew, but dubbed him a knight, and gave him 
a thousand men, with whom he repaired to the casrle of Rohand, 
accompanied by fifteen knights, and followed by Rohand and 
his troops ( he ne3(t went to Morgan's palace, upbraided th« 
Duke, killed him in battle* and recovered Ermonie* which he 
bestowed as a fief on his foster-father. 

A more fierce encounter awaited him in Cornwall, where 
Moraunt, an Irish ch^impLon, demanded the accustomed though 
unjust tribute of three hundred pounds of .gold, as many of 
coined silver, &c* and, every fourth year, three hundred chil- 
dren. Tristrem gave it as his opinion that the exaction should 
Jbe resisted, and defied Moraunt to the combat. Though 
wounded by a poisoned weapoti, he fatally cleft the skull of hit 
adversary : but so offensive was the gangrene of his own woaod^ 
that none had courage to approach his person, except Gouver* 
iiayl^ his faithful domestic. With this trusty attendant, then, 
and his harp, he set sail from England, and was driven into 
the harbour of Dublin. Aware that the queen of Ireland was 
sister to Moraunt, he again took the name of Tramtrist, and 
alleged that he had been wounded by pirates. The queen, who 
was a great proficient in the medical art, being informed that the 
stranger merchant excelled in minstrelby, paid him a visits and 
WIS 90 much delighted that she undertook and effected his 
cure. The Princess Ysonde then became bis pupil, and the 
theme of his admiration. Oii his return to his uncle'e court, 
he so warmly extolled the charms of his fair disciple, that the 
king urged him to bring her over in the quality of royal bride. 
" The barons, who were jealous of Tristrem's ascendency, also 
exhorted him to execute a commission which, they truatcd, 
would terminate fatally for himself. 

Regardless but not unconscious of his danger, oar hero 
took with him fifteen knights, disguised, like himself, as mer^i 
chanty I and| without revealing the object of hit oiissions he 



Scotf / Sir Tristrun^ a Metrical Romance. 1 99 

«6nt presents to the king^, queen, and princess. The messen- 
gers returned with tidings, that a monstrous fiery dragon was 
laying waste the country, and that the hand of Ysonde was 
promised as the reward to him who should destroy it. Tris- 
trem boldly undertook the adventure ; and the conflict, w^ may 
ieiieve^ was terrible, for the knight fairly lost his senses, and 
had his armour burned, though he succeeded in killing the 
monster. The king's steward, who found the dragon lifeless, 
and Tristrem in a swoon, cut off the animal's head, and bid 
claim to the victory : but his pretensions were speedily treated 
with the contempt which they deserved. The queen and her 
fair daughter traced the knight, ascertained his triumph, re- 
stored him to his senses, and conducted him to a bath. Ysonde 
began to suspect that she was in company with her former ac- 
complished preceptor; and, on looking round for something' 
which might confirm her suspicion, she fixed her eye on the 
broken sword. Comparing it wirh the piece which had been 
left in Moraunt's skull, she concluded that^the stranger was the 
same person who killed her uncle. In the first moments of 
their resentment, the mother and d;)ughter had nearly dis- 
patched the hero with his own arms, in the bath; but thef 
king's seasonable arrival, the recollection of his services as the 
tutor of Ysonde, and, above all, the proposed match with the 
king of Cornwall, soon restored him to favour. Ysonde was 
intrusted to his charge y and Brengwain, her favourite attend- 
ant, accompanied her on the passage. The queen, at their 
departure, had given to this waiting dame a powerful love potion^ 
destined for Mark and his bride : but it so happened, by mis« 
take, that Sir Tristrem and Ysonde partook of the philtre dur- 
ing the voyage, and that they were thus involved in a crimi- 
nal amour. On the first night of the royal nuptials, Breng« 
wain supplied the place of the Princess ; while the latter, ap- 
prehensive that her substitute might disclose the important 
secret, had nearly procured her assassination. 
^ Meanwhile, an Irish Earl, a former admirer of Ysonde, ar* 
Tived at the court of Cornwall $ and Mark promised him a 
boon, if be would play on his harp* The stranger then ac- 
companied his instrument with an amorous descant, in which 
he asked Ysonde as the promised gift. The king repented his 
rash vow, but reckoned himself in honour constrained ta 
yieldi Tristrem, who returned from hunting just as the earl 
was sailing off with his prizd, seized his rote, and plaved so sweet- 
ly that the departing princess was charmed as oy a potent 
spell, insisted on being relanded, and eloped with Tristrem 
into a forest. Here they lived a week, when Tristrem restored 
Ysonde to her lawful lord. 

O 4 Meriiidok^ 



doq Scot^j Sir Ttistrim^ a Metrical Rmance. 

Meriadoky a Cornish knight^ and companton of TristreiBit 
becoming suspicious of the intercourse of the latter with the 
queen, had recourse to various cunning eipedieius to ascer- 
tain the truth ; and his efforts were powerfully seconded by 
those of an officious dwarf* Their ingenious attempt8» how* 
ever, were as ingeniously counteracted by the guilty pair, and 
good Mark easily allowed his jealousy to be lulled asleep. The 
following stratagem at last proved successful. At the. sugges- 
tion of Meriadok, the king ordered himself, the queen, and 
his nephew, to be let blood, and the queen's bed-chamber to 
be strewed with flour. Tristrem, who perceived the snare, 
sprang thirty feet at one leap^ and thus made no impression on 
the flour : but the wound in his vein opened with the eflbrt, 
and his presence was betrayed by drops of blood. On this 
discovery, he retired from court, and the queen undertook to 
prove her innocence by the fiery ordeal. As she was conducted 
tor this purpose to the court at Westminster, she pitched on 
her lover, who was disguised like a peasant to bear her from 
the shore to the vessel in which she was to bp conveyed across 
the Thames. Tristrem, as if from clownish aukwardness, let 
her fall on the beach, in no very seemly attitude. Ysonde then 
swore that no man had ever familiarity with her person, except 
her husband, and this poor fainting peasant \ and her good^ 
natured Cornish husband absolved her from the hazardous trial 
of hot iron. 

In Wales, Sir Tristrem reaped fresh laurels by his signal de« 
feat of Urgan, the giant, and brother to Duke Morgan. So 
grateful was Triamour, king of Wales, that he bestowed oa 
bis driiverer the sovereignty of the county, and made him a 
present of Peticrewe, a little dog, spotted with red, bhie, and 
green. The generous hero immediately gave the crown to 
the king's daughter, and sent the dog as a present to Ysonde* 

The growing fame of the nephew reconciled him to the 
uncle, who appointed him his high steward. Again the lovers 
renew their intrigues, again tlu^y are banish^ from court, 
and again kit^dly received by the indulgent Mark ; who found* 
them sleeping together in a cavcrni but who was satisfied of 
their innocence because his nephew^'s sword was accidentally 
placed between .them. The dwarf, however, was not tardy 
i^ disclosing farther proofs of their unlawful passion; and Sir 
Tristrem fled to Spain, .where he killed. three giants^ visited 
the sons of Rohand in Ermonie, and then conquered the enemies 
of Florentine, Duke of Brittany. In reward of his services, 
the Duke consented to his marriage, with his only daughter, 
Ysonde with the white hand. As they passed to the bridal* 
chamber, the ring, with which the queen of Cornwall had 

IK presented 



SkottV Sir Trhtrtmf a Mdirical Renuincil Ml 

presented him, fell from his finger: he reflected on her con** 
ttancy, upbraided his own infidelity, and never consanunated 
his marriiige with Yeonde of the white hand. 

We are next treated with the adventure of Beliagog, a fierce 
giant, Aod brother to Morgan, Urgan, and Moraunt. Sir 
Tristrcm spared his life, on condition of his building a naagni<- 
ficcnt hall^ in honour of Ysonde and Brengwain. The maimed 
gi^inc gladly fulfilled the singular stipulation, constructed the 
hall within his own castle, and adorned it with the sculptured 
history of the knight's adventurcSt and striking likenesses of 
Ysonde, Brengwain, Mark, Peticrcwc, &c. 

Sir Ganhardin, meanwhile, who learned from his sister, 
the white-handed Ysonde, that she was still a maiden, was 
on the point of quarrelling with her husband. The lattery 
however, assumed such a firm tone, aud spoke so feelingly of 
the charms of his niistress, whose image be shewed him in the 
marvellous castle, that Ganhardin forgot his wrath, and be- 
came enamoured of Brengwain, whom he siffrore to see, or 
perish. The two knights, tccordingly, passed over to Corn- 
wall, and encountered Ysonde and Brengwain in a forest. 
Canados, the new constable, and an admirer *of Ysonde, here 
disturbed their privacy : but he, Mcriadok, and the other in- 
formers, arc shamefully worsted in a sharp conflict with Tris- 
trcm and Ginhardin, Mi'ho retire to Brittany. 

* Here Tristrem is accosted by a young knight, wearing no shoes^ 
who had sought him for a long time. This young warrior, whose 
name is also Tristrem, throws himself at the feet of our hero, and 
beseeches his assistance in a perilous adventure. A knight has be- 
reaved him of his lady. The ravisher, with his seven brethren, and 
seven other knights, are to escort their prize, upon that very day, 
to some place of security ; the suppliant knight proposes to his 
namesake to assist him in her rescue. Tristrcm readily assents. — 
The two knights arm themselves, and prepare for battle : they attack 
the party of ravishers, on " a lee beside a forest." Tristrem, the 
younger, is soon slain : our hero avenges his death, and slays the 
fifteen knights. In this baitle he receives an ^arrow in his old 
wound.* 

As the remainder of the MS. is here torn away, the edito^f 
has very skilfully supplied the story from the French metrical 
romance ; imitating, with singular success, the same rapid and 
quaint style, and the same complex stans^a. 

Ganhardin was dispatched for Ysonde, as the only person 
who could cure the wounded knight ; and, according as the 
ambassador succeeded or failed in his mission, he was in- 
structed to hoist a white or a black s^il on his return. Ysonde 
of Brittany, who had overheard the conversation, and was re- 
solved 



70t ScottV Sir Tristnmi a Metrical Romance. 

solred to be avenged, eagerly watched the return of the ret* 
8el« and ran to inform her husband that the sail was black. Sir 
Tristremi deceived by the false assertion, believed that he was 
forsaken, and died in despair; while Ysonde of Cornwall, 
apprized of his fate, threw herself beside his corpse, and ex- 
pired. 

On the consistency or. morality of such a fable, we cannot 
dwell with commendation :— but the poem is replete with in- 
cident, exhibits a picture of the manners and taste of the age 
in which it was composed, and is therefore a relic worthy of 
preservation; 

As we have hinted at the antiquated and obscure complexion 
of the style, and at the singular intricacy of the measure, we 
shall transcribe only a few stanzas, at random : 

• Mark to Trbtrcin gan say, 

— " Ml lond bitake y the. 
To have attcr mi day, 

Thine owcn schal it be^ 
Bring thou me that may. 

That ich her may yse." — 
This was his manner aye. 

Of Ysonde than speketh he, 
Her prise, 

Hou schc was gent and fre. 
Of love was none so wise/ 



' In Inglond ful wide. 

The barouns hem bithonght. 
To fell Tristrcmcs pride. 

How thai fairest mought ; 
The king thai rad to ride, 

A quen to him thai sought. 
That Trietrcm might abide, 

That he do were it nought. 

No king : 
Thai seyd that Tnstrem mought 

Ysonde of Yrlond bnng. 

^ -" A brid bright, thai ches. 

As blod opon snowcing ; 
A maiden of swiche reles, 

Tristrcm may to the bring ;**— 
Quoth 'f ristrem,— .*« It is ics. 

And trewethic for lesing. 
To aski that never no wes. 

It is a fole askeing, 

Bi kinde : 
It IS a selli thing. 
For ao man may it fiade." 



The 



Military Character of the European Armies, 403 

The volume is very handsomely printed : But thd impression, 
we understand, is limited to 150 copies. The publication is^ 
therefore, destined to the wealthy few ; a species of aristo- 
cracy which we cannot praise, though ia this instance it may 
Dot b£ a subject of much regret. 



W 



Akt. XIII. Military Character of the Sfferent Europe ^>n Armet en^ 
gaged in the late War : with a Parallel of the Policy, Power, and 
Means of the antient Romans and modem French. Translaced 
from the French. 2d Edition. 8vo. pp. 190. 43. Boards* 
Egerton. 1804. 

E claim some merit for the share which we took in draw- 
ing the public attention to the orig^inal of this perform-' 
ance * ; and we have been abundantly justified in the praise 
which we bestowed on it* as an able and an useful work, since 
among all competent judges but one sentiment has prevailed 
with respect to it. Though the translation has been rather 
slow in obtaining our notice, we are happy in having another 
opportunity of making our acknowlegeruents on the part of 
the British public to the ingenious and accomplished authorsy 
and of strenuously recommending the volume to those of our 
readers who have not given it a perusal. Indeed, the hostile 
operations, already renewed on the Continent, again impart 
to these remarks an immediate interest, scarcely less than 
they possessed on their first appearance ; and we shall there- 
fore submit to our readers a few of the more material parts, 
without criticism or comment. 

We should commence with the observations on the troops 
of the French nation, but that we consider their peculiarities 
and characteristics as now more generally known than those of 
some others of the contending parties. Let us turn, then^ 
to the following extract, which contains an able summary of 
die principal defects in the Austrian service : — in the short in* 
terval of peace, there probably has not been time^ if there ex« 
isted the disposition, to remedy them : 

' In spite of the examples of Laudobn, of the Archduke Charles, and 
of some other Generals, the Austrians have almost always kept them* 
selves on the defensive in lines, positions, or cordons* The uncertainty ai 
to the point, where the enemy may attack, obliges them to divide 
their forces, and necessarily to be every where weak ; lines become 
unavoidably a succession of points, more or less feeble \ it is impossi- 
ble then to have reserves in sufficient force, or sufficiently within reach. 

* Sec Rev. Vol. xli. N. S. p. 540. 

The 



2#4 MUUary Ciaraefet of the European Armies. ' 

The cavalry, which is the pWacipal strength of the Austriaoft, i^'hertf 
of h'ttle utility. When we read the accounts of the greater part of 
their battles, we naturally ask, ** where then was that numerous, that 
exceUent cavalry of the Austrians ?'* The General, who accepts bat- 
tle, fights upon the ground, or at least according to the circumstan- 
ces, which the enemy has chosen, and in the manner which suits him. 
The French avoid, as much as possible, having any thing to do with 
the Austrian cavalry. Add to this, the close order, which the French 
infantry generally observe, (and from which they would be obliged to 
depart, if instead of giving, they accepted battle,) leaves them little 
4;ause to be afraid of cavalry, which is well known to be only formi- 
dable in proportion as the infantry is bad, or in thin order. We can« 
not sufficiently express oar astonishment, that the Austrian Generals 
should renounce the superiority of their tactics, and of their skill ia 
manceuvring, and give the French an opportunity of employing the 
means that are peculiar to them« The latter are particularly skilful, 
wherever the ground i% such as to secure them frbm the cavalry, bj 
scattering their riflemen so as to annoy the Austrian corps in every 
quarter. The Fiench soldiers, who arc more active, more enter 7 
prizing, and ready in availing themselves of every advantage of 
ground, will hang round bodies of men that are much more numerous 
than themselves ; they molest, harrass, and advance upon them, by 
meant of the smallest shelter ; the Austrians, in the mean time» 
preserve their rank and file, but their oblique firing has not the least 
effect upon men who are either scattered about, or advantageously 
posted ; while every discharge of the latter* being levelled at a con« 
aiderable body, cannot fail of telling. When the Austrians advance^ the 
riflemen withdraw, but return to the charge, as soon as the Austriaot 
retire again * : the Austrian troop is thus harrassed by an enemy, 
that keeps out of its reach, and whose numbers, upon looking at the 
Extent of ground which they occupy, appear more considerable than 
they really are. Tiiis mcchod of fighting continues, until the losses 
they have experienced, and the inutility of resistance, produce dis- 
couragement and confusion ; until, at length, the troops overwelmed 
with fatigue and thrown into disorder, either disperse, or lay down their 
arms* The French^ who would not have dared to meet these tame 
Austrians in open field, have often defeated and taken thousands o£ 
them witli some hundieds of men only : for the instant their rank* 
are broken^ the Austrians become like a fiock of sheep dispersed, and 
incapable of re-uniting. The coolness of the Austrians is inexplicable. 
The humiliation of surrendering their arms does not seem to affect 
them any more than the dangers of a battle. One would suppose, in 
considenog their indifference, that it was nothing but the finale of a* 
pantomime or ballet. The Austrians carry their fear of being out* 
flanked or turned, to a degree which is at once ridiculous and ex- 
travagant ; it might indeed be called a national disorder^ or weakness. 
They fancy themselves out- flanked, or enveloped at the very mo- 

. I H .ll ■ , |.» H .» !»■ II ■ ■ I » ■ - -.11.^. ., I . , ^ ■■ . — ... .. , .i— .. ^ .-. „ .. — . ^ 

* * This was the case among the sand hills in Holla ndf when th» 
British advanced under the recurring fire of the Erench musqoetry.' 
T. 

meaty 



JMilitarj Character of the European Armieu %o$ 

mcnty in which they might surround those^ who have had the rash* 
ncs8 to out-run them. Thii excessive apprehension disconcert» 
their plansi and drives them to retrograde movements at a time, wheiij 
in order to beat the enemy, they have only to advance upon him. 

• The French Generals, like rich and bold gamesters, are incessantly 
tempting fortune. They look upon their losses as nothing, provided 
they succeed in thfe end. The little value, which they set upon their 
men, the certainty of being able to replace them, the personal ambi<^ 
tion of tjicir chiefs, the customary Buperloilty of their numbers, afford 
them an advantage, which cannot be counteracted but by great skilly 
conduct, and activity. 

* The Austrian Generals, disciplined by rule, and accustomed ta 
the literal execution of their orders, are in dread of the responsibility 
of (he event, and of what it may cost them, not only in men, but in 
military effects, in baggage, ammunition, and artillery. Having only 
regular troops, and no good light infantry, they are of course more 
circumspect and tardy in their movements. They are more appre- 
hensive of being defeated, than they are ambitious of conquering. 
Their Generak in chief look forward to the Aulic council of war • or 
court martial^ with greater apprehension than to the French. Hence. 
ihit slowness of their motions, the multiplicity of their precautions, 
and the whole of their defensive system : he, who is beaten, is ac- 
quitted, if he was attacked ; but he, who gets himself beat in attack- 
ing, 28 lost without resource ; as U^ not to attack would prevent be- 
ing attacked ! or not seekii*^ to fight could prevent being beaten ! 
In proportion as the rank of^fFicers descends, their conduct becomes 
more mechanical, till at length it reduces the private soldier to thq 
degraded state of a mere automaton.' 

To the author's remarks on the English armies we principally 
attended in our former article, and therefore need not agaia 
advert to them. 

On the soldiers of a gre^t •.•nrthcrn power, to which Eu- 
rope now looks with such anxious expectation, we have these 
observations : 

* In their discipline and tactics, the Russians are the disciples of 
the Prussians, and adhere strictly to the school of Frederick the 
Great ; they practise, what the Prussians did thirty years ago.*— 

* The Russian soldier is deficient in instruction rather than intelli- 
gence : the servile obedience, to which he is accustomed from his 
biith, the rigorous discij^lirie of the army, and his absolute separation 
from all other nations, (whose language and manners are totally un-^ 
known to him,) moke him more obedient to his officers, and mpre 
patient and hardy, than tlie soldier of any other service. Courage is 
the general characteristic ; it is, if we may so express ourselves, the 

- — — - ■ - -■-■--■■ — ■ ■ ■■-■,,_■-■- _ 

* ♦ Much as the system of military discipline amongst us corres-/ 
ponda with that of the Austians, in point of evolutions, we trust, it 
will never be the fate of any one of our Generals to be cramped by a 
military council.' T. 

We ha>e lately heard that the Archduke Charles has c&cted the, 
abolition of the Aulic Council. Rev. 

faith 



t«tf Military Character of tie Eurcfiean Armies* 

faith find creed of the Russian soldier. Implicit obedience occasionf 
ID him the same effects, that enthusiasm docs on other nations. The 
effect, which servitude produces, \% in this instance^ tht-same with 
that of the most ardent patriotism ; it is more sure and durable than 
that of enthusiasm; the artificial warmth of which cannot be h3ng kept 
op. Thus, what by philosophers is called the last state of degrada^ 
ticn, places man on the same level wiih heroism. The Russian sol- 
diers do not conceive it possible to give up the contest, so long at 
they have life to continue it. 1 he officers, are, in general, very ]gno« 
rant » for this reason strangers are in high esteem among them *; they 
are brave in the ranks, but, like the soldiers, they are so from the et-' 
feet of discipline. The same horror is conceived m the Russian armies 
of cowardice, as is entertained in other countries, against irreligion and 
Tillainy. Bravery is a duty from which nobody considers himself ex- 
empt. A Russian camp resembles a horde of Tartars* In the sama 
manner that a people accustomed to obey the laws mechanically 
observe them, so do the Russians constantly follow the rules of dis« 
cipline, without'daring to depart from them/ — 

• Their method is to charge the enemy with the bayonet, at full 
apeed, crytng» O^rt, Owri ; no troops in the world can stand th't 
charge : the firing does not abate their impetuosity ; they attack a 
battery in front, if that is a readier way, than to attack it m flankf . 

< To withsand this shock, the enemy must not wait for it, but pro- 
ceed to meet it with the same resolution. The French are more re- 
markable for boldness and rashness, than for intrepidity ; the approach 
of the long and broad Russian bayonets always alarmed them ; their 

Srenadierb could never stand their impression. The courage of the 
Lussians is proof against every thing ; they know how to die to en* 
80re victory, and to die rather than be beaten. They will beat all 
other troops, if they can but bring them to action : they are pioving 
piachines of fire, that consume all in their way. No troops in the 
world are so careless of being attacked in flank, or turned ; they 
think, let the enemy be where he will, if they can but face about to 
meet him, that he is in front and regular airay before them J. 

« The Russian discipline is extremely rigorous, and has ail the in- 
gredients of an autocratical government. The subordination amongst 
the officers of different ranks, is almost as great as that of private 
•oldiers to their officers in Other services ; they are sometimes treated 



« ♦ So much so, that any adrcnturer with a epedous appearance, and 
\i'iih common daring may get into the first situations. Witness the 
6UCCC84 wvth which the notorious Major Semple, alias Major Lisle» 
got himself into the good graces of Prince Potemkin.* T. 

• f They are, in fact, perfect strangers to that species of 
chicanery in war, with which modern tactics are so frequently inter- 
woven.* T. 

* % This character is the reverse of what has been given, and cer- 
tainly constitutes that of the Austrian army. We cannot, therefore, 
wonder at the issue of a compaign conducted with such heterogeneous 
Tiews, and contradictory means*' T. 



» 



Monthly Catalocub, fftstor;^ 207 

10 the same nuinner as the priTates* Their bravery is the effect of 
discipHne, more than of elevated sentiments. 

' Each company has its hero ; it is a distinction, which he ol^taint 
from the sufFi^ges of his comrades ; he has no pre-eminence determined 
by order, thoogh he has in effect a very great one ; he is the ex- 
ample, the model, and the chief of the mess ; he enjoys great consi- 
deration among his comrades, and never fails to give them an example 
of bravery, firmness, and good conduct. - When men are accustomed 
to any thing,^ it is sufficient for one to give an example, to induce 
the others to follow it: this it is, that renders the hero in question so 
useful in action. Faw persons are capable of setting an example^ 
though almost all are capable of following it.' 

We must now restrain our pen, and conclude with advising 
oar military and political readers to consult the work at large. 



MONTHLY CATALOGUE, 

For OCTOBER, 1805. 

HISTORY. 

Art. 14. ^ New HiUory of Great Britain from the Invasion ofJuRue 
Cesar t^ the prcstnt Time * exhibiting to the Minds of Youth a 
variety of instructive and pleasing Information^ and some Parti- 
culars now first adapted to the Capacities of young People of both 
Sexes :*^the whole calculated to operate as moral Lessons, while 
it contains every leading Trait of the History of England. On a 
Plan nearly similar to that of Dr. Htrnry. By the Rev. John 
Adams^ A.M., Author of ^c/io/tf/ ^r/pf/4P, &c« 12 mo. pp. 480. 
4s. bound. Law, &c. 

r^OMPiLATiONS of this nature are intitled to praise, provided that 
they are executed with tolerable accuracy, because it is highly 
commendable to invite our youth to the study of the history of their 
own country : but, however concise^ they ought not to be carelessly 
executed ; nor should the compiler suppose that brevity is an apology 
for a want of precision. A history designed for young persons, we 
may faitly suppose, will be a kind of text-book in the hand of the 
master, and will be committed to memory by the pupil. In the first 
sostance, therefore, the references should not be merely general, at 
see Diodorus Siculus, Tacitus, Julius Caspar, Pliny, &c. : but the 
particular book and chapter should be specified. In the latter case, 
namesy places, and dates shpuld be carefully given. — 'Now we can* 
not open the compendium before us without perceiving tliat Mr. 
Adams has been negligent in both these respects. He merely quotes 
the names of authors at the bottom of his pagci by which he occa* 
•ipns great trouble to the persons who wish to consult his sources ; 
and he has not been sufficiently solicitous in tracing what may be 
termed the outlines and stations of history. We find him, in the 
•utsety telling tbe young reader thai Calais was the place at ^which 

Julius 



aoS MONTHLT CaTALOGUBi HisUrj. 

Julius Cxsar embarked, wheti It is more probable ihat the Porlut 
Itius^ or Icciui^ was Boulogne, or some adjacent spot. He states 
also that Britain was subject to the Romans, more or less, 500 
years : but the whole period of the subjection of the Britons to the 
Romans was not more than 46^. or 465 years. — We read in the chap* 
ter on the religion of the antient Brito(l!«, that not only the Druids 
cherished a sacred reverence for the Oak, but that even the Jewish 
patriarchs entertained an equal veneration for this tree ; and m sup- 
port of this assertion, wc are referred to Gen. xxxi. This reference 
should be Gei). xxxv. 4. : but Mr. Adams, as a divine, should have 
known that the Hebrew word n'jK which is rendered oah in our 
bibles, IS translated by the LXX TEft^ivdo,*; and that their version 
is most correct, since the oak is not a native of Palestine, or at 
least does not flourish there, as the turpentine tree does. 

The idea of the Jewish patriarchs' veneration for the oak is similar 
to the information which presents itself x'n. the concluding paragraph, 
that, • If any of the apostles visited this country, it was St. Paul.* 
This is worse than trifling with youth ; it is deceiving them ; for 
there iS no positive evidence to induce a belief that St. Paul 
was ever nearer to this country than Rome. The Acts of the 
Apostles, which give for the most part the Life of Paul, mention no 
peregrinations of the Apostle, subsequent to his being conveyed a 
pnsoner to that capital of the world. 

Wc enter our protest also against the admission of Ossian^s poems 
as historic evidence, however valuable in other respects \ for we can- 
not approve the introduction of fiction in the room of fact. 

• As Mr. Adams advances, wc find less reason to object ; though 
we observe an error in the chapter on the learning of the Anglo- 
Saxons, where the venerable Bede is said to be * the great luminary 
of England and the Christian world in the eighteenth century :* Mr. 
A., no doubt, meant to wriie the eighth. 

This epitome is divided into nine book?, and the matter of each 
is generally arranged under the following heads : Military History, 
Ecclesiastical Aflairs, Government, Literature, Arts, Biographical 
Sketches, Manufactures and Commerce, Manners, and Incidents and 
cttrious Particulars. The whole is compiled with the double view 
of conveying important and amusing instruction, and of inspiring the 
youthful mind with sentiments of virtue, patriotism, and philan- 
thropy* In the concluding book, the biographical notices occupy 
a considerable space, conveying a short account of the eminent men 
who adorned the eighteenth century. The last events, which are re-* 
corded in the class of curious particular?, are. the treaty of A miens, 
Sir John Earner's display of the Man in armour, on Lord Mayor's 
Pay, Nov, 9, 1801, the sailing of the French fleet from Brest to St. 
Domittgo in the month of December, and the court martial held on* 
board the Gladiator in Portsmouth harbour, for the trial of the mu- 
tineers of the Temeraire, Jan. 6, 1802. It is singular, however, that 
though Mr. Adams mentions the treaty of Amiens, he does not give 
the day on which it was signed, which was March 27, 1802. 

• We approve Mr. Adams's plan, and in general his mode of exe* 
cwtion; we shall therefore ^dfm him ia a suliseq^ent edition 

carefully 



MoNTHLt CATAtOCUB) Religious. 2C9 

■ 

cartfully to revise his work, to correct errors, to supply ornissjons,. 
ixA at least to affix a tabic of contents, If he jhould consider it at 
too much trouble to subjoin an index* 

18LEL1GI0US. 

Art. 15. Researches Into the Phraseology ^ Manners y History ^ ana 
Religion of the ancient Eastern Nations y as Illustrative of tlic Sacred 
Scriptures, and into the Accuracy of the English Translation of 
the Bible. By William Burton. Vol. I. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d- 
Boards, (fine Paper, 6j. 6d.) Burton, Vidler, &:c. 
Thest researches consist in a great measure of notes on passages of • 
Scripture selected from various authors, fo»* the purpose of correcting 
and ilhistratipg the ?acrfd text. With the selections, Mr. Burton 
has interspersed some sti fctnres of his own ; and he has prefixed to 
the wliolc an introduction contalninc^ succinct accounts of the Septu- 
agint, Sdmajlian Pentateuch, the Targums, or the Chaldec Para- 
phrases, the Talmud, and the Massora. He seems to have taken 
pains to irfake himself acquainted with theological subjects; but, aa| 
bililical cvl'icism is a very extensive field, we are of opinion that, if 
he had been less hasty in publicap'on, and had given himself time to 
examine at) well as select, his work %^QuId have appeared with morq 
reputation. We were not a Httle amazed at his grave repetition of 
the fabulous stoi-y of Aristeas, respecting the manner in \vhich the 
Greek version ol the Bible, called the Septuagint, was accomplished ; 
a story which, from the beginning to the end, is replete with the 
most palpable fictions. Nor were we less surprised that a man who 
undertakes the office of a. biblical critic should tell us that the cele* 
brated * Alexandrian MS • is in the Royal Library at St. James's/ 
when every scholar knows that it has long been removed thencCy and 
deposited* in the British Museum'. 

Had Mr. B. actually consulted the Septuagint, or been better ac- 
quainted with the Hebrew, he would not have proposed some pf the 
emendations which he has recommended on the authority of former 
critics. I Chron. xx. 3. is explained by Dr. Chandler and some other 
expositors in such a manner as to exonerate the character of David from 
the imputation of savage cruelty : but the version of the LXX, which 
is said in p. 69 of this work ' to be clear,' is decisive against the sup- 
position that the Amorites were mildly treated. Aifr|kri n-^ioo^ can* 
Act mean chat David put them to work with saws. The substitution 
also of south- wind y according to the L}tX, for east -wind, the transla- 
tion of the Hebrew text, in Exod. xlv. 21. recommended at p. 16. 
on the authority of Mr. King, is not authorised by the geographical 
remarks. The passage of the Israelites was over a smaU arm of the 
Red Sea *to the Korth of Suc^- ; and to consider the operation of 
any wind at the strait of Babtlmandtl, or on the coast of Cape Guar- 
dafue, is of little moment. An east-vviiid seems as likely to answer 
U>e purpose as a 86uth-wind. 

We allow that the remark on Gen. xxi. 16. is just : but had the 

Septuagint been consulted, Mr. B. would have found the words to 

have been " And the lad (^raiowv) lift up his voice and wept." The 

adoption of the reading^ of the LXX, Gen. ir. 15. and in £xod. 

Rev. Oct. 1805. P xvi. le. 



210 ^ Monthly Catalogue, G'eograpSf. 

^vi .15. 18 certainly an improvement of the text ; for ** giving a toEeif 1 
to Cain" is preferable to *' setting a mark on him ; and as to the pas- 
sage in Exodus, it is obvious that the Israelites could not have beenf; 
familiar with the name of a substance^ of which they never heard be- 
fore. On J Sam. i. 11. Mr. B. has made extracts to prove that 
mN3V nin^ should be rendered The glonous Jehovah^ deriving- 
the word not from XDV ^^ ^^^^' ^^^ ^^^vm I3>f glory : but this 1*^^ 
not admissible. The word fl'^KDV occurs ^00 often to afford any 
doubt of its meaning ; and if the LXX sometimes retain the original 
ca/^aJ^i they at others translate it by varroK^ru^f and by (9eo;) ivmfjojuf^ 
In a note on Exod. iii. 5. after having adverted to the custom stOl- 
prevalent in the East, of taking off the shoes or sandals on entering ar 
place of reUgious worship, Mr. Burton very properly notices the dif- 
ferent modes of expressmg reverence in the East and in .the Wcst.. 
The inhabitants of the former denote it by uncovering the feet ; Eu- 
ropeans by uncovering the headv We have also a short essay on Saul's 
Consultation of the witch of Endor^ which discovers some penetration^ 
thongh there is no ground for making the sorceress a worshipper of 
the Sacred Serpent of Egypt : but Mr. B.'s judgment must have 
iuffered an eclipse when he transcribed Mr. King's reason for Jonah's- 
living In the whale's belly. * Jonah,' wt are informed, * had pro- 
bably ihefor4imen ovaU of hid heart open from his birth to the end of 
iiis days ; so that he could neither be drowned nor suffocated by be- 
ing swallowed by a fish ; and as he could not be suffocated, he could* 
hot be digested Jn the fish's stomach ; and the whale, finding Jonah to 
be an indigestible morsel, took the first opportunity of throwing him 
tip again, or of returning him to the light.' If this, indeed, be modem' 
philosophy, we wonder not that some persons should object to it ; focv 
It can only serve to discredit our religion. 

Some observations are made by Mr. B. to remove the di£Bcultic«< 
which occur in the account of the pool of Bethcsda, in John v. z — 4, 
but wc cannot regard him as successful ; nor can we see the least 
• season for supposing that the porches, or porticos, which surrounded' 
it, were the remains of an idolatrous temple dedicated by the Canaan* 
ites to the Sun. 

• Among the variety of topics included in these researches, Jcph- 
tha's daughter, and Lot's wife, obtain respectable notice ; but we- 
must not now attend to these Ladies ; nor shall we examine the long 
£ssay on the Delugr, though it is introduced by a quotation from 
Swedenburgh, before he was inspired. We have adduced sufficient 
indications of the nature of this compilation ; and if Mr. B. should be 
cncouragt*d to prosecute his undti taking, we shall have a farther op- 
portunity of discussing his merit as a biblical commentator. 

G£OGRAFHT« 

Art. 16. ji New Dictionary of jincieni Geogrc^y^ exhibiting th# 
. modern in Addition to the ancient Names of Places^ designed 
for the Use of Schools, and of those who arc reading the Classicw^ ' 
or other antient Authors. By Charlea Pyc. Svo. 78. Boards. 
X^ngman and Co. 

5 -Vm 



MbNTHLT 'Catalogue, Archlteciute. iit 

. We prefer the old mode of having separate divisions, the one ih- 
fclodlng antienif and the other modern geography, to that of unitir/g 
both under the same alphabetical arraagenient. When the title " of 
this work is considered, it seems somewhat incongruous that the ac- 
count of places should be inserted under the modern name, and a mere 
rcfrrencc under that of the antlent. These accounts appear to be in 
general correct, but they are, in ourjudgment» too btief to be satis* 
fectory. " 

Art, 17. ji comiie Treatise of Modern Geography f on a New Plan; 
with Historical Remarks, detached from the Sclentifical Part of the 
Work. To which are added a Number of Geographical Questions 
adapted to the present Work. By B. Donne. i2mo, 38. sewed. 
Pnnted at Bristol. 1804. 

This tract claims a preference to others on the same subject, on 
the score of greater conciseness, and of a form more inviting. Re- 
specting the accuracy of its multifarious particulars, it is impossible 
for us to Soeak. 

AKCHITECTURE, Wr- 

Art, 1 8. Itinis for Picturesque Improvements in ornamented Cottages i 
4SRd their Scenery : including some Observations on the Labourit 
and his Cottage. Illustrated by Sketches. By Edmund Bartell, 
Jun. %\o, los, 6d. Boards. Taylor, High Holborn. 1804.^ 
Landed proprietors will meet with many observations worth their 
tttcntion in tin's work ;« which principally consists of three essays, ort 
cottages, usually appropriated to the residence of gentlemen : on the 
connected grounds and appendages ; and on the dwellings of the k- 
bounng poor. In the first two, Mr. Bartcll investigates what objects 
should be kept in view both for convenience and characteristic appear- 
ance, and the best means of attaining those objects. The conclud- 
ing essay contains some sensible hints for rendering the residence of 
the peasant more advantageous to the occupier^ to the proprietor, 
lod to the community. 

Aft. 19. Designs for Cottages ^ Cottage Farmsy and other Rural Build'* 

ings; including Entrance-gates and Lodges. By Joseph Gandy, 

Architect, .R. A. 410. 2L 28. Boards. Harding. 1805. 

These designs occupy forty-three plates, and are Accompanied 

▼fth descriptions and estimates ; together with an introduction, in 

which the author says, that his * general aim has* been to diffuse a 

l&ore extended idea of taste, even in buildings of the lowest class, and 

& every part of the country, than prevails at present ; and should his 

Exertions towards that end meet the public approbation, it is his in« 

fiUntion to put sue the subject iri a second Series of designs.* 

'• There is no disputing about taste." , Perhaps Mr. Gandy has 

Tvcn the sepulchral forms in compliance with the taste of a sombre 

iron I but they do not accord with our ideab of a cheerful cottage: 

It roofs may assist the effect in a drawing : but he who attempts 

bufid from such 'desfgds will be woefully disappointed, on. finding 

the comoaoii .materials used for roofs in this climate demand a 

different elevation. Little attention has been paid to the practi- 

P 2 cability 



ai2 Month tT CaTaloguBi Architecture* 

cability of realizing the plans ; for instance, in plate 37, we obscnre 
two stair-cascs which do not conduct h) the rooms for which they 
arc intended, In short, these are cottages for carnival time ; when, 
in compliance with the whim of the moment, good sense wears the 
^arb of folly, and nature is contented to figure in masquerade. 

Art. 20. Architectural Sketches for Cottages^ Rural DwcUingt^^aui 
Villas^ by R. Lu^ar. 410 il. i is. 6d. plain ; 2I. 12s. 6d. co- 
loured. Tayl'jr, High Holhorn; 1P05. 

The author thus prefaces this work : *' In the following designs I 
have endeavoured lo lay before the public a variety of plans and elcva- 
lions suitable to persons in genteel life : to which are added a few of 
fancy subjects, which I flatter myself may be deemed picturesque, and 
applicable for size and expence to many situations on an extensive 
.estate. The cottages are calculated for those persons whose liberal 
minds may lead them to accommodate their peasantry and dependants 
with dwellings, and at the same time to embellish their domains with 
' a variety of picturesque buildings, which shall be both ornamental 
and. useful.' 

The ensuing occur among other judicious remarks : 
* I shall here beg leave to introduce a few observations on a branch 
of the subject now undtrr consideration, and which has undergone 
much discussion by some late authors of celebrity, on the subject of 
' the picturesque, who have strongly urged the great delight they have 
felt on viewing a cottage or building, the walls of which arc thickly 
covered wiih ivy, and siron^rly marked with weather stains. If the 
thatch be ruined, and pnrtly fallen in, the subject will the nearer 
approach to beautiful ! Shall such be patterns to build from ? Cer- 
tainly not l-r- These are objects, I grant, notwithstanding their of- 
fensive ruin and dampuvss, highly gratifying to the painter's eye; 
for here is variety of broken forms, great play of light and shadow, 
with a pleasing depth of tone of colouring, and such are pecwharly 
suited, from the hand of a master, to form enchanting subjects on 
canvas. And I trust the philanthropy of these gentlemen intended 
to urge this argument no farther, than to give instances of pleasing 
subjects for a painter's use and study. They must be well aware, 
that for the habitation of man the walls shoiild be upright and clean, 
the thatch strong and even, the garden with its paling in good or- 
der, and the threshold n^t : these arc the true characteristics of the 
hal^tation of civilized man/ and of the peasant's cot ; and such witt 
most certainly chim our highest praise. I shall conclude these ob- 
servations by wishing to establish, as maxims proper for cottages^ 
cleanliness and dryncns, in opposition to neglect and ruin» as objcctt 
of more real satisfaction than can he afforded by moss-grown houses 
and mutilated walls. 'Nor can 1 suppose that, in adhering to tliesc 
attentions to comfort, the picturesque will be at all in danger.* ~ 

Many of the 4esigns are evidently the result of much attention ti 
the various requisites for such buildings, and arc very creditable td 
the author. 

Art. 21. A Collection of Desi^nt for Household Furmiure^ and hiterkk 
' Dei'orat'm, tntbi ntdst -eppNvfd anJslegasU T<ute : vna. Sideboardi 

4 ^ BmI 



MoNTHLT Catalogue, PoUiicah 213* 

Bookcases, Beds and Cornices, Chairs, Stools, Fauteuils, Com* 
modes. Window-curtains, Pier- tables, Candelabra, Tables for Li- 
braries, Writing, Work, Dressing, tsfc. Sofas, Ottomans, Con- 
sole-tables, Chaise-longues, Glasses, Mirrors, I^amps, Jardinieres, 
Wardrobes, Pedestals, Chifibniers, 6fr. t^c. With various De- 
signs for Rooms, shewing the Decorations, Adjustment of the 
Furniture, £5ff» Elegantly engraved fron;i original. DiJ^wings, by 
George Smith, Upholder extraordinary to his Royal Highness 
thePrinceof Walea, 4to Part I. with 50 Plates. Price il. 1 is. 6d. 
plain* 7I. 128. 6d. coloured. Taylor, High Holborn. 1805. 
The plates contained in this publication are introduced by the fol* 
lowing advertisement : 

* In selecting the articles, and in composing the designs for this 
work, the Artist is anxious to exhibit prihcipaliy snch as are suitable 
to elegant and poh'te life, and for adorning tne most Extensive man- 
sions : he flatters himself the work will display a variety of the newest 
iashioDS, combined with classic taste, for the most useful and most 
superb articles of modern decorative furniture, studied from the best 
antique examples in the Egyptian, Etruscan, Greek, and Komaa 
styles ; and he presumes it will be found particularly useful to noble- 
men and gentlemen who are curious in the decoration of their houses; 
also to cabinet-makers, upholders, paper hangers, i5c. who may- 
have the arranging, fuj^nishing, and fitting- up of houses committed 
to their care.' 

The designs correspond with the prevailing taste, and present a va-.' 
liety of examples for selecting internal decorations and furniture, that 
will probably be much admired. 

This pamphlet forms the first division of a work which, when 
completed, will consist of three parts. 

POLITICAL. 

Art. 22. A Sletcllof'the Political State of Europe at the Beginning df 
February 1805. By William Hunter, Esq. Author of the *♦ Vindi- 
cation of the Cause of Great Britain," and other Political Tracts, 
8vo. pp. 205. i|s. sewed. Stockdale. 

From the epoch of Bonaparte's accession to power, the works 
which have issued frotti the French press have teemed with invectives 
against this country, ringing everfasting changes on its naval tyranny, 
its commercial monopoly, and its antipacific sprrit. Mr. Hunter, it 
is probable, thought that it did . not become Britons to sit down 
silently under such charges ; he has consequently descended into the 
arena, and has attacked, with wejipohs similar to their own, the scr* 
vile publicists of the Gallic ruler. They arc here reproached in no 
measured terms with the enormities which stained the revolution, 
with the excesses by which they forfeited their right to liberty, and 
y^iih the abject devotion with \vhicht.they hug the galling chains of 21 
foreigner. 

In the introductory part of thi» performance, the author trace* 
the progress of the human mind, fmth the first settlement of the 
northern barbarians in the south of Europe, to the epoch of the 
French revolution. He ascribes to the principles of the school of 

P 3 Voltaire^ 



XiA Monthly CataloguE| Political. 

Voltaire, a greaUr share in the production of the late changes thaq 
fn our judgment really belonged to them ; and he is somewhat incon- 
tistent with himself on this subject : sinde he appears in other parts 
of his work to regard the gross maladministration of the latter reigtis. 
t!]& shameful corruptions of the govern meot, and the cfa^y state or 
the. civil edifice^ as causes which su{iiciently account for the awful 
catastrophe. 

The aim of Mr. Hunter is to prove that it is the clear indubitable 
interest of the principal states of the Continent to enter into a coali- 
tion, such as that which has lately been announced, and which took 
place since this pamphlet was written. The conduct of Austria In 
the last struggle, its losses and acquisitions, as wtll as its present situa- 
tion, and the xeeources which it is able to command, are detailed with 
great miraiteness, and much apparent ability. Mr. Hunter, how- 
ever, we think, fails in his attempt to shew that It has been through- 
out the intertsi of PruLala to take an active part against France. 

We were surprized that Mr. H- should ijitimate an opinion that 
Spain, assisted by Britain, might make head against her dangerous 
neighbour: but our surprize ceased, wlien we found him throw out 
poaiclhing like an expectation that the present nobiliry may be routed 
from the disgrace fnl lethargy In which they are suiiken, and incited 
to ejriulaic their brave anctsiors, the her<;Ic conquerors of the Moors. 
The anticipations of a writer of this sort are obviously to be re- 
gardcd with distrust ; thty may flatter our hojtcsand wishes, but will 
it be safe to. rely on them ? 

Riss.sia excited no jealou^^y in the bov<om of this v.-ritcr, who views 
her interference altogether on the favourable side. He also enhances 
tlieviilue of Swcdibh assistance, and seems to expect the alliance of 
iDenvnaik, either voluntarily or by compuUIon. With regard to 
Russia, however, Mr. Hunter contemplates her intimacy with this 
country in one point with alarm ; 9nd our sentiments on this subject 
have 'loog beqi in ujilson with those which he expresses. Laying 
down ihti indisputable position that our national superiority, and even 
safety^ depend on the decided preponderance o( oujf naval strength 
and skill, he observes : 

* On theogjjrintlples I object most decidedly to that permission 
which was grapied, about eighteen months ago, of permitting Russia 
to distribute three hundred boys, who had been «elv:ctcd and previ- 
oufly prtpared by th? government of tli^t empire, in the quality of 
inidshipmen, on board the British lleets. These boys have been ad- 
nmted, in my opinion most iujudlcic^usly, to serve in our navy at the 
period of life •at wjilch our .owq midshipmen usually .begin their 
career; and having been picked out of numbers on account of their 
superior intelligence and sprighlliness, it is very evident that they are 
]|iktly to deri\ve every adyantage. from their apprenticeship, which 
fould be hoped for from the sanrie number of British boys so chosen. 
They must inevitably be familiarised with the whole ground- work 
tnd system of naval tact ica as they are practised in tl>e Eritith navy. 
This science aiid ikiil they will carnr with them in ^o their own coun- 
try, where th^y .will probably # in the course. of years^ fill important 
|l§tion8| and lay the fouudatioi^;of. a Russian nsy'y '.which^ at some 

future 



Monthly Catalogue, PoUHcah 215 - 

4dtare periody may rival ours. The period when thw may happen 1$ 
no doubt remote ; yet this is the surest mode of lessening that di^" 
tance of time, and I think posterity will owe little thanks to that 
foresight or prudence which has so impolitically conceded, and whicfa^ 
•carried to a greater extent^ may ' be productive of very serious 
mischief.' 

. He likewise makes some just remarks on the regulation in our na- ' 
val service, by which every captain is obliged to furnish his own 
•charts ; in consequence of which, a serious and even fatal deficiency 
may sometimes occur. He recommends that every ship should 
be furnished with all necessary nautical instruments, and a complete 
set of charts, at the expence of government, for which the captain 
might be responsible. 

We submit to our readers the terms of peace whicb^ in Mr. Hun- 
ter's judgment, we should demand : 

* The restoration of Hanover, and compensation, as far as com- 
pensation can be made, for the outrages there committed ; the com- 
plete emancipation of the Ligurian and Helvetian republics; the* 
withdrawing of the French troops from Holland,and the independence' 
of the Batavian government ; aH interference in the affairs of Spain, 
And Portugal, relinquished ; the reins tat-ement of the king of Sar- 
-dinia ; an apology for the -insults committed against our minister at 
Hamburgh, and for the imprisonment of British -subjects in France, 
-contrary to the laws of war, or the public rights of civilized nations : 
these must be some of the leading outlines of future negociation, and 
the only basis on which a peace with this -country can be expected to ' 
1)e brought about. They will no doubt to manyminds appear ex- 
travagant : but they are what I do not despair of seeing accomplished : 
for, by such means only, caa we secure to ourselves the blessings of 
•repote, or curb the wild and unprincipled extravagance of the new 
-emperor.' 

Though much is here said respecting France, and Europe at large, a 
leading object of the work seems to have been to discredit the recent 
union of the two parties' in opposition, and to engage public con- 
iidencc on the side of the existing administration. We do not think- 
that* Mr. H. has succeeded so vrtW in this as in some other parts. If 
we mistake not, he builds- his reasoning, as it refers to this topic, 
less on facts than on assertions and assumptions. The publication/ 
lioiKver, is on the whole creditable to the industry, the informa- 
tion, and the patriotism of the writer ; and it will gratify curious 
and speculative politicians, if k should fail to attract the notice of 
the practical statesman. 

Art. 25. Reptt of the CommUuefir managing the Patriotic Fundesta" 
hBsbed at Lldyd^s Coffee-house, 8vo. boards. Not sold. 

We are glad to see a record, which constitutes a monument so 
glorious to the patriotism of the age, endowed with a form that pro- 
mises to transmit it to posterity ; among whom it will bear testimony 
to the noble feelings which animated the breasts of Britons in our 
jdays, and nmy excite our descendants to similar exertions. A spirit 
flaore honourable, the best days of the country never witnessed ; 

P 4 may 



aifi Monthly Catalocub, Arts. 

xn»y it continue, and may the mcaeurcfi of administration correspond 
with and prove worthy of it 1 

This Report states that, in March 1804, upwards of 170,000!. 
had been subscribed for this really Patriotic Fund ; a»id it details 
the sums which had been expended by the Conamittee, in rewards be- 
stowed on those who had distinguished themselves by gallant actions 
' Airing the war; for which the letters published in the Gazette, from , 
tlje, commanding oflScers, are here copied as documents. — Another 
Report has lately appeared, but we have not yet seen it. 

ARTS, 

Art. 24. An Rssay- on Jfigb^ and Shade, on Colours^ and on Compost'-^' 
tion in general. By M. Gartslde. 4to. pp. 50. and 1 1 Plates* 
xl. IIS. 6d. Gardiner. 1805* 

This essay contains many useful precepts, and is well calculated to- 
improve the class of readers for whom it is intended. Whtn ladies of 
fashion, with a laudable emulation, and a persevering zeal, cultivate' 
abstruse subjects of philosophy^ Miss Gart^ide steps forwards to 
^ assist her fair pupils in\he humbler, yet not less fascinating walk of 
an; and m \\it Jlo^ery paths of decorative paiuting, she inculcatea 
the necessity of a giadual system of study • to produce excellence* 
In the introduction toitbe work, a very .proper stress is laid on thf 
necessity of studying the *r«/p/o//i6^ijr/,' which will always repay the 
pupils for the trouble that they liave taken ; < while tl)ose who 
pursue the practical part alone, can make xio progress whenever their 
teacher or copy is withdrawn.' 

Miss Gartside's remarks on the importance of perspective are 
worthy of the attention of our most distinguished artists. Hurried 
t on by dexterity of handling, by splendid. colouring, and sometimes 
by a force of light and shade, the painter :t|i4, spectator give way to 
first impressions ; and works are painted, exhibited, and ' praised* 
^hich, if tried in the scale of scientific frr^tic^snl. wbuld be found 
greatly wanting. The theory of light a hj4 shade, as adapted to 
Bower- painting, is illustrative and useful. With regard to * colours* 
and their arrangement in groups/ we might we tempted to differ with 
the fair writer : in her remarks on their various combinations, an af- 
{cctation of science appears, which is no^ in the least necessary to the 
young practitioner ; and professors are well aware that fine colours do 
BOt produce fine colouring. The agreeable result iS' obtained in a pic-^ 
ture by what is termed the breaking of colours, and tbe artful ma» 
nagcment of cold and warm tones ; with a breadth of light and shade* 
harmonized by what painters have of late agreed to term a neiftr^l itnt» 
We do not believe that any good colourist of the English, or of any 
foreign school, has consulted Dr. Herschel's experiments ' foeascer- 
taining the illuminating and heating power of the rays of the sun," 
ijvhen forming his composition : nur do we think that pure piismatic 
colours are admissable in painting, unless in specimen* of stained gla^s. 
Yet, on the whole, the meed of praise is due to Mit^s Gartside for her 
modesty, industry, and taste ; and the young ladies^ 'for whoin her 
labours arc designed, must profit by an attentive perusal of this 
essay. 

Art; 



Monthly CATALOcas, Poetrj. 217 

POETRY. 

Art. a 5. Infancy, or the Management of Cbildreny a didactic Poem la 
six Books. The sixth Ediiiou. To which are added Poems not 
before published. By Hugh Downman, M/D. Exeter. 8vo, 
pp. 223.. Boards. Cadell and Davies. 

It will not now be expected that we should take any additional no- 
tice of Dr.Downman's well-known didactic poem intitled •* Infancv," . 
as our leaders will recollect that, on the appearance of the first and 
second books, we devoted two separate articles to a \l^vf of tUcir 
merit; (see M. R. Vol. 1. p. 482. and Vol. liii. p. 197.) and that 
when the work appeared in a completed state, we farther expressed our 
approbation, in Vol. Ixxx. p. 390. It has, to the credit of the author, 
passed through several editions, and is now reprinted with the addi- 
tion of some- poems written on different occasions ; viz. an Addresa ta, 
peace, 1760, on takin? the Havannah, on Genius, and to Indepen- 
dence. ^ . . ■ . 

The lines on Genius contain an inquiry into the origin of this 
singular property* by which one man is ao eminently^ distinguished 
from another. Dr D. thus proposes the <j[uestion : 

, * Say, what is Genius ? wfth the human form ^ 

Is it connate ? or is it g^in'd by years, 
Like the corporeal efforts ? Its prime food 
Is vivid inclination to excel!. 
By emulative warmth, and love of fame 
Its growth is cherishM, industry and toil 
Clothe it in strength and beauty. Oft its poweiY ' 
Torpidly slumber, till a fervid ray 
Impelled by chance, awakens them to life.* '^ 

This philosophical poet is of opinion that a completely moulded 
brain is a necessary foundation for the superstructure of Genius, and 
that < nature gives that mechanism of parts to which it owes the 
very capability of life.' 

* ■ Natwre's hand 

Is visible throughout ; no -force' 6f art. 
No labour, cultivation, fervid hope. 
Industrious effort, can avert the blight 
€)f her frugality . — Yet in its birth. 
Genius may be extinguish'u by disease. 
Strangled by poverty, sunk in the dust' 
By stern oppression, or by indolence 
Cursed with perpetual barrenness of mind. 

« But give the tone of brain,* the nerves which bea^ 
Taithful impressions strong ; give the mild sua 
'Of opportunity to dart its rays ; 
Give leisure, curious search, the strenuous thouglie ' 
Aiming at worth superlative, give time 
Which solely perfects wisdom ; and the form 
Of Genius will arise, on eagle wing 
7o soar %Q Leaveui or with a Jynx's eye 
i« . • - - To 



A 



To penetrate the abys6» to associate all 

The charms of beauty, grasp the true subh'mc. 

Add DOTcl tints to fancy's rainbow dresi ; 

Or separate the clouds by error spread. 

Till all the gloom is 'vanqulsh'di and the light 

Of intellectual day wide- blazing streams.' 

♦We must be what wc can, not wl^at we will,* is very true, but 
it is not truth in her beat poetic garb. 

The address to Independence is a portrait of the author's mind. 
Abjuring servile flattery, and all mean court to * the many-acred hlock- 
liead,' Dr. D. asserts the inestimable price of Sincerity, Integrity, and 
Honour, "which are the necessary properties of a truly independent 
•pirit. While he di.^claims the idea of, purchasing the favour of the 
^eat by mean compliances, he endeavours to avoid the imputation of 
jdicn^ing a morose aud unsocial temper. 

* Yet Goddess 1 would I Tiot austerely dwell, 
A solitary Being. While I trample 
Malice, and spleen, and piide beneath my feet, 
The good, the ju8t» nay, e'«n the licb, and great* 
If rich in virtue^ and if great of sovl^ 
Claiin» and shall have my reverence. T^ey arc forai'd 
For all mankind, 1 own them formed for mt. 
Nor would I boast of independence her£.' 

If Dr. D.'s blank ver^e sliould not obtain th^ praise of being vc»y 
nervous, it genially flows with.eaae, and is the vehicle of amiable seu- 
(timents. . 

A strikmg portait of Dr. Downmin faces the title. 

Art. 26. SoiuieUf and other Poems; to which are added Tales ia 
Fro/^ Crowf[i 8vo, 41. Boards. Blacks and Parry. 1805. 
From the jcoocludiog word of the Latin motto, we snould be led 
tq think that t^iis volume was the production of a male writer : but 
the Dedication and Preface assure us that it proceeds from a la4y % 
and from a lady^ who, jsuapiclous of the interference of the men, has 
suffered her compositions to pass through no other hands than her 
own. Living in rural retirement, she seems indeed to have so much 
improved her mind, as to require little assistance from our sex in po- 
lishing her Muse. The Sonnets, if not of the .first class, are easy and 
harmonious ; and the descriptions of country scenery are improved 
by the author's knovvlcge of Botany. — When this lady appealed to 
our gallantry, we' trembled for her : but, when we perused her 

Eems, we thought that she Knight safely have confided in ourju$ticft» 
^cidi^, ^CBtlc reader, for tbyself: 

' To Fortune. 

* 0. FoiTUN E ! changeful as the varying wind. 
Why should the human heart in thee coaftde f 
Thy brittle chain, alas ! no virtues bind, 

Light as the froth that floats upon the tide. 
Thy smile, the supbe^m of an April oiorn. 

And 






Monthly Catalogue^ Misullaneom* 71a 

And transient as the drQps of 4ew that ssvell . 
•The cowslip's cup, and tip the blossomed thorn^ 

Or, quivering, glitter in the Hly's bell. 
Go, fickle goddess, and essay to cheat 

Some heart that never trusted thee before ; 
But I so oft* have witnessed thy deceit. 

Thy iyren song shall ne'er delude mc more : 
Nor will I at thy wayward frowns repine. 
While tL e superior joys of health and peace are mine/— « 

* Writtrn im a Winter's Morhing. 

^ Tho' Btorma and tempests mark thy gloomy reign. 

Stern winter ! still the poet's eye shall iind 
Full many a charm to linger in thy train, 
Spread round thy frozen panoply of snow ; 

In icy chains J each -brook and streamlet bind ; 
jStill unappal'd the christmas rose* fhall blow. 
And beauteous crocuses their golden bloom 

Disclose, ere yet thy ruthless reign be past ; 
And bnght mezereon breathe its faint perfume. 

Amid the rigours of thy northern blast : 
Whilst on the leafless lime pale miseltoe 

It^ wax^Iike berries hangs, and green of sickly cast. 
And the sweet redbreast, from his laurel bower, 
Warbks his vespers clear, at twilight's sober hour.' 

The prose of this volume is corpposed of'* such stuff as no W/ are 
made of.*" but, unlike most novcU, the story is short.*— Whatever 
might have been expected from a cockney writer, we did not imagine 
that a rural lady^ and a botaQist» would have intitled a tale Myrtk 

» MISCELliAKEOUS. 

Art. 27. A Deicrtpiion vj Prince of Walet Island^ in the Streigbts of 
Malacca : with its real and probable Advantages and Sources to 
recommend it as 'a Marine EstaLL'sment. By Sir Home Popham» 
Knight of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Captain 
in the Royal Navy, and F*^S. 8vo. pp.72. 2s. 6d. Stocli;- 
dale. 1805. 

Sir H. Popham adduces strong facts to shew the necessity of an 
establishment in our Eastern possessions, such as that which is her^ 
proposed. He states that a similar scheme has already been submit-r 
ted to the consideration of the government of India ; and he leaves us 
to infer that it was rejected pnly because a proper station was oo| 
selected. From what then transpired, he tells us, it is evident 
that the expediency of such an establishment, contiguous to the bay of 
Bengal, was strongly felt. He then enumerates the circumstance^ 
which render Prince of Wales island the most eligible situation for 
the purpose. The risk and heavy expence of heaving down in Bengal, 

< * Helleborus Niger. This plant, in mild winters and a proper 
soiL SQmetimes blows in Decemogf .* 

v>4 



^26 Monthly CataloguBi Mtscillanedus. 

and the delay of going to Bombay, he observes, bavc occasionf(f 
ships not unrrequently to quit India in a less eiftctive state than was 
prudent or just; and consequently many lives, and property to a 
considerable amount, have been lost. 

' This island is said to be favourable to health, and to abound >/i*ith fresh 
water, and with provisions of every kind : timber fjxr the repairs of 
(hipping is to be found there in abundance, and its soil Is favourable to 
the growth of hemp and of various precious Indian commodities. Sir 
Home thus recapitulates the considerations on which he builds the con- 
clusion, that the place here pointed out is the most proper situation 
for an Indian marine establishment: 

' I have in this Memoir eadeavoured, and I trust not unstjcccssfully, 
to prove that Bombay, however proper for a Marine Establishment 
in one state of English Commerce and Settlements in India, no longer 
continues to be the fittest place for our principal Port ; thnt tiie ex- 
tensive possesions acquired by the Company on the Eastern Cpast, and 
in adjacent countries, rer«der an EaUrn the most advantageous side 
for a Marine establishment; that the causes which rendered Mr. 
X^acam's attempt to establish a Port on the Ganges incfiVctual.. are of 
permanent operalion, and will prevent tlie success of every o.ptriment 
of the kind on any branch of liiat river ; that Prince of Waks Island, 
from its Harbour^ its Roads, its Materials for Ship-building, its con* 
tiguity to the scene of Naval Operations, is the position most com- 
pletely adapted for a Naval Yard, securely fortified ; that h^ the 
fertility of its soil, its productions, and its climate, it affords the 
means of subsistence, and the probability of health ; that from its cen- 
tral situation, and command of the Streiphts of Malaceai it would he 
a Mart for the interchange of the Commodities of the Eastern and 
Western India ; that thus it would increase private Ricli^s mid pub- 
lic Revenue ; that in the natural course of British industry, skill, and 
abilityj it would monopolise the Trade with China and the opulent 
intermediate Countries, to Malacca and Sumatra^ and as I have pre* 
vjously observed, be an Emporium for the Commerce of the Eastern 
part of Southern Asia, subordinate to London^ which would become 
8'n Emporium for the whole: 

• I flatter myself Ihave also shewn, that its Military and Political 
advantages are of the highest importance \ that a Force may be thtrc 
stationed without the expence of sending Soldiers from Europe, or the 
danger of A\'^akening our Indian Armies, which will secure the Esta- 
blishment, protect and extend Trade, advance the internal prosperity^ 
consequently the external power and advantage of the Colony ; and 
that the ver) same nneans which will attain the most important Military, 
Commercial, and Poliiical ends ; thk the vei7 causes which will en- 
rich and aggrandize the Nation, will meliorate the situation and cha- 
racter of numerous {tidfvjdnah ; and lastly, that the sources of Prq- 
sperity and Power Xvfll be the sources of Virtue and Happiness.' 

The Preface to this pampltlet bears the date of 17(;9> but the title- 
page expresses that it was not published till the present year. Wc 
have not lately heard whether the formation of a marine establishment 
at this island, which was so far commenced under the auspices of Lord 
Melville that many appointments W/i/ar^e /a/flWrx \fctc aQQOUncedi 
bas bc^n carried iDto farther effect. 

Artv 



MOMTHLT CxTALOGUfiy Miscettaneous. %lt 

Art. 2^- ^p^ Observations tending ta eccpoee the Unfajmest of some 
Censures on the Character of David Sandst in a Piibllcation calLc4 
«« A Narrative of Events that have lately taken place in Ireland, 
among the Society called Quakers,*' &c. 8vo. pp. 14. jd. 
Printed by DartoB. 1804. , , . r 1 

David Sands appears to have been, the champion of the anticnt 
ruxims of conduct, of the antient prudence, and of the anticnt reli- 
xrloua principles of the brethren, in opposition to the innovations which 
wrought the late schism in Ireland. (vSce p. 179. of this Review.) 
David, we suspect, under the name of a friend, defends himself 
against the accusations of the separatists, in a temper* and spirit 
"Aich are creditable to-the man, but not very consistent with the 
Qnaker. According to him, he lias contributed not a little to save 
the Quaker Church of Ireland fiom becoming a prey to Philistines, 
its enemies : and his opponents arc charged with being followers of 
Paine, and disciples of infidelity. The extract subjoined will give an 
idea of tht tenets of the Irish seceders from the Quaker Church- 

We arc told that one of their leaden, called * Abraham 
Shackleton- publicly declared, in the Yearly Meeting held at 
Dublin, his disbelief of the Pentateuch, and of great part both 

• of the Old and New Testaments ; to which stntiments the^ schisma- 
tics generally accorded : and he actually submitted to the inspectiqa 
of David Sands, a book which he called his Bible, of his own cotp- 
pilatioTi, mutilated from the original text, at the pleasure of a pcf- 
vertcd mind, and calculated to establish, as far as it could be m^de, 
human doctrines instead of divine. These partisans are, however, 

• artful enough to express their ideas on some leading points, so much 

• like believers, that it is difficult to discover their real sentiments, with- 

• out a particular experience of their evasive conversation. They speak 
of Christ as others do, in the character of a Saviour ; but, according 
to them, the apostles were equally Saviours ; they acknowledge the 
divinity of Christ, but they give the same divinity to every immortal 

Abraham Shackleton appears to be the Goliah of the cncaiy'a 
icamp ! the whole of which, together with its champion, if we believe 
David, he has discomfited. 

Art. 29. Buonaparteana ; or Sketches to serve for an Inquiry into 

the Virtues of the Buonaparte Family : contained in a number of 

curious and authentic Anecdotes, never before published. With an 

Appendix, containing Extracts from a Moral Work suppressed by 

Buonaparte, limo. 2S. Boards. Longman and Co. 1804. 

The anonymous author of this volume asserts that he has derived 

bis information from the most authentic sources, and protests that be 

has been most scrupulously observant of rigid impartiality and veracity. 

It id not within our power to try him by the rule of fact ; and we can 

only present to our readers a few of the anecdotes here «kctchcd which 

teem to be most novel. 

The sternest despotism, that was ever known, exhibited not more 
harsh proceedings than those which are here detailed : . 
' « The feelings of an Englishman must ncceaaarily revolt, at the pet 
imlant and summary mode of proceeding in France, in case;p of 

J.Lbcl; 



iii MoRTHLT CirAlOGl^E, Miscellaneous. 

Xiibd i contrasted with the slow, and comparatively indulgent pf6^, 
cess of the laws in his own country. Behold the modern manner dl 
' crushing a French journal : — 

* A guard of soldiers enters the prrintfng-office> seizes all the ma. 
terials us^d for the publication of the print ; and afHxi>ig on the doorv 
an impress of the great seal of the State, forbids, under thep<>naUie9 
of the law, any further exercise of printing in that office, until the 
Government he graciously pleased to grant its permission^ This indol* 
gence but very rarely occurs.' 

* ThU9, by a tyrannical stroke of military power, if the e^ftistence 
of the individual whose property is confiscated, depends on the sale 
of his paper, be becomes at once reduced to irremediable distress, — 
to destruction/ 

The old government of France was perhaps the most tainted with 
corruption of any in Europe : tut we question whether it coul^ 
furnish an instance of extortion more offensive than this ; 

* An American gentleman, of respectability, a warm partizan of 
the French Revolution, upon its orie;inal principles, had, in rendering 
Services to France, of a very extensive description, expeiKled a large 
fortune, accumulated by honourable industry in commercial concerns. 

* The justice of his claims, (which were for upwards of 5,ooo,oca 
' of livres tournois,) was never questioned by any of the preceding go - 
■ vemments ; and they were admitted by the Consulate, with a degree' 

of candor which seemed to promise a speedy liquidaiion. 

* After wailing for some time, for a written communication upon 
'the subject of his affairs, he called upon the Minister of Marine rc« 

' pe^tedly ; but received no other satisfaction, than polite interviewsy^ 

and flattering promises. In the mean time his necessities became sa 
' very pressing, that he communicated tliem to a friend, who was in 

the habits sometimes of visiting Buonaparte ; and constantly at the 

Bureau of his Secretary Maret. 

'This friend mentioned the business to Maret ^ who promised to 

lay the affair before the First Con8ul> and to obtain for the American 

a definitive answer in three davs. 

* The period elapsed, and the latter was punctual in hia attendance 
at the. Bureau. The answer was favourable ; the first payment was 
arranged, and he was presented with a Mandaty for 15, coo livres. 
** But,'' added the Sccrctar)', ** there is a certain degree of etiqurtie to 
be observed, before you can touch : this js drawn upon the Ministcirof 
Marine, you must give a petttt cadeau, (little present,) to his con- 
fidential favourite.'' 

** My present circumstances,** replied the American, ** suggest the 
pfopriety of acceding to this preliminary, at all events.'* He was 
then rclerrcd to this confidential favourite of the citizen Foffait, 
minister of the Marine, and Colonics. 

< The Reader, no doubt, anticipates in ihi9 favourite, some usurious 

wretch,— -animated by the sordid spirit of avarice : the dictates of 

Truth must be obeyed. Behold, in the person of a beautiful ferinale. 

that character which the fancy has depicted ! This courtezan exacted 

<for her smile of approbation, the modest sum of t ,coo livres.* 

This little volume it dedicated to Mr. Sheridan in the most coni- 
pUoientaiy atrain. 

CORRBS* 



( «23 1 

COHRESPONDENCB. 

* To the MOHTHLt Retiewees. 
* Gemtlemem, 

* When, after tcdioaa delay and much interruption! *^ The £xperi<' 
mental Inquiry into the Nature and Propagation of Heat*' was at last 
on the point of issuing from the prcs^^ 1 judged it expedient, in conse- 
Aoence of a hint received from London, to ascertain distinctly my claimsr 
by interweaving; a ibort narrative in the preface. I*soon tound that B 
had done right ; for^ in the space of a few weeks^ came out Count Rum- 
ford's Pdptr, ** On the Nature of Heat, and the mode of its Commnni- 
eation," which betrayed such a close resemblance, that the public couidf 
aot fail to mark it with surprise and suspicion. I was repeatedly pressed 
by my friends to bring forward whatever could throw light on the cause* 
of this odd coincidence* But, conscious of the solidity of my preten* 
Bions, I waB averse from engaging in controversy, and unwilling to* 
iippear over. anxious about teputation. In this resolution I was con* 
firmed by the spontaneous vote of the CouncRof the Royal Society, who 
did me the honoiu* last spring of awarding the Rumford Medals. X 
learnt, indeed, not long since, that the Count had republished his Me- 
moir at Paris, accompanied with an elaborate display of dates and cir- 
cumstances. Yet I should have still preserved silence, but for the letter 
inserted in your Number for August last ; which, in my humble opi- 
nion, so far Arom removing the doubts entertained, really tends in. a con-* 
•iderable degree to increase our reasonable suspicions. — I would beg the 
indulgence of your readers, while I state some facts as briefly as possibles 
* My researches in hy>:rometry had early led me to consider Air as 
tke proper vehicle of beat and moisture. I was curions to trace the 
analogy ;. which I have since fouud to be complete in all its parts. Cir- 
cuinsiances. having fixed my residence for the season in the immediate 
▼icinity of London, I chanced, in the beginning of xSoi, to meet witl» 
a mirror of uncommon size,, that remp.ted me to project inquiries con- 
nected with my speculations on the subject of heat. I wanted to try^ 
whether the aerial reSections were not enfeebled by the softness of the 
refringent surface and the proximity of the limits of contact. This idea* 
proved a fertile soured of discovery ; and having once got into the right 
channel, I proceeded witli ease and confidence. But I was chiefly in- 
debted to the application of the Differential Thermometer, which I had 
invented six years before,, and whose construction I had lately modified^ 
with the view of adaptiii^' it to a greater variety of objects. Before the 
eifd of April, I had at intervals traced out the principal facts, in a roufjb 
way indeed, yet 1 will venture to say more correctly than was done by 
iny rival, according to his own statement, two years afterwards at Mu- 
nich ;. for besides his general inaccuracy in estimating the relative ef^ 
fccts/ it will be perceived that the Count, drawn away by some loose 
hypotheses, has cntirHy mistaken the properties of water and glass with 
regard idTicat. but \ wai not satisfied till the facts had acquired both 
^tension and geometrical precision. Having provided a snitable appa- 
ratiis, I came down to my retreat in Fifeshire, where, during the sum- 
mer and autumn, I was intent in prosecuting these inquiries. Near the 
close of the year I paid a visit to Edinburgh, and mentioned the more- 
striking experiments to a learned tricnd, at whose suggestion they were 
Micceskfully repeatevl at the Christmas vacation in the neighbourhood 
of that city. Before the spring of x8oz, I had composed the first eleven 
chapters, and sketched out materials for the rest of my bouk. With 
this manuscript and a ftmall concentrated apparatus, 1 repaired in the 
inoDlh of June to London, where I stayed till August, and then passed" 

over 



1^4 Co&RE6P0MDIHCB. 

orer to France. There I was still less reserved in my communicatioat 
ttian I had been in 'London. I related my leading experiments to Goy- 
ton and Laplace, who urg^e^ ne to present the^n tp ibe National Insti- 
tntc ; but which I declined, after I had witnessed the mode of proceed* 
ing in that crowded and not very decorous assembly. However, I made 
no scrupie to show the little apparatus, and even ^to lend the manu- 
icript, to several persons of my acquaintance, both natives and foregn* 
era. And I am authorized to assert that my discoveries on heat were 
known to Count R.'s most intimate friends at Paris, and even frequently 
mentioned at that'time in their philosophical conversations. 

* On my retuin in December, I set the primer immediately to work^ 
and hastened down to Scotland, where I was engaged not only in com* 
Dieting the copy, but in pushing some farther inquiries. I experienced 
however such multtgHed delays that my book was full sixteen months in 
the press* In the meanwhile^ Count Rnmford began ^hose experiments 
in their nature entirely different from auy which he had before instituted* 
He soon ob^ined some general, results ; and with his usual diligence and 
promptitude, be dispatched notice of the event to his correspondents all 
over Europe. About two months afterward, my Differential Thermometer^ 
which he honoured by adopting for his own, and which he likewise graced 
wif h another n.ime, ^?l^ carried by hitn in a sort of triumphal march from 
jMunich TO Geneva, and from Geneva to Paris ; where, I am informed, it 
is pf.fced \w a state of permanent exhibition at the hoase of his friend 
.ftladaTue Lavoisier. ' 

* With respect to the Count's letter, it seems to be a very extraordi- 
nary production. Why all those asseverations? The proposition in a 
matter of scicniific dispute to take an oafb of purgation before a magistrate 
Is, f presume, altogether an original fancy. No person surely will be' so 
cruel as to put that ardent philosopher to such a harsh and severe trial. 
litJt the Count expresses his readiness to declare by a le^al and solemn 
oath that he had no knowledge whatever of my dlfflrcnttal thermometer^ 
except v^'hnt ht had acquired by reading the dijferetn scientific pvhlicationt 
w ti'hlch my nawe has appeared. Now it happens rather unfortunately 
that these very publications, and particularly Nicholson's Journal for the 
year i2oo, gontain not only an account of the theory of the instrument itt 
qne^tiion, but describe some varieiies'of ite construction and mode of ap- 
plicaMon- After such a glaring instance of treacherous memory, it is 
natural to suppose that the public will be inclined to judge the rest of 
the Count's allegations by the laws of human probability. If we ^ive 
Implicit credit to his proffered oath, we must believe, thatuotwith- 
standing his active correspondence, he remained utterly ignorant of what 
was known to his friends in "Paris and London at least half a year before; 
and that, in spile of strong appearances to the contrary, he would ha?c 
disdained to take advantage of any little hints conveyed to him. 

* x6th Oct. 1805. JOHN LESLIE. 

' Docllis win have the goodness to excuse our non-compliance wiiK 
** the prayer of his petition," because it is wholly extra-officiai* 
and because it is (aa he observes) * of a very delicate nature.* 

« An old Correspondent' is informed that the object of his request 
Jj now out of date. 

(j5- The Appendix to Vol. xlvii. of the Monthly Review was 
published with the Numljer for September, on the fir$t of October. 

♦.•In the Rev. for Segt. p. 30. 1. 28. for * following.j>kcc/ read, 

fowling-pica-,. 



t 



THE 



MONTHLY REVIEW> 

For NOVEMBER, 1805; 



-i 



• 

AltT. L . Travels in Europ^t Jlsia Mtnon, and jlrahia. By J. 
Griffiths^ M.D.y Member of the Royal Medical Society of Edin- 
bargby and of several foreign Literary Societies. 4to. pp. 41$* 
li. 58. Boards. Cadellanii Davies. 1805. 

A N inclination for travelling frequently originates in d spirit df 
^^. restlessness, which prompts even the indolent and thoughf- 
less. to vary the monotpi^y of their existence^ and to relieve the 
pre3fure of vacant hours by a rapid succession of new objecti. 
For the credit of our species, however, this propensity Qiay 
.also be often ;traced to rational and praise*worthy motives, to a 
steady Jove of knowlege,. and to a desire of profiting by ex- 
tended and multiplied observaiion. When the latter principles 
predominate in a vigorous and ingenious mind, many sacrifices 
will be made, and many estpcidients devised, to ensure scope to 
their duly regulated exercise.. Of this remark, the present 
narrative afForda a recent exemplification. The author, at an 
early age, availing himself of the goodtxe.98 of an indulgent 
parent, and of his own talents and resources, appears to have ' 
generously yielded to the impulse ti a strong but laudable cu- 
riosity, and to have wandered far from home in quest of that 
information which books and colleges so inadequately impart to 
the votaries of seclusion. 

In June 1785, Dr. Griffiths embarked at Gravesend, in a 
.vessel bound, to' Jt^ly and Smyrpa, Scarcely has he glanced at 
the roguery jii^d exactions pf pilots and port«residents, when 
we find hin9 .|i\o)blipg about in ^he Bay of Biscay ; and, in the 
next^s^nfencf or. two, in defiance of baffling winds, fishing for 
Bonito in the Stfaits of Gibraltar, At Nice, where he passed 
ten days, he fo\ind thb urbanity of the French agreeably blended 
with the. social disposition^bfL the, Italians. Genqa, the next 
Bubject^of bis remarks, presents a 8tr,iking contrast of magnifi- 
cence apd^ wretchedness. Amid, a crowd of squalid and de- 
graded 'prisoners^ one who- counted not fewer than twenty« 
eeveo yearaof captivity particuUHy extracted the filter's at- 
. 1^. UTixi- Q^ tention. 



i26 CriffithsV Travels. 

tention. ' He seemed about 8iity*five years old — his ffowinf 
beard was whitened by misfortune j and his sullen deportment 
indicated the rooted antipathy he so justly entertained against 
Lis inhuman Christian tormenfars \ Such was his prejudice, 
that he tteated with contempt the trifling assistance I was drs-' 
posed to offer him ; and allowed it to remain upon the ground 
untouched, without even condescending to acknowledge it by 
the slightest gesture.* 

Quitting the doleful regions of prisons and galleys»— where, 
by a refinement of cruelty, a Christian is chained to a Turk^ 
and the term of hard labour is protracted on slight pretexts,^* 
we pass to a medical probationeri whose English pronunciation 
of Latin had nearly cost him his Doctor's degree. Fortunately, 
he had presence of mind to request that the examination might 
:bc conducted in writing, * which proved so creditable to our 
worthy countryman, that he has ever since enjoyed a reputa- 
tion to which his talents and abilities most justly entitle him.' 
It is added, in a note, < the Scotch, from the classic propriety 
with which they pronounce the Latin, are not exposed to simi- 
.lar mortifications en the continent ; and it is seriously to be 
hoped that the method which prevails in Scotland wtfl be gene- 
rally adopted in England.* That considerations of convenience 
may plead in favour of such adoption, we are willing to admit: 
but the genuine pronunciation of the language of antient Rome 
is probably lost for ever. 

Dr. G., who is no satirist, takes some pains to rescue the 
'Genocfe from those vague and proverbial charges of general 
depravity, which are usually as unfounded as they are disgust^ 
ing, and which one dull writer unfeelingly copies from an- 
other. 

Leghorn, Pis^, and St. Julian's baths suggest only a few 
cufsory remarks : but the benevolent reader will dwell with 
satisfaction on the account of the liberal provision which is 
made for the poor of Italy. The convents seldom withhold *a 
sort of tidily aid / the want of a certifieate or recommendation 
excludes not the afflicted from large and richly endowed asy- 
lums ; nor are patients discharged, * because excess of wretch- 
edness being, their portion, they are pronounced tncurahle.' 

' In dwelling upon the excellence of the Italian hospitals/ saji 
Dr. G., ' I do not wish it to be understood, that I hold such e8ta» 
blishmerts, or the facility with which they may be entered, as a supC' 
rior cont-fderation in favour of the poor, to those regulations, in a 

feneral view, which have been adopted under the head of the Poor 
,aw8 in England ; nor am 1 unconscious that, by the laws of "Rng^ 
land, e vet y poor person, without the means of subsistence,' if^eriti a 

rljj^t to support from his parish ; that every maj^btrate b bound 19 

Goavey 



Grif&thsV TraveL 227 

eonVey to such parish the afflicted wretch discharged front an hospital, 
&nd that such arrangements have been made by the laws of the iand» 
as humanity and justice could devise for the benefit of the distressed, 
so that parochial assistance should prevent the misery of dying from 

• actual want of food. I am perfectly aware of all these advantages in 
England ; but I still contendy that the sick man, who .finds his 
misery a auffiqient recommendation to ensure the attentions of medi^^ 
cal men, and the means of support, so long as he shall require them, 

' IS infinitely more fortunate thjin the sick man who, in consequence of 
the probably incurable nature 6f hr^ complaints, is discharged frdm an 

' English hospital, to be transferred from one end of the island to the 
other upon a waggon^ because none but his own parish is compelled 
to support him* ■ • . . . . * 

. * i contend, that tboae hospitals are to be preferred, where every 

- day is a meivmg dw^f to those whose gat^s are opened to the reeom- 
mendator3r letter of a subscriber only once in (he week ; and where, 
even on that day, the amount of the subscription is often consideted 
of more importance than the disease of the patient, provided that dis- 
ease be not of the most seridus nature ; in which case, I allow, that 

' the humanity of our truly respectable physicians and surgeons always 
overbalances the pecuniary interests of the establishment. 

* I am aware, that cases of accidents are received at all times, with- 
out recommendation, at all our hospitals ; but is John with an in- 
temittent fever on Thursday less an object of compassion than on th« 

' Wednesday following, which I will presume, for the sake of argu- 
ment, the established receiving day ? Is William v^ith an ascites, or 
Thomas with an erysipelatous inflammation, less entitled, by the seve* 
rity of their sufferings, to an immediate endeavour at relief, than 
Richard, who has been thrown from his horse, and fractured his 

• fibula > 

/ If it be pleaded, that the funds of our hospitals will not afford such 
general and indiscriminate admission of patients, and that, were every 
invalid to be received without formality, the establishments must be 
mined, my observations are correct. Happy, 1 repeat. In this par» 
/irif/ar, is the country where the afflicted poor may be at all times well 
provided for by the benevolence of the rich, without waiting for a 
letter of recommendation, or a receiving day !' 

Much as we are disposed to applaud the unbiassed philan* 
thropy of these sentiments, we would distinguish between re^ 
ceptacles of the sick, and those of the merely indigent* The 
multiplication of poor-houses, and the indiscriminate facility 
of adoiisaion to their privileges, present strong temptations to 
idleness, and attract a crowd of paupers to the districts in 
which they are situated, without diminishing the legal rates 
which ate levied on the public. These rates, in some cases, 
have been obviously augmented in consequence of additional 
charitable institutions. Indeed, we cannot too often repeat, 
^ that an adequate and unexceptionable provision for the poor is 
. one of the most delicuie problems in politiciil csconomy, 

i^a From 



'a 2 8 Griffiths V Travels. 

From Leghorn our traveller proceeded by Sicily and some 
of the islands of the Archipelago^ to Smyrna \ where the 
opulent English merchants and the foreign consuls indulge in a 
style of ekgance which partakes of Asiatic luxury. At a pub- 
lic dinner at the English consul's, the whole of the company 
rose after the first course, and removed to another apartmenty 
in which a splendid second course was already displayed ; < and, 
as had been practised at the first table, the name of each guest 
was written, and laid on the plate opposite to the chair on whick 
it was intended he should be seated/ 

After a month's residence at Smyrna, Dr. G« embarked in 

* m Turkish boat, or kaik, for Constantinople- As be waited 
for a fair wind at Temnos, he had an opportunity of conleiii* 

' placing, the simple ceremony of a village funeral: 

< A man much respected by his companions had died suddenly : — 
he was borne by four men upon a kind of hurdle to the cemetery, his 
face unco vercdy and accompanied by a few friends^ who each held a 
bough of cypress. — The laiaumy who preceded the body, occa* 
sionally ottered some sentences from the Koran ; and repeating a few 
others at the grave, the body was interred. As soon as the grave 
^^^ filled up, each friend planted a sprig of the. cypress he had 
brought on the ri^ht^ and a second on the left hand of the deceased, 
and then took his leave. Upon inquiry as to the rootrve of their 
planting branches of cypress, one of the followers gravely told met it 
was to ascertain by their growth whether the deceased would enjoy 
the happiness promised by Mahommed to all true beh'evers, or woe- 
ther he would for ever be denied the bliss of the Houru* The for- 
mer would occur, «hould the eprig on ^he right hand tajcc rbot^ and 
the latter would be ascertained if the left only should flourish : If 
. both succeeded » the deceased would be greatly favored in the next 
world ; or if both failed, he would be tormented by black angels, 
until, through the mediation of the prophet, he should be rescued 
from their periecutions.' 

The Doctor's observations on the capital of the Ottoman 
Empire bespeak the same good sense which reigns throughout 
his relation : but they are not new^ and therefore need ifot 
detain us. His reflections on the cruel treatment experienced 
by the Jews evidently proceed from an enlightened mind andi 
feeling heart. 

In reviewing the civil and military resources of the govern* 
ment of Turkey, Dr. G. acknowleges his obligations to his 
friend Mr. Eton *, whose work supersedes many pages of ^ 
present performance. We are, however, assured that the 
greatest part of what is now offered to the public was written 

many years before Mr. Eton's book made its appearance, and 

. ■ ■ I ■ — ■ I . . —— — ^.^ 

^ Purvey of the Turkish Empire, see Rev. Vol. xxvii, N.S. p. 156. 
9 that 



GriffithsV Travels. 229 

tbat nothing has been borrowed without a mark of quotation. 
As the present statements are not at variance with those of 
writers of reputation^ and as^ in the progress of our critical 
labours, we have had frequent occasion to advert to the evils 
of Turkish ignorance and despotismi we may be excused if 
we decline to retrace the features of such an odious picture. 
We shall therefore only direct the reader's attention to the ac- 
count of securing property by waifs, or donations to mosques; 
which is treated with much perspicuity, and unfolds a striking 
view of systematic oppression. 

Being disappointed of a proper conveyance to the Crimea, 
the author resolved to return to Smyrna, in the prospect of 
visiting that part of Asia Minor which has been least explored 
by modern travellers* On the small but beautiful island of 
Avezza, he fortunately met with the Captain of a Russian 
brig, bound for Smyrna, with the intention of touching at 
Mytelene and Scio. He therefore very gladly relinquished his 
uncomfortable and even dangerous quarters in a Turkish boat, 
and felt no small satisfaction in being again admitted into 
Christian Society^ 

As the vessel anchored at Koumkale, the opportunity of even 
a hasty glimpse of the Troad was' not to be neglected. The 
result of a rambling visit was a concurrence in the leading sen* 
timents of M> Chevalier, which have latterly derived other re- 
spectable con6rmation. 

Between Mytelene' and Scio, 'the Russian and his crew 
were, during five days, tossed about at the mercy of the winds 
and waves. As they were, to all appearance, driving against 
the pointed rocks of Ipsora, < cries and clamors were heard 
from stem to stern j— orders, intreaties, prayers, were of no 
avail;— the afiVighted crew, and still more affrighted captain, 
dropped upon their knees, and, offering their supplications to 
heaven, relinquished the probable efficacy of human effort* 
Not so the stead V mate i who, bred up during five years on 
board a seventy-iour gun ship under the manly courage and 
authority of British tars, preserved his composure ; and judg^ 
ing that, by hauling .up the mainsail, we should drive less to* 
wards the shore, and accomplish our object of weathering the 
island, urged the manoeuvre so effectually by oaths and blows, 
. that the tiniid seamen abandoned their saints, executed what- 
ever he directed, and soon afterwards anchored our bark in a 
. harbour secure from every tempest.' 

From Smyrna the Doctor again took his departure, accom- 
panied by a young Swedish gentleman, who was equally soli- 
citous with' himself to visit Aleppo, notwithstanding the diffi- 
culties arid dangers inseparable from the journey. Having 

0^3 agreed 



230 GriffithsV Travels. 

agreed with the proprietor of some horses, who had ei>« 
gaged to convey mercltandise to the Syrian capital, and having 
assumed the dress of the country, to avoid superfluous moles-p 
tation, they commenced their harassing route, under the con- 
duct of their carqvari'bashee^ or leader. On the fourth day, 
they reached Sart, the antient Sardis, now an inqonsiderabic 
mssemblage of clay huts, which shelter a few wretches from the 
inclemency of thd weathcTt Fragments of former magnificence 
lie scattered in various directions, but most of them greatly 
defaced. At Allah-Sheer, the antient Philadelphia, a consi- 
derable population is supported by the manufacture of coarse 
cottons and carpets ; and by the art of dyeing, which is said to 
be better understood in this town than in most parts of th^ 
neighbouring country. In many places on the road, the tra- 
vellers had noticed storks' nests on the tops of houses and other 
buildings : ^ but there app<fared to be an unusual number at 
Allah-bheer ; a circumstance of considerable ipiport to the 
credulous Turk, who believes that the house or town which 
this bird selects for its temporary residence^ is peculiarly fa^ 
voured and fort\inate/ In the suburbs, were many Qocks of 
sheep, with ponderous tails. 

On quitting Allah-Sheer, they entered the province of Phry- 
gia, and proceeded through ah immense tract of country, 
mostly inhabited by hordes of vagrant Turcomans. In this dis« 
trict, ar^ on the banks of the Marsyas, lies the antient Apa«^ 
mea \ consisting, like the preceding town, of houses construct- 
ed whh clay, which is sometimes intermixed with pebbles^ 
The Apameans are chiefly occupied in the wool-trade. 

Having passed many fine patches of land, condemned to 
neglect, and villages almost wholly depopulated, the tra«> ^ 
vellers, on their approach to Koniah, came within the s;phere 
of depredation which h^d been for sotpe time exercised by an 
'Agah and his ferocious banditti. The feeble caravan escaped 
not the vigilance of these desperadoes, one of whom rode full 
gallop after the author : 

* Jt required no common share of 9ddre^ or good fortune to aYoid 
being trampled upon by his impetuous charger. Exerting myself to 
evade the strokes he aimed at me with his sabre, I continued to run 
round a bush large enough to sepure me, but not sufficiently to to allow 
his horse to turn immediately near it. He continued to approach me 
frequently ; and was beyond measure exasperated at my success in 
escaping from his attempts to wound me. I should certainly have 
fallen a victim to his fury, had not the old Hadgee cried Qut loudly, 
that I was a yomig infidel, to whom he bad sworn protection on hia 
faith : and that every right of hospitality would be injured, were I 
not allowed to depart without insult or molestation. — Ruffian as mj 
p -iucrwas, he could not \^^^\. ihit powerful appeal 19 the esta- 

^ b}ishc4 



GriffiTiisV Travek. aj* 

t^liBhcd CQStoms of his country ! He knew the sacred nature of the 
Hadgee'soath $ and in the spirit of true Islamism abandoned the obf 
ject of his immediate vengeance, rather than violate a practice whicti 
•even a Kurd is taught from his infancy to respect. - Giving over hit 
pursuit, he returned to his companion, and renewed his exactions with 
unrelenting fury.* 

After various mishaps, the party arrived, with jaded spirits, 
at tl^ ce^iebrated .city of Koniah, the Iconium of the antients, 
and caphal of Lycaonia. l^ven at this day, it is regarded aS 
the puncipal mart of the intetior ot Asia Minor, and is under 
the jurisdiction of a Pashah, who usually enjoys great influ- 
ence at the Porte. It is also the establishment of the Mew- 
lewahs, a very strict order of dervises, whose mortifications 
and ceremonies are here detailed, chiefly from the narrative of 
d'Ohsson. (See Rev. Vol. ii. N. S. p. 1(^5.) 

Between Koniah and Ereklee, lay a roo^antic plain, at 
^e north side of \^hich a tribe of Turcomans had en* 
camped : 

* Bcipg .in absolvite want of millc,' says tlie author. * I deter- 
mined to solicit the assistance of these Turcomauns. Approaching 
their tents, therefore, with gradual step and apparent indiflerenee, 1 
passed several, without observing any probability of succeeding ; chiU 
dren only were to be seen near the spot where I was, and men with 
their flocks of sheep and goats at it certain distance. Advancing still 
farther, I saw a woman, at the entrance of a small tent, occupied ip 
domescic employment. Convinced .that an appeal to the feelings of 
the female 8ex« offered with de.cency, by a man distressed wich hunger, 
would not be rejc^tedj J hcjd out my empty wooden bowl, and, re- 
versing it, made a salutation according to the forms of the country^ 
urging my suit by gestures. The kind Turcomaanec covered her 
face precipitately, and retired within the tent. She was alone — I did 
not advance a step until that curiosity, which it were ungracious in mc 
to disapprove, induced her to peep, from behind her coarse retreat. 
6he saw me unassuming : - my inverted bowl stIU e^cplaincd my wants | 
and a salutation repeated seemed to be addressed to her hospiiality.— 
The timidity of her sex, the usages of her country, and even the fear 
of danger, gavji iv?y to the benevolence of her heart. She went into 
the tent again, returned speedily with a bo\vl of milk, and, advancing 
towards me wIch a glance more than half averted, filled my ba^^on to 
the brim, and vanished. Her conduct was a confirmation of all I 
had heard or read in favour of the sex's humanity, and strengthened 
4ny reliance upon the female heart during the remainder of my travels, 
where any act of kindness was required amongst barbarians unconscious 
^f the laws of hospitality. Need I add, my appeals have never beeg 
disappointed*' 

This passage powerfully recalls the simple but beauti£ul en- 
comium of the African traveller Ledyard on the fen^alff cha- 
racter. (See Proceedings of the African Association' lie v. Vol. li^ 
41. S. p, <)4,) 

0^4 Ercklcc, 



Ereklee, formerly Heraclea, is now a poor place, inhabited 
t>7 Turks, one of whom had the address to deprive the author 
of his watch. Farther south, a rich soil promised abundance 
to the husbandman : but the bounties of nature were neglected, 
and scarcely a vestige could be traced of the antient cities of 
Cilicia. 

Having traversed some billy and rocky ground, the caravan, 
pn the thirty-first day from its departure, descended into a 
plain which still indicates the original name and situation of 
Adana, occupied by five or six thousand souls, and, with the 
icsception of Koniah, the most considerable place which bad 
occurred on the route from Smyrna. From Adana, the tra* 
irellers proceeded to Caradash, and sailed across to Swediah, a 
village on the coast of Syria. In their progress to Antioch| 
they were frequently annoyed by parties of Kurds ; who, like 
the Turcomans, omit no opportunity of levying exactions oq 
all travellers who fall in their way. ' It is generally believed 
that they first migrated from the mountains of the Greater 
Armenia, or what is now called Kurd-estaun, where they in- 
habit a certain number of villages, and from whence upwards 
of one hundred thousand of them are dispersed in various parts 
of the neighbouring countries; leading a wandering life^ 
breeding cattle^ and plundering whenever an opportunity prei 
^ents itself.' 

At Martavaun, Dr. G. found that the reports of former 
travellers, concerning the hospitality of the men and nvomen^ 
were not exaggerated. The inhabitants of this and of the 
neighbouring village of Tefteen are said to be a sect of the 
Ansarians, a peculiar tribe,Nand who profess very extraordinary 
genets. 

Passing over the description of Aleppo, which differs in no 
material respects from the recitals of former travellers, we 
shall next attend the author on his romantic progress through 
the desart to Bussorah, at a season the least propitious to such 
an arduous undertaking. The entreaties of his intimate friend, 
Mr. H., a resident at Aleppo^ whose affairs urged him to pro* 
feed to India without delay, easily induced him to share the 
fatigues and the perils of the journey : 

f Mr. H. was married to one of the most beautiful and most amiable 
of women, " such as youthful poets fancy when they love," by whom 
he had two daughters ; the eldest about seven, the youngest little 
more than two years of age. To leave them all, and visit a far dis^ 
taut, and to him a new country, without bearing about him sqme 
portion of his treasure, was to my friend impossible ; he therefore 
plepded with his lovely wife, and obtained a reluctant acquiescence, tq 
Eis taking with him the eldest. 

{ Mariai^QC 



Griffithaf/ Travek. ^y^ 

* Marianne was a chfld of uncommon quickness of comprehen* 
aioDy and of most retentive memory. At the tender age of seven 
jcars she spoke fluently the Atabic, Greek* French, Italian, and 
Xlngiish languages. Her manners Were peculiarly engaging ; and, 
in common with all who knew her, I soon felt myself much attached 
to her. How infinitely more dear to me became this sweet compa* 

■nion of my sufferings will be easily believed ! 

* Our party consisted of Mr. H. Miss Marianne, myself, «nd an 
Araienian servant named Joannes. 

< The first division of the caravan was formed of about eighty 
camels, and betwecq thirty or forty guards. Other camels, amongst 
which many were destined for Bagdad, joining us before we took our 
final departure, the whole number approached two hundred.* 

The caraTan commenced its march at a quarter past eleven 
o^clock in the night of the 8th of June 1 786* The ^ usual piode 
of proceeding was to set out about two o'clock in the moming;^ 
and continue travelling until nine, ten, or eleven, when an en* 
•campment was formed for the day ; but it several timet occur- 
red that we were obliged to go on until fire or six o'clock ifi 
the evening ; and the fatigue of those days is not easy to be 
described.' During the first eight days, little occurred worthy 
of notice, except the appearance of straggling horsemen, ante- 
lopes, jerboas, and hares. Of the two latter, not a few were 
sacrificed <^ the accommodation of the caravan, the Arabs 
being very expert in killing them with clubs. The soil was 
sometimes a reddish brown, or white sand, and sometimes 
sand intermixed with clay, or covered with salt.*— At Mescbed 
Ali, a violent desire of penetrating into the interior of the re- 
nowned tomb of the prophet Ali had nearly proved fatal to the 
journalist. Taking advantage of the drowsy disposition of the 
Mussulmans on each side of the entrance of the mosque, and 
stimulated by irresistible curiosity, he hastily advanced into the; 
outer CQurt. An elegant fountain, a profusion of Arabic sen- 
tences, and a corridor round the area, were here the principal 
objects which presented themselves. The interior of the 
mosque is chiefly remarkable for the dome, (which, though 
handsome, is by no means so large as that of St. PauPs Ca»« 
thedral,) ornamental balls of ivory, glass, ostriches' eggs, very 
small but rich carpets, two huge silver candlesticks, and a pro- 
digious number of lamps. 

* Apprehension of discovery now began to operate upsn me, and 
I traced back my steps with caution, greatly dissatisfied at having 
found nothing extraordinary ; but, before 1 could repass the gate, an 
old man started up, and called to me in Persian. Not receiving any 
answer, he awakened two others ; when they all jumped from the 
elevated part where they had been sleeping, and exclaimed most 
ffbtmentiy. One of them^ armied with a scimitar (fortunately for 

me 



^34 GriflSthsV Travis. 

me not unsheathed), and another with a short tttck, made tt^nr 
blows at me ; which parrying in the best manner I waa able, althougn 
not so successfully as I could have wished, I dashed througli tkcfc 
bearded heroes, and was assailed in my flight by many large stoacSf 
of which, for many days, I bore the marks.* 

Notwithstanding this risk, and the kind reproaches of h^ 
friend, the Dr. felt a secret satisfaction at having accomplished 
\(^hat, most probably, no European had ever before attempted. 

We regret that our limits do not allow us to pursue the re- 
mainder of this interesting volume in detail. A serious want 
of water, and the recurrence of suffocating winds, began to 
manifest their direful effects, particularly on Mr. H. At length]^ 
they approached the long expected wells ; 

* Willing to communicate the glad tidings to my friend, I rode to 
him, and expressed my hope that he would be soon refteshed by « 
supply of water. He replied, ** Thank God ! but I am almost dead.'* 
I endeavoured to cheer his spirits ; and then urging my horse, ad- 
vanced to the spot where I observed the camdd were collecting to- 
gether. In about half an hour I found myself amongst a circle of 
animals greedily conteading for a draught of muddy water, confined 
in a smaj] superficial well about five feet in diameter. Pressing to the 
edge, I laid myself upon my belly, and by means of my hand sup* 
plied myself with a fluid, which, however filthy In itself, and conta- 
minated by the disgustine mouths of as many camels and men as couM 
reach it, was a source of indescribable gratikcation. It is wholly out 
of the power of language to convey any idea ef the blissful enjoyment 
of obtaining water aiter an almost total want of it during eight and 
forty hours, in the scorching regions of an Arabian desert in the 
month of July ! 

* But this moment of gratification was soon succeeded by one of 
peculiar horror and anxiety. Scarcely had I quenched my thirst 
before Mr. H.'s camel arrived. I fitw with a bowl full of water to my 
friend ; who drank but little of it, and in great haste. Alas ! it was 
his last draught 1 His lovely child too, eagerly moistened her mouth 
of roses, blistered by the noxious blabt ! 

' With difficulty Joannes and myself supported my feeble friend to 
where the tent had been thrown down from the camel's back. He 
stammered out a question respecting the time of the day ; to which I 
answered it was near four: and requesting the Arabs to holdover 
him part of the tent (to pitch it inquired too much time), I unpacked 
as speedily as possible our liquor- chest, and hastened to offer him 
some Visnee (a kind of cherry brandy) : but Nature was too much 
exhausted ! I sat down, and receiving him in my arms, repeated my 
endeavours to engage him to swallow a small portion of the liqueur. 
All human efforts were vain ! Gust after gust of pestilential air dried 
up the springs of life, and he breathed his last upon my bosom 1 

* Let the reader of sensibility reRect upon tiie concomitant cir- 
cumstances which a.ttended this afHicting scene, ahd then refer to the 
cciiaations which will be created iu his own breast, to.foro) soaje idea 

8 of 



GriffithsV Travels. 235 

of those which mutt have lacerated mine ! Let him paint to himself a 
traveller, of an age alive to every feeling, in the midst of the Desart 
of Arabia, with the corpse of his respected friend^ burnt to the ap- 
pearance of a cinder, black yet warm, on one side of him ; and on the 
other the daughter of that fnend, the most angelic child that Nature 
ever formed, unconscious of her loss, and with the prattle of inno- 
cence inquiring ** where her dear papa was gone to V^ \t was a scene 
as little to be supported as decribed ; and the honest tears I shed bore 
ample testimony to the wounded sensibility of my heart.' 

Other painful circumstances we must repress. Although the 
Euphrates removed all apprehension of distressing thirst, the 
heat in one instance amounted to 132 of Fahrenheit's thermo- 
Micter, udder the tent, and to 156, in the sun's 4^ys. The in- 
teresting Marianne supported the severe trials of this exhausting 
pilgrimage with a patience and cheerfulness which astonished , 
her fellow sufferers. On the noon of the forty- eighth day from 
their leaving Aleppo, the caravan halted at Bussorah. 

Towards the conclusion of his narrative. Dr. G. bears ample 
testimony to the hospitality and dignified deportment of the 
Arabs of the Desart. As the duties exacted by Shaiks on 
the transit of goods have been recognized from time immemo- 
rial by public avowal, or tacit acquiescence, any attempt to 
evade the tribute is presumed to impFy the right of seizure, or 
confiscation ; and, in these circumstances, the plundering of a 
caravan is not supposed to derogate from a reputation for ho* 
nesty. A state of war between two tribes is likewise reckoned 
sufficient to authorize depredation : but this, it is justly ob« 
served, is the general effect produced by war. 

From Bussorah, Dr. G. proceeded to Bombay, where he 
forgot his fatigues in the society of the most affectionate of 
brothers. 

If this volume of travels, of which we have thus rapidly 
sketched the outline, contains little information that is new, it 
is at least composed with spirit, and breathes the language of 
cauiiii!, humane, and honourable sentiments. In so far as it 
attests the uniform baseness of the Turkish character, it is a 
valuable record ; because it confirms, by a conspicuous ex« 
ample, the melancholy but important truth, that ignorance, pre* 
judice, and fanaticism reduce mankind to the lowest state Qf 
degradation. Lest the picture should be reckoned overcharged^ 
the author reminds us, in his preface, that he traversed a great 
part of the Ottoman dominions in the humble disguise of a poor 
Greek; not under the protection of Janissaries, the influence 
pf ambassadors, or the authority of a Firmaun *• 

* • Passport, or order, sealed by the Grand Signior, to which 
fi;rcat respect is paid in mpst parts of the Turkish domiaxona.' 

< I have 



236 HaylcyV Triumph ofMtuicy a Poem. 

* I have teen Turkey' continues he* ' of all ranks and of all maii- 
Bcrsy undifiguised by tbe etiquette of high life, divested of fear frooi 
avperior power, and uninfluenced bv the caution of tclf-interest ; I 
liavc associated with officers in eminent stations at tbe Porte, and 
iomed a pedestrian party of menial servants ; and I have found tbe 
Turk every where a Turk. Their civilities are offered with tbe iasuU 
«<f superiority ; their protection granted under an injunction of their 
• iaw^ not on account of any one principle of humanity or kindness to 
tkc Keupeg ^ they succour ; and their own comfort or oonvenicDOC 
Ivas never sacrificcdi on the score of hospitality . in &vour of an in* 
fiddf/ 

We are ignorant of the motires which bate indoced the 
writer to double the term of the Horatian precept— ndni^m ^r^- 
wmiur in annum :" but we learni with satisfaction, that these 
tiafels are intended only as a prelude to a more extensive and 
elaborate work on various regions of India, in which the author 
icwded during some years, and enjoyed opportunities peculiarly 
favourable for investigation.-^The present publication i^ illus- 
tvated by a map of his route, and views of Constantinople, of the 
«K>sques of Sta. Sophia and Sultan Ahmed, and of the death of 
tbe author's travelling companion in the desart — An Index is 
wanting. 



A IT. II. The Triumph of Music; a Poem, in Six Cantos. By 
William Haylcy, Esq. 4to. pp. 148* los. 6d« Boards. Piayac« 

1^4* 

QOX f^E senesceniemy maturi sanus^ equum, has been the advice 
^ of Critics to Poets, ever since the time of Horace. If Ho- 
mer shone with less fire in his Odyssey, and Milton in his Para- 
dise Regained, what wonder can there be that Mr. Hayley's 
Pegasus should break down after repeated heats i In the pre- 
sent work, he not only halts, but seems completely foundered \ 
and we doubt whether he will ever again be able to canter 
through a Sonnet, or the dedication of a Fable- book. Our 
leaders must remember the question put to Ariosto by the 
Cardinal d'Este^ on receiving his Orlando : a similar inquiry 
arose in our minds, after having perused the pious ditties con* 
tained in ** Venusta^s book ;'* and we verily imagined that Mr. 
Hayley bad recovered the Common-place book of P. P. *< Clerk 



• • Kenpeg signifies daj^y and is a term very generally bestowed 
upon Christiaps.' 

• f Ghoi^r or infidel, equally reproachful with Keupeg, is the ap- 
peBation by which they do not hesitate to distinguiih a Christian even 
in conversation with him.' 

of 



HayleyV Triumph o/Mutic, a Poemi tyt 

of this Parish)" or the infantine excercises of tome Suadajr^ 
School. — Withers, Prynnc, and Vickers, may now lift up their 
heada in triumph,, and exclaim, 

These holy songs shall live for evermore. 
Written, Anno Domini 1804; — 

for they display exactly an equal degree of inspiration wkh the 
tersea of those bards of *' ale, orviler liquors." 

Had such an assemblage of rhymes been placed before us id 
a roguish imitation of Mr. Hayley's style, we shouM have said, 
« No ! this will ne^er do ! ••-The caricature is too strong,"-^ 
Let our readers judge, from the opening of the poem^— -by aa 
means an unfavourable specimen : 

* In pleasure's palace, her Venetian dome ! 
That etbdes to her songs, her fav'rite home ! 
In that fair city, whose gay scenes inspire 
The simple gondolier with tuneful fire. 
To woman's height the young Vekusia grew; 
A form more lovely nature never knew : 
Tho' young, majestic 1 tho' majestic, mild ! 
Modestly gay, and delicately wild ! 
The rays of fancy in her features shone ; 
Her eyes had all the power of beauty's zone* 
Instructive love a stranger to her breast. 
She knew not yet the magic she possest ; 
Or knew it darkly ; as her sole desire 
Was but to soothe the spirit of her sire : 
For him, with rare exertion, she combin'd 
All arts, that grace the person, and the mind* 
Each talent her's, that softens, or alarms I 
She much excell'd in all ; but most in vocal charms* 
Her speech vras melody ; and,r when she sung, 
Enchanted age believ'd, that he was young. 
Her sire, the stern Don ado ! with delight 
Train'd his sweet child, for ever in his sight ; 
Himself a noble of Venetian pride, ' 

He destin'd her to be a brother's bride ; 
A brother of the state ; in rank his peer ; 
One, whose wealth made him to ambition dear ; 
Such vain ambition may proud beauty melt ; 
But such the pure Vsnusia never felt.' 

How is the second foot of the eighth line to be pronounced ? 
It must be read mbdestly, to make out the rhime. — In the 
tenth line we have a Very strange figure — Her eyes .had the 
power of a girdle ! — This reminds us of the Shepherd, who 
praised bis Mistress by saying that she had as much wit as a 
giant. — It is still worse when we arrive at the impassioned 
opart (or what ought to be such) of the Courtship of Lucilio : — 

* That 



238 fiarylcyV Triumph o/MusU^ d PonH* 

< That sound exalted him to feverish bliM» 
Grateful he gave her band a burning kiaa. 
Intoxicated mendehip made a trip. 
He touch'ds in blind temerity, her lip ;* 

Never was there a more unfortunate botch than in the last 
line but one \ excepting, perhaps, some weeping lines in Quar« 
Ics's Argalus and Parthenia. — Here is a sketch of Vcnusia's 
Confession : 

*^ When first alarmed, by what thy friendship told» 
I sought my guardian aunt, still kind, tho' old. 
All that flhe knew, she scrupled to confess, 
But rais'd such doubts, as doubled my distress ; 
Some hints she gave^ as if she gave them not, - 
From ill- dissembled pity of my lot. 
And much I fear'd m night's first lonely hour. 
Her awful feelings of paternal power ! 
I stcep'd my pillow in the tears of grief, 
But, trc I rose, recciv'd divine relict. 
At morning's dawn she stood beside my bed, 
And^ as amaz'd I blest her, thus she said :" 

To every impassioned expression, Lucilio replies with a 
Song : a mode of wooing- not very persuasive) we should 
imagine, even in Italy I The meagre story of assassins charm- 
ed from their purpose by a song, though twice introduced in 
these pages, being insufficient to fill up the volume, the author 
has had recourse to an expedient which possesses at least some 
claim to novelty. He has introduced, in a variety of mea* 
sures, det2)ched pieces of Poetry, under the signature of bis 
favourite personages. These compositions are much fuller of 
morality than of poetry, as the reader will perceive from the 
following specimens : 

' SONNET. 

* Enlivening truth, most luminously sweet ! 
*' Within us is the kingdom of our God.'' 
What ! can this form of clay, the valley's clod ! 
In its dark bosom yield a mansion meet 
For Heaven's blest lord ? — When evil powers retreat, 
Expell'd by discipline's celestial rod. 
Pure, as the starry path by angels trod. 
The rescued heart he owns his hallow'd seat* 

* Protector of alHiction ! gracious sire 1 
Guide thou my social and my secret hour ! 
And let thy presence all my thoughts inspire. 
To thee submitting every fond desire ! 
Make my clear mind, howe'er my lot may lower^ 
A temple worthy of thy guardian power ! 

THEOOOftB/ 

' SONNET. 



Gilpin'x Tim EssajU 239 

'SONNET. 

* 

^ This blooming' world is bot a thorny bower ; 
Where treacherous sweets and latent stings abound. 
Where ills in ambush every path surround ; 
Healthy beauty« opulenee* and mental power 
Shrink, in an instanty like a shtiveird flower. 
How sinks the heart, in sorrow's gulph profound. 
When hope's gay visions are in vapours drown'd^ 
And friendship fails us in the trying hour ! 

* Yet all the troubles, that on mortals waft, 
Dark as they are, new scenes of light portend. 
Teaching the soul to triumph over fate, 
And 'rise» from deep depression more elate % 
Our chasten'd thoughts, as they to Heavea atcendt 
Find, but in God, the never failing friend. * 

TilSOOORS.' 



< HYMN. 

* To wand'ring man thou grracious guide I 

Redeemer of his race J 
Grant me the comfort to confide 

la thy protecting grace ! 
In word, in act, with fondest awe 

Thy herald may I be ! 
And O inspire my voice, to draw 

New worshippers to thee ! LtrciLto.* 

Wc cannot say that these verses arc * luminously sweet/ 
(which, by the way, is a most incongruous figure) nor that 
we have found any consolation for the sorrows of onr literary 
purgatory, in perusing them. — It would have been fortunate 
for the reputation of the author, if some judicious friend had 
prevented him from throwing these rinptres de la vtrre before 
a public^ which has received his former labours with much 
kindoesB. We lament to see an ingenious and respectable 
writer thus descending from his own standards 



AftT. III. Tw9 Estayi : rnie, on the Author's Mode of executing 
Rough Sketches ; the §ther, on the Principles on which they are 
composed* To these are added three Plates of Figures, by 
Sawrey Gilpin, Esq., R.A. By William Gilpin, M.A. 8vo* 
38. sewed. Cadell and Davies. 

TT appears that these essays were written for the purpose of 
^ promoting a sale of some of the venerable author's drawings, 
the produce of which was to be applied to the maintenance of 
a parish«8chool which be had founded at Boldre, near Lyming* 
tomi snd tbcy aic preceded by an sccount of that establish- 

ment» 



14^ GilpinV Two Mssafi. ^ 

menty in which his liberalicy in providing the means^ and Ug 
judgment in the management of it» will equally call fb^th the 
praises of the reader.' Mr. Gilpin has now paid the- debt of 
nature. How far the effort of his benevolence is likely to sac« 
ceed, without his fostering care, we are not enabled to say : but 
the amiably method, which he took ro give it publicity, will no 
doubt excite in others a charitable disposition to countenance 
the orphan institution. 

Mr. Gilpin's celebrity in describing the graphic art will oc- 
casion us to take more notice of this pamphlet, than its size 
would otherwise seem to demand. Any production of the pen 
of that admired writer, on this subject, is likely to be eagerly 
embraced by a numerous class of readers ; to whom we shall 
offer a few observations. 

As the title expresses, the first essay treats on the author's 
mode of executing rough sketches ; and it is delivered with 
that neatness and perspicuity which always accompany his 
writings. Much as we have been pleased v^ith the fruits of his 
pencil, we do not cease to lament the evil influence which thia 
mode of spreading a few colours must have on the young stu** 
dent. The magic touches which create so much effect are 
properly the result of great practice and attention, and can 
only be advantageously adopted after much experience in the 
art. Where the juvenile draftsman has been instructed in 
Jittle else than this mode of making pictures, he leaves his 
preceptor without being able to produce any delineation of ob- 
jects from nature \ and being unequal to the task of pourtray- 
ing her sublime appearances, the shadowy lessons become nu- 
gatory : while by a habit of drawing with fidelity and decisioo, 
he might become capable of giving a tolerable representation 
of most of the objects which occur in his travels, shewing the 
forms as he finds them : — an attainment within the reach of al- 
most every person. To select, to suppress, to generalize, and 
to compose, are superior departments of the art ; to exhibit 
these with (he grandest effects of luture can only be expected 
from a master ot the pencil ^ and even he must have arrived at 
that excellence, by the successive steps which are here pointdi 
out for the student to pursue. 

Mr. Gilpin's observations appear to us to be chiefly appK- 
caHle to those who have made considerable pro[!ressin draw- 
. ing; and w)io, >i'ith abilities to delintate correctly, possess a 
good knowlege of the man«gcment of colours. ^ He justly re- 
commends a reed pen for sketches j and he observes ^hat *csre 
should be taken to leave the strongest marks of the pen on thAK 
side opposite to that on which you mean the light to enter,' 
(p. 11.): but whftt is said about ink in penned drawings \\ 

trifling} 



• GilpinV 7ftt0 Essay. 241 

trifling ; and what he calls picturesque ink has no existence 
in practice. The picturesque sketches of GuercinOj Caracci» 
ancl of many modern artistSy are effected with the commonest 
ink ; and the beauty of the drawing depends more on the feel- 
ing of the artist than on his materials.— The first essay contains 
also some others of the author's modes of executing rougl^ 
sketches. 

The second essay is ' on the principles on which the author's 
sketches are composed.' We coincide with him in the opinioB 
< that nature, has its idiom, as well as language, and SQ has 
painting ;' and when painting generalizes the features of na- 
ture, her productions become more interesting. In this line 
of art, the Italian Professor has the advantage over our own 
countrymen. With us, almost every scene is a scene of in« 
closure and cultivation ; and from the nature of our climate^ 
picturesque conibinations are deprived of that harmonizing at« 
mosphere which gilds the pencil of a Claude, softens the as- 
perity of Salvator Rosa, and embellishes the faithful yet fervid 
representations of Gasper Poussin. The works of the last 
mention(*d master tend to contradict the remark here quoted 
by Mr. Gilpin from Sir George Beaumont, that a view from 
nature * must be full of aukward lines/ and < even less inte* 
testing than a map.' (p. 26.) Gasper Paussin's pictures are all 
views from nature ; and whoever has studied at Subbiaco^ 
Tivoli, Nemi, and In t^e environs of Rome, must be sensible 
of this fact. The painter of elevated. ideas, cultured mind^ and 
commanding powers, knows how to make# a choice ; and that 
choi(,e is the criterion by which we ought to judge of his taste* 
It is by bringing before the < spectatoi's eye' scenes which 
affect < his imagination,' that the painter accomplishes his end: 
but the first appeal is certainly to the eye; and nothing that is 
meanly trivial, negligently absurd^ or glaringly incongruous^ 
ought to enter into the composition of his picture. This idea 
agrees with Mr. G.'s precept that ^ the probability of every part 
should appear,' (p. 29.) and the professor who studies from 
nature will form bis ideas to correspond with that proba* 
bility. 

Perhaps it will be thought that we are bestowing too much 
attention on the cursory remarks of Mr. Gilpin, whose pen 
and pencil were employed for the purpose of active benevo« 
lence. We therefore pass Qver his observations on general 
effect and gradation *, not that they are unworthy of the tjro^ but 
as being only accompaniments to explain a few sketches, which 
were in their turn to illustrate, < as far as a sketch or rough 
drawing can illustrate,' the theory advanced in the letter-* 
press. 

Ret. Nov. 1805. R Mr» 



, 

242 Memoirs of Marmontel. 

» > 

A)V. G. speaks of sr redundancy in the designs of Claad^^ 
and' 8^8' that he had simplified some bf them according to his 
OWQ dracrtice. Th6s^ designs of Claude have been engrayed, 
and the original^ are in the cabinet of the Duke of Devonshire. 
Mr.G. obs<irves that * they exhibit many beautiful parts, but rarely 
a simple whole ; though the collection, for nuhat reason is not 
tiviouSf is styled tBe book of truths (P* 33*) ^^ ^^^ subjoia 
th« reason. In the nomenclature ot the painter^s art in Italy, 
lihcr veritaiis means a sketch-book, in which the artist registers 
his memorandums from nature. The English dilettante praises a 
drawing as a study from nature ; and the Italian would term the 
same production, un disegno copiato dal vero : the term truth 
being used in opposition t<> works of imagination. With this 
expTanattOn of the title, the practice of Claude strictly corre-* 
sfx^nds i and it is a valuable example for others to follow, who 
mean, like him, to excel in the art. 

Soitie specimens for grouping figures in a landscape-drawing 
<^0Qc1ude this little work ; which will not depreciate the repu- 
tation Acquired by the prior works of the author, while its in- 
lentibh must reflect honour on his memory. 



Art. IV. Mimoires d^un Pen% Pour tervir a PInstruitian de m 
* £nfanSf&c. 4 Vols. 12 mo. Paris. 1805. London, reprinted 

for M. Peltier. ^ .... 

'Memoirs of Marmwiteif written by btmselF; contain ing his literary 

and political Lifcj and Anecdotes of the principal Characters of 

the cightceoth Century. Translated from the French. 4 Vols. 

Z2mo; il. 18. Boards. Lfongman and Co; 

^iTHis is one of the most interesting productions which has 
^ issued from the French press, since the. commencepient 
bfthe Revolution. To a narrative of the private life of an 
estimable writer, is added a view of the brilliant literary so- 
cieties of Paris before the close of th^ French monarchy, and 
of the first scenes of that awful fr>igedy which Europe still 
contemplates, as it proceeds, with increasing apprehension, 
'^he stvle of the work is also jiot less attractive than its matter : 
\t is eloquent, flowing, and easily inclines, in pursuing the 
course of events, either to the ludicrous or the pathetic. . We 
$igain find, in this production, the manner which charmed us 
in the author's early Tales,^ and which he seemed to hare for- 
gotten in his last. 

. It w6uld have been very agreeable to us if we could have 
complimented the anonymous ^ translator oh an adequate per* 
^ormance of his task: but this may dot be. His version 19 
bald and literal, perpetually ofi^ending against the English 

idioms 



Mtm o iri of If anndntct . 94} 

idiom ( and tfc« attemptv to tender tome of thfc poeticd paa^i^ 
sages are truly miserable. Such as it 189 liowe?er| we shall 
ifte it, ia giving tome specimens of the work4 tlnce our mere 
SogHihnsaderj^ must cooteot themselves with tbti gratifidWII^ 
which they e»n receive tfarougb this nvedittm. 

MarmoD^el informs us that he was born aC the small town 
of Bort in the Limosin, * of which he giaei a beantifol por« 
trait: 

* Bort, 'seated on the Dordo^e between Auvergne and X>ioi08ra» 
presents a fearful picture to the first view of the traveller, who, at a 
distance^, febm the top of che'mooiitam, sees it at the bottom of' a 
precipice threatened: with inundation by the torrents that the stoma 
occadoD^ or wish ^instant annihSatiou by a di^in of 'volcanic rocks,, 
some planted like towef8< on the bei^t vhist coasmaods the town, and 
others ahvady haaf|riiig and half torn from their base. Bu/t Ebrt 
assumes aa mpeqt move gay as these feara ane dissipated and the eya- 
exteada itself ahmg thr tslley*. The green' and woo^ ishaid that 
Iks beyoadthc sown^ embraced by the rmr, and animated by the 
noise and nMSion of a miU, is iilled wkh birds. On the banks of thi^ 
ruKr^ ofchavds, meidows, aad corn fields* eahivatad by a laborioua 
peopie, form varied pictures. Below the town the valley opens. pre« 
snatsog on one side ao extensive meadow watered, by continual springs^. 
and OD the other .fidds crowned by a circle of. hills whose gentle slope 
£arms a pkasmgcontmst wkh'the opposite rocks. Farther on, this circle 
is bvoken by a torrent ^hicfa, from ibe monntaios, roHs and bounda 
though fbreacs, rocks^ and precspicest CtU it falls into theDordogne \ff 
one <» the most bcautiiful cataracts of thbcoatisent, both for the volume 
of water, and the height of its fsU \ a phseaomvnon .which- only wants, 
more freqnent spectators to be renowned and admired. It: is near this 
dataract tnat the little farm of Saint Thomas lies, where I used t9 rei^l 
Virgil under the shade of the blossoming trees that surrounded our bee- 
hives, and where their honey afforded me such delicious repasts. It is on 
the other side of the town, beyond the mill, aad on the slope of the 
mountain, thst the garden lies where on welcome holidays my father 
used to lead me to gather grapes fiom the vines he himself had plan* 
ted, or cbefTieSy phims, and applesif om the trees he had g^rafted. Baft 
the charm that my native vilhge has left 00 my memory arises firom 
the vivid impression I still retam of the first feeiinjgs, with which m^- 
sool was imbued and penetrated, by the inexpressible tenderness thait 
my parents shewed me. If I have any kindness in my diaiacter, I 
am persuaded that I owe it to these gentle emotions, to .the habitual 
hf^pinesa of loving and being bved. Ah I what a gift do we- 
receive from hea»en» when we are blessed with kind affectmoate 
parents! 

< Talso owed much to a certain amenity of manners that then^dist . 
tinguished my native place ; and indeed the simple gentle life we led 
there must have had some attraction, since nothing was nu>re rare than, 
to see the natives desert it. Tlieir .youth, was instructed, and their' 
colony distinguished itidf hi the neignbouring schools % bat they re^ 
• « V R /3 turqed 



244 ^ Mtmeirs ffMmooaitiAr 

turned again to tbetr town, Ukc a swarm of beet to the livtf witb the ' 
swceti thty had coUected** 

We couM dwell with much pleasare on the atrimated 
sketiihes of.«doinestic happiness which tucceedy and on the 
struggles through which Marmonlel emerged from the little 
college of Mauriat to ^eU-earned reputation-: but, as we can- 
not admit ally we sfaiAl leave them to the reader'a private en- 
joyment, and shall proceed to a period of his life which con- 
nects him with spme of the most distinguishlid persons of his 
tfme. We must, however, snatch one anecdote by the way : 

»^ io one of our walks [from Clermont] to Beaureffard» the coontry- 
hottte of the biahoprick, we had the happiDess to visit the veoerable 
Mastillon. The 'reception this illustrious old man gave usy was so fall 
of kiodnessy hia presence and the accent of his voice made so lively and 
tender an impression on me, that the recoHectlon of it is one of the 
most ffratefuVtbat I retain of what passed ta my early yearn. 

*>.At that age, whetPthe affections of the mend and soul have» re- 
ciprocally/ so sudden a -commttnication, when reason and Kntiment 
SBC and redact on each other with so much rapidity, there i$ no one 
to whom it hfs not somcsimes happened, on seeing a great man, to 
imprint on his forehead the features that distinguiuied the character 
qf his soul and his genius. It was thus that among the wrinkles of 
that countenance already decayed, and in those eyes that were soon to 
be extinguished, 1 thought! could still ttdoc the expression of that 
eloquence, so sensible, so tenden^lso sublime, sd|)robiindly penetrating, 
vrith which I had just been enchanted in hia wifeings. He permitt^ 
na to mention them to him, andr to ofe him the homage of the re- 
ligions tears they had made us shed.' 

^ In recltiiig his success at the Floral Games of Tonlonse, 
whqr^. he obtained three prizes on one day, the writer has in- 
t^odpoed a charming sentiment: 

w ' Amid the tumult and noise of the captivated crowd, two long 
Uaek arms are raised and extended to me. I look, I recognise my 
master of the third class, the good father Midosse, whom f had not 
steo for eight years, and who happened to be present at this cere- 
iiRiny. I instantly rush forward, cut my way through the crowd, and, 
thmwing myself into his arms, with* my three prizies : ** Here, faUier/* 
said 1 to him, '**tkey are yoursv it is to you I owe them/' The good 
Jesuit raised his eyes to heaven, and thcylwere filled with tears of joy ; 
and I may say I was more Bensible to the' pleasure I gave him, than 
to the brilliancy of .my triumph. <' Ah i. ay children, * that whicb 
itttetests the heart ia always gtatetdi: kr deb'ghts to the end of lifie. 
That which has only flattered the pride of genius recurs but as a vain 
dream, the error of which, we blush to have so madly cherished*'*' 

Marmontel had commenced a correspondence with Voltaire^ 
by sending him his verses ; and it .'is hQnourable to the me- 
mory Qf tbat great ^wr^er, that hc^ encouraged the efforts of 

\ . * r* ' ' • the 



Memrirs if MarmonteL * 345 

». 

tbe young candidate for fame, and urged him to .open hi; 
literary career in Paris. He even secured for him the patronage 
of M. Orri, then comptroller general of Finance. — ^The de« 
scription of his journey from Toulouse to Paris is very amusing, 
and furnishes a good lesson ftnr youthful presumption. — His first 
interview with Voltaire exhibits strong characteristics of that 
extraordinary man : 

' Those Touog men who, bom with some genius and loVe for the 
arts, have been introduced into the presertce of the most celebrated 
aen in the art that forms their own study and delight, have felt like 
me the confusion, the oppression of heart, the kind of religious fear 
that I experienced in appearing before Voltaire. 

< PersvMed chat I should have to speak Brst, I had turned in twenty 
ways the phrase with which I should address him, and was satisfied 
with none. He relieved me from this difficulty. On hearing my 
■ame, he came to me» and extending his arms, *< My fi^ood friend,*' 
said he, ** 1 am very glad to see you. Yet I have bad news to tell 
you ; M. Orri had undertaken to provide for you; M. Orri is no longer 
ia fovoor.'* 

' I could scarcely have received a more severe, more sudden, or more 
unexpected blow \ but I was not stunned by it. I have alway been 
astonished at the courage I have felt on great occasions, for my heart 
is naturally feeble. . " Well, Sir," said 1, << then I must contend with 
adversity $ I have long known it, and long struggled with it." — *< I 
am ghd to find you have confidence in your own powers. Yes, my 
|;ood friend, the true and most worthy resource for a man of letters 
IS in himself and in his genius^ But, till yours shall have procured 
you something to exist on, I speak to you candidly as a friend, I must 
provide for you. I have not invited you hither to abandon you. If 
even at this moment you be in want of money, tell me so ; I will not 
suffer you to have any other creditor than Voltaire.*' I returned him 
thanks for bis kindnessy assuring him that» for some time at least, I 
should not want to profit by it, and that, when I should, I would 
confidently have recourse to hinu '* You promise me,'* said he, ^* and 
r depend on you. In the mean time, let's hear what you think of 
applying to ?"— ^<< I really don't know ; you must decide for me." 
— '* The stage, my friend, the stage is the most enchanting of aU 
careers ; it is there that in oae day you may obtain glory and fortune. 
One successful piece renders a man at the same time rich and cele* 
brated ; and if you take pains you will succeed." — ** I do not want 
ardour/' replied 1 1 ** but what should I do for the stage ?" - ** Writ0 
a goad, comedy," said he, in a firm tone. — ** Alas ! Sir, how should J 
make portraits ? I do not know faces." He smiled at this answer* 
^* Well then write a tragedy." I answered that I was liot quite so 
%noitof of the passions and the heart, and that I would wilHoglr 
make the aittii^pt* Thus passed my first interview with this iUustr^ 
4H1S man.' 

Under the auspices of Voltaire^ then, Marmontel com« 
ncBoed a dramatic writer; and, after some hesitatioB, h^ 

R 3 fc«d 



^4^ TUtfttoiri of Marmontel. 

fixed on the lubject of Dionjslus the ^yrafii.-^Tht detail of his 
pecuniary difficulties, at this period* is extremely interesting, 
and will serve to encouragre the exertions of Genius in Poverty, 
by «hev(^ingr hovir cheaply independence may be maintained, in 
spice of embarrassments. The kindness of Voltaire mitigated 
Marmootel's suflFeringij, and at last terminated them, by intro* 
ducing him to the. tuition of the grandson of Madame Harene. 
In this situation, the tragedy of Dionysius viras compieted. The 
accounts of the obstacles which the author encountered in bring* 
ing it on the stage are curious ; particularly in that scene iti 
which he reads his play to the judges of the dramJt : 

* I read them my work ; they listened with the gravest sacnee : and 
«fter the reading. Mademoiselle Clairoft having assured them of my 
docility, beflrged tbem to give me freely their opinion. They begged 
D'Argentai to speak first : the way in which he used to nvehis opi* 
laiofl is notorious \ half words, sentences half suppressed, inikcisive 
phrases, vagueness and obscurity, were aU that 1 could draw fnm 
Dim : and gaping like a fish, he at length pronounced that we nmtt sec 
liow it would be received. After him M. de Praslin said that, indeed 
there were many things in this piece that'deserved reflection, and in a 

sententious tone he advised me to think on them. The 

!Abb6 de Chauvelin exahed on an arm chair, and dangling his littk 
legs, assured me that they were sadly deceived, who thought a tragedy 
Vris -a thing so easy ; that to combine and compose the phin, the in* 
Wguc, ihe manners, the characters, the dicllion, was no child's playi 
that for his own part, without judging my piece with rigour, he re- 
coj^fsfd in it the work of a young nuin ; and that, for the rest, be 
teterred to the opinion of M. dMrgental. Thibou viUe spoke in his 
turn, and stroking his chin that we might admire the brBliaacy of his 
tin?, said that he believed he knew something of tragic poetry : ^ He 
luid recited so much, he had himself written so much, that he ought 
to'be somejudge. But how enter into such details after one single 
reading I He would only refer me to the mddels of the art : by nimiing 
'them he should clearly express what he wished me to undtrstand ; and 
that by readin? Racine and M. de Voltair^, it was easy tp see in what 
**tyle thcv had written,'* 

* Hamg listened with aQ possible attention, and heard nothiag 
clear and precise on my work, h struck me that delicacy might' have 
induced them' to assume, in my presence, this insignificant language. 
^' I leave tou with these gentlemen," whinpered 1 to my actress i 
*' they will explain themselves better when I am gone.*' On seeing 
"her again in the evening : ** Well," said I, '^tlid they speak mora 
^dearly of me in my absence than when I was present ?'• — •• Indeed,** 
"said/*6hc, laiighing, ••they spoke quite at their ease:" — <* Andwluit 
Idtd they sayf-^** They said it was possible that tUs piece might 
succeed ; but that it was aUo possible that it might fall. And all 
iWfgsoimdered, one answers for nothi;ig, another d^res not be too 
.confident." — '* But did thsy make no particular observatioo ?— On the 
attt>ject for example ^" — «Ahl the subject! that is the cri- 
tical 



Memirt tf MaroiQiiteL 9ij| 

ikA point. Yet who can lay I The public arc to fickle !'*— " And tjy 
action, what did they think of that ?"— «' As for the action, Praalin 
docs not know what to say of it, D'Argental does not know what to 
think of It, and the two others are of opinion that it must be judged, 
of upon the stage."— *« Did they say nothing of the characters ?"^-^ 
^*Thcy said that mine would be me enoughj if •...«• ; that of Dia- 

nysius would also be well enough, but*' — « Well ! $r, hut ? 

and what followed >** — *' They tooked at each other, and said nothi^ig 
more.'*— «« And the fourth act, what thought they of that ?»'—*« Oh.i 
as for the fourth act, its hie h decided ; it will either fall, or be ap. 
pUudcd to the skies."—" Wdl !" cried I with vivadty , «* T accept 
the presage ; and it depends on you, Mademoiselle, to aetermine tqc 
prediction in m^ favour.*'—'* How so?*' — ** Thus. At the moment 
,^hen young Dionysius opposes your deU?erance, if you see the pub* 
Jic rising against this effort of virtue, do not leave them time to mur- 
mur, but pressing the reply^ pronounce boldly these verses : 

"Go, fear nothing, &c." 

The actress understood me, and it will soon be seen that she sttrpaased 
my hopes.' 

The success of this play introduced the writer at once to the 
gay world. His society was courted every where $ and he 
candidly acknowleges that be was betrayed into habita of diaair 
patioo : but his tender attachment to his family appeara to 
have perpetually guarded him against extravagance. In this 
part of the work, we meet with details which we shall abataia 
from laying before our readers. They resemble too much the 
licentious parts of his Tales, which were falsely termeil morah « 
and notwithstanding the regret which he expresses for these 
transactions, they are more calculated to allure than to intimi- 
date the heedlessness of youth. 

We accompany the author with pleasure to' scenes of a.dif- 
ferent nature ; for example, to the house of Mme. de Tencin, 
and to her assembly of literary m^, whom she famiUarl|f 
styled sfj bites : 

*■ In Manvaux, impatience to give proof of acuteness and sagacity 
was visibly betrayed. Montesquieu, with more calm, waited tul the 
ball -came' to him, but he expected.it. Mairan watched opportunity. 
Astruc did not deign to wait for it. Fontenejle alone let it comp 
vijthout seeking it ; and he used so soberly the attention with which 
he was listened to, that his acute remarks and charming stories never 
ocicnpied but a moment. Hclvetius, attentive and discreet, sat col- 
lecting for a future day. This was an example for me that I should 
not have had the constancy to follow : and therefore this society had 
but little attraction for ase.' 

Marmontd was unfortunate in two pieces which he produci^d 
on the stage :— but» as Mme. de Pompadour bad interested her* 
self in Qne pf them^ t^e was consoled by obtaining ^e p|ace ^f 

R 4 " Secretaht 



048 Memoirs of MannonteL 

Seeretmre des batimens. He introduces a striking" anecdote, 
previously to the decision on the second of these plays : 

< I here recollect an incident that perhaps may enliven for a moment 
the recital of my misfortunes. Whilst the manuscript of my tragedy was 
•till in the hands of Madame dc Pompadouri I presented myself one 
morning at her toilette, in the room that was crowded with a conflnx 
of courtiers who had just heen at the king's levee. She was surround- 
ed by them, and whether she were displeased with some one near 
her, or whether she wished to divert the weariness that this circle oc- 
casioned her» as soon as she saw me : '< I want to speak to you," said 
ahe to me; and quitting her toilette, she went into her cabineti whither 
I followed her. It was simply to return me my manuscript on which - 
she had pencilled her notes. She was five or sia minutes shewing 
sua the passages she had marked, and explaining to me her criticisms. 
Tet the whole circle of courtiers were standing round her toilette . 
waiting for her. She re appeared, and I, concealing my manuscript, 
went modestly to resuAie my place. 1 suspected the effect that this 
singular incident would produce ; but the impression it made on the 
whole company far exceeded my expectation. All eyes were fixed oa 
me ; on every side I was addressed by little imperceptible salutations 
and gentle smiles of friendship ; and before I left the room, I was in- 
vited to dinner at least for the whole week. Shall I say it ? a titled 
man, a uian decorated with the ribbon, with whom I had sometimes 
dined at M. de la Pbpliniere's, le M. D. S., standing by my side, took 
.me by the hand, axid whispered to me : ** What ! you won't know 
your old friends V* I bowed, confused at his meanness, and aaid to 
myself, <' Ah ! what then is favour, if its shade only gives me such 
singular importance V* 

We snail now give the author's portrait of Mme. de Tencin : 

* Madame de Tencin, who to obtain favour from the state, could 
put more springs in action both in town and at court than any other 
person in the kmgdom, was to me only a lazy old woman. *< You 
aue not fond of these partiesof men of wit/' said she. *' Their pre- 
sence intimidates you ; well*! come and talk with me in my solitude, 
you will there be more at your ease ; and the simplicity of yomr dispo- 
sition will accommodate itself better to my dull good sense." She made 
me tell her the history of my life, from my infancy, entered into all my 
interests, was touched at all my sorrows, reasoned with me on my 
views and my hopes, and appeared to have nothing else in her head 
than my cares. Ah ! how much acuteness of intellect, what supple- 
ness and activitr, did this careless air, this appearance of calm and 
leisure conceid-irom me ! I still smile at the simplicity with which I 
exclaimed on quitting her ; ff^hM a good simple creature ! The fruit I 
gathered from her conversations, without perceiving it, wa& a more 
sound and deeper knowledge of the world. For instance, I remember 
two pieces of advice she gave ; one was to secure to myself a livelihood 
independent of literary successes, and to put into this fottery only the 
overplus of my time. '« Woe to him," said she, *« who depends wholly 
•B his pen I nothing is more casual. The man who makes shoes is 

sure 



Mtmoits of MarmonteL 249 

core of )iff8 warn $ the man vrho writes a book or a tragedy is never 
toxt, of any tk»g/' Her other counsel was to seek friends amoag 
women rather than among men. ^ For by means of women/' said 
ahe» ^ you may do what you please with men ; and then these are 
either too dissipatedf or too much occupied with their own personal 
interests, to attend to yours \ whereas women think of your mtere8t» 
be it only out of indolence. Mention this evening to a woman> who 
is your friend, an zSak that intimately concerns you ; to morrow, at 
her spinning whed) at her embroidery« you wiB find her occupied with 
yout torturing her fancy to invent some means of serving you. Bat 
be careful to be nothing more than the friend of her whom you think 
may be useful to you ; for, between lovers, where once there happens 
any cloud, diapnte, or rupture, all is lost. Be then assiduous to her^ 
complaibsnt, gallant even if you wiU, but nothing more ; you understand 
me.'' Thus in all onr conversations, the plainness of her language 
imposed on me 60 well that I never took her subtle intellect for any 
other than good sense.' 

The subsequent anecdotes respecting Voltaire are new and 
curious : \ 

' It was not enough' for him to be the most illustrious of men oF 
letters, he wanted to be a courtier. From his earliest youth he had 
assumed the flattering habit of living with the g^reat. First, Marshal 
Vilhirs, the grand piior De Vendome, and afterwards the Duke de 
Richelieu, the Duke de la Vallicre, the Boufflers, the Montmorency* 
had been his society. He supped with them habitually, and you know 
with what respectful familiarity he had the art of writing and speaking 
to them. Verses lightly and delicately flattering, a conversatioh not 
less .seducing than his poetry, made him beloved and welcomed among 
this nobility. Now, these noblemen were admitted to die king's sup- 
pers ; and ne, why wad he not of iheni ? This was one of his desires. 
x]e recollected the reception that Lewis the Great had given to Boi« 
)eau and Racine ; he said that Horace and Virgil had the honour of ap- 

froaching Augustus ; that the /Eneid had been read in the cabinet of 
«ivia. Were Addison and Prior more worthy than he ? And had they 
not both been honourably employed in their country, one in the mini- 
stry, and the other as ambassador ? The place of historiographer was 
already a mark of confidence in him, and who before him had filled 
it with so much glory ? He had bought a place of c^entleman in or- 
dinary of the king's chamber: this i^ace, commouty very inactive« 
gave, however, the right of being sent to foreign courts on light cons* 
missions, and he had flattered himself that| for a man like him, thes« 
commissions would not be limited to baie compliments of felicitattott 
and eondolance. He wanted, as we say, to make his way at court | 
and, when he had a project in his head, he persisted in it obstinately s 
" ont of his maxims was these words of the livangelist R^num calonm 
vhnfiiokw ft violent raphmt Ubid : he employed then all the meana ht 
* couui devise to approach the king. 

' When Madame d'Etioles, aftervrard Marchioness de Pompadoinv 
was announced as tlje king's n^istress, and even liefore she was df-, 
dared so^ he was eager in paying his court to her* He easily sdc« 

cecdcd 



itjo Ilemcirs ^ ilbxm^nttL 

ceeded in pleasiag her ; and yvhik lie cekbraled tbe^vktoijet of the 
Jiing, he flattered -hU mistress by wnting pr<tty verses to her. l)e 
was persuaded that, through heo he should obtain the {av»ur of bemg 
admitted totbe tittle cabinet suppers, aod 1 am, persuaded ^ that a^e 
>vished it. . 

* Transplanted to the oourt» and ignorant eaowgh of the character 
and tastes of the king, she had at first hoped' to amvse him hj l^r 
talents. On a private theatre she used to play before him little acts 
^f operasi some of which were written for her, and in which her 
playing, her voice, her singing were justly -applauded. yolcaire» in 
xavour with her, took it into hia head to wish to direct these perfor- 
nances. The alarm spread to the camp of gentlefnen of the bad- 
chamber and intendants des mcmm-plahirs. It was trespassing on ihek 
rights, and a league was instantly formed among them to remove fix>|n 
the court a man who would have governed them alU if he had pleased 
the king as well as his mistress. But they knew the king did not 
like him, and that by his eagerness to increase his imjportance* heon|y 
increased the prejudices agamst him. But the king, Lttle touched witn 
the praises he had lavished on him in his panegyric, only saw la him 
an impious philosopher, and an ambitious flatterer. He had at last 
consentedi with great difficulty, that he should be received at the 
adademy. Without reckoning the friends of religion, who were 
not the friends of Voltaire, there were many about the king who 
were jealous and envious of the favour they saw him courting^ and 
they were very careful to censure what he did to please. In their 
miwd, the poem of Fontenoy was only a cold gazette; the jpa- 
negyric on the king was inanimate^ wanting colouring, and with- 
out elo^uence^ The verses to Madame de rompadour were tax-* 
<d with impropriety and indiscreUon ; and in this verse in parti* 
cnUur: 

Be both without an enemy, 
And keep your conquests both. 



They persuaded the king that it was indecorous to put him on an 
lity with his mistress. 

^ At the marriage of the Dauphin with the la&nta of Spain, it was 

•'€a8y to animadvert on the absurdity and folly of having given as a 

'^y to the infanta, that Princesu de Nwarre, which really was not 

calculated to succeed. I do not say the same of. the opera, of k 

. Tett^ de la Gloire : the idea of it was grand, the subject well oon« 

«eived, and nobly ezecftted* The third act, of which .Tnjau was 

the hero, presented a flattering allusion for the king ; it was a hero, 

just, humane, generous, pacinc, and worthy the love of the worWt 

: to whom the temple of glory was open. Vokaire dokiibted not but 

. ^hat the king would recognise himsdx in this culo^v. Aifur tUe play 

^e met him in his waj out, and seeing that tbc«ing'|M(Me(l without 

.saying any thing to him, he took thelib<rty of aaking him, // Tn^tn 

icnisfed f Trajan, surprised and displeased that he should have darrd 

to interrogate him, answered by a cold (iknce ; and ^e whole 

cottit thought Voltaire very wrong for haiing dared to queaiion the 

Jung. 

• ^ < To 



^To nSBiov hiok, \i Wis <inhr tte#n«Ary to^ dirticli^blta Itmi Ike 
tuhtrctt, and the w«y tbcy took to^ thift^iMli ^o o^fote t^Udi 
CrebiUon. 

' - < CrebiOoa, old aad poor, wia li Ww obfconelf tii th^jdltMt iMKt oC 
tbe Maraity bbourtog by staru at tGat Catitmm wbidi be had m^ 
DouDccd rpr ten years, and of «h!ch he read here and there tome 
bits of teeqes that were thought adtnjrable. Rif age, hit iMceseev 
hi^ manners somewhat rough, b» soldlcr-llbe character, hit tndy 
tra^cal face, the axr» the imposiog though simi^lf ton« bl whtdi be 
recited his hanh and inharmonious ferses, thcTigoar^ tha ctteify bv 
gave to his OKprcssioo, all concurred to strike the mind with a aort of 
enthusiasm. Ihatc beard applauded with transport, by men who were 
"not fools, these verses, which he had put into the mouth of Cicero \ 

Cataline, i think you are not gaihy ; 

But if yon be^ you are detestable. 

And I see in you only the'tafentt and renowa 

Of the greatest of men, or the greatest of villaxaiL 

' The name of CrebiUon was the rallying word for the. enemies of 
Voltaire. Elhtre and RaJamUt€f which were sometimes still played, 
drew but ihin houses \ all the rest of CrebiUon^s tragedies were for- 
.gotten, while those of Voltaire, OEtBfef jtlztre^ Mabcnutf Zain^ 
jHfertpe^ occupied the theatre in all toe splendour, of full success. 
The partisans of old CrebiUon were few, but noisy i and they did aot 
cease to. call, him the Sophocles of our age \ and even among men pf 
letters Marivaux used to say, that aU the fipe wtt of Voltaire must 
bow before the genius of CrebiUon. 

' It was mentioned before Madame de Pompadour, that this great 
, neglected man was suffered to grrow old without support, because he 
was without intrigue. This was touching her in her most sensible part. 
** What do you say ?" cried she \ '* CrebiUon is poor and Forsaken 1'' 
She instantly obtained for him from the king a pension of one huii« 
dred poands from the privy purse. 

* CrebiUon was eager to go and thank his benefactress. A sUght 
todispof ition kept her in bed, when he was announced to her : she 
desired he might come in. The sight of this fine old man touched 
ber ; she received him with an affecting grace. He was moved by it | 
Mid as be leaned over her bed to kiss her hand, the king appeared* 
** Ah 1 madaaie,'' cried CrebiUon, *« the^king has surorised us; I am 
Iocs/' This sally in an old man of eighty , pleased the king. The 
iortoae of Crebfllon was decided- AU the tnemu^^tnAn mnched 
ialo praises of bis .genius and bis manners. ** ife had digdity^*' 
• said they, '* but no prid^, and still less pf.vain glory. His poverty 
was the proof of his di^iotcrestedaess. . He waa a veneiable character* 
and truly the man whose genius hoapured the reiBn of the king.*' 
CaMfiir waa meaatfeued as the «K0D4er pf the frge. lladaoie de Pom« 

eioor wished lo bear it. . A day was fixed for the reading ; the 
^, oresent, but invisible, heard it. It had. complete success ; and 
•a ite irst performaace, Madame de Pompadour, accompanied byla 
flight of courtiers, atteifdcd with' the most lively intfreat. A Iftue 
tnae afterward CrebiUon obtained the favour of an edition of his woria 

a at 



^« . M^$mirJ tf Marmoncpl. 

It dit pt>cirqf tlic Ix>uyr«t at tlie cxpcnce.of tlfc .my4- tmMiiy. 
. From (h#t iimt.Voluicc wu.coldly rec^yed> aa4 h< left ofFgoin^ to 
court*' * - 

'IR; Mar^onterii traiisltoty conncctiofl -with a frirolous and 
)ic^tioU8 |Ct>uirt furnUbcs some cbaracteriitic' scenes, but no« 
thing^y^i[(by of b«irig c)itra^^cl* — ^Wc arc n.^xt to rfgard him 
as thi^.immediate cause ^of the great change w1\ich his taken 
place m (Hc.<iraiBatic world ; of simplicity in. dedsunatioo, 2nd 
irutb 10 ibe Costume of ihe thofitre : 

* I had long been in the habit of diiputiiYg with Madcnbiselle ClairoQ* 
onj^he manner of dechumitkg tragic verses. 'I foimd^ in her playing^ 
too mbch Tiolenceand tmpetuosityy not enough supnleneness and 
variety 9 and above all a. f<^e thatt as it was not qualibcdf vras more 
a-kin to rant than to sensibility. It was this that I endeavoured 
discreetly to make^ her understand. <« You have»" I used to say to 
her, *' aU tbe means of exodb'ojf in your art ; and great as you are, it 
would be easy for you still to rise above yourself, by managing morv 
carefully the poweiis of which you are so prodigal. You oppose to 
me your brilliant 'successes, and those you have procured me ; you 
oppose to me the opmions and the suffrages of your friends ; you op. 
pose to me the anthorfty of M. de Voltaire : who himself recites his 
verses with emjphasid, and who pretends that tragic verses requite, in 
declamation, the samcf pomp as in the style ; and I can only answer I 
have an irresistible feeling, which tells me that declamation, like style* 
ttav be noble, majestici tragic, with simplicity ; that ezpressioo, to 
be lively and profoundly, penetrating, requires gradations, shades, un* 
foreseen and sudden traits, which it cannot have when it is stretched 
and forced." She used to reply sometimes with impatience, that I 
should never let her rest, tSl she had assumed a familiar and comic 
tone in tragedy. " Ah! no, Mademoiselle,^' said I, **that you will 

' never have ; nature has forbidden it ; you even have it not, while you 
are speaking to me ; the sound of your voice, the air of your coonte* 
nance, your pronunciation, your gestures, your attitudes, are naturally 

' noble. Dare only to confide in this charming native talent, and I dare 
warrant you will he the more tragic.*' 

* Other counsels ^han mine prevaHed, and, tired of being impoftli- 
nate without utility, I had yielded, when I saw the actress suddenly 
and voluntarily come over to my opinion. She came to play Roxdoe 
at the little theatre at Versailles. I ^ went to see her at the toilette, 
and, for the £rst time, I found her dressed in the habit of a suluna ; 
without hoop, her arms half naked, and in the troth of Oriental eos- 
turns : I congratulated her. '* You will presently be delighted with 
me^'' said she. ^* I .have just been on a journey to Bourdeaux ; ' I 
found there bo^ a vei^ small theatre ; to which 1 was obliged to «c« 
commodate myself. The thought struck me of reducing my action 
to it, and of making'trial of that srmpfe declamation you have so often 
feqnired of me. ' It Had the greatest success there ^ I am ffoing ^o 
tiy it again here, on this little theatre. Go and hear me. If it sac- 
gced as wtU, fiircvr cU my old declamation/' 

* The 



\ 



* The evient surpaiiaed her expectation and mine. It wiw no longer 
the actfCMy it was Roxane, herself, whofld the audience thought they 
saw and heard. The astonishment, the masion, the enchantmentp 
was extreme. All inquired where are we ? Tfaer had heard nothiiig 
like it. 1 saw her after the play ; I would speaic to her of the sue* 
cets she had just had. *^ Ah !'' said she to ixie, ^* don't you see that 
k ruina me ? In all my characters, the costume must now he. observed ; 
the truth of declamation requires that of dress ; all my rich stage* 
wardrobe 19 from this moment rejected ; I lose twelve hundred guineaa 
worth of dresses ; but the sacrifice is made. You shall see me here 
within a week playing Ekitre to the life, as I have just played 
Roxane." 

* It was the Electri of Crebillon. InsteaTl of the ridiculous hoop« 
and the aniple mourning robe, hi which we had been accustomed to 
see her in this character, she appeared in the simple habit of a- slave, 
dishevelled, and her arms loaded with long chains. She wasvdmirable 
m it ; and some time afta*ward, she was still more sublime in the 
Eleetre of Voltaire. This part,'which Voltaire had made her decUum 
vrith a continual and monotonous lamentation, acquired, when spoken 
naturally, a beauty unknown to himself; for on seeing her play it oa 
his theatre at Ferney, where she went to visit him, he exclaimed, 
bathed in tears and transported with admiration, ** li h Mt I ^ba 
vrrai£ ihai^ *iU thi: the has created Bet pari t** And indeed, by the 
infinite shades she introduced, by the expression shegajretothepas- 
sions with which this character is filled. It was perhaps that of all others 
in which she was most astonishing. . , . 

* Paris, as well as Versailles, reoogoised in these changes the true 
tragic accent, and the new degree of probability that the strict ob« 
aervaoce of costume gave to theatrical action. Thus, from that time 
all the actors were obliged to abandon their fringed gloves, their volu« 
Bunoua wigs, their feathered hats, and all the fantastic ' apparel that 
had so long shocked the sight of all men of taste. Lekaio himself 
followed the exfimple of Mademoiselle Clairon ; and from that moment 
their talents, thus perfected, excited mutual emulation, ^d were 
worthy rivals of each other.' 

About this period, Marmontel became one of the Encyclo- 
pedists ; that set of philosophers who have been unjustly re- 
proached with events which they could neither foresee nor de« 
sire* It appears that Voltaire might have been easily detached 
from them, by a little indulgence from the Court ; 

* In his spite against the king, he had been gwlty of impru* 
dencies ; but they were guilty of a much greater, who obliged him 
to remain in a land of liberty, when he would fain have returned to 
his country. The king's answer, let him remain where be it, was not 
sufficiently deliberate. His attacks were not such as could there be 
prevented. Versailles, where he would have been less bold than in 
Switzerland or Geneva, was the place of exile they should have given 
him. The priests should have opened to htm that magnificent pri- 
son: it was thus that Cardinal de Richelieu acted toward the first 
nobility. 

10 * la 



tS4 Mm$m ^VUmMttli 



redsMBiifg his title of gtntleoiaii ui ordiMry of bi« nilestVs 
chambfir, he hnnadf held out to thetn tbc cad of the chain with whi^i 
they might have attached him if they woold. I owe this testimony to 
Madame de Pofhpadouf i that he was exiled again&t har wilL She in- 
tercftcd herself for Wim, she sometimes inquired for him of me, and^ 
when I answered that it depended only on lier to make her inqoiriea 
vnneccMary, ^* Ah ! no^ it does not depend on mci" said she, with a 
aigh. 

* It was then from -Geneta that Voltaire aoimated the co-opera- 
tors of the EncychficSe, 1 was of the number ; and my greatest 
fdeasure^ <^ycry time I went tq Paris, wai to find myself in their so* 
ciety. D'Alembert and Diderot were satisfied with what I wrote» 
^iid our relations streiM^thened more and moic the bonds of that 
friendship* which endco] but wkh life : they were more intimately, 
9M>re tcndcfly, rafirc assidooudy cultivated by d' Alembert ; but not 
lew itncisne, not less aoalteralje with the good DUtrot, whom I W4« 
always to delighted to ice, and to cbitrmed to l>ea#/ 

The origm of Marmonters cekbrated Tales does him grsat 
credit He had procured the appointment of Editor of the 
Mercure Frsncns for BoiMy, a man of letters in dUtressi 
Boiasy found himself unequal to the task of supporting the 
yubUcalion» and applied to Marmontel for bis friendly aid : 

* Destitute of assistaocej finding nothing ^as8rt>le in the papers that 
were left him, Boisst wrote me a letter, which was a true picture of 
distress. *' You will in "vain have given me the Mercnre^** said he ; 
** this favour will be lost on me* if you' do not add that of coming to 
my aid. Prose or verse, whatever you pieasCf all will be good from-yoor 
hand. Sut hasten to extricate me from the diflicnity in which I noif 
am ; I conjnre you in the name of that friendship which I have vowed 
to you for the rest of nriy life.** 

^ This letter roosed me from mv slumber ; I beheld this unlrappy 
editor a prey to ridicnle, and the Mercure decried in his hands, 
should* he let his penury be seen. It put me in a fever for the vi-hole 
night ; and it was in this state of crisis and agitatbn that I first coo* 
smvikA tite -idea of writinjg^ a tale. After having passed the night 
without closing my eyes, m rolh'ng in my fancy the subject of that I 
have entitled JiUihiaaej I got up, wrote it at a breath, without lay- 
jug down my pen, and sent it oS^ This tale had an unexpected 
success. I had required that the name of its author should be kept 
secret. No one knew to whom to attribute it ; and'at Helvctius'd 
dinneR, where the finest connoisseurs were, they did me the honour of 
ascribing it to Voltatre> or to Montesquieu.* 

' After the death of Boissyi the patent far the Mercure was 
given to Marmontel, and he quitted Versailles. His account 
of the plan on which he conducted that paper is very amus- 
ing, especially as it comjprehends some anecdotes of Galet and 
Canard* already celebrated in the joyous life of ]Piron«->&/ 
puinum df uJfM* 

[Ti be ccnfinued.2 

Akt- 



t ^ » 



( ^5S ) 

AftT. V. Tie jtrchiiectural jtntiquiiict of Great Britain^ displayed ia 
a Seriea of select Engravings^ representing the roost beautiful^ 
curious* and interesting Antlent Edifices oT this Country ; with 
an Historical and Descriptive Account of each Subject. By John 
Britton. 4to. Parti, with eight Engravings. los. 6d. 6ewe.d, 
Longman and Co* 1 80 jf . 

T>B8CiiiPTiOM8 of arcbkectural antiquities are given either as 
^ examples for building, or to illustrate some circumstances 
in the history of the times to which they relate. In the former 
case, they are represented with various degrees of accuracy, 
depending on the abilities of the artist, the diligence bestowed, 
or the expence intended to be inconed in the undertaking. 
How much soever nay be professed, scarcely an instance can 
be adduced of a work which describes an object of antient ar* 
chitecture with sufficient information for executing a similar 
edifice } and the most c^lebrate^ publications give only the 
external dimensions and forms, neglecting the description of 
the internal structure from which those external forms arise. 
The recent volumes of a learned society are by no means 
free from these defects : which is the more to be lamented 
because the example will have an extensive influence ; their 
drawings being, made professedly to enable future gene^ 
rations to imitate the celebrated buildings which they reprcr 
sent* 

The half ruined state of these architectural objects generally 
aflbrds ample means of developing die interior structure ; and, 
which is of still more consequence, it assists us to investigate 
the fundamental principles on which those buildings were 
erected. Every style of antient architecture, with which wc 
are acquainted, proceeded on sound principles, deriving ez« 
terior forms from a just conformation of the several parti ; and 
there is too much reason for saying that it was left to this age 
atone to produce fbrms which have no reference to the destinsttoft 
of the building, and are at variance with the construction :— - 
forms which are thus distorted, and of which the duration, in 
consequence, b scarcely more than coeval with the race that 
gives them existence. , 

Expensive piiblications continually appear, presenting pic- 
turesque views of this class of antiquities, from which very 
little information can be derived. The plan of the present: 
work is of a more useful kind, and does great credit to the 
f¥oject6PS : it gives, besides perspective representations, such' 
specimens of the detail as tend to elucidate the general cha* 
racter of the btiildings : each subject accomjMtnied by a de- 
scriptive account, and a concise and well digested history, col- 
lected 






'7S^ Britton'/ jffehiiectural AnttquUtes. 

kcted from different authorities. The objects are well cho<» 
sen : the plates are beautifully executed \ and the whole con • 
stitutes a pleasing performance at a moderate price \ containing 
as much as may be deemed necessary, where deep i^searcKes 
or extensive architectural information are. not desired.— It is 
introduced by a short prefatory advertisement^ in which the 
author observes : 

* It may be proper to remark, that, as I wrsh to ilTustrate and his- 
torieally dcvtlopc the Ancient Architecture of Great Britain,, pntra- 
melled by ai>y'theory, dr favourite' system, I shall gladly avail myself 
of any suggestion, description, or document, that gentlemen may be 
inclined to honour me wkh. As there are many curious remains uk 
Scotland, Ireland, and Normandy» any descriptions, with iUustrativc 
sketches, of those, will be peculiarly acceptable* 

* £ach Part of this Work will be complete in itself, as indeed will 
every subject ; by which plan of publication, the reader may arraoffe 
the prints and descriptions, either in chronological order, or in sucK 
classes as may be most agreeable to his fancy, of adapted to his col- 
lection.* 

The present numberi or part the Erst, includes a plan and 
three views of the remains of the priory church of St.Botolph 
at Colchester ; three plates of the priory church at Duostaple : 
one of Layer Marney bouse in Essex \ and one of St. Nicholas 
church atid the abbey gateway at Abingdon in Berkshire. From 
the accompanying ietter-pressi we extract the account of Layer 
Marney house as a specimen : ^ 

* Of the Domestic Architecture which was peculiar to tlie Anglo- 
Romans, Anglo Saxons, and Anglo-Normans, there are no specimens 
remaining ; and its characteristics are only imperfectly noticed lo the 
pages of the Historian, and the Antiquary. Unfortunately for us^ 
these notices are so extremely vague, that they serve rather as hmU to 
the fancy, than as satisfactory evidences to the judgmeat. - Henoe the 
diversity of opinions that prevail on this subject, and heace the im* 
pcrioas necessity of obtaining «nd perpetuating comect delineatian^ 
with faithful accounts of the most audent structures. For it must be. 
evident that authentic information relating to the comparative state of 
the useful arts at different periods, constitutes an important object ia 
the history of a kingdom, and serves materially to characterize the 
manners, custotns, and habits of a people. 

' The dissolution of monasteries by Henry the Eighth, occasioned 
am extraordinary change in the features of the times ; and the state of 
Domestic Architecture has to date a new epoch from that event. 
Many religious houses were then converted into mansions ; and some 
of the newly- erected scats were built in ifnitation of the monastie 
dwellings. '^Layik MAaNWY Hall,'* observes MomntS '* was a 
grand and capacious housCf wherein many persons could be conveniently 



i^^«i 



* * Hiitonr of £saex. z Vok. folio.' 

kdgci 



Ibiflged. Tflfc btttlding >Kra8 8quane» enciostng a CQiirt with a gr^'V^ 
tntrante iowa^di the «oath.''. This estate continued the property of 
Ibte MlHti«y family^ ftoni th« timt of Henrv Sedoiid*. untiTthc 35th 
•«vf H«ttiy tlte Eiprhth, whto Mptth other Iatt<» xii E^^ex, it was obtal6c!i 
ia «ohan§e by Sir Bryan Tuke f . The |iriMeftt ttiatiston a^^pean to 
have been built by Sir Henry Mardey^ '^ who wu Dtfitarin df t\k^ Guii^ 
to Henry VIII. made Knight of the Carter, Lord Privy-Seal^ 14 
Henrj VIII. and in- the same year was created I«i>f\l M^ncLy^"!^ 
towards the latter end of Henry tjie Seventh's^ an4tlve'b<i^ning of 
Henry th^ Eighth's reignn^ the mansions began to lose their real cas- 
tellated ddmacctr, rbodgh'scin i^taiMngihany x>^\h p^blurities : small 1 .; 
.window^ t^ick walls, baa« c«ttnl« turr«tai^ aad 4 t|i!^^ tmbatlleU ^ ^^: 
parapet stfll continued^. Layer Mara<y I|^n^Flpw9 {XEthit d^scrrp- 
tlon : chequered compartments of flint, and .4iB90na|(Ufie|,af darlt gif- 
ted bricks were frequently introduced Into the ftpatr of^bviiljinji^ 
«boitt this period. With a large court in the centre, measuring. ic)4. ' ? 
ftet 6 inchvi by 76 feet 4 inches, surrounded by lofty buildings," an^.. ^'^ 
twtc fe d hy t handsome tower gateway, thi^ mansion must have beeti ' 4- 
■pacioiM in its interior, and have displayed much grandeuf and dignity ' 
Externally. The two projecting octagon towers, aboot 73 feet nigh, .' 
sre each divided into eight stdries or floors, lighted by small fkilAted . 
arch windows. Two floors^ occupied by two rooms, fill up Xht Ibae^ : . 
between the towers : these have large square wmdowa, «'ith mtfttiona^ iPi^' 
which partake of the character of the Ionic pilaster. The decora^ ijftt 
ttoni 6n the stfmmit, with those of the windows, coraicc^, 
Xtiade of a species of white brick, which was cast in mottldaj 
sitd^thiek masses. All the fire places are made of soft fire 
4oor-posts and lintels of the stables, 5rc. are of Purbeck m 
the whole of the walls are of brrck. These are not pecdliar either iii 
■ize or substance, but the mode of bu^lding is eminently substantial. 
Exclusive of the great definlcations in this structure, mariy absnrd and 
destructive alterations have progressively been made by succ^sstve pro* 
brietprs. Abandoned to neglect and. decay, it was, tiU withsn thes^ 
tew yearsy fast- hastening to tot^l ruin, when its present owsct!» N. C» 
Cotfellis, Esq checked its muttbting progress by some pnuso^werlhy 
fepaira, and judicious restorations.' 

«• Henry III. in the 4Sth year of his reign, grants tp Wm^d^ 
Maniey leave to impark his wood of Lire^ within the precincts of the 
forest of Essex. And the same time he bad Hhetiy gtahied him td 
kui»t within the forest of Essex. Sidmon's History of Esset; fo. p» 

« f Private Acts, 55tK Hen. VIII cb. 9,* 

< X Salmon's History, &e. p* 448/ 

* § Henry the ScttnihgnaiMiiffk^nei, or pAKntsston, to Jbrti/y the 
manor-house at New Hall, Essex, "with «ra//r and tomfetJ ; and GosfielA 
Hall, which was built in his reign, » a manndr to evade the law, haM i 
lanre quadrangular court in the centre, and was equally strong anA 
Ireu secured as many baronial ca&tles. Betttties #f Ewhind atd 
Wales. Vol. V. p. 165. 361.* . ^ '^^ 

Kev. Not. 1805. S We 



Thcdecorai- \^ 

ilda, in hrgo > 7^^ 
5re stone, th^ " '^^i^ 
L marble, and ^ 



258 Piilos. Transactions ofth( R.S. JPart Lfor l8oy. 

• . * , . « »■ • 

Wc sb^ll have great pleasure in announcitlg iW continua- 
tion of this wbrki *Tru5tif)g t1iat the same elegance' aod {cood 
*6clcctipn will cfiaracterize the succeeding partf. Under tibcse 
circumstaoces, the Reasonableness of the price oiust insure it» 
success. A nunibcr is iiicended- to ^appear cferj thtec naootba i 
tand the. second jbij««t pttblrsbedri ^ 



■»^-- — 



A«.T. Vl'. PMosophictii Transactions of the' Royal Sociejj of Londsm^ 
• for the Vcar 1805. Parti. 410. los. sewe^* NicoL 

Med.ical a/2</ Ch liMiCAL Paveks, tfr. 
grBE Crcvtian Lecture vn Af Oscular Motion.- By Anthony 
•'f' . Carlisle, Esy^s, .F.itrfS.— The objects to which Mr. C. par- 
•ticuiarrly directs his attention, in this paper, are the changes 
^at prevail in muscles during their contraction. and relaxation^ 
•Und the connection of these actions with the vascJ^Ui^i respira* 
tory, and nervous systems. After some remarks on theistroo^ 
|ture of muspleS) as composed of the proper €bre$ divided inta 
buadl&s-^f ..various sizesi he details a set of eaBperlments which 
were j/istituted to prove that the cohesion of muscles in the di* 
jr:p€tiog[ of their fibres is diminished bj death. They were per- 
formed lOO* the hinder legji of frogs ; and the result was that an 
initableJiilib sustained a wei^tbf one -sixth rnqr^ than a simi- 
iar iimbdeprived of its vitrility. 

The origin of the muscular "fibre is involved ui much ob- 
scurity ; whether the firgc rudim/ent in (he egg (the punctum 
satiensy as it is usually styled,) derive its organisation immc* 
diately from the parent, or whether it be a part of entirelf nevf 
/orniation, re$uUin$: from the effects of intubation, is stiil un- 
dedded : Mr.<2arlisle inclines to the former opinipn. It may 
be cx>ficluded that albumen is the source whence the first ele- 
ment of- the aHimal is generated; since during incubation the 
mtlmfneri ew? 'if consumed. This, indeed might be inferred from 
a knowlege of the chemical structure o( the body ; for we ob« 
serve, in all parfs that contain any peculiar substance, -—as the 
earth of bones, or the nfiusctilar matter|~that it is imbedded 
or deposited in a mould of albumen. 

Mr. C. differs from f>ther anatomists in supposing that the ulti^ 
nlate muscular fibre m^y be visible to the eye. He describes 
it as ' a solid cylinder, rbe .(fovifufg of which js a reticular mem- 
brane, and the contained parrarp^lpy substance irregularly gra- 
nulated^ aQd,af ii^lt^'CQbesive^wwerw^iendead.' In general^ 
it has.been supposed :l!) 11^ t theenificleB are so fdr ii^definitely di« 
f iftibldf that their cdttmate^ fibres elude the sight, even when 
jliiisted by the most 'pdw^rful microscopes : but this point can 
hufj^j" bead«termined ' bir future observations, . It is also hdrc 

II ' n^intaiacdy 



Phihs. TiHinsaetions of the R, S. PariL fir 1805. ^59 

maintained, contrary to the prevailing opinioHi that vascularity 
js not infinitely extended. The author cantroverts the gene^ 
rally reqeived doctrine, on. the principle that we can distinctly 
perceive an evident difference between the vascularity of dif- 
ferent parts ; and also that, below a certain size, a vessel 
woulci not be able to convey any thing but pure water, aod 
would of course be useless in the animal ctcooomy.-— He in« 
forms lis that the ttroiination of the nexvous fibrils may be 
easily detected by a microscope ; or that they may at least be 
traced * as far as their sensible properties and their continuity 
•eitend.' They are seen to terminate on the surface of the 
reticulated membrane. 

The structure of the animal body is varied by insensible de* 
•greesy from the elaborate fabric of the human frame, to the 
lowest tribe of beings who merely give indications of irrita« 
-biiity, without exhibiting any distinct organization of blood* 
vessel, nerves, or fibres. In these animals, it would appear 
that every particle is equally alive, and equally important to it$ 
ceconomy : but, as we advance to the higher scales of beings 
we find that there are parts which are more or less essential to 
existence, and which seem to possess more or less of the cha- 
racters 4>f liviftg matter. Mr. Carlisle indeed supposes that 
some of the nraterials of the body cannot properly be said to be 
alive, as water and earthy matter ; and he extends his opinion 
to the hoofs, horns, feathers, and cuticulat covering; inclin* 
ing also to place in the same class the reticular membrane and 
the tendona. To a certain extent, we have no doubt of the 
truth of this doctrine 1 but we thifflc that the author carries it 
much beyond the limits of fair induction. 

These remarks on the structure of muscles lead Mr. Carlisle 
to the fecodd part of his subject, He tiotiees the diflFerences 
in the tettiperatore of animals, and points out its connection 
with the peculiarities in their respiration and circulation v and 
'he gives> some observations made on <he blood and internal 
psatsAif newly kilkd animals, from which it seems that th^ir 
teoAperature is considerably higher than the estimate usually^ 
formed. It will remain for future experimenters to confirm or • 
refute Mr« Carlisle's observations. Perhaps the most valuable 
part of the paper is an account of. the effects produced by 
crimping fish ; which were found both to have gained a con- 
siderable addition to their weight by the operation, and like** 
wise 16 have their specific, gravity increased. The additional 
weight must have been derived frotn their having united them* 
selves to a quantity of water ; and we must conclude that a 
considerable approximation of their particles had been induced, 
became their specific gravity was augmented, notwithstanding 

S S tbi$ 



tSS Pbfhu ^ranstetims ^tii It. S. iVf/ tfir ifoj. 

• • 

thfs circumstancf. We hare also some experiments bo iht 
Tflects of diflrrent fluids on the irritability of muscles immersed 
in them : but they are detailed in too loose a manner to enable 
Its to draw any precise concltisions fron» them^ 

Mr. Carlisle's paper certaii>^y contains some vakuible idk 
formationi and ingenious views respecting the animal ceco- 
nomy : but we f Aiark a Vagueness in the style^and a careless*- 
ness in the experiments) which are much to be legretted oi^ 
scientific subjects* 

On the Actiw of Mercury and Platintt en ioei otBer, jy 
Iflicfaard Chenevix, Eiq.f (!f<:.— Most of o«r readers must w 
acqitatnted with the singular manner in which Palkdium wa» 
first announced to the public as a new metal, and with the ex*- 
perioKnts of Mr. Chenevix to prove that.it was- a compound of 
incrcttry and plattna. ^ The subject soon attracted general at* 
tention, and experiments were performed on it by soiae of 
the most distinguislied chemists in difierent' parts of Europe^* 
Btili the. question concerning the cooftpound nature of PaUadiiSfli^ 
remained undecided ( though the majority of the mo«t respect* 
able authofitiesy contrary to the opinioa of Mr. Cheoevixi in* 
dined to consider it as a new and dtstiBCt metah In this state 
of uncertain tyi Mr. C* applied himself lo tuvestigaie not fadff' 
the formation of PaUadiooi^ but the actten which mtrcury and 
platint) its supposed constituents^ excfctse 6n etch other* 
This latter inquiry forms the basis of the present paper ) tad 
in whatever wa^r we may' decide respecting palladium, we must 
acknowlege that Mr. Cbenerix has. given ua^a valuable spccimeia 
>of laborious investigation* 

He commences by detaihng anT account of the difierent at^^ 
tempts that have .been made to repeat his procesa f6r die fbr^ 
mation^pf palladium,^ and the want of success which has in 

![eneral attended the^e operations.. Re endeavours to account 
or this l^ailure, either by pointing ouS some circttrastances 
which had not received aufficient attention^, or by shewing that 
t)ie experiments had iK>t been repeated so often as to {iv>e t fait 
diance of success \ for the operaiion is confessedly of 90 delt-r 
cate a nature, that he himself obtained only four Mccesaful 
Insults, otit of (as he computes) nearly a thousand trials* Sucb 
a degree of uncertainty . cannot but tend very strongly to im^ 
press the mind with a doubt of the correctness of Mr. Che«> 
9evix's conclusions ', yet we acknowlege that it doe^tiot form 
sin insuperable objection to them, bectusc analyses^ even of' 
the most simple kind^ have occasionally given different pro« 
ducts in the hands of difiereiu chemist^ of distinguiahed skill 
t^d accuracy. . « 

' . .Afttr 



JPUks. Trpu/nA^f fffikt R. S. PmttL fir iZo$. 2€i 

After these pfcliniiuiry obsnvatiaMf we proceed to the 
Kiore immedisite subject of the paper. The author vemarki 
that the point now under discussion not onlv, involves the 
question respecting the nature of palladium^ whether it be ^ 
'simple or a compound bodjTi but that it applies to metallie 
substances i« genera)| and leads us to a very important conclu- 
sion respecting the action which metals exercise on each otber^ 
by which it seems that their principal properties may be so far 
altered, that their presence can .be no longer detected by the 
usual methods- This he states (o be the case with respect to 
mercury and platina } and waiving for the present all consider^ 
acions respecting paliadium, he endeavours to establish this ge* 
ntral position. 

It would carry us much beyond our usual limits to detail 
the experiments which Mr. Chenevis performed in order to 
decide this point : but the conclusionsi which seem to be fairly 
deduced from themi arci that platina can protect a consider- 
able quantity of mercury from the action of nitric acid \ that 
the presence of mercury promotes the action of nitro-ipuriatic 
acid on platina ; that mercury can combine with platina so 
ecrongly as not to be dissipated by the action of a powerful 
heat \ and that the presence of platina in a solution of mrrcury 
prevents the mercury from being detected by that whichi in 
other cases* is the most delicate test of its presence. To these 
effects resulting from the union of platina and mercuryi he. 
principally confines himself in the paper now under our re^ 
view. No additional evidence is offered in favour of the com- 
pound nature of palladium ; except that the experiments must 
be coneidcred as removing aome of the objections against the 
«ttpposition» by shewing how completely the characteristic 
properties of mercury and platina may be concealed or altered 
by their union with each other. 

Since the compotton of this memoir^ it has been stated by Dr. 
Wollaston that the palladium, which was offered for sale in so 
ipysteriotts a manner, w^s extracted by that gentleman from 
erode platina* Thif circumstance, at first view, would lead 
tp the conclusion that palladium is a simple metal \ and that» 
in those cases in which Mr. Chenevix obtained it in the course 
of his experiments, it had been previously contained in the 
platina on which he operated : but Mr. C. suggests, in a post* 
script to this paper, that the alloy of platina and nciercury may 
have been formed by nature, or may have been produced by 
the amalgamation to which platina is subjected before it 
reaches Europe. On the whole, though we ite not disposed 
tp consider the question as absolutely settled, yet we feel in<- 
cUaed to dissent from the opinion of Mr* Chenevix, notwith- 

S 3 standing 



262 PAibs. Truns(uAioni of the R. S. Pdrt Lfir iSdj. 

standing our high opinion of his ability as . a philosophical 
and practical chemist. ' "• 

An Account of some Analytical Experiments on a Mineral Pro^ 
ductkn from Devonshire^ consisting principally of Alumine and 

. Water. By Humphry Davy, Esq.y F.R.S.^ isfc. — A fossil of 
an uncommon appearance having been some years ago found 
near Barnstaple^ whichj from ics geological positioui and it$ 
physical characters, appeared to be a non-descript mineral^ 

, Mr. Davy undertook ics cxanaination.' By a series of experi- 
fiients, conducted with peculiar neatness and perspicuity, he 
ascertained the composition of the purest specimen to be a!u- 
mine 70 parts, lime 1.4, fluid 2d.2, and loss 2.4. The loss 
is attributed, with apparent justice, to a quantity of water 
still adhering to the earth, and the lime is considered as only, 
an accidental ingredient. Mr. Davy hence concludes that * the 
pure matter of the fossil must be considered as a chemical 
combination of about 30 parts of water and 70 of alumine \^ 
some specimens of the mineral contained the oxyd of manga- 
nese and the ozyd of iron : but as these substances were not 
uniformly present, they were only considered as accidental 
varieties^ * JM. Vauquclin had imagined the Diaspore to con- 
sist principally of alumine and water : but the proportion of 
yrater is considerably less than in this new mineral, and they 
differ materially In their physical and chemical characters. This^ 
new fossil was first found by Dr. Wavel, and it has been pro^ 
posed to call it Wavellite j or, If it be named from its. chemi« 
cal composition, it may be denominated HydrargiiUte. 

Experiments on Wooivi, By David Mushef* — It appears that 
Mr. Mushet was requested by Sir Jos. Banks to undertake a 
'set of experiments on the peculiar substance called wootz, a 
kind of coarse steel manufactured by the inhabitants of Hin - 
dostan ; and in this paper we have the results of his experi- 
ments. It is formed into masses called cakes, which vary 
considerably in their texture and appearance ; and of these Mr, 
Mushet examined five different specimens. After having ac-* 
curately described the external appearance of efach of the cakc5« 
he details with much minuteness the effects produced by 
exposing them to different degrees of heat, and afterward 8ul>- 
jecting them to the action of the hammer. Though in this 
process the wootz exhibited some properties of good steel, yet 
the texture of the different parts was not homogeneous ; and 
in other respects It manifesttid a want of those qualities which 
are essential to the perfection of this substance. He concludes 
that the ore is of a calcareous nature, or that a quantity of 
calcareous earth is added to it during fusion, along with a por*' 

uoni 



PIffiSr. TraniiAtimftftie R. S. Part I. fir 1 8of . affj - 

tiOTi of otrbonacfeous matte/: but that the heat empbycd^is not' 
sufficiently intense to effect a perfcA reduction, 'ahd tha^;c©h- ' 
sequently its texture is not homog^encous. ..'.-! 

Mr. Mushet afterward examined the proportion of ci»tb6n*Ja 
the different cakes of woolz, comparing; it with the carbon in* 
comipon cast* steel and in white crude iron ; and the quantity' 
of carbon was ascertained by observing how much 7e^ad was* re- ^ 
daced by heating a given quantity of the substance with three* 
times its weight of flint glass. The result was that wootE 
contained considerably more carbon than steel, though l^^- 
than' cast iron. This circumstance, added to its imperfect; 
fusion, Mr. Mushet remarks, is sufficient to account for its 
refractory natilre, and heterogeneous texture. He however 
supposes that the ore, whence this substance is extracted, must* 
be excellent, notwithstanding the imperfection of the article 
manufactured from it ; ahd he recommends it- as an important 

object of afttention to the East India Company. 

'• - * 

''•• Natural History. 

Concerning the State in nuhich the true Sap of Trees is deposited 
during Winter. By Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq.—Vfc have 
had occasion, in our review of some of the former volumes bjF 
the Phil. Trans. *, to remark the interesting observations of 
^1r. Knight on vegetable physiology ; and he appears to be 
successfully continuing his researches into this department of 
science. It has been long acknbwlegcd by naturalists, that, 
besides the common sap, which rises during the spring, along 
the vessels of the trunk, trees con.tain also another kind of 
fluid, which has been styled the suc,cus proprius^ called by Mr. 
K. the true sap, on which the specific properties of difFefent 
vegetables arc supposed to d^pepd. The suDJect of the pre- 
sent paper is the state in which the true sap is deposited during 
the winter. 

No very accurate ideas have hitherto been formed on this 
point : but it appears to have been imagined that the true, as 
well as the .aqueous sap, in the winter season, left the' sub- 
stance of the wood \ and to this absence of all fluid, has been 
attributed the superior excellence of timber felled in the 
winter. Mr. Knight, however, conceives that the triie sap 
remains at this time in the alburnum ; that it is' diif solved in 
the spring by the ascending aqueous sap } arid that, being caf- 
ried forwards to the extremities of the plant, it is the principal 
agent in the. formation of the new leaves. This true' sap is 

* Sec Rev. N. S. Vols, xxxvii! p.ioj.— xliv. p. 64.--^lind xM, 

p. 'li^. • . ^ ■-•-•• .' . ;♦ '«. 

S 4 supposed 



a^4 ^ fh^- Trum^mf aftU ft. S* F^wt Ifif v%>$^ 

SQppoied to* be elaborated by the leaver of the praoediag twoi* 
mcrj and^ after itftformanoa, is lodgt;d in the alburnum until 
the following sprint^. 

In order to prove the lk^\^ of his hypothesis, Mr. Knight 
examined) at different heigmi from the ground^ the aqueoua 
s^p as it rose in the trunk iii the early p<irt of the year \ and 
he found that, where it was received at some distance from the 
rpott it W4S of a greater specific gravity and ol a sweeter tastc^ 
I|e SKamineH the aiburnuno of wood felled at difltrent seasons ; 
Wd he found that which was felled in tht; winter to be of the 
greatest specific gravity, and to communicate ipore extractive 
matter to water. He imtigints that the cotyledons of seedsj^ 
and the roots of bulboi^s ^ud tuberous plants, like the alburnum 
of trees, contain a quantity of true sap, which has been clabo-« 
Yatdd by the leaves of the preceding summer, aivi which server 
aa a deposit for the nutrimt'nt of the following year. 

We cannot eptcr morc^ minutely into the details of Mr* 
Knight's paper ; his idc^s arc ingenious, and his arguments 
plau.ible, though perhaps scarcely sufi&ci^t to produce irro* 
sistitik convic'ion. We hope tha^ he will continue to pursue 
fid investigations into the intricate subject of vegetable phy^ 
slology \ since we are confident that exertions ^o wcUdirectcc) 
fliust be ultimately successful. 

PHiLosofHT and AsTltONOMT. 

Experlm^nti fir ascertaimfig bow far Telescopes wH enable u^ 
to determine very smn/l AitgUs^ and to distinguish the real from thf^ 
spurious Diamt ters $f peiestial and terrestrial Objects : with an 
jlpp'ication of the Result of these Experiments to a Series ofOkm 
servafions on thf Nature and Magnitude of Mr. Harding's latch 
di^covfr^ Star. My William Hcrschell, LL. D. F.R.S.-^SmM 
objects cannot he distinguished frohi each other, for irf* • 
«*ince, a small circular object irom a square one,) unleu the 
angle subtended at the eye exceeds a certain magnitude. The 
determination of that magnitude, when objects ate viewed with 
the naked eye, was made by the author of the present paper in 
;^774 : but when objects are viewed by the aid of Telescopes^ 
new inquiries are requisite ;. and such are ingtituted and recorded 
in the memoir before us. The small objects employed by Dr. H. 
wre the Heads of Pins, Globules of Sealing Wax, Silver^ , 
pitch, BeeVwax, &c. and the results of the several experi- 
ments are stated with the author's customary minuteness of 
detail, They clo nor, however, strike us as, very interestingly 
nor very important. — ^The memoir terminates with bbservationa 
.iHi the nature and magnitude of Mr. Harding's lately discovered 
Star : wbehge it appears th'i^ this pevt^ ^ar is td Ink classed vrith 



Plnhi* T^M/«^fJim^llif IL S. Part Lfot;^ 1 805^ « af(f 

die two that were discovered by Mr, VUz^zx i^nd Dr. Olhers, 
ami by Dr. H. denomioated Asteroids. Those readerst who re* 
collect the defiaition of this new teroit may uodersUnd in what 
pecvliar drcamstances the new. star differs from a commoii 
planet. 

An Essay on the Cobesim rf Fluids. By Thomas Youngs 
jif .Z). For. Sic. R. 5.«— This essay appears to us by no meao^ 
soficieotly clear, precise, or full : the subject is indeed difficulty 
but thence necessarily aiises no obstacle which prevents what 
is known on that subject from being exactly and simply stated. 
Since, however. Dr. Y. points to a period at which he shall 
more fully discuss it, we suppress our dissatisfaction at the ob« 
scurity in whiqh some of the reasonings of the present memoir 
are involved. 

Some authors have asserted that the phasoomena of capillary 
action may be referred to the cohesive attraction of the si;|perficial 
particles only of the fluids concerned ; and it is this principle . 
which, if we understand him, Dr. Young adopts, eacpands, 
and endeavours to establish. Before, however, be enters on* 
his discussions, he premises an assertion which he says is 
npw, and consistent with theory and observation^ viz. that 
for each combination of a solid and a fluid, there is an appro- 
priate angle pf contact between the surfaces of the fluid expo*, 
sed to the air, and to the solid. Water, between two plates 
of glass, separated by a small interval, ascends to a certaia 
height : mercury and other fluids ascend, the interval re^aaintng 
^he same, to different heights. In order, then, that the results 
of calculation may be compared with actual experiments, it is 
nrccssary to find the value of certain elements of the calcula* 
tion : such as the actual ascent of water between plates scpara« 
^d from each other by a determinate interval. The labours 
and experiments 0/ preceding philosophers enable us to ascertain 
these £]emtnts with tolerable accuracy. Dr. Y. employs some 
of the pages of his memoir on this subject, in the article! which 
he names * Application to the Elevation of particular fluids s' 
but we confess that we do not exactly comprehend the con- 
nection of this article with the preceding, in which the author 
investigates some of the properties of the curves caused by at4 
traction, in the simplest cases. At the conclusion of hiapaper. 
he observes s 

* Although the whole of this reasoning on the attraction of solids 
is to be considered rather as an approximation than as a strict demon- 
strstion. y^c we are amply justified in concludtnj^, that all the pheno* 
nena of capillary action may be accurately esplaiotd and mathemati^ 
cally deokonstratcd from the general law oif the equable tension of thf 
sw^MC of a fluid, together with the cqasid^ration of the Mgl^ of 

coatact 



ll6 " -P355&/. Tramactions (ftie'l^.S\ Pari V for I'Soj. 

* * 

contact 'appropriate to every 'comBination of a fluid *witb a solid* 
Some anomalies, noticed by Mussch^nbroek and other*, respecting 
in particular the <CflVcts of Uibds of considerable i<^»g[this have not been < 
cODfiidered : but there a great reason' to suppose that either the want 
of uniformity in the bore, or some similar inaccui-acy, has been the 
cause o£tht8e irregularities, which have by do means been sufficiently 
confirmed to afford an obj«:tfon to any theory. The principle, which has 
been laid down respecting the contractile powers of the common sur- 
liiee of a solid and a fluid, h conBrmed by an observation which I have 
made on the small drgps of oil which form themselves on water. There 
Is no doubt but that this cohesion is in some measure independent 
of the chemical affinities of the substances concerned ; tallow when 
solid has a very evident attraction for the water out of which it is 
raised ; and the same attraction must operate upon ai> unctuous fluid' 
to cause it to spread on water, the fluidity of tne wattr allowing this 
powerful agent to exert itself with an unresisted velocity. An oil" 
which has thus been spread is afterwards collected, by some frregu- 
larity of attraction, into thfn drops,, which the slightest agitation again^ 
dissipates : their surface forms a very regular curve, which tef minatea 
ahruptly in a surface perfectly horizontal : now it follows from the laws 
of hydrostatics, ^\^9i. the jovyer surface .of thi6e, drops must constitute a 
curve, of which tke extreme ii^clination to tb£ horizon is to the in- 
clinatioa of the upper surface as the sprcitic gravity of the oil to the 
diflcrence between its specific gravity and that of water V consequently 
since the contractile forces are held in ecjuilibrium by a force which is 
Perfectly horizontal, their magnitude must be iii the ratio that has. 
been already assigned ; and it may be assumed- as consonant bbthto 
lhcoi*y and to observation, that the contractile' force of the common * 
surface of two substances is proportional, other things being eqnal, to 
the difieience of their densities. Hence, in order to explain the expert- 
mentft of Boyle on thetffccts of a combination of fluids in capillary 
tubeS) or any other experiments of a similar nature^ we have only to 
apply the law of an equable tension, of which the magnitude is de- 
termined by the difference of the attractive powers of the fluids. 

* 1 shall reserve some further illustration^ of this subject for a week 
which I have long been preparing for the press, and which 1 flatter 
myself wil contain a clear and simple explanation of the most im« 
portant parts of natural philosophy-w ] have only thought it right, in 
the present Paper, to lay before the Royal Society, in the^ahortest 
possible corapasst the particnlats of an oiiginal investigation^ tending 
to explain some facts, and estabii^h some analogiesy which have hitherto 
been obscure and unintellijible..' ^ , 

.. An Investigati^ ^fial/jh Changes of th< variable Star in 5$* 
Heski's Shield J from five Tears Observations ^ exhibttmg, its pro^ 
ppriional iUuminated. Parts y ,and its hrregnlaritfei ,of Rs>tati(^n : 
t^fitb Conjectures , respecting unenlightened, heavenly Bodies*. £j 
Edward Figott, £j^.«-*Jn the. j6m. part of this papor, the au* 
thor puTsaes the investigitiona. begun by him some years sincew 
relative to the ch;inges hnd periods of brightness in one of the 
Yiriabie slats in SobieskVs shield ) and the determinations^pfei- 

viou3ljf 



^ • * 

• Dallas'/ Elements of Self Rnowhge. 26y 

viously formed by Mir. Pigott ate in rtie present memoir revised 
by the aid of addttional observations. Such observations were^ 
•for the space' of five yrars, entered in a journal ; and ^hc subr 
stiance of it, intermixex) with corhments and remarks/ occupies 
the commencement of this paper. To the memoir itself we 
refer those who are fond of astronoifiical studies, since we 
think that a brief sketch of the remarks, reasonings, and 
conjectures of Mr. Pigott,' must be uninteresting to the gene- 
rality of readers. 

The usual Meteorokgkal Journal concludes this Part of thft 
Transactions. Part 11. for this year ha| jii^st appeared. 



Art. VII. EUmentt of Self Knonulege s intended to lead Youtik 
into an early Acquaintance with the Nature jof Maoi b^ an Af»« 
tomical Display of the Human Frame, a concise View of tb^ 
mental Faculties, and an Inquiry into the genuine Nature of the 
Passions. — Compiledi arranged, and partly written, . by R. C, 

r>allas, Esq. 8vo. pp. 464. los. 6a, Boards. Murray. 

' ' ■ • ' 

A MOMG the number of eminent natn, from vwiiose workfl 
'^ .the author informs us that h^.has derived astistanoe in 
preparing the^e elements^ the name of Cheteldea is not onait- 
ted; but this general acknowlegement baldly justtfitos Mr. 
Dallas in copying verbatim. 60 nr)uch of that anatomist's writ* 
ingSf as to constitAite nearly the whole of the first part, which 
occupies about a fourth of the present volume. It often falls 
jLo our lot to toil through the nurlierous pages of mere<ceni« 
pilation : but we have never yet seen a mtide less fatiguing^ 
«ven to the mechanical powers of an author^ employed ia 
the manufacture of a. book, than the eitensive alMtraction 
which ^e have now had occasion to notice.—- In his Anatomy 
of the Human Body, Cheselden mentions, in the first person^ 
» considerable number of experimentfi and observations made 
by binueif on different subjects, which Mr. Dallas quotes with* 
out modification. This will of course give him, with some 
readers, the credit of an experimenytalist and practical observer-: 
but this is an impression which he should have been caatioits 
in producing, &ince it is obvious that his acquaintance with 
Anatomy is very inaccurate; as, for example,, he adopts the old 
ideas mentioned by Cheselden on the origin and termination of 
the lyniphatics, instead of those which have been long univer^i 
sally admitted* 

Mr. Dallas employs a curious mode of establishing the uti* 
lity and dependence on each other of the various parts which 
^oinpose. the body, by attempting to demonstrate^ aprioriythzt, 

those 



%6i DillasV Elements rf Self KmwUp. 

» 

those parr$ must of necessity exist io a ^ corporeal fabric/ iff 
which was placed an ' immaterial part' to * hold correspondeote 
with other mzitxpX beings by the intervention of the body/—* 
Of this kind of speculation^ we perceive neither the utility nor 
the truth. The different wants, for the provision of which varf- 
ous organs were made, and the different modes in which tlio»e 
wants are supplied, were determined by the author of nature s 
and therefore, like other natural phaenomenai they cannot be 
the subject of a priori reasoning. 

As Mr. p. acknowleges bis obligations to the works of Che* 
sclden and Hunter in the first part of his work^ which is de- 
voted to an anatomical display of the human frame : so in the 
second and third parts, which treat of the mental faculties and 
(he passions, he confesses that he has availed himself of the 
liirritings of Watts, Barlamaqui, and Adam Smith ; though he 
has not entirely depended on them, but ha^ ventured to inter** 
weave a small treatise of his own. 

In displaying the anatomy of the mind, this compiler disco* 
vers no great metaphysical penetration : for he not only assigns 
to it more distinct faculties than it possesses, but he telk us that 
^ so absolutely free is the WiH of the human spirit, that it may 
abuse to be directed by that which it judges to be the worst 
motive ; or ic may chuse to act contrary to every motive, or 
nuithotit any motive at all i and this last manner of acting is so 
Mrell known and so common, that we have dignified it with 
n particular name, by calling it whim.* We are hence to un- 
derstand that the whimsical man acts without any motive : bat 
this ntode of appreciating him is as much at variance with phi« 
iQSophyt as with the ordinary apprehensions of the world. A- 
man of whim is not devoid of motives } he is only actuated by 
those which are singular or ridiculous. Besides, it is absurd 
fo say that the Will in any instance decides without any motive 
fit all. 

Some compensation is made for this metaphysical slip bf 
the subsequent chapter on Conscience ; and particularly by the 
third part, which is devoted to a consideration of the Passions. 
We do not o^an to say that here, any more than in the fore* 
going paTtSt the analysis is perfect ; on the contrary, had Mr* 
DaUas been more intimately acquainted with the writers soi 
moral jphUosop by, he would have given a clearer view of the 
primary and of the compound passions ; — ^but, as a practical 
accoAuu ei the operation of the passions, and as an essay in« 
tended to assist us in the moral knowlege and command of our« 
iMshes', we perused it with considerable satisfaction. The ob- 
ject dk tiic s^hote ia to shew that there is no essential viciousness 
ui tho passieos, which u indeed, the doctrine of Aristotle s 

1 i n^n 



r 



lldAr /M» lot iitf'ir Jf ax K^Sgu siT fti T^cmau ^ fo ureU ob* 
seiTcd that 

' Wtiencver wc meet with t name or tcmHf .which seems to signify 
• passioo that cao serve for no good porpose, we nffaiy be assured, and 
o^. strict examination we sfaaB dncover* that it doea i>ot rcaiDy meai> 
any geDoiDe passion^ but a wrong direction, or extravagant stretch of 
a passion. It will not be amiss to observe here chat w\ the passions 
and affections of the baman mind may be trained to subjection by a 
constant cfaecki or stren^hencd aad rendered al^&t uogovernable by 
continued indulgence : tnerefore Reason, like ^ go6d ceoittnel^ shoula 
be always awake and alert upon his post. ^\ , /'■' 

'The passions then are the springs of vfrttiey and, they are in, th^ir 
nature and origin good, and intended for the benefit of mankind ; but 
it is the channels into which they diverge that render them pernicious^ 
and form them Silso into the springs of vice* Even envy and .avance«r 
the most odious of our emotions, are to be traced up to untainted 
sources ; the formet in general, arising from the desire of e.xcelIeiH:ey' 
and the latter from the wish of esiimatioa. Secure the stream 
wbere it first threatens deviation, teach it to ik)w within the bounds 
SHT^nally prescribed by nature, it will then run with a clear and 
ihiooth current, and bear akng with it both (Jeaaure and virtue.' 

Of what importance is it, then, Oo give a right direction to^ 
iiiese morcra of the mind^ and to have them undef ptoper eoifr* 
ttord I Moral philosophy should fornt ^ part in tbe aytt^m of 
edocsitloh. To put the rising genreration dn their gtiard against 
the errors and excesses of the passiona, they ahoUtd be assisted 
in contemplating their nature and combtnationa % which ilvould 
not only prepare them for what is called a Knowkee of the 
World, but would help to sectire theaa from many of the foUiea 
and vices ivith which this knowlege make^ them £amiliat. It 
would assist them in ascertaining what may be termed the 
moral capabilities bf otir nature, zuA would prevent their falling 
mto those absurd and misanthropie cotKlusions Mrhich those 
persons are apt to draw, who have hever been instructed to 
distinguish between the use and abuae of the passions. We 
cannot too often nor too warmly recommend this study, so 
essential to self knowlege. 

The chapter on Self-command, with whieb this work elostfa* 
includes many valuable remarks* Aa a sp^ctmeny we extract 
a passage ia which the two vices of pride and vanity are Mj 
dehneated, and theircliaracteristie dtfferenees weH defined. Aftev 
baving observed that these vices, though bearing a near i^em-*^ 
-blance, as betog m()dSfications of excessive self-estimation, are 
yet in many respects very different from each other, the author 
thus proceeds : , 

* The proud tnan is sincere, and in the bottom of his heart, iscofK. 
vinced of his ov^ su]^enority ; though it jt^ someumcs be dificult . 



y^ 



' ^*lt FraOieml R^tfir th Managei^ient ^ Negroet. 

doe«9 Ko«w«vr, kit fklMhoods^re by no tnetiii to tonoeent. Thef 
are «I1 mt^cbicvous, and meant to lowt** other pfople. He » fiill of »• 
digoation at the unja«t siipf riority, a« he thtnKB it, whicli 10 j^lrcn to 
them.' He views them with nialtf^ntty and envy, and, in talking 6f 
thetn^ often endeavours, as much as he can, to extentidte and lessen 
whatever are the grounds tipon whfch their sdpertority is supposed to 
ht founded. . Whatever tales are circulated to their dfsadvantagr, 
thoo|^ he sddom foi^es them himself, yet he often takes pleasure m 
bcKevmg them, is by no means unwilling to repeat them, and even 
•ontetimes with some degree of exag]g^eratipn. The worst falsehoods 
of vanity are all what we call white lies : those of pride, i^henever k 
condescends to Islsebood* are All of the opposite complexion.* 

As in the present age both Pride and Vanity ar« estremcrf 
prevalent, especially the latter, we regard these pictares as 
meriting a careful studyt 



Aar. VII I. Practuai Ruhtfbr the Managenuta end MeJkal Treai- 
ment of Nipr^ S/aveif in tie Svgar Colanui. By a Profcttion^l 
Planter. Ivo. pp. 470. 8s. Boards. Vernor and Hood. 

NOT only the feelings of humanity» but the still more 
powerful incitement of interest, must forcibly direct our 
attention to the topics treated in this rolume. The situation in 
vrhich the West Indian slaves are placed, as well as the n^* 
tural peculiarities in their physical constitution, point them 
out as requiring a mode of management, both in health and 
in sickness, different from that which is applicable to Euro* 
peans \ yet, among the numerous publications that have apw 
peared on the climate and diseases of the West Indies, no 
author of much eminence or respectability, as far as we re- 
collect, has expressly devoted his attention to thif subject. 
We will not assert that the book now before us in every re- 
spect supplies this deficiency, but we can safely say that it 
contains a body of useful information, on a variety of import- 
ant topics connected with the management of negrt>es9 that^ 
we believe, has not before been given to the public ia so con- 
venient and accessible a form. 

The work is arranged in two parts, the first of which * Sttg<* 
gests rules for the management of negroes in health, the se- 
cond for their treatitfient in sickness.' Part L is divided into 
nine chapters, in which the following subjects are respectively 
discussed : general observations on negroe slaves, on the sea* 
soning of negroes, on their diet^ clothing, lodging, breedingi 
labour, discipline, and religion. — ^In the first chapter, the au* 
thor takes some pains to prove that it would be impossible to 
cultivate the West Indies by white men, at least by such al 

5 were 



Practical Rules for the ATanrrgement fif Negroes* 275 

were free. He grounds his opinion partly on the unhealthiness 
of the climate, ^nd partly on the consideration that it would 
be impossible to hold out to any man a sufficient inducement to 
engage* voluntarily in the kind and degree of labour which are 
necessary to be endured. The fact may probably be as it is here 
stated: but, granting it to be the case^ justice and humanity 
would certainly draw from it a very different conclusion from 
that to which this author resorts. We shall not, however^ 
enter on a discussion respecting the merits of the slave trade ; 
we have nothing new to urge on the subject; and it is not the 
object of the work now under our consideration. The evil is 
to be regarded as existing, and we are only anxious to use 
every means in our power to obviate particular effcrct» that may 
be derived^ from it, wichout attempting to throw down the 
whole system. 

A.mong these evils, one of the most enormous is tlie morta* 
lity of the slaves during what is called their seasoning* It if 
allowed by the present author, who does not appear disposed 
to magnify the grievance, that, on the most moderate calcular 
tion, not fewer than one-fourth of the slaves die within thrqe 
or four years after their arrival io the West Indies. This mur« 
dcrous system, he conceives, may be in a great measure re*> 
medied by bestowing more care on the health and comforts of 
these unfortunate beings ; and, as he remarks, < so great a 
waste of the species, for a purpose merely commercial, though 
perhaps justifiable enough on those principles which usually 
govern in matters of national concern, is certainly not very re« 
concileable to humanity.' The circumstances, to which he 
particularly recommends the attention to be directed, are tb( 
diseases produced by the passage, by change of climate and diet^ 
by labour, by severity, and suicide. On each of these points, 
he oiFers remarks which are judicious^ and, as we conceive, very 
likely to produce the desired effect. , 

Much in the same strain are the observations contained in 
the chapters on diet, lodging, and clothing. We clearly dis« 
cover from them to what an excessive extent the privations of 
the negroes had been carried j while they strongly indicate tha( 
not only humanity but interest requires the adoption of a very 
different system. It is indeed to this latter motive that the. 
author generally appeals } not so much, we imagine, from be^ 
ing himself deficient in feeling, but .from a conviction that 
considerations of this nature would be entirely lost on those to 
whom this work is more immediately addressed. , 

The chapter which treats on the breeding of negroes is par« 
ticularly deserving of notice, in every point of view. , Wf 
may conclude from it, that| by' a moderate degree of attention 

Rev. Nov. 1805. T onJv 



£74 Practical Rules for the Managcnunt of Negroes. 

only to the comforts of the slaTei, their numbers might be re- 
cruited without the aid of fresh importation ; and that the io- 
creased price, at which new slaves must now be purchased, 
renders it'highly important for the planters to use every mean» 
to produce this end. Could this be accomplished, much of the 
«vils of West Indian slavery would be abolished. — ^The frequent 
occurrence of Tetanus to. the children of negroes shortly after 
their birth, a disease which proves almost certainly fatal to 
them, presents a formidable obstacle to their increase. The 
author recommends plunging in the sea water as an almost 
certain preventative of this disease ; and so simple a remed j 
deserves an ample trial. 

From the chapter on Discipline, we may acquire a tolerably 
full idea of the degree to which the sufferings of the negroes 
are generally extended } and we learn that a great part of this 
severity is not only unnecessary, but even prejudicial to the 
interests of the owners. The writer indeed almost universally 
condemns the use of the whip ; an instrument which appears 
at present to be applied to the negroes with at least as much 
freedom as to any beasts of burden. 

The second part of the work commences with some observa- 
tions on the peculiarities in the constitution and diseases of ne- 
groes. Either from their natural conformation, or from their 
habits of life, (probably from an union of these causes,) we 
find that they are endued with a nervous system of less sensi- 
bility, and are less affected by medicines and by external 
impressions, than even the most hardy among the whites. 
They are not so liable to be infected by fever, but are more 
apt to be attacked by severe bowel complaints, and obstinate 
diseases of the skin. — A short section is allotted to the consi* 
deration of each malady to which the negroes are liable \ and 
after a description of its leading symptoms, we have an ac« 
count of its remedies and modes of prevention ; the whole de- 
tailed in a popular and intelligible style, containing much useful 
information, without any attempt at the refinements of medical 
speculation. The book is indeed intended rather for the perusal 
of the planter, than that of the professional man ; and the 
writer strongly recommends the planters themselves to acquire 
•ome portion of medical knowlege. .Though we are no friends 
to popular medicine in general, yet in this case we agree in the 
propriety of the advice : attentive observation may seize the 
moment in which a remedy of easy application may prevent a 
disease of magnitude and danger : professional assistance can- 
not at all times be procured ; and the rapid progress of tropi« 
cal diseases admits of no delay. 

Without 



Cvrrespondenci of the Countesses rf Hartford and Pomfref. 275- 

Without entering on a minute analysis of this part of the 
volume, we may T;emark that the directions are in general 
simple and intelligiblct but tbey do not profess much origina* 
Itty, .nor proCound observation ; and we feel justified in con- 
Bdently recommending, this publication to all those who are. 
concerned in the management of West Indian estates. The 
writer seems to possess a considerable share of sense and ha- 
manity, though not strictly entitled to the character either o£ 
a philosopher or a philanthropist. With regard to his style» 
which in such a work is perhaps scarcely a fair object of cri- 
ticism, it has the important merit of b^ing perspicuous ; and 
it displays the character, as the author intended, of a familiar 
address to persons who are not in the habit of much reasoning 
or reflection. 



Art. IX. Correspondence hetnveen Frances ^ Countess of Hartfordp 
[afterward Duchess of Somerset^) and Henrietta Louisa f. Countess of 
Pomfret, between the Years 1738 and 1741. 3 Vols. lamo. 
il. 18. Boards. R. Phillips. 1805. 

niKHAPs no country in the world has produced a greater 
^ number of sensible and accomplished women than Great 
Britain ; and we think that this is a circumstance which 
does honour to our native isle. The cultivated understandings 
of our females shew that they are not, and ought not to be 
degraded as women are in other countries ; and indeed they 
often convince us that, although in their organic structure 
they are ^< the weaker vessels," the mental jewels which they 
include are not less valuable than those which belong to masr 
culine bodies. The Correspondence before us displays not 
merely all the politeness and good breeding which are to be 
^pected from people of rank, but evinces nice observation and 
^ood sense ; and though its contents are not all equally into- 
resting or striking, the remarks which both Ladies occasionaUj 
make are creditable to their minds and hearts. 

The MSS. from which these Letters are printed'are the pro* 
perty of the Burslem family, of Imber House, Wilts ; and the 
editor, Mr. Bingley, of Christ-church, has prefixed to the first 
volume concise prefatory memoirs of the two countesses^ be* 
tween whom this epistolary intercourse was maintained. From 
them we collect the following information : 

* Frances, Countess of Hartford, and afterwards Duchess of So« 
merset, was the eldest of the two daughters and coheirs of the honor-. 
?ble Henry Thynne*, only son of Thomas, first vtscpunt Weymouth, 
byOrace, only daughter and heir of sir George Strode, of Leveston 
in Dorsetshire. She was married about the year 17 13, to Algernon 

T 2 Itrd 



%y6 Corresponienciof the CountiistT of Hartford and PomfreU 

Idrd Hartford, eldest tori of Charles then dukt of Somerset, a you«g 
nobleman distinguished fctr every amiable virtue that could adorn his 
ra'nk. 

* The fruits of this marriage v^^ere, first, a daughter, lady "Elizabeth 
Seymour, born in November 17 16, who afterwards became duchess of 
Northumberland ; and a son, George Seymour, viscount Beaucharop, 
born on the eleventh of September 1725. He died of the small pox, 
which seized him at Bologna, during his travels on the Continent, 
and carried him off the evening of his birtb-day on which he had comr 
pleted his nineteenth year. 

' Not long after her marriage, lady Hartford became one of the 
ladies of the bedchamber to Caroline, the queen of king George the 
Second, then princess of Wales^ She continued in this office till the 
death of the queen, which took place in the month of November 
1737, when both she and the coutitess of Pom fret (also of the bed- 
chamber) retired from the bustle and jealousies of the court, to enjoy 
the more satisfactory comforts of domestic life. They appear to have 
been much attached to their royal mistress, whose death they each 
speak of in their letters, in terms of sincere regret/ 

This lady distinguished herself by her amiable interference in 
behalf of the poet Savage, as recorded in his life by Johnson. 
She is said to have made various acquirements in literature, and 
to have had some taste for poetical composition : but rfae editoi^ 
aware that, if we are to decide on the evidence produced, the 
character of Lady Hartford as a poet would not stand high> 
endeavours to obviate criticism by observing that ' the speci- 
mens contained in the present volumes are not, perhaps, the 
most favourable ones that could be adduced.' We can pnly say 
that, if Mr. Bingley could produce better specimens, he should, 
^ for the credit of Lady* H., have given us a poetical bonne houche^ 
This lady died in 1754. . 

* Henrietta Louisa, Countess of Pomfrer, was the only surviving 
child of John lord JefiFcrys of Wem, and lady Charlotte Herbert, 
daughter of Philh'p, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. Her grand* 
father was the lord Chancellor who bore so conspicuous a part in the 
reign of James the Second. 

* In the year 1720 she was united in marriage to Thomas Fermor, 
lord Lcmpsier, who, in the subsequcBt year, was created earl of Pom- 
fret, or Pontefract," in the county of York. This nobleman was after- 
wards elected a knight of the Bath ; and in September 1727, was ap- 
pointed Master of the Horse to Caroline, queen of Qeorge the Se- 
cond, to whom also lady Pomfret was one of the ladies of the bed* 
.chaurber. 

* On the death of the cjueen, 1737, ^^^^^ '^dy Pomfret and lady 
Hartford retired from public life ; and the present letters inform us, 
that it was after this period tliat the close degree of intimacy com- 
menced, to which wc are indebted for their being written. The for- 
nu:r lady says, in one of them, " I do not grieve that our friendship 
did uot begin sooner ; since I am certain it would have excited the 



.Corretponiencf of the Countesses of Hartford and Pomfret. a Jf 7 

Xood'tttUure of a great many people^ though they had not cared one 
farthing about either of U8» to have made k their business, by a 
thousand h'es on both sides, to inform us hov^ dangerous a person each 
was to the other^ and how unfit for a friend." 

This 19 a severe^ but not unfounded stricture on the morals 
of a courts 

The correspondence between these two ladies commenced 
SQon after Lord Pomfret and his family left England^ in order to 
reside on the continent, and continued for about three years; 
the travelled or rather travelling lady beginning her epistolary 
career at Monts near Paris, on the 2d of September O. S., or 
13th N.S. 1733, and closing it at Brussels Oct. 6, 1741, N. 9. 
From Paris, Lady Pomfret accompanied her husband to Lyons, 
Aix, Marseilles, Genoa^ Sienna, Florence, Rome, Bologna, 
Venice, Inspruch, Augsburg, Frankfort, and Brussels. 

Lady P. appears to have been a most indefatigable and punc- 
tual correspoiKlent^ and her letters, though written in haste, 
and without study, discover the investigating mind of the tra-. 
veller, and the happy art of blending entertainment with in- 
structioiu Her anecdotes are related with ease, and her de* 
taite are given with accuracy. She has an evident advantage 
over her friend at home, by enjoying a wider and more varied 
field of observation : but, if I^ady Hartford's letters are less 
amusing, they are not less sensible. 

It will occur to our readers that Lord Pomfret's route 
through France, Italy, the Tyrol, and Germany, has sicKC 
been often pursued ; and that manners, customs, and govern- 
ments have undergone such revolutions, that in some degree 
the word obsolete belongs; to the accounts here detailed* In 
justice, however, to this lady, we must observe that it is im*^ 
possible to jread her travels without interest ; without admits 
ting her to possess an excellent understandiijg, a cultivated 
taste, and a most amiable disposition ; nor without assigning 
to her works a place by the side of her acquaintance Lady 
Mary Wortley Montague, whom she much resembles in hex 
. easy mode of narration. 

These ladies seem to vie with each oth^r in endeavours to 
communicate reciprocal pleasure, each according to her re- 
spective situation. Lady Pomfret, supplied with the usual 
materials of the grand tour, writes of palaces, pictures, statues, 
churches, popes, priests, ceremonies, processions, superstition, 
convents, nuns, &fc. L-idy Hartford, in return, makes re- 
marks on her friend's accounts, paints her Own retirement and 
occupations, and gives amusing anecdotes of the fashionable 
world, the intrigues of the court, the party measures, and the 
politics of the day* » 

T 3 When 



^78 ComjpohJinee of the Countesses ofHaftfori and Pomfref. 

When wicked protestants travel, thef ctnnot help remark- 
ing tht faith and piety of catholic countries, which arc carried 
to an excess that at least excites our astonishment. During 
Lady Pomfret's residence at Florence, she transmits several 
specimens of Catholic credulity, of which we shall copy one : 

' Palazzo Ridolfi, Jan. i, N. S., 1741. 

* The weather has been lo extremely bad of late, that, though two 
days beyond the usual time have elapsed, the post is not arrived yet. 
These violent storms and rains the priests and mob attribute to the 
dcvib which the Virgin of the Imprunctta'is casting out of posses- 
sed men and women ; and which, in their r^um to hell, make this 
disturbance in the air. As this is a lady with whom I am but latdy 
become acquainted, and as at present I have little dse to say, I shall 
allow her to fill np a part of my letter. 

* A great many years ago-*-so many that nobody can tell the exact 
Dnmber— the people of Florence began to build a church } but what* 
ever advance they made in the day, (like Penelope's web) was destroy- 
ed in the night. Upon this ill success, they determined to take two 

' young unbroken steers, and yoke them together with a cfreat stone 
-hangmg down between their necks ; and, setting them oft, wherever 
^they ^onld stc^ to erect there the ehurefa. In this they did very 
right, for the worship they intended was ceitainly fitter for -the judg- 
ment of beasts than of men.^-But to my story. The place at which 
the animals became tired was about seven miles from the city, among 
some prune trees belonging to the family of the Buondelmonti. Here 
they set to work to clear the. ground, and dig the fouf^datton-— when 
a lamentable voice struck their ears from below. On this, one of the 
Workmen threw away his pickaxe ; and moving the loose earth more 
lightly, found the image or the Virgin Mary in terra ctrtia, with a child 
in her arms,'and a scar on her forehead that had occasioned the afore- 
.said cry. This wonderful discovery made them proceed with great 
4kcrity in their work.: and she had soon not only a large habitation, 
jHit a new order was constituted to her honour and service, with great 
zxA unusual privileges annexed to it. And upon all general calamities 
cver.uace, she is conducted with great pomp into the city of Flo* 
rence, and remains in the Duomo till, upon frequent prayers and re- 
monstrances, she is so good as to remove or remedy the evil. The 
inundation I wrote you an account of, being the occasion of her pre- 
sent coming amongst us, her entry was preceded by all the religious 
orders, two and two ; the gentlemen and others carrying lighted flam- 
bqans. On each side the guards were drawn out : the streets (made 
.dean) were crowded with the common people ; and the windows were 
adorned with tapestry, damask, &c., and filled with ladies. In a large 
box, about the size of a woman,— covered with seven rich mantles, 
having as many candles stuck before, and a canopy over it, — passed 
the Damoy incognita,; for as this image is only a tile,- the priests very 
justly fear that it would rather raise contempt than veneration if 4t 
was seen, and therefore have spread amongst the people a notion that 
whoever sees it is immediarcly struck blind. She still remains at the 
Cathedral ; whither all the great vulgar, and the ktth^ go to pay their 

' aevotioBS. 



Corrtspwienci rfthi Countesses rf Hartford at^ Pomfret. 279 

devotions. But the weather^ as I said before, having not at all mend- 
ed since her arriva], they have deferred her return till the tun shines, 
that it may be attributed to her ; and in the mean time they find out 
people possessed with devils, that she may divert herself in driving 
them out. She veas followed in her march by the senate of forty- 
eight, in their crimson robes, with all the officers of justice. 

^ This abominable nonsense I have always forborne to trouble you 
with ; though in all the Italian towns, I have seen instances of it. I 
remember, when I was at Lucca, a knight of Malta who led me 
mbout the cathedral (which is a very ancient one) perceiving that I 
looked at what appeared to me a better sort of sentry bor, standing 
on one side of the middle aisle^ told me that it was the repository of 
the Foito Santo ; and perceiving, by my manner of aobwering, that I 
did not understand what he meant> he told me that a great sculptor 
having designed a crucifix, and not being able to perform it to hit 
mind, went to bed very much discontented ; and on the next morning 
this was brought to him by angels, ready-made, from heaven, I asked 
of what material \V was formed ? he answered, of wood ; and I 
very gravely replied, I did not know before that trees grew in heavens 
He said (bcUcving me really surprised at my new discovery) that 
God had a mind to shew his power. This, once a year^ and once only^ 
is exposed ; at which time, they say, people are so eager to see ity 
that, crowding in, many break, their limbs, and some lose their lives i 
yet at the same time their glory is to admit no Jews, Jesuits, nor in* 
qttisition, in their territory. 

' l^u have now had enough of wonders ; but sui^y it is the 
greatest, that rational creatures can thus divest themselves of reason. 
Having given you this specimen, I shall trouble you no 'more upoa 
the subject, whatever miracle I may encounter before I have the 
pleasure of assuring you in person of the sincere attachment with which 

« I am yours, 

* H. L. POMFRKT.* 

The observation of Lady Hartford on this letter is equally 
in the style of the incredulous heretic : — * I no longer am sur* 
prized that Italy abounds with atheists.' . 

At Rome, the procession or cavalcade of the Pope attracts 
Lady P.V notice, and is well described: 

* This day we dined at twelve, in order to be with the contessa 
Bolognetti at two, who carried us into one of the side buildines of 
the Capitol; the whole of which was hung, .on the outside of the 
walls, with crimson velvet, and damask trimmed with gold. From 
one of the windows we saw the cavalcade of the pope going to take 
possession of St. John Lateran's church. The procession was (as all 
the processions are) composed of too many parts to be exactly re* 
membered ; but, altogether, it was very pretty. The white horses, 
almost covered with red velvet, embroidered with gold and silver, that 
are the yearly tribute for the kingdom of Naples, and of which there 
%xt twelve now living, that went one by one x the gentlemen of the 
pope's chambcri &c.> that rode, dressed in red, trimmed with ermine : 

T 4 the 



a8a Correspondence of the CounUsses of Hartford and Jfomfrti. 

the nobilitj of Rome in black with a great quantity of black silk laec 
on their habits : the bishops in purple, with green silk tassels in thcnr 
black hats : the cardinals in scarlet, with their hats and roule<fumiturc 
of the same the convscrvatori in yellow lined with red, and short 
gowns of the same : the great- constable Colonna* in a particular robe 
of black and yellow : the marchese Nari, who by hereditary right 
carries the standard of the church> with the dukes of Storzzi and 
Corsini captains of the guard, on each side of him — all three in bright 
armour, engraved, and gilt in the ornamental parts, and very rich 
robes of crimson, embroidered thick with gold and silver where the 
armour did not cover : the light-horse, which I described before, with 
the addition of double plumes of red and white feathers all round 
their hats : the horse-guards in blue, lined with red, and trimmed with 
gold : the open chariot, the chair, the horse, the coach, and the litter, 
■of the pope, all crimson and gold ; besides another litter of the same 
that he was carried in (preceded by a great cross), dressed in his 
pontifical robes, and blessing as he went the shouting, kneeling crowd : 
with the several companies of foot- soldiers, clothed the same as ours 
are in England, who closed the procession : made altogether a muck 
finer appearance than I expected. Notwithstanding it has been the 
occasion of a vast concourse of people from all parts of Italy, and 
the stay of mauy other strangers, I take it to be no otherwise a re- 
ligious ceremony, than that it is partly composed of priests ; which^ aa 
the government is composed of them too, is absolutely necessary on 
the sovereign's taking possession of his ofEce : and this is certainly the 
intention of it. Could the equestrian statue ofMatcus Aurelius,- that 
stands in the area of the Capitol, have been endowed with knowledge^ 
how different would he have thought of this high priest (who would 
not venture in his open chariot because there was a little wind ) f rx>ni 
his predecessor Julius Caesar I — and how would he have blushed to 
have been in the same posture, with the ten old, tottering, red hats 
ihat attended the now ponti/ex maximus P 

The Countess might have added, could St. P^tcr hayc locked 
cut of his grave, would he have been able to recopiiizc in the 
Pope his representative ? — Since this period, his Holiness has 
been " shorne of his beams." 

By way of prospect, or verbal landscape, we shall present our 
readers with this Lady's delineation of the Apennines : 

* We bad not travelled far befoi-e we foiind ourselves in the very mtdsc 
of the Apennines — the most wonderful and most enchanting country 
I ever saw, and far beyond what any person can imagine who has not 
sceli it. The mountains are of prodigious height, and so intermixed, 
that there seems no passage through ; yet we threaded them, some- 
•times climbing, sometimes descending, but oftener running on a road 
cut in the middle of them : some arc barren, some covered with com- 
rnon wood, and others with corn and olives. In the bottom we had 
here and there a river, which had made itself a bed through meadows 
full of cattle ; nor were there wanting villages nor corn Belds in the 
mont unexpected places, on the sides, and even on the tops, of moun- 
tains ; the summits of which having gained^ and thinking nothing; 

coul4 



Comspdndince of the Countesses of Hartford and Pomfrd. a8 1 

«ould be above them, we often only found burselTes at the bottom of 
others still loftier. Here hermitages would appear ^s if stuck into the 
cleft of the rock, and old ruined fortresses that have scarcely left a namo^ 
Selowy the fir and cypress, joined with other trees> made a gloomy^ 
retreat for the torrents that fell roaring from above ; and the eveningf 
•un gave a lu^re to the whole, which finished in a rich and delightful 
plain, where the rising grain, the gentle murmurs of the river, the green 
meadows^ the elms twined round with vines, the solitary chapels^ with 
here and there some brokeil piece of ancient sculpture ; the rural vil- 
lages, and their simple inhabitants ; the singing. of the birds, and the 
natural perfumes that arose from the sweet herbs and flowers,— both 
soothed and waked the soul, to find and to adore the Great Creator/ 

In her passage through the Tyrol, Lady Pom fret visited the 
castle of Amras, near Inspruch 5 and she gives a full re- 
cital of its curious contents, among which is much of that 
armour which was in use * before gunpowder blew up.knightr 
hood/ She also affords us an idea of the climate of thcTyrol, 
by writing to her friend that they found winter *in the end of 
June, were obliged to have the stove lighted, and to have a 
ieather-bed to cover them instead of a quilt. We must, however, 
abstain from farther extracts from"LadyP/s contributions*, in or- 
der to afford room for one specimen of Lady Hartford'a letters :" 

< Windsor Forest, Oct. 7, N. S. 17 39* 

* How shall I describe to you, my dear lady Pomfret, the sdnti^ 
picnts that arise in my heart at the reading your letters ? I ^eel a mix- 
ture of esteem, affection, admiration, and sorrow, to think hpw many- 
years passed by in which I might possibly have enjoyed the happiness 
pf your conversation, or even been admitted to your friendship, had I 
fought it with that care and assiduity which 1 am now truly sensible it 
deserves. Hqw blind was I to my own interest, and to a merit which 
I scarcely had leisure (after it had waked me from my lethargy) to 
1)6 acquainted with, tillj as a just punishment for my former want of 
jiiscernment, I was doomed to live banished from it ! But the gene^ 
rosity of your disposition inclines you to alleviate a chastisement which 
I too well deserved, by allowing me a place in your memory, though 1 
am exiled fron^ your sight, and permitting me to hope for a share in your 
heart, which" (if 1 know my own) I would not part with for all the 
wealth and. splendor of the east. 

* I do not wonder that you shed tears at the profession of the un.. 
happy votress at Genoa, since I could scarcely restrain mine at the 

^ ^^—^ • ^— ^^ 1^ — ^ ■ , ■ ■ _■_ ^ ^ . r m 

* In one pf this lady's epistles. Vol. i. p. 163, we find a translation^ 
by Mr, Horton, Chaplain to the English Factory at Leghorn, of 
Mctastasio's cclebraud poem intitlcd the Indifferent. Mr. H.'s per- 
formance is better than some, and not equal to others, of the various 
transpiigrations into our language, which these beautiful verses have 
undergone. — In Vol. ii. p. 23. we have another version of this ballad, 
Vrithout any name affixed to it ; which, we agree wjth th^se two lady- 
critics, vk better (ban the £rst, though far short of the original. 

r«cltal 



ttt C&rmponJenci of the Countesses of Hartford and Pom/ret* 

recital of her suflReWfigs. I am afmid solitude is not a cure for love t 
but I think the inciioation to it' a very natural eHect of that passion , 
^hen k is unsuccessful : it leaves the mind in a state of languor and 
melancholy that makes it shun society, and retire from mankirid, to u^^ 
dulge the idea of what it ought most carefully to avoid, and which pro • 
bably it would endeavour to free itself from, were it not generally at- 
tended with a depression of spirits, chat is to the mind what fetters 
ft re to the hody, and prevents it from using sufficient motion to put it« 
•elf in a mot% easy situation. 

* In return for your story of the nun^ I will relate to you one which 
I had within these few days ftx>m a friend of mine, a woman of great 
▼eracity and g(K>d sense : she assured me of the truth of it from her 
own knowledge. 

' A gentleman in Suffolk had an estate of two thousand pounds a- 

year ; and an only son, who was brought up with the expectation of 

being heir to that fortune after his father's death. This took place 

when he was just four-and twenty : bu(, when he came to look into 

bis inheritance, he found tlie whole property so involved, that he had 

only feft four hundred pounds a year, which proved to' be in church 

lands* He lived on this for about twelve months, but during that 

time was very melancholy. He then declared to his friends that it was 

against his conscience to enjoy tlie revenue of what had belonged to 

the church, and that he could make himself easy in no other way but 

by restoring the lands ; which he did, in spite of the persuasion of all 

bit relations to the contrary, and left himself with no more than an 

annoityof fifty pounds. In the neighbourhood there was a quaker, 

who always went once, and sometimes twice a-year into Yorkshire, on 

business. At one house in that couVitry.he was received upon a 

footing of great intimacy, by an old gentleman, who had an only 

daughter, that was to be his heiress — elegant in her person, df good 

temper, and well accomplished. The quaker one day asked him why 

he did not get this young lady married. The gentleman replied, that 

it was what he wished to do, but he was determined never to dispose 

of her but to a man whose principles he approved, and who would. 

come and settle upon the estate. If he could find such a person, he 

would give his daughter to him, though he was not worth a shilling. 

The quaker related to him the historv of his neighbour : and the 

old .geudeman was so much delighted with his character, that he de» 

sired the quaker to bring him to his bouse the next time he came ; and, 

if the young people liked each other, it should be a match. The honest 

quaker returned home, and with great pleasure told the young ^ntle- 

man the prospect of this good fortnne ; but was surprised' to and aH 

the arguments he could use wanted force to prevail on him to go. He 

declared that he would rather live upon his small annuity all his days, 

than marry a woman he did not previously love> though she possessed 

the wealth of the Indies. When the time drew near for the quaker 

to go again into Yorkshire, he applied to a relation of the young gen« 

tleman with whom he lived, and shewed him several letters from the 

lady's father, requesting him to bring his friend along with him. By 

the importunity of this relation, and the quaker's entreaty, the youth 

was at length prevailed on to accompany htm ; but under a feigned 

name. 



Toung^s Fartnef^s Calendar* aS 3 

namc» and only as an Kcquaintance whom he had met by accident on 
the road. Matters being thus settled^ he set out with the quaker* 
and was introduced^to the old mitlcman and his daughter. They , 
were all three sd well pleased with each other, that thcT soon became 
better acquainted, and the goung gentleman discovered who he waa» 
The marriage was quickly concluded ; and he now enjoys eighteen 
hundred pounds a year, which his wife brought him^ besides a con« 
siderable sum of money. ' They have now lived together six years ia 
perfect happiness, and have two children. 

* F. Hartford> 

This lady also courted the Muse, but her poetry is not 
equal to her prose. Dr. Johnson, in his Life of Thomson, 
(whose Spring is dedicated to Lady H.) rather invidiously 
relates an .anecdote that attributes to her a vanity yihizhf 
though in some degree the common weakness of poets, could 
never be suspected to inhabit a mind so correct and well ia«. 
formed as that which she possessed. 

< His words (says the Editor) are these : ** Spring was published 
in the next year with a dedication to lady Hartford ; whose practice 
it was to invite every summer some poet into the country, to bear her 
verses, and assist her studies. This honor was one summer conferred 
on Thomson, who took more delight in carousing with lord Hart* 
ford and his friends, than assisting her ladyship's poetical operations^ 
und^ therefore never received another stimmons,** 

The fact probably is true. Thomson preferred good wine ta 
indiiFerent poetry, and the pleasures of the bottle to those of 
Vechation ; and Lady Hartford, mortified at this discovery, 
scratched Thomson out of her books. As her fame has 
a better foundation than that which is raised on the edifice of 
poetry, it will be little affected by the critic's sneer. 

In taking our leave of these ladies, we shall only add that, 
if their letters have a certain etiquette of style, or contaia 
Studied compliments, and what must now be regarded as over- 
strained expressionsof politeness, it should be remembered that 
these traits must in some degree be attributed to the manners 
of the age, and to the education of a court. 



AaT. X« The Farmer*s Calendar : containing the Business necessary 
to be performed on various Kinds of Farms during every Month 
of the Year. By Arthur Young, Esq., F.R.S. Secretary to the 
Board of Agriculture, &c. Sec. A new Edition, greatly enlarged 
and improved. 8vo. pp. 604^ los. 6d. Boards. R. FhiUips* 
1804. 

^N turning to the General Index to the Old Series of the 
^^ M. R. we find an account of a « Farmer's Calendar; by 
aa Experienced Farmer/' ia VoL air. p. 445^ which was pub« 

7 lished 



. «S4 .Young*/ Farnufi^s CaUndat. 

/ished in the year 1771 : but, after such a lapse of time, we 
ft re not certain that this is the oiiginal edition to which Mr. 
Young; refers. It is nor, hovrerer, improbable : for he informs 
lis, in his advertisement of the work before us, that, in various 
parts of the Correspondence inserted in the •* Annab of Agri- 
culture" during the iast fifteen years, he has been often soli* 
cite J to give a new edition of his Calendar, and as often formed 
the resolution of doing it: but that the new improvements, 
^hich have taken place, made so many and such great altera- 
tions necessary, while other and more pressing employments 
required his attention, that he has hitherto been prevented from 
executing the task. Hiving at last completed it, he hopes that 
the reader will find it, in its present form, worthy of his at- 
tention. 

As an agricultural remembrancer, such a work, if executed 
with knowlege and care, must be acceptable to the farmer; 
and there is no doubt, considering. Mr. Young's extensive ob- 
servation and experience, that he is capable of furnishing use- 
ful hints and rules. . The subjects noticed in each month are 
iiumerous, including a detailed view of the whole business of a 
farm. The character, however, which Mr. Yourtg endeavours to 
form, is not that of the merely industrious and plodding farmer; 
for he advises his Agriculturist, in the months of January 
and June, to travel to observe the well -cultivated countries, 
^o be present at the sheep-shearings of the Duke of Bedford 
and of Mr, Coke, and to furnish himself with a laboratory^ 
to occupy his winter evenings. Yet he is aware that this 
pleasurable mode of gathering knowlege may lead to ideas of 
expence and dissipation, not compatible with the sober pur- 
suits of his calling ; he therefore warns the young farmer of 
his danger, and observes that < if after an excursion, which 
has carried him into great, and, what is called good company, 
he returns home not quite so well satisfied with home as he 
was before, he has contracted a taint that may be worse than 
the scab among his sheep.' 

We CO py a part of Mr. Young's admirable advice on Family 
Arrange ment> which we recommend to the serious attentioa 
of every young farmer : ^ 

' Many accidental circumstapccs gradually bring into a certain 
train the common habits of domestic life ; but it would often be 
more advantageous to lay down a plan to be pursued within doors as 
well a!> without :-8uch ideas may not always be pvacdcable, but the 
ineie aim will not be without its use. Our young farmer, on enter- 
ing his farm, must necessarily arrange his plan of life and house- 
keepfntr, a subject which should not be wholly omitted, yet admits 
but a few currfory hints that may possibly give a turn to his rcflec- 
4ioHS, and, being properly worked on in his miad, may possibly pr^ 

6 duce 



YoungV Farmer^i^ Calendar* aSj 

^uce abenefictal eSect on his coDducti It U not every man thathaatht 
power of thinking to any marked utility ; but he^ whose mind is inqulsi- 
tlvcy may think to advantage on every subject. A prudent economy^ 
free from silt sordid avarice, wiU by every one be admitted as right; but 
it demands some reflection on entering life, or a farm, so to arrange 
every-day circUmStanceS) that they shall flow froni the plan adopted ; 
or at least that such plan shall have no tendency to counteract. In 
regard to house* keeping, the safest way is to assign a stated weekly, 
sum for itt which should on no account be exceeded. An annual one 
for his own dress and personal expeoces ; the same for his wife and 
voung children. And he should, in prudence, keep the whole* al- 
lotted expetice so much nvuhin his probable income, as to possess an 
a.:cumulating fund for contingencies, children, &c. &c. And, if he 
expects the blessing of the Almighty on his indastry, he will not for* 
get the poor in such distribution: I do not meau by rates^ but hj 
charity : and this hint demands one observation : a very material evil 
attending the support of the ppor by rates, is the natural tendency 
tliey h^ve essentially to lessen, if not to cut up charity by the root ^ 
that they do this in many hearts cannot be doubted ; but it is a hor- 
rible, and a national evil. Let our young farmer accustom his mind 
to very diflferrfnt reflections, remembering that what he pays in poor- 
rates he is forced to pay, and that it is a part hi bis calculation in 
stocking his farm : if he expects to prosp'er (but not from that mo- 
live ordvy or he might as well close his purse) let him so accustom 
himself to kind offices and assistance to his poor neighbours, whoever 
they may work with, as to gain a habit of reaping pleasure from his 
free benevolence. 

• In such calculations as T have hinted at, he may safely estimate his 
profit at 10 per cent, on his capital ; from 4COol. his income derived 
from his farm ought to be 400I. a year. He should lay up 50I. and 
as much more as his better interest may permit. To expend this in 
txira ihiprovements, may be the most advautagopus investment, pro* 
▼ided he owns his farm, or has a long lease, not otherwise. 

' To attend markets and a few fairs^ is a necessary p^rt of a far^ 
mer's business ; but to a young man it is a very dangerous part ; it is 
too apt to give the evil hal^its of drinking and dissipation : evil com- 
pany is every where to be found, and many a farmer has been ruined 
by a want of a careful selection of his acquaintance, and by not avoid- 
ing the contraction of habits which cannot be indulged with safety. 
As a safeguard against all evils of this tendency, an habitual attention 
to the duties of religion will have more efficacy than all the phiio* 
sophic morality whico so much abounds upon the tongues of many : 
by rch'gion, I mean that of the national church, the most excelleat 
that has been any where established for the instruction of the human 
species. He can have no true friend that will not advise him to keep 
the Sabbath piously and strictly lumself, and make his family do the 
same : many a judge has traced the origin of crimes that have brought 
labourers to the gallows, to Sabbath-breaking ; and; if the sonrce of 
failures aniong farmers were as- well explored, they would be traoed 
to the same spring. Serve God on Sunday as you serve yourself on- 
Monday: if you are a pagan, a deist^ a m^ral philpsopherj you are, 

t9 



l86 Flowden on the Constitution of Great Britain and Ireland. 

to a certain degree, in reason , answerable for the paganising detsniy or 
moral philosophy of your children and servants ; il a christian, you 
are surely the same for their Christianity : you may gain by this, bat 
cannot lose.' 

This volume is furnished with an appendix, containing vari- 
ous useful tables, and with a copious index. 



Art. XI. The Constttuticti of the United Kingdom of Great Britem 
and Ireland^ CtvU and Ecclesiasticed. By Francis Plowden, Esq.^ 
Barrisler at Law. Uvo. los. Boards. Ridgway. 

/^HANCE has long kept out of our view this well-intentioned 
^ and useful work :» but, as its subject is not temporary, we 
trust that the oversight will not prove to be of any serious 
detriment. Mr. Plowdcn, though he will not join us in reli- 
gious communion, holds as strongly as any of us the soundness 
of our political constitution ; of which he is a warm admirer^ 
a zealous vindicator, and frequently an able expounder* He 
appears to regard our civil regimen with as much fondness as 
any other subject, and in truth his being a catholic is no reason 
why he should not ; for its outlines were formed, many of its 
most admired parts were shaped, and its genius and spirit were 
acquired, while the religion in which he believes was do- 
minant. That which the public profession of his faith, when it 
ceased, left imperfect, the dread of its return in odier new 
circumstances afterward achieved; and it was this dread, 
which at the rime was by no means causeless, but which it 
would be now as (idicuious to harbour as that of magic or 
witchcraft, that occasioned the complete establishment of our 
civil rights. 

Mr. Plowden is a decided though a temperate whig, a 
staunch though a cautious ^adherent to the principles of the 
glorious revolution, and a dauntless though discreet asserter of 
the principles then brought into action. We are glad to find 
that he does not countenance, in any degree, the doctrine so 
studiously inculcated a few years ago in one of the temples of 
the law ; we refer to those popular lessons in^wliich the notion 
of an original compact was scouted as an unfounded and per- 
nicious tenet. Treading in the steps of the venerable defend- 
ers of British liberties, he cherishes and maintains this doc- 
trine, which rests on principles friendly to popular rights, and 
hostile to abuses of power : 

< Suffice it for the present to say, that the real basis of the political 
and civil power or sovereignty which exists in each state, is the ori- 
ginal agreement, compaa, or contract of the society or community, 

whidk 



Plowden ^ the Constitution $f Great Britain and Ireland. 287 

which forms that state, to depute and delegate the nghts, which were 
in them individually in the state of nature, to those, whose duty it 
should become, to rule, protect, and preserve the community. For 
in this consists the whole duty both of the supreme and subordinate 
• magistracy. It would be nugatorr to question the reality of this ori- 
ginal contract, because the particular time and place, when and where 
it wa^ entered into, cannot be named, nor the written charter ordocu* 
ment, in which it is expressed, b« pioduced for the satisfaction and 
benefit of future generations. *' The chief question is not, whether 
there was ever such a contract formally and actually made : but whe- 
ther mankind had not a right to make it x for if they had, civil govem- 
nent, in the ordinary co'urse of things, could be rightfully founded 
upon nothing else, but this, or what is equivalent to it, a tacit consent 
of the tovtmed* And since the latter most be of the same e&ct witk 
the other i this may be su£icient for our present purpose^ unless persona 
think fit to call silso for the original draught of a tacit consenU^* The 
actual assemblage of the multitude forming themselves into a particu* 
lar society, was the formal ratification of this original contract, though 
it were done by tacit consent ; and by this each individual of our 
ancestors became bounden to the power of the whole community, or» 
in other words, to the sovereignty of the state. The free con- 
tinuance of each of their successors m the community is the bond, by 
which they become more solemnly and firmly obligated to the con- 
tract, by grounding their tacit consent upon the valuable considera- 
tions and daily increasing advantages of the experience and improve* 
ments oC their predecessors. This is a multiplying principle, that 
acqnires vigor from every incident of human life, as each revolving 
day bnngs with it fresh reasons and motives, why the living members 
. of the community should ratify and confirm the original contract en- 
tered into by their deceased ancestors. The perpetuation therefore 
of the community, is the unceasing renovation and confirmation of 
the original contract, in which it was founded.' 

Mr. P. quotes from an anonymous author the passage which 
we subjoin ; and which, though quaint and inelegant, incul- 
cates a maxim that can never be too much present to the mind 
of Britons : 

** There is nothing ought to be so dear to the Commons of Great Bri^ 
tain as a free parliament ; that is, a House of Commons every way free and 
independent either of the Lords or ministry, Sccfree in their persons ; 
free in their estates ifree in their elections ;free in their returns ; free 
■ in thei^ assembling ; free in their speeches, Rebates, and determina- 
tions ; free to complain of offenders : free in their prosecutions for 
offences; and therein /r« from the fear or influence of others, how 
great soever ; free to guard against the incroachments of arbitrary 
power j/rw,to preserve the liberties and properties of the subject ; and 
yet free to part with a share of those properties, when necessary for 
the service of the public $ nor can he be justly esteemed a representa* 
tive of the people of Britain^ who does not sincerely endeavour to de« 
lend their just rights and liberties against all- invasions whatsoever.'^ 

The 



288 Plowden on the Constitution of Great Brittnn and Irelartim 

. The aiuhor exhibits in a very just light the revoluttonof i688« 
and very propexly exposes some mystic jargon which occurs amid 
the luminous representations of that event by Mr. Burke. In- 
deed, Mr.Plowden's observations on this head form the most va* 
luabie portion of his volume. — He contends that those who were ^ 
instrumental in effecting that revolution, and their successors, 
n^cre so far from seeking to throw a veil over the principles on 
which they acted in that memorable proceeding, that they courted 
oportuntiies of proclaiming and ratifying them. Of this na« 
lure he considers the two acts of Q^icen Anne, which make 
U treason to deny the competence pfparliament to change the 
tucccssioQ, the proclamation declaring the church not to be in 
danger^ and the occurrences on the trial of Sacheverel, — as 
•well the preamble prefixrd by the Commons to the articles 
of impeachment, as the judgment of the Peers. He observes 
that the revolution • gave no rights to the community, which 
the community did not before possess ; but, by affording ap 
opportunity of calling these rights into action, like all other 
practical examples, it threw light upon the principles, from 
which the rights themselves originated.' 

With regard to the principles on which the parties to this 
event acted, they were, he says, < prior to the constitution it- 
self, and fully adequate to every purpose of pr^eserving and im- 
proving it, as the exigencies of circumstances, and the wishes 
of the community might require. The facts which gave rise 
to the Revolution were such, as in human probability never 
will again recur in that combination, that shall occasion ano* 
tber such Revolution upon the strength of precedent.' 

Mr. P/s view of the nature of this great measure will ap* 
pear from this passage : 

* We must never lose sight of the great pervading maxim of our 
Constitution, that the so'vereignty of all power not only originated from 
the people^ but continues unalitnably to reside w'tt/j them. Since the first 
institution of civil or political government upon earth, there never ex- 
isted aniostance. in which the transcendency of this sovereign right in 
the people was so cleaily demonstrated^ as in our Revolution of 160^^ 
For in that temporary dissolution of the govtrnment, which was oc- 
casioned by the abandoment or dereliction of it by the executive power, 
the people in reality and practice, cairitd their rights to an extent far 
beyond the speculative allowances of the most uncon fined theorists. 
So well satistied were they of the general tenor of the Constitutiov 
%nd government, that to such parts, as they did not think fit to change 
and alter* they very wisely endeavoured to add strength, vigor, and 
authority. But imagination cannot conceive a greater stretch of hu- 
aan power, than to' make the King's choice of his own religion (a 
right which every man possesses independently of the community) the 
immediate cause of his deprivation of all those benefits and advaatagcsw ' 

which 



l^}o%!ddi m tie CortttituSioh of Great Briirfn anAItelaffi* aSy 

Which the commtmfty bad sealed upon him, and which ho an4 his 
askcestors exercising that same religion, bad for many centuries enjoyed 
in consequence of such settlemept \ nay, even tp such extent did they. 
carry their power» tbatthey excluded the whole line of immediate sue- 
cessorsy not for' their actual exercise of this first right of man, but 
because they nnght by possibility exercise it in the same, manner, in 
vhidi their, progenitors had chosen to do it before them. They did 
not attcnpt to dbeck, nor forbid* nor prevent the personal adoption or 
excrcile o£ religion in the individual ; but as there co^ld be no soyci 
reignty enjoyed by any one, without (he free consent of the community,, 
so the coiKHMUoity determined, that no one, who should in future 
olmse to adopt and follow the Roman catholic reh'gion, shouldi be; 
capable of enjoying the Crown of this- realm* The absolute dc^atioa. 
from the constitutional rule of heredjjtary. succession .by the cxclusioa 
of Kiar James and his h/^irs, though the nation, .for. regelating, th^ 
falare succctaioB of the Crown, resorted to a coq[)men stock fron^ a 
jiemotcjr hdr of the Stuart faoftily, ^as the most tiYcfr^fi^blc proof, that) 
could be given of the right to sJter the succession. ^ Apd certainly it 
caaaot be denied, but th)it jt was an innovatipn in the Conititulioa 
to -make the renunciation of a oeitaio religion the/i«# qua^mn ^onditioo 
of iaheritiogthe Crown ; otherwise it could not b?iye descended iipoa 
King Jamee the Second, and the few years of his reiga-m^st beeiased 
from the annals and statute books of this realm.' 

Wc next hare the object of the revolution thus stated r 

* The Engh'sh nation in the year 1689, when the Act 6f Settlement 
was passed, were under the general necessity of having some govern- 
ment ; but they also enjoyed the general liberty given by God to all 
mankind of framing their own form of government and deputing and 
delegating the sovereign power (to which God required t\icir subcriis^ 
sion j to whomsoever they should think proper : in fact they thert 
chose to continue the old form of government and the Constitution, 
which had been framed by their ancestors : they wf re as free to alter 
it entirely, as they were to do it in part : but the parts, which they 
did alter, evidently were intended for the better presei-vatipn of the 
whole ; they were the result of obsetvation and experience, and there^ 
fore the proper grounds for fonning a discretionary judgment of the 
means of executing the trusts, that were vested in them, which were 
to superintend and preseroe the safety anH welfare of the ccmmuniiy. The 
alteratioiis^ introduced at the Revolution were not properly alteration j 
tn the ConUitution, but innovations in some of the laws cst^culdtcd'to 
preserve the Constitution upon a firmet' basis j for the ConstittJtion is 
the move firmly preserved, by how much the dissolution of governmefik 
is reodered more diffieult. The hationliad just experienced ait actual 
distolutaonJctf government ; "and had then to deviie the be^t.fn^ns ia 
their fKiwer pi^ jpdgm^t to-prcvent a repetiupa of this greatest of all 
political evils.' ,. .. . ' 

Xiaatiy, Mr. P« eniioaiuates the moral iSnd pTudeottal consl- 
derattODs by ' which the ^agents in . thair gnao chaii^^e were ac- 
tuated^ and which furpisii'ac^^ce the inotife« and ih^ }U4i^Mir 
cation of their conductt ' : .» 

^.RiT.Hoy, 1805. U ' When 



190 Thmitn w (tft CoMsiiiuthH of Great Britain Ofid L^Hattd. 

* When at thts dblance of time we reflect tmpartiallf upon the iBegi!fr~ 
and uaconsttttttional tctf of King Jamei theScobnd, it it iropoitibic not 
ta tee and allowt that he had dcterminately ceaicd to execute the trust 
reposed in him by the nation, that had made him the t a pr emn aap* 
ttrate to execute and preserve the laws^which^erethe direct emaiiactov 
of the general will of the community. For it n evident todemoottia^ 
tion, that the Constitution of En^hnd would no longer have bem whaH 
it was intended to be» had the King been aUowed for any temaa to act 
against hit coronation oath, to refute or suspend' the Statute law by kts 
royal proclamstiont, and in general to* act in violation of the law, and 
contrary to the incKnationi of hit people. That goveniuient,- whid^ 
br the law of God and ntturc thit eommonity was aoilionsed to^ 
€noose, and had actually choten to adopt, could not conritittt tm sobaiac 
Under such air assumption- and- usurpation of power by the Crowo* 
They were under no obligation to attume a new form of goverumeotyr- 
but they were under an obligation of having tome government, by the 
(cnetal ditpensatton- of God't providence over mankind. The nonil' 
obligatiou therefore of thote persons, who were then the delegates of 
the community (i . s. the members of both Houses^f Parliament) was- 
to preserve and secure that form of go^rermncntr which they knew to- 
be the will and wish of the community to be rvAtd by t it wis conse* 
quently their indispensable and supercminent duty to remove, as far 
as in them lay, both the present and fotore occasions of its dissolutiou^ 
Our aooestors, in executing this consdeniious discharge of their trust, 
coDunission, or delegattou to su|>eriatend and preserve the safety apd 
welfare of the community, could only use tneir human judgment 
and discretion to direct their actions : find it was impossible for thena 
under the existing circumstances and their general convictions not to 
Judge, that the profession of the Roman catholic religFon was the im- 
mediate cause or pretext, vvby James II. had acted to illegalty and* 
unconstitutionally ; and therefore . their moral duty obligea them to 
remove and prevent that cause and pretext from operating in like man-- 
iier upon future sovereigns. Thciir power could not exceed their de- 
legation : this was from the community,, and therefore could affect 
nothing but such civil rights as they could delegate. It was essen- 
tially circurotcribed, because it was originally instituted and dircctcii 
by the law and light of nature implanted by God in erery rational 
being. This is the common rule of duty and action to the Hestheoi 
and Christian magistrate. The Christian Revelation made no aliera- 
ti^o in the nature, extent* or duties of the dvii magistrate.' 

TKe flOEond part of this pcrforaiance respects mote- pacttco- 
larly those persons who are of the sam^ communio»wtth the 
author. It is very theological, b^t contains much cufious in« 
formation, as well as some sensible observations^ Mr. P. very 
properly remarks that no protesting catholic can consistently 
hold the infallibility of councils; otherwise they must subscribe 
the hofrible decrees of the tiiird and fbttrth councils of Lateran.. 
This extravagant prerogative) whieh these assemblies have ar- 
rogatedy is rejected by the author, except as far aa puic matten 
of faith are regarded } and he reprobates oionstroua decvees with 



becoming indignation. His iren^arks on the oath oF siiptemacft 
^e thinkj demand the serioiis attention of every hvimdne and 
^oneat man. These ate hi3 concluding words on this poiht : 

^ Few iT any would refuse to take the datli of aUpremacyj, in the 
true cppstittttional sense of its actual existence, were it uncqulvocaltf 
to eipresSf that th« Kinpr Ss the ^ujpreme heaa of ttie civil establish- 
nent of the church of England. But the deviation of the wbrdt* 
terms, and inteut of the oath» from the word^ tpiric, and eSecta, of the 
laws^ rieader it unlawful for a Roman oathulic to take it. Be it then 
no vain hope that parliaitaent may sc^ and remove the oiielty^ which 
operates so stvereiy upon miUioM of well disposed ahle and loyal sub* 
jects of his Mijcsty i that all may be unittd #ich one heart and 6ne 
mind 10 their cflFrcts to {^reserve and pcrpctuatia -the Constitution of 
this united kingdom/ 

If Mr. Plo^den be ttore Fond of acciUmhlalihg ihattct thaflk 
X}{ digesting it^ if he be laborious rather than elaboratCii and 
whatever value be aaaighed to the ttews which he hi[tiself 
gives of his subject, the yoUng reader should re&ecl with at* 
Mention on the testioioniea to oar admirable civil fabric whiich are 
here collected together, whether they proceeded from the Jieade 
of the state or th^ sages of the law, or were borne by fotretgners 
or by natives. They are here detailed from Bracton to Btack^ 
Btone, from Tacitus to Montesquieu, and ftom the Angelic 
Doctor * down to De Lolme^ 



^i^»^m.<mt nil » « I .— ^C^»»»<^— h»^bjJ« 



Abt. Xtl. Sbrmm^ and 9ikr Muceihmeo^ Pkitt^ by the ktc 
Henry Hunter, D. D.» Minister of the Sbots Church, London 
tV'all. To which are prefixed a Biographtcal Sketch of his Life, 
and a Critical Account of his Wrkiogs& a Vols. 8v6. i^%* 
l^ards. Murray. 

jl^ANf oppottunities f haVe occurred to US| in the course of 
^^ our labours, of reporting the literary performances of 
Dr. Hunter in terms of some commendation. Hia &acred 
Biography^ hU translatioQ of Saurin^ &c., and other re-- 
ligious.pubUcation6» entitled his seaL and exertions in the cause 
ot virtue, to general esteem, while he lived; and we were 
pleased to bear such frequent testimony to the merits of so 
taboriotts.and popular a divine. He has now paid ** the great 



I.... » 



* Our good old countryman Fortescue quotes St. Thomas as say* 
fai^, ** Si rtferamus ad statum integrum hununut nature ^ qui itatus inno* 
teniia apeHatur^ in quo nonfuisset regale regimen^ /^</politicum— ;'' de- 
nottugi by the latter term, a limited mixed government, in opposition 
to im absolute and simple one. 

' t See M. R.-V0I. vii.N. S. p. 250. and Vol. xl. p. 324. where 
other references will be found. 

U » last 



?9Z Hunter*/ Se^fmpnsp, IsfA 

last,^ebt>" and the public are here presented with hU fia^ 
V>^ering in these two volumes of sermons^ which are iotrodpced 
T>y ^^biographical memoir. From this skptch of the life<>f Dr^ 
H.| we learn that he was born at Culross in Perthshirei Aug» 
'^i> 1741, imH died at Bristol) Oct. 27, 1802. ' 

! liVe transcribe {lie summary of his character and genius : 

. *-Some est rmate may'be fbrniedof both^ from a perused of his writingir^ 
mhfcbykdwvTer^ere stiii better calcuSat^ to afibrd a jfisttiotionof his 
•bilitiesy than/of bis dispostdcm. > He ^2M a man of aneoinmon Warmth, 
ilf Ueartf ^ml.off)tiici&and pbwerfol feditigs, joined to « oliild'naturally 
eiwr^ticfand.coinmafMiifig. Wfaatev«rhe fdt, he felt deeply : what he 
mtteispted^hcattempteiimth the wholepowel-of his mind. He knew not 
What;a half feclin^ior Ji half measare-iacant^ The object which tie took 
up, engaged him for the time, almost to the exclttsion of •every other, 
^.dfrpi\x the nat^re.oj his mind« that objept wa^ never of a trivial or 
paTtfy* nature. He detested every action savouring I'n the least of 
iheanftess," 2^nd dotild* rather have borne with the lufirmitics of a great 
in?n^ 'thatt witlr the' pettf' yf^es'of ti little one. His views being 
cifhsCkntty bent oh ioMe imjJortart of mtcrestihg object, left him little, 
ornbineKnaciontbtoro t)^fiV«owaird others^ to hiih of less conse- 
llbcode.-^ Hence ^v6om|ilete'd&rcg«rd'>of money, except to answer 
HB^f.vpCfMnt^uKiPf^,. either of neoesfttiy, or charity: fron^ the great 
bmeypjenc^ pf bm^e^tyit accordingly hi|pfiB(ied oc|t UAfrcqueiitly that 
if> f^yeu when iVgr^t vcant .of jx^on^y, ;^k KC^ived a |um more than 
suffib'ent to answer tne demand of the moqienti the remainder was al- 
ways ready to be shared with the first child of want that appeared. As 
he despisi:dJi^iae%siVC$s.in_hi9 other acliaoa,. so he deprecated them 
in his charities. When he gave, he gave all. The objects of his be- 
nevolence tifteKrtiepkrtsad firom him ricber than himself and left hiin to 
ieek..fronx»fiiendihip that assistance whfoh-he hod bestowed throi||^h 
^be irresistible impulses of « warm heart. With such disposttiotfs it 
viiU jiatuially besiipposcd.^hat^Ms alMchfn#nt<i were partioMariywarm 
to those moie immediately around him. Yet akhough^he deKghted 
above all in the compan^^ qrhischildre.n^jno person ever took shelter 
beneat^n Ws roof, tven for a short tune, vvithoul becoming an object of 
bif* ri^g^rd, and sharift^fn'T^iis Iriendship. '. ' ' 

' .* In the allotmh)t m time he <\^i''ty^ict \' in peHbrtjiing a promise 
ewD to the smaUe£U<lngagement/hc*'Wab most punctual, aud would 
rftiber. pi)t himself to< mcoavcniflncc, ikaki rua^ the tsek iof tKflibg*' w£th 
the. Mine .^f otjber^: whatoiver drpen4ediiBjIiim8«lf,;wat* sono vo b^ 
p^iiforpied ;...aAd oftent th'PUgh his^ meaus/ ^«R it upended oq 
others: ajgrs^ndf^xiuoji i^ all his actions was, fhjit wl^atev^r^gppd.work 
he began, should iteyer be relinq^uished, till completed. 

*['^Aithouj;h in couversaiipn he was uncommonly jively and agreea- 
ble^, yet Dr. rjuntcr had npt; the smallest turn for raiHei:y»_ 6x whs^t it 
termed repartee: perhaps in the whole course,of his life^ l\e n^yer, Qiaiift 
an atteVnpt at a joke ; yet . wf^at uuy. appear eytraordin^iy^ .he posw 
seised a 'keen relish of those social qualiiicatioos w)ien: tiinocently; 
exerted by others>..and«was an adnurablc-ji^gf of bui9pur« ali^ugh 
ke p6s8css*ed-n(xnc himself.* * "" ' .^ ^. * ■„ 

. - 6 , -r " ' Ai 



' Hudtet^/ Sermorff^ * 6fcr. * 293 

* A« a pulpft otator, his abilities were of thi^ vkrj first class. If 
lie apoke to tlfe nndentandingy the adminEble dmsijon of his subject 
enabled ereiy heiurcr to graap hia meaning, and condusions drawn with 
almost logical precisioir overwhelmed the doubts of the most ingetiioUb 
caviller. If he addressed the feeHngs^ the ear^egtness of his manner 
added a double interest to his pathetic exhortatioasy . and carried coi> 
viction to the coldest heart. His delivery was uniformly solemn and 
distinct, not calculated to slide gently into a fashionable ear, but ad- 
fnirably adapted to the general nature' of hia discotirses,* to engage pro- 
found atteotton, to awaken deep reflection, and alarm the soul sinking 
into deceitful secority or impenitence. Rich in ideas, and profound 
and accurate in hia observationB, he diadatned nothing mofc than t6 
hunt after high sounding words whicli charm the ear and deceive the 
understanding without touching the heart. It may be truly said With 
respect to the general effect of his preaching, that * 

" Fools who came to scoff remained to pray." 

From this passage, every reader will be disposed to entertain 
a very favourable opinioQ of this deceased author, as a sineero 
and aerioua Christian, and will not be disposed (to adopt a lirlft 
of the motto) <* to draw his frailties from their dread abode.f 
The numeroaa publications of Dr. H. are witnesses' in them- 
selves that he sedulously cmplbyed his talents and abilities for 
the improvement of his brethrcr?, and the good of mankind. — 
Indeed, he was a preacher of such eminence, that we shoulj 
BUppost Jew Jhols came to scoff, . 

On a perusal of the sermons in these tw^ volumes, it wouUL 
be d;^partiog from the invariable rule of justice which wo 
study to observe, if, we were to pass any high general en- 
comium on them. That.theji proved very acceptable and usd-^ 
fttl exhortations to the congregations, before whom they vrcre 
delivered, we cannot entertain a doubt. They manifest no- 
thing affected not artificial, and they must have had great 
weight with the audience, from the spirit of sincerity and 
earnestness which pervades them. We do not, however, thinks 
that they arc calculated to delight or to attract the attention of 
the reader, so well as they were suited to impress the hearts 
and excite religious emotions in the minds of a mixed and less 
fastidious congregation. — In offering these remarks, we would 
Bot be understood to be influenced in any way by a diflereftce of 
opinion in point of doctrines y which certainly subsists between 
lis and the author : but we speak of the general effect of the' 
sermons, independently of the peculiar system of faith to 
^hich Dr. H. was attached. 

'. The mt- rits and characteristics o\ Dr.Hunter are so well known,* 
and we have so often spoken of them, that we need not long de- 
tain our readers on the present occasion. If we were to select 
any single sermon as^ in our e$t4nMtioD, superior to the fe«t, t^ 

U 3 would 



9p4 HuDltrV Sittn^m^ kfc. 

wouIJ he the (Sth of the i9( volumey <« On die Nalivitf of 
Christ/' Eloquence and pathos are conspicuous in this cooa* 
position ; and the succcedini^ passage will display the authoi'a 
ttbiiity in deducing just remarks and mo^alrr flections from the 
incidents recorded in the Gospel history. His obserf^ttons on 
the circumstances of our Saviom^s bi^^h ^re striking and ap- 
propriate: 

^ * Let us learn not oaly to submit to, but to rejoice in the distfoo* 
ttODS and varieties of condition, which a wise proridcncc has esta* 
Uished in the worid. These are the appointment of God, eke the^ 
would not exist. The absolute and univerMl equality of mankind is 
% ehimera unwsTranted by revelation, and flatly contradicted by hcX 
and experience. When Jesus Christ came into the world, did he dit-r 
turb ciWl society by an attempt to bring mankind to a level of nature, 
or even to distinctions founded on wisdom and virtue I Did his mo- 
ther, under pretence of a miraculous conception and birth, claim, the 
best house in Bethlehem as the property orhoaven*8 favourite, or en- 
deavour to dispossess a wealthier or more powerful guest of his lodgrng 
at the inn, to make way for David^s son f Is Herod attacked with 
violence on the throne of Judea, or Cseiuir on tluit of the world {- 
Quite the reverse — th^ murderer of a thousand innocents is permitted 
tolivc, and to reign— the tribute of a lordly conqueror is cheerfully 
rendered him. Under what pretence theq do, the saints claim the do* 
ininion of the world ? How could the dJKiples of Jesus ever think of 
turning the world upside down, to procure for themselves a place and 
a name ? How severely did our Divine Master clieck every ebullition 
of such a spirit in his greatest favourites ! This is not the state of re- 
tribution, but of discipline The object of the gospel is to level, not 
men's fortune and rank, but their spirit and temper-— to teach the 
rich in this world <* co do good and to oommunicatCt to be rich ia 
iaith and good works*' — and the poor ** to be rich in faith,*' meek-r 
ness, and contentment — to instruct the mighty to be merciful, and the 
weak to be modest and di$dent---tp form the happy to moderation,^ 
and gratitude, and compassion— and the wretched to patience, and 
sqbmisKion, and obedience— and, in a word, to bring aU men, what- 
ever be their external situation, to the common standard of humility, 
and to a sense of thtrir dependence upon God, and accountableness to 
him, and to the habitual observance of the law of kindness, and for- 
bearance and forgiveness, and love, one toward another. \x\ this' alone 
consists, it it exit»t at all, the equality of human nature'— and this, as 
far as it is attained, makes earth resemble heaven, and men re;|jLmblo 
i^iigeU— among whom there is dignity without pride, ^nd subordina- 
tion without murmuring or envy — with whom diJFcrcnce pf degree 
i^ a source not of jealousy and stri/ci but of love and joy.' 

Prefixed to these Sermons are some Introductory Addresses 
on Sacramenta] Occaisions. In the Church of Scotland, of 
Vfhich Dr. H. was a member, the service of the Lord's Supper^ 
is conducted with extraordinary solemnity ; and it is rarely Ad- 
H^inister^d more ^i^n twice in a yea^. A day ip (he ity^i^ oi 

;hq 



WakcfieldV Essof on P$KiumI Smmy. IpS 

tlie week pfcviMftty to iM celebratira it tppointed •$ « Fast ; 
attd tbeSatusday precedipg . the Commiioiofi Sabbath ii ob* 
$ervcd m a day of preparatioib The Monday followiog it alto 
^tevotcd to Dirine Service* These Addrettet of Dr. H. were 
delivered on giving Notice of the Sacrament-*--on the Fast Day 
'--on the dittfihation^of the Tokens*— »aod on fencing f the 
Tablet) Xq which are added two Cootecration Prayers. 



I <ii . ' ■* * 



Art. XIII. jfn Essay upon 'Folkkal Economy ^^ bciag an !n<|iMfy 
into the Truth of the Two Positions of the French Economists t 
that Labour cmplo^din.Mana&ctittresisnaprodiictiw) and tbai 
• all Taxes .ultiiaatel)r fall upon, or settle in the Surplus Produoe of 
theXand. JBy Danitl Wakcfieldt Esq. itxno. |>p. tao. is. 6d* 
Boaadti. Rivingtons. 

'iT'aE distinction of labour into froJitctive and unproJuctive 
*' would be pronoiuoced bf most, persons to be a mere ab« 
•ttract question, a matter of little or no practical importance^ % 
fit subject for the schools-: but, trivial as it may appear, coii- 
^quences of the most terious nature have followed from it. If 
it be true that agricultural l^ur alone yields a surplus produc- 
tion, it follows thai taxes can ariee only out of this fund, and 
Jthat an exclusiv.e te rcitorial tax is the mos( elif(ible mode of 
xaisiug a revenue. This deduction was almost literally exem- 
plified in France under the Assembly which has beea grossly 
misnamed the Constituent. In ^conformity to the doctrine of 
tkt e:coQonMstt, that Assembly abolished most of the old taxes, 
and whstkiited for ikem a general land-tar; and never did more 

™ ' I I ■<>■ I I 11 ■ I ■! 1^1 — -I II H ■ ■ I ■ ■■ ■ ■ 1 I ■ 11 f !■ ■ 

^ * After service on the Saturday, the person* intendiog to com- 
xnunicate receive, each from the ministers or the elders of the parish a 
stamped piece of metal, denominated a token, which they return before 
receiving the sacrament on Sunday. The intention of this is to pre** 
irent any person not known to the minister, and approved of .as a per- 
son acting worthy of the christian name, from seating himself amon^ 
the communicants, and partaking of the sacrament. On this occa- 
sion which is called the distribution of the tokens, an address, with 
suitable exhortations, is again <l«livered hy the minister of the parish. 
The piece to which this aoie is suhjoined is one of these addresses/ 
. ^ f After the ordinary service, of the Sunday is over, and immedi- 
ately before the distribution of the sacrament begins, the clergyman 
addresses the people, and informs them, that as this sacrament is in- 
.tended only for tlie true christian, those who arc conscious of disposi- 
tions inconsistent with that title, are debarred from it. He then enu^ 
merates the several sins^ a subjection to which excludes from the wor- 
thily partaking of the Lord's Snpper. This is called fencioj; the 
fables, or defendiirg them from the approach of unworthy persons/ 

17 4 actual 



^tf Wakefield'/ Estaj on P^EUcmI Economp 

actual mischief proceed from a mistaken abstract Mtton. • One 
branch of industry (the agricultaral) was overburthened, and 
another (the commiercial) exempted from public demands, on 
conclusions drawn from a false theory ; thus a vast source of 
revenue was left untouched, and a system of taxation adopted 
whieh materially assisted the successif e rulers of that country 
to destroy commerce, to subvert the state, and to construct a 
fabric of tyranny. The governing demagogues, jseeing. thaf 
commerce* was unpfoUuctlve'oF revenue, and regardless of in- 
dividual sufferings, became indifferent to its fate ; and per- 
ceiving that a territorial tax might be levied amid the shocks 
of public convulsions, they more readily adopted scheme^ 
of anarchy. The present ruler of the same country would not 
have had so easy a task in establishing his arbitrary sway, had ' 
the nation been subject to a system of taxation founded in free^ 
4om, and liable to be rendered inefficient by lawless rule. Taxes 
judiciously laid become a sort of guarantee to liberty, since they 
induce governments to respect that sacred principle from a fear 
of diminishing the revenue. It is curious to behold an assem- 
bly so jealous of freedom, and which carried their veneration 
for it to extremes fatal to itself, deliberately establishing 4 
system of finance which favoured the subversion of the public 
prosperity ; and which facilitated the erection of a more com- 
plete despotism, than any which Europe has witnessed in mo» 
dern times* This property of direct taxation, as best allying 
with arbitrary power, follows from the nature of things ; and 
jit is rendered probable from its being the mode of raisins 
revenue adopted by t)ie latter Roman empire, and by China. 
. This doctrine of the French School, which regards labour 
employed in providing food aa the only productive labour, indi- 
cates a very limited range of mind ; it is formed on the idea 
that the mere sustentation of life is the sole end of our being*^ 
and that all which gives it relish, or confers dignity and im- 
portance on it, are to be held in no estimation ; that all is 
propter vttam / and that we are wlioliy to oyerloo)^ the causae 
Vivendi, 

Mr. Wakefield supposes the great error of this school tq 
have originated in the abundant produce which land yields- in 
France, at a small expence of labour, skill, and capital. 
There is, perhaps, more of refinement than solidity in this 
eonjecture ; for it must be recollected that the framcrs of this hy- 
pothesis, at the same time that they witnessed the ample returns 
made by a propitious soil, had under their view the wealthy 
manufacturers of Lyons, and the rich merchants of BourdeauiE 
and Marseilles. Is it not fully as probable that the notioa 
arose our of the vast importance in which eating is held by this 
• ■ people. 



WakefieldV Etsaf ^ PStlcat Ecmomy. 297 

'people, as i^ manifest from ^e numerous. m«t»phorical fCfiieB 
^irhich the tertn manger bears in their hn^age ; and also from 
their superior fondness for the article of bread, of which they 
consume so' large a quantity ? ' ' ' 

' A' summary of th« doctrine maintained in thiB tract is in- 
cluded in the subsequent passage : 

* It is obvious, that the cultivator of land produces somethings only 
by means of a previous annihilation, Jirst^ of his own intermediate 
support, between seed-time and harvest ; secondly^ of the wear of his 
Stock advances* ; and * Onrdly^ of the seed sown : the manuftcturer 
-also produces sonoething* only by means of a previous aonibilation ; 
frrst of his own intermediate support between the beginning and couu 
'^lettoa of the manufactnre ; secondly of the wear of his stock advan- 
pes t; and thirdly y of the raw material used. The rude produce of 
.the cultivator is worth more than he has anoihilated» it wiU exchange 
for more than his support, between tlie next seed-time and harvest, 
than the wear of his stock advances, and than as much seed as he 
will require to sow : this excess is therefore called his surplus value, 
or sucpiuB production, which surplus is divided into /«cr# parts, the 
pro Bis of his stock, and the rent of his land. The finished manufaOi 
ture of the manufacturer is also worth more than he haBaooihilated, ic 
will exchange for more than his ' support, during the time of.com* 
pleting a similar manufacture^ than the wear oihis stock advances, 
and than as much raw material as he will require to work up : this 
excess is therefore called his surplus value, or. surplus production, 
yvhich surplus is also divided into two parts^ the profit8.of his stock, and 
the interest of his capital.' 

A late French author considers agriculture as a particular 
species of inanufacture, and land as a sort of naachinery fur- 
nished to us by the bounty of nature. This view of the matter 
would have assisted Mr. Wakefield in elucidating the analogy 
between the two classes of hbour ; in shewing tbs^ the inci« 
dents to both are the same ; and that a surplus produce be- 
longs as much to the one as to the other. It must be admitted 
that Mr. W.« in following his own method, has ably Ubouiei 
this point ; he has brought the observations of Mr« Locke, \xx 
his disquisition on the origin of property, happily to bear 01^ 
it ; and he well employs, in the same service, the strictures of 
the same great writer, on the resemblance between the rent of 
)and and the interest of capital. 

Aristotle's argument against taking interest for the loan of 
(noney, because money was barren, and incapable of producing 

« • By this term, as applied to the cultivator, I mean what is ge* 
nerally denominated live and dead stock, as cattle for work, imple- 
ments, sheds, Sec* 

<. t By this term, as applied to the manufiacturer, I mean tools, 
inachtnes, buildings, Scc.^ 

money. 



fiMMiey, has often been ridicuM: buti if duly eon^eve^t ^ 
will appear to be worthy of the superior penctracioa of %lsat 
|(reat genius \ inasnaueh as the only rational view of the sisb^^ 
jeet, and that which accounts for the fluctuations of interest 
according to the resppctive situations and circumstances oJF 
states, arises from the consideration suggested by the objec*- 
lion of that great philosopher, namtly the reproduciof^ pro- 
. perty of ononey when it is duly appliedt and whiph is finely 
illustrated by Mr« LocVe in passages inserted iu this tract. 
It is v^ry justly remarked by Mr. W. that 

' In a cultivated and advancing toeiteyf so high a priee is given for 
the rude produce of land, and so low are the profits of. ail kinds of 
etock, that the nominal rent of hnd rises above the price for whic^ 
the surplus of Its produce will sell* and the land owner coasequently 
receives more than his due proportion { but in a barbarous or dediniogr 
•society, the rude produce of the litnd being gi«aler than the consump* 
tion of its inhabitantSy its price falls ; and as at the same time, toe 
profits of stock rise, the nominal rent of land sinks below the price^ 
for which the surplus of its ivde produce wiU sell, and the land-owner 
receives less than his due proportion. The corroctness of thus ac- 
eounting for the rise and tall of the nominal rem of bwd, above or 
belotv its real rent, is Remonstrated from land sometimes yielding oo 
somrnal, though in most eases it yields a real rent or surplus. 

^ la a jooHcvated and ^advancing society, so high a price is given for 
praw materia}, and so great is the money rewaoi of lahour, Siat not* 
withstanding the lowness of the prolits of stock • the aooioal interest 
of capital falls below the price, for which the surplus of its manu&o 
tured produce will sell, and the capitalist receives less than his due pro- 
portion ; but in a barbarous or declining society, raw material bein^ at 
.alow price, and the money reward of labour being also low, the nommal 
Snterest of ^capital Hks above the price, for which the surplus of its 
tnanufactured produce will sell, notwithstanding the highness of tWe 
profits of stock, and the.^apitalist greceivcs more than bis due propor«> 
tjon.' 

The above obserrattons are founded on the relations of things, 
and are warraftted by facts : but they admitted of being more 
perspicpously stated, and merited farther elucidation. . 

A distinction, on which some 8<re8S has beca laid by great 
.authorities on the present subject, is effcctuaUy obviated in the 
ensuing passage c 

< There is a distinction drawn by some writers * between labour 
consumed in use, and labour employed in production, which does not 
iSppesr to nte sound. I am ndt going to argue which a wise man 
would chuse, personal service^ , an article of clothing, or a healthful 

mcal^ 

* * Aristotle and Smith.* 

* f This term includes the exertions of the lawyer to preserve our 
property from knavery, ar»d our lanu: from palumny \ the atjtenijanQe 

af 



Wak^field'x JSssig on Political M^mi^y* ^99 

m^ ;.J»ot wliat I n^e^n i(», that there 11 not any such real distinction^ 
9* tfi' one drawn above, for what is Ubour employed in production, 
but employed in producing that which is to be consumed ; the end of 
both laDours after all being to be consumed in use \ the artisan who 
inal^es a pair of shoes, and the cultivator who procures food, is enw 
ployed in producing that which is to be consumed, while the labour 
consumed m use is employed in an attendance, the effect of which is 
pver as soon as enjoyed ; like to which» is the case of the shoes whcQ 
worn euty and of the food when eaten *.* 

In what follows, the admissions of the economists are deit^* 
terously employed to overthrow their system ; 

f It ip admitted by the French economists, that manufacturers h^ve 
filways been a self-supporting class : but they contend that labour 
thus exert edy returns no more than its cost ; than the value of the 
l^w material annihilated, than the wear of the stock advances* and 
than the support of the labour during the tim^ it was engaged in the 
inanufacture. 

< This admission, bowcvcTf will involve them in great difBcuhies ; 
Jbr if, a century past, labour employed i« manufactures produced equal 
to any number, or one^ and consumed but on^^ surely now, that by the 
invention and use of machines, and by the increase of the division of 
jaboor, Iwo or three times the then quantity of finished manufacture (s 
produced^ by the same cxpence of labour, manufacturers have become a 
productive class: with a consumption equalling anfj they formerly, it h 
^owed by the economists, produced one; now however, with no 

freater consumption, the^ produce equal to two or thref. Not only 
ave the French economists omitted to consider the eifecta of the. 
division of labour, and the introduction of machines, but xhtj have 
failed* in not observing, that superiour skill will produce its effects, in 
]c$8 time than it will take an inferiour artist to perform, in a worse 
'manner, a siipilar work ; thus not allowing any value to the facilities qf 
habit, nor \o the exertions of genius, measuring by the same standard 
his physical wants, the rapid and finished execution of a Master, and 
the clumsy ipihations of his apprentice; the sublime genius of a Rey* 
nolds, a Wren, or a Phidias, and the mechanical labours of a painter 
of signs, a common builder, or an image cutter.' 

It is not to be overlooked that, in many manufactures, as 
well as in agricultpve, nat^re supplies us with very operative 
agents, and that the elements frequently and essentially assist 
hunnan labour :— for instance \ light act^ ichemically ; and heat^ 
air, and w^^cr, act chemically z,nA mechanically in forwarding 
a variety of manufacturing processes. 

When disputing the conclusion that all taxes fall ultimately 

on the land, aud th^t its surplus .produce is the sole fund 

f -.• •• I ■' ■■ ■ ■ . .- ..,■ II ■ . ■ -I. 

«f the Physician to guard oqr lives, and to invigorate our health, and/ 
ihe courage of the soldier to defend us from violence.' 

* * M. Gamier in his Traduction de la Richesse des Nations, note 
^0 of the 5th volume, joins uie iq exploding (his ^istio^tion/ 

whence 



-300 Wakefield^/ £fsaf on PJiiical Mcpnomy. 

•whence they arc drawn, Mr. W- finds In the case of iis own 
country an instance whrch completely overturns that deiduc- 
tion. England pays into the exchequer a revenue which exceeds 
.the surplus produce of its whole territory ^ while the proprietors, 
4t is notorious, draw large incomes from the surplus fund of 
4h6 laiut, which they consume or hoard at pleasure* The au* 
.tfaor is of opinion* that direct taxes settle and terminate in in* 
come, and bear on the individual ; while indirect impotts fail 
.Qn consumptipn, and are borne by the consumers* 

It appears to us that Mr. W. does not properly discrioiinate 
the several operations of the respective principles of original 
cost, and of competition in regulating price j— the one has 
.a permanent and a controuling influence^ the other a subordi* 
Jiate, temporary, and fluctuating effect. It does not follow that 
competition does affect price^ because in the end the law of 
original cost will restore the equilibrium ; if this were true, 
things would never sell above nor below their fair value ; than 
which, however^ in practice, nothing more frequently hap- 
pens. 

We were surprized to find repeated by this writer, the 
jcharge so often made against Dr. Smith, of not acknowleging 
his obligations to Sir James Steuart. We should be glad to 
see it ascertained what these are : but we own that we are not 
able to state any which are of a very serious magnitude. It is 
at the same time somewhat strange that Smith should never 
have referred to his predeccsabr, nor even have once mentioned 
his name. In Steuart's volumes, some good produce is to be 
found scattered over a vast surface : but it appears to be scantjr 
in proportion to the extent. Little of theory occursin the 
work 'f and what there is, besides being false, cannot lay claim 
to originality. He was also deficient in the art of composi- 
tion, and unskilled in with the idiom of the language in 
which he wrote. • The IVealtb of Nations^ as a literary per- 
formance, is liable to a gr^at many objections, and chargeable 
with a few important errors : but still we hold it to be among 
the most valuable productions of the last century, and one 
which reflects on it the most lustre. We do not think that a 
late French writer, M. Say *, goes too far when he asserts, 
f * // «' y avast pas (TEconomie avant Smith ;*' and we are also of 
opinion with him that ^* cntre la doctrine des Rcommistes et la 
sutine^ il y a la mime distance qui separe la systeme de Tycho- Brabe 
de la physique de Newton?' We know not what Mr. W. will 
Siy to the iollowing sentiment of the same useful author, as it 
f ertainly bears hard on himself t *« Je n*ai Jamais vu rabaisser 



■^-t 



* See M* Rev. VoLxlii. N, S. p. 514, 

Smith 



WakeficldV Essay, $h Potiiical Economy. jat. 

Sfmfi ^ui far.des' persofutcs ahol^ment bors d*^tat tk ie cotH'^ 
pren^re^ Vid. Traite de PEcottomie Folitique^ par J. J. Say. 

In an Appendb^ Mr* W. comhilbiits onoertain podltions ad^ 
▼anced by M. Tavg«t, in a work Emitted Refienhms sur la For* 
mation it la Distrlbatkn des Rteh'essefi- Mr. "W. mistalccs, 
however, when he .rcpresenti t\ht*rirf Ale and excellent 
person as an economist ; since it appears from the whold o£ 
his works, and^etcti f rom' ^assflgeB inserted ^ki the p^rs tie- 
fore ns, that he differed tn^many points from* the mtmters^oE 
that sect. >• • : • > '.t ^ f • i • ;.:i :. 

We concur with Mr. Wakefield in thinking thhtth> ditdU9- 
^n of subjectSi such as those to which be -har directed hhi 
attention, is highly commendable ^ arid :ttit>re'paircicutep^f so 
in a country distinguished by its vast riches, where wealth te 
not only valuable on account oPther codifoits whicH it secures^ 
mad the importance and domShibn ^htshihatm ha9 assigned t^ 
it, but where^it' is become the ie^f^tial %Ufport'of- a dvll 
fabric, whicH those who live U(ad8r it,' fcehand- WUeve tl> 
be tlie first in the worldi We eoticetveyiiowevei^ tha!t the au- 
tbor regards the p^itions: which hd^ has diecass^d'a^ bailing 
more novelty than belongs to tlieml -Uecatttlob'but'know 
that the distinction which he so prdptrlyieofflbats,fwhil:h wa%- 
first laid down by the economtsts^ and which IDn Smith did 
not sufficiently qualify^— together with 'iris pertiiotous ofFspvlng,. 
an exclusive toerricorial revenue,^-4ra9e ^beoome' obsolete even 
in France \ and thart no writers hive • mors ably exposed these 
;disurd and nuschievous notions, • than* the' kiter publicises of 
that country; 'It strikes us that Mr.:. W* bas^ only the merit,. 
and perhaps he lays claim to njo more, of treading in the 
tame path with preceding aixthork^ dnd of "assisting in eluci- 
dating very important potpt« of political ecotiomy^: — polnt^t 
-whicli) ifiess wiginal than* he seeftis to consider t&em, admit 
o£ far mote illnstration tbaq they'have: hitherto received. If 
Us essay be not distinguished byifdlicity of methbd^ and b]F 
jperspisutty and neatness of istf le^' it shews 'that'th^ writer is 
ntfeU-iitforninl'on his-subjecti Is a soundnhinker, and an acutb 
xeasoner^ 



/ 



I , / 






1 1 



« 



» 

' '. i }.•;./*/ i '!», * ' ■ ' Art. 



i , . 






4 



( 3*i ) 

Art. 5CIV. jin AccoutU of the Lift of ^ames Seattle^ J^L.t).p J^r^ 
fesjor of Mora! Philosophy and LogtCf Ahtrdegn' In whicb are 
occasionally given Characters of the princip^ literary Mcr» alod 
H Sketch of the State of Literature in Scotland during the last 
Century^ Soiii« t^oeln^, not gvntrally known to be Dr. Beattie'c» 
are also it^ttoduced in the Course of the Kaitatlve. $7 A|ex- 
iinder Bower. Crown 8to. pp. ijo* 58. Boards. Baldwins. 

^Hi8 narttitt¥e will be pefuied with pleasure by tbosewho 
^ ate satisfied with plain facts recorded in plam language : 
but the writer Has taken the unnecessary trouble of proloogiag 
his relation by the inttoduction of tnuch collateral and eren 
ritraneous matter^ His principal notices of the author of the 
Minstrel and of the Hermit may be comprited in a txxtoiw 
compass* 

James Beattie was bom on the 5th of Kovember 1^359 in 
the parish of Lawrencekirk, in Kirkcardineshire. When dolj- 
seven years of age> he lost his father^ who was a farmert and 
remarkable for his {>robity and his lore of the muses* 
.Through the generous assistance crfhis elder brother^ Darid, 
James was initiated in the elements of the English and Lada 
langUageSi . by Mn Mylne» schoolmaster at Lawrencekirk ; a 
teacher of reputation^ and successor to the celebrated Ruddi- 
man. Poet Beattie (for so he was called even at this early 
period of his life) distinguished himself among his school* 
fellows by diligence and superior attainments* though he la* 
boured under the disadvantage of a very weakly constitutiott» 
In 17491 he obtained a snlall scholarship in Marischal Collegci 
Aberdeen, by excelling in a comparative trial ; and he commen<- 
ced his academical career by studying Greek, under Principal 
Blackwelli from whoSie hands he received a very honourable 
prize. The second term of his publid study seems tp have 
embraced Latin, Mathematics (in which he wu no remarkable 
proficient), and History, Geography, and Chronology. Na«^ 
tural Philosophy formed the principal object of die third 
course. In this department, it must be obvious that a want of 
the requisite mathematical knowlege must be very unfriendly 
to the student's progress. — ^The fourth term was devoted to 
Moral Philosophy and the abstract sciences, under Dr. Alexander 
Gerard, well known by his Essay on TastCj and other per«> 
formances. 

In 1753) Mr. Beattie took his degree In Arts, and obtained 
the humble situation of schoolmaster at Fordouu, a village not 
far from Laurencekirk. At this time, he enjoyed the friend* 
ship and patronage of Francis Garden, afterward Lord Gar- 
denstone, and added to bis poetical reputation by contributions 

5 to 



BowerV Accmttit tf Dr^ ISeattie. 303 

Iff the Scotch MagazSnt, and an epitaph on two brotSers whor 
were drowned when bathing. It likewise appears that he way 
a severe disciplinariany that he officiated as elerk of the parish^ 
that he was enrolW i^ lilatischal College as a student of divi- 
nityg and that his miners were not yet sttbdnec^ into gentle*^ 
ivefrS or complacency^ In 175^^1 he was appointed one^of ther 
ushers in the Grammar Jkkoei in Aberdeen, a situation ta 
which be had mspited some months before, though withotit 
aoecess. Beattie'^ sphere of actimy and acquaintance wa»> 
now enlarged ; and, with the 'exceplion of some harassing 
.head-aehs, his term €fS ushershipt which exceeded two years, 
appears to have passed with considerable satisfaction to him'* 
self. During thi» periodi his poems were publishedi for the 
first time, by subscription. 

On the 8th of October X760, Mr. Beat(le» in consequence 
of baring obtained a royal patent, was admitted Frofesaor of 
Aloral Phirosophy and Logic, in Marischal College. We need 
scarcely add that^ in the course of a few years, he attained to 
distinguished celebrity as a teacher of Ethics^ 

* His habits of study were regular and eonstant. Lirtle time was- 
spent in idleness, btcause he was ambitiotis to acquit hitnself vitlf 
credit, and to benefit his students as far as was In bis power. An aca- 
dmnieal life is so barren of incidents that ic cannot be expected 10 
farnish much* in the narrative. The lives of most literary men consist 
of little more than a histor)' of their works. His pleasant and agree- 
able manners, even at this time, have- been much commended. To 
bis old associates he was kind and affable. And at hia house and 
4able they were always welcome.* 

I In 1766, the Fiofessor xnaiiied Miss Mary Dun, daughter 
of Dr. James Dun, who, for nearly seventy years, was » 
teacher in the Grammar School of Aberdeen. Ai>out four 
years suhsequent to his marriage, he received from King^j 
College, Aberdeen, the degree of Doctor in Laws* In July 
of the following year, he paid a visit to London, and was fa- 
voured with vtry flattering marks of iattention from some of the 
mest distinguished literary characters of the age. 

« * In the year 1772, his mother died at the advanced age of four- 
score years. Her affectionate son, Mr. David Beatiie, had for thirty 
▼ears bhewn her eveiy mark of attention and kindness;, and it was In hifr 
nouse at Johnstone, in the neighbourhood af Laurencekirk, that jhe 
died. — Those persons who knew her best have reprepCDted her as posr 
sessed of great sclf*command-*as a prudent, kind woman, and as ei^ 
cmplifying those simple and unaffected manncru, which were then more 
frequently to be found in Scotland than they are at present.' 

The Doctor repeated* his visit t^ London in 1-77^ obtained 
a pension^ was presented at the levee, and had ^ the ^tstrn- 

guished 



304 Bowci^/ A(!C9Uf4. pf S^.'^iukJ^. 

guished honquf of coovHaing i»itb tfae Kii^ for fisre mi* 
Butcs/ — Before he retutif^d to the North, be had a pmatc 
audience of their Majesties at Kew. 

. The deaih of bit son, Jstmes Ha]r Beattiey: in 17901 Mras a 
sctfere trial to the feeliog^ of a paient» In his^i Mx\ year, . this 
young niao» whp united indefjiti^able' application to uocom* 
non powers of genius^ was appoiottd his father's. assistant and 
successor^ and pronrised io* be- an oroanneot to the Universitfi 
—The Doctor's second sQn« MoMagu, with whom he went to 
London in 179I} died in 179^- 

* These, and other misFortuaes, to use the language of the poet, 
** harrowed up the soul" of Dr. Beattie, and his beahb, never at any 
time good, was thereby very cousiderably impaired* He was no longer 
under the necessity of doing the duty of the class, because he had the 
iajfa^ence to get Mr. George Gienny appointed bis assistant and suc- 
cessor. 

* Of Ute years he entirely sequestered himself from society, and even 
the kind attentions and civilities of his friends and admirers were not 
relished by him. He dropped all correspondence with his old English 
friends, and their numerons itiquiries after the state ci his health did 
not now excite those quick sensibilities of which he had formerly been 
to susceptible.. Premature old age, with all its infirmities, had made 
rapid advaaces upon him, and for three years before his death, he kept 
she houscr and was for a great part of that time confined to his bed. 
J[f I mistake not, the last time he ventured out to take a short walk, 
was in the ^onth of Jpne, i8op. He was then very corpulent, and 
discovered extreme debility* At this time he was -only about sixty-- 
five years pi age« 

' His person was about the middle size, of a brqad,. square makc^ 
whif:h seemed to indicate a more robust constitution than he really 
bad. " 'T l^ave formerly mentioned that he was, during the whole course 
of lH#^lif«, subject to attacks of head^pch, whicb upon many occasidrts 
interraptod' his studies. His features were exceedingly regular; his 
complexfpn was somewhat dark 3 his eyes had more expression than 
fhose of any .other person I remembtr to have seen. ' 

* In jtUe earlier part of his life he shewed great convivial talents, 
and was much admired in coihpany, for his wit and uncommon flow 
of humour. He indulged himself, however, in liberties of that kind 
very seldom for many years past. He wz^ a most admirable punster. 
Many^of his ^unsareoft^n quoted in conversatioQ in the north ; which, 
^8 far as that kind- of witdeservsi praise, discover great facility of ki- 
<vention.' Any time that letter saw him in company ho was reaiarir- 
abiy silent, bat I could discover that he was not only attentive totbe 
coirversatbn. but seemed to be studying the features of those persons 
with whom be was in company.' 

Towards the cl6se of life, Dr. Beattle endured much 
bodily pain ; and, when* at length, he had become insensible 
to his ^wji "sufferings, 4o expired on the iSth of August 

1863. ..-,•. 

i . In 



Bower V Accwtd of Br. Beattic. 305 

In this very condensed vienr of the life of an eminent poet 
and philosopher, w« have omitted the dates and character of 
his writings, which have been the subjecf of former notices 
and .appreciation* We have likewise parsed over the author's 
difRise and rather tiresoQie statements concerning various per- 
8onageS| whose history was already known to the public^ 
or else pf not sufficient magnitude to be formally, unfolded. 
If» instead of these unnecessary digressionsi Mr. Bower had fa- 
voured us with a few of Dr. Beattie's letters and memorable 
sayings, he would have imparted much ^ore consistency and 
interest to his little volume.— It is the duty of the biographer 
to draw a faithful and finished portrait : but this he never can 
accomplish, if he keeps out of view those private anecdotes and 
domestic incidents which paint character and speak to feeling. 
With the historian of an individual, as with'the historian of a na- 
tioa» a regard to truth should be paramount to every other consi- 
deration. We would not drag into the gUre of day the failings of 
the unfortunate: but neither would we wholly conceal them from 
the eye of the impartial observer. The possession of genius^ 
taste, and learning, and their direction to the best interests of 
mankind, ought, no doubt, to cover a multitude of sins: but 
we should also reflect that a well constituted mind, rich in its 
own resources} and susceptible of the most refined and ele- 
vated pleasures} is the ftast exposed to debasement from habits 
of low intemperance. Yet that such a mind sometimes yields to 
degrading propensities will not admit of dispute. A sense of 
false dtlicacy, or the partiality of friendship, may draw a veil 
over the melancholy fact : but th^ professed pauiter of human 
character is imperiously required to exhibit its diversities as he 
finds them, and not as he would wish them to be. More than 
one public teacher of youth has fallen a sacrifice to the immo- 
derate use of ardent spirits ; we can commiserate their fate : 
but we cannot patiently endure that they should be held up 
as paragons of condfict, or exalted, into saints. Dr. Beattie's 
case, if we are rightly informed, admits of palliation and pity. 
The pressure of domestic affliction exhausted and paralyzed the 
finer sensibilities of his frame, unstrung the man, and left only 
a << wreck behind,'*— 

As a more extensive, and, we trust> a more instructive Life 
of the learned Professor is preparing for the pressj by an in* 
genious and worthy Baronet, we &hall forbear any farther com- 
ment on the present sketch. 



Rev. Nov. 180^. X Art. 



( io6 ) 

Art XV. Th£ Miniaiuret a periodical Paper, by Solomon Grfl" 
drig, of the College of Eton. Inscribed, by permission, to the 
Rev. Dr. Goodall. 8vo. pp. 376. 78- 6d. Boards* Printed at 
Windsor, and sold in London by Murray. 1805. 

'TThe modest editor of this performance disclaims all pretca* 
^ sions to the bold strokes of Raphael, and the glowing co- 
louring of Titian. • My attempts/ says he, * will follow the 
style of a Miniature^ and while the touches are less daring, 
while less force and richness of imagination may be conspi- 
cuous in the following sketches, they may perhaps derive some 
merit in an humbler scale^ from, correctness of design, and ac- 
curacy of representation. This style indeed will be the more 
appropriate, as it is in the lesser theatre of life that it will be 
employed, and as juvenile folly, or merit, will often be the 
subjects of my lucubrations.' 

Thirty-four numbers constltnte the volume, relating chiefly 
to subjects of literature, morality, and religion. When we 
consider that these essays are the joint production of four very 
young Etonians, (the sons of the Marquis Wellesley and of 
Dr. Rcnncll, Mr. Canning, and Mr. Galley Knight,) we feel 
powerfully inclined to mention them with all the lenity df cri« 
ticism which is consistent with our duty to the public. The 
highest praise, then, which we can award to these youthful con- 
tributors is, that their writings give no countenance to the fa« 
shionable foibles and vices or the times, and that they present 
us with correct and amiable views of conduct and manners. 
It is seldom, however, that they recall the playful and elegant 
humour of Addison ; or even that vivacity and gaiety of dispo- 
sition which we naturally associate with the early period of our 
existence. The sentiments are generally more trite, the at- 
tempts at wit less happy, and the style is more grave and sub- 
dued, than we could wish them to be in a work which is pro- 
fessedly juvenile. The propriety of assuming such a harsh ap- 
pellation as Grildrig is by no means apparent : nor do we find 
that occasional negligences of composition are counterbalanced 
by liveliness of fancy, philosophical acuteness, or alluring in- 
terest. Novels and romances are treated with severe and in- 
discriminate censure ; while the reflections on the progress and 
declension of national manners, on modern theatrical exhibi- 
tions, on gaming, death, the Scriptures, &c. are too tame 
and hackneyed to be perused with much gratification. 

The remarks on the influence of fashion on poetical com- 
positions, if not original, are at least ingenious and amusing. 
A paragraph or two may serve as a sample of the rest : 

* It 18 a trite but true observation, that the frivolous whiroa and 
fanciful dictates of fashion have more effect upon the mind, and en- 
force 



* The Miniature. 3c 7 

force their commands with more irresistible sway, than all the pre- 
cepts and admoritions of prudence 'or wisdom. It might however 
seem probable, that fashion would have contented herself with arran- 
ging the tasty fabric of a lady's head dress, or the cut of a beau's 
coat ; with deciding the exact hour when it should be genteel for the 
gay world to feel hungry ; with regulating the length of a shoe-strings 
or any other important article of a similar nature. But the goddess, 
wishing to exert her prerogatives and power to the utmost, has extended 
her influence over the regions of literature and taste ; she has invaded 
the sacred retreats of Heh'con themselves, and by a touch of her wand> 
the Muses appear as readily inclined to follow her commands, as any 
other young ladies within the realms of St. James's, while ApoUo him* 
self submits his lyre to be new strung at her option. In short, poetry 
Is and has long been as entirely subject to the laws of fashion as a 
birth-day suit* or a ball dress, and promises, under its present rules 
and restrictions, soon to become equally valuable. From the epic to 
the elegy, the pindarick ode to the sonnet, her power is felt, her 8U« 
premacy acknowledged. It is not however of late years only that 
fashion has been thus omnipotent ; were we to take a chronological 
inspection of poetry in general to the most remote ages, we should, I 
believe, perceive her equally domineering. The wild Norwegain bal- 
lads and romantic strains of the Erse and Norse legends are all marked 
with the same character. 

< Simplicity was the universal aim of the ancient English minstrels, 
a taste which has been ill supplanted by the whims of a later date. 
Ac one period the merit of poetry consisted not in the novelty of 
ideas, or elegancy of expression, but in the form or model which it 
displayed. I recollect having seen a copy of verses, •• To a hair of my 
mistress* s eye lash** whose only merit consisted in the lines being so 
arranged, or rather disarranged, that the whole poem might be writ- 
ten in the form of a heart. A pair of wings was the favorite shape for 
a sonnet to appear in ; and a triangle the established form of a sacred 
hymn. At another moment the whim of men led them to exclude 
particular letters from their poems ; and one soaring beyond the rest, 

. actually wrote, or intenc^ed to write an Epic Poem in five books, on 
purpose to exclude every vowel by turns. The sublime ode was 
another resource oT fashion to vary the prevailing follies of the day. 
High and low, ricli and poor were then universally excited to give 
vent to their extravagant fancies, in the wildest measures and loosest 
numbers ; eense or beauty was equally sacrificed to irregularity, and 
all believed that the use of Pindar's Metre would inspire them with 
PindaPs sublimity and conception. 

< Every subject was deemed equally worthy of these high flights of 
poetry. Odes on the *• use and abuse of cahh age-stalks in the cure of a 
quin%yy* or on ** the efficacy of lime in the composition of mortar y^* were the 
common productions of the press. Ere long this taste fell into disrc* 
pute, and was succeeded by another if possible more surprising. The 
whole nation seems to have been suddenly inspired with a species of 
religious mania, and it appears to have been then considered actually 
necesMry, for the composuion of a meritorious poem, on whatsoever 
subject it ought be written, that the performance should be seasoned 

X 3 with 



3oS 7*^^ Miniature* 

with a spice of the scriptures, or a few sacred simfliesy by way of keep- 
ing holy ideas continually present to the minds of the reader. Whe* 
ther this resort proved serviceable to the cause of relieion, it is not 
for me to determine ; but poetry was certainly not improved by a 
mixture of texts dragged by main force into every sort of composition, 
which, when thus pressed into service, lay prominent from the body 
of the poem like so many lumps of extraneous matter. The com- 
parison of a blight destroying suddenly an unfortunate field of barley, 
to the exterminating angel, who in one night slew all Senacherib's 
powers, docs not excite any very pastoral or reverential ideas ; and this 
method of writing was the more detrimental, as it introduced a most 
marvellous jumble of christian and mythological tenets. In one line 
the reader is induced to suppose himself in Patadise, while in the nezt« 
the sudden appearance of Venus and her-^races puts the pious sup- 
position totally to the rout; nor does the Pagan Mercury, who Was aa 
acknowledged protector of thieves and vagabonds, when he is addres- 
sed at the beginning of a sonnet, perfectly associate with the reverence 
due to the Christian Jehovah, who is brought to be present at the 
conclusion.' 

Wc were not equally amused with the strictures on Reviewers: 
but we still keep in mind the age of our censors ; and we cati 
readily believe that they are as little acquainted with the history 
of respectable literary journals as with the female character, 
which they sometimes affect to paint or satirize. Their knomr- 
.legeof the diversities of human conduct is obviously derived 
from books, and not from actual observation. The world is 
a .mixed, a busy, and an intricate scene, which they have not 
yet duly contemplated : — but, though they seem to be unequal 
to the delicate task of <* catching the manners living as they 
rise/' it is far from our intention to depreciate their laudable 
efforts. In the description of a club of self- talkers, and in the 
exemplifications of mistaken views of ambition, we can dia* 
cern both point and humour. The short sketches by Tbeo^ 
phrasticus are likewise spirited and entertaining. The absent 
and forgetful man is thus delineated ; 

* Without therefore having recourse to so extraordinary a person* 
age as the celebrated Mons. Menalgue, 1 shall exhibit some few in- 
stances of unaccountable forgetfulness and delays as they present 
themselves ip the conduct of a gentleman, with whom I have lately- 
had the honor of conversing several times with to little effect, that 
when we last met, he had not the slightest recollection of my person 
or name. 

' * We must not hope to take a view of our present hero at a very 
early hour, as he has not for many years made his appearance before 
noon ; and to this one regulation he so uniformly aaheres, that his 
breaking it might be considered almost p^tcntous. In Town indeed 
he finds many to countenance him in^ thtlhabit; but it proved rather 
inconvenient at a gentleman's seat in Devonshire, where he passed the 
last summer, and where the old^ and I may add salutary, custom of 

dining 



Tie Miniature* 309 

dining in the day-time Is retained. He usually came down to break- 
fasty while the cloth was being laid for dinner. And even at that late 
hour his dress bore so many marks of palpable negligence, that his 
clothes appeared rather to have been carelessly Hung over him, than put 
on. — Indeed his uncombed hair, dirty hands, coat interspersed with 
feathers^ and his stockings hanging about his heels, did not aiFord any 
very favourabk idea of his diligence, or cleanliness *. Fatigued with 
inactivity, be found it necessary to walk out, just as the first dish was 
placed on table. This walk he frequently protracted till he lost the 
meal, for *which it was intended to create an appetice, as the family 
vrere very soon obliged to relinquish all ideas of accommodating them- 
selves to his hours. For these irregulanties he had, it must be owned, 
a general excuse. His watch was scarcely ever correct ; and this will 
the more readily be credited, when we consider that it scarcely ever 
had the opportunity of being so more than once in twelve hours^ its 
proprietor usually forgetting to make use of the key. 

* In a mixed company he renders himself disagreeable to every one 
from want of attention and consideration. When he feels an inclina- 
tion to applaud the elegant ^finement of courts, be selects a rough 
patriot for his auditor ; and alarms a suppls Mc* Sycophant by vehe- 
ment declamation on the rights and liberties of the people. To a 
single lady of fifty he professes his utter abhorrence of old maids ; and 
paints in glowing colours the miseries of matrimony before a newly 
married couple. He stupifies a man of fashion with a discussion on 
consols and annuities ; and bewilders a stock-broker by leading him 
through all " the mighty maze*' of balls, races, routs, and operas. 

* When he docs not disgust people in this manner, he generally af. 
fronts them by an apparent contempt for their remarks, which is the 
effect of his abstraction upon what he was at first engaged in. He 
talks to himself, thinks on twenty different subjects at once ; and is, 
in ficict, precisely that man, to whom Lord Chesterfield prefers a 
corpse, 

* You may see in his apartment a little grove of canes, which he has 
at various times carried off by mistake from different families, which he 
sometimes distresses by his visitations. He seldom goes to a party 
without changing his hat, and as he has not recollected to purchase 
one during the last ^vn years, suspicions have now and then been en- 

.tertained that on these occasions he had his wits more aboni him than 
usual. But such opportunities daily decrease, as those who know him 
thoroughly no longer give him any invitations, aware that he woidd 
cither miss the time appointed, /or totally forget the engagement.' 

TheophrasticuSy we are afterward informed, is the n9m de 
guerre of Mr. Henry Jay, late of Eton College, and now of 
Christ Church, Oxford. Most of his readers, we doubt not, 
will regret that this gentleman should ha?e limited his services 
to a solitary paper. 

Of the few poetical passages which occur in this perform- 
ance, we cannot speak in terms of superlative admiration.-— 
The translation of the last thirty-four lines of the first Elegy 

^^^•mm^t^mm ii i ■ i ■ ■ ■'■■ ■ ■ - .- ■ ii 

* These traits hre surely too much caricatured. Rev* 

X3 of 



jio Description of St. Helena, 

• • 

of Tibullus 18, perhaps, the best ; it proceeds from the pen 
of Mr. George Irvine, who is not more particularly desig- 
nated. 

On the whole, if these new>fledged monitors will patientlf 
submit to be told tbat they have not attained to the excellence 
of their precursors, we are very cordially disposed to give them 
all due credit for their lucubrations, and to applaud their 
manly devotion to the cause of literature, virtue, and piety. 



Art. XVI. ^ Description of the Island of St. Helena; containing 
Observations on its singular Structure and Formation ; and an 
Account of its Climate, Natural History, and Inhabiiaats. Crowu 
8vo« pp. 265. 6s. Boards. R. Phillips. 1805. 

^117 HEN we consider that the island of St. Helena has been in 
^^ the possession of Europeans during three hundred years, 
that it has been visited by men of science, and that it is a re- 
freshing station for the shipping of the greatest trading com- 
pany in the world, we may be allowed to express our surprize 
that it should have remained so long without its own historian. 
If the present tract should, in some respects, be found defective, 
the author may plead that his, survey was limited to the short 
spjce of five weeks, and that he could derive little assistance 
from the incidental notices of prior writers. Although we are 
confident that his description admits of enlargement, it never- 
theless presents us with more useful and distinct information 
than we can properly compress nnto a brief analysis- As the 
subject, however, possesses the recommendation of novelty, we 
shall at least advert to some of the most important particulars. 
This island lies in the Atlantic ocean, at nearly a thousand 
mil^es south of the equinoctial line, and about as many from 
the coast of Africa. From its great elevation, and the purity 
of the surrounding atmosphere, it is seen at the distance of 
seventy or eighty miles. On a nearer approach, it assumes z, 
ragged, black, and desolate appearance. Its indented coast 
measures twenty-eight miles in circumference. Its greatest 
length is ten miles, and its greatest brcridth betweem six and 
seven. The hills nearest to the sea are from eight hundred to 
fourteen hundred feet in height. Those in the interior are still 
more elevated ; and the loftiest peak of the central ridge rises 
to 2692 feet above the level of the sea. The higher regions 
abound in verdur,e and luxuriant vegetatidn ; < while the lower 
hills on the coast, and most of the valleys that lie between 
them, are not only naked and barren, but, from their moul* 
dering composition, and the decay which has taken place, they 

have 



Description of St. Helena. 3 1 1 

h^ve an aspect of rudeness and desolation, which it would be 
difficult to describe, and not easjr to conceive, without having 
seen them.' The island was discovered by the Portuguese, on the 
2 1 St of May, 1 508, or St. Helen's day, from which circumstance 
it derived its name. It was found without any human inha- 
bitant, without quadrupeds, and almost without birds. It 
lias retrained in possession of the English since the year 1674. 

* The 8ca tortoise, which now frequents ^the narrow strands and 
coves about the shore much seldomer than fohnerly, is perhap'is the 
only creature whose ancient retreat has been disturbed by our posses- 
sion. In appropriating and subduing the wastes of nature, only to ex- 
tend and multiply her productions, m diffusing life, together with the 
means of supporting and rendering it comfortable, and in effecting these 
benevolent purposes without injury or injustice to others, man would 
exercise a noble prerogative, befitting the rank which he holds in the 
creation : But it is to be lamented, that Europeans have seldom tra- 
versed the. ocean, for the purpose of practising this rare beneficence.' 
The progress of their discoveries, if we except those made in the 
present reign, instead of diffusing the benefits of nature, and commu- 
nicating the advantages of culture to remote lands and their inhabit- 
ants, has too frequently been marked by rapine and injustice. From 
the painful recital of the wrongs committed by them 00 the opposite 
shores of America and Africa, we may turn with a momentary satis* 
faction, to contemplate the appropriation and improvement of a de- 
solate and barren spot ; the rise of an establishment, effected without 
injury to any one; and a little colony speaking the language of £ng« 
land, in a remote island of the ^thiopic Ocean/ 

The hills, of which the island is composed, are formed of 
beds of lava, which vary in their depth, colour, and texture. 
The predominant rock is a heavy, close-grained basalt, of a 
flinty hardness, generally of a dark blue or black, though some* 
times red, or party-coloured. It is always regularly fissured, 
and runs in distinct layers, which manifest a visible tendency to 
regqlar forms. In a few places, the whole is truly prismatic. 
Tl(e columns are usually perpendicular, but sometimes oblique, 
and often beautifully curved. The summits and bases of the 
rocks are frequently marked by cells and caverns : but these 
last also sometimes occur in the centre of the mass, and ac- 
companied by a curious .circumstance. * In a quarry, situated 
in the interior part of the island, where these blue rocks are 
dug out, for the purposes of ouilding, and where they readily 
separate in a regular shape, the stone when broken is found 
to have many large internal cavities, which contain a pure and 
wholesome water. They are generally quite filled with this 
water, which is shut up in the body of a rocH, of the closest 
^0(1 n^ost compact texture.' 

X 4 Several 



312 Description of St. Helena* 

Several of the hills are obviously arglUaceoas^ and composed 
of horizontal and parallel strata^ penetrated by perpendicular 
veins of loose and broken rock. From their disjointed texture, 
the vertical strata, u^hich occupy the steep declivities, become 
subject to what may be literally termed dilapidation s 

* In these places, they are seldom observed to be elevated much 
liboTC the face of the hill, as the fragments separate and tumble down, 
in proportion as the surroilnding soft parts decay, or are washed away : 
Yet, on the very summit of the hill, a portion of the stratum 
frequently remains entire, and rises to an amazing height. There is a 
singular groupe of these detached masses on the south side of the 
island, to which the inhabitants have given the names of Lot, Lot's 
Wife and Daughters. They nse to an astonishing height, above the 
top of the hills on which they stand ; and though they seem at first 
eighty detached and unconnected masses, they are found, on examina- 
tion, to form a part of the vertical strata, and probably from their po- 
sition have resisted the decay which has ta]sLen place in the declivities. 
They are composed of distinct fragments, such as have been described, 
and have a most striking appearance, grounded by deep chasms and 
tremendous precipices, and with clusters of argillaceous hills, the 
most picturesque and romantic, whose summits are all regularly fa- 
shioned ; and discover every tint of colour, excepting that of vege- 
table green. Over all this part of the island, which borders ou 
Sandy Bay, there is a wildneso in the surtounding scenery, surpassing 
every thing which the writer of this has ever seen. One feels here, as 
if transported into a new planet, where every object strikes by its 
novelty, and is altogether unlike any thing which he has met with 
before. All the surrounding hills, cliffs, rocks, and precipices are so 
strangely fashioned, and so fantastically mixed and blended, that they 
resemble more the aerial shapes, which we see among the clouds, than 
any thing composed of denser materials.* 

The whole surface of the island is ovcrsprcd with loose frag- 
ments of the blue basaltic rock, intermixed with light, spongy, 
and porous stones^ of various hues. No sand is found on the 
coast, except at one place ; and there it is black, being evidently 
composed of fragments of the basaltic rocks. 

After having premised some judicious and temperate obscrva' 
ticns on geological theories, the author endeavours^ and with 
considerable success, to prove, from the analogies of structure 
and appearances^ that the island which he describes is one 
great mass of volcanized matter. He then passes to some in- 
genious remarks on the climate, which is represented as serene, 
and uncommonly salubrious. The mean heat scarcely amounts 
to 69 ; and the range of the thermometer, taken at different 
heights, and for the period of a year, may be from 52 to 84, 
In a wide extent of sea, not subject lo disturbance from con- 
tiguous lands, the trade wind maintains its uniform and settled 

c ourse 



Description of St. HeUna* y 3 

couTSC) and the weather is mild, benigni and tranquil, tn such 
a happy region, < at a vast distance from every other land, 
St. Helena is descried in the solitude of the ocean. Being of 
an extent too inconsiderable to affect or modify the general 
course of the weather, which predominates in these latitudes^ 
it enjoys the same settled serenity of climate, the same exeaip* 
tioB from storms, and the same unvarying revolution of sea* 
sons, which prevail through all the interior parts of the ^thio* 
pic. It has no other wind besides that of the Trade; it is never 
visited by hurricanes; and ope may reside on it for severalr 
years, without observing the phenomena of thunder and light- 
ning.' 

The chief inconvenience to which the island is subject is 
want of rain ; a circumstance which the author ascribes to the 
great uniformity of temperature, to the constancy of the Trade 
wind, to the absence of land and sea breezes and regular peru>- 
dical winds, to the remotenesss of other lands, to the incon- 
siderable size of the island itself, and to the nakedness of its 
surface. Without greatly transgressing our due limits, we can<* 
not pursue the illustration in which the writer here indulges ;- 
we can only observe that his reasoning principally applies to the, 
circumstances of tropical climates, and that consequently it is. 
apposite to the case in question. 

The list of plants indigenous to St. Helena is^ as we may 
easily suppose, far from numerous, i^mong the nine or tea 
species of trees and shrubs reputed native, are, the Tree-fern, 
(which attains to the height of ao or 25 feet, and bears a very 
close resemblance to the Fern^) the Cabbage-tree, the Ebony^ 
&c. Of the smaller plants, the principal are Endive, Purs'- 
lane. Wild Celeify, Samphire, Water- Cresses, and different 
Hnds of grasses. Some of the most thriving of the imported 
vegetable productions are the Oak, Chesnut, Ilex, Bamboo, 
Palm, Weeping Willow, Orange ahd Apple-trees, and Plann 
tain. The Peach was once the most abundant fruit in the 
island : but an insect, introduced about thirty years ago, hag 
destroyed most of the trees. 

' It is a curious circumstance, that this insect, which, according to 
the testimony and belief of the inhabitants, was imported with the 
CoDstantia vine from the Cape of Good Hope, or with some shrubs 
from Mauritius^ should not now settle on any of the plants, on which. 
it is supposed to have been brought hither. Its ravages are almost 
exclusively confined to the Peach, the Mulberry, and one or two of 
the native island shrubs. An old inhabitant, describing and lamenting 
the ravages it had made, could not forbear crying out, the tears almost 
starting into his eyes, ** We would with pleasure have given up to it 
half the trees of the place, had it only s|)ared our peaches, which we 
valued so much.'' But this inexorable little foe will listen to no such 

S composition; 



3x4 Description of St* Helena. 

composition ; and having hitherto resisted every ofTifusIve means tm^ 
ployed agafnat itt is lively to continue Its progress, till it has com- 
pletely deprived the inhabitants of this wholesome and delicious fruit.' 

The heights of the island appear to have been the first places 
"which were clothed with the native shrubs and plants ; and 
these still grow on elevated situattonsi blended with exotics, 
which thrive equally well ; * so that it is difficult to say, whether 
the native island shrubs, or the furze, myrtle, Scotch fir, the 
mimosse of New Holland, or the heath and broom of Africa^ 
prosper best. On these spots, the beauty of wh^ch is probably 
heightened by the contrast of surrounding barrenness, we have 
an opportunity of observing what the unassisted efforts of the 
climatei and of a highly productive soil, are capable of effect- 
ing/ 

Though attempts to cover the naked volcanic hUIs on the 
shore have not been sufficiently ifiultiplied, there can be little 
doubt of their ultimate success. Some time ago, several of 
the inhabitants had formed themselves into a society for carry- 
ing on extensive plans of improvement ^ and they were power- 
fully assisted by Dr. James Anderson, a gentleman well kdown 
in India for his ardent and active benevolence, and for his sci*. 
entific pursuits. The want of adequate funds, and other diffi- 
culties, unfortunately abated their efforts ; yet the result pf 
their first experiments was very encouraging to every well de- 
vised scheme of amelioration. — ^The author judiciously recom-i 
mends to plant the valleys with those sorts of Palm trees which 
endure extraordinary droughts, and which would prove a cer- 
tain resource in the event of an unpropitious season, or of the 
non-arrival of expected sapplies. Along with the palms, he 
would introduce such tr^es as yield the most wholesome and 
nutritious fruits, particularly the Jack and Mahwah. He sup- 
poses that the want of shelter, firewood, and useful timber, 
might be supplied by the juiVgle shrubs of India, especially the 
Mimosae, and by several forest trees, particularly the Teak, 
the Poon, and the Banyan. He next suggests the propriety of 
an artificial command of water, by means of tanks and reser- 
voirs, in order to forward the first plantations, and to coun* 
teract the effects of long continued droughts. 

• When we consider how much this island might be improved and 
decorated by the addition of wood, it is difficult not to anticipate the 
striking and beautiful effects that would arise from it. There is here 
every variety and wildness of surface, which can result from the most 
fantastic configuration of rocks and hills ; and this rude and natural 
scenery wants only the shade and embellishment of wood, to make 
the whole one of the most delightful and romantic spots in the world 3 
and which,' instead of disgusting the eye with a prospect ''so dismal 

and 



Description of St. Helena • 3 x j 

aikl dreary under' a benign and genial sky, would disco vcr, m the re- 
mote solitude of the ocean, an object the most grateful and refreshing 
to those that approached it.' ^ 

The inhabitants of St. Helena are supposed to amount to 
about two thousand, of whom five hundred are soldiers^ and 
six hundred blacks. The females born in the island are said 
to exceed the males in number. Though most of the families 
Ii?e in a state of comparative retirement, and in a situation 
apparently favourable to peace and happiness, few individuals • 
seem to be satisfied with their condition ; and even the natives 
express a strong desire of < going home.' Petty jealousies 
and intestine divisions, which are generally suspended during 
die shipping season, are sometimes revived when the island is 
free from bustle : 

* The arrival of the homeward-bound Indtamen is the greatest 
event of the year. It fills the whole settlement with alacrity and joy. 
They quit their gardens, flock to James town, open their houses for 
the accommodation of the passengers, and entertain them with plays, 
dances, and concerts. These gay assemblies are enlivened by the pre* 
sence of many agreeable and handsome young women ^ natives of the 
place, who^ amid the general festivity, seem to feel a peculiar inte* 
rest in what is going forward ; probably, not without some throbbing 
expectations of being taken from a scene, where they are weary with 
constantly contemplating the same objects. The appearance of so 
much loveliness and beauty, cast away m a lonesome situation like this, 
has sometimes raised stronger emotions than those of mere sympathy, 
in the bosoms of their guests ; and the native women of St. Helena 
have adorned domestic life, and graced the' politest circles in England 
and India. To such fortunate and pleasing occurrences, it may some- 
what contribute, that many of the strangers, having escaped with im- 
paired constitutions from the oppressioR and sultriness of an Indian 
atmosphere, experience a sudden renovation of health and spirits, 
under this mild and salubrious climate. Into minds thus exhilarated, 
from the effect of returning health, love easily finds an entrance. 
'.But whether the expectations of the ladies are often favoured la 
\ this way, or not, the pleasure and benefit derived by convalescents 
^m the climate tend greatly to enhance the enjoyment of their short 
stay litre 3 and as the people with whom they hve, are of a courteous 
and obliging disposition, and readily take the trouble of shewing what;- 
evcr is worth seeing in the island, it may easily be supposed, that 
strangers will pass their time very agreeably* We love so much bet- 
ter to be pleased than to be instructed, that the qualities which inspire 
good humour and complacency, easily compensate the want of infor- 
mation and intelligence. The conversation of the natives is that of a 
plain unaffected people, chiefly conversant about their own concerns, 
A life of seclusion, passed upon a spot where one only sees the sky 
aad the ocean, is not Ukely to make men philosophers or citizens of the 
world. Where the mind is limited in its views to the scenery and oc- 
cupations of a petty lAc, some of its conceptions will naturally betray 

7 the 



2i6 Description of St^ Helena^ 

the contrncd circumstances in which tbcy arise. An obtenration made 
by a St. Helena lady» ** that the arnval of the Indiamen in EnglaDd 
must, she supposed, make London very gay," howevtr it may excite 
a smik in this country, was perfectly natural, in the situation in which 
It was made/ 

The small farms and gardens yield some excellent fruits» 
pot-herbs, and farinaceous roots.: but the island is in a great 
ineasttre destitute of bread-corn^ and is little adapted to the 
culture of grain. Besides, rats, catterpillars, and the peacb 
insect have multiplied amazingly, to tl)e great annoyance of 
the gardener and the agriculturist. 

• It is curious,* observes the author, * that some creatures, when 
lyrought into a climate that is new to them, should thus spread and 
increase to a degree beyond what thei, did in the countries from whidh 
they were imported* A very remarkable instance of this lately oc- 
curred in India, on the coast of Coromandel, where in the year 1796. 
a species of the cochineal insect, called the Sylvester, was introduced 
from the Brasils. It was considered as a great acquisition^ and much 
care was taken of it at first. It would htd on nothing but the com- 
mon native Opuntia, which is generally used for hedges all over the 
country. In a short time, the ipsect destroyed all the Opuntias in the 
Camatic; and so complete was the havock which this voracious 
creature made, that the remaining stumps of tlie hedges on which 
it had settled, looked as if they had been consumed by fire. Nor 
was this all ; for when our army was in Mysore, in the year 1799* 
the natives mentioned what appeared to them very astonisliing and. 
unaccountable, that all their.Opuntias had, about the same penod been 
entirely consumed. In this manner^ a small insect, introduced from 
the Brasiis for the laudable purpose of establialung a cochineal manu- 
facture, wasted and destroyed, in the short period of three years, al- 
most all the Opuntias of the southern peninsula of India.' 

Seventy different species of eatable fish, including turtle, are 
caught on the coast. Yams, potatoes, apples, beef, kid, mut- 
ton, and poultry, are good and abundant. 

The labour of the fields, fishing, and the menial duties of 
domestic economy, are assigned to a mixed race of blacks, 
whose slavery has very lately been entirely abolished. < The 
f elcase of 600 blacks from a state of thraldom can subtract but 
little from the guilt of Europe, or the wrongs of Africa : yet 
it is consolatory to record even a single act of justice and mercy 
to an inconsiderable portion of this unhappy race, whom the 
enormous wickedness of Europeans lias dragged from their 
homes, and condemned to slavery^ not for any wrong they ever 
did us, or for |my good we e?er mean to do them \ hut be- 
cause our power has unhappily enabled us to make their weak* 
oess and sufferings subservient to our avarice/ 

The 



Monthly CataloOTTB, MiStary and Naval Affatrt. 317 

Tbe politiciil consequence of St. Helena to Great Britain, 
and its advantages and disadvantages as a shipping station, 
'when compared with the Cape of Good Hope, are succinct]]^ 
and fairly stated towards the conclusion of the work.— The 
whole is enabcUished by two views, the first representing the 
town and harbour, and the other shewing the island as it appears 
at the distance of six leagues. The writer's style is distinct 
and nervous, and sometimes approaches to elegance : but, in 
general, it wants compression and polish. His reflections are 
considerate, and his sentiments dignified and humane. We 
therefore recommend liis publication, without reserve, to all 
those persons who may wish for accurate and authentic infor- 
mation relative to the little settlement of which it treats. 



MONTHLY CATALOGUE, 

For NOVEMBER, iBoj. 

MILITARY /?«^ NAVAL AFFAIRS. 

Art. 17. Reports of the Commissioners of Naval Inquiry ^ for t\uR 
Year 1804. With Notes, and a copious Appendix, containing 
Selections from the most important Documents on which tlic Re- 
ports arc founded. By John Irving Maxwell, of the Honourable 
Society of the Middle Temple. 8vo. pp. 700. 15s. Boards. 
Symonds. 1805. 
n^His volume contains the whole of the Eleven Reports of the Naval 
Commissioners, respecting, i. the Naval Storekeepers at Ja- 
maica ; 2. the Chest of Chatham ; 3. the Block Contract, and the 
Coopers* Contract ; 4, Prize Agency; 5. the Six-penny office ; d. 
Plymouth and Woolwich Yards; 7. the Naval Hospital at Eatot 
Stonehouse, and Le Catonl^ospital Ship ; 8. the Victualling Depart- 
ment at Plymouth, and the Embezzlement of the King's Casks ; 9. 
the Receipt and Issue of Stores at Plymouth Yard ; io« the Office 
of Treasurer of the Navy ; 11. the Issue of Navy Bills for the Pur- 
pose of raising Money. — The editor has not attempted to insei^ the 
whole of t\it evidence collected by the Commissioners, because it oc- 
cupies, with the Reports, between two and three thousand folio pages ! 
. but he has endeavoured to select the most important documents, with 
perfect impartiality. He has not added the Reports of the Select 
Committee of the House of Commons on the lOth and 1 ith Reports, 
because they did not come within bis express object, would have in- 
creased the bulk of his volume, and the insertion of them might have 
savoured of paity motives, they being the bases of the articles of im- 
peachment against a noble Lord. ^ 

, Art. \%. Tbe Vindication of N. JelylU Esq. late Captain of the 
43d Recriment ; with a Copy of the Proccedirtgs of the Creucral 
Court jJiartial held on Col. Stewart of the same Regiment ; toge- 
ther with the several Memorials and. Letters addressed to H; R*^. 

the 



3iB MoNTHLT Catalogue, Biography. 

the Cbm^andcr in Chiefs the Rigrht Hon. the Secretary at War^ 

and the Judge Advocate- General, with their Answers, &c. &c« 

$!lvo. pp. 260. 38. 6d. Lloyd. 1805. 

Capt. Jekyll having conceived himself aggrieved by the behaviour 
of Col. Stewart, commanding officer of the regiment to which he be- 
longed, forwarded charges against him, in consequence of which a 
court martial was appointed. By the decision of this court, of which 
Major- General Moore was president, the Colonel was " most fully and 
most honourably acquitted;" the charees were denominated ** ma- 
licious and groundless-;" and the conduct of Capt. Jekyll was cen- 
sured as *' highly injurious to the good of the service." In coo- 
formity with this judgment, it was shortly afterward notified, that 
His Majesty had no farther occasion for the services of Capt. Jekyll ; 
who thus lost not only his situation in the army, but the sum of 
money which he had given for his company. He therefore made re- 
iterated applications to the Commander m Chief, endeavouring to 
obtain a tc vision of the sentence, by urging circumstances of ex- 
tenuation ; or, at least, praying to be permitted to dispose of his com- 
mission. All these tfforts have proved fruitless, and he now appeals 
to the public. — As to us, our court is not a court martial; and we 
shall not offer any opinion on the subject. 

• Art. 19. Trial of Lieutenant-General Harrie Innesy of the Royal 
Marines, at. a General Court Martia], held at the Royal Hospital 
at Chelsea, June 5 and ^, I Soa, &c. 8vo. is. Dedman. 
Gen. Innes was accused of making false returns and certificates 
relative to a serjeant who had deserted, and of discharging another 
Serjeant, without authority from the admiralty. Of the first charge^ 
the General was fully and honourably acquitted ; and> with regard to 
the second, the court was of opinion, that the circumstances of the 
case justified the infringement of the rules and articles for the govern- 
ment of the marlae forces, and therefore honourably acquitted tiim of 
that charge also. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

Art. 20. Sketches of the Lives and Characters of eminent English Ci^ 
viliansy with an Historical Introduction relative to the College of 
Advocates, and an Enumeration of the whole Series of Academic 
Graduates admitted into that Society, from the Beginning of the 
Reign of Henry VIII. to the Close of the Year 1803. By one of 
the Members of the College. 8vo. pp. 140. 43. sewed. Kearsley. 

1804. 

We have here a convenient manual for persons, to whom interest or 
curiosity imparts a desire of becoming acquainted with the leading 
particulars of the lives of those who have been, or who at present are* 
members of this very respectable and learned society. 

For a long course of years, the English civilians did not form a 
body, but were nvngled with the mass of the citizens ; and it was not 
tin about the commencement of the reign of Henry VIII. on the 
proposal of Dr. Richard Bodewell, Dean of the Arches, that they 
agreed to dwell in contiguous houses, and to enjoy a community of 
board. In 1568^ Dr. Henry Hervie, Dean of the Arches, procured 

fronti 



MbkTHLY Catalogue, Politics: 319 

from tbc Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, a lease of Mountjoy- House, 
for the use and accommodation of the advocates. These premises 
were afterward purchased by the learned body ; the Prerogative Court 
of Canterbury, that of the Bishop of London, and the Court of Ad- 
miralty, were htld in them ; and they obtained the name of Doctors 
Commons. In 176S, this society received a charter of incorporation, 
under the style and title of " The College of Doctors of Law, ex- 
lercent in the Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Jurisdictions." None arc 
admissible into this body, except persons who have taken the degreea 
of doctors of law at Oxford or Cambridge ; and they become mem* 
bcrs by a fiat from the Archbishop of Canterbury, which, it is under- 
stood, will never be granted to persons in holy orders. 

Cosin, the coadjutor of Whitgift in exalting the ecclesiastical juris- 
diction, and in cashiering nonconformists, — Jenkins, (Sir Leoline) 
associated with Sir William Temple at Nimeguen,— and Davenant, 
the steady tory, and able political arithmetician, — are the names best 
known among the generations that are past ; while those of Wynne, 
Scott, Nicholl, and Lawrence, stand first among the list ofthebving* 
The mediocrity, which Gibbon represents as characterising the pro- 
fessors of jurisprudence in antient Rome, seems to adhere to their 
followers, the English civilians ; their corps seems never to have been 
illustrated by any individual of transcendant talents. We by no 
means presume to determine how far a splendid instance of living 
merit may form an exception to this observation. Members of a li- 
mited and controlled jurisdiction, they are viewed with jealousy ; their 
profession is considered as giving them a bias in favour of high eccle- 
siastical and political notions ; and it is a fact that they are never 
seen on the side of the rights and liberties of the subject, but are found 
the invariable advocates and supporters of the prerogative. Can these 
be the reasons why their course does not lead so generally in modern, 
as. in former times, to state honours ; and why itisi in this respect, far 
lees favoured than that of the common law ? 

POLITICS. 

Art. 21. Invasion : or the Duty 0/ every Briton to he prepared: with 
the most effectual Means of resisting the Threat of our inveterate 
Enemy. 8vo. is. 6d. Egcrton. 

The chief points of observation in this pamphlet are the use of 
the Pike, the necessity of some instruction and practice with it 
before the hour of danger, and the propriety of initiating the mass 
of the people in the rudiments of the military art. The author recom- 
mends * that an invitation be held forth by Government to all* who 
arc not at present engaged in military duties (or debarred by personal 



* ' I say ALL, because the more general the assembly, the less 
would any party think of his share of the toil or inconvenience ; and 
there are thousands, who, if not invited to join, would be probably 
employed in breaking ill- timed jests on those whose public spirit sur- 
passed their own, or in damping the ardour of the braver and more 
honorable part of the community.' 

infirmity) 



320 Monthly Catalogue, Poeiryi 

infirmity) to associate ^jrooK/jZ^, for the purpose of learning tofaeff 
march, and wheel i next to form column, and deploy into Ime, with 
such other of the most simple manoeuvres as may be deemed indispen- 
sable^ (and none others ought to be required of such troops,) and as 
may tend to relieve from a perpetual sameness. 

* This invitation ought to be accompanied with a candid and ex- 
plicit declaration on the part of Government, that they will be no 
more liable to be called out for service, than if totaUy ignorant ; that 
the original plan of selection of ist 2d and 3d classes, &c. will be at- 
tended to ; and that it is to enable them, when thus instructed, to ren- 
der the service which may be required, with more ease and safety to 
themselves, than they could without such preparation*' 

This idea seems to us to merit consideration ; and the whole 'pam- 
phlet displays good sense. " 

Art. 22. The Speech of Mr, Deputy Birch, in the Court of Commoa 
Council, at the Guildhall of the City of London, on Tuesday 
April 30, 1805, ^g^^nst the Roman Catholic Petition, then before 
both Houses of Parliament. 8vo. is. Rivingtons. 
Assuming as a principle that * Intellectual slavery and civil liberty 
never yet could be united in any government under Heaven,* Mr. 
Birch strenuously resists the Claims of the Catholics, and asserts the 
absolute impossibility of safely admitting them to a full participation 
of the privileges of the Constitution. His chief argument rests on 
the acknowlegement of the Spiritual jurisdiction of the Pope, which 
is wholly incompatible with one of the fundamental doctrines of Bri- 
tish liberty, which we ratify with an oath, ** that no foreign prince^ 
'pcTSoUf prelate, state or potentate, hath or ought to have any jurisdic- 
tion, powtr, superiority, pre-eminence, or authority, eccledastical or 
civil within these realms." This objection to the Catholic Petition 
is of some weight ; and, as we have formerly hinted, it becomes the 
Catholics to endeavour to obviate it. While they acknowlege and 
submit to a foreign jurisdiction, their church is as much a political as 
it is a religious institution ; and Mr Birch reminds them of the impos- 
sibility of serving two masters ; — of the impossibility of answering for 
their allegiance to the King of these realms, when their consciences are 
resigned to the direction of their priests, and the latter again are bound 
by oath to obey the mandate of aybr^i^ ^rif//, who claims the dange- 
rous power of dispensing with oaths, and of dissolving people from 
their allegiance. It is the opinion of Mr. B.~, and which he indeed 
Bujvpoits with strong reasoning, that we ought not to part with those 
barriers which are now placed round our Constitution, but insist 
on th<; Oaths of AUegrance and Supremacy being integral parts of 
the Bill of Rights. As toleration enters more into the essence of 
Protestantism than it does into that of Popery, he thinks that the Ca- 
tholics will be safer in our hands than we shall be in. theirs. We leave 
It to the Catholics to make their reply. 

POETRY. 

Art. 23. 7he Toung Rosclady an admonitory Poem, well seasoned 
with Attic Salt, cum notis variorum. By Peter Pangloss, Esq., 
LL.Dk and A.S. 4to. 29. Qordon* 

The 



Monthly Catilogoe, Pcetry. 3fX 

The attic salt here mentioned is rather of the pungent kind : but 
perhaps both the put)h'c and the friends of Master Betty wiil not be 
the worse for it, provided they have resolution properly to administer 
it. If this youth has been rendered excessively vain and conceited, it 
must be attributed to John Bull's absurd and unqualified adulation ; 
vrhich has gone to the extreme of assigning to the puerile stau, feelings 
and reflections that belong only to mature and experienced manhood* 
Iviaster Betty is, no doubt, an extraordinary boy, but not a miracle % 
though, in the paroxysms of public praise, no terms of mbderation 
could be endured. Whatever may be Peter Pangloss's motive for 
'writing the Toung Rosciadj his hints are good ; and we recommend 
his admonitions to all those to whom they are addressed, forgiving 
some coarseness, and regarding the spirit of the advice. In rhimei 
which appear to have cost Dr. Pangloss very Ijttle trouble in the 
structure^ ke thus delivers his opinion of the Youug Roscius : 

* The boy has certainly some points. 
Expressive face and pliant Joints, 

But shou'd some years be kept at school. 
Nor make the public such a tool. 
^ All sober critics, sure, must deem 
It folly in a great extreme. 
To vie with men, and to possess 
More impudence than they profess ; 
No. folly his — and hence it follows, 
John BuIPb the fool who tamely swallows. 

* Can a boy feel those ardent fires. 
Maturity alone inspires ? 

Can he discriminate -^coiivt^ivsg 
New meaning to his parts in playing ? 
O yes ! undoubtedly ! his sense 
Soars far above such vague pretence— 
And what's the toil of many years. 
In him all natural appears. 

To him, by Intuition*^ given, ^ 

A sole exclusive ffift from Heaven I 
Immaculate and &aven-born boy ! 
Thy father's prop — the public's toy ! 
The public are the generous factors 
Of Heaven borii- Ministers and actors. 
Till time developes cv'ry scheme, 
< And John Bull wakens from his dream^ 
Lo !— how he looks — he rubs his eyes. 
And wildly staring with surprise. 
Searches his pockets — to his cost, 
Finds all his ready rhino's lost 1' 

This writer feels for the standard actors of the Royal Theatres, 
who have been pushed completely into the back ground by thitf 
Youth, and their interest sacrificed, in order rapidly to make his for- 
tone : 

JLiv.- Nor. 1805. Y 5 5]r 



394 MOMTHLT ClTltOCVB^ fiMiffk 

< By Heaven ! 'tis Urange tkb finctnalion^ 
Or lather thii infatuBtum ! 
That he» CoIomus like, ihould itrider 
Sweep aU before him, like the tidte. 
But tides are wont t» ebb and flbw^ 
And once decervM, we wiser gro«r» 
Far be the wish to check his tpirity. 
And not allow him every merk } 
That as a Bof he stands apart. 
And nins applause from cr'ry heart ; 
As ttieb^ encouragement is due, 
ProportiQ9uU9 to hun from yo«*: 
But when, without discrimination, 
Profttsioo's scattered by the nation^. 
• When rich and poor, and-youiw and 014 
All rush to fiU his bags with gold^ 
Unmindful of their former fiiends, 
Thu — Juttue * Common Sws$ offends*^ 

t)r. Pangloss also takes the part of ICr. Hough, Master Fetty^ 
theatrical preceptor ; and if an anecdote, given in a note^and which ia 
said to be related on the testimony of a person who was an ear-wit« 
ness, may be oredited. Young Roscius is chargeable with great in- 
gratitude, as well as self-conceit. We hope, however, that it is not 
correct ; and if it hefaln^ k bchows the fnends of this youth to have 
k publicly contradicted* 

The poet moreover reminds the Young Roseius, that a- youn^p 
Itoicm IS about to start, who promises to eclipse his fame,, and of 
whom the town will be more enamoured than even of him :- 

' This self-opinn>B may arise 
From partial friends> misjudging eyes ;. 
But trust me, 'twill impede your course^ 
^nd of much mischief be the source— 
Some little Miss, perhaps, may rise. 
And equally the Age surprise ^ 
^ Who knows, perhaps- some little Letty 
May share the spoil with Master Betty I 
Nay — I can vouch, Z know of pn^. 
Whose sure success I build upon ; 
Whose LaJy RanJolpb^ JuTtct^ too,» 
May make you look a little blue. 
The public's mind is apt to range^ 
Stocks vary constantly on Change ;: 
And all the world wiU yield it o*er^ 
A Ftmale claims proteetion more..' 

Pangloss's prophecy^ however, has j»ist bean falsified by the pub^ 
Sumiss'ton of Miss Mudie, at Covent Garden. Common se$ue seems to 
be rafhh{g Us forces • 

It IS hinted, in the conctusTon, that Matter Betty's ediicack>» 
should be more considered at present- than money ; and that he shouh! 
go to College, in order that be might become in time an atieooi^ 
plisbcd man. 

•^ * • • Art. 



Art} 24. The Slmtts ff ike GenU. By Mrs. }o1m Hunter. 410. 
pp. 16. with Platct. I08. 6d. sewed. F»yaa. 1804. 

Epilocue. 

' Critics sbirp, wkk brow seveit^ 
Our small volume come not near: 
Authors grave, and leam'dy and wise. 
Never this way turn your eyes. 

< Ixt U4 wander, wild and £pet» * 
In sport and whimsicality^ 
Thro* gay Fancy's flow'ry maze ; 
Nor blame ru, though you scorn to praise.' 

Under such an interdict, we should forfeit all pretensions to cour- 
tesy, if we presumed to tax Mrs. Hunter's playful muse with frivo- 
Ittyi or alleged that she wandered through tamer regions than ' gay 
Fancy's flow'ry maze.* In this dilemma, we can only state the pur- 
port of her eAisions, and quote one of the best of them. 

The late Miss Macdonald, daughter of Lord Chief Baron Mac- 
donald, possessed a singular facility in sketching groupes of little 
winged bovs. These groupes suggested the little poems which ac- 
company them, and which were onginally written for the amusement 
of the young. Thirteen of these innocent Anacreontics are here an- 
nexed to as many etchings, which evince considerable ease and grace 
of outline. Mrs. Hunter has the merit of forming them into subjects 
for her classical fictions. We transcribe * the Captive' as a favour- 
able specimen : 

** Forbear I forbear!" ** Compassion cry'd,. 
Nor treat with cold ins\ilting pride 

The captive in thy pow'r. 
Behold, her form* in beauty gay; 
Nor, in thy cruel, tlioughtlm playy 
Abridge her little hour. 



ti 



Poor tremblinj^ insect ! easy caught ! 
How distant m thy simple thought* 

The danger when most near ! 
Perhaps on Clytie's golden breast 
Thou tou^h for safety— i^' J for rest ; 

And sorrow found thee there ! 

'* The Muse shall mourn thy helpless fate ; 
For Love can torture more than Hate, 

And will— because he may. 
O may some star propitious beam, 
*-' And save thee from the dire extreme* 

Speeding thy flight away !". 
The levity of this performance is amply compensated by the hea- 
"Ytness of its price. 

Art.' zjf* Metrkal Talett and other Poems, by Robert Southey, 
Crown 8vo. 58. 6d. Boards. Longman and Co. 
expressed our opinion of these pieces^ as they appeared in 

Y z the 



324 MONTHLT CaTALOCUB, Re/igioUt, 

the Annual jfntb§hgy9 we shall waste no more ^per concerning tbettiu 
Mr.Southej ini'ormsjhe publiC) in his Advcrtiaement, that the poems 
are now printed * in this collected form, because they hqve pleased 
those readers whom the Author was most desirous of pleasing/ "We 
are proud to acknowlege> that we are not infoUed in this band of ami* 
able admirers. 

RELIGIOUS. 

Art. 26. Letter f 9f St. Paul the Apostle iwrittm Before and after Im 
Conversion, Translated from the German of the late Rev. John 
Caspar Lavatcr^ Minister of the Gospel at Ztirich. 8vo. 38. 
»ewcd. Johnson. }8o5. 

He must indeed be a bold man, who. undertakes to write letters in 
imitation of St. Paul ; and it was a strange freak in Lavater to en* 
gage in such an attempts Id the excentricity of his genius, he 
thought or dreamt that he could personate the Apostle, and furnish 
an intergesting supplement to the correspondence which has been trans- 
mitted to us in the N. T. ; but we cannot proclaim his success; nor 
ascribe any great merit to these Bctions of the imagination. We are 
informed, indeed, that not long before his conversion, Paul *' breathed 
i)ut threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord :'^ 
but what pleasure or benefit can be derived, from a series of letters 
supposed to have been dictated by him in this state of mind I We 
can easily imagine that Saul the infidel and the persecutor, with his 
warmth of temper, uttered many vehement expressions against Jesua 
and his followers : but, had these all been preserved, the perusaJL 
of thtm could have givtn no satisfaction to the christian, who knows 
enough of Saul's enmity to the cross previously to his conversion, from 
the circumstance wliich-is recorded of him, that he consented to the 
death of the proto-martyr Stephen ; and from the picture which he gives 
of his own persecuting zeal, when he says of himself " I verily thought 
with mys.lf that I ought Xsy do many things contrary to the name of 
Jesus of Nazareth." To invent letters which pretend to tell us, 'at 
length, in what manner he expressed himself on this occasion, is, in 
' our opinion, a very injudicious exercise of the fancy. 

As to the epistles sup'^>oscd to have been written by the Apostle 
after his conversion, if they be not so objectionable as the former, 
they appear to us. to be equally trivial and unsatisfactory. Sacred 
history is not cluciciatt'd by the addition of fictitious circumstances ; 
nor are the genuine writings of St. Paul in the least illustrated by 
this spurious supplemcni. We require no additions to be made to- 
the Epistles of the N. T. in order more strongly to impress our 
minds with a conviction of the sincerity of that Apostle's love t» 
Christ. 

These letters are said to have b(;en found among the' celebrated 
Lavater's papers : but the editor, on whose testimony we are ta de« 
pend, has not subjoined his name to the translation. Who was in- 
deed the author, and what his motive, whether it was to aid the 
Ciiristian cau»e» or slyly to reflect on it, is of little importance to ia« 
quire ; for the composition is not afterthe manner of the Apostle^ 
:iorin the style of hi» age | wUIe the seal^.botti of the Jew and of the 

:. - Christian^ 



Monthly CATALoCtrE, Religtduu jiy 

Chmtian, w socomplctdy but jof character, that every judge of moud 
pbysiognomies will shake his head at both^. , 

Art. 27. A Discourse on the In fpt ration df ihe Scriptures. By the 

Rev. Richard King, M. A., Rector of Worthfn, Salop, l^vc, 

IS. Hatchard. 

"Tnith," says Milton, «'is the daughter, not of Time, but of 
Hearen*' ; so that, in the subject of this discourse, as well as other 
matters of importance, too much stress should not be placed on the 
testimony of antiquity, particularly the testimony of the Fathers, 
whose opinions were often vague and indigested. Our reference must 
be to the Scriptures themselves, whose evidence must decide the ques- 
tion. Whether the >ca* in 2 Tim. iji. 16. be or be not retained, it is 
of less moment to inquire than what is the precise meaning of the 
liirord ^unenor^, Mr. King, though he contends for Inspiration in iti 
highest sense, seem! to lower the idea of this word, when he says that 
* in reading the best human compositions we arc tempted to exclaim, 
•* Nil magnum ting afflatu diimo ;" ia reading the inspired writings, 
•wc arc compelled to declare, 'surely this is the voice x)f God :* for by 
this remark he makes no diffeiencif in kind, but. only in degree. He 
was not, however, aware of this objection. — The substance of his rea* 
«oning is that St Paul, in the'N. T. always uses the word ^f«>}, 
•cnpture, as signifying the voice of God ;-^that the Fathers speak of 
the writers of the N, T. as inspired by the Spirit of God ; — that the 
sublimity of the scriptures bears the marks which distinguish the works 
of God from those of man ; — that they relate things which must be 
immediattly derived from God ; — that, though vario'tis copies and 
readings exist, every text contains the same laws, miracles, prophecies, 
and chain of history ; that what has been so miracuJously preserved 
must have been as miraculously inspired, (does the singular prcserva* 
'tion of ant lent writings prove^hcirinspiration ?) — that (he commission 
given to the Apostles to teach included inntructfon by Writing as well 
as viva voce ; — and that the Comforter guided them iiTto all truth. 

Mr. K. adopts the JevviBh opinio^ of the fourdifFerent modes of in- 
spiration. As to trivial matters, incidentally introduced by the Apos- 
tles, he does not include these in the inspired Word^ since they make 
1^6 part of the constitution of our faith. 

•Art. 28. A Funeral Qraiion to ihe Memory of His R-oyal Highness 
the late Duke of Gloucester rmd Edinburgh ^ delivered at Grosvcncir 
Chapel, Grosvenor. Squarey iSih Sept: 1805. By the Rev. T. 
Baseley, A.M. 410. la. 6d* .Faulder, &c. 
Divines, Philosophers, and Poets have a string of rematks equally 
trite, yH equally awful, on tiie subject of Death. With some of 
these, Mr. Baseley prefaeei^ thia funeral orhtion, and then 'proceeds to 
eulogize the lace Duke of Glovcester ; noiwith«tanding, as he tells 
us, that express orders were isiiued, not only to abstain from every ap- 
pearance of flattery, but. even from the service prepared for the occa- 
sion. After the wish of the family had been thus unequivocally ex- 
. pressed, if the preacher had thought it a proper mark of respect for 
the illustrious deceased to have persevered in his purpose, delicacy 
-should have taught him to abstain from extrjavagant and inflated p4- 
. • y 3 negyric. 



37< MoNTHLT CATALOCNrit MeAuS. 

negyric. He ha* not, however* been •nficienlly cmitioiu oh A» h^d^ 
for though the late Duke of Gloucester wai certainlf a kiiuLh«ulfid» 
amiabley and pious priocc, and must be sincerely lamented by all ixrhD 
had the honour of knowing himy we do not consider him to have been 
so iaint'/iie as that he was> according to Mr. B. * an object of /tf- 
€uliar veneration to the whale Christian world ;' and that by his death 
' the magnificence of our Zion is roarredy and her strenfi;th impaired*'' 
Such hyperbolic praiK ought not to come firom a pulpit, does no ho- 
nour to the dead, and is always unpleasant to the living. We do not 
expect Princes to be immaculate, any more than other men ; and w6 
never believe those who make that report of them. 

MEDICAL. 

« 

Art. 29. Exparhnent* prvwng F'acciolaiion ar C^w-fox limMkuion tf» 
he a permanent SeeurHj agMnet SwuiU^pomi with faels and Remarks. 
By Samuel HilU Surgeon, Town of Portaea* and Stirgeon in the 
Royal Navy. &vo. pp.46, is. 6d« Higbley. 1^4. 
This pamphlet coatatne the detail of tea cases of variolous inoca- 

httion alter cow-pox. In nobe of them was more than a local pustule 

produced. 

We se^ no good reason for the adoption of the word vacciolatioa 

here used by the author \ and we cannot help regarding this and 

other similar terms as indicating in those who use them a misplaced 

disposition to refine* 

Art. so. Some recent Cates of SmaU^pox'tybsemiini to Vaccination. To> 
which are addedf Experiments to ascertain the Effect of vaccina - 
ting in the Hand, in Imitation of the casual Disease ; with Facts 
and Observations on the Effect of eruptive Diseases in Vemovin^ 
the Security derived from Cow»pox. By Wm. Goldson, Surgeon^ 
Portsca. 8vo. pp. 134. 3s. Highley, &c. 1805. 
We noticed at some length a former publication of this anthor on 
the same subject, (Rev. Vol. xlv. N. S. p- a^3.) but we are sprry 
that we cannot perceive, in the present pampnlet, the same candour 
which we renurxed in the preceding. Mr. Goldson seems to be ra- 
ther elevated with the attention which was given by the public to his 
£rst cases, and is now, to all appearance^ a very sturdy and determined 
>pponent of vaccination. In conKquence of the wish expressed in his 
tract that variolous inoculation, on an extensive scale, should be prac- 
tised on suoh as had gone through cow'^pox at a distant period, the 
medical officers of the Vaccine institution, much to their credit* en* 
tered on an enlarged course of expert mcnta, in order to ascertain the 
preventive powers of cow-pox. They inoculated with variolous mat- 
ter all such patients as had passed through the cow-pox at their insti- 
tution to whom they could obtain access ; «nd they were unable, in 
any one of the many cases which they thus subjected to the variolous 
test, to produce small -pox. This was complying vnth the wishes of 
Mr. Goldson, if we rightly recollect their extent : • but he now coosi- 
ders these experiments as of no nse in determining the great question; 
and he says thst, in order to form a conclusion on the subject, some per- 
sons should have been inocdlated^ and others exposed strongly to infec- 
tion. 



Momrmt Catalogue, MtdiaL 327 

tloo. ir» however, he w3{ recollect the vanoos esaiD{fltt8'Ofi tfiodrd» 
in which patients who never had cow-pox have been exposed to vario- 
lous contagion without any effecty^e ought certainty to concede some 
part of the scepticism winch he induces on the «at]§ect of cOw-pos. 
Vet we suspect that, in die tcnoper of mtod in which the author is 
at present, a -conmEance even with what he now very unoocesBarflif 
requires would mit induce htm to change his opinion. 

While we admit the possibility of an oocasional occurrence 'oTsnuiBU 
(>ox, after «oow«pox, as we do that af a second appearance of small- 
|>ox, we fisd it the less necessary to particttlarly examii|ke Mr. G/a ad- 
ditional <ases, or to combat any inference which may be derived fralii 
them. At the same t^ime, ^ cannot forbear to vep^t, «s mt ha v 
^one on a fon»er occasion, that iusnsideiable doubts respecting a«ci>- 
racy of cbservationt mnst be raised, wheA we find that soiAe practi* 
tioners are<onliinuaSy «ieeting with failures, white others have «evw 
experienced any. This is a fact which ought to pat «very nan of 
candour on his guard, when he hears of tne \ask^ lists of advene 
cases which certain individuals are always able to report. 

We do not consider it as requisite to enter into ^ ccUaterd aoatttf 
which is contained in this publication. 

Art* 3 f • Am^ven to ^ ^ Obfeciions hitherto made agatmf Cow-foW^ 
By Jos« Adams, M« D., Physician to the Small-pox and Inocula- 
tion Hospitals, ani Author of << Observations on Morbid Poisons.^ 
i2mo. i«. Jfohnson. 1 805. 

Thia is a popular address to the public on the sut^ect of vaccina- 
tion, in which the prineipjd ofagections to the practice are stated and 
obviated. The autiior expresses his surprise and regret that cow-pox. 
inoculation, which was introduced in this kingdom, andflisseminated 
from it over the principal coiintries of the world, should now meet 
with an opposition here which does not occur elsewhere. To what- 
ever rtgton it has been conveyed, it has been received as a gracious 
boon of heaven, and its progress has been marked by the happiest and 
most unequivocal effiocts : but ifi this country, an outcry has been raised 
•gainst it, which bas the appearance of being partk^ilariy designed to 
act on liiose who are least aUe to judge of the real merits of an ini- 
portaat practice. 

Dr. Adams adverts to thiwe objections, as' the principal that are 
made against vaccination ; the 4irst, that it is no security against the 
amatt-pox ; the. second, tlhat k k only a tempdrary security ; and the 
third, that ct introduces humours into the constitution.. To the fir^ 
objection, be deems it ^inneccssary to reply, because, it cannot be 
wubtcd that it exercises some degree of influence on the constitution 
in preserving it aeatnet soudUpox. The quantum of inHnence is a mat*- 
ter of doubt ; and henoe it has been thought that the constitution ia 
ren4ercii by it only for a short period unsusceptible of small-pox : but 
Dr. A* is of opuiton that, even if it were admitted that there have 
been sonie iostances of snudl-pox after cow-pox, it would not really 
a€brd any ai|rument a^inst the practice : since this might happen, 
' J St, by an imperfect vaccination; 2d, by the constitution being 
under the influence \)f some other disease at the time of vaccination ; 
and, lastly, by the person being liable to the smalUp^x twice' 

y 4 The 



3^8 Monthly Catalogue, Medical. 

The occurrence of ifipcrfect vaccination lias affbrded reasons t« 
some persons to condemn the practice on account of its difficulty 
and uncertainty : but the author shews that, in the early periods par- 
ticularly of variolous inoculation, various mistakes occurred in the 
practice, which might reasonably be referred to want of experience, 
not to any real defect in the prophylactlci powers of the disease. 

For the eiFects of certain indispositions, more especially such as arc 
hepatic, in preventing or modifying the cow-pox, he refers to some 
medical authorities on the subject. 

That the small-pok sometimes occurs twice, and that the same ts 
tlicrefore naturally to be expected of cow-pox, Dr.A. juitly regards as 
H very important circumstance in thi§ inquiry. 

' * The histories {says he) of persons who have had Small-pox after 
-inoculation for that disease, are so numerous, that I doubt not most of 
them rest upon much the same authority as those which ate reported 
after Vaccination. However, amongthe nutnbcr, some are well found- 
ed in both ; and probably about the same proportion. But perhaps 
it will be said, if the Small-pox happens after Inoculation for the 
^matt-pox, and after the Cow-j5ox also, will it not be better lo take 
the disease in the natutal M'ay, and make ourselves sure. If there was 
any greater security in the natural way, there might be some reason m 
this arj^uroent, but it will be founds upon inquiry, that this is not the 
case, for some famih'es arc ao vtry liable to. Small- pox, that the greater 
part will have it severely, and some twiae oyer ; whilst other families 
.are 80 little ttusceptible^ that most of them will have it slightly, and 
some will not take it stall, either by inoculation or exposure.' 

He t^hen givea the hiatory of a case, from the Memoirs of the 
Medical Society, of a person who had the natural small* pox ^cry se- 
verely, when an infant, but who was catri«d off by a second attack of 
the same disease many years afterward. ' - . 

The introduction of humours into tl^erooustkution is a fruitful and 
favourite subject ^f invective with the enemies of vaccination ; and 
this the author ^airly, at:d we think very successfully, comt>ats. — He 
jrives, as reasons why vaccine and not variolous iooculation ahould be 
practised, ' that it i& well kuown, that whoever h vaccinated, not only 
is equally safe from the Small-pox, much safer fromfaomours than lif 
jnoculated with Smallpox, but also that he cannot convey the disease 
.to another. Wiiereas by iaocuiation fqr Smsli-pox, a whole towA 
may be infected, and numbers catiied off before they are aware of the 
cause.^ 

An Appendix contains a letter from X«ord Wetsmeath to Dr.Jenner, 
in which his I^ordship mentions that one of his children was inoculated 
with small-pox in Ireland when an infant, but afterward had the disease 
in the natural way i though the practitioner, a physician, considered 
him as having gone through the small- pox in the regular courses and 
ad therefore being safe from the danger of infection. 

Art. 32. Rmarh en the Report of M» Chaptal [late MimsUr of tie 
Interior) to the Consuls 9 or farmer Government of France ; with fu 
Examination of the Claim of M. Guy ton de Morvcau to the Dis- 
fovcry of the Power of the Mineral Acid Gazc8| in Contagtoi\. 

la 



Monthly Catalogue, Medical. 329 

■ 

In a Letter addressed to Wm. WIlbcrForce, Esq. M-P» &c. 5cc» &c? 

By James Carmichael Smyth, M. D. &c. Svo. pp.50, is*^. 

Callow. 1809. 

Dr. Smyth, having reoeivcd a national reward for the discovery of 
a mode of -destroying contagion, is properly anxious to siiew. (hatit 
was not misapplied. The celebrated Guy ton (ci-devant Morveau) lays 
claim to the discovery of this effect of the mioeral acids, in which he 
is supported by Chaptal ; who,, in a specific report, contends that the 
British Pailiament voted a reward to Dr. Smyth for a discovery made 
by Guyton himself. 

The Doctor here satisfactorily shews that the vapour of the marixie 
scid had been employed previously t,Qi the time of Guyton ; though 
it must be admitted that its importance, as a destroyer of contagion^ ' 
was not ascertained till the trials instituted by him at the church of 
Dijon, in the year ^773. It must also, be conceded that Dr. Smyth 
Was the first who used the vapo\ir of nitrous acid in ftvcr rooms ; 
and that he determined its saKe employment while patients were 
presetit. Without any doubt, therefore, he deserves much credit 
For the plan which he adopted :— ^but, with regard to his precise merit 
as a discoverer, we think that the transition from one mineral acid 
to another M too small, — and tht variation from one compound, 
which gives out acid fumes by the addition of vitriolic acid, to an- . 
othcf which affords them by the same means, is too little removed, 
—to allow to him the foil extent of the credit which he is anxioua 
to obtain. The principal part of the' discovery consisted in ascer* 
taining that acid fumes, and parttcularlv mineral acid fumes, were 
destroyers of contagion ; and if it should, in future, be found that 
acetous vapour, as given out from the hall acelalutn by the vitriolic 
acid,' is more efTcctQai for the purpose tban either the marine or the 
nitrous acid gas, a small portion only of the merit of discovery could 
be due to the authpr, consider ii|g.tboae guides to the particular ob« 
. servations which are at present possessed. 

Alt. 33* Jin interesting and atttbitUic j^cmmt of the mefunchoJy Rava* 
get of the pestiUnHal D'uorder^ or Tello*uf Fever ^ at Gibraltar, Ma- 
iaga, Cadiz, &c. &c. accompanied with Observations on the 
. Causes^ Nature, and Symptoms of malignant Ftvtrf>, together with 
the most certain means or avoiding the dreadful Consequences of 
Infection at this awful Period. By J. Grant, M D. 8vo. is. 
Highlcy. ' 

W'c expected to have found in this psfmphlet an account:, from 
victual observation* of the peculiar characters of that alarming disease 
which proved so fatal at Gibraltar, and in other parts of the south 
of Spain. . In.this- hope» ho\vevery wc .were disappointed ; since the 
author contents himself with copying newspaper details of mor- 
tality, and giving the general symptoms of malignant fevers, without 
reference to any particular epidemic. This easy mode of making 
a pamphlet is an appropriate mtroduction to the author's sovereign 
preventive of all coj^tagious diseases, viz. the Tellonv Fever Remedy^ 
which, he tells us, is sold, with proper directions, at a shop near 
Charing Cross ; and where, indeed, we have seen the wcrds^ Yellow 
f EVKR, written up in characters large enough to frighten the whole 

mttropolia! 



330 MoNTHLT CATALOCUE9 Misctllanious. 

ffnctropolis ! We arc not inclined to doubt the word of Dr. Gnat'i 
M*D*shipy when he informs us that he ' feels grtai (Itcuurt in it- 
commending that in valuable medicine \* 

MISCCLI.ANEOU& 

/Ut. 34. The Life tf Nafokon^ as it should be ^landed down to 
Postenty. By J. NI — d. i2mo. pp. 147* 3«- Parsons. 1804. 
As the iitk indicates* this is not a history of the dread emperor^ 
but a ronrance, which strongly glances at him. The structure uf the 
tale is rather fantastic : hat Mr. M— d is not wanting in inventive 
powers, and is master of a neat flowing style. His deficiency lies oa 
the side of his judgment. He is modest, and his aspirations esusite 
«D interest in his favour. We believe that considerable farther study 
is alone wanting to elevate him to that distinctioHt on which he very 
justly sets so high a value. 

Art. 15. The Casikofthe Thttileries ,- or, Narrative of all the Events 
which have taken Place in the Intenor of that Palace, from the 
Time of its Construction to the 1 8th Brumaire of the Year VIU» 
Translated from the French by Francis Lathom. 2 Vols. 6vo* 
14s. Boards. Longman and Co. 

The curious particulars with respect to Louis XVL a«d hfs &milyt 
mnd other interesting incidents, which do not fall within the range of 
general history, but which are contained in these volumes, will sccvre 
to them an extensive perusal. For an /estimate of this performance, and 
an account of the design of it, we refer to our notice of the oi%tDal in 
M. R* Vol. 39. N. S. p. 474. The translation seems to hare been 
hastily executed ; often betraying the foreign idiomt and fiitcn dU^ 
figured by inelegant or incorrect English. 

Art. 56. Criminal Cerretpomlenee a/ytan ^dc^fttefRouueimf9nih}Azd. 

la Tour de Franqueviilc« and M. du Peyron> late Burgher of 

J^eufchatel. Translated from the French, s Vols. 8vo. 128« 

Boards. Johnson. 1 804. 

We have examined different parts of these volumes, and have femid 
the translation to be faithful, and, in genera!, not inckgant. Oar 
opinion on the singular correspondenee, which they contain) wiU be 
found in our observations on the original work, of which we g«ve an 
ample account in Vol. xliii. p. 554. We do mat regard the diffe* 
rence between the editomnd the tcasslator, veipecting the behartour 
of Rousseau on this occasion, as of sufficient importance to call on 
us to enter particularly into it. The view taken of it by the editor 
comes nearest to our own, while it best accords with the conduct of 
Rousseau in similar situations. 

Art. 37. jfn ffhtoriea/ Memoir on the PoKtical Life of jfobu Mikou, 
By Charles Fdward Mortimer, Esq. 4to. pp. 82. Boards* 
Vcrnor and Hood. 

** To laugh, were want of goodness or of grace : 
Yet to be grave exceeds all power of face.*' 
Reviewers surely ought to be grave : but they must be allowed 
to exercise their risible muscles if they see a man endeavour- 
ing to aid the brilliancy of the meridian sua by ^* a little farthing 

4 rushlight,'^ 




rusbVtglit ;'' or assidaonllj employing himself to keep St. Paul's 
catheoral from falling, by fattening it with packthread to one of 
tliechinmies in Paternoster- Row. — Yet what js there more ridicu* 
Ions in either of these actions, than in Mr. Mortimer's attempt, by a 
few pages of pompous writing, printed on fine paper, and decorated 
with a vignette, * to familianze the name of Milton as a patriot?' 
We could scarcely believe the evidence of our eyes when we read 
these words. What, said we^ looking to that shelf in our library 
which contains Milton's prose woiJcs, is that first-rate patriot in. 
gulphed in the sea of obliyion, and does this little cockboat undertake 
to weigh him up ? Shade of Milton ! thou wilt be in a most '* fu- 
rious fret," when thou perceivest that the stupendous pyramid of thy 
^me is attempted to be propped and buttressed by reeds and straws : 
— but ** Rest, perturbed spirit !" the insinuation is ^oundless* 
Thy name as a patriot has been, and continues to be ^ familiar \* and 
yic want not gravely to be informed by Mr. Mortimer, that * thy 
merits entitle thee to a niche in the same temple which is adorned 
with the busts of John Hampden and /iigernon Sidney.' . 

To be serious ; this superficial view of Milton's political works 
and character can satisfy none of his admirers. The author has % 
jiist veneration for this great patriot's "merit, and is animated in his 
delineation : but, had it been his object to induce modern readers to 
contemplate the nervous language employed by Milton in support of 
the principles which he defended^ numerous extracts should have been 
made from his writings, and the memorialist should have kept him* 
self in the back ground. Why did he not transcribe that passage m 
Milton's apology for Smectymnuus, in which he vindicates his moral 
character, and asserts his steady patriotism, againut the aspersions of 
his enemies, who ** iung out," as he says, *' stray crimes against him 
at a venture ?" — *^ Those morning haunts are where they should be, 
at home, not sleeping, or concocting the surfeits of an irregular feast^ 
but up and stirring, in winter often ere the sound of any bell awake 
men to labour, or to devotion ; in summer, as oft with the bird tha( 
first arises, or not much tardier, to read good authors, or cause thtm 
to be read, till attention be weary, or memory have its full fraught : 
theu with useful and generous labours preserving the body's health 
and hardines6e, to reuder lightsome » cleare, and not lumpish, obe- 
dience to the minde, to the cause of religion, and our countries li- 
berty, when it shall require firm hearts in sound bodies to stand and 
cover their stations, rather than see the ruine of our protestation and 
the inforcement of a slavish life." — It is unnecessary to point out 
the errors which appear in Mr. M.'6 unsatisfactory^ yet shewy 
memoir. 

Art. 38. An Account of the Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson^ from hU 
Birth to his Eleventh Tear, written by himself. To which arc added. 
Original Letters to Dr. Samuel Johnson. By Miss Hill Boothby : 
from the MSS. preserved by the Doctor^ and now in Possession 
of Richard Wright, ^lurgeon ; Proprietor of the Museum of An- 
tiquities, Natural and Artificial Curiosities, &c. at Litchfield. 
Small 8 vo. 5s. Boards. R. PhilL'ps. 1^05. 
By a proprietor of a museum of curiosities at Litchfield, the MS. 

from 



>" — 



}32' MoNTHLT Catalogub^ AUseeNanems. 

from which this h'ttlc ▼ohitnc i8 printed might be regarded as a va, 
luablc acquisition ; but we should suppose that the matter #hich 
it contains will not be now very interesting to the public. That 
Dr. Johnson himself did not deem thene memoranda of his early life 
worth preservation, is evident from his having destroyed the greatest 
part of them ; and perhaps he was not conscious that any portion of 
them remained. This fragment, which was obtained from his black 
servant, Francis Barber, occupies only 22 small pages, while the 
chasm in the MS. amounts to 38 pages. After all that has been 
written of Johnson, we could have Epared the supplementary inform- 
ation that, a few weeks after he was born, he bad an inflammation in 
his butiock ; that, afterward, he had an issue cut in his left arm ; that 
his scrofulous sores proceeded from his nurse ; that he went up to 
London to be touched for the evil by Queen Anne, in the stage- 
coach, and returned in the waggon ; &c. &c. 

The letters of Miss Hill Boothby, aunt of Sir Brooke Boothby, 
aie sensible, pious, and full of expressions of esteem for her literary 
correspondent: but we do not perceive the great utility of their pub- 
lication. Some persons, however, who arc eager to gather up every 
fragment relative to Dr. Johnson, may be pleased with this journal ; 
and with the letters of a lady who is recorded by him to have 
possessed *' the best understanding he ever met with in any humau 
being," 

Art. 39. Intercepted Correspondence from India : containing Dis- 
patches fromM^arquisWellcsley, &c. and from the Governor- General 
m Council, to the Secret Committee of the Court of Directois, 
to Major^General Wellesley, &c. Together with Reports of the 
State of our India Possessions, sent by a French Emissary to Ge- 
neral Decaen, Governor of the Mauritius ; and Letters from va- 
rious Persons in India to their Friends in Great Britain. 8vo. pp* 
122. 5s. Sold at No. 34.8, Strand. 

In the former case of the publication of Private Correspondence 
with persons in India, stated to have been obtained by the French 
from captured English ships*, the accuracy and authenticity of the 
papers were much impeached. We know not whether similar doubts 
apply to the present letters : but the editor states that they were 
taken on board the homeward-bound India ship, the Hope\ intimates no 
suspicion of their fidelity ; and represents them as containing much in- 
formation on the state of our affairs in the East. — The njflctal letters 
have the appearance of being authentic, and are of an important na- 
ture : but the private correspondence has not always the marks of 
being genuine, or, at least, not of bemg accurately copied. 

Art. 40. An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Royal liospilaU 
and the Royal Military Asylum at Chelsea : to which is preiixcd aa 
Account of King James's College at Chelsea. Embellished with 
Engravings, and interspersed with Biographical Anecdotes. Crown 
8vo. 33. 6d. Boards. Egerton, &c. 1805. 
It is not a little surprising that such a place as the Royal Hospital 

at Chelsea, begun by Charles II. and completed by William and 

♦ Sec Rev. Vol 45. N. S, p. 334, 

Mary^ 



MoMfBLT Catalogub, Mucellafteotu. 33J 

Mary^ as an Asylum for maimed and superannuated eddiera, should 
hitherto have remained without an appropriate description^ or guide. 
This desideratum it is the object of the publication before us to supply; 
which contains not only an account of the present edifice, but a de- 
scription of the antient College of Divinity, projected by Dr.SutclifFe, 
in the reign of James I . which formerly occupied its place ; and some 
biographical sketches of its founder and first members. 

The most extraordinary character noticed in the biography is tliat 
of the Archbishop of Spalatro, who was admitted a Member of this 
College by the King's Letters patent in 1622: 

* Marcus Antooius de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalatro, came over 
to England in i6i6» and professed the protestant religion, asserting 
that he had discovered various errors in the tenets of the church of 
Rome, and |Alished his work, *' De Republica Ecclesiastica :" his 
powers of disputation were strong and acute, his society much courted 
by the learned and the great, and his sermons attractive and greatly 
admired. Fuller, who is virulent in his abuse of him, says, that his 
sole object in coniing to England was the attainment of wealth and 
preferment. King James gave him, soon after his arrival, the deanery 
of Windsor, the rich living of Illesley, in Berkshire, and made him 
naster of the Savoy. With these, however, he was not contented ; 
but upon the report of the death of Toby Matthew, Archbishop of 
York, he solicited the king for the vacant archbishoprick ; this being 
refused, he made application for leave to retire to Rome. After mucU 
deliberation, he was ordered to quit th* kingdom in twenty days, as 
he had been found guihy of holding a secret correspondence with the 
pope, without the king's knowledge. After living some time in po- 
verty and obscurity at Rome, on a small pension allowed him by Pope 
Gregory XV. he died there in 1625, and his body was afterward* 
publicly burnt for hereby. Fuller sums up hii character with obser- 
ving—" that he had too much wit and learning to be a cordial papist, 
and too little honesty and religion to be a sincere protestant.'' 

* As a man he was by no means estimable ; as a divine little less 
than contemptible ; all his views were directed to the acquisition of 
wealth, to this idol all his vows were paid, and even his religious tenets 
were swayed by the casual advantage of the moment ; but as a scholar^ 
shrewd, correct and extensive, we must allow hin* no common share 
of praise ; his learning was general, not confined to the scholastic 
forms and acute sophistry, with wliich polemical disputes were in ge- 
neral conducted ; lils views had a wider range, and he shone not only 
as a scholar, but a philosopher to whose shrewdness and acute observsH 
tion we owe much ; and he was the first who accounted for the 
phenomena of the rainbow, in his book, '* De Radiis Visus et 
Lucis." 

As the Royal MsRiary Asylum for fie Chitdren of the Soldiers of the 
Regular Army^ situated near to the Royal Hospital, is not perhaps ge- 
nerally known, we shall transcribe part of the account of it, which oc- 
curs at the end of this manual. 

* The first stone of this elegant structure was laid by His Royal 
Highness the Duke of York, on the nineteenth day of June, i8jl, 
accompanied by a great many General Ofiiccis, and a number of the 
nobility. 

t *The 



334 MotiTRLT Cataiocue, MiscdLmmU. 

* The motires which gave rise to this establishment^ and the pnn^ 
ctples upon which it is 7ouRded» are ah'ke hooourable to the present 
enlightened age, and congenial with the soundest maxims of policj^ 
humanity, and benevolence. 

. * The necessity h'ke^nse of such an institntion will appear obvious 
to all, when we consider the helpless and forlorn condition of many of 
- these orphan objects of commiseration, who in this com&rtablc asyluoa 
will be clothed, have good wholesome food, acquire a decent cduca* 
tton, be tanght the principles of Christianity, and finally, be made nse* 
ful in whatever course of life they may adopts 

*• It is environed on all sides with high walls> an handsome iron 
railing opens towards the grand front ) the ground is laid out m grass- 
plots and gravel-walks, and planted with trees. 

* The ediftce forms three sides of a quadrangle ; it is^ilt of brick, 
with an elegant stone bahistrade ; the centre of the western front 
IS ornamented with a noble portico of the Doric order, coo* 
sisting of four immense columns, which support a large and well- 
proportioned pediment ; on the frieze of which is the followang in- 
scription : 

•* The Royal Military Asylum for the CbllJnn of the SoUien of the 

Regular Army.** 

* Over this inscription arc the imperial arms. 

' The northern and southern wing? are joined to the principal front 
by an elegant colonnade, with extends the whole length of the build* 
iug, and forms a good shelter for the children in wet weather. 

' The vestibule is in the centre of the grand front, on the left are 
two diuing-halls, eighty feet long and thirty feet wide ; near these 
dining hauls the boys wash every morning in a stone chamber, built 
for the purpose, which is furnrshed with a good cohKbath. 

'Over the boys' dining- halls are two school-rooms of the same di» 
niensioRs ; here they are taught to read and write, and cast accounts. 
Ttie school hours in the morning are from half past nine till twelve, 
and from half past two till five in the afternoon. 

* It is intended to establish four trades for the boys, viz shoe- 
makers, taylors, sadlers, and armourers. The two former are already 
appointed, and the workshops are erecting, and wiU sooa be cam« 
pleted. 

' On the right of the vestibule are the girls' dining-halls, of the 
aame dimensions as the boys\ at the extremity of these halls is the 
girls' bathing-place \ this is also furnished with a coldbath> which 
can be emptitd and filled at pleasure. 

* One of the school-rooms is fitted up as a chapel. 

* When the complement of boys and girls is completed, they wilT 
jointly amount to one thousand, viz, seven hundred boys, and three 
hundred girls. 

' The boys wear red jackets, blue breeches, and blue stockiogSi and 
caps. 

* The girls wear red gou^nsr blue petticoats, straw bonnets, and 
white aprons ; they are taught to read, write, and cast accounts, knit- 
ting and needle- work of diflfeient kinds, and are constantly employed 
in all manner of household- work. And wheo the whole estabhsh- 

ment 



[ Monthly Cat AtoctTB, Smgte^Sermnl 935 

Mttit tt oompletcd ai ii ioteodedy it will be moat admirably suited fov 
m pufpofCy aod be a mineiT' for bonest and joBcful memben- of 
•oeiely/ 

The o&nal eitiblmnent tnclude§a C«mfMadaatrChaphttn» A^'u-* 
•iaDA, Quarter-Ma»ter, Matron^ and Assistant. 

Tbrec plates exbibk separate views ^ tbe thpee buHdiags aboT« 
■lenaionedu 

Art. 41. Relation of fevered Circttnutancet ivBtcb occurred to- the Prtf- 
ttmce of Lower Normandy, during the Revolution, and under the 
Governments of Robespierre and the Directory ; commcnctng ixt 
the Year 1789, down to the Year 1800. With a Detail of the 
Confinement and'Su&iings of the Author; together with aa 
Account of the Manners and rural Customs of the Piirt .of tbe 
Country called the Bocage, in Lower Normandy ; with the 
Treatment of their Cattle, Nature of Soil, Cultivation and Har*^ 
vesting of thenr Crops, Domestic Management, &c. By George 
Greene. 8vo. 7s. Boards* Hatchard. 

We regrret that this work has k>ng escaped our notiee, smce it addis 
to Uie store of facts which throw Kght on the mif h:y concussions that 
have happened in our vicinity. The sufferings of the writer, personally ^ 
were not inconsiderable ; and they are here related in a way which 
creates a strong iatereet in his favour ; for the narrative is wholly de • 
atitute of art, and exhibits every mark of genuineness. Tha author r»> 
ai^d in France as tand steward to the Pinnce of Monaco at Torigny in 
Hormandy ; and his observations on. the manners and rural economy 
of that neighbourhood shew that, though a plain man, he attentively 
Boticcd whatever passed via^v his eyes. Tnough the work is^ now 
mtber oat of date^ it st31 strongly engages the attention. 

SINGLE SERMON. 

Art. 4a. Preached on occasion i/tk lat^ Nawd Victory ^ in the Fan'sb 
Church of Weilington> Salo}^ Nov. lo. 1S05. By the Rev. Joho 
£yton. Rvo* is. Crosby and Co^ 

This preacher, resolving to be early in the field, has nut watted for 
fhe- day of public thanksgiving to deliver his sentiments on- the late 
•ignal Naval Victory ; the laurels of which are covered with crape on 
account of its having b^en purchased with the death of oiir skilful and 
gallant coriNnandcr Lord Nelson : but he has stepped forwards, with*- 
out loss of time, to improve, in a reh'gious way, the public joy on 
this occasion. Mr. Eyton ascribes this victory to the favourable in- 
terposition of Divine Providence, in which view he represents ft with 
ptat propriety as a subject for religious gratitude and praise : but 
we cannot perceive, on the position of the moral Providence of GodV 
the propriety of Mr. £.'s assertion * that the seasons at which wie 
bavc experienced the greatest national blessings have generally been 
fehoic at which iniqiiity has most ^bounded.' We have often read of 
the .chasdsomefit of nations £pr their sins : but we do not recollect to 
have been told that God was most kind when states wrrennost siofuL 
— Tke preacher speaks to the general feeling, when he bids ua to r^- 

joice 



336 Cor RESPOND £KC^& 

joue miiih trmbTtng, as the late victory .hau bieen dearly bought : but 
we cannot believe^ M God be really on our side and fights for us, that 
we have any ground for trembling because of the increased power 
of the enemy by land ; since if God he for us, how impotent and despi- 
cable is all human power exerted against us ^ and if, according to Mr« 
£., the Almighty chouses seasons in which sin particularly abounds 
for the communication of the gicatest national blessings, we have a 
cbance for prwperity than we arc taught to believe by the preacher^ 
of Fast Sermons in general. 



Correspondence. 

Nath^ Cosius — and /?^xtfr^j«.— The remarks which we have lately 
Lad occasion to make, respecting some disputes among the Society of 
Jriendsf have drawn on us the remonstrances of two Correspondents, 
with the above signature ; who belong, we presume, to that society, 
and to whom our censures have not proved acceptable. We ehaO 
not, however, enter into any epistolary controversy on this subject : 
tuhat ive have *wrttten, we have tvriUen, and by that we shall abide ; 
conscious that out pen has been guided only by an adherence to those 
general principles which we shall ever maintain ; untinctured by any 
prejudice against this society, for whom we have always spoken, as 
we have felt, with much respect ; and uninfluenced by any personal 
motives, directly ot iadirectly. The parties are wholly strangers to 
lis, in the most perfect btnsc of the words ; and even the letter of 
Resurj^am discloses particulars lespeciing them of which we were pre* 
viously ignorant, i he insinuations of this correspondent scarcely 
deserved this notice, and certainly will obtain no more. 



We can make no use of the intelligence contained in the letter (at 
we suppose) of M. Ortolani, If the works to which it refers come 
before us, we shall in course make due report of them ; until which 
time, it Is not our practice to recommend them ^ as he requests. 



J. W. of Bristol js informed that the volumes which he mentions 
never reached our hands, and that it docs not now appear to us neces- 
sary to inquire fur them. 

X. T^'^^ Fri^tidi — R. B. and several other Correspondents, com- 
plain that thoy have not duly received our last Appendix, published 
on. the I8C of October. The fault in this case must lie with tlte 
bookseller> cither in town or country : to vfhom positive orders should 
be given. We have often heard of similar neglecc. 

•.♦ In the last Review, p. 178. 1. lO. from bott. for ^mtgbt\ r. 
m^y ; and line 8. from bott. for *»w7y r. mi^bt, ?• 179, L 20., for 
cj^K read U^oi{, 

m 



t H E 



MONTHLY REVIEW, 

. Fot DECEMBER, 1805. 



mm 



Art. I. Coflectlons towards ihe History and Anttquitles of the County 
of Her ford. By John Duncumb, A.M. Vol.1. 4to. pp. 604* 
3L 3s. Boards. Evans. 1804. 

IT appears that the public are indetited| fortbe materials from 
whicli the present publication has been formed, to the pe- 
cuniary assistance of the Duke of Norfolk, as well as to the 
labours of Mr. Duncumb; and v/e feel pleasure in stating thaf» 
M far as it has proceeded, it does credit to the munificence of 
Ihe nobk patron, and to the knowlege and skill of the indus- 
trious compiler. In every department in which his undertaking 
obliges the latter to exhibit himself, he has well discharged his 
duty; he has properly arranged and carefully digested the 
documents with which he has been furnished ; and his narra- 
tive throughout is neat> uniform) and (as far as ^e can judge) 
correct. 

We coincide In a great degree with the observations made 
by Mrk D. on the merits and circumstances of his subject, 
when be says ; 

* The county of Hcncfond, although replete with a variety of ma- 
terials to attract the researches of the Antiquary and the Historian^ 
has hitherto so far escaped their notice, that no regular account of it 
has ever bf en submitted to the Public. As the ground on which 
Caractacus and the brave Silures so nobly fought, pro arit et foc'ts^ 
against the Roman invaders, and as the frontier, during the long con- 
tinued wars between England and Wales, it presents an important 
series of national occurrences ; whilst as a province, distinguished from 
the earliest dates of dvilized society, by the residence of ancMent and 
honourable families, holding their possessions by various and peculiar 
tetiures \ as a district fertile in its produce, ai)d abounding in scenery 
of the moist beautiful description ;^t contains a fund of informa- 
tion, which, if properly collected and arranged, could not fail to be 
generally gratifying.* . 

We would here remark that^ when the Heptarchy sunk in 
the kingdom of England, and the antient Britons became tri« 
butaty, the animosities of the hostile nations wore for the most 

Vol. xlviii. Z part 



3 3^ Duncttmb'x Collections for the History of Herefordshire* 

part displayed in struggles which were on too small a scale to 
rescue from oblivion the names of the leaders^ or to transmit to 
future times the events which distinguished them : the misery, 
it is true, was sufficiently intensei but it was too limited in its 
extent to attract the regards of posterity. Even before Mercia 
disappeared as an independent kingdomi the brave Silures had 
ceased to be a distinct people. After Offa had extended his 
boundary, and fixed his residence in the centre of the county 
which is the subject of this work, we read indeed of horrible 
incursions ; yet scarcely any thing occurs in these parts which 
merits the name of war. Previously to that period, there had 
been a long series of fierce and bloody contests for national in- 
dependence on the one hand,, and for dominion and territory 
on the other : but unfortunately they are involved in fable, and 
history is almost totally silent in regard to them. 

In what the writer terms a General Introduction, he enters 
considerably into the civil and military transactions of that 
part of the island in which this district is placed ; this is fol- 
lowed by its geography and natural history ; and he then de- 
tails the military and civil history of its capital, which brings 
to a close the present volume : the next, we presume, will 
consist of similar views of each division of the county. 

According to the example of his predecessors, Mr. D. con- 
ducts his readers as far back as he is able into the darkness of 
time : but he possesses too well formed a mind to descend to 
any particulars which preceded the invasion of Julius Caesar. 
In the first chapter of his Introduction, he expatiates on the 
period which intervened between the first landing, and the 
final departure of the Romans« He appears to us materially 
to under-rate the knowlege which the Druids possessed. The 
political power which this fraternity exercised, the systematic 
discipline which united the body together, and on which their 
unlimited authority was founded, the affinity of their tenets 
with those of the Oriental sects, and the reputation which the 
order in Britain had attained, (it being consulted for instruc- 
tion by the youth of Gaul,)-— these considerations, and the 
testimonies ot antient writers, incline us not to set so low an 
estimate on the attainments of the Druids as has been assigned 
by Mr. Duncumb. Nor ought it to be forgotten that their lan- 
guage is indicative of no mean intellectual culture ; since in the 
estimation of good judges it is in a high degree energetic and 
copious, and there is no reason for supposing that it has subse- 
quently undergone any material improvement. 

The author thus describes the battle which terminated the 
career of the brave Caractacus ; and he makes observations on^ 
the site of it, which prove not only that he neatly retails what 

the 



DuticumbV ColUciionsfor the History of Herefordshire. 3 39 

the labours of others have placed within easy reach, but tha( 
he illustrates difficult points by reseaiches of his own : 

* Caractacus, darting through the ranks, exdaimed^'^ Rememberf 
BrttofUf this day Is to decide whether we shall be slaves or free l^—Re^ 
collect and imitate the atchievements of our ancestors^ whose valour expelled 
Julius Cmsarfrom our coasts f rescued their country from faying tribute to 
foreigners, and saved their wives and daughters from infamy and viola" 
tion /" 

' Inflamed by this address, every one shouted with applause, and 
bound themselves by their peculiar oaths to conquer or to perish. 
^ * Oston'us was staggered by the resolute appearance and formidable 
position of his adversaries ; but his troops eagerly demanded battle, an^ 
exclaimed, that Rornan valour could surmount every obstacle. Ob- 
serving, therefore, what points were most proper for the attack^ he led 
on his army, and forded the river without difficulty : but before they 
could reach the rampart of stone, the Romans suffered severely from 
the darts of the Britons, and success long appeared doubtful. At 
length, forming the testudo, or shelly by locking their shields together 
over their heads, they reached the wall, and making several breaches 
in it, brought on a dose engagement. Unprovided with helmets or 
breast plates, the Britons could not withstand the attack, but fell back 
towards the summit of the hill. A few de.^perate efforts from this point 
could not avail them, and victory declared for the Romans. The wife 
and daughter of Caractacus were takes on the field of battle, and his 
brothers surrendered themselves prisoners : he himself escaped into the 
country of the Brigantcs, and claimed the protection of their queen^ 
Cartismandua ; but dreading the resentment of the Ron^ans, which 
had been so recently directed against her territories^ she was induced 
to deliver him bound to Ostorius. 

* The site of this important battle is not agreed on by antiquaries 
and historians : some writers suppose it to have taken place on the 
banks of the Severn, above Montgomery ; on those of the Virnew or 
Tannat, two of the most northern branches ; or even on those of the 
Dee itself: but in opposition to these suggestions, it may be remarked^ 
that some of these positions would transfer the battle to the country 
of the Cangi, whose territories are not represented to have been ia« 
vaded on this occasion. 

* Humphrey Lloyd was of opinion, that it was fought on a British 
post, called Caer-Ddynod^ which is situated on the Alven, a small river 

* falling into the north side of the Dee. To this idea, General Roy 
opposed the improbability, that Caractacus should have given up such 
a tract of country, affording many excellent positions, without making 
a stand until he came near the extremity, with the sea at a small dis- 
tance in his rear. It may also be added, that the country of thfe 
Silures would in that case have been left open to attack, at a time 
when it was exhausted of all its means of defence. 

* Camden thought that the high hill of Caer-Caradoc^ in Shrop- 
shire, about six miles west from Leintwardine, was the scene of the 
battle in question. The similarity of the name to that of the Bntish 
chief, either suggested or adds weight to the supposition. Caer- 
Caradoc evidently contained a British post, which was situated on the 

Z 3 top^ 



3 Dttocumb V Cullectionsfor the History nf Hefeforishttk. 

top, by nature not easily accessible^ and rendered ttronger by art. So 
' far it agrees with the account p;iven by Tapitus ; but, on the other 
hand, it may be observed, that the inconsiderable rivulqt called 
Chapel-brook, which pasfies Caer-Caradoc almost at Its source, could 
present no obstacle to the Romans : nor can the name be admitted to 
be decisive, as a second entrenchment bears the same appellation, near 
Church -Stretton, in Shropshire ; and a third in the parish of 
Scllack, ID this county : these might possibly have been occupied 
by CaractacuB on former occasions* or so called in honour of that 
ehief. 

* General Roy is much inclined to prefer Coxwall- Knoll to cipher 
of the places wliich have been mentioned : a careful examination h^s 
Jed the present enquirer fully to adopt that idea, and respectfully to 
suggest, whether, with a reasonable allowance for the conciseness of 
•tyle Beeullar to Tacitus, and for some partiality which he may have 
fck- for his rour.trymen, the situation and other circumstances of 
•Cox wall- Knoll do not strikingly correspond with the account given 
by the Roman historian. Coxwall- Knoll is a single eminence, 
situated in abeantiful valley near Brampton-Bryan. It is luxuriantly 
covered with wood ; one part of it, that towards the south is within 
the limits of Herefordshire, whilst that towards the north is within 
those of Shropshire. On the top is a very strong entrcncliment of 
British construction, and of much greater extent than that at Caer- 
Caradoc. The access is difficult on all sides : on the south ** an 
^rtiticial terrace is cut along the face of the hill,'* in front of the 
entrenchment ; and tlie river Teme flows below in the same direction. 
The Teme continually varies in its depth and impetuosity, according 
to the proportion of rain received into its channel from tlie adjacent 
hills. Immtdiaiely opposite, and at the distance of one mile, with 
the river between them, is the Roman post of Brandon, "a single 
•quire work, with four ports/' more strong towards Coxwall thaa ia 
any other part. 

* In the supposed line of march by Canctacus and Ostorius, th« 
latter*would occupy Brandon, when the former had retreated to Cox- 
wall : thus situated, the formidable position of the Britons, and the 
obstacles to be encountered in attacking them, were all within view of 
the Romans : they demanded and were led to the combat ; fording 
the river, they reached the rampart, which probably stood on the ar- 
tificial terrace described by. General Roy, and finally defeated the 
Britons in the entrenchment above. To these conjectur?^, which are 
offered with the utmost deference, it mny be oppoi^ed, that the Teme 
near Coxwall is but an in considerable rivtr, having a smooth and 
gravelly bottom, and so little water, except when flooded from the 
nills, that troops may march across it in line, for two or three mil^s 
together. To this it is replied, that all rivers suffer some decrease. In * 
proportion as the country through' which they pnss, becomes more 
cultivated ; that the words of Tacitus — '* prxfluebat amnis vado in- 
rrWo*'— evidently apply to a river subject to frequent variations ; tliat 
no difficulties were experienced when the fording took place - ** am- 
i>emque hauddifficuhcr evadit ;" -and that probably the Romans ex- 
^Sff^*"^^^^ *'^^ obstacles, to hicreasc their own reputation, 

"6 'It 



DuncumbV Collictions for the History of Herefordshire. 341- 

* It may be farther objected, that Caractacus is stated to have chosen 
a situation in all respects favourable to himself, and unfavourable to 
the Romans—" cuncta nobis importuna et suis in melius/' — whereas 
Coxwall, standing singly in tl.e plain, afforded no retreat in case of 
disaster. To this it is merely replied, that, notwithfitanding the cf cape 
of Caractacus himself, the capture of hii wife and family in the field» 
evidently proves^ that the means of retreat mu^t have been very dif- 
iicuU. 

* Finally, it may be urged, 'that Herefordshire was included in the 
territories of the Silurcs ; whilst Tacitus, and other subsequent wri- 
ters of note, have hitherto admitted that the battle was fought in 
the district of the Ordovices. No decisive proof, however, it is pre- 
sumed', can be given, that the boundaries of the present Herefordshire 
were the precise boundaries of the Silures: on the contrary,the northeiti 
part of the county, including a large extent adjoining Coxwall, waa 
not incorporated wit-h Herefordshire until the rciga of Hepry VIII.;- 
and in its original state, it is not unreasonable to suppose^ that h m>y 
have belonged to the Ordovices. 

* On these grounds, the opinion of the present enquirer is .in favour 
of Coxwnll : he has endeavoured to state his reasons with conciseness 
and candour ; and the public will exercise their indisputable right of 
deciding for themselves.' 

"We have no knowlege of more than two Roman stations 
being situated within the limits of the present county of Here- 
ford, viz. Magna Castra and jfricoriium. The author very ably 
supports the opinion of Horsley, that the former was placed 
where the present Kcnchestcr now stands, and the lattet at 
Weston-sub-Pcnyard, in the neighbourhood of Ross. 

The next period considered by Mr. Duncumb extends from 
the epoch of the departure of the Romans to the Norman con- 
quest. 

We do not deny the justness of the succeeding observations: 

' The Silures were subject to. the Roman authority about two 
hundred and iifty years ; other parts of the island about thirty more— 
a period too sHort to have effected, under the circumstances already 
noticed, a total change of their disposition and character, or to have 
obliterated the memory of their former independence. Releasee) from 
the power of the Romans, they naturally rejected, as hostile, every 
habic which they had imposed : impatient of controul, and strangers 
to the arts of legislation, they were incapable of cementing a general 
union, or of forming a wise and stable government. Different' opi- 
nions led to different conduct ; and the removal of the Roman yoke, 
introduced more serious evils than had even attended its imposition*' 

We cannot repress an opinion, lw)wever, that a material fact 
relative to this point has been overlooked by the author 5 namely, 
the circumstance of a common religion ; which, we tlnnk, 
must have hid a great effect in cementing the union between 
the two people, — ccriainly much more than the civil connection 

Z 3 standing 



342 DuncumbV Collections for ihi History ef Herefordshin* 

standing alone could have produced* What pn>grc8s the Bri- 
tons had made in civilization during the Roman domination, 
and in what proportion they bad become Christian, are points 
which the remains of the period are not adequate to materially 
illustrate ; and the tales of subsequent ecclesiastical writers are 
such as engage little attention. 

<J)ffa, the powerful king of Mcrcia, who afterward subjected 
his country to the payment of Peter-pence, 6rst deprived the 
Welsh of the county of Hereford ; and he came to reside 
within a few miles of its present capital. A dreadful incursion 
was made into it as late as the reign of Edward the Confessor, 
by Gryffyth Prince of| Wales, and Algar Earl of Chester, the 
latter of whom had been banished from England ; they ravaged 
the whole county, and sacked the city, leaving in it» according 
to the Welsh chronicles, nothing but " blood and ashes :" but 
Harold was ordered by Edward to avenge this injury, in which 
he succeeded. — ^The author concludes this part of the work with 
an extract from Domesday Book, enumerating the civil divisions 
of the county, and tlie names of the then proprietors of the 
soil. 

The next chapter carries the history down to the end of the 
reign of Henry VII. 

We read of destructive ravages committed in these parts by 
the Welsh, during nearly the whole of this period. Llewelyn 
joined his forces to those of the English barons, but his inter- 
fere§c<i proved fatal to the remaining independence of his 
country : 

' The independenoe of the Britons was now drawing to a close, 
and they were constrained to make peace with Henry, on condition 
that their Prince Llewelin, and his successor)), should bold the prin- 
cipality of Wales of the Kin;;:^ of England and his successors ; and 
that all barons in Wales siiould hold their haronies and lands of 
Llewelin and hit successors in capite^ and do homage and fealty to 
Lflewelin, who should do homage lor the whole to the King of Eng- 
land. It may be imagined, that this was not done without extreme 
reluctance, on the part of the Britons : but their humiliation was 
not yet completed ; for Edward I. afterwards invaded them with an 
army, too powerful to be rebisted with success ; and after the death 
of Llewelin, who was slain in battle by Mortimer^ all Wales was re- 
duced in subjection to the crown of England. The only attempt to 
recover th-.ir independence was made seven years afterwards, by 
Mnel Gwyu Vychan ; and it terminated in his imprisonment and 
death at Hereford. As an example of terror to his countrymen, he 
was dragged to the place of execution at the tails of horses, and 
hanged with two of his accomplices.' 

These parts suffered in after times from the incursions of 
Glendour, 

The 



DuDCumbV ejections fir the History of Herefordshire. 343 

The Lacys, the Mortimers, and other families of this county^ 
yielded to the mania of the crusades^ and embarked in those 
eventful expeditions : it shared also in the glories of Crecy 
and Agincourt, in which several nobles and knights of this 
district were distinguished. 

In the struggles between the houses of York and Lai^aster, 
only one battle, that of Mortimer's cross, in which Edward 
was victorious, and in which Owen Tudor the husband of the 
Queen Dowager was taken, was fought within the limits of 
Herefordshire : Owen was beheaded in its capital. — On this 
occasion, mention is made by the author of a description of per- 
8ons> of whom frequent notice is taken in our histories : 

* The Norman nobles and others, who settled on the borders of 
Wales, acquired the name of Lords Marchers, and were styled Mar^ 
chioner f^aiH^f in. the Red-Book of the Exchequer, long before the 
title of Marquis (which was introduced in the reign of Richard II.) 
had any precedency amongst the nobility of England. They were 
generally barons who sat in Parliament ; and there was also a Lord 
Warden of the Marches, whose junsdiction appears to have resem- 
bled that of oar Lord Lieutenants : '^ 15 Johan : Rex omnibus ballivis 
com : Stafford : Salop : Sec. sciatia quod cemmissimus dflecto et fideli 
nostro Johanni Marescallo, Marchiam nostram Walk'ae custoriiend : 
quamdiu nobis placuent, et ideo vobis mandamus roganti quatenus 
consilium et auxilium vestnim, eidem Johanni diligenter impendeatis, 
ad marchiam nostram custodiendam,*' &c. 

' In the rcien of Henry III. Humphrey. Bohun, Earl of Hereford 
and Essex, had the custody of the Marches committed to him. The 
Lords Marchers, of whom were the Mortimers, Cliffords, Turbervil- 
les, and others of this county, had particular laws in their baronies ; 
and all suits between their tenants, were commenced and concluded 
before them : but if a question arose concerning the barony itself, or 
the title to it, the cause was referred to the cognizance of the king's 
courts. Their authority was not held under a formal grant from the 
crown, but was rather connived at by the prince, and arose, as a wise 
and necessary measure, out of their particular situations. Nor could 
their privileges be fixed to any determinate precinct, as their posses- 
sions varied in extent at different periods, and under different circum- 
atances. The Lords were entitled to the goods and chattels of all 
their tenants who died intestate ; and a Lord Marcher, under pretence 
of that custom, having seized on the goods of William de Hastings^ 
chevaReTf who held of the crown in cafilCj the king directed his writ to 
the sheriff of Herefordshire, commanding him to summon Thomas de 
AstoD, William de Frome, and David ap Hovvel, *' to inquire into 
the matter, and certify the same." The Lords Marchers claimed a 
right of finding silver spears to support the canopy, on all coronations ; 
and they exercised that privilege at the coronation of Eleanor, queen 
of Henry III. 

* When powerful efforts were made to reduce the Britons, the 
Juords Marchers viewed them with a degree of jealousy i they foresaw 

Z 4 tl^9( 



344 DuiKitmbV Collections for the, Huiorj of Heftforishtr&i . 

that the complete subjugation of Wales would lead to a. curtajlmcnt 
of their own authority, and, thercfore,they didnot always co operate 
sincerely with the crown on thcRC occasions. This particnlariy ap- 
peared when the last Prince of Wales was subdued by Edward I. : for 
after the death of Llewelin, '*. a note wae found concealed in his^keve, 
couched in obscure terms, and with feigned names, fr«m which it 
might be plainly gathered, that several noblemen on the bordera of 
Waks were not well pleased with the -king's procc^diDfi;*." But 
havin? fully succeeded in his debi^n, Edward divided Wales iota 
counties, and introduced many of our English laws and- custonit 
throughout the principality. 

* The marches not being included in this division, became after- 
wards the scene of much irregularity and outrage. A court of ju- 
dicature was, therefore, instituted for that particular district ; and 
several noblemen and others successively resided at Ludlow Castle, in 
Shropshire, as Lords President of the Marches, in all the apleudour o^ 
royalty, until the dissolution of the court by act of pailiament in the 
first year of the reign of William and Mary. The preamble to the 
act stated, that the powers of the Lords President had been muck 
abused, and that the institution ** had become a great grievance to the 
subject." Amongst these grievances, were the maUpraciices of the 
attornies and inferior officers of the eourt, ** whereby^*' as the record 
states, ''jubtiue had lacked due execution, and the iuhabitaitts had 
been sundiy ways most grievously vexed and molested, as also by long 
delays of suits, and new exactions of fees, greatly impoveribhcd, so 
that the court, which was in the beginning erected for the caae and 
relief of the inhabitants, was become to them, through such abuses^ 
most grevious and intolerable." 

* The superior members of the court wcre> a lord president, a vice- 
president, a chief justice, and council, among whom were many of the 
nobility resident in the several counties bordering on the Marches ; 
subordinate officers were, a clerk of the council, clerk of the signet^ 
keeper of the castle, gentleman porter, Serjeants at arms, n^asengerSf 
aud a variety of others.' 

We think that the industry of Mr. Duncumb would not have 
been ill directed, had it been employed in collecting and asr 
certaining the nature and extent of the jurisdiction exercised 
by these dread mngistratt^s ; and particularly those of the court 
at Ludlow, which was not abolished till after the revolution, 
long subsequent to the creation of 'the regular Welsh jurisdic- 
tions by the act of Henry VIIL 

The curious record of the return made by Herefordshire on 
the demand by Henry L of the feudal aid tor the maTfiagc of 
his daughter, is judiciously inserted in this part of the work. It 
throws great light on the state of property in the county at that 
period. 

Chapter IV. brings the account to our own tjtnes; and » 
h.erc we meet with a very interesting document, namely a 
copy of the return made by the slierifFj of the leyy of sliip 

money 



DutlCUmWi Colktiionsfortb$Hishry ^f Hirtfirdshire* 345 

tt^Atktj ttt this county : stattn^, ander the classification of th^ 
Huiidrcdsy the name of every parish, and the sum at which il; 
was assessed. We arc next furnibhcd wirh short sketches of 
the persons who have derived title from the capita] of thq 
county ; the Fitzosbornes, the Milos, the Bi)huns, the Plan- 
SagenetSy the St^ffocds, and the Devreuxd : with the high fame 
»nd exploits of m^ny of whom, our early history is replete.- To 
the parts which dwell on the geography and natural history of 
the county, and its domestic economy and scenery, as con- 
Caininfr l^ss of novelty, we shall be contented with- merely 
referring our readers. The author has incorporated with 
bis account, the interesting facts and condusioivs which he 
found in the writings of Mr. T. A,^Kiught. 

Remote from the court of England, separated in the direct 
line of communication from its other dominions by a ridge ot 
lofty hills, and cut ofF from all intercourse with Wales hf 
difference of language, and a spirit of fierce hostility, this in- 
sulated state would, it is natural to suppose, retard the ail- 
vancesof the human mind ; and we believe that facts which war- 
rant this inference are not wanting: but the author, fair and 
candid as we admit him to be, yet being resident if not bom 
within its precincts, cannot ^e expected to be very alett in 
his search of them, nor very forward to point them out. His 
report, however, of its peculiar customs, not a little counte- 
nances the view of the matter here taken. i 

Among other practices of the common people, Mr. D* 
mentions that of Visiting Wells : en which he observes that 

* The heathens are known to have paid adoration to wells and foun- 
tains : the Roman Catholic church also adopted this practice, and 
hence many wells are still termed Holy IVells^ or retain the name of 
0ome saint to whom they were dedicated. St. Eihclbcrl'a Well, in 
the city of Hereford, and many others in different parts of the county* 
are still in some repute for their supposed medicinal qualities. A well 
in the parish of Dindor excites much emulation on each New-year'a 
Day, in a contest for the first pail full of water, which is termed th§i 
cream of the well, and is presented to some neighbour as a mark of re- 
spect, and a pledge of good fortune ; a pecuniary compliment Is ex- 
pected in return. This custom appears harmless ; but It would be 
difficult, perhaps^ to point out any useful or laudable purpose result- 
ing from it/ 

Another custom is thus stated : 

* On Twelfth Eve thirteen small fires are lighted on the growing 
wheat, and cakes and liquor dibtrlbuted on the spot, amidst the loud 
invocations of the party, for the prosperity of the owner, and a plen- 
tiful produce of grain on his lands. This custom 13 well known under 
the name of <afatsallingj or wishing health, (from the Saxon language,) 
^d is of great antiquity. It probably arose from the Roman feasts 

offered 



_ « 

3 4^ Duncumb'/ ColUetiontfor the History rf Herefordshire, 

ofFcred to Ceres, the goddess of com, whose fmvour was thus invoked* 
A kind of divination is also practised on these occasions : a cake is 
placed on the horn of a favourite ox ; the health of the animal is then 
toasted, and if the cake is thrown in one direction, it becomes the 
property of the principal servant, or othtrwisc that of the lowest.* 

Descending now to particulars, Mr. D. begins with the * 
capital, and details its military and civil history. He supposes' 
h, though placed on a different site, to have sprung from tbe 
rains of Magna Castra, and not to have been built before the 
settlement of the Saxons. We read of a synod held at it in 
A.D. 680. OiFa, we have seen, resided in a palace in its vi- 
cinity. Athelstan, who negotiated a treaty with the Britons 
in this city, is supposed to have begun its fortifications ; which 
Harold is conjectured to have repaired and strengthened du- 
ring the expedition which he made into these parts, in conse- 
quence of the ravages committed by GryfTyth Prince of Wales, 
and Algar Earl o( Chester. It is also imagined that Harold 
built its castle. 

In alluding to the commencement of the reign of Ed- 
ward III. the author observes that the castle now began to be 
neglected ; and in the time of Henry VIII. it fell into almost 
total decay : having formerly, according to Leiand, been ** one 
of the fayrest, largest, and strongest castels in England." By 
means of a MS. in the collection at Hom Lacy, Mr. Duncumb 
has been able to throw considerable light on the dastardly sur- 
render of this place to Sir William Waller, at the beginning of 
the civil wars, which is left unexplained, in the histories of the 
period $ as well as on the state of the king's affairs in general 
m these parts. He also inserts interesting original details of 
the gallant defence which it made when besieged by the Scotch 
under the Earl of Leven. From the statement transmitted to 
their employers by the Commissioners of Parliament, who were 
sent in 1652 to take a survey of the possessions of the crown 
in this county, it appears that the remains of this once im- 
portant edifice were then valued at only 85 1. * The keep, 
(adds Mr. D.) has since been levelled, and no part of the wails 
remain ; but the site of those which trnclosed the larger ward 
is now converted into a public walk, and as such is deservedly 
admired.' 

Treating of the civil history of this city, the author observes 
that it was the scene of that trial, the record of which has been 
given to the public by Dr. Hickes as an instance of the Saxon 
mode of proceeding. This relique is of far less value than we 
rnight at first suppose : since it serves for little else than to esta- 
blish th^ fact of such a constituted jurisdiction, and to shew the 
Tude state of the times. The Bishop, the Earl, the Earl's son» 

8 t and 



IDttncumbV Collections for the History of Herefordshire. 347 

lund another, constitute the tribunal \ two persons appear as 
officers of the crown ; and the sheriff, and three others, whose 
names are inserted in the record, and all the freemen of th^ 
county, are said to have been p