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O R, 


Bt several hands. 



Printed for R. Griffiths: 
And Soldby T. fiECKET and P. A. DeHondt, ia the Stnod, 


N. B, The lafl Vol. was, by Mijiale, trhtfd XXXII. in 
ibtGrnfralTitlt, injtad of iLyiyiX, 


^ y ■ ■ 

Titles, Adthors Names, &c. of the Books 
2nd Pamphlets contained in tbis Volume. 


K, B, For REMARKA8I.S Passaces, fee the index, 
u the £n(i of ihc Volume. 


ABiADATEsandPanthn, J95 
Accovvr. circumllaDiUU 
of a ht£ unhappy Affair, X37 

Act for impoidii; Cude Cram lie- 
hrnd, coolidercd, zi3 

Addccii to both Fsitiei, 63 

■ to the itmiining Mem- 

ben of the CoiCTie, 231 

AbVAMTACiiofRepentaRce, t;z 

Almom'i Co!lea>on of Pcditical 
Tnias, Vol. IV. 477 

Am I RICA, Pamphlets concerning, 
151,127,309, 312 

Abalvsib of'tthddon thcMind, 

AsTwtRFt Defcrlpiioa of the 

Patnting*, SiC. thctc, 597 


Rcmaxkf, 472 

AKkiifiDS, i; 

AuiMiNTic Narrative of fome 

Rcmarlc^ihle t*2.-licubn, 1 ;8 

m ■ AccoMPlsot'thePficci 

ofWhcai, Bread, Malt, &c 476 

eAcvAL*9Educatioa, anEdij', 
L KOn'i CotlcAion of Voyages, 
Batt I k of the Genii, 276 

Baxtiu'i Matiio, new Edition of, 

Bbacm. See AniADATii. 
BtAuMonTi MaJund-. SeeRo- 


Beauties of Naiaie and Art, 77 
BiNuix'i Worfet, 4^2 

bery, jy 

Bi»Li. SeePuRTiR. 
^tuutMfTAFr'tMaiJ of the MiU. 


BoaATiKT'i Important QucRion, 

Blacxbovkn. SeeHisTOBLicAt. 

British Zoo!ogy, Pan III. 481 
BaowK'sTliougtitsonLibcny and 
Fa£lion, 161 

BiiowNii't Ode in ImiUlkH) of Ho- 
race, Ode III. L. III. 1^4 
BucirHALUj, Dc-ith of. aiJ: 
Bulkclt's Oecanomyof theGo^ 

Bull's lu-o Sermon's, 318 

BuNTAtd's Relatioa of hit Lnpri- 
foamenr. 23 S 

Bvron, Lord. SccAccovkt. 

Trial of. 481 


CAsTLEofOtranto, 97 
fecond Kdit. of, 3 

CATHOLicFaith and Trance, 471 

ChvkChill defended, 7^ 

I — Mcmoiri of, 236 

. Elegy on ihe Death 

of, y$ 

Chuichill'i SennoB^, 10^ 

Poetns. Vol. ir. 3 1 5 

CtRCCUSTAIfTfAL Accouiii of a 
tate unhappy Afiair, 23^ 

Claim of the Colonies, toanE 
eoipuon ftomTawi, exaoiinei}, 

Co i M a n 'ft TranOa tioB of Tcrencr* 

CoLOKiEs. See AMCAic^t, 
-^^-^— AdoiiniQrauon of. ScB 
Pn w rt A L , 

- — Rights of, conddercrl, 


CoMPAidioH to the PUy-houiir, 

. . '^^ 

< ■ ■ continued, ic^i 

— cowladei, yx,ti, 

CoiirtETE Ma\tfici, ■i;tjb 

A * — -Nvcw 

iv CpMTE 

CoMPLiTi VocabaUry, Englilh 
sndt lench, 4S1 

CoKsiDEBATlOKs ou GcflCra! 
Warrants, 70 

I rm TiTTT frr 3^9 

«— ■ — on 3 Bill rclau:ig 

CovrEnsioK of St, Paol. See 

'Cook, Mis. her Cookery. zjS 
Co(i«F*po?i08»ct of rhcodofuii 

lUid CcoAintia, 19 

— ■ .ftlthAcRtTigwtKa. 

8c, i;9, 14c. 320. 500. 48> 

CoiT* « D on tlvc Ufc oF Aflrono- 

my. in Hiftotf, ^9 

CoosTiY-WiPa, tllcfed from 

Wychcrly, 479 

CoutTESAtc, a Poem, 393 

CiLACKBIt, Dt Fi&fllCI of Mcili- 

ment. t" 

Ckimimalo, Remorlcahle Tri*!* 

***"• , , t.. « 395 

CgKNiHgtiau, Jofiij, h» PocttH, 

CUKXINGHAM, Mr. J. his For- 

luat, »n Apologue, 1S5 


DAnTuFte's Conlidcrattons 
on Entails, 466 

Beatk of Bucephitus, 481 

DicKiNSON't Reply to Oallowiy's 
Speech. 6y 

DicKsoK on BlooJ-IiTlrtg. 452 
DicesT of the l.nw concetlting 
Libel*, 477 

DRArcii'i AnfWer to the Stadim 
Argumeot*, 77 


ELbcy ofl ihc nealh of iht 

■ ■ to ibe Mtmor)- of the R. of 
Bath. 7; 

- ■■ on the Death of ChurchiK. 


EtioT unong tlie Rim» of an 

- Abbey. 393 
Ehbriuk's Algebrti, j6j 
EitTAiLif in Scoilajid, CttbfiiJeia- 

- tiousou, _ 4&& 
■ ■ . I - Difguiiitlon 0.**, 469 

Fj-oxika, a Dramatic EtJSy. . jgj 
H,i 4 r oa cbci^oaSitudon oTHng- 


K T « 9/ 

B-^jAr on the El.iqiienw and Ac- 
tios proper for tiic Pulpit, 595 
EisAYt, on Husbandry, 81 

I^Arhir, Haji'h, kU AppeiiJk 

10 h i tnquirw. 

Pabmbu's Nc*GdU<. 




P(»tiTONa, an Af^kigoei ,;8{ 
F«Arcn.'» Reflc'linn* On ihe CJia- 

laflcr of FC!iis ^-vij, jSj 

Ft F f Di't|iiilitK>n on the Policy o( 

LtitAiU. ^68 

F«8C M«5ftM*>Q(ja.IrilIe, 39; 
Frut's Volitnary EviK-. z^^ 

Full Enquiry into the Mcriu of 

ibe Pexct, }<30 


GAliow A y'» S?«ch In the Af- 
feniblv of PenyfylVama, 

i^.cplvi>:> Di'.ro. 


Game. Trcatifd on tite LlAs for 
preftning <!tf» 391 

Gcr's tkuction bf Jtofi Ii»j)()&. 
lioni, 3 1 1 

OlBUAKiA Freed, 15 

Gilpin's U\*cj of the Reformer;, 

i- oinchided, 144 

OoiD*MirH'jTn»rcl!er, aPoetn, 

GtfuooH's Untvcrfil AccoanMnii 


GlAcr, Henry, hU SofitringJ, 

OxlPriTir. )nhn, M.'ReniirIt& or 
Jjnpcttani Sab)P;1j. U 
Mtb, hffr Comedy, thj^ 

**■= — her AsiMo, a Dratiraa 

tic Pdclti, i a I 


HAwvOwo'l Lcttrt-, 
IfAliiV'ICKt. SftRlrtHT- 
HfftdCiv Text confiilct'J. i;|' 
HsKDEtsojs'j Acoianiol t\'eOt*lji 

HanvtT** L«tersio Weffey, 148 

Rc&nwflvc See Vl'iiirwoai 
iliiToEicAi. View ofiheC'ooiic 
verfyonthelr.termsd. SUW, 34J 
KiDi OR r ofi'oiiipxiJour. 

■ CoiiipUie. cf the Lai, 1'-. X»«rAr* OKupIr^ 
Ililli»fy of Ac LaXc Vi»\, Vf 

HtsTokt of the MA^ois de Ro* Lett ik to the HoaCt t^ Csi»» 



- of tnctiana Danby^ 4S0 

Hoitts's Edit, of WM'ti's tiraitfr 

mar, 305 

Huosos'5 Ode on h» Mtjehjl 

Kiirh-dajf, 151 

hu<iTtK*«GflpFrfeoifcihtD b»M£!^ 
dical Cooiatentaries, 110 

JESUITS, Rules of, 479 

iKDiHRA £Hviby, Hifory m^ 
IjtiFFicAcr of Satire, 153 

iKocuLATiON. "See Rklhak. 
iii'sTkccTivs and Social Cdofp^ 
nion, 79 

JosEPHi Exmit^Hi nocb'/miii,fSr. 

IK£LA^-D. See Aer. 
If&AEi. inBabvIeD, Jjz 


KRvcHElt's EfTary on the £d»- 
caiion of Cbddren, 159 

LADNtR'sFsTmer'sGuidct 44. 
Lanchokne's Correfpoa- 
dence of Theodofius aod Con- 
ilantu, 19 

■ Editioa of CoIUds's 
Poems, • n;3 

■ Eotargesint of the 
Mind, Part If. 313 

• Letters on the Elo- 

qacDce of ihe Pulpit, 474 

Laxbher's Ccllcflien of Ancient 
Teftiaionicj, i 

Laukeat, a Poem, i;^ 

Law, Mr. bit Editioo of Jacob 

Ija \v <A Libel-'j 1 5 1 

DIgtftof, 47; 

Laws and Policy of England cx»- 

miaed, 279 

• aod CuHoins of London, 

Lawson s Sennnos, 267 

l.£LAKo*s AofwertoaLeiter, 191 
Lett e a to ilie Public, €9 

— - -■ to the Auchcr of a Letter 
to a Yo«D£ Lady, 7} 

. /tt*MJ. to xhr Htw. Cb. 

mons, X30 

-'"■-- froia Sir Ongory Qazene^ 
-t^^^ to a M^ber of Parlia- 
ment, jii 

from Valtiire, coneetnin^ 
the Stcry of jCili*, tic. 318 

» die Fdlowi of a Cci- 

kge, 395 

^ of Advicfc to « yoBBg Cler- 
gyman, ibid. 

from a Oent. in Town, to 

his Fiiend In the Coontnr, 3^ 

from a Spitdefielas Wea- 
ver, lb. 

— • to the Earl of L^^, oon* 

cerning a Regency, 47C 

Letteks, between Hunmond and 

Cromwell, &c. 31 

Lettice'j PritePoem, 164 

LiFEofBcnj fira&, 76 

of Card. Pole, Vol. IL 1 39 

— '■ — of Francis Xavier, 386 

LiMBUKc's fievi Amulements of 
the Spa, 237 

Love in High Lite, 235 

Lucas's Remarks on Sutbetland'a 
Attempts, 79 

LucesKE. See Rocque. 

MaCaulay's Hifloiy of England, 
Vol. IL 216 

concluded, 270 

Maid of the Mill, 155 

Maltstee and Brewer, Con- 
p!=te. ■ 396 

Man of the Mill, 1^6 

Mas Midwifery analyfed, 71 
MarriacE'Act. See Reflec- 
Marriat.e, an Ode, 
Mathc, iievv Edit, of. 
Memoirs of Ch. Chnrchill, 

of A. B. and C. 

■ of a Coquet. 

233 . 



. .39* 

■ and Triidi of Crimiaij!, 


r^f::RRicK'j Cti:ical Annoudoni, 

Messiah, a facred Poem, t-^ 
MiLLs'sSyftemofHulbandry, 52a 
i I — ■- coatiniuA, ^\ 

MjkC£LLANEOUsB.e&cQL\Qn\, i\ 

%l CON-T 

MtccsLLANiOu* Piece* of An- 
dem KngliBi I'ocuy. 315 

MokALiTY of the New Ttfla- 
mcnt, 173 

MoxdATT'i Abridgment of ihe Life 
of Francii Xsvicr. 386 

MoiHiKa's Meditation, 471J 


Music, Thoughu 00 lite Adran- 
ag«a ol, 4S3 

Mutual IntereA of Girat Bnuiin 
and bcr American Cokmtes, 309 


NOsTii-Hii iTQK Extuotdi* 
oary, 229. 

OBjiCTioM to tKc Taxation 
of our American Colonies 

confidercd. 217 

Obie ■ vat toHa on Chrifli«ni[/ 

not flunked on Argument, 148 
■ on thie Number of 

the Poor. J 36 

Ok c L Y '» Account of ttte care tafcea 

of ihe Poor, 476 

OrmesiioM, aPoem, 392 

OiictK^t, Papcn. SceVAiiiiT- 


OaiBkTAt. A^Iogucj, t}^ 

OaTHocRArur new -modelled, 

Orti, on the RIghu of tJic Colo- 




S«c Zbxcer. 


nAtASiTi, a Novel. 

r Pakthema. 

r*Ti.IOT,IC Mufe, 

Piiakkaces, an Opera. 

PiiiLAnoRCTes, biiEfliyon Pol- 
pit Eloquence, 39$ 

Fhilip:>*s Ufe of Cardinal P&le, 
Vol. IJ. 139 

PlACB, En^nirj into the Merits 
of, 300 

PixKBTHMAx't Account) of toe 
Price of Wheat, &c. Ac. new 

Pmcr. See Rttii^is. 

Plan for the Poor, 

PoLiTiCAi, Balance, 

Pao«, General Plsn fir, 
— — ObtcrvsOotis oa the Number 



E N TS *^ 

Poor, Oncly'j Account of the Cartf 
tiKcn of tbcm, i!y civilized Na- 
tiont. 476 

PojTsctiPT to the Letter on Ge- 
neral Warrants, jg 1 
Pott, on Ruptures, id Edit. 109 
— ^ Anfwer to, by Hunter, 1 10 
PoTTB«'sCl.niceof Apollo, 254 
Powkal's Admin, of Colonies, zd 
Edit. jtz 
PaiciTtEy'a Chart of Biography, 

PiAiua and Spiritual Soogi, 478 
Pu« ver's Tranflation of the Bible, 


QUack; an Empirical Efli)*, 

C^AORiLLi, Fr«e<ina(cm)} 39^ 

RACE, aP&em, ijj 

Rakdall's Couflruflion'of 
a &ed-furrow Plough, ^^,^ 

RCAL North-Briton Extraordinary, 

RzrL cCTioNS oit the Repeal of the 

Mirriage-a£t, 2 30 

R£Gut ATioNscnnccnitng the Lo> 

loniet, I ;o 

RsLHAK'sRcfuiationofRaft, iia 
Relk^iei of Aodeat JBn^lilli 

Poetry, 242 

RtMARKS on (he Budget, 68 

■ 00 ihe lUuflration of tlic 

Ho)/ Scripturo, zzS 

—— ^^ on the Paper-currency 

of Scotland. z:f^ 

ReroRTsof CalesinK. B. 478] 
REViiwofan EfTay on Prayer, 
Rbvual of Sbakefpeare'i Text,] 

RErKARD's Vocabulary, Englifh' 
and French. 4S1 

RiictD, SecAcALrsis. 

Rica'i louodufiion to the Art of 
Reading, 445 

RoniKJow'j Prr/trmtKt, a (atire, 

Roci^rt On Lucerne, J'sH 

RoaBtLE. HifLofthe Marqaitde. 


Rt} r rill A D*i Edit, of the Statutes, 

Vol. IX. 55 

RtTLEt of v^t }c(Min, m^ 

tit Ekclish Booes. 


SAvik'a TranfUuon of MoDttf- 
quWiTcmp'eofGnidiu, ^178 
Sellok'i Rema'ki on the illuAra' 
tioaorUie H. Scripture), 226 
SutuoKSa by ChuTcbiJ), 
by I^wfaii, 
by Bull, 
by Reader, 




3 '9. 

SiKHOD*. fiogle. So, I $9 
J99. 4*5* , ^ 

Sick Mookef, s Fable, 394 

gi I rwB icHT't Hebrew Teuton - 

fider'd. 157 

Su*jiT*> Pt^Jrwi, 74. 

Sac I IT Y fortheEiKour^gentcntof 
Ani, ire. Public Bcn':fiEj by, 480 
SoMi TnHiBg llioaghtiy 479 
Spa. Scel.iMiuKC. 
SrAKitH Lady, 479 

Sr ATI of the Nati-Mi, 310 

SrATur«i at Latge. SecRorr- 


Stocxdali** CooAitdcnu, a 
poem. 154 

Suit Guide to HnrcDf 143 

SuAFiixit oFLcve, ij6 


Tax St. &c. ConGderationiOD, j^g 

T*TLb«, Dr. Jciemy. See Ca- 
tholic, iec, 

TiMfLiofTragedy, 7; 

TmoDOtiosinaCoafUntia, Cot- 

rerpODJence 0^ 19 

Ttiouo'iTi on a Quellioa of tm- 

pcrcaooe, 309 

- — 00 the Difiniifion of 

0£ccn> for tbcii Coodofi in Pi. 

on ibe Adviaugei of 

Mufic 4S3 

''iMtMlaoeoas ReHefiioiu,75 
Morniog'* Mediation, 479 
TowMiHKRO, Cbarlett id Letter 
to, 228 

TcAVfLtiR, aPoenit 47 

TazATtie ^ Parifh-rate*. 235 
- new, on the Game- 

Lawi, 3^1 

TiiAt of Loril Bjnoo, 481 

T^iAtSj of Owen tad Xeeger, 

Trials of Old Bailey Crioiinali, 

Triplikc Thoughts, 479 

Thip 10 the Moon, Vtl. If. 159 
TaiSTtAU Shandy. Vols. VII, 

and VUL izo 

TaiuuviKATE, or Memoir) of -A. 

B. and C 316 

TijMSTAL'iLe^larcs. 99 


VAmiTTAar'* Paper) on Eaft- 
Indiaa Affatii, 318 

View of iht Beoclits to Society^. 
from the 6cciety for Encooragp- 
mentof Artj, &c. 480,' 

Voltaike's Letter concerning tlia 
Stones of Calai and the Semni, 
VorAoit, AbridgDKDi of, b/ 
£afrow, 481 


WAIT'iGofpelHiftory, 189 
WALiis'sGranmur, new 
Edit, of, 30$ 

WALPOLB')CaftIeofOtrento, 97 
■ zd Ediuof. 3^4 
Wkro's ElTay on Grammar, 389 
Waxmk*) Letter to the Fellow) of 
Sion College, 77 

WeXET. SeCilVEt. 

■ ■ ScciIeiit>B»io». 
WtsLET'iAnfwertoHeTvey's Let- 
ter), za6 
Wh tTAK ca's Verfuon the Peace, 

Wkitwohth's Remarki on a 

Plan, &c. 310 

Wio, a burle/quePoem, 7^ 

WiLjCN OQ Autumoal Uibrdenof 

the Bowel), 437 

WiLTiHiRE Beau, 394. 

WiNKLCHAM'iRcfleAion)on the 

Painting, &C. ofthcGweiei, 456 
WaicHT's Complete Hilloiy of 

Itc late War, 33; 

'ITAviBR'sLift, |8fi 

X70fBQ Lady*! Ceogiaphy, 

and Owns'* Tiuii, 


r viii ] 

CONTENTS of the Fo(i»igk Articles, 
in the APPENDIX to this Volume. 

AFFECTIONS, Vaporeofes dps 
deux Sexes, furie?, 56^ 
Atlas Maritime, pciit, 51^8 

{tsi.cKADo (jella ^•nlazioni ^el 
calcre e dc! frrddo, cfi; 

Bellik — petit A(Ia) Maritime, 

BitLor — Siege de Calais, Tra- 
gedie, -j^g 

B^ccACE du Madaine, Oeuvr^s 
d(^ Recueif, 560 


CoMitiCES— Lettre da comte de, 


B'Alembert, fur la peftritAjon 

des Jefnitf, 489 

Dei Lelitic e d^lle Pcne, 532 

Be laLande Aftronomic, 545 

EssAT far la Jugemcut du Senf, 

GtNAVBund Voltftandige Erd — 
befchreibarg dcs gaiHizcn Hfl- 

vetiens, 5^4 

GiuDicE de do^'cri del, 563 


HisToipE dcrAcademie Royql,e 

des Infcriptions et Belles Lctties, 

Tom. XXIX. XXX. 516 

Roi^LEBECKii Oratio de divjnx 

Revelationis in Bcldo coittcm- 

JssDiTS, far la Deflrn^ion de$, 

Ikferki deSedr, 56+ 

Ketzeregen Hilloria du, ^Ir-^ 

Le Cat, traitd. du Finite d«c 

Nerff, &c, 547 

Xeo— della Mcmorie di M. W- 

cuvio, 566 

ItETTREs de Sophie et du Chcvs- 

iierde**\ 565 

l.rcifA c — Prc/cQce corporcll* dc 

i'Homme, 555 

Louis — la legitimitp dcs Naif- 

fance^ (ardivcs, 565 

LncErTA, efc6 

Macphersdx — M(;nioire -fur If* 

^ocmcs de, r^S 

Marmontel, Contes Moraojc 

Tom. Ill, 566 

Maxime du Tyr, Traduits du 

Grec, 528 

Memoibe furies Popracsde Map- 

pherfon, cjg, 

"Miracles— trjite des, 567 

Mu REN A — de doveri del, c6) 

Patuz^ de Sedi iafcrni, 5S4 
Paulian — ^traite de Paix entre 

Dcfcartes ct Newtor, 556 

pETKAaqAiE — NJcmoirs pour I9 

Vie de, 435 

PuiLosopHiB de I'Hiiloire, ^oj 
PoMME-^Sur les Afftftions Va. 

poreufcs des deux Seser, ;6$ 
Presence Corporelle de PHom? 

^^' 55; 


ReiNHftRD — Saipmlung Vermlf- 

cii;er Schfifien, 562 


Sa^jmlung Vfrmifchtcr klciner 

Schrifien, 560 

SiECE de Calais, Tragedy, 54,9 

SrziNRicH das Srilcmatitch, 564. 


ToLSER — Wahre Grunde Warcift 

goit die Oftcnborurg nicht tiiit 

augenrcht^iniichcrn Betveifea 

V«rfehen, 564 

Traite ie. Paix eaire Dcfcartf* 

et dc Newtor, 256 


VARiETEsStrieufcs ct Amufante!!, 

5 57 
Vers a Sois I'Educafon de, ^67 

Volt A I ke — Philofophie dePHJ- 
ftoire, 50 j 

Walc p—Retzeresaa H.ftor:a dcr. 

C « 3 

.•-, THE 

jM O N T H ii^^ ..RE V I E W, 

For J A N U A R Y.' h^C:.. 

fsf t<!"X' CotUifisn ef amcstja "Jrjj'Jh and lltatht^ TtjVimtniei t« <£/ 
Tndh sf iht Cbnjiian R.-!i^wTiy ui'th S'sles ana OJ-i 

ef Htethm Auib^n of (It f.rj} C^niuty. By Kjithanicl Lard' 
ner, U. D. 4to. los. 6d. BuclUaodj W&ugh> S:c. 

lEFORE wc prcfeiit our Readers with a view of what it 

contained in ihh volume, wc rjnnnt, as friends to (he rc- 

\\pna of our country, forbear cxprcfling tlic grateful leniv we 

[iiaieof the eminent I'erviCC nur leatiicU and worthy AittliorhaB 

tifDne lo the caufc of Chriftianity, by his cjicdlcnt wtltmgs in 

'dercncc of ii. Of the many able Wrltciii ilt-tt h^ve afipciii'cd in 

ic piiTcnt age, as Advucau's tbr ihc truth of the Chi i. lion fc- 

igion, there ate none, in our opinion, dcfcrvc to be prcr 

Jerred to I>r. L^cdn-.T; few, indeed, th:itcaii bcconipjiej wlili 

[him. In point of learning, his merit i^ very confidrrjbie; bur, 

%hit is much more valuable than mere learning, t'ticie t^ a pJeaf-^ 

•in^ fimplicity in his manntrr of writinj;, and a very uncommon 

[degree of candour and impdrtialiiy. He fecms ta have nothing 

jn view but the di{cov<^ry of truth ; fcorns the mean and con- 

k^rcmpTibtc arts of fiiil , or cod' 

l^d liitEcuJtics, and t;^! ,> a fair a;:, , . 

ibje^t. How umiabic » luch a chat^clet ! How worthy of 

lawation ! 

In bis preface to the work now before us, he gives a flioit ac- i 
count of the ptinclpal mojcin Writers who h^vc made coUcc- 
fiom of this kind ; »t:d then goes en as follo%vs : 

* One fault in my work may be reckoned to be very obvti>u9,4 
which b clic piulixtty of it. In rcgaid to wliich, I K-g Icuve lo 
4»t beforehand, that I aim to be diOin^ luW LortiiuUr. Thc:ii] 

Vol. XXXil. iJ vteu? 

a LARDNEfc'i CilUHim if Tefiimmtt It 

things hare been already (lightly touched upon by mnny. - I 
propoTc to cnla:^, and (et than in a fuller' light. I alledgc paf- 
(d^cs of ancient Autbt/iv at length. 1 fettle their time ; 1 dif- 
lioguiJh their worfcs, and endeavour to (hrw-thc value of their 
tcflimoctics. I intend likcwifc to allcdgp ihc'judgemcnts of di- 
vers Icartvcd Moderns who have gone; before me in this fervice. 
All the perfecutions, of this-ttmir frr a psrt of m^ rubje<^, as 
tficy were sppointed by-cdi£K of Heathen Emperors, and were 
earned on by H^thcnV'>V(^'nois of I', and Officers un- 
6:t them. .. (fK^l h**4 an opportunity to (hew ihc patience and 
fortitude, tjf'cbv-jkiinitive Chriflijns i and the (late of Judaifm* 
, ^jyciKjIifiti,"ar;d Lhriftianity, in the firfl four centuries. As moft 
'e^C Ihe Authors to be quoted by me, arc men of great di(Vini£iion 
in the Republic of Lcturi, f<>mc occafions wilt offer for critical 
ohfcri'ations wJiicU cannot be all declined. Hut nirr and intri- 
tAXjc (fuc'.tion.s will be carcfiiily ai'oidcd, thai the whulc may be 
upon ilie level with the ea|i;Kiiics of all, who arc iii4ui(icive, 
and difpofed to nraJ with attention. 

' In the firft volume art: the JcwJIh Tcftimonic*, and the 
Tcflimonics of Heathen Authors, wholivediii the firft iciitury_ 

* In ihc fctnnd vo'ume are Hiraiheii writings of the fccond 
century. Among which arc the Letter of the Younger Pliny 
to Tniian, and thui t^m[jeror's Refcript i which will give oc- 
cafion tor many ohfcfvatton-i concerning the fufferings of the 
Chrifliins at that lime, and .-iftcrwards : and the remains of 
the work of Cclfus againft the Chriftians, prcfcrved in Origcn. 
Which afford an early and very x'sluable tcftimony to the genu- 
inencf:> of the books uf the New TelUmeiU, and to the truth 
of the evangelical hillury, 

' In the third volunic will be I'Ipian, Dion Calitu!:, Por- 
phyric, Hicruclcn, and other HcJihcii Wjjters, and a Hillory 
uf the fevcral pcrfecutions of the ChrilHans in the third eeniury, 
concluding with that of the ]Lnip<.rur Diocldtaii. 

< The fourth and laA volume, (not \-et finifbed) in which 
will be the Kmpcror Jiiiinn, Ammianus Marce'linus, Libaniu3« 
and o:her Heathen Writers of the fourth and Hfth centuric!>« 
may be as entertaining a^ any of the rdl ; but it cannot be liy 
imponsnc. Julian, in his work againft the Chrillian'4, may 
mention the name.* of the Evangclifts, and of thcoihcr Writer* 
of the New Teflamcnt, and tpiotc the books more diAinill/ 
than Cclfus. But his tcUiinnny lo the Si.-ripiures in the fu-^irtn, 
ccnl-jry, cannot be f<i valuable as that nf Cclfu:i in the fecond 
However, thefe alfo delcrvc to be colleiJcd, and put togetin r i 
their proper order. Wc fhall there fee the latl druggies of ex- 
piring Gcntilifm, and fouic atiCTVp<3 to rcOorc it, afxr it had 
7 bccu 


Mfl for a while exploded with fcom and diTdjtn. And we m*y 
meet with more than a few men of great learning, and Hnt: abi- 
lities, who were flill tenacious of ihc^Jijicnt rites, mil (om\ of 
3]I the fables, upon which they were founded^ ind hy which 
they bid been tong upheld and encouraged. 

* The Author profeiTes great impartiality. For which reafoi^, 
be is Dot without hopes, thstt his work, no wtthflatiding lot _ 
impeitc^ions, may be approved by the candid of every dcno< 
inin«tion. If ic fliall he of ftime ufe to promote good learnin^J 
and true religi jn, he will have great reafon :o be well pteaTed. J 

The JewiOi Tcflimonies to the Truth of the Chriftlan RelN 
ion, are contained in I'cven chapters j lo the hrft of which th^i 
■o&oT fhcwsy from the boolcsof the New Tcllamunt, and fror 
other ancient writings, that nuny of the Jcw^ believed in Jcfutfi 
u the Cbrift ; and obfetves, that their tcftimony well dcferves 
our regard) fince they muft have a^cd under as great difcourage* 
menis u can be conceived ; mull h^vc urtdergone the Iceeoi 
repioaches from the unbelieving Jews their ne'ghbours, for re- 
ceiving 3 pcrfon as the iVIclTiih, who inflcad of working out ft i 
great Jclivciance for iheii n*tion, as was generally cxpeAcd, 
and earneflly dcfired, had himfelf undergone an ignomrniou»j 
death. — ' Tot my own part, fays he, I always think of theie 
early Jcwifti Believer^ with peculiar refpedt. [ am not able t( 
cclebiateall the virt»i« of ihcir willing and fteady faith, under' 
the fflanydifficuUies which they met with. But 1 am petfuiiled, . 
thai when the Lord Jcfus QiaII come again, he will belloWj 
marks of diftintlion upon thofe who extricated themfelvcs out) 
of the fnarrs in which their clofc conne<£tion9 with others had.^ 
invulvcd them.' 

The fecond chapter contains a few paQjgcs from ancienC 
Cfariftian Writers i ihrwing the early and continued enmity q( 
the unbelirvifig Jews to Chnftiins of cvciy denomination. 

In the third and fourth chapterf, w<r have a verv full and dif-J 
linfl v'iew of Jofcphus's lellimony to t')e accompliftimcnt of out 
,' Sjvijur*» prcdiwlions, concerning the dedru^i ju of the city and^ 
temple of Jrrufat^m, of bis woiks and chara^er, of the flate 
of thing* in Jud^;*, in the davs of our ^«viout, and fome time 
before ; of the o.:caiian of the Jewlfh war with Che Romansi 
tic. &c. 

In the eighteenth book of Jnfephus'& Jcwifh Antiquities is 
Ihc following palTage, u tranilued by our Author. — * At tha:^ 
lime lived Jefos, a wife man, if he may be called a nun. Fc 
he performed many wonderful works. He was a Tcathcr o| 
fuch men as received the truth with pltaforc. He dscN o-^et wi* 

T^iIdnEr'j Callt/titn ef Tefiimnui Id 

him many Jews nnd Gcnlilcs. This was ihc ChciA. Aritf \ 
when Pilate, it the iiiftigacion of the ducf men amongft us» 
had contlcmned him to the crafs, ihcy who before had coocei\ed 
anaileclion for him, did not ccafc to adhere to hnn. For oa 
the ihird day he uppored to thcin alive again, the Uniac Pro- 
phet* having foretold thcfe, and many other wopdeitul things ; 
concerning him. And chefrifl of theChriftiwis, fo called from 
fcimi fubfilts to this time.* i 

This paffagc is received by many Icatncd men ss genuine t i 
by othen. it itrtjedte-d, as ;<!ii iiitcrpolaiion. It is alfewcdonall 
band*, that it is in atl the copies of Jofcphus's works now ex- I 
tant, both printed anJ man-jfcript. Ourtcaintd Author, how- ^J 
ever, brings many flrun^ arguments for exiling it in qvcflkia|^^| 
the principal of which arc ihcfc following: ^^ 

It is not quftted, nor referred to, by any Chriftjan Writers 
before Kufebius, uiio flourilhcil at ilic beginning of the fourth 
century- A tcllimony To favourable to Jcfus in the works of 
Jofephus, who liTcd fti foon after the time of our Saviour; who 
Iras fo well accguaintcd with the tianfaftions of his own coun- 
try 1 who had received io many favour* from Vefpafun and Ti- 
tus, could nut )uve been oveilooLed, or negle^led, by any 
OiriSijn Apolo^ritl. But it is never quoted by Juftin Martyr, 
Clement of Alexandria, TeriulHao, or On'gcn, men of great 
learnings and well aci^uaiuted with the works of Jofephus. 

Tliis pafTage was wanting in the copies of Jofephus which 
were fccn by Photius in the ninth century. Fhctius revifed the 
works of JofcphTis, as a Critic; be has in his Biblioihequc no 
icfs than three articles concerning Jofephus, but takes no notice 
bf this pafTagc j whence it may be Loncliided, that it was want- 
ing in hit copies, or that he did not think it genuine. 

It intcmipts the courfc of the narration, and therefore is not 
neniiine. Joftphiis \i a cool and fedatc Writer, very exa^ In 
konnrcttng hi& narrations, and never fails to make crat\fition5, 
when they are proper or needful. 

If Jorcphus were the Author of this pafTagc, it would be rra- 
Jbnablc tocxpci5l in him frequent mention of Chrift's miracles ; 
Avhcrcas, he is eveiy where fileiit about ihein. Jofephus was a 
Pharifec \ he believed the miriclcs of Mofcs, and the Jcwifli 
Prophets ; he belicvvd a Divine Providence fu per intending hu- 
'tnan aftaits, the immortality of the foul, and tirc rewards of a 
fiitutcrtstc; and be is willing enough to relate extraordinary 
things, or fuch things a* had an appearance of being fo. He 
tellsafloryof tteii'/.ar's difpoficfling a Bemon by virtue of fome 
caniaiioMf and the ufe uf a ccnain root called Baanat ; he 

tbt Tnah tf the Cbrijilaa ReSgitru % 

xdates a dream of Arcbdaw, and another of Glaphyra, as ctm.- 
iiniung the dodrine of the immortality of ibuU, and the belief 
of a DiTioc Providence concerning itfelf about human affairs g 
he rdales, both in his H'l&ory of the War, and in his Antiqui- 
ties, anodicr filly ftory concerning the accomplilhmeot of a 
ptedidicm of Judas, an Efen. — Would any man pleafe himfclf 
with fucfa poor thinzs as thefe, and relate them to the wwld aa 
mtttei3 of importance, {ays our Author, if he bad any refpeft 
for the dodrinc and miracles of Jefus Cbrift ? No. He -mm' 
either unacquainted with them, or refolutely fileat about them. 

If it be aikcd, bow this pailage came to be in the works <^ 
Jofephns ; the Dodor afifWers, that probably fome learned 
Oirifttan, who had read the worics of Jofepbus, thinking it. 
ibanee tlut this Jewifh HiftOTian fliould fay nothing o( Jefus 
Cbrift, wrote it in the margu of his copy, and thence it came 1b 
be afterwards infertcd into many copies of the works of Jofe- 
pbus, tho' for a cooliderable time ' not into all : accordingly, 
I%otius did not iec it in that copy which he made ufe of. 

Suf^xifir^ Jofephus not »> have Cud any thing of Jefus Cb rifi^ 
fomc may aik; What cxMild be the reafoa of it? and how it 
can be acxxmnted for ? This queftion, oar Author thinks rather 
curious than judicious and important ; and fays it may be diffi- 
cult to pfopofe a fbiution that fliall be geocraJly approved of. 
He hazards a few obicrrations, howev'er, upon the point, whick 
mav be actejKableto many of our Readers. 

It is off to bdicre, (ays he, that all Jews who were cotem- 
porarr with Chrift, or his Anoftles, and did not receive J?fus m 
the Qiri^ axaft hare been £}lcd with much enmity againft him 
and his i<^iowers. Wc are anured by early Chrifiian Wrisen, 
of good credit, fuch as Jufiin Mzrtrr, Tenullian, and others, 
thii tae rslicg pan of the Jewiih nz-icn indunnsuQy fprcad 
sbrcoAlalic aad Injurious rcpocts arT«ong tbc nations, concern-' 
ing the Followers of Jefus. But the polite aiid beamed \V:i- 
4cr!, T'wrk as Joftas ot Tiberias, and Jofcph-js, ir.'ibt think it 
cfptcl=.t to be f^ent- Ther had nothing to lay ag-'nfi JcfMS, 
w lie Cti iftiias, wj:h aov appcaiiE'ie of ir-jtii zr.a cre-ioil ty. 
Tbrr, raerefcrc, tbougbt ir betrsr tj fce fitnt, ani liirrecj, if 
pc&zlz, bcTj them :n utter oblirioa. 

* I: 'a. sector xo acccoct for thei^Iezce cf T;'?pi:u.s anyocier 

^la^ liicES arc oaiitied bj tin:. 

•x'z z~ Jicco-jli r,c-t 

He =i;i have known c:' the —jz^icrs c: tue la- 
tKra ai Be-'-W--, io3 aiicr -Jie z'.-th -:' JiiL:. Th- 
«f the Wife Mea frwn rHe Eatl, m'ao were oyyzjzzx. br itar, 
gave ccstszn Dce ocjt to Hrrod, b-t :o cJS Jer-{i'-:n, Xiatt. 
«* & Ja&^bB va'aPfjtd. He coj^ vx bu£ txfz z^szd •f 

£ 3 «at 

LAROSEIt'j Coili^isa ef Tcftiminitt to 

the vifion of Zacharias, the father of John the Baptift, at tha 
tcmptc. Luke i. And it was a thing very proper lo luve bad a 
place in his Hiftory. The prophecies of Simeon and Anna at 
lhe.templc| and other things that h;tppened there about that time, J 
as wc may ihink^ inufl h<Lve bi.cit well known lo him. 7'hen 
the pfe.icning and miracles of our Saviour, and hisApoDIcs, at 
Jcrufalim^ and in Galilee, an<l all ovtrjudca: (he crui.ilixiuii 
of Jcfus at Jcrulalcm, at the lime uf a P-iIfovcr, the datkncfs 
for three hours at Jerurdtcm, and all over Jiidca ; the dtath of* 
James the brother of John, at Jenifalcm, by Herod Agrippa. 
All ihcfe things muK luvehecn wull known to him. 

* Moreover, UTwie Jo^cphus had finiDiriJ hii work of ihe^ 
Jcwifh Anriquitifs, or evt-n the Hift<iry of the Jewiih War, 
Chnft>ai>i(y had I'ltcad very much in A/ia, and in other parts,i 
^d ut Rome icicll't where alio ina:iy had fuffered, and that fr- ' 
wcral years before rhc final ruin of Jcrufalcm, and the Tcw'Hi 
jiaiioUf 'i he ptogrcls of the Chriftun religion was a very ton-' 
iiderable event. And it had its rife in Judea. 

* The feci of the .Chrifli-4ns, which had its rife in Judca, and' 
Conftftcd partly of Jews, partly of men of other nation;, wan- 
as numerous, or mofciiumcrous, in thclimeof Jofcphus, than 
any of the three JiwiHi fcdis, ihc Sadducecs, Phaiifccs, and, 
EUens, whofc pfin.;iplcs aie particularly defcribed by him in the 
War, and in the Antiquitii-v. And therefore, aswe maythink^j 
were dcferving of noticr. But they were nnt JcwiJh enough. 
They were not entirely Jcwifh. And they were followeis of a'] 
leader whom our Author did not, and could nnt cllccm, conGtl-' 
cntly with his prevailing views and 

* Jorcphti!. was well acquiinicd with affiiir? at Rome, and iit! 
all the ft-ttUfncrt!. of the jcwifh people in A fa, and parisadja-l 
cent. He is as exafl iu the account of the fevcral furccflioni jft^ 

■^thc Roman empire, as any Roman Hifturian whatever. \Vhata.1 
long and particular account ha> he given of the confp'racv anainf 
CaliguJa> and his death, and thcfucceffionof Claudius"? 

* I do not fav, that Jofcphut had read the books vf the N*cw^] 
Tcftament. He might have come to the knowlegc of moft of 
thethiiigb jud rricnaoncd another way. I'hry are great andrc-| 
markabic events, about which a contemporary, and a maji of 
good intcllijjencc, cnL'Sgtd ill public life, could not be ignorant.j 
His ftlcncc therefore aboii; Cbril^ian afFaits, is willfurand af-« 
fe^cd. It cannot be owin^ to ignorance. And muft thereforal 

, (leafcribcd to fume other caufc, whatever it may be. 

* tin profound filcncc, however, concerning the afTiirs gf 
|hc Chiiflians in htJ lime, is no objection to thcJr truth and ic-^ 
jiJiiy. The Hiftory of the New rcilamcnt has in it all the 


tbf Truth of tfu Omftlan ReUgm. ' 

,-Aurks of credibility that any Hiftory can have. Heathen Hlf- 
(iDriani of (he befl credit, have born witncfs to llio mnc of the 
I'lifcof the Chriftian relrg'on, the comitn- in which it had fts''' 
irigia, and who was the Authcr of it» and its fwitt and carJy 
cli in the world. 

* Of all tbofg thin;;? which arc recorded in ihc Gofpcls, and 
of the ptogrcfs of Christianity afterwards, wc have uiicontcllcd 
evidence fro.-nthc evangelical Writers thcmfelvi^, and from an- 
dcai ChriAian Authors, iliilexunr, and from Heathen Writers, 
concurring with them in many particulars. 

' Andjofepbus, the Jcwifli Hiftorian, who believed not !ti 
Jefoj, hat recorded the hiftory of the Jcwi(h people in Judea, 
land clfcwhere ; and particularly the ftate of things in Judca, 
[with the names of the Jcwifh Princes, and Roman Governors, 
Muring the miniftry of our Savioiir and his Apoftles. Whereby. 
fomierly fhcwn at large, he has wcnderfully confirnicd, iho* 
rithout intending ir, the veracity, and (he ability, of the evan- 
gelical Writrrs, and ihc truth of their Hiftory. He has alfo, 
as we have now feen in this volume, bore teftitnony to the ful- 
filmencof our Lord's predictions, concrrning the coming trou- 
^bles and afflitSions of that people: which is more credible, and 
valuable, than if given by a believer in Jefiis, and a friend' 
id favoorer of bim. bo that tho-jgh all the paiHges in his 
worbi, which have been doubted of, ihuuld be rcjcSed ; be' 
: woutd be llilt a very ufeful Writer, and his works very valuable. 

* jo!'<.-^hu% Icncw how to be lilent when he thought fir, and 
rhas omitted fonnc thin:;i very true and certain, and well known 
th the world. In h"s preface to the Jcwifli Aniiqiiities, he cn- 

gagci to write of tilings, as he found them mentioned in the 
icrcd lot/ks, without adding any thing to them, or omitting 
FAiy thing in ihrm. And yei he lias faid nothing of the golden 
calf, made by the Jewifti people in the wilderncfs : thus drop-' 
ping an importaoi nxnaiivc, with a variety of incidents, tccord- 
ed in one of the books of Mofcs himltlf, the Jcwifti Lawgiver, 
ihc mod fjcred of al! their Scripturw. 

' The fin of ihe mebtn calfh alfo mentioned in other books 
of the Old leftament, inthc confefunnsof pious Jfradite^ ; as 
Vcb. IK. i8. and P(, cvi. 19. Ncvcithclefs Jofephu* cbolc to 
oUcnrc total fdcoce about it. 

* A learned Cntic obferved l^>mc while ago, as fomewbat vc- 
r^r remarkable, that Jofephus has ncvrr once mentioned the 
word SicKy or Zwi, neither in his Antiquities nor in his Jcwifix 
Wit; though there were fo many occalions for it i and though 
k'uto often mcniiotied in the Old a well ai Uic New Tclta. 

B 4 menu 

$ IvARDSER'j Celk/litn a/ T^atuiUs u 

ment. And he furpetfh that omiiljon to be owing to ddsgn ani 
ill-wiU to the ChriAian caufe. 

* AnJ if ] vizs not afraid of ofFcnOing by too great prolixiti-, 
1 fliouW now remind my Readers of a * long argument of olii 
tbtc, rcIating^ to the aflcirmcnt made in Judca, by osAtt of Au- 
gustus, at the time cf our Saviour's nativity, near the end of 
Herod's reign, recorded by St. Luke ch. ii. If then quoted 3, 
palfigc from ihe Antiquities of Jclcphus, whence it appears^ 
that there were then ^reat tiiUutbiiices In Herod's family. Antl 
iheic were fyinc Pharil'ces, who foretold, or gaw out, «' That ' 
God had decreed to put ;tn end to the government of Merod, :x\\A 
his fscc, and trar.iler the ;.iiigJ.iin to anoi'icr." Jofephus here 
lakes grcu? liberties. And though hu wjs himfcif a Phanfcc, 
and ai other tonics fpcakb honour-bly of that feiSt, he now ridi- 
culas them. He lays, *' They were men who valued thcmfclves. 
highly for their exaa Jtnowlcgc ot the laws. And talking much of 
their intcreft with God, were i;reatly in favour with the women. 
M'ho h-idi: in their p>wer tocopiroul Kiiias : cx:rcmelyfubtlc, 
and teady to attempt sny tiling apmA thuic whom they did not 
like." But it appears, that the King who wna then talked ofi. 
■Ai\i\ who wu tu be appointed, U according to the predictions 
of the Phariftcs," was a pcrfon of an extraordinary charaiHcr. 
J-'or he lays, that Bagnas, an eunuch in Herod's pai.icc, " waL 
elevated by t'<3cm, with the profpciil of Lxzin^ a father and bene^ 
faftor to his country, by receiving fcom him a capacity of mir<5 
xiage, and having children of his own." 

' All thcfr particulars, though not eTLprcITed with Hich gravit 
as is becoming an Hillorian, and is ufual in Jofcphus, c-annot 

!but lead us to think, thai he was not unaccjuaimcd with thi 
things relztcd in the fccond cliaptcr of St. Matthew's CJofpel 
Sayi the Evanftcltft ; " Now when Jcfus was born in Dcthlcen 
of Judca, in me days of Herod the King, behold there cami 
wife-men from the taft to Jeriifalcm, faying: AVhere is he (h 

is botn King of ihc Jc«-s ? for wc li.ivcfi-fn his ftarin the lia: 
nnd aft come lo \frurfliip him. When Herod the King h, 
beard all tlicfc things, he was troubled, and all Jcruralc m witlj 
Mm." The word rendered trouiUd^ i« trf a middle meuninc 
How Herod was n:^id, n-ny be eafily giicfled, and is wci 
known. The iniii»bitar.ts ol JcrufaJcm weie diffctently v^^rk 
and agitated } partly with Joyful hopes of feeing their MriTiah, 

C'wUWiiiy. P. i. B. 2. ch. I. Vol-JI- ^^Ci9. . .6+5. a 
tbiitl cdiuoii- 

f: The qar-Mtion ti, as above* p. 618. . . . 6jo, takcQ bom tfal 
AM^'^iitict. 1>. 17. cap- 2. §4. p^ Sju^HaveicuDp. 

ih Tmth «/ the ChriJIisti RtBpm, 9 

jCn^ '/ 1^ 7"^'^ ' P^rt^y '*'*<^ ^'*-^ spprchenfion) from HeroiTt 
jeaiottTy, and thcfionlcqurnccsnt' it. 

* tcl^inu to Die. that Jofcphus had then brforc him ^ood 
eviiksKCSy th>t the MciTmti w-u at ihat time burn into the wotlif. 
But he puts all olF with » jeft. Perhaps, there is not an^ other 
pisn in his work* where be ufo ludicrous. We are not there-r 
five to expccl, that cvcc after he (faould take any notice of the 
LcrJ Je&u, or things concerning him, if he cun avoid it. 

' And ' * U w<? be much concerned about any defc£l| 

in this W ■ ■ ^ard for Jefui Chrift, and hn fallowers : who 

out of complai:'ancc, or from felf-intcre/Ied views, or from A 
m'rftiien ju«igracnt, or fomc other caufc, fo deviated from the 
trtfth, IS to afcribc tht! fulfilment of the Jewifb ancient prophe- 
tiej concerning the Mcffish, to Vcfpafian, an idolauoiisPimcc, 
who was not 3 Jew by dcfccnt, nur by rcligiQii ^ who was nei- 
ther of the church, nor of the feed of Iftaeli 

' Jofepbus was a nun of great eminence and diflinfliort a- 
mong hli people. Hut we do not obfervt in him a fcrioufnefi 
of fpirrt becoming a Chriftian ; not that fub!imity of vinue 
which » fuited to the principles of the Chrtdtan religion. Nor 
^ wc diicem in him fuch qualities as Ihould induce us to think, 
he was one of [bofc who were well difpofcd, and were net f^r 
JTM thtiu^dim #/ Gtd. tie was a Piie^t by dcfirent, and eirly 
in the cugiOr-icy, then a General, and a Courtier, aiid in all 
shewing a worldly mind, fuited to fuch flatlons and employ- 
icnts. Infomuch that he appears to be dne of thofe, of whom, 
' to whom, the brft Judge of men and thing* faiJ : •* How 
ye believe, who receive honour one of another, 2nd fcclc 
pat the honour that ccuneth from God only !'* 

'Vht f''''~ '* — :er cootaitia the Tertimonies of the ^fifi>Kicet 

TtAn: : ici«.^[n thcfixth,our learned Author makes 

u upuu ihc aj»e, work, 9cc. of Jofeph lien Gorion, or 

!!ftpron, a pcrfon of a very extraordinary chora&r, whowrcte 

uj the Jews, in iix books, and hai been for (umc tuns 

... rcpuuiiii:) witli the learned men of the JewiQi nation.- 

LHk work uras puhliOicd, in the Hchnrw original, at Con Han - 

ItAople, by Rabbi Ih^ni, in the year ijiOk uid anotbcz cdi*. 

litvt made of it ^i Venice, 10154.4. 

• Mr Readers cannot but remember, fays Dr. Lardner, thlt* 
cnr Greek Jofffibus, when be give« an arcrmnt rX the detrnni- 
nuion of the Jcwilh people to so to war with the Rotnaju, in- 
fisnatui, that they a;-,pnir.ted Jofeph Ben Gorion, uklAfunuf 
the High-pricH, to prc:;of at Jcrufalem. Other* Were fent as 
Gcacrali iato fcvciaJ parts ot the couaity j and himfclf, 1r»* , 

S9 L4.ii.DNEll'j CtiUiJlon ef TijUmtiiti ta 

feph Ton of M;Llthias, was appointed Governor of tlic two Gali- 
'lecs, together with'thc Picfc^reof Gumala annexed to cbcm. 

* Our Author's account of the fame dctermirKition is to tSts 

iurpofc : '* The Jews, out of their Generals which were ar 
erufalcm, chofe three Princes valiant for war. Me Jofeph the 
'ricft, valiant for war with ihc help of Jehovah, and Ananu» 
the Pried, and Elcaxar his Ton, PricR) airo, and by lot they di- 
vided to them the fcvcral parti of the country, in which they 
fliould carry on the war. The third part, which was the Krll 
Im, containing the land of Galilee and Naphtali, came out to 
■ Joi'eph Ben Gorton the Prieft. And they called him Jofippon,,J 
by way of praife and honour : foraftnuch as he was then anoint- 
ed with the military ointment foi the war. The ftcond lot came 
cnil to Anunut the High-pricH, to govern at Jerufalem and che 
ad}i.ining cnimlry. The third lot came out to Eleazar» r..n of | 
Ananus, nnd what follows.'' This Ihould be compared with.] 
what Is writ byjofcphus*. 

* Thus he adopts the apprllation oF Jofeph ^ow nf Gorton. 
But perfonatcs Jofeph fon of Matthias. And like him, he ij 
appointed Govanof of Galilee. And all along he will be Jo-' 
fcphui in the main, and another pcrfon, when he plcafcth. flft_ 
will alfu Iraiifcribc the Greek Jofephu", and copy z large par 
of his Hiftory of the Jcwifli War, without taking anynotici, 
of hiaii If he diR'ers from him, and adds to him, it Is not 
taken out of any other Writers better informed, but from hifl 
own invention only.* 

The Doflor makre fevera! extra:£l!i from hii work, (bcwing 
b'n teflimony to the deftrcclion of Jerufalem, by Vc/pafian ant 
1 itus, and tclli us, that he is evidently an Impoftor and a Pla- 
giary, who knows nothing of the war of which he wntw, Init] 
wlwt he hu ftnlcn from another, without naming him.— He is 
placed by the Do^or in the tenth century, not very far frot 
the beginning of it, in the year of Chrift 93c. 

The fevcnth chapter cnnlains a recoUciJlion of the foregoil*^ 
articles, and reflexions upon them. — The Teillmonies of an- 
cient Heathen Authors, arc contained in eight very ftiort chaj 
tersi in the fiift of which we have the Kpiftk of Abgaru^ 
King of EdefTa to Jefus, and the Refcript of Jcfus to Abgarus, 
As the authority of thefc Epiftlcs depends entirely upon Kufc- 
bius, our Author tranfcribcs hit account at length, from tt 
laft chapter of the ftrft book of hii kcclefiafiical History, 

The learned arc divided In their opinions on this fubjcci ; our 
Author makes the following obfetvstions upon it : 

• De B. Jud. Ub,ii. cap. 10. ( 1. z. 3, 

* I. In 


tbi Trvtb of tbt Chrijian Religion. jj 

• t. In the firft place, then, fays hc» I think, we are not to 
mskkc any doubt of the truth of what Eufcbius fay^i that all this 
wu rccnrded in the aichives of the cicy lidcflii, in the Syriac 
Ungunge, and wa? thence trandatcd into Greek. Kufebiushas 
been fuppofcd by Ibmc to (-ty, that hijnCelt tronllatcd it frein 
llw Sjrriac. But is not clear ; nor is it certain that he un- 
dcrOood Syti^iC : much Icfs have we any reafon to fay, thai he 
waA at kdcQa, uid took this account iiom the archives himfrlf. 

• a. Thii Hiftory is not mentioned by any before Eufcbius; 
not by Juilin Martyr, norTatian, nor Clement of Alexandria, 
nor Oiigen, mr by any other. Nor does Euftbius give arijr 
bint of chjl kind. He had it from Edefia. It was unheard of 
inioaj the Greeks, till h'S time. But having received it, he 
thoueht it might be not Improperly tratifjribcd into his Ecde- 
ftaftical HiKory. 

' 3. It is not much taken notice of by fuccceding Writert, 
It U not mentioned, I think, by Athananus, nr-r Gregory Nyf- 
fen, nor Nazianzen, nor Epiphanius, nor Chryltiftum. Je- 
rome has once mentioned it, and will be cited by and by. fiut 
he h.(s not inferted in his catalogue of Ecc'efiaflical Writers* 
cither Jefus or Abgarus; neither of whom would have been omil- 
icd, if be had any rcfpccifor the Epiftlcs here produced by Eufe- 
hius. This aitair is, indeed, mentioned, or referred 10, by 
Kphraim the Syrian, in his Tcliamcnt : but that is not a work 
of fo much authority, as has been fuppofcd by fome : and it is 
interpolated in fevctal places, both in the Greek and Syriac co- 
pic» of it } as was obferved formerly. 

• 4. This whole afTair was unknown to Chris's Apoflln, 
Aiwl to the Believers, their contemporaries, both Jews and Grn- 
tils i 15 ifc mJtiifcrt from the c;i'ly difputcs about the method of 
rrceiving Geniil Converts into the Church, If Jcfus Chiift 
h.^ himlclf writ a letter to a Heathen Hnnce, and bad promife4 
to fend to him one of his Difciples, and if that Difciple had 
acL-o(iiinsIy gone loEdeOii, and there received the King and hi| 
fubic.^> into communion wiih the Chuich, without citcumci- 
^on, thete could have bcon no roum for any doubt or Jifputc 
ib<:tHt the method of receiving Gcntil Converts to Chnftianiiy. 
Or if any difputc had arifcn, would not this hiftory of the viflt 
of Thaweus have been atUdged I Which would have been 
fulHcicni to put all to fiiencc. Nor it> there any room to f»y, 
xlui this vjfu of Thaddtu* at EdclTi., was after St. Peter's po- 
ixti to the houfc of Cornelius, or alter the Council of Jetufa- 
iroi : for it is dated in the 340 year, that i^, of the acra of the 
Sclcttctdae, or of the Edcflcns. Whiih is rompuied to be the 
15 or 16 year of the reign of Tiberius, and the year of Chrift 


LarDNSK'i CtiUfiian if T^/i/neuirt tit 





29} wnen, according to many anctent Lhriltiani, 
died, aiid rofc agdiit, itnd al(.i:ndcd tohcavcn. Indeed^ I ihitik, 
it it impoSihk to reconcile this account with the HUlory in the 
AiU of thcApuillcs. 

• 5. If Jcfus had writ a letter to King Abgarus, itwoiild have 
been apart of facrcd Scripture, 3nd would have bceh placed at the 
head of all the books of the New Tcftamcnc. But it was never 
lb refpeScd by any aiicjcnt Chriilinn Writers. It docs not ap- 
ficar in any catalogues of canoniv&l books, which u'c have in 
aiickm Authors, br in Councils. In the Decree of the Council 
of Rome, in the time of Pope Gctafius, in the year 496, the 
EpiOlc of Chrift to Abgarus, is exprtUy called apocryphal. 
JCor docs Eufvbius himfcif, upon any occafian> reckon it utt 
among canonical Scriptures, received by tliofe before him. The 
titles of the chapters of his Kcclefiaflical Hiftory, are allowed 
to be his own. The title of the chapter which has beoi juft 
tianfcribed from him is this : J Hj/fsry cdnctm'm^ the Prime rf 
tht Edtjfrn!. It was a ftory which he had received. .And he after- 
wards tells us particularly, where he had it. And in the fitft 
chapter of the fecond book of the fanie work} having men> 
tioned tlic choice of Matthias in the room of Judas, and the 
choice of the (even Deacons, and thcde:irh of St. Stephen front 
the Acis» he recites again bticfiy the hillory before tela concern- 
ing Abgarus, and lays : ** This we have learned from the hlf- 
tory of the antients. Now wc return to ihc facrcd Scripture." 
Where be proceeds to relate from the ACts, what followed after 
]ihe mar^rdom of St. Stephen. In fhon, though £ufebius would 
not pafs over this afTair without notice, he feems not to have 
placud any great weight upon it. And fucceeding Writers have 
better uDderltotx] his nieaiuDg, thin foinc of late times, who 
Jjavc {hewn fu uiucK regard to thit relation. 

* 6. It vas the opinioo of many of the mod learned and an- 
ttcnt Chrtfti.in5, that our Lord wrote norhin r. Therefore this 
£pifllewas unknown to them, or they did not fuppofe it to be 
genuine. To this purpoI« fpeak Origen, Jerome, and Au- 

7. There are fcvcral things in this EpiAIe to AIi^v^S which 
jrc liable to exception. 

( I.] At the beginning of the Epiflte, -our Lord is made to 
liv, ** Abganis, thou arc happy, for tn much as thou haft be- 
jievcd in me, though thou b^lt not fcen mr. tor it is writteti 
concerning me, thac they who Iiavc fcen me (hnuld not believe 
in me, that they who have not fcen me, might believe in me, 
^d live." Says Du Pin, and 10 the like puipofe fay others : 

»f Where arc (hofc words written ! 


Doen no: one fee, that he 


iBt TrMih cf tht Cbrijiiim R^lsgUn. 13 

wbo taaAc ibii letter, alluJes to the words of Jcfus Chtift 10 
St. Thomas ; BUJJiJ an ibey whs hgvt net ften, urj ytt /wiv ht- 
iirvfJ. John XX. 29. Words which were not fpoiten by Jcru* , 
Chiift unlit after bis (cfurTcctioo» ;tiid wbich wcfe not writ ua- 
ril long «ft<Twanls. Which manifcftJv fiicwi the forgery of 
this Ep-ftle." 

• a.) Our Loid heie fccnw to (j^^ii morcctcwl)- of his rcfur- 
re&ion, os being tahn uf ta luav.'n, than he docs co the Difci- 
plc»in the Gofpcls. 

* 3.) Cbrid here dcfen to cure Abgarus of hU diftcmper. He 
(elU him, ■■* That fomc time hcrcadcr he would fend one of hi* 
lytfcipJa to him, who fliouM hcai him." Which is altogether 
uaworihy of the Lord Jcfus, and different from his ufua! and 
well-known condu<3» *rho never rcf^Kcd to grant tht reqoe&s of 
chofe who fought to him, andexprcfTcd fiith in his po'^er. fn- 
ftead of what is here laid to Abgarus, after commending hi* 
faitbt our Lord would have added, and faid: " Henccrortb 
chou art healed of thy diftemper."* Or, ** Be it nnto thee ac* 
cording 'to thy faith." Or, " As thou hift believed, Co be j» 
^ne unio chec." 

' This tt'c can conclude ffom fimilar cafe?, recorded by au- 
thenric witnc/les. Mjtt. rii^, 13. xv. 2S. Mark vli. 29. 

* 8. There arc fevcral other things in this Uiflory which are 
very liaUc to exception. 

• I.) It is faid, that after our Lord't rcfiirreSion and afceti-^ 
Con, Thomas fent lo Edcfla, Thaddcus, oneof Chrift'i fcvcniy 
Difciples. But Tbaddeus was an Apoftic,' as wr learn from 
Msn. X. 3. and Mark iii. 8. It 15 likewifir here f^if.l, that J u- 
dti called alfoThomis, fcnr Thaddcus. Upon which Valrfiift 
oMerves: ** Thotnas, who wait one uf the twelve, ws9 sliia 
called Didynius, as we icarn from St. John. But that he was 
ftlfo called Judas, it no where faiJ, but in this place. For 
which caufe this (lory is jutlly fufpected." Jerome fpcaking of 
this matter, (ays, ** Kcckfiailical Hiltoir informa ui, that tha 
ApoAW Thaddeus was fcnt to EdclTj, to Al';:aru!i ICing of (if- 
rhocne, who by the Evjngellft Luku U i..iluJ JuJ^:. Lrorher of 
James. Luke vt, 16. anilAiflsi. 13. and cllbwhrrc ix caUcii 
Lcbbcus. Matt. X. 3, So that he had t^rcc namsj." 

•a») When Thaddeus comtttoEdcfia, he docsoot gormfne- 
diately co the ICio^, to whom he wa» fcnt, as migbi be rcufon- 
ably cxpriied : but be gucs to itic houfc of 'I'obias, wbcc he 
Aavs fome while, and works mjny mh-aclts; which being 
puifcd abioad, the ^ng hcais of h:m, and fends for him. All 
this is very abfuid. If I'haJdius ^ l^i-'^-r'^ of JelVis, had been 




Lardner*; CslU^ieny i^c. 

ffnt to the King of £de0ii, he ought, and would have gone iQ\ 
him dircclly, or would have made application to one of the 
Courtiers, to introduce him to the Vx'incc. This thcrelbre 
cannot be true hifVory, but mufl be the invention of fume tgno- ' 
rant, though conceited, pccfon. 

* 3'1_** ^' looks not a little fabulous, fays Mr. Jones, that 
yttpon Thlddcus's appealing before the King:, he Oiouid Tee 
tli'mewhat extraordinary in his countenance, which none of the 
VCompany clfc could perceive. Eufebius calls it tfafi-x jui'va, 2' 
[great vilion : Valcfius tenders it i/tViNum nrfcio qiiidj Ibine divine 
I appearance." 

4.) ** The account in the hlftorv, fays the fame laborious 1 
[Author, that Ahgarus dcfigiicd to make war upon ihc Jews, for. 
'crucifying ChrilK fccms vrry unlikely: becaufc ir is plain, he 
\vrsLS Prince only of a fmall cicy, and that at a vaft dtllancc from 
[Judea: and therefore could never be fo extravagant, as to ima-,j 
• gine himfclf able to dcAroy fo powerful a nation as the Jews' 
then were," 

* 5.) Abgarus is faid Co have bad a grievous and incurable diC-A 
temper, for which he delircd relief of Jefus. This U faid over 
arut over. But what the diltcm|)cr wat, is not (aid. Learned. 
Moderns, who arc not wanting in invention fur fupplying the* 
^fe£h of ancient hiflory, fay, fome of them, that it was tb« 

'Gout, others ihc T-cpiofy. However, prcfently after the cur 
of the Prince, we are t«>ld of one Abdus fon of AbJus, wbonj 
I'haddeua cured of the Gout. 

» 6.) We rcid not of any other city or country, in the firft, 
three centurict, where the [ict>ple were all at once converted to.] 
the Chriltian faith, if the people of Kdeflahad been all Chrif-* 
tians from the days of the Apoi>le«, it would have been knowa* 
before the time of Kufchius. And [ may add, that if this (lory,< 
told by our Ecclefinftical Hiftorian, had been cfteoned credible,^ 
it would have been much more taken notice of by fuccecJingj 
Writers than it is. 

' 7.) I forbear to remark, as I might, upon that cxprcfTion ' 
ThadJcus in his difoiurfc with Abg*n» : ** Jefus Chrift, ouH 
I-ord and God, fulfilled the will of ihe Father:" or upon what/ 
is here faid of Chrift*sdefcent into Hell. 

* 9. The obfen'aiions which have been already madr, are fuf»j 
iicientloftiew, thjt ihc Letter of Abgarus to Jefus ChMll, and! 
our Lord'b Refciipt, Ciinnot be rerkoncd genuine. The whole 
Kidory is the fic^an of fomc Chriftian at EdelTa, in the time of^ 
£ufcbius, or not long bcfote. The people of Edcfia were (hen 
generally ChjifUjns, and they valued thcmfclvcs upon it : and 


jffmintui : Or, Germattia Frctd. 


Oicy were willing lo do thcmfclvcs the honour of a very early 
coavcrTuin to the Chriftian Faiih. B)' foinc one, or more of 
them oniceJ together, this Hiftory was formed, and was fo lar 
received by Eufebius, ss to bethought by him not improper lobe 
infrrted in his Ecclefiaflical Hillory. f^ar could I omit to t^e 
notice of it, u great regard has been fhcwn to it by fome. But 
all my Readers may pcrccire, that I bring not in this thing ac i 
Ccftimony of the firft antiquiij : though it may afFord good proof 
of theChriftianiiy of the people of KdcfTa, at the beginning of 
the fourth century, whcnEtiftbius flourilhed, or before.' 

The remaining chapters contain the Tcftlmonics of the elder 
Ptjny, Tacitus, iVIatiiat, Juvenal, Suetonius, &c. The Doe- 
tor placci Suetonius in his firft volume, and before the younger 
Ptiny, bccaule tils tc-l^imuny has a near affinity with tbeparticu' 
lars mcjjtluncd by Tacilue. 

We ihjll conclude ibis article ivith obferviit^, that though 
fcarcc any thing new is to he eicpeiStcd in a work of this Iciod, 
the Doflor's ColleAion, wlien comj^catcd, wilt be the fullcft, 
and confequently the moft valuable Collection of Teftimonics to 
rtic truth of the ChriQiait Religion, thai ti any where to be 
met with. 

jfrmfnim: Ovy Gfrmama Ffttd. Tranjhttd from tht third Erli • 
tion »f the German Oii^inal. Writion by Baron Cronr.eclc, 
.Wjtn an lijfloftcat and critical Preface, by the celebrated 
ProfefTor Ooiilchc-td of Lcipfic. iimo. 2 Vols. js. 
Bcckec and De HoiKk. 

TH E prcfent manners of the world are fo very different 
from ihi>Jc of ibc f<Lblcd heroic ago, that it is no wocdcc 
tf the greatcfl charms of Epic poetry have lofl their ioSu- 
enee on the generality of Readers. Wc will venture to fay, 
chat not even the immortal genius of a Milton bimfelf would 
hare fucrcedcd io this fpecies of compofiiion, had he H'TictJy 
confined himfclf to (be rules of theScaeyrite. One of ihc 3ii> 
cient laws of critiL-ilin is, Uiat an Epic Poet ibould make cholc* 
uf a Hero of h\% nwn eountrv, zni^ in whofe reputation a whole 
nation t« intcrcflcd. This Hero muft likewite have pc.'furnic4 
Tome exploit hi<;hly adv.intageou& to bis country, both in iifcif 
and its confcqucnced. This law, it is true, has been auihoiizcd 
by the [>ra«Itice of Homer and Virgil ; and it appears from the 
piivatc hiitory of our Engtifh Homer, that when he firJt con- 
ceived the delign of an heroic poem, he thought of aAIng con- 
IvioubJy 10 it i tuokiiis choice of Kine Anbuc for bis Hero. 


We cuuoc help ibin!tine -ir, howevo', a great prwtf of U^ 

ittdgmciu, tbat he changed his Du bje^^ £ar u»t of Paradile LulU 
iBihefttiays whenwehive no ukaof Hcro« lineally dcfccud- 
c^fromGoii^ m>rof' the tn;etpoGiJon cf fuch fuburdit-iatc Dei- 
tin, in favour of ihcir rjppotol o&pring, the highell chirac- 
ten th>c can be dclitiraiL-d» (all ftill flioix oi' tlWe illuitrjous., 
pcrlboago, wrhi^b mc ncccCu j to fuppon the Jigatty of kd he^ 
roic poctn. The mod ftrHiiog pi^urcs alfu of' true valour^ 
nugnsnimiiyt suhi gcnerolity, the Poet is able to draw, t^ie fq 
litdc aborc the (i^njl ioflAuccs pKxluccd in our awn (imes, ths 
the whole approaches too near to common life, to have its due^j 
cffed in exciting the admirilion of the Reader. Wc need onh 
mention the unparalieled brarerjr of a Wolfe, to filencc th« 
pretcufions of an Agammcmnon, an AchJUcs, or unHeAor; 
and yet had wc now living a Geniiu equal to Homer's, we da] 
not conceive the ftege of C^ebec would afford him fo liappy 4 i 
fubjcA far an heroic poem, as the ftege of Troy. 

It was with great judgment and propriety, therefore, that 
Milton made chotce of characicr» elevated above the co.r>mu» 
Itandard of humanit)' ; and that be chofe a fubje& in which 
not only afinglc nation, but all mankind, were intcrcdcd. How 
infinitely inferior is the confultation even of Homer's Generals, 
to that of the infernal Peers in Pandemonium ! How puerile even, 
bis battles compared lo the contcft with Mich.iel and his an^cU ! 

But not to be thought too partial to our oiuntryman, we 

here drop the rompaiifon; into which, indeed, wc ihoulii not 
have been led, hid it not been for the injurious (we bad almoft 
taid impertinent) mtntion made of this great Poet by Mr. Pro- 
fclFor Gottfchcid, the Editor, in his recommendation of thif 
poem. His words arc as follow : 

* I (hould have but a very flcndcr opinion of the Reader** 
laftc, and of that of all Germany, wcrr I to draw up a long 
formal preface, in commendation of the work which I have 
now the honour of publiflifng. Virgil's £neid flood in as little 
need of nny recommcndarionj at Rome, as the Iliad and the 
OiivfTy had before in Greece ; and the Honriade in France, ana 
thcOodfrcy, or the Jerufalctn Freed, in Italy, were foon irt 
every body's hands, without any fuch preamble. Paradifc Ijoft 
alone had long mouldered in the Booltfcllcr's warc-houfe, fo as 
fcarcc to be anv longer remembered, when two p:r(ons, rrtjt 
more diflinguifhcd for their raiiV than literature', ondertoole to 
convince their countrymen of the excellence of that poem ; and 
this they did fo eft'citually, that England, for a lon^ time, was 
brought to believe, or at leafl to fay thai thty Ittlitvtd what| 

' Lord RofcQaiinont and Mr. Addifon, Sccrrtary of Sta,ie. 


Cfrfoamtj Frtt^. 


pitkoiu fuc^ pp-^.etful fccoiiuncndations,^they woul^ never hayc 
;t' ■ -f: an:l Riould a [verron of (juriUty, of equal r^nJc aiul 

li , arifc and Ih-rw his countr-. n;cri the cuncnry, qf a 

ifcnuruw Poet diftinu;uilh .birnfclf for a (lile ihc fcyerfe of that 
Eof the MiUonic ^lu^l■. all tlic fupiWed bcAiicirs of l^vJilc^ 
LifOft would vanifti, or be loft in the crowd of its dcfcds, noi tq 
ffcy grofs faults.' 

Thu« wc fee our learned Prnfeflbr conceives the b=autic« of 

'aradife-Lolt to be merely ctiimciic^l, and that t;s reputed ipe- 

U owing folcly to the pariialiry of J^ord ULtfcomciOQ *ild 

Ir. Attdifoo. It U in vain tu dii'putc about culuuit w:th a maji 

jbuu U blind ; we ftiaJI therefore leuve the abr>vc pafldgc wtlhouc 

.lay comment^ to fland a^ a proof of Prrvfedbr' Cottfchcd'^n'^nc 

»f tafte for the fublime exertions of true genius, and of bis rea- 

linds to cenfure wliac it is plain he cannot rclifli or undcr- 

' 3d, 

With regard lo the poem itfctf, if ic hith as tnueh merit in 
jint of veifification, we have no objeifiion to its bcin^ placed 
fon the fame fhclf with the Henriade vi Voluire, Lconidas, the 
'pigoniitl, and otticr nioJern Cj^ic [K'cms. Nav, wedoadm?t_ 
war the ingenious Author hjs difplayeJ i great fund of poetical 
fsnerit ; and that the comporition is, with regard to it« c^ndu^t 
[tod chara^terF, chafte .inii clajGcal. I'hc ftory on which it is 
,laaru)ed, is well known to rholc who remember to.have read of 
LfAuguftjf beating his head sgsinft the ualU and calljitj: cut to 
'Varus, to rcftorc him hi* legions. For the bencftr, however, 
I of fiirh a» niay retain an imperfcift idea of It, the following if 
.iu&med from Muraioii. 

'« Varus, who had come poor into the opulent proi-incc of 

Syita, and left it exucmcly rich, thought cf taking ihe like 

meafurcs in Germany, trcaiing the people as flaven, and by all 

^ fEbte oicani draining them oi their fubllance ; he even went 

3Ut to bring them into ablbhite fubjection. and toobtrode the 

tRoman cuftomj on them. Thcfc prorcedinj^s rtici'cd miry to 

lmte< Into a confpir;<cy agiinfl him. Anniniui, Tmii to i>i<:^mar, 

,ayauLnaf gteat fpi.-kt, and one of the piiiicipal perrons in thoTe'j 

as xllo a Freeman of Rome, nnd who hia been advartcfd 

\o tUc knighthood, was one of (he moil forward in animating 

[itii countrymen tn alien their liberty. As their hatred incnal- 

cd, the more active were ihcy in preparing for revenge, in the 

lean time making a prtat Ot'-w of nrtetflion and fidelity \n V'a- 

rus's f-j:r(an, %n>\ ol fubmiluun and obedience to hi^ urders. 

,Tlib tVini fo far impofrd on him, that he ircatcd the infoT-tna- 

ion gircn him, from more than one hand, of fecretijlots c«Tir-J 

ine on araind the Roman', as.fidittous and groujf&lcfs fufpi-l 

Aiv 17O5. C ciyiii'l 


Jrtninius : Or Cennanla Ff$td, 

ctons, and took no precautions againft fuch an e\'fnt. When, 
as bad been agreed un. forac rcmute German natiuns role in 
aims, Quiniilius Varus marched Againfl the enemy vith his 
army, and a vaft train of military ftorcs. He had with him 
three legions, (each cumpofed of &oco men} asmany fquadrons' 
of hoife, and ftx corps of au\i1inrirs, malting in all ahave 22,000' 
fo!dier>, and who, lor bravery and cxijcritncc, were looked up- 
on to be the fincfl cruops Rome had ever lent into the field. 

* Arminitis, and his father Sicgmar, had remained bchind,"J 
under pretence of raifmg their people, and bringing them to af-* 
iii\ Varus i but the route of the Komans lying through fo'CIJii^ 
and pathlefs wild;*, fo that they could not march in order, ih^j 
CJcimans fuddenly felt upon ihcm, and began a terrible nau^h-j 
tcr. The .iflion laflcd three Hays, and fo greatly to the difad-j 
vantage of the Ronians, that very few cfcajied the rage of thcif 
enemies; (or the mountainous nature of the coiiiuiy did noc' 
adtriit of their forming in order of battle, or of uTing their wea- 
pons in any regular defence. Varus and his otliccrsj 
ufter receiving many wounds, kilted thcmlelves, to avoid faHtng' 
fiito the enemy's hands. The Germans took all their flores and ' 
baggage, togeihrr with the Kom»n eagles and coG^ns. This 
bloody action, Tncitu^i f;iys, was fought in Teuleoburp; forcft ;.' 
but, according to the gcncril opinion, on the fpol wheie ai pre* 
fent (lands Damold, lu the county of Lippe, not far from Pa-, 
dcrborn. ^ 

* There is no exprcfling the grief atid ccrrour which this news i 
occafiunvd in Home; it was apprehended that ihv Germanii 
might be incited to i^reatcr cnterprir^s, that they mi^ht cndca- , 
vour tociofs the Rhine, or fpirit the Gauls to iuiti ibvin, and 
march for Italy. Hut nobody was moic aHe^led with thii mif- 
fortunc than AuguHuf, letting hi» bcaid and hair grow ibi fumo. 
moc)Th!i, and even with the ajipcjirance of iiifanity. tunnmg his, 
head a*^uinlt the dt>or& of his apaitmen;, and calling out on Wz- 
Tus u rfj/e/t hii irgrOMt. Tl)i& iva> a flroke the Roniam weie 
not accuftomed to; and fince ibe defeat of CtaJl'us in Afia, 
ihcir arms had met with no misloitunc si\y thing like it/ 

On this piece of hiftory bath the Baron Schcnaich* (not-, 
'Cronztck) founded a wcll-coudu3ed, pathetic, and interellingj 


* TTiij Geolleroan, w-hcfe younger ycais wtre dedicated to the aimy, 
bcaif , in fugjud to this circumllancr, M<:ort]it>g to Mr- Oottkhed. * a par* 
licvSar rdctnblancc to Horace, who alfo ft-ivcd under Brutus as Tribtiiie ■] 

.of a tegitin i" urherKC »ar Ifarntrii I'tofcttni iliinkt, ' be wst Setter qua- 
lilied tu write nf war, ai:d military a^'jir«, thin « pcrlim wbo knoiw^ no 
more of tlicoi than what he calually mecit »ith in boaki and nen'S' 


TU Ctrrtj^ndtmtt 



fable. What i* the merit of hU ffylc or vcrfittCfltion, we can' 
not pretend tu fay, not having fccn the original ; but we are in 
\-cry different ctrcumfWiccsffum Mr. de Volcaire, whcnhegaue 
his (an^ion tu this pcrformaitcc i as wc cannot iWkover the (u^ 
blimity of the poetry and fenumcnn a iraven the Englifh tran-* 
flitida, as he couid through the French vcrfion. 

In a word, thcflyleof the tranflation is mod execrable^ and) 
wedotibt noff highly injurious to the Author. 

plpcn. — The Baron has alfo written two fajedict, befidrs fer-ril faia!! 
faKtt, whkh h*rc becft very well rec^ivcl.' — Nr>twi(h(tandin; the im- 
ftriMMt e.( ihii it-mBrt;. »<• cintiot. in any dr^ee, pcreei»-c the parti. 
ctiiir rcJ^mt^artce Ut-twijrn the wiit)-» pleaUot Horace^ arid tiiia iDCKiera 
Epic Poet oif Gernuay. 

72* Ctrrtjpondtna bttwttn Thecdafun and C^'fianua j [ram thtif 
jaji Ac<i3tasril<true la the Drparturt of Theodijhit. Km ffrfi 
^Utjhrd fram the ertgmal Aiinufriptt. By the Editor of the 
Lcttcn chat pzScd between Thcodofius and Conftantia, after 
fhc had taken ihc Veil. iimo. as. 6d. fcwed. Beclcet 

IK our account oF the f^fmrr part of thh Corrcfpondeftcc, 
(the /irt/^r ill point of r/ffw) we took notice, that the gene- 
ral puip'>rt or ddign of thcfc elegant Letters was^ to inculcate 
many of the great duties of natural nnd revealed religion, and 
the prance ut' fome of the mofl amiable viitues of focial life: 
fee Review for Augiift 176J. page 147. To that article we re- 
fer, for oar more particular judgment of the publication then 
before ua ) and (ball now, withuut farther remarks on what ap- 
pein, taiu> to be the ingentoas Ediror's view, in of!ering hii 
tboii^titi to the public by- tKti peculiar mode of conveyance:* 
prucced to ^lue our Reader^ iwuie idea ut what they may expc^ 
10 find in tbepicrent volume. 

In his pTCi'ious Adveitifcment, Mr. Lan^horne thus aJiIrvHcs 

ii R«dfr» -. * After the diftinguifheJ favour and attcnnon 

fo % ■ 'hewn bv the public, to Xht Lnit'i thrt pnlu!d t>f 

iWffn . ..i tfjii CjK/fantra, tififr Jbi hei takin the Vtil^ no 

apologyi perhaps, will be thought neeeilarj- for thefe that fol- 
low-, oiif any fhuuld be rcrjuired, the Editor would gladly reft 
it on motives of ^ra:ilu-Je to that Public, by whofe favour he 
hai b -ch oblig'^d. — If the above -mentioned volume of 

LeUi. _ ■■ "c cftc«»i<d 2 Trci'tMill-offtTiRg^ he U rjthcr dc- 
£iou»f that tliij may be cunlideied m iSamjut e/ Thaai/iivini' 

C 2 To 

The Carrf^oBdimi Ittwten 

To Ibmc Readers, poffibly, the Letters already pulilifhed jnni 
appear more inicrcfting; by others, the prclciil may b«thougl 
more cntertiiining ■, and (t'uch is tJie intinite variety of tafte inc 
fcntimenr) there is no doubt that both theic opinEons will be rc- 
vwifed. However, with rcrjk*6t lo th« monaOic corretpoiidcnccJ 
it mull be allowed to have this fuperioi ily, that it turns, for thel 
molt [tart, on religiouii Cubjcifl!) ; yet ihc heiieis that fullow, 
owelting chiefly on moral (ihilofciphy aud the cecoaomy uf liie, 
muft be allowed lo be ufclul in the next degree \ as they hive,' 
in general, fome tendency to promote ihc happlnefs of human, 
nature, lo ihc improvement of the heart, or ihc ciiUrgcmenL oH 
the mind : hind they confiUed only itt a rhapfodicil intcrcourt 
of amorous profdBoiu, the Edtrnr would never hive permiued^ 
them tu fee the light, from a perluafinn, that books of enter- 
tainment, wiihouc either moral or in'elletftual utility, are mere < 
time-traps, whofc end is only to defraud us of thofe fflomenit 
which will never return.' 

As this volume may poiHbly faU into the handis of fome who 
arc yet unacquainted with tbcalTc£liug i^ory nf Throdofius iind. 
Conttaniia, the Editor has rcprmici here, from :bc 6pcilator,.i 
No 164. The Tc-prinung this pa^t may atfo leive to graiif/ 1 
another kind of curiofity, whifh, wc dare fiy, Mr. Ljnghorne 
never dreamt of; it (hews the difference between our moderirj 
SlMnufy^aJti pages, and the ample Half-crown's-worth't afforded 
*i! in the days of honeft Jacob Toiifon : — for, in the ilmo eJi^ 
tion ol the Spct^aiur, this flory of Theudofius and ConOaniia is 
fximpriled within the limits of aboutyl^ory^t'f/i pages; but In ourj 
fiicnd IJecket*» expanfivc type, it /air/j occupies not Icfs ihj 
fmrtftn ' O ! AooisoN ! U ! S'l h^i. I well undcidood ye ho\ 
to wriu books, but how ignorant w«c ye in the art of v/nJin^ 
ihcm ] Where yc gained Eve pieces by your lucubrations. 

Sicrtic, or a 


would have pocicctcd f/i^ ■ 

In ibe firft letter of tiic prefcnt fcrics, the young ConRantia 
enquires, of her friend Thcodofius, conccrnitii^ the philofophy; 
of Bcrnicr. ' What would become of Chrifliiniry, fays fhr, 
were we to adopt the foIIowinE Creed * — L'abjiiiu'ict {Us fiaifirt 
tttt pareit tat grand pithi. A fin to abftam from pleafurcsl — 
Mrhat can he mean ? U not thi» pcrfe^Iy the revcrfe of all mo-| 
r^l and icUgious precepb ^ Ate nut abftincnct:, and moriifica-. 
tion, artd lelf denial, echoed in our cars from thcfiril dawn 
rnlbn? Are not we ti4iM;ht to guard aga'iift the ptcvilencc oi 
plcofures in general, and to look upon them as enemies, uadcc^ 
the maOc of fj icndlhip ? 

To ihisintcredlnivr qucflioP}, TVodofius nukes the followingjj 
fiee and hbeial anfwer : ^ 

ThMfo^i and Cenfietaie, 


■ Yrf, toy unubie Moralft, I do 3p|irove the philofopby pf 
Bernisr } nay, I adopt h?i Cretd toj, anj cordi.illy declare with 
bim, L' atjiinrmt. Jrs pt<tifi-s ntf fxtnit un granA (^iht. What i» 
'lin ^ Is it not to ai£l contraiy to the will of the Supreme Bv-j 

iiiv; ' — Bi:)'fm(l alt doubt ; vAicfe thai will is ktuiwn. Is it nit < 
*vidcn[, ihjt the benevolent Creator o(" the univcffe Jnttntled, , 
and ftill inieiidK, oiUy the hippiiurrs of his creatures } — This 
mud be atlowad frotw the ronfefit, and tbe appearance, of hU' 
work* in general.— Aad a ttot pleafure happincrs ? It muft be 
ib, or the tenn ii vaio. If titcn the Supreme Being intcndl 
■friiiafaihtbe happincfs of bii arcatuies, and U piiajip-t be hap-^ 
fHrids, To «i>Jhi» jrsm i*hajitrc., n (f fni/?rulf tU I'^itvfj^i oj 
pTtmdiKtt — Eti a^ conuary lo hii will ; which is, cDiircfii:dljr»j 
the very elTcncc of Gt) — L' alfi'tKmtt da platfut t^l un grand picoi^ 
It is a capital fin to ablLiin from pIcaTure, fiocc it mutt have i 
been the primary view of the divine bcnchcciice, tn cooimuiii- 
cate plcafure to human nature. 

* To what other end was this pomp, thin tnagtiiticcruK of 
beauty icalicrcd outt the vifibtc univctfc i Is not this the lan- 
^tgeof natuic, through all her fmilinj; works, ** Children be ' 
happV'— brought into cxiiteiice by the command of that glori- 
ous Bring who is Lovje icfdf, your inheritance is jilca^rc, and 
.4t is your only duty to cultivate it wclL" Are they not, there- 
fore, children of Jifobedicnce, wbo thus invited into the vine- 
yard of plcafure, ftjndiiJIe in the maikct-place, and vainly fay, 
xh^ m auin haih em^ojtd thtm ? 

* Hath God created a Paradife, and will not maa look .nrouDd 
iiim to cmoy Jt ; but, like his £ill parent, as dclcrlbcd by the 
Entjiiih row. Hill penfively contemplate himfdf in the mur- 
muring fountain ? ^hail he for ever feck hift ima^^c in ihc water* 
'of advcrfity ; and Jhall the fair fceaes of Uie be dcforincd ihro' 
i'uch a mirror i 

* Surdy to ahftain from pleafure, is no inferior dcgrrc of , 
guilt i ftnce that very abftincncc js a reproach to rhc eternal anf 

I'iitnriabte Bcncvoltncc. 

" * From whom do we dcriiT every appetite ? By whofc wif^ 
' dom *rerc tht; fine organs of fcnfjtion formed I To whofc boun- 
ty do we owe the objects of gratification ? And to wlit^c bcne- 
vnlcnce are we indebted for the capacity of enjoyment ? Pro- 
ceed not tbcli; powers and faculties from the ^eat fourcc of alli 
^things ? Was not each adapted to its peciliar funflion ? And ia 
["hot the ntglcfl of ihefc cap.icliics a fault ? I« not the mortifl-J 
cation of them a crime? 

■ By what rorans came Plcafure into the world ? VVai it in- 
klfoducVd by fume malignant fpirit i Did fome Dxmon contrive 
^ C J JL 


7h C^rrtfptniLtui bttwttv 

it for thf ileftrudion of manl^ind f That could not be ; for na 

inferior Being coulJ h>vc power lo pcrveri the faculties and ca- 

tpactiia of human nature. In Oich a cafe, the Supreme (Jrea- 

f-lor muft have been an imperfefl Being.— He muft have wanted 

the will to fccurc the happincr* of h» creatures | or, if he had 

the will, he mud have been without the power to execute or 

eflablifh it. Kithcr of thcfc ruppofiiions we muft not dan;, nay, 

.indeed, it would be folly co admit. Plcafurc, therefore, cjn 

"Dnjy owe iis origin to God, and its ifery name [troves it to be of 

divine cxtra^ion. 

• And (hall we refufc acquaintance v.-ith an otjeift of heavenly 
McfccRi i l^hall wp ungratrfuliy bid the Giver refunie hts gifts, 
•«r reproach him with a liippofition, that he would afiWl us with 

ropcnfities we ought riot to indulgi^ ? 

Vc», Beriiicr.'you are in the righ'- The rtnuncUtJun of i 
PIcafurc murt be a im — not onlv aflually, but cfFeilually a (in. 
Tne mind that ui\ii\:i admitiancc to fuch a gui-ft, muft acquire 
a gloomy and unfoci^l hahtl ; be fit only for the regions of mo- 
fiallic dullncfs, where lazy fanclliy offers a prepolterous devo- 
tion to that Being, who intended that we fliould rejoice in, and 
irtake of a general and foci^l huppinefi. 

When the bias of nature is oppofed : when her foverelgn 
l^'driQates are broken, man becomes incapable of rendering any 
acceptable fervicc either to his God, to fociety, or to himfelf^ 
1*70 his God he is ungrateful, nay, he infults him with a devo- 
tion more becoming the worfhippcrs of Moloch, while he fup- 
Ipofcf him capable of delighting in cruelty, of afRi^fting his 
''crcfttures, hy giving them paJlions which it fhould be a merit to 
L^nortifyt and of lantalixing them, by requiring a rigid ablli- 
tncc Irom every inviting enjoyment that nature fuggcftcd.— 
"fl'o the tntcrcth and aticdliuns uf focicty he becomes cold and 
indiftLTcnt, when, whji fhould principally engajrehim to them, 
['4hc h\.\'a\ iiillruincnts of naiufc groan beiicath the yoke of un- 
k-liKh;tcd abflincn^c. — Upon the fame prtnciules he is an enemy 
fro himfelf, to that Being which was given tilm for his enjoy- 
tnent, and which, at lad, he (hall render back to the Giver, 
^jih '* I knew that thou wert an hard Mafler, therefore the 
[^Irnt that thou gavfifl me, I have made noufeof: Behold, 
lere it i$ again." 

• O Plpafure ! Thou firft, beft gift of eternal Beneficence ?' 
'aircft^ and m^ft beloved daughter of Heaven, all hail ! and 

kjjvelcumc to fmuurn on earth I A niangcr thou art to every 
fjn^lignant and unfocial paiHon, formed to cxp;)Dd, to exhila- 
[ate'* W hum;ini£C the heart I 

fut whither has my fubjc£l tranrportcd me \ Hate I loft 


light of Canflantia ? Tbst cannot bt ; for Plcafurc is my 

* Yet, pnflibly* my amiable friend is, by thit lime, mere 
:|lun half dilplmcd. Where, fap llic, \vi\\ ihii^ luiI ? Hav 
rrticodofius conf^ired with Bcrnicr, fo rewJvc the fchool ul 
b£picutus .' 

* By no mcam, MaJaoi .' The Pleafurc we preach ij not 
the otf fpiing of chuicc, but the cliild of God 

* The Lpicurt.i» d.»clrlnc of Pli-afurc i^ fclfifh ; thn, that 
we wrould iccpmnicnd, is pious.— rFtom tonridci^ttonj rcfpeiil- 

ng the unccrtsitity oF this ttfc, and the improbability of ano- 
"tber, the Athenian PlHlo(bpher> if we may believe hii Biogra- 
pfaer* LanliuSg taught his faltowcrst to puifuc inccflancly alJ 

'lat was called eiijovment. From reflections that arc ho- 

Fpootahlc (o the Eternal Providence i that conclude him to be 
the liberal Givci- of all that dcfcrvcs the name of ctijuymcnc, of 
ihc ohjofls that gratify» and iht fat-ultics that enjoy — in ohwli- 
euic to hit benevolent intentions, would wc fuminon th<: world 
CO the purfuit of plcafurc, and convince it, that the fun doth 
not (hinc in vain. 

* Nor will this dofhinc, as my fair friend apprehends, be at 
11 incotifiAcnt with the pure precepts of that religion we pro- 

* For, after all, what is Pleafurc f Is it to be found at the 
' table of riotous fcftlvity j or, in the venal arms of erratic love ? 
[ImpoIBble \ for thcfe aic the haunts of madacTf, of mcannefs, 

lifguil, and fully. 

* Kuman Plcafurc is of a delicate temper. She dlfclaiins a'l 
>antc]:iuni with indecency and cxcelk. She de;:!ine!i the fo- 

'«ieiy of unicndcr Dcfire, and of Riot roaring in the jollity of 
hU heart. A fcxifc uf the dignity of human nature, always ac- 
companies her, and fhc cannot admit of any thing that degrades' 
Ir. Tendcrncfs, Ciood Kalth» Modcfty, and Delicacy, archer 
Handmaid^ ■, Temperance and Chearfu'ncfs arc her bofom 
friends. — She is no llran;;cr to the endeaimencs of love; but 
ihc aJway* confulis her Haitdmaids in the choice of the ohjeA : 
ihe ncvtx rcfufcs her ptcfencc ai the focial board, where her 
friends arc always pl»ced on her right hand, and on her left.. 
Darina: the time, Ihc generally adiiredcsherrclf toChearfulneff, 
*tiJI Ttnjperance demands hci attention. 

■ Let us now, Conllantia, enquire whether this amiable Be- 
ing mriu the charge that you have brought again(^ her. 

* Wdl (be alienate the heart from iis duty* — Uui, how? 
tuu it Dot already appcared> tbit fhe hctfclf was fL-ni from G<mI, 

C 4. tho 

24- Tht Csrr/fpendinit bttvttfn 

thf bcft gift of inRnite bcnevolencr ? — It is only in the abufoj 
in the pcivcifion of the gifc, thic the hcari cart be ^ilicnaied'' 
horn it& duty. 

* The lovers of Plcsfure may, unJoubtcdIy, be lovers 
Gcd. — To be plfnfed wiih ihu gifc, and iioi to love the Giverjj 
would be unnatuial and ungrateful. — Hcnco the charge of thh\ 
infpircd Writer, Thjt fymc wvtc hvers cf Pltafurt more than \ 
levers sf GcJ. — What was this more or lelii than the charge of' 
jngtatitudc ? 

* The Affirc^lons. you fiy, cannot be fit en things ahavt^ 
while t'iry tend to earthly objcf^s. Litcrolly, they cannot;^*' 
but the beft ilcvotton, that fuch an im[M:rfed creature as man is 
Mp.:ble of p'ving, is derived from his mortal feelings, pcrcep- 
liotis, and cnjoymenis.— When he finds himi'clf happy in thefc| 
be is n^tuia^ly led to adore that lacing who cave ihem ; to IooIbI 
up with gratitude to him, and fo fai to fit oh /iffe/lisns err ihingl^ 
ahwt^ as he has r^jfon to ho|)c for a happic: allotment in an im^ 
proved ftjtcof exiftcnce. — Thus far, even a regard to things oif 
<anh, mjf aTilft his pictv, and encourage his hope. 

* Our ideas of heavenly ohjech are extremely abftrafled froni ' 
fenfe i and yet it is difficult, through any o:hcr medium, to ex-' 
lend (he aBc^lions to them. It hits been obletved, with philof j 
fophic.-il truih, by one of the facrcd Writers, That //"a mak\ 
lavt n«t his h 01 hr wham ht hath fitn, btw /b:uU ht iiv* Gsd \vbtK 
it haih r^tJ'fnF — I will borrow hii mode of rcafoning, andt^ 
i|^ilt addj If a man love not thofe gifts of God which he b-ttli^ 
il-cn, bow fliould he fet his affcflion on thofc which be hatt 
not fcjn ? — If he hath not been plcafcd with ihofe cnJoymentV'j 
which the divine bounty hath allotted him, as peculiarly adapt- 
ed to this f):ite of being ; what moral prof^cd can he have 

'being better fatisfied tn any future (late i 

' But yon quartcl with the moral tendency of Pleafure, anql 
load it wuhthe heavy charge of vi:iating and d i: baft it g the minJi 
adJtit^, ilut ftlBibncrs, and a neg1c<9 of the foclal duties, aw' 
infcpaiable from the purfutt of ic— Has not my friend made aj 
mifnomcr here, in giving the name of Plcafurc to Vicctj 
C'baiij;tf the terms only, and the chirgcis juft. It is impufTiblej 
^t ii}ii»i'nt pkaCurcs Ihould vitiAti^ or that tklUate enjoymentfj 
fiiould iOhjf^ the mind. — It is impolliblc that thofe fociaJ de-j 
lights whi* ii foficn the heart, fliuuIJ malcc it rdfiih, or excludttj 
from its feelings a regard for the happinefs of others, 

* If wc look into the mind?* and manners of men, wc (ball 
iind, iSat not the Very abfitiTiiouj, the mortified, or the fanfljaf 
mon-Qus, arc m"l1 dillingiiiflik:d tor focial virtues. — Thereafon, 
1 think, is obvious— %tfhtn innocent spixtites and defircs arc ic. 
Ariined, the focial afi'cclioiu hnguifli under the fame oppref- 

ThesJsjtus anil Cenjlaitila. aj 

-It it fcsrcdy poffible, that any man who admits of no 
_iinits in liimictf, (houldbe indulgent to thofe of othen.— 
'c behold innumerabte iniluiccs of ih'u, both in thofe who 
c4flaoCt !inJ lit thofc who will not enjoy. 

**The encooragtmcnt of Plcafare, therefore, cheiifhcs the 
■1 virtues ; and he who is of a hnppy difpafmon himfelf, 
' he the &iA to promote the happincfs of bis neighbour.' 

It wrr not to be expeded, that an untutored young girl, as 
■-\ Conflsntia was at the rime when the above Letter is 

1 ,. .-- :o hive been written, fhouki undcnakc to contiovCri 
any of the principles contained in her friend's defence of Ba^ 
fi'\ti's phllofophy. According'v, (he briefly and naturally ad* 
tinia them, with this pretty rrm<irk in her reply, viz. that * they 
tte tU aniiabic, at leall, if they are not folid :* adding — * and 
potfiblv it may be nothing more than the prejudice of a narrow 
cd'jcationi that would with-hold any part of the credit du£ to 

In the fourth Letter, from Theodofius, is introduced a copy 
pT a paper entitled, "- Thoughtson the improvement of the Mind 
and Manners, aJJrclTcd to a young Lady, Btc" in which are 
fofuc fcvcrc ft[i<5ljTe3 on Affci£^ation» and juft obfcrvauoni oa 
the unhappy ciTe^U of ignorance ^ with a warm rccommcnda- 
fioa of literary improvements : without which, indeed, the (jT- 
lem of female accoinplifhmcnc:; mull be very irnpeMc^t. nut 
»s ihii Utk mentioned article may be too eagerly purfucd, the 
' uthor bat the following fcafonablc caution : 

* After all, fays he. Madam, whatever pioficiency you may 
■JVC it in your power to make in literary accomplifhrnents, for- 
t not that the equalities of the heart arc infinitely preferable to 
ofe of the hcud. Should you be unable, for want of affiit- 
ce, or opportunity, to furnffh your mtnd with the ireafurcs 
antiqjtty i (D acquaint yourfclf with the philofophy of na- 
tct or to cmbcllifli your taUe by the more polilhed labours 
' Genius ; remember ihat you ilill have it in youc power CO 
ike yourfclf amiable by a fwectncfs of difpofitioji, by an open- 
ii of heart, and fimplicicy of manners.' 

Conftantia, bred up In the ftrtflncf* of Roman- Catholic modes 
f Jfcvuliont (ihc rules of which often prove tuo rigid for young 
nd tender minds, if not for every age and circumft.inee of 
anltirid) puts the following cju^ftion lo her Corrtfpondcnt, in 
V. * Po you nni thmk, that the Profeflors nf religion 
hurt its inicrclls, by purfning them too clofcly f To which 
J):r phitoSophic^l Admirer replies, (Letter viii.) 

J^ 1 am, indeed, of opinion, that the ProfeOors of reli^on 
~ hurt 


TIu Ctrrffpontinfe htveeoi 

burt iu intcrcll» by -purfuing tbem ceo clordy ; particularfjft 

gfb'hcn (hey make a nicric of Diiiiaturjl and uiineicfHiry fevcittics.' 

•Yet this unfortunate dodrinc has thrown its galling weight 

in ihc caCy yoke of ClirifliAiiity, atnivll ever fiiicc its publi^a- 

lion. — ^The Fathers, thofe Fatheis in whom the Church has 

jtlaccd fuch »n implicit confidence, gave to that religion, which 

iVas meant to enlarge and liantinizc theminJ, the tneanelt nnJ 

[jnofl coniracied fprrit and ptmctples. — Some tfif^raced it by the 

[vilcft (juibhLcs * aiKl initquoiations ; others loaded it with the 

J nod lupciflttous IcvcciticS) forbiiiding the ufc of natur^ and 
iwfiJ plcafurcs f j iuy» onet cwcn goes fo far aj to declare, 
~ K the Patriarch was deemed worthy of a heavenly viftoii, only 
Iccaufc he laid his hcad^upon the hard pillow of a flonc; ajid 
[jwhat be did from nccclTity, advilcs us to do by choice. — One || 
l|us fallen into the moA idle and abfurd fpirit nl' allcgorixing ihc 
[pl^ncit liicrat narratives, faCls, and precepts ; another^, with 
[fcjtial abfurdity, adheres foclolcly to the letter, that he tells u^ 
Fthc* devit invented bu(kin& to give God the lie, bccaufe it is fatd, 
'that u man cannot add onecubJLto his flature. — Infhortf my 
'friend, ihcfe Lights of the Church were, in gencial, the moft 
iniferable fanatics, ignorant, puerile, and perfccuting.^-^No 
[Vondcr, therefore, if thofcwho confidcrthem as Guides, fhouW 
cad in their fteps.— No wonder if they fhould chcrifti igno- 
llancc, folly, fanaitcifm, and every ridiculous efiixl of blind and 
rhfupcrftitious zeal. 

1 * Undoubtedly, my f-iir Rcafoncr, thefe mifguidcd frvcfi^cj 
are ruinous to tKc real inicrcfts of religion i and it* i*iofciro(», 
aa you -obfcf^'c, have certainly hurt thofc interclb by purfuiag 

^tfiertT too clofcly. 

*■ SlaviQi and broken fpirits may thus, indeed, be impofcd 
Lupon ; — but where is that Fiee-will oHcring, that rational and 
cral wotihip, which, founded in sui intelligent faith and gra- 
uitudc, doc« real honour to the Deity ?— Such a worOiip cau 
Jjicver be paid, till the miud, refcucd from the tyranny of au 
ljuiiK>rcd belief, acquires the privilege of thinking and conclud- 
igfor itfclf. 

* It would, ihcrcfore, be for the real intcreft of religion (if 
thatintcreft may be allowed to coniitt in the promutiunof a ra- 

[-,^onal worfhip, and an intelligent faith) that tbe mind flioufd 

sic fct at large j and Father M would by no means lofe his 

l^count in It, with regard to your p'iciyi though he Ihould, as 

* Sre Joflin Mirmr*i ridicalom apologicj for the Ciofs. 
■f rtihetiagnfai, Jcrom. Cyprian, &c. 
\ Clement of Alexandria. [j Origen. 
) TcttvUian. 


7beedefius 'and Caa/ianlie, 


fay, give you a little refptce, and TufFcr you to tliverfify your 
nidiiig and your fludics : for what you obrervc is ccrUinly juil ; 
and you would not only return to the atuniiom cf religion with 
Mcatcr sUcrity, but, by cnl^ins; your moral and natural knowr- 
icgc, you would ac<{uirc new and nobler principles of dcvotion« 
[fiom beholding the wirdom and benevolence of your Creator, 
lifpUycd throughout the moral and the natural world.' 

Leiicfs vi. vii. and part of viii. are employed in repeating a 
rccnvctfatipn fuppofcd tu have paiTcd between Thcodolius and the 
jreJt Fcnclnn, Archbifhopof Cambray, on ihc improvcmeni of 
;lhc tneiit*! faculiics, — on fclf-Vnowlcgr, the riiSjcdIion of ihc 
W\\\ to the empire uf Reason, ^nd on the moral obl'i^jtion of 

living agreeably lo Nature." On thcfc fcvcral rnpic-;, meny 
[•ftiikm^ remarks are niade; — fuch an will i!.i no dll'crcdil lo ihc 
('memocy of Kenelon, fuppoftng bim the Author of them. 

The ixch Letter^ From ConlLintia, liftords nothing very re- 
markable. Indeed, her part of lUeCrtfrcfpondencc^only fervts,in 
general, to keep up a due coniicflion in ihc fcries, and to fw- 
nifh texts for Theodofius to pa-ach upon. 

In Letter x. is introduced a very pretty, and a very attcctinj; 

S,poem on Rural Simplicity \ founded on a traditionary tale 

1^ two Village lovers, immaturely cunft^ned to one grave; — - 

\^t Mr. Langhorne's poetical talent is fo well known lo our 

lleadcrtt that we h;ive no occafion to fwell the articic by ajif 

cxtTa& from this piece. 

Conflintta, in Letter xi. rcquefts of Thcodolius a copy of hie 

t'Engliih trnnflation of one of MiUon's Latin poems: how tb« 

■ foreign Lady came to be fo cojivcriant with the Knglifli language 

wc know nut' However this be, the Gentleman was too polite 

lo rcfufc her ; and accordingly, the veifcs arc infertcd in Let- ■ 

l^tcr xii. they arc iIk: p.iftoral part cf Milton's EpttaPhium Da-' 

^jntni'i and they neither difcredit Mr. Langhorne's Mufe, nor 

.^•^konour h!« great original : but we give no fpecimcn of thcni| 

For the rcafon already afljgncd. 

In Letter xiii. Conftantta, who by this time had proR[ed not 
a little froo) tbe improving corrcfpondcncc in which fhe was fal 
agreeably engaged, and hadalfogreatly enlarged thecirclc of her ' 
litctary purfutis, begins to exprcfs herlclf with more rcfpcfl tof 
hei own rxceUcnt uodcrftanding, and acquired Icnowlcgc, thaiij 
Jbe had prctiimed to do in her former Letters. She now ven-j 
inrcs to fpeak of Milton with critical apprnbatinn ; and lalli 
with a noble contempt of the trifling amufcmcnts or eniploy- 
fnctits of the fillier pait of her fex ; cfpecially ihofe who fpend 
ihtir time in ridiculous, unmeaning, and impertinent vifits, ths. 
0udy of drcfs, aod the fuolccies of fllhioQ. bbe then Uiiuwtt uuf 


tM The CsrrtffvRdittCe^ fiJV. 

fome prettV fcntiincr.ts rtrt Friciidfhip ; which, of courfir, in the 
tfiftiinf; Lftrer, draw ffom h<r CorrcfpooiJcnt, his thoughts on 
ihat moft iiiWfelling and delicate rjbje<?t. His rtmark, that 
Youth is the frafon for frienilfhip, "as well 3s for virtuci hatha 
We arc afraiJ, too much truth in \t. 

' !f, fays br* to a difpofition naturzUy not unfociable, we 

Inve aitdcj the advantages of a tibcr J education, wc come into 
the biifincrK and rnciiny of life, in general, better and happier 
crcacuTcs than when wc (care it. 

• We ftcp iBto the world with liberal rmtimcnts, arvl be 
volent affi^tons ; bur the experimental knowlcgt of men <0i 
tra£^s the fnrmt:r, am! ftarves the Isiter. — Lnlomucb, thjt he 
fnuft be poHcircJ of a difiiofilion ino:(: than ordinarily liumane, 
tvhodpc^ not, jn (omc degree, become a oiranthiopift bcJbie be 
«iics. — 1 may go farther, and add, that he mull have uiicommoa 
virtue and grcatncfs of mind, who, with imblemifted manners, 
9r:d uncontra£lcd fentinientj, can fail with fuch a coritlpted 
frtw down the current of life. 

* Man is, in fpitc of all his reaTon, ao imitative creature; 
and what he has been long accuftomed to obferve in others, he 
•vrill, with diiBculty, forbear to admit in himfelf. By habit wc 
may bring outfclvcs to behold defonrtty without di'gull ; and 
by being long eonverfant in Ccncs of enmity and infinccrity, 
(he love of truth and httmafi Icind will infenfibly decay.* 

This idea of Fritrnjftiip, however juflly founded in cxpen<«^H 
er>ce, fa much fltoclccJ the fenfibility of the amiable ConihniJa,^B 
that fhe grew difguAed with the thought of mingling in the fo- 
ciety of mankind ; and fine* tt appeared that the comrrcrcc of 
the world only tended to corrupt the heart, fbe expieffed her 
drfirc to withdraw from the dangerous iwercourfe, and to rpcn(J 
the remaindci vf her days in avtitUQus and innocent foHlude ; 
in the uninicrnipted purfult of fuch lludics as were worthy of a 
fational creature. This is the pnrport of Letter xv. In the 
xvith and xviich Letters, Thcodofius encounters this new rcfo- 
lution of his fair Correfpondem^ and unrleri^kes to convince 
l»er, that human nature ij not to cxpe^ hapjiinefs out of fo- 
■ciety. To enforce his arguments, he gives her the exem- 
plary hiiiory of a Lady who had foimed the fame rcfolution,^^ 
and having tnrd the experin^nt, was glad to return to foetety^^^f 
and to confole hcrfelf for her difappointmeni, in a happy co»-^* 
tieelion with a Gentleman whofc pjod fcnfe, ami judicious ma- 
nagement, contiibute grcJtly to the freeing her from the dtfa- 
greeable fituaiioii toto which Ihe bad been precipiuted by her 
tnifhkcn notions. 

The xviirth and xixth Ltticrs, wbiph p oticludc the vohirtif, 


«prr fiiortonesi and only ictvc to condu£^ the Reader to that 
anfortunate period wbea the Corixfppndence, and all inter- 
coucfe, between this amiable pair, was cut pfF, by the fatal rup- 
ture which happened between their parcats ; the particulars of 
which arc recorded by the Spaftaior. 

Such is the cntertaininent Mfhich the Reader has to expe£l 
from diis moral and pleafu^ Correfpondence ; tlie whole of 
which feems to be included in the two volumes now publiftied.— 
We muft not forget to acquaint our Readers, that this volume 
is addrefled, in an elegant poetical Dedication, to the ingenious 
Ceor'ge Colman, Efq; as wc obfervcd, that the former ferics 
was iofcribed, but not in verfe, to the learned Bifliop of Glo- 

The Ufe *f Ajlrmemy in iSjiarj and Chrsmlo^y exempUfitd m «« 
Enquiry into the Fall cf tht Stmt into the JEgofpotamos ; faid tm 
be ftTtl^ld hy Amixogtras. In Hvhich is atttmpiid 16 U jh^yam. 

And that ibis BattU utu prtitdijf /ought the Year befert Chn,9 
478 -, tr tue Ytars later than it ii comn.3nly fixid lij ChroasLgerj, 
410. I s. 6d. Davis and Rcymers. 

MR. Coftard very pertinently ft« out with citing a judici- 
ous obfervaticn made by Thucydides, ** That it ib highly 
difficult to arrive at the truth of paft tranfaftions, ai reports are 
ufually iranfmitted from hand to hand, without any one's bejng 
at the trouble to examine them." The experience of ever/ 
age, and the impeifeclions of ViKij hiftory, from Herodotus 
down to the pret^nt day, but too well confiim the uuth of thb 

Upon this principle, no doubt, as the prefent learned Wdt r 
obiirtves, many falfc and fict'tiflfcs florici, that have been ob- 
truded on the world, may be accounted fcr ; which, havi-?; nr- 
Vf r been queftioned, have gained Arengih and crcdiii iir;~, b^ 
tiae and prcTcription. *■ Some, it may be, ccntinue» hr, t^r;- 
perfcfilv iclated ax. £rfi, or received bat by halves, have fooo 
teen dirgulfed with fucb adJiticaal circuirftance-', as havr ren- 
dered the whole narration impoff.b!e, or abfurd. Nor i* ii ar 
»U mrprizing, when this haih b?en the cafs, if tSi; very at- 
fj-d'tj- itfc'f Ihould be a dcftnce againft enou'ry, few, perhaps,'ng it wonh iheir pain; to clcir up 'b-: tr.::h, f -wtr hikvin'' 
a^ilisisd to Jo t:, ct imowing which way to ai:eaipt l\.' 



TiH life if Ajlrenmij in 

If thcfc rcflcflions arc irue in ^encril, as they mcrt certainTj 
aie, our Author thinks we (hall hnd ihcm no Icis {9 in one verj 
[tarticulxr inftance — that of a Stone falling into the A'gofpow- 
mos, and whofc fall is farther faid to have been foretoJd bn 

* That the mere falling of a Stone, however large. Into 
river, niould be loolccd on as a wonder, much more that it Iboulc 
be fo carefully tranfmillcJ down to (xiftcrity, in die manner this] 
hath ticcn, is furphfing, indeed. But that its fjll \^s capabtel 
of being predit^ed by any human (kill or fajjaciiy whatcvcr»1 
.may be fct down as plainly impoffible. Something, thcieforc,! 
moft probably, lies concealed at the bottom of this (tor)', iioH 
hitherto fuflicicntly difcovercd ; and what that is, (hall be the 
buftncfs of the following papers to examine. 

' The account given of this faft by Pliny* is this : ** Cele- 
brant Grxei (fays he) Anaxagoram ClazOmenium, Olympia- 
di» Scptuagcfimar o^avie fecundo Anno, pr^dixifie, Cccicfliunj 
Litcrarum Seicntiat quibus iJicbus faxum cafurum cllct c fole: 
idque fa^m inicrdiu in Thraciae Parte, ad ^gos Flumen. 
Qui Lapis (adds he) etiam nunc oftenditur, magnitudinc vehis^ 
(>jJoreadufto ) Comcte quoque illis No^ibus flagrante." 

* Atiftoilet hath the fame obfervation on the appearance of 
a Comet at the time when this Stone fell. But when he would 
have a Stone of fo ponderous a fize to be lifted up, and carried 
through the air by it-wind, it is only folving one woiuler by a ^ 

' Damachus, in Plutarch t» anoth^- Author that mentions 
this ftory, fays, " That before the fall of this Stone, fbrfeven- 
ty-fivc days together, there was feen in the heavens a large fiery 
tody, like a flanw-colourcd cloud, not moving fiowly, but hav- 
ing a variety of b.oltcn motions, fuch a$ things have iha: arc 
' carried uncertainly by (he waves ; that many Hery fplinccrscamc 
ftoro it, and I train of light rcfcmbling that of (hooting ftitrs." 

* Though this account is undoubtedly far from being exa£l, 
yet, when compared with what was above remarked from Arif- 
totle and Pliny, it plainly fugge(b, that the large fiery body like 

f-aflamccoloured cloud, muft have been ihe Comet mentioned 
|Vy both of them, and that this Comet had a fcnfiblc diameter. 

The fpliniers, and the train of light ilTuing from it, will readily 
Ibe allowed to hnc been it« tail, by all thai faw and remember 
t|3ic Comet of 1743. As to the irregularity of the motion here 

dcfcribed, that, 1 fuppofe, may well be attributed to the inaccu- 

• Nat. Hia. I. li. C59t 
X ia Vita Lyfandri. 

f Mcteorolog. I. J. c. 7. 


SiyUry and Chrcnftagy. 


raty of obfcrration, or, what is more probable, the want of 
c*re and fidcluy in the Hiftorians through whole hands iliii ac- 
count hath palled. 

» From ihe whole of this otfcurt Tclati"" however, 1 thinlr, 
wc my gsthcr thus much; thu it contains thice diftin^ h6is. 
— the Fall of the Stone into the ^goipotamos— the appcarajice 
of a Comet — and fomc Prcditlion or other, whatcvef it was 
of Anaxagoru. That thd'e three faints have hitherto been all 
aioogconfoundeJ together— and ih»t this ccnfufion mzvi m a 
good meafure at leaU, be sfcnbed to their happening ncuJj at 
the fame time. 

• A» to the Fan of thcStnne, wcfce, itisconfidercdby Da- 
machtn himfelf. andiftinft from what he call) the flamc-coloor- 
cd Cloud, and will pivc but little trouble in accounting for it; 
when be faysf " that the inhabitants of the oeighbourhood, at 
Iboii u they recovered from their fright, came together to the 
place where this Stone fell, but difcovcred iio (igiis of Fire;" 
he muft mean, 1 fuppofe, immediately j or that ihey found n« 
vifible Fire burning- For, upon examination, the Stone, it 
Pliny tayi true, w^s Ctltrt aJi^a. 

* The jtgofpoiamo5 was a Tjvcr in, what was called by tht 
antlents, the Thtacian Chcrfonefus, being joined to the Cot^- 
tinenionty by afmall neck of land. The country is rocky and 
mountainous, as wc learn from both Herodotus* and Slrabof. 
Tills Stone, tbeicftire, might he thrown ofF fiom fome nci^h- 
bouriag hill into the river, hv fome viuleni cxplofion, like that 
by which anoiluTT Hone wj!> thrown from the Alpi, in the time 
ot Gaftadua, and ilv ti kept, as be lays, at Aix in Provcncet- 

* In ^ia, therefore, there is nothing miraculr^us, a* will be 
readily allowed by fuch as arc in the kaft acquainted with chy- 
mical experiments. For chymical experiments arc nothing more 
ibanan utiQcial combination and mixture of fubflances, and in 

• Page :5*. Edit Grorft*. f Lib. vii. ps^e 47+. 

J Puica «diktua de lapiJe quexlam intigui. qui Afjuit ^exiiji aiTcr^ 
VAUit io boriiriiibo L'linclt^rchio, quaodo Si fulniineu* halictui, & tiix 
itocnine admodum pctcitbuit. Aiinut fuit M.DCXX.'^Vlt. k Die* 
NonmbtkXXIX. cum Tub matutiDam Horam X. ittc <kcidit in mpti. 
icni VajToDem, Alpiu:!! fiiaiiiiciaioin uniiin, ac inter Ciultrlcnos & Vr- 
doncm opptja Tium. Erart tune ninni* Nive ob,ln/tj ; crat (Vientifii 
fUBrn Car'um. duoque fucrunt prxfcttim viri, uiid% JtiternaDciut, aleet 
ia I'apo moD&tio decern, qui efT; potoer-nt oculati Teftpi. — Drpri-licn- 
f«t eft Lapis oai >^c>iertl, qtiiquc ciTofHift TifiJl eft vituliaO Capiii par* 
frd DOflR'hil rocundior, & nugis ad fo^mam Capitis bumani accrdent, 
Co^ar mctallieui, fubtufcu^i exqailita ditritiei. pondus vQigaiium LapU 
dtira grariuEfmexrupccaai. CalTciul. Op. Tom. U pag 96. 


The Ufe if A/ittntmy m 

fuch a manner as is frequciuly. though imprrcepillily, iata hf 
Nature h^rfelf. And as like caufes wilt alw^v) i>rodijcc hkfi 
efie^s, we may fairly pronounce of the hidden opcraiiwis of (he 
ooe, frdm what we fee daily performed by the other. 

* Htftt, for infiaoce, U the fame tdiethcc natural or uriifi. 
cial, and willj under certain circumftanccs, produce Kernicnta- 
tion- That again mav, and frequently doth* produce a Uruiig 
clalUc vapour, which, if conGoed, will force a paflagc whcre- 
ever it can, and carry along with it everything thatoppotcih it. 
The cfFcfls of gunpowder arc known to c«cr>- onci The chief 
ingredients in U are Sulphur and Nitre. But Sulpliur, when 
{iMrdered, and added to an equal quantity of filings of iron, 
Vid with a Lttlc water nude into a pallc, in tivc or fix hours 
grows too hot to be couched, and emits a flame*. 

* There is k natural fulphur abounding in majiy places f ; 
and iron, it is well known, is almoll every where to be mec 
with. It is found even in all parts of animaUl^ whether fluids 
«r folidi, a»milki urine, blood, fat, bones, llefli. ^oftcoun- 
Iriea of Europe produce mines of it, as England, France, Gtr- 
iiumy, Pola.1^1, Norway* &c. That it romatns In itfclf great 
^uantietof fulphur, appcats from the fparks it emits, when jg- 
sitcd, and beat by the Smith's hammer ; thole fparki being 
owing to the fulphur it conuins, as no I'uch thla^ a obfcrvable 
in any other 'metal whatever. 

* The Weight of the Stone then menitoned by GalTcndus 
plainly (faewt, that it contained a large quantity of metal ; and 
the Cmrt adMjiSy in that of Pliny, beipeaks it to have lain, as 
IcaA, in a fulphuroous matrix. If there^c the fnow melting 
upon the Alps, cr any hill near the /E^ofpntamos, found .its 
way to a mixture of iron and furphur, a^tsoot impofliblc, upon 
the principles here laid down, it would have been capable of 
throwing off a piece of rock as large as riiher of thofc men' 
tioned by Gaflcndus, or Pliny |. 

* But though what hath been here faid, very e-^ly.and natu- 
rally accounts for the Fall oF the ^lone, yet that no fkill, u he- 
thcr natural or acquired, could forctet fuch an evvnt, is too plain 
to need any proof.' 

In order to fhcw that it could be no other than .1 Solar Eclipfe 
which Aiuxagoras foretold, inArad of the F;i|| of aStune, our 
Author now proceeds to give a poiticular account of the leveia) 

• Kewton'a Opii^. p«g. 554, 
Borrluuvt'k ChyCDill. v<A. L pag. iif. 
vckl. I. p. 9t. 

I b>'etvtoa. Optic, p 1^4. 


f N'r*tfin*» Optic pa*j 5,9. 
; BodhAas-e. t.ti)uiiA. 


flijlsry end Cfjr^htkff* Zi 

^yxW^ci wliich happened about this time j and he fives rhe'J 
moA Caiijf^Aory rcafons for fisioy upon ih At which h.ippein*d in J 
February, in ilie year before Cbrill 478, as the veiy pbenome^'i 
non in queflion ; cancliuling alfo, thit it was not 1 Flamc-co- 
tiaurcd Cloud which Anaxngoras faw, but the Comet which 3p*'{ 
pcamJ at the time when the battle w.i!> fimglit at Salami», ihs 
d^tc of which he ventures to corrc^ by the time of this appear- 
[Ance; for his opinion, the rcfult of thi'> cuiiou» aAronoEiiicali 
f£nauir)', is* tiui inllcad of Olymp. LXXVill. 2, as it is 
Irrad in Pliny at prcTent, it Ihould bu altcied .to Olymp.,) 
LXXXU. 2. 

Leaving the particulars of this ingenious inveftigatinn to ftich 
■>f our Readers iis are fondof aAronomici) caleulniions an J chroAl 
t jv>Joifical criticifm^, and referring llietn to our Author's perform- »j 

ce at large, wc Ihalt proceed to the cor.clufion of ths wholir ; 1 
ibi'erving by the w^y, ihitt in reirard tuthoic who may ob-' 
Icainft this tclipfe of 47S, ihat it wa* only annular whcrer^ 
crcatctt, and therefore will not aeicc with the dcfcripiion given 
By Herodotus. — * To this it may oe anfwercd, fays he, that the ,, 
Hlflory of thii fa^t ia delivered by Herodotus, not as a Phjlufo- 
phcr, but an Hiftoiian*. That therefore the words m il^ri as 
n'tgftt are not to be too ftriflly urged, as implying abfolute dark-'^ 
nefs H being no ways uiKommoii, in popular language, lo make 
ufe of that exprt-ffion for any great and extraordinary datkncf). 
[Add to thii» that HctOdotus delivers ihis fj^, Oct »» happening; 
rithin the compafs of his own Itiiuwlege and obfervaiion, but 

he had beard it related by oiheis i for he cottld not have hccn. 
aborc i\x years old at the time, according to what hath been 
above qiiotrd from Aulus Gellius. Ami t)ii*i, we know, is a 
<eafon of life, when children make but few reflexions, and when 
ill appearances are magnified. The horror and conftcrnaiion 
th.-y were all in upon the occafion, he might well remember, 
■nd the tragical death of Pythcas'jfon, muflhave been frequent 
ttutier of difcourfc among his lonians. But he knew noihinc 
of the dcuflrine of Kclipfts, as Is evident from his fpeaking qF 
the fun, M Iraisn^ iii plait in the htovent and diptfptmni, 

* It is certain, however, from this account^ ihat the army 
loft (i^ht of the fiin, but that might he owing to foms other ad- 
diuon-il caufe befiJesthe intcrpofition of the moon's body- 

* For notwithflaoding wjiat Herodotus fays, that there were 
no rlouds, and that the air was very clear, he niult not be uti- 
dcrftood, perhaps, in too ftri<5l a manocr. Thc (tionth of tj^ 

* It ..v poor a Philofop&cr and AAronomer Herodoiai was, appe*» 
ftm hi<^ oitf ntiet kX acvojotiuf lot the oveifloA ing of the Nile. 

Ksv. Jan. 1765. D bruary 


rhe Ufr #/ j^hmemj, (ff. 

tbiuary is moiil> and the air might he full of vapours^ thougli 
I not carried hi^h enough, nor lufficient))' coiidcnfcd^ tq foii»i 

* It is neither impoflibre, <iHcrcforc, nor Improbablcy that aft] 
the time of thib Kclipfe ac Sirdis, the watery vapours^ thus float- 
ing ill the atmo^pSeie, might condcnfe by degrees, as the fun'i 
light and hrati)ec:tved. By this meant^ towards the nii;ldle 
the Eclipfc, thev might fonn themfdves Into a thick mift, whicHi 
would entirely Kidc the fun» increafc (he darknefs, and confe-* 
quently the (cars and alVonilhment of an ignorant and fupcrfti-J 
tious army.' 

Proceeding: to his general conclufmn, * I hive now, fays our' 
Author, liniihed a very long and trDublefome enquiry. Mf 
defign at Jiift was nothing more than to fee, if poffibic, what 
there tvus remarkable in tht Falling of a Stone into a River, and 
why the ontienu Ibould be fo careful to- tianfrtut down to us i 
fiHoi fo feemingly fmall importance. 

* Bill the circumdanccj faid to have attended its Fall-~-i{s be- 
ing prcdiSed by the ablcft Pbilofophcr of ttuc age — and at a period 
fo remarkable in hiftory,— all luggefled, that there muft be fomc 
miAakeat thebottonii and that there mufl be fomething more in 
the flory than apprarcd at ftrft fight. This Lnfcnfjb^r led mc 
farther than ] expc^cd,. or intended. 

* The rcfult, however, I think} is plainly this. That Xerxes- 
moil piobably came into Europe in the year before Ghrift 4785- 
two years later than Chronologers have generally fuppofed bit» 
to have done, and that the Olympiads, of courfc, began tw» 
years later than they have hitherto been placed. 

* If what hath been here laid together, fhall at all contribute 
to the fixing or illuflrating this part of Hiftyry, I (hall think mjt 
time and pain& not ill bellowed. A few remarkable periods in- 
Hifiory, properly determined, are of great fcrvicc in Chronology, 
and this is a» remarkable as any. It is about this time only diat 
the fabulous Hiilury of the Gieckj endii, and their true op^ 

With rcriK^ to that memorable expedition under coitTidcra- 
tion, he obfervc's, that * it was of great importance both in it- 
felf, and as to the confequenccs attending It. If it did not lay 
the foundation of, it cciiainly increafed, the muttu) jealoufy 
and animofity of the two powerful States at Athens and Sparta, 
%hich broke o»t at luft rn the long and ruinous Pdoponncfiati 
AVar. Thii likewifc was made afterwards one of the main 
ijrrtcjices for Alexander's invidlng the Perfians, which, at the 

L*t1trt, i^ct 35 

fume time that it ended with the dcdruAion of tliit cxtenGvo 
empinr, openetl the way to all our knowlcge of the Eaft.* 

•,• We have taken the liberty lo meniion ihe name of Mr. 

jftard*, altho' it h not inferttsl in the title-page of this pcr- 
fbnnance; but we find it lui^fciilieJ to his adJtei't thereof, to 
the Eul of Northingtoo, X^rd High Chancellor of Great 

• Vicar of TVtdteaham. 

L/ttm htween dhnel Rshert ttammwdt Gpvtrmr of tin IJli tf 
ff'igbty and iheCimm'itteecf LtrdsandCiTomam at Dfrhy-Hsuje^ 
General Fairfax^, LifulenanI Cenrral C.rsrmvflt^ Ctmmifptrj Qt- 
ntral Iretsit ijfe. Rt!athg to King Charln I. while ht iL-at 
can^td in Carifirsih-Ca/iU h that f/Jand. Now firft PuWjfti- 
ed. To which is prefixed, a Letter from John Alhburnham, 
Efqi to a Friend, concerning his Deportment towards the 
King, in his Attendance on hi; MajeRy at Hampton-Court, 
and in the Iflcof Wight. 8vo. 2s. Horstield. 

THOUGH thcfc Letters do not afford any new or llriJeine 
anecdote;, to gratify our httloriwdl Readers, yet tbry (end 
to iUuHrate and expla:n the policy of Cromwell, and more parti- 
cularly to flicw his dextrous and fucccbful management of that 
mvftcrious pan of the areanaoi State, implied under the gene- 
Itiu hejA o( Seertt frrviie muity. In the courfc of ihefe Letters 
it appears, there was not a flcp taken by the King, or by aiif 
«r his Agents, toward his cfcnpc from the idc of Wight| but 
the Committee of Dcrby-Houfe came to the immeJiste know- 
lege of evciy drcumUance} and communicated thcot, with 
proper inftrufllon?, to Colonel Hammond. By thcfc Letters 
we tie likewifc made more fully acqoaintcd with the Coionel's 
wavering and time-ferving condud, and with his Majelly's pce- 
cipitstc and ill-judged rcfolutiona. As to the circumftances re- 
quiiitc to alTuic us ot their authenticttjr, they are mentioned in 
the Pieficc. 

The motives wliicb induced ECingCharlcs to retire to theiOe 
of Wight, arc contained in a Letter rc-printed and prcAxed to 
thit Collection, from b/ii. Afliburnham to a friend, vindicating 
himl'clf from the afpeWions caA on him, of hiving betrayed h^s 
i^U)efty into that mcafure, the confcquencet of which arc (o well 
£nown. In tbis Lcitcr wc tind, thit the King wat induced t» 
intxull himfelf with Cvloncl H jmmond^ ifoai lui Anfwer to tl^ 
Deputaiion his Majcrty fcnt him, previous to his own comin*, 
aad which wai a fuHows ; ' 'lihat, fincc it appcatrd hij Ma- 
}€&y came frem Himpton- Court to fave his life, if be peiXcd 

D 2 to 


tetters hnMN C^/. HimmoMtt ctid 

to put hCmfclf into hi& hands, whatever he rould txpcft' frorn u 

peribii of honour or hone Ay, his A]ajeO| Ihould bitvc it madci 

. f^wiA by hinr..' 

The particulars of this period of our Hiftory, arc alrcad] 
oadcfufficicntly publk\ by numbers tif Writers, of both Paxtics^^ 
ilncctKciinicof acl'on ; folliatlittlcnow rt.-m:ttii3 to be added, ofj 
cjh, indeed, be added, tow;trd caHing 3i>y ik-w light on the 
gcnciaJ cr2nfs(?Hcn^. From theft I_rfltrr.s, however, may be ga- 
tltcrcd fume paricvlar anecdotes relating to the fchcmes coii- 
,Xrivcd. to cxtiicJt:^ (he ui)lurcun<iLc Monaich fiom ihe bands oC 
bis enemies. 

ThiTc Letters cannot be read without malcing fk^nic obvious 
• Xcilcvltians on tile peculiar complexion wf the popular Party, or 
father of that Party which crufhc^ ihc King, only to fuccecd 
.hint ill the teal of tvranny. How excellently were their pro- 
P'Cecdiiigs inieiwovcn with cnthufialllc prolciUoiis ! from which 
: Itiay he gathered, of vvliat cxtcnfive applieation the externals of 
ritlijjioii Ate cjpuble ^ aiul Itow little H'tjitby to be ttullcd, ab< 
icd liom fomc farther evidence of the rctititudc of mcafurcs- 
■tw» often difguifed by them. 

' TTic Reader will fee by the Letters fubjoined, that Cromwell 
fend lirton wete no iriconfideiable profelibrs of this art: thcy^ 
,felate lo feme fcruplcs made by Col. Hammond^ on the fubjcifV 

of Mn lOval ch^igc, which ihcfc Letters wc.-c calculated to re-'' 

piovc, Yhcy are really curiofitics, with rerercnce to the Par-' ' 
'|It5 which wrote them ; and when compared with their fubfc-'' 

qucnf conduct, tcfltfy how fincerely CromwcU was inclined — * 
I'to * txslt the Lord !* snd — ' abafe the flelh !* and m pbcc-* 
!*his reliance on the good-will of him who dwelt in thebufti.* 

• CcT!:miJJary Gettefgl Intotii t« Cttmtl Hjmmeni. 

Dear Robin, 
'T*!I(}U wilt receive hcrcv^iith a letter from the General, by 
* "which thoii wilt fee what tendcnjcfs there is here towards' 
ihec. I {lull not at ibis diftance undertake it difpute concern-' 
ih2 our ground or proceedings % but leave thee for tbcone, to 
our Rcmonflrancc ; for the' other, to farther trial of us. !• 
AmU only, in the love of a fiicnd and brother, fpealc a wuid or 
t%vo to that which 1 find the ground of thyfcruplcs againft what 

tltath been from hence defirtd, or rather of thy declared rclblu- 

[tSon to the contrjry. 

* Thou looked on thvfctf as a fcn-ant tinder truft; and fo' 
[both in honour and conlciencc ubttr^ed to difcharge ihut faith-' 
illy. ^'And thw far thou art itf the rieht. But the only mra-^ 
(ujrc cr tTiat difchargc thou tiJitil to be the iflcrc formal obfaT*. 

■ ■ "■ * artce 

tiu Citnmiltif at Derliy bsufft l^e. 

■nee of commands ; and ihofc carrying but that n.imc of power 
from which thnu anprchcndcft it was committed lo thee. As to', the fjithful Jifcliargcof the truft, ihc Lord fyrbiJ, 
that 1 rhnutd tempt the: from it. Nuy. I will churge and chal-r 
Icngc it at thy hands, that with all fiiihrulnf fs Jind Tinglfners of 
bcirc, as before the Lord, ihnu pcrfoim ihy triift to thofc pcr- 
fon3( by whom* and to thofe public ends and iiuerclls for which 
it tv2t commitied to thrc. 

* Bui for thcfe thing;s I fliall appeal to the witnefs of God in 
tbyconfctence, as ftlluws : 

* I. For the perfons trufling, whether thftu dilft receive thy 
prefcnt place from the affiilions or trufl of ilic loiiiial Farlia" 
mcnt only, even as thtn ii flood i or whether of iheCJcpcnl or 
Army ? And whether, To far aj thou fecmcQ to haw the foim- 
aliiy DV way of confirma'ioii from the Parliament, it were from 
any atte3ioii r>r tri:fl of that fort or geiicr:itii)n of trcPf whicli 
now, through accident, b?ar thrfway and name? Orwhclher 
from them, »-ho(e judgment and aifc^ons ace mofl oppoHtc td 
ihe prefcnt proceeding's there / 

fc • II. For the ends, whether thou rcceivedjl thy rruft in order 

'to the ends now carried f>n hy the prevailing party theic? <Jr 
whether, in cuntidcucc of thy faithfutnefs tu fume other higher 
and more public cnd> ? Whether for the King's and the prefcnt 
prevailing FaBion's; or for the public intcrcH, and the gene? 
raJity of boncft men, that have engaged for the (imc. \ 

* Upon the anfwer of thy confcience in (hefe, T propound 
farther ; in cafe fuch pcifons a& neither did, nor would havS 
commincd any furh trult unto thee, but only gaining fince th6 
naiDf: of that power, from which thou hadft- the fonnal cooipli- 
men: of thetiull, and yet but partly that, fhall require things 
dcfirticlive to, or not for the bell advantage of, thofe public 
cndi. for which really thou reccivedftthy trult; and at thei*ame 
time thofe, from whofe aire^ioD and. confidence in thee, thuu 
boddthe mancr of thy power and truft, Otall dcfirc and expet^ 
from thee oihcr thiiigs necclTary for the fccurity, or but rcully 

* for better advantage, uf thofe public cuds for which thou wert 
trufted, and frjr the common bencUi and intcrcll of ih»t people, 
for which all pretend ilicir Cmploymenti and intcrcft ; iu this 
cafe, 1 fay, Ilball appeal f.uihcr to thy confcicnce, or bu; in- 
genuity, to determine, to which t^ thefc fcvcrsl perfons, artd 
according to which commands and cvpccbtionj, thou art to c»^ 
hibit and approve l!:y faiihfulncfs inihetruft; and whether part 
lo obfcTve and follow is i' real and fubfbfltJal pijrfoim. 

ancc bdorc God, am! rc-.^ ;i?n. 

* I fiiatl j]o; prtjfs .thcCf but ihns plainly )ay ttiecafc bejy^ 

D 3 J xHte-t, 

-u:r- J. a 

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'*' > ■ ■, ,-. ••'..'.- . ■.:■.■ -.- -.■:::. . r— _i-^ ; :,TLi Z^ ■HlM. 

*"'"•■' •-'•'t, ■'- ji-(Ci /•^'-- -^'.r .'.r LiTi-i. "".=-: — n: 
'.'■- .//( .' ■ :. •/•/■x '.-xt', ;•:-. . -xjr^ - -;-r^ 1::.: 'vr^ 

1^ .. .,.'-. ,- , i.;,^. -*.--•; •,' '--* L/:.-'_ "H = ;-r.:c.:r hath 

t • 



• * .f. *:-. r'v^. -A-;,; ',- h.T, wha iwrlf ia 
t. U. t "', .•/.u i;t , in-; wt'.ir. n^!T,':!v tv, we<:now 
M< 'I"'. '. "' *■-■• '.» ' /"f, •y.r.'j i; a'-I-, 2r.- -Ai^'perfe^ what 
»«(»..<».'■■-, ,,..', (,»'., ,- ':•,::.;/ v;' r. we!l'pleaung In hU 

' |)<(--f» I ^i.'l ^.ifc t('(tit.(f in yfiur rpirit, occafioned firfl^ 

(ff>l i.j.Iy \.f il.t (<.i,i,r (i(f «.| joiir fiui and heavy burthen, as 

]l(i" » 'II It, '•('''(' y"", I'lH I'/ Mic (lifl li'.faction you take at the 
\*\ I'liiip f.Mf'l fiiuit wliifui you love with your heart, who 


iht Oimmhift at Drrhy'h$tt^, l^. 


tlmwgb this principle, ih»i it b lawful for a kflcf part (if in 
the right) to force, &c. 

* Tothcfirft: Call not your Imrthcn fxd nor heavy. Ifyoor 
Fatlicr laid it upon you ; he intended neicher. He is riic Farhrr 
of lights, from whom comes every good and perfed gift ; who 
of his own will begot uSi and bad us count ic all jo^ when furh 
things befall us ; they being for the exercife of faith and pati- 
encej ivherthj in tit fnd {James i.) xne JhatI be maitt pfrfttl . 

* Dear Kobtn* oui ficQiIy Koonings enfnart: m, Thefc 
oakcusfay, heavy, fad, plrafanc, cafy : was not therealiitlc 
of thii when Rob. HAmmond, through dilTatifcfadiun too, de- 
filed retircmcal from the a^my, and ihougkt ot' {{utcc in the I/lc 
of Wight. Old not God tind bim out there ? I believe he 
will never forget this.— And dqw I perceive, be is to feck again, 
partly through his fad and heavy burthen, and partly through 
^iflati station with friends actings. Dear Robin, Ihou audi 
were never ttwrthy to be door-kccpen in this lefvice. If thou 
wilt feck, feck lo know the mind of God in all that chain of 
P/ovidcncc whcrchy God brought thee thither, and that Pcrfon 
Co tbec I how bci'oic and (iacc God hai ordcicd bim, and aifuirs 
coaceming bim. And then td) me, whether there be not fonve 
glotiousand high meaning in all this, above whuctliou hiA yet 
anaificd. And laying aiide tliy £clhly reafon, feck of theI,ord 
CO teach tbec what that is \ and he will do it. I dare be poli- 
Civc to fay, U is not, that the wicked fliould be cxa]tcd, ttuc 
God ibouJd fo appear, as indeed he hath done. Tot there is no 
peace to thctn : Ko, it is let upon t^e hearts of fiich as fear the 
Lord, and we have wilneij nptni witneb, that it (ball go jll 
with them, and their partakcrii. 1 lay acain, feck that Spirit to 
teach thee, which is the Spirit of Icnowlcgc and undi-rftanding, 
the Spirit of counfcl and niight, of w>fdom and of the feat of 
the Lord. That Spirit will elofc thine eyes, and flop thtnc 
ears, fo that thon fltalt not judge by them ; but thou (halt j'ldgc 
(or the mcetc of the earth, 'nnd ibou (halt be made able to do ac> 
cordii^ly. The Lord dircft clice to that whidi is wcil-plcafing 
in hb e}*e* fight. 

* As to thy dii&tufafliotu with friends agings upon that fup- 
poicd principle, I wonder not at that. If a mnn uke not his 
own burthen Well, he (hall hardly others ^ rfprcially if involved 
by fo near a relation of love and Cht'tlian biotherliood as thou 
art. I fliill not take upon mc to fatlsfy \ but I hold myfcif 
bound to lay my thoughts before fo dear a friend. The Lord 
do bi4 own will. 

* You fay, ** God hath appo:nt^d authorities among ihena> 
t(DBH to V^b ii^ve or fa&ve pbcdiciic^ ^ ,|o be /"^''^cd. 




Lritert letwanC^J. Hmnmaitdi eutd 

TbU tcTidcs in Englu^d in the Parliament. Therefore a£l!vc i 
palSvc, 5ic." 

* Authontiea ukI powers arc the ordinance of God. Thi» 

', or thac fpccies, is of human tndilution, and limited^ fomc with 

l, larger, others wiih ftrjScr hands, each one according to lu eon- 
ilitution. 1 do not thprcforc ihinlc, the authorilits may do any 
ihlngf and yet fiKh obedience due; but all agree, mere are 
cafes in which it is l;iwful to rcTift. If fo, your ground fails> 
and fo likcwjfc the inference. Indeed, dcat Robin, notioniul- 

'• tiply wordk} ihe'query is, whether ours be fuch a cafe? 7 his 

r- ingenoonfly is the tnie queftion. To this I fhaH fay nothing, 
thougli I couM fay very nidtb i hot only dcfirr thrc to fee what 

"- thou findeft In thy own heart as lo two or three plain confi- 
dentinns t Firfl, XVhciher Sflhn Popit/i he a found p'.fition ? 
Secondly, Whether in ihc way in hLUul, rially ami b<rfoi^ iJic 

' Lord, brforewhom confcienccmuflftand, ihis bcprovidcd for; 
or the whole fnilt of the war like to be fruftratcd, and all moft , 

I? like to torn to what it w«, and worfe. And this contrary to] 
engagements, dcclaniiions, implicit covenants with thofc wh< 
Tcntured their 'lives upon thofc corenants and cngagcmcnts»j 
without whom, perhaps, in cqiiiir, relaxation ought not to be.' 

V' Thirdly, Whether this army be not a lawful power, called hf\ 
God, to oppofc and fight a^ainll the King, upon fome ftatca] 
grounds; and being in pOMfer to fuch ends, may not oppnfoj 
one name of authority, for thofc ends, ai well ai another? the] 

r outward authoiiiy, that called them, not by their power mak-, 
ing the quarrel lawful, but it bcin?^ fo in itfclf. If fo, — it may 
be, ailing will be juftificd in Fare hutnttno. But truly thcfc kinil 
of icafcnmgs may be but fiiftily, cither wich or agarnft; only] 
It is good to try viUit truth may be in them. And the Lord 

I'tcath us. 

* My dear friend, let us look into providcncei ; fiirety they] 
mean totnewbat. I'hey (lang fo together — have been To con- [ 

.'ftant, fo clear and unclouded — Malice, fwoln malice againft < 
Cotl'i people, now called Saints, to root out ihcir name. And ' 
yet they, by Providence, having arms, and therein bleficd with 
defence, and more. 

* I dir/ire, he, that is for a principle of fufFenn;;. would not) 
too much (light this. I (light not him who is fo minded ; hutj 

,Jet us liEwarc, left flcflily [cafoning fee more fafety in making' 
fUfcof the principle, tban in a£Jmg. If'Tya aft Sy ana rfjeh'a n6t\ 
thtpugh G-:d ie hv/Ulhg to part with ali? Our hearts arc" very- 
deceitful on the right and on the left. Wliat think you of Pto- 
vidcncr difpofing the hearts of fo many of God's people iliiai 
^•way, efpecially in this poor army, wht-rcin tSe ■great God baa 
voucbfafcd toftppear. ' 1 know not one Officer oniVnefl u^ but 


ibf CammJttM at ^rhj-thokfe^ lS<t ju 

on (he iocrcafing hatid ; and let mc (ty^ it is Vr/ m the X^rlh, 

a/iff murk fralUmet wc iruH the fame Lord, who hzih fiamrd 

lur miodi in our ac^ing^, is with ui, in ihli alfo. And this. 

mrrarj' to a rutuut tcuJt^^cy, and to iliofe ccmforts our hearts 

luld wiih to enjoy with others. And the difHcilitics probabljr 

> bccocoimtcred with: and enemies, not few, even all, thatu 

ilmious in this world, with appearance of luiitcd nimes, titles, 

ruidautbonties, and yet not terrified, only dcfiriflg to tear our 

great God, that wc do nothing againfthli will. Tru'y this is 

our condition. 

* And to conclude, we in this northern army were in a waic- 
inz poAure, drfiring to fee what the Lord would lead us to. 
And a declaration is put out, at uhich many arc ihnken ; al- 
though we could, perhaps, have wiOicd die Hay of ic till after 
the rrewy-: yet, feeing it is come out, wc iruft to rejoice in the 
Will of (he Lord, waiting his farther pleafurc. Dear Kot>ili, 
■bew2rc of men, ioolc up to the Lord. Let him be free to fpeaii, 
and commanJ in thy heart. Take bced of the things, I fete 
thou haft rcafbncd thyfelf into; and thtiu Ibalt be able through 
bvn, without confuhing flelh and btood, to do valiantly tor 
him and for his people. Thou mentioncft fomewhat, as if by 
Ading againft fuch oppoGlion, as is like to be. there will be a 
rCcmpnn^ of God. Dear Robin, tempting of God ordinariI)r 
c):hcr by :icling, prcfumptuoutly in carnal confidence, or in 
ibcljef through difHilence : both ihefc ways Ifract tempted 
in the 'VVildcrncli, and he was grieved with (hem. The 
encountering dilBcuItics [hereforc makes us not to tempt God ; 
but a^ng before, and wiLhout faith. If the Ixird hnve in anjr 
meafurc pcriuaded his people, ns generally he hath, of the t^w- 
fulncT", nay of the duty ; this pcrfuafion prevail ng upon t lie 
heart ts Kaith, and adting thereupon is aS'ing in Faiih -, and the 
niofe the difficu'lics arc, the more F2ith. And it i^ moft fwcet, 
that he, that is not perfuided, have pauence towaid^ them thu 
ire, and Judge nocj and this will free thee from the trouble of 
ochen idinjs ^ which, thou ftycH, s.6d% to thy grief. Only 
tectnc oSci two or three things, and I have done. 

* DocH thou not think, that fear of the Leucllers (of whom 
there i* no fear) that they would deftroy Nobility, bad caufed 
fomr to rake up eorTUptio.-i, to Jind it lawful to tTtake thii rnimng 
kfftiritiMi a^munt (on onepan). Hnth n^t tliisbiafled even 
mnc good men ? I willnotf^y, their fcarwitlcumeupon ihcmt 
but it it do, they will ihcnii'dves faring it upon thcrafclvts. 
Haire not (bmeof our frleadi, by their pafTive principle (which 
rjuJ^nor, only I think it lisble to tempuiion as well as the 
acLve ; and nctiticr good, but as wc arc led into them by God 
— iKtdtertobe (cui'ojk;! iniOj becaufc the heart is dcccitfulj 



RamdaliV Can/initjin mdXJft 9/ 

been Dccafioned to overlook what is juft and honeft ; and think 
the pwplc of God may have as much, or more good the one 
way than the other. Ouod by this man • againft whom ihc 
Lord hath witnefled ; and whom thoj knowclt. Is chis 10 in 
their hearts, or is it rczroned, forced in ?— Robin, 1 hive done. 
Aflc we our hearts, whether we think, that after all thcfc diC- 
penfaiions, the like to which many generations cannot alford, 
fltould end in fa corrupt reafonings of good men \ and {houM 
fohit the defignings of bad ? Thinkcfl thou in thy heart, that 
the glorious aifpenrations of God point out to this, or to leach 
his people to truft in him, and to wait for better things, when, 
it may be, better are fcaled to many of their fpirits ? And as a 
poor looker on, I had rather live in the hope of that fpirit, and 
take my fhare wich them, exposing a good ifTue* than be led 
awa^ witli the oihcr. Thiii trouble 1 have been at, bccaufc my 
foul loves thcCy and I would not have thee fivervc, nor lofe any 
glorious opponunity thv Lord put» into thy hand. The Lord 
be thy Counfellor. Dear Robin, 

VT . . £ e J 'cft thine. 

The CinJhrucJion And tx/injrve Ufe vf nnofy inptnted* unSverfal 
Sted-Furr9w Plough j upon an taffy fitadf PrirMpU, futtrd ta all 
Sfiiiiy J}i^ or fighly Uvtl orridgtd; and capahU BJ f^win^ alt 
Sfrls of Seedi in ibut RatvSy thUkcr or thinner^ dtrier orjhai- 
itUKTf and the Furrotvs er Raws tuartr or farthtr ajundrr^ juji 
*j tht Owner pUafts. jllfo^ the Cwfrwiihn rf a Draining 
PUugh^ upm a x'ery fimple Principle. Bath pubUJhed with a 
f^rtf, that the Ingeniius may ftt what it waning tt put the ftnifh- 
ing Hand ti a See.i-Furrowy and aifo to a Droi'vng Plough, fVith 
the dn/lruliien and Ufe tf a Pstntse- OriU Maihtne^ pointing tut 
the Benejil arifmg frtm this tuhilffaU Culture^ ta the Land, and 
t9 fomt tf the Live'fioti.—^-Ti whith is added, jfn Ejfay $n 
the Thcery ef a esmmon Phuphy in erder ts fhtd^ by Gtemetricoi 

• Canjiruaim,, the AngUt whteh give the Shurt exaSI Land- and 
Biisttb 6i aU Dcpthiy and inldch halanu the Metitnt pftht Plough. 
JIhifirated with Seven large Oppfr-pitrtes. Hy J. Randall, a 
few Years fince Maflcr of the Acadcmv at Hcach, near 
Wakcfickl, Yorldhirc. 4ta 51. fewed. ' Willtie. 

iHE very curious and ufcful Ploughs here dcfcribcd, arc 
not extant upon paper only, but;irc a£tually conAiu^ed^ 

* PurTuant to the nocice given by tlie Society for the Encouragement 
of Arts, MaauraAores, aDdCommeice. 


nndcr the rye of the tndct'.'iii^ihlc Author, and now ready for 
fervice. And lb fat is Mr. Randall fiom keeping bis valuable 
improvements in Agriculture « fecrett that the Seed-furrow 
Plough, wcarctvlJ, has been, from time to time, expcfed to 
rtie public view of abundance of people. 

la the Preface we are informed, that the New Huftandry 
feemc ihc moft likely method for the picvention of one of the 
inoft grievous plagues incident to FatmcrSf and which * ct^unlly 
jjfcd^ the lunded intcicfl^ and the community in general :'—• 
viz. • the depredations of dcllruci've Weeds.' — This obrerva- 
non is undoubtedly juft : but though many perfons have bent 
their thodghu on inventing pr(^r machines whereby to intro- 
(Usee thepradice; yet an unexceptionable one for the purpofc, 
kaa not hitherto appeared. How far the prefent attempt may 
Ibccced, bcttci thin others, time muft^ (hew. In die piece be- 
fere us, the Author hjs made fome very lenfible remarks on the 
varioiu machine* now in being, for the purpofc of Towing corn : 
and having pointed out their (cvcral defects, he proceeds to fhew 
the power of his own { the conflru^ion uf which is To minute- 
ly dcfcribcd, tha| hcfcems to think any Gentleman may ect one 
aaic foe his own ufe, (by the book) if he plcafes. t-or our 
parts ve realty think, th-it Mr. Randall's Machine, here of- 
fcic<i to the Public, appeajTit Icfti complicated, and more likely 
to anfwctiu intention, than any other, of which we have Icen 
draughts. Be this, however, as it will, he certainly ought to 
hare the praifc juJtly due to every perfon who endeavours to 
promote the public good : and that this was the main view of 
«ar Author, in writing the prcfcnt ticatife, may appear from 
Uuftillowmg quuution. 

* If 1 am but inftrumenta) in exciting the attention of « few 
more Gentlemen to the new Hufbandry, and thereby incrcafe 
the number of its fhcnd-;, by this publication, I ihall cllerm it 
no fmatl happitirf^, in having done, what every man who can 
fed the generous fatisfaiSion of being ferviceable Co other?, B- 
Ifitret after.' 

After having ^ircn ihc Reader his remarks (which appear 
lo be very judicious) on all the Diill Principles at prefent 
known, he adds — * It any pctfon fhould think I hare made very* 
free with other people's labours, I fincercly hope he will do fo 
by mine, as they arc pnblilhed with that very intent ; for if the 
public gct^ but an univerfal DrillPlou^, that will elTcftually 
arvlwcr all etid*, it is no matter who ii the Inventor. Perhaps 
my labours, added to thofe who have gone before me, in this 
difficult btifinefs, may give a more ingenious Head proper hints 
^W to proceed, aad then, after all bis toil, be will judge 
$ better. 

hrtivT, whitlicr t havcobtuncd the grand Dciidcratuin waii:i|i<» 
in Agriculture.' 

Inflcad of attempting 3 dcfcription.of this fcrviceaWc Micliinc 
wliich would fcarcc be inrclligibic without ihc PJatcs, we muft' 
content ouriclvcs with recommending the perijfal of the b(x>k», 
i« 3II Inch Gentlemen as are friends 16 rational improvements ia' 

The Draining;- Plough feems to he formed upon rational, as 
well as fimpic, principles ; and appears, to os, very likely to 
lofwcr its intended purpofc. 

jXhc EiTay on the Theory of a common Plough, iji very iji^ 


'4 * - - - — QT " J ^"ra 

i;cniou«; and contains many hints that might beef ^rcat ufctai 
a fcnfibic Wotkman, in, the coiiftrudion ui' ihxii moll iicccilary 
unplctncnt iiiAgr^ulturc. 

Tir Femur"! Nno Gaidt^ for raifing extftteitl Cnpt ef PMfij\ 
BfanSt Turmpt, tr Rafv^ (f9W*i ii rtarrnv sr h r</r Rsivi, u-!0 
eSerd-Pitughf in the Power sf rvcry Upright to mah at an tojf 
ExpfKCi) and dtanii^g tl>t GrcvKd, whi/t ther rtfr grnviit^y to 
prtfare it ftr raijirt^ ned Crspt ef lybrafy BsrUjy or Oats ^ in 
tBe Cftftmon TPTty sf jawing the Se/ds, iltar of th^fe Walk which 
ft efm ruin the r'artHrTy ' gr ierp Mm fnor, Bervg Exttrimtvti 

" Burde en the vannti Stiii sffl'JT t>fd lif;ht. By'lWr. Ladnar, |j 
fcw Years fince a wry confidcrahte Farmer, but tidwof Kroj^J 
in VoikQiirc. Svo. js. Sandby. 


TH E Author of this HhIc trafl tiss done us the hononr 
dedicate it * To tht Mantbfy Rrviewtn ;' with a kind intcf**' j 
tion of rc^ityiog an ovcrTight, which hcallcdges we had horn 
guilty oft 'in difVoufAging coiutiry Grntlemvn from ^Krufing it 
Itcatifc*, * the fubied of which ii of the hi^hell imimrtnncc tot' 
the oation.* He alfo accufc:> us, of discouraging the new Iluf-i 
bandry. t 

Now, in anfvrer to thcfe chiirgcj, wc can onlv leply* that it 
was tuiches our intcniion todifcourigc the pcrufU ot the above- 
iiicntioncd Ircu^fr, northc prailiceof the new Hiin«ndry, un- 
der propu Jtmiutions. Both may be ufcful in the hands o^ 
GcntlrmciXf who arc happy enough 10 be endued with a I'ufficI^ 
cnt degree of pcrfeverancc to make ihcmfclvc* m-ilVf* of ihq 
(tlbjc£t i and who have a purfc- adequate to the nLCciraty ex-, 
fences attctuling all piccjiiuus cxpctimcms of, diis kind. Tho] 

* Wc fuppofe the Semt-Vir^'IiaiiuuJbaadr}' to be bne loeanl. Ee& 

Aiithor iif liic treat'ilc alludcU to, tuJ Ukcn gr.;ac pains (we 
aic itiorougbly riin^bed} to nuke hU mcaciine uuJcrAooJ : bui 
tlut will Icatcc be done by an uncommon muriiplicity of worJi, 
whicb loo often obfcure ihc fcnic of a Wrjiei. We arc thctc- 
fiacc very gisd to fee the fubllancc of the Scmi-Virgilmn Huf- 
buKlrjr, as wcH as of the preceding article, oji the Conftiuc- 
cioa of a Seed'Furrovv Plough, here brought into a narrow 
compafs, and delivered in a p!»in familiar ftyle, proper (at cbe 
fiibjed. The Sccd-I'tou^h hwc given, tho' plainly built upon 
the fame principles with inat in the laft article, is yec fomewhat 
lefs complex, and conlcquently more likely to be brought in- 
to ufe. 

Aj the Author's motives to the prefcnt publication, are al- 
ledgcd to be no other than * an eariic fide fire tA promote the ia- 
ttftft of Agriculture, and to render the profclTion of a Faitmr 
more comforuMe, and Icfs hazardous j' motives truly laudable, 
, wc cannot help wondering at hir, making ufcof 3 Ji/iithui nanu t 
but if b* had, what he may think, fuffident rcafyns for fop- 
cealtng his trut ene^ we (ball not, in the lcal>, frudrate tbem, 
by oSicioufly pointing it out. 

Upon the whole, wc are really of opinion, that the Xewr 
Guide would be of great fcnice, if properly followed i and wv 
haitUy irifti it may find its way into the hinds of every intd- 
ligCDtFinner in the kingdom:— for, as to others, we are well 
auured, they will never fubmic to be guided, even though it were 
to ibdr own intcreft. 

j4i Eifu *» iht 'Drath tf The GuarSm Out- w/V//*/, an Ofera^ 
wnttttt aoti csmpifiJ by Thtmat Augyfiine Arnt^ M. I}, ^to. 
I s. NicoU. 

Etara Pidicen t rideftjuel 
llccfwc Fi.-)tt I 

SAYS the droll motto to this humourous performance; and 
wbo can foibcar to fympaihiic with the Ftddlfr^ tht FiJil'f, 
«nd tbr Catgut f-^-VJ chi\c already given an account of the un- 
fuccr&ful exhibition of the Guardian out-wilted', whofc drplor- 
ablc exit thii F.lcgy bewails, in a ftr.tln not fo much calculated 
to move our .pity as our rifvbiJity — It is a ctofe parody 6n the 
lik^y written in a country Church-yard, and afturds us a vciy 
cxitaotdinary inflancc of the flexibility of language, and the 
latitude of imitation. — Upon a view of fubjcdls fo diflercnt 
lO tbcLT nature, and in tlic fpiiit of execution, one would noc 

* Sec o«x laA Month*] Caiatogoe. 

46 An Eltgjy i^c. 

have thought it poflible that the Pirodift fhoulil have »!hered (^ 
circumflantJall]; to his original^ as he appears to h.ive done, not 
on!]' in the followuig fVjnzu, but through the whole peiforra- 
ance : ^ 

Now (Inke the ^ttnmering lamps upon the liebt. 

And all iHr lioufe a folemn (ti[lt)(r» hnlds, 
Save where rhe SMtnan from the Gallery'i height. 

For RoalKbeeF bawling, the cu'd Fiddler fooldi. 
Save that, in yonder velvet -mantled box. 

A moping Ouuntcfi lo her Grace cotnplaiat. 
Of tnacjwt, tnonkcyi, perroqueti, and (hoclcsr 

And lofiq v»'Ji, aad -vat/t/y paltrjr gaips. 
Bchird ihofc rugged Tpilce), that bag-wig) lliade, 

Wh«te mnerul /'olio* Jie in mtny 3 heap i 
Each in hi» raiiow line for over laid^ 

The emhrio croccheis of ihc Guardian flcep. 

The long, long trill of quaver-torturing Bient, 
Mili ITallam twittering from her iciAtt liiroat. 

Thy clarion. Beard, that E.c]to'i tar hat rent, 
No moie ihall rouzeeachlowly.flamberrng note. 

The pomp Cif Tragedy, Exprtfiion's powcri 
And all that Goiiick, all that Quin e'er gave* 

Have found alike th'inci-itable hour. 

And the fifth a^ Hill Jed them to iJie grave. 

The Reader may be pleafed with the following dcfcription of 
a blind Fiddler in t]ie countr)^, without enquiring into Meici'a 
Merry Philofc^bert foe the caufc of his plcafure. 

Some village who a wife's fell frown, 

A vixen (vitie with mufic ha> withfiood, 
Some blind Corelli of: may fcrape nnknown. 

Sfmc Anie, not goilty of an Opera's blood. 
Far from the meny wake, and ruflic bull. 

No vain purfiiitt, their fobrr wiihn led : 
Along tbe Drcett, and round hit worOilp't half. 

They firap'd the noify tenor for tbeii bicad : 

Y?t ilitl [he bllml from infullto protcfl, 

Sooie lailliful cuoiort ever wandering nigbi 
With vary'dgarb, anduacoutb'd pitmei deck'd, 

Imploiei tlie paHing tribute with a figii. 

Her diitiet oft, tho' an untcKer'J Mufe, 

The place of air ar.d Ibnncl wouIJ fupply ; 
And Ibngt of g'^cc at ChiiRiiiiii v, utiUl Iiie chule. 

Repaid with lur.cheoni from the grey goofe pyv. 

For who, lb much 10 glooniinef] a prey, 

\^1)o& fpjri[9 mufic kiiowt not to advance f 
Or who could lulcn to hrr mimdclay, 

Nor lift one longinjj, Hngerrrg leg torfanee? 

t VId. laA Meoih's Review. 


pa Ibinc fina«t ail ib« active heel idies. 

Some fprighlly jig ihc Ipringtng foot require* ; 

E'en to k marcK tW movirg fpititi rife. 
E'ca in a minuet wiVe our yOLilhfuI lircs. 

If hu been f»d, that this Elegy is the prodinfiion of a cele- 
brated L»l)r; but however thac may be, the Author aJTumcs the 
cturaclcr of 2 Curate^ and after an humourous defcription of 
his condition, ia imitatiou t>( the original* concludes with his 
Epitaph : 

Here reJlj hji bead opon the tap of eanh, 
AConxpoor, to (UlUsndc^thciunknowiTr 

Ko Btfliop rmil'cl opon hii humble binh, 
N'o Mirufler e'er msrk'd him for Uh own. 

Bread wk> hit oniy food, his drink the broslc. 

So foul] a Talary did hit KeAor (end. 
H« left hit Laandrrh all he had — a bcolc : 

H« found in death, 'iwaa &U be wiQi'd — a fnend. 
Ko loDger feek hit wardrobe lo dltclore. 

Nor draw his breeches from their diukfbmc cell, 
TWie, like ihcir Mailer, let them find repoft. 
Nor dread the horrours of aT.iylor'a hell. 

The £^!egy in the Chuich>yard is conveniently printed along 
vUb the Pared)', fo that the Reader may, at odc view« enter' 
tuabJmfeU' by ibe coDipaitbn. 

Tir Travrftrr ; nr a Prtfprff ef Stc'tetj^ d Piem. Infcrihti M f/j* 
JiM. Mr. Htnrj Gtuijmiih. By Oliver Goldfinith, M. B. 
4to. IS. 6d. Ncwbery. 

ALmufl every fijecies of affection has its origin in vanity, and 
that with which Authors are fo juftly ch3rgcablc> when 
they ptTicnd to be unconcerned about the fucccfj of their workt, 
is derived from no other fource. While they bear before ihem 
I oe^igencc of praire, their whole aim is to peifuadc us, that 
they jhould be e<]uaUy carclefs of cenfurei ai\d thus, by a kind 
of prepvfterous oppolition to atucks whkb they have not felt^ 
their ^ifiidious irtdiflerence expofcs them the more. It is in vain 
thatthe Autliorof this poem trlUui, he is ' not mucti folicitout 
to know what reception it may find.* — No Writer was ever ycC 
iadi&reac to the reputation of his works ; and if Mr. Gold- 
feiUi fincU himtffir unconcerned for the fuccefs of the poem be- 
fare us, we iliould Uiiulc him, at bcA, an unnatural parent, to 
be Dcgligent of the iot^reAi of fo beautifuJ an offspring : — foe 
ihc Travdk: it one of tbofc deiigbtfui poems that alhire try the 


4S- GbLosMi'fHV Travtikr, a Patm, 

beiuty of their fceacry* a refined elegance of fcntiincnt, and S. 
cor ret pon dent happintfs of cxprcflion. Thus the Author wl- 
J/clTci hii'brothcr, to whom the poem is infcribcd ; 

WhereVrlroaiB, whatever realm* Ifcc, 
My heart ontravcli'd fondly turn* to thee ; 
Stilt to my brother turns, with ccaX'Mh pain, 
And drag! at each remove, a lengthening chain. 

It U impolCbIc not to be plcJlcd with the * untravell'd hcart/^^J 
and the happy image of * ihc lengthening chains' neverthelcfj,^^B 
k may be iomcwh*t difficult to conceive how i heart untraveU'J, 
can, at tlie fame time, matte farther removes. 

The fallowing nmlle is equally juft and magnificent ; and h 
one of thofc real beauties in imagery, which have the ftowcrof 
pleafinguniverfatl)', by being at once obvious to the mind, and, 
at Lhc fame time, poflefBng native dignity enough, to fccurc 
them from that indifference with which things frequently con- 
templated arc beheld. 

ImpcU'd with ftep! onccafinp to purfue 
Some fleeting good ihat mucki mt! with the view. 
That, like tht; circle bounding eaiih and ikiei, 
Allures from hiy yet, » 1 follow, flics. 

The Traveller ^i himdotin [as he fomeiimcs inelegantly cr- 
prcffcs it) on an eminence of the Alp?, and from Oicncc taltes; ~ 
view of the fcveral kingdoms that lie around him \ not M)itb the^ 
contra^ed eye of a \lona(1ic, but with the liberal fpirit of a, 
man, who rightly confidcrs, and embraces, the general bicfl"-' 
lags of Ftcvidcncc ; 

When iJtuiCreaHon'i charms around combine, 
Amidil the ftorc, 'twere tKanklcfi to rcpioc. 
Twerc a^c^tion ill, and fchool- taught prtde, 
Tp fpum (he Iplcndid chings by Heaven lapply'd. 
Let (ohocl-utiijjht pride diHeiiible all itcao, 
'1 bf fc little rhinj;) are great lo little mao ; 
And Mifer he. whole ()-mpathciic nitnd 
P.xulis in all the good of all marikiiid. 
yepllitrring townj, whh wealih and Tplendour c/oivo'd. 
Ye field*, where fnmffler fprcaHs profurion round, 
Yc lake*, whofc veftch catch tlic buly gale. 
Ye bendwg fwaint, ih^t dtefi tlie tlotv'ry vale« 
I-jiM ne yourtribuury llores combine ; 
Creation's Heir, the woiU, ibc woild is miiie. 

He then enquires whether fupcrior happincfs be ihe lot of znf \ 
batticular country ; but concludes that, though every man thinlti 
moft favourably of his own, Nature lias, in general, ofifcrvol; 
an cqualiry in the dlfitibution of her bountica : 


GoLDSMrTH'x TravetlrTf ti Patnu 

Vet, where to find that bnppidl fpai Mow, 
Who cjn direft. whta sll pmmd to kntwf 
The (hodd'tinf; len&nl of tlie fiigtd lonet 
fioldly aflms that country fnr his own, 
I<^tQli (he Lrnfiim of his (lormy fe^u. 
And iifclfing nighit of nvcl'y^ And CaIc j 
Tbe naketl Negroe, painting ;it tlic lunc, 
SoUltof h<i gtiUcn Ufid*. aaJ p^lniy wtlVc, 
BiQci in ihc gUrc, or llcmt the tepid wave, 
And thankihii GodtfOT all the good (liey gntf. 
Nor lerj the E*dirioc'& boaA, wheteVr we roaro* 
His firfl bed counny ever ti irhoine. 

And yet, perhaps, if flittt iWih Hatffs we few, 
Ore&imate [heir blili nn HeaTrin's plan, ' 

Thoagh Pserion ftmer, and though Fooli cont7lt>^ 
We [iill Ihall find iniccnaint>- i^alfcnd: 
Fiod thai each good, bj* Art or Nature given. 
To ihefe. or tholie. but otake; the bHUni.-c even : 
f ijid that the blili of all \% much (tic tame. 
And pauiotic booHiiig Rcatbn's Aian>c. 

Ycc (hcj^h this patriotic Boaftlnff may not have ita foundation 

in truth I it is amongft thofc pJcafing errors that contribute lo 

curhappincfs; and he wholhould Liboufto undeceive us in this 

inllance, would be employed in the trifie Mihijftrium of maktnj 

ui mifenble. VVeoughc, indeed, never lb far tocbciifli anat- 

ftiichmentto ournativecoiintrv^ as to ihut out the inhabrtanrs of 

Wificrent nations from our bcnevolcn.e or good opinion, buc 

'%i'liilcouT innocent enthufiafm onK' indulges a pieteicnce of funs 

aoJ foils, ie will alu^fs be our prudence to letain it. 

Nainrf. a mother kind al'kc to all, 

Still gracis Iicr bliTs at Labour') rirncfl call ; 

And though fuugh ruck>. of ji'u. rfiy fomwiis ftovvo, 

Tbefc rociu, by Luluni, iLini to beds cf down. 

Kt.tbiog is more true; but is not the Autlior'«jirD(io£cion ron- 
trovrriil)Ir, in whirh he maintainj^ diat there is in vi^ty ftace a 
iculiar principle of happincis ? 

Hence every ftaic to oofi tov'd blcffmg prone, 
Conform* ai»d modch life to that ulcnc. 
Each to the favourite happioef) atirrdi, 
At»d fpurni the plan tiiAt aimt ac other e&dtj 
Till, canitd tocxcefiin cadi domain, 
7 hii fAvooiitc good bc^cu peculiar pain. 

It is certain that cvf r>- Individual h-^ a peculiar prlacijilc of hap. 
pinefa; buc does it thcrelure folloWf that n ftaie compufrd of 
thoTc individual) Aiould have the fame ^ rather the' contrary, 
I where there mufl ncccfHirfly be fo many di(r<Teiil t/piDions con- 
K cerning the vejj exiilcn;.c ol happt^ucU. It it, in truih, with 
■ K«v. Jjfl. J765. £ ftatw 


GoLDSMiTH'j TravelUr, a Pstm, 

jUtes as with pfivatc otcn \ they appear to Uc adluitcd ratlicrb^j 
cafual circumflanccs, than to purlue the general good upon xn^rf 
«fbblifhcd piiiiciplc. Wc fintl that what U thcobjcft cf public] 
attcniion in one retgni h totitlly changed in another ; and chat^ 
a5 inlcrciV, pouicr, and caprice prevail, poliiical fagacicy is fori 
ever varying it-s principles und praflice. The cbafxflcr of M 
people is not always the fame : as ihcry vary, their ideas of bap- 
pincfs are varied too, and that in To grrar a degree, that ihcy 
can fcarccly be faid to have any fixed or determined principle. 
But though our Author makes no great ii^jure in political I'hilo-i 
I'ophy, he docs not fail to entertain tu with bij pucticil de« 
Icriptions : 

Fat 10 the ri^ht, where Appennrne aTcends, 
Bright *i the I'ummer, Italy extendi; 
}1cr uptands floping d<.-ck tbr moontain'i fide, 
Wnndi over woudi, in f^y thcairic pride ; 
While ofi foniff im.pJe'* oio»U'ring top between, 
V-'ilh vtiicable gmidcor inarl<i tltefceiiF. 

Could Nature's boiiniy f^tiify itie brcall. 
The foD* of Italy were (urcly blett 
Whatever fruits in diftcresc clrmci are Anmif, 
ThM proodly rife, or humbly cooitthc grcu.iJ, 
Whatever blooms in torrid iraclt^ appear, 
Whofc Iright fucceOioB decks the varied year ; 
Whatever meeti falute the nonhern iky. 
With TeiDal tnes that btoftoni hut to diet 
Tbe^e herr (lifpoiting, ew/n the kindled foil, 
Nataflcluxu'ianCc fiom the riflnwc's toil i 
While Ica-bom galea ihcjr seliii wings c*paril. 
To winnow fra^Miice round the finrling Uv.i. 

But foiall the blifi that Icnfc alone bcllow)» 
And li-nruAl bliC^ :» nil thit nation knows. 
In floiid brnutv ]>fOVi-k and Itrlds appear. 
Men feeiQ the only giowih ihatdwiiid>c» herr. 
Coittraficd iaulit through all their mannert /cign. 
Though poor, luxurious, though fubtriffive. vaia ^ 
Though ^r;ivc, yet trtilii^, zealous, yet untrue. 
Anil ^ven in penance planning (xM anov. 
All cviU here cnnianMnaic the mind. 
That opufccccdcpjrtcd, Irjvci behind ; 
For wtatth was meir«, nor [u remov'd ibc rfitr, ; 
When commerce proudly fiourilh'd ihtpwwh tbr Rjte: 
At her command ihe p*l«c Icatnt to rife, 
Afiaitt thelotiQ-fa-'l'ti column fought theflclei;. 
Thccjovafiglow'ii heyonJcven Naiuic Vkarm. 
The prcgiiiiiu iju-irry leioa'd wstli human foiin. 
Ilut, more unllcady thanihe Ibulhrrn ^ale. 
Soon Commcfce turtM on other thnrn herftilj 
An^IaK the natioo found, with fruiilcfs {icUl, 
Theii lotoe; tUejigth-wu now f IcUiunc dl. 


GoLDSUtTH'i Traotlitr^ A Pt€0H jl 

Yet. though to faftuDclaS, hest fUlI abide 

&OMC ffilcniid tits, ihcMicdciof fornict p-i,!<; 
Ftom mhxk tbf fteWe hciri anJ looj; fJl'q ajtnd 
An ciiy tcnipea&lloo (ccm in liB<{. 
Hoc may be fecn. in Uoodleli pomp «mv*t)t 
The paAe-boArd trianph and tae carAlciufe ; 
Procrfnoss fbrmM for f Icty sad love, 
A Miflrds or l&iiot in evfjy grorrw 
By rpomtibcchciVaic all (heir cam brgail'd, 
*]jw (jports of childfcn Utisff the child i 
AtfpoiliItUftlicre, while fo«jgn armi tiJTMer, 
2a polive mlc ihcy lt4*e the wotld to cbaoK. 

When ftracgling Vif tuc rmki by long contioult 
She IcavCt kt uJl, or feebly nuns the lou] ; 
While low delights, ll-ccceUing fall behind, 
Inhappicr (nesn&ersoc«:upy the mind: 
Alia ihalcdosics, where CstAn once bore fivay* 
Defx'd by time, and tocicring i,i deOy, 
AmiJA the ruin, beodlei's of the dcsii, 
The Ihcltcr- reeking pear;in: buildi hii (kcd, 
AdiI, wond'iing taza couli naitt iIk larger p!lc» 
Exult!, and owni hit ki^cipe wi'.h a Ciii'.c. 

The dticription of the people of Italy is not ]cfi juft thl 
tlmof their Country is pidurclque 2nd h^trmotijoui : but hai 
not dK Author, towatils the (.onulunon, laid open » rcJoubc 
which the Monlift ought never to give «p, when he rtprefcnt? 
the lutttos as a hxppier people when filten Irom their virtue I 

When flrogglir^tt vinuc finlckby long cortroul, 
Sbc leave* ac lilti Or fecl<ly mans the Idh! ; 
Whilelow delights fuecrcding faR bc.Hiiid, 
la happier meanivclj occupy itic mind. 

How Very unfavourable to the inttrcfts of Virttic to concludcf 
that low delights h»vc power, even in their meaniieli, to makd 
us happier i for if happinc^ be the end anJ lim of our Bciagi 
who wouU Dotfeclc it through thofc paths by which it .^prorcj 
fDoft acccOiblc i The truth, howe^-cr, i», that Happir.efs, hke 
every thing cU'e, i* tobceflimatcd according fo itsqualitv. Thfi 
Autboi has tIcclarcJ, that I'cnfuil blifs U all tti.-(i ihtf'ltjhans 
know; but will be confequcntly maintain, that thcfc low dc- 
lichti, th'ta me#nnefs of enjoymcuE, could make tlte ttslf ans hao- 
pter than the confcioui plcifurcs of that viitue which ihcy had 
|<^, and the highet and mure rational fattsfadioriii of the mmd i 
.-Wc are (orvf to find fuch an argument dcdutib.'e (Vnm hit 
poem. The inft^incc he adduces of a pufani'i findinE liimfcif 
happy in a CDti^igc tunned out of the ruins of an imperial pa- 
lace, affords no proof in this oifa ; for it doth not appear, that 
the peafan: had fallen from hisTJrtue : moreover, llieie ii not 
the Infi ftmilitudc in th« ciicumRance*. 

t a . Ul 

jl GoLDSUitMV TravtUtr, a Pam. 

Lcc us now accompany the Traveller in his profpe^ of a very 
different people : 

■ — ■■- Turn we lo fiinr«y 

Whcrr rougher cllmci a noble rice diCplif, 

Vbcre the 6Uai Swit't tfl«ir liotmy mauJioiit trudi 
And (otce I churlilh Toil for fcaniy hicad ; 

Ho produd hcfe Ute Imi ren billi ailitrd, 

Bdi ana and llcel» the fiildicr tnd hts f'word. 

No vernal bloons their torpid roct:) atay^ 

Bui.winut li{is«riD)t cbilli Uie lap of Mny ; 

No Zephyr fofldly (ooths the mountuin's bieift* 

But meicois glortr, and llormy glooms invell. 

Yn ftill, even hcrCt Content can fpicid a charm, 

RcdtcCi ihe c'ime, and sllitt rage di£uni. 

ThoDgli poor the g^ttikM't tux, hii fcafts tboagh foiall. 

He ieci lut Kttic Idt, the lot of alt ; 

Scci no contiguoiu palace rear hi head, 

To Ihamc the mnnnefi of hh humble (Ivcrf ; 

No coiiy Lord the fumpiuout banquet deal. 

To make him loath his vegetable mail : 

Bm calm, and bred in igoorancc nnd toil. 

Each *ifh conirjiiling, fi[3 hfm to ihc foil, 

Cbcarful at inara he wnbei from- diort tcpoie, 
Brcaftt the keen ur» and carol; at be goeaj 
With pfltieni aiigle trolls (be Jinnjr de^. 
Or drjvct his Mcnt'rout ploagJnQ^Tc fi the tlccp -. 
Or Auks Oie dcii v-hcie rnuw-i/acks matk the wuy^ 
And dragt iheftiuggling favigt into day. 
At nigllt retuming, every labour fpcd, 
H< fits him down the monarch of a llicd ; 
Smilc) by his cbcarful 6r«, and round lurvcyi 
Hit children} looki. that btij^hteti xt the bla:<c: 
Whi3e hii iov'd partrcr boalttul of h*r hcoid, 
iJilplayi the dcanly plaitri o:t ihc hoard ; 
And hapLy too fomc Pilgrim, tliilhcr ltd, 
With many a talc rrpays the nightly bed. 

Thui cvcT>- gcod his native vt'tlds impart, 
Imprinti the pairiot psfiion on his heart. 
Pear i* ihit Oird to which hia fciul conformr. 
And dear th^c hill nhich Ilfu him to the ftornu ; 
And at a babe, when fcin'ng fonndi moleH, 
Cliagi clofe and clofer to the mother'i bnraA ; 
So iKo loud torrent, and the tvhirlwiDd's tear, 
Bot bind him to hit native rooontaini more. 

Thcfc are ihe chrums m bsTten flnrw affigti'd ; 
Their (vani-. nre Ttc. thfirn-ifhes all coftSn d- 
Yet tct t!iem cnl;: iharr ihe praififf dup. 
If few th«r WBUti. ibiir plcnfures ate bor few { 
iini-e every want thai rHnmlatei the breaft, 
BitofflCi a fjuroc «r plciAitc when rcdnjl. 


GotnsMtTH'j TrT.-fUt:, a Ptm. 


Htnce from Tixii knds rach pl«li*g Science fllcj, 
That fiTtt cid(« ddirc, and then Tuppltes; 
UnkooivD to theiDi wbcD rcaiiul plcalurcs doy. 
Tp fill the JaDgDid ptiiJe with liner juy ; 
Uaknown tbotc power; tbat rails the ibul to flatne, 
Lncch cTcry nerve, and vibraic chrough the iaaxt. 
Thcirlrvci lite is bat i ftnoald'nng Are, 
Nor quench'd bjr «tni, nor faii'd by Orcuig defirC } 
Unfit tor npturei, or, if rapturo <bexr. 
On (bnic hif>h fclfirat of once a year. 
In wild exccfi the vulaar bre^ cakes £re. 
Till, btiiicd in debauch, the blifs expire 

But not their jovs alone thus toMQy flow : 
Their mcrala, like iheir pteafurei, arc but low. 
For, as rdiuetneiu dopt, from Ji-'c to foa 
UnaUer'd, uiiimprov'd ihcir aianners riin. 
And love't and friendthip's finely pointed dait* 
fall bJunted from each indurated hcsrt ; 
Some Itcrper virtun o'er tbe otouDtain* bicaft 
May lit like Jalconi cow'riog en the nell ; 
But all the gentler moraU, fiich as play 
Through liie'i more cultur'd walks. ai>dchvm oarway, 
TlieTc far difpers*d, on timomui pinions fly^ 
To fport and flutter in a kinder jky. 

It would be fuperfluous to point out the beauties of this dcCcrlp- 
tiun ; they arc fo qmural atid obvious, that no eye can overlook 
Ctu-in — Whahcr the fcvcrity of a, Helvetian winter chills the lap 
nf May, when no Zephyr foothcs the bread of ibc mountain j 
whether the hardy Swifi fees his little tot, the lot of all ) brcafta 
the keen air, and carols as he ^ocj -, drives his |)lo*(hate lo the 
llecp, or drajjs the ilruj;gling favagc into day — the whole is beau- 

'tifu! Whether he fits Jown the nionnrch of a (hcd, and 

furvcys hi* childrcns looks, ih.Tt bsijhicn at ihc bl37c ; or enter- 
tain* the pilgiun, whole t^te repays the nightly bed — the whole 
it flili beautiful— but the fimilc of the babe is fomcthmg tnorcj 

^iherc is a grandeur js well iis beauty in the ap^jIicKion ot' it. , 

Thofc moral and iinclleilutl refinements, which at once cm^ 
tilfa and add m the happinefj ol life in cultivated rtjcieties, 
nor be expc^ed among luch a people as this : the want of 
[tftcm, and of thole various inferioiit plcafurcs they bring along 
vith thtan, is very properly confidcrc-d in this elegant dcfcriptioa. 

^t behold apcoplc almuft of adiiTcrent fpccics \ 

To kinder CkM%. where gender maaner> reign, 
W« lutii ! and Trance difplays hci bright domaio. 
Cjy ft-rightiy lanti of mifih and rocJarcjfe, 
P!«..s'd wiih ttiyfeir, whom al! the txnSA can plcafe^ 
Hew often have I led thy fp>rlivc choir, 
WilJt LuAclcfi |>it«j bchoe iDc munaar o : Loire } 

^ Ji 3 Whew 

jf CyOLD5MiTH*5 Trtzciitr, a Pftm. 

Where fha^inc elms along ihe inaff;m gfew, 
y\nd frelheo'd from ihc wave the Zephyr flew; 
And haply, iho' my hiifh tonch ra:teiing Itlll. 
But moelc'd nil tunc, and niArr^d the dsnccr'* fkill j 
Yet would the village praife my wond'ioas power. 
And dance, forgeifal of the noon-tide boor. 
Alike a)I »);«. Oames of ancient day? 
Kare led iheir children through the niirthrul naze. 
And the c^y grandfire, OtiU'd in geiiic Jore, 
H^J friQi'd bcr.uth thr bunhen ol iHrccrcore. 

So blell a life ihcfc tJionghtUfs realms difplay» 
Thut idly buTy lulla ilicir world away: 
Thein are thcfc arl* (hit mind tn mind Endear, 
For honour iottM the rod;>l tet)ip» here. 
Honour, that prairc which ica) merit gaiiu, 
Or evcD imaginary urorth obtaint, 
Mfre pifles curtenl ; paid from hand (•*■ hand» 
It (hiUa in rplctvdid trjJTic round the lard : 
Ff om cnurls to campt. to cottages it ftrays 
And all are taught au avancc ol pnife ; 
1'hey pleafe, are pleas 'd, they f.ive to get eftcem. 
Till, krmirig b!ctl. tbcy grow to what they fcem. 

But whtlc thli fofccr art thrir blift fupplief. 
It giv«* their folliej jlfo room to rtfe : 
For praiftr too dc;irly lov'ct, or u'armly Ibught* 
Enfeebles all intcnial t1renj>tliaf thought. 
And the weak kfa\, uriihia iifclf unblefl, 
Leans frr tU pieafutc on anniher's hreal^. 
Hence oAciiuikin here, with faivdry art. 
Pantj for the v uigar ptaiie which fooh impart ; 
Hoc Vanity alHiniei her pert p.tioiace, 
And tiims her robes nf fri7e with copper lace j 
Here b^2S*' pritic defrauds her daily cheer. 
To boiUonc fplsndid bani|tict once a year j 
The mind (LitS turns tvhcrc ih fcin^ Famioa drawi, 
Nor neighs the (olid \^'orili of Icli'-applauTe. 

Thert is fomethlng whimfical in tht: former part of this dcfcn'p- 
tion, where the Authorrcprefentshimfelf as playing upon fomc 
jnftfumcnt, and ihc French dancing to it : but whether thi« ' 
were fact or Uncy, Is of liitlc confctjucticc. The charadcriftict. 
io the pafTagc beginning with • fo hleft a life,* are very juft, 
and ingcnioufly flruck out j yet neither is the tkfcitption ol thej 
French naiiotit nor that of any other introduced in this poem, 
full, or perfect. ThcAuthor has contcntci! himrdf with exlii-t 
liiting them in a fin-^te fM>iiit of view ^ fuch an one, indeed, ta 
which they arc generally bchrlJ : but the lights are much 
ilrengthgicd by ihc powers of poetic genius. 

Tb^ Post P«t maktis a tfanfition to Hollond, and from 


Ruf rREAU'/ Editlin ef the Statu^tei at tar^e. 5J 

lltvencc proceeds to Britr-in ; hut wt nnjft now refer the Reader 
to the poem itieit, uliicK wc cannot but lecoramend to bini as 
a work of very roiilideialile merit. 

yjtf St::hites ct Lm^f,Jr9m thr 3d. cftJjt Rt'gn '/Km^ ^"'2- 
tht Hmd^ ta the E'\i9flhe iujt S/^nn af i*a>liu7iuiit. Tt xvhuh it 
friJiA'eJy A Tiil'U tfthi TitJei sfa/i ibi- puhlic and jnhjU Stjtuttt 
durir,« ikat Timt. ff'ifff o tfpittn Mrx- And an Appoulixy ten' 
j^//ij aj shfaUtt and tutiiui jns,fomt of whkh u-irt rtvtr hffifA 
friKti/t f^olume IX. By C)*cn RuiFhekd, El'q; ^x<$. ijj 
King's PrinLcr, uni Law Pfuiicrs, 

rT~^HIS very valuable Edition of the StattMe* is now 
1^ coin|}!catciJ. The learned and iiulc'iitigablc Eiiitor, iit^i 
huPrcfacc to the firft Vol. (Sec Review Vol. xxviti. p. 6i 
cjitlcjvourctl to explain the method ofpaflin^ our ancient adis 
j>.irlianieDC( and to reconcile fome conindiAory :ii>thoriiici ( 
Xhat ful'jcii. He likewifc o(&fcd fome general oblcrvati>:ms on 
the liiratutc Laws of this lunj^dom ; and concluded with fpecifj'. 
ingihc pi'u he propofcd to putfuc throiig,liotit the couife ofcf 
wotk: frooi which, wc are aJfurcd [in his addrcfs tu the Readcrpl 
p(c6xed to ttiis ninth and hd volume) he hath found no nrRronl 
to nulcc any deviation-— It now therefore only remained, as he 
obfcrvcs, Prcf.ttQry AdJtefSip. i. to take notice of luch matter] 
as haih fince occutrctl in his pmgrei's through thefc volumes ; as j 
alfo more paiticularty to cxpUin the method which h:ith beds'] 
purfucd in the arrangeoKut of the lable ; and hilly, to givol 
fomc Account of the Statutes which arc piintcd feparately, in iltej 
Appendix. And this Mr. RufThcaJ hath done, with his ufual 
peT^i^icuiIy, accuracy, and depth of obfenratiun. There are 
Jikcwi^c fnme remarks of a more general nuure, on fuhjcJt« of ^ 
■no imjill import to titc Public ; fomc of which wc ihall Jiy be- 
fore our RcMJers. 

Of the famous Statute, of the ^ih of Htnry V!I. c, 19. (in- 
ftfteJ in ihi: Apjwnilix) " mfiicling the pen Jty for decaying of. 
♦* houfei of huftiandry, 01 not laying of conventait I.ind for the 
'^ miintenancv of the (^mc/* he gives the fulJowing .iccounr. 
* About this time* fays Lord Bacon *, inclniuret began to be 
frequent, whereby arable Land, whicli eonJd not be roanurci 
witiiout many haml<t, was turned into palture, which woj cifily- 
nun.ii;cd by a few hcrdfmcn ; ;-nJ the tcnarciei for ^arj, Uvs*y 
, .^ad at Will, oil which nioit of the ytomAury fublillcJ, were iu:u- 

J loti Bacon, VoL 11. p. 394. 


;j6 KvfTnt^o'i £JiiJanf 

«d into flcnieCtta. Thiihfvd s^cof afpr<fU, and krcantk 

in Uk rnd, im ancodel wkfa « ^oiuwboB of (ubiidits ind 
taxes : for t^ mofe gntiy, ibe kwrer a the bot^ oT Tublid'Cj . 
To rcsscif this ijicDGrejueace« the l^flatuie devikd a very 
prWcnt cxpedicot. T'brir ^ not ablblutelj fbrbid cnclof^ure?^ 
.£ot tlut wouU bare been lorfaUdtng men to rmprove their patii- 
moBT : neitkcr HA they compel dltage, foe thai would iavt been 
to flnvr zgitnft lutaic : boc tbcy too^ a nud-my, which re- 
drcfled tbr gno-ancc b/ vvr of conrcqocncc For thejr ctiaft* 
.cd, *• 7*hi: all houies of bu&xndnr. nhtcb wrrc ofinl with twen- 
ly acifs ot gmind aoA opwanli dioubl be (nalotaiocd and kepi 
vp (bf ctcr, together with a competent proporJon of land to be 
uicj KtJ occypKd wilh th^ai."" By Ah meins the houres bc- 
UBglcepc up, dni of liece£: ' t iiihjbiunts ; and the pro* 
itottion ot land to be occt-j ■■ . chcm, diJ rn^uire fuch Jn- 
iiab:cant 10 be 3 man uf rubitance, who might keep rervams, and 
concribuic to the iinptovenvent of agriculture. ThU tended 
grcitly to incrcafe the military ftrcngth of the nation ; as by 
'jiicani of ibr(c faimiv a gTcac part of the lands of the kingdoia 
'were thrown into the hands ot the yeomanry or middle people, 
.who were <^ a condition between gentlemen and pc^rants, and 
wace excellent infantry t. Hanington and other pfiliiical wit- 
^er>, very juAJy cotiUder this aH. among the principal caules 
jivhich concurtcu to throw the power into the lunda of the peo- 
'fi\c. Inived it wa^ the ruling poWcy of this Prince, to raife th« 
towmons by deprcfling the nobility. With this Ticw were the 
^Stiiiuic:. made againft retainers* which deprived the lords of 
,their dependants, being mofily young gentlemen of family, who 
[ jnade oxccltcnt htirfcmcn. 1 htu, ,is by thcfc laws the nobility 
poll tbsir cav;:1ry, fo t>y the Statute before mentioned, they wera 
.glfo dcpiivcd of ihcir Infantry '■ and the wdghc of both wit 
•thereby thrown Into the popular fcalc/ 

- Tha learned Editor hath alio a flrtking; remark on the 31, 
Henry VIII. c, 14- (in the Appendix) »' For aboli0ijjig di- 
** vi:ffHv of opinioiu iti certain utticles concerning Chrifliati 
I ^* Religion." * This,' fays he, * and fomc other ver)- fin^u- 
Jai Svti of this rcljjn, fcan t" be levelled more agalnft the Pope 
fhia a^ainft Pf^y. By this i£l it is mofl folcmnly rcfolvc'd* 

. f It'u rohntutcd to public cttn&demon, whether Tone proviiion js 

J. ' J ~ - of large farms into 

I' , :nt eaffi anJ bencSc 

^wtt cpu'-ctii isnant, thsn to haws 
vet foch a rootmpoHising of farms 
t> to iiavc d UMi't^ti*! tcadcACjr U> dcj>opul\tC l^c lua^tloai. 


tbi Sioluitt at Lar^e, jy 

and agrtcd, thic priefts ih^ na tnctrjy and (bat privatt ntaf^i, 

Mid awr'uitiiir tonffjjiin^ are expedient, and neccflitiy to be re- 
UuicO : wiih oitvcr Kxtiaoiilinary icMutions, v-hLi.~h ii is niadc 
felony without cictgy to coQtradicL 

Of a piece with theft rcfolutions, arcfcvfral c)ai:fcs of this 
, which confound all degrees of oftcntr, and all dilbii^tinm 
tif morattiy. B)r the Sih claure it is enacted, '' That ir any 
pridl keep or ule any woman, to whom he I's, or hath been 
mmrifdj or wi(h whom he hath contr^^d rnatFimony ; every 
Juch nrasl u(ir, open ci>nvtTration, Uc, (hull be adjudged /d- 
lattTi U well agaiiifl the man as againA the u-oman/' * But, 

* By the ^t!i claufc it U cnafled, " Tliat if any p; icft do car- 
©aPyufc, and eccuflom any woman, or keep her as hiu «ws- 
J;nf» ai hy paying for her board, maintaining her with money, 
»nvfy &r any i-ifts, S;c. that tlicn he fhalt furfcit all his goo«, 
.cfaattelit and benefices, &c. »nd TutTcr itnphronnient: and cf- 
/cndiog after convicUon, (hall be adjudged guilty of felony.** 

*■ Thus we find that a prieft cuhabitini> with a wi/t, (thcma- 
Um prohibitutn by ibis Statute) was deemed guUty of felony in 
the firj* inftanre : whereas by cdiabiting wiih a esnulfinf^ he 
only inclined the forfeiture of goods and imprifenntctit for the 
firtt offence ; and was not deemed guilty of felony until iheyj- 
/Mif. So that an offence againft the rcfolutionsoflhc convoca- 
tion and parliament, was deemed of a more heinous nature thuj 
a vioUiion of the laws of religion and morality.' 

What ncAt claims our obfervaiion, is the romarlcahle •& of 
J3 Car. -J. c. aj, entitled, '* An axX for preventing abufes» 
inprincit^ fcditiDus, trcafotublcaiid unliccnfcd book^ and pam- 
pblrts i and foe rcguluitig priniinj;. and ptintine prcQes." Our 
Jtdttof's ftr:£iurcs on this afl arc as follow : — ' By this aft/ fayi 
fac, *■ printers arc forbidden to publilh any htrftuaf^ frJilhus, 
^bifaatuol cr sfftn/ive * boolu> aiul all books and pamphlets ara 
lobclicenrcd by particular liccnlcts appointed afcoiding to rbc 
nature of the fubjctit, and the number of priming prcflcjj art 
[is] hereby limited. 

' The tioubJes whith had rubfiftcd in the late reign, hud given . 
birth to .1 ftee fpirit of politiciil enquiry* which this fljitutcwas 
culculatcd to fupprcf) : and it is obtervahicj that this »& is 
fuunJul on a dcciee of the Star Chamhtr t, made to the year 

* The word OJtiABf h a won! nf dangerom laEitode : but the u-ord* 
•re cDpicd Intra im from ibe titax Cbaiubcr dccict, of tbhich o-cnbou 
will be ma 4c Hereafter. 

t TUiv ti«a« i* f ' fcvce, tK»t « U iaiagined there L only out copy 
•jMGti whicb is preitnvcd ia a private lib-ary. 



Roffhead'; EJiuan cftbe Siatutes at Largt, 

1637, which it copifs without any mnwrial variation, exccpf, 
■thy: by the decree offenJcrs are to be pimirticd as by the M- 
\tmirahU Caurt ef Star Chamber ^ sr the Hi^h Cirmmji^n Csurt^ 
Jhall he thtughi jh \ whereas hy the aft they arc M be puniOiecl 
i)y dirability to cxercilc their prufciQon, nnd Tjch funhcr puntih- 
ment, not cxiending it> life or limb, as the Jujiieei of the Kmg't 
Btnch^ or of Oyer and Terminer^ ice. fliall think fit. It is re- 
markable aift?, that the preamble to ihi' decree of the Star 
Chamber takes notice of divers di\;rt:cs and ordinances made 
for regulating printers and printing, in the rci^ii of Queen Eli- 
zabeth, which are f.iid to have been dcfedtive in Ibme piriicur 
Jars. From hence we may fee what early artcmpc wrrc nvido 
do rcfimin this invaluable liberty. So intolerant is the nature 
' of power, wherever lodged, thst they who have loudcfl excIainiVil 
againft fuch reftri-'lion as a badge of fiavcry, were no (boner 
tnvcded with full fway, than they began to work on the fame , 
principles of opprcflion. About the year 164^, the parliamenc 
made ordinances for rcftratnlng the prcfn, which were framed oti 
the plan of the above Star Chamber decree ; am) againft which 
Milton publilbcd a trcatifc, called Aieopagitica ].. 

* This ad was laft coiiiinwcd by i Jec. 1. c. 1 7. for fevcn 
years from June 1685 ; hut being mcomiiatible with the noble 
pTincipIeii of the rcvulution^ It has never Uqcc bccit, and it u 
to be hoped nnerwilt be, revived *.* 

There arc divers other inrcrcftingobferFatlons in this preface ; 
(of which wc refer the Reader to the book. 

On the whole, wc cannot but congratulate the Public on the 
completion of this nioft pcrfcfl, and (from the fizc in which it 
is printed) the mort commodious, as well as leaft expcnfivc edi- 
tion of the St-iruics at Large, which has yet appeared. — When 
the edition, now publiftitng in Oflavo, by another learned Bar- 
lifter t, is iinilhed, we ihall not fail to apprize our Readcri 

J There is an edition cf the Areopajptica publilhetl by A. Millar iri 
1758, with a fciilible and fpiiitcd i'ret^CF, by Mr. Tbocofja, Author 
of the Seafom. 

• It ii impofiiWe, however, on this occafion to avad lamenting the 
miny flagrant inllance>, n herein tbe liberty of the preTi hat been latc< 
Jy abofcd by fuch wanton ;ind indircniniiijie fcurriiityt u lendi 10 
nuke public ccnfurc lufc its eCcft, and render mco callaiu to the tiiu^s 
of rcpnxtf. 

t Danby Pickering, E(q; Sec Review vol. xxviii. p. 78 — 224. 


£59 J 

M FJprf m ibe ConJUiutisn ofSn^lainJ. I $. 6 d. 8vo. Becket, ka,] 

THERE 13 fcarce a word in the BngUfli language fo fre ^ 
qucntly ufed, and fo liale undcdtood zi the word Con*j 
flJtution. u nothing more is intended by it than to cxprefi^ 
ibc fevcral component pait* of Govc/nmem, or, as the i*oli- 
ticijns phrafe 'it, the fcveral order& of the Ante, all men mur 
agree at>out its fignification : but if we take into the idea, ti 
favcral powers veiled in thofe orders, it wi!J then be difficult « 
dc£nc it. IniJ»d taking the word as including the latrer idc^ 
it doc* not admit of a prccife and permanent definition ; for 
thofc powers arc liable to flucluate from a variety of adventi- 
tiout circum{hinrcs> which make the political fcale at differer 
tiniC3 ptcpi>ndcrjtc in favour of diferent parties, what i-t callec 
the Conltiiution muH ncccHiu'ily vary with every accident! 

The fenfible Author of the Elfav before us fccms to be tho- 
roughly apprl/cd of thi-fc difficuliics, and has treated this ini- 
pnnani fubjctl on very juft and comprehcnfive principles. It 
may be obfer^'cd hnwcvcr, witliout derogating from his merit, 
that the principles on which he grounds his obicr^iiiion!, arc in 
l^ibftoncc no other ih-m what Harrington has cflablifheJ in hti' 
Oceioa. But our Efijyift has illuftratcd thcfc principles with' 
fo much ingenuity, and has ^ivcn them fuch a new turn, that 
thcywcar the appearance of originality. 

In the beginning he very properly obfcri-w that ercry Go- 
vernment is or fliould be defpotic, and that every chief ma- 
riftnte it, or Oiould be an /fui*i:Ta:or for the time being. . . , 
The man, favs tie, who is dcfuous of eJTeclually governing suiy 
nation, flioufd fee himftlf diligently to find out in what fee of 
hand* the power of that nation ha]ij»ens at the time to be lodged, 
■ And having made the difcovery, to ufe the proper means of 
pcrfoading them to eonftitute him their heaJ and reprcfent-itive. 
From an cxad knowlcge of thefe conniruents, he continues,' 
atifcs an exa^ knowlege of the Conllitution of each country,' 
and the jufl application of all the general maxims of Govern- 
ment, which, however wife they may be in thcmfclvcs, may, 
bjr mifapplication, produce the wiry reverie uf what is cxpc^cd 
fiom them. 

Thcfc principles he illuftrates in the following manner. 
There is no maxim, fays he, more iiniverfally received than 
this, that the welt kt'utg if tin pttpU is shefu^rcme law., and when 
well underftood there is none more true nor mote ufcful for the 
^fcrvatien (>f ibc order and happiacfs of a fta;e. But tbcn hf 


^ An Ejjay SM 

a^ds it mufl be unJciAood by the ivorJ^ thit part onli 
which is conllilucnt of die fuprcmc magtftrai«, and to whoi 
intcTcdf an<I opijilons he muil rvcrpay a rc'igiout regard. He 
Concludes this i^alfagc wiih remarking that the advantages ol 
good Goveniinciit, by which he means fimply ihtt which ti 
ible to prc5curc to Ufcff pcrfcft obedience, extend, without anfl 
ptiticular Attention of the rulers, to thuic who are aut> u wcl 
jix to thote who are, their conftiiuents. 

To this ronclufion, howevrr, we can by no means rubferibc 
for though "what our Author calls good Oovernnteni, may* it 
Torltcy for inllance, be for the advBniagc of the Majar ot>, 
or conUitucnt powers, that is of the Janizaricj, yet we arc fa 
from tbiiikitig that the connci^ion between man and roau is fa 
cjofe, that fiich advantage will neccflarily extend^ in due pro-' 
ppr;ion, to ibefubordtnuecUlTes. 

Our Author, in the next place, proceeds to apply thcfe prin-^ 
c]ples to the Hiflory of l;.ng)and, and fhews that the diforders 
of our Government have been owing to a want of due attcii> 
tton to them. This he pantcularly exemplifies in a (bort ac«n 
count of the memorable Reign of Charles rhc Firft : at ih«t] 
fame time he confcflirs that the caufc a&gned it in no degtce sde- 
qtuie to the ciit:<5i. And we. mufl, fays he, have rccourfc to 
fpme other, to account for the violence, outrage and cruelly witti^ 
which this oppofuion was conducted and hnillicd. 

• The rich, who in the houfe of Commnn? began this op- 
pofition. had fur iu prcuitt what they cfiecmcd illcui] metbodyl 
of levying money \ a fubje^t, ^n either fide of «-nicb, laws,^ 
cufloins and precedents might have been urged without end, at 
the opponents might have gi uinblcJ lone enough without a drop' 
of blood bring Qiilc. RrinuiiflraiKf:^ mi^ht have been vottdj^i 
and anfwers gi^cn; parliaments diCulvcd and others cancdftj 
with much cfiufuMi of words otily. In the couifc of thole civik] 
wtanglings, the King would probably have found out that, bji-] 
cammunic^ring to a lew of the leading men amongff the ncv 
conllicuents, a ccruin fharcof the emolument* of cuvcrument, | 
out of which they might again retail lo thdr coniutjctits th;t; 
(h^rc which injqrticc bclojigcsJ to thar, he might have bcoiji 
fupplwd with money from fouac moie plentiful fource than tou^ 
nage, poundage or ihip-money. Nciihctt h:id the new powcrsj 
been wiiiin;; to come to blows, were they a match for thctr^ 
King. The people in thceountry were ftill much inBuenccd by 
the old i^eniry, mnft of which were attached to the; Crown. 
The Scot?, tt>\vhomtonn:tjc and poundage was I«athon Greek, 
Wi3u?d ha\>c followed their natural inclinations for royalty, mid] 
Utken up ttrms in its defence on the firtl fignal, Ic was in tlis] 

tbt Csnjlitulian 9/ ^r.glm<i. 


city of London alone, (not the moft. wnrtikc part of the kin^ 
dom) that there was a poflibtliiy of finding fuch a band of dlf- 
afiicction u woulJ dare to attempt any thuig violent Jigiiiifl the 
per^ofthc KiogiD(i bis miniUcrs. 

< On the other tun*), the King wxs not engng-d in any fo- 
reign war, and hia occafioni for money were not fo great but 
thai he migUr have found means of fupplying them, wirhout 
calling parliamL-ntSi till fuch time as he found out the proprr 
methods of rendering tbenn moie trainable ; and the executive 
power being fltll in bis hanJs, and Aitl acknowledged by all to 
iKlong to huQ, it is not eafy to conceive from what tjuaicer a 
rebellion coutd arifc, which he could not bave.eaC'y <)uaihe^ 
with the ruin of thofc who fct it on foct. 

* Things wera in thi» ficklys but nnt mortal ftato, when the 
unhappy King fet a project on fooi, fo much the rev»ifc of whit 
b ufcful and prudent, that he muft have forlciied with poileHt^ 
»11 prctcnfions to the chahider of a man of fcnfe^ bad not his 
(snxiBicnti uid cooduA in this refpei^ been countenanced hy 
Cbofe of ill the Princes of his age. Having been relrgioutlv ctluk 
caceJ, he had been taught by thofe who had t^ken upon thcai the 
care of bi; early education, paiticuLirly by tii'i (::ithcr, that a 
rational Churrb, wiih all its ritci, <k>etrines »rtd fonn ot' po* 
TCrninem, wai fo inlcparaWy a part of tht ftatt, that thiy 
muft both fland and fall to^horj an opinran A^ndad ujms 
the iDofl llullow and fallaciou:^ rcajhning, in oppoGti^in to ibe 
moft univL'rf^ experience.. But Ch^irle^ had long bslievcj it tq 
hejuft, and having flill a rtt^ard for hi* old teacher:;, was eafily 
brought to believe, that the new and uncommon uppulition hm 
net with, was owing to the cncrealtr of puriiwiiia, whcrea» 
It ii probxtilc that the incrcafc of pucJtanifm was the con&qucnec^ 
rather than the caufc of oppoTitton. Be that as it will, he was 
lefolved to ftrengthen binifeir, and what hs appreh<nd«d'to be 

.the conflittition of hie country, by exerting nn extraordiitarv 
seal for the Cbtiich of England, cfpifcl^xlly for thofc circum- 
fiances in which it was moll ditiui^uifhed Untn ih»t of die prcfw 
bytcrians and oihcr diflenters whom he meant, at the fame time, 
10 weaken and diminifli, by all manner of OifcouiagcmentS. 

* The poorcfl man in the nation hat a (bul to be fxveJ ax well 
as the richcA, and, confcquently^ no tax, no impcifc, no excila 
can be (o utiiverfalty odious a$ thct which is laid u|K)n conilcieiirf 
CM. It mjy br, therrtbre, caftty believed thic the rich and am-^ 
bituHift rommov ^rto balAril in iheir attempt? tn rcrUicr 
iticCrown to I'-; -•■- faioiiiablcio thcniielve^, would btfr"" 
jyaitive is fomcnung the difcoDtcott which. abhJitijdiifci 


furc occafioncdi and that a iwal, firft fcigiied, afteri 
Tea], would encreafe die number of the puriians, who, in their 
turn, would enter no Icfs heanily into the ftate inttrcfts of thofc 
who fo warmly flood by them m their fplruual. Thus every 
jiatriot tnoW to the Tinging of Pfalms, with all his might; in J 
cvrry pi'alm-finging coblcr joined hi« voice to haul agaiafl Oatc 
grievanccsi from the feeling of which, the mcanncfs oT bis con- 
■licion had entirely exempted htm. ^^ 

' But Charles did not flop here. If he had, his church potttir^" 
would have, perhaps, been only attended with a flow encreafe 
of thaf di£(ire£lion which had been nutfcd under his father's 
jtign, by the like principles and condu£i, and he might have 
gone [o the grave, cuiicvere /c.'s, and without fi:c?ing, to any 
great degree, the Ijad eft'e^ of it. But nut contcni«d 'Witb 
making the epilcopal government and rites univer£U in £ne« 
Jand, where they were already the legal cflahliflunenr, fats ill- 
counccllcd zeal hurried him to attempt the fame ia Scotland, 
where (he prcfbytcrian was the national worftiip, and xeaJoufly 
profeired by the grtaielt number of the people. Hereupon a 
tumuh, begun, a» ufual, by the loweft of the populace, wu 
/(diowcd by a|]r)CtatiOns of thofc ol middle rank, and headed by 
(omc of the principal nobility i who were gtad of an opportu- 
nity of cxcrcifing their turbulent and ambitious fpuiis, on a lar' 
gcr theatre than their own cuuntiy afibtUcd. 

* Thcfc Ajfr efwar being once let loafty it was cafy for their 
more caution* and mnrc difpcrft hrtthrm \n L'n^land to join id 
Ihe frav, and to bring the unhappy King into that train of dif- 
ficulties, from whence his courage was unable to cvtricate him ( 
but, on the contrary, obliged thi>rc who had becri moft forwznl 
id oppofition, to feek their own fafety in his dcflTQif^ion.* 

Our Author from hence I? IcJ to confi !cr the efftils of rcIU 
l>iuus animnfitics. In dii^ui^ng thia fubjcA, he refers to lbs 
Hate of Religion among the ancient Rooiaos, which he Jutily 
obfervcs, was the religion of the magil^ate. 

' On the other hand, the Chrlflian reHgion, d^Tigncd in a pc*. 
culiar manner for the eftablifhment of peace and g-vjd-wi^f 
irnoiigit men, was tiihf red into the world without the concur-' 
rencc of the civil ma^illra:e, and difclaiming all pretcnfions it^ 
fclf to wordly power. During the life of its great i'ounder^ and' 
of ihofc Apoftks CO whom he delegated his dinne power, it ap^. 
•jarcd in this imiabla fliapc only ; but foon after, fallinu im^ 
***■ the management of mere men, it became fubjod to all the: 

<^ri'ouoiu abd uuuavcxiicaces to whith human atiiiirs are li-: 
»l>le. y 

• Tlw 

iht CoiipUutttn of En^hid, 


• The communion of goods amongft thofe who received the 
doflrific^ of Chrin, aii liiditutioa rccmioirly fo well adapted (O 
the btftiCT'oleni fpiiit of ibcm, wa^ the great and obvious rnuie 
cf this corruption ; anJ while it operated raptdtv in iiicrcafing 
the number ot ihofc who received thcfe docttincs, operated na 
lefs npidly in counterafiing the good cfixrfls of them. For the 
care of managing and dillributing this public money being com- 
mitted to ceiuin officers* chofcn by all the members of this cop- 
poraiion out of their body; they, when the ftock incrcafcd to a 
certain degree, found their office fo agreeable, that Ihcy fpared 
no paini in otdcr tu get themfelvcs elected into it. Every means 
that avAricc or ambition c^d fu^t^d was deemed Uwful, and 
and all the arts of loquacious fophillry employed by btiftljng 
men, to draw the muhitudc from one unniher; till the plain, 
pure and ufcful doctrines of Chrifl were drowned in an occati 
of metaphyfical quibbles, in nowifc calculated to improve the un- 
litriVandings, any more than the morals, • of thofc to wlwim they 
Were addrelTcd. 

• In the mean time, the various advantages, fpirltual and tcm- 
[KiraU attending the being members of fucb a corporation, pro- 
(luccd OIK in every town ; and tbcfe being united by the lame 
aame and intcreii, kept up a reciprocd correfponJcncc and af- 
fiilancc from town to town throughout the vaft Komaii £m- 

Bjr degrees however, he obferves, thefe good people under 
the Do(ion of religion and brotherly charity, were in reality 
raifin* a formidabk- republic, an jmpenum in tmpertBf united W 
the two ftiongfft tics, religion and worldly inicrcfl', and which 
did not acknowlegc the authority of the civil masiflratc. But 
at length, he adJs, fomc »f the Popes own legionaries, in a fit of 
dilcontcnt mutinied, aJid appealed to the ChrifHan people ; dlf- 
covering to them that chntccr of tlicir sncient rights, the BiblCy 
which tlie ellablilhcd hierarchy, in tlje fullncfs of their Secit- 
rity, hiiid ncglctftcd to dcflroy. 

He next takes into confidcration the inBucnce which religrain 
profeflions had over the contending parties di[!inguifhcd by the 
namm of t^Tnjg and Torit. The Tories, he oblctvcs, huviag 
been long uicO to piofefs a particuljr for the ciiahlilhed 
Chutch, contrived ccrtnin religious tells, which, like ficves, 
futfcrcd only thofc of their own caliber to pafk (hruugh inia 
pUca of truft and profit ; while the Whigs in their turn, tak- 
ing sdraniige of certain particularities in the nciA'ly cflabltlhed 
Government, contrived political creeds, which the rciic&, who 
had long; p/ntefled an adherence to the doctiitics oi Iicrcditac^. 
iuddWibic MRht, wccc not able to Swallow, 


I An fjpy on 

, . 'Thc& prctciuicd principles and diftjii^ions however, he 
rf;htljf ol)fcrvcs> were noihin^-morC than tcmjionuy tooli of 
friction. . • AdJ if laying autJc cant tcrnii, wc agree to cjIJ 
the rel'pcCtivc panics by the nani'-'of Oppifttisn, wc ftiali fclilom 
fail of ohfcrving a niuft fativfactory agrcemcnc betwixt their 
■uuic and (hcu conilii^it. 

Me then Jtfcribcs the efte£\s of the oppofition agaTnft\VilHam 
thf Third, whtch, according ro this Authot-, was the mc»nf 
of taifing ihe natiou to a degree of gloiy anltnown to fomicf 


* Tocxphin this, it is ncccQiry t^ukc notice, chat before iImj] 
reign of King VVitliam, no method was known of raifmg moncjf I 
t>3t tlvc cxigciKicsot tht year, cxrepc that of Icvytns equivalcnr' 
xnKci or toipofuions, which, when great, as mult ncccffaril/ 
happtrt ill limes of war, were much fcic and romplalaci:! of hy th<^ ' 
pnwl« in gciicial, uithoutoiiy pajt m'thcm being gnincis by tb^^ 
public loi^s fo that, altho* a foreign war was often made a prcn 
tencc hy futtncr Kings and mtniOers, in order to obtain a fum 
oimtiotf^ there was nothing liiej' in reality more dreaded, fiut 
hovpa mHhod was happily deviled of abundantly fu;>plying thd 

[.Crowrt withdut bunhcning the propl*, by means of voiunur/ 
cor.mbuiionj of thofc who were eager to contribute any fums of 
xrtoncy, msfnmt^c\fn Or eight per cent, j while the gr»od p«M 

,ple of Eneland were kept cafy, by having no more taxes i(n^ 
pofed'on tnem than were bvirly fuflicicmto pay the annual in- 
(Ci^ of \\vf (\mis fb advanced. 

At this mediod was tried at fjft with caution, both hy thoftf 

'Who borrowed and thole who lent the money, t)ie good ciToSs 

'•f it were Ulllc felt tJurin;^ the rcigu of William ; who 

I Irvcd Co the laft in a f;iclious and tottering Rate: but from the 

.fiifl dilcovcry of ihii fchcmc-wf anticipation wc may d^tc that 

[gicat change in the C<ui(litution, which has brought EnglanJ 

Fsnd Great Britain to that heighrh of power to which it is fmc^ 

^^crived. From that mocrjent the abilitj* of England for afrry- 

llhg on forri^" war, bcgah to manifcft iifclf, firrtin unprofitable 

[iquabblcs about what wsi cnUed the Balance of Europe; but 

.mfttJrwatds in ufe'ful conquefts on her own .iccounci in all quar- 

rrstif the f;!obr. From that momefli the Conflitutitin of Kng- 

jnd bcgiti to be Si^tiKcd by a fpiii? fomcwhai fimilar to that 

[ifhich afluated the Conflimtion of ancient Rome ; whrtc a fo* 

rign war nerer fsiled to ftop tlie mouths of the Seditious, and to 

Sue an ciid to domcflic btoili. War, in England, bfcamc ad- 

^ntagcoijs to alnioft evizry rank of men ; the poor wifhed tyr it, 

akthc greater demimd forUbourcricncreafed the price of labour: 

-»he tjcb wilbcd fofit, w tlir gtttttet ih* dciMru) twr MOBey« 


thfCti^tution sf England, 

tbc EKatcr the adrannge to thoft? who were polTcfl of it : -vbHe 
thole in the admin iflratioii of government were' eafifjr pcrfuadcd 
into a mcafure which, with fuch univerfal approbation, putfuclc, 
unlimited power into their hands.' 

Our Author proceeds to obferve that with the debt of tbc^ 
nation, fo grew iji proportion^ its credit ; and, hy degrees, pro-'' 
ditccd a iKW I'cc of conllitucnts j who without being ncceflarilyi 
conne^cd with the hnd, with the trade, with cither of thel 
Hout« of Parliament, or with any corporatiba or regular body-j 
of men in the Idngdom, became oo left fornnidable thaii (hcjr ] 
wcreulcful to Govcrntrent. 

Theic rciflciUons are undo«bM4ly Ju^ ■ *he conAituen^ hero 
ilitendcd have, in many laic inflanccs,'piovcd thcttlfclvcs fonn1-^ 
dable indeed. U is to be wtftt-d however tbatadminiftration 
had Icfs nocd of i\k<:f;n ; for furcly that Government muft be 

, Ijpoo a vcxy uniuiural t:lUbIiihmenif m which a fet of nienj, 
who have no natural connc£Vion wiili any one order of tbc*j 
^ate, flj Ji have it in (heir "power to give laws to them all. IJut 
while they maintain thi:i unnxtunil afccndency, (iiitiiilcrs nitift 
pay iheir court to them; for, as our Aijthor v^'jufUy oh- 

^7vc!i, in the condufion of his£flay, they aiuH goyctn xcAXt\ 
vf applying to their inicrclb. 

• The paiSons and follies of men are often of great life fot^j 
their bcuct fuhjCif}iori and govcriimenr ; but they are loo tranJl-*, j 
zory and 8u<ftu.i:ing for a ttacefinan to contide in foe any lea^t 
of time. Their interefts are much more limple, much mor«* 
coilAant, and much more iTitclligiblc, both for thcgomnotsanl 
the Mverned^ and therefore a much aioicfoliJlbundacion fuf 
■ lifting eftabliflimcnt. The zeal for the Ch-jrch, fo cfficaciou* 
>n the liil yeui of Q^iceii Anne^ like a bUzc of draw, was tuon 
burnt out, and left thole who rcioKcd over it in cold aud d:iik-,'] 
tieG : while thofe who had unAavifedly kindled it became fenli* 
Uc of their cnor, and were careful never to haxard the lik^j 
again. By the Conrocation being no longer fuRcrcd to dclibc*i 
rate ahout church matters, the church, that is, the clergy^ 
ctafcd to be a fepaiate body from the ftate \ and feeing ns hopct 
of preferment but f/om the good- wilt of the llace rulerji, 'all. 

Sccdi, with the coQtiovcrfie* neccjlaiily attending them, wer^' 
fd slide > ihey comeiitinjg themlelvcs wittt the (juict excrcife 
■ ci their legal rites,' and the quiet enjoyment of theii legal revc* 

Thus the r/tigim 9fthi magijlratf, which Ct> many fools ao4 
tyrants had in vain endeavoured lo cnablifb by fword and faggot, 
, was eftabliftjcd undtr the benign loSuencc of King Gforgc ih«l 
i^^iril, without cither wii or pAios. from (hat time Rcjigiool 
•Jm. 17*5. k" 


Monthly Cataiooub, 

|ia9 brcn no more csipabV of being ufed as a tool offa^ton;^ 
[an<j will, therefore, never mote be mentioned in this Efiay.' 

l^pon the whole, we recommend the attentive perufal of. 

[tilts 'YrnQ, to fuch of our Readers as arc defirous of being ac- 

[quaintcd with the irue principles of Governments, which if they 

Were better undcrflood, woald prevent fo many ignorant zea- 

loii from being miflcd by every piece of political traih which*. 

[•ppcaU to their paOioni and prejudices. 

For JANUARY, 1765. 


ft. I- Some brief Riaiarh en furtdtj impsTtant Subjeilt^ nteeffirrj 
ts te unAtrjiocA end attcnAea to^ by eU frsfcjfing the Chti/Uan 
RiUgion. Prind^a/ly adJrtftd tt the Pe9^Ucal!td Quakers. ' By 
JohnGiiffiA. Svo. IS. Hinde. 

R. Griffith comes, pipiugljot, fiem the New Birifi, and ts fo 
_ fiill of the excellence of Rt.-{;eaeiatioti. and hit experience oP 
tfie Lord's Deslinj^s wiili biin. that we cannot but deem io dii!tu£uilh> 
' and fst-outcd a perfon, cMlted above the of criticifm, as far 
ft all other EcthatiaJU are beyond the domiaiou of Reafon, and the 

of Argument. , 

^rt. 2. ji RA-ieut of an EJfny en Prayrr^ entft'udi Some Thought* 
on religious WorOiip, particularly in Ptibtic. By a moderate 
Froterbiit DiQciitcr. Hvo. 6d. Willie. 

\i TfeeEfiay hereieviewed byamoderarcDilTcoter, ha paper publtfhed 
inalatc periodiaU work. ensitieJ, 'Tit Lihrary : (<KN*forMtiy 176a. 
ETibc Witter of the pretcot tisit. u a ftfeuooui Advocate for exteinpon: 
fpnyer ; and fecnu to be not a liidc difpieafcd tviih certiio Cendecnen 
[»!» have Jakiy diflttigirtftird lhcrof«h'c» among the Uiflcnlerj, in fa- 
Eyour of pic compofej jiiil fiaicd forms. Wliat he liaj here urged, »ilh 
egatd (O ihc pttmilsx't ai>Jr, trie prtptr raJe, and (he Ktjl i/rgitU auiif 
tr^ 01 Cnrill^^an wyifliip, dclewcj 10 be attentively conddeiM. 

f A«. 3. fsftpbi Extmtnfis Htnsibtfmut : Srw, Traffatui de mofy 
e/rhdar.di {vm De:. i2mo. is. Oxonit, Prince. Sold hf 
Rrvtngton in LontJon. 

A Ihoit, plain. pra£lical treatife. rectnnmcnding and e.vpliinlog the 
~'c[ of pioly, and wd/^Mj <ur/;& C»V. 


Art. 4. Tht ^eck: Jtt £m^iruai Ejjaj. T» he eent'iHwd oko^' 

Political. 67 

Jitnaify, By Timothy Pfobe-a!I, M. M. D. ProfcflLr of 
Pbyric for the Mind, in th< UdiveHity of London, and 
Member of the Academy gf Sciences in Gnib-ftrBct. 4:0/ 
I J. 6d. WUkie. 

We have here a Stitc-Quzck. a poliiut] waggiJh Do^or, wholl 
mentil pfayitc i* by ivo incant unpalaUHc, and, at tlic worfl, it pcrftffl- 
Ir ioaoceoi. The (bllowing u ouc of his Hantl-biJls, * ejctiailcd f;ct[i| 
Ihc jncdiol writiogt of Hoiace.' 

Whomc'er Ambition'* rtgiitg (ever quelU, 

Or thirfty Avarice wilh dropsy fwolI», 

On whom ihe lethargy ot" Luxury prey). 

Whom gloomy Superllidrtn'i frenzy fwityj, 

Cr. StAtcfmao, Blood, Soc. Madnan, what you jileafe. 

To Cbaoge, to Court, Moorfields, or Harrii's, 

TbeQuACK Oiall fuHow, and in order due, 

Each uioied wretch tsith Uriel aticnlion view ; 

Probe their foul ulcerj, featcb :hein 10 :hc quicic, 

And. fpite of Flatter)^, tell them they aie kck. 

N. B. Tttoajih this advertifement u to vctfe. ihc Doiflar'i paclctt li 
■udc ap in proie ; and he hiuilclf mouou ihc Su^e as Merry-.-indrew. 

Art. 5. T^if 5J^«A e/" Jofeph Galloway, Efq; one of the Mem- 
bers (or Philadelphia County, in A^fn/tr u the Spttch ef Johtv, 
Dickinfon, Efq; delivered in the Houfe of AlTcmbly of ihc 
Prtrvioce of Pc-niifvtvAiiia, May 24, 1764. 8vo. 2s. Phila- 
delphia printed. Condon re- printed by Nicoll. 

\a our Catalogue for Oflobcr. wc mentioned Mr DicklnfonV fpecci 
■gainfl the petibon drawn up by order, and then under conlidcration c{ 
ine Houi'e, praying hit Majtlly for a f-)tf/, tnitcadof a /r»/////.ji7. Go-; 
vemme'Ct. Thi» reply from Mr. Galluway, a CJcntlemin who hai longj 
beeo coorcrfant with public affair) ui thii province, ia a manly and fpi.l 
rkcd* tho' not a very corrcA, produ^on. Sotne Arulces in it wereq 
judged too pcrfoDal by the GenUcman at whom they were aimed. »nd_, 
whoexprcfled his leKOCincct, firll, by a challenge ^ hu( not obcaintnQ' 
6tisFadtan by dut means, he put up hii fnotd, drew forth his pea, ane 
prodoccd thcfoilowiog article, viz. 

Alt 6. jI Repij te a Pitce taUti the Spetth cf Jtft^h GaUswaj^ Ef^y 
By John Dicklnfon. 8vo. Philadcipbia printed. 

In ihtt tecond performance, Mr. Dickinfon. who, it ieems, h a Gen-^ 
tlemin of coofiderabU: eminence in the Law. feverely animadverts otii 
Mr. GjiUoway'i fpeedt ; aod it more than even wiih him on il>c fcoie,^ 
of pafoiulitiei: and for which, indeed, both partiej are juHly liai.teJ 
la pohlic cmfute The piece* puHiibed by ihefc Gentlemen are never- " 
tharb worthy of attention, erca in th\i country; a« they ftifM to cuavcy i, 
apKlty clear notion of the important (ubjc^ of thit acw PciKifyUatiiiO, 
CDntelt : yet we cannot bat wonder ttiat a man ol Mr. Dickiniiin't abi*^ 
litict Oioold, in hi* anfwcr to Mr- Galloway, take no notice cS the ma-f 
Acrlrf^^cr to the Uft-oamed Geaitemut'i Speech, by auotber HaitiJ 

F « Tr 


M R T H L T C A T A I e C C E, 

[ This PrcC-KC, fiippoicd to be written by Mr. F— — -n, U ot ii'cir i 
,Vr(y conTiUeiAblc trail, nf ihiny'fevc pj^et; .ind ciJitHib a fucdnft 
Lficwofihii controfcrfy, conccrniiig the proporcd cIkiusc afGovcrn- 
Lmciit in ihat courttr)-, which us once fo happy todet tKc i.iHocace nf 
mfcwile Bti'l faluury ryllrmf.f iVjtliam H^rd. the great Fotmda, asi 
[jirtl Proprietor, of ihii hitherto flouriihing colt«<y. 

[■Art. 7. Rtmarks en tht Budrtl i or, a ccndid Extiminafian ef thg^ 
Fatfs and A-gumifOs ifftrtd ta the Public in tfmt Pamphitt. 8vo. 
6d. Wilkic. 

Ai we entered roi into the m<riti of the rafli and argiimenb crJjjtiJn- 
in (he .celebrated Budget, U would look ttkc parti:]:i:y, Jbould »• 

[linw derceftd to panituUts, m rtfpcft to ihn dificieiit flaic of iht prin- 
[«ipai of thoJe fa£ft, elHniaic-', and cilcolatinn^ ; which nrc hctc eon- 

tciicd, in a manner iKat mull (liiltc the aitcntion oF crcrv' impnitiat, Id- 

[ (clliecnt Reader. 'ThoCc who have given any confidenble degree of 

lArcdtt to the rrprercitCJtioiu and argbmeots thrown out b)- the Author 
ToT the.Biid?ei, and hnve been chencc ttidbced 10 fortn their notion.^ oF ' 
Lihe political merit of our Adtninitltaiion, m regard to the laie treaty of 
[peace, wjJl do ^vell to pffrufv ihefe remarks uji that finioiu ao:i-inini>j' 
jKccal pcrfc/iJiance j arw! we will »cfi[gfc tup'Omirc, iliAt they will find 
ihi ihcai, fome patt^culors weJl worth their omervition. 

Art. 8. /fn Ai:dr*ftitkthP.>n'ifi. 8vo. 6J., "Vvfee. 

• Among-tbe many ill cifefti of our prcfrnt patty-dirputo, ibis Writer 
Ihinfii O'lrfWoiM has arifrnoat of them, whrcb'ii is' the dcfi^o of ibis 

\(l<dieG (O poiiu nui, and tuni to the pubhc advantage. i'rom the 

(cfloration. 10 the prclVnl yoir, he oblcrvc., dcrc ncctr wflj n I'mr, 

when the eh(it.iclcr of King Charles I, sud the phnciplts of the whole' 

h;cc of the Sluarti. wcic fo well amJcrftood, and fo unlveriallj- con-- 

dciDiicd, ai do/ingthcie Inll two yean. One party aiftong o», ha»' 

Ifcren perpeldAlly declaiming aeainl) thnn as a ncf of tytartt5. snd' 
Kiclkarging the otner with beiig llirir fr!cnd%. The latter .ibfolutcK- dif- 
lcl-ii'D this, and fay, it iv acniunny fuundcH upon.imca[i attificeoF their 

rappcmenti. Ao unpnrjjiliccd By-[Umlcr will commODly obfcrve in 

rpariy difptitcs, ihit both fidet are iniiie wrom;: intheprelent c.ilV, our 

lAtiihor iliintij both 10 the right — ■ i<i fat as they pfofcls thcrardvcj ihc- 

fucmli of. Lifaeriy, »nd e«mi« W that tyr^inojc ht>ufe.' Bui, lert 

h'e may haie JuJgcd 100 (h.<rii3bly of either, he ptt»j.ore» a I'tft, by 

irhich the public may prove the fitttericy of earh. Hi» fcbetne u, 11 

it'o'i'h the rdijiiou* rommemoratiori of the ^oiK vF jatiuiry, which he 

iiifidrrii M n • folcmn nioclcery of the Altniglicy, by Ictiing apart «d;iy 

lint fitilTng fur Ia bad t n man as Ciiailrs I. and for repelling a fcrvice io 

rliic.-i he 11 icprefened a» n faint and a martyr ;' — wherein * the Com- 

i*ler. howe collcflrd together the l*c(fer:il f.afiiitfs of Scipiore which dc 

\' + Th4i Ch^ilc* wai a bad man, and m enemy 10 int people, the 
tf)Jir!Ic> Cuppoin to be a pot'ii in wbich »\\ p;ir(ici 4-e iio>v agreed ; 
Rftd rhcrefo'e he com r nil himfelf with a very brief retetencc to fonic 
wwnt^ui ioducei of bii ajlbduviotu', ia onlu to hx. the we idea of 
ht> ohaiailer. . . 


Political. fig 

fttjbe llie cTiwaficf of the PfJinirt, and of our UefTed Saviour, and 
fcave applied ihenr to him ! — To fpeak in fuch rcry high terms of a man 

' %vho(e cnaraf^er we ia^»>WlHy condeniD. >s a difingcnuiiy to which na 
/^m/r man ajght to fubmic ; but to do i\h in odt dtv>utnj, i» .iftVant- 
in^ our Maker ia the' a3 of worfltipping hiot, and is adiliiig iinfiety to 
mtmmntft !' 

Our Auihor thlalcsthu an happy j unsure for at:cmptiag tn ger rid of 

thit abfurd annivcrlary tfair, ' If, fays he. the Ixraders in the pre- 

{tm Adini:ii[lration have, ai I enitrely believe of chemt. a jufl (cnieOf 
<henat]oa*s hapjpinefc in therxpuinonof the Stuam, and ihefuccrfiion 
of a bcitcr fairaiv, if ihcy are real eacmies to the tyrannical and ■At- 
ttaryprinoplej »hi(:h Crurki I. fo carneftly adopted. — ther canaoc 
with for a fjiifnr opportunity of gaininj; a viAory over ihcir opponent*, 
than that which BOW offcrnrfelf, by tJictr ir:OvJngfor abolithinj thcob 
fervadon of s day (et apajt for (ain(ifin the Quarts,' to whom they ar 
acciUed of being fo mecn attached. * h it poflible, adds he, forui c 
alk of thorn a hcucr proof of their loyalty ? What fiicftd of Li- 
berty h there in the kingdom, who*il] doe embrace tiicm a* WhipiJ 
after having delivered o«f church (rem the cmbtrraflrtient of this fble&ni 
day of tttumph lo Toryifm ? — On the other hand, what man in him 
UaUi Will not ever after treat with coritempt aa Qf^fitiWs affefling* ta 
ulk (b much agatnit the Stoart*, if thfj ihall dare to oppofe fach a mo. 
rioo.'* — ShouW it be thought there is anydaojer oribeAdraiaiftraiitm'i 
bring wcai;cncd by thit mcaforc; Jn anrwrrio ihit Tuppoiiiion, the/\d> 
(Inrftpr undertakes 10 fhcw, that, on the contrary, they arc more likvl|rJ 
1 eDgcbbyic: but. for hia argument) on thit head, aj alfo fop] 
■■treafont, (etding tocoovincc lheG«ntlfmen of the MiHority.f 
(bu tiiey. cfpeciaUy, ihotilj eTpoufe thii pro^lal, we refer to the pam-j 
phkt: which feomi to have been wriiicn with a laudable zeal for the 

'cxtiaAiOD of party-fpirit among ui, as well as for t>ic honour of our , 
d)afC/)t And the crcilu of the nation. But whether the fclKiuc hi: fo' 
{■ciTTKRly recomnu-iiiit, beat iht* time fn v<:ry ejcpedient, aa he tccmi t9 1 
COt»cetv<, niay be a mar.erof doubt with fome; while others may ap* i 
prehend it to be aitagcther inexpedient at any time. Wc^ have lieard,^ 
that a motion of thi^ Kind was broaght into the Houfe forneyears av'Vl 
rhere it was warmly oppofed bjr the High-church party ; on whte^ 
gallint-rpiriied Whig role up, and declared hitsfelf agai,nll the motion t> 

Siring this memorJiIc rcalba for it : * I would. Jaid he. have thi* 
■y ctermilly commemorated, that future Princei may Ue annually piic 
in mind, what En^lifliracn dare do. whea (bdr Kiugi prcfuiae to inV] 
TStdo their Libotin I" 

I He reiUy Teems co be a fincere Adrocaie for Lord Bute in particu- 
lar, aoJ laboar^ to provr. botli him asi hit famil)^, to have bceo /6.J 
IQirlcable for their attachment to the Houfe of Hanover. 

Art. 9* ALttitr U iht Puyii, containing p,mt import^ Hintt re- 
^ iatisg to the Revenue. Mvo. l s. BlaJon. 

The hinu cofltained to tHa Letter, are. indeed, of oheat im- 

^M:aiut. -•" ■'■•! may, perhap*. appcaj at firfl ffgSt to every Reader, 
j'hcy ch;, ;o araMlet which ilie poblit-JfM:itc3, and veiv abta^ 


Monthly Catal'ooui, 

Wrirer jaQly cooCidett, ai ihcfooc Tioin whtncr nuny public cvtUluve 
fprung, 01 may heicaJter TpiiDg* \'iz, ' The alloH-3nce, by way of 

* Feci, of a cenaiQ lale. more cr Icfs, for icvcry pound* toSixOHitc* 

* in ihe Receipt of Exchraurr. or fome of iheoi, on all Sunu of 

* Money wtuicvcr. gmi o- f:nalli witliin a mere trifle, ilTued or paid 

* thciv, »i wt It (vt the public, ai ou account of the dril hit, in all 

• • t&ki whcie they hkvc no* been excmpied thciefrom by authority of 

* l-'atliuncnt.* 1 he enormity of (hii great and {'Owing mifufe of the 
public mooeyi '» fct, lx>rtb by our Author, in ftich a manner, as mull 
coDvincc every aitcntlve Reader, of the crying Dcce(T!r>' there ia for a 
refcnn^irion of tlic evil complained of: an evil by which every indivi- 
dual in ihe kinj^dom is, nioie or tefi, affe^ed ; becaufc. as the Letter' 
^Vrller obfctret, 'e^civ iiiiiividual fumunneccnarily chaigcd totbc pub* 
lie accDUQt, mull ea<{ uliltnaiely in iDcrEjItng the laxrt : wMlfgfch, 
adds he, \^'hile you boaft of your freedom, you mud look upon a &ec- 
dom from unneceflary taxes ni an cfTcntial p»rt of iu' 

Wc fay no oioiv : bul 21 the Vd'ticcr (cctrn to be lhoro«ghly aci|iiaint« 
cd with ni» fubjcil, wc heatlily recommend liit hinti la cnc I'ciiouscon- 
fideiaiiun of thuie crpcd-illy, who m»y have it in their powrrr 10 con> 
tribute, in any degree, toward* the leformation of abiiles in the adml* 
nilbation of public aS'^Irs in geiicfil, aiid of this greuly barthnfooie 
artic-c of Omce-i'ees, in particular. 

L /at, Sc. Csnjiderstism tn tbt Legality ef Otnn-al IVhrraMs, ond 
lh* Prefuitty ef a PaiUamentary R»guiiitl6n of tht famt. To 
tuhkb ii eddti!-, a Fytfrt^t^ tn a latt Pa/nphUt csnurntHg fu- 
rirs, LiMit i^e- 8vti. is. NicoII. 

A Writer who undctiakes the defence of General Wanant), oaght 
[* to be Otmfus, Nil Daxuu A% well might he anempt to make an t~ 
ihiop white : tiay> as wc!1 might lie attempt in eommunieate patriotrTm 
to a Ttimc Miniller. or candoar to the Lcsdcr of a FaAion. But if wc 
jodM ari{;bt, all tiiat this Conriderer meant, is to prove bimfrlf ibc 
inou oblc^uious bumble fervanl of (be ruling pont^i. 


Art. II. Curftry Remarkt en tht Method oF inveflieating the 
Principles and Properties of Bath and Briftol ^Vaters; /// 
fvrth in ATlEMrTs t9 revive asiitiu mtdi<ai DoSlrinet ; ana in 
an ATTEMPT to afcenain and extend the Virtues of thcfe 
Waters : Jicth by Ahxandrr SnihcriirJ^ M. D. ff Both mJ 
Brifld Hot-ff'fii>. By C. Lucaj, Doaor of Phyfic, of 
Rlicims, Leydcn, and Dublin; and Member of the Royal 
College of Phyficians in London. 8vo. 1 9. Ptintcd at Batb, 
and lold by Hawes ajid Co. in London. 

Dr. lueai. In hi* Account of the Bath Wniert, - proved, by va- 
riou* f^xpcnmrn;*, that thofe waters ajc unprci^naied with an *«/, 
which geneislly predominatei while they are in llie natural ilate; Dr. 
Siitlicrland, ncvenhelefx, in his Aittmp /, hath undertaken to (hew, in 
oppoftiion to Dr. Lucas, that the Bj<th wat»s nre impregnated with 
iulpbur. Xbai boUi tbc:e Deftors cannot be tight, i« moll certain : 


■aaJ Dr. Luou huh hae conddcencJed ta make a tcrere smtk on poor 
' Df. SailicfUaJ. wlwcwiainlyiibj- BOmeant amatchfarthijcdrSrHfd 
Cootrovctfijiliit. Inilce<J. Dr. Lucas fccai»co>ircioui, chjtby borvounng 
Dr. ^tiiherUui! w.ib thefe Remarks, he' wis pa^iag him i» anncriird 
conpliaimc; fur, fayi he, * I mull confert to yoa,' k [Dz. Suber- 
ItUMft book] appears to oi' the m:>ll ftnujic, iii(oidet\y, imTnethoJicaU 
cnxir. wd maijfeflcJ medley, that tvtr elcaped iJic pen of a mao M- 
pible of reaJiRjj, lucakinj, or thinkin".* But, addretliitg himrtlf la 
Ait IcAineJ Coric!pouiicni. he thut apologizes lor hii condelcenGoa. 
• I fuppofe my g'XKl frttni will hardly judge a wc»rk of ihij kind, 
wofthy of tenotii animadveHion : it will nnt adm>t t>f, dot. indent 
dxt ir defcT>e il> To nindj like yours, I nct^d baT Tet down th« 
giaoBdle& carilltngt of thii Writer, to espofc them I'gffickntly: bu( 
wc iDiift pay ibtiu; defucRce to the great vulgar. Some of thcTe are 
polfcHed of ihij roaffive volume, however they cams by ii ; — witriilwm, j 
word*, the Uft Uford* crpeually, cut y coiivi^lioa, ani it is &t to unde*' 
cdve tbem.' 

In conformiqf to (he contempt exprelTcd for bif opponent, Dr, Luou] 
lu;b oot bcca very grave or ceremonious with him ; but hath treated] 
Itim tbrougbout with a pictiy iib^rj) pottion of ridicule as u-ell aaj 
levcrity : ai a rpcvimen of which, we Ih'U quote hii ludicrout (arcalt 
On the Cippofcd paruality of his North Briciih .Adverfjry ia favojr of 
' Sulphur. After id irooical encomium on I>r. Sutherl&iKl, as a man of| 
' tartt and Uttert, he adds, * Does not my candid Friend ihink n>c aq 
^Itanly fellow, to take up the gauntlet thrown by fo pocenc a Champion t \ 
Of ttU youwi!) be fuiher convinced, when you find the leimcd Gcn>^ 
tleman, from pure /arr;«l principles, oonteiKls for ftilphur in Baih Ws«i 
trrs; well knowing, chat fince ^«A>m;« the fon of />dori/ fat upon lhft*J 
ihraoe of Britain, there never was a time in which there was fo great A 
arerfiiw of havina England p!er.:ifully llored widi brimAonef aj thefil 
happy day* in which our Autbor Hourilhci I' 

Thi* ftMrUi of Dr. Lucas'* pen. howe%-«r, we may venture to! 
.Jbrecel, will fcarcc bring ilie ingi-nious Wiiicr into play, as a Court' 
Fhyficiaa;— at lejfl, not in the reign of Solomoa the Ibn of David: 
vthatevei tnay happen in caie a Rchoboam (bouJd afi:cod the ttaiooe^ 
while Dr. Lucas reroaiaj in (be way of worldly preferment. 

A» to the mcdiul merits of this conitoveify, we refer to the traft at 

'Urge; and for a fitthcr idea of Dr. SulhcrUnd and his pcrformanc* 

"Kere antm^idvcned upon, we lefcr to a full account cf it. in the 

XXiXth volume of our Review t by whkh the Reader v-il! perceive, 

thai we have ooi deemed much higher of Dr. Sutherland's abilities as a 

Writer, tbaa Dr. Lucai feemi lo do in thefc Remarki. 

' Dr. NiUunid Itirry, FeUow oF the King U^ QBcai*t Ccllrjc of Phyroiinn, j 
_iid nnr o4 the Ptif ficUnt Otncral (o ibc uoi} in IictuiJ; to wttoia Dr. Liku hMtfJ 
«d4teA«l ihtfe Kaawks ^ w«y of Letter. ' 

~Art* ll. Mau'wddwifiry Analyfi^, and theTcitJertc* ef that Ptas,- 
tht and ttfajid, 4to. is. R. Davis. 

The Aotbor of ^m pamphlet lias conceived an implacable averrion 

F 4 w 


MoNTHty C'at'alocvi, 

Men-mid wivn. Some monihs igo', in a psmphtei he pablift^-I, < 
QtillcJ, A Lttttr te /f jfvnz hf trratcJ ifcem very fefercl)* . Tlin 
■ftraphlcT we raommcndcd lo the Tcrioiii eoflfidorarioii of ihc perfans ' 
n[eterted in it \ and no xnrwer Rppcaring, we fappole that circamitanca 
OCcafioneJ the publioicion cf this adilrcl», * To men in grncral. and to 
^irricd mcr. in particular.' How far the prafticeof Man-midwifcfy \\ ^ 
aliogctlicr right or wronp. weprcfume not to determine. CKriuinly. if 
,wonea areas wcl! qualified, aod which, itidced, they ought to be, there 
jcan be no occcQity for it [ bot if ihcy ^n. a& niiy be too frcqucntl]r 
ihc caic, ignorant of ibe duties of ihcir wSce, it would be viTyhar4 
.c fair fex ftiould fulTcr on tbat accoont. 'I he Author inirodqcn this 
addrcfi wilhavcrj-oddft^^rj--, which, c«n if true, u not at all lothepur»^ 
vo(t, aithc ignor<inccof one praditioncr, it not to determine ihcch** 
ji.iX'ct of the whole body. He preteodi to be * gnrat advocate for dc ' 
cency, and lo be angry with Dr Smellie for having defaibed the pang ' 
of generation in 3t woman, in a bonk of Midwifery, where certainly it 
Riay be of ufe : and yet he has himfelf ttanfcnbcd the Dolor's words ' 
ittiohiiow-n workf where it can be of noufe at all. Ai wc have nerer 
beard that fuch liberties at he defntbci, are aruallv, if ever, ulcca 
nitb pregnant women, we may jui\ly I'uppolc this to he chiefly. If nof j 
altoeetha. an invention of the Auihor't, to fetve a purpcfc ; and cer- 
tainly he agaravaicj matters very much, when he r-iyi, ' Iron inftru- 
nicnts are almullcouIUntU- ulVd by men :* and muft kcpp very bad coin-^ 
rpony to IjMi fucb convcrutionai be wiite> of, page* lo and ii; buti 
^ for thij we refer to itie parapWei. 

1 »ra not unaware, (he fays p. ti, (2) that it will be here faid, 

'., that difTicult labours irquire not only the Oiill but ftrrngth of a man | 
and that it would be impofTiWe to deliver fooic women without Inftin- 
ji^Dt*. It may be fo ; but I will take upon me to fny, it only happens 
to fuel] w>omen who have been iujtircd by h&dy or forced labour* with 4 
J former child, or by iron jnArumcnts. It never happens to a woman With 
.,,lKri liiil child ; nor it never Itjppens to ihe'pDor with any child ; ih« 
[4 reafon i<, that tbey arc not injured by former labours ; and that narars 
,ii the faithful and unerring midwife of the latter. I fee continttat ac- 
counts of th« deHH of women in childbed, that art women of fafhion \ 
I never l)car in the cou&frv wbcrc I live, of the death of any of my 
^nf.:.liioaalj!c neighbourt of ilni Ji/iim^r^ as Dr. SmcUie calls it. WbrJi 
rdorsamvp, a cow, a bare, a rabbit, orany pan of thcbrutecreaiina. 
k*.<)iein bringing forth their youne/ Never! And has Providence beco 
^ fo careful of the picfervauoa oibrotes, and left the ooblcfl part of hcB 
produdlicn in danger ? Ceriainly, No.' 

Whcie this Writer lives we know not; tut wc can alTure h?m, wq 
have known (t^onX women die, undelivered, at their fuU rcckwiingi 
-.JV)W(l.Ulfy wprcteft enti'ejy to nature. Several olhe^^ in labour, and 
Dthen after delivery, when ihcy lyerc under the management of worsen 
Only I njy, we have known the uterus inverted hy a woman t and ihefe 
. cafci M-eic net the confcr^uencu of nuR-midwilery !n a former labour, 
as they had aUvay:; been attended by wnnvn. 

Indeed, we cannot tee how it h pofljlile fome women wild have bera 
delivered without inllruoiccts ; and are at much «a I0& to peneivf^ 

f See RcrirtM,\oI. JfXX. page +10. 


liOMriRctMri libcnrcoald be rcndem! prcietnitani by any tmtmenla 
ibc firfi tklivery. V^c have heaid too, thu many or the d'tSerent kiois 
of thet)nrt<; crntion have died in partuiit'on, a^id tliink it CliAngc oar 
Amhor IhmiM never <vncc hfnr nf Tuch h crmmflutce ! VVe may na« 
dity exculc tii> pcinring Man-midwifery tn Its molt {Klioot colaors. as 
ihert mi)' he privaic icalbo* for ii, befidc ihoiir he publicl)' avow* i but 
we know not how to excufe hri btfchondi am! mi rrepicfcnratjonf t nor 
how lofupprcb oaf indianation, when wc i^ad, page 33, the/wM;^'*^ 
eliofr, which We do rot chtrie 10 tiMfcrtbe imoour work ; botwc «nll 
renteretofiy, rhi: iwhtt he ihfl-cafRrms, will foarcc be artcttted lo bv 
ftrofe who are ncqiuinied u>ith ttie llru^orc of the womb; Tor all Yutb 
muft know, that it. is impoffiblc xa be done : nor can we think, ~ 
my one erer ittrmptcd it. 

if DOT Amhor (houiiJ find hitnfeir inclined to grow angry with ta, 
we hope lie will remember, that we hete de^larr. 11 ik not the m/u, nor 
liii tai/t, we dnd fault with ; but we niufl objcfl ii every mifrcprrTi-nia- 
tioo of fafb, every aj^artna if deviation from tratli : — which maA 
ji^uUy tend to hurt any »ufe whurver, to obftrud the progfcfa uf 
nallcieDce, &nd iq injure thebcil intercut of inankuidt- 

■f For finne of the remu^fl tn this anide, we are obli^d to ft Cor- 
refpondcoc la the countryj with whofe fcntimenti w« entjrejv accord. 

Art. 13. JLftltr ta thr Autler af a Letter to a young L»()r, 
«vo. 6d. 'Beckei. 

Siocrihe fnregoinj[ article wis <mri/frm (it being inteiided lor-UR 
month*! Rcriew) ap^K-Kcil ihU reply to ifa« pamphlet which, m we hare 
tbOM temarked, palled (o long unanfwercd. 

Tbepreicr.t ^'tiict is a warm Adrocate for the Mcn-midwiire) ; if he 
hud bcea finsewhat lefi warin, the csufe he defends would nnt haveitif- 
fcred on that aeconni ; for, hoc headed Championt are not alwavt ihe 
pod faccdifol. be their caafe what it wilt. He is very fn-ere in hit 
I pcHiiBal glances at the Author with whom be contcndi. accu&ni; him of 
■tKrtBgfmly falHtocMla and mifrepTclei)tJiiooi J ; atid. id brief, at good 
SI lelU faim. ia plain tenni. that he it a vrj had m«n. A vrty b^ 
iiMtthod, tbtt. of piuvitig whether Midwifery tntght to b« cooAacd to 
the hands of male or female I'raditionert ! 

lliii Gentleman, tycvrrthrlcfs is candid enough to mrndon 3 fcbrme 
for mderiag the women Pnifliuoner» more ftillfu) in their profeffioa* 
lod which mult conle^ueQtly tend to gain them a greater fhare of the 
Kifineft. He d'X;^ net doubt th-ni they are as capable of icarning the 
an. and that they would be able to ['ctform, in mott caiVs, ai well a» 
the Ten ; but, a» he juiUy obfer?*!, • It is well known, that the wo- 
men Praftiiionrrs of Midrtiferv are gencially of the lowcft claf* and the 
noft igttorant of thf people, iiich as have not had, and indeed could not 
■fitmj themfelves a proper edoution for thtir piofeffion; fuch only as 
fcUow ihU employment for bread ; and thererore it would be an ex- 

I And Ihit he doet nor mcicly aUrrt, bat he endeavonn to make it 
appear, by contefling with him the pnnapal poind, and fiippoicd la^t, 
ccnuined in the Ltiier to a young Lady. But thcfe ors (hingt not to 
tycontroKitcd in a gennaT Review of Litcistuie. ^ 



',«11<M poWic cTiaiity, to ■pi»cint 'proppr pcribtij lo iftllnKl women «| 
ibe practice of MjdwWrry, and f^y ibcm for llicir trouble, and iHo 

• tiuiooin the Pupili while they ate leujiing that bufineft ; &i then ihdl 
fellow crcBtnres would be delivered froDi the unhappy conrcqui-nccsi 
iheir igna:aflce. A ceitilkate, under the hand and Cal of the Inllni^hiryl 
that (he it tvcll q'lalificd for her oBicc, (hould be required of every oat 
before Ihe be allowed ro pfa£ti(c f and flie (hould not be obliged id get 
a licence fropi the Bilhop, a^ the cailom now it, and whkh k her oaly 
4]uaItKc>iion ; becjufc the Otlicers of hiicoutt areno jodges of her me- 
rit, nor «lo they pay any rerird to it ; for it i^ well known, thai every, 
one who apiliei, i% futc to OOtun a liccoce, not only in Midwifery, but itii 
Fhyfic AD^ Surgery, on getting any ccriificaic of rccon)tnca(!ation:-»i 
and thnt nnt lone; ago. a rery ignorant, illiiente Farrier and preteadcil'j 

, Witchkilleri in SuRoIIe. obtained a licence from the Bi(hop'» come lA j 

-Uorwich, (0 prafUTc ai a iiurgron and Apothecary.' 


A L. 

^rt. 1 4. jf pvtiial Tranfiatim of thi Fahks of PhaJrtu^ with lir] 
Appatdixif Gudnit, anit an accurate KfHusn of thi Orhtnal emi 
the eppifiie Pait. To witnb it aditd.^ a Pmfirg Index far th»\ 
Vft of Ltarnen. By Chriftopher Smart, A- M, fonKtime 
I'cllotv of Pctiibrok^ Hail, Cambridge, anil Scbol^ of tha) 
Univerftty. ittno. 3s. Dodflcy. 

Jf the Fables of Ph^drus were a proper honlc to pot into the hands 
children, for the parpofe of jnltnu^ling them in the I^tia laoguageaj 
thii edition and tnnAatian by Mr. Smart, would deterve the picferente 1 
bat, noiwithRuding the inviting natqre of (be fubicA, the book iiC^lj 
uvCTy improper for the piirpofe above-mentioned : for fhe Latin, ihtt^ 
cxlretne!y elegant, it by no means eafy. Great variety of phraleologf,] 
and numerous iranfpofuioas, occafioned by the metrical dirpofition 0P1 
the wotdt. are the cau(c of this dilficulty. Eui a^ too taany of oorJ 
Sdtooltnaflers are equally Aupid aud ignorant, (b ivc have ktKiwn iha] 
Fables of Phxdrut given 10 (tic youiigeft Lca.ticri; confcquenily iHia ' 
trandatkin may Hill be of ule. — Of tlie maiiiiet 111 which it u cxecutcd^'i 
the follov-ing fiiblc may lerve as a fpeciineiu 


WiioKvefc to hii honosrS coft> 
His prirtinc dignify hjs tort, 
Jt the l-ool'i jell and Covord'i fcora. 
When once dclVncd pnd forlorn. 

Wiih years cnfcchjed and decayed, 
A lion gal'ping hard was laid ; 
Then came, tvith furious tufle, a boAT] 
To vindfcaie his wrongs of yore ; 
The bull was next in hoAitc fpite, 
Willi goriog horn bis foe to fmite ; 
At length lAe ali hiniltif, fecocv fj 

Thai now imponiiy »*3t datt 
\\\% blow too itifblcnily deals, 
- And kicks hu fwchc«d with hU heeli^ ' 


PO K T I CA^ '• '^ 

Thin Aui Ac lien, « he dy'd, 

' *rw»i hard to bear ihc brave, he cry'd, 

* Bat to be trampled on by Uie^ 

• It Namrt's lift indignity i 

■ And I ho u, O dcfpicable thing. 

■ Giv'll dcaih at leaA a double-fting. 

Art* 15. Mif<t}ionnui R/Jlt^tians : or an Rvtnimg's MtSiatian^ a 
Poem. Addrtfftd 10 tht Youth. By T. L. 410. is. 6d. 
Kicbtrdfon and L'rqubart. 

This Bvemimi'i M*4itaiitn u a poor Imiratlon of pr. Young's 
Jtitht'7bemibtt ; but our Author's iwttiaht r/fmiitu are even more iuk. 
and obrcore iban ihofe of tlie Dodor at inidnifhc. 

Art. 16. Thi Temple t/T'S^edy, a potUml Efay, 4!©, is, JH 
Buntcc. ^^ 

Tbis apf>nn to be tbe tSott o( a yoong imagination, fmicten with I 
tbe /w Phnnzy of Poetry, and ra»ijlicd *iih ihc high cncbantmenti of j 
andf ni Hcrotfm nnd Urtiidilm ; but the MuTc bai not ye< act^uircd luf- I 
ftcieni fiiea);i)i of wing, 10 d=n from the Cambiiaa (Jif*» 9r to pieico 
the gruv^ ol' Mona. 

Art. 17. N*I. Of 9 C^aUn of ftle£tt tri^maty mlft^nt9ttt 
Pttnu, By Jofus Cuiiiuogbam. Folio* ^s. 6d. Jones. 

At the end of (hit pamphlet it the followioff advertifiemcnt. 

*«* * Thefe MifcclUntcs will be pubUfhed in icn Numbers, Price 
fificcn fhillin^i in Scu, or one Ihillmg and fix pence each Number.* 
If the Man be a: poor at the Poet, he it a real ob}cA of cbariry» tmA 
u (ash we leconuoend btm to the bcaevoleoce of ibe pablic 

Alt. 18. Vtrfit cr tlf Approach ef Pratt. H^rittfn in Dicrmher 
176a. By L. Wbiuker. Hull, printed; and Ibid by Horf- 
£eld in London. 

TTtere is fomnhin^ in ihHe Tcrfe* that inclinet us to think bettn of 
ihe Author than wc can of his pcrfnrmaRce. It wcald r»1ly be critQl- 
BiU in Oft to cocouragc an hunclt, and efpeciaUy a poor, man, to perfift 
in a tnir^pplicaiion of his time and tulmu, only to inCrcafe the herd of 
Poetalleri, with which tbe PaoipMci-lhops, the Magazines, the Chro- 
nicle*, the Evening Polls, tfac Advcmfcn, the Gauttccij, the Weeklf 
jooioals, and even the very Almanacks, are pedc/ed. It is laid, a n- 
tncdy bu been found ibc the epidemical dil^cmper among tbe cattle ;— 
wc arc forry that no one, in this noflrum-in venting age, hai yet dila>> 
vered a cure for \^c f«ttie*l mmrrain^ by which fo many of his Majcfty'a, 
iiibjcA* are toialty lolt— to focicty. 

Alt. 19. An £/rjy t9 tht Memory of tht Right Hm, lyilliam 
hart of Bath, ^to. is. Nicoll. 

A fevcre fatirc on the memory of a very great man. But. ^haMvcr 
nay be the merit of this utoclc-KIegy, a« a poem,— whatever might br 


the stings of ibe uoble perfon whole cianQjtr is hettio ilU\>eni)f rreat* 
ed, it wascettainly tncan, ind en the Uft degree Dflmael^, thus M in- 
liill (he aihe«f and trample on the lame, of one whom dc^th has ren- 

4i«ed incapable of felf-oefence! U ii iiom iWn uiLuiialaDce only. 

. thfti wc «re induced to paf) wiiJkDut farther tiOUi:c. a peftormance, the 
linalignit^ of which mwi alone, lender it highly obnoxioui^o every ge- 
fjicroua mind. 

, 10. ChurthiH Vtftndcdy a Psfm. AMr^td te the Minin/y, 
4to. 3S. flcxncy. 
Wiitten by an Awgtt, who wat han^/Jt and twifj in a Fi^itg-tswn : 

* Gods ' ho«v I gtofi au A^igcl as I read ! * p. 1 9- 

* See, fee, ihc hangman cotnei to Hop ray hrcatli.* ibid. 

■ ••'tVelongbeen bntied in amean*n.' "p. J3. 

.Art. 21. ^H'E/tgy in the Death tf tA* hte Rsv, Mr. Oidrkt 
CiturthUL IS. . Field. 

We apprehend, the poL-t)Calfricndiofthe]5tc Mr. Churchill would moll 

■ properly ihew ilicir regard 10 hij niemory by their filencc ; and, at ih« 

tome lime, his AnUgoniils would nioll effeiljallyltr.Vify theij- gtnrrofiiy 

by the (arte means — Our patriotivBatd. however, who calls himitlt'^ 

tjnhabiLant of a fufTcnng couniy, fccm^ to bavc been ,af\uate(] by (ha 

KobEe principles of f fceJom, ind the love of his country.' » well aa 

,by avcncraiico. for liie tlecealcd Bard, id the execution of hit poem. 

Maipoiueue {tailed cot on bis birth. 

krt. M. Thf Wig, a itrfefyui-ffitirieal Pom. By the Author 
of Mote i-'un. 4,tQ. is. bd. Klcxney. 

A dfcill account of the otij^tn. poorer, aniTfigniiictnce of the Wigi 
. wl)i(ih. aiDr. Vouag.^yi, ^iomearejadcbtedfur 

■ ' - " A Name, 

*' While tjibcr fiiooldcr has iis iliare of fame." 
"bef* fportive (allies of the Mufc. arc perfeaiy haimleft at leaft [ and 
.«t wc live in an age wfaofe prober maixo \» vivt la hagaulUt wc ihalt 
E e'en join ilielaufUisg dfortis, aod VStiiTbt H t^, 

K r 1 1, s. 

t, 23. Tbi hip i^d jidvetitvrts »f B^jamiH Brafs^ an Injk , 
.SortuRt-Hw4rr. i2nio. t Voli. 5s. Nicoll. 

, Ben B,rari, an Ficlpcr io a GeDilcmao's ftable» in Iiclaod, robs ht« ' 
inartcT, Rici to P.ngbnJ, and drprnding on his pcrfbnal quajifKaii^ns, 
feu up lor a Forltine^hantrr. In ihiilclicinc he it alTiiled by Fiizpatriclc 
90 Iriflrchainp^o, hii coufii: 1. an^ tbcy both go thtoiigh 3 luiinber of 
low ad»entai«, . in ihc iriif^gulpj way ; tiil after bc^ng dJfaopoiiited in 
all their fchcmes, Brils fmdi nimrflr in & jail, and the chairman is in] 

-i«lBoft at bad a -fiiuapoo. The wotk ti fa far of a moral call, that! 

«- villainy. 

M t rc-^Crf**'N*f»^>*tf <i- 


,f!Tbiny ij liw crowned *irt fuccefa, feiti on th« WBtrary, m««) ivlth 
'libc<lderv?d'pamlhmeni. We can Taj* iMiUilag fiutliei to jii moai- 
[netidauan, except ih.ii there U, in Tome iew part* of it. a linled&lh«f | 
fbumoorf poiliciuatlj' tn the chsia&ier and aJvcniuies of Fitzpatriclc ; 1 
»liofe ^Uirdlcies. and droll milhspii. will foiueUmcs rai^- 3 laugfi, it the J 
,Ke^n \i not too okc in h~u ullc U>r [iribilicy, aiiJ Jovs nU'i happen ia*J 
jrccolfed, tbki ihe cbsiiman b only a faint copy of SiuoDct*> Tomfipn;j 

Art. 14.. jCdsnti Droftr't Jnftvtr it iht Sfattijh JrguairHtSy clain 
iag the Gattttn^ arid rrfuftng Pameot of tlx Ranfom-biUs far prt^\ 
ftrtnng AioHihi frtm PiUay^ tf c. bte. 8va. 1 s. Dodflejr. 

A mafterly refutauon of Spanith fgbtcrfuge. What ii now becoma j 
of tbe boinlcd t'im'9 of that nation ^ fQl^bly, indeed, z% Colonel Dra — ] 
per cwdidly fuzgciiv, tlic Court of Madrid hatli been impofod ntt, by. J 
hApqitiiil rcptc^uiion of t})c cafe, from the inhabitanti of Manila, j 
'M fo, K b aoi to b« doubted, but t>ut either fiom the juflice of h*i J 
|nolt CatboUc Majeily , or the ipirii«d conduft of t1ie British /^dmtiiinrao'f ] 
' tioo. or from a happy comhinaiii^n of both caufca, this important aSait* 
«m be rpetdily fcnltxl, to the emite ratbfaaion of thofe brave injoMj' ' 
ineitt who have A} lon^ bad their h.irtl-carned ren-nrd wttb-held /Voro, 
l/KRt. The f^bjeift ot this difpute bath been fo much deisilcd in ih« 
'■irWB<papcnii that it is necdlefi for uf u) mcDtion p^ticulara. 

Art. 15. 7ht Btauitei ef Katurf and Art dtfflaytS^ m aTtur 
tif&afh iht lyorid. Arrar^^ wtfirr tht felUtvif^ HfUfh : A gt^ 
ntral ActotHa sf.tvrrf Cotmttyi f»ntmning their Situstienf Btunila* 
rJii, Rrveriy Aif, Sdh^ ClfuSt (.'ufiajki^i Tpeturat amtt t^tijiuift 
AnimoUf y.ejntohk , FeJpUt isfc, 6'c. Remtiriat'f Laws, 
Ci^imt ami Trediiieas tfthe fnf>rliia»!i tf eaJt Chtnity : Thar 
^ntifuititit Rtvelutiwii i>rjmUMt, Dtfaveriity ImbrarjtnitnU^ 
kit. Strtrotrtiinary Mvius of Loigevitu FertiLtj/y Earths 
ftittieSy ifiimietfhnty FirtSy and tiber fuhlic Caiamitieit ^(^ 
Htiifiratfd with many Copptr-ptrrtn find Maps. Small tlino* 
14 Vols. 1I. Ss. bound. J. Paynr. 

Tmtc can fcarce be a more a^rtrable or^ureful book than tlui prrliji' 

^CoIleOiofl, inuoduced into the libraries oi juvenile Kcaden. How' 

leh OtOJV probably would our young l-.adtn Specialty, employ tbrir 

'koorvoT aiQurcioeiit, in ihc pcra'al •<( Aich ac'^mpilacioii, [Fianin turn- 

iho ii»(T [Iir ivorrliVf* page) of the fsr greatct part r»f ftUr rt-.odcm Mc- 

Jcc. which iictie both lo waftc their tUnf, and con- 

I. ... . . -... .... ■ \ 

'Alt. *6. A Ifttrr /9 the FilliWi tf Sitn Ctllige* and /» all fh 
G^rfj wkhii the Billi bf Ahrt^Hty^ and itt the C-.tatty af Mid- 
StftXf htimhiy fr^ptfing ti»ir firming thtmfttvti in-'o a Soiitljr fi,r 
dat MsiatfTiatut of the li-'idnu^ ■and Ofpft^ns of fuib CUrgymen^ 
7*0 vi^d' ii added, a Sittfh «f /erne RuUt and Orders fuiUilU tfi 




that Par^t, By Ferduiwdo Warner, L. L. D. Refior of^ 
Quecnhubc, and Prcfidcnc of Sign ■ ColUge, 8vo. 6d.i] 
Davis aad Kc}iiter5. 

The beiif volctit porpofc which !i the objcd of Ms Letter, can nttTf-* 
le roo wann!y eCpoufeJ, or too affidnouJl)' rccommcndetl ; and ic is 
Bore than (Irangc, that while ibe Clergy in many other parnof the' 
tingdorn have formed thcmrdvcJ into forictiM, and cftaWifted fimdi - 
far the roainlenaDce and fupport of thdr widows vul orphsni, ihnCe of 
London and Mlddlcicx (hould have hitheno nc^tcAed an inilicuiion te- 

annmended by every ai^oment of right ccconomy and humanity.' « 

We arc very feniible, that many of thefe. by the projiii of large pre* 
ftnscau. or by the coDcarrence of temporal lortunex, are placed abore 
the apptchenfionof wane, even for their furriving families j but Ihall 
they be remil) in the afiair. becaufc it comes not home to their own 
bofomt .* Are there not many of their left Opalcnt brethren, who have 
Bced of their afliOanCe ard a^viry in fo important a point — who have 
need of their weight to ctlablifh, and their liberality to encourage, focli 
, *rd»eojC? Wjihoat doabt there arc; and we carBcflly recommend 
[riieir tia€e, cot only to the wealthy of ibeir own order, but of all ranks 
ad denominations whatever. 
,• Since writing the above, we learn with pleafarc, that fi-veral 
■leettnfs of the Clergy have been held at Sion Col1e2C, for thepor- 
po&ft here recommended ; that it haih been agreed to loiyi » fociety or 
Dr. Warner's plan ; and dui a committee h^iih been appointed to carry ' 
the iamc into execution. 

Art. 26. Tire Cracker I or Flajha if Menimml. A CoiUHian of 
hufnourcus Firevj^rks^ luver played off' before. By Jerctnian 
Squibp EngineeTt 12010. is. WtUidins. 

The principal thing to be taken notice of in regard to ihji Crttcitr, 
{9 the bouncing Jif^ which Mr. Squiii hai told in hii ildc-page. ' Ncter 
^yed off before!* Ind«d, Mr. Si|iiib they have, fifty time*, for 
ought we know. The plain truth ii thi;, we hare here a collc^ion of 
fe» Jokes and punt (and fomc of them liiil^cicmly (iupid) as have been 
frinied and re-printed, orerand over again, in every Jeft-book we have 
fcen. for many yeara p.i({, till they arc beconK; as itale is a Bawd's pre- 
tenfioni to piety* or an bacltncy political Author's zeal for the gttd ^, 

.Art. 27* Atmstathns crltitaienJ gremmatrctjfonCftrp.l. /'Vr. i— 
l4i ef the Go/Pti aeaidiitg tf St.Jabn. Being part pf a Wari 
fcrthukrly dtfigntd fir tot Vfeef puitg Perfim^ ai an htrodut- 
titfi to the Sraty «/ tf)e Greek Ttjinmeul, Ts whkh ii prejixed^ 
a preUmiitary Dijcwrfe, exhihithig an eafy Me()nd of Sfurfying tfu 
Grui Language. By James Merrick, M. A. late Fellow of 
Triaity CoUege, Oxfgrd. 8vo. bd. Ncwbcry. 

Wlien the labours ofAnnoutors are coutemplated, only in the mi- 
fidie, though toilJbme. office, of ditlinguifhingtite various (igolficaiions 
of wordt, IB analyaing the complex modct of coaflrufiioa. ud making 


bice di{criminat:oDS, thjt tend to no isatCTiat purpofe, they are con- 
donne^l in g.ciKra), ai the Strenua iairttj o) 1»ratiig ; ncv«ri liclcrt, 
when it ii conlidcred, how much the light undedUnding of a poflkge im^ 
any Autbor, may depend upon the tiue acrcptaiion of i liEiglc word, 
the accuracy of philological knowlege will appear, by do mnns, an un> 
ncceSarv «quificitn, nthcr \vilh regard to Ucred or protanc learning; 
and (hough we cannot fay. that Mr. Merriclc has done anpr thing of con- 
fequcncc in ihii niori critical fifTay, we entirely agree with hin)> in hit 
jnehfninary oblervaiiont, that a knowlcf^i of uic ficied text in m ori- 
ginal, willbe beflcultivatcdand obtatoed, by tracing the Greek wortf- 
thdi are made uU of in the New TeiUuDcnt, through their various £j 
nificatiocj in prof^ine /luihon. 

Art. a8. Tht Hijie^-y tf the Marchhmji it Ptmpadtar. Part IV*. 
iimo. 2s. 6d. H(W{>cr. 

Tk'n foorth and laA vol. ii of a more polilical call than the former 
part*, isccnfeired'y written by anoihcr hand, and abounds more witli 
fpeculatMoi than anecdotei. It ii, hovvcrer, ai the former vnlunK" 
were faid to hare been, wriiien bya uadi-eof France, and is irartflaie 
from the French manufcript^ which may be fecn at the Pdblilher'f . 

Art. 29. The Injlru&ive trtd fot'tel Cimpanint, i2[no. If. 
fcwed. Field. 

An cDteTtaialngcotleAtoo of ftories and aoKdotes, from Hillory an- 
cicm and modem, and ftom fome cf the better fbtt of Mcmoiti, in 
Sx. Conpilementx of this kind, which fcrre to amuft and inform ih 

J<-oUDger fort of Rcadcri. widiouc fallyin? their minds by any ihmf^ 
ow, iodccmt. or iJHbcral, m of more raluc than titc nrhole mob M 
jed'boolu pat Dofetlicr. 

Art. 30. -A amhtniit Karrativi of tht Mtthods tj whUh the 

■ ttry ammittid tn tht Houft af wt Right Hvn. the Ear! ef Ha 

ringtw^ utas A'ljiov^rid. By Mr. James Bcvill, Steward 

Lotd Haningtcin. 4tu. 6d. Nicvil. 

A rema'k^Ie instance, imding to <bew, • that the R>oA fircr«1 an< 
bed cooccricd robbtric! will always be btoii(>hi to hghr, even ffom ihL 
fiendercA accoanti, and mo!l uncxpeded iocjdcDts, ^ ths lainc are put^ 
fucd with iheLke a^^iivit^. pertevcrasce and vigilance.' 

Art. 31. An Amiat of Jsfm Wijktt, laU Parltr to tht Earl . 
. 'HMrrmgt«n, In vj>uh n tcid tii%un an tff'tf^u^ Mtlhtd for prt 
vtntingTh/fi aiuf RchUij. Jvo. 6<l. flcpdcrloa in Wcffckl 
minfter Hall. 

CoDtaJRi iMxking that can be depended on ai f^^. As to i)ie 
r^(7ia/ aiubod far ^rr«vw/4f- 'Ibcft, &c, a'< mrntinned in the titfc- 
[■^e, we can find no luth thing in I'te pamchk;, nor. indeed, i!o.w« 
apprchcad. ibctc \s futh aihingwichm [h« wholecotnpafsof /'o^^^i.Vrt a. 
, ftnic6 hand-^jufi*. or ihamb-fcrcwf. wero tlapped npon e»«Ty man, «onj 
i&aa, sad chiU in the univcrfc : but cvca thJu lihcme oiigbt kil, v 



fame rogocs of gcniu* might dill cocmve to tike 2 purit, dr fical ka a 
/hudkochicr, ir cither ihtlr lecih or thck feet woe at liberty: for'j 
wcrccbai, in cMspanron with tltc oplcuti of Maltlietf Buckingcrr ' 
oc ihe_fii[kt-»/-/c9t tnaa at th« S|m f 


[improved, m a Diianif fc un ]>«utctoM>[tiy x>x<i. 9. prcacbed ai Sevu;- 
[«tt*Hi Kent. CHlobcr 14, 1764, awl pvbliJlici 4t Uci^ucft. By Hi' 
' chael Bligli. KciOt. 

«. T*/ Brevity m( f'miij *f tttrntei U/t, vmjiJrrti ^W tm}^9vti—^\ 
St. Thocnas't, Southwark. J4a. 1. ijfij- Pur thr benirtit of the Fre^ 
fchool in GraveUlant By j.TaJter. BtKlcland, Stt. 


Corresponds Nce. 

R. R - .. ■■d will Ice, by this Mouth's Review, that bis 
Fwrour has been rtTcived. IF wc have the pUafiu-e oAj 
•licaiiiig aeain from this GcmlcqiAii, lie will plealc to dirc6t for 
JVlr.Grtlmhs, to the Care of Mciiis.BcckctaiidDehoiuIt, Book- 
£:llcr5, in the Strand, 

XVhcn CtKRicus has learned to diftinguifli between the 
ideas of Priejl and CUrgjman^ -a^ in thcfc days they arc coa^*-! 
Bionly undcfftood and lepamcd, he will then perceive how Uctlfi^J 
xcaibn he has to be olfeBded with the Reviewers, for their wanC. 
o:' refpcct to the char.Klcr generally implied under (tic firjl de- 
iiuniiii:i[ion : a chiiractcr as little entitled to the reverence of 
mankind, as that of a wiitthy Ctcr^^yman is to lh«ir utmoft ve* 
neni»ion and eftccnj.— -Hi's iiifinuaiion concerning a worlc 
Vbich, he fiqf», is Sfpara^td \x\ the laft month'* Review, dc- 
' ferves no anfwcr. If he diltrufU the rcprefentatKin giveu of | 
tbat pcrformajicc, let him read the bool{., and bcconvineed. 

\Vc arc obliged to the A<iih*r ef Chri/ihr.ity older thofi tht Ri- 
iigim cf Nature ; but hope he will cxcufc our forbearing to co- 
icr into the fuhji^ uf his dit'quthiitm ; our attention being too' 
Biuchcngaged by the productions of the Prel's, to ajpiit of g4( 
taking into coniidcration the nunuiccipu cbat ar« occaGonall/ 
Ittboiuted 10 our pcrufal. 


P. 19. In the title of the article bcgitiniitg in that pwc* ii,t' 
Corrcfpondcnce between, itc, r. C«refpoi«l<n« ^ ThctHlt-* ' 
/iiis Kt. ^ 

P. 20. For rpprinteJ here, r. repiintcd I'l here. 



For FEBRUARY, 1765. 

EJpiyt on HufiQndry.^Bjfcy 7, A Gttural IrtlrsduOian j Jhru/hg 
that jfgrievlnir* ti the Baju and Suppart cf all finurijhtng Csmmu-l 
nh'us ; — thr tinfitni and prfftnt Sliilf nf that uftful Art \ — Jgri' ' 
iuliurt^ ManufaOurts^ Trade, and CfmrntrcCi jujily barmcnmd\ 
of lie right Cultivatien ef our Csisniet ; tagethtr with the De- 
jefJt, OmiJponSt ' and p^Jphle hnprevettuntt I'n Engf'Jh Hujhtmdry, 
Elfay if. Jamnt of fime Ejtferiments fending to I'mfrave th^ 
Cultare o/'LucBRNE, by Tranfplantation : Bring the frfl Ex- 
pertments ef thf kind kilberlo tjuidt and publiflitd in England. — 
The tobele illuffratcd with Ctpper-fiattt^ &c. 8vo. 5s. 6d. 
in fioor<h. Bath, Printed for Frederick, and fold by Hintooi^ 
&c. in London. *A 

OUR Author begins hi» Firfl Eflly, whcrem he treats o^^ 
The great Imptrtanct ef Jgritatiure, its Deftfh, Jmprovrr . 
CTrt/j, &c. with the following apology fot writing upon that' 

* When I fay that thcfc Eflays on Hufbandiy are written' 
in imitation of Cowley's Eflayj, on fubjeils of a liJtc nature, 

,T am inclined to hojic that the Reader will allow me to have^ 
cbofen a very pleafing and inflru^i'.c tQodel. 

* One large part of the prefcnt work, was originally nothing 
more than the fubAance of anfwcrs to fcvcrai letters from cu- ' 

.*iou« gentlemen, who rcquefted iJie Author to giwc (hem hii' 
advices, and dircdHons concerning the new foreign method of 
tranljilanting Lucerne, and that as long fmcc as the year 1757. 

* It is with fomc regret that we (cc works of this nature pub- 
liihed annually in France and other countries, and difpcrfcd 

I .through Europe with high reputaiiun, when it is well known 
<Chii hnglind, if its inhabitants would apply thcmfcJvcs tucarrf 


on imiirovemcnts 

bilitv* «^cr will exceed 

hufl>ai>4}ry, might «xfe«t, and in all proba 


the cultt. 



• Yet ftill thtre is room left for acquiring freOi Itnowlegc 
varioui branches ofHulbandry : and of courfc it is much to t>c 
wifbed, chat fome proper perfons were appointed to execute 
araong((us, what m. dn Hamcl nnd others carry on with un- 
cootniu'l fucccls in ji ncighboiiring ttingdom : and that publick' 
premiums mi^ni be a.lIotied yearly CO the bcil produdUons of 
grain, grsffesj he*. 

*■ It is neeJIefs \(i urge how }utt a title jVgriculiure has to 
rlaim the encouragement and plutt.'£\ion of the Hate. — The an- ~ 
mj:il proiJucc of tlic lands in England, only, is fiippoftd to 
ainuunt to twenty milliuiu Sterling. — If hufbandry therefore 
could be improved hui oneijxih part loorefy wb..C a glorious 
acquifition wuuld this linglc circumRancc introduce amongft 
ut, and that by multiplying inJufiry and wealth, without iu- 
cteafe oflwxuiy I 

• Agrarian laws, well contrived and jiidicioudy enforced, arc 
tile fliining ornament of codes ^nd pandc^lii. Witncfs our own 
law concerning the exporutioxi of grain, aad the bouoty an- 
nexed thereto!.' 

Speaking of tbe many great and new national advanuges lo 
be obtained from proinoiing agricukuic, tic fays, *■ h is certain 
tlut agriculture, btyond any other profelTion of gain, confers 
ihc grcatcft advantages on its own country \ and tbofe who ocn- 
lider it atttnnvcly through its fevcral llagcs of operation, may 
corppar« it'to' thc'l«ave6 of a tree, which open, fprcad, grow 
teiilant, die, and fall to the roots of the parcnt-tiuiik that pro- 
duced tlicm, where ihey turn to nuxuiic, ai^l ciXty on rc-pro- 
dudion the enfuing year. 

« To encourage this art therefore is to aifift nature in her 
operations} for it is agrii.-u[ture that determines the phyfical 
itrength of .toy lint':, nnd i> thcHrtAm that overflows the land 
with plenty 211.) popuiaiion, chough the irue fource theieof may 
b£ unknown to us. 

• ritiflvAndry afTotds the only true fcminary of loldicrs .ind 
mariners; for it inures men from their earlv youth to heats', 
cold, fatigues and labour : and is one main caufic of health and 

" TW* i», in (rtipe mrtTure, aflually done, by the tnily patriotie 
Stfirti far ihf f t^iaj^tmtitl if Antf' MntrnfaUtrti, m»J C$euHmt. 
' X *>" ■'^<^ tnfuiii^ hcnt, p. 6^. 

II Thbbou'iy. of 5 s. per qosrier for the «po«»KoB of wfeK. 
wtieii oM m* r( ihm ^ s. prf ijiMi-iet in tbe maikcts at boine, is fardy 
«as gtnc an escQutagemuii of agnculturc ab un rcafoDibly be Jeored. 




B^i m Hujhan^. 


* Tc hu been computed (hat z piece of ground, cDnndiiig of 
three fquare mite^, or ninetern hundred and twentjr acr(>, of 
common!)* good J.ind, will furnilh food for 870 perions. Are 
We arrived, or not. to this degiee of ruJullrjr and populournef* ? 
Might 00c England maintain one jih more of drilgcnl fubjc^ 
than it fuppcris at prd'cnt? — War, navigation, and commerce 
con never difpropte a wife nation conftderably, where agricul- 
lute HouriOies in full vigour: for^ as the w<ivcj of the \t.\ ate 
always ready to ovctfiow a country that is fituatetl In fuch a 
manner as to give them admittance, fo wca!th and population 
will enter into any Icingiiom, that, by human care, is icndcrcit 
^uiliAed 10 receive and cbcriAi chcm. 

*■ On the other hand, depopulation in a fertile countr}*, or in 
land Capable of being rendered fertile, !« a fure cnnfcquenQC of 
n^lc<:led Hulbandry. Men naturally abtKind, when they have 
food rnou(>h ; and live tolerably at their cafe. Governments 
are oot rendered truly populous by the mere prof^rcfs of propa- 
gation^ but by the induftiy and hbuur of the inhabitants. 
Therefore, wht:nir\rr g(x>J lands, as in Italy, Spain, and fuch- 
Jikc CiHintries, arc thinly inhabited, fure it is, that Hufbandr 
and other ufcful arts of acquiring fubliftcnce are fiegie^eJ 
Hence Egypt and Paleftinc, that once poured fodh innumerable 
armies, arc now a dcfarti and England and Holland (rll-peop)cd 
in anrient ages according to Cxfar's account) are at prcfcnt be> 
come nurfcrics of men.* 

He next Ihcws that agrlcullurc is the main fupport of CQmi' 
mcrce, ira4ie, manufadures, ^c. and that all ftates owe more 
1/ than to any other profelBan ; and, afcer obfcrving thai the' 
tiom« prududiuns of agriculture arc far more advantageous Co a 
Maiion than any tr.ide or manufacture that worlu upon foreign 
materials* he iniroJuccs a very ju(t obfervatiun, which i« top 
often forgot by the over I'anguinc projectors of new improve*- 
BornuinHufbandry, v/s. That * che expences muft be dedu 
beiorc we calculate ilic profit.' 

' PiaWible Utcoriei, upon this occafton, are iju!c /nore 
ingcaioui ainufeinciu^ i a fcxics of wtU-oudc «xpcnaacntt caal 
aloae cii^bliih ni..-.i.ri of fact. Fur, though a dcxtioas ariti^l 
may give ibjcwd guvlles by the help of a corrca eye, yet, JM 
works of mumciit an'i dilli<iulty, he Oiould always haveircoucfei 
to bit lulc. Tbcreiore, what we wane chiefly in hufbandr^, is 
tifrrits ^ tX^trinuvtiy judUioajiy madi, and faithfuOy related.' - 
'rhti want our intelligent Author bcpei, io fume meafurc, ia| 
fupplyi and, JBrccjlily to the pljn he hai laid dn'.vn, 
■ihiK • if men wili not be wanting in lh*ir inqulfies, f:-*rtb< ' 
and dilieent endeavours, there aie nrafuns to thinlc that ima 


^ffttys m Ilujbandry. 

Xm3.y be found] to feed and maintain a number of Inhabitants 
> and ufrful ;iiiima1iiT one third ^icaler * tlun what wc have at pre- 
sent ; nf whicii Lucerne atfords a proof no ways contemptible,. 
ifi regard to cattle' In Order to accomp]i(b this defirabic end, he 
recommends a more cotic^autl accurate foitof agriculture than 
what is rommoiily made u(e of; aiul though he owns that the 
. oui>goings will W more confidcrable than in the ordinary courfe, 
.yet the returns (he lays) will lufficicntlv counterbalance the cx- 
.pcncc^t and tlut by one third at lea{t, tn clear protil. I'hr re- 
peated iiiduilrv and diligence nccelTary in this peculiar fort of huf- 
^bandry (lie aUd$] wilt atfoid incrc^il- uf croploymciit to labouring , 
men, and alfo to women and children, who could othcrwilc, 
gain next to nothing. 

Though the Author of the worlt before us is profcflcdly »•! 
•friend to the principles of the New Hufbandry, yet he is, at the ' 
fame limcf an advocjtc for the ufc of manures; and concludes 
the former part of hii firft EfTay, with obfcrvin», that out prime 
.iniciiiioii, in the method of culture hei< recommended, is to- 
multiply manures in quantity, as well a^ to enhance their f]ua-4 
'Oiticii, fince thofc who have cultivated the eaith in alt ages, have 
.loolccd upon them as the folid foundation of good agnculture. 
1* Hence it was (he adds) that wc have turned our thoughts 
more partirularly to the Cultivation and improvement of grafles^i 
.whether natutal or anifici^ ; fmce the multiplication of caitlej 
will help to produce a multiplication of manures or dreCTingsi 
and thus tlie produt^ions of the caith are both chcrifhcd and^ 

The fccond part of the firfl ElTay begins with giving us ih»i 
.hiftofy of agriculture, from the times of varro, Virgil, and Co- , 
Jumclla, till the middle of the reign of Henry VIII. about which' 
.period it begun to revive, after a long dccline> in fcveral partsi 
of Europe. He next fpcaks of the advantages accruing to Kng-i 
l^nd from the exportation of corn, which lirll took place foot 
after the rc(lor.itiun : by which pcrmifiion (he lays} the cultursj 
of wheat W2S lb greatly incicafcd, that in three years time ihe^ 
price of it funk one third : fo induArious were men to raifa 
■what they had free and ready vent for) — Speaking of the bounty! 
of 5s. a qoaiter upon wheal, granted 10 the exporter, imnM 
diatcly after the revoJution, and which ts dill continued, he fays*^ 

• If tflf> coold be icfcmplffhed, it wrvulr!, doobtlefi, be a moft valu-J 
tMc actT'-iifltMin. But is not our author here rather loa fanguine ? The' 
Jlcader v^-il! rrro?mber. that iu the bc;;innin^ of our extraft* he fremed* 
to tliiol:. (hit if liufiandry oould be improved bat ettt JUfb f^^rt utort, 
thai would be i^i*riaat acquifiiion. But here (hingi are JtubitJ upoa^ 
in at once. 

3 'TJiU 

P^jj «n Ht'Jhandry, 


■jiL- fc-rit fpring that tjave new motion tO agricuJtUTt,, 
.; iliii (uperifiity wc jtidly buaft of Bt |>rcleni*,' ^ 


^ — bnn^ini; ^omc parts of g-ars comnions, Jowns, ^nrl w;ldsintq 
I'di'tiire ; — and laflly, a u-itL-r divifion and appropriiliuii y£ 
^arjMc r'^punon fields. — L'poii each of thefc ufcful JubiciUf ft- ! 
vtral valuable hi[Ui arc offcrcJ. " " 

We next mccc with a compendious view of the prcfcnt ftate 
I of V^ufbandr)', not only in Great Biiuin and Ireland, but alftf 
Jn mult foreign nations (n Europe. 'X\\\% arjuotis talk ihc inge- 
,jiiau9 Author was induced to undertake, as he had opportuni- 
ties, he tells U5, of obfcrving, for m^ny years, the ai^ual ftate, 
of hu(baiidry in France, SwiizcrUn.), Ituly, Germany, and the 
AnnexcdProvinccs of ihc Hoiife fif Aiiflfii: And indeed he a[>- 
' pears to have made very u'c of tlic opportunirics, whidi^' 
the courfc of bis trnvcls artotdcd him, of tr«.il'uring up ufcful' 
obfenrjticns, for the future advantage of his natiire country*. 

Englifljhufbandry, we arc (old, is ftill improvcjWc in fevcral. 
[Tcfpcctj, particularly ia the culture of wheat \ wliich be wiOicx^ 
^alfo, might be fold by weight, and not by meafurc. In this, 

cale, the purchafcr would not be defrauded of his due proportion] 
"^oi flout, and [he bulbandnun would I'liiii K his intcrrfl toplough,r 

fallow, and weed cfl'eflunlly : as alfo lo procure frcfh feed frt.ntj 
'a diiHiicc, as the moft likely means to taife the fullcll, largeft,, 
'fmuuthcH, and hcaviell grain. 

He then propofes that fonie new forts of herbage, and Tegti-^' 
minout plants, (hould be inmduceJ, from other countries, for* 

Jthe better and more plentiful fupfv^rt of c;.ttlc. And here, In-i 
lian cows are particularly, recommended, as being faid to givtfi 
1 larger quantity of milk than ours, yet live harder, and coj:(0ie-* 

ftliemfelvei with mote penurious diet. 

* That ibis bounty nii«ht be very expedient at tbe ume when it was 
LC^I g'anicd, anJ :hjt it na* protltive'd an otcclfrrn effcft in protnaline 
fthe culture ofwhe^t, «t ffiall reidtty .illow ; but ttlt wie Cinnoi htl]> 
flhrnkin^ that rxEctiding ibc bounty^' '''>/' as till h fclU fir ^8 $. a iftfar-) 
ter, it not oiiif more than needs, but that it is very hard upon uut nwn' 
'tiMarinjE people to be obliged to buy ic at the r^ite uf&v. a bulhd, (ibe; 
rbote Mrcek'iwages of man) a rou niar)iiV Iiilcour rivals in tr^d^aj e enable4| 
to pfocutc it. &y mcuds of inc bounty, at j b.'iedpcrriu: liun k is fold, 
fm here. Whenci rr wheal fclb at f :. a bufliel, i: leaves piofit ctH)t^l^ < 
llo :hc rrcwcr. to icduCe liiin uot to uiminilh tiii qu>iQl>[y of Und, ti)> 
reniltd f:ir ihe produflion of thai valuable gnin, wuliont ihe addiiioa' 
of* bounty, to bribe Iloi to pnrfoc hii own InterclL '' 

G3 Spcakii^ 


Efsyi iff Hujiani^. 

Speaking of thfc complaincs which have long been made <Jf the 
barcity of timber an4 fire-wood, he flrongly recommmda ih« 
Iphernoufli-lrec, at prcfcnt little known in this country, and 

rliot to be found in fome of the befl books on planting and gar- 
fcning. This valuable irce is a fpccics of pin?, which grows 
6n the Alps, where one woulv! think it impolBbJc for any tree 
to vegetate ; md whi(h might probably thrive to great advan- 
tage (hp thinks) in feme of our blcaki barren, rocky, moun- 

Ij^inous U^t of land. * The timber is large, and has many ■ 
ifcs, efpcciall)' within door;), or under cover.' The branches 

ilof one of Which ati engraving is given) refcmblc thofc of the 
Spruce Fir. * Wainfcoiing, flooring, and other joiners work 
made with the planks of Aphernoufli, ure of a finer i^rain, and 
more beautirully variegated than deal, and the fmell ot the wood 
ii more agreeable' 

When treating of Bees, (for things feemingly trifling and in- 
irvfidcrable fliaald not be nrgU^lcd in rural occonomics) he 
>fcrve-s, 'That liioft pcifons uluatiy ciiuit a wong fituation 
hk'nd afpci^ for placing their liives: making it ihc-ir choice to fix. ,1 
icm To as to Irene the noon-d^y W.x\. Now, the gleams of 
m-Ihine in winter, cfjiecully in clear freezing weather, waktn 
ic bees in their nitural torpid ftjtc, and rrmpt thrm to matte 
^Acorfions till the fivft bchumbh them- In fuch wcaiher T have 
(Veh bees funning themfelves upon the fnow till they have loft 
their liTcs.* For thefe rcafons he rerommcndi * a we!l-goarded 
fituation a» to the norlK and raft,* and advifcs, ' that the mouth 
of the hive fhoiitd rather front the eall, than the fitn at noon- 
day ; for in fuch a cafe, the bees Would not be tempted, in 
bright winter-days, to range abroid, rtor be wakened (6 often 
^out of iheir doling ftate.— Bet!, we are told. arc particularly 
id of the flnwcrs Of Viper's biigto&, which beautiful and fin- 
l^lar pUnt, thofc who have large apiartcj Ihould, therefore, ciil- 
|tfvate on purpoA;. He alTo thmks that dyets might extract a 
efiil lin^ure from its rooT% a^ the ultra-marine, bliie colour' 
P^kf the itowcr, is the Hneft that can be Teen. 

When our Author comes to confi'^er the fubje^ of Publick 
Iranancs for corn, with the fevcral arguments that may bebrogghc 
%!ht and againU ihcm \ he gives his own opinion, that they are 
^'' quite detrimental, rather than ufciul, in a free flate like oars:*t' 
at tbey naturally lend to produce mfttiopoly. On the other hand 
be feems to think, that private eranaries, conflrufted upon th* 
vtniilating plan, where fuch intfividuals as can fpafc their (lock 
erf grain ni.iy lay it up in faftty, would be of great emolument,' 
" ccafionally, both to the buyer and feller, « well as lo the eom- 
ikuntey in genetal. But the furcfl method) he fays, to multiply . 


^e cvhure and proda^tioo nf grain* is, to awaken the fiinncc'f . 
induftry, by a free vcn: and exponack>n. 

Not content with fugraflmg many ufcful improvements to be 
executed at borne, our indefatigable Author extends his labours 
to our colonic! in America; where, »fter fomc rcmaiks on the 
cuhurc of Indigo and the Wix-tree, (the latter a moft furprif- 
ing produdion of nature) he meniioni fe%'eraJ great improve- 
ments (o be made in our new acquifuion!; of Canada, Flotida,' 
^t. par(icularl)' m the culture nf vines, which are laid to prow- 
wild in the parts near the MilTifTippi, and eircwberc. Of chtrfe^ 
when properly Cultivated, he makes no doubt but very good 
wine may be made by the Englifh, though the Fiench never 
attennpted it, as that would have greatly inteifered with-,^ 
the Aaple produ^on of the moiber-countr). Hut the ca(c, 
04 he nbfervc?, is widely diftrrrnc now, that the paflclfion of 
Canada i» tiajiftferred to England. 

The variouj (bns of Timber in Canada, he fays, arc fcarce 
to be nvtnbcred : and if the following aHerMon^ be well foundeJ, 
the advantages thence artfing will be very great to a maritime 
nacioo, UJte ours. ' The Canada Cyprcf* is one of the moft 
ftitrly trees in the world. It works eafy, with a fine poliflicd 
gnin, and it almoft incorruptible in earth or water, nor will 
Bie worms at fca venture to attack it. The Cedar of this c»on- ' 
trr mis^ht be applied to vaiious ufrful purpofes. Wrought incor 
palirajfjcs and pales, it will laft confiderably longer than our beftr 
oak ; and, as worms never enter it, it may be very^ufeful foe'' 
planking (hips. 

* But the glory of the North American forefts i-t the Copalir^ 
Tree, whith grows in fuch abundance, chat Provi(}[:ncc feems,] 
to have placed it near at hand for all that want ii. No one, aa 
ve% knows one fifth part of its ufes. its balm^ railed 
in Franoe, Copahu, \% a moH excellent fcbrifiigei and of fuve- 
reign ufe in dreffing green wound:^ and ukeri.' 

Returning to European improvements, he advifes tbecuHi-' 
vation of the Larch-tree, (or larix .-lejifiuit ftHii) the timber 
of which il reported to refilt purreftdVion for ages. But be tht« 

it will I no timber can be more ufcful for fhip>buil(iing, at.'l 

'h i) thought to be inaccrOibleto the attacks of worms.*— * It has ' 

Jiitewire(hc{ides its dufablenefs} another moll valuable quality \n 

jlu>ufe-building: which i<<, that no timber is fo unapt to take fire, or 

'Cenfumes fo unwillingly j infomuch that there is fonie ditficult/- 

in burning a large cleft of it, even on the hcit th.— ' h it a iv* 

iher advantage, that this excellent uee difliki-s a rich, moiH foil, 

and thrives bcft in fnch poor lands as may beeafily and proiitah.y 

G 4 fjiared 

F.ffap en Ilv/baiuirf, 

fpsrcd for plantations; oamcly, cold* meagre, grardly, or ftooy/ 
iandi, prov-idetl the ruou can penetrate.' 

At one of the moft probable means to advance ihc fcience of j 
agriculture to « higher pltcli than at ptcfcni, our benevolent Au-« 
thoradvircahuinanrtyand indulgence tobefbcwn to thelabatious' 
Tiufbaiidman ; for, a5 he truly obfcr\'es, * Men rarely ctiltivacc an^ 
eflaie well, or cvcji .iccoidiiig to titc bcft of their t:ipicilv, cxccpbJ 
they arc Jnvefted with the property uf it, or enjoy a tenure ou 
fomc duration in it. Encouragements, therefore^ for induiltiomrj 
and careful tcnjuitit, thould be thought of by landlords. Kack-^.! 
renting hurts the proprietor of the ]and> foinetimo^s imincJtatclya, < 
and. always remotely; fo that a flircwd farmer, in tnany cifcs^] 
as things now ilnnd, gc-ts more by continualt; liarraiTiii'; ma.) 
ground, tliin by giving it the afltflancxsof lepi'leand rvianuresb] 
negatnt by delolaiion, . and lofcs by improvements. It were to,' 
te v/i&ed dicrcforc, that fomc fchcme could be bit upon of ren-^ | 
di'ring lands advantageous to both the proprietor and tenant* ; 
'Cnce, oihcrwifr, when the latter has brought one farm into a. 
downright confumption, he flics from thence, and plays th^j 
vampyrc upon a nat one.* 

Towards the end of (his firft Ffiay, (which is chiefly fpccu^ 

lative, but contains abundance of very jult and ulcful ohferva-^ ' 

tinns [though wrote in a fumcwhat dc(uI:ory manner) the Au« 

thor tjkcs notice, that his fecond Eflliy (and whatever clfc he 

,niay happen to write, with rcgaid to Hufljandry) is intended tc> 

^e merely of a practical nattirc, or deduced from matters of ck-, 

pciiencc in himfelf or others. And as a proof of his care, in 

this rcfpei5t. he adds, ' 1 have matit hulbatidmcn (that!;, fiich 

of them as I have known to be men of experience, good obfcr- 

vation, ftronp parts, and w-fancd fr<>m prejudice) my fiift and 

ilmott only critics through the courlc of this work ; and havB 

.liflened to their remarks, not only with attention, but docility | 

'"Ving fenfible that many a gfeat genius, of this fort, live* con--' 

cealed in a thatched dwelling. i 

* I had two principal intentions in writing this and the fol- 
lowing KfTav- The was to exhort the inhabiurts of my;, 
•jiativc country to carrj'on and maintain that fuperiority in.Hul^ 
bandry, whirh thcv have hitherto poUirQcJ without a rival ; — as 
we miift be fcnfihlc that indufirv* in a^iiciticure, will rcndc|f 
►nations more happ?, populous, wealthy, and virtuous. — M/ 
ifceimd intention was to irv. if polliblc, to enrich die poor* 
'Iionefl, induftrious hulhandman ; and that particularly in tha 
• culture of liuccme.—- 1 have ever looked upon the poor, labo-t, 

Thn rcemi brd done bf graining Icafci. oada proper rcAii^tont 
iafiaiuovcniCEi:, for a rcafbiutijc :crpi. 


ttOttt huAin^nnn, at a mofl urcful Being in all Toeieilcs ; and 
happy woulU it be, it' v-t could cotitrilutc to cnticli him and thtr 
land-poirrilor at L^ie Ctm« time -, wtitcti mull always happen, if 
hufhandiy be corned o.i in ihc nrnnntr it ought to be. 

•- -'1 

* As to vihzt h caitnJ the New Hufbandry, I have in mxof, 

mn*uKct' r ecu rtimt- tided it flrctiuoullyf adding only brrc ^nH there 
a few uilTitalivTs upon paicicular occ«{ivns i and ih Jt, for » plain 
TCafon a-Tigncd by Varro, »<f, in ra rv, fua^tm fruaum pJptrtt, 
On this lall account, I have brcn Tearful of recommclidiog it 
univcifilly for the culture of corn : ycC, at the famr time, icis 
incuiiibcnc on mc to acknowlcgr, that 1 wOuId always prefei" 
iljcd torn let feed ; as ihc t>Iants *ill have enjoyed iDOt!? ipacc, 
r, and lunlbine^ and the grain will be larger, hcaltl|irt, and 
(rongcr ; the crop alio being Icfs infi;fted with weeds. But, iit 
other parts ofhufoandry, rchiting 10 the f<3od of cvtle^ \ would 
recommend drilling oi tEanfpUnting, as occafion requires^ in 
chc culture of Lucerne pariiciiinrly, fain/oin, turnipi, buinct, 
carrots^ \3i* 

In our extrafls we have indufltioufly omitied the mtnterout 
Quotations, which occur In almoft every page, from the Claflicj. 
They are indeed, gcnernlly well applied, and will afford pteafune, 
in the pcrufal, to a man of letters in his fludy ; but to the pract 
tical hufbandman in the 6cld, we think them rather fuperfluous. 
Wemuft alfo confcfs, that though the Author writes with fpint 
snd perfpicuitV) yet he appears, upon the whole, fomewhat too 
rctbofe. He has, howevcr« lead almofl every thing, ancient 
or modcrni upon the fubjccl of Agriculture, and fccms to have 
introduced the moft valuable part of each writer's obftrvaiious 
jmo his own fyftem, without ictvilcly copying any of them. 

TTic i*eeoi»d EfTay, in this volume, conntU chiefly of Experi- 
ments on Tnmrplanted Lucerne; snd begim with obfervin^, 
that * this plant, fuperior to every other fort of vegetable food 
for the fopport of cattle, has been the obje^ of cultivation ever 
fincc Darius lirfl diTcovered it in Media : but, notwtthRanding 
the experience of fcnfihle men, and the curiofity of incentous 
otKJ, through To msny ages, yet the rncChod of cultivating jr» 
by Tranfplaniation, Wiis noidifcuvercd lill lately.' — Upon Urm^ 
difcqvcry, the following EfTay is grounded ; and an attempt ntude 
(o extend diis new culture of Lucerne itom the banlc:^ uf the 
Rh6ne (where it was invented by M. dc Cbaieauvieux) lo the 
twrdcrs of the Thames. 

LDcerrK, wc are told, rnay he r^ifed- three difTerent wars. 
Fiift, by fowing the feeds promifcuoufly, or broad-caft fafhion, 
with ot without corn : t^*** '^i* method fvldom ruct-ceds.l^ 



Efiyt «n Hu(handry. 

SccomJIy, by drilling the feeds in rows, and Iceeptngthe fJanti' 
clean by hot-ing. Thu method ii commended, in a rich foil, 
with proper depth.— Bui ihe ihird is, what ihc Author eft«em>, 
the bed method of all) which is to raifcthe plants in a nurrcfy, 
and aftec pruning both tops and roots, to tranfplant them, ac- 
>rding t3 the rules here laid down. — This c^ration, at firft» 
!» the moft troublefomc and cxpenfivc way of going to work.; 
It then, he fays, the crops will laft longer, and prove more 
j>advanugeou$ in the evenr. 

A wcli-coaditioned deep foil, rather inclined to rooiAtirc than 
flvci'dry, is faid to be the futdl forLuccfnc. 

The Author introduces his account of eKpermienra» made itf; 

I England, on the culture of this valuable plant, hj-modrfljr oh- 

[^letvuig, that whate^-ir degree of mrrit the prefent EfTjiy may 

claim, it arif« from this, that rvciy pra^ical and did;i<5tic part 

(accept whtre references are made to other authors) is the rcfult 

f.«f his own experience. 

lie then enters upon a long^; and raihcr tedious, dct5i1 of his 
^i9i expeiiments \ but as fomc of them did not quite unrwcr the 
intention, and more arcuratc dircv^ions are pvtn afterwatxl«v 

' %rc fhall paft them over, with only mentiouing one great advan- 
tage A^'hich arifesto tranfplanted Lucerne, from rutting the tap- 
joni, which would otherwifc p«nctr.ttc, perhaps lo or 12 feet 
perpcndicuUr into the grt^uiid, in three or four jears, except' 

'♦bflruArd by a rock, or chilled by weeping fprings, or a bed of _ 
flold watty clay i in which cafe, riio crop goes off all at ooce. 

After an Introdut^ion of 72 pages, we come to Sc£iion I, 
which treats of the Beauty and WboleTomedcIs of Lucerne. 

Sc£t. IK informs us that Lucerne fields are not to be {*razrd : 
for the crown «f tlw root (which becomes a fort of bulb) is fo 
|(wcec, that cattle willotuu bite it tooctt>A:, and may alfobrtuJo 
it «viih their feet. He therefore advilcs to cut it, and give it to 
|iur(i;& (at Icaft) in the lUbtc; by which means it u-ill go thrice 
Ik far, he fay^, a« if fed promifcuoufly, artd trampled on. 

ScA. III. gives us the management of Lucerne nurferieii, in 
vh'ch the feeds arc co be fown the beginning of April, and as 
loon u the plants arc dillinguifbabtr, tiic fpot tnuf^ be kept in- 
firmly fiec from weeds, till tlicy arc fit for iranfplanting } which 
itt iKU'donc in a motft drizzling dav. 

In Scft. TV. w^ arc told the general tim* of fowinc Lucerne 
Is the beginning *^ April, (,is above) but that it tray, fomc- 
thncs, be done later, with hiccefj. The bcft time (or tranf- 
plaDting, i» the beginning cf Auguftj the manner of doing 


EJuji flfl Hujhitt;iirj, 


wbkb, tH to ui:e up the plants (in a moifl fcafgn) firom tha 
nurler)-, with a Aiarp fpaJc j but then, no moic roots flioujd be 
Mkcn up, at one time, than can bt trnnrplantcd conveniently, 
before nlghf. By the time of «inr()Iantijig, the plants (being 
ftve BTfmthj old) wil!» probably, have produced flnlks from 14. 
(o 18 inches high, and mow of about ii inches in length. The 
tap-rvDts niufl be cut off, 8, 9, or ioifn.hts, difcretionkllv, 
l>cto\^ the crown of the plant*: (the fctflan being generally, 
tpplicd juft beneath the forks of the root, if it be a branching, 
one) aftd the flalks mull be dipped oH", about 5 indies above 
the crown. The plants, after thefe amputations, muft be thrown 
into a vcflcl cf Wjitcr, placed iii the ftadc, to keep them frefti,' 
Then making ufc of a dibble, or fctting (lick, and filling e»ery 
bole with water before tlie rooti src put in, they mti(l be planted' 
out in row*, thttc feet four inchci d(A«nt from each other, and 
the plants (if the foil is good) fliould be allowed a foot diftance 
fine from another in the lines ; for thus tha hand-hocn wlU 
work more commodioully, and a little hoc-ploi;gh may bo 

iguided fafelv up and down the intervals, which wl>l favc a great 

tieal of trouble. The roots mud be placed Brmly in the ground, 
Ind two inches of the ftalks covered with mould. If a dry fcafon^ 
fuccccds, the watering-pot may be ufed to advantage, .is it'will' ' 

[Inth refreih the plants, and fettle theearih about their roots.-- 
The intervals nutft be kept clean from weeds, by the ufc of the 
line, and hand-weeding, where necefTary, after every cutting j' 

[atnd when arrived at perfection, it will admit of iivc^ and fonic> 
limes fill) cuttings in a feafon. 

Se£l. V. calculates the cxpence of cultivating Lucerne, 
«hich ( according ro the manner here recommended) will amount, 
ttte firft year, to about 61. 12». per acre; and the expences of 
the fecnnd, and every fuccceding year, during its continuance, 
(nfcieh may be fited at a medium of ten rears) will be about 2I. 
jJir acre.— The paitkulars of thefe two cftimatts may be feen 
•aA p. 98, and 107. 

Sefi. VI. itcats of Hoc-ploughing,, and other methods of 
keeping the plantatioa clean. After the firft time of ufing the 
horlc-boe plough (which will depend upon the (Irength of the 
plants) it nuy DC laid down for a general rule, * that ic will be 
alvays found moft convenient to horfe-hoe the intervals (as 
long ai the plantation ftantis} the third day after each cuttings 
figit' by that time the new [hoots «i)l iliakc the plants viGbIc, nor 
wSI any Itdc'branches ftand in the plough's way.' It may ba 

The lateral fibres alfo are 10 be QiottcBcd a Unlc. bot with di£- 




Sfcys an Ihfoandrj, 

proper alAifo feihJ-wced ilic Iin« once a year \ atid take up alT 
ihe larger weeds with a ihiee-pronged fpade, orotherwife. ' 

in Sed. VII. the Author dcclircs himfclf aii advocatt foe; 
'inanuring Lucerne ; but not wiib tiun^, except it be very aM« 
Und well corr&acd with proper mixtures of a Iwect, as v.JI as 

fertilizing nature: but no dung, not even of the bed kinds,. j 
[ihould be rpread on aLuccrne-planuuon, till it is, st leal}, twa 
Cjears old. In grounds inclinable to moillure, t>>c prcfcteiice is.i] 

given to foot-dicflings \ next to dry \vuoJ-.iflics : then faap-. 

boilers aihes may ukc place, coaUnfhi-b well fifted, charcoal- 
,aftics, and malt-Jiili. TncLC dicl''ings IhouU be applied to the 

lows only: biil if coarfcr manuics aic ulld, as old dung, or 
■'Compoft-drcnUigs, the whole rqay be done promifcuoufly, \ 

In Scft. VIII. the queftion %& afkcij. Whether I^ncemt im-* 
' jtoverilhcs the ground ? and arifwcrcd in the negative. 

Scft. X. calculitcs the produce and profits of an Acre of 
["Lucerne ; the rcfuli of which is, * that z\\ acre of Tranipl:*!)'.- t . 
I^ucetnc, tidily manai^cd, will brint; in 5I. a year, free ^i.J' 
; clear from all cxpcnccs, and that /or a confiJerable tnift of 

Se£t. XU. tteats of feeding Horfes with Lucerne: which 
an excellent plant for that purpOiC, but fhoulJ be givi-n wttll 
caution at 6i(l> and gradually incicafcd ftom ten) to twenty,;] 
chirty> w fofty pounds a day, for about three weeks. For any:- 
'delicious nourilhmcnt, though healthy in it&lf, may prove un-j 
wholefonje a:id dangerous, if given in undue quantities. 

SrA> XUL recommends the fatting of Cattle with Luccrnc)> 
which may provcoffiDgutarfervtce to a populous, manufai^lurin^'j 
^ing<lomi as cattle, fed with this grais, may be made tii forv' 
f*Ie mo:€ cxpcuilioufly, as wtll as earlier in th« year, than 'heJ 
fj^mcr, according to the Old Hulbandry, can poflibly bring.) 
Ihcm to market. He adds, from his own experience, * .Tha(s 
Ihccp will eat Lucerne, green or cured, when they rcfufc cvc'ry 
fort of food btfidcG; nor can there be a better prefervative, when, 
the rot bc-ynj to threaten, than to give them green l.uccrnt 
rtiixi %t(<h 5 little Buck-bcait *, or LucciiK-hay moiflcncd with* 

* (Stfch of onr Readers as beep flacks of fti<ep> willt we are conf 
(Utit. liiack u'. fgr inferiictg the folloi^'ing valoabJc Note, apoa the abort 
pifljgc, cnii'e ] — ' The Sliitflvrrefoil. commonly called Buck-bean, i* 
a.jkljni uf anuiifavCHiiy tailt^; antl (hficp, when fcwind in health, alwaytj 
avnvd eating it i but. when ilie rympn>n)s of the rot begin to attaclu 
t^uaif the)' bajch tor it by intliufl, and devour it greccuJy. Wbcfp^ 


Ejfajt »n Hufi^ndrj, 


lo Sc£l XV, Tianrplantcd Lucerne is preferred to anj^ others: 
Arul in a parallel drawn between Lucerne and Sjinf<iin, the pr^ • 
fcfcnoc b given to the former \ which is laid to exceed the btior 
in fizc, luxuriance of gruwtbj frcijuent cuttings, rich laftc, and 
jitgh nounflimexic. 

In ScA. XVL the praStcc of harrowing Lucerne, lately re- 
vived by Mr. Rocque, is cx.imincd, but not altogether ap-1 
proved. The Author owns, however, that great thanks are un-1 
doubtedly due to Mr. Rocqtie, for thu$ attempting, with equal" 
ingenuity and diligence, to accommodate the culture of Lucerne 
to the tatle of the common hufbandman, by reducing the ma- 
nagement of this valuable plant to n more cheap, eafy, and coin- 1 
pcndious method, than hjth been hitherto ufuatly pra^Ulcd.— ^ 
As to the fuccefs, vtdtkunl pjliri. 

Sc£l. XVIL treats of Lucerne-hay, with rules for making, 
and prcfcrving it. — The bay of thib ptjnt, he fays, is the moft ex* 
ccUcnt of any fort yet known : nordue^ the rtchnef) of it (if taken 
viith moderation) occafion diforders in cattle ; yet, be thinks ill 
too valuable to' be given conllantly, or without mixture, evearj 
to favourite horfcs. — * ft feems, therefore, moft advlfeable to/ 
preferve a quanillyof this hay for the refrcftiment and better! 
fupport of Tick cattle J and another pan, fct afide for general' 
ufcs, may be cut into Oiort joints with a flraw-cutting cngiiie»' 
and mixed with common hay.— It is a cuftom, in Switzerland.! 
»nd France, to give horfcs in winter regular feeds of Lucerne-| 
hay, cut fmall, in order to fupply the place of oats : and it is 
computed that two pound;} of chopped Lucerne-hay arc an cqui-j 
vaJent for a quartern of oars.' 

Lucerne, we are told, is both diBiculr to make into ^Vf%i 
sod to prefcrvc when made. The former rs bcft done by con-1 
vcying the herbage, wUcn cut, into fome adjoining 6eld that t»- 
bitten down pretty bare, and there perform the work. * For if] 
yoti attempt to make hay in a Lucerne plant-ition, the rcotsj 
win fend up ftcOi flioots in 48 hours after cutting, and beavy^l 
juicy, liamp heaps, lying thereon, will blanch the new budti 
and' ftalki, and kill them fyon.' — With regiid to the prefer-, 
vatkin of it, when made into hay, he advifes it to be lodged la. 

fach (he«p are paCIured, no BiKk-b«an is to be foun>i, for io a week or . 
two they devour it all. Might ic not be juudcnt, t^ctelbre, in bdf>; 
bjnJmcn who keep latge ftoctcs, to cvltiv*!*- an *ck of thefe plants r'tLJ 
ibwc (nor.*fly ground, which oiherwtfc wouM not yield them two fhiUJ 
tin^ ibc acre } Some might be cut up green Ibr uolbutvl Qieep, aod 1 
given ihtm wi(h Luccifw, ai occafion re<)uirc5 ; and /ome might ba 
srade into hay, and mixed wttii their fodder. — / amHH t tmtmitr tlai 




Bjftyi en }L(fiandry, 

Carntoliao liay-bviu, (<if which he has givea m» dmringsj di- 

Tidcd inio virious coinpdiYaicnts, i>}ieii in tbct front, but «Wi- 

iher-boirdcd on cht fUcs. When the hay la carried to there 

turns, (of which he made the drawings in Carniola, iii ihe year 

X749) he advtfes to place m ihe compartment » iiycr of clean, 

[dry, fwcet, wheatcn ftraw, and another Uycr of Lucerne alter- 

.oatcly, till the whole is iiUcd. * This will not only prevent the 

[X.ucernc from heating, but augment the quantity of forage ; 

Iforl the flraw will imbibe [fuchj a fngrancy and moifture from 

'^e Lucerne, [thut] caicle wi!l eat them miKcd together with 

^rcal plcafurc.' 

Se£). XiX. rccommen<li neamefs in Hufbandry, and fhcwt 
the nocelSty of dcAroyiag weed* in a Lucerne PUnutioo. 

Sc£i, XX. ohfcrvcs that It is better to cut Lucerne with a 
icap-hook, or fickle, thin to mow it; and givca various rea- 
sons why. 

Sed. XXII. treats of the various accidents and injuries tA 

which Lucerne it liable. And here wc are tuld, that few things 

[liurt Lucerne more than wild, coarfe gra/Te^, and weeds of all 

-fortSi fo that thi» plaiu never flouri&ics near foul, weedv hedecj, 

or under the diip (hade of trees. So thai, except a perfon manages 

Lucerne according to rules of art, he had better difcontinuc the 

I projeft of raifing it*. 

Sc^. XXXI. concludes this EiTjy with fomejufl remarks OD 
.the ncccflity of uling manuies, notwilhCUuding wbst hath been 
ji0ertcd, by the admirers of drilling, tranfplanting in tows, and 
tioe-ploDgnings, that no manures az^e need/ul to fupport the cre- 
dit of their fvHcm. The Author lillows, that vegetables may 
he thus T;]ircd and continued many years j without the af- 
fidancc of dicfllngs; but this is weakening the foil, and de- 
frauding the plants, merely through vanity and love of para- 
doxes. ' It may be prudent tKcreforc to recommeud flight, 
frequent rcfrelhinents, at eenain convenient times und diftanccs. 
Tor manures, let men difputc and contend ever fo long about 

' laying them afide, are, in m^ny c;ifes, equally rcquifitc with 
tillage and weeding. The beft foil's cxpefl fomc affiflance, and the 
wcaltcr onf 5 demand a great deal.— So that, upon the whole, an 
ingenious foreign author hai reconciled thcfcdiSicuItics very well. 
*^ Abundance of manure, fays he, fupplics the want of good 
culture ; and good culture, r^ciprocal'y, nwkfs amends for de- 

\ Xciency of msnute : but the futell and moll advifeable method is 

' IP make uteof both." 

• The Reade* will ftn^ 9P«?t*f fct-of nW>T»iitiors 00 ^Ae cultore oT 
|)u» vtltiabte plant. io«urI<criewbir July I'Jt^ 


After having gone through this tifefti! and entcrtiining work 
with pleafurc -, we fliall conclude our account oF it> with ob- 
Qniti^t that bdides ths Author's own cxperinien($i it contains 
alfo the marrow of all our bed old Englilh Writers upon Huf- 
bandry t delivered fomcwhat in the form of 3 Review qT their 
Works, jncludinu fiiort hiflorical charadrr^ of the writers tbcm- 
felves, drawn up in fuch a manner, as ftiews tho Author to be 
tborouehly coavorfaot with whaterci relates to the fubjefl he 
hii undertaken to elucidate. — And though his aumcriHU quota- 
tioDS ftvm the ClafTio, may probably be thought fuperfiuous, 
by (btne ; yet his ingenious application of the pa0iiges he intro* 
duce^, is luch, a^ mud afford a real entertainment to every 
Scholar, who ha.'; a tadc for the innocent and advantageous 
imufcments of Agiiculture. 

Oritvtti Apok^tts^ or In/frvSivt Faiits^ tranOattd frsm tht Frtnth. 
lamo. 2 5. 6d. fewed. Davtes. 

VlftTUE and Wiidom may aflume different appearances 
under firftenu and in focictics that are not the fiime ; hut 
Truth wears tb« iarac al'pedi under everj' government and tn 
every climate : and thole Ic-iTons which are calculated to pro- 
mote and mfpire it, have equal merit) whatever may be their 
origin. </ 

This little VuluoK of Letters contaioa many ufeful morals 
for the iufUudUon of Princes, and may be no imiHoper Suppk- 
nent, though much inferior in compofition, to the works of 
Fendon, Count Tcflin*, and others of the fame tendency. 
Some of the Apologues are of more general ufe and application, 

noDg vrhich die following may be round no bad Rttlft for the 
leart-achc ; 

The Traveller. 
•■ ^ As Iboh as I perceived the firft fparkllng fires of day, I 
mcnimed my aft and took the path which lead* to the h<gh-road 
of Babylon -, fcarce watl there, when in raptures I excbimcdft 

' Oh how minc.cyes do wanJcr withjov o'crytiii green hills ! 
with whst delicious perfumes du thel'c flow'iy meadows cmb^in 
the air! 


* I am jn A bpautiful avenue, my afi and I miy retUe under 
the fhade of it^ trees when !t (hall icm good unto us. 

* How (irrenc the hcavensT how fine a day I how purctheair 
I bieatfa I well mounted as 1 am, I ihalL.arrivc bcfoic duOc 

* Author. 9f the adiHrable Xeitrn ftooa an OIjI Maa la a Youm; 
'rtticr : which are thought to hnvc f.i much conJuccil lowartjt furtning 

t! c ainijl>le chiraAer of the prcreui Pjincc Koyal or' Sn-edto. 


Oru/ttai Apek^ueti 

WhilA I uttered tbefc wordst beroCtcd wJch joj, I looked 
' kindly down- upon my a£i, and gently fttoaking h<m. 

From afje I fee a troop of men and women mounted uport 
'beautiful camels, with a ferious and difilainfu] air. 

* All clothed in long purple rufaco, with bells and golden 

,^iugev> interfpcrfcd with precious Uones. 

Their camels ibon came up with me ; I was dazzled by 
their fplendor, and bumbled by their gnindcur. 

' Alas ! all my endeavours to (Iretch myfclf, fcrved only to 

[inake tne appear more lidiculoufly vain. 

■ Mine eyes dlJ meafutc them inceflantly ; fcarcc did my head 
lirach their ancles ; t was forcly vexed from tlic bottom of my 
foul, ncverthelcfs did I not give over following them. 

^Thcn did I wifh that my afs could raife himfclf as high as 
[the hi^hcH of camels, and fain would I have fcen his long can 
peep o'tr their lofty heads. 

* I continually incited him by my cries, I prefs'd him with 
jmyhceU and my hahcr; and tho' he quickened his pacct yet 
['£x of his ilcps ftarcc equalled one of the camel's. 

' In ftiort we loft fight of them, and I all hopes of overtaking 
fhem. What difference, cried I, between their lot and mine ? 
Why are they not in my place f or why am 1 not in theirs i 

' Wretch that I am ! I fadly journey on alone upon the vilcft 
f uid the flowed of animals ; they, on the contrary . . . happy 
^^Ibcy I • • would blu(h to have me in their train j fo defpicable 
am I in their eyes. 

Buficd In thefe reflonions, and loft in thought, my *& 
tfindrng I no longer prcflcd him, flackcned his pace, and pre- 
fently flooped to feed upon thc'tluQIcs. 

. * The grafs was goodly ; it feenied to invite him to reft ; fb 
)te laid him dmvn : T fdl ; and like unto him who from a pro- 
ifound flccp au-altcth in furprixe, fo was I on a fudden awakciKd 

' ttom my meditations. 

As foon as I got up, the voice of ihoufmds came buzzing 

[Sn my cars; 1 looked around, and behold a troop iliU more uu- 

: mcrous than the former. 

* Tbefe were mounted as poorly as myfelf ; their linco tu- 
litics the fame a$ niiticj their nianiicis Teemed familiar; I ad- 

[■^Jreflcd the ncarcft. 

Do your utmoft, fayi I, you will never be able, mounted 
|S) you aiCt to ovcfiake tbofc wbo aic arhcad of you. 

' Let 

*• Let us alone, fays he, for that i the madmen ! they rid: 
their lives ; and for what ? to ai rive a few minutes before us. 

• We arc all going to Babylon, an hour fooner or later, in 
linen tunic, or purple robes, on an afs, or a camel, wh*c mat- 
ters it, when oocc on« is arrived i Dny upon (he roaJ, la yuu 
know how to amufc yourTcIf ? 

• You for example : What would have become of you had 
you been mounted on a camct ? your fall, fays he, wouid 
been htsd. I figbcd, uid had nothing to reply. 

• Then, looking behind mc, how great was my furprizc to 
fee men, women, and children following us afoot, fome fing- 
ing, others (kipping on the tender grafs ; their poor backs bowed 
under their burdens. 

* Thea cried I, tranfported beyond myfelf, they go to Ba- 
bylon as well as I ; And is it they who rejoice? and is it I who 
am fad? When on a fudden myopprelTed heart became li^htj 
aiuJ I felt a gentle joy flow within my veins. 

* Ere we got in, we overtook the hrlt party; their camelt 
had thrown them, their long purple rohcs, their belts, and goid 
binges intcrfpcrfed with diamonds were all covered with mud. 

* Then, yc powerful of the earth ; even thea it was I per- 
ceived the littlcncfs of human grandeur ; but the juft eftimattr>n 
I made of it, did not render me uifcntlblc to the misfortunes of 

We cannot but be forry to fee a bonk, diftinguithed by lec- 
tures of truth and (ineeittyi fo very improperly p;eceded by a 
dedication*, equally fulfome and ridiculous.— 1 'he language, 
moreorer, is negligent and incorrect. 

• To the Duke of Newcaftlc. 

'the Ca/tle of OtrantOy a Siery. tninjhttd i>y William ^^Ar^ha!, 
Gtnt. from iht sri^inat lialian ef Onuphrio Murahc^ Can n «/ 
tht Church 6f St. i^'icbifits at Otrants, 8vu. 3s. Lownds. 

THOSE who can digeft the abfunlities of Gothic fiitioQ, 
anJ bear with the machinery of ghoRs and goblins, may 
hope, at Icaft, for conftderablc cntenainment ftom the per- 
fcirmanee before us : lor it is written with no common pen -, the 
language is accurate and elegant: the charadlers ate highly 
&nimed i and the JifquiHiions into human manneis, paflioiii^, 
atid purfuils, indicate the kecncft penetration, ;tnd the niofl pcf- 
feft knowlrge of mankind. The Tranllator, in lis I'refatc,,, 
informs us that the original ^ was found in the lihr.iry of an an- 
Rev. Feb. 1765. H citi 


Jh* CaJlU of Otranto, a Stiry. 

cient catholic family in the Nonh of EngUntl. It was pi'tntcj 
at Naples, in the black. letter, iu the ycjir 1529. How mucti 
fooncr it was written docs not appear. The pfincipal iiiciijents 
'are fuch as were believed in the darlccft ag,cs of Chridianlty ; but 
[■ (he language and coiiddfl have ni>thing that favours of p^rba- 
''rifm. The tlilc is the purcll [talian. If the ftory was written 
near the time when it is fuppofcd to have happened, i^ nrnf 
have been between 1095, the *ni of iSe firft crufade^ and 1243/ 
the (late of (he laft, or not long afterwards. There is no other ' 
circumdancc in the work, that can lead uf to gucfs at the pe- 
riod in which the fccne U Uid : the nanic6 of the adlors are evi- 
r'dentl)* fictitious, and probably difguilcd on ptirpofc; yet the' 
\ Spaniih names of the domcftics feem tp indicate tliat this woric 
was not compufed, until the eOablifhment of the Arragonian 
kings in N:ipte$ had made Spanish appellations familiar in that 
country. The beauty of the ditflion, and the zeal of (be author 
[moderated, however, by lingular judgmcmj concur to make 
me thinic that the date of the comixificion was little antecedent 
to that of the impreflion. Letters were ihcn in their moft flou- 
rifhin;; ftate in Italy, and contributed to difiKl the empire of fu-. 
peritition, at that time fo forcibly attacked by the reformers. It ■ 
is not unlikely that arv artful piicft might endeavour to turr 
their own arms on the innovator* ; and might avail himfclf of] 
his abilities as an author to confirm the populate in their ancient , 
errors and fupciflitions. If this was his view, he has ccrtainlj 
acted with fignal addrcfs. Such a work as the following would! 
cnllavc a hundred vulgar minds beyond half the books of con-" 
trovcriy that have been written from the days of Luther to the! 
prrfcnt hour. 

* This folation of the author's motives is however ofFered as a] 
mere conjecture. Whatever hij views were, or whatever ef-^ 
fcdU the execution of them might have, his work caji only be 
laid before ihe publick at prelcnt as a matter of entcrratnment. 
Evcnasfuch.fomcapologyforit isncctfl'ary. Miracles, vifions, ne- 
cromancy, dreams, and other preternatural events, arc explodi:d j 
now even fiom romancfs. I'hat was not the cafe when our 
author wrote ; much IcJ's when the ftorv itfcif 15 fuppofcd to! 
have happened. Belief tn every kind ol' prodigy was To efta- 
bliOicd in thnfe dark ages, that an author would not be faithful! 
to the manners of the times, who tiiould omit all mention <i(\ 
them. He is not bound to believe them himfclf, but he muftif 
reprefent his actors as believing them. 

* If th« air of the miraculous is cxcufcd, the reader will find] 
nothinc elfe unworthy of his perufal. Allow the pofiihiliiy 
the fa^s <i"d alt the actors comport thcmfrlcck .13 pcrlunt wouU 

ToKST all'/ Ledurei m Natural and Rrvtaled Re/igJen^ gg 

do in their fituation. There is no bombaft, no fimileSy flowers, 
Jign-flions, or uiincccnary defctiptions. Every thing tend& di- 
TctWy to (he caiJ-rtrophe. Never is the reader's attention re- 
laxed. The rules of the drama arc almoft ubfcrvcd throughout 
the conduift of the piece. The chara£len arc well drawn^ and 
IHU bctrer maintained. Tcrror» the author's principal engine, 
prevents the dory from ever languishing i and it is fo often con- 
tradcJ by pitv, that the mind i» kept up in a conllanl viciiiitude 
«f interelling pafDons.' 

The natural prejudice which a iranflator* entertains iii favour 
of his original, has not carried this gentleman beyond the bounds 
of tiiith; and his crtticifnis on his Au'.tiur bear equal marks, of 
ulle and candour. The principal dcfi:^ of thii performance 
does not renuin unnoticed. That unchriftian doBrine of vifnmg 
the (ins of the fathen upon the children, is certainly, under our 
preTent fyftem, not only a very ufelefs, but a very infupportablc 
morali.and yet it is aimoft the only one deduciblc from this 
flory. Nor is it at all rendtred more tolerable Oiraugh ihc infi- 
nuatton that fuch cviis mii^ht be diverted by devotion to St. Ni- 
cholas ; for there ihc good canon was evidently preaching in fa- 
vour of his own houmofd. However, as a worlc of genius, 
evincing great dramatic powers, and exhibiting fine views of 
nature, the 0>jili ej Otranta may Aill be read with plcafure. To 
give the Reader an anaiy/is of the flury, would be u> introducs 
bim to a company of (kcletons \ to refer him to the book will 
be to recommend htta to an allcaiblage of beautiful pictures. ' 

■ This It faii on the (tippofition that ibe work really is a itaoflation. 
as pteteoded. 

LtHurn m Katttral and Revtalid Rr/igisny rtei in tbt ChapeJ of 
St. jff&u'i CelUgi^ CamMilgt, By James TuntlaU, I). D. 
ftiinetin^e Chaplain lu Dr. Potter, Aichbilbop of Caiitcrbi^, 
and Vicar of Rochdale in Lancatlilrc. 4.10, , io«, 6d, 
Printed by Wilt. Bowyer. Sold by Whifton and White. 

THESE I.c£hircs are pnblilhed by fubfciption, for the 
bccclit of the Author's family ; and this advertifcment 
is prefixed to them : 

• The following LcStwfi were begun by the Autbor when a 
Tutor in St. John's College in Cambridge ; bm he w.i» pre- 
vented from finifhing the comprehcnfi^'e plan which the Reader 
Will 6nd laid down in the beginning of them, by being c«Ued 
-from this employment in college to the I'crvice of Arvhbtfliop 
■ Potter. They were however fo nearly comp)cai''d, that ihi: 
Author, had he lived, intended to have publiHicd themhimftlf; 

H 2 and 


lOO Tunstall'i Ltiiurts tn Batumi ami Re^taUd Rrliihn. 

-and tbey are now Caiihrtiliy piiiilril from hU muturciipt copy, 
without the icafl addition or uhcrjtion:' ' 

In regard to the comprchcnfivf plan mentioned in this adver- 
Uremrntf the Author's account oF it is this: 

^ The dcfign of the prdcnt' undertaking, fays he, is to rc- 
prefcnt to vou the main c\idcnce!>, and exprefi the moft matrria) 
doArincs, both of natural and revealed religion. — In rcprcfcnc- 
ing the evidence;! of thcle religions, I (hall endeavour to (hcur, 
that the Turn of natural religion is the ncceffkry coltedion ofrea- 
Ton, excrctfed upon the tutuic, conflitutioot liid fettled order 
of things } nndf that the Chnfliun revelation mufb be rntcrtaincd 
upon the certain and incofitcftcil principles of natural religion. 
In explaining the do^iincs of thefc rcligionb, I am lo have an 
efpccial regard to that fyfk-m uf do^rine, which is fct forth by 
publick authority In the catcchifni) articles, and offices of our 
church. And as thcfc arc intended to exprefs the whole duty 
loth of a man and a Chriftianj it will be ncccflitry to fhcw, 
how the dodriites of natural religion therein contained arc fup< 
ported by ihc aids of reafon and philofophy ; and, how thedoc- 
trinc*!, which are of pure revelation, arifc from a genuine inter- 
pretation of the acknowledged word, and therefore muH be bc< 
lievcd upon thi: authority of God. 

*- As this method of proving all things may be moll fatisfac- 
tory in itfelf, fo it is by no means cpnirary to the intention o( 
our church in her authorized form;: and profeffions of faith, fot] 
our church, though (he has prcfcribed the rules of Chriflknj 
duty, and eftabliOied the articles of Chriftian belicfj yet (hel 
would not have her members receive them under ihatchariicicr 
at her propofition only, but permits, nay exhort*, them to con- 
fult their own conviifioni trom rcnfon and fcripturc, whcihct 
thefe things arc fo. — But that this may be more cicaily fccn^J 
and bccaufc it may he of ufc to my general dcfign, h may nocj 
be imprt^r, by way of introdui^inn, to lay before you* firfV, 
fume of the icnfons and advantages of pubiick Jnlliiutions of re- 
ligion ; fecoiidiy, the occafions and circiimiliinrcs of thofe of out . 
church in particular; and, thirdly, the nature »i>d extent of 
(hat authority, whereby they arc recommended to our faitb and 

After briefly confideriivg thcfc poiuis, he proceeds to his main* 
dcfign, whicli he prbfecules in the tullowtng metbod. Kirfl, be 
:Ihnvs the ncceJBcy .ind certain Tuundatidn of reli^n in genera) ; 
jk-rondly, he conlidcr^ rcltgioii jLi dilhngiiitbod into natural aiid 
nevcalcd ; thirdly, hu Ihcws ui what ni;uuicr, and upon what 
t^ccounts, rcvcalcil religion niufl be iecein:J by us upon the 
^ioitiidation of lututal ; luuithly, tic dcducc» ilic pnjK'«ple& and 


Churchill'/ Sefm;tu. 


duiin of aaturM religion ; Srthly, he fhews th« [evtta] dcfe^ 
of natural leligioii, and the atlvanr*jf« and neccflity of divine fixtlily, he piovi.-^ tbcdivinesfithnrity of thcChrifliaa 
rcvelaiinn i (cventhlv, he deduces the principles ofChriftianity, 
as tlic)' are diftinguilhed from thofe of naturii'rc'i^on ; eighthly, 
he intended to liave ihewn that the fcriptun-i xrr an authentic 
conve)-ancc of the principles and duties of ChfiAi^otty ; ninthly, 
to have laid down rules for tlic rijiht intcrprctatior.'of the fciip- 
furts ; and, laOlyp to have Ibewn what L the true refolution of 
our faith, or the true foundation on which wc now receive, 
r. The truths of Chiiitianity, as divinclv revealed, z. Anjr 
particular do<^nne$, as the truths of Chriltianity. .•. 

Such is nur Aulhoi's plan : fo far as he h.t3 carried it mCo 
execution, he has ftiewn Iliflicienl ability^ but has advanced no- 
liog new, or that can render a particular account neccfTary.— 
fote. This i* the fame Tutinall who, about 20 years ago, 
diflingui(hed himfelf in a controvcrfy with Dr. Middletoa, con- 
cerning the authority of thccorrcfpondenceofCiceroand Brutus. 

Strmtut. By Chatles Churchill. 8vo. js. Flexncy. 

THOUGH there ii fcarce any fpectes of compofition, 
which meets with a cooler reception from the generality of 
readers than fcnnons, Churchill's SeT^nons will, undoubtedly, 
excite great curiofity. Tbofe M-ho admire the bold and daring 
geniui of the Poet, will expect fomcthing cxrraordin,iry iji the 
Preacher, snd will open the volume now before us with great 
impatience. — The ftrft thing that ptcfcnts itfclf, is a poetical 
dedication to the Bi/hop of Oloccfter, which, to the great mor- 
tifacalion, perhaps, of many a reader, the Author did not live 19 
fiiiiih. Uur Rcadcis would not readily forgive us if wc did not 
prcfent ihem with this delicious inotfcl, which many of them, 
wc are afraid, wiU look upon as the mofb valuable part of the 
peiforaiaiice : 

Htaltt to neat GtosrtR — from a man unknown. 
Who hold* thy health u dearly as his own, 
Accept this greeting — nor let oiodeA fear 
Call up one maiden blu{h — 1 mean not here 
To wound with flaci'iy— 'til a Villain's art. 
And foiu rwt with the franknefs of my h^art, 
Traih brft betomrt an (Jrt/Mtex Oivi»e, 
And, fpiteofhcll, that Charafler it mine; 
To rprak e'en bincr (ratht I ouino: fear} 
But trnih, my Lar.i, is Panegyric here 

ffM&i 10 great GuoiTtn— nor. ihro' loveof eafe 
Which all Prtelb love, let this addrcft difptcafe. 

H 3 Isflc 


CHURCKlLL'i Serniens, 


I aCi no rarour. nq^on&noiel crave. 
AnA, ttlimihw bOr^-tram rrft» in (hcgra^Tt 
|Fof till that timt^lpsevcr Can have rtllj 
i wtll not trouHc, ^u wiih one bcqueji. 
Somchumblc'^Wf^di my mortal jotirncy dooe, 
IVlore Dear]tr"Sloo<i, a Nephew or 3 Son, 
In ihat <5-"clJ hour f*)(CCJU)r Til Icavej 
For I,;":^^^" have mnn/ lo receive, 
To gMc-iutlJiiIe — To great GtosTri Heal/l; 
Nof Jti'thy Hue anJ proper love of wealth 
'HetK take a filTc alarrD-^in paifc though poor, 

'. In 'iyirit I'm righf proud, nor can endure 

►'•T'TIie mriitjon of'a bribe — ihy pocket's ficc, 

*V.'l. though a Dedicator, (com a fi^e. 

'.'• Let ihy own olBpnng all thy (orloDe'i fliarc ; 

' ] would DOt Allen rob, dot AttiN'i heir. 

Think not, a Thought univonhyihy great foul. 
Which pomp! of this world never coula ccmtroul^ 
■Which never offcr'd npai Pow'r's vain fhrine, 
1'hittk DM that J^otnp antl j'ow'r can u-ork on mine. 
'Tit not thy Name, though thai indeed it great, 
Tii" not the tUifcl trumj'ery of ilaie, 
*Tis Dtn iby Tilic, Dtftor iho' ihou art, 
Tis not ihy Mitre, which haih wan my heart. 
Sate ii« tiitQt, Names are but emuiy'lTiingi, 
Deercci aie bought, jod. by milbKcn k!np», 
Tiucsarcoft mi^Uc'd ; MJtio, whith (hinc 
So bright in oihcr eye), are dull in ftirtc, 
Unlefi fet otF by Virtue ; who dcetivc» 
Under the fscred fflncliffi oi LtrxvnJIttvtt, 
Enhance/ r,uilT, commits a dobMcfin } 
So fair H-hhout. and yet to fnut within. 
'Tis not thy outward tbrin, ihy eafy mein. 
Thy fwcet complacent: >'t thy brow fcreQC, 
Thy open froni, thy Love-ccmmaiiding eye. 
Where fifty Cupids u in ambuOi. lie. 
Which can from (ixly (0 Cxtecn impJK 
The force of Love. flr.d point hs Wuflted dnrr ; 
"Tii not thy F»ce, tho' ihat by Natuie'i mailc 
An index to thy iatA, tfa«' there difplay'd 
We fee thy mind at large, nrd ihro' thy flcin 
Peeps out C'oarrefy. wh^ch dwells uithih t 
*Tis not thy Birth — for that is low as mine. 
Around our heads no lineal j;Igties (hinc — 
But what A Hiith, when, to dtlighl manltiad, 
Heralds ca-i make thofe arms ihry cannot find i 
Whin Thoit an to Tfayfclf. tUy ^irc unkiuinrni 
A Wh«Ic. Welch Ciencalagy Alsm ? 
No, 'lii thy inward Man, ihy proper Worth, 
'i'hy right jun H(iinia ion heiccn canbj 

Thf Life and Doctrine uniformly joio'd. 

And Jlowing from that wholelbmc I'nurccckjr rojnd, . 

Thy knowD contempt of Pcrficution's tod, 

Th/ Chatity for Man, chy Love of God, 

t^y Faith in Chrift, fo well approv'd 'mongft mea, 

Wlucli now give life, and utt'mnce lomy pea. 

T^j Virtue, uot tliy Raak, demands ny Jajrit 

*Tii not the Bifhop, but the Sunt I pcaiic. 

Rstt'd by that 1 heme, I hat on wingi more Rnw, 

And buifl fbitb imo ptaife with-held too long. 

Much did I wilh, e'en whilll I kept thole llieej\ 
Witich. for my cuHe, 1 was ordain'd to keep; 
OrdahiM, alast to keep ihro* need, not choice, 
Thofe Ibeep which never hcaid ihcir (bcplierd's voice, - 
Whkh did not know, yet would not learn ihdr way, 
Wlikb flray'd ihcjnfclvw, yet gi-jcv'Ulhai I (hoold dray, 
Thofe flicep, which my good taiiicr (on fait bi« 
!.«[ Uial duty drop the ptoui tear) 
Kepi well, yet itarv'd himfelf, e'en at that time, 
U^iifl J was pure, and innocent of rime, ■ 

Whillf, focred Dullnefs e\-cr in my view, 
KIcep ai my bidding t:rcpi from pe«- ts pen*. 
Much did I wiib. tho' little could I hope, 
A Friend In htxn, who woj the Friend of Pore. 

tJiihand, faid I, my yo^hful fleps ihajl guide. 
And lead me fafe where ihoufandi fall bclide ; 
Hii Temper, his E'J:pcriencc Ihall controul. 
And hulli to pence the tcmpefl of my foul ; 
ilii Judgment teach me, Irom the Critic fchool. 
How not to err, and how to en by rule; 
InflruA mf, minMin^ pra6t with delight. 
Where Pde>e wai wrung, where SHAKcaPFime wasnotrirfic: 
Wbere tlMy are juiUy prait'd, and where thro* whim, 
i^ow little'* due lo them, how much to htm. 
Raii'd 'bove the ilavcry of common rules, 
Of Common Sente* of modem, ancient Ichoolt. 
Thofe feelings bai'ifli'd, which niiflc^d us all, 
Foolii » wc are, and wbkk we Nsturt call, 
He, by his gteat cicam^e* «igbt impart 
A better Something, and baptize it Ari } 
Hty all the fcelingi of my youth forgot, 
Might Ihcw me what isTallc, bywhat i^ aoCt 
By him fupported, with a proper pride, 
I might hold all mankir-d a:sfooh Wide'; 
He (fliMtUl a VVorld, perverfe and peevjOi grown, 
Explode hii maximt, and aflcrt their own) 
Might teach me, like himfelf, to be content. 
And let iheir UtV.y be theu punilhment ; 
Might, like btmfeir, teach hii adopted Son, 
^Cunfi alt the World, to quote a Wa iLCt ilTq». 

ti4 Fool 


Chdechill'i Sirmanu 

Fool that I wot, could I fo much decn're 
My fo"I wiih lying hupc» ; could I believe 
1'hai He, (be CnvADt of his Makcf (wottt. 
The fcrvant of his SaviOur, would be torn 
F((>m their embrace, snd leave ihac dear emploj, 
I'he cure of fouU, hi* duty and his joy, 
Fot coy^ like mine, and watte his preckms rim^ 
On which fo much depended, for a rhine? 
Shpjdd He (arftke the luik he undenook, 
Pflcri his Hock, and Krcak his pirt'ral crook ? 
Should He (forbid ii Hcav'n] fo high in fiiOtj 
So rich ID knowlegc, quii [he u^orKof GracCt 
And, idly wand'img o'ci iheMufc'i hill. 
Let tlic ulvalion of mankind (land Hill i 

Far. far be that fromTher — yes, far from Thee 
Be fuch reroh from CJracc. and far from me 
The Will to think ii — Guill ii in the Thought— 
Not fo. Not fo, hath WAtsvitTor' been taught, 
Noifv learn'd Chiifl — Recall that day, well-known. 
When (to nuiniain God's honour — and hit own) 
Hv catrd BlxfphcmctJ forth — Mcihinks I now 
yec flcrn Rebuke cjithroncd on hii brow, 
And artn'd nith tenfold t^roun — from hii tongue. 
Where toety real, and Chriltiin fury hung, 
Mcihinki I hear ihe deep-ton 'd thunder* roll. 
And chill with horrpur ev'ry Cnner'sfool — 
!n iiain They ftrive to f\v — flight cannot Cive, 
And Potter trcmblei even in his grave — 
With all itie conl^cious pride of innocence, 
Meihinks 1 heat bint, in his own defence. 
Bur witnefi to himfeir, whilft all Men ktKW, 
ByUofpel-iulec, hii witaef) lo beuue. 

O Glorious Man, ihy xeiil 1 mufl commend^ 
TKo' it deptiv'd mc of my deirell frtend. 
The real motives of thy anger known, 
WiLKt; mtifl the JHtlKc of that anger own t 
And. could thy boibm have been bai'd to view, 
FitJcd himfclf, in mm had pitied ycm. 

Bred to the law, Ynu wifilv took the gowo. 
Which I, like Dtmaj, foaliihly Uid down. 
Hcncr douUc ltrcng;li our /i'jj) M»htr drew j 
Mc fhe got tid of, and made prize of yoia. 
I, like an idle Truant, f^tdofpU), 
I)o:ing on toys, and throwing gern» v^f* 
Cnifping at I'hadows, let the Tuoflance ilip ; 
But you, at LtrJ, reaounc'd Anorneyfhip 
Wiih better purpofr, and more noble air- 
And wifely played a more fubUaotial 
Nor did Uiio mourn, Wcfs'd m herj ' 
foi Mansfield dvcA what Glj 

Chvrchill'i Srrmcns. 

Dcltr, D/an, ffi^afi, Ghfitr^ and lly ti'i. 
If haply ihrfchi^ii Titles may accord 
With ihy meek fpirii. \S the barren feund 
Of pride (leliffhu thee, [o the topmoft lound 
Of Fortune's litiJdcr got, delpire not One, 
Foe want of I'mooih hypocrily undone, 
WhO( far below, turn» up his uoad'ring eye. 
And, without envy, fee* Thcc plac'd fo high. 
Let noi ihy Braiti [a* Brains left potent might) 
Dixxy, confounded, giddy with the height. 
Torn ton nd. and lofe dillini^lion, lofc h<rt fltili 
Afld wonted pow'n of knowing good from Ul. 
Cf lifting truth fmtn falfhond, frif ndi from foes ) 
Let Gt.O)TeK well remember, how he rofe. 
Nor turn his back on men who made him great ; 
Let Him not, gorg'd with powV, and drunk wiihflate. 
Forget what once he was, iho' now fo hich ; 
How low, how mean, and full as poor as 1, 


• • « • 

* Cetera deftint. 

Tbc proper rcBcclions to be made upon this Dcdicstioii are 
too obvious lo cfcapc any incelligent Reader* wc (hall therefore 
proceed, dirc^ly, to the fcnnons thcinfclvcs, which are plain, 
cafy, pra£lJcjd difcouifcs, and contun nothing, in |X>ints of fcn-4 
timcnt, manner, or di£tion, to diflinguilh them from tnoft com- 
poTiiionsof this kind. In a word, Mr. Churchill appears through 
^e whole of them, to the chara^crof a fobcr, rational preacher,^ 

In the iirft and fecond fermons, he enquires into the nature 
and rcafonablcnci's of prayer, Oicws ihc qualiBcations that arc 
icquifitc to make our prayers acceptable to God, and point out 
the advantages which we may leafonably expefl from a due dif- 
charge of this im^wrtani duty. In the eight following fermons, 
he explains and illuflraics the Lord's Prayer. — We (hall gi%x 
our Readers a fliurt exiia^ or two, as a f^^cimen of his 

In his fourth fcnnon, where he difcourfes from the following 
daufc, HaUvwfd ht thy r.smti he gives the following chuader 
of the prefcnt age : 

* Never (fays he} did greater levity appear than in the prcfent 
age. All things fcrtous, folcmn, and facrcd arc wantonly thrown 
by, or treated only as proper fiibjccl'< of ridicule ; and the religion 
ofChrill, which ought to warm ihc hearts and influence the prac- 
tice of its profcJUtra, i:t no more than fkin-dcep; it is made a 
plauiiblc pretence to ferve a turn, and is put oft and on at easily 



CauKCHiLLf Sermsns. 

as our clvfaths. How thin is the church, ho^r aJmoft deroJatc jj 
the attar of God ? What woiidtT? Jincc a party of ptcaturc, the 
dropping in of a friend, a loo luxurious meal, an indolence of 
difpoUtion, in a word, an^ thing or nothings is deemed a fuffi- 
ctcnt cxcufc for our fta)-ing from church, aiid iwglciling the 
publick worftiip of our Maker. 

* The Scriptiircs, thofe lively oracles of God, wherein is 
contained out title to eternal f^lvation, which it is every man's 
duty and happintir? to be acquainted wiih» how ihamcfully, how 
fo4jli(hlv» how impik>uny, arc they ocglcdlcd ? 1 doubt, though 
I am afraid it doth nol admit oj a doubt, whether any book is 
fo little known « that which deferves and demands our ftriikft 
attention. The Po©r think themfelvcs abfulvcd from confulting 
it bccaufc fo much of their time is taken up by their neccnary 
labour; and the Rich no doubt muft be excufed, fomc bccaulc 
they never read at all, and others becaufc their meditations arc 
turned another way, and they arc belter employed in pcrufing 
and r^-iling trophies to more modern Pfoduciions, where inde- 
cency pailes oft for wif, and i:i(iJeli[y for rcalbn, 

' * Anfwcrable to and worthy of (hefe tncA cjtrellent private 
ftudics, is the pnlite Con*erfation of the prcfcnt a^'c, where, 
Noifc is Mirth, ObfccnityGood-humuur, and Profancnefs Wit, 
Decency and Good fcnfe, which were formerly deemed ncccf-' * 
dry to give a grace to and fcafon Convcrfation, to jyin Pleafurtf^ 
and improvement together, are become mere antiquated no- 
tions, words withi^ut meaning ; and all that the pert and poHie"' 
fmnrr need tu do now to clbbllfli his reputation of wit, and be^ ' 
deemed the heroe of all polite AfTcinblics, is to get rid of Religion 
as foon at, polE^le, to fct Confcicncc at dcfi;incc, to deny ihp 
Being or Provjdcncc of God, to laugh at the Scriptures, deride^,,, 
God's Ordioance.s profane his Name, and rally his Miniftry. . 
Thus ijualified, tbc world is his own, he carries ail before hini, . ■' 
and ifhc/hould incrtwiihoppotUion fron> fomefinccreChriftian, .^j- 
whoi5ttulyrc!i?.ifiuJ, and cannot brook to hcjrihc name of his 
Maker vested ^^iih contcnipt, why he dcfpifcs and derides the 
poor ruptrllitious Fool, and fuperlatively happy in hiinfclf, laughs 
St the Argument which he cannot anfwcr. 

* Much were it to be. wifticd that the Charaflcr here drawn 
vfis imaginary, or at Icaft uncommon, but ] am afraid the ex- 
perience of ail prefcnt will alTurc them it is too real> too frc 

Tn his eighth fcrmon, he fpeaks of the forgivenefs of injuries 
in the fvUtivying- manner : — * Whatever advantage* (fays be) at\ 
high and levengvful Ipirit may h:ivc in the eyci of the world, 
and howcvi^r^ouun^caiay be cftccaicd to-put up aodforgite inju- 


Cmurchill'j ScTTnens. 


Llics» Rtligicn leaches us 3 quite different leilbii. It idflruflSi 
lus that iiDthipg can be tru]y honourable, which is not truly 
(■good, that nothing an'be ^uly good which is ^ot agrecitble to 
the will ofGod ; ati<3 that nothing can be agreeable to the will 
of God which is contrary to the laws hix ble0(:d Son has given 
us 1n the Gofpct ; and ihel'e profciibc to us tQ be meek as he \» 
neck, and lowly as he i:> luwl^-, 

' * But to dcfcend from Relt^ioa to the opinioo of the world. 
If there is any honour in gaining a vtdtory, then is the fbrgive- 
nefs of injutios truly honourBbte. . It places u» In eminence above ^ 
our enemy, it gives us an invincible fupcriority over him, it * 
makes us proof again(t ill his devices, and unhurt by all his at- 
tacks \ we cither make him our ftiend, or convince mankind 
that he ought not to be our enemy; we either dcptivc him oF 
the inclination to prejudice us, or fubjeA him to the contempt' 
of all good men if he pcrfcvcres in it ; and at the fame that wb 
make known the mecknefs of Our difpofition by forgiving his ill 
offices, we approve our rclbluiion by not attending to the con- 
fcquenccs of his anger. If our enemy is worth the gaining, For- 
givcnefs h the bell and mod approved methodto accompUih that ' 
end ; if he is not, Forgivcnefs is the bcft method of puniflling 
him,asitrerves n>oft elfc^ually todtfapixiint hisaim, tofiiewihat ' 
his malice cannot reach m, and to gall him with that thought 
which men can Ifaft bear, that we hold him in contempt, and 
think him beneath our notice. 

* A falfc notion of honour may reprcfcni to us the conquerina 
of an cnrmv r^ a rrcat and glorious ailiori } but true rcafon wiu. 
Cell us, ; ifK^ucr oiirfelvcs, and forgive an enemy, i»" 

much m-j., j,i^->, and, as it is more difficult, more honourable 
lilc^wifc. "This is indeed a fpecics of hono\ir which will fcarco* 
find [ts Way into the brcart of a Hrro, and meet with a favour- 
able teceptiun from thofc who call ralhnefs i:ourage, and dif-< 
grace the name of Honour by apjilying it improperly. Confider., 
the prefcnt acceptation of that word; wc might imagine that it 
VIM the fwotn foe cf Hoiicfty, Reafon, aud Kcligion, iiUlead of 
bciri^ the genuine offspring of ihcni all. A modern Man of Ho- 
nour, [ashcc-jith t-.imfcif, and as the World will, be complai- 
fant enough to call him) lives to PaOion, and not to Rcafon j ^ 
He lives in a conftant futjc£li6n to the opinions of oilicrs, nor.j— 
for a moment fuficis himfclf to haix an opinion of his own i he /Ti 
lakes things up on trull from thofe whom he ought lead to dc- 
penil upon ; he fear^ fbamc more than guilty' the imputation of 
crimes mofc than being criminal ; he trcrablcs at icproach 
(lh()u^h uiulefcivcd] more thaji at danger, or even death, and 
priih "on his courage at the very inAant thai he gives 

lite i ;■ ^.. i^roff of his Icing a Cgwud. To ccvcnge, even 
""* * in 



in what we mifcrflll an honourable vrnyy is an efTort which nianjr 
a Coward hath agaiiift his n:iturc forced himfclf to iriAlce, but 
wc cannot meet with a (ingle inftancc where he could induce 
himfclf to forgive. This is a talk left fur men of great and 
generous dirpofitions, for men who arc as much kbove fearing, 
ai doing ilU for men who have a true fcnfc of Honour, and, m 
confequcnce thereof, doing every thing which They ought to 
do, fcir nothing but what They ought to fear. 

* Another, and no weak motive to the forgivcnefs of our 
enemies, is that quiet, and lalisfaflioii of mind which naturally 
refults from it. The man of a revengeful fpirit lives in a per- 
petual ftorm> he is his own tormentor, and his guilt of courTe 
becomes his punifhment. Thole palltons, which prompt him 
to wreak bis vengeance upon his enemies, war againtl his own 
foul, and are inconfiftcnt with his peace. Whether he is at 
home or abroad, aJonc or in company, They ftill adhere to him, 
and engrofs his thoughts ; and Providence hath with thegieaicft 
reafon ordained^ that whofoevcr meditates againft the peace of 
another Aiall, even in the defign, tofe hin own- The thoughti 
of Revenge break in upon his moft ferious and important buft- 
ne&, embitter his moll rational entertainments, and forbid him 
to relifli any of thoie good things which God hath placed within 
his reach j ever intent on ihu contrivance of mifchief, or en- 
eaiEcd In the execution, mortified with difappolntments, or, his 
uefigru accompliflicd, tortured with rcflcdlion, he lives the life 
of a devil here on earth, and carries about a hell in his own 
brcoA. Whereas the mccV man, who lives in a conllant courfc 
of good will to ail, who gives no nun caufe to be his eite- 
my, and dares io forgive thofe who are fo without a caufe, hath 
a conftant fpting of pleafure in himfclf i let what will happen ^ , 
from without, he is furc of peace within. So far from being 
afraid to converfe with himfclf, he fecks and is happy in the op- 
portunity of doing It, and meets with nothing in his own brcaft 
but what encounges him to keep up and cheiilT) that acquaint- 
ance. The Paflions which he finds there, inllcad of being ty- 
rants, an:; fervants ; he knows the danger of obej-ing, and the 
imponibility of rooting them out; and, whilfl he forbids them 
to aflumc an undue inBucnce, makes them the inftrumcnts of 
promoting his happincfs. Happy in himfclf, he iseafy to all ; he 
is a friend to mankind in general, and not an enemy even to ihofe 
who haie him ; doth u momentary thought of revenge arifc in 
hii mind he fuppicflcs it; if on no other tonfiderations, for his 
own fake •, this he knows to be his duty, and this he finds to be 
his pleafure ; bicft with thofe feelings, which ftiall not leave 
him at the grave, he imiptu the Deity in benevolence, and ob- 


Pott'j Trtatij't on Rkfiurtu 109 

ttiM, a« far 35 oioftaU can obtain, the happinefs of the Deity 
in reiurn. 

* 2^11 thefc confidcrations prove inclTc^ual, lec me add the 
necdBty vre lay under of forgiving our enemies, or of rclin- 
quiJliing all hopes of being forgiven. There is no alternative. Wc 
mulldo it, or tcfigii all pretcnftons to the benefits of Chriil's paiTion, ' 
Though the pcrt'or[n«nce of this duty alone will not emiile us 
to the forgivenefs of our iins ; yet this we are mod fpeciatly in- 
flru£led in, that the performance of all other duties, without 
this, will be of no avail. The difficulty, attending this worlc, 
inflcad of taking ofF our attention, ought to double it, and 
quicken our endeavours ; That it is ivcccflary to be done, the 
Scriptuies inform u&, and therefore it muft be undertaken ; 
That it it di6Scult to be done, our own feelings infonn us, and 
therefore 11 fliould be undertaken with fpiril ; I'hat it is 00c 
impoflible to be done, and that we may accomptith it if wc will, 
the very cnjoinment of the dutj* implies j That, when accom- 
plifhed, we Ihall not tofe our reward, the Confidcrations I 
have already mentioned, with our own obfcrvation and expe- 
rience, will happily evince.' 

To conclude this article, wc cannot help obferving, that 
Churchiil the Poet, and Churchill the Preacher appear 
to be very different charaften. In his Poem*, he is an oui- 
ngeouE and mercilcG S<itirifl ; in bis Sennons, a mccic and plac- 
able Chriltian. Yet ftrange as the mixture may fecm, in the 
prefcnt publiciition he is i»/A Characters in ont * It has really an 
extraordinaty appcararKe, to fee a commentarv on that form of 
prayer coropofcd by Brnevolence itfelf, preceded by a viruleiic 
libel I— But let us not forget, that when this enraged wafp, for 

the laft lime*, darted hts fling at W ., it broke, and the 

poor angry foul expired ! 

• He bad, befoie. Btiickecl the Bidiop, in fcveral of his poems; on 
wLat frovocaiion. Coe% no: liti^fudoiily appcji. 

J Trt/ttifr 6n Ruptmtt. By Percival Pott, Senior Surgeon to 
St. Barthnlomcw's Hofpiial. The fecond Edition, altered, 
corrcded, and improved. 8vo, 41. (ewed. Hawes, 1763. 

WE could not, coofiftcntly with our plan, have men- 
tioncd thU fecund Edition, after having given an ac- 
count of the Brft, ill our Review, Vol. XV. p. 512, if an aU 
tercation that occurs in this, between its Author and Dr. Hui 
ter, concerning the difcovcry of the H'tn'm :e»^fnita^ were 
aitircly new. This aliercaiiun, httwevet^ mi^ht have partly 

iio £>k Hmhtik'i Supple/ttaa to tbt 

been expected from what little luJ appeared on this touiCf in^l 

the Dodor's firft mcdicjl commeiuary, (fee Vol. XXvi/p,] 

'319 w 327) where the occafion of the prcfciit fharp debate ii 

curforily mentioncil. • 

On rcaJirigthofc pages of this cJition, from JjSto 164, whick^ 
"contain an anfwer to that pittof theDi.'scommcntary, wc could 
not avoid agreeing with Mr. Pott» * that fuch dlfputts arc of very ' 
' little importajicc to uH others, except the difputanis;' — Iujce| 
undoubtedly the Public arc fold)' intercflcd, in proportion n^i 
the general advantage of any difcovery : though tlie particular] 
friends of the real, uid of the aiTuming difcoycrer, may iiitcreftl 
thcmfclvcs for the emolument or reputation of cither, according] 
to their different attachments. We tonfefs however for ourfclvcsJ 
[hat oa pcruiing Mr. F.'s acLuuut of ihcoccalionof this difputc,^ 
which is fpcciousandfcnfib'.c, and nearly faiisfactorj'iu his behalf, 1 
' on crediting his own affirmstions of his conduct, wc found wCi 
were difpofed to conceive him, as having been treated with too 
little benignity by thofc fuggcllions againft him in the firft com- 
mentary ; arxl c\'en eiucnaiiicd a little hope, that the mifundcr- 
iVanding had been founded in fomc niidakc. On this fuppofition 
wc thought his precluding himfcif, p. 162, * from ever fayingii 
any thing farther on this occafion,' apjieared difpaflionatc aiulj 
iri^nuous, and might alTo be owing confiderably to thit juf 
rcici^^ion we have already cited fiom hitn, on the very liltll 
conlequence of fuch altercations to the Public -, and this af-^ 
forded us fome profpc^ of its being dropt. But it is now fcvcral 
months fince we have been undeceived, by the publication of the 
Ibort piece, which is the fubje^ of the following article. 

A SiippU-ncnl to tht Ftrfl Part sf the AftJuiil Ctmrnmiartct. B/j 
Dr. Hunter. 410. 1 s. 6d *. Millar, 1764. 

THIS Supplement, e.<tcept five or fix pages relating to Pro- 
fcHbr Monro fenior, is. an aiifwer to what Mr. J'ott has 
advanced in the pages wc have .already lefcrrcd tu, in the prc- 
d^dihgArrtHe. It contains a very circunfbintial and inforccd 
aecoant'of what Dr. H. had aJlertrd on this point in thecomaicn- 
firy ; aJ* well as a pointed refutation of tlie inoft material tilings 
altedgrd by Mr. P. in \\ti own fjvuur, and tj the difj^vantagc 
of hit aiitagonitt. It makes in fa^ a moft lmport:int differ^c 
in 'the' ijipeals of thefe gcnilemcn 10 the Public, that the Sur- 
'geftn's' averments, in his own caufe, are dcftitute of that im- 
pir(ial proof, from the aitcftaiion and fubrciiption of others, on 

*'Anothet Edition, on a lixudler papn, lielli forOoe Shillinjr. 

6 which 

Ftrji Part tf the MeStoi Csmmfnlaria. • Vi i 

which die Ph)-fician*s appear ftrangly founded. The confiderable 
fcverity, lcccmjcrs» atvS even ftiilging raillery wilb which thi$ 
■nl'wer is accompanied throughout ihc Su[)p)fmcni, mi^indiiie 
■aany fcadfts ro imagine, this very anatomical Phvlician might 

-ibmctuno forgtc he was exercifuig his point and edge on a rfccl- 

- iag fiibjci£l. But for ourTetves, who conftder all manifcft pla- 
gbfirra, whence cither tame or money may accrue, as cflcntial 

' ithany^ wc are Jefs concerned when fuch an excmjHary inftance 
occurs, as may deter others from a repetition of it. Many ccr- 

. cainly may think, with Shalcefpearc, an mvafion of whatever 
they conhdcr as their fame, more iniuriotii than that oF their 
pecuniary property : and if it be recollected with what difficulty 

, aiid peril ihe fame of aimoniilVs is atchievcd ; by ihctr Hvin?, 
Jike hyenas, from the graves, and their being furrnunded by pu- 
trefaction, it rourt difpofc every confiderate man to leave fucb 
advcntuiers in the unenvicd poHclTtui) of tbcir unnotl acquirc- 
.mcDtSy of every kind. 

Wc fiitd, upon retrofpeciion, .that on Mr. P.'s firft piibli- 
cation on this particular Rupture, in 17571 we fuggeftcd chat 
bis difcovcring u was not a clear point with us, (Sec Review, 
Vol. XVI. p. 464.) which Suggcfiion the prcfent Supplement 

- has changed into a Proof. And wc verv fcriouQy think, 

- Dr. H.*8 allowed anatomical excellence, which Mr. P. (o do 
--him jufticc, rcpcatcJIy admits, would not have made it ttic leaft 

dlfhoinjiirablc to the latter, to have* acknowledged whatever in- 
formaiion he might have rccctved fiom Dr. H. or his brother, 
concerning this particular Rupture. In fad, we even 6nd ic 
difficult to conceive, how 3 truly honountbte and ingenuous 
fpirit could fuflain its own icproschrs, from fupprcfling fuch an 
acknowledgment. But fuch 11 the infirmity of our very general 
nature, ihat wc arc daily prcfcntcd with too many inftances of 

■ the truth of Juvenal's alVcrtion, — Tatli nuijsrfama fais tji quam 
ffirtttiis, and too many pcrfons who act from meanly external, 

-rather than juftly felf-approving motives; wfaom the Fal/us herur 
juvat et meoiiax infamia tirrtt. 

Yet upon the whole wc imagine, that after the Author of the 
Supplement bad judiy evinced his right to an acknowledgment 
from Mr. P. on this fubjcct, he would have loll not the Icall 
icfpe£twith his moll rational fnends, by gently attcmpsrattng 
that fcveriiy, of which he fccms himfclf, in his fcnfibic Preface, 
and at the beginning of his P. S. (o have been truly confcioua. 
]| may conduce indeed, wiih a Nemt mt mpuni, to fecurc him 
fratn any future mvafions of the fame kind; and thence fave 
him the trouble and iniL-rruption of any fimilar contention, 
which be fomctimes cuiifidcrk xi unfortunate ^ ^kvowiiig alfo, p. 



ReiHAN on liufulaliati. 

a8> * He has never aiucked any man, who treated him fair( 
aod docs promifc that lie never wiU' The patTngc, which, f* 
tbc honour of phyfic and erudition, we could chiefly wilh 
omitted, is the Greek onc» p. |6, which he had fome reaibn 
for not iranflaiing. and from which we ftiall alio abftain. He 
is certainly very able to determine with htmfelt, whether his ac- 
knowledged contention ^nd fcyerity of anatofnifls was a prcce> 
dent worthier his imitation ; or the phitofophical indifference cf 
Newton, when pillaged by Leibnitz ? All impartial perufers of 
this difputc, among which wc reckon ourfclvc^, muft, we 
think, adjudge the final advantage of it lo the Writer of the 
Supplement: but his eflcntial triumph would not have been di- 
mioiflied by a temperate exertion of it ; cfpccially if he rcflcflcd, 
that •his .imagoniil might be difpofed to ailUme this difcovery, 
from very near and perniafive motives. 

A Rjfutaihn sf the R.ftil'tms againfi /mculathn^ puhlijhtd iy Dr. 
Rafl, ef Lyon& j Jo far ai thty art (uppsrUd i/j CakutattBiiL 
drawn /ram the BiUt of Ahrtalitj in Lsniltn^ and his Ohjerwi- 
tiom. Ifith a Perfuejtvt to that Prg/titty (Uduadjrem tm Sue- 
itji tf the /tteeiJuliNg Heffilal mar Lmdaa. By Anthony Rel- 
han, M. D. Fellow of tlic College of Phyficians. 410.' 
IS. 6d. W. JohnttoB, 

DR. Relhan has very citcumflantially and fufHcienily demon* 
ftratcd the uncertainty of any conciuHon or calculation, 
with rcfpecl to the Small Pox, or indeed to any other difeafe, 
which is drawn from the number of deaths, as printed in the 
regiftcrs or weekly bills. He fbews how defe^ivcly the rcgifters 
of deaths are made even at prefent ; and how much more irrcga* 
larly they have formerly been kept, f !c recites the various cAufes 
and circumftances, to which thefe defects of the weekly bills 
and rcgifters are owing — Jroni the great chafms and interruptions 
in the lifts — from an omltlion of the deaths of mof^ diircntcrs 
who arr not buried in churchyards, and from many other fourccs 
of error: all which mayjuJHy difcredit any infcreiices drawn 
from thefe lifts and rrgiftcr:. by Dr. Raft. 

The advantages of Taoculalion, both in the public hofpital. 
'rod in private practice, are too well eftablifhed, by our exp 
ricnce, to need this gentleman's repetition of them, howcvi 
furomarily. Ihc fcivicc his book can do here, /cems 
to be preventing the veiy few enemies to that pradtice, who 
may have read l>r. Raft's book, (which we do not hear has 
been tiandatcd) from bting milled by bis mifcalculaiions and 





Gordon'* Uaiverjal Awummit. 

prpjudices. 7'a be capable of doing good where it U ntoft 
wanted, wc conceive ihis jwrfoniiaiicc IhouU have been wrote ' 
in Krciich, and fiubliihed at Paiii or Lyuiis. 

• The Pamphlet concludes with obftrving, * that fomo of the 
mofl alnrming fy'inptoms of the SnuU Pox arc infulIicicntJy ac- 
counietl fui, :tnd ihc tieatmeiit of them not only dcl^divc, but, 
u our Au hor app'chcnds, even erroneous.* '1 his induces him 
to make a kin J of cn^jj^cmcnt * to refumc thta lubjc^l j and> by 
treating the difleoiper principally in a medical way, to endea- 
vour toconvincr the wurd, that what he haa here alTcrried, is 
neither wain, nor ill-grounded.' That the pfcftnt treatment of 
it will adnuL of Tome rea'bnablc itnprovcmen:, wc truly a;^rce with 
thi^ ^cnijeman ; but wc hope that by treating it principilly in a 
medical ^vay, he docs nut mean to treat the dillcmpcr with more 
medicine than is ufual at prcfcnt. We conceive at the fame time, ' 
that the bcft pradic« in the natural difcafe which can bedifcover'd, 
will, upon ihe whole, fall confidcrably fliort, in point of fuc- 
cefs, of the beft inOituied and conduced itiocubiion of it ; after 
a very Judicious and appropriate manner of difpofing very dif- 
ferent conftitutions for it ; and, juHIy diftinguifltuijj* where no 
prrpararion at all, or very little, is indicated. 

Tht Vnhxrrfti Aawnlafii and C:mp!itt Mfrthant. By Willjatn 
Gordon, of the Academy, Glafgow. Svo: 2 Vols. izs. 


WE do not remember to have feen any work fo well cal- 
cutaicd for qujlifying young ^citlcmcn tor the Coijot- 
ing-houfc, a« ih^i now before us. The Author Iccmj to have 
more comprebcnfivc views, more enlarged and libeial noiions* 
than the gehenlity of writers upon the fubjc^ ; as will appear 
(o the iiiielligeot Reader from a (Hort view of his E(r.iy on the 
Kduiaiionof a voung Gentleman intended i'or ibe Cuunting- 
houle, prefixed io his flrll volume. 

After obfrr\ing. In general, that there is no eUfs of men, in 
Gre^iE Briliiin, whuh labours under greater difad vantages, in 
point of education, than chat of merchants, he proceeds thus: 

* To be able to read the Englifh language with fame caik: 
and accuracy, n certainly prercquilite to every other ftudy jj^ 
and it ii with plratute thai we k< daily improvenients made in* 
this partieuUr. IVIen of educaticn have not been aOumed of 
late lo take upon them the direction ot children in reading Kng- 
Jifti, which, but a few years ago, wak commi:tvil to pcopSc of 

Rgv. Fei)^ 1765. I very 


Go]tpoK*[ Vntvtrfai Atcauntaitj. 

very litilc knowlcge. This is a rcrormaiioni which^ u ir ira? 
MCt^ much wanted* ought io be particulirly encouraged and pro- 
moted -f although ai ihc Tame time the purpofcs of it ftiould by 
no mcam \tc extended, crpccially by thufe oFrank and fortuiK, 
iKVond it> teal bouiidft. It \i imigiucd by fouic who have reaped 
little hcnctit inmx thicc or four years attendance at a gratnmar- 
icbooU that the new meihod of teaching Engliih, wul anrwrr 
11 the purpofcs inieiidcJ by the Itudy of dead hngua^cs to a 
un of bu^nefs. But ibis opinion is ill founded. The fludy 
'the, Englilh langu-ige is nm yet carried to a proper extent} ' 
id if it wast it would ftilt fait ihort of the |>urj)o(c> of a liberal 
Jucaiioii. There is no bufincfi> whatever that requires a greater 
>rrcfpondcnce, or a diction more pointed and concife, than 
lit o( the merchant -, and it would require a fingular llrength 
''of genius to write even correctly in the Englifa language, un- 
Icfs a foundation in the Greek and Latin languages had been 
prcvioufly laid. The arts and fcienccs, by thcic means, are 
laid open to us, the molt ingenious of all ages become our com- 
p::ninns and arquainunccs, whom we may upon all occafton& 
with fceedoui conlult. 

' The mind muft btf prepared and opened by degrees i and. 
before we know ttic {lummar which refpe^ts the genius of our 
own language, uc mult go back to the fourcc fur the principles 
of which it 15 compofcd. The Roman language never arrived 
at itt greairll pcrfcdiun till it called in the alTiftancc of the 
Greek; and ours would have been void of foree and harniony 
^vi:hout the aid ol" both. Bcfidcs, no pcnod of life is io apt for ' 
proper itn predion!,, as the years allotted for the grammar- fchtiol, 
and DO lelions furnifh more excellent examples of correct writ- 
ing and regular living than whjt arc contained in the claflics, 
if- the)- arc properly attended to, and judicioufly improved. It 
is here, where youth ate fumifhsd with the firir opportunity of 
|>alling a proper iudjmcnt on what (hey read, with regard tu 
language, thoughts, reflections, ptii)cip!c&, and fads, without 
wliich the kiiowlcge of words would be very infigniticant. How 
ape are young people, unlcfs the ktrau'legc cf true criticifin bo 
properly laid, to admire and imitate the bright mure than the 
folid, the marvellous more than the true, and what is external 
and adventitious mors than pcifonal merit and gnod (i:\\{zi And 
b it not of fomc inipotlanic, tlui youth fhuuld be fet to right* 
tti particulars foefrcntial *. It is hciv where the laflc for writing 
and living may be in fome mcafurc formed, the judgment rcdli- 
Hcd, the hrft principles of honour and equir^ inftillud, the love 
of virtue and abhorrence of vice excited in the mind, pro- 
vided the grainuai-fchooi Itudics bcprupcily dirccLcd> and care- 
fully puifucd, 

7 ., Tic 

GoftOOM^i Vruvir/gi Auaaitanti 115 

^ The fludy of rhetoric and coiripofition ought by no means 
to be nrelr^tcd by n young grntlcmnn intcndod (or ihc counting- 
ropm. This witi gicc him an opporlmiKy y.' ri-dycing to prae- 
licr, what formerly he h,id been only taught to rdi(h. It will 
not only teach, but 3ccujh>m him to ningc hit thou;ihis, argu- 
ments, and proofs in a proper order, and to clothe them in that 
dtefs which circumdances render mof! natural. By this meahl 
be will not only be able to read the worlc» of the bcfi authors 
With taftc and propriety, but be tdught tu obfcrvc the elegance, 
juftncfs, force, and delicicy of the turns and txprcnions, and 
fiill more, the trurh and folidity of the thoujhts. Hcrcbv will 
the conncftion. difpofition, force, and giadatirn of the Jiffirrenc 
proofs of a difcouife be obvious and to him, while at x\\e 
fame time he it led by degrees to fpeak and write with that free- 
dom and elegance, which in any other way will b« found verr 
diificult to attain. 

• But Co fpeale or write well, however iicceflary it may be, U 
Hot the only objcd of mercantile inflruaion. It will be of tittle 
cotifequence to have the underltandiijg improved, if the heart 
be totally ncg1e«EleJ. Man was made by n^ittire for foctety, buC 
the merchant both by nature and praiftiirc ; who, if he is not 
qualified or not difpofed to a& his pirt well, like a bad per- 
former in a concert of mufic, will dcftroy the harmony, and ren- 
der the whole difagreeable. Therefore to tune his mind to virtue 
and morality, to teach him 10 blend fclf-love with bcnCvoltnce, 
to moderate hi« panions^, and to fuhjr^ all his aft^Ons to the 
teil of reafon, he mufl have rccouilc to philufophy. 

• The principle? of law and gwcrnmcnt ought likcwlfc fo 
Conflitute a part of the mercantile pUn of mlbuclion ^ by whicb 
we are tsugjit to whom obedience is due, tor what it ts paid, 
and in what degree it may be juftly required : more particularly 
in Britain, wb«e we profefk to obey the prince according to 
the laws; and indeed we outfelves arc fccondary I;gtl1.-itors, 
fince we give confenr, by reprefentaiivc, to all the law^ bv 
which wc are bound, and have a tisht to petition (he great 
council of the nation, wh:n we find ihey arc dsliberatmg upon 
any aA, which we think will be detrimental to cKe intercU of 
the community, with rcfpc£t \Xi ccmunercr^ or any other privi- 
le^f whatever/ 

He goes on to obfcrvc, that writing, ariihmciic, and the 
Fiencb language fbould be the lirtl otjccti of inflruclion, whi:n 
A young man is fent to an academy, 10 be prcpand for the 
couoting-houfc ; and thst before he leaves the :icad<niy, he 
ihould be able not only to tranilate. but fpcsk and wtiie French 
Viib cafe, hthtc arithtnetic is applied tu cuinfu cations in bu- 


GoROonV Vmvtrjal jfctvantmU 

fincrs, tJit powers, propcrtcs, and rcliiions" of nomtierS} he- 

fsys, (houlil be patttrularly iiught and explained. Kvrry rule 

"tould be demontlrjcej, cxcmplititd, nnd illultraicd in inn cal'y 

id inttlligibic manner ; ihe examples )'o multiplied ind diver- 

tfificd^ that the learner may be thoroughly grounded, and have 

rcafon always ready for whai he doih ; the various compcn* 

liums, which fcrve lo abbreviate opfrations, diftindtly fhcwa ' 

find dcmondmted, thiit facility and drf^Htch may be equally &- 

"liliar, - 

Wlien be hath thyj become mailer of the capital rules in »ul- 

^gar and* decimal afichmciic, &c. he oughi to be intr6duced to 

geometry and algebra, which of all other Audits contribute moft 

to invi'-oratc the miad, to tree k from prejudice, credulity, anil 

fiiperAitiun, and to accu^om it to attenuon, and to clofe and 

dcmo^iflraiive reafoning. In the courfcaf thcfc ftudies, our Aii- 

rtbor \i.\iy he ihould be taught a new (Jcmonflration of all his 

L^rithmctical rules ; and the whole theory Ihould be raduced to 

»ra£lice, in the meiifuration offutfaces and folids^ heights and 

oiftanccs, and in conflrui'ting the inftrumcnts he hath occafion 

to "f'c. To complete his mathematical courfe, he (bould be 

lade acquaifltt:d with nat igaliun and geography ; with the ufe 

[iof maps, the fituuiion, extent, produce, manuf.i£turc3, com- 

jincrce, porti, politics, tmd regulations with rtfpcdl to trade, of 

Fall the nation) in the world. 

* When the foundation is thus properly laid, continues he, 
by fuch a mathematical courfc as I have bci-n defcribing, com- 
r'.unicated in that demonAraiivc and practical manner, which 

U^ill join fcicnce with judgment, atul convi^ion with cxpc- 
rfience ; the countlng-houfe maft begin lo open, and the artana 
zmtnatcritm he cxp-fcd (o view. Arithmetic rouft again be ic- 
'lumcd, and the foimcr theory reduced to pradlicc, in all the 
|rarcs which crn occur in the merchant, ibe hanker, the cu(tom- 
.houfe, and inrurajict'OfRcc; to which every obfcrvaiton ought 
I to be joined, which will ferveto illuftratcthc ufe of the dilfercae 
Irxaitiplrn in that particular branch of bufinefs to which they 
nvjy be apptica'-le. A proper courfe cf reading at this period, 
which mi<;ht be wrndcrfully tmprovrd by the eonvetfation of a 
I good mailer, ofoo the fuhje^j of infurancc, faflorage, ex- 
change, and foch other bunches of buliucfs, will be of hngula/ 
ufe, not only to form the mind Co bufineii, but, when he comes 
Co a£t for himfclf, to prevent many tedious and expenftve (deas, 
r.which sn ignorance rn ihe piai^kal aits of negociiting them is 
frequently apt to create. 

* To this coorfe of reading, an epiftolary correfpondeacs 
among ihc lludi'Jits thcmfcives mightj witli great propriciv, be 

added i 

GoKDON'i Uttivtrfal AiceuntanU 


mddcd-, w it would give them the pra£1ice of folding letters in a 
quick and dcKtrrout maimer^ amiftitm ihcm toiligcit wc'l what- 
ever ihcy read, utd imiwovc their diifiian, under the correciion 
of an accurate malicr, ttj that clears pointed, and concifc man- 
ner of writins which ought peculiarly to diHinguifti a merchant. 
l-'tcttrious dilTcrencc;! amuog merchants might likcwirc be Aib- 
mittcd to their judgmcn:, r^imcttmcs to iwu in the wjy ofarbi- 
inttion, and again to a jury of cwc-Ivc i whill> one would alTumc 
the charaiiter of the pUiiuitF, and another that uf the defendant, 
id each give in fuch oicmoiiais or rcprcrcntatlanSi according to 
the nature of the hSi%iiHdtj'ctn<itd eity as be (hink'-mnt} proper to 
jppott thccaufcjlbe pjtryiisgc of which was affigncd him. Thus 
nW youth be a^xuttonitd to think, write, and acl like men be- 
furc they come upon the real Hage of adtton ; and their sppctr- 
L»nce in real life, »i)l have nothing of that .-tukward and tlupid 
mannrr whkh is generally oblervcd lu young men for fomc time 
■fier they enter the counting-houfe. 

* When a young man hath thus attained to a proper accuracy 
and difpaich in figuring, and fume idea of the different branches 
of burinefs wiih which every kind of computation is conne^'led j 
it b trmc then to icroducc the young merchant to book, keep- 

•ine, which is the laft, but not the leaft imponant branch of 
education previous to the counting-houic. It is become a pro- 
vrrb in Holland, that the man who failb did not undcrAand ac- 
tounts. And indeed, however much a merchant, who is coji- 
:med in an exten&ve trade, may be employed in matters of a 
ligher nature, and upon that account be neccITitated to nuke 

'4ifc of the aOiftance of oAers in keeping hi* books, he ought 
certainly to be capable of keeping them himfelfs othcrwiic he 
never cm be a judge, wiiclhcr julticc is dune h<m in that efTcn- 
tial particular or nut ; neither can he have that idea of his own 
burners, which is iodifpeufably Decenary to the profpcrity-of bii 

* 'I'hi^ hiippy method of arranging and adjufling amerchant's 
tranfailions, muA, like other rcicncc3, be communicated in a 
rationsl and demoudraiiyc manner, and not cncchaaically by 
rules depending on the memory only. 'J 'he principles upon 
which the fcitacc is founded, mull likewil'e be reduced to pric- 

. tice by proper examples in foreign and domcdic tranfai^ions; 
fuch a', buying, leiting, importing and exporting for proper, 
company, aod commilliou account ; drawing on, remitting toj 
ffci^hting and hiring out veHeU fur dift'ercnt parts of the wurld t 
making inrur9in(,T »n^ underwriting ; and the various other ar- 
tides Aat may be fuf^iofcd to diverfify the bnfincfs of the prac- 
/ical couiitirig-houfc. The nature of all thi.fe trinfa^ions. and 
xhe miinner of negotiating them, ought to be particularly cx- 

I J plained 


GcRDD>)'j Vttttvrfat Jfuuntant. 

fiW\i\cA as they occur ; the forms of invoices and bills of falei, 
together with the naiurc ot' all inicrmcdiatc accounts* which 
may be made ulc of to anfwer particular purptjfcs, ought to be 
];iid open ( and the forms of aH luch wiits as iii4y be fuppofcd 
to have been connected with the uanr.i^ions m the waitc book, 
<hou1d be rendered fo familiar, that the young merchant may 
be able to make them out ac once without the ailillance of 

' As the following work is intended to be a complete courfe 
cfmciCAntiV ron)]iiii3tions and accnuntftptfhip, to fay moie on 
the method of coinmuiiir;tting them would be unnccdiary. 
Only I would beg leai'c lo hint, that there are many things, the 
knowlcpe c f which a letter inculcated by public Ic^iircs, pri- 
vate residing iiid tonvctf;ition, than in the ordinary method of 
leeching, when, pnhaps, there m-iy be two or more clafTcs lo 
diit^. The national commerce in general^ the trade of the 
piacc where wc live; the laws, tufl"ms, and ufagrs relative to 
the bufincfs of a mmhant, the p^nalius to which he is liable, 
and the privilege) to which he h intiiled ; the duties, imports, 
and other charges laid upon t\tc ButUh produce in other couii- 
irtc!, with all the known maxims that lebte to the profpcrity 
■iftiiide i will open a wide ftcld for impiuvcmcnt in mattcti of 
ical ufc to the maltcr as well ds the Audent. 

* When the education of a youttg gentleman is thus con- 
ducted, from his carlicfl years, in a [nannet calculated to en- 
gQ^e Uii mind in the love of ufcful knowlege ; to improve bis 
underflanrfingi to foim his tafic, and ripen his judgment; to 
jix him in the hsVit of thinking, ftcatfiiicfs, and attention; to 
promote bis ^ddrefs and penetration, and r^ife his ambition to 
excel in bis pxrijcular province] wilt not the iranfition to the 
cnurjiing-houfc be extremely eafy and agreeable? Hislcnowlegc 
will be To iMnikuIar, ar.d his morals fo fccurcd, that he will ^e 
proof againtl the arts of the deceitful, the fnarrs of the difingc- 
nuoutf,'*"*] the temptations of the wicked. He will, in a ihort 
time, be fo e>pert in every part of the bufinefs of the pradtittal 
countiiig-houfp, and te able to form fuch a judgment of every 
(bing he fees tranfa^led, that wheii he comes to aA for himfelt, 
eicry advantage in trade will lie open to him; his knowlege, 
ft:ill, and addrefs will carry him through all obflades to his ad- 
vancement; hii talents will luppty the place of a large capital j 
and when the beaten track of bufinefs becomes Ids advanta- 
geous, by being in too many hands, he will flrikc out new 
jiiths for hrmfcjf, and thus bring a balance of wealth, not only 
CO hiinfclf, but to the community with which he is connei^c^i 
|)y branches of iradc unknown before. 


GoaDONV Vniinrfiit jfuiUKlant. uq 

. S How few arc there, even among parrnts, who prrhaps have 
fck ihc lofs of a proper educaiion in their own praiticc, thji 
cvnlWcr the Mtcr.t of Icnowlcgc rcquifitc lo make a young gen- 
tleman appear with dignity in cymmercial life? and how lew 
ate there among thofe who profcfs to qualify young gentlemen 
for the counting-hourc* that have knowjeye in any degree pro- 
portionable to ihcir credit i The teafon is obvious : Jn every 
other article of expence, confidered as communities or indivi- 
duals, wc arc gcncialty profufc : but In that which relates to 
cJucalion, we arc fhajncfully narrow. This fdlfc parftmony, 
this miftaken fruga1ify> prevents men of genius and education 
from appearing as teachers, becaufe their talents will turn nut 
to much more account, in almoA any other *prnfeinon what-' 
ever; and if circumftances ftiould have rendered it ncccflary for 
a man of fomc abilities to turn his mind this way, lie i:, obiigefl 
to divide his ftudies among fu many did'ercnt fcicnccs, and hU 
time among fo many different clalTes, to ferure to himlcif a bar* 
fubfiUence, that he hath neither the Icifure, the means, nor the 
nppnrrunity of that reading or converuriou, which h abfolutely 
pcccfljiiy to his pra^ice, in inftru(f^ing youih in the moft d.-fficult 
jUiii important branch of JJntiOi literature/ 

What the Author further advances on thii fubjpfl appears lo 

usvery juft and fcnfiblc; but wc proceed to the work iifdt, the 

ffiift volume of which confifts of four pitis ;—ihe firft contains 

lie elements of arithmclic ; the fccond treats oi tVuiHons; the 

lird ofa!gebra, and the fourth fliews the application olFarith- 

ictic to ihc bufiricf* of the merchant, the banker, cutlotn-boufe, 

inAirance-office, &c. &c. 

The (ccoiid volume, which Is llkcwifc divided into four pans^ 
is introduced by a diircrtaiiop on the bufinefs of the counting- 
houfei after which, the Author, in the Hrll pait, gives the ele- 
ments of mercantile aecoununtOiip ; in the fconO, he reduces 
it to praflice, in various fpccimens of books, conne<f)ed and di- 
geftedas in rcut tr;i<lc; in the third, he treats of bills uf exchange, 
and p'oniiiTory noici, with the l.iws and cuftoms concerning 
ihcir rorce and manner of negotiatinn, in the moft rcmarkab^ 
countries in Europe ; the fourth part i^ the Britifh merchant's 
Iwok of rates, exhibiting the penalties and tmpoBs lo which he 
h fuhjcftcd, and the privileges, bounties, and drawbacks to 
which he is entitled at importation and exportation, &c. founded 
on the adls of padianaent relative thereto, to the year 1764. 

With regard to the Scoiticifmsobfcrvable in this pcrfomtance, 
re would only iccommend to the ingenious Authiir, in fnbmit the 
L)[i;;ua^e to the correction of fome couipetent £t^/^ friend, lii 
cafe of a fecond cdiiion. 

14 rh 

[ 120 2 

The Lift and Opiniam ofTriffrem Shcndr, Gtni. Vob. 7 and -8. 
8vo. 4.8. fewcd. Bcckei. 


HOLLO I Mr. Shatiily ! Won't you flay ami uke com- 
pany ? you arc for Calais* are you not ? 
oHAh'DY. Who the D — are you ? What ! my old friend the 
Reviewer' But you fee I am in a d-«— hurry : So if you are 
filing my way you miifl tnatLc confounded hafte I can tell you. 
Thai heavy troticr of yours will never do' Ttw ut and twtavum 

is my point now I PU/h! Dafiti- HtUtr fitUtrf Unk or 


Rfiv. Why.-vhat a plague! yr*u arc not afraid of an arrefl ! 
Sh. By aJl that's horrid and dctcflah'c — but I am!— Don't yoa 
fee that * long-Hi iding fcour.drcl of a fcarc-finner who is pofthig 
aftci me?' 

Rtv. Who? DrathI he, bs I am alive * nay then» (»//p»j 1 
Morvficur ! 

Sh. Aye, aye! Spur him up, Mafler Critic, if you intend le 
kcepmccompany.— 'Byhcaven! I wdMrad my [gentleman a dance 

he little ihiiilcs of — for I will gallop without ftouch him op. 

Sir! touch him! — what a pox d'ye ride without fpuis ! I'll lend 
youontol* mine ai ihc next flage) — I will gallop, without look- 
ing again behind mc, 10 the Wnks of the Garonne; and if I 
hear him dattcrirg at my heels, I'll fcamper away to mount Ve- 
fuvius — ftam ihenceNt" Joppa, and from Joppa to the woriJ's 
fni — where if he FoHows me, I pray God he may break his 

his neck.' — Put or. \ 

Rtv. Welconic to Dover— we muji flop heie 

Sh. Landlord ! Call you this Brandy'— « The befl in Eng- 
•• land, Sir !" — Then I'm gliJ J"m going out of the kingdom. — 

Hey for Coniac I Come, fellinv iriivcHer, the boat's ready : 

rot a mincte Xa lofe !— that Dcath-looking rafcal will be up 

iTKith us )ct, before we arc under fail. 

* Rev. Never fear him — Iie'll not cLirc lo follow us on boards 

lie hates fait waicr, as Dr. Ruficlwilldcnmnftr-itc 

' Sh. S'blood ! is this a time 10 dcm< nftraie ? 

'« Pray, Captain, is a mau never over- taken by Dtaxh jn tW»1 
pnfiagc V 

CaPT- * Why, there is not time for a man to be fick in it.* 
' Sh. ' What a curfeJ liai I I'm as fick as a b(Tfe already — 

Lwhat a brain !—upfidc down? hey dcy ! the cells a:e brokoa 
loofc one into snoihcr, and the b!uod^ md the Ijmph, and the 


Tde Lift mJ OpituMs yTriftram Shandy. lit 

JUS juieM} with thf fixrd and volarllr filtSi are ill jumbled 

into one pufs good G— ^ every thing turn* round in it Kfce 

a thoufand whidpoois— I'd give a IfatHing to know if I Han't 

Write t>ic clearer for it.' 

IeV. Purtr^ probably; but, fl /Vff^M— When d'ye come out 

■in } the gcnilemcn of our tvrps long Co have aiwther touch 
with ye. 

Sh. Dothty? poor devils! Well, every nuti that's born with a 
mouth, has a right lo eat, that's certain — but you're an honefl fel- 
low— and had no concern with the other hungry cijr:> in knawing 

my jeikin io cout'oundctjly * Sick ! ficlt ! ?Kk ! fick • — When 

ihall we get to land, Captain ? O 1 am d(Mdlv fick ' Reach me 
that thing, boy — 'lis ihe moft discomfiting i'lckncCs — I wife I 
■was at the bottom — Madam! how is il with you?— What s 
trampling over-bead ' Hollo' Cabbin-boy ! What's the matter f 

Cab. B. • The wind chopp'd about.' 

Sn. *■ S'death ! then 1 fliall meet him fu'l in the Ttice. Whnt 
luck !' 

Cab. B. * 'Til chopp'd about again. Matter !* 

Sh. ' O the Devil chop it !' {EndefCbap. //.] 


Rev. Pray, Mr. Shandy—^ we feud along, — bow hap 
this race between you and old Barcbones ? 

Sh. Why, you know, * \ faid 1 would write two volumC3 
c\'cry year, provided the vUe cough which then tormented mc, 
and which to this hour I dread worfe than the Devil, would but 
give mc leave — and Ifwert it (hould be kept a-going at that rate 
thefe forty yt ars, if it plcafed the Fountain of Life to blefs me 
fo long with health and good Ipiriis. Now as for my fpirits, litlle 
htrce 1 to lay to their charge — nay 1 have much to thank 'cm 
for. »* Cheerily have ye made me tread the path of life, with 
'* all the burthens of it (except its cares) upon my back. In 
** no one moment of my exiftcnce, that I remember, have yc 
" once dtfericd me, rtr tinged the objc£b which came in my 
** way, either with fable, or with a fickly green i in dangers yc 
** gilded my horizon with ho;>c, and when Death himlelf 
«* Knocked at my doer, ye b.-id him come again ; and in fo gay 
'* a tone of cartlcfs indifference did ye do it, that he doubted ^ 
•* of his commiflion." Thert muJJ cerlmniyhfgmemijiake inlhit ' 
matin- f quoth he. * However, fright or wrong] * he fcized 
me fo violently ty the tbraat^ th^t ray friend Eugenius could 
frarre bear me cry out arrofs ibe table ; and, in Ibort, finding 
nyfelf no match for him in the open field, I thought it bcft, 
i-htle thefe two fpidcr-kgs of mine ate able to fuppoil mc, to 
fly for my life.*— So oiit I fet^ and thought I bad got the ftai 




TTft Life ai;d Opiajotii ^TriHrau) Siundy. 

of bim, all to nothing; but you have fcen how like a DevU 

Ik fcour'd ;iFicr inc« between Canterbury anJ Dover 

Rev, Well, Sir ? never fe2r ; my horfc to a ihilluig — youll 

fceac him 


hollow this heac ;• but fee ! Calais. Come Mr. 

your object is hcakh— mine is pkafurc : vivt la Ba~ 
•atttU ' your tour (hall be mjn:: : unlefb you ate more iticltncd 

ta get rifl of your con>p;tnioni tlian I ajn 

bu. Here's my thumb. 

Sn. *■ Boulogne 1—hih I So we are all got together,— Jebtofs 
and Tinners before heaven ; a jolly fet of us ; but I can't Itay 
sad qualf it with you-f-I'm purlu'd myfclf, like an hundred de- 
vils, and fhall be oveitaken before we can change horfcs.* 
Well, mm ami.' while Uic chalfe is getting ready, tell me what 
jou think of this fcrap which I drew up lafl night, about Calais 
— -tij intended for my feventh volume; — for, entre nata^ tbi* 
tour lliall, if 1 live to liniOt it, ferve more purpofcs than one. 

Rev. rta-fmg.'] * Chap. V. Calais, Calatiunii Calufium^ 
CaUJJum. This town if we may truft its archives, the authority 
«f which I fee no reafoti to call in cjueHion, was onct a ftnall 
»iaage, &c. &c. &c. hum •••••• hum ••••*• hum •••••• 

\lt the tnd of the chapter. 

Sh. Well !— what will your brother Critics fay to rAtrf, thinj: 
ic -' 
Rev. Say ' why — but, firfl, do you give me full liberty both 
' ihoueht and fpcech : for -wv arc now in France .' 
8«. Free-thinking, ficc-writing, and frce-fpcakijig fpr ever! 
Rev. Huu^a ! — tbeit, to deal plainly with you, 1 fear my 
trcihren will fay, that, notwithlUnding you imagine yourfclf 
llo be very arch and wittj- upon ti^vcl-writcrs, and ' AJdifon 
ri;h his latchcl of fLhocl-buoks hanging at hit a — and galling 
ris beafl's crupper at every ftroke,' they will pronounce you to 
ive been, here, out of humour ^ and pcrhap»> charge you with 
iving poorly had lecourfc to a dull c^tpedicnt for hlling up 
ilf a fcorc pages: — Though you did not a^uaJJji copy the liege 
pf Calais fiom Rapin.- 

Sij. * — * No— ! by that all-powerful fire which warms the' 
Tilionary brtiin, and lights the fpirits tlin^ugh unworldly trafls! 
re 1 would take adv;in(age of the hclplcfs reader, and make 
lim pay, poor foul 1 for fifty pages which I have no right to 
til him, — naked as I am, 1 would browfe upon the mountains, 
[■nd fmite that the north wind brought me neither my teoi nor 
ly fupper.' 

Rev. Nobly faid '—that flight to the mountain's top was 
Jofiy indeed ! rcifcia;!y Fijigilija J-^— 



■ Sn. Put on, my brave boy, and make the beft of Uiy way m 

RE^'. From Montreuil to Abbeville, and from Abbeville tQ 
Amiciu in To Diort a time ! Wtiy, Sir ! neither Death noc liip 
Devil bimfelf cati overtalce you, ;it this rate ! 

Sh. Tell me not of Death now. A ievfUer objc3 has en- 
grofled my attention. Oh ! that inn-keeper's daughter at Mon- 
ireuil I Did you not obfcrve how the cunning gipfcy* knitting 
her long, taper, white thread flocking, pinned it to her kncc» 
to fbcw that 'twas her ourn» and fitted her exactly ■ — That na- 
ture fhould have told this creature a word about a Statue t 

Re v. Your hand, Mr. Shandy ! — had you utifortunatcly wiittca 
twenty defcripnons of Calais, I would forgive you every one of 
'em, for the Take of that dcttcace ftrokc of the Statue's wuml I 

* * « « 

Sh. Wc fliall arrive at the great city to-night. 

Rsv. And fo you have nothing to fay about Amiens, but that 
Janatone, the inn-keeper's pretty daughter, went to ichool 
there ! 

Sh. Crack, crack,— crack, crack I So this is Paris !— Crack, 
piack, crack — I wiih I had thy whip ' — and this is Paris .' the 
firft, the fincft, the mod brilliant — the ftreets, however, arc very 
nafly — but it look?, I fuppofc, better than it fmells— crack, 
crack, crack ! What a fufs thou makeft — but 'th th* fpiiit tf thy 
naihn ; fi cracky crsiJc an ! 

Rev. Another idmirajjlc hit, fcHow'-traveHcr ! But could 3 
l^rcnch poflilion have cr^ck'd lefs, on his having the honour tp 
drive the great milord Shandy into Paris ? 

Sh. — ' And this is Paris ! and the ftrccts fo narrow! fo vil- 

Iainoufly narrow, that there is not room to turn a wheel-barrow ! 
n the grandcft city of the whole world, it would not have been 
amifs if ihcy had been left a thought wider — were it only fo 
much in every fingic Itrcct, 3s that a man might know (wai ic 
only for falijfaflion) on which fide of it he was walking.- ■ ■ 
One— two— three — four — five— fix — fcvcn — eight— nine — ten. 
Ten cook's fhops ! and twice the number of barbers ! and a]] 
within three minutes driving ' one would think that all the cooks 

and barbers in the world What d'ye laugh at ? 

Rev. Your droll uitarlainty — which fide of the way the people 
walk on, in (he llreets of this v^fl metropolis 1 that was excel- 
lent. —But don't put into your book that queer refleclion" on 
fhc coachman's talking bawdy to hit lean hortes — you arc cer- 

* Vol. VIL p. 56. Aad nioie or;lie fame, p. 67. 


124 T^r Lift and Opirt'uiu tf Trillram Shandy. 

taiuly out, Mr. S— , in yourjadgment of the public taftc. Ob- 
fceniiy is not in high vogue now, as it was in the limcof Charies 
the Second ^ when^ lilce an impodent (Irumpct, it flared poor 
decency out of countenance, and baniihcd her the realm. 

Sh. But it ii in high vogue wi[h mt. A fig for thc^ tafte of 
the public ! I /iVf, Sir! and! wr'iu^ Sir ! to roy own taftc — Pcr- 
baps you will alio condemn my ftory of the abbefi of AndotJil- 
Icts and the fair Margarita — Read it— but, approve or hoc ap- 
prove, it Jhail go in. 

Ri^. WdlT 1«*3 read it, however, * Chap. XXI. The Ab- 
befs of Anilotiiller's •••»••»»• being in danger of an awhilojhy 
or ilifF joint ••••♦••••••• ^andfs m, tp ibt tnd sf thi chapter. 

. — Why, really now, Mr. S— , you had better let Janatone 
llive this paper, to finge the next fowl fbe cUps dowo before her 
lather's kitchin-grate. Don't infcrt it — 'tis a low — poor — hacl(- 
nt-y'd joke J pickeXoui of the common Parifian jefl-bouks. 

Sh. And is not mine as arrant ajt-ft-bookas any of them ?^ 
Why not import a joke or' two from the continent, ab well as 
other French comnraditics '. though it be a little ftale here, it 
,vrill be new and frcOl in London. Befidc, have I not cook'd 
it up, and feafon'd ic to the batu gs&ty with Margaiiia's linger, 
the Ab^icfs's virginity, and the liquorifh Muleteer? By ••• ! 

'it ftiiJl go. 

Rev. By all that's decent and difcreet 1 it is unpu- 
flonablc to print fuch ItufT' t grant you, there's humour in 
our manner of dtcfiing this mefs ; but it is fiub humour as 
•wf/tr to plejfe notie but coachmen and grooms. Why, the 
4uce \ will you prohibit every modcft woman in the tbtee king- 
doms from reading your book F 

Sh. Prfthihit the modeft women! ha! ha! ha! Prithee, 
'Critic, lei's look at your feet— Aye ! fyuarttoei — I thought fo ! 
—Come, I'll hidd you a dozen of Chdrnpaign, that my Jitu— 
iiu — Aeu, and^ff- — ger—ier^ zndfou—fait — /iuyindur — ler— 
tfr, fijall make more Readers laugh than all the pithy conceits 
'and farcaflic firokes contained in the witty Catalogue articles in 
vour thirtv volumes of Reviews. ■ 

Ret. Done ! but how 0iall vt decide the wager ? 
Sh. Never mind that, Old Boy ! — we'll drink the wine, and 
k'Ict poOcriiv determine the bet : * With a 
'Fa-ra diddle di 

* and a fa-ri diddle d 

* and a high-dum — dyc-dura 
• fiddle dumb-c* Vol. 7. p. 89. 

Rev. You are un unaccountable and an incorrigible mortal,' 
'* 1 ^ : but do— dear Tridram ! leave out fuch vile — 

Sh. No — not if it were to fave the virginity of every abbcfs, 
tnd every uovice, and every aun in his M«ft Chrifiian Ma-1 


jqAy** dooiinionr! ;— yet — ' I Wlftl I ntyct hij wrote it : but m 



thing out — I«t us ufc (ome lioncft means 


* get il out of OUT heads dtrc^lv-* 

Rtv. I'm glad you fcem to have a liflU — litllf — iittlt fpark of 
grace left, afiri all. Yec ibis, on Iccood thoughts, only makca \ 
the matier worfe and worfc ; for it you infcri tkij (otiqui Jtorv, j 
you will fCally be a finner agaiiift coiifcicncc. ' I 

Sh. 1 tell thee, old Square-toes ! ic muit and fluTI go in— ] 

* It is too lace— the horrid words arc proaouneed*— Blefs me 1 
What — Whom do I fee ! My Father, and my uncle Toby, 
with Trim and Obadiah, come to give 09 tlic meeting — Uy 
your leave, Mr. Reviewer—^ 

• f • • 

Riv. Wdcome to Aujtcrre ! 

Sh. Thinks to good fortune that we cfcaped, unpoifonV^ 
from that ftinking Paris !— Critic, how d'ye like my defcriptron 
vf it i 

Rev. R^^Bwrnbcr^ plain dealing is our contrail, ami udi- 
mited free<kMn o( fpccch ; — I have read it !— 

Sh. \Vel! ' and how— eh ! what fay you ? out with it ! 

Riv. O Triftram, Tiiftnmi ! 

Sh. What a U — do you keep fliaking your wife head at ? O # 
thou crabbed defccndcnt of John Dennis— fay, in fpitc of envf i 
and iU-nature, is it not damnd (Uvtr ? \ 

Rev. Damtdjluff^ if you will ^ 2nd damn'd it will be, or 
Vm no prophet, by all your readers, male and frmalc. Is it 
pofliblc that the genius, the flower of Shandy-hall, can be To 
blijihicd, faded, Ihrunk — as to dwindle and eke out a I'tfi eftf^ 
Jirttti in PariSy for the enter lainmtnl of — all TovcfS of bumoury 
wit, and mirth ! O Tnllrani, Triflratn, Tiiftram ! 

Sh. DoyoiicaU//j// Cjiiticism ? 
. R«v. Do yau call tbit Wit/— come, don't look fo grave 
upon it ; leave that to your readers j unlcfs you rather chufc to 

fut by this choice bufincfi, along with the other paper, which 
rrcomnienJcd for the fute ufc and tmotumrnt of little Janatoni 
—Does vour f;nher dine with us to-day ? 

Sh. That's unceit^in. He snJ uncle Toby arc gone to view 


Jift The Life and Opinimi ff/'Trirtram %h\ndf. 

ttnagination to work, and officiating as pimp to every lemJ i<lr9 
excited bf vourovrncr»iive anfl abominnbk ambiguity. Why 
tfon't you Ipcak out, and let us Icnow the worft you would fay ? 

Sll. And fo draw up my own indenture for a three year's ap- 
prenttccfllip to a hcmp-bcater in Clerkcnwell-coilege ' very 
, pretty advice^ indeed ' no, I will flick »o niyy/tfr/— and defy the 
B««"» of G»»»"«»». There is no act m force for thcpu- 
jitfliment of aftronomy. They cannot fcrvc mc aa the Vene- 
tians ferved Gallileo.— 

Rev. Hold ! it is downright prophanation to mention that 
ejtccllcjit man on this vile occafion. I perceive your lit)idinou» 
imagination is too far gone, to aftbrd even the fmallcft hope for, 
a cure. But, be intrcatcd ! — do, in rcfpcfl to our u/»v^;and- 
daughtfrt, be as decent as pa can. Here, take the pen, and 
itrike out all that Jenny whifper*d in your car. 

Sh. No— ' 1 never blot out — never cancel— Resolution's 
the word ! 

Rev. Obstinacy's the faS— Icould give^lt aworfe name— 

Sh. Thank you for your ccndernefs— .yoj Reviewers arc, in- 
deed, the very flower of courtefy —But, hang it — let's not quar- 
K'l about our wives and daugbiers***t would be as ridiculous as 
Sir Arch'a fighting for the reputation of hjs great grandmother. 

Rev. You have had many adventures at Lyons, I think j but 
that with the afs pleafcs me much ; even more, if pollible, than 
yout notable contcft with Ins Moft Chriftian Majefty's commif- 
fary — But you have not yet told mc how you came lo leave youi* 
father and uncle Toby behind, at Auxcrre— 

Sh. There arc fccrcts in all family concerns-— But is it pof- 
fiblc to picafc your reverence .' Do you really approve my con* 
du«fl with regard to my long-tar'd friend - — 

Rev. Moft heartily ! You there fhew'd fo much benevolence 
— fo much true and delicaic humour, that I alraoft forgive you 
■what lately paft'd about Jtnny ; and will, if I live to return to 
Old England, particulaily deftre my brethren of the Review, to 
recommend, in an efpccial manner, your twenty-third chapter. 
—But, what, in the name of common fenfc, do you mean by the 
ronclufiun of it; what is the woild to uiiderfland by the Rk- 
viEWCRS OP Youjt Breeches f 

Sh. Don't you undcrftand it? ha! ha! ha !— faith, nor t 
neither 1 ha! ha! ha!— Pray reach me my fool'a cap— hat 
ha f ha I 

Rbv. Ha! ha! ha!^— U you have the happy art of thus 
laughing, and making others laugh, at notJimj,— What can 
you not cffc"^ when you really mean fomcthing l" 



fh.ill make aa quick difpatch out o/ it again. We aie nour t» 
crave) on muU-haek^ at our Icifure.— 

Rev. Ltifurty dy you ? I'm gUd on't, with all my Toul ; for 
you've ajmoft kili'd me with thole confounded flights from ftagc 
to (hge— but what good new: hatQ been able to mak« jo« 
ilacke-n the rapidity -of your caiecr ? 

Sn. Here is the whole South of France before us^from the bank< 
of the Rhone to thofe of the Garonne, which I'm ttrfotvcd to tra- 
verfe upon my mule at mj rwa Icifure — fo do as you plcafc — for— 
thus it will read in the hook:* I had left Death, ibcl^rdknow* 
« — and He only— how far behind me. *' I have follow-cc! many 
*' R man thro' France," quoth he, *' but never at lliis meiltcfome 
** rate."— Still he followed,— ai)d ftill I fled him— but I fled- 

* him chcarfully — flitl he purfucd— ^-but like one who purfucd hit 

• ptey wittiout hope — as he lag'd, evciy flep he loft, foft£n'd 
' his looks Whyftiould I fly him at thi^ rate?' 

Rev. Well — I've bufincf* at •••••••• and mud p«t for- 
ward ; you'll overtake me there ? 

Sh. Ym— and thet«, too, my Father and Uncle Toby will 

come up with u!> IHcantime^ I'll indulge, over the lick 

plains of Langucdoc, at (lowly as foot can fall. 


H. Well over-taken t — O! my friend ( I've been To amufcj 
Efo cn'.cttaineJ ! ■ 

Rev. I congtatutate you on your eternal good fortune f yoa 
are never out of your way — but what adventure ? What could 
engage your attention fincc we parted f from that moment to 
this, nothing hath ftruck my obfi-rvatiou fomuch as the Ico^ih 
*f the way. 

Sh. No ! and a Rtvie%vir too ! How the plague d'ye ruj:^x}rt 
it, when you've a huge, lonj.', dry, divinity folio lo trudge 
through ? Poor Devil ! — But I'll ttll you. Thij ya/Zraf^ journey 
o'er the plain of Langucdoc, has proved * the moft fruitful and 

* bufy period of my life ; — (topping and talking to every foul I 

* met who was not in a full trot — ^joining all parties before mc— 
'wailing for every foul behind — h<^~'liag all thofc who werfj 

* coming through crofs roads — arrefting all kind.? of beggar%| 

* pli^flnis, fiJdleri, fryars, — not palTing by a woman in a mul- 

* bu.'y-t.'cc, without commending her legs, and tempting fatr 

* into a convcrfation with a pinch of fnuff. — In fhort, by fcizJne 

* every handle, of what fizc or fhape focvcr, which chance heJd 

* out to me in ibis journey— I turned my plain into a tity. — I 
' MAS ii^my% in cora^wmy^ vid with great vaficiy \90i and h 


The Lift and Opiment s/'Tfiftram Shandy. 

* my mule lov'd focicty as tnuch as myfelf, and had always Tome 

* propoluU on hi^ part u> oHTrr lo cveiy bcaft he met — 1 sm con- 

* lidcnt we fould hiive pafs'J ihrough Pall-mall or Sr. James's 

* Sti'cct for X mouth together, with fewer adventures — and fecn 
lefs of human nature' 

Rev. Admirable I — Mr- Shandy^ tou umlcrfland the art, the 

rue art ot tiavelling, better than aiiv other morial I ever knew 

tor hcBid of! O ! what pleafucc, what a delightful cxcrcife of 

[tienevolciice have 1 Loft, by not keeping company with you, alk 

It way from Avignon ! 

Sii. Kun?— banter? — irony? — ch? 

Ret, Irony ! — no,— by this hand ! 'rriftram! thou baft won 
my bcart alio— Wiuti a focial foul ! We will never fuffcr a crufa 

^word between us aj;ain 

Sh. But the bell of the ftory's to come—* O ! there is that 

* fpri^htJy frjtikntfi which at once uopins every plait of a Laii- , 
*■ guedocian'^ drefs — that whatever i» beneath it, it looks fo like 

* the fimpliciiy which poets fing of in bcitcr days — 1 will delude 

* tnv fancy, and believe it is fo. — 'Twas in the toad betwixt.- 

* Nifmes and Lunel, where there is the belt Mufcatto wine in 
' all France, and which by the bye belongs to the honed canons 

* of MonipcDier, — and foul befall the man who has drsnk it ac 

* their table, who grudges them a drop of it.' 

Rkv. Thcrtf is generous gratitude in your drgrciSon but 
prajf proceed. - ., , • 

Sh. — * The fun was fet,— they bad done their work i the 
< nymphs had tied up their hair afreOi — and the fwains were 

* preparing for a caroural. My mule made a dead point— 

* 'Tis the fife .ind tabourin, faid 1.— " I'm fri^jhtenM to death" 

* ijuoth he.— They are running at the ring of pleafujc, fild I j '] 

* giving him a prick " By St. Boogar> and all the faints at" 

** the backfidc of the door of purgatory," faid he, *• I'll not go \ 
** a ftep further." Tis very wUl, Sir, faid 1,-1 never wil ' 
*■ argue a point with one of vour family as long as I live : fo, 
« leaping ofl' his back, and kicking oik boot inio this ditch, and 

* and t'other mio thatj— 'I'll take a dance, fatd I — iu Hay you 
' here • 

Rev. Wifely refolv'd ' and did you? 

Sh. * A fun-burnt daughter of Labotir rofe up from the. 

•group to mfct mc, as I advanced toward them; her hair,, 

* w hich was a dark chcfnut, approaching rather to a black, was 

*■ tied up in a knot, all but a bn^le tteis. ** We want a Ca- _ 

" valier,"— faid fhe, holding out both her handj, a^ if to oflUr 

* them And a Cavalier ye fluli have, faid I, ukUig hold of ^ 

' riiem* 

Rsv. Frank, and aerceable! 

(tu ( llnilO thou. Ninnetli.- 


Hadft thou, Nanncttc, been array *J like a Duchef**' 
1 Rsy. 

The Lift andOpiniens g^TfiHram £han<Iy. 129 

AlV. Truce with your amorous apoRrophes- 

Sh< '- -Buc that curfird (lit in thy pcttycoat !' 

Rev. What, a p-x ! made you take noucc of it? 

±>a. * Naiincttc cared not /ue it.* 

Kev. N<ir I Jicithcr. 

Sh. I wi£h your reverence had fccn it however, as I dld^— 

Knv. You have fpoih a moll amiubledcfcripiion, juiVas I 
Was on the point of being cnraptur'd with it-i — Will you neecr 
leave your old tricks ? — Well — what Jbllowcd ? 

Sh. ** Wc could not have done wirhout you," fatd Hir, 
'letting go one hand, with fctf-taught politencfs, leading me 
' up with the other. 

Key. Channing ! O, that Hayman bad been with you in 
that happy moment ! What a picture ! 

Sh, ' A lame youth, whoin Apullo had Kcompenccd with a 
' pipe, znd to which he had added a tabourin of his own accord^ 

• ran fwcetly over the prelude, as be fat upon the bank — ** Tie 
** me up thiii ticfs inllantly," iaid Nannette, putting a piece of 

• ilhag into my hand — It taught me to forget I was a ftrangcr. 

• —The whole knot fell down— wc had Dcen fcvcn years ac- 

• quainted.' 

Rev. Happy mortal ! I know not which to envy moftj— :by 
fituation, or thy defcription of it ! 

Sh. *■ The youth ftruck the note upon the tabourin— his pipe 

• followed, aiid off wc bounded " The duce take tlut 

*• flit !" 

Rev. The duce take you for making fuch a difplay of it ! 

Sh. Nay! if ic makes fo great an imprclfion upon pu^ 
this diflaoce, what mud your feelings have been, bad you dant 
with her, as I did ? Do the Reviewers ever dance ? 

Rev. Well !— ril fay no more — be but decent; and dance 
33 much as you pleafe. Had you no vocal muUc i 

Sh. • The fifterof the youth, who had ftolcn her voice from 

• heaven, fung alternately with her brother— 'twas a Gafcoigiie 

• roundelay ; 

Viva x,a joiAf 


• The nymphs join'd in unifon, and their fwatns an oiSavebelovV 
■* them —I would have given a crown 10 have had it few'd 

• up 

Rev. Again ! 

Sh. * Nannctte would not have given a foiis-~viva la jela f 
'was in her lips — vrva la jtia was in her eyes. A tranftenC 
' fpark of amity (hot acrofs the fpace between us — Ate look'd 

* amiable 1 

Rev, Youth and innocence in coajun£lioa ever look fo ■ ■ « 
you were a happy rogue ! 

R(T. Feb. 1765. K Sa 

J30 ^^ i-'f' ^ Oplnient e/Tiiflram SfianJy. 

5h. * Why could I not live and end my days thtis ? Juff 
' DifjOfer of our joys and forrows, cried 1, why could not a 

* man fit down in the lap of Content here— and dance, and 

* fmg, and hy his praj-ers, and go to heavtn with his nut-brown 
'maid? Capricioufly did (he bend her head on one fide, and 

dance up infiduous Then 'lis time to dance ofF, quoth I ; 

'* fu changin" only partners and luncs, I danced it away from 

* LuncI to Montpellicr.'— — 

RhV. Give mc ihy hand, dear Shandy ! Give me thy heart ! 
—What a delightful fcenc hail tbou drawn ! Would we bad ic 
upontwo yards of RErNOLDs*9C3nvafs !^— How engaging are the. 
natives of thcfe bappy plaii;& ! for happy they wiU be, in fpiic 
of Kings ! — What good humour ! What eaft ! What nature ! 
—In one lenfcj Fiance alone can be called the lan^l if Vkeedok T 

Sh. Now you grow cjuitc good-natuied — I'll (hew you the 
miiiufciipt of my eighth volume i and you Iball be inicuduced 
to the fweet widow Wadman. 

Rev* I'm extremely glad we've met with your worthy Father 
agaln» and that good Ibul- — your Uncle Toby i with the bonett 
Corpoi.-)], and Obadiah— for I've a fincetc regard for ("he whole 

I'^imily a dog, from Shandy-hall, fliould always be welcome 

to me. Is your Uncle quite rccover'd yet of the wound in his 
groin ? 

Sii. He wiU never obtain a perFcfl cure of that wround. 

Rev. I'm forry for it i— bccaufe, to tell you the truth, it 
begins to grow offcnfive. 

Sh. Humph \ Wliat, I fuppofe you want to give it a 

dicing, and to try j-ourcrirical fcalping-knifc upon it 

Rev. No — faith ! I don't defuc tu come fo near it. — 1 tell 
you what, Mr. Shaitdy— before I do myfclf the pleafure of pc- 
jiifiDg this volume, — mind ' 1 ttll ycu before-hand, if I meet 
with any thing offenftve to dec-eocy, I mud mari it : — indeed, 

my friend — } ou arc amazingly clever in many thing!* 

bur — yen want'^Nay, hear mc out I — You ha^e great 
merit, in fome refpctts. Your chara<:tcr« arc new, and admi- 
rably fupported tbrotighout. Your Father's is pcrfeiSly new, 
lingulai, iUongly matk'd, anO powerfully liiftain'd. Ycur UocJe 
too, is an amiable original : and Trim — I've no wtKre met with 
hs fellow. Dofior blop, likewifc, and c\cn Mrs. Sufjnnah» 
all have their peculiar excellencies :— but, indeed, you do waiii 

Sh. And you, my dor Sir, have fo agrccabSe a nunnv of 
sitngliiig your Icuiou ;^nd fug^ir, ihat^— 
9 REr. 


Th Lift md Opiniam p^Triftram ^handf . Ijl 

Rbv. Nay, if you go that way to work with me, I've done 

Rev. Ssitii^ r/aJmg.] • The Life and OpiniotM of Trirtram 

* Shandy, Gcntttrtnao. Nifn tniiii <xatrfu% hie ejai, ftH tpui ipfum 

• {^. Plin. Lib. quintus Epift .' Away wirh ihis foc- 

m*\ method 1 B/tiit will tell you about the fizc and price— 

■and that the book is fold at his {hop — tbt only heeth in ike fair. — — 

Lct^ fee what flowers this nofejtay is compofed ot Chap. L 

A paor» fcentlef!!, fidd-daify ! — Chap. IL Abominable \ adown- 

..right nettle ! — lndci-d> without trope or iigure, ihii is not to be 
durcd. Indecency is bad enough, but prophanenefs is inti- 
Ttticly worfc. J will appeal to the firft fober perfon I chance to 
meet — Captain ! What think you of this piece of wii f -* Of 

• all the ways of beginning a book which arc now in pr.ii^tce 

• throughout the known world, L am confident my own way of 

* doing it is the heft I'm fure tt is the mod religious — for I 

< hcgi« with writing the firft (cntence— and truft to ALMionrr 

* God for the fecond •.* 

Caft. Upon my honour, Sir! It is downright fcandalous^ 
I love wit as well as any man ; but frsphaneHtfi is deteftable ! 
To make Almighty God the infpirer of all the ribaldry 
ihat Mr. Shandy, in the levity of his ungovcrncd humour may . 
chance to throw out, is a degree of impiety thai the moft pro- 
fligate private fellow in my troop would not dare to be guilty 

Rev. Sir? your obfcnation docs honour both to you and 
your profeffion j but were 1 topoint out lothi'* hair-brain'd writer 
the impropfiort' of this pafTagc, he would only laugh in my face, 
»nd call me Old Sguart-ttti. Noble Captain, I wifh you a good 
walk ! - - - - - Chap. lU. Perjicaria, vulg. Arfe-fmart. This , 
1 conAgn to the apothecaries: a ccnical iifTcmblage of colds, 
cou;;h$, claps, tooth-aches, fevers, Hran^uriu, fitc. ^fc. &c. 

purges, pukes, plaiflcrs, gliftcrs, and biitkrs. Chap. IV. 

A mere buttcr-ftower, nothing but colour. Ch. V. A wfl- 

f^-wecd that I want a name for. Out "pT ff4 j^' u vile 
findl! ^ 

Sh. Bo/i>(Kr/— Ha! what's the fret now? «% 

R Ev. Look ye, Sir ! it is impofEble for any man, IcC aban- 
doned than yourfelf to bear with — 

t>H. Nay, friead, now you grow outrageous — What is it ? 

Rev. Obferve, Sir, what yuur pretty delicate pen has let fall. 
.^.M that a rill of cold water dribbling through tny"*^— hear> 

• Vol. vrir. p. ;. t Id. p. U. 

Th Lrft and Opimiat ^Triftram Shindy. 

re.Kl ihc reft yourfclf» for I aflTurc you I «^o not care to pronounce 
whut CdIIow.'v, lor fear any decent fobcr pcrfon fhoutd be within 
hearing :— Why you really* in this place, cbiige your reailcrs lo 
fill itp yourdalhes with rank bawdy! 

Sh. And is that all! — You are mighty nice. Sir) I'ln 
very fure that not one lady in fifty, of tbofe who glitter every 
night in the front and fide boxes, would make half the rout 
that you do, about fuch trifles 

Rev. More flume tor ihcm, if what you fiy of 'em be true; 
and ten thoufand times more fliame for you if itbcfalfc ! Trifles 
do you call them ? 

Sh. Yonder's my Jenny, fcudding actofs the hay-field — 

Adieu, for a little while- ■ 

Rev. Go thy w.-iy. Scape-grace!— —Chap. VI. A dull, 
difagrceable dandelion — What a ftrancc pofy has this man put 

together 1 Chap. VII, VIII, and IX. Three Lady-fmocks: 

Your moil humble fcrvant Mrs. Wxdman ! 

Mrs. W. Mr. Critic your& Pray excufe me a moment 

Sir ! I'll wait on you in the next Chapter. 

Rkv. Chapter X, XI. XII, XIII, XIV. Nothing but 
blue-bells, maliuws, daffodils, fnap-dragon and dog-rofes. In- 
deed Mrs. Wadman, you make no extraordinary hgure as yet. 
But you have not put off your night-cap — you'll, doubclefs, look 

much bcit*r bye-ai\d-byc, when you are dreft Chap. XV. 

NigtUoy vulg. Devil in the bufti. This is fo ugly, there's no 

enduring the fight of ir. Chap. XVI. Here wc have a pretty 
flower, Vatuti hiking' glaf$> or the Widow's aitack of Uncle 
Toby's fentry-box. Here — (Bowers apart, both thofu in field 
and thofe in Old Farnaby) here is fomcthing to compenfatc for 
the dulnefs, or woric than dulncfs, of the foregoing fifteen chap- 
ters. Here Mr. Shandy (hews himfclfa mafter in the fcienceof 
hyman ftelmgi^ and the art of defcribing them. Nor is there any 
thing here to offend the moft chaftc, or moft delicate Reader : 
Kxccpt a light llioke or two, which, had there been nothing 
worle in the other pjrts of his performance, nobody would have 

* Whatever town or fortrefs the Corporal was at work 

* u[>on, during the courfc of their campaign, my Uncle Toby 

* always look Care on the infidc of his fentry-box, which was 

* towards his left-band, to have a plan of the place, faflen'd up 

* with two or three pins at the top, but loofe at the bottom, for 

* thcconveniency of holding it up tothccyc, &c as oc- 

* cafions requited ; fo that when an attack was rcfolved upon, 

* Mrs. Waf^nian had nothing to do, when fhe got advanced to the 
« door of the fentry-box, but to extend her right-hand — and 

* edging in her left footat the fame movement, to take hold of 
. * Uic map or plan, or upright, or whatever jc was, iutd with out- 


7j&/ Lift ani OpiiifHs s/'Triiliani Shaiid]'^ ijj 

* ftretchcd nfck meeting it half-way, — to admnce it towards 
' her ; en which mv Uncle Toby's paflions were fure to catch 

* fire*— for he woulJ inftantly take hold of the other corrtcr of 

* the map in his left hand, and with the end of his pipe, in the' 
' other, hegin an explanation. 

* When the attack was adt'anccd to this prtint ; the world 

* will naturally enter into the rcar^ins of Mrs. Wadman's next 

* ftroke of gcneralfliip which was, to t^kc my Uncle 

* Toby's tobacco-pipe out of his hand ai foon as ftic pofiibly 

* could; which, under one pretence or other, bur generally rhat 

* of pointing more difiinitly at fomc redoubt or breaftwoHc 

* in the map, (he would effect before my Uncle Toby, poor 

* foul ! had well marchird above half a dozen toifes M-ith it. 

* f It obliged my Uncle Toby to make ufc of his furc- 

* nnjert. 

* The difference it made in the attack was this ; that in go- 
' ing upon it, as in the firft cafe, with foe rnJ of het forefinger 

* againft the end of my Uncle Tyby's tobacco-pipe, ihc might 

I * have travelled with it, along the lines, from Dsn to Heerfhcba,. 

* had my Uncle Toby's Uncs reached fo far,'withfiut any cficift : 

* for as there was ne arurinl er vira! heat tit tht enAofthe isbatn- 

* pipt., it could excite no fcntimcnt— it could n<-ithcr give fire by 
' pulfation— nor receive it by fympat^y 'twas nothing but 

* finoke. — — Whereas, in followin:; mv Uncle Toby's fore- 

* finger with hers, clofc thrnuch all the little turns and in- 

* dentings of his works— pre iBug funictimcs apaioft the fide of 

* it, — then treading upon its nail — then tripping it up— then 

* touching it here, — then there and fo on — it fct Ibmcthing ac 

* I'eaft in motion. 

* This, thour,h flight fkirmifhinp;, and at a diflancc from the 

* main body, yet drew on the reft ; fnr here, the nup ufujlly 
[■• falling with the back of it clo/c lo ihe fide of iIi:- fcntrj--bov, 

my Uncle Tobr, in the Itmplicity of hn foul, would lay hi» 

* hand flat upon it, in order to goon Viih his explanarion ; and 

* Mis. Wadman, by V maticeuvreas quirk as ihoughr, woulA 

* a& certainly place hers clofe befide it. This at once opened « 

* communication, large enough for any fcntimcnt to pais or rc- 

* psfj, which a perfon Ikillcd in the elementary and praiEhcal 

* part of love-making, han occafioo for— — 

* Uy bringing up her fore&nger parallel, as before, to my 

* The Reader siufl bcir in mind, that Unele Toby », at this itme, 
totally tgoonai of the Widow 'j deU^xt upon turn. 

t The beauty of ibis eircutnlUuKt, ihe aJdtefc of the Widow ia 
bringio]^ it about, and itt impocunce in the cxecvtioD of her plaft. mo 
loo obfioui to i>eed poiDtii^trQut to any Readci nliafcctoi fffcU ihedit- 
Icfcticc Udvccti a tobacco-pipe and a F..ngcr. 

£ 2 * ^2u^^» 


* 1 34 Tht Li/i and Opimims of TriAram Shan Jy. 

' Uncle ToSy's, — it unavolditbly brought ihe thumb intosidion 
—and die forefinger and thumb beio^ once engaged, u na* 
turaUy bniughc in tnc whale hind. Thine, dear Uncle Toby 1 

< w^ ne^cr now in it« right plicc Mrs. VVadman had it 

* ever to uk.e um ur, with the gcntleft pulhings, protrulions, and 

■ irquivocal romprcflions^ that a han J to be removed is capable of 

■ reccjvmg ■ to get it prcft»'d a hair's brc^uih on one iiJc, out 

* of her Wiiy. Whilil this wasdcicg, ho^v t^ouidflic ibr- 

* get to make him fcnfible, that it was her leg (and do one's 

* clfc) at the bottom of the fcntr>'-box, which flight'.- prc&'d 

* againft the calf of hiii — So that my Uncle Toby being thus 
*■ attack'd and fore pufh'd on both hi> wings, was it a wonder, 

* if now and then it put his centre into difordei ?—^" The 
•' Duce take it !" faid my Uncle Toby — — 

Sh. And the Ducc take that Jenny! a— little flut- 0>c hu 
run mc out of breath— a very Camilla at racing !— Well, are 
you in better humour than when I juO now left you ? 

Rev. Indeed Mr. Shandy I am. To do you juftice, I muft 
confcis, thiit with all your faults, you area moft delightful Fel- 
low ^ WxA you never wrote any thing more than this account of 
the Widow Wadman's couitfhip of your Uncle Toby, thar 

fingle chapter would alone have rendered your name 1 liad 

almod faid itnnitrtat. 

Sh. Sir! your moft obedient ! A few chapters farther you 

wilt meet with an account of the manner in which (he car* 
tied on her approaches. 

Rev. I'm impatient to proceed 

Sh. Good bye till the evening Remember— at the Bi- 

ihftp's Head, — ninco*cI()ck. 

Rav. rtading. Chap. XVIL (No more flowers) little in It. 

Chap. XVllI. D°. Ch. XIX. Humorous dialogue between 

Unclr Toby a:id Cor^mral Tiim ; kept up with exqiiifitc fpiri:, 
and fi;ic touches of nature : admirable ^ry of the King of Bo- 
Ifcmia und his Seven Cafllcs. Many choice wits have excelled 
in telling aflor) ; but none fvcr fucttding fo well in mt telling a 
ftoi y, a» the Bi itifh Kabchis hath done, in this notable inflance. 
In Chap. XX. O^rpofal Trim continues the floryof hii falling 
in love — which he liad U-;:un in the preceding chjpter; and in 

the courlc t?f it, fome pariaular* of the il-ijtrt occur; but 

.there h no end to oijeiti.ns on this fcore. f he next chapter 
colKludes the ftory ot ihc fair Beguinc; and concludes it infui'h 
a mamurt that the Widow WaJmiin, who from her adjoiniog 
bower had over-heard the whole, wifely judged this a moS 
happy mo 1 1 cm for itnewing her attack on Uncle Toby So, 

* filenily fallyiiig forth — Utcpafs'J (he wkrkergate, and advanced 

• flowly towards ray Uncle Toby's fexury box ; The difjpofinon 


72/ U/t 0mt OptKUttf f/Ttrfiiim ShiMf. 135 

'5 «htch Trim had made in my Uncle Toby's mind, was too fa- 

* yourablc a criiis cp be let flip— 

' The attick. wai dctcrmin'd upon : It was facilitated '{U!l 
' more by my Ui.clc Toby's having ordered the Corporal lo 

* wheel ofT tbe Pioneer's fhovcl, 4hc fpadc, the pick axe, the 

* picqurtSt and other military {lores [their fonifications being 

* now dcmoli(h't!j which lay fcaiter'd on the ground where 
' Dunkirk flood The Corporal had marched — the field was 

* clear. 

' Now the plan hanging up at this jun^ure, being the 

^ p'an of Dunkirk — and the tale of Dunkirk a tale of rebxati'^n^ 

* it opiiofcd every imprcffion flie could make : And befides, could 
' (he have gone upon it — the maniruvrc oC fingers and hands in 
« the atuck of thcfentry-hox, wa^i fo out-done by that of the fair 

* Beguiuc's, in Trim's flory, — that juft then, that paniculw 
f attack, however fuccefiful before, became the mod heaniclit 

* attack that could be made » — 

'O! let woman alone for this. Mrs. Wadman had fcjrcc 
' opHied the wicker-gate, when her genius fponcd wfih the 

* ^ange of circumftanccs.— — She formed a new attack i:t a 

* moment, 

" ■ - I am half diftnified. Captain Shandy," faid Mrs, 
AVadroan* holding up her handkerchief to her left eye, as flitr 

appruachcd the door of my Uncle Toby's f«ntiy-box ** a 

*' mote — or fand. ■ or fomcthing 1 know not what, ha« 

** got into this eye of mine — do look into it it Ji not 

** in the white " * In iBviog which, Mrs, Wadman cJgcd 

* herfclf clofe in bcfidc my Uncle Toby, and fqucriung hecl^lf 

* dpwn upon tbe cotocr of hii bench, flic gave him an oppor- 

* tunity of doing if without rifin? up' *■*■ Do look into it" 

faid ft)e.— ' Honcft foul f thou didlt look into it, with ai much 

* innocency of hesrt, as ever child loofc-'d into a rarcc-fticw boxj 
' and 'twere as much a fin to havdiurt thee. 

* —If a man will be peeping «/ his »w/t acttrd into thingi 

* of that luturc, I've nothing to fay to it My Uncle Toby 

* never did: and 1 will anCwcr for him that he wmtct have fat 

* quietly upon a foph.i f(cm June 10 Janiiarv, (which, you 

* know, takci in both the hot and cold indnthi) wiih an eye :z 

* fine as the Thracian* Khodopc's bciide him, without being 

* able to tell whether it was a black or a blue oae. 

* The difficulty was to get my Uncle Toby to look atone, at 

* all.— 'Tis furmounicd — And 

* I Ice him yonder with his pipe pendulous In hts hand, and 

* ' RlfApe Tbrati^ tarn •ntxitabUi f'-Jnns infifu-^a, tarn txa3t ectfii 

-I kavw jwt viho. 


136 The Life and Opinhnt ^Triftram Shandjr. 

■ the, aihes falling out of it — looking— and loolting— then rub' 

* bing his cye& — and looking again, with twice the good-natur 

* thit ever uallilco look'd for a fpot in the fun. 

' In vain ! for, by all the powers which animate the or- 

' gan — Widow Wadtnan's left eye fiunea this moment as lucid! 

* as her n'f^hl There is nciiher mote, or fand, or dufl-, ofj 

* chaiF, or fpeck, or panicle of opike matter floating in it^— 
' There is nothing, my dear paternal Uncle ! but one lambent | 

■ delicious iire, furtively {hooting out from every part of it, itkl 
' ali directions, into thine. If thou lookcft, IJncIc Toby, in! 

* Icarch of this moic one monient longer, — thou art undone.—*] 

* 1 protcft. Madam, faid my Uncle Toby, I can fee noihtnjt 

* whatever in your eye, ** It is not in the white," faid Mrs, I 

* Wadman ; my Uncle Toby look'd with might and main intoi 

* the pupil [Now of all the eyes that ever were created 

« —there never was an eye fo fitted to rob ray Uncle Toby of his 

* repofc, as the veryeyeat which he was looking it was notj 

* a rolling eve — a romping or a wanton one — nor was it an ey* 1 

* (barkling — petulant or imperious— of high claims and teni-J 
' ^ing cxaflions, which would have curdled at once that milfc I 

* of human nature, of which my Uncle Toby was made up— J 

* but 'twas an eye full of gentle falutations — and foft refponfe*! 

* — rpcaking— not like the trumpet-flop of fome ill-made organ, 
*■ in which many an eye I talk to holds coarfe converfe — but 

* whifpcring foft — like the tjft low accents of an expiring faint. 
*» How can you live comforilefs. Captain Shandy, and alone, 
** without a bofom to lean your head on, cr truft your cares 
•« to ?" It was an eye but I fiiall be in love with it my- 

« fclf, if I fay another word about it. — It did my Uncle Toby'»- 1 

* bufinefs.' 

Rev. Never was any thing more beautifully fimple, more 
natural, more tsuching ! O Triftram ! that ever any groflcr co- 
Jours (hould daub and defile that pencil of thine, fo admirable 
iittcd for the produflion of the moft delicate as well as the moJt 
in*ftcrly pi^u'f s of men, manners, and fituations ! — Ruhar^fen—^ 
the delit.ate, the circumltaniial Richarusom bimfcif, never 
produced anv thing cquil to the amouts of Uncle Toby and ths 
Widow Widmanf 1 

Ktv. f/fl tinUauatiofiSS I cannot yet find in my heart to quit 
iijoot Uncle Toby, now fmarting fiom the wound given Inrn ire 
:lhe latl chapter. Hi;w ftiiely is his meek and pafTtvc deport- 
ment, contrallcd with that of his turijutcnt brother, in thft 
tlikc fituahon ! ' My Father,' fays Tnftram, * was very' 

• fubJcA 

' fubjeA to this paSion, before he married but from a little* 

* fubacid kind of drolllfh impatience in hit nature,— he wouM' 

* never fubonic to it tike a Chriftian ; but would pilh, and hufF^ 

* and bounce, and kick, and play the Jcvil, and write the bic- 
< tereft Phitipics againft the eye, that ever man wrote — 

* ihort, during the whole paroxtfm, he wa» :ill abufe and Toul 
'• language, approaching rather towards malediflion ■ 

• My Uncle Toby, on the contrary, took it like a Iamb* — — 

* fat ftill, and let the poifon work in his veins without rcliftance 

* -^— in the iharpeft exacerbations of his wound (like that on his 

* groin) he never dropped one fretful or difcontcntcd word be 

* blaoicd neither heaven nor earth— or thought or fpoke an in- 
*juriou5 thing of any body, or any part ot it; he fat folitary 
' and pcnfivc with his pipe — looking at his lame leg — then 

* whiffing out a fcniimental beigh-!io ! which mixing with the 

* fmoke, incommoded no mortal. He took it like a Iamb— < 

* I fay,' 

■ By all that's benevolent, meek, humane and tender, 

Triftram f thou hadft quaff'd off a full bowl of the 

milk of human kindncfs, when thou faitell down to this chap* 
ter 1 ' ExetlUnt ffrrttb /' That ever thou (houldft fall fhort of ihe 
happy eminence which bounteous natuic hath fo well qualified 
thcc to attain f fie but ju(t to thyfcif, and, in thy own prt- 
viiuej I will pronounce thee pccrlefs.— ^Ci'</i>* Rtmimi Sirif- 
Urtif udiu GraiL 



Revicwiho, in ■ Summaht Wav^ 

Chap. XXVII. Uncle Toby coafcffcs his love XXVni 

Corporal Trim's fentimcnts thereon — and advice how his roafleif' 
ought to attack Uie widow — Mrs. Wadnian notifici (o her maid 
Bridget, her entire conqueA of the Captain—Mcafurcs taken 
on that fide : Great preparations made by Trim and hJs maflcr, 
for the grand attack. XXIX. and XXX. Undcr-plot; Bridget 
and the Corporal. XXXL XXXfl. Dtoll convcrfarion be- 
tween Mr. Shandy frn. and Uncle Toby, on the fubjc^ of 
love: Dr. Slop appears again. XXXIIl. Yorick, Slop, the 
two Brothers, Mrs. Shandy, all en;:a;;cd on the Author's fa- 
vourite topic. Procreation. XXXtV. Cuiious bjrpothcfis : 
" Love mt a fcntiment, but a fuuation." Stop and Trim en- 
gaged in fierce debate. Trim's fair Beguine, a p6piJhCleyjj~ 
timnanf Extraordinary letter from Mr. Shandy fcnior, to 
his brother Toby ; on the nature of women, and of love- 
making. Curious caution in regard to breeches. Pleafantry 
and facclioufncfs to be avoided in courtfhip : — No paflion fe 
ferious as — Chap. XXXV. and lall; Uncle Toby and the 


13^ 7j&€ Lift miOplntimt ^TiHham Shsnd^.' 

iitack More of this her«iftcr 

Corporal mike reidy for the ait 
-I iftbt tTvun fimld mil f^T it. 

Sh. [ai tlx ittwm.'\ -— Are you not a pretty gentleman. 
Squire Critic, to keep one waiting near half an hour beyond the 
time appointed f 

Rev. Your parJon, Mr. Shandy ' but 'twas your own fault 
for leaving your ra^tnufcript with me : I could not, for the foul of 
me, part with your moll woitby, excellent. Uncle Toby» a 
minute fooner. Here, take your paprr>, and fuccefs attend 
jour publication— ptovidcd you crurc— 

Sh. Have not I to!d you, agaia and again, ihat I never blot 
out } Poljtivcly 1 will not cmzc a fylUble : So, Critics, do 
your worft I 

Rev. Inflexible, indilcreet, — incomparable ! — Well, fellow- 
traveller I be not angry — if the public will be good-natured 
eninja.h to over-look, your impcifc^ions — furely I may, who am 
fo much obliged to you for your patient bearing with all my 
excepii ni, and re[>rehcnftons. 

Sh. Cnme, OIJ Uoy ' Reviewing muft be curftrd dry work 

-— Excellent Froniiniac t Hcie's foccel's to the Review! 

uid pray, at your next meeting at the Crown and Anchor, 
give my coir.plimcnts to every Square-toe betonginer to the 
Corps — and, if you pleafc, tell them, that if they danui thefe 
my feventh and elgbih volumes, I'll be even with them, and 
ditfffrn tly^m In my ninth and tenth. 

Rev. Ah, Mr. Shandy, your vivth and ttntbf that's talking 
ofthtn*; at a great difbiice ! Better take a friend's advice. Stop 
whcrcyouare. The Public, if I gucf. riijht, will havc^i//rt*w.7i, 

by the tin»e they get to the end of your eighth volume. Your 

health, Mr. ShanJy, and hearty th;mks for thccnceitainmcnt you 
have given me — but, — excufemc if 1 hazard a holdconjcifturc. I 
am inclined to thirk that, all thii while, you have not fuiE- 
ciently cultivated your bcft talents. Give uj) your l-ong Nofc<, 
your Qiiedlinbcrgs, and your Andouillcts.— Ur. Slop, indeed, 
IS a grtat cturaflcr : but, try your fttengih anotber way. One 

of our gemlcmtn, once remarked, in trim Mr. Shandy that 

he thought your excellence lay in (he Pathbtic. I think fo 
too. In my opinion, the little ftory ol Le Fevie has (Jone you 
more honour than every thing elfc ycu have wrote, except your 
Sermons. Soppofe you were to ftrikc fiut a new plan ? Give 
us none but amiable or woithy, or ej^jcmptary charaiSers ; or, if 

Iw will, to enliven the drama, throw in the itttiotfifly huimreus, 
tjhtrt in /wp. No ohjcCUon to Tiim> any more than to Slop. 
H Paint 


PainiNalure in her lowlicft Attd—kcr native rimpliclc^. Draw 

natural femes, .ind inieteRing Giuacioiis In finc» Mr. Shandy^ ' 

dot fuf lurcly ycrn can, excite our paffioni to UmtiahU purpofcs— I 
awake oui aito^ians, engage our heaiu — arouze, cranrport, re- 1 
fine, improve ds. Let morility> let che cultivation of virtue be ! 
yvor aim— let wit> humour, elegance and pathoi be the means j t 
and the cf ^it^ful applaufc of mankind will be your reward. ' | 

Sh. Have ye done ?— I'm glad on't ! Hark ye — ^Jcnnv wants * 

OK to give her a whirl in the chaifc next Suniajf Will you 

frfCih for me * you have an admirable knack at exhortation 1—» 

\tht Hijitry ef the Lift of RiginaU PsU. Part 11. By Thomas ' 
Phiitipi. 4to. 101. 6d. fcw'd. Oxford, printed and ibid \ 
by Jackfon ^ and fold ah'o by T. Payne in London. 4 

r\ our account of cbc Firft Part fif this Htftory, we could not 1 
forbear exprelTtng our indignation afaioft the Author, who j 
Wrttcs, as we there oofcrvrd, in 'Icftnce of the groflcft of a]l im- | 
'poTiiinnf, and the bafefl of all frrvilily. The Oridlurcs M*a I 
fj):iflcd, harfli as Mr Phillips perhaps may think thrm, did not « 
proceed from any dilTercncc in religious tenets. So far as reli-' | 
giun merely h concerned, we' would ucat the moft erroneous'' 
an ! .iblnrd opinions, with the utmof} degree of favour and in- , 
dulgence. — Satisfied as we are, that whoever woxfiiips the Dcii^ 
fum mnitf^ hij adoration will be acceptable, in whatever mods ' 
it is offered. The tenets wc ccofurcd, bore no relation to ' 
any modes of piety or devotion ; we condemned prieftcraTc, ) 
which, under the mafkof religion, afTerts its independence on 
the civil magiArdtc, at the fame time that it prcfumes to inter« j 
fcTc with the iem[Mnal jurifJjtiHion, and tocnzmfs temporal pof- > 
jeflions ; in direit oppofiii.-^n to the mccknels and difintcrefted- ' 
Dcfi of the primitive apoftles, in manifcft abufc of the under- ' 
landings of mankind, ;ind in open violation of their rights. \ 

We arc, as we have frequently profelTed, enemies to all ptt-* 
fecutions and piofecstions on account of religious opinions. I<e(if 
fubtlc jcfurts and attfut pricds of every denomination, cjvil^l' 
vithout iiiteriupiiu;i, about adjuring the trappings with whtcli!i 
they have found it convenient to encumber religion. Lcc uajj 
leave them in lull p^Hcinon of their quibbles and qu!dditirf> 
with which thc\' perplex, dif^uife and (iieli^f^ure, what m itfelB 
1ft moft plain, Omple and lovely. But when, not contcntedf 
with endeavouring to miflcad us by fpiritual f^'phiilry, thr-y darfll 
ftlUm]>t to cnTuvc us by ccdcfiillitjt puwc, sad prcfume 

lie xm 


PuiUIP^'f Wfiory »f 

uTurp a dominion which Chiiilhimfetf difctaimet], when He de- 
clared that his kingJom was not of this world. — When fuch de- 
figniiig and dangerous att^mpu arc m:\dc to reduce nunlcind to 
a (late of unaatutal fubjc^ion to a fct of indolent, rapacious^ 
and menrilefs ccclefiaftics, who can afford no proteSion in re- 
turn, it then Ixcomes a dut^ to cxpore their fallacy, and refift 
tfactr tyranny. 

It was on thefc principles that we fcvcrcly cenfured the Firft 
Part of this Hiftory, and on thcfe principles wc (hall continue 
to animadvert wtth the fame freedom, on fuch pafTagcs as ap* 
pear obnoxious in the Fan now under cooTideraiion.' 

This Second Part opens with the appointment of Cardinal 
Pole, as Lcgitc to Queen Mary. Previous to his coming hither 
in that chaiadtcr, he wrote a fulfome letter to the Queen, from 
which Mr. Phillips has given iis a tedious e?ctn£l. Among 
ether things, the Cardinal magnifies the great and unexpected 
turn in the Queen's fortune, which, according to him, * could 
be afcribed to nothing but adcclaraiion of heaven in her favour.' 
VVith leave of ihc Cardinal and Mr. Phillips, however, wc will 
venture to fay, that there is no ground for fuppofmg a declaration 
of heaven in favour of Mary's advancement, but on the common 
prcfumption in favour of all other princes, who arc appointed by 
the Geact of Gad. Wc may add likcwife, that admitting the 
particular interpofition of Providence in her behalf, flic cer- 
tainly made an ill return fm the favour of hcaveiit by facrifldng 
her fubjefb at the flirine of Bigotry. 

- But Mr. Phillips thinlcs oihcrwifc of thefe facrifices, and 
flands forth as Mary's profcAcd Panegyrift. * Defore 1 enter 
(fays he] on Queen Mary's Reign, which was the laftand great 
theatre, on which'he appeared, who is the fubjc^ of this hif- 
tory, it nuy not be improper to give fome account of the charac- 
ter, under which this Princcfs had hitherto been conOdcred, 
and which may contribute to make what is hereafter to be faid 
of her, more fati:.f;i£lory. The education (he received from her. 
mother formed her to that fhiadini^fs and zeal for the religion of 
her anceftors, which fecms to have been the ruling principle of 
her whole conduct. This reverence, which we owe to ttie ve- 
racity and fanclitj- of the Supreme Being, cither when he reveals 
his truths to our htliff, or prcfcribes his laws to our practice, 
caufed her to make that memorable reply, when Charles V. 
cautioned her to proceed {lowly, and not declare hcrfclf while 
the ifTuc of affairs was yet uncertain \ *' That her truft in God 
alone had, firll, fitpported her in the greatcft (treights of advcrfe 
fortune ; and, then, rdifed her lo a crown : wherefore, fhc was 
Ivcd coufc CO delay in (cftifying her giautude to Him, to 
■ whom 


iJv l^a af Ca&DIICAL PoLE. 

her faftqrmd^gaa*; Wiin«A*W« 
i<W^llcomricroo» —■■»•. Itnufi be coiddbd tfeot 
as good ss ber wonl: Sbedid ndcediJo tf iai 
BUMT — tfbM tt, by the Lirtc of the 

trrflT"- ' -"-^-"^-^ " -"-^- -" bet ftJjeai wboa Wr 

pridb dedmd bcRtids. 

AmdKr of Mary's lencn to cbc CanJinal b not lc& 

in vfcat fa«itwMi aij c o T e iw were, wbcA I wrote to ytm, «y 
fix^atjc^faoft I dmred Mm Co 4day, for awlule, rour joumejr 

tD IrfMMCH. ~HC |MU|Mjfe Sf yOBT flhwty B 16 Hl^OClod P^ fQV 

iiduedta aad lb otfioas to tbc^^ ihu ui i«M»B(iige vnval in 
ibcw |Hrt3t tfacn^b I wHh it cxmnidjr. woold be latbcr pn^w. 
£cals dum soy w^ a-rnl mc Tbe pmrcnfi ngt of tike piir- 
ItHirrnt pot this lieyond a doubt : Ukd io flnn^y are the aunik 
cf ^ poc^ prgpdfeftJ lEMnft tbe Rooaaa rontm, tb*t tbcj 
finJ left fificitliy in aJmining all Ac aliier tcnca of tbe citbt^ 
fie iriyoo^ iluji til tbe £ngie axtkie vludi ccgaflls tbe firfnc- 
finnao due lo bin. Tlie uniet boofe wa& of opiaioo. ibicil 
ibe ftuutes whicb had pafled finer my fidier's tiivorce from tbe 
Qiicen, and a litile before ibai time, flnuld. be rcpukd \ as, 
bf tbi: mrsos, ercn* thlog would be canoeDed wbtcb hid boea 
ciiber ^ainft rtli^om or tbe ralidity of my awdKi's 
Bat» when die qDcllkai came to be dduted by tbe 
tbey prefeody fuipeded it to be prapofed in fxrour 
«f Ae Biftop of Roox, tbzt the tide of fuprnoe bead of tbe 
daRb, wbidi is annexed to tbe crjim of Brinin, might be 
givca opi ibe p^pil power revived, and a fidltty procvrtd of 
jBcemn g yoa in quality oi' Legate. Were tfaefe ap prd KU &om 
■a ceife, I uBderftaad tbetc inaU b« oo dificuUr cidicr In re- 
pedUag the ftatntes nude apiaft tbe aadem wonup, or in ra- 
tiding aiT motber't mania^ My finn are, diat tbey will ob- 
ftavtely ufift on lay caotinfluig to afikaw tlic bcadfiiip of tbe 
dmdi ; and, if tber do, I am not at a lots in wkat manner 
to rc^. I will rcmaid ibea of my rooftam "»«*»**«< to dw 
fiuth I pro£c&, in wbach t hare been erfocKrJ, aad vS pg fe fiy e 

to the laft thxt 1 cui corCrnt to oothinc, wbkfa aiy cao- 

feicocc Goodemos — ihat, the tiOc in debate does not asree with 
kii^i as tbe royal ilzre, in rpiritual concerns, b ruboniinoe 
to die faoerdotal : and the jurifdidioA of the body poUtic beu^ 
of a diSacat onlcr from that of tbe priefibood, tfacir power, 
aod Aindioiu were diftind— tbat there was a pecuntr 
jlty uiJing (hxn my Tery foe, to which nothing could be 
Ida fintad than fucfa a tidCi and tbe eitent of power annexed to 
it^ If 1 can obtain nochiog more, I will eotreat them to fttf^ 
fcad f« & mac, at Icaft, whattrer regards a claim, to wbkb I 

Phillips's Hijiary tf ' 

^ean nei-cr fonfent, till fomr oAer expedient be found out. Tf 
im- parliament neglect ibc cijuity of ihb demand, I am at a 
lofs haw to behave, and what meafures to take. You, my 
Lordt are the only pcrfon on whofe prudence I rely j and whofc 
advice I afk, that 1 may aift nothing caauary to dut)', and ex* 
tricatc myfelf from this labyrinth.' 

It is more than probable tliat this letter was didated by fome 
of Mary's ghoftly confeflbrs ; but be that as it may, it ferves to 
prove that the parliament did not, without great reludnnce, 
confent to become the bafc inftrumcnts of Mary's bigotry and 
cruelty : And there can be no doubt but that fhe purchafcd their 
fiiameful actjuicfcence aC a very high price. One cannot but 
(mile at her apprchenfions left the parliament ftiould obftinatciy 
infill en her continuing to affumc the ticadfttip of the churrh ; 
sgain^ which file urges a peculiar difficult)' arifuig from ber 
very fcX. This dliSculty however her fiftcr had the courage to 
furmount : And if petticoats are any impediment lo domtninn, 
they are certainly a ftrongrr bar to the exercifc of fcwrcign 
power over a free and brave people, thjn to the execution *f 
the lazy funflions of a dealing Pontiff; more cfpccially as the 
papal chair, if wc may believe tradition, was once filled by one 
of the tender fex* wbicb has llnce given occafion to a fcrutiny of 
a very curious nature. 

The Cardinal's anfwer to thefc letters is well worthy of ob- 
feivation. After a grcst deal of iefuitical canr, with the repe- 
tition of which wc will not furleit our Readers, be counfeis 
Mary to take meafures with her parliament for procuring a rc- 
verfal of his attaitidcr. * She well knew (he fays) the injuftice 
done to him and to his family, which was dearer to him than 
bimrdf. — That nothing could be laid to his charge, which de- 
ferved fuch treatment, and all his crime confided in refufing to 
confent to innovations which were prijutiiiial to ihr rtalm^ and dt' 
trimmtal t9 the Print Vibt iniredueed ibftn' Happily for us, the 
expcrienceofagcs nowpaft refutes the Cardinal's fentJmeniswith 
Tcfpe<^ to thefc ionovations. 

In the enfuin^ pagc^ wc hnvc nn imperre^ and palliated ac- 
count of the many execuiionj which diigraccd the early reign pf 
the mercilefs Mary. Among other things, our hiflorian relates 
the fate of the accomplifhcd and unfortunate Lady Jane Grey; 
there we meet with the firft inllance of his impartiality, ft>r 
even ht acquits the blamelefs Lady Jane, of whom he gives the 
following actount : * To great beautv, and all the fofter ac- 
complifcments of ftmale education, {he had joined the know- 
ledge of the learned Junguages, and had given much time and 
appTicatio:! to the icripturK : a ftudy, which, however under- 

tit Lift t/ RscittAiD PoLr. 

titEcn by the kx on z fpccious priacipl« of fetkiiif; (ruth, but 
too often bt-trays them into errors, or confirms them in thofe ihey 
have already imbibed. The <^ecn having appointed a very 
able and religious clergyman to attend her in her conlinenici)C» 
and ufe all endeavours (o convince her of ihc truth of the ca- 
tholic doctrine ; the kindncr*, (he fjiid, catnc too late, 3nd that 
fhe had not leifure to enquire after that truth which fhe ihouM 
(bon behold in its fource : and* though her execution w.:s put 
off", foinc days, on that proipcc), Ihc petfifted in the fame fcn- 
limenis. The conftable of the Tower, who led her lo thfr fcaf- 
fold, aflting of her the boolc of devotions ffae held in her hand, 
(he readily gave it him, after having iirft tnmfcribcd out of it, 
in Greek, Latin, and EngliOi, a fentenec which impofted that 
fhc died innocent, and hoped to 6nd that juftice from God, 
which had been denied her by men. Being come to the place of 
rxcctiiion, fhc looked with a placid countenance an the crowd 
that ftood round, and fpoke no mure than to bid them faiewcll, 
and be mindful of her innocence : and taking the prieft, who 
ftill continued hit exhortations, by the hand, {he thanked him 
for the many good offices fiic had received from him, and the 
concern he had exprcficd to bring her over to his opinion, as ihe 
rery well knew he had proceeded on the bcft of motives : buc 
ton him withal, that hi» diicouifes had given her greater un- 
•afinefs than the apprehcnfion of whit fee w« about to fuffcr. 
Then kneeling down before the axe, and coveriiu; her face with 
her hair, (he received the ftrokc which fevered her head frona 
her body. The fighs, the tears, and mournful lilcncc oftbc be- 
holder!, fuBicienily witncflcd what their rentimcnis were of the 
circumOances of her death, and of the decent and Ready mannet 
with which (he fubmittcd to it." 

Here we cannot but admire with what admirable aritAre Mr. 
Phillips contends for keeping the fair fex in total ignorance with 
refped to the fcriptures. Lclt, in their fcarch after truth, ilie holy 
writings fhouM lead tbem into error, they muiV (hut u;) ihc book, 
■nd ftep into ttic clufct wiUi the pricU, who wiM inl;iliibly guide 
them in the right way, as he can have no ituctefi to deceive or 
delude tbetn« 

'■ On the Cardinal's being appointed Legate, the Pope gare 
liim ainplc inllru>nions; and hi<t liolinc£i begins, * by exprclfing 
hit jo}' on the happy tui^n which affairs had taken in England, 
which might give a well-grounded hope of that (louriihing king- 
dom's returning to its former (late, and becoming, once more,, 
a pin of Chrtll's fold, after having feparated from it in the two 
laft reigns.' Here the Pope, inf:illihle as he is, made a hotrid 
Diithkc : for the kingdont iKvcr feparated from Chrift't fo^, 




pHILlIPi'i K/isry bf th$ 

but only withdrew from a fhephctd who moll iinmeccUuiry 
fieccn) the flock. 

Mr. Phillips however does notfcniplcto colIcS all the idle J 
^trafb be c-ati meet with in favour of the Roman catholic commti- . 
fvion, * which (he tells us in the words of one Jeremy Taylor) 
'liad the aelual polTcinon ot'mcn's minds, before the oppofite opi- 
jiiom had even a numc ; and having continued in ic through 
fuch a length of time, it would be objected to them with ati ill 
^race, that this was the cfTcci of invention or defign ; becaufc it 
was not liitcly that all ages fiiould have the fame purpofes, or 
I that the fame do&ine Ihould ferve the diifcrcnt ends of feveral 
ages. — This prefcription niorcovei rcfl» on thefc grounds ; that 
tmth is more ancient than falHiood ; and that God would not, 
<lbr fo many ages^ have forfakcn his church> and left her in 

There is not a furer fign of a bad caufe, than when an advo- 
cate attempts to prove too much ; and it is evident that the 
above arguments would fubvcrt Chriflianity itfclf, if it did 
not Hand on too firm a footing to be overthrown by bad logic, 
'What would become of Chriftianit/, if the antiquity of a reli- 
gion might be admitted 'as an evidence of irs truth ? And with 
[Sow much propriety might the pagans of old, as well .is the mo- 
'^crn inlidels, who form a great part of Europe, infilt, * that 
Cod would not for To many ages have forfalEcn his chucdi and 
|4cft her in error ?* 

With as little fuccefs doth Mr. Phi Hips appeal to Grotius, who. 
lamenting the diHentions among protefbnts, fays, * I, therefore, 
and many others with me, plainly fee that this concord of pio- 
tcftants can never be effe^cd, untcfs they are united to the Ro- 
«ian fee, without which no common church government car» 
take place.* It appears, liowever, that even Grotius wa( a falfe 
prophet. Were he living, and in this metropolis, he might fee 
ifUthcrani, Calvinifts, Anabaptifts, Moravians, &c. U.c. &c, 
live together in brotheily concord, and all farther than ever froni 
being reconciled to the fee of Rome. 

Wc now come to our hiftorian's relation of the fete of poor 
Cranmer; * The Pope, at the King's and the Queen's rcquclV^J 
had appointed t!>c Cardinal of St. Simeon to examine Cranmer'a 
caufc; and he had nominated the Biftiop of Glouccftcr, and* 
whoever he Oiould think fit to join in the commiinon, to try the 
Crimina}. The Court of Delegates was opened in St. Mary's 
church, in Oxford ; and the Biuiop fet forth in a longdifcourfeyl 
the crimes of which Cranmer was accufed; and, namely, his' 
apoftacy, hcrcly, and incontinence j he made mentionj ^(o, of 
3 hi» 

the L''ft c/Recikald Pole, 


his trcafon. To which Cranmcr rrplioct, hy difovvning any 
{ubmiflion to the Pope, anJ charging the fee of Rome with doc- 
tfines and pi^ices contrarj* to the gofpel. — As the examination 
became more particular, the Criminal was arcufcil v( iefpirg a 
iVtf* ffcrnly in Henry's Reign, and in £i/u/ard't -, of piib- 
Ji[hinj5 heretical books, and conftraining others to rubfcribc to 
them; of forfaking the Catholic Church> and denying ChriU's 
prefcncc in the facrament of the altar ; and, lately, of difputing. 
publicly againfl ir, at Oxford. All thcfe articles he coufcHW, 
and excepted only againft having forced others to fubfcribc, 
which he faid he had never done. This iiiforntutiun being raken^ 
he WAS Tent back to prilbn.' 

Th^fc were certainly moft grievous offences, efpecially the 
keeping a wife, titft JfcrrtSy, and then e^a^. St. Paul fjys, 
it is better to marry, than to burn. JJut in what a terrible con- 
dition then mult a poor devil of a Roman catholic pricfl be ? 
He tnuft either burn for want of a wife^ or be burnt if he mar- 
ries orie.- 

Mr. Phillips afterwards attends the unfortunate Cranmer to 
the flake, and obferves upon the whale, that, hower rigorous the 
proceedings agalnft him may appear, the criminal on whom the 
funiQimcnt was iiiBiifled, would havcnbjcdcd to it with an iM grace^ 
But wcdo not find that Mr. Phillips even at'cmpcs to apolo^ze 
for the moderate and merciful Cardinal Pole, who, if he did not 
counrd the execution of Cranmer in onler to ftep iDto his Tee, 
may be fairly picfumcd to hairc confented to it at Icall', as hit 
influence was confcllcdly Co predominant, that he might eafdy 
have prevented it, had he been difpofcd to have done fo hudabic 
aaad of mercy. 

In truth, the Cardinal's charaflcr is far from ftanding clear 
from imputations of rigour and crueltj'. He did not efcapc from 
cenfurcsof this natura even among his cotemporariesi and in the 
following letter he endeavours to refute, or rather to |)alliatc ibcj 

* I am obliged, tay:^ he in a. letter to bis intimate friend, th^ 
Cudiiul Bifliop of Atifbourg, to publUh, In my own defence 
the work m tU cliaJfts uniJj\ which the moft earocft folicitationi 
of my friends, have not yet prevailed on rac to do.— This isj 
owing to my being attacked with great virulence by one I nevt 
faw, and bavc no other knowlege of, th«a fcooi the Qanders ht 
ia.% thought lit to pubiilb coDccrning me. To make mc odioui 
he rcprcfcnw ine of a cruel and imrelcnting nature, and attri-J 
butei whatever [ h»ve done to reconcile the Kmpcror and the^ 
King of France, to a view of uniting ihcir joint forces againft 

Rir. Feb. 1765. U ifa« 

7li C^nerfiia if St. Paul, a Pmial EJfa^. 

t!be Latberms. I ncM only appeil ta j&^ oiy Lord, and to aO 
wiio art anfoaintEd with me, how little I Jefrrre, either frov 
frinciple or temper, this knpiiCttigr. — At the fameciine, I d« 
IKn dcil]r> but, the csirfLtppofeiof Mv DT.c's opiQiens being ex^ 
tnraxVf peinicinuii »nJ he hd lefs inJufirkitw to ccrfupt others 
llian desired himtslf. I might Ixjr, )o<h a one ftmiid be c3* 
■irslljr puniflied i and, at x rottes loembcr, cut t^ from the 

It muff be conrcflcil that lh« Carditul is veiy cool and cautiouv 
ih bis fxprt^nt i he Sf^pian to have betn one of thoTe wht^ 
Have Tueh a comni»i>d of t'Diptrr, that ihey can cortuce others ' 
without difcompnring a feature ofiiicir owfi. But after all this 
atfeclaifon o> Itinty and Icubcafance, what Id) th ^n cruel can tve 
pfcnoUTice bim lohe, whoopc^y avows that he would cut off" 
a member irvtm focicty on account t*i UpiNlossi which Hf in 
llii own iutlgment Ihall prefunc u> coodenin as pernicious ^ 
Would Dot tiuemadcftyaml moderaiton teach him chat his judf^ 
fiicnt bem^ falliMe, hij opiniom may be as juflly liable co cciw 
fuic as thofc he condemns? 

.'•It woflld be foreign from our oiGee to trite notice of every 
lapiOicat trAct inicrfpcrlcd throughout this wofk ; and indeed le 
would be HnncccfTAry to combat principles which have been (b 
ofirn rcfutrd. In a general review of a work of thi& nature, wo 
muft conline ourfetvea to general animadrerfions ^ and we lesvc 
)C to others, if any ftisll deem it worth tbcir white, to entct into 
amoFcpanicular criiicifiiion thisfubtle, fallacious, andjefuiti- 
cal bHlory. 

T7v Ctm'/rjjan ef St. Paul-, a Parlua! Ejjay. By John Lcttice, 
M. A. Fellow of Sydney SuBcx College, Cambridge. 4t»s ' 
t s. Dodd and Co. 

^W70 bi'tlc for the Kifiingbury cfiate this fcafon \ No mtiitji 
J[^ candidate to print his rejedrd poem, and Ihamc the 
rogues I WhatdiilU liiill work t* this * ^3othin3;, fiirely, cmtlrf 
be more crttcrxami^tj^ than to fee ttvo indignant banls 'funouHy 
eiuer the pociic lifh, and fight for the produce of the farm; 
whcthir it Were a fat hog, a firkin of butter, a tub of ale, or a 
If"!* of miiTirn ahd tdmips, Howercr, be it any or all of thefc, 
Mr. Leitjrc has obtained the prhce, mm. cm. for a poetical cfTay 
on the Conifcrfinii of St. Paul. Smi::'s the word — Paul is con- 
vfitted; and poor Ptf;vr, ihc fatiner at Kiflini^hury, muft pay 



Tit Ctttwr/kn y St. Pjul, < Pat/((*l £^, jiff 

— WTiilli he fingj 

TTie man of T.irf.11. fiom Camalifl* rtct 
RaU''l to ihc conicrf>: of the tivtng Cjad f 

From Gamjiliers yirf the proprrety is obvious; had ^. 

beep from rhc heaJ of Uamaliel, ihe rife would nor have been CaA 
high. — Myftic is the Isnguagenf the Kiflingburyinure,andpr<>«»l 
found ate her <:oticcf>(iom, parcicutarl]' where Ihc fpealcs of 

-1 he (icrtt] Lyinph, 

MyfleiioM prelude of regenerate liie. 

She foan far above all vulgar ipprehcniion. It is for the p6^\ 
tietniting Critic alone to analyze ami iJctnonflrace fuch highT 
meaning. — Thus then it is in plain Knglifii, — * holy water, tliftj 
fccrec time piaycd before life that is bom again.' 

A little farther and wc hear of flill ftrangcr things ' * faith» 
fortitude^ hope, and a numtier of cherubs that arc of the func 
Aalurc with the duiftile Ipirit of the foul, Oanip a fcal of adamai 
on the brea/t oJ'tbencwprofclyte.* Indeed I and can a du^lilig 
fpirit then make ufc of a feal of ailatTiant ? Suiely this is the lul 

^kM ultra of the miraculous ! But fliould n'>t the good 

bard have been conientaj to give thcfe fame duttilc fpirits (ijfne- 
thingofatcficrnature, byway of fell, than dnw-nrighi sdamanti 
Soppofc it had been only a~ brown llone, or a. piece of pinch* 
beclcf or even a cornrKan would not lin'c bccnTo rigid to tkt 
touch of their fpiritual fingers ? — He ftouJd, moreover, have 
lo!d us whether they made ufe of Dutch wax, or the commr 
rcfmou^ mivture ; fnr much would drpcnd on that, wiib rcgac 
to the beauty of the imprci!ion. 

More ironders dill I gentle Reader 1 

The waloci Sjiint 

Poat'd from hti roDiroe fpoaunoMit the Uream 
Ofdoqueacv and lofpirattoa '^~- 

What ! a flrcam nf infpiration pmirrd frnm the tongUf of 
man t This is inimitable — we havtr heard of tiven ilowing withj 
milk, and of Qaks that dropped honey, but of n tongue tha^ 
rfiniilcd Infpfraiion did we never hear. 

Yet greater wonders ! Alps on Alps wife — 

Ttiegaxingfynfgcigac, in wonder wrapt* 
iJcvout b'ufn^Ktt'i fpecch ■ 

That the Jews were very voracious is not to be doubted j bt 
10 devour thin;^5 ^.jM-TNf wai contrary to their law. BcHde^j 
if they devoured the fpcech pregnant, they dcvoucd it before i| 
waideUvcred, a ci:cumftancc wi-ich furpalTes all belief! at 
Xtmc time there wu 6>meihing extremely lavage init j for 

L % 


Monthly Catalogue, 

poet tells US almoft in the next line, thai his profclytc Tpofce wit! 
• words that live' So that ihe fpccch they devoured was uot 
only prcgnKnt, but they moil inhumanly fwallowcd it up alive. 

,, The poem, however, hai more merit and lefs myflcry in it 
towards the conclurtun ; and is at Ic.ifl a better pcrformanee> 
upon the whole, than that which lafl year was honoured with 
Mr. Scaton's prize. See Review, Vol. XXIX. p. 470. 


For F F. B U A R Y, 1765. 
RtLicioua flW Controversial. 

Art. T. E/fven Ldten fnm tbt late Rev. Mr. Htnjfy ta the Rev. 
Mr. Jchtt WtPrf ; ttnta'mtng an anj'wtr tg that Ctntttman't Rt- 
marks en Thtrm and AJpaJU. PuWiflied from the Author's 
Manufciipt, left in PolTffljon of his Brother, \V. Hervey. 
With a J^cf.icc, (hewing the Reafon of their being now 
printed. Small 8vo. 33. Rivington. 

'HOSE who lore difpuici about 7*>?'/f«'rV«. imPutHi Right ttrf- 
mj'it &C. &c. may here meet wi[h ample graiiiication. 

Art. a. A fuTt Guide 19 Heaven: Prmting tbt DsSriveef Per fi^hn 
to be attaitiahU in thlt Life ; aad deftn'Uil etgainj} alJ StitaHi Mif- 
fimar'tet whate^tier, iL'lto pUad ftr Sm and Imptrfeilitn. Likcwife 
a /hsrt Caltihijmy Jit for aU PtopU \ a true Dejcrifthn of Anti- 
ibriji ; and hvM any Man may brntv him i» bimfelf and athert. 
A/ff, a full AiiWHtef all the Propertiti af Afan's Bed/t Souly and 
Spirit J and of tin Qferathm sf the gstd and evil Spirits ftriving 
in him, wimhjbaS! have the Prediiuiiianee fa gain his Jlff(£iiiKS 
wyA By a Chrirtian. iiio. is. Wilkic. 
A ttiange Rhapfody ! 

Art. 3. Ohfet-vatitas en a PatnphltU fntitled^ * Chrsjiiamty Hot 
ftundfd en Argument.' Bv a Chriftiaii Freethinker, fa'vo. is. 

The fcnGWc Author of thcfoohfcr«uion« ettdeavonrt to Diew, (wlijn 
«M vety well known bcfo;r) Oiai Chrifttanify nvt feunJtd en Ar^umeiti 13 
aeo&tiaufd irony fiooi bct^inning to end ; he Juncnii ihit To ample a 
iicld (hould be affijrticd the ^^ull^D^ of it for ihedifplay of his fnphiftry, 
«od that fo miiny unnccefliiry and indcfcnfiWc rarrparts (hould be rajfed, 
which ci)l>' exptffc ^a, otherwile, imprcgnalilc citadel, tn the aciaclu of 

hji (Talked ba'.lcrir>. If ihe dcfcniicri yftlie gofjwl would eontent 

thcmfelvca witli aildting, and utainuining, pure, criguul Cbrilliaaity. 

* in 

RfLiGious and Contkoversial. 

la iti primitive iimplicit]^, without any human additions, thry mighl 
ctTily, he IJiyt, b^e their moH fubile &dvcrfjrie* ; whereat, by wraji 
and inconliltcDi fvllems, creeds, articles, and catechijin!. wbicb cuino 
be audiorized, or fupporud by fcnpiurc, they reodcr llie bell caufe in* 
the world liable to the afTiuhi of in6deli, who groandlc6ly triiunph on 
the dejno)i:ioa of thole outMOtkf, at ifibeyliad cile^ually carried the' 
place. Hi*. apology for publiihtng, at thii dillance, animadreilioai 

on a pamphlet printed lb long fince, is that he hu }ull now, sod ookl 
before, penifed it with that detign. iT 

N. B. 1'he piece here alluded to, wu publifhed a few ye^n berortt', 
the comincncemcnt of our Review ; and had a great run. It wai in- I 
deed a ma&'d battery, fo artfully raited aiul conllrufled, that many-- 
wcie deceived by it : imagining it was intended as a defence of that'< 
caufc to which the Author * really defigncd lO gire a moria] blow i bu( ' 
his pioui purpoTe w^ defeated by tbe (accef^ful cfibrtsof'ihe opponents' ' 
be mec witb — among whom, if we miflake D0^ was bit own brodicr. 

• Mr. Dodwell. 

Art. 4- The impfinnnt ^efiun^ IPlvit A / hct ? (6fijidtri4 anil 
ap^l'ud, Uy C. H. V; Bo^atfky, Author «i" The Golden 
Treifuiy. izmo. 2J. 6d. I*aw. 

• What do jo'j lack V Mr. Bogatzlcy ! We wilt very plainly anfwvr 
ihti qucllioo, to the beQ of our apprehcnuon. You lack ICkuwlcgs, 

r JvDQuaNT. and 'I'ai rt ; nithouc which requilJtes, in a moch greater 
degree than you now icem to pnJTcfi them, we fear yoo will t>crcr make 

'a very illufI(iou< Jigure (in thii country at leaR) either ai a man of let- 
■Crj ■ or ai 3 divine. Yoitr wiitinj;! may peilupi picafe the Moravian** 
or fcMne other of our modem fatiaticlcs ; but they will never be reSAicd 
by I'uch at h«ve had tbcit talte improved by the works of a Tilloiferii an 

lAucrbury. a Uuiler, or a Ba!guy. -~— Yoa are. witb moll of the 
Rvereod gentlemen uf your crnin try *. abnve a century behind oar t%- 
ttonal hnciliih tlivines ; and null tank with Cjoage, wid Keach. and 
(Jwen. oftbc tall age. 

• Germany. Which, however, Iwj made the world ample ameodi 
fur the prodiv£lioQ of much rubbifli. by the works uf the learned Ml- 
chaclif, Mofbeim, and a few oJicrs. 

Art. 5. Jn J^ptndix M an Enquhy inti tin NatWi tind Difign 0/ 
Chrifl'i Ttii'pialsen in the H-'Mernefs. Cmtaining fsine farther 
Olff.'r'.-/i!itfii upon thii Salje'lt and atufnfwtr to Ohjt^itHt, By 
Hugh Farmer. 8vo. 6d. Waugh. 

[' In OKI Review for AuguA I7£t, we gave a pielty full accoont of 
Hr. Farmct'i Enquiry, 10 whicti v.s refer our Rcadcn.^— In this Ap- 
pendix he endi;;tvours to remove the objc^uni v.ihich have been oreed 
BgaiaA it, and it n^uil be o-.*'Rcd, we cmnot but thint:, by eveiy im- 
pjfti:*! jui-'ge of the fubjefl, thai the intcrprttailon lie has given of one 
pf ihc rooft difiici:!! paiti of (he F.vangelical hiftory ii now rcnderod by 
fit tJie moll rrobablc and faiisfuao^y of any tlut has been yci offcjed to 



lT»c puWic : ibc notes added to rtc fccond Edi'.ioo, the AuAVrnllt 

lu, wcuM tutvc IwcD infected in the Appendix, if (hey ttad n(Jc1>ecti lo 
rutncroui. a* to mzke u DCcefTjfV to ir.rcri (hem in the Ent^tiiry. for 
itic okic and cuaveiiiccce of the Reader. 


Art. 6. Thi FavauriU. With a Dedication to Lard B**«- 
8vo. IS. Harrifon, in Covcni-gvdcn. 

Kecspitulsiei the mifcaitdujl and misfbnuncs of former Coon fa- 
vounic«, — Moitimer, Cart Villieri, Sec. with a rieiv In (uch opfli'S' 
ihiti At moll be obt ioux even to the meaneS of that mob of mdcn, for 
ivhont lhi» raving, udlctter'd Politician writei. He fayt t'h taUfnati, 
Mr. ChoTchill, intended a fatiie en the lame plan. Very likely. B«t 
iX-e arc fofry to Ice the glortnm caale oF freedom df^iceij b^ fo Grurv/ 
a champion ai the prifcnt Writer! of whole abiliiie* we may cindidty 
give the following at a fpeciuicn: * The appearance of thmgj began 
now lo dcchre the fall of thi^ mi^hiy mrolon, [Buckin^hamJ nhich he 
difcegarc'cdT in/^'e tA bii uiiitTigitj?, ivhtch appealed repealed times, 
[not to bim^ to lit /ritK^Mt. Tom en. at Wimlior. — But BacUingharru 
Tn^i^ir/ofmeti a»(l gboEt>, (^vhatafpiteful dulcc wai he !) pioceededin 
his (}*ianny. iic' — Purely, ihii wile- Author uu be Dd oiber thai the 
Utc ^cbool-BuUcr of Cock-Un« 1 

Art. 7. Jixgalaticns lattfy madt tomtminF iht Cttonitty and th^ 
Taxa imfoftd u^vt ihtmy tavfidtrtd. Vvo. 2 %. Wilkk.. 

The frnGWc Author of thl» elaborate performance endeavonn to 
fhcw, that as (he imnicdlaic deffiKC of our cutonict wu ibe Tole caofit 
of the lift war, fo hi* their pcrmarn-nt frcurif)' been cfieitually obuiftcd 
by the peace ; ' and that even their mfiranJisjuttm f the term he hat 
thooght profcriouiefbi the farinatioii of (Lis anti-climaxj and tm^»v*- 
iKttit have been provided for, by the ntgociators of that treaty, beyiwd 
the idea ofany lormrr sdminillrat'on.' The advanugci thai muft ne- 
ceflaiily atcitic to the parent country, from a due attention to the lots- 
rttls ot htr cclouies. trc (■ o obviot>» to need reciung. To cncoiKjge 
'their population and their calture, tii tegulate their commerce, and lo 
ceinent and perlcfl the fictclfiwy connrfiion between them and the mo* 
ihef-couiiiry, fliOuU (hftcfore, as he ri-^hlly otifcme*, ba tbe/rm-f^af 
objc^b of a Bnliih intmlU'r'scafO. . ■ i\;aity llepi (add» he) have beeu 
ItKly tsifen, which. b>' their immedistc opcntions, or diftwrc confe* 
quences, mar tnaliriatiy ^tl'ctl thefe imporiiuit cuoeriK ; and iherefore 
cv-erymnn who iifiitccrdyiDlercticd in whatever is interefiinfttohiscountty. 
will anxioi^iy (.onrjcr die propiiety of thofe meafuro; will enquire htta 
the priiidple& I'ppo which ihcy have been adopted i and wilj be as icady 
to applaud w>:at has been we'ldgnc, as to condemn what has been dons 
atcifi : .nnJ to fuggdt fuch rmcndniioni, irrprarements, or additions. 
at D^ay fait within the cO'Tipitft of bit kno^Iege, or occur to his reflcc- 
lion. Tliefolfowirig l>.c«ts wvie written v.ii(i a vitwio rKilitarefaeh an 
cxjuniuatioo: ihry p*ctti»d to no more than locOlleft the fcreral rego- 
Liuuii law-Iy made with iclptfl to the coltn-ies, to weigh the rcaloBi 
y^xju utiivti each oi'thcdi aj>pe.i[} to have been fooudcd, and to tee bcnv 


t A \k: 


f»i tKcfe are fupporttd by fajla, and bv ma»imt of imJc inJ pnlic?, 
iTI»efe rcgnlsiiooi me mjmy, jikJI^svc b«o made in the dilii e;i( i^e-' 
UmtnoBU flf our Jc^dUttre or caiou^tvc ^<>vcriia>«nt { 1^*7 tin fuirtcrvd ; 

puuiicnoioiictji wt i-.ij faOi?f, apd ought to kno* t' a^id 

wh:ch are hcie, ,il.- : . , -- -.-".t into oi>e vific, Uiat ibc) oiaj' ba 
coplidtfxM togcfbcr, :ii.-J i!ut it miyfiirljf »pi>cflr • »*tictjicr U«y »ij«J 

■crude, iirc"'-—-'-' ■ - '■ •' ^ ■"'■' :';';s nf l<OA-Cf ; <rri*lt- *:-- r'-r 

liormiWT i ftluwry pjan of c . 

•^e^JI produflioti. mkhoi Jjc ta^ MrneJUy rccr.r m > £ti^«t cu^ 

^nacul utjon, «boaa<ling wttb p^»h>ditl li;:^.c,7i,cr» in utaofl c\pf 
put of the globe. 

Art. 8. Tif Rj^hisefihe Sritijb Ccknia tjirttd an^prevtJ. . By- 
James Otii* E^gi 8«q. 2 3. Aimwi.- 

A very zesIoos^CQce of lite colontos. teitdiitg wprtive, ihtt evcrjr 
iDAn io the Bn;ifli Jowimow ii eonrtuiKionallj' 1 ftt« man { (h«:oo| 
parti of his- M^eiXy'tiioiainiOBttaa cdntlitutinntll)' he i.'xtti tvichc 
iheirowit «>olcin ; «tiJ ibit o*ciy part Ui 1 ri);hi to be rcprcfcnicd in-j 
ibc ruprcnw. or ibmc iuliQnliiutc It^iil^iirr. I» Itnr, ttnc tlicy Riouldf 
kiot 01)1}' bccontiuucd uiJtbc CBJoyAtsni at' futordinuK tcgril^tiijn, but bf ' 
alfo re^ccfriilcd. in proportion (ft *!■ ' c 4nd eilmcf, in ihegranil 

■^:io>i>l Ic^iiUtiLiu ;— AliitJi, the A^ i , i.|iiii «r(.Mhiiik with good' 

I > ul :!ic iM)(i|}k€4it>>i^i inpeaceaotf] 

i, ; .e atui pc;{/ctuBl. — I'^ieir: mkuf 

iUtiiiK* 11. iiii> : - .>imly the Author vaky wiitcj ddrrrf ' 

(^ very coo- . ..dcrj, 

L ♦ w. 

^An;tt. T^f i*iy < LiMs, Af^. ii'c. 8vr». 45. b hpxiaf 


Ad hotch-potch, citdi-pcnny collc^on of detach'd lheet% gathered 
from unfeid oiagazttMs, f<irttlbich they were OiiginaTlj'iuinicd; JtaJaow 
Jtp/tnatff' tiilpbcd -tof^hfr. t<i makt a Ivti- TKit wu Oi>c wny in 
whkh ihc ingeoiout Mr. CtrrI ofrd (a iKn hit (lock of (juiir-bool;*, 
when b» warcboufe grew loafuIL We ue told fh«tjhc«DCeooaipUated 
a bundle of impetfcft voyagu sr-d travels, in which every copy waiicrd 
(be Ut!cr-<;nd, with the condoding f!i«t of apoihcr hmp whidi proved 
tn be a tmrifton partfli ofilcci. In like manner, thii /dtu ^ t^hlt ■! 
tli*d itt rwionly ifriiii a ptrcel ot^th^tn trials, bai with a ' pamcutvac- 
p3uni of six t)ie CfiiiDHi, ufcfalt tod a^ttbcDtic m^niiftHpti in the BntlQi 
■mufiuiin, irUli<iV to xhc l9i^gr«tti:M d./^ti^h»i »w\ mi'i^^itirt of f»p- 
iatJ, iHtilinJ, if'aki, aud i'rJamJ, Sic icQ.' But I'letv h aothiftg c)cvl> 
in chi> cuntiivance : It h only Curiij <r st ieconj hand. Ct^n l ^ai tba 
Oluci'Mt. GiiMU5, to wbomthe iKnntit Af thl" aaJ'intny oibct gteaC 
iisproveincM>. JA cUffJoyllcry it due. 

* I'be doArioc of Ltbeh st this tine greatly' cogrofling -.he pi^ifie 




Art- lo. Tbt AdJMHtagit af Rtpmtance, A Moral laity attrmpitd 
in hUnk Vfje ; and founded en the Antidtitti of a privaU Famify 
in******jhirt. 8vo. is. 6d. 'lonfon. Sic. 

A murder cotninitced ihc liTaiTin in exile* hU leturn lo hit di- 

live cogncry ud friends in happy circum fiances^— the afp^itiM of the 

croD miirihcr'd ihe coniequent horrtiur of the crininal-^^hit cx- 

EmpUry pcnji^nce, and rtdrtfi o( the injur'ii ftmily ; ihelc are the 

^rincipAl circumlliincei of this Arange and wondeiful doty i which x 
iin:tr. ponVfTcd of inoie ioiagination iban jodgmenc, hu here drefs'd 

II, ia fudi vetfe as the fullowing fpccimen : 

J/ftM-mvt a/ tie Choi, in the mJfi cf 4 V^a/R.; 

• Before him floctd, 

Uflffcn 'till now, a rertifjine Fwn> ! 
Within tKe haggard face, dilrraAcd fear,' 
And wntKing pain, and agonizing giief. 
Had (iruck tbcir uloni deep; the bulhy locks 
Wiib ciimfon jlrutr-a were dotted,' and. upiear'd 1 
From hollow c>'c look'd forth leproachfal forrow 
And damp'd the pious jo)-, fo newly bora ' 
In Edward"* beait- ■ ' 
11 no great wonder ihu the appeannce of fb ur.cxpedcd a guefl 
noiild «'«A^ihc joy of the pcrfon to whom fiichan unfeafunabic viflt was 
aadc 1 But ibc gholl wv, nevctihc!e6, a very auict. pacti]C fort of a 
loK ; fo thu Mallet iidward had r.o occafion 10 (wear the peace againA 
tim, or bind him over to the quarter-feflioni. All that the harnflcfs 
|orgi»ir>g i[KCtTz (though a fuily ■ chap, before he was knock'd on the 
bt-'iij} <Jci]iaiid<-d, by way offatitfailion for the tofi of hi* life, wa> a 
I COuitort.tb'e proviliou, for hi) di(^reflcd widow and two poor children : 
with W))ich very rcafonabic compo&tion the tcrrilied dciinc]i>eitt gladly 
complies ; — the apparition appears again to bid peace be with hiin : 

-Sioce Rcvintasci 

In never-failing dreams haihwalh'd awajr 
The flaini of gui!t, 

j.-Aaii then ibUowa Um genera] rclcafe. and receipt in full : 

• Well thou hafl difchaig'd 

Ihy debt to JuiTicB, CitARiVT and Gop ! 

In diort, Fdward ii now alTurcd, that * henceforth guilt, pain, and 
Ibnow fliouhi be (Iningcrt 10 liix brcaA ; that pleahue fhould lUew htl, 
f aihi i that hit cnurl'c cbrough life iliotild be f.tfe and long ; the bed of ' 
death fmooOi, and fairefl gleanu of opening blil's ihine on hu parnng^i 
Spirit ;' from fll which the Keader cannot but fro with what propriety 
lois performancpiietititletl ' ihe .'Advantages of Repentance.' Vetfome 
inay perhaps think that a happier ami mote adequate tcitn than advitx- 
fwt Biig^i bare been uled. 

f Seep. :j. 

P O V T I C A L. -f^J 

Art. II. Tht tnefficaijcf Satin f a Pctm\ cecafutttd hy tkt Denih 
efMf.CburcbilU 4to, 6d. Hawcs, &c. 

The pen I dnw 

To keep the trembLin^'» imptoui woHd in iwe. 

Evgi i O bf Ave ! ISaat tua ' vir/utt, fter ! Now for the nut 
toupict - ™ 

T« woond the Icnive. to drip the fooniag fiioi. 
What darci to aO, 1 dare to pftiot. 

What * my bold champion ! my undoabied Alcxus I (evn doti io- 
fl«ad of a name ! 6e, Ac upon it ! This fk, indeed, the fi</f!'.<n-r of fuire!^' 

Would yoo know more of ihl» poem. Reader i th™ know that th 

Author vifiicd Churchill's gmv, that he Ckw his gbod, that it Tpoke toj 
liini, called him a ^ff/r«w youth, trad wilcly, very wiicly, bad tjii' 
ccale bij|rKr/aKi labour. 

Art. I2> Th€ Laurtatf a Petm-t infmhed to tht Memory of C, 
CkuribiU. 4to. IS. 6d. Rtdley. 

The dominions of Alexander the Gicat had not more competttor% 
afur hisdcceafe, than ihc poeiicai defmenet of the late Mr. Chutchill.j 
Vaiioui, indeed, are the catididatet; bfit their pretence are nearly the] 
fine-^To nc^farc couptctt, to ^iter abufe, and to praift the bank' 
whole name chcy take ia vain. Thdr ambition, at the itvac utat, i> tt 
fordid as their verfc i for ii ii not Mr. Churchill's Crown of Laurel that 
ihey fcek, but bis Half CroMcn Sterling. With rtjaid to the 4ulhor cf ' 
the Lauicat, however, wc are not a little obliged ro him ; for hy iit- 
f-TRUDg uEto an advcrcifemcnt that he is the author, likcwife, of Friend. 
(hip. 3 poem, (for an account of which fee Rcr. Vol. XXIX. p. 40;.) hv 
ha& laved both oar Rcadcis and ourfelrei the trouUe of entering inia 1' 
Uny account of tlus. Would all Iciibleii do the fame, the province off 
the Reviewer would be much eafier, fince one fpecimen of their abilitiei 
in the fame fpecies of writing, v«-ou[dbc amply iofiictcnt. 

Art. Tj. The Ran. By Mercurius Spur, Efqj with Notes bjr 
FauAinus ScriWcniJ. 4(0. 2 s. 6d. Flcxncy. 

We Qiall Ihall give the Author of this Poem a tcftimony of that can- 
dour he feemt lb unwilling 10 allow us, by acknowledging thai hi' pm- 
duflion it not dciHtutc cither of cotnic or of poetic mcnt, though it can- 
not boaft that arch, and hi(;hly li^afoned humour, which a poem on a 
Race of Bards contending for the Laurel might have afibrded. 

Alt. 14. Thf Patriitii Muff, or Poems On funt of the frimipetl 
Events of the latt ff'ar ; ta^ethtr with a Poem en lie Ptace. 'By 
an American Gentlenian. Svo. |S. 6d. Biid. 

TUs Mate of the new world i^ a public- fpiritcd Girl, and crowds her 
wFft with Armi. and George, and fcrunfivic, and Nova Scotii. and 
*}uebccca, and MonoogohcU, and Moatreal, and Shirley, and Jnhr.fon, 
and Montcalm, and iJiaddock. and Oiwcj;", aitd Schuyler, and Mmurca. 
#nd ^lidicney, md Byc^, and Cauda, i^A the lamented dcitb of J<K 



, Aan Bolcher, and Batnd* the wife of the Rev. Mr. Burr, aod tbc Ba 
' *f tfenai*Icy who w»s (Sin in a Oiimiiflu— — Mo;cov«r, Bcricawta^J 

*Wolfe. Liwiine*. WMsmOrf, Hardy, Ainherft» Saol, J^n3tbilI sftd 
Joihua are (everilly (lirrcil lOUtid ia ihu pocdcfll caoJdran i aud IVctyi- 
v^nia, GuaHakpr, Ni&guJ. Loutlbui^h, Ow bownMiien of Lodis too 
Fitterndi. knd Boliam siiJ hU AU are tKst&oaii^,' cun&iit^i,, I'hc 

'Spinilb war is put incoarmig, and Mr. Sc.rciory Tut into an acfoflk. 

Aft »5. OJe m brr M<jffij't Birtb^Jay htimg ktft the Ei^ttntb 
jif January, By ihc Revdcnd Mr. Hmtron. 410. 6d, Da- 
' rfs snd Rcymers. 

We cannot by any mnm approve of the tiiflc in \^ucli this ode i» 
Tivrlttirn.— -Roving, abltr^^^ unaMry, QiS* and ungraceful coiapouod 
^piibMi, and a £lare of coloRring nvaice but a poor HmeiuU fot a turret^ 
cii of fcnliiacor, and a wont of native cafe, and unlaboured dignity. 

Now lei the Cty-plujn'd father of ihe fiowcn 
WJth fni|rant lathers [cave ibefpiey Ixtwcu, 

WJiere ihe Sac tropic warfclcfs liog ; 

And hithn lUttcb fati rolea:e wing. 

/\nd (oJiiy foothc dx ctfing year, 
Wliile fiioiv-dropt gay iu vir^JO'iolxs appear. 

Wt ha*« ^ca other produftioru of this gentleman's pen, wbteh wC 
' 4aw p«ni(ed whli met« lalisfaAioa. 

Art. c6. 7^ Cenfiitiutits, a Punt. By P. Stockdale. 4^^ 

18. Flexney. 

The fabjeA of this poem is tbe late cleflion at Berwick.— —It tavf 
)~^ fuiBcieiu to liiy, Uut u plainly appean to be the worSt of (he lame 
t^traorJinjry gcmus, who, after being dubLicd an .Ancel, was hsnged 
^iid buiu^'.tn ^ ,Iii^towu. Sec Review for lall nKia^i p. 76. 

Art. 17. Oifi'inImi.:!hn sf Hctau, OtTt J/T. L. fif. Jiiftuirt 
ac tdi^QctiiBproporiti virum. AtUrtffid tt ib« Rigti litnaur~ 
ehU Sir JisUri ll''(ilpck : en ciofingf) W Mmijitr^ /ii.6, 1741. 
DeJ}gmdat ajvji Rwfjyric en a^:er /W;«y/^r, tht^hiiUi Rt- 
Vilaticn^ Pr^trffitTst Suoejpeft^ aitti Primiphi e/Ltbfrty ; te wt/itb 
h nidfil tht sriginal Odt't cUftHdtd^ in cooimcntaiiolo. By Sir 
WUli.itn Brewoe, M. U. 4E0. i s- Owen. 
VoVr fflOS 4ilMdMiit homble lerv.ULt, -Sh WiUiaia BtOfune*^ 
' i^iJ lumo frunitlttt 
fehnda iTrn em f «#/«&> mltrt. 

To fr? yoy Iiereagsin. fo (bon. Sir Wiliiim, was wharwe rooWiiei- 

llier Willi nor hope. How fopc/ior isyout conJoH, in thi» rcfpvfl, tr> 

||hAt df great mm m grseial, linoe, far ftom being ivork. you arc Urftct 

ri^ait your Koord ! dn your Utc profivind ant! feieniihc jiublication nl tW 

firft Ode of Horace *, you gave us to HodcrlUiiHl tKa ifii wuciar*>i*<- 

• S«e Rcviaw, VoL XXVIU. figt 4CQ, 


The AT* xcAi. 


aWv rf«i»edi It flwuU br follow* J by <(ilwr», and row miothcr foIl(nv» 
it* tho' it was not rwchfed at all. ' ■ Tim » the. inofp genrrou*, us ll»e 
engraving of yooranns, crefljinoHo, dctijat^&c. uu the liilc-pagc muft 
hlvtbeen sitcndcJ with rotnecipeiKc. All tbisli mighty •fell, snd lo 
Bkewilc u yoor «dca«* Icdgment to the Ear! of Oi1'(»J id the doJkation, 
ft)r in> your worfhip a jtillicc of ibc (>«*ce. itat aJm, wonh}' knight, 
there fame gracclcfs Mufes hn^e not the IcaO not)<m either of arms tm 
hoixoati, and, ncrtwithflandingaU fout di^riiiiei and facukicF, infteal 
ofgiviAoycti the refined clegiRce, and the great fLibtimity ul your ori* 
"nil, tney have pot yo« offwiih the poorttl dot^jrrl, nnuie yuu ulk of 
irict whorcj, choTpinp; off heads ^viih axe:,, uod have e^en blitided . 
Roa la far as lo Jegtade your veifti by giving George the Firfi tbc aim 
term of O'd S/mtfr ' m cxprcfiion which tisntiotlxnft of much grczti:x 
-d'^Bitjr tJtaa OU Dffina.'t theriamc of a aoKdoyAer-wooias. 

\^tt.i%,TkeMtUiah\afacrtdPi.m. In Fiur Boek$. By Mr, 
WkIiw. 410. JOS. 6d. Cootc. 

We have already meiuibnfd ttui work, to the couffe of Ui pobllea- 
[|{on in fe(uja'e boolci: lee Nativity. Cruci&xtgRj TcnipUtioa, i'C. Kc 
■^ticw, Vob.XXlX. XXXL 


As a£te4 
is. tit 

Art. iQ. The Phuoih Wtff^ a CmtSj. Bjr a l-adjr. 
at tnc Thcauc- Royal in Drury-Lanc. Svo. 

ThM ^Uii4K Ladi«i. deeply tead in Totnance. loay have falleo Inta 
the Piiiooic fanciful fcheme here expofcd 10 ridicule, there n nt> mora 
to doubt; but wc apprehend that loaJtiiSQriy r^ull ever liavc had.thvj 
powtr to diffolve fo flimfy a chAim. It may be tlicfrfore juRly (]i>ca. 
fticncd, wh«hcr ihctc no* is, or ever did emft for three ncclci toge- 
ther^ fuch a charaflfr as a Platonic Wfe. Such a chaiaflcr, however, 
hutHen drawn by Mr?. Grifltih. ntithor ef the lette/t benveen Rm/ 
and i-nuiccs '; wherein the Reader will find, if we rlghlly tirtolIcfV, x 
foaCderable portion of the (June Jui.d urrpittt.— I'bi: tow» w;i> fo can- 
did and indiugent ai lu bear with iKc iin[>c(rei£Hons they coald nut bst^ 
diic<TD, in ihii unt'uriunaie ptoduA)'>n o.\ 3 fcmAle poi, liuriog a luu uf^ 
^' nights- W« will not Qiew Obrfclvev lef^ couneaui 10 t!ie ingeoiouil 
tady,oy too rigid an examioauou of a performance ihe may poQiblyl 
«ifll to forget. Let the curtain therefore defcend. and aU dcficiencic* 
of plott.cliarafirr. fcmimcnt, language, and mora], be for ever va)c^ 
fftia the eye of Critkifoi. 

• See Review, Vol. XVIT. p. 416. 
+ The ftory it borrowed from one of Marmoatel'* tales, entiilcil 
VHtiwiuM Divtrtt: The Happy Divorce. 

Art. 20. T7w AlaU ef the MiU \ a Cmlc Opera : Jfi it 'is pa-' 
firmtd aj, iht thftrt-B*f0l m ^wmt-Gartlni, The Klufic 

Monthly Catalogue, 

cinnpileJ, and the Words written by the Author of Love in a 
Village. Svo. is. 6d. Newbery, &c. 

' It will be 00 ni compliment toMr. BickeHixff', the >^iithor ofihisper- 
Ibrinaiiice, if wc lay tnat, in our judgmcnr, it is poUcfTcd of more 
fDCTit as s comedy, though of ilie lower Mil, ihaa at an open; j-ct, ia 
all probability, he, ai the coinpilei of the mufic. w^lt not ibaak us for, 
the dillindioo here made, aud the prefeience given. Teihip hewiJl pro- 
icUagaioll our;Ddemeat sad tsltc inmurtc; andicisconfcllcdthathemajr. 
"have reafon for oaKing chi> objeflion : »* we really are not adtnirerj of 
f'rench mufic, any more th^n Mr. Roufleau, who ha(h fa highly con- 
dcmncd it. Wc do not wonder, however, that ihii piece hath ftic-. 
cecdcd lb greatly on the flage. It was fo well performed, in general, thaC 
ic mnji have fuccccdcd ; even if it had been Ici!i indebted than it is, to 
the abilities of the Author : who feems to polTefs 3 genius well fuitcd to 
ibij, at prelcnt, falhionablerpcctei ofcompolitioii. 

Mr. Bickerftaff will pardon ui, tf we take the liberty of reeommend- 
ing to him, in rc/pefi of hii futttre produAiuns. to be more ntteniive to 
one capital drcumAance — their Tekdency : thst of his prelcni per. 
fbrmaiice having been judly objC'Sed to. by cvcti the adniitcrt of the 
piece, a a mufieal enter tain mcni. To cncoarage young people of la. 
mily and fortune to marry lb very difproportjonately, «, in the prefeni 
inliance. Lord Aimworib with a miller's iljughtcr, ii even worfe ihaa 
tSc llory of Mr. fi. and Pamela, on which chU opera is fbandcd j and 

Tcry litdc belter tlian Lady '• running away with he» footuiai).-- 

' Ought fuch gio& indifcretions to be ttMttiMnsid on the public (tage i ' 

An. 21. 77jf Man of the MUi^ a BurUfqut Tragic Opera. The 
- Alttfic compiled and the Wotds written, by SigniorScjualtni. 
8ro. IS. Cooke. 

A wretched thirg, tnteDded to burlefque the Maid of the Mill. 

-Art. 22. Pharnatti : An Optra. AUtr'd frtm iht Italian, By 
Thumu Hull. As it u perfortiKd at the Thcntrc-Royal \x\ 
. Drury-Lane. Svo. i s. Tonfon. 

We harardcd our fcntimcnu in general on tl>e fubjefl of EnglrQi 
Open*, in our account of Almena: Ice Review (or No*. laft, p. 3^5. 
jAi to the prclent perfofmance, it doe* not Jeeni, from a bare ^rsr/^, 
[Cd dcfcrve pantcular notice. 
't Novels. 

lit. 23, 7X-r Surpr'tzti ef L^ve, extmpTiJiid m 0;t Rsma*ict efa Day^ 
und the Rtmame zf a Nt^ht. The Secon<i Kiiitioii ; wIlli ths 
Addition of Two Stories, never before in Hrinr, cntltlcJ, 
The Rsmanct of a Msrntng^ and the Rtmantt tf art Evnting^ 
]2nao. 3s. liOwnds, &c. 

^c have already recommended to our Readers the two Aril of ihcle 
natural, cafy, challc, and elegant talcs *. The two new flcries, added 

• ^Cf Review, vqL jpCXII. ^d XXVIII. ^ 




In thli sdditioo. sre not unequal to the two fonner. in merit : efpeciAUir 
[the RomancQ of x Moraine i which might be eaiily turned into « dia> 
Laiatic fortDi >nd cfiultl hardly fail of fscceedtng on iKe fUgc, if not un- 
flUIfall/ or unnaturally alter'd. 


yjiit- 34. J Complete Hjfifry sftht Origin anH Pngrtjs ef tht hti 
SVar^ fritn its Csmnutuemtnty 19 tht Exchange tf the Raiifica- 
tieai of Ptacij beltuetn Great Britain^ Frantt^ and Spain : ea ' 
the loth of Fib. 1763. Andto the figning if tbt Treaty sf Hu- 
bertjhergy Aetwefti the King tf Prt/ffiay thf kmprefi-^ueen-y and 
tht EUitvr of Saxeny^ on the 1 5*0 of the fame Mtntb. 8vo. 

[- 3 Vols. 101. bound. Knox. 

7*he degree of attention to an anonymoos liiAory, efpectally an hiAot^ 
Voar own times, is obvkias 10 ever/ pcrfon of aimmon underlUnding. 

Whoercr may be the prclent Writer, he doci not feem quite oeHittite 
ef erciy qualificHiiDn for the weighty taOc he has undertaken. He sp- 
pean, in general, to be. not a ^eniui. but a judicious kind of an hijl»~ 
rian-hdj» ai a nonbern tchooloaJler exprcfi'd bimfelf ( but he ii by no 
inraDj capable of fupporling the dignity of ihts nublc fpccies of compo- 
lition : neither is he (b much in the fccrct ofaffiiirt, as to be .ibic to 
ccramunicate 10 llie public any thing of which it was not rufiicienily nc- 
|oaiiued before. If we allow him the character of a diligent compiler, 

is ihe molt be ti entitled to- Wjih regard to his lii'e, it it chiefiy tluc 
r plain unlludicd narrative ; ibougb fometimcs we mm with aa ex- 
_prei[|ioa a tittle out of the way : as, where, in the waimth of his patriotic 
sea] for the honour cf Mr. Pitt'* adminillration, he fays, * Should aD/ 
One be difpded to urite a panejiyhc on this miniHer, he has no more 
10 do than to relate this fi(\., that, whilll he wai concerned in the aiTsirs 
of government, this country carried on the moft important war bitgland 
was ever enr^ed in without an ally, mote to her boitour, and wiiii 
greater fucceJs, than fhc ever did before, in the moft fucceftful war, »nd 

u'jih the mod powerful afliftaiKe.' So ht, all is decent etiottgb : but 

what follows / — * Yet this great man has his calumniators ; but when 
their memtrju at welt as um'u cartajfa ^W stikk, bis memory wilt 
be •dtrifirmi with the wile and good.' This is not very ueriftrout 
langtuge, whatever may become of our Author's prcdifUon. 

Art. 25. The Hthrevi Text eonfdered\ heing Ohjervattans en tBt 
Novelty and Sef-inanfi/ltncy of the Mafaretit Hihtm: cf ptiisting 
i}n facred Htbrew-^iTtptUTti : lyitb a reajonahie Aceount of she 
Aathor'i Plan ef reading and eonJlruSing thefcripttaolHtbrww 
vjtthiut Poinii. Fsundtd upon an attentive Ctnfidtratlan of the 
Genius if the Hehrew Text itftlf unpMittedy as at ftrji tfnwti 
the obvseuf Diilatti of Nature ; the htovm ufagf of Ltmgucgt in 
gtnnai ; and the umxceptisnakle jfuihsrity ef the Amiints. By 
Norman Sievwrighc, A. M. a Preniytcr of the Church, antl 
M^ntilcr to the authoiizcd Epifcopal Congregation in Bre- 
cfaio. 8vo. 3t. 6(1. MiUu*. 

• The 


Mqitthlv CatalogU£, 

* Th« following Hiicourfet layi the Aathor. ii intetdcil if aprflfmi* 
pavy inuodndiou to a jfremav of the (cnpturat Hebrew Ungitsf^e, 
IbanJed upon a. oedf (ihou(t)) tn rtajitj' ttie oldelU yec obvigui nnd re»< 
i^n.ib|« phn ; of which pUn the fubtlanoe is here propofcO (Uit illiif* 
IratrJ firlly in my pnmmar by qitotstiona from the Hebrew fcriptiirct 
thcnUclvcu and fmai ttim Dnty* in ewry inlHncf oK piimev^l foTina- 
lion) mtl^ huobl)' iiabiniueJ lo thcconfiiJcracionorevcryAeJUmeaiiingcf)* 
^tn-r wco trucb. Thefe olircrvativns 1 have beeo advircd to publi(h» 
previous to the pubttcauon of tny J[r3aiinar, that the world might fee lh« 
rnffliublcncf* (1 mi^St fuv, ih^ neccHity) oFfuch an undemkiag. atul 
tc convinced th.ll no iwpofition ii dirfipned.' 

Mr. Sictrwiijjht bii diviJcd hii wo'k into five fe>£lioDi ; in the two 
£fft he iak«i a vicM of thv arguments for ind Xgainlf the M;iiibreiic 
point* ; in the ihiid Ire confiJc/* thv opirlon of Dr. Piid-aux, with re- 

Jsrd to the aglhoriiy and ntcclEty nf the Mjfotciic puncluauon ; ia the 
our:h he cndcnvoiiri to piovc ihc M^f niic fchcme of ^uif/itrnt itittrn 
•nd the afljgnitig dtllVrtnt powcri to one and the fame letter of ll)c He- 
brew alphabet, to be a grofs cortupiion of the UcbrcMr lunguage : 
•fid, in the fifth he If can of' (he fuiulsmenrA's of the natural and con- 
IfllenC reading, conClrutling. and inierprviaricn of the fcHpiural Hebrew, 
•greeabiy to the j'tan which appears to have been adopted by th; an- 
CiCnif, and whirb is agiecnble to ihe geniiu and uniformity of the Ita- 
|u:ige. With ioicrcAmg rcmariu apoii paflaees wrong irandared.' 

i)ach of our Readers ui are coovemni wiifa worki of ihu kind, will 
•find many of this learned Wtitcr's obrcnrations worthy of their ac- 

Art. 26. An Narrative tffvmt rtmarkalU and 'inlertfling 
Partiat/arsin ste Life 0/***'***. Communicated in a faeries 
of Lcttcfs 10 the Rev. Mr. Hawcis, Reiflor of Aldwiacle, 
Nurthamptonibixc ; iuid by liitn, at the Retjucfl of Fricndv, 
now made public. ^imW lire. is. Tcw'd. Johnfon. 

Welook tipon iSbas a jentuDe account of one who* tmm bcinf 
a p'ofiigaie oointnon failor, becatQe a fober, fcrioas religious pcrfon ; 
and who, having h^td the advantage of a pretty j^ond education, tjuittcd 
thefvs faring life, looka turn (o books, induliiioufly [aHghthimfclffcTerai 
cf the learned lanj^ua(>c», and at lad enteriainitig thoughts of the ni* 
ninry. folllcited cxdinaiion ffom the late Archbilhop afVork, bni was 
jcfurcd. I he Author appcais to be a roan of g^^ natural parts i 

iboiich Urongty tiii^ured aith that Ibrt of enthtliiafni whtrh has been In 
■ widelv ipteaJi by the writings of Harvey, and oAeis of the methodifti- 
cal Uamp. 

Art. 27. Ortit^af'Jy New Modelled \ tr^ Dixiveli's KfW Miihui 
»f Si'tiiiKg. TLf udsle csvjhueitfi m a new Plan^ far tb$ Im~ 
frgitmtai tf Lernvrg in E/t^^tJh Sxfficli. l2ino. 1 s. Dix- 
wcU, &c. 

From the plainrefi and fi-T[i'(n:i(j of the Autbor'i method, we tkiok 
ihi' -Spelling, book proti^Hci tobe more tilcfol 10 ehddrrn, than bkHI of 
thofc wiiKh have Uea tnuodaccdimoear commoa day-fchooU. 

3 Art. 28. 



Art. 28. At Epy M iht Edaeei'tm af CbilA-ett. Pun }. On 
FenniMg thir iU^Ui. Part IL On lo^^i'lm^ iLtir Mindu 
Tn. ' ' ':-!m the Gi^mcn ofjihn GiaUi Krugtr, Profiffar of 
Pin. :.; Pl-ifu in tht Vmvirfity tf Hthifladu O'ld MorMr 

tftbt itnptr'tal A^dittnj if the Nattarts CuneftCt and of iht Rmal 
AcadiOFf ef Scitnus at Berlin, lltno. 2S. 6d. Dodflcy, ic. 

The Aathor orihis EITay f»nig, ingcncnl. to have vrryjull notions 
of EdacaiiOD ; tm at he advancei oottijng thac hat not been ohax rc- 
peitedi a puttcu'ar acecont of this perforioincs ii unnecdliuy. 

An. 29. J Trip t9tht Me9i'-, ajntalnlng an Jccount ep the IjIoHi 
ofNoiilat its Uhahilentt, RellgianSy and PsStlia! Ci^anis^ faV. 
By Sir Humphrey LunAcic, Bare Vol, II. ixmo. as. &d. 

Wc vc Utty «-c csnnot congraiuI.iic oor ftienJ Sir Humpttrry on hit 
l^oml 1 1 ip lo ifac Mofm. Hit laa jt<agc U, at uftial. too niticb iofid^d 

fnUi epilhcK; coptoo* enough, anil fpiritcd, bat wttboox Hit, or prr- 
LcJion. Soinc of hi> chwiAcrt ire too in&gnificant ; *nil even xhod ire 
ril-fupportctl- His AniAs *ie tedioos, and hii NoiMnn termi and tan- 

evBge n JkuIou*. Tht^re it fomethiag of a Shandyan levity Tc^ttufd hero 
\ inU there ihrto&h Wi pagtJ, tthich ftiiti n« with the 1ncr.1l /piriu aoj 
[ ierioas lendmcr of the whole. Yet hi} fentimcnts and concJuGotii an 

■eneial'y yo&, and nlwuys in fevour oTviituc. In (kofi, the Tup to lire 

Moon, though an injudiLtous, nMy bccAcemed %a uKtuI ^v-orli. in whidi 
' (he bed iotcrefb ci m:inl;ind are propcfly conl'alKd, lbr:r p«frio.-is eor- 
, fcCtcd* «Jul their Mlies cxpolcd. 


t. Thf Butt ef inJlruShi rmmmunitd at llie "VrfiUtton of tht 

AtchJeacon of Covcmry. May z;. r76+, al tJoviclry. Uy Ihoma* 
llin<let, Kc<toE^f Avnn-D»llit^ in WnfWKklbirc. fkichcr. 

It. Uelvtc the Houfe ot' Lordi, Jan. 30, 1765. By the I}:fli:<p of 

CaHdc -SaiKlbv. 


tNoonfequfnce of the ictcer from Broadway, in which notice 

* is taken, ihat §. 24. c. 14, I>. 2. in Mr. \.(iz\.€sE£ay antht 
Hitnian Undtrjianding^ (cntirfcJ, in the Tabic of Contcjltt^ 

* The Mcaiure of 'lime two waj's applied*) is winitqg in the 
work;— we have made fome eiiquin', but without fucceis, inio 
t\\'i caufe of ibis omiflion. Oor CorTci*pondel»t Uys* x\\z firjt 
Edit, dcpofiteil in the liodlcian library', al Oxford, has been exa- 
mined, and (if wc nghtty undcrftand his kttcr) that tditioji it 
«qu^y dclcciiv'c with ibe rett. it is pro';>.~:t>le (hat the inlbnna* 
tum wanted, may he obtained froni Lord Malliara, with whoaii 
it i» imagined, nic orisir.aJ mjnufcript h W^eJ. 


t <to } 

Thti Mon-.h wa» put>lil1ied, [P> ice tot 6d.} 
tnfetibcd to the Rtghl Honourable Lt:r<l WiLLOUCHBy of Pacham, 

A Chart or liiocRAPHV, together with a Costikuation 
anil Description oF it, anil a Catalogue of a^l the Names 
inrcrtcil in it, with the Dates annexed to them. 

By jo&£rii pKiESTLEY, L. L. D. Tutor in the Languages and BcUes 
Lettre5t in the Aademy of Waixlngion. 

Piinted for die Amhor, and fold by hinlctf at ^VartingtODt and by 
J. Boivlct in Conibill, London. 

'T'HE Chart cIBioptphy, of which the pl*te annexed nhibiti a Tpvciimo, t* 
^ aiwni lh«« feet In length, afiil iwo feet in breatlch. It nprt^eo-t the later-^ 
I*! at itnN bf iw«tn tin rear laoo before Chrlft, and iSoo a(t«r Chrift, dWii 
bjr an e<|oal fcalc into ccnturiei. It coiitaini above (wo th^uttctd luam, tha 
noft 4ininsuillM<l in th« ansilt of fame t ""' ■'>" length of ihcir Ijvn U reprv 
tinied in it by IJnci drawn in pro{)<irl>nn lo Ibeir re^l iIurittAn, and (ilaccd fo ai 
■Q Acw, by iniuiOon, liow Ipng any rwmber trf ]>Tifon» wef« coteniporafy. and 
bow long one lile hcsun before, or cxiendtd beyond anothcf. w ih every oihcr 
cirdinuUnce wtikli tjependi upon the ttngth of livei, and the rtbtioa tbey bcac] 
both to ooe anoihcr, and to univcrfil time i <xit»\aty btinf always tcp<e(cDicd| 
^ fuU liitei. and vncetiainty by doik, or broken line*. The ntmct are, mote- ' 
ever, dtftiibuicd into fcvcrat dafTea, by line* runnins the wWc length of tlia j 
Chart, and ilicchtonotegy it noted in one mAt^In by (be year bcfote atxl after] 
Chrifl, am] i the other by rticcelfton of liin^t. 

If any |>eifon qvcllian the ufe of thit metliod of exiiihitin; (he Klat.-ve length 
of livct, let him, for hit faiUrafllon, make an cK)>tfimeni ol it, by mexnaof no 
mon than (our natnn in the fpcciincn annexed ) Newton, Doyle, l^oid Bacon, 
Bnd ITcrcariea. He fhall be lold ihii Newtoo died 1717. »sed 84 ; Boyle t69r. 
■Scd 65 ( Bacon 16161 a^d 66 ; and Defcarto i^ijo, i^d 54 i and yet not find 
lt««fy fromihele numhen lororm a clear idea how thefc live* are iriated tome 
another: pethapthe wit! naibcahle, witlK^cc an anilimetieal coin^uiati&n. to ttil 
Mhctlier Dcf<:art«i inighl Iiavb (orrefpcndcd wil'i D-icnn, tlicugli il^y uicrc co- 
Ktnperriy 10 yeap. But ifhe tnTpcft the Cb^irr, ai Toon a i he hat fi^iund (b« 
hamri, lie fipei at < ne glance, wit^<lut (he help f<( arlilimetic, or even of word*, 
and In the moft clear and petfcd manner pjlTible, thi relation o! ill theCc livta 
t:i one another in any period through ihe whole covrfc of them- And almoft 
any flaRl^ef of live* may be compared wiih the Cattta e*Ct, to ihi: fame perfection, 
Mid in the fame Ih^n fpaee of lime- 

Tb« Clurt, it miy caQly b« ima^ncd, cannot be eqaalty well lUled in tit 
placet ! but [he void fpacc* among the ^roupt of great ntnwt will ferve to give 
an idea of the grut mtrrruptiont of fckncc. and ihc mtervili at which any bruxh 
•fit bat flouridied. Many other afet of the Ctun are poin'odoui jn the dcfcrip* 
flOO ih4t if ),.ivcn along With it ; which coniami cvciy ilunj; ncttlTdry in otiter 
11/ 10 uodeiAand the cunflntflioa of itj and the difpofittoo of lh« namet 

H. B. Hotwtttiftanding ih« much Umented death of the noble Lord to whotn 
Ihil pe/formanceit infrnSc(t, the title ind irrcriuiirjn uf it are fuifcrcd to remain 
u ihey have fteod Aboot fix motiiha llooe the woik w«i Ai|l cogravtd. Alice iko 
booki lo he given with each Ctiait had been long pnnied off. the laf) coire^lont 
in the Chart made, and final orderi given fur printing the namber cf copie* in- 
iei)dfd for pubtii;ation ; it wn not polTible, without greatly ditlVgunng the 
Chart, and wiihout much trouble and expcnc:, to make fo cmfMeraMe an allc- 
rat^un, »i the efazing or changing of tbo infcription wwld have re^uirsd. Aod 
it iiweil Icni^wniomany pcrfont, not only (h«t the Author had pcrmtffton lo i(^ 
[ Ltibe ibit Wu'k to hit Loidfhip. hut th»t it wat chrlly owing 10 hie LofdjMpa 
l^jlTabaUoa and cncouragemetu that he waa titt induced to mtkc it ptibhc. 




• ^flti^ ft. 






Jii7/)Attr i Titfrer Mitten Po/u 


^ J'eiiiH It 





(^ .J^rtfi/tA T. Bftihr 



OroUiut J-r- Cierc 

1 Cal-ytn, 



^Vtlni.t Phi lift J'' * " " Til ,f tt i'lt- rfnirif^ 1 2^ 






f^ttrif liJiH. Attln / 

.CM-f-'f •''■ 



For MARCH, 1765. 

Thtugbts »n Civil Ubtriyy tn LietMimftref} and Fali'itn. By the 
Author of die ElTay» on the Charaiteriilics^&c. 8vo. }s. 6d. 
Davta anil Rtymerv. 

IT would tw loiazing, if it were not common, that there 
Ihould be any confiderable difference in the acceptation of 
terms univcrfaDy in ufc. But To vague is the meaning of words, 
or ntbtr To Ionic is the conneflion between language and fenti- 
menr, that it is poflible ior ■ man to difcourfc and write, in a 
manner apparcnily unexceptionable, even to thnfe who may differ 
toully rrom him, in their thoughts on the Aibjedfc. 

It ihert an EngliJhmoMt dcferving that name, now in Wing', 
that is not intcrcflcdi that docs not join heart and h^ind wiiii 
the advocate for Civil Liierty f U there an EngJi/h reader, 
ever To little verfed in our hiftory» whofc bofom doe« not glow 
ivtth rcrcntmCDt againft the diabolical clTorts o( (iterttiiu/fuft and 
faflion ? Wc will venture to fay, mt ONi. And yet we fee, 
almofl daily, with what fuccefian artful visiter may drefa up th*S' 
iquiiljd form and ghaJUy counlrnancc of fcrvitudc, in the fpe- 
cious garb and flattering limilcs of imagtnarv freedom. But, tho* 
afcathut in the bonnet offUvery, may make It pafa wirh Tome 
for the cap of liberty -, fuch deception! will not impofc on an^ 
who know itt true hgure ; who have the caufc of liberty »t 
luarty and judge with unbiafled, unprollitutcd underftanding*. 

A ftatc of freedom, even of \inboundcd freedom, bordering OQ 
Cccntioufnefs, is To natural to the heart of man'^ however in- 
' confident it may be with his ftatc in fociety ; that, when wc fco 
Individuals ftart the fubjeit, and raifc the cry .igaioft Uienuiuj- 
ntfst there is caufc for a ihrcwd furpicion that their iii!cntiun 
U tn hunt down Hbiri^. It may be idlUiJf ,^ha£ inotive can 

Vot. XXXU. M ' indue* 


ThM^ht m Chil Liiertyt 

JnHuci; private men to atuck that freedom, of which it fa ad-. 
milttd they aic naturally fond to cxceft ? Happy would it be, if 
this age ot corrupiiun 3iid vcnalily di^i not affyrd motives fuffi- 
Ctent to AiggfU a ready reply. I'hc vaniry of Joining in the 
iport o( our fupcriors, and the dcftrc of (hiring the fpoils of the 
chace, ate motives peculiarly powcrlul. An artifictal third afcer 
power, and command, is only an abufe of our natural thictt for 
liberty. Tn fociety, no one individual can gratify his mtural 
dcfire of unlimited freedom, without fubje£ling othen to hfs 
controul i which having, as an individual, no right to do, be 
atpires of courfe after weahh or difHnflion, as the Yncins which 
give him tlie power of fuch controul ; that it, they are 
the means which induce others wiHingly to abddgc theit own 
natural freedom, in order to give him authority. Such being the 
relation between the liberty "f man as an indcjicndcnt being, 
and his fieedum as a member of fociety; it is very naiuni,; 
well as prudential, for all ihoTc who are, or fcek to 


be, in power, Co dcprcfs and lliilc the lenfc of natural li- 
berty in ihc people; for in praponion to the enimation in 
which others hold their indcpendoicc, will the purcbafer of 
authority go cbc^r or dearer to market. On the other hand, 
it 'v> verv natural, iuul hij^hly becoming in a people, to enhaoco 
their independence, unlcCt already fold to flavcry, or fully dc- 
lennined to barter the golden chaint of focial reftrumt for the 
iron fencrs of imperious and fcrvilc botulage. That nation is a 
nation Of Haves, in which the gnat and the ricA, the gotcrpota 
and magiArates, only arc frcci and that writer theretore, who 
■would render cheap the independence of individuals, by repre- 
fenttng their natural fcnfe of liberty at a fpirit of liccntioufncfs,' 
whatever merit he may jullly plead as a loyal fubjeA to hii 
princci b a traitor to his countr^'men. 

It is for ihcfc reafons, we arc cxtrirmcly Totry to find fo little; 
diicrimi nation in moft writers on thcCe drticate and important^* 
fubjcifb.— As to the work before u», the eflablilbed repuution 
and wvell-known abilities of the Author, render it almolt need- 
Icfs to fay, that, as a literary compofition, it is a maftcrly pec- 
formajice, and, had there been any manner ofoccafion for it, 
might have been in fome refpoiUs an ufcful one. But, for good- 
neis fake, Do^or ! do you call this an age in which our dvil 
libtrty is endangered by liitritl«u/»e/i and yi/*.7«<» ? Arc the iJief- 
fe£tual murmurs and compUints at rcpeatcrd Inflanccs of mi- 
niSerial opprcffion, — confcffedly fuch, and puniflied as fuch by 
a court of uifticc ; arc the contemptible flioulnigs of an i>j»orantJ 
mob round the pillory of an infignificant culprit ; is the total 
difappearancc ot that phantom of oppofition, the minority ; is a 
tame and ftlent fubmiffion, under the ino(l glaring attacks on 


«a LUtnthufiitfi and FaliiofU 


the liberty of the ,(ircf» * \ under ih« encouragement given, and 
permitted lo be given, to quondam Jacobites and nonjurors, ta 
papiils, jefuits, and other hereditary irncmics to our happy ^cn- 
itptutJon : are thefe the characterillic marks of an age ^lifpofcd^ 
CO reCft the ffleafures of government ? or, as youi infinuations 
Icrm ir* an age of liccntioufners and (action } Surely not ! ^— 
The revercndi Aulhdf of this performance fcts out, nevcrUlcIels, 
vith giving fuch an intimation Co his readers. 

• After a dangerous and cxhaufling war (fays h:) viflory 
'hath at length rertorcd peace to our bleeding conniry. But iu 
vain the fword of war i^ flicathcd, if in time ot peace the poignarJ 
of lietntioitfHifi JtnAfailUn ts drawn, and madlv Ici-etled by many 
©four countrymen, at the breaOs of ihtir felJow-fubjecls. To 
prevent the ^taJ confequcnces of this dcJuded or deluding fpiric, 

; jc the purpofe of this EfTty/ 

I To effect ibis dcfign, our ingenious Author proceeds very, 
rmcmodically to lay down his dehititlons of civil liberty, licch- 
' tioufnefs, and fa<i^ion i in which there is nothing new or excep- 
tionable. He then goes on to enquire what are the pfrmanent 
Vfnm^iiint of civil liberty; a fubjeft (he fays) mwcA and dan- 
t/n'ftr^millak.enin chefctimes. In this enquiry he labours to eon- 
' niic the often confuted author of" the Fahh sftfu Bett ; together 
' with the public fpirited writer of Cato's letters : the tatter had- 
, laid, ** Let people alone, and they will take care of themfclvc». 
and do it heft, and^ if they do not, a fufficient punifhment will- 
follow their neglc>;i, without the magiftrate's intcrpofition and 
l^nallies. It U pUin, that fuch bufy care and officious intninon 
into the pcribnal a^iirs, or private actions, thoughts, and ima- 
ginations of men, has in it more craf^ than kindnefs : to quarrel 
with any man tor his opinions, humours, or the faihion of his 
[cloaths, is an offence taken without being given.*— I'ruc and 
[knpartial Hbeny \% therefore the right of every m;ui, to purfuc 
the natural, reafjnable, and religious dictates of his own mind; 
to think what he will, and ad as he thinks, provided he ac)« 
not to the prejudice of another." 

Thcfe expreffions, fays our Author, ' are crude, inaccurate, 
and ambiguous; leaving the thoughtful reader at a lofs for the 

• Ouf Author ieil> ui, in<5c«d, ir one part of his work, thai the 
preft if open lo the nioli unbounded degree ofliccnaourneA ; and thai 
PUT ncwt-paprrt pubiifh with imiiuniiy (he moll viru'cnt libeli agaitid 
(be goTcrnmc it.— I he leadcr* and the corrcft^odcnu of ihofc ncus- 
papCM, hftwcrer, know whst extreme caution (heir rr fpcftive prinicrj 
iibl'ervCr wlut fcrupulDUs care- thry talce. not to fait andrr the laHt of nn 
iaformation '. If the gcr.itenien in ilie adminillr:itian v.uulJ lay a&Je ihii 
rod lor twelve- monini only, which Uiey arc too prudeDt to doi we lltou'd 
liMB lee die dilftrcnee \ 

M 2 auth«*« 


Tbeughr oh VtviJ Uhtrtj, 

author's prectfe and dctrrmincd mean'mg. For fift, ihcy may 

Eoffibly imply " rtiai the ma^itlratt has no right to violatt th« 
iws of what is cotnmonly called religions tolcraiioo or Chrit- 
tian liberty ; but ihit ever)- mm hath an unalienable right to 
worftiip God in that manner which accords to the dici^aits of hi* 
own confcicncc." In this fcnfc, conrinucs he, thct arc rational 
and true; but they may atfo imply, *' thai thougfils, fViccula- 
tions, opinions, principles, however received and imhihcd h^ 
the mind of m»n, have no connc^iion with his anions ( « moft 
no connexion fb nccelTiiry and flrong m to give the magiftrate 
a right to re:gulate them by any means whattvcr. That no di- 
re^ion is to be given either to the grown or (he infant mind j 
that as every member of iticicty hath a right w> hold what opi- 
nions and principles he plcafeth, fn lie hath the fame privilege 
to communicate ihcm to his family and children : they ate 
to think what they will, becaufe thoughts and opinions are a 
private and pcrfonal affair: that the magti^rate is onlv concctycj 
to regulate their a^Ioiis." This "(fays the prcfcnt' Writer) is 
not only a poffiblc intetprciaiion, but the more natural nf the 
t«o i for it is not once fuggcflcd, that Ojiintons have any in- 
fluence on adions. 

It ia very true, that the flfong and unalterable connexion 
which Dr. Blown conceives to fubfiil between religious opinion 
and moral praAtcc, from which the civil magidraie deduces a 
rfight to interfere in the regulation of private judgment, ia not 
lingclfcd by the writer whom oui Author tlius reprehends > nor,- 
indeed, fhnuld the latter have taken this point To readily for 
granted; it being a pofnion highly controvertible, and aclually 
controverted by very fenfible and ingenious writers*. Sup- 
poflng, however, the influence of opinions on actions to be as 
'great as our Author conceives, there muO furcly be a propor- 
'tionable force of connection between religious worfhip and re- 
ligious tenets. How then would our Author reconcile an * un- 
alienable right to wotfllip Gi>d in that maniur which accords to 
the diftates of our own confciences,* with a ptohtbltiofl of the 
free cxcrcifc of our judgment refpc^ing religious iciicrs ? It ap- 
pears lo us, Ihat if the magiftratc >iath no lighi to violate the 
laws of rrlipifnis toleration, with regard to p-.iblic'ti'orfhip, he 
cannot poOibly have any aulhorit}' over private opinion. A4d 
, la this, that if the latter be fo dangerotts to the ftate, the former 
' fntlft be as much more To. as example is of greater influence than 
precept. But our Author's qualifying cxprcflion of tyZ-o/ it csm- 
^ aiW/w/Z^rf Rei.igioi;s Toleration, may ferve, perhaps, to 

* S«< Edtvardi'i Enquiry Into the DoQrinc oFFRCtiU i- 
Wenihl^ Rcrk-w, \'oL XXVIL P. 437. 

* ,*, 


n SJauiiwfiiffi end J-h£itn. 


•fhew ttut'be doe* not moan by it, what diffcnters of ever; ietwir^ 
ninuion undoubcedly do. 

Hii rcjfon for Uying tbe CKcrcife of private judgment under 
civil rcftiii^Uonf » is very curiau-s. He admits that the author ^f 
Cato's Letters is ao advocate only for opinioAs rgafonnhU and r<- 
ii^giatit. Bui (fays hej ' if they be the mere rcfult of private foi"- 
tuitous thought, unaided by the regulations of civil policy« Ij 
fee not why ihey may ixit more probably be uoreafonable ajidj 
irreligious ; bccaufc they ar« more likely to be oaodcllcd 
ruling appetites (hui raiional dcdu^ion.' 

In our opinion, there i$ left probability that fuch as lal^ej 
upon Uieni to judge for themfelve&f Oiould reft fuch important 
condu(ion9 as thofe which relate to their prefent and eternal, 
welfare, on the mcie rcfult ni fsrtuiteui thought. Nor have we, 
any notion of the fuperior caiuiftry or wifdom of the body po-' 
lii#. Thfir bcrt ihoughu, or at leaft their dcterminanons,)' 
which arc fuppol'cd to be the rcfuU of thofc thoiiglits, arcfrc-; 
quently cafuaJ and fortuitous indeed ! U is notorious that indi- 
viduals, if equally acquainted with the premifes of an argumentyi 
always rca(bn cxaclly in the fame manner, and always rearoii i 
light, however inconiiftcnily they may ait; for the frame -if! 
the hyrnan mind is the work of nature, and more uniformly 
conftrucicd than the artificial conftiiutions of government; nor 
are the tuljng appetites of the nun, more likely to defeat the 
rc£litt^dr of his private determinations, than are the thirft after 
power, the zeal of party, the infolcncc of place, and other rat- 
ing appetites of thnfe who ufually conditute the body politic, 
to influence the public deliberations of a frnatc. At the fame 
time it will hardly be pretended that the leciflatute «>r magi- 
ilracy is To much intereftcd in the lubjpfl of mejr reflexions, ^ J 
individyals ate, in the cafes above mentioned. It is the firft titne," ' 
we believe, that civil inllitutiuns were fuppofed to be rational 
.beings, and capable of rcafoning more juflly than any of thole 
individuals of which they were compolcd ' We have a trite 
adage, indeed, that fays, two heads arc better than one; hx\t 
this relates merely to fuggeftion and information. With regard 
to ratiocination, one head is as good as ten thoufand of the fame 
capacity ; and, widi rcTpei!! to the private affairs of men, it is 
not to he difputed that everyone knows his own bcft. 

Wc fliall not controvert the propofition, that * virtuous man- 
ners and principles arc the only permanent foundation of civil 
liberty/ On the contrary, we conceive that virtuous manners 
will fupport a Bate under defective laws, longer than more per- 
(c^ laws will fupport a ftatc under vicious manners. But w« 
arc by no means convinced of that flreng and unalterable coo-j 


Tbtu^bt! on C'rvi! Libertyy 

neflion between principles anil manners, efpccially if we »bidc 

by out Author's definition of them. * l/'itiutus martrtfrs, he de- 
. fines to be, fuch acquired habits of thought and corrcfponjcnt 
' a^ion, as lead to a Heady profccution of the general welfare. 

yjrtucus princhleSj fuch as tend to conhrm thefe habits, by fupcr- 1 

inducing the idea ofdMf,' 

Here wc fee, that both habits of thought and their corrcfpon- 
denc sc^ion^ arc included in ihe <Je6niiiun of ffroDiirf - whereas 
in the common acceptaticn of thofe terms, manners relate foleiy 
to actions or behaviour, and principles ro habiis of thought. 
Again, thi5 deliniiiun of virtuoui principles is confined to the 
fuper-indu^ion of the idea of ^/^.— But is it not poflible for a, 
'man to be virtuous, and to have virtuous principles, will' 
thinking or afling from a motive of Juty ? Phis Idea is alt( _ 
iher confined to a difpendent and fcrvifc being : now, thouah | 
man, as a member of focicty, is varioufly dependent; ycthi»J 
'tluty and obligations as fuch, all rcfpcil the priii.jplcs of ptAtiCi^ 
not of private, virtue, [f he difcharges that duty, theiefore^j 
by his aflions and behaviour, the guardians of focicty have no- 
'thing to do with hl& thoughts or motives of aiftion ; nor can 
thej- with any propriety inicrfcrc to (irefcribc exclufivc motivca 
of aclion i as, in doing this, they might and wot-lJ defeat theif ' 
own end, which is the good oidcr ^nd wc!r.iru of foctety. For 
individuals b-.Ing very diflTtirni in difpofiCion and experiencet 
that motii'c wbich wouU! h.ivc an inHuence on the behaviour o|j 
one pcifon would be ircfTeftual on that of another. If it zvailaj 
oueht to fociciy, whether a man a<Us out of a motive of duty or-^ 
'fclf-intercn, out of a principle of fc4r or rational convidtion,' 
that tian certainly bids fairelt to be the moil valuable member* 
whuadHfiom fclf'intcrrft, or rdtion:il convidlion; thefe beinj 
the iiioft likely to be permanent. If there were any real t^n-r ' 
ger in trufling people with the excrcifc of their reafuning fitcul- 
ttes ; if there werea poflibilily of reafon'a being found to be, or of ' 
it» long milliktn for, an enemy to ^.irtuc public orprivaie,Umigh^' 
be expedient to prohibit that cxercik ; but till that be the eafe^j 
till it can be flicwn tliai.incn who have been aiEluatcd moft by! 
their rcafoning arc the mofl licentious and the mod faflioutsJ 
why fhoutd the free-burn foul be loaded with the fervilc fhacltle(i 
of nicre obedience, anftng from the idea of duty ? It has hi-] 
rhcrto hceii peneraUy thought, that virtuous principles and man- 
ne's u-civ- l'<;t> founded on the bcltcf of rclij;iaos trutht and %] 
(en^c of monil r/Situdt ; and not on mere opinions, or habits of] 
thinking, retained only becaufe they had been fonuitoufly 
politically inHilled. — Even our Author himfelf tells us in fomtt-] 
ef his works, that civil liberty is attached in the ftrongeit man-' 
|tcf to religious |ruih -, at th^ fame titne admitting, th't <* tb^l 


tn LUtntiavfrtffs and Failhn. 


tery bcmg of Kligious Cruth depends on the enercife of frte*| 
dom." whitrver (Ciy^ be) (omc may fear from an ^^n eni 
mtHm'tlt^ fntptiry^ it feems evidently' the only mc«js Cod hatK 
vouchl'afcd us for ftic altainmtiit ot truth. The ahujtoi il may 
be Jang/rautt but the -u^mtt of it '\%faia!. Withoiir this (that Is 
open and unlimited cnquiiy) opinion degenerates into ^bltitdiu* 
as a field rum to wred> without a proper cuhivacion. Such arcc 
the undoubted principles of the gofpel, where we arc com* 
mandcd to pr«vt all things and htldfaji t^m which U good ^ 
where we arc not only allowed, but ru<]uired, tg t* abU lopvt a, 
Wiajanftr tht fasth and iht htpf ibal is in us •/ ^ 

Such were the fcntlments this Writer divulged fomc timo 
ago ; at prcfcnt he ihinLs our rcafon is lb fiir fiom being able ta 
inveftigate religious truth, and religious truth (b hr from being 
the fup|)Oit of civil liberty, that, » a ccifain fyftcm of manners 
and principles, mutually fupporting each other, and jK-rvuding^ 
the^hole community, are the only permanent foundation oti 
which uuc civil liberty can aiil'e.* 

In the pivfcnt performance, indeed, this very confiftcnt Au-) 
thoT fieemn defirous of refolving our duty to God, into an im* 
plicii h'liU in the prief) ; and our duty to our TKighbour into a 
fervile obedience to the magrftrate : for, according to his argu- 
ment, a man may embrace the trueft fyflem of religion, and a^t 
from the moft unexceptionable motives of moral rcclitude ; 
if bis fenliments or anions Hiould clalh with the prerent niodc9 
of political dtablifhments, he would not be pollcfl'ed of cither 
virtuous manners or principtc?. 

A people under the bcft form of government, and prafclGn;^ 
the purcft religion in the world, flioutd indeed be very cautious 
and well advikd, when their principle!, and nunncn {hould 
bund to claOi with their civil inftttutions. But who is to ad 
\ife t^wm? Who is to tell ihcm whether the dcfciS lies in the 
principles ar>d manncn, or in thofc inflitutions ? Thofc who at 
perfonaHy interefted in fupporttng fuch inOitutiotu in their pt 
ient form, will douhtlefs tell them, die fault lies on the fide 
manners and principles ; but they muft fitft prove, that the po« 
liticalcftahlifhmcntii now in being, are arrived to tbcgtcaicUd 
gree of pcrfeftton, and that no innovation can poSbly be 
imptovemcnt, before fuch partial advice ought to be takrn. 

We are alTuied on the bcft authority, that even our duty t 
God a a, reaffnat/r fnvii/ ; and it is admitted that we have a: 
unalienable ngfat to difchargc this, in any manner [hat iaagrc 

• See Brown** Sermotii on Tarioui fubjrflj : pt;nteJ I7!i4, page 7 
Alfoilie account of Jus ScrnWB on Religious Liberty; Review, Vt 
XXIX. p. 7.. 




Thn^htt on Civil tihtrty^ 

,sUe to (he didates of our own confcicnre*:. What ! are th» 
^bligaiirnf wc tic umler to focicty 'cfs fubordiiiatc to reafon than 
Aole wc arc under to the dcit\- ? Arc wc at liberty to woHhip 
God, in whatever manner, and from whatever motive the heart, 
or even tmaginattoo fuggcfls ; and Iball we not be permitted u 
Bi^ conformably to human laws, but upon fuch motives and 
principles as the legiHator or magiftracy will impofc f— But it is 
not, as wc before hinted, the caufe of civil liberty for which our 
Author here contends, it is that oK-ftablifticJ forms of govern- 
ment, and modes of adminiftrationt which he dignifies with thai 
name. By the permanent foundation of civil liberty, he means 
no more than a prevention of any alteration^ how falutary lb> 
rvcf, in eftablifhed modes of civil and ecclcfiaflical JnllitutionK 
Sumetimcb he terms it ptdHc liberty i in which cafe, be mcaoi 
the liberty, or rather the privilegei and prerogatives, of the lo« 
gifliture and magiftracy, not the liberty of the people 

Agreeable to this, he fpeaks of the duration of any ceAain 
form of government, (that of Sparta for inftance) as a proof of 
its excellence; and cenfurcs all inncvations whatever, parti- 
cularly the adoption of foreign falhiuns and manners : but thtl 
mere duration of fuch government is rather a proof of the polk 
tical happincfs of the governors tlian of the governed ; and witki 
regard to innovations, although it might be poflible for the Li* 
ccdemor.ians to kctp them out for fomc tjnie, by fliucting up 
(heir gates, it were not poflible, ir it were advifcable, for a 
commercial nation, trading to alt parts of the earth, to follow 
flich an exainple. The political bappijicfs of a people doth by 
no mearvs depend on the duration, or unchangeable (late, of 
Iheir modes of ecctefiaftical or civil government ; nay, u change 
*f times and oircumftanccs tender innovations and reformations 
■ fometimes neceflary : and when this nctcfTity appears alfo, they 
cnnnot be too foon adopted or applied ; as Oie delay liath fre- 
(|uently converted a reformation into a rcvolutioo, in the fame 
manner as the negleA of an ulcer brings on a mortification. To 
illuftrate this point, wc might exemplify fcveral modern itatcs, 
•nee free, who, by their obftinatcly adhering to mere furins, 
have ereatcd thcmfelvcs a ihoufand matters infiead of one ; wlio 
have rtifed even their petty maglftraies into dclpoti ; while |b< 
liberty of the people hath been fleepin™ the Qcep of death ; from 
which fome future tyrant will polIibFy awaki-n their pofteifty, 
fnd doom them to perpetual fervitude. 

Having thus amufed the Reader with fallacious definitions an4 
reafonings on civil liberty and its general fupport, our Author 
proceeds to ronfuJcr the panicular ajfc^ions and principle:^ on 
which it tefls i #s public Ipirit, boaour, and natural confcienct , 


y^ J 

M LttentmiJ'ttfi tnd Ftiilito. 


On chefe he flourifties awnjr in ihe f<me viguo fupcrficiil man- 
ner ; moft unreaTonabJy degrulirig that pour, fickljr phantom^ 
buman rtejon^ of which he was lately fa fond, even below the 
brutal inftin^ of animals. Bui it U nu wonder ihat> when rea-* 
(on condemns the writer, the writer (hould condemn roAin. 

' He goes on next, in the manner of all putitiol dcclainicn, tq 
prefs into his rervjce^ the ^mous ex^implrs of ancient Hatct ; 
patticuhtly- ihofc of Athens^ Sparta and Rome: endeavouring 
to ^pply them to the conftiiuiion of England, and enforce tho 
fpecious arguments he hath advanced. 

He conCdcrs next the general Bate of manners and piinriplet 
about the time of the revoluiiun, and their fuccecding change | 
in doing which he ruru into fuch confulion, both w ih regard (a 
UQm aad reafonings, that we think it nrvdlcfa to trouble our 
RcMtera with any remarks on this part of the work. 

The grand objcil in view comes next upon the carpet j vix, 
to prove, from indirpu(ablcchara£lrrlftK'9, that thi» is an age of 
liccntiuufncrf and faflion ; but nothing 'm more clear from hif 
own evidence, that ihcfc never was an age in the world, which 
might iKJi be i^juflly ftjicd fo, as theprcfcnt. Ii I* remarkable 
alfo, that in pointing out the fevcial marks and fourcci of thii 

firctended liccmioufncG, he allows his pen a maft unjullifiahl* 
icencc, in the abufe which he has thrown oui ag:iin(l the oujl 
refpcclable charadcrt *. 

But Diatters of more confcqueticc prcfent themfelret in the rsfe 
medtn, or political nofh-ums, which ihit ibie-tiuack prcfcrihet 
for the cure of thofe tcnible and coniagious diieaicit Licmtiour- 
ncfs aod iaSdon. Wc Diall confine out rcmarlu to oac nr two 
otUy of tfaefe nultrums -, aa being of the utmufl importwicoiu « 
comnercuil and enlightened (ution : the firft we AiaJi ukc no> 
CfCc of, ii the limitation of our national trade a«»d wealth v « rs* 
medv which tt is very natural to fear would prove at hod aa the 
liUeafe, were the difcare even real, W« are told, iMlced, dut 
* die Writer knows, ifati n of all other topic* the qwA »■■■* 
pvlar; nofwithflaoding whkh, be prcfuom to porrift ui^ntt 
apfieafs to him a denmftrajirc uuih, vii.. thaaeaofbiuiiitnri* 
and wealth ve w*tA jjageroig to privaie rinue, aod 
io public freedom.' IiHiaed, ibcn weda Utile favoi «f 
fiKH todemoaftfaic foch a tnuh at tbic : wlkHcy«r i» 
u earned lo txafi, vd ibcrc can be no duwbc fim tH 
^mabii. U (ouiiii, hoimcr, to be piwcd, (^ « 



M^ ecBdi b»r ac isocc EuCc u uUm tm Am 

tMrn^ftm^ mam vmmt. 



noughts an Civil Libfriy, 

trade and wealth are « xorbiiutt, ftr carrifd to rh«t pernicious ex- 
i-eisf before we proceed to the particular applitaiion of this ge- 
neral truth. The exorbitance of trade »tid wfilrh doth not de-,] 
pcrd immediately on their degree or quaittily ; for that com- 
merce which might be cxceffive and hurtful to one ftatc, may' 
be moderate and falutary to anothert which fbould be more po^ 
pulous, more extenfive, better fituatcd, or belter governed. 
Again, the trade ajid commerce of a ftate is but one obje£): of < 
the coocern of government : it conftitutc;; but a part of thofc. 
Weflings which cot-.tiihute to the political liappincfs of a nation. 
If this be encouraged and promoted to fuch a degree as to ex- 
tinguifh richer public fpiric or private virtue, equally cfiential to 
the ^ood of the Aatc, it is certain, that either fuch comiucrccis 
carried to exccfs, or that more efleflual means have been ukon 
to promote trade and wealth, than to iiipport and inculcate pub* 
lie fpirit and private viituc. But, uoldfs it could be proved chat 
commerce i% in its own nature incompatible with thcfe, it does 
by no means follow that, becaufc our private and public fpirtf 
dccreafc, wc Ihould check our commerce '——Are the in* 
genuiiy and induflry of a free and cnterpiiztng people to b« 
checked, cramped and AipprefTcd, bccaulc theJr maetlfratcs and 
governors have not rapacity enough to prevent their natural 
blefliiigs being converted into political abufcs ? Let but our 
liatc-minifterj difplay the fame care, activity and abilities in 
their fcveral departments, as our iraderii do in their codipting" 
houfes ; let but oiir magiftratcs exert thcmfclves in the pro- 
teiKon of our pcrfons and properly, with the fame vigilance and 
afliduity as the inJuArtous bulbaiidman or the ingenious ani* 
.ftccr cxens himfelf to provide for one and acquire the other { 
let but our inftru^or* in religion and morality take as much 
paint in the real difcharge of tncir duty, as cbcy do to become 
popular, and recommend themfelves to preferment ^ and we need 
never fear that our commerce will prove dedrudtve of cither pn* 
vate virtue or public freedom. But if, inftead of forming their 
conduA on the knowlcge of government, or any general f)-|>cm 
for the public good, our ftatefmcn (hould be employed in no- 
thing but temporary expedients to flop the clamours of tht'< 
ffcopje, and fupport thcmfclves in place; if our magiftrates 
'fliould be fe in<io]ent, cornipt or venal, as to conftder public 
jufticc only m the light of private emolument; and if our rcli-- 
gious Ceacherr, inftead of endeavouring to improve our mormls, 
and countenft the vicious cffciU of incrcxfing wealth and luxury, 
jhould employ themfelves in compofmg Hagc-plays and fcfibblingi 
mmiOerial pamphlets i is it not very natural that, in fuch a 
cafe, the laboun of the ingenious, the a>£tive und indudrioui, 
fliould be crowned with proportionate fuccefi ? U is true, that 
thofc who are tttur ftd tH«n tau£bt, have gctienJIy mtwr mUty 

tn Liw^inufaifs and Fa£Hsn. fyi 

than m/nnurt ; but, whether this circumflance redounds more to 
honour of tltcir u^chqis than their feeders, we leave Dr. 
rBrown to dcicnninc. Certain, however, we are, that it would 
■be equally ungrateful xrxl impolitic tn the people^ lb fed and 
^uught, to cUeiik thofc who have done their duty, becaufe other? 
I have not done tt ! 

But to purfue this fubjedf of the exorbitancy of our com- 

llncrce, a Uttlc farther. The Doctor complains, that what he 

Ihath advanced on this he^d, in his famous £ftimate, bath been 

ittiuch clamoured againft, hut never unfitted. Wc (hall not take 

■upon us to determine whether or not this afTtntiun be (Iri^lv 

>-truc i nor is it indeed nccefl'aryt as our Author hath taken cl- 

rfe^ual care» io this work, to confute htmfrlf, * Much harh been 

bfxrd (fays the Doctor) on the caufc ot the prefrnt exorbitant 

Lpriee ot provifions, and general diflrcfs of ihc poor. Every 

caufe hath been affigned e:tccpi the true one, which feems to be 

'the finking v-tlue of money, atifin^ ncccflarily froTi the exorbi- 

iiaot increaie of trade and wealth. If this be fo, it follows that' 

Ithe evil is incurable, excepting only by a general augmentation 

rof the wages of the poor. Now this, which is the necelTary 

Jeffedt of the exorbitancy of commerce, naturally tends fby the 

Kincreafcd price of miin»Ucturcs) to the dedriiftion of commerce. 

,ir the exorbnancy of trade fltould flill run higher, thi$ evil will aif^ravatcd in proportion. The c^nfequences which muft 

^iotlow, are fuch as the writer chufcth not to enlarge on i be- 

^caufi:, he knows the fpiiit of the times would not bear it.' It 

b true, that thcfe confcqucnccs arc fuch as would hardly go down 

either with the fplrit < r undcrftanding of the prefent times ; as the 

L-reader niuH bo totally dcililutc of attention, or common under- 

i^anding, who is not immediately Hmck wilhtheabfurdity of fuch 

•lUgumcnt. Thf incrtafe tfwaj^a is tlx nectjary ejfifl of the fxarbi- 

tancj gftummerte, whith tjftel naluralfy tendi to tht 'UjirucIxM ofctm- 

jnertt \ tht immetluu eauf* tf tbit iUfiru^ian iet»g aggra-jottd as 

•ifimmtrtt trtericfts. Is not this juft as abfurd, as if he had af> 

erted that ihc annihilation of commerce is the necefTary and. 

iConcomitant eSedl of its abundance; and that our trade f!<'cay? 

^ in the fame proportion %\ it increafes ? The trite adage, refuter 

filtra crtpidam., cannot be applied with greater propriety than to 

[pur reverend Author, in the prefent mfc. He ap. jrs to know 

'but little of the connc£Hon between commcrci.,! 'fft^ and 

lufes. The effic*^ which the inaeafed price of manuiaaures 

ath on trade, is immc'iiatc and conflant } fo that, according to 

)r. Brown, our commerce might en on increafing decrcaf- 

'\ng at the fame time: a pretty paradox truly I So gicatly mif- 

^^ken, indeed, U our AuUioc on this fubje^, that he fpeaks of 

|b< WJiC«< oi iht fvwr, and thp advtiAced prkc of nunuJaAur««t 



ThdKghU m dvii Llierif, t^c. 

a&lf ibcy were neccflarily dependent on, and immediately txiii- 
ne^^cd with, each other ^ wheteu it is poftblc for ihc former 
to be very bigb> while the Utter is ver>- low. The waeca of 
the pant and the price of labour, are tn-o diftind and dinerene 
things; the fqrnKr being rated according to the proportion of 
limf, and the latter according to the quantity of work done. 

In couiiuies where the neceJTaries of life are dca'*, it is rcqui^^d 
(hc that the wages of the poor Jhould be high, oihc-rwilc they^H 
e»nnot fubTiA ■, « the fame time, however, if ihofe countrie*^^ 
are commerciat, and would fupport their trade and manufac- 
tories, the price of labour tnuft he low, or other nations will 
bring their Roods to market cheaper. Now, to reconcile the 
cheapacfs of labriur with high wages, we muti have rerourfe to 
induHry. Our Uboure:s nnuft not be idle ; if they are, tbey 
inuA Awe *, and yet at the fame time ihcy muft be poor, Of ' 
they will not lalKJur. It is pofBble there may be fome indivt- ^ 
duals amon^ the lich, who would grind the face of the poor, 
and require them to work for lefs would fupporl them, 
agreeable iu the (lation PioviJcncc hath alligned them. But 
Aich mirtakcn fondu£t cannot be general ; if it were, wc fhould 
have no labourer. The farmer luppiicv even hid hotfcs and 
oxen with due food and provender ; knowing that without this, 
they would be ufelcfs : nor can there be a fn of men upon earth 
fo abfutd as to think the labourer unworthy uf his hire; al- 
though it is frequently found in various branthes of commerce, ' 
that the wages of the poor arc too hiu:h to be compatildc with 
then difpofuion to labour. — fiut we have already taken up fo 
much of our Rcsiior's ctrne in this article, that we have not left 
ourfetves room to iHuftrate this ntaticr \h amply as its impoDarvce 
may require. What we have hinted, however, may lerve to 
Jcad iIk Render into fuch a train of thinking as may eftV^tuatly 
guard him from the fophiftry of this plaufibic writer. Our Au- 
thor's chiuf and cilailial remedy, is *■ a general and prcfcribed 
improvcmrnt of tbc laws of education i* by means of which the 
infast m>nd mi^bt be impref&d with fuch rioiion^, and imbibe 
fuch primjpi<«' an might contribute to the ^m^meaet of civil ,. 
liberty, aiim^ the dut^ttion of prcfcnt forms and inflitutions. > * 

That the education of youih is (hamcfully ncglcSed in ,1 
Eflfliland ts moft certain, nntf that a general improvement U ne- 
ceffary ; but if It be a prtfcrihrd improvement, who is to pre- 
frribe it } Doubtlefs the Author wi!l favi our prcfcnt tawp 
givers and magiftrate* ; and we moll readily admit they ate tt^ i 
proper pcrfunx to efiett fu arduous a work. Bui wc conceive 
thrv can make no improvement, corjfiflcnt with the civil or rc- 
ligtotti right* of a free people, that ftiall tic thciji down to atw 
frefcribed fyftcm of manners and principles ; i^ dui' Author a<f- 


7h Morality a/tht N/ro TfftamtTtt. 


vif«. The gttnd defideratum in education, is n« a fyftfm of 
notions -, futh f^ftcim Kate been the Iwfte mI it. Our prufcfl'ors 
and nitors» public and pf ivatc, are abfurdly emptoyrd ia trach- 
iog therr pupils whot to thinkf whcfeas theylbould teach ihcm, 
cm the contrary, hvw to think. In iciichiiig our children lo 
walk, we do not prefcribc ihe particular ways they ftiall go; biit 
endeavour to make them capable of walking tirmly and uprightly 
in whatever puth they chuft. Why thtii, in teaching them to 
think, fhoutd the infant undcrftamltngbc cramped and contincd 
to one fingle track, inftcad of exercifing it uoivcrfilly and freely ? 
Among a ptuple thus educated, indeed, the rcmaili uTMonfcT- 
quieu would be txtremely folid. * Tell me not, that fuch a 
people will fomeiimes rosfon ill ; 'tii fyfficient that they rettfm .* 
and to i}o this, it is undoubtedly nccHUry that ihcy Ibould be 
taurht the ufe of their rcafbnrn^ faculties ; which is not done 
by non'ng their memories with notions or h.&% ; there being • 
wide dilfcrcnce between habits of thought and a habit of think- 
ing;. The Tormer may be eafily eradicated, the tatter is perma- 
nent as the conftltutioo of the mind itfelf. On this» therefore, 
we ihoald chufe to rell the foundation of Civit Lihfrty^ and on 
this wc would rely for the fuppreffion of LUattimfrufi aiid 

Thi MaraiUy tf tbt Wftp Teftanunt^ digtjltd under various Htait^ 
temprthoiding tiu Duties whith vu etue ts Gidy la eurjihes, and 
Iff ourftllvwtrtaiurti. Ifith /m Jntnduiflin addnj^fd ta Dtsjls ; 
in which tin Charaii/r tf "Jtfm Chrift is vindicaud again/} the 
Afftrfiam of modern UubAimtrj ; and alfi an Jtt/mpi it made t», 
prtvty thai tin Religion taught byTefui Chrtfl was tfn purt J2r- 
Ugiwi ej Natu> t and »f Rtafen. Tht whiU (tne'uding with Ob- 
ferv*>U»»t Ctt a late Treotij'e, intiluUdy tht Daflrinf tf Graeey 
written bj Dr. H^arlurten, Bijhop cfGkueefltr \ itgetltcr with an 
Enquiry, hnu far tht BtUrf of airy Dtilrinr may be necifpirj to 
Salvation ; end ftme Qbftrvaum «« th Arguments of Mr. L^tkt 
9nd Dr. htland. fiy a. Rational Chrifllan. 4to. I0«. 6d. 

DEISTICAL wrlterj have often complained, that the 
BtlvocatiTfi (or Chritlianity have ucated them in a very il- 
liberal manner, and have aitributrd their nppofttion to the 
Cbiiftian religion, to the moft unworthy moiivci. "Wis compUitit 
is, undoubtedly, in many inlUnce? too well grounded, vet 
every impartial obfcrver muft acknowledge, that the Ueifti 
complain with a very bad g'wce. Their writrri, in general, ha»c 
not n»ntf;«l ihc debate in that optn, ciui4id, and ingenuous 



Thi Morality ^ihi NtviTeJiai^tia. 

manner, which bccotnes fincere and impartial enquirn^ afW, 
truth. They hive beftowed the highcft eiicomiufns on their 
own perfonnajKcs ; have declared, in itie nioft folcmn terms, 
that they have nothing in view but to vindicate and promote the 
caufe of trutht and real tcligi'm ■■, have reprcfcntcd themTelvu 
as perfons, not only of the muft upright intentions, hutortu-. 
cotnmon fagacity and penetration \ as men of enlarged, liberal,, 
and gcncrouit miiitJs ii><Tcd above vulvar picjuditcs, and ene- 
mies tu every fpeciei ut bigotry. Nutwithltandin^ fuch pom- 
pous profenions and decln rations, it may with truth be affirmed, 
that fcarce any writers have given greater prtx>rs of prejudice 
than they have given ; infleaiT of fuppurtmg their caufc with! 
fober reaion and argument, they have generally had rccourfe to 
ihecr and ridii-ulc * ; indeed of taking their Ideas of Chtiftianity 
from the New Tcflamcnt, ihcy have taken them from the creeds 
and fyftems of fallible* men, and have cojifequently charged the 
Chriilian religion with corruptions and abulcs, whidi they muft 
be fenftble do not really belong to it. It would be no dilHcuIt 
taik to bring the mod clear and convincing proofs of all thii, 
ajid of a great deal more, from the works of thcii molt celebrated 
writers, nut fuch of oi;r Readers ah are acquainted with thon, 
muA be convinced of the truth of what we have advanced. 

As the gr»nd qucfiion in dtfpuic bctive^n Chriftian divines 
and their a<iTerfartci muft be granted, by every confidcrate enqui- 
rer, to be of the utfnoil importance, it ought certainty tu be de- 
hated in a liberal and ingenuous manner. Deifts may be fafe- 
ly allowed, and every fmcere friend to Chrlfliantly will al- 
low them, to exert their utmoll Urcngth againfl it in the 
way of argument and fair reafoning, to place their objedions in 
the ftrongdl light, and to give them their full force. If 
there is not fufficient evidence of its divine original, let 
this b£ clearly and fairly fhcwn \ but let not its adveriarics , 
be conflantly writing againft it, without producing any 
thing new, without placing old objcition^ in a clearer light, 
and without takingnotice o^ or anfwering, what has been urged 
in fupport of it. This condu*^, furcly, can never be for dnir 
honour ; it is a (Irong prefumption, indeed, or rather aclear proof, 
of their difingcnuoufncfs. — Thefc general reflexions will not, 
perhaps, be deemed an improper introdu^ion to our account of 
the work now before ui, the Author of which calls hitnTelf A* 
Rational Chriftian i with what propriety, will foon appear. 

The preface, written by an anonymous friend of the Auclior* 
contains general reflexions on pricftcrafr, natural religion, tl 
iliffereDi denominations of Chridiaru, &c. with warm tnco^ 

* Wc do not here pftrtfcglarly allude to the prcfent Writer ; who,/ 
thouf>k appartDtly engaged ir ihe fame ctu^e, ufci vrtv dificreot wea-;^ 
poi» in its defence, and would pafs far an Ifttthu tAittdf 


Tlf Msrafity ef tbt New Ttfiimmt. 


miunu on our Author and bis performance. As the Rational 
Chriflian and his tiiciid may fiiirly. Be prcfumed to enteriain the 
fame icntimcnts, ttic Reader may judge of ihcm from the fol- 
lowing pailages : 

* One great part of the burmefi of Jcfus Chrlft was to ilc- 
ftroy the dsminian and ^owtr ef Salan^ and 10 tread idahtry^ fit- 
fvr/iitisn, and fiitjl^raft^ under his feet; but it is a melancholy 
truth, that his benevolent defign hath not been atteodcd wJtn 
much fuccefs in thcfc piriiculars: fo much fraud and impofturc 
hath prevailed, that wc know not what hath been palmed upon 
us for true, primiiive, genuine ChriHianity. This pure fyftetn 
is fo deformed and dtftortcd from its original (hape, that if Jdiu 
Chrill was to return into the world* and to feaich the iccords o£ 
priefb for his rriifrion, he could not icnow it again. 

* Where it is acknowledged that fuch artifices were made ufe 
of, and that at a time when books were fcatce, with difficulty 
come at, and could not be purchafcd but at a great price ; and 
hence, of couife, could be but in few hands, and be examined 
only by a few pctfons ; wc may welt be dubious of the authen- 
ticity of thofe which have reached us. Nobody knows by whom 
the compilation, called the New Tcftamcnr, wis made. But 
by whomfocver it was done, doubtlcfs the colteiHon was farmed 
according to the knowlege, tafte, genlu!, tempers, views, and 
difpoTnions of the compilrr or compilers, who ^tJoptcd and re- 
jelled, according to tnrir incliiutioos, intercHs and defigps. 
However, it Is etnerally allowed, that there were upwards of a 
dozen S^fptft^ iome fay many more, which were current, and 
Jlood on an almoft equal footing of authority, fur more than an 
hundred years after Chrtft ; and that the tamn was not fettled 
till after that period. To afferr, that thofe who compiled the 
New Teftament were guided by infpiration, or that they were 
too honcft to be corrupted, too wife to be deceived, too cau- 
tious to be abufcd, too liiCintcrc^ed to be prejudiced ; — I fay, to 
aver all this, without knowing who the compilers were, efpe- 
cially as the compilation was certainly made in an age when im- 

^fture abounded, muft tend to provoke ridicule, rather than to 
procure credence ; at leaft with perfons of judgmcnr, who arc 
not under the influence of inierclt. Hence it is clear, that we 
Cann^it be fiitisficd of the divine authority of the m^trieus parts 
of the fcriptures 3t leaft. This I think has been clearly proved 
in the conclufion of the following ira£t. Our Author hai olfo 
fikewn, in this excellent performance, that the mpral doftrines 
of Chrift and his apo0les are agreeable to the nature and reafon 
of things, and tend to promote the honour of God, and the 
^ood of mankind i tli.kC they contain nothing above our com- 
'prcbenfion; nothiiig mean, low, nifling, ur ridiculou:^} nof> 
anv thii]^ contrary to our ideas of the nature acd pcrte^ons of 
5 Q*a4\ 


7lf MtraKty tftht }Ftw Tt/tanunf, 

God 1 and that tht^ carry in them the marks of truth, aiu] tbe 
figntcurti of divine authority. 

* Creation, or the caufrng oX ht'mgs to exill, and all the ope* 
rations of the Deity* fcem to be the eternal iiecctrary effects of 
the nature of God, that i> to fay, of hii attributes, attended 
with (Bttffhujnfff^ nr a knowing and vt^untary exertion of them. 
Ac he has no pafTiun; like thofc which arc found in man., nor 
Any fach wants as are inridcnt to the nature of man ; fo neither 
Cattid s regiird for his own f/wy, revtrcnct-, or hsnour.^ hive been 
any motive to his caufrng creatuies to exifl, or to his commu- 
nicating to them powers and faculties capable of difCcrntng bis 
rxifience, and of collefting, from a contemplation of the beauty, 
•nler, autd harmony of the univcrfe, his idorabte attributes. 

' God has none of the little fclfiOi pAffions of kings, princes, 
and governors of this world, who are jealous of tlieir dues, at> 
tentive to their rights, prerogatives, and honours i andwhofae- 
Cotnc pecvilh, frowarJ, and out of humour, if they conceive 
that there is not fufficicnt rel'pccl juid ihcm by their fubjeiQB. 
If fome of God's creatuies fliould be umbU to perceive his di- 
vine, ineffable nature and attiibutes ; or if (bmt of them ihould 
never have beard of him ; or from their ignorance, or want of 
opportunity, coutd never be inflru^ed in his laws> cwr be made 
acquainted with the rules of hb moral govcrmcnt; or if they 
flioutd be deceived by thofc who undertook to inftru^t then} 
(provided they are notyfe/A/w/, 3.n^ ntgUH information) in fuch 
cafes God does not became pctcifh and moiofc, or pour out 
the vials of his wrath upon them : nor is it confillcnt with our 
ideas of infinite goodncfs to fuppofc; that he would become 
cruel and inexorable, and, fir their frailties, ignorance, or de- 
ception, tcfolve to inflifi rternal punilhmcnts on his poor, weak« 
miftaken creatures. 

*^ If a frail mortal (hould hare a numrrotis train of the moft 
violent palfinns to oppofe ; if he (hould be obliged to labour 
through the furrounding demands and allurements of fclfifti ap- 
petites ; if it fliould be neceflary to fubduc and overcome ihcfo- 
licitatioos of affedlion, when it oppofes ihc dictates of pure be- 
nevoleoce ■" would it be at all extraordinary that weak man 
jkouhj tocome an eafy conqucft, and fnit a victim in fuch an 
unrqual combat: f fjy, if frail man, after a ftruggtc in (o iirf-' 
equal ■ confliA, (hruild be overcome, can we fuppofe that an 
iniinitelr wife ar.d pood God will deliver him over to the malice 
of the worft of beings, to be eternally tormented, without .my 
view of curing his in:elle>!:lual m^lad'cii, ofmikmg him wifer, 
better ^od happier ; which muft be the calie, if punifhmcnts ars 
rttrmtilf Wttuld not fuih cunJuil huvc rathtr the appearance of 

<i malk't; 

?%r Mir^ij eftht Any 7%AAwW. t^; 

latice ahd revenge, than «f parental correSic'rt ? And (hall t#ft 
[dare vrntUrt to ftfctibe it to the kind Pan-ht of the univcrft,i 

fhoCc oiilw motive (conceivable by us) for making crcaturrj it 
was to render them happy ?— Surely wc ought not to do 

< Man does not fin oat of maticCf or with i delij:n to affrrmt 
}h\t maker; but (Vom bis ignorance, his frailty, and the violert 
► foliciutions of his paCions, which flatter him with % ftilfe ap- 

rciirancc of hippinefi;, and d&Zzle his unJcrflandms with a <Ji- 
uriveprafpcA of picahire. As this is the cafe, an infinitely gnfld 
slicing will furrly punifh fuct) a delinquent only in order to culTC 
lilts moraJ malidtci, and reftorc him to virtue and happintfs. 

• God cannot approve of fin, becaufr It countcrafls his plaa 
of univerfal happincfs ; ami he certainly keeps this benevolent 
plan in view, even when he punifhcs a finner. It appears tif- 
^decd, 25 if God had nccelTarily conncilcd vice and im'cry, 
jiTinue and happinrrs together, in ihc nature of things, uith cnc 

loft kind and benevolent intenuon. In this view, the wickeJ 
[inan withdraws himfclf from, and renounces his G<?d, and 
hereby removes himfclf from happinefs, and involves himfclf 'u\ 

< Punifhmcnt appears to be a ncccflary rcfolt or concomitant 
of fin, and confequently a bcncvulcnt und amsndatory means of 

pproximaiion to happinefs. This fecms agreeable to our idcaj 
•of the nature and aitribuics of God, as coltci^cd trom the difplay 
*of them in the fyltcm of the univerle. 

• If we fuppofe that God v;UU the happinefs of his creatures, 
["We muf! alfo fuppofe ihut he has this end in view rhrnugh every 

! of his condudt toward* thcffl. Whatever revcLtiions hB 
akes of himfclf to his creatures, mull be intended to pr'>duc7 
general go<id and univerfal happinefi. What he comcnuaicates, 
tnull bcasreeable to his own ^rrc<5tions, muA be inttlii^iUft rd- 
t'oitait and ^W. If a mtlattt* conuins in it any thing rt^uj- 
nunt to thcfe fignaturcs and nutka of divine authority, itcaiiiuA 
be a revelation f:om GuJ. 

* What can wc think of a^..'?«B, where God U leprefcnted m 

juniftiing one Dcing with eternal diiTnn.ition, for the difobt- 

licncc and folly of another ? Or what can we think of tii^ 

^oodnefs, theJuHice, the rectitude, and fiiural government Q&,^ 

t« Being, who could not pardon finncrs upon their contrition, ' 

■ icpcntance, and reformation ^ but required the Ho^id vf inno- 

Lcentj, to appcafc his w.-^th and pacify his vengeance? Surely k 

X^Jlfiny in which the infinitely pcrfcil GoJ is thus reprcf-nte^j, 

Vi repugnant to all our ideas of goodnefs, jullicc, nieicy, 

1&V. Match, 1765. N iiititotfJwWi', 


I Tht Mtrelify o/tht Nfw "Jefiatntnt. 

'^rightfourncf:, ajic! moral pcrfc^ion ; and though the other poiCs 
cM it may be rjiiouai and moial, wnrihy of Got!, and proiliu:- 
L^iivc of hnivpincfft,, yet ivc caanoc believe tinft to have the lame 

r-«vin^ the Author and ht< fiiend in full pofTdfion of ihefc 
ol^fcrvations', 'we (hall proceed to the Iniroduction, which is 

.addfcfTcd to the UL-ifls : aiwl in which our Rational Chriflran 

eiutcavouj-^ to viiidiotc the cliar*£lcM of Chrvll and his Apoftlcs, 

- from ihe fjifc afpertpmj a:iU gi'ouQdlcr» calumnies of moilcra 

'i»«i'jt>twM. And what is bis creed r Why, he believes that the 
religion of nature and rca'^on is more pure, more prrfe^, mbre 
clear and cufy to be unilerfloud than '.t-nf others that it can ad- 

■ mit of no improvefrciit ; that no other can be fo perfci^ in nil 
["•it* parts, or fo well adapted to promote the bappinrfs of man- 

■'•kind; that the mora! [iart« uf the New Tcftament -ail tliofc 

'only which cau concern mankind; that the myftcrious Jtnd fu- 
ucinatural pacts, (a$ he ciUh thcinj have been introduced 
by ctaft, and Wended with the pure nllgton of Chrift, by 

.intcrcflcd snt! dcfignirg pnc(b j that Jcfus Chrift maybe faid 
lo hi a melil-ngcr from God, as he was employed in the repnbti- 

' eethn of the religion of nature, which is the law of God ; that 

it Wcs if'C nccclT^ry for him to produce a ccmmifTion imme- 

'-diatrlv from (Jod, tn claim the rcgacd and attention of man. 

-kind, bccaufe- what he taught them w.V) plain and clcv, 

thad a natural lendcncy to promoic their happincfsi chat it 
not probable that God haii given to mankind any written rcve» 
Irftion immcdistely from himlclf, unA under his \\>cr.'ii\ and pacr- 
ticutar dire^ton-, nay, that ^fuf^matural rci/tlatioa is anunifcd 

^contradiction. — ^^uch is the creed of this Rational CtuilUan : ^, 

.there \i any diflcicncc, therefore, between him and modern uft ~ 
believers, our Readers we apprehend, will be inclined to thlnl 
with u«, that it ts a very Guall one, and that both parties vm 

'be cafjly reconciled. 

We now proceed lo the Work itfclf, the dcfign of which, ro 
borrow the words of oiir Author's friend, in his picfacr, ii,- 
• I'o fcp.irate and difirnguiih between pure and fimpic Cbril^, 
lianiiy, or Chiiftaa morality, as it was taught by its great Au-' 
'thor, and the adulterated, fophifticatcd, cicriral Chriflianlty,- 
whiih hath prevailed in Chriftirndom, and which has clbowci 
f^nd jollied the Chriflianity of Jcfus Chrill almoll out of lh«t 
World. He hath endeavoured to ihcw ih:|t the true Sterling coiaj 
"of Jefus Chrift ha.^ hcen adulterated by artful men, onJ thj _. 
ifieir biafe hath bctu palmed upon the world, and puffed wiih- 
\ht vulgar for pure gold ; that fup:rflition, and foolilh ri:es anj , 
tcremonies have been fubftituicd in the room of pure morality, 
tiuc ririuc, siid genuine nlij^iun.* 
" ' " " Our 

S7w Alpraiiij if the Nea Tfftamtnt. 

Our -Autlior has divided hii wori: into four boolcs; the fjrA 
.contains the duties which we owe to God ; the fccond, the du- 
ties which wc OWL- lo ourfL-lve^ } the third, our duties to ouf 
,fifllow*cicaturcsi and the fourth fundry general articles, viz. 
hapiiincfs, good works, repentance, religion, anxieiy, curio- 
iityf &c £ic. Each book is fubdividcd inio chapten, to which 
arc pidjjied Ibmc p^dtigcs from the New Tcfiamcnt, rclacive tv 
the I'cveral fubjci^ts of them, znd the Author's aim, through the 
V/hole, is, to (n>'w that the moral part of Chrlflianltv is ehiircly 
confiflcnt wiih, and a pcrfcd ttanfcript of, ihc religion of na- 
ture. The Wrlicr haih, in this firll part of his work, ad- 
vanced many things, which dcfcrvc to be attentively confidcrcd. 

The concluAon, which is very Iom* contain) fome general 
ohfcrvaiions on the mi/irrhui parts of the New Teftamcnr, on 
the Bifhop of Glriiiceftcr's Doiirine ef Graie^ Locke's plau of 
^hiillianity, natural religion, Jtc. &c — ; — The following ex- 
xrzSt may fctvc as a fpeclmen of our Author's manner, and wilt 
give the Reader a cle;>r view of his priticiples : 

* I have endeavoured, {^3-^i be) for the honour of CL-tflianity, 
to divcft it of the mafk with which bigotry and enthuftarm have 
difgiiifed it ; and to defend it on principles cf Jifj/:Hi it's bcft 
and furcft defence. 

* I have laboured to pn>7e, anJ I hope I have proiTd, that 
the religion taught by Chrill and his Apoliles was the religion of 
nature ; snd A«t it is confnnanl to reafon^ tnd to otir inofl ip' 
proved co:iccptiL>ni of the divine nature. 

* The eternal God, whom I humbly adore, knows tfiat I 
■have employed ihe faculties he hath given me, in an honHl and 
Impartial mquiry a^r Truths the Tt-uih at it h m M'»i. If it be 
elevated above the reach of thefe fuculiics, I muft remain in ie- 
Borance ; but 1 cannot, on that iccouni, bcthe object of Gfla*s 
dilpleafuro. I kiiow thai I am fallible, and liable to error: I 
theiclbre didaie to none; but eaineftly recommend to every 
man to jodgt for himfilf, and to liAcn te the dictates of bis own 

* It appears to me, that uatierf and emfeirva di.ftate and dif- 
coTcr to us the relations we l^and in to God, and to our feI!ow- 
'Crcnturcs j and rfofht points out tlie duties which flow Rom thcfe 
relations. Now thcfc duties appear to he pifty towards God, 
4ind un^jerfa! {hantj and towards msntind. From the 
performance of ihcfe duties wtil aril'c our own happineb : and 
•Chcrofore it farther appcan, that the love of God, and of our 
feUow-creatures, are infcparably conn^fied with that iirlt and 
moft evident principle of nature, the Irvt ef ot&ftlvtt. All thefe 
ftcia to be iotcrvsovrn with our very ftame, by ihs auiVh« cS. 

N 2 «>iW. 

ifa Thi Ji^raTtty of the Nkto Tejiamak. 

oi r being. This communication of God originally ttftlte Att-* 
man heart, I think w? m.iy ftile natural reiigien. If there ire 
»]iy other re.'Micrts, or any other dmiriy 1 confcfs I am unac- 
quaintot) with tbcni : I chink there can be no other ; and I airo* 
think that thtfe arc clearly dHcoverabIc by the light of nature- 
otily \ and that a fuf-erAaturai revelatiM U, t$ I {aid bcEbrCi » 
DiaiufeA coHtr<idi£lk>n. 

• The mn-tfytloflrincs and procepis «f Chrift and his apuflle^ 
appear to me to be a fair and f^erfc^t tranfcript of this divine ori- 
giiul ; and therefore I (li!c thtff^ and th/fr only, the R$ligien «^ 
Mrryif or Chri^ianuy : and for (his reafnn :iiro, I look ou-iV to 
be the only true ivritun revelation of God's will to mankind^ 
among all ^ various revelations, or what aiefocallady in iho- 

■ I am ftnfiblc that ihe advocates of every other religion make 
tiie fame prciciiCons : but I deny that any, I am yet acquainted 
with, have equal proof of the divinity of thctr fyftem with the 
votaries of the nmal doi^rines and precepts of Jelus Chrid. Gut 
here I would be undcrflood, not to tike into this account thoTe- 
who profcfs only ibc religion of natuw, who prailicc the duties, 
prefctibed by their own contiences, and have not joined thcm- 
frlvcs to anv particular communion : thtji cannot be wrong, it 
they tnjimat i becauie tcf^fdtnet will always be a fafe and un- 
erring quide in all reli^ioiK concerns, and rtnftn *' the only pro- 
per tell of religious rrutb." But Ut mh examine this mauer a 
little farther, and then conclude, 

• The advocates of every fc£l allow, tbat tbcM is but tmt true 
religion in the woild,. and, notwithftandmj: that litchan allirr- 
tion rtfieits highly on the jurtice and goodncfs of the Supreme 
Being, they Hill alieft, thatf/'/jr'i is this ixuc religion, and that 
they only are in pufli^ffiun of this invaluable jewels thk pcait 
of great price. 

• Now if it be allowed that tJiere Is but ant trne religion, in- 
tended by God for univcrlal u:c ; it certainly is the principal 
bulinefs ot every one to find it out and embrace it : but in order 
to do this, and to diflingiiifh the gold from the droli, we Ibouldr 
candidly and impartially examine the prctcnfions of every reli- 
gioui kiX throughout the known worhi : a talk extremely diffi- 
cult, i( noC impujrible to be pfrfoimcd, and therefore, I prefumCy 
was Acver attempted, The:e arc very few who have had the 
obHity, and the opponunity, to- examine many, among the at- 
Diffi nwobcrlcfs religious lyflcms which have obtained in thi* 
world; however, thvfe vt'thiu our reach, it ceitainly js ouc 
duty to examine. But before we begin the importnnt enquiry^ 
it Will be Jicccliby to do two ihiAj;^ : till, tvdwc&ouilclvM, 


HTht Mfra/ity oftbi Kiw Ttftamtrtf, \ % i 

at much as pojfibk, of any prejudices we may have imbibcJ for 
the religion wc were olucaied in. thM we may examine the 
TcUgioii of our ewn country with the Time candour and impar- 
tially with v^bicU wc cxio)in« (hkt of ochcn : ncxt^ wc fhould 
£x in our own minds (ome ccttaiu markfc or charHcicrt0ic} of a 
trut rrii^ion; fur wichout prcviouQy doing theli: two (htngs, 
our -cxaininaUBn will be uiclcfs* itul not aufwur the purpofe 
intended by it. 

* Wc begin then ; atjrl in ortirr to coUffl all the sir>ftuice we 
«aD, we extend our Wiiuinrs to the profcllbrs of each religion j 
and ive foos find that they si I prcicttd to ^c pal ^ hieven^ the 
cenain criterion of a religion's coming from Cod, 2nd that aU 
•others are ^fe and coutitcrfdc -, anJ, what is worthy \A re» 
tnark, the principal and diitinzi^ilhing chvaSeriftics oF diw- 
fflity, m almoft all c>i them, we find to be that of mifacfn ; 
which* by the bye, feems to-be an argument, thut miratksy or 
ilf/isries sfmiraHeit will ever be an infulBcicut proof of the truth 
of any idtgion ; efpeciatlyifwe confider that God is Taid Tome* 
times to have pctmittod miiaoles to be wrought evcu by the 
agej'cy 9i ivi! filrht. 

* Still remaining tn (!ottbt and uncertainty^ ^nd finding the 
^acc of the earth ovcrfpicad, like a deluge, with igrwrame, fu- 
ftrjiitien^ tn'.hufusjm^ hi^Qtrj^ pri'JU'aft, 2ni\ fJf-tMtnJi^ wc re- 
turn, like thf ilvtu inid lU art^ without finding where to reft the 
ibles of Our fed. From witktutt wc gain no information in re- 
gard to this importmt inquiry ; cur ouidcs either not kaowiog; 
<hc way themfclves, or rcfufmgtaleaa othen into it. 

* Being thus come back again to the place from whertcr wc 
fat But, wc natrirally rcafnti with oucfclvcs in this mann-r : if 
Ood htth given a religion to mankind, to be the unlvrrfa! xn\c 
of their conduS ; and if iiv indkiithtai caa attain ecvmal happi- 
•Bcfi without knowing and embracing it j furcly ic i? the bufi» 
■nefs of every msn to examine and judge for himfrlf* and nof 
one for another ^ becaufc ne •ne can become accotintable for 
4he opinions and ai^ioii3 of another, nor indeed would take 
them on binrfclf, if aWc {0 to do : bcfidcn, it vronld be a more 
trifling cxcufc to fa\', Afy p^ifji l^ w I JujuSd Jo thtt^ and I 
Jt'f it, than that ma^eby jftfcmfor his eating the forbiddco fruit. 
"What Can we then cor ludc, but that, if there is any certain, 
«ACiring, h^vai-apptinud guidi to maOi ic muft be his own 
<onfcicncc? Let vt c-.mnwnt thmtuith nr Mt'» hfartt, findtrJliU: 
let us ceafc our inquiries from men, who arc tII, Klce ourfelve*, 
liable to error : let us depend fio longer on the opinions of otfaars, 
imt operi the book of Naturt^ read the ija^e iherc prefcntcd u» 
au> aui diiiiic oftlic f lac ilreaia from (he iVunuin of uuih, |i«* 

H 3 cortupteA 


Tl-'t Mirality cftht Kew Tf/hment. 

Lforrupled with igncrame, higitry^ or inttrfftid traft. Let u* turn 
*eur thoughts inward, and aficourfelvcs ferioudy, Whether it be* 
^vrobable th^t God has vivcn lo mankinJ any writtm revelation^ 
[jm mediately frfim himfcif, and under his Ipccbl and piitticuli 
dircttioii 1 in doing which, he cfieflujlly rtftrtintd the |nib- 
}ilh?rs (jf it from blending jny of their own upinicns and fcnri-*' 
merits with the pme and perfett word thus dtjivercd to them ?" 
Will not our confcicnces rnfwcr, thit it is highly probable no'- 
(uch writEcn revelation has been made? And fur this realbn many others, namely, that fuch a revelation mull 
>iiC('ll>iry to the happincrs ofmaptcind, or God u'ould not have. 
iTidc ii : if neccffaiy^or any, then for dtf ; and jt is inconfifteni^ 
Vith all our idcsif of the jullife and goodneiii of the Pjircnt of^ 
mankind tu ruppole that he wutild not make it unh^rjal. U^ 
wou'd be a reRc4iti<-,n on the moral character uf the DcitVt to<. 
fupi^ofe an- iaJiziiinal of the human race to be To unhappily cii- 
^umltanced, its to have no opportunity of Itnoaing and cm-^ 
Iracjng the calf rtiiglan by which he could attain eternal happi* 

* Again, if fuch a revelation had been made to mankiod, it 
VO'jId h3^-c been moA certainly diHinguifhcd fiom alt irvtcnded 

'Tcvclaiions, by fomc ohvi^'us w/«Twa/ marks and tokens of a di' 
«ine ottojna) ; not by a pillar of fite or of ihiuVe, tu diro^l tni 
nation only; but fuch as would attract the notice, and fix th< 
opinions of mankind iinivcrfally, and br to them all An infallible^ 
^uide through the wildcrnefs ofchit wotld, to a ftalc of perfcf" ' 
9nil ccnfummatc happinci';. 

* But farther, fuch a revelation would alfo, mod certainly, 
have fomc M/trw/lDa'ks of divinity. Wc may rcaftuiably fup- 
pitlc, fiffl, that it would be plain, clear, and intelligible: 
j'tl'ttj to all fituattons of time and place, and to the mcaneft a$, 
%vcU a& the mofl enlarged capacity : it wuuld want nu conw 
ments, no paraphrafts, n<i explanations; for ran we fuppofc - 
(.lat when Ggd fpeak^ to bis crcature>, he would do it in a lun- 
j-uage which they could not undcriland ? Or that He wha 
n<m)cd the power of conception in the human mmd, fliould cvcr^ 
fland in twed of an i'trrprttir? Suicly no. Secondly, we mayr 
reafona^ly fuppofe that the dotfhines of fuch % revelation would 
hcpttrty unpiixcj with perplexing 7»jy?<T«/, ot wtcMd ctumonia^ 
r.nd that its precepts would contain ihe mofL fublimc mpiality. ' 
the |>rjd>cc of which v^oul^ have a dircA tendency to promc 
IfHiiti/n.' iMpfitn/Ji, 

4 Finally, fuch a religion would mod certainly approve itfcif 
to the confciences of every individual of the human rare, by 
being a j>erfeit cppy from that perfect original, TU Rt'i^iiM </ 

Tie Msrollij efthe New te/amrnU 


Jifiifsn arid NatifTt't to which nothing cnn be added by m»n, 
thst would tm{ir»ve it, itpthmj> blsi^ded with ir, but ttrhat 
would prove ;in alloy, and Icflcn it s intrinGc valur. 

* The rffighn ef nature then is the flandjrd, by which we. 
ibould mcalure the merits of tW other rcligioiu i anu that which 
approaches ncarcft to ihe purity and prrfctition of (his, wc fliould . 
tfftcooi the htjl •: and if wc I<y>lt on cftjUiihr;d «'igi<-n a* ufcfu], ' 
political, .and produtfHvc of order in foticty ; we Oiould, if U-x 
the fake of example only, join ourfelves to ih^t which Our cou- 
fcicncc thus rccoijimcnos. 

* It arpe-iri to mc, that the rtf!j!eit if Chi i/!^ unai'ulteratcd, 
has -the fairefl claim to our regard, upon the princi|>lcs before 
cftjblifTicd : but, by the nUgim af Chriji^ I would always be 
undciftood to mean, bis motal dUiriiut ttnd preuptt \ and there-, 
fore I camcftly rccoimnend, ihat wc malce ufc of our rcafon ro 
difiinguifti thofe parts of Chn/l'umtty which arc xgrceafale to na-J 
!UTC, and to what God hn» Wiittcn in our hearts, from thofe ' 
parts which, for many reafoiis given in ihcfc ftieets, mull he thc'^ 
i-fv niimt of mtn \ whatever we may be required to believe con- ' 
ccrning them. 

* The moral dofJrines and precepts of Cbnjf are exaflly fuch 
3S nature reaches, fuch as my confcimcc approves j and there-' 
fotv I prefer hh religion to any other cllablifbed religion that I' 
-am acijuaintcJ with. '. 

** 1 rCTx-rencc the cbarstner ftf Cjiwist, artJ cnfJcavour to 
practice hi? precepts, iKCJtife my confctence tells tnc that they 
are rtaftnahk^ natma!, und pri^Srvt ef huttMit ftlii'itj ; and rbr 
this reafon 1 denominate myrdf a Rarmnil Chriltian/ 

Inihe eppciidlx to this work, the Author endeavours to prove, 
that the doctrine of a future ftatc of rctritxitioii is Uu^Bt in thc- 
religion of natuie; be likcwife makes a few remaik^i on wli.u 
Dr. LtlanJ has lately puliltflied concerning the advuMai^i tunl 
tucffftiy fftbt Chrtfiian rtvetatien ; tcliiii^ usj that he is proud of. 
being engiigcd in the fame caufe with the Doctor, (who, wc. 
imagine, will not ihinkhimrelf highly obliged to him for the cniii- 
iHitnent) naiiitly, that of vinJIcatina rufhnal ChrijUanit^^ ami' 
Htll mote iu to tiiul that} in general, be ^agrees witit him. 

In the Two laft pag« of his appendix be prodtices fomc ptfTaijes 
from the Doftor's book, wherein he fays — that a divinr rfrvcia-- 
<ion was hi|?hly /r/i/'f/.Vn/, if nut abfolutely iiect-(Iar\> ;.: ihe ad-« ' 
vcoi of Chiift^thtt mere hunuMt wifdijcn and pbilufoptfy mtrt 

* The Ao:h«Ao«Id lta«e£iid,^Mrf /«-yf j'fincc^ according to hi# 
«wn •i£U(ncOt, tl)c religion of Natare is the ie^t. j 

N 4 cert- ;Jy 


TTa MaraHtj tfihi Kew Ttjhment* 

ccrtalii'.jr infuflScient to cure the moral difor<l«rs of the world] 
and that a rtvtlatian from God was the only cfTc^ual rcBicdjc i-^ 
tHat the ChridiAti rcvclaiton is fuited to cne Dflccl&cies of maa-.] 
kind \ that it was puhliflied in the httell fcifon, and was at- 
tended with the tnoit convincing evidence of a divine original. 

* In aH this ((>ys our Author] I mod cordlaltjr agree wtti 
this judicious divine : and whoever reads the foregoing work^ 1 
will perceive that 1 have all along fpoken to the fame purpofc J 
though I am cunfciotts of having done it with much Icfs Icam* 
1ng, accuracy, and elegance.' 

How to reconcile thi-s di'claration with what our Author hat 
nfore than once declared, in the courfe of his work, we really 
know HOC ; but inconftllcncics are no uncommon ihiogs wiU^ 
writers, on every fubjc3. 

We might have fwelled this article with obfcn-aiions on 
{iCrformonce befote us, hut the proper remarks to be made upon ii;^ 
piuftoccurto every judicious Reader j wcfhallthcrcforeconcludll. 
with this iliort rencdlion, thac if fuch a view ^a is berc given gf 
the religion of Chrift {bould make any profclytcs to. ouf Au* 
ihor's fchcme, it muft certainly be among fuch as arc but fupcr* 
fici^lly acquainted with the facred writings— with the weight of 
thofc evidence* fo well eftablifli'd itt fupport of the leading ar- 
ticles of the Chriflian Faith, whith this VViiter bath totally ce-* 
jested aa inadmiiTible, becaufe mjpfricus. 

Having now difmiiTed thit Rational Chkistiav, we (hall 
conclude (he article with the following remark of a learned wri- 
t:r, who has very recently dnlinguifhcd himfclf in the contro- 
vrrfy concerning an intermediate O^tc ; «nd which highly merits 
the attention of thofc Real Christians, who maintain, that 
GhritUanity is only a republication of ihc Religion of Nature.— 
♦ To what Purprtfc (fays he) fuch a profufion of miracles, fo emi- 
nently powerful a minider, fo tranfcendcnt a ch-iraiLler as Jesl'3 
at the head of this diTprnffftion, if hi? errand was no more 
to give an additional tcHiinony to the fuppoffd difcovcties of na- 
Uril religion i which, confidering the univerfal confent of 
wife m^n in all ages, io much boatted of on all lides, and by 
both pjttics, feems to be an end much below the nccirlTity foi 
the interpofition of the Son of Cioo, as it might have been 
■ftomp(-Ihfd by the miniftry of anyone of thofc inferior pro- 
phcu of the Old Teftamcnt, who furely were fufficiently gifted" 
and iriAru^ed to authenticate doctrines and precepts which were 
tJready to be found in the woriu of fo m^ny poets and phito- 
fophcrs, in every body's hands?" Sec ,1n Hi/hneai f^ifW sf tht 
(htarevfrjy^ itc. juft publinied; pf which an account will be 
(iveu in A fuhrc^ucnt Review. 

Panunty an MfiIo$n$, By J. Cunningham, ComsiJian. Ato, 
6d. DuJOcy. 

IF Mr. Cunningham is not a Gri^^-tatc poet, be U fhll a tnon: 
iajiScrent [Jwtfbpbcc: fui Uie moral he tkjtw^n fhua 2m 
iVjKiiogue, tlut 

WiCiom^i of happineft iKe cerutn Curoc, 
Aotl felly the origiral of i1t« 

does net tren appear to be gcDcrallytruc. With regard to moni 
«vil, indcc(1i the differeiu ajepcy of wifctamaud rvUymay luvc 
coiifi^cniblr influence ; bal natural and accidental evilj, which 
we undergo tnJependtntly of our own powi'iTs,are, pcrhaw, the 
hc^vicft objeils of comiilaint. Were ihcfe altogciher out of the 
world, wildoOT might, with greater trulli, be deemed the (burcc 
ofiuppinefs, but not, even then, the «rt(?m fource. That ca- 
la^fCKicfit of the tntcllc^ua) faculties, which u always rtm-- 
netted wi;h the idc* of wildom. Jays open many tvcnucs tomor- 
tifLcation> difgurt, and difconient; and the more clearly we be- 
hold the imw:cillit3f of our nature, the more painfully wc fed 
iis etfeds. — The condu*2 of the fable is nor lets cxcrptionablc 
■ban the conclufion. An Afs complainji to Jupiter of the com- 
parativc hardibip* of his condJuoaj 

1 an an Afs, of innocence allotv'd 
llic type, yet Fortune perfccutei ue H!'] ; 

WhUft foxeff wolves, aod all tlie murJrring crowd. 
Beoeath her patronage can rob aimJ lull. 

The pjmpei'd hoHc (he never loil'J (a hard) 
Favour and tricaJfhip from bii ounce Aodsj 
For endieri diligeucr, a ruugh reward I 
I'm cudgell'd by a race o/paultrj' hindr. 

On wretched prorendcr compell'd to feed ! 

The rugged pavctnenc's every night mj bcdT 
For me, eunc Fortune never yet decteed 

The gracious cotnforu of a wdt-thatch'd Cied. 

Rou^h, and uoreemty my irrevemu hide ! 

H'herenn 1 vifn, thus uncoothly drell? 
Thn: Dutiide Hegancc ihe dame deny*d, 

For which her fiivntcj arc ico olt cini&'d. * 

To fuffcring virtue, fjcrcd jo»c, Iwkiod? 

From K&rtunc's tyranny, pronaunce me free j 
Che'j a deceiver, if !he fays (he's blind. 

She kci, pTopitioutly lets all but tne. 

Moved by this pathetic complaint, Jupiter fummons Fortune 

to vifvrcr the charge brough: ngainll her. Afier a lor^^ fearrh 

ilic is found, aaJ urgc^, in her defence, that ilwpUimjn (hard- 

^ ' •-- '■ flnpi 


iS6 FertuiUf aa jfptbgue, 

Ih^ wcie Ho greater tfaiui. for his fhipiditjr, he 6ctttvc^ mj 
/that he had no merit to entitle him to. a Jbctier hit. I'his repi v 
of Fortune is pronotinctd to be lugv, and uptm this the doQrine 
>of the fabie is founded. — I3ut with the good leave of Jupiter,' 
Fame, Fortune, and the Author of this Pocni, we mull taks 
the liberty to obictvc, that it was vcrv unjufi, in. the firttpUcc^'i 
'to brand a creature with iUcJiigma 01* folly, which aSed agree- 
ably to the powers of its natiirc, and cjicrtcJ thcin as far asthey 
! »;ould go. — It is true, indeed, that an afs and a fool are fynony- 
►inoui icims with us, though, with the fame propriety, might ■ 
bebigs proportionably fuperior in capitily to ourfclves/make u)*J 
the objeiti of ridicule* and, when they would reproach a fellow * 
jcrcaturc with fully, call him 3 Man. The fupreme court ol ju- j 
Micature wliich the Poet has convcntd on this occafion, oiighij * 
IcErtainTy, lo have been better inforincd. But, in (htf next place,'' 
flbcir fcntcncc was equally cruel and unjuft ; for it w^s deter- * 
[mined that the fiifFrring,s t>r the plauiliff Als were the rcafonable 
.conlcqufiice of hisdefeils, iliough thufc dcfcH^ were involuntary 
and unfurmountablc. What jfupiicr adds, by wsyof cxhor** 
latian after the fcnttncc, i:> inBaitely abfurd : * 

Go Sy> the Plriintiff. faid the Sire) aad try 

Ey ment to fuimount your low-born race. , 

X^atn from ibc Itnn to be jjR and brave, 

T^ke from the elephant inflruflioii wile. 
With^rtcious bteedine, like tlic horfc behave, 
■ Nor ihe (agacity of hf»und» dcfptfc. 

Thefe uftful qoAji(ic5 with care irobibe. 

For wbich Irtm? (juacttiipcds arc jufUjr prizM j 
Attain thofe Dltcr* Ihi: Jidorn each tribe, 

^nd you 11 oo longer be a wretch defpii'd. 


What a IcITon from the father of the goJs ! to exhor^ a crca- 
lufe to thofe attainments for which he had given it no adcquaia 
faculties ! Might not the Afs have replied with (he gccateli juf- 
tiee— * Cruel and abfurd Jupiter! injuriouAy to fport with the 
weakncfs of the creatures thou had made, and command them to 
afjiirc at thofe degrees of cxccUcnce thou haft placed beyond 
their reach ! — To enjoin an impoflible tafk, atid torepntjch for 
non- performance— cruel and abfurd ! Thou commaiideft me to 
be brave as the lion, wife 35 the elephant, graceful as the hotfe, 
and fagacious as the hound— girc inc then the lion's paw, ihc 
clei>hain'8 head, the horfc's nccic, and the noflfils of the houndj 
yet fliouldtt thou jiive nie them,, what an animal wouldft thou 
niajte me! O mighty Jupiter, rctradl what thou hart uttered, 
and Icain from an Afs to be wife and juft !' Had the pod been 
thus addreOcd, he might have found it difficulty have made 
aiiy fi^nificant reply. 

Ftriu/if, fiH AjtU^e. 


!n favour of the fabulift, however, fome ap-ilogy may be de- 
nvcd fiom the ccinfnoj) o;iiiiioii of mankind; and ih? feniimcnt 
he cfcribn to Jupiicr and Fortune irc, fua bcma^ neitl>er'uniui* 
uirj;l porextrnorUinaiy. Mcn'ol iill codntriri add of all reli- 
gions, have 2grccil to dtaw their goJs liAer ihtir own Jma^e, al< 
tcr ttic iui3,u<;ot" man made tbcy CnJ. — This is, indeed, iicrc^ 
Veifc of ihc Iricrcd hiilurian'a acccuiu, but il is ncvrrtbcIctJR uucn 
The deities of every rution have always been of the fame chai 
niici with the people that worftipt**-'*^ ibcm* Their vouiii 
never fiikd to compliment them witti-thctr wttx pecutt j.- paflioiit 
c^iciiuns, -linuc' und vicc^} infomuth that-, n>kno» the genii 
ajid lemfKf of any people, netting more Wa^ nccctlJry rban t( 
k'X'i; the character of their foti. I h: cbuitc aiid irgrniou^ it 
h^iiants ut the Ullei ATu gave the virgin eoiic to their iJionj, 
Aiid the lauicl to ihcir ApcUo. TJie {^ilkfing fjpvtans hid i\ 
thievifli Mcjcuryi and che piUoral ATCiuli/.iU ihrtr guatiOt Paju 
The god arul the prophet of tiic fikciom Tui k ar<^ p.coaii 
fiinipv, who have piomirrd to aJrAiitiOcr to ht\ plc:ifiirL-i> in tl 
bext u'i>rld ; and the I'hor and VVudcn vX the b.u:t'iis had 
the low cunnii'.^ and c^ol barbarity of their votariej. 

But as man is, through a'l the varfcty of his fpcrlcs, ;i mifJ 
chievous crea:tirc, fo rhc idea of mifchicf has evermore b' 
crnnc^ed, in foine kjifc or otScr, with that of a god. — M'hcf 
JupiTcr. attended by his v^let Jicrcury, pjid a vifii to old Bawcii 
and Philemon, while the gopd people foofc ttictn for noihinj 
more ih?n mere mortal tr«vcl1crf> all »*c:it well : ihcy ptovid< 
them a difh of b.icon and grvem, and (it quietly dmvn U'it] 
llicm to fuppei — but no fbomr did ihcy difcovcr that ihclr guel 
wrc godi, than milctticfcainc into thcit iicarti— they ran aftc 
ibeir pcM'f old goofe, thac ouly gooli.-, the centincl oi th:Jr cot- 
tage, which frequcn'.ly kcpi v/jtcn while they weic at relt, wititl 
avag fed fiom their labte, ^tuA was unio ihcm m a child — with 
mifLhief in their hearu they fought to caith, xo (lay, to furriiica 
her. That rhe goo<c had more fenfc than her owners, iiml,' 
wi'cly c-'Dctudini: thit, if Jupiter wtrc a god, he could not 
ihirft after her blood, flew between his legs for rjfuge— tliat 
(loc5 nor place the opinion of the a;:cJ c.oupJe :ri any^norc ra- 
(iooal, or more fii\outablc ^Ig'bt — ihcy flill a»uie\cd the idea 
in>fchit-f lo that of a g';d, iliough the guoJe did not. 

If Mr. Cunningham, then, has t'allcn into an errnur in which 
almoil all the world has been before him. ho haih ccttjiEily a 
claim to much indulgence on the fame account. H<c forms the 
<v«i<Jtitl of bis Jupi'cr upon the gcncr-l praitice of inaufcind. 
The god acciuittVcs in that contempt whith u thrown upun tl 
M'' for noi havini; :itt;tin<'d thuli: dignities which lie had neitheiT 
(he power, iior the c>i)dciry of a:uin:ng, ar.d ilicrc a no in 




FniMhr^ an jfyekgvf. 

Ihncc of buman wciikners fa univorf;ilt7 prrr:]leat, as that of 
Icfpifing ochers for the want of what tbey were never able to 

Should the Author of this Apologue think it vrortb his whtle 

re-con&der and give it a different turn, we would advifc him 

make the fuhjett of the pUiniitTs grievance fomewhat differ 

fnnt too. With what jufticc might the iBjured animal complain 

Lof the wanton and capricious crDcUies of man ! * O Jupiter, 

[((might it not juftly exclaim) what mongers arc thefe which 

>tbnu baft ae&td on two legs ! that humble food thou pro- 

vidcft for my rcpaft, they protend, though they eat it no^ to 

be their prc^rty. They ftcal my thiftle<i, and then deliver 

them to me in fcanty pittances, after ihey have made me groaa 

tail the day beneath a heavy harden. My natural libctty they 

*have takcfi from me as well as my fuod, ami never permit mc to 

wander over the field* except when they are ihemfeKTS obliged 

^tD fleep. Thofe hours in which thou haft appointed all animal* 

I to reft hcntatfa tho friejidly cuttatn of darknefs* I am conftrajned 

\to facrtficc to the catb of hunger, which my opprcfior will not 

,*Ilow nic time to gratify during the day. Thus, though natu- 

. jally How, the want ol rvll makes mc more {b, a:id I am puniOied 

for ^c{c£ti which are not my own* by the continual application 

of whips and cudgels. In proportion as I am patient and de- 

fcncelers, thrfc iwo-lcggcd monftcrs, wiih which thou haft 

(urfed the earth, beat and bruile, and excoriate, and ftab mc f 

O Jupiter, furely. if thou art a juH god, thuu hafl great puiiiiU- 

lacnt UJd up for thcfe tyrants ! 

After talcing thcfc liberties with Mr. Cunningham*-! Poem, we 
muft do him the jufUcc lo felci^, what we rhink the bcft part of 
it, his dcfcriptioD of the domeflic attendants of Avarice : 

Meagre and wan, in utter'd f;arineii» drell, 

A feeble porter, tt the gjie they found, 
PouUed with wreichcdrwr!, with a^e (iiflrcrs'J, 

And on bis wrmklcd furrhcad famine frown'd. 

M'^ruts avaunt. the trembling fpeflre cries. 

Etc pu invade the facrrd haunci, beware ! 
To goird Lord Avarice from rude furprixe, 

1 am the ccDtitiel i my naaic is Cake. 

Doiibti. difappnintments, anarchy of miriid. 

Thcfs are the fuldiert that furroand his hall j 
And every fury that on I;((h toaiikind. 

Rage, rancour and levcngc aaead hit call. 

Wc arc glad to fee thnt the Author has, in (his poem, in s 
great mcafure avoided that alfcclcd prcitincfs wc have had occa- 
fioa to ccnfure in fomc of his former pieces. 

r «89 3 

rht Gifpil-Hijierjt fram tht Ttxt of tU Fsur Evatigtlijit, ff'lih 
Sx^ianataty Not/l. In Five Boaii. To whUh an fkbjiintj^ Tm^$ 
"^tflhe Chapttrt anJ Verl^ei of each Evangtuji, utih KjftraHtt 
t9 tht Paiei ef thii IVsrk in whkh ihty art it b* fimti^—tf tht 
Mirachu ParabUsy and Vifeeurfis efChriJi y—and of the Jivtrat 
Ytarifram hit Birth t» hit Jfunjtmy u-isb ike corrffpoitdin^ tears 
efthe Julian Period^ Qfympiadt, and Trtrrt of Rami-, tht Ttghj 
t>f the Pajfotter^ and tht taiptrtant Evtnts «f Prtfane Utjit^. 

^^ Mr. Robert Wait. MiaiOcr of Gidfton. Sva 6 s. 

THE Author, fn hh preface, gives the fotlowing apctuintcl' 
the (krfigr; of his performance, ami of the methoil uhicit 
he has obferved in the execution at it : 

• The Gofpcl-Hiftory is undoubtedly of tb< greateft import- 
ance to Chrilli»ns, a^ it ffontalns the life of our Saviour, and 
the fafti by which the divine authority of our holy rclJgioD is af- 
ccrtaincd. It v.-i'i ihcrcfoie natural that particular care Ihould 
have been cmpIo}'cd about the explication of this facrcd hiflory 
in every age of the Cbrillian church. The Gofpcl was origiaaUy 
delivered in a plain and ftmple manner \ but feveral caafe^ have 
concurred to render It by degrees luore difficult to be undcrflood. 
S<'mc of thcfc arc unavoidable j fuch as, the change of manners 
,aiid cuHums, and the difference of idiom between the ancictic 
and modern languages. Others arc adventitious, arhl have taken 
their rife from (hit divcrfity of feniimcnts which h^ alt along d> 
unhappily divided the Chriltian church. It is but too well 
known, thar men have formed difFcrcnt fyftems of ChrJftianily, 
and compofed. onditnricni fi'cs, large volumes to fuppart their 
own tenets, by detached patljgcs ot fcripturc, rather than to 
give (he world our Saviour's religion in it» Ample and unadulte- 
rated purity. Add to thii, that the Gofpel is written by fuur 
Kvangelifts, v^ do not icem to have obferved the iamc order 
and tDcthod. 

' To remedy all thii, nnthmg appears more proper, than to 
repfcfcnt the G(ifp*:l in its native purity and fimplicity, by cofl- 
ncfling the writings of the four Evangcllfts in one continued 
narrative, in which nothing ffioutd be omitted, adapted co mo- 
dern idiom : and I have often thought, that fuch a plan, pro- 
perly executed, might be a creac hejp, not only to undcrfland^ 
but to cn;;«ge pcflons to reaJ the Gofptl; where, inihcrimple 
and unadorned narrative which pljjn and unlearned men have 
given us of the life of Jcfus Chriil, a character is drawn {o m»- 
tTHorditiary, fo amiable, and fo pcrfcd in all its parU, a« could 
Kv«r tuve becu ioroici b)- buaiain 


Wait*! Coj^-'^ijiary. 

* WKh this view, I hiivc cariicJ on the text in 9 r^ular f»i 
tics; aiHl given, not fo much a jnirr.phrafc, as a frrtf tranfl-iuotr, 
lojicihcT with fuch eomic-ftions as the circumftances of the 
hirtdf)' feemed neceflafily to renuiix. The harmony ohfi-rvcd Js 
that which, after conIuUrn!> many plans on the fubjt-ct, and 
comp.Trinc; them with the Evangclifls, feenipd tu mc moft iia- 
fural. — The notes are intended to ^irc a fhort explication of 
()iflicu!t pafljccs, of the fitimiinn ol places, cf the chronclogy 
of events, ana of the pra^ical dcfign of the figurative and para- 
bolical difcourfw. Every one conveifant in thcfe fubjcfls, Icnowi 
it to be more cafy to enlarge than to abriJgCj fo as to be un- 

* This work has been, for a confi-Jerablc time, the object 
of my attention; und the defign fuicly will be approved of, 
whatever may be. thoujjht of the execution. I have coik<£^.cd 
all (he helps to it that wcic in my power. For the tranOatiuni 
I haire confuUcvI amonct othen, X)t. Clarke, Dr. Heylin, and 
Monficur L'Enfant. For the order of the hiftory, I have had 
alTtftasice fiom L'Abbc dc St. Real, Mr. Siackhoufe, and Dr. 
Niclfon; biit they orlly give either fuinmarics of the hfe of Je- 
fu<:, where ihcdilcoutfes ar« abridged ; or the? frequently bfcalt 
ihc unity of the hiftory, by interfpcrfing praflical rcflctSions and 
critical :eniafks. t mufi not omit a xcry learned and Ingcninua 
performance lately publiflied by Dr. Macknicht upon the har- 
mony of the Golpcls. If I have takcri the liberty of differing 
from' him in foaic inflancc;, it has bceii from no other motive 
than the force of truth, as It appeared to me; and the rcafons 
arc commonly aiTigncd in the notes. 

* I have proceeded upon the fuppufition that there were four 
P-iHtiYcrs during our Saviour's public minillry, according to 
the common opinion ; for which the realbns are alfo givent 
The firft book is from the birth of Jcfus to the firfl Pafl'ovcrin 
his public miniftry ; the three following contain an iiccount of 
fo many dilTcrent years; and the lafl is from his going up to 
the Pafluvcr at which he died, 10 the time uf his afccnfion Into 
heaven. The ftx days before his crucilixion arc llkcwifc divided 
from cich other, and a feparatc account given of what palled en 
each of them. 

' In Ihoit, the drfien of ihe whole 15, to render the Gof|;>d 
plain, and cafy to be underllood by pcribns of all capacitiet. 
It i» hoped that it ptay be of u(ij to weaken the force of fcve- 
nl ohjectiom of the Dciib, which are frequently founded on 
detached pafTages, without attending to the c^nnedtion of tUtt 
hiftory— chat it mav rnpajc pcrfons to read with picafure the 
Uofpel-hiftor), who ire"*pt to be djfguflcd \vith long commri>- 


I.siAico'i jinfwtrtsa LrtUrt &c. igi 

.tancs^and cxpofitions — and that it may throw light oh fttnie 
t»aftagc« of lh« Evangclifts which, « firft fight, arc dlflKuJc 
and <jbrturc, and reconcile fceming coniridictions. If, in any 
of thfle ways, it fliill iciid to give dearer views of the cha- 
rjiScr and life of Jcfus, and of his LlcH'cd leligion, or lo warm 
the li«rt wiih a glcatcr love to his heavenly doflrines and 

' precepts, what paiits have been belVawed wilt be fully com- 

> pcnfactd. 

• What fucccfi this performance may have, time only muft 
determine. I can only dy, chat I have atienJcd to the Gof- 
pels with a Tincerc and unprejudiced dvfirc to dlfcuvcr their 
meaning. Ifany oVjctSion be made to the turn t have given to 
fome particular paflages, I wilt expcft the fame candour that 
my heart difpofcs mc to cxcrcifc towards others. \Vhc;i the 
general caufc of truth, and not any particular hypothcfis, is In- 
. tended to be fupported, no man will be alhamed to acknowledge 
a miftake upon his being convinced that it is one. In a flatc of 
impcifcdion, different views arc fometimei unavoidable ; but 
llhriflian charity fupplies that dcfed^, and prepares us for that 
lappy world where truth (hail appear in unveiled beauty ; wher*: 
lutuiU love (hall waim every hc:irt, and the kingdom of the 
klclTiah be cftablifhed in unfading glory.' 

Such is the account our Author gives of his dcfign ; a dcfign 
Illy ufcful ; and executed In fuch a manner a to do honour to 
l^his judgment and his candor. He appears to haue ftuJicd the 
CGofpcl-hiAory very carefully, lo have no particular hypochefis 
fupport, and to be a friend to freedom of enquiry. His judi- 
cious notes, and indeed the whole of hii performance, may be 
ptruffd with great 3t!vanr:>gc by thofe who have- neither (jrne 
nor inclination to confult long and learned commcniartes. 

jfa Answer ta a LetUr t« tbt Rtvertnd Dr. Thsmai Lftand. Cm- 
taitirtg^ an ExaPiSmttisn of the Criiiifm an a late Dijfrrtatlm ■» 
the Prindplei of Eiaquemt* In ahiih is f>artiealarfy /brwitf thai 
the Ltrd Bifiup of Ghuetjleri IJta if the Cha>ailercfan in- 

■ jpirtd Languagft m dtlwer.'ti in bis Do4irine of Gratiy is at- 
innvhdgai ta he in'ltfmftbU hj the itarnid Vindicatir. By Tbl^ 
mu Lcland, D. D. fto. 25. Johnflon. 

'N our Review for Oflober laft, we gave a fhort account of 
the letter, to which we have here an anfwet. \\'hocvcr t«iU 
at the pains ro compare ihc twa performances, wiU Bnd a 
wide difference between them, Thf namelrfs Lciicr-writcr at- 
tacks Di. Lclaud In an arrogant, and fuperciUous manner. Dr. 



LttA!*D'j Akjwrt tt a tUt^ 

Leiand trtits the Letter-writer with dcn:Tic|r snil p^titcnds :~tn 
the wnc we fee the alert AcaJcmic, the Implicit wert-fhippw of 
tht Bijh«p afGimttfUr % in ttte other, the Ueatleoian, ibc polild 
Scholar, ind the fair Enparer after Truth. 

Dr. Leiand's anfwer begins thui " Sir— No apologf i* 

indeed due to me, for your engiging in the ta(k of giving jrnr 
freethsughn on my late Dijjettatton, &c. I claim the like in- 
dulgence on my part, and Ihall proceed to examine the fubjcil- 
mattcr of your Letter, I trut), with that decincy which befits 
the chara£tcr you have coftfcrrcd upon mc ; but with the greater 
frredom as I am not informed to whom I have now the honour 
of addrefiing myfclf : and what degree of rcfpctH: and deference 
inay be due to him, I can only coUe£t from the fubjc^ and the 
muwter of his criticifra. 

« However obliging the tender of your fervicea may be to vin-* 
dicate the defign and *i&£f ot' my dilTertation, I have yet my r«- 
Jirnt foi dceiining this oftct. And if I were difpulcd to fufpend* 
perplex, and confound the real fubjeA of our debate, I might 
poOibly turn afide to defend myf&lf on points of no fort ofconfe- 
^ucnce or pertinenc?, even although you declare that you hove 
nailing to ohjeil to theAt. Rut, OS f Am neither irtcline^Swr 
obliged to recur to luch artifice, I paG on directly to that paic 
of your Letter, in which you profei's to conHncyouifcIf lo t^c 
tiatitr of my Diflcruiion. 

As we gave a full account of the BiOiop of Glouceffer'a 
Deifrlm ef Gractj which occnfioned ihc ptcTcni litbate, and 
lilceWife of Dr. Lcland's judicioua DlprtatUn m iht Piittn'pltt if 
EleqttttKti it is ubnccellary lo Iwell this Attirle with a view 
of what the Letter- Writer and the Dodlor have ndvanccd in 
oppolition to each other ; we Qiall unly oblervc, in general, 
that the Doctor appears, through the whole of his Anfwer, to 
be as much fuperior to his Advcrfary, in point of foti^ity an^ 
judgment, as he is in icfpedl of dcecncy and good manneiS. 
\Vc cannot deny ourfclves the plrafure of infcrting the conClu* 
Con of his Anl'wcr — our Readers will thank, us for it. 

* Tpu wtTf mtvnfy you fay,' (fee Review for Oiftober Iftft.) * ti 

htzarJ yetiT addrffi u mt^ amung other motives, by thutof Cra- 

Rirv to myfeit-— Let mc n-tjuert your ftrious attention to a 

few of tlte narlts of this vtrtucf at they appear in a cuntiovei fial 


* • Charttv, in fuch a writer, never mirreprefcnts ; never af- 
Cfibei obnoxious principles, or miUaken opinions, to an op^H** 
ocnt w5ich he hiiulcif ilifavows j is not fo Arndt to refute, ^ 


t» tht Rrtftrtitd D^/ltr Thomas Ldand, 


to fiincy pofitiom iicfer aflcrtcJ, and to cxtentt i» •cnfure ta - 
otHninns which Wii.L perhaps be dcliverctl. CHAHJrv if 
utterly averjc lo snef.rino, the mnft defpicablc fjifcicjof ridU 
Cule, ihat mnd derpiciUc rubterl'uj^e of an impotent objector. 
Charity iici'cr fuppofcs tliot nil fcnfe and knowledge ar« con- 
fincd to a particular circle, to a didrii!^, ora couKTer. Cha- 
ttlTV never contlcmns and embraces '-principlcj in the fiitie 
breath } never P'tftjjii to confute what it aclni'U-UJg. ixo he juft ; 
never prcfumcs to bear down an advcrfarv with confidcut af- 
feitions i Charitv does nut call dineni inColcnce, or the want 
tt implicit fubmiflion a want of common refpefi, 

* Whether thcfc marks of chatit)* appear in your addrefs or 
no, T prefumc not to determine. It tticy do, your readers will 
cot fail to give them due honour. 

* Pardon me, however, iflrannoc clearly dlfcover the ^4^ 
Wry of the concluding paragraphs of your Leiter. Disgrace 
and Dishonour are here denounced againtl me. I am accuf- 
ed of a warm and unneceflary oppofition to all men of lenfe 
and judjrmcnt, and particularly to the ukiv£rsities of Enc- 
LAKU, wh vie vjith eaib ethtr in htiiding on the pTinclptc? of tlie 
levoed Prelate, m tin s UR e st hajis en vhlch a latitnai vindUs' 
/(*« tftur nrnmsH nligitm tan ht roiftd',~~oi frepi^ting fink and 
iB-'irn tut itamcur i— of Jlrhing with all my. might U infuft frt'}w 
£cei into tht mtnit cf ingtniom and virtueui ywth, 7 hus, wlvtle 
J am threatened with the indignation of sll the learned m B'i~ 

' titin, the fignal i* alfo given to the foclcty in which I am fta- 
^ioned* to regard me as a peintciousi uiembcr. 

* How have I merited all ihis (cvtniy ? What crime have I 
committed ^ or what mifs^hicrhaue I wrought? 

' I have ajuft and fincere reverence for the genius and learn- 
ing of the Lord Bi3HDP of GtoucF.STtR. But I cannot he 
pcrfuaded (hat his Lordthlp ever demanded, or that the united 
voice of all the learned in thc'c kingdc>m9 ever, nt cnrismSiur/y 
concurred in paying an implicit fubmilTion to hi* fcntimcnis 
or thofc of any other great and eminent writer- If 1 have pte- 
fumed to differ from him, be pleafed to remember that it hn« 
bftn on fuch a Juijefi as doth not require the extent of his 
LordfliipN abtlitifs tf> fathom ; and where more confined abiJJ- 
ties may have thr jdr^nUge of difcoverinp leveral piini'cularslfc 
which might wcil_have efraprd his view amidft a farlcty dN 

greater objccl*.— The giittt of dilTenting from hi* L-ordflitp 
may at lean c! fome indulgence from you, &nce it &aw'^> 
|>can th«t you yourfclf are involvtrd in it. * 

Be pleafedfUo to rccglkd, that la a conTulerablc part of 


PuRVER'r Tranfotkn tf 

my tlifTcnt I am countenanced by a vaft number of rcfpei^iblc 
auihoricics: and.ihai whatever deference may Ik due (o the 
fciitimcnts of his LordOiip, there is a deference alfo Juc to thofc 
of QyiKTiLiAN, Cicero, Loncisus, Aristotll, Plato, 
and rnotiy other names of great literary eminence both in anti- 
em and m bter times. 

'' It would be impertinence for »u to expatiate on that pro- 
fotmd retcrenec which I moii fmcerely entertain for thofe 
LEARNED noDlfis mentioned in thif djfputc (I know not with 
vhat propriety.) I'hat they will ever build iheir vindicaiiun of 
our faith upon the Jidrr/J bafti indeed I cannot doubt. And God 
forbid I Ihould hive the dirpafilion or the powirr to give 
the lead inicrrupiion to the Ubours of tliefr grtai masteb- 
BUlI-DfRs' — As I am both inconfderabic ana inoftenfivc, I 
cannot believe upon the suthurity of any namclef^ writer what- 
ever, that I can poi}ibly have incurred iheif difiilcafure. 
. * And as to the scKiirv oi which I have the honour to be s 
member here, my (ctuiui^ muft be my defence ?j;ainft any 
charjc made by vt Jirangtr. And Uith ihd'ih (houM I here dc- 
.fcrvc indeed, were I not to the utmoft of my power, both bjr 
precept and example, tu cncour;4ge ingenious youth to FROVit 
.all things (however authorized) with a decent freedom* left 
fimttntt I know not who, Ihokrid call this pTipagahng tiem.ur* 

This fpccimcn, wc apprehend, will abundantly jnflify the 
character we have given of our Author's manner of writing, 
which may fcrve as a pattern for all the dealers in theological 
con trover fy. 

A New and Littral TranflatUn of ati tht Baait ef tin Oid 
New Te/hrmtitt tilth Nolirt Critical and Explanoten. By An- 
tony Purver. Folio. 2 Vols. 4,]. 4s. bound. Printed by 

' Richardfon and Clark, aiid fold by Juhnflon in Ludgate- 

WE have here an opportunity of prcfcnting to the noiice 
of tiie Public, one of the moft important works, wiih 
rcfpc^ to the nature of the undcrraking, which hath come from 
the ptcfs, within the prcfcnc century \ it is no lets than a new 
t triinlUtion of (he whok Bible, accompanied with a great variety 
^ of notes. diHcrtation';, and chronological tables ; which difcover 
no fmall fhaic of erudition. This is a work to which wc Oioidd 
4kvc ihtiu^'ht vcr)* few individuals equal, however great and ex- 
tenlive their abilitlc-i: and we ciimot help admiring the mail, 
1 .viw baiii lud intrepidity enough 10 aitcinpc U. Ii n prubabtc 
\*. W tli»r 

Oid md AVtt TiJIamaii. 

lar the whulc extent of this work was not the Tnnflatoi's ori- 
ginal dcfi^n ; b-Jt ilut his pciformancc arofc fr6m fmaH begin-J 
ningb ; H-as ciirried on by degrees ; and itist its prefml ftatc, as 
i^e nave been informed, is ttre rcfult of the indefatigable, and 
almoft unintcrtuptcd, Application of near forty years, 

The Author of this iranflation, Mr; Antony Piirver, waff 
originally an unlearned mechanic : he iVas brought up to the 
occupation of a ihoc-nukeii and the whole or his liierattjre 
confuted in the knowledge, aiid that very (lender and imper- 
ftfl, of tiis native tcihguC. Being naturally of a grave and 
thoughtful turn of mind, when he grc-v up to yens of ma- 
turity, he refolvcd to examine the religioifs (cntimcnt? and 
principles which he had imbibed in his youth, ur uhich he 
found to be the frequent fubjc61s of difpiitation among Cbrif-^ 

In the courfc of thcfc inquiries, he was f'lon involved rii 
s variety of difHcuhies, from which he could not extricate 
himfelf: he could obtain no fulid fatisfj£lion from the opiinions 
of otbert i and the Scriptures, which were the common ftan- 
(hcd, were differently explained, and moreover were tranflatcii 
from languages of which he had not the Icaft knowledge. Being 
therefore determined no longer to rely upon the judgment ana 
fidelity of others, he formed a refulution, (a very uncomnfon 
dne at his age) to ftudy the original Lingua^. He began with 
the Hrbrnv; and in a very moderate compafs of itmc^ made 
himfrlf coBipetent mailer of that, and other Oriental languages^ 
Arhich are moft ufcful to a critical knowledge of the SciipturcSv 
He afterwards learned Greeks and, laf) of all, LnUi; and thofe 
who will be at the pains to examine this work attentively, willj 
wcdare fay, be of opinion with t.«, that his knowledge in this 
way is far frortl being fuperficial i on the contrary, that the pro- 
grefs he hiode is moft amazing i affording aiinking inffanceof 
the power of application ; and how far 3 determined refolutiail 
may carry a man of common undei ftanding, in literary- improve- 
ments. He i!> however, deficient in the Arabic ^ a more in* 
timatc acquaintance with which, muft have been of gteat ad> 
vantage to blm, in this imponant undertaking;. 

We fuppoft it is pretty generally known Mr. Porver is 
cne of that denomiiiaiiou of Prottftants calltM Quakehs ; 
and we cannot but confidcr it as one inflancc of the improve- 
ment of the prcfcnt times, and an evidence of the progrcf* <if 
knowledge and good ferfic in the world, Ihat a peop'c. wh«^ 
have been generally reptefenrcd as contemners of literature^ 
and a* aflerting the inutility of it to the kfrowledje of the holV 
Scriptures, have at length exhibited a pcrf^inichcej which f< 
Iqunded upon verj* different frntimrn'S, whrch zbaunds with 



fxmm'i TraiJIctim if 

many maiVs of exttnfit^e reading, and great pbilologlcal Icirnw 
ing; and haih not been cxcteiiei by any other feci ot men, thj? 
«e know of. I'licic is a (lory told m ihc life vf Dr. Uetr^t 
Bulij bte Bilbo]i o<^ St. IXniifi^ of a preacher amoiigd thii 
people, who would fcequcntly accoft Mr. £»// i:pon thi« fu^* 
yii i and once, mote piiticulaily, faid to him, Gtvrgfy mfor hw : 
jnoa iiarmngf Ipt ns value s^m t'ti ht i/tbtu vilt talk Sirip-^ 
Iwty beftatthtt: upon which Mr. Sutf., willing to cocrcd hii^ 
confidence, and to'ltcw him. how unable be wjis to- fupport hi»3 
Ijctcnljons, anfwnrcd him, Comt an thtn.^ fr'nnd* So opcmr 
Ibc Bible, which lay before tfcem, lie fell upon the book of Pro^ 
vuh(( Suji thtu, friindf faid he, Si^lomoii faith in one fhi^^ 
Anfwtr a fool accuidii)«; lo his fully ^ and in andther plarej 
Anfwer not a fool according tohW folly ; haw d«Ji thtu rtion^ 
lilt thji i'X} ttxjs ef friptHff ? tyAy, faid the other, Solomor 
d^niptyfi. To which Mc Bw// replied, Aj^ but htdnk^ an< 
furniriij to the place he (bon coni-mccd him ; ufon which th 
Quaker being much out of countenance, faid, fVhf thtn Sete. 

9ian's aftei. A much fntaller ftiare of kariitng than our Au 

lhor*&, xx-Qubl have prcfcrvcd a man frtua fo gr»6 an j 

We find the lame fentinicnt»-coaccrn<ng biunan learniu^.j 
flrongly aliened hy Barclay himftif* in hi-, t.r ' '~' 
Minijiris ft P.iporihut Eidrfne. Spoakin^ of phil;^ . , wsa^ 

ingj he f;iy^, ** Scd liarc eiudiiio dcfeclum graUiT nui'qudm fu[ 
plirrc potcft in cr*iditiflimis et cloqiietutniiniH. Quiajuitt cniiW* 
bomo I'ui iivluflxia in lioguis, emdUioac, ct in fcriiKuriif \a~ 
ventre potctV, totiim nihil clt fine fijitiiu, ahtque ^uo nihil ccr- 
tunfi, fempcr fallrbilc judicatum eft ; («il vir ruflicts, hiijus eiu* 
dicioni^j ignaruii, i^ui nc vcl dcmeittum noiii, <iiundu ATtivu*] 
rem leilam autlK, rodcm fpiiim, hoc cfle vcriun, diccrc piUcft^' 
«t eodem fpirilu intelligere, ei A ncccffc fit, interprctari poKli."' 
And a little funhn he tcUa us che followin^remaikable ftory.— 
** Imo ipfemet novi calceartum qucndam, qui ne litcrjm qui- 
dem cognotcir, qucm cum profcftor quidam publicus thcuJuj^iji- 
falfa fcripujtx i:iuiiune urgerel coram uibis nuginr3Ul]u.s ubi^ 
4)uibufd3m, qui ad ilJurn aucIirnJum venrrant, prcdicans c^p-j 
tus eft ; talem, iiiquam, novi, ct ;'.dhuc vivit, qui, licet pro-' 
feflbr, qui et vir dodus habctui, c^^ifllajiter aSrniaret> di£tun>] 
fuum eSc Ci:riptui»: fi-ntcuiam, cameni non certa atiijiia liters 
cognitione, quam non babcbat, fed ccrtifCmo fi)Iritus in femc-j 
ttpfo tcllimo;iiu rieus, alKnnaie ticii tfubiuvit, hallunicari pro* 
feliorem, ct fpiritiiin Det, quod .litet affirn^abac, nutiquam dix^j 
tlfr, ct addu£li« Bibliis fccunchjoi calccaiii fcntentiain res 'n\»-\ 

vcjiia eft." Not thus our tianilatir,- who with a libera! lpi-1 

fiti fcolihle oC the iinportAnce «f human learning, quotes chf ' 



iht X)Uand New T(fta)U7tu, 


cckbratci faying of MeUnahsn^ with apprabuion, and feenxtby 

jio mcjns to be aihamed of it Siriptura mn p^tf/f iistrli-gi 

thttligiiif tiifi pnus inlriUgatur grammaiifi. i. o. 'I'ht fcriptur^ii 
timnmt h mdfrJlKd thuhgUaUjt if it he ngt frjl widfrfiosd grs}. 

It will not be expci^d bj «ny, who are at all acqiiaint«(il 

with the nature of a work of cliis 4:ind, that wc ftieuld'be ablo^r 

lb foon aftcf the publication^ to give a fuU and adequate aC-j 

count of it : and we ibouM be ibwv to pais a liaily judgmffnC^ 

upon a p(srrormMi«, which hecb coft in Authnr tjic p^ins ^n^\ 

application c^ the grcatcft and bclV pa.-t of bis liJe ; ajid whicii«j 

wc cin caftly fee, from tl'.c curlbry Wew vc bare taiccn of it, hailj 

a great dral of merit, whatcvea' faults aitd impetfedtons ntAy bej 

^ound in it : ratber, thcretoie, cban difjppoint cbc c:(pei^uions off 

cur friends, by dcfcrnng our notice of this warlc to a longvrj 

' trmc, we choofe lo give fuch a general rcprefcntat'lon of jt> a«'j 

majr griiify thi: pubUc cuiiofity, r«fcr\*Mig wur more mature sni-l 

' ' critical judgtncnt upon it to Tome future opportunity. And it it' 

nor to be wondered at if the attention of the Public be a goodj 

< 4eal raHM upon this occafton : a new and complete vcrfias 

■ the fcfiptures, Ccom the onginal longua^s, doKc by a pcrfonj 

' who bad no advantages of cJuc^tlotf; who by his own ^pli-: 

- caiioa acqaitvd the knowledge of ibd'e Jangtuges, aftc-i baj 

<.imc to ^an of mataFicy ; and who bath devoted bii wboJe] 

Kxtc to this fefvicc, may well be efteccned a coxioTic^R. 

The Erft fanaziublc thing we obfcrvc in ^tr. Puncr's wotfc 
^; 8»t thai the Auchai zc^uuUjr oppofcs ibc opinion of I'umc of ourj 
abteli critics, whp bold, that before the time of E-zra^ i&^ 
i^ldrrM I-cUtrj WBcc the faajc v^ich the Zemaritaa, and th:i: ibel 
|)ferciiti/»rnt'a[etbeL'iuJ!i^^charadcrs \ and hcAruHglyaiTerl:; llitt 
■e*il*cit autiqiHiyof the Hebrew. The t;rc4«:ftobftacTche hnth to 
* <'on{<:iul w\\h upot} thi» fubjcclt 13, (be many old Jcwifti DukcfB 
Hill in being, witb this irifcripcion upon tfacni in Sa/rutiian 
charaAcr;, Jfrafalem KeAiJkahy i. e. JemfiUm tht Hiff. It ig 
'fiid, and Wiih Jt gfeat de^grec oi probability, that thdc could 
not be the coin cither of the Jfrctiitn vi (be ten tribes, or of ' 
the Samaritans who fucceedcd them in their land ; neither of 
whom would liai^ put "Jnitfalt-m upon tbeir coin ; nor h^ve 
called it the h'y tlij. It rrm.irm ihcrcfore tluil they mufl have 
'been ftruck by the two tribes before the captivity; and that 
the Sameritmi Cbaraflcr was in common ulb amongfl them.—- 
lii ajifwcr to all this Mr. Pkmtr fuggeAs, that the authcaiicity 
of ihefe coin^ \\ very difp'jt;ible ; that it ift probable the S/mm^ 
r/rtf»M wowld be rcjdy to prafiife any impofitions of this kind. 
tt fct tlieu feriptuie and religion above ihofe of ihc Jivfi, as 

O 3 . the 

fhe credit of fuch coins made before ihc captivity woul^ 30f , 
But ("uppofme them nut to be made after th- captivity, it doea, 
not fccm lilc«ly that they were llamped by the Kings of "Jui^if^ 
before, bccaulc there are no Kings heads upon them, whicfc 
Ihcwt AS if the regal government ^t 'JtfutaUm wis then ovcfk 
Th-it the Sam-TrHam^ being a people accuuomcd to conciucftst^j 
and not fettling at home like the 'Jnvi^ might be much morel 
Jikely to mjkc mcdaU than the JfratSitti^ amonjft whom we fiiulf 
no fuch thing: that having embraced the Jewtfi? religion, 
might then c^cem firufoUm their metropolis, and fo pti 
the epithet of is// to it on their coins and medals. It 19 nwre- 
over fu^Bcf^cd, that if any of thefc pieces were made bcfa 
the t ran miip ration to Ba^Un by the people of yu/^aht thcyj 
iTtight ul'c the Samaritan (/Cttcrs in coining upon lome accuu(i( 
or other, snd ycc the ficripture might be in dilt'crcnt onu. Or 
thofe coins might be tribute^money, paid by ihc /fjjrntiiii and 
Others, to David or SaUmfn; which it it cftly to fuppofe were 
fhus tiamped, cfpecially as feveral conquerors impofcd fuch a 

tribute on the people brought imo fnhjecTion to them. Wei 

will not prcfuRic to decide upon thii controverfy* which hatli 
already been largely treated bv fome of the greateft ciitict, and] 
ablcit judges of the fuhject. For ourfdves, we do not apprchendj 
Mr. Pui"jtr'i method of folving the abje£lton to be fatistic>^ 
|ory. We cannot help remarking, that as he haib not mtn* 

' lioned (and from Tome exprclTions he has dropt, it is pn>t^ 
able he hath never feen) the late Reverend Dr. Bamarii't^ 
Orbii entditi Littratur^, a Cb^railere SamarttUa Afduifa : The 
Doflor, who was SaviHan Profeflbr at Oxf^rdy firft puMiftied jt 
bimfelf, in 16S9. In 1759 it was republtfhed, and fmely en-*^ 
graved by Gihfsn, with many important additions under the di- 
tenSion of the learned Doilor ^l/sr/M, o( the Britip Af«feum ; aod 
we panicularly mention Tt, as we think it contains fome ftrong;j 

' internal indications of the high antiquity, and originality of tl 
Samaritan Charadcr. 

But out Tranflator's ten] for the Hebreiv leturr^ eittcnds far- 
ther : he is no let's l)rcnuou» ;in advocate for the antiqui'y and di- 
vint auihsruy t.i the H.b'nu f''fwel-piinis. For the fAc of our un- 
learned Readers it may be neceiTary to mention, that the fuhjcfk 
here controverted is, whether the Vowel-points, which arc now in 
<)ur//</>r«u' Bibles, were placed there by the authority, and under 
ihe dircfli'^in of Ezr/i ; or whether they were the invention of a 
fct of yi-iv/A critics ciWcd Afr/tritei ? It may not occur, pcihapt»j 
fo many cnrnmon pcrfons, wherein the impurtancc of this contra- 
yerfyconftfts : our Author is of opinion, that the truth and ap- 
. fhority of the Holy Scriptures depend in a gfCat mcafurc u|>c}n 
:|hc antiquity and authority of c))efe points ; and that they have 

o been 

the OiJ and Nrtv TefiamnA, 1 99 

principally Paptjis^ aild Dtijh^ or perfons deidically jn- 

fdincd, who haw rcprcfcntcd them u of modern invention. It 

'is on thcoihcr hand oioll true, that agrcat number of emincnt- 
Ijr teamed Frale/ients^ men of the iirft rank as fcfaolars ind cri- 
tic5» and who &rc without doubt friends to ravrlatiorit have em- 
braced the latter opinion ; they conlidcc the points as of human 

l4u:hority only, ajid that cheretore they may be altered and 
Changcdi where the analogy of grammar^ the flyle of the lan- 

Iguagc, or the nature of the couti-xi, or any thing clfe fhaJl 
afford rcafon for n better reading. Uur Author takes great 
pains tofupport that fide of the queiHon which he hath efpouf- 
ed. Tbo' he ni-ty not have added much that is new, be hath fct 
the argumcnrs in a flrong light ; and produced a great num- 
ber of paflagv-;, wlicrcin he apprehends the fcnfc is not fuffi- 

Ifiently Iccufcd by the tetters only, but is entirely determined 
by the points : nnd indeed it was peculiarly nccelTary for him to 

^deavnur to clear up this matter, having himfcif made great 
and frcguem ufe of the pointing, to juftify hi« own manner of 
tranflatiug : the merit of his wurk chiefly confifling tn his hav- 
itTg given the maforctic pointed text, faithfully done into Eng- 
Kft. — Ai'hc takes particular notice of mofl of the capita! Wri- 
ters in this controvcrfy, E/ias Lcvtia, CapiUus, //'vi.'/st, Prr- 
4t«vx^ &c. we arefurprifed at his omitting the karned Dr. Gre- 

gory Shtirpi'i dijfittalisn en the eriginal pnu/ri if htttrt^ a work 
worthy of ample confideration, with rcfpccl to this fubjcift. 

We find our tranllator a warm afTertcr of xhcfurhj and intt- 
grityoixy\c Hebrew text i he treats thofe who b<^d the contrary 
opinion with great contempt; and particularly the learned Author 
vilhfJiaUsftbfHthTew Uxtefiht OldTefiamait c^rftdn-td; a work, 
which he fpcaks of in an illiberal and difmgenuoits manner ; 
■and indeed fcldom mentions except to cenfuie it, which he docs 
-with a good deal of afperitv. The fuppofition of the entire 
and tincorruptcd llatc of the text indicates a contiaua] and mi- 
rjcuIouB inierpofition in its favour; which is a degree of enihu- 
■ Itflfm that will not rcad'ly be received in this tnMti and ciiicet 
Kff, M our Aiitlior it pleafed to call it. And indeed Dr. Keit- 
fu'atr, who writes \fc'iih great piety, and difcovcrs, through his 
whrdr work, a mnft lacrcd regard to the honour of the hoJy 
Spf jptuPr«, has produced fuch a variety of undeniable prnors in 
fiipport of h« opinion, that we cannot help thinking it an in- 
* -fiance oF great herding/if that he flioulJ be treated in thts man- 
ner ;— at frift ihe incredible p»ins which he is taking, in a fer- 
vicc to whii h he is tailed by the united encouragcinci't of ihie, 
and oihtr Chrli>ian nations, might entitle him to decent and 
refprdit'iil iJ-PMmcnt. 

Oi-T Author has taken much pains in iefpc£l of the Scri^ 
tur't ihnmkfy^ and has ruiniflicd his Rcadct a great variety 

O 4 t>£ 


f fAVSIt'i Trenjiatiti ef 

of chionological tabirs ; he gives the prefcrcocf 10 \\\t Htiriit^ ^ 
befoic thr Satrntritm and Gntk; and lua atl alcn^'. endc-jvoun4^ 
to coonciH IrCTcdand profane hiflory together. We have not 141] 
yet cxufliKicJ lliU pjit of \\\% pi-rlarnuocr, with tint atientioijj 
and accuracy, which migfil. enable uitto fpeak more painiruUrlj 
«f it i but wc hive been informed by fome of his I'ticnJs, tbav] 
Ihiii is a f.>lijc^, which he hath ftudicd with greiic can ; tbat 1 
h^th mart/ maicriali of this kinil by bim, which be bad 
fome thoughts of publlfliing, biit wai prevented by his attenjj 
lion [<» ihc \V0Tk. now before u» : fo that the Uarned uil] proi' 
bahly Aitd many things worthy their notice, upon tbis very difU 
ficult and yet important branch of literature. 

We row come more immediately to the vcrfion itfelf, which 
IS opened with foinc inirodu^ory rrir.arks on rranflations of (he 
Snipttire in gejKial, and the preTcnt tranfljtion in paritaLbr, 
Weie wc meet wiih the two following axioins, to which we moft 
readily aflcnt : the firft is, h'titt a tritHjlatim it/ght i» ht true la th 
gri^inai: ihr ohcr, that fl {rr.KffulUM pieuld bt WtU HJirl granima- 
tw!lyexpre£iilin thf l-mgua^eit ti made in. To \\ic fermtr of thcfc, 
>s wc ihal] have occaHon ro obfcrvc^ Mr. Puivcr hath been 
moie aitentivc than to the lattrr. 

He fers out wiih obferving " that our tranflafor* have fomc- 
tin-cs^v'rtww^ miU'ed of fpeaking truth, or rciidcnng truly, by 
putting 3 ina^inltejui Of a/rvfi^v u fcr inftaace in ysi 10, and 
K< vtaiie (otf^rUvft it being ttuc» that the hands of God tnade 
^s^t but n(^c (rue, that be fays Co by th-it Htlrtw worJ, which 
Uiz no fuLli inca.tiJng." Our vetGon has it, thim tamli havt 
tuadt. me : our Author renders it, thf bji^Ji ^luvi me. 'iOjfV 
The root ngniTics, according to the btft Lexicographers, Co innd 
ien/f la tiruiti, to JaiouTt tu ftt/arm uitb iahiur : and ic is r^ 
markithlr, that the margin read^i, Itaie taiep pain^ ubin mt. Tbe 
fame ivoid \% ufi-d in rfa!m j6 ti 6, Evciy day they wrtfl my 
words i and Jifthr./r renders it tcvirj/iii^uRl vci /arpinhktit. A 
2'i'J <J".'fT:t%fl iitprt tiifiiu ; per metonym. bm^w ./»/o;v, /o^sr/, 
Sc arte eli^md fnit^ /trnav'it. So that it fliouid fecm our tian- 
flators mayn't! luve miircd ic gtieviajfy: but (o Mr. Puivcr 
- hath pMcmpwwily detfrmined it. — ** Anoihcr ptcvaillpg nioiive, 
he l.iyi, may alftt be, the prejudice of patiicuUr opinions, which 
will opc-ra<r' martetJouny» and like a hibe h'uid the fyt% of tkt 
cwy*-: hcticethc /Vfl/ij^iPsA fon.'n'e;, %\\tjhuUiruiff^ Gen. iti. 15. 
in hotiour of ti,-- Virg'n Alary^ and in cifnont-ur of Chri/i: 
hence %i\': P'iiitjtinanjr., in v^T} derd /a- thn taufe hauc I ■ ralfid 
t'jtevp. £>y>d, ix- t6.*' Ajid in his note upon that pai&ge be 
aJfU, " An inflance of uh;it men wi'I do in favo^f of their own 
o^'tniga'' « b?r* ifl ^k^ Ci'tr^':t flillv, whith has app9Jriif4y a 

tbt Old md Nnu TtJIamnt. 


word foreign to any meaning of the eriginat." The word is 
"TP'^^irn it occurs again i Orrsn. vi. 31. where hchimfclf hath 
juHly ifinniilcd it fti wtr •» and 2 Chrat. xls. 8, wtcrc he uics 
the very word appeinuJ., which he hy^ U ftri'gn U ary ui/itniiti 
«f tht trig'mal. This furely is fomcwhat tfKi hafty. In men- 
tioning s variety of pifiages, where uniKcc^ary words are fup- 
pUed in the commnn tranfbtton, he refers in 2 Amr. 3 & 7. 
jliuiSaai had a eaiatiint ivbsf: HOiUi <vos RMpah, the daughter of 
liMah : and-—'faid to Abnir, whfrtfsrt Irajl th^u gam in tmto mj 
'itAtr's tncuhint: it ftillows in the cext verfc, thtu Ai/ner wet 
vrry wrcthfsr thi W9rds of ifi>-bofiidh. How natural wis it for 
eur iranlUlors to fupp!y the word Ifit-hvjhtlb? ct what other 
cotUd have been thought of than what tite feiife of the place 
immcdiateiy pfiinted out? Our Author fupplic* it ihua, and it 
tuat /aid to Abner ; according to which it ought lu have been. 

We arc ti^ld in the 6ih page of the IntroduAipn, <• that 
elowniflt, b3i1>arojs, obfolcte, and ill fpelled words mull needs 
%c unfit for the Bible :' in general this is certainly right. But 
it by chfaJ.ti^ are meant e!d\ as well aa words much difufcd. -j 
cnariy will be inclined to difTer from htm. KxprefEve old wocds, if 
well undcrftowJ, ought not to be haftily changed ; the more re- 
inovcd ihc)' »rc from vulgar ufe, the jjrcater dignity and funpU- 
city they have* and the more proper for facred langujge. 

Page 8. of Introduitory Remarks, it ii obfcrvcd, " thai lao- 
f'E*^3&(^ was antiently rude and unpolilhcd, and it was proper fur 
•ihc infpired Writing* to be delivered in that of the time* ; 
hence noun* ate frequently repeated in the original, where 
they may much better be rendered by pronouns, according to 
the improvcmcats ol' grammar, and manner of fpe^king now, 
I'^cfpccially in thts part of the world, without any diiuinuiion or 
> alteration of the fenfe at all." — We acknowledge we did not 
^expcil fuch remarks a» thefc from one of Mr. Puivrr'-, ptajo. 
nefs and fimplicTty. That thU h the cafe is by no means to be 
'-afcribcd to the want of pronouns in the language j but was pro- 
bably intended. The repetition of nouns where done judki'- 
oulty, is certainly emphaticat : and even where it would not 
be cmpbaticalt it fecms in many inOances to be a proper and 
ulcfu] condc>'cenlion to the unt'cftiTiding* of the common peo- 
ple, who aic too apt to be insttcntivL:, and rc<]utie the fre- 
quent repetition of the princip::! word. — Let any one, for ex- 
periment fake, read Ihc three firft vcrfes of the fccond chapter 
of Damtl;'~imdin the ftiend year ef the reign tf Nevuchadne%-za% ^ 
Nel/uchadr.fzzar drtamed a dreamy wbfrewith hh fpirii xvat trt»-\ 
tUd, and hit Jlrrp hralf frtm trim. 77)/> King cirmrmndtd to iallttm 

|f mi'^iciantf and tin ajirsh^trs^ and the jantrtrt^ and iht CsaidtatUt^ 

lOX TvxvtK's Tftmjtat'ttn of 

Jtr tojhtw the Kii^S ^'' dr,am% ; fo thty came and fttcd htfare 
Kit£ : exd tht King Jaid imtt thfrn^ ifc. Where ij that nice an 
delicatr car t&at is offended with the repetition of the vfoidKJnSt 
or would wiflt it altered ? 

An obfervation of a fimilar kind occurs in the t ith pt^ 
" The Hihrnu ufing fpecdici direfl in the fecond pcrfbn ver)^ 
often* fome finall ones found fo harflUy to us^ and may be made 
oblique in the ihird perfon with advantagr, and without the 
Ic-iB injury, as it would have been had our language been the 
orii^inal." Wc have turned to fome of the inftanccs which he 
hath cited, but do not feet the difagrecable tik& he fpcalcs of; 
wc ra(hcr think it gives life to (he narrative, and bath a certain 
plc-afing OrrTMra/jry in it. G/n.xxxix. 19. jl»td it ttoiH ta pafi 
when toi miller heard the vMds »f las wife, whUh fiie fpakt ««i« 
him SAYING, AfUr th'it manmr did thy fttvunt l9 fie; that 
wrtub wot kindUd. And 1 KingSy xii. 12. St Jtrtbtam and al 
tht fto^tcamt ta Rthiboam the third day ^ at the KtKg had appeluftt 
tAVl^x, Csmtta rr,t agmti the third day. VVcdo notfcc any thini 
■Riii'!! in thefe paiUigc^i. 

Our Author's verfion, a> far «* wc hsve been able to examine 
it, is, what it profelics to be, a Uttralone; it i& rery literal indccdi 
an error upon the fafcr fide, if It be an error, it is however 
from this fource, that many of the faults, which will be foun4 
by the generality* of readers, have aiifcn. At the fame time we 
moft heartily join with him in what he fays, page 10. *' And 
when the original Ian[;uage is exalted to fome peculiar fubli- 
mity, what a fid deprelTion would it be totranflateby the mere 
meaning, inftcad of the expreflion ' as to fay, /am iinacmti 
intlead of /tvajh mine hands in imitcency^ Pfalniy xxvi. 6. Tbtit 
Jpeahj} ^ratioujly t inftcad of Grace h figured lata thy lips. Pfalh^ 
xlv. 2. is Hit my trimipal tru/f a d.ttptio» ; for — it there ntt 'a 
tie in my ritbfhand? fjaiiih^xViv. 10. with many others of ihc 
fame kind.* 

Our tranflator's ideas with refpcjft to the ftarc of things pr(^* 
ceding the crciition, and what he fays about chaos, and l>ght» 
and air, will be thought by many to he odd and unphilofophi- 
cal : but where is the man who equally excels in every branch 
of knowledge? The powers of the human mind are too much 
limited for this. £yf qntddam prsdire tenui.-^ 

Thr firft time wc opened the work before usjwe naturally turned 
to the firll chapter ol Gtnefts ; where wc obfervcd fome remark- 
able variations from the common verfion : ** God created the 
heaven and the earth at the beginning : the earth however was 
vacant axid void, and darkucfs overwhelmed the deep j but t^o 


th Old end New ttftmnd. 


'fpirit of God hovered ato^ of the water."— ^ot Mng much 

edified with the fpirit moving ataf of the waters, w< ptucctdcj 

to V. 3. '* Firfi (jo<l faiclj Let there be light ; which there was 

fwfor^'wg^." ' " Had L»>rg!nur rend this fentence in En^UJh^ 

[would he have celebrated the Jew'ifi Legijiatar in the ho- 

lourable manner he hath done ? How is the majeftie fim- 

^pliciiy and unafletlcd grandeur of, •* And God faid. Let there 

klic tight, and there was light,*' Cunk and dcb;ded into, vjhlA 

\th<rt tvat atcordittgfy! 

Wc have alroady declared our opinion of Mr. Pwv^r's ac- 

r«]uaintancc with the Hthrew^ and fume other oriental Unguagct ^ 

I'but foRie palTagcs^ which wc have met with, lead us ta> 

^hopc, that he is better acquainted with ibcm, than he fcems to 

\hc with his native tongue \ in which he is often ungrammati- 

~cal, improper, and objcurc He will exciifc us in pointingout 

% few inAancest [ntroJuibon, p. 5. *^ It rs well known that 

thofc called the living languages do alter, cfpecially ours, \viit 

^t fuch a changeable people." A little farther, in the fame page, 

But there are Tome who Deem pofTelTcd wiih a notion, or ^r- 
'-^Mrjr, that the lafl tranllstion in King James's reign muit ooi be 
altered" — ** ihsugh the p«hntry ef that rtign it tt:cm4 a RIDI- 
CULE." Perhaps our Aotlior would have wntieu cither of thcfc 
femences in Greek ot Hebrew more grammarically. — Gtn. u 7. 
^JT>u{ GtdiiuifU the atry tuhith parting the water that wot hfkwfrem 
}>st ubiib wen abtvr itftlf^ there wat fo. It is true this i& fee 
ight in a note below, but why leave it fo imprt^rly in the 
text } — Gett. ii. 6. Or miji had iome up out cf the earthy that ttetered * 
any tf t})e fur face vf the grtund. This is veryobfcure. Equally 
flrange is Gen.iv. i. And Adam had the knnvUdge of Eve hit 
tv'tfe., fo that Jhe eoHiei'jed, anil tearing CaWy fid, I have gained 
iht Lirdwith a man. The meanitig we fuppofe is, that (he 
thought flie had regained the favour of the Lord.— There h 
an odd piece of Englijh in the notes, page 12.—** By order of 
that very King is uh^m Manaha xwi keeper «f his librarj-. Gen, 
vii. 16. And ti)fy that enter ed^ did male and female «f all fi'p}y as 
~Ctd hadummandedbim.—'Gen. x. 5. i» very obftuic. Br thefe 
Vftre the regions cf the Gentiles parted., far their eouMtriet to ta<b 
cne afier bis language j acearding to thfir famiHet tn their nations.—^ 
Gen. xii. j^. Do tell then art myfijhry that it miry he null with 
meftr thy JaJte.—Gt n. xviii. 1 1 . N<rM Abrethetm mtd Sarah were 
gtt fNtt tld yearly it itinf teaftd fr her to ht afitr the ittantur tf 

Our tranHator betrays a little credulity in hts note itpon Gen. 
xix. 26. But his u-ife hetinx Iffhind him, herawir n p'l/ar ef fait. 
Note. Pillar.] *' which 'JofephuSy who wrote a little nfKtChri/l 
yras on eanh, fays Ip bun^lf faw i Aittif; lit. 1. 12. Nay both 


Bet^^m'n ihf^ ffW nnd Ratew*^ relate It is ftit] remaining, tndl 
wluii fliniutinu'iJ, incrcafcs ^ain." He <>Ugl>t to b-*vc cvld U^j 
xemaiiiing pill- of the (tory, viz. that ^f/s wife continued*^ 
zitst ^c became a [kilJar of fidt. to ti»vc bcr at"/"- Js dift' 
wprlfih of TatulUen w Cyprien, or botfi, it picrcniut a £.«»« 
poem, called S«4/)irn, which aUudes to this remsrkabie ^t (rf 
the dor}', ii) the fuUuwiiig vcrr«, which may pcrhApibcacu- 
(ioluy to ibmc of out ReaJets : fpeyking of i.»/'t wile, 

Durjtadhuc ett-nim nudi flxtioncrub JLibram, 
Ncc pluviii (liUplu fitu, ncc diruta vcntts. 
Quin ctiam fi quis mutiUvciit advenn forinuD* 
Pfoilmis ex fefe fuggefia, vulncia connlct. 
15ii:itur rt vivcnSj^iojarncorporc, S/xut^ 
Muniji:9i fslito Sfpangtrt fangutm mtnjti. 

Anil hantm himrelf, in Ub. 4. ta^. \t. antra h*rfji%^ nfanvl 
■ti — " tt cum hxc fierrnt, uxor rcmanferat in SodcMtit, jam 
lien caro coiruplibJis, led flatua (alis fcmper iDanens, rl per 
- naturala ei, quz funt confuctiidinU hominis> nOendcns."--^— 
Strange that iuch fooleries fhould ct^er gain the Ic^ credit with 
ucii who pictend to icnle ajid Fcalbn ! 

Out Authoi has pvtn us a very curioits note upnn Gfn. xiv. 
21. So Afcjij Jlrttchtd put hit hand u^^n the [te, and tht Lvri 
wait it u p away hy ajinng tofl vaind all tiit right, by w^uh in 
modi it dry lottd^ thus zvaithe tcatfr dtav^d ofunJer. He fuppofes 
that by the force of sn impctuou^caO-wind, extending as wide 
as ttie paHagc was cu be, the water vma divided ; and that it 
continued thus till the Ijroflius were got over, and the £^^//rr«i 
bad entered the Tea; that then the wind abating Urd on the 
weA fide, atid the water fubftdiug, and returning (u ii^ own le- 
vclj wouid lurround the Egyptians^ and overwhelm them. This 
i^fVf'y inimi'^tit : but 3 dtfEcuIty will naturally aiifc upon this 
folution, How would it be polTiblc for the IJraeHrrno march in 
uppolition to a wind, that was impetuous enough to divide tbc 
WitfXi of the fta aj'under ?—-di£iii} Drs vindltt,— 

We ara Wf Jl pleafcd with our Author's ret»dering Gen. yi'ii. 11. 
^nd up»n tix Lurd'ifmtUing a fUafant jhuU'^ h$faid iindly to bhu 
iwiUnsmtri aarft tbtpraundfer mmi'$fai(t though thr imagtMa- 
nm tf hit hurt be evil frtm Jv; ytutii. — We have before met 
' with thtft turn given to the paiuge, aikd it is very properly in* 
troduced here.-~OV>T. .xxxiii. 19. is tr&nllatcd exucmcly weU> 
H'Jiiiii ht ha^ht pert if a ftAd whrrt ht piuhtdlKi ttnt gf th* fowt 

tf HatKmfia, tb* father ef Sbtibem, for a hundred lambs. 'Vha 
t'ommo;i verfioa has a huidrfd pitctt tf imnty. The Sfptnagi'i* 
iiavc rendered tt 'M\n df^tj/j ; aod is ioilowcxl by the «ld Jr,tt,f- 
i^r ,n Lsiiiiy Mni^iViit •iitiJ-*!Hii>t 5;;;4«*aad ythgrs. This 

7hf CtmpOnion to tbt Pky-lfiifi, jpj 

.jneAod of purchafing by cattle wc find very common in the 
'cvly ascs flcCcrtbed hy Hsmer : and it is remarkable that the 
' ifie Latin Peeunie has always been fuppofcd m derive from pton ; 

' tattkt t)t jhtfp. Wc are peculiarly plcafcd wicb the iranf- 

liition of Exfd. iii. 14- AndG$d repliid-, I AM he who aw : 
«!»(/ itui (aid A/, Mayeji tbiu uii th/m, \ am hat jtnt itu teyoaS^ 
But wc do not think, that Ssvtrfign hord^ which be frcfjuenil^ 
»re$> is cquivaJcDt to Jehov AH : / Btemtlia oF the Fnnih comcV 
much Dearet to the idtn. 

Inflead of Jhfjj-lrtady our tranOator, with much greater pro- 
priety always x^n^-Srtadof tht Pr/feiKf. 

Upon the whole* thni^h wc have delivered our fcntimcntj 

opon iXWi woik, ^ far aa wc have cxaimucd ic» with iVecdom 

and impartii^ity ; yd wc cannot but conriJer it as a valuable ad- 

,ditiun 10 the public (lock of facrcd literature, and for which* 

, AotwitkHaodtng all ihe impcrfcdions that may be found in It^ 

the wmld \-i indebced to its karncd and laburiuus Author. Ki>r 

flkould wc omit to mentioQ the obligations the public a:c under 

"■to that very uitrful man and eminent phyfician. Dr. John Fotltcr- 

•gil, ro whom it >s eutir^ly owing that this exiraoidinary pro-. 

filudivn hath b<cii committed to the Prefs. 

[T>7 infarthn er^iderti. ] 

I ^1 Ccmpanhn (a rht Phy-heuft, «-, an Hj/isrifai Aeamf^ tf oH 
tbt DnimatL fVr'tUrt (and ihtir ffstii) i/miI have appterfj in 
Grtat Britain and Irtlmd^ /rem the dmrntneemnt «f eta- ^hi-o- 
trital Exhihifiwnty dmm ts tbr prfj,nt Ttar I'^h^- Cinspt/id ia 
thi Firm tf a Dl^ima^yt /^ tht mot nadily iaming tt auy far- 
tiiolar Authsr er Ptrftrmaitiu Large iirao. 2 Vols. 6 5; 
few'd. Dairies, Ua. 

' _* LTHOUGH we cannot entirely agree with the Com- 
I A\_ piler of this Urge body of TheatxicAl fclcnce, 'that 
|l3ramHk: conipofiuam* have ever been cftcemed among the 

tREATrsT produ.3ton5 of human ecnius i' yet (without cojn- 
■pacing them with tbc works of an Homer, an Atiftotle, a Lon- 
rpious— a Bacon, a Newton', or a Locke) wc may neverthe' 

£■(■» allow them to ukc \>\k fetsnd port of honoiu-; and the 

itluRrioiis n^mes of Eunpidcf, Sopliocles, Terence, with our 
,«wn inimltabV Shakt-ipearc, may certainly ftaod iit iht coUjitin 
flKrxj to that in whkh thofc oi the writers above men- 

iicncd, drc irdcliblv recorded in the Temple of Fame. Bur we 
iijeadily aflent lo our Author, when he add), that ' the rxhi- 
^(jiion of Dnmatio pieces on the public ftjige, hath been coun- 
'tenancedbrlotneorcbe wifefiandbrft m u inal] age<y as highly 


(eivicetble to the cautenf virtue.' The Athenians, whenAfI 
was in the hcighth of her fplenJour, and the Romans, wheri 
Rome was in the zenith of her glory, g.ive the highcft cncou* 
ragement to the flagc; and the fame may be faid of our own' 
countrymen, at the prefcnt period, in which we fecoi to have 
attained the fummit of profpcrity : — not Infeilor in viftue to any 
fi^ty and fufpafling every ether in the arts of urbinity, and in 
tnie liberality of fcntimcnt. 

The reafon of this preference, given by the mod polifljed na- 
tions, to the tbeatricAl above all other amufemcnts^ muft be 
obvious to every one who \s welt read in the hiftory of man- 
kind, and intimately acquaintc-d with the human pailions, prO' 
lienfiltes, and inclinations. Nothing is more certain, as is 
juftly obfcrvcd in the introdu^ion to thii work, than th|t ex- 
ample is tlie ftrongcft and moft cffcdlual manner of • enforcing 
the precis of wildom ; and that ajiift theatrical rpffrefcntatioix 
h the bcfl ptAvirc of hcrman nature: with this peeotiar advan^ 
t?sc, that in this humanizing and inflrufting academy, the 
young fpci^ator may learn the manners of the world, without 
running through the perils of tt.*' — He farther remarks, that as 
'pleafure Is the purfuit of the creattft p:irt of mankind, (and 
vcryjuAIylb^ while this purfuit is continued uAdcr the guhk- 
aiicc of Reason) all well regulated ilates have judged itpropCTy 
both in a political and moral fcnfc, to have fomc public exhibi- 
tions for the entertainment of the people. And what entertain* 
mcnt, what pleafiire io raliondl, as that which is afforded by a 
wetl-written and wcll-adcd pby ; whertcc the mind may receive 
at once its fill of improvement and delight .'* 

Many objcflions, neverthtlefs, have been, and rtil! are 
brotighi, by the graver part of mankind, againft the amufcmcnts 
oftbeflage; but their arguments, in genera), will appear, 9n 
a clofe cxnmination, to be founded chiefly on the abufc of the 
drama, rather than on the Infiituti n itfelf ; and will only fcrv 
to prove, what may be equally proved againll all other inllini 
tiom, that every thing is liable lo be corrupted and abufed : 
and that not only the ftage, but our very pulpiu ought to be 
jtcpi under due icgulation *. I'licre have been bufiVwns in the 


• By TCgoUilon, boirever, we do not mean U(t*li»gi that bane of 
every thirtg that hath the leali eonnr^lion with the libnty of commaoi- 
catinj; Our fcntimenis to one another, whether from the fuJpit, the^djv. 
Of i)x ^ri}i. As to tl\e (lage, we know not wheihcr it has ever beeo^f 
in any refped. tkHiu to the z£t tor p^acinf; it under the contront of thij' 

LiudCh ni but we know, and wich ihc highefl fatlifaftioo ob- 

ferve, that it is al&i uader the bcfi, and, only proper rc^olaiion^ with 
rt^ard to thp I'iccrs Tbvn/r fot it i--^— rvA/ y/M FbaLic! To the im* 


77« C9fnfani$n ic the P!aji-h»uff* 



Jatter, as well as on the former : and both have been majc fub- 
(lervient to purpofc& equally ilctrititcnial ig focicty. — But to the 
[{tfcfcnt work. 

The plan of this compilation includes the m-holc circle of 
theatrical writings ; comcJiM, tragedies* ioterludci, mafmics, 
opetaS) farces, muficM ciitcnainroents, Sec. &c. of all which 
we have an account in the firft volume ; from the Origin of the 
iJritilh theatre, down to the Year 1764.. Thediflionary-form, 
lenders the work more agreeable, and more uicful, ihan any 
orhtr method could pnlhbly have done ; und the manner in whic^ 
the accounis of tNe more conGdcrable productions of the 
Dramatic mufc is diawn up, is, in general, judicious, rritiral^ 
and cntcitaining. Some of ihe articles arc, indeed, elcgaritly 
vrritterii hue oilicrs are of an inferior (tamp ; more inaccurately^ 
ut together, and indicating, chieBy, the grnius of the {houldcrs^ 

'efcih of this fort, however, if not too frequently occurring) 
will bccxciiicd by the candid Reader who rcflctU on thctoilfomt 
tnik which the Author, or Authors, had undcruken when ihcy 
fet about thi^j compilemcnc. A huge mafs of materials was to 
be digcfled, a great number of books to be read, a multicuda 
of new anecdotes to be colleded, and many origiual mc- ' 
moiri to be drawn up : all which fccms to have been atchievca, 
in the execution of this undertaking, with fuch fuccefi, as in- 
difputably entitles it to the charadlcrof the moft complete pcr- 
fotmance of the kind whifb hath yet appeared, in this countryw: 
' —Thus far, in juAice to the fir/i volume ; which, however, | 
'comprehends but bal/tbc dicGgn i although it complece:^ tlie firlt-1 

The fecond volume of this Playhoufc DiiHonary contains the 
Liivi and Mtmein of all our Dramatic Writers ; including molt 
of our celebrated Aifdrs^ who have alfo been U'rltcn for tboj 

proved talte, and good (eitfe ofour modern aadiencrs, and to ihaoti 
alone, not to the inierpofit^on of a Lcf/tr, it is ouini;. that any nc* 1 
dramaiic performance, cliargcahlc uith indecency or imnioraiity. vurf] 
rarely meets with fucccfs in ihe repielenBniao. rr, indeed, with i»ltritm\ 
ijMf But it wat not the fapprclTion of indecency or imnioralin-, w.^iich j 
liie proprietors of the /Jtrii^s^ had at heart;— they had a nearer atU^ 
dearer objcd in view; — ii wu ihcir tender regard for ine immaculate chi->J 
.laften ol coiuiicr», and other ^rr/i/ iticd, which induced litem to d^j 
(hat touiurnt/r bnd^c on our UtotiMtD. Tliey mighi likcwrile hate ha4jj 
an fyc to another laudable end, of which court- f^voatitej, and profli»| 
jrate minillers will ncvet lofe Aji^ht : — they mif;ht think ibat aJi a profxf ' 
«xp<iitnent for trying tl^ dirpofiiicu i-t ttic Public, io icrpefl of umnlMr 
i«i^t, [ong under eooicmplanon. and ilill mnre (alotart. more 
cLoaiovs 10 the wearers — But, God prefcTVC :l:e PatiADtuu of 
EaiTitK Ltisarvt 


7%t Gmpcm'tn ia thf P{<ty-huft, 

flagc, as weHas Ptrfomicrs ; and confcquentty emidcJ lo appeal 
ill a work profcJling to give a biographical account of ali luch Au' 
thois as have produced unycompofition relative lo the Englifli 
Iriih theauei : and here, indeed., as well as in the firft volumt, i^ 
an amazing collection, comprehending not only what was to ba 
hictwith in Lznghane, Winftanley, Jacob, Coxctcr's manu* 
fciFpts, Ctbbei'& Lives of ihe Poets, and Vigor's Hiftory of the 
Stagey but a multitude of original memoirs, &c. relating to the 
pcoduftions and the authors of our own times ; from whence 
it appears, that thefe volumes muil have been the work aS fome 
perfon or pcrfons particularly convcrfant in theatrical aJTaJrs.— 
Of this pan of the woitt, wc fliall take more cfpeci^U nolirc in 
our next month's Review ; and, for the prefciu, return to the 
frji volume, or divifion, of this twofold performance. 

The firft thing wc meet with in this volume, is an introduflory 
^ifcourfc on the utility of ihcatctc;*! cjihibitions in general ; with a 
brief viewof the rife and progrefs of ihc Englilh ftagc. The grcatrft 
part of this, if wc miltake not, is borrowed from an hiflorical de» 
dudlion of the like kind, prc^xed to Doddey's colleiflion of Olcl 
PIap», and from Gibber's Oiflertations : tho* neither ircexprtftly 
quoted. This vinv is fupplcmcntcd by fome critical rcfleftit 
on the old EngliOi dranutic writers ; the fubftance wc rememij 
ber to have met with in a fcparate traft, addrcffcd, fome Tea 
ago, to Mr. Garrick (to whom this compilation is dedicated) iA' 
order to recommend a revival of MafTengcr's Plays. The Com- 
piler has alfo forgot to afcribe ihcfc R^tif'iitst to their pmp« 
owner ; who, if wc guefs tight, can be no other than the very 
ingenious author ot that admired cotrurdy, Tht Jeakui Wife. 

From lb grcst a variety of entertaining articles as occur in this 
firit volume, it is i^rfficuk'to fclcit any fpcctmcns, confined to 
ib narrow a compafs as our limits prcri:ribe, that may be deemed 
adequate to the char.i6tcr of the whole; the following, 
however, chofcn principally for the fake of their brevity, may 
ictve TO give fome idea of the manner in which this firfl alphabet 
is conducted, 

* llioi Life BELOW Stairs. Farce of two a^, 8vo. 1759. 
— This little piece frcmitu aim at two points for the rtformatron 
©f morals. — The firft to rcprtfcnt, as in a mirrour. to perfons in 
high life, fome of their own f(i!Iics and fopperies, by cloaihlng 
rheir very fervants in them, and fhtwing ihcui to be contemp- 
ible and ridiculous even in tUcm. — The fccondt and more prui- 

• Ard fince added lo the 4th rditinn of CoUey Cibbei'j <;elcbrat«l 
Apoloct ; togftlicr with a iii of ilnunauc sudiors imci ihcir wcrki. 
which WM the ntott faii^la^nry |>er'oiinar:i- nf (Ik kwdj bcfilte thi* 
flKwe cj^tcnltve pian w^^ cttrn^u tmc tJL«\ut;Ob. 


The C^yi-paHien h tht Play-haufei 9JH^ 

cipal aim is to open the eyes of ihe great, and convince perfons ot' 
foitunc what impi^fitiofii even to the lavjgeand minof thuir for-' 
luiR-s they arc lable to, from the wxllctulncl^ and infiJcliiy of 
tlieir Icrvams, frT wantot'a proper Inipe^ion in:a thctr domcftic 
affairs.— lipofTcfresaconriiicr^blenurcof merit, and met with molfe 
amazing lui:ccl^ in London. — In Ediiibu'^gh, however, ilfourwl 
prodigiuui opporitton from the f;cnilemcn of the party-colourtd 
regimfnt, who lais'd repeated liois iti the play-houfc whenever 
it was acted, and even went fo far as to tlircatru the lives of 
Ifjmc of ihc pcriormers, — Thi^ inT-lcncr, hnwcvcr, in fotnede* 
giec brought about thi: very rct'ormatioti it ir.cant to oppofc, and 
in part the intention of the farce, being the ocraAon of an at-' 
foctarion immeJiatrly enter'd into by al'moft all the nobility and 
geoCfy in Scotland, and publ'ikly fubfcrihed to in the periodical 
papers, whereby thry bound [ht;mrelves tnutuully to e^ach other 
to put a ftop to the abfurd and fir^ndjloui cuilom of givingvails^ 
prevalent no where but in thefc Itingdoms. 

* Liberty assbrted. Trag. by J. Dennis, 4^0. 1704.— 
This play wb& adlcd with great fuccefs at ibe thealte in Lin- 
coln's-fnn-FieUs, and is dedicated to Anthony Henley, E(q> 
10 whom the author owns himfcif indebted tor tht: ^^i^py hint 
upan uhiih it vaas f^Twid, — The fcenc is laid at Agnic (which 
Dame, he fays. Tor the fake of a better found, he has alter'd to 
Angte] in Unnada : and the plot ^n imagined one, from th< 
wars cirried on amoni; ihc Indtan nations. — Tlic cxiravaganC 
and cnthurMdic cpinioit Dcnniii himlcir had of the merit and 
importance ot this piece, ciuinoi be more properly evinced thaji 
by the foUowitig anecdotes: 

• He inugined iherc were fomc Hroltcs in it fo fcvcre upon 
the French nation, that they could never be forgiven, and con- 
fcqucntly that Louis XIV, would not con'cnt to a Prace with 
England, unlefs he vras delivered up a facnlice to national rc- 
fcntroenc-^Nay, lb fat did he carry this apprehenfton, that when 
ihc congrcfs for the peace of Utrctbt was jn jgitation, he waited 
cm (he Duke of Marlborough, who had furnieiiy been hi& pa- 
iron> to intrcil hit intcrcll with the plrnii>utcntiaries that the/ 
fhould not confent to hi:! being given up. — The Duke, how- 
ever, told him with great gravity, that he was forry it was out 
of his power to fervc him, a» he really had no iniflreft with any 
of the miniflers at that time, hutaddcd. that he fancied his talc 
not to be qtiite fo defperaie as he fecmcd to imagine, for th:it 
indeed he had taken nj care to. set /,mj;/^' excepted in tlr: articl'^ 
of peace, and y« he could not help thinking that he had done 
the French aimft »s much damage as Mr. Dennis himfcif. 

' AnoJicr effeil of this appicheufion prcv^tiliiig wi;h him ii 
told as follows i that be!n[^ inviud down to a gentleman's boufe 
onihccnaftof SuflVjt, whcK be h^d bscavery kindly entertained 

i<tv. March, 1765. i* . , lor 

^Q The Csjitfam:n to the Pley-heufe. 

for Tome timt, as be wa$ one day walking near the beach, he faw a 
ihtp failing, as he iin.^iiicil, towards him. — On which, takii _ 
it int4 hU hcail that he was bctrny'd, hr immfdiatdy made the 
belT of his way to London, without even tjking leave of htsl 
bol> uho had been fo civil tu him, but on ilic contrary^ pro-1 
claimed him to every body aj a irjitor, who had decoyed hit 
clown to his hoitfc only in order to give notice to the Frenct 
who had fitted out a vcfTcl on purpofu to carrj- him off, if he ha^ 
not luckily difcovcrcd their dcfign •. 

• The LosuoN Cuckolds. Com. by Ed. Ravenfcroft, fto. 
1683. — This play met with very great fucccl's, aaJ has, till 
iwiihin a very few years paO, been frequently prefcnted on our 
itagc<i, cfjiccially on Lord Mayor^s day, in contempt and to the 
difgracc of the city.— Yet its folc ability of pleafing icems to 
conDt) in the E^rcat buflle of bufmefs and variety of incidents 
which -ire thrown into it ; it bein^ not only a very immoral, but 
a verj* ill- written piece. — Id ftiort, it is little more tlun a col- 
lection {ifincifJcncs talcenfrom different novels, and jumbled co>j 
gcthcr at bold hazard, forming a connection with each other 
ihcy may. — The charaiflcni of Wifcacrc and Peggy, and the^ 
feme of Pepgy's watching her hufband's night cap in armour 
ilurin;; hisafcrmcc, is taken from Scarron'sFruitlcfs Precaution.— 
X-ovcday's dilcoverln^ Eugenia's intrigue, and fcrccnin? It by 
pretending to conjure for a fupper, from the Cootcs D'Ouvillr 
pan 2. p. 235. — tugcnia's contrivance to bare Jane lie in b( 
p!acc by her liutbaiid while flic goesto Ramble, is from the Me 
cotan/.adolce, at ihc end of Torriano's gmmdiar, ch. 16. — Her' 
Jihcmc for bringinj oft' Ramble and Loveday, by obliging ihc 
former to draw his Iwoid and counterfeit a paffion, from lloccacc, 
Dec. 7. Nov. 6. — Doodle** obliging hi* wife Arabella to anfwer 
nothing but No, to all queftions during his abfence, and the 
confeq*jcnce of that intrigue with Townly from the Contrs 
D'OuvllIe, part 2. p lit — And Eugenia's makings falfc con- 
fidence to her hulbaiid Difliweil, ami fending him into the gar- 
den in her cloaths to be beaten by Loveday, from ihe Contcs de 
FontJine — In a word, it i^ nomore a longchiinof thcf:s 
from beginning to end — Yet, furnilhcd as it ii by the amaffing of 

* all this plunder, it fctms calculated onlv to pletfc the upper ffaj- 
Icricj, being of a Jsind of humour too low for any thing above 

• Tbi' 11 roi antike the apprelicDSon whklt Dennis conceived, at a 
«offre-hov! in ih^ Siranrf, in wWich he haJ once pjfTcd a ^.iiurdav'S 
^wcnit;;. during the time of hi> being obliged 10 live mih'm the verge 
nf the Coint. He had ftrayed bcjrond hi* Irmin; aoJ bcin^ feaied rn 

.1 bos. t -a gcnilcnian, w!iifc coun^nance he diil'ketf, he 

'•■• wlii i impatierice and foJIicittide, 'liU ihe cl«:ck llruck 

4*f*i'vr; wJun lipiie Jua«di crying out, 'NowSii! be « buli^, or 
beytdtvtl. Ii^rjenm!' 


the rank of a chambermiid or foolboy to laugh at; and roinier- 
mingled wiih a (zna nf intrigue, libcrti:ii('m, and Urciviouf- 
hefs, which none but the mod abandoned proAJgAic could I'cfr 
without ablufli.— It is, however, at length totally baoifbcd t'lom 
the ftage/ 

To what our Auilior has faid of the above mentioned per- 
formance, it may not be improper to add a word or cwo relacing 
to the fccrcc hiftory of this play. It was originally a piece of 
court- revenge againll the city of London, for that ftcady oppo- 
fitiun, which ihc has ever been remarkable for, (and may 0ie 
ever continue fo!) to all government-encroachments on the li- 
berty and property of the fubjeil. The cithtcns had at that 
lime,' 35 well as now, a greac deal of pioperty. They had a 
mind to fccurc thac property ; and therefore they oppotcd fame 
of the arbitrary mcafures which wcie tben begun, but purfucd 
more openly In the following reign : for which leafon the pro- 
fligate wits of the time were employed to reprcfcnt them, on the 
fla^c, 25 a parcel of dcligning knaves, diir^mbling hypou'iics, 
griping ufurers, and — Cucicolds into the bargain. 

' Lov£-A-LA-MOD£. Farcc, by Cha. Macklin, 1760. ■ 
This fiircc has never been printed, but was brought on at the 
theatre royal in Drury Lane, where after fomc ftrugglcs between 
two parties, the one prejudiced for, the oilier agaiiilt its author, 
it at length made its looting good, and had a very great run, to 
the confiderabfe emolument of the author, who not being paid 
as an 3£lpr, rcfrrved to himfelf a portion in the profits of every 
■ night it was aflcd.^Thc piece does not want merit withrcfj^cct 
to chara^cr and fatire, yet has the writer's national partiality 
carried him into fo devious a path from the manners of the 
drama, as among four lovers who are ad li reding a young ludy of 
very great fortune, viz. an [ri(h office/, a Scots baronet, a jew 
broker, and an Knglifli country fquirc, to have made the firll 
of them the only one who is tot.-JIy difinlcrcftcd with rcfpc^ to 
the pecuniary advantages apparent from the match. — A charac- 
ter io different from whnt expertrncc has in general fixed on the 
gentlemen of that kingdom, who make their addrelTcs to our 
Englifli ladies of fortune, that aUhou^h there arc undoubtedly 
■tnany among the Irilh gentlemen, pflilcfTcd of minds capable of 
■great honour and geiierofity, yet this cxclufivc compliment to 
them in oppofition to received opinion, fccms to convey a de- 
cree of partiality, which every dramatic writer at lead Oiould be 
nudioully careful to avoid. — The Scotchfnan, and the EngUftx 
gentleman Jockey are, however, admirably drawn ; but the 
thought of'^ the ratadrophc is borrowed &om Theo. Gibber's 
coiT»cdy of The Lover, and tTic charaflcr of the irifliman bear« 
tcpo much refemblance to Sheridan's Capt. O'Blunder, to entitle 
'its b:'w^ loo):^ on as an entire urigiu't/ 

2ta The CttBfdnioH iv ih* Piay-htufi. 

|. • PotLY. An Opcia, by John Ga]f,«8vo. ryifi. Tht^ a 
.fucond purt of the Ucg[>ar3 Opera, in whicli, arcordniK to a 
hint givrn in rhe \Ai icciie of the tirft part, Polly, Machcatb, 
and fomc other of the character*, ttt tcjniported to Amciica.— 
When every thing was renly, htiwcver, for a reheurfal of it at 
the thcutrc roY^' ■" Covent G»rilent s ncITage was fcnt fratn 
[the Lord ChambcrUin, thut, ii vfat not oltnved ta tt aiieJ, ^t 
(tmn..indid te ht fupprt/ptl. — What could be the rcafoti of futh a 
3:'jhil>iuon> it is not very cafy to difcover, unlefs wc imagine it 
I IU?e been by way of revenge for the numerous llrokcs of fa- 
on the court, &c. which Thone fonh in the iirll patt, or 
>me private pique to the author himfclf ; for the opcr^ before 
is fo touUy innocent of either fatirc, wit, plot, or cxccu- 
joii, that hud not Mr. Gay declaredly publifhrd it as his, it 
njuld, I think, have been difficuU to have ixri'uadtd the world 
that their favourlle Polly, could ever have fo greatly degene- 
rated from thofe charms, whithfirfl brought rhcm into love with 
Icr, or that the author of thu Beggar's Opera w:is capable of fa 
[toor a perfoimance ai ihc ptcce before u&.— ^But this is fre- 
qiirntly the cafe with focond paits, undorakcn by ibclraurhori 
'ill coiilcqticncc of (ooic extraordinary fuccrfs of the fiift, whcrcm 
'the writer, having before exhauftcd the whole of his intt-nJctl 
plan, hazards, and often lofrs in a fccoiid attempt, for the f^kc 
of proliI> all the reputation he had jullly acquired by the fiifl. 

* Yet noiwiihfiandiiig this prohibition, the piece 'turned ou: 
cry advantageous to him, tor being perfuaded to print it for 

iis own cniuiumciit, the fubfcripiions and prcfcnts he met with 

^cn that occafion, from perfons of quality and mhcn>, were fo 

numerous and liberal, that he was imai^iucd to make four times 

a5 nmi-b by it* a« he (ould have expected to have clear'd by a 

■vcfy tolerable run ut it on the flage.' 

* The Reheaksal. Com- by the Duke of Bucktogham, 
4to. 1671. — This play was aclCil with univL-rfal apitUufe, .and 
u indeed the trueft and moA judicious piece of fatirc chat ever 
yet'appcar'd.— It» intciuion wa« to ridicule and cxpofe the then 
Tvi^mng tafle for plays in heroic rhimc, as nlfo that fonJnefs 
for bombaft and fuDian-in the lani>u4gc, and clutter, nuifc, 
buOle, and Oicw in the condu^ of dramatic pieces, which then 
fo flrcngly prevailed, and which the writers ot th^t time found 
too greatly their advanugc in, not to encourage by their practice, 
to the cxcluiion of nature ami true poeiry from the (lap;. • 

'This play was written, and had been fcvcral times rt-hcarled be- 
fore the plague in 1&65, but was put a ftup to bv that dreadful 
public cdlar.iity. — it tlicn, however, wore a very diSucnt ap- 
pctnncc from what it docs at prefcjir, the poet being then 


77w Cmpafion te tit ?ky-hmft. 


cinlu] Bilboif and was intcndeii for Sir Robert Howard ; after- 
waidit however, when Mr. Dryden, on the Deith of Sii VV. 
Davenant, beciinc Iiurestt, and ihar the evil greatly increafed 
by his example, the Duke thought proper to make him the hero 
of his piece, changitig the name of Bilboa into Hayes ; yet Hill, 
although Mr. Drydcn's plays became now the more particular 
mark tor biv fatire, tliolc of Sir Robert Howard and Sir W. 
DaveiMUit by no means cfcaped the feverity of his laOi. — This 
play is Aill repeatedly performed, conftantly giving delight to 
Che judicious and critical part of an audience.— Mr. Garrick, 
liowcver, introduced another degree of merit into the part of 
Eiyes, having rendei'd it by his inimitable powers of mimickry 
not only the Icourgc cf poets but of players alfo, tak'ng off, m 
the courfe of his iiiftruilions to the performers, the particular 
manner and ftyle of a^ittg of almoft every living performer of 
any note. — And although that gentleman has im fume years 
pait laid aftde this pra^>icc> out of a tender conftderaiion for 
chofe perfons whofc intereOs with the public ipight be injured 
by the pointing out ihcir impcrfe^ions to its notice, and pcr- 
efteeming mimickry below the province of a perform'er of 
sital merit, yet his example has been followed by fcfcral 
i-who have fince played ihe part, and will perhaps continue 
be fo by every one whofc powers of execution arc equal to 
htfie undertaking.' 

* RoHEo AND Juliet. Trag. by W. Shakefpeare, 410, 
1599, — The fable of this now favouiitc tlay, is buiJc on a real 
tr-igedy tbal lia,7pened about the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. I'hc Ijory with all its circum fiances, is giten us by 
Bandcllo, in one of bit Novels, Vol. 2. Nov. 9. a:iJ alfo by 
Girolame Corte, in his biftory of Verona. — The fccne, in the 
beginning of the fifth a<^, is vt Manrua ; through all the rcEl 
of the piece, in and near Verona. — As I have mcniioncd before 
that this is at prefent a very favouiitc play, it wilt be necclTary 
CO take notice what various alterations it \\is gone through fioin 
lime to time, and in what form it at prcfcnt appears, which \% 
confiderably different from ihac in which it was originally writ- 
ten. — The tragedy tn itfelf, has very great beautie?, yet on the 
whoIe« is far from being this great author's roafter-picce. — An 
ainaaing redundance of fancy mines through the wK'.lc diction 
of the love fctnc) 1 yet the overflowings of that fancy, in fonic 
places rather rum into puerility, and the frequent intervention 
of fhimcs which appear in the original plav, and which fcems a 
kind of w:iotoniieli!i in the author, certainly abates of that veri- 
fimilitiide to natural converfalion, which ought ever to be 
lu^intaincd ui dramatic diatngue, efpecially where the fcene and 
actjon fall uudcr the ,iicuni(lancc of domdiic life — The cha- 

P J raOcrt 



Tht Ccmptm'iM M ihe Plaf-btufi. 

rafbrs arc fome of ihem very highly painted, ponicuIaHy xYMe. 
of the two tovers, which perhaps poflcfB more of that lomMiic* 
giddy, and irreftlliblc paffion of love, where it makes its Efft 
attack on vCry vuung hearts, than all the labours of an huntlred 
poets Ance, was all the efii:ucc of their love fceiies to b« united. 
into one, could poiGbly convey an Idea of. Mcrcutio too, is % 
chtir^der fo boldly touched, and fo duly fpirited, that it has 
been a furmifeoriome of the critics, that Shakefpearc put bitn 
to death in the third aft, from a coofciouOicfs that it would eveiv 
exceed ihc extent of his own powers (o fupporc the charader 
through the two lail a£U) equal to the famplc he had givon of 
V it in the three former ones.— Ihe catafbophc is afTecting, and 
oven as it fUnds in the original, is fuiHciently dramatic. — Now 
for the fcvcral alterations of it, of which I fhalt mention three* 
by three feveral hands. — The lirft of thefc that I find taken, no- 
[Aicc of, is that by James Howaid, Ef^i whom Downes in hia; 
'Bofcius Anglicanut, p. 22, tells us, alter'd this tragedy into a: 
tragt-comedy, prcfcrving both Romeo and Juliet alive ;— fo thaft 
I i^hen the play was revived in Sir Wm. Davcnanc's company, ic 
n^ras played alternately, viz. tragical one day, and tragi-comickU 
another, for feveral days together. — The fccond altcraiion I flialk ' 
mention here, was by Mr. 7"hcophilus Gibber, who in ihcyeae 
37 J 5 or ) 746, revived this play at the theatre in the Haymarket ^ 
and published it as alter'd from Shakefpeare by himfclf, with 
an apology for his own life.— in this edition, however, not 
much more is done than breaking the rhimes into blank vcrfe, by 
the fubditution of fome few words for fynonymous ones of a 
diff<^^cnt termination, and the topping off certain extraneous 
jiafTagts, which were cither trivijil, pioltx, or unncccflary to tht 
general purport of the plot or aflion. — The third and laft oPj 
thefc alt? rations, is that which is now univerfally and repeatedlyi 
performed in all the Biitifli theatres, and is the work of Mr. 
[- Garrick, whofc perfctfl actjuaintance with the properties of ef- 
U.&y and unqueftionable judgment as to what will pteafe an au- 
dience, have Ibcwn (hemfelvcs very confpicuoufly in this piece. 
— For without doini^ much more than reftoring Shakefpearc tc 
himfclf,' and thr ffory to the novel from which it was originalU 
borrowed, he has rendered the whole more uniform, and work* 
up the cataftrophe to a greater def;rec of diftrefs, than it held if 
the original ; as Juliet's awaking before Romeo's death, and it 
tranfpoits of the latter, on feeing her revive, overcoming cvci? 
the very remembrance of the very late 2& of drfperation he had 
Committed, give fcopc for that fi^den tranfition from rapture ta, 
defpair, which make the recollc£lion that he m:^ die, iniinitdjr*' 
rooie alTc^Jng, and the djftrcfs of Juliet, as well as his own,_ 
much deeper than it i« poffibic to he in Shakefpearc 's p!ay, wbera' 
flic tlucs not awake till aficr the poifon has taken it) full effirA 


Tit C^tfiamau to tin Play-htuftt 

in tlie death oF Romeo. — There is one .iIccrJtion» howevfr, iti 
this piece, which' I muft confcfs, docs not appear lu me aItogt-1 
thrr To neceflaf)', y'rz. the introducinc Romeo from the bcg'n-] 
ring as in lore wiih Juliet, whereas Shakefpeare ieems to have 
intended, by making him at tirft cnamour'd of another (Rofa-'' 
lind) lo point out his misfortunes in the confequence of one paf-l 
iion, as a piece of poetical juHrice for his inconflancy and t'alf-' 
bood in regard to a prior att^ichmvnt, :is Juliet'^ in lome mea-J 
fure are for hrr brt-ach of filial obedience, and her raftncfs in" 
the indulgence of a pafiion, fo oppofite to the natuAl Inicrcfts 
and connexions of her family. 

' Befides thefe, two other managers^ vis. Mr. Sheridan oi 
the Dublin, and Mr. Lee of the Edinburgh theatre, have fach«< 
for the ufe of their rcfpe^ivc companies, made fome fuppofrd) 
amendments in this play, but as neither nf them have appearcc' 
ia print, I can give no farther account oi them. 

* I cannot, however, quite drop this fubjc^, without takinCi 
notice of one more alteration, though not fo profelTcd a one oil 
it, made by a more crUbiated pen, than any of thofe I have hi-< 
ihcrto mentioned, viz. Mr. Otway, whofc tragedy of Caiui 
Matius is founded wholly on it, and who has culled all \u 
cfiotceft bcaotles to engraft them on the ftoclt of a Roman ftor^*^ 
with which they have not, nor can have, the Icafl plaufiblc con-{j 
ne£lion. — Yet \q little does this play feem to have been known, 
till of very late years, that I have fiequcntlvj with furptr7«,.| 
obferved tjuotaiions of fume of its fincft paflages, particularly!,] 
the inimitable defcripuon of the Apothecary's fliop, made ufs' 
,of by authors, who have attributed them to Otw;iy, without 
fccming to hive the leaA knowlegc from whence he took them. 
—Yet to do that gentleman hiinlclf juflice, it muft be acknow- 
ledged that in his prologue he haih confcflcd his having bor- 
rowed half bis plot from Tome play of Sh^kcfpeare's, althougli 
ho doefr IKK mention this particularly by name.' 

• The Golden Rump. — This piece was ne\'cr atfied, never 
appeared in print, nor was it ever known who was the author 

[■of it-— Yet, I cannot avoid mcnticning it here, as it was the 
' leaJ occafion of a very remarkable event in dramatic hiftory, viz. 
'the ^St whfrcby all dramatic pieces arc obliged la undergo the 
r {nfpe£lion an'd ccnfurc of the Lord Chamberlain, before they cati. 

■tc admitted to a reprefvntaiion. Thcfaft was as follows.— 

■ During the adminiftration of a certain pnmUr pt-mftre^ the late 

IMr. Fielding, whofe genuine wit and turn for f*iire were (co 

confidcrablc to need our expatiating on in this place, had in twoi 

or three of his comedies, particularly thofe of PafqniB and thir 

HHlorical Rfg'flcr, Uuwwn in fome ttcukcs which wctc P6»1 

P 4 - po'gnaiiUy 


Mrs. MacaVlay's Htjlvry of England. 

poignantly levelled at certain meafures then purfuing by thofi: at 
the head ofaifairs, not to be fcvercly felt, and their ronrrquences, 
yli not fpccdily put a lIiccIc to, greatly dreaded, by the miniftcr. 
-Open violence, huwcvcr, was not the molt eligible method 
lip proceed in for this purpofc. — Not a rejira'tnt oiltbtrtf already 
ElDfidCr uff eft but 3 prewnthn oi lictnUoufneff to cetiu^ was the pro- 
Jflpcr weapon to employ in thiscale. — A piece, therefore, wriit/m 
yi^ ftmth*iy er orf>-:ry was offered to Mr. Henr> Giff^rd, the ma- 
nager of's l-itiJs-thcatic, for reprclcntation. — ^This 
piece was cntiilrd the Golden Rump. — In which, with a moll 
unbounded freedom, abtiCe was vented not nnly agniiifl the par- 
liament, the council, and miniftry, but even againfl the perfon 
of majcily itfrlf.— The honcft manager, free from defign him- 
^,jelf, fufpcfScd iioiic in others, but imagining that a licence of 
this kind, if ptrmitted lo run to fueh enormous lengths, mufl be 
of the mofl pernicious confeqiiencc, quirlcly fell into the fnarc, 
and carried the piece to the miniOer, with a view of confulting 
liim as to his manner of proceeding. — The latter commending 
highly hrs integrity In this ftcp, rcquefted only the poflelSon of 
the MS, but at llie fame time that tlie manager might be no lofcr 
liy his zeai for the intercfts of his king and country, ordered a 
gratuity equal to what he might reafonably have cxpcfled from 
the profits of i;s reprcf<;ntation, to he pitid to him: and now 
being mafttr of the piece itfclf, made fuch ufc of it, as rmmc- 
diatelv nccjftoned the bringing into, and pafiing in parliament, 
the above mentioned bill.' — See more of this fubjcfi, in ihe 
sieceding part of this article, p. lobi particularly the n;ff. 

The Second Volume of the Ctmpanlm If tht PLy'heuffy con- 
taining Memoirs of the Lives and Produflions of the Dram.atic 
Writers, A^ors, Uq. will make an article in our next month's 


^1h fJI/f9rf of Envlandt f'sm thf AcafMi\ of James I. it that ef 
tht Briutfivitk Line. Vol. 11. By Catharine Macaulay. 4CO. 
jjs. few'd. Nourfe. 

IN mir former accounts of Mrs. Maoaulay's performance*, we 
cn(lc:ivourrd tofio juftice 10 the lingular merit of the Hiflo- 
lian ; snd it gives us teal picafure to acknowledge, that the far- 
ther wcadvance, the more we approve, — nay, in defiance of Mr. 
pope, the more .we amnirt the fpirit and judgment of the fair 
9nd ingenious Writer. 

• $cc Rewew Vol. >X1X', pages 3;i, 41 1< 


Mis. M*CAOiAY'i Hlflorj of Enghmd. 31; 

The former volume of this work clofcd with the htflnry of 
the thtee (ifft years of the icign of Chsrics I. a reign which, 
3$ wc hare before obfcrvcdt afioiils the Lady frequent opportu- 
nittcs of ilifplaying ih^t love of freedom, which me avows to be 
the objci^ of a fccondary worfh'ip in her delighted Imagination* 
Wc aic glad* however* lo pciccivc, that, though flvc gives a 
liberal fcopc to ihofc noble prtncli>les, yd ftic docs not ruo into 
the extravagant enthufiafm of ic|)ublican bigots. 

' The period comprifcd in the volume before us, is ejctremely 
afhve and rnierefting. It afibids a melancholy proof how fee 
the icnacicyof miftaken prerogative, and the defire of extending 
power* may millcad the prince, and deprave the man. For, 
confidering Charles, abftra£ted from his regal capadty, he was, 
perhaps, far from being totally deficient in thofe amiable quali- 
fications which form the fecial rhara£)cr in the fevera] rrlaiiona 
©f civil life. But he was fo deluded by kingcrafr, that, by a 
fatal cafuifirj', he thought himfcif, in his political capacity, 
bound by none of thofc tics, of which, aa a man, he could noc 
but acknowledge and feel the oblication. This is one, among 
'many other unhappy inftances, of the mifchiefi rcfuking from 
fhat dangerous and fallacious diflindiun betv^ccn religious and 
civil duties. 

Under the flicltct of this diHin^ion, Charles exprefled him- 
. felf equivocally, and a^ed treachcroufly, on all occafioru wherein 
! the right? of his people interfered with his own narrow notioni. 
of prerogative. Nothing can more llioiigly exemplify his mif- 
lakcn prejudices, than hU condu*^ with regard to the memor- 
able petition of Right; on which, in the beginning of this 
Volume, our Hifloriari makes tlic following political obfcr- 
vatiom : 

* The petition of right, though it did not produce a change 
In the conftitutlon, yet it confirmed to the fubiefl every pri- 
vilege which their ancclTors had, for any length of time, en- 
[ joyed, fmce the- Norman conqucft had given the fatal blow lo- 
that enlarged f)ftcmof liberty iniroduccd by the Saxons. Not- 
withllamiirig the importance of thi^ event, no lefs thrcatning 
were the rvmpioms at the breaking up of this parhamcni, than, 
had been thofc that atrentlcd the preceding onn : a precipitate 
conclufinn of the fcffions; anger and diftruft on both fides i^ 
a remonflrance compofed of difgraceful truths, that fct in a 
full light the infarr.ous prai5lict-s, and contemptible manage- 
ment of the government. IlatJ Charles given hia extorted af- 
fcnt to the Bill of Rights with a fccming alacrity, the Com- 
mons would have been inclined to have thrown the mantle of 
obliviojitncr pad offences; but his evafions and ddays had not 


only excited a dangerous jealouCy, but had taken awaf all pfc- 
tencc of merit from the tMCcd compliance. Thii head-flmnc 
Prince, notwithftan<Jing he had received the gicatcft fubfidi 
that was ever gmntcd to any King of England j notwjthflandJ^ 
ing chc ' manifeft indications which the patKament had fliewec 
that they intended to give him a legal right (o the rcvcnui 
arifing from tonnage and poundage ; concluded the fcflSons will 
indecent warmth, bccaulc the Commons had declared that h< 
had no right to fuch impofitions without confent of parliament. 
Had he fquarcd his condud by the rules oi common policy, on 
tlic rcmonftrance prefentcd to him on this fubic^, he would 
have offered to have prolonged the felfionj till a bill of tonnage^ 
and poundage could have been pcrfedlcd. This would havo^ 
diftrclTcd the popular members, who fufpcding that he would, 
foon violate the laws he had lately confirmed, when icleafcd 
irom the £hackles of a parliament, wanted to leave him in <%] 
fituation that would render another meeting of this aHembty ne- 
ceilaryi and had carefully avoided touching on this captious 
/ubjciS till the Petitiori of Right was dearly palled. This fa- 
gnclous conduO in the Commons, no doubt, arofe from the. 
impolitic arguments which had been continually urged by the 
couiticra to nring them to comply with the demands of the 
crown. They endeavoured to intimidate, by reprefcnttng tha( 
if miniftcrial meafurcs were oppofcd, the King Would aiTume 
every pitrt of the legiflatutc, and govern without pnrlinmenu* 
Thel'c fuggcftions might give warning, but could not ftrikc ter»* 
/or. Such a govetnmcnt muft ever be regarded as a tyranny, i 
and confequently i(s duration be very precarious \ whereas i/-' 
U'ith 3 prefervation of the forms of. the conftiiutlon, the Com-!, 
tnons had tamely yielded to the King the power he bad afTuni' 
cd. Liberty would have been irrecoverably loft, and abfolute 
inonarthy eflablifhed by law. 

* Thcnumberlofs inftancci in which Charles had violated the, 
laws of the Und, roufcd th-; attention of the nation to develop 
the real genius of the cunAitution ; and the accuracy wiib 
which the Commons at this period examined the legal rights of^ 
«ho monarchy, may be attributed to an impolitic exertion of 
power, that crouded Into one point of view all (he opprclHve 
[^furpations of the crown-' 

We readily fubfcribe to the reflexions which the animated 
'W/itcr has here to pertinently tniroduccd *, and we will add, it 
vas happy for polletity that the prccipjcation of Charles and his 
■{.dvifers crouded ever)* fpccics of regal iilurpation into one potm 
of view, inAc«d of introducing them finaly and filently. His 
aitacking (he conftitution by Ucroi, called forth every ttlcnt for 
ito dcfc^cej aod we arc noi mojc obliged' to the fwordsy tlun. 


Mrs. MacavlayV JftPery vf En^hnd, 319 

to the pens of thofc gallant patriots who bravely withftood qp- 
pieflioii. They cxpl^uncd the true nature of Tovcrvignty, ait^ 
fiiippcd the bugbear prerogative of all the. horrid apparjtui^ 
wliich rendered it forinidabJc to privilege. Yet, notwJthftaod- 
ing their generous labours, there arc never wanting fervlle pa- 
ricides, who would again invcft prerogative with all its hor- 
FTurs i and it is common to hear the tools of adminift ration ibundt. 
lit in the public ear, aik if it was a right in the crown, di(tini9: 
Jftocn, and fuperlor to the priwilcges of the people ^ whereas re- 
l,«t pictogativci: aie no more than particular powers dde^tcd to 
] Utc rovcTcigni the better to enable him to execute the general, 
trufl Tcpofcd in hini, which is» the maintaining the privileges, ai»i 
promoting tlic prgfpcricy of die people. It is by this icR there- . 
fore, and not by the authorlt)' of mu{Vy records, that wc arc u>, 
' dcicrminc concerning prerogatives ; for fliguld any power cxcr-, 
[Cifcd by the crown become, in a courfe of time, oc by a fuddcair 
change of circumfiances, incondiicivc to, or incoaipatible with^ 
the true ends of government, it matters not how long it has 
been exerctfcd, nor by how many records it isfuppoited; for 
from thence it ceafrs to be a confHtutional prerogative, and be- 
comes an inftrumcnt of arbitrary oppreffion. 

The firft hiftorical tranfaQion related in this volume concern* 
^e wclMcnown attempt to relieve Rochellc. Vaft preparationa 
were made for this expedition, and Buckingham repaired to" 
Porifnioulh, in order to furvev the preparations for the intenJeJ' 
embarkation, where Felton's Heel put an end to his life. Oa" 
this catallrophe, our Hifiorian makes the following ihorc and* 
pertinent rcftcftions : 

• Thui, by the arm of a melancholy lunatic, fell this ob-; 
i je£l of almon-untverfai hated, George Villters, Duke of Buck- 
ingham: a man, who, with no other eminent qualities thaa 
what wire proper to captivate the hearts of the we-ikeft part 
of ibe female fex, bad been raifcd by thcfc qualities to be the* 
fcourgc of three kingdoms ; and, by his pcftUcni intrigues, the 
chief caufc of that (Ji(b'cf& which the French proteltanis at thii.j 
time Ungui^Kd under : a man, whofc extraordinary influence*^ 
over two luccciGve Princes, will (ctve, among other examples of, 1 
thit kind, Xi an cverlaHing monument of the contemptible go", 
vernmcni that ma^naniriiaus nationi mull fubmit to, whogruan^j 
under the mc-m, though opprciTivc yoke of an arbiixjiy fw^-Tf 
entrufted to the caprice of individuals.' 

On the death of Buckingham, I^aud became Supreme favou-. 
lite, and having laid a plan for arbitrary fway, he begin wttl 
rircumtirribin)^ the privileges of parliiment, and he tnade hit hc 
l#ck on that which met ifi Jjnuaiy lozi. 


\rrs. MACAUtAV'j Htfttry of E»iiand. 

« It was not, fivs our hinorian, ^^ithout fomc ground* that 
the relbluttDns of the miniftry were thus arrogant and afluming. 
Th(.7 had at this time, with the bribe of a peerage, and the 
preniJcntfhip of the council in the northern parrs, bought olT 
from the popular parly Sir Thomas Wentworth* a man whofc 
principles of opputition had been flrongly ilimulaied on an en- 
vious pique againft Sir John Saville, a neighbour of his, an 
avowed creature of the court, whofe favour from Buckinghar 
had given Wentworth fuch difguK, that he put himfelf si 
head of the country intcreft in that county, and being a 
Ipeakcr, had great fway in the houfc. 1 he frail man was 
nrft alliamcil of his apoflacy, and concealed his change of fen' 
[■ timcnts i but at length pretended to juftify himfelf hy condemu-f 
ing the principles of his former aflbciates. Mr. Pym bad hint' 
be at no pains to excufc his condufl : '* You have left us, fays^ 
he, but I will not leave you whilA your head is on your fhoul-* 

In a note on this padage, the Writer makes the fnllowtag 
flwrt and poignant remark : * The black crime (fays (h.e) of pn>-.^ 
Dituting public virtue to private gain, wu not intbcfe dayscoun-,*] 
^tenanccd by the number of the ofFcnders.* 

According to the rcfolutions of the privy council prcvrou! to. 
Itbc meeting of parliament, our tiillorian continues, Charles 
Idri-d'cd the Lords and Commons in the following manner. 
,*• The care 1 have to remove all obflacles thxt may hinder the, 

good corrcfpondcncy, or caufc a mifunderllanding. betwixt tne,^ 
fand \h\f' parliament, made me call you hiihcr at this time, the 
(fiartieular occafion being a complaint lately moved in the tower 
iBoufe. And as ft-r you, my Lords of the higher houfe, I am 
l^lad to take thi.H, and nil other occnfions, whereby you may., 
[dearly uiidcrftind both my words and adions i for as you are 
jirarer in degree. To you are the fitteft wlmedes for Kings. 
jThc comptnint ! fpcak of, is for flaying of mens goods that' 

3cny tonnage aijd poundage. This may have an eafy and fhort 
[eonclufion, if my words and anions are rightly underftood : 

for by paffing the bill as my anccftors have had it, my paft' 
aflions will be concluded, and my future proceedings aiitho-' 
rized i which certainly would not have been ftrueken upon, if ' 
men hod not imagined that I had taken thofe duties as apper-' 
taining unto my hereditary prerogative, in which they we^ 
much deceived; for it ever was, and ftill is my meaning, by 
the gift of my people to enjoy it. And my intention in my 
fpcech at tlie end of the laft fcnioii lA-as not to challenge tonnage 
and pound3g^ as of right, but de hem tjci Shewing you (be, 
neceflity, not the right, by which 1 was to take it until yot|. 
had granted it uutoaicj alTurmg myfclf) accotding to your ge- 

Beral profedions, that you wanted lime, snd tint good-nrill, to 
jgiveiimc; wlicicfore, having now opjKiriunity, 1 expi: Ji liut, 
'without \ok ui time, you m^c good your former proreiTiuns> 
and Co, by pafltng ch« billi to put an end to all quellions arif- 
'ing from this fubjed ; cfpecially Cincc 1 have iccnoved che onfy 
obllicic that may trouble you ^n this bufincfs." 

On the foregoinj^ fpeech, our Htftorian makes the following; 
juH cotntnent : * This hiftory, perhaps, docs not furnift us with 
any lijigtc example th^t more fully expofcs the Ihallownel's of 
.the mtniftry, than the attempt to impofc this ridiculous expe- 
dient mentioned in the King's fpccch, of fcniing the prefcot 
weighty point in difpute. Had the parliament palled the AiX in 
the.roanner that Cha:lcshad didtated, and without reflitution of 
'the goi^dt taken in the intermediaie period, they would not only 
'have given up the means of rcdrcffuig ihe mod important gricv- 
' .ancc of ihu nation, but would have efTedually authoriTcd an . 
example, that rendered this unlimited revenue as independent of 
parliament, as any other of the moll inJifputabte appendages of 
the crown. If the parliament will accede to the power of laying 
.en impofttions, Charles gracioully ptomifes to acknowledge that 
'be holds it by fuch a conceffion : but this is a privilege I cannot 
want, fays be; it is necefiary to the freedom and grandeur of 
the monarchy j your obftinacy in this point juftifics the taking 
that from you hv force, which it is in your opiion to make your 
own a£i and deed. Might not the fame powerful arguments be 
ufed (cr the taking fublidics, or any other violation of the con- 
ftitution ? and might it not he Taid, according to this cafuiOry, 
that it was the fault of the parliament if any illegal ads were 
committed by the (jovcrnmciit, fince ic waj in their power to 
authorize tyranny, and give the ftrvngth of law to ufurpation. 
Give me your purfc, andyou will no longer fuj^r the injury of 
violence. Surrender willingly your libcny, and what you now 
complain of as tyranny, wiU becoaie law.' 

To thefc reflcdlions we may add, that nothing can be more 
«quivocal than the exprcffions ift Charles's fpeech. In /c/w;, 
he difcUims (he right to tonnage and poundage, without the 
grant of parliament ; but he JL-flifics himfelf by the irrt/^/v of 
taking it, until it was granted : now, »s he made himfcff fulc 
judge of this ncccflity, this was \nfitH alTuming a right of taking 
u without a parliaiTKuiary grant. 

The fpiritcd proceedings of this parliament are well known. 
They mnde fudi a thorough fcrutiny into public grievances, and 
came to fo many bold rcu)lutioni, that Charles thought it cx- 
f cdicjit to diifolve them. 

* Amongft 

•122 Mn. MACAntAY'/ Ntjiory «f England. 

• Amongft rhc animated. meafures of the lower houfc, (faj 
CUT Hilloridii) whith dignity the proceedings of this fedionsV^ 
the warm debates which the Commons had entered ttiio on thofe 
innovations in the doctrines and forms of religion which had 
lieeD introduced by Laud^ Neilct Manwaring, and other bU 
gotted prieils, has been fevcrcJy eenfurcd by fcnfible and can- 
did Wiiters. 

* Had this circumftancc been examined with that accuracy 
which the impoitancc vi it dctnaniis, thcfc a£livc patriots, 
who, 10 ferverhe beftpurpofes, metamorphofed themfclvcs into 
mecr gownmen, would not only have been juftified from afHng 
on the narrow principles of religious brgotry, but would, 
from this' exertion of ihcir theological talents, appear pofTctred 
of ail ciTcntial qualification UecclFary to form able jcgiAjtors. 
Supciflitioii, that wcaknel's infcpatablc from the mind of man, 
has, from the firfl period of recorded lime, betn the quality 
ibc moR ^taljy inflrumental in degrading his nature to an abjc^, 
yet willing dependence, on the crcatureof hib own rank; and 
overtu/ring divint and' moral law, has fixed an acknowlcdgexl 
inferiority whcie Go^ has marked equality. Every eflablifh^ 
form of wor{hip has, for thefe reofons, been fubordinateto the 
purpofcs of policy; and 4he engine religion been ulcd with 
never- failing fuccefs to enflavc the many to the few, and to fix 
on the firm tiafis of confciencc, tyrannies irrcconcileablc to the 
wifdom of God, the dignity of human luture, and the welfare 
of mankind. Modes of faith powerfully operate on every go- 
vernment i and the ecclefiallical conftitution of a country has 
au irrel'ifliblc influence on the political. We muft confidcTy 
therefore, thcfc illu(!riou5 patriots as combating errors, which, 
however trivial they may appear on a flight view, yet carried 
with them, alarming conftqucnccs to Libert)-. The eflenttil 
points of faith in Arminianifm or Puriianifm had in them no* 
thing repugnant to ihc freedom of the Engl'ftl conftituiion ; 
but tt-.e ioilowers of the former were (tudiouily bent toexali the 
power of churchmen, and were wedded lo thofe forms and cc- 
Kmouirs that degrade the pure fpirit of religion into an idola- 
trous woifhipof iheobjct^of (enfe} and convert that contem- 
plation of the Crrator, which elevates, refines, and enlargu 
^e human mind, into an implicit fubje^ion to the intcrefled 
opinions of men, [n thefe lefpct^s, the innovations which the 
Amiifiiiiii5 were daily making in the religious worfhip, was a 
ptopri ob;e£t pf f arliameniary enquiry ; and the difcipline of 
<hc churcn was in its confcqucnrcs too jmjtortunt to be trufted 
lo the dite£iion of a Prince who had, like Charles, evidently 
mantfcflcd an inclin^iion to exalt the forcreignty, not only be- 
yond the Ipirtt, but the form; iDf the conflituliom In the (irft 


Mrs. Macaulay'* Hl/i:ry of England* 


pTDgrers of the reformation, thofc moniichies chat had adopre4 
the fpecubtivc do^rine of the rerormed churches, recaincd %\ 
great deal of that pomp of worfhip cfTcntial to the Pnpifli fuper-' 
llition, and agreeable to the pampered fenfes uf Princes: rwi-* 
iher bad they relirKjnifhed fubordi nation, nor that ecclefiaOicail 
icrvitudc, that rcfignation of private judgment, which ji fo fa-' 
vourable to civil tyranny. This Wits the fiaie of church-go- 
vctnnicnt in England after the Reformation had taken place g 
and, as I have elfewherc obfcrvcd, it ftrcngthencd the tyiannjf] 
of the crown, by flinging into the fcalc of regal power that ab*l 
foluic and unlimited jurifdiif^ion which had been wrcflcd froiai 
the bifhop of Rome.' 

The fpitit and propriety of thefe fentiments are highly cc 
mendable. Nothing is more certain than that the fcveril m* 
of religion arc or ought to be adapted to the rcfpc^^ivc plans ol 
civil policy. Therefore, however indifferent they may be in] 
themfelves, they become of high imporrancc, when we confiderj 
the influence they have with regard to the political freedom at 
-wellare of mankind. With regard to the gcnuinc^/r/r of letU 
gion, that operates only in thole who are capable of judging fa'' 
themfelves, and when wc conGder what a fmalj prcpurtioti iht 
bear to the whole, wc oyght to be extremely cautious that the 
modes or forms of worfhip which do and ever muft govern the 
majority, (bould be as pute from fuperfliiion, and as favourable ■ 
to the pniulples of public freedom as poSible. 

* After the DHToluiion of the Parliament, Charles and hit 
prime mintfter, Laud> continued to indulge themfelves in the 
cxercifc of unlimited power. • Pioclamatioiis fupplicd the dcfedls 
of law, and the high commi^ion court pcrfecuted as ptnitani 
all who refufcd to fubmit to defpotic government.' Our hiftorian 
has, by way of note, felcAed feme ftfiktng opprcUions of this 
. nature, which muft not be omitted. 

* A proclamation declared, that no haeVney-coarhes Oinuld 
be fuffered, and that no perfon Qiould go in any kind of coach 
in ihe ftrtcts of London and Wcflminller, except the owner 
tjf the coach conrtantly kept four able horfca fit for his Majefly's 
fervice whenfoever his Majcftj's occafions Ihould retjuire 
upon pain of hts Majefty's high difpleafure and iadiznation 
and fuch pjins and penalties as might be in8i£tcd for t^c coa^ 
'temptof his M.^jeKy's loyal commands. 

* CommiSiDners were appointed to make a ccrtiiieatc to the 
council-board, or in the court of Star-chamber, of thofc that, 
coniiary to former proclamatiom, had enlarged thecity of Ixjn- 
don by /icw buildings, or had divided houf« into fLveriJ dwel- 

^£s; 500 1. 20COJ. £Re» weicietonchofc uaorgrefiortagainft 


3X4- 3^' Macaui.ay*j HiJiM^ of ■England. 

the letter of the ptoclamationx, tliough ihey bad taken the pre- 
caution to procure licci]cc;>. 

* Ray, having CTanfportcd fullers earth* contrary to a pco- 
clamation, was fined in the Star-chamber 2000 I. *nd fct in the 
pillory. Like fines were kvied on Terry, Emzn, uid oiherf, 
for difobeying one that forbad the exportation oF gold. Rymtr. 
Ruflrwerd, Siraff'erd'i Lrtttrs^ 

*■ Loids, gentlemen, clergymen, and othen, whole ftay in 
London was not abfolutcly ncccfljry, were ordered to reftde 
in their refpe^live counties. An information was lodged in 
the Star-chamber agiiinft fcvcral hundreds of people of cjuatitr 
and fortune, for that they had unlawfully agreed together hnw 
the;? might wiihftand his Majcfty's prodamaiion, and royal 
pleafurc therein exprcOed. 

' An order was fent to the jufliccs of the peace to prcfent all 
noblemen, tbm had not particular leave of the King, who 
jtiould be found in town ; and to imprilbn all gentlemen. 
'This was infliifled on one Palmer, who was committed to the 
:Flecc, and fined loooi. Rujhwfrth, vol. iii. /tpptudix^ p. 5U, 

* There were more rcafons than one for prohibiting peopte 
cf fortune to refort to town : the oppreflions of ihc limes were 
'become, in every fecial meeting, the univcrfal topic of convcr- 

* Al! the fuWefls Ulctwifc were forbid to depart the realm, 
without licciKc from the King, or fix of his privy-coun- 

, Tellors. 

< There had been many of thcfc kind of proclamationi ia 
ihe lall reign. This was fo f^r from being an acknnwlcdgei 
prerogative of the crown, that by a temporary ait of p.iilia- 
merit it was granted to Henry VUI. wiih a fiving the lives anil . 
propcrticaof thefubje^. 1 he 2cl wat repealed m Kdward^c 
Vl.'stime.* But, Ibc adds. ' Among the cxciiions of ab- 
folute fovercignty recorded in the ir^nfaclionj «f this lei^n, 
there is one of an enormous nature, unnoticed by Hiftoriaris. 
A comniifltoi) vja^ grouted to the nrchbiilu>p of Cdtiiirrbury, 
vnd the other members of the privy council, for rfgulaiing the 
JurifdiCtion of the rourtj of jiifticc. Tlicfccommiflioncrs were 
to examine all qucftions, conCrovcrfici, and debates, arifing 
about the jurifdidtion of the courts cccleftaftical and civiH 
They were conftitoted with powers to call before (hem, ai 
often aj they would, any of the judgrs of the fsid courts, or 
parties contending ; to examine upon oath the ofKcers and 
clerks i to hear aad debate the c^ucniom and caufesj to con- 
9 fider 

Mm MaCAULAv'j Ht^efj e/ Eng/off/f. 


fiAet and advife oa the fubjcA t and i^en to Uj? before the King 
(he faid confitlcrations, tbit be mlgbc determine by his auihu- 
lity the oiitltr in di(J>utc.' 

Thcfe were indeed futh enormous exertions of tyranny, as 
totally diflblved alt the tic* of l*tibj«;c>ion, and left the people at 
liberty to oppofe their natural ftirngtl), againJl mcafurcj which 
could only be fuppoitcd by power. 

Our Hiflorian proceeds to relate the con6ii£l which Charley 
held with regard to hia parliament in Scotland, where he dif- 
played the banners of defpotifm, in a manner, if polTible, ilil] 
more open and infulttng. But the moil Ilriking inflance of in- 
human tyranny was the proceeding agalnft Lord Balmcrino, 
who wa> condemned to die on a ft^tutc of trcafon called 
Ltafing Aiak'tn^^ iliough his offence was no more than that of 
having a paper in his pofTcfTmn, which was oiFcnfive to Charlct^ 
and not difcovering the author, whom he knew. The male" 
volcnce of the profecutian, and the injufticc of the fcntcnce, 
weie fo highly refented hy ihc Scots, that they had afTociatcd 
to execute juftice after the old Scots fafhion, and to cut in 
pieces ihe judges and the eight jurors. Charles was on this ac- 
count obl'gcd to gruic DatmcHno a pardon. 

On this paHage, Mrs. Macaulay ha» added the following 
notr. • The manner in which the Lord Ralmerino*s life was 
put into the hindj of the court, would fingly be a fufficient 
example iof ilic impbrtance of that privilege which the con- 
fUtution of lingland gives lo its fubjcfls ; viz. that the jury, 
compofed of nicn of an ctjual condition with tlie perfon pro- 
fccutfd, are judges as well of ttie law as the fadi. This may 
be pronounced the great bulwark that defcndi the life, proper- 
fr, and pctlonal freedom, of every Knglifti futyecl from tho 
exorbitant exertions of monaichical power. May this iroportane 
confiJcrition have its due weight with the public \ "WLxy no 
pbufiWe oration* from a tJmc iciving judge fcducc an Englifli 
jury to give up, on any occaGon, a right on which alone ihcir 
own fccurity, the iecurity of their fellow-citiiens, th« fecuritr 
of t^-ci^ potlerity, fo evidently depends !' 

This note needs no other comment than — J^rrr topit illefadt* 

[ TV bi Of^ludtd in »ur next, j 

lltr. March, 1765. 



r "6 J ^1 


Pw MARCH, 1765, 


Art. I. Rtmarh en tertain Pa/^gfJ m a tf^»ri tntitUi An IlIuA 
txation of the Holy Scriptures \ tarmjUj rtamftundtA ta the 
Prru/ffl of tvery Piirckaftr of that Jf^firi. By the Rev. WalwC 
!JeUun, Mi/iiAcr of SniiA}y> Derbylliirei and Cutaic of Brec- 
don, LeicdWrftiirc. i2tno. la. Keith. 

R. Setlon biittrly complaioi, thai 1 * work, ertitl«T, ;^« K'^r, 
_ _ nan i/thi HthSiti^ttra, ro lhr« fOli. folio*, ha; iriadt its a^ 
p«arnoce in [he worlo, a year or tvro lince ; which h dirf^))' calculates 
coelUbliiha motley mixture nfAi)»tirm and Socinianifbi upon ibe mini 
of Ctirirtiaaity!— and of ihi« fame Arianifm \t avers, that it wa> ia 
early ages an inlet to heiffits and eaitanitw oC ntn junJ ; and at length 
,inat3e way for A&iwwe/ajrr/ii itfcin If ihii accowit be true, we are foriy 
.to le^in, fxo» tvbat Mr Mellon add^i thai io ftrmthm a Ji3r:nt vnanr 
nu« to rpicad in ihij natiop: and ai it ii prodnAive of fd/tMu'm/^ 
tvfy kind, we may no longer be at a loA uj afiign the cauic of the greai 
hail-llofni wh^h fell lafl year in Kent. jtcc. nor of the difte:iiper irnoog 
the horned catilr, which fo violently broke out m ihis nation, in the 
year ii\\; juR al »hc lime (it imoy wife people no doobt obfcrvc^ 
And may- rCfocmfcct, ai well ai wc) ivhcn tEe femooi heretic. Dr. James 
Follcr, was in the height of Wu ('opularity, and pcrvcited great tuim- 
beri, of all nnks and deoomination*, fiom the failh as it ii in Athana- 

In flicrrr, it is high tinw to root thii dei>riiflivc weed out of our ot-- 
xboAox foil J but how U thii to be done ? A& the ? — i—a of Tewkt- - 
bury, and he will tetl you. by the i«r of excommunication ; with which 
jioor Georje WillianMp was ft> violently thnatncd fonie time ago : hoc, 
3( we im eacmias to all foeh violent procetdingt, we would rather re- 
comiDcnd Mr. Selloa's methcd, viz. to uke up ihe pen. and laafmtt 
ihefc mifchicvous fchifnj.iucs, as he has done, by l^e help of a few harJ 
ratncs and outcries oF herefy and fchifm, piopcily arranged and dif- 
puled, !ilce baiter.«c» in front, Hflilk, ana tear of an aimy. Thde 

SktC-for cver'prevail aeaind all the ujnal realqningi of your Clnrfcei, 
oadley*. Whiilons, Llaytoosi Foflctv *nd the rcll of thit ttle, he- 
retical tribe. 

• See oar accoaai of the tft vol. oflhh work. Revbw* Vol. XXr 
atkd of vol. 2d, Review, Vol. XXIU. 

Aft. 3. An jfnf^vtr to all that h mpterial in Littffi fu/l puhFtfiied, 

itniUr tht Saiar 9/ tht Rev, Mr. Hervty, By John Wiflcy. 

izmo. 41). firiftol printed, fold in London by Flcxiicy. 

«. .We-ean yet difcover nothln^/cy ato/mW io tbii-coiHnnretO'i no» 

^Hg Inbl^JtiVerelliii^ to icz^cli^iM arid ibuod tnuijti^y. UiStiVlm 

4 aj>j>;JLcd 


ip^irA] to tH in t curfory view of Mt. Hcrve.') Lrtiert; fte our laft 
noflih's Ca'slo^e. One thing, however, may be remarked, for the 
.-Mnimiuina of fuch ofooi Reuwrs « are not intimately acquainied with 
the writing oTMcirrs. Hcrvey and WzQcy, — that the I.ltcr appciir) to 
be a very free-thinker, tompareil "/ith the fbdncrj who. poof, hofldly 

> JiiDpIe fuul ! was indeed far gone in faostkifm. 

P I. I T I C A Ik 

Artt 3. Remarii tn tin prtpafid Plan ftr regulating the Paprr-fj/r* 
roKj f/ Scut/atid, 8vo. 6d. Wilfon. 

• Agaioft the propoTcd regulation. The Author think; ihjt the incnn* 
vcoicRcio conrcfledly arifing from the circuUuoa of banker'^ notcj tor 

^/m*SI /umi •, in ScotUnd, (>c3r no prujwrtion to the waic: evils ihat, 
wdf. at ihii lime elpeci-illy. Aillotv a p/ahibitioci or fitch pjipcr-ctir- 

rrency ; and thetcfore he ho()L-> * (hat the tcgiflniurc will afk wjih tfr- 

*Cumrpedton, and will not be ejfi!) perfoaded to employ au ue 10 cut 

ha com.* 

* They have banit noiei in ScoiIioJ for (b Hnall a Turn as ten fKIItiRgs. 
t to ihofe tvhich have been iQued fur ixitftsu, and even for a ptxiij, 
^We are to'd they were conuived ai a tMiiIer^ue on the gcneiU papcj- 
EuircQC)' of that conntry. 

LrL 4. Th» Okjtii'tintta the Taxatisn efour Amtncan dlsnlti^ hf\ 
tht Lfgifiaturt tf Great Btilain^ bruRy (9nfiJa^d^ Ato. 6Ja 

An attempt to prove not only the right of the Leglditiire of Gr, Bf. 
, to impoie tue> on her Colnntet^ but the f jr-r/rfic-j-r and cveo the ab- 
Jolute nKtJJsij of c^tetcifing that right, in the pirfE^nc conjunflare. lit 
'.Jhoit, the Author writes tin principTci dircdiy oppulitc to thofe of Mr*, 
lift wbofe dcfcQCc of the ikUis of the Culunic-i we mentioned in o)ir 
ilU p. 151 J bm be fpL-iiki in a Artin of peitnefi and even i'/.bnn 
Ji own exprelCon. when fpcaking of ibafe who prcfumed to ai^tie oa 
<e other udc of ihc quellion. and to ulc \.)\t J^Ai unit tvotds LiU'tj, 
^roftrty. BniUp>-fn, Ac] *hkh call* Fr correal ion, xnJ will do m : 
Credit to hi3 ctnploycn or pat'on>. He does iKit (cem to w.^tit ability, 
fcot he moll cctiainly wantt nvodrrty ) and (to whaiever country hs ma/ 
bclonj) he (hould be taught, to Q).ak of the I .ibt,-ntei. properties, and 
rt^huof Enoli Hut o, with moa- reverftw. TheAuthorof* Re- 
culaiiooi \ lately tnad^coc rning our Co'oa^es,* did 00c treat the fub- 
tfd tn fuch a manner, i.ittugb on the fame (iJe iT Uic (icUaic ^viih inis 
Writer ; and his aiguraent- will be a icr.dcJ to "-Jlh due refpcfl, wlieii 
tiofe (f this for-^aid altuiiiiit; aJvouie. will be rcgaidedai Jigbiiy I* 
he alli£u to regard ine Lolonici. 

f See our tiH, p. 1 ;0. 

Art. 5. Tht Claim of the Ct'cnies t^ an Exemptitn /rem inUrnal 
'' Taxes iiUptfitl fy •Authrity 0/ Pftrliammtt txattunt^r 2n m Lfit*r 
' ■■ ■ ■ ^i * freffi 


MoBTHLV CAT^tooue, 

Jr^m a Gtviltman in Lendeu, la h'ti Fftitd in Amtriia, Svou 

1 s. Jofinilon. 

Another Oefcucc of the fchenie for irapofini; flamp dutict in the Co- 
Ion>cs. The Auibor deals the rubjetfl with orcoDtiug drccm.)-, and like 
a man acquainted with tbe argumf nt* on t»{b AJc. the qucttiot) : Mid 
thouG;h he dfciiles nf*ainft tbe cUim ot the C'oloniei to an exemption 
from interna} uxn impofed by the Rnii/h parlia'nent ; jri lie, in juiiice 
to his fctlotv ful)jc£U in Amuica. cindi.'ly llaiet the ctrtuniltanccs where* 
19 their cafe>iiftVnlVvni lha.t of [lieiion-elci^ort in Great Briuio ; a^d 

* offers funic reafoiii why ihe parhamcnt fhooM, in the exercifeof its 

* po-ver of impofing taxes epon both, be more icndcrin iu proceeilinga 

* tvbm ihe C'>lonici arc the ohjrfl cf them, thin when it it the peoj^o 
■ of Gic« Britain.' — Hcalft>ihew> the impropriety and impolicy of tha 
meafum l.iUcn by ihcCoIoni** to Oppofc iticUamjt-bill. 

Art- 6. A Sdonti* Litter ta the Riiht Hm. CharJti Ttwnjhmd, 
ouofi:ntdhy h'ti Ctmmmdadens sftht Budget ; hwhitb the Mc- 
riii of ikdi PempiiUt art ixamintd. 8vo. u. Nicoll. 

The commendatinos which Mr. Townfhend is fiid to hive beftowed 
' <M the 3u(li>ct, arc (o be found in a pamphlet entitled a Dtfinrt tfttrg Mi' 
trirrrt. aCcHbcd la the prn of this gentleman : and which pamphlet wts 
the ftibjrjl of our Auihoi'i animjuvcriioD, in Yiiif"/! Letter. The De- 
fender of ihe Minority had, in hii ^jth page, filed the Budget rn 
rxcrllem and unanCtvcrcd woik i but the prefcnt Wri;cr undrrtdkci to 
fliew, net orly that ic it nit cuccllcnt, but that it is alfo far from btlnv 
' nianrwerable ; for he here undsttakes to m/v:tr it himJclf. Accord- 
ing!)', he has reviewed the principal points diftulTed in the Badger^ 
adU bai p.ii-ei] fuch a different lUie of the fame f.ifli and cakuli- 
tians, as wiil be higiily incuaibcnt on hit popular opponent to invali- 
date, if he would nuinuin the refutation he acquired by thai notable 
anli-tniDiflcrial pirtbrmance-^Thii grntlcman writei in a flylc confider* 
ably elevated aSoTc that of our cnmn;on herd of Polilrdam. lie trcab 
Mr T. with fomc pnignancy ; bui his raillery is delicate, and hii oiao- 
Ecr polite. Tow.irdi the clofc of hi* letter, after ohfcr»inf;, that he 
' hai (hewn tvfj «et of the Budpct-writef'i aflirniins and calculation* ta 
be fiilfe, be KoA^, • The materuh of this dilculBon are open to the in- 
fpcOion of the Public : and therefore it became htm to bare confulwd 
ihcm before he puUi/Iied, and you. Sir, before you commenijed thai 
work-* — That the maiiriali, or. in other woidt, the rviAatti by wbicHi 
the tneriti of this conirovctry are to be uied, are open 10 publieinfpec- 
tKm. )( the grand circumfl^nce to Ic attended to ; and to that alone we 
refer, for certain infornjalion with regard to the impoftant Faffi con* 
tc^cd in thii ftmous deb itc —Where ihcfe mutcriali are to be met with, 
will rcidily be kta by alluho hairecuriofity«Rd impartiality enough to 
lead both fidct of ihe qnclU'm: the voueheis being occaHonaKyiderred 
10 by the rerpe^iirc advoeares. 

" Pof an account of iiie/rjl Letter, Sec Reriew for November la^ 

P- 357* 

•Axh- 7, T&* 4^ far ptrmluhx thfrte Intpartatim of Cattle frem 

i iidand^ 

PoilTICAt. -il^ 

Tritand, esnfider'df with a Fttip if the Jnttreji of hith King- 
doms. 8vo. IS. Dodfley. - 

Combinations are ofually forniet}, an^clatnoar railed agaioft national 
benefits, by thofe who apprehend their particular interelt> may be prf-> 
jadiced by them ; and other men, well inientioned, too often join in 
the cty, from millaken notions *. . This obrervation having been ex- 
emplified, in numberlers inltances, in all councrtes; the public are 
greatly obliged to the difmtercHed and the intelligent, for every endea- 
vour to prevent their being mifl;:dby the felfilh or the ignorant. The. 
Author of the prefeot very judicious trad is therefore intitlcd to th^ 
candid attention of every well-wiQier to the ioterelis of this country, 
for a feries of excellent el>/,rvaiit>ni ana qntntJ, tending to iliullrate'a 
point of lb much national concern as the late a£l for the importation of 
Cattle from Ireland. His fentiments are totally in favour of the im-' 
portation, which, as far as we can pretend to judge of fuch a fubje^ 
he ihews to be for the intercft of both countries ; and, in a poflfcriptj 
he oblerves, that the bills for importing lalted providons from Ireland 
into Great Britain, fubjcfl to the BritiQi duties On Salt, and {or import- 
ing Cattle free of all duties, are founded on principles which, if laid 
wider and extended to various manufaAures and the materials which ' 
cnmpofe them, might be found beneficial to both countries, and an- 
fwer, in a great degree, the purpofes of an union, rendered hopeteb 
by fome real difficulties, and many inveterate prejudices, on each fidv 
of the water which divides them. But, for what he farther urge*, 04 
this head, we refer to the pamphlet. 

• Vide the Author's 65, 66, and 67th qaeriei* 

Art. 8. A North-Briton Exfrmrdinary. Publiflied at Edinburgh,., 
8vo. 1 s. Sold in London by NicoU. 

The icjuabblcs between John Bull and his Sifter Pew, about a favon- 
ri;e fcrvaiii, have long been the Town's tnlk, and are equally notoriout 
tbroiighouc the whole country. J >hn has, indexed, on this (Kcaiion, 
bchak-cJ fo very roughly to hi^ Silter, that the neighbours have been, 
quite z'MimcA to hear what fcandalous names he has called her: Jiink- 
'"i M' '> 2"d LiiJ^;, beggarly j a Je, and briirjione-hiieh, having been tha 
ufual ruiutations with which, morning, noon, and night, he has accott- 
«d her. 

Peg, however, who certainly is a ncttlefome lafs, let follts fay what 
they will or her, — ha<, at lafl, plucked up her fpiriis; and though Jhe 
patiently bore with her brother's crofs ^,rained humour, and out-ra- 
gcous language, much longer than any body could have cxpeCltd, flis 
has now ventured to tell him a little of her mind ; and feems refolved to 
pay him off", accottiing to the old faying, in his own coin : while i«no^ 
rant iioeby, and f^lumb-fuii^ing, hiif-hiadcd pvpty, anA /neakh^ dogtclm 
iiom room to room, and make the houlc a 1 nc again ! 

To dtop an alluficn, however, which may chance to Tcad our Rea- 
rl'-r; into a miflakcn notion of the manner in which this pamphlet is 
wriitcn, we mnft oblljrve. that the Author aiTumes foniewhai of the 
flyic in which iVL". WiJkes wrote his famous Noith-Biitoiu , -^d tliat 

^ ■ 0.3 ^ 


Monthly Catalogue, 

Edin burgh- CitizcD, for ib he Ityict himlelf. is with us t.f the bouth, it 
i* plain lie doc« nut dc'f ifc us (o mticli » be prcuitd^ to do —And the' 
concefTiom he rnaLe* io out fAtour. rcminfi u\ of the ch rzAer uhick 
a flircwd Calcdoniao, vtho had been long icuVd in Lootlon, gave of 
the Kitgiiili, to fome of hii coontrymen : " C^Jt," quo' he. ** oas na 
*' 2'<i ''fo our Buckle Sanlc* but they're bra bodiii to Iccvc anoag.'* 

Alt. 9. RtjiiSlims on ^h^ Rtptel ef iht Marrtegt A£l^ new under 
Ceiyidtramnef P'trliaHunt. Svo. 15. Fletcher. 

The very appofue motto to this rety esctllcnt irsfl, luf&ciently iq* 
dicax the p2r( okea by vA iagcaiuui Autbor, ia regard 10 tbis gmb 
national ulijcjl ; • 

Our Maker bids i»<rtafi ; — w)io hid» t'JIaim 

Btit our Dellroyer, foe 10 God and Man i MfLTOKr 

Wb cannot fLfficieoily commend ilicfc cxcellcru reflcflioai on on« of 
tht molL import^c, mii'fl unhappy tejijulatiopa tbac ever conuibutcd to 
prove the t'lllibiliiy of Senjiorid, Wifdom But tbcic are ucvcr waat> 
iDg Qate empirics — who, by i^norantly umpcirg with the ttody-Po* 
liuc, do the fame lort of mifchief which oor qjsclt doftoridn in phvlic: 
lie noftrunoi of hid ferve only to injure the ofpiiuiiM of th( ,1 atienc j 
and, fomeiinvu bcyooiull i^lTtlinitjr 01 lecotety. Jn the prcTcixt cafc^ 
boweier. it \\ h^ppy ihdi wt know the remedy ; and if u u uot ap- 
plied( we alio know where to fut the blame. 

Ait. 10. A Letter io the Hiufe ef Commcns ; in uhich hfet ftrib 

the i^aturt . if certain Abufti, relative to.Art'dtf ef Prawfiotit 
. hilh with rejfe£i to Min and Harjti ; tsgtxhiT wilb their Rant' 
diet. Svo. IS. Almon. 

A plain Writer, in plaio. hcat'll Unguaj;c. hat here bud opra tils 
Jbofcei of niiiny tnormous proceed in t'l uf engrofTen, b'dlallcTj. &c. 
rot fpiring eren ^c hououijible Gei.ilcmen to whora his do^vnrighc 
fiptdle is adu cfTcd: and Ahoin he charge* with < emg ihcmftlves high- 
ly, though alfuidly acCcflbry 10 the gnevarcn of vhtth \\c bne coin- 
plaim.^while altnofi the whole nation jon» in the cr>. * All or inoft 
of you, Uyi he, are rndovruring 10 i&ifc the teni i<i )our tVm». with* 
cut confidering that yon help to confiiBie the • oit.aioJiiirs the farm pnw* 
daceii you raife \our fiim of 100 !• to'jiol. per aimunii and <fteeai' 
yoarfclvct g^ainers by lb doing ; whji: it the cbn'e(jtjcnt:t r Wtiv. yo4i 
j>ay 3^ I. per cent, noie, for every article with which you arc furoifbod 

It is m priraiCr » in public matters, joll the Dene* yon tay an addi* 
liooi|lduty on beer, tliebrei^rr imjicv bi> piicc, ycu lay an addittonal: 
duty OR teacher, of a penny pti pcutid, auJ y>^u pay 1 ititlliti^ and up> 
Wards tlie iiv re for a pair of llioei — Thus you lee the evil is ;etorl«d-. 
U|«n you, OS {he CQnIuiitcri whilfl ihe vcndcj a ac^uiiinj; mote ikhai 



O t I T I C A L« 3tf 

The uex; cauft to be found alfe amongft yoiirftlvc* i*. thai Irftcad of 
beiinE yoQr lunds in fmalk'r pucrls as betctorare, yon hive laid ioge« 
tliflr Icvcr^ firmt into one ; thi» you coruSdcr as a maiccr of i^at occo* 
qomy, not. ooly m it better CecBiesyour rent ia a wealtliy troan% buc 
bccaule fewer buildings, and of conrle fewer repairs are wanted on the 

Bui thti, whea properly weighed, is highly ptcjodicial to the pub- 
hc and >-Omicbres ; becaalc the noTc diffiifivc pfOpcr;y is, (o mazk 
the beltef for the State, and yon do hereby pui jc in your tenant'* 
{Mwer 10 become very opulent. Hence ihefc Men are enabled to fred 
the miikets as they pleale. or withhold their comRwdiiy W a timc^ 
till you and ike public are compelled to ^ivc whatercr tbcy deaani 
ibr it. 

* But iht& are nai tke only evils conreqceDttal of laying ^crerai 
farms together, for by fo doin; tKere is not (o nuch gnln prodoced >a 
the laqd, coniBunibm zaaa, as if they were divided into a greata* 
number, becaafe (he liule farmer is obliged to work hard, and to cul- 
tivate sU his laodi to pay fail lent ; and this he can mare eafily d<L 
becaufehtt land probably la^s within a nearer diflanceofhis babiLaiiaiig 
whereas a great fameT'i lands probably extend fotnc n-iles in leiiPth. 
and lay at loo greyt a diJlance frotn his home flaU*. to be fe n-c]l iM (m 
conllintly manured. Nor is it of siuch confe<iuencc to tbe weahby 
fanner, nrbetWr his crops ate fo abuodaat or not. bccaufc the great 
quantincs of land he ocoipiesi enables him to kave hts price, or to 
Hari-e hi* neighbour.' 

* Thai mud).* add* oar Author, » his boneA blunt way, ' for yfitir 
Oiares in the evil.' He then g«» to work with the Butchen, Snlcfmen, 
Crazicn.and FiflittMrngeri ; tells at thai thcenftionsof thelanerefpe- 
cially, ate infimogi. intolnvble f nnd that ' k is a reproach to the Le- 
gid-itiire not to cniih them entirrlv, and dcvife fciae ocher inc:<ns of 
Supplying the towa* — But at this complaiot relates only to the Citvof 
London, it is an objcA of left natkmal coocerti, tban the prices • of 
other kinds of provi&on, the dearaefs of which, added to the fcarcJty 
of work, begin* to be feverHy felt, by ihc poor nmtulitiure.-s, in many 
of tie more poptilous parts of the Jcirgdom.— What he fay* on the dear- 
ncfi of hay, firaw, and oaii; and the praflices of hay- lalclinen, corn- 
Jobber*. anJ firmen, in order to enhaace and keep ho the prices c£ 
ihefc comaiodities, is of a nwre general nature ; and oefe^ves the al> 
tcniion of the public '■ more cfpertaliy as the Author appeari to be neB- 
acquatn^ with the levenl paiucttiiin on which lliis Ibrcwd and fe^ 
lS>le letter Is founded. 

* In difcuQiag the article of filh, ke does not ovettool; NO-. Blake, 

and his land-carriage fcheme He endea^-oun to ftew, and leeminjly 
with tnoch reaJbn on his fide, tliar 3 fcheme of this nature may rilily 
be lb maiugcd. at to prove much more beneficial co the public, than 
Mr. 8't hath ycc proved. 

Art* X(. ^ AMrtfs t9 the rana'tiung Memhtft tf th Cst^U, 
8vo. IS. Wilkif. 

Aiiil far the poor, 0Df«taiute remaioiof ihe Ccterie, to Bfhati* 


MoKTHLir Catalogue, 

ih'-t patriotic aflbciaticn 'cdoctd \ w morit ihtn total annihilatiOD : to 
be laii^hcil-jT by \he vcy mob of the majority ; and infulteJ by ibe 

3«iing exultation* of evfiy miniftcml pan-phletcer! ^tfjtrtt* 

far, w/ortiiiiate Cttfrrie f* 


Art. 12. Jfrad tH hahyhtt* An Oraterh. The Mufic feleAcd 
from the Works of Geo. Fi. Handd. 401, i s. Griffin. 

If few of our oiatoiios are capable of affbrding any plesfurc to tlie 
JitsJtr, their authors may comfort thcmfelvca with the foUowmg 
couplet : 

What tkough our (ong* to wit hare no prcttrKc, 

CThe fiddle ttn-k Qiail Icrape than into icafe. 
' CoHNoiiiiet. 

Art. 13. Pfefermml, a Sailrt. Bj' John Robinfon. 4to. ii* 


Poinileft retire is the tnoft iolipid fpeciet of compo&tion wiUun th« 
pjOfioec of poetry ; but, iu thii Author fsys, 

Dull poeti ei«r are 4 tt.'hy raca, 

Aercftrc. wtiic on. Sir! Write away, gentlemen! Jf phlegm 

opprrlTci you, difLhargc il in <hi» harmkli manner — enjoy theconlcious 
JatiifaAion that yuu hu:t no cieaturc liring, and that you are ufeful ac 
Icaft to fuch of bb Majefiy's poor fubicfli whofc humble employment it 
10 pick up matetuds iw the ; aper-miU. 

Art. 14. Afumh Chumbi: A Tale. Written in the ancient 
Manner. Hecomme^ided to Modern Devotees. 410. 14, 

A huroorcat fronihpiece, Id which is a diltant »icw of WhItcfieldV 
nbernxcle, plainly faintt the Author') main deftgn ; but the ptindpal 
figure is a tnonflrous idtd, to whom, in romc beatbeo country, hucran 
(jvriEcei, particularly innocent young children, areofTer'di and wboie 
horrid ritei are kept up by the juggling nicks of the prielts. Pmrn the 
ilinfh adoration paid to thi^ fuonncr, our author takes occaCon 10 ei. 
pole the eoormtties of (inatidfin, and Mumbo Chumbo preachers iq 
ouf own count;r,'^'nic friends t)f rcalon and common lenfc arc un-. 
(ioabteJ'y obli{;Ed to him for the gooiincit of hit de/tgn, whaierer toa' 
be thought of hf» nxiry — wbich wc cannot highly commcod. iiii d 
fcxiption of CrejJitj deferirci particular notice : 

Then fthen you hear a n^ify preacher bawl, 

*' Bflievel llelicvc! "J'i* liiifi your fouli RiuII fate I" 

Hit empty wocdi cvacern you not at at], 
No wftm than >f yuu heard a madman rave. 

For naked faith, all barren af good fruits. 

Or wanting rc*ion'i fiim ftaoility. 
Will qnickly perilhat iVe very root) I 
iNo iAith, indeed, but vain «edt)!ity. 

Ciedulity f 



^rfdulity 1 Great Imirce of human woe I 

Wbelticr in civil or rcUgiotis Icnic: 
How (cldom ticiccd as a d«ngfi09i foet 

How often cheiilh'd to our iitd ofTence ? 

)t ii a faii-fac'd, (bisotb, dcceiviqg fiend ; 

Cravinji admimoce in (he eafy heart. 
Under hue rolcens of a irully fnend, 

VVhich, when obtained, caa&ih cruel fiitiut. 

It may indeed b' admitted at a doubt, 

WhcihcfT thti trcicheioui Ibe-isaa hatbootlUin 

MoTC fimpie foul), in iti pemictotn rout. 
Than uabelief e'er uumber'd in iti trun t 

The Reader Jj not (o imagine, from the foregoing cXtra^, that Aa 
Writer i* an enemy to Faith, from which be has diJlinguifh'd Cre- 
BULiTT. He Akwi a becoming maI for revealed rcligkm, while he 
iaicallicalty cxpofcs thole fcnlclels dcvotccj who ue a dilgrace to Chris- 
tianity; and who, by iheii follies and crazy freaks, impede its progndi 
«DOre tioD all ibe oppofitioD of its ptofeHed encmio. 

Art. IJ. Parthenia.) or tht LeJI Shtpherdefi : An Arca£an Drama, 
8vo. IS. Newbcry. 

Bramings of genius, agreeable faHict of faoeyi and pretty 
CKpreSons are rcattercd thioagK l\n% little palloral Dr&mu, which is _ 
CiOlie imiution of Shalccfpear and Milton in the fame fpccici of focttv. 

Art. 1 6. Amana: A Dramatie Po/m. By a Lad/. 410. 2s. 6d« 


In tjtc preface to this poem we are informed that the fubjcft is takes ' 
from the Advcnmtcr, No. ~2 and 73. and Trom tlie dedication we fiod 
that it is wrincn by Mo. Gtiifith, autbnrof the Platonic Wife. It ap- 
l>eir), likcwife, that ibe originally intended it for the ftage ; but whatever 
might be the diliiualifying circDtnAance* which prevented iit reccp;io« 
thcfc, it may not be unacoepuble as a poem to thofc who love rcfiuci 
lentmienti> and good moraU. 

Art. 17. Marria^ty an Ode. Folio, is. Dodfley. 

To vindicate the liberties of human nature i» the bcH and ooblcH cm- 
ploymeiit ol the Muies. and every impanul mind niafl neceRJrilv cntt 
jjuo that jull ir.dig nation which the Author of ihi» Ode exprellcs on a 
futi)(Q^hcie thofc liberties have been cg'cgiouHy infringed. Indeed 
lh«'0ppre(nvc rcltti^liont of the late Mariiagc At\ are now difcovcred u> 
be no iefi impolitic than unnatural ; and we ate willirg to hope ihjt the 
Icgillaiuic may be induced by motives, a* well of good policy as of hu- 
nuniiy. w> repeal an Aft, which, by dcfiroyin^ thcficcdom of ihc con- 
nabial dioice, took away the natural rtgfat of ilie fubjed in tlic ciult i»- 
psrtafK'jCitcum [lance of life ; an afl, which [not to enter iuio the 
jomirei of it} iniicad of fecuitn^ and faciliuitiig cofijugal bappioct*. 
threw a rcOiaiHt on thole fympathies aod affcctiont. uhidi are the very 
mcjuii that nature ku appoioted to pn^mote ii. That wOrJt fpccies of 


au Monthly Catalogue, 

tyranny, which, bowser uDiiawral, furecu ire too often ioditwd, by 

ue bxnnoiuous. 

Art. iS. 7hr QiUie af Apoi'O : J firtnata. At performed at the 
IJttltTheatreinthHeif .Vlariet. Written by John Fo(ter. The 
MuHccotrporeJ by Mr. William Vatcs. 440, dd. HcnderfDci. 

A compliment to the Ktcg* at ao cocuBAgcr of cbe {loUtd arti ; and 
iniy rank wiili Colley Cibber'a Odn. 

Art. 19, Tht Vtluatary ExiUi w, (A* EnglijhPM's Sermm I'a 
f\-f*,ljfi. e^rtlhtFirfi, mtb yarietj 6f hl^in. 410. a$.6iU 

Aim on. 

' Our eld rrknd, and th« old friend tt his country, tbe Rev. Dr. 
Free, has here given t» a new faiire on llic timet; and (uid off botb 
chatcb and llatCi' very haadiboicly. Among other obje^ o! hu anger ', 
the Scots coane in for a hearty trimming ; and the whole Staan-race u io 

ht-ievu'Jt But, read the boob, good p«oplc! It ii a cunolily in* 

deed I 

* ft is not ill fattre, however; for the Dr. has {renetouHy made a, 
verf rmiablo sp'vlofry for the lace Mr. Churchill i particularly for fail, 
hying alide ihe fi:own, and for hti partiag from bit wife, and living' 
with mother woiuan. 

Art. 20. Bdueathnt an EJfay. By Gibbons Bagniill> M. A. 
410. IS. Baldwit]. 

The principles corttained in this EUay arc, for the mnft part, juftantt 
eommcndiMe ; but wc cannot fay much for the poetry. W"c rouft alj^i 
oh'crve, (hst (evcrsl of the fcniimenu are very iriie, and the e]cpreilio)|j 
fbmetimu borderi on puerility. Oar Readcri will form a judgment 
Mr. Bagnall't manner, from hii cacomium on fame modem EngliHi' 
turitrn. After praiiing Sherlock, Swift, and Addifoo, he thui pro* 

Srnooih ij the flow from Aiterbury'j fwV/ 1 

Oh I had his heart been fauMeft as his/i// / 

Heav'n had beheld hiai then without a fiowii. 

And rask*d him c«]uat with her Tiltotfon, 

Nor wnnt we pattern} now of true fublime, 

Spile of ihc ravage of devouring time ; 

While Newton f, aflireas in early life, 

Maio-ains for prophecy the gloriou! ftrirc [ 

Friend of mankind, refiirmi what {crm* amiO, 

And lejdii hii fleck through flowVy paths toblifi. 

]n E»i\ijh then, begeriui firll difpl^y'd. 

Be wifely here the firfl foitadatioot laid. 

•f The prcfent BiJIiop of Bciflol ; aoihor of DiffertatJooi on the Pro- 
Bhcuei, 3 vtib. iivo. See Review, YC^t. Xll. XX, 

'■ '"-- Thi» 




Tkij gcntlanao wis not, t* are afraid, born to be fortucatc in 
poetry. Some yeari *}>o. he aitrmpictl, bu: oid not coniplrat, a ncW 
' ttaDQation of Fmclon** THemachiii. in EngHlh verfe j of which hcpu^- 
-liflitd » fjjccimen. i»cc Rcmw, Vol. XV. p. 83. 

./i^li, Thi Para/tte. 2 Vols. jamo. 5!. few*<J. Bumct,,' 

Tbere ia a difs of naitn to whom tJtefc pages may be fmieria<niii|;/ 

[but, peih^ps. ibcrc trz none to wfaotn they can be ofcful. I be Au--" 

ithor fecins not to li»vr Ind toy moral vie*, or. indectl, any other, tx-" 

cept that of condoiiing a low and dcfptc»bte chsrtfler throojh (uch a"* 

variety of ridiculous Icenes and circumUjnccsj as nevcr^ ^^K'ly, way** 

^Jud any one bumao bcu^. 


Art. 22. A cPiBpUat HsJiAryefthe Li/ Jf^ar^ er tnaiaal Regifier 9/ 
its Rife^ Pf^eg^'fi-, <i«<^ tvrnts^ in Burspe, Afia^ AfrUa^ tmj[^ 
America, By J. Wj ight, Gcr.t. 8vo. 2 Vols, i©s. Stcelcv 

The fame cb.iiaficr, gi^'eu in our lift momb's C3;alo«ar, of jinoii 

* Complcai Hiilory oCihe laie War,' may l>c applied to this, with rer^' 

little vinaiiatl. The prelert cmnpilcmcni fceroi to have been ottgloallf ' 

r publidted in fotnc CDagaxne, or other periodical caDcflton : — A tonjec-"^ 

"" lore not A little counteranced by the number of curiuui piiitts whll^ 

which Mr. Wiight'i pcrforoiancew/«Jy JutrahJ. -| 

Art. 33. LvtJt in l-iisb Lift j or the Amourj cfa Ciurtl i3ino« 
2s. 6d. Knowlci. - 

The irttmduflioa 10 ihU benoaphrodite produ£lion> (half hifloty. ,^ 
half lomance] informs ut, th^t the Author became act:idcni2lly pofieHed 
of * Some Memoi.'^St ori^inall) coIU-^cd by « Pcironian gcniut, Mho 

LImcI taken ancomrbon to make hirbfelf a tfaoroueh ii>allcf of tbo 
riTe, progieft, and vtcifuiadei of jtaUmry, from the aays of AVxnidcr 
the Great, down to the prtfent times :' and ti>ffe tu h^s and •L-aluatiTc 

I'lnemoJn, we fuppofe. are to be deiaileJ out ti their hi^h'y tAiac^ 
readers, in a frries of little, dainty, pocket voluinei, lilce the piei>-nt;^ 
which comes nofiiiiherdoun ih^n the amogr.- ordcopaira, with CkCit^ 
and Antony — What a 'iicx\^ of longue. and amorous n<tnlenl'c, has ihit ' 
Fcitoniaii genius tu bufUc thro\ before he will be able to make bis way 
doM-Q 10 ihc preleat limei \ .And ivhat a fine figuie would fuch ao author ' 
have made m itie court ort.harI« the ■Tcond 1 — In that ot George ths- 
Third, wc imagine, he would be very little dillinguifb'd. 

Art, 24. _A Trtetife en Parijh Rateiy vca^ntd by ihr Dijptars that 
bait iauly arife/iy end art nnu mcrea/mgt with fi rr.ucn Htat and* 
Animtftty^ in many Pant ef tixe Ctuntrj. By an ImpariJal' 
Hand. 4to. IS. Lynn, piintcJ^ and fold in Loudon hf\ 
K. BaMwin. 
This piece » addrc/Ted to the g^eotlemen aAing io the coraaiillton of the 

peace for ibc Ccuory of Noifulk, aad cKewhcte : a circumllance wbict 



Monthly CATAtoc^Ey 

ftfvvt to point oat io ui, in whst ran of ifie kingdom it Is wKercin ihe 

AUifuitck about Puilh-ratci have of Ute bioLcoiu wiib licit and «nin)»-. 

Ifiy. Tbc Author, wtio appears lo be a Icniiblc wtiicr, and well ac*] 

I'^oaifltcd wiifa the latvi and cuftomi leJjiing [o b'n (ubjcd, Bttt en^mrei 

IMW (he law in regard to panfli>[a:u haa Aaods ; Secondly, .whrcber 

tficre be any defeAs therrin, and Uttly, whet-ier any ihiug may be pro* 

ftffed b)r way of remedy r The rhitrci-rau, we learn, fi ift be made hfi 

ihc cburcli'Wardem, and the 03ajar part of tlic pariQiioDcii aflbnbted iii 

Tclby : bill the poor-rate is lo be nude b>- ihc Lburcli-wardcai andj 

,«vetwers, wubout calling in ibe aJSlisnte of any other of the pariDiionerj^ 

iKeace gricTanccihavcarircn', and gfC.ccooipJainif of iwfair. udci^uzI 

.aOcfljnriii!. To icmcdy uhi<h. the Author, rcalbpably ukiag it for 

Lgrantcd, th*t it would be much oetter to have o»c UKt/sra method (mu.- 

ttfii maloM^ii) than two, (a di^mclricilly oppofite, — piopafcs, that tho 

^oor>ratc be tnadebythc pariih-officcrs, and the mijof part oFthepn- 

'nfhiORcn; as the church-riie ii. He ftatci the good enciU that mutt 

[atifc fit>[n thii rrgulaironi and tlien nu]a>ret who are the peKoni (har 

[are to be taxed, and for what ? After which he proceeds to enquire into 

[ibe m^Mter and the nuCr of toaatton ; this being a point on Mhuh grot 

'dilpuies have aiifirn. Ob all thefe, and fiune other paniciilan which wc 

tltave not room to enuinente. the Author makei fcveral judicious obfen'a- 

Fliooi ; and cxprciiei hiaifelf in fuch a maoncr as fhewa his cainefi deflre 

fo cxtin^uifh ihc iLtmcs whtcli have been kindled id manjr pan'fbes ; 

sod which, if a (lop cannot be put co them, will, he appicbeuds. In 

all piubability, fpicad ovu jbe whole country. 

. * Particolaily fmm attempts to throw the wMt power in isakiog the 
poor-rate into the hands of ^u« ot iifru pcrfbns in a pvilh. 

Aft. 35. Gtnttrm Mansirt ^ Mr, Chorlti OtvrtJHlL 9Pifh «tr 
^ettuM sfy and Obffn/atisns ff/i, hss IP'rititt^t : T^tthtr with 
fimt original LetUrs timl fajffd hduaen htm andthi jtulbor, livc^ 
3 s. 6d. Priddcn. 

The difjppoiotincot and the indignation we ^cI^ on the pcrufal of 

efc graantr Mtmoirs. is not to be cxprcili'd ( for there never was a 

rfler impofiiton on the Public — t'li.-it the Author (hctuld chiue to can* 

ral kt% naincr had< indeed, a tcty fufpiciQUs appcaranre t ai frum that 

brcumll^ncc alone, a Jul) tonclufton might be lormcd by every reader 

~ the ;i'^vrrtife:neiit whkh annouuced the appearaace oFtbia publicaiion, ' 

with rcyr^il to the avthenticiiy of the ec{M«///ri/n, laid to have paiTcj 

between ihfi Author and Mr. CttuiclV't. If the meaioin arc Uue, and 

the icttcfi real,, wbcreforc (bould the Autiiof fear to be known ?— We 

cannot, indeed, ruke u)>fin m tr> aic% that the three letters, heie 

•icribed to htm, are not genuine -, hat we vcriiy b<lieve thcni to be s 

neie for^tv. Citutthill cauld aol have been the writer of luch poor, 

cotftnon^pUce. r4n!h<^ Huff, fit biief, the awmevn^nd the /et/tn ate 

,«v!>- the pr&^uii nf the fame mifeV^bfe pen. At 10 the few ancc- 

ts ofwhich the hiojjraphicat fart Hoompofcd. ihey ire Tcjy tiJvia! j 

)'Ar ni thciTi falici — ar.d one maleiial «ji>^a« may ff ire to prove ftie 

•noiivintiB* Asihor a /ntrngrr l4 Mr. C.'i perfonal ItifiafyL Had lis 

really been theiDiunuLo inaai uf'ilua fdvbmoi Qud, as be prcteadtto 


love bMV, li€ coald not bat have known fo rctnarlcable a fisotm&aacc 
'Ha Mr. C.'» baring had 4 curj(;y in F.JTtx, which he held about two yctn. 
ki the iatCTioI bct^^eca hi» quiltiog Wale* (where he had hia fiill curacy) 

and hii rcturti lo Wcftminllef. But according to the Autho*'* aC- 

'eount he cime dlre^ly op to t->wn from Wal« ; io • ijitri liuu' «tiec 
whktt, hii father dying, he fuccecdcd him as leilurer and curate of Sc. 
JohiV — The etrati ci Mr CWtchiU's^att life, were hut fir* ; yet 
erea of thci'e few, wc fee how ignorant wu utir Author * ! But, nnc to 
expatiate on fe contemptible a fubje^, — how wuuld the eencroitf Ibtil of 
thii Umcutcd Bard hate glcwci with indignaiion, could he htve fore- 
feet! in whii manner hii laeaiory would hare been difgraced ! And hoir 
^-ould he have bluib'd to tfatok cf (b grofi an impolition on the public, 
by oac who, ttilhout daring to (hew hi» fsee, fhould yet prefume la 
talk of hinklcif »>tbe xealoui advocate of national liberty, ihedifinte- 
rcQed lover of hii oountryr and tbe ia/imxtt FkiCMD of CHAALCt 

CHUKCtittl. t 

• He does not fo much ai tell ui the y«r, nor even ibe ccnlBfj-. Is 
which Mr. C. was born ; io that the rcidcr of this ftrange (ale, will be 
at a b>r* to collcfl. whether the hero of it wat a youoji:. s middle-aged. 
or an o!d man at the time of hi» death. The Gikiuiu Leucrs, too, aie 
ifcithout daiei, either of time or place. 

. 26. jf Ch-tumjiential and jfulhailk Mauitt af a ktt wAapfy 
Affair, By a Pcrfon prcfcnt. 410. is, Burd. 

"^ ByaPeifr-n ^'rfimt! rrefcnt at what f not ai the duel; fot nw tie 
-wat M-itorft to l( Bii*. thii gentleman, no doubt, is aluAyi prcfent 

and read), whe*c*er an npportonity happens for Icvchxg tf>, it 
'they call it, airt.-thtfmftWih. He haf, however; taken the leail ob- 
Muious part in this iffaii, by irpre4entiti| the circtim (lance i all in fa- 
vour of Lord Bj'/aa. Ncvcnhelcfi it is ceruinly impcopcr aad highly 
tinwatn^ tabic, to interfere befJaichaiKl, in mailers liiat are to come be- 
fore a ccar: rf J jikci whether the view be to rule picjudicn againft 
the inuD w,',u b^ uul^appily violated tjie Imvi ol' his cuunuy, or whether 
be done in order 10 pave the wiy foe fcieeiiin^ an offander liom pub- 
:ju(Uce. Jf it be urged thai neither of (hcTc mouvcs aduaicd the 
r'riter, be , is (till c^uii^y of an high miliJenicanour, and liir ivhich he 
only make the highwayman'} iipulogy : an apology that will nct- 
Er be xdmiited in a court of judicUurc, nor m the court of co&fciencc, 

rt. 27. JVrtu /fmwf-mtitf vf thr Gtrman Spa. Written m 
French, in 17^3- By J- P* tic Limburg, M. D. Senior 
Fellow of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Montpclicr. 
Dccontteil u-iih Views of Spa ind it> Kpviroiu. iimo. 
aVob. £b. L.Davis, &c. 

Dufir-g rhe late nuir, we rometimc, were obliged to have recourse ta 
Itc foreign joumali, fat early account* of many books puba{hcd alitoail, 
>t having then the opportunity alI»)rdcJ In peaceable limes, of atwaya 
aCng ^ bookl themfclvei. In tbefe circun^Hances we wore imposed 
on by a 100 CavouiAbLe chara^ler of the wurk entitled Jituevtanx Aimjf/e- 
mt*i Ja laujt it Sfa * ; but were louir undeceived, by a mote juA ac* 

; iterifw« I'cLXXVUI. p. 571, 




tOBnt from an ingeninujcorrerpoodcflt: of whofe tetter we inlerted 'ajl] 
■■bArsa, in the I&«icw for Match Uti. p *;■?, Toibai letter me nrtwj 
refer fo' i)ie nul character of Dr. Limbore'i petrormance ; the pnknv 
tnnOiuan of whictt we have peroie<j, wiu much mote patience ihaii 

Arc. 28. A R/latitnofthe ImprifimHinitf Mr. fohn Btmyan^ Aft- 
/ nijifr ef iht Gsfptl m Btdfirk, in ifrSo, liit Examina:isn h*»i 
ftrt iht Julhcn \ hit Csnftrenet XLith the Chrk of tbt Ptact ; whaii 
f<i£fd i'ttwern the yudgn and kit fyiftf when Jht prtfcnttd a /**• j 
tition fir hit DtUveranct^ We. Wiittcn bjr himfeU, and nevtf^ 
before publifhed. i2nio. i«. fiudcUnd, 
Burty»n*i impriiltnment, For holding coaventicl*!, &c. tailed twtIv<B 
j/e^TS ; bui ihit narativc only mentioni what happened to him, durine 
■bout two vears of that lime. The Editor hath adJed (bmc e\tjp£ 
vertci to the tneioory of that famou) Enihuriaft 1 together with a poem 
'wtlten hy tlic hooeS tinker himfi:lf, while in coiifincmrnt. entitled 
Pfi/an Mtnitatiffni. — What a iiiumph muA it afford to papillry, to be- 
liftld pioieflatils {irifccuting each other, on « religious aci:ount. ai the/ 
lati 100 t}f:e[i done, wiiii a degree of zeal and ranconi alnott equal 10 
lh« or the Gardlaers and Bonncra of Qjieeo Mary't cirae f 

Art. 29. Thf Trial »/y«hn PeifT Zengrr, ef Nnv-Tiri, Printer] 
tL'hi Wfii charged u-iih bavhij; printed aKd pubujhtd a Lihtl agaiitfi 
the G'Anrnmr/tt ; and acquitied. f^ltb a Narrathie ef bis Cafit^ 
To which is added, ntvtr hi fire prmud^ tht Trial of Mr. Wit^ 
ItiTm Otwt, Beei/iller war TtffipU-Bar. IVho wat al/e char^al 
tuilb tht PuMianian af a Llhil a^ain/i tbt Gsvernmint ; oftubitb 
be was bonovratfy aequitttdt by a Jury tf frit-horn Engfijhmtn^ 
Citizens •if London* 8vo. I * Almon. 
y-cni;ct'5 famoui trial has been often re-publifh'd ; iind is toO weQl 
Itnown'io rCQohe any thing particular to be laid of it here : but thai 
pa'ticolar? oiMr. Oiven'i iri.-i1 were never, that we know of. ifl priofej 
rrroirt ahhnugh it happened fo long wo as theyeart;;i. It was i] 
>H)rablc tri.t, by Inffmaiitn ; and ihlt Ketch of it ought to be rejd bfl 
eviTy EntjUfliraan who ii liable to fer? e on jorin : but we ate forry tb«i 
^Me trial, ttmfteat, was not accurately and properly cooainitied to tbe^ 
prcfs. We have here, howev-er, Mr, Ford'* fpeech, for the defendant, 
prctiy entire; and fomc paru of what Mr, Pratt (now Lord Chief 
JuQke) urged OTi t(l7 r^imc behalf. But the noble eitaniple of the Juar 
oaght to Ec had In cvcilslltng remembrflnce : * fiu- ihctf found 0»en 
mil gi'i.'fy ort the lU'/oV o!" the tafc — and judged (which it was their 
GREAT DUTY to do) utofdd, Uvi/, tTti Jt^jUtt oi ioc n*)btU, &C*'' Vid. 
the end of the pamphlet. 

Art. 30. JBoii of Profrjfed Caoirry ; eontaining TJoufe-OEtsnmj* 
, , jIh^ an EJfjy o« tht Lady Author * ttnd Ttather of Servtmti ; in 

■ • Mm Gl^ft. whofc Cookery book hjth undergone even mote editioni 
thin Moyle** works t notwitbltaAding this leaned lacfy front' Nc^'n^fft 
airitCE us, that it is good fj; ticthiag, .Mis. CIj^i no doubt v.i',1 return 
^tr the compUmtaC 






mayy hj eim/niii»g the ParatUt tfrawit^ moie^ of •ofhat flit bin 
' freJmbeJ fit Onf Handrtd Difltn^ ^'g^t Hundnd Difl>is iki 

fTiftjjtd Cwirry.—Tbf jiuihor ef thh Bcik cf pnfJiJCseierjL 
.J/?U£>/t Cttikiryy Csttfeii'mnary, PUilingy and Pa/lryt thiriteti\ 

Tiart In NtwteftUt after ktiag Mijire/t of an Inn tighttm Yeers^ 

made maij'mng Ladutgnd HeufrwivtSyandTrodtfrne/ts Dough 
, itn gotd litvjtkttptrt : and bai bttn fartuulirfy ioM/ im mtft^ 

ing tht Jpplauft and Thanh of n-.any af the f.rjl Ro^i, at h^^ 

public Enuriaimiunii, Tht Juthn wiv offirt htr Botk it tht 

Publlct for thtir Ditermnatian^ btlieving it ta bt tht nvij rali^ 
\ tnai end (Iter Biok tf the Kind r-jtr pnHifiitd, and wipHs it 

m/tt iw oit/r Fati than it dffer^tt Hvo. 6 a, bound. 

by the Author^ at her Lodgings at Mr. Salmon's, in ChiuJ 

chrilci-Rcms, Chancery -Lane. 

The absvT wis innlcribnl (torn the advtrt'/tmtAt of a honk vthk 
,We Tent for, to the Advcittter's lodgings : bui iho votooic brnughc . 
/rom Mr. Salmoo'iio CbichciTer-Rei>ts,RMh a very di^rrnt iit'c-pnjiaBJ 
It i* enlillcd Pnfrjfci Catktty, Uz. E)f Aniic Cook, Tii« fcconJ Kdiy 
•linn. N'cwcalllc printed, in 17;;- lu what year the firU edition aj 
peaicd. ivc knaw ikk : but (hji Mri. Ann (.oolt was. according to Ik 
own accsuni, very Lmout for bcr CooJctjy. I-'rom her uianncrof wijtincj 
we doubt not but fbe may have been c({ualty famous for praiin? Snd g:" 
£ping. Alto her &iil ia tbcart culin.»ry, theputilic W'JlexCulc ut if w 
pMume not to gi" ew opinion. Alas ! what Author, what miitm Ai 
thor, X. ieart, M fufficietJtly acqiiainted with \\\tJ'i,tjrB, (o jud^c of ift'c 
intn^iiiof « book of CooKEir ? The late Dr. William King, indeed, 
wa* k gttat man — a very peat man !— but what was even I]r. King, 
campaicd with the firtt, Tecfmd, or third Afitim. of indent timrr? 
Thoi« illullrious olcl Romanj, indeed undwHood ihc art of eating, fn 
Iti fulleft extent : crpcdally the IbH of thr thiee, who wrai? the rele- 
hraied irestife dt n CoUfaria. But if a tniic of thef- days i> able 
invcHigmic a chop al BeK>'*, or a .leak at Dolly's, hi* fcknce frWof 
'reacbcf farther ; nor doe* a Revirwcr lim the lead h:7ard cl being 
Mtolwed among thofe fenfjalitli mcoiJoncd by Juvenal- 
InftU fivindi tan/o^faiM* ijK ' 

-^rt. 31 . The 'lltflary ef tht Lift axd Stt^tnngt ^ Henry Grcrr^ 
•f BaftHgJhtt in thr rv'Ty 'f S&sithantptayt. 8to. i j. : SoW 
by the Author iu II- n) ^' vte, and by VVilfon and Fell in 

.Henry Grace lelb tii, that he w« a foldier in LAtcctU't rcgiuKnt, 
which wag fcnt to Ncva-Scoliaia the year 17 jO. There potr Giace 
-hid ihem^fortone tolall tato tbe haod* of ai« Mutnack Indians, a. 
Inbe in the Tiench intcrcfl ; who held him in captivity sbone thr*e 
years ; during ivhich time they irestcd him with irrtwe Usiin brjralctu- 
«!ty, afuilly pra;lired by the Atncrkan favages, to oil ptiliiiics of 
War. /ITie Ain1wu'« recital of the variciiis hardfliips he unjefwent, »C- 
iofds thai painful entertainmem we olualW 6pA, tei\v.^w.ti\*wr>4'.*S. , 




diftrcfj ; efpcciaJIy when allendcd oiih drcamrtances iHat finre inf 
ihing cT •i^i>f n/urr in ih^in 1 m is the cafe of tbe prerrnt artlefsbui 
afli-itinj; raira;ivc— (he Wriiec of wliich fcems to be rrally the olqctt 
of ihac compaition end bcncvolracs which be (ijllidu atiiie cldb of bis 



tiled ID the thnnki 


.'J liTOur II enttiled id the tfinnks of the Reviewers, brcaulc l( 
*^*' teems well intended ; but iliey beg leave Rill lo abi^'e by their 
ftpinion of the work in queliicn, ai freely and catK^idly exiirrfei. in 
fiMuiy paiti of tie artiile to wbicb he objcAs,— — uiiJiout h>ivir a ^it is 
apprebemicd) attentively read, or ligbily undcrflowi it :— ah xrtida 
whicb, th«y have the plcxfucc to find, h» been geneniily and higbljr 
mpiovcd, by Keadcn of the bell uftc ami judgment, r'cchapt, on 
Biatuieicfieition. this correfpondcm may allow, liut i |>ood humhurcd 
toanoer of reprehcntling the levliici of a man of GcrJiis, miiy ptose 
more clTefluai than all the grave or angry rebukei which hare been (b 
ofieii nied in vain. — But, if M. A's turn of mind be fuch, thai he can 
'neither difcern, nor lalle, nor feci, the wit, the humoor, the bciun'O* 

lenccthnijuflly tliilingutlh man^- p-irti of Mr. St '« Writinji;s fmn 

othets of confcJTL'-.lIy inferior nieric ;— if ihu be the cifr, ihe H liitr ef 
the frijcnt atin^txfff^mfr can only fay. that he Is lorry to ihiBk ti-har « 
sreai deal of pirafure fuch a pcrlbn is deprived of,— and thankful to hii' 
Oeator for giving ^'n a le& Saitimine dtrpoftiion. 

".• WeacknowIc^eihereceipLof Mr. De Voltairj's leiier, bear. 
ing'datc the 14th o! 0£toUr UH. — We paid him no rtmfimunt in the 
antclc he bintt at ; and, indeed, are fomewhat dirappointcd to find he 
WBtnoli at this time of life, a^ptv one. Mr. De, VoLTAtRE's merit. 
lu it rxcitci ih,c aJmiraneM, fo it mi^hi eommand the ffittm, of all man- 
kind ; ftpcc no oitc can depicciacc that merit but hiinfetf. But the 
itUKih!y Rrvif.urn, being bold enough lo tkikC for iKCMtEUVkt. 
arc lU'lcpendenl enough, when llicir inclination prooipU. ortlEity re- 
fli)ire» it. ix/t Jptak }>*tlj yhat they think of oTHtas. Mr. De Vol- 
TAiK R. tltcietbre, it by n^ nieani ^liied to gs, for any thio|; we have 
faHl in hii coiniitcndation ; at he may timi wc hare been equally in)pu« 
liaU when we conciaved biui ddciviog of ceiuure. 

f^ Mr. Co6fer*s Lfttci, concerning Dr. Kiio'i EHftiry, ii befojc 
•■» ; and lha.ll be duly aiiendcd to. 

ERRORS of the Prcfe, in the Review for laft Month. 

r. 95. pv. ]. I. t. in the account of Oriental Apologuct, for £.</• 
im, t. Talei. 

lb. 1. .f. for, tnd odien* r. autafni] tlhtrt. 

P. i^n, t. nit. of the ChuafLcr of Bo^auky't iopottant qudtioBj 
^ Owen* tUit tiic Corama. 



For APRIL, 1765, 

iUii^s af AmiiKt Engf'Jh Ptrtrj : aitji/iing »f »ld Herm Boliadtf 

CStH£tt and tthtr Pitcet of our larVur Ports., (chitfiy if the LyrU 
Kind) tO£tib(r with fvau ffW ej' lattf DaU. \3.a:9, 3 Vois. 
10 s. 6 J. Dodfley. 
^KT EXT to the plealing profpc^ of living in the minds 
jL\ and incmoric» of po^ka\tyt~~^ profped in which only 
R few privileged names an Liidulgc cbctnrdvc*, — is the more ccr- 
Uin gratification of uking a retrufpct^ of pad ages, and crating 
back our diftant clainw to the honours, or virtues, of our pro* 
gcnitori. Such a Review is attended, indeed, with uncommon 
Utisfa^ion 10 people of a polifhcd and enlightened agej who» 
feeing themfclves elevated fo much above the rude fimpliciiy of 
their anccftors, are proud to think the heroes and bnrds of 
former ages as much honoured by their dcfccndants, as the 
latter by any hereditary title to the dillinf^bns of the former. 
Niy, we much qucftion whether the mvdcin Author of aUiub- 
ilreet ode, would not put on the frown- indignant, on beins fup- 
pofed the lineal defccDdaiit of an ancient SeaU. Be all this, 
however, as it may, we conceive the public to be highly in- 
debted, t>n mote accounts than one, to the ingenious lulitor of 
ihefe curious and valuable rcJiquck. They arc prcfcnicd us, afe 
felc^ remains of oujt incient KiigliQi batds and n^iuUreU \ an 
urdcr of men, who were once greatly refpciSed, and who coatri- 
butcd, by tbcif fooga and mufic, to Ibften the roughncfi of a mar- 
tial and unlettered people. The greater part ot ihefe rcliqucs, 
it is faid, have been extracted from a lolio ms. written Abnut 
the middle of the laft century ; which bcipg (hcwji ra the t^i- 
tor'i friejids, panJcuUrly to the Author of (he KariiUt:r, aud to 
the late Mr. Shenftonc, the contents of it were judged too cti- 
rious to be coniigncd to oblivion. Accordingly luch /f)cctmeo.>i 
of ancient poetry have been fclcfled» ai m\\<:i ft\'i'« \\«.i^*i*- 
VoL. XX:CU. R v«t^ 

I4> R/ii^uet e/Amitnl En^IiJh Pturj. 

tiorw of oui language, exhibit ihc progref* of populir opiiuocw, 
(JtfpUy the peculiar manncn and coftcms of lomicr ages, or 
throw light on our earlier ctilHcal poets. Were this» and this 
only^ the meiit of ihc prefetic cotopilition, it would Uy ajufl 
claim to the atjrjition of every ]ov(?r of polite literiiurc. W< 
are far front thrnking however, with certain taltclefi Readers^j 
that there is itd merit in the coinporiiian^- ihcmfetves ; oit ttic ' 
CoDfr^ry^ WB find in many of th*miKtt pleating fimplicity, and 
Ihofe arilcfs graces, which, in the opinion of Dryden, Addilbn, 
and other judicious critics, weie thought to compcnfatc for the 
want of fuperior bcautiesj But, before we girc any fpecimcns 
to fupport this opinion, «'c Ibal) beg U-avc to expatiate a liirle 
on the labours of the Editor, as by iiu means the leaft valuable 
pajtof this publication. 

After a fliorr, but pertinent preface, pointing out the feveral 
;, repofitories wliich afiordtd mntcriuls for the work, »» alfo the 
many ingenious and rcrpcclablc aflidxnts in the execution of it, 
the Kditor prefctHs us with sn hiffnrical account, or, as he 
calls it, an tflay on the ancient EngKfh minftrels. ■ The gene- 
ral character of thefc miiillrels, bcin^ known to moft of our 
Keaders, we fliall mntent ourfelvts with quoting a defcription< 
,nf their drefs and manner, as it is tskcn from Lait^ham, a* 
Writer in the timoof Queen KliKabeth. 

* When Qiiccn EJir-abcth was entertained at Killingwortli ' 
Cadlc by the Eail of l^ciccftei In 1575, among the many Jc-.! 
vices and pageants which were exhibited for her cntenainmcnr,, | 
or)C of the petibnages iuttodutei! \va:> th.-it of an ancient Min- 
llrel, wbofe appearance and dicf:* arc lo minutely defcribcd by 
writer thL-tc ptejcnt, and ^ivc uk fo diHinfl an idea of the CAa- 
ra^cr, that I fliall ijuutc tLc pulUj^c at large. 

* *• A pcrfon very meet feemcd he for the purpofe, of a xIv^ 
vcari ohl, aparcHed partly aa he would himfclf. Hi* cap oft*:- 
hiir head feenilv rounded lonlKr-w ifi- : fjir kcmbed, that with «l' 
I'ponee dsinttfy dipt in a little capon's grcacd, was flneljr 
fmootbe;!, to make it fliiiic lilec a mallanJ's wing. His beard 
I'mu^ly ihsvcn l and yci his (hirt after the new tnnk, with ruffs 

Vfvt (Jarchcd, fleekeJ and eliJUrinj; like a p.iir of new fhocs, 
'ifiarftialltfd in c?*od order with a fcnin^ ftick, and ftrut, ' that' 
tvcry tiiti" fJood up like a wafer. A fide [i. c. long] gown of- 
Ki-nJale i-rcert, ahcr the frefhncfa of the year now, gathered at* 
the ncik With a narrow gorgii, fjibencd aiore with a white clafp 

[<«tnl a keeper clofc up to the chin i but eafily, for heat, to undo 
when hciiA. .Seemly begirt in u red caddis girdle : from that a 

, pair of cappc^l ShefTjcUi knives hanging a' two fides. Out of his 
bofom ilr^un forth a lappet of bii napkin cdipd with abtuclace, 


Riliques tfjH(imt En^lijb Paeiry. a+J 

and marked w!ih a D for Damun, for he was but a baichclor 

•* His gown baH fide [i. e. long"] flccves down to mul-lcg, flit 

from the Ihoulder to the bsnd, and lined with white cottan. 

HU doublet ficcvcs of black worllcd : upon them a pair of points 
[«f tawncy chamlct ).iccd along the wrift with blue tlucadcn 
[■liointts, a wealt towards the hands of fuftian-a-napes. A pair 
t<rf red nether flocks. A pair of pttmpn on his feet, wiih a croffl 

cut at bis toes far corns : not new indeed, jct c!caiily bUckc 

with foot, and fliining as. a (hoing horn. 

" About his neck a red clbVamJ futul)!e to his girdle. His 
\iarp'm good grace ,de;)endcnt bet'ure hiin. His ur^ji lycd to a 
recti lare :ind hanging by ; under the gorget of bis gown a fair 
^jggon chain, (pewter forjyF.Vrr, as tj^uir/ Mi»ftrti af AlidAli- 
j|(jr, (hat travelled llie country this Uiiinier iedlbn, unco fair, 
►and wof fliipful mens huiilVs. From hii chain hung a Iciitcheon, 
^wilb metal and coluuc, rcfplcndant upon his brcuH, oE the a«- 
Lcient arms of Jilington." 

• ' — Tht»MinllTrl is defiTtbed as belon^iniX to That village. I 

^luppufe luch a« were retainetl by ii<;ble fjiiiili:«, wofe their arma 

hanging down by a hirer chain as a kind of bad^e. From ihe 

«xprcfli<in of Sifurti- iMirjlrr! above, we may roncltidc ihcrt wtrc 

[other inferior orders, a» Tnmtn Afinfluh, or the like. 

' This Mioi^rcl, tlie author tells us a litiie Wluw, " aficr 
[fierce lowly couricfiL-s, cleared hii voice with a hem, . . . and 
l^pcd hiv ftpt with the hollow of hi» hand lor 'lilin^ hi^ lupkin* 
Itompercd a firing or cwn with hit wr^, and after a litdc warb- on his han for a prelude, cjme forth with a Ibk-mn fong, 
Vlivarnintctj for rtoiy out of King Arthur's ii-fis, Sc.."— This fong 
^the reader will tii;d prixiied in this woik, volume llj. pag. 25. 

* Towards tlie end uf tbc fixcecnth ccnturv this clafs of men 
lud 1o(l alt credit, and were fimk fo low in the public opinion, 
jtbat in the 39th ycAr of Kliz.tbeth a fiatutc was palled by which 
I** MinOrcIs, wandering abroad" were included among "■ rocue?, 
fVagabonds, and flurdy beggarj," and were adjudged to be pu- 
tiiifhcd as fuch. This ad fccms to have put an end to the pro- 
l^ffionj for after this time they are nu lunger mentioned.' 

In the dirpQfition of the pieces here coMcflcd, the Editor hath 
fconfiftently arranged them under three diitindt and independent 
ificrie*, adapted to the order of time, nnd tending to (hew the 

gradual improvements of the Kngliih language and poeirv from 
[thecarlicft aj^es down to rhe pcefent. tach of ihefe leriw is 
lagam divided into three books 1 by way of d'ftinoullliing the 

irodu£lions of eke earlier, the middle md \W \^\^a\ \\\\v<e^. 

R 2 '^;« 


Relicts of jftuient Eng/ijb P«ttrj, 

To each piece is prefixed an hlftorical introduft'on rW^ie^'ng 
the occaficin and time of its being written, to which arc fon»e- 
|jine& added critical rcmaiki, on the merits or alterations of tbe 
cumpofition. Before fomc of the books, are placed alfo fome, 
curious critical Eflays by tlic Editor i purticularly an EflJy on- 
flie Origin of the tnglifh ftagc, before book the (etond of the 
firftfcxicsi the ballads ir\ thai book tending to illuftratcThc plays 
of Shakefpeare. Having tracid the rife of the EiigliQ) Qage,, 
from its carlicA foundation in the exhibition of myfteiJes, mo- 
ratiries and other ancient mummeries, our Author proceeds 

' In the time of Henry VIU. one or two dramaT'ic pteres had. 
t>een publifhcd under the ctaflical names of Comedy and ^IVa-' 
gedy, but ihcy appear nor to have been intended for popular 
ofc : it wa» not till the icligioui ferments bad fubBded that the 
public had leifure to atteinl to dramatic poetry. In the reign' 
af t'lizabrth, Tragedies and Comedies began to appear irr , 
form, and could the poets have perfevered, thefirft models were 
good. GoRBODuc, a rcjzular crjgedy, was aftcd in 1561.' 
[See Ames p. 316.] and Galcoignr, in 1566, cxhibtlcd Jo- 
CASTA, a Iranflation from Euripides, as aifo Thi Supposes, 
a regular Comedy^ from ArioAo: near thirty ynrs^ before khj t^ ■ 
Sbakcfpeare's were printed. 

' The people howevei fiill retained a rclifh for their old myf^ 
teries and moratiiies, and the popular diamaiic poets fecm to have 
made them (heir models. The graver fort of morittiiies appear 
to have given birth to our modern Tru^rify ; as our Cemetfy cri- ' 
dently took it^ rrfc from the lighter interludes of that kind.^ 
And as mod of thefc pieces contain an abfurd mixture of reli'^ 
gion and buBboneTy* an cminmi critic has welt deduced from 
thence the origin of our unnatural Tr^peome/Hei. Even after 
the people had been accuflomcd 10 Tragedies and Comedies*, 
moralities Hill kept their ground : unc of them intituled ThsJ 
Kew Custom was printed ib late as 1573: « length they af-^ 
fumed the name of Maffitty and with l«mc rlafical improve^' 
mrnts, became in the two following reigns the Bivouritc cnter- 
lainments of the court. 

' As for the old mylWricj, which ceafid lo be a£tcd after rlii 
icformaiion, ihcy fetm to hare given rife to a tbiid fpccicc of 
ftjge exhibition, which, though now confounded with Tragedy 
or Comedy, were by our (irft dramatic Writurs coo&lertal aa 
quite dillin^ from them both : thefe were hifloitcal plays, o(, 
Jiijhr'tn, 3 fpecies of dramatic writing, which rclVmbled \\vr 
old mvO-c^ries in repittrnting a fertes oi hitlorical events fimply 
in the (wdcr of lime in which they happcncdj without any re- 

Rtii^Kts sf A/tcitnt Engiijh Ptttrj, 

«fd to the three great unities. Tbefe pieces fccm to differ 
ttom Tragedy, jufl as much aa hlflorital poeitii do from epic ; 
as the Fbarfalia iJoes from the i^Dncid. Whst inighc contribute 
to otake dMmatic poetry take ihis turn was, that Toon after the 
myftcricf ccar^d to be exhibited, ibctc was publiflicd a larg^ 
ctuJedlion of puetical narratives, caJled The Mirkour fur. 
Magistrates, wherein a great number of the moft eminent 
cbaia;Acni in EiiglJfli biftory are drawn relating their own mif- 
fbrtuncs. This book was popular and of a dramatic call, and 
therefore, a& ao elegant Writer has well obfervcdt might have 
\\s iriAucncc in prnducin^ hiOoric plays. Thefe nuratives 
probably furnifliej tht: CubjeiSs, and the ancient myllerics fug- 
gefted the plan. 

* TT»»t our old Writers confidered hiftorical plays 23 fame- 
i^nrhat diflinft from Tragedy and Comedy, appears from nura- 

rlefs paffages of th«ir works. " Of late days, lays Stow, 
inftcad of ihofe ftaee-pl;iys have hcea ufed Comedies, Trage- 
dies, Entcrludes, and Hffttriti both true and fained." Survey 
London.— Beaumont and Fletcher, in the prologue to Thi 
^AfTAiN, fay, 

•• This is nor Comedv, nor Tragedy, 

* Poloniustn Hamlet commends the aftors, as the beft in 
the Mforld '• either for Tragedic, Comedic, Hijhritt Paftoral!," 

f&c. And Shakcfpe^rc** friends, Hcminge and Conddl, in the 
rfiift fotiu edition of his pl^iys, in 1623, have not only intitlcd 
ttheir book *• Mr, William Shakefpeare's Comedies, Hijionts^ 
[and Tragedies ;" but in their Tiible of Contents have airangcd 
.them under ihofe three feveral heads: placing in the cUfsof 

fjii/fsrirs, «' King John, Richaid II. Henrv IV. 2 pls. HcnryV. 

[■Jjenry VI. 3 pes. Richard 111. and HcmyVUI." 

* Thb diftinflwn deftrfcs the attention of the critics: for 
if it be the firit canon of found criticifm to examine any work 
by thiifc rules the author prcfcribed for his obfcrvancc, theft 

Lve ought not to try Sbakefpeare's Hlfieritj by the general laws 
fof Tragedy or Comedy. Whether the rule tdcif he vicious or 
Lpott i& anothrr inquiry : but certainly we ought to examine a 
^wotkooly by ihofe jitinciples accoidingto which it was com- 
i pofcd. This would lave a deal of impcninrnl criticifm. 

* Wc have now brought the inquiry as low as was intended, 
but cannot quit it without remarking the great fondnefs of our 
forefathers for dramatic cntertaitunenis : nut fewertban a/nr(<rn 

^play-houfcs had been opened before the year 1633, when Pryniie . 
publiflicd bis hiftrto.iiallix. From this Writer we leaio thit 

R 1 *^ viowL^^.* 



R/Itjats ef Atttimt EngUp Pertry, 

«' toKaccp, wine, and beer" were irfihofe dafs the ufual ac- 
^ccmmodatTonsin tlic theatre, as now at Sadlcrs Wells. With 
repaid to the ancient piers of admiflion ; the pUy-houfe called 
the H^pe had five'diHcTent priced feais from fix-pence to half- 
a-crown. Some houfcs had pfnny benches. The " two-penny 
gallety" is m'-iiiioncd in the J'rcil. to Bcaum. and Fletcher's 
Woman Hater : and feats of three-pence and a groat in the 
pafBge of Prj'nnc laft referred to. But the general price of 
what is r.ow called the Pit fcems to have been a (hilling. The 
time of exhibition wis early in theafternoon, their plays being 
prnciall)* afled hy dsy-light. AH female parts were performed 
by men, lU) atlrcfs being ever feen on the public flagc before 
the civil wiirs. And as for the play-hojfe furniture and orna- 
mental " ibcy had no other fccncs nor dccorationt of the itage, 
but only old upedry. and the Hsgc (Itcv^xO with ruflies, with 
habits accordingly :" as we are alTured in A fliort Difcourfc on 
, ihc Englifh Stag-, fubjolned to FIccknoc'i Law't-Kingdtm, 
1674, i2mo,' 

The firft Unllad In this work, is the ancient fong of Chevy- 
chafe, or as it hath been called by fomc "Writers, the battle of 
Om-rbiirn. Our curinus and corrirfl F,diior, however, hatli 
annrjced another ballad of tbat battle; which he concL-ivej; ro 
have been a very dift'cicnt event, though confounded with that 
of Chcvy-chafc. Mr. Addifon, he obfcrves, has given an cx- 
cellesit critique on ihij v«ry popular ballad, but is miftakcn with 
regaid to tbe :irtiqtlity of our ptcfcni copy * ; this^ if one may 
judac by the flylc, not being older than the time of Qiiecn Eli- 
'7abVth ; though t^c tditordocs not afccrtain ilic prcilfc time. 
Novr we rcmcmher to have fccn it fomc where aflcrted thaf 
' " the Utter copy was written to be fung by a party of Eng- 
Itfti* headed by a Douglas in the year 1524 j which is the true 
rcafon why, ai the fame time, that it gives the advantage 10 the 
Englifh fvddicrf above ibc Scotch, it gives yet fo lovely, and fo 
luanifrniv fupenor a character to the Scotch commander aboT« 

In fpealcirg of the tlefefls of the later copy, and particularly 
'of the f?anz:i about Wiiheilngton. cenfurc*! by the SpCvta:or, 

the Kditr>r ohferves, it was quite diffeteni and tcfs exceptionable 
In the origins!. He is'guilty, however, of a flight inaccuracy 

in the laft line of his concision ; for, inflcid of being, 

}ie liu.'t endfui^lt upcn his kfttr, which Js incai^fiftcnt with the 

mcjlutc of itic vctfe, it (Itould be 


Ui kHftt d and f aught en bii knee. 
■ Iciferted in ihi« c<)Ile£iioa at the begianing of book die tbird. 


The number of pieces contained in the firft -vplume of this 
work amounts to rorty-eigfat ; of vbidi we fdcft'thc followiog 
for the entenainment ofxiin* Readers: ( 

Sonnet, by Thomas Caiew, E.%.«n de^u^ and almojEt* 
forgotten writer, who died in the pc'um of h^ #ge, in i63.9« 
Hee that torn a rofie cheeky ' . • 
Or a coiall lip atfamre^ : , : 
Or Aom ftar-like eyrt d(^ leeke 
Faell i»«aintmneW< ftreii • 
At dd time OH^^ dwfe dct^fj 
. .£0 hit flames nuftwafteawajr. 

But a Jiiiooth ind fied6dl niti)d» 

Gentle thoagbtit- and cahae defiie^ - 
Heara witheqiial love Gooafain'd 

Kiodle never-jljnag fires ] ' , / 

Where thefe art aotldi^I^ft , ,' 

V Lovely cbeekei, or lips, or qrc^. 

Sonnet, the Author unknowni pruited'ftott s written copy 
Scaring all the marks of gmt antiquity : . ■ 

Yoa meaner beutyes of the oight/ 

Which poordjr fttisiy osn- eyc^ 
More by yoor oomber than your ligh^ 

Likeommoa pbci|de.«ftlM&yui . 

What are yee, when the aoon.doth rift I •' 

Yee violeti, that fiWl appeare. 

By year pnfple mantles knowa^ 
XJke proud virgins of the yeare, - 

Aiif tbefpnag were^ yonrowae; 

What aie yee wl^ thp rofe is blowo ? 

Yee wandrioK chautera of tha wsod. 

That fill the ayre with natnre^s li^es, 
Thiolungyovr paffipns ooderfiood 

By weak accents : What it your praife 

When PhSomel her voice ftall raiie ? 

So when my miftieft iball be feea 
In fweetnefie of her'Iookei* and minde ; 

By vertne firfl, then choyce a qnieeQ ; 
Tell mee if Ifaee was not defignde 
The eccliple and gk»y of her kiode t 

SoKNET, the iirft ftapu ctf which is to he fount} in Shak«- 
fpeare's play of Meafure for Meafure : 

Take, dt uke thofe lips away. 

That fo fweetlye were fbrfworae ; . 
And thofe eyes, the bieake of day, 

Uehu, that do mifleadc the morne : 

R4 INc 

JUliqy<t y AHiitra Eaglijh Pottry. 

But my kiffei briog agaioc, 
Sulu of lovCr but Teal'd in viioe. 

Hide, oh hide tJiofc lull* of fnowc, 

Whkii chy f/uiten boCom bearci. 
On whole top» ihepiokti thai giowe. 

Are of ihofc (hit Aptil uears : 
Bui fi/ft fet my poor heait free, 
Bound ia iholie icy chain* by thee. 

Cupid*! Pastime, atuibuted by Mr. Drydcn, but fairdf. 
to Sidney Godolphin, Efq; being printed from an edition of 
Davifon's Poems^ dated 1621 i tbe firft edition of which was 
printed in 160S) l>cfore Godolphin was born: 

It chane'd of Utc a fhcpherd fwain. 

That went xo^kcV. hi* ftraying fheep. 
Within a thklcet on a plain 

Eliued a daioly nympb afleep. 

Her golden hair o'erfprcad her face; 

Her caiclcfs arnu abroad were caft ; 
Her quiver bad her pillow'* place j 

Her breatl lay bare to every blaJl. 

The Ihq>herd flood and gsx'd i)i» fill ; 

Nought durR he do ; ut^ughi durd he fiiy ) 
Whil& chance, or cll« pertiapi ht& wiJ). 

Did guide the god oflove ihai way. 

The crafty boy thuj fees her flfep, 

Whom if Ihe walt't be durA rot Icr ; 
Behind hci tlofcl/ inks to creep, 

Before her nap fliodd ended bee. 

There come, he fteaJi her (hafti away, 

And puts hii Own into their place ; 
Nor dorea be any longer Aay, 

But, ere &e wakes bies thence apaeo. 

Scarce wa> )ic gone, but (he awakei, 

And fpiei (he Ibepherd ftanding I^ : 
Her bended bow in haRe iTie takes. 

And at the limple (Wain led Aye 

Forth flew the (haft, and pierc'i his heart, 

Tliat to the ground he fell with pain : 
Yet up again funhwiih he flart. 

And to the nymph h< ran amain. 

Amazed (o fee fo ftianee a fight. 

She Ihot, and fhot, Wi all io rara \ 
The more his woundt. the more hii might, 

Love jriddcd ftrcpgtb aaiidA hi> pain. 


RJijMtt tf Am'uHf Englijh Pi/try, 24$ 

Her aogey cyn wcr gtcxt with ic»n, 

She Dlamci her lianS. (lie btamci ba fiull ; 

Tbr bluntncfi of Ur flufu fti« f«r». 
And try tliein on hcffelf Ihc will. 

Tal«« hted, Iwnt nympb, tr^ Mt thy (bafi, 

EacI: little toucK v.i\\ f'tettt thy h«»t ; 
AUt ! li>ou kttow'lt not Cupid'i cnft j 

Revenge i> joy j Ute end ii ftnvt. 

Yet try the will, snJ pierce rome hare 1 
Her hands vucte glov'd, but nekt to hiod 

Was thu fair bteaft, that bread (o tare, 
Thu mjide the Qie^iheril fenfelert Hand. 

Thai breaA (be pierc't i ud throi^h ihu breaft 

Love found an entfy 10 her heart ; 
At feeling of this new come gucll. 

Lurd ! how this gcaile nymph did flarti 

She rans not itow ; (he (hoots do more; 

Awav flic thtows both (btfi and bow : 
She (ecici for what flie (hun'd before, 

She ihintci the (hepbcrd's hijlc too Oow. 

Though lOOMUftin* inert not, loven may ; 

What othtr tovcn do, did they : 
The £od of love fitc od a ir«c. 

And laogfai that pteafant fight to fee. 

This wolttme affords fevfral other littlcpicccs. of equal ele- 
gance, though of a different ftamp. Thofe eiiTitlcdf The 
Chara^cr of a Happy Lifc^ My Mind to ine a Kingdom is, 
D«ath'9 Fitiat Conqueft, and fonae others, arc trulv' moral and 
philofophical, and their difiion as nervous and poetical, as any 
thing our later poets can boaft. The more modern pieces 
which doli: the volume, entitled, Winnifreda, Jemmy Daw- 
fon, The Witch of Wokey» Bryan and Percenc a Weft-India 
Sallad, with a Moorifli Talc from the Spaaiih, arc alTo re- 
laarkabty beautiful. 

Volume the fecond of this mifcellany, contains no lefs than 
fixty-fcvcn ancient rcliques, clofed with the modern ballad, 
entitled. Admiral Hofiet's GhoA* written by the author 
of Leonidas. In this volume our Editor hath given us a very 
learned and ingenious enquiry into the ancient metre of £nglim 
verfcs : buc the fubjcfl is too curious atid critical for us to give 
any fatisfadtory abfiraft of it here. We nevertheleis muft nor 
pals over a very fingular inflaace we meet with in this diiVer- 
tation, of the baibarous ilate of literature in our iiland ; at a 
time when In Italy the fine arts were trady to burft forth with 
claHica] fplendour, under Leo X. white in England the firft 
peer of the realm was pioud 10 ikrivc tui ^od^^iw (\9tn -a.\3^:>Nx- 

5 Vm.% 




RiUftui tf Amitnl Engpfi Poetrj, 

Joui K'light cf iht StvaK. In the Cotton Librarj', it fetmSf is 
the MS. of a poetical romance fo called ; and * .imong Mr. 
Garriclt's collection of old plays* h a profc narrative 
of the adventures of this fame knight of the fwan, " newly 
cranflated out of Frcnftie in to Kngl)'fhe at thinfligacion 
of tlic puyllaunt and illuftryous pryncc, lordc £4warde duke 
of Buckynghame," This lord it fccms had a peculiar in- 
icreft in the book, for in the preface the tranflator tells uj, that 
this ** highe dygne and illuftrvous pryncc my lotde Edwardc by 
the grace of god Duke of BucKyngUame,*erlc of Hereford, Staf- 
forde, and Northampton, dcfyr}*ngc cotydyally to enctcafc and 
augment the name and famt: of fuch as were rcluccnt in vertuous 
featcs and triumphaunc a&a of chyvaUy, and to encourage aud 
flyre every lufty ai»d gcntcll hertc by the exemplyficacyon of the 
fame, havyng a gpodU bookc of the highe and miraculous hiflori 
of a famous and puyfTaunt kynge, named Oryant, fomeiime 
reynyngc in the parties of beyondc the fea, havynge to his wife 
a noble lady t of whomc flic conccy vcd fiie fonncs and a dough- 
icr, and chyldcd of them at one only tymc ; at whofe byrlhc 
cclionc •f them had a chaync of fylver at their neckcs, the 
whiche were all tourncd by the provydence of god Into whytc 
fwannes (fave one) of the whiche this prcfcnt hj-ftory is con- 
pyled, named Ilclyas, the knight of the Swannc, efwhonte li~ 
KiaHy is ^yfctnddd mj j'ajiU lardf. The whiche entcntifly to have 
the faydc hyftory more amply and unyvcifally knoweii ill thys 
hp r.atif couiuiie^ at it is m other, hath of hys hie bouncie by 
lame of his f<iithfut and tiufii forvauntct cohnrtrd mi mayAer 
WynkiD de Wordc to put the faid vertuous hyftori in printe 

at whqlc infttgacion and Airing I (Robcrle Copland) 

have nic applied, moiciiing the hcipe of got!, to reduce and 
traiillatc it mio our maternal and vulgarc cnglJh tonge after the 
capacitc and rudctjdlic of my wcakc cntcndcmcnt." || 

We fliall ic\cOt but one fliott piece, from among the Rr- 

\\t\\if. contained in this volume. Thii is entitled, CoRlK'a 

Fate : 1 

Oifin. rood unhappic fo-aine. m 

U'bithcruiU thoi| dilirc tliy flockf .' 1 

Liitle foodc U on itic pW»c ; j 

Patl cf danger in the rocke i '■ 

Weliri and beatct doe kepc the woodcs ; ] 

I'oiells tangled arc witli briliet: 1 

Mr=ilnwr» futijefl -irc to f?CK'(Ics; 5 

KlAortJ arc full ofniny lakci. ■ 

Ycl to lliui) all pUtne, aqd hiTI, 1% 

I'oieO, mooie, add neadow-groundt ,] 

Huiitter wfll u) fuftlr kill. 1 
' .... Uuw may then leliefe be ftwnd ? 


RtS^tt ef Antient Englifi Paetryi 151 

Siuh it haplcfi Corii>5 f:ttc ; 

Since my wsivwinV l<*vc btgumie 
F.(jfKill doutiti begctt debate 

What to (ctkCt >nd whst to Oiuonc, 

SpJK to rp*:k<-, >rd fpire to fpc<(I ; 

Yrt 10 \pe\u will move difclarne : 
KliechcT r.oi 1 bleed. , 

Yet her light Augments my pajne. 

What ma)- then poor CoHn doe ? 

Tell mr, fhcp^erdeI, qutckfye tell ; • 
Fof to linijcr thu* in woe 

h the lovm Iharpelt hell. 

or the above fong wc arc lolil, that the three firil ftanzasoiJr 
ttre ancient i and as ihcy fecmcd to application, this 
has been attempted by a moJern hand. Whether this be ibe 
hand of our ingenious tditor or not, wc prcfumc not to en- 
quire; but we cantwt tind any thing in the three firll ft^ntas, 
tn authorize the mode of application adapted in the three laft. 
LWhy poor Corin is fuppofed to be in love, bccaufe he is at a lofs 
Fhere to f«d his ftieep» wftcannot devifc ■, nor do wc fee that 
_ \z is at all helped out of the firil difficulty, by being involved in x 
LYccnnd ? We do not mean by ihis remark, 10 ccnfurc our Editor 
>/or aliciPpting to ftippiv the defers of bis mutilated copy, but to 
''Otew how dlfRrult it 151 10 imitate ancient fimplicity with tolcr- 
»blc fucccfs. A ncmarlcahle inflancc of this, wc meet with in 
[the third and laft volume of this compilation. The Editor hath 
jihcic given a copy of the oM ballad of Fair Margaret and Sweet 
"IVilliam ; a finglc ft-mza of which h faid to have fiiggefted the 
)laii of the celebrated modern ballad of Margaret's GboJl ; one 
'of the moft beautiful ballads, fays our Editor, that is to be 
found in our own or in any language. The ftanxa here hinted 
at, is pTcfcrved in Fletcher's fCnight of the fiuining Pcflici 
and runs thui: 

When it wa? grown to dark midnight 

And all were ftft aflccp, 
111 Came Mjrgafct** griinlv ghofl. 

And flood at WJHum'a tict. 

Mr. Mallet, ntitltor of tlic modern ballad, tells us, that thcfc 
[lines, naki-d of ornament and fimple, fo ftruck his Ancy, that 
[he was induced to compnfc a tittle piece in the fame llrain. 
I'And inJced. when this famous bslind firil appeanvj, it had 
[tnueh more of the anciL'iil fimplirity, than it bears in the prc- 
j Jent cnpy. J t begun, for inftance, thus: 

Whrn all luas wnpt in dark tDidoight, 
And all wen; fdll aflccp, &c. 



R^qmt ff JfKi'tnt EngU^ Vntrj. 

Whereas in the copy inCertoi by our Editor, it feU out with the 
following quaimners, alliieration, and abrurdity : 

Twat at the filcnt folemn boor. • 
When nighi and niDniing meet ; 

In glided Mu-grct's grimlj' ghoil. Sex:. 

We make no doubt but the author thought himfelf extremely 
happy, in that beautiful conceit of the meeting of night and 
morning. But bow he tould imagine there was any finrpiicity or 
propriety, in conceiving that two things which ncceflarily proceed 
Ihe fame way fliould ever Bvrt, we cannot divine. No two ob- 
jtcls can meet unlefs they move contrary ways, and are both pre- 
sent, which is far from being the cafe with any two fiicccflivc pe- 
riods of time, however clofcly conne^cd. How very diS'eicnt 
are the expreflions of the ancient ballad, as here printed \ 

When day wat gon« and eight wu cooie, 
A»d all men fid aflnp. lix. 

It .is very clear that thi» antitjue bard had no notion that d»y 
and night could ever meet ; he expieisly tells us the d«y w» 
gone twforc the night cam**. The umc .illitcration of the 
fiUnt^ ^sUmn ifur^ a.\to gives us no idea equal to thai ot aU 
i»iag wrapt in mii^n^^ht darkniji. Before we di^mi^ this fubje^ 
wc cannot help nucicing another line, which we think dilgrzccs 
this admired piece. It is the laft of the Fourth ftanza, and is (b 
unlike ihc reft, that we are amazed to find ic m this copy : 

Her bltx>m waf ltt:r the fpringiog flower. 

Thai fip* ibc lilver dcvr ] 
The roft was buddrd in ber check, 

How greatly different from the admirable fimplicity of the tiext 


But Ion had, like ib« canker worm, 

CoafuoiM ber e^irly piiioe: 
The rofe gt^tv p^e. and left her cheek ; 

She dy'd before her time. 

We cannot refift the temptation of quoiins the fliort foiinct 
preceedicg the ancient ballad of William and Margaict. 

Tht Shepherd*! Rffthlitn. 

Shall I, wailing in difpayie, 

Hyt bccaafe a woman's fayre * 

£ball my cheeks look pale with care, 

Becaufe anothen loiye are .' 

Be fhc fsyrcr thao tnedaye. 

Or the fiowcrye meadcs in Maye, 

* Bat, perbapi OBI modern author conceited Co impalpable a being 
If a gholl mighi, with no toiproprieiy, be iuppofed w glide in juft in 
liieiuck, between night and jnoiDiDg. 


BuIKLCy'i Ounmy of the GtfptL 253 

If (he think not well of n»e, 
Whftt circ 1 howe fayre Ibe bee / 

Shall a womani goodnefle raove 
Mee to pciifli for hec love .' 
Or her worthye meiits ktiowoe 
Make mee quite foteet my owne f 
Be ibe meeker, kinder, 
The luriJe dove, « pdinin, 

lt~ Qie bee not fa to mee. 

What circ i how kind Ihee bee i 

Be (be good, or kind, or liyre, 
1 *ill never morf difpafre. 
)f (be love mee, thi^ bdieve, 
I will Aye etc She Aiall griere: 
If (he flight me, when I woe, 
I will icome and let her got : 

If Ihc be not made fur mee. 

What care 1 for whom (he bee .' 

' 'to this thinl volume our Editor bath prefixed » curious tm« 
tifc on the Ancient Metrical Romajiccs ; and hath annexed 
Ibmc additional notes and corrc^ ions on the whole; but having 
extended (his article co a confidccablr length, wc muft hcic taic 
kavc of this vcr)' clegznt, inltru^live, and entertaining com- 
[pilaiion. ' 

Th^ Oficnsmy e/tbe GtJptI, in four Both. By Charles Bulkley*. ■ 
4to. 105- 6d. Sold by C Hettderlbti. 

ry^HE Author acquaints us in the dedication of this work, 
I to his fubfcribcTs, *■ that the intention of it is to exhibic 
a di6inA rcprcfcntation of all the pcculixr ufes, principlei^ atxl 
duties of the gofpcl, in conneflion with its giand and ulitmaie. 

. dcfign as a religious difpenfation in general.' The firft book 

contains five cbaptcts, treating on the following fubic^s, viz. 
On natural religion — the religious inilituiion of Mofcs — tho. 
credibility of the gofpel liiftory — miiacles — and the imponaiic*ij 
of believing chriftiAnity. -rj 

The fccond book treats vpon the pre-otiftrnce and originul 
dignity \ the incarnation, example, fulTetings, atonement, exaU'l 
tation, and ir.terceflion of Chrift ; and on the day of judgment. 

The fubjccl* confidcred in the ihttd book are the pcrfonality, 
original, and eflentiat dignity of the h'Jy fpirit, his ofSces itmi 
relative cbarafier, and the pradUcal atKl moral li&i to which| 
the do^riiic \% to be applied. 

* Aiuluir ofavindiratioD of Lord Shafielhury. on tlic (dhjeft ofrid»-' 
culr, 9^1011 D(. Brown ; and of a volnmc of fcrtnoni ; and of fund 
othLrfcrmt/nt and u^iXi. 



Bolklby'j OecemtHf eftL Gijptf. 

Book the fourth treats of the holy angt-ls, the fallen angel^i 
tlic important ditcovcrio of the gofiwl rcUttng to a future ftuCf 
bapufni, the Lord'y fuppcfj and the mot'A Uuitcs peculiar to 
Gofpcl. ^ 

When the propofali for printing this Work were firft made 
publick^ we bijpcd to ftc fome of [he above intereOing fubjc^s, 
canvafHd in a manner becoming their importance, with th< 
true fpirit of ptillorophy and cricictfai ; uiJ wich that freedom]] 
and impartiiihty, by whieh our inj^enious Author hath upon] 
former occaiions diuinguifhcd himfclf. But in this we acknow*^ 
ledge ourfelvei to be in fumemeafurc dif^ppointcd ; for the dif- 
courfes before w, are raiher of the popular and declamatory 
kind, and fuch as appearing to have been intended for the ale 
of a public aflcmbiV) will not admit of much ablb'saHed realiin- 
ing and dry criticifm. The truth we fuppofe is, thAt they 
were Strmins j a title which it was thouglit proper to exchange 
for the \zU hacknicJ name uf Sfmurja.- But though the Au-. 
thor hath not in every refpefl come up lo our particular exj 
tations, we do not think ourfclves at liberty to fptjfc of hi* pet* 
forntzncc in a flight and contemptuous manner : foe there h ' 
great deal of gftod fcnfe contained in thcfc dlfcGUrfci : 
^ntiracnu, muiy of which are not of the mort popular and faJ 
fliionablc fort, arc delivered with great plainncfs and freedom: 
a manner which generally indicates that iinpliciiy and »>tcgriiy 
of heart are the prevailing charicter of the Wriicr : and we 
mnuton k not as the Icaft excellency of this work, that a prac- 
tical and truly moral (urn appears throughout lUc whole of it, 
from whi :li a well difpofud leader cannot but receive atl-. aittagc. 

Wc feall now ffflcft a fc^v chapters, upon fume of ihc mort^ 
intercAing queflions ; and leave tlirfc with the PuMic as a rpe->^ 

cimen of the whole The t'trtTubjcil which wc, 

hare chofcn fur this purpofc, is the fifth chapter of the lirfl book: 
7ht intportame ef btHtving Chn/fianltj. The paJTage in holy 
writ, of which ihiy Sermon is an cjtplanaiion, is that memoj. 
riblc one in the Gofpcl of MurV, lit nhj t/luvdh, anti U hoM 
tiltii-, Jhall hi (wved't hut ht ivl-a ItUtvtih mi, Jotdl te dumnta. 
Our Author here endcarours to illuflraie this declriratton \ and 
10 point out the inlcrences itiatiw to praflice and >iA>fal life, 
that can with propriety be deduced from it. 

We arc fully pcrfuadcd that out Readers wHI be inclined 
receive the following as arfuiifible, Judiciuust and candid Hluf 
tration of this difficult and often perverted Tc>:t : * WheiT 
our bldTed Lord favs, A* «^ hffrn)ith fixiU If favti, he may 
very naturHlly be luppofed to fpc^k of thufc great privile'^cs 
and GOiincm advantaga*, which would c\c» at picfcnt refule 

9 frcm 

BuLKLEv'i OMn:/ajt nfihe CsJ^tL 


from the reception of his Gofpd. Tbc w*ortls7&wrf, fahetUa, 
I'aiiii the like, are by no means neccflarity confined in the mter- 
picutiuuor meaning of them to the happincfs and (glories of a. 
I'uiure world. Throui^hout the Scrijrturea of tlic Old Tefta- 
ment they are applied indifFcrenrly to all kinds olf deliverances, 
bleifings, or enjoyments, whether prefent or future, bodily or 
fptrictial, private or public. What wonder, thtrn, ihould they 
be ufcd 10 denote the prcfcni poflisffion of our Chriftian privi- 
leges ; thofcgrest, thofe eminent advantages, that, fmguliir and 
moil important blefling, relative, not uicfdy to a corporeal or 
Icmporal intcrcA, but to our mental felicity, our final cvcrlafl- 

ing welfare i" *' In like manner the word damnation, though 

.|iow simoft appropriated to the mifcries of a future ftate of pu-' 
' nifliment, Joes by no means appear to have been invariably fo 

ufed by the facrcd writers." " Now ai the oppofitc to thac 

\JahMUsni which confifts in enjoying fuch admirjble means of 

' -virtue and rcl'gioti as the Cofpcl aftords, we may natm-ally' 

fuppofc one part of iltc damnatitn mentioned in the latter ctsule' 

«f our Saviour's declaration to be that abfolute lofs of all ihcfe' 

advantages, which is neccflirily incurred by a rejcclion of it. 

Exaiily in proportion to the privileges, that aie confrquent 

[■upon the reception of the CbriAiui Faith, to the conl'ummato 

, cxrellcocy of its doctrines, Co ihcic powerful and efficacioMs 

tendency towards enlightnlng and purifying the mind of man, 

promoting our happincfs here, and our preparation for eternal 

bjif^, muft ncceHiiriiy be \\^ damagt ax ilctrimciu fiinained, iir. 

xefcrence to our fpirltual and religious int'crcll, by not giving. 

our alTem to it.' 

The fecond method of illuftrating our Lord's declaration is 

'this. * The circumflancea of things were fuch, uhtn the 

Cofpc! was firft publilhcd to the world, iherc was the 

^grcatefl probability imaginable, that thofe who embraced it, 

would (land intitlcd to the fiilvaiion of the ftiturc immortal 

world ; and tha: vaft numbers of thofc whtj rrjc^Scd it, would 

acrotding to all human appcaiaucec, in confcquence of that re- 

Mc^on, die in thtir Jhtt ; die unreformed and unreclaimed, and 

jConfequcntly fink at death into all thoff tinf|icakdblc miitfics 

and horrnr^ of the world to cume, whidi the pitudplc; of te- 

Tion and the (lofpel do afiuredly denounce upon ihc oblli-> 

I nately impenti«nt and ungodly. Chriftlaniiy in tts car.'y daj's" 

[had fo many derp-rcotcd prejudices to contciul with, it cspofcd 

ifflf n If* fo much cot^.tcmpt and reproach, and to fuch a variety 

fof worldly inconveniences and fuffertngs, that in fuch circum-' 

^itances to ombrare nnd publicly tu prufufs it, was one of the ^ 

faircft prooft that cotild well be given of probity of mu)d| in> 

'^trgtiiv of difpofition, a love of virtue, a dcHrc W [>k»re zvA 

2^6 BuLKLKY-i Ofcainms o/tht Go/peL 

obey the fupremc Creator In aW (hinga, indiftfrence to woHdiy 
gcwd, and ;i willingncls to reouuncc crcn lile itfclf/or the fakvi 
of a good coulciencc, amJ in the caufe of pure and undefilcd 
rcUgion; and when iiu-n of fuch excellent difpofitions as thcfe^j 
embraced the Chriflian Fai^h, wbat Godlike irnpruvemcncs it 
it natural to imagine they would make in the Chriflian life and- 
temper. It is no objcilion to this kind of rcafoning that thci» 
were fomc iaAancc& to the conirurjr even ia the Aril and ciirli- 
cft ue of Chrifttaniiy, a^ it appears In the Cofpcl records, 
that in hSt there were. The probahiliiy vms as we have beeftj 
Ibting it. And probability is fre^juently cxprcfilfd in Scrip-i 
ture by the very fame tfrmn, (hat arc made iife of to denocttij 
abfolute and univcrfal certainty. -— ■ - In the tatDC gtner 
fenfe is it ollertcd, llai be tUo Micimti tat fl>aU b* daauud : thatij 
dierc were numbers in the Jnwith nation and heathen wortdy ] 
Jo dreadfully immerfed in viCi;* that there wu all poflible rei- 
fon for concluding, that if they rejected the GofprI, no other 
means would be fufficient to roclaitn them here ) and that coQ- 
lequcntly they mud in a tuturc world undctgo the damruttoi 
of hell/ 

It ia added in the third place: — * Thi« dcrlantion of 

IxNd's will appear Itill more Intereftlng and important, ^^ 

the fcnfe of it he probabjv heirhicncd by confideiing, that he 
not on'y knew it to be very probable, but had even an rnralllble 
certainty, that the Gofpel, which he was now commiflioning 
hii Apollles to publi^to the world, would be in faA the mean* 
of bringing tn-iny ions unto glor^-; of inrpirtng thoufands and' 
ten thuufands, an inexprelfible, inconceivable number of man- 
kitid^ in every age of the world, down lo the laieft period of Itj 
with thofe dirpofuions and habits of virtue, by which tbe^> 
would in a glotious degree be qualified for the {alvation at 
eternity. He knew this to be the very dcCgn which it wa«_ 
iotcndcd to anfwer ; and that it would not ^il to do honour 
to that utierring wifdom, which fotmiij that plan of it, by its 
abundant fucccfs. It was declared concerning him in prophcfy^ 
that ht ftititU fee tf ikt travail tf bisfeul, anJ h fiaisjitdi and 
it is in the language of pious joy and holy triumph, that w». 
hear him in his own devotions fpci^ktng of tbofc whom the- 
Father had given him \ and who weie e're long to be wllb 
him, beholding; his glory In the hravirnly and linmitital ftate. 
This afiurance rf (he v;^fl number uf mankind, tliac Ibould 
aflually by n;cans of (he Ciofpel be trained up fur the joys of 
eternity, was with the grcateit propriety annexed to that com- 
niiOion, which he was now giving his Apuftles, to preach this 
very Gofpcl itfcif to every creature. And may wc not believe, 
that at the coiifommntion of ull things, in that Ja/, that great 



ButKLEvV Qtcmmy oftht GtJ^tl. 257 

id Tolcmn day> when God ftiall judge the aflcmblcd world in 
j-i^iiicouriicfs, by that man whom he hath ordained, this num- 
[Wr well appear fo large, as well to jullify the gciieiAl cxprer- 
riBon ; hi that helitvttb Jball ht foved^ no:wilhllanding thofc manr 
^exceptions, that are, alas, to be made on account of I'uch as^ 
I even Armly, ami upon raiicnal conviction believing the GofpicI, 
have yet never m^ide ihc pr^ictital application nf ic to lite and 
temper ? All general Tnaxims admit oi fuch exceptions, accord- 
ing to a manner uf interpreting thcni, uaivcrfally agreed upon. 
And of thcfc exceptions too our Saviour was with the fame 
[iiifitlliblc certainty apprized. He knew that miny, even at the 
[fiifl publication of the Gufpel, as well as in ibcic Uurdayi and 
^ihc intervening time, would from the moft criminal motives, 
ifuch as the love of pleafjrc, and eafe, pride, vanity, and ;ilfec- 
^iation, and even an averfioii to that repentance, to which it 
[ivas intended to excite them, rcje£l it \ wiiliout lying under the 
[temptation, or apprehending any ncceffiiies to conceal, and 
and confequently mn fctupling to avow their diftwiief of it. 
tHe likcwilc knew, that when Ch[i(tianity came to be corrupt- 
I'td and made fubfeivicnt to fepubr views, there would be maiiy 
fecrci infidels, who would carry on the moll pernicious dcfigns, 
and ad with a molt horribly depnivcd and wicked temper under 
the malk of believing. And bcfldes this, he knew with equal 
certainty, thai there would be in every period of it a prodigi- 
I'Ous number, even among thofc who would profefs thcmfclvea 
1 10 be Its difciplrs, who yet would be far f^tm having the faich 
[•fpoken of in the former part of the Jecl-:iraiion, and who muft 
llncrefofcof courfe be ranked with the unbelievers fi>ccificd la 
Ac latter. The faith, to which fuch effoils as wc have been 
[■Jpcaking of, are in the Scriptures afciibed> is not an implicit 
I belief, nnt a lazy indolent aUcnt, not a forma] profeiHon made 
[in cnmplijncc with cultom and popular mode, but a lively and 
[welt-;: rounded perfuafion of the great truths of relii>iun as e.x- 
"kibiicd and enfufL*ed in the Gofpcl.' 

But ftill more eifcAuallf to obviate any furmifes, that may 

fccm to lie again^ the tenor of fuch a declaration, our Author 

Kan the laft part of his difcourfc points out the inferences rclx- 

I live to pradlce and moral life which arc in leafon to be d«- 

du.ed from it. Whnt ihdc arc wc Aiall bricHy mention. 

* And in the firA place we may obfer^'e, fays our Author, ihct 
it Is a dcclatation not afibrding the leaft colour or pretence for 
placing .iny degree of dependence, with rcfpeA to future fal- 
%2tion, upon ihc racie belief of ChriftianJty. 

* Nor, fecondly, docs this declaration of our Lord give any 
juft occafion for ilie fcverc and uncharitable crnfures, which 

Rev. April, 1765. S Ws-*- 

fome ara apt to pnf^ univcrfilly upon thofc wbo do not cpibuce 
the GofpeU or who have never bc.ird or' ir.' There is fome- 
ihing fo irvily calholic, gcncrouK, 2nJ candiJ m what ihe Au- 
thor fays upon this yoinc, that we caiinnt help admiring It; 
inBHeli themrelvcs^ would tht-y but condd'ccnd to read what he 
h»s here ulfcrcd, would br ptcudd with it. * The dcfign of our 
Saviour in whiit ho faid, was lo point out (he vait importance 
of thiit religinHf which he rama into the world on purpore to 
intfoJiicc and eftablifli among mankind; its importance, aa 
a n>oft effit-acious method toitiied In the counrds of infinite 
bcncvoU-ncc and unerring witdom for promoting the prafiiic of 
righteout'ncfii and goodne^3^ Stilly however, a capacity for 
moral ngcnc^ did not begin with the publication of the Gufpcl, 
but is found<rd upon h'.im;in nature iticlf. It may therefore fub- 
fift whore the Gofpcl is nut known, or br-iit^ known is not be- 
lieved. As therct'ure a Chrillian, notwithdanding all the emi- 
nent privileges which in that charader he enjoys, may Tic the 
vile and tgnominioui flavc ot' Inordinate and viriuux palEont; fo- 
nwy the ditbelicvcr of the Gofpd, whether in a Heathen or a 
Chridisn country, notwtthdnnditig all the difadvanugcs he la* 
bours under, in conrcqiicncc of his unac«]itaiiucdners witli Ki 
or of his not difcerning the force of its cvid<:nces, be a man of 
iniegrily and virtue. And whenever fuih inflanccs arc really 
occurfin2,leiitberemsniber'd,.ihatwc have iheniheauthuiin'of 
Scripture, as well as of rcafon :iiut nature, for inverting the pro- 
pofltion, and for laying, He fliat ^iinvth^ tlwtgk Ih m-iy fwVf 
^teit heptizfdy JhtiU it dumiiiJ : ht hr, Otit icUtvrt^ 'let^ fijall bi 
jSriW.' — With pieafure iln wc record this faying in honour of 
ihc Chnrtisn icliginn, v.-hich fo_ llmngly avows itj, ivA iq 
honour of the Chiidi^ii niinilter^ who lu l^ithfully decUics it, 
in oppofition to the nairuw pn:judicc!i, and uaicower views, of 
bigots of all parties. , 

Our Author's U(i reflet! %n, aj a very pertinent, and impor- 
tant one, wc bi's leave to n^wnnicnd to the Attention of our 
^^_ ttcadeis ; 

^^P ^ How eafy Is it to be pcrcciv< d. that by a declaration of 

V fhis niifurc, the Gofpcl ii» in the jlronii,tft manner rcc(>inmtnd - 

H fd to the oioli diliguit atteouoii and impariial cxaniiiutionf 

■ beth of hitn|. who profclics it, and of ihofe who for the pcc- 
H lent renounce it. titbcr to rrjcifl urcmbiacc it incupriderate'v 

■ it mofl unnatural ami egrcn^ou^ triRing. Jts prctuifions it 

■ roiift be iukouwlcdgcd arc very ?reat; iis Efpcil none can deny 
I lo be yciy iiuitinr; '. the fulh of ttil at Icali much to be dc- 
I lired : and he muji be (Iran^cly ignnrant or pcnrerfe, who 

■ duc& not allow, that there arc, upon the towcft cllinution, fom^ 
I ifxi/Qg prdiiaipuoiiA mfatour of u. To dii'cdud ii Uicicforc in 
^^H 9 mctc 

BuiKLr.v'j Oh-snimy tftht GeJ^tl, 


Ynere tevicy of mind or wjnton afTeilation, or to cnterCain any 
tinfavotirable or unrricndly o[>inion of ic, ivithouC hovliig ever 
feiioudy inquired into i)ic ground of itut opinion, i* a CMitduiifc 
not to be reconciled lo any maxims either of prudence or icli- 
S'on, integrity or benevolence. 

* But then, on the other hand, of what ufc can the mere pro- 
fcifioii of it be, while no time or ihouijht, no piini or ftudjr 
arc empkiycd in forming clear and jull 3|>pri-henliont concern- 
ing lis truths and principles, irs evidences and foutidaiinns, anj 
for rendering fuch topics familiar lo our minds ? Or how can 
Wc otbciwil'e accr.unt for the little iollitcnce, which it now 
has upon the temper and converfaiion of thi>'> who emhracc 
it, and for that ptodigioui Jfid amazin; difFcrcnc* in (his 
reflM:^ between its primitive profcflbrs anJ nurrdve^; but by 
this undeniable fi£i, that they embraced it upon pcrfonal con* 
virion, and made it the fubj&ft of their habitual sn«l moft fc- 

, xioiii meditation, and that wc arc apt tt» Call ourfclvrs CbrilHans, 
without knuwing what me mean, or why wt tin f*.\ or lb much 
ai allowing ourlclvcs to think or any oblt^aiion iliat we lie tui* 

i4cx to be adling after fomc dilicrcnt maimer.'— 

The next fubjcil »hi;h we Oiall feleflffir the ItiiJ-mcntanJ 
Citisfiidlion of our Readers, ii the Awitii.'xt ' ' , which 

makes the fifth chaincr of tbcfccond book. . I ,. _ .. _; ijucflion 
of the grcatcft imporunce to the honour of the L'hiiUian reli- 
gion ; which has long been canvaflcd by our abl^ft cri:tcs and 
commentatots ; and wliicU remains (llil unJecided amonglt thoGl 
who have examined ii with ihc gtcatcll freedom and impar- 
tiality. Wc flioutd apprehend that the moil likily m-rthod of 
alcetuiiiitig what \s the Scripture doiflrine in this particular, i* 
, to make a full and fair collection of all the pallagcs of the New 
J Teflamcnt, which have or fccm to have any reference to this 
^fubjecl, to compare them together, and by all the helps of an- 
|tient learning, and antient cuHoms, In thejuft f^iric of crtti- 
Icjfia, to invcftigate what the fjcrcd Writers man to convey. 
■ It is to be lamented that in a qiicdion of fuch importance, *>n 
which fuch great numbers of Chriftians Jay fo great a fire/s, 
I this hath not yet been done. The misfortune fcems to be, thac 
wc firft eflablifh a fyftcm of religious and philofjphiial prin- 
fciples in our mindij thcfe we conlidrr ai uiicontrovened 
Liniximi, to which we have rccourfc upon every i>c^-allon ; aitJ 
[withthcfenrongprcjudiccs, and anticipated judgments, we come 
[to examine the du^riiics of revelation. — But this is not fair ! 
[What our Author hath done upon thl* fuhjciJ u*c Ihall now , 
briefly reprefcnt : nor wi'l the mantiet in whioh he hath tfC-itel 
it require us to fpend much time upon it. — Taking it for gr.)nt- 
«J chat the Scriptures do, in innumerabjepairsg",»«efttb.«de»\^ 

S a 


BuLKLEv'j Otionsmj bJ the G0tl* 

of Chiifl to be a true and proper atonement fur the fuu of man- 
kind { Kis plan h, ftrft to lUte the notion or true idea of aionc- 
mcnt for fui -, mi then to fhew that the death of Chi^Q h Rri&lf 
and literally, truljr and properly, !uch an aionrtnent. Ujion the ' 
former of thrfc our Author explains himfcif in this manner*] 
• In thcLcvilical Law fcveral things purely inanimate arc faid to"' 
make atonement. From hence it undeniably follows, th^c a 
tranflation of guilt, or the undereoini; vicarious pains and tiif- 
frriiigt are ideas no way neceHnry m order to compleat the 
liMion of a flridt and proper aioitenKUt. £vc;i the (laying thofe 
animals, that under the iiMifatck Jifpenfatiun were more gene- 
rally offered up in facrifictr for the remiflion either of ceremonial. 
or political guilt coritr jclcd, might, in conlojucnce of a divine ap- ' 
potnimcnl, be thoioughly cB'c-dtual for thii purpofe, without an^ 
(itch fubflitution in the tafc. If they were fuch facrifkes as God 
had appointed for the removal of fuch guilt cootra£led, and as the 
meant of freeing the otfender from all furtiicr penalty, or liable- 
nefs to punifhmcni on account of it, they could not but be of an 
atoning nature, whether wc fuppofc them to have been vicariouti 
or not. For that, according to theoiiginal meaning of this very- 
word ttfelf in our own Language, and as it occurs in tome of our 
ancient writers, bcfurc it came to be wholly appropriated to a 
rheologtial fenfc, as well as of theoiigiiial wort] fo rendered iti 
ihe New Tcftament ; that, 1 fay, is a true iind proper aionc- 
vtfTtt *, which is a natural and well adapted, and if properly ap* 
plied, will moil certainly be an efficacious means of procuring 
ihc p>rdon of any oftVncc committed, and icconciliiig the Of-^ 
fender to thcficing that ha$ been offended. Atonement and re^ 
conciliation ^rc wtirds exaftly fynonymous in their meaning ar 
fignification. And .iccordingly the very fame word in the ori-1 
ginj] language of iltc New Teltament, is in our vcrfioM alter- 
nately rendered by one or the other of ihefe terms. So that the 
only idea or circuo^llance, that is eflentially ncccfTary to coniU* 
tute a ilridl and proper aionemem, is, that what we apprehend 
to be fo, be an efRcacious, and, in the nature of it, an every 
way fufficJent means for piocurinj the pardon or rcmiflion (wfu 
illc fin or fins fuj'pofcd to be atoned for. In whatevci manner' 
it prodtircs this cficfl, whether by U-ing a fubftitution in the 
room rf the offender, or whether by being iiitrinfically merito- 
rious and acceptable to the Being offenJed, or by any influence 
that it has upon the mind of the olfcndcr, ftill if it be a compe- 
tent and well-adaiited means o^ effe^ling a reconciliation, and 
brinsing Ihe tranigrcflbr into a Hale of pardun and rcmiJUon, it 
14, in the ftriilcft fcnfc and moft liierai meaning of language, 
lui atonatunt for euilt contradcd.' j 

BuLKLtv'i Oentunr^ a/the dfi-d. 

It is true we only mecr with the word atonement in one place 
of the Kngli0i tranflation of the New Tcftamcnt, whcfc (h< oif- 
ginal wofd Is xar^tAXayn. Rom. v. li. and it is fomethln^ fm- 
gular titat our trundjtors flioutd rcndtrr xdcT%>.A<Kyf)v, aloHtmnty 
when they render the verb xxTaXAaa-c:» by rtcmttlr \\\ the vcrfe 
immediately before it, and in all other paliages where it occuts : 
and the fubftaotivc univrrfally by Tttomiilaum. BuCi however 
ratiifadory this may be thought, the Author very wcJI knows 
there arc other words, connected wUh ibis fubjcct. of doubtful 
and difficult figniiicaiion, fuch as lAatuC^, lAafJrfov, Aul^o*, 
and av7iXvl^c», which nothing that he hath faid niJl aHill ua in 
the explanation of; though he himfelf hath ufcd the word 
»Aijif?irj.6», prafiiialisn, as though it were equally with r/ttri' 
nidation a fynonymous term with alantment \ for, he fay*, * and 
if upon due consideration It (viz, the death oF Chrill) appear to 
be a moft excellent and efficacious means of reconciling the fin- 
ful creatures of the human rice to their offended Maker, if in 
this one point every fingle ciicumilattce rcbring to il be found 
invariably and uniformly to center ; if moreover it was iin ex- 
ptiii/Ht exptcCtly appointed In the council? of heaven for aufwcr- 
ing this ver)' end ; there cannot I think be a momcnt'n room for 
doubting, whether or no Gtx] ha.i indeed fet forth JeAi^ 
Chrifl to be a propitiation through faith in hi» htood. It mad 
be ftriSly and literally, truly and propeilv, an atming or ex- 
piatory facrificc for the iniquities of mankind.' This Is illuf- 
trated, or to ufcour Author's own word, drmenJhroUd^ from tbo 
following connjeiatton!! : 

rft, ' The death of Chrift was an event of ohf^trtt nttejfttj^ 
in order to our being inverted with the privileges of the golpcl/ 

We donnt wcSI underdand this j and the pompom declama- 
tion, which follows in the two next pages, rather ierves to ob- 
fcurc than to elucidate the fentimcnt. 

adty, ' The death of Chiift was a clear, authentic, public, 
and mofl awful declaration of the divine difpleaiure againfl fin, 
and deitgned in the wifdom of divine providence to be an ever-' 
lasting memorial of it,' 

This, we own, has b«n faid more than once by thofe who 
edecmed rational divines \ but we do not remember any one 
iflagc in the New 'I'eOvnem ihat declares this to be an end 
or intention of the death of Chiift ; and we conHder it as nn 
more than an hyp"tb<"li^ calculated tq throw a veil over the dif- 
ficulties which attend tins fubjo^t. 

3dly, * The death of Cbrift is a clear fenfiMe, and afi^cling 
dcmonitraridn of the divine placability ; and in thii skhi q^'>\ 

S 3 \x\j;'H'iS^ 


BuLKiev*! O/CBKsmy ef iht Gejptl. 

Jikicwirc, t» it a mod naiuial and efficacious means of pfomotini 
our reconciliation with God, and muil thcifforc be looked upo%l 
m being of a iruJy {iropitutory and cxputiiig nature.' 

Indeed the manifeftation of Jefus Chrift amnngft men, and tV 
appoininiCJit ol him to be the mcflcngcr of grace and truth 
mankind, is an evidence of the benevolent and merciful nacui 
of the Deitv \ nntf hii fobmltting to drath in the manner he AM 
conlidtred a( the mo(l memorable circiimftance iha; attend* 
him, mnv by confequence be cxinfidcreJ bkcwifc as an evidenoej 
of it. But oiiahi to be prowd, is taken for gnnicd,, via 
ihu U b€ a pfij>iti«tiett, and /s dtctarr God fropUitutf ate 

4thlV} ' In tbe death of CEirill we have a moll tender and 
imprefliL-e view given us of the ineflimable worth and value of 
immortal fouls.* 

5thly, * The death of Chrift is a powerful iddrefs to the 
grateful and ingenuous fcntiraents of huminity : and this* wht 
ther we coiiftdcr it as the cffe&i of the divine love iniereiling it-' 
felf in our behalf t or as the rei'ult of our Saviour's own conde- 
icenfton and grace, in dying, the jufi for the unjuft, that he 
might bring them lo God.' 

'<itWy, ■ The death of ChriR will appear to carry in it a Aill 

higher efficacy of kind, confidcred in connc'^ion with that 
exaliaiioii at the light hand of the yaiher, whicK has been tho 
conlcqiiencc and reward of it.* 

The liift illuftration which our Author ofirrs upon ihh point, 
and he barciy nwntioru, having brforc enlarged upon it 
in a forn;er chapter, is, * the example whith our Saviour fet 
before us in his own dcaih, of inflexible integrity in the caufe of 
iruih *nd virtue, of invincible benevolence lo mankind, an^~ 
of abfolute rcfign.ition to the will of the fovcieign etern: 
Father. ■ 

We intended lo hire given our Readers an analyfis of for 
other chapters in ihia work ; but havinj; infenfibly extended thi 
article lo a confider*hlc length, we muft defer it, at Jcafl folf! 
the prcfcnt. 

We hope the Author will not be oflfcnded, that, in the txA 
tracts we have made frcm hh book, wc have not followed the! 
pcculiaiiiiei of his oithograpby ; in which he has taken mordl 
remarkable, and we think more unjufiifiable liberties, than an^ 
Writer wc have yet fecn. 

J Trtatife 

[ 26j } 

.^^rtaaff-^fAigthra^ in Tut Be^is. Btek I. Cmtainmgthefnn- 

' damtntai PriHcipUi cf ihh Arty ttgtthrr V/i'lh ait iht fraOual 

MmUs sf Optrathn. Beet IJ. Csntnin'mg grtat Varirtf of Prt' 

l/^mt, in lot BKji imptrtant Bramhei »f ihi Aiatlwnatus. 8vo. 

75. Nourfc. 

IHAT able mathptnaticiafi, Mr. W. Kmarott, who hss 
_ obliged (he world with fcvcrai mathematical treatit'trs, qf 
'approved chara^cr, is tbc Author of (he prcfcnt woilc; in which 
this ingenious Writer has expUlnmi the fundamental principlrs 
of ihr aiitlytic art, in a very dear jand concifc manner : and 
ihcwn hnw there principles arc applied to praflicc, in the re- 
solution of problems^ in vaiious branches of ^c mathematics. 

The firft book is fubdividcd mio ten fciliona. Tbc 1. con- 
tains the primary opcrjitions of algebra, in inee^n. 2. The 
operations of algebraical t'ra^ions. 3. The doi\rinc of furds, 
limplc and compound. 4. Several methods of managing equa- 
tions, their nature and tranfmutation. 5. The manner of 
rjinging the terms, woifcing by general forms, cvtcrminatioq 
of unknown quantities, and the defignation of quantities by 
Jettcrs. 6, The doctrine of infioiic ferles. 7. General and 
-fundamental problcm^^ urcTul and neceilary in algebraical cal- 

Among the problems tn the feventb feflion* is one of fo ex- 
traordinary a nature, that we fhall beg leave to hy it before the 
Jleader entire. Tlic problem i* this : 

Tfl explain ib/ feVfral ^tyutl o/{q) mthlng, anJ tnjir.tty. 

' It is plain, no^m^r.Mcd tD, or fubtratScdfram, any quan- 
tity, makci it neither bigger nor Irfn. 

• Likewife, H" any quantity is multipKcd byo, that js taken 
jio titties at all, tbe^roduft will be nothing. 

• Let - = f ; that it* let the quotient of A divided by <t, be q. 

Then if h remains the fame, it is pliin the tcfs a is, the greater 
the quotient f will he. Let a be indefinitely Tmall beyond all 
•boundj, then q will be infinitely great beyond all bound*. 
Therefore when a is nothing, the quotient f will be inlldice. 

• AJfo, fince - = infinity, therefore A = nothing, X infinity. 

• Let there be feveral geometrical proportions, tr, *', »*, *•» 
*S &c. If this fcrics be coniiiiued backwards, it will be ^, 1, 

', -^i that is, »*,T«, i~*', *"*, the iodicea continually dc- 

S 4, ^^^vw^ 


A Trcatije «f Algthra. 

creafing by r. Thfn iw plane jr' is equal to T, whatever * be v 
for i[ may Hand untvcrOUly for any thing. Therefore a^ is =si . 

* Let Jr be an indefinitely fmall quantity, beyond all con- 

-ception^ then m the feries *, jr% **, &c. each term will be 

indclinutly greater than the followiog one. And when x is o, 

then in the fcrica ^ o% o', o*, Uc. - is infinite, and o \% no- 
thing by what goes before. Therefore the mean o" is a finite 
quantity. Suppofc ^i, whence - X o =: A*, that is, h A= — = i, 
^d h^ I, whence it is plain again, that (b) o" :=i. 

« Let or its equal — -- be an irjfinitc quantity, then l^y 

actually dividingr> -3-= « + a+*-(--^, and _ * —=—'< 

^^fl^— g-f-F— ' — . Therefore-^ — H«+0+<i) &c. =-^ a — a 

— a, kc. that is, an infinite quantity is neither increafcd nor 
decfeafed by finite quantities. 

* Cor. I. If multiply any finite quantity, the produA wt 
be nothing. 

* Cor. 2, If multiply an infinite quantity, the produft is a 
^nitc quantity. Or a finite quantity is a mean pjoportionai be- 
tween nothing and infuiity. 

« For oXinfuitty^ 4. 

* Cor. 3. ir a finite quantity is divided by o, the quotient is 
infinite (-= inf.) 

< Cor. 4- Ifo be divided by 0, the quotient is a finite quan- 
tity of fome fort. 

f For (Cor. 1.) i X 0=: o, and therefore -^&, a finite quan- 
tity, or nothing. 

* Cor. 5. Hence alfo 0*^1, cr the infinitely fmall quantity, 
is infinitely near i. 

* Cor. 6. Adding or fubtrafiing any finite quantities to or 
from an infinite quantity, makes no alteration. 

' Cor. 7. Therefore in any equatinn, where are fome quar\- 
tliies iniiniiely icCs thJn others t they may be thrown out of 
the equation. 

* (:or. 8. An infmite quantity may be confidcred cither as 
^rmative or negative. 

* For infinity — —«■—. 
^ ■ ' +0 "^ 



« There is fomcthing fictremcly fiibtle and hard to conceive in 
the doflrine of infinites and nothings. Yet aJtho' the objects ihcm- 
felves arr beyond our comprcbcnnon -, yet we cannot rcliil the 
force of demont}racion> concerning tbdr powers, properties, and 
cfTeds ; -wiiich pTop<:rtic&, under Ttich and Tuch conditions^ J 
thinit 1 have iruly explained >n this propolition. Any meu* 
phyfical notions, that go beyond thcfe mathematical op^-iatiiins, 
are TKit the bufincfs of a mathematician. But thus much may 
be obferved* that o, in a mathematical fenfe. never figoiHei 
abfolute nothing ; but always nothing ia relation to the objed 
under confideiation. Fox iHuftratlon thereof, fuppofc wc are 
conftdering tlie area contained between the bale of the purallelo- 
grnm and a line drawn parallel to the bz(c. As this line diawi 
nearer the bafc, the area diminiihes ; titt at lad, when the lioe 
coincides with the bafe, (he area becomes nothing. So the 
area here degenerates into a line ; which is nothing, or no part 
of the area. But it is a line ililt, and may be compared with 
other lines.' 

The above eluddatton, however true in that particular, n 
not, we apprehend, ftifficient to remove ihe difficulties that at- 
tend this problem. Forfuppofe, inttead of our being employed 
in conGdcring the area of a fupcrficics, our attention had been 
engaged in confidering the length of a line. It will then furc\y 
follow, that when its length vanifhes, it becomes a mathema- 
f ica! point, or nothing. Hut we cannot compare mathematical 
points together, bccaufe they arc totally defiitulc of parts; and 
without parts there can be no comparifon. B^des, we hare 
often equations where o fignifics abfolute nothing. Thus, if 
jp=/, then.*-— > = o 1 or, ta — 7 — 5=0. 

Our Author himfclf grants, that if o he cither added to, or 
fuhlrafled from, any finite quantity, it will be neither increafed 
ftor diminifhrd in its value. But multiplication h nothing 
more than a number of additions, and divifion a number of 
fubtra£tions. Confequcntly if we can neither augment nor leffcii 
a quantity by the addition or fubtraflion of o 1 we can neither 
augment nor Icflcn it by the muttiplkatinn or divifion of o. For 
otherwife the very bifis of arithmetic would be deflroyed, and 
confetjuently the whole fuperflruSure fall to the ground. 

In faff, the cypher is only the limit or boundary between ne- 
gative and affirmative quantities i the point from which both 
begin; and through which they muft pafs in order to change 
their denomination. If a (juaiitily be pafling from a nega- 
tive to an affirmative ffarc, it loles there lis negative value, 
^d becomes, at ibM inttant, equal to nothing: but it has 




A Treatiff cf Al^ebrt, 

no foontr pnHcd that limit than it acquires mi :tffi7mattvc valttf. 
if, on the coiitrur- it be pafluig from an affirmative to a ne- 
gative ftate, its affirmative value eontinuaily decreaTes till it 
reaches this limit, where it tiHally vaaillies ; and when tt hu 
pafTci) thi«. boundary, its value becomes necative> or Jefi than 
jiothing. In this light wc conceive, it wtll be no diScultv to 
Ibnn a competent idea of the cypbcr t white the mciaphryficxl 
.Btiemptsoftoo many writers, lenil only to perplex what was never 
difficult, and to darken what was never oblcure. Perhapa the 
greater part, if not all the difficulties faid to attend the ideas of 
infinity and nothini;, and our inability to comprehcod cither, 
cught rather to be imputed to the folly of comparing things to- 
gether, which in their own natures arc incapable of comparifoM. 

Scdion S. Contains the icfolutton of equations ; ajid the ex- 
traillion of their toots Jn numbers. 9. The geometrical cob- 
flnuflion of equations. lo. Rules and dlredions for the invef- 
ligation and/olutiou of problems. 

Iti Book IL Mr. Emerfon gives foIutiotK to a great va- 
riety of very curious and ufeful problems. The caution be 
gives the Reader at the beginning of this book, h a leflbn of 
the greueft importance^ though too often negloded byfludenu 
in every branch of fcicnce. * We have bitheno, fays our Au> 
xhor, been laying down fucb rules as are ncccfTary lor the trv- 
vclligaiion and Iblutiun of ptoblems. The Rcailer muH take 
particular care to make himfcif well acquainted with ibcfc rulcf, 
and Iccep them in mind, lb that he may have them ready for 
ufc, upon all occafione; £br without tbcm no pcc^lcm cap be 

After this caution, Mr. Emerfon proceeds to the folution of 
problems, which he has ringed under the following heads: 
Numerical problems. Intereil and annuities. Arithmetical and 
geometrical progtcfTion. Unlimited problems. Rational (iquarea. 
Cubes, &c. C«comcirical probleois. Problems in plam tngtk- 
oometry. Problems in fphetical trigonometiy. Geometrical 
Loci, i^id problems relating thereto. Mechanical problems. 
Philnfophicai or physical problems. Problems relating to icriea. 
Problems concerning exponential cquatituis. Problems of maxi- 
ma and minima. 

From this fhort viow of the work before us, the Reader wiH 
|>e able to form fome idea of what he may cxpcfl- to tncct will 
in perufing Oiis trcatlfe. Wc Ihall only add> that the rule 
are laid ^own with perfpicuity, the problems arc well chitfen^ 
ajid ihc foluiions arc rcmarltably elegant. 


- r ^67 ] 

Oaaftanal Sfrmmi upM thf /tSmfiig Saijfifs .-— T?* O^f and 
Duty *( Bijhopi — Errtr arid Igwrana 4ijptlUd by tbt A^ftaranti 
of Um Mtjfiak — Tht Ineaniatiin ef Chrijl matltr $f tht h'tghtA 
Joy — The Iniffkacf of txUrimi Przfejfun: — Ineijuplity ef CenS- 
tiitt edvantaietta /■ Sxiety-~Deaw tniailtd on Mankind by tht 

* FaU ^f Adam— The tvU Tendtarf tffatfe Sbawtt—Advantages ^ 
CinttntMmt—'BfnrfU of an tarty viriiams Educatitn — Tht Dec- 
triite of the Trinity cttj/ldtfid — The Bltffing of isalidt Faith kt 
the Gofptl—RrSpon the moji perfea Syhm of Msraiity—Vni- 

^ •otrfsl Obliiat'wi is Jf^erit tf Benrvclati't — Tit greet ExielUnty 
und 1mpsrtan<e of public Thankfgtving te Gid—^Pravidetue tfGod 
tbef^tGusdf fiJ'humiSH Affeln — Pernkieut Effiils of e^ii Cam- 
pany — Care eftfrg Pmt rta/itmendedy tfptdafiy $f fylng-in fP%- 
j7un — A reli^teui Life (he Stuuc af true PUafttre — Charity iiluf- 
tratid ftnd recemmtttdidtfrcm the Lift af Mejtiy iffc^ Wruten 
b^ a tale eminent Diviiie ot the Church »( England. 8vo. 
js. Knox- 

THE fotlDwing advert) fanent is prciixed to thcfe pofthu- 
mous Sermons ^ but we have omitted two or three para- 
graphs, fur the fake ijf brevity : 

* The enfiiing difcourfcs Ittely Toand zmonell a number 
of cuiious pamphlets and manufcriptti, were coUeaed by a pcr- 
fon lately dcceafed, from fevcral intimates of the Author, st 
whoTc earned dcfire he generally favoured them with the penifal 
of thofe difcourfcs, which had afibrded the higheft laiisfaflioil 
from the pulpit.. — ■- 

- • In the fociety of which he was a member, the Author was 
early diftinguifttfl for his unbiatTcd integrity, folid judgment 
and fertile iinaginaiion. Hi$ labours in the iuftrutHion of tht 
youih commiticd to his charge were cfficBcious, by precept and 
example rxciling them to purfiie their ftudics to adrantagc; and 
it is difficult to cxprcfs how much he was admired, rclpe^led, 
and beloved by his allbciatcs.— 

* His companion univerfal, as his beneficence was extcnfivc ; 
he eafily yielded Co f&!i<:i:aiion, and devoted a part of his time in 
preaching at fomc churchc* at Dublin, as alfo in Oxford arid in 
this city. I'hc wealcncfs of his voice was fully compenfated by 
the energy and paihi of his addrefii:!, Arikin^ at once the reafon 
and aFcSing the paffiuns of his auditors. Hence his reputation 
in the art ol preaching caufcd the chtirchcs to become crouded, 
and it was then unfashionable not to be able to recolleft fomc 
of the Dofirr's pcrfuafivc arguments in behalf of thofe uuly 
Chriftian inftitutions, the charity-fchools of this kingdom, on 
all which occafions he fuccefifully exerted his powers, to the 
real ornament of our language, and to the advancement oi 
Chiiftian eIo«^uencc. 


Otcafiinti StrmsHi. 

* A trrafurt, and as fuch thcfe difcoorfcs muft be eftwmcd, 
it would be injuiious to buiy in oblivion. The ftuden{« in di- 
vinitjTt in the fevcral univerfitics cf thefc kingdoms, are here 
prcfciHcd with ihc tnoft cxcc)lent model for their tmltition; jiid 
the weii-difpofed R&idcr ts furniihcd with the moA cogent in- 
centives to piety, virtue, and benevolence,' 

Though we arc far from entertaining fo high an opinion of 
tbefe difcourfes as the Edicor doth, yet wc reulily acknowledge 
that they have a confiderable fliare of tncrir. The Author s 
itylc is C3{y and prrfpicuous ; his fcntiments, in general, sre 
juft and rational ; fome of his rcflt-^ions are beautiful and 
ftriking ; and there arc fevcral pafia2:cs whirh (hew him to have 
been a man of tafte and genius. The fotlowing ftiort extraft 
may ferve as a fpecimi:n of his manner : it is taken from hl> ki- 
mon — c» tht tvil urtJ/rtq/ effa/fe fiarne. 

' We have all, fays he, interwoven in our nature, an earncft 
defire of approbation, and a firong fcnfe of fhamc : thtfc were 
intended by our Creator to be afliltantii to the caufe of virtue, 
deterring us from things baft, and inciting us to generous ut\- 
derukin^s i which good ends accordingly they do anfwer, fo 
long as Uiey are, what they (hould be, lower motives of a£lion ; 
when they become the chief, arc putfued or avoided for them- 
selves, ihcy mifguide us, and lead into the worft of-CJ'imes. For 
if I be a perfon governed ibfolutcly by the love of praifc or dread 
of ftiamc, and obfcrve vice to be univcrially pra£lifcd around me, 
while virtue and its followers are diflilccd and ccnfured, it is 
fcarcely polfible for me, in thofc circumllanecs, to efcapc the 
infe^ion : 1 fhall adapt my behaviour to their notions and prac- 
lice, and give up my innocence rather than be fhunncd and de- 
fpifcd. 1 he firft corruption of men is moA frequently brought 
about in this way. They cannot bear to be avoided as rigid 
and precife, to be laughed at by their equals as being odd and 
fmgular, and defpifed as dull and void of fpicit. Uow many 
good and gentle difpofilions have been fcduccd tontrary to ihcir 
jeafon and natural bent, by the fear of raillery and contempt? 
^hcy arc afliaincd to perfcverc in what their companions dif- 
likc i they arc unwilling to lag, as it were, liehind them, and 
abaoidon cvctv thing ^oml, rather than become the objeils of an 
^furd ridifufe. For (bmc time they have remorfc ; by drgrecs 
ihey become familiar with vice, and contrail more boldneTs in 
finnin'* ; the ftiamc of doing well encreafcj, that of doing ill 
diminifties } in a fhort time tliey commit habitually, and through 
incltnatinn, that which at firft they did fcldom, and with inward 
ftrugglcs ; at length they arrive at an open contempt of piety, 
and, to crown all, credt to themfclves a f;ilfe phantom of ho- 
nour, which they are to puifuc through profanencfs and immo- 

Otcafiatsl Strmmi, 

nilltf. When men agree lo praife each othrr for vice, and 
ibuud thctr own reputation upon it, all icUuinra of reafon and 
religion are ovemirncd at once, and the whole deluge of wicked—^ 
nefs breaks in upon them. Suppofc a profligate ptrfon poflefTed 
of fume accidental advantages, diftinguifticd perhaps bj btrthi 
by fomc liiile glitter of wit or fortune, if he has hjd the art oc 
luck to become admtteJ, and« as it often happens tn a fiUy 
world, to render his vices admired with himfclf, what multi- 
tudes do we fee ready to copy after him in his worft qu:iiltiic» ? 
Example, faibion, and falfe Aiaxne make the contagion fpread, 
and the party foon grows fo ilrong, that they ftiuggle hard to 
overthrow the whole order of nature, to bear down the pria^ 
ciples ofrcafon and common ^cnit.^ to brand virtue with iiitamy, 
and make vice honoutable and glorious. Is it (trange that men 
fliould become very corrupt, where opinions of thi:i kind prevail, 
where the power uf faftiion, cuftom and apphufe, recommends 
and enforces immorality, where to bluih is accounted a weak^ 
neff, and impudence is efteemed a mark of good breeding ? Is it 
jufl caufe of wonder, that dilhoncfty and opprcfljon ftould pre- 
vail, where it is held a mark of geoeiofity and fptric, to lavifii 
away one's fortune on fm and folly, and then to aggrieve and 
defraud, to with-hutd waj^es from the hireling, ana juft debts 
firom the artificer \ Are temperance and fobriety likely to be 
oiuch praflifed, when to live in riot and excefs, and per]>etual 
iiitoxication, to add feaft to fealt, and join the morning to the 
evening, is held the chara<^erofa fncialand honelt mind } Can 
a due fcnfe of the Majefty and Goodncfs of the Almij;hty be 
prefcr\'cd, where to defpifc his word, and ncglci^ the day and 
place (et apart for his worfhip, is the avowed applauded prac- 
tice ? It cannot be denied that errors of thcfc kinds are too much 
encouraged ; that diOioneily in dealing, intemperance, fcducing 
of innocence and irreligion, are not only not abhorred, but 
often commended, and openly vaunted of. I'hus bad men for- 
tify thcmfclvcs in their iniijuity ; they have tne advantage of 
numbers; and by felting up fatfe mcafurcs of fhnme and ho- 
nour, they win over tJ>e young, the eafy, and unwary. They re- 
prtfcnt knowlcgc as pedantry, modelh' as awkwardnefs, religion 
as hypocrify, confcicncc as fupcrftition, a veneration of God 
and his laws as a fcrvile dailaidly fpirit ; with them immoralirr 
is true liberty ; midnight brawls, courage; a drfving of God 
and religion, i* a free generous fpirit. — Miftaken unhappy men \ 
Ye will too foon difcovcryoui error . that path which appears to 
plain and pieafanr, ye will loon find intricate and befct with 
cbe iharpeft thorns ; that phantom of honour which ye £b eagerly 
purfuc, will lead you among rock* and precipices, then vanilh- 
inc:, leave vou coven^J with infamy .itid mifcr)'. O icturn 
WhiJft vcyct may! Open vo-Jf e\ti lo ;lic truth fo nlJent of 
'3 ' ' Sx«wV^ 

'Mrs. MACAULAv'i Hifisry of Eailand. 

itfelff and attefted by chc wife ;inil good in all agn, thal> irhat- 

cvcr the pra^iccs and tenets of ihoTc about you mar be, there is 

^notliing truly honourable bat virtue, nQchinv ftutneful but 


From the previous advcnifemcnt to thcfe dtfcouries^ of th^ 
greatcd put of which we have gii'en a ttanfcfipt, out Readci 
may be led to conclude them to have been the wtirk of the late 
Dr. John Lawlbn, of Trinity College, Dublin ; and we learn,, 
from private, accidental intbrmation, thai they were the pto- 
duction of that learned and in^nious Wiiter. 

CancIuJwH tf the Aecount of Mn. Macaulaji Hiftory tf Ei^^ndj 
VU, If. See our laji Mtmh^t Rnifw^ P. 115. 

IN the former part of this Article, wc concluded with the re-" 
cilal of a very ftriking inftaiicc of rcgji tyranny, ia the 
feign of Charles the Firft. What wc find next obU-rvablc in 
thU hiOory, h Mis. Macaulay's account of the trial concerning 
ihip-money, in which the proilitutcd bench of judges, four in- 
dividuals excepted, gave fcnicncc agalnll the gilluM Hirffipdemy 
in favour of the crown. 

■ This trial [fays our HiAorian) which had been permitted 
in order to obiun a judicial record in favour of dcfpoiffm, 
hcl{>ed to roufe the public from that effeminate palTivcnefs which 
riches and luxury had occafioned. A long peace, and national 
induftry, had greatly enlarged the commerce, and cncreafed the 
opulence, of the people of En^lajul. Thcfc advinuges, due 
alone to their diligence and virtue, they now, by a logic which 
included alt the property in the kingdom, faw thcmfcives irre- 
coverably deprived of. *l'he more the late tranfaftiani were 
canvafTed, the more evidently did it appear, that ihc oM confti- 
tution vi-as totally fubvcrtci!, and tvratiiiy ctlablifhcd in its flead ; 
the utmoU violence cxc.'>.ikd agaiuil mens pcrfon:,and property, 
under the pretence of law and reafon : If am* thing could add 
ttt the indignity the public received, it rrnifl 6c fuch a mockery 
of their underfianding. The judgment in the cafe of Ibip mo- 
ney bound all men to a forced acquirfccnccj for the qucflion, 
whether the king could tmpofc taxes without confetti of parlia** 
ment> was never afterwards fuSered to be debatuJ.' 

Here the ingenious Writer has ;in agreeable oppoitunity of doing 

julficc to the fpirit and Integrity of one of her own k:<. * Re- 
lative, fays (he, to thi^ imporunttrial aiidjudjjmetiiin the cafe of: 
Ibip-moncyj I inuit rcmaik an anecdote tlutdot-:^ honour to the fe-*' 


wait fcx. Judge Crook» fearful ofi 

(ciitcncnt of a wicked and puwctfu) iiiiiiil)rv> had detertniDcd to 
give judgment for the Ictng ; but his wite, a woman of tiuc 
virtiie, addiL-iTed bim in a Ityle of SpaitHn magnanimiijr ; con- 
jurod him not to err ag^nft h:3 confcience and his honour for 
fear of Incurring danger or poverty : for herfclf, (he would be 
content to fuffer want or any roifcry, rather than be the occa- 
fion of his acting againft his judgment and his confcience. 
Crook, ttiuck. with the cxJicd fcntiments, and flrengthrned 
with the farther encouragements* of fo dcjr and pfrfuafive » 
friend, altered his purpofe. and not only gave hi^ opinion againit 
the king, but argued with a noble boldncfs and fiimncfs on the 
lide of law and liberty. That there is an example of this kind 
in the hiftory of my country, gives me infinite plcafure ;'. that 
there arc fo lew, 1 feel with a fenfiblc regret. Were tlw prin- 
ciples of the generality of the fcx as juft and as well founded as 
were thcfe of this refpcdable woman, it would have a very 
happy effect on the condu^ of fociety : we (houtd not have to 
lament fo many melancholy inftanccs of human weakncfv nor, 
particularly in this country, fuch a continued fucceffion of pa- 
triots falling from the higbcd pinn^tle of rcjiutation into the pit 
of fliame and infamy, and fucriliciiig the eJTential fuperiorities 
of virtue and honour to tiie fancied dil1iai5lions of a peerage and 
a ribbon !* 

It would indeed be a happinef* to fociety, if women, who 
give fuch a biafs to the morals and manners of men, were early 
taught to fet a juft value on folid and virtuous qualities, inftcad 
of admiring frivolwjs and delufive accompiiflimcnts. But ac- 
cording to the prefent modes of female education, it h difficult 
for a man of fcnlc and worth to make any impreHion on a wo« 
man's mind, wiiliout tirlt dcbafing bis own. 

Our Hlfiorian's account of the profecutions agamft Prynne^ 

Burton, and Bdttwtck, is extremely afFeiiing: *■ I'hc ciueJ fca- 
lencc [laifcd on Prynnc, Hurtun, ;iiid Baftwick, was yet more 
cruelly executed : the hangman performed his bloody office with 
an approved barbarity. Burton's cars were taken olf fo clofi;, 
that a confidemblc branch of the tcmiioral artery was wounded, 
and the blood dreamed down the fcafibld. Prynne's were hacked 
bjrbaroudy ; he Jufl a large ptc;.c of \m cheek with the re< 
mainder ci his ears, and the executioner- applied the burnin~ 
iron twice tn the branding of one check. The patient aiKl cvtii 
magnanimcus behaviour of the fuifciers heightened the pity and 
mcTtnation of the people : they croudcd with impatience round 
the fcaftblds, and every wound given hy the executioner pro- 
duced an univcifal groan and lamentation. I'be three hcroc» 
of thii uogic fccuc hanngucd the populace iii their turni : 

t7* Mrs- Macaulat'j HiJJtfy tf England. 

Frynne, wlih foine Tenfc and dignitj', told them* that ratlier 
than Hjvc his caufe a teatjingcaure to deprive the Tiibjc^Ss of Ihcirl « 
Hberty, he had expofed his perron to be a leading example to bear 
that ignomtniuus punifhrnenti he proved to ihcm tlic Illegality 
of the fentcnce palled on himfelf and fellow -futFerctrs \ tWit. there 
was no taw in the realm that authorired Aich tyranny, the fta- 
tute of quccii Maty limiting the puniihtnent oi* a libeller, even 
of the king or tgueen, to a fme of one hundred pounds, and one 
month's impiifonment) no corporal punlfhmciit, unlcft the de- 
linquent rcfufcs lu pay the fine \ in the ilatutc of Elizabeth, the 
penalty was heightened lo a fine of two hundred pounds, and 
three monihs impfifonmcnt, but no cenfurc lo be paflird unlcfs 
h vn.% fully proved by two witncfTes, who were to produce a 
ccnificatc tjfthcir good demeanor, for rhc credit of the re-port^ 
or elfc ihc crime to be conftfTed by the libeller.' ' 

The rollowlitg note on this pailage is, at this time efpecjalh''^ 
•oo inicrefting to be omitted. • From what Mr. Prynnc here 
advances it i& plain, that heavy fineji, long imprironment, and' 
tliofc ignominious puni(hmenift of whipping and the pillory, for, 
writing libels, arc contrary to Ihtutclaw. That they are in-^ 
coniiflcnt with libcity is obvious ; ftnce it i« incongruous to llic 
privileges of a freeman to be fubje^ to thcfe llavifh corrc^ons, 
for otticr than for crimes char debafc his nature y% a man. Tbe- 
conHitution of this country has never. been purged from the 
ftnom with which it was infirited by the ereflioii of the flat-, 
chamber: its infamous doArine and fcrvilc dilliplinc have in 
duny inftances been adopted in the couns of common law.* 

- To ihric fpiritcd and judicious rcflcfllons, we may add, that? 
the ignominious puniihincnts here fpokcn of bcti^y ihc wexlc-' 
ncfs a& well as the inhumanity of ihofe who pronounced them. - 
Where the ofFcnce in itfelf u not ignominious, no puoiflunrnt 
v^ich power CBQ infiick« can brand the fuiTcTcr nilh ignominy. 
"file unliaitpy vi^ims who were piniontti in the pillor)*, for dar- 
ing tci oppo c the hand of opprcITion, ueru in a fituaiion far 
niorc lionouxnblc th^n that of the robed judt;cs of the hij^h court 
of fiar chamber, fcaied in all the pomp uf dclegaicd tyranny. 

Our Hi(tri;iun purfues the detail of Charles's arbitrary pr 
cecdtng*, and of the difirefr« which enfued, whereby he wasi' 
comprlW at It-ncih to fimimon the memorabfc pailiamcnt which ' 
ctet in 1640. Thefe glorious patiiuts iminedtatcly entered on 
the rcJiefs of public grievances^ and the uccufaiion of public of- 
lenders. They preferred an impeachment againd the Ear! of 
StniFurd, who wa^ a Lapit4l crimin-il. 7'he pjrticulars of his ' 
ti(e arc well knovrn. This ir.ihumcnt of lyianny was ahan- ' 



Mr». Macaulay*; ffifny »f England, 

doncd by his mafter to the jufl rage of an injured people, who 
brought hlin fd the block. 

• Thuj, (&yi the Writcj) by the Aroltc of jufticc and tH? 
voice of his country, in ths fony-ninth year ot his age, died 
Thomas Viicounc Wentwonh an:l Earl of Strafford. His £no 
fau been Umenicd aiid loudly exclaimed ag^iait by m»ny wri- 
ters, who alicdge that the fcnicnce by which he fell was not 
•ccording to ft^tute-law, an<i therefore in'iquiious. This is an 
allertion contrary to fail, fincc part of Uie crmes for which 
Strafford was condemned was levying war within the ftitute 25 ' 
£d. HI. ahd felling foJdiers within the Irifli flatute of j$ Hen. 
VI. Yet, allowing this aflertion to be true, in the bed regu- 
lated governmenis, circumfinnces may arifc of fo particular and 
urgent a nature, at to render it necefTary for the IcgiHativc 
power to exceed the ftrid letttr of the law. England could not 
at this time be called a fettled government, fincc the king, by 
his illegal adminiftration, and violent nttcmpt^ to fubvcrt t^e 
confiitutton. had introduced a flato of confufion, which len- 
ftered ails of poaer necelTarj' expedients to rcinftatc the peoplci 
in their long^loft privileges, and give to violated laws their due 
authority i not to mcniion thdt combination of circumllanceti 
which rendered the dcjith of StralTord abfolutcty necefTary to the 
fafety of reviving liberty. Never was ciioiinal executed on 
principles of ftri£ter equity, nor was ever the life of a bad ci- 
tizen more juflly due to an injured country.' 

Here, though ws agtse with our Hiftorian, that Stiaffori 
deferved to die, yet we atnnoc fubfcrtbe to the principles oa 
which (he defends his fcnteoce. Admitting, as Die doe* for the 
lake ot argument, that his fentence wait not according to ils<> 
tutC'Inw, it cannot be conftirutionallj- juftificd. We d«ny that 
any circumftances can be of fu panicular and urgent a nature, 
as to render it ncceffsry for the Uiijlativt power to exceed the 
^ixdi letter of the law, fndced, there is an inaccuracy in faying 
ihat x\ic li^iJJaiivt power can exceed the law, ftnce whatevfi the 
Ifgijtaluie c\txh)\(^e% ii the law, and it is m t\i& juditial »x\A txe* 
oftivt branches only that it can properly be cxccctlcd. But, ntit 
to cavil about propriety of exprclfion, we are bold to infiA that 
all the three powerj together, cannot legally or equitably dcf 
dare a Xrwtttfeji fails. There is no circumfbncc whatever more 
(tTential to the principles of public liberty, than that every one 
ftiould be acquaitKcJ with the law, and wiih the pen*J:y of 
tr^nttrctfing it. Miftra tjl ftrviius uhi jus rjf rujww aid nuc^'- 
nitum. We have always tnoughi ihercforc the extraordinary 
claufe in the Aatute oftrcafon to be (lan^crfius, and totally rcr 
pugnant to the principles of a Irce couftiiuiipn ; — wc nwan the 
claofe obi icing the judges, if any other catc Ihall hap^cti lit*. 

Riv. Apjil, 176s. T ^'^'^ 


Mrs. Macadlay'j Hijiciry cf England, 

thofe piTticuluIy fpeciiied in the a£), to refer it to the king an^ 
parliament, whu arc to dccUre whether it be trcafon or not. 
This claufe was Juniled on in (he trial of ScraJTord, and though 
the principles of fubftani'ul julHce were not violated by thus 
condemning the bale inllnimcnt of opprcflion, yet the dllcrcet 
friends of liberty will always be cautious how tlicy do her a 
temporary fcrvjce, by eftablilhing a preccdfnt whichj on future 
ocxafions, may be employed for her dctUu^ion. 

WirhthcprcfentHmorian'scharajStErorStrafTori?, weOiallclofe 
cur cxtraiJU : * Strafford is oii« of the heroes of the monjrchicat 
party, and moft hiftorians agree be was a great man \ but none 
of them bavc taken pains to delineate his chaia£ter, or (ell lu 
wh;tt wcic the eminent (Qualities of hii hcxd or heait, which 
conilitulcs tliat grcjiticfs. It has bcCii alleged, that Strafford 
was a great {latcfmRn, a tharaiflcr of tlic liighcll rnimatioii in 
its juO I'cnrc : but iii that exalted appell:ttic>i), imihin^ more t« 
mtant bv the vulgar, than being a proficient in the narrow circle 
of miniileiial juggling, the abilities of a Scapin to cheat the cre- 
dulous and unwary r A knowlcgc in ihc extenfive fvicnce of 
politics, the different conOitutions of different focieties, ihejufl 
intercfls of nations, and the opera'.ivc cficif^ which polltii-ui in- 
ilitutions have on the public weal, when united to a head and a 
heart Capable of cmplnying it to the real lervicc of mankind, 
confiitute the character of a great ftatefmaii. In tbc latter fenfc 
Scraff'itrd will be found totally deficient ; in the. other he mull 
be allowed to cxctll. His tah-nts were of that inferior kind, 
which arc always lound untied to a b^fc niiud: the.badnefs 
of \ivi heart had I'e corrupted his judgment*, that at the iim« 
vhcn he was cii^ in the defence of the liberty of hi> couu- 
Uy, he diKS not Icem to have been actuated by any juft, hoiieft. 
or liberal principle. He was too ignorant of tlic nature of the 
jConAitution, and the laws of KiigUnd, to form a right judg- 
ment of the ffate cf the queftioii between the king and bu 
people i and entered into the qunrtcl with a faiEtious view to op- 
pole particular perfoiu to whi>m he lud an inveterate enintlv, 
and to make liitnlcirorconrequencc enough to be noticed by the 
miniffrt'i His patriottfm dilibUed on the ffiff beam of court fa- 
vour V be was intoxicated r>n the firll taOc of power, and be- 
came a more bold and '/.tral'jiis inHrumcnt of tyfanny than any 
ininiftcr this country ever piodnccd. He waj of a revengeful, 
tnfolcnt dil'pofiliun i Uul hii fuprcme %ice was an infaiiabtu am- 
jMtinn, dirc^cd to f^fc and unlawful objcdts. Among his wc^ik.- 
nciles we ma^ reckon his vimity : this was the fouice from 
Avhence flowed his crtmcs, and this the piimc caufe pt his iniC- 
Ibrtuncs. No infiauic can give us a juUcr idea to whut a height 

^ S Or. rather. liie bidnels of &it jid^aicni had conupted lyii heart.' 



Kirs. Macaui-av'/ Hiftfry efEttghrJ. 

be poITcfTeJ this contemptible folty, than his pcrfecution of 
mSnJ' people for not a«ni>IyJng with thofe il-rvile ceremonies 
whiih h« imagined due to his auchorhy. Hts revival of fct cral 
fopiiifb formalltici of Aate, duiing his con^manJ in IrcIanJ, '\% 
another example of the fime kind.' In *l] his letters lo ihc 
king* and hi& patron Laud, he alTumcd to himfelf great merit 
and importance \ whilft he dcgtadcd the fcrviccs nf every other 
man, excepting tltofe of his own crcaturcj. His bchavioui was • 
iiilbknt to his fellow-fubjeils, and alye£l to his prince. He was 
coniinually ftimulaiing him to a£ls of CjTanny, by r.'prefencing, 
in phrafcs botnbaft, U;e fublisiily of his power, and lliat i{ uas 
jiecclTsry to curb the infoJeiit oppofition of his fubjctfl.';, by fe- 
verc and vigorous meafurcs. Laud he conftantly courted, b«- 
caufe he knew the abfolulc power tliis prelate had obtained oicr 
the king. Such was the mnn whom ti.e wurtd ba^ luudcJ wit^i 
applsufe. His talents as an orator have been much admi.-^ed : 
the conclufion of his dcfaicc is infiiiiicly preferable to any oijior. 
of his productions of this kind. In his general flyle of writing 
and fpcaking ihctc is an inrolencc, a pcliilaiicc, a vulgar qujitit- 
ncfj, which tnark the gci.ius and difpofitiun of the man, 2nd 
vhich ran through the whole tenor of hh comiuch Tlie cri^ 
niin^itj* and arrogance ul' his buluviour tendered bim fodan-. 
gerous anil obno:kiaus, that no Icfs than three kingdottis en- 
gaged with wjrmth in his profecution ; and tlic fcntcncc of 
dcittb paired upon bim gave univerfal fap^f»<5tion. I'he inJul- 
geiice, therefoff, with which his memory has been treated i:zv\. 
have no other rifc than from t^c prejudices of piirty and hii 
end; the axe and the hiittcr are cxcclieut fpecihcs lo fubiiui: - 
ahger and foft^n rcfentment.' 

From the foregoing fperimcn we n»ay judge of our HirtoriLin's 
mcrir in (IclinL-aling cturaclcrs : and we may venture to ikyy 
Ihat in juflncf^ of Jrnwing, and in llrength of colouring, tne 
fair Writer jicldj to none. Upon the whole, tbis h'ftaiy, 
though, ai we have hinted before, not fo circuinfiantisl as 
might be wifhcd for the fake of ocraftnnal reference, is, as far 
as itgocs, fo elegant, xniniaicd and judicio'JS, that even critic^, 
who are not to be fuppofcJ the njoft gallant men unori eanh, 
cisimot furbcar congrajulaii-.g the litmry rej>ul»lic upon the ap- 
pearance of this fcioaic Hilloiian, who docs honour lo her f«x 
and to hcrtountry. 

In the intiodudlory part to our account of th'! fifft V0iUfne» 
«*c jocularly intimated that we wtic not at liberty to fup,to;<i 
Mrs. Macaulay ii'.airicd ; as we could never bc!ii:vc that a lily 
who woifhipp(d LiUrrty like her, cnild evci vow nbrJicncc x.» 
the tjTant Man. U'c arc j;lad n-ver.htUr'' to find, tl«o 
wuitiMi ts not loft in tb^ hlficrijn ; and wc are difpofi:d ti n.v\ 

ajA Tf ' Sautf cf tbt Genir. 

(a propfnfity narsrat to critics) the happy hufbanJ, who cnje 
an zmubic companion, fuch as LitiUtsn dcfcribcs- 

Who to the force of more than manly fcok, 
Can join the fofininn; influence 
Of moce than femah: tendrrncls. 

Tht Battit 9fii)t Gtn'ii. A Fragment, /» Thrtt Cantt't. Taken 

from art atuitnt Br ft Manuferift^ faffifetf ta he writtfn hy Caith^g 
bril., the Grandfafbtr tfCaihttlUn. Ficm tht Plan «f thh Panm 
it is highhf froiahlt nur grtot Miliar; te^t tht iftnt if fjis Ralltt 
tf the Fallen jtngtlt. Done intfv Englifli by the Author of 
Homer Ttavertic. 4*0. as, 6d. Hooper, 

THERF have been critics, who have thought fare^ fuch 
anuthcr ttfft of x^c fnhtimt in htfr^iwrc, as ridicule is o5 
trvtb in phrlofophy. There are others who thiok it a proof oC 
the taflc and refinement of the pn-fent age, that this fpccica of 
willing fecms to have Infl the gr-.mnd Jt formerly held in the 
tftimaiion of the public. We fliall not prefume to call iiu 
queftion the wry rctincd taflc of our own times ; biu we caa- 
noi hrlpnhfccving chat modern dclivacy is carried fo fiir, as al- 
moft to fupprcl'i all ariempts at wit and humour among ui. 
Th«t ex<|U(litc m-iflci of tiue huniour» the late Mr, Fieloing, 
long ago comp'ainrd, that the aiitip«!hy of the town to every 
ihtng humorous and Isvj^ had fn rrfinrj our dramatic poefyt 
ihiit the if»c.ilrc was become ai dull and Uifipid as the drawing-' 
room. The fjmc may \k fjjd, with u-jiard to moft pioduAioii! 
of the prcfs ; the ft-ai of iuounu*" ilic unj>utarioii of inelegance 
and want of t:»[lc, hdlh r-ftcaiticd m;iuy a promifing geniuft 
ftcm putfuing lUe « bcni of lii> imagination 1 the unbiaffiri 
exertions only d lA'hich, cuu be t>rodu<fiivc of genuine wit and 
bttniour. Hence it is that. iultf4d of WArming us wrch the 
f|tirifn) fiiKics of vivacity, ^t indiijig touchci of tenfiJiility, or 
l))e bold and d^irinj; flrnk-s of iriu- *»t, our writers crccp» for 
,ihr mult- part. fcrviMy «u. ui the lamtv trite, timid, tra^ of 
inf^Ad mtdiocriey ; llarving us wi:h iljc frigidity of barrett 
bf^iuiy, and cold cnircflnefs. \Vc h.ivc, indeed, fome rrceac 
fxccptioni ; but the virulence r f niiiiniuil or perfonal abufe, w\A 
the lufcious innuendoes of h.i!f-co!'cc,.Ud h.iwdfy, arc we AihI 
by no means iiKOnfiflent wlih ihc f\fleni of modern delicacy. 
On the contiary, ihcfi; it fct-infi aic virtues, which compcnfate 
fur a mulrimdc of fiults. All thtfc I'wngs confidcrcd, it is a 
complicated piece of bufincfs, to cilculaie the chance which thi% 
|jjoduflion runs, of a^nod or,'iJoa wiUi the public. 

fn its favour U may be fatd, that it contains a fufficicnt quantity 
both of national* and pcrlonal abufe, and lays claim to both 
the modifti phraies wry and high. The odds run aga:nil it, in that 
lit is intf and humerout, with the help of very lititr or fcarce' 
any bawdrv- To make amends for ihe want of the latter, 
towcvcr, there is more than a quantum fiifficit of irreligion and 
impiety. To fp<ak feiioufly, wc are on this account highly 
©(Tended with our Aurhor» whofc wit, fpirit and humour, wc 
ncvcrthclefs caimut hut adiHiie. Our Readers may remem- 
ibcr, that, in fpeaking of parody, on a farmei' occafionf^ wc 
f inudc fome remarks on the incfficacy cf burlefqueing fubjci^s in 
■ tbemfelves mean and ridiculous, fuch as are now the fidttious 
% pcrfonagcs of the heathen mythology. If this ingenious Writer 
•took the hint from thence, to exchange the battles recorded 
■in Homer, for the balile of the siigcls in Milton, he fliould have 
made a proper difl'tni^ion between the obje£ls of Chriftian and 
iheathcn theology. With the chara^rs of the devil and his re- 
jKllious fplrits he mi^ht. indeed, uke what liberty he picafed ; 
tut there is neither wit nor humour in trifling with things really 
facred. Proiu/y 0, /Vtkw/ //?* prtfuni. Hoping, therefore, that 
our Author will omit fome few very CKceptionable palTaf^es in a 
future edition, we proceed to give our Readers a lliort fpecimen 
<oi the entertainment they are like to meet with in this truly 
shumorous and nfible performance. 

The combat between Michael and Satan, defcribed in tbc 
th book of Milton, is thus clofcly parodied : 

The Vaile ihus ended, each bold Sprite, 
Prepar'd his fword and Ihic)d for Egrit i 
Word* can't dcftiihc how fierce ihcfe foes 
Appeared, when llanding on ilieir tote. 
So tall they grrw, and look'd lb hi^h, 
A finglefparn>iv could not fly, 
fictwixt ibcir noddlct and the fkj'X* 
They wav'd in »ir. ihoic backiwrndi keen, 
With Tiieh jnodi^toos wrath and Iplecn, 
That vv'iih the \cty wind alone. 
Five thouland Spiriit tumbl'd down ; 



• I he Author carrying on. thrnogh the whole piece, an allufitm, or 
"ilinilitude, bet«'ceti the rebHtioui Angels and the Scotdi Higblandcn. 
t Sec Review, Vol. XXX. page i\\. 

' X They ended parie, and both addfcfs'd for fight 
-- ' UnfpcakaWc; lor who, though with the tonjuc 
Of ojigds, can relate, or lo what ibinas 
Liken on earth c:on(picuoot. that may lift 
^hiiTfin imagination to fuch iieignth 
Of jjodlike power ? 

>|iLTOk'* Paradifc Loft. B. 6. v. 296, «oe. 

T 3 Bat. 

' Bnt foon got op. and then the elvn» 
Toolc better care to fave tbemfelTes ; 
They nimbly whipp'd from fide to fide, 
And left a circle nine miles wide. 
If fliort ibings may compare with taller, . 
Juft fuch apn?; but rather fmaller. 
You fee the wide-mouth'd rabble make. 
When they have got a bull at flake. 

And now they both toeetber reckon'd, 
. A good firft blow would Uve a fecood ; 
So aim'd at once, but Ugnot's blade, 
Wat by that dext'rous cutler made, 
From whom Fefrara_lloIe hit trade. - 
It fell with fuch a weighty blow, 
As cut poor Draco's blade in t»-o ; 
Ard (liiling with a thund'ring fliocfc. 
From off his noddle lopp'd a rock : 
, 1'he piece that tumbled from his fkulT. 

Pell down and fbrm'd the Ide of Mull ; 
■ ■ Then to the right the fabre wheelM, 

.' And cut a Hicefrom offbii fliield J 
Noi; flcipt it there, but fa rthfr flew. 
And cut poor Praco half la two ; 
What could he do in fuch a ci>ie } 
But make a damnable wry face ; 
And wreatb'd himfelf from fide to fiJe, 
' Like culprits at a cart' nil t/'d : 
Forth rufli'd hi* blood, bi)t blood of Sprite, 
They lay, is neither reJ nor white*, 
Bat of a jnea'y-coIourM grey, 
B^lembling dirty curds and whey ; 
It dropp'd oy gallons o'er the field. 
And ftain'd the poltlb of his ftiield. 
At this hi) fellow Sprites approach^ 
And bear the Rebel to his coch f. 
*' A coach i Why, Sir, that's nothing new,^ 
*''A11 Rebels ride in coaches now ; 
" Thcrtfore no interruption pray," 
They bore him to his coach we'll fay. 
Making fuch mouths for mge and fpite. 
As if the very ground he*d bite ; . 


From the gafti 

A flrexm of neA'r(Mislium'<r ifTuing &ow*d ' 

Sanguin, fuch as celeflial fpirits may.bleed— Ibid, v. 333* 

■\ And sll his a|-mour ftain'd crevhile ib bright. 
Forthwith on all lidcs 10 his aid wa? ran 
By angels maoy and Itrong, who interpos'd 
Dctbtice, while othe-s bore hipi on theirlbiclds 
Back tohischario:.'^^ . Ibid, v. 33;. 

■ Q:;ite 

TJn Laws and Policy of Srt^la/uiy tfr. 27a 

'Quite mad to think that loyalty. 

Had got a flrongcr arm than he. 

As for the wound orihis queer loon, 

It heal!d itfelf up very loon ; 

For like the polypus, 'tij faid, 

The^c fpiritj are all uil and head. 

And wiih tlie polypus we know, « 

ISew heads and laih will quickly grow *. 

Our very droll Author has followed his original as clofely fn 
many other parts of the performance ; in which be hath, in our 
opinion, even out -Cetion'd Cotton himfelf. 

" All heart they live, all head, all eye, all ear, — IlHd, v. 3^0. 
The whole of this pajTage h ingeniouily and hidicrogfly parodied. 

The Laws and Policy of En^IanH^ relating to Tradt^ examintd hy 
the Maxims and Principles of Trade in general ; and by the Lauif 
and Policy of other trading Nations. By the Author of the 
Treaiifc pf the Police of rrancef* &c. 410. 3s. Harrifbn. 

TT is vi-ith pleafure wc fee philofophy, fo long mifemployed iti 
fchotaftic quibles and barren fpeculations, begin to reafliimc 
its primitive occupation and dignity, in adviling the maxims and 
dirc-tfting the affairs of human fife. The adminiftration of go- 
vernments, and the management of the commercial intcrefts of 
the world, have been fo Jong under the direiUon of merc.«r/, 
tliat to talk of reducing politics to afijcnce, appears to many al- 
together chimerical. It is flrange, however, that thofe who 
would think a mariner totally unquiiUlied to be maftcr of a fhip, 
if ignorant of navigation as a fcience, can yet fuppofc any one 
qualified to manage the helm of a itatc, who can but onte get 
hold of the rudder. It will be admitted us, indeed, that the 
ancient legiflato.s were philofophcrs, and that 3 fyfbsm mgbt 
tuke place in the laws of a fimplc, undivided people, Without 
commerce and without connexions ; whcieas in our times, it 
is faid, the political interel^s of nations are become fo compli- 
cated and various, that the mind of man is by no means com- 
prthenfive enough, to embrace and reduce them to any ratif>- 
ral theory. Such is the apology which blockheads out of place 
are fomctimes kind enoui;hto mukc for blockheads that are in. hi 
the mean time, we have the fatisfaiiion now and then, of fceitig 
fome mafterly outlines, of different parts of the vart fyflem of 

i See Review, Vol. XXVIII. page 424. 

T 4. fcietxcc 'v 

Tht LtU't an J Polity t/£tigiam/f 

fcience ; wb'icb if complcated, would be the mod noble, as l\ 
would bo the mod ufcfiU of all others. Uifcoveria in nature, 
or improvements in ;irt, are ufcful to a nation only as its poli- 
tical lyHcm rnublcs it to [jroiit by them. In vain, then, da we 
lavilh premium*, or beftow honours, on the improvers of fubor- 
dinate arts and icienccs, whiie that of civil and commercial po- 
licy is neglected^ Is it credible fhat one of the moft refpcdable 
Societies oi this kingdom, (h<iuld aflually give a confidcrable re- 
^xnl for a nicchanicil iniprov^ment, of which the laws oV our 
country abfolutely prohibit the cxuicifc? yet this, we arr af- 
fured, IS t^& ; (o that unlcfs the Ic^iOaturc (Hould repeal fuch 
laws, wc fliall have cxcricil our Jnduflry and ingenuity in ihia 
Ijeafe, ai we bave verv frequently douc iii others, only for the 
benefit of other nations. 

Among fcvcial ingenious tra^s that have lately flrueic at fhc 
root of this evil, we ouy venture iafcl^ togive the piel'eicnce Co 
this before us j both on account of the exienfivcnefs of the de- 
.£gn and the manner of its execution. The rery fenfible sn4 
dirccrning Author advance^, indeed, little that it new j and is 
jK>t OIK of thofe fptigblly adventureis, who delight to puexle 
rvitii paradox, or furprizc with novelty. His Obljtrvacjoai are 
'jT the moO part geiKral, well Icnown^ and vrell founded ; but 
ie tiglu in which he bach placed them, and the ufc he hath 
ic of them, as well in the illuftration of each other, as to the 
'purpofe of hit main argument, difcovcr the hand of a mancr 
both ia politict* andcoropofiiion. 

This perrormance is dividerf into three parfi j preceded by an 
Introdu&ion, in which the Writer premifes fome general confi- 
rratioru rcrpefting the populouCnefs and profpcrity uf n natioa. 
is from thefc confiderations he endeavours to deduce the true 
lem of national commerce ; wtiich, he conceives wc may im- 
3ve to our advanrage, by adapting our laws to fuch principle^ 
id maxims of policy, as will bed promctco— — 

Firfi, The iftcreafc of our products and manufaflures itt 

Staadt/, The advancement of our commerce abroad. And 

ThtrJfy, The due circulation of the money and credit arifing 
[from both. 

Our Author coniidera thefe fubjcAs in their order ; each form- 

* Tf it, indeed, to fucH wnttngt as thcfc. we would gladly eon&oe 

^fhisterp. What are ufually called ^*>'Va/ pamphlets, hiving nothing 

fo do w!ih Pitlity properly fu called ; being le! Joai any thin^ more than 

the pAnisI cffiiiiont of pcifunal intcrell, ordifcontetitcd faftion on the 

pbc band, and niniftciial influence on the otlic 

Ttiathjg to Trseftf txamjntd. 


ing one general divifton of his work. In treating the firft, he 
begins with the encouragement nccefliiry to he given to hufj- 
taudry, for nituig the ncccdary pruviftuns for the fullct^alice of 
life, and the origiiul niucriiiU for the fupply uf out minufac- 

With regard to the cultivation nf land, he remarks, that in 
coaunon ctliniation we fliould look upon the improvement of 
rrery individual fpct of ground, as an addition of To much land 
to the kifigtloin in general. As an encouragement ro fuch culti- 
vation, alfo, he thinks the exportation of ihc necei?iiry provi- 
fioiu of lifc, abfolutely necciTur)-. * But here let us obfcrre, fayi 
he, that the exportation is to t'.iT, and no farther, to be indulged^ 
than as it may encourage the labour of our people, and incrcaft 
pur own cultivation i as, on the other hand, the Importation trf" 
what is foreign ii fo far, and no farther, ro be reftrained, thaji 
as it may difcouragc the labour of our people, and dccreafc our 
pwn cultivation. Hoth muft be governed by the appearance of 
pur own quantity at home, exporting the overplus when wc en- 
joy an aburvdance, and importing a fupply when we are undc 
any want or fcarcity. The raiftng the neccflaries of life, froi 
the produce of our own land, is one end wc ihouM aim at ^ i) 
procuiing a plentiful fupp'y is another. To obtain both thcf 
ends would certain'y be the mod beneficial ; but it Is plenty of 
t^rovifiont, wc (hould principally endeavour to fccurc, fmce upon 
this depends the price of labour apd the fucccjs of every other 
^ranch of trade and biiftnels/ 

This leads r>ur Author very naturally to make Tome refledior 
on the diHcrence bet^i-oen real and ariilidal ienrcity, and 
thofe pefts of focicty, ^.reftallcrs, rcgrators, and engroflers. Hh 
proceeds next to confidtr the efiV^s; which plenty and fcarcity 
of provifionahaieonotirmanufiAures} which bcinga fuSjcH of 
ihe utmoft imporuncc to thefe kingdoms, we fhall beg le^ive td 
quote the whole of what he hath advanced on this heaiT; having 
purfelves fomc animadvcrfions to make on the fubjeft. 

• Wc fliould endeavour, fays our Author, to render the cx»^ 
pence of living cheaprr in this country than it is atrtat/, i||J 
order thereby lo reduce the price of labour, which will enable m 
to offer our merchandicrs at a cheaper rate, and confcquciitly 
pbtain a preference at all the foreign markets. 

• Sech are the confcquences naturally refulting from the be- 
^rcgoiog premifcs ; for as pifify or jtarcity Will determine the 
■frict ef pr9viji?ni-, To the price of prov[fions will in general de*i 
■termine the ^/ri- c/"/dAffW, and the price of labour will deter-i 
mine the frice of all produ^ons and commodities whatloevef. 


TIjt Laim and Ptlicy ofEnghnd^ 

• In examining this chain of the firft principles of Trade, we 
^^ay dilcovcr federal difficuliies in forming our meafures fo ail 

Yo anfwcr the ultimate end and benefit of it : for the end an4] 
•fccnefil of Trade being the cniptoymcnt of the people, wc mu( 

, excite them to it by the allurement of prolit ; but the prolir 
employment muft aiife from the high wages that are paid for tt ;' 

, yet lo give high wages nuift occaftuu deurnefs in the workman- 
ihip, which will obftruiit their Ctic ; as, on the other fide, low 
wages will be a (iilcouragcmcnt to any Work at all. So again, 
if provificMii 3IC told dear, where Hiiill wc Bnd a vent ? ajid if J 
ihcy are ibid cheap, where will be the piolit in raifing ilicm V 

•^cUdcs, cheapnclit of living, wcknow, often proves an induce- 
4ncnt to idlcnefs ao:! a ueglci^ of iadulhy in every other ocai- 
'paiion ; it being obfcrvcd, that when labouren can cam a« 
much in two oi three day!^, as ui chr^p Icafons will Icccrp ibetn. 
«he xt& of tbewt^clc, (hey arc apt to Jay afide tUeir wotk. for the] 

|*.*f cmaindcr of the time. 

* Now to combine circiimrtancesfo fuctningly oppofife, oiiji 
drft rule mig^ht he to proportion the (irice of labour as near a>j 
may be to the price of living -, if the price of one anfwers to th« 

[other, bufinefii will go on without intcrrupiian^ for as the la* 
>.1}ourcr gets nothing by the dearncfs of wages, when it is at- 
tended with equal dearncfb of living j fo neither will he be icU 
'Juced to idlcnefs fiotn the ehcapncfs of living, when it i& a^ 
'tended with equal chpapntfs of wages. AcccrJingly our UwH 
have empowered the jiiftices of pcjcc to fctllc thefc on cveii 
terms with regard to the labouring men em|iU>ycd in huiban- 
,(Uy ; but in other works, where (kill is rcquifKC, we niuft ex- 
peil the artift will demand a rccompence adequ-ite to his (kill 
in the workmijiniip; and this can only be IV'ttlcd by fuchagrcc- 
t' mcnt as may be entered into between the niafter and fervant. I 
.have jiili alxivc fnrmik-J the difficulty of reconciling the profit of 
thefc individuals to the generjj int^refl ot I'radc, agreeably to 
the true fyilem of national commeixre. Our Iaw& indeed, ia 
fomc cfriain manufai^urc^, and <Kher occnpilion^ have :it- 
"lempred to limit the demands of the fcrvants and 
to fi>mp certain bounds, with regard bolh towages and times of 
Working; but ai the remedy niuft be obtained by the tedious 
tnrthods of inforrnationa in our coens of juftice, ific evil oficn- 
ttmcs remains without redrcis, on account 'of ihc cxpfncc of 
jiottiiig the law in execution. Whereas in France the 
.L'di^l uf J669 empowers the magiUratcs in every town and city, 
where any ntaaut'a^liircs arc cllablttlicJ, to decide all difputes 
Jjctv/crn the nulli-rs and journeymen, with rrgird to wages, in 
a luminary manner, wi'houi the inteipofiiiun of fuUictior or 
cpuikiiit, which ofhcrwile, «s it is exprcned in the 'preamble, 


relating to Trade^ examined. 


migTit create tcJious and expcnfivc law-fuits, and draw off boihj 
parties from the puffuit of iheif bufinefs and the profit of thcif J 

■employment. But ilwrc is another evil j-ct more difficult to rc-I 
drefs in our country, 1 mean, the unlawful combinations of ar-] 
tificers and workmen, who often aflbcijte, proinife, and cove-] 
lunt together, not to do any work but at a certain nlc : I have] 

' elfcwherc mentioned by what feverc punlfhrnents the magiftratcs] 
in France efFeflmlly fopprcfs any fucK daring infulis on their! 
goveitxmcnt ; and as thcfe aflbciaiions ure attended with the! 
fame bad confcqurnces as thofe which arc made to Tender pro*] 
viftoni dear, ami are equally complained of, as the growing rrilsl 

' of the prcfenc times, ihcy ought equally to be guarded againit hfi 

k s driver execution of our penal laws; for to levy penalties on] 

Ihofe who railc the price of pfovifioni, will avail but littlc^j 

>^junlefs the fame be inflided on thofe who nu'fe ihe price of 

• Thefe abufcs being retrained, we muft recur to the general 

principles of liberty, fo often before rcconimcn-'ej, and which, i 

upcn the conclufion of this point, I be^; leave to,.! 

naoicly,*-'rhat a general Ubtrlf gnnicti to raife our necefTaryj 

provifions will procure us a gtneral plenty for Cale ; — That ^ gtA 

'■nrrnl ir,Ju!genie allowed to their /ir/r will reduce them to a ^tnerA 

chtapneft ; — and. That a gtnernl ilvnpnffi will pnablc otir poor td 

worit in every occupation upon moic moilcratc terms; an ex-j 

, pcdient themoft iieccflary in this countiy, becaof- as Englifli-J 

men will not fubirit to that cojrfc fare, which fome of uiir 

neighbours are acrurtomcd to, a mitigation in the price of pro»J 

vlfions is the only method we can rcfort to for ait abateineot in] 

the piice oi hbvur.' 

It is vcr)' certain that, with regard to the general principle*] 

adopted in ihc above paHages, thry are undoubtedly' jult: buti 
'tTicrc fccms to be fome eflcntial diftiiK^ion in the terms our 
•Author hath ufed, to which he hsth not fufKticnily eitrndejj 
Land which ate Uie more impoitant as they afTc^ the main inrctit 
^^nd dtfign of his argument. Before we enter on thcfe points^ 
Jjiowcver, we muft talte jioticc of fome little inconfincncy in h'» \ 
ftcafoning. Near the beginning of the above quuuiion, he fup-J 
^pofcs thzt OUT manufacturers muft be allured vo Wiri by a vic\r 

o( prtfil : u>w^rd the latter end, he fpcakf of them as being efi- ' 
\til'/ed to work on insderate terms by the theapneft of frmjijianui 

Kow, whatever allurements proRt may have, to induce ttad-it ^ 
'to rilk their fortune or credit in projediing new fchcmrs of fjlsi 

dnJ eonfumption, certain it is that theJe nre as far above tbQ' 
I views, ax the rc^th, of the main body of omc mnniif,i^liircr« , 

and aniuns. The utmofl cxpeclatioas of ihcfc, can he n< 
(Other than a di»ccnt provifion for thcmfdvcs and fAmilicj, by 

73^ Jjoiii oJid PtSty of Evglaniy 

means of tbcirJaboarood ioduflry. Tbc bin of the labmicr 
ican with no manner of propriirty be ftilcd Prtfit^ nor indoed 
tiavc fuch people in general any idea of it. Prgvifions may bCi 
io dear, as to render thcra unable to work, at a ccitaln ptice^ ; 
[JbccauCe (Key would be unable to fubiift on their Ubour ; but 
chey are (6 far frum being allured by piofU, thai our Aulhofl 
^imfelf cnnfeHes, that if tbey can earn as much in two or thice 
^l3avs as will Iteep them the reft of the week, ihcy will idlc- 
,away ihe remainder : fo that, though they might come to wojIc 
';cirlief and in better fpirit^ on Monday morning, they would have 
I jio more money to receive, and not have done mote than half' 
<he work, an Saturday aight. than what they would have had^ 
if the price of their labour had been only the half. Profit majrj 
allure thofc to woit, who can ful>Iift wfithont ii \ but neccffitj^I 
only will compel tbole who cannot ; and of thefc lattki do the] 
ditixans and manufatfturcn of every nation confift. 

Thus we fee that hl^h wsgcs, when provifions are cheap, 
icrvc only todiminilli the quantity of u-otk done, and encourage 
'habits of idU-ncfs In our workmen ; than vrhieh noihini; can bsi 
I Aorc fatal to a nation: for idlcnefs is the mother of mifchtef, w 
well as the patent of vice and dtfcafc. In a commercial view atfb^j 
lr it is phin that, not only the rhcapncfs of our mamtradures* but 
. xhe quantiiy of them, depends on the moderate price of labour ; 
liow« true policy requiring that our hbourers and ;miuns 
.Hlould br cunOamly cmplo)'cd, the pilcc of labotif will appof 
to b« always too high, when a man may do as mitcb work in 
tlueedays as will krrp him fix. if the Icj^ifiatufe, however, or 
civil magiAratc, is always lo imerpolc, when the price o/labo^ 
advances j'jovc this ftandaid, the cafe of our hbouring poor is 
extremely hatd. Doomed to inceffant I.if:otir without even the 
poSibilit)' of faving nny pirtance of their wagC5» agaioft a lime 
of rickncfs or accident, tbctr cuniltiion is Iticle better than abjcd 
/Invery. It is fjid, that as few of them would fave any thing, 
hud chcv an opportunity, the national intereft requires they 
fliould all be thus reftrained from idlcnefs. Tons, thefe means 
f' appear (oo indifbrimlnate ; as, however rxpedicnt they may be, 
r with rcfpc£t to the ftupid or indolent, tbey arc aibitrary and op- 
prcflivc with regard to tbc ingtnious or induftrious. The an- 
cient cuflom of paying lafcourcr* and artisans by the t/ir/, in- 
r ilead of the funt haih not only contryiuted much to prevent 
I* the increafe of induflry, but hath introduced % fallacy into al- 
l ' jmoft all our re. fonlngs on the price of labour. When the laws, 
" or the magillratef, limit the wages of the wotltman, and the 
time of his working, we conceive they do not Uy him under the 
* neceOity of doing any certain quantity of work in fuch time. It 
' may be replied, indeed, that a nia^c;^ luiows what is a gooi 
'" • '■ • dajr% 


Tttaiing to 7radt. ixam'mtJ. 

lay's work, and if fuch workman is Qanr nridle, he will not em-, 

j>loy him. Very good. But is thai agooJ djy'a worknuw, whidk. 
was To an hunuied ye^rs agoj or is what we nr:^ call a good day'* 
Work, lo continue to to che end of time^ A mailer msy refuse lot* 
'-employ a flow workman ^ butwc will fuppo.'c ibcrrffailoryjour-, 
Incymen in znj braoch of bufinefs^ iiiUnd of illegally combmingi 
to raifc the pnce of wages, Ihould tacitly combine to be proper-, 
ftionabty Qow at their work ; remedy ? Add to all this, 
' that it is extremely abfurd to fuppofc the abilities and trvdudry of j 
every indivtJual UtfiT equal, as to fct them thus indifcriminately' 
so a level with regard lo wages. It is hard upon a man, who 
could wiih as much cafe ^-arn rhirty ftiillingi a-wvek as another* 
coulti twenty, to be prevented exeriing bis fupcrior (Irengili- 
and agility; which is ever the cafe if he is confiived to the fame'j 
^waec». Nay, wc hive known workmen in fomc branches oP; 
tkvunefs, who have givca their maAcrs as much fatisfa^ton ill 
(earning four guineas in a week, at piece-work, as they have*] 
; Wt'ore done at working by the lime as lung for a guinea. It ii,' 
true, that fome kinds of labour cannot eafily be thus efHmaied (* 
.but we will venture to fay, that whenever it ^an it eught-, both' 
[for the encoaragement of the ittduArious arttzan and for tha> 
[profit of his employer! *or it is certain that there is more work 
'.done, and more money eartted, in I'uch branches of bufiaefs at.] 
.have adopted thj» method than in others. A quick workman, 
iodeed, mav by this mcaru be induced to thmw away much of 
i his time; but if he does, it is attended with this advantage, 
k'that though he tofes his time, the nation doth not lofe 
his labour. The more he idles, the quicker he muft work ^ 
acid, though it would be better bixh foi himfclf and the com-' 
rmunity that his application ftiuuld be mnre conitnnt ; yet ic. 
would be as ci uel to deny a man the free enjoyment of the fruitsi 
>-of his Idbour, as it is abfurd to tie his hands half the week be- 
[caufe be can move them quicker than his fellow-workmen. In « 
Commercrai country the utmoft cmuljtion (hould bccxcited among' 
imiividuats, with regard to ingenuity and induftry. Of this emu- 
lation, the cuflom cf paying workmen by the day, is entirely de- 
Arudttvc i nor will the execution of penal taws ever excite it. 
It is hence (u be ubfervrd farther, that when we judge of the 
price of Ijbour hv the daily wnges of the arttzan, and would 
'seduce the price of provillons to this (landard, wc are deceived 
by a falfe cfliinate. A miiit^aiion in the pri<:c of proviiions, is 
not (Ik ontv mcJiod vrc can irforC (O for an abatement in the 
■price of labour. If it were, wc (hould be very unhappy, ?n- 
4ecd i as tlii» is not always pra^lticable : but the activity and in-' 
rfuflry of our people is an inexhaufliblc mine of weilth. Pa^ 
mm in proportion lo rhe work they do, (not lo th« time they* 
tit atfoui it} and you wij tLc tUi!, v.\\ctu:iii:\ v^Qii\.^\?v\vawt' 


7hi Laws and Poliey of EnglanJ, 

ncccfiiuily* dear, they wilt do as much more work in the fisitf 
time, as is ficccltary lo ovcrbsdlance tbedcarncrs of living. For 
ibe truth of this» wc appeal to thofc pcrfuns who arc conccrneiT 
in manufaflorics, where the woikmcn are paid by the picce- 
Thcfc will tell you that, in dear times, they have not only more 
work ilonr, amf done better, but that the workmen Uet^uvniW 
favz money in Tuch limes, to difcharge rhofc little debts which 
they had couiij^cd in tines of" general cheaprtcTs. 

Our Author proceeds to conlider next, that branch of hui 
baitdry which conTifts in raifmg materials tor our manufa>nurci ; 
recommending that general maxim of ilatcs, to make, as far 
zs they are able, a monopoly oF their own ftaple commodities, 
llccxj^ti^es on the expediency of importations and cxporta- 
tioiis under certain rclUii^ons ; on the liberty and encourage- 
ment ncTcfTary to be given to our nativct at home ; and the 
nie;i(urcs ncccffary to be taken wilh fotcig!*cri abroad t. He 
obje&s in particular w the laws obtigini; pcrfons to ferve a 
fcvcn-ytar's apprcniicc&ip to panicular trader i and to all ck- ' 
«:lu{lvc and monopolizing charters. ' If a man knows nothing 
uf a craft or myftery, fays lic> it is nut likely he will fuccecd 
in it -, if he has difcoveied it and docs fucceej, his not having 
fervcii an apprenticeOiip, cannot in rcafon bi; urged as an ob- 
je^ion. The fpccious pretence for commencing profecutlons 
a^aiiill itiCh, is bccaufe chey cannot be fuppofcd to underftand 
the trades they prefume to fct up; but ihc true rcafon is> too 
frc<jucnrly> that ihey have made their profccutors, who arc gc- 
^jKiallypcrrDnsofthefime niyflery, fenfiblethey tindcr^^nd it too 

ireil.* 1'his puts us in mind of a cuitom we remember to have 
[obferved among the Dutch. The building of fhips ii one of the 

rincipal manufaflures in Holland; and jctwhcn a Ihip-car- 
Fpentcr wan:s to fct up his trade, he is j)Ot afkcd whether be 

VJq Uy fwjfuritf, »i it would be cruel, ind<«di to toad todulry with 
.^eabomiaablc uxof an af Kfiimi fcarcicy. At ihc fame time, howcfcr, 
litis to be otfenrd, ihftt (he mera outcries of the poor are no rc^l proot 
I that protiiiMis aie too dear. Ihc moft indolcr.c are ufu^Iiy the moil in- 
llblcni. 3rd ihcfc doubUcfi wsuld hare provjllont fn cheap hi to exempt 
l^hrm fiom Sabr>ur : but ihofc who ^ill noi ivorl; {hnuld net cat, Tioc 
, |)olicy will he very careful of laying too heavy a hunheo on the hoseft 
i)Uid inJul^'toui paort but there v>ou'd be no end orfooihing the cla- 
Uiouxt aiiO ^tstihin^ t'le intiolence of the pmfligiteand idle. 

t Anion"; oijier pertinent rematki, we are cold, and vt pleifed. u 

En^lifhmcn. to hear, that ihe propofJt latcjy ofTcrtid lor protnoting 

laaiiciihotc in France, arc not likely lo be carried into execution, the 

,ln:cnd^iit9 having a power \q raifc the laiHe-ntiU, or land-tax, frtira 

'time t'T time, auording to the improved culture of thcgroucJ. A 

pOHiciful ot^e^um LO iuiptoveiueut. 


^^^ TtUtin^ to Traddy exotnintd. ^'f 

\ (crved a fcven-ycar's apprenticeflitp, but is actually fet to work, 

I 10 give the company a proof of his being mailer of hts pro- 

■ fellion : which if he cannot do, he is not permitted to fct up. 

I This is certainly a more rational tcft of his abiiities, than aaj 

I length of fcrt'itude. 

I Tn fpeakinf of the ufe of engines to facilitate lahoiu, wki«.4i 

I have been fo long abfurdly objected to, in this cmiiitry» on ac- 

I count ol" their employing fewer haruis, our Author vtry fen- 

I fibly obferves, that * as other nations make ufe of fuch engines, 

" and arc thereby enabled to offer their produclion* at a low rate, 

h is in Tarn fyr us to perfcverc in Igilfomc methods* whith will 

lay us under an obligation to demand larger prices for our com- 

modities* in proportion to the greater coll in mJcliig them.' 

With regard to monopolies, he juftly objct9s to Mr. LoclteV 
propofal, for preventing them by coiifiiiiiii: the makcr» to vend 
their own commodities \ he appeals tu UU into a mllake, how- 
ever, in fjppoflug there cannot be too great a numl>cr of tradef- 
mcji or mcic venders. ' Let trade be open, fays he, attd wc 
jball find the competition of numbers lo fell, will of courfe re- 
duce the piicc and promote the confumption.* Now, though 
the application of a multiplicity of trudcis may occafion ttic uif- 
rcr<vcrvof new channels of confumption, vet certain it is thai, aa 
I.I10 trade can long be carried on by fcl]inj<; things cheaper ihaa 
ihcy :ire made, fo, on the other hand, the more hands they paf» 
through, in their iranfmifliori from the maker to the confumci, 
the nmrc muft their price be enhanced, becaufc all thcfc |)coplc 
mud Kvc. Suppofing ibcm, however, to pafs through but ona 
ihnm!, the more numerous thcfe vendcis arc, the dcartr mufi: 
f the commodity be, untcfs their trade IncrcaTe in proportion uk 
' their number. 

In the fecond part of this work, viz. concerning the id- 
[vanccmcnc of our commerce abroid, our Author obferves, that; 
[the profit and lofs of foreigri trade mud be computed by tho 
value ofour exports and imfioris, and the number ot uurfii'^^p-'nc;^ 
employed in our own and in foreign fervicc. • That tradi-, fays 
be, which promotes the employment of our people, enlarg-s ■ 
the (lie of our commodities, and cncieufc:) our navtg;ition, muifc' 
be ftt down 3S nccc:*ary and profitable; but thnt which prc-^ 
[.vcftts the Ubourof our ptopic, [.'jTcns the confumption of out' 
pradu£ls, and employs foreign fhipptng more than uur own^ 
mult fo far be deemed as difadvantugcous and hunful.' H'lvin^* 
illudratC'l thcfc pofitions by various obfcrvaii :-ns on our cx|^>0't« 
and itnpotti, he inters, that all our hw:> and i)oii>*v ou^hi cubb* 
fubfcrvient to the following ends ar.d purporc*. AV//, To en^! 
courage the exportation of all our wrought jiianufaitturti. 4Jid 


the Lam md Pttiey y EngianA, (fc. 

fyperfluoas unimprov cable commodtties ; but, on the other 
■ haad, to prevent the expunation of all our nw produdx, cap- 
'■J}le of being improved cr nianufjuluted. Stcmttfyy To attvvrth^l 
llDtportation of fuch foreign miiterialSf Bi are cither neccfl*ary,,| 
;\ileful, or convenient i but, on the contrary, to difcouragc tbff| 
bringing in of fuch products or m3niir«^utcs» which we can 
libtfe or mike ourfclvcs. And li/lijiy To admit the rccxporta**] 
tion of what it foreign, fo as not to iotcmipt nor anticipate the, , 
£de of our native commcKlities.' We cannot de&end to the fe* \ 
veral particutars, adtluccd in fuppon of the propriety of this in- 
ference ; but mud nut omit mentioning, that out Author approveii 
of that trade in which oiir Nnnh Aracticaii colonies have beco' 
It>n^ indulged, of trading with the French and Spaniih colonic!,' 
in ^e Wclt-fndiL» ; die late prohibition of which hath been fo 
-fevercly felt even in this kingtlom. 

In part the third, concerning the circulation of money an"#j 
credits the Author throws out a number of fenfiblc snil judicious 
jeflct^ions, on the nature of public credit, on the value and ultfJ 
of money, on the circulation of private bills, and other concotnt*] 
tani circumftancs. Wc fliaM quote his nbfcrvations, on the biglrj 
latc of intcrcft in this counir)-, and its prejudice to trade j witl|T 
which wc Ihall take leave of this very iniercfting and fenfiblc 

* As it is plenty of money which occalians towncfs of inter 
we (hould always with to find intcrtA fo low, as lo render ol 
people incapable of living ujxm ihc income of a fmall Aock |1 
consequently, thcv will be obliged to employ their money in 
tmde, in order to make fomf greater advanugc by it i or lend 
h out to fuch as have onlv (kWi and induAr^, ajid no ready 
to carry on any particular branch of bulinefs : for if thefe c 
borrow at an cidy rate, they will of courfc launch out Into moi 
cxtcnfive dealings. This rr.av very well reconcile the difputcil 
that have arofc amongil fomc wHiers on this fubie£t, Whcthe^l 
low intcrcit be the caufe, ot the e(icct o( an enlarged commerce t 
It may be confidercd as both, for as a. fuccefsful commerce will 
bring in plenty of monev, th^t ptentv will certainly occafioii 
inteiefl to be tow ; in this inttaxice, therefore, it mun be con- 
fijcred as the effedi of trade : lb aUcrwards, this lowmrfa of In- 
tercft may he the cjufe of cnhrgiog commerce i (nv:c (he mc 
cafy the terms arc, upon which money cjn bcboirowed, thei 
is likely to be employe:! in trade j and the more that is To em- 
ployed, fo much the more will our wealth be encrcafcd. 

• Now the rate to which we Ihould wifh our intcrrfl to be re- 
duced, is to find it aboHt ptrr, vr rather untir wf;ac is given for 
the ufe of money in anv other trading cnunlry: for ex.mple, if 
the natural rate ui Holhnd be only 2 per cciic. the Dutch will 


Waro'x Effaj «]f Grjfrmar. 


tmicr into fevcnl liiile branches of crade which may yield it leaft 

4 per cent, and which ir«lcs we neglect, becaufc we can %Axn 

u much by being idle aixJ lending out our money. On the 

othet hind, thoTc wbo boriow money heie at the rate of 4. per 

(cenr. in ordei to carry on a tnifick, mud make mote than double 

tlhat intercit, or they will nut tliijitc it fuSicieiit g.iin for tbeir 

rift and trouble. We m;iy obferve I'anhcr, that To long as in- 

ercft is htjfhcr in England than in other places, foreigners aie 

iVited to become our crcdiioi», especially upon our (;overnnient 

iritieSf the payuieiu of whofe dividends, is a dead lofs upon 

ViT ballince. 

When people find they cannot I!ve idlely apon low intereft* 

Jiey will be apt to turn their thoughts to the methods oF Tub- 

lifting by (kill and induftry," and confequently be better judge» 

Wf the value of money, by knowing what trouble there is in 

Igclthig if, this will naturally introduce 3 fpiric <:>( frugality y 

Iwhich ought 10 prevail towards the prefervaiion of wealth when 

L)t U acquired.' 

fn Effay en Grammar, ui it may be applud ia tht Englijh Lan~ 
guage. In Ttua Treati/es. 'Ihe tne ^ptculativt., being an At- 
ttmpt to inv^igalt frofcr PrmttpUt. The oihrr Pra/iicai, con- 
taming Dtfinittfut ami RuUi dcductd fnm the Princifia, and 
iVufiraitd by a Variety tf Exam^Ut fram the moJJ approved If-'ri- 
ttr$. By William Ward, A. M. Mafter of the Grammar- 
fchool at Beverley, in the County of York. 410. 1 3s. fcw'd. 

AFTER the clear, concife, and comprehenfive trada, on 
Speculative and Praflical Grammar, which have alreatty 
(appeared in this country*, the Public may be nAturally fur- 
M9i)fed CO fee them followed by itn hugr, voluminous quarto on 
ubis fubje^. The Gre<.-ks a proverb very much to the difad- 
rantagc of Tuch elaborate performance;!, as exceeded a moderate 
' igi'> } yet <t would by no means become us to adopt it, fo far 
_ to condemn a work merely for its bulk. But, as on trees 
jioft abounding in leaver, there is fcldom the gieatcft quaotiiy 
|Af fruit ;' fu wc find that books, mod abounding in wurds, are 
feldom the moft fertile in fcniimcnt. It is true, that in treating 
numerous and various fubje<^s. Jet the writer's diftion be 

* On thc/pe(nferive. by the imly learned anJ ingeniovi author of 
Je'Piit; on (he fraf^i el. by the author cf a n-.urt Ini<odadion la Erp- 
rfb Gtammar, nith critical no'C!. Tor an ncoouDt of the/cmf, fee 

[Jlew. Vol. VI. p lii;. ofthe/Af/rr, Vol. .XV.Vll p. 37. Sec alfo Mt. 

iYricftley'i Kudimtixk of Enghfli Oiammar, Ke>'. Vgl. XXVi. p. ty. 

Rir. April, 1765. U ct«i 


WARO'i Bffiy en Gramitktr. 

c\cr fo clufc and cxprcffive, ihe multiplicity of his words wHt 
be profornoniWe to the number and variety ol" hti fubje^s-: 
thus, a pctiod to the fucccflton of human events canonlv reducc 
ihc moll voluminous htflorian to the ncceffity of being vcrboff» 
if hU narrncive be fufficicntly particular : but the nf* is wicje>y 
tliHcrcnt with writers who ticjt of fcientific and fyllematicil 
ruhjc£ls. It bath been a maxim with many fenfible and judr- 
cious critics, that clear and precifc cxprcQioRs will always faU 
low clear and prcci'e ideas : although it hath been more can- 
didly admitted by Qihcrs, that men may fometimes very clearly 
comprehend, what they can but obfcurcly exprcfs. In ihc ijT- 
vclttgation uf novel and abdrufc I'ubjcfls, to the purpofe uf 
which, language itfelf is fometimes found inadequate, it is poC> 
fihlc the juiltce of the latter maxiin may equal its candour ; but 
in ticaiini; of fLibjciU often difcuiTcd, the terras of which arc 
faniiliuT, we aie apt tu think pcrfpicuiiy of cxprc(Coa infepar- 
able from perfpicuity of fcntimcnt. 

It is certain that, with regard to the wopfc before U5, the 
fubje^ is-ncirticr totally ncw» nor yet altogether familiar. T he 
nUonaJ and univcrfa) principle^ of grammar hnvc not, indeed* 
been much treated of» by modern uTiKrs; ihofc few, never- 
thclcfs, who haw turned ihcir thoughts this way, have done fo 
miich, and done it fu well, th^C, whoever take.) up Hie fubje^,. 
where they left it, cannot poflibly do better than to proceed in 
ti-.i- fimc method, by v»fhh-h tlwrjr prcdccc(rors ha»c made fuch 
notable advances. 7'he .irn.r/.ing concifeners and prceifion we 
meet with in Mr. Harris's Hermes, muft ncccflarily atford a con- 
trail prejudicial to the Libotirx oC our Author. A light, that, 
»-ithout daxnlin^ the c>><^, aflnnifhcs the fpcflnior wnh its bright- 
IKf>, caitnoi f.:!! of calling a difadv.intageou!i obfcurity on eveiT 
runouiidiiig obje^- 

The defign an4 method of the (irrt part of this e<fiy, a.rc fet 
forth in a ibort in'roHuiflion j wherein, we are told ihat the 
viuri ' L-vi^tJOgt^ in i:s moil cxtenfjve acrepiaiion, may com- 
prfheftd every inrrhod by which the knowJegc of the percep-, 
tinns, tlioi'sbls aud purpolcs, of one luin Ciin be conveyed to 
another. But, as tht applicitiinn rrf cermin founds of the roice> 
and ihNt oflcirer^, ufed M mtrks of the p'-fitions of the organs 
«f Ipecrh, T>y whicii lhc|«r founds are forined, aie by much the 
r.ioft t.cncrjl and eSVdhwl of all the methods of communicating 
our^hao':^^; '.lirf,- founds of the voice, and letters applied to 
Kpi'crei,. :-jf the fake of fuch cotrimtinicaticn, arc gene- 

rally cr.*i ^,.v.: :o conflitiiie what is properly called tattjfuagf. 
And iIjc aU iif giAn.mar is, the art of applying thcfc founds and 
Imiersconfillemly tut tiicpurpofeofcoinmuuicaiing the thoughcB 
of one to anuilicr.' 

Wakd'j EJptf on Gramngr, 

In th? firft r«Aion of the work itfelf, Mr. Ward confident the 
"nature of the noun and verb In ijcncraJ ; js being, agreeably ta 
khe ij-ftcms of the ancient fophtfta and grammarians, the pria- 
ttpal partis <jrrpcech. His dciintttom of thcfe arc as under: 

Definition of Noons. 

• Nouns arc the names of objefts, aj the conceptions thereof 
ate diftinguiflicd in the mind by confVant markt or chara^ers* 
which we conceived to be evidences of a conftant principle of 
exigence peculiar to each nbje£l, whether fuch principle is to 
be taken notice of, or not.' 

Definition of V b R b s. 
' Verbs are cxprcilions of Hates of being, as dtftinguiflicd in 
the mind by marlcs orcharadcr^, which may be conceived as 
evidences of a principle of enirtcncc in the rtatcs. But not of a 
principle of fuch a nature as to be conftantly in each fiate, or 
peculiar to each period into which the fiate may be diftin- 

We do not exemplify thcfe definitions, ai falfc or inexprtffive 
tof the true cjualities of what is defined I whoever will give him- 
felf the trouble to perufe with attention, the fuccceding exp'a- 
hftion of ihcm, wjil find them to be juft. At the fame tiinc» 
however, he will hardly he Me to look upon fuch definitions 
in a inuch hettcr light than rrtcrc enigmas. This will ever be 
the cafe, alfo, when a writer, in defining a term, is foliciious 
to include every circumEIance that relates to the ohjeft or attri- 
bute fpecified. There are circumftances and properties which 
may be included in the delcription of an obje^, althou^K 
they are extraneous and foreign to the definition of the woid 
exprelfing it. A definition (hould he a^ general as po$blet 
Confidently with precifion and truth -, to whatever millAkcn ob< 
lefttons it may be liable, no mark of innuendo oi proviso ap- 
pearing on the face of it. For fuch mark*, however ncceflary 
they raay fumciimcs be to favc the credit of the definition, a)- 
ways render ii perplexed and ohfcure i whereas fin'ipiicity oiid 

* Of a fimilflT nstuie u oar Audtor's de£niiion of Tafte, paee jjo. 
* VDijt wt- call la,'t it tiothingelle bur, an cxettiott of the >ntellc£hiAl 
pnwrcis of nutn, in fach in()anci::> ai arc fi nearly conreCtcd with tt'^ oa^ 
tiire of a {c"6utc md rational b«in^. thai the perccpll^in ot what ti the 
motl agrcfuble or difagrevable to ivch luiiutc. rrtjtiires no niedijm of 
proof to the mind of any pcrlbn mIw has cmploycJ hit aucnncn lieadily 
00 many inAinresfimlbr to any otieof thclcivh tii happeniio Le at a^i^ 
Itoie under confideratioo.* 

Wc do not charge inii definition, any mmc ihan ih; thave. wirti 
impropriety qi vvam tf [;i<.cirK'a, but with the rtant of {unflnity utj 

agi Ward'i i^^y en Grammar. 

dcarncfs are the principal and iiKlirpenfiblc qti&liiics of a good 
definicion. The tame may be faid of all diJaiilic writing. We 
do not deny* that our Author hath dirplayed aconfiderable fund 
orgrammatical Icnowlcgc, and hath proceeded on true philofa- 
phical principles in the invefligation of it ; but wc are lorry to 
■ find be hath taken fuch a ptrrplexcd and round-about way to ar- 
rive ac I'lich knewtegc, that we fear moft people will rather 
chule to remain ignorant all their lives, than engage in fo l4bo- 
lious 9 ta(k as that of purfuing the Taine path. 

Having made this obfcrvation, the Reader wHI not expefl iii 
to follow our Grammarian* flep by (Icp, through the whole of 
this v(;luminou$ perfurmance. Let it fuffice to (ay* that, how- 
ever tetiicus, he appears to be very juft, in moft of bis reflefltons 
on the principles of lang,u3^c in general, as well as in the rules 
laid down for the coiUtruiTiion of the Englifh language in parti- 
cular. With regard to orthoepy and proft>dy, indeed, Mr. 
Ward appears not to have cultivated them with the fame fuc- 
cef«, as he hath done orthography and fyntax \ notwithOanding 
he feemit to admit, in his definition of grammari that the appli- 
cation of the foundsof a language with the letters of it is eflVntial 
to its pcrfciition. Thus in fpcalcing o^ aetcnt and tmfhsfti^ be 
gii'es the Reader but very vague and indidinft ideas eiEfacr of 
their nature or ufe ; confounding the flrcfs of the voice with the 
length or duration of it. There is a wide difference, however, 
between aunst and ^uAnthy^ nor do fyllablcs naturally Hiort ever 
become long by being accented, as Mr. Ward fuppofci*. 
With refpeflto*'w//.m/Jjalfo, Mr. Ward fccrru to conceive it to be 
an irbitrary fpccics of modulation. < It is probable, fays be, 
that all nation^ in continued utterance ufe fome modulaitun, b/ 
ntfinE; or deprciling the voice in fome fyllables of a claufe above 
or below the note in which the moll of the fyllables of the claufe 
arc fpolce. This modulation is ufually called trnphajit^ and ij 
very difiVrent in different languages, and even in difierent pro- 
vinces where the fame language is ufed* and that when wordi 
arc fpokc which cxprefs the fame meaning.' 

Now nothing can be a greater miftaltc, than to fuppoA: thr 
manner of laying our cmphafis on words, dependent oa the 
particular language we fpeak j as if it was a merely mechanical 

* Our Author ncrerthclefs contradlAi tbe rules Ia>d down by Lord 
Kalmi, Mr. Sheridan, and others, rcfpeAing the nccelTtiy of pbcinglHit 
cae accent on Rnjililb polyfyllablc words. * In the ptonunciacion of tJie 
Englifh, a difcernable llrcfi of the voice islaid on lomc one fyllable of 
cvcty word which has more than one fyllable in it. and Icvcral words 
which eonf ft of more than two fyllables require this flrefi of voice «b 
aorc than one cf their tyllablct.* 


CottiNs*^ Podicai H'trki^ 


cr mufical mndc of utterance. For the fticfs of (he voice in cm- 
phafis, depends entirely on ihe fignification of ivtiat is faid ; thofe 
words which are emphatical in one language, being equally £> 
in any other, when we mean to fay the fame thing. When ouc 
Author concludes, therefore, that emphafis has little relation to 
universal grammar, be contradicts his own ddiniiion of gram- 
mar, and gives up one of the mofi cflential properties, ot lan- 

Mr. Ward is alfo one of thofe cJafHcal thcotitlst who would 
reduce the numbers and meafures of English vcrfe, lo the (lan- 
dard of the ancients ; but the learned have fo long in vain at- 
tempted to fhackle modern poetry, with the fetters of tainbics, 
Trochees, Dailyls and Anapcfis, thu the point ia now given 
up by almoll every reader of lafle. 

On the whole, as far as this work relates to the grammatical 
conftni£lion of our language, it appears to be an ufeful per- 
formance; abounding in rules, both in profc and vede*, for the 
dtredion of young and unexperienced writers. 

* Tbcfe bcini;, for the moft part, as uocAuth and inharmcnt^m n 
can urcll be conceivedt o«r Author thut modcllly apilogiz-s for than 
in lii> preface. * 1 hzvc giveo the fub^ante of ihc praAical gtimoiv 
in vcrie, for the rale of meoiofy. In ihii I have nntlouhlidlv fubnc^d 
myfc-lf lo much poetical criticittn ; bac if I have made the lilh of ine- 

fular MNMds more cafjr to be lemembered, by putiinj; '.hem into ihime, 
o»ever haiOi, or the rules more eafy to be acquired and retained by tho 
fiime means, 1 an very little ibllicitoua about my replication ai a poct.*^ 

Tht PmsUal If'arit of Mr. mUiam Ctiliiu. ff^tb M<wnirtt>f(bs 
H AushoTy and Ol'fenjaltMt «n hii Genius ami It-'rilin^s, By J. 
Langhofjic. Small 8vo. 3s. bound. BccUu 

WE have Co frequently met with occafions for delivering 
our fcniTracnts, and ^xiMelluii our w.irm appMbjtJoji 
ot Mr. Collins's ponry*, that little reniaJm* \'fjr us to add coil- 
cerning the piecrj here collcded i the Editor's p..rt> in the pre- 
sent publication of them, being tht more im:Redtate objciA of 
our confide ration. 

Prefixed to the poems, is the Editor's account of the Author j 
iji whi^h very few bio^-raphical circumft^nccs are added to tl.ofe 

■ • See an account of hii Oriental Eclogues, Pcv. Vol. XVI. p. +8fi; 

of hh Cdri. dcfcriptivc tnd aHegonc^l, Vol. "XXX. p. 21 1 a.Td Me* 
noii&vf hii Ur«Md A'fiUDgs. in the Ums volua.c, ^. xza. 

U 3 X^ 

CoLLIMS'j Poetieal Werit, 

in our Review for February 1764. Thefe memoirs, howe»Cf~ 
are elcganlly written ; and will be very acccptzblc to the ad- 
mirers of Mr. Collins's poetry : for, as Mr. Langhornc juftly 
remarks, ' Wc never receive plcafure without a dcurc to be ac- 
quainted with ihc fourcc from whence it fpringsj — a fpeciu of 
curiofity, which, as it fccms to be inftin-flivc, was probably 
given us for the noble en<3 nf gratitude ; and, finally, to elevate 
the enquiries of the mind to that fountain of pcrifcition from 
which all human excellence ii derived.' 

We meet with one miOakc in tfaefe meinoirs> which, tbougb 
the fait it relates to is of but little importance in itfelf, yet for 
the fiike 0^ truth, it may noc be impro^'er for us 10 fct tnis in- 
genious Biographer ;ight, in a circumftance which hU axiior 
will, no doubt, induce him tortclify, in a future edition of die 
work before us. 

. -Itcertainlv is a rcflcftion on the difccrnnicnt and taile of the 
sge in which Mr. CoUins's Odes firA made their appearance, 
that they met with no fuccefs — no, not fo much as to anfwer 
the charge of ptintiiig the little pamphlet in which they were 
comprized. This rtfleciion, however, is, by our prcfejit Edi- 
tor, rarcadically extended to Mr. Millar, the bookfeJler wfio 
firft printed thofe Odes ; and who ts here faid to have warily 
publifti'd them on rne Author's account. This weare 
aflured, wsi by no mcJns the cafe ; for the bookfeller a^fhially 
purchefrd the copy, at a very henHfime prUt (for th^fe timet) 
and, at his own txpcncc and rifle, nid all in hi* power to intro- 
duce Mr. Coljiiis 'o the notice of the Public, in this inflancr, 
therefore, Mr. Milt^ir ought by no me.ins to be pointed out as 

* a favourer of genius, whtn orui it has mai/t in iv^y to famt' 

The ft<}tifl of this little anecdote, is greatly to the honour o( 
our roei'a memory.— At the time when 4lP fold his Odes to 
Mr. Millar, bis c>rcuniftaRces were too narrow to have aiUowtd 
him CO print them at his own cxpcnce } and the copy-money 
was then, to him, a confidcrable obje^. Afterwards, when be 
came 10 the pofleffion of an eafy fbitune, by the death of 
his uncle, ColtjncI Martin,— he recolle^cd that the publiOirr of 
his poems was' a Ufir by them. His fpirit was too great to fub- 
ihit to th)S c ire (I mil an ce, when he found hinifelf enabled to do 
juflice to his own iJcIicacy; and therefoie he de^red bl$ book- 
feller to balance the account of chat unfortunate publicutoii» 
declaring he himfclf would make good the deficiency : the book- 
feller readily acqniefccd in the propofal, and gave up to Nfr. 
Collins (he remainder of the impreflion, which the gcncto\i», 
fefentful Bard, inimcdiaicly configned to the flaincs. 

Y^e have fomc doubt whether Mf, Langhorne b not iJJb 

CoLXlMS'x Pxiieol If'urii, 


Buftakcji in one part of his Author's Chamflcr, both as a poet 
anil as a man : he fays it is ' obfervkbic, that none of hii pocmt 
bear the m<(rks of an aniyroua difpofiiioii ; anJ ibat lie i» one of 
thofe few potts who have failed to D/Zf^bi^ without touching ac 
^jthitf' ithe iiUurions of this kind* adds ourKditor, that ap- 
pear in bis Oriental Eclogues, were indifprnfiblc io (hat fpccieaj 
of poetry : and it is very remarkable, that in his Paj^tm^ atl] 
«)dc for mufiC) Love is emititd^ though it fhould have mada al 
piincipal figure there.' Certainly the waimtb of cxprcHion withj 
which our llard, in his PcTfian Kclogues, treats the lokc-paHion, 
might alone be thought fufficicnt indications of a difpofitton not 
toully infeiifiblc to amoious imprc/Bons j and with rcfpc^ to tho 
very poem pointed out by our Editor, as remarkable for the; 
aotijifn of Love, while the Peffwu were its fubjcci j If Mr* 
Langhotnc will plcafc to turn again to that Ode, he will per-1 
haps agree wi'b us that Love is Mt, totally, omiitcd in thaci 
piece : for towards the end of the poem^ file is introduced, it|< 
company with Jov, and thus dcfcribcO ; 'l 

Lave frnm'il M-ich minh, a g%y fanuflic round, 
Lonfe ivefc bcr trcfHrs leen, her zone un hound, 

[<ove, ibererfbre, cannot ttricUy be (aid to have been omittfd ta\ 
this Qdci tbougb, wc graiit> the goddef& is but (lightly re*| 

The Poetical Works of Mr, Collins confift not of large or] 
numerous performances. All, or the jjrcater part of them, have] 
xiready been amply mentioned in our Review j and in this col-5 
legion, they amount tu little more than half the frnall volume 
which comprehends ihemj — the remainder of the book contain- 
ing the Editor's obfcrvations on the fcvcrat pieces whith pre- 
cede tbem. One oc two of his criticifrnt we Ihall fizled, as 
f|xcimcnsof tJu: whole. 

In his comment on the Oriental Eclogues, Mr. Langhprne, 
has adc^ted, from anolhcr ingenious critic (whom, by ihc bye^[ 
be hath forgot to quote) a conjecture which fecms to be wdl-j 
founded, viz. that 7]^^«£r/r»x borrowed fomr of his fined imaged '^ 
and dcfcripttons from SeUnm. After obfervin^ that *■ thnfc m->l 
genious Creth whom we call the parents ot pjiftoral poctty,.] 
ivcre, probably, no more than imtiators of imitators, who de- 
rived their harmony from higher and remoter fourccs ;* he ub-«.l 
fervcs, that * As the Septuagint-tranflation of the OldTeftamcntJ 
was,pcrformcd at ihc requelt, and under the patronage of Ptc 
Jcmy Philadclphus, it w<n: not to be wondered if Theocritus,! 
who was entertained at that princc*s court, had borrowed fomej 
part of bis paftoral imagery from the potitical p;i!T;iges of thofftj 
books. — I think it caja h-ardly be doubted that the Siv.lioa jiief' 


CottiNs'j pMiitaf If^arh, 

had in his eve rertain cxprcCKons of (he prt^et Tfftiah, wtxtf'l 

be wnwe the following Imts: *' 

SlatTX iiveiMM >'(rOi*ie, xai a irtrv; tyjeMi ittuixt 

•not rwf itv>«C wXetJ^o; JAX«i. 

I^I vcKirg brami'lci the Mac vhl« hrar. 
On ihf fuJe ihoru NftKiffni dici» Id* h»ir— 
AD, >11 iCbcTiV — thff pin< wUh pean be crottVJ, 
Atij the bold decf ihnll drag the trembling hound. 

The nufir. Indeed, of thefe phenrmena is very difFcrent in tl 
Greek from what it is in the Hebrew pr-et ; the former empIojrJ 
.ing them on the dc^ith, the lattci on the birth of an impor 
pcifon : hue the marks of imitation ate ncvenhelefs obvious. 

* It might, however, be expected that if Thtoctitus had hnrJ 
rowed at all from the facrcd wiitcrs^ the ccUbrjiicd pafloian 
£pitha1amiiim of Solomon, fo much within his own walk of 
poetry, would not certainly have cfcaped his notice. His Epiiht- 
lamium on the marriage of Helena, moreover, gave hipi an i^en 
field for imitaijon ; ihcrcfote, if he has any oblieitions ns the 
foyal bard, we may exptfl m find ihcm there. The very oj^n- 
JAg of the poem is m the fpir It of the Hebrew fung ; 

Tb« colour of imitation is ftill ilronger in the following pif- 

'nil x«» ti j(/*Tia 'EAi»ot iuPamtr ' t* <i^n>, 

*H Kfbiry xinr«Ai«'«'e(, n &iffTX?n tVirof. 

This dcfcripiion of Helen is iiiliniiely above the ftvie and figure 
ot the Sicilian paftoral — ** She is tike the nftng of the golden 
morning, when the nr^ht depsrteih, and when the winter is 
over and gone. She refembirs the cvprrfs in the garden, thA 
borfc in the chariots of ThefTaly." ihtfe figures plainly de- 
clare their otij^in, ami others equally imitdiive might be pointed 
out in the fime idyllium. 

* This beautiful and luxuriant marriage- paftoral of Solomon 
is the only perfc^ form of (he oriental eclogue that has furvivcd 
the ruins of time, ahapprncfs for which it is, probably, more 
indebted to its farred cliara^er than to its Intrinfic mrric Not 
that it is by xj\y means dcAitutc of poetical excellence ; like a}! 
the caAcru poetry, it is bold, wild and unconnefied in Fts 




CoLLIHS'i PMiital JVtrJu, t/^J 

figures, alluftons uid parts, and has all that graceful and n»g- 
luAccnt during which chan^crifcs iis metaphorical and coinp*- 
rative imagery.' 

Thofe who arc curious to enquire farther irito the nature and 
Uue ddien of Solomon's Soog, we refer to thciwft arlictc in osr 
Review for September 17641 where the fubjccl is amply d/f- 
cufled by a very tcarrted aud ingenious writer i who confiders i^ 
with our Editor, rather as a nuptial, than, with Dr. Low.tb 
and others, as ao allegorical poem. 

The following thoughts on the oriain of allegorical imagery, 
are, wc apprehend, nrtv, and chcy are certainly ingenious : they, 
occur in his ohfervattons on the Odesdefcriptive and allegorical. 
After having offered fame confidcraiions by way of apiUiiei for 
the dercripttve turn of the Odes which occafioned thefe remarliSg 
he proceeds to the origin and ufe of allegory in poetical com- . 

* By this we arc not to underfland the tro[)e in the fchools, 
which is defined al'ud vtrlh, bliuii/e'tfu ejiendtre^ and of which 
Qiiinlillan fays, Vfus tji., ut triflia ^kamut mtHmlus vtri'tSy aat 
l)Mie rri gratia quailam centrariis ft^ni^itauiyiSi. It u nut tho 
verbal, but the rentimental allegory, not allegorical cxprcffioa 
(which, indeed, might come under the term of trutapbtr) but 
allegwical imagery, that is heie in qucRion. 

* When we endeavour lu trace this fprcics of figurnitve fenti- 
Qient to its origin, we Jind it coeval with literature ttfctf. Jt m 
generally agreed that (he mod ancient produdlions are poetical, 
and it is certain that the moft ancient poems abound with alle- 
gorical imagery. 

* If, then, it he altowed that the firfl literary productions 
were poetical, wc Iball have Uttic or Qu difficulty ui dircovering; 
the origin of alle^'ory. 

* At the birth o{ letters, in the tranfition from hieroglvphieal 
to literal exprcfSon, it ia not 10 be wondered if the cuftom of 
cxprcfliiig ideas by pcrfonat jmjgcs, which had fo long prcviUod, 
Dioutd fttll retain its influence on the mind, though the ufe of 
letter* had rendered the practical application of it fuperfluous. 
Thofc who had been accuUomcd to exprcfs llrength by tlie 
image of an elephant, fwifinef& by th'jt of ananihcr, and cou- 
rage by thjt of a lion, would make no fcruple of fubditutiap^ 
in letters, the fymbols for the i(icas they had been ufcd to le- 

* Here we plainly fee the origin of eJU^srhai txprr^n, that tC 
arofe from the ^/Evr of hieroglyphics; anJ if to the famccaule we 
ibould icfu that figurative boldnclA of Hyte a^id imagery wKi.cK, 


Th€ Cmfml*B tt the P!ay-hpufe, 

diftinguiOi the orienul wTictngs, wc Oiall, perhapE, conrIudfl| 
more juitlv, than ii wc fhouU impute it to the fuperior gran< 
dcur ofcancrn genius. 

• From the fame fourcc with the vtrhaf, we are to derive th« 
fi»r/mf^ftf/iil!«gi«y,* which is nothing more than a continuation 
of the metaphorical or lymbolical expreffion of the feveral agents 
in an ai*ion, or the different objects in a fccne. 

y The latter moH- pcruliarly cgmcs under the denominaiton of 
allegorical imagery, and in thi\ fpcci;s of allegory wc include 
the tm|?crfonaiion of paffions, aHctiions, virtuts and vices, ic. 
on account of which, principally, the following cdc» were pro- 
perly termed by their author, alicgoric^l. 

* With rcfpe<3 to the utility of this figurative writing, the 
rfamc arguments that have t>eeii adi-ancrd in favour of dcfcrip- 

five poetry, will be of weight likewife here. It is, indeed- 
from tmperfonatioi>, or, us it is commonly termed, pcrfonifi- 
catton, that poetical defcription Jjorrows its chief powers and 
^laccs. Without rhc aid of thi:", moral an^l intcUetftuAl paint»_^ 
ing would be flit and uiianimatcd, and even ihc fccnery of ma^J 
lerial objcdts would be dull without the introdtKfliun of iiAitious 

Thefc obfrrvation;, at Mr. Langhornc rcmailti, will be mo{ 
cflc^ualty illuihaied, by the fubhniu and beautiful Odes i^at' 
pccaftoncd them. In ihtfir, fays he, *■ it will appear how hap- 
pily this allegorical painting may be executed by the genuine 
powers of |KK:tical genius; and they will not fail to prove i<9 
force and utility, oy paffing through the imaginaiipn \o th? 

Cmti'iuation t>f the Ac(»unl of the Cenfmnisn I9 tJjt Piaj-hufi. Sff 
Rnjifwjtr March f p. %\b' Jtcmd AttkU : antaining the Big* 
graphical part. 

IN our la(V, p. 207, we briefly took notice of the large mafs 
of materials from whence the numerous memoirs contained 
jn this/?. o«rf volume have been drawn, vlis. Langbainc, VVin- 
|^anlc}'> Jacob, Whiocop, Coxeter's Manulctipu*, Cibbet's 


• This wai a large cptleflion of rranufcript mtti and afdithirt. in- 
setted in an inlcrlcavird fct of Giles Jacob'* Lives of the Dramatic Poet*; 
together with m&ny loofi: -.Apen of oiemoiit and anecdotei. Thcfe ms* 
^jali fii^ fell into lj|c baud} of I'hcophilgi Cibbn. aod t^e other jren- 

* Tbt Csmpenitrt to th Play^hsuje. 299 

Lives of the Poets, and Viflor*i HiRory of the Stage ; befides a 
multitude of original materials, collciftcd by the inJuAry of the 
prefent anonymous Cunipiler. — It now only remains iliat we 
give fomc rpecimcns of the manner in which this part of the 
yioxk. is executed : as In oui laft we (elcf^ a fufGckm number 
of ihe ibtafrUat anecdotes, as liunplcs of the iirft alphabet, or 
accounts of (Jays, &c. 

In fuch a great number of names, and atnidfl fuch a variety* 
oPmcmairs and lives, as are to be met with in this volume, the 
difiicuUy is, ujinch to choofft for the entcrwinmcni and fatif- 
fa£lion of our Readers. Some of the more n)odern lives, we 
believe, will prove moH generally acceptable ; efpecially as it ir 
among them, chiefly, that we are to look for original accouma, 
fuch as have not been colle^ed from former publications : we 
fliall begin with the celebrated Mrs. Gibber, — who has, for 
near thirty years pafl, been one of the grcatcft ornaments of the 
Knglifb (btge : 

* Cjbbes, Mis. Siifanna Alalia. This lady, whofc maiden 
name was Arne, and whofc merit as an acicefs is To well luiown» 
and has been fo long eftabliftied, was the daughter of an emi- 
nent upholOercr in Covent Gatden, and is fiAer to that greac 

inu[ical compofcr. Dr. Thomas Auguftinp Aroc. Her flrft 

appearance on the ftage ynt as a finger ; in which light the 
funetnefs of her voice and the llcength of her judgment rcnder'd 
\^ex very fpon confpicuoua.— .I5 the year 173^, however, Ihc 

tlemcn ponccnted I'o CQmpiling the Lives of ihe CnglilK Poets, in gene- 
ral, in c volf. iimo. t';3 ; and thofe biographers havine made what 
oCe of Mr. Coxeier's collegian they thought fit. the whole wis after' 
wards communiutcd :o ihc .Author of the Play Iioufe DiAionary, m it 
U called la the bcad-tiile of each vol. p. 1. althouj;h, in ihc dtlc- 
pape, ihe work ii PJled T6r Ccmfsoiev ti tkr Pia^-hi^i. — ■— W> have 
given this account of Coxctei's papers 1 bccauTe they have been oflin re- 
Krrcd to, and arc but little known. Mr. Coxe(«r wasa diliMnt, laba- 
lioiia, fcraper together of matcriaii ; and would huac foe fereo years 
together allci a ^au, a chronotflgiol circumftMCe, or a Sepulchral la- 
fcription. Such faithful drudf^ei areof great ufe (o men of livelier part*; 
who, nevetihclcf^, too often Ihew iheif ingratitude, by holding ihcir 
bei^efaOor! namei in derifira, and ticaiing wiih contempt the rr.cmonci 
of ihofe to whom ihey are (b greatly oblieed. What a poor iigure 
would the tnoLi dextrous builder mikr, alofc on the fbttfture he is 
ratiiaei tverc it not for the boDcIl, pains-taking, hodtarriiTf who fdp* 
pliu hiiQ viv^ ifiortar, and all hit other materials f om below I 

* Without taking the pains to number ibem exa^ty. there are. ill 
this volume, at near 31 wc can eQimate them, accoanct of above ///o'/r 
bundrij pcHboi who liavc employed their peai for the Englifh or Irifii 

•OO 7bt Csftpa/iitn te the P/a^/^uftt 

aiade her 5t(1 ztionpt as a fpraking performer, in the cbareAec 
«f Zafi, in Mr. Hill's tragedy of that name, being its firft re- 
pTc(cnC^ion ; in which part Ihe gave both furprrze and delight 
W> the audience, who were no lels chaxmed with the beauttrj of 
Imt preCtnt performance, than with the profpcifl of future enter- 
tunment from fo valuable an acquifition to the ftage.— A pro- 
^^ which has ever fince been perfeftl^ maintained, and a mc- 
ridun luArc flione forth fully equal to what was promifed front 
itu nionu^g dawo.— Aiwl though it any not appear to have any 
imviediatc cclaiion with our prerent dcjtgn, yet I cannot, with 
judicc to bcr merits, difpcnrc with the traofniitting down to pof- 
tcrky, by this opportunity, (omc flight idea of (his capital ortu- 
Hiem of our prcitut ftage. — Her perfon is ftill perftAly elegant; 
fee although (be i& fomewhat declined beyond the bloorn of 
touth, and even wants that emhtiiptintt which rometitnes is af- 
kiikaiU: in concealing the iniprclGon made by the hvtd of tinie^ 
jcj Uicte u fo complect a fymmciry and propottiwi in the didpe- 
xeni parts which conOitute tlii« Udy's form, that it is impoffihte 
to view hfr figure and not think her young, or look in her f»ec 
and not confidcr her « bandfome. — Mcr voice is beyond concep- 
tion plaintive and mufical, yet far from deficient in powers for 
the expfcflion of refentment or difdaki, and fo much equal com- 
mand of feature does fhe ^oQefs tor the rcpiefcniation of pity or 
vage, of complacence or difdain, that it would be difficult to fay 
whether (he affcfls the hearts of an autltcncc moft, when play- 
ng the gentle, the delicate Celia, or the haughty, the relenting 
Mecmione; the innocent love-fick Juliet, or the fbrfaken, the 

«»iag'd Alicia." In a word, through every cart of traeedy 

ftie is excrllrni, »nd, could we forget (be excellence of a Prit- 

eharJ, wc fhould be apt to fay, inimitable. She has of late 

made fome attempts in comedy.— They have, however, been 
m no dr{;rce equal to her excellence in the oppofite walk, and 
tcdccd, after the mention I h&ve juil made of attotfacr lady, it 
wilt be fiifficicnt to remind xxij Reader, that ant ad^r^xiA ^vt 
ju^rt f, unizvr/aUji eafitui, is as much as can be expected to b« 
the proJucc of a fingle cemun,'.—But to drop this digrcflion. 

' Mr*. Cibber was fccond wife to Mr. Tbcophilus Cibbcr. 
—In what year they were manied I do not exactly know, but 
imagine it to have been no very long time bcfnre her appearance 
inZjiJ, in 1736; for, in the year 1733, Mr. The. Cibber'i 
eomcdy of the Lover came nrft on the ilage, a principal 
part in which was pcrfojmed by his firft wife.^— What were 
ihc contequenccs of the unhappy union [between Mr. Cibber 
and Mifs Aioe] it too well known to render my entering into 
any p^rticulitrs, in relation to them, necciTary. 

•*^ Mrs. Cibber has a right to » pkcc in thi* work as a dra- 



Ti^ Cwi^Httn ti tht Play-htttji. 301 

matic writer, tiving brought a very elegant Uitlc piece on tia 
ftage, taken from the French, called, 

• The Oracle. A comedy, of one afl.* 

Of this tilde piece our Author^ in hit jird volume, gives ilie 
following account : after mentioniag the date of the jrenr ia 
which it was brought on, vix. lyjo** be adJs, — * This Jittie 
piece is a traitilatioii from the French, and was, I believe, only 
intended u a means of aflif^ing the Author [Traiillator] in a. 
benefit. It is, however, very prcitily executed, and not vniy 
gave gieat pirafure in the firfl rcprcfentation, but even cona- 
Tiucd, for a confiderable time afterward, a ftanding theatrical 
coJlation. The chamber of Cynthia is fimple and pleajicg, 
and though all tho.'c ktnd of charj^ers appaivntly owe their ori- 
gin to Shakefpeare's Miranda, yet a very tiitle variation in 
point of circumftance or behaviour, witi ever bcftow on them a 
degree of novelty, v^hicb, added to the delight we conAamIr 
take in inooccnce, cannot fail of giving pleafure.* 

After fcle£ling the foregoing anecdote* relsitlng to Mrs. Gib- 
ber, it would> perhaps, be thought an impropriety tooverlooir 
her huCband, the unfortunate Thcophilus : 

' CiRBER, Mr. Thcophilus. — This gentleman was Too of the 
celebrated Laurcat, and hufband to the lady mi.'ncior>ed in the 
preceding article.— As if the very beginning of his life was in- 
tended a prefage of thcconfufion and perplexities which wcte to 
attend the progrefi of itf. ind of the dytadfiti tairjfrepht tvbJ:/) tetit 
io put tht tlsfmg f triad ta it^ he was born on the day of the vio- 
lent and dcltruiiive ftorm, in the year 1703, whofc fury rang'd 
over the gieatcfl part of Europe, but was particularly fatal u> 
this kingdom.— In what degree of cidcrlbip he llooJ among the 
childicn of the Laureat I know not, but as it is apparent tliac 
Mis. Gibber was very prolific, ;ind m our Hero did not coins 
into the world till ten years after his father's marriage, it is pro- 
bable he had many fen ion.— About the year t;i6 or 1717 
he was fent 10 Winchefter fchool i and very foon after htsi return 

from thence, came on the Wage. Inclination and gciiiu» 

probably induced him lo make this profeflton his choice, and 
the power his father poflefs'd as one of the managers of the 
theatre- royal, together with the rltimaiion he flood in ai an 
aftoi, enabled lhi» his (on to purfue it with confldeiabte advan- 
tages, which do not always fo favourably attend the firfl at- 
tempts of a yoiing performer. — In this profcfiion, however, he 

• It wai pjbliflied in 175J. See Review, Vol. Vl. p. 3j(). 

f Wc have before reoiuked ibat fomc, iodced not a few, of tittk 
tDTtnoin, arc but iROccumrly wtiiten. The AothoT't lliie Jrcaii ^Actj^ 
cuUily defeciivc ia the articlci we have now cU.iued U> UXeSu 




The Ctiapanitn to the Ptay-hwfr. 

ffuickly gave juooPs of great mcfit, and foon aitained a toii^ 
fidcrable fliare of the public favour. — His manner of adUng wu 
in ihc fame walk of chxraficrs which bis father had with fo 
much and fu iuft a reputation fupportcd.-^In bis ftcps he trod, 
and tho' not with equal excellence, yet with fufBcient merit to fet 
bim on a rank with moft of the rifing generation of performers, 
both as to prcfcnt worth and future profpe^ of improvement. 

* The fame natuiol impcifcSlone which were To long the bars 
to his father's theairical advancement, ilood 0111 marc ArongU 
in his way. — His pcilbn was far from pleafing, the features of 
his face rather difgufiful. — His voice had the fame thitlt treble, 
but without that miifica! liarniony which Mr. CoIIcy Cibber 
was mailer of.— Yet fiill an apparent good undcrJlanding and 
()uickncfs of parts ; a pcrfei5l knowlegc of what he ought id re- 
pref<-nr ; together with a vivacit)' in his manner, and a Icind of 
tffreninit which was well adapted to the chaiaflcrs he was to 
reprcfent, pictty amply counlcrbalUnccd thofe dcFiciencies. — In 
a word, his iirn fetting out in life fcemcJ to promifc the aflur> 
ante of future happincfs to him both as to cafe, and even af- 
fluence of circumllances, and with rcfpc£t to fame and reputa- 
tion i had not one foible overclouded his brightcft profpc^, 
atul at length led him into errors, the confequences of which it 
was almoK impofTiblc he fliould ever be able to retrieve. — This 
foible was no other than extravagance and want of occonomy.— 
A fonditefs for indulgences which a moderate income could not 
afford, probably induced him to fubmit to obligations which it 
had (he appearance of meanncfs to accept of; the confcioufneri 
of ihufc obligations, and the ufe he imagined thcv might be 
made o( againft him, per^.aps might at firfl prevail on him to 
appear ignorant of what it was but too evident he could not 
avoid knowing, and afterwards urge him to flepK, in the pur- 
fuance of which, without his by any means avenging his wrongs, 
his fame, his peace of mind, his credit, and even his future 
fortunes were all wrecked at once. The real a^'tuating prin- 
ciples of the human heart it is impnlTitte to dive into, and the 
cbaiitabJy difpofcd mind will ever be Inclinable to believe the 
bcUf efpccially with regard to tho(b ulio are no longer in a 
condition 10 defend thcmfclvcs.—J>ct ihcn his »flic$ reft ia 
peace, and avulding any mtoutc invcHigacion of thofe circum- 
stances which caft a low'rir.g cloud over his chiraflcr while 
living, proceed wc to thofe few partlcul.irs which immediately 
come within our notice as his hifto.'iograpbcrj. 

' Mr. TheophiJii! Cibber then fccms to have cnter'd firft 

into the mstrinionial rtaic pretty early in life. — His firft wife 

L was one Mifs Jenny Johnfon, who was a companion and inti- 

' ' mate of Milj Rat'tyr's (now .Vlff . Clivc) and in her very carlicft 

, years 

Tlf Cfmpanitn io tht Play hfuje. 


•years had a ftrong inclination for the fhgt. This lady, ac- 
icording to her hutbanti'l own account of her, rccm'd likely to 
Ihavc made a very conrjjicuous ligutc in the theatre, had not 
fdcaih put a flop to her career in the very prime of Iiie.— She 
lefr behind her two daughter!, Jane and Lli^-ibutb, t>oth uf 
iwhom ate, I believe, Hill living* — The fird made two or three 
ttcmpts on the ftagc ; but though agreeable in her pcrfon and 
Idegani in her manner, yet, from the want of fufficient rpirir^ 
and having but an indi^rent voice, flie met with no extraordi- 
nary fuccel's. 

• After the death of Mrs. Jane Cihbcr, Mr. Cibbcr, in tbc 
.year 1734. or 1735. paid his addrefles to Mifs Sufanna Maria 
,Arne, whofe amiable and virtuous difpoHtion, he himfelf in- 

jrms us, were the confidcrations that induced him to make her 

Ilia wife. — She was at that time rcmaricabic on the fiage only for 

lier muGcal qualifications; but foon after their marriaee, (he made 

ler firft attempt as an afircfs, her fucccfs in which fbave taken 

loiice ot under the lad article. — Mr. Cibber's pecuniary indif- 

[cretions, however, not permitting him to rcftrain his expences 

rithin the limits of his own and his wife's falaries and benefits, 

jugh their amount was very conlidcrable, he took, a journey 

Tto France, for fome Ihort time, in the year 1738; on bis return 

[from which he appears firft tu have taken notice of too clofe an 

[intimacy between bis wife and a ccr:ain young gentleman of for- 

[tunc, with whom ht had united bimftlf apparently by all tbc 

tclofi-ft ties of friendfhip.— -How far he was or was not guilty of 

raic mcannefs charged on him, of being accefTary to ihctr cor- 

[tefpnndcncc, h a point I (hall not here enier into the difculGon 

of. — A fuit was commenced for Cfimiiul convetfaiion, he tayine 

his damage at 50C0I. the vcrdii5t on which of only ten pountG 

damages, too ptsinly evinces the fenfe of the adminiftraiors of 

jufticc, in the cafe, to need any farther comment. 

• After this event, Mr.Cibber's creditor;, who were very nu- 
meraus,and had perttapii been fomewhat appeafedfrom the profpe^ 
of the pecuniary advantages that might accrue to their dchtor in 
confequence of the trial, became more impatient than ever, and 
not Ion? after Mr. Cibbcr was arreftcd for fomc confidcrabte 
fiims, and thrown into the King's Bench ptifon. — By the means 
of benefit plays, however, and other jdiflances, he obtained UU 
liberty ; but as the aifair relating to bis wife, who was now be- 
come an a^^rcfi of the lirfl conf<qi>ence, and in the highell H- 
voor with the town, had grenrly prejudiced him, not only in 
the opinion of the public, but even by Itandiiig as 3 bar lu his ' 
theatrical engagements ; and as- his narurni p.ill:on fordifTipaiion 
could not be kept wiihiu bounds, th^fc ditScuIties repcatc^ 
•iXiir'd to bim, and he was fiequenily cxcladcJ encucl^ vwNtn.^ 


TJit Csmpanhn ta tht Plaj-lMiJi^ 

ev«y AeJitre for a whole feafon together. — In thefc diftreflcj he 
was ever ready to heid any theatrical mutiny tbiit might putit in 
his power to form a fepaiaic company, whtch be more chsn once 
aitecnptcd to fix at the rhc-atrc in the HaymKrieet, but in vain i 
the Ic^inative power iiigcd to exercion by the interefls of the 
eftabliltictl and p4t?nt theatres, conftantly putting a l^op to his 
proceedings after a few nights perfomunce. — In one continual 
fericK of diftrcfs, nclravagance and perpiexity of this kind, did 
he continue till the winter of 1757, when he was engagpd by 
Mr. Sheridan to go over to Dtiblin, to aflift him tn making a 
fiand a^ainfl the new theatre juft then opened in oppofition to 
him in Crow-ftiect.— On this expedition Mr. Cibbcr embarked 
at Park gale, (together with Mr. Maddox the celebrated wire 
dancer, who had alfo been engaged as an atixiKary to the fame 
theatre) on board the Dub!in Trader, fome time in the month 
of Oilober ; but the high winds, which arc frequent at ihu 
time of the j-ear in St. George's Charincl, and which are fatal 
to many vcflfls in the paflage from this kingdom to Ireland^ 
proved paittculaily foto this.— The vellel was driven to thecoaft 
of Scotland, where jt was cad away, every foul in it (and the 
pafTcngers, among whom was the Karl of Drogheda, were et- 
trcmely numeious) pcrifliinjj in the waves, and the fhip itfcif 
fo entirely loft, that fcarccly any vcfiiges of it remained to in- 
dicate where it had been wtcck'd, excepting a box containing 
books and papeis, which were known to be Mr. Cibbci's, and 
which were caft upon the wdlcrn coaft of Scotland *. 

* Thus perilhcdthewcIl-knowiiMr.Thcophilus Cibbcr, whofe 
life was begun, purfucd, and ended in a itorm. — Pof&fled of ta- 
lents that might have made him bappy, and qualities that might 
have rcndcr'iThim beloved, yet through an infatiable ihitft of 
pleafure, and a want of confideration in the means of purfuing 
it, his life was one continued fccnc of mifcry, and his character 
ihe nurkof cenfure and contempt. — Now, however, let hisvir* 

• With him perifhfd one Mr». Peckeridge, a gentlewoman «ho, in 
one of Mr Cibbcr't former trips CO Ireland, had attached heifeirio the 
fortunes, or rather mi^fonuDes, of (hitman, with inviolable conftincy, 
and the moA tender sSvdion. She v/a the widow of a Dublin citizen f 
■fld Cibbcr always declared he would have marttcJ her, had be been at 
liberty. Being a very fenfible woman, (he drew up, and addrcfTed to 
the Archbithop oT Canterbury, a pathetic reprefentation of her cale, 
with regard to her connexion wiih Mr. C. praying hit Grace's com- 
paflion and advice, in an alTair which lb gleatly concerned her wounded 
coafdeoce; and llrongly expatiating on tlie hardlhips un<Jcr which 
people of narrow fbnuncs arc obliged to labour, lor wjot of the meam 
of ptocaiing a divorce, (for T!'<. wat never legally divorccdl which are 
(f> readily attained by the Rich. We remember to have fc«n 1 copy of 
tliu paper, printed in one of Df, Ih^Vi l^jftMiu 

7 tuei, 

WALLia'i Grammar afthi Eniit<b Tangui* 30J 

tftues, whicb were not a few, renijiui on record, and for hts in- 

^rcrctions> . , 

Irft rhcm be buried wiih him in the grave, 
tiut not rcmembcr'd in his cpiiaph. 

' As a writer, he has not rendered himfclf very ronfpjcuou«i 
rxccpting in fome appeals to ihc public on peculiar circum- 
fiances of his own dinrcfled life. — He wiu indeed concerned in, 

['mnd has put his name to, an Account of the Lives of the Poets 
Ot' Great Britain and Ireland, in Bvc Vol. ijmo. — But in this 
work hin own peculiar fliare was very inconfidcrabte, many* 

-other hands having been concerned with him in it. — In the dra- 
matic way he has altered for the ftagc three pieces of other au- 
thors, and produced one original of his own.^Thcir titles will 

^^ found in the cnfuing lift. 

ir'jl^ Henry VI. Trag. from Shaltcfpeare. 
at. Lover. Com. 

3. Patic and Peggy. Ballad Op. 

4. An Alteration of Shakefpeare'a Romeo and Juliet.* 

• Not tram ; fijf excepting the ctitCTtaining account of the late Mn. 
Chukllc of Bath, (which was written by her brother, the learned Dr. 
(amuel Chandler) and the life of Airon Hill Efq; drawn up b; his 
daoghter, Mrs Crania Johnfon,— .the rel! of the li- « were jf>tml)i com* 
pofed bj* Mr. Cibtxr, sad the late logenioas Mr. Robe.-t Shiclli; a 
Scotch genttcirnn, author of rcvnal poetical perfonnsnces. — The Hfeof 

('Euftacc oudgell Kfii; Cent them by an unknown hand ; and b aa 

, cxceQent piece of btography. 

[7i he tmiludtd m tttr next^l 

Jtannis Wafl'ifit Grammatka Lingux At^lieafitt^ tui prafgitur, Ji j 
^ Uqutia ; fine dt foatrum amnium {eqiu'.arlumformiisisiie : Tra£}a-i 
\% *"' grammatk^-pbyjliui^ tJitis/exlJ. Aaiffil tpjisla ad Thtmam. 
. Ba/triej; Je mulh furtitfyiu m/trmaiuHs. Svo. 5s. MiUaf, »■ 


WE have here a moft coiicci and elegant edition of Dr. 
Willis's Grammar of the b)ngl>(h Tongue; a worlc 
[_criginally intended for the ufe of the learned, and therefore (ju- 
rjicioufly) written in Latin. The republication of it, at this' 
rtlnw, cannot fail alfoof being agreeable, as it is ufcful, to fo- 
reigners, dcfuous of auaimiig the knowlcgc of a langujge, which! 
is becoming daily mute and more important, on ai-count of 
the valuable iia^s that have lince appeared in the vernacular 
Jdiom of this country, both on fcieniiAc and tnoral rab}e<fts. It 
.jnuft therefore give peculiar plcafure to cv«^ \aMW.\tiViR\ \owA-> 
Rsv.Aprii, 1765. X ■«* 


WAitis'j Grammar iflht EngS/rTsn^^te. 

to reflet, that while other iwtion! are learning the lan^uagt^ tSey 
have alfo an opportiiniry of naturaliiiof; the ftntimtnts of Kng-' 
lifhmcn : a circumftancc which, in all probahilityi did not 
dcjpe the prctcnt worthy Editor's atteutioTi*, when h< formcit, 
the griirrous defign of reviving Dt. WaUis'a excellent per- 

It is rcmarVaWe that, amidft the various pmrnmaticaT differ* 
tatioQs which have hern publifticd fmec the nrtl edition of this] 
work, hardly any improvement bath' been made in the plan hrfti 
Ikctched- out| in this excellent treatile, for cftablithing the or*j 
thocpy or pronunciation of our tongu*. Many indted hi 
been the tmpruvements msde in our orthography and fyHtaxia 
among which none lay grenter claim to merit than the truly crl^-j 
tical obfcrvatioas contained in the little v*&. of l>r. Lowth, tM 
whom the prclent Editor f paya the following degant compli- 
ment. Art«r recommending Alnfworrh's DIAionary od the 
Reader, as a proper fupplcmvnt to tbia Grammar, he procccdj, 
* Si plcfiiotcm rjus indotem pL-rnofcerecuniat, eonfulat lib^lltlmr 
cui titulus A Jhtrt fntrsdn'Ititi to Engli/h Cjiainmar^ toh/'i Critical 
N^ts, a viroornatidinio Ksbcr:o Lowth, Cajtonrco D'unctmen&t 
tiupcr cditum, qui ftudtonim fucirum complcxu res fere diirocia-* 
bilci coiijunxit, auCufquc vctcris pocfeos orientalis fontes scclu' 
dcre, patrii fermonis rudimcnta rxquircrcdignatus c(l.* 

We are perfaadcd the publie will readily (iibrcrtbe to the juT- 
tice ni this doK eulogiuin. 

* This may not unrearonably be infrntd (torn a- paHage which ii 
prefi;(ed. as a kind of mmio, lo ihia new litifrcffion. — taken from Mil- 
ton's ' iinfuiiticit, a fptech for the liberljr of unliccofcJ wimin^, tw 
ihc Parliaucui oi Knglaml i 410, i(>44'>' •«*«-—* Lor^ ami C o — w wi r 
of EnglanJ, confidcr what Nation it i» whereof Yc arc, and wlicrcof ye 
a/c itic guvcmoun. A nation not flow and' dull, bgt of a quick, ia> 
^entous and pi^King rjiifir, acute to invent, fubiile and (incM-y to diC' 
coutft, not hfnCAtli the rfaih of jny point, iKe highcll that human ca- 
pacity c»n (biw to. ThcKfofi.-, ih* fludin oi Letrning, in her dwpcft 
fcienttf. have btco fi ancient »nd (b eminent among at. that xvritcra 
(»f gixx! an.iquity Jind aNcll j^'ili^iDeni bavc becii' perTuaded that even- 
iftt fchix't of Ppr^d^crar, and the i^^jr^Mwifdom. nM)ebc][iDnbg frotfi 
the uld ^hil(4uji)ty at rbis iAcnJ. Ani that wife andcivil Raman, /v 
hm^jiti fli, wlio governed oitce here for C^ar, prelsrivd the salorat 
»iu of D'iian, bcfori: Uie luboutcd lludiei of ihc French. Nor n it for 
nodi-ng that the grave t.nd frugal T rrndtivailAn 'eadt oot >cail}', fromr 
fl< l^r as the mouotainoui l)o:i1crt of hti0«i and beyond (he HtKynia^; 
«;iclerref«. not their ynaih, but tbtir (l-y*J men, to tiaro out Ian* 

f TnQHAi HniLisEf^j ihe Friend of LiaeitTY and of ScitKCf. 

""^ B momthlV 

t 307 ) 


For APRIL, 1765. 


JArt. I. The Pefttka! Betantt. In tvhUh tht PrinapUs and Con- 
4u£l if the rtw Partiei are uttigbeJt 8vo. j I. Beckec 

ALTHOUGH this mafterly Writer wm well twvt, u he inti- 
mates, at his ofit-ftt, th«t he wss goin£ to t.-CAd Oft the very 
ground which HorKc has deftribed, 

Prr igifi 

And t}iM wbere fo much mull he fatd of perlbni and tranfi^ioni 6> very 
lecent. It would not be polTiblc to avoid [he itapuution of Aattery, and 
ef Tatire : yet he ftrps en, with bcJd snd rnanty c.'tnfidcnce, till arriving 
at the top of Ctnfittuitt-hli, be there lixei hit Aaban, » a prnper 
eniineBCe From whence to laJce a djilinfl view of the conduA of both 
fartiei. Whether the vidnicy of the court may nor, hov.«rer, have af- 
mted Ms optici. we cannot venture to pronounce: but it lb happens 
ibat hfi has thrown all the ineTtt, all the praise of well doing, into the 
■tiuiCterial ftale. wbith preponderain accordingljr ; while the oppolite» 
or »ff»/itiei-fiaU, bei&g lilled only with the air-bubbles of fa£Uon attd 
lalfe pairioiirm, very ruiurallv (Urn op, and kicict the beam. 

A witter in favour of the Ims, will always be conOdtred by the Oats, 
and th«Jr partizanK, ai under miniltetial inlluf ncc ; iherefbre, whether 
0«r Author be realty lb biltltd or not, every ihinj; he fnyt, every argv- 
teent ha wget, wilt b* ragitrded with (iifpiclon. Though he flioold 
have borrowed the balance fhttn Jtisrict hcifdf. dill Ih4 hand thai 
holds it will be diHrufted. or the wetgbti deemed fntbdtilem ; even if 
TitvTiT had elven them bcrflarap. 

Thtt politicil Balancer, however zealous for (be pie^t adminiflra* 
tioo. pidetvn the appearance at leail of the uimoU fcj^ard to freedom 
4f enquiry into muiten of gover ntitent : not u Pym nor a Hampdca 
eould feeoi joore attached to the natural lijbts of the people, ia ibts 

* It is (Oiyi he) of the very fflence oft (f« government, thai the ci- 
tizens of it (hould be awake and attentive to the lituation of the llatc 1 
that they Ihould e^taroine the condnfi, compare the chara^cn^ and if 
poffihie penetrate the delij^ni of the f( parties of tkhlch it is com- 
pofecL— This employment of their thoughts 1» a manly and an ullfitL 
one ; it is to Hbeny what confciouliicri is to the mind, the act io tihich 
flie tnoft fcniibly pcteises hrr on-n ciiflcncc and powers. — It has :hac 
utility in the political which the elaftic power of Uic uir has io the natu- 
ral fyflemi ifit be cnriDanily cxerctfed. it prdeives the whole mad no- 
laintedt and mull cQ'cdualiy prevents or chet:ks the weak or corrUfC 
icndeticies of the fevcral pa'U.* 

AH this looka hiir, candid, nod open: nJ ];ivei. die Author very 
much (be appearance of or.c of thofc bold cKami^.oti^ itVa frc^e CA- 
ihiog bji A blrar jb^c ;ind co tavcur. kit ptcccc4& *. 

X 3 




* If ever thii atiention was partjcolarljr reauircd, it il nam. 
Sate Is divided into two panto; the ptofcfTuo purcoret of the Cevesrf 
chiefs flf the/e are ai contrary at ihcir priociptn and chara^cn.* — Thli 
feemi, by die way, to have been rather the ftate of [hingi fomc months 
ago, than at pief^ic ; for as to the fattiftt who fo lately iiguied in liie 
affifitUn, wc v-ot not whjt it become of them.— The party is here, nc- 
Vcitjidtrft, cocficier'd as lltll cxilliog; and To, indeed, it pfobabij^ wat, 
at the time when the Author began (o write this ingeniotu and etaborff 
review of wi pioccediirgi, comnetKing with the operationi of the ft 
mer- c-im paign, in t7t>3. 

* The ttto paritei (continoei he) are lo be confider'd with relpeA to 
their pnw. iflu tfi^inrnrntut, to thciry'i^f«i of/arrign ptitiyt and to ibcic 
JimtftU aimiKtfiramn. The cbaraflert of the tejdcn of them. To (ar ai 
they influence tlieir plan*. muA be marked ; ttie tenor of their conduft 
mull be recolle'ted. Thcfc are the grounds of that fewi'«'//.w which 
wr Ihould d'law; on thcfe the judgment of the pabUc will be formed: 
Ul«re are titc purpot's of tliU pamphlet.' 

Accwdingly he fcti owt with a britf (late of the fitgatioq in wh* 
they Merc at the Uc^innin^ of the above •mctttioned period, si well at 
of tile tncani by whiih they had been brought into lliat fituatioo. iD 
thii, hoWevef, he employ* bai a few (bort paragraphs, eie he ainvci 
at the clcfe ci ihe I'dliian of parliament 1763, when the caic of the pab- 
lic biifincf: in the hncA; of comrnons devolved apnn Mr. Crcnvillci 
the itcro of tbii performance. — From this period, the Author datci the 
political falratioQ of thefe kinf^doms: the balance u now held I'orih ; 
and the great atchievcments of Uie new, (leady, rm/HimtifMai Itatermin, 
3ie weig;hcd with the picccedings of the tntpofiiion-party. Thai the 
Utter arc Joond wanting, gready wanting indeed, we have already ioti- 
mafcdi and Jhill now only refer to the particulars here exhibited, ia 
l>K wordi of Milton, aa cxultia^ly applied by otu Autbsci ta bia 

— — f <r frt/htik up, 

AnJ rtad ibj let it yw ulrjiiei ^gn, 

H'ixrt ibau art •tittigi'J, ant/jiwui boKU tigJ^, hofu •urai. 

We rhall only add, that tliofe who are deilrous of feeing a clear an<f 
ccmprehcnrive accuuiii of the proceeding! of adminillraiiun, finer Mr. 
Grenviilc tODk the lead, in thai importanc department which he now 
filU i and of the Arveral rioitlcfs cnbrti * of the anti-oiiotilerial pin/ 1 


* The principal objeftt of auack and defence, h«rc brought into 
view, are. the point of ^nW/^f/, in Wtlko'x cafe ; the tjJer^i/l ; an4| 
the grfff^al vfairaKn ; in all which, ihecondn^l of the minillry 11 re«^ 

I preftnied in ilie moll advanwwoas light; while that of the opoofiliOB 
[', 15 expl-idcJ ax tnalignani, feff-interelwd, and abfufd.— "The wii'dom oP 
admin illraiion ti let forth, in refpe£l of the fbllowlng meaAi^ci:— T^e 
ridding us of German co&ne^oor, with all their train oi/atjijiu, ^"••^ 
raniiti, tJil'at, farfsi, and Jit/cmagrmmtj ; the regalaihn tf ike celtrutt a 
the i-frevtmint 0/ th* finaattt; the bill i^i rellraining the privilege oH 
/ra-ii-gff'Ji-Urtirt; with fome other important paniculars: nor i» rii«' 
Ksng'f grneroos contnlmlion of 700,000!, over-looked. This indeed, 
iKif latb a loiid ^nx/oi of hit Majel^j't ^9.wnui\)ivAiKtA^ %tvL \a\t. for 
■" V* 



; «nay hett meet with ample gntificKion. How far «// the vrry Tcnfibl* 

Wtiier's tejirefentauoi]:) arc confiJlent with drift itn|>utial3iy tnd ifoih, 

wc uonot pretend to detennine. If ihey arc fallacious, it ii to b« 

'lioped there will not be wanting men, who hive opponuoiiics of infor- 

I Btacion, to fct the public right, and ptevent their beinf; impofcd on by 

' ihc artlike, or ptsuHbility of thofe who arc tlic more dirgcfiiun tor ibcir 

L-abitiiie*. If, on the other hand, oar Author is found to have given a 

jolt and fair view of the paniculars which he undertook xn lay before 

ht nuhlic, let him not be denied the pnifc that is due to hit ingenuity. 

hit rpirii. aod hdcliiy to bia caule ; nor (if fuch .there be) Id thole who 

iiave honetlly and fkiirully extned ihetnreliTs lo the ferrice of their 

country and their king, be deprived o( the plaudit fo empKaticaliy be- 

' ito^h'cd on a Jimilai octalion — >f r// titut ! tlxu ge^d tutJ/aiitJUl/trvtut t 

2. Tht Mutual Jnttrtft of Greet Britain and tbt Amtricsn Cs- 
Ititits tonfiderfdy with rtfpeif to an Aif paffcd laft ^fjftins efPor- 
HamtKty f«T laying a Duty on Mtribanttiv^^ i^C tp'itb pmt 
R/marii en a Pamphlet tntitUdy Objcdtions to the Taxatloa 
of the American Colonics, &c. conlidcrcd. /a a Letter to a 
MemUr of Parliament. 4tO. 6d. NicoU. 

Tn oar lafl Tnonth's catalogue, we mentioned the pamphler enti(*e<] 

'^hjeSntit, K^i- on which the prcTent Writer hath animadvciicd. ftiih 

ptain good ienfe, and a becoming zeal for the ljbert<cj of hit fcllow- 

Juhjeflj of Nnnh-America. He is not an elegant wrircr; but, which 

^n of more impuruncc to his fobji-'d. he apf cats. a& far u we ran judge 

rftora lb fmall a traft. to be well acquainted with the mutual interelt and 

natural coimeAtoa between thit lountry and her colonies. As for hii 

Ivm^ki on the aft alluded 10 in his title-page, they are fuch as we 

iare not venture to decide upon ; for if he it tight, the ad in <juellion 

'1 certainly Wtong, and abfurd in the highrll degree. 

Art. 3. Thaaghtx «n a ^.ffion of Jmpcrtance frepoftd ft the Pullfe, 
IVbetlMT it ii probeibtt ibot toe immtnfe Extent «f Ttrritary ai- 
quired iy this Natian at the late Piocf^ will tperalt tyivardt the 
Profpefity sr 'tht Rush of the ifami of Gnat Bntiiin ? JJvo. 
I s. 'Plxwcll. 

The Author ftemt 10 duermiiie this QueRioa agttln/! us : but be 
fpcilct modciJIy, as every niao of I'cnfc v.ill, on a ful<jr<t ol fi much dif- 
icuWy and cOnfcqucncc. He confeiTi, thai ;ilt^niigii ne Das thought a 
£ood dejl upon it, in (tie mult cool njid dil|i,iii)a»aie minnrr, yet bii 
Own opinion ii Dill in a great meafurc undctcimintd. He has, bow* 
tvet. ciifimiiied the quettiott, to the uimoft of hi> abilities, with the 

his people, u ought never to be forguiieQ. It wat fuch a donation aa 
* 1 believe (lays our Author) exceeds the generolity \,i all the kings 
wito ever fat, bcjbre hiiu. on the Englilh duonc.' Ncverthcleli, tvhtle 
vegivc uQioC'iLSAR the piaifc that is Cesar's due ; lc( ui never fuffcc 
« iti/itT-, cr tf^ef a^tMti, to lull us >nto i f€<uruj tliat mny be f^titi : for 
linte government i» the dcarell commodity putchalcJ with the people*! 
Dtoncf 1 ta-seat emptor iUoutd cvet be the people's uiaxin, 

X 3 V'viL-i^A 



'4aud«ble vkw of ocidog the public aneniion to« point of fiKb vd hs' 
ponancc Hi> (can for hit country »n grc«t ; but kc hopes, if tbey 
ue graun(!lc((, it wilt be made app;iieni Out they are fo : if oiberwift, 
Ik wiQici that ihc bcA amai wcie poiotrd rut for ivtudira otir rata 
at mucii « pcStblc. Mc is not a arit rale writer, nor 4oci be pntmd 
to any fluil in mercantile vtiairs ; but he ia a thinking, tvioMi man » 
and tvhat bv otfcri tu the coalitkration of ch« pubii<r. b<iqg loicjy at' 
tencUd toi lUciir *dvaaiag«, molt ccrtaialy (kJerve» their iuioui <oa6- 

Art. 4. 5ai)i/ Jbmarii uptn a Plan sfe BUlpnps/iJtt PeriioMtMt, 

, for amtnding thi Hi^hiuayi by Jtj^JJimvtt infiead tf Six Day$ 

Ltttwr. by R. Wbiiworth, Efq; one of hii Majrfty's Jul^ 

ticn of the Fnce, for the Cot(nty of Stafford. Folio, is. 6({, 


71un Ae/!atuf-UBiv 00 the roads has bttbeao prov«d of very little 
lervice to the ^qblic. ii a fi£t k well known, and f^ gen^rUlv cods 
olaiatd of, ibdt it U<in* high lime iodceJ to fall upon (opiK new fclteine ; 
[hit of an alleirmeut inftcjd of the jix days » Ubour (for tucii hath 

.ufually proved to be the cafe] ferini moA litLtly to anfwcr the end. The 
]ate bill for thii putpofc (which |bc boufc huh pvtt ofi' to a long day) 
yiAi in itfcir, as Uicjudiciouj Author of thcfc Rfiutrh obTirrveH 'cer- 
tainly a right thing.' but ' the manner in which it it to be done/ doaa 
■At fecn to him * 10 be ihcrouglily digcficd.' He has, ihercfore, en. 
jcted on t fATticular exan^iniiiun of the p'^n, daoie by ctaufe, «n4 

.polnied out many very coofldcrablc 6t.(c£U iu it } with a view that ^hen ' 
\he fame bill Iholl be prepofcd. next frflions, it m^y be difftrently mo- 
^IVd. and bcicei diecficd. With the latne view. aUli, he h'l in■»f^^ 
|ip, aod added to tick Rcmarlii, a wnu f.Uu o( a bill to be KopoM iq 
^rliamCQt, founded oa tlie lime idea oi an aflelTmcnt inlteud of hJt 
day's labour; which does not leem luble to la many, or fo uuportam 
d^e^ioni as ike Ltv pUn. 

tin, 5. *n>t Stau of ihi NatUyty with a prdiminary Dtfmu of 
fhf Bud^rt. 4,10. 1 1. Almon. 

This important eAimatc of the prelrnt political ftaie of the nUion. 
fecms to crtinc frinn the author of the tclcbtatcd Budget ; and !* divided 
into two patii. 'I'Uc Rrftpart contains the defence of the Budget, Jigai«ft' 
the Rmwrkiofi that pcrronnince: fee Review for JsmtaryTift, 0. 63. 
Thefecoftd partconiainiihc ftaicof the nation, with regard to iti ia- 
(M&Ci cxpendiiure, and unf(in:!ed debt ; and to the whole It added a 
jMftfcript. relating 10 the loan of i . ;oo,c>oo I. wh tch nva* opened to -Jio 

Cnblk. on the i^ih of March ^Notwithitandirg the acnmony with 
hich the Author iUll purluci Uie miiul*.ty. we cannot but recommend 
Jiii pioda^'on to the notice of our potiacal Kcaden, on xcount of the 
jnany caktdationt and cflintatci tt coni^ini. sod which appear to he 
rfrawii from the moH aothemic ami only proper foorcei. Whether the 
flrmnricT may not llill, at bcinre, bring out dilferent ctnt/vfitnt front 
ftie fame preot^f?), tod QiU {'io;t«h chc dir^iitCt time will Dicw. 

Art, 6, 



Art. 6. A DtUWm %f grtfs Jmf^Uvm ta the Parltamtfa^ utitb 
rtfpeit 10 tW9 A^i po^ tit ia/i Stjfiem. In a Lettfr in R. B, 
Ef^\ By J. Gee, Gainrtxirough. gvo. 6J. LtBcaio, 
. jvintcd hy W, WooVy f^ltl by BiH^win in Laudoii. 

Mr. Gee appeaji to be a warm bui fenfibtc man. Iboicivha! beared 
^ hit appi^tifjoak that bit counrry will f;t«i4ir (uSrr in icrpc^ of <h£ 
4uilur« of hemp and flu, 1:^ fomc U(c mcufuie^ lakcn to cntci;ir3^e (he 
impofUlion of tbcle mu«riali Uom our colonicii puitcuUrly itte 2^ 
fftf alkwriu aliouDCv on AiDmcan licmpi IfC. which be conixlcri a» 4 
moA inpwtic tneature, tcadtn^ to ruin Mrfj/f/v^j, for the l^lcc of cn- 
richinjr ihe Amiriiami. He pafea gre^t rnconuums on the Itijh, f»r 
(be wittknn of their proceedingt for the cncoufsjjemeat of ihrir imncn 
trade ; and recoaiaieoda tg u& as tmiution ofiiuir policy. In brief, he 
kema to be uell acquaiiued wtch bi> fubjc^ ; anJ a* ihai fuhjc^l ti 1 
mauer of v£ry gfcai ccnfc^unicc to this kiogdom, bis tra^ oa^i^t to 
be duly couOd.ciai, cfpcciaU}' bjr ihoTc who ore moll imnedtately cqq- 

Art. 7. 7J^ real Nsnii-Briien Extrair binary, rtltahe to the Eajl^ 
Jtuiia Affiihs i vMch umis ixp4£Jed u/ith muib Engtmrf* ly tbi 
PulUc «n tht "Jib af April 1763 \ but fur partUu!nr Reafam wag 

_ th^ttgbt fr«^r at that Time ta bt fup^rcjpd. By a Popular Gcn- 

'tleoum, n»w nbroad. FoUo. 6d. Mt>ran. 

Wrii;cQ by Mt. WilkcSi at the tjnie above- men ctoned, Iq deFence of 
Mr. Roiu. There i) i«d«iibt of it* amhcnticily ; but the puMrcition 
^ecms to have followed the occafion ni too g'^^ *■ dil)anc«. Th:3 papCf 
jt aUb infecltul in ll^ /MrW volume of the orit^iaat Norib-S;uani which 
tvas aevcr pn^t/bfd, although we have Aea it in pricu. 

AA. 8. 4 Ztf /rr fr7m Sjr Grtgory Gtzetlt^ te bit Fntnd in thi 
Citattfp Svo. 6d. Taweis. 

'■' Uedrr the ofltuned name of Sir Gngtrf itasifrr, we h!n>e heard, t^af 
a pcdoB of real ditUD^ion it here conce.ilcd. Be ihiit as it may, the 
fuoieA of ihi» letter ii uf fonie ioipoicancc to the public, though it ii 
fiicn as we (hou)d tddom expe^ to fee the pen of a Sir or a Lw4 
any body, ea^Ioycd in difcufTing, viz. the injury fun^ineJ by the pub- 
lic, from the tilde cnriedorr by a fet of laonopottzen called Camfe- 
fcalchcn, Thife wholirftic detleri in beef »nd moiton appejr to onr " 
Author ill a very bad ^fM- * Thecaicafc-huaher !fiiy» he) is a ta* 
fipoa the oeodlatM of life, a loll upon th:- market, a caifer of artiiirial 
mnioe, aod a ufura-.'-^In ano^ier place he phaLrifly reniarlis, thflC~< 
' to fu^r a fet of fellowx to fonn a line of circumrallarion round thd 
pictrcipolij, aod to fe/mic then, lite the aidi-tcloo, Cqiut. to drag 
mckward bv the tail the fat beaft. or tbe drare that h St for food, into 
kit den. tilf he hat mide an ubiirai-y |;3tn upon them, it coninry to 
jaRice, and to coiiioiou btuiJe, and would he, in f»i£l, dtabUlhing /ore- 
ttalliRg by suiboiiiy.* 

Afh 9f S l^rr ft «i Jlfendur a/ P^Iidmmt. Pnpsjmg AftuaJ' 
ffuafi to tbt Lewt ogainjl i^irffifUeri^ Pig'^Jirtj ^4 MfgtutM-i t 

X J. oni 


Monthly Cataloqui, 

and rttmnttnding mtmn to trrwnu fit iht futon^ ixtra^fdni 

hifh pruts off.irn in thii K'tngAem : And atfs giving Rtaftnt ftr 
repeairngt er at Uaft aitrhig^ the Low alitufin^ Biuntj-mmej wi 
the ExperletMn of ffhral ti fireign Parti. 8vo. 6 d. Lqi^- 

A niMP ferious petformaiKe than SirGre^ry'i. on a fiTiHar fufejea. 
Thr Author has nany fulid obrer\at:oo! concerning n j" opcr regotabon 
of ihc pncMof gNiii) i xnd on the combwinty: which, on the whole, 
frcms to have pr:>wi:(i rather a Ux upon thn kingdooi, thlD advanta- 
geous to d)« country. 

Arr. 10. Thi Adminijiraihn tf CaJmes. By Thmnas Pownall, 
j-ite Governor aiiJ Commands in Chief of h»j Mufcfly* 
Provinces, Mafiavhufct's-BavandSouth-Carolma; and LicuK 
(iovrracr of Ncw-jcr(ey. 'The feconJ FJiiion, irvifed, cor- 
rected, md eolargcJ. ovo. 4s. Ddddcy. ' ' "*" 

For ail accoani.of ihc/r/f edition of this Tsluablc rt^irroarcr, fee 
Cur ReviekV for June lall. p. 441. The Auibot's name ii nokv forthe 
fird time affixed to i< i and ihc ucauf** is cDtiflderaUy airginaitetl bjr the 
idditiOD of ttew natter, in varjOD* parts of the work. 

Art. II. The Righti tf thf'tjh (kkfius ttmfid^rtd^ the Adt^ta- 
- jlrausv avd Rtgulatien tfO^r CsUities txplotUdj. and tht btflfntaitt 

reemurttnded ta mifif t^ dUmti m^ uftful to the Mother CeUMw 

try. 8vo. la. 6d. Flcxjicy. 

In a dchite concerninj^ a fubjcd^ of fueh vafi irr.portance as the prefrnt 
controvcrfy idaitng to our Amtrican ccrfonies, every one Qibuld becan- 
tiiJIy heard, who haih any ihiog to c>/!er that may tend to throw aJdt* 
tioiul light on the objeA in view. For tbrt rtafon, the tr*£t d4w be- 
fort tti, h entitled to the nnpartial notice of ihc poWic, not^rtliftanding 
(he Auihor lecms to be not a little dcficietit in judgment, temper, and 
liti-Taiurc, and >i (rc<]ucntiv hurried, by hi> 7.eal for |hc colonici, ioiQ 
a utarinlh of eiipicftioo, which Wilt by no means eirc him aiiy advao* 
tage over his opjponcntr, the ingcniouj Authors of Tit AJmiH^lrmiioM of 
Ctlt»te3i and of^ 'Tht Rigtlalitns laalj made ttnurning tht Ca!tm(t ; of 
which !alt-mcti(ii>ced produclian we gave (bme account In oor Review 
fi'f February laCl, p. ijo. The picfcnt Writer, ncverthclefi, hu 
tJirowu uuc fouie obfccvatioi))) whu)), at they ate perhaps the rtfulc 
of tJcftfiinit, may delenre atientioa ; altliougli the gieatell part of hit 
pamphlet conlJlii of extrafU from Mr. Otis, and from the Dclcace tk 
the Charter Colonies, written by Mr. Cutnoicr, ', 

J^rl. 12. A (jiieral Plan ftir th( Pcor^ and rendering the ffilejji 
Mauds in England^ if^.des, i^c. ef puhUc UtneJH., h} employing 
thtiti in Manitfacives atui Hujiamiry i together with ftme iiims 
fs Jlrtngthen the Nalisnel MUilia^ without IncemuHiettte or great 
£x^ce to the Public. And Intimations that may be imprwed to 
tht Advantage of unhippj and in/olveni Debtors. By a Oentl** 
ffian. $vo, od, Gardner. 



A rerormat^ of our pooNlatvi, nrhkh froin the abuses to which tb^ 
tre fub}«Ai tbi from ihc alarming incrcarc of the poor, appears lo tie 
{o neciful, has b«en fre<^uently attempted. Many (chemcs and plan* 
have been formed for the bcitff regulating and employing the poor, to 
the end thac thcmfeU-ei mtgbt b« more coitifortably fublined. and the 
ntei for their mainicoancc reduced, for the cafe of the public; and a 
bill framnl on there piiuciplct wai biought into pAEliunicui tbii fdliont, 
by • wotihy roembcrof thehoafeof conirnoiii 

The prcfent pho. drswn up by an onknotvn hand, is publifhcd hf 
Mr. \Vbit*oiih, raerobtr for Blechingley ; u wc are informed by aa 
sdvertilcmcnt prdixcd <o it, «id figned by thai gentleman. He re- 
inarki, io iu recommendation, ihkt whereak the bill brtni^ht into par- 
liamCDt ii contpofed foot to maice a total alteration fmm the prefent 
«fiiUiihmcnE; and not being compotfory, nay clifh wi'.h it, when te. 
ceired in fomr places and not in other* i and obferving thai the deficit 
-in our internal policy do itot arife (a mnch from a rM4i>fuftcieticy in our 
liwt, 2% the aon-ncecution of them, which he afcribei to a caufe re- 
flecting rxi great honour on the KCHtlemen in the commiiTion of the 
-peafci ihia pUn u [herefore formed on the poor-lawg now in force; 

1'he OQiline* of ibe p'an are nculy the fame with that of tile biJI it 
was intended to fupcrccdc ; namely, the aHociating the parochid poor 
into hundfcdi. or other convcnicrt tiiHrirts. under the govtrntneni of 
giinrdians zni fub guardiaoi, conftliiug of men of fubiUiitiaJ proper^ 
on the fpot. 

One coi^'d hti:t, however, we will menuon, which if contained In 
she feveoii) propoUI concerning charitable bc<]ucJU; tmc, — < that teal 
eftatci whkh Ihall be dcvifcd, fhall be fold by ihc goardiatn, for tb« 
bed price that oq be obtained fur (he fame, and the money aiifmg by 
foch /ale Oiill be, by the trcartiTcr, immediately placed in focic ol the 
public funds, and the iniereO growing due ihercon (halt be applied lo 
the ofe of that psrilh or workhoufe to whirb it was given/ 

Pcrbapi the entailment of land in any form, may, upon tnqoiry, ap- 

ear to have a worfc tendency than is generally apprehended; but how- 
tcver that may be, tlie mofl impolttk d'Tpofal of land li', when the pro- 
perty of it is tied up, and rendered unalienable, in the bands of poblic 
sod corporate bodies. 


\iU 12- The EnJar^ment of tie Mind. EpiJlU It. Te jyiUiam 
L^htrne^ M. A, By j. Langhornc. 410. is. Beclcct. 

In this feconJ EpiAle. wherein, like the firft, ihere is tnore poetry 
iian plan, we l^nd the foIloMing brautifijl panegyric on Reasoh. Mr, 
[.anghoiM begins with tracing thra fatghefl atmbute of human oatuie, 
iu iburte : ' ' 

■ Whtn fiift the iremVling e)e rccoJvej the day, 
EJt^c^^aI forms on young Fcrccplion play ; 
External forms aflVfl tJic mind atone. 
Their diS^rent pow'rt and propcrtici anknown. 
£4-e the pleat'd infant court the liammg brand, 

Eager (o gtiUp the^kiry >a it* hand ! 



Monthly Catalacoc, 

tii/t oySal wave u rager to fttv^it, 

Sticuti ics food armt to meet the finUiae Owlet 
When mcmory'icail the mime worJ»TOey, 
And wine <^c thought that faulicri on ttt way i 
WiiCB wifc ocpeHfncc her Ili>w vcrdiil dnwu 
Tb< (utt cffeft f Kplo.-ing in the caufr, 
1(1 Nature's rudc^ but mt unfruitful wil^r 
JttfttahH fprings, and R^a/lm is fecrcluld : 
On bcr fair Aock tbc blooming fnon grmvi. 
And brighter through revolving (eaToBt blows. 

Tht Poet then ukcs a Sight to Paradise ; (appoffix this ■ FIoMttr 4i> 
»ist' to have b«en by ' fttal error irrn' iroia the irtx of life t aad he 
UdKiits thr unhappy eonfcquenoe. I'hii alliifion to ihe aUmuical fWvf 
of th» Fat'!, fecmi to have bun fooMwhu oddly introducqd in an cnM^ 
fnlum An they^M/ of that fame itm ; — in a poctn cxpivbljr wrinn •• 
' c«kbntc the adftMUges dcnved to mankind bom the ' ccauika know^ 
Icgc'uquired by our Ml pareata caang of that fruit >— The Author 
^ipifclf, indeed, does not feem to havs been very deeply impivft wilk 
che idea of ihu mitfonune . if wr may jodge faoBi ihc piophetic apor- 
^ef)be which inmediatcly IoUoivb : 

Yet, beagteoss Flow*r ! immottal (hale thoo 0uoe» 
When dim with age yon ^lorinus orbs dccliiK ; 
Thv orient bloom, unconfciou* of decay, 
' . ShaU fprcad, and Sour(b >n cterrul diy. 

t. Ut cjico ptoocodi to ilv following pathetic anj fpintad nflefiioa 01' 
Ihl fWipw CoJlure of iHii &ir pUnt : 

01 with what ait, my ^icadL what cariy care^ 
Sfaeold wifdoin cultiviiie a plaot fo fair t 
How fhould her ej'e the rip'niiig mind rcvife. 
And blail the b(jd» of folly u iney rife ! 
How fliould her band with indufUy TcCrain, 
The thriirtng powtli of Pa£Gon'» frttitfol tntio, 
I (_*_' Ali>mng wmC whole loftv ams would towV, ^ 

With fatal fliadc o'et Rcafon"* tender fiow'r. 

From low purfoits the duilile mind to fave. 
Creeds that canirift, atKt viro tfcar rnflavc ; 
O'er liie'i rou^h feas itj doubjul cmitfc to Qcer, 
Oohiolte by av'rice, bij;ot(ry. Or fcaf; 
For this fair fcience (piead* hn light afar. 
And tills the bright Um of her ealicr n flar. 
The libcial power in on fetiuellct'd celU. 
No DKUoftuoe coons of Ueeamin^; fetioolmen dwclbi 
Oiftinguilh'd far her lofty temple Ibndt, 
Whtre the uU Mountain ]o(^» o'erdiflant Iasd»; 
All nHind her thtane the craccful arti appear^ 
That boafi ttia empire of tnc rye or car. 

A dHcriptiOD oftJtole * graceful am' wklcb Aock round the throne gf 
Science, partici;brly. Poirar, Paiwtiko, ScuLrTt-ir t, ard Muiic, 

(bccoc^; and chc cocm coadudct with Imk i«adcr, rli^c lines. 10 

P « T I C A t. 


riie mtmory of his friend the late worthy colonel CrBwrmil j to whom 
hts firil EpiCUc, on tkJt iubj«a, wu iddxdTcd; Sec Review. Vol. 
XXIX. p. X2^ 

Art. 14. Pemt ly C. Churchill; Ccttunnsng the CtHftrejuf, 
the Juthtrj tht Duelii/i, Goiham in Thrit Bttkf^ tbt Candideu^ 
tbr Farrtpeilt thel^mes, Indtpmdentf, and the jtantejf a Frag^ 
mini. Vol.11., iis. SubfcripUon, few'd. Flexnejr, 

This is not ) new edition of ihe ftvertt poems mentioned in ifac litlv, 
—the unlblii punphlets being (Hcched together, in order 10 make a to> 
]ifmc>— Here i* nothing new exoept * frjignieni called ibe Journey ; m 
wbkk the VVtiier» with hitufual acnmoay sod un&lciics of fupcriorii^, 
inreieht Bgiinlt th« .poiD, bit cotempcraries; uut of which, u we 
Ihould be unAilliogto piopagaie what we cannot but coadsmn, we Ihall 
ulcc M brthcr futicc. 

Alt- 15. ^ififUammt Pints «/" Annent EngUfit Pujit^ v'lx. 7i^# 
Srtuhltfamt R^igtu tf King Jffhny wrinen by Shahfytart, rxtant 
in iM Mdilien »f bit /Writings. Tht Aitiamfrphyn of Pigma- 
I'lm's Jmagf, and ctrtain Satytt^ Ir^fthn Marjiitt. *fbeS<aurg$ 
\^ l^iHanift iy the fame, '-■AW printed before the Year jOoo, 
{2ino. 35. Horsiidd. 

The dxaRinuc hiftory of the tioubleionie ret|n of King John, hy foow 

•Ictibed to Sb.ikc Tpcsfc, >iA> been gcnrrally rejected by hit Editon. 

It mud b« owned, howot«r, that it i« not withoucfome marks of that 
great Poet'i seniui ; and if it doth not merit a place among the reft 
vf hit wDfki, K defcrveiai leafl to be preferved in (ome fuch pablicaiio^ 
M the prelent. The poems hy MarAon have a claim of the fame kind( 
(or they too arc the efforts of a vigorous |enitii. — MvAoa was the a>- 
umporary and rival of Bifliop Hwl i and thnuph inferior in numhen, 
jnrni 10 have eacalled hun in force : but Hall, if we nay crcdil hia 
own (Kcoant, was ihi Biii Salirifl : 

I firA adventure. fo!low me who lift. 
And be the Iccond Englilh Sitirift, 


Art. 16. Tbt Shtfhtr^x Jrtifite: A Dramam PafltraU Ash it 
ftrfQTpud el tbt Thtntrt Royal in Covcnt Garden. The Words 
wiitivn, »iid the Muftc compofcd by Mr. Dibdin. 8vo. 1 s. 
' ^cket and ()e Hoadt. 

AVe fee liale to admire, and nothing to defpife, in this prrlty, (imple, 
paAoral draiaat which wcfuppofe to be tlw hrll literary produdion of 
the yoimg I'crformcr who did M much jullice to the chariftcr cf Ralph, 
in the Maid of the Mill. Tht fpecimcni he baih (;iven, both ai an 
a.Aor and a wriici, fcem to promile the public mnch fuiure entrrtsin- 
mcnt ftoQi bit improved AbihUcs; cl)>cciall)' in Uic &f U-mcntioned i.a< 

»-' ? 

Art. 17. Thf Tritfimiratr : er. Tie Aulturitit MfUmrt 9/ A. B. 
and C. i?nui..2 Vols. 6». Johnflon. 

A Wiiter who u doc wUhoui juft prcEonGons to thccViva^r of a nun 
nf TcRfci and a ichalAr, hii bcre aiTumcJ ihit of > NovclIilL • (o which, 
to oar opinwn. he hat no pretenficni at all, Witboui Ftclding'i fipc 
Jxnts, he afie{l> to be riefdin^ ; wi[tinuc Stcnvc'i ongin;! gcmut, he 
woul^ pa6. for* Sterns: vrhile pcJunifV is offered in payment forflcf 
liitg liumour ; aotl looTc, obfcenc onc^ic fuppttei ihe want of genuine 
«vk. ]r n word, the Author's tnniinef ii exirtmely Oitf, and crfa^cce- 
■l>te. He tnskc* a ridmiloui parade of fah acquatnuncc with ftHdra 
lanrB3j;c« ; m which after all, if we may judge from bii En^Iith, ne 
m-xy pKive but«n nuiigermt connoifleur: for his QyEe 2nd diAion are 
fa blotted and btorred with irijhfiai, that we believe the mere Ejighfli 
RMJer Mill orten be iti a lofs [o difcover hii meaning : bat thefe he will 
pnbaUyiay, me onty fuel) * ioxcimdef at mtritlte ciitKs tni.j'fH» 
fcnre,' — and which he liow not ' think wonh amending, in ■ •wk of 
this kind.*— •Indeed !— then yoathiolc iny crude, iadigemd ftaffu good 

Sough fbf iht public' — and j^ood eaou(>h 100, iix your putoo-ihe 
ukr of Ocdfoid, to tthofe gcucroui ami voloDiAiy pairona^e, a* tha 
DiofCATioN fcis forth, you have btenfofiiehly obliged'. 

By A. B. aihd C aic meant AaJ't^t^ Bi^tUr, and (Jla/v^y i 'tbe three 
Ikto<-i ofihUtoisAnec: wholb names, et. foil length, it fecmi.' our Au- 
thor did not at liitt inttnd to moke free with, i bi.s no doubt, wis a 
point of delicacy which fufHcicady manifellod hi* refpcft 10 the tlialbiotu 
iamiliei o£ Aodrcwft, Beville, ajmI Cuewe : yet he hat obfcrvrd thU 
Ration no Mhctc but in hii litle-pag^: f<:ir which he ofied thu apology. 
' i'hc initial* #/ A. B. und C. were gbjc^cd to in the manilluipl, M 
iKing '^ cj, r,ad iiitr for geoineuy dian rnrcl i that itlcjr did 

not di!'i ..i ..<v pcritiiit rulii<.i;-stly, in the memory, oor itrprcb 
fh« ideat u tiicui ilroug etioufth on the nind. In compliAucr, ihe<e(ore, 
wiih ibis indol'ciice ofattciuiou in my gentle tejden* 1 hive embodied 
"'■■■'■ ' ■■■!—■■ r< ■ ^■■^^^— ^^-^^^ 

* * I aln-ayt {dp out Ailtbot, lu Ms pierfj:> } wnle •uilihai itti, asd 
jufl ai if I iva* fpcaking to you ;' very mix^cfl thi' declaraiioo. and fttj 
(dpe^ful to hi> readers! This g;cntlraian,,no doabc, would think it 
XKiy ft'wat to come into CfMni^Sny with hit Piof 3 buckled artd garter* 
tfed. -fut Whata;^ v/t to iinde Uind by hit method of writing vcr-Mt 
itif Doei thi* meaA, that he fcnbblcd hi} cnciuolrs on iciapsot p«per» 
•nd the b»cl:« ofleticrt, aa Mr. I'opc ufcd to iVetch ogt hit vciiai or 
dbei it figntfy, that he no more ronililti the Eoglifh div^otuty in writ- 
ing, he does in convcrlatinn i — flit ii proUihl/ wh.'it he nouldln- 
timaie : for,' a litt e lower, be Gtys, — * i really never do more myfelf, 
ihaa «»■/'#, ii)d IPAve the ivorld to fir^/a' — Vcrywifdy done — «fr(I 
geniut likef— ^nd thtt Geniut, we may venrare toprcOi^, will find, 
that tlie MOrlJ WILL nrrtft him ; unlcfs he be abfolutcly incorrigrblc t 
for the public never fail to do themfclvei ample jwllice, whcoe»et that 
mated witti arrOftnncc and infalt :— ftnd that by n mcdc cf i^uniOimcnt, 
(lie moil mortif)ing to lite vau.) of an ailUior ; vix. contonpi, and 
totAl nc^Ic^. 


. l/l tiCKXL AH tOV U ^if 

thoug'hti-ttul tlikken'd Oiadow into fubftance for them, by fupplyiaz 
Uic above LamcJ ihrooghout tlic rrmaindrr of this work.* 

He kai not, however, ihouitht tit to afngn hit rrafont for making ule 
only of ibe iwiaa/i, itv hii lit!c-page. Tlu» he perhaps thouf:ht wa5 
gtving Tuch an air ofmyRcry to the woik. as tniffbt btil catch the at- 
tcDtfOfl of the public ; and. indeed. iHe whole litTe hai fuch a peculiar 
(paJl, lh»l when the advenifcrncnt of fi* fnumv-rau ; or. Mimurt sf 
A. 8. ami C. fifA apfteaicd in tbc papers, moll teadats cxpeih;tl tbat 
foinc choice ptJitUal Anecdotes were to be uimmunicaicd to the public. 
»ith all the pradent rcf«vc and cauiion aijiraku, i.fin^ and afifi/mu j 
like the snti-miniftrrial paragraphs which once made lb ercac a 6gu/e it^ 
ihe Len^em tvtmiig Ftp. But thi) was all a DiiiUlce ; lor. like the re^ 
of our modem sdvcnturc-tnaker^, tbc Author has only eiuJcavoured to 
amufe us with a few wondcrtul ttnrics of private inwiguci, and faiiiil|- 
fevoJutioo* : pifing, as he htinL-lf in one pta^ fecou to ukoowledEl^ 

I To airy nothing 
A local habiuiiOAi and a name. 

And yet, like moft of hit broihrr biographc.-i (in the novel W2y) he if- 
firms, in another place, iliac he |ii(blulic> DOih:ng hm/a.'ii; aad that 
every paiticulur of his mctnoiri, * except the n.imci of pettbns and 
placet, can be autbrniicalcd by living teltimonici.' All thit mar be 
very uoc, »b4 ihc book lo much the worle for it : a) a well-invenicii 
moral tale, may be infinia-ly mete plcaiing, -and more alcfiil in iti ttn- 
dency, than a dull, matlcr-of fait narraiibc, aiFording nothing loUiike 
the inaginxion, or tu improve ihc heart —We would not, however^ 
be (IndciRood as if mc thought this work dcdituce of matter to amufe 
llie reader'i^'t^^) for there » enough of that fcri; fuch « it is: and 
fach, indeed, at might have made a better figure than it doci, had the 
Writer been kfl ambiiiotu of J'JfIa,.ia^ hi& uiutmmta Ourr of wit anj 
h amour. 


Alt- 18. A Jhert Anah/fo of Dr. Rheiits* Enmirj trtts the l/uMan 
Mind. Bj Phiiivrritat. 8vo. 6d. field. 

The motto, which ihi^ .AtiaJyfcr hath made choice of, n at applicable 
at lean n> bit own pamphlet, ai to any thing be hotb cxpofed of Ur, 
Reid*! book. ^ani»ia tfi im Tthh» iiuuif. I hat the Dottor hath laid 
kunleirCifiictentJy open, in the unadviled manner of hii attack on Mr. 
LtKkr, ts well known to thofe who are verkd in the fubjc^. Bot, 
whatever ufc fuch fquiln as thei'e may be of in maticr» of politics and 
pany. this fixpenny mciapbyfical craclter, notwi;hl)anding ifae flafh of 
Its advniilemen'. and the bounce of its poltrcripc u not vforth one linglc 
farthing. To piovc thii, wc need not apply to the wo* a ii/ti/i its 
appendages will fcive to conviA it. In the advciulemeni or ^txt'aot, 
we ate told, ' a dog hiih//i/f, but ntK tgt>/ci*ii/'ti/i. Stfji arttn front 
the combination ol two dillinct I'f ««/ (01 bodily) povveri : rMifcit»/^fi 
ffoia the combination of two diltind internal powers, «afrrr tmi Jfint." 
In the f«fi/-r'fi we ne told, ' there arc bot two polili»t created bcingi 

' Whether fhc Wtitt:r tiad any delign in ifau mir-lpctlipg Dc. Reid'a 
nume, i> bell Icnown lo hiuifdt'. 

7 '•a 



In future, otlttcr and fpirif — the red h m«er mode ind retBctoD.* At^] 
then the Author talki about hyptthtjit. J?ath the Rnder nrei) mc 
CDDvinoDg proofi that our Auittor ii «o more > ouccb for Dr. KcJ<0 
than Di. Rcid u for Mr. Locke > >] 

Art. Iq. Origittal Papirif rilatlve t§ ihi Difitirhaates in St __ 
CfntaintHg twy matmal Trmfaiiim /rem 1759 to i;^* 8vo< 
a Volt. 7 a. few'd. Newbcry. 

Thefc p«per» we pubnfli*d with the view of jnfljfyiag Mr. VanfitUrt, 
Jrtfident nf the council at Ctlcut(«, in Bengal, »gamft ihe very unfi- 
vour:d)lc rrprerentattocs that have beeo made here, of tbst geotlemio's 
Conduft, f:Dce his being placed at the head of the EaltJndia CoiDpany'a 
Affairs, in that part of the world. Ic feemi to be a valuable and impor- 
am colWHon ; and ought cfDecially to be read by thofe who, from a dud 
Tcgint 10 traih, are ever inclined to adhere to the good old rule, — htae ' 
tht uhtrJUt. The public hath indeed hesrd 3 great deal agninft Mr. V. 
4iul it b but coaunon juAice 10 lend as impartial ear to what niijrbe 
BTged in kit de&Dce. 

Art. 20. A Lrti/rfnm At 4e Vekairet if M. t>' AM ^ 

dated Aiarih 1, 1765^ wptH tw* tragieei heidtntt in Frmtef^ 
et tht Jsmt Time \ tlmt ef Colas f and that $f Sirvta : BslO tn 
ihe A(cnnt if Rtiigim. jaoio. 6d. Bccket, 

Tlie very afleOing (lory of the unfortunate Mr. Calas, it bal too wed 
kDOwn. and has been too often mentioned in our Review, to require 
Any thirg more to be {aid on the fubjet^, at thii dine. Mr. Volcaire, 
ai we learn from this epiiHe, was the mil who underiooli to tcmovc the 
veil from this horrid fccnc of Renijh darltncfj, and to throw light upoa 
a cafe i^hich bigotry and pcrfecution would, pcrhapi, but for hti lau- 
dable eJibrts, have cover'd over with the fotrnt of law, aad ciTeAuaUy 
hid, forever, from the cyei of mankind. 

The fecoad incident, in which Mr. Voltaire his alfo been fornuatdf 
jnflfumenul in dcte^ng the falfhood, and (lopping tl^e iur)r of popilh 
intoleiancc ; h thus related in this lictle U\&. : 

• A land-hotdcr of Caftrei, by niicnc Sirven, h^d thwe daughttrj: 
aa this family is of the proteltant religion, the yoangefl of his daughter} 
was uken by force oat of his wife's arm«, put into a cftuveoc, aAd 
whipped, by way of teKhing herher caTcchifm. The girl run ma^^ 
and threw herfclt intoa well, at about a league's dillaticc from her fa- 
ther's houlc. On this, the zealots of religion inadc not the Icall doubt 
of its being the bcber, mother, and jiden of ihe child, that had drowned 
her. It lud pafled currently among the Roman Ciiholtci oi the pn>- 
vince, that one of the capital points of the pTotcfbni religion was, that 
fathers and mothers are bound to hanp- drown, or cct the ihroau af any 
of their children they may fufpcA ofnaving any inclin-iiion towards the, 
Rotnilli religion. This was prccifely at the very time that the Calat'd^ 
Were in irons, and thnt the fcaffbid w*s preparing for their execution. 

' The news of the ffirl'" being drowned, came dirtflly then to Too- 
laitfe. *' Ay, (faid they) here'i a frefti inftance of a father's and mo- 
tba's murdering Uwlr child." The oetcry ivss gcncnttj the fury r>f 


Ml3£BtBAllt«9», ff^ 

the public wtt tngtnf nttd apon it ; CaJas wu brolce apon ihp whcd t 
Sirvcn, hit wife, and hi* dfeugbicn, ordrred to be apprcheDded. Sir* 
tn, (ViglitciKd, had only tbe time to flv with all h» tick famity, DtC^ 
(Hate oF all aid. they w«e fotcnl to Halle on fool over ttcep hflit, ni rim 
time eorcred with (now. One of hi« dtaghieri was deliv«ml, amtdlt 
the ice, of a child, which, dying as it waa, Ihe earned in het «niu, 
herlelP hnidiy aliw. At lengtb^ they gcx into th« rood that Itadi i» 

• The bme dtSBce thit bmught te me tbe thildren of C«1b», direAcii 
atllb to me Sirreo. Figure to youWelf, my (nend, four fheep acculcd 
by butchers of harin? devoured a lamb. This it what I (tw j but it j t 
iinpoi&ble for any d&ripiioa to do joAice to (b much inDOcence, and (a 
mucb diflrefi. Wfaaccaght I to do ? Orv-hat would rou have done in 
my place t k it enough to groan only over fbch abulei of homsn na- 
Kit I I took the liberty of writing to the firft PfrTideiit of Languerfoe, 
baC be was noc at Tmiloufe. 1 got one of your friends to preleni a pc- 
Iflion to the Vtce-chancellor. lo the mean while, near Cflftm, the 
facher. lh« rootfacrt and the two danvhters, were executed m cfigyt 
iheir eAaieconAicjiied, their goodade^iiet.*, their luin was complete. 

' Behold hcre.n virtoous, decent, ianocent family lielivetcd dp u>- 
ftjme and beggary anioop (tran^en. It ii nue, they fnond pity, bgi 
how cruel it is to be objecti of pity at long ai tbey live 1 The .mfwer, 
however, feat me to my application, waS. that ihey might pofiibly ob- 
uin their pardiHi.* 

Mr. VoItnn« very properly eatprefles hfi indignation at being tolrf, 
Aai a virhioui, dfceni, injund family, crarlly reduced te (hame aacfc 
beg'gary, migl/t p^H^ tkmtm xhrir jmrdtH !. an zofwer whidt might 
wuh BUirc piopraety m.ft baeo ginen to any intcK«fiioii in favour of the 
judges who condemned and niin'd that innocent family. — But it t* 
with plcafarr ne lewn, in a mou apon ibis nanadvr, that M- de Beau- 
mont, who io nobly iwA fuccer^fully defended the family of C^'u, pro- 
pofo allA to defend the oafonunue t— ia which tAotl budaMe 
defign it i* hoped he wUl> (o* the honour of humanity, meet with the 
(va* facceft. 

" S E R M O K S. 

I* A< Buckingham AOa**) bofefeLord Chief JulUce Pratt, &c. Jutjt 
31 1 1764. iy U'lUiam P^gb, Vicaf af Totierohoe, 10^ Cuiata of 

AJj/^tty, Fktchcr, 
Jl. At St. Jamc*'s, Black, Fn"a«, Sept. 30, lyfi^ By Wi!llAmJ(»d 

Itl. 7be Fasft/fl S/maHt') RtLaJi atii RiwtirJ.-^n ihe Death of the 
ftfvcrend ^^r. John I,a»ingt»n, who died December 3«. Preached at 
Otl»fy, Dtc, JO. 1764. ay ytmtlvi H'tetif. Field. 
- IV. Tba Rife anil Fall ot titc Holy City and Templf of JeniDilcm r 
An Argomcni in Dcftott of chnllianiiy. Being the tju^itance of a 
Difcoarfe preacbeU at die Temple Chmch the i iih of Noveml^er 1764* 
iiy Grfg^ aiiirft, L. LrD. Mailer of tiio Tcm^'le, Chaplain in or* 
ditiary BO hil MajcSy. and Fellow 6f the Royal 4ud AntK^ulriia So^ 
tienes, Svo. i 1. Dodflty, Ac. * 

,", Such Rcadtfi 3» are dilfoled avconfider a[tenil»cly whatMW \t 
ai(c<iln.dcfciiwvf ChiiflUoit/, n}U be p:cali:lwi^Ou:b^cv^ YCi^^>Kr» 




and cmiotn difceuWe. Fnnn tbe dtu and diHUnct view, whtcli h pre<« 
(bnu:J to them, ofibcdclign, anci>t}iiil)-, duration, prclirrraDon, tnd de- 
Itrudion of the Tnupie of Jcrufakm, « imo diiicrait »nj very dillant 
fciioiit, thcY will naturally and unavoidaUy be led lo reflect on (he 
wonders ofdivinc pro^cnce; .lad whco tiKy confidcr that fuca anuzioip 
&eae» weic cxpreUy /brcinki To long before cJic cventi ihai cornt^ 
Jconded with and cooliininl t>iem. wc cuinoi but think with our learned 
Aaihar, that the evtdciKc iiiftrg [lom ihence for the truth of the 
ChriAian f^ligiim, will appear to tbem glmoll tireuilible. 


Aristaius feems to have given too cafdy into the groundleft 
notions of the gentlemen who, be fayi, pointed out to him a, 
gUring intlance of ihc Reviewers partiiilii)r toward Writings of 
a very exceptionable kind. The charge is a heavy one ; but 
it fills with the lefs weight, as it is neither juft nor Kcneroiu. 
—It is to be feared, ihjt there are men in whofc eyes Candor 
WilJ fomctimcs appear o-/»j/sa/. His obftrvaiion, that * abi- 
lities and inclination to invalidate the objeilions of tlic enemies 
of the elUbiifhed church, would never appear to greater aihatt' 
tage than in a Msntbly Review^ — implies a compliment for 
which the Authors of that work arc obliged to him ; but arc 
they to draw out their forces and take the field on every Qioht 
abrm * -Ccftjinh't the particular occafion pointed out by 
this Corrcfpondent, was not to be deemed of fufficicnt impot- 
nncc \ 

" Who breaks a buHtrfij upon the wheel \" 

The book mentioned by J. E. will be attended u>.— As to 
this [<ctter- writer's hafty charge of innnjiptncy, on a particular 
pelitu-al topic, it muft be made more apparent, befwe it can 
merit any farther notice on the part of ihc Rt-vicwcrs.— At pre- 
fent it may fuffice CO leniind J. K. and every otbei Reader, that 
a periodica! work, with fuch quick returns of publication, and 
carried on by dsfftrer.t hands, muft be more liable to fuch a 
charge, than the uniform productions of a [inele()en, unlimited 
as t* rime, and erioying ample Icifurc for revifal and corrci^ion : 
advantages of which the Reviewers ate toully deprived. Tlie 
wonder would, therefore, be, to find any tolerable de^cc of 
confif^ency, and ccirrci^nefs, prefcrved in a work fodifadvan' 
tageoully circumftantcd !— J. E. fcetns to have been rather too 
alert on this occafion ; and fliould be reminded, when he again 
rakes upon him to addrefi his remarks, in a private letter, to 
gentlemen of whom he has no pcrfonal knowlege, that it may 
npt be improper for him to offer a previous facrificc to the 

[Tht Letter c^mtm'f^ Dr. Rsio'f Ptrftrmarut ViiU le im* 
Jiri(4i in iur ntxt.\ 


For MAY, 1765. 

A Nnv end Csmphie Byficm «f Pra^hal Jiujhjndry ; etntttimng all 
that Ex^itnce fjas p'TVid tt hi mojl ujeful ia Farming, tttbtr in 
th« Old M" A'rtv Method J with a <emparatht l^ifw of h«th ; end 
whatrvtr it hmffidal to the IJuJhdndmaa^ «r cendttdve h tht Or- 
nament and IirrprovenUKt af tht Csuitty GtntUttian'i E/fute. By 
John Mills, lifq; Editor* of Du Hamcl's Hufliandiy. 8vd. 
4. VoU. it. 4s, Biltlwin, &c. 

MR . Mills dfdicattt his book to th« Right Hon. Jarnti Stuart 
Alecicnzte i bccaufe the Ggnal cncoura^cmmc and pro- 
lc£lion which (he fays) that gentleman has given lo Agricul* 
lure, dritiiiguifb hijn as the fut<;11 patron cf a waik iiiteitdcd ta 
promote the praiiiice of that moft ufcrul art. 

Preface. —* If we look into the carlicft accounts of th^ 
Aiiatic naii(^ns> we Ihall find, from ihcii nii);ntficcnt and popu- 
lous cities, and their numerous armies, room to think that Agii- 
culture was then arrived at confidcrable pcrfcdlion, fincc it could 
fupplv the inhabitants in general with all the nccefTarics of life, 
and the great with the moft delicate luxuries. Thi^ will appear 
fiiU more evidently, if we reflcitt on the judirious condui^^of 
the Kgyptians, in the difpofitiun of their country, with refpcd 
10 the ioundiitions ol :hc Nile, and the ^rcat advantsgi-s thty 
bad been taueht 10 tr^p from it. The pofledions of the ChtJ* 
dren of Ifracl mud have been cultiva-.od with the urmoil ikill, 
ur they could not have afforded fudenance to the prodigious 
numbers of people, whq inhabited tJiat faiidl fpot. Kut time 
has robbed ui ol their knowIeg<? in this moft uCcful of arts. 

* For an accomt of Mr. Mil'»'» EngU/t Edition of ]?u [-IjiDrl't Huf- 
biudry, (ee uur Kcvicw, \'oI XXl. p. t Jf^, vtA p. i^,— u ior ibe 
f"«fvoiiyintI, M. Uu Hamcl w« hi» owd f*r «.■- 

Vol. XXXJI. Y "^ ^wtvt 


312 MlLLs'i S;^an of PraP.kai Ht^Jhaiuby. 

* Some few fragments of the Ureeks are the firll rudimrnTs of 
Hufbandry^ upon record ; ind the cider Cato ia the moft in- 
dent Latin Author whole writings upon this intercfting I'ubje^t 
have reached us. His inliruiSiiDnk are ver^ judicious, but too 
concifc. Varr" added cIcgaiKc of language to an improved 
trealife of Agriculture; and, foon alter him, Viigil publiOicil 
his jullly admired Georgics. Columella afterwardi collcifted, 
with grciit judi^ment, whatever was yaUiablc in the writings of 
his ptedetcD'orst and enriched them with his own perfect know- 
Icge ol' the rubjci^. His work is one t<f the ehoiccft remains of 
»mi<;uity, and has Arorcely been equalled by ai:y author fince. 

' The irruptions of the barbarou5 nations of (he North, un- 
acquainted' with the fweets of fuciety. and thcblciSngs of civil 

liberry, (non ahalilhcd improved AgriLultute. Anns were their 
only object. Tiicir inaancil flai-cs ucic ciitrulUd wich their 
litffing Hufbandry ; and trifling ir mud have been during that 
iwfetlTcd ftarc of railnns. But when governments began to be 
foupdcd upon more llxcd and rational plajis. Agriculture, with 
the other arts^ raifcd its head, and [tirove in proportion as pro- 
perty became fccurc. 

* ^^JeimprovcmclKs made in England, in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, flicw, that the protcfiants who [ha<i ieftti oSIigrd to 
tokc (better in the then free ftatcs, and particularly in Swiirer- 
land, had, with their love of liberty, learnt an improved AgrU 
culture. In the next bg;c. Hanlib is not lefs famed for his 
knowicgc in fanning, th^n fur hi$ friendiltip with Mitton. The 
rcfutn of men of gcniu&, who had fled their country during 
Cromwell':! ufuipanon, and thL- protection granted tticm after 
Ihe reftoratiofi, added greatly to the progrcfi of Aj'iieuliurc. 
At this perit)d, writers of great charadlcr took in hand the truly 

futrioiic theme- Such were Plait, Worlidjjc, Evelyn, &c. 

whofe works did honour to the age, and proved highly beneficial 
to their country. 

* In France, two eminent phyficians [Licbant and Dcferrt] 
thought thia ft^jrtit wiirthy of their pens, and gwc their coun- 
try the Aialfwrn Ru(iiijiie\., a work which, af crwards perfciSted 
by a third pliyfieian, [M. Ligi;r,J has undergone twenry>two 
editions. Kor dots that country now by any means \oic fight of 
this important object. Real philoloplicrs iheie make it their 
fludy, and purfuc a feries ofwell-ma^lc experiments, with fuch 
indefatigable care and accuracy, «3 cannot but be proJui^tive of 
very great jdvanpgri. The names of fcveral iliuiliiotts im- 
pnivers in FranLC, defcrvedly diOingtiiihed tor their patriotic 
ip^ilicatioo to this iludy, will grace the i'yllowing woik.' 


Mills'/ &[Jicm cf Pr*3£}'ual Hbfiartilrj, 

After mentioning, with due honour, the various Tocietfcs 
eRablilhci], both at home and abroaii, for tlic advancement of 
ufcfui knowJc^e •■, and having particularly obferved, ttiat tlie 
general fpirlt of improvement in Agriculture, now (o remark- 
ably exerted in the difftrcnt nations of iluropc, calls upon ut 
not to lofc that fupcrigriiy which the happinefs of our conftitu- 
tion and climate have given us ^ he very jufUy adds 

* That the real ftrcngth of every country depends upon its 
population, is a well-known truth ; and a little acquaintance 
wth the principles of found policy will fliew, that the only folid 
bafis of a numerous population, is Agriculiurc. WiUiout 
this, the fubfiflancc of a nation is precarious. Uncertainty of 
fubfiftance hinders people from marrying, and [fometimes] even 
induces them to quit their native foil.' 

Towards the conclufion of the Preface, wc are told, that— 
' Particular branches of Hu(batidry have been treated of by 
many \ but ««, 9ne in our language, except Mr. Worlidgc, has 
tvm atumfud to comprl?^ the whole of this Art, wirhin the 
compafs of cne iverk* ; or to reduce it into a regular fyHcm* 
founiied on thai beft of guides, experieme j which is the dcfign 
of this performance/ 

The Author's own account of the execution of his plan, is as 
follows ; 

* To give the Reader the mofl exicnfivc view of the fubjeA, 
I have confulted the writers of grcatelt charadcr, from the mo(i 
early timet, to this; have traced the various improvements made 
in different ages, and fclcftcd from the ^tncienis, as well as from 
the moderns, the mofl improved flate of Agii;.ulture, in v^hich 
I make experiments my chief guide. Where authors of repu- 
tation relate fuch, I give them, though fomctimes coDtradiclory« 
in order to excite in farmers a fpirit of making and varying cxpe- 
rlinents ; the only true path to a fucccfsful praflicc. I may be 
cenfured [perhaps] for not determining »vith greater prceifion, 
what is ri^ht, and what wrong, in thcl'c inflances. In anfwcr 
to which"! can only fay, that 1 thought it more advifcable to 
leave the Rtadtr to jud^t ftr himjtlfx^ after quoting my au-' 

* What Will the tv^luminiut writer of the CempUat Buij tf H-J^attif 
Ay to tlii tifftriionf — A very ample account of that work (fitid to be 
JiundUtH txftrUnte, as well as the prefcni] tvu given in the coorre of 
cur Review^ beginning &t p. 38;, Of Vol, XVl. and cootinued in the 
two focceeditig volume*. 

t To hitve done oiheuvife (ihoagh it would certainly have had iti 
vCr) Biiiilil. p)obnl<lv. h»e injuired a grcivf Ihnie nf fira.fifaj ft^f 
yrc^f, i&aii can well be fuppufcd 10 fall to the lot oi smA UmJm >H('mx\. 

jj^ MlLts'i %7r« 9/ Pra£Jkal Hujhandry. 

Part I. of this work, ucats of tlic culture of arable Tandsjl 
tbc iiitrotluilion 10 which is a [liflcrtation on the food of plaitia. 
And here wc i*rc lolJ, ihat though — * pliilolopMcal cnquiriei 
into the principles of vrgttntion, and the manner in which it b 
prrforoicd, are an object ircll wnnhy the attenrion oX grntifmtn 
whole fituatbn allows them to purfnc that truly ufvful and cnier- 
taining Oiidy; (yecj as the indufliious hujhaadniait^ For whofe 
benefit this work is chiefly intended, cannot affurd time for 
matters of fpccutjitcn ; it may be (uflicient for him to torm a ge- 
nera)} but jud, idea of the means by which plants are nou- 
rilhed. A proper notion of this will help to guiJc h>m in ihc 
management ot his lands, and Ibcw him in what It Jte the earth 
fhoiilil be, 10 en.ib1c the plants which he cullivacet moll calily 
and rvaJily to find their MCtcirjry food.'— —Willi out cnterinj 
into all the various f'n^'rur/<r ccnuincd rn this intruduciion, it may 
fufficc to give the rcftilt ai the whole, vix. that the food of plants 
k fupplicd by the joint coDcuirciice of rarthy watery air, and 

Chap. T. trea's of Soils in genbral, and the means of 

btingiiig them to a Hate proper for the produdlion of plants. 

^ I. Of Jlrmg fiOij and the means of correfting them.— — 
Cliiy is» of all earths, [naturally] the worft for vegetation 1 « 
ihc clofenefii of it hindci!< plants from extending iheir roots in 
fcarch of food, and pfctciu&the ciitiance of water, which would 
help to convey it to them. Yet even this, as well as any other 
untoward full, may, with induilry and proper correflives, be 
mndc to produce rooti und plants which require the lighteft and 
hollowcl^ mold. — ' Among all the manures for clay, fea^fand 
claims the preference, aj bcfl fuired to break its too great cohe- 
fion. Rivi-r-f:ind, <ltift-land, f'ltall gritty gra*cl, lime, rubbifh 
X>( old huules, clulk, niarlc, coal-aflics, and, in general, at) 
calcarious fubdancei, are alfo of excellent fervicc, to anfwer 
the fame end.* — ' Another mani:rc Tor Oubborn clays, or ftiong 
foils, is heath ground, wiili which the llifl'cfl foil may m 
brought into fo good order, that whoever ha* hcaih-ground 
enough, and a fnfiicient qu;intity of clay-gtoutid, may have Ott 
bcfl Ijnd that CMi be di tired.' — p. 32. 

4 a. Of the improvement o\ ftrndi and H^htfuh. — Sandy, gra- 
velly, and other too light foils, e;in'y admit of hvat iind moif- 
turc, but are not much bcnefiletl Iheiehy, bccaufc ihey let them 
pafs too foon, and lo contract no ligature : [for] the gencial dc- 
ftft of thcfe too light foils is, that they neither afibrd fdiitcient 
Habilicy to plants, nor retain nioiftiue enough to convey to 
them their ncccflarv food. — To bring thefe coo open foils to a 
due coniitkacc, fomc of the ftitf* cartiis muft be ufed : [Cor] by 


MiLLi'f Sj/iim 9/ firaiiicai llufhanAji 325 

the fatnc rnU tbm iaiid fcriilizn Arong cUycy grouiidv, day 
roclioraK& light aiiii fatidy foiU. — But ot all manures, uonit i« 
equal to rrfint^ of which there are many different kinds.— ^ 
* Mark ii either grty> bluc^ brown, ycHow, red, or inixci, and 
is known by its pure and uiicoinpounded nature : bctkies wliit h, 
it is dtflinguifhcd by fcvefiil other marks, fiich zs, its breaking 
into little fi|uare bitt ; its falling eaTily to pieces, by ihc force of 
a blow, or upon being cxpofcd to the fun or froft \ its feeling; 
^t and unctuous I and iis looking, when dry, after having been. 
expofed to the weather for Ibnie time, as if it was covered with a 
hoar-troi)-, or fprinklcd with fine fBJl. Even when mixed with 
the land intended to be manured by it*, the whole furfjce of 
tfae foil will have that wfaiiilb appeanuice. But the mcft un- 
erring way to judge of marie, and know it from any other fub- 
Aance that may rclcni)% it^ u> to break a piece as big hs a liirg^ 
nutmeg, and, when it & quite dry, drop it into a glafs nf clear 
water, where, if it be the right fort, it will fbon diffolvc inio a 
£>ft and almoH impalpable pap, fhootina up many fpuktes to 
the furfacc of the water. Some marles encrrrfce Uil tiitlu with 
acids : but they (hould always he put to that trial \ bccaufe, the 
more they cffcrvcfLX with tbem> the mi>ic valuable they are as 
manures. In hot weather, gnod maric will (lack with the heat 
of the fun, like lime \ especially if any rain follows a hot day. 

* The farmers in Staff(>rdniire reckon the foft blue mqrle hefl 
{xsx arable land, and the grey Ivrt for pallurc. That which ip 
of a brownilh colour, with blue veins in it, and little lumps of 
bhalk or lime-ftonc, generally tying under AifF clays, and very 
hard to dig, is moll eHeemcd in Chcfhire. Themarlc ufually 
found at the depth of about two feer, of a yard, on the fides of 
hills, and in wet hoi;gy gfouiidt, which have a lit^ht faiid In 
tbem, is vtry fat and dole, and reckoned the ftrongefl or all 
jnarles \ for which renfon it is particularly ^ood for Candy lands. 
This is commonly called peat-marlc, or dclving-marlc. The 
paper-marte, be it is fortietimes called, frequently lies near conlk, 
and flakes like leaves or pieces of broi^n paper, than which it 
b of a fomcwbat lighter colour. That which fome wriiers call 
clay-m>irU', becaulu it looks like clay, ts very fit, and fometimes 
mixed with chalk-ftones. Steel marie breaks of itfelF into 
fquarc cubical bits.'—* Stone, (late, or flag-maile, which is % 
kind of foft Done, or rather flate, of a blucifh colour, is gene- 
rally atlowe«l to be the beft. It eafily diffoKcs with froft or 
rain, is found neat rivers and on the fides of hills, and is a very 
tailing manure.' 

In order 10 Ihcw how cafily marie may be miftaken for 
fomcthing elfe. and fo applied to very improper ufes \ Mr. MiUs 
next tells us a ttory ol an ingenious geoilcman of his acc^uamt- 

V 3 -k^^^ 


MrLi5*j S^em of PfoBual Hujhmirj. 

Ancr, who, in pafling lately throu-^jh Bedfordfliirc, * obfcrrrf, 
that the people employed to smcnJ the highways, were layififf^j 
upon them a blueiih kind of ftonc. Struct with the novehy <H*j 
the appearance, he tiopt. toolc up a lump, and foon found it to' 
be tiiis bliic mar!c, which the ignorant pearanti were ufing in- 
ilead of wz\ (ione. The confequence wiis, that, when he re- 
turned the fame way fomc time after, a heavy (hower having 
.fallen, the whole rojd where this fubflancc had been To inju- 
'• dicioufiy fprcad, was become a pcrfe^ quagmire.' 

, Authors, we are told, differ widely both as to the quantity 
>nd the manner of nfin': almoft all the manures they treat of; 
points which nmft, [after all, J in a great mcafure, depend on 
the qtulity of the joil, and the Arcngth of the minure, oF^ 
whatever kind it be -, and in which cxpericnee will ever be the 
futcll guide, * In marling, it is panicuLirly ncccfiary to find! 
the true proportion which the land requires, and better to crr.j 
in laving on too little thin too much ; [tor] by over doin;^ ir, 
the iirA year's crop often lails, bccaufc the body of the marie 
has not been fujficient'y opened ; and, in that cafe, \\ will 
fometimes be two cr three years before the gtounJ comes to a 
proper temper. The bcCl dire^ion^ that can be given ta the 
f^rnif r in the application of this manure 10 light Ibils, is to lay 
on the quantity which will give the degree of cohcfion wanteds 
in ihofe foils. A general rule cannot be laid doM-n in this rcrj 
/peft J bccaufe, the quantity of marlc requifitc to cfleil the de-j 
fired end, muO be difTercnt, in proportion to the degree of^ 
Jiglitncfs of the foil." 

This fe^oncondudes with warning asainft the ufVofabodf 
very finiilar to mirlc in appearance, but cnl-ntially different in ' 
efieit'..— iVlarlc takes a iniooth polifh finm thr inflrumcnt wit> 
which it is wrought. But a piece of this other fubdancc difTe 
greatly, [»Iy) in Mite, from marlc. Inftc^id of thai 
Jniooth iMnfiuofS taUe of the latter, it is acid, and remJtkaWy' 
aflringent. It aarc<;5 with marie, in crumblin"; in water, but' 
ditTers remarkably ftom it in noi raifinjr any efftrvcrcence with 
acid*, nor in the Icaft di.flroying their acidity. The trying of 
marlc with acids is therefore the more neccrtary, to guard 
againA ufing this pernicious fubllance. 

§ 3, Of the improvement of Loam.— Under this hea*l, we 
meet with various direct ons wbecfby 10 judge of the ditferent 
qualities of ground : as firom the fpontanciius pri.)ductf uf it \ 
the quality of the n;ater w-hich runs thrcugh it ; by the jmtlt% 

the isiy\ the ffffvi, and ahur, Hrre Mr. Mills is very co- 

pioiu, in bis quot::tions ftom various authors, upon tbc iubje^ 


MlLLsV ^ifiem oj Praf/Ual Jiujhandry. 


oF g«neral minurei, which he ranges under the foIJoMring 

lieads, viz. 

1. All ftJfiU rubnancrs^ in their njtural flatc, and as altered 
by.firc, fuch as lime, chalk, marie, carth» fand and ftielh ; to 
which may be added (he Tays) the tixed alkaline falc of planis, 
which ads nearly in the fame majincr. 

2. All the various manures obiained fiom v/gflaif/tj eitl>er in, 

their nirtural or purrid Oate: fuch arc fucculent plants plowed 
in, tanner*$ bark^ all the parts of vegetablci which gradually 
dtxay, their putrid fubftance, foot, &c. [Skt fliouid rarhcr 
have been ranked under itie firtiur article, as indeed it ii at 
p. 84.J 

3. Animal manures -, fuch as b^ood, ilHh, dung, urine, wool, 
rags, hoofs, horns, bones, &c. 

4. The proper m;xrtt« of thefe various fubltanccs, in «m/^/, 
fuitcd to the difference of foils. 

Under this laft head, of compofts, we are informed of ihe 
great fervjcc which a ptoperjiinemry may be of to a farmer : 
but here wc are left to gue/i u hcrhcr ii is bell to lee iKe coropoft 
lie tf.i or dry in firch Acrtorary.— At p. 1 1 1, wc arc directed to 
dig a fquare or oblong pic, of a fiic fuited to the quantity of 
compoft wanted ; and to let the fide next the fields he made 
(loping, (o as to receive a cart to Joad eafily. The hottom, we 
are totd, (bould be paved, and the fiOes lined, * that it may be 
capable of r^taimng wattr like a clftcm ; for it is of great impor- 
tance that the dung be %vtl! fsnird in lifuisr,' — On the contrary, 
tt p. 120, we are direAcd to let our compod be carried to a fuf- 
ficiently capacious hole, or pit, dug for the purpofe. But then 
wc arc cxprcfsly told that * this pit muft be in a dry pla^e ; for 
pff manure fiituid nvr be laid in water.' — For chefe contritdi^ery di- 
rfeiiinsy we are rc'errcd to iheauthoriiy of Mr. Evelyn, and the 
M.irqui$ dc TurbiHy. But {hould not Mr. Mills hare given us 
a hint, at Icstt, which method he himfelf cfteenied ihc brft ? 
Surrlv one might reafonably have exp&fted thus much from the 
writer of a cnnpittt fyftem of fira/iical Hutbandry. But the lf(fy 
of a book docs not ahtays exactly tally with itic ptomifes made 
in the tislt'pa^t. We hope, however, that the Author's oum/x- will enable him to reconcile M/i, and (everal (rZwrcn- 
tradiclory epinlsnst before the publication of his next edition. 

§4.. or ihc Irnprovement of Moors and Boocy-tAND.— . 
Under this head, he firft defcribcs what is meant by rmors and 
iig^-land; he next gives directions for draining them ; and then 
pojnts out the me^s by which tbev may be improved. And 
iieiehecmbiaces the oppor^nity, which his fubjei^ tffbtds, nf 

Y 4. «iTCw- 


Mil.Ls'j S^m »f Frtaieti Hujbmtirj, 

commanicating to his own couDtt^men tbe excellent mftnic^ 
t'lons, upon thcfe head::* coniaincd in tt\t- Mtmiri oi the Sinirtf 
^flabliflicti at Bcfiic, f^r tlie tncoitragtmvtt of rwal tettntrnf .'a* 
iacxcty which well dcfcrves the highdt commcnduionSf for the^ 
^bltc fpirit and the judgment fbewn in their publjcitions.* 

Chap. II. treats of the breaking up snd improving of Un- 
cultivated Lands :— by which ii meant, fuch as arc co- 
veted with wood, fuch fpots as arc not fufRcicntly drained to."] 
admit the plough } and commoni, or other grounds, wbicU- 
produce nothing but he:ith, brooms furae, feme, fee. 

^ I. Cy cUaring and itnpTwing WooD-LANDs.— For this 
purpoCc engra(ings are given of feverat ingenious muchincs fur 
looting up trees; panicularly of one invented by a pea&nt in 
the canton of Berne, and fjid tu have been tried there with fuc-, 
cef}, and alfo by a committee of the London Society for the cn< 
couragrmcnt of artf, inanufaAures, and commerce. 

§ 2. Of draining and imprtving Marshy Laud. 

§3. Of brtak'mg up and improving Commons and VVAsra. 
Oround.-^— Under this head, Mr. Mills very juftly obfcrves, 
that * the Miiquis of Tutbilly> a nobleman of confidcrablc dif-' 
tinc^ion in Ftince, has fct an example In that country, which 
well dcfcrves to be particularly noticed here ; firft, on accour 
of the great advantage attending it; and next, in hopes that il 
may excite in many of our landed gentlemen, that attention 
their own iiuercft, which the negle^cd ctindition of their cftaiea 
calls for; and that an employment, not only beneficial to thcra- 
ftJvcs, hilt itf great utility to the public, may get the better of 
their acticKmcnt to the turf, their hounds, and gaming. The 
inany barren and uncultivated fpots in almoil every pare of this 
kingdom, not excepting even the moft fertile counties, require* 
fur their improvemrnt, examples like this. The Marquis's own 
account of the many difficulties he had to fnrmount, the preju- 
dices he had to combiit, the banters he underwent, and his in- 
genuous recital ofhii crr'^rs, will be the moil valuable prcfcnl I 
can hctc make to mv countrymen- M. dc Tiirbilly has treated 
the fubjcift of breaking up and impro\in2 commons and waftc 
lands in (6 m^ftcrly a m;inncr, that I mould wrong both him 
and the public, ["fays Mr. Mills] were I to take any farther li- 
berty with his judicious work, than baiely to abridge fomc few 
parts of it, \tik fuitcd to thi:i nation, tlian to the country in 
v»hich he wrote.' 

Then ToIIout ihe Marquis's htjierj of hit; which 
he JDtro^iuccs by informing us, that upon the death of his fi* 
(llpr, in 17371 he inhciited (he lands in Anjou, of wlucb he is 


going to rpcak. They l!e ooniiguout, *i)d form a conftderAble 
esticiic. The foil is of thtee kiitJs, bad, middliog, anJ good ; 
but this laft is leafl; frirqucnt. MoH of tbe \aivU, being cf 
« middling qu;il)t]', aic fcitilizeil (he fays) only by dine of caro 
and manure. 

Three Titles of this eflate border upon unculiivaied heaths; 
but the fituati"n of his houfe, ifiA of the chief vilL^gc, is advanr 
tagcous. — Such wj< his cflatc when he took poflVffion of ii : not' 
a quarter of the land V2s cukivaicJ, and cvL-n tb^t V<ry badly : 
the rcfi was citlicr abandoned by the hutbjndincii, or had not 
been cultivated at all. The inhabitants were very poor, and 
did not railc com enough to fubfill theni half t|ie year: nay, 
ftich was ihcir indolence, that tbey chofe mcher to fttoll about 
and beg during the other half, than he at the pains of bellowing 
proper culture on their land. The Marquis's firft cjre Wis ta 
extirpate this fpirit of indolence, and conlequcnt love of b-g- 
ging which prevailed among them. To this end, be gave no- 
tice of ibc improvements he intended to introduce upon hts 
eflaie, with a declaration that be would employ every man, 
woman, or child above eight years of age, who had not buli- 
nds of their own, on condition of their leaving cTfTbei^gin". 

In June 1737, he begun bis improvements with clearing 
fomc ot' the land near his houfc. This ground was ckCrcmclr 
poor» and ovcr-iun with bilan, thiftlee, and bioom, which, 
being cut up, and burnt upon the fpot, yielded a confiderable 
quamity of aaies, which were fpread, and immediRtely plowed 
in, left their virtue {hould exhale. During the fummer, this 
land was plowed fcveral times, difFtient ways, in order to 
loofcn it, and dcftroy the weeds. Here his poor pcafjpts were 
employed to break the clods and pick off the nones ; and having 
more dung than his other arable lands required, he laid about 
half the uiual quantity upon this ground, and fowed it at the 
ufual time. This lirlt trial Tucccedcd, and the crop was very 

In t738, he undertook another piece of ground, adjoining to 
the former, and of the fame kind. He began in March, pro- 
ceeded a.<i bel'ure, dunged it, and had equal fucccfs. The ic- 
cond crop of the former fpot was flill more plentiful. 

In 1739 he took the next contiguous land, going round hU 
manHon. The foil he now fell upon vtii tough, llrong, and 
only thin grafs grew upon it, wilb a few bramblej, &:c. which 
were (bon cut up. This ground was broken up only with th« 
plough ; fomc dung was laid upon it, and he fowcd it di- 
rtily with winter oats, which Aiccceded very welt. His im- 
pravemcuts of the two fofixicr ytzx^ yielded plcitciftil cxc^^^ 'Evt«. 

Jt 1 


1. 1 



MitLs'j S;^tm tf Preelical Hnjiaad/y. 

only of corn, W alfo of hemp and (hx, which he bad tntro-" 
<Iiiccd. Thefc lad ivrrc drctlcd, and given to the women and 
gifU to fpinj paywig ihcm accnrding to the (inwers of the 
ibrud. By application, they btcanic pcrleit in ifctir work. By 
this means he arcomplilhcd his dcfi^n of finding employmrnc for 
ihcie womrn and girts, and afforded (hem means of procuring 
an honejl livclihcwd, as well as to thole whom ag,e ud inlir- 
inilic3 rendered incapable of working aljioad. 

TThe land which he improved in the year 1740, was eovorJ 
with heath, broom, and fiine, which had grown very thiclc 
and high. In the fpriii^s when (he weather was dry, he fee 
fiic to this furfacr. The whole burnt vTry well, 31M he was 
in bopci of being abl? fo plow up this ground without paring off" 
the tuif, 39 he had done the year before. Ploughs, ilrorgcr 
than ufual, were made for tlii^ work; but the roots of the 
funtc and broom brolte them. Fn vain did he plow it over anJ 
wtT \ the brooniand furrc were not dcftroycd, but made new 
{boots; and it was three years could be brotight to a 
good tilth, or thofe noxious plants be quite extirpated. 

In the year 1741, he had the fame kind of land to deal withjl 
but took care not to ccniini: the fame fault. Ksch day'i cunin] 
of the heath, broom. Uc. was burnt, as the workmen adranct 
and ihc whole fiirfMce wns dog by hand iw it was cleared. By 
ttns meaiM, the ii(h« o(" thefe plants prefiirved their fertilizing- 
•piality, their rooi% were pulled up, and when dry burnt, the 
aflics of which were immediately plowrd In. During the fum- 
rocr, this ground was plowed feveral times, iji d'li'ctcnt dircc-. 
tions, was fbwcd with rye, and yielded a plenirful crtip. 

In this manner the Mirquis went on f^r feveral yesrs afrer* 
with great fucccfs. He alfo revived mi oM i'.-r,,..,l „[" " — --""Jj 
up landf by cuttin<; of the furlace wiih (wh - 
malady and then burning it. This meihoJ, tnoij^ii eSip-r-Uvc^' 
be found to :infw<:r bell in the end. 

. He ebea goes on to relate Wn farther proceedings, with gveat 
prifpicuiiy and irinutcnHs, but our limits will not permJf m to 
purfuc the argument any further, tho' the whole uf the 
quis's- account is dtferving of the pcrufal, and imitation, of 
every lover of Agriculture, He concludes, with obfcrving, that 
at) the methods be h.i<f pointed out for breaking; up uncultivated 
lartd, and biinging xi into tillage, may br prafiifcd in every 
part of thewoildi only obfcrving the rcafons proper for each 
climate. To which he adds the followtns benevolent decla- 
ration, that he (hall think liimfclf very happy, and well re- 
warded for bis pains, if his infhudtions prove of fervjcc to man- 

Oiap. nr. trwts of ihe culture of Grain *nd Pulje, ac- 
cording to the prbiciplci of the old and new ilulbandry ; with 
a comparative view of the advantages of each. 

Mr. Mills begins this chapter with fftiJng forth the great ad- 
vantages arifing from good and fretiDcnl pinvi/tgti and recom- 
mends the Rotnan maxim, * to frui hut littU end fiaw muti)^ 
This naturally introduces a very juft ccnfure of the modern 
practice of many gentlemen, who arc too much inclined ti> 
throw their cftaics \\\\o largt farmt : — a praflicc ncccfTariljr at- 
tended with a moft fatal confequence to a manufiifluring »nd 
trading people; as it Ic/Tens the number of inhabiiantii in ihe 
country, from whence the fupply of population chiefly ariiei. 

% 1. Of Plowing. — In (hia fe&ion we have drfcriplioni and 
drawings of varirnu foris of ploughs. AmongU wliich, • the 
Rotheran, or patent plough, forthc CmplJcicyof ita make, and 
the cafe and fuccefs with which it u worked, drfervct (ho 
hufbandm^iii's panicular attention.' — Bui a» the dcfcriptions o£ 
tlie feveral ploughs cannot be well undcrllood without the ptaici, 
to which there are frequent references j wc flull content our- 
Tclves with giving a ihort cxt>acl in regard to thcadvaniagei of 
preferring land in the fined tilth \ for hufbandmen cannot too 
icrioufly confidcr the great principle on which the due culture of 
the earth is founded, viz. ihsrui^Uy lo dividt and Utfin l/ji- JaiJ.^ 
In fupporl of this principle^ Mr. Alills introduce* the fuliowine 

Suntaiion from M. LuUin dc Cbaicauvicux, at related by M, 
u Hamd : 

• This prinrijrfp, fats he, w fo generally received, that there 
is rtoe a fanner who doe« not know, that one plowing m^ire thaa 
ofdinary it of as much fcrTice to his ground as duoging it would 
be. txp«n«nce muft certainly have fbewcd bim chit hii cropi 
arc bettered t^ this extraordinary plowing : but he is noc Od' 
fictemly fenfibie, that, of all the way^ of imprwing htt had, 
DO one » more efreSua!, or lefi expenfive than thi<. If ia tJi 
Takic were fcr>own, it would he pra<aifed mofe, snd 

woold give all hii Ucds at leaA one pUnru^ 
■uuwy. p. 368. 

In <anber fupport of the fame principle, \a b hat Iftr. 
h'uaSdL—* Tfaofc miift be vct)* unfkaful penfilu 
Acwaac of hufbandmen, who t^Itc/becv ah^a' 
oat tbe bear: of the grourd,. ai tbcf 
cb* mnAt n of the earth e^pa 
: lod well (Hired mooU, tha 
fi^vftce b frown Hard, tiifmmd ma^amat, ^a^^'^r m 
eke hoc6c-bu(iPK HttfbwdfTw k«u <ir 

33? • MiLU'f S;(ftm of Praaictl Hnjiemtj* 

moft thoroughly and dccpcft plowed, conflantly nuiniMhe 
created degree of moidurc. p^ 274. And again — - 

' The drrign'oP lilla^e is, to dcfhoy >verds, and to reduce 
ibc earth (o very fraall (>aniclcs, thi^icby tp iciulcr it ftidiciently 
ll^fe and poious fur the roots uf fuch vegetables as arc cultivated 
in it, to extend thcmfclves with due cafe in qucft of Uicir uc- 
CcITtry food.' p. 275. 

When plowed land 1% intcndrd to he/alisu»ty [i thing ab- 
foliitcly neceOary, at proper intervnl%,] it Hinotd he pln«cd, ac- 
cording to Mr. MilU, ill the autumn, as foott a?< the Ici^l'timc 
permit!), and hid as rough as ni.iy be, cfpccially if a ftiff foUi 
that die winter'^ iroi} may mcUow it. And, 

* In the Timngt the farmer fhmild take the earlicft opponu* 
nity that fiis rpring ctnjiS will admit of, to give hh fallows a 
fcCDiid plowing actofs the farmer ; after which the ground 
Alould be well harrowed, not only to break the clods, but to 
pull lip fuch rootn a) are not yet rotted, that they may be ga- 
thered into heaps and burnt. It is cfTcvtially nrcclTary that 
this, and all the foMowifig; plowing* and harruwingj be per- 
formed in diy weather; bctaufir, as the purpofc here is tho- 
roughly to lonfcn the mould, fpecial care ihnuld be taken to 
avoid every thing which might countcradi chat inrcniion. The 
4iiriner cannot wifti Inr a greater benefit to his Hulbandry, than 
moderate fhnwera after each Ullow, to bring the feeds of every 
weed to vei;clate*, in order that, being turned down by the 
fevcral plowings^ they may be the more efie^ually deftrojrcd.' 
p. 3811 t- 

^ 3. Of fnmng. — When the earth i? prf>perly prepared for 
fowing, the next moft eficntial points to be confidcrcd are, 1. 
The choice of the feed ; 2. The preparation of that feed ; 3. 
The time of fowing; and 4. The manner of fowing,— Of each 
of thefc paiiiculars, Mr. Mills treats in their refpeAive order. 

With regard to the firfl article, he obferwcs, very juftly, chat 
the cht'tce of the feed intended to be fuwed is an objeet of 
greater importafice than many pcrfons fcem to imagine. For 
* it is not fiifficient that the fincft grains be choftn lor this pur- 
pofe, unlets they are libcwife very clean. Such wheat is not 
difficult to be had froih land cultivated according to the prin- 
ciples of the new Hufbandry ; but we fcldom 6nd coin eutir^ly 
free fironi feeds of weeds when it has been laifcd in the ctfnimon 
yixy: p. 28g. 

* This i* exaflljr the plan, fo flrongly recoiumended by Mr, Ran- 
dall in bis SemuViigiliaD ftu(bj»ulf^ :^^aQd a very rational plan it 

frcroi to be. 


Mills*! S^tm af PraUica! Hujbandry. 


Ml. Milli rccommcntJs ilic Toliowing, as an excellent way 
to fcparatc the fullcft and hcavicft grains, which are 6t(eft for 
feed, from thofe of left value, anJ at the fame time to tAtat 
them from many feeds of weed*.— • Make i flout mm, with jf 
broad wooden fliovel, throw the com with all his force towards 
an oppofite corner of the barn, or of a large boarded hall. Alt 
the lights fmall, fhrivclted grain, unfit for fowinj;, and ihcf 
feeds of cockle, darnel, &c. not being fo heavy as the found 
folid corn, will fiil fiiort, and He ncarell to the man who 
throwi them ; while fuch as are Iarge» plump, and weighty, 
out-flying all the reft, ate fcpnratcd wldclv, and may ejfUy ^ 
gathered up. Expciience will Ihcw the van advantages of row- 
ing feed thus choicn.' p. 293. 

A* to pifparinj the fttJ, Mr. Mills (ccn\s. to think the ufc of 
^eepi nut fo advantageous a^ has been imagined j he gives, hnw^ 
ever» methods of compounding (cvcra) forts of them : to which 
wc refer the Reader. 

With regard 10 tht time t/fraiing^ he ihinks ic better to fow 
early, than 100 Jaie, provided ihc feafon wiii admit ot it. 

As to ihf manner Bj^fts/injr^ he thinks it of great confctjuence 
that every feed be placed in the earth st a proper depth : but ex- 
pcfimcnis are yet wanting (he fays) to determine wilh due 
exa£lncfs, what is the depth which bril fuiti e^ch kind of grain, 
in difttcni (oils. ■''' 

The ufual wayof fowing In broxd-caft, he obrcrvea, cannot 
anfwcr alt the intentions of ))Ucing the feed properly in the 
eirth, and muft be attended with fcveral inconvenienci^s ; futh 
as, the feed's becoming the prty of vuiious buds and animals j 
its being laid fo fuperhcially, Out the fun often parches ic up, 
or a long continued rain, infiead of promoting u kindly vcge- 
tation, foaks into the gminii and bui{h them : ilie feed is alio 
very unequally fowcd ; and where the yound is uneven^ gfcat 
part of it ncccfTarily falls together into hollowi. — Thefc tncuib- 
venrencies [which are certainly confidenblc ones] arc prevented, 
he obfcrves, by making ufc of a dtill, which, 1. Drops the 
feed at whatever depth and difbncc experience has (hewn to be 
fitted i a. FilU the furrows with earth, fo that all the grain is 
covered ; and j. Lets fall into each furrow the exa<5t quaniity 
of (ml which ba» been found moit p<opcr. — He then gives u< 
defcrijitions and engravings of fevera) dillerent kinds of dnilit, 
for whi<h we muft refer to the work itfclf; as without lite 
. plates, the dcf^ripiions would be unintelligible. 

§ 3. Relates the advsntages ariung from a judicious efran^t 
tfcrtft\ a.ftibjcA which requires but few words 10 fufiporc the 
propriety of it. 


Thf CsmpaittM to the Phy^biuft. 

§4. Gives us ihc Culture of Grain and Puts£, 
according to iKc eU Hulhandry. — In tins rc<5lion, which coo- 
ctudcs the firfl volume, Mr. MilU hu collc^bd a vaA number 
«fv«y judicious obfcrvationi, from almoft cv«y writer of note, 
ioch in our own country, and abroad. Thefc obiervations he 
has ranged, under ihcir pro^icr heads, in fuch a manner, that 
every reader may have recourfe 10 what he more immediately 
wants to be informed of, without ihc trouble of peruiing a mul- 
tiplicity of matter, in which he has little or no concern. As 
she wntcTs upon Agncuhuie have, of late, greatly incrc^fed in 
number, we think the public uc much obliged 10 Mr. Milt^J 
for the palus he has ul^cn, and the judgment He haj flicwn, inJ 
(cle£ling from ihc vutuminous wotka (.it others, what he though^] 
jnoft proper to appear in his own. For as it would be an end.] 
Jefs tafk, cfpccially for a praflical farmer, to attempt (he pcrufal 
of all that has been wrote upon this intcrcjling fubje^ ^ fo he oughti 
to receive 2 work like this before us, with all the candour due to 2' 
writer who has had fo many difficulties to ftrugglc with, while', 
endeavouring to draw the various arguments of different au- 
thors, to that particular point, fiom whence their influence may' 
have the grcatcft cffcft, for the good of ihc community. Vox 
that the community is very greatly inierelted in the ptomotioa 
of Agriculture, is a truth univerfally acknowledged. 

Before wc quite take our leave of the Brll volume, we wouU 
juft remind Mr. Mills, that his tngravtr fcems not to be a vci 
accurate ploughman., as may appear from his havijij; placed the] 
wing on the ttrw^ fide of the fliarc, at Fig. 6. in Plate IV. ■' 
and in another Plate, alfo marked !V, as well as the former, bu 
referring to p. 265, ihc mould-bojrds of all the ploughs there] 
exhibited, arc fixed on the wrin~Jtdt. And patticul..rly ova 
Fig 3. arc engraved thcfe words, (View of the rkM fide oF ibi 
Plough) whereas the Plate aiSually fbews us the Uft fide, wit 
the mould'bnard prepofteroufly placed on that fide too.— E 
thefe, as well as fomc other inaccuracies, will prc^bly 
amended in the next edition, which, wc doubt not, will 
called fot in due rime. 

[^ ht iintiuufd in tur ntxt.\ 

CfitiuuaiiM fif ihf BitgraMeal Pert tf iht Phj-lni-ft Di£Jhneij 
ate gur laft Munih'» Kuview, p. 305. 

TH AT exrcllcnt cnmJc aclrcG, Mrs. Clive*, hath alfo 
place iu this collccliun, on account of two or thiee litUft' 

. * Pbr tltelifeofMii. Cbber, mtb tii»t of het hnfinnd, the nafor- 
lunaie 'fhtifbths, fceow laS, p. 299— 3-"'>- 


dramatic pei fornianccs, the produft of her pen ; frem wiich, 
4]owcvcr, (he hj:> not acquired great reputation as a w/iter: 

^ * Ctive, Mrs. Catharine. — This laily* whufe name as x 
dramatic writer we arc obliged to mcn:ion here, is however 
much better known for her uiici^uulled merit as a comcdJaa, ia 
which li^ht, while any theatrical tccords are remaining^ ber 
memory muft ever be held in the highcft eftimation. — She was 
the daughter of Mr. William Raftor, a gentleman who was a 
native of the city of Killccnny in Ireland, and bred to the law; 
but being ftrongly attached to the intcrcfts of the unfortunate 
King James II. when that monarch was in Ireland, he enter'd 
into his {ervice ; on which account a confidcrable paternal 
cftaie in the couniy of Kilkenny, which be would othcrwilc 
have inherited, became forfeited to the crown. — After the dccifive 
battle ot* the Boyne, however, he Aill followed his mailer's for- 
tunes, and through that intcicft and his own merit, obtaui'd 
a captain's commiffion in the fctvicc of Louis XIV, — But after- 
watds, procuring a pardon from the Englifti court, he came to 
this metropoltSi where he married the daughter of an eminent 
citizen on Fifhfircct-hitl, by whom he had fcvcral childreni 
and, among the reft, (he fuhje^ of our prcfent memoirs, 

* Mifs Raftor was born in 1711, and flicwed a very early in- 
clination and genius for the flage. Her natural turn of hu- 
mour, and her picafmg nunner of finding fong5 of fpirit, in- 
duced TtKnc friends w recommend h:rlolhcUtc Mr. Colley 
Cibbcr, then one of ihc managers cf Drury Lane theatre, who 
immediately engaged her at a fmall falary.— Her hrli appearance 
was in boy's doaths, in the charadcr of a page, in the tragedy 
of Miibndaies king cf Poatui, in which Iba was introduced 
only to fmg a fong. — Vet even in this (he met with great ap- 
plaufe. — This was in 1728, at which time fhc was but fcL-cn- 
teen years of age ; and in Che very fame feafoii we Ajid 'Jic 
audience p»iJ lo great attention to her merit in the pate of Phil- 
Jida, in Gibber's I-ovc in a Riddle, fwhich party-prejudice had 
determined to damn, tight or wroa>, on account of tin: author) 
as to fufFcr their riotous clamours to fubfide whcriiever (he wa« 
on the (lagc ; a couiplirrcnt which they even duniud t(i the bluud 
loyal itfclf on thccnfuing night, — In 1 730, however, (he bad 
an opportunity afFordcd her, which (he did not permit to pais 
unemployed, of breaking forth on the public in a full blaze of 
comic brightncfs. — This was in llic part of Ntll, in (he Dcril 
to Pay, or The Wives Mctamorphos'd, ahalhdfaice, wriiten 
by Coffty, in which flic threw out a full exertion of tbofc comic 
pmvcTs, which every frequenter of the theairt; muft fin<.e have 
received fuch infinite delight l/om. — Her merit in this tharaiftcr 
occa£oncd her to be doubled, and not only efbbiflhcd her 
2 «'4ift^ 

onrn reputsiton with (he audirnre, but fixed the piece itfelf aH. 
the con(l»nt lift of a£tiii^ farcci, aii honour whktl puhapi il 
vould never have airivcJ At, h^il fhc noi been in it, nor may 
long mitntain when her fupport in it is loft.' In ihc ycif 
1731, (he was rnarritd 10 O Clive, Efiji a fun of the late Mr. 

Baron CHtb, which gciitlenun is ftlll living. Thcr did not 

however cohabit long together; yci» noi*ith(lanJingtnc icrap- 
lations to which a theatre n foinctrincs apt to expofe )'oun^ pcr> 
fens of the female fex, and ihc too great rt-atlincfa of the pubUc 
to give way to unkind fuppofittons in icgjrJ to tl>cm> c;dumny 
itTcif has itcver I'ccmcd 10 aim the llightcfl arrow at her fame. 

• To expatiate on her mcdt :>» an a^lrefs (while ihc kreps 
within the ver^r cittrnrive walk which is adapted to her excel- 
lence) WOu)d far exceed our limits »nd be wholly unneccffjry. 
. — As an author, I imagine, Ihc does not aim at immonality, 
yet fhe has, at different benefits of her own, introduced three 
icvcral futitti phta on the ftagr^ none of which arc totally de- 
void uf meiLt. — I'hcir titles arc as follow, 

1. Bayes in Petiiroats. 

1. Every Woman in her Humour. 

3. Iflaml of Slaves. 

Only the firft of thcfe, howe\*cr, has yet appeir'd in print, and 
a£ to the lafl it is no more than an almoil lit-txl tranOation of 
Marivaux's Jfle dti £j('aivSf executed, as flie heifelf contdlcs, 
by a gentleman at her rcqucft/ 

Among the reft of the dramatic authors and a^on celebrated 
in this performance, the account of that admirable mimic, and 
tivly comic genius, Mr. Samuel Footc, fcems to be a capital 
article : 

* FooTE, Samuel, Ef(];< This well-known living author 

was bom at Truro in Cornwall, but in what year I know not. 
— His father was member, of parliament for Tiverton in Devon- 
flure, and enjo)'ed ihc polh of commilTioncr of the prize-oAcc 
and fine-contra^, — His mother was hcircfs of the Oineir and 
Gooderc families, and to her, in confequencc of an unhappy 
and fatal quarrel between her two brothers, liir John Dinely 
Gooderc, Bsri. and Sir Samuel Goodcre, captain of bis ma- 
jelly's Clip the Ruby, which terminated in the loCs of life to 
both, the DincIy cflate, which was upwards of five thouiand 
pounds per cnmim, dcfcendcd. — He rcccivrd his education at 
Worecfier College, formerly Glouceftet Hall, Oxon, which 
ow'd its foundation and change of name to Sir Thomas Cook£ 
Winford, Bart, a fccond coufm of our author's.— From the 
un'tverfity he was removed to the Temple, being dcfigncd for the 



7%f Csfhpaui0H is thi Pky-lxufi^ 



■ of ihf law J in which it is mofi probable ihac 
oidtorical talents and powers of miinicry ^tnd humour, wuuld 
have l>trwn thcmfclvrs in a very confpicuous light. — 'I'hr (Jry- 
ncCs an>/ gravity cF chit Andy, bowcvcr, not I'uinng the more 
volatile vivarity of his difpulition, tie chofe ratber to onplojr 
ihofe tii'cfits in a fpherr of action to which they iticm'd b: t'.cr 
adapted, vi«. on the f^, in the pnrfuit of wliuii the jtjxac^-d 
proofs hi- hsi rtceiv.-d of the pu^!i': appfolntn!!. htar (he 
ftrongcit tcfliminl-is to his merit. — His hifl -^ - ■ :ncc was m 
the pirt of . but whether he carlv -d thii his 

yS/7.- dill iiM lie in tragedv, or that his gciiii:^ ^■.■■.\[\ not bear 
being only a rcpcjtcr of the works of othiTs, \\t ffioji ftnu-fc out 
intoanewand untroildm path, in which he 3ton!.t: a::.;.[:crd the 
two great ends of .iltbrding entertainment to the pul.tic iuA 
emolument to himfclf.— Thii was by taking on himltlf [he 
double charaSer of author and perforincr, in whirh lights in 
1747, he opened the little theatre in the Hajrmarkct, with a 
drarriailc piece of his oWn writing, called the Uivcrfions ofrhc 
Morning. — This piece confiftcd of noihing n-.oic than the In- 
trodutSion of feveril well-known ch^.raftcrs in rcnl life, whofc 
msnrcr of cOnvcrfstion and cjcptcfTion this author had very hap- 
[Mly hit iii the di^ioo of his drama, and ftill more happily rc- 
prelctitcd on the ftage by an cxa£l ind moft amazing iipiution, 
not otily of iherratincrand rone of voice, but even of rhevcry 
I>crfons of thnt'c whom he intended to lal-e c^. — Among the(c 
charaiScr-i there was in particular a certain phyfician, who was 
much better known from the oddity and fingularity of his ap- 
pcaranec'^nd convcifatlon, than from his cminoncc in the prsc- 

troe of Ms profefflon. The c<Icbri»tcd chevalier Taylor the 

oculift, who was at that time in the height of his loguc and 
popularity, w'rs alfo another ohjc<5i, and indeed a dtfcrvcj one, 
of Mr. FoGie's mimickf)' and ridicule ; and in the latter part of 
his piecct under the charaiflcr of a theatrical dircilor, this gen- 
tleman took ofF with ^e»t hum6ef and accuracy the feveral 
fiiles of aiding «f cveiv piincipi! performer of the EngUfti 

• Thin performance at Jirfl met with fome Jjitlc oppofition 
from 'he civil niaj^innitea of Wellminflcr, under the rin<3Jon of 
the aft of parliament tor limiting rhc niimber of phy houfei.— 
But the author, being paiiotiizcil by many of the ptlnci]};it no- 
bility and others, this rpp'tfition W36 ovet-rulcd, and with an 
alteration of (he title of his piece to tlut of Mr. Kooic** giving 
Tea lo hii Krirndt, he pioceedcd without fjriher m<^li ftjtinn, 
and reprerenii^d it through a run of upwards of forty mornings, 
iQ crowded and fplendid audien>cs. 

• The cnfuing fcjfcn he pTO«fn'"cd snotlWr piece of the fjms 
Rev. .M.'y, i-6j. 7. kiud. 


Tht Csmpjuiait n th Plij-h-sti^r, 

kind, which he called An Audion ofPidures. — In ihii Hefn^' 
troduccd fcvcral new charaflcrs, all however popular ones, and 
extremely well known, particularly Sir Thomas De Veil, x\ 
the aiting juftice of [leace for Wtftminfter t M r. Cock, the ce- 
lebrated audionecr, and the cquall)- famous orator Henle/.^— 
This piece bad alio a very great rum 

* Neither of the above-mentioned pieces have yer appeared in 
print, nor would they pcrhnps give any very great plcafure in 
the clotet i for, (onfifting principally o( chara£tcrs wliofc pecu- 
L'ar rmgularhies could never be perfectly reprefented in black 
and white, they might probably appear flat and iniipid, when 
divcfted of that ftrong colouring which Mr. Fovce had given 
them In hii [Hrrfonal rrpiefentation ; for It may not be impro- 
per to obfetvc in this place, that he himfcK rcprcfrntcd all the 
principal charztlicrs in each piece, which flood in need of his 
mimic powers to execute, Qiifting from one to another with all 
tSc dc3Cleri<y of a Proteus. — He now, however, proceeded to 
pieces of fomevvhat ^ore dramatic teigularity, his Kaight& being 
the produ^ of an enfu'tig fcafon. — Vet in this alfo, tho* his plot 
ani] chaiaflcis fccni'd Icfs immediately pctfunal, it was apparcnc 
that he Itept fomc parttcuLr real penbnages (Irongly In his eye 
in the perlbnnance, and the {ov»o took on thcrafclvcs to fix them. 
iJb-hcte the refcDiblance appeared to be mod HrikiDg.^ — It would be 
fuperfluous in this place to enumerate the courfc of [his gentle- 
man's dramatic piogrcfs ai to all the rcfpcflive pieces which be 
has ftnce written and performed, as a paniculai account of cacti 
of ihem may be feen under its proper head, in the firft volume 
of this work. — Let it here fuflicc therefore to obfetve, that he 
Au continued from time to time to entertain the publx:, by fe- 
Ie£ting fuch charatflcrs, as well general as individual, as (cem*i( 
moQ likely to contribute to the cxciiing our innocent laughter^ 
inJ bcft anfwct -the principal end of dramatic writings of the 
<omtc kind, \\t. (he relaxation of the mind from the fatigue o( 
.bufmcfs or anxicij.— The natnej of the fcvcra! {ueccs which be 
has hitherto publlOied arc as follows : 

1. Author. A Comedy, efiwoafls. 

Knglifhman in Paris. Com. of twoa^li. 
KpgliJhman rctutji'd fcom Pari*. Com. of two ail^r 
Kniglitt. Cum. of two a^. 
Minor. Com of twoa^U. 
Orators. Com. of three adlj. 
Tafle. Com. of two acta*. 





• Since tbis artic'c was (I»a\vn up, },U. Foore liu produced iJirre 
...oredrafaatic picceii of which the Autha' haj given an atCf>trat, ift 
ihe Attndi* to his biil roluroee via, the Af'/or •jQarftt,—^^ I-jm-t 
— arid t)tc PalrtHt 

4 Mf. 

Thi Ciirfanim h the Pltiylettff, 



Kir. Koole's dramatic works arc all to be ranked among the;*/- 
tX(s piccet of the theatre, as he bss not hitherto attempted any 
thing which has readied to the bulk oFihe more pcrfcd Jrama. 
In the execution of (hem they are fumriimej lo^^fe, negligent 
and unfinilhcJ. feeming rather to be the hatly produ£llons of a 
man of genius, whofe pcgafus, though indu'd with fire, has no 
inclination fur fatigue, than the laboiir'd finifhinc;<i of a profcHcd 
dramittfl aiming at immortality. — His plots arc Somewhat irrc- 
g;u1ar, and their cataftruphcs not always conclufive or perfe£tl^ 

wound up. Vet, with all thefc dcncienctcs, it muft be con- 

fefi'd that ihcy contain more of one eiTentiat propeicy of co- 
medy, viz. ftron^ charader, than the writings of any other of 
our iTvotlern authois, and although the di«^ion of his dialogue 
ir.ay not, from the general tenor of his fubjecta, either require, 
or admit of, ihc wit of a Congrrve, or the elegance of an Kthe- 
rcgc, yet i[ Is conHiittly embcUifbed with numbcrlcfs fttokes o£ 
kern fatirc, and touches of temporary humour, fuch as only the 
cicaroil judgment and decpefl difccrnment cou!d dtt^te ; and 
(hough (he )»nj^uage fpuken by his cbatadteis m.iy at firll fighc 
fecm not the molt accitiate and corrci^, yet it will, on a clofer 
examination, be found entirely dramatical, aa it contains num- 
bers of ihofe natural minutix of exprefiion, on which the very 
ba(is of charaSer is frequently founded, and which render it the 
e*ucft mirrour of the converfation of ihe lime he wrote in.' 

It has been objc<£led, againfl Mr. Foots, that thcintroduiDion 
Jtrf'ical cbata^ers on the flagc, is cruel, and ungenerous; that 
the rxpufm^ any pcHun to public ridicule, is doing him the 
ijioll cllcniial injury pcflible, as it is wounding the humdn breast 
in the tcndcrelt point, viz. its nridc and lelf-opinion. Ouc 
Author undertakes tn defend Mr. r uoie againft tliis charge ; and 
expatiates a good dejl in his vindication » but the article Is cop 
^ong to admit of our tranfciibing any more of it: — bclidcj wc 
do not think all his arguments fufilcicnily <:anclurivtt. ^ome ui 
them, indeed, as Swift fays. 

Dircftly tend 

Againft the caule he \Tou*d defend. 

Jl \% tiiold remark, that nothing hurts any caufe fo much as an 
indiferm athifjU. 

It would be unparJonjble to omit the modern Hofcius, in 
our fcicQion from thefc very enl; meDloi^^^ 

* Garbick, David, Efqi—It would furcly be iiecdlel* here 
to mention th-t ihe jull nanjed is at this time a 
irviiigwri:cr, were it imt for the lake ul future theatrical chrono- 
logy, which tnav il fomc prtiod httcafui have occafion (<ic C. ' 


j|0 The Cunpanitn to the Ptaj-bottft, 

mformaiion. — He wa> bofii in the city of Hcrcl'orJ, in ihc V' 
1717, his father iK-artng a CJptaisi's commilTion in the aiiuf. 
which rjnk he maintained for fcveral jcars \ ami at (he time of 
hi^ dcaih was policilcd of a majority, which that tvrnl liowcvcr 
picvcnicd him from ever enjoying. — Out author rcceiv^ the hHl 
rU'iimcots of hi* education at the fjcc-fcbool af Litchlield, which 
he afterward* complcaicd at Rochellcr* under the celebrated Mr, 
Colfoii, fuwc mathematical proft-llbr aiCimbtidgc, — On the9ih 
of March 1736, he wjs entered of the honourable Society of 
LincotnVInn, being intended for (hr bar. — But whethn he 
found the Itudy of ihc law too heavy, faiurninef and barirn of 
amufemcnt for bi» more aflivc and lively difpoCtv>n» or that a 
^cniuF hke hia could not coiuinue circumfcribed within the li- 
mits of any profcHlon but that to which ii wai more peculiarly 
adapicd, aiKl like the magnetic ntcdc [Xiinted dirctStJy 10 its pro- 
per centre, or perhaps buch, It is certain thsi he did not long 
pitrfue the municipal law ; for in the year 1740-1, he quitted it 
entirely for the flage, and made hit firft appearance at ihc tliraire 
in Goodman's-Kieldsitlieii under the man^igcmencof Mr. Henry 
Gifiard.— The characler he firft rcprcfenteJ was that of King 
Kicharit Hi. in which, Ukc the fun burfting from behind an 
obfcure cloud, he difplayed, in the very earliell dawn, a fome- 
what more than meridian brigbinefs. — In (hort, his execUencc 
dazzled and alloniihcd every one, and the feeing a young man, 
in no more than his twenty-fourth year, and n novice to the 
ilagc, reaching at one fingle ftcp to that height of perfciHon 
which maturttv of years and long practical experience liad not 
been aSlcto bcftow on the then capital performers of the Engtilll 
ftage, was a phcenomenon which could not but become the ob- 
ject of tiniverfal fpgculation, and as univcrfal admirili"n. — The 
thtiitrts towards the court-end of the town were dcfcrtcd, ncr- 
fons of alt ranks flocking to Goodman's-I'ields, where Mr. 
Garrick coniinLcd to afl till the clofc of the fcafon, when, hsv- 
■ingvcry iwlv-int: geius terms offered him for the performing in 
F)ubtin during u-me part of the fummer, he went over thither, 
where he found the,famc juii homage paid to his merit, which 
he had received froti hit own countrvmen. — To the fervtce of 
the latter, however, be ellticmed himiVlf more immediately 
bound; and thrrpfore, inthcenfuin^ winter, engaged himfeff 
ttt Mr. FtfetWKul, then m.majicr of Drury-Lunc play-houfo, 
in which theatre he continued till the year 1745. in the winter 
of whi» h hr aj;.itiv wcnr over to Ireland, and continued there 
ihrongh th>' M>i(dc ••! ih-ji frafno, be<ngjolnt manager with Mr. 
l«hendrfn in the direcNon and luoljis of the theatre royal in Smock 
Alter. — Kfimi thcnoc he returned to tngl^nd, and was engaeod 
liii the of «74l> with the late Mr. Rich, p-itcntrc ofCo- 
vuit-Cbudcn. 'l'Qt^, Uuwever, was hU lall pcttonnance a& a.-i 


The Coittpmisn i9 the Play- hiufe. 341 

hired aflor» for in the clofc of that fcifon, Mr. Fleetwood's pa- 
tent for the management of Drury- L-inc being expired, and ili^t 
gentleman having no inclinr.tion farther 10 purfuc 3 dcfign by 
which, from Kii want of acquaintance with the proper etindu-ft 
of ir, or foinc other rcafoiis, he had already confidcrablv in- 
paired his fortune, Mr. Garrick, in coniunfiion with Mr, Lacy^' 
purchafcd the property of that theatre, together with th« reno- 
vation of the patent, and, in the winter of 1747, opened it 
with the heti part of Mr. Fleclwtiod's fnrinrr eompany, and the 
grcjt additional ftrtnjjth of Mr. Barry, Mrs. Prinhaid and Mrs. 
Cibber from Coven t' Garden. 

* fn this ftaiion Mr. Garrick has continued ei'cr fincc, nnd 
both hf his condui^t as a manager, utid his iineqiial'd merit zs 
an a£tor, has from ye^r to year added to the entertainment of 
the public, which he has ever, with an indefatigable Hmduiiy, 
confulied. — Nor has the public been by any means ungrateful m 
its returns for that afTiduity ; but has, on the conirary, by the 
warm and dcfcrvcd cncouragernent which it has given him, 
raifed him 10 that l^arcof eafe -snA .ifllucncc^ to which it muft 
fure be the wifti of cvct)' honert lieart, to fee fupcrjor excellence 
of any kind exalted. 

*■ To enter into a particular detail of Mr. Garrick's fcreral 
merits, or a difculBcn of his peculiar excellencies in the immcnfc 
variety of chara^rs he performs, would be a taflt, nolonlyioo 
arduous fei me to attempt, and too cxtcnfivc for the limits of 
the prcfent work, but al.'o entirely impertinent and unnecellary, 
as very few pcrfons, for whofc cntcrtiiinnicnt or infarniariuri 
this book is intended, c^n be fuppofcd unacqu;rnucd with them. 
— However, as readers in lomc moic dilUnt periods, (uhen, vt 
Mr. Cibber cxprellcs it, tbt aninuitid iraets ef the player ttiUt at 
htftt hut faintly gllttwitr thnugb I'm memory^ fr imptrfecJ atttjlatitn 
of a few Jurviving fptilatin,, — nay, when even iJicic teHimonials 
mail be unattainaole] will l>c dcdrous of forming to their ideas 
a portrait of the perlbn and manner of this amazing performer* 
[ {hi>ll here bequeath roy little nuiic to future dramatic hillory^ 
by oB'eting fuch a rude (keich of them, as when touched up 
hereafter by fomc other pencil, may anfwer the Intended pur- 
pofe, and prove a p<;rfeil picture. 

< Mr. Garrick in his pcrfon is low, yet well-ftiapcd and 
ncatlv proportionird.— His complexion is dark, and the features 
tit \\\is face, which are picahngly tegular, are animated by a full 
htack eye, brilliant and penclriling. — H-s voice is c!car, melo- 
dious and commanding, and, although it may not p'jffcfs the 
ttrong ovcibearing powers of Mr. SiofTop's, cr ihe mulical 
fwceinefs of Mr. Barry's, yet it appears to have a much greater 

Z 3 t'jTft'^lSci 


7h CitKpanitn tt tbt Play-heuft, 

cpaipa(s of variety ihan cither i and, from Mr. Garriclt*! judi- 
cious manner of comlu^LIng iu enjoys aiticulation and 
piercing ililiinftners, which renders it cqunliy intclligibk, even 
u> the moll (iiftant parts of an audience, in the gentle whifpet* 
of murmuring lovct the haif-fmothcr'd accents of infi:U paflion, 
or the profelicd and romctimcs aultward concealments of an 
afide fpccch in comedy, a» in the rants of rage, ibc d^rines o/ 
ilerpair^ or all the open violence of tragical eiuhufiarm. 

* As to his particularysr/; or fuperiorcaft in aAing, it wouM 
be perhaps as difficult to determine it, as it would be minutely 
to dcfcntc his fcvcral excellencies in the very different calls in 
which he at different times thinks proper to appear. — Particular 
fyptrlority is fwallowcd up in his univcrfality, and fhould it even 
be contended* that thcic have been pcrformeis ctj'jal to him in 
their own rcfpciUivc/tfr^M of playing, yet even ilitir partizans 
inuft acknowledge, there never cxifted any one perfoimer that 
came near his extcUcnce in fo great a variety ot parts. — Tra- 
ficdy, comedy and farce, the lover and the hero, the jc-Joiu 
bufbanci, who fufpcifU his wife's virtue without caufc, and tho 
thoughilcfs lirely rake, who attacks ic without defign, are all 
alike open to his imitation, and all alike fin honour to his ejce- 
cutton. — Kvcry paflion of the human brcaft fccmi fuhjctSed to his 
poweis of exprcffion, nay, even time iifelf appears to (bnd flill 
or advance as he would have it, — Rage and ridicule, doubt and 
drfp^iii, traritporc and tendernefs, compstfioii and contempt, 
love, jealoufy, fear, fury and ^■mplienii', all (akc in turn poffcf- 
fion or' his features, while each of them fucceffivcl? appears to be 

the folc pofl'cflbi of thole features. One night old age liis on. 

his cotintchflnce, as if the wrinkles fhchadrtampt then: wcic in- 
delible; the next, the gaiety and Moom of youth ferms toovcr- 
fprcad his face, and miooih even thufc marks which time and 
mtifrular conformalifin m.iy have really made there.— Of thcfe 
truths no one can be ignorant, who has ever feen him in the fc- 
reral choraflrra of Lear or Hamlet, Richard, Dorilas, Romeo, 
or Lulitnan ; in his Riingcr, Bays, Drucger, Kitelv, Brute, or 
Ecnedtdl. — In (horr, Natiite, the miftrefs from whom alone this 
prcJi PtTformcr h;is borrowed all his lefitmi, bcrng m licrfclf m- 
rxhatjfliblc, and her variariun not to be numbered, i: is by no 
means furprizing, (hat this, her darling fon, fhnuld find an un- 
limited fct^pe for change and diveriity in hii manner of copying 
flora her various productions i and, as if Iht: had from his cradle 
marked him cut for her irucfl rcprcfcnui'.^ ^ ■ ■ brftowed' 
on him fuch po;vcrs of cxprcITioii in the m .., uce, as 

no other performer ever y(;t poiTcftt'd ; nut i>iiiy lor the difplay 
of a Angle pafTion, but alfo tor the comblnatiuq of thofe varioui 
too£i)lb wjUi which the human brcAft ;it titncj id fraught ; in 


72^ Cca^auiaH to tit Play-lmf<^ 

^at in his countciunce» even when his lipa are filenC, bis 
meaning (lands pourtia)f'<l in cbaradlers too legible for aiiv ro 
ipiillakc it.— In a word, tfae beholder feels hitnfvjr' a^e^ecl' he 
knows not how, and it may be truly faid of him, by future 
writers, what the poet has faid of -Shakefpcarc, that In his id> 
iagi as in the other's writing. 

His powerful ftroltes prevailing truth impreft'd. 
And unrcfifted paffion ftorm'd the*reaft. 

* During the courfc of his managcmrnt, the public has, un- 
doubtedly, been much obliged to him for his indefatigable labour 
in the condu<£t of the theatre, and in the pains he has ever taken 
to discover and gratify its taftc j and, though the fituation of a 
manager w^ perpetually be liable to attack* from difappointed 
authors and undcfcrving performers ; yer, it is apparent, from 
the barrcnncfs both of plays and players of merit which has for 
ibme years pi^ft appeared at the oppofitc theatre, that this geu- 
ileman cannot have refufed acceptance to many of either kitid, 
that was any way deferving of the rotwn'* regard, — In fliorr, \t 
'does not appear that this is the age of cither dramatic or thea< 
irical genius -, and yet it is very apparent, ihat the pains Mr. 
Garrictc has taken in rearing many tender plants of the latter 
Jcind, has added feveral valuable performers to ihc Kngllfh Oagc, 
whoie fiift bloflbms were far I'locn promifing fo f<tir a fruit ax 
they have fince pro-iuced :— and that, amongft the fevcral dra- 
matic pieces which have within thef; founeen years made their 
firft appearance on the theatre in Drur>-I.ane, there are very 
few, whofe authors have not 3cknowlcdj>ed [lieinfclves greatly 
indebted to this gentleman for uf^'ful hints or advantavcuus al- 
terations, .t« which their fucccfs has in great mradire been 

owing. Add io this care, the revival of many pieces of the 

more early writers : |Hcee3 ponefs'd of great merit, but which 
had, either through the ncglcCl or ignorance of other mana- 
gers, Iain for a long limc unemploycil anJ unregarded. But 

there is oue part of theatrical onJuift which ought unquclTion- 
JtbJy to be recorded to Mr. Gnrrick's honour, llnce the cnufe of 
virtue and morality, and the formution of public maunet.<i are 
very conlidcrably dependant on it, and that i.<, the with 
which he hu ever aimed to banifb fiom the (la;^r all thufe pbys 
-which carry with them an immoral tendency, and lo prune from 
ihofc, which do not ubfolutcly on the whole promote the inic- 
rcfts of vice, fuch fccncs of liccntioufncfs and libcrtc, as a rc- 
'■ilundancy of wit and too great livclinefs of imagination has in- 
4)ucrd (bmc of our romic writers to indulge ihemfelves in, and 
■which the fympathetic difpofition of an a^e of gallantry and in- 
trigue had given a fanOion to— The puriiv of th^tnglifll ftajrc 
ius certainly been much moic fully cUubUihed during the admi- 

Z 4 iiiAruiaa 




■ j,44 ^' Companim to the Play-Jjtnji^ 

'niftration ofihis theatrical minifl'er, than it had -ever been dur- 
ing preceding managements : for what the public tafle bad it- 
felf in fome mcafurc begun, he, by keeping that taftc within 
' its proper channel, and tetding it with a pure and untainted 
' ftream, fcems to have compleated ; and to have endeavoured aa 
much as poflibic to krep up to the promife made in the prologue 
above quoted, and which uas fpukfn at the firtl opening of that 
theatre under his dirtftion, viz. 

Bade Scenic Virtue form the rifing age. 

And 7'ruth diffufe her radiance from the ftage. 

* His fupcriority to all others in one branch of excellence, 
however, mud not make us overlook the rank he is entitled to 
ftand in as ta cnothcr i nor our remembrance of his being the 
frji etior living, induce us to forget, that he is far from being 
the la^ uTiter. — Notwithftanding the numberlefs and laborious 
avocations attending on his profeflion as an aflor, and his ftation 
as a manager, yet lllll his active genius has been perpetually 
burfting forth in various little productions both in the dramatic 
and poetical way, whole merit cannot but make us regret bis 
want of time for the purfuance of more cxienfive and important 
■works. Of thefe he has publicly avowed himfelf the author of 
the following, feme of which are originals, and the reft altera- 
tions from oiher aurhors, with a dcJlgn to adapt them to the 
prefent taftc of the public. 

1. Every Man in. his Humour. A Comedy, (Alteration 
from Ben Johnfon, with an additional fcetie.) 

2. Farmer's Return- Interlude. 

3. GuardiJn. Comedy of two a£ts. , , 

4. Letlic i a Farce. 

5. I-yiiig Valet. Comedy of two ails. 

6. Mils in her Teens, iaice, 

7. RfjiiiC'j and Juliet. Tragedy, (Alter'd from Shakefpeare, 
with !i" aiiJitiijnal fccne.) 

8. Winter's Tale. (Alter'd from Shakefpeare.) 

BcfiJcs thcfe, Mr. Oarriclc has been reputed the author of the 
t'ollowiitg piecfr-, viz. 

J. CathcriDo and Pctruchlo. Farce, in three afls. (Alter'd 
from Shakefpeare.) 

2. Cymbciiiic. Trap. (Alter'd from Shakefpeare, but by 
little more than a fanfpQfition of leveral fccnes, for the fake oi 
addin? regularity to the condu£t of the drama.) 

3. Kiuhanter. Mufical entertainment. 

4. Gamcltcrs. Com. (Alteration from James Shirley.) . 
j, ^iarlv^iiiii's InvaJiun. < A Chrillmas gainbol. (This is a 



I th 

Jn Hi/foHioi ytav tf the Csntrwtrfy^ tfc. 345 

fort of fpeaking pantomime. In which an admirable fcene of 
ludy Doll Siiipi ihe taylor's daughter, was writen by ihis Gen- 

6. Ifabella. -(Alteration from Southertic's Fatal marriage.] 

7. Lilliput- An eniertatnmcnt, adled by children. 
.8. Male Coquette. Comedy, tn two a£b. 

• Bcfidcs ihcfe, Mr. Garrick has been fuppofcd to be the au- 
tor of an Ode on the Death of Mr. Pelham, whkhi in lc& 
than fix weeks, run through four editions. The prologues, 
epilogues and fongs, which he h2s written, arc .ilmoU iniiuiuer- 
abJc, and pofTers a degree of happinefs both in conception and 
execution, in which he ftands uncquall'd. — It would, however, 
be in vain to attempt any citumeration of them In this (^ace^ 
and is indeed the leb nccetfary, as I have been informed there is 
hope the author himfeirwill, ere long, oblige the public with a 
complete cdittuii of all hii^ works/ 

, Though the panegyric here poured forth, in fo copious a 
Aream, on (his crcat Theatrical Genius, appears to be ilrongly 
tinctured with adulation ; yet it miill be confcilcd, that whoever 
attempts to do juflice to the aftonifhing talents of Mr. Gab- 
kick, will find it \xry difHcult to avoid the like imputation. — 
We {hall add no more on this head, left, as He is ftill the living 
ornament of his piofcllioa, wt alfo fall under the lame prtdtca^ 

There arc many other original memoirs in the collcftion be- 
fore us, which would, doubtlcfs, have proved equally accept- 
able to our Readers, with any of the foregoing articles ; parti- 
cularly the account of the celebrated Dr. John Hill, which i« 
well drawn up, and not altogtthcr dcAituic of candor, although 
the Writer docs not appear to be a friend of the Dolor's ; buc 
faaving fufficicntly pointed out the merits of this Companion to 
the I'heatrcs, it is now time to clofc our account of a pcrfonn- 
ance which, however, we difmifs with relu^ance, as Jt is not 
frequently that we meet with compilations abounding with fuch 
a varict)- of critical obfcrvitiom, and entertaining anecdotes. 

>f S^rt Hi/fcricai f^ttw »f th Carrtrwerjy umerning an Interme- 
diate Jiattf end the fepcrate Exijience of the Soul betiveen Death 
and the gmrral RtJumfH$n, dtduad frtm thf Bt^lKmng of th* 
Prfteflant Rtfermatien, « the prefertt Ttrnti. 8vo. as. 6d. 

Afield, fee. 




Ti6 ^'f BiJioricMl View iftht CMtmerfi 

THOUGH tcvt of our Readers, we imagine, will look 
upon tbe contiovcrfy conceinuig an iotermolUtc llatc to 
be of fuch great importance as thi3 karned and ingenious Author 
apprehends it to b«, yot thofc who are converiant with fubjcAi 
of this kind, will W picafed with many oi his obfcrvatton$, and 
with his manner of writing, which is ihrcwd, fentible, fprightl^ 
and agrccabJc. His reading, too, appears to be «ctenfive, and his 
regaitf (or Itbeny, doth civil and religious, (Irong and finccr?. 
If, in a few inftances, he employs fome of the Icfs liberal arts 
of comi-overfy, the candid Reader will remember that this is a 
fpectes of frailty ta which polemic divines are too often fubjcd, 
and that mecknefs and gcntlenefs of temper, though a Chrifilau 
virtue, is not always a theeUgitaJ endowment. 

He introduces bts prefatory difcourfc u tih obfcrvlng, that, if 
it were to be determined by a gcnrral bnilot, wh»i piiniculsr 
cUITcs of writers ihould be condemned to evcilalting Atenc«, 
polemic divines would iufalUbly be bonoujrod with the litR ma- 

* They wouldl, in the firft place, (continues he) be pro- 
fcribed by the members of their own laculty, among whom the 
iedate and orderly fbns of difcrction, are for ever declaring thctr 
aveifion to all religious difputation, a* duiigc^-ous to cccli-fuIU- 
cal foundations, blcffing their ftars that the repofe and emolu- 
ments of an cUjbliQimcnt, have fct them above ihc tcmpixtioi 
of fceking their bread or their fjme, out of the beaten tmck of 
authorised and orthodox confe£uns (aj. 

* With ihcfe would agree flatcfmen and poliricrans, whofc 
clans and enterpri/.es might be f>rievoully embarrafTcd by ihco- 
logteal difquifition, of which hiilory amuds multitudes of nc- 
ampIcB (t). 


' fa} A certun ingenieui wriier h^":'; irdr«d inrmoatnl lately, that 
fomc pioat &th«n woa\d probably rxrrt ihcm&lvci in this provirKC, 
" if tbc dntdgery of contrm-crfy were not /m tffii.a'Jhi taken out of ikeif 
hand)." hUral and foitmal f),»lcg«fi. p. ~^. iSoes this ccntlciMB 
mean that thcfc ejkitvx Hfud^tt Ihould lUy for ilie lictntt of their pinui 
finhen, s mas the cafe in the reigni of the jamoes srtd the L'harktciJ 
Ontfivutfailtr I cciild name, who when ihefc ditloguc* were pab- 
lifbedi U'u ftiU living, an honour ard an ornament to the bench he Ux 
upon, cot only entfTtained difTeient f:ntimcnu., but did not fcruplc to 
publifh them lo tho «\fltld, in one of the (IroiigcA and moft afic^og 
plus for tht hhtny ift'mfrtft, thai the prefeot or pediaps the lad a^ 
fiti feen. And I woutd t^illini^Iy liopc he may have left behind lun 
fitut fatbtTi of tlie fame geiiefom way of thinking.' 

* (^) Fajiiid ftii ftft d«imato vtrs ifa^fitijthd'ria a msih ntn mrmt 

esnctrnin^ an tnlermiiiatt Siait. 

« Liwyers, phyTicians, and philofophcrs of diftircnt elaflci,' 
inighr perhaps forcfre Utile or no inconvenience in debates, 
M»th which their ftudies and occupations are underflood to have 
fo Ittilc connexion (c). The fufFragc of thcfc, however, muft 
of courfcbe conformable to the tailc of their clients, patieiicsj, 
and patrons. 

* On another hand, the profcffors in fmlUt literature, the 
connoifliMirs in thc^^, und theadept» in itvt finer arts, perfcAlT 
ihudder ac any thing that hu a fchobflic or a theological air. 
The fpe>£ire« of the indelicate Lutiej, and the horrjj Calvin, 
are ever before their eyes, and the found of the aiccs and ham- 
mers, wherewith their difriples broke down all the carved work 
of the mother and miftrcfs of mufic, painting, and fculpiure, 
(lill in their ears ; and if future debates fhould bring on .1 f.\r- 
(bcr degree of what thefc s/tf/fl/r called reformation, who c.ia 
nnfwer that a fingle Madona of any cbara£lc( might furvive the 

* In one word, thts general difaffeftion to religious contra- 

iifi'-Bgutrt, emnia H*^a /i/^3a /-afvnt. Gror. in ^^9. xvii, 6. " Ja 
i)ii» inaxiiii [viz- that the grind points of Chtilltanity ought to be tskni 
ai iafallible icvchtiofli] all bigottcd dtrities and frcc-ibinking politi- 
cians agree ; the one for fear of diHurbin^ th» elUblilheil idigion ; the 
other IcH the diilurbance fhoiLd prove injuriout (o thctr adn iniflratioa 
of government,'' Kit upon a Inter of Bolingbrolie to bwifr, in Popc'a 
Wutki, Vol. IX. p. 131. ed. 1755. Ooc would imagine the author 
of ihit note tv'ould tiare no objcOion 10 ilie txaniuatieit, and, if Dced be, 
the ttrrt^Ue of iheoloeical ftfims and fyjleiot. Cominon f^ine hotv- 
ever, fpe-iki him to be tne fame pcrfon of witom it ;* faitl in timihtr neit, 
ih*t, " he ii one of ihofe mva who wi(h to fee things coniinuc ai ihe/ 
are, and not, ai iht/tti»ri jtani, to fee the nililiifh of hu.-iian of-linatwy^ 
taken out of the uay." \^M»ral(mJpaisfitql^\a.\og>if, p. 29; ] VVoi^lil 
not feme people conclude from hence, (hat he mufl either be a tii^-tt4 
Jiviaf or i/ietttinkiffi feli.'uiam ? But tihjijittity '\\ not the vice r-f tlicfc 
Bwr«/ai>d/w//r;t-fl/ writer*. For, wonld you briieve ir ? Tliij vcr^ nn« 
who iho) fnecrs tht fufly iceyk of fff-rmatim, falls font, in his Fej^j.-rif^i^ 
upon Hume the liiiloiian. for " laying out half of hi; paint in rv}^ofinj» 
the abrordiiici of leformed religion." Nuw liumc's pntns are eJr.cJly 
hid ODt in taxiojr the rcformeri theintclvci with tuihujiajm atid j'tduitt^ 
And u not tbi» the very objection which ihi» Diaie^ifi and bis tnjflcr 
have 10 ihofe, whom he, in deriCon, calljy«'»/^ f And will ilvcy un'cr- 
takc 10 Qrtw lh.n x\\zjat*ti he meaiu go upon tMt-rft or tthtr piincipW. 
than ourjf-;/ reformer* :' 

* (^) ^'* *fc told however that the tmhilis ptiyficiaoK of P<ance 
nvade the gteaiell oppofiiioa of any otlier* Xa frttrjianit taking Jcgtees 
io /t«> fjicwliy after the EUidof Naole*. Cm»mtfi U d»ilf,mt Ju^MtJi^ 
t'-s, fays ihc hinorlan, <j-:a»V 4*/ gr^nt/i iattrtli a riVnuJrr ai« < tvr*/Sr, 

iiilt. de I'Edtt. dc Mantu, Liv. vi. p. i?!*' 


AnHiJimtai yiew oftht CMtrswrjy 

verfy, is To prevalent, thit if wc believe cbe monthly writers, 
who cater for readers of all talks arul complexions, tbrre is noc 
one floinzcb in a thoufand tliat candigeft it. ConttoveiM 
Divinity is acforilingty rcprcrcnicil in tbcir rollct^ons, as fl;itr, 
infipid, meagre and iiaufeous, and, in gcneial, lii for nothing 
but 10 be returned upon the hinds of tholi: who bring it tv 
market (J): 

In the note relatinii; to us Monthly Reviewers, the difccming 
Kcadcr will probably be at a loii to know, wbji thffe Ques- 
tions tcfer to. Not to dwell on thi» obvious Lnaccuncy, how- 
ever, we fhall a(k in our turn, VVhat mufi the world think of 
the Wiiur, wfio would inftnuate that the Reviewer i arc 
friends to civil and ecdctiadica) tyranny *, bccaufc they h:(ve af- 
fc/ted that there is force any fpccies of writing fo unprofitable 
to the public, as polemic divinity ? This inference reminds us 
of a certain clerg;ynian, who was at great pains to reprefeni a 
gentleman, who lived in his neigh t>ourhnod, as an atJidft, 
merely bccaufe he denied the divine right of tjtbes ! 

* (J) " There is fcarce any fpccies of wrliin? ib unprolirable to the 
Mblrc IS palrmic divinity." Montt.'y Rtvirui for Stprtrntt' 1764. p. 
137. Be it known to the Reader that one of the iwo conttovcrfies 
which drew (his remark from thefcy^w/fiitrt/fl/ciiticj, was that called 
t\» Ilmngtriffi. mtbeeveiitof\^hich. :he dcaih-tlrokc wascivcn to ihc 
pfineiples of civil and eccleftifltLal tyranny, fo that they have Dever 
fince been able to hold up their heads, not even in the ibapc of aa 4/- 
ksHCf, under which a uattftuan of no ordinary Ikill haih more Istdy en- 
deavoured to revive and rcinfiate them. Wh»l muft wc iliink uf the 
Biltn who call thefe (^i»tioi«» mmittfifallt « iIm fnhhtt But ibey 
have already received their corrcilinn fiocn an ;iblrr hand, in an Cxcd* 
lent letter, figned, HOADLEIANUS, m (he ^t. Jamo'i Chronicle of 
OAober 17. 1764.' 

« Tho' fn groundlcls an lulJnuatton does not defcrve a ferioui reply. 
we think it jullicc 10 ou'rdvei (u tell thii .^utlior. whoever he it, thjt 
we have as hcariy 111 abhorrence ofcivil jiid cccletiailical tyranny ai be 
can poflibly entcriAiu. and have giveti lubtUniial and indifputable ereofs 
of our WJirm alucNmcni to the ioterells of libcrcj both civil aod tcU< 
gioui. At to the Birigorian ConCravcrfy ue readily allow that tlieic 
were Ibmc very valuable pieces publtfhed in the Cuurfc of |t, and that 
the canted wat, upon the whole, of greit leivit;£ to ratutoa) religioai 
wliai wc faid in rezarJ to it in our Review lur St^ttmhtr 1 764. i», never* 
thelels, true, as night caJily be made appear by an enumc/ation of par- 
ticulars. We take picalure too in declaiine ibat we rcvaence lAe nc> 
nory ofihe \i.\c Bifliop of WinchcAcr. anX look upon his chamAer aa 
highly refpe^able: he was poirofHid ofonc excellence in a very eminent 
degree, which «'C beg leave to rccotnnicnd 10 controveiCal wriieit in 
general ; we mean, a truly Challiaii auci libct^l m-inner of treating hb 


nnttrning an tntermfdtatt State. 

As we ftiouM, however, be' forry to Incur the dirplcifure of 
any fenfibic wiitcr, wc ihall be canJid enough" to acknowledge 
that wc have, perhaps, aticrtcd too much, and' that polemic di- 
vinity is, in fomc mc;ifurc, prnfirahle td the public. The cler- 
gy, intkcd, are a very niimcrnus b<jdyj many of them, unfor- 
tunately, have vrry ttitle to do; exercife ts neccfiiry for their 
health i and at there ts no fpecies Of recreation which many of 
them apprar fonder of than literary cudgcl-plajin;;, ": '' ' / 
ihould be indulged in it. There is anoiher confwcrj.. ri' 

weighs with us, and which delcrvcs to be attentled to. Pcu^ilc 
of every cUfs and deciumiiiation. even the mod' gtave and fc- 
lious, arc fomeiimes fond uf diverlion : now there is fcarec 
any kind of amufement, in which the generality fecm to take 
greater delist than in feeing a ouple of nble and fkilful cham- 
pions, excicifing their weapon<; v^Ith dextrrttr; 'Whaterer 
therefore contributes to the divcrfion of the public, ?nil tends* 
CO keep people in good humour, ought, undoubtedly, u be cn- 
couragetl; and a.s polemic divinity is known to anfwcr thcfe 
good purpotcsf wc readily acknowledge, tho' in contradii^ltoa 
to our former afTenions, that tt ii :i prsfitahU fperici of compa- 
6lioii. If to all this we add the confumptionof quilU, ink, and 
paper, which it occafions, with the advantages arifnig to printers, 
booicfcilers, &c. we muil allow that it is a very conlidcrahle 
branch of iitcjary uiauut%^^re, i}ntJ, by prtf|>er eucguragcmcnt, 
may be reiideic^ very extcn&ve and utvful. . . .._ 

Wc are forry thefe conGdcrations did not ocpu/'fo lis lbbn«| 
the conceffiotys we have now made will, however, we flatter 
ourfelvcs, fotten this Author's refcnlnvCnt fin- iiny'unguirdcd 
exprcflion that may hive fljpt from us, and InJifti him to en- 
tertain mnrc fjvourjbic fcntiincnts of our principWs and difpO' 
fition : if they produce this hsppy rffc^, it will gitfe us plca- 
fure; if not, wc can only lament our misfortune, and be more 
upon our guard for the future. 

*' Our Author gftea on to make a few renaarks on what Mr* 

Hume and tamt other rnodern wrltcri have occafionaUy fiiid in 
regard to ihcuioglcal conlroverfvp and tells us, that writer* of 
the firit eminence have had the cathlnur and the confcience to 
ackiifiwlcdge that feiencc and literature arc indebted to It fof 
<onic of their moll vji'iable improvements. If it be faid, that 
xhc fioffvUir.:; may be ijiari'd, as the building is fo r'ar advanced, 
and the hniinin^s executed to better advanugc without ii, ouf 
Author rcpKta as follows ; 

• All in good time. Are you firrc that fcicnce and literature, 
in their prcfent ftaie, may noi ^Itll be beholden to theological 
difquidtion, even in the inferior pnjvincc oX Jc't^Wlni ? Theta 
9 twv^ 


350 An HifiiTual vimi afthe Ccntravtrjj 

»ay be ibme uifjenificint forts oF literature, the fartber im- 
provement of which would not quit the cofl : and it would be 
abfuiJ Co fxy that thcolog}', as a fciencc, hath a ncccflaiy ui 
imniciliate connexion wiih all other branchrsof learning of more 
importuice. What I plead is this. While debate and cxami- 
nuiun aic allowed and countenanced in muien of rettgkin, 
which is of the higheft concern, then: will be no danger dui the 
doorfhould be fhutacainil iiitjuirers into nutters of another na- 
ture and tendency. But if the popular religion fhuuld once he 
fcillcd into an unconiioulablc Ibrm, confidcr the conlcquence. 
Syftem, whether compore»3 of popUb or ptotcftan: materials, is 
fjrflent Hill ^ the child of pride and avarice, and the fondling of 
tyrants, hypDcntes^ and bigots. By thcCe, fcicncc and Jitera- 
ture of all kinds have ever been fufpcdted, as un6ivourablc to 
orthodox foundations. Who knows what the fons of genius 
may ftfikc out in our o*n, or in future times ? Would you 
put it in the power of thofc who patronize the fyfttm in vogue, 
to check thcfc efforts by the narrow bounds they arc difpofcd to 
prefcribc } Be provident therefore, if you will not be grateful. 
Encourage examination and rational debate for your own fakes. 
Keep open the door for others that it mjiy not be ihut againft 

yuurfclvct (t).* I'o this pica, cyay man of fenic and fpuit 

mud cordially and heartily agree. 

, Our Author acknowledges ttiac the wrath, acrimony, info^ 
lence, and dogmatic Ipirit of fome contruverfial writings are in- 
ilcfcnfible. In fome inllanccs, however, he tells lu, thcfc arc 
ncccilary evils ^ in others, they will admit of extenuation. In 
fome men, he fays, an eager fpirit is a fault of conftituiioni 
from others, even good men, angry or fatyrical cxprcflions ouy 
be forced byjuft provocation. 

• If the hand* of every writer (continues he) were to be tied, 
who docs not keep within the llii<^ bounds of ChrtOian mode- 
ration and lenity, I know fome individuals uf other clalTes, whu 
would be as impatient under the icflraint as any divine of ihcm 
all. And why fiiould divines be obliged to fet an example^ 
which writers on other fubjcSs are not obtigcJ to follow V 

Though we have formed a very high opinion of ihis 
Writer's abilities, his learning, and his zeal for the beft 
intCiells of mankind, yet nothing, furcly, can be more in- 

' (t) ** Learning owes iti Booiiflitng date to ibe prr&, and u aoy 
bra^ch of learning may chance to be connciHcd with lbiii« fdicme of 
politiy, the refirainii of a licence or ^Kff.'Maf**-, would cramp and fcner 
iflfjentout miudi to Tuch ade^rrc, thai ihey would compofe tbcQjfrJvcs 
la rrft. aud leave learned aoJcurioui dtlijuiliuooK Tor fuch puctiiioa 
ia litrr^uie ai (.anaoi oJeud." f^^ m iBi Ltttrtj »/ tht i**^ 



tmtirniag an futfrm/Jiott Stat/. ' 351 

Judicious than tbii apology for Chriflbn divines not keeping 
within the bounds of Chiiflian nioderaiion. Modrrarion is, 
undoubtedly, 1 duty incumbent upon all, but divines uc 
under ditmuH and peculiar obligations to the practice of it. 
Their proper bufinefs, and that tor which the public maintains 
ihem at a prodigious cxpence, is to recommend and enforce the 
praSicc of religious and moral duties ; now as the principal 
part of religion, confidered in a praftical view, is the govern- 
meni of the paffions; and as <hily experience fhews that example 
is of much greater force and efficacy than precept^ — it is reafon- 
ably expcifted of divints^ that they fhould, in their own coQ^' 
duCT, exemplify tbofc virtues which they recommend to othenl' 
When tbcy a£t otherwifc, they ad in direS contradi^ion to 
the very end and defign of their office, bring difcredic upon their 
profeiEon, and fix flrong prejudices in the minds of many againfl 
Crtftianity itfcif, the interelb of which are chu) betrayed by 
tbofe, wboTe imjirpcnfibk duty it is to fupport them. 
* Thefc confidcrations will receive additional weight if we oTj- 
fervt farther, what is very obvious to every t^fcrvcr, that the 
wrath, acrimony, infoleiicc, and dogmatic fpirit, which arc too 
frequentiy feen In controvcrfial writings on theological fubjei^s, 
cao fcaice admit of any extenuation. In converfacion, indeed^ 
and the common occurrences of life, fuch provocation may be 
given as will cjctott warm and angry expreffions even from the 
bed of men. The only excufe that can be made for this, is 
the frailty of our nature ; and ChriAian divines have, undoubt- 
edly, the fjme right to urge tliis plea, that other men have. 
But when they retire into their clofets from the bufmefs and 
bulUe of the wOTtd, and employ tKcif pens in defence of any 
religious doctrine, thu of an intrrmeJieie Jfati^ for example, or 
l\xz .Ithanajuiti diitrine of the trihily^ frff-w:ii^ aA/ttut* eUcrtes^ eri- 
ginal fin^ infant -hafUfm^ the eitmity tf heli tsrmmHy tht dhint 
right sf rpi/espocyy y,-. and give way to anger, rcfentment, and 
fiery -/caf, what opinion muft a difccrniiig reader entertain of 
Ihcm ? Charity itfelf mud think that they have taken no paina 
to cultivate that gemlencfs and meeknefs of temper which 
Chriftianity fo ftiongly recommends j and the gcncraliry of 
readers will be tempted to queflion the rinceriiy of their mdft 
folrmn prof<*flians, when they fee that their temper and difpq- 
Ction Is diamctiicalty oppofitc to the genius and fpirit of that 
religion far which they are advocates. ' 

But let US rciuin to our Author ; who tells us, that if we 
were to enquire (Iricily into thccautra why certain rcfcript*, of 
no fmall iiitrinlic merit, and on no triAing fubjciHk, have met 
with fo cool a rcceptioh in the world, it would perhaps be 
found that ihc gentle, tnodefl and pLicific manner, in which 




2^% Ah HiJJtriii^ Fitw rftbe Caairrturjf 

the uuthors of them have delivered their fenrimeaut Iku coff-< 
tfibuted more than any thing che to their being To litilc t< 
ganled. A pregnane inflancc uf this, - he fiyj, W the booli 
called Frtt anj Candid DifqUi/ttiant, kit, to which the grcjre$ 
objc^ion with feme pcifons was, the humbh; and (ubmifSvc' 
lerms in which the authors of that woilc <jclivcred their ienti-, 
racnts and jiropolkis, called by Tome people, cam and u-iinii^. 
*■ Thuft it was of old, continues he, and thus it it Hill. 
There aic fubjc^ of the utmofl importance to the ciedit uid 
advancement of true religion, to wb|ch, whether they whe 
hanJlc them //// oc mmnty tlic men o( this gcncution will paj 
no attention, lyheriuniajhall tbty bt hienrJ f" 

"Here we cannot help differing from our Author, and arc per-* 
fuac'ed that the pcntlc and modcft manner, in which the worthj 
authors of the Fret rmj chtidiii Difyu'jUli-'KiMWzrcii their fcnr 
menis, was fo far fiom being of aiiv diil"er\'ice to their worl 
that it contributed greatly to that nigh degree of cftecm, li 
which the generality of impartial and unpn^udiced readers hB\ 
ever hclil it. The manner in which they conducted their tnilj 
uleftil dcfign, docs them, perhaps, as much real honour, as the 
dcfi^n itf<:lt, and we Ihoulil be extremely lorry if any of ik 
Kpcntcd ot it. That (o gloriaus x drliirn was hoc carried into 
execution, was not, certainly, owing to the nunner in which' 
the Dijipiifiiiini were whttrn, but to reafons of a very dii^'ercnt 
niiiure, which it requires uo great ponciation and fag^city to 
ditizovcr, utd Which arc, indeed, too obvious lu rei^uiic; bcil^ 

Our ingenious Author proceeds: — * And this I tike to hav^ 
^cn.thc ciic wiih thjt jiatticular (fttcHion, on which the cnfuii 
papers are employed. Dr. Law's Appendix is fo dmwn up, 
not to give the Icaft offence, either to thofc who hold the coa'j 
trary define upon the credit, pf the church, or to any panicu4 
lar writer who bath explained his own fcnfe of ihi* matter to the 
ublit'. Mr. Heclcard's 5r|} nnd fccond Ol-ftrvatisns^ as well a* 
lis Arifwtr to Kkmfng, arc patterns of polixncfs and mojcra- 
tlpa, Bs well ;is of f'jlid rrafuning ;uid good jcnfc. Yet have 
they both been treated with the vitell calumny, attended wit 
rhe moft abfurd as well as bafcft infmuations. And thou^l 
theii: advctfaries aa* the wcakcd of all weak writerSf yet have 
thcVi to a'l outward appearance, carried their point-, ttic gene- 
rality of popular fpeakcrs or writers, who have occafion to 
toucn lipon thr future condition of the human foul, adhering 
ftill to the fyftem of « anfiiout inttrtttedratt jiaUy reftitt^', z*, they 
would have it believed, upon the complicated evidence of fctip* 
Ittre and philorophy, 

' Irfr. 


^ ' 1 fciiietabef a remark (bmcwlterc, thm the generality of 

waders, wticii tliey pacci with a writcT of cuntiovcrfy wlio keeps 
witbin ilv: boundt of modcmion and civility, and mere pxiti- 
culaiiy it lie cxprcfics the Icaft ^tllijence wiili relpect to any 
par.t of his argument, prefently conclude tliut fuch a man docs 
hot intercA himfcl? crearly for the truth of his caufc, anJ U^a| 
canfcqucnily the msticr in debate h of no cfjjrccial in^poruiKC . 

■ * JVhethcx for ihis> or for fome other rcafon, there is room 
CO belie\'e that Ibis is the Judgment that is mo(t commonly 
fivmcd of the difpuie concerning the intenrudiate Jlau of rraa 
.between death ajid the rffsriCtSion. It is rup|»orcd tti be a 
mailer of indiftcfcncc to Chritti:ir.s who believe a refurre^ttou of 
ibc dcjkl, itnd a fmal judgmrnc, in what ronditton the man, or 
xtie fo^l* aUci: the dc^th of the bcMjy, remain^, during the in- 

.; * III qj'der therefore to fliew the (lender roundalion three is 
fttf a pzqudicc of this fort, it will tie neceitary once more ta 
flate the caie, ».n^ to examine what [ucten^n* this qutllioa 
may have to the aitrniion of the (ciiout, difpaffionaie and rea- 
ruu,ibtc part of mankind F 

• The queflion is, whether the fcripturcs afford any jtjft antf 
folid grounds for (he doflrinc of the immortality of tlic foul of 
man, and pariicularly, any evidence of its exiftcnce, when d If- 
iiniicd from the body, in a flatc of confcious perception ; and 
whether, in confcqucncc of this notion, thrrc is not a certain 
intcrmrdiaie Hate of bappinets and mifery for good and wickci 
men refpciiivcly, between death and the general refurreiftJon ? 

* They who hold the negative in ihcfe point!, aJledgc, that 
according lo the fciipiures, life and iinmottality were iiiought 
to light by the gofpcl of Chrift, in a fcnfe cxclufive of all other 
teachtn, and all other rc\'elstion, at Icaft from the birih of 
Mofes downu'ards \ exclufivc likcwife of all i;ifon;i. ' -n 
the light of nature, ftr the refute of phllofophicat ■ a 
on the lubltance or qualities of the human foul, 'i'cey iniift 
that Chrift is the triy, the truths and tbt Vfty fo that no mux 
ttmitb ft ihffafhtr fft) as to fee rtUhim^ add iafft hm at hr ii ip 
a future flste] tut Kv the meJiatoral power of Oirjft. Tbai 
the .WHY of annn^ ra Gsd, in the fcnfe, and by the »near? alxwe- 
mentioiied, u thr rtfurrrfficn tf ihr if^sJ, o: ■ ■ 

ghvn uato ail isrw, bv the relurretiion ol ,i 
inoreohcr, that the fcntcnoe proncunccd vfoa ma i 
imported a loul dcprivaiioo of lifo, «»A|«!' ?-■■■ "■ 
iug to tlic lilJc of the foul ; and confa)«ei 
or a rcAoration aix) redemption firom che ('jtue^ii 
ientencc, was cS'cclcd tor, tcnaWd, fcoofi yw^ 
Rkv, SAiy, lyOs- ^ * 


An H'ffiarical Fitw tfthe Citartvtrjy 

m»ns in ind through Chrift, and will be accompli rhiM] in 
nihec way than that fpokcn of by Chrift and his apoOles, who 
have left no room to conclude tliat there is a fiparate or inttrnu- 
dtatt life for the foul^ when JU'unitcd from the body. 

• On the oth