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..^.*. - C4 

^ *'/■ ^Sfa^^C 



^onumenta 3Elttff alia ^alei^iae 












Ar'=*0?t. l.i''<\- .'ND 


CANNOT think that any, even a 
short. Preface to these volumes is of 
absolute necessity. They will suffi- 
ciently explain themselves: and are 
intended to supply, according to the profession 
of their titlepages, some information respecting 
the ritual and offices of the Church of Eng- 
land, during the centuries immediately preced- 
ing the Reformation. And this information has 
been sought for, in the only fit repositories of 
it, that is, in the actual documents themselves 
which may yet be extant. 

But I would take this opportunity of express- 
ing my fear, that although many means and 
opportunities have been open to me, they have 
not been so profitably used as they ought to 
have been : that instead of one Office having 
been selected, another rather should have been 
chosen:^ that the notes and observations are 

* I look forward to being per- Ordinal of the Church of Eng- 
mittedy in a third and concludbg land, and the Coronation Service, 
ToUmiey to repablish the ancient from the Sarum Pontifical. 


not in some places required, and in others, where 
real difficulties exist, they have been omitted 
altogether : that references to more authorities 
should have been added on some particular 
subjects, or were not necessary upon others. 
To these and such objections (of the reason- 
ableness of which I cannot but be too sensible) 
I have only to oflfer the answer, if answer it may 
be, that no one can know exactly all that is, or 
is not, required either by way of explanation, 
or selection ; and that I humbly trust that these 
volumes, as a whole, will not be found to be 
entirely useless. 

There is much, very much, in the succeeding 
pages, and in another work which will be pub- 
lished with them, involving doctrines of the 
highest importance, and opening questions over 
and over again debated between the various 
branches of the Catholic Church. To have 
passed all these by without remark would have 
been surely blameable : to have entered into 
them at any length, or with the pretence of 
exactness in the detail, would have been im- 
possible within the space which my limits could 
allow. I have therefore been obliged rather to 
seem to lay down decisions, where reasons 
might have been demanded ; and to give results 
and determinations instead of the arguments by 

which they ought to be arrived at. In the Pre- 
face to the Ancient Liturgies, this, I fear, will 
be more evident than even in the present work ; 
but let me in all honesty, yet humbly, assure the 
reader, that on whatever subject I have ven- 
tured so to speak, it has only been after much 
consideration, and careful inquiry; and with 
the earnest and sincere desire to promote the 
Truth, as it has always been held by the One 
Holy Catholic Church of Christ. Upon ano- 
ther point, it must be also said, I have been 
fery anxious : namely, whilst I have not wished 
to shrink from the expression of a plain opinion 
in any case which might seem to call for it, I 
have striven to avoid harsh and unkind words 
towards others, and to keep within the reason- 
able bounds of Christian controversy, I have 
endeavoured to remember that they whose judge- 
ments are different from my own, may be far 
more competent than myself to argue upon many 
matters, on which I have nevertheless not hesi- 
lited to speak undoubtingly my belief; first, 
because it seemed not right to be silent, and 
lecondly, because I was satisfied that I was but 
tttering the doctrine of the Church of England, 
m which I am a priest. 

And in this place also it is incumbent upon 
me to discharge a most welcome duty: the 


acknowledgement of my best thanks to all who 
have given me assistance towards the completion 
of the object which I have had in view. Par- 
ticularly, to his Grace the Lord Archbishop of 
Canterbury, for permission to examine the ma- 
nuscripts, and for the offer of the loan of some 
rare printed volumes, in the Lambeth library : 
— ^to my diocesan, the Right Reverend the Lord 
Bishop of Salisbury, for permission to make 
extracts from the most valuable manuscript, the 
" Registrum S. Osmundi,'' among the muni- 
ments of the see: — to the very reverend the 
Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, for the loan of 
a transcript of the same MS. : — to the very 
revei'end the Dean and Chapter of Bangor, for 
the loan of the " Bangor Pontifical :'' — to the 
very reverend the Dean and Chapter of Ex- 
eter, for permission to examine the manuscripts 
in their cathedral library, and to make extracts 
from them ; and for the loan of the " Ordinale'' 
of Bishop Grandisson :— to the University of 
Cambridge for the loan of four manuscripts ; 
viz* the two Pontificals of the churches of Salis- 
bury and Winchester, the " Order of Conse- 
crating Nuns,'' and the " Prymer in English :'' 
— to the President and Fellows of St. John's 
College, Oxford, for the loan of their copy of 
the Hereford Missal : — ^to the Master and Fel- 

lows of Enunairael College, Cambridge, for the 
loan of a most noble manuscript of the ^* Prymer 
in English-/'— to the Rev. Dr. Rock, of Buck- 
land, Berkshire, for the loan of some rare works 
of ritualists, in his library, and for some very 
valuable information which I have acknow*- 
ledged below in its proper place :— to the Rev. 
Dr. Bandind, for a most excellent and careful 
list of the copies of the English service books 
which are preserved in the Bodleian library, 
and which I had at one time intended to give 
with a catalogue also of two or three other col- 
lections, as an appendix to the present work : 
— ^lo the Rev. Dr. Todd, for a list of the ser- 
vice books in the library of Trinity College, 
Dublin ; and to the Rev. Thomas Cradock, for 
a similar list of those in ^^ Primate Marsh's 
library" in the same city: — to the Rev. Dr. 
Oliver of Exeter, and to Pitman Jones, Esq. of 
Heavitree, for transcripts of some important 
documents relating to the diocese of Exeter : — 
and, remembering the constant kindness and 
unremitting attention which I have received 
from them, I offer my most grateful thanks to 
the reverend and learned Librarians of the Bod- 
leian, the Cambridge University, the Museum, 
and the Lambeth libraries: by whose endea- 
vours to supply, if possible, my wants, and to 


answer my very frequent and troublesome appli- 
cations; and by whose readiness to assist my 
search among the inestimable treasures under 
their charge, I have chiefly been enabled to 
offer the reader the amount of information which, 
whether much or little, these volumes will be 
found to contain. . 

Lastly and especially am I bound to bless and 
praise Him, Who by His most gracious gifts of 
health and time, has suffered me to finish so far 
tlie work which I undertook ; of Him, and to 
Him, on such an occasion as the present, my 
words spoken ought to be both careful and 

W. Maskell. 

Qroadleaze, near Devizes. 
August 8, 1846. 


ISSERTATION on the Ancient Senrice Books of the 

I m^Jj Church of England . • • • • j 

Dissertation on tiie Ancient Occasional Offices of the 

Chordi of England • . • • • cxcvij 

The Order of Bi^ytism cdij 

■ " Confirmation ccxi 

— ** — Matrimony ccxix 

** -VisittitionoftheSick ccxxiij 

*« — — Extreme Unction ccxxxiv 

" Borial ccxli 

Fonns of Benediction cczlviij 

** ^ _. of charch ornaments • • • • cdiij 

" — . " — of water and salt ..... cclv 

" — " of bread oclviij 

" « of a bell ccbd 

The Order c^ consecrating a Church cclxv 

** — — holding a Sjnod cclxxv 

*^ — — . Excommunication cclxxxij 

** ■ Absolution, and Recondliation . . . cexciv 

Occasional Offices selected from the Manual and Pontifical of the 
Church of Salisbury ; viz : 

Ordo ad fiidendum Catechumenum 3 

Benedictio Fontis 13 

Ritus Baptisandi 22 

Confirmatio Puerorum 33 

Pbrificatio post Partum 37 

Ordo ad Sciendum Sponsalia 41 

— ^ — ad yisitandum Infirmum 65 

De extrema Unctione 83 

Commendatio Animarum 104 

Inhumatio Defimcti 113 

Ordo ad faciendam aquam benedictam 131 

Benedictio panis 138 

Benedictiones divers® 139 


Benedictio campanae , . . . 155 

De Ecclen» dedicatione, sea oonsecratione 161 

De benedicdone Coemeterii 205 

Ordo ad Synodam 217 

— ^ — excommuDicandi 226 

— " — absolvendi 227 

..« — ad recondliandum apostatam 229 

:a MegtttaUon upon flje Zntitnt 

^txWt I3ooft0 of tDe eiiureD 


VOL. I. 

iv DfS0cttatfon on 

up to the time when England became a Christian 

And as he will find this to be a most important 
point of inquiry, in fact, although hitherto neglected, 
yet indispensable ; so also is it one of no little difficulty. 
The books whose titles I have just alluded to are 
amongst the rarest which still exist, and except in a few 
instances, are to be found (whether printed or manu- 
script) only in the great public libraries. These often 
will be beyond his reach and opportunity : and he will 
be driven to search in the commentators upon our 
present Book, for the knowledge which he wants. We 
shall presently see what this is, both in quality and 

I shall therefore in the beginning of these volumes, 
address myself to this subject : and I enter upon it, 
trusting that I may make some addition to the amount 
of information which is already at hand. Premising 
only, which I am bound to do, that when I speak 
of Service- Books, as in the title to this Dissertation, 
and as the subject upon which we are about to enter, 
I do not use the term in its proper and strict sense, 
limited to the Service of the Holy Communion : but 
as applicable to all parts of the public worship, much 
in the same way as very learned writers, Azevedo 
for example, have not scrupled to call treatises upon 
the Daily Office, Liturgical. 

Let me then collect first what has been said by those 
to whom usually recourse is had in such inquiries. 
lip. Sparrow in his Rationale, and Dean Comber in his 
t\)nipanion to the Temple, take no notice of the mat- 
ter : nor indeed does it exactly enter into the object 
which thoy proposed. Hamon L Estrange in his AUi- 
lUUH^ of Divine Offices, also passes it over without re- 

demice iBoofis. v 

mark, except that he ignor^ntly states the Prymer of 
1545 to be the first translation in English of the daily 
Service and Litany, and that the Creed, Pater noster, 
and Decalogne were " to begin with, imparted. Anno 
1536."* I have not been able to find any explanation 
in Dr. Nicholls* Commentary, though it would seem 
that some attempt at least should be there, for the title- 
page promises great things. Wheatky^ to whose Il- 
lustration reference is generally made, and properly so, 
nevertheless does not bestow a line upon the matter, 
with one exception {p. 23.) where he tells us that the 
Kings Prymer "came forth in 1545, wherein were 
contained, amongst other things, the Lord s prayer, 
Creed, Ten Commandments, Venite, Te Deum, and 
other hymns and collects in English, and several of 
tibem in the same version in which we now use 

Staveley in his History of Churches, has a short 
notice about the Service-Books, but it is a mere trans- 
lation abridged, of Lyndwood's Gloss upon the famous 
constitution of Archbishop Winchelsey, which I shall 
speak of at some length presently. His account is : 
" Legenda. A book containing the Lessons to be read 
at the Morning Service. Antiphonarium. A book 
containing Invitatories, Hymns, Responsories, Verses, 
Collects, &c., to be said or sung by Priest and People, 
alternately. Gradale^ or Gradmdt, A Book con- 
taining several offices, as that of the sprinkling of Holy- 
water: the proceeds of the Mass: the Holy Offices, 
Kyricj Sec. Gloria in Excelsis^ Gradalia, Hallelujah, 
the Symbols to be sung at the Offertory and the Mass. 

* Chap. l./>. 26. 

vi iDiiKiBimation on 

Psalterium, The book of Psalms. Troperium, or 
Troparium^ the service in which the people answer the 
Priest, called also sometimes, Liber Sequtntiarum. 
OrdinalCj a Book of rules and orders, to direct the 
right manner of saying, and performing Holy Service, 
Missale. A Book containing all things belonging to 
the service of the Mass. Alanuale, A book always 
at hand, containing all things belonging to the Sacra* 
ments and Sacramentals, the Hallowing of Holy Wa- 
ter, and all other things to be Hallowed: and tbd 
orderii^ of Processions,"' 

Shephei^dy a very inferior writer, (whose chief claim 
to the little consideration which he has met with, has 
probably rested on his venturing to depreciate his 
predecessor, Wheatley) says in the Introduction to his 
Elucidation, " The Commissioners of 1548 proceeded 
to examine the Breviaries^ Missals^ Rituals^ and other 
books of offices at that time in use." A footnote adds, 
" a general account of the contents of these books, and 
of their difference from each other, is given in p. 26^ 
of the Elucidation in the note."* But there is no 8«tch 
n6te in that place, nor (that I can discover) in any 
other part of his work. 

A living writer, Mr. Palmer^ in his Origines Litur- 
gicae, has again disappointed us. I can find, no other 
account of the books used in the daily service than 
occurs in his 1st Vol. p. 207 : and this being the most 
complete we have yet arrived at, yet not over-long, ! 
shall also transcribe it. 

" The Psalter used in the celebration of divine ser- 
vice generally contained, at the end, several hymns 
taken from the Old and New Testament, such as 

• P. 184. * Introduction./), xxxviij. 

^tniCt TBOOfUL vii 

Benedictus, &c. and the Te Deum, and Athanasian 
Creed, all of which were appointed for the service of 
(be Canonical Houreu 

The Bibk contained the lessons of Scripture, which 
were not formerly selected and placed in a distinct 
▼olume, but were read at the noctums from the Bible 

The Antipkonarium contained the anthems and re- 
sponsories, which were sung in the course of divine 

The Hymnarium comprised the hymns in verse, 
which from the time of Ambrose were chanted in the 
canonical hours. 

The Collectarium included the collects to be said 
at the end of the services, and the capitula or short 
lessons, which were also sometimes recited in the 

The Homilariumy Passionarium^ and Martyrologium^ 
c<mtained the comments of the Fathers on the Gospel 
of the day, and the account of the martyrdom of the 
Saints for each distinct festival. 

About the eleventh century, the Breviary was 
formed out of all these books ; the lessons, anthems, 
responsories, h}rmns, &c* for the different days of the 
year, being all placed in the same volume with the 
Psalt^ Prayers, &c. And in latter times the Bre- 
viary was divided into two parts, one for the summer, 
and the other for the winter half of the year, and 
sometimes it was divided into four parts; so that it 
was more portable and convenient for the use of those 
clergy and monks who were accustomed* to recite the 
offices for the canonical hours at some time in the day. 

^ Obliged^ I presume would be the proper word. 


Dissettation on 

From this cause also it was sometimes entitled Porti^ 

The above therefore appears to be the eiLtent of the 
information afforded by works generally appealed to 
at present by the English student ; I have collected 
it, such as it is, for two reasons : one, that it vnll save 
him much trouble in searching* those authorities: and, 
secondly, it shews how little the whole amounts to, and 
that further labour is still demanded. 

But there are two more authors who have touched 
upon the subject of old English Service Books : I am 
certainly bound to notice them, though they are not 
likely to be referred to for this purpose. These are 
Gough, and Dr. Dibdin. There is this to be said for 
the commentators who are mentioned above, that not 
having ventured much, they have made few mistakes, 
and so do not in that way mislead : but here we must 
complain of most egregious blunders. 

Yet perhaps Gough only is to be blamed, for Dr. 
Dibdin has but copied his statements, and compla- 
cently (as upon a matter of no consequence) repeated 
his errors.^ 

Let us then turn at once to the British Topography^ : 
and upon the same principle, that the reader may have 
collected here the chief explanations existing, I shall 
make a somewhat long extract, and point out his mis- 
takes. We are told. 

* Not that the Poriiforium 
was always a portable book, as 
will be seen hereafter. 

• Bibliographical Decame' 
ron : second day. This work is 
admirably illustrated with wood- 
cuts, &C., and proportioiiably en« 

tertaining. If the second day is 
to be taken as a criterion of the 
research and learning of the au- 
thor, it is limch to be feared, that 
entertainment will be all his reader 
will derive. 

' VoL2.p.Sl9. WUUhire. 

%etDice TSooim. ix 

" No cathedral has preserved such a variety of ser- 
ice books for its Use as Sarum. This is another name 
or the Ordinate : it was also named the Consuetudi- 

lary. The Afissal was the ritual, containing the 

•ites, directions to the priests, prayers used in the ad- 
ninistration of the sacraments," only one, viz: the 
Eucharist, ^^ blessing of holy water," sometimes, ^^ and 
;he whole service used in processions": very seldom 
my portion of it» " It begins with the Speculum Sa- 
:erdotum, or directions for celebrating the mass" : this 
tract seldom occurs in the Missals, neither is it direc- 
tions, &c. as Gough has it : ^^ or with benedictions of 
\he bread and salt, or exorcisms. Then follows the 
service of every Sunday, (from the first in Advent) 

festival and eve prefaces, canons" what are 

canons ? " condusio and cautelae missae. Then the 
masses for saints, martyrs, &c." 

" The Breviary seems to have been at first confined 
to rubrics" : this is a repetition of an hypothesis of 
Quesnelj which I have examined elsewhere ; " after 
became a more compendious missal (!) containing the 
whole office of the mass, and all services, except the 
forms of marriage." Lyndwood is quoted for this 
extraordinary statement, but no reference given: I 
do not remember to have seen so compendious a 

" The Portiforiuniy called also in some titles the 
Breviariuniy and like it a commodious portable" not 
always portable, " abridgement of the service, has a 
gloss or paraphrase on each portion of scripture." 
What does this mean ? " It is sometimes called Sanc- 
toraky Never : the edition named in the note must 
have been an odd volume. " It was divided into the 
summei' and winter part according to the holidays ; tlie 
summer containing only Sundays, beginning with Tri- 

X Di00ettation oh 

nity Sunday ; the winter, the Saints* days." One 
would have supposed that with the books before him 
as Grough had, no writer could have made such a 

" The Enchiridion, called also Orariuntj is supposed 
to have been the same with the Directorium" : from 
which it diflered as much as any two books can, which 
have nothing in common. 

" The Manuale seems to have been a collection of 
prayers, canons, (?) and other forms not ranged through 
the year as in the Missal, and of a more portable size.^ 
Utterly wrong. " Lyndwood defines it the same as 
the Ritual, containing all things belonging to the sa- 
craments, sacramentals and benedictions": why then 
did not our author content himself with this, instead 
of making guesses ? 

" The Horae begin with some short prayers, or In 
principio erat verbum^ and consist of prayers, sentences, 
sufirages, vigils, and psalms." The " In principio, &c." 
is a quaint way indeed of speaking of the 1st Ch. of 
the Gospel of S, John. 

"The Pfvcessionale is a rubric of processions and 

" The Graduate, derived from gradus or gradirij 
was nearly the same with the Processional, a set of 
chants for processions,** with which it had nothing to 
do, ^* though the words are not always the same. In 
this the epistles and gospels were set to music, with 
other choir music : and it contained all that was to be 
sung by the choir at high mass, — and the office fiwr 
sprinkling holy water,*' Lyndwood is quoted for this 
last, and fortunately not amended. 

" The Legend contained the lessons taken out of 
scripture and the fathers, and the lives of the saints, fte.** 

'* The lAber FestivalU was a set of homilies either 
in Liatin or English, for the several festivals and saints* 

"The Psalter^ hesides David's psalms, contained 
the other scripture songs^ and a set of hymns sung at 
vespers, matins, and other canonical hours throughout 
the year" : this latter part confounds the Hymnal with 
the Psalter. 

" The Htftnni were confined to the hymns in honour 
of saints, the Te Deum, Magnificat, &c. The Espositio 
hymnorum is a gloss or parsing of the hymns ; reducing 
them to the meanest capacities, which was but too 
necessary. The Sequences or Frosce^ whose exposition 
follows that of the hymns, were sentences or songs of 
praise sung at mass." 

" The Primer seems to have been peculiar to the 
English Church; a collection of prayers, psalms, 
hymns, sufirages, matins, &c. in Latin and English ; 
retained with alteration, after the Reformation." 


I SHALL first lay before the reader a series of no- 
tices collected from authentic documents of the 
English Church, which have reference to the Books 
used in her public worship, or authorized by her. We 
shall thus arrive at least at the names of many of 
them. For to hope to do more than this, and to explain 
them, in such cases as we are able, from copies which 
are still extant, to hope I say more than this, would be 
a sure prelude to disappointment. 

^ii Df00matfon on 

We may indeed venture to complain, adopting the 
words of a very learned writer, whose object was 
limited to the Choral books alone : " Hsec pauca, ex- 
empli causa^ recensere libuit, catalogum enim texere, 
infinitum foret, omnium ejusmodi librorum, qui passim 
adhuc in monasteriis inter cimelia asservantur, magno 
plerumque omatu conscripti, in pergameno etiam pur- 
pura tincto, litteris aureis vel argenteis: cujusmodi 
antiphonarii, &c."* There is this difference however: 
that Gerbert is speaking of the Service Books of 
Churches which have not suffered almost total altera- 
tions ; and of the archives of monasteries which have 
happily been preserved from the fury of fanatics, and 
the knavery of royal Commissioners. 

Pope Gregory, whose Christian zeal had urged him 
to undertake the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons, did 
not leave his missionary, Saint Augustine, without the 
proper necessaries for the due performance of the Di- 
vine Service. Bede^ tells us that when he sent the 
Archbishop his pall, he sent also sacred vessels and 
vestments for the altar, for the Priests and Clerks, 
relics and many books, " necnon et codices plurimos/' 
Named as they are together with vestments and sacred 
vessels, we must conclude that these books were also 
intended for the public worship, and not for S. Angus- 
tin's private use. I may mention here that there is 
preserved in the Bodleian library, a noble MS. Gos- 
pels, which tradition states to have been oiie of these 
famous books : unquestionably for 1000 years, all the 
care which pious gratitude and reverence for S. ^u- 

® Cr^^r^. De cantu cl musica * Historia Eccles : Lib. 1. 
sacra. Tom. 1. 564. Cap. xxix. 

%ettiict 1Book0. 


gustin and S. Gregory could suggest, would have been 
bestowed upon these volumes : and at last they probably 
perished only through the destruction which accompa- 
nied the Reformation.*® 

About fifty years afterwards we learn from the same 
author" that Benedict, the first Abbot of Wearmouth, 
was equally careful to provide for the service of the 
altar ; ^^ cuncta quae ad altaris et ecclesiae ministerium 
competebanty quia domi invenire non potuit, de 
trancimarinis regionibus advectare religiosus emptor 

Egbert, Archbishop of York, was a contemporary 
and friend of Venerable Bede : the 4th ch. of the 3rd 
book of his Penitential teaches us the great reverence 
which he thought was due to the books which were 
employed in the service of God, and consecrated to 
Him. " Sacerdotes Dei, et diaconi, et alii Dei ministri 
quos in Dei templo Deo servire oportet, et reliquias ct 
sacros libros manu tractare, castitatem suam usque 
servare debeat." " 

In the year 960, the Canons of K. Edgar were pub- 
lished : the 3rd of these orders that all ministers, " ad 
quamlibet synodum habeant quotannis libros et vesti- 
menta ad servitium ecclesiasticum." The 34th respects 
the correctness of the Books used in the Divine wor- 
ship : for it would appear that faulty copies were 

^ An account of these books 
is contained in the Canterbury 
MS. preserved at Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge: and published by 
IVanlej/ in his Catalogue of Saxon 
MSS. See also, Elstob'g Saxon 
Homily, p. 39. 

" Beda. Vita Beatorum Ab- 
batum Bencdicti &c. cap. 5. 

" Thorpe, Ancient Laws and 
Institutes of England, vol. 2. 


IDismmion on 

afaroady and negligently written. ^^Docemus etiam, 
ut quilibet sacerdos diligenter curetf ut bomim 0t sal- 
tern justum librum babeat"" 

This last injunction occurs amongst several, which 
relate especially to the service of the Holy Eucharist: 
whence certainly the good and correct book must mean 
the Missal. The word translated sacerdos in the 34th 
Canon is pjteofc (priest X in the succeeding it is 
ii>8e]7ep|teo]x (mass-priest ), but this is an unimportant 
difference in the present case : as is clearly proved by 
the 32nd Canon, also bearing on our present point : 
^^ Docemus etiam, ut sacerdos nunquam missam cele- 
bret absque libro, et sit canon ei ante oculos positus, 
si velity ne forte impingat."' Here the original has 



^ Compare tbe 3rd Canon of 
a Council of the Province of York, 
A.D. 1195, ^' Quia secretum 
misss frequenter invenitur, aut 
scriptorum falsitate, aut librorum 
vetustate comiptum, ita ut legi 
distincte non possit, archidiacono- 
nim nolicitudo provideat, ut in 
singulia eeclesiis ad verum et pro- 
batum eiiemplar canon missae cum 
omni diligentia corrigatur." &c. 
WUkins. Concilia. Tom. 1. 501. 
And again, one of tbe Constitu- 
tions of Bishop Cantilupe of Wor- 
cester. A.D- 1240. " Omnes au- 
tem ecclesise libros babeant emen- 
datos, quia per eorum falsitatem 
mnlta leguntur et canuntur a plu- 
ribusindecenter.** WiUdns.Tom. 

Again, a remarkable chapter in 
the MS. Exeter Consuetudinary, 
of which I shall speak presently. 
^^ De custodia librorum. Inter 
csetera vero summe cavendum 
est» de librorum chori discordia : 

unde oportet necessario quod 

psalteria quoad textum et medias 
Tersuum pausas vel punctos, et 
antipbonaria, cum gradalibus, ad 
tmguem corrigantur tam in litera 
quam in cantu, juxta aliquem li- 
brum qui veracior inter csteros 

" Wilkins. Concilia. Tom. 1. 
227. Johnson draws a curious 
conclusion from this canon. He 
says, " It is fairly intimated here 
that the priests used to say this 

%ettiite OBooto* 


came now to a very important Canon, the 2l8t 
Hc^s. '' Habeant etiam arma ad spirituale opus, 
lam 'sint ordinati : haec sunt sancti illi libri, psal- 
L et liber epistolarum, liber evangeliorum, et 
By liber canticorum, et manuale, numerale, et 
dale, poenitentiale, et lectionarium. His libris 
06 (Tf>8effepYieo]T,) opus habet, et iis carere non 

si ordinem suum recte observare velit, et popu- 
ni ad ipsum pertinet, jus docere : et caute circa 
lervety ut bene sint scripti,"** Sir H. Spelman's 
if this Canon, reads, not passionale, but pasto- 
^hich Thorpe follows in his edition*^ : but I think 
rhtly : although as will be seen in another place, 
ason that Johnsan^'^ gives why it should not be 
ikj viz : that that book is the same as the posni- 
r which immediately succeeds, is by no means 
sive : for the Pastoral is the same as the Ma- 

hbishop ^Ifiric in his pastoral epistle, enume- 
[le same books except the passional, or pastoral, 
iver it be : " Beloved : ye priests should be pro- 
with books. A mass-priest should, at least, 
mass-book, books of canticles, and reading books, 

rithout book, and even 
Priest is only permitted, 
aed to read it." Canons. 
60. 32. Now whatever 
lie'* may mean, it cannot 
it : else the order itself 
! of no effect. I have 
ito the question of writ- 
'gies in another work, 
^ to the " Ancient Li- 
ind it is certain that 500 

years earlier than K. Edgar's 
reign, priests were neither re- 
quired nor allowed to celebrate the 
Divine Mysteries from memory. 

^ Wilkins. Concilia. Tom, 1. 

^^ Ancient Laws and Institutes. 
Vol 2. 350. 

" Canons. Vol 1. 957. 21. 


Dt00ertatibn on 

psalter and manual, penitential and numeral; and 
these shall he sufficiently correct."" 

In 1240, Walter Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester, 
held a diocesan s3niod, where in a canon ^^ de omamen- 
tis ecclesiarum" we find an order, that every church 
should be furnished with " missale, breviarium, anti- 
phonarium, gradale, troparium, manuale, psalteriuoi^ 
et ordinale."*^ 

In the year 1250 occurs a Constitution of Archbi- 
shop Gray for the Province of York : premising, that 
great disputes had frequently arisen between the reo- 
tors of parishes and parishioners as to what part of the 
furniture, and ornaments of the Church each party 
was bound to provide, — it goes on to ordain that tl^ 
parishioners are to furnish and keep in repair — " de 
libris : legenda, antiphonare, gradale, psalterium, tro- 
parium, ordinale, missale, manuale. "^ So, about 

six years later, a Bishop of Salisbury ordered the pa- 
rishioners of his diocese to provide " missale, et libros 

A synod held at Exeter, in Bp. Quivil's time, a.d. 
1287, decrees, cap. xij. the following books to be pro- 
vided in every church. ** Missale bonum^ gradale, 
toparium, manuale bonum, legenda, antiphonale, psal- 
teria, ordinale, venitare, ympnare, coUectare."" Two 
years after, another diocesan synod under Gilbert, 
Bp, of Chichester, without specifying the books, orders, 

" Thorpe. Ancient Laws and 
Institutes. Vol 2. 385. 

• Wilkins. Concilia. Torn.!, 
p. 666. • 

** Wilkins. Concilia. Tom. 1. 

» Wilkins, Concilia. TonuX. 
p. 714. Compare also, Tom. 2. 
/?.171.29.and,/>.179. Cap.xxxv. 
and,/>. 513. "et libros, «tc" 

^ Wilkins. Concilia. Tom.2. 

'* Quia domum Dei decet omari honore congruo, 
praecipimos in vasis, vestimentis, libris, et aliis ad 
diyinum ministerium deputatis ecclesiis honorifice pro- 

Passing by a statute of Archbishop Peckham, of 
uncertain date, to the same effect as the one cited 
ibove of Walter Gray, except that manuals only are 
specified, I shall direct the reader's attention to the 
fionoas constitution of Winchelsey, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, the 4th of those agreed upon at Merton, a,d. 
1305. I shall here take the text, as given by Lynd- 
wood. << Ut parochiani Ecclesiarum singularum nos- 
tne Cantoariensis Provincise sint de csetero certiores 

dd defectibus ipsos contingentibus, Volumus de 

cietero^ quod teneantur invenire omnia inferiud anno- 
tata, viz : Legendam, Antiphonarium, Gradale, Psal- 
terium, Troperium, Ordinale, Missale, Manuale^ Cali- 
cem, &c'*** 

I shall make one extract more to the same purpose : 
from the preface to a Portiforium secundum vsum Sa- 
runij 1544, It forbids the printing of certain service 
iKwks except by Richard Grafton and Edward Whit- 
rhuFch only : ^^ that is to sale, the Masse booke, the 
Gfraile, the Hympnal, the Antyphoner, the Processyo- 
lally the Manuel, the Porteaus, and the Prymer both 

n latine and also in english, within the space of 

leuen yeres nexte ensuynge. — "*^ 

" Wilkin». Concilia. Tom. 2, neither of which appears to have 

171. included the Missal. 

* ProTinciale. Lib.iij. Ijt27. 
Ut Parochiani. Wilkin» used a ** 2 Vols. 12 mo. London. Graf- 

Uierent MS. collated with one at ton and Whitchurch. In my pos- 

Lambeth, and another at Ely: session. 
VOL. I. C 


DijB!0ertation on 

I should not be justified in passing over altogether 
without notice, an extraordinary reason among others 
which was given for the alteration of the Service Books 
in 1549. This reason was retained in every Common 
Prayer Book from Edwd. vi th's time, through the reigns 
of Eliz. and James, and Charles,^ down to 1662, when 
it was thrown aside in the last revision, and most 
wisely. That cause must always bear the appearance 
of weakness, which has resort to any bad principle 
influencing the multitude: and here we had, in a 
matter appertaining to the worship and service of the 
Most High, a suggestion which avarice alone would 
listen to. It was in the Preface: and we may be 
thankful, that so great a stain has been removed from the 
character of the English Church. " FurthOTmore, by 
this ordre, the curates shall nede none other bookes 
for their publique seruice, but this boke, and the Bible : 
by the meanes wherof, the people shall not be at so 
great charge for bookes, as in tyme past they haue 
been."^'' This Preface has seemed to some persons a 
composition which did honour to its author : and has 
been attributed to Cranmer. Bale positively states it 
as an undoubted fact : and Mr. Jenkyns, the editor of 
his Remains, while he thinks that ^^the Common. 
Prayer Book and the Ordination Services published 
in the next year** can scarcely keep their position upon 

^ Book of Common Prayer. 
Fol. John Bill. 1661. 

"^ Bookeof the Common Prayer. 
1549. See it in the reprints by 
Dr. Cardwell, Mr. Keeling, 8tc. 

* This is a mistake : the 
^* Forme and maner of makyng 
and consecrating of Archebis- 

shoppes, Priestes and Deacons," 
was printed and published by 
Grafton, "Mense Martii, 1549." 
In my possession. It is a moat 
rare volume : I believe still want- 
ing in the Libraries of the Bod- 
leian, the British Museum, and 
the University of Cambridge. 



the fist oriiit woAb'* (I) yet aDows that. " a somewhat 
Ibb qnwitiimnUlo daim may be advanced in fietvoor of 
the Peafiuate to these two publicatiotig."^ 

I^ hb W9i lastly, how in the instance of one parish^ 
by wiqrbf example, the old laws were obeyed. In the 
p«ri*h of SCratton, Cornwall, a small town, is still pre^ 
ierred a netudy com]^te series of the church acconnts 
from tike year 1512 np to 1604.^ One year only is 

f A rplifciihop Cfmi* 
Biir* nvCjBfr'liij*- 
* TU» b MC cnly, lakis I am 
s ircsy imiNiitaiit tttd 
•fiMof sdeooBti, but I 
am tbe ndier mdnoed 16 quote 
from it for nj preaent puipoee, 
aa I do not bdiere it haa been 
any where before notioed. Neither 
^ I omit acknowledgiiig with 
the fiuoUtiea of 
wamination aflcndedmefbyJohn 
Simniiera Jamea Eaq», Churdi- 
waiden, and Mr. Henry Jamea» 
Stockwtrden of Striitton, in the 
antamn.of 1845. fioablkaa too 
great care of attch doeomenta oaa 
aoareely be taken by thoae to 
whoae cnatody they are cammit- 
ted : bat the enquirera into theae 
and ahnilar aoorcea of information 
liave fiir oftener to comphdn of a 
half-aoapidoiiay half-chmiiah re- 
bctanoe, auggeating ridiculous 
objections. For reasonable and 
proper purposes, these valuable 
materials (of which large stores 
probably still exist) should be 
looked npon as the property of 
the public» and not of a parish. 

And I shall here take tiie op- 
portnnity of adding « copy of an 
ancienit deed^'which ia preaenred 
in the cheat of tba saihe Chnreh. 
It forma a portico of the title* 
deeds of soma property left for 
charitable nseSy and although not 
connected with our present snbjecti 
yet so interesting both in itself, 
and on account of ita late datOi 
that lam glad to assist in its pre- 
servation. It is the manumission 
of a bond-woman. ** Noverint 
universi per pnesentes quod ego 
Johannes de Albo Monasteries 
(John de JBlanch-miniter) miles, 
mannmisi et liberam feci ac in- 
franohiayi Agnetem de Llandis- 
soke, per mauus Ricardi de Speck- 
ote, cum omnibus bonis et catallis 
snis et cum tota sequela sua, pro* 
creatis vel procreandis, domum et 
mansionem eligendam ubicunque 
voluerit. Nihil juris vel clamei 
mihi nee heredibus meis in prse- 
dictam Agnetem, bonis ct catallis 
suis sen sequelis suis, ratione na- 
tivitatis, vendicando seu retinendo 
in postcrum, sed per prsesentea 
eiclusi simus in perpetuum. Ba; 



Dt0jB!ertation on 

missmg, 1550. It would be aknost waste of space to 
extract all such entries as the following : ** Item, paid 
for ij processionalles. ij. s. iiij. d." (1526.) In the 
same year, "Item, p^ for a manuele. ij. s." — (1535.) 
" Item p*. for a newe manuele book. ij. s. Item, p*. 
for a newe processionale book, xx"*."— (1539.) " Item 
p^ mendyng of a masbocke. iij .s. iiij. d." '^ — (1547.) 
"Item p**. for a manuele boock. xxij. d." — (1554.) 

ego vero prsBdictus Johannes, et 
hsredes mei, praedictam manu- 
missionem contra omnes mortales 
warrantizabimus in perpetuum. In 
cujus rei testimonium prssentibus 
sigiUnm menm apposui, hiis testi* 
bus, Johanne de Treuger, Willrao 
de Leghe, Roberto Grande loce, 
Nich6 Poddynger,Ricardo Rogger 
de Exe, et aliis. Datum apud be- 
name die Martis prozima post 
festum sancti Ambrosii, Anno 
regni regis Edvardi tertii a con- 
questu Angliae quadragesimo sex- 
to." A.D. 1373. The seal is 
attached. The remains of a moated 
house still exist at Binhamy^ 
about a mile from the town of 

I know only one deed of the 
same kind to be extant, of so late 
a date ; which is preserved in the 
British Museum. A manumis- 
sion of a bondman, by an Abbot 
of S. John's, Colchester : in the 
9th year of K. Henry IV. a. d. 

^ There is no record of the 
purchase of a new Missal in the 
accounts which remain, but from 

the sum here paid for the repair- 
ing of one, we may suppose that 
these volumes were of a large 
size, even for the use of parish 
churches, and therefore very care- 
fully preserved. 

« Two masbookes, one old 
writen, and the oder print,** which 
belonged to Kilbum Nunnery^ 
were priced by the Cotiimisdioners 
of Henry, the two at " xxd." 
Monastican Anglic* 3. 425. We 
must not however take this as H 
safe guide, for the valuers in very 
many instances were also the pur- 
chasers, and thus not only robbed 
God, but their King. 

Among the manuscripts in the 
library of Exeter Cathedral, is an 
inventory of the year 1327, which 
has escaped (if I mistake not) the 
notice of the last Editors of the 
Monasticon. It contains very 
curious matter ; and much to our 
present purpose, not only a list of 
service Books then in the Cathe- 
dral, but a valuation of them. 1 
shall extract some items. 

" Missalia .xiv." of which the *< absque Epistolis et Evan- 

%mitt J5Mhg. 


" Item, p^ finr a prooessional and a whole manuelL 

VIJ. 8. 

gdiis, ie uiu (gnoto»" 10 prieed, 

''ItaDp mmm mianle nomm 
Bne ep« el evmg* pr. iL i* 

Unmn mamiale ie mo ignoto. 
pret» timcL 

uotitiiiii* piret> zL •• 

Item afiod pottifiniom de done 
M* Diyim pieL ▼!• mare* 

Item mmm Manoak» bonom. 
pret.zz. a. 

Duo mar^ibloge qoorom UDam 
pret. iiij. s. et alind xij. d* 

Item qoiiiqiie coUeetaria quo- 
nmi. j. pret. iiij a. et iiij. pret. 
ill]. 1. qcda non aunt in osn. 

Item pheeboy dirige cum sepul- 
toxm mortoomm in dnobua toIu- 
miniboa» piet» iL i* 

What would we not now give 
for tbeoe volnmea, '^deuau igno- 
to?** la it impomUe tluit tome 
one wughi bave decided At Uke 
of the earlier English Church? 

** Tliere are other entries about 
books» of no little importance : for 
example. (1541.) '* Item, paid** (1542.) 
''Item, pd. fbr a chayne for the 
t7bjlLiij.dob.** (1548.) ««Item, 
pd. to Roger Yeo for a book of . 
the pyatels and godspels. viij. d." 
(1549.) ** Item, pd. for lacyng of 
the communyon boke. ij.d." There 
is no record of the purchtue of 

this,' the first Common Prayer 
Book of Edward VI. for such 
it must have been : ««the Order 
of Communiim'* was too small a 
book, and would scarody have 
reached ^ ftr west, in the short 
time of its contmuance. (Same 
year.) «« Item, pd. to John Tre- 
▼elyan for iij new books notyd for 
matens and evensong yn ynglyssh. 
xvi. d.** This is a most important 
entry; it would appear to reUte 
to the publication by John Mer^ 
becke: but there is no edition 
known of that book earlier than 
1550. Was there an edition of 
which no copy is extant, in 1549, 
by him, or by some other hand ? 
(1553.) «« Item, pd. for the com- 
munion boke. iiij. s. iiij. d.** This 
was the second book of K. Edward 
VI. This charge must have in- 
cluded the carriage of the book : 
the highest price allowed accord- 
ing to the proclamation bdng 
««foure shillinges, and notaboue.** 
(From a copy of Grafton's edition^ 
Fol. io my possession.) In 1559, 
occurs an item, ««expenses for 
John Inde to bring a communion 
boke from Exeter, xvi d.** This 
was Q. Elisabeth's book, and im- 
mediately after is, «« Item, pd. for 
boke of iniunction, j. d." and, 
*« payd unto Wyllyam Wyll for a 
sauterboke. xx. d." 

xxii Di0jB!ettation on 


I SHALL now attempt to give some account of the 
contents of the Service Books, the names of which 
we have met with. And first, those which occur in 
the last-cited statute of Archbishop Winchelsey demand 
our attention, because they were the books which the 
parishioners were bound, as we have seen, to furnish: 
and others may be looked upon either as essential to 
the performance of duties, higher in degree if not in 
kind, than those which concerned the parish-priest, or 
intended only for the more solemn worship performed 
in the Choirs of Abbeys and Cathedrals. There is no 
reason why we should not follow the order, in which 
they are given in the Statute. 

1. The " Legenda," as Lyndwood" tells us, was the 
book in which were written the Lections to be read 
'^ in officiis Matutinis," at the Matin offices. These 
sometimes were taken from the Prophets, as for exam- 
ple, from Isaiah in Advent, with some exceptions, as 
at second Noctums on the Sundays during Advent, 
and certain solemnities of the same season. Sometimes 
the Lections were taken from the Epistles of St. Paul, 
as from the first Sunday after the octave of the Epi- 
phany, to Septuagesima, on which day the three first 
were from the book of Genesis. In Lent were read 
portions of the Homilies of S. John Chrysostom, and 
Pope Leo, and other Fathers, together with a conti- 

" Lib. iij. Tit 27. Ut Parochiani. verb, Legendam. 

dertitce TBookti. xxiii 

laation of the books of Genesis, and Exodus. On 
Passion Sunday, the first Lections were from Jeremiah, 
ind in the week within the octave of the Ascension, 
from the Acts of the Apostles. On the first Sunday 
ifter Trinity the Histories** as they were called began, 
i^hich regulated the succeeding Lections : thus, during 
the History "Peto Domine," the book of Tobias was 
read: during, '^ Adonai" the book of Judith: and so 
3n. The above shews generally the character of the 
Lections : certain great Festivals interrupted the usual 
coarse, which was composed not only from the Holy 
Skaiptures, but from Homilies, and Lives of the Saints. 
Upon All Souls* day, all nine lections were taken from 
\he book of Job. 

The IjCgenda as thus explained by Lyndwood, com- 
prehends an arrangement of the six books mentioned 
by Durandus and Du Cange: viz. the L^endmnus, 
khe LectionariuSj and the Sermologus : the Passiona- 
riusj the HomilianuSy and the Bibliotheca. The first 
of these as a distinct book contained the Acts of the 
Saints arranged for the yearly reading: *'per anni 
totiiia circulum."** Durand's words are, "Legenda- 
rius vocatur liber iUe, ubi agitur de vita et obitu con- 
feffiorum, ut Hilarii, Martini, et aliorum confessorum, 
et legitur in festis eorum, dum tamen authenticatus 

** *' Hbtoris, dicuntur Scrip- xnoniali MS. B. M. Deaurats." 

toribus de Qffic. divinis Lectiones, More correctly Gerbert: ^ An- 

desmnpt» ex Hbris historids vete- tiphonae vel ex Scripturis, vel ex 

rit Testament!, et aliis, quae in Sanctorum Actiscompositaevocari 

Ecdesia statis diebus recitantur." solebant historia." De cantu et 

Du Conge. And again : ** Isto- musica aacra. Tom. I. />. 573. 
rim» de Responaorii^ post Lectiones 
iUytfim^ja dicitur in veteri CaBri- ^ Du Cange^ Glossarium. 


Di00ertatton on 

sit."^. The second contained the Lections only from 
the Scriptures, and in another sense the Epistles which 
were read at Mass : ^ the third, the Sermotogus^ the 
sermons of the Popes and other Fathers ;* the Passio- 
narim, as its name imports, the passions of the mar- 
tyrs: the HomiliariuSj the homilies of the Fathers: 
and lastly the Bibliotheca^ the Bible. ^' Bibliorum 
liber, sen utnmique Testamentum, v6tus et Novum." ^ 
" Volumen ex omnibus libris veteris et Novi Testa- 
menti a Hieronymo compositum." ^ 

In the Exchequer chamber of the Cathedral of Ex- 
eter is still preserved a noble MS, Legenda, given by 
Bishop Grandisson.** It is in two volumes, large 
Folio, on vellum: the leaves not foliated, neither is 
there a calendar. Both volumes have the bishop's 
autograph on the margin of the first page. In the 
first it has been partly destroyed by damp, and there 
can now only be read, " Ego. I. — „ — istum, cum 
suo pari — „ — „ — Anno consecrationis meae .xxxix. 
In festo Annuntiationis dominicee, manu mea." But 
in the second we have perfect ; " Ego, I. de G. Exon. 
Do ecclesiae Exon. librum istum cum pari suo manu 

The title, if it may be so styled, of these volumes 

** Rationale Divinorum Offici- 
orum. Lib. vi. Cap. 1. 30. 

^ Du Cange: wndDurandus. 
These two sorts of Lectionaries 
must not be confounded : the other 
will more properly be noticed un- 
der JEpistolarium. 

* Durandus, Lib. vi. Cap, i. 

* Du Conge. Sometimes, by 

this title the four Gospels only are 
meant ; as in the life of Wilfrid 
Archbishop of York : cited by 
Georgius, Tom. 2. cxxxiv. 

^ Durandus. Lib. vi. cap. L 

** Consecrated A.D. 1327. Died, 
A.D. 1369, and was buried in his 
own Cathedral. Le Neve, FasU 
Ecc. Anglic. 

Peruke lBoofc0. xxv 

fully expresses their contents, and completely answers 
Lyndwood's description of the Legenda. ^^ Incipit 
legenda de lisu Exoniensis ecclie, secundum ordina- 
tionem et abbreviationem Johis de Grandissono epT. 
£t dividitur in tres partes. Prima pars : continet 
quidquid l^tur de biblia. In qua fiunt saltus non 
mutate textu biblise. Ut quia omnia non possunt legi : 
saltern ilia legantur quse magis tempori correspondent. 
Secunda pars continet sermones et omelias : quae per* 
tinent ad temporale cum leciionibus be marie, et de- 
dicationis eccUe : cum oct : et coUacaconum quadra- 
gesimalium : necnon lectionum post primam in capi- 
tulo. Tertia pars, in alio volumine continet lectiones 
proprias scorum, de quibus fit in usu Exo^. cum com 
scor et leS. de commemorationibus apostolorum petri 
et pauli et legenda quorundam : de quibus fit in ecclia 
exon. tantum. Dominica prima adventus diii. lectio 
prima. C Visio ysaie : filii amos :" &c. 

Among the Lambeth MSS. there is an English 
Lectionary, not so full however, as the above of Bishop 
Grrandisson, N^. 86, in the Catalogue of that collection. 
In the British Museum, there are several of various 
dates : the Lansdown MS. Appendix xxiij, for exam- 
ple: which contains the Lections of the Canonical 
Hours. In the same collection, N**. 2889 though so 
called is not a Lectionary: but an Epistolarium, 
having only the Epistles read at Mass. This is a most 
noble manuscript, and in the middle, occupying four 
folios, is the fuU order of the Service on some certain 
Saints'-days : i. e. the first words of the Introit, Epistle, 
Gradual, &c. (as the case may be) Gospel, Offertory, 
and Communion. At the end, whence possibly the 
mistake in the Catalogue, are the Lections of the 
Office of the Dead. These are a clear addition to the 


Di0jsimation on 

original book, and b^in, *^ Quando celebramus diem 
fratmm defimctorum." 

The Legenda of Salisbury Use was printed in 1618, 
in folio : of which the title is from the Bodleian copy ; 
^^ Legende totius anni tarn de tempore quam de sane* 
tis secundum ordinem Sarum." And the colophon; 
^^ Legende festivitatum tarn temporalium quam sanc- 
torum per totum annum secundum ordinationem ec- 
clesie Sarum/' ** 

2. The " Antiphonarium," says Lyndwood, is so 
named from its containing the Aiitiphons which were 
sung at the Canonical Hours, arranged properly under 
the respective hours and days. Such, doubtless, ori- 
^nally were the whole contents of the book, but as 
time went on, it gradually collected other portions of 
the Divine Office, and we generally now find in the 
old Antiphoners, not only the Antiphons, but as Lynd- 
wood goes on. to explain, the Invitatories, Hymns, 
Responses, Verses, and Little Chapters, (Capituia») 
Some copies have more, some less of these additions : 
the Antiphonarium did not cease to be properly so 
called, though it contained them, or omitted them, 

I think it open to some question, how far parishes 
were bound under Winchelsey's Constitution to provide 
the Antiphonarium in its strict and more limited sense, 
or according to the full meaning which the Gloss gives 

^ In (rf«(cA Collectanea Coriosa, 
Vol. 2. No. X. is a short account 
of old English Service Books, 
written by Lewis, the Editor of 
Wicklif s Testament. &c. I did 
not include it above, as I was ex- 
tracting from those authors only. 

usually appealed to. Of the value 
of it, the reader may judge from 
the fact that Lewis explains the 
Legendoy or LecHonary to be the 
same as Capgrave's ^ Legenda 
Nova,*' and the famous *^ Golden 

%1UA».^ xxvii 

to the wad. Thfa, at any rate, is clear : fihe object 
iraa to enforce die proper supply of books which 
iriieiher in separate yoliimes» under the titles of Res- 
penaonaTiuni, and Capitulare» and Hymnarium and 
the rest, or in one collected, should contain all things 
necenaryy as fiu* as books were concerned, to the due 
performance of Divine Worship. 

Lyndwood*8 account of the complete Antiphonarium, 
if we may so call it, is &r more comprehensive than 
Diurand's : and it would appear that in the intermediate 
ooiturjr and a hali^ the character of the book had 
cotttinoed progressively to change firom its original; 
Dursnd akp explains why nevertheless it was still 
called by its old title. ^^ Antiphonarius a digniori, 
videlicet ab antiphonis nomen sumpsit, quas beatus 
%natiu8 patriarcha audivit per angelos decantari, cimt 
tamen ibi sint responsoria atque versus.'' And he 
continues, 'as if to shew us the impossibility of arriving 
St any distinct definition of the volume even in his 
time, " in plerisque tamen locis liber iste responsona- 
rium, a responsoriis, quse ibidem continentur, appella- 

But a very important author, who flourished 400 
years before Durand, viz. Amalarius, Bishop of Treves, 
testifies to the confusion of titles, and alteration of 
contents in his age also. For it would appear not 
only that the Antiphonaria of his diocese included the 
Antiphons of the Mass, but that the old division was 
still observed in some places. I confess I do not see 
clearly whether he does include the Gradale in the 
Antiphonarium. His words are ^^ Notandum est, 

« Rationale. Lib. vi. Cap. I. 24. 



Dissertation on 

volumen quod noe vocamus Antiphonarium, tria habere 
nomina apud Romanos. Quod dicimus Gradale, iUi 
vocant Cantatorium/' (here I believe Amalarios is 
speaking of a totally distinct book, though it was bound 
up in the volume with the other two parts») *^ qui ad- 
huc juxta morem antiquum apud illos in aliquibus £o- 
clesiis in uno volumine continetur. Sequentem partem 
dividunt in duobus nominibus : Pars qusd continet res- 
ponsorios, vocatur Responsoriale : et pars quae continet 
antiphonasi vocatur Antiphonarius." He condnuesi 
surely distinguishing the Gradual^ '^ Ego secutus sum 
nostrum usum, et posui mixtim responsoria et anti- 
phonas secundum ordinem temporum, in quibus solem« 
nitates nostrae celebrantur." ** The same Author socm 
after speaking of an Antiphoner, famous in his time» 
at Metz, gives the title ^^ Incipit Responsoriale de cir^ 
culo anni, &c." 

The Gradale of Amalarius must mean the arrange- 
ment of the Introits and Antiphons of the Mass, which 
likewise anciently was called sometimes an Antipho- 
narium, as by John the Deacon in his life of Gregory 
the Great. And in this sense of Antiphons are to be 
understood the Introits, in the Canon of the Council 
of Agda in France, a.d. 506. " Studendum est ut, 
sicut ubique fit, et post Antiphonas CoUectiones ab 
Episcopis vel Presbyteris dicantur." ** 

The two MSS. edited by Thomasius,*^ contain the 

^ Amalarius. De ordine An- 
tiphonarii. Prolog. Precisely such 
an Antiphonarium as he describes, 
was sent by Pope Hadrian to Char- 
lemagne : a single volume : di- 
vided into three parts. 

^ Du Cange. Glossarium. 
verb, Antiphonarium. Such was 
the book published by Pameiius. 
Tom, 2. See also MabUlan. de 
Lit. Gall. Lib, 1. Cap, 5. 2. 

^ Opera. Tom. 4. 

%eniice TBotA». xxix 

ALOtiplioiM and' Redponses only, of the Canonical 
SooTB» arranged. Tins we may look upon as the se^ 
xmd state of the Antiphonarium, when it might be called 
afher that, or Responsoriale. In Lyndwood's time, 
whea^ as we have seen, so many othor portions of the 
Divine Office were added, not separately, but arranged, 
Antiplionarium became the general tide for the whole. 

The Earl of Shrewsbury possesses a most magnifi- 
Mnt English Antiphoner, Folio, MS. of the Fifteenth 
Centory, which I have myself cmrsorily examined: 
■nd am indebted to the Rev. Dr. Rock, for the follow- 
mg excellent abstract of a part of its contents. This is 
the Office for the first Smiday in Lent, and more 
than any other description will give the reader a jast 
notion of the Antiphoner as it usually was in that 

** Damimca prima Quadragesima: ad .1. Vesperas. 
An. Benedictus. ps^ InpsaUerium. Cap. Hortamur. 
Retp. Emendemus. Hymnus. Ex more docti : with 
the muflic under the words of the first strophe. Vers. 
Angelis. Resp. Ut custodiant. Ant. Ecce nunc: 
with the music throughout. Ps. Magnificat: with 
the music under that word. Oratio. Deus qui eccle* 
nam. Ad con^kt. Ant. Signatum est: with the 
music throughout. Ps. Cum invocerem: with the 
music of the intonation. Cap. Tu in nobis. Ctericus 
de secundafarma^ habit u nan mutato nee locoy scilicet ad 
aitare conversus dicat. Resp. In pace : with the music. 
Chorus prosequatur hoc modoj In idipsum, &c. : with 
tte music throughout. Clericus. Vers. Si dedero, &c. : 
with the music throughout. Chorus prosequaturyDorad- 
tationem. Clericus. Vers. Gloria Patri: with the 
music. Chorus prosequatur^ In pace : with the music. 
Hymnus. Christe, qui lux es : with the music to the 


XXX Di00ettation Dft 

first strophe. Vers. Custodi^ Antiph. Cum videris : 
music throughout. Ps. Nunc dimittis: with the 
music of the intonation. 

Ad matutinas. Invit. Non sit nobis : with the music* 
Ps. Venite: with the intonation. Hymn. Summi 
largitor. The first strophe noted* 
. In prima nocturno. Ant. Servite. ps. Beatus vir. 
Vers. Dicet Domino. Resp. Susceptor. Tres prima 
kct. de sermone B. Leonisi PapsB. Legator lect. 1 . Licet 
nobis. Resp. £cce nunc tempus : noted thrDii^hout 
Resp. In omnibus : noted. Resp. Emendemus : noted. 

In secundo noctwmo. Ant. Bonorum. Ps. Con- 
serva. Vers. Ipse. Resp. De laqueo. Resp. Para^ 
disi. Resp. Scindite. et Resp. Abscondite. 

In tertio nocturno. Antiph. Recepfum. Ps. CcbK 
enarrant. Vers. Scapulis. Resp. Et lux. Evang. 
secundum Mattheum. In illo tempore. Ductus est. 
Omelia. B. Gregorii papa. Dubitajri. i2e^. In jejuijo: 
noted. Resp. Tribularer : with the notation. Bisp. 
Ductus est Jesus : noted. Vers. Ipse liberavit. Resp. 
De laqueo. 

In laudibus. Antiph., Cor mundum: with the 
music. Ps. Miserere : with the intonation. AnU 
Domine salvum : with the music. Ps. Confitemini: 
with its intonation. Antiph. Sic benedicam : with the 
music. Ps. Deus, Deus : with its intonation. Antiph. 
In Spiritu: with the music. Ps. Benedicite: with 
its intonation. Antiph. Laudato : noted. Ps. Lau- 
date : with its intonation. 

Cap. Hortamur. Hymn. Audi : with music to the 
first strophe. Vers. Scuto. Resp. Non timebis. 
Antiph. Ductus est: noted throughout. Ps. Bene- 
dictus. O ratio. Deus qui ecclesiam. 

Semite iBooto^ xxxi 

Ad Proaam. Antiph. Jesus aatem : noted through- 
it Ps. Dens, Deus : with its intonation. 
Ad Tertiam. Antiph. Non in solo pane : noted. Pa. 
egem pone : with its intonation. Cap. Hortamnr. 
'iericus de secwida forma ihcipiat Besp. sic. Partici- 
nn : with the nnisic Chorus prosequdtur : me fac : 
Died. Clericus dkat vers. Aspice : with the music. 
Ad Sextam. Antiph. Tunc assumpsit : noted. Ps. 
^ehdt : m£ii its intonation. Capi, Ecce nunc. Besp. 
b omni : with the music. Chorus prosequatur: mala: 
ithita music Vers. Ipse liberavit. 
Ad Nonam. Antiph. Vade Sathana : noted. Ps. 
[irabilia: with its intonatibn. Cap. In omnibus. 
lesp. Dedara: noted. Chorus prosequatur. Vers. 
aper nos : noted. 

Ad Vesperas. Antiph. Sede a dextris. Ps. Dixit 
lominns. Ca/>. Hortamur. Ckricusdesecunda forma j 
Mtu non mutato nee loco mutatOj conversus ad aitare 
ydpiat Resp. Esto nobis: noted. Chorus prosequa^ 
ir. Vers. A facie : with its music. Hymnus. Ex 
lore docti. Vers. Angelis suis. Antiph. Reliquit: 
ith its music. Ps. Magnificat : with its intonation. 
hatio. Deus qui ecdesiam." 
Dr. Rock continues ; ^^ I should tell you that with 
le Psalter are given the tones of the Psalms, and in 
le service for the First Sunday in Advent, all the 
Chants for the usual parts of the Choir Service : such 
B the intonations for the ^^ Deus in adjutorium," the 
Dominus vobisctan," the Collecty little Chapter, 
Benedicamus," ftc." It is evident that this volume 
ras for the use of some great religious establishment : 
nd with it generally agrees a folio Antiphoner which 
possess, imperfect, MS. of the Fourteenth Century, 


xxxii Disisettatton on 

which belonged formerly to the Cathedral of Nor- 

The Antiphoner is of common occurrence in antient 
inventories of Church furniture and ornaments, or ca- 
talogues of books» I shall now mention two from 
Parish Churchwardens* accounts^ In one, of S. Mary 
Hill, London, they are called *^ Antiphors:" and 
in another, of Heybridge, a still more queer word is 
used : ^^ item, a antysyphonar»" ^^ But, in the same 
collection (if we may trust the correctness of the trans- 
cript, which I much doubt in this case) we have in the 
accounts of S. Margaret's Westminster, for 1475: 
^'Item, for ij great books, called Antiphoners. 22£." 
The sum paid for these seems very ^eat. 

Very much of what has been said of the Antiphoner, 
will apply to the next book ordered in the Constitution 
of Archbishop Winchelsey : the " Gradale :" that is : 
under a title which strictly applies only to the Gra- 
duals, it contained not those only, but other portions 
of the service of the Holy Eucharist ; and with respect 
to that held the same place, which the other book did 
as regarded the Divine Office or Canonical Hours* 
Ljrndwood's gloss upon the word is, ** Gradale^ sic 
dictum a Gradalibiis in tali libro contentis. Stricte 
tamen ponitur Gradale pro eo quod gradatim ponitur 
post Epistolam : hie tamen ponitur pro Libro integro» 
in quo contineri debent Officium aspersionis Aquae 
benedictae, Missarum inchoationes, sive officia, Kyrie, 
cum versibus, Gloria in excelsis, Gradalia, Halleluja, 
et Tractus, Sequentise, Symbolum cantandum in Missa, 
Offertoria, Sanctus, Agnus, Communio, &c., quse ad 

^ NichoU, Churchwarden's Accompts, />. 105. 175. 

%micz TBoohg. 


Chorum spectant in Missse Solennis decantatione." 
With this description a MS. Gradual ^^ secundum 
Usum Sarum/* in my possession, exactly corresponds ; 
as do also two printed editions of the Gradual in the 
Bodleian library." 

It certainly is not easy, if it be possible, to lay down 
express signs by which the Antiphoner and Gradual 
are always to be distinguished. As a' general rule 
the one belonged to the service of the Hours, the Pivine 
or Canonical office, the other to the Mass : the latter 
may be properly called an Antiphoner,*^ the first never 
a Gradual. Or let us remember two observations of 
the very learned Gerbert: speaking of the one he 
says, " Ad distinciionem hujus libri antiphonarii, eum, 
qui cantum Missae continet, gradualem esse vocatum 
jam notavimus : " and soon after ; " Uti vero graduale 
usu respondet sacramentario seu missali, ita antipho- 
narium seu responsale breviario." ^ Ingulphus has a 
remarkable passage much to the point. After Croy- 
land Abbey was burnt, he went into the Choir, and 
there he says, " reperimus omnes libros Officii Divini 
tam Antiphonaria quam Gradalia deperisse."** He 
uses the term Officiinn Divinum in its fullest accepta- 

Both these books, the Antiphonarium and the Gra- 

• The Gradual is the Grayel, 
Graiel, Greyle, kc. of English 
Monastic Inventories, Wills, and 
other documents. 

*• In the Ramsay Catalogue, 
(Cotton /?o//jj, xi. 16.) occurs. 
" Duo Antiphonaria in uno volu- 
mine." This surely can mean 

VOL. I. 

only, in stricter terras, a Gradual 
and an Antiphoner. 

» De Cantu. Tom. l./>.573, 

•'** Historia Croylandensis, p, 
97. Edit. Oxon. 1684. The 
Abbey was burnt in the year 


xxxiv D<00ettation on 

dual, contained those portions of the services to which 
they respectively appertained which were sung, if 
sung at all, antiphonically, " antiphono cantu : " and 
it is not to he denied were intended chiefly for the use 
of choirs. But such was not necessarily the case 
with the Gradual, as may he collected from Zacca- 
ria : ** and I have considerahle douhts whether in the 
13th Century it was otherwise with the Antiphoner. 
Archhishop Winchelsey's statute seems to intend by 
it, all those portions of what was even before his time 
called the Breviary, which were not contained in the 
Psalter and Legenda. Otherwise the service of the 
Hours was not provided for. Nor is it to be forgotten 
that a manuscript in the Monastery of S. Gall, edited 
in part by Thomasius,*' and later in all probability 
than the 12th Century, has the title " Incipit Officials 
Liber ;" to which he appends the following significant 
note. " Vide heic Officialem Librum appellari eum 
librum, qui alias Antiphonarius dicitur." And in the 
Inventory of S. Paul's Church, made in 1295, we find 
several Antiphonaria, of which some only have the 
addition " notatum." ^ The constitution must either 
therefore, as it appears to me, mean this, or was 
directed as to these books to the case of parishes only, 
in which there was choral service : and that then, it 
was the part of the parishioners to furnish the Gradual 
and the Antiphoner, which of course would contain the 
notation. The Priest would provide, in this view, his 
Breviary. How far this may be allowed in the face of 
the first words, " Ut Parochiani Ecclesiarum singula- 

« Lib. 1. Cap. iv. 6. « Dugdale. St. Paurs.jB. 218. 

» Opera. Tom. iv. 342. 



mm nostra ProvindsB»*' I leave to others to decide : 
bat as I liave attempted to shew in another work,^ it 
is not decided in the commentary by Lyndwood, though 
he .sajB tihe Antq^boner ^'non soimn continebit Anti- 
phonai^ sad etiam Invitatoria» &a, et alia quse perti- 
nent ad decantatianem Horarmn Canonicarum/' ^ 

4. The ^ PBalteriom," as Lyndwood tells us, was 
the book in which the Psalms were contained. And 
this with ihe Legenda and Antiphoner would make 
up the entire Breviary, if as we have just seen, the 
latter was intended to include all the other portions 
of ihe Divine Office. 

The Pnlter as a separate book according to the use 
of particular churches, contained the Book of Psalms 
divided into certain portions for Matins, and the 
HourSy te as to be gone through in the course of the 
week. This arrangement was not exactly according 
to the Psalter which is to be found in the Breviaries^ 
at least it is not so in three editions now before me.^ 
These only in tiie general disposition agree with tiie 
Breviary, as may be seen by the following abstract of 

" Pre&oe ta tbe Ancient Li- 
tui^ : Second Edition. 

^ There are Coandlfl which 
meet both the caaee supposed in 
the text: which order generally 
that all churches should have 
"libros honestosy ad psallendum 
etl^iendumidoneos.'* Concilium 
Dunelmense. a.d. 1220. Wilkins. 
Concilia. Tom. 1. 580. And 
shortly after, a Council at Oxford, 
A.D. 1222, made a similar canon : 
the zith. Compare also the ca^. 

non of the Council of Chichester, 
cited before, pi^ xvj» 

" Psalterium secundum nsum 
Sarum et Ebor* 4to. Paris. F. 
Byrekman. 1516. Another, small 
8vo. Antwerp. Chr. Ruremun- 
den. Venundantur Londonii apud 
Petrum Kaetz. 1524. Another, 
24mo. Wants the title : no colo- 
phon : first year in the Calendar, 
1529 : by which date it is cited 
in the text. These in my posses- 

xxxvi Dt0!B!ettatton on 

their arrangement, which takes the whole Psalter in 
its numerical order.* 

On Sundays at Matins and Prime, from Ps. i to xxv, 
inclusive. At Matins on the second day, Ps. xxyj.— 
xxxvij. The third day, Ps. xxxviij.— li. The fourth 
day, Ps. lij-lxvij. The fifth day, Ps. Ixviij.— Ixxix. 
The sixth day, Ps. Ixxx— xcvi. The sahbath, Ps. 
xcvij — cviij. Sundays at vespers. Ps. cix. — cxiij. 
Second day at vespers, Ps. cxiv. — cxvij. At prime, 
Ps. cxviij. At tierce, cxviij continued. At sext, 
cxviij continued. At the ninth hour, cxviij concluded, 
and Ps. cxix & cxx. Third day at vespers, Ps. cxxi 
— cxxv. The fourth day, Ps. cxxvi. — cxxx. Fifth 
day, Ps. cxxxi — cxxxvi. Sixth day, Ps. cxxxvijk — 
exlij. The sabbath, Ps. cxliij — cl. 

The three Psalters cited above are all not only of the 
Use of Salisbury but also of York, as the full title of 
one has it^ : *' Psalterium cum Hymnis ad usum in- 
signis ecclesiae Sarum et Eboracensis. Opusculum 
quidem non solum ad ecclesiasticum observondum 
ritum, tum et cuilibet divino eloquio insudanti apprime 
commodum et necessarium." The three diflfer in this 
respect; the edition 1516, as the abstract of the ar- 
rangement shews, attaches the Psalms cxviij — cxx to the 
hours of the second day, without any further direction : 
that of 1524, explains that they are intended not for 
that only, but every week-day ; adding the running 
title "ferialibus diebus:" and that of 1529 attaches 
them "dominicis diebus." The second direction is 
the proper one, and the omission of the first and the 

^^ This is taken from the edi- ^ Edition of 1524, 
tion of 1516. 

^etntce lBooii0. 


error of the last would easily be corrected by the known 
practice of the day. 

The three editions differ in another point : that of 
1529 gives the Psalter only: 1516, the Antiphons: 
and 1524 not only the Antiphons, but the notation 
of the first words of them, and some of the verses and 

The reader will observe in the title just quoted that 
the Hymns are added : this is the same in these three 
editions, and they generally are so. They are ar- 
ranged for the different days and festivals upon which 
they are appointed. Being according to the Use of 
York as well as Sarum they give a conclusion of the 
hymn ^^ Alma chorus'' as it was sung in the former 
Church : and the two editions 1516 and 1529 add also 
at the end ^^ Hymni secundum usum Eboracensem qui 
non sunt in usu Sarum." 

But besides the hymns are included the Canticles, 
or, as they are called in the edition 1529, " Psalmi 
consueti.'' And, following these, before the hymns, 
are the Litany ; Vespers, and Vigils of the dead ; and 
8ome prayers to be said before and after the recital of 
the Psalter.^ 

5. The next book mentioned in the Constitution of 
the Archbishop is the "Troperium": which strictly 
would of course contain only the Tropes. The Tropi 
were one or more verses, sung either before or after the 

• PsaUerium gloxsatum is a 
common book in the inventories 
of monasteries, a.d. 1481. the 
famous Sir Thomas Lyttelton be- 
queathed his ** gloset-saulter to 
the priorie of Worcester." Tes- 

tamenta Vetusta. Vol, 1. 367. 
Again of S. Richard, Bp. of Chi- 
chester, 1233. "To the Friars 
Minor of Chichester, my psalter 
gloscd." Ibid. 761. 


Dt00ettatidn on 

Intrcdt and Hymns in the service of the Mass, and 
sometimes in the middle of them.^^ Georgius, from Du 
Cange, declares them to have been intimately connected 
with the Introit^ : and Durand, that they are called 
** Tropi, quia prius canitur versus, ac postea eleison : 
et iterum versus, et eleison deinde.''^^ Cardinal Bona 
says that he could find no trace of them before the 
year 1000 :^ with whom Georgius agrees ; and there 
is no doubt that they were first introduced by the 
monks, about that period, and were soon adopted into 
the service of other Churches. They quickly encreased 
in number, until the book in which they were con- 
tained by the time Durand wrote was called, as in the 
constitution, Troperium, or Troponarium, or Tropa- 
rium. But from what Lyndwood tells us in his note 
upon the word ^' i : e : Librum sequentiarum ; et hoc 
necessarium est, quando sequential non habentur in 
Gradalibus," the main contents of the volume, in his 
day, were the Sequences. It is clear that if the Gra- 
dual contained these parts also of the service, as it 
usually did, the Troperium would not separately be 

^ Gerhert. De Cantu et mu- 
sica sacra. Tom, 1. 340. 

" De Liturgia Rom. Pontificis. 
Tom, 2. cxcv. 

« Lib. iv. Cap. v. 

" Lib. 11. Rer. Liturg. Cap. 
3. But this date must be ex- 
tended to an earlier year : Ger- 
bert states that at Rome might 
bo seen manuscripts earlier than 
the xith century, containing 

Tropes. And we shall find pre- 
sently that about a.d. 1050, the 
word was in use in England. It 
is certain that the Tropes were a 
late introduction into the Litur- 
^es: being so, and contrary to 
their original state, they were re- 
moved altogether from the Roman 
Missal at its last revision, in the 
Pontificate of Rus the 5th. At 
the same time also the Sequences, 
except four, were removed, and 
for the same reason. 

I do not know of a printed Troperium of any Eng- 
lish Use : there is a very fine MS. so called in the 
Bodleiaii library. It is worth remarking, that in the 
diqftuteB between Becket of Canterbury and King 
Henry, one wrong chained against the Archbishop 
wasy that he would not allow a cause to be removed 
from his court, though the plaintiff had sworn that 
justice was not done him: the reply was that the 
plaintiff had tried to evade the oath : which he had 
taken not upon the Four Gospels, according to the 
laws, but '^upon a troper or book of old church 

From Lyndwood*s explanation of the word, I rather 
suppose that by Troperium in the statute was meant 
what was sometimes and more properly called the 
SequentialiSf or Sequentiarius. Such must certainly 
have been the Traptrid in the Church of S. Paul, one 
of which, the earliest, belonged to Ralph de Diceto, 
''in cujus initio," says the Inventory, '' notantur omnes 
sequentiffi, et fine ponuntur omnes Epistolae farcitss." 
If Tropes were introduced only in the xith century, 
few could have been composed by the time of Dean 
Ralph, who flourished towards the end of the xij th, 
according to Le Neve. The Inventory continues : 

** Item Troperium cujus ultima sequentia est sine 

custodia laudes crucis''^ 

So Matthew Paris ^ must have used the word, when 

• CoUier. Eccles. Hist. Vol gendum 7^'op«fr.- scil. Librum 

1. 354. Compare also Hoveden, hymnorum." 

Annals- p. 283. And Iffe Anglo- ^ Dujrdale St Paul's p. 220. 
Saxon Diet. verb. Trp|«re. "'At- 

tulit in curia mea quendam Toper ^ P. 1003. Dugdale. Monas- 

et juravit super ilium:' ubi le- ticon. Vol^. 183. 


DiSEisectatton on 

he states that Paul, Ahhot of St. Alhan's, who died 
A.D. 1093, caused Troparia to he written, amongst 
other service books, in his new Scriptorium which he 
had built. On the other hand more than twenty 
years before this, Leofric Bishop of Exeter gave to his 
Cathedral Church there a collection of books, a list of 
which is still extant at the beginning of his famous 
Missal in the Bodleian : among which is i. rftopejie, 
one troperium.^ 

But so far as the authority of a particular copy 
reaches, the question is much enlightened by the Tro- 
perium already mentioned, in the Bodleian library, 
and of which a brief account seems not out of place. 
It is a very fine MS. folio. Some Kyries and hymns 
are written upon a few leaves at the beginning, after 
which comes the Title, " Incipiunt Tropi de adventu 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi." Then follow not only 
the Tropes, but the other parts of the Liturgy which 
were sung, for every day of the year : in some cases 
at length, but generally only the first few words of 
them : viz. of the Graduals, Tracts, Alleluias, Verses, 
Offertories, and Communions. Each has its Intona- 
tion between every line. After these are the ** Gloria 
in Excelsis," the " Sanctus" and " A-gnus," with their 
interpolated Tropes. 

Succeeding these, are the Alleluias : as if a separate 
part of the volume. " Incipiunt alleluiae per anni cir- 

" Dugdule. Monasticon. Vol. 
2. 527. That book which be- 
longed to an Abbot of Peterbo- 
rough would appear to have been 
a true Troperium, entitled, " Tropi 
Magistri Petri jcum diversis sum- 

mis." Monast. Anglic. VoL 1. 
354. In the Leicester Abbej 
R^gistrum librorum occurs, 
^'Troporium in missali ad altare 
S. Stephani." Nicholls. Leices- 
tershire. Vol. I. pt. 2. p. 101. 

^etttice 1Booft0. xli 

culum/' Then the Tracts and Offertories at length. 
Then we find.: 

*^ Hie tibi cantori sunt cuncta sequentia preesto : 

Quae circulo annomm modulantur ordine pulchro." 
These sequences are preceded by the Alleluias. After 
these are the Proses. '^ Incipiunt prosse" : which con- 
clude the book ; and are accompanied by a musical 
notation upon three lines. 

This **Troperium" is of an early date: not later 
than the year 1010. There is a Litany in it, in 
which K. iEthelred is prayed for, as the reigning 

The ^' Troparium" is a frequent item in the Inven- 
tories of the Parish Churches of the Diocese of Salis- 
bury in the xiijth century : both as a separate volume, 
and as a part of or bound up with some other service 
book. (See the Appendix,) It is significant that, on 
the other hand, we do not find any notice of the Se- 

5. The "Ordinale" was the book which regulated 
the whole duty of the Canonical Hours : to use Lynd- 
wood's words " i : e : Librum, in quo ordinatur modus 
dicendi et solemnizandi OflScium Divinum." The 
Priest by referring to this, might learn, according 
to the dominical letter, what festivals he was to 
observe, and the proper office appointed throughout 
the year, at least so far as any changes were con- 
cerned from the common office of the day. Thus, 
for example, the running title being "Quartum A 
xvij xiiij xi iij," he would find, for the second week 
in Lent, " C Dominica prima xl. tota dicatur historia. 
Fe. iiij. et sabbato dicatur Resp. feriale." The ensuing 
week would be liable to greater alterations. " C Do- 
minica .ij. xl. tota dicatur historia. Festum sanrti 


xiii Dissertation on 

Gregorii differatur in crastinum.' Ad vesperas sancti 
Gregorii fiat solemnis memoria de dominica. Fe .ij. 
de sancto Gregorio. Inferiua duplex. Capitulum. 
Ecce sacerdos .ix. lee. sine expositione. Fer. v. dica- 
tur primum Resp. feriale et aliud in vi. fe. Sabbato de 
sancto Edwardo .ix. lee. Cap. Beatus vir qui in sapientia. 
Resp. Peccavi preetermittatur isto anno. Ad vesperas 
de dominica fiat memoria de sancto Edwardo/' But, 
supposing the case thus : " Tertium D xviij xv xij vij 
iiij," then the course of his service would be altered : 
as '^ C Dominica prima xl totum de dominica. Fer. 
ij. de sancto Petro. ix. lee. Fer. iij. de sancto Mat- 
thia. Inferius duplex. Fer. iiij. et ceteris feriis per 
ebdomadam de jejunio, et in vi. fer. dicatur Resp. 
feriale." And he would find that the Festivals of S. 
Gregory and S. Edward would not occur until the 
fourth and fifth weeks of Lent.^ 

Hence the Ordinale served, the days of the fixed 
festivals being known by the calendar usually prefixed 
to the other service books, as a perpetual guide and 
directory in so far as the year was affected by the move- 
able feasts. A matter of no little consequence, as it 
was not possible that in any two years the same course 
should occur, and an almost infinite variety of the daily 
offices would be the result. 

It is by no means certain how early the want which 
must have been felt of such a directory was supplied. 
The famous passage in Ranulphus Polychronicon^^ is 
usually appealed to : speaking of Osmund, Bishop of 
Salisbury, he says, " Hie quoque composuit librum 

^ I quote from an edition in my ^^ That is, Ralph Higden. Cited 
possession, described below. by Du Cange^ Glossarium. 

%ttMCZ VOtlkti. 


(urdmalem ecderiastici offciiy quern Consnetadinarium 
yocanty quo fere nunc tota AiDgliay Wallia utitur, et 
Hibemia.*' But neither could this have been the first 
work of the kind, nor at once have arrived at anything 
like completeness. 

Other Churches equally with that of Sarum would 
have had their Ordinals, and these must of course have 
been affiacted by the number of Saints to whom days 
were dedicated in their calendars: hence we learn 
that not only S. Osmund compiled such a work, but 
the Bishops also of other dioceses. This, I must ob- 
serve, would not, except in the instances of festivals 
appoiated in one Church and not in another, prevent 
the adoption of any particular Use. Therefore the 
Breviary^ or the Missal secundum usum Sarunij might 
(to speak generally) be adopted in dioceses and coun- 
tries where other Ordinals were required : or the Sa- 
mm ordinal might be used, subject to a few alterations. 
Thus Bishop Cantilupe of Worcester, in his synod 
heIdA«D. 1240, specifies the days which were to be 
observed in his diocese.^^ Bishop Grandisson of Exe- 
ter also drew up a very complete ordinal for the use 
of that diocese^^ : which is still existing and preserved 
in the Cathedral library. The colophon is '^ C Ex- 
plicit ordinale secundum usum Exoniensem." I say 
that it is complete, because it not only regulates the 
services of the Canonical Hours, but of the Mass, and 
the order of Processions. It was a text-book from 

^ WUkins. Concilia. Tom.\. 

^^ But in the Invratorv still 

preserved in that Cathedral, MS. 
1506, are besides two Ordinals in 
use in the Choir, *' item j ordinale 
ad usum Sarum." 


Dissertation on 

whence were to be copied all the portions which affected 
the parish-churches of that diocese.'' 

These books abroad were usually styled Ordinaria : 
and the one from which I have given extracts above 
to correspond with that mentioned by Du 


^ In the Sututes of Bp. Gran- 
disson, v^hich, as founder, he 
made for the regulation of his new 
Collegiate Church of S. Mary, at 
Ottery, reference is more than 
once made to his Ordinal, perhaps 
ta the particular volume men- 
tioned in the text. I select one 
of these. " 7. Item statuimus 
quod tam canonici quam omnes 
idii quicumque inferiores ecclesise 
ministri officium divinum tam 
noctumum quam diumum in 
choro et in capella beat» Virginis 
debitis temporibus intrando> re- 
manendo, et exeundo, secundum 
ordinale, et consuetudinarium 
quae eis fecimus et extraximus ex 
Exoniae et Sarum usibus, cum 
pausatione et punctuatione debitis 

I shall have frequent occasion 
to refer to this body of Statutes ; 
they form one of the most impor« 
tant parts of an excellent work 
lately published by the Rev. Dr. 
Oliver, viz : Monasticon Dicece- 
sis Exoniensis. His own opinion 
of these Statutes, with which I 
entirely agree, is : " For details 
and minute directions for con- 
ducting the church service, we 
believe the document to be more 

instructive and satisfactory than 
any other that has come to our 
notice." P. 261. The MS. Or- 
dinale, through the kindness of 
the Dean and Chapter of Exe- 
ter is now lying before me : but 
I regret to say, that I only ob- 
tained it too late to make use of 
it for the Second Edition of my 
work on the Liturgies, which was 
already in the press ; and I have 
been unhappily precluded, owing 
to another cause, from availing 
myself of some highly important 
matter in the Consuetudinary of 
the Church of Exeter, which forms 
the first part of the book. I 
mention this, not complaining, but 
simply to clear myself, if it may 
so be, from the charge that on the 
present occasion I have been able 
to give the reader so little of the 
contents of this noble monument 
of the English Church. As time 
goes on, the obstacle which now 
exists, may happily be removed. 

Bishop Grandisson, it appears 
from Le Neve, Preface to his 
Fasti, p. \\. wrote a life of Tho- 
mas d Becket : a copy of which 
ought to be among the MSS. of 

i^emice ^0060« 


Gauge,'* from.a statute of a Synod at Angers. " Sta- 
tuimus quod in singulis ecclesiis liber, qui dicitur 
Ordinariusy habeatur, quo sacerdotes respiciant singulis 
diebus ante vesperarum incQeptionem, ut ipsas vespe- 
ras, matutinas, et offidum diei sequentis faciant et 
exequantur, juxta Ordinarii . instructionem/' Imme- 
diately after a charter is cited of the Church of Abbe- 
ville, in which the term is applied to a book similar 
rather to the Ordinal of Bishop Grandisson. ^^ In 
ecclesia etiam sit liber ordinarius ad modum ecclesise 
Ambian. in quo contineatur, quid et quando et quo- 
modo cantandum sit vel legendum, chorus regendus, 
campanse pulsands^ luminare accendendum, &c.^''^ 

The Ordinale and the ** Consuetudinarium" are 
properly distinct books, referring to matters of a dif- 
ferent kind, and ought not to be confounded. Du 
Cange seems to do so, relying upon the passage quoted 
above from the Polychronicon, when he explains the 

^ Glossar. Verb. Ordinarinni. 

^ Zaccaria says : ** Adde ordi- 
nem officii reciUndi; Kalenda* 
rmm alii appellant; ordinarium 
alii, ordo offim antiquum nomen 
esti Ad ceUhranda divina offi- 
cia ordmemy queiH Metropolitani 
tenentj Promnciales ohservare 
debebunt decretum est Concilii 

Aurelianensis j. cap. xxviij. 

Non admodom ab ordinc officii 
abludebat paullo amplior Libellus, 
qaem Carpsum quasi carptum, 
deoerptumque Verofue vocabant, 
indicem nempe, Preces, Psalmos, 
Antiphonas, ceteraque recensen- 
tern ad Missae, divinorumque offi- 

ciorum ordinem enuntiandum.*' 
Bibl. Ritualis. Lib. 1. cap. iv. 
4. xiij. Le JBrun confuses the 
Ordinarium and Consuetudinary. 
" Ordinarium, ante quingentos aut 
sexcentos annos ita dictus liber 
quidam fuit, qui id innuit, quod 
ad altare, vel in choro diebus sin- 
gulis seu dici, seu fieri debet. 
Eidem in antiquis communitatibus 
id etiam additum est, quod gene- 
ratim totius diei spatio servan« 
dum erat. Hac de causa liber a 
Cisterciensibus quidem Ususy a 
Prsemonstratensibus vero Liber 
Consuetudinum dictus fuit." Ex- 
plic. Missae. Pra»f. xxxiv. 


Di00ectacion oh 


latter to be, " Ritualis liber, in quo officiorum divino- 
nim ritus formuleeque describuntur :" and goes on to 
add wbat is correct, " in quo Consuetudines Conven- 
tuales et Monasticae exaratse sunt.'* Mattbew Paris 
clearly distinguishes them in his account of the exer- 
tions of Paul, abbot of S. Albans, to complete a set of 
service books.'^ Of the latter sort was the famous 
book of statutes or decrees drawn up by Lanfranc for \ 
the Benedictines :^^ St. Osmund compiled both an 
Ordinal and a Consuetudinary :^® the constitutions, as 
they are called, for the Church of Lichfield, a. d. 1194, 
were a Consuetudinary:^^ so also those of Lincoln, 
A. D. 1212,^ and the " Consuetudines Abbatiae Eves- 
hamensis" drawn up by the abbot of that monastery 
about A* D. 1220 : ^* and, to name no more, the volume 

''^ P. 1003. cited in MonasU 
Anglic, Vol. 2. ISS.NoteSi, But 
Baruffaldas has made a most 
strange blander with this very 
place of Matt. Paris, taking Ordi- 
nale to be the same with what was 
Ib later days called the Ritual: 
see his Commentary. Tit. 1. Cap. 
1. 6. Such errors shew however 
the difficulties which surround the 
inquiry in which we are engaged. 

"" Opera. Edit. Benedict. 253. 

^ A statute of iEgidius, Bishop 
of Salisbury, 1256, thus refers to 
the Consuetudinary : " Beati Os- 
mundi prsedecessoris nostri circa 
residentiam personarum et canoni- 
conim Sarum ecdesise pias insti- 
tutiones, quas pro cultu divini 
nominis ampliandas, et ecclesise 
Sarum honorc, capituli sui acce- 

dente consensu, condidit, ac in 
scriptis redegit, per negligentiam 
duximus innovandas, &c." Wil- 
kirn. Concilia. Tom, 1. 715. An 
excellent abstract of these Statutes 
is given by Wilkins, under the 
year 1259, supplied by the then 
Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, 
to the Dean and Chapter of the 
Cathedral Church of Glasgow: 
who, and it is a remarkable circum- 
stance, had applied for information 
respecting the Use and Custom 
of the Church oS Sarum. Con- 
cilia. Tom. i. 741. 

^» Wilkins. Concilia. Tom. 1. 

^ Wilkint. Concilia. Tom. 1. 

®* Dugdale. Monasticon. Vol. 
2. p. 27. 

•etiiice TBooh». 


»d of Bp. Grandisson, contains at the b^n- 
ir the Calendar, from FoL 7. to 13 bj the Con- 
ury of the Church of Exeter. To explain the 
m more fully, I will give the heads of the 
of the Consuetudinary of Lichfield* The first 
» the general ceremonies to be observed by the 
\ of the Cathedral Church in the celebration 
ivine Offices, Mass, Chapter, &c. ** 2. De pw- 
^cclesia Lich. constitutis. 3. De officio decani, 
ftcio cantoris. 5. De officio cancellarii. 6. De 
esaurarii. 7. De modo pulsationum. 8. De 
^ ecclesi» Lich. 9* Dedignitatepersonarum. 
dignitate decani et canonicorum. 11. De 
I quinque capellanorum. 12. Statutum do- 
berti, apostoUcse sedis legati." 
occur instances of the use of the term " Con- 
orium" in another sense : as, for example, the 
a manuscript in the Augmentation Office, 
le et Consuetudinarium de Bello." It relates 
o the estates of Battle Abbey, as may be seen 
list of its contents in the Monasticon.^ 
als of English Use are a frequent item in the 
3 and Church Inventories, but now even in MS. 
rare. There are two manuscript Ordinals of 
Fse in the British Museum, and one of Hereford, 
igment of that of S. Edmund of Bury:®' at 

). 287. 

iflt contains the Ordinal 
the day, including the 
i€ Liturgy: it is brief, 
te ; and follows the ar- 
of the Calendar. The 
ind Sarura Ordinals 

also (alluded to in the text), do 
not, as in the printed editions, 
present an invariable rule, but 
follow simply the Calendar as it 
stood in the age in which they 
were compiled. At the end of 
one of the two of Sarum Use, is 



Dt00ertatton on 

Lambeth is the Ordinal of the Abbey of Peterborough. 
There were several editions printed of the Use of 
Salisbury, but scarcely more than a single copy remains 
of each. Either, as being altogether ceremonial, and 
containing an unreadable "Pye," they excited the 
pious wrath of the King's Visitors, and so were espe- 
cially devoted to destruction ; or, being usually written 
plainly, without illuminations, and almost every word 
contracted, they were not preserved for the mere sake 
of their appearance, as certainly was the good fortune 
of some service books which escaped. Caxton printed 
ity under the title ^^ Directorium Sacerdotum ; sive 
ordinale secundum usum Sarum/' Fol. A copy of 
this is in the Museum library. In 1488, an edition 
was published at Antwerp, 8vo. by Gerard Leeu, a 
copy of which is in my possession, and the extracts 
given above are from it. It is not improbable that 
this is the first edition, rather than the undated one by 
Caxton. Wynkyn de Worde printed the Ordinale in 
1504, 4to. and Pynson three times, 1498, Fol. and 
1503, and 1508, in 4to. Copies of these books are in 
the Bodleian.®* 

this entry. '* Iste liber constat 
ecclesiae de Rysbey in comitata de 
Saffolke. Ordinale." Harleian 
MS. 1001. Sffic. xiv. 

^ An important note is ap- 
pended to the two early editions 
by Pynson. '* Liber prsesens di- 
rectorium sacerdotmn, quem pica 
Sarum vulgo vocitat clems, quan- 
quam iste pluribus vicibus intra 
nostras atque transmarinas terras 
impressus ac compositus existat, 

nusquam tamen secundum verum 
Sarum ordinale cancellatus, seu 
correctus fiiit, nee enucleatus. 
Sed quia unus pastor ecclesiae et 
unum ovile est, erit itaque ovium 
cleri, viz. Sarum unus canonicse 
orationis ordo. Ut concordet psal- 
terium cum cythara in sancta nos* 
tra ecclesia cleri Sarum, vene- 
randa semperque laudanda studio 
disciplinarum un^versitas Canta* 
brigiensis hoc onus laboris hujus« 

•etttice I5oofc0: 



WE come now to the seyenth book» the << Missale/* 
ihat volume which in its complete form con- 
tained all ihat was neceseury for the due performance of 
the moet aolemn Service which the Church can pay to 
God; evien the divine mysteries; the offering of the 
sacrifice : and as regards herself, those rites, by the 
dnervance of which, according to our Lord's promise, 
she might by her ministers communicate to man the 
seal of foi^veness, the bread of life, the medicine of 

The present Office, by whose rules and according 
to whose order the Chiurch of England for the last 
three hundifsd years has celebrated and perfected these 
solemn mysteries (her modem missal if I may so call 
it), is so different from the book which she used (either 
in one or more volumes) for the thousand years before, 
that I cannot suppose it will be sufficient in the present 
instanoe, more than in those of the service-books we 
have already considered, to be content with the brief 
explanation which we find in Lyndwood. '^ Missale, 
i: e: librum, in quo continebuntur omnia ad missam 
gjngnlig diebus dicendam pertinentia.** This was a 

modi correctionisy atque cancella- 
tkmis ordinalis Samm necessario 
fiendanmiy ven. viro M. Gierke 
ooU. regalia canton credidit et 
comminriti QniquidemM. Gierke 
bajmoiodi oiiiis oorrectioiiis sua 

sponte propter causam prsedictam 
suscepit, emendavit, correxit, at- 
qae secundum venim ord. Sarum 
collationavit" Herbert Typog: 
Antiq: Fb^ 1.246. 


I IDlwttmim on 

definition which if it answered the enquiries of his 
age, surely is Hot explanatory enough for our own. 

In the earlier ages of the Church, the Office of the 
Holy Communion was not contained in one volume, 
but usually in four. The Antiphoner, the Lectionary, 
the book of the Gospels, and the book of the Sacra- 
ments, or Sacramentary. This last is that to which 
the title of Missal was applied : and that at an early 
age ; as examples are given by Du Cange®* of its use 
in the time of S. Boniface of Mentz,^ and Tby Ama- 
larius and others. The passages from Amalarius are 
cited by Geoigius,®' who (with Pamelius") decides 
that he means by the term S. Gregory's Sacramentary. 
The same author quotes also a statute, *the xxviijth, 
from the Capitular of Louis the Pious, a. d. 816, in 
which the Missal, i: e: the Sacramentary is clearly 
distinguished : and again, another from the Capitular 
of Charlemagne, a. d. 789, which I shall leave to the 
judgment of the reader : " si opus est, Evangelium, et 
Psalterium, et Missale scribere, perfect» setatis homines 
scribant cum omni diligentia.""® 

The Antiphoner and Lectionary just mentioned 
Were books the contents of which altogether were dif- 
ferent from those which were connected with the 
Offices of the Canonical Hours, and which have been 
already considered. In its present meaning we are to 
understand by the first, the Gradual, as it was always 
called in later ages, and even in the time of Amala- 
rius, according to the custom of some Churches. 

* Glossarium. Verb. Missale. ^ Tom. 2. p. clxij. 

* Epistola Jattonis ad Otga- „ ^ ^ cc oio 

^ * • * I? --x 1 c ID Tom. 2. ».56. 318. 

num. Exst. inter Epistoias S. Bo« ^ 

nifacii. Ep. cxiv. » Cited also by Du Cange. 

' Quod dicimiu Gradale/' he says, '< illi yocant Can- 
atoriuiUy'* L 0. Antiphonarium : and it oontained, as 
MS been ezplaiBed before, thoee parts of the Bervice 
fUch, if eiiiig, were to be sung antiphonically. By 
he other, the Lectionary, we are to understand the 
look of the Epistlesy which was sometunes and much 
letter named the '' Ejnstolarium," and ^' Epistolare :" 
" Liber Comitis,"*' and sometimes " Apos- 

It IB mere conjecture why it was called Liber 
Oamitis : the last editor of Thomasius ^yes two of the 
-easons which haTC been suggested. ^< Alii conji- 
3irat nomen ittud inditum eidem fuisse ut denotaretur 
dericos ilium perpetuum veluti comitem secum deferre 
lebeie, quod nimirum in lege Daminiy quae sacris in 
Lectionibus exponitur, meditentur die ac nocte. Alii 
rero quod Comiti cuidam liber inscriptus prime fuerit 
lb ejus cpmpilatore."** I cannot say that either of 
hese conjectures is more satisfactory than such guesses 
xmunonly are. It is certain that the Comes was a dif- 
erent book in some instances from the Apostolus j though 
mriters haye made no distinction between them : an 
sarly charter cited origmally by Suarez, afterwards 
by Mabillon^ and a host of authors, proves this* It 
mmnerates among a number of books given for the 
lervice of a church, ** Evangelia rv, Apostolum, Fsal- 
terium, et Comitem.'* The one therefore probably con- 
tained the lections read at mass from writings not 

^ The stadent will find the sub- Tom. 1 . Lib. 1. p. 36. 

ject of the ** Gomes'* and its au- „ ^ ^ n r • 

, ft. ,. J u i^ " Opera. Tom. v. Pr«f. xxi. 

thor, &c discussed by Georgtug, '^ 

Tom. 2. Dissert, ij. Cap. 3. Also « De re Diplomatica. Lib. v. 

compare 2Sa€caria BibL RituaUs. p. 762. 

Hi pt!Bi0ettation on 

of the Apostles: the other, those only which were 
taken firom the Canonical Epistles: and the two to- 
gether would make up a volume not unfrequently 
occurring in ancient writers, the Lectionarius pie- 
' narius. 

One other meaning attached to the Lectionarius 
must not he omitted : yiz. that a mere index of the 
Epistle» which were to be read, giving the first words 
only and the last, was sometimes so called. Such was 
a Lectionary published by Thomasius,^ and again 
by Geoigius in his Appendix Monumentorum,^ under 
another name which it also bore^ ^^ Capitulare." 

The " Evangelistarium,'' " Evangeliutn," or " Evan- 
geliarium/' is not involved in so great difficulty. Its 
contents were the portions of Scripture appointed to 
be i^ead. from the four Gospels. Other names by which 
they were also occasionally called are " Textevange- 
Kum,** and " Textus."^ These volumes were often 
ipost lavishly adorned with jewels, and gold and silver, 
a token of the especial reverence with which the Holy 
Gospels, or' these selections from them were regarded 
by the Church, And this, from the time when Eddius, 
the biographer of Archbishop Wilfrid, thus speaks of 
a book which was written for him. " Addens quoque 
S. Pontifex noster, inter alia bona ad decorem domus 
Dei, inauditum ante sseculis nostris quoddam miracu- 
lum. Nam quatuor Evangelia de auro purissimo in 
membranis depurpuratis coloratis, pro animae suee 
remedio scribere jussit, nee non et Bibliothecam libro- 
rum eorum omnem de auro purissimo, et gemmis pre- 

» Opera. Tom. v. ^ Du Cange. Glossarium. 

•* Towi.3.227. 



t w riw ii p i i fikbrafiu^tam compaginare incliisores g;eiiimar 
ram pndcepit.*'^ Or again, when the fiunous Textus 
Stmcii Cutkberti waa adorned with a silver gilt cover 
and predcma^Btoaea: which MS. is still preserved in 
fte Ubrajry of the British Museum. 

Even parish churches grudged not greater expenses, 
and outlay ppon the /^ Textiis :" of which there is an 
nample in the chuich at Sunning, in Berkshire, in 
the year 1220. '^ Item* j. textus coopertos argento, 
oontinens evangelia anni/'^ But what are we to say 
pf that'oqpy once in the Cathedral Church of Salis- 
bury? ^ oontinens Saphiros .xz. 'et Smaragdos. yj. et 
Tbopasioa .viij. et Alemandiinas .xviij. et Gemettas 
•viij. et Perlas .xij/' which moreover was, though 
dik( yet hut one cH many.^ 

And so this reverence continued to he shown towards 
the Evangelisteria in particular, above all other books, 
in sacceeding ages. Of which the frequent entries in 
inventories are a cwtain proof: as for example, ^^ A 
booke of Gbspelles garnished and wrought with an- 
tique worke of siluer and gilte with an image of the 
crucifix witii Mary and John, poiz together cccxxij 
ox." And, once more, so late as the time of Q. Eli- 
xabeth, among whose jewels, &c. was included '^ Oone 
Groq^ell booke covered with tissue and garnished on 
th onside witii the crucifix and the Queenes badges of 
silver guilt, poiz with wodde, leav^ and all Cxij. oz."^ 

** AnnaLBened. Sfleciv.P.iL 
p. 552. MahUion remarks, that 
BibUotheca here means, the four 

V Regutnun S. Osmandi. MS. 

fol. 37. See Appendix* 

^ Registrum S. OsmundL fol. 

•• Archcdologia. 

Vol. 13. p. 


£>i00ettation on 

Many other desoriptions of such splendid books, either 
upon record or stiU extant, are to be referred to/ 

The distinction between the Evangelistarium and 
the Evangelistarium plenarium seems to have been, 
that this latter contained all the four Gospels, whilst 
the same title without the addition of plenariuniy is to 
be understood of one of the Gospels only, or the por- 
tions which were read from them. There was also a 
Capitulare Evangeliorum, answering the same purpose 
of an index as the one above for the Epistles. 

And here must be mentioned a Capitular (for such 
in fa^i it is) which not unfrequently is to be met with 
in MSS. of the New Testament in English. I shall 
extract the rubric from one in the library of the 
British Museum. ^^ Here begynnythe a rule, that 
tellith in whiche chapitris of the bible new law ye 
mown fynd the epistlis & the gospels : that ben rad in 
the chirche at mass after the vse of Salisbury markid 
with lettris, of the a, b. c. at the begynnynge of the 
chapitris, towarde the myddil or the ende, aftire the 
ordre of the lettris stondynge in the a. b. c. In the 
firste parte ben sett sonendayes & ferialis to gydre : 
and after the commune sanctorum & the propre. Of 
all the first ther is writene a clause of the begynnynge 
therof : & also a clause of the eende. 

. xuj. c. 

The first so- ) Rom. 
nenday of > 
aduent \ Matheu. xxj. c. 

d. we knowen 
this tyme. 

cam nygh. 

ende. in the lord Ihs 

ende. osanna in high 

* See especially 6^eor^iM,7W. 
2. Dissert, ij. Cap. 1. 

^ Royal Library. MS. i. A. x. 
These tables are so curious, that I 

shall give in a note a correspond- 
ing rubric, from another MS. in 
the same collection, (i. A. iv.) 
" Here begynseth a rule that 

•fioice /Boo&jK. 


The fiiiirdi tqIiiow, when the Missal was andenily 
so divided, was the f^ liber Sacramentorum^*' or as it 
was abo called the << Sacramentariunh" For though 
some writers have hiid down distinctions between 
these titles, as referring to books of different contents, 
I think we mity rely upon the decision which Angelo 
Biicca and aftwwards Georgius have come to, that 
while the former is the more ancient name, the two 
are synonymous. TheC!0iionoftheSacramentaries,as 
I have shown in another work, cannot be given to any 
author later than an Apostle; but they are usually 
referred to and known as the Leonine, the Gelasian, 
and the Gh-egorian; firom those three great Popes who 
undoubtedly corrected, and added to, or abbreyiated 

This book was so called, and also sometimes Liber 
Mysteriorumy and as we have already seen MissaliSf 
because it contained those rites and prayers which 
related hnmediately to the full completion of the Sacra^ 
ments, and of the Eucharist especially, the Sacrament 
UMT iiqx^y. For in these volumes were to be found the 
rkes of administering the Sacrament of Baptism, upon 
the eves of Easter and Pentecost, of reconciling Peni- 
tents, of Marriage, and of Orders, as well as of the 

idlith in whiche chapitrb of the 
}Me ye may fynde the lessouns, 
pistils and gospels, that ben red in 
the chnrche aftir the vse of salis- 
bori: markid with lettris of the 
a. b. e. at the begynnynge of the 
duqntris toward the myddil or 
eende: aftir the ordre as the 
lettris stonden in the a. b« c. first 

ben sett sundaies and ferials togi- 
dere: and aftir that the sancto- 
rum, the propre and comyn togider 
of al the yeer : and thanne last 
the commemoraciouns : that is 
clepid the temporal of al the yere. 
First is written a clause of the be- 
gynnynge of the pistil & gospel, & 
a clause of the endynge therof." 



Dt00ettation on 

Holy Comnmnion. As regarded the last, in the Sacra- 
mentary were the Collects, the Secrets, the Prefaces, 
the Canon, the prayer infra Canonemj and Post-com- 
munion : in short, all those portions of the Service 
which were not in the other hooks. The greatest 
care and reverence was anciently paid to the Sacra? 
mentary, as we may learn from a canon of the council 
of Rhemes, cited hy Georgius;' ^^ expleta Missa, calix 
et Sacramentorum Liber, cum vestibus sacerdotalibus 
in mundo loco sub sera recondantur." 

These books, it need scarcely be added, are of the 
very highest importance, and the most learned ritu- 
alists have devoted their attention to their contents. 
Pamelius was the first editor of any part of either of 
them : after him Thomasius ; and last of all the most 
complete edition by Muratori, in 1748. Neither must 
it be forgotten that a Sacramentary was published by 
Flaccus lUyricus, claiming to be more ancient even 
than the Leonine : but after-examination proved it to 
be of not earlier date than the xth or xith century, 
and with its reputed authority, fell also the arguments 
and the triumph of the party by whom it had been 

» Tom. 3. 166. 

^ The history of this publica- 
tion, its sappression by Philip of 
Spain and Sixtus V. and then 
approval by the Roman Catholics 
and suppression by the Lutherans, 
is suffidently entertaining as v^ell 
as instructive. It does not speak 
much in favour of the learning of 
the Centuriator, for it proves some 
of the very points which he the 

most eagerly attacked: such as 
the doctrine of the sacrifice of the 
Eucharist, prayers for the dead, 
&c. It is a most rare volume: 
there is a copy, if I mistake not, 
in the Library of Exeter Cathe- 
dral. Cardinal Bona should be 
consulted on the subject : he de- 
votes to it a part of the zij th Chap- 
ter of his first Book, Rerum Ia- 
iurg: and has reprinted it in an 
appendix at the end. So anxious 

Bat w time went on, the want of a ^^ Mioeal** which 
in a collected and arranged form should supply all thai 
had heretofore heen divided among these several boojui 
must havebem universally acknowledged. Hence was 
compiled by various Churches that volume, which the 
Coitttitution of Archbishop Winchelsey refers to, called 
MUsale^ or JktUsak pknarium. . 

Before we proceed to an examination of it, I must 
remind the rrader, that the custom of continuing to 
keep in separate books various portions of the servicci 
did not cease with the introduction of the missal of 
modern times. In the catalc^es of the English Car 
tfaednJs .and.MonastOTies which have come down tp 
us, we find EvangeHstariaf and Epistolariaj and Gror 
dualia, and Sequentialiaj and Troparia still used and 
rewritten, together with the missal. These were used 
on great occasions, or in processions, or laid open in 
the choir, or were necessary where so many persons 
(as in those great establishments) were employed in 
the daily service; and evidenced the magnificence 
which the Church knew to be well-fitting to the House 
of God. 

But, in small parishes these numerous books were 
beyond the means of both priest and people ; and it 
may. be asked, if the missal in the thirteenth century 
eontamed all things pertaining to the saying of the 
service, why did the constitution order also the Gra- 
dak and, if the Tropes were not in that, also the Tro- 
perium ? 

were the Lutherans to destroy it, searched for it in vain. Conf. also 

that it is said neither Cassander ilfaM^,LiturgiaGallicana«Lib. 

nor Pamelias could obtain sight of 1. Cap. 8. and Martene. de ant. 

a copy* Bona says he had long Rit. Tom» \.p. 176. 

iviii £>l00ettation ots 

The aiiswer to this is ; parishes were bound to furnish 
all books necessary for the due performance of the 
public worship : and it being stricdy forbidden to any 
priest to say mass alone, without a minister or clerk, 
a book or books were to be supplied which should 
contain those portions of the service in which the duty 
of the assistant lay. There are numerous canons not 
only of general councils, but of synods also of the 
English Church, insisting upon this. Cases of neces- 
sity only were allowed to interfere with the rule : such, 
for example, as of a plague. Hence we find orders to 
this effect in the Anglo-Saxon age, as in the Ecclesi- 
astical Institutes. ** Mass priests shall not on uiy 
account, or by any means celebrate mass alone, with- 
out other men, that he may know whom he addresses. 
Mid who responds to him."* A Council at York, A. d. 
1195, decrees that no priest shall celebrate, " sine 
ministro literate." ^ One of the Constitutions of Walter 
de Kirkham, Bp. of Durham, in 1255, is precise in its 
rule. "Ad augendum vero divini cultus obsequium 
ordinamus et disponimus ; ut in singulis ecclesiis, qua- 
rum facultates ad hoc sufficiunt, sint diaconi et sub- 
diaconi, sicut decet, Deo ministrantes. In aliis vero 
ecclesiis saltem unus clericus idoneus, et honestus, qui 
in tonsura decenti congruo habitu deserviat sacerdoti, 
ne ecclesiae debitis officiis defraudentur."^ Again, a 
canon of the synod of Norwich, 1257, in almost the 
same words : " In singulis quoque ecclesiis, quarum 
facultates ad hoc sufficiunt, sint unus diaconus et sub- 

* TJiorpe. Ancient Laws and 501. 

Institates. Vol. 2. 407. ^ TVUkins. Concilia. Tom. I. 

• Wilkins. ConciHa. Tom. 1. 707. 



diaeodiHiy ki ebdem, at decet, miniBtraiitet. In aliig 
Tero eoekBiit fit Mltem dericns uniis honettos, qui 
aaoerdoti cum haUta eonTenieiiti in divinis miniBtret 
officm.".* And, once more, at a diocesan synod under 
H. Woodlgke of Winchester, in 1308, a canon specifies 
the amodnt which would be. the limit, and the vest- 
menta to be proTided. ^* Volnmus, quod in singulis 
ecdeiiis, qu» ad quinquaginta marcarum (summam) 
Tel ultra» communiter sunt taxat», sint unus diaconus^ 
et unus subdiaconus, continue ministrantes, et unum 
ad mhias yestimentum solenne, ac tunica, et dahnatica 
competens."^ These faring us down to the date of the 
council of Morton and Winchelsey's statute. 

During the ages which intervened between the use 
of the Liber Saeramentorum, with its accompanying 

• WUkm. CoBcOb. Tom. 1. 

• WUkms. Concilia. Tom. 2. 
295. This canon says nothing 
about thederky who at least should 
attend in every, the smallest» pa- 
riah: but there is no doubt soch was 
the rale throi^oat England, and 
not only so^ but in a decent habit : 
^ com habitu couTenienti," as it 
isabore: or, according to the rule 
laid doiwn in the Provincial Con. 
stit of Arddashop Walter Ray. 
nold» A.n. 1322, *^ Item, nullus 
doiciis permittatar ministrare in 
ofido altaris, nisi indutus super- 
peQido." Concilia. Tom. 2. 513. 
It is possible that there might oo^ 
casionally, in poor places, have 
been some difficulty in providing 
the surplice : but means were ge- 

nerally at hand. F(Nr example: a 
canon of a synod of duchester, 
1289. '' Panni etiam chrismales 
in usus seculares, seu prophanos 
minime convertantur,8edadmanu- 
tergia, seu #u^»tff^UcM^ seu pan* 
noB cseieros consuendos sen refioi- 
endos, disposiiione discreti sacer- 
dotb cum omni re verentia catholica 
exponantur.'* Concilia. Tarn. 2. 
171. Compare a statute of a 
Provincial Council of Geo. Nev- 
ille, Archbishop of York, in which 
priests are directed to be ready to 
perform at the proper hours the 
Divine Offices '^induti superpel- 
lidis, quse sibi propriis expensis 
providebunt." Condlia. Torn. 3. 
604. To the same effect, of John 
Kempe. Ihid. 3. 675. And, of a 
Synod of Norwich. HM. 1. 735. 



iDi»»etmion on 

parts, and the general adoption of the complete book^^ 
pf the xivth and xvth centuries, the missal was, if I 
may so speak, in a transition state, sometimes contain- 
ing more, sometimes less of the entire office. Thus 
the manuscripts which still exist vary in theif contents ; 
and it would be neither an useful nor successful task tQ 
delay upon any attempt at a description of them, 
^nd these variations do not extend only to the prayers, 
collects, and graduals, but to the rubrics also. Some 
popies i:x)ntain few ; others none, except mere distinc- 
tions, where portions begin and end; whilst again 
pthers are full, and include the rubrics of the Proces- 
sional. I shall therefore now pass on to the printed 

The first edition known to have been printed of any 
Missal of the English Church, was published in 1492 
at Rouen, by M. Morin, according to the Use of 
Sarum. This is a most important volume, and I shall 
first give an exact collation of it, by which it may 
happen that imperfect portions of it in public or private 
libraries may be identified.*^ One perfect copy only 
is at present known," and no bibliographer has noticed 
it, or been able to prove any edition earlier than that by 
Hertzog," in 1494. This collation will not be without 

^ There were *f completa mis* 
salia" as early as the xith century, 
though we can scarcely decide in 
how great a degree. See Dug' 
daUf Monasticon. 2. 527. Inven- 
tory of Bishop Leofric's books, &c 
" -ju faiUe maerre bee." 

^ As was the case upon a com- 
parison of the book with the edi- 
tion^ in the Bodleian library. A 

large fragment was found there, 
upon vellum, the imperfections of 
which had been supplied from an 
edition upon paper with the date 
1510, printed also at Rouen by 
Joh. Richard : and the whole natu- 
rally so entered in the catalogue.. 

^ In my possession. 

^ Not only because of its old 
renown, but of its really intrinaio 

its use, I trust, to die reader in otlier respects, and he 
will excuse the length to which it necesscurily runs. 

The book is a Folio, printed in black letter, and the 
initials manuscript, either illuminated, or in plain red 
or blue ink. With the exception of the Calendar, in 
double columns, the running title of each page exactly 
standing over the blank space between the columns. 
The present copy is ruled throughout with faint red 
lines, and the rubrics are distinguished by a smaller 
type, also black letter, yery carefully underlined with 
red ink. There is no pagination. 

9^f(Cale fecunHum tiCum 
ectlefie tuvitbutitiu 

This title is upon the recto of the first leaf, of which 
the reverse is blank. There is no signature at the 
bottom of the page. Upon the next leaf begins the 
Calendar» and at the foot of it the sign: fyh iU (Sa- 
rom). Each month occupies a page, uid has head 
lines of so many days to the month, and so many to 

fahie» for I believe it to be the first editioD, for the English forms 

tecood editioD» it will not be oat in the Missa Sponsaliunu The 

of pboe to give here a short de- second title, if I may so call it, 

icrqitioD of this Tolume, from the before Advent Smiday, is : '* In 

oo|»j in the Cambridge University nomine sanctissime trinitatis. Mis- 

lilMrary. The title is *' A&sale sale ad vsum chori sancte ecclesie 

Tsom eodesie Sarom Saram anglicane feliciter incipit." 

ADgBcmer am. 8vo. There is It ends with the Cautells, or *' In- 

Dot a wood-Cut before the service formationes Sacerdotis celebrare 

of Advent Sonday, bat a well cat «volentis :" then the Colophon, 

initial A : and another very beau- ^* Impressum venetiis per 

tifblly executed T, at the Te igiiur Joannem hertzog de laudoia — ^ 

of the Canon. Before the Canon Anno dfii. M.ccccxdiij. 

is a wood-cut of the Crucifixion ; kals mensis decembris.*' The book 

oar B. Saviour, S. Mary, and S. is foliated: 828 folios. 
John. Blanks are left, as in the 

ixii £>i00ettation on 

the moon : of so many hours to the day and to the 
night. There is an additional line to the month of 
January, which runs, ''Slnmsl W^ i:ff« tmfe^: ebHO^ 
man* liU et \iih U et fi^ Dfe0« cccljcb^ rt |)or« W Below 
this, '' 3|anuartu0 fiabet hitsi .xxtU 'Sruna ^xxx^ 0^X 
labet lioraiai» X!bu tite0 tiero otto/' The Calendar gives 
the Golden numbers, the Dominical letters, and the 
Roman mode of reckoning by Calends, Nones, and 
Ides: and the Festivals, Octaves, &c. then observed 
by the Church of Sarum. Somewhere about the middle 
of each month's calendar, taking the opportunity of 
one or more blank days, the position of the Sun is 
stated, as the case may be (Jan.) ^* &ol in aqtiatio," 
or (^Feb.) " &ol in p(fc(btt0/' &c. The months are 
not fuUy occupied with festivals and commemorations. 
For example, in January, the 7th, 9th to 12th inclusive, 
23rd and 24th, 26th, 29th, and 31st are vacant days. 
In May, the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th, 11th, 13th to 
18th inclusive, 20th to 24th inclusive, 27th, 29th and 
30th are vacant ; and in December, the 1st, 2nd and 
3rd, 5th, 9th to the 12th inclusive, the 14th to the 
20th inclusive, the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th, and the 30th 
are also vacant. 

In the month of May, upon the 19th, it is simply 
said, after naming S. Dunstan, " 9^emoria He tlfrffi^" 
i. e. Potentiana. 

After the Calendar follows (upon the last leaf of this 
sheet &r) the " C 25eneti(ctfo faUu rt aque." After 
which are a short '' C BetuHfCtiO panffll/' consisting of 
the '' 9Domfmi0 tobffcum^ rt cum Cpfrittt tuo/' and a 
prayer: and again, "CaUa beneHfrtfo pan(0," viz. 
t. smfutorfum noSrum In nomine oomfhf^ 9- (Hul 
fecit coelum rt terram. t. 9Domfmt0 tiobifcum. R. CEt 
cum fptrftu tUO :** followed by a different prayer. 

%Matt TBOM. Ixiii 

The Mkral itself strictly speaking, now begins, 
with a fresh signatare, a L Tlie first page of this is 
sorromided by a wood-cot border of fbnr pieces, repre- 
senting flowers and birds, executed with much spirit 
and deKcacy, soinewhat in the manner of the very 
beantifol Hotsb published by Geofiry Tori at Paris 
1527. The most striking difference between the two, 
(a diffiarence in which we might almost trace the rapid 
refinement of taste in ibis respect then growing) con- 
sists in a representation of a whiged animal, small, bat 
hideous and disgusting, in the centre of the lower com- 
partment. Rather more than half the page is occupied 
by « wood-cut of the celebration of the Eucharist 
Above the cut is the running title 3>0tnf nf Cft prima atl- 
umfilttf hontf nf, and below it at the head of the first 
column, JncfpftmfCble (ecunUn tiCum teiv. 9Dnfca prima 
teatntcnuk Sti mifUm. Jnttoitufl. Then follows the 
Introit : SOt u Itaabi animam meam, tc the initial 81 
being handsomely illuminated upon gold ground, oc- 
cupying a blank space of half the column for the first 
aeyen lines. 

The signatures run on regularly from ft to I in 
eights. The ordinary of the mass begins at the end 
of the thirteenth line of the second column upon the 
recto of U. There is no break in the line, beyond 
what is usual with a fresh sentence, or any mark to 
denote it : but it begins immediately after the con- 
clusion of the proper office Jn tiffiUa pafcfie^ The 
ordinary of the mass ends upon the reverse of 1 7 in 
the middle of the second column : the lower part of 
which is left blank. The ^* Gloria in excelsis Deo ;" 
" Qremus ;" " Dominus vobiscum ;'' " Credo;" and the 
proper Prefaces are noted. Upon the recto of 1 8 are 
three prayers: CiDrfttioHicenoaantemfCCam. CiDratfo 

Ixiv K>if»tttation on 

Heuota be facramento altarf0« C^catftt ofcenHa poS 
mfCtam^^^ The reverse of this leaf is blank. An extra 
leaf follows^ without a signature, having upon the rec- 
to a large wood-cut coloured, representing the First 
Person of the Ever-blessed Trinity, seated upon a 
throne, crowned with the triple crown; the right 
hand upraised with the two first fingers extended in 
the act of imparting the benediction, the left hand 
resting upon the globe surmounted by the cross. On 
each side of the throne are cherubin, and at the comers 
the Evangelistic Symbols : each symbolic beast holding 
a scroll, blank, but clearly intended for some l^end. 
The upper part of this print is circular, and in size it 
occupies nearly the entire page. 

This is a rare picture, and very seldom found in 
printed missals. The usual one before the Canon is 
the crucifixion or a cross. Possibly in the present 
copy there was originally another leaf preceding this 
with a print also of the crucifixion : this would have 
been upon the reverse of the leaf, whereas that now 
described is on the recto. It is not possible to. 
decide the point, until another copy is found of this 
edition, and I am induced rather to suppose this to 
have been the only print, (for some cause or other) 
and that the book has not been mutilated, because at 
the foot of it, there is drawn, by a contemporary hand, 
a large cross, gilt, as if to supply the omission. 

Immediately following this begins the Canon of the 
Mass, upon m U The initial % of the Te igitur is il- 
luminated like the 9i before described, upon a gold 
ground, occupying one half of the first six lines of the 

^^ Two of these prayers are reprinted in the Ancient Liturgy^ Snd.. 
Edjt pp. Land 141. 

Aettiicc1Booto« ixv 

first odlimin. Thig sheet tit has four leaves only^ and 
as in the Ordiiiary diere are no head-lines or runnuig 
title. The 9cv omnia (aecula raeculotum and ^ter 
Uittn are noted.. The second column of the reverse 
of til iff and the two pages of tit f fi are occupied by the 
pr ay ers &c. to be said after mass, or, ^^ in prostratione" 
at certain times of the year. The Canon itself ends a 
little below the middle of the first column on the re- 
verse ci m fff, but there is no particular mark or break 
in the line ; the last half column of the sheet is blank. 
The offices for the various Sundays and ferials of 
the year, which had been interrupted by the Ordinary 
and the Canon, recommence upon n with the running 
title 3llt We foncto paft^e^ This page is surrounded 
by. a wood-cut border, exactly similar to the one de- 
scribed upon a f,. except that the top compartment is, 
(not reversed, but) turned upside down, which is 
evident at a glance from the bird occupying the centre 
of it. There is no other wood-cut, but close under 
the top border the rubric, CUnHfepaCttie. SSXi mfCCatn^ 
iDiftli* immediately below which begins, Vittuvvtxi tt 
ti^ac tfCUtn, &c The initial Vi is illuminated, not 
' upon gold, occupying a (bird' of the first five lines of 
the column. 

The signatures run on regularly in eights from n to 
} inclusive, and after } another sign, f , also in eight. 
[ The Sunday and ferial offices, followed by the services 
for the four ember days before Advent, end about the 
» middle of the first column upon the recto of ftliU 
. Then come immediately the offices 3|n HeUfcattone ec- 
I citae, with its octave ; 1|n confectatfone eccleOe^ andjn 
I repnfiUatiOlU tttXil^ These end in the middle of the 
[ first column on tine recto of ti« The Sanctorale fol- 
\ bws, beginning in the same column, alter a blank 

VOL. I. f 

Ixvi Z>i00ettatian on 

space of two lines. The rubric simply 3ln flf^fifa 
fonctfantireeapoSDU* jDffm. 9Domfntt0fecu0mate9&a 
The initial 9D is illuminated like the Vi of the Introit 
for Easter Day, not upon a gold ground, and with the 
same space left for it in width, but of four lines only. 
The Sanctorale ends eight lines from the end of the 
second column upon the reverse of % tl((|\ This space 
is of course left blank. 

A new set of signatures now begins : running on in 
eights, from a to 6 : e if and (R are in sixes. The first 
page of a is again surrounded by the same border 
already described, the top and bottom compartments 
as in the beginning of the book. The running title 
is 3|titlf0flia umu0 apoSoU, and the rubric immediately 
under the upper border, CJncfpft commune fanctor* ab 
bfum &ar* 3|n bfgflta tinfuiai appSaU Out euangeUSe. iao 
mtOTam. iDScium^— (Ego autem Qcut oUba, &c. The 
initial (C is illuminated on a plain ground^ like the 
previous % and 2D, occupying one third of the column, 
to the depth of the first four lines. The Ordo Span- 
salium begins upon the reverse of tii)^ the eleventh 
line from the top of the second column. There is no 
break more than usual in the line, but the usual 
heading, jSDttio aH facfetium fponfalia. The running 
title of this page and for the next three leaves (except 
the recto of eb( which has 9^(ffa fponfaUum) is flDrtID 
fponfaUum* There are blank spaces left for the forms 
of espousal and at the giving of the ring, evidently in- 
tended to be filled up with MS. in the vulgar tongue. 
The rubric of the first runs, (£t ffc brt Het fitiem muUert 
per berba He prefeti (ta Hfcen^: facernote Hicente 

xamnm retraSentio. flDefnUe 6(cat xmlitt 
Cacertiote Hocente manum retrajettti^ 

The second runs, (Ct Hfcat fponfutf tenenss^manumfpotife: 

n tmttfriaUmttL Tim MUsa tpoHsaUum is fol- 
lowd bj sone; odMr wmceB, the lart of which is a 
M Mi^' |)nr fttUlttttSt enttlutOttt and ends nx lines aboye 
Aerbottam of ithe fini oolnma on the recto of (BiiU. 
Tint apao» of oooaa left blank. At ihe top of the 
aeemd eotaiim of ilus.|Mge begins ihe colophon, thus : 
Jmpnifii tt am mtgci a^v 
tiiif tttttfn cftif0 llotloiiitgl 
iujBui' taifiutit pnocAuiiu 
Cmctf famtf .tfttOitm xitiitttf$( 
tnanun tn^tntftf tfBlciii} Cft* 
tntni At itfitm Gu (fit fmlno 
bqmttt) mflCale hfeto/ f rtlecti 
carcmfonfK Umft nttper caftf* 
gatitm n tm^nWa : Snft UUti 
tn; ianm boinf lii 9^«CCCC 
IxxxfU. Bfe jrff. fl>a9brf0. 
The retnamder of ihe coluxnn is blank. Upon the 
rerene of the leaf is the device of the printer Martin 
Morm; smTounded by the legend W^Vi39^.SL^ 
VJDfaa^. It^iaSLfif^ &StiiL€%. %iD. 
A foil page (for example fc U) without rubricsy con- 
f tains forty lines, besides the running title : a U nearly 
I fbU of rufaric, as I have already said in a smaller 
' letter, faaa the same number. 

I The Missals contain very frequently ^^Extracta e 
' compoto^" either at the beginning or end : these are 
V helps to the proper understanding of the calendar: 
i flometimes a table ^^ ad inveniendum pascha in perpe- 
I tuum :" occasionally at the end, ^' Prologus in accen- 
: tuarinm '^ a guide to the quantity of various words in 
reading and chanting, with an ample list of words 
i long and short. Before the Ordinary of the Mass^ or 



Di00ettation on 

at the end of the volume are commonly also to be 
found the '^ Cautelae missae." The Canon is sometimes 
printed upon vellum, and (I believe) always preceded 
by a wood-cut, representing generally the crucifixion, 
and occupjdng sometimes the upper half^ sometiiiaies the 
whole of a page.^^ It was the presence of this picture 
which caused the mutilation of so many of the copies 
which have come down to us : and those in which it 
was allowed to remain, or were hidden and so escaped, 
are almost always perfect in other respects/* It is 
wonderful what an effect a first mutilating of any book 
has upon the after-care bestowed upon it: it is no 
longer complete, and offends its possessors. How 
much more would such a feeling, mournful indeed, be 
the consequence of the indignities to which the Church- 
books were subjected in the xvith century: and to it 
we may trace one among the causes owing to which 
thousands perished altogether. 

I shall now copy from an edition printed by Reg- 
nault, in Fol. at Paris, 1529^ the table of contents: 
and this will, with an account of the service for one 

** I have already briefly alluded 
to this wood-cut or illumination 
of the Cross or Crucifixion. Bona, 
Lib, 2. xi. speaks of it, as of a 
very ancient observance in M SS. 
which is true ; but it was not ab- 
solutely necessary : its object was 
to remind the priest of the Divine 
Service in which he was. engaged. 
Probably to this are we to trace 
the interpolated prayer of the 
Hereford Missal: "Adoramus," 
&c. Ancient Liturgies, 2nd Edit. 
p. 75. 

" Very many editions of the 
Sarum Missal are adorned with a 
profusion of wood-cuts, small and 
large, varying also with the site 
of the volume. These are gene- 
rally prefixed to the beginnings of 
each day's service. Among them 
two especially will often be found 
defaced or cut cfut altogether. One, 
the crucifixion, before the Missa 
de quinque vulnerihus : the other, 
a representation of S. Mary Mag- 

^tb&t TBtuA»: Ixix 

Sunday, enable the reader to form a tolerably correct 
idea of what he may expect to find in the old missals 
of the Churdi of England. 

^ C Hbc in opere hac sequentia hoc ordiae eontirientur. 
Prima. Tabula annornm communium et bissextilium 
KteranmiqTO dominicaUum quotannis ciirrentium. Cla- 
Tium item festorom mobilinm : simulque aurei nmneri 
8dfa|nnctL Sccundo^ Kalendarium, ex quo multas eli- 
cera poteris utilitatee : .quia aureus numenis in prin- 
cipio locatus, noyilunii singulis mensibus est declaira- 
tlnis. Pott numerum yero aureum sequitur series li- 
terarum, dominicalium Uterarum declarativa. Post 
kerne Tero locantur festa» tarn celebria quam non cele- 
bria» ac modus eorumdem dicendi officia. Pdstremo 
tnlem ponuntur numeri mensium dierum declaralivi : 
f&r quos offida sanctorum atque sanctarum hoc in 
opere cqntentarum, hcHe inveniimtur.^^ 

C Dominkarum ac feriarum officia cum ordinem 
senrenty ac per titulos satb constent, non opus esse 
duxi de his tabula cudere. 

C Sanctorum atque sanctarum officia ^° numerus 
(ut supra dixi) in kalendario positus tibi facile indi- 

C iSeqnuntur ea in quibus in quserendo labor con- 
tingere potest. Primo. Commune suictorum atque 
sanctarum proprium non habentium. 

Commune apostolorum. Folio, i. 

Conunune evangelistarum. fo. ii. 

Unius martyris non pontificis. fo. iiij. 

" Thia is a very complete ar- ^ Some editions which have 

rangement of a Calendar, as com- tables of the same sort, (for all 

ptrisoii with other editions will have not) say *' officia manifesta 

shew. sunt per titulos." 

ixx DijSffettation on 

Unius martyris pontificiB. fo. vL 

Plurimomm martyrum. fo* vij« 

Unius confesBoris. fo. ^0 

. Unius confessoris et doctoris. fo. xiij. 
Unius confessoris et abbatis. fo.xiij. 

De quocumque confessore. fo. xiiij. 

Flurimorum confossorum. fo. ky. 

Unius yirginis et martyris. fo. xv. 

Unius virginis non martyris. fo. xvij. 

Plurimarum virginum. fo. xvij. 

De non yirginibus. fo. xviij. 
C Missce dicendie per hebdomadam. 

Dominicus diebus de Trinitate. fo. xix. 
Feriis ij. de angelis. fo* xx. 

Feriis iij. Salus populi. fo. xx. 

Feriis iiij. de defunctis. fo. xlix. 

Vel de Sancto Spiritu. fo. xxj. 

Feriis r. de sacramento. fo. xxij. 
Feriis vj. de sancta cruce, et de ^ 

quinque vulneribus. > fo, xxiij. 

Sabbatis de beata virgine. fo. xxvj. 
C Missce votiva sive communes j scilicet primo : 
Salus populi, pro fratribus et "^ 

sororibus. 3 fo. xx. 

De quinque vulneribus Christi. fo. xxiij. 

Coronae Domini. fo. xxv. 

Pro pace. fo. xxx. 

Pro rege. fo. xxxj. 
Ad invocandum gratiam Spiritus Sancti. fo. xxxj. 

Pro seipso. fo. xxxij. 
Ad poscendum donum Spiritus Sancti. fo. xxxij. 

Pro peccatoribus et poenitentibus. fo. xxxiij. 

Pro inspiratione divinse sapientiae. fo. xxxiij. 

Contra tribulationem cordis. fo. xxxiiij. 

Pro infirmo. fo. xxxiiij. 

Pro salute amici. fo. xxxv. 

Proserenitateaeris: etpropluviapetenda. fo. xxxv. 

Tempore belli. fo. xxxvj. 

Pro eo qui in vinculis tenetur. fo. xxxvj. 

Contra mortalitatem hominom. fo. xxxvij. 

Pro peste animalium. fo. xxxvij. 

Pro quacumque tribulatione. fo. xxxvij J 

Missa sponsaJiunL fb. xly^ 

Pro mulieribus praegnantibus. fo. xlv- 

Pro iter agentibus. fo. xlyj. 

Pro mortalitate evitanda. fo. Iv, 

De sancto Sebastiano. fo. Ivj. 

Erasmi mar^ et Rocbi confessoris. fo. Ivij. 

Chnstofori martyris. fo. Iviij. 

Antonii confessoris. fo. lviij« 

Raphaelis archangelL fo. lix. 

Gabrielis arch : et compassionis Mariae. fo. Ix. 

Barbarae virginis. fo. lxj« 

Trigintale beati Gregorii. fo. liiij. 

Memoriae pro vivis. fo. xxxviij. 

Memoriae pro defunctis. fo. Ij. , . 

C Benedictio thalami. fo. xlv« 

Benedictio panis diebus dominicis. fo. xlvj. 

Benedictio crucis, perae^ et baculi. fo. xlviij. 

C De Sacramento matrimonii. fo. xlij. 

Kyrie eleison. fo. Ixij. 

Preeparatio ad missam^ quaere ante praefationem. 

A6<ddentia missae, quaere post canonem." 

Commonly, at the beginning of the missals, under 
the office for the first Sunday in Advent, are included 
gneral rubrics for the services throughout the year : 
jgrtrnlar variations affecting these are of course 
Mtwed ill their proper places. 

ixxii Di00ettation on 

Let us take the third Sunday in Advent. The course 
of ^ seirice on that day was ; C Dominica tertia 
AdncHius. Ad magnam missam. Officium (or Introit). 
Gaudete in Domino. Ps. Et pax Dei. Oratio. 
Aur^u tuam. Epistola. ad Corinthios. Fratres. Sic 
BOS existimet. Gradale. Qui sedes. ^. Qui regis 
Israel. Alleluia, t. Excita Domine. Sequentia. Qui 
regis sceptra. Secundum Matthcewn. In illo tempore. 
Cum audisset Johannes. Offertorium. Benedixisti 
Domine* t. Operuisti omnia, t. Ostende nohis. 
iS!^Teta. Devotionis nostrse. Prafatio quotidiana. 
CimuHmm. Dicite pusillanimes. Postcommunio. Im- 
j^oramus Domine. 

Tlie rest of the service was to he found in the Ordi- 
nary and Canon, which (I believe I may say) invariably 
vii^re placed in the middle of the volume^ either follow- 
iug the service for Easter day, or before the Sancto- 
nJe: that is, the offices for the Saints' days. The 
rubrics which were in that part, with those already 
UMHitioQed in the service for Advent Sunday, would 
«iupply all the required directions. 

I s^ not think it necessary to extract the service of 
^ttH>ther day : except in the changes of Tract and Se- 
^u\MK;e> and Gradual, and Halleluiah, they are much 
(^ :i«yiii^, and an examination of the modem Roman 
(Mi^^ will sufficiently shew to what extent these 

V^ ^N^ Vwn already stated, the first edition of the 
>!<^ 1^^ ^M^ was printed in 1492 ; '^ the last, I believe, 

* ^ HH« v^fe'MM** itt England Worde. Impressum London, apud 

%<^\ Vs \*^*^ XiMiwry* folio: in Westmonasteriunl per lulianum 

l!>^^>y*i<*^^ ^v^mt^ impen- notaire et lohanem barbier felici 

nK f ^^ ^ mi^^ ^ ^< ^*^ Wlnkm de nomine explicitum est. Anno 

%mitt ^oofc0. 


in folio als^ no printer^s name»*^ <^ Londini, Anno 
dondni, M.D.lYij.'* This^ has at ihe beginning a 
most ample table of contents, not only of tbe saints - 
dajB, arranged under each month, but also of the 
Sundays. There is a full collection also of occasional 
TOsmMHj among which are, ^* pro incarcerate^ pro temp* 
tatione camis, pro rege et regina, pro quiescentibus in 
coemeterio.'' &c. I do not mean that these are not also 
in odier editions, but notice them to shew ihe value of 
duB one^ and also that ihe reader must expect to find 
such variations as these in the missals wldch he may 
happen to meet with : some having more, some a less 
number of these votive and occasional masses. In 
speaking of books so rare in their kind as Salisbury 
Buasak, it seems almost absurd to speak of a choice of 
editions : and though in a collection the late ones, of 
Queen Mary's day, are fiilly as valuable and important 
as the earlier, yet if one only is to be referred to, I 
should myself prefer and have more reliance upon a 
copy printed before 1545 than after. The foHo of 
1557 has a value from its being the last Missal of 
Salisbury Use published by authority in England. 

dfiL M. occc Ixxxxviij. xx. die 
menais Deoembiis.*' I have a 
eopy of this, wanting the first 
sheet and a sheet in the middle. 
Th^re is a fine copy in the library 
of his Grace the Duke of Suther- 
land. The next edition was by 
Pynson. fol. 1504. 

A word may be added upon so 
important a book as the Roman 
missaL Zacearia^ Tom. i. p. 52» 
mentions the edition of 1477 as 

the first : but there was an edition 
before that by Udalric Gallus, 
1475, which Mr. Gage^ Archs- 
ologia, VoL 24. />. 14, speaks of. 
And again, on the authority of 
Jlciinf Repertorium Bibl. there 
were preceding this, two without 
date or place, and one at Venice 
withoAt date. 

^ Most probably by John Day. 

^ In my possession. 


Dtojsertation on 

The Hereford jmsBdlf so far as I have been able to 
learn» was printed but twice ; neither do I know of 
more than three copies: not one of these is perfect 
Two are in the Bodleian, the other in the library of 
St. John's College, Oxford." The St. John's copy is 
but a large fragment : one in the Bodleian, upon Vel^ 
luniy wants a few leaves only. The book is a folio, 
and the following are the Title and Colophon of the 
first edition. Title :—^^ Anno Incamationis domini 
secundo supra quingentesimum atque millesimum, die 
vero prima mensis Septembris, opera et industria M. 
Petri oliverii et Johannis mauditier Impressorum Ro^ 
thomagi, juxta sacellum divi apostolorum principis 
Petri commorantium. Impensa vero Johannis richardi 
mercatoris : hoc novum et egregium opus sacri Missa- 
lis ad usum famosae ac percelebris ecclesie Helfordensis 
nuper instanti ac peruigili cura visum correctum et 
emendatum. Necnon auctoritate reuerendi in Christo 
patris et domini ejusdem ecclesie epyscopi meritissimi, 
ac dominorum . decani et capituli : est in propatulp 
Tenale facile precio coram cunctis productum et exhi- 
bitum." Colophon. ^* Finis Missalis ad vBum Celebris 
ecclesie Helfordensis. summa cura ac vigili opera 
nuper Impressi Rothomagi cum additione accentuarii 

^ In a former book, the An- 
cient Liturgy of the Church of 
England, of which a second edi- 
tion is published with the present 
work, I spoke of a copy of the 
York missal in the libraryx)f this 
College. It was a mistake*: I so 
understood the then librarian: 
but on a further search about a 
year after, I found that it was of 

Hereford Use, as stated in the 
text : and especially valuable : be* 
cause although sadly imperfect, 
it fortunately possesses that leaf 
in the Canon, in which some 
words of a very remarkable prayer 
have been erased in one of the 
Bodleian copies, and altogether 
wanting in the other. 

•edritelBooKt; ixxv 

legenfibus in «odeab rralde .vtili. Et Iim impeiiBis 
lohaanii richardi dnidem Rothomagi dvis ium imme* 
liti: iiirta eocleiriaip cKoi nicholai commorantiB,*^ At 
ligift. A. jw after Ae Calandar and seYeral pages con- 
tainii^ dirediona howto say the CoUecta, Uie Kyries, 
he. ihe short title at the head of the service for 
Adyent Sunday is, '^ Indpit missale secundum vsum 

Of the York missal five editions are extant : but so 
compleCely has it also been destroyedi that except of 
two^ the 1516^ and the 1533, only single copies are 
belieTed to remain. Hiese editions are ; 1. FoL Peter 
Olivier» Rouen, 1516. In tiie Bodleian, and not quite 
peHbct (some inside owners of the ordinary and ca- 
iMm bring destroyed) in tiie Cambridge University 
library. 2. Quarto. 1517. In my possession. I shall 
give the full title and colophon of this edition, as it lies 
before me. Title: — '^JMOssale ad vsum celeberrime 
ecclesie Eboracensis optimis caracteribus nouissime Im- 
pressum, cura peruigili maximaque lucubratione mendis 
(juampluribus emendatum, atque in forma portatili mar- 
ginatum, ere et knpensis honestorum virorum guillermi 
bemard et Jacobi cousin, bibliopolarum Rothomagi 
degentium ante atrium librariorum maioris ecclesie, 
atque in ipso atrio e regione curie ecclesiastice. Anno 
salutis christianse decimo septimo supra millesimum et 
qoiogentesimum, die vero vicesimasexta mensis octo- 
bris completum.'' Colophon. ^^ C Ad laudem et glo. 
nam omnipotentis dei et virginis marie ac totius curie 
celestis, exaratum et completum ac etiam in prislino 
statu redactum est hoc presens missale ad vsum insig- 
nis ecclesie Eboracensis. Opera honesti viri, Ma- 
gistri Petri oliuier impressoris. Rothomagi commo- 
rantis."* 3. Quarto. Johannis Gachet. 1530. In the 

ixxvi Dissertation on 

Bodleian. 4. 4to. Fr. Regnault. Paris. 1533. In 
the Bodleian, and S. John's College, Cambridge. 5- 
Fol. Peter Violette, Rothomagi. In the Bodleian. 
A fragment, one sheet only, of a York missal is in the 
library of the British Museum, which has been long 
supposed to be of an unknown edition. It is in fact a 
part of the edition of 1516. 

I need scarcely add that Dr. Lingard was quite 
right when he spoke of the York missal as being ^^ ex- 
tremely rare." It is second only to the Hereford. But 
he is in error, when he adds " it is doubtful whether 
any perfect copy exists, except the one preserved at 
Cambridge in the library of St. John's College."" 

It is believed that the missals of Bangor and Lincoln 
were never printed : at least no record or trace of either 
has been discovered. 


THE next and the last book in the Archbishop s 
Constitution is the " Manual : " of which Lynd- 
wood says : " Manuakj sic dictum a manuj quia assiduc 
habetur ad manum, et in eo continebuntur omnia quae 
spectant ad sacramentorum, et sacramentalium minis- 
trationem. Item Benedictiones tam fontium quam 
aliorum secundum usum ecclesiasticum benedicendo- 
rum." The statute does not make mention of the 
Processional^ and Lyndwood goes on to say, that under 

^ Quoted by Sir Harris Nicolas, in his very useful Chronohgy of 
History, p, 97. 

^ettoice TBookfi. ixxvii 

tbe title of Manual it also is included. But as they 
certainly were distinct, and the object of the canonist 
was rather to prove the necessity of furnishing under 
this order all requisite service books, I shall first speak 
of the Manual by itself, and presently of the Proces- 

The explanation which Lyndwood gives is in a ge- 
neral way sufficiently correct : the Manual does con- 
tain the offices and rites and ceremonies, which the 
parish-priest in the discharge of his duties would be 
called upon to perform. It answered to the volume of 
modem days which we call the ^^ occasional offices ; " 
and in it were to be found the orders for baptism, 
matrimony, visitation of the sick, churching of wo- 
men, extreme unction, and burial. But besides these 
were also many others, which less frequently would 
be required ; as well as portions of the services of the 
communion upon great occasions, with which were 
mingled some important solemnities. But I can give 
no better account of the Manual, than its own table 
of contents will supply : and I shall take this from an 
edition in 4to. of which the title is: ^'Manuale ad 
usum percelebris ecclesie Sarisburiensis : Rothomagi 
recenter impressum, necnon multis mendis tersum at- 
qae emimdatum typis Nicholai Rufi, m. d. xliij." At the 
end : ^' C Explicit Manuale ad usum insignis ecclesie 
Sarisburiensis, tam in cantu quam in litera diligentis- 
sime recognitum : et nusquam antehac elimatius im- 
pressum. In quo ea quae servat ecclesiasticus ritus 
ordine congruo connectuntur. Excusum Rothomagi. 

In my possession. 

ixxviii Diwettation m 

The table of contents is, 
Benedictio salis et aquse. fo. ij. 
Aspersio aquae benedictse tempore paschali. fo. iij. 
Benedictio panis dominicis diebus. fo. y. et Ivij. 
Cantus evangelii Liber generationis qui in nocte nati? : 

Domini canitur. eodem. 
Lectio altematim cantanda eadem nocte. viij. 
Cantus evangelii Factum est autem, in nocte epiph. 

cantandus. x, 
Benedictio luminis in festo purificationis beatse Marise. 

Servitium quatuor temporum in capite jejunii ciua 

bened. cinerum. xvj. 
Benedictio firondium in dominica palmarum. xviij. 
Servitium in coBua Domini, xx. 
Servitium in vigil, paschse. xxv. ' 
Ordo ad faciendum catechumenum. xxxiiij. 
Benedictio fontis. xxxvij. 
De baptismo. xliij. 
De piM*ific. mulierum.*^ xlv. 
Ordo sponsalium.*^ xlvj. 
Servitium peregrinorum. Iviij. 
Benedictio ensis novi militis. Ixiij* 
Benedictio camium in die paschae. Ixiij. 
Benedictio camis, casei, butyri, ovorum sive pastillar 

rum pasch. Ixiiij. 
Benedictio novorum fructuum. eodem. 
Benedictio ad omnia qusecumque volueris. eodem. 
Benedictio seminis. eodem. 
Benedictio pomorum in die S. Jacobi apostoli. eodem* 

^ *^ Ordo ad puriOcandam mu- ^ ^^ Ordo ad fiunendum spon- 
lierem postpartum.'* EditDouay. salia, sive roatrimonium." Douay. 
1604. 1604. 

•emice 160010« ixxix 

^ctio elamoflynee. Ixv. 

dictio scuti et baculi ad daellum. eodem. 

idietio ocalomm infiruionuu. Ixvj. 

dictio nayifl. eodem. 

dictiones mensae, et gratiamm actiones. Ixvij. et 


itium includendorum. Ixix. 

EBLtiones. Ixxv. et Ixxyj. 

>n cum rubrica a novo incipientibus commodis- 

Ena. Ixxyiij. 

> ad visitandum infirmum. Ixxx. 

ema unctio. xciij. 

imesdatio animanmi. cj. 

rica de Yigil. mortuormn. cxij. 

iliae mortuorum.*' cxiij. 

mi cantandi in commendatioiie animarmn. cxxix» 

sa pro defimctis. cxxxiiij. 

imatio defimcti . cxliiij . 

edictio tumuli, clij. 

sa de sancta cruce. cliij. 

sa de beata Maria, eodem. 

stola cum evangeUo de Trinitate. civ. 

sa de Sancto Spiritu. eodem. 

firmatio puerorum. clvj. 

edictiones omnium rerum ecclesiasticarum. clvij^ 

edictio ad omnia, clxj. 

edictio campanse. eodem. 

ipotus. clxiij. 

[us separandi leprosos. clxiiij. 

na testamenti. clxvj. 

na bannorum proclamatorum. clxvij. 

f the above offices some, although more properly 

^ Preccs post egressum animae." Douay. 1604. 


Dto0ertatton on 

they belong to the missal, as the Canon and the votive 
masses, or again to the pontifical as the order of con- 
firmation, yet were generally included in the Manual 
during the xvth and xvjth centuries, for the conve- 
nience and instruction of the parish priest. They ar» 
in three editions now before me, all of 1554,*® But 

* Viz : '* Londini, Kingston et 
HenricuB Sutton impress." (in 
the Colophon.) ** Londini recen- 
ter impressum." (Title.) And 
*< Londini nouiter Impressum." 
(Title.) All these are in 4to. 
and so alike that only a careful 
comparison with the different co- 
pies actually before one, will prove 
that they are not of the same 
edition. Separately, the best prac- 
tised could not say to which the 
sheets of an impeHfect copy would 
belong. They are exactly similar 
in type, in paper, in arrangement: 
and more than this, not only do 
the catchwords correspond in al- 
most every page, but where owing 
to some error corrected it hap- 
pens that they do not, the suc- 
ceeding page by management is 
made to take up the agreement 
again, llie same object was 
aimed at in other books of the 
same period, and there are many 
of which several editions were put 
forth, all so alike, that bibliogra- 
phers who have examined them 
apart, have set them down as 
belonging to one and the same 
edition. For example : Bp. Bon- 
ner's Necessary Doctrine, and 

HomUiesy and Bishop Wataon's 
ffolsome Doctrine, Or, the 
Common Prayer Books of Edwd. 
vith. There are two editions 
dated in the month of June, 1549 : 
and Grafton and Whitchurch 
printed each two in folio, of 1552. 
It may be said that all this is of 
little or no importance : but it is 
not so. The fact of more than 
one edition of any book prove» 
the demand for it, and its popu- 
larity. Again, the editions m^ 
look the same exactly, because the 
type, and pagination, and signa- 
tures, and catchwords are so; but 
in fact very considerable differ- 
ences «ay exist. This is remark- 
ably the case with the Necessary 
Doctrine of Bishop Bonner. The 
second edition contams a table of 
errata corrected^ which is not to 
be found in the first. And, once 
more, the common error of sup- 
posing only a single edition of a 
book to have been published, has 
led, I do not hesitate to speak 
without doubt in the hope that more 
care may be taken for the future, 
has led (I say) to the throwing 
out of so called duplicates from 
public libraries. 

%etwtt TBotOa. ixxxi 

Anr the revision of the service-books of the wes- 
om Church which followe4 the council of Trent 
ome of these were omitted : and a more exact 
rnngement and distribation followed. This was 
bterved in two editions of the ^^ Manuale ad usum 
ianim," published at Douay, in 4to. 1604, and Syo. 
610.^ I need scarcely say that these volumes were 
itended for ihe use of the priests and congregations 
rho did not at that date conform to the Church of 
bigland. They plaqe first the Orders of baptism, 
faorching of women, marriage, visitation of the sick, 
xtreme unction, and burial, which are followed by 
hat of confirmation and seventeen offices of Benedic- 
bn. The rest of the Manual, as it was fifty years 
lefore, is omitted. The edition of 1610 adds a few 
Mges of notes, and I believe is the last which was 
Minted of the Manual which with some variations the 
lihurch of England had used for 1000 years. 

But the table given above, full as it is and much 
Dore so than of the later editions, is not to be under- 
tood as exactly corresponding to the contents of all 
he early Manuals. «It omits for example one very 
Diportant part which is seldom however contained in 
hem after 1520. I mean the Greater Form of £x- 
ommnnication. As I propose to give this entire in 
lie second volume of the present work, I think it unne- 
easary to do more here than notice the circumstance. 

The book of occasional offices was, if I mistake 
et, always known in England by the name of Manual : 
•at abroad there were other names given to it, which 
equire a brief mention. 

** Both these in my possession. 
VOL. I- g 


D<00ettatioti on 

The most usual of these was Ritual. " Rituah 
'^ Liber Ritualis," and with this was sometimes j( 
the Manuale, as for example : " Rituale seu Mai 
Ecclesi» Catalaunensis." (Chalons) 1649* Ai 
is this title which the Church of Rome has ad< 
of late years. " Rituale Sacramentorum R 

Sometimes " Agenda" : and this of course in 
a different meaning from that in which it was ( 
anciently) applied to the Holy Communion :'* thi 

^ ** Rituale Romanum a ritibus 
in eo descripdB, nomen desump- 
sisse concordant omnes DD. et 
ipsamet etymologia satis docet, eo 
pacto, quo Misaale a missa^ Sa^ 
cramentarium a sacramentis, 
Processionale a processionibus, et 
alia hujiismodi volumina deriva- 
tionem traxere a rebus in iisdem 

descriptis et explicatis. In ec- 

clesia Catholica nomen hoc /?t- 
tuale prsecipue invaluit tempore 
Pauli V. tunc quando (anno sc 
1614) jussit ex antiquis prsescrip- 
tis cseremoniis ab ecclesia aposto- 
lica non discrepantibus volumen 
unum confid, in quo sacri ejusdem 
ecdesise ritus in sacramentorum 
administratione, aliisque ecclesias- 
ticis functionibus servandi com- 
prehenderentur, illudque Rituale 
Romanum appellari mandavit." 
Baruffaldus, ad Rit. Rom. Comra. 
tit. 1. Cap. 1. 

*^ Du Cange. Glossarium. 
The Agenda mortuorum occurs 

repeatedly in the Antipho 
S. Gregory : and compai 
ixth. Canon of the Coui 
Carthage, a.d. 897. "A 
versis episcopis dictum est : 
quis presbyter inconsulto ep 
Agenda in quolibet loco 
rit celebrare, ipse houQri su 
trarius existit.'* Lahhe ei 
8art.Tom,2.col\\&2. & 
Bona. Rer. Liturg. Lib. 1. 
iij. The notes to the folio < 
cite an important place < 
Bedcy Vita S. Augustini Ca 
Episc. " Per omne Sabbs 
Presbytero loci illius A\ 
eorum solemniter celebra 
Those who remember how 
hangs upon the full mean 
r«ro vouiTt eU rrjy ifiriv di 
a IV will not regret having 
attention turned to this syi 
ofMissa. Facere^ I need 9C 
add, also signifies to offer : 
the famous place of Tert\ 
de Corona, ** Pro natalitiis 
die focimus." Opera, p. 1 

%ettlfi» TBOOk». Ixxxiii 

hsva^ ** Agenda parochialiniri ecdesiarom Argenti- 
nenris dicBcegb." (Strasburgh.) This again, explained 
IB the title. ^Agenda, sen Rituale Osnabrugense. 

I 1653." Again, of which there is a copy in the Gam- 
bridge UniTersily library : ^^ Agenda S. Goloniensis 

j Eedesise : hoc est, Liber Pastoralis, in quo continen-^ 
torooiniaqufeinsacramentisadministrandis — officium 

I spectant'' 4to. Colon. 1637. 

Anothw tide was '^ Sacramentale'* : of which Zac^ 
caria gives three examples, all of Churches in Italy : 
and one of Sacramentarium.^ But much more usual 
was ''Pastorale": as, ''Pastorale ecclesifle sive dics- 
cesb Gandavensis.'* (Ghent.) 1640. Or more fiilly, 
of Mechlin, in a copy before me : " Pastorale, sive 
canones et ritos ecclesiastici, qui ad sacramentorum 
administratimiem aliaque pastoralia officia rite obeimda 
pertinent.'' 1589. In the ancient catalogue of the 
Durham books, we find "Pastoralis, eximius liber." 
Bat thift could not have been a Manual, for it is among 
hock» headed, '' Hii sunt libri qui leguntur ad colla- 
tioB^a.*'^ So there is a '^ Liber Pastoralis" among 
the bodia which William, Bp. of Durham, gave to S. 
Cathbert's church. But we cannot decide what this 
particular bock was. 

The Manual cited above, printed at Douay 1604, 
has in its colophon a name wldch was also occasionally 
in use by itself as a title : viz. " Institutio." ^< Haec 
sacra Institutio baptizandi, et alia quaedam sacramenta 
et ritns ecclesiasticos administrandi &c." Thus ; '^ In- 
stitutio parochorum, recognita et edita jussu D. Petri, 
Arch. Viennensis.'' 1586. and again : <' Institutio 

^ BiU. RitoaHs. Tarn, I. p, ^ Catalog! veteres Librorum. 
156. Surtees Sociehf, p. 9. 

ixxxiv Dlwettarton oit 

catholica, quam Manuale vocant, edita anctbritate D. 
Eustachii Parisiensis episcopi." 1552. 

Lastly, besides all these, which contain under such 
various titles the same offices, there is one other book? 
which seems to me to be that which Lyndwood ex- 
plains (though I cannot but think erroneously) to be 
the Manual, intended in the Archbishop's constitu- 
tion. Whether parishes were bound under that sta- 
tute to furnish also the Processional, which is not 
specifically named, either in the same volume with the 
Manual, or separately in another, is not the point I 
am enquiring into, and admits of dispute : for it cer- 
tainly was not necessarily nor usually included in it. 
Lyndwood says, after the word " Benedicendorum'' in 
the passage cited p. Ixxvj. " Et hie, in hoc loco, Ma- 
nualis nuncupatione, puto etiam contineri ea quae sunt 
usitata in procesdonibus ecclesiasticis quandocunque 
fiendis ; ut sic etiam Liber Processionalis dicatur Ma- 
nuale, licet hie de eo non fiat mentio specialis.'^ 

But the " Sacerdotale" does answer to these requisi- 
tions : in it are not only the contents of the Manual, 
or Ritual, but also of the Processional, and some other 
books besides. One is now lying before me, " Sacer- 
dotale secundum usum S. R. ecclesise." Venetiis. 1558. 
This contains (the full table would occupy many pages) 
several treatises and prefaces at the beginning, followed 
by the offices of the sacraments and occasional rites, 
with disquisitions and rules and resolutions of difficult 
cases: then the various benedictions: a full Proces- 
sional : a calendar and computus and explanations : a 
treatise on the chanting and church-music: and lastly, 
exorcisms and popular sermons on the great festivals. 
In short, as it is in the title of the book, and how 
difierent from the Manual ! " In quo non solum om- 

nium sacramentorum quae a sacerdotibus fieri possunt, 
officia : yerum etiam resolutiones omnium dubiorum 
id ea pertinentiuin, et excommmiicationum canones, 
com brevi illarum et absoluta deelaratione ex sacris 
doctoribus collecta, multaque alia sacerdotibus valde 
^tilia atque necessaria continentur/'^* 


HAVING now gone through and attempted to 
explain the list of service books ordered in the 
ccMistitution of Archbishop Winchelsey, our next step 
J» to notice those which are mentioned in the other 
Btajtotes which I cited. And among ^hese the ^^ Bre- 
Yiarium" claims the first place.^ 

I am called upon to make some remarks upon the 
Breviary in another part of these volumes: here I 
shall repeat that the word itself occurs for the first 
time in Micrologus, an author of about a. d. 1080. 
Some say that it was so called as containing not merely 
ui arrangement but an abbreviation of the Divine 
Offices: probably both reasons may have had their 
influence on the name. However this may be, the 
Breviary in its full and settled state, say from the 

^ Other Dames for the same '< Ordo." ** Libellus Officialis/' 

Tolume occur, though instances and lastly, with more propriety, 

are rare» and they simply require *^ Parochiale." Vide, Bibl. Ritual. 

Dotioe: viz. MUralisj as Zaccaria Tom. 1. 155. 

obserret " singulare nomen.** ** Vide />. xvj, Synod of Wor^ 

" (EcoDomia Domus Domini." cester. 

ixxxvi Dissertation on 

twelfth and thirteenth centuries, contained the whole 
offices of the canonical Hours throughout the year: 
of the great festivals^ the saints-days, the Sundays, 
and the week-days. These were arranged under 
Xheir respective days, with rubrics directing to certain 
prayers, hymns, or psalms which occurred frequently, 
or to the psalter which formed a portion of the volume. 
The rubrics of breviaries in manuscript will be found 
to vary much in their fulness as they happen to have 
been written for the use of churches or monasteries of 
which the Ordinals had been drawn up. Thus some 
would have but very few : others again as many in 
comparison. Not that we are to suppose, by any 
means, that the existence of an Ordinal always led to 
the omission of rubrics in the Breviary : for the Ordinal 
itself might be more or less complete, and both might 
continue to give, with relation to certain parts of the 
Office, what we may call, duplicate directions. 

The first edition which was printed of the Sarum 
Breviary was at Venice. " Venetiis per Raynaldum 
de Nduimagio. M.cccc.lxxxiii." in folio. The last,. 
I believe, at Paris, in 12mo. 1556, of which the second 
volume. Pars EstivaliSj is dated 1557. Soon after- 
wards the Breviaries of other churches began, for con- 
venience sake, to be printed in four volumes, divided 
into « Pars Hiemalis," « Vema,*' " iEstiva," and 
^* Autumnalis."^ But the Breviaries of the English 
Church never exceeded two volumes : the Hiemalis 
and Estivalis. If in one, always, if I mistake not, in 

^ In each of these parts, and the Commune Sanctorum, &c. 

so also of the Sarum Breviaries if Indeed otherwise, the separate 

in two volumes, are repeated the volumes would be useless. 
Psalter, the Canon if included, 

%ettitCt IBOO&0. Ixxxvii 

folio : in two, they ranged from small folio, through 
4to. and 8yo. sizes, to the duodecimo. I speak of 
them as we bow would, not of their signatures, which 
pommonly ran in eights. 

Here, as I am upon the size of the Breviary, seems 
to be the proper place to speak of the ^^ Portiforium :*' 
with its various English names, of Porteau, Portuary, 
Portuis, Portuasse, Porthoos, and Portfory. There can 
be no doubt that the printed Breviary in folio of the Use 
of Sarum is of the highest rarity. Such books naturally 
would be so : they were intended for the public use of 
churches, and in ahnost every case having been pur- 
chased by them, would have been less likely to escape 
the severe edicts which so frequently were aimed not 
merely at their mutilation, but total destruction. Nei- 
ther Herbert nor Gough mentions an edition in folio, 
and therefore we must conclude knew not of the exist- 
ence of any one. This might account somewhat for 
the error of the latter, where he says, that the Portifo- 
rium '^ like the Breviary, was a commodious portable 
abridgment of the service." Such certainly are all the 
editions less than the folio, although it must be remem- 
bered that those in small folio (so-called) or thick 4to. 
are sufficiently bulky. 

But Gough quotes Du Gauge, who says nothing of 
the sort for which he is appealed to. The one lays 
down that the printed Portiforium was a portable 
book, the other that it was so called from having per- 
haps originally been so. He says, " Vocis etymon ab 
eo quod foras facile portari possit accersendum opi- 
nor."^ Here I fully agree with this very learned 

^ Glossarium. Verb. Portiforium. 


Difflsertatton on 

writer, and that the word, as time went on, was chaxiged 
from its original signification, until it came to be 
nothing more or less than a synonym of Breviary. 

Portiforium, or, as sometimes spelt, Portiphorimn^ 
appears to have been adopted only in England. At 
least, in the catalogue of Breviaries given by Zacca- 
ria," in which he says he has added to the already 
long list compiled by Fabricius,*^ no such title is quoted 
of any foreign Use, The authorities also of Du Cange 
are sdl English : his first, Ingulphus, is remarkable, as 
it shews that as soon as the name of Breviary is to be 
found abroad, so early also is the title Portiforium at 
home,^ The book is often spoken of in works of the 
XV th and xvith centuries, is not an unfrequent item^^ in 

» Bibl. Ritualis. Tom. 1. p. 

* Bibliotheca med. et inf. La- 
tinit. Tom, l.p. 274. 

^ Ingulphus, Abbot of Croy- 
land, was born a. d. 1030, and 
died in 1109. His words are, 
from the Historia Croylandensisj 
'^Restituitmonasterio nostro— — 
unum Portiforium de usu nostrse 
ecclesiae, et unum Missale, &c." 

^ I think it worth mentioning 
that in the complete list of service 
books, once belonging to the 
royal chapel at Windsor, the 
word " Breviarium " does not oc- 
cur: but " Portiforium " five times : 
among which is, '* item unum 
magnum portiphorium, in duobus 
voluminibus." Dugdale. Monas- 
ticon. Vol y'up, 1363. 

In the Will of Bbhop Langley, 

dated 1436, he gives " Domino 
Ricardo Corston unum Porti- 
forium :** soon after, in the same 
Will, ** Thomae Jobur,clerico— 
unum Portiforium parvum.** Ca- 
talogi veteres. (Surtees Society.) 
p. 120. Contrasted with this is 
the book mentioned in the inven* 
tory of the Priory of Durham, 
anno 1446. *' Item unum Porti- 
forium magnum." WUls and In- 
ventoriesy p. 91. And, " Item 
aliud Portiforium magnum et 
grossum." Catalogi veteres, />• 

Here I may mention with grati- 
tude the services which this Society 
(the Surtees) has rendered to 
every one interested in ritual and 
liturgical pursuits, by their ex- 
cellent publications, ''The Dur- 
ham Ritual:*' '< Rites of Dur- 

%erttice IBoo&iB. 


monastic inTentories, and forms a special gift in many 
ancient wills. As a late authority, let me quote the 
instance of the unfortunate Queen Mary of Scotland, 
who, immediately before she was barbarously mur- 
durad, whilst the Dean of Peterborough gave the 
sanction of his presence and was offering up some 
long extempore prayer, which he thought suited to 
Bnd^ an opportunity, ** performed her own private 
devotions, out of her own Foftuary, sometimes in the 
LatiHf and sometimes in the English tongue.^ 

I have given a table of the contents of a Salisbury 
Breviary in the prefoce to the English Frymer, in this 
work : and I think it only necessary here to add, that 
the Breviaries of the churches of Hereford and York 
were also printed. 

In the statute cited above (p. xyj.)» of Quivil, Bishop 
of Exeter, are enjoined three service books not men- 
tioned in Winchelsey 8 constitution : viz. the ^^ veni- 
tare," ^' ymnare," and ^^collectare." Of these the second 
only was printed : and I know not whether the others 
are any where extant in manuscript. In the absence 

<* Catalofi^ Veteres:" and 
«• Wills and Inventories.*' The 
learned editor of the Catalogues 
has noi ventured himself to ex- 
plain what the books are, which 
occur so often in his volume, but 
quotes a Hittony of North JDwr* 
hoMf by the Rev. J. Raine, who 
has given (it seems) a short ac- 
count of them-there. It is to be 
lamented that this has been done ; 
for sudi explanations as the fol- 
lowing are worse than useless. 
They repeat the mischievous errors 

which I have spoken of already at 
some length. **Ordinarmm. The 
Book of daily or Common Prayer." 
** PortifeTf Portiforiwn : a book 
of the same nature as the Ordi- 
narium above, only of a smaller 
and more portable siaee." Preface 
to Catalogi VetereSf p. xliv. 
Such extracts are unworthy of 
that learned Society, by way of 
illustraUng really usefdl compi- 

^ Gunton. Hist of Peterbo- 
rough, j>. 76. 



Dfinsertation oft 

therefore of actual copies of these books, to some extent 
we must have recourse to conjecture. Du Gauge quotes 
the synod of Exeter,** which is the only authority he 
gives, and explains the " Venitare'* to be, " Liber 
ecclesiasticus, in quo descriptus psahnus cum notis 
musicis, Venite exuUemus Domino^ &c. quo Matutini 
incipiuntur." There can be little doubt that the Invi- 
tatories were in this book, and I cannot but think that 
other parts of the canonical Hours might occasionally 
have been written in the same volume, which never- 
theless continued to retain its early name : in the same 
way as in the antiphoner and the Gradual were 
respectively much more than the antiphons, strictly so 
called, and the graduals. Had it not occurred in a 
statute providing for the service of parish-churches, 
but in a list of books belonging to or used by some great 
religious establishment, we might at once have settled 
the Venitare to have been what Du Cange explains it, 
and nothing more : for we know that monasteries and 
cathedrals, for the greater splendour of their services, 

** Al)out fifty years after Bishop 
Quiyil's time, we are indebted to 
the same diocese of Exeter for 
another example of a Venitare or 
Venitarium. It occurs in the 
Statutes of Bishop Grandisson for 
S. Mary Ottery. '* In inceptione 
vero ultimas pulsationis ad matu- 
tinasy quando de nocte dicuntur, 
unus de clericis ecclesiae unam 
candelam in sconsa vel boetta ac- 
censam ponat super gradum chori 
cum libro Venitario, ita quod ante 
inceptionem invitatorii lumen sit 
ibi semper paratum undo possint 

accendi aliae etiam candelae pro 
choro." Oliver. Monast. Ezon. 
p. 273. 

It is a proof of the very unfre- 
quent occurrence of the title Ve- 
nUare, that the learned editor of 
the Exeter Monasticon, than whom 
few men now living have read and 
examined more documents written 
in or relating to the middle ages, 
has inserted in his copy of this 
Statute, a conjectural and unne- 
cessary emendation; ^' (invitato- 

divided the office, whether of the Hours or of the 
Mass, among very many volumes. But such would 
have been impossible, if not ridiculous almost, in small 

Again, it would have been possible that by the Veni- 
tare the Antiphoner under the name of one of its con-* 
stitoent parts might be meant : but the Antiphoner is 
ordered* also in the same statute. From an instance, 
among the very rare ones which remain, of a Venitare 
in actual use, it is cwtain that other parts of the ser- 
vice were joined with it : this is among the books which, 
in K. Edward the first s reign, were in the church of 
S. Faith, beneath S. Paul's : and although called a 
Venitare, it began with the legend of S. Faith, and 
contained also a hjnmal.^ 

For one reason^ I am under the same difficulty in 
explaining the ^^ Collectare :" viz. that it has not been 
printed, and I do not remember to have seen such 
a book in MS. I mean a copy about which there can 
be no doubt. For example, in the library of the 
British Museum ^^ is a volume, the first part of which 
is a Martyrology (I believe of Sarum Use): and the 
second contains a large number of collects of Matins, 

** Dugdale. Hki. of S. Paar^, to be admired for its great size : 
p, 233. Edit. 1658. It is just every letter is three quarters of 
possible, I merely would suggest an inch in length, and the initial, 
it, that a most noble MS. in the seven inches. 
Khrary of St. John's CoUege, *• Bibl. Reg. MS. 2. A. xiij. 
Cambridge, is a Fimt^are: it con- The Harl^ian MS. 2961, cop- 
Uins (as appears from a very tains a great number of collects, 
hasty examination which I was but also antiphons and capitula, 
enabled to make) the Invitatories, At the end some hymns. Alto- 
some Responses, &c of certain gether, more miscellaneous. It is 
offices^ fully noted. It is at least very early, of the z th cent. 

xcii Df00ertation on 

Vespers and the flours, followed by those of the Mass. 
This at least answers to what I shall presently prove 
might have been the character of the book ; because^ 
whether this particular copy be a CoUectare or not, we 
can arrive much nearer certainty with respect to its 
contents, than we are able with the Venitare. It was 
also called Collecteria, Collectarius, or CoUectarium, 
Collectorium, CoUectaneum, and Collecta. Du Cange 
defines it to be *^ Liber ecclesiasticus, in quo Collecta: 
ad qusevis officia dicendae continentur."^ He refers 
for his authority to a chapter in the Cluniac Consue- 
tudinary, where it is said, ^^ In privatis aiitem noctibus 
habentur in Collectaneo hae collectse quse dicendae sunt 
ad Nocturnes, et Laudes, &c." 

But we must not limit the contents of this book to 
the collects of those offices only which were said at the 
canonical Hours: whether the collects of the occa- 
sional offices, such as of baptism, or extreme unction, 
&c. were included or not, or meant to be so in the 
Exeter statute, certainly in some copies the collects of 
the liturgy were. When Zaccaria wrote, there was 
preserved in the Benedictine library at Cologne a very 
ancient book, of which the title was, " In Christi 
nomine incipit CoUectarius compendiose digestus, cum 
capitulis per singulas horas congrue dicendis, totius 
anni circulo immutabili divinitatis lege volvendo.*'*^ 
The " per singulas horas" would at first sight support 
the limit of Du Cange : but Zaccaria continues^ ^^ Ex, 

^ GlossariuxD. Yerh. Collectd- upon vellum, preserved in the trea^ 
neunu sury of the great church at Pa- 

lermo. It is much to be wished 

^ Bibl. Ritualis. Tom. I. 103. he had given us an accurate ac« 
He mentions also another MS. count of it. 

^etDice IBookfi. 


hoc enim vero codice coUectas antiquas, quae non 
exstant in Breviariis et Missalibus passim^ selegit 
Schultingiiis, ediditque." Thomasius has published 
an Orationale^^ which Zaccaria quotes thus, *^ Vetus 
orationale etiam Thomasius vulgavit'* And had it 
been so, I think from the similarity of the name and 
the probable contents of the CoUectare, we might have 
considered it to be the same book. We should have 
in support of this conclusion, a '' liber orationum ** 
which belonged, in the year 1245, to the church of 
Peterborough, ^^ ad magnum' altare ;" and which must 
have been a service-book, and not a compilation of 
private prayers.^ But the Orationale of Thomasius is 
but a collection made by himself (and a most admirable 
one) of collects and prayers from various ancient 
sources, such as the Sacramentaries of Gregory and 
Gelasius, or MSS. in the Vatican, and other places, or 
the Ordo Romanus.^ 

The Collectare seems to have been a favourite book 
in England. It occurs among the books which abbot 
Paul gave a. d. 1080, to the abbey of S. Alban :^^ again 

• Opera. Tom. 2. p. 435. 

^ Gunion. History of Peter- 
borough, p. 33. 

^ The same must be said of 
the Preces EccUsitutica com- 
piled by Cassander. Opera, p. 

Nor do I agree with Dr. Lin- 
gard in calling the Durham Ritual, 
except the first part of it, a Col- 
lectare. (Anglo-Saxon. Hist. Vol, 
2. p. 359, &c) It would easily 

settle the question, to set down 
every book with collects for a 
Collectare: and as he himself 
acknowledges, that volume might 
as rightly be named a Capitulare. 
I would not change the title of the 
Durham Ritual: for, heteroge- 
neous as its contents are, there are 
many offices in it strictly belong- 
ing to the Ritual, properly so 
called ; and no other name can be 
so fitly given to it. 
" Matt. Paris. ;>. 1003. 

the same writer (Matthew Paris) tells us, that abbot 
Geoffirey about fifty years after gave another Col- 
lectarium.^ In the reign of Richard the second there 
was '^unum CoUectare novum" among the service 
books of S. George's chapel at Windsor.** In the year 
1290 there were more than one in the cathedral of S. 
Paul's.^ A. D. 1295, three " Collectaria " were in the 
choir of Leicester abbey .*^ Hulne abbey, in North- 
umberland, possessed two " Collectoria."^ It is a 
frequent item in the inventories of the Registrum S. 
Osmundi : and is referred to in the Ordinale of Bishop 
Grandisson^yb/. 18, among the proceedings to be ob* 
served in Chapter. ^^ £t caeterae preces qvm sequuntur 
in CoUectario/' But not to heap up examples, we can 
trace it from the time of Leofric, Bishop of Exeter, 
who gave a CoUectaneum to his cathedral,*^ down to 
the days when inventories were taken for quite another 
purpose in the plundering reign of K. Henry the 
eighth : one of which tells us that there was a " colett 
bok with bosses" in the monastery of S. Frideswide.® 
The third book in the statute of Bishop Quivil is the 
" ymnare," or as it was commonly called in later days, 
the " Hymnarium," or HymnaL I have already spoken 
of this book as included in several editions of the 
psalter, but there are also separate Hymnals, which 
contain the full notation. In these books the hymns 
are arranged in the order of the days upon which they 
would occur, in the offices of the canonical hours. 

® Matt Paris. JO. 1013. 1. Pt. 2. p. 101. 

^ Dugdale. Monasticon. VoL m Catalogi veteres. p, 134. 

6.1368. * ^ 

« History of S. Paul's, p. 221. *" Monasticon. Vol. 2. 627. 

» iVicAo//'^ Leicestershire. Kb/. » Monasticon. Vol. 2. 166. 

%eniice 'Booto. xcv 

Beginmiii^ upon Advent Sunday^ and running throtigh 
the Temporale and Sanctorale, with the Commune 
ApoBtoloram^ ftc. In short, following the arrangement 
of the Breviary» 

Li an edition now before me, printed at Cologne in 
1525, 4to. there are 122 hymns : and not only are 
these noted (as I have said) fiilly, that is, every word, 
bat some which at certain seascms varied in their chant 
have these variations also given. Thus some are re- 
peated twice, some four times, or six : and there are for 
one^ '' Jam Incis orto sidere," no less than twenty-four 

The title of two other editions in my possession, of 
Antwerp, 1541, and of Kingston and Sutton, 1555, 
both 4to. express well the contents of the volume and 
the care taken in arranging the music. ^* C Hymno- 
rum com notis opusculum usui insignis ecclesie Sarum 
subeemiens : in quo quidem et illud imprimis est ob- 
sematum, ut quslibet syllaba suam participet notam : 
id sane cum extrema manu curatum, ut singula singulis 
sibi correspondeant : suisque debitis rite coaptentur 
lods.'' On the reverse of the first page is the follow- 
ing sbort preface. *^ Quoniam multos in hjrmnis can- 
tandis videmus jam deficere : istis in locis maxime ubi 
una clausula id est in uno pede ejusdem metri : haben- 
tur plures syllab» quam in alia, cantantes semibreves 
in plana musica, id est, piano cantu, sicut in organo 
foret fieunendum, quod est erroneum : dominam id est 
literam, ancillari : et ancillam id est notam, dominari : 
quod jam a jure quam ratione est penitus alienum. 
Ideo Sid vitandum hujuscemodi defectus : et ne disso- 
nantia in choro de caetero habeatur : sed ut quaelibet 
syllaba habeat plenam notam exempla subsequentia 
antiquitus usitata : utiliter ut credimus facientes colle- 


Dteisereation on 

gimus : et impressoribus ut in lucem prodirent com- 

The hymnal may be considered as among the earliest 
books of the English Church : and no less necessary 
to the perfection of her worship than the collects and 
psalms."^ It cannot be doubted that S. Augustine, 
with the breviary and missal recommended by S. 
Grregory, introduced also the hymnal then used at 
Rome. There have been many collections made not 
only of the more ancient, but of those which were 
composed by pious members and fathers of the Church 
in succeeding ages. The earliest to whom hymns with 
any certainty are attributed is S. Ambrose, and from 
his time downwards, not forgetting our own Bede, they 
were continually added. Of these collections, those 
who wish for information on this important subject 
should especially consult the Hymnariumy compiled 
(from very early sources only) by Cardinal Thoma* 
sius:^^ the Hymni Eccksiasticij collected and anno* 

» No. 558. of the Lambeth 
MSS. contains a psalter and 
hymnal : the latter has at the end, 
" Explicit jmpnarium ecclesie 
Xti. Cantuariensis." Sm. 8yo. 

^ " Cum hoc in Opuscule 
Psalmi et Cantica fuerint exhi- 
bita, ssquum erat et FJjrmnos non 
deesse. Apostolus enim docuit, 
Psalmis, Hymnis, et Canticis spi- 
ritualibus nos exerceri.*' Tho' 
masius. Tom, 2. Ad Lectorem. . 
This constant custom of the Ca- 
tholic Church was only interrupted 
once for a short season by a canon 
ai the first Council of Braga, by 

which, for wise reasons springing 
from the abuse of hymns by the 
Arians and other heretics, it was 
forbidden to use any in the Divine 
Offices, unless they were taken 
out of Scripture. But they were 
permitted, when the danger had 
passed, by the 4th of Toledo; 
and by the 8th Council of Toledo, 
A. D. 653, no one was to be or- 
dained unless he knew the Psalter, 
Canticles, and daily Hymns. Vide 
Meratu Notes to Gavanttu. 
Thesaurus. Tom. 2, p. 11 7. 

^ Opera. Tom. 2. 

fitottiitc lBooftjBt«^ 


by CasBander :* the. Hymnij added by Guyet ta 
bxnrtologia;^ these contain the more modem 
B aho : the Eluciddtarium of ClichtQveiis,^ and a 
m comiiientary and most full collection, lately 
ihed in two volumes, the Thesaurus Hymnologicusy 
srm* DanieL^ After a comparison of a table of 
^mns contained in the Sarum Hymnal, which I 
lelow,^ with those included and explained in the 

pen. p. 149.801. 


very me work: dt wbich 
I foDyexprenes the natnre 
iie<rf its contents. ^Eln- 
om eodesiaBticiim ad of- 
ecdeaiag pertmentia plane 
u, et qoatnor libroa com- 
I. Frimnsy Hymnoa de 
B et aanctia adjecta ezpk: 
dedanit Seoindua, non- 
lantica ecdeaiastica, Anti- 
et Responaoria, una com 
iioiiibua candelarom» oerei 
lis, et fontiuniy fiimiliariter 
it. Tertioay ea quae ad 
pertinent offidom» breviter 
U Qnartoa, Proaaa— -elud- 
Pkria. 1558. FoL 

hia anther says of Clichto- 
qanmbreviariis Italia, Gal- 
Umigarida nana ait, opus 
immo loco eat habendum* 
I qnidem eat in annotationi- 
1 non pauc» earum utiles 
QfThomasius. "Hicliber 
nania aatis rams est, sed eo 
nollo pacto potest hymno- 
cranun editor* 
L. I. 

* " Tabula Hymnomniy ad nsnm 
Sarum." Thehymna which are 
hi Italic are not in the yery 
copioua Tolumea of Herman Da« 
niel: who seema to ha?e examined 
the coUectiona carefhlly of other 
compilera. He refers to a little 
book, lately published at Oxford, 
** Hymni Ecclesis/' aa furnishing 
him with some Salisbury and York 
hymna : but this is a mere aeleo- 
tion, and it is possible that Daniel 
waa not aware of any hymnal of 
the English Church, or, if so, 
eould not obtain a copy to refer 
to. I should think the former, aa 
he saya of the Oxford book, ** ex- 
optatissimi erant hymni qui ex 
brev. Sar. et Ebor. desumpti 
sunt." An edition of the Salia- 
bury and York hymns would be 
a desirable book. 

'* A solis ortus cardine. 
A patre unigenitus. 
Andrea pie sanctorum. 
Ales diei nundus. 
Aurora jam spargit polum. 
Audi benigne conditor. 
Aurora luds rutilat 


Dinsettatibn ml 

works specified above, the student will scarcely need 
more information. 

I shall only i^d farther an important letter of Arch- 
bishop Cranmer to K. Henry. He had been directed 

Ad coenam agni providi. 
Adesto sancta Trinitos. 
Angdare fundamentum. 
Aye maris Stella. 
Antra deserti teneris. 
Aarea luce et deoore. 
Annae Christe sseculorum. 
Ave mater Anna pUncu 
Bina calettia aula. 
Beata nobis gaudia. 
BarthohmcBe cali ndus. 
Beate Symon et Thad^ee* 
Conditor alme sidernm. 
Cbriste redemptor omnium. 
Consors paterni luminis. 
Coeli Deus sanctissime. 
Christe qui lux es. 
Clanun decus jejunii. 
Cultor Dei memento. 
Crux fidelis inter omnes. 
Chorus novae Hierusalem. 
Christe sanctorum decus. 
Christe redemptor omnium. 
Ccslestis fonnam gloris. 
Collaudemus Magdalene. 
Christi miles gloriosus. 
Claro paachali gaudio. 
Deus creator omnium. 
Deus tuorum militum. 
Doctor egregie Paule. 
Sterne rerwn conditor. 
Ecce jam noctis tenuatur. 
Sterna cceli gloria. 
Ex more docti mystico. 
Ecce tempos idoneum. 

Sterne rex altissime. 
Exultet cesium laudibus. 
Ejpultet cor pracordOe. 
^etimavit hortulanum. 
Festum matris glorioss. 
Felix Anna pree eUOe* 
Hostis Herodes impie. 
Jam luds orto sidere. 
Immense coeli conditor. 
Jesu quadragenarias. 
Jesu salvator saeculL 
Jesu nostra redemptio. 
Jam Christus astra ascenderat 
Jesu salvi^tor seculL 
Iste confessor Domini. 
Jesu redemptor omnium. 
Impieta gaudent viscera, 
Jesu corona virginum. 
Jesu dulcis memoria. 
Jesu auctor dementia. 
In Anna puerperio. 
Jam hone pastor Petre. 
Impieta sunt qua concinit. 
Luds creator optime. ' 
Lux ecce surgit aurea. 
Lustra sex qua jam peracta, 
Lffitabundus exultet fidelis. 
Magnse Deus potentise. 
Martyr Dei qui unicum. 
Mundi salus affutura. 
Matihia juste duodena, 
Nocte surgentes. 
Nunc sancte nobis Spiritos. 
Nox et tenebrse et nubihu 
Nox atra remm oontigit. 

•ettitce iBooftis. 


iw up in English certain processions, to be used 
festival days : and in giving an account of his 
B he adds, ^^ if your grace command some devout 
olemn note to be made thereunto, I trust it will 
excitate and stir the minds of all men unto devo- 
ind godliness : but in mine opinion, the song that 
be made thereunto would not be full of notes, but 
eur as may be, for every syllable a note : so that it 
be sung distinctly and devoutly, as be in the 
18 and Evensong, Fe/iiVe, the Hymns, Te Deumy 
iictusy Magnificaty Nunc dimittisj and all the 
18 and Versicles; and in the Mass Gloria in 
!>ii, Gloria Patri, the Creed, the Preface, the 

er sancte mitis. 

leata Trinitas. 


a glorifica luce. 

r rerum reparator €gvL 

lux de lumine. 

ma ChrisH perlustrator, 

B felix merilL 

iarisjuigens tteUa. 

Ha noUJUre. 

dierum omnium. 

tor hominum Deus. 

lingua gloriosi prsllum. 

lingua gloriosi corporis. 

horus vatum. 

terra^ pontus. 

potens yeraz. 

Deus tenax vigor. 

creator optime. 

mose martyrum. 

r mundi. 

Dei pretiose. 

refectis artubus. 

Splendor patemse gloria?. 

Summse Deus clementiap. 

Summi largitor praemii. 

Sermone blando angelus. 

Sanctorum mentis. 

Sacris solemniis. 

Te lucis ante terminum. 

Telluris ingens conditor. 

Tu Trinitatis unitas. 

Tu Christe nostrum gaudium. 

Tibi Christe splendor. 

Tristes erant Apostoli. 

Vox clara ecce intonat. 

Verbum supemum prodiens ; a 

Veni redemptor gentium. 
Vexilla regis prodeunt. 
Veni Creatoj: Spiritus mentes. 
Urbs beata Hienisalem. 
Ut queant laxis. 
Virginis proles opifex. 
Verbum supemum prodiens: nee 


c Dissertation on 

Pater naster and some of the Sanctus and Agnus. As 
concerning the Salve festa dies^ the Latin note as I 
think, is soher and distinct enough : wherefore I have 
travailed to make the verses in English, and have put 
the Latin note unto the same. Nevertheless they that 
be cunning in singing, can make a much mwe solemn 
note thereto. I made them only for a proof^ to see how 
English would do in song."^ Three dates, adds the 
editor, are given to this letter, 1543, 1544, 1545. Of 
which the second is, in his opinion, the most probable. 
Barely five years after, Merbecke, under the Arch- 
bishop's patronage, published the Common Prayer 
Book noted. 

Yet must I say a few words upon a book of which 
more than one edition was printed : viz. the Ea^positio 
Hymnorum. I have a copy before me printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde in 1517, 4to. of which the title is 
^^ Expositio hymnorum totius anni secundum usum 
Sarum, diligentissime recognitorum, multis elucida- 
tionibus aucta." Gough classes this among the ser- 
vice books, which is one reason I should notice it, 
but he is wrong, for it is not so : and he manages to 
throw in an insinuation,^ as if the clergy of the day 
required such a book to comprehend the Latin which 
they sung, which is another and stronger reason why I 
cannot pass it by. We must remember, by way of ex- 
cuse for him, that Gough wrote when no opportunity 
was to be lost of sneering at and maligning the " dark 
ages," among which the xvth and part of the xvith 
centuries were not forgotten : indeed few authors would 

^ Cranmer's Remains. Vol 1. « See above, p. xi. 
315. ColUer. Fo/. 2. 206. 

%tttikt IBOO&0; 


have been tolerated, who upon such a subject omitted 
this sort of spice to season t^eir absurdities. The Ea*- 
positio has no reference to the clergy, and is merely a 
school book: written to supply a deficiency which 
was not much thought of in the schools of the enlight- 
ened eighteenth century, viz. religious ignorance.^ 

The following is a specimen of the contents. The 
first verse of a noble hymn which used to be sung at 
matins. *^ Ales diei nuntius ; lucem propinquam 
praecipit : nos excitator mentium : jam Christus ad 
vitam vocat.** " C Materia hujus hymni est exhortatio 
Christi ad nos, ut surgamus vitiis, et adhsereamus vir- 
tutibus : et praemittit exemplum de gallo. Sicut enim 
gallicantus nos excitat vel vocat lucente die, sic Chris- 
tus excitat mentes nostras et vocat nos per scriptures 
sacras, praenuntians quod est venturus judicare super 
justos et injustos. Unde bene dicitur : surgite et vi- 
gilate, quia nescitis diem neque horam. &c. C Con- 
strue. Ales. i. (id est) gallus nuntius diei. preecipit. i. 
prsedicit lucem .i. diem, nobis propinquam Christus 
excitator mentium : scilicet nostrarum vocat jam nos 
ad vitam .i. nunc vocat nos ad se."^** 

In the Peterborough catalogue are two entries of a 
book, of which it is not possible to say, whether it was 
an Expasitio Hymnoi^m as just described, or a com- 

^ The book has a short pre- 
face, io which the writer, after 
saying that boys should not know 
more about iEneas and Dido than 
of the sacred History, adds this 
commendation of the then mas- 
ters of English schools. " Vos 
Anglicani praeceptores in primis 
budo: qui non sic litcras colitis 

ut religionis obliviscamini." 

*«» The Expositio of 1517, is 
certainly one of the most care- 
lessly printed of Wynkyn de 
Worde's books. The types and 
appearance are as usual with that 
printer, excellent : but it is full of 
typographical errors. 

cii Diwettation on 

mentary upon them of a higher class, likd the Eluci- 
datorium of Clichtoveus; I should suppose the latter. 
This book is the " Hymnarius glosatus." 'M am scarcely 
justified perhaps in alluding to it at all, as it was in no 
sense a service book or ritual ; but in this, as in one 
or two other cases, I have been anxious to notice any 
thing which would seem to throw light upon the sub- 

The " Liber canticorum," ordered in the 21st of the 
canons of iElfric cited above, p. xv. I have nb doubt 
contained, besides the canticles, the hymns which were 
then used in the Anglo-Saxon churches. The more 
modem hymnals did not include the canticles, which 
were in such cases added to the Psalter: and alone 
would be quite sufficient in number, especially if noted, 
to form a volume. They may be seen in the collection 
by Thomasius, compiled from antient sources. 

In the same canon, are the "Liber epistolarum," 
and "Liber evangeliorum," which have already been 
spoken of, and will again come before us, under their 
more common titles oi EpistolarCj and Evangelistarium. 
In ^Ifric's time^ the missal had not arrived at its 
complete state, and the separate volumes were neces- 
sary for all churches. 

The " Passionale" likewise ordered by uElfiic, con- 
tained the lections of the sufferings and acts of the 
saints and martyrs:^- these were afterwards, as we 
have seen, included in their proper order in the Lee- 
tionary or Legenda of later ages, though in the time of 

^ Gunton. Hist Peterborough, liber contineDs passiones sancto- 

p, 189. 205. rum, et legitur in fesUs marty- 

'^ Durand. Rationale. Lib. rum." Compare also Du Cange. 

vi. Cap. i. 29. '< Passionarius est Glossarium. 

^ettiite TBtuAsL 


which I am now speaking, this latter title seems to 
have been rather appropriated to the lections from 
the canonical books. Other names for the Passionale, 
were PassionaUsy and Passionarium : and Zaccaria^' 
mentions some copies still extant in libraries abroad. 
The same writer in another work/^ says that it was 
also called Sanctorale : but he gives no example : and 
I should rather conjecture this latter to have been a 
sort of " Golden Legend/' or " Lives of the Saints." 

There were possibly Passionals of another kind in the 
Anglo-Saxon Church, as there certainly were in later 
times, which contained only the history of the Passion 
of our Blessed Lord from the four gospels : but I do 
not suppose this to have been meant in the Archbishop s 
canon. Such was that which is described in the sup- 
plement to Du Cange, ^^ Passionaire appellatur, liber 
passionem Christi ex evangeliis complectens, in inven- 
tar. S. CapeL Paris." And again, there is such an 
one still preserved in the library of the University 
of Cambridge; (Hh. 1. 4.) containing the whole his- 
tory of our B. Saviour's Passion divided into 65 parts 
or sections, with a short prayer between each, refer- 
ring to and grounded upon the various details.^^ So, 
once more, we have apparently both these Passionals 
included in a copy preserved at Messana, described by 

« Bibl. Ritualis. Tof/i. 1. p. 

'* ThesaurusTheologicus. Tom. 
l.p. 434. A rare and very valuable 

^** In the same Library, li. 8. 
30, has much the character of a 
Pa49umal€ : it contains many 

lives and passions of the saints, 
divided into lections. In the ISth 
century, there were in the church 
at Glastonbury, seven volumes, 
called '* Passionalia Mensalia ;** 
this was no doubt a complete 
series for the year. See John 
Giaston. Chron, Hearuy p, 436 . 


DufjBettation on 

Zaccaria : the first volume of which contains the le- 
genda sanctorum for Jan: Feb: and March, to which 
are added ^^ Lamentationes, et lectiones in coena 
Domini, in parasceve, et sabbato sancto." 

The Passional continued to be used in the English 
Church, and is to be met with frequently in ancient 
inventories : for example : in St. Paul's, a. d. 1295» 
there were five.^^ 

iElfric orders also the " Poenitentiale/' This volume 
gave full directions, and laid down rules, by which the 
parish-priest was to impose penance suitable to the 
offence, and admit the penitent to reconciliation. In 
the early ages this was a book much insisted on, and 
various PenitentiaLs were drawn up and authorized by 
the rulers of the Church. Among them, none was 
more famous than that of Theodore Archbishop of 
Canterbury, which has been more than once pub- 
lished:" and either this, or another known as Arch- 
bishop Egbert's of York, was probably the book in- 
tended in the canon. This also has been lately re- 

In the British Museum, among the royal MSS.^ is 

^ See slsothe Sur tees Society s 
" Catalog! Veteres," p. 29, and p, 

^ Lately in the 2nd Volume of 
Thorpe's Ancient Laws and In- 

'• Wilkins. Concilia. Tom. 
l,p 118. and by Thorpe. Vol.2. 

^» 7. E. L This Penitential is 
stated to have been compiled by 
Bartholomew, Bishop of Exeter, 

A.D. 1162. And I am enabled to 
answer a question in thenegatire, 
proposed by the author of the 
History of Leicestershire. In the 
valuable catalogue which he has 
given us in his first volume, of 
the books which belonged to the 
Abbey of Leicester, occur no less 
than ten Penitentials, and among 
them one of Bartholonumts. In 
a note is ** Query y Brixiensisf 
who commented on the Decretals.*' 
Certainly, not : the Penitential of 

C^etiiiee TBotA». 


er poenitentialis :'' of the early part of the 
mtiuy. A short description of this, will not 
f place. It begins : *^ Nunquam nimis docetur 
HT quod cum salutis discendio {sic. f. dispendio) 
et ignoretur. Studeant itaque sacerdotes om- 
inotescere, et mala cum quibus et bona sine 
nemo salyari potest/' It then proceeds to lay 
odes, fortified from the fathers and councils: 
ilis innotescendis ;" '^ de bonis et malis ;'' ** de 
' de spe ;" " de pcenitentia ;" " de confessione ;" 
3 yigiliis, genuflexionibus, verbere;" &c.: and 
^eat importance to our present subject, "de 
;um sententia." I shall quote a part of this. 
psis sacerdotibus necessaria sunt ad discendum : 
sacramentorum : lectionarius : baptisterium : 
18 : canon : poenitentiale : psalterium : omeliae 
ulum anni dominicis diebus et singulis festivi- 
aptee. Ex quibus omnibus si unum defuerit, 

irtholomew is the one 

Penitential particularly 
ourite compilation after 

Two copies are men- 
the Peterborough Cata- 
'^ntoHyp, 179 and 188. 

of these is entered, 
mitential sive Pastorals 
lartholomsi Exon. Epis- 
nd this title Pastorale 
y will induce us to hesi- 
e we decide that other 
ailed in England during 

and xivth Centuries, 
Penitentials. For ex- 
the same Catalogue, p. 

199, we have " Liber Pastorale a 
Magistro I. de Deo compositus." 
Any doubt as to this appears to 
be cleared by another copy which 
occurs soon after: " Pastorale 
Mag^stri I. de Deo : Tractatus de 
Confessionibus." P. 2 10. Joining 
the fact of Bishop Bartholomew's 
Pastorale, which undoubtedly was 
a Penitential, with this other book, 
bound up with a treatise on con- 
fessions ; I think that there is suf- 
ficient evidence to prove that in 
England by the Pastorahy was 
meant the Penitential, and not (as 
we have seen above was the case 
abroad) the Manual. 

cvi DiiBiBEertation oti 

sacerdotis nomen vix in eo constabit : quia valde perir 
culosae sunt minse evaDgelicse quibus dicuntur, Si csecus 
caeco ducatum prsestet» ambo in foveam cadunt." After 
this come, ^^De vita et scientia sacerdotiun ;'' ^'De 
levibus peccatis et eorum poenitentia,'" &c. : and the 
various kinds of crime, homicide, parricide, and other 
murders : adultery, incest, and fornication : theft, &c. 
&c. The chief authprities by which the sentences or 
rules are supported, are the Nicene council, Bede, 
Theodore's penitential, the Roman penitential, S. 
Gregory, and other popes : S. Augustin, S. Isidore : 
and many later councils. 

The use of the Penitential is well expressed by Mo- 
rinus, as quoted by Du Cange. *^ Interrogate confitente, 
confessor statim promebat^librum suum pcenitentialem, 
qusesitoque in eo delicto, locum ei ostendebat, ut videret 
ipse agnosceretque, legitimam sibi imponi pceniten- 
tiam." But its chief and primary intention was, that 
penance should be imposed according to its regulations, 
and not solely at the discretion of the individual con- 
fessor: hence was it commanded in the capitular of 
Charlemagne, that every priest should be well taught 
and thoroughly know his penitential.®^ And the vith 
canon of the council of Cloveshoo, a.d. 747, forbids 
any man to be ordained priest, who has not such, 
amongst his other learning ; for how, it asks, can one 
discreetly enjoin penance to others, unless he has pre- 
viously applied himself to the study ?®^ Lastly, I shall 

^ Du Catige. Glossarium. cretionem poenitentise indicare:" 

^^ Wilkins. Concilia. Tom. and Johnson jumps to a most un- 

l.jD. 95. Johnson. Eccles. Laws, founded and curious conclusion, 

yol, 1. A.D. 747. The words which we should scarcely have 

of the text aj-c " peccantibus dis- expected from so excclleuta writer. 

^tvoict IBOO&0/ 


quote Bede who» directing the priest, thus explains 
the necessity of the penitential : ^^ Pneparet sibi 
pcenitentialem, qui hoc ordine secundum auctoritatem 
euionum ordinatur, ut discretiones omnium causarum 
iDTestiget primitus^ sine quibus rectum judicium non 
potest stare.**"* 

There is one other book ordered by .£Ifiric, the 
'^ Numerale," which I suppose (so ordered) to have 
been a calendar :^ and probably it contained also full 
directions and rules for finding the movable feasts» &c. 
The word is not noticed either by Du Cange» or Car- 
pentier : nor does Zaccaria seem to have been aware 
of any such volume used by the western Church, or 
indeed of its name. The Numerale is one of the books 
which we find to have belonged to an abbot of Peter- 
borough, A. D. 1215.^ 

** Here yoa see," he says in a note, 
'^finr wluLt purpoee men in this age 
confessed their sins to the Priest, 
m. because he alone knew what 
penance was to be enjoined for 
erery sort and degree of sin, not 
in order to obtain absolution." 
He adds, *' Petifs Collections, 
[wblished with Theodore's Peni- 
tential, are full of proof, as to this 
point.** But no references even 
are given; much less proofe: 
which, with all submission, I be- 
fiere would be impossible. 

* Beda. De Remediis Pecc. 
Cap. 1. Much information may 
be found in Morinus in his Pre- 
&ce to the Penitentials, and an 
admirable abstract of authorities 
in Van JStpen, Jut Ecc. Unw> 
Pirt ii. Sect. 1. Tit. vj. The fol- 

lowing is cited by the latter. 
*' Formula visitation» Episcopalis 
interrogare jubet: 'Si habeat 
PoBuitentiale Romanum, vel a 
Theodore Episcopo, vel a Venera- 
bili Presbytero Beda editum, et 
secundum quod ibi scriptum est, 
interrogetconfitentem, et confesso 
poenitentiam imponat.'** Regino. 
De Eccles. Disciplinis. Lib. 1. 
95. {p. 17.) 

" Johnson in his translation, 
seems so certain of the fact, that 
not only does he translate Nwne- 
raUy ** the Kalendar," but without 
the least note or notice of a diffi- 
culty. Eccles. Laws, vol. 1. a.d. 

•* Gunton. Hist of Peterbo- 
rough, p, 29. 

cviii DiKKettation oii 

On the other hand, against the sapposition that it 
was a calendar, I am bound to add, that a book with 
this title, " Incipit Numerale WiUi de Montibns," 
is among the manuscripts of S. Peter's college, Cam- 
bridge. It begins: ** Ingredientibus autem theologicam 
qusedam compendiosa prselibanda sunt, ut competen- 
tius ad altiora fiat progressus." It goes on briefly to ex- 
plain in a numerical or tabular form certain theological 
dogmas, and solving objections whiqh might be raised 
against them. For example : One Grod, one fiedth, one 
church, one baptism : — Two things necessary to every 
priest, a good life, and knowledge : — Three virtues: — 
Four horns of the altar in the Apocalypse : — up to, 
Tivelve articles of the faith, twelve hours of the day. 
&c. I leave it to the reader to decide whether such 
was the book intended by the Archbishop. I think 


THE extract which I gave above p. xvij. from the 
preface to the Portiforium of 1544, forbids any 
one without licence to print a service-book, which it is 
somewhat surprising is not ordered in either of the 
canons or constitutions: viz. the Processional or 
" Processionale." I am at a loss to guess with which 
of the other books it could have been included, nor do 
I remember any manuscript either missal, manual, an- 

^ This book was sometimes of the Peterborough Catalogrue. 
called Numeriale^ if we ipay trust Gunton. Hist. p. 205. 
the correctness in this instance 

€>eniice TBotA». 


tiphoner or hymnal,^ in which the rubrics and offices of 
processions are entirely contained. I say entirely, for 
certain portions, in order to make sense of the whole 
and connect one service book with another, are given : 
but for the remainder we are referred to the Proces- 
sional by name, with the common formula, ^^ ut patet 
in processionali." Yet this book would seem to have 
been as much the business of the parishioners to pro- 
vide, as the rest. And indeed thjat it was so, we may 
conclude from an inventory of a church at Glastonbury, 
A.D. 1421, which among the rest, specifies ^^ .j. pro- 
cessional/' ^ 

The omission, if omission it is, is the more extraor- 
dinary, because the constitutions of Winchelsey, and 
Peckham, and Archbishop Gray, all order a proces- 
sional cross, (Crux processionalis) to be furnished by 
the parish. And processions were not only to be 
used on the accustomed days, but certain others were 
from time to time appointed for special purposes, and 
Utanies to be said, to propitiate the mercy and good* 
ness of Grod. As, for example, in the constitutions of 
Othobon, A.D. 1248:" by Archbishops Raynold and 
Islip, 1321, and 1349, and again by Archbishop Bou- 
chier, in 1454.®^ 

Again, the Processionale, or Processionarium, was 

" We should rather suppose it 
would be joined with the Manual 
orSacerdotale, as described above. 
But in the MS. inventory of Ex- 
eter Cathedral, a.d. 1506, is 
** Item parvum missale in proces- 
sionibus celebrandis.** 

^ Warner. Hist of Glaston- 

bury. Appendix, xcix. The only 
useful part of this meagre and 
silly performance. 

^ Wilkins. ConciUa. Tom. 
2. p. 14. 

» Wilkins. Concilia. Tom, 
2. p. 507, and p. 752. Torn. 3. 
p. 572. 


IDisiXtttation tm 

a well-known book, and we find it ofitan in the old 
inventories. In 1274, a Procesaional was among the 
books of an abbot of Peterborough : of other abbots, 
in 1299, and 1400.^ In the inventory taken in Rich. 
2nd 8 reign of the royal chapel at Windsor, are 
marked ^^xj processionalia :'' ^ in die church of S. 
Frideswides monastery, when it was suppressed, were 
** 13 processioners ;" ^ in the parish church ci S. 
Andrew, Heybridge, in Essex, at the beginning of the 
I6th century," were ** 2 prossessyonerse :" ^' of S* 
Mary Hill, London, in the year 1493^ at least *^ viij 
processionaryes."^ And it was a required service* 
book also in nunneries, as appears from a return 
made of the moveable property of Kilbum^ a part of 
the " Chirche stuff" of which were " four processions 
in parchment and one on paper." ^ 

One of the statutes of the church of S. Mary 
Ottery, in Devon, shews us the necessity which existed 
of this book : and the care taken by the founder that 
the clergy should always be supplied. " 33. Item 
statuimus quod quilibet canonicus residens et quilibet 
vicarius habeat per se unum processionale, ne in eundo 
et cantando mutuo impediantur vel se extransverso 
inordinate conjungant. Quse processionalia remaneant 
semper successoribus uniuscujusque." ^ 

But to pass on to the contents of the Processionale. 

*» Gunton. Hist, of Peterbo- 
rough, p. 39. p, 49. 

•^ Dttgdale. Monasticon. VoL 
y\.p. 1362. 

^ Dugdale. Monasticon. VoL 
2.J9. 166. 

»» NichoU. Extracte from 

Churchwarden's accompts, />. 175. 
w Nichols. P. 91. 

^ Dugdale. Monasticon. VoU 

^ Oliver. Monast. Exon. p. 

^emice TBtuA». cxi 

In it were contained all those parts of the service 
which gtricdy pertained to the procession : whether in 
the chnrcb, from one part to another, or out of doors 
npon certain great and solemn occasions. In the 
copies which I have seen printed, there is no calendar, 
nor table of contents : but in some, usually at the end, 
an index of the proses, antiphons, offertories, and res- 
ponses.^ At the b^inning is the office for the Blessing 
of water : after which the " preces per Adventum :** 
followed by the Temporale throughout the year. Then 
comes the ^^Dedicatio ecclesiee," and after that, the 
Sanctorak. The order of processions upon extraor- 
dinary timesy and in seasons of distress, &c. close the 

To give some more exact idea of the nature of the 
Processional, I shall extract the rubrics for Ascension- 
day. ^^ In die ascensionis Domini ordinetur processio 
sicat in die paschse excepto quod hac die vexilla pro- 
cessioni prsecedant prime videlicet loco : deinde minor 
vexillum. Ultimo loco procedat draconis vexillum. 
Deinde inter subdiaconum et thuribularium duo de 
secunda forma capsulam reliquiarum simul deferant : 
qui cappis sericis sint induti. Ipse quoque diaconus 
in eundo reliquias deferat pro dispositione sacristee. 
Prasterea hac die procedat processio per ostium chori 
et ecclesisB, exiens per ostium occidentale circumeundo 
extrinsecus totam ecclesiam et atrium, intrando et per 
portamjuxta coemeterium canonicorum: circumeundo 
claustrum : et rediet in ecclesiam per idem ostium quo 
egressa est. Processio tamen prius ordinetur ad gra- 

*^ As in the editions 1544, and ponses, &c. are noted througb- 
1555, 4to. The Antiphons, Res- out. 

cxii DijB!0ertation on 

dum chori per omnia ut subsequens pictora dedarat. 
C Tres clerici de superior! gradu in medio processionis 

in cappis sericis dicant prosam sequentem. Per 

idem ostium quo egressa est processio regrediatur; 
usque ad crucem in ecclesia cantando hoc sequens 
Respons. cantore incipiente hoc modo. — In introitu 
chori dicatur Resp. ut sequitur." 

The reader will observe that some particulars are 
directed which could only be observed in cathedral 
churches or monasteries: these of course would be 
altered and omitted according as necessity obliged in 
small parishes, in the same way as the corresponding 
rubrics of the breviary and missal. Occasionally the 
difference is provided for in the rubric : as at the be- 
ginning of the " Preces per Adventum."^ " C Quando 
vero pervenerit processio ante magnam crucem in eccksia^ 
nisijieridebeatstatio^ — statim post antiphonam vertat se 
sacerdos ad poptdumy et dicat in lingua materna sic : 
Oremus pro ecclesia Anglicana, et pro rege nostro, et 

archiepiscopis et pro decano, vel rectore hujus 

ecclesiae, scilicet in ecclesiis parochialibus,'' &c. 

The " subsequens pictura" of the rubric refers to a 
small wood-cut, of which there are several in some of 
the editions, representing the exact positions in which 
the priest and his assistants were to stand or go on in 
procession. They are distinguished by copes, or if a 
Bishop, by his mitre ; and the banners, and crosses, 
and thuribles are marked in their respective places.^ 

^ This part of the office for "subsequens pictura,** neveiihe- 

Advent is directed to be said on less omits the wood-cuts. They 

all Sundays through the year. are properly given in some other 

^ The edition of 1554 though editions, for example of 1531, 

it makes the usual reference to the and 1558. 

^eniite TBodki. 


The printed Processionals of Sarum or York Use 
wouldy in one important respect, vary from the earlier 
MSS. These latter would frequently contain the par- 
ticular processions, and the orders and ceremonies to 
be observed in them, which were made at various 
times of the year from one church to another, or to 
various parts of the town. Thus, at Durham, " upon 
sancte Mark's daie, after Easter, the Prior with the 
Monncks had a solemne Prossession, and went to the 
Bowe church with ther Prossession. &c."* So also to 
other churches at other times. It is evident that the 
printed books could not contain these, neither was it 
necessary that they should : but those only which were 
common to the province or the diocese. 

Passing by for the preisent the Prymer, I shall now 
turn to those books of which no notice is taken in 
either of the canons or constitutions above, or in the 
preface to the Portiforium. 

First, of the " Pontificate '* :* in which were con- 
tained the order of the sacraments and other rites, 
some of which could only be performed by a Bishop 
of the Church, and none except by those to whom 
special license and commission were given. In it also 
were to be found the rules according to which the 
rubrics of the other service-^books, (as the Missal, the 

^ Riiet of the Church of Dur- 
ham* p. 87. Several such are 
jnentioned in County histories, 
and illustrations of ancient man- 
ners and customs. 

^ This is the book of which 
early mention is made in the re- 
cords of the Anglo-Saxon Church. 

The second canon of the coundl 
of Chalcuith a.d. 816, directs: 
" Ubi ecclesia sdificatur, a pro- 
prise dioecesis episcopo sanctifice- 
tur; aqua per semetipsum beue- 
dicatur, spargatur, et ita per ordi-> 
nem compleatur, sicut in libro 
ministeriali habetur." Wifkins. 
ConciUa, Tom, l./>. 169. 

cxiv DijBntettatfmt an 

ManuaJI, the Processional,) were to be altered, when 
a Bishop officiated. These latter were occasionally 
inserted in those service-books. 

The Pontifical of any Church is among the scarcest 
of its books existing : and this is no lesis true of those 
abroad, than at home. After the council of Trent, 
and the general desire of the time, and the order which 
was published by Pope Pius vth to bring into one 
uniform agreement the rites and ceremonies of all 
Churches which continued in communion with Rome, 
the Roman pontifical was of course adopted as well as 
the missal or the breviary. If variations still were 
observed and allowed in those offices, they would be 
less likely to be so in the case of the Pontifical : and 
I do not remember any printed edition except ihat 
according to the use of the Church of Rome. Time 
has not spared the manuscripts which once must have 
been most considerable in number : they were subject 
also in many instances to more accidents than the other 
service-books, for commonly they were not the pro- 
perty of the church, but belonged personally to the 
Bishop. Hence they would pass into other hands 
upon death occurring, and in a generation or two be 
destroyed and forgotten. How few are the copies 
which are now extant of Pontificals may be seen in 
Zaccaria:* who of the churches of Germany men- 
tions about five only, whilst France very rich fur- 
nishes twenty-five. It must be remembered that by 

* Bibl. Ritualis. Tom» 1. 164. sixty, and he much suspects more 

' — 168. More possibly since his English ones still exist in the 

time have been discovered. ^Fhe college libraries." I confess I am 

very learned Dr. Rock tells me, not so sanguine, 
"that he can reckon up nearly 

%ettiitt TBooks. cxv 

''churches'^ copies also are meant, and theire are no 
' mcare of the one than there are of the other. 

There are said to be very ancient English Pontifi- 
eak still preserved in libraries abroad : one at Rouen, 
another in the monastery of Jumieges, and the third, 
the most famous, of Egbert Archbishop of York, in the 
Kbrary at Paris. From this last Martene has given 
eopioos extracts in his laborious work on the antient 
rites of the Church. 

At Bangor is preserved a celebrated manuscript 
which, though it has been known by more names than 
one, is the Pontifical according to the Use of that 
Church. It is not perfect, and has suffered many 
dianges, before it was finally restored to the Dean 
and Chapter, in 1701. The first Bishop to whom it 
ia known to have belonged, was Anianus, in 1270 : 
probably it passed from Bishop to Bishop, until Richard 
Ednam gave it to his cathedral in 1485. For two 
hundred j^ears or so it was missing, up to 1701, when 
as I have said it was replaced (by Bishop Humphreys) 
in its proper home. 

This volume, by the kindness of the very Reverend 
the Dean and Chapter of Bangor, as already men- 
tioned in the Preface, is now lying before me : and I 
ahall therefore give some account of it. 

The book is a small folio, upon vellum, lately ^re- 
paired and bound, by the judicious care of the present 
Dean of Bangor, who is well aware of the great value 
of the MS : the leaves not foliated, but divided into 33 
parts, each part being usually a separate office. Of 
the original table of contents there is only a very small 
fragment remaining : but at the beginning is inserted 
a table of the contents in English, which is stated to 
have been drawn up by Mr. Endell Tyler. Mr. Tyler 

cxvi DiiSjBiettation on 

seems to have had a strange idea of the nature of ihi 
contents of this Pontifical, as his judgment on it is, at 
the end of his account of its contents which is full of 
errors, that it ^^ contidns nothing of much value in any 
point of view : and certainly has nothing to do with 
the diocese of Bangor, more than with Canterbury or 
Durham, except that this individual copy of a ^' Bi- 
shop's Manual" (sic) belonged to Bishops of Bangor." 

I cannot but think that the reader who examined 
only the extracts which will be made from this MS. 
in the succeeding pages, will form a more correct esti- 
mate : for myself, imperfect and damaged as it is, I 
consider it to be entitled to a place in the highest class 
of documents which have been spared to us, of the 
earlier English Church. 

But, being in the book, I shall give, as far as it is 
correct, Mr. Tyler's table of the contents: if I Have 
been obliged to alter almost every word, except the 
numbers of the leaves, it has not been for any other 
reason than necessity. 

On the first torn leaf, in a later hand, is a Benedic- 
tion to be pronounced by the Bishop to the people on 
Corpus Christi day. 

The second fragment is on both sides a part of the 
Table of contents. 

llie third until the illumination, has portions of the 

The illumination represents a Bishop with his pas- 
toral staff, not ^^ crosier," in one hand, and the brush 
in the other. He is in the act of sprinkling holy water 
on a church which he is about to consecrate. He is 
attended by priests, and one holding not ^* the censer'' 
as Mr. Tyler says, but the holy-water bucket* 

^emtce iBotA». cxvii 

Then follow, Ist. fragments and four leaves, part of 
the order of the consecrating of a church. 

2. Two leaves. The form of depositing relics and 
CQDsecratmg the altar. 

3. Two leaves. The order of the mass at the con- 

4. Seven leaves. The consecration of an altar with- 
out the church. 

5. Two leaves. Depositing the relics. 

6. Dedication of a churchyard. 

7. Nine leaves. Reconciliation of an altar, church, 
or churchyard. 

8. Eleven leaves. The ordination of Ostiarii^ Ex- 
orcists, Acolyths,. Sub-deacons, Deacons, and Priests. 

9- Two leaves. The benediction of candles on the 
day of the purification of the Virgin. 

10. Two leaves. The order of admitting to pe- 

11. Two leaves. The blessing of palms. 

12. Seven leaves. The mass of the Trinity : of the 
Holy Spirit : and others. 

13. Nine leaves. The proper prefaces and order of 
the mass. 

14. Three leaves. Consecration of a cross. 

15. Consecration of a bell. 

16. Twenty-nine leaves. Proper Episcopal bene- 
dictions throughout the year. 

17. Consecration of an Archbishop. 

18. One leaf. Enthronization of an Archbishop. 

19. Seven leaves. Consecration of a Bishop. 

20. Four leaves. Consecration of Nuns. 

21. One leaf. Consecration of vessels and orna- 
ments of the church. 

cxviii DtjBE0ettation on^ 

22. Ten leaves. Solemnities of blessing the oil for 
extreme unction, for baptism, &c. ''in Cxsna Domini.'* 

23. Four leaves. Form of Baptism. 

24. Two leaves. The reconciliation of penitents : 
" in coBua Domini.*' .... 

25. Two leaves. Benediction of a church-chest. 

26. Six leaves. Communion of the sick. 

27. Four leaves. Burial of the dead» 

28. Four leaves. Ordination of an abbot. 

29. Three leaves. Benediction of vestments, and 
ornaments of churches. 

30. One leaf. Benediction of bread, &c. 

31. Two leaves. Order of marriage. 

32. Five leaves. Commendations. 

33. Benediction of an image. 

At the end of the volume is written, in a contempo- 
rary hand, apparently his who wrote the whole, " Iste 
liber est pontificalis dni. Aniani bangor. epi." And 
below this :. " Iste liber est pontificalis Fratris Ricardi 
Ednam Bangor EpT. que libru pdds Ricardus eps 
dedit EcelTe sue Cathedrali Bangorie Anno dni mille- 
simo quadringintesimo octuagesimo quinto. Et sue 
Cons. Anno vicesimo primo." Anianus was elected. 
Bishop in the year 1268. On the fly leaf at the end 
are some entries, letters, and constitutions relating to 
his time. 

In the British Museum are three or four imperfect 
MS. Pontificals, of various dates ; and in the library 
of the University of Cambridge, an imperfect one, for- 
merly belonging to the cathedral church at Winches- 
ter, and another, very fine and perfect, a large folio 
upon vellum, of Sarum Use, but it has no memoran- 
dum by which its former possessors can be traced. 
This is the manuscript to which such frequent reference 

%etttice ISoo&jS. cxix 

will be made in the following work, and from which 
several offices are taken, which I have edited : it may 
justly he considered as one of the most valuable MSS. 
in existence, relating to the ancient ritual of the Church 
of England. It is the only perfect Pontifical of Salis- 
bury Use which I have seen, and is on that account 
alone of inestimable importance. 
- In the Bodleian library I was not able to find any 
Pontifical of the English Church. It may be said 
that the famous missal of Leofric Bishop of Exeter, 
ought rather to be called a Pontifical ; but it is very 
miscellaneous in its contents, and not limited to epis- 
copal offices, having many which a priest, who is fre- 
quently recognised in the rubrics, was fully authorized 
to perform. 

But another English Pontifical, a noble and perfect 
volume, has escaped the ravages by which so many 
have been destroyed, and is still preserved in the Ex- 
chequer Chamber of the cathedral of Exeter. It be- 
longed (whether originally or not, is impossible to say) 
to Bishop Lacy, and having been permitted to exa- 
mme it by the kindness of the Dean and Chapter I 
shall not hesitate to add a full description of this 

The Exeter Pontifical is, in size, a small folio, writ- 
ten upon vellum, in a good hand of the latter part of 
the xiy th century. The first leaf is not numbered : 
afterwards it is regularly foliated to the end, from i. 
to ciiij. There is no calendar ; the rubrics are in 
red, and the initials in blue ink. At the beginning, 
on reverse of the leaf not numbered, is the Table of 
contents. The Pontifical ends on the middle of the 
recto of fol. ciiij., on the reverse of which, in a hand 
nearly contemporary, is a collect, ^^Deus, qui. Ra- 


DijBCjBetfatian oif 

phaelis/'^ Below this prayer, in a later hand, is the 
order for admitting a candidate into a religious firater- 
nity, with an English form of obedience and recep- 
tion/ Upon the lower margin of the reverse of fol. 

^ Bishop Lacy was a ^reat pro- 
moter, if not the original author 
of the services and appointment 
of a day in honour of the Arch- 
angel Raphael. The register of 
Beauchamp, Bishop of Sarum, 
cited in the Monasticon, vol, 2,p» 
519, leaves no douht. ** Edmun- 
dus Lacy Exon. Episcopus pro- 
priam quandam historiam novem 
lectionum, cum antiphonis, re- 

sponsoriis in unum contex- 

tum redegit. Quod officium ce- 
lehratum fiiit in festo S. Raphaelis. 
5. Oct.'* ** Eugenius papa histo- 
riam S. Haphaelis archangeli ab 
Edmundo Lacy episcopo Exon. 
conscriptam Johanni Snetysham 
cancellario ecclesis Exon. exami- 
nandam commisit 1443. Ab isto 
auctoritate papali approbatum est 

officium et decretum est ut 

festum in singulis ecclesiis ubi 
illud acceptum fuerit celebrare- 
tur." The churches of Sarum 
and York do not appear to have 
admitted it. The canonical office 
is at the end of the 4th vol. (Pars 
Autumnalis) of the Roman Bre- 
viary, for the 24th day of Octo- 
ber: ''Duplex minus, pro omni- 
bus Hispaniarum Regi subjectis." 
There is no collect or prayer in 
it the same as, "Deus, qui Ra- 
phaelis." A collect is frequently 

fomid in the Sarom '^Horae,'* 
^ OraHo cid tandum Haphae' 
lem ••" this again is diflerent, and' 
begins ^Auxiliaremihi.** Wtlkku 
itthisCondlia» 7VMit.3./i.5S7.cite8 
from Bishop Lacey's Register, the 
institution, '* Institutio festi S. Ra- 
phaelis in ecclesia Exon/' This 
settles it to be different from the 
stale and dignity in whidi it is 
now fixed in the Breviary of tll^ 
Church of Rome ; and the reader 
may find the fiill particulars in 
Wilkins, which are suffidenUy 
important in many respects to 
repay the trouble of perusal. 

' The following is the finglish 
form. " Tunc surgens a pros- 
tratione osculetur nngulosfra'- 
ires. So Bretheme. here is my 
maister. I. N. Whiche of his 
clene deuoeioun that he hath to 
god, and of a speciall desire' to us, 
askyth for goddis sake to be 
amitted and receiuid in to oure 
Bretherreden that he may take 
parte of the spirituall goodes and 
preyers, whiche thorof the 3efte 
and grace of god ben don a mong 
us. Plese hit yow, to receiue 
hym. Quibus respondentibus, 
Etiam, Magister ad petendum 
dicat. We take yow maister. N. 
in to oure Bretherdon. grauntjmg 
to yow the spirituall parte takyng 

%eniice TBtuA». 


ritten : ^* Hunc libram pontificale dedenmt Ex^ 
«8 bonae memorisB Edmundi. lacy, nuper dnm 
Exoniensis episcopi de bonis Ejusdem. Ecclesiss 
Exon. ibm remansurum quamdiu duraverit ad 

pnioim. fiutingris. abstU 
imodiiB. lalH>rq6, and other 
edit the whiche to the 
1^ of god bathe don a mong 
lUe oures. Tunc ille ad- 
•e proatemat et cet. ut 

admittance mto a partid- 
rf all the prayers, &c of a, 
9 was not limited to mem- 
ly: for example» we find 
:y th century a sum of mo- 
» toThetford Priory, '< to 
ur ever certain persons and 
efore named to the frater- 
fiages, chapter, and whole 
, to be partners of all 
, Tigib, masses, futings, 
eds, and all other suffrages 
ir religion.*' Dugdale. 
icon. VoL 5. p. 146. 
to return to the forms of 
ig a Novice or Brother 

Monastery. These are 
, and but few such are ex- 
L think it will not be unin- 
g to add two more. One, 

MS. formerly belonging 
ory also in the same Dio- 
L Andrew's, in Cornwall. 
ins the ceremonial of re- 
and the following English 
I occurs between the prior, 
; in the chapter house 

surrounded by the brethren, and 
the novice kneeling before him. 

« Prior. What desire ye? 

Novice» To be mad broder. 

JP. Ys hit yowr wil & yow herte- 
ly desyre to be parte taker of alt 
massis and prayers and almeys 
dede, done yn holy place, or schall 
be done here after? 

N. Ye. 

P. Al so ys hit yowr wille to 
defende and to manteyne the 
righte of this holy plas to yowr 
power, where by God & Synt 
Andrew may be the pesabeler 
seruyd by yowr worde and gode^ 
wille, as a trewe broder otghte to 

iV. Ye." Olivers Monasticon 
Exon./). 36. 

A more full form for the can* 
didate is contained in a MS. in 
the library of the British Mu- 
seum, which I have extracted and 
subjoin. Bibl. Cotton. Nero. A. 
S.fol. 131. 

" Thefyrstpeiycion in the col- 

Syr, I besyche yow and alle 
the convent for the luffe of god, 
owr Ladye Marye, sant John of 
baptiste, and alle the hoyle cowrte 
of hevyne : That ye wolde resaue 
me, to lyve and dye here emong 
yow, In the state of a monke, as 



Diintmation 0» 

laudem dei pro salute anime dic<d Edmundi. ita quod 
nullo modo alienetur a dicta ecclesia cathedrali/' 
Table of contents. 

*^ In isto pontificall gubscripta contineDtur. 

Modus induendi episcopum. j. 

prebendarye and seniAnt vnto 
alle, to the honor of god, solace 
to the company» prouffet to the 
place, and helthe vnto my sowle ? 
The answer vnto the exaftunO' 

Syr, I tryste thurgh the helpe 
of god and yowr good prayeres to 
kepe all thes thyngs, whiche ye 
haue now heyre rehersede. 

Thefyrstpetkyon before the 

Syr, I haue beyn heyr now this 
twelf month nere hand, and lovyde 
be god, me lyks ryght weU, both 
the order and the company. Whir 
apon I besyche yow, and all the 
companye, for the luffe of god, 
our lady sanct Marye, Sanct John 
of baptyst, and all the hoyle com- 
pany of hevyn, that ye wyll resaue 
me, vnto my professyon, at my 
twellmonth day, accordyng to my 
petycyon whych I made, when I 
were fyrst resaved heyr emongs 

The use of the word " preben- 
dary" in the sense in which it 
must of course be taken above, 
I should suppose to be very un« 
usual, and valuable as throwing 
some light upon its andent Eng-^ 
lish signification. 

Once more : there is a frag- 
ment of the form of creating a 
Prioress of the monastery of 
Barking, extant in a MS. at Ox- 
ford. (MS. Wood. Mas. Asfam. 
/ dO.) '' When a prioresse shall 
bee made, thabbM shaU com- 
maunde hyr the Role» injoining 
her that shee bee vnto hyr help- 
ings and the points of the Rule to 
meynteyne Religion. And shee 
shall set hyr in hyr sete. And 
than shall come the chaplaine with 
ensens against hyr. And the ab- 
bess and shee shall go before the 
covent in the qwere. And than 
shall they go to St. Alburgh, and 
the convent shall say *' levavi ** : 
and the pryores shall lye prostrate, 
and the abbes shall say the preces 
aforesaid with this oreson : '* Ore- 
mus. Omnipotens, sempiterne 
Deus, miserere famuls tus, &c." 
Than shall the pryores go to the 
qwere, and the capitall mass shall 
be, " Spiritus Domini." And the 
same day shall give pitaunce of 
good fysh to the covent: and 
whan shee deye, she meest gyve 
to the covent • ." Catera 
desunt. Wde Dugdale. Monas- 
ticon. VoL hp. 437. 

9ett)tCe lBOOil0. cxxiii 

Psalmi episcopales. • j* 

Confirmatia paeromm. i\}^ 

Collatio primse tonsurse. iij* 

Dedicatio ecclesiarum. iij^ 

Consecratio altaris. . yiij. 

Reconditio reliquiarum. x^. ■ 
Officium dedicationis. . ■ ^diij. 

Consecratio altaris portabilis. . xv. . 

Dedicatio coemeterii. x\j. 

Reconciliatio ecdesise. xvij* 

Concilium qualiter agatur. xx« . 

Officium in capite jejunii. . xxj. 

Officium in die coenae. xxij. 

Ordines qualiter celebrentur. xxix. 

Consecratio episcoporum. . xxxv. 

Benedictio abbatis monachorum. xxxix. 

M— abbatis canonicorum. xlj* 

M abbatissse. xlj. 

Consecratio virginum. xHij. 

Frofessio monachorum. xlvij. 

Benedictio eremitarum. xlviij. 

Reclusio anachoretarum. xlix. 

Consecratio regis. l.ij. 

Consecratio reginae. l.vj. 

Benedictiones dominicales. l.vij. 

Et festi vales. l.xxvj. 

Benedictio umbraculi altaris. Lxxyj. 

„ ensis novi militis. l.xxvj. 

r „ novi putei. l.xxvij . 

-. — „ herbarum. l.xxvij. 

„ pecorum. t.xxviij . 

librorum. l.xxviij . 

camum in pasch. l.xxviij. 

novorum fructuum. l.xxix. 



Dissertation on 

Benedictio pomorum. 

„ ad omnia quae volueris* 

„ seminis. 

„ in area. 

M campanarum. 

„ eucharistialis vasculi. 

■ thuribuli. 

„ thymiamatis. 

— — „ crucis. 

„ imaginis beatse virginis, 

„ alterius imaginis. 

„ scrinii. 

„ baptisterii. 

,. domus novse. 

„ navis. 

.. corporalium. 

„ patense et calicis. 

-- — „ linteaminum altaris. 

et omnium vestimentorum 









Officium peregrinorum. 

Ad faciendum cathecumenum. 


Ad faciendum sponsalia. 
Ad sepeliendum mortuos. 
Ad degradandum sacerdotes. 
Ad restituendum sacerdotes. 

1 .... 




Ad laudandum Dominum pro 


c. (sic) c.j. ver 

Ad suscipiendum regem et reginam. 
•: .. archiepiscopum. 


Orationes quae dicuntur inthroni- 

zatione archiepiscopi. 
Qualiter chrisma conficitur in Ec- 

clesia Sarum. J 


^ettiice IBoofes, 


Ad reconciliandum apostatam a fide. c.iij. 
Forma excommunicatioiiis. ciiij. 

Here I must mention a remarkable Tolmne in the 
Cotton library :^ it is called in the catalogue '^ Ser^ 
Titium de omni officio episcopali, concemente cho- 
rum : " and this it certaiidy is : containing those por- 
tions only, either noted throughout, or having th6 
intonation at the beginning, (as in the psalms) which 
would be Sling by the choir, on occasions of the Bishop 
officiating. Some few places of the Pontifical are 
giyen, sufficient to connect one part with another ; and 
frequent reference is made to it. Thus : */ in dedi- 
catione ecclesiea omiiia preeparentur sicut habetur in 

It is apparent that, as the ritual of the Church of 
England is at present constituted, her rubrics admits 
ting of no differences of ceremonial between a priest 
or a Bishop officiatiii^ in those ordinances which are 
common to both, very many of the orders in the above 
table are not now required. But it is to be wished that 
heir Pontifical had not been reduced to so low a condition 
as to contain the offices of ordination and those only :^ 
joined, as if almost an afterthought, to the book of 
Common Prayer, and not always accompanying that. 
We believe it to be a most certain truth, that where 
there is no Bishop, there can be no Church ; and I 
cannot see what objection could have been made to 
some not excessive variations in the ceremonial of the 
Church of England, which would have given addi- 

* Vespasian. D. I. A beauti- following probably tbe example of 
fill MS. sm. 8vo. 63 folios. the old manuals, was originally 

inserted in the body of the Book, 
^ The Order of Confirmation, and has ever since remained there. 


cxxri IDiimtCtStlOn 011 

tional dignity to those solemn occasions when her Bi- 
shops officiate. 

In the year 1643, there was ^'a design in delibera- 
tion touching the drawing and digesting of an English 
Pontifical, to be approved by the convocation, and ten- 
dered to his Majesty's, confirmation ; which said pon- 
tifical was to contain the form and manner of a coro- 
nation ; a form to be observed by all Archbishops and 
Bishops for consecrating churches, churchyards, and 
chapels ; and a third for reconciling such penitents as 
had either done open penance, or had revolted from 
the faith. Which three, together with the form of 
Confirmation, and that of ordering Bishops, Priests, 
and Deacons, were to make up the whole body of die 
1>ook intended. But the troubles of the time growing 
greater and greater, it was thought expedient to defer 
the prosecution of it to a fitter conjuncture.''® This 
conjuncture has not yet happened : when in good time 
it does, it would be well also to add other offices for 
the benediction of holy vestments, and vessels, and 
Church ornaments and altars, which since ^e reign 
of Queen Mary, have continually been blessed by 
Bishops of the Church of England, and priests to 
whom licence has been given, but according to no 
settled, and it may be improper Forms.^ 

^ Heylin. Cyprianus Anglicus. be seen in the Hierurgta Angli- 

p. 441 . cana : a work of great value ; 

• Many instances of such bene- most important in its design, and 

dictions and consecrations may ably executed. 

ftetttlce TBOOfe* cxxvii 


THERE are remaining for our consideration the 
contents of Service-books, which although com- 
plete in themselves, yet were but portions of the larger 
volumes, which I have already treated of; and were 
intended for great solemnities, or for the choir, or, as 
of the orders of baptism and burial, were written or 
printed separately, to be at hand and useful for fre- 
quent occasions. Some of these have been explained 
above : and I propose, for I see no necessity to the 
contrary, to be brief in my notice of the rest. 

The " Benedictionale" contained the Episcopal be- 
nedictions which were said during the canon, an- 
dendy by all churches, although* now discontinued, 
according to the Use of the Church of Rome. In the 
possession of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire is a most 
magnificent Benedictionale, originally S. -^thelwold*s, 
a contemporary of S. Dunstan, and Bishop of Winches- 
ter. This has been excellently edited by Mr. Gage with 
fiu^-similes of the illuminations, and published for the 
society of antiquaries.^® Another is in the library at 
Rouen, which has been collated, and the few differ^ 
ences noted, by the same learned editor. This is said 
to have belonged to Robert Archbishop of Canterbury, 
A.D. 1052 : and is similar in almost all respects, to 
that of uSthelwold. The Benedictionale is contained 
in the Exeter pontifical, but the forms are totally dif- 

*« Archaeologia. Vol. 24. 

cxxviii Di00ettation oil 

ferent. The rubric at the begiimiiig is, ^ Incipiunt 
benedictiones per anni circulum.: edit» a yenerabili 
patre Fratre Johanne de Feccham Archiepiscopo Cant" 
No. 16, in the contents of the Bangor MS., is also a 
Benedictionale. In the Cotton library, Tiberius B. iij. 
contains only the Episcopal Benedictions. In the 
Harleian, No. 2892 is a yery noble MS. of the xth 
century, also a Benedictionale. The ^^Benedictionale 
S. Dunstani'* was preserved at Glastonbury until, at 
least, the xiij th century." 

The Roman pontifical printed by Junta, Fol. 1520, 
contains the Episcopal Benedictions, beginning foL 
236. b. and running on to the end of the yolume : 18 
folios. This is an edition therefore which is highly to 
be prized. It states, however, that the Roman Church 
no longer (at that time) used them. ^^ Has autem 
benedictiones ecdesia Romana non habet in usu : sed in 
fine missa dicuntur. Sit nomen Domini benedictum, 
&c.'' But although the custom was so early discon- 
tinued according to the Roman Use, it by no means 
follows, as the editor of ^thelwold's Benedictional has 
well observed, that it was so in the English Church. 
It is true that there is no reference to the practice in 
the printed missals of Sarum or York : but neither is 
there in manuscript missals which are contemporary 
with Bishop Lacey's pontifical, so that no conclusion can 
be drawn from such an omission. The Sarum nianuals 
plainly speak of it: and in its proper place in the 
canon, though the benedictions themselves are not 
given. The rubric is " C Deifide si episcopus celebra- 
verit : diaconus ad populiim conversus bacidum episcopi 

^ Heame* Johan. Glaston. Chronic. />. 443. 

%ett)fce TBoofa. cxxix 

in dexta^a tenens: curvatura baculi ad se conversa 
dicat hoc modo: Humiliate vos ad benedictionem. 
Chorus respondeat : Deo gratias," &c." 

I must not oxDitj that t^e ^^ Benedictionale^ is occa- 
iionally to be understood rather as the pontifical : for 
example, in the inventory of S. FauFs, a. d. 1295, we 
find ^* Benedictionale Willielmi Episcopi annuale, male 
ligatum ; in quo continentur benedictiones abbatum, 
et conaecrationes regum, et qualiter concilium agi 
debeat, et omnium ordinandi/*^* The three " Bene- 
dictionalia" formerly at Durham, were most probably 
properly so called.^^ 

The " Baptismale,'' or ** Baptisterium," unless, as 
there are instances, used as a title of the ritual or 
manual, contained the order of Baptism. Under the 
latter name, it is mentioned in the penitential of which 
I have given an account above, p. cv., as one of the 
books which every priest was bound to have. I know 
no copy of a Baptismale, even in MS., of the English 
Chorch : but I possess a small volume, containing also 
the offficefor blessing water and salt, of which the title 
k, ** Catechuminorum et Benedictionis Sails et Aqu» 
Ubellus." This is a foreign Use : ^^ juxta ritum Ce- 
netenns Ecclesise." Upon vellum; no printer's name ; 
dite, 1546. 

The " CsBrimoniale" and " Liber Sacrarum Ceeri- 
iBoniarum" are modem books : they contain full direc- 
tions for the services and ceremonies to be observed 
when Bishops or the Pope officiate. The prayers are 

*? I purposely quote from a ^ CatcUogi Veteres. p. B4. Kad 

late edition, London^ 1554. again, p. 111. 
^ Dugdaie. St. PauVs. /i. 221. 

VOL. I. k 


DiMeetatidn Oft 

not included^ only identified by the first few words 
These are what may be called ** Harmonies of rubricsi*' 
and are indispensable to the student. 

The *' Homiliarium" or ^^ Sermonarius" I have 
already mentioned as forming a part of the L^enda. 
Du Cange cites from the Chartularium Vtrziohaut 
^^ Isidorus presbyter ad ecclesisB Virzionensis ministe* 
rium — ^missalem unum, Omeliarium unum."^ As a 
separate yolmne it occurs among those given to his 
cathedral by Bishop Leofric : *^ et unus comptetas 
homiliarum codex hyemalis et Aestivalis/' ^^ Agsdn, in 
the inventory of S. Paul's: *' Legenda sive Omelia;" 
^^ Item Omelium estivale ;" '^ Item Omelium Sanc- 

The *^ Diumale'' contained, says Zaccaria, all the 
day-hours except matins. But in it was also frequently 
the whole office of matins, except the lessons and 
their responses. It occurs among the books of Adam 
de Boothbie, abbot of Peterborough, a. d, 1330#** 
This is the book which is called the " Journalle"^ in 
the statute, 3rd and 4th Edw. VL Cap. x. In the 
same statute the ^^ Coucher" immediately precedes, 
which I have no doubt corresponded to the modem 
Vesperaky or vespers book of the Roman Church. 

" Glossarium. Verb. Omeli- 

^^ Dugdale, Monastioon. VoL 
2./>. 528. 

" Dugdale. S. Paul's./?. 218. 

" Gunton, Hist of Peterbo- 
rough, p. 45. and twice at least 
among the Durham books. Vide 
CaUUogi vetereSf p. 38 and 115. 

*• The term Journey to signify 
a day's work is still in use in 
Cornwall. Vide Diumalis in Du 
Cange. " Idem, quod Jugerum : 
nostris Joumely quantum t^ne 
bos per diem arare potest." He 
does not mention the book, Z>tKr- 

«ecbtee OBoo&s. 


The " Epistolarium" and " Evangelistarium" have 
been spoken of above : as service books, properly, the 
one contained the Epistles and the other the Gospels 
which were appointed for the office of the Holy Com- 
munion. Examples from very ancient inventories are 
dted by Du Cange of both these volumes : and also 
by Greorgius.^ To these I would add, from Matthew 
Paris," that abbot Paul gave to the abbey of S. Alban, 
with other books, ^^ Epistolarium, et Ubrum in quo 
contiiientur Evangelia legenda per annum." i. e. an 
Evangelistarium. Again, from the often-quoted gift 
of Bishop Leofric, ^* item duo epistolarum Ubri."^ In 
the Inventory of the Royal Chapel, Windsor : ^^ unum 
epistolare," " item, textus novus Evangelii," " item, 
mills liber Evangelii/'^ It is just possible these latter 
wore not strictly Evangelistaria. However, they are 
certainly in the S. Paul's inventory (not to name 
others) and Epistolaria also. Five copies of the one, 
and six of the other. To these we may add the " pys- 
tyll boke" of S. Martin Outwich, London.** In an 
ancient inventory of All Souls college, Oxford, we 
meet with the " Gospelare," immediately succeeding 
" 1 Epistolarium."" 

Sometimes both the Epistolarium and Evangeliste- 
rium were arranged together in one volume : either 
separately, each by itself, or according to the service 
of the day. Such was the famous book which once 

* De Liturg. Rom. Pontif. 
Tom. 2. Dissert. 2. 

« P. 1003. 

^ Dugdale, Monasticon. VoL 
2. /1.527, 

^ Dugdale. MonasticoD. VoL 
6.jE>. 1362. 

** Nichols, Churchwardens' Ac- 
compts. p, 272. 

^ Gutch. Collectanea Curiosa. 
F0/.2. Ncxv. 


Diingtettatioti ofi 

belonged to the church of Durham : ** also the Go6- 
peller did carrye a marvelous Faire Booke, which had 
the Epistles and Gospels in it, and did lay it on the 
altar, the which booke had on the outside of the cove^ 
inge the picture of our Saviour Christ, all of silvw, of 
goldsmith's worke> all parcel gilt, very fine to be- 

On account of the important note which is added in 
the MS. catalogue of the manuscripts of the Univendty 
of Cambridge, by its very learned compiler, I must 
make mention of two most ancient Greek volumes 
there preserved : one of which is said to be as early as 
the 8th century. Speaking of this, he says, ^* In quo 
continetur /ui>yfAiov (sive ut aliis magis placet /imtt^ 
XiffTmw) sive Liber, in quo descripta sunt evangelia, 
non quidem continuata historiae evangelic» serie, sed 
in certa r/xinxaTa seu xf jixox«c divisa, quae proprias lec- 
tiones constituent, ad usum singulorum dierum, et 
festivitatum secundum ritum ecclesiee orientalis." This 
exactly describes the corresponding book of the Latin 

» Rites of the Church of Dur- 
ham, p, 7. See also the Ancient 
Liturgy of the Church of Eng- 
land, p. 117. Note 64. A volume 
of the same kmd is mentioned in 
the Inventory of the Church of 
Glasgow, published by the Mait- 
land Club, *' Item, Epistolare 
cum Evangeliis, pro magno altari, 
in volumine magno.*' P, 9. 

" Among the Royal MSS, in 
the Museum, 2 B. xij. xiij. are an 
Epi$tolarium and JSvangelista- 
rium: of the xvth century. They 

are fine books, and on the first 
folio of each is written : ** Orate 
pro bono statu Stephani Jenyns, 
Militis et Aldermanni Londonen- 
sis, et Domine Margarete uxoris 
sue, dum vixerint : et pro anima- 
bus ipsorum cum ab luce migra- 
▼erint hac: necnon pro anima 
Willielmi Buck. Qui quidem Ste- 
phanus et Margareta librum de- 
derunt istum ecclesie beate Ma- 
rie de Aldermanbury, ibid«n im- 
perpetuum permansurum. Anno 
Domini 1508, et Anno 24* H.Tij» 

ftemice iBoolflt* 


be *^ litanmiticiift'' contaiiiB various litanies. I am 
iware of any English instance, unless that may be 
illed which is thus entered in the jR^^grttfn^n cmit^ 
rum of Leicester abbey. << Item, liber de certis 
ictisy et longa litanta."** Several were printed 
ad. One by Flantin, 1670, 12mo. after the title 
ens Utani» yarise, Sec/" adds, ^^ Accedit exerdtittm 
Inmadarium, collectore Joanne Wilsono sacerdote 

[any volumes are extant in MS. as well as printed 
aining only certain masses : such as the ^^ Missale 
loopale.'' The following is part of the title of a 
' now before me, which requires no further expla- 
m» ^^ Musas episcopales, pro sacris ordioibus con- 

idis. ^pro Pontifice, privatim, plane, et sine 

a celebraturo: quibus etiam additur, missa ferisD 
tsB in ccBna Domini : cum consecrationibus oleo- 
:. et aliis csremoniis eidem miss» congruentibus.'* 
ther of the same kind was, the *^ Speciala,'' con* 
ng the order only of private mass: this is not 
squent abroad, and a copy is now before me, 
ted by Junta, in 1504. Folb. But I do not 
miber any example extant of English Use ; though 
ve no hesitation in including it among the ancient 
ice books of the English Church, on the ituthority 
le Registrum S. OsmundL In which among the 

tempore sive Addo, dicius 
umt Londonie predicte Ma- 
dt. Quibus eternam Deus 
munis claritatem. Amen. 
^ £." Instead of the last 
, the Epistolarium has, 
bos det deus eternam feHci- 
• Amen." 

*• NichoirtLeicestei^Mre. VoL 
1. Pi. 2. p. 101. I may add that 
the same inventory has, '' item, 
Libri Epistolarum et Evangelista- 
rum festis principalibus." 

^ In my possession. 


DiimettaHon on 

inyentories occurs, foL 73. '^ Qoidam novus Ulier, 
continens missas privatas." 

There were also, the ^^ Matutmale,"' of which an m- 
stance occurs in Matthew Paris :^ and more firequendj 
the ^^ Missale/' or ^^ Missse defunctorum," in whi6fa were 
the Offices for the dead, with special prayers for par- 
ticular occasions. This was also called ^^ Liber Exeqoi- 
alis," and ^^ Officium Defunctorum :" more espedally if 
it contained the Hours of the Office for the Dead. 
The Harleian MS. 3166, has the Dii^ only ; written 
in a very large and bold character. 

Among the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum^ is 
a volume formerly belonging to the abbey church of S. 
Alban : a portion of which relates to and specifies the 
vestments, &c. which every abbot elect was to be 
provided with. The only book it menti<ms is the 
^^ Missale mixtum." It is not certain what this was : 
but I cannot agree with Du Cange. He says, ^^ Missale 
mixtum, ubi, non fallor, prseter ea quae ad Missam 
spectant, alia occurrunt ;" and refers to " Mixtum^^ 
where he explains it " Liber, ni fallor, ecdesiasticus," 
and cites an authority, which appears to throw con- 
siderable light upon the question. ^^ Scripsit manu 
propria libros ecclesiasticos, videlicet duo missalia, 
duos graduales, duo prosaria, et unum Mixtum." I 
conclude from this the ^^ Missale Mixtum" to be what 

» P, 1006. Du Cange men- 
tions a '* Matutinalis Liber" ivhich 
contained the Matin office of the 
Canonical Hours, but he does not 
seem to have known of a *' Mis' 
sale Matutinale." The same very 
learned writer notes the '* Matu- 

tinale Altare,* " illud minus altare 
in quo Missa Matutinalis oele- 
bratur in Eccles. Cathedralibus." 
Glossarium. Verb. Matutinale. 

» Claud. E. iv. dt. Dugdale. 
Monasticon. VoL 2. p. 286. 

was also called campietum or plenarium^ as including 
aU the portions of the service : and in the passage 
just quoted is opposed to the ^^ duo missalia," which 
did not contun also the proses, sequences, psahns, 
graduals» &c. 

The " Canon Missee," more properly rather the 
^' Ordo Missse," contained the Canon and the Ordinary 
only of the mass, unless as occasionally happens in 
the printed editions, some few preparatory prayers 
were added, or those to be said at the putting on of the 
vestments. I possess an edition of this ^^ juxta formam 
editionis Romanse," Salisburgi: 1728; of which the type 
is sufficiently large to be read with ease at a distance 
of twelve or fifteen feet I need scarcely add it is a 
folio. No book of this kind is extant according to any 
English Use, neither probably was it printed : but that 
it was once not uncommon in manuscript, may be con- 
cluded from an old inventory of a chapel, attached to the 
will of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, date 
about 1322. In it we find ^^ le canoun de la messe per 
ggj»»« ti 'pjj^ Canon" is ordered in the Penitential 
of Bishop Bartholomew i*^ and occurs once in the 
Registrum S. Osmundij among the books of a parish 

* This b one of the earliest logi veteres: Surtees Society. j9. 

WHb knowD. In the inventory 38 and 115. 

«« al» « ij. Messals. j. legende. „ g^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

.j.«mtefiiuer8.j.porth08.j.8au- ^„ ^^^^^^ ^^ j^ ^^^ ^^ 

taer gk>»e en ij. volumes, uj.gre.- ^^^^^ „^ j.,^^^^ ^j^^ „ Liber 

eles. j.n«inuel. j.epwtolane. .j. g^^^entorum," is specified im-. 

tropusr.. J. sautier ovesques. [?] j. ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
ympner. le canoun de la messe 

^ aa.** ArchaologiccUJoumalf ** FoL 41. And see the Ap- 

VoL ij. />. 339. See also, Cata- pendix. 

cxxxvi DtMiettatiQn on 

The ^^ 0£fertorium" contained the oflfortories^ and 
the ^^ Sequentiale " or ** Sequentionarium " the se- 
quences of the office of the mass. An ^ Expositio 
Sequentiarum totius anni secundum usum Sarum," of 
the same kind, and intended for the same purpose, as 
the exposition of the hymns before spoken of, was printed 
more than once, and the two were often bound together. 

The ^* OctaVarium*' is an arrangement of portions 
of the canonical Hours which are to be said within 
the octaves of feasts. I am not aware of any earlier 
than the I7th century: the title of one now before me 
explains itself. ^* Octavarium Romanum, dve octav» 
festorum, lectiones secundi scilicet et tertii noctumi 
singulis diebus recitandse infra octavas Sanctonmi 
titularium, &c." In the ^^ Officium Hebdomad» 
Sanctae," are of course the Divine Offices to be said 
during the Great Week. The " Pontificale'' of the 
same Holy Season has also been arranged and printed. 

The ** Liber Exorcismorum," which doubtless con- 
tained exorcisms, occurs among the books which Mat- 
thew Paris tells us Geofirey de Gorham gave to his 
abbey of S. Alban.^ The " Historiale,'' probably a 
Lectionary, i. e. of the Sacred Histories, with the 
proper responses attached, was (says Gunton) in the 
library of the same abbot of Peterborough, to whom 
the Numerale belonged, mentioned above.^ 

In the inventory of S. Paul's cathedral are entered 
" novem Versicularii/' These were the same as the 
" Versarius,'' which occurs in the ancient catalogue of 
the books belonging to the cathedral church of Durham,^ 

"^ P. 1013. ^ Catalog! Veteres. Surtees 

^ Gunton. Hist, of Peterbo- Society, p. 8. 
rough, p, 29. 

^ettiice TBook0» cxxxvii 

and was (as Du Cange says) '^ Liber ecclesiasticus, 
continens Versus^ qui canuntur in ecclesia/' Probably 
also the ''Liber, cum yersu, G..R. et Alleluya,'' in 
the royal chapel of Windsor, was a Versicularius.^ 

Or, this last may have been that which was in use 
among the Greek Churches : viz. the aAAi]Aaui«e<oy. The 
Greeks would certainly require their Alleluyas to be 
written in a separate volume, if, as Gerbert tells us, 
they fill whole pc^es with one only.^ I might perhaps 
have hesitated in admitting such a book among those 
of the English Church, but I have the authority of the 
ancient inventory of Ramsay abbey, in which occur 
^ Libri de AUeluyes. viij :'' and immediately after, 
"LibrideKyries. iiij/'^ 

The same important catalogue contains a book called 
^ minus Mariale/' This " Mariale" (at least those 
copies which I have seen) was a mere compilation in 
Terse or prose, in honour of the Blessed Virgin : it did 
not contain any prayers, and scarcely requires notice. 
But the '^ Virginale'^ was a volume more nearly related 
to our present subject In it were prayers to the 
Viigin Mary, adaptations of psalms, hymns, the five 
Jo]rs, &c. It happens that in the King's library in 
the British Museum is a " Virginale'' with which is 
bound up a *^ Mariale,^^ and between these a collection 
of prayers, chiefly addressed to the Three Persons of 
the ever-blessed Trinity. These are in a difierent hand- 

* DugdaU, MoiULsticon. VoL ^ In the British Museum. Cot- 
6. p. 1363. <' G. R." Gradual ton Rolh. xL 16. In the old 
>nd Response? Glastonhury Catalogue, of the 

Idth cent are '* ii lih. cum respon- 

* De Cantu et Musica sacra, sor. et Alleluia.** Heaiiie. John. 
Tom. 1. p, 408. Glas. Chron. />. 444. 


Df Mettatibn en 

writing, but of about the same date» late in the xivib 
century/^ I would guard the reader against confound- 
ing these two volumes, the Mariale and the Virginak: 
for example, he will find the Cotton MS. TUus. A. xx> 
called a Mariale in the catalogue : but it exactly cor- 
responds with the Virginale in the king's library, 
containing, besides various prayers, a litany of the 
Blessed Virgin at the end. This book is unfortunately 

I have mentioned above the Missale Matutmalt: 
(p. cxxxiv.) and in the Peterborough catalogue,^ we 
find a sort of corresponding book, which contained an 
especial office from the Breviary: though I do not 
mean that it necessarily was a part of the Breviary. 
This was the *^ MatutinsB de Cruce/^ For a further 
account of this Office of the Cross I must refer the 
reader to the Notes upon the English Prymer, in 

*^ I think it will not be out of 
the way to give the rubric with 
which these devotions begin. 
*^ Orationes sive meditationes quae 
subscripts sunt, quia ad excitan- 
dam legentis mentem ad Dei amo- 
rem sen ad suimet discussionem 
edits sunt, non sunt legends in 
tumnltu, sed in quiete, nee cursim 
et velociter, sed paulatim cum 
intenta et morosa meditatione. 
Nee debet intendere lector quam- 
libet earuxn totam perlegat, sed 
quantum sentit sibi, Deo adju- 
vante, valere ad accendendum af- 
fectum orandi, vel quantum ilium 
delectat. Ncc necesse habet ali- 
quam semper a principio incipere, 
sed ubi magis illi placuerit. C^^ 

hoc enim ipsum paragraphia sunt 
distincts per partes, ut ubi el^;e- 
rit incipiat, vel desinat, ne pro- 
lixitas aut frequens ejusdem lod 
repetitio generet ^tidium, sed 
potius aliquem inde colligat lector, 
propter quod facts sunt, pietads 
affectum." (Bibl. Reg. MS. 7. 
A. vj. fol. 39.) The first prayer 
begins, " Omnipotens et miserioors 
Pater, et bone Domine, &c.** 

This is called in a will among 
those in Rymer's collection, a 
" Virginal :" " Et unum parvum li- 
brum vocatum Virginal, coopertum 
in blodio panno de auro de Cipre.*' 
A. D. 1415. Tom. 9. p. 276. 

« GuntoH. Hist of Peterbo- 
rough, p. 203. 

^emtce 'Boofc0* 


VoL 2. In the same Catalogue we have another hook, 
which, whether the first did or not, certainly contained 
the other Hours as well as Matins. *^ Matutinse cum 
horis de Cruce cum depunctione passionis uniuscujus- 
que hor»/*** 

The " Computus'' or " Compotus," was a sort of 
calendar, or, ad Durand says, ^^scientia certificandi 
tempus secundum solis et lunse progressum."^ This 
was a kind of knowledge anciently much cultivated 
among the clergy, and very necessary ; to determine 
the moyeable feasts, and particularly of Easter, on 
which the rest depend. The ^^Compotus" seldom 
occurs, even in manuscript as a separate book : very 
commonly in the sixteenth century it was added, or an 
abridgment of it, to the manual and missal.^ 

« Guntan. p. 219. 

^ RatUmaU. Lib. 8. Cap. 


Du Cang9 says upon the word : 
* Compoti notitiam Presbyteris et 
Clericis adeo neoessariam censue- 
mnt Teteres, ut Statuta Ecclesi- 
aitica sea Episcopomm pro suis 
dkBeesibDS, pene omnia, illud iis 
magiia cum sollidtudine ediscen- 
dom pnescribant." And he cites 
maoy aathorities on the point. 
Hie 92nd of the Episcopal Ar- 
tides of Enquiry in JRegino Pru- 
mimmff is, *^ Si compotum mino- 
mty id est, q>actas, concurrentes 
icgulares, tenninos paschales, et 
rdiquos sapiat." (i. e. sciat) Lib. 

I p. 17. 
* I must not omit here to speak 

of a wonderfol volume, which Le 

Brun says was in his time pre. 
served in the Convent of S.James, 
at Paris. He speaks of it, which 
it must indeed have been, as a 
great book, above all price : and 
continues, " hsc autem in hoc am- 
plo libro continentur. 1. Ordi- 
narium. 2. Collectarium. 3. Psal» 
terium. 4. Lectionarium. 5. PuL 
pitarium. 6. Epistolarium. 7. 
Missale minorum Altarium. 8, 
Martyrologium. 9. Processiona* 
rium. 10. Breviarium. 11. An. 
tiphonarium. 12. Graduale. 13, 
Missale Conventuale. 14. Evan, 
gelistarium." Dissert xv. ArtiCn 
5. Opera. Tom, iv. 

Of these the Pulpitarium 
seems open to considerable doubt 
as to the nature of its contents ; I 


DfffiBiertation on 

The '^ Capitularium'' contained the little Chapters, 
which were appointed to be read in the several offices of 
the day hours. I do not remember any ezampled of thiB 
book which I can now refer to, except several in the 
inventories of the Registrum S. Osmundi : which are 
quite sufficient for the present purpose. Theee may be 
seen in the Appendix. It must be remembered that 
these inventories were .made between the years 1320 
and 1230 : and a writer of the succeeding century ex- 
plains fully what these Capitula were. He says, " In 
lectionibus tarn majoribus, qu» in vigiliis noctumis 
leguntur, quam parvulis, quae dicuntur ad aliaa Horas, 
et Capitula appellantur, laudem Dei agimus e| pro- 
nunciamus." And again : ^^ Sciendum quod sicut ad 

do Dot remember to have seen 
such a title in any other instance 
or example, and should have sup. 
posed it to have been an Homili- 
arium : but Du Cange, who also 
does not seem to have met with 
any other authority for its use, 
than the above of Le Brun, which 
he cites, thus explains it : '* Liber, 
ut videtur, continens quaa ad pul- 
pitum cantantur, vel recitantur.** 
But the reader may probably 
think that these parts of the Ser- 
vices were already included in 
some of the other many books in 
this gpreat volume. The ** Mis- 
sale minorum altarium,'*was pecu- 
liar to the Dominicans ; and con- 
tained Services from which much 
supplementary matter was omitted, 
and therefore only the chief and 
necessary parts were in them. 

It is not impossible, that there 
might anciently have been some 
such ampli libri in England: at 
least we have volumes which con> 
tain together, two, three, or four 
separate Service Books : and as if 
to prove that mere industry was not 
wanting, there is preserved in the 
Bodleian Library a huge MS. 
called the Vernon MS. in which 
are about twenty separate books, 
though not ecclesiastical : such as 
Piers Ploughman, and a very long 
metrical Lives of the Saints, 
There are altogether 412 folios, 
and three columns on a page as 
far as^ 318. Some account of 
this ** prodigious *' volume, as 
Warton well calls it, is given in a 
note to his History of English 
Poetry. VoL \.p. 15. 

^ertJice T6oo6s* cxii 

Vigilias noctis leguntur lectiones magnse, ita ad Laudes 
et Vesperas, et ad quinque paryas horas dicuntur pair se 
lectioiies, siye lectiunculse, quas sanctus Benedictus in 
ragula soa vocat lectiones." ^ This '< Capitularium" 
must not be confounded with the Capitular before men- 

Of the " Tonale'* I remember to have heard or seen 
but one example. Neither Du Cange,^ Carpentier, 
2^accaiia, or Spelman mention the name. But among 
the manuscripts of the Dean and Chapter of Salis- 
barjy bound up with the copy of their Ordinale of 
Sarum, is the " Tonale." Of which the title is, " To- 
nale secundum usum Sarum et universalis ecclesiee." 
This is imperfect, wanting the end: how much, I 
cannot say. Neither can I give the reader more than 
a mere idea of the contents and object of the book, 
because I am altogether ignorant of music, of musical 
terms, and practice. As the name would suggest, it is 
a treatise upon the Tones used in ecclesiastical singing 
with examples. Each tone has many Di£Perences, and 
these again more or fewer Variations, according to which 
the rest of the Psalm or Antiphon, &c. was, if I mis- 
take not, to be sung. The examples are sometimes 
the conclusion, sometimes the beginning of an An- 
tiphon or Hymn, or Canticle ; for instance, the Te 
I)emn, Venite, Magnificat, as the case may be. But 

• Radulp. Tungrensis. De confounded with the Tonale or 

CanoDum observ. Prop. viij. xiij. the Cantorinus : it is an arrange- 

Bibl. Pair. Auct. j9. 1 1 1 1. 1 127. ment or rather a selectioD, appa- 

Vide Vu Cange. verb. Capitu- rently according to the taste of the 

lum. LecHcula. editor, of certain hymns and anti- 

^ . , ,. phons with their notation ; nor do 

^ Above, ». hv. \ . j. i. i. 

^ I know any corresponding book 

« The ** Chorale " must not be of English Use. 


cxUi JDismettatlon or 

on extract from nearly the ocynnnenoemiBiit wffl w&pj^j 
probably a much longer account than I have apaoe to 
give, even if I understood more of the subject. ^ Ad 
primam differentiam primi toni qu» indpit in desobe 
descendendo in resaut et statim saltat ad desolreut per 
efiBeiut et postea ab effaut per gesolreut et une gesol- 
reut ascendit ad alamire : sic, etc.*^ Then follows the 
example, and immediately after, ^ secimda variatio.'' 

A book of the same kind, called ** Cantorinus,*' 
of which a copy is now before me, was printed at 
Venice in the year 1550, 8vo, The title is, '^ Canto- 
rinus : ad eorum instructionem, qui cantum ad chorum 
pertinentem, breviter et quamfacillime discere concu- 
piscunt; et non clericis mode, sed omnibus etiam 
divine cultui deditis, perquam utilis, et necessarius. 
In quo facilis modus est additus ad discendam manum ; 
ac tones psahnorum. etc" This contains at the be- 
ginning a short treatise, and the *^ musical Hand ;** 
both of which are reprinted in the Sacerdotale Rom. 
4to. Venet. 1588. After which are various intonations 
of hymns, antiphons, verses, etc. upon the method of 
the " Tonale ad usum Sarum."^ 

The " Authenticum" seems to have been a book in 
which the various antiphons and responses were con- 
tained as they were to be sung, in their proper order : 
that is, doubtless, of the particular service or office for 
which it was arranged. 1 am not aware of any English 
example, though very possibly such a book was in use, 
and the name of it still to be found in old chronicles 

^ We find Tonarius in the the Tonarius or rather Tonartum 

Glossary: *^ Liber de tonis seu or Tonorium appears more pro- 

cantu. Trithemius narrat Aure» perly to have been a musical in- 

lianum scripsbse TonariunL*' But strument, a pitch-pipe. 

%cttlicc lBook9« 


rds.. Du Cange cites three ingtanoes of the 
1 however from one author, Guido DisdpL 

The term occurs also in Eckhard de Cas. 
. Cap. iv. I am unwilling to pass it hy alto- 
without a brief remark. 

more important than those books which I 
t spoken of, was the ^^ Martyrologium." This 
d for each day in the year the names of those 
nd Martyrs whose deaths or sufferings had 
orded. From the earliest ages of the Church 
fficers were appointed to collect all authentic 
>f the martyrdoms, which, being approved, 
;ered in books kept for that purpose. But the 
records, the great storehouse, are supposed to 
rished, at least the fiill accounts, in the Dio« 
persecutions, and scarcely more than fragmenta 
sserved.^ After ages mixed up, if not false, 
T doubtful particulars with the remnants which 
1 of the true, and it was at length ordered 
hing should be read in the Martyrology, but 
e and date of the martyrdom of the Saint^^ 
was afterwards added a most brief account of 
ner of the death : nothing more than ^^ gladio 

ract CcBsaris- Baronii 
r. Romano. Cap. iij. 
o the edition of the 
jy, Fol. Rom. 1748. 

seems to have been the 
the time of S. Gregory. 
le omnium Martyrum, 
per dies singulos pas- 
9oUecta in uno codice 
)emu8, atque quotidianis 

diebus in eorum veneratione Mis- 
sarum solemnia agimus : non ta- 
men eodem volumine, quis, qua- 
liter sit passusy indicatur; sed 
tantum locus et dies passionis po- 
nitur. Unde fit, ut multi ex di- 
versis terris, atque provindis per 
dies (ut prsedixi), singulos cognos- 
cantur. martyrio coronatL" Ep%»U 
29. Ad Eulogium* J9arontii#« 
Cap. yiij. 


%^wtCTninoii Mt 

percQBBfomr <Nr '^ per ignem nuurtyiinm consumiiittnt," 
or such like. It was in having these additicms, small 
as they are, that the Martyrology diffinred from the 
calendar ; which latter contained merely the name of 
the saint, attached to the particular day, and seldmo, 
more than one, for whom a special office was appointed : 
but the Martyrology on the other hand again often 
spoke of many, whose ** natal days*' were one and the 
same. Another distinction has been laid down : tIs. 
that the calendar varied with yarious Churches, whilst 
the Martyrology was common to the whole Church, ad- 
mitting all martyrs of every age and nation : but this is 
no more true of one than of the other, especially in £ng-« 
land before the alteration of the service books of hst 
Church, which are my proper subject: neither is it 
exact now that the Roman revised Martyrology has 
been so generally adopted in her communion, for it is 
not only allowed but required that Saints especially 
honoured should be especially named in addition to the 
universal catalogue, if I may so call it ; Martyrs after 
Martyrs, Confessors afi;er Confessors, each in his own 

^ ** Notandum quod licet niulti 
dodcrint operam ad coropilandum 
martyrolosium : taroen ires fiie- 
ruDt majoris auctoritatis, qui opus 
hujusmodi tradiderunt. C Primus 
ftiit leronimus : cujus operi prae- 
mittuntur dus epistolas, videlicet 
doorum episcoporuxn ad ipsum, 
et iptius ad eos : inferius notatae. 
f SecunduB fuit Beda: cujus operi 
assignatur secundus prologus, qui 
gictncipit:/V#/»r»^e#. (Tertius 
fuit Usuardus: cujus est tertius 
prologiis infra notatus: et ejus 

opus magis habetur in usn apad 
multas ecclesias. Quse etiam ejus 
operi creduntur aliqua in loeis 
variis addidisse : prsecipue de sane 
tis et festis pertinentibus speciali- 
ter ad easdem. £t hujus est 
Martjrologium subscriptum, quod 
nos pro majori parte duximus eli- 
gendum prse aliis et tenendum.** 
Harleian MS. 295. Then follow 
the Prefaces, occupying three fo* 
lios. After these the Martyr'^' 

©ertiice IBoofes^ cxiv 

The time of reading; the Mart}Tology according to 
die nibric of the present Roman breviary, is daily in 
duiir at prime (of which however it is not a part, but 
ntk addition) before the verse " Pretiosa in conspectu 
Domim.^ But anciently in England, whatever may 
have been the practice in parish churches, I believe 
that the Martyrology vras read in the chapter-house 
of the cathedral or monastery. In the Sarum missals, 
die first rubric commonly is of the benediction of water 
and salt : and begins, ** Omnibus dominicis post pri- 
mam et capitulum." It was at this Capitulum, which 
was held daily after prime, that the Martyrology was 
read, and the portion which related to any one day. 
Was appointed for the day preceding. I shall first cite 
as an authority the consuetudinary of the Church of 
Lichfield, cap. 1. '^ Pulsata vero Prima, statim dica- 
tor ipsa hora in chore. Qua finita, chorus capitulum 
intret, et ibi legatur martyrologium. Post sequatur 
^pretiosa" cum suis orationibus." *' 

" I mast hero add from the Ecclesi» qussumas, Domine, pre- 

same consuetudmary, so much of ces. JEt in fine orationis, £t nor 

the order of the proceedings *' in famulos tuos ab omni adversitate 

capitulo " at has reference to the custodi per Dominum nostrum. Si 

Martyrology : which may be com- non sequatur memoria vel oratioy 

pared with the extract, p. cxWij, tuncfiniatur cum. Per Christum 

firomtheSorumMS. After ora^io- Dominum. Si vero memoria pro 

nihu9 in the text, follows : ** De- vivo sequatur, statim post pro- 

inde dicatur psalmus, Deus mi- nunciationemdicaturpsalmushe- 

sereatur nostri, cum Gloria Patri, vavi cum Gloria Patri, Kyrie elcy- 

Kyrie eleyson, Christe eleyson, son, Verba, Salvum fac, Mitte ei, 

Kyrie eleyaon. Pater noster, Et ne Nihil proficiet, Doroinus vobiscum, 

nos, SalTOB fac servos tuos et an- Oratio,Prfletcnde,Doraine,ftciem, 

cillas toas, Ostende nobis, Deus, Per Dominum nostrum, nisi se- 

mieericordiam toam, Mitte eis Do- quaiur oratio. Post cujus pro- 

mine, Dominns vobiscum, Oremus, nuncioHonem dicatur, De profun- 

VOL. I. 1 



DiflisettaHim oit 

And another; from on ancient body of statutesi 
temp. Edward I. drawn up for the hospital of S. Leo* 
nardy York. ^^ Pulsata vero Prima, ingrediantnr om- 
nes chorum: et dicta Prima ingrediantnr capita- 
lum, puero turribulario cum tabula praeeunte^ qui 
ibidem legat lectionem Martilogii; qua lecta, legat 
tabulam: postea ebdomadarius dicat Pretiosa est m 
conspectu Domini^ &c." ^ Again : the following from 
the very valuable MS. Ordinale already spoken of 
(p. xliij) of Bishop Grandisson. At the end of Prime, 
follows : ^^ Hiis dictis eant clerici in capitulum prooes- 
sionaliter. Et omnibus in locis suis sedentibus — qui- 
dam puer de prima forma indutus superpelliceo— 
paratus ad legendum lectionem de martilogio, absque, 
Jube domine : sed pronunciando prime loco numenun 
nonarum, iduum, kalendarum, et setatem lunse, qualis 
erit in crastino. Secundum quod dies videbitur ex* 
igere. Et finiatur lectio sine Tu autem. — Statimque 
sacerdos post lectionem martilogii, si quis obitus tunc 
pronuncietur, respondeat, Anima ejus et aninue omnium 
Jidelium defunctorum per misericordiam Dei in pace re- 
quiescant. Chorus respondeat, Amen^ &c.** 

dis, Kyrie eleison, Pftter noster, 
£t De DOS, Requiem etemam, A 
porta, Credo, Dominus yobiscuniy 
Oremus, Deus indulgentiarum. 
Si anniversartus dies nonfuef*it, 
tunc Fidelium Deus omnium, et 
oratio pro benefactoribw et pro 

fratriimsyfiniendo Per Dominum 
nostrum Jesum Christum. De- 
inde legatur tabula^ qtue non le- 
gatur nm in sabbatisy vel in 
vigiUis dupliciutnfestorum. Qui- 

' bus peractis siUant omneSf donee 
dignior persona^ qua in capitulo 

Juerit, dicat Benedictus, et ret- 
pondeant Dominus. St sic ne- 
gotia tractentury qwe in capitulo 
fuerint tractandcu" JVilkim. 
Concilia. Tam,l,p,496. 

^ Dugdale. Monasticon An- 
glic. Vol. 6. p. 610. 

" Folio, xviij. I cannot too 
strongly recommend to the reader, 
who wishes to examine further 
into the history and character of 
the Martyrology, that of the Ca- 
thedral Church of Dublin, which 

9ettiice lBoofc0« cxivii 

Knd lastly the high authority^ though the extract 
f be long, of the Samm consuetudinary. " De 
fmatitme Ckricarum in Capitulo. Sedent autem in 
itulo clerici hoc ordine. Proximus Episcopo a 
trig sedet decanus, dehinc cancellarius, deinde 
hidiaconus Dorset, dehinc archidiaconus Wiltesir, 
ode subdecanus : a sinistris autem cantor, thesau- 
1118» archidiaconus Berkes, alius archidiaconus 
lies, succentor. Proximi autem ipsis personis se- 
it canonici Presbyteri, deinde canonici Diaconi, 
idiaconi^ hinc inde, deinde vicarii, presbyteri, 
tea caetori de superiori gradu, vicarii. Deinde 
lonici de secunda forma: deinde diaconi, subdi- 
mi, minorum ordinum clerici de eadem forma. 
eri vero, sive fuerint canonici sive non, stent ante 
06 in area ex utraque parte pulpiti, suo ordine dis- 
dti. In primis, puer quidam legat lectionem de 
irtirlegio, sine * Jube domne,' et sine, * Tu autem, 
imine/ in superpelliceo. Finita lectione, obitus si 
i fuerint, pronunciet. Sacerdos vero stans post 
;torem : si qui pronuncientur obitus, respondeat : 
Lnimse eorum et animse omnium fidelium defuncto- 
m per Dei misericordiam requiescant in pace.' 
5inde dicat : * Pretiosa est in conspectu,' et csetera 
Bd ad illam horam pertinent. Quibus finitis, puer 
tor aliam lectionem cum ^ Jube domne' incipiat ; et 
ndem cum * Tu autem, Domine,' finiat. Sacerdos 
tern, facta benedictione ad lectionem, in loco suo se 
npiat. Puer vero, finita lectione, a pulpito descen- 
t, ettabulam legat." ^ 

been excellently edited from introduction has been written by 

original by the Rev. J. Crostb- the Rev. Dr. Todd, 
ke, for the Irish Archaeological ^ Registrum S. Osmundi. FoL 

aeiy : to which a very learned vj. 

cxlviii PiMtertatioti en 

And here is the proper place to speak of the ^ Xibor 
Graduum/' which was occasioiially read in some 
churches every day together with th<e martyrology. 
It is sometimes found bound v^p at the end of die saiBe 
volume with the martyrologium. Of which a most, noUe 
manuscript of Salisbury UsOi (Harleian 2785) in t|w 
British Museum, is an example. This is lettered JliwoA 
but it is a breviary, with a calendar in the middle, and 
a martyrology, and at the end, the ^< Gradus.'' And^ 
again, in the Bodleian, a MS. (Badky 893) is of tha 
same kind : martyrology and ^* lAher de gradibus.f^ 
But the rubric prefixed to this last, in the copy just 
named, so fully explains its contents and the mamm 
in which it was used^ that I shall extract it. 

** Incipit liber de gradibus virtutum, a Sancto Ash 
brosio ordinatus, quibus ad ccelesta Jerusalem item ad 
patriam angelorum supemam itinere recte ascenditor 
ab omni perseverante, et potest legi ad primam port 
martilogium, itaque quando luna est prima legatur 
primus gradus scalae, et sic deinceps. Tamen in ee- 
clesia Sarum legitur Hamo, sed qui ilium non habet 
potest legere gradus scalar virtutum a sancto Ambrosio 
compositae, et sic debent legi : cum lima prima, pri- 
mus gradus, cum luna secunda, secundus gradus, et 
sic semper usque ad aliam lunam primam et tunc re- 
incipiatur. Primus gradus. 

Primus gradus hujus sanctissimae scalse est fides 
recta cum operibus justitise,*^ etc." Although a very 

^ Another copy of this " Liber it continues : " nc dicensy Jube 

de gradibus'* which I have exam- domne benedicere. Sacerdotdi' 

ined (JTar/eian MS. 2785), gives cat benedictionem: ted quando 

a somewhat different order how it chorus regitur, nmpUcUer : Ille 

was to be read. After reincipiaiur nos benedicat qui sine fine vivit 

«ettiice "BoofcjBii 


ncommon book at present, the << Liber gradumn'^ is 
ot li]ifre(|uefnt in the old catalogues. For instance, it 
ocars among the Peterborough books.^ 
The Martjnrology must not be confounded with a 
idmne, also so called, portions of which were occa- 
otially, if not daily, read at the capitulum: and 
hicli more properly was the Necrology, " Necrolo- 
imn." In this, were written the names of benefactors 
nd illustrious members of the Church, for whom 
rttyers were to be ofiered or commemorations made. 
IM^ was the book which Bede mentions, <* Quserant 
I Buis codicibus, in quibus defunctorum est annotata 
epositio, et inYenient ilium hac, ut diximus, die rap- 
im esse de seeculo." ^ From what follows, this book 
wms then to have been called Armulis. " Credidit 
rgo presbyter, ac statim egressus requisivit in An- 
ali suo." &c. The person whose death is intended, 
"as S. Oswald, who afterwards was enrolled in the 
fartyrology^ The Necrologium is that which Ingulph 
F Croyland means : '^ Quam sibi concessimus," he 
lys, (speaking of a favour granted by the monastery 
> one of a class which in those days as in later 
aes oftener took without asking from the Church) 
et nomen ejus et uxoris ejus fratrum nostrorum 
lartyrologio inscribi consensimus." ^ And, again, it 

regnot. In festis duplicibus : 
mnipotens Deus sua gratia nos 
nedicat. Et tandem lectio Jiniat 
wn, Tu autem. Et Jubc lectio 
mper legcUur post orationem, 
nmipotens sempiterne Deas vel 
ir^ere et sanctificare. In omni- 
MprofeHis diebus videlicet ante 
'. LeVavi, quando dicitur: et 

quando non dicitur ^ Levavi, tunc 
dicatuTy Benedic Domine." 

« Gunton.p. 180. 

^ Eedcu Hist. Ecclesiastica. 
Lib. iv. Cap. 14. 

^ Historia Croylandensis. p. 
78. Du Cange tells us, which 


Dtisiaiettation on 

seems to have been that which is called Tabula^ in the 
extract above, from the constitutions (if I may so 
speak of them) of S, Leonard, York.^^ 

Among the Lambeth MSS. No. 20, a large folio, 
contains various books : at the beginning is a Marty- 
rology of the church of Canterbury : at the end a 
very complete " Obituarium," or " Necrologium." 
This I the rather mention, on account of the title 
which Archbishop Sancroft has given to it, as written 
with his own hand, upon the first leaf. He calls it a 
^^ Mortilogium :" but it is not so named in an ancient 
table of the contents prefixed to the volume. Another 
name by which it was called, as in Uie Sarum con- 
suetudinary, was " Martilegium ;" which Du Cange 
admits into his glossary, upon the authority of White 
Kennett : " Ordinavimus quod cum contigerit eundem 
Edmundum ab hac luce migrare, ut nomina omnium 

explidns how the Necrology and 
the Martyrology came so to he 
confounded : *' Sequiorihus ssecu- 
lis, maxime apud monachos, Mar» 
tyrologium laxius sumptum, pro 
Necrohgio sen Obituario et Re- 
gula, quod fere semper in eodem 
Yolumine Martyrologium, Obitu- 
arium, et Regula ordinis descripta 
legerentur." The Rule was bound 
up in the same volume, because at 
the same Chapter in which the 
Martyrology was read, after that 
and some other Offices, it was gene- 
rally the custom to enquire into 
any infrmgements which had been 
made against the Rule by mem- 
bers of the convent, and into 

other matters connected with the 
due order of the fraternity. 

^ I suggest this, with great 
doubt, against the opinion of Du 
Cange : who explains the Tabula 
to have been always the Table in 
which were entered the names of 
the officers of a monastery, ap- 
pointed to perform certain duties, 
during the current or ensuing 
week. Or perhaps, and more 
probably, the Tabula of the S. 
Leonard statute, was that which 
was also called, Brevisy and ilfo- 
tricula: in which was inscribed 
the order of the public worship, 
Matins, the Hours, Mass, he* for 
the space of a week. 

Semite HSotOa. 


supradictonim com obitu eonim in nostro Martilegio 
inserantor." &c.^ 

Sometimes, but I should suppose rarely, this book 
of Commemorations, or Necrology, was even laid 
upon the altar : as in the case of the famous book still 
extant) of the benefetctors of S. Cuthbert's church, 
Durham. ^ There did lye on the High Altar an ex- 
cellent fine Booke, very richly covered witii gold and 
silver, eonteininge the names of all the benefactors, from 
the first originall foundation thereof. — The layinge that 
bodke on the Altar did shew how highly they esteemed 
dieire founders and benefactors, and the dayly and 
quotidian remembrance they had of them, did argue 
not onely theire gratitude but a most divine and cha- 
ritable affection to tiie soules of their benefactors,'' 

Among the statutes drawn up for the new college of 
S. Mary Ottery, in Devon, by Bishop Grrandisson, its 
founder, is one (the 74tii) which refers to the mode of 

* Antiq. Ambrosden/ /?. 626. 
AeoQrding to the old catalogue, 
within the last hundred years, the 
EzeCer ^ Liber obitalis'* was in 
the library of the Dean and 
Chapter. I regret to say, upon 
the anthority of the Chapter Clerk, 
that no such book is now to be 
found there. In the British Mu- 
seam, NerOf c. ix. (Cotton Li- 
brary) contains two Necrologies : 
these are differently arranged; 
one divided into various compart- 
ments, in which blanks are left, 
evidently intended to be filled up 
in the course of time : the other. 

after the form of a common Ca- 
lendar, but has only o^ite. Besides 
the one at Lambeth, a very fine 
" Liber ObitaUs" of the church 
of Canterbury, is preserved at 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

In thte ancieot catalogue oF the 
Glastonbury Abbey books, before 
alluded to, occurs '* Librum mor- 
tuorum." But I do not think 
there is sufficient evidence to shew 
that it was such an obituary as 
those described above. 

^ Bites of the Church of Dur- 
haniyp. 14. 


^nterii^ Obits JOid oi recUifig tb^ia- ^* P« obitibitt 
vero taliter statuimus et ordinamus, quod an^ loariyr- 
alogium per se in kalendare, ubi nulla festa sancto- 
rum nisi duplicia scribantur et non infra martyrologiiuBi 
et quae sunt solemnia, et quaa simpliciai «pecificentur i 
ita quod quotidie lector m^tyrologii respiciat in ipso 
kalendare, tarn quotam lunse, quam obitum diei se* 

The Martyrologium occurs among the books given 
to Exeter cathedrsd by Bishop Leofric, as well as 
frequently in other ancient inventories. It is eiitered 
often under its Eqglish name of Martitog^. Many 
copi^ also, of MS. English Martyrolpgies, ar^ ptill 
extant in our great libraries : and a few of the Eng- 
lish translation, lyhich was printed by Wy^kyn de 
Worde, 4to. 1526, 


WE come now to a book, the title of which at 
least is probably better known to the reader 
than any we have hitherto met with ; and of which 
certainly in manuscript, if not also of the printed 
editions, more copies are to be found in public and 
private libraries, than of any other service-book of the 
English Church. I may add, that a careful examina- 
tion of these will too often shew many of them to be 
imperfect. This book is the " Horse Beatse Virginis 
Mariae." Strictly it was not a service-book of the 
Church, but originally compiled and intended for the 
use of the laity. Hence it varied much in its contents : 

%tttiitt l&ooia. cliii 

mnetimet contaumig only the offices of the Hours ; 
metimfiB a litany and a few occasional prayers were 
aided i sometimes we find it a volume of very consider- 
able AzBf containiDg ako the dirge, the seven penitential 
]Mabns, and various offices and prayers. Being espe- 
ciiUy the prayer-hook of the laity, the rich and nohle 
among them adorned their ^^ Horaa'' with lavish ex- 
pense : and many of the most gorgeous manuscripts 
vrhicb have come down to us are of this class, enriched 
fith exquisite illuminations, miniatures, armorial bear- 
ings, and portraits of the owners: pictures of the life and 
Niflferings of our Blessed Lord, of the saints and mar- 
tyrs, or descriptive of the offices, such as of the vigils 
or burial of the dead. 

And occasionally in the " Horse** we find collections 
of autographs of the friends of the original possessors, 
and properly used it was a book well-adapted for these 
kind memorials. I happen to possess a most remarkable 
example of this kind ; indeed I know none to be com-* 
pared with it, containing as it does several royal auto- 
graphs. The book itself is a thick 4to. MS. upon 
Tellum, of about the year 1470, and there is no entry 
or memorandum by which the first owner, certainly a 
lady, may be traced. She seems to have been attached 
to Ae Court, and was probably high in office, and in 
nnk. There are a number of illuminations, both large 
and small: sufficiently well-executed to prove that 
great pains were bestowed in finishing tiie book. The 
beginning of each service is surrounded with wide 
borders of firuit, fiowers, and birds, upon a gold ground, 
h it, are 1. a Calendar, illuminated and with borders. 
% Fifteen prayers to our Blessed Lord. 3. Comme- 
morations of saints. 3. The Hours. ^^ Incipiunt 
bore beate marie virginis secundum vsum Sarum.'^ 



Di00ertatiim mi 

4, Various short offices and prayers. 5« The uevea 
penitential psalms. 6, The fifteen psalms* 7« Vigils 
of the dead. 8. The Commendations, 9« The Ptalms 
of the Passion, 10. Psalter of S* Jerom. 11. A 
^* prayer of Saynt Thomas of Aquyne, translatyd out of 
latyn ynto Englyshe by the moste exselent Prynces,^ 
Mary, doughter to the moste hygh and myghty Prjmce 
and Prynces kyng Henry the .viij. and Quene Kateryn 
hys wyfe.^ In the yere of oure lorde god M. ccccc zxvij. 
And the xj. yere of here age.*' This and the prayer 
in a later hand.^ 
The above contents compared with the following from 

^ Erased and blotted with ink. 

^ Blotted, but still legible. 
This book most have fallen into the 
possession of some one about 1535 
or 1540 who was an ardent par- 
tizan of the legality of the King's 
marriage with Anne Bolejm, and 
consequently of the illegality of 
his first marriage. The date of 
the erasure can scarcely be later 
than 1540. 

^ The reader may find this 
prayer reprinted in Vol, 2. p. 266. 
The following are among the au- 
tographs, upon blank pages or in 
the margins. " Madame I pray 
you Remembre me, your louyng 
maister. Henry. R." {Henry 
VIL) Below this; "Madam I 
pray you forget not me to pray to 
god that I may haue part of your 
prayers. Elysabeth ye quene." 
(Elizabeth of Yorkf Queen of 

Henry VII.) " Henry. R." 
(Henry VIII.) *'l thinke the 
prayres of a frend be most accept- 
able vnto god, and because I take 
you for one of myn assured I pray 
you to remembre me in yours, by 
Katherina . . . . " (Queen 
Katherine of Arragon.) The 
last two words probably '' the 
Queen" are blotted with ink ; nor 
am I quite certain whether the 
name which is partially blotted, is 
Katherine or Katherina. These 
two last autog^phs are also on 
one page. Nearly at the end of 
the volume is : '< I haue red that 
no bodye lyuethe as he shulde doo 
but he that foloweth vertu and I 
rekenyng you to be one of them I 
pray you to remembre me yn your 
deuocyons. Marye . . ." \Queen 
Mary J when princess : which title 
has been also, as in the case of 
her mother, blotted with ink.) 

demice 1BOO&0. civ 

aoodier manuscript ^ ad Usum Sarum/' of an earlier 
ikte^ about 1350,^ will shew that they varied but little 
ID their contents. This has a Calendar, the Hours, the 
aeren penitential psalms : the xv Psalms : the Litany : 
Dirge : Commendations : and prayers of the Passion. 

But not only were manuscripts ornamented ; many 
of the printed editions, especially those from the foreign 
preBses, and of Paris in particular, are matchless spe- 
cimens of typography, ornamented with an almost end- 
less variety of woodcuts, large and small, copying the 
ancient illuminations : with decorated calendars, and 
margins covered with grotesque borders, or little re- 
presentations of sacred histories, or the dance of death. 
Among such editions, those by Kerver, and Simon 
Vostre of Paris, are the most beautiful. 

I have entered at some length into the subject of the 
Horffi, in another part of this work,^ to which the reader 
may refer, and I shall now think it only necessary to 
add the full table of contents of one of Uiese complete 

Title. ^^ Hore presentes ad vsum Sarum impresse 
inerunt Parisiis pro Symone vostre : librario commo- 
rante ibidem : in vice nuncupate nouo beate Marie, in 
intersignio sancti Johannis euangeliste." 8vo. 1507* 

At the end. ^^ C The contentis of thys booke» 

The Kalender. 

The foye^ gospelles. And the passion. A prayer 

^ In my possession. printed abroad : and therefore 

* Dissertation on the Prymer ^ould (not improbably) have nu- 

ia English. merous errors in those instances 

^ The reader must remember in which the vulgar tongue was 

that this, and very many editions corrected by people who commonly 

of English books of that age were knew but little of it. This vill 


i^fKSCSttfttiOkl OR 

to the trinite. auxiliatrix. Am^ther. piiSBime dem. 
Crux triumplialis. Wyth the colet of the ibte Kyngies. 

To the crosse. Cruoem tuam. 

To ansWere the preest atte masse whan he sajtb, 
Orafe pro me fratres« 

O anima christi. 

In entryng the chirche and takyng holy water. 
Domine in multitudine. aqua belnedicta. Discedite a 

O bone iesu tu nouisti. 

A prayer for carnal delectacion. 

Another for tenta<^ion of the flesche. 

Another for very penaunce.'® 

A prayer for diuerse oures of the day. 

A prayer of seynt augustin. in the nyge. (night.) 

A prayer of seynt anselme. 

Pater noster. Aue maria : and Credo. 

A confession general. Suscipere digneris. 

A prayer atte gyuyng of pax. 

account for such a word as/oyey 
evidently intended for four. To 
give an idea of French printing 
of English, the following is an ex- 
tract from a most curious edition 
of the MafMer to live and to die 
well. It is part of one of the pains of 
hellt immediately below a descrip- 
tive and most horrible woodcut. 
*• Thayr was oon greyt qwantyte 
of saowllys of men & women that 
war glowttons, et so gret oon 
nombjrr that wyth payn they 
myght nombyr them, the qwych 
inpunyshon of theyr glowtonny 
was fyllyt by the dewyllys of pa^ 
dokysy serpentys, et heddars, and 

aspys, et others bestys, wenymews 
and abbrewyt.^— Et theyr vas theyr 
Beelphebor Dewyl of hel captayn 
of the sayd glowtons wyth compa- 
ny of other syndry dewyDys, qwych 
strenges by merweylowB ^range- 
3rng, et sorowfnl et dreydabyl fy- 
gurys, the whych swellys the sayd 
saowllys et in corporys in theym 
the sayd serpens." 'S'^^. v.iij. I 
do not hesitate to assert that the 
above is not an unfavourable spe- 
cimen of the book. From a copy 
in my possession : Date about 
1490. Folio. 

'• " Pro vera poenitenda." 

A. pv«y€ar^ tejEt^TA tlioii rteeyue lihe saeraiaeitt. An- 
other wlmii them hast rQ<^e]r^i£id it Certnyn (certainy 
collectis for synnes. For uoclen thoughtis. For the 
Ipiig. For ihy firend Ijruivig. For way hxyngmen. 
For ty (thy) frende beynge 9eke. For thy fkder and 
tdoder deed- For thy frendis deed. For all lyuing 
and deed. 

Matines of oure lady with prime and thiB houres, 
wyth the houres of the passion of oure lorde. And of 
the compassion o£ oure lady. 

Salue regina wyth the versis. 

Grande yirgo mater christi. 

Gaude flore virginali. 

De prpfimdis for alle cristen sbules. 

A prayer to our lady and seynt iohon tfaeuange-* 


Another to thyen^^ Sancta maria regina. Stella 

Prayers to the sacrament atte leuacion. Aue yerum 
corpus. And another to the trynite. Sancta trinitas 
unus deus. Deus qui superbis. Deus qui liberasti. 
Two lytil prayers, whyche liyng harry the sixth made. 
Domine iesu christe qui me creasti. Domine iesu 
christe qui solus. 

Item two prayers wyth .ij. collectis to the thre 
kynges of cole}^. rex iaspar. &c. And trium r^um 
trium munus. 

The XV. houres of the passion of our lorde."^* 

Prayers to the pyte of our lord. 

^ There are three prayers not " More commonly " the xv 
noticed, before the *' Sancta Maria oos." 
regina." Query y thyen ? 


Di00ettatioh tat 

Adorb te domine iesu christe wyth indulgences. A 
deuoute prayer to our lord crucified and to hys fyue 
woundes, O pie crucifixe* 

The prayer of ssiynt bemardyn. O bone iesu. wyth 
anthem and colet. O rex gloriose. 

To the crosse. Sanctifica me. To the propre angel. 
O sancte angele. Diuerse commemoracions to these 
saintes folowing. 

To saynt iames the lasse. 
To ssLynt cristofbre. 
To saynt martyn. 
To sajmt francoys. 
To saynt barbara. 
To saynt apolyn. 

Tho saint iames the more. 

To sajmt sebastyan. 

To sajmt george. 

To saynt antony. 

To sajmt anne. 

To vi. thousand virgines. ' 

To alle sejmtes. 

Two deuout prayers in english to iesu. Deuoute 
prayers to be said in the agonye or {of?) deth and 
also dayly. A denote prayer to the fader. Another 
to the sone. And the thyrd to the holy goost. 

A speciial prayer late shewe (shelved) to a monke of 
V3n[iham. Deus propicius esto wyth a colet to sainct 
micheL An anteme wyth a colet to sainct gabriel. 

Another to saint raphael. A denote blessyng. 

Two deuoute prayers in englissh. 

The .vij. psalmes. xv. psalmes wyth the letanye and 

The •viij. versis of saint bemard. 

Thre short prayers taught by our lady to seynt 

A prayer ayenst thonder and tempeste shewed by an 
angel to sejmt edward. 

Titulus triumphalis iesus. 

Placebo, dirige, and commendacyon. 

A deuoute prayer to the crosse. 

ftetuite TBoofe0* clix 

Psalmes of the passion. 

A deuoute prayer to the trinite, made by saynt 

An anthem with a colet of saint hierom. Saint 
Ueromis psaulter. 

The rosare." 

The above table is by no means to be considered as 
giTuig an exact description of the contents of all 
; printed Hor». There is a very great general resem- 
blance among them, but scarcely are there two which 
do not differ in the arrangement of the prayers : some 
again have more, others less: some more English 
prayers mixed with the Latin : some a Latin table of 
contents, some an English. But from the contents given 
of the two manuscripts and of the edition by Simon 
Vostre, I doubt not that the reader will be able to 
farm a very correct idea of what he may expect to 
find in the ^^ Horse Beatss Mariae Virginis secundum 
Qsurn Sarum." 

I do not remember any copy which can be identified 
as of the Use of York or Hereford. 

As of the Hor» so also of the " Prymer" I have 
spoken in another place, the Dissertation on the Eng- 
lish Prymer, and must again refer the reader there for 
fbrther information. Here I shall repeat, that I be- 
lieve it to be an error to suppose that the Prymer 
b^gan to be known, as some writers have supposed, 
only about the year 1525, and sprung out of the desire 
th^ prevalent for English formularies of devotion. I 
have proved that it was common, at any rate its name, 
centuries before : and have edited an English trans- 
lation of the Prymer or Horse, certainly earlier than 
the XV th century. 

As a general rule, I think we may say that in the 


xvith century printed books, which hwr the title of 
Prymer, contain more prayers and direction» and 
short treatises in English than the Horse. Bnt in 
other respects they agree : having between them, and 
between themselves the same variations, and snch 
additions or omissions as might suit the purpose of the 
editor or the printer. Still these were so unimportant, 
that they did not at all interfere with, the character 
either of the one or of tiie other. Those which bore 
upon the title page *^ Prymer in English and Latin'' or 
** Prymer in English" explain themselves. The first 
would contain the offices and prayers in both lan- 
guages, in parallel columns, the last in English only. 
There was no Prymer in English only, printed, ^* of 
Salisbury Use.'' Those which were pubtished in the 
reign of K. Henry the Eighth are stated to have been 
set forth by his authority and of the Clergy, for die 
use of and enjoined to be used by the whole realm.'^* 

Take, for example, an early Prymer. " C This 
prymer of Salysbury vse is set out a long wout ony 
serchyng, with many prayers, and goodly pyctures." 
Paris. 1532. Such is a portion of the title; but the 
whole book is in Latin, so far as the offices are con- 
cerned, and corresponds with the Horse of the same 
date. The difference consists in more frequent trans- 
lations of verses to the calendar ; and some short tracts, 
&c. as if keeping up the ancient and proper character 
of the original Prymers. 

Or again, a Prymer " in Englyshe and in Laten" of 

''^ " The Prymer set forth, &c. throughout his dominions.** Edit. 
— and none other to be used Whitchurch. 1545. 

^eiDtce TBoohti. 


the date 1638.»* The following are ** C The contentes 

Fyrste an Almanacke for .xx. yeres. 

A Calender. A preface.^* 

A prayer of the vij. wordes that our lorde spake on 
the croBse at his passyon. 
• The forre gospels of the foure euangelistes. 

The passion of our Lorde. Egressus est Jesus. 

The Pater noster. and the Aue maria. 

The .xij. articles of the faythe. 

The .X. comaundementes. 

The duety of a christen man. 


Matyns. Eu3n[isonge. Coumplen. Salve regina. 
Gaude rirgo. Gaude flore. Stella celi. Ave verum 

The .XV. Oos. 

The .vij. Psalmes with the Lateny. 

Dyryge with the commendacyons. 

The psalmes of the passion. 

Saint Hieroms psalter. 

A prayer whan thou shalt receyue the sacrament. 

^ 8vo. Paris. In the Bodleian 

» This is, " C The preface 
and maner to lyue well, deuoutly 
and salutarily euery day for all 
persones of meane estate. Com- 
pjled by mayster Johan quentin 
doctour in diuiny te at Parys : 
translated out of frenche in tho 
Englysshe by Robert Copland 
prynter at London." It is very 

VOL. I. 

commonly prefixed to the Horse 
and Prymers. At the end are often 
found, rather bound with them 
than a part of the books, having 
fresh signatures and pagination, 
" Hierom of Ferrarye* his expo- 
sicyon upon the .li. psalme.*' and 
" A meditacyon of the same Jerom 
upon the Psalme of In te Domine 
sperauiy whiche preuentyd by 
death he coulde not fynyshe." 


clxii Dt0ji!ettatioti ott 

A prayer whan thou haste receyued it. 

O bone Jesu. Conditor cell et terre. 

Thre prayers of Salomon : two for to obtayne wys- 
dome, and one for a competent lyuyng." 

The Prymers in English and Latin are thus seen 
not to be so full in their contents as those in Latm 
only or chiefly. The later Prymers " after the Use of 
Sarum" contain, some of them, a number of godly 
prayers in English, both at the beginning and at the 
end : as the edition, for example, in 4to. by Kyngston 
and Sutton, 1557. On the other hand, " The Prymer 
in English and Latine after Salisbury use'' by John 
Wayland, 1558, except in the addition of the xv Oos, 
and the Passion from the four Gospels, is an exact 
counterpart, as to its contents, of the earliest Prymer 
known, viz. the manuscript edited in the present 

The Prymers ** set forth by y* kinges maieste and 
his clcrgie," in 1545, in English and in Latin, and in 
English only, contain those portions of the previous 
books of the same name which had been already trans- 
lated. I am not speaking of the translation itself or 
of the alterations and omissions which were made in 
the offices which they contained. 

It has been generally supposed that the " Orarium" 
of 1546 was a book similar to the " Orarium" of 1560, 
of Queen Elizabeth, which is so well known through 
the reference made to it by Bishop Cosin in the title- 
page of his private devotions, or " Hours of Prayer." 
Or again, that it was much the same as the ^* Preces 
Privatae" published " regia authoritate" in 1564, and 
1573. But this is a mistake : and I have no doubt 
has arisen from the extraordinary rarity of the original 
book : no copy of which is in the Museum, and but an 

erfect one in the Bodleian. The " Orarium" of 
6 is the Latin part of the Prymer set forth by K. 
ny the Eighth. It is the volume which Archbishop 
nmer enquired about in the 68th of his Visitation 
deles, 1548. "Whether they that understand Latin 
use any other than the Latin Prymer, set forth by 
King's Majesty's authority/' 
rhus we have the King's Prymer in three states ; 
Latin and English, in English, and in Latin : not 
ming what Latin name to give it, and disliking 
[or»," the editors called it ** Orarium," not " Ho- 
ium." The full title is: " Orarium sen libellus 
cationum per Regiam maiestatem et clerum latine 
itus. 1546." 12mo. At the beginning is the Latin 
fece, which Mr. Jenkyns, and after him Dr. Burton, 
Id not find although they searched, that is, if they 
de a search.^^ 

rhey who chose " Orarium" for the title of this 
ume, if they wished for a new word, which by the 
Y it was not, probably did not remember that it had 
91 no less than " Horse" applied to the corresponding 
A: of the church of Salisbury. It is in the colo- 
>n to an Enchiridion, " Impressum est hoc orarium, 
" i. e. the Horse, or " Enchiridion praeclare ecclesie 
rum." 8vo. 1530. And in the breviary of the 
ttch of Spires the term had been already used. 
le edition of that book in 1507, 8vo. of which there 
I copy in the library of the University of Cambridge, 
I the title, " Orarium Spiren." 
For the "Enchiridion" is nothing more than ano- 

* See more upon this in the Dissertation on the Prymer in 

cixiv DtjStfectation on 

ther title of the Horse. The contents and the arrange- 
ment are exactly similar. It may have been used in 
other churches to signify the Manual, which at first 
sight or hearing of the name one would be inclined to 
suppose : but whether this be so or not, there is no 
example of it in the English manuals. I know but 
two editions of the Horse, entitled Enchiridion : of 
1530, by Hardouyn; and by Kerver^ I2mo. 1528.^^ 


I AM very far from asserting that the above list of 
the old Service Books and Rituals of the Church of 
England is complete : but I trust that at least all those 
of usual occurrence have been noticed, and those only 
omitted whose titles and contents either cannot admit of 
doubt, or which there is no reason to believe were used 
by the English Church. It must moreover be remem- 
bered, that in the old times there were almost as many 
books as there were parts of the Offices and Service: 
and not only the collects and verses and graduals, &c. 
were divided and subdivided into separate volumes, 
but the Offices of great festivals and certain portions 
of the year were also arranged for the purposes of 
greater solemnity, or to be ready at hand^ as I have 
before remarked, and the reader cannot but have 

Such then they were, and at least so many in num- 

Both these are in my possession. 

^crtiicc T5oofes. clxv 

ber : and of each not only must there have been almost 
coontless copies in manuscript in the year 1530, but 
thei^ bad been many'large editions of several of them 
printed.^ Yet now, in about three hundred years, we 
may say of them that, as a class, they have all but 
totally disappeared. Examples of any one. Missal or 
Breyiary or Manual it matters not, are of extraordinary 
rarity: of some none are extant : and by far the greater 
part of those which we do possess are mutilated and 

It is not to be denied that service books are, more 
perhaps than imy others, subject to destruction : at least, 
if we judge from the C€tre taken of them commonly now- 
a-days. They are suffered to lie about in damp places : 
they are left among old boards or boxes in vestries, and 
bea>me the gradual prey of rats and vermin : when 
too for gone to be of use, they are thrown away, or help 
to light the stove and the gas-lamps of the church. 
Modem Common Prayer Books are printed moreover 
upon a most vile paper ; and the wonder really may 
rather be, how with any amount of care, they can 
withstand at all the thumbing of parish-clerks. But 
of these causes two at least were wanting in earlier 
ages ; care was taken of the books, and the material 
was enduring. 

In proof of how great the care was which was taken 
anciently of the Church Service Books, I shall quote 
two statutes drawn up by the founder of the college 

* The Exeter MS. inventory missale de papiro artis impres- 

of 1506, proves how early the sorie.** And to the Chapel of S. 

printed editions were adopted in Edmund in the same cathedral 

churches. Belonging to the cha- " j. missale impressorie artis in 

pel of the Holy Cross was " j. pergameno." 



lDi00ettattan on 

€i S. Mary Otteity. ^* 30. Inhibemiis etiam disbricte 
sab pcena excommimicationis, ne quis pnesmnat ant, vt 
qoandoqae vidimus in ecclesiis mraUbii^ de felik 
UlH-orum ex quacunque e<H*iim parte aliquid absciiidere 
yel saperscribere ad librorum defonnitatem ant matibr 
tionem, nee etiam sub colore corrtetionis aliqoid ia 
litera vel nomine immntare, nisi forte aliquis peritos 
et sciolos ad hoc assignatus novos libros corrigat ad 
exemplar aliquod originale, quod juxta judicium senio- 
rum exemplar fidelius reputatur. Omnes etiam ecclesi» 
ministri saepius moneantur libros ecclesise honeste ver- 
tere, tenere, et servare/* '^ 34. Item ut honestius libri 
custodiantur, statuimus et mandamus quod clerici te- 
nendo libros, quantum possunt» manicas superpellioei 
inter librum et manum interponant et folia vertendo 
non cum digitis sputo tinctis, ut sutores, nee plicando 
quasi per aures caperent^ sed cum digitis incipiendo in 
superiori parte descendendo vertant, et stringendo 
libros aperiant non firmacula subito evellendo."^^ 

^* Oliver. Monaaticon. Exon. 
p, 270. The same statutes con- 
tain a further order, which I can- 
not resist extracting. '* 31. Item 
statuimus quod antiphonaria om- 
nia et gradualia et psalteria ita 
semper sint correcta quod non 
discordent in aliquo, et quod ita 
dividantur quod una medietas 
eorum ponatur a dextera chori et 
alia medietas a sinistra. Ita quod 
semper ad minus sint tria anti- 
phonaria et tot psalteria cum tot 
gradualibus ex uno latere, et tot 
ex alio latere, et liber unus ad 
gradum semper chori vel in me- 
dio, alius coram rectoribus ad 

missam; et inhibemus ne aliquis 
ex quacunque causa asportet vel 
amoveat vel transmutet tales li- 
bros de locis suis quibus speciali- 
ter assignabuntur, ac etiam ascri- 
bentur, quia ex hoc posset officium 
impediri; verum volumus quod 
armarioli fortes fiant in stallis se- 
cundariorum per quatuor partes 
chori ad reponendum tales libros, 
et quod claves tradantur clericis 
ecclesias qui eos quotidie extra- 
hant et reponant 32. Item,quo- 
tiens aliquis novus liber portatur 
in chorum, nullus canonicus nee 
alius utatur eo, quousque oorri- 

^ertoke T5oofts^ cix\ ii 

Not only was such the care taken of them, but the 
service books were aknost always, if manuscripti upon 
▼eUum ; and in later years, if printed and on paper, 
then the material was strong and stout enough to last 
a reasonable time. Again : when the ritual and 
Htnrgy of the Church was altered, it was a sudden 
diange : the old books were not to be used until worn 
oat and then to be supplied by the new Offices ; but on 
a certain day named they were to be given up entirely 
and for ever. Now it is not to be supposed but that 
two-thirds at least of those then in use were perfect and 
sound: and of the remaining third there could not 
have been a large proportion whose time of service 
would happen to have nearly expired, and which 
might be properly, not thrown upon a dunghill but, 
reverently destroyed.*^ 

Once more : consider the amazing number of the 

•^ " The question is frequently secration of Churches,/?. 64^ Note, 

ssked, what should he done with So Alberti says : when sacred 

Church Vestments, &c. which Vestments and Ornaments of the 

haye become useless from age or Church are worn out, they are to 

injury ? The Canon Law tells us : be burned, and their ashes to be 

" Altaris palla, cathedra, cande- disposed " in ecclesiae loco ubi 

labnim, et velum, si fuerint vetus- incedentium pedibus calcari ne- 

tate consumpta, incendio dentur ; queunt." De saci*is utensilihus, 

quia non licet ea, quae in sacrario />. 176. See also, Cap, xi, 51-57. 

(uerinty male tractari ; sed in- />. 174. 

ooidio universa tradantur. Ci- And, once more, Lyndwood: 

ncres quoque eorum in baptiste- " Pallae alUris, et ea, quae in sa- 

rium inferantur, ubi nuUus tran- crario sunt vetustate comipta, in- 

ritum habeat ; aut in pariete, aut cendi debent. Et ratio est, quia 

in fossia pavimentorum jactentur, talia male tractari non debent, 

ne introeuntium pedibus inqui- nee ad usus prophanos converti." 

nentur. {Corpus Juris Can. Vol Lib. 1. Tit. 6. Cum sacri. Verb. 

\.p.460.y' Haringtofi : on con- Concrcmandum. 


DiisiBiectation on 

books. Not only every one of the ten thousand parishes 
of England was fully furnished, but in single parishes 
there were often more churches than one, and in single 
churches there were chantries and chapels, also sup- 
plied.^^ Add to these, the monasteries and cathedrals 
with their hundreds (it may be said) of service books;" 
the private chapels of the nobility ; the copies in the 
possession of the laity : and will it be beyond the mark to 
assert that at the date above-mentioned there were not 
less than two hundred and fifty thousand volumes in 
actual use, besides those which might have been laid up 
and treasured in the archives ?** 

" The parish church of S. John 
the Baptist, Glastonbury, in the 
year 1421, had in use " iij missals, 
iij graduals, j psalter, iij antipho- 
nals, j legend, ij collections, j pro- 
cessional." Collections I conclude 
were the same as the " colet-boke " 
mentioned before. Warner. Hist, 
of Glast. Appendix, xcix. 

^ Take for example, the sum 
of some of the Church-books 
which belonged to Ramsay Abbey, 
from the inventory before cited. 
(Cotton Rolls, xi. 16.) There are 
entered at the end, Breviaries, 
**lxx." Psalters, "centum." Hym- 
nals, "iiij." Graduals, « xxxij." 
Processionals, " xxix." 

^ In speaking just above of ten 
thousand parishes in England, and 
in calculating the number of Ser- 
vice Books at 250,000, I must 
surely be within the actual number. 
Sir Robert Atkyns in his Glou- 

cestershire speaks of '< 45,000 
churches, and 55,000 chapels 
which existed before the Refor- 
mation." But as there may be 
doubt as to whether he includes 
Abbey Churches, let us hear some 
contemporary authorities. The 
anonymous author of the famous 
libel, " A supplicacyon for the 
beggers," says, " Here if it please 

your grace to marke there are 

withyn youre realme of Englond, 
lii. thousand parisshe churches." 
I quote from a copy of the original 
edition of 1524. It is true that 
Sir Thomas More in his answer, 
called " the supplycacyon of 
soules,*' denies the fact, saying " it 
is a playne lye to beginne with.** 
Works, p, 293. But we must 
not forget that the author of the 
libel makes his statement the 
foundation of an extraordinary 
calculation of the amount of money 
paid by the householders of Eng^ 

Setttice TBooim. clxix 

There is no difficulty however in accounting for the 
losB of them. The same spirit which prompted the 
ref<xrmer8 to drive religious men into the world, who 
had forsaken it as they had hoped for ever, hy dis- 
mantling their houses and tearing the roofs off over 
their heads, by ^^ pulling down the rooks' nests,'' as one 
advised who in after years died disgracefully upon the 
scaffold, — the same spirit suggested a sure plan to pre- 
I tent men worshipping any longer after the manner of 
^ their fore&thers. This was to destroy the books in 
which that ancient way of worship was contained. 
The storm of alteration then sweeping over the land, 
from one end of England to the other, with daily in- 
creasing violence; which would have spared, had 
God not checked it, but little of former belief and 
practice; which overwhelmed tower and church and 
cloister in one common ruin, was successful in this 
strdLe which it aimed. 

I am not speaking of the comparative excellence of 
the new service books, or of the errors and super- 
stitions of the old ; this is another subject : but I do 
think it was for the first time seen in the Christian 
Church, that in order to make way for a new ritual 

had to the begging friars : which century, in a contemporary hand : 

alcohition of oonrse would be " Sunt in regno Anglie ecclesie 

nach influenced, by an additional parochiales 46100. Sunt in eodem 

fire or six thousand at the com- regno villate, &c." BibL Reg. 

neiieement. And there is other MS. 8. B. xv. And another mar 

eridence that the statement of Sir nuscript in the same collection has 

R. Atkyns, putting the number at the end some similar entries : 

It 45,000, was not incorrect. For among them, " Sunt in Anglia 

example, in the British Museum ecclesie parochiales 45011.*' BihL 

are some memoranda entered at Reg. MS. 8. D. iv. 
the end of a MS. of the xvth 


DiftBienatfon on 

and order of public worship, it was thcragbt neoeflsary 
to obliterate, if possible, by the strong arm of pow^, 
against the will of the majority of the clergy and the 
people, all traces of a preceding one. Christian also 
and Catholic, which for a thousand years had been the 
object of their reverence and love. This was indeed 
looking upon it after the fashion of those who, in the 
days of the Apostles, burnt the books of magic and 
of '^ curious arts ;" a view not unlikely to be taken by 
men who, as some high in authority did not hesitate to 
declare, looked upon the pants benaUctus as *^ conjured 

It will not be improper to add here a few of the 
records and particulars of this event. In 1534, a 
proclamation was idsued, ^' giving warning, monition, 
and charge to all manner of ecclesiastical persons 
within every diocess — to cause all manner prayers, 
orasions, rubricks, canons of mass-books, and all other 
books in the churches, wherein the Bishop of Rome is 
named,*' to be cleared from his name and title, and that 
they should be utterly eradicated and rased out.^ 

Within about four years after, considering what was 
taking place, it is not to be wondered at that S. Tho- 
mas of Canterbury should have been especially ob- 
noxious. It was not enough that the murdered Arch- 
bishop should have been ridiculously cited and con- 
demned at Westminster, a fact which has been denied; ®* 

^ WUkins. Concilia. TanuS. 
p. 778. 

^ See a note in Cranmer's Re- 
mains. Vol. 1. p. 262. But a 
confutation which against many 
ilates (viz. of the citation, the 

sentence, and the execution) rests 
upon one date, and that not of a 
document, hut in a lady's diary, 
does not seem worth much. I 
think against the fact the strong 
point is, that K. Henry's advisers 

Aettiice TBoek». 


t his Bhrine shonld be robbed of its rich jewels, 
were a sufficient objectalone to excite the cupidity 
King's advisers, even though the acts of his life 
usufficient for their purpose ; but it was farther 
Hi, by " the King's Grace," charged and com- 
3d, that '^firom henceforth the said Thomas Becket 
not be esteemed and reputed a saint, — and that 
forth the day used to be festival in his name, shall 
» observed, nor the service, office, antiphons, collects 
rayers in his name read, but rased and put out of 
? books.'' ^ We find in copies which have come 
to us frequent mutilations, the consequence of 
Qjunction: the service erased, or blotted with 
dtion ink (as it was called, impossible to be 
red and msJdng the print illegible), or cut out 
^ther. Sometimes it was merely crossed through 
91 pen. 

t two or three years afterwards, other steps were 
taken: the Convocation of 1542 was quietly 
^ regiam majestatem velle," that the King would 
^^ all mass books, antiphoners, portuisses in the 
eh of England newly examined, reformed, and 
[ated from all manner of mention of the Bishop of 
)'s name, from all apocryphas,^ feigned legends, 
stitious orations, collects, versicles, and responses : 

t commonly trouble them* 
with any such egregious 
before they proceeded to 
r : /or it, an expression in 
Qg*8 Injunction, 'cited in the 
Forasmuch as it appeareth 
early, that Thomas Becket. 

Vilkms. Concilia. Tom. 3. 

p. 848. Mr. Todd, in his Life of 
Archbishop Cranmer, states that 
he bad already treated the memory 
of Becket with disrespect, at the 
time of his festival. He gives no 
authority, and it needs no com- 
ment, except the expression of a 
hope that the author was mis-* 


Diiwertatjon on 

that the names and memories of all sainta wUdi be 
not mentioned in Scriptorey cr aothentical doctun» 
should be abolished and put out cf the same boob 
and calendars : and that the services should be made 
out of the Scriptures. &c.''^ The wonder is that sny 
further order should have been neceasaiy after this, 
which was sufficiently loose in its directions to admit* 
the violence of every one who would assert this or that 
to be apocryphal, or feigned legend, cr super s titioos 
collect* But it seems that the people would not yet 
be driven, let the hint be ever so palpable : and to this 
expression of the ^* royal pleasure" we can trace little 
more than further irreverent mutilation, and tearing 
out of leaves. That its object was not forgotten is 
clear from one of the Visitation Articles of the diocese 
of Canterbury in 1548 : " Item, whether they have 
put out of their church books this word, papa^ and the 
name and service of Thomas Becket, and prayers 
having rubrics containing pardons and indulgences,* 
and all other superstitious legends and prayers.** 

In the year 1549 issued a Proclamation which, 
backed by the royal power, could scarcely be evaded. 
Premising that a book of common prayer had been 
agreed upon and commanded to be used of all persons 

^ Wilkins. Concilia. Tom. 8. 
p. 863. It was to meet this sta- 
tute, I presume, and prevent fur- 
ther mutilation, that hooks were 
printed without the ohnoxious 
passages. Such as was the " For- 
tifonum secundum usum Sarum 
uoviter impressum, et a plurimis 
purgatum mendis. In quo nomen 
Romano pontifici falso ascriptum 

omittitur, una cum aliis quse chris- 
tianissimo nostri Regis statute 
repugnat. London." 12mo. 1544. 
2 vols. 

^ Hence do we find some copies 
which have these especially erased 
or torn out: they were not fre- 
quent, and were confined almost 
entirely to the " Hone." 

^etttice 1Booli0» cixxiii 

within the realm» but that " dyvers unquyette and evill 
disposed persons had noysed and bruted abrode, that 
fliey sholde have agayne theire olde Lattene service," 
it iMTOceeds to order and " straightly to commaunde 
md charge you, that immediately upon the receipt 
heroi^ you do commaunde the deane and prebendaries 
of the cathedral! churche, the parsonne, vicar or curate 
ind churche wardens of euerie parishe, within youre 
diocease, to bringe and delyver unto youe or youre 
deputie — all antiphoners, missales, grayles, procession- 
allesy manuelles, legendes, pies, portasses, jomalles, 
md ordinalles, aflter the use of Sarum, Lincoln^ York, 
or any other private use, and all other bokes of ser- 
noe, the keping wherof shold be a let to the usage of 
the said boke of commenne prayers, and that you take 
the same bokes into your handes — and then {them ?) so 
dshce and abolishe that they never after may serve 
eyther to anie soche use, as they were provided for, or 
be at any time a lett to that godly and uniforme ordre. 

Immediately succeeding this came the Act 3rd and 
4th £dv. VI. Cap. x. repeating the above, with an 
addition or two, such as that all such books, ^' used 
heretofore for the Service of the Church, — shalbe 
clearlie and utterlie abolished, extinguished, and for- 
bidden for euer to bee vsed, or kepte in this Realme." 
TTie books so delivered were ordered to be openly burnt, 
or otherwise destroyed: and if any mayor. Bishop, 
kc. or other commissary neglected to do so, he was to 
forfeit " fourtie poundes." The last clause of this 
excepted one book, the Prymer of K. Henry the Eighth, 

Wilkins. Concilia. Torn. 4. p. 37. 

cixxiv DijBijKmadon on 

which might be returned to the owners, ** so ihat the 
sentences of invocation or praier to Sainctes, be blotted 
or clearlie put out of the same." In this state, bo 
blotted) is sJmost every copy which remains of those 

Queen Mary, on her accession, called in and so for as 
she was able completed the destruction of all copies of 
the old books, which according to the edicts of previous 
reigns had been mutilated, erased, and injured.^ This 
unquestionably sprung from a desire to prevent the 
use in parish churches of defoced and imperfect copies, 
for by the same enactment all parishes were required 
to furnish themselves with new complete books, as the 
Service stood in the last year of the reign of King 
Henry the Eighth. But the effect was, that to this 
cause we must attribute, in its degree, a further and 
not inconsiderable loss of those volumes which, although 
injured, had yet been spared. 

But fast as probably for a time the press worked, to 
supply the wants of so many thousand parishes, in 
which the ancient Forms and Offices were to be re- 
stored, it was for a time only, and a short time : within 
five years Elizabeth ascended the throne of England, 
and the reformed Prayer Book was established as the 
ritual of her Church, and has so continued to the 
present time. 

Neither is there much difficulty in accounting for 
the loss of the reprints of Queen Mary's time : no 
energy and activity in the three or four years which 
intervened, could have supplied a tenth part of those 

^ Bums. Eccles. Law. Art. Public WorMp, Gibson. Codex. 
Tit. xi. Cap. 1. 

^ertiice TBooli». cixxv 

^hich had been destroyed. Yet these have in like 
manner perished, and from the same causes. Com- 
missions of inquiry were issued soon after Elizabeth's 
purpose had been decided on, or her way clear before 
her ; and orders to deliver up all such superstitious 
books that they might be destroyed. To cite no more 
instances, take three from the Collectanea Curiosa.^^ 
One, directed to All Soul's college, with a schedule 
of Mass Books, Grailes, and Antiphons in their pos- 
aession. Another, of which Humfrey, President of 
Magdalen, was a chief and we may suppose how ac- 
tive an agent» aimed at the few copies which had been 
letained: ^^ Missals, Books, Crosses, and such other 
Utolatrous and superstitious monuments.'' And a third, 
to the same effect : " Another order from the same." 

No more seems necessary to be cited by way of 
adding to these royal and parliamentary edicts. Yet 
one, forty years later, must not be omitted. This is 
the act, 3rd. James. 1. Cap. 5. It is sufficient to 
mention it merely, and that it recites several books 
named in the statute above, 3rd & 4th £dv. vi. with 
the addition of some three or four later publications; 
Rosaries, Lady-Psalters, and Catechisms, which are 
IK) part of my subject. All " to be burned." 

I am bound to say, that having been begun by the 
(me party, the practice of destroying service books 
was not neglected by the other. An order was soon 
iniied by Queen Mary's council, against ^^ certain 
heretical books," among which particularly were ** the 
Sdiismatical Communion Book" and *Uhe English 
Ordinal." These were to be destroyed and burnt 

•* Vol. 2. Nos. xxij. XXV. xxvj. 


DiisiBiettatton on 

throughout the realm. Strype» by the way, in quoting 
this, quietly confounds suspect translations of the old 
and new Testamenti with the Holy Bible, as if that 
was ordered to be bumt.^ 

There can be no doubt whatever that orders were 
not only issued, but acted on, and zealously obeyed. 
When men spared not holy and solemn buildings,^ 

^ Memorials of Cranmer. p. 

» WilUs, in his Mitred Abbies, 
gives the following account sent 
to Cromwell of the destruction of 
the magnificent church of Lewes 
in Sussex, taken from a book in 
the Cottonian library. 

*< Sussex. March 24. 1538. 
** My Lord» I humbly commend 
to your Lordship. The last I 
wrote to your Lordship was the 
20th day of this present month, 
by the hands of Mr. Williamson : 
by the which I advertised your 
Lordship of the length and great- 
ness of this church, and sale : we 
had begun to pull the whole down 
to the ground, and what manner 
and fashion they used in pulling 
it down. 1 told your Lordship of 
a vault on the right side of the 
high Altar that was borne with 
four pillars, having about it five 
Chapels. All this is down, Thurs- 
day and Friday last. Now we are 
plucking down an higher vault, 
borne up by four thick and gross 
pillars. This shall down for our 
second work. We brought from 
London seventeen persons, 3 Car- 

penters, 2 Smiths, 2 FlnmmerB» 
and one that keepeth the fiimaoe; 
every one of these attendeth to 
his own: office: ten of them heweth 
the walls about, among the whidi 
are the three carpenters, thait 
made props to underset where the 
other cot away. The other break 
and cut the walls. These are men 
exercised much better than other 
men that we find here in the 
country. [May we not hope that 
the country people refused to be 
partakers of their sin ? ] Where- 
fore we must both have more men 
and other things also that we have 
need of. By month a Tuesday, 
they begun to cast the lead, and 
it shall be done with such dili- 
gence and saving as may be. So 
that our trust is, that your Lord- 
ship shall be much satisfied with 
what we do. Your Lordship's 
servant, John Portmarus." VoL 
ii. Appendix, p. 26. 

Surely the pious brethren of 
the monasteries in those unhappy 
times must have remembered, and 
sorrowfully repeated in the ears 
of the most High, the prophetic 
words, " Thine adversaries roar 

^emice TBook». cixxvii 

rs dedicated to the most high God, and the 

t of Thy congregations : 
iheir banners for to- 
liat hewed timber afore 
hick trees : was known 
to an excellent work. 
ley break down all the 
:k thereof: with axes 
srs. ^They have set fire 
holy places : and have 
dwelling-place of Thy 
m unto the ground, 
aid in their hearts, Let 
voc of them altogether. 
w long shall the adver- 
i dishonour : how long 
!nemy blaspheme Thy 

help adding, from an 
much inclined to 8}in- 
h any but Roman and 

antiquity, and who 

himself moreover as 
irager of superstitious 
lie following passage, 
ing of the Abbey of 
y about the year 1720. 
I lugtrum of years, a 
n tenant has made 
irons havoc there than 
nee the dissolution, for 
; a pillar, a buttress, a 

an angle of fine hewn 
Id to the best bidder, 
as there they were ex- 
L Joseph's chappell for 
«e, and the squared 
) lay*d up in lots in the 
«hen, the rest goes to 

paving 3rards and stalls for catUe, 
or to the highway. / observed 
/reqttent instances of the toums* 
men being generally afraid to 
make such purchase^ as thinking 
an unlucky Jate attends the Jo- 
mUy where these materials are 
used, and they told me many 
stories and particular instances 
of it. Others that are but half 
religious will venture to build 
stables and outhouses with it, but 
by no means any part of the 
dwelling housed In the next page 
we are told, " that the towns-peo- 
ple bought the stone of the vaults 
underneath the great hall to build 
a sorry mercat house : what they 
durst not have done singly, they 
perpetrated (zs a body, hoping 
vengeance would slip between so 
many.** Stukeley. Itinerarium 
Cur. Iter. vj. But the word of 
God says that He regards num- 
bers no more than persons, and 
** though hand join in hand, yet 
the wicked shall not go unpun- 

How utterly forgotten in the 
xvith. century was that law of 
Christianity, which has ever for- 
bidden the appropriation in any 
way to secular purposes of g^oods 
once given to God, and employed 
in His service. The enlightened 
enthusiasts who pulled down 
Churches and Chapels, and built 
houses with the materials for 



Di00eitatioti on 

bodies of the dead,^ it is not to be supposed (though 
we had no evidence) that books should have been 

themseWes to lodige in, might 
have learnt many a profitable les- 
son from the canons of earlier 
ages, np to the introduction of the 
Faith among their Saxon forefa- 
thers. (Compare norpCf An- 
cient Laws and Institutes. Vol. 
2. p. 56. 235. 341., and in later 
years, Wilkins, Concilia, Tom. 
1. p. 576. 636. &c) There has 
been published within the last 
year, a most valuable compendium 
of the Statutes relating to the Ec- 
clesiastical and Eleemosynary In- 
stitutions of England. (By Ar- 
chihald J. Stephens, Bmnister- 
at-Law. 2 vols. J The first note 
p. Lis very much to our purpose. 
•' When any thing is granted for 
Gody it is deemed in law to be 
granted to God: and whatsoever 
is granted to his church, for his 
honour, and the maintenance of 
his religion and service, is gpranted 
for and to God." Sir William 
Dugdale has recorded his opinion, 
or as it was a tender point, his 
doubts. "As for the Curses 
which were usually pronounc*t by 
the Founders of these Religious 
Houses, whether they have at- 
tended those violaters of what 
they so zealously and with devout 
minds had dedicated to God's ser- 
vice ; I will not take upon me to 
say : but sure I am, that after K. 
H. 8. had accomplished this work 

he thrived but a little. And how 
long such poasessions were €»• 
joyed by those who bad thea, 
they that have look't into thi 
course of this world may eanly 
see." HiH. Warw. p. \4B. 

Not so hesitaiingly howem 
speaks the very learned editor 
of the Momattioan DicBcesit Es^- 
niensii. He gives a remarkable 
letter, " artful and menacing, tt 
that fit instrument of royal ty- 
ranny, John Lord Russell,* (p. 
77.) and adds, ^ In too many in- 
stances of this period we are re- 
minded of the language of the 
nobles and princes in the 62nd 
Psalm, ' Who said, Let us take 
to ourselves the houses of God in 
possession;' and of the conduct 
of Ahab to Naboth. Well might 
Heylin observe, that the king was 
' neither the richer in children by 
so many wives, nor much im- 
proved in revenue by such horri- 
ble rapines.* " 

I need not refer the reader to 
Spelman's History of Sacrilege, 
of which a new and careful edition 
has lately been published, and 
shall make only one more extract, 
from the sermons of a great 
preacher. " There is nothing that 
the united voice of all history pro- 
claims so loud, as the certain un- 
failing curse that has pursued 
and overtaken sacrilege. Make 

%ettitce OBooM. ci»ix 

9 fiortmiate. Bat we have ample proof. I wish 
ii that I had space to give more than the following 

kgoe of all the profperom 
jgions penons that have been 
the beginning of the world 
I daj, and I beliere they will 
wiunn a Tery narrow con* 
uid be repeated much sooner 
be alphabet" South. Ser- 
ai Plaoes for Divine Wor- 

■y writers, especially in late 
when a more just spirit of 
rf has Jieen exercised into 
iMKve proved the Msehood 
a aocosations which were 
against the inmates of the 
sh monasteries. I allude to 
the purpose of directing the 
r'a attention to a collection of 
ten relating to the Suppres- 
ktely published by the Lon- 
amden Society. The Editor 
B ooe hand has declared his 
in all the charges brought 
li the monks, (see Pre&ce, 
and on the other, furnished 
earest evidence of the koa- 
md abominable lying which 
practised by the King's 
aisaioners, in order to force 

u is already too long a note, 
must add the contrast which 
splayed by Henry 5th. In his 
; was proposed by the Speaker 
House of Commons, to seize 
^venues of the Church, but 
[ing refused, and declared 

that he would ** leave the Church 
in a better condition than he 
found if' CoUier. VoLl.p.620. 
Again, when the Alien Prioriea 
were no longer allowed, they were 
granted, not to greedy conrtien^ 
but *^ to other monasteries and 
colleges of learned men." Once 
more: who would have supposed 
that in the year 1539 soch iniqni- 
tiea would have been not merely 
witnessed but advised by men who 
only 15 years before, whether 
truely or falsely, had brought this 
charge amongst others against 
Cardmal Wolsey? «« 19. Also, 
that the said lord Cardinal hath 
not only by his untrue suggestion, 
shaipe^lly slandered many good 
religious houses, and good virtu* 
ous men dwelling in them, but 
also suppressed by reason thereof, 
above thirty houses of religion. 
— and thereupon hath caused to 
be found by verdict untruly, that 
the religious persons so suppressed 
had voluntarily forsaken their said 
houses, which was untrue, and so 
hath caused open perjury to be 
committed» to the high displeasure 
of Almighty God.- Coliier. VoL 
2. p. 40. 

^ See the horrible account 
which is preserved in the old book 
of the 1^9 of Durham Churchy 
p. 86 : how the body of S. Cutb- 
bert was treated by the notorious 


DiiBC0ertation on 

one or two examples. Thus, a letter of the Archhishop 
of Canterbury, referring his proceedings in spiritaal 
matters to the approbation of Cromwell, a layman.** 

" My singular good Lord, about a twelve montb 

past, I lodged at my house in Croydon : where certain 
of my chaplains by chance went into the church there, 
^nd as they looked in certain books they found the 
names of Bishops of Rome not put out according unto 
the King's commandment; wherefore I sent for all 
the priests of the church, and their books also, — and 
commanded them that they should amend their said 
books, and / discharged the parish priest of his service 
at the same time" The letter goes on to say, that 
Cranmer for the same offence put a chantry priest in 
bail to appear before the council : and it proves most 
clearly the difficulty which was met with in enforcing 
the King's commands. 

Again, a long list of articles against one Mr. Don 
of Jesus college, Cambridge, chiefly run upon the. 
same matter, that he would not deface the service 

Again, a most remarkable letter and blasphemous, 
written by a monk of the monastery of Pershore, de- 
siring to be dismissed, to the Lord Cromwell, " second 


Doctor Ley and Doctor Henley, 
the royal commissioners or visi- 
ters, " in the time of King Henrie. 
8.*' This case does not enter into 
the question of genuine or pre- 
tended, of valuable or worthless 
relics, nor need we stop to enquire 
whether they were either one or 
the other : but it was, like many 
such perpetrated at the same time. 

a mere brutal mangling of the 
dead ; with the detestable purpose 
moreover of offering insult to cer- 
tainly religious feelings and pre- 
judices, and of blazoning forth 
inOdelity to the world. 

^ Cranmers Remains, 
l.j». 247. 

» Ibid. p. 269. 




I yiQ dij8 FQiii of Englond.'' I say blasphemous, 
jung soeh a passage as this, to a man like Cnmr 
ar to any man. *' Most gracyns lord and most 
yst yycytar that ever cam a moncks us, macke 
mr servant, handemaid, and beydman, and save 
wUe wych sholdbe lost yf ye helpe yt not, the 
you may save with one word speckyng, and mayk 
yeh am now nawtt, to cum unto grace and good- 
But this worthy member of that house goes on 
bruct the second person of the realm, *' how the 
I grace commandyment ys keyp yn puttyng f<nrth 
*ks the beyschatt of roms vserpt powor,'*-r-which 
tbbots, moncks, prests don lyttyl or nothing to 
rtt of bocks the beyschatt of romes name for y 
Ife do know in dyu*rs bocks wher ys name and 
jerpt powor upon vs ys.**^ 
ce more ; the testimony of an eye-witness to the 
eteness of the destruction when at last it could 
aped no longer. ** If there had bene " says John 
^ in every shyre but one solemjme lybrary, to the 

mgdale. Monasticon. Vol. 
M. This was the sort of 
upon whose evidence the 
inoners rested : and as 
mid not always procure 
lit, they were forced to he 
with the assurance of their 
^the poor priest, Richard 
r that **the brethren be 
ght kept, they cannot of- 
it £un they would, if they 
as they confess." Even 
bor of the Hist, of Glas- 
sy from whom I quote, who 
he monastic institution as 

much as any man, could not believe 
this. He adds " A more satisfac- 
tory vindication of the Abbey of 
Glaston, from any imputation of 
immorality or disorder, cannot be 
desired; while the uncharitable 
insinuation at the end of Layton's 
letter, and the absurd confession, 
said to have been volunteered by 
the monks, of their own viciou» 
incUnaHonSf afford a pretty strong 
proof of the spirit of malignity 
and fabrication in which the Visi- 
ters executed their commiision.** 
p. 221. 



Di00ertatton on 

preseruacyon of those noble workee, it had bene yet 
sumwhat. But to destroy all without consydyracyon, 
is and wyll be vnto Englande for euer a moste horrybte 
infamy amonge the graue senyours of other nacyou. 
A greate nombre of them whych purchased those Wr 
perstycyouse mansyons» reserued of those bokes, soiiM 
to serue theyr iakes^ some to scoure theyr cand^ 
styckes, and some to rubbe their bootes. Some they 
solde to the grossers and sope sellers, and some thej 
sent ouer see to the bokebynders, not in small nombre» 
but at tymes whole shyppes full, to the wonderynge of 
the foren nacyons. I know a merchaunt man, which 
shall at thys tyme be namelesse, that boughte the con- 
tentes of two noble lybraryes for .xl. shyllynges pryce^ 
a shame it is to be spoken. This stuffe hath he occo- 
pyed in the stede of graye paper by the space of more 
than these .x. yeares, and yet he hath store ynoogb 
for as many yeares to come."* True, that Bale is here 
speaking of the general contents of the monastic and 
cathedral libraries : he was not one who would have 
lamented the loss of any book better than an old 
chronicle.^ But from his facts we learn how extensive 

* The laboryouse Journey of 
John Leylaude, &c. enlarged by 
Johan Bale. Lives of the Anti' 
quaries. Vol, 1. In the library 
of the British Museum^ {BihL 
Reg. 2. B. vij,) is a most magni- 
ficent manuscript, containing his- 
tories from the Old Testament, a 
Calendar, Psalter, Hjrmns, and a 
Litany. This was once given to 
Queen Mary, according to the 
following very significant entry on 
the last page of the volume. 

" Hunc librum, Nautis ad exteros 
transvehendum datum, spectatos 
et honestus vir Baldvdnas smithns 
Londini a portoriis et vectigalibus, 
retraxit, atque Marias illostris- 
simas Angliae, Francias et Hiber- 
nian Regin» donavit, mense Oc- 
tobri. Anno Domini millesimo 
quingentesimo quinquagesimo ter- 
tio, regni sui primo." 

^ I do not of course mean but 
that these also are of great value. 

demtte OBoo&^. cixxxiii 

B the destmctioik The indiscriminating passion of 
t days of Edward the 6th, knowing only that the 
»tar part of the collections consisted of service 
dca^ inyolved all in one common ruin : and secular 
torians have to lament that furious bigotry which 
md not the annals of our country, no less than they 
o» with an earnest and sober reverence enquiring 

the old religious observances of their Church» can 

1 but few records leflb to guide them through the 
its of error, in which the ignorance and misrepre- 
itations of after-ages have obscured their path. 

[ now conclude this dissertation. It has run on to 
inch greater length than I anticipated at the b^rin- 
ig, and yet I have omitted much which might have 
n* given : more tables of contents, comparisons be- 
ten various editions, particular changes in some of 

more important offices which from time to time 
nrred. I shall be satisfied if I have in any degree 
own some additional light upon an intricate subject; 
t on which hitherto we may almost say that no labour 

been spent : indeed many of the explanations had 
tiBt never have been attempted, for they could not 
sibiy have been the result of genuine inquiry, and 
e been the means of perpetuating mistakes, and 
mcreasing difficulties. I cannot expect but that I 
lelf have advanced some opinions which others, 
ter learned, may differ from. But in examining 
1 correcting these, it must be, that further informar 
I will be acquired and communicated : hence a 
efit will be gained. I 4o not ask for indulgence ; 
I always useless : but those will be the last to with- 
i it, who by their own experience know that there 

few subjects involved in greater obscurity, than 
the Ancient Service-Books of the Church of Eng- 

clxxxiv DtffiBiettation otf 

And one word more. Some men, I trust but few, 
would have thought it ahnost necesBary, in such i 
discussion, to make frequent observations upon the 
contents of the volumes under examination : to pmnt 
out the absurdity of a rubric^ or the interruption of a 
response ; to exclaim against the want of vital Chris- 
tianity in an age which could be content with such or 
such forms of devotion ; and against the excess of super- 
stition which could alone account for the gorgeousness 
of this Procession, or the abasement of that Humiliatioii, 
which required, if we may so speak, such a multitude 
of Service Books : closing up the whole with loud con- 
gratulations upon the blessings which we now. enjoy in 
the possession of the Common Prayer Book. iVom 
all such, I have carefully abstained; and this, not 
because I do not fully value and appreciate our present 
Prayer Book, but because I am sure such remarks 
would have been utterly out of place. 

We have not been examining volumes of the same 
character and kind as those with which, to the injury 
of true and lively devotion, countries are at this time 
inundated, which are immediately subjected to the 
authority of the Church of Rome. Such as are the 
psalters of Bonaventure, the litanies of the blessed 
Virgin, and many others. It is not to be denied that 
some of the old " Horae" of the Salisbury Use, espe- 
cially contained prayers and recommendations of 
prayers, which were the unhealthy produce of a period 
in the history of the Church of England, when her 
people and rulers, if they were anxious to pray more 
frequently than in modem times, were not so careful 
as they ought to have been, about the language in 
which their petitions were couched, the matter which 
was in them, and to whom they were addressed. But, 

%tttiiCt TdOOh». clxxxv 

objectioiiable as such portions of the ancient Service 
Books were, they are not to be compared with the 
almost innmnerable manuals of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, for the use of which in the com- 
munion of the Church of Rome, and their recom- 
mendation to the laity, universal as we know it is, I 
am at a loss to conceive even an excuse. An attempt 
has lately been made to introduce some such, again 
among ourselves : adaptations, and so called corrected 
editions, which cannot be looked upon without grave 
sospicdon, and which we may hope have failed of suc- 
cess. Not by a stubborn resistance against what is 
really Catholic and good, nor by an easy reception of 
what is at best but doubtful, and has certainly been 
mischievous : not by an ignorant and indiscriminating 
hatred of the rites and worship of other branches of 
the Church of Christ, nor by a varnishing over of 
abuses which cannot be denied, and by a stealthy in- 
troduction of observances which we know have done 
injury, in fact, both to faith and practice, can we hope 
to restore once more the interrupted Unity of the 
Church, and ourselves to the inestimable blessings 
which must be the result. Upon such a plan we could 
not expect the approbation of our Divine Head, or the 
cooperation of His Holy Spirit 

But whilst I think, and undoubtingly think thus of 
such manuals and books of private devotion, I could not 
see any necessity for wearying the reader with continued 
rememberings of much, which we might have wished 
away, in the Offices and Liturgies, by which for a 
thousand years the Church of which I am myself a 
priest, guided the public worship of her people, and 
ofiFered up her Services to God : I feel moreover that 
we ourselves have lost much that was most profitable. 


fl)n %enif cf iBoHi. 

and holy, and just, and true : ihat. wlnkt erron 
been taken away from our modem Book, and, i 
will haye it so, too great tediousneiB and rep< 
removed, yet that all is not solid gain. I hope t 
another work I have shewn, that in the most imp 
of all our Offices, we still have every thing wh 
requisite for the due celebration of the Holy Eud 
but it is one thing to be certain of this and to b 
tent ; it is another to pride ourselves upon our 
mon Prayer Bo<dL, as if it was perfection : as 
rest of the Catholic Church were to be pitied» be 
its members have not altered, to the extent c 
taample, the Daily Worship, and the Ritual, ai 
liturgy ai their Fathers. 

^pnthix to a>feflfertattDn upon tfte 



C^utc^eis taken in t^e 131(1 Centntp, 
in tte Diocese of ^li^tnttp. 


HESE Inventories are contained in the 
very valuable volume, so often referred to 
in the foregoing dissertation, and to which 
I shall be again indebted. It is preserved 
among the muniments of the Bishops of Salisbury. 
Commonly it is called the ^* Registrum Sancti 0& 
mundi :'' but it has no further claim to that title, than 
as having at the beginning a copy, the oldest I pre- 
sume extant, of the famous consuetudinary drawn up 
by that Bishop. The remainder of the volume, amount 
ing to four-fifths of the whole, is composed of various 
charters relating to the see of Salisbury, to the propertj 
of the Dean and Chapter, and to various privileges 
bestowed upon them : following these, are the contem 
porary records of a Visitation held by the then Dean 
of Sarum, a. d. 1220; William de Wenda, who (says 
Le Neve) was elected in that year : after, a number oi 
other documents succeed, chiefly legal, and having refe- 
rence to transactions during the episcopate of Bishop 
Poore : an account of the election of Bishop Bingham, 
successor to Poore : of the removal of the church from 
Old to New Sarum : an inventory, (imperfect) of the 
ornaments of the Cathedral : and other matters. I 
do not pretend to give more than the faintest sketch 

Slppennir to Dt0jsettation. cixx>c ix 

of this most important book : but it certainly ought 
rather to be called the Register of Bishop Poore, than 
of Saint Osmund. The original manuscript is a small 
fblioi upon vellum ; of various hands, and dates ; from 
aboQt the year 1210 to 1240. 

The following inventories of books, then belonging 
to many parish churches in the diocese of Salisbury, 
will be found peculiarly interesting, and illustrative of 
much that has been discussed in the Dissertation. I 
omit all those items which do not refer to books : such 
as of the vestments, chalices, patens, &c. They are 
not connected with my present subject, and- whilst I 
r^ret being obliged to pass them over, I leave them 
with the hope that some day they may be made public. 
I proceed now to these extracts. 
" Inventarium factum apud Sunning per W. deca- 
num Sar. Anno Domini. M^CC**.xx^ 

— Unum Missale novum absque epistolis, sine mu- 
sica, et sine gradali : et aliud vetus Missale, in quo 
l^untur epistolse, plenum, sine musica : Uganda. Bre- 
riarium vetus absque musica, sufBciens. Antiphona- 
rium vetus, minus sufBciens, et aliud novum, cum 
psalterio in prindpio, sufficiens, de dono Vitalis vicarii, 
sed ligandum. Gradale vetus, cum Tropario. £t 
aliud novum. Duo Psalteria vetera. 1. Textus 
soopertus argento, continens evangelia anni. 1. Tro- 
[)arius per se. 1. Ordinale. Quidam novus liber, 
:»>ntinens missas privatas. 1. Manuale parvum. 1. 
Vetua Psalterium, ex una parte rubeum, ex altera, 
ilbum : habens crucem osseam extra.'* 

" Item est capella apud Rothescamp. — Isti sunt libri. 
Missale vetus, nuUius pretii. Breviarium bonum cum 
Antiphonario, et Ymnarium et Collectarium cum no- 
titia. Item unum Gradale parvum, vetus et nullius 

cxc appenlrir to DiMertation 

pretii : et aliud novum in quatemisy in doobus toIu- 
minibus, cum Tropario imperfecto. Itmn Troptrii» 
parvulus, vetus. Psalterium vetus. Item Manuale* 
Ymnarius parvus." 

** Item est ibi capella apud Wokyngebam. — Isti sunt 
libri ejusdem capellse. Unum Missale cum notula» 
sufficiens: et unum Antiphonarium, sufficiensi cum 
Collectario: et Capitularium, et Ymnarium. Item 
unum Missale vetus. Breviarium nullum. Unum 
Gradale minus sufficiens. Psalterium sufficiens. Item 
aliud Gradale vetus. Item aliud Missale vetus, liters 
Anglica. Unus quateraus contmens lectiones et re* 
sponsoria, de festivitate omnium sanctorum.*" 

'< Item capella pertinens ad ecdesiam de Sunning: 
capella de Herst. — Hii sunt libri ejusdem capell». 
Unum Missale cum Tropario in fine, cum notula, suf- 
ficiens. Et unum Antipbonarium cum Collectario et 
Capitulario, et Ymnario, et Psalterio, in eodem vo- 
lumine, et in fine, Legenda de communi sanctorum. 
Et unum Breviarium, scil. temporale et sanctorale in 
eodem volumine, minus sufficiens. £t unum Gradale 
vetus et cum Tropario, nullius pretii. Item Psalterium 
vetus, et Manuale vetus. Item unum Troparium par- 
vum per se." 

*^ Item est ibi (capella) apud Sandhurst. — Isti sunt 
libri. Missale vetus sine notula. Antipbonarium 
vetus et insufficiens, quod est de Wokyngham. Bre- 
viarium nullum. Item Legenda ab adventu usque ad 
septuages. quse est de Wokyngebam. Et unum Gra- 
dale sufficiens, et Psalterium debile." 

" Item est ibi capella apud Edburgefeld. — Hii sunt 
libri. Missale vetus sine nota. Manuale vetus. An- 
tipbonarium vetus, et parvi pretii. Temporale Bre- 
viarii, in duobus voluminibus, vetus et attritum. Grra^ 

upon tbe ^enoice TBookn. cxci 

duale vetus et parvi pretii. Item parvus liber conti- 
WBDs Capitularium^ Collectarium et Ymnarium. Item 
firYUB alius liber continens Ymnarium, et Venite : et 
intonationes Venitarii. Psalterium vetus nullius pre- 

^ Inventarium factum in ecclesia de Mera per W. 
decanimi Sar. Anno Domini M^CC•xx''. qui erat 
annus tertius pontificatus Ricardi Sar. episcopi : in 
Tigil. S. Michaelis/' 

" — Hii sunt libri ecclesiae de Mera. Unum Mis- 
fde novum et sufficiens, cum nota sufficienti : et unum 
TetQs cum nota» sufficiens« Unum Breviariimi in 
dnobus voluminibus. Duo Antiphonaria, unum novum 
in quo continetur Psalterium, et Collectarium, et Ca- 
ptnlarium et Ymnarium : et aliud in quo continetur 
Collectarium, et Capitularium et Ymnariiun. Item 
mium Gradale bonum et sufficiens, sed ligandum. £t 
ilind vetus cum Tropario parvi pretii. Unum Ma- 
Doale : et unimi Psalterium nullius pretii. Item unum 
Gradale novum. Item liber vetussimus habens crucem 
fiq)6rpo6itam super quam juratur.'' 

^* Isti sunt libri ecclesiae de Hegtredebir. Duo Mis- 
laUa. Duo Gradalia. Unum Troparium. Unum 
Antiphonarium. Duo Breviaria nova: unum tem- 
porale et aliud sanctorum : et duo Breviaria Vetera, 
onum temporale, et aliud sanctorum. Unum Psalte- 
rium parvi pretii. Unum Ordinale : et Pastorale 
Ghregmi : Liber sermonum : Decreta Pontificum. 

" Anno Domini M^CC^xxvj"*. visitavit W. decanus 
Sar. capellam de Cnuch. 

— Usee sunt omamenta. Unum Missale vetus: 
parvum et nullius valoris. j. Breviarium vetus et in- 
sufficiens. j. Psalterium parvum, vetus. j. Gradale 
novum in quatemis cum Tropario. Item CoUecta- 

cxcii appennir to Di00ettatiQn 

rium et Capitularium de dono ejusdem. Item unum 
Antiphonarium novum in quatemis» cmn Troparia 
Item Breviarium et Antiphonarimn ab adventu Domini 
usque ascensionem in quatemis, scilicet in xviij qaa- 
temis : de quibus xij quatemi sunt continui et conti- 
nent usque ad nonam lectionem in septuagesima. Item 
sunt ibi vj quaterni continui de eodem. Yolumine, qui 
incipiunt a lectione quinta passionis Dominicse, et 
durant usque vigiliam ascensionis Dominicse. Item j. 
Canon MisssD novus." 

*^ HsBc sunt omamenta ecclesisB S. Petri de Swa- 
leuclive. — Hii sunt libri. j. Missale. j. Gradale. 
Unum Troparium. Unum Antiphonarium: et isti 
non sunt plenarie sufficientes. Breviarium temporale, 
sufficiens« Aliud de communi sanctorum cum Anti- 
phonario ad illud pertftiente. 

Hie est defectus in dicta ecclesia. Breviariiun sanc- 
torum proprium. Ordinale. Manuale. CoUectarium, 
et Capitularium^ Consuetudinariimi. '* 

"Willielmus decanus Sar. visitavit ecclesiam de 
Hull. Anno Gratiae M^CC^xx^— Libri ibidem in- 
venti. Missale qualequale, cum notula, ligandum. 
Breviarium vetus et minus sufficiens. Antiphonarium 
debile, et ligandum. Manuale sufficiens. Psalterium 
sufficiens. Item Liber Ordinalis. Unum Troparium. 
Ymnarius sufficiens. Non est ibi Gradale.** 

*' Inventariimi factum apud Homingesham per eun- 
dem decanum anno Gratiae M*.CC**.xxiiij**. — Libri 
ibidem inventi. Missale vetus inordinate compositum, 
continens Psalterium et Ymnarium. CoUectarium et 
Capitularium cum notula et cum Tropario. Antipho- 
narium sufficiens : continens Psalterium. Breviarium 
nullius pretii. j. Gradale vetus et ligandum. j. Ma- 
nuale satis sufficiens.*' 

upon t^t ^ettitce TBoofa. cxciii 

^' Haec sunt omamenta ecclesi^e Sarum inventa in 
thesaoraria iij''. kal. Aprilis anno ab incamatione 
Domini M**. CO. xiiij^ recepta tunc ab Abrahame 
thesaurario sicut ipse proprio manuscripto integravit 
coram decano et capitulo, anno ab incamatione Domini, 


" Textus unus aureus magnus continens saphiros. 

XX. et smaragdos. yj. et thopazios. viij. et alemandinas. 

xviij. et gemettas. viij. et perlas. xij. Item unus Evan- 

gelicus bene deauratus, cum lapidibus viij. Item 

Textus unus parvusy cum imagine beatse Marise, cum 

lapidibus. xix. Item Texti quatuor cooperti argento, 

deaurati, omnes preeter unum. Item Texti duo sine 

argento." — " Ad altare omnium sanctorum. — Missale 

j. Gradale j. Item Liber evangeliorum et epistola- 

rum, et quatemi .iij. cum Alleluia, etc." — " Ad altare 

bcati Nicnolai. — Missale j. Item Evangelistarium et 

Epistolarium. j." — " Ad altare beati Thomae martyris. 

—Item Missale j. et Gradale. j. Epistolarium. j." 

ILiet of tDe Cities of dtiDice Boo 

mentioned in ttt Di00ettation* 

AGENDA Ixxxii 

Antiphonarium xxvi. 1 

AUelouiarion cxxxvii 

Apostolus li 

Authenticum cxlii 

Baptismaley Baptistenum . . . cuix 

Benedictdonale ...'... cxxvii 

Bibliotheca xxiii. liii. N 

Breviarium Ixxxv 

Ceerimoniale cxxix 

Canticorum liber ....... cii 

Cantorinus cxlii 

Canon Misses cxxxv 

Capitulare lii. liv. cxl 

Carpsum xlv, Note 

Chorale cxli, Note 

CoUectare xci 

Comes, Liber Comitis . . . . li 

Compotus cxxxix 

Consuetudinarium xlv 

Coucher cxxx 

Directorium xlviii 

Diumale cxxx 

Enchiridion clxiii 

Epistolarium li. cii. cxxxi 

Evangelistarium 1. lii. cii. ex 


f^fiiaiof«ettrtce15ooft0. f^^u^ 


ismomta fiber cxjlxvi 

itb hyouuHfiim ..... c 

- sequentiarum . . cx;utyi 

daHs liber cxjLxiv 

lie xxrii 

lum liber cxlviii 

iale cxxxyi 

iarium xxiii. cxxx 


tariom xciv 

itio Ixxxiii 

alle cxxx 

ida, Legendariusy Lectdonariiis xxii. %suih !• U 

3uticus ....... cxxjdii 

ale Ixxvi 

Tologium cxliii 

le cxxxvii 

inale cxxxviii 

le xlix 

- completmn, plenarium . . Ivii. cxxi^v 

- defimctcMrmn cxxxiv 

- episcopale . . . . . . cxxxiii 

- matutinale cxxxiv 

- minorum altarium . . . cxxxix; Nate 
* mixtum cxxxi? 

- speciale cxxxiii 

Ss . . Ixxxv, Note 

ogium cl 

logium cxlix 

rale cvii 

uium cl 

arium cxxxvi 

omia Ixxxv, Note 

c3Bm €mt»ot%teakim$m: 

^^ . '^ . 

Ofibrtoriuiii dzxvi 

Qffidalis liber xzziy. Ixxxv, iV! 

Qrarium . • cLdi 

Orationale • xdii 

Ordinale . xli 

Qrdinarium xliv 

Ordo kzxv, JVirfe 

Parochiale Ixxxv, Note 

Paarionalei Passianarius . . . xziii. cii 

Pastorale Ixxxiii. cv, Nab 

Pica, Pye • xlviii 

Pontificale . . . . ^ . r cam 

Portiforium, Porteau . . Ixxxvii 

Procesfidonalie Ixxziy. cviii 

Psalterium « xxxv 

Poenitentiale .civ 

Prymer clix 

Pulpitarium cxxxix. Note 

Rituale Ixxxii 

Sacerdotale Ixxxiv 

Sacramentale Ixxxiii 

Sacramentarium 1. ly 

Sanctorale ciii 

Sequendale^ Sequentionarium . cxxxyi 

SermologuBy Sermonarius . . . xxiii. cxxx 

Textus lii 

Tonale, Tonarium cxli. cxlii, Noti 

Troperium xxxvii 

Venitare Ixxxix 

Versicularius, Versarius . • . cxxxvi 

Vesperale cxxx 

Virginale cxxxvii 

( Dte^ertation upon t|)e ancient 

jDccafifional S>fSittsi of fte 

Ctiuretl of CnglanD* 

a)i00ertation on tl)t 2)cca0ional 


HAVE avoided as much as possible the 
addition of notes to ihe text of the Offices 
which form the greater part of this volume : 
being desirous that the reader riiould be 
furnished with an accurate edition and arrangement 
of those offices, illustrated only by some important 
variations between them and the UseS of the other 
Churches of York, or Hereford, or Bangor ; and by 
an explanation of some parts of them, which seem to 
be involved in any difficulty or obscurity. Hence I 
have not noticed the almost numberless variations, 
many of them of the highest importance, which exist 
between the old ritual and pontifical of the church of 
England, and the modem ones which correspond to 
them of the church of Rome. These latter books are 
to be procured any where, and every reader who may 
wish to pursue the subject, can easily make the com- 
parison for himself. My object has been to illustrate 
our present Book of Common Prayer, and to furnish 
some information respecting the observances and faith 
and practice of the English Church, from her own 
authentic documents, during the middle ages. 

But I think that some observations may not unfitly 

©n tbe Occasional ©flSccs. cxci v 

be thrown together, by way of preface, or preliminary 
dissertation, consisting chiefly of extracts and collec- 
tions from canons and orders of the Church of England, 
which regard the due celebration of these holy offices. 
Three of the offices which I have edited, viz. of Con- 
firmation, Marriage, and Extreme Unction, were con- 
sidered, by the church of England for some centuries 
before the reformation, to be sacraments in the same 
sense in which those of Baptism and th^ Eucharist 
were held to be. The rite of extreme unction is now no 
longer practised or allowed in the church of England : 
hot confirmation and marriage she teaches us are sacra- 
mente, although not such as two only are, ^^ generally 
Decenary to salvation.'' It was in this sense that the 
frnners of Queen Elizabeth's Act for Uniformity spoke, 
when they enacted that ^^ all and singular ministers 

shall, from iLnd after the feast of the Nativitie be 

bonnden to saie and use the Matins, Euensong, cele- 
bracion of the Lordes supper, and administracion of 

eche of the Sacramentes, in such order and forme, 

ete." But the reader will remember that, certainly in 
the later canons before 1530, which may be cited, the 
term sacramentum is to be understood, not only with 
S. Augustine, as the " invisibilis gratise visibilis forma," 
imt, as the " invisibilis gratise visibile signum ad nos- 
tram justificationem institutum." Or to take the num- 
b&r and necessity of the sacraments from a provincial 
statute of Archbishop Peckham, in the year 1281 : 
" Septem ecclesiae sunt sacramenta, quorum dispen- 
satores sunt prselati ecclesiae; quorum quinque ab 
omnibus debent recipi Christianis ; utpote baptismus, 
confirmatio, poenitentia, eucharistia, extrema unctio ; 

sunt et alia duo sacramenta, soil, ordo et matri- 

monium^ quorum primum perfectis convenit, secundum 

cc Di00ettation on 

yero novi testamenti tempore solum convenit imper- 

II. Although the church of England has at various 
times limited the meaning, or extended it, of the term 
Sacrament, herein following the custom of the CBdhers 
of the Catholic Church who employed it in even a 
wider sense than writers of later ages ; and although 
she has removed, as I have said, one Office altogeth^ 
from her ritual; yet whether they be few or many, 
whether more than two, or two only be generally 
necessary to salvation, she has always held that ^^ it is 
not lawAil for any man to take upon himself the office 
of ministering the Sacraments in the Congr^ation, 
before he be lawfully called, and sent to execute the 
same," by the laying on of the hands of a Bishop. 
The statute above quoted says, ^^ sacramenta, quorum 
dispensatores sunt pruelati ecclesiae:'* upon which 
Lyndwood's gloss is : " Hie vocantur praelati nedum 
superiores, ut Episcopi : sed etiam inferiores, ut archi- 
diaconi, presbyteri plebani, et rectores ecclesiarmn. 
Unde quoad banc dispensationem quilibet, qui praeest 
curse animarum, dicitur esse prselatus, dummodo ha- 
beat potestatem sacramenta dispensandi."^ That is, 
as he proceeds to explain, of course in their degree, 
confirmation and orders being committed only to the 

When therefore they have been so ordained, the 
church of England has ever insisted upon all her 

* WUkins. Concilia. Tom* 2. Clericorum dicuntur imperfecti.'* 

p. 56. Compare also, Concilium Lyndwood, Lib. 1. 'fit. 7. Ig" 

Dunelm. ** De numero Sacra- norantia. verb. ImpetJhcHs* 

mentorumJ' Tom,l.p,d74, ^^Im- ' Lib. L Tit vij. Ignorantia. 

pevfectis, sc. Laicis, qui respectu verb. Pralatu 

t^e €)ccasionai S>fSim. cci 

priests being prepared^ if called upon, to perform the 
duties of their sacred ministry : and indeed not only 
parish-priestSy but every priest to whom power and 
authority have been given, when it may be necessary, 
and without intrusion upon another's charge. And to 
this carefulness, in a great degree, and not to any 
general laxity of living and manners among the Eng- 
lish clergy in the middle ages, are we to attribute 
those frequent provincial and diocesan statutes, that 
they should live piously, orderly, and in the severe 
practice of all religious duties. 

IIL But it will be not useless to quote some orders, 
to the effect that the sacraments were to be administered 
to tJie people, freely and without charge. It would 
have been idle to have insisted upon the necessity that 
all men should receive some of them, and nevertheless, 
by tacitly permitting money to be paid and demanded 
for the administration, put the reception of them out 
of the reach of the poor. 

First then in the year 1126, the second canon of the 
council of London. " Interdicimus, ut pro chrismate, 
pro oleo, pro baptismate, pro poenitentia, pro visita- 
tione infirmorum, seu unctione, pro communione Cor- 
poris Christi, pro sepultura nullum omnino pretium 
exigatur."' Another, to the same effect, was enacted 
at the synod of Westminster, a. d. 1138, adding the 
" desponsatio mulierum"*and the sentence, " quod qui 
pnesumpserit, excommunicationi subjaceat."* Again : 
in other words by the council of London in the next 
century, a. d. 1200, " Canon viij. Nihil exigendum 
pro sacrament is administrandisn' " inhibemus : ne 

* Wilknu. Concilia. Tom. 1. ' Ibid. jd. 415. 


Diffismation dti 

a personis ecclesiasticis deducendig ad sedem, vel sacer- 
dotibos vel aliis clericis institaendis, aut sepeliendis 
mortuisy aut benedicendis Bubentibiis, sea pro chris- 
mate, seu quibuslibet aliis sacramentis aliquid exiga- 
tur/'^ I pass by a statute of a council of Durhimi, 
A. D. I22O9 to the same purpose, ^^ sub poena suspen- 
sionis :"^ another, of a provincial constitution at Oxford, 
in 1222,^ by Archbishop Stephen Langton, upon 
which Lyndwood's gloss should be consulted :" and I 
shall extract the constitution of Otho : ** De septem sa- 
cramentis j ut gratis conferantur. Sacramenta ecclesi- 
astica, in quibus, tanquam in vasis ccBlestibuSy salutis 
remedia continentur : necnon oleum sanctificatum et 
chrisma, a ministris ecclesiae pure atque devote, quali- 
bet exclusa cupiditatis labe, statuimus» et statuendo 
prsecipimus exhiberi, nulla difficultate in eis adhibita 
exhibendis, prsetextu consuetudinis alicujus, qua dican- 
tur ab eis, qui ca recipiunt, aliquibus aliqua persol- 
venda."^ Upon this statute John do Athon has a gloss, 
to which I must refer the reader.^^ And, to name no 
more, similar regulations and orders were made, in a 
diocesan synod of Worcester in 1240, and of Exeter in 

• Wilkins. Concilia. Tarn, 1. 
p. 506. 

• Ibid. />. 575. 
' Ibid. jD. 589. 

^ Lib, 5. Tit ij. De Siraonia. 
Firmiter inhibemus. 

• Wilkins. Cone. Tom. 1. p. 
650. Cf. Constit iv. 

^^ De septem Sacramentis. 

" Wilkins. Cone. Tom, \. p. 

67 1 . Tom. 2. p. 1 50. See with 
Vegard also to the Greek Church, 
Balsamon's commentary upon the 
23rd canon of the synod " in 

Trullo:" "Utnullus prwbens 

eommunionem, ab eo qui commu- 
nicat, ejus participationis grratia, 
obolos vel quamvis aliam spedem 
exigat. Non est enim venalis 
gratia. etcJ' Bevereg. Pandect 
Canon. Tom. \, p. 181. 

t^e i)ccutfonai iDtStct». 


he Sacrament of Baptism^ as might be ex- 
ery early attracted the attention of the rulers 
Ihurch, that it might be decently and duly 
sred. The irtmi^m fiimiriuc, the Mov nai ^«oroiov 
3f the fathers, was not looked upon in the 
izon churchy more than in after ages, as a 
emony, but as a necessary means by which 
bt be saved. As S. Cyril of Jerusalem taught 
irth century, speaking of Baptism : " A tiu wJrt^ 
E sc4c2 iyswSff^ hm to auni^m iHsTvo Ciuff xai rd(pog 
-0 Hoi /LLijTne:"" so did Archbishop ^Ifric, in 
or homily, in like manner teach : '^ That the 
child is baptised, and changes not its outer 
bough inwardly converted ; it is carried to the 
d through Adam's transgression, and is washed 
from all its sin, yet changes not its outward 
lo also the holy font-water, which is called the 
ag of Life, is outwardly like any other water, 
5ct to corruption : but the Holy Ghost descends 
ver upon the corruptible water, through the 
of the priest, and through that Ghostly Might 
s washed away both of the body and the 

I extract from some collections which I have 
ating to the administration of this sacrament, 

[u My stag. 2. Opera, 

in. di. sanctum Pas- 
Cf. Beda. Hist. Eccl. 

nk leaf of a most mag- 
5. Breviary " ad usum 
on vellum, in the library 
I Bishop of Salisbury, 

is the following. It is noted; and 
the doxology is the earliest which 
I remember to have seen, in Eng- 
lish, with the notation. The 
writing is later than the rest of 
the volume, being about 1470. 

*' Remember youre protnys 
made yn baptym. And chrjrstys 
mercyful bloud shedyng. By the 


Di0jesertatiim on 

banning with the penitential of Archbishop Theo- 
dore. ** Si quis episcopus aut presbyter non trinam 
mersionem in baptismo celebret, sed semel mergat, 
quod dare yidetur in morte Domini, deponatur ; non 
enim dixit nobis Dominus : In morte mea baptizate, 
sedy ^ Ite, docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in 
nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti/'' ^^ Shortly 
afterwards, in the excerpts of Egbert, Archbishop of 
York, we find two canons. ^' x. Ut a cunctis sacer- 
dotibus jus et tempus baptismatis temporibus congruis, 
secundum canonicam institutionem, cautissime obser- 
ventur. xi. Ut omnes sacerdotes, quibuscunque horis, 
omnibus indigentibus baptismum, infirmitatis causa, 
diligentissime tribuant." And immediately following 
these is a canon bearing upon a point sJready dis* 
cussed : ** Ut nullus presbyter sacrum officium, sive 
baptismatis sacramcntum, aut aliquid donorum spirita- 
lium pro aliquo pretio vendere praesumat ; ne ven- 
dentes et ementes in templo columbas imitentur."** 
About the same time, in that province, an abuse ap- 
pears to have crept in, which the Archbishop notices 
and forbids. ^' xlij. Sunt quidam qui miscent vinum 

wyche most holy sprynklyng. Off 
all youre syns youe haue fre per- 

Haue mercy uppon me, oo god. 

Affter thy grat mercy. 

Remember, etc. 

And accordyng to the multy- 
tude of the mercys. 

Do a wey my wyckydness. 

Remember, etc. 

Glory be to the father and to 

the Son, and to the holy goost. 

As hyt was yn the beg3mnyng, 
so now, and euer, and yn the world 
off worlds, so be hyt. 

By the wyche." 

" Liber Poenit. Cap, xlviij.20. 
Thorpe. Vol. 2. p, 58. 

" Wilkins. Cone. Tom. 1. p. 
102. Thorpe. VoL 2. p.99. Cf. 
27th of iElfric's Canons. 

tbt ©ccasional ©flGfces, ccv 

cum aqua baptismatis non recte : et Christus non jussit 
baptizari vmo, sed aqua.'' 

Some few years before this, the ecclesiastical laws of 
E. Ina had decreed, that every infant should be bap- 
tized within thirty days, under a penalty. " Infans 
intra triginta dies baptizetur : si hoc non ita fiat, 
triginta solidis compenset (parens :) si tunc mortuus sit 
absque baptismate, compenset illud omnibus quae ha- 
bet"** In the 10th century we find this period some- 
what extended, by the canons enacted under K. Edgar. 
<< Dbcemus etiam, ut quilibet sacerdos baptismum 
peragat, simul ac requiritur: et deinde in parochia 
sua (on hif |^!^fcfci|ie) prsecipiat, ut quilibet infans 
baptizetur intra xxxvij. dies, et ut nemo nimis diu ab 
episcopo confirmari differat."^^ To the same purpose 
are, the 10th of the laws of the Northumbrian priests, 
in the same century ; the 26th of the canons of ^Ifiric : 
and lastly, the 17th of the ecclesiastical Institutes. 
'^ K any one bring a sickly child to a mass-priest, be 
it of whatever mass-priest's district it may, then let 
him baptize it forthwith, and for no business let him 
neglect to baptize it, be it from whence it may. If he 
on any account neglect it, and it die without baptism, 
then be it known to him, that on doomsday he shall 
render an account for that soul to God."" Once 
more, a canon of the council of Calchuth in the year 
816. " Sciant etiam presbyteri, quando sacrum bap- 

^ mikins. Cone Tom. I. p. 218. Thorpe. Fo/. 2. 853. 413. 
58. The clause in the last canon about 

" IbiA ».226. Cf. Thorpe. Vol. " '^'^" mass-priesfs district," 

has reference to an order mune- 


diately, that no priest should en- 
Wilkins. Cone. Tom. 1. p. tice people from another district. 

ccvi S)i00maiton or 

tismam ministrant, ut non effundant aqumm flanctam 
super capita infiBintium, sed semper mergaatar in lava- 
dro; aicttt ezinnplum prsebuit per semetipsum Dei 
Filius onmi credenti, quando esset ter mersus in undis 

I pass on to the age which succeeded the Norman 
conquest» and come to a canon of the council of York, 
in 1 195. We now find other particulars. *^ Statuimus, 
ne in baptismate plures quam tres suscipiant puerum 
de sacro fonte ; masculum duo mares, et una mulier ; 
fceminam duo foeminae, et unus mas : ubi autem puer, 
cujus baptisma ignoratur, reperitur expositus, sive cusi 
sale sive sine sale reperiatur, baptizetur ; cum non in* 
telligatur iteratum, quod nescitur fuisse collatum/'^ 
In the year 1200, a council at London decreed, after 
repeating that where baptism appeared not to have 
bei^n performed, it was to be administered : ^^ et ut non 
liceat diaconis baptizare, nisi duplici necessitate : viz. 
quia sacerdos non potest, vel absens, vel stulte non 
vult, et mors imminet puero. Si vero in necessitate 
puer baptizetur a laico, quod fieri potest a patre vel 
matre, absque matrimonii prsejudicio, sequentia im- 
mersionem non prsecedentia per sacerdotem exple- 

Passing on to the council of Durham, in 1220, we 
find several canons relating to the sacrament of bap- 
tism. ^^ Qu^libet ecclesia habeat baptisterium. Bap- 
tisterium habeatur in qualibet ecclesia baptismali, lapi- 
deum, vel aliquod competens, quod decenter cooperiatur 
et reverenter conservetur, et in alios usus non conver- 

*^ WUkin9. Cone. Tom. 1. p. ^ Ibid. Tmn. \. p. 501. 
171. 2» Ibid- Tom. 1.;*. 505. 

t^t iDccaiailonal fl)flQ[ce0. 


Aqua vero, in qua baptizatur puer, ultra sep- 
es in baptisterio non servetur. Si vero puer 
I laico, propter necessitatem fuerit baptizatus^ 
propter reverentiam baptismi, vel fundatur in 
vel ad ecclesiam in baptisterium fundenda defe- 
ct vas illud vel comburatur, vel ad usus ecclesiee 
tur. Forma baptizandi. Semper sacerdos in- 
^t laicum diligenter, cum in necessitate baptiza- 
uerum, quid dixerit, et quid fecerit* £t si prse- 
s diligenti inquisitione^ facta sibi plena fide, 
rit laicum distincte et in forma ecclesise bapti- 
1 Latino, sive in Gallico, seu in Anglico, appro- 
tum ; sin autem, baptizet puerum : Non intendo 
iptizare, et si tu non es baptizatus, ego baptize 
Depatrinis. Ad levandum puerum de fonte, 
I plus recipiantur in baptismo maris, duo mares 
foemina ; fcemina vero a duabus fceminis et uno 
suscipiatur. Quod amplius est, a malo est." 
follow other canons, similar to some ab*eady 
ted of other councils, about deacons baptising : 
baptism of children found exposed, &c.^^ 
se orders were repeated in the province of Can- 
y about two years after, in a council at Oxford, 
Stephen Langton : again, and others to the same 
n 1236, among the constitutions of Archbishop 

L Tonu 1. p. 576, See 
r. De ant. £cc. rit. Lib, 1. 
16. One of the earliest 
lade by the Church with 
o the cases of exposed in- 
is in an African council, 
Bingham, book xi. cap. 
It was repeated in the 

84th canon of the council in 
TruUo, upon which the reader 
should consult Balsamon's com* 
mentary, and Zonaras', in Beve- 
reg. Pandect Tom. 1. p, 254: 
and Catalani, Cone. Comm. Tonu 
2. p. 206. 

ccviii 10i»wttatUm on 

Edmund : in the diocese of Chichester, in 1246 : and 
in various other councils, which I do not think it neces» 
sary to specify : of which one of the most particular in 
its directions is the second canon of the synod of Exeter, 
held under Bishop Quivil, in the year 1287. 

Lyndwood remarks upon the order that the font 
must he of stone or of any other proper material, 
" lapideum vel aliud competens," " Aliud^ sc. de alia 
materia congrua et honesta, tali viz. quae sit solida, 
durahilis, et fortis, ac aquae infiisae retentiva. Compe- 
tens. Sic quod haptizandus possit in eo mergi/'^ 
He says, upon the order ^' Vas illud comhuratur, vd 
ad usus ecclesiae deputetur :" ^^ tale namque vas, licet 
non sit sacrum, ratione tamen venerationis sacramenti 
non dehet converti ad usus privatos sive prophanos, 
sicut legitur in simili de aliis materiis non sacris, sacrb 
usihus deputatis incendio comburendis. Usus Ecc/esia. 
Sc. ut in illo laventur vestimenta ecclesiae, vel possunt 
talia vasa verti ad usum prselati ecclesiae in aliquo mi- 
nisterio honesto." 

From this last gloss it seems evident that even though 
a child through necessity was baptized at home, yet the 
vessel was to be of sufficient size to immerse the infsoit : 
as Lyndwood expressly says in the gloss which imme- 
diately precedes. " Vas illud. sc. in quo puer bapti- 
zatus est. Et hsec litera, ut videtur, innuit, quod 
baptismus debet fieri in aliquo vase, sic quod in aqua 
mergi possit haptizandus. Et talis immersio debet 
esse trina, nisi consuetudo habeat ut sit unica tantum." 
But he goes on to say, that immersion is not of necessity. 
" Tamen hoc non intelligas de necessitate baptismi, 

** Lib. 3. Tit. 24. Baptinterium habeatur. 

tbt 9)cca9ionaI iDf&tt». ccix 

tic. ut fiat inunersio, sed potest fieri etiam per modum 
effdsionis yel aspersionis. £t hoc maxime est veruin^ 
qoando consuetude Ecclesia^ hoc patitur, vel quando 
necessitas incumbit propter defectum, sive propter pe- 
riculum pueri, vel etiam propter imbecillitatem sacer- 
dotis non potentis sustentare infiantem : in his enim 
casibus, et simUibus, sufficit quod caput aspergatur, 
vel super caput aqua effundatur, vel in aquam merga- 
tuTy tanquam pars principalior." 

So in another place, upon this important point, the 
same great writer quotes the example of S. Peter, who 
baptized five thousand on one day ; but this must have 
been by aspersion, and not by immersion : and he holdd 
it to be sufficient, if one drop only of water touches the 
person to be baptized : '^ quod sufficit, quod modica 
stilla aquse projecta a baptizante, tangat baptizan- 

There is a record among the consistorial acts of the 
diocese of Rochester, giving an account of an exami- 
nation of a midwife, which bears so strongly as a fact 
upon the question immediately before us, that I shall 
here insert it. "Anno 1523, Oct. 14. Eliz. Gayns- 
forde, obstetrix, examinata dicit in vim juramenti sui 
8ub hac forma verborum. I the aforesaid Elizabeth 
seeing the child of Thomas Everey late bom in jeopardy 
of life, by the authority of mine office, then beyng mid- 
wyfe, did christen the same child under this manner. 
In the name of the Fader, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, I cristen thee Denys ; effundend' meram aquam 
super caput infantuF. Interrogata erat, whether the 
cbilde was bom and delyuered from the wyfe of the 

** Ibid. Lib. 8. Tii. 25. Quod in Con$iitution9. Verb. Ivnm^rsio, 

ccx SX^settatton on 

said Thomas ; whereto she answereth and saythe, that 
the child was not bom, for she saw nothing of the child 
but the heddcy and for perell the childe was in, and in 
that tyme of node, she christened as is aforesaid^ and 
caste water with her hand on the child's hede ; after 
which the child was bom, and was had to the churche, 
where the prieste gaue to it that chrystenden that 
lakkyd, and the child is yet alyf." 

The English form which was to be taught to die 
laity, to be used by them in cases of necessity, is given 
in a constitution of Archbishop Peckham. '^ Dicaknr 
ergo a sic baptizantibus : I cristen thee in the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; 
yel alias in lingua matema secundum consuetudinem 
patriae/' This same constitution goes on to direct: 
*^ Attendant etiam sacerdotes, ne lasciva nomina, qus 
scilicet mox prolata sonent in lasciviam, imponi per- 
mittant parvulis baptizatis, [baptizmidiSj'] sexus praeci- 
pue foeminini." Lyndwood observes upon this, that the 
priest, and not the parents, has the power of deciding 
upon the name to be given to the child, if he objects 
to that which is proposed by them."^ 

I must observe that Wilkins in his edition of these 
constitutions, from a manuscript in the Cotton library, 
gives a diflferent form ; or rather a part of it. " Dici- 
tur ergo sic a taliter baptizantibus : Ich cristin the 
in the faderes name, etc.'' But the old English trans- 
lation of the Provincial constitutions agrees with the 
form which Lyndwood supplies, as we might perhaps 
naturally expect it would. I shall extract however the 
entire sentence. " Let it thus be spoken of them that 

** Lib, 3. Tit. 24. Circa Sacramentum Baptismu Verb. Saeerdotes. 

tbt iS>ctMioml SMctsi. 


tyse. I chrysten the in the name of the father, 
the Sonne, and of the holy ghost, or otherwyse 
mother tong after the countrey custome."*^ 
not enter into the question of the validity of 
itism: one remark only I would make; that 
f the aboTe extracts, or any others of similar 
(which I have seen), having reference to bap- 
. times of necessity by laymen and laywomen, 
ly bearing whatever upon the case, as it stands 
3nt in the Church of England. Anciently, and 
up to the seventeenth century, not only a mere 
but a commission was granted to baptize under 
circumstances. This commission has been 
iwn, and with it, as it appears to me, doubtless 
rer. And I do not see how we can look upon 
tisms in the Church of England now, except 
ig not only irregular, but void and of none 

Tie rite of Confirmation was no less forbidden 
*epeated, than of baptism. A canon of the 
of London, a. d. 1200, directs : " De baptis- 
1 confirmatione, si dubitetur, sacrorum canonum 
sequentes, statuimus, ut conferatur ; Quia non 
iteratum, quod non scitur fuisse collatum."** 

ostitutioDS prouincialles, 
Otho, and Octhobone, 
i in to Englyshe." Lond. 

1534. 8vo. A most 
ae, and one the import- 
/hich ought not to be 
i by any future editor of 
70uld recommend the 

examine carefully the 

arguments of Laurence^ in his 
tracts *< Lay Baptism Invalid " and 
'* Dissenters* Baptism null and 
void." These have lately, 1841, 
been edited, with a very valuable 
and learned Preface, by the Rev. 
William Scott, of Hoxton. 

» Wilkins, Concilia. Torn. 1. 
p. 505. Sec also, ibid. p. 667. 
Svnod of Worcester, 1240. 


ccxii Di0jBiert8ti9ti on 

And the penitential of Archbishop Egbert proves how 
early this was insisted upon in the English Chureh. 
'^ Si quis bis confirmatus sit, et hoc sciat, vij. annoi 
jejunet ; si nesciat, iij. annos jejunet.***^ So, it was 
ordered in the year 1322, by a provincial constitatioa ; 
of Walter Reynold, ^^ Item caveant sibi diligentor 
parentes, ne parvulos sues proferant iterato ad confii^ 
mandum." Because, says Lyndwood, ^^ Tria sunt 
sacramenta quae iterari non debent, sc. Baptismui^ 
Confinnatio et Ordo."* 

Confirmation was anciently conferred immediately, 
or very shortly, after baptism : and as numbers in the 
first ages and in succeeding ones during the gradnil 
progress of the gospel were adult when they were ooih 
verted, it was a necessary completion and consum» 
mation, as it were, of that sacrament In many por- 
tions even of the west there is reason to suppose that 
this practice continued up to so late perhaps as the tenth 
century. In England about the beginning of the eighth 
century, we learn from Bade, that after the solemn sear 
sons of baptism the Bishop made a visitation of his 
diocese, for the purpose of confirming those who had 
been just before baptized. He tells us of S. Cuthbert, 
^^ Quadam autem die dum parochiam suam circumiens, 
monita salutis omnibus ruribus, casis, et viculis largi- 
retur, necnon etiam nuper baptizatis ad accipiendam 
Spiritus Sancti gratiam manum imponerit, devenit ad 
villulam cujusdam comitis, e^c."" 

In the 13th century we have more than one order. 

^ Thorpe. Vol. 2. p. 165. " Unde versus : Pons, ordo, chrii- 

ma non cstera sunt iteranda.*' 
* Lib. I. TU. 7. Sacerdotes. " Vita S. Cuthberti. Cap. 29. 


tbe iDccaslonal iS>fSiteii. ccxiii 

inaistiDg apon the necessity of not delaying this rite of 
Confirmation. One of the constitutions of the diocese 
of WcMTcester, in 1240, gives the reason also : " Quia 
▼oro baptizatOy quasi neophito, hoc est novo Christi 
nilitiy multiplex conflictus insurgit adversus principem 
tenebrarum, de quo legitur in Job, quod uon estpotestas 
«per terramj qua ei valeat comparari ; necessarium est 
ei sacramentum confirmationis, quod ad robur fidelibus 
eodesia eensuit tribuendum. Unde preecipimus, quod 
sacerdotes parochiales subditos suos studiose moneant 
et fi^uenter, quod parvulos suos faciant confirmari ; 
idantque patres et matres eorum, se post annum a 
Jiativitate pueri computandum, ab ingressu ecclesiae sus- 
pendendos, si infra annum, dum tamen episcopi copiam 
habuerint, vel transitus episcopi per loca, in quibus 
habitant, fuerit manifestus, eos ei non prsesentaverint 

A few years before this, one of the diocesan canons 
of a synod held under Richard, Bishop of Durham, had 
extended to a much greater length, the period which 
might intervene : '' Quodsi ultra septem annos vel plus 
paer fderit per negligentiam vel incuriam parentum non 
confirmatus, tam pater quam mater ab ingressu ccclesiee 
tundiu suspendantur, quousque puer confirmetur."^^ 
And, once more, the famous synod of Exeter, in 1287, 
specifies a time between the two : ^^ Statuimus, ut par- 
Toli infra triennium a tempore ortus sui confirmationis 
recipiant sacramentum, dum tamen proprii vel alieni 
episcopi copia habeatur : alioquin parentes extunc qua- 

" WUkins. Cone Tom. 1. /?. ter orders confirmation to be " in- 
667. And six years after to the fra annum.** Ibid. p. 688. 
lame purpose, a synod of Chiches* ^ Ibid. p. 576. 

ccxiy ZHjBEsertation on 

libet sexta feria in pane et aqua jejunent, donee pueri 

I shall quote at length a canon of the ooandl of 
Oxford, A. D. 1222 : which enters into many particubn 
relating to this rite. ^* Sacerdotes frequenter monesnt 
populum ad confirmationem preelatorum : post bapds- 
mum enim suscipi dehere sacramentum confirmationis. 
Quodsi confirmandus fuerit adultus, monendus est per 
saeerdotem loci, ut confiteantur prius et postea confir- 
metur ; veniat ad ecclesiam juvenis adultus confirman- 
dus. Ssepe dicatur laicis, ne expectent diu ad ccmfir- 
mandum adventum episcopi, sed adducant pneros ad 
eum, uhi adesse audiverint ]»*ope, quam citius poterint, 
et ut fascias seu ligationes secum deferant competentee, 
sufficienter longas et latas. Item ut nuUus puer tene- 
atur ad confirmationem a patre aut matre, vitrico et 
noverca, et prohibeatur saepe publice per sacerdotes in 
ecclesiis. Item caveant sibi diligenter parentes, ne 
parvulos sues iterate perferant ad confirmandum, cum 
et ipsi parvuli post sacramentum iteratum efiiciantur 
irregulares, si masculi fuerint, et ipsi tali negligentia 
gravi secundum canones subjaceant ultioui. Sciant 
etiam parentes illi, qui pueros tenent ad confirman- 
dum, quod spirituale vinculum in hoc sacramento quo- 
que contrahitur, ut in baptismo. Item parvuli confir- 
mati tertia die post confirmationem deportentur ad 
ecclesiam, et frontes eorum per manus sacerdotum in 
baptisterio, propter reverentiam chrismatis, abluantur 
ibidem, et ligatursB ipsorum tunc similiter igne cre- 

»• mikins. Cone. Tom. 2. p. ^ Ibid. Tom. 1. p. 594. Cf. 
ia«. Tom. I. p. 657. 

I clause oonoeniiiig irregularity in the above 
has reference to the after-taking of Holy Orders : 
in case of iterated confirmation, was not per- 
9. without a dispensation. Hence only males are 
I9 for they only, it need scarcely be added, are 
B of Orders. The ^^ fascuB sen /igatione^'' were 
me as the chrismalia of which I have spoken in 
) to the office below : {p. 36.) and there is no 
r proof of the very high antiquity in the Church 
gland of the use of them, than that which is fur- 
L by the pontifical of Egbert, of York, in the 8th 
y. Martene^ has printed the order as it is in 
f S. which is still extant, and preserved abroad : 
ccurs the rubric, ^' modo ligandi sunt,'' and fot 
by the same prayer (with a few verbal altera- 
as that of the Sarum Manual of the Itith century, 
18, qui apostolis tuis.*" I may mention that the 
rariety of reading is, " respice propitius ad humi- 
nostrae famulatum :" which is followed also by 
S. pontifical of Salisbury, 
now in the ritual of the Church of England, 
is a rubric, that ^^ none shall be admitted to the 
Communion, until such time as he be confirmed^ 
ready and desirous to be confirmed," so anciently 
;herc canons to the same effect in force. I shsdl 
one of these, made under Archbishop Peckham. 
itra negligentes confirmationis suscipere sacrar 
m statuimus, quod nuUus ad sacramentum cor- 
st sanguinis Domini admittatur extra articulum 
I, nisi fuerit confirmatus, vel nisi a receptione 
oiationis rationabiliter fuerit impeditus." Upon 

'• l)e Ant. Ecc. Hit. 7W. !.;>. 92. 

ccxvi Di00ertation on 

Confirmationis in this statutOi Lyndwood*8 gloss is: 
^* i. e. chrismationis in fronte : et fit per solos Epu- 
copes. £t est omnibus fidelibus necessaria. £t in 
hoc Sacramento Spiritus Sancti gratia augmentatur, 
ut confirmemur ad pugnam spiritualem. Et ideo in 
fronte, ut a recipiente fides Christi sine erubescentia 

In speaking of baptism, I have already mentioned 
that it was forbidden to give infants improper names: 
and the same canon there cited goes on to say: ^'si 
contrarium fiat, per confirmantes episcopos corrigar 
tur :" i. e. as Lyndwood explains ^^ mutando nomen, 
et honestius nomen imponendo."* The .reader will 
observe that in the ancient order of confirmation the 
rubric runs, ^^ Et tunc episcopus petat namenj et ungate 
etc. dicens : Consigno te. N. signo crucis." etc. And it 
was at this period of the office that he was informed 
of the name of the candidate, and had the power of 
giving a new name, if the old one was objectionable. 

But this is a point, upon which I would make an 
observation, as to the present practice of the Church 
of England ; and the authority which, in this respect, 
her Bishops have. Lord Coke says : " K a man be 
baptized by the name of Thomas, and after, at his 
confirmation by the bishop, he is named John, his 
name of confirmation shall stand good. And this was 
the case of Sir Francis Gawdie, chief justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas, whose name by baptism was 
Thomas, and his name of confirmation Francis : and 
that name of Francis by the advice of all the judges, 

^ Lib. 1. Tit. 7. Confirma- » Lih.Z. Tit. 24. Circa w- 
tionis. eramenhim. Verb, corrigaiur. 

tiie fl>cca0ional fl)ffice0. ccxvU 

he did bear, and afterwards used in all his purchases 
and grants."^ 

Now Burjh in his Ecclesiastical Law, observes upon 
this case of Sir Francis Gawdie, and against Lord 
Coke : '* But this seemeth to be altered by the form 
of the present liturgy. In the offices of old, the bishop 
pronounced the name of the child or person confirmed 
by him^ and if he did not approve of the name, or the 
person himself or his friends desired it to be altered, 
it might be done by the bishops pronouncing a new 
name upon his ministering this rite, and the common 
law allowed the alteration ; but upon review of the 
fitorgy at King Charles the Second s restoration, the 
office of confirmation is altered as to this point, for 
now the bishop doth not pronounce the name of the 
person confirmed, and therefore cannot alter it." 

Dr. Bum's work upon the Ecclesiastical Law is of 
80 high authority, that it is with much hesitation I 
venture to make any remarks in opposition to it ; and 
yet I scarcely think it right to pass by the argument 
of the passage which I have just quoted. It seems 
then to me, that the argument is worthless, because it 
supposes, (through some mistake which I am at a loss 
to account for, and left uncorrected in the last edition,) 
that during the reigns of Elizabeth, and James, and 
Charles the 1st., the old practice was still retained, of 
addressing each person by name, who was brought to 
be confirmed. But this had been discontinued for 
more than one hundred years before 1662 : having 

• 1. Inst 3. Cited, Burns of this Judge, in Spelman's His- 
Ecc Law. Vol. 2. p. 10. See tory of Sacrilege, p. 187. Edit. 
some account of the wretched end 1846. 

ccxviii D<iB(0ettatton an 

been left out, together with the use of the sign of the 
cross, at the revision of the Common Prayer Book^ in 
the year 1552. .Therefore, I suppose, that for the 
same reasons that the ju^es all advised, it is to be 
presumed after 1552, the name of confirmation to be 
retained in the case quoted by Lord Coke, they would 
now advise a like course, under similar circumstances. 
Dr. Bum s conclusion, that because the Bishop, ac- 
cording to our present Book, does notj and therefore, 
cannot if he sees a just reason pronounce the name at 
confirmation, also seems to have no weight. It is clear 
that such was not the view of the Bishops or judges in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and there is no more 
reason why it should be so now. 

I happen to possess a Common Prayer Book, (4to. 
1702) interleaved, and filled with manuscript notes 
and observations by Bishop White Kennet. He gives 
a case, since 1662, very much to the point in question. 
" Confirmation. Mem. On Sunday Dec. 21. 1707, the 
Ld. Bp. of Lincoln confirmed a young lad in Hen. vij. 
Chapel : who upon that ceremony was to change his 
Xtian name : and accordingly the sponsor who pre- 
sented him, delivered to the Bp. a certificate wh. his 
Ldship signed, to notify that he had confirmed such a 
person by such a name, and did order the Parish Mi- 
nister then present to register the Person in the Parish 
Book under that Name. This was done by the opinion 
under hand of Sir Edward Northey, and the like opi- 
nion of Ld. Ch. Justice Holt, founded on the authority 
of Sir Edwd. Coke, who says it was the common Law 
of England, by which he meant the common custom 
of the Roman Church : where it was more reasonable : 
because the Bp. reciting the name, might so express a 
new name, and Confirmation being thought a Sacra- 

tfje ®cca»lonal ©flOices- ccxix 

ttient, might sanctify a new name." Now, whatever 
tlie value of the Bishop of Peterborough's last observa- 
tian may be^ his assumption that Lord Coke meant one 
thing when he said another is worthless, because it is 
gratuitous ; his fact remains : and with the fact the 
united opinion of Sir Edward Northey and the Lord 
Chief Justice. 

I am bound to remark further, that in the case given 
by Lord Coke, (not knowing the circumstances, we 
cannot argue from the later one of White Kennett) the 
Bishop appears to have exceeded the authority which 
the ancient canon law would have allowed him* That 
law permitted a name which had been given in Bap- 
tism to be changed, only if it was improper or objec-- 
ti(mable. ^' Attendant sacerdotes, ne lasciva nomina, 
imponi permittant parvulis : et si contrarium fiat, per 
eonfirmantes episcopos corrigatur." But to change 
TTtomas into Francis could only have arisen from some 
trivial preference to another name; and such alone 
ought never to be allowed as a just reason for casting 
^de utterly and for ever, a first name in itself good 
^Uid proper, which had been ^^ sanctified,^' as Bishop 
Bennett says, in the administration of the sacrament 

VL A public Marriage, and the benediction of the 
Clfamrcfa, have always been held necessary to the well- 
l:)eing of those who intend to Uve in the estate of ma- 
%Timony : and from the first years, when the Saxons 
^ere converted to the faith, the attention of the Church 
lias been carefully directed to the due solemnizatHm 
f»f this holy rite^ and to the prevention of those evils 
which are certain to follow the contempt, or the ne- 
glect, or the evasion of it. Many regulations and 
orders to this effect during the Anglo-saxon age, be- 

ccxx IDiwtttation on 

ginning from St. (7regory*8 answere to S. Augustine 
of Canterbury, up to the conquest, might easily be 
collected from Wilkins, and from Thorpe's ecclemasti- 
cal laws : but I shall pass on to some canons which 
were made in the succeeding ages. 

In the year 1200, it was decreed at the council of 
London, upon the important question, much more im- 
portant then than now : *^ Quaies persona debeant con- 
trakere matrimonium. Vir non contrahat cum aliqoa 
consanguinea olim uxoris suae, similiter nee uxor cum 
aliquo consanguineo quondam viri sui. Et susceptus 
in baptismo, non contrahat cum filia baptizantis vel 
suscipientis, ante, vel post genita." ^ I shall not ex- 
tract further regulations, which limit the degrees within 
which marriage was to be allowed, for they scarcely 
fall within the object of these remarks : and I fear 
also, it must be confessed, that they were made as 
time went on, more and more both in strictness and 
number, that dispensations might be also the more 
numerous, and the revenues of the Church encreased. 

But the same canon just cited further orders : ^^ Nee 
contrahatur aliquod matrimonirum sine trina denun- 
ciatione publica in ecclesia, neque si fuerint personse 
incognitse. Sed nee copulentur aliquae personse ma- 
trimonio, nisi publico in facie ecclesiaa et prsesente sa- 
cerdote. Et si secus factum fuerit, non admittantur 
alicubi in ecclesia, nisi speciali auctoritate episcopi." 

A few years later, a council at Durham forbad irre- 
verence at marriages : having explained the dignity 
and worthiness of the state of matrimony, it proceeds : 
^^ propter hoc praecipimus, quod matrimonia cum ho- 

Wilkim. Tom. l./i. 507. 

tbt fl)cca0ional iDf&ct». ccxxi 

nore celebrentur, et cum reverentia, et non cum risu, 
non jocoy non in tabemis, potationibusque publicis, sen 
oommessationibus." In the next canon of this council, 
we find for the first time, the record of the necessity 
of the contract which was to be expressed by word of 
mouth between the parties. '^ De forma matrimonii 
contrahendi. Item prsecipimus, quod sacerdotes pr8&- 
cipiant et doceant personas contrahentes banc formam 
Yerborum in Grallico vel Anglico : ' Ego accipio te N. 
in meam/ Similiter et mulier dicat : ^ Ego accipio te 
N. in meum/ In his enim verbis consistit tis magna, 
et matrimonium contrahitur."^^ I do not mean that 
we are to conclude that some such form was not usual 
before this council, although certainly there is no 
trace of it in any ritual which I have seen of an earlier 

I pass over numerous canons to the same effect, and 
to the necessity of banns being published, which occur 
in the intermediate time, until the provincial constitu- 
tion of Walter Raynold, in 1322 : upon which Lynd- 
wood comments. ^' Matrimonium, similiter et alia 
sacramenta cum honore et reverentia, de die in facie 
ecclesise, non tamen risu et joco, et derisu ac contemp- 
tu celebretur. In matrimonio contrahendo semper in 
tribus dominicis, vel festivis diebus, et a se distantibus, 
tribus edictis perquirat sacerdos a populo sub poena 
excommunicationis, de legitimatione sponsi et sponsse. 
Si quis autem sacerdos hujusmodi edictum non obser- 
yaverit, pcenam nuper in concilio super hoc statutam 
non evadet."** Among other points which he notices 
in this canon, Lyndwood tells us the distinction which 

Wilkins, Tom, \.p. 582. « Ibid. Torn. 2. p. 513. 

ccxxii Dissertation on 

there is between espousak and matrimony. ^ Sunt emm 
Sponsalia repromissiofuturarum nnptianun: Bed iiupLia 
aive Matrimomum est viri mulierisque conjunctio in- 
dividuam vitae consuetudinem retinens.'' He continaes. 
*^ In facie ecdesiie. i : e : conspectu ecclesi» populi ac 
congregati in eccleaia." ^^ Semper, i : e : omni tem- 
pore, et inter quoacunque matrimoninm sit contraben- 
dum." ^'Dominicis. Ubi videlicet nulli sunt diet 
festivi intermedii." " Vd festivis. Inter quos etiam 
numerari potest dies dominicus, si sic occurrat. Vel 
potest intelligi, quando in una hebdomada a dominica 
in dominicam tres occurrunt dies festivi/" ^^AsedU- 
tantibus. Ad minus ut videtur uno die intermedio. 
Et iacit ad hoc quod legitur et notatur de sent, exconh 
muni. c. constitutionem. ii. 6. Sed puto quod si tres 
dies festivi successivi concurrant sicut contingit in 
hebdomada Paschse et Penthecostes suflScit, quod sin- 
gulis trium dierum hujusmodi banna edantur : distart 
namque idem est quod differre vel remotum esse. Cum 
itaque tres dies successive festivalcs differant adinvi- 
cem, sic quod mius dies non est reliquus, sufficit si in 
quolibet illorum dierum banna hujusmodi proclamen- 
tur : non tamen possunt expediri, sic quod trina vel 
bina vice proclamentur in una die, ut hie innuitur." 
** Immunitate. Id est, libertatc, hoc est, an sint liberi 
ad contrahendum." " Statutam. Habc pcena est sus- 
pensionis per triennium ab officio."*^ 

A few years after, a. d. 1328, there was published 
a constitution of Archbishop Simon Mepham, which I 
shall also extract, as it enters into the penalties, which 
were imposed upon priests who celebrated marriages 

** Lih. 4. Tit.l. Matrimonium. 

tbt ©ccasttonal ©flOlces* ccxxiu 

irregularly. "Omnibus et singulis sufiraganeis nos- 
tris prsecipimus statuendo^ quod decretalem, cum inhi- 
UHoj exponi faciant in vulgari, et earn firmiter obser^ 
mi, quibuBvis sacerdotibus etiam non parochialibusy 
qui omtractibuB matrimonialibus ante solemnem edi- 
tionem bannorum initis praesumpserint interesse^ poe* 
nam raspensionis ab officio per triennium infligendo, 
et bujusmodi contrahentes, etiamsi nullum subsit im- 
pedimentum poena debita percellendo. Quivis etiam 
sacerdos, sive seecularis sive regularis extiterit^ qui 
flolemnizationem matrimonii extra ecclesiam parochia- 
kflu absque episcopi diocesani speciali licentia cele- 
brare preesumpserit, aut eidem interesse, per annum 
integrum ab officio sit suspensus/'^ 

VII. There are almost innumerable canons and 
mdera which relate to the Visitation and Communion 
of the Sick, and Extreme Unction. I shall be able 
only to select some of these, which seem to be the most 
interesting or important : from the Anglo-saxon age, 
down to the time of Lyndwood, in the xvth century. 

Some chapters of Archbishop Theodore's penitential 
are directed to the communion and visitation of the 
sick. The 4l8t for example : after speaking of the 
penance imposed, before reconciliation of penitents, 
it adds : " Si vero periculum mortis, propter aliquam 
bfirmitatem, incurrerint, ante constitutum tempus re- 
coneiliari eos oportet, ne forte, quod absit, sine com- 
momone ab hoc saeculo discedant." And again, in the 
4th section of the same chapter, the like indulgence 
18 to be granted even to those who had not previously 

•* WUkins. Tom. 2. p. 554. consequence by the convocation 
See also the account of complaints of 1460. Tom. 3. p. 579. §. 8. 
made to, and the plan adopted in 


Dissertation on 

begun a course of repentance. ** Si quis non pGenitetl 
et forsitan caeciderit in segritudinem, et quaesierit com- 
municare, non proliibeatur, sed date ei sanctam ccmi- 
munioneniy ita tamen ut omnia sit ante confessus : et 
mandate illi, ut, si placuerit Dei misericordiee ut eva- 
serit de ipsa 8Bgritu<Uney mores suos et actus, in qaibai 
antea deliquit, omnino corrigere debeat, cum poeniten- 
tia/'^ With this, the reader may compare also, the 
49th and 50th chapters of the same penitential. 

The 21st and 22nd of the excerpts of Archbishop Eg- 
bert order that the parish priest should be at all tunes 
ready to visit, and communicate, and anoint the sidL. 
'^xxi. Ut secundum definitionem sanctorum patrum, a 
quis infirmatur, a sacerdotibus oleo sanctificato cum era* 
tionibus diligenter ungatur. xxii. Ut presbyter eucha- 
ristiam habeat semper paratam ad infirmos, ne sine 
communione moriantur."*^ In the year 960, thefo- 
mous canons were enacted under K. Edgar : of which 
the 65th orders every priest " to give housel to the 
sick, when they need it :" and the next : " we enjoin, 
that every priest have unction for the sick."*^ That 
is, the consecrated oil : which was ordered to be kept 
distinct from the oil which was used at baptisms.^ 

The canons of iElfric are of importance : they direct 

« Thorpe. Vol. 2. p. 49. 

^ WUkins. Tom. 1. p. 103. 
Thorpe. Vol. 2. p. 100. 

^ Thorpe. Vol 2. p. 259. 

* Tria sunt sacra olea, cate- 
chumenorum scilicet, infirmorum, 
et chrismatis, et hujus prse ilHs 
coDstitutioDem intrat etiam balsa- 
mum, judaicum sit, vel indicum. 

CatechumeDorum oleum ecclesia 
adhibet in benedictioDe fontis bap- 
tismalis, administratione baptismi, 
consecratione ecclesise, altaris fixi, 
atque portatilis, ordinatione pres- 
byteri, et in benedictione et coro- 
natione reg^m, et reginanim. 
Utitur sacro chrismate in bene- 
dictione fontis baptismalis, admi- 
nistratione sacramentorum baptit- 

tbe f>ccasionai fl)iOKe0« ccxxv 

t ^ the priest shall housel the sick and infirm, while 
sick can swallow the housel; and he shall not 
limster it, if he be half-living, because Christ com- 
ided that the housel should be eaten." Again, 
"he priest shall have hallowed oil apart for chil- 
li, and apart for sick men, and always anoint the 
I in bed. Some sick men are fearful, 30 that they 
1 not consent to be anointed in their sickness."^ 
d the Archbishop proceeds to cite the injunction of 
Fames the Apostle. 

TuAfuon publkhed this last canon of course, in his 
lection of ecclesiastical laws : but he makes an un- 
' reference to it, in his index, by which he would 
1 his reader to conclude, that the English in that 
I disliked or disapproved of the rite of extreme unc- 
L His words are *^ English people averse to it.** 
• such is very far indeed from the real meaning of 
I canon : which alludes only to the fear which sick 
pie had, that if they were anointed during sickness, 
ir case was hopeless, and they must die. Much in 
same way ^ as now : people foolishly put off making 
ir wills from the same notion ; or wickedly as well 
bolishly, defer and defer the receiving of the Holy 
smiunion. We shall presently find other canons 
iting to this point. And even as regarded the 
imunion, ihese errors also prevailed : as we learn 
m an epistle of the same ^Ifric : ^* Some sick are 
Sbolish, that they fear that they will die immediately. 

tconfirmationis, consecratioDe tione sacramenti extremse unctio- 
& in episoopuniy paten®, et nis, et benedictioDe campanarum.** 
at. et in campanarum bene- Cavalieri Opera. Tom. 4. p. 262. 

Infinnorum olei parcior 
etttinsolanempeadministra- ^ Thorpe. Vol.2,p.S55. 


ccxzvi DijKjsettation oti 

because of the housel : but we say in sooth, that he will 
not die in consequence, though he every day recmve 
the houseL"' 

This epistle of iGlfric is entitled, " Quando dividk 
chiisma," and appears to have been a charge deli- : 
▼ered to the assembled priests of his diocesoi upon the 
solemn annual occasion of consecrating oiL And it 
begins thus : ** O ye mass-priests, my brothers, we will 
now say to you what we have not before said, becanae 
to-day we are to divide our oil, hallowed in three wsjs, , 
as the book points out to us." i : e : the Pontifioil, | 
*^ viz : oleum sanctum, et oleum chrismatis, et olemn 
in6rmorum : that is, in English, holy oil, the seocmd • 
is chrism, and sick men's oil : [hdi3 ele* oJ>ep ft 
c|t]fti)A* ^ ]*e6cc]tA manna ele.] and ye ought to have 
three flasks ready for the three oils, for we dare not 
put them together in one oil vessel, because each d 
them is hallowed apart for a particular service/'** 

I may here remark that the consecrated eucharist 
thus administered to the sick was called ** Viaticum.'* 
Du Cange in his glossary gives many examples of the 
early use of this term, so applied : to which I shall 
add two or three from English authorities, reaching 
up to the century in which the Anglo-saxon conver- 
sion took place. Bede writes: "Primum expectare 
habes donee missae celebrentur, ac viatico Dominici 
corporis ac sanguinis accepto, sic infirmitate simul et 
morte absolutus ad aeterna in coelis gaudia subleve- 
ris."" Again, the same writer, describing the last 
hours of S. Benedict, abbot of Wearmouth, says: 
^^ Dominici corporis et sanguinis sacramentum, hora 

■« Thorpe. Vol. 2. p. 391. 

" Beda, Hist. Ecc. Lib. 4. Cap. 14. 293. (a.d. 681). 

t^t fl)cca0ionai ^dkt». ccxxvii 

exitufl instante, pro viatico datur."^ And once more, 
firam the exoerpts^ of his contemporary, Egbert : ^* Ut 

amcti sacerdotes omnibus infirmis ante exitum 

▼ite yiaticmn et cbmmunionem corporis Christi mise- 
rioorditep triboant."^ . 

The origin of this name is, of course, to be traced 
to the 13th canon of the council of Nice, so often re* 
ferred to in the Anglo-saxon decrees upon matters 
rdating to the communion of tihe sick :^ and through 
that, which refers to the ^^ ancient and regular law," 
to the first periods of the Christian faith. From an 
Mfly canon cited by Mabillon we may discover the 
fMfion why the last communion was so called. ^* Quia 
nefas est coram commemorationes excludi a salutaribus 
sacris, qui ad eadem sacra fideli affectu contendentes, 
dam se diutius reos statuunt, indignos salutiferis mys- 
teriis judicant : ac dum purgatiores restitui deside- 
rant, absque sacramentorum viatico intercipiuntur : " 

" Seda. Vita S. 
C^pera tntii. p, 153. 



" WUkim. Tom. I. p. 

" AlbaspmsBOSy I must remark» 
ugiies that the Nicene Fathers 
Hd. not intend in that canon, the 
Eucharist, bat reconciliation. His 
remirkfl should be consulted. Ob- 
mvaL Lib. 1. Cap. 1. One thing 
is certain, that in that early age» 
Viaticum not only meant the Eu- 
ditrist, but also, sometimes bap- 
tiim, or confirmation, or extreme 
onction : and that the Eucharist 
especially was so called, as being 
'^totissimum, absolutissimum, ct 
potpntissimum Viaticum." 

But the older scholiasts refer 
the Viaticum, as usually it is taken, 
to the Eucharist. Thus JBalsa' 
num. ** Hie est canon generalis. 
Jubet enim, omnem cui posna im» 
posita est, et sacramentis est pri- 
vatus, prseclaro sanctse commu- 
nionis viatico non privari, in 
extreme spiritu, cum examina- 
tione episcopi. Si non sit au- 
tem episcopus, cum examinatione 
sacerdotum, ne bono viatico pri- 
vetur homo ob episcopi absen- 
tiam." Beverege. Pandect. Can. 
Tom. 1. />. 74. See also Zona- 
ras, and Aristenusy in the same 

ccxxviii DijBEjsettation on 

therefore, continues the canon, oblations after death 
might be received for them." So necessary was this 
viaticum held to be, that in the seventh century, it 
was not to be denied to those who had committed the 
greatest crimes, if they had repented : there are de- 
crees that some, ^* toto vitse tempore corpus DominiciuD 
non suscipiant, nisi in suo exitu pro Viatico."^ 

It was in consequence of the necessity that all should 
if possible receive the viaticum, that orders were made, 
that priests should even carry about with them the con- 
secrated Eucharist, to administer it upon sudden occs* 
sions* ^^ Ut presbyteri sine sacro chrismate, oleoqoe 
benedicto, et salubri Christi eucharistia alicubi non 
proficiscantur ; sed ubicunque vel fortuitu requisiti 
Aierint ad officium suum, inveniantur parati in red- j 
dendo debitu."^ It is not probable that this custom ^ 
continued for any long period in the church of Eng- 
land, but it is likely that it was introduced : and we 
find a Bishop of Dublin in the xij th century, carrying 
the Eucharist with him upon a journey, " sicut tunc 
moris erat pluribus."*® 

The reader must remember that not every commu- 
nion administered during sickness, was called " Via- 
ticum,** but that one only, which was given when there 
appeared to be no reasonable hope that the sick man 
would continue long alive, or be able again to receive : 
hence, ritualists make a distinction between the com- 
munion given " causa devotionis," and " per modum 
Viatici." And many rituals differ in the form with 
which it is delivered : in the first case the priest says 

** Concil. Vasense. a.d.442. ^ Lib. Capitular. Lib. 6. cap. 

*» MahilUm. De lit GalUc. p. » Surius, Vita S. Laurentii 
^« Dublinensis. Novembr. 14. 

tbt iDcca0ional iDtfUtsi. ccxxix 

in the ordinary way, ''Corpus Domini noetri Jesu 
Gliristi costodiat animam tuam in vitam ®teniam« 
Amen:** in the other, "Accipe Viaticum Corporis 
Domini, etc** It was in this respect that according 
to the Sanun Use, as may be seen bdow, the priest 
thus comforted the dying man. '' Surge ergo, ut lotus 
laehrymis contritionis comedere valeas panem vitse: 
hoc est, sacramentum corporis Christie quod erit tiU in 
Tia hac qua gradieris robur et Mcimentum : et ambu* 
lahiB per Dei gratiam in fortitudine cibi illius usque 
ad montem Dei." 

We must now proceed to some other matters con- 
nected with the <^ce of the Visitation of the Sick. 
The 23rd of the constitutions or statutes of Lanfiranc, 
is ^ De s^rrotantibus morti proximis : "^ this contains 
many directions, chiefly relating to the unction ; and 
which may be more properly extracted presently. I 
pass on therefore to a canon of the synod of Westmin- 
Bter, A.D. 1138. '' 2. Sancimus etiam, ut ultra octo 
dies corpus Christi non reservetur ; neque ad infirmos, 
nisi per sacerdotem, aut per diaconum, aut, necessitate 
instante, per quemlibet cum summa reverentia defera- 
tar/'^ Towards the end of the same century, 1195, 
we find a canon of the council of York, to the same 
purpose, with farther circumstances. ^^2. Quoties 
autem communio exhibenda est infirmis, sacerdos in 
propria persona hostiam in habitu clericali, tanto Sa- 
cramento convenienti, deferat, lumine prsecedente, nisi 
aeris intemperies^ vel viarum difficultas, vel alia ratio 
prsepediat."^* In the year 1220, we find other parti- 
culars entered into, and ordered, by a synod at Dur- 
ham. '* His adjicimus, quod cum eucharistia ad eegrum 

•• Opera, p. 293. « Ibid. P. 501. 

~ Wilkins. Tom. 1. p. 416. 


ecxxz. S)fi0iMSffOII 1HI 

ftieAt disfinreiida, habeat fmcerdospyxideiB anuidia 
et humstam» ita scilicet i]uod una Bempef in eei^iit 
remaiieat, et in alia, in qua sit enchaiistia in :biiina 
podta mondiflsimay in ea de&ani vafyvA' Dendmoofa 
ad segrotoiDy linteo mundo saperposito» et Inoerliapr»- 
cedente^ mun soger valde. r emo t i M fnerit, et enice simi- 
liter, d fieri potest, nisi emx fnerit ad afinm segrotmn 
deportata^ Pnecedente qooqae tintitanabnliH ad ciqiis 
sonitumcancitetardeTotiofideUaiii. Habeatque secmn 
semper sacerdos herarium seu stolam, qnando ciiin 
Eucharistia, sicut diximus, vadit ad segMtom. Et si 
sBger nob remotiUi fberit, in saperpellicio deoenter ad 
eum vadat, habeatque vas argentoum dve stamieom» 
ad hoc specialiter deputatum, quod semper ad SBgro- 
tum deferat ; ut in eo segro dare valeat post sumptam 
Eucharisiiamisuorum loturam digitorum/'^ In a pro* 
yincial constitution of Archbishop Langton, we have 
the " devotio fidelium" further explained. ** Frequen- 
ter moneantur laici, ut ubicunque yideant corpus Do- 
mini deferri, statim genua flectant tanquam creator! 
et redemptori suo, et junctis manibus, quousque trans- 
ient, orent humiliter."^ 

We must pass by many canons of various councils 
to a similar purpose with the above : quoting only two 
articles of inquiry in the diocese of Lincoln, a. d. 1230. 
*^2^ An sacramentum Eucharistise portetur ad infirmos 
cum debita rcverentia, et, sicut decet, custodiatur ? 33. 
An aliquis sacerdos sit desidiosus ad visitandum infir- 
mos?"^ And a synodal of the diocese of Norwich, 
A. D. 1257, which mentions one circumstance, not be- 

•* Jfilkins, Tom. 1./), 579. the last enquiry a constitution of 
« Ibid. P, 595. Walter de Kirkham, Bishop of 

^ Ibid. P. 627. Compare with Durham, in the 13th century: 

tbt ©ccwfonal ©flaice». ccxxxi 

(bare noted. " Idemque fidelis faciat (sc. se reverenter 
inclmet) cum hoBtiam presbyter ad infirmum quendam 
ia deoenti habitu, supposito mundo velamine, ferat et 
nferat manifeste ac honorifice ante pectus cum reve* 
rantia et tfanore/'^ 

' I shall extract, lastly, a provincial constitution of 
Archbishop Peckham^A.D. 1279: with some portion 
of the gloss of Lyndwood. 

'^ Statuimus, ut sacramentum Eucharistise circumfe- 
ntur cum debita reverentia ad segrotos, sacerdote sal^ 
tern induto superpellicio, gerente orarium cum lumine 
prssvio in lucema cum campana, ut populus ad reve- 
rantiam debitam excitetur, qui ad prosternendum se, 
yel adorandum saltem humiliter informetur sacerdotali 
pmdentia, ubicunque Regem* Glorise sub panis latibulo 
evenerit deportari." ** Saitem. i : e : ad minus : et sic 
tolerari potest, licet minister sacerdotis non sit indutus 
superpellicio, licet honestius sit quod et ipsius minister 
niperpellicio induatur, considerata qualitate beneficii 
etiacultatibus ejusdem/' *^ Orarium : i: e : stolam, qua 
sacerdos in omni obsequio divine uti debet, et suo coUo 
imponitur, ut significet se jugum Domini suscepisse/' 
'' Ijumine pravio. Ratio est, quia est candor lucis 
eternee, et non praecedit lumen ad fugandum tenebras, 
8ed ratione praedicta. Extra, de celebr. Miss, ubi etiam 
stataitur, quod sacerdos Eucharistiam reverenter gerat 
ante pectus suuin, et quod tabemaculum, in quo por- 
tatm*, operiatur mundo velamine. Et ex his apparet, 

*^ Sacerdotea autem prompti et firmus sine confessione, et Domi- 

paratissimi sint, non solum diebus, nici corporis communione, vel 

led etiam noctibus, ut aegrotantes, extrema unctionc." P. 705. And 

cum requiruntur, visitent ; ne per again, Tom. 3. />. 59. 

eomm negligentiam raoriatur in- •' Ibid. P. 732. 

ccxxxii Dt0ia!tt(fttfoii on .' 

qaod lumen, de quo hie loquitiir, portari debet pcv 
miiuBtrmn ; nam lumen pneoedere debet. Si taaoi 
contigerit caBus necessitatisy sic quod praebyter nuUnm 
miniBtrum habere posset paratum ad deferandom bb 
men, puto quod non esset inconTeniens, tft prMbykr 
lucemam cum lumine ad unum de suia bfaebiiB aos- 
pensum gestaret, et campananC modo quo poaset lue- 
lioriy pulsaret. Sic enim fiaciunt presbyteri in amplk 
parochiis, quando transeunt ad infirmos in locia remotis 
existentes: qui quandoque equitantes lucemam jcum 
campana applicant collo equi, et in hoc non smt 
reprehendendi, quia necessitas non habet legem.*' 
'< Lucema. Ne scilicet lumen vento vel pluvia extbt 
guatur/' Campana. Scias tamen, quod si sacerdoi 
revertatur vacuus sine hostia, debet extmguere lumen, 
et fecere quod non pulsetur campanula, ne populus 
adorando committeret idololatriam." '* Adorandum. 
Cum inclinatione capitis, et cordis devotione, et ma< 
nuum expansione^ sive etiam elevatione, cimi orationis 

devotee vocali expressione. Ego soleo sic dicere; 

* Ave, verum corpus, natum ex Maria virgine. Vere 
passum, immolatum, in cruce pro homine. Cujus 
latus vulneratum, vero fluxit sanguine. Esto nobis 
prs^ustatum, mortis in examine. O dulcis, o pie, o 
Jesu, fili Marice.'"*» 

Although Extreme Unction has been spoken of, in 
citing the canons which relate generally to the Visita- 
tion of the Sick, yet there remain some others which I 
am not willing to omit altogether, referring more espe- 
cially to this rite. The 21st of the excerpts of Egbert 
has been quoted already {p. ccxxiv) and the same Arch- 

^ Lyndwood. Lib, 3. Tit 26. Dignissimum. See abo Note 24, 
p. 93, Ancient Liturgy, 2nd edit. 

tfie 2)ccajB!ional ^f&tt». ccxxxiu 

Im^ in hia penitential, explains the reason why 
itreme Unction was supposed to be necessary. ^^ Hie 
cet sanctus Jacobus, quod si quis infirmatus sit, ut 
cet ad se sacerdotem suum, et alios Dei servos, ut 
per eum legant, et infirmus necessitatem suam ipsis 
ust, et illi eum ungant, in Dei nomine, sancto oleo, 
per fidelium illorum preces, et per unctionem con* 
rvari possit, et Dominus eum suscitet, et si peccata 
mmiserit, ilia ei remittantur : ideo fidelis quisque, 
possiti unctionem obtinere debet, et ritus qui ad 
m pertinent ; quoniam scriptum est, quod quicunque 
ritus habuerit, anima ejus seque pura sit, post 
itnm suum, atque infantis, qui statim post baptisma 
nritur."^ i^lfric, some centuries after, speaks much 
the same purpose, in his pastoral epistle. *^ If the 
sk layman desire to receive unction, let him then 
ufess him, and forgive every grudge, before the 
iction : and if he recover, and, after the unction, 
come hale, he may, unless he have vowed the con- 
iry,- enjoy the society of woman, and flesh, if he him* 
If will. 48. In the unction there is healing and 
*giveness of sins ; and it is no ordination, as some 
m imagine. And if the man be again sick, let him 
am receive unctiou, when it be needful : and if it 
ppen that he dies, let the corpse be wisely buried, and 
e soul earnestly committed to God."^ 
Here we may refer to the order, before mentioned. 
Archbishop Lanfranc, de cegrotantibus morti proxi- 
(f : although not immediately relating to parochial 
iitation it is of no little interest, and importance. 
Si infirmus magis ad mortem, quam ad salutem ten- 

Thorpe. Vol 2. p. 179. « Ibid. P. 885. 


dere yideatiir, et ad petat iflmiglf fralW qtti dattil 
infirmorum pneest rem fratribos ia XM^itilla SHntS 
tunc — r- exeant mcerdos hebdcniiadariiiBt'fleGratviiiiH 
quatucHT oohversi, et parent quo ad hiqvsmodi 90g^ 
tium parari oportet. Qoibus paratii^ ■ ■ wMoatm 
^ moiiasterio Iranseaat abte cafHtulnin» boc ordiM 
prooedented; primus ex ooBverna um» com mtxh 
aquae benedict»» dehinc alius cum oneey poafc bos dao 
cum candelabris, extremi secretariua cum oleo» ets» 
cerdos alba indutus» et stola, cum manipulo portanslb 

brum. Psallentea septem psabnos ad taagnun vrnt 

ant : et ordixuite curcumstent, idcnt locus, in qun' jaoal( 
fieri permittit, Primum spargatur aqua benedida» 
dehinc finitb psalmis sequatur Ktfrie efcy#ofS .et (api* 
tula» et collected quae ordiaato sunt usque ad oonfe» 
siohem ; facta confessione absolvatur ab ommbus,' et 
ipse abBolvat omnes. Dehinc osculetur ab omnibus. 
Interim dicantur alise coUectae usque ad nnctionem ; 
facta unctioney lavet sacerdos manus, et projiciatur 
aqua in ignem, yel in sacrarium deferatur. Quo ^acto 
dictis coUectis quae sequuntur, vadat sacerdos, pnece- 
dentibus duobus conversis cum candelabris vadat et 
tertius ad thuribulum deferendum. Quibus reTerten-^ 
tibus flexis genibus adorent omnes Corpus Domini quod 
a sacerdote affertur. Quo allato^ abluto prius ore ejus, 
communicetur infirmus, nisi forte ipsa die cominunica- 
tus sit." 

Extreme Unction, as the reader has ah'eady seen, 
was to be administered, as were the other sacraments, 
without payment of money, freely by the parish-priest : 
I shall not therefore repeat any of the many numerous 
canons which are directed only to this point. 

The council of Durham, about 1220, which we have 
had occasion to refer to more than once, lays down 

tbt DccaiBional iSDfflices. ccxxxv 

particulars as to the due administration of 
le Unction^ and its necessity. First appealing 
b»ih0 authority of S. James, the decree continues: 
M£t propter hoc prsedpimus, quod ad sacramentum 
I unctionis, moneant frequenter populum sacer- 
in necessitate videlicet, et non tantum divites 
md |iauper^, senes, et juniores omnes, maxime a quar 
taMgndecim annis, et supra, et omnibus petentibus et 
poenitentibus gratis exhibeant hoc sacramentum in ne- 
Hnitate, cum fuerint humiliter requisiti. §. Item 
it sacerdotes frequenter populum hoc sacramen- 
licite iterari posse : scilicet in qualibet gravi infir- 
»9 de qua metus imminet mortis. Dicant etiam 
0t denundent confidenter, quod post susceptum hoc 
■jgrnmentum, licitum est reverti ad opus conjugale. 
^. Cum reverentia deferatur oleum sanctum ad infir- 
aKM» et eos unguant sacerdotes cum magno honore, et 
oratioiium celebritate, quae ad hoc sunt ordinatae : et 
niliil inde, sicut nee pro aliis sacramentis, exigatur sive 
a paapere, «ive a divite." ^ 

I omit two councils, one a provincial under Stephen 
Langton, at Oxford, and another of an uncertain dio- 
cese, about 1237,^^ both of which repeat, in almost the 
nme words, the canon of Durham ; with an addition, as 
to the safe keeping of the sacred oil, which I shall 
speak of presently, when we come to the provincial 
constitution upon which Ljrndwood glosses. But a 
diocesan canon, Worcester ^ of Walter de Cantilupe, 
A. D. 1240, enters fully into some particulars and erro- 
neous notions of the people, which although long, will 
, not improperly be laid before the reader. 

fViikifu. Torn, 1. p, 583. ™ Ibid, p. 595. 659. 

ccxxxvi ^i»%ttttttUm Olt 

^^ De unaione extrema. Quia vero sicat Doaunui 
in evangelio testatar, Non MniSf sed male habentiku 
opus est medicOy caroque quibascuiiqiie Mta rraoeditt, 
semper tamen ut mortis debetrix vergit in occasnm, 
concessum est exeimtibos corporalis allevatioiiis reme- 
dium^ et remissio peccatonim, quae sola datur, si ibrle 
non expediat cegroto corporaliter relevari ; sacrameD* 
turn videlicet unctionis extremse, quod eflfectum dupli- 
cem, Jacobo testantOi consequitnr in segrotis. Proplir 
quod hoc sacramentum, cum aliis digne decet minirtroi 
ecclesisei cum cseteris fidelibus venerariy et ad hoc eie^ 
quendum, sacerdotes promptos ad cegrotos accedeie^ 
horis quibuscunque fuerint accersiti. Sacerdos ennbr 
qui se pigrum exhibet in visitandis infirmis, ex qso 
quandoque forsitan accidit, quod s^rotus absque con* 
fessionOy et dominici corporis et sangiiinis perceptions 
decedat, expers etiam unctionis extremee, pemiciosom 
se, et non solum inutilem exhibet subditis, et tantam 
ejus incuriam per nos noverit condigna, pro viribus, 
animadversione plectendam. Sunt autem quidam» ut 
audivimus, qui post perceptionem hujusmodi sacra- 
menti, sanitate pristinae restitutio nefias reputant, vel 
uxores suas cognoscere, vel cames comedere, vel etiam 
aliqua ratione nudis pedibus ambulare. Horum autem 
errorem, utpote doctrinse sanae contrarium, execramur, 
et eos communicationibus et monitionibus duximus co^ 
rigendos, quia ferro abscindenda sunt vulnera, quse 
fomenta non capiunt, ecclesiastica coercione, si hecesse 
Aierit, prsecipimus per sacerdotes eorum ab his errori- 
bus revocari. Quidam etiam in tantum abhorrent hoc 
percipere sacramentum^ quod hoc sibi vix in solo mo^ 
tis articulo sustinent exhiberi; propter quod forsan 
accidit, quod ejus expertes plurimi ab hac luce subtra^ 
huntur. Contra hunc igitur errorem, cum aliis eos per 

tbt iDccnitional iDfllceiB!* ccxxxvii 

HMxnrdotes soos, et pnedicatores alioe crebris exhorta- 
tionibaB priBcijHiims pnemnniri."^^ 

The synod of Exeter, under Bishop Qmyil, in the 
year 12879 repeats much of the above, with the penalty 
of suspension, if the priest neglected his duty, and this 
•dditiGnal caution : '^ Praeterea praecipimus, quod, re* 
jecta omni negligentia, parochiales presbyteri circa 
cmram sibi commissam vigiles sint et soUciti, extra 
soam parochiam absque causa rationabili nulliatenus 
pemoctantes ; et tunc loco suo alium dimittant ido- 
nenm, qui ea, qu» animarum curse incumbunt, sciat et 
nleat adimplere/'^* 

And lastly, I shall cite the provincial constitution of 
Archlriflhop Walter Raynold, a, d. 1322, with portions 
df Lyndwood's gloss. 

" Cum magna reverentia deferatur oleum infirmo- 
rmn ad infirmos, et ipsos inungant sacerdotes cum 
magna devotione, et orationum celebritate quse ad hoc 
sunt ordinatae : moneant saepe populum sacerdotes, eos 
nltem qui sunt setatis 14. annbrum et supra, ad ex- 
trenue unctionis sacramentum recipiendum. £t qUod 
post sacramentum susceptum licite possit reverti ad 
opus conjugale.'* *^ Reverentia. sc. cum superpellicio 
et stola : tamen sine lumine, et sine campanee pulsa* 
tione, quse duo debent duntaxat haberi in deportatione 
sacramenti Eucharistise ad in6rmum, vel aUum extra 
ecclesiam communicandum." ^^ Oleum infirmorum. 
Hoc est oleum ab episcopo benedictum. £t licet ex 
cis quse leguntur in d §. ad exhibendumj videatur innui 
quod oleum catechumenorum, et oleum infirmorum, 
idem sint; Veritas tamen est, quod diversa sunt, et 

^ WUkins. Tom. 1. p. 669. ^ Ibid. Tom. 2.p, 135. 

ccxxxviii Di0IKmatt0ll ill 

divenam habent benedlctioiieiii ; sicat in pontifiGaK 
plenius oontinetur.'' ** Ad m/irmoi. Ex hoc patet, et 
ex subsequentibus, quod ad habendum hoc Bacramen- 
tum non debet illud voleuB recipere, venire vel portari 
ad sacerdotem, sed sacerdoB debet accedwe ad io- 
firmum." ** Sacerdotes. Pluraliter loquitur, et sic yide- 
tur, quod duo ad minus debeant id fBu^ere : sed tu die, 
quod unus sacerdosy prseaente clericoi vel efiam solm 
sine clerico, potest infirmum inungere. Et hoc intelli- 
gatur de necessitate, viz. ubi non est nisi unus sacerdoB 
ministrans in ecclesia, qui neo habet sacerdotem sociom, 
nee clericum, qui valeat sibi assistere. Nam si com- 
mode potest haberi unus dericus, tunc debet adesse 
clericus ipse ad minus* Alioquin potest secum habere 
unum laicum literarium: quein si habere nequeat» 
neque elericum, tunc potest ipse sacerdos solus totun, 
quod coUationi dicti sacramenti pertinet, complere, et 
sibi ipsi respondere." ^* 14. annorum. In hac setate 
dicuntur adulti, ut dixi supra. Et istud sacramentnm 
non dabitur nisi adultis qui peccata venialia videntur 
habere." " Extrema unctitmis. Dicitur unctio ex- 
trema, quia non debet fieri nisi laborantibus in ex- 
tremis, et in periculo mortis constitutis, quando scilicet 
deficit auxilium humanum, et non potest succurrere 
nisi virtus Divina. Sanis autem non datur hoc sacra- 
mentum, quia habent aliud remedium, scilicet poeni- 

Still, one or two circumstances require to be noticed. 
First, in the same constitution of Walter Raynold, as 
to the repeating of Extreme Unction, during the same 
sickness. ^^ Item doceant populum sacramentum ex- 

■" Lyndwood. Lib, 1. Tit. 6. Cum magna reverentia. 

t&e ©ccajsional ©ffices. ccxxxix 

tremm unctionis anno elapso licite posse iterari, viz. 
^olibet anno semel in gravi infirmitate, de qua metus 
mortis imminet eegroto." 

' Again, in the same constitution : ^^ Item, tam sano- 
tmn oleum, quam'chrisma sub fideli custodia, clave 
adhibita, conservetur, ut non possit ad ilia temeraria 
manns extendi ad horribilia." ^^ 

After the last anointing the priest was directed t6 
wash his hands : as the rubric below (p. 87) orders : 
^ tunc erigens se saeerdos lavet manus suas cum sale 
et aqua, in vase quo stuppae olei ponuntur : quee igne 
crementur, et in coemeterio fodiantur." The ablution 
in other instances, if not cast into the fire, was to be 
earned into the sacrarium, doubtless in order to be 
Arown away through the piscina: as in the consti- 
totion of Lanfranc, already cited. And this is plainly 
eipressed in some foreign rituals. The modem Roman 
ritual orders, '^ medullam panis ad detergendos digitos, 
et aquam ad abluendas sacerdotis manus." Also several 
baDs of silk, to remove the oil from the places anointed ; 
which was an ancient observance in those cases where 
s^ptoms of recovery from sickness appeared, as we 
leam firom Durand. ^^ Et quod si eeger inunctus con- 
ndescit, loca inuncta laventur, et aqua lotionis in 
ignem projiciatur. Si vero decedat, non lavetur cor- 
pus propter recentem unctionem.*'^' It may be added 
that these words of Durand were introduced into a 
canon of the 6th council of Beneventum. 

Once more ; all that remained at the end of the year 

^* WWctM. Tom. 2. />. 514. horrible purposes were no doubt, 

Lyndwood^s notes upon the first sorcery, witchcraft, &c'* John- 

of these may be found LUf, I. son. Ecclesiastical Laws. 

Tit 7. Sacramentum. "The '* Rationale. /.t&.l. Cap. 8. 26. 

ccxl OtoMctatitii on ': 

of the holy oil and the ehrifm, was ofdered to be bant: 
asybyaconstitationof ArchbiahopPeocham: ''Vet», 
sea quod superest de yeteri chriamatei ait in Bacm 
eccleuis concremandum.'' And new waa to be pro- 
cured. '< Presbyteri qnoque qoi praaont eodema, ait 
per se» aut per diaconos, aat aubdiaoonoBy a loconra 
episcopis annis singtdis ante paad» solennitatem^ yA 
quanto citius fieri potent, sacrum chriama aiii^^ 
ecclesiia petere teneantur/' Upon thia Lyndweod, 
among other observationsy says» Uiat the impoasifailily 
of procuring the new oil and chrism by Eaater day^ia 
many places far distant from the cathedral dtyf wpaU 
do away with the obligation : for the conaecratiqn wai 
performed only a very short time preyiousy upon Manor 
day Thursday. And some placM» he says, as for ex- 
ample in the diocese of Lincoln, are more than a boa- 
dred miles from the city. Upon the words '^ Singulk 
ecclesiisy' his gloss is : ^^ Non ergo sufficit quod unus 
petat pro multis aliis ecclesiis forsan ecclesiee suae con- 
vicinis : sed requiritur, quod quilibet petat pro ecclesia 
sua." But, he continues, in very large and distant 
districts, it would seem hard and unreasonable, if aa 
archdeacon or rural dean might not apply for the whole 
of his archdeaconry or deanery.'^ And, I presume, 
this in fact, was a common practice. 

It does not seem improper to add, that the same 
constitution just cited of Archbishop Peckham, although 
it was but a repetition of older ones to the same pur- 
pose, states that many parish-priests had been accus- 
tomed grievously to neglect the procuring every year 
the proper supplies. " Quidam tamen vel ignorantia 

^* Lib. 1. TiU 6. Cum sacri. 

^t Dccasiohal fS>Mm. 


indatiy qoee dolo creditur esse vidna) vel spiritu 
contamaci sacris in hac parte canonibus reluctanteSf 
tetus chrifflna alicubi per bienniam, alicubi per trien- 
mimiy et alio amplius reservantes, eodem in baptismate 
et aliifl sacrificiis daninabiliter abutuntur, novum ab 
episcopis locorum de anno in annum non accipientes 
neqae petentes. Quod ne fiat, de csetero prsecipimus 
diBtricte snb poena suspensionis, quam ferimus in con-* 
tunaciter contrarium fiocientes. Quod idem immo de 
sacro catecbumenorum et infirmorum oleo sano accipi'* 
endum credimus intellectum.''^ The reader would do 
well to consult Lyndwood, in the place before cited^ 
upon this also : he confesses that the *^ alia sacrificia'* 
are somewhat obscure. 

VIII. It need scarcely be observed, that the care of 
the Church for the bodies of all who have been made 
her members, ceases not with the natural death. The 
65th canon of those enacted under K. Edgar in the 
10th century, (I pass by some documents of earliei* 
date) lays the care of the corpse upon the parish-* 
priest, equally with the necessity of administering the 
last rites to the sick man. ^^ Let him shrive him — ^ 
give him housel — and extreme unction — and, afi;er 
death, carefully order, and allow not any absurdity 
with the corpse, but, with fear of God, bury it wisely."'* 
As to being buried within churches : the 29th of the 
same canons forbids the indiscriminate allowance of it. 
''And we enjoin, that no man be buried within a 
church, unless it be known that he in life was so 

" Wilkins. Tom. 2./). 48- 
* Thorpe. Vol 2. p. 259. 

WiOeminTom. l./>.229. 
VOL. I. 


cum Dei timore decenter sepelia- 
tur." " ac hit mV^ Lo'Dep eje ^ip- 
lice bebi|i;;e." 


iK^ptable to God, that, (m tbat aceowt^ it b0 «^ 
that he is worthy of such a graye."^ 

I shall not extract any of the canotns, wU^ fgrUd 
the bodies of certain great criminals to be bnpi^d with 
the solemn offices of the Church ; Wfih aa of perjiured 
persons : adulterers : fornicators : suicides and otbenk 
They may be seen in the excerpts of ^gb^ ; m the 
canons of king Edgar, in the laws of the Northumbriail 
IVie8ts> &C. In even ciarUer times, almost as soon aa 
the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons, we have a proof , 
from the penitential of Archbishop Theodore, how | 
strongly the Church detested the presence of buried ■ 
bodies of sinful and unbaptised men within holy ground, i 
** Missam celebrare in ecclesia licet, ubi fideles ac i 
religiosi sepulti fuerint. Si vero infideles, ac hasretici, 
vel perfidi Judo&i sepulti fuerint, sanctificare, vel mis- 
sam ce.lebrare, non licet ; sed si apta videtur ad conse- 
erandum, inde evulsis corporibus, et rasis vel lotifl 
p9,rietibus9 sanctificabitur, si antea consecrata non 

The Gfame penitential, in a previous section, tells v$ 
the course of the ceremonies, according to the then use 
of the church of Rome, which doubtless had been isr 
troduced, and for some time also perhaps observedf 
in the restored church of England. ^^ Consuetude 
etiam est Romanse ecclesisB, monachos, vel homines 
religiosos defunctos, in ecclesiam portare, ibique missan 
pro eis celebrare : deinde cum cantatione portare ad 
eepulturam ; et cum positi fuerint in sepulchre, fuih 
ditur pro eis oratio, deinde humo vel petra operi- 
untur."®^ With the above may be compared the 36th 

Thorpe. Vol 2. p. 25L ^ Ibid. p. 56. « Ibid- p, 58. 

tie f)cca8ioiiial S>fBtt». catuii 

incf the ccmfeBsiaiialttf £^ to the some eflfect: 
thia last adds that the custom then of the churdi 
ImoBi wfaidi in this respect does not seein to have 
a adopted by. the Anglo-saxonsy was to anoint the 
lat of the corpse of a monk, or religious, with chrism, 
r having been carried into the church. ^^ Consue- 
est, cadayera in ecclesiam portare, et chrismate 
tos eorum ungere."? 

L body of ec^esiastical laws, placed by Wilkins 
br the year 994, has one canon of some importance,^ 
to the burying of dead in churdies. ^^ Antiquus 
t mos in his regionibus, mortuos homines frequenter 
ledesiis sepelire, et loca, qusB ad Dei ministerium 
Btificata,, et consecrata erant ad oflferendum, ipsi 
ire ccnmeteria* Jam nolimius abhinc, ut aliqtzis in 
leaia sepeliatur, nisi sit vir sacerdotalis ordinis, aut 
m tam Justus laiciis, ut sciatur quod viyus proptw 
itmn vitse suse talem locum corpus suum ibi repo^ 
di promeruerit. Nolumus tamen ut corpora, qu» 
IB in ecclesia sepulta erant, ejiciantur, sed tumuli, 
appareant, ut utrum horum (eligatur) vel profim- 
\ ilia in terra sepeliantur, vel transitus super ea 
6t squaliter ac convenienter cum ecclesiee pavi- 
ito condantur, ut nullus tumulus ibi yideatur. Si 
m in aHquo loco tot tumuli sint, ut hoc difficile sit 
0, tunc sinant loca ilia ccemeteria esse, et auferatur 
re inde^ et in purum locum ponatur, et ibi ecclesiss 
p nbi Deo reverenter et pure oflferri possit."" 
!bere is certainly some difficidty about the last pas- 
r of this canon. Johnson, in his collection of laws,' 
t: ^ Churches must have been very indifferent 

Thorpe. VoL±p.m. » WUkms. Tom.l.p.267. 


ccxiiv Dfnfettadoit off * '* 

structures, when it was in some cases more difficdlt to 
make even the floors, than to erect a new fabric : and 
I think it is agreed that few or no churches in this age 
were built of stone, but generally of timber." Butr 
without discussing the question of the comparatiTe 
number at that time, in England, of wooden and stone 
diurches, I do not think that such is the fair inference 
to be drawn from this clause. There was, without 
doubt, in many, especially the remote, parts of the 
country, a large number of ill or hastily constructed, 
or dilapidated churches. And to these, the order was 
intended to apply. Or again, the whole surfiBice of the 
interior might have been covered with graves : and if 
the building at the same time was not very deserving 
of being retained as the parish-church, to such ako 
would the canon have reference. For in those days, 
men did not, for every fanciful cause, dig np and 
reinter the dead bodies of those who had gone before: 
nay, more than this, at the expense and sacrifice of both 
time and money to themselves, they would rather build 
new churches, than either disturb the graves, or on the 
other hand continue to celebrate the Divine Mysteries 
in places where too many dead were lying, and those 
of no certain character. In short, I cannot believe 
that the difficulty spoken of is to be attributed to the 
amount of mere labour or trouble of any kind ; which 
indeed seems an absurdity almost, when fairly con^ 

I shall further quote two provincial constitutions 
which had for their object the prevention of some ex- 
cesses which, as time went on, not unnaturally crept in 
during those ages ; when not only, as always, the evil 
were mingled with the good, but the rudeness and 
freedom of manners gave an apparent opportunity to 

tie jDccftBEional S>faitsi. 


fiooffliess. First, of London, under Archbishop 
. Stratford, in 1342 : which, after speaking of the 
ippy tendency of many customs and practices, ori* 
ily good, to degenerate, and therefore the necessity 
lange and restriction, proceeds thus : ** Sane fide- 

servare devotio consuevit, ut, obeuntibus homini* 
'el mulieribus, ante corporum sepulturam, noctum» 
9ntur vigiliae, in privatis quandoque domibus pro 
ictis, ut illuc couTenientes et vigilantes fideles^ 
tis precibus Domino fusis, intercederent pro eis- 
Inimici tamen latentis insidiis, quod salubriter 
diyit antiquitas, superstitioso errore adeo in scur^ 
tern nequiter est conversum, ut in yigiliis mortuo^ 
hujusmodi, neglectis orationibus, illuc conventi- 

ineantur illicitse atque foedae; unde adulteria, 
cationes, et furta sequuntur, et alia perpetrantur 
iliter multa mala. Quia siquidem morbus iste 

conununis invaluit, eidem adhibendo medelam 
imus, quod in nostra provincia, peractis a yiris 
dasticis mortuorum memoriis, nulli in privatis 
bus, in quibus mortuorum corpora usque ad sepul- 
1 requiescunt, frequenter de ceetero receptentur 
nsuetas populares noctumas vigilias peragendas, 
LCtorum amicis, propinquis, et his, qui psalteria 
1 dicere pro defunctis voluerint, duntaxat elceptis,. 
poena excommunicationis majoris, quam contra 
iflsa vigiliam facientes hujusmodi, et recepta- 
taliter vigilantium, non immerito poterunt formi* 


T/AnVw. Tonu 2. p. 707. 
ood has this statute: hut 
ovations are not of un- 
e to our subject. Upon 

Memoriis he says : *' i. e. ezequiis, 
et patet generaliter pro regene- 
ratis omnibus solennes orationes 
fieri: quia non decemimus qui 



iDii0ttta0oii ofi 

• And a second, of the proTinoe of York, under Ardh-' 
bishop Thoresby, in 1367. '^ Et quia ssepe oontigit, 
quod quidam in sanctorum vigiliis conTeniuntin eode^ 
siis, qui divinis ibidem deberent yacare obsequiis, lA 
in exequiis defunctorum pro animabns defonctomm 
hujusmodi oraturi, qui versi in sensom reprobum IndiB 
noxiis, et vanitatibus, et quandoque pejoribus firequot- 
ter intendunt, Deum et sanctos (quos se venerari simu- 
lant) graviter oflfendentes, et in defonctomm exequiis, de 
dome luctus et oratilonis, domum risus fadunt et exces- 
sus, in animarum suarum periculum perquam grare; 
districtius inhibemus, ne alkjui venientes ad hujusmodi 
▼igilias, et exequias, prsesertim in ecclesiis hujusmodi 
ludos aut turpitudines, vol alia in errorem, vel pecca- 
tum ducentia faciant, vel exerceant quovis mode ; sed 
studeant quilibet sic veniens humiliter et devote facere, 
propter quod hujusmodi vigilise et exequiae fuerant 
ordinatsD.''®* And the constitution goes on to lay fines 
upon all rectors and vicars who allow such practices: 
and to excommunicate the perpetrators. 

The custom of ringing a bell on the death of any 
person, was very anciently observed in England. Bede 
speaks of it, as common in his time, and explains its 
object : ho is relating the circumstances of the death 
of the abbess Hilda, and how it was made known the 
same night, in a vision (he says) to a nun in a monas- 

sunt hi, quibus prosunt, aut quibus 
non prosunt. £t ideo melius est, 
ut talia supersint bis, quibus non 
obsunt ncc prosunt, quam quod 
desint his quibus prosunt" Lib. 
8. Tit, 14. Quia saepe, 

w Wilkin^. Tom. S. p.m. In 

the same collection, Tom. 1. p» 
570, are a number of regulations 
to be observed at the death of a 
Parish-priest, Archdeacon, Abbot, 
or Dean, in the diocese of Wor- 
cester. A.D. 1219. AndtheOfiices 
which were to be said. 

tbt fl)c(ajB[lotial fS>ftkt», ccxMi 

tery at a great distakice. '^ Haec tunc in dormitorio 
Bororam pausans audivit subito in aere notum campanse 
BunuiDi quo ad orationes excitari vel convocari solebant, 
com quiB eorum de sseculo fuisset eyocatus."^ 

And six hundred years after this, an order of the 
Bishop of Exeter, John de Grandisson, among the 
statutes which he drew up for the college of S. Mary 
Ottery, proves the continuance and general observance 
of the ceremony. " 76. Insuper statuimus quod clas- 
sicum pulsetur pro mortuis parum anteqtiam incipitur 
placebo, quousque inchoetur dirige, et similiter ante 
missam dum dicuntur commendationes. Ita, videlicet, 
qood tarn in obitibus quam etiam quando corpus prse^ 
sens, habetur secundum dignitatem personse brevius 
vel longius prsedictis semper temporibus pulsetur cum 
majoribus et pluribus vel minoribus et paucioribus 
campanis ; sed inhibemus ne nimis prolixe pulsentur, 
nee iterum post officium vel in aurora, sicut solet Exo- 
nise ; quia nihil prodest animabus ^ ses sonans aut cym- 
balum tinniens,' et tamen multum nocet auribus, et 
fabricae, ac campanis."®' And this is one of the uses 
to which bells are said to be destined, in the ancient 
and often quoted dystich : 

" Laudo Deum verum, plebem voco, congrego clerum, 
Defunctos ploro, pestem fugo, festa decoro." 

The rubric of the revised and modem Roman ritual 
orders, " Corpora defunctorum in ecclesia vel coeme- 
terio ponenda sunt pro situ et loco, ut sint versa ad 
altare majus : vel si conduntur in oratoriis vel capellis, 
ponantur cum pedibus versis ad illarum altaria. Pres- 

w Hist. Ecclcsiastica. Lib. 4. *" Oliver. Monast. Exon. p. 

Cap. 23. 272. 

byteri vero et Episcopi habeaiit caput tepodtum Termi 
altare, et pedes versus populum." Such howeyer doei 
not appear from any record to have been eyer a dii^ 
tinction allowed in the church of England : and Cata- 
lani confesses» that he has found no example of it in any 
ritual or council, previous to thito last review of the 
ritual of the church of Rome. The same ritual forfaidi 
the burial of any person upon Good Friday» or Easter 

IX. Succeeding the order of burial the reader wiU 
find various Forms of Benediction. These commonly 
were contained in the manual, although more properiy 
they would be supposed to have belonged only to the 
pontifical : that is» i( as we shall see presently» Lynd- 
wood's dictum is to be taken strictly. The benedic- 
tions which I have edited» are not the only ones which 
occur in the manual ; but I have selected those which 
relate to the furniture and ornaments of churches» and 
of public worship. As the table of contents of the 
various editions usually has it : the ^^ Benedictiones 
omnium rerum ecclesiasticarum." The other benedic- 
tions are in another part of the book» such as '^ Bene- 
dictio ensis novi militis»" " camis, casei» butyri»" 
" novorum fructuum" " navis,** etc. 

The canonists make three distinctions of benediction. 
Ferraris says» " Benedicere potest contingere tripli- 
citer» enuntiativCf optativcy et imperative. Enuntiative 
benedicere» quod fit laudando» est benedictio» quam 
Deo tribuimus» cum toties eum benedicimus et lauda* 
mus. Optative benedicere» quod fit aliquod bonum 
benedicto optando, et precando» est benedictio» quam 
homo homini dare solet» non laudando solum» sed etiam 
aliquod bonum adprecando. Imperative benedicere, 
quod fit imperando» et operando efiectus intentos» est 

^e iDctaiKfonal iS>fStz». ccxHit 

ledictiOy qnam dat solos Deos per se, vel per mini^ 
I saoB, et operatur praedictos efiectus, et hanc quan- 
[ae DeuB dedit per seipsum, quandoque vero per 
6 servos : et hodie in ecclesia fidelibus benedicit per 
itifices, et sacerdotes, et religiosos viros."" 
So, the very learned ritualist, Catalani. After 
«king of the two other kinds of benedictiony he 
loeeds : ^^ Tertio benedicere significat consecrare et 
ictificare, seu conferre aliquod esse sacrum rei, quae 
ledicitur, ut fiat conveniens, et apta materia sacra- 
nti, vel sacrificii ; vel fiat instrumentum salutis sive 
mamm, sive corporum, ad quod pertinet illud Apos- 
l dictum in epistola. 1. ad Timotheiun, Cap. iv. 
tnis creatura sanctificatur per verbum Dei, et oratio- 
II» — £t hsec est, quae benedictio ecclesiastica appel- 
nr : quippe quae nomine Ecclesise, et ex auctoritate 
I Deo concessa fiat : posuit enim Deus sacerdotes, 
ninistros ecclesiasticos, dispensatores benedictionum 
urum." " Tota vis benedictionum ecclesiasticarum 
in oratione, et invocatione Ecclesiae, quee fit per 

IS ministros : quamobrem omni ratione caven- 

m est iis, ne alias benedictionum formas, ritus, aut 
remonias usurpent, quam quae in libris ecclesiasticis, 
ssali scilicet, pontificali, et rituali continentur, vel 
is suprema praesidum Ecclesiae auctoritate proba- 
" *' Cavendum etiam, ne benedictiones ecclesias- 
B quocumque praetextu ad alios fines detorqueantur, 
un ad quos ab Ecclesia institutae sunt. Cum enim 
e vim non habeant, nisi ex intentione, et invocatione 
clesiae, non autem ex proposito, et voluntate uten- 
m : certum est ex communi ordine providentiae 

" Promta Bibl. Verb. Benedictio. Art 1. 


DivioflB, eafldem neque eflRdctutai aortiri aUoin, qaamal 
Ecclesia institutiim ; neque sine piaculo ad alienoBi et 
particulari preesumptione excogitatos usos posse apj^ 

The same writer goes on to explain furiher tte 
distinction between the Benedictio Invocativa^ and Cmt 
stitutiva ; the first of which imparts a grace and benefit 
to the persons or things on whom it is bestowed, but 
alters not their state : as the nuptial benediction, or of 
a kingy eta. But the second is that which applies to 
those Offices which I have now edited: of oratorieib 
bellsi and ecclesiastical ornaments, which by. sudi t 
benediction are removed utterly and for ever firom any 
profane use, and given up solely to, and to be employed 
in, the Service of the Almighty* Dedicated in shortp 
by prayers and blessing, to God ; and for the future, 
His peculiar property: according to the canon-law, 
^^ Semel Deo dicatum, non est ad usus humanos ulterius 

An important point is involved in the question, 
whether these benedictions were anciently allowed to 
be performed by priests. They were, as I have said, 
in the manual, a book especially intended for the 
parish-priest : though there can be little doubt, that 
some few of them were strictly limited to the episcopal 
office. But many others might, I conceive, have b^ 
performed by priests under special license and autho* 

In the edition (a famous one, but suppressed) of the 
Roman ritual, at Rome, 1584, 4to. before this part 

^ Rit Rom. Comment De Be- and other parts of the same Chap- 
ned. TV/, viij. Cap. 1. CatcUani ter, to a work by Eveillon. De 
is indebted for much of the above, Processionibus Eccles. Cup, xxxj. 

oiedictionibus'* is the following rubric. ^^ Cum 
iscopot et presbyteroB seu simplices sacerdoted 
modica differentia, quod ad omnes communiter 
int ilia sex, videlicet catechizare, baptizare, 
re, conficere, solvere, ac ligare : ad episcopum 
eu pontificem novem specialiter spectant, scili- 
icos ordinare, virgines benedicere, episcopos 
ire, — in £ronte chrismare, benedictionem solen* 
to pacem dare. £t proinde episcopi libere his 
tionibus jure suo uti possunt : presbyteri autem 
plices sacerdotes non omnibus, preesertim quse 
alis sunt ordinis vel functionis, vel quse ab epis- 
nri consueverunt, nisi ex indulto Apostolico, vel 

sedis Apostolicse ? ut est benedictio mappa* 
taris, corporalium, sacerdotalium indumento- 
similium, quas facere non debent sine licentia 
, whether Lyndwood further limits this rule, by 

no mention of such license as obtainable, or 
- his words are to be taken so strictly, I must 
» the judgment of the reader. He says, upon 
itution of Archbishop Edmund, " ' Vestimenta 
omamenta, quibus Domino ministratur, non 
lebent esse honesta, sed etiam sacrata, sive be- 
. £t debet hsec benedictio fieri ab episcopis : 
;em a simplici sacerdote."^ And with him, in 
Q, agrees Ferraris. ^^ Paramenta ecclesiastica, et 
nta omnia, tam ministrorum, quam altaris sunt 
.copum benedicenda : ita ut simplices sacerdotes 
ledicerc non possint, neque ex delegatione et 
iono episcopi, nisi ad hoc habeatur speciale 

,ib. I. TiL G. Panui Chrismalcs. Verb, Benedictionem. 

cciii DfinBCttatf on <ni ^ *^ 

privilegium sedis apostolic».''^ Again, Bamffiildiut 
^^ Ad sacerdotes episcopo inferioras pertineiit benedio- 
tiones solum verbales, sen simplices, in quibus noD 
intervenit unctio chriBmatis, vel sacri olei. Inter istas 
vero nonnulke sunt, quas ipsi sacerdoti pertinent de 
jure, et rations ordinis, alia quas possunt ab eo confisrri 
virtute delegationis factse ab episcopo ; com sint etiam 
nonnullse verbales et simplices» quae soli episcopo per- 
tinent, sed possunt ab eo delegari simplici sacerdotL 
Dixi, nonnuUee,. quoniam non in omnibus benedictionir 
bus habet potestatem episcopus del^andi, sed in m 
tantum, in quibus non intervenit unctio chrismatisy rel 
sunt materia alicujus sacramenti, cujusmodi sunt bene- 
dictio chrismatis, et olei infirmorum, aliaque in pon- 
tificali enumerata."^ So once more, Catalani takes 
the same view, and specifies as benedictions which to 
be made by priests require no special permission, those 
only of candles, ashes, holy water, and the like : ex- 
cluding the furniture of churches and of altars. 

But in the ancient pontificals of the church of Eng- 
land, in a very solemn OflSce, no such restrictions are 
to be found. One part of the office of the Ordination 
of Priests was the anointing of the hands : with this 
prayer, ^^Sequiturconsecratiomanuumsacerdotum. Con- 
se^crare et sancti^ficare digneris, Domine, manus 
istas per istam unctionem et nostram bene^dictionem : 
ut qusecunque consecraverint, consecrarentur : quse- 
cunque benedixerint, benedicantur, et sanctificentur : 
in nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi." I take this 
from the Sarum pontifical : with which agree both the 
Winchester and the Bangor pontificals. 

» Promta BibL Verb. Benedic- " Rit. Rom. Comm. TY^ xliv. 
tio. Art. 1. 20. 

tbt fl>(cajtfonal iDflTceiBL cciiit 

shall only add fortber, upon this head, that in the 
accounts of churchwardens, in the collection edited 
Michols, we find more than one example of entries 
expenses paid in procuring these benedictions of 
rch ornaments. Of the parish of Walberswick, in 
2. " Item, at BlibrOj for balwyng of the pyx, autef 
his, and a tonych, an aube, an amyte, and expens. 

8.d.^ Of the parish of Wigtoft, in 1624. ** Ln- 
ois, payd at boston for halowed of auter clothes, and 
cyngofthechalys. 3.s. S-d.**** These do not prove 
; these articles were hallowed by the Bishop : for 
lOUgh taken in one instance to Boston, possibly 
te priest or official might be there to whom license 

been given. And very much to the purpose is 

item in the accounts of the parish of S. Mar- 
Bt, Westminster, a. d. 1511. "Of the gift of my 
ly Clynton i tabil-cloth, sore worn, now hallowed 

the high awter by the hands of m'. Curate."^ 
5 record " sore worn" tells a tale not very credit^ 
3 to the piety of the " Lady Clynton ;" like that 
nany now-ardays, who keep their best things for 
mselves, and give but the superfluity to God. 
}ut some accoimts, already spoken of,^ and which 
itve examined, still extant of the parish of Stratton 
ISomwall, do appear to connect these benedictions 
[| the episcopal function and authority. Thus, in 
2, are three entries together, relating to the visita- 
I (probably) of the Bishop. ^' Item, for bred and 
ik to the ryngers to rynge agene my lord bosshopp 

Extracts from Churchwar- ^ See Dissertation on Service 
\* Accoropts, />. 185. 214. Books, p. xix. 

Ibid. p. 6. 

ccliv :" lOifUUXtBtlOn tfll ' *^ 

.ij^ Item, p"*. for a gallon of wyne to gene my lord 
boshopp .ix^'' And immediately preceding these, li; 
*' Item, for blessyng of v. awter clothys, and iij. new 
stolys, xxiij*"." So, in 1638, an item " for ezpensefi to 
my lord byshopp ys yiaitaxuon, xviij^** is followed by 
" payd for blessyng of yj. corporalls. xij**." Once mwe, 
it would seem that these and such-like were sent, if no 
nearer opportunity occurred, even to Exeter for bene- 
diction : for there is an entry in 1540 : '^ Item, payd 
for the blessyng of the sute of vestements that master 
Thomas Arundell gaue to the church, xvi'^. Item, for 
the carjmge of the same from Exeter .iiij**." 

The rite of consecrating and hallowing church furni- 
ture and ornaments may be traced up to the most remote 
antiquity. Forms of the English church are still ex* 
tant, which were used in the eighth century, and have 
been edited by Martene : in the Gelasian sacramentary 
are ^^ Benedictiones, seu prsefationes linteaminum, ad 
consecrandam patenam, ad calicem benedicendum, 
item ad omnia in usum basilicse, et preefatio chrisma- 
lis, scilicet vasculi, in quo Eucharistia reponitur.''^ 
Georgius also cites from Sozomen, the account of the 
consecration of the church at Jerusalem, a. d. 335, 
with this important passage. ^^ Igitur episcopi Hiero- 
solymam delad, ecclesiam consecrarunt, simulque or- 
namenta, et donaria ab imperatore transmissa : qu» 
quidem in eadem basilica hactenus manent, et a cunctis 
non sine ingenti stupore spectantur, ob magniiicentiain 
et amplitudinem.'' ^ 

The consecration of the plate and furniture of altars 

^ See Georgius. De LiU Rom. ^ Sozomen. Lib. ij. Cap. 26. 
Pontif. Tom. 1.;?. 429. 

tbe fl>cca0idnal fSMie». cclv 

tinued in tbe churcb of England until a late 
and many instances have been collected by the 
of a very useful publication, the Hiei^rgia 
na.^ To these I would add an extract from a 
pamphlet, printed in 1641, which shews that 
) to that time at least, was not the practice of 
two Bishops only, but of many. This is en- 
The true character of an untrue Bishop :" and 
rteenth point of it is, " He, by his consecra- 
ikes holy that which God hath made common : 
, belropes, candles, corporalls and altars — A 
can make that which is common, holy." And 
\e present times the principle is acknowledged 
ed upon in the church of England, as is proved 
consecration of oil in the Office of coronation of 
gs : in which, when the Archbishop offers up a 
with the oil, afterwards called " Holy Oil,'* 
bim, he is directed by the rubric to ** lay his 
K>n the ampulla."^ 

I the particular Office of the Hallowing of Water 
:t, which the rubrics of the English church an- 
directed to be performed on every sunday, I 
lat little need be said.^ It was preserved during 
k in stoups, into which the people entering or 
ig from the church might dip their fingers; 
3ther vessels, to be applied to various purposes. 

[2. 13. 16. 21. 122. 129. ^ The "^ vas ad aquam benedic- 
tam" is of frequent occurrence in 

)te from the last order the canons of provincial and dio- 

e coronation of her pre- cesan synods during the 13th and 

jty, Queen Victoria : but 14th centuries, which have respect 

is in a series, now before to the proper furniture and oma<^ 

ny previous reigns. menta of cl^uixhes. 

There were u&any affices wbidi inTolted a ocmeecn 
of water and salt At the laying of the first stoo 
a church : at its consecrationy and reocmciliatiim 
the solemn seasons of baptism at Easter and Pentei 
as well as at other times, the ''Benedictio sali 
aqu»** was an especial part of the Office^ 
although thus. of such general observance for n 
centuries in the church of England, it seems alia 
as regards proofi^ by the most learned writers of the 
man communion, that it was of no earlier intrbdui 
than about the ixth century. It is true that Bellan 
and Baronius labour, or rather without labour qu; 
lay down its apostolical origin, and that the haUoi 
of water to be so frequently used, rests upon the an 
rity of the first ages of the Church. But we knoii 
extreme views of those learned authors, and the ob 
with which they wrote : and a fiELr more candid wi 
Martene, declares that he cannot trace it beyond 
time of which I have just spoken. Micrologus, 
wrote in the xitb century, tells us, ^^ Alexander 1 
quintus a beato Petro, constituit, ut sal et aqua b 
diceretur ad conspergendum populum." etc.^ An 
appeals to certain canons in further support of 
constant practice of his own day. But Martene 
fesses that he has not been able to find these cam 
Catalani contents himself with resting upon proba 
ties, in the absence of facts. 

' De Ecc. ObseiT. Cap. 46. do not think can be much i 

BibL Patr* AucU Tom. 1. p. on: but I am bound to ad 

758. gives a very remarkable and 

' De Ant. Ecc. Discip. ix. 12. ous painting, which the r 

Dr. Rock in his ** Hierurgia,** j9. should refer to, found in the 

667, quotes this order of Pope combs of Rome. This hoi 

Alexander, a. d. 110; which I might be a pagan repretenta 

tfje ©cca0ional iJDflSces* cclvii 

h The rubric at the commencement of the office has, 
l^onmibus dominicis diebus/* let the water be hal- 
I: and it would seem that this was a rule which 
much insisted upon, and that the abuse (as it was 
tidy looked upon when the rule existed and was 
syed) of sprinkling water which had been hallowed 
' a longer time than six days, and therefore of omit- 
this duty on the Sunday, was often checked. 
Aoe we continually find admonitions in canons of 
toils and synods to this effect. It would appear 
ihe reason was, not only lest the water should 
le foul, but because of a mystery attached to the 
It repetition of the blessing upon every Sunday : 
if it had some reference to the sacred waters of 

Bat in some churches there were two Sundays ex- 
cepted : namely, of Easter and Whitsimtide ; at which 
tones the aspersion was made from the water hallowed 
en the eve preceding. This however, as may be seen 
Mow, was strictly forbidden, and rightly, by the 
nihries of the Sarum and York manuals. It need 
ictfcely be added, that whenever, from accident or any 
other cause, it was necessary to have more water pro- 
tided in the stoups or fonts, there was no day upon 
which this office was not permitted to be said. The 
place where it was to be performed is accurately laid 
down in the rubric, upon the usual solemn occasions : 
but at other times, or if required, there was no objection 
to the blessing of water, either in the sacristy, or in the 
opm air, or in a private room. 

I shall only add this extract from the Rites of Dur- 
bam. " There was two faire Hallewater stones belong- 
ing to the Abey church of Durresme, all of verie faire 
Wewe marble. The fairest of them stoode within the 

VOL. I. s 

cclviii 2DijBEjKmatioii on 

north churche door being kept yerie dene, and 

alwaies firesh water was provided against every aonndiy 
morning by two of the bell ringers, or servitora of tbi 
churchy wherin one of the Monncks did hallow tba 
said water, veri early in the mominge befor divine 
service. The other stood within the south churdi 
dour not altogether so curyouse, yet all of fyne blewe 
marble, beinge verie decenUie keapt in the same man- 
ner with freshe water every sonndaie mominge by tbs 
said bell-ringers or servitoures of the church ; wheot 
in like sortc, one of the Monnks did hallow the said 
water very early in the mominge before dyvine ser- 

Upon the " Hallowed Bread" or " Eulogiee,** the 
Office for which succeeds that of consecrating water, 
and is very short, considerable information is to be found 
in various writers, especially in Bingham's Christian 
Antiquities, Book xv. Chap. 4. Saussajus. Pars. 2. 
Lib. 2. and Cardinal Bona. Lib. 1. Cap. 23. It is to 
be without doubt traced up, if not to the primitive yet 
to very early times of Christianity, and was observed 
in the church of England, down to the reformation in 
the I6th century. The chief end of it, was to supply 
the outward signs of communion to those members of 
the Church, who, from whatever cause, were prevented 
from partaking of the holy eucharist : and the bread 
was taken from the offierings which the people made 
before the Divine Service. I shall quote a canon re- 
specting one purpose to which this hallowed bread was 
applied, from the council of Durham, a. d. 1220. 
" Quando muliercs post puerperium venerint ad puri- 

* BitetofJ}urhafihj).S2. 

tiie iDccajBcional SMce». ccUx 

ficationem, sacerdotes tantummodo dent eis panem 
benedictum, et corpus Domini nullo modo eis propo- 
natnr, nisi expresse petant^ et prius confessse fuerint."^ 
And once more, from a charter of confirmation granted 
to Flixton hospital, in Yorkshire, in the reign of Henry 
the sixth, which ordered a certain priest to say mass 
there, etc. *^ ac post missam iUam panem et aquam 
sanctificare, et inter populum missam illam audientem 
diyidere et spergere hucusque usitati fuissent/'^ 

It will be seen that the prayer in the office had 
respect to the miracle of the blessing of the five loaves 
m the desert by our Blessed Lord, and hence some 
late ritualists of the Roman church have argued that 
ttds rite may be founded upon the actual institution of 
it by our Saviour Himself. Abdias, as cited by Cata- 
hiu, declares, that S. Peter also thus blessed bread, and 
Mmt it to the sick who were thereby healed ; but he 
does not add that this story is rejected by Bellarmin 
and other writers. In short, though as I have already 
midf the evidence is undeniable of the very high an- 
tiquity of the hallowed bread, yet it is impossible to 
rest it upon apostolical, and much less upon divine 

When the eidogujB were first instituted it must not 
be forgotten that communion also was strictly insisted 
upon : but as time went on, the receiving of the hal- 
lowed bread began to be looked upon too much as a 
substitute for the Eucharist, and people rested con- 
tented with it, more especially as it did not require of 
them so strict a preparation. Hence an abuse would 
not unnaturally creep in, and a custom never contem- 

* Wilkins. Concilia. Tom. 1. ^ Dugdale. Monasticon An- 
p. 579. glic. VolQ.p, 614. 

cclx 2Di0jB!ettation on 

plated in purer and more earnest ages grow up, of 
partaking of the cuiogia instead and in the place of 
the eucharist. Such a view, though recommended hf 
high authority in the Roman church, must be erro- 
neous : but that it is so recommended is clear from Cate- 
lani, who says : ** secimda utilitas est in salutem anim», 
quia ex intentione ecclesise panis distribuitur fidelibosi 
non modo, ut sjrmbolum fratemae communicatiomi^ 
verum tanquam mcmoriale quoddam eucharistise, quo 
iidem fideles excitantur ad desiderium recipiendi ipsom 
eucharistiae sacramentum ; et hac ratione, ipso vofa^ 
seu desiderio sumitur spiritualitcr idem sacramentan^ ] 
et percipitur suo modo effectus illius, qui est unio com 
Christo per fidem, et charitatem ; et ideo hie modus 
sumendi eucharistiam in vote seu desiderio, appellator 
communio spiritualis."^ The " prima utilitas " of Gate- 
lani, in support of the continued observance of this 
rite of benediction, consists in the benefit which the 
eulogice are supposed to convey to sick persons, and 
miraculous healing of diseases. The proof of this rests 
upon certain instances said to have occurred in the 
lives of some saints : and is an argument which I can 
scarcely suppose requires examination. But not further 
to delay upon the subject, the abolition of this rite of 
blessing bread cannot be regretted, nor was it decided 

'^ Rit. Rom. Comm. Tom. 2.^. ticulas dissccta, in fiue misss 

60. And to the same effect is the distribuebatur iis, qui ob aliquod 

following from another writer of impediraentum non poterant, cmi 

great authority. " Eulogiae erant nolehant sacramcnti Eucharisti» 

portio ilia panis, qu© cum super- participes fieri, licet legatur etiam 

esaet consecrationi attento com- aliquando distributa iisdem ipsis, 

municandorum numero, haudqua- qui Encharistico cibo jam refecti 

quam consecrabatur, sed solemni fueraut." Cavalieri, Opera. Tom- 

tamcn ritu bonedicta, et in par- 4. p, 47. 

tbe S>ctMioml fDt&tea. ccixi 

upon except upon reasonable grounds, in the church of 
England, in the I6th century ; having so far departed 
from its original object and meaning, and become the 
cause of unworthy views of the beneiits and blessings 
which are attached solely to the actual participation of 
the Holy Eucharist. 

In order to shew the value which the common 
people, down to the middle of the xvith century, put 
upon the hallowed bread and water, the removal of this 
weekly benediction made an especial article of the 
complaint of the Devonshire rebels in 1549. " We 
will have," they say, " holy bread and water made 
every Sunday ; palms and ashes at the times accus- 
tomed ; images to be set up again in every church ; 
and all other ancient old ceremonies used heretofore 
by our mother holy Church." Archbishop Cranmer 
drew up an answer to these articles, and in this par- 
ticalar point as well as in others, he used language not 
becoming either his character or position in the Church, 
and less moderate than I care to quote :° I may also 
mention that speaking in another place of the same 
events, he calls these eulogise and the holy water, 
** conjured bread and water." ^ 

The Office of the Benediction of a Bell, which is the 
last, usually, in the Sarum manuals, does not require 
of me many observations. The best and most accurate 
treatise upon the whole subject that I know, is by 
Angelo Rocca, in his works, Tom. 1. " De Campanis 
oommentarius." It is probable that originally this 

• See thisAnswer in Mr. Jen- • Totld. Life of Cranmer. Fo/. 
kyni " Remains of Cranmer," 2. p. 167. Burnet. Records, ij. 
VoL 2. p. 224. B. 1. No. 47. 

ccixii JDiwtmtUmtn 

rite was adopted firom some sunilar custom of paganisa^' 
but of its antiquity there can be no question whatorer/ 
Alcuin, who wrote in the eighth century, thus speaks 
of it. *^ Neque novum videri debet campanaa benedi- 
cere et ungere, eisque nomen imponere."" And the 
Form occurs in the very ancient Ordo Romanus, the 
exact date of which cannot be ascertained, which is 
printed in the Bibliotheca Patrum}^ The object in- 
tended by the use of this benediction, is ezplidned in 
the prayers of the Office : " Deus qui per beatnm,*' 
and '* Omnipotens sempiteme Deus." A canon of s 
council of Cologne, a. d. 1526» plainly recognizes and 
adopts these ends, as those which the Church is sup- 
posed to have in view. The reader will, I think, coih 
dude that some are not such as can altogether be 

The Order of Consecrating Bells appears to me to 
have reached to the utmost limits of what any reason- 
able person could have allowed ; it trifles, if I may so 
say, with solemn parts of the holy office of Baptism: 
and neither its allowed antiquity, nor the proper desire 
to consecrate every portion of the House of God and 
its furniture to His service, by especial benediction, can 
excuse entirely such objectionable ceremonies. Still it 
is a vulgar and stupid error to speak, as some writers 
have, of the baptism of bells. This at least, in no 
sense, was ever intended ; names indeed were given, 
and the bell was washed, and anointed ; it was blessed, 
and solemnly dedicated and set apart to God, but not 
baptized. The Sarum Use merely directs a name to 

^® Cit Angela JRocca. Tom. 2. " Auctarium. Tom. 1. 
p. 162. 

tiie iDccasional fDfate», 


be given : the modem Roman pontifical supplies the 
form now used, viz. " Sanctis ficetur, et conse^I^cre- 
tor, Domine, signum istud. In nomine Pa^I^ tris. etc. 
In honorem sancti. N. Pax tihi."" 

It is not to he denied that some very great writers 
have used the term baptizing bells, but only as the 
vulgar mode of expression ; and they join it by way of 
explanation with the proper term, benediction. Thus 
Martene has a chapter ^* De henedictione seu baptismo 
ngnorum;" and Durant says, ^^ Baptizantur autem 
fsampanee, seu benedicuntur/' In the capitulare of 
.Charlemagne, is a fomous order ^^ ut cloccse non bap- 
tizentur ;'* cited by almost every writer upon this sub- 
ject It is said that this order had reference'only to 
the superstitions which had crept in with regard to 
this rite, or to the application of the term baptism to 

^ Even if my space allowed, 
yet the object before me is not 
eootroyersialy and I have done 
little more than barely allude to 
the very serious questions involved 
m this whole Office of the bene- 
dictkm of bells. Many writers of 
the Roman communion have en- 
tered into and examined the ob- 
jections which must readily occur 
to every reader ; and by the way 
in which they meet them, prove 
the reality of the difficulties. Some 
have spoken sarcastically in reply, 
though this is not a sensible way 
of arguing : as Bellarminc, who 
wonders why it has not also been 
pretended that the church of Rome 

first goes through the ceremony 
of catechizing the bell. But if 
the student wishes further to in- 
vestigate the subject, he will do 
well to examine the treatise above 
spoken of by Rocca^ the Notes of 
CcUalani on the Pontifical, Tom. 
2. p. 334: and Saussajus^ Pa- 
nopl. Sacerd. Para. 2. Lib. 2« 
Art. xxij. The Paris ritual, edit. 
1646, has a rubric directed to this 
point, so important was it con- 
sidered. This orders the parish- 
priest carefully to disabuse the 
minds of his people upon the mat- 
ter: and, I presume if it were 
possible, to explain the difficul- 

cclxiv 2Di0jB!ettation on 

it, and not to the proper obBervance of the oerenumy. 
But this interpretation is certainly doahtfal." 

The church of Rome has for some ages, whether 
always must be open to question, restricted the bene- 
diction of bells solely to Bishops: the office is not 
therefore contained in her ritual or manual, but in the 
pontifical. Matthew Paris speaks in many places of 
the fact of bells being consecrated by Bidiops: and 
Catalani concludes from those and some other examples, 
that in England such only was the rule. But inde- 
pendently of the fact of this Office being in the Salis- 
bury manual, it is quite clear from its rubrics, that in 
this country priests were permitted, and it would also 
seem without especial license, to consecrate bells. Tbe 
records of consecrations by Bishops, in Matthew Paris, 
does not prove anything : he is describing particular 
great occasions, or of bells belonging to some eminent 
monastery : as of S. Alban, which, he says, was conse- 
crated by the Bishop of S. Asaph. " Benedixit quo- 
que signa ecclesiae S. Albani tam minora quam majora.'' 
And more than this, Andreas du Saussay, a most 
learned writer, has laid down, that even the fact of 
offices being contained only in the pontifical, does not 
of itself prove that they may be performed only by 
Bishops. His observations are so important, bearing 
moreover upon a subject which has been already dis- 
cussed, that I shall extract the passage. 

" Verum multa sunt in Pontificali, quse etsi episcopo 
tribuantur, ut qui eminentiori jure hsec sibi officia vin- 

^^ Vide Martency de Ant. Ecc. Baptizari. Angelo Bocca. Opera. 

Rit. Tom. 2. p. 296. Durant, Tom. 1. />. 163. ^iVi^^awi. Ghris- 

de ritibus Ecclcs. Lih, 1. Cap. 22. tian Antiq. Book 8. Cap. 7. 
Du Cange. Verb. Campanas 

tbt iDcca^ional iDffices* cclxv 

dicare potest» attamen a presbytero sBque peragi pos- 
snnt, quoad ipsum benecUctionis effectum: episcopo 
flcilioet permittentei vel saltern non prohibente, nee 
enim igtse benedictiones^ t. g. crueis, campanee, vaseuli 
pro eucharistia, etc. ita sunt Episcopo propriae, ut non- 

msi ab ipso fieri possint aut debeant. Adde quod 

istarum rerum benedictiones, seu mysticse illae fiine- 
tiones nullatenus presbytero divino jure probibentur, 
nee earum plerseque uUo jure positive, vel sanctione 
canonical sed sola tantum consuetudine non ubique 
BoUda, nam t. g. benedictio campanee, quae in pontifi- 
cali Romano episcopo ascribitur, in ritualibus localium 
di(Bcesea»n et signatim in Parisiensi^ ordinario more 
exequenda, si non cuilibet sacerdoti, saltem parocho, 
sea ejus vicario assignatur."" 

X. The Order of consecrating Churches opens a 
subject upon which, with little difficulty, a large volume 
might be written, and full of interesting details. I do 
not propose now to do more than extract from the 
" ConcUia" and the " Provinciale" a few passages 
which prove that the church of England has always 
looked upon this rite as of the highest necessity. From 
the earliest of our ecclesiastical records, we may con- 
clude this : take, for example, the 47th chapter of the 
penitential of Archbishop Theodore ; speaking of a 
building in which heathens had been buried, but now 
proposed for a church, he adds, ^^ si apta videtiir ad con- 

secrandum, inde evulsis corporibus sanctificabitur, 

si antea consecrata non fuit."^^ In the same chapter 

^* PanopUa Sacerdotalis. Pars, in eedificiis construendisgentilium 

2. p. 607. imitatores, ad eonim similitudi- 

^ ^* Prisci etenim Christi fideles nem sacra templa erigebaDt, vel 



mention is made of that part of the offlk» of jOOIM 
in which it is said : '^ Locus a Deo iste ftctas est*"^ 
The 14l8t of the excerpts of Archbishop Egbert, testi- 
fies to the careful consideration which was huEul of thsse 
matters. '^ Si motum fuerit altare^ denub conaecretar 
ecclesia. Si parietes tantum mutantur» et non altare» 
sale et aqua exordzetur. Si homici£o Tel adulterib 
fuerit violata, diligentissime expurgetnr, et denuo oon- 

In the year 816, there was a famous council held at 
Chalchuidi : the second canon of whichis ^^ De mtA 
coiuecrandi ecclesias. Ufai ecclesia fiedificatnr, a pro- 
priae dicecesis episcopo sanctificetur ; aqua per semot- 
ipsum benedicatur, spargatur, et ita per ordinflm 
compleatur, sicut in libro ministeriali habetur. Postea 
eucharistia, quae ab episcopo per idem ministerium 
consecratur, cum aliis reliquiis condatur in capsula, ac 
servctur in eadcm basilica. Et si alias reliquias inti- 
mare non potest, tamen hoc maxima proficere potesti 
quia corpus et sanguis est Domini nostri Jesu Christi. 
Seu etiam prsecipimus unicuique episcopo, ut habeat 
depictum in pariete oratorii, aut in tabula, vol edam in 
altaribus, quibus Sanctis sint utraque dedicata/* ^ This 

ab ethnicis jam erecta, ab omni 
profane superstitionis labe czpiata, 
divinos in usus aptabant: ut in- 
nuit Aasonius in gratiarum ac- 
tione pro oonsnlatu : ' Basilicas 
olim negotiis plense nunc votis pro 
ilia salute susceptis.' £t Isodorus 
Oiiginum. Lib. 5. ' Basilicse prius 
vocabantur regum babitacula, 
nunc autem idee basilicas divina 
templa nominantur, quia ibi Regi 

omnium Deo cultus et sacrifida 
oflTeruntur."' Ciampini Vet. Mo- 
numenta. Tom. \.p. 9. See more 
about basilica f and ita meaning as 
usually the same with ecclena^ in 
Catalaniy Concil. Tom. 3. jp. 378. 

" Thorpe. Vol. 2. p. 56. 

" Ibid. />. 120. 

»" WiUcins. Concilia. Tom. 1. 
p. 169. 

tbt iDccajBtional iDffices* cclxvu 

s an important canon, and I have made some obser- 
utions npon a part of it in another work, to which the 
eader must be referred.'^ Making oHe more extract 
rom the Gmcilia, I shall pass on to the legatine 
institutions» In the year 1076, a canon of a council 
it Winchester ordered, ^^ Ut in ecclesiis, nisi ab epis- 
xipis consecratis, missse non celebrentur.''^ 

The second constitution of Otho, made in the year 
L236, is ^^ De consecratione et reformatione status 
Msdesise." The summarium of John de Athon is very 
mportant. ^* Basilicarum sen majorum ecclesiarum 
xmsecratio in veteri Testamento instituta, et in Novo 
itodiosius observata, licet in quibusdam partibus An- 
j^lise fuerit neglecta, sic est per dicecesanos, aut eomm 
ricarios episcopos dUigenter facienda, ut nulla maneat 
biennio, postquam parietes ejus perfecti fiierint, conse- 
cranda : alioquin solennibus missarum officiis noscatur 
interdicta, nisi tamen legitime fuerit excusata. Conse^ 
cratsB yero non diruentur sine mature dicecesani con- 
senso, quae dirutee mox reparentur."*^ 

In the year 1305, a famous statute was passed at a 
provincial synod, held under Archbishop Winchelsey : 
and as this sets forth the furniture of churches which, 
before consecration, parishioners were bound to pro- 
vide, I shall extract it, from the text of Lyndwood. 
First observing, that two hundred years before, a canon 
of the synod of London, under Anselm, had ordered ; 

*• Antient Liturgies. 2nd edit, in a note to a very useful book upon 

p. 16, note 17. the Consecration of Churches, by 

90 UT"// ' r^ '\' m 1 M**' Harrington : who has col- 

" Wxlkins. Conaha. Tom. 1. i ^ j j j i. . r 

o^f lected and arranired much mfor- 
p.365. ,. .1. 1. . o 

^ mation upon the subject See p. 

** This summarium is cited 47. 


DtjBEjBimaUon on 

*^ Ne ecclesia 8acretur/doii6C proyideantur neceagaria 
et presbytero et ecclesiee."" 

*^ Ut porochiani ecclesianim singalamm noatne Can- 
tuariensis provincise sint de caetero certiores de defecti- 
bus ipsos contingentibus, ne inter rectores et ipsoe 
ambiguitas generetur temporibus Bucoessivis, Yoluiinis 
de csetero et preecipimus, quod teneastur in venire CMnnia 
inferius annotata, viz : Legendam, Antiphonarium, Grar 
dale, Psalterium, Troperium, Ordinate, Missale, Ma- 
nuale, Calicem, Vestimentum prindpale cum Casola» 
Dalmatica, Tunica, et cum Capa in Choro cum omni- 
bus suis appendiciis, Frontale ad magnum Altare cum 
tribuB Tuellis, tria Superpellicia, unum Rochetom, 
Crucem processionalem, Crucem pro mortuis, Thuri* 
bulum, Lucemam, Tintinnabulum ad deferendum co- 
ram corpore Christi in visitatione infirmorum, Pyxi- 
dem pro corpore Christi honestam, Velum quadra- 
gesimale, Vexilla pro rogationibus, Campanas cam 
Chordis, Feretrum pro defunctis, Vas pro aqua bene- 
dicta, Osculatorium, Candelabrum pro cereo paschali, 
Fontem cum serura, Imagines in ecclesia, Imaginem 
principalem in cancello, Clausuram ccemeterii."" 

» Wilkins. rowi. l./).382. 

« Lyndwood. Ub. 3. Tit 27. 
Ut Parochiani* Among the Con- 
stitutions of William de Bleys, in 
the year 1229, are two or three 
jhapters of such importance, that 
I cannot pass them by, and there- 
fore place them, being somewhat 
long, in a note. I take them from 
the Concilia. Tom. 1. p. 623. 

''Cap. 2. De amamentis eccle- 
siarum. In qualibet ecclesia hsc 

subscripta ad minus haberi debent 
In omatu altaris duo paria vesti- 
mentomm, cum duobus paribus 
corporallum, amplitudinis congru- 
entis, cum una rochetta, unum 
festivale, et aliud feriale» in quo 
sacerdos altaris mortuus tumule- 
tur, si necesse fuerit Duas palls 
altaris, una festivalis, et alia feria- 
lis. Tria lintea, unum benedictum 
ad minus. Duo calices, unus ar- 
genteus, in quo celebretur, alius 
stanneus non benedictus, com quo 

tbe €)cca0ional fl)f6ce0. 


In another place, viz : the dissertation upon service 
books, I have cited Lyndwood's gloss upon parts of 

saoerdoB altaris sepeliatur. Due 
pizides, ana argentea, vel ebornea, 
▼^ de opere lemoniticoy vel alia 
idonffai, in qua hosti» reserventur, 
el sab fideli custodia clavi adbi- 
Inla oonserrentar ; alia decens et 
hoDesta, in qua oblat» reponantur. 
Duo yasa, unum vinarium, et aliud 
aqoarium. Unum par candela- 
brcxruniy unum thuribulum, unum 
«hrismatorium decens et bones- 
tnm, et sub fideli custodia clavi 
adlulnta consenratum. Duse cru- 
oes^ una processionalis et alia ad 
'oAcium mortuorum. 

Cap. 3. De omaiu chori. In 
omatu cbori duo superpellicia, 
annm vexillum^unum velum quad- 
rageaimale, unum sacrarium im- 
mobiley una lantema vel bocca, 
onum tintinnabulum, cum quo 
corpus Cbristi deferetur ad infir- 
mo8 prasferendum et pulsandum, 
operimentum decens et bonestum 
mter altare et summitatem cbori : 
feoeatr» vitreae, et cborus ipse 
decenter coopertus. 

Cap. 4. De omaiu corporis 
ecdegke. In omatu corporis ec- 
desias corpus ipsum decenter 
eoopertum, fenestras vitreae, fons 
baptismalis lapideus, et decenter 
coopertus, vas stanneum vel plum- 
benmi ad minus ad aquam bene- 
dictam» feretrum competens ad 
■epulturam mortuorum, una lan- 
eea ad vexillum deferendum. 
Cap. 5. De ccemeterio. In 

omatu coemeterii ipsum coemete- 
rium sit decenter drcumvallatum 
muro, vel sepe, vel fossato; nulla 
pars coemeterii aedificiis occupata 
sit, nisi tempore bostilitatis. Crax 
decens et bonesta, vel in ipso cos- 
meterio erecta, ad quam fiat pro- 
cessio ipso die Palmarum, nisi in 
alio loco consuevit fieri. 

Cap. 7. De ecclems dedicfiHs 
et akarUme, Item in ecclesiis 
dedicatis, annus et dies dedicatio- 
nis, et nomen sancti, in cujua 
bonore dedicata est ecclesia, dis- 
tincte et aperte est scribantur 
circa majus altare, in loco ad bunc 
idoneo: idem fiat circa minora 

Again, in tbe year 1287, we 
bave tbe following among tbe dio- 
cesan regulations of Quivil, Bisbop 
of Exeter, wbicb I bave so often 
quoted. I cannot but presume 
tbat the reader will excuse tbe 
lengtb to wbicb tbis note must 
run, on account of tbe importance 
and interest of tbe subject. ** Cap. 
xij. De eccleeiarum omamentis. 
Ut ornamenta ecclesiarum, quibus 
quasi propriis instrumentis sacra- 
menta ecclesiastica ministrantur, 
sint fulgida et bonesta, exemplum 
nos docet doctissimi Salomonis, 
dum vasa domus Dei ex auro pu- 
rissimo constituit fabricari. Qua- 
propter prsBcipimus, quod quaelibet 
parocbialis ecclesia, et (etiam) ca- 
pelladistinctam babens parocbiam» 



S>ijB!0ettation on 

this constitution : and shall now therafare take ihe 
following only. '^ Camla^ i : e : Planeta, qua indnitiv 

munda et decentia hobeat onui- 

Sit in qualibet ecclesia saltern 
unu8 calix argenteuBy puros vel 
deauratus: ciphiiB argenteui vel 
Btanneus pro infirmis, ut po«t» 
quam eucharbtiam assmnpserint» 
loturam diptomm luorum saoer- 
dos nbi prsebeat in eodem. Sint 
duo corporalia munda et integra 
cum repositoriis : duo paria yesti- 
ment9rum; quorum unum festi* 
yale, aliud feriale : quatuor tueUas 
ad majus altare, quorum saltem 
duae sint benedictse, et una illanim 
cum parura; item ad quodlibet 
altare, cum contigerit missam 
inibi celebrari. Sint supcrpellicea 
duo et unum rochettum: velum 
quadragesimale : velum nuptiale: 
palla mortuorum : froniellum ad 
quodlibet altare : missale bonum, 
gradale, toparium, manuale bo- 
num, legenda, antipbouale, psal- 
teria, ordinale, venitare, ympnare, 

Praesens synodus scripta babea- 
tur in singulis ecclesiis citra fcs- 
tum S. Michaelis. Cista ad libros 
et vestimenta. Pyxis argentea vel 
saltem ebumea ad eucharistiam, 
cum serura. Cbrismatorium stan- 
neumcum serunu Asser ad pacem. 
Pyxis ad oblatas. Tres pbialae. 
Sacramentarium lapideum et im- 
mobile. Tburibulum. Vas ad 
ipcensum, vas ad aquam benedic- 

tam. Herda ad teaehns» Cnw 
delalvnm pasohale. Diwcnioci; 
una fiia, et aliaportalwlit. Imago 
bealae Maiiae Tirgiiiiay et aaacli 
loci ejusdem. Cereiia patrhaBi, 
Duo oerei prooeaakmalea. Cria- 
tura super altaro. CampHidla 
deferenda ad infirmoe, et ad eietiF 
tionem oorporia Christi. LueenL 
Boeta. Campanrite ad moftdoi. 
Feretmm mortoomm. Baptisle- 
riom lapMeom bene Mratiiii. 
Feneatne vUrefle auffiqentes in 
canceUoetnaviecdesi». Qnalitor 
ha^ sunt necessaria in ecdesia 
Dei ad explendum cultum divinum» 
usus nos instituit quotidianiia. 
Quaedam istorum, prout utilitas 
exposcit, iu majoribus ecclesiis» 
quae suffidunt, dupliceutur vel tri- 
plicentur; in quibus sint hsK 
amplius quam aliis : diaconus et 
subdiaconus, capa cbori, tunica et 
dalmatica, duo pbilatoria ad coma 
altaris, et unum ad patenam." 
Concilia, Tom. 2./>. 139. 

In this order, the Sacramm' 
tarium cannot but mean the altar ; 
it is a most uncommon word, in 
such a sense, and we must have 
recourse to conjecture, with a con- 
sideration of the context. The 
Boeta was possibly an enclosed 
case or frame, in short a lantern ; 
as opposed to the unenclosed Lu- 
cema; but Du Cange who cites 
this Exeter statute under the word 

tfje Occasional ©fficcs- ccixxi 

presbyter celebraturus missam. Dalmatica. i : e : veste 
aacerdotaliy vel diaconali. Tunica. Tunica dicitur 
aatiquissima Testis, quasi Tomcat quia in motu ince- 
dentis sonuxi feu^it. £t est proprie Tunica de pellibus, 
socnndum Janueiuem. Hie tamen ponitur pro v^te 
sabdiaconali, qua utitur in officiando sacerdoti ad mis- 
sam. . In Choro. i : e : illo loco ecclesiaB ubi canunt, 
qui in choro sunt. Sacerdos enim extra tempus missae, 
dam ezercet divina officia, prsBsertim dum ministrat 
incensam ad altare, vel dicit coUectas, utitur capa. 
Appendiciis. Sc. amictibus, albis, cingulis, manipulis, 
et stolis. Ffvntale. i: e; Apparatum pendentem in 
fnmte altaris, qui apparatus sdias dicitur palla. Mag- 
num aiiare. sc lUud jad cujus honorem ecclesia est 
dedicata. Et solet hujusmodi altare coUocari in choro 
tanqoam in solenniori loco ecclesiee. Tribus tuellis. 
Duobus sc. ponendis super altare subtus corporale. 
Tertium vero erit ad usum lavatorii pro manibus ter- 
gendis. Tria Super j)ellicia. Ad usum scilicet trium 
ministrorum ecclesiae, viz : sacerdotis, diaconi, et sub- 
diaconi. Rochet um. Quod differt a superpellicio, quia 

Lucema boeta unites the two, nastkon dujec* Exon, />. 273. 

with the same meaning. I cannot The Calatura was probably the 

but think however that Wilkins canopy over the high altar. I 

has rightly edited the original^ as would ndt pretend to suggest what 

separate things : for the name the Philatotia were» spoken of in 

^ bbeta " alone, occurs twice in the the connexion in which they stand 

statutes of Bishop Grandisson for above. 

the bhurch of S. Mary of Ottery ; It may be a question whether 

** sconsas et boettas illuminandas " the ** bocca " of Uie earlier consti- 

m the 46th : again in the 2nd, de tutions of 1229, may not have 

exhibitione cereorum^ " unus de been misread for ** boeta.*' llie 

derids ecclesis unam candelam ** Bauca'' of some ancient docu- 

in sGonsa vel boetta accensam ments appears to have been a box 

ponat super gradum chori." M<h or vessel of a different kind. 

cclxxii DtoiBiertatioii on ^ 

superpellicium habet maiiicjw pendulag» aed rochetim 
est sine manicis, et ordinetur pro derioo ministratiiro 
sacerdotiy vel forsan ad opus ipsius saowdotiB in bapti- 
zando pueros^ ne per manicas ipsius brachia impediaii- 
tur. Pyxidem. Supple cum clausnnu Hamstam. 
Videlicet ex ebore, argento, vel alia materia decent!. 
Osculatorium. sc. pacis ad missam* Fontem. sc. bap- 
tismalem. Imaginem principalem. Sc. illius Sancti» 
ad cujus honorem ecclesia consecrata est Clamwram 
ccemeteriL Propter porcos, et animalia alia, que poa- 
sent illud deturpare. Sunt enim coeiineteria drca eode- 
siam ab aliis locis dividenda: et circa ecclesiam majoran 
continebit ccemeterium 40 passus, sed drca ecdeaiaiii 
minorem continebit 30 passus. Et in coemeterio non 
debent poni eedificia, nisi clericorum." Two pointB 
are to be remembered with r^ard to this constituticHiy 
and the gloss of the canonist ; that it has reference 
only to those ornaments and necessary furniture 
which upon their parts the parishioners were bound to 
provide, leaving without further specification, other 
things which would fall upon the incumbents: and, 
that some of these, so declared to be necessary, must 
have been so only with a distinction had between the 
means and wants of small and large parishes : such, 
for example, as the three surplices, which would not 
be required except in parishes to which were attached 
also the fiill number of priest, deacon, and sub- 

Becon, in his ^^ Reliques of Rome," gives an account 
of the ceremonies of consecration of a church, which, 
as he was a contemporary, seems to be worth trans- 
cribing. " When any churche is to be hallowed, thys 
order muste be observed. Fyrste all the people muste 

ttt £Dcca0ional S>tStes. cclxxiii 

departeoutof the church, and the deacon must remaine 

there onely, havyng all the doores shut faste unto hym» 

The hyssop with the clergye shall stande withoute 

before the churche doore, and make holy water mingled 

with salt In the meane season within the churche 

there must be set up .xij. candles brennyng before 

.xij. crosses, that are appojmted uppon the churche 

walles. Afterwarde the bishop accompanied with the 

clergye and people, shall goe thrice abbute the church 

withoute, and the bishop having in his hande a staffe 

with a bunche of ysope on the ende, shall with the 

same cast holy water upon y* church walles : and at 

eyery time the bishop shal come unto the church dore, 

and strike y* threshold therof with his crossier staffe 

and say, ToUite portas. etc. Then shall the deacon or 

minister that is within, say, Quis est iste Rex gloria ? 

To whom the bishop shall aunswere, and saye : Domi" 

fiM fortiSf etc. At the third time the deacon shall 

open the church doore, and the byshop shall enter into 

the churche accompanied with a fewe ministersy the 

clergye and the people abiding still without. Entring 

into the churche, the byshop shall saye : Pax huic 

imuL And afterward the bishop with them that are 

in the church shall saye the Letanye. These thynges 

done, there must be made in the pauemente of the 

church a crosse of ashes and sand, wherin ye whole 

alphabet or Christ's cross shall be written in Greek 

and Latin letters. After these things y* bishop must 

halow an other water with salt, and ashes, and wine: 

and consecrate the altare. Afterwarde the twelve 

crosses y^ are pajmted upon y* church walles, the 

byshop must annoynt them with chrisme, commonly 

called, creame. These thinges once done, the clergy 

VOL. I - . t - 



echoes? IDiiHKCttStftllll 

and the people may firely oome into the dmrcli» rin^ 
the belh for ioye» ftc."** 

The same writer piwendycoQiinues: ^Themaniiar 
and order of consecrating or faalowing altan» ia tfn. 
First the byshop muste beginne, Dem in a^utarmm. 
Secondly, hd shall make holy water. Thyrdely at y* 
fonre comers of y* altare he ahal make fbore crasm 
with holy water. Fourthly, the bishop shall goaaafan 
tymes about the altare : and seuen tymea he shsll 
wasbe the taUe of the altare, or altare atone with holy 
water, having the holy water sprynekle mada of ysopa. 
The churche also shall be sprinkled agayne iriA 
holy water: and whatsoever holy water doth aftn^ 
warde remaine, shall bee poorCd oat beneadi at liM 
altare.\ Fiftlye at the foure. comers of the sepnlchia^ 
wherein y^ reliques are laide, the byshop shall msks 
foure crosses with y^ creame : and the reliques shall 
be layde up in a bagge with three graines of francken* 
cense,, and put agayne in the sepulchre. Then shaB 
there be made in the middes of the sepulchre, a taUe 
with the signe of the crosse. Sixtly, the stone, whidi 
is called the table, shall be made mete, and laide upon 
the altare : and beyng so made mete, the byshop shal 
annoynt it with oyle in five places : and lykewise shal 
he afterward doe with the creame, as it is said of the 
oyle. The byshop also shal confyrme the altare in 
the forehead or forefronte with a crosse of creame: 
and shall bum franckensence upon the altare in five 
places. After al these thinges be done, the altare shal 
be covered with fajnre clothes : and the priest may now 
lawfully sing masse upon it, when he will." Becon 

^ Fol 256. EiU. 156d. 12mo. 

tbt 2>cca0ional fDf&ct». cclzxv 

x> Durand as his authority also : and the reader 

» well to compare his account with the order 

The ^ confirming of an altar '' seems to be an 

ement upon the vulgar notion of the ^ baptizing 

»re however I leave this part of the subject, I am 
to add, that in inscribiug the alphabets within 
Lndrew's cross, the later plan, as regards it, 
1 in the printed pontificals of the church of 
has been followed, instead of the exact order 
alphabets are written in the MS. . There is no 
that such was the rule of performing this part 
office, and the reader will be enabled to form a 
idea than he otherwise might of the mode in 
they were inscribed. In the manuscript the two 
ets are written in large characters. The Latin 
iently correct, but the Greek consists of certain 
ious signs, most of which have but a distant 
ilance to the letters ; and moreover are in num- 
enty-eight, instead of twenty-four : in fact, the 
instead of copying the twenty-four letters of the 
alphabet, appears to have taken by mistake the 
cal signs, under each of which he has inscribed 
imetical power, with the supposed names above* 
last however present some singular deviations 
lommon usage. Thus : we have othomega for 
r ennacis for sanpi ; and the Latin M for 

We come now to the " Ordo ad Synodum,'* 
I have thought an important part of the old 
5al, and I have placed it after the office of the 
*ation of a church. Councils may be divided 
or classes, viz. (Ecumenical, in which are re- 
»d the various churches of the whole Christian 


ccbovi Di0]ttttati8n tin ]\ 

world ; and whose decrees, being accepted afterwaidr 
by ihe church Catholic» we believe to be infidliUe: 
National, which includes the chuitihes of one country, 
but of more provinces than one : Ptovincda], of a an- 
gle province : and Diocesan, which is ihe council calkd 
by the Bishop, of the priests of his own diocese. Thb 
last, is that with which we have now to do. 

There is abundance of evidence, if it was necesssrj 
to enter into it, that the practice of holding synods it 
coeval with ihe first ages of the Church. We miBt not 
pass by the two most andent cimons which are eilaiit 
to this effect. One, among the Apostolical canons: 
the 37th. ^^ Let there be a meeting of the Bishops twioe 
a year, and let them examine among themselves ihe 
decrees concerning religion, and settle the ecclesias^ 
tical controversies which may have occurred. Ope 
meeting to be held in the fourth week of the Pentecost 
(i : e : the fourth week after Easter) and the other on 
the twelfth day of the month Hyperberetaeus, (i:e: • 
October.)" The other is part of the 5th canon of the 
council of Nice. " — It is decreed to be proper, that 
synods should be assembled twice every year in every 

province and of these synods, one is to be held 

before Lent, the other in the season of Autumn."' And 
in like manner as the Bishops met in the provindal 
synod, so in the diocesan did each Prelate collect his 
clergy, to deliberate upon matters within their capa- 
bility, to examine complaints, to enforce discipline, and 
to correct abuses. 

In the canons enacted under king Edgar, we find 
two, which relate to this subject. " We enjoin that 
they (the clergy) at every synod, have, every year, 
books and garments for divine ministry, and ink and 
vellum for their ordinances : and provision for three 

t^e iDccaiBEional iDffices* cclxxvii 

dajTB. — We enjoin, that every priest at the synod have 
his derk, and an orderly man for servant, and no igno- 
rant person who loves folly ; but let all go with decorum, 
and with fear of God Almighty ." ^ And three hundred 
years before this, in the same century with the estab- 
lishment of the Church among the Anglo-saxons, at 
a council at Hertford under Archbishop Theodore, 
it was decreed : ^^ ut bis in anno synodus congre- 

I shall not delay to quote any of the frequent orders 

made from time to time, in after ages, to the same 

effect ; and make but one observation : that it was 

hdd to be a remarkable fact connected with the reign 

of William Rufus, that ^^ there was no ecclesiastical 

synod, and nothing went right." *^ When as Malms- 

bury says, for long want of synods, christian zeal had 

grown cold. I shall pass on therefore to a brief ex* 

tract from Lyndwood. He tells us that in his day, 

.synod was understood to mean, the Diocesan Council. 

** Synodus enim solet dici concilium factum sive con- 

gr^atum per episcopum in sua dicecesi."^ And in 

another place : ^^ Synodis. Hse dicuntur conventus 

sive congregationes senum et presbyterorum : et de- 

» Thorpe. Vol.2. p.^AS. The 
5di and 6th of the same canons 
firect that every priest shall de- 
dire if he have cause of complaint 
against any one : or if he have any 
contumacious person, or obstinate 
tinner, in '* his shrift-district." 

» Wtlkins. Tom. 1. p, 43. 
Bediu Hist lib. 4. c. 5. But from 
necessity the same council agreed, 
for a period, to meet but once a 

year ; in August : *' quia diversas 
cans» impediunt." Compare also 
the third canon of the council of 
Chalcuith, a. d. 785. " Perstrin- 
ximus omni anno, secundum ca- 
nonicas institutiones, duo conci- 
lia." WUkins.p. 146. 

^ See Johnson. Eccles. Laws. 
1102. Pre/. 

» Lib. 1. Tit. 3. Statutum. 
verb. SynodalL 

ccbotviii Dfss(ertation on 

bent fieri per episcopos atinuatim* Et ad eas tenentm 
venire omnes illi, qui sub illo episcopo habent curam 
animarura*"*^ Herei the canonist, in speaking only 
of *' once a year," seems to oppose tbe rubric of the 
Winchester pontifical, as well as various canons whict 
appointed, as we have seen, synods to be celebrated twic^ 
a year. Possibly in his time, such might have been 
a lax and degenerate custom ; or it might have bee» 
allowed in consequence of accidental difficulties which 
prevented more frequent meetings, or, again, from tbe 
great size of some dioceses, once ai least was to be suf- 
ficient. '* Ad minus semel in anno,'* w as the allow- 
ance made by the coimcil of Basil : and in the council 
of Cologne, a.d. 1549, cited by Catalani,*^ we have an 
express case of the diocese of Louvain considered, and 
decided on ; that on account of its large extent, one 
Bynod a year was to be sufficient. 

The place where the diocesan sjTiod was to be held, 
is simply declared in the following order, to be " in 
ecclesia ; " that is, in the chancel : but there are not a 
few examples of sjTiods which assembled in other parts of 
the church, as well as, upon some occasions, without it 
Thus the council of Chalcedon, and one of Constant!* 
nople^ are said to have met and sat in the baptisteries 
of churches.'^ It seems agreed upon that those who 
were present were vested in some proper manner, which 
should shew also the difference of degrees. Catalan! 
cites, amongst others, an early English synod, A.n. 
793, at which it happens to be recorded that the 
priests w<9re vested in chasubles ; ^^ sacerdotalibus in- 

* Lib. 1. Tit. 14. Item statuimus. verb. Synodis. 
^ Pontif. Rom. Comment. Tom. 3. p. 93. 
^ Bingham* Chr. Ant Book. 8. Cap, vij. 2. 

tHe fl)ccajBional iDiBce0« cciucix 

folk ;'' and I extract the following from the same au- 
thor. ^* Post annum millesimum perspicue a conciliis 
dedaratum est, quo quisque cultu, et habitu synodo in- 
teresae debeat. Concilium Budense^ 1279> episcopis^ 
et abbatibus mitr» privilegio donatis superpelliceum) 
stohun, pluYiale, et mitram assignat : prselatis inferio- 
ribus, superpelliceum, stolam, et pluviale : parochis, et 
presbyteris caeteris superpelliceum et stolam : monachis 
stolam dumtaxat. Synodus Coloniensis, anni 1280^ 
can. xix. albam, stolamque prioribus, archipresbyteris, 
Bt decanis ruralibus tribuit : parochis solum superpel- 
Hoenm. Synodus Nemausensis, anni 1284, parochis 
lolum superpelliceum in synodo Paschali, cappas ro- 
tondas in synodo S. Lucas permisit. In aUis synodis 
oon minus conspicuum est in sacris vestibus discrimen, 
jnibus sacri viri in conciliis utebantur."^* 

Among the canons of a synod at Dublin, 12l7^ is 
one bearing upon the attendance of the clergy, though it 
loes not speak of the dress or habit to be worn. 
* Praecipimus sacerdotibus, ut jejuni intrent syno- 
haa ; jejunio enim debet fieri et oratione. Item pra^ 
sipimus districtius, quod omnes presbyteri, maxime 
3iuram animarum habentes, veniant ad synodum, et si 
>;raTi infirmitate detenti, aut alia necessitate inevita- 
nli venire non poterint, suum capellanum mittant, aut 
^ricum loco suo. Item praecipimus, quod in eundo 
id sjmodum, et redeundo a synodo, honeste ambulent 
iresbyteri, et honesta quaerant hospitia, ut in eis cir- 
iumspecte se habeant, ne status clericorum vertatur in 
iontemptum et opprobrium populo."" 

•• Cone. Tom. 1. p. 18. Prolegom. Cap. xix. 
» Wilkins. Cone Tom. 1. p. 548. 

cclxxx Diffffcrtation on 

-TvAltbough there are not wanting aucieBt orflers in 
which four days were to be the period of the synod ; 
yet as in the Sarum and Winchester pontificals, the 
most usual was for three days only. The constitiitioiis 
which were made in these s}Tiodsj as well as in die 
provincial^ were called s^nodak ; and usuall}^ were 
afterwartls published in the several parish churches: 
" in which sense'' says Dr. Bum *' the word frequently 
occurreth in the ancient directories."^ 

Reminding the reader of Bishop Stillingfleet's opi* 
nion, that visitations are the modem form of the an- 
cient diocesan synods, I make no apology for adding 
a passage from Bishop Kennett, because 1 doubt the 
correctness of both his argument and decision, " From 
the time that Church-govemment was here establishedi 
I believe our Bishops luid the right of calling their own 
clergy to a synod, and to enter upon debates, and&aw 
tip niles and orders, that should be binding within Uiat 
special jurisdiction. This power was apparently ei* 
ercised for some ages, to the times of reformation undet 
Henry the 8th. when the submission of the clergy imade 
all diocesan meetings to be executive visitations, no 
loiiger legislative sjmods : yet when the clergy's sut 
mission was repealed under Queen Mary, this diocesan 
power returned, and in that reign, Bonner and other 
Bishops, held synods and framed constitutions for their 
ovm respective dioceses. But now thslt submissicAi^is 
returned upon us."" I think that it might be shewut 
that the Bishop in what he has here said, has upon the 
one hand attributed more power of legislation than it 

^ Ecclesiastical Law. verh. Synodals. 
^ Ecclesiasticlil Synods. /?. 201. 

tbt HDccajBEional iDf&ct». ccixxxi 

iver claimed to the diocesan synod, and upion the 
ither, unwarrantahly extended the force of the miich- 
nsisted on submission of the clergy. He was not a 
writer, who, when his argument at all required it, hesi- 
Jtted to strain the facts to which he appealed: and 
lis expressed opinions require a careful examination, 
before they are adopted. 

But, once more, in connexion with this subject, I 
i^annot pass by without remark, the account which the 
mthor of the Origines Liturgicay following we must 
presnme Bishop Stillingfleet, gives of the modem 
Visitation : and I regret to differ at all from one who by 
tfie results of his learning and labours has so benefited 
the church of England. He says : '^ the modem forms 
of. Visitation in the Anglo-Catholic Churches seem to 
be derived both from those of the ancient Visitation 
and the Diocesan Synod. The clergy, &c., are cited, 
names called, excuses received. Articles of enquiry 
having been previously sent and answered, the bishop 
administers such injunctions and corrections as he may 
judge necessary. Presentments are to be received; 
the bishop delivers a charge, and may publish injunc- 
tions or constitutions, enforcing the observance of the 
canons and other laws of the church."^ Whether 
this account corresponds or not with the ancient visi- 
tation is a question I do not enter upon ; but most cer- 
tainly it does not with the diocesan synod. To speak 
of one point only, so material that the rest utterly fails 
without it, we do not find a trace, the shadow even, of 
the priests of the diocese in modem days sitting in 
council with their bishop. That at visitations, as at 

* Palmer» Supplement to Orig, Liturgicce, p. 53. 

cclxxxii Dissertation on 

present celebrated, the Bishop may ** enforce canons 
and laws of the church" is true; but they mtist be 
already canons of the church, and thii every Bishop 
may, and ought to do, at any time. But the question 
is, whether the Bishop and his clergy may make new 
ecclesiastical regulatioM to be enforced within his 
diocesej after due deliberation had, the one with the 
other, and so that they be not contrary to the laws of 
the realm, 

XII. I proceed in the last place to speak, under one 
head, of the three orders which have been taken from 
the pontifiealj of Excommunication, and of AbsolutioHi 
and of Receiving an Apostatei. returning from ijafidelify 
or Judaism. 1 1 ,' .' '! .oa *'*> t? m^r ■ ^ • 

The rubric of the modem Roman pontifical make? 
three distinctions or degrees of excommunication* 
" Notandum quod triplex est excommimicatio, videli- 
cet, minor, major, et anathema." But not merely was 
there in the first ages of the Church one kind only of 
excommunication, but the greatest writers upon the 
subject do not seem to lay down any other mark of 
difference between the Greater Excommunication, and 
Anathema,^ than arises from the greater solemnity 
with which one is published and inflicted than the 
other, Du Cange after allowing that anciently there 
was no distinction, cites, it must be acknowledged, one 
or two strong examples in which something more than 
mere solemnities gave heavier weight to the Anathema: 
not merely an excommunication, but an actual giving 
over to Satan and to the pains of hell. Van Espen 
however decides : " Fatentur passim recentiores, qui 

^ The reader should consult Bingham. Christian Antiq. Book, 
xvi. Chap, 2. 


t(e f>tc«lfanal t>tatt». cdxxziH 

Mc etiam distihctione atontor, earn non nisi accideii- 
akm dia posse : fiye ezcommunicatiGnem majorem 
M anatJieina non diflferre, nisi penes nunorem majo- 
remqiie solemnitatem in pronondatione adhiberi soli- 
.am. £t quidem supra vidimus, quod Fagnanus ad- 
ulnta distinctione inter excommunicationem majorem 
2rt anathema mox monuerit, excommunicalionem miyo- 
rem intelligi quse fertur sine solemnitate ; anathema 
feto illam, quse fertur cum solemnitate."^ And with 
bim agrees Catalani, in a passage which I shall also 
guote, as it reconciles, it seems to me, much of the 
Ufficultir in the authorities of Du Cange, which have 
been alluded to. ^ Quamvis autem tertium ezcom- 
municationis genus Anathema dicatur; sciendum ta- 
men et illud est, idem re ipsa esse anathema, ac major 
noommunicatio, solumque ab ista illud distingui quan- 
tum ad solenmitatem, quia scilicet solemni ritu, ac 
BSBremoniis majorem terrorem incutientibus peccatorem 
Mmtumacem Ecclesia execretur, dirisque devoveat. 
Per quasdam itaque solemnitates, quae in simplici ma- 
jori excommunicatione non usurpantur, quseque aliquid 
h(Nrribilius ad incutiendum horrorem continent, acci- 
dentario, ut aiunt, excommunicatio ab anathemate se- 
oomitur. Ubi cum reus est simpliciter contumax, 
deeemitur feriendus simplici majori excommunicatione, 
quod si evectus in superbiam, fiat ulterius protervus 
et contumax, dicitur feriendus anathemate, idest man- 
datur repeti excommunicationem, adjunctis horrificis 
solemnitatibus.*' ^ 

The office in the Sarum pontifical has no rubric at 
the beginning, and is to be understood also of the 

* Tract de Cens. Ecc Opei*a. * Pontif. Rom. CommeDt. 
Tom. 4. p. 9. Tom. 3. p. 169. 


icclxziiv r l^igtitiMmM^ 

Anathema, according as more aolaniiiitiea j 
the infliction of it. Indeed from Lyndwood^s manner 
of ezpressiony it would seem as if it was solely to be 
understood of the Anathema ; for we shall see presendyv 
that every parish priest had the power of exoommuni- 
eating offisnderis : he further explains ihis <Ace to be 
the solemn excommunication '^ qu» didtar Anathema." 
The same canonist also, it must be remembered, tells 
us, that when as in the title of this office, the term is 
used without any addition, we are to understand the 
greater kind. ^^ Excommunicatio simpliciter prolats, 
intelligitur de majori.*'^ The Lesser Excommunica- 
tion was incurred by those who still continued their 
intercourse with any one who lay under the sentence 
of the greater excommunication : and as r^jarded peo- 
ple generally, its effect is thus explained by Catalsni. 
^^ Eum, qui ea innodatus est, excludit non quidem a 
collatione, sed a receptione sacramentorum/'^^ And 
by Lyndwood ; " excludit a perceptione sacramento- 
rum, non autem a communione fidelium."^* 

In the earlier ages it appears to be allowed that 
there was no such distinction as the lesser excommuni- 
cation : but that the rule was, ^^ qui excommunicato, 
antequam ab eo qui eum excommunicaverit absolvatur, 
scienter communicare praesumserit, pari sententiae te- 
neatur obnoxius." But the relaxation crept in about 
the thirteenth century, and this distinction was made : 
" qui cum excommunicato communicat in crimine, in 
majorem excommunicationem incurrat. Si vero cum 

*o Lib. 1. Tit. 18. Exhorrenda. ^ Pontif. Rom. Comment 

verb. Excommunicationi. Com- Tom.S.p.169. 

pare also. Lib. 3. Tit. 2. Ut de. ^ Lib. 3. Tit. 2. Ut clericdia. 

ricalis. verb, mucrone. verb. Sacraroenta. 

tht Occasional ©fficcs* ccixxxv 

illo communicet in Divinis vel civilibus actionibus, et 
ab ejus crimine alienus sit, minorem dumtaxat excom- 
municationem incurrat." Morinus however draws 
four distinctions, which he says were very anciently 
observed : these excluded from .communion, from the 
prayers, of the faithful, from the prayers " super cate- 
chumenos et poenitentes," and lastly from all entrance 
into the church.** 

The act of the Anathema, with its full solemnities, 
could not be performed except by a Bishop : but ac- 
cording to Lyndwood, every curate who was also a 
priest, had power to lay his parishioner under the cen- 
sures of the church, and debar him from communion ; 
in short pronounce against him the greater excommu- 
nication, but not the anathema ; '^ quia talis excom- 
municatio dicitur mucro episcopalis : absque tamen ilia 
solemnitate bene potest excommunicare." ** 

Van Espen says, that in the first ages of the Church 
there were no special forms of excommunication, or 
rites with which it was accompanied : but that the 

^ De PoBnit. Lib* vi. Cap. 25. " Qui separantur, ob peccata vide- 

In proof of the early attention licet separantur. His igitur uuU 

which the Church turned to this los oportet conimunicare. Hoc 

sobject, the reader will remember eniro respidt ad ejus contemptum 

tlie lOth of the Apostolical Ca- qui separavit : aut potius ad ejus 

'* Si quia cum excommu- calumniam, tanquam qui male se- 

oictto vel in domo una precatus paraverit. Si quis igitur una cum 

fuerit, is segregetur/* JBalsa- excommunicato (vel segregato) 

vum*s comment is of importance : orabit» etiamsi non in ecclesia sed 

** aKoiyuvtiolatj id est excommu- in domo, pariter et hie excommu- 

Dicationis, vocabulum, idem est nicabitur.*' Beverege. Pandect, 

qnod Begregatio. Qui ergo una Can. Tom. 1. p. 7. 
com excommunicato quomodo* 

conqne precatus fuerit, segregabi- ^ Lib, 3. Tit. 16. Quoniam . 

tur." And more so of Zonarcu. propter, verb. Censuram. 

cdxxzvi DiflMttacfMiilk / 

crime and the defence of the aeciind bmqg been ac- 
curately investigated, the Bishop ^*MUiilnto!dero sno^ 
sententiam excommnnicationis simpliciteTt nnBo efe 
ternoautspedaUrituadhihito^pronniitiabai.'*^ And, 
he continues, these fixed ceremonies were introduced 
about the ninth century, in order to attadi greater 
weight to the ecclesiastical sentence, and produce a 
lively and wholesome terror in the minds of die peo]^. 
But there appears to be evidence of some certain, tfao^h 
few, observances, before this time: al'kaat Regino 
Prumiensis, who flourished late in the ninth century, 
i^>eaks of the extinction of candles, as no new hitrs- 
duction : ^ and Catalani cites a passage, which if ge- 
nuine puts the question beyond dispute, finom an fBfMB 
of Pope Zachary, who wrote about a.d. 744. He 
says : '^ Debent duodecim sacerdotes episcopo drcnm* 
stare^ et lucemas ardentes in manibus tenere, quas in 
conclusione anathematis projicere debent in terram, et 
conculcare pedibus."^^ I may add that in the first 
Ordo published by Martene, from the very femous 
Anglo-saxon pontifical of the 9th century^ there is an 
evident allusion to the extinguishing of candles, al- 
though this is not expressly mentioned.*® 

I shall extract the rubrics from the modem Roman 
pontifical, which precede and follow the form of pro- 
nouncing the Anathema. ^^ Quando vero anathema, 
id est, solemnis excommunicatio pro gravioribus culpis 
fieri debet, Pontifex paratus amictu, stola, pluviali 

** Pars. 8. Tit. xi. Cap. 9. « Zach. Epist cit Catal. 

^ De discip. Eccles. Cap. 412. Pontif. Rom. CommeiiU Tom. 3. 

But he attaches to it the title p. 178. 

" Alia terribilior excommunica- . ^ De Ant. Ecc. Rit Lib. 3. 

tio :** i : e : the anathema. Cap. 4. 

tfte Occasional ©ffice»* ccixxxvii 

TiolaceOy et mitra simplici, assistentibus sibi duodecim 
presbyteris superpelliceis indutis, et tarn ipso, quam 
presbyteris candelas ardentes in manibus tenentibus, 
aedet super faldistorium ante altare majus, aut alio 
loco publico, ubi magis sibi placebit, et ibi pronuntiat, 
et profert anathema." ^^ Quo facto, tarn pontifex^ quam 
sacerdotes debent projicere in terram candelas ardentes, 
quas in manibus tenebant."^ 

Various forms of the Anathema may be seen in the 
collections of Martene, and one, the most terrible per- 
haps extant, is in the Textus Roffensis, Cap. 35«^ 
which has been edited by Heame. When pronounced 
publicly by priests, it was usually done from the pulpit 
or roodloft, after the reading of the Gospel in the ser- 
vice of the communion. But there is an order extant 
of Hincmar, Archbishop of Rhemes, in which he 
directs the priests of his diocese to promulgate this 
sentence after the Epistle, and not the Gospel: be* 
cause those who were guilty of the crime denounced, 
left the church earlier, knowing what was about to be. 
This order possibly had reference rather to a general 
Form, and not to the case of an individual. 

* Upon the use of bells in pro- commerdo expulsi declararentur.* 

nouncing the excommunication, And so, for example, it was di« 

Angelo Rocca should be con- rected to be pronounced, by the 

niHed. Opera. Tom. 1. p. 185. constitutions of S. Edmund ; a.d. 

** Inter pdsandas campanas, can- 1236 : " pulsatis campanis, et ao- 

delis aocenns, excommunicati pub- censis candelis, excommunicen- 

lice dedarabantur. Quo fticto, tur." Wilkitu. Tom. 1. p. 640. 
campanarum sonitus cessabat ; — 

campans pulsabantuir, ut per ^ By Spelman it is extracted, 

eonimdem sonitu, quo dsmones in his Glossary. Another is given 

expelli solent, excommunicati, dffi- by Collier. Eccles. Hist. VoL 1. 

monibns assimilati, a fidelium />. 352. 

cclzxxviii ,. IDifiMRCtdORlA/. :i 

The congequenoes of the greek eenfeelne of iSk 
Churchy are explamed at aome length, in the canoBi 
of a synod of London, in the year 1138. Amongit 
other particukrs : ^' Prohihemua etiam, ne aaoini 
oleum vel chrisma excommanicatia tradator. — Fhdih 
hemus ne divinum officinm edefaretor, nee campana 
pulsetur in urbe vel in castro, vel in rare, A aliqnis 
ezcommunicatorum prsesens fnerit Statoimns etaaia, 
Qt excommunicatorum corpora insepulta maneant 
etc.''^ In earlier times, even heavier civil penaltiei 
were incurred. In the year 1033, among the laws of 
King Canute,' '' Si quis ezcommnnicatom habuarit, et 
custodierit, luat vitam et omnem suam possessioneDL"" 
And, once more, in the middle of the 8th century, msa 
were not allowed to give food into the hands of person 
excommunicate: but to lay it on the ground hefore 
them, and what they left was to be thrown to dogs : they 
were not to indulge in any luxuries, or scarcely in the 
necessaries of life. But for the further particulars I 
refer the reader to Johnson's ecclesiastical laws, a. d. 
740, where these last rules are given firom the Formula 
Veteres attached to a manuscript of Egbert s excerp- 
tions, in the Cotton Library. 

I must here speak of a Form of Excommunication, 
which I have printed in the second volume of this 
work : and which was not a particular form, that isj 
directed against some known individual, but general, 
and binding only therefore in foro consciefitia^ and to 
be publicly pronounced by the parish priest in his 
church, at certain times of the year. One of the 
earliest orders to this effect was made by Archbishop 

Wiikins. Tom. l.p. 417. « Ibid.p..809. 

MM <rf CjoiteirbiiFfr, in his legatizie capacity, at 
k^iuiK. 1199«. ** Ut calumniatorum iiiippobit$8, el 
in jonotinm sialitia timore coelestk judicii retun- 
or; prsBcipimiis, ut quilibet sacerdos de caeterater 
MM solraciiiitery accensis candelis, pukatisqae cam* 
A» eoa exconmiuiiicet, etc.'' ^ 
Wk,. Vfthout extractiBg: several such orders whicb 
rpaaaed in the succeeding cmituries, I pas^ on to the 
iitaition of Archbishop Peckbam^ whidi I take from 
bMt of Lyndwood. ** IVascipimus» quod seste^ti» 
im exoommunicationis pn»aulgentur in ecclesiis 
j0r in annOy videlicet die Dominica proxima post 
•m S. Michaelisy et die Dominica in media quadra-* 
■HSy et in festo Sanctse Trinitatis, et in die Domi- 
.proodma post festum Sancti Petri ad vincula> can-" 
I accensis et pulsatis campanis cum cruce^ et aliis 
vmtatibusy prout decet." Upon this Lyndwood says 
ag other remarks : ^^Promulgentur. i. e. Manifesten- 
ivepronuncientur: et supple, in genere. Ineccksns. 
I eiqgo in mercatis, vel aliis locis etiam pubticis extra 
esiam» Puto tamen, quod si sermo fiat ad popubnn 
aometerio, sufficit ut ibi promulgentur, maxime ubi 
leterium est contiguum ecclesiee. Candelis accensis. 
ab hao forma sententias excommunicationum pro^ 
gari ideo mandatur, ut major auditoribus incuti-* 
• timor." ^* Another constitution of the same Arch- 
op ordered this sentence also to be pronounced aftei^ 
tvo diocesan sjmods in each year : but Lyndwood 
I not seem to look upon this as contradictory to the 
just extracted, as it has reference, he says, to some 
icular articles only there specified.** 

WUkms. Tom. 1. p. 502. ** Lib. v. Tit. 17. Cum malum. 

£•&• ▼. TO. 17. Praecipimus. Verb. Ruralis. 
.1. U 

ccxc lDU»tnaHm nvt ' " 

About die year 1528 ihere was pinted by Redmni, 
and published anonymously, '' A Treatise concemynge 
the division betwene the spyrytualtie and tamporaltie.' 
This little book is written in a moderale tone and 
spirit, with the desire of suggesting some remedies for 
the abuses which unquestionably existed in the Churdi 
at that time, and of healing the '' divisiana" whidihad 
sprung up between the clergy and the laity of the realm. 
It would have been well if the rulers of the chmrch of 
England had attended to those evils, and objectionaUe 
practices, and privileges, complained of by the auAor 
of the ** Treatise ;" who in general took neither aa 
unreasonable nor an extreme view of the then state of 
ecclesiastical affairs. Among other things he speaki 
of the Subject now before us, the General Sentence; 
which makes an especial ^'occasion of the division:" 
and as his ^^ Treatise " is, without doubt, one of the very 
rarest books in existence, I shall extract his observations 
upon it. These will shew us that the orders of the 
Church were not in his day strictly attended to, as they 
ought to have been in so solemn a ceremony. 

" Thoughe there be dyuers good and reasonable 
articles ordeyned by the church to be redde openlye to 
the people at certain dayes, by the churche therto 
assynged, which commenly is called the general sen- 
tence: yet manye curates and theyr parysh prestes 
sometyme rede onely parte of the artycles, and omytte 
parte therof, ey ther for sbortnes of tyme, or els to take 
such artycles as serue moste to theyr purpose. And 
somtjrme, as it is sayd, they adde other excommuni- 
cacions after their mynde, that be not putte in to the 
sayde general sentence. And whan the articles be so 
chosen out, they sounde to so great parcialite and favour 
for spiritual men, eyther for payment of tythes, offer- 

tf)e i)cca9B!ional S>fBict». 


yog»t mortuaries, and such other duetjes to the 
idnircbe, or for the mayntenaunce of that they calle 
die liberties of the churche, as that no preeste nor 
derkoy S;c. shall not be put to answere before lay men, 
WfWsywHye where theyr bodyes shuld be arrested, or 
ttat no imposidons shulde be layde upon the churche 
by temporale power, or agaynst them that with violence 
Ivf luoMk upon preest or clerk, or suche other : that 
the people be greatly offended therby, and thynke 
great parcialite in them, and iuge them rather to be 
made of a pryde and couetise of the churche ; than of 
my charite to the people, wherby many doo rather 
dyqfiyse them than obeye them." He goes on to say, 
tihat tins ^' division ^ must continue whilst such partiali- 
ties both in the reading of the Sentence, and in the 
{nrovisions of it, are allowed ; and until a wholesome 
dread of the censures of the church can be restored by 
the reformation of the ^^ heedes spyrytuall themselfe ;'' 
and by the ^^ lyke articles being devised to refrajme 
spyrytuall men,'' no less than the ^^ temporaltie." These 
he recommends to ^^ be redde at visitations, Scenes, 
\ffnods?] and such other lyke places, where prestos 
assemble by commandement of theyr ordinaries, with 
oertayne paynes to be appoynted by parlyament and 
Several of the general forms of excommunication 

» Chapter y.Jhl. 12. h. In 
modier place the author cdm- 
phina of 8oine parish-priests that, 
" it bath bene somtyme sene, that 
whan a poore man hath ben sette 
to be bonseled, the curate hathe 
before all the parysshe upon some 
(fiapleasiire caused hym to ryse 

and goo awaye without housell, to 
his rebuke." This displeasure not 
being caused by any worthy rea- 
son» but by some merely personal 
and commonly pecuniary dispute 
or difference. Chapter x. foL 



Dt^0ettadon on 

arc in the collections of Wilkins :^ I shall only fartlwr 
add, that in the year 1434> it would seom that lime 
order» had been of late neglected ; and a statute insist 
ing upon all parish-priests publishing them at certain 
times of the year, with an English form attached, was 
made by Archbishop Chicheley. This appoints at 
least three times every year, in cathedrals and in parish 
ehurehes; and that the articles of excon]inunicati0Q 

*« Tom. 2. p. 161. 300* 413* 
Tfm. S, ;>. 95. 524. etc. See also 
in Cv!Uet\ Ecc* Flist Vol 1* p. 
6<H. for a short Englbh fcnn; 
which Ib also in JohuMon^ a^ d. 
1404, aud in the Appendix to 
L^ndwofjd, p*7S, Collier^ VoL 
L p* 352, has given one of the 
Greater Forms, to which 1 would 
add another fVom the C&Hon MS. 
Vespasian. D, xi^JoL 106, 

" Ex auctoritate Dei Patria om- 
ni pot en lis, et Filii ejus Domini 
noBtri Jesu Christi, et in Tirtute 
Spirituii Sancti) et beat^ gtoriosea 
Dei genitricis senipen|ue ^Hrgini» 
Maria;, «anctbaimi Archangeli 
MichaeU et omnium sanctonim 
angelorum ct archangelorum, 
sancti Joliannis bapdstos et om- 
nium sanctorum, patriarcharum et 
prophetarum, apostolorum, prin- 
cipis sancti Petri et omnium apos- 
tolorum et evangelistarum, sancti 
Adhelberti et omnium sanctorum 
martyrum, sanctissimi confesso- 
ris Benedict! et omnium sancto- 
rum confessorum, sanctae Mariee 
Magdalen» et omnium sanctarum 
virginum, et ccelestium yirtutum, 

cmnlumc^ue slmul sanctorum» ^ 
tiusque ordinis nosiri ministeFB, 
excommunicamus et anathemili- 
^amua, malodlcimns et a limlnibts 
sanctae mains ecclesise sequtslii^ 
mua, illos molefactores quos supn 
nominamui. Maledicti siol in 
omni loco et in omni nefoda 
Maledieti slnt in ambultindo, le- 
dendO) stando^ laborandp, eoma^ 
dendo, bibendo, vigilaudo, quie»- 
cendo, dormiendoj navigandoj lo^ 
quendo^ tacendo. Maledicti ^int 
in mari, et in via, Meli?dieti suit 
et in term. Maledicti faint a plaoti 
pedis usque ad verticem capitis. 
Hon sit in eiB sanitaa. Sit illis para 
<5um Dathan et Abiron^ quos vtTci 
terra absorbuit, et cum Juda tra^ 
ditore Domiuij et cum \m qui Do- 
mino Deo dixerunt, recede a nobis, 
viam scientiarum tuarum nolumus. 
Veniat mors super illos et descen- 
dant in infemum 'viventes, et ric 
fluit cera a fade ignis sic extin- 
guantur lucemffi eorom ante yi- 
ventem in sscula ssculomm, et 
pereant peccatores a ftide Dei, 
nisi resipuerint, et ad satisfactio. 
nem yenerint Amen. fiat, fiat.*' 

dHNdd be^fwd ^^^^[110116, perfidcte, mc diBtioote, inter mis- 

MramrBoleBina.'' And agam it is i:'0pe8ted, tfaotienp^ 

fliriiopdierid take care iimt tlirougfaoat hiB diecese 

Har iSboidd be 'deney ^^in vulgsri, poblice et aperte 

popido mter Miflsamm solenma." ^ But if ire 

to beHeve a manoscript wUch Becon qnotes irom, 

^^ inter misBOram solennia'' must be taken> m a 

«omewbot wide sense ; for he says, ^^ 39ie olde written 

lioke saythe, the prieste must take hede, that he^reade 

not on the foresayde sondayes the generaU sentenoe at 

iMBse-time aflter y* Gospel, as certain undiscreete 

frieats dO| by this meanes int e rrupting tihe masse ; but 

lie dial read it either immediatly after the aspersion 

wt sprinckling of y"" holy water, or els after the pro- 

Mssion."^ Certainly there was not the same necessity 

aa in ihe case of the greater excommunication, that the 

CieneralSent^Eice should bepronounced after the gOEqpel. 

All the forms of the greater excommunicalion which 

have been heretofore published of late years, are short, 

and from the provincial councils. I have edited tiie 

Enable Order whidh occurs in «ome of the earlier 

editions of the Sarum manual : and I cannot doubt but 

that the reader will find in it many important matters, 

espifcially relating to the rubrics of the offices contained 

in tfak volume : of baptism, of marriage, of absolution 

tUhe sick, and of burial. The only liberty which I 

have taken with the text, has been to correct a few 

evident errors (not unlikely to arise 'from the fact of 

fliese books being printed abroad, by persons ignorant 

0f our language), and to omit the frequent references 

^hich the original contains to the canon law. 

* Lyndwood, Ap. j9. 73. '^ Reliques of Rome/^4 243. 

ccxciv Oiggertation on 

The **Foriii of Absolution" which follows the ex- 
communication» is so placed in the Sarum pontifical, 
from which it has been taken* But it does not seem 
to be more than a recommended order ; not adopted 
with full authority into the Use of the church of Sarmn, 
but, as it wercp borrowed from the neighbouring dio- 
cese of Exeter. The Bishop mentioned in it, w^as pos- 
sibly John Grandisson, one of the most celebrated and 
learned prelates of that church, and a bountiful bene^ 
factor. Connected with this Form and the penance 
which it enjoins, it will not seem out of the way to add 
an extract from the register of QuivU, Bishop of Exe- 
ter in 1280, for which I am indebted to a very learned 
friend,^ He says, " In foL 120 of that register we 
read, that Jane Baschet, who had been convicted of an 
adulterous intercourse with Richard de GrenviUc, and 
had got a child by him, on 10th March, 1282, appeared 
before the Bishop at Totnes, and formally declared her 
separation from him : the Bishop required, — quod Jo- 
hanna stet singulis dominicis et festivis extra ecclesiain 
Bideford per totam quadragesimam, usque ad diem 
Jovis proximam ante Pascha, et tunc veniet apud Exon. 
reconciliandam, ut est moris'* 

The Order for reconciling an apostate, or heretic, 
will also require of me but one or two observations. 
Apostate is not here to be taken in its most strict and 
canonical sense, to mean a person, who having been in 
Holy Orders, or taken a religious vow upon him, had 
turned back to a secular life : but includes persons of 
any class, who, deserting the Christian Faith, had fallen 
away into Judaism, or infidelity. These, as well as 

* The Rev. Dr. Oliver : Editor of the Moaast. DicEc. Exon. &c. 

tf)e 9)c(aiKlttitftI tXBtt». ecxcv 

BchismaticB atid beretics, could not be received Ugain 
into the commimioii of the Church, except by a propei^ 

Several ancient orders ^^ad reconciliandos beerc^ 
tiooe** may be found in Martene ; who ^eaks of three 
inodes which from time to time prevailed, sometimes 
akme, sometimes together : viz. by imposition of bands ; 
by anointing with the chrism ; by a profession of the true 
Faith.^ The same writer cites the 31st of the Arabic 
canons of the council of Nice ; which although not 
genuine, are yet of high antiquity. ^^ Si quis ad fidem 
Dfihodoxflm convertatur, recipiendus est in eccl^am 
per manus episcopi vel presbyteri, qui prsecipere ei 
debet, ut anathematizet cunctos qui contra fidein ortho- 
texam fiudunt, et qui apostolicee fidei contradicunt. 
Debetque anathematizare Arium et beeresim ejus, et 
apwte fidem profiteri, quam in hac perfecta confessione 
definivimus, ac sincere fidelis esse. Oportet etiam ana- 
diematizare eos qui huic fidei non credunt, et eam non 
tecipiunt. Et postquam bsec fecerit, accipiat eum 
episcopus vel sacerdos ad cujus potestatem pertinet : 
et ungat eum unctione chrismatis, et signet ter ungendo, 
et orando super eum orationem Dionysii Areopagitce, 
et fiat oratio ad Deum pro eo devote, ut recipiat eum. 
Et postea erit particeps divinonun sacramentorum, et 
eommunionis, per quam fit remissio peccatorum." 

The pontifical of Bishop Lacy, preserved in the 
Exchequer chamber of the cathedral of £xeter, has a 
farm for receiving an apostate into communion, similar 
m all respects, with a few verbal exceptions, to the Use 
of the church of Salisbury. The same is in an imper- 

De Ant. Ecc. Rit. Lib. 3. Cap. vj. 

ccxcvi Dissertation on 

feet copy of an English pontifical^ in the British Mu 
seum, Lansiimtm MS. 451, In the kter volumes of the 
Conciiia Magtidt Britanmis^ we have frequent ex- 
amples of ahjurations of heresy : in the year 139*', an 
oath which was to be taken by all Lollards returning 
to the Faith : in 1425, the abjuration of Robert Hoke: 
in 1427* of William Russell: with several more,*^* 
These being part of the records and of the business of 
convocations, and of important cases, aj*e probably 
more full in their particulars than commonly were re- 
quired, yet may serve as examples of the usual prac- 
tice : for we must not conclude that the very general 
renunciation of error and heresy which the Fonn 
appoints, was all that was held necessary ; but pre- 
liminarj' examinations and probation having been first 
gone through, the apostate or the heretic was at last 
admitted by the juiblic order of reception once more 
into full communion with the Church of Christ. 

XIII. It remains for me to specify the authoritie» 
and editions from which the following Offices have be^ 
taken. The Orders of Baptism (including the Orda 
ad faciendum Catechumenum) ; of Confirmation ; of 
Purification of women ; of Marriage ; of Visitation of 
the Sick ; of Commendation ; of Buri^ ; of Benedic- 
tion of the ornaments of churches, of bells, of water and 
salt, and of bread ; are all taken from a copy oi the 
Salisbury Manual, of 1543, in my possession* It ap- 
peared upon all accoimts desirable, that an edition 
should be selected, printed before any change whatever 
had taken place in the ancient Offices, that is, not only 
before the first Common Prayer Book of K. Edward 

« Wilkins. Tom. S. pp. 225. 437. 457. Cf.258. 4S\. 439. 503. 

. t(e fl>ccaiKtonal fl)fBces^. ccxcvU 

sixth, but before the Order of Commumon in 
By and the Frymer of 1545, and even the altered 
visary of 1544. Certainly, the manuals of queen 
ry^s reign are almost word for word the same as 
e the earlier ones during K. Henry's time, and I 
e used two or three editions of 1554, and 1555, and 
rected by them whatever seemed to be merely 
ographical errors in the text of 1543. I shall now 
d the full title and colophon of this edition. 
Utk. " Manuale ad usum percelebris ecclesiee Saris^ 
iensU: iSoMoiTi/jr^irecenterimpressum, necnonmul-* 
mendis tersum atque emundatum, typis Nicolai 
f^M.D.XLiij." Colophon. " Explicit JWii;i«fl/e ad 
m insignis ecclesi» Sarisburiensis^ tam in cantu 
im in litera.diligentissime recognitum : et nusquam 
ehac elimatius impressum. In quo ea quee servat 
lesiasticus ritus ordine congruo connectuntur. Ex- 
um Rothomagi in sedibus Nicolai Rti/i typographic 
D.XLiij." 4to. The " tam in cantu" relates to the 
sical notation, which the volume contains, of many 
is of the various offices : antiphons, psalms, &Cr 
is I have omitted altogether. 
The Offices of the Consecration of a Church ; of a 
urch-yard; the Order of holding a Diocesan Synod; 
I Offices of Excommimication ; of Absolution ; and 
receiving an Apostate, are edited from a magnificent 
muscript Pontifical of the Use of Sarum, in the 
rary of the University of Cambridge ; and for the 
in of which Lhave already expressed my obligations, 
lis manuscript is. a folio, upon vellum, of 287 leaves ; 
5 text written in double columns ; having no illumi- 
tions except of initial letters ; date, early in the x v th 
This preliminary dissertation upon the occasional 

OL. I. , X 


offices has, lika the one preoediag, extendad to a greater 
length than I had at first proposed: yet I have done 
scarcely more than selected a few iUnatratiixis firom 
much larger collections which I have made^ and have 
attempted the consideration of those circmnstanoesonly, 
of which I might suppose some explanation would not 
be unacoeptable to the reader. I possibly may se»ii 
to have erred, in unnecessarily transcribing at lengdi 
full extracts from the CkmcUia^ and other authorities 
which have been cited : and it may be said diat mere 
references would have been sufficient Judging how- 
ever of the usefulness of such a plan, by my own expe- 
rience of its results, in the perusal of works otherwise 
most valuable, I cannot but contend ihat many gosd 
ends are lost, by giring references only. The trouble 
of searching out the authorities named is not slight, 
and few will undertake it ; again, in spite of every care 
which may be bestowed, references are sometimes 
erroneous ; and at other times, to various editions ; and, 
lastly, to be of any benefit at all, the books referred to 
must be at the reader's command. In the present case, 
to mention only that great storehouse of the records of 
the Church of England, to which I have been so much 
indebted, viz. Wilkins* Concilia; even that is not so 
common, or so moderate in its price, as to be within 
the reach of hundreds to whom, more especially, I 
humbly hope that this present work will be of service : 
and other books from, which extracts have been made, 
are not simply difficult to be procured at any cost, but 
are not even in our public libraries. 

a>ttasiioml £)fiOtee0 stUttth from tl^t 

iS&anml ant) pontifical of t|)e 

C|)ttret) of ^alishnxv^ 

VOL. I. 

Drtio at> fatitnhnm Cateel^umenum. 

I Nprimis deferatur infans^ ad valvas ecclesite, 
et inquirat sacerdos^ ab obstetrice^ utrum sit 
infans masculus an femina. DeindCy si in- 
fans fuerit baptizatus domi : et quo nomine 
vocari debeat: licet enim baptizatus fuerit domi propter 
periculum mortis: tamen totum habeat subsequens ser- 
vitiumj prater immersionem aqua et quo nomine debet 

C Masculus autem statuetur a dextris sacerdotis: 
mulier vero a sinistris.^ 

^ ^ Sacerdos sacramentum Bap. 
tbmi administratuniSy induatur 
saperpelliceo et stola. Parentur 
cerea candela, sal, oleum Catechu- 
menorum, sanctum Chrisma, lin- 
teum cbrismale, et si benedicendus 
sit fons, Cereus Pasch." Annot, 
Edit. Douay. 1610. 

^ In the Salisbury Pontifical, 
where " sacerdos" occurs in the 
text, we always find " episcopus." 
*^ Imprimis inquirat episcopus, ab 
obstetrice." &c. I must remind the 
reader that I do not in these notes 
purpose to mark every variety of 
reading which may be in the Pon- 
tificals before me, but those only 
which appear intrinsically unpor- 
tant, or valuable for any reason. 

The Pontificals to which I shall 
refer will be, chiefly a MS. of the 
use of Sarum, in the library of the 
University of Cambridge, of the 
xvth century; and another also 

in the possession of the same Uni- 
versity, formerly belonging to the 
Cathedral of S. Swithin, Winches- 
ter, of the xijth century ; a third, 
the famous Bangor Pontifical, in 
the possession of the Dean and 
Chapter of that Cathedral, of 
which I have spoken in the 
Dissertation on Service Books, 
and in my work on the Ancient 
Liturgy ; and lastly, that which is 
commonly called the Leofric Mis- 
sal, in the Bodleian Dbrary at 
Oxford. These three last, con- 
tain only those parts of the Offices 
which were mixed up (so to say) 
with the ceremonies of particular 
great occasions: and do not, as 
the Salisbury Pontifical first men- 
tioned, contain them entire. 

' *' Hie primo inquirat sacerdos 
nomen infisuntis.*' Ruhr. Manual 

4 fl)tlio an faden&uiii 

His quasitisfaciat signum crucis cum paUice infronte 
infantis^ Ha dicens. 

Signum Salvatoris Domini nostii^ Jesu Christi in 
frontem tuum pono. 

Et postea in pectore ita dicendo. 

Signum Salvatoris Domini nostri Jesu Christi in 
pectus tuum pono. 

C Deinde tenens manum dexteram super caput in- 
fant is dicat : 

Dominus vobiscum. Etj 


Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, Pater Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi, respicere dignare super hunc famulom 
tuum, vel^ hanc famulam tuam : 

Hie primo inquirat sacerdos nomen infantis: et res- 
pondeant patrini.^ 

N. Quern, t?e/, quam ad rudimenta fidei vocare dig- 
natus cs : omnem csecitatem cordis ab eo vel ea expelle : 
disrumpe omnes laqueos sathanse quibus fuerit colliga- 
tus vel coUigata. Aperi ei, Domine, januam pietatis 
tuse : ut signo sapientise tuae imbutus vel imbuta, omnium 
cupiditatum foetoribus careat: et ad suavem odorem 
praeceptorum tuorum laetus vel laeta tibi in ecclesia tua 
deserviat, et proficiat de die in diem, ut idoneus vel 
idonea efficiatur accedere ad gratiam Baptismi tui per- 
cepta medicina. Per eundem Christum Dominum 
nostrum. Amen. 

Deifjde dicatur oratio sine Dominus vobiscum ; sed 
ann Oremus. 


* "Signum sancUB crucis Do- ^ *' Patriniei tnatrin/e" Pon- 

mini nostri." Pontjf. Sar. tif, Sar, 

• Catecftumenurtt/ 5 

Preces nostras quaesumus^ Domine, clementer ex- 
audi : et hunc electum tuum vel hanc elect^m tuam, 

Hicpatrini et matriruB nominent puerum. N.^ crucis 
dominiceey cujus impressione, 

Hicfaciat sacerdos crucem infronte infantis: 
eum vel earn signamus, virtute custodi : ut magnitu- 
dinis gloriae tuae rudimenta servans, per custodiam 
mandatorum tuorum ad novae regenerationis gloriam 
pervenire mereatur. Per Christum Dominum nostrum* 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Deus, qui humani generis ita es conditor ut sis 
etiam reformator, propitiare populis adoptivis : et novo 
testamento sobolem novae prolis ascribe : ut filii pro- 
missionis quod non potuerunt assequi per naturam, 
gaudeant se recepisse per gratiam. Per Dominum 

C Exorcismus sails'^ sine Oremus. 

Exorcise te, creatura salis, in nomine Dei Patris 
omnipotentis, et in caritate Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 
et in virtute Spiritus Sancti : exorcize te per Deum 
vivum : per Deum verum : per Deum sanctum : per 
Deum qui te ad tutelam humani generis procreavit : et 
populo venienti ad credulitatem per servos sues conse- 
crari praecepit : ut in nomine sanctae Trinitatis effici- 
aris salutare sacramentum ad effugandum inimicum. 
Proinde rogamus te Domine Deus noster, ut hanc 
Hie respiciat Sacerdos sal: creaturam salis sanctifi- 
cando sancti 4" fices : benedicendo bene^rdicas : ut fiat 

* Omitted in Pontif. Sar. in manu sua dextertu* Pontif. 

Sar. *' BenedicHo mUs." Ruhr. 
^ ** Quod teneat compatrinus Manual. Ehor. 

6 fl^tOO flu flUfttHvoBI 

omnibiis accipientibiui perfiMta meiHciiia penMnfMin 
yisceribiis eonum yirtute qiudin Domim nortri Jen 
Christi : qui yentunis est judicara Tivw efc mortoos et 

saeculom per ignem. 
Re^. Amen. 
Pastea i^aerroget $acerda$ nomen putri: el panatur 

de ipso sale in ore ejus dicendo : 

N. Acdpe sal sapientifc, ut propitiatiis sit tibi Dens 
in yitam Betemam. Amen. 

Post salem datum dicat sacerdos super masculum vd 
feminam : 

Dominns Tobiscum. 

Et: Oremns. Oratio. 

DeuB patrum nostrorum, Dens uniTeren ocvnditor 
creaturse, te supplices exoramns at hunc fianolum 
tuum vel banc fiamulam tuam N. respicere digneris 
propitius: et boc primum fabulum salis gustantem 
Don diutius esuriro permittas quominus cibo repleatur 
coelesti : quatenus sit semper, Domine, spirita fervens: 
spe gaudens : tuo nomini serviens : et perdue eum vel 
earn ad novee regenerationis lavacrom : ut eum fideli- 
bus tuis promissionum tuarum setema prssmia consequi 
mereatur. Per Dominum nostrum.® 

Sequatur oratio^ super masculum tantum^ sine Domi- 
nus vobiscum : sed cum : 

Oremus. Ve?^te ad feminam. 

Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, Deus Jacob, Deus qui 
Moysi famulo tuo in monte Synai apparuisti, et filios 
Israel de terra iEgjrpti eduxisti, deputans eis angelum 

^ From the beginning of the diately to the " benedidioJhntisJ* 
office to the end of this prayer, * ^ Super masculos tantum di- 

18 the same in the Leoffnc Mts^ catur oratio ista manu sacerdotis 

#a/ .• which passes on imme- supposita.'' Ruhr, Man. JBboi\ 

Catsciittmenum. 7 

pietetis tufle, qui custodiret eos die ac nocfe : te quiBB- 
somtis, Domine, ut mittere digneris sanctum angelum 
taam de ccelis, qui similiter custodiat hunc famulum 
tuum N. et perducat eum ad gratiam Baptismi tui. 

Sine. Per Christum. 

C AdjuratiOMpermasctilum sine Dormnusyohiscum: 
et sine Oremus : sacerdote sic dicente : 
' Ergo maledicte diabole recognosce sententiam tuam, 
et da honor^m Deo vivo et vero : da honorem Jesu 
Christo Filio ejus et Spiritui Sancto : et recede ab hoc 
&mulo Dei N. quia istum sibi Deus et Dominus noster 
Jesus Christus ad suam sanctam gratiam et benedic- 
tionem, fontemque Baptismatis, dono Spiritus Sancti 
vocare dignatus est. £t hoc signum sanctse cru4*cis, 

Hie faciat sacerdos signum crucis in/ronte in/ant is 
cum poUice suo^ it a dicens: 

Quod nos fironti ejus imponimus, tu maledicte dia- 
bole, Bunquam audeas violare. Per eum qui venturus 
est judicare vivos et mortuos et seeculum per ignem. 

Resp. Amen. 

Hac sequens oratio dicitur super masculum tantum 
sine Dominus vobiscum, et sine Oremus. 

Deus, immortale prsesidium omnium postulantium, 
liberatio supplicum, pax rogantium, vita credentium, 
resurrectio mortuorum : te invoco super hunc famulum 
tuum A^. qui Baptismi tui donum petens, setemam con- 
sequi gratiam spirituaU regeneratione desiderat. Ac- 
cipe eum, Domine : et quia dignatus es dicere^ petite 
ac accipietis, quaerite et invenietis, pulsate et aperi- 
etur vobis, petenti preemium porrige et januam pande 
pulsanti : ut aetemam ccBlestis lavacri benedictionem 
consecutus, promissa tui muneris regna percipiat. 
Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre in unitate Spiritus 
Sancti Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum. 

8 fl)tllO flD filritlUHlitt 

Mesp. Amen. 

C Adjuratio super mascubim tantimh une Domimis 
Tobiscum, et sine Oremusy hoc modo: Audi maledicte 
sathana : adjuratus per nomeii «tend Dei et Salvato- 
ris nostri Filii ejus, cum tua victOB inyidia tremens 
gemensque discede : nihil tibi sit conmiune cum servo 
Dei N. jam ccelestia cogitanti, renunciaturo tibi ac 
sseculo tuoy et beatse immortalitati victoro. Da igitor 
honorem advenienti Spiritui Sancto^ qui ex summa 
coeli arce descendens^ pertorbatis fraddibos tuis, di- 
vine fonte purgatum pectus, id est sanctificatum Deo 
templmn et habitaculum, perfidat : at ab omnibus pe- 
nitus noxiis prseteritorum criminum liberatus, hie ser- 
vos Dei gratias perenni Deo referat semper, et be- 
nedicat nomen ejus sanctum in ssecula sseculonmL 

C Exorcismus super masculum tantum^ she Orennis. 

Exorcizo te, immunde spiritus, in nomine Dei Pa- 
tris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti : ut exeas et recedas 
ab hoc famulo Dei respicCj N. Ipse enim tibi imperat 
maledicte, damnate, atque damnande, qui pedibus su- 
per mare ambulavit, et Petro mergenti dextram por- 

Sequatur adjuratio. 

Ergo maledicte. Ut supra. 

Hcec sequens oratio dicatur super femifiam tantum, 
sine Dominus vobiscum, et sine Oremus. 

Deus cceli, Deus terrse, Deus angelorum, Deus arch- 
angelorum, Deus patriarcharum, Deus prophetarum, 
Deus Apostolorum, Deus martyrum, Deus confessorum, 
Deus virginum, Deus omnium bene viventium, Deus 
cui omnis lingua confitetur et omne genu flectitur, 
ccelestium, terrestrium, et infemorum : te invoco. Do- 

Catecbumenum* 9 

mine, super hone famulam tuam respice^ N. ut perdu- 
cere earn digneris ad gratiam Baptismi tui. 

C Sequatur adjuratio supei* feminam. 

Ergo maledicte diabole recognosce sententiam tuam, 
et da honorem Deo vivo et vero : et da honorem Jesu 
Christo Filio ejus et Spiritui sancto : et recede ab hac 
famula Dei N. quia istam sibi Deus et Dominus noster 
Jesu Christus ad suam sanctam gratiam et benedictio- 
nem, fontemque Baptismatis, dono Spiritus Sancti vo- 
care dignatus est. Et hoc signum sanctee cru»{*cis, 

Hicfaciat sacerdos signum crucis in fronte infantis 
cum pollice suoj dicens : 

quod nos fironti ejus damus, tu maledicte diabole 
nunquam audeas violare. Per eum qui venturus est 
judicare vivos et mortuos et sseculum per ignem. 

Resp. Amen. 

C Item super feminam tantum dicitur sequens oratioy 
sine Dominus vobiscum, et sine Oremus. 

Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, et Deus Jacob, Deus 
qui tribus Israel de ^gyptiaca servitute liberasti, et 
per Moysem famulum tuum de custodia mandatorum 
tuorum in deserto monuisti, et Susannam de falso cri- 
mine liberasti : te supplex deprecor, Domine, ut liberes 
et banc famulam tuam, respice^ N. et perducere earn 
digneris ad gratiam Baptismi tui. 

Sequatur adfuratio. 

Ergo maledicte. Ut supra. 

Exorcismus super feminam tantum^ sine Dominus 
Tobiscum, et sine Oremus. 


Exorcize te, immunde spiritus, per Patrem, et Fi- 
lium, et Spiritum Sanctum : ut exeas et recedes ab hac 
famula Dei, respice^ N. Ipse enim tibi imperat male-> 


lo fl>t(oa]iftttaiMii 

dicte, damnate, alqne danmandft» qiii cbqd iiaiio ocubt 
aperuit» et quatriduanum Lazanua de moniiiiieiito s» 

Sequatur a^uratio. 

Ergo maledicte. Ut supra. 

Exinde tarn super mascuhs quam mtper femum 
dicantur orationes sequentei, sine DoBiiniis Yobiflciuii, 
et sine Qremus. 

Hicfaciat sacerdas crucem cum poliice in fnmte uh 
fantis : tenensque manus super caput gus dicat. 

^temam ac justisgimam pietatem tiiam depreoor, 
Domine, sancte Pater onmipotens» seteme Deus» auctor 
luminis et veritatis : respice super himc fiuoulum tamn 
vel banc &mulam tiiain^ respice^ N. ut digneria ilium 
vel iDam illuminare lumine intelligeutiae tuae. Munda 
eum, vel earn, et sancti4«fica: da ei scientiam yeram, 
ut dignus vel digna efficiatur accedere ad gratiam 
Baptism! tui : teneat firmam spem, consilium rectum, 
doctrinam sanctam, ut aptus vel apta sit ad percipien- 
dam gratiam Baptismi tui. Per Christum Dominum 

Sine Oremus. Oratio sequatur. 

Nee te latet, sathana, imminere tibi pcenas : immi- 
nere tibi tormenta : imminere tibi diem judicii : diem 
supplicii sempitemi : diem qui venturus est velut cli- 
banus ardens : in quo tibi atque universis angelis 
tuis oetemus superveniet interitus. Et ideo pro tua 
nequitia damnate atque damnande, da honorem Deo 
vivo et vero: da honorem Jesu Christo Filio ejus: 
da honorem Spiritui Sancto Paraclito : in cujus 

^® After this in the York Ma- tempore : ohiati sunt Jesu par- 
nual is appointed the Gospel, vuli. &c. 
*^ secundum MaUhcBum: In illo 

atque Tirtiite preecipio tibi (qoieimqae es) 

spiritud immimde^ ut exeas et recedes ab hoc fa» 

mulo Dei, vel ab hac famula Dei, respice^ N. quem, vet 

qiiam hodie idem Deus et Dominusnoster Jesus Chris- 

tus ad suam sanctam gratiam et benedietionem, fon- 

temque Baptismatis vocare dignatus est : ut fiat 6jus 

templum per aquam regenerationis^ in remissionem 

omnium peccatorum suorum. In nomine ojusdeni 

Domini nOstri Jesu Christi, Qui venturus est judi- 

care Tivos et iliortuos et sseculum per ignem. 

Resp. Amen. 

C His dictis dicat sacerdos : ^^ 
Dominus vobiscum. 
£t cum spiritu tuo. 
( Evangelium Secundum Matthaum. 
In illo tempore. Oblati sunt Jesu parvuli : ut ma- 
nus ejus imponeret et oraret. Discipuli autem ejus 
increpabant eos. Jesus autem ait illis : sinite par* 
vulos et nolite prohibere eos venire ad me : talium est 
enim regnum ccelorum. Et cum imposuisset eis ma* 
num, abiit inde. 

C Heinde spuat sacerdos in sinistra manu : et tangat 
aures et nares infant is cum pollice sua dextro de sputo 
dicendo ad aurem dextram : 
EfPeta : quod est adaperire. 
ad nares : 

In odorem suavitatis, 
ad aurem sinistram : 

Tu autem effiigare, diabole : appropinquabit enim 
judicium Dei. 

^ The Pontifical omits the Be- secundum usum Sarunu In illo 
nediction, simply directing, " Hits tempore. Pantif, Sar. 
dictis dicat episcopus evangelium 

12 S>ttM$M 

C Postea dicat sacerdas 
una cum omnibus circumstantiims^ mi ifd dkmmt mi m- 
vicem : 

PiUor nostcr. 

Kt Ave Maria. 

Kt Oedc) in Dcum. 

Qiws etiam ipse sacerdas dicat atmdis msuBrmtihus, 
vidv/iiit mwkste et distincte sic. 

Pater noster qui es in ccbUs, sanctifioetiir nonieii 
tuuiu. Advoniat rcgnum tuum. Fiat Tcdnntas tna 
fiiriit in ra>lo ct in terra. Panem nostrum qnoddia- 
num da nobis hodio. £t dimitte nobis defaita nostra : 
sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribns nostris. Et ne 
* nuB inducas in tentationem. Sed libera nos a malo. 

Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum : benedida 
tu in mulieribus: et benedictus fructus Tentris tni 
JesuB. Amen. 

Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, creatorem 
ccdH et terroD : et in Jesum Christum Filium ejus uni- 
cum Doiuinum nostrum : qui conceptus est de Spiritu 
Sancto, natus ex Maria Virgine: passus sub Pontic 
Pilrtto, iTucitixus, mortuus, et sepultus : descendit ad 
interna : tortia die resurrexit a mortuis : ascendit ad 
ca)lofl, sodet ad dextram Dei Patris omnipotentis : inde 
venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos. Credo in 
Spiritum Ssuictum : sanctam Ecclesiam catholicam : 
Sanctorum oommunionem: rcmissionem peccatorum, 
carnis resurrectionem, vitam setemam. Amen. 

|[ His dictis faciat sacerdos signum crucis in manu 
dextra infantls^ iuterrogato ejus nomiJie^ ita dicens : " 

^* ^^ Deinde accipieiut epiitcopus interrogato ejus nomine dicat 
infimtetn per manum dextram^ et N* Trado tibi. &c." Pontif. Sar. 



A^. Trado tibi signaculum^' Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi in manu tna dextra: ut te signes, et te de 
adversa parte repellas, et in fide catholica permaxieas, 
et habeas yitam astemam, et vivas in saecula sa^u- 

Resp. Amen/* 

Posted introducat catechumenum per manum dextram 
in ecclesianiy interrogato nomine ejus^ dicens : 

N. Ingredere in templum Dei : ut habeas vitam 
eetemam, et vivas in saecula seeculorum. Amen. 

Benedictio^* Fontis. 

QUA NDO ^^fuerit fons mandandus et de pura aqua 
renovandusy (quod sctpe debet Jieri propter aqua 
corruptionem) tunc dicatur sequens litania : et benedi- 
catur fons modo sequenti. Et nota qiwd aqua Baptis- 
matis non debet transmutari, propter honorem alicujus 
potentisj nisifuerit corrupta. 

C Nota quod aqua benedictafontium in vigilia Paschce 
et Pentecostes non aspergatur per ecclesiam : sed aliqua 

^ " Accipe signaculum/' Ma- 
nual Ehor. 

*• '* Deinde cum ipsa manu 
ngnet eum dicens* Signo te sig- 
naculo Domini nostri Jesu Christi 
in manu tua dextra, ut te conservet 
contra adversarios tuos, ut habeas 
Titam stemam, et yivas in saecula 
saeculorum. Amen, His dictis 
ducat episcopus catechumenum in 
ecclesiam. &c. Pontif. Sar, 

" From hence to the end of 
the Litany is omitted in the Pon- 

tifical, which directs, ** Adjbntes 
henedicendos dicat episcopus isto 
motto. Dominus Tobiscum. &c." 
as below, after the Litany. 

The Bangor Pontifical begins 
here also, the Office of the blessing 
of the Font: which follows in 
that MS. the ** Benedictio ignis 
sabbato sancto." 

*® " Infans in fontem si stereo- 
ret ejice lympham. Si tantum 
mingat non moveatur aqua/' 
Ruhr. Man. Ebor. 

J 4 IQtnenitm jFontis. 

ffiia mpm bcmdkta more sa/iiio sicai if$ aim tfomimdi 


^ Memorialiicr rdintndum eii quod aqua bcmdkta 
circa /oftte*^ est aspergenda^ Bed mn aqua foniium : sivc 
chrismatefticrU sanctljkata she norL Qtmniam in decrdh 
originaiibus sanctorum patrum Ckmenth ei Pasckam 
Paparum^ inveniitir quod aqua fmittum non est aqua 
aspershnis ; sed baptismaiis ct purgatknis^ Umk caveat 
unmqHuquc sacerdos ne ilia aqua iangat^ nisi quos bap- 
iizut : quia non est opus ut baptizati iteram baptizeniur, 
Cesset ergo stuitn prfesumptionis asptrsk turn in mgiiia 
PuschiB ei Penttcosies^ quam in onmibu^} atiis dicbus: 
quia per ecciesimn Homanam cunctis C/trisiiauk sub 
pmna excommumcaiionis majoris est mininia. 

C Hk incipit liiania iioc tnodo. 

^GoodfadiTs and goodmoders,^'^ ami ail thai be hem 
abouty say in the worshyppe of god and our ladyc and of 
the .xii. apostellysy a Paternoster, and Ave Maria, and 
Credo in Deum. That we maye so mynyster thys 
blessyd sacrament^ that it, maye be to the pleasure of 
almyghty god, and confusyon of our gostly enmy, and 
saluacyon of te sowle of thys chylde. 

C Godfaders and godmodyrs^ of thys chylde whe 
charge you, that ye charge the fader and te nioder to 
kepe it fromfyer and water and other perels to the age 
of .vij. yere : and that ye laifie or seyt belemed the 
Paternoster, Ave Maria, and Credo, after the lawe of 
all holy churche, and in all goodly haste to be confermed 
of my lorde of the dyocise or of hys depute, and that the 
moder brynge agen the crysom at hyr puryfycation, and 
washe your hande or ye departe the chyrche. 

^^ This charge Is Dot given in the first clause is placed before 
the York Manual. And in the the Pater noster, p. 12. 
Douay Editions of the Sarum Use, 

BenelUctio iTonti». 1 5 

C Sequuntur Litanice: 

Kyrie eleison. 

Christe eleison. 

Christe audi nos. 

Pater de coelis Deus : miserere nobis. 

Fili redemptor mundi Deus : miserere nobis. 

Spiritus Sancte Deus : miserere* nobis. 

Sancta Trinitas, Unus Deus : miserere nobis. 

Sancta Maria : Ora pro nobis. 

Sancta Dei genitrix : Ora. 

Sancta virgo virginum : Ora. 

Sancte Michael : Ora. 

Sancte Gabriel : Ora. 

Sancte RiCphael : Ora. 

Omnes sancti Angeli et Archangeli Dei : Orate pro 

Omnes sancti beatorum spirituum ordines: Orate 
pro nobis. 

Omnes sancti Patriarchae et Prophetae : Orate. 

Sancte Petre : Ora. 

Sancte Paule : Ora. 

Sancte Andrsea : Ora. 

Sancte Johannes : Ora. 

Sancte Jacobe : Ora. 

Sancte Thoma : Ora. 

Sancte Philippe : Ora. 

Sancte Jacobe : Ora. 

Sancte Matthaee : Ora. 

Sancte Bartholomaee : Ora. 

Sancte Simon : Ora. 

Sancte Thadaee : Ora. 

Sancte Matthia : Ora. 

i6 T5ene»ictio Jfontiji. 

Sancte Barnaba : Ora^ 

Sancte Marce : Ora* 

Sancte Luca : Ora. 

Omnes Bancti Apostoli et Evangelistip ; Orate, 

Omnes sancti discipuli et innoccutcs ; Orate- 

Sancte Stephana : Ora, 

Sancte Line : Ora* 

Sancte Clete: Ora. 

Sancte Clemens: Ora* 

Sancte Fabiane : Ora* 

Sancte Sebastiane; Ora. 

Sancte Cosma : Ora. 

Sancte Damiane : Ora. 

Sancte Prime : Ora. 

Sancte Feliciane : Ora. 

Sancte Dionysi cum sociis tuis : Orate. 

Sancte Victor cum sociis tuis : Orate. 

Omnes sancti martyres : Orate pro nobis. 

Sancte Sylvester : Ora. 

Sancte Leo : Ora. 

Sancte Hieron yme : Ora. 

Sancte Augustine : Ora, 

Sancte Isidore : Ora. 

Sancte Juliane : Ora. 

Sancte Gildarde : Ora. 

Sancte Medarde : Ora. 

Sancte Albine : Ora. 

Sancte Eusebi : Ora. 

Sancte Swithune : Ora. 

Sancte Birine : Ora. 

Omnes sancti confessores : Orate pro nobis, 

Omnes sancti monacbi et eremitae : Orate. 

Sancta Maria Magdalena : Ora pro nobis. 

Sancta Maria iEgyptiaca : Ora pro nobis. 

IBeneQtctio ironfl0. 17 

Sancta Margareta : Ora. 
. Sancta Scolastica: Ora* 

Sancta Petronella : Ora* 

Sancta Genovefa : Ora, 

Sancta Praxedis : Ora* 

Sancta Sotheris : Ora. 

Sancta Prisca : Ora. 

Sancta Tecla : Ora. 

Sancta Afra : Ora. 

Sancta Editha : Ora. 
. Omnes sanctse Virgines : Orate pro nobis. 

Omnes sancti : Orate.*® 

His itaque completis^ accedat sacerdos adfontium coth 
secrationemy qua semper dicatur sine cantu : nisi tan- 
turn in vigilia Pascha et Pentecostes : tunc enim cantata 
secunda litania incipiat sacerdos ad hunc locum^ et can- 
tet modesta voce hoc modo}^ 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 


Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, adesto magnas pie- 
tatis tuae mysteriis, adesto sacramentis : et ad recre- 
andos novos populos quos tibi fens Baptismatis par- 
turit, Spiritum adoptionis emitte: ut quod nostras 
humilitatis gerendum est mysterio (ministerio f) tuae 
virtutis impleatur effectu. Pejr Dominum nostrum Je- 
sum Christum Filium tuum. Qui tecum vivit et regnat 
in Unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus. 

^ The York Manual adds many diaboli, libera nos, Domine.** &c. 
of the short supplications which 

commonly follow in the Litany : ^ " Finita litania stet sacerdos 

such as : " Propitius esto : parce versus ad|orientem dum benedicit 

nobis, Domine : Ab omni nudo, fontem hoc modo dicens.** Rutn*, 

[ibera nos, Domine. Ab insidiis Man. Ebor. 

VOL. I. C 

1 8 IBeneoictio inonMC 

C Hie mutat vocem more prafalkmUy sic» 

Per omnia saecula Baeculonim. 


Dominus vobiscmn. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 

Sursum corda. 

Habemus ad Dominmn. 

Gratias agamus Domino Deo noetro. 

Dignum et justum est. 

Vere dignum et justmn est, fleqaum et atflotm^ hob 
tibi semper et ubique gratias agere : Domiiie aanctey 
Pater omnipotens, seteme Dens. Qui invisibiK' po- 
tentia, sacramentorum tuoram mirabiliter operaris ef- 
fectum. Et licet nos tantis mysteriis exequendia riitiai 
indigni : tu tamen gratis tuse dona non deseren, etiaiii 
ad nostras preces aures tuee pietatis inclines. Dens, 
cujus Spiritus super aquas inter ipsa mundi primordia 
ferebatur, ut jam tunc virtutem sanctificationis aqua- 
rum natura conciperet. Deus, qui nocentis mundi 
crimina per aquas abluens^ regenerationis speciem in 
ipsa diluvii effusione signasti: ut unius ejusdemque 
elementi mysterio et finis esset vitiis et origo virtutibus. 
Respice quaesumus, Domine, in faciem Ecclesise tuae, 
et multiplica in ea regenerationes tuas : qui gratiae tuae 
affluentis impetu laetificas civitatem tuam, fontemque 
Baptismatis aperis, toto orbe terrarum gentibus inno- 
vandis, ut tuae majestatis imperio sumat Unigeniti tui 
gratiam de Spiritu Sancto. 

Hie dividat saeerdos aquam manu sua dextra in mo- 
dum erueis sie.^ 

Qui banc aquam regenerandis hominibus praepara- 

Sicdicendo." Pantif. Sar. 

tam arcana sui Imninis admixtione feecundet : ut sanc- 
tificatione concepta^ ab immaculato Divini fontis utero 
in novam renata creaturam progenies coelestis emer- 
gat. Et quos aut sexus in corpore, aut SBtas discemit 
in tempore, omnes in unam pariat gratia mater infan- 
tiam. Procul ergo hinc jubente te, Domine, omnis 
spiritus immundus abecedat : procul tota nequitia dia- 
bolicae fraudis absistat. Nihil hie loci habeat con- 
trariae virtutis admixtio : non insidiando circumvolet : 
non latendo surrepat : non inficiendo corrumpat. Sit 
hsec sancta et innocens creatura, libera ab omni im- 
pugnatoris incursu, et totius nequitiae purgata discessu. 
Sit fons viyus, aqua regenerans, unda purificans. Ut 
omnes hoc lavacro salutifero diluendi, operante in eis 
Spiritu Sancto, perfectae purgationis indulgentiam con- 
sequantur. Unde bene 4" te creatura aquse per Deum 
yi«i»yum: per Deum ve 4" rum: per Deum sanc4"tum: 
per Deum qui te in principio verbo separavit ab arida : 
cujus Spiritus super te ferebatur, qui te de paradise 
monare^^ fecit, et in quatuor fluminibus totam terram 
rigare praecepit. 

Hie eficiat sacerdos aquam defonte per My. partes 
cum manu destra in modum cruets. 

Qui te in deserto amaram suavitate indita fecit esse. 
potabilem, et sitienti populo de petra produxit. , Be- 
ne 4* dice te per Jesum Christum Filium ejus unicum 
Dominum nostrum: qui te in Ghana Galileae signo 
admirabili, sua potentia convertit in vinum. Qui 
pedibus super te ambulavit, et a Johanne in Jordane 

" The Bangor MS. omitsy^ci^.' corrected. The Leofric Missal 

there is an erasure in the copy of omits 2\&o fecit : which neverthe- 

the Sarum Pontifical, shewing less is in all the copies of the 

that the usual reading had been Manual which I have examined. 

20 iBenemctio jrontfr* 

in te baptizatas est. Qui te ipm. cum sanginiie de 
latere suo produxit : et diadpulis joMt ut credentes 
baptizarentur in te dicens : Ite, docete omnes gentafli 
baptizantes eos in nomine Pa+tris» et Fi^fliii ^ 
Spi+ritus Sancti. 

Hie mutet sacerdos vocem quasi legendo ct 

Hflec nobis pnecepta servantibns tu Dens omnipotenB, 
demens adesto, tu benignus aspira. 

Hie aspirfit sacerdos ter infmtem in modum crudi^ 
deinde dieat legendo sic. 

Tu has simplices aquas tuo ore benedicito: ut 
preeter naturalem emundationem quam lavandis pos- 
sunt adhibere corporibus, sint etiam purificandis men- 
tibus efficaces. 

Hie stillet sacerdos^ de cereo in fontem in modum 
erucis : postea dicat more prafatUmis : 

Descendat in banc plenitudinem fontis virtus Spi- 
ritus Sancti, totamque hujus aquae substantiam regene- 
randi fcecundet effectu. 

Hie dividat sacerdos aquam cum cereo in fonte in 
modum erucis dicendo : 

Hie omnium peccatorum maculae deleantur: Hie 
natura ad imaginem tui condita, et ad honorem sui 
reformata principii, cunctis vetustatis squaloribus emun- 

Hie tollat sacerdos cereum de aqua : et tradat clerico 
a quo ibidem contra fontes teneatur: donee Jiniatur tota 

Ut omnis homo hoc sacramentum regenerationis 
ingressus, in verae innocentiae novam infantiam renas- 

^ " Hie cereus liquescat in tur postea in aquam in modum 
aquam in modum erucis, et pona- erucis." Ruhr. Man. Sbor. 

IBenemctio Jfontifi, 


C Hie mutet vocem quasi legendo. 

Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium 
tuurn : qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate ejusdem 
Spiritus Sancti Deus. Per omnia seecula saeculorum. 

C Non procedatur ulterim in hoc officio in vigilid 
Paschcd et Penteeostesy nisi aliquis esstt baptizandus : ut 
pastea patebit. Nota quod in vigilia Pasehce et Pente- 
castes consecratis fontibus non infundetur oleum neque 
chrisma nisi adsint aliqui qui debeant baptizari: sed 
Unteamine mundo cooperiantur : et usque ad completo- 
rium Paschce vel Pentecostes reserventur : ut si forte his 
diebus aliquis baptizandus advenerit^ foecundatis turn et 
$anctificatis fontibus olei et chrismatis infusione^ bap- 

Post hcec mittat sacerdos oleum sanctum cum ipsa 
biUione quae est in vase ejus in aquam : signum crucis 
faciens et dicens : 

Conjunctio Olei Unctionis et aquae Baptismatis. In 
uomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

Simili modo mittat chrisma dicens :^ 

Foecundetur et sanctificetur fons iste hoc salutifero 
Chrismate salutis. In nomine Patris. d^c. 

Pastea mittat simul oleum cum chrismate modo supra- 
iicta dicens. 

Conjunctio chrismatis sanctificationis, et olei unc- 
ionis, et aquse Baptismatis. In nomine Patris, etc.^ 

® " Deinde mittat episcopus 
rriama infontem crticemfaciendo 
ie ipso chrismate cum ipsa bit' 
^ianef qua est in vase chHsma- 
is $ie dicendo." Ruhr. Pontif. 

^ ^*Etnotandum quod in vigil, 
pasch. et pent, quando henedici' 
tur aqua infonte haptismaliypost 
benedictionem ilia aqua nan debet 
aspergi per ecclesiam." Rubr. 
Pontif. Sar. 


Viitm 'Bflpti^atnic; 

RiTvs Baptizandi. 

TUNC portetur infans ad f antes ab his qui eum sus- 
cepturi sunt ad Baptismum : ipsisque amdem pue- 
rum super fontes inter nuxnus tenentibus^ ponat sacerdoi 
manum dejctram super eum : et interrogato gus nomine^ 
respondeant qui eum tenent JN". Item sacerdos dicat.^ 

N. Abreauncias Sathanffi. Respondeant compatrini 
et commatrina, Abrenoncio. Item Sacerdos. Et om- 
nibus operibus ejus. 9. Abrenuncio. Itim sacerdos. 
£t omnibus pompis ejus. Ijk. Abrenuncio. 

Fostea tangat sacerdos pectus in/ant is et inter scapulas 
de oleo sanctOj crucem faciens cum pollice dkens : 

N. Et ego linio te super pectus^ oleo salutis, inter 
scapulas. In Christo Jesu Domino nostro : vt habeas 
vitam seternam, et vivas in ssecula sseculorum. Amen. 

Deinde interrogato nomine ejus, respondeant N. Itan 
sacerdos : 

N. Credis in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, creato- 
rem coeli et terrae? Respondeant: Credo. Item sacer- 
dos : Credis et in Jesum Christum Filium eius vnicum 

* These interrogations and re- 
nunciations are in the three Pon- 
tificals above mentioned, and in 
the Leofric MS. There is consi- 
derable variety however in the 
arrangement and number of the 
prayers which precede and follow 

» « With the holy oil ye shall 
mark heathen children on the 
breast, and betwixt the shoulders, 
in the middle, with the sign of 

the cross, before ye baptise it in 
the font water : and when it comes 
from the water, ye shall make the 
sign of the cross on the head with 
the holy chrism. In the holy 
font, before ye baptize them, ye 
shall poor chrism on the figure 
of Christ's cross, and no one may 
be sprinkled with the font water 
after the chrism is poured in." 
i^lfric. Epbt* *^ Quando dividis 
chrisma ." Thotjfe. Tom. 2. p. 891 . 

I&ittt» 1BaptJ;anlii« 


Dominum noBtmm, natum et pasaum? Respondeant. 
Credo. Itcmsacerdos : Gredis et in Spiritum Sanctum, 
sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam, Sanctorum communi- 
onem, remissionem peccatorum, camis resurrectionem, 
et vitam setemam post mortem ? Respondeant: Credo. 

Ttmcinterrogetsacerdosnomen infantis^ dicens: Quid 
petis? Respondeant: Baptismum. Item sacerdos : Vig 
baptizari? Respondeant: Volo. 

Deinde accipiat sacerdos infantem per latera in mani- 
bus suisj et interrogato nomine ejus, baptizet eum sub 
irina mersione^ tantum sahctam Trinitatem invocandoj 
ita dicens: 

N. Et ego Baptize te in nomine Patris. Et mergat 
eum semel versa facie ad aquibnem^ et capite versus ori- 
entem : et Filii : et iterum mergat semel versa facie ad 
meridiem : et Spiritus Sancti : Amen. Et mergat 
tertio recta facie versus aquam. 

Tunc patrini accipientes infantem de manibus sacer- 
dot is levent eum^ defonte. Ut autem surrexerit afonte, 
accipiat sacerdos de chrismate cum pollice suo dicens : 
Dominos yobiscum : et^ Oremus. 

^' " Tunc interroget episcopus : 
Quid petis?" Rubr. Pontif. Sar. 
** Et aecipiet presbyter ea» a par- 
rentibue eorunh et baptizantur 
primi mascuU deinde femincB^ 
mb trina mereione, Sanctam 
TrmUatem semel invocando, ita 
dicendo: Interrogatio. Visbap- 
tizari? &c." Missal. Leofric 

* The Canon that parents 
diodld not lift their own children 
from the Font, appears to have 
been not obligatory in the age of 
Leofric : in his Book, is (see Note 

27) " aecipiet presbyter a paren- 
tibus," and here after the Baptism, 
there is no rubric specifying any 
others who should receive the 
children. Nor is there any notice 
of this in the Winchester Pontifi- 
cal, or the Bangor : except that 
this ktter has, before some 
prayers preceding; ** Et eo te- 
nente infantem, a quo suscipien- 
dus est*' The Sarum Pontifical 
is as express as the Manual. 
" Tunc patrini et matrina acci- 
pientes infantem de manibus epis- 
copiy Sfc*' 


warn» iBaiiti?aiiliC 

Oratb. Deus omnipotenB^ Filter Domini nostri Jwd 
Christi, qui te regeneravit en aqua et Spiiita Sancto^ 
quique dedit tibi remissionein omnium peccatCHnam 
tuorum : Hie liniat infantem de ip» chrismate cum 
pollice in vertice in modum crucis^ dkens. Ipse te linit 
chrismate salutis in eodem Filio suo Domino nostaro 
Jesu Christo in vitam «temam. 

C Postea induatur.infans ^oe$te ckrismali, luKerdaU 
ihterrogante nomen ejus, et dicente sic : 

N. Accipe vestem candidam, sanGtam, et immacnlar 
tarn, quam perferas ante tribunal Domini noBtri Jesii 
Christi, ut habeas vitam stemam et yivas in saecola 
sseculorum. Amen.^ 

C Licitum est autem pannum chrismakm secwuh 
Unire chrismate, et super alium baptizatum immittere, 
tamen ad communes usus non debet pannus ille assumi: 
sed ad ecclesiam reparian et in usus ecclesia reservari. 

Delude qucesito nomine ponat cereum ardentem in ma- 
nu infant is dicens :^ 

N. Accipe lampadem ardentem et irreprehensibilem : 
custodi Baptismum tuum^ serva mandata, ut cum ve- 
nerit Dominus ad nuptias, possis ei occurrere una cum 
Sanctis in aula ccelesti : ut habeas vitam setemam et 
vivas in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

* The Bangor Pontifical omits 
all mention of the putting on of 
this vestment. The Leofric says : 
" Tunc posito chrismali in capite 
baptizaH, dicat sacerdos: acci- 
pe, &c." The S. Swithun MS. : 
" Et vesticLtur infans vestimentis 
ejus, dicente preshytero*' The 
Sarum Pontifical specifies the 
name again» as in the text. 

^ This is omitted in the Leo- 
fric MS. The Bangor Pontifical 
has: ^^ Hie detur lampas a sa- 
cerdote dicente," In the S. Swi- 
thun Book: ''Hie a sacerdote 
lampas detur.** In the Sarum 
Pontifical : '' Deinde interroget 
episcopus iterum nomen infemtiS) 
dando ei candelam in manu sua 
dextra, dicens." 

Wtu» IBapti^anQt 


Si episcopus adest^ statim eum con/irmari oportet : 
^tea commumcari si atas^^ ejus iddeposcat, sacerdote 

orpus Domini nostri Jesu Christi, custodiat corpus 
1 et animam tuam in vitam setemam. Amen. 

Si infans sit^ injungatur patri et matri ut comer- 
puerum ab igne et aqua et omnibus alHs periculis 
e ad cetatem septem annorumj et si ipsi non faciant, 
\ni et matrina tenentur. Item et commatribus in^ 
atur ut doceant infantem Pater noster, et Ave 
ia, et Credo in Deum, vel doceri faciant: et quod 
tmale deferatur ad eccksiam, et quod confirmetur 
I cito episcopus advenerit circa partes per septem 
iria.^ Deinde dicatur hoc sequens evangelium su- 

rhe Leofric MS. says no- 
about confirmation, but di- 
immediately after the put- 
1 of the Vestment, *' Deinde 
wnicetur a preshytero ita 
lo: Omnipotens,sempiteme 

qui regenerasti famulum 
vel^ famulam tuam, ex aqua 
ritu Sancto, quique dedisti 
dssionem omnium peccato- 
ribue eicontinuam sanitatem 
loscendam unitatis tuse veri- 

Per." The Bangor Pon- 
tnakes no mention of either 
mmunion of the newly-bap. 
or the Confirmation. In 
rum Pontifical, we have, as 
e expected : " Deinde in- 
mter episcopus eum con- 

et postea communicetf si 
Has id deposcaty dicendo 
orpus Domini. &c." 

*> The York Manual adds here 
a short office, *' Ad baptizandum 
infirmum in necessitate." 

A MS. Manual in the Library 
of the British Museum, (BibL 
Reg. MS. 2. A. xxi.) which for- 
merly belonged to the parish 
church of '* Southchardeforth" in 
the diocese of Winchester, has 
the English Form of the above 
charge to the Godfathers and 
Godmothers. ''I comaunde ow 
godfadre and godmodre, on holy 
chirche bihalue, that ye chargen 
the fedur and the modur of this 
child, that they kepe this child in 
to the age of seuen 3ere, that hit 
beo from fier and water, and from 
alle other mischeues and periles 
that my3ten to him byfalle, throu3 
miskepinge, and also that ye or 
they techen his ry3te bileue, hure 


filtint iBaptifamiL 

per infantemj si placutrit^^ quia secumham doctares 
maxime valet pro morbo caduco. 

Dominus vobiscum. ^. Et cum Bpirito too. &- 
queniia sancti evangelii secundum Marcum, fu Gloria 
tibi Domine. 

In illo tempore. Respondens uniis de turba dixit 
ad Jesmn : Magister, attuli filimn meom ad te» haben- 
tem spiritum mutmn, qui ubicunque eum apprahen- 
derit, allidit ilium, et atridet deiitibus et 
arescit. Et dixi discipidis tuis ut ejioerent ilium, et 
Don potuerunt. Qui respondens eis diidt: O genieratio 
incredula, quamdiu apud yos era, quamdiu tob patiar ? 
Afferte iUum ad me. Et attulerunt eum. Et cum 
vidisBet ilium, statim spiritus conturbayit eum, et efisuB 
interramvolutabaturspumans. Et interrogavit patrem 
ejus. Quantum temporis est ex quo ei hoc accidit ? 
At ille ait. Ab in£mtia. Et frequenter eum in ignem 
et in aquas misit, ut eum perderet. Sed si quid potes, 
adjuva nos misertus nostri. Jesus autem ait illi. Si 
potes credere, omnia possibilia sunt credenti. Et con- 
tinuo exclamans pater pueri cum lacbrjrmis aiebat. 
Credo, Domine, adjuva incredulitatem meam. Et cum 
videret Jesus concurrentem turbam, comminatus est 
spiritu immundo dicens illi. Surde et mute spiritus, 
ego tibi preecipio exi ab eo, et amplius ne introeas in 
eum. Et damans et multum discerpens eum, exiit ab 
eo. Et factus est sicut mortuus, ita ut multi dicerent : 

paternoster^ and hure Ave Maria 
and hure Credo, or do him to bco 
tau3te : and also that ye wasthe 
youre hondes, or ye gon out of 
Chirche: and also that hit beo 
conformed the next tyme that the 
hyssop Cometh to contre : and al 

this doeth in peyne of corsynge." 
fol. 15. 

*• ^^ Post JuBc adducatur infans 
ad magnum altare, et ibi dicat 
episcopus super eum^ si placet, 
hoc evangelium : Respondens 

Wiitu» 1Bapti?anlii« 27 

quia mortuus est. Jesus autem tenens manum ejus 
elevavit eum,** et surrexit. Et cum introisset in domum, 
discipuli ejus secrete interrogabant eum : Quare nos 
Hon potuimus ejicere eum ? £t dixit illis : Hoc genus 
in nullo potest exire, nisi in oratione et jejunio. 

^t postea dicatur hoc evangelium sequens sub forma 
predictay videlicet : Secundum Johannem. 

In principio erat Verbum, et Verbum erat apud 
Deum, et Deus erat Verbum. Hoc erat in principio 
sqpud Deum. Omnia per ipsum facta sunt^ et sine ipso 
Gu^tum est nihily quod factum est, in ipso vita erat, 
et vita erat lux hominum. £t lux in tenebris lucet, e 
tenebrae eam non comprehenderunt. Fuit homo mis- 
sus a Deo, cui nomen erat Johannes. Hie yenit in 
testimonium ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine, ut 
omnes crederent per ilium. Non erat ille lux, sed ut 
testimonium perhiberet de lumine. Erat lux vera, quse 
iUuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum. 
[n mundo erat, et mundus per ipsum factus est, et 
mundus eum non cognovit. In propria venit, et sui 
Bum non receperunt. Quotquot autem receperunt 
sum, dedit eis potestatem filios Dei fieri, his qui cre- 
dunt in nomine ejus. Qui non ex sanguinibus, neque 
BX voluntate camis, neque ex voluntate viri, sed ex 
Deo nati sunt. Et Verbum caro factum est, et habi- 
kavit in nobis : Et vidimus gloriam ejus, gloriam quasi 
onigeniti a Patre : Plenum gratis et veritatis. 

C Notandum est quod quiUbet sacerdos parochialis 
iebet parochianis suisformam baptizandi in aqua pura^ 
naturali^ et recentij et non in alio liquorcy frequenter in 

anuB. Postea dicatur evange- ^ " Hie dicat sacerdos commatri 
Hum: In principio." Rubr. Pon- ut surgat cum puero.** Ruhr. 
if. Sar. Man. Ehor, 


28 filtintlBaiicifttiliii: 

diebus dominicis eajfonere^ ut si mce$$Uas cmergat sdant 
parvulas in forma ecclesia baptiaare^ prqfamdofarmaM 
verbaram baptismi in lingua maternOf distimctc ct aperU 
et solum unica voce^ nullo modo itcrando verba ilia rite 
semel prolatOj vel similia super euiulem: sed sine aUqua 
additione^ subtract ione^ interruptione, verbi pro verbo po- 
sitioner mutationey comqdione, seu transpositiane sic di^ 
caido : I cristene the N. in the name of the Fadir, and 
of the Sone, and of the Holy Gost Amen. Vel in 
lingua latina^ sic : Ego baptiaso te, iVl in nomine Patris, 
et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. Aquam super par- 
vulum spargendoj vel in aquam mergendo ter vel salkm 

C Et si puer fuerit baptizatus secufulum illam for- 
fnanij caveat sibi unusquisque ne iterum eundem baptixet: 
sed si hujusmodi parvuli convalescanty deferantur ad ec- 
clesiam et dicantur super eos ejrorcismi et cathechisnUj 
cum unctionibus et omnibus aliis supradictis prater im- 
fnersionem aqua et formam baptismiy qua omnino sunt 
omittenduj videlicet : Quid petis : et ab hific usque ad 
ilium locum quo sacerdos debeat parvulum chrismatc 

C Et ideo si laicus baptizaverit puerum^ antequam 
deferaturad ecclesiam^ interroget sacerdos diligenter quid 
dijreritj et quid fecerit : et si invenerit laicum discrete et 
debito modo baptizasse^ et formam verborum baptismi ut 
supra in suo idiomate integre protulissey approbet factum^ 
et non rebaptizet eum. Si vero dubitet rationabiliter sa- 
cerdos utrum infans ad baptizandum sibi oblatus prius 
in forma debiia fuerit baptizatus vel non^ debet omnia 
perficere cum eo sicut cum alio quem constat sibi tmn 
baptizatumy preterquam quod verba sacramentalia essen- 
tialia proferre debeat sub conditioner hoc modo dicendo : 

N. Si baptizatus es, ego non rcbaptizo te : sed si 

nbndum baptizatus es, ego biaptizo te: In nomine 
Patris, et Filii^ et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. Sub asper- 
stone vel immersUme ut supra. Et est observandutn tarn 
de baptismate quam de co^rmatione, quod quandocunquc 
dubUdtuVy sine dubitatione conferantur, quia non dicitur 
iteratum quod nescitur fuisse collatum^ et ideo sub forma 
prcedicta baptizantur infantes e.zpositij de quorum bap^ 
tismo probabiliter dubitatur, sive inveniantur cum sale 
vel sine sale. 

C Notandum est etiam quod si infans sit in periculo 
mortis^ tunc prima introducatur ad fontem^ et postea 
baptizetur incipiendo ad hunc locum : Quid petis. Et 
si past baptismum viverit habeat totum residuum servi- 
tium supra dictum. 

C Hoc autem in quolibet sacrametito observetur^ quod 
quandocunquc periculum videtur imminercy semper inci- 
pidtur adsubstantiam illius sacrament i et postea residuum 
compleatur si poterit. 

C Non licet aliquem baptizare in aula^ camera^ vel 
aliqua loco privato, sed duntaxat in ecclesiis in quibus 
sunt f antes ad hoc specialiter ordinati, nisi fueritJiUuS 
regis vel principisy aut talis necessitas emerserit propter 
quam ad ecclesiam accessus absque periculo haberi non 

^.Presbyter autem si poterit semper habeat fontem la^ 
pideum^ integrum, et honestum, adbaptizandum: si autem 
nequiverity habeat vas conveniens ad baptismum y quod 
aliis usibus nullatenus deputetur^ nee extra ecclesiam 

C Solemnis baptismus celebrari solet in sabbato sancto 
Pascha et in vigilia Pentecostes, et ideo pueri nati infra 
octo dies ante Pascha, vel infra octo dies ante Pentecos- 
ten, debent reservari ad baptizandum in sabbato sancto 
Pascha vel in vigilia Pentecostes, si commode et sine pe- 

^o wftWr "IwHWTHWttWi 

rkido valeant reservari^ Ita fmd timp&re me£0 itder 
nathUatem puerarum et kujui baptigmf.ptrfMmmnti' 
piant catechismumj mUaque dkh$s jfnt£cH» b&ftitm 
cansecratisfontibus sit immersiofaciembu 

C AUi autem qui aliis anni temporibus §mti extHmnt, 
incontinenter cum natijuerint^prqriermartakparieubm 
quod sape pueris imminet in^^rovisumf haptvtientur. 

C Veruntamen in sabbato sancta Pasdut, et m vigHia 
Pentecostes peracta coMecratiomfontium nan infandatwr 
oleum neque chrimuij nec ulteriui iriaffido btgjiismi fro- 
cedatur^ nisi /arte aUguis adsit bq^sumdus^ sed Slntem^ 
mine mundo cooperianturj el usque ad can^fktoriam 
Pascha et Pentecostes reserventur^ ut si forte kis dMms 
atiquis baptizandus advenerit^fxcundatis et sasid^icatis 
fontibus olei et chrismatis infusione bof^izetur. 

C Et nota quad de aqua sanctificata in fonte baj^is- 
mali in Sabbato sancto Pascha et in vigilia Pentecostes^ 
nunquam debet populus aspergi post aqua chrismationem 
nec ante. 

C Non licet laico vel mulieri aliquem baptizare, nisi 
in articulo necessitatis. Si vero vir et mulier adessent 
ubi immineret necessitatis articulus baptizandi puerumy 
et nan esset alius minister ad hoc magis idoneus prasens, 
vir baptizet et non mulier ^ nisi forte mulier bene sciret 
verba sacramentalia et non vir^ vel aliud impedimentum 

C Similiter pater vel mater non debet propriumflium 
de sacro fonte levare nec baptizare^ nisi in ertrema ne- 
cessitatis articulo^ tunc enim bene possunt sine praejudicio 
copulce conjugalis ipsum baptizare, nisi fuerit aliquis 
alius preesens qui hocfacere sciret et vellet. 

C Prteterea vir et uxor non debent simul levare pue- 
rum alterius de sacro fonte. Nulli religiosi debent ad- 
mitti in patrinos^ quod etiam de monialibus obsa^andum 

sums; iBapti^anitfi; 31 

C Viri et muUeres qui smcipiunt pueros de baptismo 
constituuHtur eorum Jidyussores apud Deum, et idea 
frequenter debent eas admonere cum adultifuerint^ seu 
discipUnte capaces^ ut castitatem custodiant, justitiam 
diiiganty caritatem teneant, et ante omnia orationtm 
Domimcakm et salutationem angeHcam^ symbolumjidd^ 
et signaculo scilicet crucis se signare, eos docere tenentur: 

C Uhde nan debent recipi in patrinos nee admittantur 
nisi qui sciunt pradicta^ quia patrini debent instruere. 
Julias suas spirituals in ^fide^ quod facere nan possunt 
nisi ipsimet infdeprius instructi sint. 

C &' baptizandus nan poterit laquij vel quia parvulus^ 
vel quia mutus, vel quia agrotans aut aliunde impotens, 
tunc debent patrini pro eis respandere ad amnes interro-^ 
gationes in baptismo. Si autem loqui poterit^ tutu: 
pro seipso respondeat ad singulas interrogationes nisi 
ad interrogationes sui nominis tantum, ad quas sem- 
per patrini sui respondeant pro eo. Qui suscipiunt 
pueros de sacra fontCy nan debent eos tenere coram 
episcopo in con/irmationey nisi cogente necessitate. Nan 
plures quam unus vir et una mulier debent accedere ad 
susdpiendum parvulum de sacra f ante : unde plures ad 
hoc simul accedentes peccant faciendo contra prohibition 
nem canonisj nisi aliafuerit consuetudo approbata : tamen 
ultra tres amplius ad hoc nullatenus recipiantur. 

C Manendi sunt etiam laid quod parvuli sui conjir^ 
matiy tertia die post conjirmationtm deportentur adeccle- 
siam : et frantes earum per manus sacerdotis propter 
chrismatis reverentiam in baptisterio abluantur, et liga- 
tura earum tunc igne comburantur. 

C Item nullus debet admitti ad sacramentum corporis 
et sanguinis Christi Jesu extra mortis articulum^ nisi 
fuerit canfirmatus, vel a receptione sacramenti confirma- 
tianisfuerit rationabiliter impeditus. 


Eitus lBaptt?anlii« 

C Nofi ikbet saccrdos parockialh esm sine ckrismak: 
iftd (kbet quUtbei mcerdas parochiaiis a suo epkcopo^ mn 
ttb alio^ in propria persmia ma vci per alium Mcer- 
doicm^ diaconum^ ml subdiaconum^ vhrisma peiere sin* 
giiiis annis ante Pamha, 

Sacerdos qui de vcieri chrismate ungit bapiizaimn 
(nisi ifi ariicuh necessitatis) depomndus est : ei itko dekt 
omni die atnm Domini novum Chrisma ab epkcopo mn- 
Jici^ et vctHs rtnuweri ct concremari. 

C Item tarn sacrnm oleum qiuim chrisma sub Jidt& 
cmtodia clave adhibita debeni obstrvari^ ne ad ilia pmiit 
manm temeraria extendi ad aliqua nefaria ej-ercenda. 

C Nota quod tempore interdkti generalis lidte jm- 
sunt conferri baptismus ei conjirmatio, tarn aduUis qmm 
parvuliSf sed non cum puisatis campams neque alta mce* 

ConSmtdtio t&uerotunt* 

VOL. I. 


Confirmatio i^tterortttn/ 

\Nprimis dicat episcoptis. 

Adjutorium nostrom. Sit nomen Domini, 
etc. Dominus vobiscum. £t cum spiritn 

Oratto. Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui r^;ene- 
rare dignatus es hos femulos tuos' vel has famnlas toas 
ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, quique dedisti eis remissio- 
nem omnium peccatorum : immitte in eos septiformem 
spiritum, sanctum paraclituni, de coelis. Amen. 
Spiritum sapiehtise et intellectusi Amen. 
Spiritum scientise et pietatis. Amen, 
Spiritum consilii et fortitudinis. + Amen. 
Et imple ^ eos vel eas spiritu timoris Domini. + Amen. 
Et consigna eos vel eas signo sanctae crucis + con- 
firma eos vel eas chrismate salutis in vitam propitiatus 
eetemam. Amen. 

' " Confirmatio puerorum et 
aliorum baptizatorum." Pontif. 

In placing the Order of Con- 
firmation after the Form of Ad- 
ministering Holy Baptism, I have 
followed the arrangement of the 
Salisbury Pontifical: and not of 
the Manual. The last has this 
Office towards the end of the 
volume; immediately preceding 
the Benedictions : and following 

the Order of the Burial of the 
Dead. In fiict, strictly, this Order 
of Confirmation was not a neces- 
sary part of the Manual of the 
Parish-priest; and was included 
usually in it, for his instruction 
and not for his use. 

* '*Huncfamulumtuum.** Sa- 
rum. Pontifl which is the better 

» " Adimple." Pontif, Sar. 

Confinnatio ]puerontm« 


Et tunc epUcopus petat namen, et ungat poUicem 
chrismate: etfaciat injronte pueri crucemj dicens^ 
Consigno te N. gigno crucis 4* et confirmo te chrismate 
salutis. In nomine Patris, et Fi*Mii, et Spiritus Sancti. 

Pax tibi. Oremus. 

Oratio. Deus, qui apostolis tuis Sanctum dedisti 
Spiritum, quique per eos eorum successoribus cseteris- 
qae fidelibus tradendum esse voluisti : respice propitius 
ad nostrae humanitatis famulatum : et prsesta, ut horum 
corda quorum frontes sacrosancto chrismate delinivi- 
mus, et signo sanctae crucis consignavimus, idem Spi- 
ritus Sanctus adveniens, templum glorise suae dignanter 
inhabitando perficiat. Per Dominum : in unitate ejus- 

Ecce sic benedicetur omnis homo, qui timet Domi- 

^ " Tunc inquisito nomine cu- 
juslibet et polHce chrismate uncto, 
pontifex fadat cmcem in singulo- 
rum fronte dicens, ' Signo te' etc J* 
Rvbr. Pontif. Sar. 

^ ** SeqwUur pscUmus, Ecce 
sic benedicetur homo qui timet 
Dominum. Benedicat tibi Do- 
minns ex Syon, ut videas bona 
Jerusalem omnibus diebus vitse 
to». Gloria Patri. Sicut erat. 

'* Vers, Emitte Spiritum tuum 
et creabuntur. 

'* Resp. Et renovabis faciem 
terr».- Pontif, Sar. 

' The Benediction in the text 
haying been given before, accord- 
ing to the Pontifical, that MS. 

does not of course repeat it again. 
But continues as follows. 

'* Per Dominum in unitate ejus- 
dem. Benedicat tos omnipotens 
Deus Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus 
Sanctus. Amen. 

** Et si ejus atcu id deposcat 
communicai eum episcopus^ di* 

" Corpus Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi, custodiat corpus tuum et 
animam tuam in vitam fl^maro. 

** Hoc facto injungcUur ab aU- 
quo sacerdote quod compatres et 
commatres orent aliquod certum 
pro statu dommi Episcopi^ etpro 
animabus patris et matris, et pro 


Congcmatio pucrorum* 

Benedicat vos Dominua ex Sion : ut videatis bona 
Hicrusalem omnibus diebus vestris» 

Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus: Pa + ter, et Fi + lius, 
tt Spiritus + Sanctus. Amen» 

^nimahus omnium fidelium iff- 
funvltinim^ fit quod Urtia die 
vaiiani cum paeri^ ad eecfenam 
ad chritnmUa dep^ntndn^ et sic 
recediint in fttjnnne Dofniui/' 
Pontif, Sar. 

The Chrimimlia wen* tlie Uiaen 
bands tied across Ihe foreheada 
of the newly confirmed: and to 
which frequent reference is made 
in various Diocesan English Sy- 
nods, For example, of /Hgidius 
Bishop of Samm, in 1256 : " nee 
chrismalia debent alienari, nee in 
aliquos usus mitti debent, nisi in 
USU8 ecclesis." Of Quivil, Bishop 
of Exeter, 1287: "Confirmandi 
secum deferant ligaturas mundas 
latitudinis et longitudinis compe- 
tentis, quas post confirmationem 
per triduum portare, deinde igne 
comburi prsecipimus, et confirma- 
tos ultra baptisterium per manus 
sacerdotis, vel saltern diaconi ab- 
lui." Wilkins, Concilia, torn. 1. 
p. 713. torn. 2. p. 132. 

I have had some doubt whether 
I should adopt for the text, the 

Order at given in the Manual^ or 
in the Pen ti Heal, to which it pro- 
perly belongs, Bnt I have not 
thought it defirable n|>on the 
whole, to reject the Maouiil: 
akhough the variations of the 
Pontifical are undeniably of coti- 
siderable importance, and eer^ 
tainly to be the rather chosen, as 
giving us the Order of Confirma- 
tion» as performed at the time 
when the MS. was written» now 
before me* But the Manuals 
which I have examined, of the 
succeeding Century, all agree in 
the Form, which is taken for the 
text. At any rate, the reader has 
both before him: and it is open 
to some doubt, whether any 
alterations took place during the 
latter part of the xvth Century. 

The Order of Confirmation is 
very nearly the same according 
to the ancient Anglo Saxon Ritual 
of Durham, which the student wiU 
find in the edition by the Surtees 
Society, p. 119. " Oratio ad in- 
fantes consignandos.'' 

0ttr(ficatio post i^artum, 



l^urtfitatio post Ipartum. 

Of*do ad purijicandam mtilie^Tm imsi parium ante 
ostium €cckm£. 

minutri ejus dicant 
p«. Leuaui oculos 
"^ ' patri. 


HI MO sacerdm^ et 
pscdmos sequeiites. 
meos. ps. Beati omnes* 
Sicut erat. 

Seqitatttr. Kyrieeleison. Christe eleison. K^xic 
eleison. Pater noster, Et ne nos. Sed libera. Do 
mine salvam fac aueillam tuam. Deus meus sperantem 
in te. Esto ei Domine turris fortitudinis. A facie 
inimici. Domine exaudi orationem meani. £t clamor 
meus ad te veoiat, Dominus vobiscum, Et cum 
spiritu tuo, 

Oruiio. Deus qui banc famulam tuam de pariendi 
periculo liberasti, et earn in servitio tuo devotam esse 
fecisti, concede ut temporali cursu fideliter peracto, 
sub alls misericordiae tuse vitam perpetuam et quietam 
consequatur : Per Christum Dominum.* etc. 

' " Veniat aacerdos ad ostium 
ecclesicBy et dicat mulieriy acci- 
plena earn per manutn: Ingre- 
dere in texnplum Dei. Poatea 
dicat hunc paalmum: ad te le- 
vavi: cum Gloria Patri. Sicut 
erat. Kyrie eleison.*' &c Ruhr, 
Man. Ebor, 

*^ Mulier ad purificationem ac- 
CMl^ns, caput habeat secundum 
<imlH)uani AngliaB consuetudinem, 

coopertum velo albo, in manu 
portet candelam accensam, et sit 
media inter duas matronas." An- 
noU Edit, Douay, 1610. 

• " Tunc aurgat et eat ad 
locum uhi aedere debeat uague 
poat miaaam. Peractaque miaaa 
aurgat et reveniat ad eundetn 
locum uhi priua, videlicet^ ad 
gradua altaria : et ibi genuflec- 
tena ut aumat st recipiat abaoiu- 

IPunficatio po0t Ipartum. 39 

C Tunc aspergatur mulier aqua benedicta : deinde 
tnducat earn sacerdos per manum dextram in eccle- 
sianij dicens : 

Ingredere in templum Dei ut habeas vitam eetemam 
& vivas in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

C Nota quod mulieres post prolem emissamy quan^ 
docunqtie ecclesiam intrare voluerint acturce gratiaSj 
purificari possunty et nulla proinde peccati mole gra- 
vantur : nee ecclesiarum aditus est eis denegandusj 
ne pcena Hits converti videatur in culpam. Si tamen 
ex veneratione voluerint aliqtcandiu ahstinere^ devo- 
tionem earum non credimus improbandam. De puri- 
Jicatione post partum. cap. uno. 

tionem a Mocerdote. Hoc modo rum. Deinde henedicat panem 
dicai sacerdos. Misereatur. etc. et det muUerty quibus peractis 
Absolutionem omnium peccato- eat ad propna." Manuale £bor« 

DrUo an faciendum Apon^alia* 

€>rbo dtr factenbum ^pon&aUa. 

N primissiatuaaiurvir ei muiier ante mtium 
ecciesm coram Deo^ sacerdot€y^ et popuky 
vir a dextris muiierh^ ei mulkr a simstm 

C Ei sciendum cst^ quod licet omrti tempore posimt 
contrafii spomuUa^ et etiam matrimomum quod Jit pri- 
Viitim sola cottsemu: iamen traditio uavrum^ei nuptiartm 
solemnitas certis temporibas Jteri prohibentur : videlicd 
ab advent H Domini mquc adoct: Epiph : ei a septita- 
gcsimu imjue ad oci : Pasch^t : et a doinimca ante ascen^ 
Sionem Domini usque ad oci: Peuiecostes, In octava die 
tamenEpiph: licitepossuntnuptiacelebrari: quiananinve- 
nitur prohibitumj quamvis in octavis Pascha hacfacere 
non liceat. Similiter indominicaproxtmapastfestum Pen- 

* " Coram presbytero amictu, 
alba, fanone, et stola revestito.*' 
Ruhr. Miss. Herf. This order, 
which I have not found in any 
other English Use, is of no little 
importance : in its bearing upon 
the much disputed question whe- 
ther the Maniple orjano was al- 
lowed to be worn at any other of- 
fice or service, than that of the 
Mass. Clearly it was especially 
ordered, during the rite of Mar- 
riage, according to the Use of the 
Church of Hereford. It would 
be no answer to say, that the 
Mass formed a part of, or, more 
properly, was always added to, 

that Office : because there is here 
no mention of the Vestment, 
strictly proper to the celebration 
of the liturgy, viz. the Chasuble : 
but on the contrary, the omission 
of the Chasuble b equivalent to 
an order that it should not be 
worn. The Priest would of course 
put it on at the proper time, after 
the Marriage was completed. 

* The rubrics prefixed to Uiis 
Office in the York Manual are 
generally the same in effect as 
those in the text ; but variations 
of arrangement occur. For ex- 
ample, this rubric is placed in the 
middle, and not at the beginning. 

fl)ilio an (Hctenoum ^potiflEaUa^ 


tecostes Ucite cekbrantur nuptia: quia dies Pentecostes 
actavam diem non habet. 

C Tunc interroget sacerdos banna ^ dicens in lingua 
matema sub hacf&rma. 

Ecce oonvenimus hue fratres coram Deo, et Angelis, 
et omnibus Sanctis ejus, in facie Ecclesiae, ad conjun- 
gendum duo corpora, scilicet hujus viri et hujus muli- 
eris, Hie respiciat sacerdos personas suas.* ut amodo 
sint una caro et duae animae in fide et in lege Dei, ad 
promerendam simul vitam aetemam quidquid ante hoc 
fecerint Admoneo igitur vos omnes, ut si quis ex 
Yobis qui aliquid dicere sciat quare isti adolescentes 
legitime contrahere non possint, modo confiteatur/ 

C Eadem admanitio Jiat ad virum et ad mulierem, ut 

' The Sarum Pontifical does 
not enter into any particulars of 
the banns : but directs after a ru- 
bric to the same effect as the Jirst 
above : " Tunc episcopus inter- 
roget hanna^ et postea dicat: 
Admoneo vos omnes, ut si quis ex 
▼obis est qui aliquid sciat, quare 
isti adolescentes legitime contra- 
here non possint : modo confitea- 

* " Personas conjungendas," 
Manuale Ebor. 

' The York Manual gives the 
English Form also. "Lo bre- 
theren we are comen here before 
God and his angels, and all his 
halowes, In the face and presence 
of our moder holy Chyrche, for to 
eouple and to knyt these two bo- 
dyes togyder : that is to saye, of 
ibis man and of this woman . That 
they be from this tyme forthe, 
but one body and two soules in 

the fayth and lawe of God and 
holy Chyrche: For to deserue 
euerlastyng Lyfe, what somencr 
{sic) that they haue done here 
before." Again. " I charge yoa 
on Goddes behalfe and holy 
chirche, that if there be any of 
you that can say any thynge why 
these two may not be lawfully 
wedded togyder at this tyme, 
say it nowe, outher pryuely or 
appertly, in helpynge of your 
soules and theirs bothe." And 
again, to the man and woman: 
*' Also I charge you both, and 
eyther be your selfe, as ye wyll 
answer before God at the day of 
dome, that yf there be any thynge 
done pryuely or openly, betwene 
your selfe : or that ye knowe aay 
lawfuU lettyng why that ye may 
nat be wedded togyther at thys 
tyme : Say it nowe, or we do an; 
more to this mater." 

44 i>tiui a0 fiideimniii %pdiiMlia« 

si quid ab illis occuUe actumfyerity vel si quidAvaverixA^ 
vcl alio modo de se navcrint quare legitime cantrakere 
non possiut : tunc cofifiteantur. Si vcro aiiquis impe- 
dtmentum aliquod praponcre voiuent : et ad hoc proban^ 
dum cautionem prastiterit : differantur spansaSa quous- 
que rei Veritas cognoscatur. Si vero nuUus in^pedi^ 
mentum praponere voluerit: intem^et sacerdos dotem 
muiierisy videlicet arrhas spansales^ et dicuntur arrha 
annuli velpecunia vel alia res danda spansa per span- 
sum: qua datio subarrhatio dicitur^ pracipue turn 
quandojit per annuli dationem : et tunc vulgariter des- 
ponsatio vacatur. Nanfidabit sacerdos nee consentkt 
adjidathnem inter virum et mulierem ante tertium dic- 
tum bannarum. Debet enim sacerdos banna in facie 
ecclesia infra missarum salemnia cum mqjar populi 
adfuerit multitudo^ per tres dies salemnes et disjunctaSj 
interrogare : ita ut inter unumquemque diem solemnem 
cadat ad minus una dies ferialis. 

C Debet etiam sacerdos terminwn pra/igere competen- 
tefHf infra quern qui voluerit et valuerit legitimum opponat 
impediment um : et si contrahentes diversarum sint para- 
chiarumj tunc in utraque ecclesia parochiarum illarum 
sunt banna interroganda. 

C Si autan unius et ejusdem sint parochice^ tunc tan- 
turn in ecclesia iltius parochia banna interrogentur. 
Sacerdos vero qui contractibus matrimonialibus ante 
trinam solemnem interrogationem bannarum^ ut pradic- 
turn est J prasumpserit interesse : posnam suspensionis ab 
officio per triennium incurrit. 

C Similiter sacerdos parochialis qui matrimoma clan- 
destina in parochia sua prohibere contempserit^ ab officio 
per triennium debet suspendi : et gravius est puniendus 
si culpa qualitas id requirat. Prohibentur autem clan- 
destina matrimonia duplici ratione : videlicet, ne sub spe 

S>tmo an eicienmtm «poniMttft. 45 

matrimonii committatur fornicatio : et ne mairimania- 
liter canjuncti injuste separentur. Sape enim in matrix 
monio occulta alter conjugum mutat propositumj et dimit- 
tit reliquum probationibus destitutum et sine remedio 
restitutionis : et ideo prohibeant sacerdotes frequenter 
parochianos sues ne dent sibi Jidem mutuOj sed coram 
publicis et honestis personis ad hoc constitutis. Quisquis 
etiam sacerdos, seu sacularis seu regularis extiteritj qui 
sokmnizationem matrimonii extra ecclesiam parochialem^ 
vel capellam habentem Jura parochia sibi ab antiquo 
competentiaj absque dicecesani loci licentia speciali cele^^ 
brareprcesumpserit aut celebrationi interesse : ipso facto 
per annum integrum ab officio est suspensus. 

Postea dicat sacerdos ad virum cunctis audientibus in 
lingua matema sic.^ 

N. Vis habere banc mulierem in sponsam, et earn 
diligere : bonorare : tenere : et custodire sanam et infir- 
mam, sicut sponsus debet sponsam: et omnes alias 
propter eam dimittere, et illi soli adbserere quamdiu 
vita utriusque vestrum duraverit ? 

Respondeat vir. 


Item dicat sacerdos ad mulierem hoc modoJ 

• " N, wylt thou haue this wo- 
man to thy wyfe : and loue her 
and kepe her, in syknes and in 
helthe, and in all other degrese 
he to her as a hushande sholde he 
to his wyfe, and all other forsake 
for her : and holde thee only to 
her, to thy lyiies ende ? RespoU' 
deat vir hoc modo : I wyll." 
York Manual, 

' " N. Wvlt thou haue this 

man to thy hushande, and to be 
buxum to him, seme him and 
kepe hym, in sykenes and in 
helthe : And in all other degrese 
be vnto hym as a wyfe should be 
to hir hushande, and all other to 
forsake for hym : and holde thee 
only to hym to thy lyues ende ? 
Respondeat mulier hoc modo : 
I wyll." York ManuaL 

46 0ttio aD factenOum ^ponsalm. 

N, Vis habere htinc virum in sponsuin et ei obedire 
et serrire ; et eum diligere, honorare, ac custodire m- 
num et infirmum sicut sponsa debet sponsum ; et ora- 
nes alios propter eum dimittercy et illi sail adhaerere 
quamdiu vita utriusque vestrum duraTerit ? 

Respotidmi midkr. 


Dcindi' detur fctnina a paire saoj vti ab amicis ^m: 
^uod a/ ptidla ut discooperiam habcai manum : si vidm 
icctam : quam vir recipiat in Deijide et sua scrvandamy 
sicHi vovit coram smerdoie^ ei tencat earn per manum 
dcTtram in manu sua dextra^ et sic detjidem muUeri ptr 
verba de pr^esenti^ ita dicem doccnte sacerdotey 

I N. take the N. to my wedded wyf to haue and to 
holde fro this day forwarde for better: for wors: for 
richere : for poorer : in sykenesse and in hele : tyl 
dethe vs departe if holy chyrche it woU ordeyne, and 
therto I plight the my trouthe, 
♦ manum retrahendo. ^ a^ 

Deiride dicai mulkr docente sacerdote, 

I N* take the A^, to my wedded housbonder to haue 
and to holde fro this day forwarde for better; for 
wors : for richer : for poorer : in sykenesse and in hcle ; 
to be bonere and buxum in bedde and at the borde tyll 
dethe vs departhe if holy chyrche it wol ordeyn^ and 
therto I plight the my trouthe. 

manum retrahendo. 

Deinde ponat vir aurum : argentum : et annulum 
super scutum vel librum : et qucerat sacerdos si annulus 

* *' Deinde sacerdos : Who espousals, according to the Here- 
gyuesmethiswyfe? Deinde detur ford, York, and Bangor Uses, in 

fevnina a paire suoy Ac" York my Preface to the Ancient Litur- 

Manuah gies of the Church of Englaod. 

• See the different forms of the 

4)riio an (Hciennum «ponMlia. 47 

antea fuerit benedictus vel non : si dicatur quod nony 
tunc benedicat sacerdos anntUum hoc modo cum Domi- 
nus vobiscum, et cum Oremus. 


Creator et conservator humani generis : dator gra- 
tise spiritalis: largitor setemse salutk: tu, Domine, 
mitte benedictionem tuam super hunc annulum, rtspi- 
ce, ut quse ilium gestaverit sit armata virtute coelestis 
defensionisy et proficiat illi ad setemam salutem. 

Per Christum. 


Bene 4* die, Domine, hunc annulum, respice^ quern 
nos in tuo sancto nomine benedidmus : ut quaecumque 
eum portaverit in tua pace consistat : et in tua volun- 
tate permaneat : et in tuo amore vivat et crescat et 
senescat: et multiplicetur in longitudinem dierum. 
Per Dominum. 

Tunc aspergatur aqua benedicta super annulum. 

C Si autem antea fuerit annulus ille benedictus^ tunc 
statim postquam vir posuerit annulum super librum^ ac- 
cipiens sacerdos annulum^^ tradat ipsum viro : quern vir 
accipiat manu sua dextera cum tribus principalioribus 
digitisy et manu sua sinistra tenens derteram sponsa 
docente sacerdote dicat.^ 

*® Here the Bangor Pontifical 
begins the Order of Matrimony : 
preceded only by a few verses and 
responses. The York Manual re- 
verses the order of the two suc- 

: prayers. 

^ A MS. Manual, before quo- 
ted, in the Library of the British 
Museum (BihL Reg. 2 A. xzj.) 
of Salisbury Use, has a curious 

addition here : '^ et dato annulo 
dicat sacerdos: Loo this gold 
and this siluer is leyd doun in 
signifyinge that the woman schal 
haue hure dower, thi goodes, 3if 
heo abide aftur thy disces." FoL 

^ See other forms at the put« 
ting on of the ring, in the Preface 
to the Ancient Liturgies. 


flhM flD liuiciilKiiii ftpnwdttt 

With this rynge, I the wed, and ihig gold and sillier 
I the geoe, and with my body I the Worshipe, and 
with all my wordely cathel I the endowe. 

et tunc inserat sponms annulum paliici spaf$sa dkens. 

In nomine Patris : 

deinde secundo digUo dkens. 

et Filii : 

^inde tertio digito dicens. 

et Spuitos Sancti. 

deinde quarto digito dicens. 


ibifue dimittat annulum : quia in medico est quadam 
vena procedens usque ad cor : etinsonoritateargeniide- 
signatur interna diiectio^ qua semper inter eos debet esse 

C Deinde inclinatis eorum capitibus^ dicat sacerdos 
benedictionem super eos}^ 

Benedicti 4« sitis a Domino, qui fecit mundum ex 
nihilo. Amen. 

Postea dicatur iste psalmus sequens hoc modo. 

Manda, Deus, virtuti tuae : confirma hoc Deus quod 
operatus as in nobis. 

A templo tuo in Hierusalem: tibi efferent reges 

Increpa feras arundinis, congregatio taurorum in 
vaccis populorum : ut excludant eos qui probati sunt 

Gloria patri. 

Sicut erat. 

^ This benediction is not in 
the York Use: but this rubric 
follows the putting on of the ring. 
'* Sacerdos interroget dotem mu* 

lierisf tunc si terra in dotem ei 
detury procidat ilia ad pedes tfiri, 
et dicat sacerdos hos versus: 
Manda Deus,** &c. 

fl)tDo an factenDum ^pQn0aUa. 49^ 


Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. 

Pater noster. 

Et ne DOS : sed libera. 

Benedicamus Patrem, et Filium, cum Spiritu Sancto. 
Laudemus et superexaltemus eum in ssecula. 

Laudemus Dominum quern laudant angeli. Queiii 
cherubin et seraphin Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctua pro- 

Domine, exaudi orationem meam. Et clamor meus 
at te veniat. 

Dominus vobiscum. 


Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, Deus Jacob, sit vobis- 
cum : et ipse vos conjungatque impleat, benedictionem 
Buam in vobis. Qui vivit et regnat Deus. Per omnia 
saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

C Alia oratio cum. Oremus. 

Bene4«dicat vos Deus Pater, custodiat vos Jesus 
Christus, illuminet vos Spiritus Sanctus. Ostendat 
Dominus faciem suam in vobis et misereatur vestri. 
Convertat Dominus vultum suum ad vos : et det vobis 
pacem : impleatque vos omni benedictione spirituali, 
in remissionem omnium peccatorum vestrorum ut ha- 
beatis vitam setemam, et vivatis in ssecula saeculorum. 

Hie intrent ecclesiam usque adgradum altar is: et sa- 
:erdas in eundo cum suis ministris dicat huncpsalmum 

" " Hie roget sacerdos circum- 
itantes orare pro eis dicens.'* 
Ruin-. Manual, Ehor. 

^ This prayer differs from the 
York Manual : in which this ru- 
VOL. I. 

brie follows. " Tune aspergantor 
et introducantur in ecclesiam, et 
prostratis illis ante gradum altaria, 
sacerdos in eundo cum luis minis- 
tris dicat psalmum: 'Beati om- 


|o S)rDo an factcnDum ^ponsalia. 

Beati omnes qui timent Domiuuni : qui ambulant 
in viis ejus. Labores manuum tuarum quia manduca- 
bis : beatus es et bene tibi erit. 

Uxor tua ilcut vitis abundans : in lateribus domas 

Ecce sic benedicetur homo : qui timet Dominum. 

Benedicat tibi Dominus ex Syon : et videas bom 
Hierusaleni omnibus diebus vitse tuse. 

Et videas filios filiorum tuorum : pacem guper Israel^ 

Gloria PatrL Sicut erat* 

Sine fiota^ cum^ 

Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison* 

C Tunc prostmtis ^nm et spojim ** anie gradum ai- 
taris^ rogei sacerdos circurmtantes orarepro eis^ dicmdo* 

Pater noster« 

Et ne no8. Sed libera dos a malo. 

Salvum fac servum tuum et anciUam tuam. 

Deus mens sperantes in te. 

Mitte eisj Domine, auxilium de sancto. 

Et de Syon tuere eos, 

Esto eisj Domine, turns fortitudinis. 

A facie inimiei, 

• Domine exaudi. 

Et clamor- — — — 

Dominus Tobiscum» 
Et cum spiritu tuo. 

# Oremus. Oratio, 

Benedicat vos Dominus ex Syon, ut videatis qu« 

^ The Hereford Missal reverses super gradum altaris verso tmUu 

the order of the Benediction and ad eos dicai: Benedicat vos,** &c 

Verses which follow : directing, The York Manual omits it : pas- 

*^ Tunc genuflectant trlr et mulier sing on at once after the Ptalm'to 

coram altaiH : et sacerdos stans the sentences. 

Mmtm an facietinutn dprntiMtta. 51 

bona sunt Hiemsalem omnibus diebus yit» vestTse : et 
▼ideatis filios filiorum vestrorum, et pacem super Israel. 
Per Christum Dominum nostrum. 


Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, Deus Jacob, bene^^dic 
adolescentes istos : et semina semen vitee setemee in 
mentibus eorum : ut quicquid pro utilitate sua didice- 
rint, hoc facere cupiant. Per Jesum Christum Filium 
tuum recuperatorem hominum. Qui tecum vivit et 
regnat Deus, 8fc. 

Oremus. Oratio.^'' 

Respice, Domine, de ccelis, et bene 4« die conven- 
tionem istam. £t sicut misisti sanctum angelum 
tuum Raphaelem ad Tobiam et Saram filiam Raguelis : 
ita digneris, Domine, mittere bene+dictionem tuam 
super istos adolescentes : ut in tua voluntate perma- 
neant : et in tua securitate persistant : et in amore 
tuo vivant et senescant : ut digni atque pacifici fiant et 
multiplicentur in longitudinem dierum. Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Respice, Domine, propitius super hunc famulum 
tuum, respice. et super banc famulam tuam : respice. ut 
in nomine tuo bene«i>dictionem ccelestem accipiant : 

^^ Instead of this prayer and 
the following, the York Use has : 
<< Bene "i* ^^cai et custodiat vos 
Deus Pater, ostendatque fiiciem 
suam vobis, et misereatur vestri : 
convertat Dominus vultum super 
▼OS, et det vobis pacem, impleat- 
que vos Jesus Christus omni 
bene4*<^ctione spiritali in remis- 
sionem omnium peccatorum: ut 

habeatis vitam aetemam in ssecula 
ssculorum. Amen. Oremus. 

Benedicti sitis a Domino qui 
creavit mundum ex nihilo : qui in 
Trinitate perfecta vivit et regnat 
Deus. Per omnia sscula saecu- 
lorum. Amen.** 

Then follows the i»ayer, " Om- 
nipotens sempiteme Deus, qui 
primos parentes," &c. 

5^ DrDo an factenDum ^ponsalia. 

et filios filionitii giiorum et filianini suanim usque in 
tertiam et quartani progeniem incolumes Tideant, et 
in taa voluntate perseverent, et in fiituro ad ccelestia 
regtia perveniant. Per Christum. 

Oreraus. Oratto. 

Omnipotens sempiterne Dens, qui primoa parentes 
nostroa Adam et Evam sua virtute creavit, et iu sua 
sanctificatioue copulavit : Ipse corda et coq>ora vestn 
sanetificct et bcne + ditat, atque in societate et amore 
Tera? dilectionis conjungat* Per Christum- 

C Deimie benedicat eos dkxfis. 


Bene+dicat vos Deus omnipotens omni bene + die* 
tione ccelesti^ effieiatque vos dignos in conspectu suo: 
superabundet in Tobis divitias gratis sufe^ et erudial 
vos in verbo veritatis, ut ei corpore pariter et mente 
complacere valeatis. Per Dominum nostrum, 

C FmUis orotiombus iju^ dkebantur super eos pros- 
iraios ad gradum altaris ; et introductis i/lis in presb^- 
terium, scUkei inter chornm et altare, e*r parte eccksia 
ausiraii: et stainta muUere^^ a dextris viri^ videiicet, 
inter ipsum et aitare : lucipiatur qfjicium. 

Benedicta sit sancta Trinitas atque indivisa Unitas : 
confitebimur ei quia fecit nobiscum misericordiam 
suam. In tempore paschali Jiniatur hoc modo : AUe- 
luya. Alleluya. ps. Benedicamus Patrem et Filium : 
cum Sancto Spiritu. Non dicatur ulterius. Kyrie, 
cum suis versibus dicatur. Ad missam servetur modus 
et or do per omnia sicut in duplicibus festis hoc modo. 

Gloria in excelsis Deo. 

^® ** Post haec introductis illis muliere ad dextram viri, cum .ij. 
in chprum ecclesie, prosteraentes cereis in manibus.*' Ruhr. Min> 
eos ad gradum altaris, et statuta Heif. 

fl)tlio an (HclenDum ^pon0aUa. 53 

Ist(K diut orationes sequentes dicantur sub uno Ore- 
mus : et sub uno Per Dominum. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui dedisti famulis 
tuis in confessione verse fidei, aetemaB Trinitatis gloriam 
agnoscere, et in potentia majestatis adorare unitatem : 
quaesumus, ut ejusdem fidei firmitate ab omnibus sem- 
per muniamur adversis. 

Alia oratio.^^ 

Exaudi nos omnipotens et misericors Deus : ut quod 
Qostro ministratur officio, tua benedictione potius im- 
pleatur. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum 
Filium tuum. Qui tecum. 

Ad Corinthios. 

Fratres, Nescitis quoniam corpora vestra membra 
mntChristi. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ * 

* * Honorificate et portate Deum in corpore 



Benedictus es Domine, qui intueris abyssos et sedes 
juper cherubin. 

t. Benedicite Deum cceli, quia fecit nobiscum mise- 
•icordiam suam. 

Nan repetatur gradate^ in missis sponsalium. 


Hr. Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum, et 
audabilis in saecula.^^ 

^ This occurs in the Leofric 
rIS. as an *^ Oratio ad sponsas 
•enedlcendas/* The second Col- 
set of the Missa Sponsalium.^/. 

*» " Repetatur gradale." Bubr. 

Miss. Herf. A typographical er- 
ror for "non repetatur"? 

^ The York Manual passes on 
immediately to the Gospel. Nor 
does the Sarum Pontifical notice 
the verses, with the varieties of 
the Alleluya. 


54 ^t0o an facimBum ^ponsalta* 

In tempore Paschali erit secundum AUeluya unum ti 

hiis seqti€fitibiis. Alleluya* 

t Nonne cor nostrum ardens erat in nobis de Jesii 

dum loqueretur nobis in via, AUeluya, 

t Surgeas Jesus Dominus noster stetit in medio dis- 

cipulorum suorum dixit, pax vobis* Alleluya. 

t Surrexit Dominus et occurrens mulieribus ait, 

Avete, tunc accesserunt et tenuerunt pedes ejus- AUe- 

^ In die resurrectionis mem dicit Dominus, prgece- 

dam vos in Galilieam, Alleluya. 

t' Dicite in gentibus quia Dominus regnavit a Ugno. 


t Christus resurgens ex mortuis, jam non morituft 

mors iUi ultra non dominabitur* 

Alma chorus Domini nunc pangat nomiua summi : 
Messias, Sother, Emanuel, Sabaoth, Adonay ; 
Est Unigenitus, Via, Vita, Miuius, Homoousion: 
Principium, Primogenitus, Sapientia, Virtus : 
Alpha, Caput, Finisque simul vocitatur, et est oo : 
Fons et Origo boni, Paraclitus ac Mediator : 
Agnus, Ovis, Vitulus, Serpens, Aries, Leo, Vermis : 
Os, Verbum, Splendor, Sol, Gloria, Lux et Imago : 
Panis, Flos, Vitis, Mons, Janua, Petra Lapisque : 
Angelus et Sponsus, Pastorque, Propheta, Sacerdos : 
Athanatos, Kyrios, Theos panton craton, et Ysus : 
Salvificet nos : Sit cui saecla per omnia doxa.^ 

•^ Clichtoveus in his Elucida- Pentecostes ad Vesperas.*' Da- 

torium omits et in the last line niely in his Thesauras Hymnolo- 

but one, and says, *^ Decantatur gicus, edits the same line ** Atha- 

hic hymnus ad usum insignis ec- natos, Kyrios, Theos, Pantocra- 

clesiaB Parisiensis, in die sancto tor, Jesus" : and says that Jesus 

2)rlio an faciendum ^ponsalia. 


Secundum Matthaum. 

In illo tempore: accesserunt ad Jesum ScribaB et 

Pharisei, Quod ergo Deus con- 

junxit, homo non separet.*^ 

Credo in unum Demn. 


Benedictus sit Deus Pater, Unigenitusque Dei Fi- 
lius, Sanctus quoque Spiritus^ quia fecit nobiscum mi- 
sericordiam suam. Tempotr PaschalL Alleluya. 

C Nota quod ordo^^ thuris benedicti nunquam datur 
in eccksia sponso et sponsce. Inde est quod oblato thure 
benedicto super altarCj si descendat thuribulus ad cleri- 
cos vel ad laicoSy aliud thus est apponendum et hominibus 

must be taken as a triflyllable: 
but the Salisbury Books» by the 
addition of et supply the syllable. 
Four editions of the Sarum Ma- 
nual now before me, all read 
" Kyros, Tbeon," but the Ponti- 
fical has '' Kyrios, Theos," which 
I have adopted in the Text The 
York Manual omits the Sequence : 
and the Hereford Missal supplies 
us with another and curious read- 
ing : ^ Athanatosy Iskyros, Theos, 

A fiill explanation of every 
title is given by CUchtaveut : 
and this hymn seems to have 
been peculiar to the Galilean and 
English Churches. The York 
Hymnal appoints it to be said at 
Compline on Whitsunday: the 
Salisbury at Compline on that 
day» and the three next also : '' In 

die Penthecostes, et tribus diebas 
sequentibus." And as the Se- 
quence at Mass on the fifth day of 
the same week. 

The Sarum Hor® frequently 
contain among the *' Suffrages," 
^ a deuowte inuocation and prayer 
of all the blessed names of oure 
lorde Jesu Christ, as we fynde 
them wryttyn in holy scripture." 
See Edit. 1531. 4to.>/. cvij.and 

^ The York Manual appoints: 
** Secundum Johannem. In illo 
tempore: Respondens JohanneSi 
dixit : non potest homo acdpere, 

&C. ut et gaudium vestrum 

impleatur." Cap. 8. v. 27-29. 
The Hereford and Bangor Uses 
agree with the Sarum. 

^ 0<^^ which is the reading 


fl)tlio an ftcienimm %|Hm«aia« 


Sanctifica quflesimiiis Domine Deos noeter, Triidtafl 
sancta,^ per tui gancti nominis inyocadoinem hajiis ob- 
lationis hostiam : et cooperante Spiritu Sancto*^ per earn 
nosmetipsos tibi perfice munus setemniiL 
Aliud secretum/^ 

Adesto, Domine^ supplicationibiis nostris, et hanc ob- 
lationem quam tibi offerimus pro fiBtmalis tuis quos ad 
statum maturitatia et ad diem nuptiarum perdaoere 
dignatus eg, placatus ac benignus assiime. Per. 

Prafatio. Qui cum Unigenito." Post Sanctos prot- 
temant se sponsus et sponM m aratione ad gradum aUa* 
risj ejrtenso super eos pallia^ quad teneant quatuor ckrlci^ 
per quatuor comuay in superpeUkus, nisi alter eonm 
prius fuerit desponsatus et benedictus: quia tunc mm 
habeatur pallium super eos nee dicatur sacramentalis 
benedictioj ut postea patebit. Delude dicto : Per omnia 
S8ecula gaeculorum. Amen. Post Paternoster antC' 
quam dicatur Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum, facia 

of the Sarum Missal, Edit 1492, 
and of the MS. Pontifical. The 
Hereford and Bangor Uses do 
not notice it. 

•* " Trinitas Sancta," omitted 
in the York Manual, and the He- 
reford Missal. 

^ The Sarum Pontifical, possi- 
bly by an error, omits " cooperante 
Spiritu Sancto." 

^ The Hereford and Bangor 
Missals agree with the Sarum 
Use : but in the York Manual we 
have " Alia secreta sub una coip- 
clu$ione, Suscipe qussumus, Do- 
mine, pro sacra connubii lege 

munus oblatum, et cujus largitor es 
operis esto dispositor. Per Dom- 
inum nostrum Jesum Christum, 

^ This Preface is that appointed 
also for Trinity Sunday : and the 
reader will find it reprinted among 
the other Prefaces in the Addi- 
ditional Notes to my second edi- 
tion of the Antient Liturgies, 

^ "Quod teneant duo clerici 
in superpelliceis.*' JRuh\ Man. 
Ehor. '* Quod teneant quatuor 
clerici ad dorsum eorum in super- 
pelliceis.*' Ruhr. Miss. Herf. 

fl)riio an factenoum ^pon0alia. 57 

fractiom eucharistia more solito, dimissaque hostia in 
tribus fractionibus super patenamj dicat sacerdos conver^ 
sus ad illosj orationes sequentes sub tono lectionis: illis 
interim genufiectentihus sub pallio^ sacerdote sic dicente : 

Dominus vobiscum. 


Propitiare Domine supplicationibus nostris, et in* 
stitutis tuis quibus propagationem humani generis or- 
dinasti benignus assiste : ut quod te auctore conjungitur, 
te auxiliante servetur. Per Christum Dominum nos* 


Deusy qui potestate virtutis tuae, de nihilo cuncta 
fecisti: qui dispositis universitatis exordiis, homini ad 
imaginem Dei facto ideo inseperabile mulieris adjuto- 
rium condidisti, ut foemineo corpori de virili dares came 
principium, docens quod ex uno placuisset institui, 
nunquam. liceret disjungi. Hie incipit benedict io sacra- 
mentalis : Deus, qui tam excellenti mysterio conjuga* 
lem copulam conseerasti, ut Christi et ecclesiae sacra- 
mentum praesignares in foedere nuptiarum. Hicjinitur 
benedictio sacramentalis. 

Deus, per quem mulier jungitur viro et societas 
principaliter ordinata ea benedictione + donatur, quse 
sola nee per originalis peccati poenam, nee per diluvii 
est ablata sententiam, respice, Respice, propitius super 
banc famulam tuam quae maritali jungenda est censor* 
tio, quae se tua expetit protectione muniri. Sit in ea 

** This prayer is appointed in 
the Leofric MS. with a slight va- 
riation at the commencement, for 
the first Collect. ^' Exaudi nos 
Domine, sancte Pater, omnipotens 

ffiterne Deus, et institutis tuis, 
&c" That Order repeats the 
same collect in this place, followed 
hy the same Benediction as in ^ 

58 ^tDo aD factenBum ^ponsalta. 

jugum tlilectionis et pacis : fidelis et casta nubat in 
Christo : imitatrixque sanetarum permaBeat femina- 
rum* 81 1 amabilig ut Rachel viro : gapieos ut Rebecca: 
longaeva ct fidclis ut Sara, Nihil in ea ex actibus sub 
ille auctor pranaricationis usorpet : nexa fidei nianda- 
tisque permaneat uni thoro juncta, contractus illicitos 
fiigiat, muuiatque itifirmitatem suam robore disciplitise. 
Sit vcrecundia gravis, pudore venerabilis, doctriais 
coelestibus erudita. Sit fcecunda in sobole, sit probata 
et innoccos : et ad optatam perveniat geneeiutem : et 
videat filios filiorum suorum usque in tertiam et quar- 
tam progeniem ; et ad beatorum requiem atque ad ccp- 
lestia rcg^na perveuiat. Per Doniinumi S^x\ Per om* 
nia s^cula seeculorum. Amen. 

MoiaHdum (fUodhnEc clmmila^ Deus qui tarn excellent! 
mysterio mque Deus per quern luulier jungitur viroj 
710 n divatitr in ^serfimlLs' nujdu.Sj rir enim nut m ft Her 
ad bigamiam tramiens^ non debet iterum a sacerdote be- 
nedici, quia cum alia vice benedicti sint eorum benedictio 
non debet iterari : quia caro benedicta trahit ad se car- 
nem non benedictam. 

C Notandum est autem quod inhibitum est per capita- 
lum extra de secundis nuptiisy ne benedictio detur in se- 
cundis nuptiiSj quod etinm testatur beat us Ambrosius qui 
ait : Primae nuptiae a Domino sunt constitutse. Secundae 
yero permissse. Primae nuptiae sub omui benedictione 
celebrantur. Secundae vero carent omni benedictione. 
Sed quia plures benedictiones sunt in nuptiis celebrandisj 
scilicet in introitu ecclesitPy et super pallium^ et post mis- 
saniy et super thorum in seroy qucero qiuB benedictio sit 
iteranda in secundis nuptiis et qucB non. 

C Sciendum est quod in hac oratione qu(E sic incipity 
Deus qui potestate virtutis tuae de nihilo cuncta fecisti, 
qui dispositis universitatis, Sgc. tres sunt benedictiones 
ibidem qua idem habent principiumy scilicety Deus, me- 

iDiDo an mcientntm «poniHdia. 59 

dia autem est omittendaj scilicet ista^ Deus qui tarn ex* 
cellenti mysterio conjugalem copulam consecrasti usque 
Deus per quern mulier jungitur viro et societas princi- 
paliter ordinata, Sgc. quia in ista benedictione agitur de 
unitate Christi et eccksia^ qua Jiguratur in primo 
matrimonioy non autem in secundo: unde Apostolus ad 
Corinthios ait : Erunt inquit duo in came una : et hoc 
notatur extra de bigamsj capitulOj Debitum et si vir 
unius uxoris. Et hoc pro primo matrimonio : sed qui 
adhieret pluribus dissolvit unitatem^ vel fcedus unitatis, 
et ideo ilia benedictio quce agitur de unitate^ scilicet^ 
Deus qui excellent! mysterio conjugalem copulam con- 
secrasti etCj non dicetur in secundis nuptiis : et hoc est 
verum tam in viro bigamo qtuim in muliere vidua : quia 
caro benedicta trahit ad se carnem non benedictam : sed 
omnes alia benedictiones sive orationes debent did indif- 
ferenter^ secundum curiam Romanam et secundum Hosti-- 
ensem et Thomam Aquinum et Morandum^^ doctorem. 
Et qiuestio ista discussa erat et determinata in sacro par 
latio Rama, et translata in Angliam per magistrum Jo- 
hannem Haysted^ Anno Domini Millesimo cccxxi: et 
causa discussiofiis erat^ quia multitudo sacerdotum tunc 
temporis ad sedem Apostolicam convolarunty causa obti- 
nendi absolutionis beneficium pro benedictionibus in se- 
cundis nuptiis indiscrete collatis. Ideo super hoc statuitur 
canstitutio novUj qua sic incipit : 

Concertationi antiquse finem imponere cupientes, 
preBsenti declaramus edicto, quod licet vir vel mulier 
ad bigamiam vel ad secundas nuptias transierint, 
benedici non debent cum fuerint alias benedicti: 
quod si forsan alter eorum vel ambo essent ad secun- 
das nuptias transeuntes et in primis nuptiis bene- 

^ " Morardum." Sarum Mis- Sarum Pontifical^ MSS. 
gal, 1492. Bangor Missal, and 

6o ^tDo as facienoum ^(ion0alia. 

dicti non fuerint, danda est eis benedictio in secundis 
Buptiis. Sana volentes antiquum rigorem temperare, 
coucedimus quod presbyter qui seeundas Buptias bene- 
dixerit scienter, ad scdem Apostolicam ex hoc venire 
minime tcueatur : Bed a pcena suspensionis hoc casu a 
jure indicta, per suos possunt diceeesanos absolvi. Si 
qui vero juxta opinionem quorundam hacteniis ex se 
non reputantes suspenses ordincs quoslibet sen quu?\is 
beneficia receperint, dicEcesani euruni a pcena suspen- 
sionis prjedicta ipsos absolvere, ac super execntione or- 
dinunii et retentione beneficiorum hujusmodi cum eis 
valeant licite dispensare. 

C Hie qtiieri potest quare secmtdiC miptae non bem- 
(iivan(tii\ Ad hoc dico i]uod sevumlum matrmmmum^ 
4/miutvk hi se vonmkmtiim sit pa^cvium sacramentum, 
tamen in ordine ad primum sacramentutn cansideratumj 
aliquid habet defectum sacramenti^ quia non habet pie- 
nam significationem : cum non sit una caro sicut est in 
matrimonio Christi et ecclesice : et ratione hujus defectuSy 
benedict io a secundis nuptiis subtrahitur. Sed hoc est 
intelUgendum quamdo secundee nupticc sunt secunda e.r 
parte viri et ex parte mulieris tantum. Si enim virgo 
contrahat cum illo qui habuit aliam uxorem nihilominus 
nuptice benedicuntur. Salvatur et aliquo modo significatio 
in ordine ad primas nuptias, quia episcopus etsi unam 
ecclesiam habeat sponsam^ habet tamen plures personas 
desponsatas in una ecclesia : sed anima non potest esse 
sponsa alterius quam Christi : quia cum damone/omi- 
catu7', nee est matrimonium spirituale : et propter hocy 
quundo mulier secundo nubit^ nuptice non benedicuntur 
propter defectum sacramenti.^ 

^ The rubric of the York Ma- above. " Hostiensis dicit quod 
nual throws much light upon the person® nubentes non benedicun- 

iDroo aD fodetiDum dponmUa. 6i 

C Post hac vertat se sacerdos ad altare et dicat: 
Pax Domini, etj Agnus Dei. Tunc amoto pallio, sur- 
gant ambo sponsus et sponsa: et accipiat sponsus pacem 
a sacerdote, et ferat sponsa osculans earn et neminem 
aliunij nee ipse nee ipsa : sed statim diaconus vel ckricus 
a presbytero pacem accipiens, ferat aids sicut solitum est. 


Benedicimus Deum coeli, et coram omnibus viventi- 
bus confitebimur ei, quia fecit nobiscimi misericordiam 
suam. Tempore Paschali. 

Alleluya. AUeluya. 


Proficiat nobis ad salutem corporis et animse, Do- 
mine Deus, hujus sacramenti susceptio : et sempitemae 
sanctae Trinitatis ejusdemque individuse Unitatis con- 

tur in secundis nuptiis, cujus ratio 
est ; quia per camem alias bene- 
dictam, caro non benedicta cum 
qua jungitur benedicitur. In com- 
mixtione enim corporura, per quam 
efficiuntur una caro vir et mulier, 
caro benedicta trabit ad se camem 
non benedictam, sicut oleum sanc- 
tum trabit ad se oleum admixtum^ 
non sanctum, et sic totum fit 
sanctum. Hie videtur Hostien. 
innuere quod nullae secund» nup- 
tiae sint benedicendse, cujus con- 
trarium dicit Thomas: sed huic 
antiqusB concertationi finem ponit 
constitutio Johan. xxij. ubi dicit 
quod si forsan alter eorum vel 
ambo ad secundas nuptias trans- 
euntes in primis benedicti non 
fuerint, danda est benedictio in 
secundis. Quod sic intellige: si 

maritus viduae mortns qui non 
fuit benedictus in secundis nup- 
tiis illius iriduse, contraxerit cum 
relicta vidua quae non fuit bene- 
dicta in secundis nuptiis mariti 
sui, debent nuptiae eorum secun- 
dce benedici, quia neuter prius 
fuerat in nuptiis benedictus. Item 
de jure antiquo capellanus bene- 
dicens secundas nuptias, suspensus 
erat ab officio et beneficio, et mit- 
tendus erat ad sedem apostolicam 
pro absolutione obtinenda: sed 
iste rigor hodie temperatur, ita 
quod presbyteri qui secundas nup- 
tias benedixerint etiam scienter, 
ex hoc ad sedem apostolicam ve- 
nire minime teneantur: sed a 
poena suspensionis in hoc casu a 
jure indicta, per suos dioecesano» 


62 S^too ao facienDum ^ponsalia. 

Alia posiconwmmo. 

Qu^sumuB omnipotens Deiis instittita provideBtia* 
ttiie pio amore prosequere :^ ut quos legitima socie- 
tate eonnectis, longa?va pace custodias.^ Per Domi- 

Post mmam ^* bemdkatur panh et vhmm^ vei aiiud 
quid potabile in vascuh^ et gustettt in nomine Damhfh 
mverdoie divaHe : 

Dominus vobiscum. Oretnus. 

Bene*|-dic Domiiie panem istum, et hunc potum, et 
hoc vasculum, sicut benedixisti quinque panes in deserto 

" " Comitare." Manual Ebon 
AUo in the Bangor and Saniin 

*^ This is the post-communion 
" (ul complendum *' appointed in 
the Leofric Missal, which also 
reads '^ pio amore comitare.*' 

There are added in that MS., 
after the post-communion, two 
prayers, *Hn sterilitate muUerum.** 
'* Oratio. Deus, qui anxietatem 
sterilium pie respiciens, in eis foe- 
cunditatem etiam in sua despera- 
tione mirahiliter operaris, concede 
propitius, ut famula tua ilL de 
percipienda sohole quod per se 
non valet, servi tui Gregorii me- 
reatur predbus obtinere. Per. 

Alio. Omnipotens sempiteme 
Deus, qui matemum effectum, nee 
in ipsa sacra semper virgine Ma- 
ria quae redemptorem nostrum 
genuit denegasti: concede pro- 
pitius, ut ejusdem Dei genetrid» 

precibus famula tua Hi, genetiuc 
esse mereatur, Per,^ 

^ The Hereford and Baagor 
Missals agree with the Saium 
Use: but we have the following 
in the York Manual. 

" Propter solemnitatem hujus 
sacramenti det sacerdos benedic' 
tionem cum calice: et deposita 
ccuula diccU aacerdos super eo$ 
sequentem orationem .* 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. Oremus. 

Domine sancte Pater, omnipo- 
tens Sterne Deus, te supplioes 
ezoramus : ut conjunctionem fa- 
mulorum tuorum tua bene»{«dic- 
tione fovere digneris propitius: 
ab eis, quaesumus omnipotens 
Deus, inimid insidise avertantur : 
et sanctitatem etiam in ipso con- 
jugio imitentur, qui tua providen- 
tia conjungi meruerunt. Per 
Christum Dominom nostrum. 

iDtHo all Gictenlium dponjBMttii. 


et sex hydrias in Cana Galilese : ut sint sani et sobrii 
atque immaculati omnes gustantes ex eis, Salvator 
mundi : Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre in unitate 
Spiritus Sancti, Deus. 

C Nocte vero sequente cum sponsus et sponsa ad lee- 
turn pervenerint, accedat sacerdosj et benedicat thalamutn 
dicens : Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. 


Bene «{«die, Domine, thalamum istum et omnes habi- 
tantes in eo : ut in tua pace consistant et in tua volun* 
tate permaneant : et in amore tuo vivant et senescant, 
et multiplicentur in longitudinem dierum. Per Dom- 

C Item^ benedict io super lectumy cum Dominus vo- 
biscum. Oremus. 

Bene + die Domine hoc cubiculum Respice qui non 
dermis, neque dormitas. Qui custodis Israel, custodi 
famulos tuos in hoc lecto quiescentes, ab omnibus 
phantasmaticis daemonum illusionibus : custodi eos 
vigilantes, ut in praeceptis tuis meditentur dormientes, 
et te per soporem sentiant, ut hie et ubique defensio- 
nis tuse muniantur auxilio. Per Dominum. 

* The Hereford and Bangor 
Missals agree with the Sarum 
Use : but the York Manual again 
differs, as follows. 

'' Deinde aspergatur thalamus 
aqua henedictay et dicatur anti- 
phona .* Aspergas me. Ps, Mi- 
serere. Vers. Et secundum. 
Versiculus. Ostende nobis, Do- 
mine. Oratio. 

Exaudi nos, Domine sancte 
Pater, omnipotens seteme Deus : 
et mittere digneris sanctum ange- 

lum tuum de coelis, qui custodiat, 
foyeat,protegat, visitet et defendat 
omnes habitantes in hoc habita- 
culo. Per Christum Dominum 

Alia oratio. 

Benedicat vos Pater, et Filius, 
et Spiritus Sanctus: qui triniis 
est in numero, et unus est in 
nomine. Amen. 

Tunc secundum morem anti' 
quum thurificentur torus et tha^ 



0rtio an facienDum %ponsalia. 

Dehide fiat bemtlicUo mper cos in kcta^ tuntum cum 


Bene4*dicat Deus coq>ora vestra et animas vestras: 
et dct super vos benedictionem, sicut benedixit Abra- 
ham^ Isaac, et Jacob, Amen* 

C Aim baiedktio cum Oremus» 

Man us Domini sit super vos ; mtttatque angelum 
suum sanctum qui custodiat vos omnibus diebus vitae 
vestrae. Amen* 

C Alia bemdietio cum Oremus. 

Bene + dicat vos Paterj et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctusi 
qui trinus est in tiuincro, et unus in nomine. Amen. 

Hk peraciis as^pergat em aqua benedida^ ei sic disce- 
dcH ct dimitiai f£os in pace. 

iDrDo ah \^isitanhnm inBrmum. 

^t txtvtma Unttiom. 

Commenbatto Znimavnm. 

VOL. 1. 

Dr&o ad btgltanbum (nfirmum*' 

A^ primis hiduat se savcrdos superpellm 

cum ^tola^^ et in emuh divat cum suis mink- 

iris sepiem psalmos pirmtefiiiaieA\ cam Gloria 

Patri. et aim antiphona, Ne reminiscaris. 

Psalm us. DomiDc lie in furore tuo. 

* The foil owing are the rubrica 
and prayers of the Bangor Pon- 
ti dealt which giTea the OIBce of 
the Comtn anion of the Sick, ITic 
MS. 13 unhappily mutiiated in one 
or two pkces. 

*^ Oi*df} ud communkandum 

** Imprimis puhsiiir campana 
capituli: etfrtdreM qui possunt 
«n ecchsia conveimtnt. Interim 
mcerdo» pT^eparet Me omnibus 
sacerdotalibits indumenti^, prtB- 
ter casulam : et duofratres, pro 
cereis deportandisy et tertiuspro 
cruce portanduy superpelliceis 
induantur, PratHbtts vero in 
charo congregatis, et ministeriis 
ut dictum, est prceparatis : sacer- 
dos acdpiat calicem sine patenuy 
et ponat in illo reverenter Cor- 
pvLS Christiy cooperiatque toalia 
mundissima, Quofacto^ hoc or- 
dine procedant. Prcscedatfra- 
ter qui portat aquam benedic' 
tarn, et sequitur qui portat 
crucem: tertio qui portant ce- 
reos: deinde sacerdos. Sequun- 

tur nliifratres protes^ionaUt^j 
plane dicendo, ps* Miserere md 
Deii§, Qfi&rnm nnus pmiatam' 
putliim cum rino, et atiam cutn 
oqim. Cum autem perrentum 
Juerit ad torum ubi jacet injiT- 
II? la, mcerdas inti^ans dicaU 
Fax hiu€ domui, Mesp. Elom- 
nibtr? hBhitantibus in ea. Deinde 
sacerdos accedcfis ad wgrotum^ 
et in modum cruets * . » eum 
uqua benedicta^ deinde domutn^ 

dicendo : Asperges rere* 

(Miserere?) Gloria Patri. Et 
repetatur Asperges me. Deinds 
immediate • • . adoret et oscu' 
letur crucem et dicat. Confiteor. 
. . . (Posteaf) sacerdos dicat 
hanc orationem absolute, 

« Oratio. 

" Dominus Jesus Christus, qui 
dixit discipulis suis, quscunque 
ligaveritis super terrain enint li- 
gata et in coelo: et qusecunque 
solveritis super terram erunt so- 
liita et in coelo : de quorum nu- 
mero quamvis indignos nos esse 
voluit: ipse te absolvat per mi- 

fl>tlio an t)i0itantium infirmom. 

Gloria Patri et Filio. Sicut erat. 

Ps. Beati quorum remissae sunt iniquitates* 

Gloria Patri. 

Ps, Domine ne in furore tuo. 

Gloria Patri. 

Ps. Miserere mei Deus. 

Gloria Patri. 

Ps. Domine exaudi orationem meam. 

Gloria Patri. 

Ps. De profundis clamavi. 


nisterium nostmm ab omnibus 
peecatis tnis, qtuecunque cogita^ 
tione, locutione, et operatione n^* 
ligenter egisti, et a nexibus pecca- 
toram absolutum perducere dig- 
netar ad regna coelonim. Qui 
com Patre et Spiritu Sancto. etc. 

" Postea sacerdoa elevet Cor* 
pu» . . . (D&mini in ?) ca^ 
Uce, et infirmtu adorans dicat 
9emel tantwn : 

" Domine, non sum dignus ut 
intres sub tectum roeum : sed 
tantum die verbo, et sanabitur 

** Deinde saterdoM tradat ei 
euckariitiam dkens. 

" Accipe» frater, viaticum Cor- 
poris Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 
qui te custodiat ab hoste malign o, 
et perducat ad vitam leternaro. 

^ Deinde ahluat digitas super 
calieem cum vino et aqua, etpro- 
pinet infirmo, nihil dicens. Post 
communionem dicat sacerdos : 

'* Dominus Tobiscum. 

«< Domine, Sancte Pater, omni- 
potens asteme Deus, te'fideliter 

deprecamur, ut accipienti fratri 
noetro sacrosanctum Corpus Do^ 
mini nostri Jesu Christi Filii toi, 
tam corporis quam animsB prosit 
ad remedium sempitemum: per 
eundem Dominum nostrum Jesum 

" Hiis peractisy eo ordine quo 
venerunt, simul in ecclesiam re* 
vertantur, dicendops. Miserere 
mei Deus.*' 

The above Order of Visitation 
is remarkable in many respects : 
nor have I found any other which 
in any way agrees with it. The 
prayer, or rather Absolution^ 
*' Dominus Jesus Christus," occurs 
in one of the many Orders which 
Martene has edited, De Ecc. Rit. 
torn. I. p. 322. but in this case, it 
succeeds the rite of Unction, not 
immediately precedes the Com- 
munion. The MS. from which 
he took that Office he states to 
be about the x th century. Again, 
p. 837. from a MS. of the 12th 

From Martene's Collection I 

68 S)rDo an tiisttanUum infirmum. 

Gloria Patri. 

p8. Domine exaudi orationem meam* 

take the following, the first rubric 
from & very ancieDt English Order 
of Visitation, in a Fonlifical» said 
to be of the H th century. 

** Dum invitati lacerdot^s ad 
infirmum fuerint viaitandi ungen' 
dique causa^ qui eomm ad illud 
officium dignus jure cennetur, ill' 
duat ^e sup{?rbumeraU, alba et 
itoki cum pbanone» atque plane ta» 
si affuerit; sin aliaa^ casuU non 
induatur. Diaconua vcro qui 
evangelii text urn ferat et oleum in- 
firmomm, et ceroferarii secnndiim 
ordinem suum se induant* Unus 
ceroferariomm dextera cereumt 
Iseia tburibulum cum incensu. 
Sic induti cum domum, in qua 
infirmui jacet, intrare voluerint : 
sacerdos lueva eodicemi quo hujus 
ofiicii orationeB habentur, teueat : 
dextra se aig'no Dominica crucis 
muniat, quatenus cum gumma hu- 
militate et timore Dei quod in- 
coeperit perficere valeat. £t sic 
intrando istam Antiphonam di- 
cat : Pax buic domui. etc,** 

After entering into the house, 
the priest is directed, some pray- 
ers having preceded, as follows. 

" Tunc sacerdosjlexis genibtis 
ante agrotum inclinet dicens ei, 
Ut quid nos vocasti, frater? /n- 
Jlrmus dicat : Ut unctionem mihi 
traderedignemini. Sacerdostunc 
eum compendiose cum omni leni- 
tate dtvinis instruat dogmaHhus, 

Ml itpiritualit est^ tiietns ei : Briia* 
te ad pursm prsrpara confeisk- 
nem, de eetero sanctam aedpta 
unctionem^ Si s/ecularit f< 
dicat d: Tuae prias dispone da- 
mui, et »i quid intra tut cordis 
conscicntiam habere ceases coolr» 
quempiami tndulgendo r«TmU£ ; 
quatenus opitulante summi toiiaa* 
li» dementia» per haDC valeas uncti- 
onem tuorum perdpere peccatni- 
nutn abolitionem/* I}e Ant* Etc* 
HitHfu.** Lib, L Cap, vij. 4. 

To this I add the follofiring 
Note, taken from the edition of 
the Sarum Manual, already more 
than once referred to, published 
at Douay in 1610. 

** Si eodem tempore comniuiii- 
candu9 sit inBnnui et aimul Ua- 
gendus, administratums guper^ 
pelliceum et ^tolam induat cum 
pluTiali, accipiat pixidem cum 
, hostia et oleum infirmorum, co- 
operiat pixidem velo, quod ab 
humeris dependeat. Inter eun- 
dum si fieri potest ferant quataor 
viri baldachiniun super Sacramen- 
tum. Gustos superpelUceo indutos 
lumen in lantema et campanulam 
prseferat csteris comitibus viris 
piis sequentibusy et lumen etiam 
si voluerint ferentibus, ad qnos 
convocandos non erit abs re si 
parocbus utatur signo campane. 
Sacerdos hoc modo domum aegroti 
petati et inter eundum caveat ne 

fl)tlia an tit$itanliutn infirtmim. 


Gloria Patri. 

Afit. Ne reminiscaris, Domine, delicta nostra, vel 

▼agos oculos hue iliac leviter con- 
jiciat, sed timide potius ac gra- 
Titer ambulet, coelestemque ilium 
quern manibus gestat thesaurum 
fide portet, et linguam et mentem 
precando exerceat, quoad in aegro- 
tantis cubiculum introducatur. 
(^HtBC ex cansuetudine Romana 
et peutarali Mechlinensi.) 

** Si solum communicandus sit 
infirmus eodem modo procedatur, 
tantum Sacerdos non sumat secum 
oleum infirmorum. Si sit an tea 
inunctus et in ilia visitaUone usus 
sit Sacerdos toto sequenU ordine, 
omittantur in secunda visitatione 
infra script» exbortationes,et dictis 
orationibus quae illas prsecedunt, 
communioetur infirmus, ut prse- 
scribitur. Si non sit antea unctus 
nihil ex sequenti ordine visitandi 
infirmmn omittatur. 

'* Eodem modo si infirmus qui 
antea commumcavit sit ungendus, 
sumat secum Sacerdos tantum 
oleum infirmorum, et indutus su- 
perpelliceo et stola reverenter ab 
Ecclesia progrediatur, concomiUn- 
tiboa amicis et custode sine lumine 
et campana, et si parochus cum 
eum communicairit, fecerit totum 
quod in sequenti ordine irisitandi 
infirmum praescribitur, in extrema 
Unctione omittuntur dictse exhor- 
tationes et confessio. Inquirat 
tamen Sacerdos utnim aliquo de- 
licto conscientia ejus gravetur, et 

si intellexerit eum velle confiteri, 
annuat. Quo facto accedat ad 

'^ Si denique neque ungendus 
neque communicandus sit infirmus, 
parochus eum visitans non utatur 
superpelliceo, neque stola, dicere 
tamen potest super eum omnes, 
vel aliquas ex infrapraescriptis 

* " In primis induat se epit^ 
copus superpellicio cum stoUiy et 
in eundo dicat. &c" Pontificale 
Sarum, " Sacerdos prater ca- 
eulam indutus aut stola pro ne- 
cessitatey cum Jratribus domum 
intrans dicat: Pax huic domui. 
&c. Alleluia." Manuale Ehor. 

The I/eofric MS. appoints as 

" Incipit ordo ad visitandum 
et unguendum infirmum. 

" Primitus audiat sacerdos 
confessionem infirmi^ et oret pro 
illo et benedicat eum dicens: 

'* Omnipotens Deus, qui dixit, 
qui me confessus fuerit coram ho- 
minibus confitebor et ego eum 
coram Patre meo qui in coelis est, 
ipse te benedicat et custodial sem- 
per, detque tibi remissionem om- 
nium peccatorum et vitam seter- 

*iEt hortetur eum^ ut declinet 
a malo ei facial honum^ et posi 


iCtllO til OijUKAllIIUiK ftlfltlMUttJ. 

parentum noBtrorum : neque vindictam flUDMUf de pec- 
catis noBtris : parce, Domine, puee fsmiito taO| quern 
redemisti pretioso sanguine tuo, ne in setemnm irasca- 
ris ei. 

C Et cum wtraverit domum dicat. 

Pax huic domni et omnibus habitantibiia in ea : pai 
ingredientibus et egredientibus, 

C Et sciendum est quando infirmus debet inungif 
offerenda est ei imago crucifisi et ante canspectum ejus 
statuenda: ut redemptorem suum in imagine crucifixi 
adoret, et passionis ejus quam pro peccatorum salute sus- 
tinuit recordetur.^ 

Deinde aspergat infirmum aqua benedicta^ et statim 

pixnitentiam indiciam reconeHi- 
etur» Deinde si peccata crimi" 
naiia hahuerity episcopus aut 
presbyter dicat super eum ora" 
tiones ad dandam pcenitentiam" 
Then follow the seven peniten- 
tial psalms, and the Litany : after 
which other prayers, and an Epis- 
tie and Gospel. 

' This ruhric is omitted in the 
Sarum Pontifical and in the York 

* The order of the York Ma- 
nual is altogether different here : 
and also the prayers. After the 
entry into the house, it directs : 

" Tunc aquam benedictam *«- 
per infii^num et per totam do' 
mum aspergaty dicens antipho- 
nam : 

*' Asperses incf* 

''Pr. Miserere. Versm. Os- 
tende nobis. Oratio, Ezaadi not, 
Domine. Domimtsvobiscum. Ore- 

^ Omnipotens et miaericon 
Deus, qusesumus immensam pie- 
tatem tnam : ut ad introitum hu- 
militatis nostrs, hune famulum N. 
in hochabitaculofessumjacentem 
▼isitatione salutifera visitare dig- 
neris : et sicut irisitasti, Domine, 
Tobiam et Saram et socrum Pe- 
tri, puerumque centurionis, ita et 
iste pristina sanitate anims et 
corporis recepta, gratiamm tibi in 
ecclesia tua referat actionem. Per 
Dominum nostrum Jesum Chris- 
tnro, Filiumtuum. 

*' Oremus Dominum Jesum 
Christum, et cum omni supplica- 
tione rogemuB, ut hunc famulum 

i>t0o an totmtaniium tnfirmaiit 


Kyrie eleyaon. Christe eleyson, Kyrie eleysoii. 

Vers. Et ne nos. 

JResp. Sed libera. 

Vers. Salvum fac servum tuum vel ancillam tuam. 

Resp. Deus meus sperantem in te. 

Vers. Mitte ei Domine auxilium de sancto. 

Resp. Et de Syon tuere eum. 

Vers. Nihil proficiat inimicus in eo. 

Resp. Et filius iniquitatis non apponat nocere ei. 

Vers. Esto ei Domine turns fortitudinis. 

Resp. A facie inimici. 

Vers. Domine, exaudi orationem meam. 

Resp. Et clamor. 

Dominus yobiscum. 

Oremus, Oratio. 

Deus, qui beatum Petrum Apostolum tuum misisti 
ad Thabitam famulam tuam, ut ejus precibus suscita- 
retur ad vitam : exaudi nos, queesumus, ut hunc famu- 
lum tuum N. quem in nomine tuo visitat nostra fragi* 
litas, exorata medicinae tuHB medela citius sanitati resti- 
tuat. Per Christum. 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui subvenis in peri- 
culis, et necessitate laborantibus, et flagella clementer 
temperas : tc, Domine, supplices exoramus ut per visi- 
tationem tuam sanctam erigas hunc famulum tuum N. 

smiin. N. per sanctum angelum 
suum visitare et Isetificare atque 
confortare dignetur: Qui cum 
Patre et Spiritu Sancto vivit et 
regpiat Deus. Per omnia saccula 
sseculorum. Amen. 
" Oremus. 

'' Respice, Domine, de coelo. 

Then follow the seven peniten- 
tial Psalms, and the Litany and 
some other prayers. Before the 
Psalms, the Antiphon, "Ne re- 

72 ©too an Btsttanoum infirmum. 

ex hac segrotationc qua tenetar: et praesentes eum 
Ecclesia* tute sancte incolumem, ad laudem et gloriam 
nominis tui* Per Chriitum Domiuum nostrum- 

Exaudi nos omnipotens et miserieors Deus^ et visi- 
tationem tuam conferre digneris super hunc famulum 
tuutn iVl quern diversa vexat mfirmitas, Visita euiu, 
Domine, sicut visitare dignatus es socrura Petri, puer- 
umqiie centurionis, et Tobiam, et Saram, per sanctum 
angelum tuum Raphaelem, Restitue in eo^ Domine, 
pristinam sanitatem : ut mereatur iti atria domus tuae 
dicere, castigans castigavit me Dominus, et morti boo 
tradidit me sal va tor mundi. Qui cum Deo Patre, et 
Spiritu Sancto vivis et regnas Deus : per omnia sa^cula 
sBeeulorum, Amen* 

Deus, qui famulo tuo Ezechise ter quinos annos ad 
vitam donasti : ita et hunc famulum tuum N. a lecto 
aegritudinis tua potentia erigas ad salutem. Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. 

Respice quaesumus, Domine, famulum tuum N. in 
infirmitate sui corporis laborantem : et animam refove 
quam creasti, ut castigationibus emundata continuo se 
sentiat tua medicina salvatam. Per Christum. 

Deus, qui facturse tuse pio semper dominaris affectu, 
inclina aurem tuam supplicationibus nostris,'et famulimi 
tuum N. ex adversa valetudine sui corporis laborantem 
placatus respice, et visita in salutari tuo, ac ccelestis ei 
gratisB proesta medicinam. Per Christum Dominum 
Virtutum coclestium Deus, qui ab humanis corpo- 

iDttio an titieiitanlium infirmunt. 


4bu8 omnem languorem, et omnem infirmitatem prse- 
^epti tui potestate depellis : adesto propitius huic 
amulo tuo N. ut fiigatis infirmitatibus et viribus 
*eceptis, nomen sanctum tuum instaurata protinus 
lanitate benedicat. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. 


Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, seteme, Deus, 
[jui fragilitatem conditionis humanse immensa virtutis 
tuae dignatione confirmas, ut salutaribus remediis pie- 
tatis tuae corpora nostra et membra vegetentur : super. 
hunc famulum tuum . iV^. propitius intende, ut omni ne- 
cessitati corporeae infirmitatis excLusa, gratia in eo 
pristinse sanitatis perfecta reparetur. Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. 

Oremus, Oratio. 

Respice, Domine, de ccelo, et vide et visita hunc 
famulum tuum .N. et benedic eum sicut benedicere 
dignatus es Abraham, Isaac, et Jacob. Respice super 
eum, Domine,- oculis misericordise tuae : et reple eum 
omni gaudio et laetitia et timore tuo. Expelle ab eo 
omnes inimici insidias : et mitte Angelum pacis qui 
eum custodiat, et domum istam in pace perpetua. Per 
Dominum nostrum. 

|[ Deinde^ priusquam ungatur irffirmuSy aut commit 
nicetur : exhortetur eum sacerdos hoc 7nodo. 

Frater charissime: gratias age omnipotenti Deo 

* From hence to the prayer, 
*< Deus misericors, Deus clemens," 
is omitted, as might have been ex- 
pected, in the Sarum Pontifical : 
and this rubric is inserted instead. 

" Hiis dictis, priusquam inun- 

g^tur infirmus aut communicetur, 
interroget eum episcopus, quo. 
modo credat in Deum, et si recog- 
noscat corpus et sanguinem Do- 
mini nostri Jesu Christi: postea 
yero confiteaturi et ab omnibu» 


Ivtto tiD iffiffiffliH^HiiH inflbriMUft» 

pro umversis 4« beneficus suis, patienter et benigiie 
soBcipiens infirmitatem corporis quam tifai Dens biuiiir 
tit : nam si ipaani humiliter une mnrmuTe toleravenii 

infert A^niwiflft tns mstTimnm p r BPt ni iiin et sallitCBI. £t 

frater chariwiiine qiiia viam universaecamis isgreBiiini 
es, esto firmus in fide. Qui enim non est firmu ii 
fide, infidelis est : et sine fide impossibile est plaoere 
Deo. £t ideo si salvos esse volueris» ante omnia 
opus est ut teneas Catholicam fidem : quam nisi into- 
gram inviolatamque servaveris, absque dubio in leter 
num peribis. 

C Ddnde bonum et valde crpediens est ut saccrin 
ejpprimat u^irmo .sUij. articuloi Juki : quorum .«p. 
prim ad mysterium Trinitatis, ct .vy. alii ad Ckriti 
humanitatem pertinent : ut si forte prius in aliquo iptt 
rum erraveritj titubaveritj vel dubius fuerit^ ante tnor- 
tern dum adhuc spiritus unitus est cami^ adjidem soli- 
dam reducatur : et potest sacerdos dicere sic. 

Fides autem Catholica hsec est, frater. 

Credere in unum Deum : hoc est, in Unitate Divinae 
Essentiae : in trium Personarum indivisibili Trinitate. 

y. Patrem ingenitum esse Deum. 

peccatis absolvatur: quo facto 
OBCuletur cruccm, deiiide episco- 
puro, et postea omues csteros per 

The York Manual, after the 
Litany and prayers, directs : 

" Hiccon6teaturin6rmus : pos. 
tea absolvatur sic a singulis, et 
secundum quosdam osculetur a 


Then follows a long rubric, giv- 
ing directions as to the Confession, 
similar to those in the text ; after 
which comes the Absolution ; 

" Dominus noeier Jesus Christus, 
pro sua magna pietate. ftc** With 
another Form of Absolution, simi- 
lar to that above from the Bangor 
Pontifical; *'si in firmus non ha- 
beat bullam apostolicam de plena 
absolutione et remission c pecca- 
torum." Then come the prayers, 
" Deus misericors, Dcus cle- 
mens :" " Da nobis, quaesumus 
Domine:*^ and " Omnipotens, 
sempitemc Deus :*' which are im. 
mediately succeeded by the rite of 

tftmuJtmimmmuatmmiL 75 

' uf. Unigantnoi Dei Filium : esse Devai per oaada 
coaequalem PatrL 

tji/. Spiiitnm Sancton non gcuilnuu non finctmn^ 
non creatom: aed a Fatre ct Filio pariter proceden- 
tern : esse Deum Patri Filioqoeconsabslantialeni, etiani 
et «qualem. 

r« CreatioQem coeU et feme : id est omnis Tisibilis 
et invisibilis creature a tola indiTisilnli Trinitate. 

vi. Sanctificationeni Eodesise per Spiritum Sanctum 
et gratise sacramenta, ac cstera omnia in quibns com- 
municat Ecclesia Christiana : in qao intelligitnr, quod 
Eeclesia catholica com snis sacramentis et legibus per 
Spiritum Sanctum regulata, omni homini, quantum- 
cunque fecinoroso peccatori, sufficit ad salutem : et 
quod extra Ecclesiam catholicam non est salus. 

vy. Consummationem Ecclesiae per gloriam sempi- 
temam, in anima et came yeraciter suscitanda : et per 
cujus oppositum intelligitur setema damnatio repro- 

Si vis ergo salvus esse, firater : ita de mj-sterio Tri- 
nitatis sentias. 

Deinde exprimat ei sactrdos alios septan articulas ad 
Christi humanitatem pertinenteSy hoc modo. 

Similiter, frater charissime, necessarium est ad seter- 
nam salutem, ut credas et confitearis Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi incamationem, seu veram camis assump- 
tionem per Spiritum Sanctum ex sola Virgine gloriosa. 

y. Veram incamati Dei nativitatem ex Virgino in- 

ii/. Veram Christi passionem et mortem sub tyran- 
nide Pilati. 

iiij. Veram Christi descensionem ad inferos in anima 
ad spoliationem tartari: quiescente corpore ejus in 

76 fl)chfl tth *lifsitttihitBi-iiiAEWK» 

V. Veram CSuristi Dei tertia die a morte reBomc- 

vi. Veram ipsius ad ccdos asoenaionem. 

vy. Ipaius yentari ad judicium certifwimam «Lpectfr* 

Hffic est fides catholica, frater, quam nisi fidelitar 
firmiterque credideiis sicut sancta Mater Eodeoi 
credit : salvus esse non poteris. 

C Et si infirmus laicus vet simpiicUer literatus/uerit: 
tunc potest sacerdos artlculos Jidei in gei^rali ab eovh 
quircrcy sub hac forma. 

Carissime frater : credis Patrem et Filium et Spiri- 
tum Sanctum, esse tres Personaa et Unum Deum, et 
ipsam benedictam atque indiyisibilem Trinitatem ere- 
asse omnia creata visibiliai et invisibilia. £t solum 
Filium, de Spiritu Sancto conceptum, incamatum fuisse 
ex Maria Virgine : passum et mortuum pro nobis in 
cruce sub Pontio Pilato : sepultum dcscendisse ad in- 
fema : die tertia resurrexisse a mortuis : ad ccelos 
ascendisse : iterumque venturum ad judicandum viYos 
et mortuos, omnesque homines tunc in corpore et anima 
resurrecturos, bona et mala secundum merita sua re- 
cepturos. Et rcmissionem peccatorum per sacramen- 
torum ecclesiae perceptionem. Et sanctorum commu- 
nionem : id est, omnes homines in caritate existentes, 
esse participes omnium bonorum gratise quae fiunt in 
ecclesia : et omnes qui communicant cum justis hie in 
gratia, communicare cum eis in gloria ? 

C Deinde respondeat hijirmus. 

Credo firmiter in omnibus, sicut sancta Mater credit 
Ecclesia : protestando coram Deo et omnibus Sanctis 
continue hoc esse meam veram et firmam intentionem, 
quomodocunque aliquis spiritus malignus memoriam 
meam alitor forte in future solicitaverit pcrturbare. 

iDtDo an tiiisitanlium infirmttm. ^^ 

C Deinde dicat sacerdos. 

Carissime frater: quia sine caritate nihil proderit 
tibi fides, testante Apostolo qui dicit : Si habuero om- 
nem fidem ita ut montes transferam, caritatem autem 
non habueroy nihil sum : Ideo oportet te diligere Do- 
minum Deum tuum super omnia ex toto corde tuo, 
et ex tota anima tua : et proximum tuum propter Deum 
sicut teipsum : nam sine hujusmodi caritate nulla fides 
yslet. Exerce ergo caritatis opera dum vales : et si 
multum tibi affiierit, abundanter tribue : si autem exi- 
guum, illud impartiri stude. Et ante omnia si quern 
injuste Iseseris, satisfacias si valeas : sinautem, expedit 
nt ab eo veniam humiliter postules. Dimitte debitori- 
bus tuis et aliis qui in te peccaverunt, ut Deus tibi 
dimittat. Odientes te diligas : pro malis bona retri- 
buas. Dimittite (inquit Salvator) et dimittetur vobis. 
Spem etiam finnam et bonam fiduciam, frater, oportet 
te habere in Deo, et in misericordia sua : et si occur- 
rerit cogitatui tuo multitude peccatorum tuorum, dote : 
sed nullo modo desperes. Imo cogita quoniam (ut 
testatur scriptura) misericordise ejus super omnia opera 
ejus : et ilU soli proprium est misereri semper et par- 
cere : et quia secundum altitudinem coeli a terra cor- 
roboravit misericordiam suam super timentes se. Spera 
igitur in Deo et fac bonitatem : quoniam sperantem 
in Domino misericordia circumdabit. Qui sperant in 
Domino habebunt fortitudinem, et assument pennas ut 
aquilsB, volabunt et non deficient. Volabunt enim a 
tenebris ad lumen : a carcere ad regnum : a miseria 
praesenti ad gloriam sempitemam. 

C Deinde stabilito sic infirmo in Jide^ caritate^ et spCj 
dicat ei sacerdos. 

Carissime frater : si velis ad visionem Dei pervenire, 
oportet omnino quod sis mundus in mente et purus in 

/8 DcDo aD Uij$itan0um inarmum. 

consctexitia : ait enim Christus in evangelio : Beati 
mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt Si ergo 
vis mundum cor et coBscientiam sanam habere, pecimta 
tua universa confitere : oris enim confessio fit ad salu- 
temi ut ait Apostolus. £t quia forte antehac ant feat 
oblivioneniy aut v erecundiae eonfusioiieBi, aliqua peorata 
tua yel eorum circumstantias aggrayantes tmigisti» 
truncasti, abscondisti, vol minus confessus fiiisti: ideo 
jam resume ab initio et confitere, quoniam m prosama 
est ut viam uniyers» caniis ingressurus m : et tmie 
amplius confiteri non poteris. Die ergo uni peoeata 
tua : ut Deus coram multis millibus in die judidiea 
tegat. Si autem tu hie ea tegas et abscondaa: id 
omnium conspectu ad tui confusionem in die jmdieii 
denudabuntur. Recogita ergo omnes annos tuoa in 
amaritudine animae tuae: et non sit tibi solicitudo 
de aliqua creatura vel rebus mundanis: sed onmem 
solicitu(Unem tuam projice in Deum, et noli esse 
immemor salutis animse tuse. Multum tempus in 
vanum transegisti, nunc una bora tibi forte tantum 
superest in hac vita : et ideo banc expende totaliter in 
utilitatem et commodum animse tuse. Surge, frater, 
de lacu miseriee et de luto peccati per confessionem. 
Grandis enim tibi restat via. Surge ergo ut lotus 
lachrymis contritionis comedere valeas panem vit» : 
hoc est, sacramentum corporis Christi, quod erit tibi in 
via hac qua gradieris robur et fulcimentum : et ambu- 
labis per Dei gratiam in fortitudine cibi illius usque ad 
montem Dei : quod tibi concedat omnium fidelium re- 
demptor, Dei Filius Jesus Christus. Amen. 

C Deinde audita Integra confessione injirmi, etfactis 

interrogationibus expedientibus : injungat sacerdos in- 

Jirmo quod si quid injuste alieni habuerity vel si quern 

injuste laserit sen damnificaverit : reddat et satisfaci€U «• 

ii)r]io an ttiisitattmim tnfitmitnu 79 

vakat : sinautenij veniam humilUer posttUet. Attamen 
non injungat ei sacerdos aliquam pcenitentiamy sed dicat 
ei benigniter hoc modo. 

Frater, tu tot et talia peccata commisisti : pro quibus 
si tu esses sanus talem pccnitentiam debes agere usque 
ad tale tempus. 

Innotescendo ei talem pcenitentiam in speciali. 

Sed quia infinnus es, et forte vita tua ad hoc pera- 
gendum extendi non valebit : ideo non injungo tibi 
aliquam pcenitentiam. Volo tamen quod (si forte dis* 
cesseris) facias talem eleemosynam^ yel ad minus in- 
jungas amids yel executoribus tuis ipsam facere ex 
parte tua : pro ipsa pcenitentia. 

Assignando ipsam ekemosynam in speciali. 

Si autem convalueris : pcenitentiam quam tibi noti* 
ficavi adimpleas vel iterum humiliter de novo redeas ad 
confessionem : vel mihi, vel alteri qui tibi absolutionis 
beneiicium in hac parte de jure conferre yaleat et de» 
beat. £t concede tibi quod omnes indulgentise quo- 
rumcunque praelatorum tibi concessae seu qualitercun- 
que concedendsBy eorumque benedictiones, omnes aquae 
benedicts aspersiones, devotae pectoris tui tunsiones, 
cordis tui contritiones, ista confessio et omnes alice 
confessiones tuae devotse, omnia jejunia, abstinentiaay 
eleemosynse, vigiliae, disciplinae, orationes, peregrina- 
tiones, et omnia alia bona quae fecisti Tel facies, et 
omnia mala quae pro Deo sive injuste sustmuisti yel 
sustinebis, passio Salvatoris Domini nostri Jesu Christie 
meritaque beatae et gloriosae Virginis Mariee et om- 
nium aliorum Sanctorum, necnon sufiragia totius sanctae 
Ecclesiae Catholicae, cedant tibi in remissionem isto- 
rum et omnium aliorum peccatorum tuorum, in aug- 
mentationem meritorum, et consecutionem praemiorum 
aetemorum. Amen. 

8o 0rDo QO utsiranoum tn6cmuni. 

Deinde dhat sacerdos hoc modo, 

Misereatur tui omnipotcns Dcus, ct dimittat tibi 
omnia peccata tua : liboret te ab omni malo : coBservet 
et confirmet ia bono, et ad vitam perducat setemam. 

C Deinde ahsolvat sat^rdos wfirmun^ ab omnibm 
peccatis rndSf hoc modo diccm. 

Donitnus noster Jesus Christus pro sua magna pie- 
tate te absolvat : et ego auci^ritete ejusdem Dei Do- 
mini nostri Jesu Christij et beatorum Apostolorum 
Petri et Pauli> et auctoritate mihi tradita absolve te ab 
omnibus peeeatis his de quibus corde contritus et ore 
mibi eonfessus cs : et ab omnibus aliis peccatis tuis 
de quibus si tuse occurrerent memoriae libenter conti- 
teri velles : et sacramentis ecclesta* te restituo. In 
nomine Fatris, et Filii, et Spiritus Saucii. Amen. 

C Notandum est, quod licet sacerdos possit de facto 
absolvere infimium in articulo mortis ab omnibus pecca- 
tis suis : tamen si aliquis casus occurrat in con/essiane 
a quo ipse sacerdos eum alias de jure absolvere non pos- 
setj injungendum est infirmo quod cum convaluerit pra- 
sentet se illi ad conjitendumy qui eum dejure vel consue- 
tudine in hac parte absolvere debeat^ recepturus ejus 
mandatUj et satisfacturus : nam alias reincidit in eandem 
sententiam quam prius sustinuit. Si injirmus buUam 
habeat apostolicam^ de plena absolutione et remissione om- 
nium peccatorum suorum semel in articulo mortis con- 
cessam : tunc primo legat sacerdos effectum bulUe : 
deinde ceteris peractis (ut prcedictum est)Jiat ejus abso- 
lutio sub hac forma. 

Dominus noster Jesus Christus pro sua magna pie- 
tate te ahsolvat: et ego auctoritate ejusdem Dei et 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, et beatorum Apostolorum 
Petri et Pauli, et domini nostri domini N. Divina 

JDrHo an tiij^itantittm infirmitm. Si 

Providentia summi Pontificis : et virtute gratise tibi 
concessse: et electionis qua m6 in tuum confessorem 
elegisti in hoc parte mihi commissa: absolvo te ab 
omnibus peccatis tuis, de quibus corde contritus et ore 
niihi confessus es: et ab omnibus aliis peccatis tuis 
de quibus si tuse occurrerent memorise confiteri velles : 
ab omni factione votorum et omni omissione salutarium 
pcenarum sacramentaliter tibi injunctarum : et ab omni 
transgressione divinorum mandatorum. Tibique con- 
cede plenam indulgentiam omnium peccatorum tuorum, 
in quantum claves Ecclesiee et potestas Apostolica se 
extendunt. £t si immiscendo te divinis sic innodatus 
es aut unquam fuisti, quod aliquam notam irregulari- 
tatis contraxisti: vel poenam suspensionis, interdicti» 
seu excommunicationis incurristi: eadem . auctoritate 
toUo et amoveoy tecumque dispense: et sacramentis 
Ecclesiee te restituo. In nomine Patris, et Filii^ et 
Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

De'mde dicat sacerdos orationem sequentemf cum Do- 
minus vobiscum, et Oremus. 


Prsetende, Domine, huic famulo tuo dexteram coeles- 
tis auxilii : ut te toto corde perquirat, et quod digne 
postulat assequatur. Per Christum Dx)minum nos- 

Resp. Amen. 


Bene4«dictio Dei Patris omnipotentis, et Filii, et 
Spiritus Sanctis super te descendat et maneat semper. 

Deinde osculetur crucem infirmus^ et sacerdotem^ et 
postea omnes alios per ordinem : et interim dicat sacerdos 

Dominus vobiscum. et Oremus. 

VOL. I, G 


82 gDrQo an tjjjsiranuum tnQcmum. 


Deus miscricors, Deus clemens, qui secundum mulr 
titudinem miscratioBum tiiaruni peccata poetiitentium 
deles, et praeteritorum criminum culpas venia remifr 
sionis evacuas : rcspicc super hunc famidum tuum N, 
sibi remissionem omDium peccatorimi suoruni, tota 
cordis contritione posceotem. Renova in eo, piissime 
Pater, qutequid diabolica fraude Tiolatum est : et uni- 
tati corporis Ecclesise tuae membrum infirmum, pecca- 
torum percepta remissione, restitue* Miserere, Domine, 
gemituum ejus ; miserere lachrjTnarum : miserere tri- 
bulationum atque doloram : et non habentem fiduciam 
nisi in tua misericordia, ad sacramcnttim reconcilia- 
tionis admitte. Per Christum Dominum nostrum, 

Oremus, Oralio. 

Da nobisi qusesumus Domine, ut sicut publicani pre- 
cibus et confessione placatus es: ita et huic famulo 
tuo N. benignus aspires : ut in confessione flebili perma- 
nens misericordiam tuam celeriter consequatur, sa- 
crisque altaribus restitutus, rursus divino famulatui 
mancipetur. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 


Absolvimus te N. vice Beati Petri Apostolorum 
principis, cui Dominus potestatem ligandi atque sol- 
vendi dedit : et quantum ad te pertinet accusatio et 
ad nos remissioi sit tibi omnipotens Deus vita et salus, 
et omnium peccatorum tuorum pius indultor. Qui 
yivit et regnat cum Deo patre in Unitate Spiritus 
Sancti Deus. 


De extrema Unctione.^ 

PRIUSQUAM ungatur infirmus incipiat sacerdos^ 
antiphonam : 

Salvator mundi. 

Deinde dicatur psalmus. 

In te Domine speravi, non confundar in aeternum. 

Finito psalmo cum Gloria Patri Sgc. tola dicatur an- 
tiph : 

Salvator mundi salva nos, qui per crucem et sangui- 
nem redemisti nos : auxiliare nobis te deprecamur 
Deus noster. 

Tunc dicat sacerdos Dominus yobiscum, et .Oremus, 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui per beatum Jaco- 
bum Apostolum tuum locutus es, dicens : Infirmatur 
quis in vobis : inducat presbyteros Ecclesiae et orent 
super eum, ungentes oleo sancto in nomine Domini : et 

* I extract the first rubric of 
the Order of Extreme UDCtion 
from the Bangor MS. 

'' Ordo ad unguendum infir- 
mum. Imprimis pulsetur cam- 
pana capituli et fratres qui possunt 
in ecclesia con veniant. Quibus con- 
gregatis et sacerdote cum ministris 
prasparatis ut supra, ( Vide P. 66) 
sacerdos accipiat oleum sanctum et 
deinde ordinate procedant cum 
ps. 'Miserere mei Deus,' sicut 
in communione infirmorum deter- 
minatum est/' 

After entering the house, three 
prayers are appointed, after which 
aspersion of holy water, the An- 

tiphon, ^'asperges me," Ps. Mi- 
serere : Confiteor : and the seven 
Penitential Psalms, during the 
saying of which last, the Priest is 
directed to anoint the sick per- 
son ; '* Ad oculos : ad aures : ad 
nares : ad os : ad manus : ad pe- 
des : ad lumbos." After which fol- 
low the Litany and some prayers. 
The rubric before the Unction, 
and succeeding a short benediction, 
is; "Quo facto: faciat signum 
crucis de oleo sancto in corpore 
infirmi, in .vij. locis subscriptis, 
ad unamquamque crucem pro- 
priam orationem dicendo." 



K>i ejrrtenta Unttimt. 

oratio fidei salvabit infirmuni^ et alleviabit eum Domi- 
nus, et si iB peccatis sit dimitteiitur ei, dignare per 
manus nostras hunc famulum tuum Isf. infirmum de oleo 
sanctificato UBgere, et virtute bcnedictioms tuaa saluti 
pristinae restituere : ut quod exterius per mioisterium 
nostrum efficitur, hoe interius spiritual! ter tua dinna 
virius ac invisibiliter tua malagmata operentur* Per 

7)/nc saccrdos accedms ad infirmum indpiat psalmum 
sequentem^ quem chorus vel vkt^cus totum prose^ualur: 
et sicjiat de ceteris psalmis seguenlibus, 

Ps. Usquequo, Dominc, oblivisceris me in finem: 
usquequo avertis faeiem tuam a me ? 

Gloria Patri et Filio. 

Sicut erat in principio, 

C Dum dicHur pr^tdlctus psalmm a ckoro vel a cle- 
rkOy accipiat hiterim saccrdos oicum injirmorum super 
pollicem deMrum : et sic cum illo pollice tangat infirmum 
cum okOf signum sanctae crucis faciensj super utrumque 
oculum incipiendo ad dextrum^ et dicat sacerdos hoc 

Per istam unctionem et suam piissimam misericor- 
diam, indulgeat tibi Dominus quicquid peccasti per 

' '* Et sic perungant singuli 
sacerdotes infirmum de oleo sanc- 
tificato, facientes crucem» in col- 
lum, et guttur, et pectus, et inter 
scapulas, et per quinque sensus 
corporeos, et in supercilia oculo- 
rum, et in nares intus et foris, et 
in labia exterius, id est, deforis. 
Ut maculaa quae per quinque sen- 
sus mentis et corporis fragilitate 
camis aliquando inhasserunt, hac 

medicina spiritali et Domini mise- 
ricordia pellantur." MS.Leofnc. 
The Salisbury Use only speaks 
of one priest anointing ; but in the 
Dissertation before these offices, 
among the Canons there collected, 
the reader will find that, except in 
cases of extreme necessity, he was 
always to be attended by some 
other clergy. 

In the Leofric Booky a long 

De emema Onction^ 


Resp. Amen. 

Sequatur psalmus. 

Exaltabo te, Domine, quoniam suscepisti me: nee 
delectasd inimicos meos super me. 

Gloria Patri. 

C Deinde super aures dicens. 

Per istam imctionem et suam piissimam misericor- 
diam, indulgeat tibi Dominus quicquid peccasti per 

Resp. Amen. 

Sequatur Psalmus. 

Judica me, Deus^ et disceme. 

Gloria Patri. 

C Deinde super labia dicens. 

Per istam unctionem et suam piissimam misericor- 

prayer precedes the actual anoint- 
ing : and then the several parts of 
the hody are anointed, each unc- 
tion accompanied by a short bene- 
diction, first the Ears : I give 
the commencement of this order. 

** Primitui ad aur^m ejus dex- 
tramy et in fronted et ad aurem 
stnistramy cUcentibus singulis so- 
cerdotihuSf ita: 

In nomine Patris + et Rlii + 
et Spiritus Sancti + accipe sani- 
tatem mentis et corporis. 

Sequitur benedictio. 

Benedicat te Deus Pater, sanet 
te Deus Hlius, illuminet te Spi- 
ritus Sanctus : corpus tuum cus- 
todiat, animam tuam salvet, cor 
tuum irradiet, sensum tuum diri- 
gaty et ad supemam vitam te per- 
ducaty qui vivit. 

Ad oculos : alia, 

Unguo oculos tuos de oleo 

sanctificato, ut quicquid illicito 
visu deliquisti, hujus unctione olei 
ezpietur. Per." 

Then follows in order, the 
anointing of the shoulders, the 
nose, the lips, the breast and back, 
the hands, the head, and the feet. 
After which follow a number of 
prayers, to be said as occasion or 
time allowed. 

The order of the anointing ac- 
cording to the York Manual was, 
'^ super utrumque oculum ; aures ; 
nares ; manus ; pedes ; cor ; super 
umbilicum ;" and then followed 
the Blessing, as in the Sarum Use. 
No psalms were appointed to be 
said. The washing of the hands, 
it must be added, succeeded the 
giving of the Benediction ; not as 
will be seen in the text, preceded 

$fi ©e crttema Qnctione, 

diaxD, itidulgeat tibi Dominus quicquid peceasti per 
gustum et illicita Torba* 

Ratp. Amen* 

Stquatur pMilmus. 

Deus in nomine tuo salvum me fac- 

Gloria Patri et Filio. 

Sicut erat in principio, 

C Dtmde super nares dkcfM, 

Per istam unctionem et suam piissimam mjsericor* 
diam, indulgeat tibi Dominus quicquid peceasti per 

RcAp. Amen, 

Sei/ualur psalmM, 

Deus in adjutorium meum intende, 
- Gloria Patri, 

Manns mcerdotis wjir?m debent inungi in partihm 
exttrionbas : nam ei episcopus linebai hi partibus ink-- 
rioribus. Manus vera cujitscunque alitrius irtfirmi de- 
bent hiungi hiteriiis. 

C Deinde super manus lia dicens. 

Per istam unctionem et suam piissimam misericor- 
diam, indulgeat tibi Dominus quicquid peceasti per 

Ilesp. Amen. 

Sequatiir psalmus. 

Inclina, Domino, aurem tuam et exaudi me. 
• Gloria Patri. 

C Deinde super pedes tta dicens. 

Per istam unctionem et suam piissimam misericor- 
diam, indulgeat tibi Dominus quicquid peceasti per 
incessum pedum. 

Resp. Amen. 

Seqnatur psalmus. 

Domine Deus salutis meae. 


De emema Omtione. 


Gloria Patri. 

C Deinde in dorso inter lumbos marisj vel super urn- 
bilicum mulieris ita dicens. 

Per istam imctionem et suam piisshnam misericor- 
diam, indulgeat tibi Dominus quicquid peccasti per 
illicitas cogitationes et per ardorem Ubidinis. 

Resp. Amen. 

Tunc erigens se sacerdos lavet manus suas cum sale 
e* aquaj in vase quo stuppte oki ponuntur : qua igne ere- 
mentuTj et in ccemeterio fodiantur.^ Postea dicat sacer^ 
dos super injirmum benedictionem hoc modo. 

In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti : sit tibi 
haec olei unctio ad purificationem mentis et corporis, 
et ad munimen et defensionem contra jacula immun- 
dorum spirituum. 

Resp. Amen. 

Sequatur psalmus. Domine clamavi ad te. 


Deinde dicat sacerdos. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Mt Oremus. Oratio. 

Domine Deus, Salvator noster, qui es vera salus et 
medicina, a quo omnis sanitas et omne medicamentum 
venit, quique nos Apostoli tui Jacobi documento in- 
struxisti ut languentes olei liquore orantes tangeremus : 
respice propitius super hunc famulum tuum JV. et 
quem languor cruciat ad exitum, et virium defecti^a 
protrahit ad occasum, medela gratiae tuse saluti resti- 

* The office in the Bangor 
MS. ends here : with the following 
nihric : (some prayers, as. I have 
already said, and Uie Litany suc- 
ceeding the Unction: vide Note 

6.) "Postea stuppa projiciatur 
in ignem. Hiis peractb : eo or- 
dine quo venerunt ad ecdesiam 
revertantur: ezcepto quod crux 
remaneat coram infirmo." 



I — 

C)e erOfcma Qnttione* 

tuat castigatum* Extingue in eo, elemehtisaime Dens 
onrnium febrium iEstus : dolorum stimulos : et cuncto- 
rum laBguorum cruciatus* Viscenim quoque et secre* 
torum interna, medieinaf atque meduUarum discrimina 
Sana. Compagum etiam et artuum dele cicatrices 
veteres^ et acerbas compesce passiones: reformetur 
in eo carnis ac eanguinis qiiam creasti perfecta mate- 
ries : sicque ilium jugiter tua cnstodiat pietas, tit nee 
ad corruptionem aliquando sanitas, nee ad perditionem 
perducat infimiitas : sed fiat illi ha?c sacra olei perimctio 
cita morbi praesentis et languoris expulsio, et peccato- 
mm omnium cxoptata reniissio. Per te, Salvator 
mundi* Qui cum Deo Patre et Spirit u Sancto vivis 
et regnas Deas. Per omuia siecula saeculorump Amen. 

Facta tmcimte ui prcBdkium est: ^.vpediens erii at 
sacerdos ante communioHem inquirat ab injinno an aUqim 
alia peccata sibi ad memoriam occurrani^ de qtiibm mn 
erat confessus : nam posset esse qtiod per preces et devo- 
tas orationes sacerdotis sive aliorum, Deus cor infirmi 
illustrarety et daret eigratiam verius etplenius cofifitendi 
Et postea inter roget eum sacerdos si recognoscat corpus 
et sanguinem Domini nostri Jesu Chri^tij sic dicendo? 

Frater, credis quod sacramentum quod tractatur in 
altari sub forma panis, est verum corpus et sanguis 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi ? 

Respondeat injirmus. Credo. 

• I need scarcely say that no 
such interrogatory as this occurs 
in the Leofric MS. But imme- 
diately after the collects already 
spoken of, is the rubric, " Hie 
communicetur injirmus, et ponat 
sacrificium in vino sine aqua, di^ 
cens : 

" Fiat commiztio et consecratio 
corporis et sanguinis Domini nos- 
tri Jesu Christi, nobis et omnibus 
accipientibus in remissionem om- 
nium peccatorum et vitam aeter- 
nam. Amen." 

With which the Office in that 
Book concludes. 

De ^jcttema ^nctitmt: 


Deinde communicetur infirmus nisiprius communica- 
tus fuerit ;*® et nisi de vomit u vel alia irreverentia pr(h 
babiliter timeatur : in quo cam dicat sacerdos infirmo. 

Frater, in hoc casu sufficit tibi vera fides, et bona 
voluntas : tantum crede, et manducasti/^ 

w « Mox autem ut cum yiderint 
ad exitum propinquare, communi- 
candus est de sacrificio sancto: 
etiam si comedisset ipsa die/' 
Ruhr. Leoffic. MS. 

^ The rubric is the same in the 
York Manual and the Sarum 

Compare the rubric in our pre- 
sent Office of the Communion of 
the Sick. '* |[ But if a man, either 
by reason of extremity of sickness, 
or for want of warning in due time 
to the Curate, or for lack of com- 
pany to receive with him, or by 
any other just impediment, do not 
receive the Sacrament of Christ's 
Body and Blood, the Curate shall 
instruct him, that if he do truly 
repent him of his sins, and sted- 
fastly believe that Jesus Christ 
hath suffered death upon the Cross 
for him, and shed his Blood for 
his redemption, earnestly remem. 
bering the benefits he hath thereby, 
and giving him hearty thanks 
therefore, he doth eat and drink 
the Body and Blood of our Sa- 
viour Christ profitably to his Soul's 
health, although he do not receive 
the Sacrament with his mouth." 

This rubric is not seldom ap« 
pealed to by people who hold he- 

retical views of the Sacrament of 
the Eucharist, in proof that the 
Church of England teaches the 
same erroneous doctrine with 
themselves; and that if we believe, 
the actual eating of the Body of 
Christ, and the drinking of His 
Blood, is, although a decent cere* 
mony, yet nothing more, and not 
necessary. But the same argu- 
ment would prove that thie Church 
of England in the fifteenth Cen- 
tury taught the same: which, I 
should suppose, hard-driven for 
support from anywhere as such 
gainsayers are, would be rather 
too absurd an attempt even for 
them. Before the Reformation, 
as well as afterwards, the English 
Rituals made provision for cases, 
where actual communion by oral 
consumption of the Body and the 
Blood happens, unfortunately, to 
be impossible. If, in her present 
Book, our Church has extended 
somewhat those limits, within 
which the Priest is to comfort the 
sick with the assurance of the 
text, it matters nothing : the prin- 
ciple is the same. 

I would add, that in the eighth 
century, the English Church 
touched the question in a some- 



De mrema Unctione. 

Ei noia quod sacerdos in irifirmu cantfmmicaiuiis si^k 

Uitde communicani sacerdos infirmum diatt. 

Corpus Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodmt corptis 
tuum et animani tuam in vitam seteniaiEi. Aiaen. 

lyeiiide dicat sacerdos sine Domiiius vobiscum, sed 
tanium cum Oremus, oraiionem sequentem t qu^ nm 
dicaiur nisi tanium quando iiifinmis communicatur. 


Domine, sancte Pater, omnipotetis aeterBe Deus, te 
fideliter deprecamur : ut accipienti huic fratri nostro 
N. sacrosanctum corpus et sangiunem Filii tui Do- 
miBi nostri Jesu Christi, tarn corporis quam animse ail 
salus- Amen, 

Deinde sequatur psalmus}^ 

Lauda anima mea Dominum. 

Gloria Patri et Filio. 

Sicut erat in principio. 

Quojinito dicat sacerdos. 

what less positive and, it may 
seem to some, quite as reverential 
a manner : yet, nevertheless with 
the same humble reliance upon 
the infinite mercies of the Al- 
mighty. "Si homini alicui eu- 
charistia denegata sit, et ipse in- 
terea moriatur, de his rebus nihil 
aliud conjicere possnmus, nisi quod 
ad judicium Dei pertineat ; quo- 
niam in Dei potestate erat, quod 
absque eucharistia obierit" P(b» 
nitentiale Ecghertiy Arch, Ehor. 
Lib. 1. Cap. 13. 

The York Manual adds : '* Isti 
non debentsumere Corpus Christi. 

Dum vomet infirmus, non debet 

sumere corpus : 

Christi nisi credit: credendo 
fideliter eg^it : 

Ebrius, insanus, erroneus, et 
male credens, 

Et pueri, corpus Christi non 
suscipiant hi. 

Non nisi mense semel, aliquis 
communicet seger." 

^ All the copies of the Manual 
(four) now before me, read as in 
the text. The York has: " Et 
nota quod sacerdos infirmus et 
communicandus induetur stola.'^ 
So the Sarum Pontifical: '^Et nola 
quod episcopus infirmus communi- 
candus stola induitur." 

" Omitted in the York Use. 

IDt mtema (Onctione. 


ms. Oratio. 

f qui peccatores et scelerum onere vulneratos 
tibus tuis ostendere jussisti: Dens, qui disci- 
is manus super infirmos, ut bene haberent, po- 
"aecepisti : Deus, qui per Apostolorum manus 
J sacro oleo ungere et pro eis orare docuisti : 
qui per impositionem manuum sacerdotum 
ncti nominis tui invocatione peccata relaxare 
: exaudi orationes nostras, et da huic famulo 

infirmitatis noxa oppresso, per hoc sacro- 
1 mysterium quod nos indignos famulos taos 
oluisti, remissionem omnium peccatorum : qua- 
er banc sacrati olei unctionem, corporis et san- 
tui susceptionem, atque manus nostree imposi- 

cuncta ei facinora Spiritus gratia relaxentur, 
animae et corporis restituatur, ut non ei plus 
^onscientiae reatus ad posnam, quam indulgentia 
^tatis ad emendationem prosit et veniam : te 
^nte, Salvator mundi. Qui yivis et regnas cum 
tre in Unitate ejusdem. (§t. 
de benedicat sacerdos infirmum dicens sic}^ 

York Manual directs: 
opus adest absolvat in- 
3t dicat has orationes: 

sacerdos haec compleat. 

Then follow, but in a 
order, the benedictions 
xt: after which a long 
>n, which is not in the 
je: viz. 

dicat te Deus Pater, qui 
• Amen. 

cat te Dei Filius, qui 
isus est. Amen, 
cat te Spiritus Sanctus, 
effusus est. Amen. 

Benedicat te virgo et mater 
regis setemi. Amen. 

Benedicant te angeli et arclmn- 
geli, principatus et potestates. 

Benedicant te novem ordmes 
angelorum regni coelestis. Amen. 

Benedicant te viginti quatuor 
seniores: qui ante thronum Dei 
sunt. Amen. 

Benedicant te yirtutes et dom- 
inationes. Amen. 

Benedicant te throni, cherubin 
et seraphin. Amen. 

Benedicant te patriarchi, et 


De erttema Qnctionc^ 

Benedicat p{* te Fater, qui in principio cimcta crea- 

Resp, Amen* 

Et sic respondeatur ad singulas benedicimneg^ 

Sanet te Dei Filius» 


lUuminet te Spiritus Sanctus. 


Carpus tuum eustodiat. 


Animam tuam salvet. 


Senium tuum dirigat, ©t ad supemam patriam te 
perducat^ qui in Trinitate perfecta \Hvit et regnat Dem. 
Per omnia sBecula sseculorum, Amen, 

Aiia benedict io. 

Bene4«dicat te Deus coeli. 


Adjuvet te Christus Filius Dei. 


Corpus tuum in suo sancto seryitio custodiri et con- 
servari faciat. 

prophetflS) et Apostoli Domini. 

Benedicant te martyres et con. 
fessores. Amen. 

Benedicant te monachi et vir- 
gines DeL Amen. 

Benedicant te caolum, et terra, 
mare et omnia quae in eis sunt. 

Benedicant te sol et luna: et 
omnis benedictio quae est in scrip- 
turis scripta super te veniat. Amen. 

Quod ipse praestare dignetur. 

Qui cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto 
vivit et regnat Deus in saecula 

The reader will have observed» 
doubtless, already some remark- 
able variations which occur in the 
Use of the Church of York. I 
think the above to be one, scarcely 
the least remarkable and curious, 
and in the omission of which, or 
rather perhaps in its non-adoption, 
the Use of Salisbury b to be much 

De erttema Onctione 93 


Mentem tuam illuminet. 


Sensum tuum custodiat. 


Gratiam suam ad profectum animae tuae in te augeat. 


Ab omni malo te liberet. 


Omnia peccata tua deleat. 


Dextera sua te defendat. 


Qoi sanctos sues semper adjuvat, ipse te adjuvare et 
conservare dignetur. Qui vivit et regnat Deus per 
omnia sfficula sfficulorum. Amen. 

Alia benedict to. 

Bene.{«dicat te Deus Pater, qui in principio cuncta 


Bene-tdicat te Dei Filius, qui de supemis sedibus 
pro nobis salvandis descendit, et crucem subire non 


Bene4«dicat te Spiritus Sanctus, qui in similitudine 
columbee in flumine Jordanis in Christo requieyit. 


Ipseque te in Trinitate sanctificet, quem omnes 
gentes venturum expectant ad judicium. Qui cum 
Deo Patre et eodem Spiritu Sancto. Amen. 

*^ Finito hoc officio convenienter did poterunt ab infir- 
mo languente in extremis si placeat, orationes subscripted 

" Omitted in the York Manual : and in the Sarom Pontifical. 


94 I>e cttrema Qnttione; 

vel earum allquiE^ videlicet^ psafmus Miserere i. Item jm. 
Dous in nomine tuo. Item vers. Suscipe me secun- 
dum eloquium tuum et Tiram : et non confiiadas me 
ab expcctatione mea* Et quae est oxpeetatio mea? 
nonne Dominus ? Vd sic^ Domine, Jesu Christe, tus* 
cipe spiritum meum. Item. Deus, propitius esto mihi 
peccatori* liem vers. In manus tuas, Domine, a>m- 
mendo spiritum meum ; redemisti me, Domine, Deus 
veritatis. Item vers. Delicta juventutis meie : et ig- 
norantias meas ne meminerii. Item vers. At occultis 
meis munda met Domine, 4'^. Item vers. Ne projicms 
me, Domine, in tempore senectutis ; cum defecerit vir- 
tus mea ne derclinquas me. 

<[ AScienduM esi *^ auiem quod non lied alicui ministrart 
sacramcntum unciioms estremet nisi tantum sacerdaii: 
unde si altquis non sacerdos aileiUaret hoc /atere^ nihd 
facer et consecration'^ 

C Loca vero ungenda sunt supradicta, et non alioj 
nisi in mutilatis: in quibus debent inungi loca magis 
propinqua. Et notandum est quod si sacerdosjam ali- 
quibus pdrtibus inunctis aliis restantibus ad ungendum 
defecerit^ partes inuncta non sunt iterato ungenda : sed 
qua restant unctiones ungenda^ per sacerdotem alium 

C Potest enim sacerdos une clerico prasente infirmum 
inungercj et etiam sine clerico in necessitatis articulo. 

C Moneant frequenter sacerdotes parochianos suosj 
quod omnes jciiij. annorum et amplius se exhibeant ad 
sacramentum unctionis ejctremce suscipiendum : quando 
mo7*tis metus imminet. 

" These rubrics are in the *' " Consecrato." Pontif. Sar, 
York Manual : the Sarum Ponti- et Manual Ebor. *' ColUoio.** 
fical hat only the first of them. EdUt. Douay. 1604. 1610. 

2>e ejcttema Slnctione. 95 

hceant etiam eos quod hoc sacramentum licite 
terari sine aliqua sui injuria : unde quotient homo 
lerit et nova injirmitas iterato supervenerity ex 
erit metus mortis^ potest idem homo in unaquaque 
lodi injirmitate inungi. 

In eadem quoque injirmitate hoc sacramentum 

potest : nam in agritudine diuturna debet fieri 

' videtur deducere ad mortem. Et si ilium artlcur 

adatj et eadem infirmitate durante etiam postea ad 

similem reducatur^ iterum potest inungi^ quia 
9t infirmitatis status licet sit eadem infirmitas : et 

post hoc sacramentum convaluerit^ nihilominus 
s conjugale et ad omne opus honestum licite poterit 

he sacramefjtum non est conferendum euntibus ad 
, vel ad duellumy peregrinis^ aut navigantibus, vel 

statim occidendi sunt}^ 

imi liter pueiH^ phrenetici, furiosi, vel aliqui alii 
lodi alicnationem mentis patienteSj eo quoddebitam 
lonem devotionis et vera poenitentice non habeant, 
r sacramentum non admittantur : nisi forte ipsi 
ticiy furiosi vel amentes in sana mente constitutij 
Tamentum petierint, vel alias ante hujusmodi pas- 

seu mentis alicnationem de sua salute fuerint 
» tunc nihilominus consulitur hoc sacramentum eis 
liter ministrari. In const : Lambeth, p. c. ult. 
lota quod tempore interdicti non debet conferri 
lentum unctionis extreme nee alia sacramenta ; 
s baptismo, confirmationey pcmitentia, et viatico 
tibus in aHiculo mortis tantum conferendo. 

Quia talis mors non imminel ex defectu naturie.*' Man. 



£)e ejTtrema Qnctfone* 


C^^ UM vero anlma In exitu sen dissolutione corporis 
V^ vlmfmrU labor arc :^^ peraiiiatur tabula mmuk 
ei acriter, et time omncs vkrki cum summa reloiiiatc 
accurrairtf et dkant^ 

Credo in unum. 

Deinde dkaM .vij. psalmos pmuicfHiaies cam Gloria 
Patrij ut supra, 

Quibus dktiSf subjungalur hoc capkulum. 

Farce, Domine, parce famulo tuop quern redimere 
dignatus es pretioso sanguine tuo : ne in Beternum 
irascaris ei- . ' . ^ 

^ An Office similar to this is 
in the Bangor Pontifical. '^ Ordo 
Commendationis :" which is not 
to be confounded with the Com- 
mendation of the Soul after death. 
It consists of a short Litany, the 
prayers " Deus misericors, Deus 
clemens :" '^ Suscipe Domine ser- 
Tum tuum :" and two others espe- 
cially of commendation. At the 
end are appointed a short prayer 
and some Verses and Responses, 
with the Psalm " Beati immacu- 
lati/' if the dying man continues 
to live. ^^ Si anxiatur adhuc ani- 
ma.'* After this, the rubric: 
*' Tunc fratres quibus prsceptum 
fuerit lavent corpus ejus : et postea 

reinduant eum tunicam, dngnlum, 
et braccas : et ponant eum in fe- 
retro, et ex praecepto majoris con- 
Yocatis omnibus ftatribus, stent 
ordinate in circuitu feretri juzta 
dispositionem majoris." Thra 
follows the CommendaHo anima. 
The Leofric MS. directs the 
Histories of our Blessed Lord's 
Passion, from the Grospels, to be 
read, either by Priests or Deacons, 
whilst the sick man lingers. ^^ 
246. and orders the corpse to be 
first washed ; then carried to the 
Church, with Antiphons and Re- 
sponses ; and there to remain un- 
til mass shall have been celebrated. 
foL 248. 

De emema Unctiont. 97 

Hoc capitulum dicatur tribus vicibus tarn a sacerdote 
quam a toto conventu: ita tamen quod sacerdos prius 
dicatj et conventus repetat. Deinde dicatur sequens 
litania sine nota hoc modo. 

Pater, de coelis, Deus : miserere animae famuli tui. 

Fili, redemptor mundi, Deus : miserere animae fa- 
oGiuli tui. 

Spiritus sancte, Deus : miserere animae famuli tui. 

Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus : miserere. 

Sancte sanctorum Deus : miserere. 

Qui es trinus et unus Deus : miserere. 

Sancta Maria : intercede pro anima ejus. 

Sancta Dei genitrix : intercede. 

Sancta virgo virginum : intercede. 

Sancte Michael : intercede. 

Sancte Gabriel : intercede. 

Sancte Raphael : intercede. 

Omnes sancti Angeli et Archangeli : intercedite pro 
uiima ejus. 

Omnes sancti beatorum spirituum ordines: inter- 
cedite pro anima ejus. 

Sancte Johannes Baptista : intercede. 

Omnes sancti patriarchae et prophetae : intercedite 
pro anima ejus. 

Sancte Petre : intercede. 

Sancte Paule : intercede. 

Sancte Andrea : intercede. 

Sancte Mathaee : intercede. 

Sancte Thoma: intercede. 

Sancte Jacobe : intercede. 

Sancte Johannes : intercede. 

Sancte Philippe : intercede. 

Sancte Jacobe : intercede. 

Sancte Bartholomee : intercede. 

VOL. I. H 


9* Dc crttcma ajnttionc. 

Sancte Simon: intercede. 

Sancte Juda : intercede, 

Sancte Matbia : intercede. 

Sanete Maree : intercede. 

Sancte Luca : intercede, ^^ 

Sancte Barnaba ; intercede. .^^ 

Omnes sancti Apostoli et evangelist^ae : intercedite 
pro amma ejus. 

Omnes sancti discipuli Domini, et innocentes: in- 

Sancte Stephane ; intercede. 

Sancte Line: intercede. 

Sancte Clete : intercede. 

Sancte Clemens : intercede, 

Sancte Cornell : intercede, 

Sancte Laurenti : intercede. 

Sancte Sixte : intercede, ^ ^ 

Sancte Vincenti : intercede, 

Sancte Georgi : intercede. 

Sancte Fabiane : intercede, 

Sancte Sebastiane : intercede. 

Sancte Albane : intercede. 

Sancte Ed munde : intercede. 

Sancte Blasi : intercede, 

Sancte Dionisi cum sociis tuis : intercedite. 

Sancte Eustachi cum sociis tuis : intercedite. 

Sancte Gervasi : intercede, 

Sancte Prothasi : intercede. 

Sancte Cosma: intercede. 

Sancte Damiane : intercede. 

Sancti Johannes et Paule: intercedite pro aoima 

Omnes sancti martyres : intercedite, 

Sancte Benedicte : interx^e. 

De mttmtk Mnttiom. 


Sancte Silvester : intercede. 

Saiicte Nicolae : intercede. 

Sancte Martine : intercede. 

Sancte Hilari : intercede. 

Sancte Ambrosi : intercede. 

Sancte Hieronjrme : intercede. 

Sancte Augustine : intercede. 

Sancte Birine: intercede. 

Sancte Swithune : intercede. 

Sancte Athewolde : intercede. 

Sancte Dunstane : intercede. 

Sancte Cuthberte : intercede. 

Sancte Leonarde : intercede. 

Sancte Egidi : intercede. 

Omnes sancti confessores : intercedite. 

Omnes sancti monachi^ et eremitae : intercedite. 

Saneta Maria Magdalena: intercede pro anima 

Saneta Maria ^gyptiaca: intercede pro anima 

Saneta Felicitas : intercede. 

Saneta Perpetua : intercede. 

Saneta Cecilia : intercede. 

Saneta Lucia : intercede. 

Saneta Agatha : intercede. 

Saneta Agnes : intercede. 

Saneta Fides: intercede. 

Saneta Katherina : intercede. 

Saneta Scolastica : intercede. 

Saneta Juliana : intercede. 

Saneta Margareta : intercede. 

Saneta Anastasia : intercede. 

Saneta Petronella : intercede. 

Saneta Editha : intercede. 


loo De erttema Qnctione, 

^ Saneta Brigida : intercede, 

Oiimes sarictse Virgines: intercedite pro aauna 

Omnes Sanctt : intercedite pro anima ejus, 

PropitiuE esto, parcc et dimitte ei omnia peccata 
sua, Domine. 

Ab omni malo: libera et defeiide animam ejits, 

Ab hoste iniquo : libera et defende animam ejus, 

Ab insidiis et laquets diaboli : libera et defeude 
animam ejus, Domine. 

Ab incursu malignorum spirituum : libera et defende 
animam ejus, Domine. 

A timore inimicorum t libera et defende animain 
ejus, Domine, 

Ab ira tua: libera et defende animam ejus, Do- 

A damnatione perpetua : libera et defende animam 
ejus, Domine, 

A poenis inferni : libera et defende animam ejus, 

A perieulo mortis : libera et defende animam ejus, 

A pondere peccatorum : libera et defende animam 
ejus, Domine- 

Per immensam pietatem tuam : libera et defende 
animam ejus, Domine. 

Per mysterium sanctse ineamationis tuse : libera et 
defende animam ejus, Domine. 

Per sanctam circumcisionem tuam : libera et de- 
fende animam ejus, Domine. 

Per sanctam apparitionem tuam : libera et defende 
animam ejus, Domine. 

De erttema (Unctione. i o i 

Peir baptismum tuum: libera et defende animam 
ejus, Domine. 

Per jejunium tuum : libera et defende animam 
ejus, Domine. 

Per passionem et crueem tuam: libera et defende 
animam ejus, Domine. 

Per piissimam mortem tuam : libera et defende 
animam ejus, Domine. 

Per gloriosam resurrectionem tuam: libera et de- 
fende animam ejus, Domine. 

Per admirabilem ascensionem tuam : libera et de- 
fende animam ejus, Domine. 

Per adventum Sancti Spiritus Paracleti : libera et 
defende animam ejus, Domine. 

Per intercessionem omnium Sanctorum tuorum : 
libera et defende animam ejus, Domine. 

In die judieii : libera et defende animam ejus, Do- 

Peccatores, te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut animam famuli tui de principibus tenebrarum, et 
de locis poenarum liberare digneris. 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut earn ab inferorum cruciatibus liberare digneris. 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut cuncta ejus peccata oblivioni perpetuae tradere 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut ei omnes lubricse temeritatis offensas dimittere 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut delicta juventutis ejus et ignorantias non remi- 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut quicquid vitiorum fallente diabolo, et propria j 

1 02 2>e ectrema Unttiom* 

iniquitate atque fragiUtate contradti clementer indul- 
gere digneris- 

Te rogamus audi nos* 

Ut eum in pacis ae lucis regione constituere digneri». 

Te rogamus audi nos, 

Ut ei gaudium et exultationem in regno tuo, cum 
^mtictts at electis tuis donare digneris. 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut nos exaudire digneris. 

Te rogamus audi nos* 

Fili Dei ; 

Te rogamus audi nos, 

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata niundi : 

Miserere animae ejus. 

Christe Jesu : 

Miserere animae ejus, 

Agnus Deij qui tollis peccata mundi : 

Dona ei paeem, eetemamque felicitatem, et gloriam 
sempitemam. Amen. 

Proficiscere anima Christiana de hoc mundo: in 
nomine Dei Patris omnipotentis, qui te creavit. Amen. 

In nomine Jesu Christi Filii ejus, qui pro te passus 
est. Amen. 

In nomine Spiritus Sancti, qui in te infusus est. 

In nomine Angelorum et Archangelorum. Amen. 

In nomine Thronorum et Dominationum. Amen. 

In nomine Principatuum et Potestatum et onmiiun 
ccelestium Virtutum. Amen. 

In nomine Cherubin et Seraphin. Amen. 

In nomine Patriarcharum et Prc^hetarum. Amen. 

In nomine Apostolorum et Martyrum. Amen. 

In nomine Confessorum et Episcoporum. Amen. 

In nomine Sacerdotum et Levitarum^ et omnium 
ecclesise catholicse graduum. Amen. 

De emema (Hnctione^ 1 03 

In nomine Monachorum et Anachoretarum. Amen. 

In nomine Virginum et fidelium Viduarum, hodie in 
pace locus tuus fiat : et habitatio tua in coelesti Hieru- 
salem. Amen. 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Suscipe itaque, Domine, servum tuum in bonum et 
lucidum babitaculum tuum. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui ex omnibus peri- 
culis infemorum et de locis pcenarum et de omnibus 
doloribus tribulationum. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
Enoch et Heliam de morte communi. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
Loth de Sodomis et de flamma ignis. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
Isaac de manu patris sui Abrahse. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
Moysen de manu Pharaonis. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti Job 
de passionibus suis. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
David de manu Goliae et de manu Saul regis. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
Danielem de lacu leonum. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
tres pueros de camino ignis ardentis. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
Susannam de false crimine. Amen. 

Libera, Domine, animam servi tui, sicut liberasti 
Petrum et Paulum de vinculis. Amen. 

Sicut liberasti sanctos servos tuos de tormentis : sic 
liberare digneris animam servi tui de gehennae incen- 
diis, et ab omnibus angustiis. Amen. 



SEQUATUR vommendatio ammarum^ ei dicaiur in 
camera vet in aula sine notajujcta corpus^ el omnia 
siibseffuefiier slmiiitcr usque ad processimiem ad homimm 
moriuum smcipieudum. 

Post commendationem scquaiur, 

Mesp. Subvenite Sa»cti Dm^ occurrite Angeli D<> 
mini, suscipientes animam ejus. Offerent^ earn in 
cumpectu Altissimi. 

Verws* Suscipiat te Christus qui vocavit te, et ii 
»inum Abrahse angeli dedueant te. 


Scquatur oraiio sine Dominus vobiscum et sifie Ore- 


Tibiy Domine, commendamus animam famuli tui .N. 
ut defunctus saeculo tibi vivat, et quae per fragilitatem 
mundanae conversationis peccata admisit, tu venia 
misericordissimae pietatis absterge. Per Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. Amen. 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Misericordiam tuam, Domine, sancte Pater, omnipo- 
tens aeteme Deus, pietatis affectu rogare pro aliis 
cogimur, qui pro nostris supplicare peccatis nequaquam 
sufficimus: tamen de tua confisi gratuita pietate et 
inolita benignitate clementiam tuam deposcimus, ut 
animam famuli tui N. ad te revertentem cum pietate 
suscipias. Adsit ei angelus testamenti tui Michael, et 
per manus sanctorum angelorum tuorum in sinu 
Abrahae patriarchae tui eam collocare digneris: qua- 

Commennatio 9nimatam. 105 

tenus liberata de prmcipibus tenebrarum et de locis 
poenarum, nuUis jam primsevse nativitatis vel ignorantise 
aut propriae iniquitatis seu fragilitatis confundatur 
erroribus, sed potius agnoscatur a tuis, et sanctse beati- 
tudinis requie perfruatur, atque cum magni judicii dies 
advenerit, inter sanctos et electos tuos aggregata, gloria 
manifestse contemplationis tuae perpetuo satietur. Per 

Ant. Suscipiat te Christus qui vocayit te, et in sinum 
Abrahse angeli deducant te. 
Ps. In exitu. 

Tot us psalmus dicitur sine Gloria patri. Ut inferius 
patebity scilicet in officio sepultura. 
Quojinito dicat sacerdos. 
Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. 
Oratio. Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui humano 
corpori animam ad similitudinem tuam inspirare dig- 
natus es, dum te jubente pulvis in pulverem revertitur, 
tu imaginem tuam cum Sanctis et electis tuis, setemis 
sedibus prsecipias sociari, eamque ad te revertentem 
de .Sgypti partibus blande leniterque suscipias, et 
angelos tuos sanctos ei obviam mittas, viamque illi 
justitise demonstra, et portas glorise illi aperi. Repelle, 
qusesumusy ab eo omnes principes tenebrarum et agnosce 
depositum fidele quod tuum est. Suscipe, Domine, 
creaturam tuam non ex diis alienis creatam, sed a te 
solo Deo yivo et vero, quia non est alius deus prseter 
te Domine, et non est secundum opera tua. Lsetifica, 
clementissime Pater, animam servi tui .N. et clarifica 
eam multitudine misericordise tuae. Ne memineris 
quaesumus iniquitatum ejus antiquarum, et ebrietatum 
quas suscitavit furor mali desiderii : licet enim pecca- 
verit, tamen te non negavit, sed signo fidei insignitus 
te qui omnia et eum inter omnia fecisti, fideliter ado- 

io6 Commenoatio ammarum. 

ravit. Qui yiyis et regnas Deus. Per omnia saecuk 
sgpciilorum* Amen. 

Ant. Chorus angelorum. 

Pialmus. DU»iquomamexa«dktI>cmdni|8i:tim»D 
orationis me». 

Psalmus. Crec^di propter qiM)d locutascsuai. 

Psalmus. Laudate .Domiiuim omnas gentes. 

^Ps. Confitemini Domino quoniam bonus, qiimiiam 
in sfficulum miaecioordia duos. 

Ps. Bead immaculati. usque 4xd Ad DoHiiximn com 
tribularer sine Gloria Fatri. 

Fmtis psalmis wdpiatur Ant. 

Chorus angelorum te susdpiat, et in dnu j^^bfAm 
coUocet, ut cum Lazaro quondam paupere jetaftiam 
habeas requiem. 

Quajimta dicat sacerdos. 

Oremus. Diri vulneris novitate percussi et quo- 
dammodo cordibus sauciati,misericordiam tuam,mundi 
Redemptor, flebilibus vocibus imploramus, ut cari nostri 
.N. animam ad tuam clementiam (qui fons es pietatis) 
revertentem blande leniterque suscipias : et si quas ilia 
ex carnali commercio contraxit maculas, tu Deus solita 
bonitate clementer deleas, pie indulgeas, oblivioni in 
perpetuum tradas, atque banc laudem tibi cum cseteris 
reddituram, et ad corpus proprium quandoque rever- 
suram, sanctorum tuorum ccetibus aggregari prsBcipias. 
Qui cum Deo Patre et Spiritu Sancto vivis. 

Hie roget sacerdos orare pro eOy ita dicens. 

Pro anima N. et pro animabus omnium fidelium 

Pater noster. Et ne nos. Sed libera. Requiem 
eeternam dona ei, Domine. Et lux perpetua luceat 
ei. A porta inferi. £xue Domine. Non intres in 

aDommenDatio atiimattmu 107 

judicium cum servo tuo, Domine. Quia non justifica? 
bitur in conspectu tuo omnis vivens. 

Dominus vobiBCum. Et cum spiritu tuo. 


Oratio. Partem beatse resurrectionis obtineat, vitam- 
que setemam mereatur habere in coelis. Per te Sal- 
vator mundiy qui cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto viyis et 
regnas Deus. Per omnia ssecula saeculorum. Amen. 

Oremus. Deus cui soli competit medicinam prsestare 
post mortem, tribue quiesumus, ut anima famuli tui N. 
terrenis exuta contagiis, in tuee redemptionis parte 


Absolve quaesumusy Domine, animam famuli tui N. 
et animas omnium fidelium defunctorum ab omni vin- 
culo delictorum, ut in resurrectionis gloria, inter sano- 
tos et electos tuos resuscitati respirent. Per Christum. 

C Deinde si corpus regis inuncti fuerity qui migravit 
ex hoc scBculOy prinw a suis cubicularus corpus gusdem 
aqua calida sive tepida lavetur. Deinde balsamo cum 
aromatibus ungatur per totum^ et postea in panno lineo 
cerato involvatur^ ita tamen quod fades et barba illius 
tantum pateant : et circa manus et digitos ^ius, dictus 
pannus ceratus ita sit dispositus ut quilibet digitus cum 
pollice utriusque manus singulatim insuatur per se^ ac si 
manus ejus chirothecis lineis essent cooperta. Deinde 
corpus induatur tunica usque ad talos MmgUy et desuper 
pallio regali adometur. Barba vero ipsius decenter 
camponatur super pectus illius^ et postmodum caput cum 
facie ipsius sudario serico cooperiatur : ac deinde corona 
regia aut diadema capiti ejusdem apponeUur. Postea 
induantur manus ejus chirothecis cum aurofragiis ornatis 
et in medio digito dextrce manus imponatur annulus 


1 08 Commenfiatio animacum* 

an re its ant dcauraius, et in dertra manu sua pila ro- 
tunda^ dvanrala, in qua virga deaurata sit Jixa^ a manu 
ipsius mqm ad pectus pratensay in cigus virg^ summi* 
tate sit signum dominiae erucis^ quod super pectus guS' 
dim principis honcstc debet coUocari. In sinisira vem 
manu sccptrum deauraium habeat usque ad aurem sinis- 
tram decentcr pmtensum : ac postremo tibiae ei pedes 
ipsius caligis sericis et sandaUis induantur. 

C Deinde dktus princeps ita adomatus cum r^ni ma 
pantificibus et magnatibusj cum amni reverentia et cxc- 
quiis regalibus honestissime tradatur sepuUunje. 

C Si vera corpus alterius fueritj tunc tantum lavetur 
carpus, aqua tepida vel aUida si placeat^ et pastas linte- 
amine mundo honeste involvatur, et in /eretro locetur : 
ckricis interim dicentibus vesperas de die et S. Maria et 
postea vigilias mortuorum. 

Quibus dictisy dicantur sine nota Psalmi sequentes. 

Verba mea. Domine ne. Dilexi. Credidi. De 
profundis clamavi. ps. Voce mea. 

Quibus Jinitis dicatur Ant. 

Requiem aetemam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua 
luceat eis. 

Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. 

Pater noster. Et ne nos. Sed libera. Requiem 
setemam dona eis, Domine. Et lux perpetua luceat eis. 
A porta inferi. Erue Domine animas eorum. Non in- 
tres in judicium. Quia non justificabitur. 

Dominus vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo. 


Suscipe, Domine, animam famuli tui A^. ad te rever- 
tentem, veste quoque ccelesti indue eam et lava earn 
sancto fonte yitse etemse : ut inter gaudentes gaudeat, 
et inter sapientes sapiat, et inter martyres coronata 
incedat^ et inter patriarchas et prophetas proficiat, et 

Commennatfo animantm* 109 

inter apostolos Christum sequi studeat, et inter angelos 
et archangelos claritatem Dei videat) et inter paradisi 
rutilos lapides gaudium Dei possideat, notitiamque 
mysteriorum Dei agnoscat, et inter cherubin et sera- 
phin claritatem Dei videat, et inter vigintiquatuor 
seniores cantica canticorum audiat^ et inter lavantes 
stolas suas in fonte luminis vestem lavet^ et inter pul- 
santesy portas coelestis Hierusalem apertas reperiat^ et 
inter videntes Deum facie ad faciem videat, et inter 
cantantes canticmn novum cantet, et inter audientes 
coelestem sonum audiat. Per. 

Alia Oratio. 

Suscipe, Domine^ animam famuli tui N. quam de 
ergastulo hujus sseculi vocare dignatus es: et libera 
eam de principibus tenebrarum et de locis pcenarum, 
ut absoluta omni vinculo peccatorum quietis ac lucis 
etemae beatitudine perfruatur, et inter sanctos et 
electos tuos in resurrectionis gloria resuscitari mere- 
atur. Qui cum Deo Patre. Sfc. 

Anima ejus et animse omnium fidelium defuncto- 
rum, per misericordiam Dei requiescant in pace. 

C Deinde deportetur corpus ad ecclesianiy ibidem vel 
in ccemeterio humandum. Quando deportari debet carpus 
defuncti ad ecclesiam^ in primis sumat sacerdos spiculam, 
et aspergat aquam benedictam super corpus exanimCj 
interim dicendo psalmum. De profundis. 

Quo dicto sequatur. 

Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. 

Pater noster. Et ne nos. Requiem eetemam. A 
porta inferi. Credo videre. 

Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. 

Oratio. Inclina Domine. 

Et oratio. Fidelium Deus omnium conditor. 

1 1 o Commenoatio flnimatuin. 

Eijtmantur sub una conciusmw sic, Qni cum D^o 
Patre et Spiritu Sancto. etc. 

Roqulcicant in pace* Anieti. 

C Si vera fmrii corpus moriuum cum proeessimit 
sepdiemhmi^ tunc eodem modo ordmeiur pmce^uiOf sicut 
in simp/icibus dominkis^ pnHcr quad in hac proctmi&m 
mcerdos et nmmtri ejus in albis aim amictilm^ induti 
ineedant: chorus auiem in cappi^ nigris yuotidianu. 
Et cum ad locum dmiinatum pervenertt processio^ cadaver 
ipsum sacerdm aqua bcnedicta aspcrgat^ et postea thmi- 
Jicet : interim dicendo psalmum : De profundis elamavi. 
ut supra dictum est. 

C Deinde in redwfuh% dtw^iltqi^^^Mf^ carpus ad^etJc- 
siam^ ctmtetur seguem antipkmtii cmfkn^audpiofte. 

Antiphona. Subvenite cMwicti S^i^ oecomto an^^ 
Dominiy suscipientes animam ejus, offiarentes earn in 
conspectu Aldssimi. 

Vers. Suscipiat te Christus, qui vocavit te : et in 
sinum Abrahae angeli deducant te. 

Repetatur antiphona. Subvenite. 

Deinde dicatur psalmus. De profundis : et post 
unumquemque versum repetatur ajitiphona : et postea si 
necessefueritj dicatur eodem ordine ps. In exitu: 

Deinde in introitu ccemeterii vel citius inchoetur^ 
Resp. Libera me Domine : et dicatur cum hoc v. tan- 
turn. Dies ilia. 

Nunquam autem portetur corpus alicujus defuncti 
circa ccemeterium : sed directe in ecclesiam : et si corpus 
canonici vel alter ins magnatis fuerit^ in chorum defer- 
aturj sin autem, extra chorum in eccksia post orationem 

C In introitu ecclesia dicitur haec antiphona j cantore 

Antiphona. In paradisum deducant te angeli in suum 

conyentum, susdpiant te martjrres et perducaitt te in 
civitatem sanctam Hierusalem. 

Vers. Requiem setemam dona eia Domine, et Iiul 
perpetua luceat eis. Repetatur antiphamt. In para- 
disum : quajinita sequatur. 

Kyrie eleyson, Christe eleison. Kyrie eleyson. 
C Deinde aspergat sacerdos aqua benedicta corpus 
defuncti et thurificet : rogans astantes orare pro anima 
defunctij ita dicens. 

Pro anima .N. et pro animabus omnium fidelium 

Pater noster. £t ne nos. Sed libera. A porta in- 
feri. Erue Domine animas eorum. Non intres in 
judicium. Quia non justificabitur. 
Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. 
Oratio. Suscipe, Domine, servum tuum in bonum 
habitaculum, et da ei requiem in regno coelestis Hieru- 
salem: ut in sinu Abrahae patriarchae tui collocatus, 
resurrectionis diem praestoletur, et inter resurgentes 
ad gloriam resurgat, et cum benedictis ad dexteram 
Dei yenientibus yeniat, et cum possidentibus yitam 
setemam possideat. Per Christum. 

Anima ejus et animse omnium fidelium defunctorum, 
per Dei misericordiam in pace requiescant. Amen. 

Deinde dicantur solemniter vigilice mortuorum etpostea 
completorium de die more solito. 

tlbi vero in die sepultura deportetur corpus ad eccle- 
sianij tunc immediate post prcedictam orationem^ Sus- 
cipe Domine, dicatur commendatio animarum solenniter, 
et Jinito psalmo Domine probasti : statim incipiatur 
missa pro defunctis. 

Deinde exeat sacerdos cum stola, et aqua benedicta^ 
ad locum ubi sepeliendus est mortuus : et signo crucis 
signet locumy et postea aspergat aqua benedicta. 


CommcnBatto animarum. 

Ddndc accipiat sacerdos fossorium^ vcl ailud indrw- 
menium^ €t aperiat terrmn in modum crucis^ ad longitm- 
dlnem €t ktiiiudinem coryoris defuncti dicens, 

Aperite niihi portas justitiae, et ingressus in eas 
confitebor Domino : heBc porta Domini, justi iBtrabunt 

m earn. 

^ With the exc^ptioQ of the 

flubstUution of epifcopus for ^ra- 
cerdo^, the foregoing Office is the 

with a iew unimporti&t 
verbal differenoes, m the Santni 

3fni)umatio S^efuncti* 

VOL. I. 


3inl)umatto SOefuncti.' 

\OST mmam^ accedai sacerdos ad caput 
defunvii^ alba indtttus, absque cappa st- 
rica : ci duo cicrid de seaoida forma ad 
_ _ caput defuHcli stafiks^ uwipiunt tribm vi- 

cibus antlphonam scquaitem^ quam chorus sifigtilis via- 
bus Mam prosequatur usque Injimm, 

AfiL Circumdederunt me gemitus mortis, dolorei 
inferai circumdcderunt me. 

^ " Secundum antiqnam An- 
gjUrn coii9uetudineiQ, ut ex rubri- 

da liquido appurct^ Dullius de- 
funct! corpus 3f?pe11endtim eet^ nbi 
pro anima ejus prius oblato Missoe 
Sacrificio. Si igitur corpus de- 
funct! post vesperas deferatur ad 
Ecclesiam, ibi insepultum relin- 
quendum est, usque in diem se- 
quentem, et tunc Missa prius pro 
anima celebrata, sepeliendum. Si 
vero aliquando contigerit corpus 
defuncti matutino tempore, ante 
Missam deferri ad Ecclesiam, ob- 
servanda est rubrica de qua modo 
agitur." Annot. Edit, Douay^ 

'^ Si vero cum processione homo 
mortuus sit suscipiendus, sacerdos 
et minister in albis incedant ; cho- 
rus autem in Cappis nigris: et 
cum ad locum destinatum perve- 
nerit processio, cadaver ipsum sa- 
cerdos aqua benedicta aspergat, 
deinde thurificet. Postea vero in 

ecclesiain redeant; et si Cani^ 
nicus iiierit cujos corpua defertur, 
in Cbomm deferatur. Sin aut«a 
extra Chorum in Eeclesta dicta 
oratione reUnquatur." Cfm*ut- 
tudinarium Eccks. Sarum. In 
MS. Registr. S. Osmundi. fol 

^ This Office is in the Bangor 
Pontifical, but unhappily the ru- 
bric is not only rubbed and de- 
faced, but the Initial letter has 
been cut out, and with it other 
portions of the text But, if I am 
not mistaken, the following is the 
correct reading. 

" Ordo ad sepeliendum cor- 
pus. Finita missn^ sacerdos 
sine casula cum ministris: sub- 
diaconus cum cruce, et omnes 
. gradu suo veniant ordinate 
cum luminaribus, et stent in cir- 
cuituferetri in modum voUb. Et 
sacerdos a capite incipiai ahso- 
lute. Non intres e^c." 

3[nf)umatio Defuncti* 1 1 5 

Deindc post tertiam repctitionem sequatur : 
Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. 
JVon dicatur Pater noster, nee Dominus vobiscum, 
^meque Oremus : sed tantum oratioj sacerdote dicente mo- 
Jcsta voce^ videlicet sine nota : 

Non intres in judicium cum servo tuo, vel servuU 
tua, Domine, quoniam nuUus apud te justificabitur 
homo, nisi per te omnium peccatorum tribuatur remis- 
sio : non ergo eum vel earn tua quaesumus judicialis 
sententia premat, quem vel quam tibi vera supplicatio 
fidei christianae commendat : sed gratia tua illi succur- 
rente mereatur evadere judicium ultionis, qui vel quae 
dum viveret insignitus vel insignita est signaculo sanctSB 
Trinitatis. In qua vivis et regnas. etc. 

Eodem modo dicuntur omnes orationes sequentes. 
Deinde incipiat cantor. Resp. 
Qui Lazarum resuscitasti a monumento foetidum: 
Tu eis Domine dona requiem et locum indulgentiae. 

Vers. Qui venturus es judicare vivos, et mortuos, et 
seeculum per ignem. 
Tu eis. 

C Et percantetur a choro cum suo versa, et interim 
sacerdos cum thuribulo circumeundocorpuSj illud incenset. 
Similiter ^at in Responsoriis sequentibus. 

Deinde dicitur. Kyrie eleyson. Christe eleyson. 
Kyrie eleyson. 

Sine Pater noster, et sine Dominus vobiscum. Sed 
tantum cum. Oremus. 

OratioJ^ Deus cui omnia vivunt, cui non pereunt 
moriendo corpora nostra, sed mutantur in melius, te 

* A prayer similar to this in tions for incensing as in the Text: 

the beginning, but considerably then the prayer '' Fac quaBsumus." 

shorter, is in the Bangor Pontifi- Response, ** Libera" and verses : 

cal : then a response, with direc- and the '* Kyrie Eleiw»." 

ii6 SNmnuuiQ ^eftmctL 

rapplices deprecamur, ut qaioqaid fiunnlns vd 
tuus vel tua vitiorum tose Yoluntati oontnrimiiy fiJknk 
diaboloy et propria iniquitate atque fragifitate oontnni; 
tu pins et misericors abluas indolgendoy ejuaqoe i» 
mam suscipi jubeas^ per manus sanctomm angdoni 
tuorum deducendam in nnum patriarc^hamm taann^ 
Abrahee scilicet amici tui, et Isaac electi tai, atqv 
lacob dilecti toi, quo aofiigit dolor et tristitia» atqv 
suspirium, fideliom quoque anim» felici joconditiii 
Isetantur, et in novissimo magni jndidi die inter suidoi 
et electos tuos earn fSacias perpetuse gloris to» perci- 
pere portionem, quam oculus non vidit, nee anrii 
audivit) et in cor hominis non ascendit qnam pn^ 
rasti diligentibus te. Per Cbristom. 

Heu mihi, Domine^ quia peccayi in vita mea : quid 
faciam miser ? ubi fugiam, nisi ad te Dens mens ? ni- 
serere mei. Dum venerki in novissinio die. 

Vers. Anima mea turbata est valde» sed tu, Dmnio^ 
succurre ei. Dum i^eneris. 

C JEt percantetur a choro cum suo versUy et interim 
incensetur corpus ut supra. 
Deinde sequatur : 

Kyrie eleison. Christe eleyson. Kyrie eleison. 
Sine Pater noster, et sine Dominus vobiscum : sed 
tantum cum. Oremus. 

Fac quaesumus, Domine, banc cum servulo tuo de- 
functo vel servula tua defimcta misericordiam, ut fSeu^to- 
rum suorum in pcenis non recipiat vicem, qui vel qus 
tuam in votis tenuit voluDtatem : et quia hie ilium vd 
illam vera fides junxit fidelium turmis, illic eum vel 
eam tua miseratio societ angelicis choris. Per Chris- 
tum Dominum nostrum. 

Deinde incipiat cantor. Respansorium. 

3(n|wmatio Defltticti^ 


Libera me, Domine, de morte eetema in die ilia tre- 
menda, quando coeli movendi sunt et terra. Dum 
veneris judicare saeculum per ignem. 

Vers. Dies ilia, dies irse, calamitatis et miserise : dies 
magna et amara valde. 

Et percantetur achoro cum uno verm tantumj scilicet 
Dies ilia ut supra^ et interim incemetur corpus a sacer- 
dote semel circumeundoj et postea aspergatur aqua bene- 
dicta : deinde sequatur. 

Kyrie eleyson. Christe eleyson. Kyrie eleyson. 

Deinde roget sacerdos^ circmnstantes orare pro anima 
defuncti dicens. 

Pro anima N. et pro animabus omnium fidelium 
defimctorum. Pater noster. 

£t ne nos inducas. Sed libera nos a malo. 

Non intres in judicium cum servo tuo, vel servula 
tua Domine. 

Quia non justificabitur in conspectu tuo omnis vi- 

A porta inferi. 

Erue Domine animas eorum. 

Credo videre bona Domini. 

In terra viventium. 

Domine exaudi. 

* ** Deinde dkat stzcerdas cir- 
cumstanHbus alia voce: Pater 
noster. Et ne nos. Vers. Re- 
quiein sternam. Vers. A porta 
inferi. Vers. Requiescant in 
pace. Domine exaudL Dominus 
vobiscum. OrcUio. Absolve 
qnaBsamus Domine animam fa^ 
maU toL N. ut defbnctiis sflBculo 
tibiviTai: etquae per fragititatem 

camis humana conversatione com* 
misit, tu venia misericordissimse 
pietatis absterge : per Christum.'* 
Fimta oratione pracipiat fror 
tribus ut acdpiantferetrum : et 
deportent defunctum ad tumu- 
lum: et dum portaiur^ clerici 
cantent has subsequentes Anti' 
phofMs. In paradisum. ete.** Pon- 
tif . Bangor. 


3lnt)umatto Defunct!. 

Dominus vobiscum* 


Inclina, Domine^ aurem tuam ad preces nostras, qui- 
bus misericordiam tuam supplices deprecamur, ut ani- 
mam famuli tui vel famuke tute^ quam de hoc ssoeulo 
migrare jussmti, in pacis ac lucis regione constituag, et 
sanctorum tuorum jubeas esse consortem. Per Chris- 

Hie deportetur corpus ad sepuichrum cant^re. md- 

Ant. In paradisum. £• a. o. q. a. e/ 

Fs. In exitu Israel de iEgypto. 

C Alius psalmus si tantum restat itefr^ scUkeU 

Ad te Domine levavi animam meam. 

Finito psalmo velpsalmis^ dicatur iste versus. 

Requiem setemam dona eis, Domine: et lux perpetua 
luceat eis. 

Deinde repetatur antiphona. 

In paradisum deducant te angeli, in suum conventom 
suscipiant te martyres, et perducant te in eivitatem 
sanctam Hierusalem. 

Quibus dictisy^ dicat sacerdos sine Dominus vobiscum, 
sed tantum cum Oremus, humili voce : 

* "When the Antiphons are 
chanted, the tone of each Psalm 
follows that of its Antiphon. The 
cadence also of the tone is regu- 
lated hy the Antiphon. The tone 
and cadence are indicated, in gra- 
duals, Offices of the Dead, &c. 
by the vowels of seculorum 
amen. e. u. o. u. a. e. set to notes 
at the end of the Antiphon." 

P. 17. 

Manual of Plain- Chant. 

• " Cum autem venerint ad 
tumulum^ sacerdos cumferetro 
stet juxta tumulum : et cantatis 
antiphonisy dicat hanc orationem 
absolute. Deos qui fundastL etc. 

Dicta oratione accipiat aquam 
benedictam^ et aspergat corpus 

Inbamatio Deninctt; 


Pi^ reqordationis affectu, fratres carissum, coinme- 
morationem faciamus cari nostri pel carse nostrsB quern 
vel quam Dominils noster de tentatipnibus hujus saeculi 
assumpsit Obsecremud misericordiam Dei nostri, ut 
ipse ei tribuere dignetur placitam et quietam mansio- 
nein^ et remittat ei omnes lubricae temeritatis offensas, 
ut concessa sibi venia plense indulgentise quicquid in 
hoc sseculo proprio vel alieno reatu deliquit, totum in- 
effabili pietate ac benignitate sua deleat^ et abstergat. 
Per Christum. 

Alia oratio cum Oremus. Oratio. 
Te Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, seteme Deus, 
suppliciter deprecamur pro spiritu fratris nostri vel 
sororis nostrse, quern vel quam a voraginibus hujus 
sseculi accersiri jussisti, ut digneris, Domine, dare ei 
lucidum locum refrigerii et quietis. Liceat ei transire 
portas inferorum et poenas tenebrarum, maneatque in 
mansionibus sanctorum, et in luce sancta quam olim 
Abrahae promisisti et semini ejus. NuUam Isesionem 
sentiat spiritus ejus^ sed cum magnus ille dies resurrec- 
tionis advenerit, resuscitare eum vel eam digneris una 
cum Sanctis et electis tuis, deleasque ejus omnia delicta 
atque peccata usque ad novissimum quadrantem, te- 
cumque immortalitatis tuae vitam et regnum conse- 
quatur setemum. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. 

defuncti et tumulum: ei postea 
similiter tncenset. 

Quibw peractis : incipiat can- 
tor in persona defuncti ant. 
Aperite : et mox ponatur corpus 
in tumulum, Etdumcantantur 
subscripts antiphona cum suis 

psalmis, sepeUatur corpus. Ape- 
rite mihi. etc" Pontif, Bangor. 
Then follow the Antiphons, and 
thePsahnSyConfitemini. Quemad- 
modum. Memento. Domine pro- 
basti. Domine exaudi. Laodate 
Dominum. Benedictos. 

1 20 Inbumatio Defumtj* 

Hiiitis orathmbm aperiatur sepuichrum: cantan 
incipiente anliphomim. 

Aperito, E. n, o* u. a, e. 

Psalmtis, Confitenuni Domino quoniain bonus, 

C Fhiiio psalmo iota dicatur antiphona. 

Aperite mihi portas justitia^, et mgressus in eas con- 
fitebor Domino : hsec porta Domini, justi intrabunt io 

Qua dicta dicat sacerdas. OremiiA* 

Obsecranius miaericordiam tuam, omnipotens seterne 
Deu8| qui homineiii ad imaginem tuam creare digna- 
tus es, ut animam famuli tui t?e/ famulac tuae A^. quam 
hodierna die rebus humanis eximi, ct ad te accersiri 
jussistit blaode et misericordit^r suscipias, Noo ei 
dominentur umbrae mortis, nee tegat eum vel earn chaos 
et caligo tenebrarum, sed exutos vel exuta omnium 
criminum labe in sinu Abrahse coUocatus vel collocata, 
loeum refrigerii se adeptum vel adeptam esse gaudeat : 
ut cum dies judicii advenerit, cum Sanctis et electis 
tuis eum vel eam resuscitari jubeas. Per Christum 
Dominum jiostrum. 

Alia oratio cum Oremus. 

Deus qui justis supplicationibus semper preesto es, 
qui pia vota dignaris intueri^ da famulo tuo vel famulae 
tuae A^. cujus depositioni hodie officia humanitatis ex- 
bibemusy cum Sanctis atque fidelibus tuis beati mu- 
neris portionem. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. 

Deinde dicatur Benedictio sepukhriy sine Oremus, hoc 

Rogamus te, Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, 
SBteme Deus, ut bene+dicere et sanctificare digneris 
hoc sepulchrum, et corpus in eo coUocandum : ut sit 

3(ni)umatio Deftmcti. i ^ i 

remedium salutare in eo quiescenti et redemptio animse 
ejus atque tutela et munimen contra sseva jacula inimici. 
Per Christum. 

Alia benedictio tumuli 

Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini. Qui fecit 
coelum et terram. 

Benedic Domine locum sepulchri hujus, sicut bene- 
dixisti sepulchra Abrahee, Isaac, et lacob. 

Vers. Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam tuam. 

Resp. Et salutare tuum da nobis. 

Oratio. Deus qui fundasti terram et formasti ccbIos, 
qui omnia sideribus instituta fixisti, qui captum laqueis 
mortis hominem lavacri ablutione reparas, qui sepultos 
Abraham, Isaac, et lacob in spelunca duplici, in libro 
vitae ac totius glories principes annotasti benedicendos : 
ita bene»{«dicere digneris hunc famulum tuum vel 
ancillam tuam, ut eum vel eam requiescere facias, et 
in sinu Abrahse collocare digneris : qui Dominum nos- 
trum Jesum Christum Filium tuum, devictis laqueis in- 
ferorum resurgere, et in se credentium suorum membra 
resuscitara jussisti. Qui venturus est judicare vivos 
et mortuos et seeculum per ignem. 

Oratio. Respice Domine super banc fabricam sepul- 
ture, et descendat in eam Spiritus tuus, ut te jubente sit 
ei in hoc loco quieta dormitio, et tempore judicii cum 
omnibus Sanctis sit vera resurrectio. Te prestante Do- 
mino nostro, qui in Trinitate perfecta vivis et regnas 
per cuncta ssecula saeculorum. Amen. 

C Hie aspergatur aqua benedicta super sepulchruMy et 
incensetur sepulchrum. 

Finitis orationibus ponatur corpus in sepulchro can- 
tore incipiente. 

Ant. Ingrediar. E. u. o. u. a. e. 

Psalmus. Quemadmodum desiderat cervus. 


Inftumatio Defuncti* 

C Dicto pstilmo rcpeiatur antiphona. 

Ingrediar in locum tabeiiiaculi admirabilis usque ad 
domum Dei. 

C Qua dicta^ dkat saccrdos orationem hoc moda, 

Oremus, fratres carissimij pro spiritu cari nostri tf/ 
carae nostra* A\ quern Dominus de laqueo hujus sseculi 
liberare dignatus est^ cujus corpusculura bodie sepid- 
turee traditur, ut eum vd earn pietas Domini in sinu 

' Si interim dttm isii^ nntipho- 
n^ (vide Note 6) cantaniur 

cat has orationes- " Oremus 
fratres." ** Deu» cm omnia vi* 
vunt." ** Temeritatis quidcfm est*" 

" Opus est misericardiie Domi- 
ne sancte, Pater omnipotens, sBter- 
ne Deus rogare pro aliis qui pro 
nostris supplicare peccatis nequa- 
quam sufficimus : suscipe, ro- 
gamus, animam famuli tui .N. 
revertentem ad te. Adsit ei An- 
gelus testamenti tui Michael : et 
per manus sanctorum angel orum 
tuorum inter sanctos et electos 
tuos in sinibus Abrahss, Isaac, et 
Jacob, patriarcharum tuorum earn 
coUocare digneris. Libera eum 
(eam?) Domine de principibus 
tenebrarum et de locis poenarum : 
ne famulus tuus ullis jam primaevae 
nativitatis vol ignorantis confun- 
datur erroribus. Agnoscatur a 
tub, et misericordia bonitatis tuse 
ad locum refrigerii et quietis in 
sinum Abrahas transferatur. Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum." 

'* Debitum humani corporis." 

" Omnipotens setnplteme Deus, 
qui humano corpori animam lo- 
Bpirare digualua es, dum te jubente 
pulvts in pulverem rerertitur ; ttt 
im^nern tuam ctim satictia et 
electis tuis SBtemis sedibus jubeJis 
sociari ; per Dominum uostnun 
Jesum Christum. 

His omnibus erpletisypostquam 
sep%Utus fuerity sacerdos cum 
aqua benedicta aspergat tumu- 
lunty et dicat aUa voce. Pater 
noster. Et omne^ sub siletUio 
dicanU Pater noster. eto. Oratio. 
Satisfaciat tibi, Domine. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Anima ejus et anims onmium 
fidelium de^ctorum, per miseri- 
cordiam Dei requiescant in pace. 

Resp> Amen. Et stcUim can- 
tor incipiat resp. Memento mei. 

Cum quo revertuntur m eccle- 
siam, Cumque pervenerint in 
ecclesiam . . . stefU in eccle- 
sia, sc. in choro (?) etjinilo res' 
ponsorio Sacerdos dicat: 

Pater noster. Et ne nos. 

Tlbi, Domine, commeodamus, 
etcJ' Pontif. Bangor, 

3(niiamatio Defttncti* 1 23 

AbrahflB collocare dignetur, nt cum magni judicii dies 
advenerity inter sanctos et electos snos euin vel earn in 
parte dextera collocandum vel collocandam resuscitari 
faciat. Qui vivit et regnat Deus. Per omnia saecula 
saeculorum. Amen. 

Alia oratio cum Oremus. 


Deus qui humanarum animarum setemus amator es, 
animam famuli tui vel famulee tuse N. quam vera dum 
in corpore maneret tenuit fides, ab omni cruciatu infe- 
rorum redde extorrem, ut segregata ab infemalibus 
claustris sanctorum tuorum mereatur adunari consor- 
tiis. Per Christum. 

C Finitis orationibus claudatur sepulchrum^ ponente 
prius sacerdote absolutionem super pectus defmictiy sic 
dicendo : 

Dominus Jesus Christus qui beato Petro apostolo 
suo, cseterisque discipulis suis licentiam dedit Ugandi 
atque solvendi, ipse te N. absolvat ab omni vinculo de- 
lictorum, et in quantum mese fragilitati permittitur^ 
precor sis absolutus vel absoluta ante tribunal ejusdem 
Domini nostri Jesu Cbristi, habeasque vitam setemam 
et vivas in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

Hie aspergatur tumulus aqua benedicta et incensetur^ 
cantore incipiente Antiphonam. 

Heec requies mea. E. u. o. u. a. e. 

Ps. Memento Domine David, et omnis mansuetu- 
dinis ejus. 

Finito psalmo sequatur antiphona : 

Hsec requies mea in seeculum saeculi : hie habitabo 
quoniam elegi eam. 

C Qua dicta dicat sacerdos orationem, cum Oremus. 


Deus, apud quem spiritus mortuorum vivunt, et in 

1 24 Jn^umatio C)emnat. 

quo elcctorum anim^, deposito camis oBere, plena fe- 
licitate tetantur, prsesta supplicantibiis nobis, ut anima 
famuli tui vcl faioulee inm JV. quae temporali per cor- 
pus vigionia faujus luminiB caruit visu, eeterB^ iUius 
lucis solatio potiatur. Non earn tonnentum mortis 
attingat, nee dolor horrendse visionis afficiat. Non 
pcBnalis tinior excruciet, non reorum pessima catena 
constringat» sed concessa sibi vema onmium delictorum, 
opiate quietis consequatur gaudia repromissa. Per 
Christum Doniinum nostrum. Amen. 

Aim aratio cum Oresaxm. Cfrath. 

To Domine Dens anuiipoteiiSy predbiiB noetm «nrem 
toflB pietatis accommodare digneris, ta miMna Qpem fe- 
ns et mismtordiam largiaris, et spirkvm fioondi tu 
vel famulflB tui» N. Yincidia corpcnraHbas Hberatimi in 
pacem sanctorum tuorum recipias, ut locum poenalem et 
gehennse ignem in regionem viventium translatus eva- 
dat. Per Christum. 

C Finitis orationibus executor officii terram super 
corpus ad modum crucis ponaty et corpus thurificet et 
aqua benedicta aspergat : et dum sequens psalmus caniturj 
corpus omnino cooperiatur^ cantore incipiente Antipho- 

De terra plasmasti me. E. u. o. u. a. e. 

Psalmus. Domine probasti me et cognovisti me. 

Finito psalm^y tota dicatur antiphona. 
'De terra plasmasti me, et camem induisti me, re- 
demptor mens Domine, resuscita me in novissimo die. 

Qua dicta dicat sacerdos sine Dominus vobiscum, et 
sine Oremus. 

Commendo animam tuam Deo Patri omnipotenti, 
terram terrse, cinerem cineri, pulverem pulveri, in 
nomine Patris. etc. 

Deinde dicat sacerdos hanc oratwnemj sine Oremus. 

3(ni)ttmatio lOttmttt. 1 25 

Orotic. Temeritatis quidem est, Domine, ut homo 
hominem, mortalis mortalem, cinis cinerem tibi Do- 
mino Deo nostro audeat commendare : sed quia terra 
suscipit terrain et pulvis convertitur in pulverem, donee 
omnis caro in suam redigatur originem, inde tuam 
Deuspiissime Pater lachrymabiliterquaesumuspietatem, 
ut hujus famuli tui vel famulse tuae N. animam quam 
creasti de hujus mundi voragine coenolenta ad patriam 
ducas, Abrahae amici tui sinu recipias, (et ?) refirigerir 
rore perfimdas. Sit ab eestuantis gehennse truci incen- 
dio segregata, et beatee requiei, te donante, conjuncta. 
Et si quae illi sunt, Domine, dignae cruciatibus culpae, 
tu eas gratia tuae mitissimae lenitatis indulge, ne pec- 
cati vicem sed indulgentiae tuae piam sentiat bonitatem. 
Cumque finite mundi termino supemum cunctis illux- 
erit regnum, novus homo sanctorum omnium coetibus 
aggregatus vel aggregata cum electis tuis resurgat in 
parte dextera coronandus vel coronanda. Per Chris- 

Alia oratio. Oremus. Oratio. 

Deus yitae dator, et humanorum corporum reparator, 
qui te a peccatoribus exorari voluisti, exaudi preces 
quas speciaU devotione pro anima famuli tui vel fa- 
mulae tuae N. tibi lachrymabiliter fundimus: ut liberare 
eam ab inferorum cruciatibus et collocare eam inter 
agmina sanctorum tuorum digneris, veste quoque cce- 
lesti et stola immortalitatis indui, et paradisi amoenitate 
confoveri jubeas. Per Christum. 

F^nita oratione incipiat cantor antiphonam. 

Omnis spiritus. E. u. o. u. a. e. 

Psalmus. Laudate Dominum de coelis. 

Ps. Cantate Domino canticum novum. 

Ps. Laudate Dominum in Sanctis ejus. 

C Fimto psalmoj tola dicatur antiphona^ scilicet. 


Jnbumatfo Deftincti* 

Omois gpiritus laudet Domiatim. 

Qua dicia dkai sacerdos sine Dominus TobbctUBi d 
Sine Oremus, 

Oratio. Deb] turn biimam corporis sepeliendi offi* 
cimn fidelium more eomplentes, Deum cui omnia vi- 
v\mi fideliter deprecemur^ ut boc corpus carl nostn 
ml cane nostree A^, a nobis infirmitate scpuliuio, in 
ordine Banctorum suorum resuscitet, et ejus splritum 
Sanctis ac fidelibus aggregari jubeat» cum quibus ioe- 
narrabili gloria et perenni felicitate perfrui mereatur* 
Per Domiuum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium ejus. 
Qui cum eo vivit, etc. 

Fimta oratione mcipiat saccrdos Aniiphonam. Et 
intonetur ps. Benedictus, modo seqi4€Hti : ® ioius ps. di- 
catur et cantetur hie solenmitr sicu4 ^d matutinHm. 
„ Ant. Ego sum. 

Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel : quia Tisitavit et 
fecit redemptionem plebis suee. 

Finito psalmOy tota dicatur antiphona. 

Ego sum resurrectio et vita, qui credit in me etiam 
si tnortuus fuerit vivet, et omnis qui vivit et credit in 
me non morietur in setemum. 

Qua dicta sequatur hoc modo. 

Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. 

Hie roget sacerdos orare pro anima defunctiy ita 

Fro anima iV^ et pro animabus omnium fidelium de- 
functor um.^ Pater noster. 

® '* Iste psalmus non cantetur 
hie solenniter sicut ad vesperas: 
sed communiter ut alii psalmi." 
Pontif. Sar. 

* The Salishury Pontifical puU 
this clause "Pro anima" etc.: 

and again presently the same when 
it is repeated, as a rubric Possi- 
bly both are correct : the Bishop, 
when performing this Office, might 
be allowed to use either that, or 
some other and longer form, if he 
supposed it to be necessary. 

3ln{»unatio Defimctf; \^^ 

C Deinde dkat sacerdos. 

Et ne nos inducas in tentationeiii. Sed libera nos a 

Requiem aetemam dona eis Domine. 

Et lux perpetua luceat eis. 

A porta inferi. 

Exue Domine animas eorum. 

Credo videre bona Domini. 

In terra viventium. 

Non intres in judicium cum serro tuo, Domine. 

Quia non justificabitur in conspectu tuo omnis 

Domine exaudi orationem meam. 

Et clamor mens ad te veniat. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 


Oratio. Deus origo pietatis, pater misericordiarum, 
solamen tristium, indultor criminum, de cujus munere 
venit omne quod bonum est, et procedit, respice pro- 
pitius supplicum preces. Et quamvis propria nos re- 
putet indignos conscientia, te dignum nostris flecti 
petitionibus, pulsamus tamen quantuluincunque conce- 
ditur aures tuae pietatis. Nam si omittimus in utroque 
veremur esse rei, quoniam et te pnecipis a peccatoribus 
exorari, nostroque, etsi non merito, hoc agendum te 
prsestante tribuitur ministerio. Ergo te, Domine 
sancte, Pater omnipotens, seteme Deus, qui unicum 
Filium tuum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum in- 
camari de virgine constituisti, quo vetustum solveret 
proprio cruore peccatum, et vitam redderet mundo, 
ipso opitulante animam firatris nostri vel sororis nostrse 
N. ab ergastulo ccenolentae materise exemptam ab 
omnibus piaculis qusesumus absolvas. Nullas patiatur 
insidias occursantium dsemonum, propter quam misisti 

I a8 Jnftumatio DeftinrtL 

ad terras unipmhim Filium tnnin. Libera et absbliil 
earn ab a^tuantis gahennse truci ineendio» eollocans m 
paradisi amcBnitale, Kon sentiat, piissime Pater, qaod 
calcl in flammis, quod siridet in pcenis, et qnod borre! 
in tenebris: sed munifieeiiti^e tuse munere prsereBta 
mereator eradere judicium ultionis, et beatse requiei 
i€ lucis letemie felicitate perfirui. Per Christum* 

Ali^ oratm^ cum Oremus. 

Tibi, Domine^ commendamus animam famuli tui td 
£amu]i0 tuae N* ut defunctus vet defuncta ss^iulo tibi 
vam^ et qii^ per fragllitatem mundanee conTersatioois 
]ieeeata admisit, tii venia uiisericordissim^ pietatis 
absterge. Per Cbristum* 

Hh diet is diaiiur ps. 

Miserere, cam ani* Requiem setemam* 

Qtm dicta dicai sucerdos in audiiu ommum^ 

Pater noster: pro anima ejus N. et pro aniniabus 
quorum ossa in hoc coEmeten^o vel in sdiis requiescunt, 
el pro anlmabus omnium fidelium defunctorunu 

Ddiidc dicai sacerdos^ 

£t ne nas« 

Sed libera. 

A porta inferi. 

Erne Domine. 

Ne tradas Domine bestiis animas confitentes tibi. 

£t animas pauperum taorum ne obliviscaris in finem. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Deus, cujus miseratione anims fidelium requiescunt, 
animabus fBuodulorum fBuodularumque tuamm hie et 
uhique in Christo quiescentium, da propitius suorum 
Yeniam peccatorum, ut a cunctis reatibus absoluti, te- 
cum sine fine Istentur. Per Christum. 

C Pi^stea revcrtentes clerici de tumtdoj dicant stptcm 

3In{)nmatio Deftincti« 1 29 

s« psalmos pcenitentiales^ vel psalmutn^^^ De profiindis, cum 

ii antiphonUj Requiem aDtemam. 

» Sequatur, Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie 

Ji eleison. Pater noster. Et ne nos : sed libera. A porta 

■ inferi. Erue Domine. 

I Anima ejus in bonis demoretur. 

■ Et semen ejus haereditet terram. 
Credo videre bona Domini. 

3 In terra viventium. 

I Non intres in judicium cum servo tuo Domine. 
I Quia non justificabitur in conspectu tuo omnis 
i vivens. 

Dominus vobiscum. 
Oremus. Oratio. 

Satisfaciat tibi Domine Deus noster pro anima fa- 
muli tui N. fratris nostri, sanctae Dei genitricis sem- 
perque virginis M ariae, et sanctissimi apostoli tui Petri, 
omniumque sanctorum tuorum oratio, et praesentis 
familiae tuae humilis et devota supplicatio, ut peccato- 
rum omnium veniam precamur obtineat, nee eam 
patiaris cruciari gehennalibus pcenis, quam Filii tui 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi pretioso sanguine rede- 
misti. Qui tecum. Sgc. 

C In fine omnium demissa voce dicatur sic. Anima 
ejus, et animae omnium fidelium defunctorum per Dei 
misericordiam requiescant in pace. Amen. 

^^ " Vel saltern pgalmum'* Rubr. Pontif. Sar. 

VOL. I. 

£>xtio an faeienDam aquam iiene< 

Mtnttitiio saU& et aquae.' 

J/N^IBUS dominkls diebus per annum^ tt 
m fosiis simpticihm in dominicis coniingtvr 
tibm^ post primam et capitalum^ vei missam 
in cfipitiiloj si habeatm\ tres campamt brt' 
Vittr pt4hetUia\ smgulaiimj ad aquam benediclam^ ind- 
piendo a majorc campana : deinde in Jine processianiij 
cum dicitur antiphmia in introitu chori^ pulsatur ad 
tertiam dido modo : nisi sermo dicereiur ad populum, 
time injine sermoms pulsatur ad tertiam^ nisi in duplh 
cibiisfestiS) ct in dontinica in ramispa/marum ; asactr- 
dole hebdomadario, alba et cappa serica rubea indatQt 

' ** De Modo benedicendi a- 
quam DQEniDieiL in advent a et in 
ftliis Douiinieis. 

*" Dominica prima in adventu, 
peractiB his qua? ad Capitulum 
pertinent, sacerdos hebdomadarma 
cum Diacono, et Subdiacono tex^ 
tum deferente, et Puero deferente 
Thuribulum et Ceropherariis, et 
acolyto crueem ferente : omnibus 
albis indutis, et ad altare in medio 
Presbiterii conversis, in cappa se- 
rica ad gradum chori faciat aquam 
benedictam : et Puer qui ad aquam 
scribitur in Tabula in superpelliceo 
ei subministret, tenendo sal dum 
benedicitur, et aquam benedictam 
gestando. Puer vero hebdomada- 
rius Lectionis ad Matutinas Sa^ 
cerdoti in libro tenendo in super- 

pelUc^Q raini9trc*t. 

** De aapersione AquB&. 

" Peractabenediclione, sacerdos 
ipse accedat ad princjpale altaret 
et ipsum circumquaque asperpJ ; 
in redeundo in primis aspergat 
ministros sic ordinntos, incipicndo 
ab acolyto. Deinde ad gradum 
chori rediens, ibidem singulos cle- 
ricos ad se accedentes aspergat, 
incipiens a majoribus. Episcopos 
tamen si prssens fuerit, ad eum 
aspersio clericorum pertinet. Post 
aspersionem clericorum laicos in 
Presbyterio bine inde stantes as- 
pergat. Peracta aspersione redeat 
sacerdos ad gradum Chori, et ibi 
orationem cum versiculo dicat** 
Consuetudinarium Sarum. MS. 
Registrum S. Osmundi.JbL xij. 

IBeneHictio ttaliti et aquae* x 3 3 

cum diacono et subdiacono textus deferentibm cum thU" 
ribulariis et duobus ceroferariis^ et acolyto crucem defe-f 
rentCy omnibus albis cum amictibus indutisj in medio 
presbj/terii ad altare conversis, ac etiam cum duobus 
pueris J. quorum alter scilicet puer qui adaquam scribitur 
in tabula^ in sale tenendo et aquam benedictam gestando^ 
filter scilicet puer hebdomadarius lector ad matutinaSy et 
in libro tenendo eidem sacerdoti in superpelliciis minis- 
trent, et ad gradum chori Jiat benedictio salis et aqua 
hoc modo. 

Exorciso te, creatura salis, per Deum pj» vivum, per 
Deum 4- verum, per + Deum sanctum, per Deum qui 
te per Heliseum prophetam in aquam mitti jussit ut 
sanaretur sterilitas aquae, ut efficiaris sal Hie respiciat 
sacerdos sal exoreisatum in salutem credentium. Et 
sis omnibus te sumentibus sanitas animee et corporis, 
et effugiat atque discedat ab eo loco quo aspersum 
fueris omhis phantasia et nequitia vel versutia diabolicse 
fraudis, omnisque spiritus immundus, adjuratus per 
eum qui venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos et 
sseculum per ignem. 

Resp. Amen. 

Et sic finiantur omnes exorcismi per totum annum. 

Sequatur oratio sine Dominus vobiscum, sed tantum 
cum^ Oremus. 

Immensam clementiam tuam, omnipotens eeteme 
Deus, humiliter imploramus: Hie respiciat sacerdos 
sal. ut banc creaturam salis, quam in usum bumani 
generis tribuisti, bene^-dicere et sancti+ Scare tua 
pietate digneris, ut sit omnibus sumentibus salus mentis 
et corporis ; et quicquid ex eo tactum vel respersum 
fuerit, careat omni immunditia, omnique impugnatione 
spiritalis nequitiee. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum 
Christum Filium tuum. Qui tecum vivit et regnat 



1 34 IBcneDictio salis ct aquae. 

in unitate SpiHtus S^icti Deiis. Per omnia sscoti 
MBCElortuii. I 

Mesp, Amen, I 

Sub eadem tmiojifmniur onmes orationeM gtqumt^^A ' 
etiam orationes post aspersionem aqu€t b€n£dici<E~ 
Scquaiur cxorcisfum aqum. 

Exorcise te, ereatura mqusB, in BomiBe Dei Pa+trii 

omDipotentiSj et in nomine Jesa Christi, FiHi qns» 

Domini nostril et in ^^^tute Spiritus + SaBcti: ut 

fias aqua exorcisata ad effugandam omnem poteslatem 

intmici: et ipsom inimicum eradicare et explantare 

Taleas cum angeljs suis apostaticis : per virtntem ejus- ^ 3 

dem Domini nostrij Jesu Chrigti : qui ventunis est t: 

indicare vivos et mortuos, et saeculum per ignem. tj 

liesp. Amen, I 

Sequatur oraiio sine^ Dominus vobiscum, s€d tanitm c 

aim. Oremus. i 

Oratio. Deus^ qui ad salntem humani generis maxima 4 

quaeque sacramenta in aquarum substantia condidisti, 

iwiesto propitius inTOcationibus noatris : et element© 

huic^ Hie respiciat mcerdos aquam^ multimodis puri- 

ficationibus praeparato virtu tem tuae benc+dictionis 

inlitnde, ut creatura tua mysteriis tuis serviens ad abji- 

ciendos daemones, morbosque peUendos, divinse gratiae 

sumat effectum, ut quicquid in domibus vel in locis 

fidelium hsec unda resperserit, careat omni immnnditia, 

liberetur a noxa : non illic resideat spiritus pestilens, 

non aura corrumpens : discedant omnes insidi» laten- 

tis inimiei, et si quid est quod aut ineolumitati habi- 

tantium invidet aut quieti, aspersione hujus aqus 

efingiat, ut salubritas per invocationem tui nominis ex- 

petita, ab omnibus sit impugnationibus defensa. Per 

Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Filium tuum. 


"Benenictto gaU» et luittae. 135 

C Hie mittat sacerdos sal in aquamj in modum crudSf 
orivatim ita dicens: 

Commixtio sails et aquse pariter fiat ; 

In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritns Sanctis 
* Resp. Amen. 

C Sequatur benedictio salis et aqua pariter. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Resp. £t cum spiritu tuo. 


DeuSy inyictae virtutis auctor, et insuperabilis imperii 
rex, ae semper magnificus triumphator, qui adversse 
dominationis vires reprimis, qui inimici rugientis ssevi- 
tiam superas, qui hostiles nequitias potens expugnas, 
te, Domine, trementes et supplices deprecamur, ac 
petimusy ut hanc Hie respiciat aquam sale mixtam^ 
creaturam salis et aquse dignanter accipias, benignus 
illustres, pietatis tuae rore san^-ctifices, ut ubicunque 
fuerit aspersa, per invocationem sancti tui nominis, 
omnis infestatio immundi spiritus abjiciatur, terrorque 
Fenenosi serpentis procul pellatur, et prsesentia Sancti 
Spiritus nobis misericordiam tuam poscentibus ubique 
adesse dignetur. Per Dominum nostrum^ Jesum 
Christum, Filium tuum. Qui tecum vivit et regnat 
UQ unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus. Per omnia saecula 
saeculorum. Amen. 

C Si fuerit duplex festum, extra chorum Jiat bene- 
dictio salis et aqua privatim ante aliquod altare^ et hara 
vj. cantata^ aspergatur. In aliis vero dominicis simpli- 
cibus in choro benedicatur et antetertiam aspergatur , ut 
tupra dictum estj nisi in dominica in ramispalmarum ; 
tunc enim extra chorum benedicatur^ et post sextam 
aspergatur more duplicis festi : licet duplex festum nan 

Peracta benedictione salis et aqua^ accedat ipse sacer^ 

1 36 li5£ncl)ictio saii3 et aquae. 

dos ad principak altarc^ ct ipsam simido circumfrnpi 
axpergiii. In redeumh ab aliari ht primis aipergd 
mbmtrm ordinuitm^ hmpirmh ab acolylo^ ifui crucm 
deferi : delude ad gradum chart redkfis^ ibkkm siaguta 
clcricos ad se acccdefiks aspcrgai imipkns a majoribm i 
tamtn it epistoptiS pra*setisfucrit, ad cam periinci aspersio 
ckrironim. Post aspersmicm ckrkorutn iaivos lapriP 
byicrh him hide siatiies aspergai. 

Dum spargilar aqua bcncdkia canietur kiic anth 
phona a ioio choroj cantort incipicnte, 

Asperges me, Domine, hyssopo et mutidabor, lavabis 
me et super nivem dealbabur. 

Ps. Miserere mei Deus ; secundum magnam miseri- 
cordiam tuam. 

RepelaUir antiphona. Asperges me. 

Et secundimi multitudincm miserationtiiu tuarum: 
dele iniquitatem meatn- 

Repctatur antiphona, Asperges me* 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, ct Spiritui Sancto, Sicut 
erat in principio^ et nunc, et semper : et in sa^mla 
eaeculorum. Amen. 

C Rcpetaiur Asperges me. 

Ha'c auiiphona dkatur in aspersione aquce betiedict^Ef 
omnibus dominiciS per annum^ pmterquam a Pascha ad 
f est urn Trinitatis. Dicetur etiam Dominica in ramis 
palmarum, et in dominica Passionis Domini^ cum Gloria 
Patri, et Sicut erat. A pascha vero usque adfestum 
Trinitatisj dicatur hcec antiphoua in asptrsione aqua 
benedictcej cantore incipiente, 

Antiphona. Vidi aquam egredientem de templo a 
latere dextro. 


Et omnes ad quos pervenit aqua ista salvi facti sunt, 
et dicent : AUeluya. AUeluya. 

iBenenictio sEaiiiS et aaaae^ 1 37 

Ps. Confitemini Domino quoniam bonus : quoniam 
in sseculum misericordia ejus. 

Repetatur antiphona. Vidi aquam. Postea dicitur 
versus : 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut 
erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in seecula 
sseculorum. Amen. 

Et per acta aspersione aquce^ sacerdos adgradum chori 
dicat : 

Vers. Ostende nobis, Domine, misericordiam tuam. 

Resp. Et salutare tuum dia nobis. 

Deinde presbyter dicat : Oremus. 

Exaudi nos, Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, seteme 
Deus, et mittere dignare sanctum angelum tuum de 
coelis, qui custodiat, foveat, protegat, visitet, et de- 
fendat omnes habitantes in hoc habitaculo. Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. 

Resp. Amen. 

C Si episcopus in aliqua simplici dominica exequatur 
officiuniy tunc ipse indutus cappa serica cum mitf^a et 
baculoy ac omnibus supradictis ministris ad benedictionetn 
salis et aqua chorum solet intrare : qui dum Jit bene- 
dictio salis et aqua a sacerdote^ ut pradicitur, ad hoc 
indutOy sese in sedem recipit episcopalem ibique post 
aspersionem altaris principalis a prcedicto sacerdotefac- 
tarn J tam canonicos quam ceeteros clericos ad sedem ipsam 
accedentes^ modo et ordine pi^anotato asperget et tam 
versum quxim orationem post antiphonam Asperges dicet 
ibidem. Si vero episcopus executor officii non fuerity 
tunc in habitu chori cum chirothecis tantum et baculoj 
clericos ut supra aspergaty sacerdote prcedicto versum et 
orationem post antiphonam Asperges more consueto 
semper dicente. 

f; Bkhbdictio faku. 

BENEDICTIOpamUm didnu damimm. 
In jnrimm mcerdoi l^at evangeUum In ^ 
cqno orat Verinim ef jwilea £cat : Sit nomen Domm 
bmedictam. R. Ex hoc nmic et usque in ssculum. Be- 
nedicamus Domino. 

Resp. Deogntias. 

Ddndt Scat: Dominus Tobiscum. 

£t cum. Oremus. (/ratio. 

BeDe*i>dic Domine creatanm istam panis, sicnt 
benedixisd qoinqae panes iu deserto, ut omnes ex eo 
gustantes tarn cwporis qoam animse accnpiant sani- 
tatem. In n<nnine Fk-i-tris et Fi4*fii et Spi+ritos 
SanctL Am^i. 

Time asptrgatwr aqua bcne£cta super panan d dih 

BeneDtctioneg hVotxm* 



^!^^^3 D JUTORI UM nostrum* Dommus vobis- 

fef|nB W I^i^ *Vi omnibus batcdkiiomhiu^ primo d'h 
nUOl^ cantur. 

Oromus. Oratio, 

Omnlpotens sempiterne Deus, qui per Moj'^eii fa- 
mulum tuum pontificalia seu eacerdotaliar ac levitica 
vestimenta, ad explendum niinisterium eorum in con- 
spectu tuOj et ad decoreni tui nomiDis fieri decrev isti : 
adesto propitius invocatioiiihus nostris; et haec indu- 
menta desuper irrigata gratia tua, ingenti benedictione 
per nostrae humilitatis servitutem purificare •{• bene- 
dicere + et consecrare + digneris : ut divinis cultibus 
et sacris mysteriis apta et bene + dicta existant : bis- 
que sacris vestibus pontifices, sacerdotes, seu levitae 
tui induti, ab omnibus impulsionibus seu tentationibus 
malignorum spirituum muniti ac defensi esse mereantur : 
omnesque eis utentes tuis mysteriis aptos et condignos 
servire, atque in his placide inhaerere et devote per- 
severare tribue. Per Dominum nostrum. 

Oratio. Deus invictse virtutis auctor, et omnium 

* TheseBenedictions follow the 
Order of Confirmation, which, for 
reasons already stated, (see Note 
1. p. 34.) I have placed after the 
Order of Baptism. They are head- 
ed, '* Benedictiones ab Episcopis, 

et Suffraganeis faciendae.'* 

The first is named in the Sarum 
Pontifical, '* Benedictio ad vesti- 
menta sacerdotalia sive levitica :*' 
and except in a word or two, is 
the same Office as in the text. 

TBmtWtiontii mnnMt. 141 

rerum creator ac sanctificator, intende propitius : ut 
haec indumenta sacerdotalis et leviticee gloriae ministe- 
riis tuis fruenda, tuo ore proprio bene^-dicere et sane- 
ti^-licare et consecrare digneris : omnesque eis utentes 
tuis mysteriis aptos, et tibi in eis deyote et amicabiliter 
servientes, grates effici concedas. Per Dominum. Et 
aspergat ea episcopus aqua benedicta : et idem faciat in 
benedictione cujusUbet specialis indumenti. 

II. Benedictio specialis cujuslibet indumenti. 

Oremus. Oratio.^ 

DEUS omnipotens, bonarum virtutum dator, et 
omnium benedictionum largus infusor, te sup- 
plices exoramus ut manibus nostris opem tusB benedic- 
tionis infundas : ut hunc amictum, vel^ albam, vel cinc- 
torium, vel manipulum, vel^ dalmaticam, ve/, patenam, 
vel^ pluviale, divino cultui praeparatum, virtute Sancti 
Spiritus bene+dicere, et sancti •{•ficare, atque conse* 
•{«crare digneris. Et omnibus eis utentibus gratiam 
sanctificationis sacri mysterii tui benignus concede, 
ut in conspectu tuo sancti et immaculati atque irrepre- 
hensibiles appareant, et auxilium misericordise tuse 
acquirant. Per Dominum. 

III. Benedictio amictus. 

BENE •{• Die Domine qusesumus, omnipotens Deus, 
amictum istum tarn levitici quam sacerdotalis of- 
ficii : et concede propitius, ut quicumque eum capiti 

' This Office and the next three do not occur in the MS. Pontifical 
which is before me. 

1 42 iQmttiittimm niaetmt. 

sua impofuerit^ benedictionem tuam accipiat, sitque in 
fide solidus, et sanctitatis gravedine fundatus, P^ 


DEUS innctae virtutis auctor, et omnium rerum 
creator et sanctificator, intends propifcius, ut al- 
bam le\itic8e ac saeerdotalis gloriBe tuo ore proprio 
bene + dicere, Sanctis ficare atque conse + crare dig- 
neris, omnesque ea utentee tuis mysteriis aptos^ et libi 
in ea deyote et amicabiliter servientesi gratos effici 
concedas. Per Dominuni nostrum. 

V. Benedictio cinguli. 

OMNIPOTENS sempiteme Deus, qui Aaron et 
filiis suis sacerdotali ministerio cingulo cum 
balteo in renibus stringi jussisti^ adesto supplication- 
ibus nostris : ut omnes tuae sanctae operationis ministri 
hac zona justitiae circumsepti, renes lumbosque sancta 
pudicitia praecingere satagant atque praBvaleant : qua- 
tenus nee vento elationis, nee frigore iniquitatis tabes- 
cant, sed magis ac magis te opitulante confirmari et 
corroborari ad tibi placita queant. Per Dominum. 

VI. Benedictio manipuli.' 

Oremus. Oratio. 

EXAUDI nos Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, 
aeterne Deus, ut hunc manipulum sacri mysterii 

' Another Benediction and not " Benedictio manipuliper $e, 

this is given in the Pontifical. Devotionia infosor Deus» bene- 

IBeneOtctiones! Ditietitae. 


Usui prseparatum bene^^dicere^ saiicti4«ficaFe» atque 
conse + crare digneris. Per Dominum. 

VII. Benedictio stol^.* 

Oremus. Oratio. 

DEUS qui stolis prsedicatoribus coUum et pectus 
muniri jussisti, exaudi nos propitius : ut qui- 
cumque tuorum saoerdotum huic stolae colla subjeceriniy 
quicquid corde credunt boni proferant,^ et quod verbis 
edocuerint factis^ adimplere festinent. Per Dominum 

VIII. Benedictio stoub et manipuli simul.'^ 

DOMINE Jesu Christe, Fili Dei vivi, qui pius et 
misericors ore tuo sancto et benedicto dixisti» 
Venite ad me omnes qui laboratis et onerati estis^ et 
ego reficiam vos, et invenietis requiem animabus ves- 
tris: jugum enim meum suave est; et onus meum 
leve : stolam istam et manipulum istum quern hamuli tui 
sacerdotes et levitae ad ostendendum se servituti tu8e 
mancipatos gestaturi sunt, bene + dicere, sancti 4« ficare^ 

-f- dioere dignare manipulam is- 
tumy et utentibiis eo kchrymanua 
incrementa concede, ut tui muneris 
collatioDe prsventi, et fiducialius 
a te quae postulanda sunt postu- 
lent, et fiudlius impetreat postu- 
lata. Per Dominum. 

^ This ia in the Pcmtifical. 

« ^ Quioquid boni ore protnle- 
rint eorde credant" PfmHf.Sar. 

« "Opere." Pontif. Sar. 

^ This Office and the Ibllowinf, 
with one or two unimportant ver- 
bal differences, in the Pontifical. 
Except that according to that 
MS. the benediction of the Cha- 
suble ends, '' super omnia habeant, 
quo perficere quae juste desiderant 
te praestante raleant.. Per Domi- 


TBmtnittimts Ditietsae. 

atque conse + crare digneris, quatenus cis utentes ju- 
gum tuum suave et onus tuum leve sentiant, et anitna- 
bus suis requiem inveniant sempiteroam. Per te Sal- 
vator mundi, Rex gloriae, qui vivis. 

VIIL Benedictio casul^* 


DEUS fons pietatis et justitise, qui tui operis miDis- 
tros ad extremum vestimentorum suorum casuk, 
cujus xnunimento interius omnia tegerentur» Testiri 
sanxisti : concede precibus Dostris Tirtutem et bene+- 
dicdonem gratiae tuse, ut omnes hac casula induli 
enumcratis interius omnium virtutum omamentis, vin- 
culum perfectas charitatis super omnia habeaDt et coo- 
servent; quo perficere valeant sacrificium tibi gratura 
pro vivis et mortuis, et quEe adipisci desiderant, devota 
mente implere valeant. Praestante Domino nostro: 
qui tecum vivit. 

IX. Benedictio Mapparum, seu Linteaminum 


EXAUDI preces nostras Domine : et haec lintea- 
mina sacri altaris usui praeparata bene+dicere, 
et sancti+ficare digneris. Per Dominum nostrum.® 

* The Sarum Pontifical gives 
another prayer in the place of this. 

" Omnipotens et misericors 
Deus, qui ah initio utilia et neces- 
saria hominihus creasti, quique 
per famulum tuum Moysen vela^ 

mina, et ornamenta, et csetora 
necessaria ad cultum et decorem 
tabernaculi et altaris tui fieri de- 
crevisti, exaudi propitius preces 
nostras: et hec omamenta vel 
linteamina in usum ecclesie vet 

IBeneHictione)» niMttMt. 


Domine Deus omnipotens qui Moysen famulunr 
tuum per quadragihta dies ornamenta et linteamina 
facere docuisti : qui etiam maria texuit in usum taber- 
naculi foederis, bene^^dicerey sancti+ficare, et conse- 
4« crare digneris, haec linteamina ad tegendum et in* 
volvendum altare gloriosissimi Filii tui Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi. Qui tecum vivit.. 


O REMUS fratres dilectissimi, ut divinae grafiffi 
benedictio conse+cret et sancti+ fleet hanc p«ir 
tenam ad confiringendum in ea corpus Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi : qui crucis passionem sustinuit pro salute 
omnium nostrum. Qui vivit et regnat. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui legalium institutor 
es hostiarum : quique inter eas conspersam similagi- 

altaris tui, ad honorem et gloriam 
tuam prseparata, puri + ficare, 
sancti + ficare, et conse + crare, 
per nostrs humilitatis seryitutem 
digneris, ut divinis cultibus sacriB- 
que ministeriis apta et benedicta 
existant, hiisque confectioni cor- 
poris et sanguinis Domini Jesu 
Christi Filii tui dignis famulati- 
bus parentur. Qui tecum/' 

Then follows the second prayer 
of the text. 

' The Sarum Pontifical begins 
this Office thus: after the usual 
yerses and responses. 

^ Oremus.- Consecramus et 

VOL. I. 

sancti + ficamus hanc patenam ad 
confringendum in ea corpus Do- 
mini nostri Jesu Christi patientis 
crucem pro salute omnium nos- 
trum. Qui cum Patre et Spiriti:^ 

Hie fxciat episcopus signum 
crucu^de chrisnuite auper pate» 
nam iUcens, 

Conse -f cnu'e et sancd-f fi- 
care digneris Domine hanc pate- 
nam» per istam unctionem jt nos- 
tram bene -|- dictionem in Christo 
Jesu Domino nostro. Qui tecum.. 

Oremus. Omnipotens, sempi- 
teme etc" 


TBmtaittiantsi Qltiersae. 

nem deferri in patenis aiireis et argeoteis ad altare 
tuum jusBisti : bene + dicere, sancti + ficare, atque cob- 
+seerare digneris hatic patenam in admiDistratiooem 
EucharistiaB Jesu Christi Filii tui, qui pro nostrmn 
omnium salute seipsum tibi Deo Patri In crucis pati- 
bulo elegit immolari. Qui tectini. 

Hicfaciat episc(^us crucem asm poUice de o/eo sand6 
super pattnam : et moj£ liniai toiam super/iciem cum 
ipso pollice^ dicens. 

Con+secrare, et sancti+ ficare dignare Domine 
patenam istam, per istam unctionem el nostram saac- 
tam benedictionem in Christo Jesu Domino nostfQ. 
Qui tecum, 

XL Pr.€fatio ab calicem. 

O REMUS, dilectissimi fratres, ut Deus et Dominus 
noster calicem istum in usum sui minis terii con- 
secrandum ccelestis grati^e inspiratione saticti + fleet: 
et eum ad habendam plenitudinem divini amoris accom- 
* modet. Per Domiuum. 


DIGNARE Domine Deus noster calicem istum 
bene + dicere, in usum ministerii tui pia devo- 
tione formatum: et sanctificatione perfundere qua 

** According to the Pontifical 
the anointing precedes the Collect 
or Prayer, which instead of the 
one in the text, is the following. 

'* Deus qui accepto et distrihuto 
pane, vetus determinans pascha 

et novum incboans, accepto calice 
sanguinem tuum benedixisti et 
discipulis tuis ad bibendum porrex- 
isti: quique in cruce pro mundi 
salute positus, aquam ex latere 
proprio una cum sangtiine proflu- 

15enetitctione0 tiiiiertfae; 


Melchisedech famuli tui sacratum vas vel calicem per- 
fiidisti: et quod arte vel metallo effici non potest 
altaribus tuis dignum, ftat taa benedictions sanctifica- 
turn. Per Dominum. 

Hie facial crucem de chrismate a labio ejus in labium 
cum polliee: et mox liniat et perungat calicem totum 
infra dicens : 

Con 4* secrare, et sancti •{• ficare dignare calicem 
istum, per istam sanctam unctionem et nostram bene- 
dictionem: in Christo Jesu Domino nostro. Qui 

Actiones nostras ^^ quaesumus Domine aspirando 
prsBveni et adjuvando prosequere : ut cuncta nostra 
operatic et a te semper incipiat, et per te ccepta finia- 
tur. Per Dominum. Oremus. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, manibus nostris qu»- 
sumus opem tuee benedictionis infunde : et per nostram 
benedictionem hoc vasculum cum patena sancti+fice- 
tur : et corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi 
novum sepulchrum Sancti Spiritus gratia perficiatur. 
Per eundem Dominum nostrum Jesum» efc. 

ere superna sanctificatione voluisti, 
reipice propitius super bunc oali- 
^m quern in tuo nomine ccmse- 
cramus> et tuam in eo effiinde be- 
ne -f-dictionem, et praesta ut qui- 
cumque ex hoc sanguinem tuum 
mundato corpore pregustayerinti 
peccatorum omnium a te miseri- 
oordiBsimo veniam et gaudia per- 
dpere mereantur sterna. Per te 
Salvator, qui vivis et regnas, etc, 

" I bave not ventured to place 

tbis and tbe succeeding prayer, as 
a separate benediction of both 
Cbalice and Paten» altbougb I 
mucb doubt wbether such ougbt 
not to be the arrangement: but 
all the Manuals which I have ex- 
amined give the order as in the 
text, immediately succeeding the 
collect of the Office of consecra- 
ting the Chalice alone. The Pon- 
tifical has : '' Oratio super Calicem 
et Patenam simul," but not agree- 
ing with the above. 

1 48 iBmtmumt% Bttoetiiae. 

XIL Vasa sacea et aoa orn amenta ECCLESI.^ f?f 


Adjutorium nostrum. Orerons. 

EX AUDI Domine pieces nostras clementissiine 
Pater, et haee purificanda Tasa et ornamenta, 
sacri altark atque ecclesise tuae sacrae myaterii usiai 
prseparata, beoe + dicere, et saacti + ficare dignerii^ 
per DomiDum. 


Omnipotens et misericors Deus, qui ab initio utilia 
et necesBaria hominibus creastl : templaque maaa 
hominum facta nomini tuo sancto dlcari» tuseque habi^ 
tationis loca voeari voluisti : quique per famulam 
tuum Moysen vestimenta pontificalia et sacerdotalia 
et levitica, et alia quseque diversi generis ornamenta 
ad cultum et decorem tabemaculi et altaris tui fieri 
decrevisti : exaudi propitius preces nostras, et omnia 
hsec diversarum specierum ornamenta in usum basiUcft 
tuae vel altaris ad honorem et gloriam tuam praeparata, 
puri^-ficare, bene+dicere, sancti+ficare, atque con- 
se+crare digneris: ut divinis cultibus sacrisque mys- 
teriis apta et benedicta existant, atque confectionibus 
corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi dignis 
parentiu: famulatibus. Qui tecum. 

Et aspergatur aqua benedicta. 

" This Office is not given in above, Note 8. " Benedictio 
the Pontifical: but compare the linteaminum.*' 
second collect with the prayer 

IBeneHictioneiB! Oitieraae. 1 49 

XI IL Benedictio librorum.^' 

Adjutorium nostrum. Etc. 
Oremus. Oratio. 

DESCENDAT Domine virtus Spiritus Sancti su- 
per hunc librum, qui eum mundando purificet 
et benedicat atque sanctificet, et omnium in eo legen- 
tium clementer corda illuminet, et verum intellectum 
tribuat, sed et intelligendo tua preecepta conservare 
et implere secundum voluntatem tuam bonis operibus 
concedat. Per Dominum. ejusdem. 
Et aspergatur aqua benedicta. 

XIV. Benedictio thuribuli. 

Adjutorium. etc. Oremus. 

DOMINE Deus qui dum filios Israel in deserto 
murmurantes ob rebellem suam audaciamdudum 
vastfluret incendium, Aaron sacerdotem tuum, ac repleto 
igne altaris thuribulo tibi incensum ponentem exaudire» 
eosque de incendio liberare dignatus es: bene 4« die 
qusesumus Domine thuribulum hoc : et preesta, ut quo- 
ties in eo thus adolebitur, votum populi tui boni odoris 
efficias. Per Dominum. 

" This and the succeeding are not included in the copy of the 

1 so IBmtnittionm Dtuetsae. 

XV- Ben EDICT 10 incensj, 


DOMINE Deus omnipotens» cui astat exercitos 
angelorum cum tremore, quorum servitium spi- 
rituale et igneum esse cognoscitur : dignare respicerer 
bene+dicere, et sancti 4- ficare banc creaturam in- 
censi ; ut omnes languores cimctaeque insidiae inimici 
odorem ejus sentientes effugiant^ et separentur a play- 
mate tuo quod pretioso sanguine redimistij ut nun- 
quam Isedantur a morsu antiqui serj^entis. Per Domi- 
num nostrum, 

XVI. Benedictio corporalis. 

Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini. Qui fecit 
coelum et terram, 

Oremus. Oratio. 

CLEMENTISSIME Deus, cujus inerrabilis est vir- 
tus, cujus mysteria arcana miraculis celebrantur : 
tribue quaesumus, ut hoc linteamen tuae propitiationis 
bene»{<dictione sanctificetur, et ad consecrandum su- 
per illud corpus Dei et Domini nostri Jesu Christi 
Filii tui dignum efficiatur. Per eundem. 


Deus qui pro humani generis salvatione verbum 
caro factus es, et habitare totus in nobis non dedignatus 
es : quique traditori tuo perfido osculum pium dedisti» 
dum pro vita omnium pius mactari voluisti, atque 
sindone lineo texto te involvi permisisti ; respice pro- 
pitius ad vota nostra, qui tua fideliter charismata am- 
plecti cupimus: quaesumus, Domine, sancti + ficare, 

iBeneOtctf one0 Ottietsae. 1 5 1 

bene »{• dicer e, et con8e4*orare digneris hoc corporale 
in usum altaiis tui : ad consecrandum Buper illud sive 
ad tegendum inTolvendumque sacrosanctum corpus et 
sanguinem tuum, Domine Jesu Christe, dignisque pa- 
reat famulatibus, ut quicquid sacro ritu super hoc 
immolabitur, sicut Melchisedech oblatum placeat tibi 
holocaustum : et obtineat per hoc praemium quicunque 
obtulerit votum. Te quoque humiliter rogamus ac 
petimuS) ut hoc corporale tuse sanctificationis ubertate 
per Sancti Spiritus gratiam purifices et sanctifices, qui 
te pro nobis omnibus offerre sacrificium voluisti; et 
prsesta ut super hoc sint tibi libamina accepta sive 
grata, sint pinguia, et Spiritus Sancti rore perfusai 
Salvator mundi, qui vivis. 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Deus qui digne tibi servientium nos imitari desideras 
famulatum, respice propitius ad humilitatis nostras ser- 
vitutem, et hoc corporale nomini tuo dedicatum, et 
servitutis tuae usibus prseparatum, coelestis virtutis be- 
nedictione sancti + fica, puri + fica, et conse + cra; 
quatenus super illud Spiritus Sanctus tuus descendati 
qui et oblationes populi tui benedicat, et corda sive 
corpora sumentium benignus reficiat. Per Dominum 

XVII. Benedictio Precariorum. 

DEUS omnium benedictionum largus infiisor, ac 
onmis bonae actionis inspirator, qui omnia taber- 
naculi foederis omamenta ad devotionem populi tuo 
ore proprio fieri praecepisti : te humili prece deposci- 
mus ut haec oracula sive precaria sanctitatis effigiem 
praetendentia, et ad devote orandum beatissimam vir- 
ginem Mariam Dei gcnitricem adaptata, ct ad psallen- 

iBmeBlccioncs nitiersae. 

dum ejusdem sanetissimee Tirginis psalterium confecta 
et praeparata, ilia benedictione perfundas et benedicas, 
qua olim per manus sacerdotum utonsilia taberaactjdi 
perfudisti Et concede ut quicunque in his oraeulis 
sive precariis ipsam gloriosissimam virginem supplici- 
te? honorare studuerint^ aut in his quocunque loco 
coram sua imagine preces eflFundere decreverint, aut 
ejus patrocinium postnlaverintt illius precibus et ob- 
tcntu, gratiam et gloriam consummato vitse prs^entis 
tennino obtineant, et tuse propitiationis indulgentiam 
consequantur. PerDominuni nostrum Jesum Christum* 

Solus ct ineflFabilis et incomprehensibilis creator, 
omnipotena Deus, cujus verbo et potestate cuncta sunt 
creata : cujus dono percepimus quse ad vitae remedia 
possideniufi : te supplices obnixis precibus deprccamur, 
ut de sede majestatis tu8B hsec oracula sive precaria 
fidelium famulorum tuorum sanctitati conyenientia, 
tua benedictione et coelesti sanctificatione perfundere 
digneris, quatenus beneplacitum munus in his oran- 
tium accipias. Sintque haec oracula sive precaria in 
conspectu tuae clementiae libenter accepta, sicut Abel 
alumni tui, vel sicut Melchisedech munera tibi placu- 
erunt oblata ; ut qui in his beatissimam Dei genitricem 
Mariam suis Sanctis nititur decorare obsequiis, Filius 
ejus Dominus noster Jesus Christus magna pro parvis 
recompenset, devotionem ejus accipiat, peccata dimit- 
tat, fide eum repleat, indulgentia foveat, nusericordia 
protegat, adversa destruat, prospera concedat. Habeat 
in hoc saeculo bonae actionis documentum, caritatis 
studium, sancti amoris aflFectum, et in future cum Sanc- 
tis angelis gaudium adipiscatur perpetuum. Per eun- 

IBeneOictioneiB! Oitterisae. 



Adjutorium nostrum. 

BENEDIC »{• Domine creaturam istam N. ut sit 
remedium salutare generi humano : et praesta per 
invocationem sanctissimi nominis tui, ut quicunque 
ex ea sumpserit, corporis sanitatem et animae tutelam 
percipiat. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, 

BeneDictio eampanae* 

3Inctptt mol)u£f ab gignan&um sftte 
campanam beneQtcenDum.' 

\N primis presbyter indatus superpdtimA 
stota^ ei cruce pnecedeiHe^ cum clero et p(h 
pulo cofigregaiOf dum mttaUum decurrU pn 
campana facknda incipii hymnum : Veni 
Creator : aim versu et coHecta de Sancto Spirit a. Qmruin 
mro compkta est, incipii : Te Deum laudamus. Ei 
omnes ckrki una voce debent cantare. Et injine : Da 

Versus, A Domino factum est istud 
Resp, Et est mirabile. 
Dominus vobbcum. Oratio. 

* Actiones nostras qusesumus Domine aspirando prB^ 
veni, et adjuvando prosequere, nt ciincta nostra oratio 
et operatio a te semper incipiat» et per te ccepta fini- 
atur. Per Christum, 

Quando volunt pendere^ possunt : sed primitus bent- 
dicitur, et consecratur in modum qui sequitur. 

^ The Sarum Pontifical, at least 
the copy which I have so often 
referred to, does not contain this 
Office. In the Bangor Pontifical 
we find : 

*' Ad signum ecclen€B benedi- 
cendum: pritno litanuE dgan- 
tury et deinde dicat episcopus^ 
Vers. Deus in adjutoriiun. De- 

inde faciat episcopiu exorcismum 
aqucer After the exorcising of 
the water, the bell is sprinkled 
with it, and the prayer in the 
text follows, except that it is more 
specially referred to the bell : be- 
ginning, '^ Benedic, Domine, hoc 
tintinnabulum, et assisiat etc.*' 

iBeneotctio campanae. 


Benedictio aqvuE. 

V. Adjutorium nostrum. V. Sit nomen. 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Bene + die Domine banc aquam benedietione eoelestiy 
et assistat super earn virtus Spiritus Sancti, ut cum boc 
vasculum ad invitandos filios ecclesise prseparatum/ in 
ea fuerit tinctum, ubicunque sonuerit ejus tintinnabu^ 
lum, longe recedat virtus inimicorum, umbra pbanta»* 
matum, incursio turbinum, percussio fubninum, Isesio 
tonitruum, calamitas tempestatum, omnisque spiritus 
procellirum. Et cum clangorem illius audierint filii 
Christianorum, crescat in eis devotionis augmentum, 
ut festinantes ad piae matris gremium, cantent tibi in 
ecclesia sanctorum, deferentes in sono tubae praeconium, 
modulationem per psalterium, exultationem per orga- 
num, suavitatem per tympanum, jocunditatem per 
cymbalum, gentes invitare valeant in templo sancto 
tuo suis obsequiis et precibus exercitum angelorum« 
Per Dominum. ejusdem. 

Postea debet cant are hos sex^ psalmos. 

Lauda anima mea Dominum. 

Laudato Dominum qiioniam bonus est. 

Lauda Hierusalem Dominum. 

Laudato Dominum de coelis. 

Cantate Domino canticum novum ; laus ejus in ec- 
clesia sanctorum. 

Laudato Dominum in Sanctis ejus. 

• " PoH hac cantahis id 
estf Lauda anima mea Dominmnt 
u»qu€ mjinempsalteriij cum hctc 
ant* In dvitate Domini clare 
' sonant jogiter organa sanctorum : 
ibi cynamomum et balsamum odor 

suavissimus qui ad Deum perti- 
nent, ibi angeli et archangeli 
hymnum novum decantant ante 
sedemDeL Alleluya. AUeluya.** 
PwUif. Bangor* 


l6mtUttin campanae. 

Ei dum cantantur^ dehet saeerdm lavare cloatm k 
siipradkla aqua benedicia cum oleo fj€rie4lici09 H sak k- 
mdkio : quod benettlcitur sicut in die Dinnmi^* Dmk 
dicii oraiionem sequentem. 

Oremua, Oratio/ 

Deud qui per beattim Moysen legiferum tubas argen* 
teas fieri pre^cepisti» quas dum H-eTitee sacrificii ckih 
gerentf sonitu dulcediniB populus monltus ad ador&D- 
dum te fieret pr^paratusj quarum clangare hortatnj 
ad beUum, tela proatemcret adversautium : praesU ^t 
hoc Tasculum tuie ecclesiae prseparatum sanctificetur i 
Spiritu Saneto : ut per lUiiis tactum fideles inTiteJittrr 
ad pra^miunip Et cum melodia iliius auribus insonu* 
erit populorum, crescat in eia devotio fidei : procul 
pellantur omnes insidisB inimici : fragor grandiouuif 
procolla turbinum, impetus tempcstatum tempereatoTt 
Infe^^ta tonitrua, ventorom flagra fiant salubriter tc 
moderate suspensa. Prostemas aereas potestates dex- 
tera tuse virtutis/ ut hoc audientes tintiiinabulum tre- 
miscant et fiigiant ante sancts crucis vexillunou Per 
Dominum. ejusdem. 

Tunc debet earn extergcre linteo, dicendo hunc psat- 

* *' Et cum cantaveris, interim 
exterges illud cum linteo." Ruhr, 
Pontif, Bangor, Then follows 
the prayer as in the text, *' Deus 
qui per beatum Moysen." etc, 
with one or two verbal and unim- 
portant variations, except towards 
the end, as mentioned in the next 

^ *< Et omnes immundi spiritus 
hoc audientes tintinnabulum, tre* 
miscant et fugiant quasi ante cru- 

cis sanciae vexillum. Prsesta quae- 
sumus nobishanc gpratiam, Domist 
Deus, cui flectitur omne genu 
coelestium terrestriura et infemo- 
rum, et omnis lingua confitetor.'* 
Pontif. Bangor. 

^ ^^DeindelmiesiUudchriimale 
9eptie$ deforisj ei demhu quater- 
me vicibtUf euhsequenie ani^A, 
Vox Domini super eie,^ Pontif 

Then tiM Ptahtty aa itt tlie teit 

TBmtntttio campanae. 1 59 

Vox Domini super aquas. Gloria Patri et Filio. 
iicut erat. etc. 

Post hcec tangere earn debet de chrismate /oris septies, 
t intus quateVj dicendo : 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus^ qui ante arcam foede- 
is, per clangorem tubarum muros lapideos quibus 
dversantium cingebatur exercitus, cadere fecisti: tu 
IOC tintinnabulum coelesti benedictione perfiinde, ut 
nte sonitum ejus longius effugentur ignita jacula 
niniici, percussio fulminum, impetus lapidum, laesio 
empestatum : ut ad interrogationem propheticam, Quid 
st tibi mare quod fugisti ? suis motibus cum Jordanico 
etro acto fluendo respondeat, A fieu^ie Domini com- 
aota est terra; a facie Dei Jacob. Qui convertit 
olidam petram in stagna aquse: et rupem in fontes 
iquarum. Non ergo nobis Domine, non nobis : sed 
lomini tuo da gloriam. Super misericordia tua et 
'eritate tua. Ut cum praesens vasculum (sicut reliqua 
iltaris vasa) sacro chrismate tangitur, et ungitur oleo 
anctOy quicunque ad sonitum ejus conyenerint, ab 
omnibus inimicorum tentationibus liberi, semper fidei 
tatholicee documenta sectentur.^ Per Dominum no^ 
rum. in unitate ejusdem. 

Tunc ponit incensario ignem et thymoma et thus U 
nyn^hamy erigendo clocam supra incensarium^ ut totutn 
Uumfumum colligat, dicendo hanc antiphonam: 

Deus in sancto via tua: quis deus magnus sicut 
)eus noster ? 

Psalmus. Viderunt te aquae. 

* ^ documenta sectentur: quae coeli ambitu continentur. 

ialvator mundi, cujus generalis Qui cum Patre." Pontif. Ban' 
[Uta majestatis disponuntur omnia gor. 


BeneOtctto campanae. 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto, 

Sicut erat in priBcipio, et nunc, et semper : et 
steciila saeculorum. Amen, 

Postea dicit. Domine exaudi* 

Dommua vobiscum. Oratio. 

Omnipotens dominator Christe, quo secundum as- 
sumptionem camis dormiente in navi dum oborta 
tempestas maria conturbasset, et protenns excitato et 
imperante dissiluit: tu necessitatibus populi tui be* 
nignus succm^re. Tn hoc tintinnabulum Sancti Spirit^ 
rore perfunde, ut ante sonitum illins^ semper fugiat 
inimicus : in\4tetiir ad fidem populua Christianus : hos- 
tills terreatur exercitus: contbrtetur in Domino per 
eum populus evocatns ; atque sicut Davidica cithara 
dcleetatus desuper descendat Spiritus Sanctus, Atque 
lit Samuele ag;num mactante in holocaustum tuimif 
rex aetemi imperii fragore aurarum turbam reptilit 
adversantem ; ita dum hujus vasculi sonitus transit 
per nubila, ecclesiBe conventum manus aervet angelica 
fruges credentium et mentes et corpora salvet protectio 
sempiterna. Qui vivis, ejusdem. 

Ddnde aspergatur aqua benedkta^ et totus populm 
prcesens. Et imponatur sibi nomen per sacerdotem^ 
apponendo manus supra^ et simul impanunt patrini el 
matrince. Et post presbyterum nominant suum nomen, 
cooperiendo clocam linteis. 

' " Ut intercedente beato .N. 
ante sonitum. etc.'^ Pontif. Ban" 

^ The rubric of the Bangor 
Pontifical is much defaced in this 
place : I have little doubt how- 
ever, that it directs as follows. 

" Tunc eievata tnanu benedi- 

cat episcopus signum ecclesuFy 
ita humiliter dicendo : 

Benedictio Dei Patris ingeniti, 
atque Filii unigeniti,necnon Sanod 
Spiritus ab utroque procedentis, 
semper super hoc tintinnabulum 
maneat, ad evocandum fideles ad 
divinum cultum, per omnia ssecula 
sfficulorum. Amen," 


VOL. I. 


iDt €ttlttiiM SDeHteatione^ sen 

NCIPITardo qualUer ecclesia sit dediami§: 
ad cujus dtdicatumem fackndmn plura nai 
necessaria:^ viz. duodecim cruces picta A- 
forisy et duodecim deintw : viginti guatmr 
cercoli* et totidem claviferrei in superiore parte circuB 
cujuslibet crucisjigmdij in quibus dicti careoli mfigmh 

^ In the Roman Pondficily as 
at present ordered, ^re is a 
much longer list of things neces- 
sary to be prepared before the 
Consecration of a Church. And 
to this I must refer the reader. 
Two very ancient English Pon- 
tificals edited, in part, by Mar- 
teney give but a brief direction : 
in one, of the 9th century, we 
find: " Primitus enim decet ut 
episcopus et cseteri ministri eccle- 
si» induant se vestimentis sacris 
cum quibus divinum ministerium 
adimplere debent, et veniant ante 
ostium ecclesis que dedicanda 
est, cantando Antiphonam : ' Za^ 
chsee festinans.' etc." De Ant. 
Ecc. Bit. tom. 2. p. 250. In the 
other, of Egbert, Archbishop of 
York, the rubric is the same, with 
the addition, '^ illuminentur duo- 
decim candelflp, et ponantur deforis 
per circuitum ecclesife." P. 247. 

■ The old Pontiiiaaa difer 
mocb aa to ti»e nomber of Candks 
to be used. Some namo 24, torn 
12. When 12 only are appomted 
these were to be placed usuaDy 
within the Chnrch. The Pontifi- 
cal just named of Archbishop ^ 
bert directs them however to be 
fixed and lighted upon the ontside. 
Durand says, *^ Omnibus de et- 
clesiis ejectis, solo Diacono ibi 
remanente recluso, Episcopus com 
Clero ante fores Ecclesiae aqnam 
non sine sale benedicit: interim 
intrinsecus ardent duodecim lumi- 
naria ante duodedm cruoes in eo- 
clesise parietibus depictas.** Lib.k 

A more important point is the 
object for which these were to be 
lighted, and its mystical signifi- 
cation. Which we learn fimn 
Bhabanns Maurus. ** Quod vero 
dnodecim luoemse intus juxta pa- 

De 6(cles!iae lOt^tmimt 


tur : vasa duo infra eccle^am plena aqua : viz. unum 
pas Qoram summo aUarc^ aliud vas in medio ecclesia, et 
sex vel quatuor vasa aqtue plena extra ecclesiam^ si 
necessefaeritf canvenientia ad sacrandam et ad dsferen- 
dam aquomi ysopus^ quantum duo pugilli possunt ca* 
pere^ unde Jiant duo fasciculi quorum unus ligetur in 
sccpa et altera aspergatur aqua benedicta super dedican- 
dum altare: vas cum aqua^ vinum^ salj cinis^ majara 
grana incensi, oleum sanctum^ chrismay duo nu^cres ce- 
rei ad candelabra^ panni novi altariSj zabulunij* quod 
spargatur a sinistro angulo ecclesiee ab oriente usque in 
dextrum angulum occidentalenij et a dextro angulo orien- 
tali usque ad sinistrum angulum occidentalemy in modum 

rietes Templi ponuutur» duodena- 
Ham numerum exprimit Aposto- 
lanm^ et Pktriarcharam, quern 
etiam Joannes Apostolus in Apo- 
calypsi commemorat in sdificio 
Godiestis Hierusalem esse insig. 
nem.** De Instit. Cleric. And 
so, another writer. *' Interim au- 
tera, in cirGnitu dedicandas Eccle- 
sie doodecim sunt aooensa lumi- 
naria, quibus significatur, quod 
eonomendandasitlncens, et ardens 
Apostokxmm doctrina.'' IvoCar* 
notenm, Serm, de Scu^amentis, 
Compare also, the Treatise of Re- 
m»giu9 AuHstiodor. De dedica- 
tioiie £cc. ^ Quid significent 
doodeeim candelss." Cap. 1 : in 
Mmime. de Antiq. Ecc Rit. torn. 
3."p. 276. And see CateUani. 
Pontif. Rom. Comment tom. 2. 
p. 49. 

The Greek Church lights a 
number of candles alaDedication : 

see ffabert Pontif. Ecc. Gr. p. 
672. ** Lucemarum Ecclesie 
multitudo." And in the same 
way that in the Latin Church «all, 
except one Deacon, were ejected 
from the building, so was it also in 
the Greek. Of which Simeon 
Bishop of Thessalonica, cited by 
Catalani, gives us the reason. 
^* Sanctus debet esse, qui intus 
reperitur, sicut et sacra est, quae 
sanctificatur domus.** 

' '* Aspersorium factum de 
herba hyssopi." Pontif. Rom» 
The Bangor Pontifical has a fine 
illumination at the b^^ning of 
the volume, representing the 
Bishop, with the '' Aspersorium" 
or ** Ysopum" in his hand, sprink- 
ling the outside of the Church, and 
the Church-door. 
. ^ «*Zabulum:sabulom: arena." 
Du Cange : who cites two Eng^ 
lish authorities for its use. 



De €ccUsiae Deliicatione, 


erucis Sancii Andre^p: quod quidem zahi/um $it m 
iatUudim unius pedis ct dimidiL In spUniudhtt irum 
digiiorum vet qtmiuor. 

Dmndt mmmo mane^ ommbm gectiSy saius diacmm 
infra ecclcsmm indudutur. Ei episcopus cam dmmmt 
(kiteri autem mmhtri etxlesi^ extra locum cmisecrandumf 
sub papilione induat se vesthnepiiis sacris cum fuiim 
diviimm mysterium adlmplere debei : adsti etimn ei iefh 
torimn mite ostium ecciesiii^ in quo possii episa^m cum 
suit mimstrh vcstimeuiis se mdurre. 

Qiii/ms mnmbus paratis^ pofttifejt eccksiam dcdk^ | 
iurus inirct ttntorium ei ifuluat se amiciu^ aUm^ stds^ 
pluvmti, et fanouc,^ ei capa de btfsso^ i. e, bokeram, d 
mHra simpiid/' et baculo^ sine mampulu ei siue sum 

Et mhiistri ejus se induant^ viz. unus diaconus qui st 
induat amkiu^ alba^ stola, ei fanone ; umts suhdiuemm 
qui cotmmiie habebit vestimeHtumj printer siolam : unui 

* ** Fanoii : this word when oc^ 
eurring in the English InTeotorie?, 
iignifies a Maniple." Pughi^ 
Glossary, lliis is a swecpmg 
assertion, and the text throws very 
considerable doubt upon its cor- 
rectness: for in this place, the 
Fanon evidently cannot be the 
Maniple : but a napkin : somewhat 
possibly of the same shape, and to 
be put to actual use, according to 
the original intention and object 
of the Maniple itself. 

^ " Mitr» usus antiqubsimua 
est, et ejus triplex 6st species : 
una, qtt« pretioaa dicitur, quia 
gemmis, et lapidibua pretioaia, veL 

lam in is aureis, \^ argenfcds «hi* 
texta €sae solet ; altera auriph^^ 
giata sine gemmiB, et ^ine iambis 
aurcis, vel argenteia; sed Tel ali- 
quibus parvis margaritig oonqMK 
sita, yel er tela aorea nnipfid one 
laminis, et margaritis : tettia,qiie 
simplex vocatur» sine anro^ ex 
siraplici serico DamaaoeiKV ^ 
alio, aut etiain liner, ex ^Al «Hml 
oonfecta, rubds iadniis, aen ftu- 
giiSyetvittispendentibus»** Cmm^ 
mofMoltf J^Mclib..!. oqpu n^ 
De Mitra. 

^ ^' Cum Episoopus ntitor in-, 
tra, utituretiambacnlopaitenE.* 
Cwir^m* Epi$e» Kb* 1< cap. xf^ 

0eu Consecration^ 165 

ihurifer; duo cero/erarii: unus crucifer: qui omties 
albis vel superpelliciis sint induti. 

Et dum sic in tentorio pontifex se itiduit^ dicat psalnM 
Sequentes :' viz. ps. 
' Judica me Deus. 

Quam dilecta. 

Inclina Domine. cum Gloria Patri. 

Respans. in servitio quando episcapus preparat se ad 
nussam celebrare. 

Ps. Memento Domine David et omnis mansuetudi- 
nis ejus. 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. 

Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in 
ssecula sseculorum. Amen. 

Kyrie eleyson. Christe eleyson. Kyrie eleyson. 

Pater noster. Et ne nos. 

Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam tuam. 

£t salutare tuum. 

£sto nobis Domine turris fortitudinis. 

A &cie. 
. Non nobis Domine non nobis. 
'. Sednomini» 

Salvos fac servos tuos et ancillas tuas. 

Deus mens. 

Doflmine exaudi. 

£t clamor. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

. Oratio. 

Deus qui patema majestate, ignea claustra diru- 
pisti infemorum, et sanguine tuo populum tibi acqui- 
sisti sempitemum, indue nos armis spiritualibus virtu- 
turn et invicta sanctse crucis potentia, et contra diabo- 
lum pugnaturi te in auxilium habeamus, quatenus tibi 


1 66 £>e tfcdesiae DeDtcatione, I 

hserediutem de iniqui diaboli spolio acqoiramitt, (t \ 
qui in domum Zachsi quondam miseratus descendkb, 
in domum quoque hanc quam sanctificaturi sobbs 
venire dignare, et populos qui ad ejus dedicatiooea 
ixinvenerunt spirituali gaudio remunera, SalTrta 
mundi. Domine Jesu Christi, qui cum Patre et Spiiito 
Sauitu vivis et regnas Deus, per omnia ssecula Mecur 
lorum. R. Amen. 

tlmta oniiioae vemai eplscopus ante ostium occUoh 
taU iccU^iii fiue dedicafida est: et inclpiat episaynu 
aniiphofunn : chorus prosequatur. 

Zachcfe* festiuans deseende, quia hodie in domo tu 
oportot me manere. At Ule festinana deaoendit, et 
susi^opit ilium gaudens in domum suam. Hodie hue 
domui salus a Domino facta est. Alleluia. 

Quanuita, mitra depositOj dkat poutifex : 

Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. Oratio. 

Ai-tioues nostras, quaesumus Domine, aspirando 
pra'voni, et adjuvando prosequere, ut intervemente 
beata et srloriosa semperque virgine Dei genitrice 
Maria, ruin omnibus Siinctis, cuncta nostra operatic et 
a to sonipor inclpiat et per te ccepta finiatur. Per 
ouuilom Christum. 

Alia oratio, 

Deus qui nos pastures in populo vocari voluisti: 
pra^ta, qua^umus, ut hoc quod humano ore dicimur, 
in tuis oculis esse valeamus. Per Christum. 

Ftnita hue oratio)i€y cjiciavtur omncs ab ecclesia, solus 
Vi ro Jiacofiiis ad hoc assignatus in ecc/esia recludatur. 
Fa cpiscopus ante fores ecc/tsue benedicat aquam^ mon 
communis et dum benedicit aquam iltuminentur duodecim 
candehi intrin^sccns, et duodecim cjirinseats per circui- 
turn ecclesiic. 

Exnrcismus satis. 

Exorcizo^ te creatura sails, per Deum 4« viyum, pet 
Deum yenun, per Deum sanctum, per Deum qui te 
per Heliseum prophetam in aquam mitti jussit, ui 
Banaretur sterilitas aquae, ut efficiaris sal exorcizatum 
in salutem credentium, ut sis omnibus te sumentibus 
sanitas animee et corporis, et effiigiat atque discedat 
ab eo loco quo aspersum fueris, omnis phantasia, et 
nequitia vel versutia diabolicse fraudis, omnisque spi*" 
ritus immundus, adjuratus per eum qui yentiirus est 
judicare vivos et mortuos, et sseculum per ignenf . R. 

Benedictio saUs. 

Immensam clementiam tuam, omnipotens sempitemcf 
Deus, humiliter imploramiis, ut banc creaturam salisi 
quam in usum bumani generis tribuisti, bene+dicere 
et sanctificare pro tua pietate digneris, ut sit omnilbus 
sumentibus salus mentis et corporis ; et quicquid ex eo 
tactum vel aspersum fuerit, careat omni immunditial 
omnique impugnatione spiritualis nequitiae^ per virtu- 
tern ejusdem Domini nostri Jesu Christi : qui venturus 
est judicare vivos et mortuos, et speculum per ignem. 
R. Amen. 

Esorcismus aqtus. 

Exorcize te, creatura aquas, in nomine Dei Patris 
omnipotentis, Hh et in nomine Jesu Cbristi, Filii 4« 
ejus, Domini nostri, et in virtute Spiritus Sancti, Hh ^t 
fias aqua exorcizata ad effugandam omnem potestatem 
inimici, et ipsum inimicum eradicare et explantare 
valeas, cum angelis suis apostaticis : per virtutem ejus- 
dem Domini nostri, Jesu Cbristi, qui venturus est 
judieare vivos et mortuos, et sseculum per ignem. 
Amen. Ofemi^. 

Sequatur benedictio aqua. 

Deus qui ad salutem bumani generis, maxima quaeque 


" - ■ •"- - - -• -'•-'r. ' TTiT"-* T-.t: Zl : r*r Seine lit Lt> +• 

"- " 1-.::.-. .:_::.- .:.:.-'r:^r.. .zi^jlul-zL ?p:rinis alriici- 
i*.." ■-.-.- •.-■: --.:.r. -: Hrrr-rr.::? pr«xul p»ellatur. et 
ir:-:--.. i >.:..:: .>::.-::■-.: ii'.'bU miserkordiam tuam 
>-r .:.::'. ^-i ^',: . :- ^ :-»?.:: d:jne:ur. Per Dominuui. 

P . Ill r/y ■:;,.«... ,fu.^ui oc tfruihialiaj tt circumcat 
if^am trxUjiiatn a^joris cum ckro tt jjCfpulo, iucipkm a 

%ttt Con0ectattottt« 169 

parte sinktrdj spargendo aquam in imo parietU aJd/un-^ 
damentuniy et chorus interim cantet hoc responsoriumy 
episcapo inchoante : 

Fimdata est domus Domini super verticem montiiim, 
et exaltata est super omnes coUes, et venient ad earn 
omnes gentes. Et dicent, Gloria tibi Domine» 

Versus. Venientes autem yenient cum exultatione^ 
portantes manipulos suos. Et dicent. 

Si nan sufficiat hoc prcedictum resp. dicatur a choro 
hac antiphona : 

ToUite portas^ principes, vestras, et elevamini portse 
eetemales ; 

Cum Psalmo. Domini est terra. 

Tunc stans ante ostium episcopus, dicat cum.nota. 


Diaconus : Flectamus genua. 
. Oratb. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui in onmi loco do- 
minationis tuee, totus assistis, totus operaris ; adesta 
supplicationibus nostris, et hujud domus cujus es fun* 
dator esto protector: nulla hie nequitia contrarise 
potestatis obsistat, sed yirtute Spiritus Sancti ope- 
rante, fiat hie tibi semper purum servitium, et devota 
Ubertas. Per Christum. 

Qua Jinita^ eat episcopus ad jantuxs consecrandasy 
clero pne foribus existente, accepta cruce^ vel cum cam- 
buca sua percutiat semel ostium^ dicens cum nota : 

Tollite portasy principes, vestras, et elevamini portse 
setemales, et introibit Rex glorise. 

Cui diaconus respondeat sic : 

Quis est iste Rex glorise ? 

Et e contra episcopus respondeat : 

Dominus fortis et potens. 

Et recedens ab ostio circumeat secundo ipsam eccksiamy 


170 De <ccMMl)ilfattl^ 

cumckr^ipargemhaqmmtMMfmm^ iater» 

chorui cmttt hoc rapmimrmm^ epuotpo imc^iemltm: 

In drcoitu tuo Domine lumen est qmdd maiqpni 
defidet» ubi conrtitiiiBti InddkriinM mMmamm. IK 
nquMGimt sanctanrum anim» 

Versus. Linp6rpetaaIaoeUt8anotbtiaftI>inii^ 
«teniitas tamporuin. Ibi. 

Si necesse fuerit dicUkr smtiplmm : Tollite. cm 
psabno. Domini est terttu 

Postea veniat episcopus ante ostium et dicat : 
' OremuB. 

Diaconus: Flectamns genua. 



Omnipotens sempiterne Dens, qui per Iiliam tam^ 
angularem scilicet lapidem» duoB e diverao TenienteB ei 
circumcisione et praeputio parietes, duosque greges 
ovium sub uno eodemque pastore unisti : da fistmalis 
tuis per haec nostr» devotionis officia indissolubile vin- 
culum caritatis, ut nulla divisione mentium, nulla pe^ 
versitatis varietate sequestrentur, quos sub unius regi- 
mine pastoris unus grex continet, uniusque te custode 
ovilis septa concludunt. Per eundem. 

Post ficec accedens episcopus percutiat secundo super^ 
liminafCy dicens ut supra : 

Tollite portas, principes, vestras, et elevamini porte 
eetemalesy et introibit Rex glorise. 

Diaconus deintus dicat ; 

Quis est iste Rex gloriee ? 

Episcopus respondeat. 

Dominus potens in praelio. 

Et recedens ah ostio circueat ipsam eccleMm tertioj 
aquam spargendo altius quam secundo^ et interim chorus 
cantet hoc responsoriunty episcopo incipientc sic : 

0rn Cott0ectatione. 171 

Benedic, Domine, domUm igtatn, qaam fledificavi 
nomini tuo. Venientiuin in loco isto, exaudi preces 
in excelso solio glorise tuae. 

Verstis. Si peccayerit in te populus tuus, et con- 
versus egerit poenitentiam, Teniensque oraverit in locd 
istOj Exaudi. 

Si necessefuerit dicitur respomorium : Tollito : eum 
psalfnoy Domini est terra* 

Postea veniat episcapm ante ostium^ et dicat: Ore- 

Diaconus : Flectamus genua. Levate. 


Omnipotens et misericors Deus, qui sacerdotibus tuis 
tantam prse caeteris gratiam contulisti,, ut quicquid in 
tuo nomine digne perfecteque ab eis agitur, a te fieri 
credatur : queesumus immensam clementiam tuam ut 
quicquid modo visitaturi sumus, visites ; quicquid be- 
nedicturiy bene*|«dicas; sitque ad nostra» humilitatis 
introitum, sanctorum tuorum meritis, fuga daemonuni, 
Angeli pacis ingressus. Per Dominum. 

Tunc accedens ad ostium^ repercutiat tertio super- 
liminare ecclesia, et dicat sic : 

TolKte portasy principes, yestras, et elevamini portss 
setemalesy et introibit Rex glorise. 

Et diaconus: 

Quis est iste Rex gloriae. 

Respons. episcopi : 

Dominus virtutum, ipse est Rex gloriae. 

Etadjiciat: Aperi. 

Tumj accepta cruce et astio apertOj episcnpus intret 
primus ecclesiam cum ministrisj laicis exclusis^ bajulans 
crucem et dicat : 
- Pax huic domui. 

Et diaconus qui erat intusj respondeat : In introitu. 


172 3Dc Ccclesiae DeOicartone, 

JSi dicatU omms : Amen, 

Et clmukiUir ostium ccclesu^^ iaicis e^f^iush. 

Interim chorus caniet aniiphonam : 

Pax aetema ab iKtemo Patre huic domui : |mx pe- 
rennis, Verbum Patris, eit pax hide domui : pacem 
pius Consolator huic praestet domiii^ * 

Cum antip/h (?) vtmrini in medium ecclesic^f dit^ 
^iscopusj /tgcndo crucem in medio quam bqjutui iUqm 
mm dimUtat : 

Cru3L pelUt hinc hostem, crux Christi defendat hic 
orantes. Crux Christi triumphat hie et in mxxm. 

Demde Jiani liiam^ : pontifice prosiraia cum atiqm 
persona rtvcrenda ante alt are vet crucevi^ ibi dicefuJo 
secrete : et cum vcnerit ad vermm^ qui pro domim 
episcopa cantaturf surgat episcopus^ et dicai sic^ hoc 

Ut banc occlesiam et hoc altare, bene 4#di cere dig- 


Ut banc ecdesiam et hoc ahare, bcnc+dicere et 
sancti + ficare digneris. Jtesp. Ut banc ecclesiam et 
hoc altare, bene + dicere et sancti+ficarc et conse+ 
crare digneris. Resp. 

Finita litania dicai episcopus sic : 


Diacomis : Flectamus genua, 


Magnificare Domine Deus noster in Sanctis tuis, et 
in hoc templo tibi tedificatQ benignus appare, ut qui 
euncta in filiis operaris adoptionis, ipse semper in tua 
haereditate lauderis. Per eundem, 

• ** Te rogamus audi noB." 



^de incipiat episcopus^ a sinistra angulo eccJesi^ 
itCj scribere Grace per pavimentum cum cambuca 

rite of inscribing either 
3 alphabets both Greek 
I, or some letters of them, 
Iphabet, is very ancient. 
)ry speaks of it in his 
cramentorum. '* Deinde 
ontifez de sinistro angulo 
3 scribens per payimen- 
cambutta sua, A. B. C. 
deztrum angulum occi- 
Dcipiens iterum similiter 
angulo prientisy A. B. C. 
que in sinistrum angu- 
ientis Basilicas." Here 
ry makes mention only 
Bitin Alphabet, and with 
\ the English Pontificals, 
lier than the zith cen- 
Qted by Martene. But 
jer direct it would seem» 
) alphabet to be written 
r they say " Scribat A. 
ium.*' Catalani on the 
ad cites a very ancient 
1, which appointed the 
phabet to be twice writ- 
m. 2. p. 63. 

^gory's is not the only 
ich speaks of the three 
rs to be written, and not 
lete alphabet, for other 
8 ue said to direct the 
it in process of time it 
)e the common practice, 
Salisbury Use, to write 
iiU alphabets Greek and 
id there is evidence that 

some Bishops even added also the 
Hebrew. Menard. NotinSacr: 
Greg, who cites an anonymou^ 
author to this effect. *' Verunta- 
men quia ecclesiastica doctrina 
Hebraicoy Gr»co, Latinoque ser^ 
mone utitur maadme, ideo a qui- 
busdum episcopis tria base alpha- 
beta conscribantar." This wjM 
altogether contrary to the genend 
practice of the Church, by whidi 
all notice of the Hebrew letters 
was omitted, because the Jews 
had fallen awHy from the faith. 

Catalani, to whom I am in* 
debted for the above, says also, 
that in some places formerly it 
was the custom, when more thaa 
one Bishop was present (as often 
happened at such times) that the 
Latin Alphabet was written by 
one, and the Greek by anothw. 
To prove^ moreover, the apostoli- 
cal authority for this observance, 
he quotes a story told by William 
of Malmesbury, that on a 6erfcai9 
occasion, Mellitus Bishop of Lon- 
dcm, proceeduig early in the morn- 
ing to consecrate a Church, which 
was to be dedicated to God in 
honour of S. Peter, found the ce- 
remonies apparently completed 
already during the night, by the 
Holy Apostle himself. '* Resera- 
tis ecclesise valvis, vidit pavimen- 
tum utriusque alphabet! inscr^H 
tione signatum, parietem bis «enis 



£>e €ctle0iaf ^mimimt^ 

9Ha iotum alphahetum Gr^ctim^ usque in deairum angu- 
lum ociukfdakm hoc modo subsaipio. &</ aiiemic fuii 
Grceci hahcnt ianium viginti (^uatuor secundum hidorim. 
Interim canteiar furc atUlphona. 

^rat ill priiieipio. JEte. Imifkufm MSit0^ 

fai kMb 


The myiticd (rignifleiilioii of 
this nte, miml not bo omitted* 
Remigiut AttHniodorfu, in hit 
Treatise (before spoken of) ** do 
dedicatione Eccleei»'' has a chap- 
ter, ** Quid signifioet quod sacer- 
doB aL pontifez alpluibetum in 
pavimento scribit.*' And he says : 
'* Quid autem per alphabetum, 
nisi initia et nidimenta doctrins 
sacrse intelligi eonvenit ? undo et 
Paolus Hebrsis exprobransy di- 
cit! Etenhn cum deheretis mor 
gistri esse, propter tempus rur^ 
«urn mdigetist ui vos instruamim 
qum sint elementa mundi et ex* 
ordia iermonum Dei. Scribit 
ergo pondfox alphabeti oriitinem, 
cum fidei docet simplicitatem, et 
dicit cum P^ulo Apostolo, Lcic vo* 
hie potum detUf non escanu Non- 
dum enim poteratisy eed nee ad- 
hue quidem poteetie* Sed 

quomodo eadem elementa scribi 
debeant, attendamus. Non pas- 

galt Mt/tm 

angfan is that wfaieh bott In 
Caraotensis and Dnnuid fbOoved, 
in later years : repeating almost 
his own words. The alphabets 
were written, it may be added, in 
the form of a cross, to signify the 
union of all people and languages, 
in the true Faith by the Cross of 

In the modem Pontifical of the 
Church of Rome, the Bishop per- 
forms this part of the office whilst 
the same Antiphon is bebig sang 
by the Choir, the Priests stand- 
mg by. The Pontifical of St 
Dnnstan, and another English 
one, edited by Martene^ appoint 
also an Antiphon, as in Che later 
Salisbury Use: but different 
Namely, '* Fundamentum aliod 
nemo potest ponere prseter illod 
deniquequod positum estaChristo 
Domino. Cum Ps. IxxxTJ. Fon- 
damenta ejus." Tom. 2. P. 250. 

meu Coraiectfttione* 


Interim chorus cantet ham antqtkomm, 

OquammetoandiisertlocaBisle: veranoii «it Ue 
aliud nisi domitt Dei, efc porta oceli. 

Psabnus: Benedictos. 

Totuipsabmu dicatur cunh Gloria Butri. Eic. 

/foe aratio sequens dicatwr Mdcm. SciScet m ca> 
dentali paiie ecclaue in medio inter eMrtmiUttat a^fk§- 
betorumj cum. Oramua. Oratio. 

DeuB qui sanctiiiii Moyaen pne^snnetia miUibas b- 
raeliticis fiBiniliaram tibi ease fedstiy at /A dioeraii Le 
yenisti eniin gradam ooram me, et te ipaum mm a 
nomme quern et in montu Sinai eaenmen indmutiy 
ubi in pnefiguratioinem sanctae eodesiaB fisibricandi ta- 
bernaculisacramentaoBtendisti; cuietiamdiiaatabiilai 
lapideaa digito taoacriptas tradidistiy quarom nnatria 
prsecepta quse ad fidem eanctse Trinitatisy altera septan 
quse ad custodiam constituend» legis pertineban^ ha- 
bebat: beatis apostolis tuis intercedentibus, exaadi 
vota orantium super hoc pavimentum in quo ad instru- 
mentum fidei illorum divinarum characteres literarum 
a duobus angulis hujus domus usque in alios duos de- 
pinximus angulos, et yerba legis tusB in tabulis cor- 
dium eorum misericordiae tuae digito ascribe : prsesta 
quoque ut quicquid ex ore humilitatis nostras Scien- 
dum didicerint, hoc facere cupiant, sicque yiyant at 
illuc peryenire yaleant, ubi nomina sua in libro yit» 
setemse scripta esse gratulentur : per te Christe Jeso, 
cui cum eeterno Patre Sanctoque Spiritu^ manet honor 
et perpetuitas in saecula sseculorum. 
Resp. Amen. 

Deinde veniens ante altarcy vel in medium ante crti- 
cem^ pontifexflectendo genua dicat ter : 
Deus in adjutorium meum intende. 
Chorus respondeat : 

jBeu CotijBectatlone. 177 

Domine ad adjuvandum. 

Cum, Gloria Patri. -Swe, alleluia» 

Deinde benedicat ibidem aquam cum sale, et cinere^ et 
vinoj hoc modo : 

Exorcizo te, creatura salis, in nomine Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi, qui apostolis suis ait : Vos estis sal terrsBi 
et per apostolum dicit : sit cor vestrum sale conditum '• 
ut sancti+ficeris ad consecrationem hujus ecclesiae, et 
altaris, ad expellendas omnes daemonum temptationes^ 
et omnibus qui ex te sumpserint, sis animae et corporis 
tutamehtum, et sanitas, et protection et confirmatio 
salutis» Per eundem Dominum nostrum Jesunt 

Benedictio salis. 

Domine Deus, Pater omnipotens, bene 4« die banc 
creaturam salis, ad efiugandum inimicum ; et ei salu^ 
brem medicinam immitte, ut ad animse et corporis 
iiumentium proficiat sanitatem. Per Dominum« 

Sequiiur exorcismus aqua. 

Exorcizo te, creatura aquae, in nomine Dei Patris, 
Bt Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, ut repellas diaboium a ter- 
(nino justorum, ne sit in umbraculis hujus ecclesise, et 
dtaris. Et tu, Domine Jesu Christe, infunde Spiri- 
bum Sanctum in banc ecclesiam tuam, ut proficiat ad 
sanitatem corporum animarumque adorantium te, et 
nagnificetur nomen tuum in gentibus, et increduU 
3orde convertantur a& te, et non babeant alium d^um, 
prseter te Dominum solum, qui vivis et regnas, cum 
Patre et eodem Spiritu Sancto, per omnia. 

Benedictio aqua. 

Domine Deus, Pater omnipotens, statutor omnium 
^lementorum, qui per Jesum Cbristum Filium tuum 
Dominum nostrum, hoc elementum aquae in salutem 
lumani generis esse voluisti, supplied te deprecamur, 

^^ £^ BtOtmat DeMcatione, 

ir -ij.i.i-:>i rrxxknifbQs Dostris eam tuae pietatk rt 
-:•- -1 -uji* r. +f'r«L arqtie ita omnium spirituum in- 1 i 
iriiitif i-irrr i*: ** rtt-edat incursio, ut ubicunque fanit 
z i' «11. .I»- ii iK^rrsA. srratia tua? benotlie+tioiusii- 
"^-Tiir. f Tiiu;* ^&nia. te propitiante, procul receditt". 
? -•■ - • mi-T=iin- 

rt ^r *.i 

!•» ■ 

- 'nn:::»!!;!^!' ^p^ryiterDe Deus. parce metuentibus, 
7T- •:■ -...j^ >i-:«:cr.r>^?w er mittere dicfDare sanctum o- 
^- uz -1.1.11 L*i -'i-iijw oTii bene*|«dicat et sancti+ficet 
'ii»-''-^ s" -^ r: ?er.: r^nsedium salutare omnibus noDffl 
U'i:i! -^.2» '•Ln : izniliitT implorantibus, ac semctipfi» 
ri* ^2* r:-: ..i ir^.^^rvim suonun accusantibus, atqM 
uT\v irsNif.-izi iiTissE dementia? tuse fadnonso 
tf"!. riiTT'T-ias. -:1 i^re^isHmam pietatem tuam suppfr 
'1 •- ..riTiA:-: :•: f.i;£rai!iibu5 ; praesta qua?sumusper 
1! %.iiT TT»:-a f;Lr«:'n«=i nominis tui, ut quicunqoe 
*> '•..•^r si fi?ct:r?*frLZT pro reJemptione peccatorum, 
, -«x 1-^ sj^. ^i.::ci :•: inima- tutelam percipiant. Per 

. ;." . ■-..* .;; iKoJum crucis^ eph- 

: ' : ^ ...' cjfKri' potest^ fiuiifh 

t. . . .:,.t;.\* //If moilo. 

^ . > -. : ^ :uor:> eum aqua benedicta, 

^ ^ vi,- . ■ ~>:xr.\ hujus eeclcsiae et 

.:, y..:r:>, e: ^ Filii, et Spiritus ^ 

. - , . .Truv.f Au::':r, oi insuperabilis imperii 
<. v- iv.".^'.;'.?..*.:? :r/.;mphator, qui advcrsiv 
.. . > •.-.7;^ rtv-h:v.c** qui iuimici nigicntis sa»- 
:v-:.>. c*i" b.«:'*ts neqisiiiasi ivnenter expugnas, 

seu ConMcratione. 179 

te, Domine, trementes et supplices deprecamur, ac peti- 
mus ut hanc creaturam saUs et cineris et aqu» dig- 
nanter accipias, benignus illusjtres, pietatis tuse more 
sanctifices )^y ut ubicunque fuerit aspersa per inyoca- 
tionem sancti tui nominis, omnis infestatio immundi 
spiritus abjiciatur, terrorque venenosi serpentis procul 
pellatur, et prsesentia Sancti Spiritus nobis misericor- 
diam tuam poscentibus ubique adesse dignetur. Per 

Benedictio vini. 

Domine Jesu Christe,. qui es vitis vera, qui iii Cana 
Galileese vinum ex aqua fecisti, multiplica super nos 
misericordiam tuam, et bene^dic atqu6 sancti HE^fica 
hanc creaturam yini, ut super quodcunque ex ea fiisum 
fuerit divines benedictionis tuse dulcedine repleatur, 
Salvator mundi, qui cum Deo Patre et Spiritu Sancto, 
vivis et regnas. 

Deinde ponat vinum in aquam dicem : 

Fiat commixtio aquae et vini ad consecrationem 
hujus ecdesiae et altaris, in nomine Patris ^, et Filii 
^9 et Spiritus >ii Sancti. Amen. 

Sequitur prof alio. 

Deum Patrem omnipotentem, fratres carissimi, in 
cujus domo mansiones multee sunt, deprecemur ut, ha- 
bitaculum istud benedicere et custodire digiietur per 
aspersionem aquae hujus cum vino mixtse : ut tenebras 
ab eo repellat, et lumen infimdat, nuUam saevienti ad* 
versario tribuat potestatem, sed propria sit domus Dei, 
et nullam in ea inimicus habeat licentiam nocendL Per 

Benedictio aqtuB vino mixta. 

Omjoipotens sempiteme Deus, creator et conservator 
humani generis, et dator gratiae spiritualis, atque lar- 
gitor aetemae salutis, mitte Spiritum tuum Sanctum 


i8o De etdtitet PiMcartane^ 

•upor hoc yininii cim Siqw mztiiMy vt snrilBbm ottlei' 
tis defimrioiie yirtntis ad oomecnitioiiem Imj» eedons 
et altaris toi proficiat. Per Domiaiiau In «mtali 

Time frooofem qnsccpM adakare ibukm mc^mI; d 
demde circumeat yuamtccUsUmf aguam sametam ^pfr- 
gendo per parietes m hmmdjMMm dtxiru parte en- 
entiSf uequedtm itarum redeat in orhaUem. 

Interim cantetur antiphmia. 

HsBC est domaB Donodni finniter fledificata, bene fan- 
data est supra firmam petram. 

Psabnus. Lstatus amiu 

Interim circumeat qriscepue ecckMm^ epargeni^ 
aquam in medio parietum^ cantando mntiphimam. 

Exurgat Dens ad noetri fiBmuktiui obaequioniy et in 
loco sancto ejus fiat benedictioiiia angmentum. 

Psalmus. In ecclesiis. 

Thrtio circumeat similiter ecclesiamj aquam spargendo 
in summitate parietumj cantafido antiphonam. 

Qui habitat in adjntorio altissimi, in protectione 
Dei cceli commorabitur. 

Psalmus. Ipsum. 

Quo peracto, sequatur oratio ante altare cunij Ore- 


Sic bene^dictionem tuam, qusesumus Domine, po- 
pulus fidelis ad honorem et laudem nominis tui veniens 
accipiat, qua corporc salvatus ac mente hie gratam tibi 
semper exhibeat servituteniy et propitiationis tuae be- 
neficia jugiter inveniat : per Christum Dominum nos- 

Deinde aspergat aquam in modum crucisy per medium 
ecclesia in longum et in altum, per pavimentum ipsius 
ecclesia, cantando antiphotrnm. 

0eu ConiBecrattone. i8i 

Domus mea domus orationis vocabitur. 

Psalmtis. Narrabo nomen tuom fratribiis meis, in 
Biedio ecclesise laudabo te. 

Nan dicatur^ Gloria. 

Sequatur^ Oremus. 
- Oratio» 

Adjutor altissime Deus, et protector ccelestis, preces 
nostras clementer exaudi, nobisque misericordiam tuam 
poscentibus concedoi ut quicumque intra parietes hujus 
ecclesiiB te clamaverint, omnium veniam peccatorum 
et gaudia percipere mereantur setema* Per Donu'^ 

Deinde pergat episcapus extra ecclesiam . cum choroy 
spargendo aquam in imo per parietes^ cantando hanc an- 

Fmidamenta templi hujus sapientia sua fundavit 
Deus, in quo Dominum cceli coUaudant angeli; subr 
ruant venti, et fluant flumina, non possunt eammo^ere 
nunquam, fundata enim erat supra petram. 

Psalmus. Fundamenta. 

Circumeat ecclesiam spargendo aquam in medio pari- 
jetum^ cantando antiphonam. 

Qui regis Israel intende super domum istam, qui 
deducis velut ovem Joseph auge in ea benedictionem 
tuam, qui sedes super Cherubin exaudi preces suppli- 
cum in ea tibi confitentium. 

Psalmus. Excita Domine potentiam tuam et yeni. 

Tertio circumeat episcopus ecclesiam spargendo aquam 
in summo parietum cantando antiphonam. 

Benedic, Domine, domum istam quam sedificavi no** 
mini tuo, ut sint oculi tui aperti super eam die ae 

Fsalmus. Magnus Dominus, 

Sequatur Oratio. 


1 82 De CaUsiae Detiuatlone, 

Omnipotens sempiteraoe glonsB Deus, qui sanctad 
portas Sioo super amnia tabeniacula Jacab di%»; 
da btiic, quEesumus DamiEe, domui benediedoneoi 
tuam, et preBsta ut Dostra3 fidei fundamenta nulla spiri- 
tualium nequitiarum impedimenta^ nulla ventonuQ ^ 
flamiBa, ant dira temptationum flumina nunquam u- 
leant dejicere- Per Dominuiu. 

Demde intrtt episcvpus ecclesiam^ canianda hanc rffr 
iiphonam : 

Benedictus es in templo sancto glorise tu@B, quod 
edificatum est ad laudem ct gloriam Domitus tui 

Fsalmus. Benedictus* 

Et siam in medio ecclesict^ spargat aquam ad men' 
iem^ et occidentem^ et aquilomm^ et austrmn^ et cmtm 
cavenam ecckii^e^ et super pavimentum^ et postea died 


DiacofiM : Flectamus genua. Leyate. 


Deus qui loca nomini tuo dedicanda. sancti^^^ficas, 
effunde super hanc orationia domum gratiam ttiam, at 
ab omnibus hie invocantibus nomen tuum, auxilium 
misericordisd tuae sentiatur. Per Dominma. 

Interim dicat episcopus cum nota. Oremus. 

Diaconm : Flectamus g^iua. Leyate. 

Et dc sequatur hac oratio in consecratiane ecclesia. 

Deus sanctificationum, (Hnnipotens dominator, cojas 
inetaa «ne fine sentU^ur; Bens qui coBlestia simnl et 
terrena complecteris^ seryans misericordiam tnant po- 
pulo tuo ambulanti ante conspectum glorise tuse, exandi 
preces seryorum tuorum, nt sint oculi tui aperti super 
domum istam die ac nocte ; hanc quoque basilieam in 

laieu Consecrattptie* 183 

honorem sanctae Trinitatisy et sanctse ac yictorioBiah 
simfie crucis, et pancti N. sacrig mystoriis instatutpin^ 
clemeiitissimus dedi^ca, miseratus illus^tra, proprio 
splendore clarifica et benedicito >hf omnemque homi- 
nem yenientem adorare te in loco isto placatos ad- 
tnittei propitius respicere dignare, et propter nomen 
tuum magnum, et manum fortem; et brachium excelsum, 
in hoc habitaculo supplicantes libens jHrotege, dignan- 
ter exaudij sBterna defensione conserva, ut semper felices 
semperque in tua religione laetantes, constanter in 
sanctae Trinitatis confessione fide catholica persever 
rent : terminando secrete j Per Dominum nostrum Jesum 
Christum Filium tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat in 
imitate Spiritus Sancti Deus. 

Per omnia saecula seculorum. 


Dominus vobiscum. 

£t cum spiritu tuo. 

Sursum corda. 

Habemus ad Dominum. 

Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. 

Dignum et justum est. 

Vere digntim et justum est, sequum et salutary nos 
tibi semper et ubique gratias agwe, Domine sanetei 
Pater ompipotens, seteme Deus. Adesto precibus 
nostris, adesto sacramentis, adesto etiam piis famulo- 
rum tuorum laboribus, nobisque misericordiam tuam 
poscentibus. Descendat quoque in banc ecclesiam 
tuam, quam sub invocatione sancti nominis tui, in 
honorem sancteB Trimtatis, et Sanctae crucis, in qua 
coaetemus tibi Filius tuus Dominus noster Jesus Christus 
pro redemptione mundi pati dignatus est, et sancti^ 

10 « Et memoriam.*' Pontif. Rom. 

i84 Z)e tfcdciriae Dcliicttione, 

apoBtoli toi. N. velj martyriB toL N. m^ oonfemms 
tui. iVl velj sanctffi Tirginis ton. Nm indigni come- 
cramiUi Spiiitos Sanctos tauB wjylifonniB gratin nbcr- 
tate redundaDB; ut quotiescamqne in hac demo toa 
sanctum nomen tanrn fiieiit invocatam, eoram qui te 
Invocaverint a te pio Domino preces etaodiantnr> O 
beata et sancta Tiinitas, qo» omnia porificaa» omnia 
mundas, et omnia perornas : O beata majestaa Dei» 
quffi cmicta imples, cnnctacontineB, etcmictadiapoiiis: 
O beata et sancta manus Dei, qnsB omnia saactifictt^ 
omnia benedids, omnia locupletas : O sancte sancto- 
rum Deusi tuam clementiam humillima devotione de- 
poscimusy ut banc ecelesiam per nostr» ftannlafaiin 
humilitads in honorem sanctiB Trinitatis, et sanctss ae 
victoriosissimse crucis, et sanct» Dei genitrids Maris» 
et sancti Apostoli tui. N. velj martyris tui. AT. vel^ 
confessoris tui. A^. veL sanctae virginis tu«. AT. pa- 
ri +ficare, bene+dicere, et conBe+crare perpetua 
sanctificationis tuae ubertate digneris. Hie quoque 
sacrificia sacerdotes tibi laudis offerant, hie fideles 
populi vota persolvant» hie peccatorum onera solvan- 
tur, fidelesque lapsi reparentur. In bac ergo, quae- 
sumus Domino, domo tua Sancti Spiritus gratia aBgroti 
sanentur, infirmi restituantur, claudi curentur, leprosi 
mundentur, caeci illuminentur, deemonia ejiciantur: 
cunctonim hie debilium incommodai te Domine annu- 
ente, pellantur, omniumque vincula peccatorum absol- 
vantur: ut omnes qui hoc templum beneficia juste 
deprecaturi ingrediuntur, cuncta se impetrasse keten- 
tur» ut concessa misericordia quam precantur, perpetuo 
miserationis tuae munere glorientur : terminando secrete^ 
Per eundem Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium 
tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate ejusdem 
Spiritus Sancti Deus, per omnia seecula saeculorum* 


jseu Consectatume* 185 

Resp. Amen. 

Deinde inchoata antiphona: Lapidesu eat pontifex 
in circuitu eccksia intusj et faciat crucem cum poUice 
sua de ipso chrismate^ in duodecim locis signatis cruce 
introrstiSj incipiendojuxta altare ad meridiem a dextris^ 
ita dicens in qualibet unctione. 

Sanctificetur hoc templum ^^ per istam sanctam 
unctionem et nostram bene^dictionem, in honorem 
Sancti. N. In nomine Patris ^^^ et Filii, et Spiritus 
Sancti >h- 

Paz huic domui. vel. Pax tibi. 

Resp. Deo gratias. 

Interim chorus cantet hanc antiphonam. 

Lapides pretiosi omnes muri tui, et turres Jerusalem 
gemmis aedifieabuntur^ 

Psalmus. Lauda Jerusalem. 

Totus psalmus dicatur. cum^ Gloria Patri. 

Postea dicatur hac oratio sequetis ab episcopo in 
medio ecclesia cum^ Oremus. 


Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, efiiinde super locum 
hunc gratiam tuam, et omnibus in te sperantibug 
auxiUum tui miuieris ostende, ut hie sacramentorum 
tuorum virtus, et Yotorum obtineatur effectus* Per 

Postea pontifex egrediens hoc ipsum extra cum chris^ 
mate in circuitu ecclesia^ choro canente antiphonam. 

Unxit te Dominus oleo laetitise, prae consortibus tuis. 

Psalmus. Eructavit. 

Totius psalmus dicatur cum^ Gloria Patri. 

Et repetatur antiphona post unumquemque versum 
psabni si necessefuerit. Hoc peracto, Episcopus ante- 
q0dm intraverit ecclesiam^ ante januas ecclesia dicat 
Jianc orationem cum. 


1 86 De ^tti&mt DeBicatione, 

Oremus. Oralio. 

Deus, qui de vivis et eleetis lapidibus sternum ma- 
jestati tuse condis habitaculmn, auxiliare {>opulo sup- 
plicanti ut ccclesia tua ccBlestibus amplificetur augaien* 
tis. Per Christum. 

Quo txpkto et periinctis parktibus^ intrti pontiftx 
eccksiam^ et ipsam eccksiam circumeat inlus let cum in* 
censo eodan modo ihurificando quo asperserii aqtmm^ 
invipkndojaxta altare a meridw a dcriris, et ^ic eodem 
modo eatra^ choro interim canente antiphonam. 

Domino ad to dirigatur oratio mca, sieut ineeDsuun 
in conapectu majestatis inm. 

Psalmm* Domine clamavi. 

Totus psalmm dkalur^ et repeiatur antiphona si ;?e- 
cessefneritj post unumquemque versum psaimi» 

Deifide vemens episcopus ante ostium eccksice tfel in 
medium eccksiiS ekvata manu dicat benediciionem $t- 
quentem : 

Benedictio >h Dei Patris omnipotentis ingeniti, Fi- 
liique ^ ipsius unigeniti, necnon Spiritus ^ Sancd 
Paracliti ab utroque procedentis, maneat jugiter super 
ecclesiam istam in ssecula sseculorum. 

Resp. Amen. 

Deinde sequatur altarium consecratio cum eccksia, 

Postquam episcopus ingressusfuerit cancdlum^ accedat 
unus de ministris suisj et sumat de ilia aqua sanctificata 
in quandam parvam pelvim^ deinde procedens episcopm 
ad altare, primum et cum pollice sua chrisma in aquam 
modicam sumptam in pelvim mittat in modum crucis^ sk 

Sanctis iicetur aqua ista. hoc salutifero cbrisoiisijte^ et 
nostra bene^dictione ad consecrationem horum alta- 
rium. In nomine >h Patris^ et Fi^lii, et Spiritus i{i 
iSancti. Amen. 

sttt €omtcxtttiont 1 87 

Tunc de ipsa aqua chrismata facial crucem in mediis^ 
mensis altaris, dicens : 

Sanctis ficetnr hoc altare. In nomine >^ Fatris^ et 
Fih^lii, et Spiritus Sancti. Fax tecum. Et cum. 

Deinde dextra parte atque sinistra^ ac etiam per qua- 
tuar comua altarisy Jiant similiter cruces^ repeteus in 
qualibet unctione verba pramissa^ et postea cum hyssapo 
aspergat de prima aqua non chrismata ipsum Mare 
septem vicibus vel tribus^ incipiendo singulis vicibus hanc 

Asperges me Domine hyssopoi et mundabor : layabis 
me, ut super nivem dealbabor. 

Psalmus. Miserere. 

Tatus psalmus dicatur cum^ Gloria PatrL 
-Etpost unumquemque versum, si neccsse fuerit^ repe- 
tatur antiphona. 

Tunc episcopus ad altare rediens dicat : Oremus. 

Diacanus: Mectamus genua. 

Oratio. Pateant ad haec altaria aures misericordiae 
tusB preeibus si^licantium, et gratiam diirinitatis tuse 
per presentiam sancti Spiritus super ista clementer 
asperge ; ac interc^nte beata Dei genitrice Maria, 
beato Apostolo tuo. N. vel^ martyre tuo. N. veL, 
confessore tuo. N. vel^ beata vix^gine tua. N. in 
cujus veneratione haec consecramus, annuo ut yivi 
lapides per te erigamur in coelis, sacris tecum perman- 
suri aedificiis, atque ut petentibus bic desiderata con- 
oedaa, Paraclili tui inspirante dementia corda nostra, 
divinse sapientise condimento clementer expurga: ut 
tibi placita postulare, et petita dignanter a te obtinere 
mereamur, qui vivis et regnas Deus per omnia twcula 
sfficulorum. Amen. 

Quo peractOj lavet tabulam aUaris de aqua sacrnta 
non chrismata^ residuum vera aqua chrismata fundat 

1 88 De tf ccle0iae Z)eUciitione, 

ad basim altaris ad hoc factam. Hoc peraclo redeal 
episcopal ad altare^ et in eundo dicat antiphonam. 

Introibo ad altare Dei mei, ad Deam qui Isetificat 
javentutem meam. 

FsalmuSm Judica me Deus. 

El sape repetatur antiphona post -unumquemqut ver- 
sum psalmij si necessefueriL 

Benedictio tabuke altaris cum^ Oremus. 


Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, steme Deus, 
misericordiam tuam vocibus exultantibus deprecamur : 
ut qui per omnem mundum fidem sparsisti, ecclesiain 
congregastiy quique lapidem abscissum de monte sine 
manibus angulari compage solidasti ; haec quoque al- 
taria serenus illustra, faiaec eetemo lumine irriga, et ita 
diversis charismatibus undique locupleta, ut super ilia 
admirandam Filii tui hostiam ipse benedicas impositam, 
ipse suscipias consecratam. Per eundem. 

Postea differatur incenswjij et dum pontifea; cum to 
faciat cruces super altare^ dicatur interim Graduate^ 
episcopo incipiente : 

Dirigatur oralio mea sicut incensum in conspectu 
tuo, Domine. 

Versus. Elevatio manuum mearum sacrificium ves- 

Dicta Gradually extergat altare cum linteo, cantando 

Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus, et Spiritus 
Dei habitat in nobis ; templum enim Dei sanctum est 
quod estis vos, pro cujus amore celebratis hodie gaudia 
templi, tempore festi, 

Psalmus. Lauda Jerusalem. 

Sequitur oralio cum^ Oremus. 

Oratio. Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, sempi- 

jseti Conlcectattone. 189 

teme Deus, Creator cceli et terrse, maris et omnium 
elementorum, supplices majestatem tuam exoramus et 
petimus, ut benet|*dicere et 8ancti.|«ficare digneris 
altaria hsec ex lapidea creatura tua manu hominis ad« 
quadrata, sicut benedicere dignatus es altare illud quod 
Noe post transactum cataclysmum per verbum sanctum 
tuum in nomine Dei Patris omnipotentis sedificavitt 
super quod diversa animantia teme oblata sunt, munda 
et immunda in figura gentilium quae a Spiritu Sancto 
mundata, et in odorem suavitatis accepta scriptura 
commemorante cognovimus, suscipiatur^ qusesumus 
Domine, hie superpositum beneficium, quodcumque 
per manus sacerdotum tibi fuerit oblatum, et proficiat 
oflferentibus et communicantibus in vitam setemam*. 
Per Christum. 

Tunc de oleo sanctificato ad cathecumenos^ facial pon^ 
tifex crucem in medio altaris^ et ungat ipsum lapidem 
infra cmces manu sua de oieo sanctificato, per unam- 
quamque infusionem diccns : 

Consecrare ^ et sancti^ficare digneris, Domine 
Deus, lapidem istum per istam unctionem et nostram 
bene>{4dictionem. Per Christum Dominum nostrum, 

Resp. Amen. 

Interim cantetur hac antipkona. 

Erexit Jacob lapidem in titulum, fundens oleum de- 

Psalmus. Quam dilecta. 

Et semper sacerdos praparatus faciat incensum per 
circuitum altaris^ donee ipsius consecratiofniatur. &* 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Deuniy universitatis artifieem et immensse molis ad^ 
mirabilem conditoremi fratres carissimi, votis exultan* 
tibus deprecemur, ut qui per mundum totum fidem 

1 90 De ^cclesiae Ddiicatione, 

aspersit, et eeclesiain congregayit qnain laps exxasoA 
sine manibus angulari compage Bolidayit, ut attolleret 
caput in ccelum qui de ccelo accepit fundamentmn: 
altaria ha&c ad conficiendum in eis yitse sacramenta 
composita, ita chrismate divinae sanctificationis perfim- 
daty ut super ilia adorandam Filii sui hostiam ipse 
benedicat impositam, ipse suscipiat consecratam. Sit 
hsec victima Unitati substantias etpersonarum Trinitati 
grata et acceptabilis, ut hsec altaria quae per invocatio- 
nem nominis sui pio dedicamus officio, praesentia sose 
visitationis illustret, et sanctificatione benedicat, et 
perpetua inhabitatione possideat, qui unus in Trinitate 
perfecta vivit et regnat Deus, per omnia saecula sa^cu- 
lorum. Amen* 

Interim autem de eodem oko, perungat episcopus lapi- 
dent sicut prim^ dicendo : 

Conse^J^crare et sancti^Jificare digneris, Domine 
Deus, lapidem istum per istam sanctam unctioncm et 
nostram bene ►Ji dictionem. Per Christum Dominum 
nostrum, ijfc. Amen. 

Interim cantetur hcec antiphona : 

Mane surgens Jacob erigebat lapidem in titulum, 
fundens oleum desuper : votum vovit Domino : vere lo- 
cus iste sanctus est, et ego nesciebam. 

Psalmus. Bonum est confiteri Domino. 

Sequitur. Oremus. 

Oratio. Deus, qui sacrificandum primogenitum tibi 
populum tabemaculi exemplar in Monte Sina Moysi 
famulo tuo mysticis significationibus demonstrasti, se- 
cundum coelestium formam terris sanctum disponens, 
ut ad te ipsum qua3 nostra videntur attraheres, et su- 
pcrnis terrena sociares, quatenus eminentiae spiritualis 
illuc tondcret, te vocante, fastigium ; unde te ordinante 
sumpsit exordium ; haec quoque altaria salutaribus 

^ tttt Congectatione. t g i 

«lebrandee redcrmptioiiis mysteriis prseparata r6re coe- 
eads unguenti asperge, et aromatibus divin» sanctifi- 
^tiofnifl perfande, ac munas gratise consecrantis super 
lla placatoB impone, dignaque sint supra qu8B electas 
id sacrifidum creaturas, in corpus et sanguinem Re- 
lemptoris virtus secreta convertat, et in sacras agni 
lOBtias invisibili mutatione transcribat, ut sicut Verbmn 
»ro factum est, ita in Verbi substantiam benedicta ob- 
ationis natura proficiat, et quod prius victui fuerat 
ilimonia vita hie efficiatur setema : pet* eundem Chris- 
;um Dominum nostrum. Amen* 

Dicta oratione accipiat chrismOj et similiter sicut de. 
}ko perungat ipsum lapidem^ et pontifex ut prius dicat : 

Consecra^re et sancti^ficare digneris, Domine 
D.eusy lapidem istum per sacri chrismatis unctionem 
rt nostram benedictionem ; per Christum Dominum 

Resp. Amen. 

Interim cantetur hac antiphona. 

Ecce odor filii mei, sicut odor agri pleni cui bene- 
dixit Dominus. 

Fsalmus. Fundamenta. 

Post hac confricet pontifex totum altare manu sua^ 
spargendo oleum et chrismuy et ut prius dicat: 

Conse^crare et sancti^J^ficare digneris, Domine 
Deus, lapidem istum per sacri chrismatis et olei unc- 
tionem et nostram benedick tionem : Per Christum. 

Interim cantetur hac antiphona. 

Sanctificavit Dominus tabemaculum suum^ hsec est 
(domus Dei in qua invocetur nomen ejus, de qua scrip- 
tum est, erit nomen meum ibi dicit Dominus. 

Psalmus. Deus noster refugium. 


Singulare illud propitiatorium, quod se in ara crucis 

19^ De ^ccleslae £)eliicatione« 

nobis redimexidis obtulit immolaticlum, cujus prsefigti* 
ratione Patriarcha Jacob lapidem erexit in titulam, 
quo fieret sacrificiumt et porta cobU d^uper aperiretur 
exauditionis oraculum, tibi» Domine, suppliciter preces 
fuitdimus ut horiim altariiuii expolitas materies super- 
ms sacrifieiig imbuendas^ ipse turn dotari sanctificatio- 
nis ubertate preecipias, qui quondam lapideis legem 
scripsisti in tabulis. Qui cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto* 

Deu3 omnipotenSj universarum rerum rationabilk 
artifeXi qui inter caetcras creaturas formam lapidei 
metalli ad obsequium tui sacrificii condidisti, ut legis li- 
batorium tuo praeparetur altari, annue dignanter, hojus 
institutor mysterii, ut quicquid hie oblatum sacratumve 
fueriti nomini tuo aasurgat^ religioni proficiat, spei in* 
nitatur^ fidei sit praecipue dignum honore.. Per Dooh 
inum nostrum. 

Seguitur benedktio incensi cum Dominus vobisciun. 
et Oremus. 

Oratio. Domine Deus omnipotens, cui astat exer- 
citus angelorum cum tremore, quorum servitium spiri- 
tuale et igneum esse cognoscitur, dignare respicere, et 
bene ^ dicere, et sancti ^ ficare banc creaturam incensi, 
ut onmes languores cunctaeque insidi» inimici, odore 
ejus percepto, fugentur a plasmate tuo, quod pretioso 
sanguine redimisti : Qui tecum» 

Hie faciat crucem thurijicando desuper altare^ cum 
incenso ultra qiuxmlibet crucem^ chore interim canente 
hanc antiphonam : 

Domine ad te dirigatur oratio mea sicut incensmui 
in conspectu majestatis tuse. 

Psalmus. Domine clamavL . , 

Hoc facto dicat pontifex. Oremus. 

Diaconus. Flectamus genua. Levate. 

seu ConiKectattone* 193 


Dei Patri? oEmipotentis misericordiam deprecemur» 
dilectissimi fratres, ut haec altaria sacrificiis spirituali- 
bus conseijrandai nostras vocis exoratus officio prsesenti 
bene^^dictione sanctih^ficety et in eis Bemper obla- 
tiones famulorum suorum studio devotionis impositas, 
bene^dicere et sancti^ficare dignetur» et spirituali 
placatus incenso, precanti familise suae promptus exau- 
ditor assistat. Per Dominum. 

Hie ponat episcapus quinque grana incensi benedicti 
in modum crucis in medio altar is et in quatuor angulis, 
et desuper quinque cruces degracili candeia factaSy ubi 
unctio chrisnmtis facta fuity et incendantur candeliB. 

Interim cantetur hac antiphona. 

Ascendit fumus aromatum in (M)n8pectu Domini de 
manu angeli. 

Psalmus. In Domino confido. 

Sequatur: Dominus vobiscum. etj Oremus. 

Oratio. Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, seteme 
Deus, clemens et propitius preces humilitatis nostree 
exaudi, et respice ad horum altarium holocaustum, 
quod non in igne visibili probetur, sed in effiisione 
Spiritus Sancti in odorem suavitatis ascendat, et legi- 
time se sumentibus eucharistia medicabilis fiat, et ad 
.Titam proficiat sempitemam. Per Dominum. 

Sequatur Resp. iiEdiiicavit Noe altare Domino offer- 
rens super illud bolocausta : odoratus est Dominus 
odorem suavitatis et benedixit eis. Crescite et mul- 
tiplicamini et replete terram. 


Ecce ego statuam pactum meum vobiscum, et cum 
semine vestro post vos. 


Sequitur aUaris consecratio. 

VOL. I. o 

] 94 ^^ €ctli0iae Ot&icatione« 


Diamnus. Fleetamus gentia. Levate- 

OraiiO. Qusestnnus, omnipotens Deus, in cojus ho- 
nore altaria lisec consecraniuSj Clemens et propitim 
preces nostne humilitatk exandi : et prsesta, ut in hin 
mensk^ sint tibi libamina accepta, sint grata, sint pio- 
guia, ct SSaBCti Spiritut tui semper rore perfusa: ut 
omni tempore hoc in loco snpplicantis famili^e tusi 
anxietates releves, legritudines cures, preces erxaudia»^ 
Tota suscipiai, desiderata confirmes, postulata eonce- 
das. Terminando secrete : Per Duminum nostrum Jesum 
Christum Filium tuum, qui tecum Tivil et regriat in 
unitate Spiritus Bancti Deus, Per omnia scecula sat- 
culorum. Amen, ^«^«^^.^^ 

Bominus yobiscum* ^/^gggg^g^^^^^^ 

£t cum spiritu tuo. 

Sursum corda. 

Habemus ad Dominnm. 

Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. 

Dignum et justum est. 

Vere dignum et justum est^ sequum et salutare, no6 
tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, 
Pater omnipotens, s^teme Deus. £t nt propensiori 
eiira, et attention famulatu tibi servitntis officia defe- 
ramus, hoc pr^sertim tempore, quo reUgioaarum men- 
tium habitum ultra parietum omatuift delegisti: vel 
templum istud in quo altaria haec in quibns sanctae 
Triiiitatis, vel Sanctae Marise, vel Sancti apostoli tm 
N. vel sancti martyiis tui N, vel sancti coi^essoris tm 
N. vel sanctse virginis tuae N. mentio habetuf , bene- 
i^dieere et sancti ^ficare digneris : per quorum sacram 
reverentiam et bonorem, sacratissimo noDftini tno bsec 
altaria dedicamus. Horum, Domine, igitur cAagitatus 

/ jttw CdiUBEtetatintt* r 195 

pteabaSf d^fnare hsec akaria ccelesti saBetificaticme 
perfandere, etbene^dicere. Ainistant aogeli clari-» 
tatis^ et Saactt Spiiitus iUuatratioiie prasfdlgeaQt Sint 
Sfius quoque apud te gratiae, cujus fhit illiid qaod 
Abraham, pater fidei, in nostrsa figurant redaaiptioiiiB 
fiUum immolatams exstraxit, quod Isaac m conspectu 
ta® majestatis institoit, quod Jacob Dominum magna 
yitdeos vmone erexit : ut hie orantes exaudias, hie ob^ 
lata ianctii^i^ficesy hicque superposita benedicas, hie 
qiuoque benedieta 'distribuas. Sint ergo ecclesia^ tnae 
titoli sempitemi, sint menssc ccelesti spirituali quoque 
conrivio prseparatse. Tu ergo, Dominei proprio we 
too hostias super eas impositas bene^dicito^ et bene* 
dictag suscipito : atque nobis omnibus tribue ut parti- 
eipatione earum, vitam acquiramus sempiternam. 

Terminando secrete. 

Per Dominum nostrum. 

Sequatur oratio cun^ Oremus. 


Domine sancte. Pater clemens, cujus nee initium 
see finis adyertitur, qui tantus es quantus esse volidstii 
iCiticet sanctus et mirabilis Deus» cujus majestatem 
dlementa non capiunt, te benedicimus, te suppUces 
ieprecamur, ut sint tibi altaria haec, sicut illud quod 
Abel salutaribus mysteriis in passione preecursor, jugu- 
tatus a fratre, novo sanguine imbuit et sacrayit : sint 
dbi^ Domine, altaria hsec sicut illud quod Abraham, 
pater noster quia yidere te meruit, fej^ricavit, in quo 
mmmus sacerdos tuns Melchisedech sacrificii normam 
;riumphali& expressit : sint tibi altaria hsec sicut illud 
Ik quo Abraham seminarium fidei nostroe Isaac filium 
luum, dum tibi toto corde credidit, imposuit, in quo 
;alutari mysterio sacramentum Dominic® pasQionis 

1 96 De Ccdesiae Deoicattone* 

ostensum est» dum offertur filiua» et agniis oodditiir : 
sint tibi, Domine, altaria hsec sLcut illud quod Isaac 
puteum profunda puritatia inveniens, abundanti» ei 
nomen imponenS) tuae majestati dicavit : shit tibi h»c 
altaria, sicut ille lapis quern Jacob suppoiieiis capiti 
sue, ascendentes et descendentes per scaliae myBterium 
somno revelante cognoyit : sint tibi altaria hsc scut 
illud quod Moyses» susceptis mandatis tuis, in praefigu- 
ratione apostolica duodecim lapidum constructioue fir- 
mavit : sint tibi, Domine, altaria h&c sicut illud quod 
Moyses septem dierum purificatione mundayit, et ocb- 
lesti tuo alloquio^ sanctum vocavit : sicut locutus es ad 
Moysen, dicens : si quis tetigerit altare hoc sanctificatos 
habeatur. In hiis ergo altaribus juguletur luxuria» 
omnisque libido feriatur, offeratur pro turturibus sacri- 
ficium castitatis, pro pullis columbarum innocentis 
sacrificium. Per Christum. 

Si autetn fuerit altare immobile consecratum, statim 
ungatur frons lapidis in modum crucis chrismatej epis- 
copo dicente : 

Conse^J^crare et sancti^J^ficare digneris, Domine, 
frontem hujus lapidis per saeri chrismatis unctionem, 
et nostram beiie>i^dictionem. Per Christum Dominum 

Rei^p. Amen. 

*SV autem altare non fuerit immobile^ tunc dimittetur 
unctiojrontis lapidis^ et etiam hcec sequens antiphofia: 

Confirma hoc, Deus, quod operatus es in nobis, a 
templo sancto tuo quod est in Jerusalem. 

/// tempore Paschali. Alleluia. Alleluia. 

Psalmus. Exurgat Deus. 

Ila^c sequent' oratio dicitury tam super altare mobile 
quam immobile. 

}ku €omemtifmt. 197 

Sequatur^ Oremas* 


Majestatem tuam, Domine, humiliter imploramus,^ 
ut altaria haec sacree unctionis libamine ad suscipienda 
popali munera inuncta potenter bene^^^dicere, et saao- 
ti>{4ficare digneris ; et quod nunc a nobis indignis^ sub 
tui nominis invocatione, in honore Sanctee Trinitatis 
vel Sanctse Marise t;e/ Sancti apostoli tui N. vel sancti 
martyris tui N. vel sancti confessoris tui N. vel sanctse 
vii^ims tuae N. Bacrosancti chrismatis unctione sunt 
delibuta, placeant tibi atque altaria in perpetuum be- 
nedicta : et quicquid deinceps super ilia oblatum sacra- 
tumve fiierit, dignum tibi fiat holocaustum, atque om- 
nium hie offerentium sacrificia a te pio Domino benigne 
suscipiantur, et per ea peccatorum nostrorum vincula 
absbivantttr, maculs deleantmr. Teniae impetrentur, 
gratiae acquirantur : quatenus una cum Sanctis ei 
Electis tuis vitam percipere mereamur a^mam. Per 

Tunc thurificet totum altare ctrcumquaque^ incipiem 
istam antiphonam. 

Stetit angelus juxta aram templi, habens thuribulum 
aureum in manu sua. 

Sequatur^ Oremus. 


Dirigatur oratio mea, quaesumus Domine, sicut in- 
censum in conspectu tuo^ et copiosa beneficia hie po- 
pulus Christianus assequatur ; ut quicumque tibi in hoc 
altari sacranda Ubamina deyotus obtulerit, vel susce- 
pent, et vitae subsidia praesentis accipiat, et remissio- 
nem omnium peccatorum pariter consequatur, et gra- 
tiain sempitemae redemptionis percipiat. Per Do- 

et ttmicmn Offi 

im pdm coUtdiHfWit' 

tfttxn CuBiwnin timni JilipjMi 
fur ^{ifejiinKtMii «£m» dMWti, ^pm «onr qMiu Maria 
K^cx^rAv ivv::» ec ^f:Luit in usum ubemaculi foederis» 

tv\;w vv.^::rfe«fn$ ksv Hiiti»kmma in wum altaris toi id 
tps^m tv^cdam. et super ea conficieiidam ocnrpus et 
«d^n^^irtiem IXnttim ni»tri Jesu Christi, qui tecum. 

l^Hpuurv* Domine Deus onmipoteas. Rex regum, et 
l\Huiu(fe^ ik^nuudkntiuni, $«cenlo6 omnium et Pontifex 
um^-vr^orum. per quern una cum Patre Sanctoque 
^uriiu £jK'U :^unt univ^nsa in nomine tuo^ bene^f^di- 
onre. conse^orare, ei sancti4«licare digneris haec 
omnia omamenta hujus aliaris: et quemadmodum sane- 
titioasli officia tabemaculi testimonii, ita nunc manem 

a setemum summus Sacerdos sacerdotum, omnia in- 
trum^nta hujus eccled» quse inter nostras manus 
labentur, corde puro precamur, ut bene^dicas, pu« 
i^fices, con^secresy et sanctificata conseryes, qui 
rivis et r^nas cum Deo Patre. 

Deinde asperm aqua b^mdicta grmmentis, diacom 
)estiant altare. 
Interim charm cantef antpphonam. 

Circumdate Syon^ et compleptiiniQi eam^ narrfite 
n turribus ejus. 

Psalmus. Magnus Dominufu 

Post velatum altare hac dicatur oratio. 

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, altare hoc nomini twt 
dedicatum, ccelestis virtutis bene^dictipne sanctificai 
H omnibus in te sperantibus auxilii tui munus ostendet 
at bio et sacramentorum virtus, et yotorum obtineatur 
pectus. Per Christum. 

PoHea qferatur incemum^ et incemetur altare. 

Interim cantetur hcec antiphona. 

Omnis terra adoret te, Deus, et psaUat tibi: psalmum 
dicat nomini tuo, Domine. 

PqH h(tc dicat ejnscopus banc orationem hoc modo. 

Descendat, qusesumus, Domine Deus noster» Spiri-* 
ttis tuus Sanctus super hoc altare, qui et populi tui 
dona Sanctis ficet, et sumentium corda purificet Per 

Sequitur missa de dedicatione cccksia. 

Ad mismm Officium. 

Terribilis est locus iste, hie domus Dei est, et porta 
CMlif et voc^bitur aula DeL 

In tempore Pa$chali. Allaluia. 
. J^s. Donunusregnavit, decoram indutus mt, iadntus 
est Dominus fortitudinem, et prsecinxit se. 

200 De ^ttitmt DeBimtione« 

Dens qai nobis per stngulos annos hujus saocti 
templi conseoratioms reparas diem, et sacris semper 
mystcriig repncscntas iucolumes, exaudi preces populi 
tui| et pnesta, ut quisquis ho€ leniplum beneficia ped- 
tunis io|;redibir, cubcU se impetras&e Isetetur. Per 

Lectio libri apocalypsis beaii Johannh apasiolL 

In diebus illis* Vidi ciTitatem sanetam Jerusaleni 
novam, descendentem de ccbIo a Deo paratam ; sicut 
iponsam omatam Tiro suo, Et audi\i vocem magnaM 
de throno dicentem, Ecce tabemaculuin Dei cum homi- 
nibuj§s et Spiritus Sanctus habitabit cum eis, Et ipsi 
populuB ejus eruBt : et ipse Deus cum eis erit eomm 
Deus. Et absterget Deus omiiem lacr^inam ab oculb 
eorum, et mors ultra non erit, neque luetus, neque cla- 
mor, neque dolor erit ultra, quae prima abierunt* Et 
dixit qui sedebat in thronoi Ecce nova &cio onuiia. 


Locus iste a Deo f actus est insestimabile sacramen- 
turn : irreprehensibilis est. 

Vers. Deus cui astat angelorum chorus, exaudi 
preces senrorum tuorum. 

Vers. Adorabo ad templum sanctum tuum, et confi- 
tebor nomini tiio. . 

Per octavas nisi in dominicis dicatur hoc. Alleluia. 

Vers. O quam metuendus et venerandus est locus 
iste ; vere non est hie aliud nisi domus Dei et porta 
coeli. Alleluia. 

Vers. Fundata est domus Domini super verticem 
montium, et exaltata est super onmes colles. 

Ista sequentia dicatur^ licet in Quadragesima hocfes- 
turn contigerit. 

I %m Coti0ectdtione« 201 


Jerusalem et Sion filisa coBtus omnis fidei curiae, 
meloB paDgat jugis ketitise. Alleluia. Christus enim 
desponsat hodie, matrem nostram norma justitiae, quam 
de lacu traxit miseriae, ecclesim. In Spiritus Sancti 
dementia, sponsa sponsi laetatur gratia, reginis laudis 
cum gloria, felix dicta. Dos ut datur crescit laetitia, 
quaedos, quanta, triplex potentia, tangens coelum, terras, 
et stygia, justitia. Mira loquor sed sana credere, foede- 
ratam tam largo munere, de proprio produxit latere, 
Deus homo. Formaretur ut sic ecclesia, figuravit in 
pari gloria, Adae costis formata femina, hostis Eva. 
Eva fuit noyerca posteris, haec est mater electi generis^ 
Titae portus, asylum miseris, et tutela. Fulchra, potens, 
partu mirabilis, ut luna, sol fulget spectabilis, plus acie 
multo terribilis ordinata. Multiplex est singularis, 
una generalis et individua, omnis aevi sexus simul una 
parit turmas- Haec signata Jordanis fluctibus, haec 
quae venit e terrae finibus, scientiam audire cominus 
Salomonis. Sic typicis descripta sensibus, nuptiarum 
induta vestibus, coeli praestet hodie civibus, Christo 
juncta. O solennis festum laetitiae, quo unitur Chris- 
tus ecclesiae, in qua nostrae salutis nuptiae celebran- 
tur. Coetus felix, dulce -conviyium, lapsis ibi datur 
solatium, desperatis offertur spatium respirandi. Justis 
inde solvuntur praemia, angelorum novantur gaudia^ 
lata nimis quod facit gratia caritatis. Ab aetemo fons 
sapientiae, intuitu solius gratiae, sic praevidit in rerum 
serie, haec fiitura. Christus ergo nos suis nuptiis; 
recreatos yeris divitiis, interesse faciat sociis elec- 

Infra septuagesimam usque ad caput jejumi^ in octava 
die tantum hujus festi^ 4icatur tractus. 


, €i imccUmd 

Im ilji> ig»yuii> EgTOBSB JcsBBs peruabakbat Je- 
Ei ecce Tir Bonine ZadHms» et hic ent prin* 
» ct ^ee diTes. £t qnstebut fklat 
.€tnai potent pneturta, quUirtatsn 
Et pnwnraiB aseeiidil in arborem syct' 
Tiderct iQsm; quia isde erat transituras. 
£t oEBi T«tiigvt ad locum, susfHoeiis Jesus ridit illain, 
« dix:: ii ecu:- Zachaee festinans descende, quia hodie 
ijc ^ioTi:* :ujkO>>ne: xne manere. Et fesrinans descen- 
ci:. *: exv^p:; eum gaudens. Et cum viderent omnes, 
Ei:imi'.irAbAn: dioentes quod ad hominem peccatorem 
di\ errisset. S;ans autem Zaehaeus dixit ad Dominum, 
ecvv diniidium bonorum meorum Domine do pauperi- 
hus^ e; si quid aliquem defraudavi reddo quadruplum. 
Ai^ ^i ^^ini Jesuss Quia hodie huic domui salus facta 
e>t. eo quod ei ipse filius sit Abrahae. Venit enim 
tiUus hominis quivrere, et salvum facere quod pe- 

Pomino Deus, in simplicitate cordis mei Isetus ob- 

0eu Con0ecratione. 


tuli universa, et populus tuus qui repertus est, vidit 
cum ingenti gaudio» Deus Israel custodi hanc volun- 


Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, ecclesiam tuam et 
altare hoc nomini tuo dicatum, ccBlesti virtute et bene- 
dictione sanctifica, et omnibus in te sperantibus auxilii 
tui munus ostende, ut hie et sacramentorum virtus, et 
votorum obtineatur effectus. Per Dominum. 


Domus mea domus orationis vocabitur, dicit Domi* 
nus, in ea omnis qui petit accipit, et qui queerit invenit, 
et pulsanti aperietur. 


Qusesumus omnipotens Deus, ut hoc loco quem no- 
mini tuo indigni dedicavimus, cunctis petentibus aures 
tuae pietatis accommodas. Per Dominum. 

De )&eneDttt(one Coemeterti. 

^t BeneHicttone Coemeterii. 

NCIPITordo^ qualiter atmeterium sU it- 

dicandum: adcu/usdedicathMmfaciendm 

plura sunt necusaria^ videlicet^ quahur 

cruces* in quatuar angulis cemeterU^ m 

qmibus duadecun cerei vel candeUt m superiort park 

OSm «r Um CuDiecjilioD of a 
Clwdmrd» iBi a tbe tall. But 
At fm mhric^ aeeordinf to a 
lf»w iipl Knm BWv iB tlioft» 
sefWy directing : ^ In consecra- 
lm« ocrawteni. T«iiiat episcopos 
ttviiRu» «mieta, ilba. stola, et 
€if^^ ctim mim et bacnlo» ad 
locum 4nf« iMkand»« et pros- 
txmsus sufwr Ctldistmiini, dicit 
Kttniain. «t intn' cvienu dkit 
•jptM^KH» bnnc TcmBk * Ut boc 
coKnecmum. bciw + ^t^^mv. et 
faacti<f-^l<are <fignem.' Cboras» 
ivtf^ * AiD«n.' Finita litania, 
«{«KVftt» sttndo in incrainit ett^ 

* "^ r^ pntcviiniti poDimnir 
va MtcMtmo i^uinqw fipMc cro- 
<^; \)MK>r< uaaihi^^r in medio, 
«< ^iMMNir «te. fioarlibit ad sti* 

vp to tbe ISth or lltb 
bot before that, tliere 
difficulty. Bat on tbe oontrary, 
tbe pkdng of a cross by tbe besd 
of grsTes, either in or out of 
cburcbyards, is of bigh antiquity. 
Catalani cites from tbe Acts 
Sanctorum, a passage from tbe lifie 
of & Patrick, tbe apostle of Ire- 
land, of no little importance as 
regards burring out of Cburch- 
vards. ** Sanctus signifer Domi- 
nici TexiDi, ut ipse agere consne- 
Tit, constituit ad caput cujuslibet 
Cbristiani extra coBmeterinm se- 
polti cnioem figere, quia in regi* 
one ad fidcm noriter conTona, 
pr« paudtate eodesiamm noTenI 
omies deAmctos in 

lOe OBene^ictione CoenietetU* 207 

infigantur:^ vas plenum aqua^ infra intrmtum 
eriif ubi epUcoptii faciei exorcismum : deinde vaM 
aqua in quatuor angulis cctmeterii si necesse fuerit^ 
\era alia vasUj convenientia ad sacrandam et ad 
ndam aquam. Duo majares cerei ac candelabra^ 
r quantum duo pugilli passunt capere^ vinum^ sali 

Adsit etiam et tentorium extra ctemeterium^ in 
jssit episcopus cum ministris sms vestimerUis sacris 
luerCj cum quibus divinum minHterium adimplere 

idos non fore." And the 
presently is added : •• Vo- 
iam optimns pastor tarn 
iharactere oves ab hs£s, 
a scilicet Christianos a 
% distinguere: sic profecto 
colse venientes, viso vits 
fbneratnm fuisse fanralum 
Irucis Christi signo valerent 
ere, atque pro ejus anima 
nctarentur cunctonim con- 
preces offerre." Catalani 
itif. Rom. torn. 2. p. 209. 
ccount is given by the Bol- 
B from the life of S. Patrick, 
k by Joscelin, a monk of 
i: who further relates a 
lous legend of S. Patrick 
ing a cross from the grave 
^agan, at whose head it had 
)laced by mistake: being 
ed by the voice of the dead 
ifanself, issuing from the 

ire are many proofs, says 
ni, that before the xith cen- 
here was always placed in 
iddle of Churchyard^ a 
: and this, not only for other 

reasons which will readily occur 
to the reader, but also, by remind- 
ing people of the reverence due to 
such hdy places, thai gftmea and 
unbecoming practices (^ all kinds 
might be prevented. 

* The early Pontificals cMler as 
to the number of the candlea: 
some appoint fifteen: as, for ex- 
ample, the Pontifical of Arch- 
bishop Egbert. The mystical sig* 
nification is given by a writer of 
the I8tb century, quoted by Ca^ 
talani. ** Aeoenduntur candelss, 
in quibus intelligitur fidei chart- 
tas." torn. 2. p. 211. The same 
very learned writer enters at great 
length into an eumiiMtion of the 
celebrated decree of the Iltibe» 
ritan Council, which forbad lights 
to be placed in churchyards ; and 
expUdns it : that it was of local 
obligation, in eonseqvence of many 
abuses which had followed the 
practice of praying, at night, by 
the gpraves of the dead. This 
practice als6, is forbidden to wo- 
men, 1^ the same Cdiindl. - 


ao8 Oe TBencOicrtone CocmeterW. 

debet. Quibm omnibus parath^ pantifcr aemeteritm 
dedicaturus biirci tcniommi^ et induat se amictu^ alh^ 
stota^ etfanonc^ piuviali^ et capa dc bokeram^ et simplia 
mkra, et baculo, sine maniputoy et sine mffdaiiis^ tunicis, 
et dalmaticis : et ministri se i$idumtt amiciu^ alba^ stokj 
etfamne : umis subdiacofim^ qui comimile habebit vesti- 
merit um pnBter slotam^ uma thurifcr^ dtio cerqferarii^ 
unm crmifer^ qui omnes albis mU induti : et dum pon- 
tifer sic in tentorio se ifidnit^ dicat psalmos in dedicatimje 
ecciesi^e^ cum precibus : ci oratione^ Actiones tiostras. 

Item alia oratio. 

Deus, qui nos paBtores in populo vocari volmsti, 
pr^esta, quaesumus, ut hoc quod humano ore didniiir, 
in tnis oculis esse valeamus, Per Christum* 

Post h^Ec veniat episcopus infra iniroiium cctmeterii^ 
et ibidem prostratus super faldistorium dicat iiianiam ut 
supra^ pontifice cum aliqua persona reveretida Iiianiam 
canente secrelo. Et cum ventum fuerit ad versum qui 
pro domino episcopo cantatur^ surgat episcapus, el dicat 
standOf respiciens ad quatuor partes ceemeterii, 

Ut coemeterium istud bene^J^dicere digneris, 

Te rogamus audi nos, 

Ut ccBmeterium istud benei^ dicere, et sancti ^ ficare 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut ccemeterium istud bene^dicere, sancti ^ficare, 
et conse^I^crare digneris. 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Fmita litania^ episcopus stanch in introitu loci sa- 
crandij conversus ad occidentem^ faciat exordsnium salts 
et aquce cum cinere et vino^ incipiendo ter. 

Deus in adjutorium meum intende. 

Resp. Domine ad adjuyandum me festina. 

Cum Gloria. Sine Alleluia. 

jDe IBeneDtctione Coemetenl 209 

Seguitur exorcismus sails ibidem. 

Exorcizo te^ creatura sails, in nomine Domini nostri 
Tesu Christi, qui apostolis suis. etc. 

jResp. Amen. 

Benedictio salis. 

Domine Deus, Pater omnipotens, bene ►][< die hanc 
creaturam salis. etc. 

Resp. Amen. 

Exorcismus aqu<z. 

Exorcizo te, creatura aquae, in nomine Dei Patris, 
Dt Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, ut repellas diabolum. etc. 

Benedictio aquce. 

Domine Deus, Pater, etc. 

Benedictio cineris. • 

Omnipotens, sempiteme Deus, parce metuentibusi 

Tunc misceantur sal et cinis, et episcopus ter facial 
crucem super aquam^ dicens : 

Haec commixtio.,^alis et cineris cum aqua benedicta, 
sit sancti ^ficata ad consecrationem hujus ccBmeterii. 
In nomine Patris ►I^, et Filii ►!<, et Spiritus >i< Sancti. 
Amen. i 

Sequitur oratio. 

Deus, invictse virtutis. etc. 

Benedictio vini. 

Domine Jesu Christe, qui es vitis vera. 

Deinde ponat vinum in aquam^ dicens. Fiat com- 

Sequitur prafatio. 

Deum Patrem. 

Benedictio aquce cum vino mixta. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus. 

Tunc episcopus ter circumeat ccemeterium^ spargens 
aquam benedictam^ incipiendo primo in remotiori parte a 

VOL. I. p 

2 1 o De iBeneoictione Coemetedu 

parte sinistrOj incipiens qualibet vice ah occidente per 
boream ad partem orientalemy usquedum redeat per nnit- 
tram in occidentalem, ad hcum quo inceperit: iecurA 
in medio : tertiojuxta ecclesiam, choro interim canentc. 

Asperges me, Domine, hyssopo et mundabor ; lava- 
bis me, et super nivem dealbabor. 

Psalmus. Miserere mei Deus. 

Tot us psalmus dicatur, sine, Gloria Patri. 

Et repetatur antiphona post unumquemque versum 
psalmif si necessefuerit. Expkto tertio circuitu, veniem 
episcopus ad locum primum ubi litaniam dixerit, ibidem 
dicat hanc orationem. 

Benedicere digneris, Domine Deus, omnipotens, piis- 
sime, et misericordissime consolator vivorum, simid et 
mortuorum, in te credentium, hujus terrae locellum tibi 
Domino Deo dedicandum, ut sit coemeteriuni, hoc est 
dulcis quics, et dormitio corporum fidelium Christiano- 
rum inibi quiescentium, et animae eorum quorum hie 
sepelienda sunt corpora resurrectura, quandoque spiri- 
tualia a^ternao beatitudinis partem, et cum Sanctis om- 
nibus societatem habere mereantur. Per Dominum. 

Dcinde episcopus nicipiat antiphonam : chorus prose- 

Corpora sanctorum in pace sepulta sunt, et vivcnt 
noniina eorum in aeternum. 

Vers, Haec requies mea in sseculum sseculi ; hie 
habitabo quoniam elegi eam. 

Interim vadat ad partem aquHonis, et stans versa facie 
ad locum sacrandum vej^sus orientem^ dicat hanc oratio- 
7iem ibidem sine, Dominus vobiscum. Sed tantum cum, 

Diaconus: Flectamus genua. Levate. 


Deus qui es totius orbis conditor, et humani generis 

Pe IBeneOictione Coemetetti; 2 1 1 

Redemptor, cunctarumque creaturarum yisibilium eb 
invisibilium perfectus dispositor, te sapplici voce ac puro 
corde exposcimus, ut hoc coemeterium sive polyandrum, 
w quo famulorum famulartunque tuarum corpora rer 
quiescere debent, post curricula hujus vitse labentia^ 
sancti ^ ficare, pur ►J^ gare, atque bene ^ dicere dig- 
neris : quique peccatorum remissionem per tuam mag- 
nam misericordiam in te fidentibus prsestitisti, corpo- 
ribus quoque in hoc coemeterio quiescentibus, et tubam 
primi Archangeli hie expectantibus, consolationen» 
perpetuam largiter impertire. Qui vivis. 

Eundo ad orientem, dicatur a choro antiphona^ 

Exurgat Deus ad nostri famulatus obsequiuin» etin 
loco sancto ejus fiat benedictionis augmentum. 

Psalmus. Ipsmn. 

Postea dicat diaconm. 

Kyrie eleyson. 

Christe eleysoh. 

Kyrie eleyson. 

Deinde dicat episcopus. 


Diaconus : Flectamus genua. Levate. 

In oriente ibidem stando verm facie ad ^neridienty 
dicat hanc orationem. 

Domine Sancte, Pater Omnipotens, trina Majestas, 
et una Deitas, Pater, ^t Filius, necnon et Spiritusr 
SanctuSy justitiae auctor, veniae largitor, bonorum dator^ 
sanctitatis origo, charismatum distributor, omniumque 
venientium ad te pius receptor : prcesta propitius, ut 
hoc coemeterium in honore sancti nominis tui compo- 
situm bene ►i^ dicere et sancti ►I^ficare digneris, qui 
Abrahee beato patriarchae et famulo tuo terram afilii» 
Ephron comparatam causa sepulturse benedixisti ^ et 
qui populo Israelitico promissionis tellurem in «vo 

2 12 S)e TBencoicttone Coemeterit 

durantem concessisti, famulonini famukrumque taarum 
corporibus in hoc cnemet€rio quiescentibus, qusesuimis, 
ut quiet is sedem^ et ab omm iucursione malorum spiri- 
tuum tutam benigiius largitor tribuas ; ut post anima* 
rum corjiorumque resurrectionem coadunataiti, te do- 
naiiU^ atque concedente, beatitudinem sempitcmam 
pcrcipore mereaDtur. Per Dominum nostrum, 

Etimio ad meridiem^ chorus cantei hmw antiphonm 

Qui habitat in adjutorio altissimi, in protectione I 
cceli commorabitur, 

Psatmus. Ipsum, 

Postea dieat diaconus^ Kyrie eleyson* 

Chorus. Christe eleyson< Kyrie eleyson, 

Episcopiis dicat, Oremiis. 

Diaconussic: Flee tam us genua. Levate. 

In meridie ibidem siando versa facie ad austrafem^ 
dicat episcopus hanc orationcm. 

Domine Deus, pastor eetemee glorisBy lux et honor 
sapientiae, custos et vigor prudentieB, salus aegrotan- 
tium, valitudo potentium, mcestorum solamen, yita jus- 
torum, gloria humilium ; te, Domine, flagitamus, ut hoc 
ccemeterium servorum tuorum ab omni inquinamento 
spurcitise spirituum immundorum custodire, mundare, 
et bene^dicere digneris, atque corporibus humanis 
hoc in loco sepeliendis sinceritatem perpetuam tribuere 
non desinas ; ut quicumque Baptismi gratiam percepe- 
rint, et in fide catholica usque ad vitee terminum per- 
severantes fuerint, atque decurso hujus eevi termino, 
corpora sua in hoc coemeterio commendaverint, an- 
gelicis tubis concrepantibus, cum materia corporis et 
animse, prsemia ccelestium gaudiorum sempitema per- 
cipiant. Per Dominum. 

Eundo ad australem, chorus cantet hanc antipho- 

De "BeneDtctione Coemetcrtu 2 1 3 

Beus in sancto via tua. Quis detis magnus sicut 
Deus noster ? Tu es Deus» qui facis mirabilia solus. 

Psalmtis. Viderunt te aquee. 

Postea dicat diaconus. Kyrie eleyson. 

Christe eleyson, 

Kyrie eleyson. 

Episcopus. Oremus. 

Diaconus : Flectamus genua. Levate. 

Ibidem stando in australi parte canversus ad Occident 
tern, dicat hanc orationem. 

Omnipotens Deus, qui es custos animarum et tutela 
salutis, fides credentium, respice propitius ad nostrse 
servitutis officium ; ut ad introitum nostrum bene^di- 
cere, conse^i^crare, et sancti^J^ficare hoc ccemeterium 
dignerisy quatenus humana corpora hie post vitae cur- 
sum pausantia in magna die judicii, simul cum felice 
anima mereantur adipisci vitae perennis gaudia. Per 

Postea episcopus circumeat cum incenso eodem modo quo 
asperserit aquanij choro interim canente antiphonam. 

Domine ad te dirigatur oratio mea, sicut incensum 
in conspectu majestatis tuae. 

Psalmus. Domine clamavi. 

Totus psalmus dicatur si necesse fuerity et repetatur 
antiphona post unumquemque versum. Quo peracto^ 
dicat episcopus hanc orationem in medio ccemeterii vel 
oolyandriy verso vultu ad orientem^ cum^ 

Dominus vobiscum, et Oremus. 


Adesto, Domine Deus, officio nostro hunc locum 
risitanti, et nostrse fragilitatis ministerio ; et sicut be^ 
ledixisti per manus patrum majorum Abrahee et Isaac 
et Jacob terram sepultures, et postmodum pro nostras 
salutis remedio traditus^ flagellatus, tandemque cruci 


214 De BeneBlctionc Coemetctii* 

affixus^ per te ipsuxn, Josepli divinitus pr^parante, 
terrenum ganctificasti sepukhrum, ita hoc c^Bineterium 
beiie^J^dicere, consecrare, et ab inviBibilium machina- 
mentb hostium roborare dignoris ; quo omnes quorum 
quarumcumque post laborcm vitBe bic corpora pausa- 
verint, pei*petuae felicitatis praeinia eonsoquantur ; per 
te, Sal va tor muntH, qui vivis et regnas Deus per omnia 
specula sa^culorum, Ameu. 

Time eletmta mami htnedicai ephcojmn cwmeierium^ 
e,r quatmr pariibm^ el versa facie ad orkatem dkat 
hum: m'atioiwm, 

Dcjus qui es judex virorum ^We mortnonim, h^ 
ne^^dictiouis turn sanctificationcm nostra» derotionii 
offieio super coemeteriuJii istud multiplica, et auimae 
cunctorum fidelium quorum eub tuo patrocinio in ed 
sepelienda sunt corpora^ Don afBciantur terroribut 
pceuse infemalis, sed potior cum Sanctis omnibus soci- 
entur tecum coelcstibus gaudiis, qui in Trinitatfi per^ 
fecta vivis et gloriaris Deus, Per omnia sseeula S€etu- 

Resp. Amen. 

Turn eundo ad ecvksiam dkat psaimum. De pro- 
fundis. Cum versa et oratlone. Fidelium. 

Sequitur missa. Requiem eetemam. 

Psalmus. Te decet. 


Deus, cujus miseratione animse fidelium requiescunt, 
huie coemeterio angelum tuum deputes custodem ; et 
da propitius ut omnium, quorum hie corpora sepelien- 
tur, animae absolutee ab omni dolore sine fine Isetentur. 
Per Dominum. 

JEpistola. Nolimus vos. 

Graduale. Requiem aetemam. 

Tr actus. De profimdis. 

^xho aiJ S>i?noDum< 

©tl)o aiJ S>?noDum. 

£)rOo aD ^pnobum» 

iRDO fjualUcr ab ejmcopo si/nodus agaiur. 
Horn did prima^ ante orium miis tjidath 
tur omnes ab eccJeshij obseratkftteforibm 
cMfwthf ad unam jammm per quam sactr- 
iiote.'^ iffgrcdi oporM ostiarii siabuni ; et convementts 
cardinaks vci alii prtilatl^ sacerdoies pariter cum epis- 
copo intrmbunty ct secundum ordiuis sui iempus reside* 
bunt ; post has ingrediuntiir et diaconi^ qui corona J^icta 
ill conspectu episcopi et sacerdotum stent, lieinde Jo- 
renses^ ingrediantur presbyttri in erdine suo procul ab 
a His stantes^ et utjmsifuerint residentcs, Ingrediantur 
quoque subdiaconi, quos ad recitandum vel excipiendum 
congruus ordo requirit : obseratis januis, sedentes in 
diuturno silentiOy episcopiy videlicet^ et sacerdotesj atque 
cor totum habentes ad Dominumy dicturus est archidia- 
conusy Orate, et tunc agatur litaniaj statimque omnes 
incurventur^ tarn episcopi quam presbytej^j orantes diu- 
tius tacite cumfietibus atque gemitibus. Tunc surgens 
episcopusy cunctis adhuc incurvatisy hanc orationem palam 
fundat ad Dominum.^ 

^ " Presbyteri forenses, nuncu- 
pantur ii, qui ex aliena dioecesi vel 
ecclesia sunt." Du Cange. Gloss. 

2 The " Ordo ad Synodum" in 
the Winchester Pontifical, differs 
considerably from that of the 
Salisbury Use. But as it agrees 
with some few exceptions with 

that printed by Wilkins in his 
Appendix, vol. 4, p. 784, I shall 
not be called upon to explain the 
variations : I extract however the 
first rubric. 

" Qualiter concilium provind- 
ale, prima, secunda, vel tertia die 

Sancta synodus bis in anno de. 

^DtDo an^pnonunu 


Adsumus, Domine Sancte Spiritus, adsamos quidem 
peccati immanitate detenti, sed in nomine tuo speci- 
aliter aggregati : veni ad nos, esto nobiscum» et dignare 
illabi cordibus nostris, doce nos quid agamus, quo 
gradiamur, et ostende quid efficere debeamus, ut te 
auxiliante tibi in omnibus placere valeamus. Esto 
salus, et suggestor et effector judiciorum nostrorumy 
qui solus cum Deo Patre et ejus Filio nomen possides 
gloriosum. Non nos patiaris perturbatores ease jus- 
titiae, qui summam diligis sequitatem, ut in sinistrum 
nos non ignorantia trahat, non £avor inflectat» non 
acceptio muneris vel personae corrumpat. Sed junge 
nos tibi efficaciter solius gratiae tuse dono, ut simus in 
te unum^ et in nullo deviemus a vero, quatenus in 

ereyit habere concilia: unum 
estate, aliod tempore autumni. 
Quisquii autem clericorum ad hsec 
non yenerit absque necessitatis 
caosa» anno integro non praesumat 
nii«<y»tn celebrare. Prima autem 
die, et secunda, et tertia, hora con- 
venienti quando episcopo vel ejus 
yicario visum fuerit, omnes se- 
quantur cruces cum litania et in- 
grediantur synodum, ejectis omni- 
bus ab ecdesia» obseratisque fori- 
buscunctis. Tuncadunamjanuam 
per quam sacerdotes ingredi de- 
beant, ostiarii stent, et sella pona- 
tnr in medio : et supra eam sacrse 
reliquiae, et plenarium cum stola 
ponantur. Deinde convenientes 
omnes presbyteri intersint, et se- 
cundum ordinationis suae tempus 
rcsideant. Post hos ingrediantur 
diaconi probabiles, quos ordo po- 

posoerit interesse. Exinde intro- 
ducantur laid bonae conversation 
nis, vel qui electione conjugali in- 
teresse menierint. Tunc ingre- 
diatur episcopus si voluerit, vel 
necessitas exegerit. Ek si non 
aderit episcopus: ejus vicarius 
eadem faciat. Tunc diaconus di- 
cat, ^ Orate.' Deinde, * Erigite 
vos.' Tunc episcopus versus ad 
orientem dicat, * Dominus vobis- 
cum. Oremus.*'* 

In the above rubric, there is 
little doubt that the '' Plenarium " 
must mean the Book, in which 
were written, at length, the Holy 
Gospels, and perhiqis also, the 
Epistles. The relics were brought 
ft-om neighbouring churches, that 
by their presence (so it was said) 
the fedth and zeal of those present 
might be quickened and encreased. 

220 i)cDo m ^i^nooum* 

tiomiDe tuo coUccti, sic in cunctis teueamus ctim mo- 
deratione pietatis ju^tiliaiu, iit bic a te in nullo dissen- 
tiat seuteritia nostra, et in futuro pro bene gestis coa- 
scquamur gaudia sempiteFna, prsestante te, qui solus 
eum Deo Patre ejiisque Filio ¥ivis et regnas, et domi- 
naris Deus, per omnia BdBcula B^cnloruni* Amen. 

Qua oratiomjinita ab amnibm respondealHr^ Amen. 

Rursumquc dkai archidiacomts^ Erigite yos. 

Confesihn onwes surgaitt^ ei ab archidiacono Itgatur 
evangeliumy Ego sum pastor bonus. 

Quo periecta^ earn thnorc ei disciplina tarn ephcG^ 
^uam prtsbyteri sedcani^ diacofitis dalmatlca hiduita 
codicem cmmnum in medium proftrens^ capiiuia Nicisni 
amdiii per legate tibi de Jide caiholica ptenius t racial^ 
quaiiter omms Chrtsticohv tinum Deum in Triniiatey el 
Trinitaiem in unitute fulditer vemrari, cordc vredert^ 
ore prqfiterij et imrssaidcr cxmkre deheant^ venaiit 
aperte depromitury quomodo Pater^ et FiliuSj et SpirituM 
Sanctus veraciter unus sit Deus. Deinde legatur liber 
officiorumj ut scire valeant quo ordine in ecclesia cuncia 
peragantur officia. Post hac autemperquirantur pres- 
byteri qualiter energumenos et aurium apertiones facere 
vel eosdcm baptizare debeant. Quibus eapletisj taliter 
cunctos clericos alloquatar episcopus. 


Precibus itaqueDeopraemissisyfraternitatem vestram, 
dilectissimi filil, cum pia exhortatione admoneo, et per 
divinum nomen obtestor, ut ea quas a nobis de Deo, 
sacris ordinibus, vel Sanctis moribus dicta fuerint, cum 
omni pietate suscipiatis, ut cum summa reverentia per- 
ficere studeatis, quatenus supema auxiliante gratia ea 
quae ad salutem nostram et Christiani populi nobis 
commissi pertinere videntur : diligenter et provide 
tractemus, ne oves Domini nostri Jcsu Christi nobii 

€)rlio an ^pnonum* 221 

commissae licet indignis ob nostram pereant negligen- 
tiam, pro quibus in die judicii rationem reddituri 
sumus. Deinde simili vos obtestatione conjuro vel 
obsecro, ut nuUus vestrum in judicio fratrem suum aut 
personam accipiat, aut quolibet favore vel munere pul- 
satiis a justo judicio scienter avertatur aut discedat : 
sed cum tota pietate fraternse dilectionis, et cum Dei 
timore libenter nobiscum adhibeatis studium, quatenus 
per nostram doctrinam et sacram admonitionem pec- 
cata, errores, et pravitates filiorum nostrorum, quee 
ante nos vel tempore nostro, instigante diabolo, in 
civitate ista vel parochiis nostris perpetrata fuerint, 
Dei auxiliante misericordia, ad correctionis emenda- 
tionem et bonorum executionem perducere valeamus, 
et in extreme judicii die non de negligentiis et culpis 
a Domino, sicut pigri et mali servi judicemur, sed de 
bene&ctis ac recte dispositis, praemium eetemse beati- 
tudinis percipere mereamur. Per. 

Quibus taliter narratisj persa^utandi et inquirendi 
sunt cardinalesy. sacerdotesj et kvitce^ necnon et reliqui, 
videlicet de credulitate Trinitatis et Unitatis^ prima de 
dikctione Dei et proximi^ secundo de humiliiate et casti- 
tatej tertio dejejunio et oratione^ quarto de eleemosynarum 
largitatej quinto de officiis ecclesiasticiSy simulct omnibus 
cavendis vitiis et virtutibus adipiscendis. Hiis itaque 
prima die Synodali judicio deliberatis^ surgens archidia- 
conus dicatj 

In nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi, eamus in pace. 

Tunc dicat episcopus benedictionem. 

Qui disperses Israel congregat, ipse vos hie et 
ubique custodiat. Amen. £t non solum vos custo- 
diaty sed ovium suarum idoneos custodes efficiat. Amen. 
Ut cum summo pastore Christo de gregum suorum 
pastione in coelo gaudeatis. Amen. Quod ipse. 

22 2 Droo an %pnoOuni. 

Secunda vero die Hvrumqm ingrtsdf mmulqm ir( 
supradicium esi ommims incurvaik^ hac ab epUc^^ 
dicantar, ^ 

Nostroram tibi, Domine, ciirvantes genua eordium 
qufesumus, ut boiuim quod a nobis a te requiritur exe- 
quamart scilicet, ut pronipta tecum solicitudine gradi- 
entest diseretiouis arduse subtile judicium faciamus, ac 
misericordiam diligentes, clareamus stadiis tibi placita* 

7« we at ommbiis respondeatur^ Amen, 

StirgeHiibusqiit Ulis kgaiur evangelium. Vog estk 
sal terrso* t'e^ Estote misericordes* 

Post hd£C jjer ordinem sictti prim in suU 
sedibiUf qum indc alhquatur episcopus. Quiim^ 
die secunda peracii.% perquirantiiT qu€t in stftiodo nt' 
cessaria mnt^ ac diiigenti cava pertracieittun Horn 
auiem sexta vel nana cipkia^ iter urn prommeitt archi- 

In nomine Domini nostri Jcsu Christ i, eamus in 

Tunc dicat tpiscopus benedicilonem. 

Dominus mentis et linguee corporalis et spiritualis 
det Tobis incrementa jg^atise sacerdotalis. Amen, 

Atque vobis ad dexteram cun^titutis, pai^iicipiuio 
tribuat ccelestis regni. Amen. 

Quod ipse prse^tare dignetur, qui nos ante consti* 
tutionem mundi praedestinatos, et ante finem sseculi 
justificatos, praescivit per infinita ssecula sseculorum. 

Tertia denique die omnibus ut supradictum est ex- 
pletisy ecclesiam ingressis hanc item orationem^ ipsis in- 
curvatisy dicat episcopus. 

Ad te, Domine, iterum clamosis vocibus proclamantes 
unanimiter poBtulamus, ut respectu gratise tuao aolidati 

2>tDo an ^pnoQttm. 223 

pr^cones virtutis eflSciamur intrepidi, tuumque valea- 
mus verbum cum omni fiducia loqui. 

JBt respondeant omnes^ Amen. 

Et mrgentibus ilHs legatur evangelium. 

Designavit Jesus. 

Post hac per ordinem resideant in sedibus suisj quos 
iterum alloquatur episcapusy scilicet de constitutione vel 
statutis. Hits taliter pralibatisy catera qvuB in synodo 
sunt necessaria tractentur. Quibus omnibus expletisj 
hanc orationem super cunctos clericos dicat episcopus. 

Nulla est» Domine, humanee conscientiee virtus, quae 
inofFense possittuae voluntatis judicia expedire, et ideo 
imperfectum nostrum viderunt oculi tui, perfectioni 
deputa quaesumus quae perfecto aequitatis fine a te con- 
cludere praeoptamus. Te itaque in nostris principiis 
occursorem reposcimus, te quoque in hoc fine judicio- 
rum nostrorum excessibus adesse precamur, scilicet, ut 
ignorantiae parcas, ut error! indulgeas, ut perfectis 
votis perfectam operis efficaciam largiaris. Et quia 
conscientia remordente tabescimus, ne aut ignorantia 
traxerit nos in errorem, aut praeceps forsitan voluntas 
impulerit justitiam declinare : ob hoc te poscimus, te 
rogamus, ut si quid ofFensionis in hac synodi celebri- 
tate attraximus, condonale ac remissibile facere dig- 
neris, ut qui soluturi sumus aggregatam synodum a 
cunctis primum absolvamur nostrorum nexibus delic- 
torum, qualiter et transgressores veniam, et confiten- 
tes tibi consequamur remunerationem sempitemam. 

Huic orationi oratio paterna adjungaiur^ et cunctis 
curvatis hac benedictio explicetur. 

Omnipotens Dei Filius, qui est initium et finis, com- 
plementum vobis tribuat caritatis. Amen. 

Et qui vos ad expletionem hujus fecit pervenire 



€>rDo ao %]?nosum. 

Bynodl^ absolutes vam effieiat ah amni conta^one d»- 
Ucti* Amen. 

Ut ab Omni reatu liberiorcs effecti, absoluti etiam 
per donum Spiritug Sancti, felici reditu vestrarum se- 
dium cubilia rcpctatis illtPsL Amen, 

Quod ip^e prsestare dignetur* 

Ilk suhjungatur. Te Deum laudamus. 

Quibm cu'plvthf architiiacomis dicat» 

In nomine Domini uostri Jesu Cbristi, eamus m 

Tiiiic omites surgant, ei ad propria redeani cum pact. 


^rDo €jctonmmitant>U 

^rDo ah reeoneilianDum 

VOL. I. 


ejccommunicatto in aliquem sacrl- 
legum ferenUa. 

lOMINICIS atfjue apostolicis inforraatl pi«- 
ceptis, judicio Patris, et Filii ejus, Domiiii 
nostri Jesu Christi, et Spiritus Sancti, et 
auctoritate et potestate apostoUs, apos- 
tolorumqoe successoribus a Deo coiicess% una no- 
biscum, praedictum pessimum virum ,N, a Hmi' 
Bibus sanctsB matris ecclesiBe excludimusj et ab onmi 
societate et communione Christiana separamusy sepa- 
ratumque esse in s^ternuni decrevimusj id est, in 
praesenti sseculo et in futuro. Nollus ei Christianus 
dicat, ave, aut eum osculari prsesumaf. NuHus pres- 
byter missam cum eo celebrare audeat, vel sacro- 
sanctum corpus et sanguii^em Domiiii tradere. Nemo 
ei jungatur in consortio, neque in alio negotio. Et si 
quis ei se sociaverit, et communicaverit ejus operibus 
malignis, noverit se simili percussum anathemate, hiis 
exceptis qui ob banc causam ei junguntur ut eum re- 
vocent ab errore, et provocent ad satisfactionem. Et 
sicut hae lucemee de manibus nostris projectae hodie 
extinguuntur, sic ejus lucema in aetemum extinguatur, 
nisi forte respuerit, et Dei gratia inspirante ad poeni- 
tentiae remedium conversus fuerit, et digna emenda- 
tione ecclesiae Dei quam laesit humiliter satisfecerit. 
Fiat. Fiat. Amen. 

2(ti0oiatio in foro €msifimtU^t* 

[Nfiiro consciefUia vd CQnfessiane sacramen- 
tally hunc modum tenere solebat venerabilis 
pater Johannes Eson. In primis vemat 
jmnitens humiliter ad.confessarem pofestatem 
kabentem et ipse primo dicat : 


Et poBnitens respondeat : 


Posteaquam vero confessus fuerit peccata specialia 
fiuecunque tunc recolerity cum prameditatione et discus- 
ione sufficienti conscientice et propria vita districta 
*xaminationej si sciat confessionem generalem dicat, 
rci licet : 


Deinde episcopus dicat : 


Et priusquam absolvat eum a peccatisy ne forte nes- 
:ienter ligatus sit aliqua sententia excommunicationisj 
oer qu4im effectus sacramenti posnitentia possit impe- 
liriy dicat ad cautelam episcopus. 

A sententia excommunicationis, si quam incidisti 
3ommunicando cum excommunicatisy vel alias igno- 
ranter, absolve te et restituo sacramentis ecclesise. In 
aomine Patris. 


Dominus Jesus Christus te absolvat, et ego te ab- 
solve, auctoritate Dei et Ecclesise mihi commissa, ab 
[liis peccatis et ab aliis confessis vel oblitis. In nomine 


228 absolutio in foto Consctnttiae* 

» r 

Se^Miiur bcficdictia, 
PPfCr^ Passio Jesu Cfarbti, merita beatiB Maries, et omnium 

ianctorumj et totius ecclesiae catholic^j quicquid etUm 
boni feceris et mail sustinueris pro dUectione Dei «t 
pToximv cedant ttbi in remissionem istxirum et aliomm 
^ccatorum tuorum» in augmentutQ grati^^ et premium 
irit® Betemae» In nomine Patris, et Filii, 

Tunc deiur pctniteniia convemens tarn persoms fum 

' * <Aiiciis, ei speciaiiter tU caveat ab occasionibus pccamS, 

,€t maximt a recidivo, \ . :. 

• t >• • I «Li 

Drdo ad recancUiofidum apostatam a JudaismOj ha- 
resij vel gentilitate reverso^ vel diu in senteiUia 
excommufdcatianis obstinate. ^ 

\RIMUM consecratur aqua benedicta ah 
episcopoy €t imufflet tertio in faciem ejus 
ad ostium ecclesia, dicens. 
Exorcizo te, immunde spiritus, per Deum 
Patrem omnipotentem, et per Jesum Christum Filium 
ejus, et Spiritum Sanctum, ut recedas ab famulo Dei 
•N. quern Deus et Dominus noster Jesus Christus ab 
erroribus et deceptionibus tuis liberare, et ad sanctam 
matrem ecclesiam catholicam atque apostolicam revo- 
care dignatur. Ipse tibi imperat, maledicte, damnate, 
qui pro salute hominum passus, mortuus, et sepultus, te 
et omnes vires tuas superavit, atque resurgens coelos 
ascendit, indeque venturus est judicare vivos, et mor- 
tuos, et sseculum per ignem. Amen. 

Tunc aspergens eum aqua benedicta j introducat in ec- 
clesiam, dicens : 

Ingredere in templum Dei vivi quod male deseruisti, 
et exutus ab errore tenebrarum, evasisse te laqueos 
mortis Isetus agnosce. 

Resp. Deo gratias. 


Tu autem, omnipotens et misericors Deus, banc 
ovem tuam de fauce lupi subtractam clementer suscipe, 
et gregi tuo benignus reforma, ne de familise tuas 
damno inimicus exultet, sed de conversione ejus et 

2 30 DtDo an cecondltanDum 9po0tatani* 

liberatione, ecclesia tua iiti mater de filio perdito et 
recepto gratuletur. Per DomiBum. 

Tunc prosiraio eo in pavimenio cectesiat dicanl pja/- 

Miserere mei Deus, 

Ps^ Benedixisti. 

Ps. De profundis, 1 

K^Tie eleyson, Christe eleyson- Kyrie eleyson* 

Pater noster. Et ne. 

Salvum fac serTum tauia, Domiiie. 

Mitte ei auxilium. 

Nihil proficiat. 

Domine exaudi. 

Domiims vobiscum. 


Deus, qui hominem ad imaginem tuam coBdituBQ, 
invidia callldi serpen tis deceptum, per unigenitian 
tuum Filium reparasti, respice propitius super bunc 
famulum tuum .N. qui ab errore ad lumen veritatis 
quod male deseruerat redire festinat, ut quioq]ud 
ejus ignorantiee necessitate hostili et diaboli fraude 
surreptum est, abundantia tuse pietatis indulgeat et 
absolvat, ut altaribus tuis et gregi tuo, recepta veritatis 
tuee luce et communione, reddatur. Per eundem 
Dominum nostrum. 


Da quaesumus, Domine, ut sicut publicani precibus 
et confessione placatus es, ita et huic famulo tuo .N. 
placatus existas ; et precibus suis benignus aspira, ut 
in confessione flebili permanens, petitione perpetua cle- 
mentiam tuam celeriter exoret, sanctisque altaribus et 
sacramentis restitutus, reyersus coelesti glorias mand- 
petur. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. 

0tiwr an teconcWftmlinm ayoittataiiu 271 


Domine Dens omnipotens, Pater Domini nostri Jesu 
Christiy qui dignatus es hunc famalum tuiim N. ab 
errore et mendaeio hsereticse vel deemoniacse pravitatis 
Bxuere, et ad sanctam matrem ecclesiatn revocare ; tu, 
Domine, emitte Spiritum tuum in eum Paraclitum, 
spiritum sapientiae et intellectut, spiritum consilii et 
fortitudinis, spiritum scientiae et pietatis, et adimple 
eum, Domine, spiritu timoris tui, et consigna eum vel 
reconsigna eum signo crucis Christi in vitam propi- 
tiatus setemam : per eundem. In unitate ejusdem. 

Inde elevato eo a terra^ interroget eum dicens : 

Homo, abrenuncias ritui in quo nunc poenites te 

Resp. Abrenuncio. 

Et omnibus pompis ejus ? 

Resp. Abrenuncio. 

Et omnibus operibus ejus. 

Resp. Abrenuncib. 

Abrenuncias etiam omni sectae et pravitati super- 
stitionis, gentilitatis, hsereticse, vel Judaicae inimicae 
fidei sanctae Catholicae. 

Resp. Abrenuncio. 

Hiis expletisy imponat ei modum pcenitentuEy et com- 
nunicet eum^ et sic deinceps ecclesice Dei societur. Pri- 
no tamen absolvatur in forma eccksice : Misereatur 

Et si haresim exercuerit vel defenderity abjuret in 
wma decretaliSy isto modo. Ego N. talis. JStc. Cog- 
icscens veram catholicam et apostolicam fidem, ana- 
liematizo omnem haeresim, praecipue eam de qua hac- 
^nus defamatus sum. Etc. 

Consentio autem scmctae Romanae EcclesiaB et apos- 

232 DtDo an reconciltanDum apo0tatatn« 

tolicie Bed], et ore et eorde earn eoniiteor, juransi 
IwG eancta Dei eirangelica ; eos qui contra hanc fidvffi 
veniunt, eum dogmatibus et &ectatoribas suis mierm 
anathematc dignos esse prouuncio. Quod si ego ali- 
quando contra hoc aliquid sentire aut prsedicare lel 
docere prsesurapsero» canonum severitati subjaceam, 
Et si ckrkus sii, isiis ieclis mbscribat. 


C. V\ bitunghain, Chiiwick.