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j^6, /3^38 (Z-) 








31575'. a 







On the 26th of January 1857, the Master of the Bolls 
submitted to the Treasury a proposal for the publication 
of materials for the History of this Country from the 
Invasion of the Romans to the reign of Henry VIII, 

The Master of the Ex>lls suggested that these materials 
should be selected for publication under competent 
editors without reference to periodical or chronological 
arrangement, without mutilation or abridgment, prefer- 
ence being given, in the first instance, to such materials 
as were most scarce and valuable. 

He proposed that each chronicle or historical docu- 
ment to be edited should be treated in the same way as 
if the editor were engaged on an Editio Princeps ; and 
for this purpose the most correct text should be formed 
from an accurate coUation of the best MSS. 

To render the work more generally useful, the Master 
of the Rolls suggested that the editor should give an 
account of the MSS. employed by him, of their age and 
their peculiarities; that he should add to the work a 
brief account of the life and times of the author, and 
any remarks necessary to explain the chronology ; but 
no other note or comment was to be allowed, except 
what might be necessary to establish the correctness of 
the text. 

a 2 

The works to be published in octavo, separately, as 
they were finished ; the whole responsibility of the task 
resting upon the editors, who were to be chosen by the 
Master of the B/oUs with the sanction of the Treasury. 

The Lords of Her Majesty's Treasury, after a careful 
consideration of the subject, expressed their opinion in a 
Treasury Minute, dated February 9, 1857, that the plan 
recommended by the Master of the Rolls "was well 
calculated for the accomplishment of this important 
national object, in an effectual and satisfactory manner, 
within a reasonable time, and provided proper attention be 
paid to economy, in making the detailed arrangements, 
without unnecessary expense." 

They expressed their approbation of the proposal that 
each Chronicle and historical document should be edited 
in such a manner as to represent with all possible correct- 
ness the text of each writer, derived from a collation of the 
best MSS., and that no notes should be added, except 
such as were illustrative of the various readings. They 
suggested, however, that the preface to each work should 
contain, in addition to the particulars proposed by the 
Master of the B;olls, a biographical account of the author, 
so far as authentic materials existed for that purpose, 
and an estimate of his historical credibUitv and value. 

Rolls House, 

December 1857. 












^O N D O N : 

LONGMAN & Co., Paternoster Row ; TRtJBNER & Co., Ludgatk Hill 







K^ I^SSg' ( 






y,^c . zi^'. /<f^^ 

Printed by „ . . . t>.„.^^ 
Pyre and Spottiswoodk. Her Maaesty*8 Printers. 
EYRE a«a »j, J Majesty's Stationery Office. 



Intkoduction - - . - vii 

List of Manuscripts collated ob beferred to Ixxxiii 

Table des Mati^bes ----- 2 

Le Domesday de Gippewtz - - - - 16 

Les Costumes d'Olebon et deu Jutoamen de la 

Mar - - - - - - - 210 

Table des Mati^bes ----- 244 

Les bons Usaoes et les bonnes Costumes et les 


Table des Matures ----- 402 

Li Establimens de la Comune de Roan - - 406 

La Mani^re comment les Maistres des Navires 
et Marchans, et autres Mariniers compaignons 
8e doivent regir et qouverner par le juge- 




It is a remarkable fact that almost all the '' Costu- 
maries ^ of the English boroughs have disappeared, and 
that even the memory of them has in many cases passed 
away. A tradition indeed lingers here and there of a 
small book " wrot in Law French " having once been 
reserved amongst the archives in the custody of the 
Town Clerk, but how or when it disappeared has not 
been noted, for before its disappearance it had ceased 
to be cared for, as the writing had ceased to be readable, 
and the language of it was no longer intelligible to 
those whom it concerned to be acquainted with its 
contents. Tet those Costumaries were documents of 
great juridical interest, for they not merely threw light 
upon the early history of the English municipal insti- 
tutions, and shewed how the boroughs, as they were 
constituted during the Anglo-Norman period, were the 
nurseries of that spirit of liberty and equal justice, 
which undermined and ultimately subverted the feudal 
system, but they exhibited the boroughs as in many 
instances playing an important part in maintaining the 
traditions of a' general law in matters of international 
commerce and maritime navigation. Thus we find it 
recorded in the Custumary of Ipswich that a court sat 
daily in that borough to administer the Law Merchant 
between strangers and between burgesses and strangers, 
and that a court sat from tide to tide to administer 
the Law Marine to passing mariners, and this practice 
had been enjoined in the " comyn boke " of the same 
town called '* Domysday '* as early as in the second 



year of the reign of King John (A.D. 1200). We find 
it also recorded in the Costumaries of other English 
boroughs, of which translations or extracts have been 
preserved to our time, that courts sat in those boroughs 
from day to day, or from sea to sea, as the case might 
be, to administer justice between men of various nations, 
whom the spirit of commerce or the necessities of navi 
gation happened to bring within their local jurisdiction. 

The Domesday of Ipswich is probably the earliest 
extant record of any court sitting regularly from tide 
to tide to administer the Law Marine in England. 
When and how this practice originated does not appear. 
It was a legacy of imperial Rome that maritime causes 
should be heard without any delay before the competent 
judges in each province, and there is good reason for 
believing that mediaeval Europe accepted this legacy, 
and never allowed it to lapse, and that tribunals for 
the special decision of maritime causes were maintained 
in some form or other in the more important maritime 
cities of Europe during that period, which from the 
absence of written records to explain and illustrate the 
working of its institutions, we are accustomed to call 
*' the Dark Ages." In the particular case of Ipswich 
we know that it was an important borough in the 
reign of Edward the Confessor, that it had town courts 
before the time of William the Norman, and that King 
Henry I. in the first year of his reign reorganised those 
courts, and that the same king convened the captains 
of the northern and of the western fleets to meet him 
at Ipswich, where ordinances,^ &c., touching the criminal 
jurisdiction to be exercised by them within the seas 
belonging to the Bangs of England were decreed by that 
king, with the concurrence of his temporal lords.* It is 
not too much to suppose that at this time a Customary 
Law' of the Sea in civil matters was administered to 

* Cod. Just. lib. xi. tit. v. De 
^aufragiis Const. 2, 8, and 5< 

3 Cf. Black Book of the Admi- 
ralty, p. 62. 


passing mariners in the moi*e important maritime 
boroughs of England, after the example of the mercantile 
cities on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and that 
the merchants and mariners of Spain and of France 
who frequented British ports brought with them many 
traditions of maritime Law, which had been preserved 
in the Coui-ts of the Sea, of the existence of which in the 
great marts of eastern trade on the shores of the 
Mediterranean at the commencement of the twelfth 
century we have certain evidence in the Assises de 
Jerusalem. In western Europe, outside the Pillars of 
Hercules, although there may not be extant any such 
trustworthy recognition of special tribunals for maritime 
causes of so early a date, yet we have traces at a still 
earlier period of a maritime Law which was not identical 
with the Law of imperial Rome, but had undergone 
modification in accordance with the increased necessities 
of mariners by reason of the more distant and more 
dangerous voyages, which they had become accustomed 
to undertake. The law of Maritime Jetison, for instance, 
as set forth in the thirty-eighth chapter of the compilation 
of Laws published in the fourth year of William the 
Conqueror (A.D. 1070) as the Laws of King Edward the 
Confessor, is the affirmation of a rule by which questions 
of maritime jetison were then governed, which is not 
identical with the ancient Law of Rome (Digest, 1. xiv. 
t. 11), but accords with a more modem usage, such &s 
we find subsequently reduced into writing in the Rolls 

The early English law-writers throw very little Ught 
upon the stages of growth and development which the 
English boroughs underwent during the Anglo-Saxon 
period. The author of the Myrrour des Justices^ the 
best authority for that period of our law, is silent as to 
bomughs, and speaks only of assemblies of the hundred 
and of the county, in which the freemen (liberi homines) 
were convened by the bailliflfs and by the sheriffs of 


the Crown respectively, and in which they judged their 
neighbours according to such rules of equity as they 
were prepared to submit to in their own persons in 
similar cases. We find, however, in the laws of the 
early Anglo-Saxon kings traces of the English Borough- 
system as distinct from the system of the Hundred and 
of the Shire, and the Buhr-gemote or Court Leet of the 
borough is recognised in the laws of King Edgar by the 
side of the Gemote of the Hundred and the Shire-gemot. 
Whether the Buhr-gemote acquired its distinct organi- 
sation in the reign of that king must be matter of 
conjecture, but it would appear beyond doubt, that there 
were from this period boroughs in England in which 
the civil and criminal jurisdictions were complete, and 
where the administration of justice was entrusted to an 
officer of the Crown within each borough distinct from 
the sheriff of the county. There may, indeed, have been 
other boroughs in which the jurisdiction of the sheriflF 
was continued after this period, and where the borough 
remained part of the shire, and this anomaly may have 
caused some confusion^ and may have contributed to the 
perplexity in which the early history of the EngEsh 
boroughs during the Anglo-Saxon period is involved.^ 

With regard to Ipswich there is no direct record, as 
far as the editor is aware, of an officer of the Crown 
under any particular name having been established in 
the government of the borough during the Anglo-Saxon 
period ; but there is a record of a town court, as already 
observed, having been held there before the time of 
William the Norman, and over this court some officer of 
the Crown must have presided. The title of the officer 

^ involved] The Crown granted 
occasionally a borough to an earl, 
and the earl appointed a reeve to col- 
lect the customs. In other boroughs, 
where no portreeve or boroughreeve 

had been appointed by the Crown, the 
burgesses paid their fee-farm to the 
sheriff, frequent instaiicec of which 
practice are said to be recorded in 
the Pipe Bolls of King Stephen. 



is of secondary importance, as the King's-Reeve is some- 
times designated by the old English title of Ealderman, 
bat is more often described by the Latin title of Frsepc- 
situs. That an officer of the Crown under the latter 
name existed at Ipswich before the institution of elective 
bailliffs by King John is a legitimate inference from the 
language of the charter granted by that king in the 
second year of his reign, in which the King's borough is 
confirmed to the burgesses of Tpswich on condition of 
their paying by the year the fee-fiskrm as accustomed 
into the Exchequer of the King by the hands of the 
Provost of Ipswich. We know also that when King 
Edward I. seized the liberties of the town of Ipswich 
into his hands, in the thirteenth year of his reign, and 
suspended its charter, the borough fell back under the 
government of a Provost appointed by the Crown. 

Certain boroughs seem to have been places of strength 
and of commei*cial importance as early as in the reign of 
King Edgar,^ and we find the Saxon Chronicle speaJdng 
of boroughs of which the inhabitants were sufficiently 
numerous to sally forth and destroy the fleets of the 
Danish invaders. The survey of the Conqueror, known 
as the Great Domesday Book^ states that in (he time 
of Edward the Confessor there were five hundred and 
thirty-eight burgesses in the town of Ipswich paying 
custom to the King, and that they held forty acres of 
land. Ipswich must therefore have been a borough of 
no mean importance in the reign of the Confessor ; ^ 

1 The Btthr in the time of King 
£dgar seexnB to have been generally 
a larger body than the Hundred, as 
it is provided in his Laws, " Let 
witness be appointed to every 
bahr and (o every hundred. To 
every bnhr let there be chosen 
zxxiii. at witness. To small 
«' bohis and hundreds ziL, unless 
" ye desire more." 




' Ipswich appears to have had a 
royal mint as early as the reign of 
Edgar, the snccessor of Edwy (t^Sd- 
975), and there are extant speci- 
mens of coins minted at Ipswich in 
the reigns of Canute and Edward 
the Confessor. It ceased to have 
a royal mint in the reign of 
Henry III. 


and from the number of burgesses who contributed to 
the King's taxes and customs, it is a reasonable inference 
that the borough was at that time under the immediate 
government of a portreeve appointed by the King, such 
an officer, in fact, as was at the head of the government 
of the city of London when William the Norman 
gi-anted his first chai^ter to that city,^ and whose duty 
it was to collect the King's customs and to preside over 
the portmotes of the burgesses. That such an officer 
existed at Ipswich during the Anglo-Saxon period is 
also probable from the fact, that there is no record of 
any charter having been granted to Ipswich by William 
the Norman or by his successor, whilst the changes intro- 
duced by Henry I. in the organisation of the town 
courts of Ipswich imply a pre-existing order of borough- 
government in that town distinct from that of the earl 
or of the sheriflf. 

The reign of Henry I. had been the commencement 
of an epoch of gentle transition in the way of enlarging 
the libei*ties of the English boroughs. A c^iarter wa^ 
for the first time granted by that king to the citizens 
of London, in which the principle of electing their go- 
verning officers was pai*tially recognised. The charter 
in question granted the county of Middlesex to the 
citizens of London, with liberty to place whom they 
would of themselves to be sheriff, and also to place 
one of themselves to be justiciary for keeping the 
pleas of the Crown. The reign of King Stephen sup- 
plies no fact bearing on the liberties of the boroughs 
which deserves notice, but with the reign of Henry II. 
changes in the constitution of the governing body of 
the boroughs became more frequent in consequence of 

» diy'] A Saxon version of this thus : " William Kyng ygret Wil- 
charter, said to be the original, is ** liam Bissop and Goffirey Forte • 

preserved in the Guildhall of the city 
of London. It is printed in the Liber 
Custumarum, p. 504. It commences 

*' greve and alle burgware in Luu- 

<' done, Ftancisse and Englisse, \^ 

*• frendliche." 



the portreeves, who had been hitherto nominated by 
the crown, having come to exercise in many cases 
great oppression in oollecting the king's custom& The 
result was that several favoured boroughs obtained from 
the king charters to authorise them to elect from time 
to time one of themselves to fill the office of portreeve. 
The substitution of two elective baillifTs to govern the 
boroughs in the place of a portreeve commences with 
the reign of Richard I., but it is not until we arrive at 
the reign of King John, from which period the Great 
Boll of the charters commences, that the practice ap- 
pears to have become generally established for the inha- 
bitants of the boroughs in common council assembled to 
elect two of the more loyal and discreet men of their 
own body to be their bailliffs, or one of such body, as 
the case might be, to be their mayor. The borough of 
Ipswich was one of the first to partake of these en- 
larged privileges, and as the charters granted by King 
John to the English boroughs have been enrolled, there 
is no difficulty in ascertaining accurately from the first 
year of that king s reign the nature of the liberties and 
privileges enjoyed by the English boroughs under his 
grants, of which there were issued not fewer than 
seventy-seven during the seventeen years of his eventful 

It would be an error, in the Editor's opinion, to sup- 
pose that the rule of the Anglo-Norman princes was 
injurious to the liberties of the English boroughs. Con- 
currently with the borough system in England there had 
been growing up in the northern and western parts of 
France a communal system, the constitution of which 

'The tend "mayor*' ocoars in 
tb« recital of a obarter granted by 
King John to the citizens of London 
in the first year of his reign, and 
the term had also been nsed in a 
writ of the reign of Henry 11. ; bnt 
the change in the title of the govern- 


ing officer of the city of London was 
not legally effected until a charter 
of King John, issued in the sixteenth 
year of his reign, authorised the 
barons of the city of London to 
choose for themielyes every year a 



was in many canes more free than that of the Anglo- 
Saxon boroughs. Picardy was probably the province 
in which "the sworn commune" (communia jurata) ac- 
quired the greatest degree of independence ; but we find 
in Normandy the type of a commune, established under 
the rule of the Anglo-Norman princes, which served as 
a model for the communes subsequently established in 
the western provinces of France, which had become 
subject to the kings of England upon the marriage of 
Henry II. with Eleanor, the daughter and heiress of 
William, Duke of Aquitaine, and from which many ele- 
ments were borrowed to be engrafted on the English 
borough system by King Henry II. and his successors. 
The formation of the Anglo-Saxon boroughs had been 
throughout an instinctive movement of civilisation ; on 
the other hand, the institution of " the sworn commune" 
in France had originated in a movement of indepen- 
dence; but the wise poli<^y of the kings of France in the 
thirteenth century converted " the sworn commune" also 
into an instrument of civilisation within their domi- 
nions, whilst the Anglo-Norman kings with similar 
wisdom borrowed from it the elective element of the 
borough magistracy, and at the same time transformed 
the Guild, which had been originally a personal union, 
into a local association, of which the members had 
obligations and privileges peculiar to themselves, but in 
haimony with those of the burgesses at large. 

It is a theory of several very learned men that the 
Anglo-Saxon borough was originally nothing more than 
the Hundred surrounded with a wall and a moat. The 
Norman commune, of which the city of Rouen furnishes 
the type, gives some support to a similar hypothesis, as 
it consisted originally of a hundred commoners, who 
were peers (pares), and who elected annually from 
amongst themselves a mayor and a select body of eche- 
vins and counsellors, and this rule was observed in most 
of the communes established in the provinces of France, 


which were subject to the kings of England as dukes 
of Aquitaine. The Constitution for instance of the Com- 
mune of Royan/ which has been presei*ved in the same 
MS. with the Custumary of the Commune of Oleron, 
and is printed in the present volume, serves to illustrate 
the common features of those boroughs. M. Augustin 
Thierry, whose authority stands very high on all sub- 
jects connected with the communal revolution of the 
twelfth century in France, is of opinion that the term 
peers (pares) is a relic of a municipal organisation of a 
period antecedent to "the commune." It is a curious 
coincidence that the title of peer was also a distinctive 
appellation of those burgesses of the town of Ipswich 
who were entitled to vote in the Portmannesmotes and 
in the Common Council of the borough, but the quali- 
fication of the peerage is not explained. It would ap« 
pear, however, that those burgesses only were entitled 
" peers and commonei-s " who were resident within the 
borough and were "at scot and lot," in other words, 
were equally contributing to the common expenses, and 
equally serving the common offices of the borough. 

The origin of those expressions " scot and lot " may be 
traced to an institution of an earlier date than the 
English borough. They are terms which were appro- 
priate to the Scandinavian Guild, with which the Anglo- 
Saxon settlers on the eastern coasts of Britain were 
perfectl}'^ familiar. Scote, or scotale, which occui*s in 
many ancient charters, was used at a very early time to 
signify a contribution for drink, and in this sense we 
find the words scotale or scotalla,^ employed in the Latin 

* Tbe town of Royan or Roan is , their lord or his representative, and 
situated on the right bank of the , scotallum is mentioned in a docu- 

Gironde, near its embonchure, and 
is not lar distant from the island of 

* Scotalla regalia were contribu- 
tions of beer fVom the tenants or 
convassals of the king to receive 


ment connected with the manor of 
South Mailing, which belonged to 
the Arch'bishop of Canterbury, as a 
contribution from the tenants for 
beer to be drunk with the bedell of 
the Archbishop during his visitation. 

b 2 



statutes of various ecclesiastical Councils in the thirteenth 
c^tury, which had in view to restrain the immoderate 
drinking which was at that time habitual at all public 
meetings of the free men. The Scandinavian Guild, 
an institution originally of the worshippers of Odin, 
was not merely an association for common hero-worship, 
and for mutual succour and defence, but also for 
convivial enjoyment, and its meetings were always 
celebrated with banquets to which each member brought 
a contribution in kind, and which were frequently the 
occasions of drinking orgies, such as have been com- 
memorated in the pages -of Tacitus as a peculiar indul- 
gence of the Germanic tribes. The word " guild " is said 
by competent scholars to mean a banquet at the common 
expense of the banquetters. It is stated in the Saga of 
King Olaf,^ that it was the practice in olden time for the 
Scandinavian worshippers, when they assembled in 
order to offer up a common sacrifice to their hero, to 
bring with them each his own contribution of food and 
drink, which was to be consumed in common during the 
solemnity. That contribution was in fact the " scot " of 
each member. But as another very important principle 
of the ancient Guild, which had spread gradually over the 
whole of Northern Germany and France, was that the 
members should mutually succour and defend one another, 
each member had to bear " lot " when called upon so to 
do, in other words, each member was bound to aid every 
brother member, and in certain cases to perform definite 
duties, if he was designated by the Ancient or Ealderman 
of the Guild to undertake them. There is no doubt that 
the Guild, as a brotherhood, was introduced into Britain 
at a very early period by the Anglo-Saxon invaders, and 

^ King Olaf] Erat veteruin mok'e 
receptnm, at cum sacrificia erant 
celebranda, ad templom frequenter 
couYeuirent cives omnes, ferentes 
secttm singuli rictttm .et commea- 

tum, quo per sacrificiorum solem- 
Dia uterentur, singuli etiam cereri- 
siam, quo isti in conyirio uterentur. 
Hist Regis Qlafi Sancti, c. xiii. 



it was equally ffuniliar to the Danes, who followed in 
their footsteps, and traces are to be found of guilds 
established in Britain during the Anglo-Saxon period in 
cities ^ of Roman origin, which were undoubtedly distinct 
bodies from the citizens at large. Some writers have 
gone so far as to contend that a guild was the original 
nucleus ^ of every borough, but there are many historical 
facts which cannot be reconciled with that theory. On 
the other hand, there is no doubt that the burgesses of 
many boroughs were at scot and lot together, and so far 
were associated on a principle analogous to the funda- 
mental principle of the Scandinavian Guild. 

The better opinion would appear to be that guilds 
during the Anglo-Saxon period existed in many boroughs 
as personal associations, and that a guild might have its 
ramifications beyond the limits of a single borough, and 
that the Anglo-Norman kings, when they introduced the 
elective magistracy of the Anglo-Norman communes into 
the English boroughs, converted the guilds into local 
associations by authorising the formation of one or 
more guilds within each borough. Such appears to have 
been the practice of King John^ and Ipswich was an 
early instance of this practice, as in the charter by which 
King John, in the second year of his reign, confirmed 
to the burgesses of Ipswich the borough with all its free 
customs, he granted to them that they might have a 
Merchant's Guild and their own Hanse under the go- 
vernment of an Ealderman. The object of this was to 
enable those merchants who were of the liberty of the 

* citiei} The city of Exeter i up- 
plies an instance of such a gaild, 
the statates of which are given in 
Hickesii Thesaoms linguamm 
Septentrionaliam, vol. i. Dissertatio 
Epiitolaria ad Barth. Showere, 
p. 22. 

^ nucleus'] A paseage in Glanville 
rather fiAvoun the opinion of those 

who consider the guild to have been 
the nucleus of the borough. Item si 
quis nativns qniete per unum aR* 
num et nnom diem in aliqnA villi 
priviiegiati manserit, ita quod in 
conmiuniam, scilicet gyldam, tan-* 
quam civis receptus fnerit, eo ipso 
villenagio liberabitur. Glanville^ 
ch. v. B. vi. 


town to form themselves into a local guild, with a legal 
govemmeDt, and it is not too much to say that the result 
of this change in the character of the guilds was to 
convert associations, which might have become hostile to 
the peace of the boroughs, into faithful friends and 

Ipswich is probably of Saxon origin, as no traces of 
Roman remains have been found within the circuit of 
the town,^ although the district was known to the 
Romans, and Roman remains have been traced at several 
spots in the neighbourhood, on both banks of the River 
Orwell. The earliest historical notice of Ipswich occurs 
in the Saxon Chi*onicle under A.D. 919, when Gippeswic 
is stated to have been plundered by the Danes ; there 
are also pennies extant which were minted at Ipswich, 
and which bear the effigy of King Edgar on the obverse 
side, and on the reverse the letters " Gip," the abbrevia- 
tion of Gippeswic. There are likewise to be found in the 
records of the town traces of its Saxon iustitutions, in 
other words, that it had under the Anglo-Saxon kings 
its own liberties and free customs, which the Anglo- 
Norman sovereigns merely re-organised and confirmed. 
It has been already observed that the Domesday of the 
Conqueror states that there were in King Edward's 
time five hundred and thirty-eight burgesses in Ipswich 
paying custom to the King, but that in the Conqueror^s 
time there were only one hundred and ten burgesses 
who paid custom, and one hundred poor burgesses who 
were not able to pay to the tax of the King, except one 
penny in capite. It would be reasonable to suppose 
that the latter class of burgesses who were unable to 
contribute their scot towards the king's custom would 
not be regarded as the equals of those who paid the 
custom, and that the term "peers," which may have 

> Memoriiilg of the Ancient Toivn of Ipswich, by John Wodder spoon. 
Ipswich and London, 1850, p. 37. 



been originally the common designation of all the mem- 
bers of a free borough constituted on the principle of 
every member contributing equally to its support, came 
by degrees to be a term of distinction between those 
who were able and those who were unable to keep up 
that contribution. Thus we find after the custom of the 
king had been commuted for an annual fee faim, that it 
was ordained by a resolution of the bailliffs and the 
coroners and all the capital portmen of Ipswich, that 
no burgess of the said town should be quit of custom 
within the same town for his merchandises, if he be a 
merchant, unless he be at lot and scot in. the common 
aids and businesses of the town, and the Domesday, 
which was drawn up shortly after this ordinance, de- 
scribes the peers and commoners as those burgesses who 
were at lot and scot within the borough. 

Under the charter of King John, granted in the second 
year of his reign,^ the governing body of the borough of 
Ipswich consisted, as far as the Crown was concerned, 
of two elective baillifi's, whose o£Sce it was to collect the 
custom of the borough and to pay the fee-farm into the 
king's exchequer, and of four elective coroners, whose 
duty it was to keep the pleas of the Crown, and to see 
that the governors of the borough behaved justly and 
lawfully towards the poor as well as the rich. But it 
appears from a Roll, called the BailliflTs Roll, compiled 
soon after the charter was granted, that after the Com- 
mon Council of tlie town of Ipswich in pursuance of the 

* The r^^Qal yean of King John, 
as observed in a note to vol. i. 
p. zliz., were computed from Ascen- 
sion day A.D. 1199. The charter 
was granted to Ipswich on the 25th 
of *May, which was in the second 
year of his reign, as the first year of 
his reign ended on the 17th May, 
being the eve of Ascension day 
A.D. 1200. The charter was dated 
from Boche Orival in Normandy, 

and is printed in Sir T. D. Hardj's 
Collection of Charter Rolls, 1833. 
Wodderspoon in his Memorials of 
Ipswich gives an English translation 
of the charter, with an erroneous 
datel « Given at Gold Cliff, 25th 
May, in the first year of our 
reign," there being no such day 
of the month in the first year of 
King John's reign. 





king's charter had elected their bailliffs and their coro- 
ners, they proceeded to ordain that there should here- 
after be in the said borough twelve capital portmen, 
sworn in the manner as they were in other free boroughs 
of England, who should have full power for themselves 
and the whole town to govern and maintain the borough 
and all its liberties, and to render the judgments of the 
town, and to ordain and do all things in the same 
borough which ought to be done for the state and honour 
of the town. The burgesses thereupon proceeded to 
elect twelve *' capital portmen," and granted to them for 
the labour which they should bestow on the com- 
monalty the Olderholm meadow for the support of their 
horses,^ but no clew is furnished by this Roll as to the 
precise character of the magistracy, which, prior to the 
institution of the twelve capital portmen, rendered the 
judgments of the town. As soon, however, as the twelve 
capital portmen were elected, they caused the whole of 
the townsfolk to stretch their hands towards the Book, 
and with one voice solemnly to swear "that from 
henceforth they would be obedient, intending, con- 
sulting, and aiding to their bailiffs, coroners, and all 
and every aforesaid capital portmen, with their persons 
and chattels, to preserve and maintain the aforesaid 
town of Ipswich, and the new charter thereof, and the 
** honour and all the liberties and free customs of the 
same town in all places against whomsoever, saving 
nevertheless to the Lord the King, and his royal 
prerogative, all things according to their power in 
manner as justly and reasonably they ought to do." 
This is one of the instances of the remarkable system of 
adjustment between antagonistic principles, which is the 
characteristic of English, political institutions. We have 










^ horses^ ** This land was in later 
time known by the name of ** Port- 
** men*8 Walks,*' and was enjoyed by 
the portmen, until the portmen and 

their privileges were aboUahed by 
5 & 6 William IV. c. 76, by which 
statute most of the ancient charters 
of the boroughs were repealed. 


here the substance of the " sworn commune '' of France, 
with its own elective magistrates administering justice 
en all questiona of civil right between the burgesses 
themselves and between the burgesses and strangers 
within the borough, according to the free customs of the 
borough ; on the other hand, in criminal matters, the 
king's law was affirmed, and special officers were elected 
by the burgesses themselves from amongsst their own 
body to administer that law. 

The recognition in King John's Charter of the free 
customs of the borough of Ipswich, as the law accord- 
ing to which right was to be done to the burgesses in 
respect of their tenures and lands and other property 
within the borough, is an interesting fact in the history 
of English law, as shewing that Custom was regarded 
in England in the twelfth century as the principal and 
primary source of Right, and that the autonomy of the 
inhabitants of the free boroughs was respected by the 
Anglo-Norman kinga The loss of the Domesdays of 
the English boroughs, if indeed they are actually lost 
beyond recovery, is on this account much to be regretted, 
inasmuch m they were not merely historical records of 
the civil life of the burgher class at a particular period, 
but the fragments of them, which have been occasionally 
made public in local histories, warrant the belief that 
they would clearly shew that the boroughs were the 
nurseries of the civil liberties of Englishmen, and that 
the spirit and principle of the Common Law of England 
pervaded their early customs. 

France has not been more fortunate than England 
as regards the records of her ancient local customs, for 
the French Coutumiers, which were drawn up in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries by order of King 
Charles VII. and his successors, are works of a very 
different kind from the Domesdays of the English 
boroughs, and they belong to the post-feudal period. 
There were indeed in France Coutumiers of a much 
more ancient date than those which have been colleoted 



in "Le Nouveau Coutumier G^n^ral," but the majority 
of those, which have been preserved, are for the most 
part scientific compilations, drawn up by magistrates 
or jurists practically skilled in the customs of certain 
districts, and their works had no proper authority, 
except what they derived from the fact that the rules 
which they laid down in given cases were in conformity 
with that, which the inhabitants of each district knew 
by experience to be the custom. To this dass belong 
such works as Le Conseil de Pierre de Fontaines, and 
Les Coutumes de Beauvoisis by Philippe de Beaumanoir, 
to which may be added Le Grand Coutumier de Nor- 
mandie, the author of which work is unknown. But 
there was also another dass of Coutumiers in France, 
which Jean Bouteiller, the author of La Somme Rurale,^ 
a work of the fifteenth century, has designated as '' Le 
livre coustumier du Qreffe du lieu." These were col- 
lections of customs which had been approved by the 
judgments of a court, and had been recorded by the 
scribe or registrar of the court in the form of memo- 
randa. These registers, however, were not books of 
authority like the Domesdays of the English boroughs, 
and our knowledge of their existence is due to the 
compilers of Le Nouveau Coutumier Q^n^ral, who have 
noticed them firom time to time in their proc^verbaux. 
The Editor, who cannot pretend to more than a cursory 
acquaintance with the general and local Coutumes of 
France, and who is indebted to the works of modern 
French jurists for information as to the contents of 
several Coutumiers to which he has not had access, 
ventures to remark that none of the ancient Fi-ench 
Coutumiers, as far as he is aware, is of precisely the 
same character as the Coutumier of the Commune of 
Oleron, and that the latter work has so great an afiinity 
to the Domesdays of the English boroughs, that ite 

1 Lq Somme Rurale, ou Lc Grand 
CouUmier G^n^ral de Pratique, 

edite par Charondaa. Paris, 1621 
Lib. 1. tit. ii. " Qu'est Cour Laye." 


authors maybe presumed to have, been familiar with 
their existence, and with the circumstances under which 
the English Domesdays were compiled. This will appear 
to be by no means an improbable supposition on a 
comparison of the works themselves, and it has been 
observed by M. Camus * and other French jurists, that 
many of the ancient usages of Normandy wei^e intro- 
duced into that country from England during the period 
when both countries were under the dominion of the 
same princes, and Le Grand Coutumier de Normandie 
has been cited by some writers as ftimishing proof of 
the same fact. The Editor, however, makes the above 
observation subject to coiTection by French jurists, for 
there may still be forthcoming from French aix)hives 
other local Coutumiers, which have been overlooked or 
neglected, of a character similar to the Coutumier of 
the Commune of Oleron. 

Amongst the published Coutumiers of France, there 
is one which deserves notice, as being of an exceptional 
character, and as being in point of time nearly contempo- 
raneous with the Coutumier of the Commune of Oleron. 
This work is entitled '' Li Droict et Li Coustumes de 
" Champagne et Bri^, que le Roys Thiebaulx establi." ^ 
The scheme of this compilation is totally different from 
that of the works of the same period to which reference 
has been already made, as having been compiled by 
magistrates or jurists practically skilled in the customs 
of certain localities. It is in fact a compilation of judg- 
ments, customs, and usages. It commences with a 
judgment rendered by Thibaulx,^ Count Palatine of 

1 Camus. Lettres Bar la Profes- i and in 1234 became King of Navarre. 

Bion d'Avocat, edited by M. Dupin. 
Paris, 1818. Tom. i. p. 78. 

* Le Kouvean Coutumier Q^n^ral, 
torn. iii. p. 209. 

' Thibaulx, Count of Champagne 
and Bri^, married in 1229 Blanche^ 
daughter of Sanchez YI. of Navarre, 

His great grand-daughter Jeanne 
intermarried with Philip le Bel of 
France, and by her marriage united 
the kingdom of Navarre and the 
counties of Champagne and Bri^ to 
the kingdom of France. 



Champagne and Bri^, with the consent and advice of his 
barons and chatelains, assembled in council on Christ- 
mas-day A.D. 1224. The judgment itself was rendered 
on a question which had arisen between the male 
children of certain of the count's feudatories as to their 
respective rights of inheritance to their fathers' lands. 
This judgment is contained in the first article of the 
Coutumier, and it is followed by sixty-five articles, thirty- 
four of which recite customs, and commence with the 
words, '^11 est coutume en Champagne," and in each 
article evidence of the custom is supplied by reference 
to a judgment in affirmance of it. Twenty-three other 
articles recite usages, and commence with the words, 
" Encore use len in Champagne," whilst the remaining 
articles contain judgments. The Coutumier of Cham- 
pagne and Bri^ is in this respect a valuable document, 
as it illustrates the method by which certain portions 
of the fabric of modern law were built up amongst the 
landholders in France in the early stages of the feudal 
system,* whilst the Coutumier of the Commune of Oleron 
is no less valuable as shewing how the inhabitants of 
the towns in France at a later stage of the same system 
contributed their share to the same fabric of law by 
placing formally on record the customs to which their 
new social relations had given rise, and which were 
essential to be observed, in order that those relations 
should be maintained. The burgheins, equally as the 
barons, asserted in their turn, their right to receive no 
laws except from themselves and their peers, and it is 
a curious circumstance that the legal records of a period, 
which as regards the autonomy of the towns ought to 
be most precious to the friends of liberty and social 
order in France, should have been allowed to perish, 

^ feudal tttfglem] The custom of 
every fief was as sacred in the early 
stages of the feudal system as the 
custom of every conmiune at a later 
period, and the lord was bound to 

govern his vassals according to their 
customs, upon which no innovation 
could be legally made without their 


or are permitted to remain umioticed in the obscurity 
of local archived. It does not appear from \f^hat quarter 
Mr. Douce obtained the MS. in which the Coustoma of 
the Commune of Oleron are recorded, or how it came 
to be preserved ; but the fact of its existence justifies a 
search after similar documents, and it would appear 
from M. Henri Klimath's '' M^moire sur les Monuments 
" in^dits de I'Histoire du Droit Fran^ais au moyen 
" age," that there are many libraries and archives both 
in Paris and in the Departments, which are rich in legal 
MSS., and have not yet been explored with becoming 

The Editor has been unable, after a careful examina- 
tion of such documents as are at present publici juris, 
to satisfy himself as to the precise period at which a 
commune was established at Oleron, but it appears to 
him probable that it was established in the reign of 
Henry II. of England. The earliest charter recorded 
in any collection of public documents, in which the 
existence of a commune is recognised at Oleron, was 
granted by Queen Eleanor, the widow of Henry II., 
immediately on the accession of her son John to the 
throne of England upon the death of his elder brother, 
Richard I. The charter of the Queen Mother was 
almost immediately followed by another charter granted 
by King John himself to the burghers of Oleron. Both 
these charters are published in Rymer s Collection (A.D. 
1199), and the charter of King John is the earliest 
charter having reference to Oleron that is to be found 
on the Charter Rolls. King John announces by this 
Charter that he has granted, and by his present Charter 
confirms, to his dear and faithful burgesses of Oleron, 
that they may have a commune in Oleron with all the 
liberties and free customs appertaining to a commune. 
The Charter concludes by confirming all the liberties and 
free customs throughout the king's dominions which 
the burgesses of Oleron enjoy or may have been accus- 


tomed to enjoy, and as the Charter of Queen Eleanor, 
our mother, testifies. This Charter is so worded that if 
it stood alone, it might be taken to imply that King 
John, as Duke of Aquitaine, was granting to the burghers 
of Oleron permission for the first time for them to have 
a commune; but such a construction would be incon- 
sistent with the language of the previous charter of the 
Queen Mother, in which she announced that she had 
confirmed to her dear and faithful jurats at large 
(universis juratis) of the Commune of Oleron, and to 
their heirs^ the perpetual solidity and inviolable security 
of their commune at Oleron (communiae suae apud Ole- 
ronem), that they may the better defend her and their 
just rights. The object which Queen Eleanor had in 
view in granting this charter was to secure the alle- 
giance of the men of Oleron to King John in the war, 
in which he found himself engaged immediately on his 
accession to the throne, against Philip Augustus of 
France, who had espoused the cause of Arthur of Bri- 
tanny against his uncle. Prince Arthur had a prim& facie 
case of preferential right to the throne of England and 
to tiie duchies of Normandy and of Aquitaine against 
his uncle John, as being the son of his elder brother 
Godfrey ; and on the death of his uncle, Richard I., he 
at once betook himself to the court of Philip Augustus, 
the paramount lord of the duchies, and obtained his 
assistance to make good his claim. The Queen Mother, 
on the other hand, who was one of the most extraor- 
dinary women of her epoch, and who had at that time 
nearly reached her eightieth year, and who detested the 
mother of Prince Arthur, supported with her utmost 
energy the cause of her younger son John against his 
nephew ; and she at once passed over into Aquitaine, 
and by her personal authority, as heiress of Duke 
William, and by her consummate address secured without 
difficulty the allegiance of the chief vassals and of the 
principal towns of Poitou and Saintonge, and in recog- 



nition of their loyalty granted to them charters confirming 
to the burgesses of those towns the enjoyment of their 
communes. The direct evidence as regards the existence 
of a commune at Oleron, which is accessible to the 
Editor, goes no further back than the charter of Queen 
Eleanor (A.D. 1199) ; but it is to be inferred from the 
language of her charter that a commune was in existence 
at Oleron before she issued her charter. It is also to 
be inferred from another charter granted by the same 
Queen to the men of Oleron, which is in Kymer's Col- 
lection,^ that King Henry II. had during his lifetime 
granted or confirmed to the men of Oleron certain liber- 
ties and customs, but what those liberties and customs 
were does not appear on the face of the Queen's charter. 
Some light, however, may be thrown upon this question 
by the contents of a series of charters gi*anted by Eling 
Henry II. and his successors to the neighbouring town 
of Rochelle (Rupellae). It is fortunate for the history 
of the boroughs of England that it was the practice for 
the kings of England to issue charters of " Inspeximus'' 
from time to time^ in which the earlier charters granted 
by their predecessors were fully recited, whereby, al- 
though the earlier charters have in substance perished, 
a legal record of their contents has in many cases been 
preserved. The same good fortune has attended several 
of the communes of France, aud amongst others the town 
of Rochelle, an immediate neighbour of Oleron, to which 
a charter of '* Inspeximus " was issued by Louis VIIJ. of 
France, in A.D. 1224. This charter* recites, in the first 
place, a charter of Richard I. of England, granting to 
the men of Rochelle liberty to dispose of their property 
by will, and to give away freely their sons and daughters 
in marriage ; and in the second place, a charter of King 

* Rymer*8 Foedera, torn. i. a°. 

3 Oidonnances des Rois de France, 
torn. xi. p. 318. 

• •• 


John of England, granting to the burgesses of Rochelle 
that they may have a commune. This charter bears 
date the eighth day of July, in the first year of the reign 
of King John, which is six days prior to the date 
of the earliest charter recorded in the Charter Bolls, 
as published by the Record Commissioners. Two 
other charters of King John are next recited, which 
were granted to the prud'hommes of Rochelle in the 
sixth year of his reign ; and in the fifth place comes a 
charter, also issued by King John in the seventh year 
of his reign, in which he confirms to the faithful men of 
Rochelle all the liberties and free customs granted to 
them by his father King Henry, his brother King 
Richard, and his mother Queen Eleanor. After these 
recitals, the charter of Louis YIII. proceeds to confirm 
to the burgesses of Rochelle all the grants, liberties, and 
customs which they have heretofore enjoyed in the times 
of King Henry, of King Richard, of King John, and 
of Queen Eleanor. Upon the face of the charter of 
Louis YIII. it might readily be supposed that King John 
was the first of the dukes of Aquitaine who had granted 
a commune to the burgesses of Rochelle, and that the 
charter granted to them by King Richard I. was a pre- 
liminary charter of a similar kind to that which was 
granted to the men of Oleron by Otho of Saxony, and 
which is recorded by Leibnitz. But in the " Discours au 
Roi sur la Yille de Rochelle*'' the charters of King 
'Realty II. and Queen Eleanor are set out at length, and 
it appears from the charter of King Henry II., which 
was granted by him after his marriage with Eleanor, 
the heiress of William, Duke of Aquitaine, that in the 
first place he confirmed to the burgesses of Rochelle all 
the liberties and free customs which Duke William, as 
Count of Poitou, had granted to them ; and in the second 

1 Cited in a note to the charter, as published at Paris in A.D. 1669. 


place he granted in express termer to them that they 
might have a commune (ut habent oommuniam ad defen- 
sionem et secuiitatem villce suse et rerum suarum, salva 
fide mea et Domini Pictavii hieredis mei, quamdiu eam 
rationabiliter tractaverint). On the other hand, the 
charter of Queen Eleanor granted to the faithful men of 
Rochelle and their heirs a sworn commune (communiam 
juratam ut tarn nostra quam sua propria jura melius 
defendere possint). This charter is drawn up in the same 
terms with that which Queen Eleanor granted to the 
jurats of Oleron, and which is published by Bymer. 
Neither of these charters, however, are conclusive as to 
the earliest time when the men of Bochelle were placed 
in the enjoyment of communal rights, but they carry 
those rights back to the reign of Henry II., and there are 
reasonable grounds for believing, that although the 
sworn commune was introduced into many towns in the 
northern parts of France in the latter part of the eleventh 
century, the constitution of the Anglo-Norman commime 
did not supersede the ancient municipal institutions in 
the maritime towns of Guienne and of Gascony until 
after the duchy of Aquitaine had been united with the 
duchy of Normandy in the person of King Heory II. 
of England. The analogy of the charters of Oleron with 
those of Rochelle is so close, that coupled with the 
maritime importance of Oleron, it well warrants the 
supposition that the men of Oleron did not lag behind 
the men of Bochelle in their struggle to obtain communal 

Nothing is said in the charters of Queen Eleanor and 
of King John respecting the constitution of the Com- 
mune of Oleron, nor was it usual in royal charters, 
which purported to grant or to confirm communal 
rights, to specify the precise nature of those rights, 
fiirther than to state in'' some cases that the new com- 
mune was to be constituted after the model of some other 
existing commune. Thus we meet with a charter 

VOL. II. c 




granted at a somewhat later period to the men of the 
island of R^, that they should have a commune after 
the model of the Roll of Oleron (secundum formam 
rotuli Oleronis).^ It may, however, be gathered from the 
Coutumier of the Commune of Oleron, that the magis- 
tracy of the commune consisted of a mayor, a pro-mayor, 
echevins, and prud'hommes, as all those officers are men* 
tioned specially in it. Jurats (jur£z) are also mentioned 
io Chapter XL., but the title of jurats is of ambiguous 
import. It was a title in use in many of the ancient 
municipalities of the south of France before " the sworn 
commune " came into existence, and it was a title re- 
tained in the constitution of many communes, more 
particularly in the communes organised after the Anglo- 
Norman model ; but in these latter communes the title 
was used sometimes to denote the twenty-four eche- 
vins and counsellors, who with the mayor formed the 
executive magistracy within the commune, whilst at 
other times it was applied to the whole body of the 
hundred peers (pares), who were the real constituency of 
the Anglo-Norman commune, and formed its Common 

The Anglo-Norman commune, of which the Commune 
of Rouen was the t3rpe, was adopted as a model by the 
majority of the towns in Poitou and Saintonge, owing 
partly to the fact of those towns being under the imme- 
diate sovereignty of the Anglo-Norman princes, and 
partly to the intercourse which was kept up by sea 
between the maritime towns of Aquitaine and of Nor- 
mandy; and although in some of the towns in the 
western parts of Gascony, the change which was effected 
in their government during the thirteenth century con- 
sisted simply in the introduction of the office of mayor 

1 M. Pordensiis, torn. iv. p. 229, 
quotes this charter, as granted hy 
King Henry ITT. of England in 
A.D. 1242, iVoin an unpuhlinhed 

MS. in the Biblioth^oe Royale 
(now Nationale) in Paris amongst 
the collections of Brequigny. 


and in the association of the mayor with the consuls, or 
with the jurats, as the case might be, of the ancient 
municipalitiea, in others, amongst which Bayonne may 
be particularly mentioned, the Anglo-Norman commune 
superseded altogether the ancient municipality. Thus 
we find established at Bayonne in A.D. 1215,' a com- 
mune, which consisted of a mayor, a pro-mayor, twelve 
echevins, and twelve consellors, and sixty-five peers, pre- 
cisely as in the town of Royan on the north bank of the 
Oironde, of which the constitution is set forth in the 
present volume. That the constitution of the various 
communes was independent of their charters and self- 
organized admits of no dispute, and although the char- 
ters granted by Queen Eleanor and King John to the 
towns of Poitou and of Saintonge were identical in their 
language, this identity was consistent with substantial 
difierences in the constitution of particulai* communes ; 
as for instance, in the city of Saintes, the chief town of 
Saintonge, and the see of a bishop, to which a charter 
was granted by Queen Eleanor in identical terms with 
the charter granted to the burghers of Oleron, the 
government was in the hands of two bailiffs instead of 
a mayor, whilst the remaining officers of the commune 
were only twenty-four in number, part of whom were 
styled " echevins," and the other part *' pairs." 

The term peers does not occur in the Coutumier of 
the Commune of Oleron. This may be an accidental 
circumstance. A provost is n^entioned by name as 
well as a seneschal. The former appears to have been 
an officer of the duchy of Aquitaine, and it was his 
duty to enforce the criminal law within the commune 

* Aceordiog to the terms of a 
charter of A.D. 1215, cited hj M. 
Augastin Thierry in his HiBtoire du 
Tiers Etat. This charter is not 
found amongst the charters of King 
John recorded in the Charter Boils. 

There is, however, a charter of 24th 
May A.D. 1200, in that collection, 
from which it appears that Bayonne 
at that time was a municipality go- 
verned by consuls. 

c 2 


(ch. xli.) upon sentence by the mayor. It would also 
appear to have been one of the functions of the pro- 
vost to collect on behalf of the duchy the dues payable 
on salt and other products of the island. Such at least 
appears to have been the practice under the lordship of 
Richard I. of England, when Don Pedro Dorz was pro- 
vost of Oleron (ch. xxii.) The seneschal had a wider 
sphere of action, and his authority was coextensive with 
the province of Saintonge. Mention is also made in the 
Coutumier of a college of four lords (Seigneurs), who 
appear to have exercised manorial jurisdiction over all 
the lands within the island of Oleron before the com- 
mune was established, but their jurisdiction within the 
commune after its institution had been superseded by 
that of the mayor. They appear, however, to have 
retained some portion of their manorial rights, and 
continued to exercise jurisdiction in matters of chief- 
rents payable on account of rural fiefs beyond the 
limits of the commune, and in all disputes between the 
holders of such fiefs. There were also certain duties 
which the four lords were still entitled to discharge 
within the commune on occasions when the wager of 
batel was allowed, and for these duties they received 
certain perquisites. 

At what precise period the Coutumier was drawn 
up does not appear directly from any part of its con- 
tents. The MS. itself would appear to have been com- 
pleted on Feb. 10, A.Ii 1344, as there is a paragi*aph 
to that effect at the end of the volume, but the Cou- 
tumier itself may have been drawn up at an earlier 
period. That it was not drawn up before the reign of 
Edward I. may be regarded as almost certain, as men- 
tion is made of an alteration having been made in the 
law of succession to dowry land within the commune 
by Helias de Fors, Bishop of Saintes, with the con- 
sent of the prud'hommes of the commune (ch. xiv.). 
There is some uncertainty as to the precise period of 



ihe episcopate of Helias de Fors, but it ranges be- 
tween A.D. 1265 and A.D. 1275, and Edward L suc- 
ceeded to the throne of England in A.D. 1272. There 
is, however, other evidence in the Coutumier connected 
with the Law of the Sea as administered in the Mayor's 
Court in cases of jetison of cargo, which renders it pro- 
bable that the Coutumier was compiled some time after 
a remarkable judgment had been rendered on that sub- 
ject by King Edward I. in the twelfth yeai* of his reign 
(A.D. 1285).^ A complaint appears to have been made 
in that year to the king by tiie barons of the Cinque 
Ports of England, that the merchants of Gascony, as 
well as those of England, Wales, and Ireland, were in 
the habit of compelling the barons of the Cinque Ports 
and other owners of English merchant vessels in cases 
of jetison of cargo to contribute pro rat& according to 
the value of their vessels, and of the apparel and stores 
of their vessels, as well as of the wines or merchan- 
dise which the master and crew might have on board. 
The king on this occasion, having heard the reply of 
the merchants, ordained that - in future* such contribu* 
tion should not be required &om the owners of the 
vessels on account of the vessels themselves, or of their 
apparel and stores, or of any goods taken on board for 
the use of the crew, but only on account of such goods 
as the master and crew might have on board as mer- 
chandise, and on account of any other merchandise on 
board. It may be presumed from this complaint that 
up to AD. 1285, the Roman law of contribution ^ had 
been enforced in the ports of the duchy of Aquitaine 
against the owners of British merchant ships in cases 
of jetison of cargo; but it appears on reference to the 
Coutumier (ch. Izzxvii.), that a judgment is recorded 
there as having been given in the Mayor s Court at 

^ The Liber Albas of the City of 
London, p. 490. Rymer's Fcedera, 
A.D. 1285. 

2 Itaqne dominum etiam navifi pro 
portionc obligatum esse. Fr. 2« 
Faulua ad edictom, 1. xxxiv. 



Oleron in a case of jetison of cargo, which is in con- 
formity with the ordinance of King Edward I. It is 
not an unreasonable conclusion from this fact, coupled 
with the further cii*cumstance that, when the Rolls of 
Oleron were compiled, a diflTerent rule of judgment was 
upheld,* that the judgment in the Mayor's Court, which 
is recorded in the Coutumier, was subsequent in point 
of time to the ordinance of King Edward I., and was 
governed by it. 

There is another provision in the Coutumier which 
deserves notice, as it points to the early years of the 
reign of King Edward II. as the probable period of its 
compilation. * This provision has reference to the con- 
ditions upon which persons of the Jewish race were 
allowed to pass to or from the island of Oleron, namely, 
on payment of a toll of four deniers by each Jew and 
by each Jewess, which in the case of a Jewess who 
was pregnant was raised to eight deniers. A most ex- 
traordinary punishment was inflicted upon this unfortu- 
nate race, if they attempted to quit the island without 
paying the toll. Each Jew and each Jewess was to be 
secured by a rope bound round their waists under their 
arms, and to be plunged into the sea until they were aU 
but drowned, and if the Jewess was pregnant, she was 
to undergo' the punishment a second time. This peculiar 
form of punishment was adopted in the case of Jews 
for this reason, amongst others, that although they were 
tolerated in France, they were still in the condition of 
serfs in most of the provinces, and it would have been 
considered to be a violation of the comity due to their 
lords for the magistrates of the Commune of Oleron to 
mutilate them, or to spoil them of their goods for non- 
compliance with the law.^ It remained therefore to 

' Article viii., Black Book of Ad- 
miralty, torn. i. p. 96. 

'Bnissel, Usage G^ticral des 

Fiefs en France, torn. i. i. ii. eh, 


inflict upon them the utmost personal suffering which 
would be consistent with the safety of life and limb, 
and although the punishment has a barbarous sound in 
the 19th century, it was merciful in comparison with 
the sufferings which the Jewish race had to undergo 
elsewhere at about the same period. They- were in- 
deed a people downtrodden by the Christian races, 
both in France and in England, in the 13th and 14th 
centuries. They were alternately petted and plundered 
by covetous sovereigns, they were banished and recalled 
again and again at the cry of the bigoted populace of the 
great towns,^ they were massacred in the country by 
fanatical peasants, and were tortured in the solitude of 
lordly dungeons by prelates of the church. Rome ' ev^ 
had to intercede at times to mitigate the fury of their 
enemies^ and the reign of Edward II. formed no excep- 
tion to the general rule, although occasionally there was 
a lull in the storm. They had been allowed to return 
to the dominions of the kings of France at the conmience- 
ment of the 14th century, but a general sentence of 
banishment' had been again issued against them by 
Philip III. in A.D. 1306. In Gascony on the other 
hand, and in the other provinces of France subject ta the 
kings of England as di:^es of Aquitaine, they were tole- 
rated in the early part of the 14th century, but in A.D. 
1314 a letter was addressed to the seneschal of Gascony 
by King Edward II., commanding him to drive all the 
Jews into banishment. The Editor is disposed to refer 
the compilation of the Coutumier to a period shortly 
prior to A.D. 1314. There is evidence that about this 
time a passing toll of the same amount, namely four 
deniers on each Jew and on each Jewess, which was 
raised to eight deniers in the case of a pregnant Jewess, 

* Ordonnances des Kois de France, 
torn. XY. Lettre de Louis X*, A.D. 
Idl6, p. 371. 

' Raynold, ad annum 1848, cited 
by DeppiDgi 



was levied in Dauphiny,^ whioh at that time had not 
been incorporated into the dominions of the erown of 
France. This period farther recommends itself to. our 
acceptance as tibe epoch of the compilation of th^ Cou- 
tumier from this circumstance, that in A.D. 1S20 swarms 
of religious fanatics^ termed Les Pastoureaux, were sweep- 
ing everything before them in the south of France, and 
were destroying the Jewish communities in the towns of 
Oascony and of Ouienne. It was on occasion of the 
massacres committed by these fanatical peasants that 
Edward II. of England addressed another letter to the 
Seneschal of Oascony in A.D. 1321, claiming for himself 
in right of his duchy of Aquitaine the goods of the 
slaughtered Jews, and directing him to confiscate them. 
From this period down to A.D. 1844, before which latter 
year the M8. was undoubtedly written, there is hardly 
any epoch to which the provisions of the Coutumier 
(ch. Ixxv.) as to the admission of Jews into Oleron 
would be applicable, and it would have been idle to 
insert into the Coutumier such a chapter as the expres- 
sion of the law, if at the time when the Coutumier was 
compiled no Jew or Jewess was by law permitted to 
enter or to remain in Oleron. 

It is not, however, from the point of view of civil liberty 
solely that the Editor considers that the Domesday of 
Ipswich and the Coutumier of Oleron are of sufficient 
interest to warrant' their publication, as throwing light 
upon the growth of Modern Law ; he has thought that 
there were materials in both compilations, which elucidate 
certain important questions, with reference to the admi- 
nistration of the Law Maritime in Europe at a period 
respecting which we have nothing, but fragmentary 

' 1 M. Depping in his Essai Bur 
Les Juifs dans le Moyen Age, 
p. 256, cites a table of he tolls 

levied upon the Jews in Daophiny, 
firam Yalbonais, Histoire de Dftn- 
phin^, torn. i. Prenves C.C. 


notices, the true meaning of which is not always clear, 
and the authenticity of which has been in some cases 
matter of dispute. The name of Oleron is famous in the 
history of the Law Maritime, but it has been sometimes 
asserted that the maritime judgments which bear that 
name, have no rightful title to it, excepting so far as the 
rules laid down therein may have been observed by the 
mariners of Oleron in common with other seafaring men. 
It has also, been matter of dispute whether ihe tradition 
which couples with the name of King Richard I. the 
introduction of the Judgments of Oleron into England, 
as rules for the decision of maritime causes, rests on any 
solid foundation. The Domesdays. of the English mari- 
time boroughs are so far valuable as they disclose to us 
the existence of borough courts in England at a very 
early period administering a customary Law of the Sea 
to passing mariners, and the Domesday of Ipswich helps 
to carry back our knowledge of this practice to a period 
almost contemporaneous with the reign of Richard I. 
So far there is unimpeachable evidence that before the 
Admiral's jurisdiction was established in England, and 
the decision of questions of contract and tort on the 
high seas was assigned to the Admiral's Court, there were 
courts in England whose province it was to administer 
a common Law Marine to foreign equally as to British 
merchants and mariners. The Coutumier of the Com- 
mune of Oleron enlarges our knowledge of the subject, 
for it reveals to vis the fact, not merely that there was a 
court at Oleron which administered the Law Maritime, 
and that its judgments were considered by the prud'- 
hommes of the commune to be of such importance that 
they were placed by them on record amongst the good 
judgments and the good customs and the good usages 
of their ancestors, but that mai-iners of other countries 
were in the habit of resorting to the court at Oleron for 
the sake of obtaining its judgment upon their disputes. 
It may be that the tribunal which decided such disputes 


at the time when the Coutumier was drawn up, was not 
identical in name or in form with the tribunal of which 
the judgments are recorded in the Rolls of Oleron, but 
whether the Rolls contain the judgments of a tribunal 
of prudliommes of the sea, or the judgments of the 
court of the mayor of the commune, is a question of 
secondary importance. There is indeed some faint light 
thrown upon this question by the tit^s of a MS. of the 
Rolls of Oleron, which forms part of Sir Robert Cotton's 
bequest to the British Museum. The MS. Cotton, Nero, 
A. YI., which is on vellum, and of the 14th centuiy, 
contains 39 treatises, the thirtieth of which is entitled, 
*^ La Copie des Roules de Oleron et des jugemens du 
'* Mair," and there can be no doubt that the writer of 
the MS., and the compiler of the Cotton Catalogue, in 
which the word " mair " is written " mayor," considered 
that he was transcribing the judgments of the Mayor s 
Court at Oleron. The Coutumier of the Commune of 
Oleron (ch. Ixxxvii.) has further recorded the fact that 
Breton merchants and mariners had frequent recourse 
to the Mayor's Court at Oleron for the settlement of 
their disputes on maritime questions, and this fact has 
a peculiar significance, as it is in a collection of Breton 
customs and Breton laws, published in Paris in 1480, of 
which a copy is preserved in the public libraiy of Nantes, 
that the original Rolls of Oleron are found to have been 
first printed in France, and that Le Grant Routier de la 
Mer, in which the enlarged version of the Rolls was for 
the first time printed, has the Customs of the Duchy of 
Britanny prefixed to those Rolls. 



Okowth of Modern Mabituie Law. 

The Law of the Sea haa been from the earliest times 
exceptional to the Law of the Land. No nation has ever 
claimed to exercise jurisdiction over the open sea on 
the ground of exclusive possession. The sea has thus 
been exempt from legislation in the sense of the word, 
in which it is said to impose upon a subject the will, 
of a superior power. On the other hand, the sea has 
been used from time immemorial by the vessels of all 
nations, in the absence of a common superior, on terms 
of equality, without let or hindrance from one another, 
or where such let or hindrance has been attempted, it 
has been successfully resisted and put down. The exer- 
cise of this use of the sea, eiyoyed without dispute or 
successfully maintained against dispute, came to be re- 
garded after a sufficient lapse of time as a common 
right of all mankind. Concurrently with this right a 
certain manner of acting towards one another on the 
part of seafaring men, when they met on the High 
Seas, grew up into a custom, the origin of which is 
hidden in the darkness of a remote antiquity, as it was 
insensibly formed by a repetition of certain acts, which 
met a common want and reconciled in a simple and 
equitable manner interests, which threatened at first to 
conflict with one another. But custom alone could not 
provide for new wants as they arose, nor meet the 
exigencies of new conditions of things. Hence it became 
necessary, where maritime disputes arose, for the parties 
to appeal to the judgment of men experienced in mari- 
time matters, who had a personal knowledge of the 
custom of the sea» and from their experience were able, 
when the custom did not precisely meet the case, to do 
justice between the parties according to the spirit of 
the custom. This necessity led to the institution of 
maritime tribunals distinct from the tribunals which 




decided questions of right according to the custom of 
the land ; and it is an interesting problem whether in the 
northern states of Europe, where the traditions of the 
Roman law were in the ninth and tenth centuries very 
faint and in some cases obliterated, such tribunals were 
originally of a voluntary character, or were oi^anised 
by the same authority, which made provision for the 
administration of the custom of the land amongst the 
free people of the country. In the southern states of 
Europe, where the traditions of the Roman law had 
always been preserved, although the law underwent 
considerable modifications upon the downfall of the 
Roman empire, and the tribunals had to be adapted 
to the more free condition of life which the Germanic 
tribes introduced into Italy and Spain, there is every 
reason to believe that the elevation of the prudliommes 
(probi homines) to a seat by the side of the judge ^ was 
not confined to civil disputes in which the Law of the 
Land was in question, but was practised in the case of 
maritime contracts and torts, which had to be decided 
by the Law of the Sea, and that the traditions of the 
Law of the Sea were thus preserved by the oral record 
of nautical men, who were elected to take part with 
the municipal judge in the determination of maritime 
questions. Writing was at that time by no means of 
the essence of the Law of the Sea, which was proved 
by the oral testimony of men skilled in the custom of 
the sea, just as we find that the custom of the land 
was in the eleventh and twelfth centuries proved by the 
living voice of the peers of the parties (judicium parium), 
chosen from those who were best versed in the custom. 

^ The Codex Utinensis, printed 
^y Csnciftni under the title of Lex 
Bomana, -which according to Sa- 
yigny was a recasting of the Bre- 
viarium Aniani for the use of the 
Lombards, supplies ample eridence 

of the changes which the tribunals 
had undergone, after the Useodosian 
Code had been adopted by the Visi- 
goths in Spain. Cf. Waltheri Cor- 
pus Juris Germanici Antiqui. Bero- 
lini, 1824. Tom. iii. p. 691-755. 



or had been present at the settlement of disputes in 
previous cases of a like nature. 

Various causes combined to account for the decisions 
of the maritime tribunals not being reduced into writing 
before the twelfth century. In the first place, the subject 
matter of maritime disputes was foreign to the learning 
of ecclesiastics, and there is reason to believe that the 
proceedings in maritime questions were carried on at an 
earlier period in a tongue (lingua franca) which was not 
familiar to the clergy, nor identical with the languages 
of the documents which they were accustomed to draw 
up. But by degrees, as disputes in maritime matters 
multiplied with the increase of maritime commerce, the 
want of a written record of such decisions was felt, and 
after the Crusades had contributed to familiarise the 
clergy with the habits of seafaring men, and inciden- 
tally with the customs of the sea, clerks were readily 
found able to reduce into writing the decisions of the 
maritime tribunals and to record them in Rolls, so that 
if on occasions persons qualified by experience to attest 
the custom of the sea were not at hand, the record of a 
previous judgment in point might be available to guide 
the conscience of the prud'hommes in advising the judge, 
and to assist the judge in maintaining an uniformity of 
decision. One instance may be cited in illustration of 
the arduous duties in matters of naval administration, 
which ecclesiastics of high station were induced to 
undertake under the influence of the religious enthu- 
siasm kindled by the fourth Crusade. The Archbishop 
of Auch " (the Primate of Aquitaine) and the Bishop of 
Bayonne, one of his suffragans, did not shrink fi*om 
undertaking the command of King Richard's fleet and 
discharging the duties of chief justiciaries in naval 
matters, with the assistance of three nautical colleagues, 
of whom one was a native of Oleron, William de Forz, 

^ Chronica Kicardi de Uovedeu. 
London, 1870. Tom. iii. p. 30. The 
majority of EngliBh writers have 

erroneously described this arch- 
bishop, as the Archbishop of Aix. 


afterwards created Earl of Albemarle. Other eccle- 
siastics ia high office might be mentioned who were 
distinguished in the reigns of the three Edwards ' as 
persons of authority on questions of maritime law, and 
who took part in its administration, and amongst them 
the three justiciaries of the Icing may be cited, to 
whom Edward III. in the twelfth year of his reign 
referred the decision of the question, as to what laws 
and ordinances were proper to be observed by his courts 
in maritime matters, and whose names are recorded in 
the famous Roll of 12 Edward III., in which there is the 
earliest mention of Le Ley Olyroun in connexion with 
the return of Richard I. from tie Holy Land. It would 
probably sound strange to the ears of laymen in modem 
times if the Roll were read aloud, as it announces that 
the three judges, who were to certify the king in Chan- 
cery on the subject of the maritime laws proper to be 
enforced in his courts, were Adam Murymuth, the Official 
of the Court of Canterbury, Richard de Chadderley, the 
Dean of the Arches Church of St. Mary, and Henry de 
Eddesworth, Canon of Saint Paul's Cathedral. It was 
a noble tradition of law which these distinguished eccle- 
siastics handed down to their successors, and it was 
faithfully maintained by the College of Doctors of Civil 
Law under the shade of St. PauFs Cathedral, until the 
Parliament of Great Britain was pleased to divest them 
of their trust and to transfer it to other hands. 

Sir Henry Maine, in his work on Ancient Law, has 
called attention to the fact that the historical develop- 
ment of Law is at variance with the modem philosophical 
theory, and that in the Homeric periods judgments 
(if/f/«i<rr€<r) rendered on a state of facts appear to have 
been the only sources of law, whilst custom (>«fM»«), in 
the sense of law, is not once mentioned in the Homeric 

' William Wrotbam, Archdeacon ! during the reign of King John ; and 
of Taunton, had the management of . Friar Thomas of the Temple was the 

the king's navy, under the title of 
the Keeper of the King's Ships, 

Keeper of the King's Great Ship in 
Hepry III.'s reign. 



poems.^ Whatever may be the true explanation of the 
latter circumstance, there can be no doubt that the 
history of Jdodem Law forms no exception to the maxim 
that history repeats itself, and by Modem Law the Editor 
means the various systems of law in Europe, of which 
the foundations are to be discovered in the free institu- 
tions of the Teutonic races. The dawn of Modem Law 
in western Europe was ushered in by judgments in like 
manner as the dawn of Ancient Law broke upon the 
Hellenic race, and from those judgments, as from a fresh 
point of departure, a new and continuous stream of Law 
may be traced flowing onwards and adapting itself 
under the sanction of custom to the new wants, the new 
feelings, and the new relations of mankind. It is much 
to be regretted that the most interesting stages of the 
onward march of Modern Law can only be imperfectly 
illustrated, owing to the fragmentaiy character of the 
evidence which has been preserved to our time; but 
there is adequate proof that Modern Maritime Law was 
developed under the same general conditions, and that 
the earliest sources of that law were drawn up in the 
form of decisions and judgments, and that the compilation 
of customs marks the second stage of its growth. 

Thus the most ancient extant source of Modem Mari« 
time Law are the Decisions of the Consuls of tiie Sea of 
the city of Trani on the shores of the Adriatic Gulf. 
They purport to be of the date of A.D. 1063, and in the 
printed volume of the Statutes of Fermo,^ in which they 

* Dr. Thirlwall had already noticed 
the figict, that " the word aiuweriiig 
'* to iaw does not occor in the Ho- 
** meric poems, nor do they contain 
** any allnsion -which might lead us 
*' to suppose that any assemblies 
*' eyer met for the purpose of l^s- 
*< lation. Bights, human and divine, 
were fixed only by immemorial 
usage, confirmed and expounded 
by judicial 'decisions ; in most 





cases periiaps the judges had no 
'* guides but princq>les of natural 
** equity." History of Greece, 
ch. Ti. p. 169. 

' There are two editions of the 
Statutes of Fermo to be found in 
the Biblioth^ue Nationale of Paris, 
one of 1507, and the other of 1589. 
The Decisions of Trani ne printed 
in both of them. 


have been handed down to us, they are entitled 
" Ordinamenta et Consuetudo Maris, edita per Consules 
Civitatis Trani." These so-styled ordinances and custom 
are, however, a series of decisions made after deliberation 
by the Consols of the Corporation of Navigators at 
Trani as being the best instructed persons in maritime 
matters, who could be found in the Adriatic Qulf The 
next most ancient extant source are the Judgments of 
Oleron. The Customs of the Sea, which were com- 
piled at Barcelona, and which became generally known 
in the course of the fifteenth century by the title of the 
Consulate of the Sea, belong to the second stage of the 
history of Modem Maritime Law. 

The reader may probably not be familiar with the 
Decisions of Trani. The town of Trani is situated on 
the shores of the Adriatic, and formerly belonged to the 
kingdom of the Two Sicilies, whei'eas Fermo, which is 
also a port on the Adriatic, lying to the north of Trani, 
is within the limits of the March of Ancona, which 
belonged formerly to the See of Rome. The archives of 
Trani were unfortunately burnt in 1799, when a French 
army occupied the town, and M. Pardessus, with the 
assistance of the French Government, caused the most 
careful researches to be instituted in 1827 in the hope of 
discovering a MS. copy of these decisions in some public 
library in the Neapolitan dominions, but his researches 
were ineffectual, and the preservation of these decisions 
is due to the accidental circumstance that they are 
printed at the end of the Statutes of Fermo, which were 
revised in 1506 and printed in 1507. Fortunately the 
Decisions carry with them the means of verifying their 
date in the opening clause, which announces that they 
were drawn up in the year 1063 in the first indiction ; 
and on examination it has been found that the first 
indiction corresponds with the j^ear of our Lord 1063. 
Further, a copy exists in Fermo of the statutes of that 
city as printed in 1 507 on parchment, in which the 
Decisions of Trani are printed with the date 6ri068. 


The DecisionB of Trani conaist of thirty-two proposi- 
tions, the first of which commences with the words, 
" The Consuls propose, determine, and decide with regard 
'' to the question of the art of the sea herein-after 
'* written, that when a ship is cast away on land by 
** misfortune and the stem separates from the bow, the 
" merchandise on board the ship shall not contribute 
'' to the loss ; but if the stem does not separate from 
" the bow, the merchandise on board shall contribute to 
" the repair of the ship,'' &c. 

This decision is partly in accordance with the Law of 
the Digest (1. xiv. t. 11), and is partly a deviation from 
it. The Roman law, in both the cases mentioned in the 
above decision, left the owner of the ship to bear his 
own loss without any claim of contribution against the 
owners of the cargo ; whereas the modem ]aw, in the 
second case, where the ship was not cast away but 
only damaged, gave the owner of the ship a right to 
call upon the owners of the cargo to contribute to the 
repairs. The reason of this distinction is perfectly in- 
telligible. Where the ship had been cast away she 
could no longer be of service to the owners of the cargo, 
but where she was only damaged she might be repaired, 
and in that case might complete her contract with the 
owners of the cargo by carrying it forward to its 
destination. Several other rules will be found to be 
laid down in these decisions, which are deviations from 
the Roman law, and mark a new epoch m Maritime 
Law ; but the cardinal point of distinction between the 
ancient and modem systems of Maritime Law is that 
the mariner under the modem system is a free man. 
The slave no longer figures as a chattel, which may be 
thrown overboard to lighten the ship. The crew are 
free men. The Decisions of Trani lay it down that the 
mariners are bound to remain by a stranded ship eight 
days in order to save its equipments, after which time . 
they may quit it ; that for certain faults only a mariner 

VOL. II. d 


may be discharged from the ship, that a mariner can only 
quit the service of the ship during her voyage under 
certain circumstances, and on forfeiting half his wages. 
Other provisions will be found in these decisions, which 
appertain to a new system of law, and were subsequently 
more fully developed in the Judgments of the Sea and 
in the Consulate of the Sea, such for instance as the 
provision that the master of a ship may not strike a 
mariner, and that the mariner may defend himself if 
the master pursues' him and persists in striking him -^ 
also that the master of a ship * may hypothecate the 
ship to repair her after a tempest, or to ransom her 
from corsairs. There is no provision amongst these 
Decisions which lays them open to the suspicion of 
forgery, and all who feel an interest in the literature 
of Modern Law are under great obligation to Mr. 
Pardessus for having jcalled the attention of Men of 
Letters to their existence. There is no difficulty in 
assuming that the commerce of Trani was in the 
eleventh century of sufficient importance to warrant 
the publication of a body of maritime decisions by its 
consuls, as in the next following century there is 
evidence that Trani was amongst the cities of Italy 
which carried on an extensive commerce in the ports of 
the Levant. Besides it may be with as much reason asked, 
where are the navies which used to frequent the port 
of Damme, and the fleets that were wont to. anchor in 
the roadstead of Stavem ; yet no one, because the sites of 
those great marts of maritime commerce can hardly now 
be recognised, for that reason impugns the genuine- 
ness of the Judgments of Damme, or the authenticity 
of the Usages of Stavem. 

^ The Decisions of Trani (18th 
chap.) contemplate a state of mari- 
time navigation in which a hench of 
oars was still a part of the equip- 

ment of a ship, as the mariner was I himself. 

required to retire from the prow of 

the ship behind the bench of oars, 

beyond which if the master pursued 

'him he was at liberty to defend 


The Editor in aBsigning to the Judgments of the Sea 
the second place amongst the sources of Modem Mari- 
time Law, has not overlooked the fact that there afe 
fragments of Maritime Law interspersed amongst the 
provisions of the Assises de Jerusalem (A.D. 1100-1187), 
and of the Constitutum Usfts of Pisa (A.D. 1160), which 
some persons may consider to be entitled to precedence 
over the Judgments of the Sea in point of prior origin ; 
but in the first place they are only fragments and do 
not purport to be of general application, and in the 
second place they have never been adhered to as Laws 
of the Sea by other nations. The Judgments of the 
Sea, on the other hand, have been accepted as a Com- 
mon Maritime Law in every country which borders on 
the Atlantic Ocean or on the North Sea^ whilst the 
kings of Castile gave them the authority of law in 
their ports in the Mediterranean, and the trading cities 
of the Baltic incorporated their provisions into their 
own maritime law. It is much to be regretted that 
the earliest historical notice of the Judgments of the 
Sea preserved to our time, which is, however, of a date 
less ancient than many MSS. of the Judgments of the 
Sea which exist in English archives, have had an inter- 
pretation put upon it under the exigencies of contro- 
versy which has imperilled the credit of the Record. 
Thus in the great controversy on the dominion of the 
sea between Selden and Grotius, Selden and his sup- 
porters have contended for a particular interpretation of 
a passage in the Roll, 12 Edward III., known as the 
" Fasciculus de Superioritate Maris," and have main- 
tained that the Judgments of the Sea had been col- 
lected and published as Laws of the Sea in the island 
of Oleron by Richard I. of England on his way home 
from the Holy Land. The assertion of the fact that 
the Judgments of the Sea had been so published in the 
island of Oleron by a king of England, was considered 
by Selden to be of importance for the support of his 

d 2 


principal argument, that the kings of England had from 
very early times promulgated laws for the government 
<f( seafaring men within a certain portion of the sea, 
which had been respected by all nations. On the 
other hand, the asserted visit of King Richard I. to 
the island of Oleron on his way home from the Holy 
Land could not be reconciled with certain historical 
facts, the reality of which was indisputable, so that the 
-alleged occasion of the publication of the Judgments 
in the island of Oleron having no solid foundation, the 
authenticity of the Record itself would have been im- 
peachable, if it bad not been open to another interpre- 
tation ^ which does not raise any conflict with established 

Three theories have been advanced by authors of re- 
pute respecting the origin of the Judgments of the Sea. 
A French theory deserves precedence, which has been 
advanced by Cleirac in the introduction to his work on 
the Usages and Customs of the Sea, namely, that they 
were drawn up by order of Eleanor, Duchess of Aqui- 
taine, after her return from the Holy Land. The 
second may be regarded as a German theory, in sup- 
port of which the authority of Leibnitz has been in- 
voked, namely, that they were compiled by order of 
Otho, Duke of Saxony, whilst he was Governor of the 
duchy of Aquitaine during the reign of his brother-in- 
law, Richard I. of England. The third is an English 
theory, which has been advocated by Selden, Prynne, 
and others, that the Judgments of the Sea were com- 
piled by order of King Richard I. of England. All these 
theories rest upon a common groundwork, viz., that the 
Judgments of the Sea were compiled in the island of 
Oleron in the latter part of the twelfth century. 

The German theory may be dismissed at once, not- 

* This interpretation may be referred to in the Introduction to the 

Iftek BoAk. Tnl. i. n. Iviii. 

Black Book, vol. i. p. Iviil 



withBtanding that it has been advocated by Boucher and 
others; for although the great name of Leibnitz has 
been vouched in support of it, the passage in Leibnitz' 
works, to which reference is sometimes made^does not 
bear out the interpretation which has been put upon 
it. Leibnitz sajB nothing more than this, viz., " that 
" as the laws of Wisby in the Baltic Sea, so the laws 
" of Oleron in the European Ocean had an authority 
almost equal to that of the Bhodian Laws ; and that 
as Henry the Lion gave to the inhabitants of Wisby, 
so Otho his son, not yet Emperor but Duke of Aqui- 
taine and Count of Poitou, gave to the inhabitants of 
the island of Oleron a privilege which/' Leibnitz goes 
on to say, "we will subjoin to the privilege which 
" Henry the Lion granted to the inhabitants of Goth- 
" land''^ Leibnitz thereupon sets forth the privilege 
granted by the Emperor Henry the Lion to the inha- 
bitants of the island of Gothland (A.D. 11 63), and subjoins 
to it the privilege granted by Otho his son to the men 
of Oleron (A.D. 119S), which latter document is the 
identical document which has been published by Bymer 
in his Foedera (vol. 1, p. 1 2) under the date of 29th Dec. 
1198, and by which the men of Oleron were permitted 
to give their daughters in marriage to whomsoever they 
pleased without the previous consent of their lord, and 
to dispose of their property upon their death freely by 

The French theory, on the other hand^ which has been 
advanced by Cleirac,^ attributes the compilation of the 






^ Porro Qt in Balthieo mari Wis- 
byensefl, ita in Oceano Eoropseo 
Oleronenses leges in aactoritate 
faere pene instar veterum Bhodia- 
rom ; et at Henricos Leo Wisbyen- 
sibua, ita Otto ejus filius, nondum 
Imperator, sed adhuo Dux Aqtii- 
tanisD et Comes Pictaviensis, Olero- 
nis insolte, ex adverso Pictavonim 

sits, habitatoribus privilcgium dedit, 
quod hie patris ejus Henrici Xjeonis 
privilegio, Gtttensibiis concesso 
subjiciemos. Leibmtii Introduotio 
in torn. iii. Scriptoram Bnmsiricen- 
sia illnstrantiiuD, § zzziz. 

^ Us et Coustumes de la Meri 
Boardeanx, 1661, p. 2. 


Rolls of Oleron to Eleanor, Duchess of Aqiiitaine, but 
Cleirac has cited no proofs in suppoi*t of it His state- 
ment is that Eleanor, on her return from the Holy Land, 
which she had visited in company with her first hus- 
band, Louis VII. of France, conceived the project of 
compiling a body of maiitime judgments for the use of 
navigators in the western seas, after the example of the 
Customs of the Sea collected in the Book of the Con- 
sulate, which were at that time in vogue and credit 
throughout the whole of the Levant ; and these judgments 
were entitled the Rolls of Oleron, from the name of 
Queen Eleanor's favourite island. Cleirac goes on to 
say, that at a later period Richard I. of England, the 
son of Queen Eleauor by her second husband, Heniy II. 
of England, on his return from a similar expedition to 
the Holy Land, augmented the collection of judgments 
under the same title, and that the judgments themselves 
have nothing English about them, the text consisting of 
old French tinged with Gascon, and not of Norman or 
of such French as was used at that time in England. 
Cleirac does not state by what persons or from what 
sources the Duchess Eleanor caused the judgments to be 
compiled, nor is there any evidence forthcoming from any 
trustworthy quarter to support Cleirac's assei-tion that 
the Customs of the Sea collected in the Book of the 
Consulate were observed as Laws of the Sea in the 
Levant at the time when Queen Eleanor visited the 
Holy Land (A.D. 1147). Nevertheless, Cleirac may be 
right in his conclusions, although wrong in his reasons, 
for Queen Eleanor was a woman of great enterprise and 
daring character, and quite capable of originating the 
design of compiling a body of laws for the government 
of seafaring men in the western seas; but she is more 
likely to have conceived the project and to have carried 
it into execution at a later period of her life, when she 
was the widowed queen of Henry II., and when she 
was invested with regal authority in England and in 


Ireland, and with ducal authoiiiy in Normandy and in 
Aquitaine, during the absence of her son King Richard I. 
in the Holy Land. It would be consistent with this 
last hypothesis that Richard I., after his return from the 
fourth crusade, should have approved the work of the 
Queen Regent. Still it is hardly to be supposed, if 
Queen Eleanor took such a pruicipal part in originating 
the compilation of the Rolls of Oleron, that it should 
have been left to Cleirac to disclose the fact for the 
first time in the year of Grace 1647, and that no allusion 
to any such fact should be found in the pages of any 
annalist of the Angevin period 

The English Roll of 12 Edward III., endorsed '' Fascicu- 
lus de Superioritate Maris," which was formerly preserved 
in the archives of the Tower of London, but has been 
transferred in recent times to the Rolls Office in Chan* 
oeiy Lane, is the document on which Selden, Prynne, 
and other English writers have relied in attributing the 
compilation of the Rolls of Oleron to King Richard I. 
of England It is true that a passage in the Roll of 
12 Edward III. has been construed by Selden and Prynne 
in such a manner as to be in conflict with historical 
facts, which cannot be disputed; but the Editor has 
already observed in the Introduction to the first volume 
of this work (p. Iviii.), that the passage admits of another 
construction which gives rise to no such conflict. 
There can be no doubt that Richard I. was intimately 
acquainted with the island of Oleron ; that he had been 
invested at an early period of his life during his father's 
lifetime with the duchy of Aquitaine and the county of 
Poitou ; that subsequently by the treaty of Montmirail 
the duchy of Aquitaine was ceded by Henry II. to bis 
son, and that Prince Richard did homage for the duchy 
to the King of France ; that Richard resided for many 
yeare during his fother's lifetime in the duchy of Aqui- 
taine, and had frequent occasions for conciliating the 
inhabitants of the towns of the duchy by the grant of 
new privileges. His fondness for maritime pursuits i9 


well known, and the interest which he took in maritime 
legislation was evinced by the Regulations which he 
drew up at Chinon, with the advice of the prud'hommes, 
for the government of his fleet before it set out from 
Oleron for the Holy Land, and by the Ordinances which 
he enacted with a similar object, when the fleet was 
assembled at Messina^ with the advice of his spiritual 
and temporal lords who were present, and who took an 
oath to observe them. A combination of such circum- 
stances gives considerable colour to the English theory 
that the Rolls were compiled in Oleron by order of King 
Richard I., and that they were reviewed and sanctioned 
by royal authority after his return to England &om 
the fourth Crusade. 

M. Pardessus, on the other hand, is disposed to think 
that there are no adequate gi*ounds for regarding the 
Judgments of the Sea as in any way belonging to the 
island of Oleron. The Editor, who shares fully in the 
respect due to any opinion seriously put forth by M. 
Pardessus on a question of Maritime Law, on account of 
his extensive and elaborate study of the subject, is 
imable to concur in his conclusions on this head " My 
" conjectures," he says (Lois Maritimes, tom. 1, p. 306), 
" remove' all difficulties. They do not in any way belong 
" to Oleron ; but they were there known and followed, 
'* as throughout the duchy of Aquitaine, of which Oleron 
" was a dependency ; aa throughout Brittany, Normandy, 
" and the west coast of France, of which tiiey were the 
" common maritime law; as in England, where the 
*' kings on becoming dukes of Aquitaine introduced the 
" Rolls ; as in Spain, where Alphonso X« gave them the 
" authority of law." But the conjectures of M. Pardessus 
furnish no answer to the question as to how and in 
what place the Judgments of the Sea were drawn up, if 
they were not drawn up in the place with which they 
are connected by name in every ancient MS. version of 
them, and in every ancient public document which 
alludes to them< 



M. Pardessus' great work on Maritime Law consists 
of six quarto volumes, the first of which was printed in 
1828 and the last in 1845. The Judgments of the Sea 
are printed in the first volume, and the Editor considers 
that M. Pardessus at the time when he prepared his 
introduction to the Judgments of the Sea had not before 
him the best and fullest information on certain matters 
connected with the island of Oleron. For instance 
M. Pardessus appears not to have been acquainted with 
the earliest edition of *' Le Grand Boutier de la Mer/' 
composed by Pierre Qarde, alias Ferrande, inasmuch as 
he says that Gtarcie, from whom Cleirac borrowed his 
text, has confined himself to publishing the Rolls of 
Oleron without saying a single word as to the author- 
ship (Lois Maritimes, tom. i. p. 307), and he elsewhere 
says (ib. p. 285) that the earliest edition of Le Grand 
Routier was published in 1541.^ Now it is true that 
Le Grand Routier was edited in 1541, a copy of which 
edition is preserved in the British Museum, but it is 
also true that there was an earlier edition of Le Grant 
Routier published in black letter at Poitiers without 
any date in the title page, a copy of which is preserved 
in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and of which the 
probable date is much earlier than 1541, inasmuch as 
the introductory epistle of Garcie to his son, which is 
prefixed to the work, bears date A.D. 1483. This work 
is so rare that the Editor has thought it well to publish 
the more important part of it in the present volume. 
It will be found on referring to this original edition of 
Qarcie's work, that at the conclusion of the RoUs of 
Oleron Garcie has inserted the following paragraph, 
which is omitted in the subsequent edition of' 1541, to 
which alone M. Pardessus had access. ''These things 

* Ce n'est qae dans reditlon dc 
Garcie, imprim^ poor la premiere 
fou en 1541, et dans celle de Clei- 
rac beaucoup plus recente, qae les 

Roles d' Oleron sent port^s h 46 on 
47 articles. Lois liaritimes, tom. i. 
p. 285. 



'' are extracted from the very useful and profitable Boll 
" of Oleron by the said Pierre Garcie, alias Ferrande." 
Qeirac, on the other hand, has not avowed in any part 
of his work, as far as the Editor is aware, that he was 
indebted to Garcie for the text of the Rolls which he 
has inserted in '' The Usages and Customs of the Sea,'' 
nor has he mentioned " Le Grant Boutier " in the list 
of authorities which he has prefixed to his work ; but 
if Cleirac was indebted in any way to Garcie for the 
text of the Rolls, which fact, however, may be disputed 
as there are notable variations in the text of the articles 
themselves, a^ well as in the order of their arrangement, 
as adopted by the two wi'iters, Cleirac professes to have 
derived his text from a copy of the judgments printed 
at Rouen, to which was appended ''the Seal of the 
*' Contracts established in the island of Oleron" in 
verification of its being a copy collated with the original 
Roll of Oleron. So far then it is clear that although 
Garcie may be silent, as M. Pardessus observes,^ as to 
the authorship of the Rolls, he declares that he extracted 
the Judgments of the Sea from the very useful and 
profitable Roll of Oleron. 

Another £a.ct to which the attention of il. Pardessus 
does not appeal' to have .been sufficiently directed is to 
be gathered from the Coutumier of the Commune of 
Oleron. It is evident from various chapters of this 
Coutumier that the Law Maritime was. habitually ad- 
ministered in the Mayor's Court at Oleron to passing 
mariners, not merely in suits between foreigners and 
burgesses of Oleron, but in causes where both the paiiies 
to the suit were foreigners. In particular illustration 
of this fact a judgment may be referred to in chapter 
Ixxxvii. of the Coutumier, as having been rendered in 
the Mayor's Court at Oleron, on the subject of the right 

^ M. Pardessufl refers to this MS. 
in Doace's Collection, and he had 
Bome extracts fix>m it in his posses- 

sion, but he does not appear to have 
had a copy of the MS. itself. 


of a part owner of a ship to sell to a stranger his share 
of the vessel without first offering to the other part 
owner of the vessel the option of purchasing the share, 
and the parties in this cause were Guillaume Daniau on 
the one hand and David le Come on the other, both of 
whom were Bretons, which Bretons, the Coutumier goes 
on to say, had many suits in Oleron respecting partnership 
and other matters. 

The circumstance that Breton mariners and merchants 
had frequent recourse to the Mayor's Court at Oleron 
for the settlement of their disputes in maritime matters 
in the fourteenth century, raises a presumption that 
the court at that time was in considerable repute as a 
Court of Maritime Law, and there are documents belong- 
ing to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries which refer 
to Oieron under x^ircumstances, which warrant us in 
supposing that it was at that period a port much fre- 
quented by foreign shipping. 

There is also evidence that ih.e Judgments of the Sea 
had been introduced in the fourteenth century into 
Normandy through a Castilian channel, under the title 
of the Laws of Layron, under which form there is no 
difficulty in recognising the Laws of Oleron. An ordi- 
nance has been preserved by Secousse^ which was issued 
by Charles V. of France in 1364, by which the privi- 
lege of trading in the ports of Leure and Uarfleur in 
Normandy was secured to the subjects of the King of 
Castile, with the right of having their disputes adjudi- 
cated by the provost of Harfieur, " selon les Coustumes 
" de la Mer et les droiz de Layron dehors." That the 
Laws of Layron specified in this ordinance are but 
another name for the Laws of Oleron cannot well be 
disputed, as there is a MS. preserved in the Castilian 
archives, of the date of 13th August 1436, which contains 
the Laws of Layron (el fuero de Layron), and those 
laws prove to be the same body of maritime judgments 
of which several MSS. are preserved in English archives, 


which are of a date as early as the reign of Edward II. 
of England, and which are invariably described by a 
title which connects them with the island of Oleron. 
That Layron or Leron was the name by which the 
island of Oleron was known in the ports of the Medi- 
terranean does not rest solely upon the evidence of the 
Castilian MS., inasmuch as a MS. of the Judgments of 
the Sea, written in the Gascon dialect, is preserved in 
the archives of the city of Leghorn, the writing of which 
is of the 15 th century, and the heading of which runs 
thus: '' Asso es la copia deus Bolles de Leron de 
" Jugemens de Mar." 

There is another class of documents, distinct from the 
Norman and Castilian, which connect the Judgments 
of the Sea with the island of Oleron. The earliest 
known MS. of the Judgments of the Sea which was 
in use in Brittany has been preserved in the Bib- 
lioth^ue Nationale in Paris, and is of the date of 
A.D. 1454. It is printed amongst the proofis appended 
to Dom Morice's History of Brittany.^ The duchy of 
Brittany, it may be observed, had its own peculiar system 
of maritime judicature independent of the Admiral of 
France, down to the middle of the l7th century, and the 
Judgments of the Sea were amongst the maritime laws 
administered in the Breton courts under the title of the 
Constitutions of Oleron. The MS. in question is thus 
headed : '^ Ci commencent les Coutumes de la Mer, 
*' c'est Tetablissement des Bolles d'Oleron fiiits du Juge- 
" ment de la Mer." This MS. differs slightly from the 
English MSS., as it contains 28 articles, and it has 
annexed to it the following certificate : " Donne tes- 
" moign le seel de lisle d'Oleron establi aux contrats 
" de la dite isle le jour de Mardy ampr&s la feste de 

' Memoires pour servir de preuvcs 
k rHistoire Ecddsiastiqae et Civile 
de BretagHe, par Dom Hyacinthe 

Morice. Paris, Tom. i. 
p. 786. 



" Saint Andr6 Tan de grace MCfCLXXXVi/' Dom Morioe 
observes that this MS. is more correct than all the 
printed copies of the Bolls in France, and this remark 
is true, as regards the copies of the Rolls of Oleron 
printed in the earliest collections of Breton customs. 
Thus we find that the Judgments of the Sea under that 
title are included in a collection of the customs and con- 
stitutions of the duchy of Brittany, printed at Paris 
in 1480, which is probably the earliest printed collection 
of Breton customs. They may be most conveniently 
referred to in a later edition of the Customs of Brittany 
published at Rennes in 1514.' There can be no doubt 
from the variations in the text that the version of the 
Judgments of the Sea printed in this edition was copied 
from an earlier MS. than the MS. printed by Dom 
Morice, inasmuch as the judgments are divided into 26 
articles, and the style of the text is more ancient, whilst 
the certificate of authentication bears date A.D. 1266 : 
" Tesmoign le seel de lisle Dauleron establi au contracts 
'' de la dicte isle le jour de Mardi apres la feste Saint 
** Andre Ian mil deux cens soixante VI. ans." There is 
also one very curious coincidence as regards these Breton 
versions of the Judgments of the Sea, as distinguished 
from the version of Dom Morice's MS. They all follow 
suit in a gross miswriting of the thirteenth article, in 
which Dom Morice's MS. maintains the correct reading 
and is in harmony with the English MSS. 

Allusion has been made to the concession made by 
King Charles Y. of France, in 1364, to the merchants 
and mariners of Castile trading in the ports of Nor- 
mandy, that they should have their disputes adjudicated 
by the provost of Harfleur, according to the Customs of 
the Sea and the Laws of Layron. Fontanon has handed 

^ Les louables Coustumes du pays 
et Dach4 de Bretagne visits et 
corrigees par plusieurs discretz et 
v^nerables juristes, avec les cous- 

tninefl de la Mer, par Jehan Mace, 
librair^, demenrant k R^nnei pres 
la porte Sainct Michel. 16 Nov. 


down to us certain very early instructions issued to the 
Admiral of France, under which he was directed to ad- 
minister justice to all merchants on the sea according 
to the rights, judgments, customs, and usages of Oleron. 
These instructions came through an official channel into 
the hands of Fontanon, who first published them, but 
the date of them is unknown, They were, however, of 
authority, as they are inserted in a MS. which is pre- 
served in the British Museum,^ immediately after the 
Ordinance of Charles V. of France, of A.D. 1373, and 
before the Judgments of the Sea, and as this MS. 
exhibits the arms of Louis Malet, Sire de Graville, who 
was Admiral of France from 1486 to 1508, and again 
from 1511 to 1516, emblazoned at the head of the 
Judgments of the Sea, the presumption is that the 
MS. was drawn up for the use of the Sire de GraviJle 
as Admiral of France, more particularly as the 
shield, of his arms is backed by an anchor, the emblem 
of the admiral's jurisdiction. The Judgments of the 
Sea in this MS. have prefixed to them the same title 
which is prefixed to them in the Breton customs : ** Cy 
** commencent les Jiigemens de la Mer, des nefz, des 
" maistres, mariniers, des marchans, et de tout leur 
** estre," and they conclude with the certificate under 
the seal of the island of Oleron, drawn up precisely in 
the same terms which are used in the certificate appended 
to the printed Breton versions of the Judgments. 

It is difficult, where there is such a concun^ence of 
documentary evidence connecting the Judgments of the 
Sea with the island of Oleron, and no evidence is forth- 
coming of those Judgments having been ever coupled 
with the name of any other place, for an impartial mind 
to reject the general belief on the subject, and to adopt 

1 This MS. is No. 2,423 in the 
Sloane Collection, and an account 
of it will be foond in the Introdac- 
tion to the Black Book, p. Uzzy. 

The arms of the Sire de Graville 
were three buokles or on a field 


M. Pardessus' conjecture that the Judgments of the Sea 
do not in any way belong to Oleron. Other great writers 
have been misled by imperfect information to commit 
themselves to statements on the subject of Modem Mari- 
time Law from which they would recoil if they were now 
alive, and amongst them may be mentioned one of our 
greatest English historians, who has described the Laws 
of Oleron as " a set of regulations chiefly borrowed from 
" the Consulate, which were compiled in France under 
" the reign of Louis IX. and prevailed in tbeir own 
'* country. These have been denominated the Laws of 
" Oleron from an idle story that they were enacted by 
" Richard I. while his expedition to the Holy Land lay 
'* at anchor in that island.'' 

It has been already mentioned that Cleirac in attri- 
buting the compilation of the Rolls of Oleron to Eleanor, 
Duchess of Aquitaine, has asserted that on the occasion 
of her visit to the Holy Land in company with her 
first husband, Louis VII. of France, Queen Eleanor had 
become acquainted with tlie Customs of the Sea which 
are contained in the Book of the Consulate, and which 
were at that time in vogue and credit in the Levant. 
There are also other writers of eminence who have re- 
ferred the Customs of the Sea contained in the Book of 
the Consulate to a period much earlier than that to 
which the Rolls of Oleron are historically traceable ; 
and Professor Boucher, who published in 1808 a French 
translation of the Book of the Consulate under the title 
of "Consulat de la Mer," and whose book has been 
received in England as a work of high authority, has 
asserted that the Consulate was compiled at Barcelona 
about A.D. 900, but he has not cited any proofe in 
support of his assertion. The majority of such writers 
have been content to refer the origin of the Consulate 
to the latter part of the eleventh century, relying on a 
document known as '' the Acceptations," which has 
recently undergone a careful analysis, and has beei) 


satisfactorilj bIiowq to be worthleas for any historical 

liie Book of the Consulate, of which Cleirac speaks, 
must be distinguished from the Consulate itself, altiiough 
some writers have used these terms as synonymous, 
having been misled in all probability by the fact that 
translations of the Book of the Consulate have been 
published in French and Italian under the name of the 
Consulate of the Sea. The Book of the Consulate was 
in fact a book drawn up for the use of the Consuls of 
the Sea at Barcelona by the notary or scribe of the 
Consular Court, just as the Black Book of the Admiralty 
was drawn up for the use of the Judge of the High 
Court of Admiralty in England by the registrar of the 
Admiralty Court. ' Evidence of this fact is forthcoming 
in a MS. which is preserved in the National Library 
at Paris, to which further reference will be made on a 
future occasion. The Consulate, on the other hand, was 
a collection of Customs of the Sea which had the force 
of law in the Consiflar Court at Barcelona. They were 
originally designated '' Chapters of the Sea,'' and they 
received from time to time modifications and additions, 
and they appear to have acquired the name of the Con- 
sulate in the early part of the fifteenth century, when we 
find reference made to the Consulate by name in an 
ordinance on the subject of maritime police issued by the 
magistrates of Barcelona in A.D. 14S5. This reference 
to the Consulate by name is the earliest reference on 
record, and it precludes the admission of any document 
into the Consulate, in the proper sense of that term, 
which is of a date more recent than A.D. 1435. 

On the other hand, the Book of the Consulate, in the 
common European acceptation of the name, is the volume 
which was printed at Barcelona in the Catalan or 
Bomanoe language, in A.D. 1494, of which Francois 
Celelles was the editor. It is this volume which Pro- 
fessor Boucher translated into French, and published in 


1808, under the title of " Consulat de la Mer.** But 
there appears to have been an earlier French translation 
of this volume from the pen of M. Mayssoni, an advo- 
cate of Marseilles, which was printed at Marseilles in 
1577, and of which a second edition was printed at 
Aix in 1636 ; ^ so that the Book of the Consulate must 
have been well known to French jurists at the time 
when Cleirac published his work on the Usages and 
Customs of the Sea. Cleirac, however, appears to have 
made his quotations directly from a Catalan version of 
the Book of the Consulate, and he cites such a book 
amongst his authorities as " Livre du Consulat traitant 
" des faits Maritimes, compost en langage Cathalan." 

It is immaterial for the present purpose of the Editor 
to inquire whether the edition of the Book of the Con- 
sulate of 14j94 or the next subsequent edition of 1502 
was the book which was known to Cleiraa The edition 
of 1502 was until very recently believed to be the 
Editio Princeps, but the version of the Customs of the 
Sea is identical in both editions ; and .the question to 
which the Editor proposes to confine his inquiry on the 
present occasion is, whether the Customs of the Sea 
contained in the Book of the Consulate could have 
been known to Queen Eleanor when she visited the 
Holy Land. 

The Book of the Consulate ^ is divisible into two 
principal parta The first consists of what appears to 
be at first glance a continuous work, divided into three 
hundred and thirty-four chapters, and to this part the 
name of the Consulate has been sometimes given. The 
second part consists of eleven distinct documents, the 
dates of which vary from A.D. 1340 to A.D. 1488. 
These are dearly distinguishable from the Consulate. 

* This edition is in the British 
' It is' a remarkable fiict that no 

translation of the Consolat de Mar 
has ever been attempted inthej^g- 
lish language. 

VOL. II. e 


The first part, on the other hand, although it has been 
divided by Celelles into consecutive chapters, consists of 
three distinct treatises. The first treatise is concerned 
with the procedure to be observed by the Consuls of 
the Sea at Valencia. The second treatise is on the good 
Constitutions and Customs of the Sea. The third treatise 
is on Cruisers of War, and the proper relations to be 
maintained between the owners and the crews of such 

There are good reasons for holding that the first 
treatise cannot be of a date earlier than A.D. 1336, 
when Peter IV. ascended the throne of Aragon, nor of 
a date later than A.D. 1 343. The latter date is fixed 
by this circumstance, that Peter IV. granted in 1343 to 
the inhabitants of the city of Majorca a privilege that 
the consids of the sea established in that city should 
observe the rules of procedure which he had laid down 
for the consuls at Valencia. The former date of A-D. 
1336 is fixed by the fact that a reference is made to a 
royal charter in the 36th chapter of the treatise, and 
the terms of this reference identify the charter with a 
charter issued by Peter IV. of Aragon on 12 Kal. 
Nov. 1336. This treatise may therefore with reason be 
regarded as more modem than the charter to which it 
refers, whilst it must have been in existence prior to 
1343, in order that it should form a precedent for the 
guidance of the consuls of the sea at Majorca after that 

The third treatise on Cruisers of War, which concludes 
the first part of the Book of the Consulate of 1494, 
does not admit of its origin being ascertained with the 
same precision as the origin of the Regulations for the 
procedure before the consuls of the sea at Valencia ; but 
there is internal evidence in the treatise itself that it 
could not well have been drawn up before the middle of 
the 14th century. The term " Admiral " is used through- 
out the chapters of this treatise as a term of well-under- 


stood import, and no use whatever js made of the ancient 
title of Captain of the Fleet (Capitaneus Armatae). 
But it would appear from an ordinance of Alphonso IV. 
of Aragon of A.D. 1330 that the title of Admiral had 
not at that time superseded that of Capitaneus Ar- 
matae ; and it is not until A.D. 1354 that we find any 
record of the title of Admiral having superseded that 
of Captain of the Fleet within the dominions of the 
kings of Aragon. It is not improbable that the use of 
the title of Admiral had been introduced into the neigh- 
bouring kingdom of Castile at a somewhat earlier 
period, as mention is made of the Admiral in the second 
part of the Siete Pallidas of Alphonso X. of Castile ; 
but at that time it was thought necessary to explain 
the meaning of the .title, which had been borrowed 
from the Arabic, and the Admiral is thus defined for 
the instruction of the marinei*s of Castile : " The chief 
" of all those who compose the crews of the vessels 
" fitted out for war is called the Admiral, and he has 
" over the fleet, which is the main body of the Armada, 
" or over a squadron, which may be detached, the same 
" power as the king himself if he were present." There 
is no reason to believe that the term Admiral had 
become familiar to the Christian nations of £urope before 
the fourth Crusade (A.D. 1147), when the monkish 
chroniclers Latinised the Arabic title of Emir ^ or Amir ; 
and if this assertion be correct, the third treatise in the 
first part of the Book of the Consulate of 1494 cannot 
claim precedence over the Judgments of the Sea on the 
grounds of prior origin. 

It remains to be considered whether the second trea- 
tise, which forms the bulk of the first part of the Book 

1 The title of Emir or Amir in 
Arabic was equivalent to that of 
Commander. Thus Amir-el-Monm- 
en£n, which signifies Ck>mmander 
of the Fatthfol, was the title asswned 

by the Arabian sovecieigns of Aftica, 
and it is easy to understand how 
such an epithet became converted 
by the Crusaders into Amiral Mou- 

e 2 


of the Consulate, and which is entitled " Constitutions 
*' and Customs of the Sea," has any just claim to be 
regarded as having been in vogue and credit in the 
Levant at the time when Queen Eleanor accompanied 
her husband to the Holy Land (A.D. 1147). There can 
be«no doubt that the Customs of the Sea are referred 
to under the name of the Consulate in the ordinance of 
the magistrates of Barcelona of A.D. 1485, and that it 
is possible to approximate to the time when the Cus- 
toms of the Sea must have acquired the foim under 
which they are referred to in that ordinance. The 
Italian translation of the Consulate, published at Venice 
in 1539, assists us materially in determining this ques- 
tion, as the text of the Customs of the Sea, which has 
been followed in that translation, differs in many par* 
ticulars from the text which has been adopted in the 
Book of the Consulate 0^1494. Several chapters which 
are introduced into the latter version have no place in 
the Italian version. But the chief point of difference, 
and one which may be of great importance chronologically, 
consists in this, that five chapters^ which are numbered 
154, 155, 156, 157, 168, in the Book of the Consulate 
of. 1.494, are omitted in the Venetian edition of 1539, 
and their place is occupied by two chapters which are 
literally reproductions of two chapters of an ordinance 
of Teter IV, of Aragon of 1340. On the other hand, 
the five chapters above mentioned of the Book of the 
Consulate of 1494 are amplifications of the provisions 
contained in the same ordinance of 1340, and the am- 
plifications are of such a nature that there is no diffi- 
culty in identifying three of these latter chapters as the 
chapters of the Consulate, to which reference is made 
in the fifth article of the ordinance of the magistrates 
of Barcelona of 1435. It seems, therefore, reasonable 
to conclude that the text of the Customs of the Sea, 
which was followed in the Venetian edition of 1639, 
was a more ancient text than the text adopted in the 

introduction; Ixv 

Book of the Consulate of 1494; but notwithstandioj; 
this may be a correct condusion, the compilation of the 
more ancient text is not thereby carried back to a 
period earlier than 1340 A J). 

If it be assumed, and the Editor does not propose 
on the present occasion to say more than that he 
considers the assumption to be well founded, that t^e 
Customs of the Sea in the form in which they have come 
down to us in the Book of the Consulate of 1494 were 
not compiled until some time after 1340 A.D., and 
under which form only there is any authority for 
assigning to the Customs of the S^ the name of the 
Condulate^ a further question may be raised, whether 
some portion of the Customs of the Sea may not have 
been reduced into writing at an earlier period. 

Space will not allow the Editor on the present occa- 
sion to discuss the chapters of " the Customs of the Sea " 
at any length, with the view of showing that they have 
the appearance of having been reduced into writing at 
different times, and that the later chapters are ampli* 
ficationSy and in some cases amendments, of the earlier 
chapters. It is not too bold a conjecture to suppose, 
from the circumstance that explanations • are for the 
most part given at the end of each chapter of the rea- 
sons for which " the chapter was made,'' or of the object 
principally kept in view when the chapter was drawn 
up, that the " Customs of the Sea," in the form in which 
they have come down to us in the Book of the Consu- 
late of 1494, are a digest of the constitutions made from 
time to time on maritime matters by the Prudliommes of 
the Sea at Barcelona. Their true character is avowed 
in the opening words of the first chapter : *^ These are 
" the goqd constitutions and good customs in matters 
" of the sea which the wise men who have navigated 
'' the world have handed down to our ancestors, and 
•' which make up the books of the Science of Good 
^ Customs." That there were " written customs of the 


sea/' which the Consuls of the Sea were authorised to 
observe at a period long antecedent to the Barcelonese 
ordinance of 1435, may be inferred from certain pas- 
sages in the Yalencian regulations, which, as already 
observed, were drawn up between A.D. 1336 and A.D. 
1343. A provision is found in chapter xli. of those 
regulations to this eflTect : '* The sentences of the con- 
" suls and the decisions of the judges shall be rendered 
" in conformity with the written customs of the sea, 
'' according as it is declared in the different chapters 
" of them, and in case where the customs of the sea 
^' shall declare nothing, according to the counsel of the 
" prud'hommes of the sea ; " and it had been already 
provided by a previous diploma of Peter III. of Aragon, 
by which the consular jurisdiction was first established 
in Valencia in 1283, that the Consuls of the Sea should 
determine all contracts and disputes between ''men of 
" the sea " and mariners according to the custom of the 
sea, as had been customary at Barcelona.- This is the 
furthest point to which any extant record carries back 
**the custom of the sea" in any sense, in which it 
can be supposed to have been handed down to us 
amongst the chapters of the Consulate. 

K it be further assumed, and the Editor on the pre- 
sent occasion ventures to assume the fact, that the 
Consulate of the Sea is of Catalan origin, and belongs 
neither to Marseilles nor to Pisa, as some authors have 
contended, but was so named because it contained " the 
" Chapters of the Sea," which were followed, as rules 
for the settlement of maritime disputes, by the Consuls 
of the Sea at Barcelona, the observance of those rules 
by the consuls in that city cannot be carried further 
back than to 1279, in which year consuls of the sea 
were first appointed at Barcelona. But the* existence 
of a corporation or guild of prud'hommes of the sea at 
Barcelona may be traced a little further back. An 
ordinance on maritime police was published by King 



James I. of Aragon in A.D. 1258, in which the Corpora- 
tion of the Prud'hoinmes of the Strand of Barcelona ' is 
spoken of as a council of administration in maritime 
matters, of co-ordinate authority with the king himselC 
This ordinance appears to the Editor to be the true 
starting point of Modem Maritime Law in the kingdom 
of Aragon ; for although there are some provisions of 
maritime law to be found in a collection of laws pub- 
lished by King James I. in 1250 AD., under the name 
of the Customs of Valencia, these are, with one or two 
trivial exceptions, stale relics of the maritime law of 
imperial Rome, and belong to the period when the an- 
cient law of the sea was giving place to a new system 
of law, under which the ci-ew were recognised as the 
companions, and were no longer the slaves, of the owner 
of the vessel. 

It remains to be considered whether the document 
known as " the Acceptations *' should be allowed to 
overrule the internal evidence contained in the Customs 
of the Sea as published in the Book of the Consulate 
of 1494, which shows that they were not completed in 
their present form until some time after 1346 A.D. ; 
and if that be inadmissible, whether " the Acceptations " 
are conclusive evidence that the Customs of the Sea in 
some earlier form were in vogue and credit in the 
Levant at the time when Queen Eleanor visited the 
Holy Land. The document known as "the Accepta- 
tions " is printed in the Book of the Consulate of 1494 
immediately at the conclusion of the chapters on 
Cruisers of War, with a heading to this effect, " These 
" ordinances and chapters have been approved, sub- 
'* scribed, and promulgated by the under-mentioned 

* The Guild is styled UniTersitas 
Frooemm Bipariee Barchinonie in 
this ordinance, which has been 
printed by Capmauy in hia Memo- 

riae, t. ii. p. 28, and by M. Par- 
dessos in his Lois Maritimes, t. v. 
p. 839. 



" lordships." No editor of the Book of the Consulate 
appears to have tested the historical truthfulness of the 
recitals in this document, or to have doubted of their 
immediate connexion with the first part of the Book 
of the Consulate before the time of Capmany, who in 
his Memorials on the Marine and Commerce of Barcelona, 
printed in 1779, has denounced the document as im- 
pertinent and as utterly worthless for any historical 
purpose. Capmany has been followed by Michel de 
Jorio in the project which he drew up for a maritim 
code in 1781 by order of King Ferdinand IV. of Naples ; 
but it has been reserved for M. Pardessus to institute 
a very complete analysis of the document, and to esta- 
blish beyond all dispute that many of the Acceptations, 
which the document professes to record, are inconsistent 
with well-established facts of histoiy, and that it is 
reasonable to reject many others, which are too vague 
to admit of their truth being tested by any historical 

The document in question, as printed in the Book of 
the Consulate of 1794, professes to announce that the 
preceding chapters and ordinances were approved and 
subscribed by divers princes and states at various times 
during a period which extends from 1075 A.D. to 1270 
A.D., and if this document were trustworthy and it 
had any certain application to the Consulate, it would 
carry back the Customs of the Sea to an epoch ante- 
cedent to the visit of Queen Eleanor to the Holy Land. 
It is possible that Cleirac was misled by the second 
paragraph of this very document to state that Eleanor, 
Duchess of Aquitaine, became acquainted with the 
Customs of the Sea when she visited the Holy Land, 
for the second paragraph of this document, as printed 
in the Book of the Consulate of 1794, runs thus : "In 
" the year 1102, in the kalends of September, they 
" were subscribed at Acre, on the passage to Jerusalem 
" by King Louis and the Count of Toulouse, to be ob- 

nmioDTTcnoN. Ixix 

" served for all time." The cautious pen of Mr. Hallam 
has been misled by this paragraph to write that '' the 
*' King of France and the Count of Toulouse solemnly 
'' acceded to this maritime code (the Consulate), which 
" hence acquired a binding force within the Mediter- 
'* ranean." Unfortunately, however, for the authenticity 
of this paragraph it is beyond all dispute that Louis YI. 
was King of France in 1102, and that Louis YI. never 
made a visit to Acre nor to Jerusalem. His successor 
Louis YII. did indeed visit Acre on his passage to 
Jerusalem with his Queen the Duchess Eleanor, but this 
event took place in 1147 A.D., when Bertrand, Count of 
Toulouse, who in fact did visit the. Holy Land in 1102, 
was dead. The next paragraph in the said document is 
to this effect: ''In 1102 they were subscribed by the 
" Pisans at Majorca to be observed for all time." But 
the Moors were still in possession of Majorca in 1 102, 
and it was not until A.D. 1115 that the Pisans expelled 
the Moors and occupied Majorca. The last paragraph 
in this document is of an extraordinary character and 
ought at once to have arrested the attention of the 
editor of the Book of the Consulate of 1494, and to 
have made him pause before he launched the document 
into circulation. It asserts that "In the year 1270 
" they were subscribed and authorised in the city of 
" Majorca by the very high Prince and Lord King 
" James, by the grace of God King of Aragon, of 
" Yalencia, of Majorca, Count of Barcelona and XJrgel, 
" and Lord of Montpelier, and by the said Lord con- 
** suls were authorised in the city of Yalencia in the 
'* form above said." Capmany has investigated this 
asserted visit of King James to the city of Majorca in 
1270, and has adduced satisfiBMStory evidence that King 
James did not visit Majorca in that year; but the 
assertion that King James authorised consuls at Yalen- 
cia in the same year is completely disproved by the 
Privilege of Peter IIL the successor of James I., by 


which Consols were instituted for the first time at Valen- 
cia in 1283 A.D. The Editor refrains from discussing 
at greater length other gross errors in this document, 
as the reader will probably consider that sufiicient has 
been said to show that the so-called " Acceptations " 
of the Consulate are worthless for the purpose of 
establishing, that the Customs of the Sea contained in 
the. Consulate were in vogue and credit amongst the 
merchants and mariners of the Mediterranean, before 
the Judgments of the Sea were compiled. 

Some further remarks upon the contents of the present 
volume may be appropriate. 


The Domesday of Ipswich. 

The Domesday of Ipswich throws considerable light 
on the constitution of the Jury in the Anglo-Norman 
period, and may help incidentally to throw light on its 
origin. The account of the circumstances, under which 
it was drawn up, warrants the belief that it was a re- 
collection as near as might be of the old customs and 
usages of the town, which had been previously collected 
in *' the Elde Domesday " in the second year of King 
John. Upon this estimate of the antiquity of those 
customs and usages the Domesday supplies most valuable 
evidence on several matters respecting the Jury, which are 
at present involved in great obscurity. Amongst those 
customs and usages the proceedings in a plea of fresh force 
(chap, vi.), and the proceedings in a plea of fresh abate- 
ment (chap, vii.), deserve attention; Both of these pleas 
might be brought before the bailliffs of the town in the 
Com-t of Portmennysmote, and if brought within forty 
days might be commenced by wed and borugh without a 
writ from the king. It was competent for the defendant 
in either of these pleas at a certain stage of the proceed- 
ings to produce twelve compurgators to support his 
denial of the plaintiOTs claim, and by so doing to have the 
plaintiff amerced. But if the defendant failed to do so. 



then an assise or jury of twelve men was airayned to try 
, the question of right. There is no evidence forthcoming 
from contemporary writings to show that this practice was 
not in force in the English 1x)roughs in the second year 
of King John. In both of the above-mentioned pleas the 
decision was made by, the recognition of twelve men, 
and the Domesday teims the twelve men an aasise 
(assise) in a question of fresh force, which involved a 
title to land, and a jury (jur^) in a question of fresh 
nuisance, where no question of property was raised 
In the latter case the juiy was to hold an inquest on the 
nuisance precisely as we find it laid down in Olanville 
(1. ix. ch. ii.), that if nuisance were suffered by the Crown, 
an inquest of the nuisance should be held before the 
justices of the king by a jury of the country or of the 

Some learned men have been led into the error of 
supposing that Bracton is the first English writer who 
speaks of the " jurata,*' but Olanville in treating of pur- 
prestures distinctly lays it down that the inquest is to 
be made by a " jm-ata." Mr. Foi-syth, in his History of 
Trial by Jury, p. 141, has obderved that the problem is 
to discover what was the origin of the "jurata" of which 
Olanville speaks. The Editor ventures to suggest that 
it is to the Domesday s of the English boroughs that we 
are to look for the information which neither Bracton, 
nor Olanville, nor yet the Mynx)ur of. Justices supplies^ 
and that if the Domesdays could be recovered and pub- _ 
lished, they woidd throw considerable light on the origin q 

of the " jurata.'* Thus, in the case of a writ of right ^ > ^ ^^ 
concerning any tenement within the town of Ipswich, 
addressed to the bailliffs of the town, the wager of battle 
was absolutely forbidden by the usage of the town, and 
the defendant in possession had in all cases to put himself 
upon God and a jury (jurde) of twelve good and lawful 
men in the form of the great assise (en fourme de graunt 
assise), after the usage of the town. The mode, however, 



Ixarii iNTBODTTCflON. 


of chooBing the jury differed from that observed in the 
great assise. The bailliffs, for instance^ were to choose 
four good and true men in the town^ whose duty it 
should be to choose twelve good and true men of the 
same town who best knew and would say the truth. 
For this purpose the choosers were to deliver into the 
next court a panel of twenty-four names^ in case that 
any of them should be challenged by either of the 
parties. The names of the four choosers were to stand 
first on the panel, and they were themselves to be of the 
jury of twelve, if the parties assented. This is a pecu- 
liarity which at once distinguishes the course of proceed- 
ing in the borough court from that of the king's court, 
inasmuch as in the Great Assise the four knights of the 
county, who were directed by the king's writ to choose 
twelve lawfiil knights of. the neighbourhood to try the 
issue between the parties^ do not appear ever to have 
placed their own names on the panel, nor in fact to 
have been legally competent to take part in the sub- 
sequent recognition by jurors of the title of the rightful 
party. Space will not allow the Editor to discuss on 
the present occasion so complicated a question as the 
origin of the recognition by jurors, but that the recog- 
nition by twelve jurors was an institution which did not 
^p originate with the Great Assise, but on the contrary was 
practised in the boroughs where the king's judges did 
V'^ not come, and in pleas which were commenced without 

\^ any writ from the king, seems to be a fair inference from 

the usage of the town of Ipswich in pleas of fresh force 
and of fresh nuisance. Glanville describes the Great 
Assise ^ as a royal boon conferred on the nation by the 
clemency of the prince, with the advice of his nobles ; 
and it is consistent with Glanville's account of it that 
the recognition by jurors should have been a mode of 

^ great OMtje] Eat autem magna I dementia principisde consilioproce- 
asaisa regale qaoddam benefioinm | nun popolis indoltom, 1. ii. ch. 7. 




trial in familiar use for other matters at the time when 
it was constituted by Henry IL the normal mode of 
settling disputes to land within the counties, where 
either party declined the wager of battle. The author 
of the Myrrour seems to confirm this view when he says, 
1. ii. s. 25^ " An assise in one case is nothing more than 
'' a session of the justices. In another case, it is an 
'' ordinance of certainty where nothing can be more nor 
" less than right For on account of the great mischief 
'< which would be procured in witnessing, and the great 
'^ delays which were made in examinations, exceptions, 
^ and attestations, Bandulph de Olanville ordained this 
" certain assise, that recognitions and juries should be 
" made by 12 jurors, the nearest neighbours, and so 
" this establishment was called an assise/' The Myrrour 
then goes on to distinguish a great assise, which involved 
a right of property, from a petty assise, which involved 
only a nght of possession, and which was so named in 
a statute of Edward I. 

The Domesday of Ipswich also adds to our knowledge 
on the subject of Compurgators, as it has preserved to us 
in Chap. LX^IX. a remarkable form of compurgation 
in pleas of debt, which is probably of very ancient date, 
as it was only allowed between those burgesses who 
were peers and commoners of the town. The circum- 
stance that its use did not extend to foreign burgesses, 
warrants us in regarding it as an institution of a period 
when there were no foreign burgesses. This form of 
compurgation was allowed in eases of debt where the 
amount demanded exceeded a certain sum. If the de- 
fendant denied his debt and waged his law, he waa 
allowed to produce ten persons in court, who were to be 
divided into two parties, betwixt which parties a pointed 
knife was to be tossed up into the air, and the five 
persons, towards whom the haift of the knife lay on its 
falling down, were to be at once set aside. The other five 
were to remain in court, and after one of them had been 


set aside (by what process is not said), the remaining 
four were to make oath in company with the defendant 
on his behalf. In all other pleas of debt, where the 
defendant waged his law, two compurgators were 

No trace of the Ordeal is to be found in the Domes- 
day. Mr. Wodderspoon in his Memorials of Ipswich, 
p. 225, states that in the twenty-ninth year of the reign 
of Edward I. (which would be about ten years after the 
compilation of the Domesday), the Ordeal pit was given 
by the town of Ipswich to one Habate or Wabate, and he 
infers from the existence of such a pit that the town of 
Ipswich had courts of judicature in the Anglo-Saxon 
times. One practice, however, is still recorded in the 
Domesday, namely, the use of the Ducking Stool for 
scolds, which was probably a modification of a more 
severe punishment, as the institution was in contem- 
poraneous use in the duchies of Aquitaine and Normandy, 
and was in fact expressly sanctioned in the constitutions 
of the Anglo-Norman communes. 

The Domesday of Ipswich is also interesting as illus- 
trating the personal status of the English burgess and 
his family ; the liability of the husband for the debts of 
his wife contracted before and after marriage, but not 
for her obligations as surety for another person^s debt ; 
the power of the father to devise his property freely ; 
the claim of the widow to her free bench within the 
town, or to half the tenements and rents of her late 
husband ; the right of the children, male and female, to 
share in equal portions their father's property, if he 
died intestate ; the age of discretion for children to deal 
with their inheritance ; the guardianship of minors, from 
which the next heir was excluded ; and many like 
matters, in some of which the custom of Ipswich de- 
parted further from the feudal system, than the common 

One remarkable fact is apparent from the Domesday, 


that public spirit as regards the administration of justice 
was much stronger in those days than at the present 
tirne^ and that justice was then administered more 
promptly than at present, although perhaps in somewhat 
coarser scales. Thus as regards civil suits the Qreat 
Court of the borough sat once a fortnight on Thursdays, 
when pleas brought by writ of the king, and other great 
pleas, were heard before the bailiffs with the assistance 
of a jury ; a court for petty pleas sat twice a week ; a 
court for pleas where strangers were concerned sat from 
day to day ; a court during fairs and markets sat from 
hour to hour ; and a court for maritime causes sat from 
tide to tide. The administration of the criminal law 
was equally well cared for. Cutpurses and petty thieves, 
who robbed strangers, were dealt with summarily in the 
strangers court, but greater criminals were tried in the 
Great Court of the borough at its fortnightly sesaionn, 
and at such trials a coroner as well as the bailliffs pre- 
sided, for under the charter of King John the Common 
Council of the town was bound to elect four coroners, 
whose duty it was to hold the pleas of the Crown, and 
to do all other things which might be necessary to secure 
that justice should be done to the poor as well as to the 
rich within the borough. It would appear from the 
Domesday of Ipswich, as compared with the Custumarj^ 
of Oleron, that the condition of the English bui^eas was 
in the time of Edward I., in respect of personal inde- 
pendence and legal capacity, in advance of the condition 
of a burgher in the duchy of Aquitaine, which there is 
no reason to presume was in any way behind the duchy 
of Normandy ; and if the Domesday be considered witl^ 
a view to ascertain the progress of English law, it affords 
no countenance to the theory which traces Trial by Jury 
to a foreign source, whether that source be as remote as 
the burgess court of the kingdom of Jerusalem, or the 
neighbouring customs of the Norman subjects of the 
kings of England. 



The Custumart of Oleron. 

The Custumary of the Commune of Qleron, although 
it purports to have been compiled almost under identical 
circumstances and with the same object aa the Domesday 
of Ipswich, does not represent so advanced a stage of 
Law, and whilst the Domesday for the most part assumes 
the law to be settled, and is chiefly concerned with ex- 
pounding the procedure, the Custumary for the most 
part expounds the law itself, and cites customs and 
judgments in evidence of it. For instance, in the case of 
nuisance where a house has fallen down upon a neigh- 
bour's house, the Domesday assumes the law and (ch. x.) 
explains the proceeding for compensation, and la3rs it 
down that it shall be on a plea of trespass by wed and 
borugh, and that in all cases an inquest shall tax the 
damages reasonably, whilst the Custumary limits itself 
to discussing the circumstances under which a house may 
fall down, whether suddenly or by degrees, and in the 
former case declares that no compensation is due on the 
ground that the fall is an accident ; in the latter case 
declares that compensation shall not be made unless the 
owner of the house which has fallen down has been 
formally warned by the neighbour to repair it (ch. xxvi.), 
but it is silent as to the procedure to be followed in the 
latter case. There is no trace in the Custumary of trial 
by the recognition of sworn men in the Mayor's Court, 
although]the wager of battle was forbidden in that court ; 
but the wager of battle still existed as a mode of decid- 
ing both civil and criminal suits in the Lord's Court, 
lind the trial by compurgators was still in use. A very 
singular practice in regard to the wager of battle in 
civil suits is mentioned (ch. Ixvii.). Upon the challenge 
being accepted, the plaintiff was entitled to receive half 
the goods of the defendant after the payment of his 
debts, and to procure at his own cost two champions, 
and of these the defendant was entitled to choose the one 


whom he preferred to fight for bis cause. How the 
battle was to be waged is not explained, but when battle 
was undertaken on a charge of crime no champions were 
allowed. It would appear that the power of the Lord's 
Court was still unlimited, and that on a charge of crime, 
if the plaintiff was not willing to have recourse to the 
wager of battle, the accused party was entitled to be 
acquitted, if he denied the charge upon oath. 

The family status of the French burgher had also 
notable features of distinction from that of the English 
burgess. The patrimonial idea of landed property still 
prevailed, and the owner's power of alienation by sale, 
gift, or bequest was limited. Marriage brought with it 
a commimity of personal property between the husband 
and the wife, and if there was no marriage settlement, 
it was in the discretion of the prudliommes to assign 
dower to the widow ; but in the case of gentlemen by 
lineage the widow's dowry was the third of her 
husband's estate. The age of legal discretion of an infiant 
was fifteen, not fourteen as in Ipswich, and the infieint 
minor, if entitled to property independent of his father, 
was under the guardianship of the commune. A married 
woman, except she was an open trader, could not contract 
nor be a surety without the consent of her husband. 

The most interesting chapters, however, of the Cus- 
tumary are those which are concerned with maritime 
matters, which, when put in controversy, were adjudged 
in the Mayor's Court, to which foreigners had free access. 
There are as many as sixteen or seventeen chapters on 
matters connected with shipping, some of which indeed 
had reference to questions which might arise in harbour, 
or within territorial waters, but others were of a more 
general character, such as questions respecting partner- 
ships in vessels, the duty of masters, the rule of contri- 
bution in cases of jetison, and of compensation in certain 
cases of collision, which might have well found a place 
amongst " the Judgments of the Sea," if they had not 
been of more modern origin. 

VOL. II. f 


The Judgments of the Sea and the Roll of 


" The Judgments of the Sea " are a very different 
work from the Collection of Maritime Decisions and 
Customs which were circulated in the middle of the 
seventeenth century under the title of the " Roll of the 
Judgments of Oleron," and which have heen received 
in the Courts of Admiralty under that name upon the 
authority of Cleirac's version of them, as published in 
his work on the Usages and Customs of the Sea. The 
Editor has elsewhere observed that '* the Judgments of 
the Sea " belong to a much earlier period than Cleirac's 
" Roll of the Judgments of Oleron/' and that the text 
of the early English MSS. of the Judgments of the Sea 
agrees with that of the Gascon MSS. as distinguished 
from the Norman and Breton MSS. This question is of 
some importance as regards the priority of origin, which 
the Judgments of the Sea may claim over the Consulate 
of the Sea. Cleirac was a distinguished advocate of the 
Parliament of Bordeaux, and he has cited amongst the 
works which he consulted, " Tlie Ancient Customs of 
Bordeaux in the Gascon Language." He does not in- 
deed specify the work from which he copied " the Roll 
of the Judgments of Oleron,'* but he states that the 
text of the Roll was in old French tinged with Gascon. 
No MS. answering to this description has been as yet 
discovered, and it has been aptly observed by Mr. Luder, 
that the text which Cleirac has published is in French 
of the time of Francis I. M. Fardessus caused careful 
search to be made in France for a MS. corresponding 
to Cleirac's description of the Rolls, and he had aban- 
doned the task as hopeless at the time when he pub- 
lished the text of the Rolls of Oleron. Subsequent 

1 Black Book, vol. i., Introduction, Ixiii. 


research has disclosed the existence of two MSS. of the 
Jqdgments of the Sea written in Gascon tinged with 
French, and of one MS. of the same Judgments written 
entirely in the Gascon dialect. M. Pardessiis has pub- 
lished, in the additions to his work (tom, vi. p. 487), 
the text of the latter MS., which is preserved in the 
Guildhall of the city of Leghorn. It consists of nineteen 
articles only, the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth, and 
the fifteenth of the articles, which constitute the Judg- 
ments of the Sea, being omitted ; in other respects 
the text agrees with that of the early English MSS. 
With regard to the other two MSS. one is stated by 
M. Pardessus (torn. vi. p. 486) to be in the Public Library 
at Bordeaux, and to have been formerly the property of 
the Abb^ Baurin. The other is preserved in the Bri- 
tish Museum, and is to be found in a volume numbered 
10,146 amongst the Additional MSS. This volume con- 
tains amongst other documents the ancient Customs of 
Bordeaux in the Gascon dialect, and so far it agrees 
with the description given by Cleirac of one of the 
works which he had consulted. It does not, however, 
contain the text of '' the Roll of the Judgments of 
Oleron," but a text of "the Judgments of the Sea" 
which corresponds with the text of the early English 
MSS. As this text is unique, and was evidently the 
text received at Bordeaux in the fifteenth century, the 
Editor has published it in the present volume, and has 
collated it with the text in the Liber Memorandorum, 
which is preserved in the Guildhall of the city of 
London, and with the text of the Leghorn MS. 

M. Pardessus is of opinion that Cleirac borrowed his 
text from Garde's "Grand Routier de la Mer," which 
he slightly modernised. As Garcie's work is very scarce 
indeed, the Editor has. extracted from it and included 
in the present volume the articles which Garcie pro- 
fesses to have extracted himself " from the very profitable 
and useful Boll of Oleron/' Garcie does not state how 



or where he became acquaiuted with the Roll of Oleron. 
It seems probable, however, from the general contents 
of " Le Grand Routier " that Garde derived his text 
from a Breton source, as the customs of the duchy of 
Brittany and of the viscounty of Leon are inserted in 
Le Grand Boutier immediately before the Boll of Oleron, 
in like manner as. they precede the Judgments of the 
Sea in the '* Coustumes de Bretaigne/' which were printed 
prior to the publication of Le Grand Routier. 

On examining the forty-seven articles which Gkrcie 
has printed^ the reader will perceive that the first twenty- 
two only are found in the ancient English MSS. of 
the Judgments of the Sea. The thirteenth article of 
the latter MSS.> which refers to the navigation of the 
British Channel and the North Sea, is omitted by Garde, 
although it is inserted in the Coustumes de Bretaigne. 
On the other hand. Garde has made an addition to the 
fourth artide as it stands in the English MSS., and he 
has introduced an article on the duties of pilots (No. 28), 
which differs materially from that whidi is found 
(No. XXIY.) in the English MSS. Cleirac has followed 
the example of Garcie in respect of all these artides, 
and the remaining twenty-four articles of Cleirac's work 
are but repetitions of the articles of Le Grand Routier 
with some slight modifications in their arrangement 
The Editor forbears to speculate how Cleirac came to 
annex the certificate of A.D. 1266 to his work, but on 
a friture occasion, if he shall be able to cany out his 
intention of presenting to the reader for the first time 
an English verdon of the Consulate of the Sea, he may 
return to the subject. 

Opportunity has been taken in the notes appended to 
the Roll of Oleron of pointing out from time to time the 
variations which exist between Garde's and Cleirac's 
respective works. It is unavoidable to condude that 
both these writers derived their text from a common 
source, if Cldrac did not derive his text directly from 


Le Grand Routier. One curious fact may be noticed, 
that both these writers speak of books as forming part 
of the cargo of a vessel, and of their being well closed 
and packed up for fear that they should be damaged by 
water ; and it is provided in Article XXXII. of Qaroie's 
edition, that where books so packed up should be thrown 
overboard, the presumption should be against the inten- 
tion of the owners to abandon their property. This 
provision is suggestive of a new commerce, which must 
have grown up since the invention of printing books 
(A.D. 1465). Cleirac makes no remark upon this sin- 
gular provision, but M. Pardessus calls attention to it, 
and observes that in A.D. 1474, which is ten years 
before the earliest period at which Le Grand Routier 
can have been composed, the works of almost all the 
first-class authors and of many of the second-class authors 
had been published in France in a printed form. It 
would be idle to suppose that iu the days of JSleanor of 
Gnienne the commerce in manuscripts could have been 
so considerable that it would frequently be an object for 
an overloaded vessel in stress of weather to cast over- 
board the manuscripts in order to lighten her caigo, 
and that it should have been thought of importance at 
that time to place on record the juc^ment of a maritime 
tribunal in such a case ; but it would be perfectly intel- 
ligible that the labours of the printer should have had 
special protection accorded to them at sea in the reign 
of Louis XII., when Royalty in France was devising how 
to afford every encouragement to the art of printing, 
and how best to promote the circulation of the products 
of that newly-discovered art This article, like several 
others which precede it, and which declare all persons 
to be excommunicated by Holy Church who take part 
in procuring vessels to be wrecked, and in plundering 
them when they are wrecked, savours of the hand of a 
wise clerk, who by a pious fraud was preparing the way 
for the authoritative assertion of the principles subse- 


quently embodied in the Ordinance of Francis I. of 
A.D. 1543, and for the resumption of the right of wreck 
into the hands of the king, as lord paramount, in order 
to secure its equitable and benignant exercise. Eccle- 
siastical Councils ^ had long before, in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries^ condemned the asserted right of the 
lord, of the soil to wi*eck. Henry III. of England in 
A.D. 1226 had modified that right throughout all his 
dominions, including Oleron by name, and likewise 
Poitou and Gascony. The dukes of Brittany had agreed 
in A.D. 1231 by a treaty with Louis IX. of France to 
renounce the lord's right to wreck on condition of every 
ship trading in the ports of Brittany carrying with her 
briefs or letters of safety (brie£3 de sauvet^, for which a 
fee was payable to the duke ; but the ancient practice 
was revived at intervals, and it was not until Francis I. 
came to the throne^ <that royalty in France felt itself 
strong enough to enforce a more humane s}r8tem. This 
was inaugurated by the Ordinance of 1543, which the 
Parliament of Paris, however, refused to affirm without 
modifications, and it was not until A.D. 1629 that the 
principles of that ordinance were fully carried out by an 
Ordinance of Louis XIII, This ordinance was subse- 
quently embodied in the Ordonnance de ]a Marine of 
A»D. 1681 (1. iv. t, ix. Art. 1), a work worthy of the 
administmtive genius of Colbert, and perhaps the grandest 
monument of the reign of Louis XIV. 

* The Council of NaDtes in A.D. 1 Lateran in A.D. 1 179 may be men- 
1127 and the General Council of I tioned. 



The Domesday of Ipswicb. 

Additional MS. 25,012 in the British Museum, quarto, 
on vellum, consisting of fifty-two leaves. It is written 
in various hands of the early part of the 14th cen- 
tury, in many places having been erased and rewritten. 

The contents are — 

The Domesday of Ipswich, with a table of chapters 
preceding, fol. 2. 

Additions to the same, " De Beremen, &c.," foL 41. 

Custumes apurtenantz a la ferme le Rey, fol. 42b. 

Feoda militum de honoribus Lancastr. et Leycestr. in 
com. suffi, fol. 47b. 

Tenentes de feodo honoris de Richemund in Hundredo 
de Saunford, fol. 49. 

Names of the Electors of the Town Jury, Tuesday 
after the Exaltation of the Crass, 3 Edward 11. (1309), 
fol. 50. 

The boundaries of the four " Letes '' of Ipswich, fol. 51. 

At the end (fol. 52) is this note in a hand of the 
15th century: "Iste liber constat Johanni Cobet de 

Additional MS. 25,011, in the British Museum, quarto, 
OQ vellum, consisting of 35 leaves. It was written in 
the time of Henry VI. 

The contents are — 

Translation of the Domesday of Ipswich as in Add. 
MS. 25,012, fol. 1. 

Inquisition of lands held by the clergy of Ipswich in 
the second year of King John, fol. 23. 


Additions to the Domesday as in Add. MS. 25,012, 
foL 24b. 

The Customys longyng to the ferme of the Kyng as in 
Add. MS., 25,012, fol. 25b. 

Assise of bred, foL 28. 

Ordinances passed at various times, in Latin, fol. 29. 

Nomina Burgensium Juratorum, foL 32. 

Nomina forinsecorum Burgensium, 2 John, fol. 33. 

At the end is an entry relating to the election of 
" Servientes ad Clavam *' to wait on the Bailliffs, dated 
Thurs. Vigil of St. Andrew, 15 Henry VI. [AD. 1436]. 

Additional MS. 25,341 in the British Museum, being, 
a translation of the Domesday of Ipswich, by W. Tiling- 
worth, F.S.A, Deputy Keeper of His Majesty's Records 
in the Tower of London, A,D. 1812. 

The Judgments of the Sba. 

Additional MS. 10,146 in the British Museum, folio, 
on vellum, consisting of 105 leaves. It is written in 
a hand of the 16th century. 

Its contents are — 

A calendar in Latin, f. 1. 

The extent of Quienne and of Oascony, with their 
dioceses enumerated. In the dialect of Bordeaux, f. 7. 

The Costumier of Bourdeaux in the dialect of Bour- 
deaux, f. 8b. 

This is divided at f. 76 where th^ roll of the town 
of Bourdeaux ends, and the words occur, " Hie finitur 
Botulus ville Burd." The title Deus establimens de la 
villa de Bordeu is prefixed to the continuation of the 
Customary, which is followed by several charters of the 
kings of England and of France 

La Cosluma de Boyan, containing a table of custom 
duties in the dialect of Bordeaux, f. 93. 

nniRODtTCTION. Ixxxv 

A Charter of Lotiis XI. of France in Latin, addressed 
to the Mayor, Jurats, and Commune of Bordeaux, 
f. 100b. 

Les Costumes Doleron et deu jutgamen de la mer en 
tot cas^ in the dialect of Bordeaux, f. 102b. 

The book stamp of the Royal Academy of Sciences 
of Bordeaux is stamped in several places in the volume. 
This MS. is thus described in the printed Catalogue of 
Additions to the MSS. of the British Museum, 1886- 

*' The Costumier of Bordeaux, containing the laws 
'* and priveleges of the city, and the charters granted 
" by various kings of France and England, to the time 
" of Louis XI., with the Costumes of Oleron ; written 

partly in the dialect of Bordeaux, partly in Latin. 

On vellum, of the XVth century. Folio [10,146]." 

Liber Memorandoruro, in the Archives of the Guildhall 
of the dty of London. 4to. vellum, early in the 14th 

Sloane MS. 2,423, in the British Museum, 12mo. 
vellum. Early in 16th century. This MS. has been 
erroneously described in the Introduction to the Black 
Book as late in the 16th century* 

Leghorn MS. in the Archives of the Guildhall of the 
city of Leghorn, of the middle of the 15th century. 


The Customs of the Commune of Oleron. 

Douce MS. 227, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 
small quarto, on vellum, consisting of 80 leaves. It is 
written in a hand of the 14th century. 

Its contents are a collection of usages and customs 
and judgments compiled by Guillaume Guischos, clerk 
of the Commune of Oleron, und^r the direction of the 
mayor of the commune. 

VOL. II. g 


At the end are written the opening words -of St. 
John's Gospel in Latin, followed by the following colo- 
phon : " Iste liber est magistri Johannis Bamberti, cui 
detur paradisus, et fuit completus anno domini 
MCCCXL. quarto, scilicet decima die roensis Feb- 

" roarii." 

After which, in a later and much smaller hand, " Ce 
sont les chouses, qui devent costumer qui passent par 
le corea DoUeron," which is followed by a table of 
custom-house duties payable on goods passing by Oleron. 
This MS. is described in the Catalogue of the MSS. 
of the Bodleian Library as a ** Collection of cases and 
regulations apparently compiled by the community of 
Oleron, A.D. 1344," which is the description given of 
it by Mr. Luders, who saw it when it was in the pos- 
session of Mr. Douce, and who observes that it may 
have been composed earlier than the year in which it 
was copied. 



In conclusion the Editor has to express his thanks 
to the Curators of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, for 
their kindness in allowing the Douce manuscript to 
be sent up to the British Museum for inspection and 
collation, and to the Rev. H. Octavius Coxe, Bodley's 
librarian at Oxford. He has also to express his thanks 
to Sir Albert William Woods, Garter, for the &cilities 
afforded to him of examining certain manuscripts in 
the Heralds' College, and also to Sir Thomas Duffus 
Hardy, Knt, the Deputy Keeper of the JPublic Records, 
and Edward A. Bond, Esq., the Keeper of the Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum, for their courtesy on all 
occasions of the Editor requiring access to manuscripts. 
He has also to thank Daniel Burges^ Esq., the town 
clerk of the city of Bristol, for his information respect- 
ing the Little Red Book in the archives of that city. 


and to Thomas Hester, Esq., the town derk of the 
city of Oxford, for his information respecting the re- 
cords of the ancient customs of that city. He has also 
to express his great obligation to Edward Maunde 
Thompson, Esq., the Deputy Keeper of the Manuscripts 
in the British Museum, for his valuable aid in decipher- 
ing and collating various manuscripts in that Museum. 




Add. MS. 


f. 2. 

N rvy'>_^\.' W>- 

§ Des jours des grauntz pletz qe 
sunt apellez portmanemotes. E 
des pletz de la coroune e des 
menuz pletz qe sunt pledez par 
gage e plegge. E des pleyntes 
solom ley marchaunde e ley 
marine. E des pletz en temps 
de feyre. E de assoygnes en 
meyme les pletz 
§ De assoygne pur tenantz comim 
ou en parcenerie 

De assoygnes pur exeqetours 

De assoygne du service le Roy 

De brefe de dreyt . 

De fresche abatement 

De &esche nusaunce 

De wast 

De reconissaunce de fraunke tene- 

De mesoun qe se abece sour autri 
mesoun . . . . 

De reconissaunce de fraunke tene- 
ment en cas de reversioun, &c. 

De reconissaunce de rente 

De fresche abatement pur tene- 
ment endos 

De tenementz qe gisent frisches . 

De fresch abatement ver tenaunt 
qe countreplede soun seygneur 
de ses services . 

capo, prmio. 

cap*^. secundo. 
cap . iijo. 

o ••••o 

cap . mj . 
cap*>. v° 
cap", yj". 
cap . vij . 

o •••o 

cap . vuj . 

o ■ o 

cap . IX . 

cap^. x*". 

cap*^. xj°. 
cap°. xij*'. 

o •••o 

cap . xiij . 
cap^. xiuj . 

cap®. x\o. 



The dayes of grete pleea that ben 
deped Fortmannysmootes. And 
of plees of the coroun. And of 
lease plees that ben pleted be 
wed and borugL And of plees 
after the lawe of marehaundyse 
and lawe of the see. And of 
plees in tyme of feyre. And of 
assoynes in the same plees caP.j^^, 

Of assoyne for tenauntes in comoon 
or in parceneyre 

Of assoynes for execatourys 

Of assoyne in semise of the kyng 

Of wryt of right 

Of freeeix abatement 

Of fressh nusance . 

Of wast .... 

Of recongnysannce of fre tenement 

Of an hous that lenneth on an 

other hous 
Becongnisaunoe of fre tenement 

in cas of reversyon 
Of recongnisaunce of rente 
Of fressh abatement for tenement 

in dos . . . . 

Of tenementes that lyene fresshe . ca^. xiuj™^. 
Of fresshe abatement ayens a te- 

naunt that contrapledeth his 

lord • . . . . cao. xv^o. 

A 2 




• • • 'X^ 
















Add. MS. 


f. 1. 

Add. MS. 

[table DES MATltlRES.] 

De tenement devisables e prone de 

testamentz . . cap®, xyj®. 

De tenement devise a enfaunt de- 

denz age . . . cap^ xvijo. 

De tenement devise qe ne est pas 

devisable . . . cap**. xviij<>. 

De tenement devise a acun taunt 

com il est hors de payis . cap*', xix**. 

De rente devise . . . cap^. xx9. 

De nurture auer . . cap°. xxj^. 

De prosces fere en brefs vescun- 
tak e en pleyntes par gage e 
plegge .... capo, xxijo 
f. 2 b. De baterye saung tret, &c. . cap'^. xxiij°. 

De trespas fait as che& baillifs ou 

as corouners . . . cap^. xxiiij"*. 

De trespqs fait as subbaiUife . cap°. xxv**. 

De forstallerye de peyscun e des 

pulleters .... cap*', xxvjo. 

De regraters qe vendunt as autres 

regraters . . . cap®. 2a:vijo. 

De temps de achat ordene. pur re- 
graters en meyme le marche de 
peyscoun . . capo, xxviijo. 

De peyscoun trencher en eel marche cap*', xxixo. 

De peyscoun garde e freys outre 

temps couenable . . . cap®. xxx°. 

De pokyeres qe medlent ble purry cap*', xxxjo. 

De pulleters . . .' capo, xxxijo. 

De contract de marchaundise . cap**, xxxiijo. 

De dette ou damages derrenez . cap^. xxxiiij" 

De damages enhancer . . cap*', xxxvo. 

De ceux qe achatent les biens des 
marchauntz estraunges e male- 

ment payent . . . capO. xxxvj*'. 


Of tenementes departable and preeff 

of testament . . , ca®, xvj™o. 

Of tenementes . . . ca^. xvij™o. 

Add. MS. 

Of tenement departed that ys not 

Of tenement departed to eny per- 

sone while he is out of the 

countre .... 
.Of rente departed . 
Of norture to have 
Of prosses to make in wryt shir- 

revys and in pleyntes be wed 

and borugh 
Of debatt blood drawen . 
Of trespas doon to the cheeflF 

ballives or to the coroner[es] . 
Of trespas doon to the subbally ves 
Of forstallyng of fysshe and of pul- 

teiys .... 
Of regrateres that sellyne to othere 

Of tyme of beyng ordayned for 

regraterys in the same fysshe- 

Of fysshe cutt in the same market 
Of fysshe kept fresshe owt of coven- 

abel^ tyme 
Of pokyeres that medelyne rotyn 

corne .... 
Of pulterys 

Of contraetys of marchaundyse 
Of dette or damages recured 
For to enhauncen damages 
Of hem that beyen good of straunge 

marchanntes and evel payene . 

ca^. xviij^. 

ca®. xixo. 
cao. xx™<'. 

ca®. xxijd*'. 
ca^. xxtijo. 

ca^. xxiiij^o. 
cao. xxv*o. 

ca^. xxvj*o. 

cap. xxvijmo. 

cao. xxviij<'. 
ca*'. xxixo. 

cao. xxx™o. 

ca<>. xxxj™o, 
cao xxxijdo. 
ca^. xxxiijo. 
cao. xxxiiijto 

(5aO. -r-r-r-vio 

f. lb. 

ca<>. xxxrj***. 

6 [table DBS MATlfeBES.] 

Add. MS. De woluard enouster . . cap®. xxxvij<> 

^^'^^^- De renable partye . capo. .^^j< 

De chartre quiteclame ou autre 

escryt trier sil sey t dedyt cap<>. xxxix®. 

De taillie saunz seal prouer cap^ xl^. 

De espe rendre capo. xlj^. 
De destresce fere burgeys sour 

autre .... cap<>. xlij*^. 
§ Coment burgeys peot destreyndre 

foreyn .... capo, xliijo. 
§ Coment burgeys deyt partyr 
ouesqes burgeys et ou ousqes 

foreyn en marchaundise capo, xliiijo. 

f. 3. § De veue de fraunke plegge capo. xlyo. 

§ De defens de wast pendaunt play capo, xl'vjo, 

§ Ke nul ne preygne en gage leyne 
ne fyl de poures pygneresses, 
&c. . . oapo. xlvijo. 

§ De chose adyree . . capo, xlviijo. 

§ De attome receyvre . capo, xlixo. 

§ De reconyssaunce receyvre horde de 
court ou contractes de marchan- 
dise .... capo, lo, 

§ Coment vedue deyt tenir soun 

fraimke baunke . . capo, ijo, 

§ De dowarye . . capo. Ujo, 

§ Coment vedue deyt reioyir la 

fraunchise de la vyle . . capo, lyjo. 



cao, xxxvujvo 


For to puttene of wolvard 

Of renable party . 

Of chartre and quyt or oyer script 

for to trien yif it be withseyd . ca^. xxxix®. 
For to proven tayle withoute seel ca®. xl™o. 
For to yelden swerd 
For on burgeys to make distresse 

on an other 
How a burgeys may distreyne a 

forreyne .... 
How a burgeys owethe party wyth 

bnrgeys and with foreyne mar- 

Of the lete ... 

Of the fens of wast hangyng the 

plee .... 
That none ne take in wed woll ne 

such other pore pouerayle 

cao. xxxvijMo. Add. MS. 

ca<>. xlj 

cao. xlijd*', 
ca° xlii/. 

ca^. xliiijtQ. 
cao, xlv*<>. 

ca<>. xlyj*<*. 


ca®. xlvij™<>. 

For a thyng a diree 

For to reseyvene attoume 

For to reseyvene a reconisaunce 

out of the court in contractes 

of marchaundes . 
[How^ awydue owethe to have her 

&e banche . • 

[Of dowarye 
How a wydue owethe to reioysen 

the fraunchise of the toune 

cao, xlviij<^. 
cao. xlixQ. 

cao l"»o. 

ca^. Ijo. 
ca<>. lijo. 

cao. Ij 



> The English table of contents, as 
regards the nambering of the chap- 
ters which follow the fiftieth chapter, 
is incorrect in consequence of the 
omission to notice the two chapters 
on the Pre Banche of Wydnes and 
on Dowarye, which are nmnbered 
li. and Hi. in the Trench Table. 
There is a farther confusion in the 

numbering of the chapters them- 
selyes, owing to the chapter, which 
follows immediately after chapter 
liL, being also numbered Hi. in the 
English translation. The numbers 
which have been added by the 
editor in brackets agree with the 
numbers of the corresponding chap- 
ters in the French text 

8 [table DES MATlilRES.] 

Add. MS. § Ke homage ne fealte seyt fete des 

tenements en Gippewyz . cap®, liiijo. 

§ Ooment femme coverte de baroun 
deyt respoundre en play de 
• trespas saunz soun baroun . cap^. lyo. 

§ Coraent le baroun deyt respoundre 

de la decte de sa femme cap®. Ivj®. 

§ De macecreuz qe aportent carcoys 

saunz quyrs, &c. . . capo, lyijo, 

§ De macecreuz qe vendunt chars 

sursemez, &c. . . . cap®. Iviijo. 


§ De keus qe gard^it vyaundes ou- 
tre temps, &c. . . . . capo. lixo. 

§ De hostete de marchauntz estraun- 

ges, &c. - ^ . . . capo. ixo. 

, § De burgeys de la yyle qe emple- 
dunt autres burgeys de la vyle 
countre la fraunchise, &c. . capo. ixjo. 

f. 8 b. § De ceux qe countrepledunt la al- 

louaunce de la fraunchise, &c. . capo, ixijo. 

§ Qe nul foreyn marchaunt seyt receu 

burgeys, &c . . . capo, ixiijo. 

§ De gages vendre apres jour de 
payement passe, &c 

. capo. Ixiiijo. 


That homage and feute be done of Add. MS. 

tenementes in Qeppyswiche ca^ Ij™^. 85,oii. 


How a woman covered vnder hus- 
bond owethe to answeren in plee 
of trespas with owte her hus- 
bond . . , . . cao. lij^o. 


How the husbond oweth to an- 

swere for his wyffes dette . ca*'. liij®. 


Of bocherys that beryne carcoyses 

witii oute skynnes • . . coP. liiijK 


Of bocherys that sellyne roten 

flesshe . . . ' csP. lv*o. 


Of hein that kepyne vytaylles out 

of tyme .... cao. Ivjto. 


Of hostes of straunge marchaundes caP. Ivijmo. 


Of burges of the toune that em- 
pleten other burgesys ayens the 
fraunchise of the same toune . caP, Iviijo. 


Of h^m that countrepletyn the 

allouaunce of the fraunchise . caP. ]ixP, 


That non foreyne marchaund be 

resceyved Burges . . cafi, IsP^^. 


For to taken wed of the day of* 

payment passed . caP. Ixy^^. 


10 [table DES MATliStES.] 

Add. Ma § De ceux qe descourent le prive 

25 012 ' "1111 

' * cunseyl de la vyle e qe cuntre- 

pledent par malice le honur e 
la frauncliise, &a . . capo. Ixv^. 

§ De < bnrgeys qe fanoement avouent 

antri chatel, &c. . . . capo. Ixvj®. 

§ De marehaundise remener vers 

ewe, &c. . . . capo. Ixvij®. 

§ De temps de vente de marchatm.- 

dises au cay, &c. . . capo, ixviijo. 

§ De venie de peyscoun de escale, 

&C. . ... . capo. Ixixo. 

§ De age de la vyle, &c. . . capo. Ixxo. 

§ De manace fere, &c. . . capo. Ixxjo. 

§ De arme saker en presence de 

bayllifes, &c. . . . capo. Ixxijo. 

§ De presses eH play de esclaundre . capo. Ixxiijo. 

§ De comunes tenceresses . . capo. Ixziiijo. 

§ De xij. jureez de la vyle, &c. . capo, ixxvo. 

§ De subbaUi& qe se feygnent en 

lour office . . . capo, ixxvjo. 



Add. MS 

Of hem that discnren the privy 


consel of the toune and ye oon- 

trepletyn be malice ye wor- 

shippe and ye fraunchiBe 

ca<>. Ixijdo. 



Of burgesys that faldy avowyne 


other catell 

ca<>. Ixiijo. 


For to ledyu merchanndyses toward 

the watyr 

cao lxiiij*o. 


Of tyme of sellyng of merchann- 

difle at the key 

ca^ lxv*o. 


Of sellyng of fysshe with the shelles 

ca®. lxvj*o. 


Of age of ^ the tonne 

cao. Ixvijo. 


Of manas m^ad 

ca®. Ixviij.o 


Of knyves drawying or armys 

shakyng in the presence of the 


cao, Ixixo.] 


Of proces in plee of enslaundre 

cao. lxx™o. 


Of oomonne chyderys 

cao. lxxj™o. 



Of xLj. men swome of the toune . 

ca® Ixxijo.] 


Of subballyves that feynen hem in 

her ofiSce 

cao. Ixxiijo. 


^ Here is inserted in a zvi^^ cent. I ** geye there lend or leate the same 
hand *' of InfSuitea ir<^^ male sell or I <* within." 


[table des matiMes.] 

Add. MS. § De subballifs qe portent males 
25,012. paroles entre gentz . . cap<>. Ixxvijo 

§ De comun clerke de la vyle . capo. Ixxviijo. 

§ De ley fere en play de dette entre 

burgeys, &c. . . . cap®. Ixxix^ 

§ De pestours qe trespassent countre 

la^ise .... capo ixxxQ. 

§ De braceresses, &c. 

. capo. Ixxxjo. 

§ De vyn conimpu dampner 

. capo. Ixxxijo. 

§ De mesnres de la vyle assayer . capo. Ixxxiijo. 

1 At the foot of this page (f. 3 b) 
is the following entry in a later 
hand of the 14th cent.^— 

M*^ qaod libertas villee Gippe- 
wici allocata fuit per Jnsticiarios de 
Banco tempore regis Edwardi filii 
regis Edwardi anno regni soi zvg*'. 
termino Michaelis inter Johan^em 
fiUom Semanni le Langc petentem et 

Bobertom filinm Bogeri le GloTere 
capellanmn et Petnim Fermynhod 

deforcientes rotulo Ixxxxyiij^. 

Quia hiijusmodi libertas per breve 
domini ^ ejusdem ' regis alias sci- 
licet [de termino] Hillarii anno 

regni sui v^^ allocata fait rotulo 

Ixxxxv®. (?) 


Of subbaJlyves that well woord be Add. MS. 

twixe the pepele . . cao. budiij<>. ' 

Of the oomone clerk of the toune . ca®. lxxv™o. 

K Of lawe to done in plee of dette 

a mong burgeyses . ca®, lxxyj<>. 

Of baxterys that trespasyne a yens 

the syse . ca^. Ixxvijo. 

Of braerys .... ca^. Ixxviijo. 


For to dampnene wyne corupt ca®. Ixxix®. 

For to assayene mesure of the 

toune .... caP. lxxx™o. 





Add. MS. 


f. 5. 

Ceo est le Domesday des Leys e des Usages de la 
[ville de Qippewyz.] ^ 

Pur ceo qe le yeuz Domesday des leys e des aonciens 
usages de la ville de Gippewyz, e autres roules e 
remembraunces de meyme la ville par un fauz comun 
Gierke de la dite vUle esieyent emportez e faucement 
eUoygniez,apres quel Domesday issi emporte e eUoygnie, 
les leys e les aunciens usages de meyme la ville meynte 
feze esteyent e unt estez voluntri vemet * hors de lour 
dreyte fourme chaungez. Ceo est asaver utt jour une 
ley ou un usage pur un, e un autre jour un autre pur 
un autre, solom ceo qe les choses furent meyntenues 
a la feze par favour des juges, a la feze par empamours 
des bosoygnes ' e procurementz des amys, dunt souent 
par teux maneres des meyntenaunces^ emprises, e 
procurementz plusoures gentz countre resoim e bone 
fey e countre les leys e les certeyns usages de la dite 
ville unt estez grevez; e ceo a graunt esclaundre de la 

' The words in brackets are faded 

^ vobtntrivemet^ yolentriment, yo- 
lontairementy Boqaefbrt, Glossaire. 

' empamours des bosoygnts ] 
undertakers of bnsiness. Eelham 
translates empamours undertakers 
of suits. 



[This is the Domus day of the Lawes and of the 
Vsages of Gippeswiche.] 

For as much as the elde Domus day ' and the elde Add. MS. 
vsage of the toune of Qippywyche* and other roUys and 2^'^>'- 
remembraunces of the same toun by a fals common clerk 
of the forseyde toune weryn borne awey and falselich 
aloyned, after which Domus day so boren a wey and 
aloyned the lawes and the olde customes and vsages [of 
the same toune] of ten tymes weme [designedly] put 
owte and chaunged from her righte foorme, that is to 
wetene, oon day for a nother, and oon custom for an 
other, and on vsage for an other after that thyng were 
meynteyned, sumtyme be favour of juge, sumtjnne 
be empamours of nedys, and procuremente of frendes. 
Wherfore often tymes be swiche maner of meyn- 
tenaunce or takynge and procuremente fele folk a zeyn 
resoune' and good feyth, and a zeyne the lawes and 
the certayne vsages of the toune bene bene greved, and 

' the elde domue day"] The original 
Roll, tenned " the Domesday," waa 
drawn np in the second year of the 
reign of King John nnder the au- 
thority of a charter granted in the 
same year of that king, and was of 
right in the eostody of the bailiflfs 
of the town. Wodderspoon states 
that it was home away hy one John 
Blake, the town clerk, who, haying 
committed felony and escaping from 
the hands of justice, carried off iSbe 
Boll, in which the laws and enstoms 
of the town were recorded. Memo- 
rials of Ipswich, p. 206. 


' Gippywyche'] The name of the 
town is spelt Gippeswiche and Gep- 
pyswiche in other parts of the MS. 

^fele folk a zeyn reeotm] many 
persons against reason. The editor 
has thought it more adyisable to 
print tlie text of the English MS. 
precisely as it is written, than to at- 
tempt to correct the variations of 
spelliog, and the capricious or cai'e- 
less manner of uniting and dividing 
words. The words within brackets 
are not in the MS., and the punc- 
tuation has been added in many 



Add. MS. ville e emblemissement^ des leys e des usages de meyme 
' ' la viUe. La comunalte' de la dite ville veaunt qe 
honurable chose est e covenable pur la dite ville teles 
defautes cum avaunt sunt dites redrescer e amender e 
mettre en certeyn, to Ian du regne le Rey Edward 
fitz le Rey Henrie xix"^® en temps Johan Clement e 
Vivien Silvestre adunke bayliffs de la dite ville de 
Qippewyz, meyme la comunalte de une volunte e un 
assent ad ordene qe les leys e les usages de meyme la 
ville a plus pres qe horn les peot par bon avisement 
estimer solom ceo qe eynz ces houres unt este usez, auxi 
bien pur comun proffyt des estraunges cum des privez 
de la ville, seyent apartement mys en Domesday' e 
ensealez du comun seal de la ville, issi qe les baillifs e les 
burgeys de mejrme la ville e lour heyrs e lour successours 
a tutz jours de meyme les leys e meyme les usages 
pussent certeyne conissaunoe aver. E a cestes choses 
profere en la fourme avauntdite, la dite comunalte de un 
cunseyl e un assent unt eUuz xxiiij. qe a ceo sunt 
jurez, des plus sages e meuz avisez de meyme la ville, qe 
meuz se conussent en les leys e en les usages avaunt- 
ditz. Ceo est asaver § Fhelip Hameys, Johan Clement, 
Vivien Silvestre, Thomas Aylred, Johan de Caustone, 
Johan Hameys, Laurenz Haraud, Hughe Haraud, 
Johan Leu, Richard Leu, Thomas Stace, Johan de 
Whatefeld, Thomas le Rente, Thomas le Mayster, 
f. 5. b. Laurenz Cobbe, Amaud le Pelleter, Thomas de la Pere, 
Nichole le Clerk, Wilham le Mayden, Elyz le Keu, 
Richard Clement, Gilbert Roberd, Alisaundre Mai^grete, 
e Johan de Bresete. 

^ emblemisiement ] This word 1 of this Domesday, if not a duplicate 

should properly be written as two 
words, en blemissement, as in chap. 
Ixi. below. 

^ Dcmeaday] The MS. in the 
British Mnsenm is a yery early copy 

of it. It is written in varioos hands 
of the early part of the XlVth cen- 
tury, in many places having been 
erased and re-copied. 


that to grefce esclaundre of the toune and enbleschement Add. MS. 
of the Jawes and the ysages of the same toune. The ' ^^' 
oomounalte of the forseyd toune seyng that honuraUe 
thyng ys couenable for the same toune suche defautes 
as bene aforeseyd redressyn and amendyn, and puttyn 
in certayn, in the yere of the regne of Kyng Edwarde 
the sone of Kyng Herry xix.,^ in tyme of John Clement 
and Vivien Silvester, thaune ballivee of the forseyd 
toune of Oippiswich, the comounalte of oon wille and oon 
assent ordayned that the lawes and the vsages of the 
same tonne as soon as men myghten be good avisement 
estymyn, af£er that a foren that tyme hit hadden ben as 
wel for common profyt of straungeres as for pryvys of 
the toune, that hit shulden ben apertly put in Domys day 
and enseled with the comoun seel of the toun, so that the 
ballives and the burgesys of the same toun and here 
heyres and here successoures at alle dales of the same 

and knowyng, and to parforthyn in this thyng in foorme 
aforeseyde, the same comounalte of oon conseyll and oon 
assent chesyne xxiiij. men that weryn swoome of the 
most wise and best avised of the same toun, that best 
knewyne in the lawes and in the vsages aforeseyde, that 
is to weten, Philipp Hameys, John Clement, Vivien 
Silvestre, Thomas Aylred, John of Causton, [John] 
Hameys, Laurence Horold, [Hugh Horold,] John Lew, 
Richard Lew, Thomas Stace, John de Whatefeld, 
Thomas le Bente, Thomas Maister, Laurence Cobbe, 
Arnold Polter, Thomas of the Stone, Nicholas le Clerk, 
Willam le Maiden, Elys the Cook, Richard Clement, 
Gilbert Rolert, Alisaundre Margaret, and John Breset, 

^ nineteen} This year was a me- 
morable year for the town of Ips- 
wich, as King Edward I. restored to 
the hnrgesses of the town their 
liberties, which he had seized and 

kept in his own hand during the six 
preceding years. During that period 
a FroTost appointed by the king had 
governed the town. 

B 2 



Add. MS. Au comencement use est en la dite ville de Gippewyz 
^*^*?* qe les graunt pletz de meyme la vyle qe sunt 
Desjoura appellez portmennesmotes seyent pledez a tutz jours 
^\l^T^ devaunt les baillifs de la dite vyle de quinzeyne en 
santapellez quinzeyne, e ceo par jour de Jeody, as queux jours les 
J^J^®" brefs de dreyt e tutz autres pletz qe sunt pledez par 
des pletz brefe le Rey, e ensement les pletz qe tuchent fraunke 
ronne^e" tenement qe seyent pledables en meyme la vyle saunz 
desmenuz feref seyent pledez, liorpris les pleyntes de fresche 
sunt^phdez abatement e de nussaunce, qe sunt pledables par gage 
par gage e plegge ^ solom usage de la vyle, qe par plus bref 
Edes ajoumement e plus hastyf, remedye covendrunt estre 
pleyntes piedez e termynez, cest asauer chescun pie en sa nature 

solom ley jt •/ ' r 

solom les leys e les usages de la dite vyle en les 
maneres- qe apres ensuent. Les pletz de la coronne 
seyent pledez a meyme les jours de portmennesmotes 
devaunt les baillifs e les oorouners de la vyle, horpris 
des cinsours des bourses ou larouns pris ou petite 

et ley 
pletz en 
temps de 

Msoygnes^ meyneoure ou ovesqes graunt meyneoure a la sute de 

en meyme 
les pletz. 

' par gage et pledge] Britton, in his 
chapter on Distress (1. 1. ch. xxviii. 
§ 6, De Prises d* Avers), explains 
the mode of proceeding par gage et 
plegge. Lors Tint le pleyntif et de- 
maunda ses avers qoites, et aver ne 
les pont, puis ly tendi gage en noon 
de pes, et ofEH pleges de venir en 
sa court ou ayloors de ester a dreit, 
si ren ly savereit demaonder, il ja- 
lemeyns encountre gage et plege a 
tort les detynt, et detener fist, jekes 
a taunt qe mesmes les bestes furent 
d^liverez par le viscounte. The 
proceeding seems to have been very 
simple. The plaintiff tendered se- 
curity and offered pledges to appear 
in court to stand to justice, if the 
defendant had any demand against 

him. Britton in his xxixth chapter, 
<« De Dette," states, in what cases 
proceedings par gage et plegge 
without a writ of the crown were 
still allowed. En countez ausi par 
devaunt nos viscountes et les su- 
tiers, et en hundrez et en courtz 
des frauncs honunes poent estre 
pledez sauntz nos brefis par gage et 
pleges simplement pletz de trespas 
et de dettes, issi qe les biens em- 
portez en les trespas, ne les dettes 
demaundez ne passent mie xl.ff. 
The permission of the crown for the 
subject to proceed in such cases 
without a writ of the crown was 
equivalent to excusing the subject 
from the payment of a fee for per- 
mission to sue his debtor. 




At the gynnyng it is vsyd in the foreseyde toun of 
Gippeswiche, that the grete plees of the same toun that 
ben [called] Portmannysmotes ' shuld bene pleted at alle 
dayes a fore the ballivos of the toun, from xv. dayes to 
XV. dayesy and that ben Thrusdayes, att whicli dayes the 
writtes of ryght and all othere writtes and plees that 
bene pleted by writtes of the kyng, and also the plees that 
touchen fre tenement, that ben pletable in the same 
toune with outen wryt, shuld ben pleted, oute takyne the 
pleyntes of fr&sshe abatement and of nusance, that ben 
pleted be wed and borugh after vsage of that toun, 
wheche ben the most short aioumyng and most hasty 
remedye owen to ben pleted and determined, that is to 
weten^ eche plee in his kynde after the lawes and the 
vsages of the forseide toun that afterward folowyn. 
The plees of the coroune shulden ben pleted the same 
dayes of portmennysmootes, a fom the ballives and the 
corounere of the toun, owt takene cutpurses or theves 
taken with litell menure or with gret menure in sute of 

^ Portmanmfsmoiea'] Under the 
charter of King John twelve capital 
portmen were elected from amongst 
the most fit, discreet, and wealthy 
of the burgesses of the town of 
Ipswich, who exercised within the 
horongh a jurisdiction analogous to 
that of the twelve thanes of the 
hundred court in the open country. 
The author of the liber Albus of 
the city of London, in commenting 
on the name " Portgrave," by which 
term the chief magistrate of the city 
of London is designated in the 
charter of William the Conqueror, 
says, p. 13, ** Port," enim, Saxo- 
nice et Teutonice, Latinc ** civitas *' 
appellatur. Cowell in his Law Dic- 
tionary cites instances of the term 
Portmannimote being applied to 
the courts of inland towns having no 

conmiunication with the sea. The 
Bailiff's Boll at Ipswich, made in the 
second year of the reign of King 
John, has the following entry: '* Also 
on the same day it is ordained by 
the common council of the same 
town that hereafter there shall be 
in the said borough twelve capital 
portmen sworn, in manner as they 
** are in other free boroughs of Eng- 
land, and that they shall have 
full power for themselves and 
the whole town to govern and 
maintain the aforesaid borough, 
*' and all the liberties of the same 
borough, and to render the judg- 
ments of the town, and also to 
ordain and do all things in the 
same borough, which ought to be 
done for the state and lionoiir of 
the town aforesaid." It api)earR 

Add. MS. 


The dayes 

of grete 

plees that 

ben cleped 



and of plees 

of the 

coroun, and 

of lesse 

plees that 

ben pleted 

be wed and 


and of 

plees after 

f. 3. 

the lawe of 
dyse and 
lawe of 
the see, 
and of 
plees in 
tyme of 
fevre, and 
or assoynes 
in the 
same plees. 


















Add. MS. estraunge homme passaunt^ com en temps de foyre ou 
^ ' * de comun jour de marchee. Les pletz qe sunt pledez 
par gage e plegge, qe sunt appellez meunz pletz, entre 
gentz residentz e demoramitz eiL meyme la vyle^ seyent 
pledez par deux jours en la semeyne, si les baillifs de 
la yyle ne seyent par certeyn enchesoun^ desturbez, 
e adunkes facent eux crier e ajoumer meyme les 
pletz secres a un autre jour en meyme lestat, qe 
adunkes sunt. Les pletz entre gentz estraunges, qe lem 
appele pepoudrous,* seyent pledez de jour en jour, si le 
pleyntyf ou le deffendauut prie tel ajournement. 
Les pletz en temps de foyre entre gentz estraunges 
passauntz seyent pledez de houre en houre, auxibien 
apres manger^ cum avaunt. £ cest asaver des pleyntes 
attachez en meyme le temps de foyre. E les pletes 
attachez a la ley marine, cest asaver pur mariners 
estraunges passauntz, e pur ceux qe ne attendent 
forkes lour mareye, seyent pledez de mareye en mareye. 
£ fait asaver qe en ces treys maneres des pletz, com 
entre pepoudrous e en temps de foyre e en ley loaryne, 
com avaunt est dyt, seyent iij. essoygnes de mal de 
venue ' allowez al une partye e al autre, si les veoyllent 


^ encheaoun] Cause or occasion. 

^ pepoudrous'] The court of dusty 
feet. The provision that this court, 
in which pleas were holden between 
strangers, was to be held from day 
to day, seems to point to a court of 
a more pennanent character, and 
different from that known subse- 
quently by the term Fipowders (17 
Edw. IV. ch. 2), which administered 
justice to buyers and sellers in time 
of fairs, and sat from hour to hour. 
Bracton (L. y. Tr. I. ch. vi. § 6), in 
enumerating the caiies in which a 
short summons was allowable, says, 

*' Item propter personas, qui eele- 
« rem habere debent justiciam, sicut 
« sunt mereatores, quibus exhibetur 
" justitia Pepoudrous, et sic ex 
** causa moderatur tempus sum- 
" monitionis et continet minus tern- 
« pus quandocunque quam spaciunf 
** quindecim dierum." Coke in his 
4th Institute says, " there may be a 
" court of pipowders by custom 
** without either fair or markBl^' 

3 es8€ygne8 de mal de venue"] This 
was the generic term for all essoynes 
on account of disturbance. L'es- 
soigne de disturbance est devisable, 
ou de maladie ou de autre distur- 




a stratmge man passaunt, as in tyme of feyre or of Add. MS. 
comone markett. The plees that ben pleted by wed ^*^^^' 
and bomghe, that arne cleped litel plees, be twixen folk 
Bittyng and duellyng in the same toun, shulden be 
pleted by ij. dayes in the weke, zif the ballyves of the 
toune be not be eertayne cause letted, and thanne 
they shulden doon cryen and aioume tho same plees 
till an other day, in the same staat that they weren 
thanne. The plees be twixe straunge folk that men 
clepeth pypoudrus, shuldene ben pleted from day to day, 
zif the pleyntyff or the defendaunt preye of suche 
aiournyng. The plees in tyme of feyre be twixe 
straunge and passant shuldene bene pleted from hour 
to hour, as weel in the fore noon ^ as after noon, and 
that is to wete of pleyntes yovene and bygunnyn in the 
same tyme of feyre, and the plees yoven to the lawe 
maryne, that is to wite, for stratmge marynerys passaunt 
and for hem that abydene not but her tyde, shuldene 
ben pleted from tyde to tyde ; and it is to wetyne that 
in this iij. manors of plees, as betwixen pypoudrus and in 
tyme of feyre and in lawe-maryn, as it is afore seyd, 
shulde bene iij. essoynes of lyeng seek* allowed to that 
oon partye and vn to the other, zif they wuUe assent 

from the same Boll that the two 
bailifEs and four coroners were of 
the number of the twelve capital 
portmen. Fortmeadow at Oxford 
wkB the portmen's meadow. Lord 
Coke, on the other hand, in his 4th 
Inst., defines a portmote as "a 
** coart kept in haven-towns or 
** ports, and therefore taketh his 
*' name curia portusJ* 

^ fore noon] Noon was the time of 
the principal meal (manger) of the 
day. It appears from Fortescae 
(De Laadlbus Legum Anglise, ch. 
51) "that the justices of Englande 

I "sat not in the king's courts above 
** iii. honres in a day, that is to say, 
*' from viii. of the clock in the fore- 
'* noone til zi complete. For in 
" the aftemoones those courts are 
'* not holden or kept But the 
" suters then resort to the perusing 
** of their writings, and elsewhere 
« consulting with the seijeants-at- 
** law, and other their counsaylors." 
3 fyeing seek'] Glanville, L. i. 
ch. 11., distinguishes between the 
essoin de infirmitate veniendi and 
the essoin de infirmitate re8eantis«;> 



Add. MS. quere. E ensemoDt en tutz autres pletz attacbez 
25,012. ^jevaunt lea baillifs de la dyte vyle de Gippewyz par 
brefe ou saunz brefe seyent allowez iij. esfioygnes 
auxibien pur le demaundaunt cum pur le diflfendaunt, 
e auxibien apres chescune apparaunce cum devaunt, 
horpris en play de fresche abatement e en play de 
nusaunce plede par gage e plegga 

Cap. yo. E horpris en cas ou plusours tenent en comun ou 
a^ygne ®^ parcenerye e seyent enpledes ou vouchez agaraunt 
purtenantz en comun, qe si un de eux querge ses primers delays 
en par- P^r essoygnes, e les autres appergent en court, qe tut 
cenerie. qq facent il assoyguer al autre jour apres cele appa- 
raunce par voye de fourcher.^ Ne seyt pas tele assoygne 
allowe nyent plus qe ne serreyt pur un soul tenauut. 

Cap. iij. 

E ensement en cas ou plusours exeqetours seyent 

assoygnes ^^^pl^^^z de la dette le mort, qi exeqetours il sunt. 

purexeqe- Ne seyent il pas receuz de fourcher par essoygnes, 

°"' mes qe taunt soukment une feze avaunt apparaunce, 

e une autre feze apres, issi qe chescun de eux eyt 

une feze soun turn saunz plus. E si en autre manere 

fourchent par essoygnes, ne seyt pas lassoygne allowe. 

bance, come est de ceux que sont 
prise de enemies cheminant le court, 
et issint distorbes, on per pants, 
bridges, ou enemies discries, ou per 
tempest ou d'autre reasonable dis- 
turbance que lis noant poiar de fip- 
parer en jngement al joor. L'es- 
soigne de disturbance et maladie est 
devisable, ou de languors que est 
appele de mal de lect, et celuj prent 
respite per un an, on de malady pas- 
sant, et celuy ne prent respite fors- 
que al focr de Tessoigne common. 

Et cestes essoignes de disturbance 
sont essoignes de mal de yener. 
Le Myrrour des Justices, ch. 11. 
8. zzx. 2. 

^fowcher} Joint defendants were 
said to fourcbe (furcare) by essoin, 
vben they appeared sererally and 
in turns (yicissim), and each one 
cast an essoin. The abuse of this 
liberty in the case of co-parceners 
and tenants in conunon, which had 
become excessive, was restramed by 
the statute 3 Edw. 1. ch. 48. 



or a«xene it And also in alle other plees yovene be fore Add. MS. 
the ballives of the foreseyd toune of Qippeswyche, be ' 
wiytt or with owte wrytt, shulden ben allowed iij* 
essoynes, as weel for the pleyntyff as for the defendaunt> 
and as weel after eche of hem apperyng as a fore, owt 
take in plee of fressh abatement and in plee of nusance 
pleted be wed and borughe, &c. 

And owt takyne in plees where that many pletyn in Q. 
comoun or in parceneyr, and ben pleted with vouche for^^* 
agarant in comoun, which zif oon of hem be seek >>«"><«■ "> 
and axene ^ the ferste delayes be essoynes, and that other in pi^. 
aperyn in court, they shulden doon alle iessoynene ^^^^^y*- 
til an other day after that apparaunce be weye of 
fourch,^ ne be that essoyne alowed no more thanne 
it shuld ben for oone tenaunt a lone. 


Also in caas where many executorys ben enpleted iij. 
for the dette of the dethe, whos executorys they ben, ^"^J!* 
shul not be resseyved of fourche be a essoyne, buttourys. 
that alle oonly in tyme before the apparaunce and 
an other tyme after, so that everyche of hem have 
oon tyme his turne with owte more. And zif other 
maner they fourchyne be essoyne, thanne ben not the 
essoynes allowed, &c. 

of which the first was afterwards 
termed de malo yeniendi, and the 
latter de malo lecti. ^Lyeingseek" 
would thus be an inaccurate trans- 
lation of the French phrase, mal de 

* be seek and oxene] The English 
text is redundant as regards the 
words " i}e seek and.'* 

^fourch] This proyision ac- 
cords with the statute 3 Edw. I. 
eh. 43, called the statute of West- 
minster I., by which it was enacted 
that tenants in parcener should no 
moH fourche by essoin, but have 
only one essoin as a sole tenaunte 




Cap. iiij. 

da service 

Add. MS. Item use est en la dite vyle, qe en chescun play 
pendaunt devaunt lea bailli& de meyme la vyle par 
brefe ou saunz brefe ou iij. essoygnes seyent allowez, 
seyt assoygne du service le Bey allowe, horpris en 
treys maneres des pletz, cest asaver la ou horn plede 
de jour en jour, com pe poudrous, ou en temps de 
foyre de houre en houre, ou al a ley marine com de 
mareye en mareye, en nul de ces treys plez ne seyt 
nul tel assoygne allowe au pleyntyfe ne al diffendaunt. 
E tel assoygne du service le Bey ne seyt pas allowe 
pur femme, si ne seyt en cas ou omme [sic] ley ^ seoffre 
lassoygne. E si tele assoygne seyt jetee pas jour 
de portmennemoot entre les grauntz pletz, seyt ele 
ajourne a la proscheyne court de portmane moot 
suaunt apres. E si par jour des menuz pletz, seyt 
ajourne a la proscheyne court de menuz pletz apres 
le quinzime jour dil ajoumement. E si celuy pur qi 
tele essoygne est jetee ne eyt soun garaunt de cele 
assoygne au jour dil ajoumement> seyt cele assoygne 
tume en une diffaute. E ja le meyns seyt il amer- 
cie a ij. s. E bien se avyse chescun qe pleyndre 
se veot, qil attache sagement sa pleynte solom la 
nature de sa accioun, ou a la commune ley, ou a la 
ley marchaunde, ou a la ley marine. Kar solomla 
nature de sa pleynte deyvent les assoygnes estre 
ajuggez e allowez e le pie termine, oest asaver par 
aveyrement, ou par ley, ou par preove, ou en autre 
manere solom ley ou usage de la vyle, e solom ceo 
qe le cas le donne. 

f. 6. b. 

^ omme ley"] * Comune ley ' should 
be here read. Glanville and Brac- 
ton and the Mjrrroor are all equally 

silent on the sabject of the common 
law right of women to cast an essoin 
in servitio Regis. 



Also yt ia vsed in the forseyde toon that in every Add. MS. 
plee hanggyng a fore the ballyyes of the same toun> ^ff V' 
be wryt or with owte wryt, or iij. essojmes " shuld ben iiij. 
alowed, be essoyne of service of the Kyng allowed p^"«;ya« 
owt takene in iij. maner of plees, that is to wetyne ofthekyng. 
from day to day as pypoudrus, or in tyme of feyre 
jGrom hour to hour, or to the lawe maryne from tyde 
to tyde. In none of thise iij. plees be none suche 
essoynes allowed to the pleyntyff ne to the defendaunt. • 
And suche an essoyne of servise of the Kyng it shulde 
not bene allowed for a womman, zif she ne be in ease 
of comoun lawe suffer^ the essoyne. And zif an es- 
soyne be cast be day of Portmennysmoote be twixene 
the grete plees, be he aioumed at the next court of 
Portmennysmoote suyng after. And zif it be day of 
litel plees, be it aioumed to the next court of litel 
plees after the xv. day of the aioumyng. And zif he, 
for whom that the essoyn [be cast, have not his war- 
rant of the essoyne on the day of the adjournment, be 
the essoyne] turned in to the defaute. And never- 
theles be he amercyd ij. s. And zif evere ther be eny 
suche that wole pleten, that he begynne his pleynt 
wysely after the kynde of his accyoune, or to the 
oomoune lawe,^ or to the lawe marchaund, or to 
the lawe maryn, for after the kjmde of his pleynt 
owyn the essoynes be iuged and allowed and the plee 
determined, that is to wetyne be averrement, or be 
lawe, or be pt[o]cess, or in other maner after the lawe 
or vsage of the toune, and after that the cas yeveth. 

^ or thre esitifnest] " vher thre 
'< esfloynefl ahiild ben aloired " would 
be more correct 

3 of comoun lawe suffer'] ** wher 

« comonn lawe suffer" should be 
here read. 

^ or to the comoun lawe"] " either 
" to the comoun lawe" would be 
more correct. 



Cap. ▼•. 
f. 7. 
De brefe 
de dreyt. 

Item, en brefe de dreyt seyt vse tel prosces^ qe com 
acun porte brefe de dreyt ver autre en la court de 
meyme la vyie de Qipewyz, cest asauer des tenementz 
pledables en meyme la vyle, seyt agarde en pleyne court 
qe le tenaunt seyt somuDs au tenement demaundee par 
deux £raunks hommes ^ de la vyle devenir a la proscheyne 
court de portmanemot a respoundre al demaundaunt de 
play de terre. A quel jour sil ne veygne par cele somunse, 
seyt agarde qil seyt autre feze somuns en meymela 
manere. E sil ne veygne par cele seconde somunse, 
seyt agarde qil seyt la tierce feze somuns en meyme 
la manere. E sil ne veygne par celes treys somunses, 
seyt agarde qil seyt destreynt a meyme le tenement 
den^aunde a respoundre en la manere avauntdyte. 
E sil ne veygne par cele destresce, seyt agarde qil 
seyt autre feze destreynt en meyme la manere. £ 
sil ne veygne par cele seconde destresce, seyt agarde 
qil seyt la tierce feze destreynt com avaunt est dyt. 
Apres queles destresces eyt le tenaunt iij. assoygnes, 
sil les veoillie quere. E si le tenaunt apres les des- 
tresces ou apres les iij. assoygnes avaunt dites face 
defaute, adunkes seyt le tenement demaundee pris en 
la meyn le Bey^ par veue des leans hommes dil 
proscheyn vysne, e le tenaunt somuns par bons 

^pcar deux fravnkg hommes] Horne 
in the Myrrour des Justices, eh. 11, 
s. zxix., thas describes a summons : 
— ** Resonable somons est quand il 
" est testimoniable par denx loials 
*' franke testimoignes Toisins fiut a 
<* la person, on a la meson, on al 
** tenement, contenns en la demaund, 
ovesqne garnishment del joor, 
lien, partie, judge et de Paccion, 
et reasonable respite al meins de 
zv. jours, de purroier rcspons, et 





" de apparer en jugement." Cf. 
Bracton, 1. v. ch. 6, s. 5. 

^ en la meyn le B^"] This delay 
of three summonses before the lands 
of the party summoned were taken 
into the king's hands, was in accor- 
dance with the early practice in the 
Curia Regis, as explained by Glan- 
Yille, 1. i. c. 7, 8. In the time of 
Bracton, the Magnum Cape issued 
after the first summons. Bracton, 
383b, 334. 


Also in wryt of right ' ben used such prooesse, that Add. MS. 
whanne eny man bryngeth a wryt of ryght a 25,011. 
zenst an other in to the court of the same toune of wryt of 
of Gippiswiche, that is to seye, of tenementes plete- "«'**• 
able in the same toune, be it kept in pleyn court 
that the tenaunt be soroouned at the tenement axed 
be ij. free mene of the toune for to come to the 
next court of portmennysmoote to answeren to the 
axere of the plee of the lond. Att which day ziff he 
come not by the somounys, be it kept that he be an 
other tyme somoned in the same maner. And zif he 
come not be the secunde somonys, be it kept that he 
be iij. tymes somoned in the same maner. And ziff 
he come not be these iij. somones, be it kept that he 
be distreyned at the same tenement axed to answeren 
in the maner a foreseyd. And ziff he come not be 
this distresse, be it kept that he eft soonys be dis- 
trejmed in the same maner. And ziff he come nott by 
that secunde distresse, be it kept that he be the iij. 
tyme distreyned as it is a foreseyd. After wheche 
distresses have [the tenaunt] the iij. essoynes zif he 
wole axen it. And zif the tenaunt after the distresses or 
after the essoynes aforeseyd make de&ute, thanne be 
the tenement axed taken in to the.kynges hand be 
sighte of lawefulle men * of the nexte neyghboures, and 
the tenaunte summoned be good sommones to ben at 

* wryt of righf] The king^s writ 
in sach a case voold be sent to the 
bailiffs of the town of Ipswich, 
probably after the form which is 
recited in Bracton, L y. ch. 2. § 7. 
" Rex balliyis sms de tali bargo 
** salatem. Fraecipimiis Tobis quod 
« plenum rectum teneatis A. de 
" tali villa de uno messoagio cum 
*' pertinentiis in tali xilla, quod cla- 
" mat tenere de nobis per liberum 
*' servitiom tanti per annum pro 
" omni servitio, vel in liberum bur- 

gagium, vel in liberum marita- | 

" gium pro omni servitio, quod tafis 
" ei deforceat, et nisi, etc. Teste, 

' be sighte oflaweJuQe men] Vo 
number is here specified. In a 
similar manner the writ to the 
sheriff in Glanville's time directed 
him to send iiberos et legalea homines 
of the vicinage of the vill to view 
the land in question, without specify- 
ing any number, but four of them at 
least were required to certify their 
view to the court 




Add. MS. somenouTS de estre a la proscheyne court devatint les 
25,012. ^y^^ baillifc a respoundre de ceo, e a mustrer pur 
quey il ne regarda mye soun jour qil avoyt par 
les primeres somtuiBes e destredces ou, qe done ly 
fu par 868 primeres essoneours solom la fourme dil 
prosces avauntdyt. E bien se avyse le tenaunt qil 
dematmde sa terre prise en la meyn le Boy a plevyne 
a houre e temps, cest asaver de denz les quinze jours de 
la prise, ou aplus tart le quinzyme jour avaunt qil plede 
a soun adversarye; e sil ne face il poorad legerement 
perdre sa terre. E quant il vendra en court prest a pleder 
e soun dreyt defendre, a ceo seyt il receu. E si le de- 
maundaunt se teygne a la definite avaunt dyte, adunkes 
ad le tenaunt mester a defendre somunses e destresces 
par sa ley ; apres quele ley agage il aura iij. assoygnes 
countres le demaundaunt sil les veoillie quere. E apres 
ceo la si il veoillie la ley fere, il la deyt fere sey dozime 
meyn ^ qil ne esteyt pas somuns ne destrejmt au tene- 
f. 7. b. ment. demaunde solom ley e usage de la vyle, ne qe les 
primers assoygnes ne esteyent pas jetez par ly ne 
par soun assent eta E si le tenaunt &ce le ley en la 
manere avaunt dyte, ne preygne le demaundaunt rien 
par soun brefe, mes demeorge en la merci, e le tenaunt 
ayllie saunz jour. E si le tenaunt face defaute apres 
la ley agagee^ ou tut veygne il e defiiiUie en sa ley, 
receoure le demaundaunt seysine du tenement de- 
maunde, e le tenaunt en la mercL Mes si nul veygne 
avaunt juggement rendu e pusse renaUement mustrer 

' dozime meyn] If the defendant 
denied the sommomi he was alloved 
to wage his hiw, that is to maintwn 
his denial bj his own oath, and by 

the oaths of deven comporgaton in 
support of his credibility. Ohm- 
▼ille, 1. i. ch. 10. Coke Idttieton, 
295 a. 



the next court afore the foreseide baUyves for to aiuswere Add. MS. 
of that, and to she we for why that he kepte not his 25,011. 
day that he hadde be the ferst sommones and distresse, 
whiche that hym yoven was proces [sic] ferst essojmes 
after the processe aforeseyd. And weel a vise hym the 
tenannt that axeth his lond takyn in to the kynges 
hand att tide and hour and tyme, that is to wetyn 
with ynne the xv. day/ or att the ferthest the xv. 
day, that he plete to his adversarye^ and but he do he 
shal mono lightlych lese his lond. And whanne he 
cometh in to court prest to pletyn and his ryght to 
defenden, and to that zif he be resceyved. And zif 
the plejmtyff holde hym to the defaute aforseyd^ thanoe 
hath the tenaunt myster to defenden commounjrs ' and 
/ distresse be his lawe, afte which lawe of bourgh ' he 
shal have iij. essoynes a zenst the plentyff zif he wole 
reqxdre hem, and after zif that he wooll done his lawe, 
on weye to done hit with the xij. hand that he ne was 
summounedne distreyned at the tenement asked after 
the lawe and vsage of the toune^ ne that the ferste 
essoynes werene not cast be hym ne be his assent, &c. 
And zif the tenaunt do his lawe in the manor afore 
seyd, thanne taketh the pleyntyff no thyng be his writt^ 
but dwelleth in the mercye. And the tenaunt shal goon 
withouten day, and zif the tenaunt make defaute after 
the lawe of wed,^ or though he come and fayle in his 
lawe, the pleyntyff may recure and sesyn the tenement 
axed, and the tenaunt in the mercye. But zif noone 
ne oome^ be fore iugement zoldene, and may renably 

^ the XV, day"] The iodalgence of 
fifteen days -wm termed diet ra<ia- 

^ commotciiy«] ^Bommoiuiys' should 
be here read* 

^ afte which lawe of bourgh'] This 
trandation is open to otjection. 
The French text should properly be 
rendered <' after irhich irageing of 

** law." It appears from Bracton 
that, npon the tenant wageing his 
law, another day was given 'him to 
make his law and to find pledges. 

* after the lawe of wedf] This 
wonld be more correctly translated 
** after wageing his lawe." 

^ zif noone ne come] ** if any 
« one come." 



Add. MS. par joy nt feffement ou par autre title de dreyt, qe cde 
' ' defaute ne ly deyt turner en preiudice, e prie estre 
receu a defendre soun dreyt, a ceo seyt il receu. E ceo 
la autre si bien pur femmes covertes de baroun com 
pur autres. E si le demaundaunt weyve la defaute e 
se teygne au chefe pie, voyt avaunt le pie entre eux 
solom la commune ley, sauve en le joyndre de la myse^ 
qe le tenaunt se mettra en Deu e en vne juree de xij. bons 
e leaus hommes en fourme de graunt assise solom vsage 
de la vyle, le quel il ad maour dreyt a tenir le tenement 
demaunde sicom il le tyent, ou le demaundaunt aver 
sicom il le demaunde. £ qe nule bataillie se deyt 
joyndre solom vsage de la vyle. £ quant la juree 
deyt estre ellue, seyt ele ellue en ceste fouime, primes 
facent les baillifs par assent des partyes ou de lour 
office demeyne, si les partyes ne veolent assentir, ellire 
en pleyne court quatre bons e leans hommes ^ de meyme 
la vyle de Qipp[ewyz], pur ellire la juree entre meyme 
les partyes. E si ceux quatre seyent present en court, 
seyent eux meyntenaunt jurez, qil leaument elyrunt 
xij. bons e leaus hommes de meyme la vyle qe meuz 
sachent e veolent verite dire qi ad maour dreyt etc. 
E seyent ceux quatre ellisours aioumez jesqes a la 
proschejme graunt court suaunt apres a livrer sus as 
baillifs panel des noums des jurours, a quel jour si 
panel seyt livre, seyt comaunde par meyme les baillifs 
a fere somundre par bons somenours meyme les jurours, 
qil seyent a la proscheyne graunt court suaunt apres 

f. 8. 

^ en le joyndre de la myee'] on 
joining issue. Coirell in his Iaw 
Bictionaiy says, Mise is also voca- 
bulum artis, appropriated to a writ 
of right, 80 called because both 
parties put themselves upon the meer 
right to be tried by the Grand As- 
size or by Battel. So as that which 
in all other actions is called an issue, 
in a writ of right is called a mine, 

unless a collateral point be tried, 
and there it is called an issue. 

' guatre iwns et leaus hommes,'] 
In trials by the Great Assize the 
demandant prayed a writ whereby 
four lawful knights of the vicinage 
were directed to choose twelve law> 
ful knights of the vicinage, who 
were to say, upon their oaths, which 
party had most right to the land in 
dispute. — GlanviUe, 1. ii. ch. 10, 11. 



sbewvne be ioynt enfeffement or be other titele of Add. MS. 

S5 01 1 

ryght that the defaute oweth not hym to tumen in ' 
premdioe, and preyeth to be resceyved to defendene his 
ryght^ to that be he resceyved, and that as weell for 
wommen kevered baroun as for other. And zif the 
pleyntyff weyve that defisbute and holdeth hym to the 
cheeff plee, thanne go forth the plee be twixen hem 
after the common lawe, saff in the ioynture of that myse, 
that the tenaunt shal putten hym on Qod and on the 

I oth ^ of xij. men goode lawful and trewe in foorme of 

/ grete assises after the vsage of the tonne, which of hem 

hath more right to holden the tenement axed, whether 

he that holdeth it or he that axeth it oweth to have it 

. as it is axed, and that no bataylle ^ oweth to ioyndre 
after the vsage of that toune. And whanne the day ^ 
oweth to be chosyn, be it chosyn in this foorme : Ferst 
the bally ves shul do be the assent of the partyes, or of 
here owen o£Ss if the partyes wul not assente, che- 
sene in playne court iiij. men goode and trewe in the 
same toune of Qippewiche for to chesyne the iurrours f- 4. !>• 
be twixen the same partyes. And zif tho iiij. men 
ben present in the court, be they a non sworn that 
lawefttlly they shal chesyn xij. men good and trewe of 
the same toun, that best cunnen and wyllen seyn the 
trowthe whiche hath most ryght, &c. ^d be tiio iiij. 
cheserys aioumed til the next grete court folwyng 
after to delyveryn up the panel of the names of the 
iurrours. At whiche day zif the panel be delivered, be 
it comaunded be the same ballyves to doon sommon by 
good Bommonours the same same (sic) iurrours^ that they 
bene att the next gret court folewyng after shewyng 

J Icl 


> on the oth] The closer tranBlation 
iroiild be '* on a jury " of xii, good 
and lawjid men, 

^ no batayUe'] Hie great assise was 
institated by King Henry II. in 
order to put an end to ** the Trager 
" of battel ". in questions of right to 


land, so that the party who chose to 
put himself on the assise, might sae 
ont a writ de pace hahenda. Cf. 
Glanville, I. ii. ch. 6. 

• The word ** day " is evidently a 
mistranslation of the word <' Jnr^," 
properly " jury." 





Add« MS. a reconustre par lour serementz qi ad maour dreyt, &e. 
*' ' E si lea quatre ellisours ne seyent pas en court au 
primer jour quant 11 serrunt eUuz de ellire la juree, 
adunkes seyent il somuns de venir a la proscheyne 
court suaunt pur ellire la juree, &c. A quel jour sil ne 
veygnent, seyent il amerdez e comaunde qe chescun de 
eux seyt mys par bone meynprise^ countre la proscheyne 
graunt court apres, e sil ne veygnent a cele courts seyt 
la meynprise amercie, e derechefe comaunde qe chescun 
de eux seyt mys par vj. mejmpamours de venir. E si 
de court en court seyt lour mejmprise grevousement 
amercye dla qil veygnent pur ellire, &c. E quant les 
avauntdiz quatre ellisours serrunt venuz en court, seyent 
il jurez de ellire la juree en la manere avaunt dyte. 
E adunkes lour seyt dyt par les bailli& avauntdytz qil 
mettent en panel au meyns xxiiij. en aventure si nul de 
eux seyt chalengee de nul des partyes. E seyent lour 
quatre noums primes enpanelez a demorer en meyme la 
juree si les partyes veolent assentir. E si le tenaunt 
veygne en court apres les treys primeres assoygnes e 

^par bone meynprise] This pro- 
viBion for secaring the presence of 
the foar choosers of the joiy was 
pecoliar. In the case of the Great 
Assise, if all the four knights did 
not appear, the Court, with the 
assent of the parties, might direct 

one of the knights to choose two or 
three others of the county then in 
court, thoogh not summoned, and 
with them to proceed to elect the 
twelve jurors. Glanyille, 1. ii. c. 



be her othes ^ who hath most right, &c. And zif tho iiij. Add. MS. 
cheserys ben not in court the ferst day whanne they ' ^^' 
ben chosyn to chesyn the iurrours, thanne be they som- 
moned to come to the next gret court folwyng for to 
chesyn the iurrours^ &c. Att which day zif they come not^ 
be they amercyed and comaunded vche of hem be put 
to good mejmpryse a geyns the next grete court after. 
And zif they come not to that coart^ be the meynprise 
amercyed and azeyne comaunded that vch of hem be 
put to vj. meynprinours to comen^ and so fro court to 
court be here meynprises gfevously amercyed til they 
comen to chesyne^ &a And whanne the forseyd iiij. 
cheserys ben eomyn in to court, be they swome to 
chesfyn the iurrours in the maner a fom seyd. And 
thanne be hit hem seyd be the forseyd ballyves that 
they putten in to corut (sic) a panel of xxiiij. names * 
at the leste, in aventure zif eny of hem ben chalanged 
of ony of the partyes. And be her iiij. names ferst in 
the panel, to dwellyn in the same oihe ' zif the partyes 
wullen assenten. And zif the tenaunt come in to court 
after the iij. ferst essoynes and axe sight of the tene* 

' shewyng be her othesl The trial 
was called a recognition, as the jniprs 
of this period found their yerdict 
upon their own knowledge, and were 
said to recognise (reconnstre) the 
thle of him, in whose favour they 
gaye their verdict The process for 
the retom of jnrors at this period was 
to this effect : " Snmmone per bo* 
« nos snmmonitores qnatuor legales 
'* milites de visineto ad eHgendmn 
" super sacramentum suum duo- 
« decim legales milites de eodem 
<' visineto, qui melius veritatem sci- 
" ant, ad recognoscendum super 
<* sacramentum suum utrum M. aut 
** R. mijus Jus haheat," &c. Glan- 
vUle, 1. ii. c. 11. 

^a pand of iwetUy-four naanes] 
Item a passage in Fleta, 1. 11, c. 5, 
it would seem that in the reign of 

Edward I. it had become an esta- 
blished practice in the great assise 
for the sheriff to convene a number 
not exceeding twenty-four of the free 
and lawfiil men of the vicinage, out 
of whom he nominated twelve indif- 
ferent persons, who then, either aU, 
or at least seven of them, proceeded 
to view the property in dispute. Hie 
term panely according to Spelman, 
signified a schedule or page, and to 
impanel the jury was to write the 
names of the jurors in a schedule or 
roll. On the other hand, it is not 
an improbable corgecture that the 
panel of the jury was literally a fiat 
board on which the names of the 
jurors were set out in order, as on 
the panel of a door. 
• orte] That is, jury. 

C 2 




Add. MS. demaunde la veue du tenement demaundee, ly seyt la 
25,012. YQ^Q graunte, si le demaundaunt ne pusse renablement 
e apartement dire e certifier la court, qe la veue 
avaunt eel houre eyt este graunte e fete de meyme 
le tenement entre meyme les persones par brefe de 
meyme la nature. E ail pusse eel mustrer, ne seyt 
pas la veue grauntee. E adunkes voyt avaunt le pie 
entre les partyes en la manere avaunt dyte. E apres 
la myse joynte eyent les partyes lour delays par as- 
soygne, sU les veolent quere solom le vsage e la manere 
avaunt dyte. E si nul terre tenaunt en la dite vyle 
en tel play ou en autre play de terre pendaimt par 
brefe en la court de meyme la vyle seyt vouche a 
gaitiunt,^ seyt il vouchee par eyde de meyme la court^ 
E par agard de meyme la court seyt il soumuns par ij. 
f. 8. b. fraunks hommes une feze, autre feze, e la tierce fezes 
mester seyt; e pus iij. feze destreynt, sil ne veygne par 
les somunses auxi com le tenaunt esteyt. E pus seyt 
il iij. feze assoygne sil veoilUe. Apres queux delays si 
le vouchee fSetce defaute ou defante apres apparaunce^ 
seyent de ses terres e ses tenementz pris en la meyn 
le rey la value, &c. E seyt sour teles defautes agarde 
meyme le prosces cum la commime ley demaunde. E si 
cely vouchee veygne en court e garauntisse, seyt il [en] 
lu dil tenaunt a pleder e soun dreyt defendre a meuz 
qil saura e porra solom la commune ley, sauve en le 
joyndre de la myse, e qe nule bataillie se deyt joyndre 
com avaunt est dyt. E si le tenaunt pur delayer le 
demand de soun dreyt, e pur anentir le poer de la 

^ vouche a garaunt'] The proceed- 
ings in tliis case, where the tenant 
called a person to varrant the land, 
appear to have been yery similar to 

those of the Great Assise. Glanville, 
1. iii. ch. 1-8. 

' par eyde de meyme la courf] By 
a writ of snmmonB ad warrantizan- 




ment axed, be hym the sight graunted, zif the pleyntyff Add. MS 
may nott renably and apertly seyn and certifyen the *^'^^^- 
court, that the sight a fore that tyme hath be graunted 
and don of the same tenement be twixe the same 
personys be writ of the same kynde. And zif the 
pleyntyff may shewe this, be not the sight graunted, 
and thanne go forth the plee be twixen the partyes 
afore seyd. And after that myse iointe,^ have the 
partyes her delayes be essoyne, zif they wyllyn axen 
after the vsage and the manor aforn seyde. And zif 
eny lend tenaimt in that toune in such plee, or in other 
plee of lend hangyng be wryt in the court of the same 
toun be it vouche garraunt, be he vouchyd be helpe 
of the same courts and be helpe and award of the same 
court be he summotmed be ij. fre mene oonys, twyes, or 
thryes zif myster be, and after the thrydde tyme 
distreyned, zif if he come not be the somounys as a 
tenauht that doon, and after be he iij. tymes essoyned, 
zif he wyl ; after which dayes zif he vouche make de- 
faute or fayle after aperyng, bene of his lend and of 
hese tenementes takyne in to the kynges hand to the 
value> &c. And be it vpon such defaute awarded the 
same proscesse as the comone lawe axethe.^ And zif f. 5. 
that vouche come in to court and warantise, be he in 
stede of the tenaunt to pletyn and defendyn his righte 
in the best wyse that he can and may after the 
comoun lawe saff in the ioyndre of that myse, and that 
no batayle hym oweth ioindre, as it is afore seyd. 
And zif the tenaunt for to delaye the pleyntyff of his 
ryght, and peraventure the power of the court a fore . 

> after that myse jointe ] after 
issae joined. 

' as the comon law axetheji Glan- 
viUe, 1. iii. c. 4, considers that the 
law and custom of the realm re- 
quired the land to be taken into the 
king's hand, if the warrantor made 

de&olt, inasmuch as the warran- 
tor in snch a case was bound to 
giYO the tenant an equivalent (ex- 
cambium) by way of compensation. 
In charters of feoffment a clause of 
warranty to that effect was always 



Add. MS. curt avaunt dyte vouche acun a garaiint par eyde de la 
^'»^^** court le rey par resoun de ses foreyns tenementz.^ Com 
meyme cely vouche eyt assez de denz la dyte ville de 
Gipp[ewyz] dunt garantir le tenement demaundee e se 
teygne sour oel foreyn voucher saunz autre respouns 
doner. E le demaundaunt tende de averer par bone 
enqueste qe meyme cely vouche ad assez en la dite vyle 
de Oipp[ewyz] dunt garauntir a la value, &dc, e sour ceo 
demaunde juggement de eel foreyn voucher. Si meyme 
cely tenaunt refuse eel aveyrement ou "tut " le preygne* 
il e troue seyt par enqueste^ qe meyme le vouche ad 
assez eu meyme la vyle de Oippew[yz] dunt garantir 
a la value com avaunt est dyt, seyt agarde qe le 
demaundaunt receoure seysine du tenement demaundee, 
e le dyt tenaunt en la merci. E si troue seyt par 
meyme lenquesteqe le dyt vouche nad en la dite vile 
dunt garauntir a la value, &c., adunkes seyt le dyt 
foreyn voucher agarde pur bon. E si le tenaunt Vouche 
vn foreyn par eyde de la court le rey e le demaun- 
daunt seoflSre* le voucher pur ceo qe cely foreyn nad 
rien en meyme la vyle de Qipp[ewyz], dunt il pusse 
garauntir a la value, &c., a dunkes seyent les partyes 
aiournez a la proscheyne grant court suaunt. Apres 
quel aioumement eyent les. partyes iij. assoygnes de 
court en court, sil les veoillent quera E si cely tenaunt 
face defaute apres ceo qil aura ensi vouche, ou sil ne 
porte mye soun brefe de la chauncellerie as baillifii de 
f. 9. meyme la vyle a td iour ' com done sera a ly ou a soun 

^ par resoun de ses foreyns tene- 
mentz'] The object of vouching to 
warranty a person whose tenements 
were foreign, that is, beyond liie 
jurisdietion of the bailliffs of the 
town, was to found an application to 
the king's chancellor for a writ to 
have the soit tried in the curia regis. 
Cf. Statute of Gloucester, 6 Edw.I., 
ch. ziL, as to the practice to be 

followed in London, where a man, 
who was impl d for a tenement 
in that city, vouched a foreigner to 

^ seoffre"] ne seoffi^ seems re- 
quired by the context, and would 
harmonize with the English text. 

^ a td jour'] The practice would 
appear to have been for the bailliffii 
to appoint a day, before which the 



seyd, vouche eny garrant be helpe of the kynges court, ^^ MS. 
be reaoune of his foreyn tenementes. As that same '*'""• 
vouche hath aziough with inne the forseyd toune of 
Gippewich for to warante the tenement axed, and that 
hold upon this foreyne vouche with oute other answeres 
yovene. And if the pleyntyflf tende to have it by good 
enquest that the same vouche hath inough in the for- 
seyd toune of Qippewych to warantene the value, &c., 
and vp on this axe jugement of the foreyn vouche, zif 
the same tenaunt refuse this averrement, and zif be 
an enquest it be founden that the same vouche hath 
ynough in the same toune of Gippewych wherof to 
warante to value, as it is a fore seyd, be it awarded to 
the pleyntyff recure and sesyne^ of the tenement axed, 
and the forseyd tenaunt in the mercy. And zif it be 
founden be the same enquest, that the forseyd vouche 
hath not in the toune wherof to warantyn to the value * 
&c., thanne be that forseyd vouche awarded for good. 
And zif the tenaunt vouche a foreyne by helpe of the 
kynges court, and the pleyntyff suffre not the vouche 
for that this foreyne hath non thyng in the same toune 
of Qippewych wher of he may warant to the value, 
&c.y thanne be the partyes aioumed to the ne£t gret 
court folwyng, after which aioumyng the same partyes 
shal have iij. essoynes from court to court, zif they wul 
axen. And zif the tenaunt make defaute after that 
that he have in his vouche, or zif he bryng not his 
wrytt from the chaunceiy to the ballyves of the same 
toune at which day it shal be graunted to hym or to 

^ recure and seayn] The French 
text shoold be rendered *<be it 
*' awarded that the plaintiff recover 
'* seisin of the tenement claimed 
" by him." 

3 wherof to warantyn to the value] 
A warranty was held to bind tacitly 

not only the person of the feoffor 
himself, bat also any tenement which 
he then had, by virtue of which 
obligation the tenement would be 
liable to go in excambium of the land 
warranted. Bracton, 1. v. c. 7, f. 382. 



Add. MS. assoneour a sour ser en la parole avaunt dyte, e le 
25,012. demaundaunt sour ceo le profre e demaunde de. ceo 
juggement, seyt agarde qil recbure seysine da tene- 
ment demandee^ e le tenauDt en la mercL E meyme 
le prosces seyt tenu a fere venir les jurours sil facent 
defaute^ com avaunt est dyt des quatre ellisours. 

Capo. Tj«. Item en play de abatement, qe lem apele [fresche] 
^^®^^*^® force, seyt vsee ceu prosces, qe s[i un] disseyse autre 
de Boun fraunke tenement en la vauntdite vyle de 
Oipp[ewyz], cest asaver de tenement pledable en la 
court de meyme la vile, si le disseysi de deynz les 
primers xl. jours apres la disseysine attache sa pleynte 
de sure ver le disseysour devaunt les baillifs de meyme 
la vile par gage e plegge,^ meyntenaunt facent meyme 
les baillifs prendre en la meyn le rey le tenement 

tenant was required to exhibit a 
writ from the office of the king's 
chancellor, otherwise proceedings 
would be continued in their court to 

^ par gage et plegge] Per vadium 
et plegios. The earliest extant 
English charter or Uiw in which the 
Latin word vadium is used as the 
equivalent of the Saxon word ''wed" 
is the charter of King Henry I., 
A J). HOI. : ** Si quis baronum vel 
** hominnmmeorumforisfecetit,non 
** dabit vadium in misericordia to- 

*' cius pecunin sua sicut &ciebat 
" tempore patris mei et fratris mei." 
Ancient Laws and Instftutes of 
England, vol. i. p. 509. The same 
body of laws contains an ordinance 
De Flegiis Dominorum suorum: 
*' Si quis a domino suo missus sit 
in plegium, et ostendere possit 
quod ei ex sponsione vel fid^us- 
sione ilia dampnum venit, non 
cogitur ex lege de quavis pecuniali 
implacitaoione respondere ei, do- 
nee totum restituat quod amiserit 
pro eo." Id. p. 544. 








his essoyne to enformen in tiie speche aforeseyd^ and Add. MS. 
if the pleyntyff vpone this profre hym self and axe of *^'®^^- 
that jugement, be it awarded that he recure sesyne of 
the ^tenement axed, and the tenaunt in the mercye 
And the same partyes ^ bene beholden to do comyn the 
iurrours zif they make defaute, as it is seyde afome of 
the iiij. cheserys, &c. 

Also in plee of abatement/ that men clepyn fr^sshe /I- 
force, be vsed such proces, that zif eny man dissese other abatement 
of his free tenement in the forseyd toune of Qippewiche, 
that is to wetene of tenement pletable in court of the 
same toune. And zif the man be dissesed with ynne 
the ferste xl. dayes after the dissesyn begynne his pleynt 
a geyns the diasesour a fore the ballyves of the forseyd 
toun by wed and borgh,' a none the ballyves shul do f. 5. b. 
takene to the kynges hand the tenementz wherof the 

1 the tame partyea] The French 
text should be rendered ''and the 
« same process should be observed 
<* to make the jurors come» if they 
'* make default, as is practised in 
" the case of the four choosers of 
" the jury, i.e., by requiring meyn- 
** pemours.*' 

* ahaUsmtni] This word signifies 
the intrusion of a person, who has 
no right, immediately aftier the death 
of any one to the exclusion of the 
heir. Fresh force was such an in- 
trusion made within forty days, or 
within a longer period, if the heir 
was at a distance. Cf. Britton, 
L iii. ch. 1, De Intrusions. An 
assize of novel diss^in, called 
'^ Fressheforce," in the city of Lon- 
don, was held before the two sherifb 
and the coroner of the said city 
every Saturday at the Guildhall, cf. 
Liber Albus, p. 195. 

3 by wed and horgK] Amongst the 
laws, decreed by King Ethelred and 

his Witan at Wantage, is the follow- 
ing ordinance as to the '' wed " to be 
given in each suit : ** And in a 
** king's suit let every man deposit 
<< a wed of six half marks ; and in 
« an eorPs and a bishop's a wed of 
'* twelve ores ; and in every thane's 
" a wed of six ores." Ord. iii. § 12 ; 
Ancient Laws and Institutes, vol. i. 
p. 297. The "borh" was a very 
ancient institution amongst the An- 
glo-Saxons. Amongst the dooms 
of Hlothhffire and Eadric, kings of 
the Kentish men, is the following 
provision : " If one man make plaint 
against another in a suit, and he 
cite the man to a ' methel ' or toa 
* thing,' let the man always give 
'< * borh ' to the other, and do him 
'' such right as the Kentish men 
'* prescribe to them. But if he 
refuse to give ' borh,' let him pay 
twelve shillings to tiie king, and 
'* let the suit be as open as it before 
"was." /rf.p. 81. 








Add. MS. dunt la pleynte est faite^ e livrer le a deux proscheyns 
25,012. veysins en garde cila qe meyme le play devaunt eux 
seyt tennyne par juggement, e seyt le disseysour ou 
soun baillif sil ne seyt troue meyntenaunt mys par 
gagge e plegge a respoundre al dyt plejnitif de eel 
fresche abatement a tel jour com les ditz baillifs 
voudrunt doner. E si le disseysour se alloygne e ne 
peot estre troue, ne soun baillif, a fere ceo qe ley veot, 
ou tut seyt il troue e ne voillie plegge trouer, seyt il 
gamy a meyme le lu ou la disseysine fu faite par 
deux fraunks hommes a respoundre com avauxit est 
dyt, countre quel jour seyt arrainye vne assise de xij. 
bons e leans hommes diJ proscheyn vygne a faire la 
reconissaunce, &c. e qil eyent la veue du tenement, &c. 
A quel jour si les partyes venent en court e le pleyntif 
f. 9. b. aura sa pleynte mustre, seyt lassise prise de eel abate- 
ment auxi com affert solom co qe les partyes auront 
pledez. E si le disseyssour &uce defaute e sa deffaute seyt 
agardo, seyt lassise prise en sa abcense (sic) par sa defaute. 
E quant a damages taxer e partyes amercier e a seysine 
livrer seyt vse meyme le presses, com serreyt en assise 
de novele disseysine.^ E si le disseyssour se teygne a 
force en le tenement, a dunkes facent les bailli& remuer 
cele force e prendre le tenement en la meyn le rey e 
livrer a deux veysins en garde com avaunt est dyt, e 
pus mettre le disseyssour par gage e plegge ou &ire 
le garnir en la manere avaunt dite. E si la force seyt 
tele qe ele ne peot estre remue saunz peril de mort 
ou de meschaunce, les bailli& par la veue e la temoyg- 
naunce de vn ou deux coronners e des autres bones 

^ assise de noveU disseysine'] Dis- 
seisin is defined in the Myrroor des 
Justices, L ii. ch. 25, as "un per- 
'< sonell trespas de tortious ouster 
« de possession." The assise of 
novel diss^in was at this time 
held by the justices of eyre in le- 

sp^t of disseisia suffered since the 
last eyre, but when the assise was 
instituted by Henry IL the term 
« novel" had reference to dissei- 
sin made since the last voyage of 
Henry II. to Normandy, which was 
m A.D. 1184. 




pleynt ys maad and deliveryn on to ij. the next neygh- Add. Ma 
bourys in kepyng til that the same plee a fom hem be ^^>^^^' 
determined be iugement, and be dissesour or his 
ballyff zif he be nott foundene anon put to wed and 
borghe to ana were to the pleyntyff of that fresshe 
abatement, and such day as the ballyyes wul yeve. And 
ziff the dissesour aloyne hym and may not be founden, 
ne his ballyff, to doone that lawe woUe, or though he be 
foimdene and wil fynde no borowes, be it kept ^ at the 
same place where dissesyn was doon be ij. free men to 
answere as it is afomseyd, a yens which day by hem 
sette assise of xij. men good and trewe of the next 
neghboures to make a cognisaunce, &c., and that they 
have a syght of the tenement. At which day zif the parties 
comen in to the court and the pleyntyff shewe his pleynt, 
be assise takene of that abatement as it oweth to ben 
after that the parties have pletyd. And zif the dissesour 
make defaute and his defaute be awarded, be the assise 
takyn in his absence be his defaute. And how moche 
to taxen and to amercyen the partyes, and to delyveren 
sesyn, be the processe vsed as it shuld ben in assise of 
newe dissesyn.' And zif the dissesour holde hym with 
force in the tenement, thanne the bally ves shal do remove 
that force, and take the tenement in to the kynges hand, 
and delivere it to ij. neyghbourys in kepyng aa it is a 
fomseyd. And they may putte the dissesour be wed and 
borghe ® to doon hym kepyn it in the maner a fore soyd. 
And zif the strengthe be swyche that it may not be 
removed withoute perel of deth or of myscheeff, the 
ballyves be sight of on or ij. coronerys and of othere 

1 be it kept] This should rather 
be translated *' be he warned." 

^ auUe ofnetee dissesyn] In this 
assise no essoin was allowed, and the 
recognition of the jurors proceeded 

on the first day, whether the dissei- 
sor appeared or not. 

^ be wed and borghe] that is, may 
attach him by pledges or have him 
warned in manner aforesaid. 



Add. M6. gentz de la vile preygnent le tenement en la meyn le 

25,012. j,gy^ ^ pronuncient cele seysine issi continue a force e 

armes pur nule, tut seyt ele continue xl. jours, apres les 

quels xL jours seyt la pleyte dil abatement excecut ver 

le disseyssour en meyme la manere qele ust este faite 

de deynz les primers xl. jours apres la pleynte attachee, 

cest asavoyr si le pleyntif sue sa pleynte ver le 

disseyssour sauntz aver regard a la seysine contynue 

xl. jours a force e armes com ayaunt est dyt, quele 

seysine solom vsage de la dite vile seyt tenue e garde 

pur nule. E bien se avise le disseysi en tel &esclie 

abatement qil attache sa pleynte de sure de deynz 

les primers xl. jours apres co qil serra issi disseysi, e 

si il ne le face il perd soun avauntage de estre resseysi 

par tel play.' Mes si nul se abate par disseysine en 

autri fraunke tenement en la dite vile dementers qe 

le disseysi seyt en prisoun, ou hors de memore, ou hors 

des quatre mers Dengletere, en chescun de ces treys cas 

eyt le disseysi soun recourir ver le disseyssour par 

pleynte de abatement; mes qe la pleynt seyt attache 

freschement de deynz les primers xl. jours apres qe le 

dit disseysi serra delivres hors de prisoun, ou serra de bone 

memore, ou serra venuz de deynz les quatre mers Dengle- 

terre. En meyme la manere cum avaunt est dyt se teygne 

le prosces la, ou la pleynte seyt abatue en la court avaunt 

dite par excepcioun oU par meyns suffisaunte pleynte, 

seyt le pleyntif resceu a sa pleynte renoveler, mes qil 

la renovele avaunt qe les baiUifs senpartent hors de 

court. E en tele manere de play ne seyt nule essoygnc 

allowe al pleyntif ne al diffendaunt pur hastive 

dreyture faire a les partyes. E fait a saver qe en 

> par tel play] That b by the plea 
of Fresshe Force. The mode of 
holding the assise of novel disseisiny 
called Fressheforce, as to lands, te- 

nements, and rents in the city of 
London, is set forth in the Liber 
Albus, 1. iil p. i. fol. 186 a. 



goode folkes of the toun shul take that tenement in to Add. MS« 
the kynges hand, and pronouncyn that sesyn so holdyn *5,oii. 
with force and armys for non^ though it so be contynued 
x1. dayes, after which xl. dayes be tiie plee of abatement 
executed a geyn the dissesour in the same maner that it 
shulden have be doon with inne the ferst xl. dayes afbei^ 
that the pleynt be gyven, that is to weten, zif the pleyn- 
tyff sue his pleynt a yens the dissesour with oute having 
rewai*d to the sesyn continuyng xL dayes with force and 
armys as it is a fore seyd^ which sesyn after the vsage of 
that forseyd toun ben holden and awarded for noon. 
And wed avise hym he that is dissesed in swich fresshe 
abatement that he begynne his pleynt [of suyt] with 
inne the ferst xl. dayes after that he be so dissesyd, and 
but zif he do he lesyth his avauntage to ben resesyd be 
that plee. But zif eny man abate hym be dissesyn ^ in fre 
tenement in the forseyd toune the mene tyme that he 
that is diBsesyd be in prisone, or out of mynde, or with 
oute the iiij. sees of Ingeland, in eche of these iij. cas have 
the dissesyd his recure a zeyne the dissesour be pleynt 
of abatement ; but that the pleynt be begunnen fresdily 
with inne the ferst xl. dayes after that the dissesyd be 
delivered out of prisoune, or be in good mynde, or be 
come with inne the iiij. sees of Ingeland. In the same 
maner as it is afore seyd helde hym the processes ther 
the pleint be abated * in the court by excepcione or by 
vnsufficient pleynt, be the pleyntyff resceyved to his 
pleynt to be gynnen a zeyne, but att the gynnyng a zeyne 
be fore the ballyves or they departe out of the court. 
In swich maner of plee be none essoynes alowed to the 
pleyntyff ne to the defendaunt for hastyf right to done "" 
the partyes. And it is to wittene that in swiche manere 

^ abate hym be dtMesyn] that is, 
abate himself or intrade himself into 
the free tenement of another. 

' be abated] be defeated. Britton, 

1. iL c. zyii., uses the word " abate *' 
in the sense of defeating the writ by 



Add. MS. tele manere play ceux qe sunt nomes auxicom disseys- 
26,012. g^^yg gg porTUiit proflWr par baillif auxi com en 
assise de novele disseysine. 

Capo. v5«. Item play de nusaunce de fraunke tenement seyt 
nusaunce.^ plede devaunt les baillifs de la dite vile de Gipp[ewyz] 
par gage e plegge,^ oest a saver si le pleyntif attache sa 
pleynte desure freschement de deinz les primers xl, 
jours apres la nusaunce faite, e sil ne face e il seyt 
demoraunt de deinz les quatre mers Dengleterre^ hors 
de prisoun, ou de seyne memorie en temps qe la 
nusaunce est fete, e seoffre meyme la nusaunce estre 
pesiblement contynue meyme les xl. jours^ a dunke ne 
seyt il pas respondu de cele nusaunce saunz bref le 
rey. Mes si celuy a qi tele nusaunce est fete seyt hors 
des quatre mers Dengleterre> ou en prisoun, ou hors de 
seyne memorie en temps de la nusaunce fete, e il 
freschement de deinz les primers xl. jours apres co 
qil serra venuz en Engletere^ ou qil serra hors de 
prisoun ou de seyne memorie, attache sa pleynte de 
sure par gage e plegge ver celuy qe la dite nusaunce 
aura fete, a ceo seyt il receu de pleder solom ley e 
usage de la dite vile tut saunz bref com avaunt est 
dyi E en prosces vsee de tele nusaunce par bref ou 
saunz bref seyt le defendaunt attache par plegge a 
respoundre,^ E sil ne voillie plegge trouer, ou qil se 
aloygne issi qil ne peot estre troue, seyt il somuns a 
meyme le lu, ou la nusaunce est fete, de estre a vn 
certeyn jour devaunt les baillife de la dite vile a 
respoundre al avaunt dyt pleyntif de play de nusaunce, 
f. 10. b. oountre quel jour seyt arrainye vne juree de xij. bons 
e leans hommes dil procheyn vygne par les queux la 
dite nusaunce porrad meuz estre trie; ^ et dementers 
eient eels de la juree la vewe de Ja nusaunce et del 

> pat gage et pUgge\ that is with- 
out a writy if the party did not lie by 
for forty days. 

^par plegge a t:e9poundre] He 

was to be attached by a writ of this 
tenor : Pone per vadimn et salvos 
plegios, etc., qnod sit coram balliviB 
• • • responsnms, etc. 




of plee that they that bene nemned as dissesours them ^^ -^^ 
self may proferene by ballyff as in assise of newe 25,011. 

Also plee of nusance of free tenement be pletyd a . 
fore the ballyvys of the forseyd tonne of Gippewich be Of frenh 
wed and borghe, that is to weten, zif the pleyntyff 
begynne his pleynt [of suyt] fresshly with inne the 
ferst xL dayes after the nnsannce doone/ and zif he 
node do^ and he be dwellyng with inne the iiij. sees 
of Ingelond, out of prisone, and in good mynde in 
tyme that nnsance be doone, and suffre the same 
nnsanoe to be pesibly holden the same xl« dayes, thanne 
be it not answeryd to hym of that nnsannce with oute 
writ of the kyng.^ But 2df he to whom that nusance ys 
doone be out of the iiij. sees of Ingelond, or in prison, 
or out of good mynde in tyme of the nusance done, 
and he fresshly with inne the ferst xl. dayes after that 
he be comyne in to Ingelond, or out of prisone, or a 
zeyne in his mynde, begynneth to sue his pleynte by 
wed and borghe a zens hym that hath doon that 
nusance, be he receyved to pletene after the lawe and 
the vsage of the forseyd toun al with outen writ, as it is 
afomseyd. And in the processe vsyd of swich nnsannce 
by writ or with outen writ be defendaunt attached be 
borrowes for to answere. And zif he ne wole fynde 
borowes, or if that he a loyne hym self so that he may 
not be founden, be he sommoned at the same place wher 
the nnsance is doon, to be at a certayne day a fom the 
ballyves of the forseid tonne to answere the forseid 
pleyntyff of plee of nusance, a yeyn which day be arayned 
an othe ^ of zij. men goode and trewe of the next negh- 
bouresi be which the forseyd' nnsance may the better ben 
tried; and in the mene tyme have they of the othe 

1 with ouU writ of the kyngl^ The 
proceedingB upon this writ when ad- 
dressed to the sheriff were the same 
as in an aasise of no^el disseisin of 

a freehold. Bracton, L iv. 0. xirl, 
f. 258. 

* an othe] " a jury " would be the 
proper translation. 





Add. MS. franc tenement' A quel jour quant les partyes vendrunt 
25,012. Q^ court par pleder, seyent leur resouns oy dune part e 
dautre solom co qu le eas demaunde^ e sil descendent en 
enqueste de cele nusaunce, seyt cele enqueste prise au 
meyns par. xij. bons e leans '" hommes ' dil procheyn vygne 
com avaunt est dyt. E si trove seyt par serement 
de meyme les xij. jureez qil i eyt nusaunce^ seyt agarde 
par la court qe meyme la nusaunce seyt hastivement 
abatue e redrescee par veue de meyme les jururs, e 
qe le pleyntif par lour taxacioun recoure ses damages, 
e le defendaunt en la merci E si celuy de qi la pleynte 
de nusaunce est fete apres co qil aura plegge troue 
a respoundre, ou apres co qil serra somuns en la manere 
avaunt dite, face defaute, seyt lenqueste agarde e prise 
par sa defaute, e si troue seyt qil i eyt nusaunce, seyt le 
iuggement execut com avaunt est dyt. E si les 
partyes veolent assentir qe les nusaunces seyent tryez 
e redresceez par les baillifs e par les veysins hoi^ de 
court saunz play, bien seyt; e si co noun seyent eles 
redresceez en la manere avauntdite, si le pleyntif 
voudra sure. E fet asaver qe en tel play de nusaunce 
plede par gage e plegge* ne seyt nule essoygne 
allowe au pleyntif ne al diffendauni Mes si le play 
seyt pendaunt par bref, adunkes seyent iij. essoygnes 
allowez, &c. 

Cap^.vigo. Item vse est en la vauntdite vile qe ceux qe tenent 

Dewast. tenements en meyme la vile a terme de vye ou des 

anns, ou femmes qe tenent en doware ou en noun de 

fraunke baunke solom vsage de la vile, qe teux manere 

^ par gage et plegge^ The fonn of 
proceeding by wed and borgh had 
the advantage of being more sum- 

mary than a trial under aimt from 
the crown, by excluding all essoins 
or excuses for non-appearance. 

I •■ ■ 



Sight of that nusance and of the fire tenement Att which Add. MS. 
day whanne the partyes comyn in to court for to pletyn ' 
be her answeres herd of oon partye and of that other 
after the caas axeth, [and zif they descend into an 
enquest of that nusance, be the] enquest taken of handes^ 
by xij. men goode and trewe of the next neghboures aa 
it is afomseyd. And 2df it be founden be the ooth of the 
same xij. men swome that he hath doone nusance, be ^- ^* ^« 
that awarded be the court that the same nusance be 
hastyly abated and redressed be sight of the same iurours, 
and that the pleyntyff be her taxadone recure his 
damages, and the defendaunt in the mercy. And if he 
of whom the pleynt of nusance is maad, after that he 
hath founden boroghe to answere,' or after that he is 
sommoned in the maner afomseyd, make defiEmte, be an 
enquest awarded and taken for his defaut; and zif it 
be founden that he hath don nusance, be the iugement 
executyd as it is afornseyd. And zif the partyes wolyn 
assentyne that tho nusances bene tried and redressed be 
the ballyves and by her neyghbourys oute of court with 
oute plee,* weel be it ; and yiff they wil not assentyn be 
they redressyd in the maner a fomeseyd zif the pleyntyff 
will sujme yt. And it is to wetyne, that in swych a 
plee of nusaunce pletyd be wed and borghe, thanne be 
noone essoyne alowed to the pleyntyff ne to the defen- 
daunt ; but if the plee be hangyng by wrytt, thanne be 
there iij. essoynes alowed. 

Also it is in the forseyd toun used that they the viij. 
wheche have tenementz in the same toun to terme of ^***' 
his liff or of yerys, or wommen thatt holden in dower 
of in name of fre braunch * after the usage of the 

> of handes] *' at least *' would 
Beem to be the meaning of the 
French text. 

*/ounden boroghe to answere ] 
found sureties to answer. 

' with oute pke"] that v^, without 


formal pleadings and counting on 

*fre bratinch] fre-banQch or fre- 
banche would be the proper transla- 
tion : cf. cap. ii. 



f. 11. 

Add. MS. des tenaonts ne fistcent en teas: tenementB wast ne 
'^^^' destrucciouB^ ne qil ne les seoffi:ent poynt outraiousement 
descheyr^ mes qil les susteygnent renablement en anxi 
bon estat com il les reoeurent, al eos de ceux as queuz 
meyme les tenements apres la mort des teux tenaimts 
deyvent revertir ou remeyndre. E si mil des teux 
manere tenaimts fistcent wast on destruccioim en les 
tenements qil ensi tenent a terme de vye ou en autre 
manere com avaunt est dyt^ ou qil les seoffiient out- 
raiousement descheyir, e pas renablement ne les sus- 
teygnent auxi com par ley faire deyvent, qe celuy, a 
qi la reversioun ou le remeyndre de ceo appert, eyt 
accioun a demaunder meyme le tenement waste en 
demeyne devaunt les bailiffs de la dite vile de Gippe- 
wyz par gage e plegge^ solom ley e vsage de meyme 
la vile auxbien com par bre£ E qe le prosces de la 
pleynte seyt vsee en teu manere, cest asaver, qe, quant 
le pleyntyf aura attache sa pleynte desure, seyt agarde 
qe celuy ou cele qe le wast aura fait seyt somuns a 
meyme le lu waste par deux firaunkes e leans hommes 
de meyme la vile de estre a vn certayn jour devaunt 
les ditz baillifs en pleyne court a respoundre al 
avauntdit pleyntif de play de wast, a quel jour sil ne 
veygne, seyt autrefeze somuns en meyme la manere. 
E sil ne veygne par cele secunde somunse, seyt la 
tierce somunse en meyme la manere agarde sour luy. 
E si celuy tenaunt apres co qil serra trey feze somuns 
face defaute e ne voillie venir, adunkes preygnent les 
baillife oveske eux au meyns un ou deux des corouners 
de la vile, e ayllunt a meyme le lu wastee, e par sere- 

* par gage et plegge] The com- 
plainant might require the tenant 
to give a pledge and find sureties 
according to the law and enstom of 

the town, or might sue out a writ of 
" quod non permittant" to the 
hailifib of the town. 


toun, that swiche maner of tenauntes shulden not Add. MS. 

25 01 1 

doone in the tenementes waat i^e destraccione, no that ' 
they suffere outrageously to fallen, but that they bus^ 
teynyn resonabely in as good poynt and state as they 
receyvedene hem, to the vse of hem to whom the same 
tenementes after the deth of thoo tenauntes owen to 
tumen and duellyn. And zif ony swych maner of 
tenauntes doon wast or destruccyon in the tenement 
the which they holden so to terme of lyff or in other 
maner as it is aforneseyd, or that they suffeiyn out* 
rageously to fallen and not resonabely siisteynyne as 
by lawe they oughten to doon, that he to whom the 
reversyone or the remaynder of thai longeth to have an 
aecione to axe the same tenement wasted in demene by 
fore the ballyyes of the forseyd toun of Gippewych by 
wed and borghe after the lawe and vsage of the same 
toune, as weel as by wrytt.^ And that the processse of 
that pleynt be vsed in swich maner, that is to weten, 
that whanne the pleyntyf begynneth his pleynt to suyn, 
be it awarded that he or hee that hathe doon the wast 
be sommoned at the place wasted be ij. trewe men 
lawefull and trewe of the same toun to bene atte a 
oertayn day before the ballyves in pleyne court to 
answeryn to the forseyd pleyntyff of plee of wast, at 
whiche day zif he come not, be he an other tyme 
sommonyd in the same maner; and zif he come not 
be the secunde sommounys, be the iij. sommounys 
awarded vpone hym. And yif the tenaunt after that f. 7. 
he is iij. tymes sommoned make defeiute and wyl nott 
come, thanne the ballyyes shul take with hem at the 
leeste on or ij. of the coronnerys,^ and shul go to the 

* hy teryW] By 6Edw. I. ch;v., a 
writ of iraste might igsiie from the 
ehancery against a tenant for life, 
or a tenant for a term of years, or a 
woman in dower. 

' OR or ^100 of the coronnerys] 
There were four coroners chosen by 
the common council under the char- 
ter of King John to keep the pleas 
of the crown and other things ap- 
pertaining to the crown, and to see 

D 2 



Add. MS. inent de xij. bons e leaus hommes jurez faoent il taxer 
25,012. Iq ^ast * e le damage £*it en meyme le tenement. E 
apres eele enqueste prise e le wast taxe seyt celuy, qe 
le wast aura fait, gamy par deux fraunks hommes de 
la vile de esbre a certeyn jour devaunt les ditz baillifs, 
ne mye a respoundre dil wast, mes a trouers urte si II 
veoile al avauntdit pleyntyf de redrescer e reparallier 
le lu wastee e a faire de eel wast taxe ceo qe la court 
agardera, a quel jour ne seyt nule essoygne allowe al 
avauntdit tenaunt Mes sil ne veygne poy[n]t e 
le gamissement seyt temoygne, seyt agarde qe le 
demandaunt recoure seysine de meyme le lu waste 
f. 11. b. e ses damages solom ceo qe le wast serra taxe, e 
celuy qe le wast aura &it seyt grevousement amerde 
pur le trespas e pur plusoures defautes. E si le 
avaunt dit tenaunt veygne en court apres les treys 
primeres somunses e conusse le wast, ou qil veygne 
quant il serra gamy apres la dite enqueste prise, 
e veollie trouer bone e suffisaunte seurte de re- 
drescer e reparallier le lu wastee au meyns en auxi bon 
estat com il le recent, par veue e temoygnaunce des 
bones gentz a certeyn jour qe luy serra assis par les 
ballifs e les bones gentz de la court, a ceo seyt il 
receu. E sil ne veollie ou ne pusse de co seurte trouer, 
perde il le lu wastee' e les damages. Mes avaunt 
qe la seurte serra receue en la manere avaunt dite, 
facent les ballifs taxer le wast par xij. 'hommes jurez 
si avaunt ne estoyt taxe, e de ceo seyt meyme la 
seurte charge a respoundre al dit pleyntyf, si le dit lu 
wastee ne seyt redresce e reparallie au jour assis cum 

1 taxer le wast] If the tenant did 
not appear after the third sommons, 
the bailiflfs with one or two co- 
roners empanelled a jury to view 
and tax the waste committed, and 
thereupon the tenant was summoned 
to appear and find sureties to make 
good the waste. 

* perde tile lu tDostee'] This pe- 
nalty of deprivation was in accord- 
ance with 6 Edw. L ch. v. The 
damages were fixed by that statute 
at thrice so much as the waste 
should be taxed at 



Bame place wasted, and other xij. men good and trewe Add. MS. 
sworne they shul doo taxene the wast and the damages ^^>^^^- 
doon in the same tenementz. After this enquest takyn 
and the wast taxed, be he that hath doon the wrong 
warned be ij. fi*e men of this toun to be att a certayn 
day a fore the ballyves, not to answeiyn of wast, but 
for to fynde suerte zif he wyl redressyn to the forseyd 
pleyntyflP and amende a yen the place wasted, and to 
doon of that wast taxe that the court shal awardyn, 
at which day be non essoyne alowed to the forseyd 
tenaunt. And but zif he come at^ the wamyng be 
wittenessed, be it awarded that the pleyntyff recure 
sesyn of the place wasted and his^ damages after that 
the wajst shal be taxed, and he that hath doon the 
wast be he grevously amercyed for the trespas and for 
manye defautea And zif the forseyd tenaunt come in to 
the court after the iij. ferst sommonys and knoweleche 
the wast, or that he be comyn whanne he be warned 
after the forseid enquest takyne, and wil fyndyne suffi- 
ciaunt suerte to redressyn and to amendyn azeyn the 
place wasted in as good state as it was afome be 
sight and wittenesse of goode folke [att a certayn 
day which to hym shal be assygned be the ballyves 
and the goode folke] of that court, to that he be 
receyved. And zif he wil not or may not fjmden suerte, 
lese he the place and the damages. But a forne that 
suerte shal be receyved in the maner a foreseyd, the 
ballyves shul doon taxen the wast be xij. men sworyne 
zif it was not taxed a forne, and of that be the same 
suerte charged to on sworn ^ to the forseyd pleyntyff, 
zif the place wasted be not ui due maner [redressed and 

that thegoremon of the borough of 
Ipswich behaved jostly and lawfully 
towards the poor as weU as the 

1 The English text << zif he eome 

'* at" is eyidently erroneous. The 
proper reading would be ** zif he 
" come not and." 

^ Oft stDorn'] ** answer " should be 
read for " on sworn," 



Add. MS. avaunt estdyt. E si meyme le luwastee ne seyt en 
25,012. j^^ manere reparaUie au jour assis cum avaunt est dit, 
adunkes a la sute dit pleyntif seyt oeluy, qe le wast 
aura fait, gamy per ij. firaunks hommes de la vile de 
estre a eertyn jour devaunt les avaunt ditz baiUifs a 
mustrer si 11 sache ren dire pur quey la seysine dil 
avauntdit lu waste ne deyt estre Uvree al avauntdit 
pleyntif; a quel jour si il ne veygne poynt, seyt agarde 
qe le pleyntif recoure sa seysine dil lu wastee e ses 
damages, e le tenaunt en la merci. £ tut veygne le 
tenaunt en curt, seyt agarde en meyme la manere, sil 
ne pusse mustrer qil ad plus haut estat qe avaunt ne 
avoyt en meyme le lu wastee, e ceo par plus tardif 
title qe la dite pleynte ne seyt. E si le tenaunt veygne 
en court e countre plede le wast, e dye qil nat fait 
nul tort ne nul wast^ e de ceo se met en enqueste, e 
pus seyt atteynt qil ad fet wast^ adunkes recoure le 
pleyntif sa seysine^ e ses damages cum avaunt est dyt, 
e le tenant en la merci. E si nul tel tenaunt^ apres 
CO qil aura vne feze par tele seurte cum avaunt est 
f. 12. dit le lu wastee redrescee e reparailiee, autre feze fietce 
wast e de ceo seyt atteynt^ perde il le lu wastee pur 
tutz jours, e respoygne il des damages pmr le wast en 
la fourme avauntdit^. £ en co play de wast seyent 
allowez iij. essoygnes auxibien pur le defendaunt, com 
pur le demandaunt, e co nomement apres les iij. 
primeres somunse& Mes quant le defendaunt en tel play 
est gamy devenir en court apres l^iqueste prise par 
sa defaute com avaunt est dyt, ou quant il serra gamy 
deuenir en curt a mustrer sil sache ren dire solom co 

^ U pleyntif sa teytine] Under the 
law as administered in the cnria 
regis the penalty was not the same 
in all kinds of waste. For instance, 
in the case of a guardian he lost the 
custody of the land, had to make 
compenBation in damages^ and was 

in misericordia regis ; whereas a 
tenant in dower, who committed 
waste in woods, was only subject to 
restraint in future by the view of 
the foresters of the heir. Bracton, 
f. 816. 



amended att the day set as it is afomeseyd. And zif the Add. HS» 

place wasted be not in due maner] amended at the day ^^'^^^• 

set, as it is afore seyd, thanne att the sute of the forseyd 

pleyntyff be he that hath doon the wast warned be ij. 

fre men of that toune to be at a certayne day a fore 

the ballyves to shewyne, zif he cunne eny thyng seyn, 

wherfore dissesyn ^ of the same place wasted oweth not 

to be delivered to the forseyd pleyntyff ; at which day 

zif he come nott, be it awarded that the pleyntyff 

recure sesyn of the place wasted and hese damages, and 

the tenaunt in the mercye. And al though he come in 

to court, be it awarded in the same maner, zif he may 

not shewyne that he hath more hye ryght thanne he 

hadde be fome in the forseyd place wasted, and that 

it be more lattere titule thanne the forseyd pleynt be. 

And zif the tenaunt come in to court and countreplete 

the wast, and seyth that he hath doon non wrong ne 

wast, and of that he putteth hym on a enquest, an<^ after 

be atteynt that he hath doon wast, thanne recure the 

pleyntyff his seysn and hese damages as it is afomeseyd, 

and the tenaunt in the mercy. And zif eny swych 

tenaunt after that he hath oon tyme by swich suerte 

as is aforne seyd the place wasted redresse and amende, f* 7. b. 

and an other tyme make wast, and of this be atte3mt, 

lese he the place wasted for alle dayes, and answere 

of the damages for the wast in the form afomseyd. And 

in that plee of wast ben alowed iij. essoynes as weel 

for the defendaunt as for the pleyntyff, and that namely 

after the iij. ferst essoynes.^ But whanne the defendaunt 

in swich plee is warned to come in to court after the 

^iquest taken for his defaute as it is afore seyd, or 

whanne he is warned to come to court to shewyn yif 

he can ony thing seyn after that he is conteyned in 

' dissesyn] ** Sesyn " would be the 
proper translation of the French 

^ essoynes'] *' sommonys ** would 
be the correct translation. 








Jldd. MS. qil est coutenu en la prosces avaunt - dyt, a nul de 
25,012. ^g jj JQ^jpa ng QQyi jjuIq essoygne allowe. 

Capo. ix». Item si nul homme alyene tenements en la vauntdite 
2^^|^Je vile en fe, qe sunt le dreyt sa femme, par la volunte e 
de fiaanke par lassent de sa femme^ e meyme la femme apres la 
tenement, g^ygj^^ livre al purchacour veygne en court ^ oveske 
soun baroun devaunt les bailiffs e les bones gentz de la 
dite vile, e conusse meyme le tenement alyene estre le 
dreyt al avauntdit purchacour solom la fourme contenue 
en la chartre dil doun,* seyt meyme cele femme des 
ditz baillifs severalement par luy examyne de quele 
volunte ele est endreyt de cele alienacioun. E si troue 
seyt par sa soule confessioun qe cele alienacioun est 
faite de soun assent e de soun bon gre saunz cohercioun 
e saunz manaces de soun baroun, seyt cele conisaunce 
^ tenue par oerteyne e estable a tutz jours. £ a dunkes 
seyt la reconissaunce dil avauntdit baroun e de sa femme 
ensemblement on' la force de la chartre du doun en 
roulee en comun roule ^ de la vile^ la quele reconissaunce 
facent les baillifs apertement solemnyser en pleyne court 
devaunt les corouners e les bones gentz de la vile. E 
chescuns baillifs de lour temps a chef dil aan rendunt 
meyme eel roule a la commune huche de la vile, e 
illeoke seyent bien e leaument gardez com en trezorye. 
E apres cele reconissaunce seyt meyme cele femme e ses 
f. 12. K heyrs apres la mort soun avauntdit baroun de eel jour 
en avaunt barre a demaimder ^ ren en les avauntditz 
tenements issi alyenez. E cestes conissaunces teygnent lu 

^ veygne en cowf] A similar ap- 
pearance and consent of the wife 
was required to be made in the 
curia regis on the alienation by the 
husband of a freehold in a county, 
which he held in right of his wife. 
Bracton^ f. 821 b. 

^ en la chartre del doun"} The 
couTeyance or deed of gift. 

' on] Corrected in a later hand 
into ove. 

^ en comttn roule de la viW] In 
the curia regis a chirographum or 
charter of gift was usually rnade^ 
which, together with the record, was 
the voucher of the woman's con- 

' demaunder ] The wife might 
otherwise have a writ of entry after 
the death of her husband to recoyer 
the tenement back. 



the processe afornseyd, att none of these ij. dayes ne Add. MS. 
be none e^oynes alowed as it is afom seyd. ^ '^ ' 

Also if eny man aliene tenementz in the fomseyd ix. 
toune of Qippewich of the housband^ in fee, that been nf^^Jf' 
his wyflys ryght, by the wyll and assent of his wiff, and of fre tene- 
the same womman after the dissesyn bonden to purchace • ™*°*' 
come in to court with here husbond afom the ballyves 
and the goode folk of the forseyd toun, and knowleche 
the same tenement aliened to ben the right to the ^ 
forseyd purchasour after the forme contyned in the 
chartre of zifte, be the same womman of the forseyd 
baylyves severally exsxayxied by here self, of which wille 
he was in right of that alienacione. And zif it be founden 
by here owene [confession, that the] alienacione hit' is 
doon of here assent and of good wylle with owten con- 
streynyng and withoute manas of here housbond, be that 
cognisaunce holdyn for ferme and stabele att alle dayes. 
And thanne be that recognisaunce of the forseyd hous- 
bond and of his wiff to gedyr with the strenkthe of the 
chartre enrollyd of zifb^ in the common roUe of the 
toun, the whiche reconisaunce the ballives shul doon 
apertly solempnysen in pleyn court afore the coronerys 
sA^ (sic) the goode folk of the toun. And eche baylyff 
of here tyme at the gynnyng ^ shulde of the yere zelde 
the same rolle to the common chist of the toun, and there 
to be weel and trewely kept as in tresour. After that 
reconisaunce be that same womman and here heyrys 
after the deth of here forseyd housbond from that day 
forward barryd to axene eny thyng in the forseyd 
tenementz so alyened. And swiche reconisaunce heldene 

' of the houshand] These words 
are not in the French text 

^ bcnden to purchace^ "after the 
** aesyn delivered to the purchaser" 
would be the proper translation of 
the French text. 

' hit^ This word is redondant 

^ enroOyd of zift"] " of sift en- 

** rollyd " would be more correct. 
' ad] " and " should evidently be 

here read for " ad.*' 

* at the gynnyngi «* at the gyn- 
nyng of the ^ere shulde " would 

be the more correct order of the 





Add. MS. anzi bien des tenements qe femmes purchacent joynte- 
2fi,oi2. jj^^jjj. oveske lour baxouns, com des tenements qe sunt de 
lour heritages ou de lotir several purchaz. Mes endreyt 
des tenements qe sunt donez en fraunke mariage ou en 
autre manere par condicioun, ou le fe est tailie par fourme 
de doun a acoun homme e a sa femme e as heyrs de eux 
deux issauntS; e en cas ou reversioun deyt estre ou peot 
au donour ou a ses heyrs par fourme de doun, e en cas 
ou les tenements deyvent remeyndre a acoun par fourme 
de doun apres la mort des iteux feffez, en nul des teux 
cas en disheritaunce de ceux as queus les tenements 
issi donez apres la mort des issi feffez deyvent decendre, 
revertir, ou remeyndre par la fourme du doun, si la court 
avauntdite de ceo seyt aparceue, seyt nule conissaimce 
receue.^ £ si teux manere de reconissaunces se facent 
en meyme la court saunz estre apparceues, co ne seyt 
mye barre ne preiudiciel a ceux, as queux meyme les 
tenements issi donez apres la mort des iteux feffez 
deyvent decendre, revertir, ou remeyndre, qil ne pussent 
meyme les tenements en la vauntdite court de Gipp[ewyz] 
demaunder e recourir par bref le roy * solom vsage de 
meyme la vHe saunz aver regard a la reconissaunce 
avauntdite ; en meyme la manere seyt la femm^ e 
ses heyrs apres la mort soun baroun barre a tutz 
jours par tele reconissaunce faite par prosces de play 
f^ 13, ou sour quiteclamaunce. E bien se aviso chescun pur- 
chacour, qe avantage veot aver ou dreyt clamer par my 
tele reconissaunce cum avaunt est dyte dil dreyt la 
femme, qe sa seysine e soun estat sour tele reconissaunce 

> seyt nule conissatmcereceue] The 
b&ilifb in each cases were to refose 
to take cognisance of any consent 
on the part of the wife. 

' par bref le rey"] By a writ of 
entry, called a cut in vitd^ as it con- 

tained the words ''coi ipse in vitA soA 
'' contradicere non potoit,'' or words 
to that effect, signifying that the 
claimant had not an opportunity to 
object to the alienation daring the 
lifetime of the tenant. 



stede as weel of tenemenies that wommen purchasen Add. MS. 
ioyntly with here housbond, as of tenementz that bene of ' ' 
here heritage or of here several pnrchas. But in right of 
tenementz that ben yoven in fre manage or in other 
maner by condidone^ where that the fee is tailed be 
foorme of zift to the housbond ^ and his wyfT, and to the f. 8. 
heyres of hem oomyng, and in caas where of the rever- 
syoun owght to ben yoven [to the donor] or to the 
heyres by foorme of zifb, and in caas where the tenementz 
owen to remeyndre to eny be foorme of zift after the 
day ^ of men so feffed, in noon swich caas in disherita- 
cione of hem to whom the tenementz so yoven after the 
day * of men so feffed owyn to descenden, revertyn, and 
remeyndren be foorme of the zift, zif the court aforenseyd 
therof be aperceyed, be non roponisaunce receyved ; and 
zif [swich] maner of reconisaunce ben doon in the court 
with outen aperceyvyd, that it be not barryd ne preiu- 
dice to hem, to whiche the same tenementz so yoven after 
the dethe of mene so feffed owyn to descendyn, revertyn, 
and remayndre, that the man * the same tenementz in 
the forseyd court of Oippiswich axene and recurjm after 
vsage of the same toun by writ of the kyng with outen 
havyng [regard] to the reconisaunce aforeseyd ; and the 
same maner be the womman and here heyres after the 
deth of here housbond barrid att alle dayes by the 
reconisaunce maad by processe of plee or upone 
quyt cleym. And weel avyse hym eche purchasour, that 
wyl have avauntage or deym right by swich reconi- 
saunce as it is afomseyd of ryght of his ^ wyff, that his 
sesyn and his state on swich reconisaunce be good and 


^ toihe housbond] " to any man 
would be the closer translation. 

* after the day] "deth" should 
be read instead of ^ day." 

^ that the man] The word man 
may be a miscopying of the middle 

English word mown (may), ihe third 
person plunl of the present tense 
of the indicative mood of the verb 
mowen, to be able. 

^hU wjuff] "awyff" should be 
h^re read instead of <* his wy£f." 


Add. MS. seyt bon e suffisaunt pur ly ; kax si le tenement, dunt la 
s5,oia. reconissaunce ensi serra fete, veygne apres en demaunde 
par auncyenne ley e auncien vsage de la dyte vyle, 
le demandaunt serra bien receu a voyder la reconis- 
saunce, en taunt sil pusse mettre aveyr par bone enqueste 
de meyme la vyle de Gipp[ewyz],-qe le primer claimaunt 
par la dite reconissaunce vnkes par cele reconisaunce 
estat ne avoyt, ne seysine ne prist en le tenement 
demaunde avaunt la reconissaunce ne en la reconis- 

f. IS. b. Item si la mesoun de vn vejrBin deschece ou se abece 
C«p*». x«. damage fesaunt a la mesoun de vn autre veysin en la 

De mesoun ^ , . , , j» 

qe se abece dite Vile, eyt cely, veysin a qi le damage est feet soun 
meK>an!" recouverir ver cely par qi mesoun le damage est feet, 
par pleynte attache par gage e plegge^ en forme de 
trespas devaunt les baillifs auauntditz, cest asaver, de 
tutz les damages e de tut lempirement qil aura eu 
par lenchesoun avauntdite, solom co qe lenpirement e 
les mages ponomt renablement est [re] retaxez par en 

^ H. Item com acun teygne tenements en la dite vile de 
^reco?"*' Gipp[6wyz] a terme de vye ou des aunz, e cely, a qi 
nissaanoe meyme les tenementz aprez la mort des iteux tenauntz 
tonemOTt^ dey vent revertir ou remeyndre, veygne en la dite court 
encasde de Gipp[ewyz] e graunte e conuce par soun fet en 
reYenioYm, jj^gy^^ jg^ court le dreyt de la reversioun, ou le re- 
meyndre des ditz tenementz apres la mort des y 

^ attache par gage et plegge"] The 
fonn of proceeding in snch cases 
was by summons, and on the de- 

fendant appearing he was attached 
by pledges or sureties de stando ad 



sufficient for hym; for zif the tenauDt^ of the tenement Add. MS. 
where of the reconisaunce is so maad <jome- hUSer and ' 
axe the olde la we and the olde vsage of the forseyd toun, 
the pleynt)rff shal ben weel resceyved to vowen * that 
reconisaunce, in so moche zif he may puttyne hym to 
have be good enquest of the same toun of Gippeswiche, 
that they ferst damer' by the forseyd reconisaunce 
never by that reconisaunce hadde state ne sesyn takyn 
in the tenement axed afore the reconisaunce ne in the 

Also yif an hous of oon neyghbour shete or abate ^ 
or do damage and harm to the makyng of^ an other that len* 
neyghbourys hous in the forseyd toun, have he, that "S^r? *° 
the damage is doon to, his recure by hym that the ' .^c. ^ 

hous is harmed and damaged by pleynt begunnyn be (J,* v ' 
wed and borghe in foorme of trespas be fom the for-- 
seyd ballyves, that is to weten, of alle the damages 
and of alle the harmys and of alle the emperyment 
that the damages may resonabely be taxed be a enquest.^ 

Also whanne eny helde tenementes in the forseyd ^« 
toun of Gippeswiche to terrae of his lyff or of yerys, nuannoe 
to hym,* to whom the same tenementz after the deth of fire tene- , 
of the tenauntes owen to tume a zeyn or remaynare,ca8 of re- 
come in to the forseyd court of Gippeswich and shewe v«"yo»- 
and telle [by] his dede the ryght of reversyoun, or of 
tl^e remayndre of the forseyd tenementes after the deth 

^ the ienaunt'} That u, the heir or 
party entitled to the reversion of 
the tenement, if he come after and 
claim it. 

^ vowen'] to avoid or make void. 

* they first chmer"]' that is, the 
party to whom the tenement had 
been conveyed by the aforesaid 

4 the fMikyng of] These words are 

*he a eiiquett] " Of alle the em- 
" per3rment that he shal have had 
" by the aforeseid cause after that 
" the harm and the damages may 
** reasonably be taxed by an en- 
'* quest," would be the more correct 
translation of the French text. A 
line seems to have been omitted by 
the scribe. 

^ to ^ym] *' and he to whom " is 
reqvdred by the French text. 



Add. MS. teux ienaunts a terme de vye ou des aunz estre a acuxi, 
25,012. ggy^ ^gj graunt e sa reconissaunce enroulee ovesqes les 
autres reconissaunces de fraunke tenement, e adunkes 
seyt agarde en pleyne court a fere venir par bone 
meynprise^ cely tenaunt a terme de Tye on des annz 
a vn certe3m jour de graunt court saunz essoygnes a 
conustre, quel dreyt 11 deyme en meyme les tenements ; 
a quel jour sil ne veygne, seyt sa meynprise grevouse- 
ment amercye, e pus seyt agarde qil seyt grevousement 
destreynt par tutz ses biens e ses chateux quel part 
qil seyent trouez de deynz la fraunchise de la dite vile 
de Gipp[ewyz], de deynz mesoun e de bors, cila qil 
veygne. E quant il vendra en court e aura conu qil 
ne cleyme ren en meyme les tenementz si noun a 
terme de vye ou des aunz^ a dunkes seyt agarde en 
pleyne court, qe cely tenaunt a terme de vye ou des 
aunz se aCtoume * a teygne de eel jour en avaunt meyme 
les tenementz de cely a qi le dreyt de la reversioun ou 
dU remeyndre est graunte e conuz, auxi com il les tynt 
avaunt dil reconyssour. E si cely tenaunt a terme de 
vye ou des aunz par malice ou par inobedience ne 
voillie meynprise trover de venir en court a conustre 
quel dreyt il cleyme com avaunt est dyt^ a dunkes 
seyt agarde qil seyt destreynt par ses diateux en la 
fourme auauntdite. E sour ceo seyt il gamy par deux 
burgeys de la vile de estre devaunt meyme les baillifs 
a vn jour certeyn de graunt court' sour forfeture de 
meyme la destresce sour ly fete, a conustre quel dreyt 

^ bone meynprise] Mainpernors 
were, sureties, who in pergonal ac- 
tions undertook to produce a defen- 
dant in court on a certain day. 

^ se atUmnui] shall transfer his 

service or homage, as tenant, to the 

' de graunt court"] This would 
be the court of Portmannysmote. 



of tho tenauntes to ierme of lyff or of yerys to ben Add. Ma 
to ony, be that graunte and his reconisaunoe enrolled ' 
with other reconissaunces of free tenementes, and 
thanne be it awarded in pleyne court to doon oome 
by good meynprise that tenannt to terme of lyff or of 
yerys att a certayn day of the gret court ^nHx outen 
easoyne to be a knowe what right he cleymeth in the 
same tenementes ; at which day zif he come not, be 
his meynprise grevonaly ameroyed, and after be it 
awarded that he be grevonsly distreyned by alle his 
goodes and his chautenx where that evere they be 
founden with inne the fraimchise of the forseyd toun 
of Oippeswich> with iniie hous or with oute, til that 
he comei And whanne that he cometh in to court 
and knowelecheth that he deym no thyng of the same 
tenementes but to terme of liff or of zerys, thanne be 
it awarded in pleyn court that that tenaunt to terme 
of lyff or of yerys helde ^ fro that day forward the 
same tenementes of hym, to whom the ryght of the 
reversioun Or of the remayndre is graunted and knowen, 
as they helden ^s a fbme the reconisonr. And zif 
thatt. tenaunt to terme of lyff or of yerys by malice 
or by unbuxumnesse ^ wil not fynde meynprise to come 
in to court to be aknowe what right he cleymeth as 
it is a fomeseyd, thanne be it awarded [that he be 
distreyned] by his chatteux by foorme afore seyd. And 
vpone this be he warned be ij. burgeises of the toun 
to ben afore the ballives att a certayn day of the gret 
court vpone forfeture of the same distresse vpone hym 
maad, for to be aknowe what right he cleymeth in 

^ '* attonrne and holde '' would be 
the fhller translation. 

' imlmxumneue'] Bnxom is an 
old English word from bnghsnm, 
obedient, pliant, derived from the 
verb bngen, to bend, whence 
boges, bonghs. It occnrs in the 
Leet Oath fonnerly administered 

to the inhabitants of Ipswich in 
Whitsnn week at the annnal view 
of frunk-pledge : '' Ye shall be 
** buxom and obedient to all jns- 
** tices, &o., in all things that they 
» shall lawfully command yon." 
See below, chap, xIy. 





Add. MS. il cleyme en les tenementz avauntditz ; a quel jour sil 
25,012. ^Q veygne e temoygne seyt qil fust gamy com avaunt 
£. 14. b. est dyt, seyt la destresce agarde forfete. £ seyt meyme 
la forfeture agardee de chescune destresce sour ly fete 
apres la primere meynprise amercye, mes qil seyt re-, 
najblement garny en la fourme avauntdite a chescune 
feze qil serra destreynt devenir en court sour meyme 
la forfeture. £ si ceux qe simt dyt tenauntz, quant il 
vendrunt en court, pussent par renables euydences 
mustrer qil ne deyuent attoumer/ seyent lour evydences 
allowez solom ceo qe eles deyvent par resotm e par 
bone ley estre allowez. Mes pur nule tele reconissaunce 
avauntdite ne seyt ja tel prosces comence ver tel te- 
naunt a terme de vye ou dez aunz taunt com il seyt 
en prisoun, ou hors de seyne memorie, ou de hors les 
quatre mers Dengleterre, si la court de ceo seyt appai*- 
ceue. £ si tel prosces en tel temps seyt comence, a 
la sute de la partye ou de ses proscheynz amys seyt 
meyme le prosces aneenty e repelle par agard de court 
si tost com la court de ceo serra apparceue. E ordene 
est par comun assent' de la dite vile de Gipp[ewyz], 
qe teux man ere des forfetures^ com avaunt sunt ^dites, 
seyent leevez a comun profiyt de la ville e livreez a 
certeynes gentz e creables, qe de ceo pussent respoundre 
a la comunalte, e ne mye taunt soulement al proffit 
des baiUifs de la ville. 

Cap", xg". Item si ceo seyt rente issaunt de fraimke tenement 
niflsaunoe 6n meyme la ville qe seyt graunte a acun par reconis- 

de rente. 

^ ne dejfotnt attoumer] that they 
ought not to transfer their homage 
or service to the reversioner. 

' comun ossenQ That is by the 

consent of the commonalty of the 
town, assembled before the baili£b 
and coroners and the rest of the 
capital portmen. 




the tenementes a forue seyd ; att which day, zif he Add. MS. 
come not, be it wittenessed^ that he was warned and ^*'^^^* 
that the distresse h[a8] is a [fome seyd] was awarded 
and forfetyd. And be the same forfeture awarded att 
eche distresse vpone hym maad after the ferste mein- 
prise amercyed, but that he be resonabely warned in 
foorme afome seyd at eche tyme that he be distreyned 
to come in to court vpone the same forfeture. Aiid if 
they, that ben tenauntes, whanne they comyn in to the 
court and they may by ' resonable evidence that they 
owyn be resone and good lawe to be allowed. But for 
non swich reconisaunce afomseyd lete non processe 
begynnen a zeyne swiche a tenaunt to terme of lyff 
or of yerys as longe as he is in prisone or out of 
mynde or be zonden the iiij. sees of Ingeland, zif the 
court theroff be apercey ved. And zif swiche processe 
in swych tyme begunnen att the sute of the partye or 
of the next neghboures, be that same processe anulled 
and repelled by award of the court as soone as the 
court ther off be aperceyved. And it is ordeyned by 
comoun assent of the forseyd' [toun of Gippeswiche, 
that swiche maner of forfetures as aforn seyd be leveed 
for the comoun proffyt of the toun and delivered to 
certeyn personys and credibele, that therof may an- 
sweryn to the commaltie, and not oonly to the proffyt 
of the baillives of the toun.] ^ 

[Also zif there be rente goyng out of fre tenement ^^• 
in the seyd toun, that be graunted to eny by recong- niaaunce of 

^ ■ — — rente. 

' he it witUnessed] ** and it be 
" wittenessed that be was warned 
** Bs aforeseyd, be the distresse 
** awarded forfettyd," would be the 
better translation. 

^ and they majf 6y] " can by re- 
** sonable evidoiee shewyn tbat 
" tbej owen not to attonme, be her 
" evidences alowed according as 
" they owyn by reson and goode 

*' lawe to be alowed," would be 
more correct 

> Here a leaf has been lost from 
the MS. 

^ The editor has restored, within 
brackets, in contemporaneous Bng* 
lish, as far as his study of other 
parts of the English version would 
enable him so to do, the missing 
chapters, of which the leaf or leaves 
are lost. 



Add. MS* saiince fete en meyme la court devaunt meyme les 
25,012. ijg^iii^^ adunkes seyt vsee meyme le prosces com 

avaunt est dy t en la derreyne constitucioon avaunt ceste 
a faire venir le tenaunt, qe cele rente deyt payer, a la 
proscheyne graunt "court" apres eel graunte e cele 
reconissaunce fete a conustre devaunt meyme les baillifs^ 
par quel service il deyme tenir le tenement^ dunt la 
rente avaunt dite est grauntee e reconue. E quant il 
vendra en court e aura conuz qil tyent meyme le tene- 
ment dil avauntdit reconissour e par meyme la rente 
avauntdite, adunkes seyt agarde qil se attoume de cele 
rente a cely a qi meyme la reconissaunce est fete. E 
f. 15. si il dye qil ne deyme mye tenir le tenement, dunt 
la rente est issaunt, dil avauntdyt reconissour, a eel 
desdamer ne seyt il pas receu taunt com cely, a qi la 
dite reconissaunce estoyt fete^ veoUlie averer par bone 
enqueste qe cely tenaunt, qe cele rente doyt payer, tynt 
dil avauntdit reconissour meyme le tenement, e par 
meyme la rente, le jour de la dite reconissaunce fete. 
E si cely tenaunt ne veoillie eel aveyrement receyvre, 
seyt agarde qil se attourne com avaunt est dyi E 
sil ne veoillie attoumer de soun gre apres eel agard, 
done adunkes eyt cely, a qi la dite reconissaunce estoyt 
fete, accioun a destreyndre par meyme la rente, auxi 
com le avauntdit reconissotir avoyt, e avower la des- 
tresce bone solom vsage de. la ville par vertu de la 
dite reconissaunce e dil agard avauntdit. Mes si il 
pusse renablement mustrer pur quey il ne se deyt 
attoumer, a ceo seyt il receu solom ceo qe ley e resoun 


Capo.xiif. Item si nul en la dite ville enclost ses tenementz, 
S»atement^ par quey qe les chefs seygnurs ou autres ver les queux 
purtene- les tenementz seyent cbargez ne pount avenir a fere 
eodos. destresces pur lour rente arrere, eyent meyme les seyg- 


nisaunce doone in the same court aforn the seyd bail- Add. MS. 
lives, thanne be used the same prosses as afomeseyd ^^'^^ * 
in the constitucion afome this to doone the tenaunt 
that oweth to pay this rente comyn to the next great 
court after the graunt and the recongnisaunoe doone, to 
be a knowe aforn the seyd baillives be what service 
he cleymeth to holde the tenement, wherof the afome- 
seyd rente is graunted and knoweleched. And whanne 
he shal come into court and shal knoweleche that he 
holde the seyd tenement of the afome seyd recong- 
nisour and by the same rente afomseyd, be it thanne 
awarded that he attoume of that rente to hym, to 
whom the recongnisaunce is doone. And zif he sey 
that he doo not cleym to holde the tenement wherof 
the rente is goyng from the afomseyd recongnisour, 
to that discleymer be he not resceyved as longe as he 
to whom the seyd recongnisaunce was doone is wyl- 
lyng to averryn be good enqueste, that swiche tenaunt 
that oweth to pay that rente holde the seyd tenement 
of the afomseyd recongnisour, and be the seyd rente, 
from the daye of the dooyn of the seyd recongnisaunca 
And zif swich tenaunt be nott wyllyn to resceyve this 
averment, be it awarded that he attoume as aforn 
seyd ; and zif he be nott wyllyn to attoume of his own 
accord after the award yovene, thanne have he to 
whom the seyd recongnisaunce was doone an acdone 
of distresse for the seyd rente as weel as the afom- 
seyd recongnisour had, and avowe the distresse goode 
after the usage of the toune be vertue of the seyd 
recongnisaunce and the awarde afomseyd. But zif he 
can renably shewyn, wherfor he oweth not to attoume 
to hym, be he resceyved after that lawe and reson 

[Also zif eny in the seyd toun enclose hese tene- xiil 
mentz, wherby the chefe lordes and othyr for whom tKe ^atraient 
seyd tenementz are charged cannot comen for to make for tene- 
distresse for here rente in arere, have the seyd lordes ^ob. 

E 2 



Add. MS. nurs ou autres ver queux meyme les tenementz seyent 
25,012. jgg* chargez lour recourir ver lour tenauntz devaunt 
les baillifs de la dite vile par pleynte de abatement, 
auxi com il aureyent par brefe de novele disseysine 
devaunt justices le roy, ceo est asaver, sil attachent 
lour pleyntes ver lour tenauntz de deynz les primers 
xl jours apres co qe lour rente lour serra vyee. E si 
lour rente apres co qil aurunt issi vne feze destreyntz 
lour seyt autre feze vyee, ne il ne pount pur ceo des- 
treyndre auxi c<Mn il soleyent, par quey qe pleynte seyt 
autrefeze attache ver teux tenauntz, seyent les damages 
taxez au double de co qil furent taxez a la primere 
pleynte. E a taunt de feze com teles pleyntes seyent 
1 15. b. attacbez pur lenchesoun avauntdite, a taunt de feze 
seyent les damages dublez. 

Item si nul tenaunt en lavauntdite vile lest ses 
tenementz gisir issi frisches, qe le chefe seygnur du fe 
ne peot avenir a fere nule renable destresce en meyme 
le tenement pur la rente arrere, e le tenaunt cesse 
par quatre termes a fere gre al dit chefe seygnur pur 
led arrerages de la dite rente, e le chefe seygneur par 
eel cesser porte soun brefe de costumes e de services 
ver soun tenaunt en la court de meyme la vile, e derene^ 
sa rente ver soun avauntdit tenaunt e ses damages pur 
le cesser, a dunkes si celuy tenaunt ne voillie gre fere 
a soun avauntdit chefe seygnur de meyme les arrerages 
e des damages agardez, seyt le tenement livree au dit 
chefe seygnur a garder vn aan e vn jour, de deynz 
quel temps si le avauntdit tenaunt voillie gre fere a 
soun chefe seygnur de meyme les arrerages e des da- 
mages, reheyt il soun tenement saunz nule manere 

Cap®, xny®. 
De tene- 
mentz qe 

> derene] The word dereifti is in 
the common hiw used diyersely. 
Glanville in Beveral places nses the 
Latin eqniyalent " dirationare " in 

the simple sense of proving hy dis- 
cossion, and Bracton uses it in the 
same way. 



and othir for whom the seyd tenementz are so charired Add. M& 

1 35 Oil 

recare azens here tenauntes afom the baillives of the ' 
seyd toun be plee of abatement, as weel as they shulde 
have be wiit of newe dissesyn afore the justise of the 
l^yiig* that is to wetyn, zif they brynge here pleyntz 
azens here tenaunts with ynne the ferst fortie dayes 
after that here rente shal be denied. And zif here 
rente after they have oons distreyned be a seconde 
tyme denied, and they cannot distreyne for it as they 
were wont because a pleynt has been afom maad azens 
Bwiche tenaunts, be the damages taxen at doubele of 
that at which they were taxen at the ferst pleynt ; 
and as often as swiche pleynts shal be maad for the 
cause afomseyd^ so often shal the damages be doubeled.] 

[Also zif eny tenaunt in the afomseyd toun alowe xiiij. 
his tenementz to lye so fresshe, that the chefe lorde of^*^°«- 
the fee cannot come for to makynge eny resonable dis- that lyene 
tresse on the same tenement for the rente in arrere, *^'^*' 
and ther tenaunt cese for four termes (o maken gree 
to his chefe lorde for the areres of the seyd rente, and 
the chefe lorde for such ceseing brjmg his wryt*of 
custum and servise a zens his tenaunt in the court of 
the seyd toune, and preve his rente a zens his aforn- 
seyd tenaunt, and hese damages for the ceseing, thanne 
zif the seyd tenaunt be nott wylling to maken gree 
to his afomseyd chefe lorde for the seyd areres and 
damages awarded, be the tenementz delivered to the 
chefe lorde to hold for a zer and a day, with ynne 
which zif the afomseyd tenaunt wyl maken gree to 
his chefe lorde for the areres and damages, have he a 
zeyn^ his tenement with oute eny maner of destur- 

1 have he a zeyn] The word 
*< reheyt '' has been assumed by the 
editor to be the French equivalent 
of « rehabeat,*' which is the title of 

a writ directed to the sheriff to re- 
store seisin, where he has delivered 
seisin of more land than be ought to 
have done. 


•Add. MS. destourbance. E sil ne veoillie gre fere, remeygne le 
25,012. tenement al avauntdit chefe seygnur e a ses heyrs a 
tutz jours. 

Cap«. xv«. ^ Item si nul chefe seygnur en la vaunt dite vile 
Defresch <Jestreygne en soun fe pur services qe arrere ly simt,e 
yertenaantsoun tenaunt face delivrer la destresce par gage e plegge 

^f^'^^- devaunt les baiUifs de la ville e 

seygnenr devant meyme les baillifs 

?^«^- les tenementz ou la destresce fu fete, a dunkes eyt celi 

services. ^ •' 

chefe seygnur apres eel desclamer jour recovrir ver son 
tenaunt par pleynte de abatement devaunt meyme les 
baillifs auxi com il auroyt par brefe de novele disseisine 
devant justices^ cest a saver sil attache sa pleynte de 
sure du deynz les primers xl. jours apres eel desclamer. 

Cap®, xvjo. Item vsee est en la vauntdite vile de Gippe[wyz] qe 

meof devi- *^*^ ^ cexix qe unt tenementz e rentes en meyme la vile 

sables et de lour several purchaz en fee^ qil pussent ceux tenementz 

tostaments. ® ^^^ rentes devyser en lour lytz moryauntz franche- 

f. 17. ment en quele manere qil voudrunt e a ky, e qe la der- 

reyne volunte le testatour en dreyt du tenement devise 

par testament escrit ou nuncupatyf seyt provee devaunt 

les baillifs de la ville de deinz les primers xl. jours apres 

la mort le avauntdit testatour, e seyt la prove receue 

par ij. hommes jurez au meyns e severabnent examinez 

> A strip of vellum has been 
pasted over this chapter, which has 
been thus rewritten : — 
f. 16. Item si nol chefe seygnur en hi 
dyte vyle destreygne en soun fe pnr 
rente qe aiere ly est, e soun tenaunt 
fiEMe delivrer la destresce par gage e 
plegge devaunt les baillift de la dyte 
vyle, on qil le destnrbe a destreyndre 
en soun fe par rescus e par frestalle 
qil ne puBse destreyndre auxi com 

fere deyt, eyt cely chefe seygnur 
soun recourir devaunt les avaunt- 
dytz baillifs par pleynte de abate- 
ment, auxi com il aureyt par brefe 
de novele disseysine devaunt justices, 
cest asaver, sO attache sa pleynte de 
sure freschement de denz les primers 
xl. jours apres la dite delivrance 
fete, ou apres qil serra desturbe a 
destreyndre com avaunt est dyt. 



baunce, and zif he wyl nott make gree to hjm, thanne Add. M S. 
duelle the tenement to the chefe lorde and hese heyres ^^^^i^* 
att alle dayes.] 

[Alfio^ zif eny chefe lord in the afom seyd toun dis- f..^^\ 
treyne on his fee for servises which are in arrere to abatement 
hym, and hise tenaunt do deliver the »eyd distresse *y®°" * 

, , tenftimt 

be wed and borugh afom the baillives of the seyd thrft con- 
toun, or hym lett in distreyning on his fee by rescue |^*P^®^*^ 
and by forestall' so that he cannot distreyne as he 
oweth to do^ have that chefe lord his recure aforn the 
seyd baillives be plee of abatement^ as weel as he 
shulde have be writ of newe dissesyn afore the justise, 
that is to wetyn, zif he brynge his pleynt in suyn 
fresschly with ynne the ferst fortie dayes after the 
seyd deliverance doone, or after he shal be lett in des- 
treynyn as afomseyd.] 

[Also it is nsyd in the forseid toun of Qippeswyche, xvi 
that alle those who have tenementz and rentes in the Of tene- 
seyd toun of here several purchaces in fee, that they departable 
may devis tho tenementz and rentes in here beds dey^ *J^ P^^®^ 
ing frely in swiche maner as they wyllen, and to meat, 
whom so evere the last will of the testator in right 
of the tenement divised by testament wrytten or 
nuncupatyf. be preven afom the baillives of the seyd 
toun with ynne the ferst fortie dayes after the deth of 
the seyd testator, and be the preeff resceyved by two 
men sworen at least ^ and severally examined upon] 

1 alao] The editor has translated 
the text written on the strip of yel- 
Innii and has not thought it necessary 
to translate the incorrect yersion of 
chapter xy. for which the version 
on the strip of Tellnm was intended 
to be a snbstitate. 

^forestaC] Forestal signifies an 
intercepting on the high way. It is 
defined in the Laws of Henry I. 

ch. Ixxx. § 4. Forestal est, si qnis 
ex transTerso incnrrat yel in via 
expectet et assaliat inimicom sniun. 
' two men sworen at lecut"] The 
common law required two witnesses 
at least Debet autem testamentnm 
fieri coram duobus vei pluribus viris 
legitimis, dericis vel laicis, et talibus 
qui testes inde fieri possnnt idonei. 
Glanville, 1. vii. ch. 6. 



Add. MS. sour la derreyne volunte le mort ; e si la preove sey t 
^ '^ ^* trove acordaunte e bone, seyt ele enroulee en roule de la 
ville^ e seyt ladministracioun grante a les exeqetoura le 
mort solom la founne de la dite prove, e la seysine du 
tenement devise livre a celuy, a qi il estoyt devisee, par 
meyme les exeqetours e par veue e temoygnaunce ies 
baillifs de la dite ville sauve chescuny dreyt. E si la 
prove ne sacorde mye issi qe lem treove variaunce ou 
suspecioun de fraude en le testament avauntdit, seyt 
• eel testament agarde pur nul quaunt au firaunke tene- 
ment devise, e demeorge meyme eel fraunke tenement 
a celuy qi maour dreyt enad. E si les exeqetours le 
mort par malice ou par collusioun ne veolent le testa- 
ment prover de deynz les primers xl. joiurs apres la mort 
le testatour, ne la seysine du tenement devise lyvrer a 
celuy a qi il estoyt devise, e le clamaunt par devys 
veygne en la dite court de Gipp[ewyz] de deynz les 
primers xL jours e mette soun deym en meyme le tene- 
ment a luy devise, e prio qe les exeqetours du dy t testatour 
seyent gamys de venir prover le testament le mort, ou 
a mustrer pur quey celuy clamaunt par devis ne deyt 
la seysine aver du tenement qil ensi deyme par devys, 
adunkes seyent meyme les exeqetours gamyz a meyme 
le lu ou il sunt residentz e demorauntz en la ville, e, si il 
seyent foreyns/ a meyme le tenement devise qe est en 
lour garde, de venir a vn jour certeyn devaunt les avaunt- 
ditz baillifs de ]a ville a prover le testament le mort 
avauntdit e a monstier pur quey le clamaunt par devis 

^/orejfju'] strangers not residing 
in the town of Ipswich, in which 
case constractiYe service on them 

was to he made at the tenement 



the last will of ihe dede, and zii* the preeff be founden Add. MS 
acordyng and good, be it enrolled in the roUe of the ^Y^^^' 
touD, and be administracion grauntyd and execntours 
of the deth ^ after the foorme of the foi'seyd preeff, and 
the Be&yn of the tenement divised delivered to hym to 
whom it was divised by the same execntours and be 
syghte of* wittenesse of the bally ves of the forseyd 
toun with oute eny withsittyng; and zif the preff 
acorde not, so that men fynd variaunee of suspecionn 
or fraude' in the testement aforeseyd^ be the testa- 
ment awarded for non as to the fre tenement divised, 
and duelle the same fre tenement to hym that hath 
most right ; and zif the executoures of the dede be 
malice or by collusyon willen not proven the testament 
with inne the ferst xl, dayes after the deth of the 
testatour, ne dissesyn ^ of the tenement divised lyveryd 
to hym to whom it was divisyd, and the deymand 
azeyns hem ^ come in to the forseyd court of Gippes- 
wych with inne the ferst xl. dayes and set his cleym 
vpon the same tenement to hym divised, and preyeth 
the execntours of the forseid testatour ben warned to 
come to preven the testament of the dede, or to shewyn 
wherfore that deymand a zens hym oughte no sesyn * 
to have of that tenement that he so cleymeth a zenst 
hem, thanne ben the same executoures wamyd at the 
same place where they ben sittyng and duellyng in the 
toun, and, zif they be foreyns, at the same tenement 
divisyd that is in here kepyng, at a certayn day a fore 
the foreseid ballyves of the toun, to preven the testa* 
ment of the foreseid dede, and to shewyn wherfore the 
cleymand a zeyns hym owith not to have sesyn of the 

1 tmd execntours of the deUi] ''to 
'' the executOQTS of the dede'* 
wonld be the correct translation. 

• of wittenesse'] " and " should be 
read instead of the word ** oV* 

3 or fraude'} " or suspicion of 
*' fraude " should be read. 

* dissesyn] ** the sesyn " should be 
here read. 

* azeyns hem] "by devis" would 
be more correct than " azeyns hem," 
both here and in the subsequent 
parts of this chapter. 


AdcL MS. ne deyt la seysine aver de meyme le tenement qil deyme 
' par devis ; a quel jour si lea exeqetours venent e veolent 
le testament prover, seyt la prove receue e la seysine du 
tenement devise lyvre al avauntdit clamaunt par devys 
en la fourme avauntdite. E si les exeqetours ne venent 
mye au jour qil sunt gamyz de venir, e le clamaunt 
par devys pusse averer par bone enqueste ou en autre 
manere renablement prover solom vsage de la ville, qe 
le avaunt dit testatour en sa derreyne volunte luy devisa 
meyme le tenement, qil deyme par devis, auxi com il dy t, 
luy seyt la seysine livre par les avaunt ditz baillifs 
sauve chescuny dreyt. E sil aveygne qe les exeqetours 
meorgent avaunt qil aurunt le testament provee, seyent 
lour exeqetours receuz a meyme la prove fiedre de deynz 
les primers xL jours apres la mort de meyme ceux exeqe- 
tours, auxi com les primers exeqetours serreyent sil 
£us8e;t en vie. E si Ix exeqetoL de exeqetours Be 
veolent le avauntdit primer testament prover en la 
forme avauntdite, eyt le demaundaunt par devys sa sute 
e soun recovrir vers eux, auxi com il vst en ver les 
primers exeqetours. 

C^». rvij», E si tenement seyt devise a acoun enfaunt de deynz 
rnent"*' age, e les exeqetours par malice ou par collusioun ne 
devise a veolent le testament prover ne la seysine du tenement 
^g^^* devise livrer a meyme lenfaunt de deynz age, seyent 
les procheynz amys lenfaunt receuz a faire la sute 
oveskes lenfaunt devaunt les avauntditz baillifs, si len- 
faunt ne sache meymes sure, a faire venir les exeqetours 
de prover le testament le mort en la fourme avaimt- 
dite. E si lenfaunt de deinz age par les exeqetours ou 
par le heyr le testatour seyt alloy gne^ pur luy barrer 

1 aUoygne] This word in the I is used in Britton, 1. i. c. xii. § 3.| 
sense of removing or carrying away | c. xviil § 1. 



same tenementy that he cleymeth by the vis -^ to which Add. MS. 
[day] zif the executours corny n and willen preven the 25,011. 
testament, be the preff resceyved and the sesyn of the 
tenement divisyd delivered to the same deymere by 
the foorme afomseid. And zif the executours comen 
not at the day that they weryn warned to come, and 
the cleymere may averryn by good enquest or in other 
maner resonabely proven after the vsage of the toun, 
that the forseyd testatour in his last wille divisyd 
hym the same tenement that he cleymeth be the vis^ 
as he seith, be the sesyn delivered to hym a fom the 
forseyd ballives to save everech right. And zif it be 
falle that the executours deyen a fore that they have 
proved the testament, be here executours resceyved to 
make the same preeff with inne the ferst xl. dayes 
after the deth of the same forseid executours, as the 
ferst executours shulden have ben zif they hadden ben 
alyve ; and zif the executours willen not preven the f. 9. b. 
ferst testament in the foorme aforseid, thanne have the 
cleymand by devis his sute and his recure a zeyns 
hem^ as he shulde have had a zenst the ferst executours. 

Also zif ony tenementz ben divisyd to ony child p^-*^- 
with inne age> and the executours be malice or by col- mentes. 
lusion . willen not preven the testament, ne deliveren 
sesyn of the tenement divised to the same child with 
inne age, thanne be the next freend of the child res- 
ceyved to make the sute [with the child] afom the 
ballyves, zif the child can not suyn, to doon the same 
executours comyn to preven th^ testament of the dede 
in the foorme aforseyd. And zif that child with inne 
age by tho executours or by the heire of the testatour 
be allowed,* for to barryn hym from his right of that 

^ by the vis] " by devis " Bbonld 
be raid here. 

^ be the vis'] ** by devis." 

' be allowed] This is a mistrans- 

lation : « be Temoved to a distance," 
or " be kept out of the way," would 
be the proper transition. 



Add. MS. (Je CO qe a luy est devise, issi qil ne pusse meymes 

' " sure ovesqes ses amys a recovrir le tenement qe a luy 

est devise, a dunkes seyent ses procheynz amys receuz 

a sure pur lay auxi avaunt com meyme lenfaunt ser- 

f. 18. reyt sil fust en present. 

Cap". E si tenements en la vauntdite ville de Gip[pewyz] 

x|nij«. seyent devisez qe ^ ne ' seyent pas devisable, pur co ne 

ment d^ sey t pas celuy a qi meyme teux tenements issi deviseez 

Tiseqene (Jeyvent apres la mort des teux testatours descendre, 

est pas de- -^ * ' 

visabie. revertir, ou remeyndre, barre qil ne pusse meyme ceux 
tenements recovrir par pleynte de abatement, cest asaver, 
sil se boute eynz^ freschement apres la mort du dit 
testatour, ou de deinz les primers xl. jours apres le 
testament prove e la seysine livree au clamaunt par 
devys e seyt debote.* E si celuy, qe tel dreyt en voudra 
clamer, seyt demoraunt en payis hors de prisoune e de 
bone memorie, seoffre le tenaunt par devys sa seysine 
contynuer en meyme le tenement a ly devise, tut ^ ne ' 
seyt pas ' le tenement devisable, xL jours apres la seysine 
a luy livre par devys pesiblement saunz mettre cleym 
e destourbaunce faire en la fourme avaunt dite, ne eyt 
il pas recovrir par pleynte de abatement apres meyme 
les xl. jours passez. Mes si il se boute eynz^ apres 
meyme le terme e seyt debote,' eyt il soun recovrir 
sil peot par brefe de novele disseysine ou par autre 
brefe solom ley e vsage de la ville. E si nul^ qe dreyt 
voudra clamer en meyme les tenementz devisez com 

^ ml Be boute eynz] if he thnxst 
himself in, that is, if he claim or 
begin his plaint. 

' e 9eyt dehoie] and bo throst oat. 

*<S'il Boit debot^" in this sense 
is used by Britton, 1. ii. c. xii § 7. 

' tut ne seyt /mu] notwithstanding 
the tenement be not devisable. 



thyng that is divisyd to him [so that he cannot even Add. MS. 
suyn with his freends to recure the tenement which is ^*»®^'- 
divisyd to hym], thanne be his next freend resceyved 
to suyn for hym, as was a fom whanne the same child 
was with hem in presence. 

Also zif tenementz in the same toun of Gippeswich zriij. 
ben divised that ben not divisable, for that be not he, ^llit'Jte- 
to whom the same tenementea so divised [owyn] after paited that 
the deth of swich testatours descenden, revertyn or JJ^^j^ 
remayndryn, barryd that he may not recuren be pleynt 
of abatement, that is to wetyn, zif it be abated ^ fresshly 
after the deth of the forseyd testatour, or with inne 
the. ferst xL dayes after the testament preved and the 
sesyn delivered to the cleymer be devis [and he be 
thrust out]. And zif he, that wil deyme swich right, 
be duellyng in the countre oute of prisone and in good 
mynde, sufire the tenaunt to contynuen his sesyn in 
the same tenement to hym divised, though the same 
tenement be not divisable, xL dayes after, be not the 
sesyn* delivered to hym be devis pesibly with oute 
settyng deym of lettyng* in the foorme afom seyd, 
have he not his recure be pleynt of abatement after 
the same xl. dayes passed. But zif he begynne his 
pleynt with inne the same terme,^ have he his recure, 
and he may be writ * of newe dissesyn or by an other 
writ after the la we and usage of the toun. And if eny 
man, that wil cleyme right in the same tenementes 

^ z{fil he abaUd] ^ zif he thnuts 
** himself in " would be the correct 
translation. In this sense *' se bote 
*< eynx" is used by Biitton, L ii. 
ch. ix. s. 11. 

^ after be not ike sttyn] This 
would be more correctly translated 
'* after the sesyn had been de- 
** livered." 

» ofUUyng'] « and leittyng/* that 
is, ** and objecting to» or disturbing 

** the possession of the devisee" 
would be the proper translation of 
the French text 

* but zif he begin his pleynt voith 
inne the same terme'] The French 
text should be rendered " but nf he 
** thrust himself in after the same 
** terme, and be thrust oat." 

* and he may be tDrif] '< if he may 
<* by writ" is the sense of the 
French text. 




Add. MS. avaunt est dyt, eynz ceo qe la seysine de meyme le 
25,012. tgngnjgn^ esteyt livre au tenaunt par devys, seyt hora 
de payis ne mye sacfaaunt dil devys; ou en prisoun ou 
hors de seyne memorie quant il voudra en pays, ou 
hors de prisoun ou serra de bone memorie e treove 
le tenaunt par devys par seysi en le tenement a luy 
devisee, e luy deboute freschement/ ou qil se boute 
eynz en clamaunt soun dreyt e seyt debote,* eyt il soun 
recovrir par pleynte de abat^ement en la fourme avaunt- 
dite. En meyme la manere enfaunt de deinz age, ceo 
est asaver, qe ne eyt mye acumpli le plenerage de la 
ville, qe tiel cleym i voudra mettre en teux tenementz 
1 18. b. devisez, mette soun cleym ou tele destourbaunce par 
luy ou par ses procheynz amys de deinz les primers xl. 
jours apres la mort du dit testatour, ou apres la seysine 
livre au clamaunt par devys. E sil ne face, perde il le 
avauntage a recovrir ren en ceux tenementz par 
pleynte de abatement. Mes quant il vendra a soun age, 
se purchace par brefe le Bey solom usage de la ville si 
cum avaunt est dit. 

Cap». zix^ E si tenement seyt devise a acun taunt com il est 
menTdT- ^^^ ^® V^J^^y ® 1© testament le testatour seyt provee 
TiBe a acTin en la fourme avauotdite, seyt la seysine de meyme le 
iiwthore tenement devise livre a acun des procheynz amys oeluy 
de payiB. a qi le devys est fiit^ a garder e la seysine contynuer 
en noun celuy a qi meyme le tenement estoyt devisee, 
saunz wast ou destruccioun faire, cila qil meymes veygne 

^ et /t^ d^HmteJre9diement'] and 
tbroBt him ont freshly. 

^ ouqU 86 boute eynz en clamaunt 
ioun dreyt et seyt deftote] ** or that 

** he thrnst himself in claiming his 
" right and be thrnst ont.'* No 
translation of these words is ibond 
in the English version. 



divi&fyd as it is afomseid, afore that the sesyn of the Add. M& 

same tenementes ben delivered to the tenaunt be devis, ^^»®^^' 

be out of the cotmtre, not wetyng of that devip, or in 

prisoun, or out of good mynde, whanne he cometh in 

to cuntre or out of prisoun or be a zeyn in good mynde, 

and fynde i^e tenaunt de devis sesyd in the tenement 

to hym divised, and plete a yenst the tenaunt with 

inne the ferst xL dayes ^ after his comyng home or out 

of prisoun or a zeyn of good mynde, have he his recure 

be pleynt of abatement be foorme afore s^d. In the 

same maner a child with inne age^ that is to wetyn 

zif he hath not fiilfelled the ful age ^ of the toun^ that 

swich deyme wU settyn of swyche tenementz divisyd, 

[sett he] his cleyme or swyche disturbaunce by hym 

or by his next freend with inne the ferst xl. dayes f- lo- 

after the deth of the forseyd testatour, or after the 

sesoun ^ delivered to the cleym and by devis. And if 

he do nott he leseth avauntoge to recuren eny thyng 

in tho tenementz be pleint of abatement. But whanne 

he cometh to his age he may purchase the writ of the 

kyng ^ after the usage of the toun as is a fomseyd. 

Also zif tenement be divisyd to eny man whil he is 
out of cuntre, and the testament of the testatour beiQ^i^t'^- 
preved as it is afomseyd, be the sesyn of the samepartedto 
tenement delivered to summe of the next frendes ofgone^^ie 
hym to whom the same devis is maad, to kepyn and^flf <*^* 
to helden sesyn in his name, with oute wast and dis-^^^. 
truccion, til that he come to countre ; and be the fdorme 

1 vfUh inne the first xL dayes] 
These and the following words, 
down to " of good mynde," are not 
foond in the French text. They 
are, however, the legal equivalents 
of « fresshly." 

^ the ful age] that is, ^'fourteen 

« years." See below, chap. Ixz., 
" Of the age of the toun." 

' sesoun] sesyn. 

* the writ of the kyng] a writ of 
novel disseisin, or a writ de morte 
antecessoris in the case of an heir 
to land, which had been wrongfully 
devised to a stranger. 



Add. MS. en payis. E seyt la fourme de cele livree entre en 
25,012. j^yig ^Q ]a ville. E quant cely a qi le avauntdit tene- 
ment estoyt devise serra venu en payis, eyt il les en- 
treez e sa seysine saunz nule destourbaunce ou coun- 
tredit de celuy a qi la seysine esteyt bailie^ en soun 
noun ou de ses heyrs. E si destourbaunce luy seyt 
fete par le avauntdit gardeyn ou par ses ^ heyrs, qil ' 
ne pusse les entrer e la seysine aver en le avauntdit 
tenement a luy devise, luy facent les bailli& de la ville 
solom la fourme dil enroulement e de la prove du tes« 
tament avauntdit la seysine livrer, si celuy a qi la garde 
esteyt bailie^ ou ses heyrs ne pusse mustrer par plus 
tardyfe title de celuy meymes qe cleyme par devys, pur 
quey la seysine ne luy deyt estre livre. E si celuy, a 
qi le dit tenement devise est bailie^ en garde en la 
fourme avauntdite, eyt fait wast en meyme le tenement, 
eyt meyme celuy clamaunt par devys soun recovrir ver 
luy de ses damages pur le wast devaunt les baillifs de 
meyme la vill<e par gage e plegge solom ley e vsage 
f. 19. de la ville, cest a saver, si il voillie en teu manere pur 
meyme les damages sure. E si cely gardeyn meorge, e 
soun heyr teygne le tenement devise, eyt le dit cla- 
maunt par devis, quel houre qil veygne, le tenement a luy 
devise hors des meyns del heyr saunz destourbaunce e 
meyme le courir * ver luy, si mester seyt, com il vst eu 
ver soun auncestre a ^ qi ' la garde primes esteyt bailie 
sil fiist en vye, e ne seyt ^ pas ' la seysine dil heyr en 
teu caas tenue pur nule nyent plus qe de soun aun- 
cestre, mes tutz jours com en garde en noun celuy a 
qi le dit tenement estoyt devise. E si le dit tenement 
devise seyt alyene en estraunge meyn par celuy a qi 
la garde estoyt bailie com avaunt est dit, ou par soun 

1 baUie] baill^, in the sense of I ^ courir'] recoyrir or recourir 
" delivered " is the nsnal form. I should be here read. 


of that deliveraunce entred in the rolle of the toun. Add. MS. 
And whanne he to whom the forseid tenement was *^»^^^- 
divised be comyn in to countre, have he entresse and 
his sesyn with oute eny lettyng or withseyeng of hym 
to whom the sesyn was takyn in his name, or of his 
heires ; [and zif lettyng be doon to hym by the forseyd 
keper or by his heiresj so that he may not have his 
entresse and his sesyn in the forseyd tenement to hym 
divisyd, thanne the bally ves of the toun shul doon after 
the fourme of enroilyng of the rolle, and after a preeff 
of the testament delyveren the forseyd sesyn, zif he to 
whom the kepyng was takyn, or his heyres, mown not ^ 
shewyn by lattere titele of the same that he deymeth 
by devis, wherfore the sesyn owith not to be delivered 
to hym. And zif he, to whom the forseyd tenement 
divisyd was takyn in kepyng in the foorme aforseid, 
make wast in the same tenement, have the same cleymer 
by devis his recure a zenst hym of his damages for 
the wast afom the ballyves of the same toun by wed 
and borgh after lawe and usage of the toun, that is 
to weten, zif he wyl in swich maner for the same 
damages suyn. And zif that keper deye, and his heir 
holdeth the tenementz divisyd, have the forseyd cleymer 
be devis, what tyme that he cometh, the tenemeutes 
to hym divisyd out of the heyres handys with oute 
ony lettyng, and the same recure a zens hym, zif mister 
be,^ as he shulde have had a zenst his auncetre to 
whom the forseyd kepyng was ferst takyn to, zif he 
hadde ben on lyve. And be the sesyn of the heyr in 
swich cas holden for none, no more thanne of this aun- 
cetre, but alle dayes as in kepyng in his name to whom 
the forseid tenement was divisyd. And zif the forseyd 
tenement divisyd be aliened in to straimge hand by 
hym to whom the kepyng was takyn as it is afoi^seyd. 

' mown not] may not, or can not, 
being the third person of the present 
tense of the indicatiye mood of the 

early English verb "mogen" or 
" mowen.** 
* zif mister be"] if need be. 




Add. MS. heyr avaunt qe le clamaunt par devis veygae en payis, 
'^ ' quel houre qe meyme celuy clamaunt par devis veygne 
e se boute en meyme le tenement a luy devise e seyt 
debote/ eyt U soun recoverir devaunt les baillifs de la 
dite ville par pleynte de abatement auxicom il aureyt 
devaunt justices par brefe de novele disseysine, cest a 
saver, sil attache sa pleynte de deinz les primers xL 
jours apres qil serra debote,^ pur ceo qe fraunke tene- 
ment luy est acru ^ par vertu dil devis e de la preove 
du dyt testament e de ceo qe la seysine ad este con- 
tynue en soun noun en le dit tenement devise. E si 
les exeqetours le mort ne veolent le testament prover 
par malice ou par collusioun, com avaunt est dit, ne la 
seysine livrer du tenement devise au procheyn amy 
celuy, a qi il estoyt devise en la fourme avauntdite, ne 
a luy meymes quant il serra venu en payis, pur ceo 
ne seyt pas celuy a qi tel fraunke tenement est devise 
par la malice e la collusioun des teux fauz exeqetours 
barre de accioun a demaunder e recoverir meyme le 
fraunke tenement a luy devise par presses a faire venir 
les exeqetours de deinz les primers xL jours apres co 
qil serra venu en payis, a prover le testament le mort 
en la manere avauntdyte, ou en autre manere solom 
ceo qil entendera meuz faire soun proffit, par brefe le 
rey, hors des meyns des ditz exeqetours, ou hors de 
autri meyn, en qi seysine meyme le tenement devise 
f. 19. b. deveygne apres la mort le avauntdyt testatour, ne mye 
nusaunt a luy excepcioun de la noun prove du dyt 
testament, dementers qe le demaundaunt par devys 
pusse le devys avauntdit par bone enqueste averer. £ 
si tel tenement s^yt recovre par juggement hors des 
meyns des teux exeqetours, receovre le demaundaunt 

1 debate] and " be thruBt out " as 
aboye. llie terms are perhaps not 
to be constmed literally, and may 
mean that a claim was made by the 
deyisee and was rejected by the 
guardian or his heir. 

^ acru] Acruist, accrewed, Eel- 
ham. Accres in the sense of accre- 
tion occurs in Britton, 1. ii. ch. ii., 



or be his heir, afom that the cleymer by the vis ^ cam Add. MS. 
in to countre, and he deyme* the same tenement to ^*»®i^- 
hym divisyd [and be thrust out], have he his recurer 
afom the ballives of the toun by pleint of abatement,' f. lo. b. 
as he shulde have a fore the justise be writ of newe 
dissesyu, that is to witten, zif he begynne his pleynt 
with inne the ferst xl. dayes after that he be debated 
for that the fre tenement is to hym longand ^ be vertu 
of devis and preeff of the forseyd tenement, and for the 
sesyn hath ben holden in his name in the forseyd tene- 
ment divised. And zif tho executours of the dede 
willen not prevyn the testament by malice or collusion 
as it is aforseyd, ne deliveren sesyn of the tenement 
divisyd to the next freend of hym to whom it was in 
fourme aforseyd, ne to hym self whanne he is come in 
to countre, for that ne be he, to whom that fre tene- 
ment is divisyd, be malice or coUusione of swich false 
executours barryd from his accione to axen and recuren 
the same fre tenement to him divisyd by proces to do 
come the executours with inue the ferst xL dayes after 
that he be comyn in to countre, to prevyn the testa- 
ment of the dede in the maner aforseyd, or in other 
maner after that he may best doon his profight, by 
kynges writ, out of the handes of the forseyd execu- 
tours, or out of other handes in which the sesyn of the 
same tenement divisyd cometh after the detli of the 
forseyd testatour, non nusance be to hym * of excepcion 
of the name pref of the forseid testament the mene 
tyme that the axand by devis may averryn the devis 
a fomseyd by good enquest. And zif swich tenement 
be recured [by judgment], the axand a zenst hem shal 

^ by the oi»] ^'bydeyis'' should 
be here read. 

* and he deyme"] and he thruBt 
himself in. 

' by pleint of abaiemenf] as ex- 
plained in eh, xiii. 

^ hngand] "accrued" wonld bo 
nearer the French text 

* ngn muance be to hpn"] nor shall 
he be prcgndiced by tiie exception 
of the non-proof of the said tene- 
ment in the mean time. 

F 2 


Add. MS. vers eux ses damages en duble de ceo qil semint taxez 
^'^ ^' par enqueste. E estre ceo sey t la value dil tenement 
de tut le meen temps, e dil wast, si nul y seyt fait, 
taxe ovesqes les autres damages. 

Capo. xx». E si CO seyt rente issaunt de fraimke tenement qe 
devisT*^ seyt devise, meyntenaimt apres le testament provee seyt 
celuy a qi la rente est devyse mys en seysine de cele 
rente par les exeqetours, si le tenaunt veoillie a luy 
atoumer. E sil ne voillie de soun bon gre a luy attor- 
ner, a dunkes a la sute le demaundaunt par devys seyt 
agarde en pleyne court par vertu de la dite prove a 
faire venir cely, qe la dite rente devise deyt payer, de- 
vaunt les baillifs de la dite ville en pleyne court, a 
conustre par quel service il cleym tenir le tenement 
dunt la vaunt dite rente est issaunt, e de qi. E quant 
il vendra en court, seyt demaunde de meyme la court 
de qi il tynt le jour qe le dit testatour se lessa morir 
le tenement dunt la dite rente devisee est issaunt, e de 
qi il le cleyme tenir, e par quel service. E sil conuce 
qil le tynt dil dit testatour quant il morust fesaunt a 
luy meyme la rente devisee, e qil le cleym tenir de 
soun heyr par meyme la rente, a dunkes seyt agarde, 
qil se attourne a celuy demaundaunt par devys, e qil 
teygne de luy ' de eel jour en avaunt ' meyme le tene- 
ment auxi com il le tynt dil avauntdit testatour. £ 
fait a saver, qe ^ en ' ceo cas ne deyt nul essoygne estre 
allowe pur le avauntdit tenement avaunt qil seyt venuz 
en court a conustre com avaunt est dit. E si celuy 
tenaunt ne veoillie meinprise trover devenir en court 
a conustre com avaunt est dit, ou tut eyt il meynprise 
f, 20. trove e la seoffre estre amercie, a dunkes seyt usee 
meyme prosces a fere luy venir auxi com est contenu 
en la constitucioun ^ de reconissaunce des tenements, qe 

^ en la cotutituciovn,'] This con- I De reoonnisannce de fraonke tene- 
BtitttUon will be found in Chapter zi. | ment en cas de leyersioan, &c. 


[recure] doubele his damagen of that they shal be taxed Add. MS. 
be an enquest. And with outyn this be the value of 2*»®^^" 
the tenement of alle this mene tyme, and of the wast, 
zif there eny be doon, taxed with other damages &c. 

Also zif ther be ony rente goyng of fre tenement xx. 
that be divisyd a non after the testament proved, be dep^ffted. 
he to whom the rente is divisyd to putte in seson^ 
of that rente be the executours zif the tenaunt wil ' 
attome to hym. And zif he wil not be his good wil 
attoume on to hym, thanne att the sute of the axand 
be devis be it awarded in pleyn court be vertue of the 
forseid preeff to doon comyn hynl that oweth to paye 
that forseid rente a fom the ballives of the forseid toun 
in to pleyn court, to shewyn be what service he cleymeth 
to holden the tenement wherof that rente ys goyng, and 
of whom. And whanne he cometh in to court, [be he 
axed of the court] of whom he helde it the day of the 
forseyd testatour deyed. And if he deyme and shewe 
that he heelde of the forseid testatour the day whanne 
he deyed, payeng to hym the same rente divisyd, and 
that he eleymeth to holden the forseid tenement of heir 
be the same rente, thanne be it awarded that he f. ii. 
attoume hym to the axand be devis, and that he helde 
of hym fro that day forward the same tenement as he 
was dued of the forseid testatour ; and it is to wetyn, 
that in that cas non essoyne oweth to ben allowed for 
the forseid tenaunt a fom that he be comyn in to 
court to shewyn as it is aforn seid. And if that tenaunt 
wil fynde non meinprise to comyn in to court to 
shewen as it is aforn seid, [or although he find mein- 
prise and Butfre it to be amercied], thanne be it used 
the same processe for to doon hym comen as it is con- 
teyned in the constitucion of the reconisaunce of tene- 

' in sesan"] in sesyn. 


Add. MS. deyvent revertir ou remeyndre, a fere venir le tenaunt 
25,012. g^ terme de vye ou des aims. E si celuy tenaunt dye, 
quant il vendra en court, qil ne tynt poynt le tenement 
dunt cele rente devise est demaunde dil avauntdit tes- 
tatour, ne qe cele rente a luy ne fist en sa vye, e 
celuy a qi cele rente est devisee veoillie averer par bone 
enqueste, qe celuy tenaunt tynt dil avauntdyt testatour 
meyme le tenement e par meyme la rente qe a luy est 
devisee, e qe le testatour de cele rente morust seysi en 
seon demeyne com de fe, seyt U receu a eel aveyre- 
ment si le tenaunt le veoillie attendre, e si le tenaunt 
ne veoillie eel aveyrement receyvre, seyt agarde par 
meyme la cour qil satoume de meyme cele rente a 
celuy demandaunt par devya E si celuy tenaunt 
apres eel agard done ne veoillie a ly attourner ne cele 
rente a ly payer, a dunkes eyt cely demandaunt par 
devys peer a destreyndre en meyme le tenement pur 
la vauntdite rente arrere, e fere bone avowerie en son 
fe solom usage de la ville par vertu dil devys e dil 
agard avauntdyt. E si cely tenaunt ou soun heyr 
apres tel agard de attoumement donee par force de 
play veygne en meyme la court, e descleyme a tenir 
de cely demaundaunt par devys meyme le tenement, 
ou la destresce fu fete pur la vauntdite "^ rente ' devisee, 
ne seyt pas soun desclamer receu encountre le agard 
avauntdit, si ne seyt par plus tardyfe title de celuy 
meymes qe demaunde par devys. E par la ou tenement 
ou rente est devysee a acoun, e ceux qe esteyent al 
devys se retreunt par malice e ne veolent en court 
' venir a prover le testament le mort ne sa volunte 
temoygner, pur ceo ne seyt mye cely a qi le tenement 
ou la rente estoyt devyse barre de co qe a ly est 
devysee, taunt com il peot averer le devys e la volunte 
f. 2o.b. le mort par bone enqueste dil procheyn ""vygnye,' ou 
le testatour se lessa morir. Mes fet a savoyr qe solom 
vsage de la dite ville qe femme coverte de baroun ne 


mentz that owen to reverten or remeyndren, to doo Add. MS. 
come the tenaunt to terme of liff or of zerys. And zif *^»®^ ^' 
that tenaunt seyth, whanne he cometh in to court, that 
he heelde not the tenement wherof that rente divised 
is axed of the forseyd testatour, ne that he paide hym 
never that rente in all his lyve, and zif he to whom 
that rente ys devised wil averryn be good enquest, that 
that tenaunt held of the forseid testatour the same tene- 
ment and by the same rente that to hym is divised, 
and that the testatour of that rente deyed sesyd in his 
owen demene as of fee, be he resceyved to maJcyn that 
averrement zif the tenaunt wil abyden' it, and zif the 
tenaunt wil not resceyven that averrement, be it 
awarded [by the same court that he attoume him for 
the same rente to the axand] be devis. And zif the 
tenaunt after this award zoven ne wil not attomyn to 
hym ne payen hym the same rente, thanne have the 
axand be devis power for to destreynen in the same 
tenement for to areryn the forseid rente and makyn a 
good avoury his fee, after vsage of the toun by vertue 
of devis and of the forseid award. And zif that tenaunt 
or his heir after that award of attornment zoven be 
strengthe of pie come to the same court, and discleyme 
to holden of that axand be devis the same tenement 
where the distresse was doon for the forseid rente 
divised, be not his discleyme resceyved azeyn the award 
afomseid, zif it be not be latter titele of hym that 
axeth be divise. And zif the tenement [or the rente] be 
divisyd to ony man, and they that weryn at the devis 
withdrawyn hem by malice, and wil not comyn in to 
the court to preven the testament of the dede ne wit- 
tenessen his wille, for that be he, not to whom the 
tenement or rent was divisyd, barryd from that that to 
hym ys divised, wlul he may avenyn devis and the 
yrille of the dede by good enquest of the next neygh- 
boures [where the testatour deyed]. But it is to weten, 
that after the usage of the forseid toun that woman 

De nur- 
ture ayer. 


Add. MS. peot ne ne deyt en soun lyt moryaunt nul firaunke tene- 
25,012. ment en meyme la ville deviser en desheritaunoe de 
ses heyrs, tut seyt qe soun baroun y voillie ascentir. 

Capo. zxjo. Item de chescoun heyr madle ^ ou femele apres la 
mort soun auncestre eyt le proscheyn pare[n]t de par 
le pere ou de par la mere, a qi eel heritage ne peot 
descendre, la nurture cila qe le heyr seyt de plener age 
solom usage de la vile, ceo est a saver de xiiij. aunz, 
saunz wast fere ou destruccioun en meyme le heritage. 
E quant le heyr aura acumpli lage avauntdit, e voudra 
seon heritage demaunder, eyt il seon heritage saunz 
destourbaunce ou countredyt de cely qe la nurture de 
ly avoyt ou de ses heyrs. E estre ceo respoygne il a 
meyme le heyr de tutz les issues de soun heritage dil 
meen temps qil avoyt la nurture, e de tutz les chateux, 
si nuls furent baillez ovesqes le cors meyme cely heyr 
ensemblement, ou tut le proffit sourdaunt de meyme 
les chateux en meyme eel meen temps sauve ceo, qil 
porrat renablement prover ou averer qil aura mys en 
la sustenaunce du cors meyme cely heyr e en amende- 
ment des mesouns e des autres choses appendauntz a 
meyme le hdHtage, ou renable aUouaunce ly deyt estre 
fete. E si cely, qe la nurture de tel heyr aura, face 
wast ou destruccioun en meyme le heritage en le meen 
temps, perde il la nurture enterement, sil ne pusse bone 
e suflSsaunte surte trover a redrescer e amender ceo qil 
aura wastee e destruyt en meyme le heritage, e a 
meyme le heritage sustenir en auxi bon estaat com il 

1 heyr madle] Heir madle occurs in Brittoo, 1. iii. ch. iii. § 1. 



kevered vnder housbond may not ne owyth not in heer Add. MS. 
bed deying divisyn eny fre tenement in the same tonn ^^^ ^ 
in disheritacioun of her heireB^ though her housbond 

Also of every heire femel or male after the deth of "J- 
hys antecessoures have the next freend on the &dertohaTe. 
syde or on the moder syde, to whom that heritage may 
not descendyn, the norture til that the heir be of ful 
age after vsage of the toun,^ that is to wetyn of ziiij. 
zer, with outen doyng of wast or distruecioun in the 
heritage. And whanne the heir hath fulfelled the for- 
seid age, and wil axen the heritage^ have he this heri- 
tage with oute lettyng or with-seyeng of hym that 
hadde the norysshyng of hym, or of his heyres. And 
be it answered^to the same heir of alle the issues of 
his heritage of all the tyme^ that he hadde the 
norysshyng and of all the chateux, zif eny weren takyn ' 
with the body of the same heir, to gedyr with all the 
profyt rysyng out of the same chateux, in tyme of his 
liflF,* saflF that he may resonabely proven or averryn that 
he hath sett it on the sustenaunce of the body of the 
same heir and in amendement of housys and of other 
thing longjmg to the same heritage, where resonabele 
allouaunce oweth to be maad to hym. And zif he that 
hath had the norysshyng hath doon wast destruccioun 
in the same tyme, lese thanne he the cost of the nor- 
ture all to gedyr, zif he may not fynde good and suf- 
ficiaunt suerte to redressyn and amendyn that he hath 
wasted and distroyed in the same heritage, to maken 
and to susteynen ^ in as good state as he rescey ved hem, 

1 after vtage of the toun] See 
eb. bcz. ** Of the age of the toon." 

^of aU the tyme'} of the mean 

* to^] ** deliyered " would be 
the more correct translation of 

^ m tyme of hie Uff} m the same 

* to maken and to euet^fnen^ The 
French text shonld be rendered 
** and to susteynen the same heri- 
« tage." 




Add. MS. le receut, ci la qe le heyr veygne a soun age avaunt- 
25,012. jy^ jj ^j^ ^Q ^jg^ g^y^ ^j^ jgg pj^jg proscheyiiz amys 

de tel heyr de dens age receu a prendre' meyme la 
seurte e a fere la sute pur le wast devaunt les bail- 
lifs de la dite vyle en noun dil heyr, solom ley e usage 
de la vyle, ver cely qe le dyt wast aura fisdt, cest 
asaver si le heyr seyt de si tendre age ou en tel estat, 
'qil ne seet^ ou ne peot meymes sure. E si par cas 
aveygne, qe cely qe la dyte nurture eyt eu, la nurture 
de eel heyr perde par lenchesoun avauntdite, a dunkes 
seyt meyme la nurture bailie a un autre, ou les plus 
proscheynz * amjrs meyme cely heyr de denz age voud- 
runt assentir, a garder meyme le heyr e soun heritage 
e ceo qe a luy appert bien e leaument, e de ceo a 
respoundre quant temps serra en la fourme avauntdite. 
E ne eyt nul en la vauntdite vyle par resoun de tele 
avauntdite nurture poer de marier tel enfaunt de denz 
age en sa nurture esteaunt nule part, forkes la ou 
lenfaunt e ses proscheynz amys voudrunt ascentir. 

Cap<».xxij«. Item en brefe de dette, brefe de chartres a tort 
DeprosceB detenues, brefe de acumte, e autres brefs semblables, qe 

iCTe en •••!« t 

brefs yes- sunt appelez justices,^ qe sunt brera vescuntals e qe sunt 

en^pUyntes pkdables par returns des vescuntes devaunt les baillifs 

par gage de la dite vyle, seyt vsee tel prosces, cest asaver, 

etpegge. p^jj^^^ quant le pleyntyfe aura attache soun brefe de 

sure^ seyt meyntenaunt comaundee par les baillifs qe 

celuy, ver qi le brefe est porte, seyt un feze somuns 

taunt soulement de estre a la proscheyne court de port- 

mannemot suaunt apres a respoundre al pleyntyfe de 

' ne sect] knows not, Eelham. 

^ ou les plus proscheynx'] where 
the next friends of the heir within 
age will assent 

^justices'] the writ of jnsticies was 
a royal writ empowering the sheriff 
to do justice, and try the case in the 
coanty court. 



til that the heir come to his laweful age.* And in that Add. MS. 

Oft oil 

cas be oon of the next freendys of that heir with inne ' 
age rescey ved to take the same suerte, and for to makyn 
sute for the wast afom the ballyves of the same toun 
in name of the heyr, afber lawe and usage of the toun^ 
a zenst hym that hath doon the wast, that is to weiyn, 
zif the heir be of tender age or in swich state that he 
ne may ne can not snen it hym self And zif it &lle 
be cas that he, that hath norture of that heir, lese the 
cost of his norture for the cause afomseid, thanne be 
the same norture takyn to an other, to on of the 
next frendys^ of that heir with inne age, zif he wil 
assenten to kepe the same heir and his heritage, and that 
that longeth to hym weel and trewly, and of that to 
answeryn whanne tyme be in fourme afomseyd. And 
they have non in the forseid toun by reson of swich 
norture power to maryen swich a child in his norture 
beyng in non part, but the child and his next frend 
willen assenten. 

Also in writ of dette, wretes of chartres holden with f. la. 
wrong,* writtes of acountes, and other writtes lik that ^*^^^* 
ben clepyd shirrevis writtes, that ben pleteable be to ^e in 
retoumys of shirrevys a fom the ballyves of the forseid "^^ *^"': 
toun, be used swich proces, that is to weten, Whanne in pieyntes 
the pleyntyff hath begunnyn to sue his writ, be he a^^®^"^^ 
non comaunded be the bidlives, a yens whanne^ the 
writ is brought that he be on tyme sommoned al only 
to be att the next court of portmennysmotes suyng after 
to answeryn to the pleyntyff of the plee, &c. And if 

^ his lawefid age] his age afore- 

^ to on of the next frendys] The 
English text differs considerably 
in its meaning firom the French 

3 holdeti with torong'] vrongly de« 
tained. ' 

* a you whanne'] These words 
should follow <<that he," viz., 
" that he a yens whanne the writ is 
(* brought be on tyme sommoned." 


Add. MS. play, &c. E sil ne veygne par oele somuns e la somunse 
* ^' seyt duement temoygne sour luy en court, seyt agarde, 
qil seyt mys par gage e saufe plegge a respoundre, &a 
E sil face defaute e seoffre ses primers plegges estre 
amercyez, seyt agarde qil seyt mys par quatre plegges 
a respoundre, &c. E sil face autrefeze defaute e seoffre 
ses iiij. plegges amercyer, seyt agarde qil seyt mys par 
viij. plegges a respoundre, &c. E si le defendaunt seyt 
rebbel qil ne se veoillie justicer en la fourme avaunt- 
dite a respoundre, &c., a dunkes seyt agarde de court 
en court, si mester seyt, qil seyt destreynt par tutz ses 
biens e ses chateux de denz mosoun e dehors, quel part 
f. 21. b, qil seyent trovez de denz le poer des ditz baillifs, cila 
qil se veoillie justicer, &c. E si le defendaunt par ma- 
lice, e pur delayer le pleyntyfe e targer ^ execucioun de 
court, ses biens e ses chateux enclost de denz mesoun 
de souz serrure, par quey qe les baillifs de la dite vyle 
ne avendreyent a fere nule suffisaunte destresce sour 
luy, a dunkes seyt agarde solom usage de la vyle qe 
cele mesoun, quele qe ele seyt chaunbre ou autre me- 
soun, seyt sequestree ovesqes tutz les chateux qe leynz 
sunt, e demeorge sequestree issi qe luy nul de par luy 
y mette la meyn cila qil s^ veoillie en due manere 
justicer, &c. E quant il se aura justisee en fourme de 
ley a respoundre, &c., e le pleyntyfe e luy serrunt 
venuz en court, adunkes pledunt a menz qil saurunt e 
porrunt solom ceo qe le cas donne. E seyt ceo prosces 
e meyme la execucioun fete e usee, quant en attache- 
mentz, destresces e sequestre fere en chescun play pen- 
daunt devaunt les ditz baillifs par gage e plegge auxi 
com en les pletz qe pendunt par brefs, horpris qe nule 
somunse seyt primes agardee en teu manere des pleyntes 

1 targer'] to pat off, Britton, 1. ii. oh. xx. § 1. 



he come not by that sommounys, be it duabely ^ wit- Add. Ma 
tenessed upon hym in the court, and be it awarded that ' 
he iynde a borgh to answeryn, &c. And zif he make 
defaute and sufire his ferst borghis to be amercied, be it 
awarded that he be putt [by iiii. borghwys to answeryn. 
And zif he make defaute again and suffre his iiii. 
borghwys to be amercied, be it awarded that he be 
putt] by viij. borghwys to answeryn, &c. And zif the 
defendaunt be so rebell, that he wil not justefien hym 
to answeryn in the fourme afomseid, &c., thanne be it 
awarded from court to court, zif mister be, that he be 
distreyned by alle his goodys and chauteux with ynne 
hous and with oute, what part it may be founden with 
ynne the power of the forseid ballives, til that he wil 
come and iustifie, &c. And zif the defendaunt by 
malice, or for to delayen the pleyntyff and for to taryen 
the court, enclose hese goodys and his chauteux with 
ynne hous under the erthe,* wherfore the ballives may 
not comyn to maken ony su£Sciaunt distresse upone 
hym, thanne be it awarded after the usage of the toun 
that that hous, whether it be chamber or other hous, 
be sequestryd with all the chauteux that ben ther ynne, 
and so duelle sequestryd, that he ne none in his name 
set ther on cleym, til that he come in due maner to 
iustifien. And whanne he hath iustified in foorme of 
lawe to answeryn, &c, and the pleyntif and - he ben 
comyn in to court, thanne plete they in the best maner 
that they can or may after that the caas yevetb. And 
by the same proces and the same execucioun doon and 
used to make the distresse and the sequestre in ech 
plee hangyng aforn the ballives by wed and borugh as 
the plees that hangyn by writ, out takyn that non 
sommonys be ferst awarded in swich maner of pleyntys 

^ be it duabely'] and it be duably 

^ under the earth"] " under lock '' 
would be the correct translation of 

''desooz Berrure." The translator 
may have misread seirure as termre, 
terra, earth. 




Add. MS. pendauntz saunz brefe, cest a saver des pleyntes qe ne 
25,012. t^ellent mye firaunke tenement. 

Capo. Item en chescune pleynte de baterye, saunge treet, 
D^^terye '^^''^^sokne, ou de autre trespas feet en la dy te vyle de 
saungtrety Gippewyz countre la pees^ seyt usee tel prosoes, cest 
asaver, si celuy de qi la pleynte est fete seyt encountre ^ 
de trover plegge a respoundre, e il ne eyt chateux en 
meyme la vyle par les queux il peot estre justisee, e 
ceo seyt en court duement temoygnee, adimkes seyt 
agarde solom ley e usage de meyme la vyle, qil seyt 
attache par soun cors taunkes il eyt plegge trove a 
respoundre du trespas, ou seyt soun cors tauntost mene 
devaunt les baillifs de la vyle a respoundre au pleyn- 
tyfe du trespas. E quant il serra venuz en court e 
serra atteynt en due manere par enqueste ou en autre 
manere par agard de court de tel trespas aver fait 
f. 22, countre la pees, seyt agarde, qe le pleyntyfe receoure 
ses damages ver le trespassour solom ceo qil serrunt 
taxez par enqueste, ou en autre manere par agard de 
court, e le trespassour seyt agarde a la prisoun en ceste 
fourme, cest asaver, pur saunke treet maliciousement de 
espe ou de cotel, de bastoun ou dautre arme, ly seyt la 
prisoun agarde xv. jours. Pur baterie fete ovesqes 
hamsokne, xv. jours, tut ne seyt mye. saunke treet. Pur 
baterie fete e saunke treet ovesqes hamsokne, xx. jours. 
Pur saunke treet maliciousement de pe ou de poygn, e 
pur autre baterie, seyt la penaunce agarde solom ceo 
qe la baterie est peiillouse, e solom ceo qe le trespas 
est graunt ou petyt. E seyt ceste penaunce denprisonne- 

* seyt eiicountre] be against find- 
ing, that is, refuse to find sureties. 

The same idiom occurs in Britton, 
L V. ch. X. § 7. 



hangyug with outen writ, that is to weten of pleyntes ^^ ^8 

that touche not fre tenement. 


Also in every pleynt of fightyng, debatyng, blood- ^.*"y* 
draught, hamsoken,^ or other trespas doon in the for-biood ' 
seid toun of Qippeswich a zens the pees, be usyd swich drawen. 
proces, that is to weten, zif he of whom the pleynt is 
maad be a zens to fynde borgh to answeren, and zif 
he have no catell ^ in the same toun be which he may 
ben iustified, and this be in court duabely wittnessed, 
thanne be it awarded after lawe aud usage of the same f- 1^. b. 
toun, that he be tached be his body [until he finde 
borugh to answere of the trespas, or be his body taken] 
a non a fom the ballyves of the seid toun to answere 
to the pleyntyff of trespas. And whanne they «be 
, comyn ' in to the court and be atteynt in due maner by 
jan enquest or in other maner be a ward of the court 
; of swiche trespas he hath doon a zenst the pees, be it 
awarded that the pleyntyff recure his damages a zens 
I the trespasour after tiiat they ben taxed be the quest, 
or in other maner [by award of the court], and the 
trespasour be awarded in to prisoun in that fourme, 
that is to witten, for blooddraught maliciously doon 
with swerd or knyff or staff, or of other harmys, to 
hym be the prisoun awarded xv. dayes. For debate 
doon^ with hamsoken, xv. dayes, though ther be non 
blood drawyn. For debate doon^ with blooddraught 
and hamsoken, xx. dayes. For blood drawyn of foot 
or of fist or of other debaat, be the penaunce awarded 
after that the betyng^ be perlous, and after that the 
trespas be gret or litell. And be that penaunce of pri^ 

* hanuoken'] Hamsoona is de- 
fined in the Laws of Henry I., ch. 
Ixxx. § 11. " Hamsocna est, Tel 
^ Hamfare, si quia premeditate ad 
** domam eat, ubi suiun hostem esse 
" scit, et ibi evm inyadat, si die vel 
<< nocte hoc faciat" 

^ catelt] chatels. 

3 they be comyn] ^ he be comyn " 
would be the correct translation of 
the French text 

^ debate dooti] batterie doon. 

^ the betyng} the batterie or beat- 



Add. MS. ment fermement ienue e gardee pur ceux qe sunt co- 
25,012. ,J^^J^ meefesours e qe sovent sunt acustumez de mau- 
fere. Mes sil aveygne par cas qe acun trespasse en la 
fourme avauntdite par hastinesse^ qe ne seyt pas a vs 
de meffere, ne seyt il pas puny par la peyne denpri- 
sounement avauntdite, mes ly seyt mytigacioun fete de 
oele peyne par grace e avisement de court, issi neqe- 
dent ^ qil face gre pur les damages ver ly derenez.* E 
si nul qe seyt entree en prisoun par agard de la dite 
court pur tel trespas com avaunt est dyt, ou pur autre 
renable enchesoun, sen aillye hors de prisoun saunz 
cunge de soun gardeyn, ly seyt sa penaunce duble. E 
si le gardeyn de la prisoun ly eyt done cunge de aler 
hors de prisoun saunz assent de ses sovereynz,^ e ceo 
seyt en cas ou damages sunt derenez,* respoygne cely 
gardeyn des damages. E ja le meyns seyt il puny par 
agard de ses sovereyns ^ pur le cunge qil ad done 
saunz garaunt. 



Item ordene est par comun cunseyl delavaunt dite 
^ comunalte, qi, si nul en la dite vile maliciousement de 

De tvespas * ^ ' 

fiutaschefr soun assaut^ demeyne mette meyn en nul des chefs 
bailiifB ou baiiiife (Je la vile, ou assaut luy face de espee ou de cotel, 
rouners. de bastoun ou dautre arme, ou coup ly donne ou playe 
ou saunge de ly tree, ou soun office maliciousement countre 
la pees destourbe en presence de nul des corouners e 
dautres bones gentz de meyme la vile, issi qe le trespas 
pusse estre prove ou temoygne par corouner jure ou par 
serement de deux ou treys prodes hommes^ creables 

' neqedent ] however. Britton, 
1. ii. ch. sxxiii. § 4. 

^ derenez] proved. The word 
occurs above in chapters 14 and 

' sovereynM"] superiors, Kelham. 
The word is used in this sense in 
Britton, 1. iv. ch. is. § 2. 

^ assaut] Assaltus occurs in the 

twelfth Law of Edward the Confes- 
sor. Assultus is used in the Laws of 
Henry I., ch. x. § 1. 

^ prodes hommes'] This word oc- 
curs twice in Britton, L ii. ch. xxvii. 
§ 5; 1. V. ch. xiii. § 2. Britton 
elsewhere, 1. i. ch. xxxi. § 7., uses 
the expression " des plus leans pru- 
** deshommes.*' 


sonment stedfastly heldyn and kept for hem that ben Add. MS. 

SS 01 1 

comon baratours and for hem that ben custummable ' 
to doon evyl. But if it be falle be cas that eny tres- 
pas be doon in the fourme a fomseid be hastynesse of 
oon that be not used to baratyn, be he not punysshed 
be peyne of prisonement aforseyd, but bidde hym to 
doon mytigacion^ of that peyne by grace and avise- 
ment of the court, nevertheles that he make gre for 
the damages [proved against hym]. And zif ther be 
eny that be put to prison by award of the forseid 
court for swich trespas [as aforesaid], or for ony* 
resonable cause, and goo out of prison with oute leve 
of his keper, be his penaunce dubled. And zif the 
keper of the prison yeve hym leve to goon out of 
prison with outen assent of hese soveraynes, and that 
be in caas where damages ben derenyd,' answere that 
keper of the damages. And nevertheles be he punysshed 
by award of his soveraynes for the leve that he zaff 
with oute warant. 

Also it is ordeyned by comoun councel of the for- xx j. 
seid communalte, that zif ony man of the same toun^^^^ 
maliciously of his owen assent^ lay hand on ony of thecheef 
the chieff baUives of the toun, or make assaut to^^^^Jt^e 
hym with swerd or knyff or staff or with ony other coroneres. 
wepene, or yeve hym buffat or wounde, or drawe 
blood on hym, or maliciously contrarye his offis, or 
disturbe the pees in presence of ony of the corouneres, 
or of other good men of the same toun, so that the 
trespas may be preved or wittenessed by coroner 
sworn, or by other ij. or iij, credibele men * that seyn 

' bidde hym to doon mytigacicn] 
" be mytigacion doon to hym " 
would be nearer the rrench text. 

* ony] other. 

^derenyd] "proTed" is one of 
the senses in which the French 

word " deren6 ** is used bj GlanvUlc 
and Bracton. 

* of his owen asaenf] " of his owen 
** assaut " should be here read. 

^ men"] substantial men or free- 
holders would be more correct. 



Add. MS* qe le trespas virent, ou en autre manere par enqueste^ 
' ' seyt meyme le trespassour par agard des corouners e 
des bones gentz de la yUe agarde a la prisoun, a 
f. 22. b. demorer leynz en sauve garde nyent replevisable d la 
qil ejt pleynement feet les amendes a la partye du 
trespas avauntdyt, solom ceo qe les damages serrunt 
taxez par agard des corouners e des bones gentz de la 
vile. E estre ceo seyt 11 grevousement puny ver la 
commune par le despyt feet a lour baillife ; e ja le 
meynz treoffe meyme le trespassour, avaunt qil isse hors 
de prisoun, bone e suffisaunte meynprise a fere gre au 
rey pur le desp3rt quel houre qil serra de ceo chalenge 
du rey ou de ses ministres. E si nul de la vauntdite 
vile despitousement mesdye a nul des chefs baillifs en 
court ou hor de court fesaunt soun office, e de ceo seyt 
atteynt en la manere avauntdite, seyt 11 agarde a la 
prisoun e illeekes treffe bone e suffisaunte surte de fere 
les amendes par agard des corouners e des bones gentz 
de la dite comunaute. 

Meyme la penaunce avauntdite seyt agarde par les 
bailli& e les bones gentz de la vile a ceux, qe tres- 
passent en la manere avauntdite a nul des corouners 
de la dite vile fesaunt seon office de la coroune. 

Capo. xxyo. Item si nul en la vauntdite vile assaut face countre 

fidt^Sb*- ^ P®^' ^^ ^^P ^^ P^y® donne a nul des subbaillifs 
baillift. de la dite vile en fesaunt soun office, ou noun duement 
ly countrearrestece e destourbe a fere soun office, e de 
ceo en due manere seyt atteynt, seyt soun cors agarde 
a la prisoun, e seyent les amendes fetes a la partye, e 
estre ceo seyt il puny ver la court solom ceo qe le 
trespas est grant ou petyt par taxacioun de enqueste 
ou par agard de court. 



/ the trespas, or in other maner be enqaeat, be the same Add. MS. 
trespasour by award of the corouneres and of good ^^»^"' 
men of the toan awarded hym the priaoun, to dwellyn 
there in saff ward not repleveschable til that he have ^ 13- 
maad a ful amend js on to the partye of the trepaa 
afomaeydy after that the damages ben taxed by award 
of the corouneres and of goode men of the toim. And 
with outyn this be he grevously punysshed azeyns 
the'eomouns for the deapit doon to her baillives; and 
nevertheles fynde the same trespasour, or he goo out 
of prisoun, good and sujKciaunt meinpiise to make gre 
to the kyng for the dispit [at swich hour as he shal 
be chalenged by the kyng or by hys ministers]. And 
zif ony of the forseid toun misseye ony of the cheeff 
ballyves dispitously in court or out of court doyng 
his offys, and of that be atteynt in the maner afom- 
seid, be he awarded to prisoun, and there to be til 
that he fynde good and sufficiaunt suerte to make 
amendys by award of the corounneres and of the goode 
men of the forseid communalte of the same toun. 

The same penaunce aforeseid be awarded by the 
baillives and the goode men of the forseid toun of 
Gepiswych to hem, that trespassyn in the same maner 
a fomseid to eny of the coroimeres of the forseid 
toim doynge his offys of the coroun. 

Also in the forseid toun zif ony man make a assaut ^^"^• 
ayenst the pees, or yeve buffat or wounde to ony of doon to 
the subballives of the foreseid toun, or contrarie his J^e eub- 
arest and letteth hym to doon his ofiys, and of that in 
due maner be he atteynt by his body and awarded to 
prisoim, and be amendys maad to the partye, and with 
outen this be he punysshed a zens the court alter 
that the trespas is gret or litell be taxacioun of the 
inquest or by award of the court. 

G 2 



et des 

f. 28. 

Add. MS. Da marcbe de peyscoun ordene est, qe en raeyme le 
25,012. jj^a^j.^ijg seyent ^certeinz' gardeyns assignez a garder 
xxTjo'. qe les ordenaunces qe sunt ordenez en meyme le 

?* e*"e*^' marche pur comuD proffit de la dite vile de Qipp[ewyz] 
de tut le pays envyroun seyent bien e leaument 
gardez e tenues en la manere desouth dite, oest asauer, 
Au comencement est ordene qe nul regrater^ prive 
ne estraunge ne ayllie de hors les bundes du dit 
marcbe de deynz vile ne de bors pur bargaygner^ ne 
pur acbater ne pur forstaller le peyscoun venaunt ver 
le dit marcbe a vendre. E si nul le face e de ceo 
seyt atteynt^ a la primere feze seyt la marcbaundise 
issi acbatee par forstallerie forfete ver la commune, 
e ja le meyns face il gre au vendour pur meyme la 
marcbaundise ; e estre ceo seyt il puny pur meyme 
le trespas par peyne denprisounement. E sil ne eyt 
dunt U pusse gre fere au vendour pur meyme la mar- 
cbaundise forestalle, adunkes seyt cele marcbaundise 
livre au vendour, e le cors du dit trespassour de- 
meorge en prisoun taunke it eyt feet gre a la commune 
de la value de la dite cbose forstalle. E si meyme 
cely trespassour de meyme teu trespas autrefeze seyt 
atteynt, seyt il agarde au pillori^ saunz grace aver^ 
e ja le meyns seyt le peyscoun forstalle foi^it, e seyt 
il constreynt de fere gre au vendour pur le dit peys- 
coun solom le ordejmement avauntdit. E si meyme 
cely trespassour seyt la tirce feze de tele forstaUerie 
atteynte, foriurge il le mester vn aan e vn jour, e estre 
ceo seyt la cbose forstalle foriete com avaunt est dit. 
Meyme lordenaunce seyt tenu des pulleters. 

^ nul regrater'] Similar regula- 
tions for the fishmarket of the city 
of London were made in the reign 
of Edw. I. in the mayoralty of 
Henry le Waleis. Liber Custmna- 
rum, f. 28 a. 

^ piUort] The ponishment of the 
pillory, "judicium pillorie," was 
awarded to forestallers under 51 
Henry HI. st. vi. 


As for the fissh market it is ordeyned, that in the Add. MS. 
same market be certayn keperes assigned that the ^^'^^* 
ordynaunces that ben ordeyned in the same market of for-' 
for the comoun profit of the foreseid toun of Gippes- 2,^[^^^ 
wych, and of alle the contre aboute, ben weel andofpulterys. 
treweleche kept and holden in the maner undersold^ 
that is to wetyn, att the begynnyng it is ordeyned 
that non regrater^ prevy ne straunge go out of the 
bondys of the forseid market with ynne toun ne with 
outen for to bargaynen, ne for to bey en ne forstallyn 
fysshe comyng toward the forseid toun to sellyn. And 
zif ony do and of that be atteynt at the ferst tyme^ 
thanne be the marchaundise so bought forfeted toward 
the comoun^ and nevertheles make he gre to tha sellere 
for the same marchaundise ; and with outen this be he 
punysshed for the same trespas be peyne of prisone- 
ment. And zif he have not to make gre wherof 
to the sellere for the same merchaundise forstallyd, 
thanne be that merchaundise delivered to the sellere, 
and the body of the forseid trespasour duelle in 
prisoun, til he hath maad gre to the comoun of the t I3.b. 
value of the forseid thyng forstalled. And [zif] 
the same trespasour for the same trespas an other 
tyme be atteynt, be he awarded to the pillorye with 
oute havyng of grace, and nevertheles be the fyssh 
forstalled forfeted, and be he constreyned to maken 
gre to the seller for the forseid fyssh after the ordi- 
nauQce a fore seyd. And zif the same trespasour at 
the iij. time forstallyng be atteynted, forswere he the 
craft a zer and a day, and with outyn this be that 
thyng, that is forstalled, forfetyd as it is aforeseid. 
The same ordinaunce be kept of pulteres. 

* regrater] A regrater was a per- 
son who bought with the intention 
to sell again in the same market, 

baying generally by wholesale and 
selling by retail at a higher price. 



Add. MS. 



tera qe 

De temps 
f. 28. 6. 

de achat 
ordene pur 
en meyme 
le marche 
de peys- 

Item ordene est qe nul regrater en le dit marche ne 
achate peyscoun de autre regrater pur vendre avaunt 
en meyme le marche, pur encherir le marche, sour 
forfeture dil peyssoun issi achate, e ensement sour 
peyne denprisounement e de pillori, e de foriurer le 
mester vn aan e vn jour, com avaunt est dit. E qe 
nul regrater en le dyt marche ne preygne hors de 
paners playz, sooles, floundres, anguillies, ne nul autre 
maners de peyscoun qe vyent en paners en le dit marche 
a vendre, pur vendre avaunt en meyme le marche, countre 
la volume de ceux qe le peysoun deyvent, sour la 
forfeture avaimtdite; e pur ceo qe teux manere de 
prises horde paners sunt apertement toutes fetes countre 
la pees, ordene est qe teux trespassours seyent bien 
chastiez par peyne denprisounement. 

Item ordene est qe nul regrater dil dit marche ne 
achate en meyme le marche nul peysoun pur vendre 
avaunt le certeyn temps ordene par les ditz gardeyns, 
cest asauer a my veye prime * sour peyne de perdre le 
peyscoun issi achate; e qe les foreyns marchaunts qe 
sunt appelez pedders^ ne achatent mye avaunt houre 
de haute prime ;' e si les foreyns deyvent lour peyscoun 
charger, qil le chargent ne pleyn marche horde mesoun, 
e nule part aylliours, sour forfeture de la marchaimdise. 


Item de porpeys, samoxm, cunger, e turbut est ordene 

^ qe nul ne seyt trenche en mesoun ne nul part furkes 

countien- en comun lu du marche, e qe nul de teu manere de 

^r en eel peysoun ne seyt concelee outre une nuyt saunz fere 

^' de ceo la veue as gardeyns du dit marche, sour forfeture 

de meyme le peysoun. 

1 mp veye privMi] Matins com- 
menced at 3 ajn. ; prime at 6 a.m. 

^ pedders] peddelers. 

' haute prime'] Prime extended 
firom 6 a.m. to 7 a.m. In the en- 
actment of the Hallmote of the 

I Fishmongers of London, temp. 
Edw. I., it was provided '' Qnod 
** dicti piscatores debent vendere 
'' piseem recentem post missamet 
" piseem salsatum post primam." 
liber Albns, i. p. 873. 



AIbo it is ordeyned that non regratour in the forseid Add. MB. 
fyssh market beye of an other regratour for to selle ^^> ' 
forth in the same market, for to derthyn the market, Of regn- 
upon forfetnre of the fyssh so bought ; and also in peyne J^^ ^ 
of prisonament and of pillory and forsweryng the craft othere re- 
a zer and a day, as it is afomseid; and that non^^**^** 
regratour in the forseid market take out of paner plays, 
solys, floundrys, elys,^ ne non other manor of fyssh that 
cometh in panyerys^ in to the forseid market, to sellyn 
in the same market, azeyn the wil of hem that owyn 
the fissh, upon the forfetur afomseid ; and for as moche 
as swich maner takyng out of panyeres ben opynly a 
zens the pees, it is ordeyned that swychs trespasoures 
ben weel chastised by peyne of enprisonament. 

Also it is ordeyned that non regratour of the forseid zxTiij. 
market beye in the same market no fysshe for tobeyngor^ 
sellyn afore certayn tyme ordeyned be the forseid dayned for 


keperes, that is to wety n, til half weye to prime, upon in the same 
peyne to lesyn the fyssh so bought; and that the foreyn 5^^®™*'" 
merchauntys that ben clepedpedderes,that they begynnen 
not to sellyn afom the hie hour of prime ; ^ and zif the 
foreynes wil laden her fyssh, they shulden laden in 
pleyn market, out of house, and nowher ellys, upon for- 
feture of that merchaundise. 

Also of purpays, samoun, cungger, and turbut, it is ^.^'"^/ 
ordeyned that non be cut in house ne nowher ellys, but cutui^ 


in comoun place of the market, and that no maner of *^®^°*® 
suche fissh be kept in prive passyng oon nyght with 
outyn shewyng therof to the keper of the forseyd 
market, upon forfeture of the same fyssh. 

"Splays . . . elys] plaice, soles, 
flonnders, or eels. 

^panyerys] paniers or baskets. 

' the hie how of prime] A like 
proclamation TTas made in the city 

of London in the 28th year of the 
reign of Edv. I., that no regrator 
should buy before the hour of prime 
had been sounded at St Paul's. 

■ — J- 




Add. MS. Item ordene est e defendu par la dite comunalte qe 
26,012. I^^l regrater en le dit marche de peyseoun ne vende ne 

Cap*'. xxx°. , 

De peya- niustre a vendre a prive ne a estraunge nul manere de 

comi garde peyseoun de escale ne horde escale qe seyt corrumpu 

outretemps ne descovenable pur cors de homme, ne qe seyt garde 

covenable, freys outre temps du e covenable^ e si nul seyt ovesqes 

teu peyseoun trove, seyt meyme le peyseoun a la primere 

feze forfet e done as povres; e si cely meymes seyt 

autrefeze trove en meyme tele defaute, seyt le peysoun 

forfet com avaunt est dit, e soun cors agarde au pillori 

saunz grace aver ; e a la tierce feze seyt le peyseoun 

forfet e foriurge il le mester vn aan e vn jour. ' 


De pok- 
yeres qe 

Item sour meyme la peyne est ordene e defendu qe 
nul corlenocher, pokyere,* ne autre ne medle ble puni 
ovesqes bon ble pur vendre en la dite vile en deceyte 

blepuzry. ^^^ gentz de la vile ne des autres estraunges. 




De con- 
tract de 

Item sour meyme la peyne est ordene e defendu qe 
nul pulleter de la vile ne vende, ne mustre a vendre 
en meyme la vile a privez ne as estraunges nule 
manere de volatyl gros ne menu, qe seyt purri e 
descovenable pur cors de homme. 

Item en chescun contract ou covenant de marchaun- 
dise feet entre marchauntz seyt usee tel prosces, qe si 
la une partye ou lautre veoyllie dedire le contract e 
le covenaunt fet entre eux, par quey qe play seyt mu 
entre meyme les partyes par devaunt les baiUifs de la 
dite vyle, e la vne partye veoyllie dedire le contract 

' corlenocher, pokgere'] Hie in- 
terpretation of these words u not 
facilitated bj the English text. 
Corlenocher maybe another form 
of com locker, a storer of com. 
Pokyere may mean a miller. In 
the Glossary of the Dialect and 
FroTincialisms of East Anglia, by 

Mr. John Greaves NaU, London, 
1866, the word " poker" is said to 
mean, in the East Anglian dialect. 
" a millefs cart," and •' poke-day '» 
the day on which laboorers received 
their allowance of com. The text 
wonld then be ''no comstorer, 
" miller, or other," &c. 



And it is ordeyned and defended be the forseyd com- Add. MS. 
minalte^ that no regratour in the forseid fisshmarket ^ / 
not selle ne shewe to selle to prive ne to straunge Of fysshe 
ony maner of fyssh with ne with oute shille that be Q^\f ^ * 
corrupt and not abele for mannys body, and that it be venabde 
not kept out of his tyme due and abele; and zif ther ^'^^^ 
be ony founden with swich fyssh, thanne be the same 
fissh the ferst tyme forfetyd a[n]d zoven to the pover 
men ; and zif that same man be founden an other tyme 
in the same defaut, thanne be the fyssh forfetyd, and 
his body awarded to the pillory ^ with oute havyng of 
grace ; and zif he be founden the iij. tyme in the same 
defaute, be the fyssh forfetyd, and he forsworn the craft 
for a zer and a day. 

Also, upon the same peyne, it is ordeyned and d®-^*^**' 
fended that no curlewacher, pokere, ne non other man yeres that 
ne woman medele * rotyn com with good corn for to medeiyn 
sellyn in the forseid toun of Gippeswich in the disseyt 
of folk of the toun, ne of non other straungeres. 

Also, upon the same peyne, it is ordeyned and defended rocg*. 
that no pulteres of the toun selle, ne shewe to sellyn in terysT" 
the same toun, to prevy or to straunge, ony maner of 
volatil, gret or litel, that be corrupt and discouable for 
mannys body. 

Also in every contract or covenaunt of merchandise xxxig«. 
be used swich proces, zif that oon partie wil with seyn tmctysof 
to that other partie the contractys and the covenauntes marchaun- 
maade be twixe hem, wherfore the pie be twixe hem 
be a fom the ballives of th& forseid toim, and zif 
that the oon partye wil with seyn the contractys or 

^ the piUory'l This was the punish- 
ment in the city of London for men 
who sold fish that was unfit for the 
food of man. Riley's Memorials of 
London, p. 464, 471,516. Women 

for the same offence were put into 
the thewe or tambril, id, p. 867. 

3 medde] mix. This word is used 
in this sense in Britton, 1. iii. eh. yi. 



Add. MS. ou le covenaunt par sa ley, a ceo ne sejrfc il mye receu 
' * en pledaunt, taunt com soun adversarye veoillie prover 
le contract ou le covenaunt par certeynes gentz jurez 
e severalment examinez^ qe esteyent en In ou le con- 
tract e le covenaunt se fist entre meyme les persones, 
ou qil veoillie eel contract ou eel covenaunt averer par 
bone enqueste. En meyme la manere si vn marchaunt 
vende sa marchaundise a vn autre marchaunt a payer 
a brefe ' jour ' au freschement sur le vngle, en quel cas 
marchauntz ne usent mye comunement pur le hastyfe 
payement a fere escryt ne taiUie, qe si play sourde 
en apres entre meyme les persones en la dite court de 
Gipp[ewyz] par la noun soute de mejnne cele mar- 
chaundise^ ne seyt pas celuy marchaunt^ a qi cele 
marchaundise estoyt ensi vendue, receu en pledaunt en 
meyme la court a diffendre par sa ley, qil ne detient 
au dit marchaunt pleyntyfe nul dener de la dite mar- 
chaundise a luy vendue com avaunt est dyt, taunt com 
la vente ou le bayl de la dite marchaundise peot estre 
prove ou avere par bone enqueste solom ley marchaunde 
en la fomme desus dite. E auxi com le marchaunt 
demaundaunt serreyt receu ' de averer ou ' a prover la 
vente ou la bayl de sa marchaundise vendue e livree 
en la manere avauntdite. En meyme la manere seyt 
la marchaunt diffendaunt receu a prover la soute, sil la 
allegge \)M [attende] de averer par bone enqueste, qe 
rien ne luy doy t si le marchaunt ' demaundaunt ' voudra 
la soute dedire. E si la preove deyt estre receue en 
lun cas ou en lautre, seyt ele receue au meyns par ij. 
hommes jurez e severalment examynez. E ensement 
par ]a ou hom bout^ soun chatel en garde a acun a 
respoundre ent, quant hom le voudra demaunder^ ne 
seyt pas cely a qi meyme le chatel estoyt bailie en 

1 boui] puts out his chattels in trust to any one. 




the covenauBtys by his lawe, to that be he not receyved Add. MS« 
in pletyng, whil that his adversaryo wil prevyn the ^^'^"• 
eontractys be certayn men sworn and severally exa* 
myned^ that weren in the place where tho contractes 

/ weren maade be twixe the same personys, or that he 
wil the contractes averryn by good enquest. In the 
same maner zif on merchaunt selle his merchaundise to 
an other merchaunt for to payen at short day or 
fresshly to suyn the ongle,' in which caa merchauntes 
vsyn not comounlych for hastyflF payment for to makyn 
writ ne tayle, that zif the plee rise be twixe the same 
personys in the forseid court of Gippeswich for no sute 
of that same merchaundise^ thanne be not that mer- 
chaunt; to whom the merchaundise was so seld, receyved 
in pletyng in the same court to defendyn by his lawe, 
til he owe to the merchaunt pleyntyff no peny of the 
forseid merchaundise to hym seld [as afomseid], as long 

/ as the sellyng [or the deliverie] may ben proved and 
averred by good enquest after lawe merchaunt in the 
foorme tndirseid. And also as the merchaunt axand 
be receyved to averryn or to preven his merchaundise 
seld and delivered in the maner aforeseid, in the same 
maner be the merchaunt defendaunt receyved to preven 
the sute, zif he allegge or attende to averryn by good 

_^nquest that he owith hym no thyng, zif the merchaunt 
axand wil with seyn the sute. And zif preefT owith to f. u, b. 
ben receyved to oon caas or in other, be it receyved 
at the leste by ij. men sworen a[n]d severally exa- 
mined. And also ther that a man take his catell to 
kepe to ony man to answeryn, in what maner that a 
man wil axen it, ne be he to whom the catel was 

> to suyn the ongle] ** on the nail" 
irould be the proper translation of 
the French text. The phrase 
" payer mbis anr Tongle '* is etiU in 
nse to signify a payment made to 
the last farthing. The metaphor 

came first into nse amongst hard 
drinkers, with whom it was a fiishion 
to tnm down their glasses on the 
nails of their thumbs to show that 
only a mby drop of their wine re- 
mained not drank. 




^dd. MS. garde receu en pledaunt a diffendre par sa ley qil ne 
' ' detyent mye meyme le chatel, taunt com le demandaunt 
porrad prover sour luy qil recent la garde par veue o 
temoygnaunce des bons e leans hommes creables, a 
ceo jurez e severalment examynez solom le prosces 

Cap°. Item com dette on damages seyent derenez^ en la 
De dirtte"* court de la dite vyle, e cely ver qi la dette on les 
oadamagea damages seyent derenez ne voillie de ceo gre fere, a 
dunkes a la snte dil demaundaunt seyt il destreyt 
par agard de court de denz mesonn e de hors par ses 
biens e ses chateux, quel part qil seyent trovez dedenz 
la baillye de la dite vyle de jour en jour, cila qe horn 
eyt largement a la value de taunt com est ver luy 
derene. E si cely qe est issi destreynt ne veoillie gre 
fere al demaundaunt de ceo, qe est ver ly derene, de 
denz les primers xl. jours apres qil serra ensi destreynt, 
a dunkes facent les baillifs de meyme la vyle a la sute 
dil demaundaunt meyntenaunt apres les avauntditz xl. 
jours passez venir meyme les destresces devaunt eux 
en pleyne court a jour certeyn ; a quel jour seyt agarde 
solom usage de la vyle, qe cely qe est ensi destreynt 
seyt gamy par ij. hommes de venir devaunt les ditz 
baillifs a la proscheyne court suaunt apres de aquiter 
ses destresces, e a fere gre de ceo qe est ver ly derene ; 
a quel jour sil veygne e ne veoillie de ceo gre fere, ou 
tut ne veygne il mye solom ceo qil serra ensi gamy, 
seyent celes destresces priseez en court par gentz jurez, 

' derenez] proved, or recovered. 
See chapters xiv. and xxiv. The 
author of the English version pro- 

bably read this vrord wherever it 
occurs as "dercre," or "derire, 




taken ^ in kepyng resseyved in pletyng to defendyn hym Add. MS. 
by hia l(iwe, whU that he with holdyth that cateU, aa ^*'^^^- 
long as the axand may preven upon hym that he 
receyved it be sight and wittenesse of goode men, trewe 
and credybele^ to that sworn and severally examined 
after the processe aforeseyd. 

Also zif ^ dette or damage be behynden, and the xxxiiij. 
detour wil not ther of make gre, thanne at the sute ^^f^^^ 
of the axand be he distreyned by award of the court recured. 
with ynne hous or with oute be his goodys and his 
chateux, what part they ben founden with ynne the 
firaunchyse of the forseyd toun from day to day, til 
that the man have largely to the value of as moche as 
is be hynden.* And zif he that is so distreyned wil 
not maken gre to the axand of that that is behynde ^ 
with ynne the ferst xl. dayes after that he be so dis- 
treyned, thanne the ballives of the same toun at the sute 
of the forseid axand anon after the xl. dayes passyd 
shull do come the distresse a fom hem in pleyn court 
at a certayn day; at which day be it awarded after 
usage of the toun that he that is so distreyned be 
warned be ij. men to come a fore the forseyd bal- 
lives att the next court suyng after, for to acquyten 
out hese distresses, and for to make gre of that which 
is behynden ; ^ att which day zif he come not, ne wil 
not maken gre^ though he come^ after he is warned, 
thanne be tho distressys preysed in court by men 

' iaken] delivered. 

^ Also 2t/] ** Also when dette or 
" damage be recoTered in the court 
" of the seid toon, and he agarnst 
" whom the dette or damage be re- 
" covered wUl not," would be the 
proper translation of the French 

^ as is be hynden"} ''as is re- 

" covered" would be the correct 

* that is behyndel that is re- 

* behynden'] recovered or proved. 
^ " At which day zif he come and 

** wil not maken gre, or zif he come 
« not after he shal be so warned," 
would be the proper translation of 
the French text 




Add. MS. e apres ceo la luy seyt done jour par les ballifis sil 
^' ' seyt present en court, ou derrechefe par autre gamisse- 
ment sil ne seyt mye en court, de estre a la proscheyne 
court suaunt apres cele destresce issi prisee a fere gre 
com avaunt est dyt; a quel jour le quel qil veygne 
ou ne mye, si gre ne seyt feet a la partye pur la chose 
derene, seyt meyme la destresce livre par le pris al 
demaundaunt a fere ent sa volunte. E si la destresce 
amounte plus qe ceo qe est derrene, seyt le plus rendu 
a cely qe est issi destreynt. E si la dite destresce ne 
f. 25. amounte mye taunt com la chose derrene, seyt le reme- 
naunt leve saunz delay des chateux le dettour en la 
fourme avaunt dite ; e seyt le subbaiUife, a qi le pri- 
mer precept estoyt feet pur la primere destresce fere, 
puny par agard de ses sovereyns^ pur ceo, qil ne fist 
mye au comencement suffisaunte destresce pur la dite 
chose derreyne, si cely subbaillif ne se pusse renable- 
ment escuser qil ne poeyt renable destresce ne suffix 
saunte aver trove. E bien se avisent les prisours* 
des teles destresces, qil par collusioun ne ne prisent 
teles destresces plus haut qe eles renablement ne va- 
lent ; e sil facent, lour seyt la chose prisee livree, e 
respoygnent eux dil pris. E seyt ceste execucioun en 
la fourme avauntdite fete par gentz residentz e de- 
morauntz en meyme la vyle, e en le proscheyn payis 
avoygnaunt a la vyle. Mes si dette ou damages seyent 
derrenez devaunt les bailli& de la dite vyle par jugge- 
ment ou par conissaunce fete devaunt eux a la sute 
des gentz estraunges, com par marchauntz de estraunges 
terres, ou par autres de loynteyn payis passauntz, ou 

^ iie8.soverepn8'\ his saperiors, that | ^ les prUours^ the takers, 
is the chief bailliyes of the town. I 



sworn, and after be yoven hym a day by the bal- Add. MS. 
lives zif he be present in court, or ellys a zeyn be an ' * 
other wamyng [zif he be not in court, to be att the 
next court suyng] after the distresse so preysed, that 
he come and ^ make gre as it is afom seyd ; at which day 
zif he come not, or ^ zif gre be not maad to the partye 
for the thyng behynden,* thanne be the same distresse 
delivered by the prys to the axand to doon therof his 
good will. [And zif that distresse amounte to more than 
that is recovered, be the more returned to hym who 
has been so distreyned.] And zif that distresse a 
mounte not as modie as the thyng behynden,' thanne 
be the remenaimt arered aiid ^ maad levee therof with 
outen ony delaye of the chatteux of the dettour in 
fourme aforeseyd; and be the subbaillif to whom the 
ferst biddyng was maad for to maken the ferst dis- 
tresse vn chid by the award of hese soveraynes, for as 
moche as he maade not at the gynnyng sufficiaunt dis- 
tresse for the forseid thyng behynden,* zif the forseyd 
Bubballyf may not resonabely excusyn hym that he f. i5. 
myght not fynde resonabele distresse. And weel avise 
hem the preysoures of that distresse, that they preysc 
not non swiche distressys be coUusyon heyere thanne 
they ben resonabely worth ; for zif they doon, be- the 
thyng preysed delivered on to hem, and answere they 
of the price. And be such execucion in the fourme 
afomseid doon for men sittyng and duellyng in the 
same toun and in aJle the cuntre ioynyng to the toun. 
But if dette or damage be behynden ' before the bal- 
lives of the forseid toun by iugement or be conisaunce 
maad afom hem at the sute of men of other lond,^ or 
by other of fer cimtrees passand, or by maryneres aryr- 

' come and] These words are not 
in the French text. 

^ zif he come not] ''whether he 
** come or not, zif gre be not made," 
would be more correct. 

' behynden] recovered or proved. 

^The words "arered and" are 
not in the French text. 

^ at the sute of men of other lond] 
''at the sate of strangers, as by 
" merchants of strange londes," 
wonld be more correct. 






Add. MS. par maryners ariyvauntz al avauntdite vyle ove lour 
26,012. ]|jigna e ove lour marchaundises illeokes avendre, ou par 
gentz estraunges passauntz en temps de foyre ou de 
marche, faastyfe reddour^ fait a fere louer 
' lour dettes ou lour damages derrenez qe ne serreyt 

pur ceux qe sunt residentz e demorauntz en la vyle 
ou en le proscheyn payis com avaunt est dyt, ne 
mye eyaunt regard au temps de xL jours agarder les 
destresces solom ceo qe avaunt est dyt. E si nul en 
la dite vyle pur delayer dreyturele execucioun en le 
cas avaunt d3rt mette ses biens en acune mesoun e 
les enclost desouth serrure,' par quey qe les baillifs 
de meyme la vyle ne avendreyent a nule sufBsaunte 
destresce pur ceo qe est ver luy derene, adunkes par 
agard de court e solom usage de la vyle seyt cele 
mesoun, quele qe ele seyt chaunbre ou autre mesoun, 
sequestre ovesqes tutz les chateux qe leynz sunt, e 
demeorge sequestre cila qe gre seyt fait, &a E si 
nul tel sequestre brise, e les biens ou partye des biens 
sequestrez sauntz cunge des chefs baillifs de la vyle 
ou de un de eux emporte, e de ceo seyt atteynt, seyt 
soun cors par le despyt e pur le trespsus agarde a 
la prisoun, e leynz demeorge cila qe les chateux issi 
f. 25. b. emportez seyent pleynement retumez, ou la value, ou 
qe gre seyt fet a la partye la dette conue ou pur 
la chose derenee ; e ja tardeys seyt il grevousement 
puny pur le trespas avaunt dyt. E quant meyme 
les chateux serrunt issi retumez, facent les bailli& lever 
la dette conue ou la chose derene des chateux avaunt- 
ditz, auxi com affiert solom ley e usage de la vile 
avaunt dite. 

^ redlt&wr] This word, in the 
sense of '* rigour," is used by Brit- 
ton, L i. ch. xxiz. § 22. 

2 desouth serrure] This expres- 
sion occurs above in chap, xxii, 

where the author of the Kqglish 
text has missed its meaning. Here 
it is properly rendered " undyr lok," 
t.e., under lock. 


3rQg up to the forseid toun with her goodys and her Add. M& 
merchaundyses there to sellyn, or by straunge men pas- ' ' 
saunt in tyme of feyre or of market, be the meet has- 
tyff reddour ^ doon for to doon reysyn upon her dettes 
or her damages beyng behynden,' more thanne it shulde 
ben for hem that ben sithyng or duelling in the toun 
or in pleyn cuntre,* as it is afomseid, not havyng 
reward to the tyme of xl. dayes for to awardyn the 
distresse after that it is afomseid. And zif ony in 
the forseid toun for to delayen rightful execucioun in 
the forseid cas putte hese goodys in eny hous and 
enclose hem vndyr loke, wherby the baillyves of the 
same toun may not comen for to maken sufficiaunt 
distresse of thynges that is behynden,' thanne be award 
of the court be that hous, whether it be chamber or 
ony other hous, sequestrid [with all the chateux that 
ther ynne are], til that the gre be maad, &c. And 
zif ony swich sequestre be brokyn, and the goodys 
[or part of hem] bom awey with oute leve of the 
cheeff baillii^es of the toun, or of on of hem at the 
leste, and of that he be atteynt, by* his body for 
the dispy t and trespas and ^ awarded to prisoun, and 
there for to dwelle til that the chateux so boryn 
awey ben plenerly retornyd to the value, or that gre 
be maad to the partye for the dette [knowleched], 
or for the thyng behyndyn,^ and nevertheles be he 
grevously punysshed for the trespas aforesed. And 
whanne the same chateux ben brought a yen, the 
ballyves shul areysyn* the dette knowleched or the 
thyng behynden^ of the forseid chateux as it oweth 
to ben after lawe and usage of the forseid toun, &c. 

^ reddour"] rigour. 

' hehynden'] proved or recorered 

' in jdeyn cvntre] ** in the neigh- 
'' booring cantre " would be more 

^ bjf hit body] ** be his body ** 
should be read here. 


' and] the conjunction is redun- 

^ shul areysyn] ie., shall raise or 

" behynden] recovered. 


Add. MS. Item en chescun play horpris en play de terre ou 

Cap°. 1^3 damages sunt taxez par enqueste, si ceux dil enqueste 

xxxv«. par favour ou par igDoraunce taxunt les damages trop 

mages poyz, seyent les damages par descrecioun des baillifs e 

enhauoer. ^qq bones gentz de la court enhaucez. 

Cap». Item pur ceo qe akunes gentz meyns suffisauntz e 
xxx7j». (je male fey qe se funt marchauntz en la dite vyle de 
achatent Gippewyz, par envyouse coveytise ou par defaute de 
ksbiens \^j^ aviseme[n]t, meyntefeze eynz ces houres vnt en- 
chauntz bracez, bargaynez e aehatez les biens e les marchaun- 
efmiSS?^ dises venauntz a la dyte vyle a vendre en meyns des 
ment • marchauntz ou des autres gentz estraunges passauntz, 
payent ^ malement countre ley e bone fey, e en esclaundre de 
la dyte vyle e des bones gentz leynz demorauntz^ unt 
delayez les marchauntz de lour payementz, par quey 
marchauntz estraunges- sovent se sunt retretz de venir 
a la dyte vyle ovesqes lour marchaundises, e ceo a 
grevous damage de la vyle e de tut le payis envyroun. 
Les bones gentz de meyme la vyle sentauntz le mal e 
la folye de teux fous akatours sicom avaunt est dyt, e 
veauntz qe honurable chose est e proffitable par la dite 
vyle teles defautes cum avaunt sunt dites redrescer, e 
. par bon avisement amender, de un cunseyl e vn assent 
vnt ordenez qe nul de la dite vyle ne de deuz meyme 
la vyle demoraunt, prive ne estraunge, desormes ne em- 
preygne de achater les biens ne les marchaundises des 
marchauntz alyenz, ne des autres gentz estraunges 
venauntz a la dite vyle par terre ou par ewe, sil ne 
face gre au marchaunt de soun payement a tel jour 
f. 26. com serra assys dentre eux. E si nul en delayaunt 
les marchauntz de lour payementz e en esclaundre de 
la vyle le face, les baillifs de meyme la vyle, a plus 
tost qil aurunt vereye^ conissaunce qe les marchauntz 

» veTeye\ " verray " and " verrei *' I sense of " troe " or " very." I/, i. 
are the forms used by Britton in the | ch, y. § 9; 1. iii. ch. xvi. § 2. 



Also in every maner plee owt takyu plee of lond, Add. MS. 
wher the damages ben taxed by an enquest, zif they xxxv. 
of the enquest be favour or be ignoraunce taxen the ^^r to en- 
damages to litel, thanne be tho damages by distruccion ^ damages, 
of the bally ves and of the court enhaunced, &c. 

Also for as much as summe men vnsufficiaunt and xzztj. 
of evyl feith, that maken hem merchaundes in the for- that^yen 
seid toun of Gippeswich, be envyous covetyse or by f. 15. b. 
defaute of good avysement, often tyme aforn this tyme good of 
haven enbrased bargaynes and bought goodys and mer- JJJIJI!"^* 
chaundysys comyng in to the forseid toun, to selljoi in chauntea 
the hand of merchaundes or of other straunge meupayene. 
passauut, and wykkydly a zens lawe and good feith, in 
esclaundre of the forseid toun and of good men ther 
ynne duellyng, han delayed merchaundes of her payment, 
wheifore straunge merchauntes oftyn tyme withdrawen 
to come to the forseid toun with her merchaundise, 
and that to grevous damagys of the toun and of all the 
cuntre aboutyn. The goode men of the same toun 
felyng the wykydnesse and the folye of swich foul 
beyeres ' [as afomseid], and seyeng that it is honurable 
and profitable for the forseid toun suche defautys as 
arn aforseid to redressyn, and by good avisement 
amendyn, of oon counsel and oon assent han ordeyned 
. that no man of the forseid toun [nor] duellyng with 
ynne the same toun,. prevy ne straimge, ne take an 
hand to beyen the goodys ne the merchaundise of ony 
maner alienys, ne of other straunge men comyng to the 
forseid toun by lond or by water, but zif he make 
gree to the merchaunt of his payment at such day as it 
is set betwixe hem. And [if any in delaying the 
merchaunts of her paymentz, and in esclaundre of the 
seid toun it do,] the ballives of the same toun anon as 
they have verry knowyng that the merchauntz ben so 

^ distmccion'] This is evidently a l 
miswriting of the scribe for discre- I ^/oul beyeres] foolish buyers, 
cioan. ' 

H 2 



Ada. MS. serrunt.ensi malement e faucement de lour payementz 

25 012 r ^ • 

' ' delayez, saunz delay e a grantz reddour facent lever e 
fere des biens e des chateux meyme cely qe teux fauz 
delays aura quys,^ de deynz mesoun e de hors, e fere 
gre al' marehaunt en tutz poyntz solom ceo qe ley e 
resoun demaunde^ sauntz attendre le temps de xL jours 
a yendre les destresces solom ceo qil est contenuz 
ayaunt en la eonstitucioun de dette ou des damages 
derrenez. E si cely fol akatour seyt burgeys de la 
vyle, e ne ey t rien en la yyle de quey le badllifs pount 
fere lever ceo qil deyt au marehaunt e feucement dety- 
ent cum avaunt est dyt, adunkes seyt cely fol akatour 
pur sa &ucete pur les bailli& e les bones gentz de la 
vyle foriugge de sa fraunehise en la vyle vn an e vn 
jour, e de chescun manere de proffyt e avauntage de 
marchaundise qil deyt aver ou prendre en meyme la 
vyle de deinz meyme le temps par resoun de sa bur- 
geysye. E mes^ ne seyt recunseyllie a la fraunchise 
de la vyle cila qil eyt trove bone e sufl^unte surte, 
qe si nul de la dyte vyle seyt nule part destreynt, 
damagee, ou grevee par la fauce e torcenouse detenue 
qil aura fet au marehaunt com avaunt est dyt, qe ly 
e sa surte seyent tenuz de ceo a respoundre e a 
restorer. E facent les baillifs de la dyte vyle enrouler 
cele surte en comun roule de la vyle issi qe chescun 
de meyme la vyle, qe serra ensi destreynt ou grevee, 
pusse aver soun recovrir ver cely fol akatour ou ver 
sa surte. E si vn foreyn seyt demoraunt en la vyle, 
qe delaye les marchauntz de lour payementz en la 
manere avaunt dite, e ne veoillie ou qil ne eyt pas 
suiBsauntment en la vyle de quey fere gre au mar- 
ehaunt, &c., seyt cely foreyn par les bidllifs e les bones 
gentz avauntditz foriugge de chescune manere mar- 

1 quys] The participle past from 
" qiiere " to seek. 
' mea] This word is used in the 

sense of ''in future" by Britton 
1. iii. eh. xxiL § ; L ir. c. ly. § 18, 


mes ne pom 




'wykkydly and £EkL36ly delayed of her payment, wiih Add. MS. 
outyn dcJayjWitb gret reddour,* sbal do areyse of the ^^>^^^' 
goodys and chateux of that same man that hath maad 
such fals delaye ysought with ynnen^ and with outyni 
to makyn gre to the merchaunt in alle payntes after 
that lawe and resonn axeth, with outyn abidyng tyme 
of xL dayes to doon come distresse, after that it is 
conteyned afore in the constitudoun of dette and of 
damages behyndyn,' And zif that fool merchaunt be 
burgeyses^ of the toun^ and he have no thyng in the 
toun wherof the bally ves may doon reysyn^ that he 
owith to the merchaunt and falsely withholdeth, as it is 
afomseydy thanne be the £aJs beyere for his falsed, be the 
ballyves and the goode men of the toun, put out of his 
fredam in the toun a yer and a day, of every maner of 
profyt as of avauntage of merchaundise that he owith 
to have or to takyn in the same toun with ynne the 
same tyme by resoun of his burgeyshode ; and be he 
not reconcyled to the fraunchise of the toun, til that he 
have founden good and sufficiaunt suerte, that if ony 
. man of the forseid toun be ony wise distroyed, da* 
maged, or greved by his £aJs^ [and torceous] with- f. 26. 
holdyng that he hath doon to the merchaunt, as it is 
afomseid, that he and his surete of that am ^ beholdyn 
to answeryn and to restoryn. And the ballyves of the 
forseid toun shal doon enroUyn that suerte in the comoun 
rolle of the toun, so that every man of the same that by 
him is damaged or greved may have his recurer a zenst 
hym and his suerte. And zif a foreyn be duellyng in 
the toun that delayeth merchauntes of her payment in 
the maner afomseyd, and he wil iiot or have not suffi- 
dauntly in the forseid toun whereoff to maken gre to 
the merchaunt, &c., thanne be that foreyn be the 
ballyves and the goode men of the toun forbarred of 

> reddour'i rigour. 

3 freAyndfyn] See chapter xxxiv. 

3 burgeyaes'] a burgeyse. 

* doon r^sifn] levy. 

• fals] hide. 

• ani] «* aw.*' The French text 
requirei the subjonctiye mood 

I " be." 



Add. MS. chauDdise fere par ly ou par autre a soun profiyfc en 
' ' meyme la vyle cila qil eyt pleynement fet gre au 
f. 26. b. marchaunt de quanqil ly deyt pur la marchaundise de 
ly achate. 

De Wol- 

Item en dreyt de peyscoun, haranges, oygnons, autz, e 
autres diverses marchaundises qe vcnent par ewe a la 
dite vyle a vendre, meyntefeze quant ceux qe aveyent teu 
manere de marchaundise achatez, au payement fere pur 
meyme la merchaundise sovent sourdyt debat entre 
les akatours e les vendours, e ceo par enchesoun qe 
les akatours unt alleggez qe les marchaundises ne 
esteyent pas si bones ne si marchaundes com eles se 
mustrerent par amount par la primere bise,' ne cum 
else esteyent plevyes^ a la vente, par quey les akatours 
trop sovent detyndi^ent e abatirent ver lour marchauntz 
de lour primers covenauntz, plus qe resoun e bone fey ne 
voleyt a ceo qe hom ad comunement dyt. E pur teux 
manere debatz desormes enouster,^ ordene est par la dite 
comuualte que quant teux manere des marchaundises 
venent a la dite vyle a ^wendre, qe quant les marchauntz qe 
meyme les marchaundises dey vent aurunt lour marchaun- 
dises en la dyte vyle vendues, avaunt qe ren de oeo seyt 
remue, qe le contract e le covenaunt de cele mar- 
chaundise seyt reherce e recorde devaunt les baillifs de 
la dyte vyle, ou vn de eux, cest asaver si les marchauntz 
vendours le veolent e ceo prient. E seyt le covenaunt 
e le jour de payement e la surte dil payement, si nule 
seyt trove, entre en roule des baillifs, e adunkes seyt 
la marchaundise veue des ditz baillifs, ou de vn de 
eux, e de quatre bona e leans hommes de la vyle a 
ceo jurez, qemeuz se conussent en cele marchaundise, 

1 ifUe] This is probably a mifi- 
wiiting for " vise," view. 
^phvyetl warranted. 
' enottj/er] to put away or re- 

move. ** Ouster," in the sense of 
removing, is used bj Britton, 1. ii. 
eh. XV. § 22. See below, chapter 


every maner merchaundise to be doon by hym or by Add. MS. 
ony other to his profit in the same toun, til that he have ^^»^^^* 
sufficiently maad gre ^ to the merchaunt of all that he 
oweth hym for the merchaundise of hym bought, &c. 

Also in right of fissh, heryng, oynouns, garleek, and xzxvij. 
other divers merchaodyse that comyn be water to the ^^r to 
forseid toun to sellyn, ofte tyme they that beyen ^oWard. 
such maner of merchaundyse, at the payeng of the 
same merchaundise, riseth debate be twixe the beyeres 
and the selleres, and that because that the beyeres ofle 
tyme chyden and alleggyn that the merchaundisez am 
not so goode [nor so saleable] as it weren at the ferste 
shewyng, [nor as they were plainly at the sale, where- 
for the beyers too often withdraw from] and wil not 
holden here ferste covenauntes, as resoun and good feith 
wolde, [as is commonly seid, and by such maner debates 
therein arise]. "Wherfore, for to puttyn awey such 
debates, it is ordeyned be the forseid communalte, that 
whanne such merchaundyses comyn to the forseid 
toun to sellyn, that whanne the merchauntz, that the 
same merchaundise owen,^ have sold her merchaundise 
in the forseid toun, a forn that ony thyng ther of be 
renued, that the contractes and the covenauntes of that 
merchaundise ben rehersed and recorded aforn the 
ballyves [or oon of them], zif the selleres willen and 
preyen. And thanne that the covenaunt and the day of 
payment, [and the surety of the payment,] zif there ony 
be founden, entered in the rolle of the ballives, and 
thanne be the merchaunt vowed on ^ the forseid baillives^ 
or on oon of hem, and of iiij. goode men and trewe of the 
toun, to that sworn, that best ben knowyng in that 

1 gre} satisfaction. 

' oweti] I.e., own. 

' vowed on] '* and thanne be the 

" merchanndise yiewed of the for- 
" seid balliTes or of oon of hem " 
would be nearer the French text. 




Add. MS. issi qe ei meyme la marchaundise ne seyt pas tele com 
' * le primer mustre se fist, ne com ele esteyt plevye/ 
adunkes par le aviaement des baillifs e des ditz quatre 
aourveours jurez seyt abatu al payement dil primer 
covenaunt, e la marchaundise amende taunt cum resoun 
e bone feydemaunde. Mes bien se avisent les baillifs, 
en lour fey e en lour serement, qil ne facent par ool- 
lusioun ne par male covyne nul sourveour en tel cas 
qe seyt parcener de meyme la marchaundise. E ense- 
f*27. ment bien se avisent tutz marchauntz estraunges 
venauntz a la dite vyle ovesqes lour marchaundises a 
vendre a qi il vendent lour marchaundises^ e qil se preyg- 
nent bons e leans hostes,^ kar si lour hostes seyent ven- 
dours de loUr marchaundises, les hostes respoundrunt a 
lour marchauntz dil pleyn ; e sil ne facent, seyt meyme la 
execucioun fete ver eux com sereyt ver autres mavoys 
payours. E si les marchauntz vendunt lour marchaun- 
dises par my lour meyns demeyne* a febles payours, 
sauntz cunseyl de lour hostes e sauntz reconissaunoe 
estre fete devaunt les baillifs, ou sauntz estre sourveues 
cum avaunt est dyt, adunkes estoysent les marchauntz 
a lour folye demeyne de aver lour recovrir a meuz 
qil porrunt. 

Cap";.^ Item tutz les tenementz en la vauntdite vyle seyent 
De renabie partables auxibien entre les heyres madles com entre 
partye. j^g heyrs femeles, si eux ne seyent forclos* par doun 
ou par devys de lour auncestre, e qe eel heritage seyt 
party dentre les parceners apres la mort lour comun 
auncestre quel houre qe nul des parceners voudra sa 
purpartye demaunder* E si le herytage seyt party 
dentre eux par lour comun assent, adunkes eyt leyne 

* pUvye] " varranted at the sale ** 
is here meant 

2 hostes] See chapter Ix. below 
concerning the hostes of itraonge 

^ par wy lour meyns demeyne'] by 
their own hands, 

*/orclo8] excluded. The verb 
** forclore " is used in this sense in 
Britton, 1. vi. ch. ii. § 9 and 11. 



merchaundise, so zif that same merchaundise be not Add. MS. 
such as the feret shewyng was, [nor as it plainly was at *^'^^^- 
the sale,] thanne be the sight of the ballyves, and of iiij. 
men ^ sworen, be it abated att the payment [of the first 
covenant], and the merchaundise amended as resoun and 
good feith axeth. But weel avise hym the ballyves in 
her feith and in her oth that they maken not by non 
coUucfyoun ^ ne by comettyng ^ ony survyour in such cas 
that ben parcener of that merchaundise. And also avise 
weel all straunge merchauntes comyng to the forseid 
toun with her merchaundise [to sell, to whom they sell 
her merchandise, and] that they takyn goode hostes and 
trewe ; for zif her hostys ben sellerys of her merchaundise, 
the hostys shal answeren to her merchauntes of the 
fulle ; and zif they ne doon, thanne be the same exeou- 
cioun a zenst hem as shulde be a zenst other wikked 
payeres. And zif the merchauntz sellyn her owne mer- 
chaundise to a febele payere with oute counsell of her 
hostys^ and with oute reconisaunce maad to the ballyves, 
or with outen survyours as it is afomseid, thanne 
stande the merchauntz to her owen folye for to have her 
recurer in the best maner that they may a yenst the 
febele payeres aforseyd. 

f. 16. b. 

' Also that alle tenementz in the forseid toun ben xxxviij. 
partable as weel be twixen heires male as be twixen p^^*^ 
he3nres female, and zif they be not forclosed^ by zifte 
or be devis of her antecessourys, and zif that heritage 
be departyd be twixen the parsoners after the deth of 
her comoun antecessour, what tyme that ony of the 
parceners will axen his part. And zif the heritage be 
parted be twixen hem by her comoun assent, thanne 

^ men] ** surveyors" would be 
more correct. 

'non coUusifotm] The particle 
" non " is redundant. 

3 comettyng'] ^ par male covyne '* 
should be rendered ** by committing 

* foreclosed] excluded. 



Add. MS. parcener le avauntage a choysir quele purpartye qil 
25,012. yQ^^jpj^^ Q ^i\ ggji gi plusours parceners y seyent preygne 

chescnn des autres parceners sa purpartye solom ceo 
qil eschera par sort. E si nul des parceners par ma- 
lice countredye e ne veoillie suffrir la purpartye de 
eel heritage estre fete, adunkes solom usage de la vyle 
eyt le parcener desturbe qe sa purpartye demaunde 
soun recovrir ver le desturbaunt par gage e plegge 
devaunt les baillifs de la dyte vyle, cest asaver sil 
attache sa pleynte desure freschement de denz les pri- 
mers xl. jours apres qe soun parcener ly aura sa pur- 
partye vye, e sil ne face, il pert soun avauntage de 
aver reoourir devaunt les dytz baillifs par tele pleynte 
cum avaunt est dyte. E quaunt le demundaunt aura 
attache sa pleynte desure en le cas avauntdyt, meynte- 
f. 27. b. naunt facent les baillifs somundre le parcener destur- 
baunt, de qi la pleynte jest fete, par ij fraunks hommes 
de meyne la vyle de estre a la proscheyne court de 
portmannemote a respoundre al dyt pleyntyfe de play 
de renable partye; e sil ne veygne par cele somunse, 
seyt agarde qil seyt autrefeze somuns en meyme la 
manere ; e sil ne veygne par cele seconde somunse, seyt 
il la tieroefeze somuns en meyme la manere ; apres que 
les somunses eyt il iij assoygnes, sil les veoillie quere. 
E sil veygne en court apres les somunses ou apres les 
assoygnes, e ne sache rien dire par quey qe soun par- 
cener ne deyve sa purpartye aver, ou tut ne veygne il 
mye e face defaute, seyt agarde qe le parcener pleyn- 
tyfe receovre sa purpartye de soun heritage avauntdyt 
e ses damages, e le desturbaunt en la mere! ; e seyt 
la taxacion des damages mys en respyt cila qe le he- 
ritage seyt party, en aventure si le desturbaunt eyt 
fait wast en meyme le heritage, kar sil le eyt fait, 
eel lu waste ly serra assigne a sa purpartye ; e sil eyt 

^ dil ed] afterwards, the phrase seems akin to ^ dilleoqaes.'' 


have the eldere parcener avauntage to chesyn which Add. MS. 
part that he wil ; and [afterwards] zif there be mo par- ' 
ceners^ eche of hem take his part as the lottz yeveth. 
And zif eny of the parceners by malice withsey and wil 
not sufferyn the partyng of that heritage to be doon, 
thanne after the usage of the toun have the parcener 
lettyd [who axeth his partyng] his recurer a zenst the 
letter by wed and bonigh a fom the baUyves of the 
forseid toun,that is to wetyn, zif he gynne his pleynt [to 
suyn] with ynne the ferst xl. dayes after that his par- 
cener denyed hym his part, and zif he do not, he leseth 
his avauntage to have recurer a fore the forseyd bal- 
lyves be such pleynt as is afomseid. And whanne the 
pleyntyff hath begunnyn his pleynt to suyn in the for- 
seid caaSy thanne anon the ballyves shal doon somonyn 
the pajrcener lettyng, of whom the pleynt is maad^ be 
ij. free men of the same toun, to be at the next court 
of portmennysmoote to answere to the forseid plejmtyff 
of resonable partie ; and zif he come not by that so- 
monys be it awarded that he be an other tyme somoned 
in the same maner ; and zif he come not by the secunde 
Bomonys, thanne be he the iij. tyme sommonyd in the 
same maner ; after which sommounys have he iij. es- 
soynes, zif he wil axen hem. And zif he come in to court 
after the somounys, and after hese esso3mes, and can no 
thyng seyn wherfore that his parcener owith not to 
have his part, or though he come^ in to court and make 
defieiute, be it awarded that the pleyntiff parcener re- 
cure his part of the heritage afomseyd and his damages, 
and the letter at the mercye; and be the taxacion of 
the damages putt in respit til the heritage be parted, in 
aventure zif the letter has doon wast in the seyd heri- 
tage, for zif he have doon wast, that place waste shal be 
assigned to his part ; and zif he have doon wast in the 

1 come] " come not " is required by the conte3ct, and harmonises irith 
the French text. 


Add. MS. ^^ ^^^^ ^^ Ift purpartye qe escherra a soun parcener 
25,012. demaundaunt, eel wast serra taxe ovesqes les damages 
par zij. bons e leaus hommes jurez ; e pur ceo facent 
les baillift meyntenaunt, apres qe le dyt pleyntyfe aura 
derrene sa purpartye par le juggement avauntdyt^ par- 
tyr le dyt heritage, e livrer au dyt pleyntyfe sa pur- 
partye auxicom eschera par sort ; e seyt la partye fete 
par xii. hommes jurez ; e apres ceo la seyt le parcener 
desturbaunt gamy par ij. fraunkes hommes devenir a 
la proscheyne court de portmanemote de oyir soun 
record e soun juggement de la taxacioun avauntdyte; 
a quel jour le quel qil yeygne ou ne mye e le dyt gar- 
nisement seyt temoygne sour ly seyt le juggement 
execute ver ly auxicom affiert £ si leyne parcener eyt 
countreplede e desturbe soun parcener de sa purpartye 
com avaunt est dyt, perde il le avauntage de choysir, 
mes preygne sa purpartye par sort auxi com autre 

f. 28. Item si play seyt mu en la court de meyme la 

Cap». vile de Gipp[ewyz] des tenements pledables en la 

D^cStftre court de la vyle, e chartre de feffement, quite da- 

quiteciame maunce au autre escryt seyt bote avaunt ^ en pledaunt 

esciyt trier countre le demaundaunt pur luy barrer de actioun, e 

!^*«y* celuy demandaunt seyt si prive* qil pusse estr^ receu 

a dedire le escryt, e le dedye en pledaunt, e sour ceo 

le defendaunt tende de auer par bone enqueste ensem- 

blement oyesqes les temoygnes nomez en le escryt, qe 

meyme eel escryt est le feet cely de qi noun il fet 

mencioun, si les temoygnes seyent reaidentz e demo- 

rauntz en la vyle, issi qe les baillifs de la vyle pussent 

meyme les temoygnes par poer de lour court fere 

venir devaunt eux a trier le dyt escrit ensemblement 

ovesqes autres auxicom affiert, adunkes seyt la chartre, 

quitedamaunce, ou autre escrit par meyme les temoygnes 

^ , I ' Drive} a borffess or citizen, as 

I bou ovaunQ put forward. | ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^j^^^^ 


part which shal fallyn to his plejmtiff parcener, that Add. MS. 
wast shal be taxen with the damages be xii. goode and ^^'^^^* 
trewe men sworen ; and therto doo the ballives anon, 
after the seyd pleyntiff shall have recured his part be 
the jugement aforeseyd, departyn the seyd heritage, and 
delyveryn to the seyd pleyntiff his part as it shal falle 
be lottz; and be the departyng doon be xii. men sworen ; 
and therafter be the seyd parcener lettyn warned be ii. 
fre men to comen to the next court of portmannejB- 
moote to heryn his recorde and his jagement of the 
taxadon afomseyd; at which daye zif he come, or zif he 
come nott and the seyd warning be wyttenessed azenst 
hym, be the jugement executed upon hym as is flttyng. 
And zif the eldere parcener has countrepleted and 
letted his parcener of his part as afomseyd, lese he 
the advantage of chesyn, but take he his part be lottz 
as the other parcener. 

Also zif pleynt be moved in the court of the same toun xrxix, 
of Qippeswiche, of tenementz pledable in the court of O^chanre 
the toun, and chartre of feffement, quyt cleyme, or or oyer 
other script be put forward in pledyng azens the^^v}^oT 
pleyntiff to bar hym from his accione, and the pleyntiff jifu be 
be so privy that he may be receyved to denye the script, ^*^»®y^' 
and he denye it in pleting, and ther upon the defen- 
daunt deymeth to averryn be good enquest togedyr with 
with the wyttenesses named in the script that this veray 
script was maad by hym of whom it make mendoDC, 
idf the wyttenesses be residentz and duellyng in the 
toun, so that the baillives of the toun may doon the 
wyttenesses by the power of here court comyn afom 
hem to trie the seyd script, togedyr with othyr as may 
be fytting, thanne be the chartre of quyt deyme or 
other script tried and averred by the same wyttenesses. 


Add. MS. e par autres bona e leaux hommes jurez, si mester 
25,012. ggy^^ ^^^ ^ auere. E si les temoygnes seyent foreynz, 

issi qe les ayauntditz baillifs ne les pount mye con- 
steyndre a fere les venir devaunt eux, pur ceo ne 
targe mye le ple^ ne la preove dil escritment, plus qe si 
temoygnes fussent mortz. 

Capo. zi<>. Item si dette seyt demaunde entre marchaunt e 
De tamie niarchaunt devaunt les baillifs de la dite vyle a la ley 

Baunz seal ^ •^ 

prover. marcbaunde par tallie ^ saunz seal, nomement de certeyn 
contracte de marcbaundise fait entre meyme les 
persones, e le marcbaunt defendaunt veoylie dedire la 
tallie par sa ley, a ceo ne seyt il pas receu, cest 
asaver si le marcbaunt demaundaunt veolye prover 
solom ley marcbaunde la tallie estre le feet soun 
adversarye defendaunt. £ quant la prove de la tallie 
deyt estre receue en court, seyt ele reoeue au meyns 
par deux bommes de bone fame jurez e severalement 
examynez, qe furent presentz en meyme le lu ou la 
tallie estoyt fete entre meyme les persones, ou qil 
f. 28. b. oyerunt ou la dette contenue en meyme la tallie estoyt 
conue dil dettour avaunt dyt. E si la prove seyt trove 
bone e acordaunte, seyt agarde qe le marcbaunt de- 
maundant recovre sa dette par meyme la tallie e ses 
damages, e le defendaunt en la m^ci. E si variaunce 
e disacordaunce seyt trove en meyme la prove, seyt 
le juggement execut auxicom affiert, e la tallie dampne 
pur tutz jours. Mes si dette seyt demaundee par 
tallie saunz seal borde ley marcbaunde, seyt le defen- 
daunt receu a dedire la tallie par enqueste ou par sa 
ley, le quel qil voudra; e ceo seyt entre meyme les 
persones qe sunt partyes a la tallie. 

1 taOie^ Tallies were pieces of 
wood cut with indentures or notches 
in two corresponding parts, of which 
one was kept by the creditor and 

the other bj the debtor. The pre- 
sent officer of the Exchequer, called 
the Teller, was the ancient taillier 



and by otber good and trewe men. And zif the Add. Ma 
wyttenesses be foreyn, so that the afornseyd baillives ^^*^^^' 
cannot constreyn hem to doon hem comen afom hem» 
therfor be nott the pie nor preff of the script put off,^ 
no more than zif the wyttenesses were dede. 

Also zif dette be axed betwixte merchaunt and mer« xi. 
chaunt afom the baillives of the seyd toun, after the p^v^ 
lawe merchaunt be tayle with oute seel, namely, of a tayie with- 
certeyn contract of merchaundise maad betwixte the ®" * •** • 
same personys, and the merchaunt defendaunt wyl 
denye the tayle be his lawe, therto be he nott receyved, 
that is to wy tten, zif the merchaunt pleyntiff wylle 

I prevyn after the lawe merchaunt,^ the tayle to be maad 
be his adversarie defendaunt, and ivhanne the preff of 
the tayle shulde be receyved in court, be yt receyved by 
two men at leste of good fame, sworen and severally 
examyned, who were present att the place wher the 
tayle was maad betwixte the seyd personys, or who 
heryd whanne the dette conteyned in the seyd taylle 
was knowleched by the afornseyd detour. And zif the 
preff be found good and acordyn, be it awarded that the 
merchaunt pleyntiff recure his dette be the seyd tayle 
and hese damages, and the defendaunt at the mercie. 
And zif variaunce and disaccrdaimce be found in the 
seid preff, be the jugement executed as is fytting, and 
the tayle condemned for alle dayes. But zif the dette 
be deymed be tayllewith oute seel, with oute the lawe 
merchaunt, be the defendaunt receyved to denye the 

I tayle be enquest, or be his lawe, which evere he wyl, 
and be this betwixte the personys who are parties to 
the tayle. 

* pvt offi Targe, in the senge of 
patting off, or deferring, occurs in 
Briton, 1. ii. ch. xx. § I. 

^ after the lawe merchaunt'] The 
debt by tally was a contract accord- 
ing to the law merchant, and the 

proof was regulated by that law. 
In a similar manner 'in the city of 
London, the protrf of the tally had 
to be made by citizens or merchants 
or other good and lawful men. 
Liber Albus, p. 294. 



Add. MS. Item chescun fiz de burgeys qe seyt heyr soun 

25,012. p^j^^ apres la mort soun pere veygne en pleyne court 

B^^^' de denz les primers xl. jours apres la mort soun pere, 

rendre. gjj g^y^ qj^ payis, e rende as baillife de la vyle le 

espeye soun ''pere/ e jurye a meyntenir la fraunchise 

de la vyle auxi com affiert e a celer les privetez de 

la vyle ; e sil ne fiu5e, seyt il remue de chescun cunseyl 

de la vyle taunke il le eyt fait ; e fait asaver, qe sil 

y eyent plusours freres, leyne rendre le espeye cum 

avaunt est dyt, e les autres freres frunt ^ meyme le 

serement cum lour eyne frere fist. E ne seyt pas 

suffert, qe nul fitz de burgeys seie* ne demeorge a 

comun cunseyl de la vyle, sil ne seyt jure a celer le 

cunsel e les privetez de la vyle. 

Cap*. xlij». Item nul burgeys de la vyle ne destreygne autre 
Swcefere l^^^g^J^ ^® meyme la vyle de lautorite demevne pur 
burgeys trespas, qil ly eyt £ait, ne pur dette qil ly deyt, mes se 
sour autre, pi^yg^^ q^ i^g baillifs de la vyle en fourme de ley. 

Cap*, xliij* 



poet des- 








Item si un. foreyn deyve dette a vn burgeys de la 
vyle, e le jour de payement seyt passe, e cely foreyn 
veygne passaunt par my la dite vyle e ne veoillie gre 
fere al demaundaunt de sa dette, eyt cely burgeys a qi 
la dette est due peor de arrester les chateux soun 
dettour passaunt par my la vyle, cila qil eyt baillifes ' 
de la vyle aqi il porrat sa pleynte attacher de sure. 

Item si un burgeys de la vyle achate marchaundise 
de denz la iraunchise de meyme la vyle, tut seyt vn 
foreyn pres de ly chalengaunt sa part de mejTne la 

^/mnf] The coDditional " frey- 
" ent,*' from " fere," to do, is used 
by Britton, I. iii. c. xi. § 3. 

^ «eie] seier, .in the sense of 
" to sit," occurs in the Liber 

Custumarum of the City of London, 
p. 474. 

' cila qii eyt baillifes'} until be 
find the ballives of the town. 


Also eyeredi son of a burireys who is herre to his ^^ ^S. 

25 oil 

father, after the deth of his father, come into ful court ^jj 
with ynne the ferst fortie dayes after the deth of his For to 
father, zif he be in the centre, and render to the baillives J^erd. 
of the toun the swerd with which his father was sworen 
to meyntenyn the fredom of the toun as is fjrtting, and 
to concele the secrets of the toun ; and zif he doo not, be 
he removed from everech councele of the toun til he have 
doon it ; and be it to wjrtten, that ^if there be several 
brothers, the eldere shal render the swerd as afomseid, 
and the othyr brothers shal makyn the same oth that 
the eldere has maad. And be it not alowed that eny son 
of a burgeys sitte nor duelle at the comoun councele of 
the toun, zif he be not sworen to concele the councele and 
the secrets of the toun. 

Also no burgeys of the toun shal distreyne an othyr xiu. 
burgeys of the same toun of his owne authoritee for^^I^yg 
trespas which he has maad azeyns hym, nor for dettetomake 
which he oweth, but shal make pleynt to the bally ves aJf ^^her.**"^ 
in foorme of lawe. * f. 17. 

Also zif a foreyn denye ^ dette to a burgeys of the xlig. 
forseid toun, and the day of payment be passyd, and that ^y^may'^ 
foreyn come passand by the toun, and wil not makjm distreyne 
gre to the axand of his dette, thanne have the same * ^"■^y^^' 
burgej's to whom the dAte ys owyng power to arestyn 
the chateux of his detour passaunt by the same toun, 
til that he have a bayle of the toun," to whom he may 
attachyn to suyn his pleynt. 

Also zif a burgeys of the toun beye merchaundise xliiij. 
with ynne the fraunchise of the same toun, though ^geys 
there be a foreyn by hym chalangyng his part of the owethe 

party wyth 

1 "burgeys 

' ** oweth " would be a more cor- I ^ til that he have a bayle of the 
rect translation of the French (ext. toun] ontii he find a bayliff of the 

town, to whom he can apply to pro- 

The author of the English transla- 
tion has misread ** deyre " as if it 
were " denye." 


secute his pleynt 



Add. MS. marchaundise, cely foreyn ne partlra mye ovesqes le 
de t partvr ^^^^J^- Mes SI foreyii achate marchaundise e un bur- 
ovesqes geys seyt pres de ly e chalange sa part, le burgeys 
^^q« <leyt sa part aver. 

foreyn en 

marchauu- Jieia la veue de fraunke plegge^ seyt tenue en la 
Cap^xlv*. vauntdite vyle a tutz jours en la semeyne de Pente- 
De veue de custe, e les purprestures presentez en meyme la veue 
piegge. Eeyent redrescez e amendez par veue des baillifs e des 
chefs plegges ^ presentours de denz les primers xl. jours 
apres meyme la semeyne de Fentecuste. 

Capo.xlyj'. Item cum play seyt mu devaunt les baillifs de la 
de^wasT" vaundite vyle par brefe le rey des tenementz en 
pendaunt meyme la vyle, meyntenaunt facent les baillife, apres 
^ ^' ceo qe le brefe serra attaine devaunt eux, defendre au 

tenaunt sour qi le brefe vyent, qil ne face wast, de- 
struccioun, ne estrep* en le tenement demaunde pen- 
daunt le play. E si le tenaunt le face countre le 
defens les baiUifa, e le demandaunt receovre le tene- 
ment apres ly, seyent ses damages agardez en duble 
ver cely qe le wast en meyme le tenement countre le 
defens des ^ baillifs ' aura fait^ solom ceo qe les damages 

' la veue de fraumke pledge"] It 
would seem that the bailifb of the 
town held a view of frankpledge, like 
the sheriffii in the county courts, in 
every recurring week of Pentecost. 
The primary object was to enroll all 
all those who were above the age of 
twelve in some dizaine or decenni- 
nm, the members of which should 
be responsible for their good con- 
duct, and to administer to them the 
leet oath. 

^ des chefs plegges"] The same 
phrase is used by Britton, L L ch. 
XXX. § 4, ** si tou2 les chefs pleges 
" soint venuz a la vewe." 

* estrep] " Estreper," in the sense 
of ** to strip or spoil," is used by 
Britton, 1. i. ch. vi. § 3. The word 
" estrepemcnt " in the same sense 
occurs in statute vi. Edw. I. c. xiii. 
** le tenaunt ne eit pas poer de fer 
" wast ne estreppement du tene- 
" ment." 


^me merchaundise, that foreyn shal not partyn ^ with Add. MS. 
the burgeys. But zif a foreyn beye merchaundise, and ^^ \' 
a burgeys be there with hym and chalange his part, the foreyn mar- 
burgeys oweth theroff to have his part. chaundcB. 

Also the leete be holdyn in the forseid toun of xiv. 
Geppiswich * at alle dayes in the weke of Pentecost, * * ' ^ 
and the purprestures presentyd in the same toun ^ shul. 
ben redressed and amendyd be sighte of the ballyves 
and of the hed boroughes presentoures with ynne the 
ferst xl. dayes after the same weke of Pentecost. 

Also whanne plee be meved aforn the ballives of the xivj- . 
forseid toun by kynges writ of tenement in the same of wast 
toun, and on* the ballives, after that the writ be at-^,"»gy^ 

tlie DiCC 

tained aforn hem, they shal defendyn the tennaunt, up 
on wliom the writ cometh, that he make non destruc- 
cioun, ne strip in the tenement hangyng in plee. And 
zif the tenaunt doo a zeyns the defence of the ballyves 
and the axand, that thanue the axand ^ recure the 
tenement, and afterward on to hym, ben the damages 
awarded in doubele a yeyns hym, that hath doon wast 
in the same tenement a zeyns the defence of the bal- 
lyves, and after that ben the damages taxed be xij. men 

^ partyii] share, i.e., claiming to | synonymous with a view of frank- 
trchase a part of the merchandise, pledge, which might indeed be held 

purchase a part of the merchandise. 

> Geppigwicfi] This word is not 
in the French text. 

' towi] ** leete '* is required here 
by the French, text. See statute 18 
Edw. U. oh. 3, for the matters to be 
presented at the view of frankpledge. 
The '' leete " meant the assembly or 
meeting, and was a general term 
applicable either to the court of the 
hundred, or the court baron, or any 
peculiar local jurisdiction. The 
author of the English version has 
used the term ** leete " as if it were 

pledge, which might indeed be held 
in the " leete," but could also be 
held in the county court, and was 
in fiict held once in every year at 
the Easter term or circuit of that 
court. Myrrour of Justices, 1. i. 
ch. xvL and xvii. Cf. Britton, 1. i. 
c. XXX. § 4. De Toumetf de Vis- 

* andon] ** anon " would be more 
correct than *f and on." 

' that tharme the axand] These 
words are not in the French text. 

[ 2 


AiM. MS. serrunt taxez paa* xij. hommes jurez^ e seyt le tenaunt 
25,012. q^ ^j wast, destniccioun, ou estrep aura feet grevouse- 
ment amereye pur meyme le trespas. 

Meyme tel prosces seyt tenu e garde en chescun 
play de terre plede devaiint meyme les baillifs sauntz 
brefe. E fait asaver qe tel defens de wast, com 
avaunt est dyt, deyt estre fait a la sute e a la priere 
del demaundaunt. 

Cap«. Item ordene est par la dite comunalte e defenda qe 
xi^o. j^^j ^Q i^ ^jyj.^ ^jIq j^q preygne en gage des poures 

preygne en tistours, ne des povres pingneresses, ne des fiUieresses, ne 

^^1 d?^ 'des povres tayllioura, ne des tayllieresses, ne des povres 

poures lavanderes, ne des autres povres keytyfs draps tayllez, 

reffleT&c. ^^'^'^g^s, ne lynges, ne parceles de teux draps, ne leyne 

f. 29. b. pygJiio ^ blaunche, ne tejnate, ne lyn, ne kamme, ne fyl 

launge, ne lynge, ne autres manere des choses suspe- 

ciouuses, pur argent^ ne pur peyn,* ne pur vyn, ne pur 

eerveyse,* ne pur autre manere vitayllie par la ou lorn 

peot aver vereye suspecioun, qe teu manere des choses 

issi engagez, ne seyent pas les propres biens de ceux 

meymes povres qe lengagent. E qi autri chose preygne 

en gage de nul tel povre, cum avaunt est dyt, countre 

lordenaunce e le defens avauntdyt, eyt cely ou cele, 

qe la chose deyt, la delivraunce de meyme la chose 

engagee par les baillifs de la dyte vyle quitement 

sauntz rien payer, en qi meyns qe la chose seyt veue 

e trovee, si le engagour meymes ne seyt de tel poer 

qil pusse de ceo respoundre e gre fere. E facent les 

^ py^nie"] carded. 
^ pcyn] bread, in modem Frencb 
* pain.* 

3 cerueyae'] eereyisia, beer. 



sworn. And tbanne be Uiat tenaunt [that has doo such Add. MS. 

• 25 Oil 

wast, destruocion, or spoil] grevously amercied for the ' 
same trespas. 

The same processe be holdyn and awarded in every 
plee of lond afom the balliyes pleted with outyn writ. 
And it is to witte that swich defence of wast, as is 
afomseid, oweth to be doon att the sute and at the 
prayer of the axand. 

Also it is ordeyned be the forseid comunyalte and xivy. 
defendyd, that non of the same toun take in kepyng ^*^j|JJ*?^ 
of poore webberes/ ne off spynneres,^ ne of threed wed woU 
makeres,' ne of poure tailours, ne of tayleresses, ne oS^^^^^^^ 
poure lavenderes,* ne of other poure cay tyvys * clothes poverayie. 
maade, ne parcel of clothes, ne wolle [carded], whitte ^•^^•°- 
or lettyd/ ne flax, ne hemp, ne wollen threed, ne lynen 
threed, ne non other maner of tbyng suspesious, for 
silver, ne for breed, ne for wyn, ne for ale, ne for other 
victuayle, wher of a man may have veray suspesioun 
that swich maner of thyng so put to wedde be not the 
owen propre good of such poure men that leyn hem 
to wed.^ And who so evere take swich thyng to wedde 
of such poure [as afornseid] py tayle ® a geyns the or- 
dinaunce and defiance aforseid, thanne have he or shee, 
to whom that thyng is longyng,® deliveraunce of the 
same thyng [engaged] be the ballyves of the forseid 
toun quytlych with outo any thing payeng in whos 
hand that thyng be seyn and founden, zif he or shee 
that leyd it to wedde be not of swich power to an- 
sweryn therefore and makyn gre. And the ballyves 

* webberes'] weavers. 

3 spynneres] Cowell translates 
the wofd " pigneresses " carders of 

3 threed makers'] thai is, spiimers. 

* lavenderes"} laundresses. 

' cayttfvye'] caytif is the asnal 
fonn, a wretched person. 

^ lettyd] dyed, coloured. 

^ to wed] that is, in pledge. 

^ pytoufle] This word is not in 
the French text. 

" is longyng] literally, that owneth 
that thyng. 



Add. MS. baillifs de la vyle cryer cest ordenaunce par my la 
2 f0i2. ^yi^ ^^ j^ ^^ ^^ ovesqes les autres cries, issi qe nul 

de la dyte vyle se pusse escuser, sil face countre la 
crie e lordenauQce avauntdyte. 

De choso 

En meyme la manere eyt chescun en la dytye vyle 
devaunt les baillifs de meyme la vyle, par pleynte attache 
par gage e plegge, soun recovrir de ses biens e ses 
chateux adyreez,^. en qi meyns qe la chose adyree 
seyt veue e trovee, par akat ou en autre manure. E 
il ^ soun recovrir ver soun garaunt a meuz qil saura 
on porra. 

Capo.xiix^ Item use est en la vauntdyte vyle de Gipp[ewyz] 
recevvr™ ^® ^^® chefs baillifs de meyme la vyle joyntement e 
severalment pussent prendre attorne ^ dil demaundaunt 
e dil defcDdaunt, en chescun play pendaunt e attaine 
f. 80. devaunt eux par brefc ou saunz brefe, e ceo auxibien 
en absence de partye com en presence, e auxi bien 
horde court com en courts e qe chescun de eux seyt cru 
a recorder le attorne qil aura issi receu. E si nul qe 
plede ou qe seyt .emplede en la court avauntdite par 
brefe ou saunz brefe seyt si malade ou en tel estat de 
cors, qil ne pusse, saunz peril de cors venir en cour a 
sure soun pie ou a defendre, qe les ditz baillifs pus- 
sent maunder un de lour subbailifs ou acun autre co- 
venable persone a prendre de celuy malade attorne en 
meyme le pie. 

Cftpo. l». Item use est qe les chefs baillifs de meyme la vile, e 
De reco- chescun de eux par luy, quel part qil seyt de denz sa 
^te^yn^ baillie, pusse prendre reconissaunces de dettes, mes qil 

* adyreez"] Thifl word occurs in 
Britton, 1. i. ch. xvi. § 2 ; ch. xviil. 
§ 8, in the senee of '* lost/' Adi- 
ratam, Bracton, 1. iii. c. xxxii. § 3. 

' e il] e eyt il is required by tiie 

' atUfme] Attorney occurs in the 
Myrrour des Justices, ch. ii. s. xxxi. ; 
attomee, ch. y. s. 102 ; attorne, ib, 
B. 1004. Attoum^ is usual in Brit- 
ton, L ii. c. XV. § 8 and 4. 



of the forseid toun shuldyn doon crie this ordinaunce Add. MS. 
from yer to yer with the other cries, so that non 25,011. 
of the forseyd may resonabely excusyn hym, zif he doo 
azeyns the crie and the ordinaunce afomseid. 

Also in the same maner have echo on in the for- ^\yui- 
seid toun aforn the ballives of the same toun, hy^diree.^"^ 
pleynt begunnyn by wed and borgh, his recurer of his 
goodyz and of his chateux a direoz ^ in whos handys 
that the thyDg adiree be seyn and founden, by beyeng 
or in other maner ; and have he his recurer a zeyn his 
borogh the best maner that he can. 

Also it is vsyd in the forseid toun of Gippeswich that ^^^* 
the chieff ballives of the same toun iunctly and seve- reseyvene 
rally mown makyn attume of the axand and of the**^^*"^' 
defendaunt in ech plee hangyng and attainyd be fom 
the ballives by writ or with outyn writ, and that as 
weel in absence of the partie* as in presence, and as weel 
with oute the court as in court And eche of hem be 
trowed to recorden the attume that he hath so re* 
sceyved. And zif ony that pleteth, or that he be in 
plee in the court aforseid by writ or with outyn writ, be 
so seek or in such state of body that he may not with 
owtyn pereil of body comyn in to the coui't to suyn bis 
plee or to defendyn, thanne the forseyd ballives mown 
sendyn on of her subballyves or sum other covenable 
persone to taken of that seek man attume in the same 

Also it is vsed that the diieff ballives of the same 1. 
toiin, and everech of hem hj'^ hem selff, what part that ^^i^^^e 
he be with ynne his baile, may take reconisaunce of dette, a reconi- 

* a direoz"] lost. 

' in absence of the partie] that 
is, of the adverse party. The 
person appointiDg the attorney 

onght to be present, hence the rule 
that a sub-bailiff shall attend on ft 
sick man if the latter wishes to 
appoint an attorney. 





horde de 
court ou 
de mar- 

Add. MS. eyt devaunt luy le demaundaunt e le detiour ; e seyent 
celes reconissaunces entrez en roule de la vile, e sour 
ceo execucioun fete auxi com affeert; e apres eel la ne 
seyt pas le reconissour receu ne oy ^ en court a dedire 
cele reconissaimce countre le record des ditz baiUifs ou 
de un de eux; mes en teles reconissaunces fetes en 
court ou horde court saunz prosces de play ne seyent 
poynt de damages taxez ne aiuggez al demaundaunt. 
Item si contract e covenaunt de marchaundise entre 
marchauns de la volunte e dil assent de meyme les mar- 
.chauns seyt conue e rehercee^ devaunt les chefes bail- 
lifs de la dite vile ou un. de eux en presence de bones 
gentz de la vile, quele part qe ceo seyt de deinz lour 
baillie, seyt fey e creaunce done a meyme les baillifs 
e a chescun de eux a recorder meyme le contract e le 
covenaunt ; e ne seyt nul des ditz marchauns receu ne 
oy en court ne horde court a dedire lour record ; mes 
cely marchaunt qe seyt encountre de tenir contract e 
le covenaunt avaunt dit par agard de court solom le 
dit record seyt condempne solom le cas e solom ley 
marchaunde ; mes tele reconissaunce ne seyt pas receue 
par buche^ de baillifes apres ceo qil serra remue de 
soun office, si la reconissaunce ne seyt trove en roule. 

f. 30. b. Item usee est en lavauntdite '^ vyle ' qe si nul bur- 
Co^nt^ ' geys de la vile, qe seyt peer e comuner,* en meyme 
vedue deyt la vile preygne femme la quele qe ele seyt, damoy- 

tenir soun ■, •! ■ < r 

fraunke sele OU veve, mes qil ne eyt mye espose autre femme 


^ ne oy] that is, oy^, heard. 
' rehercee] This word occurs iu 
BrittOD, I. ii. ch. xxi. § 5. ; 1. iv. c. v. 

3 buche] boQche, mouth. 

^ peer e comuner'] The proper in- 
terpretation of these words, which 
also occur below in chapter Iz., is not 
assisted by the context Dncange 
interprets the phrase ''pares conunu- 
« nise " as the peers or assessors of 

the mayor or prefect of a commune. 
In the case of Ipswich the twelve 
capital portmen of the borough were 
the assessors of the bailiffs and 
coroners, but the term "peer et 
'* comuner *' is used in chapter Ixxix. 
below in a wider sense to signify any 
burgess resident within the town of 
Ipswich at lot and scot as distin- 
gcdshed from a burgess foreyn* 



but that he have afom hym the axand and the detour ; Add. MS. 
and be tho reconisaunce entryd in to the toun rolle, and 25,ou. 
upon [this be] doon execucion as iti)weth to ben ; and gaunceout 
after that ne be the reconisour resceyved [nor herde] in of the 
court to with seyn that reconiBaunce a zenst the recorde contractes 
of the forseid baillyffs, or of on of hem ; but in such o^ mar. 
reconisaunce maad in court or out of court with out 
proces of pie ne be tho damages taxed, ne iuged to the 
axand. Also zif contractes of covenauntes^ be twixe 
merchauntz of wil and assent of the same merchauntes 
ben knowyn and fehersed aforn the cheif baUives of the 
same toun or on of hem in presence of good men of 
the toun, what part that it be with ynne her bayly, be 
feith and credence yovcn to the same ballives and to 
everych of hem to recordyn the same contractes and the 
covenaunt; and be non of the forseid merchauntz re- 
sceyved ne herde in court ne out of court to with seyn 
here recorde ; but that merchaunt that will not holdyn 
the contractes and covenauntz afomseid by award of the 
court after the forseid recorde be condempned after the 
i cas and the lawe merchaunt ; but such reconisaunce be 
not resceyved of the ballives mouth after that he be 
remuyd of his office, zif that reconisaunce be not founden 
in rolle. 

Also it is ordeyned* in the forseid toun that zif i^- 
ony burgeys of the toun, that be peere and commouner wydue 
in the toun, take a wiflf that be [dame or] ^ damoisele ?J®*^*^ 
or wedewe, so that he have not wedded a other woman fre banche. 

* covenantes'] "zH contract and 
" covenant of merchandize betwixe 
'* merchants " would be the more 
correct translation. 

* ordej/nedj " used " would be the 
proper translation of the French 

3 dame or] These words are not 
in the French text. 

' ^ have not wedded] In other 
words, provided he be not a wi- 


Add. MS. avaunt, o la femme sourvy ve soun baroun^ eyt la femme 
25,012. apres la mort meyme cely soun baroun tut le chefe 
mes Boun baroun eaterement, dunt il morust seysi en 
meyme la vile en feou demeyne com de fe, atenir en 
noun de fraunke [baunke], dementers qe ele se teygne 
veve saunz wast fere ou alienacioun en disheritaunce 
dil heyr soun avaunt dit baroun ; e estre ceo seyt ele 
dowe de la moyte du remenaunt en meyme la vile, cest 
asaver la ou ele deyt de dreyt estre dowe. E si seon 
baroun ne avoyt en la vyle forkes seulement un mes, 
ja le meyns teygne ele eel mes en noun de fraunke 
baunke, mes qe les enfaunz soun dit baroun seyent 
herbergez leynz^ ovesqe luy. 

Cap«. iij«. Item en dreyt de femmes qe ne deyvent en la vile 
me^^' ^pro9 la mort lour barouns fraunke baunke aver, dome* 
orgent eles en le chefe mes xl. jours apres la mort lour 
barouns saunz wast fere, de denz les queux lour seyt 
assigne lour renable doware par le heyr lour avaunt 
ditz barouns solom usage de la vile, cest asaver la 
meyte de tutz les tenementz e rentes en la vile dunt 
lour barouns morurent seysyz en lour demeyne com de 
fe. Ceo est asaver si le heyr lour voillie de soun bon 
gre de denz meyme les xl. jours doware assigner. 

C^». liijo. Item si vn burgeys denzeyn * de la dite vile espouse 
v^rdeyt ^^® foreyn femme, e la femme sourvive soun baroun, 
rejoyir la reioysse la femme la fraimchise de la vile dementers qe 

^k^le. ^^® s® *'y^^*^ vedue. 

> /cyiu] therein, Britton,l.iiCh.ii. I ^denzofn] that is, resident with- 
§ 12* I ini 


aforue, and the ^iff overlyve the husbond^ thanne have Add. MS. 
the womman after the husbondes deth all the cheif mees ' 25,011. 
of her husbond, wher of he deyed sesyd in the same 
toun in his owen demene as of fee, to holden in the 
name of [fre] banche the same tyme that she kepeth 
her wydwe with oute wast or alienacioun of disherita- 
cioun of the heir of hyr [afomseid] husbond ; and with 
outen that ^ be shee do wed [of the halfe] in the reme- 
naunt [in the same toun], that is to wetyn ther that 
shee oweth to ben dowyd. And zif her husbond have 
not in the toun but only oon mees, nevertheles holde 
shee that mees in name of frebanch, but that the 
child of hir husbond be herberwyd ' [therin] with her. 

Also m nsht of wommen that after the deth of hir lij- 

® Ofd( 


husbond owyn not for to have fre banch, duelle they ^^' 
in the cheif mees [fortye dayes] after her husbonds 
deth with outyn doyng of wast, withynne the which 
dayes be hem assigned resonabele dowarye be the heyre 
of her forseid housbond after the usage of the toun, 
that is to wittyn the halvyndel * of all the tenementz 
enheryng to the forseid toun * wher of her husbond 
deyed sesyd in. her owen demene as of fee, that is to 
wittyn, zif the heir wil of his good wil with ynne the 
ferst xl. dayes assignen dowarya 

Also zif a burgeys [with ynne] of the forseid toun ^* ^f; ^' 
of Qippeswiche^ wedde a foreyn womman, and that niji 
womman overlyve her husbond, thanne reioysse that^^^^* 
womman the fraunchise of the toun the mene tyme ^e^ to 
that shee kepyth her wydewe. reioyeen 

the firaan- 

, , chise of 

the toane. 

1 mees] messoage. 

' with outen that"] besides that. 

' herberwyd] harboured. 

* haloyndeC] The common law 
allowed only a third part. Glanville, 
L tit c. 1. 

* enheryng to the forseid toun] 
*' and rentes in the town " would be 
a more correct translation. 

• of Gippeswich] These words 
are not in the French text. 



Add. MS. Item use est en la dite vyle de Qipp[ewyz] de an- 
f '^j ' tiquite, qe nul terre tenaunt en mejrme la yjle faoe 
Cap<>. liiijo. homage ne fealte a soun chefe seygnur pur nul tene- 
Ke horn- ment oil tient en la vyle, nomement de ceo qe est tenu 
fealte seyt purement en fraunke burgage, ne qe le chefe seygnur 
tenements P*^^ resoun de tel tenement qe de ly seyt tenuz en 
en Gippe- meyme la vyle, qe seyt dil burgage cum avaunt est 
^^* dyt, pusse de soun tenaunt apres nuly mort demaunder, 

chalenger, ne aver relefe, garde, ne manage, ne autre, 
attournement de service, forkes taunt soulement paye- 
ment de rente, ne autre proffyt sauve eschete quant ley 
le donne. Mes de taunt ne seyent mye les burgeys de 
la vyle escusez apres la mort de chescun rey Dengle- 
terre, qil ne facent a lour seygnur lige serement de 
ligaunce si hom le demaunde de par le rey. Ense- 
ment use est en la dite vile, qe nul foreyn destreygne 
soun tenaunt en meyme la vyle pur rente arrere sauntz 
baillife de la vyle, e ceo par resoun qe le baillife ne 
doy t pas suff rir qe la destresce seyt nule part mys 
forkes en lu de denz la vyle, ou les baillifs de la vyle 
pussent en due manere fere la delivraunce par ga^ e 
plegge, si mester seyt solom ley e resoun. Mes ceux 
qe sunt burgeys de la vyle denzeynz lottauntz e 
escottauntz,^ bien lour list a destreyndre lour tenauntz 
en la dyte vyle par lour rente arrere quel houre qe 
bel lour seyt, tut sauntz baillife, par ceo qe, sil meys- 
sent les destresoes ayllours qe fere ne dussent, il sunt 
plus distreygnables e plus justisables a les baillifs de 
la vyle qe ne sunt les foreyns. 

CapMv<'. Item use est qe femme coverte de baroun seyt jus- 
fe^°* ticee par les baiQifes de la dyte vyle a respoundre 
coTertede devaunt eux en play de trespas ou peyne denprisone- 


' httauntz et escotiauntz^ In the 
roll, called the Bailiff's Boll, made 
in the second year of king John, it 
was provided ** that no burgess of 
** the said town shall be quit of 

" custom in the same town for his 
** merchandizes, that is, if he be a 
** merchant, unless he be at lot and 
** scot in the common aids and 
« businesses of the town." 



Also it is used in the forseid toun [of Qippeswich] Add. MS. 
of elde ^ antiquyte, that no lond tenaunt in the same {^[^ 
toun do homage ne feute to his cheif lord for ony [i»v] 
tenement that he holdeth in the toun, and nameleche m^j^e and 
of that that is holdyn purly in fre burgage [nor that p*^°K'*? 
the cheiff lord by reson of such tenement that beoftene- 
holden of hym in the same toun, that is of burgage,] ^entes^n 
as is afornseid, may not of his tenaunt after ony ded wich. 
axyn, chalangyn, ne have releeff, warde, ne mariage, ne 
other attomement of service, but only the payment of 
the rente, ne of non other profyt Save escheet whanne 
the lawe yeveth. But of this be not the burgeysys 
of the toun excusyd after the deth of ony kyng of 
Yngelond, that they ne doon to her ligelord othe of 
ligeaunce, whanne they ben axed by the l^yng. Also 
it is used in the forseid toun that non foreyn distreyne 
for rente be hyndyn his tenaunt in the forseid toun 
with oute bayle of the toun, and that be resoun that 
the bayliff oweth not to sufFeryn that distresse to be 
put in ony place save in the toun, where the ballyves 
mown in due maner makyn deliveraunce by wed and 
borgh, zif myster be after lawe and resoim. But they 
that ben burgeysys of the toun with ynne, lottyng and 
skottyng, moun distreynen her tenauntz in the foi-seid 
toun for rente be hyndyn what tyme that they seen 
good be, with outyn bailie,^ for zif they puttyn dis- 
tressis owherellys thanne they owyn, thanne ben they 
more distreynabele and more iusticiJlble to the ballives 
than ben the foreynes. 

Also it is used that a womman curyd ' under hous- liiO- 

flv 1 

bond be iustisied by the ballyves to answeren afom jiow a 
hem in plee of trespas, or of pejme where prison ement,* ^oman 

under hns- 

* elde"] This word is redundant. 
' haille] baillifs are here meant.' 
3 curyd'i covert. 

* or of peyne wher prisonmeni] 
'riie French text requires " or where 
" thepeyn of imprisonment." 



Add. MS. 

deyt re- 
en play de 
saunz soon 

Cap": Ivj". 
]e baroun 
deyt re- 
de la decte 
de sa 

ment, ou de juyse,^ peot estre agarde solom ley e usage 
de meyrae la vyle, auxi com ele sereyt justisee si ele 
fust sole saunz barouu, cest asaver de soun personel 
trespas, mes qe le trespas ne tuche mye fraunke tene- 

E ensement vse est qe le baroun respoygne en 
la court de la dyte vyle a chescuny pleynte de dette 
qe sa femme devoyt avaunt lour esposayllies, e de dette 
qe ele aura emprompte ^ pus lour esposallies, auxi avaunt 
cum de sa dette demeyne. Mes si la femme deveygne 
nuluy plegge de dette, de ceo ne seyt pas le baroun 
tenuz a respoundre. 

CapMvij". Item pur ceo qe plasours manoystes* soventefeze 

creuz qe' ®^^^ fetes en payis des bestes em^lez,^ e les carcoys 

aportent a la feze par meyns de niacecreuz sunt vendues en la 

saunz vauntdite vyle, si cum meyntefeze le esclaundre est en 

quyrs, &c. payis a graunt dishonur de la vyle, ordene est qe nul 

macecreu desoremes ne ameyne ne aporte en la dite 

vyle a vendre carcoys de beofe, de veel, ne de motun, 

sil ne ameyne les quyrs e les pels ovesqes les carcoys, 

en aventure si nul homme sue sa beste emblee^ qil 

pusse par les quyrs ou par les pels aver conissaunce 

de sa beste. E si nul macecreu autrement le face, seyt 

le carcoys qe ensi serra trove saunz ^quyr' ou saunz 

peel forfet ver les baillife de la vyle en eyde a la ferme 

le. rey * de meymo la vyle, pur ceo qil semble bien qe 

^juyse] This word occurs more 
than once in Britton in the sense of 
an instrument of punishment In 
1. i. cb. xzxi. § 7, these instnr- 
ments, in the case of the lord of a 
market, are specified as gallows, 
pillory, and tumbril. 

' en^ompte] borrowed, Kelham. 

3 manoystes] This word is pro- 
bably the same as '^manueste," 
which occurs in the Liber Albus of 
the city of London, p. 282, in the 

sense of an offence or transgression. 
Eelham translates the verb manu- 
ester, to filch or to thieve. 

' emblez] stolen. 

* la ferme le rey] King Edward I. 
had restored the rights of the borough 
in 1291 upon payment of a fee-farm 
of sixty pounds annually at the ex- 
chequer during the king's pleasure, 
one moiety to be paid at Easter and 
the other at Michaelmas. 



ther the jaes^ may ben awarded after lawe and usage Add. MS. 
of the same toun. as shee shulde ben iustisied zif shee ^^fi^^- 
were sengle with outyn housbond, that is to wetyn, ofowetheto 
her personel trespas, but not in trespas that toucheth f^^^weren 

M . . in plee of 

fre tenement. trespas 

with owte 

Also it is used in the forseyd toun the husbond shal ?*'' ?'"" 
answeiyn in the court of the same toun in eche pleynt 
of ^dette that his wiflF owed afom her weddyng, and j^: 
of dette that shee hath be hotyn after her weddyng^ Uow the 
as wel of her owne dette as of other. But zif that l»a«^nd 
womman be comyn ony borugh ^ of dette, of that oweth answere 
not the housbond answeren. ^^L^* 


Also for as moche as manye harmys ben ofbyn tyme ivj. 
doon in the cuntre of bestes [stolen] aweye, and the of boch- 
carcasys often tyme be bocherys ben seld in the forseid erys that 
toun, wher off oftyn tyme grot slaundre is in the cuntre coyses*^^ 
to gret dishonour to the toun, it is ordeyned that non ^'^^ o^*® 
bocher *from hens forth' lede ne brynge in to the ^ jg* 
forseid toun to sellyn carcaisys of beeff, of veel, ne of 
moton, but zif he brynge the [hides and the] skynnes 
with the careayses, in aventure zif ony man sue the 
bestys [stolen] that they mown be the [hides and the] 
skynnys have verray knowyng of his bestes. And zif 
ony bocher do otherwise, be the carcaysys so founden 
with outyn skynne forfetyd to the ballives in heipe of 
the kynges ferme of the same toun, for it semeth wel 

> tfier the jues] This should be 
-written •* or of the jiies." The jues 
in the case of women was the tum- 

bril, corresponding with the pilloiy 
in the case of men, 

^ be comyn ony borugh"] become a 


Add. MS. ceo est suspecioim de mai quant teux maeecreuz ne 
25,012. y^Qj^j^^ j^ quyrs ne les pels porter ovesqes lea caicoys. 
Mes pur ceo ne lessent mye les maeecreuz, qil ne yen- 
dent lour quyrs e lour pels quel houre qil meuz pount, 
mes qil ne seyent poynt remuez hors de commune 
veue du marche avaunt houre de prime, e ceo par le 
veue des gardeynz de meyme le marche. Mes ne mye 
pur ceo si nul macecreu forejm, qe seyt homme de bone 
fame, seyt trove en tele defaute, cum avaunt est dyt, 
se pusse escuser, qil ne savoyt mye le usage de la 
vyle ne de la crye fete al hoiire quant il fust trove 
en defaute solom le cas avauntdyt^ adunkes ly seyent 
f. 32. les baillifis de la dyte vyle gracious e favourables a 
c^le primere feze. Mes si autre feze seyt trove en 
defaute en meyme la caas, seyt il puny par la peyne 
avauntdite. E fitcent les baillifis de la vile apertement 
crier de an en an a la Seynt Michel en pleyn marche 
de la boucherye, qe ceste ordenaunce avauntdite seyt 
tenue e fermement garde. 

CapMviijo. . Item bien se gardent tutz macecreus,^ auxi bien 

De mace- i n ij ■ij'i.i 

creuz qe deuzcyns com foreynz, qe nul de eux en la difce vyle 
▼endunt ne mustre a vendre chars de moriDC, ne soursemez, ne 
semez, &c. corrumpues. E si nul le face, seyt la char tele com 
ele est a la primere feze forfete ; e a la seconde feze 
seyt la char forfete, e meyme le vendour seyt agarde 
au pillory. E a la tierce feze, si se seyt meyme la 
persone, seyt la char forfete, e estre ceo foriurge il 
le mester un aan e un jour en meyme la vyle de 
Qipp[ewyz]. Mes si nul veoillie tele mauvoyse char 
vendre ^ en la dite vyle, estoyse desouth le pillorie de 
la vile ovesqes une table devaunt luy, e illeoqes vende 
bandement ^ cele char pur tele com ele est a tutz ceux 

^ tnacecreus ] In tbe Laws of ■ cient Laws and losUtutes of Eng- 
Edward the Confessor, ch. xxxix., ' laud, vol. i. p. 461 . 
macecrarii are mentioned, quos | - bandemenQ boldly. Kelham 
Angli vocant fleismangeres. An- translates bandoar, boldness. 



that it is yerray suspecyoun of evyl whanne suche Add. MS. 
bocherys wil not biyngyn the Bkynnys' with the car- ' ' 
caisys. But for that leve not the bocheres but that 
they sellyn her skynnys' what tyme that they best 
mown, but they be not remuyd out of comoun sighte 
of the market aforn the hour of prime, and that be 
the sighte of the keperes of the same market. But 
nevertheles zif ony bochier foreyn, that is man of 
good fame, be founden in such defaute as is aforn§eid, 
mown excusyn hym that he ne knewe not the usage 
of the toun ne the crye therof, thanne to hym be 
the ballyves gracious and fayorabele att the ferst tyme. 
And zif he be founden in the same defaute after- 
ward, be ho punysshed be the pejrne afomseyd. And 
the ballives of the toun shullyn doon cryen apertly 
from zer to zer at the feste of Seynt Michel in the 
ftdl flessh market, that this ordinaunce aforseid be wel 
& trewly kept. 

Also wele kepe hem alle the bochieres, as weel with w^. 
ynne the toun as foreyns, that non of hem 8bewe-J2|™|3 
to sellyn flessh of morreyn,' stynkkyng,' ne corrupt, for erys that 
zif ony doo, thanne be such flessh att the ferst tyme JjJ^* 
forfetyd ; and ' att the secunde tyme be such flessh flesihe. 
forfetyd, and the sellere awarded to the pyllorye. And 
att the iij. tyme, [zif yt be the same persone,] be the 
flessh forfetyd, and the sellere forswere the craft a 
zer and a day in the same toun. But zif ony wil 
sellyn such wikked flessh ^ in the forseid toun, thanne 
stonde vndyr the pyllorye of the toun with a tabele 
aforn hym, and there boldely selle suche maner of 
flessh for such as it is to all hem that wollyn beyen 

> the skjfnnjfa] properly the hides 
and the pelts. 
* morreyn] murraiD. 

' atifnkhfng ] Beynonazd renders 
< sursem^,' tach^ de poorriture. 
^ wikkedJleasK] bad meat. 




Add. MS. qe de oeo achater voudrunt saunz estre chalangee des 
^*'^*^* baillife de la dite vile e saunz punicement aver. 

Cap°.iix«. Itembien se avysent les kens dil avaimtdite vyle, qe 

gudent ^^ de eux ne reteygne ne garde les vyaundes qil ati- 

vyaundea rent- puT vendre au people outre temps covenable. Ne 

teropd, &c. qe nul de eux ne vende aa priveez, ne as estraunges, 

vyaundecorrumpue ne descovenable pur cors de homme ; 

e si nul le face e de ceo seyt atteynt, seyt il a la pri- 

mere feze grevousement puny par soun chatel, e a la 

secunde feze seyt il agarde au pillori ; e a la terce feze 

foriurge il le mester un an e un jour, issi qe luy ne 

nul de par ly le dit mester en la dite vile fra^ ne 

usera sour peyne de perdre tut le chatel, qe peot estre 

trove de seon propre, marchaundaunt e hauntaunt ^ tel 

f. 8S. b. mester en sa meyn demeyne ou en autri meyn a seon 

profiyt. E si nul, qe ' tel ' mester use en la dite vyle, 

ne ad dunt il peot estre puny for qe par le cors, seyt 

U chastie par le pillori quant il serra de tel trespas 

atteynt; e quant il avera deux feze este chastie par 

le pillori, foriurge il apres le mester un aan e vn jour 

saunz grace aver. E si autre feze seyt atteynt, foriurge 

U le mester attoutz jours en meyme la vyle. 

Oap». ir«». Item ordene est par comun counseyl de la dite vyle 

dem^ de Qippewiz qe nul en meyme la vyle, sil ne seyt bur- 

chaantz geys de la vile denzeyn e per e comuner,^ seyt hoste de 

Mtoaimges, marchaunts estraunges qe venent a la dite vile par 

ewe ovesqes lour marchaundises iUeoqes pur vendre, e 

qe teux hostes seyent cunseilliauntz a lour marchaunts 

coment e a qi il deyvent lour marchaundises veudre. 

De qude marchaundises chescun hoste deyt aver sa 

quarte partye, saunz plus, solom le feor qe la marchaun- 

^fra] will not do or make. 

^hauntarU'} frequenting or prac- 
tising. The word occnrB in the 
Idber CoBtumamm of the city of 
London, pp. 228, 281. 

'per e comuner'] a bozgess reai- 
dent within the town paying scot 
and loU, See chiq>ter li. 


ther of, with onte chalange of the ballives, and with Add. MS. 
oute pimyashement havyng. 25,011. 

Also wel aviso hem the cokys of the forseid toun iviQ. 
that non of hem kepe vitayles that they dighten ^ rJ^^ 
sellyn to the pepele out of covenabele tyme, ne that that kepyn 
non of hem seUe to privy ne to straunge vitayles cor- ^/f^ 
rapt and disoovenable to mannys body; for zif he dootyme. 
and ther ofT may be atteynt, thanne be he the ferst 
tyme grevoualy punysshed by his catell,^ and att the 
seconnde tyme awarded to the pillorye. At the iij. 
tyme forswore he the crafl a zer and a day^ so that 
he ne non of his use that craft in the toim, upon 
the peyne to lesyn all the catell that may be founden 1 19. b. 
of his owen, sellyng and havyng' that craft in his 
owne hous or in ony other hand to his profit And 
zif ony [that use swich craft in the seid toun] hath 
not wheroff he may be punysshed but by the body, 
be he chastised be the pillorye whanne he be atteynt 
of that trespas. And whanne he hath so too tymes 
ben chastised by the pillorye, forswore he after the 
craft a zer and a day with outjm grace. And zif 
he be an other tyme atteynt, forswore he the craft 
for evermore. 

Also it is ordeyned by comoun oounoeil of the for- ^ 
seid toun of Qippeswich that non of the forseid toxm, of Los^s 
but zif he be a burgeys of the same toun with innen ^^™*^ 
pere and oommouner, be hostes of straunge merchauntz anndes. 
that comyn to the forseid toun be watir with her 
merchaundise there for to sellyn ; and all the hostes 
be counselyng to her merchauntz whanne and to whom 
they owen to sellyn her merchaundise, of which mer- 
chaundise echo host may han his fortie' part^ with 

1 Ida ccUeff] his chattels. | ' hi8farHe'\ his ferthe, i.e., fourth, 

* havjfng] haontiog, practioDg. | should be here read. 

K 2 



Add. MS. dise est yendue^ e les treys partyes seyent vendues as 
' ' autres bones gentz de la vile. E si les hostes meymes 
vendunt par my lour meyns demeyne les biens de 
lour marchaunts, adunkes seyent eux tenuz a respoundre 
a lour marchauntz de tant com la marchaundise 
estoyt vendue. £t tut seyt qe les ditz marchauntz 
vendent lour biens privement, saunz cunseyl de lour 
hostes, ja le meyns eyent lour hostes la quarte partye 
de meyme la marchaundise auxi avaunt, com eux 
meymes ussent esteez cunseylliours e vendours. Mes 
des marchauntz vyneters qe vendunt lour vyns horde 
celer/ de quele terre qil seyent, ne des marchauntz 
wederSy' qe suilt demorauntz en vile e qe vendunt lour 
wede a taverne horde gemer,' rienz ne pussent lour 
hostes chalenger ne clamer en la quarte partye de lour 
marchaundise, com avaunt est dyt, par resoun de lour 

f. S3. 

Debnil^ Item cum la dyte vyle d? 3ipe.wyz par chartres des 

delayyle reys seyt enfraunchye, qe uul burgeys de meyme la 

dnirtautrw "^^^ plede ne seyt enplede nule part hors de la dyte 

bugeyade vyle de nul manere des pletz, assises, quereles, ne des 

coimtre la t^^Tes ne des tenures qe de deynz le burghe de Gipe- 

fraunchise, -^yz ou en le suburbe de meyme la vyle seyent, ne 

des trespas ne des contractz fetz en meyme la vyle 

ne de deynz la fraunchise de la vyla E pur ceo qe 

chescun burgeys de la dyte vyle est tenuz e lye par 

soun serement a meyntenir les dites chartres e les 

fraunchises de meyme la vyle en tutz luz e en tutz 

poyntz a tut soun poer, ordene est par comun 

cunseyl e un assent de la dite vyle e graunte 

qe nul burgeys de la dite vyle, prive ne estraunge,* 

1 horde celer"] oat of the cellar. 

' wedera] dealers in wede (woad), 
a plant used for dyeing black. 
Uenoe a -widow'a mourning robes 
are styled weeda. 

' horde gemer] ont of the store; 

^ prive ne esiraunge'] Strangers, 
as distiDgnished from persons dwell- 
ing in the town, appear at an early 
time to have been allowed to pur- 
chase the freedom of the town for 
trading porpoaes. 



outyn more, after the market that the merchaundise -A.da. MS. 

9S Oil 

is selled, and the tothyr iij. partys to other goode ' 
men of the toun. And zif the same hostes sellyn be 
her owen hand the good of her merchauntz, thanne 
be they holdyn to answeiyn to the same merchauntz 
of as much as her merchaundise is seld to. And zif ^ 
the forseid merchauntz sellyn her owne goodys privy- 
lich with oute counseil of her hostes, nevertheles have 
the same hostes the ferst ' partie of the same merchaun- 
dise, as wel as though the same hostes hadden ben 
counceloures and sellers. But of merchauntz Vynteres 
that sellyn her yynes out of celeres, of what lond that 
they ben, ne of merchauntz woderes that sellyn her 
woode out of taveme or out of gemer, her hostes 
moun no thyng takyn, chalangyn, ne cleymyn in- the 
ferthe partie of her merchaundise, as it is afomseid, by 
resoun of her host. 

Also the forseid toun of Gippeswich be the kynges llz. 
chartre » is enfraunchised, that no burgeys of the same ^^^„ 
toun plete ne be enpleted no part out of the toun of of the 
non maner of plees, assises, quereles, ne of londes ne ot^^^J^ 
tenoures that ben with ynne the subbarbys of the burgh other bur- 
of the same toun, ne of trespas, ne of contractes doon f j^^the 
in the same toun, ne with ynne the fraunchise of the frannchiM 
toun. And for that eche burgeys of the forseid toun tonne, 
is holdyn and boundyn by his oth to mayntenyn the 
chartrys and the fraunchises of the .same toun in alle 
places, in all poyntes, with all his power, it is or- 
deyned by comoun counceU and oon assent of the for- 

* zif] <* although'' ivould be closer 
to the French. 

^/er$i] « ferthe" should be here 
read, namdj, ** fourth." 

s chartre ] The French teit 
should be rendered ** by royal char- 
<< tert." Two luch charters anteoe* 

dent to this time are on record, 
granted by king John and Henry 
m. respectiyely. In the year im- 
mediately following the re-compil- 
ing of thi» Domesday, Edward I. 
granted to the burgesses a new 
charter (80 Edw. I.). 


•Add. MS. desoremes ne emplede autre nule part dehors le dit 
25,012. ^j^jyg^^ ^Q j^jjI BQianere play, par brefe ne eaunz brefe, 

coimtre lea pojrntz e la fourme des dites cliartres, ne 
en preiudice des fraunchiseB de la ^le avauntdyte. 
eest asayer, de chose qe peot par suffiraunce de ley 
estre plede e termyne en meyme. la vyle. E si nul 
le face, seyt il amoneste par les baiUifs e deux burgeys 
de la ky^vyle qil. bout forfeture de sa fraunchisef ne 
sue mes avaunt ^ tel pie en blemissement ne en preiu- 
dice de la firaunchise avauntdite, e qil sue en la dyte 
yyle pur soun dreyt, sil voudra solom les leys e les 
usages de meyme la vyle. £ si il apres cele amonicioun 
sue avaunt soun pie countre le estat e la fraunchise de 
la dite vyle, adunkes seyt il somuns par baillife juree ' 
e deux burgeys de la vyle de estre a un jour certeyn 
de portmennemotes de oyer soun juggement de cele 
sute, qil aura ensi fete countre la fraunchise e lamoni- 
f. 33. b. cioun avantdite, e countre le defens des ditz baillifs e 
soun serement demeyne. A quel jour le quel qil veygne 
ou ne mye, e la dite somunse serra sour luy veritable- 
ment temoygne, seyt il par les baillifs e les bones 
gentz« de k dite yle en pleyne court foriugge de sa 
fraunchise en la dite vyle, e agarde pur foreyn. E mes 
ne seyt a la fraunchise recunsellye, si ne seyt par no- 
vele fyn fere a -la commune pur la fraunchise reaver, e 
pur les custages e les despenses qe la commune aura 
mys pur la fraunchise de la vyle chalanger en le play 

1 m«« avaunt] in fdtore. | * les bones geiUz'] Theportmen, 

' balUfe juree'] a swome baillif. | who composed the portmennesmote. 



seid toim, and graunted, that non burgeys of the toun, Add. MS. 
prevy ne straunge, from this tjrme forward enplete ' 
other in ony part out of the forseid burgh in ony 
maner of plee, by writ or with outyn writ; a zeyns the 
poyntes and the foorme of the forseid chartres, ne in 
preiudice of the fraunchise, that is to wetyn, of thyng 
that may be pleted and termined in the same toun 
by sufferaunce [of lawe]. And zif ony doo the con- 
trarie, be he amonysshed be the ballives and by ij. 
burgeisys of the same toun, that upon forfeture of 
his fraunehise that he sue not forth the pie in* en- f- 20. 
blensshement ne in preiudice of the forseid fraunehise, 
and that he sue for his right in the same toun, zif 
he wil, after lawes and usages of the toun. And 
zif he after that amonysshyng sue forth his pleynt 
azeyns the estatt of the toun fraunehise, thanne be 
he sommouned be the ballives ^ and be the ^ burgeises 
of the toun to ben att a certayn day of portmennys- 
mootes, to heryn his iugement of that sute that he 
hath so doon a zeyns defence of the forseyd baUives, 
and the fraunehise, and the amonysshyng afomseyd,' 
and a zeyns his owen oth. At which day zif he come 
[or] not, and that forseid sommounys be wittenessed 
[trewly] a zeyns hym, thanne be he by the balKves 
and the goodemen of the toun for iuged of his fraun- 
ehise in pleynt court in the same toun, and awarded 
for a foreyn. And be not to hym his fraunehise re- 
consyled, but zif it be, by a newe fyne to the comoun 
for to have a zeyn his fraunehise, and for the costages 
and despensys that the comoun hath put for the fraun- 
ehise of the toun to chalangyn in the plee afomseid. 

^ the haUives'l The English text 
is more in harmony with the con- 

' the] This is probably a mis- 
writing for "y.," which is the 
number specified in a preceding 

' afornaeyd] The correct trans- 
lation of the French text would be 
** azeyns the fraunehise and the 
<* amonysshyng afomseyd, and 
<< azeyns the defense of the forseyd 
« ballives." 



"^^oia^' En meyme la manere seyt cbescun burgeys de la 

Cap*, ixij". ^y*® ^^^ foriugge de sa fraunchise, sil countreplede ou 

Decenxqeface countrepleder la louaunce^ de la dyte fraundiise 

^^i]^^ "nule part oountre les poyntz de lour dites chartres e 

allouaunce eountre soun serement : e mes ne seyt recunseyllie a 

ohise, &c. 8& fraunchise, si noun en la fourme avaunt dyte. Mes 

si nul burgeys de la dyte vyle, prive ou estraunge, 

pusse^ apertement e renablement prover qe la court 

de la dite vyle de Gip[pewyz] luy ad failU de dreyt 

avaunt eel houre en tele sute cum avaunt est dyte, 

ou qe soun adversarie ne poeyt en la dyte vyle estre 

justisee a sa pleynte, ne pur soun recovrir duement 

aver, en tel Cas, tut le emplede il aylliours qe en la 

dyte vyle, ne seyt il pas en forfeture de fraunchise 

par enchesoun de tel empleder. 

f. 34. Item, ordene est par tote la commualte avauntdyte 
^p».ixiij°. qe nul foreyn marchaunt seyt resceu burgeys en la 
ibreyn avauntdyte vyle sil ne seyt enherite de tenement en 
ii^hannt m^yme la vyle, ou il peot estre justisable e destreygn- 
bmgeys, able a la commue^ quant mester serra. A si nul, 
**• apres co qil serra resceu burgeys, ses tenemens en 

la vyle alyene, e ses chateux hors de la vyle aloygne, 
e ne voylle estre lotaunt, escotaunt,^ ne aydaunt 
a la vyle aussi cum burgeys deyt estre, seyt sa fraun- 
chise par les baylifs e par les corouners e les bones 
gentz* de la vyle repelee. E si il ou nul de par ly 
seyt trove marchauntdaunt en la vyle apres co qil se 
avera issi retreet a fere ayde a la vyle, cum avaunt est 
dit, seyt sa custume prise aussi cum de un foreyn. 
Mes ne seyt mye entendu par ceste constitucioun qe 
hom ne pusse receyvre burgeys, chivalers^ e gentyls 

> la httanee ] i.e., rallouance 
Kelham rendetB'alluer, to allow. 

' cammue'] coxnmime. 

^ lotatmi, eteototml] thii should be 

written " lotaunt e scotaimt," paying 
lot and scot in accordance with the 
charter of king John. 

^ Ua b(mn€& gentz'] See abore, 
chapter Ixi. 



Also in the same maner be every burcfeys of the Add. MS. 
forseid toun for iuged of his fraunchise^ zif he counfcre- ^ 
pleete or doo countrepletyn the aUouaimce of the for- [ixii.] 
seid fraunchise in ony part a zeyns the poyntes of her that wwm- 
chartre and a zeyn her ooth ; and be he not reoonsyled trepletyn 
to that fraunchise, but in the same fourme afomseid. i^^c^of' 
But if ony burgeys of the forseid toun, privy or straunge, *^ fl»un- 
mown apertly and resonabely proven att ^ the court of 
the forseid toun of Qippeswich hath fayled hym in 
right aforn that tyme in such [suyt] us is afomseid, 
or that hia adversarie may not in the same toun ben 
iustified to his pleynt for to have duly his recurer, in 
such cas zowgh ^ he pleete owher ellys tbanne in the 
forseid toun, be he not forfetyd of his fraunchise by 
cause of such enpletyng. 

Also it is ordeyned by all the commounaltee aforn- ixi. 
seid that no foreyn merchaunt be resoeyved burgeys ,j,jP^^ 
in the forseyd toun, but zif he be ' enberited [of a tone- foreyne 
ment] in the same toun.wher he may be iusticiable |^^ 

[and destreynable] to the comoun, whanne mister ba ceyved 
And zif ony, that be resceyved burgeys, his tenementz "'^"' 
in the * toun aliene, and his chateux out of the toun 
alloyne, and wil nott been lottyng and scottyng, ne 
helpyng to th^ toun as a burgeys oweth to been, 
thanne be his fraunchise by the ballyves and be the 
corounneres and be the goode men of the toun repelyd. 
And zif ony* by hym be founden merchauntynge in 
the toun after that he be so withdrawyn to doon helpe 
to the toun, as it is afornseid, be his custum takyn 
as of a foreyn ; but ne be it undyrstondyn by this 
constitucioun that man may not resceyvyn burgeysys, 
knyghtes, and gentiles of the cuntre that moun heldyn f. 20. b. 

* att] " that ** is required by the 
French text 
^ zowgh'] that is, ** though." 

> but zif he be] unless he be. 
* zif ony] The French text re- 
qaires " zif he or lif ony by hym." 



Add. MS. hommes ^ du payis^ qe pount valer e lu tenir a la vyle ; 
^^' ^ ' mes a teux gentz ne seyt pas la firaunchise de la vyle 
graunte for ke soulement a terme de lour vyes. 

Cap». Item si nul de la avauntdite yyle enprompte deners 

DeT^ffes ^^ darrees de autre de la vyle sour gage qe seyt chatel 

yendre meoble de aquyter a certeyn jour, e le dectour seoffre 

de^ye^*^ le jour passer e ne aquyte mye ses gages a meyme le 

mentpasse, jour assis ; e si cely, a qi tels gages seyent en gagez 

fiEU^e venir meyme les gages devaunt les avauntditz 

baylifs en pleyne court, e lour face a saver coment 

meyme les gages ly furunt en gagez de aver este 

aquytez a certeyn jour qe passe est, e sour co prie 

aveyement de la court co qil en deyt fere de mejrme 

f. 34. b. les gages, adunkes facent meyme les baylifs gamir oely 

dectour qe ceux gages en gaga devenir a un autre 

jour certeyn de aquiter ses gages, a quel jour, sil 

veygne e voylle ses gages aquiter, eyt il la delyvraunce 

saunz taxacioun des damages, e sil ne veygne apres 

CO qil serra issi gamy, ou -tut veygne il e ne pusse 

dedire qe le jour ne seyt passe qil dust ses gages 

aver a quyte, e ne les voylle a quyter, demeorgent 

les gages a cely a qi il esteyent issi engagez a fere 

ent sa volunte. £ seyt cest ordre tenu e usee aussi 

bien de oor, vessel ou juel deargent, ormuree, arreem, 

engage apres le jour passe, cum avaunt est dit, cum 

de nul autre manere de chateL 

C^MxY«. Item usee est e graunte par tute la comunaute 
deMoarent avauntdite qe si nul burgeys de la vile desceovre le 
le prire cunseyl de la vile, ou de gre maliciousement countre- 

canseyl ae • 

* chivaler$ e gentyh hcmmes'] It 
was ihe practice at a very early 
period for the common conncil of 
Ipswich to place the names of noble 
persons and knights upon the foil 
of burgesses, on their coTenanting 

to giye annually a certain sum of 
money either to the town or to the 
ferm of the king, and ihey were to 
be in do wise at lot and scot in the 
common tallages of the town. 



her^ to the toun grauntyd: but to such men be not Add. MS. 

25 oil 

the fraunchise of the toun graunted but only to terme ' 
of her lyves. 

Also zif ony of the forseyd toun borowe goold or p^y.-. 
silver * of other in the same toun upon wed that be catel pir to^ 
menabele* to aquytyn it at a certayn day, and the det- J^f*7** 
tour Buffere the day passyd and aquyte not his dettzdayofpay- 
att the same day sett : and zif he to whom the weddys "^^* , 

, passed. 

weren sett to wedde do comyn inne the same weddys 
in pleynt court afom the [afomseid] ballives, and do 
hem to wittjm whanne the same weddys. weryn set 
hym to wedde to have ben qwyt out att a oertayn day 
that is passyd, and up on this prey ayerrement of the 
court what he oweth to doon of the same weddys, 
thanne shal the baUives warantyn that dettour that tho 
weddys leyd to wedde to comyn at a nother certayn 
day to aquytyn his weddys, at which day, zif he wil 
come and wil acquytyn his weddys, thanne have he 
deliveraunce with cute tazadoun of damages. And zif 
he come not after that he be warned, or though he 
come and may not with seyn that the day is passyd 
that he shulde have quyt his weddys, ne wil not ac- 
quytyn hem, thanne duelle tho same weddys to hym 
to whom it weryn leyd to wedde to doon theroff his 
good wil. And be that ordre holdyn and usyd as wel 
of goold, vessel or juel of silver, armure, bras, in wed 
after the day so passyd as it is afom seyd, as of ony 
other maner of catell. 

Also it is usyd and graunted by all the forseid com- ixiij. 
munaltee that zif ony burgeys of the toun discure the of hem 
councel or the gre of the toxm, or maliciously enplete ^^i*^ ^' 

> Ae%n A«r] The English text 
is somewhat obscure. The French 
text may be rendered *' who may 
« be of yalae to and hold place 
« in the town." 

■n^ver] The French text has 
darrees, goods. 

^ catel menaht\e\ chattels move- 



Add. MS. 

la Tyle et 
qe cuntre- 
pledent par 
malice le 
honar et la 

plede les fraunchiaes e le estat de la vile, par quey 
la vile seyt endamagee ou Jes fraunchiaes de la vile 
de renz blemyes,^ seyt cely burgeys somuns devenir 
a un jour certeyn devaunt les baillifB e les corouners 
e la comunalte de la dite vile a respoundre du trespas 
avauntdit. £ quant il vendra en court e serra de 
tel trespas atteynt en due manere, seyt il foriugge de 
sa fraunchise solom la fourme contenue en lautre prosses 

Capo. 1x^0. Item ordene est ensement,^ qe si nul burgeys de 

T>e^geyfi meyme la vyle eyt nul chatel de homme foreyn entre 

ment s^s propris chateux, e cely burgeys des chateux meyme 

•^?J^* cely foreyn marchaunde a perte e a gaygn du foreyn 

tel, &c. en avowaunt ceux chateux estre les seens propris, par 

quey la custume le rey par tele fauce avowerie ' seyt 

perdue, seyt cely burgeys quant il serra de tele &uce 

avowerie atteynt devaunt les baillifs de la dite vyle 

f. S5. foriugge de sa fraunchise, e de eel houre en avaunt 

seyt il tenu pur foreyn ; e si il marchaunde en la vile, 

seyt la custume prise de ly auxi com de un foreyn, 

taunke il pusse aver grace de la commune de estre 

recuncillie, e ceo par novele fyn, si il voillie prier. 

Capo. Item usee est en la vauntdite vile qe les biens e 
j^^"' les merchaundises qe venent a meyme la vyle par ewe 
channdise a vendre, qe dil houre qil seyent deschargez e mys a 
w e?^ sekke terre pur vendre, ou qe les marchauntz eyent 
&c. de ceo renz venduz, auxi com lem dyt en Engleys 

broken bolke,^ qe meyme les biens ne seyent pas re- 

* blendes'] impaired. The sab- 
Btantiye blemifisement, in the same 
sense, occurs aboTe, in chap. Ixi. 

' eiuement'] likewise, Britton, 1. iv. 
ch. X. § 4. 

' avcweie] ayowal. 

* bn^keti hoike] The correspond- 
ing phrase in French is debris^ le 
** bulke." Black Book of the Ad- 
minilty, p. 7S. The derivation of 
the word <<bnlke" is somewhat 



the fraunchise ^ and the state of the toun, wherby the Add. MS. 
toun be endamaged and the fraunchise enblemysshed, 95,oii. 
be that burgeys somoned to oomyn att a certayn day £^^^e' 
by fom the ballives and the coroneres and the com- tonne and 
munalte of the forseid toun to answeryn, as it is afom- trepletyn 
seid ; and whanne he comyih in to com*t^ and be of that ^ "^Kce 
trespas atteynt in due maner, thanne be he for iugedandthe 
of his fraunchise after the foorme conteyned in that ft*wichiic. 
other prooesse. 

Also it is ordeyned that zif ony burgeys of the same iziiij. 
toun have ony catel of ony foreyn among his owen qJ-^*-' 
chateuz^ and that burgeys of tho same chateuz of that gwn that 
foreyn merchaunt to the part * and to the profit of that ^^J-^^ 
forejni avowe that tho chateux be his owen, wherby other cateil. 
the kynges custum by such fals avourie be lost, be that 
burgeys whanne he be atteynt of that falsnesse a fom 
the ballives foriuged of his fraunchise, and from that 
tyme forward he be heldyn ba a forejrn. And zif he f. si. 
merchaunte in the toun, thanne be custum takyn of 
hym as of a forejni til that he may have grace of the 
oomoun to ben reconsyled, and that by a newe fyn zif 
he wil preve it. 

Also it is used in the foreseid toun of Gippeswich ixr. 
that the good[ys] and the merchaundise that comyn £*or to 
to the same toun by watyr for to sellyn, that from '^y" °^- 
the tyme that they ben unladyn and leyd on the drey ^iwd^ 
lond [for sellyn], or thanne the merchauntz have ony ▼»*yT« 
thyng sellyd of hem, as men seith and Englysshith 
brekyn bow,' that tho same goodys be not remuyed 

> the fravnehite] The transla- 
tion of the Freneh text would pro- 
perl j be ** discnre the coonoel of 
" the toan or of gre maliciously 
" emplete the frannchifles." 

3 There are probably some words 
left out in the French text after k 

perte, such as the words de la yyle, to 
the loss of the town, or, de la ferme 
del rey, to the loss of the king's ferm. 
' breJ^ bow'] The modem phrase 
*^ broken bulk," which is un- 
doubtedly of Ebglish origin, would 
be nearer the French text 



Add. MS. menez ver mer saunz cunge des bailli& e des bones 
25,012. gentz de la dite vile. E ne seyent pas les marchauntz 
par les baiUifs ne par autres de meyme la vile con- 
streyntz a vendre lour'biens en la vile conntre lonr 
gre ; mes sil veolent lour biens mener e carier aylliours 
.en payis a vendre e a fere ent lour proffyt, ceo ne 
lour seyt pas vyez^ payaunt de ceo la dreyte custume 
de la vyle auxi com affiert. E si les marchauntz ne 
veolent lour biens ver mount en payis maunder ^ com 
avaunt est dit, e il eyent demorrez en la dite vile 
de Gipp[ewyz] par viij. jours, e ne pussent lour mar- 
chaundises en meyme la vyle de denz meyme le temps 
vendre covenablement, en tel cas si les marchauntz 
priunt cunge des baillifs e des bones gentz de la vile 
de carier e mener lour ditz biens par ewe par la^ ou 
il entendunt meuz fere lour proffit, ne lour seyt pas 
le cunge vyee, mes qil pay ent derichefe a la vile la 
dreyte custume pur le issir, auxi com il firent pur 

£ 85. b. Item nul marchaundise qe vyent par ewe a la dite 

j^P?; vyle a vendre n-e seyt vendue ne achatee entre soleyl 

DetempB rescuns' e soleyl levaunt, horpris haranges freys en tens 

^^^^ d^ harangesoun, cest asaver entre la feste Seynt Michel 

dises au e la feste Seynt Gement, e ceo seyt taunt soulement 

^^' par meyns des burgeys de la dite vyle, e ne mye par 

meyn de estraunge. E si nul le face e de ceo seyt 

atteynt, seyt il foriugge de tute la marchaundise^ e ja 

le meyns seyt il a la primere feze amercye a xL deniers, 

e a la secunde feze a demi marc; e a taunt defeze 

com il serra de teu chose atteynt, a taunt defeze seyt 

^ maunder] to Bend, Eelham. . 

^pur retUrer] This regulation is 
at yariance with a law made by king 
John with the admirals of the north 
and west, that no merchant ahoiild 

pay custom duty on goods landed 
for sale, miless they were sold. 
Black Book of the Admiralty, p. 72. 
> soleyl rescunsl sunset, Eelham : 
recoursant. . 



[towards the sea] with onte leve of the ballives and of Add. MS. 
goode men^ of the toun. And ne be the merchauntz 2^»^^^- 
by the ballives ne by other of the same toun con- 
streyned to seUe her goodys [in the toun azenst her 
wille ; but zif they wil ledyn or caryen her goodys] 
owher ellys in to the cuntre to sellyn and to doon her 
profit, for that ne be the custum payeng denyed to 
the same toun [as is]. And zif the merdiauntz [wil not 
send her goodys upwards ^ into tho cuntre as afomseid, 
and be] duellyn in the toun viij. dayes, and moun not 
sellyn her merchaundyse in the same toun with ynne that 
same tyme, in such cas, zif they wil preye for to have 
leve of the bally ves and of goode men of the toun to 
caryen and to ledyn her forseid goodes by watyr thedyr 
that they hopyn best to doon her profyt, be not leve 
hem denyed, but that they payen azeyn to the toun 
the right custum for the out goyng as they dedyn for 
the enteryng. 

Also no merchaundise that comyth by watyr to the ^^: 
forseid toun to sellyn, be it not bought ne sellyd from of i^me of 
the sunne goyng doun til the sunne risyng, out taken ^^^^ °^ 
fressh heiyng in heryng tyme, that is to wittyn, at the dise at 
feste ' of Seynt Michel and the feste of Seynt Qement, ^^ "^^y- 
and that be only be burgeyses handes [of the seid 
toun, and not by the handys of straungers], and zif 
ony doo, and theroff be atteynt, be he foriuged of that 
merchaundise, and nevertheles at the ferst tyme amercyed 
xL penyes, the secunde tyme d/i^ mark; and as oftyn 
tyme aa he be of that thyng atteynt, so oftyn be his 

1 goode men] Bones-gentz in the 
French text is here translated 
« goode men," the synonym of 
^ probi homines." 

' upwards] yer monnt, hillwards, 
is the opposite phrase to ver mer, 
seawards. The English translator 
has omitted the passage. 

^ at the feete] ^'between the 
« feste " is the proper reading. 

^ di] This 'is evidently an ab- 
breviation of ''demi," Le., half a 
mark, six and ^htpence, the 
doable of " forty penyes." 



Add. MS. Ba peyne evoytee. E quant tel trespassour deyt entre 
25,012. foriugge de sa marcbaundise par la cause avauntdite, 
seyt cele marcbaundise bayllie a deux prodes bommes 
de la vyle a vendre a comun proffyt de la vyle. 

GapMzixo. Item des oystres e moles, qe venent en batz au cay 

peyiicoan * ^® ^^ ^^^ ^7^^ ^^ Gipp[ewyz] a vendre, ordene est, 
de eBcale, auxi bien pur comun proffit des povres com des rycbes, 
qe tele manere de peyscoun de escale seyt vendu par 
my le meyns de ceux meymes qe le meynent a vendre, 
saunz ceo qe nul de la dite vile de Gipp[ewyz] se 
medle en tour cele marcbaundise oountre lordenaunoe 
avauntdite, sour peyne de perdre meyme la marcbaun- 
dise e de estre amercye a xL(2. 

f. 36. Item use est en la vauntdite vile qe tutz oeux qe 

Deai^te' ^7®^* ^""^ ^^ tenement en meyme la vile, le quel qil 
layyley&c. seyt madle ou femele, e sacbe auner e cunter,^ e eyt 
acumpli lage de quatorze aunz, qil pusse sa terre ou 
soun fraimke tenement doner, vendre, e lesser, e soun 
dreyt quitedamer pur tutz jours auxi avaunt com il 
ust acumpli lage de xxj. an. E si nul de mendre ^ age 
sa terre ou soun fraunke tenement en la dite vile de 
Gipp[ewyz] donne, ou en autre manere alyene, ou soun 
dreyt quitecleyme, ceo ne ly seyt pas barre ne preiu- 
dice qil ne pusse soun dreyt demaunder e recoverir solom 
usage de la dite vile quel houre qil voudra, apres ceo 
qil aura acumpli le age avauntdit de la vile, cest asaver 
xiiij. ans com avaunt est dit, saunz aver regard a nule 
especiaute qil aura feet de denz lage de la vile avaunt- 

* aimer el cunter] measure and 
coont. This custom of Ipswich was 
admitted in a suit, of which the 
inrolment is printed in the Tear 

Book, 82 & 83 Edw. I., Appendix, 
p. 511, Bolls Edition. 
3 mendre'] i.e., moindre. 



peyne doubeled.^ And whanne such a trespasour owith Add. MS. 
to ben foriuged of his merchaundise for the same cause, ' 
thanne be that merchaundise takyn to ij. goode men 
of the toun, to sellyn for the comoun profit of the 

Also of oystrys and rauskelys that comyn [in boats] r^\ 
to the key of the forseyd toun of Gippeswich to seUyn, Of seiiYiig 
it is ordeyned, as wel for the comoun profit of poure ^^^/ 
men as of ryche, that such manor of fyssh with shelle sl^elies. 
be seld by the handys of tho same men that bryngyn 
hem to sellyn, so that non of the toun afomseid medele 
hym with such merchaundise a zeyns the ordynaunce 
afornseyd, upon peyne to lese the same merchaundise 
jind to ben amercyed att xl. penyes. 

Also it is usyd in the forseyd toun that alle they bcviij. 
that hath lond or tenement in the same toun, whethir Qf,^^ 
that it be male or female, and cunne sellyn and tellyn,^ the toone. 
and have the fulle age of xiiij. zer, that he or shee 
may his lond or his free tenement zevyn, sellyn, and 
letyn, or his right quyt clemyn for alle dayes, as though 
he hadde the full age of xxj. yer. And zif ony of 
lesse age his lond or his free tenement in the forseid 
toun zeve, or in other maner aliene, or his right quyt- 
cleymyn, be he not barryd [nor prejudiced] for to axyn 
[and recover] a zeyn his right [according to the usage 
of the said town at such tyme as he would], whanne 
that he comyth ' to f ul xiiij. zer of age, with oute 
havyng ony reward* to ony specialtee that he hath 
maad with ynne age of the forseyd toun. 

1 doubeled] properly increased, or 
extended, Britton, 1. i. Prolog. 

^ cunne stUyn and tdbfn] know 
how to sell and tell, i.e. count. 

3 comjflh] The French text re- 
quires a fuller translation, '* whanne 


'^ that he shal have accomplished 
*' the aforeseid age of the town, 
'' that is to say fourteen zers, as 
" aforeseid." 
* reward] regard. 



AdiMS. Item si nul en la dite vyle manace autre. de vie e 
25,012. ^g membre on de mal fere de soun eors ou de arcoun^ 
De manace de Bes mesons, e celuy a qi tele manace est fete pusse 
fere, &G. devaunt les bayllifs e les corouners de meyme la vyle 
les manaces prover par deux hommes jureez, seyt le 
manacour attache par bone meynprise de estre a un 
certeyn jour devaunt meyme les bayllifs e corouners 
de gager la pees al avaunt dit manace, e de co bone e 
suffisaunce seurte trover au meyns quatre bons plegges,* 
qe mal ne damage ne luy avendra countre la pees par 
luy ne par soun procurement. E sil ne pusse ou ne 
voylie meynprise tix)ver de venir en court com avaunt 
est dit, ou quant il vendra en court apres les manaces 
proveez e ne pusse ou ne voyllie plegges de la pees 
trover, seyt soun cors comaunde a la prisoun ci la qii 
eyt bone seurte trove de la pees en la manere avaunt 

Cap^ Item si nul en la vauntdite vyle par malice sake 

De^arme ^P®* cotel, OU autre arme, ou donne coup ou playe, ou 

saker en assaut face a autre countre la pees en presence de nul 

^^^^ des chefs bayILi& de la vyle, meyntenaunt sour le fet 

&c. pxir meyme le despit e pur le trespas seyt le cors de 

' ' celuy trespassour comaunde a la prisoun ^ xL jours,' 

cila qil eyt bone meynprise trove de amender meyme 

le despit e le trespas, par agard des ditz baylli& e 

corouners e des bones gentz de la vyla 

Gbjyo. Item use est en la vauntdite vyle qe si nul en 

De prSses ^^V^^ ^ "^® feuoement ou maliciousement esclaundre 

en play dc autre en comun lu de marche ou apartement ' devaunt 

esciauDdre. j^ people de larcyn, robberie, traysoun, faucyne, ou de 

autre maveyste,* par quey qil seyt enpire ou damage 

1 arcouii] arson. 

^ quatre botu plegges"] four good 

^ apartement ] sc. aperteraent, 
openly or publicly. 

* maveyste ] mauveiste, in the 
sense of wickedness or crime, occurs 
in Britton, 1. iv. ch. iz. § 1. 


Also zif ony in the forseyd toun manasse other of Add. MS. 
lyff, or off membre, or of betyng of his body, or of ^'^.1^* 
brennyng of his housys, zif he to whom that manas rixxi.] 
was maad afom the ballyves and the coronerys of the ^^ "Jw^m 

•^ •' maad. 

same toun may tho manaces by ij. men swome prevyn, 
thanne be the same manasour attacfayd by good mein- 
prise to be att a certayn day afom the ballyves and 
the coronerys to wagyn the pees of the forseid manaoe, 
and of that good and sufficiaunt suerte fyndyn at the 
leste by iij.^ borwys, that harme ne damage shal comyn 
to that man azeyns the pees by hym ne by his pro- 
curement. And zif he may not, ne wil not fynde 
meinprise to come in to court as it is afomseid, or though 
he come in to court [after the manas proven] and may 
fyndyn non borwes ^ of the pees, thanne be his body 
comaunded to prisoun til that he hath foundyn good 
suerte of the pees in the manerafomseid. 

Also zif ony in the forseid toun by malice drawyn ixix. 
swerd or knyff or ony other wepene, or zeve wounde of Syves 
or buffet or make assaute to an other a zeyns the pees drawyng 
in presence of ony of the chieff ballyves of the toun, 2,2pjm 
anon for the same dispitt ' and for the trespas be the the pre- 
trespasour comaunded to prisoun xL dayes, til he may bj^Tvea. * 
fyndyn good meinprise to amendyn that [despitt and] 
trespas by award of the forseid ballives and coronerys 
and of goode men of the toun. 

Also it is vsed in the forseyd toun that zif ony in ixz. 
the toun falsely and maliciously ensclaundre other in of p^« 
comoun market 8te<ste afom the pepele of thefle, ofinp^eeof 
robberye, tresoun, falsKed, or of ony other wykydnesse, ®°* '^^ ®* 
wherby that he be enpeyned or resceyve damage or 

' three] iiij. should be here read 

^ nay fyndyn non bonces'] The 
French text requiree <<aiid can not 

'< or wil not fynd borwys," that is, 
^ despiU] i.e., contempt of law. 

L 2 



Add. MS. recey ve, ou de seon honur abecee ou rebote,^ eyt celuy 
' * qe issi est esclaundre soun recovrir par gage e plegge 
devaunt les baillifs de meyme la vyle ver le esclaun-. 
drour. E de tel apert esdaundre ne seyt pas le 
esclaundreour receu a sey defendre par sa ley, mes 
seyt enquis par bone enqueste lequel il lay ad en tele 
manere esclaundree ou noun. E si le esclaundrour de 
tele chose seyt atteynt par enqueste ou en autre ma- 
nere, par agard de la curt seyent les damages taxez 
par enqueste ou par meyme la court solom ceo qe le 
cas le demaunde ; e a la taxacioun des damages eyt 
horn regard a la persone celuy qe est esclaundre. E 
si ceus qe de teux trespas seyent atteyntz neyent dunt 
il pussent gre fere des damages, ou qil ne pussent de se 
plegges trover, seyt il pu[n]yz par en piisounement 
solom CO qe le trespas le demaunde, par agard des 
baillifs e des bones gentz^ de la dite vile. 

O^po, Item femmes qe sunt communs tenceresses entre lour 

ixxiiyo. veysins, e qe ne velent lour mavoyses launges chastier 

munes ten- ^^ mesdire a les gentz, seyent eles chastiez par la juj^e 

ceressee. q^ ^ est ' apele le then,' ou qe eles facent grevouses 

redemcioun si eles eyent dunt. 

1 abecee ou reboW] is lessened or 
lowered in his honour. 

' des bones geniz] The prodes 
hommes, probi homines, of the 

' le Iheu] The word juyse occurs 
above in chap. It. in the sense of 
an instrument of punishment. Hie 
thewe, as used in the city of London 
for the punishment of women, was a 
species of pillory. Riley's Memo- 
rials of London, 319 and S67. In 
other places it appears to have been 
a cucking stool, in which scolds 
were dudced in dirty water. The 
cucking stool is mentioned in 
8 Henry VIII. c. 6. See Way's 

Promptuarium Parvulorum, note on 
the word kukstole (for flyterys or 
schyderys), also note on the word 
cukstolle. An original cucking- 
stool is preserved at Ipswich, and 
another at Warwick, The practice of 
lowering the stool into water seems 
to have been a mitigation of the 
punishment, less offensive than the 
original application of dirty water. 
In Normandy and in Grascony, when 
those countries were under British 
rule, scolds were ducked without the 
ceremony of the stool, a rope being 
simply tied round their waists as is 
described in the constitutions of the 
city of Royan, ch. ix. below. The 



dishonour, have he that so is ensdaunderyd his recurer Add. MS. 
by wed and borogh afom the bally ves of the same ^*'®^^- 
toun a zeyns the ensclaunderour. And of swich opyn 
esclaundre be not the esclaunderour resoeyved to de- 
fendyn hym by his lawe,^ but be it inquyred by a 
good enquest zif he hath [in swich manner] sclaun- 
dered hym or not. And zif the esdaundrour of that 
thyng be atteynted by enquest or in other maner by 
award of the court, be tho damages taxed by enquest 
or by the same court after that the cas axeth ; and f- 22. 
that the taxyng ^ of the damagys have they rewarded 
to the persone of hym that is ensclaunderyd. And zif 
they that of that trespas ben atteynted have not wher 
of that they may maken gree of the damages ne fyn- 
dyn borwys, thanne be they punysshed by enprisone- 
ment after that the trespas axeth, by award of the 
bally ves and of goode men of the toun. 

Also wommen that ben comoun chideres and stry- ixxj. 
verys in the forseid toun of Gippeswich, and wil not ofcoimiune 
chastysyn her wykked tunges, but maliciously withseyn chyderys. 
her neghbourys, be they chastysed by the myse, that is 
clepyd the thewe,® or ellys make they grevous raum- 
soun zif they have wher of 

^ by kU lawe] the libeller was not 
^f- allowed to justify his libel in his 

3 and that the teLxyug] '* and at 
*< the taxyng of the damages haye 
'* they repird to the persone of hym 

^ K^\r\\ 

*' that is ensclaunderyd *' would be 
closer to the French text. 

' myse, that is clepyd the thewe"] 
myse has been misread for Jnyse by 
the scribe of the English yersion. 



Add. MS. Item ordene est par eomun assent de la dite ville 

25,012. ^^ Gipp[ewyz], qe en meyme la vyle seyent a tutz 

Capo'. . jours xij. jurez des plus sages e des pins leans de 

ixxy<>. mejone la vyle a gnyer e a meyntenir les leys e les 

jureez^deladreytnrenx nsages de la vyle, e a rendre pur la eomu- 

'vyie, &c. nalie de meyme la vyle bien e leaument les juggementz 

de la vyle, e a fere e ordener ceo qe seyfc a comun 

profyt de meyme la vile, e a comune dreytnre fere 

auxi bien a les povres com a les riches. E pur ceo qe 

les ditz xij. jureez semnt plus ocupez par le estaat e 

par le honur de la vyle e plus sovent travailliez e 

chargez qe autres de la vyle, si ad la dite comunaute 

graunte, pur eux e pur lour heyrs e pur lour succes- 

sours, qe les ditz xij. jureez^ eyent enterement lour 

comun pre qe est appele Odenholm en eyde a sustenir 

lour chivals. E sil aveygne qe un des ditz xij. jureez 

meorge on seyt inobedyent on trop necligent countre 

soun serement, adunkes eyent les xj. jureez pleyn poer, 

en la fey qil deyvent a la dite vyle, de ellire a eux un 

bon homme * e covenable en In de cely qe mort est, oil 

a remuer e asBoudre dil office cely qe serra trove in- 

bedient ou trop necligent com avaunt est dyt, e choysir 

probable opinion would appear to 
be, firom the ducking stool being in 
some places called the goging stool 
or gagging stool, that the scold in 
more recent times uras tied down 
on a dtool of ignominy in a con- 
spicuous place, with a gag inserted in 
her month to preTent her venting her 
evil tongue against her neighbours. 

^jurees] "sworn as they are in 
" other free boroughs of England " 
are the words of the bailifEs' roll, 
2 John. 

3 bon homme^ probus homo, i.e., 
of the most fit, discreet, and wealthy 
of the said town. 



Also it is ordeyned be comoun assent of the forseid Add. MS, 
toua of Gippeswich, that in the same toun ben alwey ^^'^V* 
xij. men sworn of the most wise of the toun and of [i^.] 
the most trewe, for to gyen ^ and for to meytenyn the ^ ^- ™?* 
righte vsages of the toun, and for to zeldyn ^ for the the touDc. 
communaltee of the same toun wel and trewly the 
jugementz of the toun, to doon and to ordeynyn that 
it be to the comoun profyt of the same toun and to 
the right of the commounys as wel to the poure as to 
the riche. And for tho xij. men' swome ben more 
ocupied for the state and for the worship of the toun, 
and ofbyn more travayled and charged thanne other of 
the toun, the forseid communalte of the toun han 
graunted for hem and for her heyres and for her suc- 
cessoures, that the forseid xij. men sworne shuln have 
in comoun a mong hem twelve a medewe that is depyd 
Hodynholm,* in helpe to kepyn with her horsys. And 
zif it falle that ony of the forseyd xij. men deye or be 
vnbuxom or mochel neclygent a zeyns his oth, thanne 
have the xij. men sworn pleyn power, in the feith that 
they owen to the toun, to chesyn to hem oon that 
be good and abele in his stede that is ded, or to 
remujni hym of his offys that is founden vnbuxom or 
necligent, and to chesyn an other in his stede that be 

^ gyen] Guyer, to govern, Kel- 

* zeldyn] so. render. 

' twelve men ] These twelve 
Bworne men are termed " capital 
'* portmen" in the tranBcript of 
the roll made at Ipswich in the 
second year of king John, when 
proceedings were first taken to 
carry oat the charter granted hy 
that king on 25th May 1199. The 
common council of the town on this 
occasion ordained that hereafter 
there should he in the said horough 
twelve capital portmen sworn, in 
manner as they are in other free 

horoughs of England. It was on 
the same day granted hy all the 
commonalty, at the request of the 
aforesaid twelve capital portmen, 
that for the labour which they 
should bestow in behalf of the said 
commonalty, they should have the 
Odenhohn meadow for the support 
of their horses. 

^ (This meadow was afterwards 
called Fortmens* Walks, and was 
enjoyed by the portmen until they 
were abolished by the Municipal 
Reform Act, 5 & 6 William IV. 
cap. 76. 



Add. MS. un autre en soun lu, qe leal homme seyt e oovenable 


en eel office pur la dite eomunaute. 

Cap«». Item ordene est, qe si les execuciouns des courtz de 

De"b-* ^^ ^^ ^^® preygnent delay par defaute des subballifs 
baiiifgqese portaunts verges ^ en meyme la vyle, respoygne cely sub- 

loufofficeT '^yly*^ ®^ V 1*^ defaute serra trove a cely qe le delay 
aura eu par sa defaute de ses damages, sil se voudra 
pleyndre ; e ja tardeys ^ perde cely subballife sa verge 
xl. jours a la primere feze qil sen-a trove en tele de- 
faute. E a la secunde feze perde il la verge un quarter 
dil aan, e respoygne il au pleyntyfe de ses damages, 
solom ceo qil serrunt taxez par enqueste ou par des- 
crecioun de court. E si la tierce feze seyt atteynt, 
perde il ia verge e seyt suspendu de soun office tut a 

f. 87. b. 

Des 8ub- 
ballift qe 
males pa- 
roles entre 

Ensement est ordene des ditz subballifs, qe si nul de 
eux seyt portour des paroles ou des mensounges entre 
bones gentz de la vyle, par quey qe descord e male 
voilliaunce sourde en la commune, e de ceo seyt par 
bone prove atte^oit, seyt il suspendu de soun office e 
oustee tut a nete. En meyme la manere seyt il en 
oustee, sil descovre les privetez de la coroune ou les 
autres privetez de ses sovereynz. 

Cap**. Ensement est ordene, qe si le comun clerke de la 
ixxviijo. j^ ^^^^ ^^j ^^^ enroulement en deceyte de la 

De comun ■' *' 

clerke de court OU de la partye, qe soun cors seyt comaunde a 

^ ^^' la prisoun, e qil seyt a la primere feze suspendu de 

soun office demy aan. E si autre feze seyt- atteynt. 

' verges'] The English version 
has the word masys, Le., maces, but 
rods or staves would rather seem to 
be the equivalent of veiges. 

*;a tordfy«] nevertheless. Ja 
tardais occurs in this sense in the 

Liber CuBtumarum of the Citj of 
London, p. 225, touching La Feste 
du Pui. 

^ hit a net] entirely. Tout de 
nette, entirely ; tout net, altogether, 



good and convenable in that offys for the forseid Add. MS. 
communyaltee. 25,0 1 1 . 

Also it is ordeyned, that zif the execuciouns of the hmij. 
toun takjrn delay by the defaute of the subbailles of buV 
beryng masys in the same toun, o^iswere that subbayle baiiyves 
in whom the defaute is foundyn to hym to whom he i^^ i^'^her 
hath maad^elaye by his defaute of his damages, zif he office, 
wil pleynyn hym ; and never the latter lese he his mase 
xl. dayes the ferst tyme that he be founden in such 
defaute. At the secunde tyme lese he his mase a 
quarter of a zer, and answere he to the pleyntyff of 
his damages after that it be taxed by enquest or by f. 22. b. 
discrecioun of the court. And at the iij. tyme zif ho 
be attejmt, lese he his zarde or his mase, and be sus- 
pended of his offys for evermore. 

Also it is ordeyned of the forseyd subbaUyves, that ixxiiij. 
zif ony of hem be a berere of woord or of lesyng be o?s^*^'"' 
twixen [goode] folk ^ of the toun, wher thourgh discord ballyves 
and wikked wille ryseth in the comoun, and he be of ^,J^ 
this atteynted by good preeff, be he suspendyd and put twixe th© 
doun of his offys aU zeiys. In the same maner be he ^^^''' 
put down, zif he discure the privetees of the coroun 
or the privetees of his soveraynes.* 

Also it is ordeyned, that zif the comoun clerk of the ixxv. 
toun make ony fals enrollyng in disceyt of the court (fj^v^*''-' 
or of the partye, thanne that his body be comaunded comomiQ 
to prisoun, and that he be the ferste tyme suspended ^^^^^ 
of his offys for half a zere. And zif he be the secunde 

^/olk] bones gentz is here pro- 
bably used as a general term for 
honest men. 

^ soverajfne$] his superior offi- 



dette entre 

Add. MS. geyfc U enoustee ^ del office tut anete. E sil desceovre 

25 012 

' ' les privetez de la coroune ou les privetez de ses sove- 
reynz^ seyt il enouste de soun office com ayaunt est 

Capo. Item use est en la vauntdite vyle^ qe si play de 
Deiey^fere ^®*^ ^® amouute outre xvj. deniers obole seyt mu 
en play de devaunt les baiUifs de meyme la vyle entre burgeys 
de la vyle, e le un burgeys defendaunt dedye la 
dette e se defende par sa ley countre lautre burgeys, 
cely qe la ley deyt fere deyt mener ovesqe luy en 
court, le jour qil deyt sa ley fere, x. hommes,* les queux 
semmt sevrez en deux partyes, cest a saver v. dune 
part e v. dautre, entre les queux un cotel a poynt deyt 
estre jetee, e ceux v. ver les queux la maunche du 
cotel chiet serrunt enoustez saunz serement fere ; e les 
autres v., ver les queux la poynte chet, demoi'unt ovesqe 
cely qe la ley deyt fere, mes de ceux v. serra ly un 
remue, e les quatre de eux frunt le serement ovesqe 
cely qe la dite ley deyt fere. E si la dette ne 
amounte qe xvj. d, oh, ou meyns, il ne deyt la ley fere 
forkes sey tierz.^ E fet asaver qe cest usage ne se 
tyent poynt forkes taunt soulement entre burgeys de 
la vyle denzeynz, qe lem apele piers e comuners,^ e non 
pas entre burgeys foreynz. E tut seyt issi qe un bur- 
geys denzeyn seyt emplede de un burgeys foreyn, ou 
qe le burgeys foreyn enplede un burgeys denzeyn en 
play de dette, de qele summe qe la dette seyt, e le un 
ou lautre seyt a sa ley, e le play seyt de tele nature 

f. 38. 

^ enoustee] This word occnra in 
chapter xxxyii. in the sense of 
removing or putting away. 

^ dix hommes] This singular 
method of choosing four compurga- 
tors hy lot out of a body of ten per- 
sons produced on the part of the 
defendant who waged his law, was 
probably the relic of a yeiy early 
practice. Nothing analogous in 
other borough-towns is on record, 
as far as the Editor is aware, twelve 

being the common number of com- 

^forkes sey tierz] with only two 
compurgators, himself being also 

* piers e comvners'] It would seem 
from this passage that the terms 
"peer and comuner" wero applied 
to all burgesses resident within the 
town of Ipswich. See chapter IL 



tyme atteynted, be he put out of his offys all zeres. Add. MS. 
And zif he discure the privetees of the corounne or ^* 
the privetees of his soveraynes, thanne be he put out 
of his offys in the maner afomseyd. 

Also it is vsyd in the forseid toun, that zif plee of 1"T^- 
dette that amounteth over xvj. d. oh} be moved a fom of lawe^to 
the bally ves of the same toun be twixen burgeysys of ^^^J^j^P^®® 
the toun, and that on burgeysys defend ' with sey the among 
dette and defendeth hym by his lawe a zeyns that ^"^^^y*®*- 
other burgeys, he that oweth to doon the lawe oweth 
to ledyn with hym in to court, that day that he shal 
doon his lawe, x. men, whiche shuUyn ben departed in 
ij. partys, that is to wetyn, v. on that on part and 
V. on that other part, be twixe which partyes a poynted 
knyff owyth to ben cast, and tho v. toward whom the 
hafte of the knyff lyth shuldyn ben putt of with oute 
ony ooth doyng ; and that other v. toward whoto the 
poynt lyth shull duellyn with hym that oweth to doon 
that lawe, but of the v. that oon shal be remuyd, 
in * the iiij. of hem shull makyn the ooth with hym 
that oweth to doon the fomseyd lawe. But zif tho 
dette amounte not xvj. d, oh, or lesse, he owghte not 
to doon his lawe but hym self the thrydde. And it is 
to wetyn that such usages holdyn not but by twixe 
burgeys of the toun with inne, that men clepyth peeres 
and oommouneres, and not betwixe burgeys foreyns. 
And though it be so that a burgeys with ynne the toun 
be enpleted by a burgeys foreyn in plee of dette, of 
what summe that the dette be, thanne be that on or 
that other at his lawe. And zif the plee be of such f. 23. 

* 06.] i.e. obolom, a half-penny. 
^defend] «dcfendaunt" should 
be here read. 

' in] *' and '' should be read for 

" in." 



Add. MS. qe la ley se peot joyndre, seyt celuy qe la ley aura 
2.5,012. go^gQ receu en court a fere sa ley sey tierz.^ En meyme 
la manere ver chescun autre estraunge. E fet asaver 
qe cest ordre quant amener x. hommes en ley gagee 
solom la fourme avauntdite ne deyt pas estre usee en 
nul play, forkes en play qe est proprement de dette 



Item ordene ^est' qe nul pestour en la dyte vyle 
ixxx«. j^g f^^Q gastel, symenel, ne primer coket si noun par 
qetres- bulletel de Reyns; ne secund cokete sinoun par bul- 
letel de beuquer; ne peyn enter de furment, si noun 
de bon furme[n]t e de nete.* E qe nul pestour medle 
bren ovesqes peyn de tutz manere de ble. E si nul 
pestour veollie fere peyn fyngete,'* le face dil assise e 
le vende pur tel com il est. E qi autre bulletel use pur 
gastel, symenel, primer cokete, ou pur scecund cokete 
qe ne est avaunt nome, a la primere feze seyt le 
bultel ars * pres dil pillorie ; a la scecunde feze seyt le 
bultel ars e le pestour amercye; a la tierce feze seyt 
le bultel ars e le pestour aiuggee au pillory ; e a la 
quarte feze seyt le bultel ars e le pestour foriurge le 
mester en la dyte vyle de Gipp[ewyz] un an e tin 
jour. £ si nul pestour seyt atteynt qil medle bren 
ovesqes peyn de tutz manere de ble, seyt il puny par 

f. 38. b. 

1 sey tierz] that is with two 
^nete] clean. 

^fyngeW] fynget. Add. MS. 25,341. 
^ ars] burnt Arcoun is med 
above in chap. Izxi. for arson. 



kynde that the lawe may ioyndre, thanne be he that Add, MS. 
his lawe hath wagyd resceyved in court to doon his ' 
lawe hym self the thrydde, and in the same inaner a 
zenst every- other straunger. And it is to wittyn thrft 
this ordre to bryngen x. men in lawe waged in the 
fourme afomseid owyth not to ben usyd in ony plee, 
but oonly in the plee that is propyrly of dette with 

Also it is ord^yned that no baxter. of the forseid ixxvij. 
toun make non wastell, symnell, ne the ferst coket,^ of Sx- 
but zif * it be a bultell of Reynes, ne the secounde cokett, terys that 
but it be * a bultell of beuker, ne breed hool of whete, » ^e^Se 
but of good whete and heyl ; * and that no baxter ^J^- 
medle bren with brede of all maner corD. And zif ony 
baxter wil makyn white breed, thanne make he after* 
the assise, after that the sellyng of corn is ; and that 
he use non other bultell for wastell, symnell, ne for 
cokett than is seid aforn, for zif he do at the ferst 
tyme, be the bultell brend by the pyllorye ; att the 
secunde tyme the bultell brend and the baxter amer- 
cyed ; att the iij. tyme the bultell bi*end and the 
baxter awarded to the pyllorye ; att the iiij. tyme* be 
the • bultel brent and the baxter forswere the craft 
[in the seid toun of Gippeswych] a zer and a day. 
And zif ony baxter be atteynted that he medele bren * 
with other '' maner com, be he punysshed be the same 

^ wcutell, symnell, ne the ferst coket"] 
The order of the words does not 
correspoDd to the quality of the 
hread. Symnel is supposed to haye 
been bread of the best quality; 
wastel was inferior to symnel, but 
superior to cocket bread. 

2 but zif] unless by bultel of 
Rheiins or of Reunes. The name 
Reynes may signify either of these 
cities, but Rennes is probably here 
intended, as the bultel was a bulting 
cloth or a bolting- sieve for flour, 
and Rennes was famous for its 
manufactures of fine linen. 

' but it fre] unless bultel of beu- 
ker. The Editor is unable to ex- 
plain the word beuker, unless it be 
meant for a proper name, e.g. Beau- 
caire, in Provence, -famous for its 
annual fairs. 

* Acy/] whole. 

^ make he after'] '' make he yt 
*^ after the assise, and selle he yt for 
" that yt is " would be the correct 

• bren"] bran. 

7 with other"] this should be " with 
« brede of all maner com," as above 
in line 12. 



Add. MS. meyme la peyne e par meyme la penaunce, qil serreyt 
'^' ' pur lassise de peyn enfreynte. E quant al assise de 
peyn, si le pestour seyt trovee en deffaute, seyt il a la 
primere feze, e a la secunde feze; e a la tierce feze 
amercye solom la quantite de soun trespas, e a la 
f. 38. b. quarte feze seyt il aiugge au piUorie, e a la quinte 
feze foriurge il le mester un an e un jour. E qe ches- 
cun pestour en la dyte vyle use soun mester en certeyn, 
cast asaver les uns facent gafitel, primer ooket, e trayt^ 
taunt soulement ; e les uns symenel e trayt ; les uns 
peyn enter de furment ^ e ' secund coket ; e les uns 
peyn enter de furment e peyn de tutz manere de ble. 
E si nul pestour en la dite vyle en autre manere le 
mester use^' seyt il a la primere feze amercye a xij. 
deniers, a la secunde a ij. sols, e a la tieroe feze a iiij. 
sols, si il eyt dunt payer, ou foriurge le un mester e 
lautre demi an, e ja le meyns seyt il puny pur lassise 
de peyn enfreynte sil seyt trove en defeiute. 

Capo. Ensement est ordene des braceresses,' qe apres le 
Delirace- ^^7^ ^® Seynt. Michel, quant hom peot aver bon brays 
resses, &c. de novel greyn, qe les baillifs de la dyte vyle faoent 
cryer lassise de cerveyse par my la vyle solom ceo qe 
la vente de ble serra. E si nul ou nule seyt trove qU 
brace ou vende countre lassise e la crye, seyt il pimy 
par les ditz baillifs e par la court pur le trespas solom 
la fourme contenue en le statut de la marchancye nostre 
seygnur le rey, e solom ley e usage du reaume. 

1 trayi ] a eoane brown bread 
made of onbolten meal, also called 

^ tn. autre manere le mester tue^ 
The English yersion "use other 
*' myster '* seems warranted by the 
subseqaent passsge ** foijurge le on 
** mester et Tautre,'* forswear the 
one and the other myster. 

' braceretaes2 The bnsiness of 

brewing was in the hands of females 
down to the dose of the xrth cen- 
tury, at which period Fleet Street, 
in London, was tenanted almost 
wholly by breweresses or alewives 
and by makers of felt caps. See 
Introduction to the Liber Albus of 
the City of London, by H. T. Riley, 
M.A., 1859, p. Iz. Hops were not 
during this period used for beer. 



peyne that he shulde ben for the syse of the breed Add. MS. 
brokyn ; for zif the baxter be foanden in the defaute ' ' 
of brekyng of the assise, thanne be he the ferst tyme, 
the secunde, and the thrydde tyme amercied after the 
quantyte of the trespas, and att the ferthe tyme awarded 
to the pillorye, and att the fifte tyme forswere he the craft 
for a zer and a day. And that every baxter in toun afor- 
seid use his craft in 'certayn, that ia to wittyn, summe 
makyn wastel^ ferst coket, and trayt all oonly; and 
summe symnel and trayt ; and summe breed of hool 
whete and breed of all maner of com. And zif ony 
baxter in the forseid toun vse other myster, be he 
amercyed at the ferst tyme xij. d., at' the secunde tyme 
ij. 8., at the thrydde tyme iiij. 8,, zif he have wherof to 
payen it, or ellys for swere he bothe mysteres half a 
zere, and nevertheles be he punysshed for the assise 
of breed brokyn zif he be founden in the defaute. 


Also it is ordeyned of brewsteres, that after Michel- ixxviy. 
messe moneth, whan men may have barlych ^ of newe qG?"^'-' 
greyn, that the ballyves of the forseid toun doo cryen 
assize of ale by all the toun, after that the sellyng of 
corn be. And zif ther be founden ony that selle or 
brewe a zeyns the assise and the crye, be he punysshed f. 28. b. 
be the forseyd ballyves and by the court for the tres- 
pas, after the fourme conteyned in the statute of mer- 
chaundise ^ of oure lord the kyng, and after lawe and 
usage of the same toun. 

1 barlych ] The French word 
"brays" seems to imply barley 
prepared for brewing, in other 
words "malt." 

^ statute of merchauruUse'] Statute 
of merchants, 13 Edw. I. st. 3. 



Add. MS. 

De vyn 

f. 39. 

Item use est en la dyte vyle qe les baiUifs de raeyme 
la vyle de au en an, en la sesoun entre veuz vyn e novel, 
preygnent ovesqes eux des meuz vavez ^ de la vyle, e qil 
aillient cercher totes les tavemes e tutz les celers en la 
dite vyle, auxibien des privez com des estraunges, e par 
serement des bons e leans gentz, taverners e autres, e par 
lour avisement demeyne sourveyent e tastent tutz les 
vynz qil troverunt en la dyte vyle en taveme ou en 
eeler. E sil treovent nul qe seyt corumpu e perillous a 
beyvre pur cors de horn me, ou par medler ovesqes novel 
vyn, meyntenaunt saunz aver regard a nuly persone 
facent les ditz baillifs saker hors^ meyme eel vyn jesqes 
en le haut estree,^ e illeokes en comune veue des gentz 
dampner, e le tonel ou la pipe, ou quel vessel qe ceo 
seyt enfouncer ; e la vessele demeorge a les bailli& pur 
lour fe. 

Cap^ Item ordene est qe nul en la vauntdite vyle ne yende 

Demesores^® achate par mesure de ble, vyn, cerveyse, ne de autre 

de la vyle. lycour, ne par aune, ne par peys, sil ne seyent affeorez* 

^ ' par lez estandardz de la vyle e sealeez du seal de la vyle, 

cest asaver les mesures qe pount e dey vent merche^ de 

seal porter. E si nul en la dyte vyle autre mesure ou 

autre peys use, seyt il grevousement amercye, si de ceo 

seyt atteynt. E qe les baillifs del avauntdite vyle, quel 

houre qil veolent, preygnent par my la vyle totes les 

mesures, aunes^ e peyes, e les facent affeorer e assayer 

qe eles seyent bones e leles,* issi qe nule faucyne seyt 

fete ne usee en teux manere des mesures en esclaundre 

de la vyle, ne au damage du people. 

' meux ifavez2 most substantial, 

^ saker hors] draw off. 

^ estree"] street. Haut- estrete is 
found in Kelham. 

* affeorez] AiToerer occurs in the 
Liber Albus of the City of London 

in the sense of valuing or assessing. 
Afforare is the Latin equivalent. 
The measures were to be verified 
by the standards of the town. 

' merche] mark of the seal. 

^ lelta] loyal. 



Also it is used in the forseyd toun that the ballives Add. MB. 
of the same toun, from zer to zere, in the same toun, 25,011. 
in the sesoun byfcwixen elde wynes and newe, shul [ixxxij.] 
takyn with hem of the best vynteres ^ of the toun, J^^ ^^ 
and they shal goon and serchyn of all the tavemys and wyn co- 
the oelerys of the toun, as weel of privy as of straunge, "*P*- 
and by other* of good and trewe tavemeres and of 
other men, and by avysement of hem self, they shal 
tasten all the olde wynys that they fyndyn in the toun 
in taveme or in celer. And zif they fyndyn ony wyn 
that be corrupt and perlous to diynkyn for mannys 
body, or for to raedelyn with newe wyn, a non with 
out havyng reward to ony persone, the ballives of the 
toun shal doo shakyn out that wyn in the hie strete, 
and there in comoun sight of men dampnyn ' the tunne 
or the pipe, and the vessell shal [duelle] to the baillifs 
for her fee. 

Also it is ordejnaed that non in the forseid toun of Izxx. 
Gippeswich beie be mesure com or wyn, ale, or other fot^*^^'^ 
lycour, ne by elle ne by peys, but it be ferst aferyd by Mwyen 
the standardys, and seled with the seel of the same toun ; the toune. 
that is to wittyn of mesoures that mown and owyn 
here marke and seel.^ And zif ony in the forseyd toun 
use other medour or other peys, be he [grevously] 
amercied zif he be ther of atteynted. And that the 
ballyves of the forseid toun, what tyme that they 
wyllyn, moun takyn raesures, elles, and weyghtes, and 
doon hem [valued and] assayen which ben,'' so that non 
fiEklshed be doon in the forseyd toun of Gippeswich 
among such manor of mesurys in escla^ndre of the toun, 
ne of damage to the pepele. 

^ vynUrei\ This is a deviation 
from the French text. 

* " by oth " should be here read. 

' dampnjfn\ condemn. 

^ marke and aeet] mark of the 

* which ben] The French text 
requires the words ** that they ben 
« good and loyal, so that, &o." 




f. 41. 


Add. MS. Item do ceux qe sunt appelez wyndragheres au cay 
S5,oi2. ^j^ ig^ ^Hq Yyi^ gg^j ordene, qe le mestre e le sovereyn 

chevinteyn ^ do eel office eyt desonth luy xij, a oel 
office fere^ pur les queux il voudra respoundre a gynder 
les vyns qe venent a la dyte vyle, e pur herberger* 
les, e a fere ceo qe a eel office appert, issi qe nul autre 
ne se medle entre ceux de ^el office saunz lour cunge, 
si ne seyt en defaute de eux meymes. E fet asaver, 
qil deyvent prendre de chescun tonel de vyn pur le 
gynder e pur berberger le sour meyme le cay ou il 
est gynde, e pur coudier le tonel, ij. d. E si le tonel 
seyt herberge en celer ou en taverne joygnaunt a meyme 
le cay qe passe le real chemyn, ij. d. 6b, E pur tutz 
autres luz plus forejna, iij. d E pur cbescun tonel de 
vyn qe seyt ^a burgeys de la dite vyle charge sour 
carette e descharge en meyme la vyle, ij. d, ob. E si 
le tonel seyt descharge en celer par fund, iij. d» E de 
chescun tonel de vyn qe seyt a burgeys denzeyn lottaunt 
e escotaunt a meyme la vyle, qe seyt charge e mene hors 
de la vyle, ij. d, De chescun foreyn burgeys qe ne 
seyt pas lottaunt ne escottaunt com peer e comuner,' e 
de chescun autre foreyn, iij. d, E bien se avyse le 
chevinteyn dil office avauntdyt qe les xij. qe serunt de 
south luy a fere meyme le office, qil seyent teux qe 
sachent e pount bien e sagement le dit office fere ; kar 
si nul tonel de vyn perice ou autre damage aveygne 
entre lour meyns par lour defaute, le dit chevinteyn 

' cheuinteyn'} principal, chieftain. 
Cheyesten and cheveteyne are forms 
of the same word. Cf.. Black Book 
of the Admiralty, pp. 294, 471. 

^ herberger] to store them. 
'^ peer e conanuner] See abore, 
chapter li. 



Also of hem that ben clepyd wyn diaweres at the Add. M& 
cay of the forseyd toun, it is ordeyned that the raaister f j?^?* 
and the soverayn cheyventan ' of that offys shal have of bere- 
undyr hym xij. to that offys to done, of which he shal ™®^* 
wyllyn answere, to gyen * the wynes that comyn to the 
forseyd toun, and for, to herberwyn hero, and to doo 
that longyth to her office, so that non other medele a 
monge hem of that offis with oute he leve, so that it be 
not put in the defaute of hem selff. Also they owyn 
to take of every tig:me wyn for to gyen it and to 
herberwyn it of that same cay [where it is hoisted, and 
to lay it down],ij. c?. And zif the tunne be herberwyd 
in celer or in taveme neygh joynyng the same cay, so 
that it passe the kynges weye, ij. d. oh. And for alle 
other led ferther ' thanne, iij. d. And for every tunne 
that ys a bur[g]eysys of the same toun chargyd on 
carte or * discharged in the same toun, ij. d. oh. And 
zif it be discherged in a depe celer, iij. d. And of a 
tunne that is [to] a bur[g]eysys [withinne] lottyng 
and scottyng [to the same toun, that be charged and] 
led out of the toun, ij. d. Of every foreyn burgeys that 
ys not lottyng ne skottyng as per and comoun.* And 
of every other foreyn, iij. d And wel avyse hym the 
cheftayne of the forseyd offys that the xij. men, the 
which shul ben undyr hym to doon the same office, 
that they ben suche that cunnyn and moun weel and 
wysely to doone the same office ; for zif ony tunne of 
wyn perysshe or ony other damage come to a mong 
her handys by her defaute, the forseyd cheventayn shal 

^ cheyventan] Cheyenteyii is the 
fonn naed in the Chronicle of 
Bobert of Gloucester, and also in a 
song of the Flemish insurrection in 
the reign of Edw. I., published by 
Mr. Wright in his Collection of 
Political Songs, p. 188. 

2 gyen] The French word " gyn- 
** der " is the same with " guynder," 

which is used in the Bolls of Ole- 
ron, ch. x., in the sense of hoisting 
up barrels at the unlading of ships. 
3 led/ertlier] for all other more 
distant places. 

* or] " and " should be here read. 

* peere and commouner] These 
terms are peculiar, as explained in 
ch. li. of the Domesday. 

M 2 


Add. MS. respoundra pur le damage. E eyt il soun recourir ver ceux 
25,012. qe le dit office unt enpris desouth luy pur lour de&ute 
sure si il voillie ver eux, solom ley e usage de la vyle. 
E si nul de eux sey t rebel e contrariaunt a soun sovereyn, 
issi qil ne voillie soun office fere auxi com afieert, eyt 
son sovereyn poer de enouster cely, e mettre un autre 
6Q soun lu pur qi il voudra respoundre. 

Des meoles,^ trusseux de draps, toDeux de weyde, 
barils de cendres, e tutes autres choses forpris vyns, 
ordene est qe les autres povres portours pussent entour 
f. 41. b. teux choses travaiUier e lour vyvre gaygner ovesqes 
les avauntditz xij. beremen. E qil preygnent de chescune 
meole ' pur le gynder, e pur asser la meole de denz 
mesoun ou de hors, j. d. E pur charger une meole 
blaunche iiij. d.^ pur meole grys iij. d. E si la meole 
seyt a un burgeys de la vyle denzeyn qe seyt per e 
comuner, e seyt cbargee e dischargee en meyme la vyle, 
seyt prys en meyme la manere. E si ele seyt chargee 
en la vyle, e nyent deschargee, adunkes ne seyt prys 
du dyt burgeys de un meole blaunche forkes iij. d,, e de 
une meole gris ij. d. 

Item de chescun tonel de weyde, pur le gynder j. d., 
e pur le charger j. d. oh. De chescun baryl de cendres, 
pur le gynder o6., e pur le charger une carrettee j. d o6. 
E pur chescune charettee des trusseux de draps, pur le 
gynder, e pur le charger, e pur le Iyer sour la carette, 
iiij. d. Pur chescun saake de leyne pur le gynder, 6b. 
De chescune manere de merz ' en bale ou en frael ou 
en menuz trusseux, qe ^ne' sunt pas gyndez, pur le 
charger e pur le Iyer sour carette, iij. d. Item de chescun 

1 mede9\ bales. MS. Add. 25,341. | > merz] merebandise. 
' meoW] bale. I 



answeryn for the harme ; and he shal have his recure Add. MS. 
a zens hem that han undyrtakyn the forseyd offys vndyr ^*»®^^" 
hym for her defiftute, zif he wil pursuyn to hem after 
the lawe and usage of the forseyd toun. And zif ony 
of hem ben rebelle and contraryoos to his soverayn^ so 
that he wil not doon his office as he oweth to doon, 
thanne his soverayn may put hym off, and put an other 
in his stede for which he wil answere. 

Of smal^ trussys of dothys, tunnes of woide,^ barell 
of syndres, and all other thynges oute takyn [piys] 
wynes, it is ordeyned that other power,' porturys or 
bererys, moun travaylyn among these thynges, and 
getyn her lyvyng with the forseyd bererys, and they 
takyn of every males ^ for to bryngyn it with ynne 
hous or wyth outen, a peay ; and for to chargyn on 
meole quyt* iiij., for grey iij. A And zif he be a flw- 
burgeys of the toun that is pere and comoun,® and be 
ladyn and onladyn in the same toun, be it takyn in the 
same maner. And zif it be ladyn in the toun, and not • 

onladyn, thanne be it takyn of the burgeys for oon 
meole quyte but ij. d.? and of on grey ij. d 

Off every tunne of wood ' for to ledyn j. A, and for 
to chargyn j. d 06. Of every barel of syndrys lor to 
bryngyn ob., and for to chargyn a cart j. d 06. For eche 
carte of trussys of doythis, for to bryngyn and for to 
ladyn it, and for to byndyn it on the carte, iiij. d. 
And for eche sak of wuUe for to brynge it, oh. Of 
eche maner merchaundyse in bale, or in &rdele, or 
in lasse trussys that ben not brought, for to ladyn 
and byndyn on the carte, iij. c2. Also of every sak 

^ MiaZ] meoles is tranalated bales 
in MS. Add. No. 25,341. 

3 wQidt\ woad, a 4>lant used for 
dyeing of a black colour. 

* p<noer'] poor. 

< males^ that is, bags or bales. 

* 9«fy0 " ▼bite," that is, of white 

' comoun'] commoaner. 

' hut iJ. dJ] ig. d. should be here 

^ wood] woad. 



Add. MS. saake de leyne porte dil Estgate, ou dil Nortbgate, ou 
25,012. ^Q autare lu en la vyle taunt loyns jesqes au kay, j. d. 6b. 
Dil Westgate ou dautre lu taunt loynz, ij. d. Item pur 
cbescun saake de leyne charge e descharge en la vyle, 6b, 
Item de chescun fees ^ de "ble, haranges, peyscoun, feer, 
e de autre chose portee du kay jesqes au marche de 
peyscoun ou aylliours en la vyle taunt loynz qua., e si 
plus loynz plus seyt paye solom^estimacioun d^ lu. Item 
pur yj. fees portez jesqes a la comere jadys Hughe Leu, 
ou a la mesoun Alisaundre Margarete,^ iuste le molyn 
qe est appele le Newe Melne, ou ailliours en la vile 
taunt loynz, j. d. Item pur viij. fees jesqes a la 
mesoun Baldri Horaud ou Hughe Davy, ou aylliours 
taunt loynz, j. d. Item pur x. fees jesqes a la mesoui) 
Roger le Mestre,' ou ailliours taunt loynz, j. d E si 
par cas aveygne qe vyns veygnent a divers kays de 
la dite vyle, e qe les avauntditz xij. beremen ne pount 
suffire a gynder e a herberger meyme les vyns auxi 
com fere deyvent, a dunkes preygne lour cheuenteyn 
f 42. a luy partye des portours en eyde de meyme les xij. 
beremen, issi qe marchauntz, privez e estraunges, pus- 
sent bien a covenablement estre servyz, payaunt a 
meyme les portours pur lour travayl auxi com il affiert 
solom ceo qe il y ad de eux numbre des persones. E 
bien se avysent les avauntditz xij. beremen e tutz les 
autres portours, qil seyent prestz a servyr a totes gentz, 
e a fere ceo qe a lour office appert. £ si defaute par 
rebelte* seyt trove en eux ou en nul de eux, ou qe 
nul de eux se alloygne par malice ou par feynte cause," 
par quey le people ne sejrt pas servy auxi com affiert 
a lour office, seyt celuy meymes en qi la defaute serra 

^fetM] a bundle, faBcia. Sack u 
used in Add. MS. 25,341. 

' AUsandre Margarete] One of 
the twentj-fonr burgesses sworn to 
re-compile the Domesday, p. 19. The 
name of Alexander Margery occurs 

in the list of town bailliflEs in the 
reign of Edw. II. 

' Roger U Mestre} The name of 
this bufgess appears in the list of 
haiilifis of the town two years before. 

* rebelte ] rebellite, rebellion. 



of wuUe born from the est gate, or the north gate. Add. MS. 
or from ony other ferre place of the toun to the *^'^^^' 
cay^j- d. ob,, from the west gate, or from ony other 
place BO ferre, ij. d. Also for every sak of wulle 
ladyn and unladyn [in the toun] ob. Also of every 
feez of come, heryng, fyssh, iryn, and of other thyng 
bom from the cay to the fyssh markett, or owher eUys 
in to the toun so ferre,^ for the ferthere that it be 
bom the more be payd 'after estimacioun of the place. 
Also for vj. fysshes * borne to Howe Lewys, corouner, or 
to the hous of Alisaundre Margaret near the mylle 
that is called the Newe Mylle, or eny place so ferre, j. d. 
Also for viij. fysshes bom to the hous of Baldry Horold 
or Howe Davy, or eny place so ferre, j. d. Also for x 
fyssh ' bom to the hous of Roger Maister or owher ellys 
so ferre, j. d. Also if it faile by cas that wynys comjm 
to divers cayes of the toun, and the forseid xij. bererys 
mown not suffysen to drawyn and to herberwyn the 
wynys as they weryn wont to doon, thanne shal her 
maister takyn to hym porturys in helpe of xij. beremen, 
so that merchauntz, privy and straunge moun weel and 
convenabely be seruyd, payeng the same portuiys for 
her trauayle after the nombre of personys. And aviso 
hem the xij. beremen of ^ alle tother porturys, that they 
ben redy for to servyn all other folk, and to doon that 
longeth to her office. And zif the defaute for rebelte 
be founden in hem or in ony of hem, or that ony of 
hem aloyne hym self by malice or by cause feyned^ 
Av^herthorugh the pepele is not servyd as it longeth to 
her office, he that in whom the defaute ys foimden, at 

^ ferre] "a farthing" should be 
inserted here, if the contraction in 
the French text is intended to de- 
note ** qnadrans," as is probable. 

^fyetkee ]," fees " should be here 

read instead of fysshes, as well as in 
the next following sentence. 

*Jys8h] "fees" shoold be here 

<o/] "and" should be read 



Add. MS. trove a la primere feze a^rde a la prisoun treys jours 
25,012. gg^jjj^' grace aver, e ala seconde feze viij. jours saunz 
grace aver; e a la tierce feze seyt il suspendu dil 
office denii aan, e a la quarte feze tut laan entere- 
ment. £ ensement se ayise bien le cheventeyn des 
avauntditz beremen qil eyt poleyns e autres choses 
qe appendunt a soun office, dunt le people peot estre 
servy ; kar si gentz seyent deservyz par defaute de ceo 
qe a luy appert trover, il seiTa tenuz a respoundre dil 
damage si la partye se veoyllie de luy pleyndre. E 
ensemcDt se aviso chescun portour, qil eyt saake ' e ceo 
qe appent a soua office, si il veoillie en la vyle de eel 
office vyvre. E si il ne se voillie de teu cbose 
purveyr, seyt il suspendu dil office. 

Ceo sunt les custumes apurtenauntz a la ferme le 
rey de la vyle de Gipp[ewyz] a prendre en meyme la 
vyle des dlverses marchaundises, qe venent de denz 
la fraunchise de la vyle a vendre des diverses choses, 
nomement de ceux qe. deyvent custume payer en la 
manere desoutb dite cest asaver. 

I. De chescun tonel ou pipe de vin, vinegre, cicer, esyl, 

dilkay. ® ^^ ^^^^ autre manere de Hcour qe vyent de denz 
la fraunchise de la dite vyle a vendre, seyt piys ii. rf. 
a la custume le rey ; de chescun tonel ou pipe de meel 
oyllie oynt e de teu manere de marchaundise, ij.rf. 
E sil seyt vendu par galouns, a dunkes seyt pris de 
chescuns c. galouns, iiij. d, E de meyns meyns solom 
la quantite. De chescun baryl de pyz ou de jemme,* 
j: d, De chescun tonel de cerveyse carye ou mene hors 
^ de la dite vyle dever la meer ou deveer les partyes 
de la meer a vendre, iiij. d., cest asauer si le tonel 
seyt achate par eame.' E si le tonel seyt achate par 

1 aaake] saak, a bag. Kelliam. | ' eame] computation. Add. M8b 
>jemme] resin or tar. | 25,341. 



the ferst tyme he shal be put in prisoun [thre dayes] Add. MS. 
with oute grace ; the secunde tyme viij. dayes ; the iij. ^5,oii. 
tyme he shal be suspended of his office half a zer ; 
the iiij. tyme for alle zerys. Also avyse hym weel the 
maister of the beremen that [he have] the levours* I'as. b. 
and other thynges [that] longyn to his office, that the 
pepele may ben serued : for zif folk ben unserved of 
thynges that hym longeth to fyndyn he shal answere 
of harme and damage zif the partye will pleynyn. Also 
avise hym eche portour that he have a sak, and that 
that longeth to his offys zif he wil be that offys lyvyn 
in the toun. And zif he wil not purveyen hym of such, 
be he suspended of his office. 

These ben the custumys longyng to the ferme of the 
kyng of the toun of Gippeswych to takyn in the same 
toun of divers merchaundysys that comyn with ynne 
the fraunchise of the toun for to sellyn^and of divei^ 
thynges, and namely of thynges that owyn to payen 
custum in the maner vndyrseyd, that ys to wittyn. 

Off every tunne or pipe of wyn, vynegre, syther, i- 
eysel,* and of all other maner of licoures that comyn th?k^.*^ 
with ynne the fraunchise of the forseid toun to be selde, 
be takyn to the custum of the kyng, ij. d. Of ^very 
tunne or pipe of hony or of oyle [or ointment],* or of 
such maner merchaundyse, ij. d. And if it be seld be 
galounnys, than be it takyn of every c. galouns, iiij. d. 
And of lasse lasse after the quantite. Off every barell 
of pych or of terre, j. d. Off every tunne of ale caryed 
or led out of the toun to the see or toward the partyes' 
of the see for to be sold, iiij. c?., that ys to wittyn zif 
the tunne be seld by ame. But zif it be bought by 

^ levoura] i.e. poles to act as 

^ eysei ] Esylle is rendered by 
Mr. Waj, in the Fromptorinm Far- 

Tulorum, as aeetom, which is again 
rendered, ayselle, or bytter wine. 

' ointiMnt ] tallow. Add. MS. 



Add. MS. mesure, a dunkes seyt pris de chescun c. galouns, iiij, d. 
25,012. jy^ chescun tonel de weyde, ij. d, De chescun baryl 
de cendres de weyde,^ ij. d, De chescun tonel ou pipe de 
arguel,' coperose ;' e de autre teu manere de marchaun- 
dise, iij d ; e si ceo seyt arguel, coperose, ou autre teu 
manere de marchaundise qe seyt vendue par centeynes^ 
a dunkes seyt pris de chescune oenteyne, iiij. d. De 
chescune tonel ou pipe de cardoun/ ij. d. De chescun 
rundelete ou bastoun de meyme la marchaundise, oh. 
Item de chescun trussel ou barde de drap qe vyent au 
dit kay lye des cordes seyt pris iiij. d, De chescun 
fardel deslye, \y d. E si le trussel ou la barde ou le 
fardel seyt deslye, e partye de ceo seyt vendu en la 
vyle, adunkes seyt la custume prise par les pieces solom 
la fourme contenue en le marche de drap. Item de 
chescun trussel ou barde de canevaz lye des cordes, iiij. d. 
' E de chescun fardel deslye, ij d. De chescun a de canevaz 
vendu par c, iiij. d. Item des draps de Coggeshale, Mal- 
doun, Colecestre, Sudbery, e des autres diups qe sunt 
achatez en le payis, e qe venent en la dite vyle en 
meyns de marchauntz pur passer au kay ver les partyes 
de la meet, lequel qe meyme les draps seyent en trussel 
ou en barde ou en fardel, lye ou deslye, ou en tonel ou 
hors de tonel, seyfc la custume le rey de teux draps 
issi achatez en le foreyn paye par les pieces pur le 
mener hors.du reaume ; cest asaver de chescune piece 
de duble laour, qe lem appele tomenneshete,'' j. d E de 
chescune piece de mendre laour, qe lem appele oman- 
neshete,^ oh, Mes si teux manere des draps, com 
avaunt sunt nomez, seyent achatez en meyme la vyle 


^ de w€yd€\ These words seem 
to be redandant. 

^arguel] Argoil occnrs in the 
Liber Albas of the Citj of London, 
in coi^nnction with copper, tin, &c. 
Some writers interpret it to mean 
cream of tartar, others eixplain it as 
being potter's clay. 

* cop<roff«] lliis word if trans- 

lated " vitriola" in the Promptoiinm 

^ cardoun ] probably chardon, 
teazel for carding wool. 

' Umenneahete ] tomennessette 
below, p, 196. 

* omaniiMAete] omannessete be- 
low, p. 196. 



mesore, thanne be takyn of eyery c. galounnys, iiij. d. Add. MS. 
OflF every tunne of wod, ij. d. Off every barel of syn- ^*'^"- 
drys, ij. d. Of every tunne or pype of coprose ai^d of 
other such maner merchaundyse, ij. d. And zif it be seld 
by the hundred, custiim of every c., iiij. d. Off every 
tunne or pipe of wod,^ ij. d. Of every rundelet* [or 
basioun] of the same merchaundise, ob. Also of every 
trusse or pakke ^ of cloth that comyn to the cay 
boundyn ^¥ith cordys, iiij. d. Off every fardel un- 
boundyn, ij. d. And zif the trusse, pakke, or fardel be 
unboundyn, and part therof be seld in to the toun, 
thanne be the custum takyn by the peces after the 
fourme in the cloth market. Also of every trusse or 
pakke or cannevas boundyn with cordys, iiij. d. And 
of eche fardel unboundyn, ij. d. Of eche c. canvas seld 
by the c, iiij. d. Also of doth of Cogeshale, Maldon, 
Colchestre, Sudbury, and of other clothes that ben 
bought in the cuntre and comyn in to the toun iu to 
morchauntz handys for to pass from the cay to the 
partyes of the see, the which clothes be in trusse or in 
pakke or in fardel, boundyn or unboundyn, in tiinne 
or with oute tunne, be custoum of the kyng of swych 
clothes so bought in the market payd by the peces 
for to ledyn it out of the reme, that is to wittyn, of 
eche pece of doubele werke, that men clepeth to manny- 
shete, j. d. And of eche lasse ^ that men clepeth oon f. 26. 
mannys hete, ob. But zif such maner of clothes as 
ame afome nemyd be bought in the same toun [of 

^ wod ] cardoan is translated 
teazel in Add. MS. 25,841. 
' rttndeUt'] a small cask. 
> pakke] barde. Add. MS. 25,341. 

* eche /a«fe] " each piece of lasse 
'* werk^'' would be the correct 
translation of the French text 



Add. MS. de Gipp[ewyz], seyt de ceo la dreyte custume paye em 
26,012. Yq raarche, ou le drap est achate. E ja le meyns meyme 
les draps seyent mys en tonel pur passer au kay outre 
meer, seyt illeoqes paye par le tonel ij. c2. a la dite 
custume le rey. E ensement pur trussel • e pur barde 
lye des cordes^ iiij. d. ' E pur fardel deslye, ij. d. Item 
de chescun lest des leynes^ qe seyent a un soul mar- 
chaunt, viij. d, ; de demi lest iiij. d. E si meyns y eyt, 
adunkes seyt pris de chescun saake iiij. d.; e de chescun 
pokete iiij. d. Item de chescun lest des meoles, viij. d. ; 
de demi lest iiij. d. E si meyns y est qe demi lest, 
adunkes seyt pris de chescune meole j. d, De chescun 
lest des meyn meoles, iiij. d.; de demi lest ij. d. E si 
mejms y est qe demi lest, adunkes seyt prise chescune 
couple ob. t>e chescune piere qe est appele Slipston, 
ob. E de teux pieres nenz ne seyt pris par le lest. De 
chescun c. de fraunche piere e de neyre piere qe est 
appele ragston, iiij. d. De chescune piece de piere taillie 
de marbre, com de sarcutz,' covercles, croyz, pieres, 
a fountz,' e autres teux manere de pieres, ob, ; oest 
asaver dU vendour sil seyt custumer ; e autaunt dil 
akatour sil Bteyi marchaunt. De chescun c des morters, 
iiij. d. E si mejois y est, adunkes seyt pris de ches- 
cune dozeyne j. <I. De chescun mouncel ^ de piastre, 
pb. De chescune manere de marchaundise • ke vyent 
en bale, tfeyt pris par la bale iiij. d, £ si ceo seyt 
marchaundise qe seyt vendue e peysee par centeyne, 
com brasyl, alum, alemajindes, rys, e autre teu manere 
f. 43. b, de marchaundise, adunkes seyt pris par le c, iiij. d. Item 
de chescun frael des fyges, reysins, e de totes autres 
choses mys enfrael, seyt pris pur le frael ob, De ches- 
cun c. de greyne,^ demi marc. De chescune dozeyne de 
cordewane horde bale, iiii. d. De chescun millier de 

^ IcMt des ieyneB] A lait of wool 
was twelye taekB. 

3 tarcutz] coffins. Sarens, a se- 
pulchre. . kelham. 

> pierei afountz] fonts. 
^ mounc^ heap. Add. MS. 

* grejfne] grain. 



Gippewyz] the right custum of tho be payd in the Add. MS. 
mercatt ther the clothes ben bought And zif the same ^*'^^^' 
clothes ben put in tunne for to passen from the cay 
be zonde the see, be ther payd for the tunne ij. d to 
the custum of the kyng. And also for the trasse and 
for the pakke boundyn with cordes, iiij. d. And for 
the fardel unboundyn, ii. d. Also of every last of wulle 
that comyth to oon merchaunt alone, viij. d. ; and of 
half a last iiij. d. And zif that it be lasse, be takyn 
of every sak iiij. d. ; and of every poket, iiij. d Also 
of every last of meolys,^ viij. d, [of half a last, iiij. d] 
And zif ther be lasse than half a last, thanne be takyn 
of every meole j. d. Off eche last of lesse meolys, iiij. d. ; 
of half a last, ij. d. And zif ther be lasse thanne half 
a last, thanne be takyn of eche coupele, 6b. Of eche 
ston that ys depyd slikeston ' [o&.], and of suche stonys 
nothyng be takyn by the last . Off every c. of freston 
and of blak ston that is depyd raggeston, iiij.d Off 
every pece of ston entayle or marble,' as of thurwys, 
coverclys, crossys, stonys, or fnntys, and other sudi 
maner of stonys, oh. ; 8.* of the seller zif- he be custum- 
mer, and so mochel of the beyer zif he be merchaunt. 
Of eche c. of morter, iuj. d. And zif ther be lasse, be it 
takyn of eche doseyn yd. Of eChe mousel aplastre, oh. 
Of eche maner merchaundise that comyn in bale, be it 
takyn for the bale iiij. d. And zif it be such maner 
merchaundyse that be seld and weyen by the c, as 
brasyl'e,'^ alom, almondys, rys, or other such maner 
merchaundyse, for every c, iiij.d Also for every firael 
fygges, reyseyns, and of aU other thynges put in frael, 
for the frael, oh. Of eche c. greyn, half a marc. Of every 
doseyn of cordewayn out of bale, iiij.d. Of eche ml. of 

1 meobff] bales, Add. MB. 25,841. 

' sUkeaton] SiUcstone is probablj 
the modern name of this stone. 

\or marhle\ *'of every piece of 
** stone wTonght of marble " would 
be nearer' the French text 

* «.] that ys to wittyn. 

^ hrtuyT] Probably a wood nsed 
for dyeing of a bright red colour, 
said to be so called from braise or 
red-hot coals. • 



Add. MS. feer de Espaygne vendu par millier, iiij. d.;ede ches- 
' ^' cun quintal vendu par sey, j. d, De chescun c. de bac 
iren/ iiij. d. De chescun c. de feer de Nonnandyei 
iiij. d. De chescune summe de feer velu, ij,d. De 
chescun karre * de plom, viij. d, ; de chescun fotmel,* j. c?. 
De chescun c. de teym, arrem,* e de quyure; iiij. d, De 
chescun baryl de ascer,' ij. d. De chescune garbe • de 
ascer vendue par sey, quadrans dil akatour. De ches- 
cun fees de ascer vendu par sey, obole. De osemund ^ 
seyt la custume prise en mayme la manere com de 
ascer. De chescune pece oure ^ de arrem, latoun, ou de 
quyure, seyt pris quadrans. 

Item de chescun millier de blaunkes de veyr,' ij. 8. ; 
de demi millier, xij. d. E si meyns y eyt qe demi 
millier, adunkes seyt pris de chescun tymber iiij. d, 
De chescun millier de popel strendlinges e de rotes, ; de demi millier, vj. c?. E si meyns y eyt qe 
demi millier, adunkes seyt pris de chescun tymber ij. d 
De chescun c. des peals .lannes ou pelees passaunt horde 
terre, en sarpeUers ou hors de sarpellers, iiij. d, De 
chescun c. des peals ayguelyns, bogee, conyns, gopyls, 
chatz, e des autres teux manere des peals passauntz hors 
de terre, en bale ou horde bale, iiij. d. E si teu ma- 
nere de peals seyent venduz au kay ou aylliours en la 
vyle par centeynes, adunkes seyt pris de chescune cen- 
teyne iiij. d. Item de chescun lest de quyrs de vaches 
ou des chyvals, viij. d, ; de demi lest, iiij. d, E si meyns 

> bac iren"] wrought iron. 
' harre'] A charre of lead con- 
tained thirty pigs. 

* fotmel] A fotmel or pig of 
lead contained seventy pounds, but 
the measure varied in weight in 
different localities. 

* arrem"] airain, brass.' 
^ aacer'] acier, steel. 

* garbe"] a sheaf. 

7 Osmund] a kind of ore or iron 
stone. Cowell. 

* pece oure] piece of ore. 

' blaunkes de veyr] a spotted for 
of the ermine or squirrel kind. Yair, 
as a fur, is represented in heraldry, 
the colours of the field being argent 
and the bells or spots being axore, 
or vice versa. 



yryn of Spayne, iiij. d., zif it be seld by the ml. Of -A^dd. MS. 

eche quintale seld by the self, j. d. [Of eche c. of bac ' 

yryn, iiij. d] Of eche ml of yryn of Ncfrmandye, iiij. d. 

Of eche sum me of eld yryn ij. d Of eche carre of lede, 

viij. d. ; of eche fotmel, j. d. • [Of eche c. of tin, brass, 

and of copper, iiij. d] Of ech barell of bras,^ ij. d. 

Of eche garbe of bras • seld bye hym self, gtwx.* [from 

the beyer]. Of eche fez of brasse seld by the self, ob. 

Of Osmond be the costum takyn as of brasse, of eche 

pece of ore brass, laten, or copper be takyn quadrans. 

Also of eche ml. of qwii of grene, ij. s, ; of half 
a ml., xij. d. And zif ther be lasse thanne half a ml., 
thanne be takyn of eche tymbnr iiij.d Of eche mL 
pople stranglyng ' and of wheels, xij. d, ; of half a ml., 
"vj. d. And of lasse, of eche tymbur ij. d. Of eche c. 
wnlle skynnys or pealed passing outland, in sarpeller * or 
out of sarpeler, iiij. d Of eche a of lambrys skynnys, 
bogee,* conyns,® foxis, cattyn, and of alle other maner t 26. Ik 
skynnes passyng out of the lend, in bale or out of 
bfJe, iiij. d And zif such maner of skynnys ben seld 
at the cay or owher ellys in the toun by the c, of 
eche c, iiij. d Also of eche last of skynnes of net 
and hors, viij. d ; of halff a last, iiij. d [And zif ther 

* bras'] " steel " onght evidently to 
be read here and in the next tliree 
paragraphs in place of ** bras " and 
« brasse." 

' quadransl that is " a fiurthing.'' 

^ pople stranglyng] a species of 
far from the back of a squirrel. 

^ sarpeler] a sarplor or pocket of 
wool was half a sack, Cowell. 

* bogee] badger. 

* conyns] rabbits. 


Add. MS. y est qe demi lest, adunkes seyt pris de chescun daker * 
' iiij.d E si mejms y est de un daker, a dunkes seyt 
pris de chescun quyr obole. 

Item de chescun lest de haranges soor vendu par lest 
enter, iiij. d, dil vendour. E si meyns y est de un lest, 
adunkes seyt pris de chescun millier, obole. De ches- 
cun lest de haranges freys ou salee, iiij.d del vendour, 
horpris de ceux qe le peschent meymes. De chescun 
cent, de tutz manere de dur peyscun, ij. d. De chescun 
samoun, quadrans. De chescun quintal de baleyne, iiij. d, 

f. 44. Item de chescun cent de cire vendu par poys, iiij. d, 
E si ele seyt en &ael lye des cordes, seyt pris par le 
frael iiij. d. De chescune waghe * de formage, bure, e 
de su* vendue par sey, iiij.d. ^E si bure seyt mys 
en corce,* seyt pris pur la piece, ob/ De chescune 
waghe de meyme la marchaundise paoeaunt horde terre, 
en tonel ou hors de tonel, iiij. (2. 

Item de chescun cent de espez, bokelers, targes, e 
costz de eu, iiij. d. E si meyns y ey t, seyt pris solom 
la quantite, oest asaver dU vendour, e auxi dil akatour 
sil seyt marchaunt. De lege vidz corkel ne de teyle a 
treefes ne de welde seyt nule custume prise. De ches- 
cun cent de bord de Irelaunde ou de Estlaunde qe 
lem appele elyynges ou waynscot, ou de autre teu 
mauere bord, iiij. d De chescun cent de menu bord 
qe lem appele baryl bord ou shyngelbord, j.d. De 
chescun cent des avyrouns' auges, gates, e autre teu 
manere de marchaundise tayllie de merym,^ iiij. d. 

^ daAer'\ diker is the more nsoal 
foim. It ocean in the Inquisition 
taken at Qoinboroogh, 49 £d. III., 
recorded in the Black Book of the 
Admiralty, p. 140. A diker of 
hidea was half a score. 

* waghe] A wey or weigh of cheese 
contained two hmdied and fifty- 

six pounds ayoirdapois. 9 H. VI. 
ch. viii. 
' de ««] lard. 

* corce] bark or skin. 

^ avyrouna] oars, tronghs, and 
bowls. Add. MS. 25,341. 

* tayttie de merym} cut out of 


be lasse thanne half a last, thanne be takyn of eche Add. MS. 
dagyr iiij. d] And zif ther be lasse thanne a dagyr, ^^'^^^* 
thanne be takyn of eche skyn, ob. 

Also of eche last of red heryng^ seld by the last 
to gydyr, iiij. d. of the seller ; and zif ther be lasse 
thanne the last, thanne of eche ml. ob. Of eche last 
of heryng, fressh or salt; iiij. cZ. of the seller, saf of 
hym that fysshyn it hem self. Of eche hundred of 
all maner of hard fyssh, ij. d. Of eche samon, j. d} 
Of eche quintal of balayn,' iiij. d 

Of eche c. wax seld by peys, iiij. d And zif it be in 
frael bounden with cordys, for the frael iiij. d Of eche 
weye of chese buttyr seld by the self, iiij. d. And zif 
the buttyr be put in corce, be takyn for the pece, ob. 
Of eche weye off the same merchaundyse passyng out 
of the toun, in tunne or out of tunne, iiij. d 


Also of eche hundred of swerdys, bokeleres, dagardys,'* 
[coats of mail],^ and such maner of merchaundyse, 
iiij. d ; [and zif ther be lasse, be takjn after the quan- 
tite, that ys to wittyn of the seller, and also of the 
beyer zif he be raerchaunt]. Of mylk corkel ne of til 
be take non custum. Of eche cent, of horde of Irlond 
or of Estlond, that men clepyth eluying * or waynscot, 
or of other such maner bord, iiij. d. Of eche cent, lasse 
bord that men clepeth barel bord or shyngyl bord, j. d. 
Of eche cent, herouns, gees, dookys, and other such 
merchaundyse [cut out of timber], iiij. d Of eche xij. 

1 last of red heryng'] The last 
was twenty thousand. Haring sor 
ocean in Liber Custumarom, p. 192. 
Sor is from the old French word 
sorir, to dry with smoke. 

^ salmon j.d,"] The French text 
has quadrans, a farthing, which is 
mentioned below as the custom of 
the fish market* 

^ quintal of balayn'] The fish 

here meant is probably a small 
kind of whale. See Black Book of 
Admiralty, p. 152. A quintal con- 
tained 100 pounds. ** Quantum 
** Delphinis balana Britannica ma- 
** jor.'* Juvenal, Ix. 14. 

* dagardys] targets. 

' coats ofmaiQ So translated in 
Add. MS. 25,341. 

« eluyng'] elvyng, eaying. 




Add. MS.. De chescune douzaine de chapeux, j.d. De chescune 
85,012. j^^£jg ovesqes scaltreen ^ qe vyent a la vyle ou de denz 
la fraunchiae de meyme la vyle qe marchaandise meyne, 
iiij. d. De chescune nefe ovesqes bauns e beyles,* ij. d. 
De chescun batel ovesqes orloks,' j.d. De chescun batel 
ovesqes tolletz/ ob. De chescune flote des reys qe 
sunt sechiez sour sekke terre, iiij. d, De chescun ba- 
cun enter passaunt dever les partyes de la meer, ob. 
De chescune perne par sey, qua. De chescun chyval 
passaunt horde terre, iiij. c?. De chescun gemer de 
weyde, iiij. d. De chescun quarter de weyde mesure 
par comune mesure de la vyle, obole, cest asaver dU 
vendour. Item de chescun gemer de ble, oygnouns, autz, 
noyz, e autre teu manere de marchaundise en mesoun 
ou en nefes, iiij. d, E si les marchauntz payent pur 
lour gemers en mesouns ou en nefs, e meyme les biens 
seyent cariez a la nefe par bateux, adunkes ne seyt 
renz pris pur le batel ; mes si la nefe seyt chargee de 
hors la fraunchise de la vyle, e les marchaunts rienz ne 
payent pur le gemerage de meyme la nefe, a dunkes 
seyt pris pur chescun batel cariaunt les avauntditz 
f. 44. b. biens ver la nefe, ob. De chescune garbe ou summe 
des autz ^ ou cokayle/ ob. De chescun millier ou garbe 
des oygnouns venduz par teux parceles, qua., auxibien 
dil akatour sil seyt marchaunt, com dil jirendour. De 
chescun cent de gros seel vendu par centeyne, iiij.d. 
E si meyns y eyt qe seyt issi vendu par parceles, seyt 
pris solom la quantite, cest asaver dil vendour. De 
chescune waghe. de blaunke seel ^ vendu par luy, j. d. 

^ seaUreen'] Niefs de scaltres, and 
nieft oye scaltres, are mentioned in 
the Liber Albus, Introduction, p. 
xcYii. Mr. Riley coi^ectures that 
that they were vessels with decks. 

^ baufu e heylea] Beyles were 
hoops nailed to the sides of a vessel 
for the suoport of an awning. 

^ orlokM] rowlocks, in boats of 
superior sijEC. 

^ toUetz] thole pins, in a smaller 
kind of boat. 

' Wfighe de blaunke seeF] A wey or 
weigh contained 256 pounds avoir- 
dupois. It was a measure of bay salt 
in Lord Ck>ke*s time. 12 Coke's 
Report, p. 17. 



caponys, j. d Of eche ship [with scaltreen that comyn Add. M8. 
to the toun or with ynne the firaunchise of the same ^*»^^^' 
toun that bringyn merchaundise], iiij.cL Of a ship 
with [bauns and] beylys, ij. d. Of a bote with orlokys, 
j. d. Of a bote with thollyng, obole. Of eche flete 
of thyng^ that ben dreye vpoun the dreye lond, 
iiij. d. Of eche bakoon ' [entire passing towards the 
parts of the sea], obole. Of the flyche [by yt- 
self], quadrans. Of an hors passyng out of the lond, 
iiij. d Of eche quarter of wood * met by the comoun 
mesure [of the toun], ob. of the seller. Of eche gemer * 
of wood, iiij. d. Also of eche gemer of come, onyouns, 
[garlic,] walnottes, and other such manor merchaundyse, 
in house or in shoppe,'^ iiij. d. And zif the merchauntz 
payen for her gemers in housys or in shoppys, and 
the same goodys ben caryed to the shipp by botys, 
[thanne] no thyng be takyn for the bote ; but zif the 
ship be chargyd out of fraunchise, and the merchauntz 
payen not for the garnerage ^ of the same ship, thanne 
be takyn of every bot caryeng the 'forseid goodys to- 
ward the ship, ob. Of eche chef or summe ^ of garlic 
or cocayle, ob. Of eche ml. of onyouns seld by the 
passelle/ qv/i [as well of the beyer zif he be mer- 
chaunt as of the seller]. Of eche c of gret salt seld 
by the c, iiij. c2. And zif ther be lasse [that be so 
sold by parcels], be takyn after the quantite, [that is 
to say] of the seller. Of eche weye of whit salt [sold] 


^ ^R^] for each float of peti. 
The word reja signifies nets. 

' bakoun] the entire hog. 

' quarter of wood] weyd, a plant 
for dyeing a black oolour. 

* gemer] store. 

^ shoppe] ** shippe " would be the 
more correct translation, both here 
and in the next following sentence. 

^ garnerage] storage. 

" chef or euwme] sheaf. 

^ by the paeselle] by such parcels. 

N 2 



Add. MS. De chescun baryl de estorgoun [ij. d,]. Item de chescune 
2i5,oi2. ^j.^^^ f^pj.^ Jq^q q chargee de vyn, meoles/ packes, ou 

de autre marchaundyse au dyt kay ou en autre cer- 
teyn lu ou ]a eustume de ceo seyt apurtenaunt au kay, 
seyt pris ij. d, De chescune carette desferre, j. d. De 
charge de chyval, ob. De charge de homme, quadrans. 
De ciuere* chargee, qtva, De chescune carette ferree 
chargee de carboun de meer,' j. d, De chescune carette 
desferre chargee de meyme la marchaundise, obole. De 
carbouns ne de foUeriserthe rien ne seyt pris pur charge 
de chivai. 

II. De chescun drap de colour de outre meer, iiij. d. 

inforo** De chescun drap de Raye,* ij. d. Edes draps de colour 
pannorum. de Beverle ou de Nichole^ e des autrea teux draps 
semblables seyt la eustume prise auxi com des draps 
de outre meer. De draps de Coggeshale, Colecestre, 
Maldoun, Sudbery, e des autres teux draps Dengle- 
terre de duble laour, qe lem appele tomennesette, seyt 
pris de chescun drap vendu par sey, j. d,, cost asaver 
de ceux qe deyvent eustume payer. De chescune pece 
de drap de launge teyle, qe lem appele omannessete, 
obole. E de chescune piece trenchee de meyme teu 
drap qe pas j. aunne, e qe seyt vendu pur vj. d. ou 
pur plus, seyt prys autaunt com pur la piece entere. 
E si la piece contyent j. aunne ou meyns, e seyt vendue 
pur, j. d. ob., adunkes seyt pris de cele piece qua. De 
chescune piece de lynge teyle,® entere ou trenchee, qe 
seyt vendue pur, ij. d- ob, ou plus, seyt pris qua. De 
canevaz autre si. De chescun fardel de drap de duble 
laour, qe lem appele tomennessete, karye, sour chivai e 

' ^ meoUt'] BCales was a kind of 
bag or mall. 

' ciuere"] Civiere is probably 
meant, which Bescherelle describes 
as *'e8p^ de petit brancard en 
usage poor le transport des &r- 
deaax k bras," Angl. a hand- 
barrow, or a track. 



^ carboun de meer'] sea-coal. 

* Raye] a striped cloth imported 
from Flanders and Brabant. 

^ Nichole'] the Erench synonym 
for Lincoln. 

* lynge teyle"] linen cloth. 



by. the selff, j. d. Of eche barell of sturgyoan, ij. d. Add. MS. 
Of eche carte [shodde] ladyn with wyn, [balesj pakkys, ^*»^^^' 
and other such merchaundyse [at the seid cay or other 
certaine place wher the custum therof longybh to the 
cay, be takyn] ij. d. Of eche carte shood ^ with yryn, 
j. d Of eche hors lode, ob. ; a mannys lode, qua. ; a 
hand barrow lode, a farthing. Of eche carte shodde 
ladyn with colys [of the see], j. d. Of a carte not 
shodde ladyn with the same, 06. Of colys ne of ful- 
lerys erthe [be] nothyng [takyn] for the hora charge. 

Of eche cloth of colour of be zonden the see, iiij. d. 5. 
Of eche cloth of Kay, ij. d. Of clothys of colour of Be- S™h" 
verlie or of Lincoln,' or of other swich clothys lj'k,be mw^Jtett. 
custum takyn as of clothes of be zonde the see. Off 
clothes of Coggeshale, Colchestre, Maldon, Sudbury, and 
of other such clothes of Yngelond of doubde werk [that 
they call tomennesette], for eche cloth, j. c?., [that is to 
wittyn of those that owen to pay custum. For eche pece 
of cloth of longe webbe, that they call omannessete, 06.] 
Of eche pece [cut of the same] cloth that passyth an 
ellyne, and that be seld for vj. [d] or for more, be takyn 
as for alle the pecys to gedyr ; and zif the pece helde an 
elle [or lasse, and be] seld for ij. d, ob. or more, [thanne 
be takyn for that pece] qua. [Of eche pece of lyns web 
hool or cut that be seld for it d. ob. or more, be takyn 
qua."] Of cannevas lyk.* Of eche fardel of cloth of [dou- 
bele werk, that they call] to a mannys sete^ caried on a 
hors [and discharged and shewn to be seld], ij. d. Of 

^ skood ] " not shodde with 
" yryn" would be the correct 
translation. '^Desferree" is used 

in the sense of " not shodde " in a 
subsequent sentence. 
' ly/t] that is the like custom. 



Add. MS. descbarge e mustre a vendre^ ij. d. E de chescun fardel 
' ' de drap qe lem appele omannessete karie sour chival 
qe seyt descharge e mustre a vendre, j. d, De chescun 
fardel de drap de duble laour ou de mendre laour qe 
seyt porte au doos de homme^ seyt pris a la meyte^ 
de taunt com de charge de chival. De chescune ca- 
f. 46. rette qe vyent en la dite vyle chargee de teu manere 
de drap, e qe seyt deschargee pur mettre a vente, seyt 
pris, iiij. d, De linge teyle ou de canevas chargee sour 
charette ou sour chival ou au doos de homme, seyt 
pris la meyte de tieiunt de custume com deyt estre 
pris de launge teyle com avaunt est dyt. De chescun 
surcoote ou cote tabbard, mauntel, chape, ou autre ma- 
nere de drap tayllie, qe seyt vendu par luy, qua. De 
chescune autre marchaundise vendue en meyme le 
marche, ou en lu appurtenaunt a meyme eel marchee, 
pur ij. d, oboie e plus, seyt prys qua. pur la custume 
le rey. 

Item de cannue, dunt la custume est . appurtenaunt 
au dyt marchee de drap, seyt pris de chescune charette 
chargee, j. d. ; de charge de chival, obole ; de charge de 
homme, quadrans. E de quanke est vendu pur ij. d. 
obole, seyt pris quadrans. 

De chescune charette, de peyscoun ou de haranges qe 
vyent en meyme le marchee a vendre, ij. d. De charge 
de chival, obole. De charge de homme, quadrans. De 
ciuere, quadrans. De chescun porpeys, j. d. De chescun 
samoun, qua. De chescun baryl de esturioun' e ba- 
leyne seyt la custume prise auxicom au cay. 

De chescune charettee de lejnie, peaux launes, quyrs 
de vaches ou des chivaus,* ij. d. De charge de chival, 
obole. De charge de homme, quadrans. E de ceo qe 
est vendu pur ij. d. obole, seyt pris quadrans. 



in foro 

in fbro 

' meyte] moitie. 

3 M/vrioun] Bturio, a sturgeon. 

' chivaus] chevaux, horses. 


doth of oon mannys 8ete, j. d Of eche fardel of doth Add. MS. 
[of doubele werk or lasse werke that be caried] on a 25,011. 
mannys bak, be takyn [half as mochel] as for an hors 
charge. Of eche carte [that comyth into the seid toun] 
ladyn with such maner cloth but for to sellyn, iiij. d. 
Of lyns web hool or cut, or of canvas ladyn in cart or 
on hors or on mannys bak be takyn [half as mochel of 
the custum as oweth to he takyn] of the longe webbe as 
it is seyd aforn. Of eche surcote cote, tabart^ meptil ^ 
[cape], or other maner of cloth schapyn^ seld by 
self, of eche such maner dper marchaundise seld by the 
the market itself, or in a place that longyth to the 
skme market, for ij. d. ob, and more, be takyn for 
custum of the kyng, qua, 

[Also of hemp, wher off the custum longyth to the 3. 
seid market of cloth, be takyn for eche carte charge, ^^p^ ^ 
j. d. ; of the hors charge, 06. ; of mannys charge, qua., 
and that is seld for ij. d, ob., qua.] 

Of eche carte with fyssh or heryng that comyth to 4. 
be seld, ij. d. Of the hors charge, ob., mannys charge theVssh" 
be it a qua. Of eche porpas, j. d. Of the samoun, qv^. markett. 
[Of eche baryl of sturgeon and baleyne be* the custum 
takyn as at the cay.] 

Of eche carte of woUe skynnes and skynnes of 5. 

hors* and net, ij. d. Of hors charge, ij. d. ; of mannys Si^^ie" 
charge, qua. ; and that is seld for ij. d. ob., qua. markett. 

» meptin mantle. ' *^^''«*' ] ^^^*^^*' commonly 

called pelts. 
2 schapyn] shapen, i.e. cut into 4 gf^^j^nes ofhora} hides would be 

*"*P®- the proper translation of quyrs. 



Add. MS. 

in f oro 

canabi & 

f. 45. b. 


De formage seyt pris de charettes, de charge de 
chival, de charge de homme, de ciuere; e de autres 
meuues parceles, en meyme la manere com eu le avaunt 
dit marche de leyne. Des eos^ e dautres choses ap- 
pendauntz a meyme le marche seyt la custume prise 
solom la quantite auxi com en autres marchez. E 
fait asaver qe la custume de semence de lyn e de 
cannue est apurtenaunt a meyme le marche de for- 
mage. Ensemblement ove la custume des potz de terre. 
E en eel marche seyt pris de chescune cbarettee de 
potz. De charge de homme, qua, E de ciuere, qua. 

De chescune charettee de cuves,* auges, gates, hanaps, 
enqueles,^ e teu manere de marchaundise qe est appelee 
hoi ware,* seyt pris iyd. De charge de chival de 
meyme la marchaundise, e des corbels, vauz, besches,* 
e autres teu manere des choses, oh. De charge de 
homme, qua. De chescune charettee de merym, bord, 
lathes, e verges, oh. De chescune charette de cleyes e 
de splentes,® qua. De chescune ciuere vendue, qua. dil 
vendour. De chescun estal ou lem vend les cordes, 
iij. d. par aan, e fet asaver qe meyme eel estaUage est 
appendaunt a meyme le marche de merym. De ches- 
cune peyre de reos a carette, j. d., ceo est asaver oh. dil 
vendour e oh. dil akatour. 


Item de chescune charettee de jenet,^ j. garbe, e ceo 

dejenetis. appert BS baillifs. 

in foro 

De chescun pestour custumer seyt pris oh. qua. pur 
iij. jours en la semeyne, cest asaver pur Mescredy, 

1 eoti] these. Add. MS. 25,341. 
Generally written |>eo8. 

^ cuves] cnves, tronghs, bowls, 
hampers. Add. MS. 25,341. Cuve 
signifies in the Coutnme d'Ole- 
ron a tub, into which new wine was 

' esquela"] ladders. 

* hoi toare] wood ware. 

^ corbelsj vauz, beschesl baskeUt, 
▼auz, spades. 

^ de cleyes e de Mpleniea"] hurdles 
and splints. 

^jenet"] genista, the emblem of the 


[Of chese be* takyn of cartee, of hors charge, of Add. MS. 
mannys charge of civere, and of other las8e parcels in *^ ' 
the same manor as in the afomseyd markett of woUe. Gostnm in 
Of eos and other tbynges longyng to the same markett ^y^^Jf^ 
be the custum takyn after the quantite, as in other 
marketts, that is to wittyn that the custum of seed of 
flax and hemp longyth to the same markett of chese, 
togedyr with the custum of erthe potz ; and in this 
markett be the custum takyn of eche carte of erthe 
potz,' of mannys charge, gua. ; and of civere, qua. 

Eche carte of doubeleres, disshys, platerys, coppys,'* 7. 
[ladders,] and other such maner merchaundise tibat ^""^^j^*^^ 
men clepyth hool ware,^ ij. d. Of hors charge [of the of merym, 
same merchaundise, and of baskets, vauz, spades, and 
other swich maner of thinges], ob. Of mannys charge, 
qua. Of eche carte of merym, borde, latthes, and 
zardes, ob. Of eche carte of hurdles and splints, qua. 
Of eche civere sold, qua. of the seller. Of eche stalle 
that men sellyn on cordys,* iij. d. be zere, [and be yt 
to wittyn that this same stallage longyth to the same 
markett of merym. Of eche pejrre of cartewhelys, j. d., - 
[that is to say] ob. of the seller and ob. of the beyer. 

Also of eche carte of brome oon shefl^, and [yt] long- «• 
eth to the bayUes.* bronSr ^ 

Of eche baxter custummer," 06. qua. for iij. dayes in 9. 
a weke, s. Wednysday, Fryday, and Saterday, [of those the b^^"^ 


'^ potz] the amount of the custom * that men seUyn on cordys ] 

is omitted ; probably 06., a half- *' wher men sellyn cordys " would 

penny. , be the better translation. 

3 coppys] cups : hanap usually | * haylha] that itf, the bailiffs, 

signifies a cup with two handles. I ^ euttummer] who is liable to pay 

' hool ware] wood ware. , custom. 



Add. MS. Vendredy, e Samedy, de ceux qe venent taunt de feze 
25,012. ^^ marche ou lour peyn a vendre. E sil venent ou 
lour peyn en marche par Lundy, Mardy^ e Jeody, e se 
absentent hors du marche le Mescredy, le Vendredy, ou 
le Samedy, jale meyns payent il lour pleyne custume. 
E sil ne venent en marche forkes un jour en la semeyne, 
adunkes ne seyt pris de eux forkes qua,, e pur ij. jours 
06., e pur iij. jours ob. quu. E pur chescun estalle qe 
burgeys tient en meyme la marche seyt pris vj.d. par 
an, a la Seynt Michel e a la Pasche par oweles por- 
ciouns, pur occupacioun de la commune place. E de 
chescun foreyn pur seon estalle iij. d, par an a meyme 
les termes, saunz plus, e ceo est pur la custume qil 
peyent par les semeynes. De pestours qe sunt custu- 
mers qe vendunt peyne en lour mesouns, seyt la cus- 
tume pris de eux auxi com affiert, ou qil facent de 
ceo gre pur un certeyn par an. 

f. 46. De chescun carcoys de beofe, vache, bouete, e de 
Q^' jenice qe seyt achatee de denz la vyle, seyt pris obole. 
in foro E si la beste seyt achate de hors la vyle, adunkes seyt 
cammm. p^,^ ^^^ |^ carcoys obole quadrans. De chescun escau- 
dinge de pore e carcoys de motoun e de veel, qua., 
cast asaver si la beste seyt achate de hors la vyle. E 
si ele seyt achate de denz la vyle, e la custume du 
primer achat ne seyt mye paye, adunkes seyt pris- 
pur le escaudinge, .ou pur le carcoys, obole ; mes si la cus- 
tume seyt paye, dil achat ne seyt pris forkes quadrans. 

XI. De chescun chival vendu, j. d, dil vendour e j. d, dil 

infor™* akatour. De chescun beofe, vache, bouete e jenice qe 

bestiarum. seyt passe le age de un aan, obole dil vendour e obole 

dil akatour. De chescun porke, berbyt,^ e veel ne mye 

letaunt, quad^ans dil vendour e quadrans dil akatour. 

berhyf] brebis. 



f. 27. b. 

who comyn so many times to the market her bred to Add MB. 
sell ;] or hem that comyn in to merket with her bred 
Moneday, Tuysday, and Thnisday, and absente hem 
out of mercat the tother iij. dayes, [nevertheless] they 
shal payen the ful custum ; and zif they comyn but 
on day in the weke, thanne be takyn of hem but qua,, 
and for ij. dayes o6., for iij. dayes ob. qua. For eche 
sialic that a burgeys holt in the market, iij. d. be zere 
at the fest of Seynt Michell and att Esteryn be even 
porcyouns for ocupyeng of the comoun place ; and of 
eche foreyn for his stalle by zere vj.d at the same 
tymes, with oute more, and that is for the custummys 
that ben by the wyke.* Of baxteres custummerys that 
sellyn her breed in her housys, thanne be custum 
takyn [of hem as it oweth, or that they make cove- 
naunt] for a certayn covenaunt * by zere. 

Of eche carcays of beeff, as of oxe, kowe, bullok, and lo. 
hef ker, bought with ynne the toun, for the carcays oh, ^^^J^ 
And zif the beste [be bought] out of the toun, [thanne markett, 
be takyn] for the carcays oh. qua. Of eche carcays * 
of pork and of mo toun and of veel bought with oute 
the toun, qua. And zif it be bought with ynne the 
toun, and the custum of the ferst beyeng be not payd, 
thanne be takyn for the escaudyng or for the carcays 
oh, ; but zif the custum be payd of the beyeng, thanne 
be takyn but qua. 

Of eche hors seld, j. d, of the beyer, j. d, of the seller. ii. 
Of eche oxe, cowe, buUok, and hef ker that is more than ^^^^° 
on zer old, oh. of the beyer, oh, of the seller. Of eche markett. 
3wyn, sheep, and calf [not sucking milk], a qua, of the 

1 that hen by the wyke'] That 
they pay by the ireek. 

^for a certayn covenaunt'] for a 
certain sam by the year. 

^ of each carcays] " of each es- 


caudyng of pork and carcoys of 
" motonn " would be closer to the 
French text, the outer skin of the 
pig being only scalded, so as to 
remove the bristles. 


Add. MS. E cestes custames sunt appendauntz au marche des 
^«'^^^- chars. 

£ fet asaver qe des totes maoere marchaundises qe 
venent a la dite vyle par ewe, e qe seyent vendues ver 
munt ^ en la vyle, en gerner, ou horde gemer, sey t de 
ceo la costume prise du kay jesqes a la venele qe se 
estent dil ewe de Botflod par la costere de la rue dever 
le suthe jesqes ou Colhel ; e de iUeokes de aumepartz 
le estree jesqes au chefe mes jadys Johan JBoUe, devaunt 
le cimetere Seynt Estevene ; e de illeokes par my la 
venele qe se estent de meyme le cimetere ver le Brok 
Strete ; e du bout de cele venele ver le suth de aume- 
partz la rue jesqes a la venele, qe se meyne dehors le 
comun fosse de la vyle ver Abotescroft. E issi seyt la 
custume du kay prise des veneles e rues avaunt dites 
ver vaal '^ jesques au kay avauntdyt. E de tutes autres 
f. 46. b. marchaundises qe venent hors du payis a la dite vyle 
a vendre seyt de ceo la custume apurtenaunt a les 
raarchees amount en la vyle, cest asaver ble au marche 
de ble, bestes au marche des chars, leyns, pels, e quyrs 
au marche de leyne, ovesqes autres choses apui*tenauntz 
a meyme le marche, e issi de tutz autres marchez en 
la dite vyle, solom ceo qe les marchaundises sunt ches- 
cune marchauudise a soun marchee auxi com afiiert, 
queu part qe les marchaundises seyent vendues en la 
vyle, e solom ceo qe auncienement ad este en meyme 
la vile usee. 

E fet asaver qe des totes manere des marchaundises 
vendables qe venent a la dite vyle de Gipp[ewyz] ou 
en lu appurtenaunt a meyme la vyle, par meer ou par 
terre, aVaunt le jour Seynt Miehel, en meyme eel jour 

* ver munt'] upwards or inland. | ' ver vaai] downwards. 


seller, a qua^ of the beyer. These custummys longyn Add. MS. 
to the flessh market. ^^'^^^' 

[And be yt to wittyn that] off alle merchaun- 
dysys that comyn to the forseid toun [by water, 
and that be] seld, put in gemer or out of gemer, 
of that be custum takyn of the cay to the lane that 
goth from the watyr to botflood by the syde of the 
wall^ toward the south til Colhel; and from thens 
of bothe parties to the hous^ that sum tyme was 
Johns Belle, a fom Seynt Stephenys cherche zerd; 
and from thens by the lane that gooth from the same 
zerd [toward Brok Strete],' and from [the ende of] that 
lane toward the south of bothe partyes of the strete to 
the lane that goth from the comoun dyche [of the toun] 
toward Abour croft,* and so be the custum of the cay 
takyn of lauys <and stretys afornseid doun^^ard to the 
same cay. And of all other merchauudyses that comyn 
out of the cuntre to the toun to sellyn, ther of be the 
custum takyn loDgyng to the mercates aboven in the t 28. 
touD, that is to witten, com at corn market, bestes at 
the flessh mercatt, woUe, skynnys,- [and hydes] at the 
wolle marcatt, with other thyng longyng to the same 
marcat ; and so of alle other marcates in the same 
toun after that the raerchaundyse ys [eche merchaun- 
dyse] at his marcatt as it oweth to ben, [that the 
merchauudyse be seld in the toun] and ns it hath in 
olde tyme ben used. 

[And be yt to wittyn that] alle maner merchaundises 
that ben to sellyn comyng to the same toun of Gip- 
peswyz] in place* longyng to the same toun by lond 
or by water afom the day of Seynt Michql, or the same 

» wait] '* street *' woald be more j Ipswich was traceable as far back 

in hannony with the French text. , »» the reign of Henry III. 

^ , , , ^ . , .1 * Abour-crqfi'] Abbotscroft would 

» rte W] to the capital mansion ^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

.8 m the French text. I , .„ ^^^ „^^ ^ , ^^„ 

' Broil Strele^ Broc Strete in ' ghoald be here read. 


Add. MS. avaunt houre de noune/ le quel qe la marchaimdise 
25,012. g^y^ ^ passer horde la vyle ou noun, de ceo seyt la 
custume appurtenaunt al aan passe. E de ceo qe vyent 
meyme le jour Seynt Michel apres houre de noune, 
de ceo seyt la custume appurtenaunt al aan avenir. 
E issi de totes autres choses appendauntz al office des 
chefs baiUifs de meyme la vyle solom le chaunger du 

En totes manere des marchaundises qe venent par 
ewe a la dite vile avendre, seyent les mestres des nefs 
jurez sour la quantite e les parceles des biens, e de 
ceo seyt la custume le rey prise auxi cum affiert. £ 
si par mescreaunce des marchauntz cerche se face e 
autrement seyt trove, chece en forfeture la marchaundise 
issi concelee. 

^ houre de noune'] midday. 





day afom the hour of none [whether that merchaun- Add. MS. 
dise is to pass out of the toun or not], of that be ' 
takyn custum longyng to the zer passed. And of tho 
that comyn after noon the same day the custum long- 
eth to the zer after, and so of alle other thynges 
longyng to the office of the cheeff ballives of the same 
toun after the chaung of tyme. 

In all maner merchaundyse that comyth to the same 
toun to sellyn the maisterys of shippys shall be sworn 
upon the qiiauntite and the parcell of the goodys, and 
ther of be custum takyn as it oweth. And zif mys- 
byleve ^ of merchaundys ben encerched and foundyn 
otherwise, that merchaundise oweth to ben forfetyd. 

* And zif m^byleve'] " And zif by 
^ bad fbith of merchaandz serche 
be maad and it be foundyn other- 


*' wise, fall the merchaondyse lo 
'* eonceled into forfeture," would 
accord with the French text. 





VOL. 11. 




Add. MS. 

f. 103. 


Frumeyrament ^ si lorn £Eiit ung home mestre duna 
nef, et la nef est a dos homes o a ires, et la nef se 
part deu pais dont ela est et vient a Bordeu o ala 
Rochella o alhors,^ et se affreta pour aller en pais 
estrange, lo mestre ne pot pas vendre la nef si il nait 
commandament o procuration des senhors, mes si il ert 
mestiers' de despensas, il pot bien mectre aucun des 
apparelhs en guatge^ per conseUh des companhons de 
la nef. Cest le jutgament en tel cas. 

& « 

Ung mestre est en ung faune'^ et demora pour 

atendre son temps, quant vient a 3on partir le mestre 

doit prendre conselh am ® sons companhons, et lor dire, 

^ The text, which the Editor has 
adopted, is taken from a MS. in the 
British Museum (MSS. Additional, 
"So. 10,146), which was formerly 
in the Library of the Royal Aca- 
demy of Sciences at Bordeaux. The 
language is old French intermixed 
with Grascon patois very much -akin 
to Catalan, and so far the MS. agrees 
with the description given by Cleirac 
of the MS. of the Judgments of 
Oleron, which Cleirac had before 
him when he composed his work, 
Les Us et Coustumes de la Mer. 
The text, however, of the MS. in 
the British Museum is evidently of 
an earlier period than Cleirac's ver- 
fion, and the MS. does not contain 

the additional twenty-four articles, 
which Cleirac has borrowed firom 
an unknown source. No similar 
version of the Judgments has ever 
yet been published. 'The various 
readings are from the Liber Memo- 
randorum in the Guildhall of the 
City of London, marked M. ; and 
from a MS. in the Mayoralty of the 
city of Leghorn, marked L. 

^ alhors"] aillors. Liber Memoran- 
dorum ; alhors, MS. Libornense. 

^ ert mestiers'] ad mester, M. ; la 
jnestre, L. 

* guatge] gage, M. ; gages, L. 

^ ungfaune] une ha&e, M. ; ana 
ayqua, L. 

' am"] ov£, M. ; en, L. 




First if a man is made master of a ship, and the Add. MS. 

ship belongs to two or three persons, and the ship 
departs from the country of whidi it is, and comes to 
Bordeaux or to Rochelle, or elsewhere, and is freighted 
to go to a strange country, the master may not sell 
the ship if he have not a mandate or procuration 
from the owners, but if he is in need for his expenses 
he may well put some of the ship's appardl in pledge 
with the counsel of the companions ^ of the ship. This 
is the judgment in such case. 

A master is in^a haven' and tarries to await his 
time/ when it' comes for his departure the master ought 
to take counsel ^with his companions, and to say to them, 

f. 108. 


> This title varies from the title 
of the Judgments contained in the 
Liher Memorandonun in the Goild- 
hall of the Gitj of London, which is 
an icarly MS. in old French of xivth 
centory, and is probahlj the earliest 
known MS. of the Judgments. 
It is entitled La Charte d'Oleroun 
des jaggmentz de la mier. The title 
prefixed to the MS. preserved in the 
Mayoralty of the City of Leghorn 
is, '* Asso es la copia deos roUes de 
** LerondejucgemensdeMar." It 
is written throughout in the Qascon 
dialect, and is probably unique of its 

^ companions'] The term ** com- 
panhona " implies a totally different 

relation of ^e crew to the master of 
the ship from that contemplated in 
the Roman law, and marks an epoch 
in maritime law, when the slave had 
ceased to be a principal navigator. 

» haven] The word " faune," of 
which no trace has been found by 
the Editor in any glossary, occurs 
again in Article XVI. The Leghorn 
MS. has " aygua " in both places. 
''FauQc'' also occurs in another 
place in Article XVI., where the 
Lejghom MS. has " avre." 

* his time] The context is BOg- 
gestive that the word " temps " sig- 
nifies here, as in Article XXIIL, 
" fair weather." 

o 2 



Add. MS. " Senhors, nos avons cestemps." Aucuns ny aura que * le 
' ' temps nes pas bon, et aucuns qui diran' ie temps est 
bon et beus ;' Ie mestre se doit acorder ovec lo plus 
des companhons^ et si il fesoit autrament il est temps ^ 
darendre la nef et las mercaderias,*^ si elas si perdent^ 
si il ya decoy.* 

ni. Una nef sen part ^ en aucun loc,® mas en quau loc 

que Boit^ les mariniers sont tenuz a sauver le plus 
quilz pourront; et silz ne aident mie le mestre est 
tenus a engatger sil na deniers de que ilz sauveront 
por lor remener en lor terras ; et si ilz ne aident mies^^ 
il nest tenuz de riens a lor balher^' ny de lor por- 
veoir, ans perdront lurs loers ^' quant la nef est perdue ; 
et lo mestre no pot vendre apparelhs de la nef sil na 
commandament o procuration des s^nhors^ mas le doit 
mectre en sauvegarde jusques atant quil sache la 
Yolunte des senhors, et si doit fere a plus leyaument 
quil pourra^^' se il faisoit autrament, il est tenuz ales- 
mender, sil ya dequoy. Ce est lejutgament en cest 

IV. Una nef part de Bordeu o de alhors et avient a la 

feis ^* quelle sen pira/^ et lom sauva lo plus que lom 

^ aucuiu ny aura que] asciin 7 
aura qui dirra, M. ; aacun y aure 
qui dinm, L. 

' aucuns qui diran'] ascons que 
dixrount, M. ; aacanB diran, L. 

*bon8 et beu$2 bon et bel, M.; 
bel et bon, L. 

*ileii <em/w] le mestre est tenus, 
M. ; ed est tengat, L. 

* mereaderias] daireis, M. ; de- 
neyradas, L. 

' si t7 ya (2eopy] omitted, M. ; si a 
de qoe, L. 

7 un part"] s'empert, M. ; se pert, 

' en aucun he"] en aseimes terres, 
M. ; en anonnas terns, L. 

' mas en quau he que soit'] on 
en quel leu que ceo soit, M. ; o en 
aqneras ont es, one que sessia, L. 

*^ et si ilz ne aident plies'] et sil 
aident, M. ; omitted down to en lor 
terras, Xi. 

" de riens a lor balher] de riens 
lour aider bailler, M. ; de res balbar, 

*' leers'] lowers, M. ; lor arer, L. 

** leyaument quil pourra] loiou- 
ment qil porra, M. ; leTaoment que 
poyra, L. 

^* a lafeisl MC^in ^ois, M. ; i la 
vetz, L. 

u queBe sen pira] qe de sempire, 
M. ; c'nm torment en la mer, L. 



Sirs, we have this weather. Some there will be [who Add. MS. 
will sayj that the weather is not good, and others ^®'^*^- 
who will say the weather is good and fair. The mas- 
ter ought to agree with the greater number of the 
crew, and if he does otherwise, he is liable to make 
good [the value of] the ship and the . merchandise, if 
they are lost, if he have wherewithal. 

A ship is lost^ in any place, but in whatever place 
it may be, the mariners are bound to save the most 
that they can, and if they aid,^ the master is bound, 
if he have no money, to pledge [some] of the goods 
which they have 6aved, to bring them back to their 
own country ; and if they aid not, he is not bound to 
lend them ailything, nor to provide them with any- 
thing, also they will lose their wages, when the ship 
is lost ; and the master may not sell the apparel of 
the ship, unless he has a mandate or procuration from 
the owners, but he ought to place it in safe custody 
until he know the will of the owners, and he ought 
to do this the most loyally that he can, and if he do 
otherwise, he is liable to make amends, if he has 
wherewithal. This is the judgment in this case. 

A ship departs from Bordeaux, or from elsewhere, 
and it happens sometimes, that the ship is damaged 



* is hstl S'empert is clearly the 
proper reading, m in the early Eng> 
lish MSS. Se pierde is found in 
the Casj^ian yersion of the Rolls. 

> ifth^ cud} The affirmatiTe is 
here clearly required hy the con- 



Add. MS. pot deuB vins et de las autras marchandisas ^ arreyres ;' 
^^M^' les marchans et lo mestre sont* en grant debat, et de- 
mandetn les marchans au mestre a veoir lurs marchan* 
dises, ilz las devent men avoir,^ paiant lur fret de tant 
cum la nef a &it de viatge ^ sil plest au mestre, et si 
le mestre se voit, il pot bien adober la nef, si ella est 
en cas que ella se pusqua adober ^ prestament, o si non, 
put loer antra nef afere le viatge, et aura le mestre 
son fret detant cum il y aura de marchanderias sabeias ^ 
por aucuna maneyra. 

V. Una nef se part daucun poi^ chargea ob uita,® et 

ariva en aucum port, les marineys ne deven^ pas 
yssir de fors sans congeyt deu mestre, car, si la nef se 
perdoit o sen perroit^^ pour aucuna aventura, ilz seront 
tenuz alesmandar,^^ sils ont dequoy;^^ mas si la nef 
estoit en lieu o ella se fusa amarrea de iiij. marees, 
adonc pourront bien yssir defors ^' et revenir per temps 
a lor nef. Cest le jutgament en tel cas. 

' m€wchandi$as'] darreis qui sont 
dedens, M. ; deneyiadas, L. 
' arrtyres] omitted, M. and L. 

* et Jo mestre wnt'] et lo mestre, 
omitted, M. ; et lo mestre son, L. 

* tV Uis devent men avow*] ils les 
deWent bien aver, M. ; eds las de- 
yen aver, L. 

* de viatge"] de veiage, M. ; de 
▼iagje, L. 

' adober'] adobber, M-; adobar, 

7 eabeias] salvez, M. ; salvadas, 

* 06 vita] oa voide, M. ; o vuyta, 

' deven] deivent, M. ; deveo, L. 
This word is written elsewhere de- 

vent, doivent, doyvent Deven is 
the tme Gascon or Catalan form of 
the third person plural, and deven 
is used throughout the Catalan ver- 
sion of the Consolat del Mar. 

>® o Men perroit] omitted, M. ; o 
deperisse, L. 

^^ alegmandar] k amender, M. ; k 
I'esmendar, L. 

" sUz ant dequojf] omitted, M. ; si 
aven de que, L. 

^ mcu n la ntfeetoit en lieu o ella 
eefiua amarrea de ittt. marees^ adonc 
pourront bien yttir defort] omitted, 
M. ; mas si la nan es en loc ou 
foB amarrada de quatre amarrass, 
adonc poyran ysnr deffora, L. 



and they save as mucli as they can of the wines and Add. MS. 
the other merchandises;^ the merchants and the mas- ^^>^^^' 
ter are in great dispute^ and the merchants demand 
from the master to have their merchandises ; they 
ought properly to have them, paying the freight for 
as much as the ship has completed of the voyage, if 
it pleases the master, and if the master will, he may 
properly repair his ship, if it is in a state to be soon 
repaired, and if not, he. may have another ship to 
complete the voyage, and the master shall have his 
freight of 60 much of the merchandises as shall have 
been saved in any manner.^ 

A ship departs from any port laden or empty, and 
arrives at another port'; the mariners ought not to go 
out without leave of the master, for, if the ship is 
lost or damaged by any accident, they will be liable 
to make it good, if they have wherewithal, but if the 
ship be in a place where it has been moored with 
four cables,^ then they may well go out and return 
betimes to the ship. This is the judgment in such 

^ other merchandises] The word 
" aireyrefl," which occuin in the 
French text, is difficult of interpre- 
tation. It is prohahly redundant, 
^and may be a cormption of *' dar- 
reis," which occnis in the place of 
** merchandiBes " in MS. M. and in 
other ancient MSS., and which is 
rendered by the Gascon word ** de- 
nejradas " in the Leghorn MS. 
Th^ words *' qni sont dedens " fol- 
low the word " darreis " in MS. M., 
and the Castilian version has the 
equiyalent words " qne la dicha nao 


' in any manner"] that is, whether 
the master carries the goods onward 
to their destination in his own ship, 
or in another ship. The Noxman 
and Breton yersions of the Bolls 

contain some further provisions in 
the same article as to the equitable 
settlement of contracts for salvage 
services, which are also fonnd in 
the Butter of the See, and have 
been set out by the Editor at length 
in the Black Book of the Admi- 
ralty, p. 98, note'. These provi- 
sions are likewise incorporated into 
Article IV. of Cleirac's version of 
the Bolls, but they are wanting in 
the earliest and best MSS. 

^four cabUa] The more ancient 
MSS. agree in requiring four cables 
to be laid out The Norman and 
Breton versions require only two or 
three cables to be laid out, before 
the crew are at liberty to leave the 




Add. MS. 


Mariners sen vont ^ a lur mestre, et il ya aucun deus 
qui sen yssent hors sans congie de lor mestre, et sen al- 
lerent ^ et furent contenus ^ et aucuns deus nafires,^ le 
inestre nest pas tenu ales fere guarir ny alor pourveoir 
de rien, ans les puet bien mettre fors elever^ autres en 
loc de lor o en loc de ly, et si costa plua que celuy 
le marinier le doit payer, si ]e mestre trouva riens deu 
son,® mas si lo mestre lenvoya en aucun service de la 
nef per son commandament, et il ser blesast o na&ast^ 
il doit estre garit sur le costages de la nef, et estre 
porvis.^ Cest le jutiainent en tau cas. 

YII. 11 ly avient que malaudia enfrent a ung des compan- 

hons de la nef, o a dos o a trois, en fasant lur service de la 
nef. II ne put pas, tant es malaudes, estre eh la nef, le 
mestre luy doit metre hors, et a luy pourveoir dun hostel,® 
et a luy bailer pourveance et candelas ^ et luy balhar ung 
massip de la nef ^® per luy garder, o loer una fempna^* 
qui prenga garda de luy, et luy doit pourveoir de tela 
yianda^ cum lom usa en la nef, cest assaver de tant 

^ $en vorU] se lowent, M. ; ee 
lognen, L. 

' 8en allerent'] sen yvrent, M. ; 
f'enivran, L. 

* furent contentui] fbmit contek, 
M. ; fiiran eontenta, L. 

* najffres"] soont naofres, M. ; son 
plagats, L. 

' eUver] e lower, M. ; e logar, 

^ rieM deu Mm] reo de soen, M. ; 
ares deu son, L. 

7 Mcr le costages de la nef et estre 
porvW] et sauvez snr le costages de 

la nief, M. The text is broken off 
here in the Gascon MS., and the 
four following chapters are wanting. 

" a luy pourveoir dun hostel] et 
le quere un hostel, M. 

* a luy bailer pourveance et can^ 
deUu"] lui bailler crescet ou chann- 
dele, M. 

^^ luy balhar ung massip de la 
nef] lui bailler nn de ses yalles de 
la nief, M. 

^^fempna] femme, M. 

" tela vianda] tele yiaunde, M. 




Mariners hire themselves to their master, and there Add. MS. 
are some of them who go out [of the ship] without g 
leave of the master^ and get drunk,^ and make quarrels,^ 
and some of them are hurt, the master is not liable to 
make them be healed nor to provide them with anything, 
but he may well put them out [of the ship] and hire 
others' in their place or in his place,^ and if it costs 
more, the mariner ought to pay, if the master finds 
anything of his o^, but if the master has sent him 
on any service of the ship by his order, and he wounds 
or hurts himself, he ought to be healed at the cost of 
the ship and be provided for. This is the judgment 
in such case. 

It happens that a malady seizes one of the crew 
of the ship, or two or three doing their service to 
the ship. He cannot remain, so ill he is, in the ship. 
The master ought to place him out and to provide 
lodgings* for him, and to furnish him with provisions 
and candle, and to lend him a ship's boy ^ to watch 
him, or hire a woman to take care of him, and ought 
to provide him with such food as they use in the ship, 
that is to say, as much as he took when he was in 
health, and the -master is not bound to provide him 


> get drunk'] 8*eiiivront is the 
reading of all the best MSS. 

* make quarrels'] " Furent con- 
tenos " is probably a misirriting for 
faran oontenta, which is the read- 
ing of the Leghorn MS. The 
Castilian version has ** fiicen con- 

^ and hire others] "£ loer" 
should be read in the place of 
" elever." 

^ lodgings] The Castilian version 
has *'una casa," and some of the 
Breton versions have ** one maison." 
Hostel was » fiuniliar term amongst 

manners for a house where strangers 
were lodged. 

* ship*s boy] The Editor is un- 
able to suggest anj etymology of 
the word '^massip," unless it was 
a slang tepi amongst Gascon mari- 
ners corresponding to '* mousse ** in 
French, which is said to be derived 
from the Spanish word <*mozo," 
which is used in the Castilian ver- 
sion. This article is unfortunately 
missing from the Leghorn MS., and 
the more ancient MSS. have ** an de 
ses vall^," or << un de sea valkttz." 



Add. MS. cum il prist tont il fut a sanete,^ et non rien plus 
10,146. delidoses, le mestre nest pas teuu de provider,* sil ne 
soit ales despensas des maiiniers,^ la nef ne doit pas 
demourer pour luy, ans sen doit aller, et si garist, il 
doit avoir son loer tout aloue/ et sil muert sa fempna 
et sons pai-ens le doyent aler pour ly querre.^ Cest 
le jutgament en tau eas. 

VIII. Una nef se part de Bordeu a de alhors, et avient 
cas que turmenta le prent en mer, et que ilz ne pe- 
vent eschapper sans giter fors de la choses de la gens.^ 
Ilz las doiveiit moustrer aus marchans. et les marchans 
sil nya respondront lur volunte, et creent^ bien la 
. gitezon, pour aventure les rasons deu mestre sont las 
plus cleres; et silz ne le creent mie, le mestre ne doit 
pas lesser pource que il ne gicte^'tant cum verra que 
men soit, jurant se et ses companhons sus les sants 
evangeliz, quant il sera venu a sauvete a terra, que 
il ne le &soit mas pour sauver la nef eb las autras 
marchandisas.^ Ceus qui seront gite fors^® doivent estre 
apreciees^^ au for que seront tenuz a sauvete, ny 
agrenhor for ny a menor, livra a livra entre les mar- 
chans, et doit partir le mestre et compter la nef et '^ 

^ tant iijut a sanete] ea sauncte, 
M. The CastilJan yersion has ** si 
sano fuese.*' 

' de provider'] a li qaere, M. 

^ ales despenacLs des mariniers'] a 
sea despenses, M. 

* tout ahue'] tout a long, M. 

* aler pour ly guerre] aver pour 
lui, M. 

' sans giter fors de la choses de la 
gents'] sans Jettre darreis et des 
YTDSyM. TheBourdeauxMS.yaries 
materially in this article from the 

Guildhall MS., with which the Cas- 
tilian yersion accords. 

7 creent] greent, M. 

^ gicte] jette, M. 

' la nef et las autras merchandisas] 
les corps et la nief et les darrees et 
les yjDS, M. 

^ gite fors] jette hors, M. 

11 apreciees] a prisages, M. 

^ et doit partir le mestre et comp- 
ter la nefet son fret, sil sont chosa] 
et 7 doit le mestre partir acontre sa 
nief ou son fret, a son chois, M. 



with any food more delicate, except at the cost of the ^^^' ^^^ 
mariner. The ship ought not to tarry for him, but ' 
may sail away, and, if he recover, he ought to have 
his wages for the whole Hiring,^ and if he dies, his 
wife or relations ought to come and claim it for him. 
This is the judgment in such case. 

A ship departs from Bordeaux or from elsewhere, and 
the case happens that a storm takes the ship at sea, 
and that they cannot escape without casting over some 
of the goods on board.* They ought to shew them to 
the merchants, and the merchants, if there are some' who 
will state in answer their wiU, and agree well^ to the 
casting over, the reaeons of the master are the most 
dear, and if they do not agree, the master ought not U> 
refrain from casting over as much as he shall see that ii 
is good,^ swearing himself and his crew on the holy 
gospels, when he shall have come to safety or to land, 
that he did not do it except to save the vessel and the 
other XDerchandise& Those [goods] which shall have 
been cast out, ought to be appraised at the market price 
of those which be brought to safety, not at a greater or 
less price, pound for pound, amongst the merchants, and 
the master ought to share and reckon the ship and the 


^ for the whole hiring'] This libe- 
ral scale of payment was subject to 
deductions for any expenses incurred 
by the jnaster. According to the 
more modem yersion of. the Bolk 
published by Pierre Garcie in Le 
Grand Rentier de Mer, Garcie adds 
the words en rabatant le fret, si, 
le maistre luy a faict. The ancient 
Breton yersions haye " le prest " in 
the place of 'Me fret," which is the 
equiyalent of the modem phrase le 

* some of the goods on board] " De 
la gens" is probably a miswriting 

for " de dedens." The Castilian yer- 
sion has ** que Ileya dentro en ella."^ 
This article is omitted in the Leg- 
horn MS. 

> if there are some] The context 
requires the conditional particle, and 
the reading should be, " s'il en y a 
qui respondront." 

* agree well] ** Greent bien" is the 
proper reading. 

* thai it is good] ** Que bien soit " 
should be here read in place of 
"qpe men soit." The Castilian 
yersion has " que bien sea." 



Add. MS. son fret, sil soat chosa, pour restaurer le domage ;^ les 
10,146. uaariniers doivent avor cascun ung tonel franc et lautre 
doit partir aus grencbs' segont soque il aura,' sil def- 
fent en la mer come ung home ; et se il ne so deffent 
mie, il navra riens de franchise, et en sera le mestre 
creus^ pour son segrament.^ Cest le jutgament en tau 

IX. II advient que ung mestre de una nef coppa son 
mast per forsa de temps ; il doit appeler les marchans, 
et a lor monstrer quil covient coper la mast pour 
sauver la nef et les marchandisas ; et aucuna fois avient 
que lorn cope caples^ et leissent ancras' pour sauver 
la nef et las marchandises, ilz doivent estre comptes 
livra a livra comunaument,^ et y doyvent partir les mar- 
chans et payer sans nulh delay, avant que lors mar- 
chandises soient mises fors de la nef; la nef estoit^ 
endura seege ;^^ et le mestre demorast pour lor debat, et 
il est orroison,^^ le raestre ne doit partir, ancois en 
doit avoir son fret de sons vins, cum il prendra des 
autres.^* Gest le jutgament en tel cas. 

X. Ung mestre duna nef vient a sauver a sa discharge 
il doit moustrer aux marchans les cordes ovec quil 

* pour restaurer le domage] poor 
estorer le damages, M. 

2 aus grenchs'] au get, M. 

* segont soque dl aura] solont que 
lama, M. 

^ ersus] cm, M. 

^ pour son segramenC] par son 
serement, M. 
' eaptes] cables, M. 
7 ancras] autres, M. 
^ eamunaumefU] comme get, M. 

' la nefestoii] et si la- nief estoit, 

>® endura seege] en dur siege, M. 

" il est orroison] il le eost oori- 
soon, M. 

" ancois en doit] einz si doit, M. 

^ son fret de sons vins cum il 
prendra des autres] son fret come 
des aatres darreiz, qi sount saaTez, 



freight,^ if he choose, for making good the damage ; the Add. MS. 
mariners ought to have each one tun free, and the ^®»^^^* 
other ought to share in the getison ' according as each 
shall have behaved himself on the sea as a man, and 
if he has not so behaved himself he shall have nothing 
of the franchise, and the master shall be believed for 
his oath. This is the judgment in such case. 

It happens that the master of' a ship cuts his mast 9. 
from stress of weather ; he ought to call the merchants, 
and to show them that it is proper to cut the mast to 
save the ship and the merchandises, and sometimes it 
happens that the cables are cut and anchors left to 
save the ship and the merchandises ; they ought to be 
reckoned pound by pound as in getison,' and the mer- 
chants ought to share and pay without any delay before 
their merchandises are discharged from the ship, and if 
the ship be on hard ground, and the master tarries by 
reason of their disputes, and there is leakage,^ the 
master ought not to share [in the loss], but he ought to 
have his freight of their wines as he will have of the 
others. This is the judgment in such case. 

A master of a ship comes in safety to her [port of] 10. 
discharge ; he oug^t to show to the merchants the ropes 

' and the freight] The mAJority 
of MSS. disconnect the freight from 
the ship, and hsTC the di^onctive 
particle "or" instead of the con* 
jonctive particle " and." Some 
doabts may arise as to which of the 
readings is correct The Castilian 
Tersion adopts the alternative form. 

^ III the getison] The word grenchs 
is evidently cormpt 

* ae in geiieon] The Bordeaux 
MS. has the word comonaument, 
which is an idle phrase and inde- 
finite. The English MSS. concur 
in using either the phrase " eomme 
get " or '< oomme getison." '< Como 

'* echaxon" is the reading of the 
Castilian MS. 

* leakage] The word " orroison,** 
yridch is the reading of the Bordeaux 
MS., occurs in one other MS., 
namely Bodley MS. 462, which is 
an early MS. of the liih century. 
Corisone or corisoun, which is the 
usual reading of the early MSS., is 
probably derived from ''corir," to 
run or flow, and does not diiSer in 
meaning from ''coullaison," which is 
the reading of Le Grand Bontier de 
Mer. ** CorrixoQ " is the reading of 
the Castilian MS. Cf. Black Book 
of the Admiralty, p. 101, note S. 



Add. MS. guindera ^ et si il voit que il jra a esmender^' le mesfcre 
^^*^*^* est tenu alesmender. Car si tonnel o pipa ' se pert par 
deffaute degninda o de gaindatge,^ le mestre est tenu 
alespaender lay et ses marinierSy et y doit partir le 
mester pour tant quil prent d^uindatge,^ et doit le 
' guindatge estre mis a restaurer le domatge prumeyra- 
ment, et lo remanant^ doit estre mis et party entre 
eiis. Mas si lea marchans dient que les cordes sont 
bonnes et belles, et ilz rompent, cbascun doit partir 
deu domatge^ cestassaver les marchans a cuyle vin 
sera*^ tant 'solament. Cest le jutgament en tau cas. 

^- Una nef est a Bordeu ou alhors, et leva sas vdLas 

pour arriver sons vins, et sen part, et naffient ® pas le 
mestre et les mariniers si come ilz duissent lurs boc- 
cles,® et les prent mal temps en la mer en tella ma- 
neyra que lur fustalhe de laienes^^ en fonda touel o 
pippa, et la nef. vieut a sauvete, et les marchans dieht 
que lur fustalhe dedens a lur vins perdutz,^^ et le mestFe 
<Jit que no fist, si le mestre put jurer luy et ses tres 

^ ovee quil guindera] ore que il 
^raidera, M. 

^ qUiB d ya a esmender] qil- a 
amvidre, M. 

* Unmd pipa] le tone!, M. 

^ par deffaute deguinda o de guin-. 
datge] par defaute de garde ou de 
cordage.!! . 

^pour tant quil prent deguindatge] 
par taunt qil prent enguyndage, M. 

' remanant] remanent, M. 

7 a cuy le vin sera] a qi lee Tyns 
sonnt, }JL, 

® naffienf\ nasient, M. 
*' ^ ht^ boceles] lor'boude, M. ; lor 
bocgla, L. 

^° lur fustalhe de laienes] la foB- 
tuUe des lejnes, M. ; lor Aistalha 
dedint, L. 

^1 Ap fustalhe dedens a lur vins 
perdutz] lor fustiylld ad les rjna 
perdu, M. ; lor fustalha delehns a 
perdut loB Tins, L. 

♦ » 



with which he will hoist, and if he sees that there is Add. MS. 
something to repair the master is bound to repair them. ' 
For if tun or pipe is lost by default of the ropes or of 
the hoisting,' the master is liable to make it good |iim- 
self, and his crew, and the master ought to share.*ibr as 
much as he receives for the hoisting, and the hoisting > 
ought to be set to restore the damage in the first place, 
and the residue ought to be set and shared between 
them. But if the merchants say that the ropes are 
good and fair and they break, each ought to share the 
damage,^ that is to say, the merchants to whom the 
wine belongs alone. This is the judgment in such case. 

A ship is at Bordeaux or elsewhere, and hoists sail to 
carry its wines, and departs, and the master and crew do 
not secure as they ought their bulkheads,' and bad 
weather takes them at sea in such manner that their 
casks in the hold * stow in a tun or pipe, and the ship 
Arrives in safety, and the merchants say that the casks 
have destroyed their wines, and the master says not so ; 
if the master can swear himself and three of his crew dt 


' of the ropes or ofMie hoisting'] 
The word ** gainda "% means the ' 
hoisting tackle, and *" gnmdatze^' 
the process of hoisting. The latter 
word is subsequently osed to signify 
the money paid for the hoisting. 

^ each ought to share the damage] 
** Each ought to bear his own loss ** 
seems to be the intention of the 
article, so that it should be in har- 
mony throughout 

• bulkheads'] The word " boudes," 
which in its usual acceptation is 
unintelligible in this place, is pro- 
bably the French translation of the 
English' word ''bulkheads,'* which 
are the planks or timbers which 
divide the hull of the vessel into 

compartments, and are necessary to 
pi'event the cargo when properly 
stowed from shifting its place.'** 

* casks in the hold] ** Fostalha de 
" laiens,*' which is the reading of the 
Bordeaux MS., is probably a mis- 
writing for ** fUstalhadedens,*' which 
oc(Airs again a few lines below. 
Fustalha is evidently the Gascon 
equivalent of '' fustallia,'* which 
Ducange interprets by the Latin 
word " dolia.'* It would appear to 
have been the practice in the wine 
trade between Bordeaux and London 
about this time for the owners of 
vessels engaged in that trade to find 
casks for the transport of wine, as 
part of the ship's furniture. 



Add. MS. companhons ou quatre deceulx, que les marchans esliront, 
^'^ • que lur vins ne se perderent ^ pas pour lor fustalhe, si 
cum los marchans luy metont sus,' il en doient estre 
quitis et delivres ; et silz ne veulent mie jurer, ilz 
doivent rendre aux marchans tot los dommatges, car ilz 
sont tenuz afier' lurs bocdes et lurs eloers^ bien et 
certanament^ avant que ilz deiant departir* de lu ont 
ils le jbhargent. Cest le jutgament en tel cas. 

Ung mestre loa^ ses mariniers, il les doit tenir en 
paixy et estre lor jutge si aucun deus endomage lautre f 
per cuy et ® met pain et vin a table, celui qui demen- 
tira^® doit paier quatre deneys ;" et si le mestre dement 
aucuns de ses companhons, doit paier viii. deneys ; et si 
ya nulh qui demente lo mestre, il doit paier viii deneys ;^ 
et si le mestre en fert ^' aucun de ses companhons, il le 
doit atendre lo prumey cop ^^ cum de pung o de palme, 
et sU fert plas tomer o deffendre ^^ et si le mariner fert 

^ perdkretU] perdirent, M. ; ne 
Ion pas peigatB, L. 

* ewn los marehana luy metont 
aus] come les marehannx lor met- 
trent sos, M. ; si los marchans los 
meten sos, L. 

' qfier] a aAer, M. ; deffiu', M. 

^ hirs boceUt et lurs doers'] loor 
bonole et lours eslores, M. ; lors 
boeglas, L. 

* bien et certanameiU] ben et cer- 
tainement, M. ; bonas et cerUinas, 

' que ilz deiant departhr] quit se 
deiyent partir, M. 
7 ha\ lowe, M. ; logoa, L. 

* si aucun deus endomage lautre"] 
si il y a nol qen damage, M. ; si 
Ton dampnage Tautre, L. 

' per cuy et] par qei il, M.; et 
qoant, L. 

>^ dementira] dementira Paatre, 
M. ; dementre Taatre, L. 

" den^^^ deniers, M. ; deners 
d*estarlins, l. 

^' et si ya nmlh qui demente lo 
mestrSy il doit payer uUi. deneys] et 
si ad nul qi -demente le mestre. il 
deit paier atont eomme le mestre, 
M. ; omitted in L. 

" en fert] enfierge, M. ; fer, L. 

^^ lo prumey cop] leprimiere oolee, 
M. ; la primejra colada, L. 

^< tomer o deffendre] il se deit 
defendre, M. ; ed si den deffendre, 


jUDaioa^Ts OF the sea. 


four of them, whom the merchants shall choose,^ that Add. MS. 
their wines were not destroyed by the casks since the * 
merchants stowed them under them,'^ they ought to be quit 
and set free, and if they are not willing to swear, they 
ought to render to the merchants all their damage, for 
they are bound to fasten their bulkheads and manholes * 
well and securely, before they ought to depart from the 
place, where they have laden [the ship]. This is the 
judgment in such case. 

A master hires his mariners, he ought to keep them at 
peace [with one another] and to be their judge if any 
one of them damage another ; when bread and wine are 
set upon the table, he that shall give the lie [to another], 
ought to pay four pence, and if the master give the"^ lie 
to any of his mariners, he ought to pay eight pence, and 
if anyone gives the lie to the master he ought to pay 
eight pence, and if the master strike one of the crew of 
the ship, the latter ought to support the first blow either 
of fist or of palm of the hand, and if he strikes any 
more he may defend * himself, and if the mariner strikes 

* three of his crew or four of them, 
whom the merchants shall choose'] 
This is a form of comporgation 
which has some resemblazice to the 
cyr-ath or chosen oath of the Anglo- 
SasLons, irith this distiuction, how- 
ever, that in the cyr-ath the plaintiff 
named the persons oat of whom the 
defendant was to choose his com- 

3 stowed them under them] The 
Editor has gretit doubts as to the 
meaning of the words, " si cum les 
" marchans luy metent sus." ** Sur" 
is the reading in the Black Book of 
the Admiralty instead of " sus" 

' their bulkheads and manholes'] 
Ttie Editor has again translated 
"bondes" as bulkheads. With 
regard to " estores '' the word is not 
found in any glossary with which 


the Editor is acquainted. It is 
omitted in the Leghorn MS., and the 
Castilian MS. has a very different 
phrase, **e facer sus obras bien." 
The Editor has been induced to 
translate " estores " by the English 
word ** manholes '* chiefly from the 
circumstance that in the Maritime 
Law of Wisby and in the Jugemens 
de Damme the word " slote," which 
signifies a hatchway or manhole, is 
used in the corresponding articles. 

* he may defend] The Bordeaux 
text, " torner est deffendre," admits 
of an easy translation, bat there is 
a general accord of the French MSS. 
in the words '* il doit se defendre.*' 
The Castilian version likewise is to 
the same effect, '* el marinero se 
" puede bien defendar." 





Add. MS. le mestre ^ il doit perdre c. 8. et le pun^f ^ au chois deus 
''•'*'■ maxinieis.' Cest le jutgament en tel Z 

xni. Una nef sa freta a Bordeu o alhors et vient a sa 
charge/ toatge et petit lotmage ^ son surs les marchans en 
la costeira de Bretanha o son partit les dimans,^ deseus ^ 
de Normandia et de Anglaterra puis que lorn a paase 
Chaleis,^ ceus Descosia puis que lorn a passe German- 
nia.^ Cest le jutgament en tel cas. 

' fert le mestre] fiert le mestre 
premier, M. ; fier lo mestre premey- 
ramenty L. 

' t7 doit perdre cent sous et le 
pung] ou les poins, M. ; ed deu 
perdre cent sods o la pmih, L. 

3 au chois deus tnariniers'] al chois 
da mariner, M. ; al chois des mari- 
ners, li. 

^ vient a sa charge'] yient a sa 
descharge et sont partie chartre, 
M. ; yen assa carga, L. 

' toatge et petit lotmage] toage 
et petite lodmanage, M. ; toage et 
petit locmanage, L. 

^ o son partit les dimans] touz 

ceox qe lem prent puis qe lem ad 
passe les debatz ou sont petitz lod- 
mang, M. ; tots aquets que ont 
prent, pais qae on passa les dehats 
o soon petits lodmanages, L. 

7 deseus] et ceox, M. ; aqoeta, 

8 ChaJeis] Caleys, M.;*Tnaes, 

^ puis que lorn a passe Ger- 
mannia] puis que lem passe Ger- 
neseye. Et ceox de flSaundrers puis 
qe lem passe Caleys, et oeyx Des- 
coce puis qe lem passe Gememue, 
M. ; puis qe horn passaGuemeunia, 
le aquets de Fflandres, puis Ttales, L. 




the master, he ought to lose one hundred shillings,^ or Add. MS. 
Qose] his fist,* at the choice of the mariner. This is ^®»i^^- 
the judgment in such case. 

A ship is freighted at Bordeaux or elsewhere, and is. 
comes to her discharge, towage and petty pilotage * are 
[a charge] upon the merchants on the coast of Brittany, 
when they have passed the Isle de Bas,* those of Nor- 
mandy and of England when they have passed Calais,^ 
those of Scotland when they have passed Yarmouth.® 
This is the judgment in such case. 

' one hundred shiUings'] This 
sounds a large sum for a common 
mariner to pay, but it it the general 
reading of the older MSS., and has 
been adopted in the Oastilian yer- 
sion, which has the words <'cient 
<* sneldos de la dicha moneda." In 
the Black Book of the Admiralty, 
p. 104, the fine is only cinq soulx, 
and Cleirac agrees in estimating at 
an equally low price the loss of a 
man's hand. 

3 or kisfist'] The reading of the 
Bordeaux text, which makes the 
penalties cninulative, is erroneous. 
There is a general agreement of the 
best MSS. in making the penalties 

* petty pUotage'] Coasting pilots 
are here meant, whose Tocation it 
was to conduct vessels into or out 
of particular havens or rivers. 

* The Ide de Bob] The reading 
of all the EngUsh MSS. is hope- 
lessly corruptin this passage. The 
Black Book of the Admiralty has 
'' les debitei," which is equally wide 
of the mark. The Isle de Bas was 
a small island lying o£f that part of 
the Duchy of Brittany which was 
subject to the Yiconte de Leon, as 
the immediate feudal lord, and to 
whom merchant vessels paid passing 
tolls. The scribe of the Oastilian 

version seems to have been well 
informed, as he has adopted the 
words '* que pasan la Isla de Bas en 
** Leon." The proper reading, as 
regards the locality, has also been 
adopted in the Jugemens de Damme 
(Jugement XTTT.). 

' Cfdais] There is clearly an 
error in the word *' Chaleis " as the 
reading of the article stands at pre- 
sent, but the text is probably defec- 
tive owing to a line being omitted 
by the scribe. Guernsey, it appears 
from other MSS., was the station 
where the coasting pilots were taken 
on board for vessels bound to Nor- 
mandy or to England. Calais, on 
the other hand, was the station 
where vessels bound to Flanders 
called for pilots. The words omitted 
in the Bordeaux text before '< Cha* 
leis " are probably ** Gtemesaie, ceus 
'' de Fflandres puis que lom a passe.'* 
This would agree with the reading 

^Yarmouth'] ''Qermannia,'Which 
is the reading of the French text, is 
la mis-writing for ** G^emeunia," 
which is the Ghiscon equivalent of 
Gememutha, the town of Yarmouth, 
in Norfolk. The scribe of the Cas- 
tilian MS. has gone altogether 
astray, as he has adopted the word 
" Artamora.'* 

P 2 



Add. MS. Una nef est en ung con vers ^ amarrea et estant* 
^^l^' a Ba maree, et una antra nef vient et fer la nef qui 
est a la peis,^ en tella manejrra que la est en damnatge 
deu cop* que lautre nef luy a donnee, et il ya deus 
vins enfondres daucuns, le damnatge doit estre apri- 
seis * et partir pour moitie * entre les deus nef, et les 
vins qui sont dedans les doas nefz^ doivent partir le 
dampnatge entre les marebans; et le mestre de la nef 
qui a ferrua® lautra est tenuz a jurer luy et ses ma- 
riniers, que ilz ne le firent mie de gre. Et est raison 
pourquoy cest jutgament est fait, que una velha nef 
ferinst voluntiers en la nova ^® de una melhor, pour que 
doit aver lautra nef, si ela eust tot ses danraatges,^^ 
mas quant ela soit ^^ que ela doit partir a la meite, ela 
se met volunters fors de la voia,^^ et cetera. Cest le 
jutgament en tau cas. 

XV. Conecese se fet " en una nef entre le mariniers,^' le 

mestre doit oster la toalha^* de devant ses mariniers 
tres feis avant quil les commanda aller fors ;^^ efc si les 
mariniers offrent a fere la emenda a lagrat ^® des mariniers 

^ en ung convera"] en una can- 
vers, M. The article is omitted in 

3 estant"] hastant, M. 

' una antra ntf vint et Jer la 
nef qui est a la pets] un ancre 
neof crest en sa pees, M. 

* en tella maneyra que la eat en 
damnatge deu cop"] la nief est a 
damage du coup, M. 

' apriseis'i prisagez, M. 

' et partir pour moitie'] et parti 

7 lea doaa nefz] les deux niefis, M. 

^ ferrud] feru, M. 

' que una velha nef ferinat"] si 
est qe nne vieille neof se mist, M. 

^^ la nova] la voie, M. 

'* pour que doit aver lautra nefai 

ela etut tot ses danmatgea'] si ele 
tons ses damages pour quider au 
lautre nief, M. 

" aoit] siet, M. 

^' ela ae met volontera fora de la 
voia] ele se Toit voluntiers de la 
voie, M. 

** Conecese ae fet] Contek fet, M. ; 
Contenta se £Ea, L. 

" entre lea mariniers] entre le 
mestre et ses mariners, M. ; entre 
le mestre et ses companhons, L. 

" la toalha] la towaille, M. ; la 
toalha, L. 

'^ quil les commanda oiler fora] 
quil les menge hors, M. ; que lor 
comande aver for, L« 

i> a lagrat] al egard, 31. ; a I'es- 
g&rd, L. 



A ship is in a roadsteaxi moored, and being at her Add. MS. 
mooring, and another ship comes and strikes the ship, *^»^^®- 
which is at rest, in such a manner, that it is damaged 
by the blow, which the other ship has given to it, and 
there are wines stove in, the damage ought to be ap- 
praised and shared in moieties between the two ships, 
and the wines,^ which are on board the two ships, ought 
to share the damage between the merchants ; and the 
master of the ship, which has struck the other, is bound 
to swear, himself and his crew, that he did not do it on 
pui-pose. And the reason wliy this judgment is made is, 
that an old ship places itself willingly in the way of a 
better ship to strike the other ship, if it should have all 
its damages, but when it knows that it must share [the 
damage] in moieties, it places itself willingly out of the 
way, &c. This is the judgment in such casa 

Contention* arises in a ship between the mariners, is. 
the master ought to take away the t^ble-cloth * before 
the mariners three times before he orders them to go out 
[of the ship], and if a mariner* offers to make amends 

^ the wines'} This is rather a sin- 
gular provision, that the cai^goes 
should also be liable in moieties to 
make good the damage ; bat the 
same proyision is found in the Juge- 
mens de Damme (Jugement XV.). 

2 Contention'] The word " cone- 
cese/* which seems to be the reading 
of the Bordeaux MS., is probably 
an error of the scribe. Contek is 
the old French word, and contienda 
is the reading of the Castilian MS. 

« table-cloth'] *» Oster la toalha " I the rest of the article, 
is probably a metaphorical expres- , 

sion for excluding a person from 
the dinner table. Las tobaias is the 
phrase in the Castilian version. It 
is hardly probable that where one 
kitchen a day was only allowed, and 
no wine at dinner, the ceremony of 
laying a table-cloth before each 
mariner was a necessary prelude to 
the dinner. 

* a mariner] The singular num- 
ber should be used here instead of 
the plural, so as to harmonise with 



Add. MS* qui 8ont ala tabla, et le mestre soit tant cruel que il 
10,146. ^^ vulha ^ liens faire, et lomet fors le marinier, sen pot 
aler et seguir la nef requis ^ a sa descharge, et aver 
aussi bon loer cum sil y estoit venu dedans la nef, 
emendant le forfait dela garda dela tabla,' et si ainsi 
estoit que le mestre ne aust ausi bon marinier cum luy 
en la nef, et ela se perdroit per aucuna aventura, le 
mestre est tenu a restaurer* les daumatges de la nef 
et de las marchandises qui y seront, sil ya dequoy. 
Cest le jutgament en tau cas. ' 

XVI. Una nef o doas o plus sont en una fauna * out il ya 
poi deua,^ et si assetha*^ luna nef trop pres delautre, 
le mestre de cella nef doit dire aus autres mariniers 
" Senhors, leves vostra ancra,® car ella est trop pres 
" de nous et pourroit fere damnatge/' et ilz ne la 
veulhent lever, le mestre pour eus et pour ses compan- 
hons la veulent lever et alhouer® de lui; et silz la 
toUent de lever,^^ et lautre ^^ los fassa damnatge, ilz seront 
tenuz alesmender tot adonc ;^^ et si ilz sont en ung faune 
qui asseche, ilz seront tenuz amectre balinguas alas 
autras,^' que ilz ne se pegent au plain.^* Cest le jutga- 
ment en tau cas. 

* ne tm/Aa] ne voille, M. ; non 
Tulha, L. 

^ ■ requis'] des qes, M. ; jusqnes, 

' de la garda de la tabki] al 
egard de la table, M. ; de la taula 
a I'esgart deus companhons, L. 

'* a restaurer"] de rendre, M. ; de 
restanrar, L. 

^ una fauna] one havene, M. ; 
ang avre, L. 

' poi deua] poi de eawe, M. ; 
paac d'aigue, L. 

' 81 asseiha] seeche, M. ; ensequa, 

^ Uvea nostra ancra] levez vostre 
ancre, M. ; levas vostra ancra, L. 

^ la veulent lever et aUumer] la 
Yont leyer et ealoigner, M. ; la to- 
lan lonher ny levar, L. 

'° la tollent de lever] tolent a 
lever, M. ; tolen la alevar, L. 

" et lautre] et Pancra, L. 

*' tot adonc] toat aa long. M. : 
tot a lonh, L. 

'3 ala^ autras] et autres, M. ; 
ala ancras, L. 

*** qui ilz ne se pegent au plain] 
qe DC partigent au pleiu, M. ; que 
ne perguent au plen, L. 



to the satisfaction of the mariners, who are at the table, Add. MS. 

and the master is so cruel, that he will not do anything, ^®«^*®- 

and puts the marine? out, he may go and follow the ship 

up to her [port of] discharge, and have as good wages as 

if he came on board the ship, making amends for the 

forfeit in regard to^ the table, and if it should be 

that the master has not as good a mariner as him on 

board the ship, and it should be lost from any accident, 

the master is bound to make good the damage of the 

ship and of the merchandises, which may be on botirrl, 

if he have wherewithal. This is the judgment in such 


A ship or two or more are in a haven * where there is 
little water, and a ship grounds * too near another, the 
master of this ship ought to say to the other mariners, 
" Sirs, raise your anchor, for it is too near to us and may 
" do damage,'' and they will ^ot raise their anclior j the 
master for them and his men may proceed to raise the 
anchor and set it further from him, and if they fail 
to raise it, and the anchor does them damage, they shall 
be bound to make it good thoroughly, and if they are in 
a haven which dries, they shall be bound to put buoys 
to their anchors, which may not be visible * above the 
water. This is the judgment in such case. 


. ' in regard to] The reading of 
the French text '* de la garda " is 
evidently a miswriting. 

' a haven] The word ** fauna " 
18 rendered in the Leghorn MS. by 
the word •*avre." The Castilian 
MS. has ihe word ** puerto." It has 
been already translated ''haven'' 
in article II L above. 

^grounds] The wordtissetha is 

probably a miswriting for aasecha, 
signifying that the vessel was dry at 
low water. 

* which may not he visible] The 
context rather requires the exclusion 
of the negative particle, as the an- 
chors 'Would be visible under ordi- 
nary circumstances, when the har- 
bour was dry. Autras is evidently 
a miswriting for ancras. 



Add. MS. Les mariniers de la costa de Bretanha ne doivent 

XVTI ^^^^ ^^® ^^^ cosina le jorn, pour la rason que ilz out 
bevrage et avant et vinant ; ^ et ceus de Norraandia en 
doivent aver doas * le jour, pour le reson que le mestre 
ne lor trova que eau aler,^ mas puis que la nef sera 
venue ala terra o le vin crest,* les mariniers doivent 
avoir bevratge,* et doit leur mestre lor querre.* Cest 
le jutgament en tel cas. 

XVIII. Una nef arriva a sa descharga a Bordeu o alhors, le 
mestre est tenu adira ^ a ses companhons, " Senhors, fre- 
" teretz vous nos mariniers, o nous leres au fret de la 
" nef ? " ® Ilz seront tenuz a respondre lequel ils feront ; 
et silz y leissent® au fret de la nef, al fret cum la nef aura 
ilz auront, et silz veulent aufreter pour eus, ilz doivent 
aufreter en eella maneyra que la nef ne soit demourant. 
Et si il avient que la nef ne trouva fret, la raestre na 
nulh blasme, et leur doiii leur mestre monstrer leur 
rivas et lor loires,^^ et chascun marinier y pot mectre le 
pesant de son mareatge,^^ et silz y veulent mectre tonel 
de eua ilz en pourront bien mectre, et si sui* gitezon sort 
en leur tonnel de eaue^^ soit gites en mer, il doit 

^ et avant et vinant'] en alaunt 
et en yenaunt, M. ; et anant et en 
vinant, L. 

3 docuf] deux, M. ; doos, L. 

3 aler"] a lour aler, M. ; omitted 
in L. 

•* crest'] crest, M. ; creys, L. 

* bevratge] beverage, M. ; bev- 
rage, L. 

^ querre] quere, M. ; sercar, L. 

7 adira] dire, M. ; de dire, L. 

^ Jretcretz voits nos mariniers, o 
noHs leres aufret de la nef] fretterc 
vous a marrees ou liverees a fret 
de la nief, M. ; fretes vous vous 

marres ou vous larres au ffrct de 
la nau, L. 

' et silz y leissent] et sils eslirent, 
M. ; ajssi cum si agussan) L. 

*o leur rivas et lor hires] lour 
rives et lour leyre, M. ; los renas et 
lo lere, L. 

^* le pesant de son mareatge] 
penser de lour mariagc, M. ; son 
menage, L. 

^- ilz en pourront bien mectre, et si 
sur gitezon sort en leur lonnel de eaue] 
These words are omitted in M. ; la 
pot ben mcttre. Et si gitazon 8*en 
fey et lo tonel d'aygua, L. 



The mariners of the coast of Brittany ought not to have Add. MS. 
but one kitchen a day, by reason that they have drink ^^»^*^- 
both going and returning,^ and those of Normandy ought 
to have two kitchens each day by reason that the master 
only finds them water in going, but as soon as the ship 
arrives in the country where wine is made, the mariners * 
ought to have drink, and the master ought to find it for 
them. This is the judgment in such case. 

A ship arrives and discharges itself at Bordeaux or else- 
where, the master is bound to. say to his companions, 
" Sirs, do you freight your ventures,* or will you leave 
" them to us at the freight of the ship ?" They are bound 
to answer which they will do, and if they leave them at 
the freight of the ship, they shall have such freight as the 
ship has, and if they wish to freight them for themselves 
they ought to freight them in such a manner that the 
ship shall not tarry [for them], and if it happens that the 
ship finds no freight, the master is not to be blamed, and 
ought to show them their fares and their berths,* and 
each mariner may place there the weight of his venture, 
and if they wish to place a cask of water, they may 
place it there, and if jettison takes place, and their cask 
of water is cast over into the sea, it ought to reckon for 


^ both going and returning'] En 
alant et en venant would be the 
correct reading. 

^ the mariners'] that is, those of 

3 your ventures] The reading of 
the Bordeaux MS., " noB mariners," 
is undoubtedly a miswriting. Yos 
marrees or vos marres is probably 
the correct reading, butneither form 
of word is found in any glossary, with 
which the Editor is acquainted. The 
word maree or its synonym seems 
here to denote the space on board 
ship allowed to each mariner to 

store his venture, if he chose to take 
part in the risk of the voyage instead 
of being paid for his services in 
money. ** Quintalados ** is the term 
adopted by the scribe of the Cas- 
tilian version. 

* their /ares and their berths] The 
Editor has doubts as to the proper 
interpretation of the words **leur 
'' rivas et lor loires." He has not 
been able to find them in any glos- 
sary. The Rutter of the Sea renders 
both terms into English by the single 
word *' fare," which is another term 
for " venture." 



Add. MS. compter pour vin ou pour autras marchandisas livra 

io,U6. ^ livra, si les mariniers se puissent deflfendre rasonnable- 

ment en mer, et si ainsi soit que ilz fors gitent e aus 

marchaiis, cela franchise cum les mariniers 'auront doit 

estre aus marchans.^ Cest le jutgament &i tel cas. 


Una nef vient a sauvete a sa descharge ; les mariniers 
veulent avoir leur fret, et il ya aucun deus qui non an 
nulha archa en la nef,^ le mestre pot retenir de son 
loyer pour rendre la nef la ont il ait pris, sil hie dona 
bona caucion a fomir le voyage. Cest le jutgament en 
tel cas. 


XJng mestre duna nef loa^ ses mariniers en la vila* 
dont la nef, est, et les loa ' les ' uns a mareatge,'^ les autres 
a deniers, et ilz voyent que la nef ne pue trouver fret a 
venir. en ses parties, et leur covient ^ aler plus loipgs, seus 
qui vont a mareatge la devent servir, mas ceus qui 
vont a deniers le mestre est tenu a leur croistre ^ leurs 
loers veua per veua et cors per cors,®* per la rason que 
il les avoit loues atermine loer,® et silz chargent plus 
pres que lor covient fu,^® ilz doivent aver lors loers prest 
enteyre,^^ mas doivent aider a rendre la nef la out ilz la 
prindrent, si le mestre vout ^^ a lavantura de Diu. Cest 
le jutgament en tel cas. 

^ et si ainsi soit que ils fors gitent 
e aits marchans, cela franchise cum 
les mariniers auront doit estre aus 
marchans'] et si eiosi est qe eux se 
fregettent as marchanz, M. ; et si 
causa es que se affirete aus marchans, 
tau franquesa cum los marineros 
auran, deu estre aus marchans, L. 

^ non an nuUia archa en la nef} 
nount liche ne arche leinz, M. ; no 
aya leyt ne-argua en la nau, L. 

' /oa] lowe, M. ; logua, L. 

* la Vila} la ville, M. ; la vila, L. 

•'' amareatge} a manage, M. ; a 
maryar, L. 

* covient} covint, M. ; conyen^ 

' crmsire} crestre, M. ; creysser, 

^ veua par veua et cors per cors} 
vcwc par vewe et corps par corps, 
M. ; per legua,- corps per corps, L. 

^ a termine loer} a termine lieu, 
M. ; a terme degut, L.- 

*° lor covient fu} le covenaunt fust 
pris, M. ; io convent no fo pres, L. 

*^ lors loers prest enteyre} tout 
Jopr lower, M. ; tot son loguer a 
lonh, L. 

** vout} vient, AL ; o von, L. 



wine, or for the other merchandises, pound for pound, if Add. MS. 
the mariners reasonably exert themselves on the sea, and ' 
if it happens that they freight their fares to merchants, 
such franchise as the mariners have, ought the merchants 
to have. This is the judgment in such case. 

A ship arrives safe at her [port of J discharge. The 19. 
mariners wish to have their freight, and there are 
some of them who have no chest ^ in the ship ; the 
master Qiay retain of their wages to take back the ship 
thither whence he brought it, if they do not give good 
caution to perform the voyage. This is the judgment in 
such case. 

A master of a ship hires his mariners in the town 20. 
whereof the ship is, and hires some of them for the' 
venture,* and others for money, and they see that the 
ship cannot find freight to como in those parts, and they 
agree to go further, those who go for a venture ought 
to follow, but those who go for money, the master is 
bound to increase their wages, kenning by kenning,^ and 
course by course,* by reason that he has hired them [to 
go] to a certain place, and if they load nearer than they 
agreed, they ought to hAve their wages entire, but they 
ought to aid to take back th6 ship thither, whence they 
brought it, if the master wishes it, at the adventure of 
Qod. This is the judgment in such case. 

^ chest] MoBt of the ancient ] o^^ account a certain portion of the 
MSB. have words which signify in ' »^»P'» ^^^^ 
English "neither bed nor chest/* I ' Venning by kenning'] 4hat is, 

The Leghorn MS. also has " qni no 
'* ayB leyt ny arqua en la nan." 
From this it would appear that the 
mariner brought his bed or cot on 
board with him. 

3 the venture] that is, on condition 
of being allowed to load on their 

from one headland to another head- 
land in sight, see Black Book of the 
Admiralty, p. 115, note ^ 

^ course by course] The course 
was a technical term, being the 
distance over which a vessel might 
keep one and the same course with- 
out tacking. 


Add. MS. II advient que una nef est a bordeu o alhors, de cela 
xii^ cosina cum home usa en la nef les deux mariniers en 
porront porter ung mes * le dementres que ilz seront 
treuthes en la nef,* et de eel pin* cum il y aura ilz 
en doivent avoir segont* que ilz pourront manger a 
ung manger, mas deu bevratge * rens ne doivent avoir 
fors dedens la nef, et en doivent revenir prestament ainsi 
que le mestre ne perde les obras® de la nef; car si lo 
mestre les y perdoit et il en eust dommatge, ilz seront 
tenuz a lesmender,^ o si ung dss corapanhons se blessa 
per besoing de aide, ilz seront tenuz alesmender au 
mestre et au companhon et a ceus de la tabla.® Cest le 
jutgament en tel cas. 

XXII. Ung mestre afreta sa nef a ung marchant et est devise * 
entre eus, et mis ung terme pour charger, et le marchant 
ne le tient pas, atent la nef ^® et les mariniers pour lespace 
de XV. jorns o de plus, et aucun seis ^^ empart le mestre 
son fret et sa mession^* par defauta deu marchant, le 
marchant est tenu alesmender au mestre, et en cella 
esmenda que sera feita^* les mariniers auront leur quart, 
et le mestre la tierce part,^'* pour la raison que il 
les trouava tost.^*^ Cest le jutgament en tel cas. 

^ ung mes] an mes, M. ; ung 
mes, L. 

^ le dementres que ilz seront 
treuthes en la nef] mais tant come 
il serrouut trenchez en la nef, M. ; 
dementre que seran trenchats en la 
nau, L. 

' Z'tVi] pain, M. ; pan, L. 

^ s(gont] soloun, M. ; segond, L. 

* bevratge] beverage, M. ; bev- 
rage, L. 

^ et a ceus de la tahla] a ceux de 
la table, M. ; aus companhons, L. 

• est devise] es devisat, L. 

*° atent la nef] einz tint la nief, 
M. ; ans lo ten la nau, L. 

^* aucun seis] ascune fois, M. ; 
aucnne vets, L. 

^' sa mession] sa messoun, M. ; sa 
mession, L. 

*• feita] fait, M. ; feyta, L. 

** la tierce part] les trois parties. 

^ las obras] ses houres, M. ; las , M. ; las tres parts, L. 

obras, L. 

"* lesmender] al amender, M. ; a 
Pemendar, L. 

'^ trouava tost] troeve les constes, 
M. ; troba les costages, L. 



It happens that a ship ia at Bordeaux or elsewhere, of Add. MS. 
such kitchen as is used in the ship two of the mariners ^i 
may carry on shore one mess^ of the size that they be 
cut in the ship, and of that bread which they have, they 
ought to have as much as they can eat at one meal, but 
of drink they ought to have none, except on board the 
ship, and they ought to return shortly, so that the 
master lose not the earnings ^ of the ship ; for if the 
master loses them, and incurs damage thereby, they 
shall be bound to make it good; and if one of the 
crew is hurt from want of help,* they shall be bound to 
make amends to the master and to the crew, and to 
those of the table. This is the judgment in such 

A master freights a ship to a merchant, and it Is 
devised * between them, and a term is fixed for lading, 
and the merchant does not observe it, and also detains 
the ship and the mariners for the space of fifteen days ' 
or more, and sometimes the master loses his freight and 
his fine weather by default of the merchant ; the mer- 
chant is bound to make compensation to the master, and 
of the' compensation that is made the mariners shall 
have a fourth, and the master three parts, for the reason 
that he finds their expenses. 


' one mess'] that is, two mariners 
going ashore were entitled to take 
with them as much meat as would 
be served as a mess for them both, 
if they took their meal on board. 

' the earnings'] " Obras " would 
literally be the labour or working 
(operam) of the ship. The Cas- 
tilian yersion has " los hayeres." 

^from want of kelp] that is, from 
the vessel being short of hands in 

consequence of the absence of ma- 
riners ashore. 

* devised'} that is, there is a con- 
tract between them, or a charter- 

^fifteen days'] It would seem 
that fifteen days was allowable to 
the freighter of a ship, after which- 
demurrage would become payable, 
divisable in fixed proportions be- 
tween the master and the mariners. 



Add. MS. 


Ung marchant afreta una nef et la charge et la met 
au chemin, et entre se la nef en ung port et demora 
tant que devert ^ luy faillent ; le mestre pot bien envoier 
a son pais pour querre delargent mas il ne doit mie 
perdre son temps,^ car sil le fesoit il est tenu arrendre 
aii marchant totz les damnages quilz eurent, mas le 
mestre pent bien prendre des vins aus marchans et les 
yendre pour avoir son estaurament/ et quant la nef sera 
arivee a sa droita descharga,^ les vins que le mestre 
aura prins devront estre afor mis,^ que les autres seront 
venduz, ny agrenor for ny a menor, et aura le mestre 
son fret de ceulx vins come il aura des autres. Cest le 
jutgament en tel cas. 

Ung bateler® est locman dona nef, et est loes ales 
mener ^ jusques au port, out on le doit descharger. H 
avient bien que en cest port y ait fermes,^ out on met 
las nefs pour descharger, le mestre est tenu apourveoir sa 
forme,^ luy et ses mariniers,^^ et mectre balinguas que ilz 

^ devert"} deniers, M. ; los deners, 

' sen temps'] temps, M. and L. 

' son estamrament'] son estore- 
ment, M. ; son estor, L. 

* aia droita deschargd] a droite 
deschai^, M. ; assa dreita descar- 

* afir mis'] a foer mis, M. $ mes 
al ffor, L. 

" Ung baieler] on bacheler, M. ; 
ung bacheler, L. 

^ loes ales mener] lowe del ame- 
ner, M. ; logat a Pamenar, L. 

^fermes] afeTmex,M. ; format, L. 

^ apourveoir sa forme] por pur- 
yeoir sa forme, M. ; percassar sa 
forme, L. 

^^ luy et ses nutriniers] lai et ses 
compaignons, M. ; lui et sons mari- 
niera, L. 




A merchant freights a ship, and lades it, and sets it Add. MS. 
forth on its voyage, and the ship enters into a port ' ' 
and tarries there till money ^ fails him ; the master 
may properly send to his country to seek for money, 
but he ought not to lose his time [of sailing], for if 
he does so he is bound to render to the merchant all 
damages which he may incur ; but the master may well 
take of the wines of the merchants, and sell them ^ to 
procure provisions ; and when the ship shall have arrived 
at her right discharge^ the wines, which the master 
shall have taken, ought to be valued at the price* for 
which the others shall be sold, neither at more nor at 
less, and the master shall have his freight of those 
wines as he shall have of the others. This is the 
iudgment in such case. 

A young man^ is pilot of a ship, and is hired to 
conduct it to the port where it ought to discharge. 
It happens that in this port there are closed parts ^ 
where they place the ship to discharge, the master is 
bound to provide her Berth,® himself and his mariners, 
and to place buoys^^ which shall appear on the surface, 


* numey'] " Devert *' in the Bor- 
deaux text is eyidently a mis-writing 
for " deners.'' 

^and sell them] The modem 
practice of hypothecating the cargo, 
in case the ship should he of insuffi- 
cient value, would appear to have , 
been at this time unknown. 

^ cU the price^ that is, at the 
market price obtained at the port of 

* A young tnan] The word ** bate- 
ler *' is peculiar to the British 
Museum MS. <<Bach«ler" is the 
general reading of the oldest MSS. 

^ closed parts'] Probably closed 
with a chain stretched across, or 

with balks of timber at the entrance, 
the vessels remaining afloat. The 
Castilian MS. has <'fosa a logar 

® her berth"] The phrase « sa 
forme " is probably a technical term. 
The Leghorn MS. has ** sa £Ebrma." 
The reading of the Castilian MS. 
is suggestive of a kmd of dry dock 
with a sandy bottom. 

7 buoifs] <* Balingas " may here 
mean what are technically termed 
** fenders,*' to prevent a vessel when 
she is in her berth grinding against 
another vessel alongside of her. 
Of. Black Book of the Admiralty, 
p. 121, note K 



Add. MS. ne puscant au plain,^ que la forma soit bien balinguea 
10,146. q^g jgg marchans ne ayent dampnatge ; car silz avoient 
dommage le mestre est tenu alesmender^ sil ne dit rason 
pour quoy il ne soit abbatu de sa raLson, et le locienant' 
a bien fait son devoir, quant il a amene la nef a sauvete 
jusques ala forme, quar jusques il negues^ la devoit 
amener, et de celle hora * en avant * le feis • est sur le 
mestre et sus les raariniers.^ 

^ mectre balmguas que ih n$ pus- 
cant au plain] j mettre bailignes 
qil preignent au plein, M. ; j mettre 
balenges qae ids perguen en plen, 

3 le loctenanQ le lodman, M. ; lo 
loucmand, L. 

' quar jusques t7 Tiegues"] quar 
jcsques illecqnes, M. ; quar entro ad 
aquet loc, L. 

* et de ceUe hora"] omitted in M. ; 
et d'aquera hora, L. 

^ en avant] et ayant, M. 

* le fas] les fees, M. ; los facts, 

7 sus les jnariniers] sur ses com 
paignons, M. ; sobre los mariniers 



SO that the berth be well buoyed that the merchants Add. MS, 

10 146 

shall receive no damage ; for if they have damage the ' 
master is bound to make it good, if he cannot give 
reason why he should not; and the pilot ^ has well 
done his duty when he has brought the ship in safety 
up to her berth, for so far he ought to bring her, and 
from this time forth the ^rust is on the master and 
the mariners. 

* the piloi] It would appear that 
the pilot was responsible for the 
safely of the ship until she was in 

her berth, after which the master 
and mariners were responsible that 
she did not shift her position. 



Q 2 


•'*y»>*^^^>^*r>fStynf>t>eyr>f^r v y^w'^>^ 

De la cort aa mayor 

Des guarenz .... 

Quant reoors de cort est demandez 

Quant le defenderes passera o son saigre- 
ment ..... 

Quant la plainte defaut de saigrement 
prendre ..... 

Quant le defenderes defaut de saigre- 
ment prendre .... 

De fons de terre .... 

De heritage bailie a cens 

Qui ne desacuset garanties lou ser avant 

Dome trove en malefaite. 

De bestes qui sont trove en malefiEdte . 

Des amcmdes de bestes prises 

Quant home se mariet 

De osde . 

Qui vent son heritage 

Daus quatre seignors 

De saigrement 

Quant plusors hommes on fit un meifait 

Quant li servant dun prodome est citez 

De mestre autre pur sey. 

De avoer guarion 

Quant home vent sau a autre 

De enfant medre de age . 

De la. garde denfismt de tnenur age 

Du bail dau pere 













. • 











Of the court of the mayor 
Of warrantors .... 
When a record of the court is demanded 
When the defendant shall pass with his 
oath ..... 
When the plaintiff fails to take the oath 


When the defendant fails to take the 

oath ... 
Of landed estate .... 
Of a heritage held at a chief rent 
He who does not excuse his warrantors 

Of a man taken in trespass 
Of beasts taken in trespass < 
Of fines on cattle trespassing 
When a man marries 
Of dower . 

He who sells his heritage 
Of the four lords 
Of the oath 
When several persons commit a. trespass 
When the servant of a prudhome is cited 
To substitute an attorney in one's place 
To vouch a warrantor 
When a man sells salt to another 
Of an infiEmt below age . 
Of the guardianship of an infant minor 
Of the father as guardian 



. • 


• •• 




. • 


• • • 





• • • 











Si edifice poiiet ruine . • • xxvL 

De home, qui n'est de la commune.. . xxvii. 

Quant le prevos apelet autre . xxix. 

Quant horn met autre en fiances 

De brandoner les prez 

De beste estachee 

Des palus . 

D'estorement de nef 

De bonnes 

De Sabbattees 

Daus garenes 

De Tespece de coniz 

D'avoir essie a heritage enclos entre autres 

Dau may re .... 

De malefaite de verger dos 

De difference de verger clos et de dedos 

Qui meffait en la forest d'Availle 

Quant la plainte proposet plushors de- 

mandes ..... xliv. 

De jor assigne .... xlv. 

Quant hom parlet por autre . xlvL 

Quant olest guerre en Oleron . xlvii. 

Quant hom est traiz par garantage xlviiL 

De fiance ..... xlix 

De sazine . . . . L 

De garior . . . li. 

Daus convenanz . . lii 

De fons de terre par tengue liii. 

Dau mayre .... liv. 

Qui fretet nef dautre . Iv. 

Quant hom achatet vin dautre . IvL 
Quant filz om baillon de son pere est 

citez ..... Ivii. 




















If a building tumbles down . . xxvi 

Of a man who is not of the commune . xxvii. 

When the provost accuses another . xxviii. 

When a man makes another his surety, xxix. 

Of bushing the meadows 

Of a beast tethered 

Of the landes 

Of the marshes 

Of the storeing of a ship 

Of boundary posts 

Of a Sabbatee 

Of warrens 

Of the run of the rabbits 

To have access to an estate 
amongst others 

Of the mayor . xl. 

Of trespass in an enclosed orchard xli. 

Of the difference between an enclosed 
and an unenclosed orchard xlii 

He who trespasses in the forest of 
Availle . . xliii. 

Where the plaintiff advances several de- 
mands . . . ... xliv. 

Of a day assigned . • xlv. 

When a man speaks for another . xlvi 

When there is war in Oleron . xlvii. 

When a man is produced to warrant xlviii. 

Of sureties .... xlix. 

Of seisin . .1. 

Of a warrantor . IL 

Of contracts . . lii. 

Of landed estate by tenure liiL 

Of the mayor .... liv. 

He who freights the ship of another . Iv. 

When a man buys wine of another Ivi. 

When a son who is the ward of his 
father is cited .... Ivii. 



Quant horn de la commune plaidest con- 
tre home qui ne seit pas de la com- 
mune ..... 

De plaiz de fonz de terre davans lo maior 

Daver cos et demorez par plait . 

Qui veit a conseil dautre 

Quant sires demande la cort de son home 

Quant dui sunt parsener en un vaisseau 
Quant plusors sunt parseners en un vais- 

seau * . • . . 

Li marinea aront la meite de choze prise 

deffors vaisseau. 
De sauners . . 

Quant bataille se fait par champions 
Daus causes criminaus 
Quant bataille se deit faiie cors k cors . 
De bestes prises .... 
Quant hom est pris en malefaite 
Quant en ses vignes trobit malefaite 
De vignes ..... 
De bataille cors k cors en Oleron 
Ceu est peage des Jues . 
Ceu sunt les devors des nefs 
Quant nez levent daus rez 
De duy compaignons . . 

Du mayor .... 

De marchez et de convenanz 
De garenz a prover baton ou tort 

De nez sur encre .... 
De parceners de nef 
Quant chaptaus est arestez en Oleron 
Si le sire volt prendre vile 


























Quant marineaus deffaut a sa nef garder Ixxxvi. 
Un parconner en une nef poet vendre sa 
partie . , . . . Ixxxvii. 



When a man of the commune sues a man 
who is not of the commune . 

Of a suit for land before the mayor 
Of costs and demurrage for the suit 
He who goes of counsel to another 
When a lord demands jurisdiction over 

his vassal 
When two are partners in one vessel 
When several are partners in one vessel 

A mariner shall share in every thing 

taken outside his vessel 
Of saltworkers .... 
When batel takes place by champions . 
Of criminal causes 
When batel is waged body to body 
Of beasts taken in trespass 
When a man is taken in trespass 
When trespass is made in a vineyard 
Of vines ..... 
Of batel body to body in Oleron 
The passing toll of Jews . . 
The dues on shipping 
When ships disturb fishing nets . 
Of two partners .... 
Of the mayor .... 
Of bargains and contracts 
Of a warrantor to prove an assault or a 

tort ..... 
Of a ship at anchor 
Of the partners in a ship 
When chatels are arrested in Oleron 
When the lord wishes to take the town 

of another .... 

When a mariner fails to protect his ship 
A part-owner of his ship may sell his 

part ..... 





























De maistre de ta nef . . Ixxxviii. 

De femes mie recegues a faire saigreinent 

de sa mayn ... Ixxxix. 

De truylz . . xa 

De molin . ... xci 

De chemins .... xciL 

Quant horn trovet sa chose sor autre xciiL 

De gest de nef .... xciv. I 

La nez paieb lo quillage et lo grant lo- ] 

mant ..... xcv. 

Le avers payet lo affiage xevi. 

La nefz paie lo plankage xcvlL 


Of iJie master of a ship . . . Ixxxviii. 

Women not allowed to take an oath in 

person ... Ixxxix. 

Of wine-presses . xc. 

Of mills . . • . xcL 

Of roads ..... xcii. 
When a man finds his property upon 

another ..... xciii. 

Of jetison .... xciv. 

The ship pays the keelage and the sea- 

pilot ..... xcv. 

The cargo pays the stowage xcvi. — 

The ship pays the plankage dues xcvii. 









^ r\ .-% f *> •v *^ 

[fol. 1.] Pere Roberz, Sire Andre Bicharz, Sire Pere Darceaus, 
Sire Helies Darceas, Sire Pare Gauter, Don lohan 
Roberz, et maint autre prodome ^ borgois, que gardeiant 
et mainteniant les bons usages et les bonnes costumes 
et les bons iugemenz de lor ancesors, qui tau sunt 
oblamandement ^ aprove quil i ont apres fet, si com 
yos orrez en cest present escript segant que li diz 
maires ^ fist compiler et aioster par Quillaume Guischos, 
adonc derc de la commune doleron. 

Chapitrei. En la cort au mayor silom est citez a ior, 11 iorz 

Sr^yo? ""^^ souceanz sil nest de lespace de va iors. Si li 

citez demande ior de conseiP il laura de vii. iorz, si 

[foL 1. &.] donques nest horn erranz a cuy hon deit faire dreit pie 

estant por tote choze et sil demandet conseiP de la 

cort, il laura, et li donera raisonable salere. 

^ prodome] pradhommes. 

^ ohtamandemerW] ob lo mande- 
ment, i.e., ove or avec le mande- 

^ maires] The nominatiye case 
singular of the sa^stantive, of which 
mayor or mair was the gemtiye and 

* jor de conseil] Consilium iseu 

Dies Consilii, qui concedebatnr reo, 
at ei de aetori respondendo cayere- 
tor : Dnoange. The phrase " jor de 
** conseil " is frequently used in Le 
Conseil de Pierre de Fontaines, the 
earliest text-book of French law. 

B conseil] an adyiser as to the 
law, not a pleader, who was termed 





Pierre Boberz, Sire Andre Bicharz, Sire Pierre 
Darceaus, Sire Helias Darceas, Sire Pierre Oauter, Don 
Johan Roberz/ and divers other prudhommes burghers, 
who keep and maintain the good usages and the good 
customs and the good judgments of their ancestors, 
which have been with their authority approved, and 
have been hereinafter reduced into writing, according 
as the said mayor ^ has had them compiled and adjusted 
by William Quischos, at present clerk of the commune 
of Oleron. 

In the court of the mayor if a person is cited for a Chapter i. 
certain day, the time is not sufficient, if it be not after ^^^^^of 
the space of seven days. If the party cited demands the mayor, 
time for consultation, he shall have seven days allowed 
him, unless he be a man passing on his way, to whom 
justice ought to be done forthwith ' for everything, and 
if he demand counsel from the court, he shall have 
counsel, and shall pay a reasonable fee. 

' Don Johan Roberz] The six 
persons specially named would ap- 
pear to be the mayor and five of the 
pradhommes. It may be inferred 
from the names of the pmdhommes 
mentioned here and in chapter Ixv. 
that they were by status the chiefs 
of the commune. 

^ the said mayor] Pierre Roberz 
is probably meant, whose name 
stands first in the list. 

^/orthunth] The Editor has not 
met with the phrase ** pi^ estant " 
in any glossary. ** Foot-standing " 
would be the literal translation. In 
English law the phrase pie-poudres, 
pi-powders, as applied to the court 
of dusty feet, which met daily to 
administer law to passing strangers, 
would be somewhat analogous. 



f Si la plainte est de fonz de terre/ et olen seit 
guarde demandee, ele ensera donee de vii. iors, et apres 
ert li plaiz par lespace daatre vii. iorz. 

f Si la plainte' defaut de la guarde mostrer, li 
mayres ya v. sols de guages ; si licitez ^ defaut de veer 
la guarde, il nen aura ia plus guarde, mes il nen rendra 
ia autre guage. Si li citez deffent que onques ne fut 
citez, o lert cregu au citeor, et sil est convencuz par 
lo garentage au citeor ou en autre manere, li citez ert 
en la merci au mayor de lis. solz dangeuins. 
[foL 2.] IT Si li citez ou la plainte liquaucunques seit * con- 
vencuz on plaib de fonz de terre, il est en la merci au 
maior de lix. sols dangeuins.^ Si li citez o la plainte, 
li quaus qui seit, convencuz en plait de fonz de terre, 
il est en la merci dau mayor de lix. sols en quauque 
manere que la choze apparechet davant lou mayor, ou 
par prove ou par conoissance, et par ceu se devent 
apleger® U demanderes et li defenderes, quar si li vns 
ou li autres nesteit pas de la comune, et li vns fust 
convencuz de plait de fonz de terre, li maires ne lo 
poyret pas peignorer par son gage par ceu que il ne 
sereit pas de la commune. Li mayres dera terme de 
vii. iors a payer la depte qui sera conegue par dauant 
[foL2. 6.] luy, et si adomques ne paiet li deptres la dite depte 
au chief daus vii. iorz, li maires fera bailler de la 

^ fonz de terre] Fonz is a Gascon 
word from the Latin fundus, signi- 
fying landed estate of any kind. La 
plainte is here used in the sense of 
claim or demand. 
3 lapJamte} the plaintiff: 
3 licitez] lixitez, the defendant 
* liquaucmiqueeseit'] li quaucunque 

seit. Another form occurs three 
lines below. 

' dcmgeuins] d'Angevins, shillings 
of Angers, money struck at Angers 
by the kings of England, as counts 
of Ai^ou. 

" apleger] from the Latin apple- 
giare to produce pledges. 


f If the suit is ia respect of an estate ia land, and 
a summons be demanded, it shall be granted with an 
interval of ^even days, and the plea shall be filed seven 
days afterwards* 

V If the plaintiff fails to serve the summons, the 
mayor has a fine of five shillings ; if the party cited fails 
to regard the summons^ he shall have no fiirther sum- 
mons, but he shall not pay any fine. If the party cited 
contends that he has not been cited, faith shall be given 
to the summoning officer, and if he is convicted by the 
warranty of the summoning officer, or in any other 
manner, the person cited shall be liable to pay a fine, 
at the discretion of the mayor, not exceeding fifty-nine 
shillings in money of Angers.^ 

f If the party cited, or the plaintiff, whichever it 
may be, is convicted in a suit respecting land, he is at 
the mercy of the mayor -to pay a fine not exceeding 
fifty-nine shillings in money of Angera If the party 
cited, or the plaintiff, whichever it may be, is convicted 
in a suit respecting land, he is at the mercy of the 
mayor to pay a fine not exceeding fifty-nine shillings in 
money of Angers, in whatever manner the matter is made 
apparent before the mayor, whether it be by proof or 
by recognition ; and the plaintiff and defendant shall 
give sureties ' for this, for if the one or the other are not 
of the commune, and the one be convicted in a suit 
respecting land, the mayor could not levy upon him for 
his fine, because he will not be within the commune. 
The mayor shall assign a term of seven days to pay a 
debt whidi has been recognised before him, and if there- 
upon the debtor does not pay the said debt at the end of 
seven days, the mayor shall cause to be delivered ^ to 

* Angers] The use of this money 
implies that Oleron was still subject 
to the Kings of England. 

3 sureties] The word plegius is 
used in the same siense in early Eng- 

lish law books for a person, who 
pledged himself to produce a given 
thing or its value in court. 

' delivered] in other words, shall 




choze an deptre tant au creencer qui vaudra ses devers 
ou plus. £t quant li creencers aura guarde les guages 
par lespace de vii. iors, 11 maires comandera au creenoer 
quil vendet les gages desus diz a la yeue de son com- 
mandement; et si li dit gage ne valent iant com la 
depte monte, li maires li fera bailler daus gages dau 
deptor tant qui vaugent lo remaignent de la depte au 
creencer, et lo sur plus que yaudrant li guage sera rendu 
au deptor. 

Chapitre iL f Si hom avouet guarenz -davant lou mayre, eles 
guarenz. s^ront oyes et convent que eles seent de la oomune, 
nesmayns ^ par vsage i recet hon ben autres que Ion 
[foi. 3.] conoyschet estre leyaus genz, et si li garent ne volent 
venir par celuy qui les avouet, si eles sunt de la 
commune, li mayres les deit contraindre de venir, neis 
encore si cilz qui Jes trait nest pas de la commune, et 
si les garenties ne sunt pas de la comune et eles ne 
vougent* venir par lo mayor, li mayres ypuet metre 
tau conseil, qui se il se clamet apres a luy daucun de 
la commune il nelen fera ia dreit, ou se il on feit il 
len pue t deloigner iuquez il ait fet amande a celuy, 
qui lo avoot aguarent dau demage, sil lia recegu par 
defaute de son garentage. Si la plainte defaut davant 
lo mayre ou mest son plaint en pouz ^ sanz lezer do 
[fol. 3. 6.] mayor, li mayres nia point de gage. Mas se il se clamet 
derrechef,* li mayres li pout parloigner * son plait decique 
il ayt rendu son gage de la defaute. Si li citez deffaut 
ob garantie qui seist citee davant lo mayre> li mayres 
ya V. sols degage de quaucunque choze que li plaiz 

* neanayng'] Deammoins, neyerthe- 

3 wnigent] another form of vao- 
gent, will not 

' en poux] These words are 
Qlsewhere written "en pos," with 

the same verb mettre, in the sense 
of sub pedibus mittere, to let drop. 

* derrechef] de rechief, de nou- 
veau, Roquefort. 

' parloigner'] the same as de- 
loignor, prorogue. 


the creditor aa much of the property of the debtor as 
will satisfy the debt in money or more. And when the 
creditor shall have held the securities for more than 
seven days, the mayor shall order the creditor to sell 
the securities aforesaid in virtue of his order ; and if the 
articles distrained are nbt worth so much as the debt 
amounts to, the mayor shall authorize a further distress 
to be made upon the goods of the debtor for as much 
as the remainder of the debt amounts to, and the surplus 
of the goods distrained shall be repaid to the debtor. 

IT If one vouches a warrantor ' before the mayor he shall ^P*^ **• 
be heard, and it is proper that he be of the commune, ranton. 
nevertheless by usage others are properly received, who 
are known to be loyal people ; and if the warrantor is 
not willing to come for him who has vouched him, if he 
is of the commune the mayor ought to constrain him to 
come, even if the party who requires him to come is 
not of the commune, and if the warrantor is not of the 
commune, and he is not willing to come before the 
mayor, the mayor may make this order, that if he sues 
any person of the commune before him, he will not 
administer justice to him ; or if the mayor does not abso- 
lutely refuse justice to him, he may delay justice until . 
he has made amends to the party who had vouched 
him as a warrantor, for the damage, if he has incurred 
any from default of his warranty ; and if the plaintiff 
makes default before the mayor, or lets drop ' the suit 
without leave of the mayor, the mayor has no fine; 
but if he brings a suit a second time, the mayor may 
prorogue his plea imtil he has paid a fine for his default 
If the party cited makes default with the warrantor, 
who has been cited before the mayor, the mayor shall 
levy a fine of five shillings, whatever may be the matter 

' vouches a warrantor] Vouche I ^ ku drop] The translation is 
h gamnt is the phrase usual in I conjectural. 
Britton, 1. p. 57, 116. | 

B 2 



seit. Si li deffenderes est eonvenauB, il est en la merd 
dau mayor de lix. sols, sau tant que se il conoyt saius 
nuUe deffense ou neya poynt de gage, mas rendra sa 
demande au demandeor, si donqucs li plaix nest de 
baton/ et sil est de baton et li citez seit oonvencuB par 
sa conoysanoe ou par garenz, la plainte ya v. sok 
damande, et li mayres cinquante et neuf sols'de gage, 
si donques nest boneste persone oil qui aura este batuz, 
[foi. 4.] et sil eiit honeste persone, lamande sera iugee a la 
volonte dau mayre et daus esqueuins s^nt lou baton, 
qui aura este faiz. 

Gbspltre Si recors de corb est demandeE devant lou mayor, il 

Qaant ^^ donnez encore neis ' de ceu qui aureit este feiti ea 

recors de autre cort, dont la cort fust faiUie^ dftvant lo mayor. 

demandez. ^^ ^^ sereit oiz de lautre cort, et ceu fait et iuge on 

plait de Amaut Darceaus et de Pere Durant dau Mares- 

dous sur chozes, qui aveent este menees davant le 

prevost^ dont la cort esteit puys venue davant lo 

mayor, et par esguart de la cort au mayor fut oyz le 

recort dau prevost. Yns esqueuins vaut doues garenties, 

[fol. 4. 6.] por ceu que yl a fait dous saygremens * a la comune. 


f Si la plainte ne avoet en sa demande garenties^ ne 
Quant li recort, ne de prodeshomes, ne autre prove, li deffenderes 
deffenderes passera o SOU saigrement de sey ou de son mesage' 

' baton"] a contraction probably 
of batison, action de battre, Roqne- 
rort. ■ 

^ encore nets'] encore moins. 

^ faillie] The meaning of this 
word bas been inferred from the 
context " pays venue/ 

* douM saygremens] denz sere- 

^ aonmetage] message, procurear, 
celui qui est charge des affiures d'on 
autre, Koquefort. 




of tlie suit. If the defendant ia convicted, he i» at the 
mercy of the mayor to the amouBt of fifty-nine BhilliDg8> 
saving that, if he admit that he has no defence or has no 
secarity, he shall render to the plaintiff his demand, if 
the plea is not one of battery ; and if it is of battery, and 
the party cited be convicted by his recognizance or by 
warrantors, the plaintiff shall have -five shillings com- 
pensation^ and the mayor fifty and nine shillings fine, 
if the person who has been assaulted is not a person of 
condition, and if he be a person of condition, the com* 
pensation shall be adjudged at the discretion of the 
mayor and of the echevins,^ according to the assault 
which shall have been made. 

If a record of the court is demanded before the chapter iii. 
mayor, it shall be given, except it be of that which ^^^ ^ 
shall have been done in another court [in a matter] the oourt is 
of which jurisdiction has devolved on the mayor. ^«°^^^^- 
But it shall be heard by the other court, and this was 
done and adjudged in the suit of Amaut Darceaus and 
Fiere Durant of Maresdous, upon matters which had 
been brought before the provost, of which the juris- 
diction afterwards devolved on the mayor, and by the 
order of the court of the mayor, the record of the 
provost was heard. An echevin is equivalent to two 
warrentors, because he has made two oaths ^ to the 

If the plaintiff does not vouch in support of his claim Chapter iv. 
warrantoiB, or record, or prudhommes, or other proof, ^Z^t 
the defendant shall be acquitted upon the oath ofBh^i^P^^ 
himself or his agent, the more so if he maintains ''it oath. 

* echevina] The Editor has re^ 
tained the French word echevin 
thronghont the translation. The 
term sheriff would be an inadequate 
translation, as the echevins were 

judges, corresponding to the scabini 
of the Germanic courts. 

' two oaths] as prudhomme, and 
again on his election as echevin. 



passera o encore neys se il deffent ensi ceu nest pas vers que ge 
m^t ^*^ saehe. Et ceu fut iuge on plait de Sire Giraut Dastingues 
et de Pere de Solac. Et de' refiance^dau saigrement 
faire dau premer dialuns ' que sera empres lou plait en 
XV. iorz, et se il dit quil nen puet doner fiances yl 
plevira * sa fey que nen puet doner fiances, et que yl 
sera au ior dau saigrement fere, et se il defi*aut dau 
saygrement fayre yl est convencus de la demande et 
det a la plainte v. sols de gage, et en est en la merci 
[foi. 5.] envers lou mayour de lix. sols, et encore neys, si en fait 
paiz ou li est mis en pos sanz lou lezer dau mayor, yl 
est en meisme merci. 

Chapitrer. Si la plainte deffaut dau saigrement prendre il pert 

^i^te'* sa demande, mas li mayres nia point de gage sur luy, 

defaut de si donques nia envolope ^ deffensse on plait. Si cum 

■J^^®"* issi, tu me dez v. sols de loer de mon chevau que 

ge te loay, et li 'deffenderes dit, ge ne te dey pas les 

v. sols, car tu me prestas lou chevau, or est iuge que 

la plainte dit, ge defient que ge ne te prestay pas lou 

chevau, or est iuge que la plainte, qui deffent lou prest, 

deit feire i. saigrement. 

Chapitra % Si cilz, qui le deit recever deffaut, il est convencuz 
rfoL^5 6.1 ^^ ^ demande et est en la merci daus diz gages de 
Qaant le V. sols et de lix. sols, et si tot recet lou saigrement, si 
d^tde" ^^ ^^ ®^ meisme merci; par ceu que il lia fet iurer 
saigrement la soe choze que il liavet deffendu premeremeni 


^ r^fiance] This is prol>ably mls^ 
written for refoianoe. 

' dialuna] This word occurs lower 
down in the MS. The Editor has 
not been able in either place to 
dirine its exact meaning. 

' plevira] plever, engager, Koque- 

** envolope] This word is pro* 
bably miswritten. 



"is not true, as far ns I know/' And this was adjudged 
in the suit of Sire Qiraut Dastingues and Pierre de 
Solac. And on the refusal^ of the first to take the 
oath, the suit shall proceed in fifteen days ; and if he 
says that he cannot give securities, he shall pledge his 
faith that he cannot give securities, and that he will be 
there on the day to take the oath ; and if he fails to 
take the oath, he shall be convicted of the demand, and 
shall owe the plaintiff five shillings penalty, and shall 
be at the mercy of the mayor to the amount of fifty- 
nine shillings ; and still more if he makes peace, or lets 
the suit drop without the permission of the mayor, he 
is subject to the same amount of fine. 

If the plaintiff fails to take the oath he loses his Chapter y. 
claim, but the mayor has no right to fine him unless he I^^^ff 
has undertaken * to reply to the plea. Thus, if he says, fails to 
" You owe me five shillings for the hire of my horse, which ^J ® 
" I let to you," and the defendant says, " I do not owe 
"you the five shillings, for you lent me your horse ; 
thereupon it is adjudged that the defendant must say, 
" I deny that I lent you the horse ; '* therefore it is 
adjudged that the plaintiff, who denies the loan^ ought 
to make oath to that effect. 

^ If he who ought to receive the oath makes default. Chapter vi. 
he is convicted of the demand, and is at the niercy ^^^^^^^ 
[of the mayor] for the said fines of five shillings andfi«l«totake 
of fifty-nine shillings ; and if he receives the oath he 
is at the same mercy, because he has made him swear 
the thing to be his, which he had at first denied. 

the oath. 

1 refiual] The meaaing of the 
'paMage is open to some doubt, as 
what foUows is rather inconsistent 
with the suggested translation. 

3 undertaken] Hie tnmshitioli is 
coigectunU, but the sense of the 
paragraph is obyious. 




• • 


a <%ns. 
[foL 6.] 

Si en plait de fonz de terre demande li ciiez finemeni 

De foDs de ^^ ^S^^S^' ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^f ^^ V^ ^^^^ nomer lo lignage. 
terre.^ Si feinme est citee davant lo mayor et ele ayt mariz, 

il en aura la oort se il est raigne,' et si li mariz nest 

on pais yl sera atenduz par xl. iors et non plus. 

Chapitre f Si heritages est baillez a cens, li lignages lou puet 
Deh^. retenir ausi cum achat, mas ceu nest pas de lanciene 

tage 8 bailie COStume. 

IT En achat si est ensi^ li achateres deit semondre 
lou lignage que li pait ses denera dedens vii. iors, et 
si adomques lo lignages li payet, yl puet retenir la 
choze vendue, mas si adomques na payet, il ni a point 
de recousse, et la recousse deit estre faite en tau manere, 
quar cil qui veost recoyre deit mostrer les deners touz 
en apert, et deit dire, si eci na assez deners, ge vos 
fomiray mayntenant toto vostre paye. 

IT Si aucuns dau lignage est fors dau pays, apres ceu 
que yl vendra yl puet rescoyre la choze dedenz vii. 
iors, mais si esteit plus de i. an et i. ior sanz deffensse 
fait,^ preiudice mas ore ne fait pas entre parenz, et ceu 
nest pas de lanciane costume, quar la chartre de la 
[fol.^. 6.] franchize nen excepte negun. 

^fons de terre'] In the Glossaire 
dtt Droit Fran9ais par De Laari^re 
it is said, L'auteur du Grand Cos- 
tumier et autres anciens ont prit les 
termes ** Fonds de terre,*' pour le 
premier cens, appelli6 dans les an- 
ciennes chartres, fundus terrs?. 

^ raigne] from the Latin ratioci- 

' heritage] Nous apelons, says 
Pierre de Fontaines, ch. xxziii. 
c. xiL, heritage toutes les teneures 

et totes les droitures qui nos eschi*- 
ent de p^re ou de m^re, on de autres 
personnes de nostre lignage, nis les 
conquez qu'il firent : m^ mueblee 
et cbateua n'apcloiis^nos pas heri- 
tage, encore nos soient il ch^ des 
devant dites persones per prometre. 
^/ait] The following words are 
added at the aide of the text, *« U iii» 
** point de recousse quai tengue de 
" 1 an et 1 ior." 



If in a claim of landed estate the party cited demand Cliapter 
a complete pedigree, he ought to have it, but he ought of ]]^^ 
to specify the pedigree. If a woman is dted before e«taie. 
the mayor, and she has a husband, he shall be heard 
in court, if he is there to defend himself, and if the 
husband is not in the country he shall be waited for 
during forty days and no more. 

% If estates are held at a chief rent, the heir may Chapter 
retain them, in case they are purchased, but this ^^ofaheri- 
not the ancient custom. tage held 

T In a purchase the matter stands thus : — The pur- J;^J^'* 
chaser ought to summon the heir' that he may pay 
the [purchase] money within seven days ; and if the 
heir pays the money, he may retain the thing sold, 
but if he thereupon does not pay the money, he has- 
no means of recovering the property, and the recovery 
ought to be made in this manner, for he who wishes 
to recover the property ought to exhibit all the money 
openly and ought to say, ** If there is not here suflSdent 
" money, I will furnish you immediately with all that 
" you have paid." 

f If any of the lineage is out of the country, afler 
that he returns, he may recover the thing within seven 
days ; but if he be more than a year and a day without 
making objection, it is fatal to his claim, but not 
amongst relations ; and this is not according to the 
ancient custom, for the Charter of the Franchise^ makes 
no exception of any person. 

' chitfrenf] Cens vas a chai^ 
upon land in the nature of a chief 
rent to the lord, as distingnished 
from land held k tezrage, that is, on 
payment of a certain portion of the 

' the heir^ The heir of the tene- 

ments had a right of pre-emption 
'nrithln seven days. 

3 the Charter of the Franchise} 
This was probably a rery ancient 
charter, long prior to that of qneen 



Chapitre gi cil qui avoet garenties dit en tau manere quant 
Qaine li iorz li ert assignez, ge y auray ceu que ge ponray, 
desacurfet* gj ^^ jor assijme yl nen trait nesrune crarentie et 

868 garens • i o o 

lou ser avant le ior ne les desacuse, yl est en defaute de sa 
auant prove et pert sa demande. Et sun dit * en tau manere 
on ior au mayor^ se ge ne puys aver mes garens au 
ior assigne, repetez* les moy avenir si tot ne les ha 
au ior assigne, il nest pas ainz les contraindra li mayres 
si cum desus est dit, et si ne sunt ou pays les garenties, 
eles seront attendues par xL iorz, et non plus. 

T Si li traieres daus garenties les tndet * au ior assigne, 
[foi. 7.] et li aversayres ni seit mie ne ne se seit desacusez so- 
ceablement,^ li traieres ha gaigne sa demande et li 
averseres est conveincuz sanz ceu que ia seent oi&s les 
guarenties. Ne U guarenz nont nule renz de celuy 
qui les ha trait, ne iornees, ne despens. 

Chapitre gj home est trovez en male faite il nen rent point 

Dome de gages^ mes amande la male faite® a lesme et a la 

*^^^e en ^eue des prodeshomes, et si tant est que cil, qui le 

trobet en la male faite, li vost oster sa pignore et il 

la deffent, lautre la li puet oster par force en tirant 

et en enpaignant^ sanz luy autrement batre; et si U 

maufaiteres force la pignore, yl deit rendre a lautre v. 

[fol. 7. 6.] sols de gage, et au seignor cuy envendra la clamor, se 

il est li mayres, lix. sols. 

Chapitre gi jjestes cheualines, si cum cheuau, egues* anes et 
De bestes anesses, muls et mules, et autres bestes cheualines sont 

qui Bont 

1 desacttsef] dis-accuse, that is, 

' 9un dit] fl*on dit. 
' repetez] repitez, accoides an de- 
lai, Roquefort. 

* i^aietj from the Latin tradere. 

* toceabUment'] sufficiently: 

' male faite] Cf. LesCoutumesde 
BeauToisis, eh. zzx. tod eh. lii. 
7 etqMignant] enpoignant 
" eguei] The word should be 
written eques, from the Latin equa, 
a mare. 



If he who vouches a guarantee says m this manner, Chapter 
'' When a day shall be assigned to me I will produce Q^^ho 
" him if I can ;" if on the day assigned he produces no does not 
one as a guarantee, and before the day has not excused guarantee 
him, he is in default of his proof, and loses his claim, ^ore- 
And if a person has said in this manner on a day to 
the mayor, '' If I cajmot have my guarantee on the day 
'' assigned, respite him for me to a future day if I cannot 
" produce him on the day assigned,** the mayor will not 
then constrain him as above, and if the guarantee is 
not in the country he shall be waited for during forty 
days^ and no more. 

If the producer of the guarantee produces him on 
the day assigned, and the adversary has not at all or 
has not sufficiently excused himself, the producer has 
gained his demand, and the adversary is convicted 
without the guarantee being heard. And the guarantee 
has nothing f5rom him who produces him neither jour- 
neys nor expenses. 

If a man is taken in trespass, he shall escape without Chapter x. 
a fine, but he shall make compensation for the trespass ^^n^ 
at the valuation and view of the prudhommes, and trespass, 
if it be, that he, who took him in the trespajss, 
seeks to take from him a pledge, and he resists, he 
may take it by force in dragging him along and in 
keeping hold of him without otherwise beating him, 
and if the trespasser forces away the pledge, he ought 
to restore to the other five shillings fine, and to the 
lord before whom the complaint is made, if he is the 
mayor, fifty -nine shillings. 

If beasts of the horse kind, such as horses, mares, Chapter xl 
male asses and female asses, male mules and female ^h^^^f^ 

' yoHy dojfi"} An essoin de ultra 
mare sunply, as for a common pil- 
grimage to Borne or to St. James, 
Iras allowed in the English courts 

for the period of forty days and ond 
flood and one ebb of the sea. BHt- 
ton, eh. yii. § 4. 


troTeesen trobees en male&ite. Si eles sunt enpaitrees oil cay 
malefkite. i^^j^^ este fSute ]& malefaite anra sua cheaoune beste v. 
sols de gage, ou li ert amandee la malefaite par lesme^ 
et par la veue de prodeshomes, lou quau yl vodra, mas 
il mcN3trera premerement par lo saigrement de sey on 
de son mesage ou viL iorz qui li ert assignez ou plait, 
or il trouba la beete fiadsant la malefaite. Mas ail ne 
puet mostrer la malefidte present ni par prodeahomes 
[foL8.] qui laient avant veue enquauque manere que eeu seit, 
si cum si a este fait empre^' et li prez seit &uchet' 
ainz que aifc este veue la malefaite, ou enquaucunque 
manere que seit que ne paresche^ la malefidte si que 
ne puchet estre veue, li apelez en ert quiptes de la 
demande, et eeu fut feit on plait de Bonin Durant et 
de Ouillame Durant. 

Y Si li sires de la beste la veaut affianoer, li querelans 
en deit ben prendre fiances aus costumes dau pais, e 
est atendre que la fiance est tengue, que li sires de la 
beste facet dreit au claim de la malefidte a lesgart dau 
pais, qui est taus. cum vos avom desus dit. 

Chapitre En totes maneres de bestes, se il ya garde qui les 
[fol. 8. 6.] guardet et eles entrent en male faite et isont prises, e 
Bes les rendent autre tau dreit cum les empaitrees' et li 


de bestes. ■ 

^ Uane] l*esme. From the Latin 

' empre^ en pre, from the Latin 

^/auchet] from the Latin falx. 

^pareseke] parer, paroitre, Boqae* 
fort. Apparechet occurs below. 

^ enpaitreai] empestrees, from the 
Latin impedire, se laisaer prendre 
en pi^ge, Bo^uefort. 



inulds, and oihet beasts of the horse kind, are found ^"^^^^ ^'^ 
trespassing, if they be trapped/ he against whom the 
.trespass has been made shall have upon each beast five 
shiUingB penalty, or the trespass shall be compensated 
for at the valuation and view of the prudhommes» 
whichever he prefers, but he must show first by the 
oath of himself or of his agent,' within seven days that 
shall be assigned to him to plead, where he found the 
beast making the trespass. But if he cannot show the 
trespass present, nor by prudhommes who have seen 
it, in whatever manner it may be, as for instance if 
the trespass has been made in a meadow, and the 
meadow has been mown before the trespass has been 
viewed, or in whatever manner it happens that the 
trespass is not evident, as it cannot be viewed, the 
defendant shall be acquitted of the claim, and this was 
adjudged in the suit of Benin Durant and Ouillaume 

f If the owner of the beast wishes to give sureties 
to the complainant, he ought to accept sureties ac- 
cording to i^e custom of the country ; and it is to be 
understood, that the sureties are bound, that the owner 
of the beast do justice to the claim of trespass according 
to the decision of the country as above said. 

With regard to all kinds of beasts, if there is a Chapter 
watchman who watches them, and they commit a tres- of beasts. 
pass, and are taken in the act, they are subject to the 

* trapped] The word empaitrees 
may mean simpl j, if they are taken, 
or if they allow themsclTes to be 

^ of his agenQ The phrase " of 
" himself or of his agent " occurs 
aboTe, and is frequently used 
throughout the MS. The practice, 
as apparently here allowed, for an 
attorney to take an oath for his 

principal seems not to have been 
allowed in the king's courts in Eng- 
land in Britton's time. **Et ausi 
'* sount ceux attoumez chalenge- 
" ables en nostre court, coment qe 
'* il ne sount pas en la Cristiene ley, 
" qi se profirent a fere la ley pur 
lour seignur, ou a jurer en lour 
almes." Britton, 1. vi. c. x. § 5. 








gage sunt apele gage de bele garde. Si olest boves on 
vache il deit ii. deners de gage, ou amande la male 
faiie. Si eat anes on aneaae, muls ou mule, il deit i. 
dener de gage ou amander la male &ite. Si sunt 
oveilles^ ou pores ou autres meimes bestes, le iii. 
devent i. dener de gage, ou amandent la malefaite. 

f Si sunt chen ou chat, ou noyrim dostau,' il nen 
devent point de gage, mes amander la male£Edte. Et est 
assaver que si oil qui sera li chens o li chaz lou veaut 
forbenir ' por la malefaite a la plainte, yl le puet bien 
fere et ia ne len fera autre amande. Mas la plainte lo 
[fol 9.] puet de qui est avant ocire ou faire ocire. 

- IT Si dizent li plus or que iaus ne geline,^ chapons, 
ne pouzins ^ aut despaice entor la maison a lor seignor 
ou a lor dame tant com lor sires ou lor dame porra 
geter i. of desus lo fest de sa meison dendreit lo 

* oueiUes] fin>m the Latin ovis, a 

^ noyrim dostau] Accordmg to 
La Somme Rural, torn, ii., tit. xl., 
a fine was ieviahle in certain diBtricts 
upon geese taken* as trespassers. 
" Item ponr le foue d'ojes, six den- 

** iers, iK)artant qu'il n'y en ait que 
** dix, si plus en j avoit, lors serait 
" Tamende de trois sols." 

'^/brfteiiir] forbannir. 

* gdine] galline, irom gallina, a 

^ pouzins] poussins, petits poulets. 



same law as if they had been trapped,^ and the penalty 
is called the penalty of good watching.' If the beast 
should be an ox or a cow, the owner ought to pay a 
penalty of two pennies, or make good the trespass. If 
it is a male ass or female ass, a male mule or a female 
mide, the owner ought to pay one penny or make good 
the trespass. If it be a sheep or a pig or other smaller 
beast^ the owner ought to pay one penny for three of 
them, or make good the trespass. 

f If it be a dog or « cat, or a house-goose,^ the 
owner ought not to pay a penalty, but make good 
the damage. And it should be understood that if he, 
to whom the dog or cat belongs, is willing to banish 
it for the trespass against the complainant he may 
well do so, and he shall not then be required to ihake 
any other compensation, but the complainant may if 
h6 pleases kill it or cause it to be killed. 

% The majority say that hens, capons, and chickens 
may wander free within the space around the house of 
their lord or their lady as far as the lord or the lady 
may throw an egg * over the roof of the house into the 
heather in every direction, but two couples of gables 

^ trapped] This translation de- 
rives support from the use of the 
word '* prises'' in the sense of 
** taken " immediately before it. 

3 good watching} The Gascon 
text may be '* bete garde," beast 

' a house-goose] or a ftirm-yaid 
goose, as distinguished firom a wild 
goose. Dostau is evidently intended 
for d'ostan, of the house, and in the 
absence of any other clew to the 
meaning of the word ** noyrim " the 
Editor has endeavotired to find a 
meaning in what may be the root of 
the word, namely oy or oye, a goose. 
It appears to have been not unusual 

to set a fine on geese as trespassers. 
In the Coutumes de Bourdeaux the 
following penalties are imposed upon 
** bestailtrouve en heritage d'autruy. 
'* Four chacun gros bestail quatre 
" sols toumois ; pour chievre deux 
sols toumois, autant du pore ; et 
pour chacun brebis payeront sem- 
blable somme, et des oyes, quand 
les fruits y sonts, et quand les 
firuits n'y seront, la moitie, et snr 
le tout le dommage d'avantage." 
^ an egg] This is a very singular 
privilege. The word " of" is from 
the Latin ovum, Fr. ceuf. Cobler is 
rendered by Boquefort accoupler. 









foQgier 6U tone senz, mas il y aura oete ^ donea oobks 
de chebrons^ et ert la fest toute nae. 

IT Si cil qui prendra la befite en sa malefaite la met 
en prison il ne la deit mie batre ne maumener' ne 
espleiter, neis^ que se il leepleitet, le ior que il lespleitera 
li deit doner a manger a son cost, mes autrement ne li 
dera ia a manger ae il set cuy est la beste, mas mandera 
au seignor de la beste que yl li enveit a manger en la 
prison ; et sil ne set cuy est la beste, il la fera crier^ et 
[fol. 9. &.] tant li dera a manger au cost de son seignur ; et si la 
beste mouret en la prison saaz defaute dau quereillaot, 
il nen amandera ia rens de la beste nest mains ert 
amandee au quereillant la roalefaite, ou en quauque 
manere que seyt que non apparechet la malefaite, si 
que ne puchet estre veue, li appelez en est quiptes de 
la demande et oeu fut fait on plaint de Bonin Durant 
et de Quillame Durant. 

Chapitre £n Oleron est costume longement maintenue et ap- 

Qaaiit\om P™^^ et dit hom quen si est en toute la conte de 

ie mariet. Peiters,' quant home et feme saiostent par mariage, li 

moble que cbacuns ha par doners say. et les deptes que 

deit et sunt degues a luy ou a le, et les coubrances^ 

[fol. 10.] que il feront apres ensemble, se aiostent comunaus entre 

aus dous ensemble par metie. Mas or posom ensi, vns 

horns prent vne feme la quau fame a avant mariee 

vne soe filhe, et a promis a la fiUe xz. libres eu 

manage ; or mort la femme, li parent dicele femme 

* arte] ote. ' eonie de Peiters] Peitarin ; Poi- 
^ cMmnui] eherrom, the gableR tiTin« qm est dn Poiton, Roqaefort. 

of a roof. * couhnmeta'i This ia explained 

' mautnener] maltraSter, Roque- afterwards to mean acquisitioiis made 

fort. ^ after marriage. They are tetmed 

* neia] unless, from the Latin " conquests '' in the Ooatome da 
nW. Pays de Poiton, tit. iii.*§ ccxiiii. 


shaJl be removed, and the roof of the house shall be 
entirely bare.^ 

IT If he, who takes a beast in the act of trespass, 
puts it in prison, he ought not to beat it nor to mal- 
treat it nor to work it, unless, if he works it, on the day 
on which he works it, he ought to give it to eat at 
his own cost, but otherwise he shall not give it to esift, 
if he knows to whom the beast belongs, but he shall 
send to the owner of the beast that he may send it 
food in prison ; and if he does not know to whom the 
beast belongs, he shall have it cried, and shall give it 
so much food at the charge of the owner ; and if the 
beast dies in prison without the fault of the complainant, 
he shall not make any compensation for the beast, nor 
shall any compensation be made to the complainant for 
the trespass, for in whatever manner it happen that the 
trespass is not evident because it cannot be viewed, the 
defendant is quit of all demands, and so it was decided 
in the suit of Bonin Durant and William Durant. 


In Oleron it is the custom long time maintained and Chapter 
approved, and they say that it is so in the whole county -^jj^^J^ 
of Poitiers,* when a man and woman are joined together man 
in marriage, the moveable goods which each party pos- 
sesses of its own, and the debts which each party owes 
or which are owing to each, and the acquisitions, 
which they shall make thereafter together, are united 
in community between them both together in moieties. 
Let us suppose a case. A man takes a woman to wife, 
which woman before her marriage had a single daughter, 
and she had promised her daughter twenty pounds for 
a marriage portion; thereupon the woman dies, the 


^ entirely bare'] so as to allow of 
the egg being thrown to a greater 

2 county of Poitiers'] This is in 
accordance with the provisions of 


the CoQtame da Pays de Foitoa, 
tit. iii., in Le Nouveaa Coutomier 
General, torn. iv. p. 797. The rule 
also prevailed at Rochelle. 



demandent a son mari que il 11 part la meite diceles 
XX. libres par la reson auant dite, daus mobiles et 
daus depies li mariz dit que ni deit rens metre, quar 
ceu nest par depte qui tort en moble, aiz tomet en 
heritage par ceu que ol est nomeement manages, et si 
la fille moret/ ou tomeret ^ au lignage ou au comande- 
ment de la fille come heritage, de ceu fut einsi iuge 
que li mariz ne deit rens metre a paier les dites 

[foi. 10.6.] xz. libres, quar eles sunt comme heritages. Quar sus- 
sauer est que denerz et moble einsi assis et donnez a 
femmes en lor manages simt come heritages, et neys 
les det tenir li mariz endere ^ com heritage, et si 
deperissent li mariz, les deit restituer dau son propre. 
Mas tant que la fenmie les li porroit bien donner et 
quipter, et toutes les autres mobles de sa femme puet 
ben li mariz fere sa uolente sanz parler en ia. I ceu 
fut fait et iuge on plait de loffi-ey Boysseau et de 
ses fillatres, les filz de ne lohanne Enchaize.^ Si fut 
ausi iuge on plait de dom Pere Chevalier, et deveit por 
sey et por ne Marie Chevalere Fahne, qui aveit este sa 
feme avant que il presist la dite Aleaiz,^ esteent com- 

[foi. II.] munau par meitie entre lo dit Fere Chevalier et les 
fillz de la dicte JUaxie, autresi li moble que la dite 
Aleaiz aveit par sey et par don Pere Vezos Fahn, qui 
avet este sis mariz® avant que ele presist^ don Pere 

^ moref] mourrait. 

* tameref] devolve to. 
' endere] entier. 

* de ne Johawne EnchMze"] de 
n^ Johaime Enobaize, the latter 
name being that of the fkmily of the 
wife before marriage. 

* ia diU Ateaiz] The passage is 

probably an extract from a jadg- 
ment, in which the name of Alice 
had previously occurred. 

" sis mctriz'] from the Latin suns 

7 presist'] pressist : prit, Roque- 



relations of the woman demand from her husband that he 
should share with them the half of this twenty pounds, for 
the reason above said of [sharing in common] the move- 
ables and the debts. The husband says that he ought 
not to pay anything, for that this is not a debt, which 
is a lien on the moveables, but has become a heritage 
by reason that there has been .a marriage, and if the 
daughter died it would descend to her lineage, or 
according to the direction of the daughter as a heritage. 
Thereupon it was adjudged that the husband ought not 
to pay any part of the twenty pounds, for they are 
as it were a heritage.^ Whence it is to be understood 
that money and moveables, so settled and given to a 
woman at her marriage, are as it were a heritage, and 
the husband ought to keep them entire as a heritage ; 
and if they perish, the husband ought to restore them in 
full. But as long as the wife can well give them and 
release them, they as well as all the other moveables of 
his wife are in the power of the husband to do with 
them as he pleases without speaking to her. And this 
was done and adjudged in the suit of Joffrey Boysseau 
and his stepson, the son of Johanne Enchaize. It was 
also so adjudged in the suit of Don Pierre Chevalier, 
that the moveables which he had for himself and for 
Marie Chevalere Fahne, who had been his wife before 
he took the said Alice to wife, were common in moieties 
between the said Pierre Chevalier and the sons of the 
said Marie to the exclusion of the moveables, which 
the said Alice had for herself and for Don Pierre Vezos 
Fahn, who had been her husband before she took for 

^ a heritage] The wife might 
have giyen the twenty potindB in 
her Ufetime ; but, as she made no 
gift, the money remained part of 
her estate at her death and went to 
her heirs. 

' Fahne'} It would appear from 
the husband's surname being after- 

wards written Fahn that the termi- 
nalion of the surname of the wife 
underwent an inflexion in Gascon, 
as is the practice in the Polish lan- 
guage. Thus the surname of Ponia- 
towski in the Polish language in the 
case of females becomes Ponia- 

s 2 



Chevaler, estiant communau par meitie entre la dite 
Aleaiz et les enfTanz audit P. Vezos et essi les does 
meitez, cest asaaver la parfcie dau dit P. Chevaler et la 
partie de la dite Aleaiz estiant communau par meite 
entre lo dit P. Chevaler et les enfanz de la dite Aleaizu 
Si donques saviant dire razon est contre les vnes parties 
vers les autres de dom P. CShevaler ou des autres con- 
venances, quil en oussant ^ fait li vns vers les autres. 
Quar de ses mobles et de ses coubrances puet on fere 
sa planere volunte en- doner, en aliener, et en toute 
autre manere. 

[fol. 11.6.] ^ Lou terz* de son patrimoyne puet hom doner en 
ausmone. Vere mas li plus ors dient que ce est dome 
qui se donet en religion. Tout son patrimoyne puet 
hom vendre efc doner en les deners ceu dit hom, mes ceu 
nest pas de lanciane costume, aynz ne le deust home 
vendre fors por son grant besoig, et encore neys tant 
cum lignage lou vouguist porveir souceablement segont 
sey et retenir leritage. 

If Si pere et mere ensemble marient lor filz o lor fille, 
ia li mariez ne naura empres partie entor lo lignage ne 
on chozes mobles et non mobles dau pere ne de la 
mere, fors tant com il en doneront, si domques nest en 

[fol. 12.] convenant au mariage, et autre tau die daus chozes 
au pere sil mariet son fil ou sa fille apres la mort de 
la mere, et autretau est de la choze a la mere si les 
mariet apres la mort dau pere. 

^ oussant] Probably a mis- 

2 Lou terz] This was more libe- 
ral than the usage of Vermandois 
in the reign of Philip III., to which 
Pierre de Fontaines refers, ch. xxxiii. 
§ xii. ** Le peres puet, par nostte 
" usage, lessier le quint de son iri- 

*' tage, s*il tient Teritage firanche- 
<* ment, ou ^ ccns, ou h. terrage, 
" m^s, sor terre qui tient a jostise, 
'< ne quit-je, quMl puisse riens les- 
" sier.*' Cf Les Coutumes de Beau- 
voisis, ch. xii. § 3, where the same 
limitation of the power of bequest 
was maintained. 


her husband Don Pierre Chevalier, which were common 
in moieties between the said Alice and the children 
of the said Pierre Vezos, and thereupon the two moieties, 
that is to say, the part of the said Pierre Chevalier and 
the part of the said Alice were common by moieties 
between the said Pierre Chevalier and the children of 
the said Alice. If therefore the question is to be de- 
cided between the one party and the other, touching 
the rights of Don Pierre Chevalier and the other 
courtesies, which they must exhibit one towards the 
other, Don Pierre Chevalier may of the said moveables 
and the said acquisitions do his full will in giving 
them away or in alienating them in any other manner.^ 

IT A man may give away a third of his patrimony 
in alms ; but the majority say, that what is given for 
religious purposes is so given. A man may sell all his 
patrimony and give it in the latter case, it is said ; but 
this is not the ancient custom; accordingly, a man 
ought not to sell his patrimony except he be in great 
want; and even not so, if the heirs are wilting to 
provide him with what is suitable to him, and to retain 
the inheritance. 

IT If father and mother together give away in mar- 
riage their son or their daughter, the married party 
shall not have any part in right of inheritance of the 
moveable or immoveable property of the father or 
mother, except so much as they shall give him or her, 
if it be not in the contract of marriage ; and the same 
is the case with regard to the property of .the father, 
if he gives away in marriage his son or his daughter 
after the death of the mother ; and the same is the case 
with the property of the mother, if she gives away her 
son or her daughter in marriage after the death of the 

^ manner'] A portion of the decree of the court in this case appears to 
conclude the paragraph. 



Chapitre Tote pucele ne fait de oscle ^ a son mari, et 11 mariz 
De oMle ^^ ^^^^ oscle, li autre se font entreaus oscle, et li mariz 
a sa feme, et la feme a son mari. Et si quant li 
mariz est mors est dopte de oscle a lautre, et ne puet 
estreprouez, li vns aura de la choze au mort osde a 
esguart de prodes homes segont ceu que la choze eit. 
f E entre les gentis hommes * est einsi, que si li 
gentis hom mort, sa femme aura de leritage au chevaler 
lo ters en oscle, sil ne lia assis autre oscle. 

[fol. 12.6,] ^ Si oscles enpeiret en la tenue de celuy qui le 
tendra, li lignages, a cuy il deura tomer apres la mort 
dau teneor, lo i poet tolir,^ car en oscle cilz qui tent 
ma fors le use fruit,* et est assavoyr que osde tomet 
a lignage einsi com il est alore que il eschiet. Mas 
assauer est que li dauant dit Helies de Fors^ qui fut 
evesques de Xainctes, ob lasentement des prodeshomes 
mua que li heir on li commandement de celuy qui 

* osde] Ousclage is the ordinary 
French word. ** Dotem non uxor 
** marito, sed uxori maritus offert, 
" Tacitus, German, ch. 18." Some 
French writers distinguish ousclage 
from douaire, the former being given 
upon solemnization, the latter being 
acquired upon consummation. "Dou- 
" aires est aquis a la feme si tost 
** comme loiax manage et com- 
" paignie camele est fete entre li et 
** son mari, et autrement non." 
Ck)utumes de Beauvoisis, ch. xiii. 
§25. On the other hand, " ous- 

** clage ** is recognised in ch. xv. of 
the Customs of Bochelle as distin- 
guished from douaire. XjC Nouveau 
Coutumier General, tom. iy. p. 858. 

^gentis homes'] nobles as distin- 
guished from roturiers. Gentis 
homs de lignage are mentioned in 
the Conseil de Pierre de Fontaines as 
distinguishable from frans hommes, 
who were such by tenure. 

3 tolir'] from the Latin toUere. 

•* use fruit] the usus et fructos, 
but not the fee simple of the estate. 



Every maiden does not bring a marriage portion ^ to Chapter 
her husband, but the husband gives a dowry to his wife ; of dower, 
others make a marriage settlement between themselves, 
the husband on the wife and the wife on the husband. 
And, if when the husband is dead, there is doubt as 
to the dowry of the woman, and it cannot be proved, 
the widow shall have of the property of the deceased 
a dowry according to the decision of the prudhommes, 
in proportion to what his property shall be. 

f And between gentlemen tiie rule is this, that if a 
gentleman dies, his wife shall have the third of the 
estate of a knight as her dowry, if he has not settled 
on her another dowry. 

T If the dowry becomes deteriorated in the tenancy 
of the person who shall hold it, the heirs to whom the 
dowry ought to devolve after the death of the holder 
may take possession of it, for in dowry the holder has 
nothing except the usufnict ; and it is to be understood 
that the dowry devolves to the heirs as soon as it 
falls in. But it is to be understood that the aforesaid 
Helies de Fors,^ who was bishop of Saintes, with the 
assent of the prudhommes, made a change, that the 
heir, with the authority of the person who holds the 

* marriage portion^ The word 
OBcle is derived from osculum, the 
kiss given by the husband to the 
wife immediately after marriage, and 
it properly signified the gift made 
by the husband to the wife at that 
time. " Solet sponsus interveniente 
'' oscalo res donare sponse " are the 
words of the Contome da Rochelle. 
The word '' oscle " seems to be used 
in this paragraph to signify the mar- 
riage portion of a bride, or the 
dowry given by her husband. Cf. 
Cod. Theodos. 1. iii. tit. v. § v. De 

^ the aforesaid Helies de Fors"] 

This form of expression, as the 
bishop has not been named before, 
may be attributed to the circum- 
stance that the clause was copied 
from a document in which the bishop 
was previously named. He appears 
as the thirty-ninth bishop of Saintes 
in the list of bishops given in Ghillia 
Christiana, tom. ii. p. 1074, ^having 
succeeded Pontius III. in 1267. 
William de Forz of Oleron, who was 
one of the admirals of king Rich- 
ard I.'s fleet for the relief of the 
Holy Land, may have been an an- 
cestor of the bishop. He was the 
first earl of Albemarle. 



tent loscle deivent aver apres luy la partie ons fruys 
quo li aureit vns autres qui aureit coetive ^ loscle ; quar 
gaigneres ne pert reus. Et est assauer que fruz apele 
on ^n Oleron en terres et en vignes et en arbres, ceu 
qui aparest en un Marz* decique en auant que icil 
[foi. 13,] fruit seyent coilli. En salines est fruiz la sau icele 
qui parest ons ayres,* et icele qui en est traite. • 

f Quant gent se aiostent par mariage, si li vns deaus 
ha davant vne choze achatee ou paumeiee,* ia il ne lait 
paiee, ainz la paiet apres^ horn dit que ceu est coubrance 
propre de domaine a celuy qui layeit davant achatee. 



Qui vent 
son heri- 

Si horn vent de ses heretages et apres encoubret 
autres, horn dit que i quil autres sunt coubrances. 
Mas ceu nest past de lanciane costume, que ainz de- 
guist * estre faite recompensacions des heritages coubrez 
en tant comme il aveit vendu des autres. 

f Si horn demandeit ob le principau damages, il deit 
prover par guarenties le demages, mas ceu nest pas de 
[fol. 18.6.] lanciane costume que ainz le soleit prover par son 

f Feme qui ha son mari ne puet negun convenant 
fere sanz le leser ^ de son mari, si domques nest femme 
qui soyt apertement marchande. 

Chapitre Li quatre seignor ^ nont point de cort en- Oleron de 
DauB iiii. nule choze. Si que monsire Johan Vidaus dist davant 

seignors. ; 

^ coetive] cousti^er, coutiver : cul- 
tiver, Roquefort. 

2 Marz\ The first day of March 
was the commencement generally of 
the close season in France, which 
lasted in Gascony till the day of the 
Nativity of the Virgin, 8 Sept. 
Nouveau Coutumier General, Paris, 
1724, torn. 1, p. 901. 

' cfM eyres'] ons from the Latin 

* paumeiee] Faulm^e : march^ con- 

clu en se donnant mutnellement la 
main, Roquefort 

^ deguist] Frobahly a miswriting 
for requist 

• feser] laisser. 

' Li quatre teignor] The four 
lords seem to have discharged duties 
somewhat similar to those of the 
four knights of the Great Assize in 
England, hut there is no account in 
the MS. of their appointment They 
seem to have been a distinct body 
from the echevins. 


dowry land, ought to have after him the part of the 
crops which the other would have had if he had 
cultivated the dowry land ; for the cultivators lose 
nothing. And it is to he known, that in Oleron the 
term crops is used in regard to lands and vines and 
trees, whatever is apparent in the month of March, 
from that time until the crop is gathered In salt 
marshes the crop is the salt which appears every year, 
and which is collected from them. 

f When persons are united in marriage, if one of 
them has beforehand bought or contracted to buy a 
thing, and has not paid for it, and afterwards pays 
for it, it is called an acquisition (coubrance) proper to 
the domain of the person who had beforehand pur- 
chased it. 

IT If a man sells some of his heritages and after- Chapter 
wards acquires others, the others are spoken of as ac- He who 
quisitions (coubrances); But this is not according tof^^^ 
the ancient custom, which formerly required compensa- 
tion to be made for the estates acquired in proportion 
to the value of the other property sold by him. 

IT If a man demands damages with the principal sum, 
he ought to prove by warrantors his damages ; but this 
was not the ancient custom, as formerly it was usual 
for him to prove it by his oath. 

% A woman who has a husband alive cannot make 
any covenant without the leave of her husband, unless 
she be a woman who is openly a trader. 

The four lords have no court of any thing in Oleron. Chapter 
According to what Monsieur Johan Vidans said before q^^^^'^^^ 




les prodeshomes a Saint Andre/ que il aveit yen au 
Chastea ^ vne bataille qui i voguit estre faite, et apres 
en fut paiz, et li quatre seignur en demanderent 
lo gage sus lo conveincu et diseant que il en devei- 
ent aver la cort ; adonques fut iuge que il naveent 
point le cortjsi com nos avom dit en Oleiron, ne 
[foi. 14.] naveant sus le convencu de bataille fors i. dener de 
gage. Mas li reis por ceu, que il esteit sires de* la 
cort, y aveit lix. sols de gage. Et est assauer que li 
gages est sub celuy qui done danson^ por la paiz, ou 
qui la requert premerement, ou quipte son auersere de 
la bataille. 



En saigrement iuge davaut lo mayor, si olen est fait 
Desire- P*^^' ^^ quatre seignor iont meable * de saigrementage 
sus celuy qui le devet fere, et sil nen rent la meable 
ainz que il ische fors de la cort, li quatre seignur ob 
lou meable iant Ix. sols de gage. Ne portant nos ne 
disons mie que de cens reconoguz que li iiii. seignor 
ben nen aient la cort de toute choze de quey vns 
veisins laureit vers lautre. 

* Saint Andre'] Probably a Til- 
lage or a parisb in Oleron. 

2 Chastea'] Chateau. The chief 
town in the Isle of Oleron is at 
present called Chateau. 

^ dauson] This word is evidently 
a miswriting for ranson, i.e., ran- 
9on, ransom. 

* meable] This word is probably 
miswritten. As it stands, it may 
be interpreted as " meuble du sere- 

" ment," namely, the various articles 
required for the due swearing of a 
party or of a witness. It may have 
been a relic of an earlier practice, 
when the wager of battle was al- 
lowed, and when the four lords were 
entitled to the armour and other 
equipment of the vanquished party, 
as reference is made in the text to 
peace having been made as a con- 
dition precedent. 



the prudhomraes at St Andre,^ that he had seen at the 
Chateau a battle which was publicly wagered, and after- 
wards there was peace, and the four lords demanded a 
fee from the party convicted, and said that they ought 
to hold the court ; it was then adjudged that they had 
no jurisdiction, as we have said, in Oleron, having only 
against the party convicted in the battle a right to a 
fee of one penny. But the king, because he is lord of 
the court, has fifty*nine shillings as his fee. And it is 
to be understood that the fees fall upon him who pays 
ransom for peace or begs for peace first, or quits his 
adversary in the field. 

In the oath adjudged before the mayor, if peace is Chapter 
made, the four lords have the apparel* of the oath from Qf S^' 
him who ought to make it, and if he does not render oath, 
the apparel before he goes out of court, the four lords 
with the apparel shall have sixty shillings penalty. 
Nevertheleas, we do not say, that of a chief rent recog- 
nised the four lords may not hold a court in respect 
of every thing of which one neighbour* may make 
claim against another. 

' at St. Andre'] The Breton and 
Norman versions of the Kolls of 
Oleron have at the end a clause 
attesting their authenticity : '* Tes- 
*^ moing le seel de Tlsle Dauleron 
" estahli aux contractz de la dicte 
'^ isle le jour du Mardi apr^s la 
" feste Saint Andre Ian mil deux 
" cens soixante six bus." 

2 the apparet] The Editor has 
great douhts as to the translation 
being in accordance with the trne 
meaning of the text, as there may 
he some blunder of the scribe. The 
Editor's idea is that certain 'Mn- 
''stmmenta sacramenti" may have 
been required, such as relics, *' ista 

" sancta,*' or the Holy Gospels, &c., 
upon which the parties were to be 
sworn, and that it was. within the 
province of the four lords to pro- 
vide what was necessary and to 
require in return a fee from the 
party or parties who had to take 
the oath. 

3 neighbour] Mr. Augustin Thierry 
states that at Bayoune, to which 
king John granted a charter after 
the model of that of Kouen, in 
A.D. 1215, the members of the 
governing body, usually styled 
jur^s, were called ** voisins," neigh- 
bours. Histoire du Tiers Etat, p. 



[fol.14.6.] f Si plusors homes, cest assaver duy ou trey ou 
Chapitre quatre, ont fet vu meffait a autre efc il sen clamet, si 
li plaiz est de fons de terre chescun respondra par sey, 
ia seit eeu que la plainte les apelet en tau manere: 
Tu me feis tau meffet et itel autre ou autres, et det 
bien nomer les autres. Si il iest requis en cort, et 
iceu fut iuge on plait de Helies Gignont^ et de Pamele 
la Costurere. Mas si on plait de fons de terre, i. home 
apelet vn autre, et plusors ob luy, li vns ne respon- 
<lra pas sanz lautre ni de depte ni de convenant de 


homes ont 
fet un 

Chapitre Si li servant^ dim prodome est eitez, et sis sires lou 
Quand li veaut desacuser, la desacusacion ne vant reus plus 
servantdun que dun autre, ni ne lou puet metre li servanz en luec 

prodome •■ o* i* • j* '^ :i »± • i* 

est chjBz. de sey. Si b sires ne feseit dreit ausi cum li servanz 

[fol. 15.] meismes ou vns autres, et ceu fut iuge on plait Deste 

ne le Batart, et de don loban Guillem et de Pere lou 

servant, por que son servant ne tenget rens de luy de 

que il seit si horn ^ en autre manere. 

Chapitre Hom puet establir ben et metre vn autre en luec 
de sey • a tout son plet ou a aucimes des iornees en la 
cort ; maa il convent que li iuges soit presenz et li 
aversaires et autrement non ne le puet- mie fere; et 
convient que cil que il establira en luec de sey facet 
autretant com il feret en la cort. 

De mestre 
autre pur 

Chapitre Hom puet bien avoer garior en la cort, et si hom 
De avoer ^voet il deit avoer ior par espace de vii. iors de amener 

garior. son guarior, et sil ne laraenet au ior, ou ne le desacuset 
[fol. i#. 6.] 

* servant"] This word Is trans- 
lated hy Roquefort esclave and do- 
mestique. " Servage ** was a chief 
rent paid hy serfs to their lord. 

^ 81 fum] suus homo, his Tassal ; 
hence homage. 

^ en luec de sei/] in loco suo, as 
attorney or proctor. 


If several persons, that is to say, two or three or Chapter 
four, have committed a trespass against another, and he when 
complains of it, if the suit is about land, each shall several 
answer for himself according as the complainant makes commit a 
a claim against them in this manner : You have com- trespass, 
mitted such a trespass against me, and such a one such 
another trespass, and he ought to name the others, if 
it is required in court, and this was adjudged in the 
suit of Helies Gignont and Parnell La Costurere. But 
if the suit is about land, and one man charges another 
and several with him, the one shall not answer without 
the others, neither for debt, nor covenant of sale. 

f If the servant ^ of a prudhomme is cited, and his Chapter 
lord wishes to excuse him, his excuse is of no more when^the 
value than the excuse of any other person ; nor can servant of 
he put the servant in the place of himself, if the lord hcSnme is 
does not do justice as well as the servant himself to ci*^- 
another ; and this was adjudged in the suit of £stene 
le Batart and Don Johaa Guillielme and of Pierre his 
servant, because his servant did not hold any thing 
of him, whereby he was his vassal in an other 

A man may well appoint and put another pei*son chapter 
in place of himself for the whole suit, or for certain^ "• 
days in court; but it is proper that the judge bestitute 
present, and the adverse party, and otherwise he cannot ™^n'in 
do it; and it is proper that he whom he shall appoint one's place, 
in place of himself do every thing as he himself would 
do, if present in court. 

A man may vouch a warrantor in the court; and Chapter 


if a man so vouches a warrantor, he ought to have to vouch 
a day after the space of seven days to produce his*^^" 

^ servant"] The term " servant '' 
is rendered hy Roquefort " domes- 
tique," which seems to he the mean- 

ing of the word in this place, as 
the context implies that he was not 
the vassal of his master. 



souceablement, on si li garieres ^ est taus que il ne veuget 
en meisme cort fere dreit de oeu que il est avoez a 
garior, cil qui lou avoet est oonvaincuz de la demande, 
et en est en la merci au maior de lix. sols. E est 
assaver que en desacuser guarior deit fere luges meismes 
dreit, que il feret quant horn desacuset ses guarenties.* 

Chapitre T Si hom vent sau a autre sanz terme deviser au 

o ^™h pi*®ii^®> li venderes li deit guarder de sique li achateres 

Tent sau la i demant, si domques li venderes ne semoUt lachateor, 

a autre. ^^ j^j^ j^^j^ semondre par seignorie ® que il prange sa 


Si la sau est vendue a terme devise dau prendre, si 
[foi. 16.] ]i achateres ne la prent dedens le terme, li venderes la 
puet vendre a autre et fere en son profit, et rendre a 
lachate or lefuer^ que la sau valeit, sil en a agu' les deniers 
au terme devise ; mas si alore que li venderes la revendra 
apres lo terme, la sau ne vaut tant com li venderes laveit 
vendue avant, li achateres lou ideit entermer, et iceu 
iuia li reys Richarz en Ian que les saus furent cheres, 
quant dom Pere Dorz estoyt prevost Doleron. 

Chapitre Enfes ^ qui est de menor eage de xv. anz puet de- 
D ^^^Siit °^®^^®^ ^ autre demande de heretage, mes non pas des 
medrede- autres chozes, et hom ne puet rens demander aluy. 


^ gcuieres'] The nominative case 
of the sabstantiTe, of which the ac- 
cusative case is garior. 

^ guarenties'] A garior was a 
warrantor of title, a guarantee was 
either a surety for appearance or for 
the performance of some act 

' seignorie] through the court of 
the lord 

* filer] from the Latin forum, 
market price. 

' agu] aquiait, fh>m the Latin 

* Enfes] enfans. 



warrantor ; and if he does not produce him on the 
day assigned to him, or does not excuse him sufficiently, 
or if the warrantor •is such that he will not in the 
same court do right to him whom he is vouched to 
warrant, he who has vouched him shall be convicted 
of the claim, and shall be at the mercy of the mayor 
to the amount of fifty-nine shillings. But it is to be 
understood that in excusing a warrantor, the judge 
ought to administer the same law as he would do when 
a man excuses his guarantees. 

f If a man sells salt to another without fixing a Chapter 
term for him to take it, the seller ought to keep it when a 
until the purchaser claims it,, unless the seller summons ™^ ^* 
the purchaser, and makes him be summoned by the another, 
seignory to take his salt 

IT If the salt is sold for a term fixed to take it, if 
the purchaser does not take it within that term, the 
seller may sell it to another, and make profit of it, 
and render to the purchaser the sum which the salt 
was worth, if he had received the money at the time 
fixed ; but if at the time when the seller resells it, 
after the expiration of the term fixed, the salt is not 
worth as much as the seller would have sold it for 
beforehand, the purchaser ought to make the deficiency 
good; and so decided king Richard, in the year in 
which the salt was dear, when Don Pierre Dorz was 
provost of Oleron^ 

An infant which is of less age than fifteen years* Chapter 
may claim of another a claim of inheritance, but not of an in- 
of other things, and no one can claim anything from **°* ^®" 

low sffe. 

> king BichariT] Bichard the First, 
king of England and dnke of Aqoi- 

* fifteen years'] that is, fifteen years 
complete. Pierre de Fontaines, 
c. ziy., describes the soos-aagi^ i(8 

" oil qui ont meins de xy, ans." 
Philippe de Beaumanoir, c. cxli., is 
more precise, as he states qainze 
ans acompUs to be the limit of 



Mas ne pero li enfes ^ dera fiances autres que sey home 
[fol. 16.6.] soceant, que ceu qui adonques sera fet ob luy prenge fin 
a touz temps. 

denfant de 

Tvit II enfant de lome de la commune sont en la 
guarde de la commune, tant com il sunt en bail de lome, 
et neys la feme de lome de la commune, tant com li 
mariz est vivanz. Mas apres la mort du mari si enfant,* 
sil ne sont deage, sunt en la guarde de la commune. 
Alas, se il sunt deage, il ne simt pas de Ja commune, sil 
ne la iurent. 

Chapitre Dau bail son pere o de son autre tutor ist hom quant 

Du baU ®st mariez, ou quant li est sa choze bailhee a gouemer ; 

dau pere. et deit li estre livree davant seignur, ou quant il est 
deage et se depart de son pere ou de son tutor par son 
gre melsme. 

Li Ysefruit dau bail est touz au tutor, mas il deit tenir 

[fbl. 17.] les affiemens ^ sanz emperer, et si li affiement enpeireent 
en sa tenue, il est tenuz de lamander, et endera ou segur- 
tances * ou fiances au lignage de ceiuy qui ert en bail 
davant la seignorie, et autretau fera o Ion on com- 
mencement cil qui deit aver bail, ainz quil ou ait si 
hom le voy t tau que il ne seit pas soceant * a restituer 
les chozes que il aureit en bail, si eles enpireent en sa 
main. Ne pero moble par ceu, que cest choze qui se 
degaste, si il empirent ou se degastent en eaus meismes, 
il ne simt pas restitu. 

^ enfes"] from the Latin infans. 
3 si enfant'] sui infantes. • 
^ affiemens] fixtures. 

^ segurtances] segurte, assurance, 
^ soiearU] sufficient, responsible. 


the infant. But nevertheless the infimt may give 
other securities, that> when he be sufficiently a man^ 
what shall be done with his consent shall take effect 
for all time. 

Every infant of a man of the commune is in the Chapter 


guardianship of the commune, as long as he is under Of the 
the man as trustee,^ and not of the wife of the man e^?^^^- 

' , ., , Bhip of an 

of the commune as long as the husband is living. But infaut 
after the death of the husband, the infant, if he is not "^°'- 
of age, is in the guardianship of the commune ; but if 
he is of age he is not of the commune, if he has not 
taken the oath. 

A man is free ^ from the control of his father, as Chapter 
trustee, or of his other tutor, when he is married, or q^ ^^' 
when his property is committed to him to manage ; father as 
and it ought to be delivered to him before the lord, ^™®**®' 
or when he is of age and quits his father or his tutor 
of his own accord. 

The usufruct of a trust is with the tutor, but he 
ought to maintain the fixtures without waste ; and if 
the property in trust suffers waste in his keeping, he 
is bound to make it good, and he shall give securities, 
or find sureties to the heirs of him, whose property 
shall be in trust before the seignory ; and he who is 
» to have the trust, shall do as much before he receives 
it, if it is seen that he is not sufficient to make good 
the property which he will hold in trust, if it dete- 
riorates in his hands ; nevertheless moveables, by reason 
that they are things which are perishable, if they dete- 
riorate or perish of themselves, they are not required 
to be restored. 

1 as trustee'} The meaning pro- 
bably is that as the father was en- 
titled to have the custody and 
management of any property belong, 
ing to his son, as trustee for him, 

VOL. 11. 

during his minority, so the commune 
was during such time guardian of 
the person of the minor. 
^free"] emancipated. 


f Est assaver que feme puet ben aver bail^ ei lou 
bailler en sa vie, ou laisser ley empres sa mort a 

Y Si home apelet autre que il a batu en chemiD,ol 
nia point de guarde, par ceu que chemins sont chozes 
[fpl. 17.&.] ^oi^^u^^us > ™^s ^ ^1 dit que il lait batu en terre, 
en vigne, ou en mares, ou en autre affiement/ olia 
guarde ; et ceu fut iuge on plait de Availle et de lohan 
Meynart Larbalester. 

Chapitre Si li edifices de vn veisin chet so dosement* einsi 
Si edifice Q"® avant ne menacet point de mine, si il en cele 
portet cheete ^ empiret ledifice de son porchain * veisiu, li sires 
de la choze cheete nen amandera ia rens a lautre vei- 
sin, quar ceu est cas daventure ; mas si la chose mena- 
coyt mine avant que ele cheist, li vesins porchains, ou 
cil qui tendroit la mine, deit lo seignor dicele choze 
fere amonester par seignorie^ que il amandet la chose, 
einsi que ele ne li facet domage; et apres fete cele 
[fol. 18.] monicion, si la choze chet et fait demage a lautre 
veisin, li pires de la choze li est tenuz restituer. 

% Si massons ^ ou autres edifior fait cost o autre 
edifice apreffait, 11 lou deit tenir L an et i. ior coste 
sanz enpirement. Si dedens Ian et le ior empiret ou 
chet li edifices sanz force de gent ou de bestes, li 
edifieres deit ledifice amander a son propre cost et re- 
stituer le demage. 

% Si horn est apelez de depte et il neet^ la depte 
toute, li iuges li deit demander se il lendeit rens, et 

' affiement] private property. 

* doaemenf] doucement. 
' cheeteli chute. 

* porchain'] prochain. 

' moMona] ma90ii, from the Latin 
^ neet] niet. 


f It is to be understood that a woman may hold a 
trust, and transact the trust during her life^ and leave 
it after her death to another. 

IT If a man accuses another that he has built on a 
high way, he can have no summons against him, because 
high ways are things in common ; but if he says that 
he has built on a field, in a vineyard, or on a marsb, 
or on any other private property, he shall have a sum- 
mons, and this was adjudged in the suit of Availle 
and of Johan Meynart Larbalester.^ 

If the building of a neighbour falls so gently that it Chapter 
does not threaten to tumble down, and if in falling if abulia 
down it damages the building of the next neighbour, ing tum- 
the owner of the building which has tumbled down * .^^"* 
shall not make any compensation to the other neigh- 
bour, for this is a case of accident; but if the thing 
has threatened to tumble down before it has fallen, the 
next neighbour or the tenant of the falling house ought 
to have had the owner of the house admonished by the 
seignory to repair the building, so that it shall not cause 
damage ; and after the warning so given, if the build- 
ing falls and does damage to the other neighbour, the 
owner of the building is bound to restore the damage. 

IT If a mason or other builder makes a cottage or 
other building at a profit, he ought to keep it for a * 
year and a day at his own cost without deterioration. 
If within a year and a day the building deteriorates^ 
or fisdls down without violence from man or beast, the 
builder ought to repair the building at his own cost 
and restore tbe damage. 

f K a man is accused of debt and denies the debt 
altogether, the judge ought to demand of him if he 

^ Larbalester] This may be a term i being famous for his use of the 
descriptive of Johan Meynart as | cross-bow. 

T 2 



il endoit respondre combien il endoit, et se il dit, ge 
ne len doy^ riens, ge lay bien paie, il doit prover la 

Cbapitre Si hoiu qui nest pas de la commune pkudeet 
rfoi!^r8.&.] Savant lo mayor, et U plaiz se &cq taus que si la 
Be home .plainte qui nest pas de la commune ifiist escheguz,^ li 
?a*com-^^ maires nia point de gage, car cil ne a point de dreit 
mune. fors sus lou lure; ma se il se clame derechef au 
mayor, li mayres ne li fera ia point de dreit, decique 
il eit paiee loncheite.* 

f Si hom loge mayson a autre, tuit li bien que cil 
qui loget la mayson metra et menera dedens sent tengu 
por lo logier, einsi que cil qui loge la mayson ne paiet 
les deners aus termes devisez, cils qui la li aura logee 
puet les chozes prandre et metre aiUors, ou former la 
mayson et encloyre les dedens; et quant il les aura 
guardees tant comme il deit, ceu est assaver par vii 
iors, il puet fere la costume dau pais si cum est de-sus 
[fol. 19.] dit, cest a dire vendre les ob conge de la seignorie ; et 
si cil qui loget la maison veet les pignores a prendre^ 
ou la maison afermer, li loianz ipuet metre force par 
sa propre auctorite sans hom blecier; et si li logeres 
lo forcet, il li deit amander la force ob gage de v. sols 
vers luy, ob amande uera la seignorie. 

IT Si cilz qui loget la maison est achief ® de son terme, 
et la maison remanget empetree daus pignores, il en 
deit amander au loyant lo demage que il en recevta. 

1 day'] doit. 

3 eicheguz'] failed, from escheir 
or esdiier ; tomber. 
* derechef] a second time. 

* lencheite'] the forfeit or penaltj. 
^pignores a prendre"] pignorare, 
that is, to seize the goods as secnritj. 
' aehief^ h chief, au fin. 


owes anytiiing, and he ought to reply how much he 
owes ; and if he says that I owe him nothing, I have 
paid him well, he ought to prove the payment. 

If a man who is not of the commune brings a suit Chapter 
before the mayor, and the suit is so brought that if the ^^"^"" 
plaintiff who is not of the commune is cast, the mayor who is not 
has no security, for he has no right to exact security ^^^^^6. 
except he be sworn ;^ if the party complains again to 
the mayor, the mayor shall not administer justice to 
him, until he shall have paid what he has forfeited in 
the previous suit. 

Y If a man hires a house from another, all the goods, 
which the party who hires the house shall place and 
bring within it, are liable for the hiring, so that if he 
who hired the house does not pay the money at the 
times specified, he who has let the house may take the 
goods, and place them elsewhere, or shut up the house 
and enclose them inside; and when he has kept them 
as long as he ought, that is to say for seven days, he 
may follow the custom of the country as has been 
above explained, that is to say sell them with the 
leave of the seignory ; and if he who let the house 
wishes to take pledges or to shut up the house, the 
lessor may use force by his own authority without 
hurting .anybody ; and if the lessee uses force to him, 
he ought to make compensation for such force with a 
fine of five shillings to the lessor, and with a fine to the 

% If the man who hired the house is at the end of 
his term, and the house remains encumbered with 
pledges, he ought to make compensation to the lessor 
for damage, which he may thereby incur. 

1 8u>orn'\ The passage is yery obscure, bat the meaning of the 
paragraph is obvious. 


f Si horn louget beste ou autre choze, ou lenpranie 
a besoigne fere, il la deit guarder a son pover segont 
dreit de demage et degrevement en sa besoigne fazent, 
decique il ait rendue arrere; et si olest horn o beste 
qui seiant louge a iomees^ si autrement nest devise 
[fol. 19.6.] qiii paiera le cost et la despense que fera li hons ou la 
beste, o le paiera le sire de lome o de la beste, et 
autresi paieret li sires de lautre choze lamandenient 
que horn feret en sa choze, cest assauer, celuy amande- 
ment qui sereit neccesseres afere en la besoigne a quey 
la chouse sereit lougee. 

Chapi^ Si li prevos^ ou autre sire apelet autre come sires, 

Qiuunrii' ^^ ^^^^ ^® P^®^ deffendre vers luy comme vers seignur; 

prevos et si licitez avoet guarenties, li citez se puet defiendi'e 

MAre. ^^^ ^^ garenties ; et se il se deffent, einsi il passera 

vers le seignur par son saigrement, solement fors tant 

que li mayres accuset i de ses iurez, on crera au dit 

dau mayor. 

[foi.20.] f Si horn met autre en fiances, il lou deit delivrer 
mx'* de la fiance et amander li les demages, qui len aven- 
Quant dront par ochison de la fiance; nies la fiance, quaut 
autre cn^* veira que demages len vendra, ou deit avenir, il ou- 
fiances. deit ben fere assauer a celuy qui laura mis en fiance, 
et requeiTe le que il le guart de demage ; et sil ne 
trove luy ne son comandement, deit horn bien pro- 
tester davant la seignorie ^ ou davant prodeshomes ; et 
si ensi est que au terme empres li deptres vers lo 
creancer ne lo delivret la fiance, la li deit bailler pig- 

^ prevos'] the prevost, prsepoBitas. 

3 la seignorie^ the board of magistrates. 



f If a man hires a beast or other thing, or borrows 
it for his immediate service^ he ought to protect it as 
far as is in his power according to right from damage 
and deterioration in doing him service, until he shall 
have returned it to the owner ; and if a man or a beast 
is hired for the day, if it is not otherwise settled who 
shall pay the cost and expenses which the man or beast 
shall incur^ the master of the man or of the beast shall 
pay it, and likewise the owners of other things shall pay 
the repairs which a man makes to those things, that 
is to say, such repairs ajs it may be necessary to make 
in the service for which the thing is hired 

If the provost^ or other lord accuses another as Chapter 
lord, the party cited may defend himself against him "v^hen the 
as against the lord ; and if the party cited ^ vouches provost 
guaranties, tlie party cited may defend himself against ^ther. 
the guaranties; and if he so defends himself he will 
succeed against the lord by his oath alone, except, when 
the mayor accuses one of his sworn men, credit will be 
given to the word of the mayor. 

K If a man makes another his surety, he ought to Chapter 
deliver him from his responsibility and compensate him ^vvhim'a 
for any damages which may have resulted to him by man makeg 
occasion of his being surety ; but the surety, when he ^tyT 
sees that damage will result to him, or is likely to - 
result, ought to make it known to him who has made 
him his surety, and request him to protect him from 
damage ; and if he cannot find him or his mandatory, 
the party ought to protest before the seignory or before 
prudhommes; and if it so happens that the term fol- 
lowing the debtor does not deliver the surety as regards 
the creditor, the sui'ety ought to deposit with the cre- 

^ the pravosi] This officer was 
appointed by the Crown. 
3 the party cited] The accuser 

seems to bo the party intended 
here, not the defendant. 



nore sanz oontredit ; et est la premere pignore soceaaz 
ob que ele vauget L dener ou plus; mas a chascun 
ior apres que li demandera pignores, U la li deit 

rfol.20.6.] baillier tantost que vauget^ toute sa depte; et si la 
fiance ne la li veost baillier^ li creencers la puet prendre 
par sa propre auctorite, ou que il troche * la choze de 
la fiance. Mas ceu est entendu quant horn est fiance, 
il et toutes les soes choses; quar si en lentree'de la 
fiance les choses ne sont tengues ausi com la fiance, 
si la fiance murt/ les chozes nen sunt point tengues, 
et si her^ neis nen sunt point tengu, si donques li 
fianceres navet mis emplait la fiance avant quelle mo- 
rist, car de quaucunque choze de quo horn ait este 
mis emplait, si li plaiz nest pas achevez davant sa 
mort, si her en sunt apres tenguz de parsegre* lo 
plait decique iugenient les delivre ou les condempnet ; 
et si tot encore vit, la fiance ne sunt opas ® les chozes 

[fol. 21.] tengues, si a lautre nest devise nomeement si cum est 
dauant dit ; et si les chozes ne sunt tengues, li crean- 
ceres ne les puet mie prendre par sa propre aucto- 
rite. Mj\s si la fiance ne les veust baillier, il sen deit 
clamer a la seignorie. Quant li creencers aura les 
pignores de la fiance, la fiance les puet affiancer a 
vii. iors ou avaunt encore que ia en bailie nule 
dira ensi, "Ge affiance mes pignores a vii. iors sus 
" moy et sus toutes les mees choses." Adonques li orean- 
ceres U deit rendre toutes ses pignores a la fiance, si 
domques la fiance nesteit persone suspecte, qui ne 
oguist^ pas dautres choses vaillant aus pignores, ou 
fuste dopte que il sen voguist aler fors dau pais ; quar 
[fol. 21.5.] si olesteit^ einsi, la fiance sa voleit affiancer ses pig- 
nores au vii. iors, il endoyt doner i. autre que sey sou- 
ceant^ enfiance. Et est assaver que toute fiance est 
soceanz, qui plus vaillent que ne vaut la chose qui deit 

1 vtrngef] yaloit 

2 troche] Tottche may bo the 
correct writing. 

* muri] menrt. 

* her] from the Latin bseres. 

5 pco'se^e] poarsoiTrc. 

^ opas] pas. 

' oguisi] avoit 

^ «t olesteii] sUl 5tait. 

' soitceani] souffiisant, sufficient. 




ditor pledges without oontradiction, and the first Buffi- 
cient pledge should be worth one penny or more ; but 
on every day after that the creditor shall demand 
pledges^ the surety ought to deposit them with him to 
such an amount as will pay off all the debt ; and if 
the surety will not deposit so much^ the creditor may 
take it of his own authority, or may seize the pro- 
perty of the surety. But this is understood when a 
man is a surety, he and all his property; for if on 
entering upon the surety the property was not liable 
as well as the party himself, if the party died, his 
property would not be bound, nor his heir, if the 
party to whom the surety is liable did not sue the 
surety before he died ; for in respect of whatever pro- 
perty a person has been sued, if the suit is not finished 
before his death, his heirs are bound to continue the 
suit until judgment delivers them or condemns them ; 
and if the surety is still living, the property is not 
liable, if it has not been specifically named as above 
said; and if the property is not bound, the creditor 
cannot touch it of his own authority. But if the 
surety wiU not deUver it up to him, he must go and 
complain to the seignory. When the creditor shall have 
pledges from the surety, the surety may pledge them 
for seven days, or before that he deliver tiiem he may 
say, ** I assuro my pledges for seven days upon myself 
" and all my property." Thereupon the creditor ought 
to give back all his pledges to the surety, if indeed the 
surety is not a person suspected, that he has no other 
property as valuable as the pledges, or it is doubted 
that he intends to go out of the country; for if it 
should be so, the surety, if he wishes to assuro his 
pledges for seven days, he ought to give another per- 
son, who will be sufficient surety. And it is to be 
known that every surety is sufficient who is worth 
more than the thing itself which is to be secured ; but 


estre affiencee; mas non pero non ne prent pas, si ne 
veaui, li creancers en fiance genz clergees/ ne de reli- 
gion, ce est par reson de lor priuileges ; ne cfaevaler, ne 
dame, cest par reson de leur nobilite ; ne femmes qui 
ont leur mariz^ ne autres genz qui ne sunt pas on poer 
deaus meismes,^ et ceu est par ceu, que ceu, quil font, 
nest point establi sanz la volunte de ceaus en qui poer 
il sont. Mas autres prodes genz souceanz ne deit horn 
pas- refuser. En fiances apelon gent ausi femmes cum 
homes. Fiance dit horn de ceu, que horn li done fey de 
la chouze recourer. 

[foL22.] QvANT la fiance a fiance ses pignores a vii. iQrs si 
cum desus est dit, si la fiance ne paiet ecertement ^ lo 
creancer dedens les vii. iours sanz autre deley au chief 
dau vii. iours, au chef dau sept iors rendra la creance 
au fiancer toutes ses pignores arrere, et U creancers 
aura sus la fiance par chascun daus viL iors v. sols de 
gage, de quey les pignores qui li creancers ara pris 
seront ausi tengues come dau principau ; et si li creen- 
cers na pris negunes pignores avant la fiancement dau 
pignores, il adonques apres*les vii. iors puet prendre 
pignores tout ensemble a vne fez,^ dont il puche traire 
largement sanz delay son principau ob toz les diz 
gages, et li gage i sunt par ceu que par fiancement 

[fol 22.6.1 ^*^^ viL iomees a la fiance de la ley lou creancer de 
sa deliurance, et quant li creancers ara einsi les pig- 
nores de la fiance, il deit requerre la seignorie por aver 
lezer de vendre les pignores segont la codnme dau pais, 
si comme est dauant dite. 

Cest assauer, que totes pignores deiuent estre guar- 
dees en ta manere, que par cope^ dau creancer eles 
nempirent tandisque seront en sa guarde, et est assez 
se il imet cure et diligence en eles guarder autau 

' genz cUrgees] secular clergy as 
distinguished from regulars ; de re- 

^ on poer deaus meiamtf\ in potes- 
tate sua. 

' ecertementl a certement, pune- 
^ vne fez] une fois. 
^ cope] from the Latin culpa. 


nevertheless the creditor need not accept for surety, 
unless it pleases him, persons who are clergy, or in a 
religious order, that is on account of their privileges ; 
nor a knight nor a dame, that is by reason of their 
nobility ; nor women who have husbands alive, nor 
other persons who are not in their own power, and 
this is because what they do is not certain without 
the consent of those in whose power they are. But 
other sufficient discreet persons.^ ought not to be re- 
jected as sureties. By persons are here meant women 
as well as men. By siureties arc^ meant persons who 
pledge their faitli that the thing shall be recovered. 

When the surety has assumed his pledges for seven 
days as above said, if the surety does punctually pay 
the creditor within the seven days without any delay, 
at the end of the seven days the creditor shaJl restore 
to the stirety all his pledges again, and the creditor shall 
have from the surety for each of the seven days a fee 
of five shillingSi for which the pledges, which the cre- 
ditor shall have taken, shall be liable equally as for the 
principal simi ; and if the creditor has not taken any 
pledges before the assurance of the pledges, he still may 
afier the seven days take pledges altogether at one 
time, from which he may deduct largely without delay 
his principal with all the above said fees, and the fees 
are because by the assurance of seven days the surety 
has by the law his deliverance from the creditor : and 
when the creditor shall so have the pledges of the surety, 
he ought to request the seignory to have leave to sell 
the pledges according to the custom of the country as 
above said. 

It is to be known that aU pledges ought to be kept in 
such manner, that by fault of the creditor they shall 
not be deteriorated, whilst they are in his keeping, and 
it is sufficient, if he uses as much care and diligence in 

1 diacreet persona] The oontext 
snggests that the prodes gens are 
not identical with the prudhonunes 

or magistrates. The same words 
occur below in a similar sense. 





De bran- 
doQer les 

[fol. 23.] 

comme en la see chose domayne. Mas si les pignores 
sunt iaus, que olesioche^ fere cos ou missions en eles 
guarder, li livreres dau pignores deit la mission et tot 
le cos neys fet par ochison dau pignores. 

A la feste de la chandelor pot horn brandoner' ses 
prez, et non avant, et apres quant li pre sunt fauche 
il sunt pasturau communau, si domques nest prez qui 
seit fauchable doues fes,^ que horn brandone derechef 
apres la premere fetuchesoa £ non pero prez puys que 
il sunt &uclie ne sujit il mie pasturau communau a 
pors ni a beste foyllant,^ ne encore a nule autre beste 
par tau manere que hon ifichet pau ou pre pur esta- 
chier la beste ; quar si ele i est trobee ou prise estachee 
au pau,^ ele deit rendre v. sols de gage por guarde 
fete,^ ou amander la male faite segont la codume dau 
pais avant dite. 

Chapitrc Si beste est atachee apau ou a boisson ou en autre 

Debate ^^^^^^^ ®^ P^» ®*' autres bestes pur a ooindanoe ^ dicele 

estachee. beste venget equi, qui facet damages en terres o en 

[fol. 23. 6.] vignes ou en autres chozes qui soyent pres di quau 

pre, li sires dicele beste nest pas tenuz damander les 

damages que feront les autres bestes, encore neys se 

il esteit presenz et veist les autres bestes &zent 

^ oUaloche'l il estoucc. Estouce ; 
convienae, Koquefort. 

- brandoncr'] On appelle encore 
brandons en qnelqaes endroits les 
opines, branches, ou bonchons de 
paille qu'on met dans les champs, 
pour avertir que le chaume est re- 
serve et retenu par celui qui jouit 
de la terre. Dictionaire de Trcvoux, 
art. Brandon. 

3 doueafea] deux fois. 

** a pors ni a beste foyllant] In 
Les Coutumes de Beauvoisis, ch. lii. 
§ 5, we find a similar prohibition. 

*'• Pourcel ne doivent en nule saison 
** cstrc soufert en pros, porce qu'il 
•* enpirent de fliullier." 

* pau'} piett. 

^ guarde "fete"} that is, for the 
watch kept to drive cattle off 
when trespaesing. Tlie word occurs 
in Les Coutumes de Beauvoisis, 
ch. XXX. § 57. Garde&ite is also 
found in other Coutumes of northern 

7 a coindance'] acointance, aocoun- 
tauce, ' society, Roquefort. Hence 



keeping them as he does in things of his own property. 
But if the pledges be such that it be proper to make 
costs and expenses in keeping them, the giver of the 
pledges ought to make good all the expenses and costs 
incurred by occasion of the pledges. 

At the feast of Candlemas,^ a man may mark out with Chapter 
bushes* his meadows, and not before, and afterwards of buahing 
when the meadows have been mown, they are common J® ^^' 
pastures,' if indeed they are not meadows which may 
be mown twice, which a man marks out immediately 
after the first mowmg ; and neverbheless meadows after 
they ai*e mown are not pasturable in common for pigs 
or beasts that root up the ground, nor still for any other 
beast in such a manner that a stake should be fixed in 
the meadow to tether the beast to it ; for if it is found 
or taken tethered to a stake, it ought to pay a fine of five 
shillings for guarde-fete, or make amends for the trespass 
according to the custom of the country aforesaid. 

If a beast is tethered to a stake, or to a hedge, or in chapter 
any other manner in a meadow, and other beasts for of "beast 
the sake of company with that beast come to it, and tethered, 
cause damage to the land or the vines or other property, 
which is near that meadow, the owner of the beast is 
not bound to make good the damage which the other 
beasts cause, not even if he should be present and see 
the other beasts making the trespass, for no one is 

> Candlemas^ The feaat of the 
Purification of the Vii^D Mary, the 
2nd Febmar^r, is called by the Ia- 
tins Candelaria, and by the Greeks 
Hypapante (occorsos), being the 
occasion of the presentation of Christ 
in the Temple, 'where he iras met 
by Simeon and Anna the prophetess. 

' bushea'\ Or by branches of trees 
set up in the ground, as formerly 
was practised in England, when the 
great tithes w^ere collected in kind. 

' common pcuturea'] This rule 
holds good in many parts of Eng- 



la male faite ; quar neguas nest tenguz, se il ne veaut^ 
damander lo damage fait par autre, ne de guarder la 
beste dautre. 

Ausi com nos avom dit dau prez, tot en meisme 
manere disom daus terres et dau vignes, et dau boys- 
sons^ qui lor partenent desque li bien en sunt eoUiy^ 
deci quen len les rapareillet arreres de fructifier ; et est 
{ussaver daus vignes des que eles sunt taillees, daus 
terres desque eles sunt emblaieea Et ausi est dau 
bocios^ daus salines vere^ de ceux qui sunt emblaie, 
[fol. 24.] ^^^^ entant sont apertenant li tasselier ^ de la sau, ne 
deit nen negune sazon beste aler par ochison de pas- 
turau, ni ons autres apertenances de salines saus les 
bocios guarantables. 

Chapitre ToUTES les landes et les bruyeres de Oleron sunt 
D^^"dM P^^'^r*^ communau, et qui les clot de fossez ne les 
deffent en autre manere, einsi que ni puchet entrer, il 
fait tort au seignor dau pais et a tot le communau. 

Chapitre ToUTES les paluz de Olcron sunt communaus, et li 
De^ paiuz ^^Y^* ^^ quicunques seit seignor dau pais Doleron, le 

deit a ceu guarder et deffendre, et ne endet fere autre 

choze, quar ceu est li communaus profet a tote la gent 

dau pais, 
[fol. 24.6.] Liesplaiz® ausi est communaus, et en ixwche coillir, 

et en peisson prendre, et a espleiter par communau 

1 b(^8aons] probably underwood. 
Boisson, boia taillia, Boqnefort. 

3 colli] ceailli, gathered. 

3 bocioa] ttom tho Latin boacos, a 
woodland or thicket. 

* vere"] This word is somewhat 
obscure ; it may be a miswriting for 
vers, k I'egard. 

^ toMelier] Sel is probably the 
root of the word, unless it is derived 

from tasse, which Roquefort inter- 
prets touffe d'arbres. If the mode 
of drying the salt in Oleron was by 
pouring the brine oyer stacks of 
faggots and letting the watery par- 
ticles evaporate, until the salt be- 
came crystallised, the latter deriva- 
tion would be the more plausible. 

^ eqtlaiz'] This word has probably 
a special meaning here. 




bound, if he is not willing, to make amends for the 
damage done by another, nor to keiBp the beasts of 
another from doing damaga 

Likewise as we have said of a meadow, in the same 
way we say of lands and of vineyards, and of hedges 
which belong to them until the crops are gathered, 
from the time that they prepare them to bear fruit, 
that is to say in vineyards after the vines are 
pruned, and in lands after they are sown. And 
so it is with woodlands ^ amongst salt meadows with 
regard to such as are sown, for as regards those which 
are appurtenant to the saltpans themselves, no beast 
ought in any season to go into them under pretext of 
pasturage, nor in any other places appurtenant to salt 
works, except in woodlands which are fenced in. 

All the landes' and heaths of Oleron are common. Chapter 

• ■ 

pastures, and whosoever encloses them with ditches, ofSe" 
or obstructs them in any other manner, that a person landes. 
cannot have access to them, he does wrong to the lord 
of the soil, and to all thc'connnunity. 

All the marshes of Oleron are common, and the king, Chapter 
or whosoever is the lord of the soil of Oleron, ought ofttwe*" 
to guard and defend them, and shotild do nothing else marshes, 
with them, for they are for the common profit of all 
the people of the soil. 

The clearances ' are also common, both to collect gravel 
and to take fish, and to employ by common enterprise 

1 woodlands] Without a know- 
ledge of the localities in which the 
salt works of Oleron were carried 
on, it is difficult to divine the trans- 

' Ictndes] This term is common 
to Gascony, of which a large district 
now forms the department " des 
Landes," consisting of sandy plains, 
marshes, heaths, and forests. 

^ dearances'] The Editor has 
misgiyings as to the proper inter- 
pretation of the word **esplaiz." 
He has adopted that which is in 
harmony with the verb espleiter, 
as interpreted by Roquefort The 
existence of a great deal of uncul- 
tivated land in Oleron was no doubt 
a &ct. 



espleit Ion mieux que cheBcun puet, ne set et ne pero 
ob la volante dau seignor dau pais. Si aucuns voloyt 
fere escorezon ^ ou doit on poriet ben faire et seret son 

f loi pasturau Doleron furent establi a estre si large 
en press, et en landes, et en brueres^ et en paluz^ et en 
aatres chozes par souffraite de autres granz pastnrans. 

f Li pbiz de prest, on de convenanz, ou de logiers, 
ou de compaignies, ou de marchez, ou de reconoyssances, 
ou di tau chozes semblables, et laquaucunque ^ seit des 
parties si lautre partie neet et avoet, et dit olioguit' 
prodeshomes et vuyl quil enseent oy,^ et so il ne 
[fol. 25.] volent venir par eaus ni par celuy qui les avoet, li 
mayres les fera venir, ausi comme il fereit guarenties, 
et de ceu que il diront il seront cregu par lor simple 
parole sanz autre saigrement. Mas si la partie averse 
dit quant yl seront avoe,* " Ge le creiray partant cum 
'* devray,'* cil qui seront avoe au iors iureront saigre- 
ment de dire verite. 

f Si einsi est que iustice sezist aucuns biens, ou 
bailget gagez a auqun por fere acomplir iuge, silz a 
cuy instance aura este fere sazine, ou li gage baiUe, en 
fera la deliurance sanz la seignorie. 

Chapitre Ceu qui est charge en nef au lops de lestorment de 

Destore- ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ paier negune codume, ne li portages • dau 
mentde malineaus ausi. 


* escorezon'} This word would 
seem to be derived from the Greek. 

2 laquaucunque'} whoever may be 
the parties. 

3 oHoguW] This word favours of 
a mjswriting ; qa'il avait is probably 
the sense of it. 

* ensccnt oy] en soient oyes. 

* avoe'] avoic, conduit, Roquefort. 

^portages'] Portades is used in 
the same sense in the Consolat de 
Mar, oh. Ixxxviii. (IJS). 



in the best way that each caD, whether it be or not with 
the coDsent of the lord of the soil If any body 
wishes to make an excavation,^ he ought and may 
make it, and it shall be his property. 

f These rights of pasture in Oleron have been esta- 
blished so largely in meadows and in landes, and in 
heaths and in marshes, and in other things, through 
the poverty of other great pasture grounds. 

1 In suits of loans, or of contracts, or of hiring, or 
of pai*tnership, or of sales, or of recognizances, or of 
such like things, and whoever may be the plaintiff, if 
the other party denies and vouches and says that he 
has certain prudshommes [to produce], and wishes that 
they may be beard, and if they do not wish to come of 
themselves, nor fpr him who has vouched them, the 
mayor will make them come precisely as he would 
make guarantees come, and in regard to what they 
shall say, they shall be believed on their plain word 
without another oath. But if the adverse party says, 
when they are brought forward, " I will believe as 
" much as I ought," those who shall be brought forward 
on a certain day shall swear on oath to speak the trutL 

IF If it be 80 that justice seizes any goods, or causes 
pledges to be given to any one to put in force a 
judgment, he at whose instance the seizure has been 
made, or the pledges given, shall make the deliverance 
without the seignory. 


That which is laden on board a ship on account of Chapter 

the stores of the ship ought not to pay any customs, q/^^ 

nor the ventures ^ of the mariners in like manner. storingd 
. a ship. 

^ oji excavation] This proviBion 
may have been intended to encoo^ 
rage persons to dig* for gravel or 
stone. It is not found in any glos- 
sary. Escoria in Spanish means 
the dross of a mine, "which is thrown 
aside. Ih the Staffordshire mining 
districts the mining law recognises 


a right for any one to dig for mine- 
rals in priTate property after doe 
notice to the owner to exercise his 
preferential right 

' ventures] The Black Book, 
p. lis, has the word "marees" used 
in the same sense in the Bolls of 




[foL25.6.] Pignons^ ne doyson par goarde-faite ^ ne hont point 
de sabatees, car on dit que pignon est cheeson levent 
lordreytore aloure que sunt fait, si domques en autre 
manere ne apparest par bonnes, ou par couverture desus 
qui ait de gotail,' ou par prove de prodegens.^ 

Chaintre BoNNE quant ele miae deit aver au pie de soz petites 
Deh^ei, p^i^^ fiUoles, que om apelet gaites, et si eles ne isont la 
bone ne porte pas si grant fey cum els feist ob les 
filloles. Si donques nest anciane aprovee par ancianete, 
et sachiez que bonne veraye porte garentage de verite. 
£t est ajssaver que par guarde faite bonne est posee 
. meite a meite entre does devises et moetre devise 
avant sey quant ele est om nuluec lors devise avant 

[foL 26.] sey et apres sey, et porte devise en la trenche de son 
plfdt et touz temps est communaus entre douez gens^ 
et si li uns la ostet ou la remuet sanz lassentiment de 
lautre, il fait faussete et en puet estre repris come 
faussoners. Est assaver quant bonne est fors chemin, 
ele ba par garde fete sabatee devers lou chemin por 
recover fosse. 

' Pignofui] Boqnefort inteiprets 
pignon as ** partie qui va en trianele, 
** eft la plus elevle d'nne maraiUe, ou 
« da mar d*an bfttiment." 

^ guarde-faite] This word is ex- 
plained in the text farther on as a 
landmark. It seems to be used in a 
different sense from guarde-fete, 
which occurs above. 

> de gatail] This strange word 
occurs below, in connection with the 
eaves of a house, as if it ngnified a 

spout, gouti^re. The various glos- 
saries give no assistance. Gotera is 
the Spanish word. 

* prodegens'] This is a phrase 
borrowed probably frx)m an earlier 
order of things. It may mean 
simply discreet or trustworthy per- 
sons, or it may mean technically 
probi homines, freeholders. The 
phrase is used in this sense by Brit- 



The coping stones^ of enclosures intended for land- 
marks have not '' sabat^/' for they say that a coping 
stone (pignon) is a thing which establishes a right from 
the hour when it is made, if it does not appear otherwise 
by palings,* or by a roof above which has a spout, or 
by proof of freeholders. 

A boundary post when it is set up ought to have at Chapter 
its foot below it little stones, as godchildren, which are Qe^^^' 
called "gaites" (sentinels),' and if they are not there daiypostp. 
the boundary post does not carry with it so much 
assurance as it would have with its godchildren, if it 
is not ancient and approved from ancient time, and 
note, that a genuine boundary post carries with it an 
assurance of the truth ; and it should be known, that 
for proof at sight, a boundary post is placed Lalfway 
between two divisions of land, and is evidence of a 
division before it when it is placed in the middle of 
the divisions before it and behind it, and it carries 
with it decisive proof of the division, and it is always 
common between the two owners, and if the one 
take it away or remove it without the assent of the 
other he commits a fraud, and may be proceeded 
against as guilty of a fraud. It is to be understood, 
when a boundary post is on the side of a high road, it 
has for the purpose of evidence at sight a sabat^ 
(foot's length of ground) between it and the road to 
receive a ditch. 

' coping stones] The Editor is 
very doubtfhl as to the meaning of 
the word ** pignon," and his inter- 
pretation of the entire paragraph is 

> palings] Bonnes, as boundaries 
between two estates, are mentioned 

in Les Contumes de BeauToisis, 
ch. XXX. § 27. Borne is another 
form of the same word. 

' sentinels] Qaite is probably 
derived firom cavere, to be on guard. 
Guet is the modem French word. 

u 2 



f Si horn ifait fosse, li fossez par garde faite est a 
celuy en la cuy chose horn veit giter lou cureiz^ dau 
fousse. Si domques ne aparest que oli seit aatrement 
par bonnes ou par autre prove. 

Chapitie Sabbatee apelet horn la longor de i pie de L home, 

Desab- tot chauoe' ob quey il vait. Garde faite apelet horn 

batee. q^ solement de simple veue fait prove. 

[fol.26.6.] f Li boys et li boysson qui crest on fosse, neis encore 

si tot on fosse ou en leritage partenant au fosse, gre- 

guissent ' gros arbres raige ^ de forest, il sunt au seignor 

dau fosse ou de leritage partenant au fosse ; et ceu fut 

iuge por les heritages qui sunt porchayn a la forest 

davaylle. Si sunt ausi au seignur dau fosse la buche. 

et li buysson sur raiz dau chemin ioste le fosse, tant 

come il enporra faire collir ob le bois dau fons de son 



Cbapitre Li fossez OU heritages est ioste chaice^ ou guarene, 

DauM^^* ou ait counilz, et se fautent • en fo&e ou en leritage, 

garenes. si o lest on fosse li sires dau fosse i porra fundra ^ lou 

faus^ et prendre le oonilz a son ops tant com il en 

poira fere ob le dreit recureiz de son fosse, et non 

[foi. 27.1 P^^^ > ^^ ^utresi est en heritage tant com hom en poyra 

fere en cotivant * leaument son heritage ob fessor ^® ou 

ob charrue et non plus; mas tant cum ia que de sa 

malefete puet hom chaicer les conilz touz vis; mas 

' cureiz} curtes : le carquoid, 

3 chauce] chaceer, jouer aux des, 

' greguissent'] greindre, to grow, 

* raige] sur mige. The same 
words are probably here intended as 
are written lower down sur raix. 
Rail : niyeau, Roquefort. 

* et ioste chaice] adjoin a chase. 

^fautent] probably sautent 

7 Jundra] foudre : batir, Boqae- 

^faus] hlsas, Roquefort. 

* cottuant"] coItiTant. 

>* /ecfor] fessoir: sorte de hone 
propre k remoer la tecre^ Boqaefort. 




If a man makes a ditch, the ditch for a proof at sight 
bdongs to him on whose property the cleanings of the 
ditch ^ are cast, if indeed it is not apparent that it is 
otherwise, by bonnes or other proofi. 

IT Sabat^ is the term given to the length of a man's Chapter 
foot, in whatever direction the man goes. Garde faite of a sab- 
is the term for a thing which solely upon sight con- ^**^- 
stitutes proof 

IT The wood and the hedge which grows on a ditch, 
still more, if on a ditch or on the land which belongs 
to the ditch great trees grow on the edge of the 
. forest, they belong to the owner of the ditch, or of the 
estate belonging to the ditch ; and this was adjudged 
in the case of the estates neighbouring to the Forest 
of Availle. There also belong to the owners of the ditch 
the wood, and the hedge on the edge of the wood up 
to the ditch, as much as they can gather with the 
wood from the bottom of the ditch. 

If the ditches of heritages are next to a chase or a Chapter 
warren 'where there axe rabbits, and the rabbits leapo,^SS««. 
into the ditch or on the land, if it be a ditch, the 
owner of the ditch may build a trap and take the 
rabbits for his own use, as many as he can, with the 
right of repairing his ditch, and nothing more ; and so 
a]^ it is with a private estate, as much as a man 
can work fairly, cultivating his ground with a hoe or 
with a plough, and not more; but a man may also 
chase the rabbits in every direction, as trespassing ; 

1 the (Meanings of the diick] The 
word '^cnreixj" which means the 
carcase of a beut or the entrails of 
a hnnted beast given to the hounds, 
Mgniflea probably in this place the 
mad of the ditch, which was cast on 
the acQoining land when the ditch 
wti cleaned. 

' warrenai] The Benedictine com- 
pilers of GalUa Christiana, in de- 
scribing the diocese of the bishop of 
Saintes, tom. ii. p. 1058, speak of 
the island of Oleron as abounding in 
rabbits, ** l^oscnlis abondat" 



prendre ne les ideit horn, mie ob furet ni ob rez mas si 
les ipuet ferir de baston et retenir, et prendre^ il ert 
sons ; ^ et oeu disom daus heritages qui sunt iostes les 
guareneSy quar ons autres heritages loig daus puet 
prendre les conilz et toutes autres bestes et oyseaus 
chaysables celuy^ qui ert leritage a planere chaice, en 
tote toanere que il puet. 

Chapitre La loyndete de garene a ops de conilz dedens leritage 
xxxviii. porchain a la garene apelom lespace dune versaine,*et 
des coniz. versaine apelon ceu que labouret dreitement a L tor 11 
[fbL27.6.] gaigneres ob lo fessor et ob la charrue. 

Chapitre Si heritages est enclos dedens autres einsi que ni 
Daver^ie ^^ point dentree ne de issue, la seignorie lo idet doner 
a heritage par les autres heritages devers lou plus pres dau grant 

enclos en- •.•v a t-xv i.» 

treaatres. chemin charrau, tau que une beste chargee ob l sac 
de ble, ou ob vne some de vin en costerez en puchet 
largement passer, quar assaver est que aucuns heritages 
nest sanz vee, neys pas encore poyz ou fontaynne. 

IT Toute reconoyssance fayte dauant prodes homes ' 
vaut autant comme si aueit este &ite en cort. 

Chapitre Li mayres est creguz de tout ceu que il dit comment 

[fol. 28.] ^^^ ^ dient comme iuges, ou comme clamis/ ou comme 

Dan garenz; neys encore, se il se quereillot daucun de ses 

^«yre. itirez, ert il creguz de ce que il dira, quar li maires est 

tenguz par son saigrement de iuger dreit et de dire 

verite et de faire leaute. 

^ tons] saufi, safe, from the Latin 

' vertaine] Tenane : eertaine 
meenre, Roquefort. From the La- 

tin vertere. Versaine in the dialect 
of Anjou meant a ftirrov. . 

' prodeg homes] pradhommes. 

^ clamis] claimant or plainti£L 



he may not, however, take them with a ferret, nor 
with nets, but if he can strike them with a stick and 
detain them and capture them, he will be safe ; and 
this we say of estates which adjoin warrens, for on 
other estates distant from warrens the owner of the 
estate may take rabbits, and all other beasts and birds 
of chase, in eveiy manner that he can. 

The distance from a warren for the use of the rabbits Chapter 
within the estate next to the warren extends over the ofSe" 
space of a versaine,* and a versaine is the extent of r^a^ofthe 
ground which a labourer can cultivate fairly in a day 
with a hoe and a plough. 

If an estate is enclosed amongst others, so that there Chapter 
is no entrance nor exit, the seignoiy ought to grant xo^^ 
a way through the other estates in the direction of access to 
the nearest part of the high road for carriages, such ^closed 
as a beast carrying a sack of wheat, or a load' of amongst 
wine in panniers, may freely pass along; for it is to 
be understood that no estate is without a way to it, 
nor again without a well or a fountain. 

IT Every recognisance made before the prudhommes ^ 
is of the same value as if it had been made in court. 

The mayor is believed in anything which he says. Chapter 
in whatever way he may say it, whether as judge of the 
or as claimant, or as warrantor ; still more, if he naayor. 
complains of any of his sworn men, he shall be believed 
as to what he shall say, for the mayor is bound by 
his oath to judge right, and to speak the truth, and to 
act fairly. 

1 run] the space orer which the 
isbbits may freely nm. 

' persotJM] somethmg like a hide 
of land, being the extent of hmd 
which an ox can plough in a day. 

' load] some: charge, fiffdean, 
Boquefort J betes de somme. 

* prudhommes'] It would appear 
from this and other passages that 
the pnidhommes were magistrates 
of some kind or othei^ and not 
merely freeholders. 



Chapitre Si hom entret en rebost ^ en verger clos por faire 

-. ^ male faite, et il iseit trobez, il ert repris comme leiree,* 

fiiite de et deit amander au dit daus prodeB homes au seignor 

veigeroloB. jg^^ verier sa malefaiie; et apres li prevost en deit 

fere la iustioe dau cors ou dan membres segont cea 

que li maufisiiteres aura deservi. £t se il est einsi que 

il ait abatu arbre qui seit einsi gros que il puchet estre 

perciez entravers ob talere,' par tant en nombre com 

[foL28.6.] il aura abatu par chemin rendra li maufaiteres au 

seignor dau verger, v. sols, de gage. 

Chi^itre Cest assaver que tant ha de difference entre mau&itor 

fS* de verger clos et maufaitor de verger desclos, ou de- 

encede rosche/ nest pas repris comme leires, mas lamande en 

^td^^'*^^^ est autele comme de verger clos que nos avom dit 

dedofl. Mas assaver est que si la malefaite en verger ou en 

tosche ^ est taus que li maufidteres ne la puchet amander, 

il deit par reson solement perdre le poig de lamande, 

ou le pie, ou loreUle, ou estre seignez en la iote, estre 

lautre iustize de la seignorie. 

Chapitre ^ forest davaiUe lou rei atant de seignorie que, si 

?^"- hom itrenchet plancon sanz congie dau seignor ou 

en la forest dau tre comandement, li maufaiteres por chascun plan- 

dayaille. ©on que il ara trenche o abatu deit rendre au seififnor 
[fol.2».] ^ ^ 

^ rebotf] rebot : cache, Boquefort 

^ ieires] from the Latin latroncB. 

' ttUere"] tali^re : oatil de char- 
pentier pour percer le bois, Roqa<^- 

* deroeche] The Editor yentures 

to think that the scribe ooght to 
haye here written *'de tosche." ' 

* tosche] This is evidently the 
same word with tonsche: petit bois 
de hante fiitoie proche la maison du 
seigneur, Roquefort 



If a man enters secretly into an enclosed orchard Chafer 
to commit a trespass^ and he is found th^e^ he shall of ^'paas 
be seized as a robber, and ought to make amends at in an en- > 
the discretion of two prudhommes to the owner of the ei^rcL^'' 
orchard for his trespass ; and afterwards the provost^ 
ought to do justice upon his body or his members, 
according to what the trespass deserves. And if it 
be so that he has cut down a tree which is so large 
that it can be pierced through with a centre-bit,' for 
as many in number as he shall have cut down in the 
wood, tibe trespasser shaU render to the owner of the 
orchard a penalty of five shillings. 

It is to be understood that there is this difference Clia(»ter 
between a trespasser on an orchard enclosed and a tres- of the 
passer on an orchard not enclosed, or on a plantation, deference 
that he is not seized as a robber, but the fine is as great orchard 
BA for an orchard enclosed, as we have said. But it ^^}^>^ 

and not 

is to be understood that if the trespass on an orchard enclosed, 
or a plantation is such that the trespasser cannot make 
compensation, he ought reasonably only ^ to lose his 
hand, or his foot, or his ear, or be branded on the 
cheeky or suffer other justice from the seignory. 

In the Forest of Availle ^ the king has such rights of Chapter 
lordship,, that if a man cuts a branch of a tree without He who 
permission of the lord, or other authority, the trespasser trespauet 
for each branch that he has cut or thrown down ought ^^or^ of 


^provoH"] The provoet or prss- 
poritna was the representatiTe of the 

s a eentre^i] Sofficiently thick 
that a hole might he hored through 
it with a oentre-hit The word 
"talere'' may^howeyer, haye an- 
other meaning, namely, thick enough 
to he cut down for underwood, 
«< bois taill^." 

' onfy"] that is, without being sub- 
ject to any fine. 

4 AvaiBe] The "Foreat of Ayaille 
was in the island of Oleron. 
Amongst the Gascon Bolls in the 
Record Office there are letters pa- 
tent of 20 & 21 Edw. I., entitled 
De custodia de foresta de Kayaille 
in insula Olcron concessa Boberto 
Bnllebek (Bolebec). 


LA comanm b'olebon. 

Ix. sols, de gage, ou ail ne paot rendre les gages il 
sera puniz en see membres si cum dob avoms dit; et 
autreiau disom dans oonilz, daus faizans, et daus autres 
sauvayzines/ si horn les iprent sans oonge. 

IT Mas li gros arbre tranche sanz conge ne portent 
mas yji. sols, de gage. Et. est assaver, que autan gage 
cum portent li arbre, li conilz, et les autres sauvasdnes 
en la forest lo rey portent ous autres deffens en 
Oleron, a quiconques seient, quar quiconque les ya yl 
les tient dau rey. 

T Deffens apelon les garenes et les boys que lentent 
deffenssables en fez,^ mas assauer est, qui en luniver- 
[foi. 29. 6.] site doleron sanz lor deffens a ceus qui les iont 
neguns hons na avantage de chaicer. 

T A chaicer en la vniuersite^ vns nia plus que 
autre, neys chevalers plus que borgoys. 

Chapitre Si la pladnte vers lo cite proposet a vne voiz plus 
Qimi7ia ^^^ demandes, et li dtez proposet aucune excepcion 
piaintepro- par la raison daus aucunes dem.andes et non pas de 

poset plus 1 1 • r • J !• -A J 

honde- toutes, la por ^ceu mams ne respondra li citez daus 
mandes. autres demandes a que il ne proposeit pas les excep- 
dons, si donques nest de demandes qui naschet de 
autre demande, si comme fruyz que home demande ou 
autres semblables fruiz de terre et domages que horn 
demande ob principau« 

Vne voyz^ apelom les clamors, que horn proposet a 
i. meisme ior, en vne meisme cort. 
[foi. 30.] IT Excepcion apelom ce qui prolonge les iors o lou 
plait, ou qui efface la demande. 

^ sauvayzines] This vord is the 
same mih saavazines, that is, sauya- 
gines, du gibier. 

' en fez] en fait 

' la vniuersite'] Land belonging 
to the Gommone is probably meant, 
the word vniTersit^ being synony- 

mons with a body eorpOTate. The 
word may, however, be used here to 
denote a particular district, known 
by the name of rUniyersite, as in 
English *' the Conmion." 
* Vne vojfz'] nne yoix. 


to pay to the lord sixty shillings penalty, and if he 
cannot pay the penalty, he shall be punished in his 
members, as above said. And we say as much in the 
case of rabbits, and pheasants,^ and other wild game, if 
a man takes them without leave* 

IT But the great trees cut down without leave bring 
with them only seven shiUings penalty. And it is to 
be understood that whatever penalty is payable for 
trees, rabbits, and other wild game in the forest of the 
king, the same is payable for other forbidden places in 
Oleron, to whomsoever they belong, for whoever has 
them holds them from the king. 

Forbidden places is the name given to warrens and 
woods, which are capable of being protected in &ct, for 
in the commune of Oleron every man has the advan* 
tage of the chase, unless he is forbidden by the owner 
of the land. 

T In the commune no one has more right than 
another to chase — knights no more than burghers. 

If the plaintiff advances with one voice several Chapter 
demands against the defendant, and the defendant ad* whence 
vances any exception by reason of certain of the de- plaintiff 
mands, and not of all, the defendant shall not answer aeyerai 
to the other demands, to which he has offered no*®°^*"^- 
exception, if it be not to demands which arise out of 
other demands, as of fruits, which a man demands with 
other like produce of the ground, or damages, which a 
man demands with the principal. 

IT By the term " one voice " is meant the claims, 
which a man brings forward in one day, or in one 

IT By the term "exception" is meant that, which 
prolongs the day or the suit, or which effaces the 

1 phKuantB] Ayes phasiani were I the river Fhaais in Colchis, whence 
known totheBonums, so called from | they were introduced into Europe. 



De ior 

E fid est einsi que seit assigne ior de conseil an cite, 
la plainte pi^oposet an ior dau conseil de plus que il 
na fet en lautre iomee avanti et acreschet ou muet 
en sa demande, li citez par raison dau cressement ou 
dau muement il aura derechef ior de conseil sor totes 
los demandes en tant de fez, cum la plainte acrestra 
ou muera en sa demande, quar ia aus Ynes demandes 
ne respondra sans les autres, quar sil ofiaseit avis seret 
que on menast dous plaiz. 

Cbapitre Si hom parlet en cort por autre, cil por qui il 

Qnanrhom P*"^^®'* OU sis autres conseil, puet corriger ou revoquer 

parlet por ce que sis raisoneres aura dit, seil veit que il ne die 

ffoi 80 & 1 ^^^ profiet,'^maEf, ce que la plainte ou li citez dit de 

sa propre boche, deit tenir fermete et estre estable. Si 

seret ol ausi ce que li raisonayres dit, si li dientons 

aveit dit, ge tienc por dit ceu que il dira. Mas si 

aiosteit sans lou commandement de me ou de mon 

conseil, adonques li clientons ou sis conseilz poent 

amander au raysouneor desique les parties se eom- 

mandent iuger. Baisouneor ^ apelon plaideor qui parlet 

por autre. 

f Clienton apelon celuy, por -cuy hom parlet por 
autre en cort. Si recors est demandez en cort, il ne 
deit pas estre dounez decique les parties aient oon^u 
o nee, quar recors ne se donet fors en paroles contre- 

^ RcuMuneor'} The term <'Avocat" 
18 used lower down. The phrase 
raisouneor is peculiar. Herre de 
Fontaines, ch. zL § 1, speaks of 
"emparliers" or "amparliers^' which 
correspond with the phrase " avant- 
parliers'' used in the Assises de 
Jerusalem, § xz., and in theEta- 
blissements de Saint Louis, L ii. 

ch. xiv. Karratores or band narra- 
tores was the medisval Latin term 
for pleaders. Coonters was the early 
English term for the " setjeants 
" sachants la ley del Roiafane, qui 
** servent al common des people a 
'* pronounder etdefendre lee actions 
« enjugement," Myrrour des JTos- 
tioes, ch. ii § ▼. 




And if it be that a day of counsel^ is assigned to Chapter 
the party cited, and the plaintiff brings forward on the of a day 
day of connsel more than he did on the other day assigned, 
previous, and increases or changes his demand, the 
party cited by reason of the increase or the change 
shall forthwith have a day of counsel upon all the 
demands, and as often as the plaintiff increases or 
changes his demand, for the defendant shall not an- 
swer to one demand without the other, for if he did 
so it would result that two suits would be brought at 

If a man speaks in court for another, he for whom Chapter 
he speaks, or his other counsel, may correct or revoke ^^ena 
what his reasoner may have said, if he sees that it man speaks 
is not for his advanti^, but that which the plaintiff ^'*"^ ^' 
or defendant says of his own mouth ought to be held 
firm and be established. It shall also be so with what 
the reasoner has said, if the client shall say, " I hold 
" for said whatever he shall say." But if the reasoner 
adjusts a question without the authority of me or my 
counsel, then the client or his counsel may correct the 
reasoner, until the parties give authority to go to 
judgment. The pleader who pleads for another is 
called the " reasoner." * 

Client is the name given to him5 for whom a man 
speaks when he speaks for another person in court. 
If a record is demanded in court, it ought not to be 
given until the parties have admitted or denied,' for 
records are not given except where an issue has been 

^ a day qfanaud] a day for the 
defendant to appear after consnlta* 
tion. Dies oonsilii, qui eonoedeba- 
tifir reo, at ei de actori respondendo 
caTeretnr. Da Cange. 

> the rea$fmer] It woald seem 
that a person who was neither aro- 

cat nor conseiller might plead for a 
party in court, with certain excep- 
tions, sach as minors, deaf persons, 
-and serfik Aesises de Jerusalem, 
§ xvii. 

' admitted or denied] tiiat is, until 
issue has been joined. 



dites^ et ceu fut iuge on plait de lohan Vilain desaint 
Pere et de Pere Gasc de Bone Amie. 
[foL 81.] IT Si la plainte ou li citez dit que il nentendit mie 
lassignacion dau ior, il en passera ob son saigrement de 
sey on de son mesage. 

H Cest assauer que quant li mesages iuret^ il tient 
celuy et dit einsi, si li aiut des ^ et li sainz euuangeles 
a celui, et nomet lo et acomplist son saigrement. 

f La dreite hore de aparestre en cort duret deeique 
amedi ; li mayres tent encore sa cort, et adonques horn 
se presentet, si la partie averse est presentee, et ne ait 
encore mie pris congie, li maires en orra lo plait 
sauve la deffaute. Mas si la partie a pris congie, nen 
est mie plus tenue de entrer en plait, si ne se vost. 

Chapitre IT Si olest guerre en Oleron et convenge gamir 

QuMLt" navie* ou pais, neguns est tenuz entrer en navei vns 

olestguerre plus que lautres, aynz tuyt emsemble. 

^L8i?6.] ^ "^^ ^^ convient en veier escheigaites ' aus costeres 

ou nia point de nombre taxe ou establi fors tau 

comme ert a la provetice ^ dau prodes homes dau pais, 

segont ce que sera mesters, et com cest que la semonase 

en anget a loustau ^ oiant la gent de lostau, et deit 

leschaigaite aler de cler ior et quant li souleilz est 

levez, si en est mis en defaille rendra x. sols, au mayor 

por la defSaille, et si autres demages avient en la 

defaille leschugaite en ert grevosement punie en cors 

et ous chouzes segont lo demage. 

1 si U aiut dei\ " si le ait Dicx " 
axe the words of the oath in Les 
Contumes de BeauToisis, ch. xl. 

2 navie] from naTigium. The 
maritime congcription seems to have 
been general in Oleron. 

^ escheigaitet] eschargaite is the 
more usual form of this word. 

* provetiee] from the Latin provi- 

^ a iou8tau] The word " ostau " 
is generally used to signify a house- 
hold, but it may be here an inflexion 
of oste, an army. 




raised^ and this was adjudged in the suit of Johan 
Vilain of St. Pierre, and Pierre Gaze of Bone Amie. 

IT If the plaintiff or the defendant says that he did 
not understand the assignation of a day, he shall pass 
free upon the oath of himself and his household 

IT It is to be understood that when the messenger ^ 
pf the court administers the oath, he holds the party 
and says thus, ^' So God him help and the holy evan- 
gelists/' and he names him and completes the oath. 

f The right hour to appear in court lasts up to 
mid-day. If the mayor holds still his court, and there- 
upon a man presents himself, and the adverse party 
is present and has not taken his leave, the mayor 
shall hear the suit without default, but if the party 
has taken leave, he is not any longer obliged to enter 
upon the suit if he does not wish. 

IT If there should be war in Oleron, and it is agreed chapter 
to fit out a navy in the country,* no one is compelled y^^^' 
to enter into the navy more than another, all are there is 
liable alike. 

IT If it is agreed to send scouts on the coast^ there 
is no taxed or established number other than what 
shall be arranged by the precaution of the prudhommes 
of the country, according to what may be necessary, 
and when the summons shall be sent to every house, 
in the hearing of the people of the house, the scouts 
ought to go forth in the clear day, and after the sun 
has risen if they are in default they shall pay ten 
shillings to the mayor for their default, and if other 
damage arise out of their default, the scouts shall be 
severely punished in person and in property according 
to, the damage. 

war in 

' megsenger] ** Apparitor " would 
be the Latin title of the officer of the 

* a navy m the country'] The 
word navie is translated by Boqae- 
fort, flotte de gaerre on marchande. 


Cha^itre Si hom est traiz en garentie et apareschet que la 

QnauM!^ chose, de quey il est traiz en garentie, est soe ou en 

esttraix est tomeres au compainz, ou li profet en est on sera 

SJ^T^" sons, si garentages ne vaut tens, qoar ce sereit gaaientir 

[foL82.] a son ops meisme. Mas se il en est en la choze 

messages ou comanz dautre, sis guarentages est vaillanz 

et provables. 

Chapitre Si plusors sunt tengu fiances ou guarenteor a autre 

De fiance ^^ ^^^^'^^ P^^ ^® *^"^ chascum neu est tenuz fors par 
sa ferme^ tandis que li autre seront trobe yif et 
trouable et poissant, quar quant hom dit chascu por 
letout ceu est a entendre que si li vns deffaut par 
mort ou par de partie dau pais ou par le decheement* 
de ses chozes ou par autre schison li autres est tenuz 
por le tout 

Si hom teut en pignore autruy choze ou en com- 
mando ol est assez, se il imet ausi grant diligence ou 
garde comme en la soe choze domayne einsi que si 

[fol.d2.6.] hom part ob la soe choze il nen amandera ia reus 
mas sU ou pert sanz de la soe choze il ou amandera 

Si hom estranges na auocat ou couseil et le demandet^ 
li mayres lo y dera soceant, et dlz dera au oonseil 
salayre resonnable a lestimacion de prodes homes de 
la cort, et cil a cuy li mayres commondera que il seit 
li auocat o U conseil ne deit mie refuser si domques 
nestoyt dau conseil a lautre partie ou sil naueit autre 
excusacion leau. 

^fertM] assurance or cautioD, from | ' decheemetU] from decheoir, aUer 
the Latin firmare. I en decadence. 


If a man is produced to guarantee, and it appears Chapter 
that the thing which he • is produced to guarantee is ^©n a 
safe, or is employed in partnership, or the profit of it man is pro- 
is or will be safe, his guaranty is worth nothing, forgJ[^„nt^, 
this would be to guarantee a thing for one's own service. 
But if the thing be in the hands of an agent, or at 
the disposition of another, his guarantee is effective 
and proveable. 

If several are bound as sureties or guarantees of Chapter 

another, and each is bound for the whole, each is not of sureties, 
bound for more than his own share by his bail bond 
as long as the others shall be found alive, and are pro- 
ducible and able to pay, for when a man says " each for 
all,'' it is to be understood that if one fails by death or 
by departure from the country, or by the destruction 
of his property, or by any other cause, the others are 
bound for the whole. 

If a man holds in pledge or in deposit a thing which 
is the property of another person, it will be sufficient 
if he employs the same diligence and safeguard as in 
a thing of his own property,, so that if a man loses it 
with his own property, he shall not make compensation, 
but if he loses it without losing at the same time his 
own property, he shall make compensation for the whole 
of it. 

If a stranger has neither advocate ^ nor coimsel and 
requires them, the mayor shall give him sufficient of 
them, and he shall pay to the counsel a reasonable fee 
according to the estimate of the prudhotnmes of the 
court, and he, whom the mayor shall recommend to the 
stranger, that he shall be his advocate or his counsel, 
ought Qot to refuse, unless he be of counsel to the other 
party or have other loyal excuse. 

^ advocate] The term ndsonner 
has heen used above. The adyocate 
always was presumed to speak par 

VOL. n. 

commandement do celui, de cui est 
H plais. Assises de Jerusalem, xx. 



E vere^ fiance et creantor ha itau diflference, crean- 
ceres est tenuz ausi comme li deptres. Et est assaver 
que li creancers ne pot mie prendre par pignore par 
sa propre aactorite sanz conge de seignor la choze dau 
[foK ss:] deptor. Si donques au commencement de lor convenanz 
ne flit la choze liee nomeement einsi com non dit, Ge 
vos suy tenuz et les meies chozes. 

Cbapitre Sazine est dite en maintes maner^s. Sazine est, qui 
Desazine. ^^ ^^*® naturaus, et ce est cele qui vient a home, 
quant dreit naturaument lo sazist apres la mort dautre 
de son dreit heritage. Et est sazine, qui vient a home 
quant yl espleite la choze comme soe apertement 
veant la gent.^ Et est sazine, qui vient a home 
quant par rayson dachat ou dedon de commandement 
ou dautre choze home est sazit de la choze. Et est 
assaver que raaites feiz ^ sazist hom autre home de 
aucune choze, ob. i. festu, ou ob. i. gant, ou ob. i. 
chaperon, ou ob aucune autre choze et tot vaut et est 
[fol.33.i] gj^jjjjjg Et si est einsi que hom se dame dessaziz, il 

deit bein dire la forme de la sazine que il aveit avant 
que il fust dessaziz. E de la dessazine que li a fait 
la partie adverse, por oe que plus hors maneres sunt de 
sazines et plusors de dessazines, quar dessazirs ^ est 
entrer en la chouze et coctiver la par sa propre aacto- 
rite, ou oster les coctivors de celuy qui tenet la choze 

* E uere] Envcn*. 

* veant la gent] En presence de 
tout le monde, Roquefort. 

' mattes feiz"] maintes fois. 

* dessazira'] Disseisin is defined 
in the Myirour des Justices as " an 
** personel trespas de tortious onster 
*' de possession." 




Between the surety and the creditor there is this 
difference : a creditor is bound just as a debtor ; and 
it is to be understood, that a creditor cannot take the 
property of a debtor as a pledge by his own authority 
without leave of the lord, if indeed at the commence- 
ment of the contract the thing was not specifically 
bound in the usual words, " I bind myself and my 
goods to you/' 

Seisin ^ is spoken of in many manners. There is Chapter 
first seisin which is called natural, and this is when ^^ J:, 
a thing comes to a man of natural right, where after 
the death of another he succeeds by right of inheritance 
to property. Seisin also is acquired by a man, when 
he employs a thing openly as his own in the sight 
of the public ; and seisin is also acquired by a man, 
when by reason of purchase, or of gift, or of deposit, 
or of other act, a man is seised of a thing. And it is 
to be understood that a man often gives seisin to 
another man of a thing with one beam, or with one 
glove, or with one hat, or with any other one thing, 
and the one thing is equivalent to the whole, and this 
constitutes seisin of it. And so it is if a man complains 
of disseisin, he ought to state clearly the manner of 
the seisin which he had before he was disseised, and 
of the disseisin which the adverse party has effected 
against him, because there are several modes of seisin, 
and several modes of disseisin f for disseisin is to enter 
on a property and to cultivate it of one's own autho- 
rity, or to oust the cultivators of him who held the 

1 seisin] Britton in speaking of 
seisin, 1. ii. ch. iz., says, *' Posses- 
" sioun proprement est seisine ct 
'' tenir de acune chose par cors et 
** par Tolnntti oveke la proprete." 

2 disseisin'] Britton, L ii. ch. xi., 
§ 2, says, En plusours maneres porra 
homme estre disseisi. Car cestui 

est proprement disseisi, qi a tort est 
engettd de acim tenement qe il 
avera peisiblement teno, et en qi 
persone eynt est^ joynt le droit de 
proprete de fee, et le dreit de la 
possession dc frannc tenement et la 

X 2 

324 LA oohmctnb; d'olehon. 

avant en sasine ou en fazent hi force en autre manere. 
Et est assaver que cilz, qui deasazist autre^ deit rendre 
a lautre la restitucion de sa sazine, et v. aoU. de gage, 
et au maior lix. sols. 

T Si sires par sa quereille sazist la choze et li autres 
tienget de luy, et li teneres la veaut alBiancer, li sires 
laideit leiser affiancer, souz tele fiance^ que li teneres 
[foi. 34.] facet dreit, si tort li a fait, et au ior dau plait et a 
lore que li teneres se sera presentez davant lo seignor 
par dreit fere, li sires deit quipter les fiances et dessazir 
plenerement la choze. Car neguns horn ne deit plaideer 
sa choze dessaziz, neis encore puys que la choze ne 
sereit sous fiance. Ainz deit li sires dessazir la choze 
que il aura sazie avant que li teneres ia entrent en 
plait. Et sachez que gaagneres ou coctiveres na point 
de sazine e la choze que il tient ou coytive^ dautre, 
ne on fruit neys tandis que il seront dedens la choze, 
ausi qui tent oscle. ne ia point naturaument de sazi 
ons chozes de loscle, quar il ne ya fors luse fruit. 

f Sazine de espleit vaut davant toutes les autres 
[fol.34.6.] quant a raisgner' pure sazine, quar cele ne perdra horn 
iamais sanz iugement. He ia nen plaideiera hoip 

Chapitre Garior apelet horn celuy, par cuy auctorite ou par 
^ ^^'. cuy commandement om a traite ou esplete la choze. 

De ganor. "^ * 

Chapitre ^ Si hom fait convenant ou marche et ille facet par 

^ ^"- sey et par autre, ou encore solement par autre et de- 
Dans con- •'I I. 


' coytive'] cultiTe, ensemencer ; en 
Langued. Coujtiya, Roquefort. 

' raisgner'\ from the Latin ratio- 


property beforehand in seisin, or in using force to them 
in some other manner. And it is to be understood 
that he who disseises another, ought to render to the 
other his seisin and five shillings penalty, and to the 
mayor fifby-nine shillings. 

f If a lord in his own quaxrel seizes property, and 
another holds from him, and the tenant wishes to give 
security for it, the lord ought to allow security to be 
given for it on these terms, that the tenant will do 
right if he has done wrong ; and on the day of the 
trial, and at the. hour when the tenant shall present 
himself before the lord to do right, the lord ought to 
release his security, and fully disseise the property. 
For no man ought to plead that his property be dis- 
seised, much less that the property shall not be under 
securities. Accordingly, the lord ought to disseise the 
property which he has seized, before the tenant enters 
upon the trial. And know that labourers and cultivators 
have no seisin in any property which they hold and 
cultivate of another person, nor of the crops, as long 
as they shall not be within the property; also he 
who holds dowry land has not naturally seisin of 
the property in dower, for he has nothing but the 

% Seisin of cleared land^ comes before all other 
seisins, as regards pleading pure seisin, for this a man 
will never lose without judgment^ and a man disseised 
may plead it. 

By warrantor is meant a person, by whose authority u^ 
or by whose mandate one has treated or employed a^*^'"- 

1[ If a man makes a contract or a bargain, and he Ch^ter 
does it by himself and by another, or solely by another, q£ ^|^ 

: tracts; 

I cleared land"] land which the I under cnltiyationy and of which he 
possessor has cleared and brought | has been the first occupanti 



viset nommeement lautre, cilz o qui il aura fet lou 
convenant est tenguz a lautre ausi comme a luy 
meismes. Mas si oiu nei nomet lautre, cil ob cuy il 
aura fait lo marche nest point tenuz a lautre. 

IT Sur covenanz et sur marchez na point des&ec^ en 
Oleron, mas cilz qui achatet puet bien se il veaut ob 
sey a compaigner autre, et se il ia compaignet autre 
li autres deit sanz deslay paier sa partie. Si donques 
[fol. 35.] nia convenant de terme, celuy qui lo aura ob sey 
acompaigne, paiet les deners selont la ferme de la com- 
paignie. Neys encore avant que ia rens ait de la choze 
de la compaignie. Car il nest'de riens tenuz a lautre 
marcheant fors a celuy, qui lou ha ob sey acompaigne 
ne ia li marcheanz riens ne li puet demander, fors a 
celuy qui fist lo marche ob luy, quar celuy le dit de 
tot paier. Et si est einsi qui il iayt convenant de 
terme, cilz qui ert acompaignonez on marche deit 
bien son compaignon a segurer^ que ille pait au terma 
Iceu fut iuge on plait de losseame Osmont et de 
Gumbaut Boysseau sur vne compaignie de oysios. 

f Essec^ apelet horn, quant home achatet chose et 
autres clamet en la paumee part, 
[fol. 35. 6.] If Si convenanz est faiz entre gent Doleron et gent 
dautrc pais, et apres en sordet plaiz, li plaiz en ert 
oyz on pais, ou li convenanz aura este faiz, quar plus 
legerement ipuet horn oir ceaus qui auront oy lo 

1[ Ob vne sole garentie provet horn sa demande en 
ta manere. Quan horn ha vi. homes leans qui iurent 

' dessec] The term '* essec *' is 
explained below to mean a kind of 
compulsory option, which onepartner 
gave to another to sell his own or to 
bny his partner's share at a given 

^ a segurer'] assecnrer. 

' Easec] This word seems to be 
used in this place in a sense other 
than that, which is below explained 
as between partners in a ship. 



and appoints the other person specifically, he with whom 
he has made the contract is bound to the other equally 
as to himself. But if he has not named the other, he 
with whom he has made the bargain is not bound to 
the other. 

1[ Upon contracts and upon bargains there is no 
" essec " in Oleron, but he who buys may well, if he 
will, with himself take another into partnership, and if 
he takes another into partnership the other ought to 
pay without delay his share. If then there is no cove- 
nant as to term, he who shall have admitted a partner 
with himself pays the money according to the under- 
taking of the partnership, even before he has any of the 
property of the parti\|r. For the partner is liable for 
nothing to the other merchant, except to him who has 
taken him into partnership, nor can the merchant de- 
mand anything except from him who made the pur- 
chase from him, for he ought to pay the whole. And 
if it be so, that there is an agreement for a term, he 
who shall have accompanied him to the market, ought 
to secure his partner that he pay at the term fixed. 
This was adjudged in the suit of Josseame Osmont and 
Gumbaut JBoysseau upon a partnership of birds. 

f The term essec is employed when a man buys a 
thing and another claims a share in the bidding. 

f If a contract is made between people of Oleron 
and people of another country, and afterwards if suit 
arises, the suit shall be heard in the country where the 
contract was made, for one can there hear more easily 
those who shall have heard the contract. 

IT With a sole guarantee a person proves his demand 
in this manner. When a man has six loyal men,^ who 

^ six loyal men] These were 
clearly comporgators, who spoke to 
the credibility of the guarantee. 
Twelve was the asaal number of 
compurgators amongst the Ger- 

manic tribes, but seven was the 
number of Scabini required to form 
a court by the Capitularies, anno 
803, and the number of witnesses, 
like that of the Scabini, was usually 



apres la garentie que il creent que la guareniie a ga- 
ranti verite, et ee fut iuge om plait de Guingant de 

Chapitre De plait de fons de terre si horn veaut raisgner la 

De fong de ^^^^ P*"^ tengue,^ il la deit raigner en tau manere. 

terre par II deit dire que il a tengue la choze i. an. et i. ior 

'^°^^^' ben et leaument et par son dreiturage sanz deffensse 

de dreit seignor, et si horn avoet ou raignet en tau 

[fol. 86.] manere tengue, il en ert tenguz par son saigrement et 

guagnera par tengue, si donques la partie adverse ne 

veaut prover par garanties, que il ait fet deffensse par 

son dreit seignor dedens Ian et le ior, ou laveit se 

veans proteste davant lo seignur, si li averseres esteit 

iors dau pais yssi que ne ifust trovez dedenz les vii 

iors que il on aveit sogu ' retorne om pais, quar cestes 

chozes li averseres provet par garenties, la tengue ert 

entrerumpue et ne vaudra rens. 

f Ausi est se dit om de depte qui nest demandee 
dedoQs Ian et 1. ior, et li deteres veut iurer, quil ayt 
paie locreancer, yl en sera creuz. 

1[ Dreit seignor' apelom celuy qui en poet la cort 
tenir. Si horn veit tenir sa choze a autre et ne vouget 
[fol. 36. 6.] metre deffense, la deffensse ne vaut rens si nest faite par 
dreit seignor ; hom espletet la chouze, il en det lougage * 
au seignour, ceu est assaver lix. sols, si li m&yres en 
est sires. 

* par tengue] by tenure. 
3 9ogu] BQ, u ogu for eu. 

* Dreit eeignor^ The lord of the 

manor, the lord who had jorisdiction 
over the fief. 
^ Umgage'] loa gage, the penalty. 



swear after the guarantee, that they believe the gua- 
rantee has guaranteed th^ truth, and this was adjudged 
in the case of Quingant de Ferroe. 

In a suit for landed estate, if a man wishes to main- chapter 
tain his right to property by tenure, he ought t^Qr/"*^^^ 
maintain it in this manner. He ought to say that he estate by 
has held the property for a year and a day well and*®°"^* 
loyally and by right, without objection on the part of the 
lord of the manor, and if a man asserts and maintains 
his tenure in this manner he shall support it by his 
oath, and shall gain by [his plea of] tenm'e, if indeed 
the adverse party cannot prove by guarantees, that he 
has objected through the lord of his manor within a 
year and a day, or had laid bis protest before the 
lord, if the adverse party was out of the country and 
was not to be found, within seven days immediately 
after his return to the country was known, for if the 
adverse party can prove these things, the tenure is 
interrupted and will be of no avail. 

f So also it is said in the case of debt, which is 
not demanded within a year and a day, if the debtor is 
willing to swear that he has paid the creditor, he shall 
be believed. 

1[ The lord of the manor is he, who is entitled t6 
hold a court. If a man sees his property held by 
another, and wishes to protest, the protest is of no 
avail imlesB it is made through the lord of the manor. 
If a man works the property,^ he must pay a fee to 
the lord, that is to say fifty-nine shillings, if the mayor 
is the lord. 

seyen. The Constitution of Royan, 
ch. XX., had an analogous role, that 
against the word of one jurat an 
accused party Alight purge himself 
by his own oath and the oath of six 

^ toorks the property'] This para- 
graph is not very intelligible, but 
ihere may be some special meaning 
of the word " cspleitet " in the sense 
of clearing or working land for the 
first time. 


1[ Si bom veit que diz qui tent la choze^ en quey 
autres clamet part ou la damet toute, 8oe seit soupeconoB 
de la choze de harder ou de se en aler, et ne eeit 
poissanz ^ de la diouze restituer, li sires deit prendre la 
choze en sa mayn a la requeste de la partie adverse, 
por la choze garder decique ol seit sogu a la quau 
partie la choze devra estre leaument Ne pero si li 
teneres puet etveaut affiancer la choze, li sires laidet' 
bien laisser affiancer souz fiance soceant, et ert la fiance 
tengue au seignur de ses dreiz et a laverse partie dau 
[fbl. 37.] dreiturage de sa demande, et itau' fiance nest pas 
quipte dedque dreiz ait les parties departi et rendu 
son dreit a chascun. 

IT E si est einsi que la plainte, qui veit sa choze 
tenir a autre, vee est* que il ne puchet promtement 
trober lo seignor, que sil lou aloit querre, le teneres 
entandis porreit debarder la choze, il puet ban par sa 
propre auctorite detenir la choze, decique il ou ait fet 
assaver a la seignorie dau fey. Mas il deit lou seignor 
ausi tost aler querre et li mostrer sa plainte. 

1[ De autretau meismes detenue puet fere li crean- 
cers o sis commandemenz sus la choze de son deptor. 

f Ceu qui est fait par celuy, qui est commandement 
dautre, deit ous chozes en quey il est establiz com* 
mandemenz estre ausi estable cum si li sires meismes 
o aveit fait 

rfoi.37.6.] ^^ maires ne tent cort davaut sey de fonz de terre, 
Chapitre fors de ceu qui est ou fey daus quatre seignors ou en 
jy^J^^' autres fez, dont la cort seit mon seignur le rey, si li 
mayre. plaiz estet de gens qui ne fussent de la commune. 

^ poiasanz'] puissant. I ' ilau] tel. 

3 laidet] la deit | ^ cee esf] yeest. 


1[ If a man sees that he who possesses the thing, in 
which another claims part or claims the whole for 
himself, is suspected of removing the thing, or of 
going away; and is not of suflBcient substance to 
restore the thing, the lord ought to take the thing into 
his own hands, at the request of the adverse party, to 
keep the thing until it be known to which party the 
thing ought fairly to belong. Nevertheless, if the pos- 
sessor can and will find security for the thing, the lord 
ought properly to allow him to give sufiicient security, 
and the sureties shall be bound to the lord for his 
right and to the adverse party for the justice of his 
demand, and such sureties are not relieved until justice 
has been done between the parties, and right has been 
rendered to each. 

% And if it be so, that the plaintiff, who sees his pro- 
perty held by another, sees that he cannot promptly find 
the lord, and that if he goes to seek him, the possessor 
may meanwhile carry away the property, he may well 
of his own authority detain the thing until he has 
made it known to the seignory of the fief. But he ought 
to go in search of the lord as soon as possible and 
exhibit to him his claim. 

% A creditor or hi? mandatory may make the like 
seizure of the property of his debtor. 

? That which is done by him who is the mandatory 
of another, ought to be in the matter, in which he 
has been appointed mandatory, as stable as if the 
owner had done it. 

% The mayor does not hold a court before him in chapter 
matters of landed estate, except in the case of land^^^- 
which is a fief of "the four lords," or in the case of mayor, 
other fiefs, of which the jurisdiction is with his majesty 
the king, if the suit is of persons who are not of the 


Ul comkuke d'olebok. 


Si hons fretet nef dautre en Oleron a porter vins 
Qui fratet ^^ autres pais, ia nen aiira porte xsd. tonea por xx., si 
nefdaatre. nomeement ne est devise on marche fayre.^ 


T Si horn achatet vin dautre, et li achateres semon- 

QuMthom^^ ^^ vendor que il aparaille comme il livre son vin, 

achatet vin et li venderes metet lou seir^ dxenele ' on ioneau o 

^^^' lo apareillet en autre manere por lo vin livrer et la 

nuyt par la chenele li vins verset ou sen anget en 

[foL38.] autre nutnere, li vins est perduz au vendeor par ceu 

que il li est livrez ; et ceu est quant li vius est venduz 

sanz terme de prize, mas sil est venduz a terme establi 

de prendre, lo terme passe la venture est a laehateor, 

et ceu fut iuge om plait de Constantin losseaume de 

Doulux et de marchanz qui avient achate vin de Iny. 

% Et est assaver que quant bom vent choze sanz 
terme devise aprendre, et veet que li achateres les chozes 
proloignent aprendre, il len deit fere semondre par la 
seignorie, et li sires deit ben fere semondre lachateor 
que il prenge la choze vendue et la paiet dedens sept 
iors au plus tart, ou il perdreit son marche ou h 
enperemenz^ daus chozes tomerent tout sur luy, la 
[foi.38.6.] quau chouse li venderes voudreit, mays ou en deit 
restituer ob tot li achateres au vendeor ses damages. 


Chapitre Si filz OU fllle qui set om baiUou' au pain o au 
QuanTfilz '^^^ ^^ ^^ P^^ ^^ citez, li peres en aura sa cort, si 

* on marche fayre] en faisant la 

3 seir"] Thia may be a prefix of 
the following word. 

' ehenele] ohenal, canale. Hiis 
word probably signifies a tap to 
draw oflf the wine from the yats, or 
it may be a syphon, such as is nsed 
to draw off spirits. 

^ enperemeHz"] empirements. 

* om haittou] On appelle " bail " 
la Jonissanoe que les p^res, les | 

m^res, et les coOat^raiix oot des 
biens des mineors sans lenr en ren- 
dre compte a la chaige de les nonr- 
rir et des les aoqmtter de tootes 
letirsdettes. £n qnelqaes oontomes 
oette jonissance est nomm£ garde 
en ligne directe, et bail en ooUate- 
rale. Ici en ligne directe, conmie 
en collat^rale elle est nomm^ bail. 
C£ Ordonnance des Bois de I^rance, 
tom. i. p. 58. 




If a man freights the ship of another person in Chapter 
Oleron to carry wines to another country, he shall „ ^^* 
carry twenty-one tons for twenty, although it is not freights 
specifically agreed upon in making the bargain. Mother. 

If a man buys wine of another, and the buyer sum- Chapter 
mons the seller that he make ready to deliver the ^^^^ ji 
wine, and the seller puts a funnel into the tun^ or mao buys 
prepares in another manner to deliver the wine, and JJ^^fh^, 
during the night the wine runs out by the funnel, or 
escapes in some other manner, the wine is lost to the 
seller because he has to deliver the wine ; and this is 
the case when the wine is sold without any term fixed 
to take it away, but if it is sold for a term fixed 
to take it away, and the term elapses, the risk is with 
the buyer, and this was adjudged in the suit of Con- 
stantino Josseaume of Doulx and the merchant who 
had bought wine of him. 

% And it is to be understood, that when a man seUs 
a thing without any term stipulated to take it away, 
and sees that the purchaser delays to take the thing 
away, he ought to summon him by the seignory, and 
the lord ought to cause the purchaser to be summoned 
that he should take away the thing sold, and pay for 
it within seven days at the latest, or he shall lose his 
bargain, and any deterioration of the property shall 
devolve altogether upon him, whichever the seller 
chooses, or the purchaser ought to restore with the 
whole to the seller his damages. 

If son or daughter, who is under the guardianship Chapter 
and eats the bread and the wine of the father, is cited, when a 

son "who is 



ombailloa ol est raigne. Et est assayer que quant cort vient 
estciteS*^®^^ au mail de sa femme et au pere de son enffant, 
il en puent tenir cort sur lor banc ' se il volent, ou 
aillors en lues acostumez a cort tenir. Mas il devent 
la cort raener ausi cum lamenast lou sires dont la cort 
lor est venue, et ideit estre le commandement di celuy 
seignur, et si gages ichiet il est a celui seignur. 

Cbapl^ Si hom de la commune plaideet contre home qui 
Quant ^^ seit pas de la commune, et cilz qui nest pas de la 
home de la commune requiert autre iure que il seit por luy contre 
plaideet le iure de la commune, il ne deit pas estre centres ou 
contre ^^^ p^j, lautre, neis encore se il ^li' donet partie de sa 

home qui ir ' i ^ 

nest par de demande por lautre conquere, si donques nest li autres 
la com- gjg parenz, ou done en avocat ou en conseil par lesgart 
[fol. 89.] de la cort. 

% Mas si est einsi que hotns de la commune par 
di'eiturage partet^ en chozes ob autres qui ne seent 
pas de la commune, si les chozes sunt non devisees il 
puet bien raigner totes les chozes, et ceu est par la 
raison de sa partie. Quar ia seit ce que tuyt cil de 
la commune seient tenuz par saigrement lun a lautre, 
a en dre est que plus est tenuz chascuns a son parent 
que a autre, ia seit ce que il seit iurez de la commune 
en sa choze guarder que ne deperichei 

[fpl.89.ft.] gi plaiz est de fons de terre davant lo maior de 

^^^^^'^ choze qui seit en autre fez que en fez reau, si li plaiz 

Deplaia vient a tant que par iugement de la cort au mayor 

terreTda- ®^ ^^* garde veue et apres en seit respote donee, chas- 

* lor banc] the bench of justice. 
BancOy seggio del judice, Ducauge. 

^ parte f] is partner in things with 



the father shall have his court, if he is arraigned. And a ward of 
it is to be unclerstood, that when a court thus comes jg'gj^®'^ 
to the husband of a wife, or to the father of a child, 
he may hold the court on his bench,^ if he wishes, or 
elsewhere in the place accustomed for the court to be 
held. But the court should be conducted as the lord 
would conduct it, whose court has come to him, and 
it ought to be by the mandate of the lord, and if a 
penalty is awarded, it goes to the lord. 

If a man of the commune sues a man who is not Chapter 
of the commune, and he who is not of the commune when a 
requests another juror that he maybe for him against ™a° of the 
the juror of the commune, he ought not to object gues a man 
against the juror for the other, much less if he grants ^?*J ^* "^* 
him part of his demand for the other's advantage, commune, 
unless the other be his relative, or be assigned as 
his advocate or as his counsel by the direction of the 

^ But if it happen that a man of the commune by 
right shares in property with others who are not of 
the commune, if the property is not settled, he may 
arraign all the property, and this by reason of his 
share. For it may be that those of the commune 
are bound by oath one to another, just as each person 
is bound to his parent more than to another, and it 
may be that he is a sworn man of the commune to 
guard its property, that it perishes not. 

If a suit is for landed estate before the mayor, of Chapter 
things which are in another than a royal fief, if the ^^ ^^f^^ 
suit goes so far that by the judgment of the mayor's for landed 
court a view of the property has been made, and fo^^^e*^ 

• mayor. 

> his bench] This paragraph is 
not yery intelligible. It would al- 
most seem as if the father, by virtue 
of the patria potestas exercised 

jurisdiction in the name of the lord, 
where a minor child living in his 
house was sued as defendant. 



Tant io cune daus paitieSy on deit par segre lou plait davant lo 

"^"^'^l* maior decique en la fin. Et tenir en Jo iuge qiiar de 
son non iuge poet horn faire son iuge^ et si ancune dans 
parties nest de la commune, et ne veauge tenir lo iuge, 
li sires dau fe cuy il ert hons lo li deit fere tenir a la 
requeste dau mayor. Mas avant que li plaiz soit en* 
temez ne respote donee, si lune daus parties ou 
enbedoes ^ redamet la cort dau seignor en cuy fe serout 
les chozes, et cilz sires en aura la cort, et tot ceu 

[fol. 40.] que il en auront fet davant lo maior sera comme non 
fet. E est assaver, que apres ce que li plaiz ert achevez 
dau fonz davant lo seignur dau fe, daus fraz, et daus 
demores, et daus autres incidenz por ce que ce sunt 
mobles en ert la cort an maior, si domques nen a estee 
faite demande en lautre cort ob lo fonz, quar einsi 
finera de tot. 

Cilz qui depecet * o en pestret ' autruy sazine deit a 
la plainte v. sols., de gage et li roayres de lix. sols. 

Y Si bom est citez davant lo mayor, et il deffaut iii. 
fez continueement, li sires sazira la demande en sa 
main et dira einsi, ge met en ma mayn la demande 
que cist a fait a celuy, et nomera les persones et la 

[fol. 40.6.] demande, et apres dera ior au cite que il li vienge faire 
dreit, et li dreiz est itaus que rendra li citez les gages 
daus deffailles au seignor, se il iuient a donques. Mas 
si denques ne iuient, li sires sazira la plainte de sa 
demande' comme de son dreiturage. De baton a la plainte 
V. sols, damande et li maires lix. sols, de gage, et ceu 
est de simple baton. Mas si li batons est granz segont 

* enbedoes'] ambo, denx, both of 
the two. 
^ depecet"] literally, pulls to pieces. 

' en pettret] empestret, impedit. 
* se il tiitent] s'il vient 



afterwards a respite given, each of the two parties 
ought to prosecute the suit before the mayor to its 
conclusion^ and acquiesce in the judge ; for a man may 
"Constitute one his judge, who is not properly his judge ; 
and if any one of the parties is not of the commune 
and does not wish to acquiesce in the judge, the lord 
of the fief whose man he is, ought, to make him ac- 
quiesce at the request of the mayor. But before the 
suit be contested and the respite given, if one of the 
two parties, or both, reclaim the court of the lord in 
whose fief the property is, the lord shall hold his court, 
and all that which they have done before the mayor 
shall be as if not doue. And it is to be known that 
after the suit shall be finished respecting landed estate 
before the lord of the fief, of the crops, and of the 
demurrage, and of the other incidents, because they 
are moveables, the court of the mayor shall have juris- 
diction, if indeed no demand for them has been made 
in the other court with the estate, for in that case it 
Bhall decide the whole. 

He who infringes or harasses another's seisin owes 
to the plaintiff five shillings penalty, and to the mayor 
fifty-nine shillings. 

IT If a man is cited before the mayor, and makes 
default three times successively, the lord shall seize 
the thing demanded into his hands, and shall say thus : 
I take into my hands the thing demanded against 
this party, and he shall name the parties and the thing 
demanded, and afterwards shall assign a day to the 
party cited, that he come to do justice, and justice 
requires that the party cited shall pay the penalties 
for his defaults to the lord, if he at length comes. But 
if he does not come, the lord shall put the plaintiff 
in possession of the thing claimed by him, as of his 
own right. For an assault to the plaintiff five shillings 
compensation is due, and to the mayor fifty-nine shil- 
lings penalty; and this is for simple battery. But if 




lo meffait^ et segont la persone qui aura este batae et 
segont la costumance do bator lamende ert maire a la 
plainte, et sera iugee lamende a leagart dau mayre et 
daus esquetdns et li gages au mayor ert en la merd 
dau mayor. 

fAusi de convices et de laidengices^ segont lones- 
tete ^ de la persone a cuy sera dit, et segont la costumance 
de celuy qui la dira, ert lamende a la plainte al esgart ' 
[foL4i.] dau maior et li gages i est de\ix, eola. 

Chapitre Si hom voleit aver couz ou demorez^ que ait £Bdt en 
^^ ochison deplait en la cort au mayor, il les demand^ra 

et demores en fSBizent reson comme de prindpau et se il les provet 

par plait £| jj gerQ^t restitues, et autrement non. 

Si on chozes en que il et autres seront parsoner 
veit tenir a autre engages qui ren ne iait a faire, il 
semondra les parsoners que il li demandent la choze, 
et metront lor part ou cos, et ons missions qui seront 
feites on plait, et si li parsoner ne sunt deage et il 
seent en bail,^ il deit semondre lor ductors;* et si par 
sa semonse ne le volent fisdre, il les en fera semondre 
par la seignorie, et si apres la semonse de la seignorie 

[fbl.41.6.] il ni volent venir, tot ce que il porra de la choze con- 
querre sera son perpetuaument ^ domain, et' li autre ne 
y auront iames^ rens. Car om part® soent son dreit 
par sa negligence. Mas si li parsoner ne sont deage 
et ne scent en bail quant sunt enfant et sunt sanz 
tutor que il puchent saver la semonse qui lor sereit 

> laideugices] leidenger, loedorer, 
Latin Icedere. 
- ' hnestete] llionnetete. 

* a lesgarQ k Tesgard, k I'^gard. 

* demorez] from the Latin mora, 

•' U seent en haxC\ if they are 

minors and have guardians in respect 
of their estate held as a fiet 

• ductorel This is probably [^a 
miswriting for tutors. 

7 son perpetuaument'l son propre 
seems to be here required. 
^ ianfes'] jamais. 

• om parf] on perd. 


ihe assault is violent, according to the trespass, and 
according to the person who has been assaulted^ and 
according to the habit of the assailant, the compen- 
sation shall be greater to the plaintiff; and the com- 
pensation shall be adjudged by the award of the mayor 
and of the echevins, and the penalty to the mayor shall 
be at the mercy of the mayor. 

IT So of reproaches and insults, according to the 
respectability of the person to whom they shall be 
said, and according to the habit of the person who 
shall say them, shall be compensation made to the 
plaintiff by the award of the mayor, and the fees to 
him are fifty-nine shillings. 

Tf a man wishes to have the costs or demurrage Chapter 
which he has incurred on occasion of a suit in the of having 
court of the mayor, he shall demand them, stating c^^ts and 
reasons for them, as for the principal sum, and they foiJ^^^^ 
shall be rendered to him if he proves them, but not «"»*• 

If in things in which he and others are partners, he 
sees the others engaged that there shall be nothing 
done, he shall summon the partners, that they demand 
the thing and contribute their part in costs and ex- 
penses which shall be made in the suit; and if the 
partners are not of age and they are under guardian- 
ship, he ought to summon their tutors, and if upon 
his summons they will not act, he shall have them 
summoned by the seignory, and if after the summons 
of the seignory they will not come, all which he can 
collect of the things shall be his own property, and 
the others shall have nothing. For a person often 
loses his right by his negligence. But if the partners 
are not of age and are not under guardianship, although 
they are infants, and they are without a tutor who 
can be made aware of the summons which shall be 

T 2 



Qui rait a 

[fol. 42. J 

[fol. 42.] 

Quant sires 
la cort de 
son home. 

faite, ia rens ne vaudreit. Mas si li parsoners conquert 
la choze, 11 en levera ses couz, et ses missions, et ses 
demores, avanfc que li menor^ en ayent rens, ne ia ne 
lor endeit rendre partie decique il seent deage, ainz 
deit espleter tandis la choze comme la soe domayne. 

Home que vait a conseil dautre en son plait ne puet 
mie apres porter garentie avers laverse partie. ' 

Si sires demande la cort^ de son home qui seit de 
la commune, il en aura la cort, mas il endeit fere dreit 
dedenz ii. quinzenes, si li plaiz est de fonz de terre. 
E si li plaiz est de depte o dautre choze^ il en deit 
acomplir dreit dedens ii. octaves, et sil no fait li 
maires en aura la cort et en acomplira dreit. 

Chapitre ^ Si dui sunt parsoner par meitie en i. vaisseau, et 

ixiii. li jjjyjQ lespleitet vn tor a son obs domaine,^ li autres 

sunt par- parsoners lo espleitera i. autre tor. Mas si li vaisseaus 

sener en un ^^j, tormente ou par deffaute de temps est plus detenuz 

vaisseau. ^ ^ r r 

en i. tor^ que en lautre iceu ne Eera ia conte en la 
compaignie. Et iceii meisme est entre plusors par- 

[fol. 42.6.] IT Si plusors parsoners sunt parsoners en L meisme 

Chapitre vaisseau, si luns daus parsoners en menet lou vaisseau 

Quant do port ob lassentement de son autre parsoner, et. au 

plusors retor lamenet sanz lassentement de son parsoner en 

sunt pap- • A • 

Boners en autre port que en iquou * o il lo ara pris, il ne le puet 
un vais- jjjjg metre a essec decique il lo ayt amene ou port 

* U menor"] le mineur. 

^demande la cori] demands to 
exercise jurisdiction over a member 
of the commune, yvho is his vassal. 

Cf. Pierre de Fontaines, ch. xxi. 

^ a son obs domaine] for his own 
special service. 

* en iquou"] en lequel. 



made to them, it will be of no avail But if the part- 
ner makes profit of the thing he shall levy his costs, 
and his expenses and his demurrage, before the minor 
shall have any thing, nor shall he be bound to render 
him any part until he shall be of age, meanwhile he 
ought to employ the thing as if it were his own per- 
sonal property. 

A man who goes of counsel to another in his suit, ix?. 
cannot afterwards give a guarantee against the adverse ^® ^^^ 

party. counsel to 


If a lord demands jurisdiction of his vassal, who is Chapter 
of the commune, he shall have jui-isdiction, but he tttj^^^ 
ought to do justice within two fortnights, if the suit lord de- 
is about landed estate. And if the suit is of debt orl^^^^^^^^ 
another matter, he ought to accomplish justice within over his 
two weeks, and if he does not so, the mayor shall hold ^*"^- 
a court upon it and shall accomplish justice. 

f K two are partners in moieties of one vessel, and Chapter 
the one employs it for a turn for his own private ser- when two 
vice, the other shall employ it for one other turn, are part- 
But if the vessel by tempest or by default of weather vessel. 
is detained longer in one turn than in another, this 
shall not be reckoned in the partnership. And the 
same thing holds good in the case of several partners. 

f If several partners are partners in one and same Chapter 


vessel, if one of the partners takes the vessel out of when 
port with the consent of the other partners, and on its wverai are 
return takes it without the assent of his partners to a vessel, 
another port from that out of which he took it, he 
cannot put it to option (essec^) until he shall have 

' essee] Mr. Fardessus, in an 
extract from this MS., which he has 
published in his Lois Maritimes, 
torn. iy. p. 290, writes <<esset,'* which 
he derivet from essir or eissir, and 

interprets to mean licltation, ** par 
« ce que la licitation fiut sortir de 
*< rindivision." The Editor has had 
the MS. carefiilly examined, and 
the result is in &Toar of" essec.'' 



dont il lo aura pris. Ne iandis ausi que li vaisseaiis 
sera en port loigdaig, que li parsoners ne le puchet 
aler voir eanz granz cos ou demores et damages de 
sey et de sa choze^ si tot encore neys^ le vesseaus 
esteit la menez en port loigdaig ob lou assentement 
daus parsoners, quar cil qui aureit veu lo vesseau 
fireschement poyret engigner ^ en lessee celuy qui dauant 
grant piece ne lo aureit yeu, et essecs se deit fere oom- 
munaument et leaument 

[fol. 43.] f Essec apelon en icest luec ' qiiant vna parsoners 
dit a lautre, ge te met lo vesseau a essec en tau 
manere que tu me deras tant de la meie partie ou ge 
te deray^ itant de la toe, et dit quau some, et sachez 
que li autres parsoners ne puet mie refuder,^ quar autre- 
ment ne puet mie estre vaesseas partiz sanz damage 
et sans la deffbrmacion de sa premere matere. E en 
totes itaus chozes qui ne puent mie estre autrement 
parties sanz faire essec, et cil qui lou reoet lou deit 
paier dedenz terme de vii. iors apres qui lo aura 

T Si de pluBors parsoners li aucuns vent sa partie 
dau veisseau a autre estrange qui ni ait reus affaire, 
li autres parsoners puet retenir lo marche ob touz les 

[fol. 43. 6.] convenanz qui i seront faiz si il vout a son obs, et 
autretau si li vns lo eschanget li autres .lo puet retenir, 
sil veaut fomir la valor de leschange et ceu meismes 

> si tot encore im^«] much less if. 
^ enffigner"] engaigner, have an 
advantage over. 
' en icest luec"] en ce lieu. 

^ derail darai : je donneraL 

' rtfuder^ refuter : refbser, Roque- 



brought it back to the port whence he has taken it. 
Nor so long as the vessel is in a distant port, so that 
the partners cannot go to see it without great costs 
and demurrage and damage to themselves and their 
property, unless the vessel has been carried into the 
distant port with the consent of the partners, for he 
who has freshly seen the vessel, may have an advan- 
tage in the option over him who has not seen it for 
some time, and an option ought to be made in com- 
mon, and with loyalty. 

IT Option (essec ^) is used in this place to signify 
when one party says to the other, I put the vessel 
to option in this manner, you shall either give me so 
much for my part, or I will give you so much for 
your part/ and he names the sum; and note that the 
other partner cannot refiise the offer, for otherwise a 
vessel could never be shared without loss, and without 
the breaking up of its primitive matter. And in all 
such things which cannot be otherwise shared without 
making an option, he who receives the thing ought 
to pay within the term of seven days after that he 
has retained the thing. 

IT If of several partners a certain one sells his share 
of a vessel to a stranger who has nothing to do with 
it, any other of the partners may retain the part sold 
with all the engagements which may have been made, 
if he wishes it, for his own service; and in the same 
way if the one exchange his share, the other may re- 
tain it, if he wishes to furnish the value of the ex- 

' essec] The Editor is not aware 
of any corresponding term in the 
English language, unless it be the 
word ** option," namely, to pnt it to 
the option of the other party whether 
he will choose to buy or to sell at a 
giTcn price. The identical provision 
is found in chapter x. (55.) of the 
«< Consolat de Mar," where it is pro- 

vided that if one or two of the part 
owners of a ship wish to sell his or 
their shares to the managing owner 
(patron), or to buy his share, they 
may compel him to an option — and 
he has a corresponding right against 
them— or to put up the vessel to 


LA COmiUME d'olebon. 

est en totes chozes de compaignie quant la choze est 
par ^on devis. Non devis apelon quant neguns daus 
parsoners ne puet dire ne mostrer devisement ou ceste 
partie en la mea. Et est assaver que parsoners devent 
partir entreaus leaument, et eommunaument les mises^ 
et les prises, les bens et les maus,^ segont que afferrft 
a chescun par reson de la compaignie. 

Cl^pitre j^j 3 marineau, acompaignone, ou autres genz on vai»- 
li man- seau veent * choze defFors, que il puchet prehdre et metre 
Umeite°de ^^ vaisseau, ne sunt tenu daler ne de prendre la choze. 
choze prise ne de metre on vaisseau se il ne volent. Encore neys 

yaissean. ®^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ vaisseau OU sis commandemens ou 
[foL44.] oommandet ne sunt il point tenu. Quar la marinea 
ne simt tenu fors dau vaissea mareer ne li fuer a 
quey il sunt establi. Mas si avent' que de lor 
Yolunte il prengent choze il y aront la meite et li 
sires dau vaissea lautre, si donqiies entres convenans 
ne aveent entre eaus. Car on dit que convenantz les 
veint.^ E est assaver que dau servant qui a terre 
vait ^ au pain et au vin de seignour et assiduoos ® ou 
vaisseau, la soe partie est au seignur e que il est ben 
tenuz en totes maneres de faire lo profet au seignor. 

^^^ Si sauners vent sa partie de la sau par saunerie ou 

[fol.44.6.] mares que il tent dautre, li sires dau mares puet retenir 

De Banners, se il veaut lo marche a son obs si li marchez a este 

faiz sanz luy o sanis son commandement, et ia por ce 

> msea"] depenses, Roqnefort. 

^ les bent et lea fnaus"] les biens et 
les manx. Mr. Pardessns adopts, 
upon the faith of the extract from 
the MS. with which he was fur- 
nished, the words *' les vens et les 
** mairs," which he supposes to be a 
local idiom amongst partners. 

* Li] probably a miswriting for 
Si, if. 

* veent} The context requires 
veent, sees. 

* avent'] avient. 

^ veint'] from the Latin vinciunt. 

' vaW] from either the Latin y»- 
dit, or yivit. 

^ assiduoos] from the Latin assi- 



ehsiJige ; and the same rule prevails in all things which 
are not divisible. We ppeak of things as not divisible, 
when neither of two partners can say or show dis- 
tinctly that this part is mine. And it is to be un- 
derstood that partners ought to share fairly and in 
common the outgoings and the incomings, the good 
and the evil, according as it shall result to each by 
reason of the partnership. 

If a mariner, companion,, or other person on board Chapter 
a vessel sees anything outside the vessel which he can ^ manner 
take possession of and put on board the vessel, he is y^^ail ^.'^e 
not obliged to go and take the thing, nor to put it on takeu oat- 
board the vessel, if he do not wish, still less, if the "^^® ^^^ 
owner or his agent command, is he obliged, for the 
mariner is not bound to any thing but to navigate 
the vessel, nor to any thing for which he is not en- 
gaged. But if it happens that of his own free will he 
takes any thing, he shall have a moiety, and the owner 
of the vessel the other moiety, unless another contract 
has been made between them, for it is said that a 
contract binds them. And it is to be understood that 
if a servant, who on land lives on the bread and wine 
of his master, assists in the vessel, his share is for his 
master, for he is bound in every manner to work for 
the advantage of his master. 

If a saltworker sells his portion ^ of the salt from a Chapter 
saltwork or salt marsh, which he holds from another, q^ g^^** 
the owner of the salt marsh may, if he please, retain workers, 
what has been sold for himself, if the sale has been 
made without him or without his authority, and this. 

^-portion] Tbia proTision would 
seem to apply to salt lands held 
upon metayer tenure, the owner of 

which had a right of pre-emption as 
regards the tenant's share of the 



ne remaindra se li saunerB ha de quey aillors ne for- 
nicbet son marche a lautre, a cuy il on aura feit pre- 
merement, eil o aveit fait estroseement ^ sanz autre 
convenani Quar li sauners quant il veost vendre sa 
partie, il o deit fere assaver au seignur et a la vende 
et li aires rendra^ la vende sil volt^ et sil la volt 
retenir il endeit auaitost respondre sanz delay, et sil ne 
la retent, il nen deit mie delaier au sauner livreor 
quant il vodra la sau prendre, si donques li sires 
autre reson nia. 

E est assaver que si gaagneres' meffait de lagaag- 
[fol. 45.] nerie a son seignor a la partie dau gaagnor daus 
fruyz de la gaagnerie, que li gaagneres rendra de celuy 
li amandera les demages. Quar li gaagneres ne ha 
rens en la gaagnerie fors par reson de son labor. £t 
sachiez que en quaucunque manere que horn facet ou 
procuret lo demage dautre il est tenuz a lautre de 
restituer. E en quauconque manere que horn amandet 
la choze dautre li autres li est tenguz de restituer, si 
donques nosot^ iurer que il par povrete ou par autre 
choze resounable o provable noguist^ encorage^ de tei 
amandement en cele fazon en sa choze fsbire. 

la seit ce que li mayres ait mult grant voyz en sa 
cort^ il ne deit mie estre avocaz par negunes daus 

^ estroaeement'] estros : a Piostant, 

' rendra'] rendre: declarer,Boqae- 

* gaagneres'] gaagnidre: labour- 
eur, Boquefort. 

^ nasot] ne sait pas. 

' nogutsQ n'airait pas. 

^ encorage] llhere is probably 
here an error of the scribe. . 

7 en sa cort] A separate para- 
graph should commence here. 



notwithstanding nothing shaU remain which the salt- 
worker can furnish to the other to complete the sale 
which he has previously made to him, if he has made 
it off-hand without any other covenant ; for when the 
saltworkei' wishes to sell his part of the salt, he ought 
to make known the sale to the lord, and the lord shall 
restrain the sale if he will ; and if he wishes to restmin 
it, he ought to reply without delay, and if he does not 
restrain it, he ought not to delay to deliver the salt to 
the saltworker, when he wishes to take it, if the lord 
has not any reason against it. 

And it is to be understood, that if a cultivator,^ 
who cultivates land under an engagement to render half 
the produce to the owner, trespasses on the share which 
the owner of the land ought to have of the crops of 
the land, he shall make compensation for the* losses, for 
the cultivator has no interest in what he cultivates 
except by reason of his labour ; and note that in what- 
ever way a man does or procures damage to another, he 
is bound to indemnify him, and in whatever manner a 
man makes compensation he is bound to make good 
the property damaged, unless he can swear that by 
poverty or by some other reasonable and proveable 
cause he has not wherewith to make indemnification 
in such manner as to make good the property. 

Inasmuch as the mayor has great voice in his court, 
he ought not to be the advocate of either party. 

^cuhivator] Gaagneres has some- 
tunes the generic meaning of a 
labourer or cultWator who is paid 
with a portion of the produce ; but 

its specific meaning is that of a 
coltiyator *^h moiti^ profit," in which 
sense it is probably used here to 
signify a metayer tenant. 


[fol.45.6.] En la cort au mayor ne ha poinb de bataille. Mas 
^^1^ en autre oort quant bataille se fait^ ele se fait en tau 

Quant manere. 

faitpar'^ f Si li plainte avoet et nomet garenties en sa de- 

champioM. mande, quar autrement ni aureit mie bataUle, et li 
adverseres se deffendet en vei's luy et en vers les 
garenties en sa demande, quar autrement on aiuget^ 
saigrement a faire a laversaire^ et quant li saigrement 
* est aiugez avant que la plainte enprenget les fiances, 
quant apres les fiances prises il ne poet mie fere sil 
voleit lever son auersaire dau saicrement, il o fera en 
tau manere et dira ensi : Je ne vuil mie ' que vos facet 
cest saigrement et teu leve, quar suy prest que ge te 
maintenge par bataille que ce que ge te demande seit 

[foL 46.] verite et leaute, et yez en mon gage,' et baillera en la 
mayn dau seignur de la cort son gage, chaperon, ou 
ganz, ou ob autres chozes, et si li aversayrea se deffent 
et baillet son gage. Quar si einsi non faises il seret 
provez que la bataille ert iugee. 

f Et adonques seront levees de moubles de laversayre 
totes ses depte& Et apres aura la plainte sa mostre^ 
dau remaignant daus moubles de son aversaire, et querra 
e son pi*opre cost dous chanpions, daus quaus dos quant 
il seront ou champ li aversaires choisira celuy quil mes 
voudra a son ops, et celuy sera son champions et se 
combatra par luy, et sor celuy qui li champions sera 
vaincuz aura li reys ^ Ix. sole, de ga^e. Li quatre seignur 

^ aiuget"] adjugait 
^ Je ne vuil mie] je ne veux pas. 
' vez en mon gage] yoyez mon 

* moftre"] moiti^. 

• /*' reys] le roi. 



In the court of the mayor batel ^ is not allowed ; but Chapter 
in other courts, when batel takes place, it takes place whenbatel 
in this manner. ^^^ p^ace 

• f If the plaintiff vouches and names guarantees of p^^*™' 
his claim^ for otherwise there shall be no batel, the 
adversary defends himself against him and the guaran- 
tees of his claim, for it would be otherwise adjudged that 
the adversary make oath, and when an oath is adjudged, 
before the plaintiff pledges his faith, for after his faith is 
pledged he cannot cause, if he wishes, his adversary to 
be relieved of his oath, he shall proceed in this manner, 
and shall say thus : I do not wish you to make oath, 
and I relieve you, for I am ready to maintain by batel 
that what I claim is true and loyal, and here is my 
pledge ; and he shall deposit in the hands of the lord 
of the court his pledge, a hat or a glove, or some other 
thing, and likewise the adversary defends himself and 
delivers his pledge. For if he does not do so, it shall 
be proved that batel is adjudged. 

% And then shall be levied of the goods of the adver- 
sary all his debts, and afterwards the plaintiff" shall 
have his half of the remainder of the goods of his 
adversary, and shall seek at his own cost two champions,* 
of which two, when they shall be on the field, the 
adversary shall choose the one which he most wishes 
for his own service, and this one shall be his champion 
and shall fight for him, and upon him whose champion 
shall be vanquished the king shall levy sixty shillings 

' baid] In the Assises de Jcra- 
salem, § xliii., we find it laid down 
that maritime contracts should he 
Judged par la cort de la mcr, por ce 
que en la cort de la mer n'a point 
de bataille por preuTC ne por de- 
mande de celny Teagc, et en I'autre 
cort des borgeis deit areir esprenves 

[par] bataille, si la querclle monte 
dun marc dargent en amont. £d. 
Eansler, Stnttgard, 1839. 

' two champiorui] This is a very 
singular provision, and implies that 
there were at this time champions 
by profession. 



[foi.46.&.] 1 dener. Lo quau dener hant^ li quatre aeignor par 
ceu que il gardent ob lou seignor lo champ de la bataille^ 
mas sachez que ceu est en eleccion et en chois de laver- 
saire de bailler a la plainte la meite de ses moebles, si 
cum nos ayom dit, ou de querre son champion a son 
propre cost. Encore se fait bataille en tau manere. Si 
la plainte apelet a vive voiz, et dit einsi, ge te apeau ' 
de ceu, et dira quey et que ce seit veir' taus gens ou 
seventy que ge ten trairay a garenz, et les nomera, et si 
tu ten veos deffendre, ge suy touz pros que ge te man- 
tenge par bataille, et vez en mon gage, adonques a 
laversere de mon aversere convent que il se deffendet 
ausi tost sanz pe remuer et bailie ausi son gage, et diet 
einsi, ge men deQent vers tey et vers toutes garenties, 

[foi. 47.] et tot einsi comme apele, mas ge suy encore prez que 
ge men deffende et vez en mon gage. 

f E est assaver que bataille emprise per chozes si 
cum par heritages, par deptes, et par autres itaus 
chozes, ne se fait mie cors a cors, ^ et si lune partie et 
lautre ne o vont, aynz fait par champions en la menere 
que nos avons dit 

f A bataille emprise par ochison^ de crim, si cum 
de murtre, ou do larroncin, de traison, de faussete, ou 
dautre mayor choze, que portet crim^ ne se fait mie 
par champions, ainz se fait cors a cors. 

f E li apelez ha tant davantage, que il deviset la 
forme de la bataille, et U sires de la cort assigne le 
ior et lou terme. E sachez que cilz qui est apelez se 

[foi.47.6.] det deffendre ausi tost sanz .son pie remuer, et se il 
non fait, il est convaincuz. 

^ hant"] ont 

3 ge te apeau] }e t'appelle. The 
words of the challenge are in the 
first person. 

3 mr] from the Latin venu. 
* cors a cora] corps k corps. 
^ ochiaon] ochoison : occasion, 



for fees. The four lords ^ shall levy one penny, which 
penny the four lords have, because with the lord [of the 
court] they guard the field of battle ; but note that it is 
in the election and in the choice of the adversary to 
deliver to the plaintiff the half of his goods, as we have 
said, or to find a champion at his own cost. Again, 
batel is waged in this manner. If the plaintiff accuses 
aloud, and says I accuse you of this, and shall say of 
what, and that this is true such and such persons know, 
whom I will produce to you as warrantors, and shall 
name them, and if you wish to defend yourself I am all 
ready to maintain what I sAy by batel, and here is my 
pledge, then it is requisite for the adversary of my 
adversary * that he defend himself immediately without 
withdrawing a foot, and deliver also his pledge, and 
say also, '' I defend myself against you, and against all 
« warrantors, and fot every thing of which I am ac- 
" cused, and I am also ready to defend myself, and here 
" is my pledge." 

IT It is to be understood that batel undertaken for 
things such as landed estates, debts, or other such 
things, is not made body to body, and if one party or 
the other party wishes it, it is made by champions in 
the manner above said. 

f But batel undertaken for crime, such as murder, 
larceny, treason, forgery, or other greater thing, which 
carries with it crime, is not made by champions, but 
is made body to body. 

T And the accused has this advantage, that he devises 
the form of the batel, and the lords of the court assign 
the day and the time ; and note that he who is accused 
ought to defend himself immediately without with- 
drawing a foot, and if he does not do so, he is convicted. 

^four lords'] The four lords are 
spoken of as a special body, some- 
what like fhe foar thanes of an 
English county. 

^ofmy adversary] These words 
seem to be redondant. 



IT Parenties * ne auditor * ne sunt point cregu, ainz, 
si li adversaires icontredit en cause de crim^ ainz 
passera cilz, qui est apelez ob lo saigrement de sey et 
de son mesage.^ 

f Si la plainte ne len veost torner par bataille, car 
grant boydie* a venir en condempner home de crim 
par lo garentage de genz, qui par aventure sereient 
corrumpu par ainge de luy^ ou par amor dautre, ou par 
loyer de priere, et poyreent porter fausse guarentie 
centre luy por luy destruyre, des quant que la choze 
ou la cause est vengue devant lou seignor^ lacunques 
daus parties et en quauque manere que seit conyeincue, 
ele est en la merci dau seignor dau cors et de 

[fol. 48.] f Et cum liseent * tengu de venger et de choicer 
raidement les felonies et les maus crius * de la gent, 
ceu seret maynz leiaute et de honestete, sil souffiissant 
a fiedre pais aus parties en cause de crim, ensurquetot ' 
empres ceu que bataille en sereit emprise, si donques 
ne estet apartement que lune daus parties ont apele 
lautre par sole malignite sanz autre raison et si tot 
en est paiz, par ce nest mie la dreiture de la seignorie 
mendre sur lo convaincu; convencuz est en cest luec 
apelon celuy, qui primes demandot la paiz ou donast 
dau son por la pais faire. Apeler sanz guaranties dit 
hom apeler nuement, et de itau appeau ne se fait mie 
bataille, quar en appeau ou se fait bataille convent 

[fol. 48. 6.] q^© bom avoet et nomet garanties, ne pero eles ne 
seront ia par ce oyea 

^ ParantieM ] This should be 
written Garanties. 

' ne ixudUor] These words are 
probably miswritten. 

s. et de son mesage'] The ordinaiy 
phrase is on de son message. 

^ hoydie'l boisdie : fraade, trom- 
perie, Roqaefort. 
^ Ueeent"] ils sont. 
^ crms] crims. 
7 efuurquetoi] sortoat. 


T Warrantors are not heard nor believed in a criminal 
cause, if the adverse party denies the charge. The 
accused shall pass free with the oath of himself and of 
his proxy.^ 

% If the plaintiff * is not willing to have recourse to 
bately for great mischief would arise in condemning a 
man for crime upon the warranty of persons who by 
chance might be corrupt from hatred of him^ or from 
love of the other party, or from the influence of his 
prayei-s, aiid might bring a false warranty against the 
accused to destroy him, for when once the matter or 
the cause has come before the lord, whichever of the 
two parties in whatever manner is convicted, he is at 
the mercy of the lord as regards both his person and 
his property: 

T And since the lord is bound to punish and prose- 
cute severely the felonies and the evil crimes of the 
people, it would be poor loyalty and little honesty if he 
were to suffer parties in a cause of crime to make peace, 
especially after batel has been undertaken^ if it be not 
apparent openly that one of the parties has accused 
the other solely from malignity, without other reason, 
and as soon as there is peace, the right of the lord 
is not for that reason the less against the convicted 
party. Convicted he is said to be in this place who 
has first asked for peace, or has given of his property 
to make peace. When a person accuses without guaran- 
tees, he is said to accuse nakedly, and in case of such 
accusation batel never takes place, for in an accusation 
in which batel takes place, it is proper that a man 
vouch and name guarantees, nevertheless they shall not 
be heard. 

* of his proxy"] The word •* mes- 
sage'' is rendered proenreur by 
Roqnefort, but that interpretation 
does not appear to be appropriate 
in this place, as it is not a reasonable 
proceeding to take the oath of a 

proxy conjointly with the oath of 
his principal. The text shonld pro- 
bably be in the alternative. 

^ If the piamtiffi The break in 
the text is evidently a blander of the 





Y Si li aversaires icontredit sicum nos avom dit 
aa oommencement^ e d vob apelez autre davant seignur 
de bataille, cilz tenoz par conveincuz, qui, ausitost en 
lappeauy ainz que se remuet ne bailie son gage. 
Convaincuz est oil qui est apelez et point ne se de&ent ; 
convaincuz est ausi cilz qui en fait pais par la manere 
que nos avom dit desus; conYai[n]cuz est oeluy qui 
reconoist son £Edt par sa propre boche ; convaincuz 
est cil qui est prove par garantie ^ en bataille. 

Chapitre % Causes criminaus sunt icestes, larrohcin, murtre, 

Caiua^ violence, homicides, et fisiussoneries^ et itaus chozes 

criminaiis. semblables. Larroncins est prendre lautruy choze sanz 

sogue ' et sanz la volunte de celuy qui est la choze. 

[foL 49.] Violence est peceer ' chemin ou prendre par force 

lautruy choze^ et despuceler pucele par force est ausi 

violence ou traison. Homicides est qui tue home en 

tort; murtres est toute force de ostrage faire de 

nuyz ou encore de iors en bois et eh quaves ^ et 

en itaus luecs rebos,^ et . par co que horn iuia que 

feme encore non pucele de nuiz forcer esteit murtres, 

et en fut penduz Ozillaes de Ruelons por la feme 

Lavandere Davaille que il aveit denuiz force. 

IT Baisons ^ est quant hocH est tenuz a autre par fey 
et par saigrement, par homage o par autre aUance, et il 
lou en decept en ceu dome ^ il li est tenguz, dont horn 
dit que vns hons fut qui sacuillit^ ob vn autre a &ire 

^ jMir garatitie} This is not very 

^ sanz aogue"] sans savoir. Oga 
with its inflexions, is osed frequently 
as the equivalent of avoir. 

^ peceer"] peciar : briser, mettre 
en pi^es, Boqaefort. 

^ quaves] Qnave : cave, Boqae- 

^ rebos] Bebot: secret, Roque- 

* Haisans] The Editor ventures 

to think that '' Traiaons " is reqnircd 
by the context, and that there has 
been an error of the scribe in writing 
" Baisons.'* Treason in the Myx^ 
rour des Justices embraced a greater 
number of offences than here, and 
might be committed against relatives 
by lineage or affinity, as well as by 
vassals agahist their lord. 

7 dome] dont 

B saeuiBU] s'aocueillit. Acoillir : 
prendre sur sol, Roquefort 



T If the adversary denies the charge as we have 
said in the commencement, and the accuser claims 
before the lord the batel, he is held to be convicted, 
who as soon as he is accused withdraws and does not 
deliver his pledge ; convicted is he also who is accused 
and does not defend himself ; convicted is he also who 
makes peace in the manner above said ; convicted is 
he who acknowledges a fact by his own mouth; 
convicted is he who is proved by a guarantee in bateL 

T Criminal causes are these, larceny, murder, violence. Chapter 
homicide, forgery, and such like things. Larceny is to crinS 
take the property of another without the knowledge and causes, 
without the will of the person to whom it belongs ; 
violence is to plunder on the high road, or to take by 
force the property of another, and to deflower a maid by 
force is also violence or treason ; homicide ^ is he who 
kills a man ; murder ^ is every kind of forcible outrage 
done by night, or even by day, in woods or in caves, or in 
such secret places, and for this reason a man who forced a 
woman by night who was not a maid, was a murderer, 
and Ozillaes de Ruelons was hung for the woman 
Lavandere Davaille, whom he had forced by night 

% Treason * is when a man is bound to another by 
fealty and by oath of homage or by other tie, and he 
deceives him in respect of that in which he is bound, 
of whom it is said that a vassal is he who agrees with 

^ homicide'] So Le Myrronr des 
Justioes, eh. 1, b. ix., defines homi- 
cide as '* occision de home par home 
^ fait, car si soit fait par beste oa 
" mischeance, nest pas homicide." 

^ fourder] Murdmm is defined 
by Bracton, 1. iii. tr. 11, ch. 15, 
num. i. Homicidium quod nullo 
pncsente, nullo audiente, nullo vi- 
dente clam perpetrator. Britton, 

1. i. ch. vii., defines it, occisioun de 
homme desconu, felounosement fete, 
dunt homme ne pent saver par qi, 
ne par quels. 

' Treason] This offence has been 
omitted accidentally in the list of 
crimes enumerated in the preceding 
paragraph, and the omission may 
have caused the mistake of the 
scribe in writing " Raisons." 

z 2 



son servize et fiit provet que il emblot^ la choze de 
son seignur que il aveit en guarde, et par ceu fdt iugez 
[fol.49,&.] que 11 deveit estre premerement trainez comme lierres, 
quar il traisset son seignor qui se fiot en luy, et la qui 
choze il esteit tenuz de guarder, et apres deveit estre 
penduz par ceu que il esteit lerres. 

% Faussonerie est espleiter fausse monoye ou fausses 
mesureSy ou faire vers autre &us8ete par luy deceure 
de son cors ou de sa choze, et quez taus ou de semUables 
quas si aucun autre en sunt, quant on en est provez, 
sis cors ha desservi mort, et ses chozes remaignent au 
seignor forfietytes, sau les deptes paiees et ses amandes 
fiutes, quar ce deit horn daus deptes et des autres 
amandes ne deit horn mie nombrer qui seit de la choze 
au deptor ; ne pero par taus ou par autres petiz meffaiz 
qui taignent' a crim, quant horn nest mie mult acos- 
[fol. 50.] tumez, est hom seignez en la iote ob i. ferchaut ' tant 
solement, ou en pei*t aucuns de ses membres, ou en 
foriuret lo pais deciquaucun terme o a toz temps, mais 
ou en est mis on pillori ou en soffrist autre iustice qui 
ne portet mie mort. Mas apres ceu sil est iamais 
provez de crim, il ha sanz dopte mort deservie. 

% De la iustice faire de home condempne de crim 
devent estre menistre li bedea* ons viles, o il sunt 
establi soz le prevosK Mas li prevostz querra tot ceu 
que il li coitera^ ou qui convendra au torment E est 
assaver que qui apelet autre de crim, si il ne provet 

^ embloQ embler : enlerer, Toler, 

' iai^enQ teigner : tenir, Roque- 

* ferchaut'} forchette, fork* 

^ U bedea ] bedeaz : bedeaa, 

' coitera] coitier : sener, enfer- 
mer, Roquefort. 

1^1 I-... ^11 . ^ 




another to do him service, and it has been proved that 
he has embezzled the property of his lord which he 
has had under his safeguard, and it was so adjudged 
that he should be first drawn as a thief, for that he 
has betrayed his lord who trusted in him, and whose 
property he was bound to guard, and afterwards that 
he should be hung, because he was a thief. 

f Forgery^ is to employ feJse money or false measures, 
or to do to another a falsity to deceive him in his 
person or his property, and such like or similar acts, if 
there be any other, when they are proved, his body 
has deserved death and his property escheats to the 
lord forfeited, save and except his debts and other 
liabilities, for what a man owes for debts and other 
liabilities ought not to be counted amongst the pro* 
perty of the debtor ; nevertheless for such and other 
petty misdeeds which tend to crime, when a man is 
not much accustomed to commit them, he is branded 
in the cheek with a fork only, or he loses one of his 
members, or he forswears the country for a term of years 
or for ever, but he is first put into the pillory, or suffers 
some other punishment which does not cause death. 
But after this, if he is ever proved guilty of crime he 
has without doubt deserved death. 

% The minister to inflict justice on a man condemmed 
of crime ought to be the bedel of the town, where he is 
established under the provost. But the provost must 
procure all which is necessary to confine him,* and which 
shall be requisite for punishment.' And it is to be 
understood, that he who accuses another of crime, if 

* Forgerffi Faussoneric in Le 
Myrrour des Justices, ch. i. § vi., is 
limited to two offences, pour iausser 
]e Seale du Roy, and ponr fausser 
son mony, either of which would be 
forgery in the present day. 

3 confine Aim] sach as fetters for 
his feet, handcuffs, &c. 

' puniskmenf] The word " tor- 
** ment " is here rendered punish- 
ment, as comprising death as well 
as mutilation. 



son propos vers celuy que li apelet, li apelanz deit estie 
condempnez en tant comme on fust li apelez sil en fdst 

[fol.50.6.] T QvANT bataille se deit fere, alore^ que les parties 
Chapitre devent aler ou champ per combatre, eles devent iurer 
Quant^ ^^ 1* mayn dau seignor saigrement de verite sus les 
bataiUese sainz evvangeles. La plainte deit iurer premerement 
con a con. en tau manere: Si ma iut des^et les sainz ewangiles 
cum ge foys leiau apeau' en ceu que ge appeau vers 
cestuy, et nomera son aversaire. Apres ceu deit iurer 
li adversayres einsi : Si ma iut des et les sainz evvan- 
geles, cum ge foys loyau delffensse en ceu que ge 
defient vers cestuy, et nommera sa plainte. E apres 
aussitost deivent entrer en champ por combatre am- 
beduy la plainte et li aversayres. Et la plainte por 
ce que il appelet deit premer envair* son adversaire, 
qui deffent ; et taDdis que la bataille duret, neguns 
autres qui isset ne deit mout sonner ne parler ne 
[fol. 61.] ou lices entrer sanz le congie au seignor. Quar qui 
olSeret, il sereit en la merci au seignor de son cors 
' et de son aver; quar desquant que U bataillant sunt 
dedens les lices nul autre ne deit entreduyre^ ne en 
parole ne en fait lun daus bataUlanz cqntre lautre. 
Lices apelon les bonnes,® que li sires establist daus 
barreres ou par autres chozes aus bataillans combatre. 
E celuy daus bataillans qui se fuyra dau lices sanz 
faire plus semblant de se plus combatre est repris 
convaincuz. Si la bataille est de champions^ et aloure 
que il serant on champ hom en fait paiz avant que il 
se combatent, li champion deyvent mostrer les coups 

* ahre] al ore, k I'heure. 

3 Si ma iut des] Si m'aide Dieu. 
3 leiau apeau} loial appel. 

* cn&atr] from the Latin invadcre. 

' ejitreduj/re] introduire. 
* bonnes'] An explanation of this 
word has been given above, p. 30. 


he does not prove his charge against him whom he has 
accused^ the accuser ought to be condemned in as much 
as the accused party would have been condemned^ if he 
had been convicted. 

f When batel is to take place^ at the time when the Chapter 
parties ought to go to the field to combat, they ought wji^^td 
to swear in the hand of the lord an oath of truth upon has to be 
the holy Evangelists. The plaintiff ought to sw^earj^^^ 
first in this manner, So God me aid and the holy body. 
Gospels, that I make a loyal charge in that which I 
charge against this man, and he shaJl name his adver- 
sary ; after this the adversary ought to swear in this 
manner, So help me God and the holy Gospels, that I 
make a loyal denial in that which I deny against this 
man, and he shall name the plaintiff. And immediately 
afterwards both the plaintiff and his adversary ought 
to enter the field to combat. And the plaintiff, because 
he is the accuser^ ought first to attack his adversary, 
who defends himself, and as long as the batel lasts, no 
one else must go out, nor make much noise, nor speak, 
nor enter the lists without the leave of the lord. 
For whoever offends in this respect, he shall be at the 
mercy of the lord of the court for his person and his 
property, for from the time that the combatants are 
within the lists^ no other ought to encourage by word 
or by act one of the combatants against the other. 
Lists [lices] is the term for the palings, which the lord 
fixes up with barriers and other things for the com- 
batants to fight within. And that one of the two 
combatants, who shaJl flee within the lists without 
making semblance of fighting any more, shall be taken 
to be convicted. If the batel is waged by champions, 
and at the hour when they shall be in the field, peace 
is made before they combat, the champions ought to 



lo roy, cest a dire que il deivent au maynz mosfcrer 
treys de lor escremies^ por la gent solacer. 
[ibl.51.6.] 1[ For ceu que nos avom parle dau saigrement, or 
posum itau, quas vns hons envaist autre ob glaive, et li 
autres se deffent, et bus sey deffendant ocist celuy qui 
la envahi ; or vient vns autres et apelet lou ocieor qui 
ha lautre mort, et dit einsi, Qe appeau que tu as mort 
celuy, et formera son appeau ; or convent que li apelet 
se deffende isnelement f Ge me defient que ge ne lay 
mie mort, fors sor mon cors dependent ; ceu sereit re- 
conoissance que il lo aureit mort, par ceu ne vaudret 
reus plus savoyz, ne sa deffensse, ainz sereit convaincuz 
ben et estrosseement ^ si cum nos avom dit, et la bataille 
est aiugee, sont en bedoes* les parties au saigrement 
de verite, or est demande si li apelez est pariures quant 
, il iuret se il fait leau deffensse, car dl est ou tot oer- 
[foL5S.] tayns que il ocist lome. 

T Baysons dit de prodeshomes, que il nest mie par 
iures ainz fait leau deffensse. Quar entendu est que 
quant 11 mors fist choze par quey il fust morz, sis faiz ^ 
meismes lodst,^ non pas autres. 

T Encore se fait bataille en autre manere. Si horn 
appelet autre tout nuement, et il appelez se deffent, et 
dit einsiy Qe me deffent ^ vers tey par tot einsi comme 
appele mas, et vez en mon gage, la bataille y deit estre ; 

' treifs de lor etcremiei] three of 
their passes of fence. 

^isnelemetU] promptement, Roque- 

' eatroueemeiU] estros: iiPinstant, 

^ en bedoes] ambedons : I'un et 
I'autre, Roquefort. 

* sis faiz] from the Latin sua 

* lodst] I'occist 

7 geme deffent] je me defends. 



exhibit the king's strokes/ that is to say, that they 
ought at least to exhibit three passes of fence, to solace 
the spectators. 

H For what we have said of the oath, suppose a case, 
that a man attacks another with a sword, and the 
other defends himself, and in defending himself kills him 
who attacked him, thereupon comes another and accuses 
the slayer who has killed the other, and says thus, I 
accuse you that you have slain this person, and shall 
put his charge in form ; thereupon it is requisite that 
the accused defend himself promptly, I deny that I 
have slain him, except in . defending my own person ; 
this would be an acknowledgment that he has slain him, 
and further words or denial would be useless, thereupon 
he wiU be convicted well and strictly, unless aa we have 
already said the batel is adjudged ; both parties are 
thereupon put upon their oath, and it is demanded if the 
accused is perjured, when he swears that he makes a 
loyal denial, for it is altogether certain that he has slain 
the man. 

T The Prudhommes * gave an opinion, that he was not 
perjured, when he made a loyal denial, for it is under- 
stood that if the dead man did an act whereby he died, 
his own act and not the act of the other man killed 

IT Batel is also made in another manner. If a man 
accuses another nakedly, and the accused defends him- 
self, and says thus, I defend myself against you for all 
that is charged against me, and here is my pledge. 
Batel ought then to take place, and if the accused party 

* the king's strokes'] The phrase, 
the king's strokes, is prohably a 
technical term for the introductory 
passes of fence preceding the actual 

^ The prudhommes'] It has been 

elsevhere Uid down that the deci- 
sion of the prudhommes is equiva- 
lent to the judgment of a court. 
This is evidently the recital of such 
a decision, p. 33. 



et si li appelez ne baillet son gage ausi tost par lo 
mayntenir, il est conveincuz. 

Chapitre Si hons ha prises bestes en sa male£Etyte, et li sires 
I>eb^te8 ^^^ bestes on sid oommandemanz les veoget affiancer, 
pnaes. U preneres qui aura prises les bestes li puet assigner 
[] terme tau comme il voudra de veer^ la malefaite. E 
si li sires daus bestes ne la vost aler veer au terme, li 
preneres la mostrera a prodeshomes, a cuy garanties il 
en sera creuz, apres tant par la malefaite li sires daus 
bestes en remaint touz quiptes.^ E si est einsi que li 
preneres ne sapchet ^ a cuy sunt les bestes que il aura 
prises en sa malefaite, quant les aura tengues vne nuyt 
et L ior, puys les fera crier a la crie ^ dau pais, ou le 
fera dire ous eglizes par la voyz dau prestre, ou dira 
aus veizins que qui aureit taus bestes, et dira les il &it 
assaver que eles sunt en sa prison, et que il les ha prises 
en sa malefaite. E si est einsi haste que paraventure 
en prochain terme se porreit perdre la mostre^ de la 
. malefaite, si cum em prez qui sunt prez a fancher, 
en blez qui sunt pres acoiUir, en vignes qui seront 
[fol. 58.] prestes a vendenger, ou en autre mare,® se porreit per- 
dre prochanement la mostree de la malefaite. 

% Si li sires dau bestes ne vent astivement por veer 
la malefaite, li preneres la mostrera a prodeshomes, en 
cuy guaranties il en sera creguz si cum nos avom dit. 

Chapitre IT Si hom est pris en malefaite, la garde en sera mos- 
Qui^bom^^® au seignor de la cort. Et si hom est pris et ne 
est pris en treubet qui lo affiancet, ou na gage vaillant damander 



* veer'] voir. 

^ quiptes'] acqtiittes. 

' sapchef] sachent 

^ crie] proclamation, Boquefort. 

' mostre] from the Latin mon- 
strare, to show. 

* mare] probably manere, ma- 


does not deposit his pledge immediately to maintain 
his denial^ he is convicted. 

If a man has seized beasts trespassing, and the owner Ch^ter 
of the beasts or his agent wishes to give sureties for the of beuts 
trespass, the seizor who has taken the beasts may assign taken in 
him such a term as he pleases to view the trespass. 
And if the owner of the beasts is not willing to go and 
view the trespass at the time fixed, the seizor shall show 
it to the prudhommes, upon whose guaranty he shall be 
believed, and after this, for the trespass, the owner of 
the beasts remains quit.^ And if it is so that the seizor 
does not know to whom the beasts, which he has taken 
in the trespass, belong, when he has kept them a night and 
a day, he shall have them cried by the crier of the 
country, or he shall have them proclaimed in the church 
by the voice of the priest, or he shall say to his neigh- 
bours, that he has detained such beasts, and shall tell 
them to make it known that they are in prison, and 
that he has taken them in the act of trespassing. And 
this haste is necessary because in the term next ensuing 
he may lose the evidence of the trespass, as for instance, 
in meadows which are ready to be mown, in wheat 
which is ready to be gathered, in vines which are ready 
for the vintage, or in some other manner he may lose 
in a short time the evidence of the trespass. 

T If the owner of the beasts is not willing promptly 
to provide for the trespass, the seizor shall show it to 
the prudhommes, on whose guaranty he shall be believed, 

as we have already said. 

• • 
T If a man is taken in a trespass, notice of the fiekct Chapter 
shall be given to the lord of the court, and if a man is y^^^^ 
seized and does not find any one to be surety for him, man is 
or has not a pledge to give sufficient to make compensa- Sw^aM 

» quit] This is somewhat unin- I tide, required by the context, has 
telligible, unless the negative par- I been by error omitted. 



la malefaite, lo preneres lo puet ienir pris decique il 
lait livre au seignor, qui lo deit punir ou en oors on en 
membres segont la quantite de la malefaite. 

T £ de tant cum non trobera de la choze dou prison, 
li sires deit estre tenuz a horendre^ que hon li livre 
[fol.53.A.] lou prisoner de faire la demande a celuy qui aura este 
faite la malefaite ; et sachez que li sires dau fey, segont 
ce que il prent ou fei dau fruit, deit aver sa partie en 
lamande de la male faite. 

% Mes li coutivers ' ou sLs oommanz les prent par sey, 
li sires ne ideit rens aveir en lamende. Quar cum il 
fiist tenguz de garder la choze et en deifaute de luy 
iest avengue la malefaite. En quaucunque manere que 
home facet tort a autre il ou deit amander ob v. sols 
de ga^e, saus ne pero les quas de la malefaite dont 
sunt li dreit gage, et les amandes nomeement en seront 

Quant en- 
868 vi^es 

[fol. 64.] 

% Si en ses vignes trobet malefaite et ne trobet celuy 
qui li aura faite, li sires dau fe ausi ben cum feret 
vns autres^ deit fere lamande de la malefiute. Car 
ce est en la deffaute daus vigners que li sires deit 
establir. Mas iquele meismes amande que li sires fait 
a autre li vigner la deivent paier et restituer au seignor. 
E est assaver que ons vignes on deit aver vigners il 
deivent estre establi on meis davril,* et des iqui* en 

^ harendre] Thin word is probably 
^ U coutivers'] tbe cultivator. 
3 vnsautres] probably vers autres. 

* on meis davril] en mois d'ATiil. 

* des iqui"] from desic : Jusqaes, 



iion for the trespass, the seizor may detain him until 
he has delivered him to the lord, who ought to punish 
him either in body or in limb, according to the amount 
of the trespass. 

S And in case he shall not find any property of the 
prisoner, the lord ^ ought to be bound to allow that the 
prisoner be surrendered to him against whom the tres- 
pass shall have been committed ; and note, that the lord 
of the fief, according to what he takes of the crops of 
the fief,^ ought to have his part in the compensation 
for the trespass. 

T But if the cultivator or his agent take them ' for 
themselves, the lord ought not to have any part in 
the compensation, for since he was bound to protect 
the property, the trespass has arisen from his own 
fault. In whatever manner it happens that a man 
does wrong to another, he ought to make compensation 
for it with five shillings penalty, saving always those 
cases of trespass of which there is by law a settled 
penalty, and the special compensation shall follow. 

f If a trespass is discovered in a vineyard, and he Chapter 
who has made the trespass is not found, the lord of-vniena 
the fief, as well as in other cases, ought to make com- ^^spass ig 
pensation for the trespass; for it is in default ofinayine- 
watching on the part of the vine- watcher,* whom the y"^- 
lord ought to maintain. But the same compensation 
which the lord ought to pay to another, the watcher 
of the vines ought to pay and restore to the lord ; 
for it is to be understood that in vines where there 
ought to be a watcher, he ought to be established 

^ the lord] The paragraph is not 
Tery intelligible, and the Editor has 
some misgiTingB as to the tme pur- 
port of the proviBion. 

* crops of the fief] that is, where 
the land is rented 2k terrage, as abore 

* tahe them] that is, where they 
pay a money rent, and reap all the 
crops for themselTes. 

^ vme-4oatcher] Vigners is clearly 
distinguishable from yigneron, the 
irine-dresser or vine^nltivator. 



avant li vigners deivent guarder lea vignes dedqne 
vendenges seiant acomplies ; et sil sunt prove que 11 
meismes ifacent malefaite o la i Bouffrissent afaire, oer- 
taynement il deivent estre puniz comme larronH. 

Chapitre Si hom veost faire aigres^ de ses vignes a lops de 
De^^es. ^^ ostau, o li lest ben faire sanz conge dau seignor dau 
seignor dau fey. Mas se il ha en plusors feyz vignes, 
il ne lo deit mie faire fors partie daus vnes et parties 
[fol.54.6.] daus autres segont la quantite daus vignea E ausi 
poet hom prendre sanz conge a son menger daus feves 
noveles de sa favere, daus feves ou daus peseaus ^ ou 
daus autres leuns.' Ausi si hom veust fere vin noveau 
en plusors fez centre vendenges et en defaute dautre 
vin, il on puet ben faire sanz conge dedque a vne 
moyau plaine ou vne plene botizde.* Mas sil en voleit 
fedre tant que il oguist plus de vn muy de vin escole,^ 
il ne le porreit mie faire sanz conge dau seignor dau 


f Si hom en vaist sa vigne a vendenger sanz lo 

conge dau seignur dau fey, li sires ni ha poynt de gage, 

mas que chaicer em pot fors les vendengeors, et oeu que 

il li trobera vendenge poet verser fors daus moyaus et 

[fol 55.] tant ia ausi sanz parler ob le seignor de quarteors on 

^ aigres] vinaigres. 

^pe$eau8^ from the Latin pisom, 

' lewu'] from the Latin lens, len- 
tils; hence the name of Lent for the 
fortjr days ftst before Easter. 

* botizeW] boacel : tonneaa,*hoa- 
t&He, Roquefort 

^ escole] This may mean *' ran 
" off" from the Tat, for immediate 




in the month of April, and from that time the watcher 
ought to guard the vines until the vintage is made, 
and if it be proved that the watcher has made the 
trespass, or has suffered it to be made, he ought cer- 
tainly to be punished as a robber. 

If a man wishes to make vinegar from his vines Cba{>ter 
for the service of his household, it is allowed him to of vines, 
do so without the leave of the lord of the fief; but 
if he has vines in several fiefs, he ought to make a 
part only of the vinegar in one and a part in another, 
according to the quantity of the vinea So also a 
man may take without leave for his food new beans 
from his beanery, beans, or peas, or other pulsa Also, 
if a man wishes to make new wine ^ in several fiefs 
for his vintage, and in de£Etult of other wine, he may 
well do^ so without leave up to a fall tub or a full 
tun, but if he wishes to make so much that he will 
have more than a muy^ of wine in draught, he 
cannot do this without the leave of the lord of the 

Y If a man sells his grapes to vinedressers without 
the leave of the lord of the fief, the lord cannot im- 
pose any penalty, but he may drive the vinedressers 
out of the vineyards, and may pour the grapes which 
he ^ds gathered into tubs,^ for without speaking to 
the lord of the quarter,^ one may not carry out of 

* new wine] that is, for the yine- 
dressers to drink. 

^mvy] The French wordis *'muid," 
a certain measure of wine which 
contained two hundred and eighty- 
eight pints, from the Latin modias. 

' into te6«] The Editor has some 
doubts whether this is correctly 

* ihe quarter] The word quar- 
teor may be another fbrm of '^ quar- 

'* tiers," which is interpreted by 
Roquefort as canton, or division 
d'nn pays en plusieors parties, or 
of " quartere," which signifies land 
which brings in to its owner a 
fourth part of the crops. The pro- 
vision in this paragraph requiring 
the leave of the lord as a condition 
precedent to the vintage, implies 
that he was entitled to some share 
of the crops. 



Be deit point porter de la vendenge fors de la vigne. 
Quar qui o fereit tort en fereit grant au seignor dau fe. 
E sachez que li sires dau fez ne puet mie doner conge 
dentrer ou fey por vendeigner a vh plus que autre. 
Quar ceu est choze coromunau a touz ceauz qui ont 
vignes. #- 

Chapitre Einsi avenguit que Quillaume Focaus li filz Folquauz 
DebatSile appele P. de De, que li diz P. aver lo servant dau dit 
core a core. Quillaume fait rober et tholir^ son argent de nuiz, havet 
en 11 diz Quillaumes bones garanties et si li diz P. 
sen voleit deffendre li diz Ouillaumes esteit touz prez 
que il li maintenguist son cors sanz changer autre et 
bailla son gage ; et li diz P. dist que il se deffendet aus 
[fol.55.&.] vs et aus costumes Doleiron et bailla son gage et volt 
Taigner' li diz Peres que li diz Quillaume se deveit 
combatre sis cors por ceu que il lou aveit offert, et li 
diz Peres deveit ou poet bailler champion par sey por 
ce que il naveit pas son cors offert, ainz se esteit def- 
fenduz aus vs et aus costumes Doleyron. Quar bataille 
de tel appeau se deveit fayre par champions. De ceu 
fut iuge que deveit estre de eaus dous ' cors acors,^ et 
que li diz P. si cors se deveit combatre contre lou dit 
Quillaume son cors. Quar onques ne aveit hom vse ne 
a costume en Oleiron, que li appeleres se combatist sis 
cors et li deffenderes ne se combatist sis cors, et par 
appeau toche crim ce est murtre par la rayson de la 

> thoHr'} from the Latin tollere. 
' raigner} from the Latm ratioci- 
nari, to aigae with. 

' de eaua doutf] de eox denz. 
^ cors acort] coqie ik corps. 


the vineyard any part of the vintage ; for he who 
would do wrong in this respect would do great wrong 
to the lord of the fief And note, that the lord of the 
fief cannot give leave to enter into the fief to one in 
preference to another to gather the grapes, for this is 
an afiair common to all who ^hsbve vines. 

% It happened once that Guillaume Focaus, the son chapter 

of Folquauz, accused Pierre de De that the said Qf b^' 

Pierre had caused the servant of the said Quillaume body to 
to be robbed and his money stolen during the night. ^^^^ 
The said Guillaume produced good guarantors, and if 
the said Pierre wished to deny it, the said Guillaume 
was all ready to maintain it with his body, without 
substituting another person, and he delivered his 
pledge, and the said Pierre said that h^ would de- 
fend himself according to the usages and customs 
of Oleron, and delivered his pledge, and the said Pierre 
wished to argue that the said Guillaume ought to 
combat in person because he had offered to do so, 
and that the said Pierre might and ought to substitute 
a champion in place of himself, because he had not 
offered to combat in person ; accordingly he would 
defend himself according to the usages and customs 
of Oleron, for batel on such an accusation ought to be 
made by champions. Thereupon it was adjudged that 
the batel ought to be macle by them both, body to 
body, and that the said Pierre in person ought to 
combat against the said Guillaume in person ; for 
hitherto it had never been the use or custom in Oleron 
that the accused should combat in person and the 
defendant should not combat in person, and as regards 
the charge touching the crime, it is murder ^ by reason 
of the night. 

^ mvrder'\ This has been defined above as any act of violence com- 
mitted by night 

VOL. H. A A 



[fol 56.] Chascuks iues ^ et iueve ' non estant en Oleron par 
Goitre chascone fois que il venent en Oleiron devent de lor 

Cen est l<m chef iiii. deners do paage au rey. E si la iueue est 

peagedes prainz* de en deit viii. par sey et par lenffant daa 
ventre. Et dit horn que Ouamers Chasteaus, quant il 
fut seneschaus Doleyron/ iuia quant li iues ou kt iueve 
sen aloit ob lo dit peaage il sereit qualez en la mer vne 
foyz par le gage dau dit peage^ et la iueve prainz iseit 
qualee does fez*^ par sey et por lenffant Quar por 
ceu que tout laver aus iues sont aus granz seignors 
daus terres sor cuy il estont, et ne sereit pas corteisie 
que on en preist lor deners por gage. Mas au meisme 
cors dau iue qui fait la malefaite en tort lo demage. 

[fol. 56. 6.] Et apelet hom qualer que horn est estachet® par desoz 
les aiseles ^ ob vne fort corde, et puys est gitez en la 
mer, et apres est traiz sus que ne muret. 

' ittet] from the Latin Jadaens. 

* iueve'} Joive. 

' pramz'\ from the Latin prseg- 

^ sene»ckati» Doleyron] seneschal 
of Oleron, an officer of the king of 
England as Duke of Aquitaine. 

^ does fez} deoz fois. 

* estadtefl estaichier: lier, Roque- 

7 aiseles'] from the Latin axOla, 
an armpit. 




of Jews. 

% Every Jew ^ and Jewess not living in Oleron, for Chapter 
each time that he or she comes into Oleron, ought to ijij^jg ^'^^ 
pay fourpence toll to the king, and if the Jewess is passing toll 
pregnant, she ought to pay eightpence for herself and 
the infant in her womb ; and it is said that Guamers 
Chasteaus, when he was Seneschal ' of Oleron, ordered, 
when a Jew or Jewess went away with the said poll 
tax, the Jew should be ducked once in the sea, as a 
penalty for not paying the said poll tax, and the 
Jewess, if pregnant, should be ducked twice for herself 
and for her infant. For inasmuch as all the goods of 
Jews belong to the great lords of the lands on which 
they may be, it would not be courtesy to take their 
money as a penalty ; but against the person itself of 
the Jew who has committed an offence^ damages may 
be enforced, and the word " duck " (qualer) is used 
when a man is fastened under the arm pits with a 
strong cord, and thereupon is cast into the sea, and is 
afterwards dragged out, so that he does not die. 

* every Jew] A passing toll of a 
similar amomit seems to have been 
levied on the Jews in Daaphiny 
about A.D. 1815, as it appears from 
the Histoire da Daophin^, by Val- 
bonais, torn, i., preuves cc. du 4* 
disconrs, that about that time at 
Saint Sjmphorien d'Oson a Jew 
travelling on foot paid a passing 
toll of fourpence, a Jew on horse- 
back eightpence, and a pregnant 
Jewess eightpence. 

> SeneBchaC] Several letters of 
King Edw. IL, addressed to the 
seneschal of Gascony, are preserved 
in the Record Office, in which he 
gave express orders that all the 
Jews should be banished from Gas- 
cony. They had been banished 
from France in 1311, but were al- 
lowed by Louis X. to return in 
1316 for a period of twelve years, 

under the stipulation that they should 
resume their state of serfdom under 
the same lords as before. In the 
reign of his successor, Philip V., 
the condition of the Jews was con- 
siderably improved, and they ob- 
tained some civil rights, A.D. 1317. 
It is probable that the orders of 
Edw. n. Vere not strictly enforced 
by the seneschal of Gascony, as 
there were numerous Jew9 mas- 
sacred in Gascony during an out- 
burst of relipous fanaticism in 1821, 
when Edw. II. wrote a further letter 
to the seneschal of Gascony, claim- 
ing for himself the property of all 
the murdered Jews. This letter is 
preserved in MS. Julius £. i. in the 
Cotton Collection of the British 
Museum, with various other docu- 
ments relating to Oleron. 

A A 2 


Chapitre Lo assiage ' et lo planchage et lo qualage * paumt 
CeuBunt ^^ ^®fs sor lor propre cost, lo rivage paiet li avers 
les derers segont ceu que il est E est assaver que cilz Doleiron 
ne paient point de rivage de laver que il aportent a 
ops de lusage de lor ostaus, et de ceaus avers les 
creit hom par lor fey ou par lor saigrement; mas 
daus autres avers que il aportent de fors paient lo 
rivage ausi ben cum li autre estrange, saus les vins 
que hom a de ses propres vignes, et les vins daus 
quarz aus iiii. seignors, si cum nos avom dii 

[foi. 57.] % Si nez siglent par la mer, et li rez * seent en la 

CH>toe ^Q^^ Q^ ^ jg la'nef levent ceaus rez et en prengent 

Qoantnez l^u peisson, dementres que il trobent les rez sans 

^^* guarde, et sanz home qui lor vendet lo peisson, il 

lou puent prendre, se dient li aucun; et aucun autre 

volent dire que cil de la nef font assez se il 

esparent^ les rez arrere sanz fere en autre amande ; 

et li autre diseent que anoeys devreent ceux de 

la nef lier sauvement aus rez tant dargent cum 

vaudreit lo peisson leiaument, et ge macort mielz ^ a 

ceste darrere.raison de largent lier au rez, quar mis 

ne deit^ prendre lautruy travail sanz faire amande. 

Chapitre Si Sunt duy compaignon sus i. aver, et li vns en 
])^ ij,^^. facet creance, il nen est de reus tenuz a lautre daus 
paigDOM. deners rendre, mas ben li deit dire les debtors, et 
[foi. 57. &.] aioster lo ob eaus que il lo paient aussi comme luy ; 

' assiage] affiage. ' mis ne deit] on ne dbit mie. 

^ gwUoffe'} qnaiage. The word *'mie'* for "pas** waR 

^ rez"] from the Latin rete, a net. still in use in seyeral parts of France 

^ egpareni] esparager : r6pandre, at the commencement of (he nine- 


* ge macort mieW] je m'accorde 

teenth century. 



A ship pays for the stowage,^ and the landing boards caiapter 
and the quais at its own cost, the cargo according to xhese are 
its value pays the towing paths (rivage), and it isj^^^^so'^ 
to be understood that people of Oleron do not pay 
rivage upon the goods which they bring for the service 
and use of the household, and as to those goods 
they are believed upon their faith and their oath ; but 
of the other goods which they bring from abroad 
they pay rivage equally as strangers^ excepting wines, 
which a man has from his own vines, and the wines 
from the quarters of the four lords above mentioned. 

1[ If a ship sails along the sea, and nets are in the chapter 
sea, and the crew of the ship raise those nets and.ry?°^^"' 
take fish from them, whilst they find the nets without nhipe dis- 
a watcher and without a person who can sell them j^^^, 
fish, they may take the fish, some say, and some others 
say that the crew of the ship do enough if they spread 
the nets again in the sea, without making other recom- 
pense, and others say that the crew of the ship ought 
first to bind fast to the nets as much money as the fish 
would be fairly worth, and I agree ^ more with this last 
argument of binding money to the nets, becaase no 
person ought to take the labour of another without 
making compensation. 

If there are two partners in one property, and the chapter 
one borrows money on it, the other is not bound to rJ^^^' 

Of two 

render back the money, but the debtor ought to tell it parsers, 
to him and adjust with him that he pays as well as 

> stowage'} Affiage implied the 
fitting np bulkheads as well as the 
ananging the casks in the hold of a 
yessel. The word is used in the 
same sense in art. zL of the Bolls 
of OlcTon. It is written "assient '' 
in the Black Book of the Admiralty, 
p. 102. 

" / agree] The first person oc- 
curs in seyeral paragraphs, probably 
in cases where the names of the 
parties were not on the record ; but 
it may be that the first person is 
used to distinguish the opinion of a 
prud*homme from the judgment of a 




car cilz qui ha feit la creance> la fet per lou profet de 
son compaignon ansi come par le aon^ car cil qui part 
on profet deit partir on domage. 

Si home a ior davant lo mayro, et avant hore le 
Damayor. ^^7^ ^ ^^^^ congie, et cilz sen auget, et apre[z] ce 
vienge dedenz hore soceant ^ li autres sis adversaires 
et se preseutet au mayor, ou sil ne trobet luy aus 
autres prodeshomes, ge nedi pas ^ que li vns ne li autres 
daus douB aversaires seent endeffaute, quar ceu est en 
la cort dau mayre, et ce fiit iuge on plait de Foquea 
Richart lo gene,' et de P. Charcoyre, quant Sire 
Aymeri Chesac esteit por mayor au chastea^^ dona 
[foL58.J conge au dit Pere Charcoyre lo dialuns^ par iurer 
apres la Saynt Ylaire. 

Si horn a este esqueuins ou por maior® si cum nos 
disom oomme de Sire Aymer Chezao, et apres yceluy 
temps yl seit trez^ en garantage de choze qui a este 
faite on temps de son esqueuinage ou de sa sous- 
mayrerie, ia sis garantages passe oeluy temps, ne 
vaudra plus que dun autre home simple. Sis recors 
vaudra autretant comme au temps de sa sosmayrie 
ou de son esqueuinage, quar recors se &it ben de tot 
home qui ha tengu cort, quauque il seit, li recors est 
maintengu, mas que il seit coneguz a estre leans hom. 
Et ce fut dit on plait de Foques Richart lo gene, et 
de Pere Charcoyre, on quau plait on oit le recort 
[fol.58.5.] daus chozes qui avient este faites davant luy tnadis 

^ soceant] soffioiently. 
' ge nedi /mm] je ne dis pas. 
> Richart lo gent] Richard le 

* chastea] chateau. 

* lo tUaluni] This word occurs 
previously, in a sense equally as 

obscure. It probably means the 

* por muior] vice-magister, the 
mayor's deputy, afterwards called 

' trez] trait. 




himself, for he who has borrowed the money has 
borrowed it for the profit of his partner as well as 
of himself, for he whp shares the profit ought to share 
the loss. 

If a man has a day assigned him to appear before the Chaijter 
mayor, and before the hour the mayor give him leave of the 
to depart, and he goes away, and afterwards there ^^J^^- 
comes within the hour sufficiently the other his adver- 
sary, and presents himself to the mayor, or if he does 
not find him, to another prudliomme, I do not say that 
the one or the other of the two adversaries are in 
de&ult, for this is in the court of the mayor, and so it 
was adjudged in the suit of Foques Bichart the younger, 
and of Pierre Charcoyre, when Lord Aymer Chesac 
was deputy mayor at the Chateau, and gave leave to 
the said Pierre Charcoyre, the defendant,^ to swear 
after Saint Hilaire. 

If a person has been an echevin or deputy mayor ^ 
as above said in the case of Lord Aymer Chezac, and 
after the time of his so serving he be called in to 
warrant a thing which has been done in the time of 
his shievralty or his deputy mayoralty, his warrant 
after his time of office will be worth no more than that 
of a simple person. His record will be of as much 
value as in the time of his deputy mayoralty or his 
shrievalty, for a record is well made by any man who 
has held a court; whatever he become, his record is 
maintained, provided he is known to be a fair man. 
And this was said in the suit of Foques Bichart the 
younger, and of Pierre Charcoyre, in which suit was 
heard the record of the things which had been done 

* the defendant'] The context 
appears to warrant this translation. 

' deputy mw/or"] It is not clear 
from the text whether Lonl 

Aymer Chezac held the office of 
mider-mayor, sous-mayrc, or was 
the mayor's deputy on occasion of 
the mayor*s absence. 




comme il esteit por maior^ quar adomques il ne esteit 
fore comme yds autres simples horns, et oeu fut dii 
on plait de Foque Kichart, et do P. Charcoyre, en 
quau plait Sire Aymer Chezac voleit que il deveit 
estre reoeguz adonques a garantie comme sires ou cum 
esqueuins daus chozes, qui aveent este faites davant 
luy dedenz son mayrage sis recors. 

Chapitre Si gent de pais font marcbe ou convenanz entreaus, 

D ^^- ®*' apres isordet ^ contenz, li conteDz, deit estre assignez 

Chez ou de on pais OU aura este faiz li marchez ou li convenanz, 

conyenanz. ^^^j^, meilz trobet hon en icel pais ceaus qui ont oyes 

les convenances et les marchez ; mas si ce sunt genz de 

vn meisme pais, cest ben raison que lor contenz seit 

assignez en lour meisme pais. 

[foi. 69.] Horn qui promtist ou promet a prover baton ou tort 

Chapitre fiait OU autre chose par garanz, et li garanz seent ame- 

Dcgaranz ^^^ encort davant lo maire, et li dit gareuz dient lor 

ji prover garantage davant lo mayre oiant lo mayre et les esque- 

tort uins, ou oiant lun daus esqueuins, avant qe il aient 

fet lo saigrement, lor garantages nest mis,' por ce que 

semblant est que il seient parcener en la demande, ou 

quil eient este sobome ' par deners ou par prieres. Ne 

bom qui est plaideeres^ en eele meisme cause ne puet 

estre garanz a celuy por cuy il plaideet, car tau gent 

^ isordet] from the Latin surgere. 
^mia'] admifl. 

* sobome] from the Latin snbor- 

* plaideeres] This term is also 
used in &e Assises de Jerusalem. 



before him ^ when he was deputy mayor, for at that 
time he was nothing but a simple ordinary person ; 
and this was said in the suit of Foque Bichart and 
Pierre Charcoyre, in which suit Lord Aymer Chezac 
contended that he ought to be received at that time 
to warrant his record, as a lord or as an echevin, 
respecting things which had been done before him 
during his mayoralty. 

If people of the country make bargains or contracts Chapter 
between themselves, and afterwards a dispute arises, qj{™|.jj^ 
the dispute ought to be assigned [for hearing] in the and of 
country where the bargain or the contract was made ; ^°*"*®*^ 
for one finds more easily in that country those who 
have heard the contract or the bargain. And if they 
are people of one and the same country, it is highly 
reasonable that their dispute shall be assigned for 
hearing in their own country. 

If a man has promised or promises to prove an chapter 
assault or a tort done in any matter by warrantors, rJ""* 
and the warrantors are brought into court before the rantor to 
mayor, and a warrantor gives his warranty before ^^wSt^^r 
the mayor in the hearing of the mayor and the eche- a tort 
vins, or in the hearing of one of the echevins, be- 
fore he has made the oath, his warranty will not be 
admitted, because it is likely that he is a partner in 
the demand, or has been suborned by money or by 
entreaties. A man who is a pleader ' in the same cause 
cannot be a warrantor for him for whom he pleads; 
for such persons are suspected in giving a warranty for 

1 before Aun] that is, before Lord 
Aymer Chesae. 

^pUader] The Editor has adopted 
the literal translation of the vrord 
plaideres, which according to Koquc- 
fort might apply to a procareur or 

an arocat The verb plaidier is 
osed in a generic sense in the As- 
sises de Jemsalem, ch. xvii.-xix., 
where the ayocat is designated 



Bunt soupeconos a porter garantage par la partie qae 
il sosteneiit ; mas li plaideor sunt ben reoegu en garan- 
tage contrc laverse partie. 

[fol.59.6.] % Si doues nez^ sunt sus encre, et par tormente lune 
Chapitre 39 desamarret et fert* sur lautre, et cele qui se desa- 

Denezsur marret briset lautre, cele qui cest desamarree payera 

encre. ^ meste dau demage^ et lautre qui est ben amarree 
sus lencre paiera lautre. meite dau demage, par que oeu 
est cas daventure. Si, donques, oil de la nef qui est 
ben amarree ne poieant prover, par la veue de bones 
genz' ou par autres garens, que par deffaute daus 
marineas, ou par deffaute daus appareilz de la dite nef, 
fut desamarree la dite nef, et en fust veuz li diz de- 
mages, et si ceu puet estre prove, la nef qui est ben 
amarree nest pas tenue de rendre nus ^ daus demages. 
Mas si li encreant^ a chaice* de cas daventure tant 

[fol. 60.] que venget sus la nef qui est ben amarree, adonques 
deit paier la nef qui est ben amarree la meste daus 
demages, par ceu que meismes cas li poyret ben avenir, 
et la nef qui est desamarree lautre meite. 

De par- 
conen de 

Si duy ou plusor^ sunt parcener en vne nef, et li 
vns dauB parconners ne voget ou ne puchet espleiter 
si partie, ia por ce ne remayndra que cil qui ne veaust 
ou ne puet espleiter sa partie ne fomissent les couz 
et les missions® daus manneaus et de la nef segont 
sa partie, ja seit ceu que ^ il ne espleite sa partie de 

1 doues nex] deux navires. 

^/erf] from the Latin ferit 

3 bones genz] good and true men. 

* nus"] mil, Roquefort 

^ li encreanl'] the vessel anchoring. 

* choice^ cheir : tomber, Roque- 

' plusor] plosieurs. 

B missions'] deq>enses, Roqaefbrt. 

^ja seit ceu que"] Ja9oit ce qve : 
malgre que, Roquefort 



the party whose cau6e they plead. But the pleader is 
properly received as a warrantor against the adverse 

If two ships are at anchor, and by tempest one of Chapter 
them drives from her anchorage and strikes the other, of ghipi 
and that vessel, which has driven, damages the other, at anchor, 
the ship which has driven from her anchorage shall 
pay half the damage, and the other which has kept 
herself well at her anchorage shall pay the other half 
of the damage, for this is a case of accident.^ If, how- 
ever, the ship which has remained well anchored can 
prove, by the view of prudliommes or by other war- 
rantors, that by default of the mariners or by default 
of the tackle of the said ship, the said ship drove from 
her auchorage, and the said damage be inspected, and 
this can be proved, the ship* which is well anchored is 
not liable to render any part of the damages. But if 
the anchoring vessel has met with a case of accident ' 
in coming down upon the said ship which is well 
anchored, then ought the ship which is well anchored 
to pay half the damages, because the same case may 
well happen to it^ and the ship which has driven from 
her anchorage shall pay the other half 

If there are two or several partners in a ship, and Chapter 
one of the partners is neither willing nor able to cm-Qfp^' 
ploy his part, it does not follow that he who neither owners of 
will nor can employ his part shall not furnish the** ^' 
costs and expenses of the mariners and of the ship 
according to his part, even although he does not employ 

1 accident'] The same principle 
of dividing the damage is adopted 
in the Judgments of Oleron, in the 
case where a ship comes in from 
sea and by accident runs into a ves- 
sel at anchor, article xv. The 

Consolat del Mar, ch. dv., applies 
the same principle to a vessel con- 
strained by a tempest to enter a 
port, and unable to anchor without 
causing damage to another vessel 
at anchor. 



la nef^ quar por ceu ne coste mie mainz ' a fomir lea 
marineas de la nef, en autres missions. Si dl qui ne 

[fol.60.ft.] veaut espleitersa partie ne ne puet ne ne veaut fomir 
les couz si cum nos avom dit, li autres qui espleitera 
sa partie propre de la nef fomira les couz et les mis- 
sions, et len ert tenguz li cors de la nef einsi que' 
ia neys encore, li autre ne lespleitera decique il len ait 
paie dreitement de sa partie. Mas or posum einsL 
Luns daus parconers chargpt sa partie, et apres celuy 
qui ne veost ou ne puet charger sa partie semont, que 
il facet secte * ou couz ; si cum nos avom dit, cil en 
segant ses couz troubet fret, et fomist sa partie einsi 
que mais assez gaigneret en son fret que li autre en 
sa charge; or vent cilz qui ha charge et dit que il 
veaut aver partie comme compaignon on gaig* de celuy 
qui ha firete, et si ait sa partie on gaig de ce que 
celuy a gaagne de ceu, disons nos que chascun deit 

[fol. 61.] aver lo gaig de sa partie cestui de ce que il ha frete, 
quar lor compaignie est commune devise quant a 
celuy tor ; quar U vns ha especiaument sa partie cestuy 
de ce que il ha charge, et celuy de ce que il ha frete, 
quar lor compaignie est commune devise quant a celuy 


Chapitre Si chaptaus ^ ou avers est pris ou arestez en Oleron, 
Qnant ®' venget avant hom leyaus et conoguz et avoet que 
chaptaus U chaptaus fust sons, et ne seit autre qui puchet mos- 

est BTestfiz AX 

en Oleron. ^^^ ^^ deffendre quil seit a autre, et non mie a celuy 
qui lo avoet, il ert creguz par son saigrement que li 
avers est sons. 

^ ne coste mie mamz'] il ne conte 
pas moins. 

3 eaui que"] de maniere que, 

^ facet eecte] fiisse suite, from 
segar, suivre. 
^ en gaig] en gain. 
^ chaptaus] chateux, chattels. 





his part of the ship, for it does not for tliat reason 
cost the less to provide the mariners and the other 
expenses of despatching the ship. If he who will not 
employ his part cannot and will not Airnish the costs 
as above said, the other who wishes to employ his own 
part of the ship may furnish the costs and the ex- 
penses, and the hull of the ship is bound for them, so 
that the other partner cannot employ his part until he 
has paid rightly the expenses for his part. Let us 
suppose a case. One of two part ownel^ loads his part, 
and afterwards summons him that will not or cannot 
load his part that he contribute his share of the costs ; 
if the latter, as we have above i^id, in providing his 
share of the costs finds freight and furnishes his part 
in such manner that he gains more by his freight than 
the other by his cargo, thereupon the part owner who 
has loaded his part comes and says that he wishes to 
have a share as part owner in the gain of him who 
has freighted his part, and claims his share of the .gain 
which the latter has made, we say^ that each ought 
to have the gain of his own part, the latter of that 
which he has freighted, for their joint ownership is 
divided in common ^ for this turn ; for the one has 
specially his part in that which he has loaded, and the 
other in that which he has freighted, for their part- 
nership is divided in common for this turn. 

If chattels or goods are taken or arrested in Oleron, Chapter 
and a loyal and well-known man comes forward and ^"^^^ 
asserts that the chattels are his, and there is no other ^j^igare 
who can show or maintain that the goods are another's, ^!^^^^*^ ^ 
and not his who claims them, he shall be believed upon 
his oath that the goods are his property, 


> we goff'] The words of an opi- 
nion or Judgment. 
^ m conmon] that is, not a Joint 

partnership for this tarn, hot a part- 
nership in common. 



Chapitre QuANT li sires veost prendre autruy ville ou cbas- 

Si ™reB ^'^^ ®^ ^"^ ^^i ^^ ^^^^ guarde ne nant ogu * com- 
voit^ren- mandeineDt de leur seignor, il deivent aver espece da 

dre vile. 111 'ji* « -i 

rfoi 61 6 1 ^^ parler a leur seignor, de xJ. lors ou plus, que il 
puchent aler et venir. Et ceu dona li seneschaus au 
rey de France,* quant yl vouguit aver Oleron, que Ion 
raignot a aver dilacion a aler en Angleterre saver la 
volunte dau rey. 

Chapitre Si marineaus defiant a sa nef garder, et la nef ou li 

Qui^^* avers en recevet domage, il est tenguz damander en 

marineaus tout lo domage. Et si est einsi que encore plusors 

^ef* * parconers lou ait mis parsey * ou marineaus, einsi comme 

^urder. vns met autre parsey, cis qui lo aura mis est tenguz 

damander en tot lo demage, et cil qui aureit reoegu 

lou domage lo poyret demander auquau yl vodra daus 

[fol 62.] dous, ou au marinea ou a celuy qui li aura mia Mas 

si bom demandet lo demage a celuy qui li aura mis, 

lo marinea aura recors a lautre quil y avet mis. Mas, 

ne pero,*^ si cilz qui auront recegu lo demage hant re- 

cegu soceablement ^ celuy marineau qui aura este mis, 

nos de disom mie que cilz qui laureit mis en soyt 



Chapitre IT Si duy OU plusor sunt parconner en vne nef, cbas- 
\ln^j> ^^^ ^^^^ parsoners poet vendre sa partie, se il veaut^ 
Conner en entreaus, au fayre la nef en lemprise ^ de lor compaignie ; 

* chastea] chateaa. 

^ nant ogu] n'ont eu. 

^rey de France] This may refer 
to the invasion of Poiton hy Louis 
VIII. of France, when he took 
Bochelle, A.D. 1224, upon which 
the earl of Salisbury was sent oyer 
by Henry III. of England and 
stopped the progress of the French 

^ Urn ait mis partey'] This is pro- 

bably a more correct reading than 
that which M. Fardessns, torn. It. 
p. 298, has adopted, via., lou ait ans 
seyen. <*Mis" instead of **nns" 
is in perfect accordance with what 

* ne pero] nempero, neammoins. 

' BoceabUment'] sufficiently. 

7 en lemprise'] From the Catalan 



When the lord wishes to seize a vill or a chateau, Chapter 
and those who are in guard of it have received no j£ ^^ i^^ 
orders from their master, they ought to have a space wishes to 
of forty days or more^ to go and speak to their master, 
that they may go, to him and return. And this was 
allowed by the seneschal of the King of France when 
he wished to have Oleron, when they claimed to have 
delay to go to England to know the will of the king.' 

If a mariner is negligent in protecting his ship, and Chapter 
the ship or the cai^ receives damage, he is bound to m "r* 
make compensation for all the damage. And if it ^^^^^ 

1 . i 1 1 ' 1 neglects to 

happens amongst several partners that one has put on protect his 
board for himself a mariner, and another has put on ^^P* 
board for himself another mariner, he who shaU put 
the mariner on board is bound to make compensation 
for all the damage which he may cause, and he who 
shall have received the damage may demand compen- 
sation as he pleases from either of the two, either 
from the mariner or from him who has put him on 
board. But if a man demands compensation for damage 
from him who shall have put the mariner on board, 
the latter shall have a remedy against him whom he 
has put on board. But nevertheless, if he who has 
received the damage has recognised as responsible the 
mariner who shall have been put on board, we do not 
say that he who put him on board shall be culpable. 

If two or more are partners in a ship, each of the Chapter 
partners may sell his share, if he wishes, amongst ^ ^^"' 
themselves, so as to keep the ship in the employment o^ner of a 

^ forty days or more\ This inter* 
val, which agrees with that allowed 
for parties or witnesses abroad, 
points rather to England as the resi- 
dence of the master. 

3 the king] that is, the King of 

England, who was Dake of Aqui* 
taine. Louis VIII. of France is 
probably alluded to in this place, 
being the lord paramount under 
whom Oleron was held as a fief by 
the dukes of Aquitaine. 



unenef quar ch&scuns horn puet sa partie vendre coma sa 
»ft pa^* ^ choze domayna Nein pero li aucim vodrient dire que 
ben deit vns daus parconners aveir la partie de lanef 
plus tost que vns autres estranges por le fuer ^ de autre 
[fol. 62. &.] estrange ; mas eeu ne tent mie/quar avis sereit que 
fust aliance.^ E cist iugement fut rendu a GuiUaume 
Daniau dune part et a David Lo Corre dautre, Bretonz,' 
li quau Bretons oguirent ^ mult de contens en Oleron 
sur compaignies et sur autres chozes. 

Chapitre Li maistre de la nef deit mener et ramener a sa 
De mt^e dreste charge et descharge sur lo pone ^ de la nef, et 
deianef. apelum petit lo mant home qui loget a lentree daus 

pors et daus avres sevent dau dangers daus porz et 

daus havres. 

Chapitre Feme nest mie recegue a faire saigrement de sa 

IXXXIX. A • • 7 . i 

De femes T^^y^, amz lure par roepsage/ et ceu est par reverence 
mie re- Jaus sainz livres et daus Ewangeles, sor cuy horn iuret; 
fkiresaigre-e sorquetot ^ feme enceinte ne iuret mie par sey ne par 
ment de sa message ne par nembre,® ne ne soflre iugement qui tort 

a domage de son cors decique seit delivre, et ceu est 

par raison de lenfeint que ne perillet. 

^fuer ] prix, from the Latin 

^ idiance] aliencer : acheter, Bo- 

' Bretonz] This word commences 
a new paragraph in the MS., which 
is eTidently a hlander of the scrihe. 

* oguirent'] avaient. 

^ pone] pont Fonoel: petit pont, 

^ desa mojffQ d'elle mtoe. 

7 par message ] hy an attorney 
or proxy. 

^ sorguetof] surtout. 

* par nembre'] These words are 
probably miswritten. 




of the company ; for every man may sell his own pro- s^»p may 
perty. Nevertiieless some one will say that one of the ^rt. ^ 
partners ought to have the part of the ship rather 
than a stranger for the price offered by a stranger ; 
but this does not hold good, for the better opinion 
would be that there should be a public sale, and this 
judgment was rendered to William Daniau on one part 
and David Le Corre of the other, Bretons,^ which Bre- 
tons had many disputes in Oleron upon partnerships 
and upon other matters. 

The master of a ship ought to conduct her to and Chapter 
from her port of loading and of discharging on the Qf"e^" 
deck of his ship, and petit lomant ^ is the term used master of 
to denote the man who stations himself at the entry ***"^* 
of ports and of havens, knowing^ the dangers of the 
ports and of the havens. 

A woman is not admitted to make an oath herself. Chapter 
but she swears by proxy, and this is from reverence of^omen 
of the sacred books and of the Gospels, upon which a not allowed 
man swears ; and especially a pregnant woman does ^J^ ^ *° 
not swear, neither by herself nor by proxy, nor suffer 
judgment which would turn to the damage of her 
body or her limbs,* until she shall be delivered, and 
this is by reason of the infant^ that it be not imperilled. 

1 Bretofu] This implies that the 
mayor's court administered a com- 
mon maiitime law to foreigDers. 
The mention of Bretons is note- 
worthy in connexion with the early 
reception of the Rolls of Oleron in 

' petit lomant'] a coasting pilot as 
distinguished from a sea pilot. Fe- 
titz lodemananges are mentioned in 
art. xiiL of the Bolls of Oleron. 

B knotoing] Mr. Pardessas con- 

VOL. n. 

siders " sevent " to be identical with 
"sanyant," saving; but Roquefort 
renders the word *' sevent " as <* sa- 
•* vant," from seveir, savoir, to 
know, which is the more probable 
interpretation in this place. 

* her body or her limbs] that is, 
which would inflict death or mutila- 
tion. . The translation proceeds on 
the assumption that the words par 
nembre or par membre are mis- 
placed in the Gascon text. 

B B 




De traylx. 

Troilz ^ sunt apele moeble en Oleron, si domques ne 
sunt fet en tau manere que la maison seit apoee^ 
desus, ou se tenget einsi que le truyl ne puchet estre 
deffez sanz espeirement de la meson. Et por ce sunt 
li autre truyl moble que horn les puet remuer sanz 
deformacion de sa premere matere. Mas oil sur quey 
la mayson sapoet ne poet pas estre remuez entres sanz 
demage de sa premere faison, ainz qui le vodroit re- 
muer, il le conviendreit a fondre on la meson apoer en 
autre manere. 

[fol.6d.&.] Molin daigue' ne sunt mie moeble, car il sunt for- 

Chapitre ment affiche en terre, et ne poent estre remuez en ter 

De molin. ^^'^^ domage de lor premere matere. 

f Or enssi vers qui de molin de vent, que li aucun 
sunt tuit sor terre ob haute eschale,^ li aucun sunt lo 
pie fiche en terre, dit hom ben afficheement, et aoordee- 
ment^ que ne sunt pas moble, car desenterre^ ne poent 
pas estre ne remue sanz domage de lor premere ma- 
tere. De ceaus molins qui sunt sur terre, volent aucuns 
dire que sunt moebles, quar hom les puet remuer sanz 
emperer lor premere matere, et centre ceu avom raison 
oontraire. Quar ceu nest pas taus machinemenz cum 

[fol 64.] est cube,^ toneas, ou arches, ou nez encore truylz, que 
hom puet remuer; ainz est comme maison ob eschale, 
portant fest,® et avent foe et loc,* et celables agent,^® 

1 Troih'] Troil : pre88oir, Roque- 

3 apoee"} appoier, apuer : appuy^, 

' daiffue] From the Latin aqaa, 

* eichaJe] echelle. 

' acordeemeni] accordement, ac- 
cord, Boqnefort. 

^ desenterre] A compound word 
like deaamarr^. Disinteired is the 
literal translation, 

^ cube] cnbel : baril, Roquefort. 

^fest] From the Latin fastigiam, 
the roof of a house. 

^foe et loc"] In Latin focnm et 
loonm. The Editor has not met 
with this phrase in any law diction- 
aiy. The meaning of foo is ohvions. 
Loc on the other hand is the same 
as Inoc, locus, to which Dncange 
assigns, amongst other meanings, 
that of lieu d'aisance. 

^ cehbleg agenf] chamhree 4 gens. 
Celle : ohambre d'nn religieuz, Ro- 



Wine presses are reckoned as moveables in Oleron, if Chapter 
indeed they are not made in such a manner that the Qf ^'^ 
house rests upon them, or so touches them that the presBes. 
press cannot be removed "without impairment of the 
house. For this reason other presses are moveables, 
which a man may remove without disfigurement of the 
original materials. But a press, upon which the house 
rests, cannot be removed entire without damage to its 
original form, and he who would remove it must break 
it to pieces, and support the house in some other manner. 

Water mills are not moveables,^ for they are firmly Chapter 
fixed into the ground, and cannot be removed entire q^^^^ 
without damage to their original materials. 

f And likewise with regard to windmills, some of 
which are altogether on the- groimd, with a high 
ladder, and some have their foot fixed in the ground, 
as men say fixedly, and accordingly they are not move- 
ables,' for they cannot be separated from the ground, 
nor removed without damage to their original mate- 
rials. Of those mills which rest on the ground, some 
will say that they^ are moveables, for a man may 
move them without damaging their original mate- 
rials ; but against this there is reason to the contrary. 
For they are not such machines as tubs, casks, or 
chests, or still less wine presses, which a man can 
remove; but a windmill is as it were a house with 
a ladder, having a roof and having a fireplace, and a 
latrine, and chambers for persons, and closing with a 

1 nuweabkM] that is, personal pro- 
perty as distbgaished from real 

^ fHoveabUs^ that is, not fixtuies 
in the legal sense of the term. 

B B 2 



et fermant ob clef/ et eatable en son domaine sol et en 
son propre loc, et par ceste raison nest mie nioebles. 
Et ce fat ladis, au temps Sire Fere Dors, et de Sire 
Helies Ronas, et de Sire lofaan Yiau, et de Don Yiau 
son frere, et de Don Bertome Saugeta, et de mainz 
autres prodes homes acorde sor i. contenz qui fut dans 
molins dans cucheaus^ et a ce que len vait. Parlent 
de remuement, porreit hom par meisme raison dire que 
maison qui est toute sus estelons poet hon remuer 
etc., et por ce est moeble. Mas ceu est apertement 
fans, quar nule mayson est moebles, et domques molins 
nest mie moebles, car cest maison si cum nos auom 

Chapitre Roys deit garder et deffendi*e leschemins a ceu que il 
^^ seient communaus a aler et avenir a la gent, et sunt 
cheminB. communau U chemin, si hom fait sa maison de vne part, 
et sebrohdailz * posset ostre la meite dau chemin, et 
autres de lautre part dau chemin facet apres maison, 
et voilget £Etire amander son sebrondail decique la meite 
dau chemin, il convendra au premer que ildemermet^ 
son sebrondail entant que il passet ostre la meite dau 
chemin, que li duy degotail'^ cheent on meilluec dau 
chemin ; quar li chemin sunt einsi communaus que 
neguns nia prerogative, ce est avantage, et empaitrer ^ 
les, et ne ipoet einsi li premers raigner tengue ^ par nul 

[fol. 65.] temps, quar vers les dreiturages de seignor neguns ni puet 

^ ob clef] ove or ayec cle£ 
^dau8 cuckeatts"] caohot, tas de 
foin, Boqaefoit. 

' sebrondaUz'} The Editor has in 
Tain sought for this word in the 
ordinary glossaries. It may be 
another form of chebrondail, chey- 
rondail, compounded of ohebron or 
chevron a gable, and dalle or dale, 
which Roquefort renders d^ de pierre 
sur le quel on pose des pieces de 

bois pour batir des hangars, pour 
etayer. Dalle also signifies un ^gout 
ou trou, par otk les eaux s'^ulent. 

* demermet'] deminuet, diminuet. 

' duy degotail] les deux degou- 
ti^res. Degoult, degot : goutti^, 

' empaiirer'] empestrer : gkier, 

7 raigner tengue] set up a daim 
of occupation. 

^_,,j-sp-"t : 



key, and established on its own ground and in its 
proper place ; and for this reason it is not a moveable. 
And this was adjudged some time ago, in the time 
of Lord Peter Dors and of Lord Helias Ronas, and of 
Lord Johan Yiau and of Don Yiau his brother, and 
Don Bertome Saugeta, and several other prud'hommes, 
touching a dispute which arose respecting some mills 
and some haystacks, and the taking tbem away. 
Speaking of removing, a man may for the same reason 
say, that a house which is altogether built upon posts 
may be removed, and therefore is a moveable. But 
this is clearly false, for no house is a moveable,^ and 
accordingly mills are not moveables, for they are houses, 
as above said. 

The king ought to guard and protect the roads for Chapter 
the use of those to whom they are in common to go and q^ *^ 
to come, and in a common road, if a man builds a house 
on one side, and the eaves ' of his roof pass beyond the 
half of the road, and another person afterwards builds a 
house on the other side of the road, and wishes to have 
the other man's eaves reduced within the half of the 
road, it is proper for the first to contract the eaves of 
his roof so much that they shall not pass beyond the 
half of the road, so that the two spouts * fall id the 
middle of the road, and the roads are so far common 
that neither party has a prerogative, that is, an ad- 
vantage over the other to commit a nuisance, and the 
first cannot assert a right of occupation against the other, 
for no one can assert a right of occupation against the 

1 moveable] that is, is a flztuie 
in the legal sense of the tenn. 

> the eaves'} The Editor has in- 
terpreted the void sebrondail ac- 
coiding to the probable meaning of 

the entire paragraph, in the absence 
of any clue to its use elsewhere. 

' spouts'] The word gotail has 
an affinity to *' gote," which Boqne- 
fort renders by the Latin gatta. 



raigner tengue. E si dreiturages dau rey ^ est en ce 
que il deit garder les chemins a lops de la oommu- 
naute de la gent, si cum nos avom dit. £t pas ne 
disom que li reis ait sus le premer por ice gage, quar 
si tot a fait son sebrondail ostre la meit dau chemin 
il nia rens offendu, ni fait empaistre; mas si esteit 
einsi que li sebrondail porttfst offensse ou empaistre, 
et a la semonse dau seignor ^ceant de vii iors il 
ne lostast' lo empaistre, ge ne di pas^ que il ne 
rendist a seignor Ix. sols de gage, et ob tot ceu en 
osteret len lenpaistre; et ceu Ait dit et disceme por 
la mayson neuve que loflrey Boisseaus, freres de 

[fol. 65. 6.] Perronele, la feme Sire Guillaume Bormaut, fist au 
Chasteau ^ davant la maison de Sire Guillaume Chezac 
et lohan Chezac, freres, or li sebrondailz daus diz 
freres passot ostre la meite dau chemin, quar les 
maisons* de lune partie et de lautre sunt einsi por- 
posees,® que luns o lautres ne dit que plus volget 
amander en ses^ paroles, cilz qui refuset iugement est 
" convaincuz en la demande proposee, et vers lo seignor, 
de son grant gage, ce est vers lo prevost® de Ix. sok, 
ou vers lo maior de lix. sols. E ce dizom que il est 
convencuz par tau raison par ce que il ne veost 
atendre lo dreit de la cort de demander aus parties 
par treys foys continue, se il se volent iuger ou 

[fol. 66.] receure iugement est encheguz • en la forme de susdite. 
Or posum que luns o lautres ne respont que il se 
vuille iuger ou reciure iugement. 

f Nos disum que la plainte ha perdue sa demande, 
et li citez est en la merci dau dit gage par la defiaute 
que yl a fidt vers lo seignor, et fut conveincuz de la 

* rey\ The genitive case of reys, * porposees'} proposees, as in a 

from the Latin rex. 

2 logtast^ rdtait. 

' ge ne dip<w'\ je ne dis pas. 

* au Chasteau'] the town of Cha- 
teau, in Oieron. 

^ maisotu'] probably raisons. 

subsequent paragraph. 

7 «e»] ces. 

* prcvost'] the king's officer. 

° encheffuz] cast, or condemned, 
from encheir, to fall. 



lord. And the rights of the king consist in this, that he 
ought to guard the roads for the service of the com- 
munity of people, as we have already said. And we do 
not say that the king can inflict a penalty on the first 
party, for when he first made the eaves of his roof to 
extend beyond the half of the road, he did not commit 
any offence or any nuisance ; but if it happen that his 
eaves cause offence or nuisance, and at the reasonable 
summons of his lord within seven days he has not 
removed the nuisance, I do not say that he shall 
not render to the lord a penalty of sixty shillings, 
and the latter shall remove the nuisance ; and this was 
said and decreed in the case of the new house which 
Jeffrey Boisseaus, brother of Perronele, the wife of 
Lord GuiUaume Bormaut^ made at the chateau before 
the house of Lord GuiUaume Chezac and John Chezac 
his brother, where the eaves of the roofe of the two 
brothers passed beyond the half of the road, for the 
arguments of the one party and of the other were so 
stated, that neither the one nor the other s€dd that he 
was willing to amend in these words, he who refuses 
judgment is convicted of the demand made, and of 
the highest fine to the lord, that is to say, to the 
provost sixty shillings, and to the mayor fifty-nine 
shillings. And we say that he is convicted for this 
reason, because when he will not await the right of the 
court to demand of each party three consecutive times 
if he is willing to judge or receive judgment, he is cast 
in the above-said manner. 

We suppose a case ^ that neither the one nor the other 
party answers that he is willing to judge or receive judg- 
ment a We say that the plaintiff has lost his demand, 
and the defendant is liable, to the said penalty for the 
default which he has made towards the lord, and is 

> We suppose a case"] Thb should be the oommencement of a fresh 



demande, mas la deffaut de la plainte meisme len sauve. 
Or disum que quant les raizons de lune partie et de 
lautre sunt einsi proposees que il se commande iuger 
desequi en avant, il ne poent les parties amander, et 
lor paroles que il ne retenge iugement segont lor 
raizons avant porposees. 

Chapitre Si hom trovet sa choze sor autre, cilz sus cui horn 
Quant horn 1ft trovera deit ben dire et commant^ il la tent; et si 
trovet sa q[\^ ^[^ q^e il la achate ben et leaument veent gent,* 

C11086 sor 

autre. et deit en dire lou prez ' que il ia doune, et se il dit 
[fol.66.6.] par son saigrement que quant il lou trobera mostrera 
-avaunt, et iquest sollempnite faite, cilz cuy la choze 
aura este foifaite rendra a celuy sus cuy ele ert trovee 
lo prez que il i aura done, et recevra sa choze. Et ne 
pero nos ne disum mie que cilz sus cuy la choze est 
trovee ia facet iceste sollempnite decique li autres ait 
mostre par bons garenz ou par autre prove que la 
choze seit soe. E ce meisme que nos disom achat ^ 
dizom aussi que cil sus cuy la choze est trovee dit 
[fol. 67.] quil la tent par gage ou par autre rayzon ou manere. 
Si choze de gent de pecey' est trovee a la mer ele 
nest mie a celuy que la trovet, mas si il latrait a 
sauvete aura en merite® de celuy a cuy la choze ert 
par son travail a lesme de prodeshomes. Et issi aura 
la choze cil cuy ele ert, se il la vait requerre dedenz 
i. an et i. ior. 


^ conunant'] commeot. 

^ veent geni] veer, veoir, Tidere, 

' lou prez"] preis: pretiom, Roque- 

*diwm (tchat'] There is some 

word omitted here, as achat belongs 
to the preceding word. 

' de pecey] Probably depeciej, 
from depeder : mettre en pieces, 

' en ificnie] en moite, a half. 



convicted of the demand, but the de&ult of the plaintiff 
himself saves him. Again we say that when the argu- 
ments of the one party or of the other party are so 
stated that he can proceed to judgment forthwith/ 
he cannot impose* a penalty on the parties, and the 
words that he take upon himself to give judgment 
follow the arguments above stated. 

If a man finds his property upon another person, he Chapter 


upon whom he shall find it ought to say how he became wiien a 
possessed of it, and if he says that he has bought it well ?^ ^<*» 
and fairly in the presence of other persons, he ought to say perty npon 
^the price which he has given for it, and if he says upon ■notl»«'« 
his oath that when he found it he showed it publicly, and 
this solemnity is completed, he whose property has been 
missing shall render to him upon whom it shall be found 
the price which he has given for it, and shall receive the 
property. Nevertheless we do not say that he upon whom 
the property is found shall be required to perform this 
solemnity, until the other has shown by warrantors or 
by other proof that the thing is his, and we say the 
same as to a thing which a man has bought.* We say 
also the same, if he upon whom property is found says 
that he holds it as a pledge, or for some other reason, 
or in some other manner. If the property of persons 
broken to pieces is found on the sea, it does not belong 
to him who has found it, but if he draws it into safety 
he shall have for his labour according to the estimate 
of the prud'hommes. And the person to whom the pro- 
perty belongs shall have it again, if he comes to request 
it within a year and a day. 

^ forthwUk'} There is some on- 
certainty as to the trae meaning of 
this paragraph, which is prohahly 
attrihutahle to an error of the scribe. 

^ has bought} The word << achat " 
or '* pmtihase " has clearly reference 
to a case supposed in the earlier part 
of the paragraph. 



Chapitre En gest^ de nef ne partent rens li cor* de la nef ob 
De ffest ^^ ^^ appareilz et ob toz son estorement, ne li leit^' 
denef. ni les huches, ni les chozes brevement qui sunt esta- 
blies parveentement ^ a lestorage de la nef et de ceaus 
de dedens ; mas si ya lez huches et taus autres chozes 
que seient portees par non de marchandie, eles partent 
toutes on gest.* 

Chapitre La uez, non li avers de la nef, paiet lo quillage* et 
La n^ '^ grant lomant7 Quar desque la nef est bien atornee 
paiet lo de marineaus et de grant lomant, de se qui ^ en avant 
^f 1 6^6 -I si li marchaanz volent aver plus marineaus ou lomanz 

por lor aver mieuz sauver, li marcheant lo devient aver 

a lor couz. 


Li avers 
payet lo 

Li avers qui est chargez en Oleiron payet lo affiage. 
Quar par raison de laver vent la nef au port on ele 
se fait affier ; et si tot horns Doleiron charget vaisseau, 
et charge lo tout, fors tant que si est autres estranges 
icharget i. toneau de vin ou dos ou autre einsi que 
partie, iquele partie que li estranges chargera paiera 
tout laffiage. 

* En gegt] en jet, jetison. 
2 U cor'] le corps. 

8 li leit] les lits. 

^ parveentement'] This word is 
probably miswritten. 

* en gest"] This may have been 
the substance of a judgment of the 
mayor's conrt in accordance with 
the lettiers patent of Edw. I., AJ). 
1285. Before that time the mer- 
chants of Gascony had contended 
for a different rule, and no judgment 

precisely in point to goyem this 
case is to be found in the BoUs of 

^ quiUage'] quittage is adopted by 
Fardessus, t. iv. p. 294, but quillage 
from quille, the keel of a ship, is 

7 grant hmant"] The petit lomant 
has been mentioned above, ch. 
Izxzviii. C£ Black Book of the 
Admiridty, p. 104. 

^ de 8€ qui] deciqne. 



In jetison from a ship, the hull of the ship^ with all Chapter 
ite tackle and with all its stores does not contribute, nor r^r?!-^' 

' Uf jetison. 

the beds nor the chests, nor the things in brief which 
are provided for the storing of the ship and those within 
it; but if there be chests or any other things which are 
carried under the name of merchandise, they contribute 
all to the jetison.' 

The ship and not the cargo of the ship pays the keel- chaptet 
age dues and the sea-pilot, but as soon as the ship is-- ^^• 
provided with manners and the sea-pilot, from that time pays the 
forward, if the merchants wish to have more mariners ^^^p 

and the 

or more pilots, to have greater safety, they ought to sear-pilots, 
have them at their own cost. 

The cargo which is laden in Oleron pays the stowage Chapter 
dues.* For by reason of the goods the ship comes into rm^^^^' 
port, where it has them stowed, and if a man of Oleron pays the 
loads the vessel, and loads all except so much as another »t<>^^®- 
stranger loads with a tun or two of wine or any other 
part, the part which the stranger shall load shall pay all 
the stowage dues. 

i the hull of the ship'} The role 
of the Rhodian law was maintamed 
in the Assises de Jerusalem, § xlv., 
and was probably the rule observed 
in the kingdom of France at this 
time, as may be gathered from Li 
Livres de Jostice et de Flet, 1. yii. 
§ ii., '<De hi loi Rodiane de geter 
" marchandise en mer." But it 
was otherwise in Enghind alter 
A.D. 1285, in which year King 
Edward I. issued letters patent to 
settle a dispute in a matter of jeti- 
son between the barons of the 
Cinque Forts on the one hand and 
the merchants of England and 
Wales, Ireland, and Gascony on 
the other, when it was ordered that 
henceforth the vessel with her ap- 

parel and stores should not contri- 
bute in cases of jetison, where cargo 
had been cast overboard. The dis- 
pute and the king*s decree are set 
out in the Liber Albus of the City 
of London, vol. 1, p. 490, ed. Riley ; 
cf. Black Book of the Admiralty, 
p. 127. 

3 contribute all to the jetison'] The 
rule of the Rhodian law is thus 
described : '* Lege Rhodia cavetur, 
** ut, si levandae navis grati&, jactus 
« mercium factus est, omnium con- 
** tribntione sarciatur, quod pro 
« omnibus datum est." Fr. 1. 
Paulus, lib. ii., Sententiamm. 

3 the stowiige dues] The text is 
obscure, and the translation is 
somewhat conjectural. 



Si nez entre desaiBee en port, ele padera xii sok 
daffiage, ia tant petite ne sera. 

f Si nez avalet, ia ne &cei solement, nias que se 
remuet fors de son siege, si na paie son affiage, li avers 
[fol. 68.] en doblera tan gage, et si sen vait fors dau port il 
nia autre gage fors doblement de laffiage, quar cist tau 
affiage ne sunt for cum mautote ^ et force. Mas apprie 
sunt par lone vsage, et tant ya que si hon nest, que la 
nef sen alast et noguist paie son affiage et lo davant 
dit gage, li avers de la nef paieret lo affiage et lo 
davant dit gage, ceu est lo dolement' de laffiage. 

Chapitre IT La nefz, non li avers, paie lo planchage. Quar toz 
La nefii vaisseaus deit aveir sa planche a entrer et a essir, a 
paie la charger et a descharger. 


^ mautote ] Probably mantole 
sbonld be written. Maatolln : pris 
par force et contra justice, enley^, 

* doiemeiW] Probably doblement, 


If a ship enters the port with her cargo shifted, she 
shall pay twelve shillings stowage dues, however small 
she may be. 

IT If a ship is going away, but does not do so entirely, 
but moves herself from her station, if the cargo has not 
paid the stowage dues, the penalty shall be double of 
the dues, and if the' ship goes away out of port it shall 
pay a penalty of double the stowage dues, for such 
stowage dues are for carrying away the vessel wrong- 
fully and by fol-ce. But they are levied by long usage, 
and so far is it settled, that if the ship goes away and 
has not paid the stowage dues and the said penalty, the 
cargo of the ship shall pay the stowage dues and the 
above said penalty, that is, double of the stowage dues. 

f The ship and not the cargo pays the plankage dues. Chapter 
For every vessel ought to have its planks to enter by q«^^^?' 
and go out by, and to load and to unload. pays the 






Ealite dau mayor^ daus esqueuins, et daus 

conseillers . . , . i. ■ 

Quant aucun esqueuin vout a]er en An- 

gleterre . . . . . iL 

Si li mayres trespasse Testabliment de la 

commune . . . iiL 

Quant aucun conoichet sa choze sur lar- 

ron . . . . . iv. 

Quant jurez de commune ocist aucun . v. 

Si aucuns fait traison en la cit^ . vL 

Quant aucuns qui ne seit pas de la com- 
mune meffait a aucun de la commune viL 

Si aucuns ha este mis en pillori . viii. 

Si femme est conveincu destre tenzose . iz. 

Si aucuns jurez fidt clamor de meffait . x. 

Si aucuns jurez est mis en merci . . xL 

Comment prover qui aucuns seit jurez . xiL 

Quant deptres non veoget faire dreit . xiii 

Quant est comptenz de depte ou de con* 

venant ..... xiv. 

Un jurez ert creguz par sa parole . xv. 

Quant jurez portent garantie . . xvL 

Quant aucuns fait clamor de terre . xvii. 

De requerre sa cort de sa terre . ' . xviii. 

De requerre sa cort de depte . . xix. 

Quant aucuns deit debte a aucun . xx. 

Si homme estranges fait clamor de debte xxL 

Quant la commune deit aler fors dau 

pais ..... xxiL 


Election of the mayor and echevins and 
counsellors . . . . 

When an echevin wishes to go to England 

If the mayor transgresses a law of the 
commune .... 

When any one recognises his property on 
a thief ..... 

When a jurat of the commune kills any 
one ..... 

If any one commits treason in the city . 

When any one not of the commune 
wrongs a member of the commune 

If any one has been set in the pillory . 

If a woman is convicted of being a 
scold ..... 

If a jurat complains of a trespass 

K a jurat is fined 

The proof of being a jurat 

When a debtor will not do right 

When there is a suit for debt or con- 
tract ..... 

A jurat shall be believed on his word . 

When jurats warrant a thing 

When any one claims land 

To claim jurisdiction over land . 

To claim jurisdiction in matter of debt . 

When any one owes a debt to another . 

If a stranger claims a debt 

When the commune ought to march forth 




• • 

• . . 




. a 


• • • 














c c 



Quant aucuns ha mesdit de la commune 
Qui refudet lo saigrement de la commune 
Quant vecoms pot metre mayn au jurez 

de la commune 
Si aucuns deffors commune meffait a 

aucun de la commune . 
Quiconques trayra cotea ou espee 
Se il convient aler au besoig de la vile. 
Nub ne poet veer sa chevau a aler por 

la ville ..... 
Li mayres jurera qui il ne fera pri^re 

vers lo seignor dau pais 
Li mayres jurera k juger dreit 
Li mayres jurera qui il ne prendra lou- 

gers ..... 
La peine de celuy mayor qui aura pris 

le loger ..... 








XXX iiL 




When any one has slandered the com- 
mune ..... xxiii. 


He who refuses to make oath to the 

commune .... xxiv. 

When the viscount may lay hands on a 

jurat of the commune . . . xxv. 

If any one outside the commune wrongs 

a member of the commune . xxvL 

Whoever draws knife or sword . . xxvii. 

If it is requisite to go anywhere for the 

service of the town . . . xxviii. 

No one can refuse his horse to go any 

where for the town . . . xxix. 

The mayor shall swear not to ask a favour 

of the lord of the manor . . xxx. 

The mayor shall swear to judge right . xxxi 
The mayor shall swear not to accept a 

bribe . ' . . . . xxxii. 

The punishment of the mayor who has 

accepted a bribe • * . xxxiii. 

c c 2 








ChapitreL ^^ ^^ convent a faire lo mayre en la cite de Roan 

L'edite U cent par,^ qui sunt establi, esliront treys daus prodes- 

daus CT- ' homes de la cite, et les presenteront au roy, que de 

qucuinset celuy qui aluy plaira daus treys il facet mayre. Et 

seiUers. da Cent pers davant diz esliront li ditz cent per vint 

et quatre, qui en seront chacun an oste,^ daus quaus 

seront establi douze esquevin et doze conseiller. Ces 

vint et quatre jureront ou commencemeut de lor annee 

que il garderont les dreistures de saincte yglize et 

la feaute et la dreiture segont lor escient.' Et si li 

mayres lor commandet aucune choze a celer, il la 

celeront, et cUz, qui on revelera, sera desposez de son 

office^ et sera en la merci dau mayor, et daus esquevins 

et de la commune, Li mayres et li douze esquevin 

' li cent par, qui sunt establi] nii 
centum qui pares constituti sunt, is 
the reading in the Charter of the 
Commune of Bouen, of which a 
copy is inserted in the Letters Patent 
of Philip Augustus, of A.D. 1204, 
granting a commune afler the same 
model to the jurats of the Commune 
of St Jean d' Angely. Ordonnances 
des Rois de France de la Troisi^me 
Race, torn. v. p. 671. 

^ ckacun an oste] Qui singulis 
annis removebuntur. Id. ** Renora- 
** buntur ** is the reading of another 
copy of the Charter of Rouen, which 
is not so trustworthy. Ordonnances, 
torn. i. p. 306. 

' segont lor escient'] secundum con- 
scientiam suam. Id. '*Ju8titiam," is 
the reading of the other copy, 
tom. i. p. 306. 



i/X^O' /\f»^\ 

At the meeting to appoint the mayor in the city of Chapter i. 
Royan^ the hundred peers who are estabUshed shaU^^^^^[ 
choose three amongst the prudliommes of the city, and and eche-' 
shall present them to the king, who shall make him of ^^S^ora. 
the three, whom he pleases, mayor. And out of the 
hundred peers above mentioned, the said hundred shall 
choose twenty and four, who shall each year be removed, 
of whom there shall be appointed twelve echevins ' and 
twelve counsellors. These twenty-four shall swear at 
the commencement of their year that they will main- 
tain the rights of the holy church and the fealty and 
the rights of the king, and that they will adjudge right 
according to their knowledge ; and if the mayor com- 
mands them to conceal anything they shall conceal it, 
and he who shall reveal it shall be deposed from his 
office, and shall be at the mercy ^ of the mayor, and 
the echevins and the commune. The mayor and the 

1 ci^f ofBoyan] This town was i scabinus, and is deriyed fh>m the 
at the mouth of the Gironde, on the Teutonic word schaffen or schOffen. 

north bank. Its constitution was 
framed after the model of that of 
Bouen in Normandy, which was the 
type of the Anglo-Norman Com- 
munes, and was copied for the most 
part in the towns in the south- 
western parts of France, which were 
under the suzerainty of the Anglo- 
Nonnan princes. 

* echevins} The Editor has re- 
tuned the French term echevin, 
which corresponds with the Latin 

Scabinus is first met with in the 
Capitularies of Charlemagne. The 
English tenn " sheriff" in its usual 
signification of sheriff of a county is 
the synonym of the French word 
''yicomte,'' but the sheriffiB of 
London and Middlesex retain many 
features of resemblance to tfa^ 
ancient echevins. 

^ at the mercy} I^ble 'to a fine, 
un amerciment, at their discretion. 



[fbi. 69.] se assembleront chascune aemayne does fez ' par les 
negoyces de la cite; et si il doptent en aucune choze 
faire, il apeleront celuy ou ceaus quil voudrant des xii. 
conseiUors, et useront sus cele choze alor conseiL E 
li xii. conseiller seront assemble ob lo mayor et ob les 
esquevins chascune quinzene lou Semadi et tuit li cent 
per.^ E quicunques daus davant diz esquevins et 
conseillers et pers ne vendra au davant dit ior avant 
que prime' seit chantee, sanz monicion ob les autres 
esquevins et conseillers, si il est esquevins il paiera 
v. sols, aus affaires de la cite ; e si est conseillers 
qui ne seit pas en la ville il paiera iii. sols ; et si 
est pers/ ii. sols, si il a aucun ior avant ne a dit au 
maior raizonable escusacion par quel il ne ipuchet estre. 

[foi.69.6.] Et quicunques daus davant diz sen ira sanz conge dau 
maior de lassemble daus autres paiera autant cum il 
paieret, se il ne veneit alote de prime. E si li mayres 
aucune fee a mester de aucun de eos, adonques si au- 
cuns de eos ne vent a son mandement, il paiera lavant 
dite pene, se il ne roostret aperte excusacion. 

Chapitreii. f Si aucuns daus xii. esquevins vout aler en Angle- 

2^ eg- ^rre,* ou en autre loig pais,il deit prendre conge dau 

qaeyinToet mayre et daus esquevins quant 11 seront lo Samadi 

gietene. " assemble, et il adomques esliront communaument celuy 

que il establiront en luec de luy iuques il seit venuz. 

Si li maires et li esquevin se seent en lesquevinage,* 

et aucuns daus iurez dit vilanie a lautre en la presence 

^ does fez] deux foia. 

3 tuit li cent per] tons les cent 

^ prime] The service of prime 
'was Bung at six in the morning. 

* et si est pers] et s'il est pair. 

* Anglelerre] Boyanj it may be 
presumed, ivas at this time a pos- 

session of the king of England. The 
same provision is foond in the char- 
ters of Rouen and Falaise. 

^ lesquevina^] The court of the 
echevins. Three articles are omitted 
here which appear in the Constitu- 
tion of Rouen. 



twelve echevins shall assemble twice every week for the 
business of the dtj, and if they doubt in anything to 
be done, they shall call in him or those of the twelve 
counsellors whom they will^ and shall use their counsel 
in the matter. And the twelve counsellors shall assem- 
ble with the mayor and the echevins every fortnight 
on the Saturday^ and all the hundred peers^ and whoever 
of the said echevins and counsellors and hundred peers 
shall &il to come on the aforesaid day before prime is 
chantedy^ without previous notice to the other echevins 
and counsellors, if he is an echevin he shall pay five 
shillings towards the affairs of the city ; and if he is 
a counsellor who is not resident in the vill, he shall 
pay three shillings ; and if he is one of the hundred 
peers, he shall pay two shillings, if he has not on some 
day beforehand stated to the mayor a reasonable excuse 
why he cannot be there. And whosoever of the above- 
said persons shall go away without the leave of the 
mayor from the assembly of the others^ shall pay as 
much as he would have had to pay if he had not come 
at the hour of prime. And if the mayor at any time 
has need of any one of them, thereupon if any one of 
them does not come at his summons, he shall pay the 
above-said penalty, unless he show clearly an excuse. 

IT If any one of the twelve echevins wishes to go to Chapter iL 
England, or to any other distant place^ he ought to obtain ^!^^^ 
leave from the mayor and the echevins when they shall wishes to 
be on Saturday assembled, and they shall thereupon ^J^ *' 
elect in common him whom they shall constitute in his 
place, until he shall have come back. If the mayor and 
the echevins are sitting in the court of the echevins, 
and any one of the jurats' say anything insulting to 

' prime is chante<r] Prime seems 
to have been the commencement 
everywhere of the civil day. 

^jurats ] These consisted of 
the twelve echevins and the twelve 

conseillers, who were sworn to 
maintain the rights of holy church 
and the fiealty and rights of the 
king, and that they wonld adjudge 


[fol. 70.] et en laudienoe dau mayor et daus esquevins, il ert en 
Ia merci dau mayor et dans eBquevins, et sera pnniz 
segont la grandor daus medit, et segont ceu que 11 est 
acodumez de mesdire. 

Chapitre IT Si li mayres trepasse lestabliment de la commune, 

Siiimayres ^ ®^*' P*^ ^^ esquevins puniz a double paine que seret 
trepasse vns daus esquevins se il trepassot, se il na aperte 
m«a?de U desacusance, quar de luy deit estre pris exemple de 
commime. dreiture et de egaute^ et de guarder les establimenz. 

Chapitre IT Si ol avent que aucun conoichet aucune choze dau 

Qoant ^9^ ^ ®^^ larron ou feussoner pris ou convencu a Boan, 

aucun , et il puche mostrer par leau garentage de ses veysins 

Mdiosse' ^ choze estre soe, ele liert* rendue, et li leres ou li 

■ur larron. faussoners sera mis on pillori, si dreiz ' requert^ que toz 

[fol. 70. 6.] le veent,* et le conoichent, et se il deit aver merci il o 

aura. E se il a mefTait par quey il deiet perdre membre 

ou plus, il et ses chozes seront livrees a la iustice lo 

rey a faire dreit 

Chapitre Si li iurez de la commune ocist son iure et il en 
Quant s^i^ ftiitis^ o convencuz, sa maison ert abatue, et il et 
urez de tuit si ben seront livrez aus iustices lo rey, se il puet 

commune ,, ^^. •■• .« . 

ocistaucun. estre tenuz. Si aucuns dau lurez maagnet ° son autre 
de aucun de ses membres, ou en autre manere li ait 
meffait, et il enseit convencuz, il remaindra en la merci 
dau mayor et daus esquevins, por ce que il aura maagne 
son iure de son membre, ou lo aura feru ou li aura 
tort fait. 

^ dau son"] du sien. 

^ ele liert] elle lui Bcrait. 

^ dreiz'] droit. 

* le ueenQ ie voient. 

^fuitis] From the Latin fbgiti- 


^ maagnet] Maaignier, mehainier, 
mehaimier, maim. 



another in the presence and in the hearing of the mayor 
and the echevins, he shall be at the mercy of the 
mayor and the echevins, and shall be punished accord- 
ing to the degree of his insulting words, and according 
as he is accustomed to use such words. 

IT If the mayor violates the constitution of the com- Chapter 
mune, he shall be punished by the echevins with double j^ ^jj"' 
the penalty which shall be inflicted on an echevin if mayor 
he violates it, unless he openly excuses himself; for he^^^"^® 
should set an example of right and of equity,^ and of t^« com- 
maintainiDg the constitution. mune, 

% If it happens that any one recognises any thing Chapter 
which belongs to him on a robber or on a forger, taken ^hen any 
and convicted at Boyan, and he can show by the war- ope recog- 
rant of his neighbours that the thing is his own, itpro^rtyon 
shall be rendered to him, and the robber or the forger a thie£ 
shall be set in the pillory, if right requires it, that every 
one may see him and know him, and if he ought to be 
fined, he shall be fined. And if he has transgressed in 
such a way that he ought to lose a limb ^ or more, he 
and his goods shall be delivered to the justice of the 
king to do right. 

If a jurat of the commune kilk another sworn man Chapter 
and he shall be a fugitive or be convicted, his house y^^^ 
shall be razed to the ground, and he and all his goods jurat of 
shall be delivered to the justices of the king,* if he can munTSib 
be captured. If any of the jurats shall maim another another, 
in any of his limbs, or shall in any other manner 
have injured him, and shall be convicted, he shall be 
at the mercy of the mayor and the echevins, because 
he has maimed a jurat of a limb, or has struck him, 
or has done him wrong. 

1 equify"] Egaut^ in the sense of 
eqaity occara in Li livres de Jos- 
tice et De Flet, L iii. ch. v. § 9* 
** Que egaut^ lor querra.*' .^ni- 
tatis i8 used in the Boaen charter. 

2 /tm6] The loss of a limb was 
generally commnted for a money 

^justices of the king"] as guilty of 



Ch^itre IT Si aucun» £ut traison en la die, et duy daus 
7^' xxiiii. en ayent veu ou oy, li traitres en sera con- 
Si aacunB veincuz par la simple parole de eaus dous,^ par ceu 
^*^J?° seront creguz par lour simple parole, quar il iurerent 
on commencement de lor an que il direent verite de 
ceu que veireent et oyreent. Si duy daus autres pers® 
on ayen veu ou oy^ il en ert convaincuz par lor sai- 
crement de eaus dous, et en ert conveincuz en la merci 
dau mayor et dos esquevins, et amandera a lesgart 
dau mayor et daus esquevins lo mefiait, segont que il 
sera, et segont que il ert costumez de meffaire. Si 
aucuns mesdit de convice a aucun en la dte, ou en 
rue, ou en maison, ou en autre luec, il en ert convein- 
cuz par dous garenz daus cent pers ^ sans saicrement, 
ou par ii. autres iurez ob saicrement, et amandera par 
[foL7i.6.] lo maior et par les esquevins le convice, segont que il 
ert, et segont que il ert acodumez de mesdire, et de 
convice dit a son iure remaindra en la merci dau 
maior et daus esquevins; et si cilz qui aura este lay- 
dengez*^ na garenz daus cent pers, ou dous autres 
iurez^ sa querele sera demenee segont la loy de la 

Chagitre % Si aucuns qui ne seit pas de la commune meffait 
Qaant ^ aucun de la commime, li mayres mandera a celuy 
aacnnsqui par SOU message ou par autre que il amandet lo for- 
delTccm^ fait; et si amander ne le vaust, il ert deffenduz aus 
mnne mef- iurez de la commime que il naient ob luy commuuaute 
de la oom- ^^ vendant, ne en achatent, ne encreent,^ ne en parlant, 


^ eaus doua] eux deux. 
^ doMs autres />«r<] des autres 
' oyen veu ou oy'] ont vu ou oye. 
** doMs cent pers] des cent pairs. 

* laydengez] laidanger, leidenger ; 
blesser par des paroles, calomnier, 

' enereent] en creent, from the 
Latin credere. 


f If any one commits treason ^ in the city, .and two Chapter 
of the twenty-four have seen or heard him, the traitor jf^P'^^^ 
shall be convicted upon the simple word of the two, commits 

tiFCBflOIl 111 

for they shall be believed upon their simple word, the city, 
because they have sworn at the commencement of their 
year, that they will speak the truth of that which they 
have seen and heard. If two of the other peers have 
seen or heard him, he shall be convicted by the oaths 
of those two, and when convicted shall be at the mercy 
of the mayor and the echevins^ and shall make com* 
pensation according to the sentence of the mayor and 
the echevins for the offence, according to what he shall 
be, and according to what he has been accustomed to 
offend. If any one insults by word of reproach any 
one in the city, or in the street, or in a house, or in 
any other place, he shall be convicted by two war- 
rantors of the peers without an oath, or by two other 
jurats upon oath, and shall make compensation ac- 
cording to the sentence of the mayor and the echeviQS 
for the insult, according to what he shall be, and 
according to what he is accustomed to insult, and for 
revilings addressed to his brother jurat he shall be at 
the mercy of the mayor and the echevins, and if he 
who shall have been reviled has no warrantors of the 
hundred peers or of the other jurats, his complaint 
shall be settled according to the law of the court. 

f If any one who is not of the commune commits Chapter 
an offence against any one of the commune, the mayor '^^^'^ny 
shall order him, by his messenger or by some otixer one not of 
person, to make compensation for his offence, and if mime^™" 
he is not willing to make compensation, it shall be wrongs a 
forbidden to the jurats of the commune to hold any in- ^^^^^ 
tercourse with him in selling, or in buying, or in trusting commnne. 
him, or in speaking to him, neither in their houses 

^ commits tretuon] That is, does I to the commuie. The Bonen char- 
some act at yariance with his fealty I ter has the words seditionem fecerit. 



ne en ostau, ne en autre manerp naient ob luy com- 
[fol. 72.] munaute; si li sires ^ ou sis fi]z^ nest a Boan oujen 
assisia,' et si cilz ne veaut par ce lo forfait amander, 
li mayres lo mostrera aus iustices lo rey, et ajuera a 
son iure a oonquerre en sa dreiture ; et si aucuns dans 
iurez de la commune fJEdt centre oeste deffensse, il sera 
en la merci dau mayor, et daus esquevins. 

Chapitre % Si aucuns ha este mis on pillori non pas par 
Si aucmis layroncin, mas par autre choze . que il ait assaye afayre 
ha este mis contre les establimens de la commune, et aucuns loy 
en pi on. j.Qpj.Qgjjg^ ^j, q^Qj i\ li facet vergoigne davant les 

iurez ou davant autres homes, il paiera xx. sols, daus 
quaus cilz a qui aura este diz li convices aura v. sols, 
et li XV. sols seront au besoig* de la vile; et si cilz 
[fol. 72. 6.] que lo li aura reproche ne le veaut ou ne puet paier, 
il sera mis on pillori. 

Chapitre % Si feme est conveincue destre tensoze^ ou medi- 


SifCTome ^^''^> ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ "^^^ corde soz les aysseles* et 
est con- sera gitee par iii. fez en laigue;^ et si aucuns lo y 
tee^Bozt reprochet cilz paiera x. sols, et si feme lo y reproche 

' li sires] The word reys is used 
instead of sires in a snbseqaent 
paragraph. In the Latin Tersion 
the passage here runs thus : ** nisi 
** dominus rex vel filius ejus adsint 
" Botomagi vel assisia." *' Sires " 
may have been here introduced pur- 
posely if the charter was granted 
to Royan by the duke of Aquitaine, 
and the MS. has escaped alteration 
in modem times. The original MS. 
of the Bouen charter was sur- 
rendered to Philip Augustus. 

3 sisjilz'] From the Latin suus 

^ en OMuta] Assisia here means 
probably a court of assise, and not 

any particular place. ^'Assisas et 
*' assisise dicuntur concilia publica, 
'< oonventus et consessus proborum 
'' hominum, a principe Tel domino 
<< feudi electorum, qui pro tribunaU 
« jus dicnnt, lites dirimunt," &c. 

^ besoig] besoign, as gaig is used 
above for gdgn. 

^ tenaoze] tenceresse is the word 
used in the Domesday of Ipswich, s. 
Ixxiy. It occurs in the Boman de la 
Rose, Ters. 16,946 : "Cta ge ne sui pas 
jangleresse, yilotiere, ne tenceresse. 

" aysseles'] From the Latin axilla. 

7 en UUgue'] en I'ean. From the 
Latin aqua. 



nor in auy other manner to have any intercourse with 
him. If the lord ^ or his son is at Royan or in the 
assize, and if he will not make compensation for his 
oflfenoe, the mayor shall denounce him to the justices 
of the king, and shall aid the jurat to prevail in 
obtaining right, and if any of the jurats of the com- 
mune acts contrary to this prohibition, he shall be at 
the mercy of the mayor and the echevins. 

% If any one has been set in the pillory, not for Chapter 
larceny, but for any thing else which he has attempted if al^ne 
to do against the constitutions of the commune, and has been 
any one reproaches him, whereby he makes him ashamed ^^^^' 
before the jurats or before other men, he shall pay 
twenty shiUings, of which he, to whom the reproach 
was made, shall have five shillings, and the fifteen 
shillings shall be for the wants of the town, and if he 
who has reproached the other is neither willing nor able 
to pay the fine, he shall be set in the pillory. 

Y If a woman is convicted of being a scold or Chapter 
slanderess,* she shall be tied with a cord under hery^."' „„ 

^ ' if a woman 

arm pits and shall be cast three times into water, and is convicted 
if any one reproaches her of it, he shall pay ten shillings, ^ ^^ 
and if a woman reproaches her, she shall pay ten shil- 

^ the lord] The king is spoken of 
below, as if he was the lord, who 
might be at Boan or in the assize. 
The same provision specifying the 
king is found in the charters of 
Kouen and of Falaise. 

' slanderess] This punishment 
seems to have been of a more rude 

kind than the dncking stool men- 
tioned in the Domesday of Ipswich. 
It appears to have been a general 
practice in fill the communes framed 
after the Anglo-Norman model to 
condemn common scolds to be 
ducked in water with a rope tied 
round their waists. 




ele paiera x. sols, ou sera oolee^ iii. fez en laigae, et 
cis X. sols sunt au besoig de la cite. 

Chapitre Y Si aucuns iurez fait clamor de meffait que sis 

Siawrans ^^"^^ ^ ^^^ ^*^** ^^ ^® toute autre quereille, et ne 
volget dreit prendre davant lo mayor et davant les 
esquevins, il sera retenuz et sera mis par gages, et par 
pleges iurera que il ne meffera par celuy meffait a 
celuy de cuy il avet fait clamor ; et si apres par celuy 
meffait li meffaiz illi meffait, il sera iuget a pariure, 

[fbl. 73.] et sera en la merci dau maior et daus esquevins dau 

clamor de 


Si aacan 
mis en 



prover que 
aucons seit 

fiure dreit. 

IT Si aucun iurez de la commune est mis ea merci 
par son meffait^ et il fidt prier par aucun son riche 
veisin de relaschement ' de sa merci, se il nofait par 
lo commandement lo rey sa merd sera doblee, quar 
nest pas bon aver la mauvolence de ses riches veisina. 

f Si aucuns dit que il seit iurez de la commune, et 
li mayres ne li esquevin nen seent ben oertayn, il ou 
provera par lou garentage de ii. iurez. 

% Si clers ou chevaler det depte a aucun iure, et li 
deptres nen veoget faire dreit por lou mayor et por 
les esquevins, on deffent que nus iurez ait communaute 
ob luy en bevant, ne en menjant,' ne en vendent ne en 
achatant, ne en parlant, ne en autre manere, si li reis ^ 

1 coUe'] coal^ snbmergife. The 
same punishment for scolds is foond 
in the diarters of Rouen and of Fa- 

' rdaschement'] relachement, di- 

> menjani} mengant, mangant 

* H reW] li sires is the reading in 
a preyions paragraph which treats 
of a similar excommunication, but it 
is questionable whether the wordi 
'' si li reis ou sis fill nest a Boan on 
'' assisia " are not redundant in this 



lings, and shall be ducked overhead three times in water, 
and these ten shillings go to the wante of the vilL 

IT If any jurat makes complaint of trespass which a Clmpter 
jurat has done to him, or of any other quarrel, and isifaj^at 
not willing to take proceedings ^ before the mayor and complains 
before the echevins, he shall be detained, and shall be ^^^ 
ordered to find sureties and pledges, and shall swear 
that he will not himself retaliate for the trespass upon 
him, against whom he has made complaint ; and if after- 
wards for this trespass the person trespassed against 
commits a trespass against the trespasser, he shall be 
adjudged peijured, and shall be at the mercy of the 
mayor and the echevins for the trespass. 

% If any jurat of the commune is fined for an offence, Chapter 
and if he makes entreaty by any of his rich neighbours j^ ^ ?^^^ 
for a remission of his fine, unless he do it by the order is fined for 
of the king,2 his fine shall be doubled, for it is not good * ^P^' 
to have the ill-will ' of rich neighbours. 

% If any body says that he is a jurat of the commune, Chapter 
and the mayor and the echevins do not know it foTj^^^^^^^ 
certain, he shall prove it by the warrant of two jurats, of being a 


1[ If a clerk or a knight owes a debt to a jurat, and Chapter 
the debtor is«not willing to do justice through the.^^^"^ 
mayor and the echevins, it is forbidden that any jurat debtor will 
have intercourse with him in drinking or in eating, or ^ght* 
in selling or in buying, or in speaking, or in any othe^ 

, J* 1 rm.* I " trictiones fiiciat per volnntatem 

' proceedtngsj This proYision re- | ^^ „ '^ 

quiring a jurat to demand jostice 
from the mayor's court instead of 
retaliating upon the wrong doer, 
is in accordance with the statute of 
Marlbridge, temp. Henry III., '' Ut 
nullus de csetero ultiones aut die- 

s by order of the king"] The char- 
ters of Bouen and of Falaise have 
the words ^'nisi fiat pr^cepto do- 

" mini regis." 

> iU'tDilT] « malevolentiam " is in 
the Boueo and Falaise charters. 


■ ■ 



[foi.73.6.] ou sis fiLs nest a Roan oa asskia^ et si aacuns 
iurez fait oontre ceste deffense, il rendra la depte aa 
creancer, et sera en la merci dau maior et daus es- 
quevins; et si par ceu li deptres ne veaut fure dreit 
au creancer por lo mayor et par les esquevins, li 
maires ajaera au iure a querre son dreit par les autres 

Chapitre T Si en la commune est comptenz ^ de depte ou de 
Qoftnteflt convenant par lo recort et par lo garantage de iL des 
comptens xx. et iiii iurez, qui seront cre^z par lor simide parole, 

dedepteou . . ^ . j i ^ -i 

de conve- quar lurarent ce on commencement de lor an ; et si Ian 
^^^' passe, et eaus deposez, sort' contenz de depte cregue 
ou de convenant fait davant eaus, ou dautre choze^ on 
Chapitre s^ra fine par lor saigremeni 


Un jurec 

Y Si vn daus zidiii. iurez porte de ce garantie, il en 
ert creguz par sa parole. 

ett cregiuE 
par sa 
[foL 74.] 


IT Si duy ou trey dos autres iurez en portent garan- 
tie, on sera fine par lor saicrement ; et si vns daua 
iurez nen porte garentie, la querele sera demenee se- 
gont la codume dau pais ; et si de x. sols ou domains ' 
est la querelle, ele sera finee par lou garantage de dos 
pers sans saygrement. 

> comptenz'] contenz as below. 
^•orQ From the Latin snrgit. 

' demains] de moins. 



manner, if the king ^ or his son are at Roan or in 
the assise^ and if any jurat acts contrary to this pro- 
hibition, he shall render the debt to the creditor, and 
shall be at the mercy of the mayor and the echevins ; 
and if afber this the debtor is not willing to do right 
to the creditor through the mayor and the echevins, 
the mayor shall aid the jurat to obtain his right through 
the other justices.* 

IT If in the commune there is a contention of debt or Chapter 
of covenant upon the record and upon the warrant of ^j^^^^' 
two of the twenty-four jurats,* they shall be believed there is 
upon their bare word, for they have sworn at the com- J^^t ^^ 
mencement of their year ; and if the year passes, and eontract. 
they have laid down their office, and a dispute arises 
about a debt contracted or a contract made before them, 
or about any thing else, it shall be finished hy their 

Y If one of the twenty-four jurats gives a guarantee Chapter 
of this, he shall be believed upon his bare word. ^ .^^ -^ 

belieyed on 

T If two or three of the other jurats offer to war- ^ '^<^'*- 
rant, it shall be settled by their oath ; and if one of ^^^^^ 
the jurats offers to warrant, the dispute shall be settled When 
according to the custom of the country; and if the|^^^*'" 
dispute is of ten shillings or less, it shall be settled by thing, 
the warrant of two peers without an oath. 

> If the king] These and the 
folloving words, down to "the 
** assise," do not interfere with the 
eonstmction of the paragraph, bat 
tfaej are withont purport, if the con- 
text is considered ; whereas in the 
previous paragraph the whole pas- 
sage is pertinent to what follows, 
namely, that the offenders shall be 
denounced to the justices of the 

king. But it must be remarked 
that the Bonen and Falaise charters 
have the words " nisi dominns rex 
« Tel filins cjas assint Rotfaom. yel 
** Fales. yel assisia." 

^ other jtutices] who may have 
jurisdiction over him. 

' the twenty-four juraW] These 
would appear to be the aggregate 
body of echevins and counsellors. 

D D 2 




Quant au- 
cuxu £ut 
clamor de 


• •• 


[fol 74.6.] 


qaerre sa 
sa terre. 

IT Si aucuns fait clamor de terre ou de possession 
sur autre, la plainte dera pleges ou gage de segre sa 
clamor ; et si apres est faite reconlssance de cele choze, 
et la plainte seit convencuz de fausse clamor, il sera 
en la merci dau mayor et daus esquevins de lix. sols, 
quar ha fait fausse clamor en lour audience. 

f Si aucuns requert la cort de sa terre,* il laura ; 
et sil ne fait dreit a la plainte en ii. quinzenes, li 
maires et li esquevin ou feront, se il na ogu* dreite 
desacusance, que li maires et duy esquevins sachent. 

Chapitre T Si aucun requert sa cort de depte, il laura et facet 

De re^ dreit a la plainte en ii. octaves ; et sil no fait, li mayres 

qaerresa et li esquevin on feront, si cil qui tent la cort ne ha 

depte. ^ essoyne que li mayres et duy esquevin sachent. 



deit debte 
a aacun. 

IT Si aucuns deit debte a aucun, et il ne volget ou 
ne puchet paier, on baillera tant dau son au creancer 
que il sera paiez, si cilz ha tant dont li creancer 
puchet estre paiez; et se il na tant, il sera mis fors 
la cite iuque^ il aura fait lo gre dau maior et daus 
esquevins et do creancer. Et si il est trobez en la cite 
avant que il ait fet lour gre, il sera mis en chartre 
[fol. 76.J iusque U seit reins ^ de cent sols, ou par sey ou par 
autre, et adonques iurera que il ne retomera en la cite 

1 requerre sa corte"] This passage 
is thus explained in Le Conseil de 
Pierre de Fontaines, ch. xxi. s. xxyi., 
" et le premiers sires requerrasa 
*' cort, porce que il sont si home.'' 
In other words, if any lord of a 
manor claims jurisdiction over land 
in dispute on the ground of its being 
a fief within his manor. 

3 la cort de aa terre] That is, the 
court of the manor. 
' ogu] probably aucun. 

* tuque'] luques, from the Latin 
usque. In old Pkt>T6n9al inqaio, 

* retfw] rains, ransonn^ ** Donee 
redimatur " is in the Rouen charter. 



T If any one makes claim to land in the possession Chapter 
of another, the plaintiff shall give pledges or security when any 
to follow up his claim ; and if afterwards a recognition* on« claims 
shall be made of the matter, and the plaintiff be con- 
victed of a false claim, he shall be at the mercy of the 
mayor and the echevins to the amount of fifty-nine 
shillings,^ because he has made a false claim in their 

T If any person claims his court in the matter of Chapter 
his land, he shall have it ; and if he does not do jus- xo claim 
tice to the plaintiff in two fortnights,* the mayor and jurisdiction 

over land* 

the echevins shall do so, if he has not a rightful ex- 
cuse, which the mayor and the echevins know of. 

T If any person claims his court in the matter of Chapter 
a debt, he shall have it, and do justice to the plai n tiff xo claim 
in two weeks ; * and if he does not do so, the mayor j«ri«iiction 
and the echevins shall do it, if he .who holds the court of deht. 
has no excuse which the mayor and the echevins know 

f If anybody owes a debt to anybody, and he will Chapter 
not or cannot pay, there shall be delivered to thewhen^any 
creditor so much of his property as will enable him one oi^es a 
to pay himself, if the debtor has enough out of which another, 
the creditor may be paid ; and if he have not so much, 
he shall be sent out of the city, until he shall have 
made satisfaction to the mayor and to the echevins 
and to the creditor. And if he is found in the city 
before he has made satisfaction to them, he shall be 
put in prison until he shall be ransomed for one 
hundred shillings, either by himself or by another, and 
thereupon he shall sweax that he will not return into 

' recoynitioti] That is by an in- 
qaest, or by a recognition npon the 
oath of pe^rs. 

^ shUlingB'] In the charters of 

Rouen and of Falaise the words 
** bolidis AndegaTcnsibus ** are used. 

^ fortnighta] literally, fifteen days. 

* weeks] literally, octaves. 



insquatant^ que il aura fait lo gre dau mayor et daus 
esquevins et dau creancer. 

Cbapitre IT Si hom estranges £ELit clamor au mayor et aus 
Si horn esquevins de debte que iurez li det, et li iurez ait 
estranges seignor, et li sires requert sa cort, il laura ; et se il ne 
dS debte^^ fait dreit a la plainte dedenz iii. iors, li mayres ou li 

esquevin on feront. 

Quant la 

f Si la commune deit aler fors dau pais par lo com- 

mandement lo rey ou de sa iustice, li may re et li 

commonc esquevinles quaus* il establiront a garder la cite, et 

fore dau qui aprcs hore de issir sera trobez en la cite, sera con- 

pais. vencuz par ceaus qui seront reines' a garder la cite, 

et sera en la merd dau maior et daus esquevins da- 

batre sa maysou ou de cent sols ee il ne la, et si puys 

[fol. 75. 6.] que la commune sera mogue, aucuns sen depart par 

arber^ ou par autre choze sanz conge* dau maior ou 

sanz essoine de son cors, il sera en la mere! dau mayor 

et daus esquevins. 

Quant an 
cnns ha 
mesdit de 
la com-- 

a Encore sachent tuit que establi est en la com- 
mune, que si aucuns ha mesdit de la commune, et de 
son dit aforfait, si ii. daus esquevins on ant oy, par lor 
simple parole seront atainz et provez et sera en la 
merci dau mayor et des esquevins; et si ii. des iurez 

^ iusquatanti' ^usqvL* k tant, donee I ' rentes'] remis. 
fecerit. * arber] The charter of Bouen 

^ esquevinles quaus"] esquevin les 

has causa hospitandL Arber maj 
be a miswriting. 





the city until he shall have made satisfaction to the 
mayor and to the echevins and to the creditor. 

T If a stranger makes a claim before the mayor and Chapter 
the echevins for a debt which a jurat owes him, and if a"^* 
the jurat has a lord^ and the lord ' claims jiuisdiction, stranger 
he i^all exercise it; and if he does not justice to the^^^^ 
plaintiff within three days, the mayor and the echevins 
shall do justice to him. 

H If the commune ought to march forth out of the Chapter 
country ^ by order of the king or of his justices, the "wti^^^^ 
mayor &ad the echevins shall establish a guard of the commune 
city, and he who after the hour of going forth shall ^fch*** 
be found in the city, shall be convicted by those who forth, 
shall be left behind to guard the city, and shall be at 
the mercy of the mayor and the echevins to raze his 
house to th^ ground, or to pay a fine of one hundred 
shillings, if he has them ; and if, after the commune 
shall have moved, any one departs for shelter* or for 
any other thing without the leave of tbe mayor or 
without excuse of his person, he shall be at the mercy 
of the mayor and of the echevins.' 

T Further let every person know that it is esta- Chapter 
blished in the commune, that if any person has slan- ^^jj^^ 
dered the conmmne, and if two of the echevins have one has 
heard his said slander, he shall be attainted, and the th^^^ 
offence shall be proved' by their bare word, and he mime, 
shall be at the mercy of the mayor and of the echevins ; 
and if two of the jurats have heard it^ it shall be 

^ out of Ihe country] This may 
haTe been a levy en masse to aid 
the execntiye power, like calling oat 
the posse comitatus in an English 
conntj, unless it had reference to a 
time of war. No Tassels were 
obliged to follow their lord beyond 

the limits of his fief, but the king 
was lord paramount of every fief. 

^fir sheUer} To obtain a lodg- 
ing, seems to be the meaning of the 
Latin version. 

> eehemns ] The charters of 
Rouen and of Falaise end bore. 


ou ont oy par lor saigrement seront proez, et sera en 
la dite merci, et si vns sous ou a oy oil qui aura 
mesdit, se puet espurger^ par son saigrement et par 
vi. homes. 

Chapitre f Hom quiconques seit de la vile qui refudet lo 
Q^?^^^^ saigrement de la commune, si il en es proez* il deit 
lo saigre- estre pris et mis en lians de fer et en la chartre ' de la 
™^,^e* commune iuques il ait fait laraande au maior et aus 

[fol. 76.] esquevins dau mesprez de la commune. 

Chapitre f Si vecoms * de la vile ou autre baillis par lo rey 
Quant^ve- ^® P^^ metre mayn au iurez de la commune par lor 
corns pot meflFait, sine sunt convencu en la cort au maior de 
a« jM^dT i^ort dome, et cilz qui de la mort est atains et con- 
la com- yeincu en la cort au maior de mort dome, et si chataus ' 
°"^'- sunt eu la mayn lo rey, et sil ha maison o verger oest 
au mayor et a la commune a en fayre dreiture ; les 
autres cbozes sunt aus hers, si il les ha. 

Chapitre f Si aucutis dcfors commune mefiait a aucun .de la 
Siaucttns commune, et il puchet estre pris, il deit estre liez en 
defers com- lians de fer et mis en la chartre de la commune, iuques 
&H°^aa- ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ lamande au maior et aus esquevins, et a 

cun de la [ 


[foL 76. 6.] * espurger^ From the Latin cx- 

*/woer] provez, prony^. 
^ chartre] cartre, from the Latin 

* vecoms'] yicomte, from the Latin 

• ^ chataus"] chateux, chattda. 



proved by their oaths, and he shall be at the said 
mercy, and if one only has heard what he has said, he 
may purge himself by his own oath and by six men.* 

T Any man, whoever he may be, that refuses the Chapter 


oath ' of the commune, if it is proved, ought to be He who 
taken and set in fetters of iron, and in the prison of r«^®**<i 
the commune, until he has made amends to the mayor to the 
and the echevins for his contempt of the communa commnne. 

T The viscount of the vill,' or other bailli* of the Chapter 
king, may not lay hands on a sworn man of the com- '^^"^Jje 
mune for his crime, unless he is convicted in the court ▼iscount 
of the mayor of the death of a man, and when a man ^^^ ^q ^ 
is attainted and convicted, his chattels are in the hands jurat of Ae 
of the king, and if he has a house or orchard, it is for 
the mayor and the echevins to do justice against it ; 
his other goods are for his heirs, if he has any. 


f If any one outside of the commune has injured any Chapter 
one of the commune, and he can be taken, he ought if ^ one 
to be bound in fetters of iron and set in the prison outside the 
of the commune, until he shall have made compen- im>Dg8 a 
sation to the mayor and to the echevins, and to him memher 

•^ of the com- 


^ by nx men] That u hy the oath 
of six compurgators, cf. ch. zliy. of 
the Contumier of Oleron. 

' refuses the oath] refuses to take 
an oath of fealty to the commune. 

> viscount of the mfl] The vi- 
comte was the representatiye of the 
king, and was probably the chief 
magistrate within the viil, as the 
mayor was within the city. It 
should be remarked, however, that 
** ville " has been used in chapter 
viii. as if it meant the town generally. 

The suburbs of an ancient town 
beyond the walls was often called 
the vill or the borough, as dis- 
tinguished from the ancient city. 
Thus Southwark was in early times 
called the tIU of Southwark, as at 
present it is called the borough, and 
so likewise Westminster, both being 
under the goTemment of a high 

^ bailU] administrator of crown 



celoi a cuy il aura fiut lo meffait ; et ail ne puet esfcre 
pris^ li maires en deit requerre dreit au eeignor de 
oeluy qui aura meffait. Et si par son seignor li maires 
ne puet aver de celuy dreit par son iure, oil qui seront 
de la commune quicunques seent, quant il io porront 
prendre^ il en prendront lor dreit sanz autre clamor. 

Chapitre % Quicunques daus iurez trayra cotea^ o espee, ou 
QuicuB- ftnnes esmolues * sur son iure, il deit estre pris et mis 
ques trayra en la chartre iuques atant que il ait &it amande au 

cotea ou • j. i ±^J 

espee. maior et a lautre. 

Chapitro f Se il couvieut aler au besoig' de la vile, li mayres 
Se"^on- ot li esquevins devent porveer ; quicunques refuidera 
vient aler ^iXev Duvs que il en sera requis, il ert en la merci dau 

au besoiir . ^ 

de la vile, mayor et des esquevins. 


xxix. T Nus ne puet veer * son chevau a aler por le besoig 
'^w^ne'^ de la vile, et se il treys fez* amonestez dau maior ou 
poetyeer de SOU commandcment on veet, il ert en la merci au 

son chevau 

a aler per maior. 

la vUe. 

Chapitre f Li mayres iurera au commencement de sannee que 
Li ^W8 ^^ ^® *®^ priere par sey, ne par autre, vers lo seignor 
jureraque dau pais, ne vers barons, ne vers baillis, que il seit 
prfe^rfvers ^aires outre cele anne, se il non esteit par lo oommu- 
lo seignor nau assentcmcnt de la vile. 

dau pais. 

Chapitre IT Encore iurera li maires et li esquevin et li per® 

Lim*^' * ^^g®^ ^^^^f ^® P*^ "^^' ^® P^ aiguene^ iugeront 
jurera autre choze. 



> cotea] conteau. 

> armes esmolues ] Esmouler : 
aiguiser, Roquefort 

^ aler au besoig'] go on an expe- 
dition on account of the town. 

* veer] refuser, from the Latin 

* treys fez] trois fois. 

* U per] the peers. 

7 aiguene] aygrin : aigreor, from 
aler, Roquefort. 






to whom he has done the injury ; and if he cannot be 
taken, the mayor ought to request justice from the 
lord^ of him who has done the injury. And if the 
mayor cannot obtain from the lord justice for his 
jurat, those who shall be of the commune, wherever 
they may be, whenever they can take him, shall exact 
justice from him without further proceedings.* 

IT Whoever of the jura.ts shall draw knife, or sword, Chapter 
or edged weapon against a jurat of the commune, he whoever 
ought to be taken and set in prison until he has made draws knife 
compensation to the mayor and to the other man. 

T If it is requisite to go [on an expedition] for the ^^y^^ 
service of the vUl, the mayor and the echevins shall Iritis re- 
provide persons; whoever shall refuse to go after hcgoany^ 
has been required, he shall be at the mercy of the^^ere'^"' 

J . -I -L . the serrice 

mayor and the echevins. of the 


T No one can refuse his horse to go for the service of Chapter 
the vill, and if after three admonitions from the mayor no one can 
and his messemrer he reftises, he shall be at the mercy F^^°*® ^^ 

^ , , ° "^ horse to go 

01 tne mayor. anjwhere 

for the 

T The mayor shall swear at the commencement of *®^^' 
his year that he will not, either by himself or by xk?"^ 
another, make any request to the lord of the manor, The mayor 
nor to barons, nor to baillis, that he may be mayor ^^t to^a^"^ 
for another year, if he be not made mayor by thea^^®^'**^ 

, All Ml the lord-of 

common assent of the vm. the manor. 

% Further the mayor and the echevins and the peers Chapter 
shall swear to judge rightly, and that they will notrph^^yo^ 

shall swear 
to judge 

judge otherwise through love or through hatred. 

^ the lord"] under whose jurisdic- 
tion he may be. 

^further proceedings] This sounds 
very like what has been termed 
« lynch law." 


Chapitre % Encore iureront que il ne .prendront deners ne 
Limayres loQgers ^ por dreit fere, et que il iugeront dreiture ae* 
joreraqne gont lor conscience, et segont les raisons et les alle- 

11 ne pren- . - . . 

draloa- gacions daus parties. 


[fbL77.6.j f Si li mayres ou aucuns daus esquevins poet estre 
joi^^ provez que il ait pris louger por dreit fere de aucune 
La peine querelle, par quey aucuns ait este en esquevinage, la 
nuyor^qoi iK^^ison de celuy maior ou de celuy esquevin qui aura 
anrapna prfs lo loger sera abatue sanz contredit, et cilz qui 
^^ ^^' sur ceu aura meffait, ne si lier,« ne auront iameis 
seignorie de mayre ne de autre office e la commune. 

Explicit iste liber, sit scriptor crimine liber. 
Qui scripcit scribat, ludere scriptor eat, 

eat, eat. 

^ hugera"] logner, priz, recom- 
pense, Roquefort; en bas Latin, 

^ si her'\ son heritier, from the 
Latin heeres. 


f Further they shall swear that they will not take Chapter 
money nor reward for doing justice, and that they will Ti^"iyor 
judge right according to their conscience, and accord- shall swear 
ing to the reasons and the allegations of the parties. ^pt a 


f If the mayor or any of the echevins can be proved Chapter 
that he has taken reward for doing justice in any dis- rji^^"^* 
pute, in which any person has been in the court of the punish- 
echevins, the house of that mayor, or of that echevin, JJJayor 
shall be razed to the ground without contradiction, who has 
and neither he who has done this transgression, nor||^^^be. 
his heir, shall ever fill the office of mayor, or any other 
office in the commune. 

Thebook here ends, blame not the writer, pray ; 
Who wrote may write, let him now go to play, 

Let him go, let him go. 




•N yv /x 'vrv* vx 'Xi'^'xy*. /^ J 


J. Fremierement,^ quant lou faict ung homme maistre 

dune nef ou aultre navire, et ladicte nef ou navire 
appartient a plusieurs, et ladicte nef sen va et departist 
du pays dont elle est, et vient a Bourdeaulx, ou a 
Rouen,' ou en aultre pays, et se frette a aller en 
Lescosse,' ou en aultre pays estrange, le maistre ne 
peult mye ^ vendre la nef, sil na procuration ou mande- 
ment especial des seigneurs de ladicte nef. Mais sil a 

> Premieremeni] This is the ear- 
liest printed text of the enlarged 
version of the Rolls of Oleron. It 
is copied from a black letter edition 
of «Le Grand Rontier de Mer," 
printed at Poitiers by Jan de Mar- 
nef at the sign of the Pelican (with- 
out a date), which is preserved in 
the Bodleian library at Oxford. 
The work was compiled in the lat- 
ter part of the fifteenth century, as 
far as may be judged from the dedi- 
cation, which is addressed by the 
author, Pierre Gkotiie, alias Fer- 
rande, to his godson, and which is 
dated from St Gille on the last day 
of May AS), 1483. The style of 
the type aignes the printing of the 
work to be of a somewhat later date. 
An English translation of the text 
of this work is appended to Dr. 

Godolphin's View of the Admiral 
Jurisdiction, printed in London AJ>. 
1661, under the titie of ** An Extract 
" of the Ancient Sea-Laws of Ole- 
" ron, rendered into English out of 
" Garcias, alias Ferrande/' Bedford, 
in his MS. translation of the Black 
Book of the Admiralty, has intro- 
duced a translation of the enlarged 
version of the Bolls of Oleron after 
the text, which Cleirac has published 
in " Les Us et Cootumes de la Mer." 

' Rouen] Bochelle is the readiog 
of the ancient MSS. 

* LeBcosae] This reading is pecu- 
liar to the enlaiged version of the 

^ ne peult myc] ne pent pas, Oei- 
rac, who invariably substitutes peu 
for mye. 


'>^^ /N f "^.^^.'N /* <-. *^ /^fc/*.' _^~' ^^ ."^ ' 


First, when a man is made mayster of a shyp or other 
vesselle, and the said shyp or vesselle belongeth to 
severalle parteners, and the said shyp goeth away and 
departeth from the countre of whiche it is, and cometh 
to Bourdeaulx, or to Rouen, or to another countre, and 
is fraught to go to Scotland,' or another straunge 
countre, the mayster cannot sell the shyp yf he have 
not a procuracyon or special mandate from the owners 
of the said shyp. But yf he have need of money for 

^ Fvnt\ The articles of Garcie'B 
version of the Rolls of Oleron, as 
far as the 22nd article incltided, 
are in substance identical with the 
articles of Cleirae*a version. There 
are, however, sufficient differences 
between them to warrant the opinion 
that Cleirac was not a mere copyist 
of Garcie's text, more particularly 
as the articles after the twenty-second 
are differently arranged in the two 
y ersiona. Both of the versions agree 
in omitting the article on coasting 
pilots, which is the tenth in the 
Jutgamen de la Mer and in all the 
ancient Snglish MSS. of the Judg- 
ments of the Sea; and whilst the 
2Srd article of Garcie's version has 


been divided into the 23rd and S4th 
of Cleirac's, the 29th and 30th of 
Garde's version are combined toge- 
ther m the 25th of Cleirac's, so that 
ultimately the number of articles in 
the two versions remains the same, 
namely, forty-seven. The variation 
in the order of the articles will bt 
noticed in thar proper place. An 
English translation of Cleirac's ver- 
sion has been appended to Peter's 
(American) Admiralty Declaions, 
vol. i., accompanied by the greater 
part of Cleinu^B annotations. 

^Scotland'] Garcie speaks of Eng- 
land in article xvi., which name Clei- 
rac has struck out ; but Cleirac has 
retained Scotland in this place. 

£ E 


meatier dargent pour les despens de la nef^ il peult 
mettre aucuns des appareil en gaige par le conseil des 
mariniers de la nef. Cest le iugement en tel cas. 

H- Item, vne nef est en vn havre, et demoure pour 

attendre son fret et son temps; et quant il vient a 
son departir, le maistrejioit prendre conseil avec ses 
conpaignons, et leur dire, " Seigneurs, vous haiste ce 
" temps ;" aucuns y aura qui diront, " Ce temps nest 
" mye bon, car il est nouvellement venu, et le doivons 
" laisse rasseoir ; ^ et les aultres diront " le temps est bel 
" et bon." Lors le maistre ^st tenu a soy accorder 
avecques la plusgrande partie et oppinion de ses con- 
paignons ; et sil faisoit autrement, et la nef se perdoit, 
il est tenu de rendre ladicte nef, ou la somme quelle 
seroit prisee, sil a dequoy. Cest le iugement. 

ni. Item, si vne navire ou nef se pert par fortune en 

&ucunes terres en quelque lieu que ce soit, les mari- 
niers sont tenuz de saulver le plus quilz pourront 
saulver des biens de ladicte nef, et des denrees ; et 
silz aydent a les saulver, le maistre est tenu de leur 
bailler leurs coustz raisonnablement' a venir en leur 
terre. Et sil ont tant saulve, par quoy le maistre le 
puisse faire, lors ledict maistre pent bien engager des 
choses qui seront saulvees a aucun preud home* pour 
les avoir. Et ilz naydent a saulver lesdicte choses, 
lors ledicte maistre nest en rien tenu a les pourveoir, 
aincoys ilz perdent leurs loyers quant la nef est 
perdue ; et ne peust ledict maistre vendre les appareilz 
de la nief sil na commandement ou procuration des 
seigneura ; aincoys il les doit mettre en saulvegarde 
iusques a tant quilz sache la volunte des seigneurs. 

> asseoir'] rasseoir, CI. | =^ preud komme} probus homo. 


the expenses of the shyp he may lay some of the 
takelyng to pledge by the councell of the marjniers of 
the shyp. This is the judgement in such a case. 

Likewise, a ship is in a haven, and taryeth to s. 
awayte its freyghte and its wether, and when it cometh 
for its departure the mayster ought to take councell 
with his felowes, and saye to them, " Mates, you have 
" this wether \' some there wyll be who wyll saye, " Tlie 
" wether is not good, for it has newly set in, and we 
" ought to let it settle ; " others will saye the wether is 
fayre and good. Thereupon the mayster is holden to 
agre with. the greater number and opinion of his felowes, 
and yf he doeth otherwyse, and the shyp is lost, he is 
holden to restore the said sliyp, or the siimme at whiche 
it is praysed, yf he have wherwith. This is the 

Likewise, if a vesselle or shyp is lost by chaunce in 8. 
any landes in any place whatsoever, the maryners are 
holden to save the most they can save of the goodes 
of the said shyp, and the marchaundises ; and if they 
helpe to save them, the mayster is bounde to gyve them 
theyr costes reasonably to goo to lande ; and if they 
have saved so moche wherby the mayster may do it, 
further, the said mayster may well pledge the thynges, 
whiche shall be saved to some honest man to have them, 
^nd if they helpe not to save the said thynges, then 
the said mayster is not bounde to provide for them, on 
the contrarie they lose theyr wages when the shyp is 
lost. And the said mayster cannot sell the takelynge of 
the ship, yf he have not a mandate or procuracyon of 
the owners ; on the contrarie, he ought to place them 
in saufgard unto the tyme when he dooth knowe the 

1 pledge the tf^gee] This aatho- 
rity for the master to pledge the 
goods salved iVom the wreck is here 

more explicitly stated than in the 
ancient HISS, of the Judgments of 
the Sea. 

E £ 2 


et le doit faire le plus loyaulment quil pourra; et sil 
£ftisoit aaltrement il est tenu a ladmender, sil a 
dequoy. Cest le iugement. 

jY Item, si vne nef se depart de la Rochelle ^ ou daultre 

lieu chargee, il advient aucunes foya que la nef sempire, 
Ion saulve le plus quon peust des denrees, le marchans 
et les maistres sont en grant debat, et demandent les 
marchans a avoir du roaistre leurs denrees : il doivuent 
bien avoir payant le fret de tant que la nef aura &ict 
tel voyage, veue par veue, cours par cours, sil plaist 
au maistre. Et si le maistre veult, il peult adouber 
sa nef, sil est [en] cas quelle peult estre prestement 
adoubee, et sinon ny peult louer vne _ aultre nef pour 
achever son voyage: et aura le maistre son fret de tant 
comme il aura des denrees saulves. Et doit le fret des- 
dictes denrees que sont saulves estre compte tout livre a 
livre, et les denrees a paier selon ladvenement des costz, 
qui auroient estemys^ esdiates denrees saulver. Et si 
ainsi estoit que le maistre et les marchans promissent es 
gens qui leurs ayderoient a saulver la nef et lesdictes 
denrees la tierce partie, ou la moitie desdictes denrees 
qui pourroient estre saulvees, pour le peril ou ilz sont ; 
la iustice du pays doit bien regarder quelle peine et 
quel labeur ilz auront mys a les saulver, et selon 
icelle peine, nonobstant celle promesse que lesdictz 
maistres et marchans leurs auroienj^ faictes, ler gaer- 
donner. Cest le iugement. 

^ Bochelle'] Bordeaux is the reading of the ancient JMSS., and is 
adopted bj Cleirac. 
> ^tten^t"] este idib, CI. 



wyll of the owners, and he ought to do it the most 
fairly that he can ; and 3^ he do otherwyse, he is holden 
to make amendes, yf he have wherwith. This is the 

Likewise, if a shyp departe from La Bochelle or 
other place laden^ it chaunceth sometymes that the shyp 
is damaged, they save as much as they can of the mar- 
chaundise, the marchauntes and the mayster are in 
greaib dispute, and the marchauntes demande to have 
thejnr goodes from the mayster ; they ought well to have 
them, payinge the freyght for so much of the voyage 
which the shyp has made, view by view, and course 
by course, jrf it please the mayster. And yf the mayster 
wyll, he may repayr his shyp, 3^ it be in a case to be 
speedily repayred, and yf not, he may hyre another 
shyp to fynysshe the voyage, and the mayster shall 
have his freyght of as much of the goodes as shall be 
saved. And the freyght^ of the said goodes, that be 
saved, ought to be rekened pounde by pounde, and 
the goodes to pay the amount of the costes, which have 
been incurred to save the said goodes ; and yf it were 
so, that the mayster and the marchauntes have pro- 
mised, to folke, that shuld helpe them to save the 
shyp and the said goodes, the thyrde parte or half of 
the said goodes which shuld be saved for the peryll 
that they be in, the justyce of the country ought 
well to regarde what payne and what labour they have 
done in saving them, and after that payne, notwith- 
standing that promise whiche the said mayster and the 
marchauntes shall have made, rewarde them. This is 
the judgment. 

1 And the freyght] This article in 
the 'ancient English and Cairtilian 
MSB. finishes with the word << sayed." 
The concluding part, commencing 
with the words, '< And th*e freyght," 

was probably added at an early 
period in France, as it is found in 
all the early French versions of the 
Judgments of the Sea. 



V. f Item, vne nef se despart daucune ccJntree chargee 
ou vuyde, et est anivee en aucune part ; les mariniers 
lie doivent mye yssir hors sans le congie du maistre, 
car si la nef se perdoit ou empiroit par aucune ad- 
venture et fortune/ ilz sont tenuz a amender ; mais si 
la nef estoit en lieu, ou elle seroit ancree et amarree 
de deux ou de trois amarres, ilz peuvent bien yssir 
sans le conge du maistre ; en laissant lune partie des 
conpaignons raarimers pour garder le bort et les den- 
rees, et eulx en revenir par temps a leur nef et bort.^ 
£t sil estoient en demeu,' ilz le doiveut amender, silz 
ont dequoy. Cest le iugement 

VI. f Item, mariniers * se louent avecques leurs maisti'es, 
et y en a deux qui sen yssent sans conge de leur 
maistre, et sen yvrent, et font contemps, debatz, et 
meslees, desquelz y en a aucuns que sont navi*ez; le 
maistre nest mye tenu a les faire guerir, ne a les 
pourvoir en riens; ains le peult bien mettre hors la 
nef eulx et leurs escours,' et se ilz coustent,^ ilz sont 
tenuz de paier le plus au maistre. Mais si le maistre 
les envoye en aucun service pour le proflSt de la nef, 
et ilz se blessoyent, ou Ion leur feist chose grevante, 
ilz doivent estre gueriz et pensez sur le const de ladicte 
nef. Cest le iugement. 

VXI. Item, quant il advient que aucune maladie prent vn 

des mariniers de la nef, en faisant le service de ladicte 
nef, le maistre le doit mettre hors de ladicte nef; et 
si luy doit querir hostel, et luy doit querir ^ lumiere, 
comme gresse ou chandelle, et luy doit bailler vn 

' adventure etforhme] mesadven- 
ture^ Ci. 
' et horf] omitted, CI* 
' demeu] demeurc, CL 

^ mariniers] si les maiinien, CL 
' escours] seconn, CI. 
> couMteni] comptent, CI. 
7 querir] bailler, CI. 




Likewise a ahyp departeth from any countre laden or 
voyde, and ary veth at another place ; the maryners ought 
not to go out without leave of the mayster, for yf the 
ahyp should be lost or damaged by any chaunce and 
fortune, they are holden to make aroendes ; but yf the 
shyp were in a place where it was ankered and moored 
with two or three cables,^ they may well go out without 
the leave of the mayster, levynge some of the maryners 
to keep the deck and the goodes, and they to oome back 
betime to the ship and deck ; and if they delay they 
ought to make amendes if they have wheiwith. This 
is the judgement. 

Likewise maryners bynd themselves with theyr mays- 
ter, and there are one or two who go out withoutte leave 
of the mayster, and get dronken, and make strife and 
dispute and fight, whereby some of them are hurte, the 
mayster is not holden to make them to be healed, nor to 
provide them with any thing, but he may well put them 
and theyr helpers ^ out of the shyp ; and if they cost any 
thing, they are bounde to pay what is more to the 
mayster. But yf the mayster sonde them on any er- 
rande for the prouffyte of the shyp, and they shuld 
wounde theym, or any one shuld do them a grevous 
thing, they ought to be healed and dressed at the costes 
of the said shyp. This is the judgement. 

Likewise when it chaunces that any sekenesse take 
one of the maryners of the shyp in doyng the sei'vice of 
the said sbyp, the mayster ^ ought to set hym out of the 
shyp, and ought to soke a lodgynge for hym, and ought 
to soke a lyght as talowe or candell for hym, and ought 




^ liDo or three eabiea^ Four cables 
are mentioned in the English and 
Castilian MSS. 

- their helpers] Thete words are 
not in the English MSS. Leur 

ostils is the reading of the early 
Breton yersions. 

^ the mayster"] This power is 
expressly given to the master in the 
English MSS. only in cases where the 
sailor is too sick to do his work. 


vaxlet de ladicte nef a le gorder, oa lay loaer vne 
femxne, qui preigne garde de luy, et si lay doit poorr 
veoir de telle viande comme Ion vse en la nef, cest 
afisavoir, aatant comme il prenoit, qaant il estoit en 
sante, ne rien plas, sil ne plaist aa maistre. Et sil 
veult avoir viandes plus delicieuses/ le maistre nest 
mye tentt le querir,^ sil nest a ses deepens. Et si sa 
nef estoit preste a sen partir, elle ne doit demourer 
pour luy. Sil guerijst, il doit avoir son loyer tout 
eomptant en rabatant le £ret,^ si le maistre lay a faict ; 
et sil meurt, sa femme 6u ses prochains amys^ le' 
doivent avoir pour luy. Cest le iugemeni 

Vlll. ^ Item, vne nef est chargee a aller a Caen,* ou en 
autre lieu, et advient que tourmente la prent en la 
mer, et quelle ne peult eschapper sans getter les den- 
rees et marchandie pour allever ^ ladicte nef, et pour 
saulver le demourant et les corps de la nef Lors le 
maistre doit dire, "Seigneurs, il convient^ getter hors 
vne partie de ceste marchandise pour saulver la nef" ^ 
Et sil ny a nulz marchans, que respondent leurs vo« 
lunte, et greent ou ont aggreable' le gict pour leur 
taisement, lors le maistre doit faire ce que sera en 
luy, et faire gict. Et sil nont aggreable ledict gicti 
et contredisans^ non pourtant le maistre ne doit mye 
laisser quel ne getteroit tant quil verroit que bien 
seroit, iurant luy et le tiers de ses compaignons sur 
les sainctes evangilles, quant ilz venoit a sa droicte 

1 voye descharger, quil le faisoit^® pour sauver le corps 

s • 

^ deHcieutesJ deiictktm, CI. I ^ convient"] faat, GL 

- guerir'] requerir, CI. 
' lefret] les frais, CI. 

* amys"] omitted, CI. 

^ a Caeri] de Bourdeauz a Caen, 

• cdleuer^ faire aller, CI. 

^ pour saulver la nef] omitted hy 

' ou ont aggrealde} ''ont agreable" 
in brackets in CI. 



to give hym a boy of the said shyp to attend upon hym 
or to hyre a woman to take care of hym, and ought to 
purvey hym of suche meat ae is used in the shyp, that 
is to wyte, as moche as he toke when he was in helth, 
and no more, yf it do not please the mayster. And yf 
he will have deyntyer meates, the mayster is not bounde 
to gete to seke them except at his costes. And yf the 
shyp be redy to departe, it ought not to tary for hym ; 
and yf he be healed he ought to have his hyre fully 
reckoned, rebatynge the expense,^ yf the mayster has 
made any for hym ; and yf he dye, his wyfe or his next 
frendes ought to have it for hym. This is the judge- 

Likewise a shyp is laden to go to Caen ^ or elswhere, 8- 
and it chaunceth that a tourment taketh it in the sea, 
and that it cannot escape - withoute casting out the 
goodes and marchaundise to lyghten the said shyp, and to 
save the residue, and the hull of the shyp. Therupon the 
mayster ought to say, " Mates^ it behoveth to cast over 
" a part of this marchaundise to save the shyp." And yf 
there be any marchaunts, who make answere that they 
are wylling, and agre to or are agreable to the castyng 
over by their silence, thereupon the mayster ought to do 
that which depends on hym, and cast over. And if they 
are not agreable to the castyng over, and object, the 
mayster nevertheless ought not to refrain from castyng 
over as moche as he shall see goode, swearing hymselfe 
and the thyrde parte of his felowes on the Holy Gospels, 
whan they be come to the right place of theyr dys- 
charge, that he dyd it to save the hull of the vessel and 

> the expense'] This judgmeDt is ' purpose of interestiiig Norman 
in accordance with the maritime law [ traders. The more ancient MSS* 
of Rome. Digest xix. tit. ii. p. 38. 

'to Caen] The introduction of 
the name of the cit}[^of Caen into 
Uiis article most have heen for the 

have simply <<from Bourdeanx." 
Cleirac has *'from Bonrdeaox to 
« Caen." 



de la nef, et les autres decrees, qui encores y sont; 
et les vins,' qui 8^x>ient gettez, doivent estre prisez 
aux fruictz^ de ceulx qui seroient venuz a sauvete. 
Et quant ilz seront venduz^ si les doit Ion departir 
livre a livre entre les marchans, et le maistre y doit 
partir et compter le nef ou le fret a son choix. £t 
pour recouvrer le dommage, et les mariniers doivent 
avoir vn tonneau franc, et lautre doit pai'tir au get, 
selon quil y aura, sil le defend comme bon homme 
en la mer. Et sil ne defend, il naura rien de fran- 
chise, et peuvent bien les marchans charger le maistre 
par son serment. Cest le jugement. 

IX. Item, sil advient que le maistre couppe^ son mast 

pour force de gros temps, il doit appeller les marchans 
qui ont les denrees en la nef, si aucuns en ya^ et leur 
dire, " Seigneurs, il convient coper ce mast pour saulver 
'' la nef et les denrees ;" car cest chose convenable par 
loyaulte. Et plusieurs fois advient, que Ion couppe 
cables funains,^ et laisse Ion cables et ancres pour 
saulver la nef et les denrees. Toutes ses choses sont 
comptees, livi*e a livre, comme gect, et quant Dieu 
doDue que la nef est venue a sa droicte descharge a 
saulvete, les marchans doivent paier^ leurs advenans^ 
sans delay, ou vendre gaigner^ argent, tout avant que 
les denres soient mises dehors de la nef. Et si la est 
a louage,^ et le maistre y demourast par raison de leur 
debat, et voit coullaison,^^ le maistre ny doit mye partir. 

1 ies Dins'] les viii8 ct autre mar- , ' advenans'] advenaiis et parti, CL 
chandise, CL " gaigner] gager, ou gaiguer, Q. 

^fruictxl fur, CI. ^ «* la est a louage] s'il les a aUoue, 

' couppe] veuille cooper, CU CI. 

*funains] et funins, CI. ' ^° ^i^ coukuson] y voit collusion, 
• ia nef] la chose, CI. CI. 

^ paier] paier au maistre, Cl« 



the other goodes, that are yet in it, and the wynes that 
were caste over ought to be praysed at the produce ^ of 
those which be come to safety. And when they shall 
be .solde, they ought to be devyded, pounde by pounde, 
amonge the said marchauntes, and the mayster ought to 
share and recken the shyp or the freight at his choyse, 
and for recoveryng of the damages the maryners ought 
to have one tonne free, and the other ought to share in 
the casting over, accordynge as he shall have, if he has 
behaved hym as a goode man, but if has not so behaved 
hym, he shall have nothynge of the franchyse, and the 
marchauntes may charge the mayster for it by his othe. 
This is the judgement. 

Likewise, yf it chaunceth that the mayster cut his 
mast away by force of wether, he ought to call the 
marchauntes that have the goodes in the shyp, if any of 
them be there, and say to them, '* Mates, it is proper to 
" cut away the mast to save the shyp and the goodes ;** 
for it is a thing proper in fairness. And several tymes 
it chaunceth that cables and hausers are cut, and 
cables and anchors are left, to save shyp and goodes. 
All these thynges are rekened pounde by pounde as 
jetison, and when God grants that the shyp be come 
to her ryght dyscharge in saufbe, the marchauntes 
ought to pay theyr rate without delay, or to sell to 
make money before that the goodes are sent out of 
the shyp. And if the shyp is at hyringe,* and the 
mayster tarry of theyr debat and sees lekage,' the 
mayBter ought not to share in it, but ought to have 

* at the produce'] This is a de« 
parture from the rule of the Roman 
law, that the goods cast overboard 
should be yalaed at the price for 
which thej were bought. 

' (U hiftinge'] £n dure siege, on 
hard ground, is the reading of the 
ancient MSB. Cleirac and Garcie 

difiter in their readings of the passage, 
but agree in the meaning of it. 

' Uktige] This is the sense of all 
the ancient MSS., subject to slight 
variations in the reading. Cleirac 
alone adopts the reading of "col- 
" lusion." 



ains doit avoir son fret, ainsi comme tonneaux {assent 
plains.^ Cest le iugement. 

X. V Item, vn maistre dune nef vient a sauvete a sa 
droicte descharge, il doit^ monstrer aux marchans les 
cordages onquelz il gnindera, et silz voyent que il ayt 
que amender, le maistre le doit amender. Car si le 
tonneP se perdoit par default de guindage ou de 
cordage, le maistre est tenu a le paier aux marchans 
entre luy et les mariniers, et si doit le maistre paier 
selon quil doit prendre de guiAdage ; et doit guindage ^ 
estre mys a recouvrer le dommage premierement,^ et 
le remanent^ doit estre party entre eulx; mais si les 
cordages rompent sans que le maistre les monstrast 
aux marchans, ilz sont^ tenuz a rendre le dommage. 
Mais si les marchans disent le cordage est bel et bon, 
et les cordages rompent,^ chascun doit partir au dom- 
mage, cest assavoir, le marchant a qui le vin sera 
tant seuUement^ et le maistre et les mariniers. Cest le 


XI. f Item, vne nef est chargee a Brest ^ ou a aultre 
lieu, et lieve sa voille pour mener ses vins ; et ne 
offire^^ mye le maistre et ses mariniers leurs voiUe comme 
ilz deussent; et les prent mauvais temps ^^ en la mer 
en telle maniere, que la f utaille * crol et deffonce pipe 
au tonnel, la nef arrive a saulvete a sa droite deschaige* 
Le marchant diet au maistre, que par futaille est perdu 
leur vin. Le maistre diet que non. Lors si ledict 

^fussent plains] fossent peris, CI. 

3 dune nef vient a sauvete a sa 
drciete desehargct ii doit"] de nayire 
qai frete, doit, CI. 

* le tonnel] qaelque tonneau, CI. 

* guindage] le salaire da guindage, 


^ premierement] omitted, CI. 

^ le remanent ] le remaDant ou 
BvpluB, CI. 

7,ih sont] il sera, CI. 

^ et les cordages rompent] et ils 
s'en contentent et qae les eordages 
neammoins rompent, CI. 

a Brest] k Boordeanz, CI. 

i<> ne q/^«].n'officient, CL 

^^ Us prent mauvais ten^] le mau- 
vais temps les sniprend, CI. 



his freight as yf the tonnes were fulU And this is 
the judgment. 

Likewise^ the mayster of a shyp cometh in sanfte 
to his ryght dyscharge, he ought to shew to the mar- 
chauntes the ropes with which he wyll hoyse, and yf 
they see that there is any thynge to amende, the 
mayster ought to amende it. For yf the tonne is de- 
stroyed by default of the hoysynge or of the ropes, the 
mayster is bounde to pay after that which he ought 
to take for hoysynge, and the hoysynge ought to be 
set first to recover the damage and the residue to be 
shared among them ; but yf the ropes break without 
that the mayster has shewen them to the marchauntes, 
they are bounde to render the damage. But yf the 
marchauntes say the ropes are fine and goode, and 
the ' ropes breke, each of them ought to share the 
damage, that is to wyte the marchaunt to whom the 
wine shall belong so much only, and the mayster and 
the maryners. This is the judgement. 

A shyp being laden at Brest or elsewher, and 
hoyseth its sayle to go with its wynes, and the mayster 
and the maryners trymme not theyr sayl ^ as they 
shulde, and bad wether taketh them at sea in suche 
manner, that the shyp's casks* roll, and stave in pipe 
or tonne, and the shyp arrives in saufte at its ryght 
dyscharge. The marchaunt says to the mayster that 
his wyne has been lost by fault of the shyp's casks. 
Thereupon yf the said mayster wyll swere, he and his 



^/uil] This is the reading of the 
old Breton MSS. ''Peris" is a read- 
ing peculiar to Cleirac, the meaning 
of which is not very clear, 

^ theyr sapl] The ancient MSS. 
have a different reading, which ap- 

plies to the stowage of the vessel, 
not to tiie trim of her sails. 

3 shyp*8 casks] large casks, which 
were part of the fitting out of yes- 
sels engaged in the wine trade. 



maistre veult iurer ' luy efc ses mariniers, soient quafcre 
ou six, ou de ceulx que les marchans vouldroient, que 
les vins ne perdissent par eulx ne leur futaille, ne par 
leur deffault, comme lea marchans leurs luetient sus, 
ilz doivent estre quictes et delivres ; mais si ainsi est 
que ne veullent iurer, ilz sont^ tenuz a officier leur 
voille bien et iustement avant que partir de leurs 
charge. Cest le iugement. 

XII. Y Item, vn maistre loue ses maiiniers, il les doit 

bien tenir en paix, et ofire estre le iuge.^ Et sil ya 
aucun, qui desmente lautre, pourquoy ilz ayent vin et 
pain ^ a table, celluy qui desmentira doit paier quatre 
deniers. Et si le maistre dement auscun, il doit payer 
huict deniers. .Et si aucun des compaignons desment 
ledict maistre,^ il payera huit deniers. Et si ainsi est 
que le maistre frappe aucun de ses compaignons, ledict 
compaignon marinier doit attendre le premier coup, 
comme du poing ou de paulme, mais si le maistre le 
fiert^ plus dun coup, ledict compaignon se peult def- 
fendre; et si le compaignon et marinier fiert premier 
le maistre, il doit payer cinq solz ^ ou perdre le poing. 
Cest le iugement. 

XIII. ^ Item, sil convient® qil y ait content® et debat 
entre le maistre dune nef et les mariniers, le maistre 

1 iurer] jurer, sont obligez k le 

3 ilgaoHt] les maistre et mariniers 
sont, CI. 

3 le ivge] leur joge, CI. 

* pourquoy ih ayent vin et patn"] 
parquoy avant quMls ayent pain et 
vin, CI. 

* detment ledict maiMtrt ] desdit 
le maistre, CI. 

^ lefieH] fr^pe, CI. 

' cinq aoW\ cent sols d'amaade, 

^ ml conoieHt'] s'il advient. 

' content"] coDtempe, CI. 


maryners, be they three or four or six/ or of those 
whom the marchauntes wyll, that the wyne was not 
lost by them nor theyr shyp's casks nor by theyr 
defaulte, as the marchauntes put theyrs upon them, 
they ought to be quyt and released ; but.yf it be so that 
they wyll not swere, they are bounde to order theyr 
sayle well and justly before they part from theyr charge. 
This is the judgment. 

Likewise a mayster hyreth his maryners, he ought 12. 
to kepe them in pese and ofTre to be theyr judge. 
And yf there be any who gives the lye* to another 
while they have wyne and brede at table, he who 
shall give the lye oughte to pay four pence, and yf the 
mayster gives the lye to any one he oughte to pay 
eight pence, and yf any one of the maryners gives the 
lye to the said maister he oughte to pay eight pence. 
And yf it be that the mayster smyte any of the 
maryners, the said felowe maryner oughte to abyde 
the fyrste buffet, be it with fyst or with the flat of the 
hande, but yf he smyte more than one blow, the said 
felowe may defend hym ; and yf the felowe maryner 
smyte fyrste the mayster, he ought to pay five shillings^ 
or to lese his fyst. This is the judgment. 

Likewise,^ yf it befal that theyre is variance and is. 
dispute bytwene the mayster of a shyp and the mary- 

* or str] Four is the maximum Cleirac follows the reading of the 

number in the ancient MSS. | ancient English MSS., which pro- 

3 ^vts the lye"} In the compila- i ceed upon a more reasonable esti- 

tion known as the Jus Navale Hho- , mate of the value of a man's hand. 

diorum it was provided, " Si nantsB 
'* rizari voluerint, verbis id